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Vita enim mortuorum in memorift vivomm est potiuu— Cicero. 


Revised^ coiTected> and considerably enlarged* 





Bj T. Cillet, WUd<ouru 

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TN presenting a tHtRD EDITION of this work to the 
-*- Public^ the Author can haye ne occasion to expatiate on 
the interesting Nature of its Subjects, or on the Utility of 
his Plan. A biographical and historical library^ in 
the form of a Dictionary^ and in the .compass of a single 
volume, challenges the respect of every Lover of Literature. 
It is obviously designed to answer the purpose of an easy 
and satisfactory reference on all points of enquiry, con- 

In drawing up the various articles, considerable pains 
have been taken to introduce every prominent and characte- 
ristic event and circumstance. The works of eminent 
Writers have been carefully enumerated, and their best edi- 
tions specified ; ihi^ distinctive merits of Artists have been 
pointed out, and their principal productions ^mentioned ; 
and the most remarkable events in the lives of more active 
characters, as in those of Sovereign Princes, Warriors, and 
Statesmen, have been perspicuously narrated, and the dates 
affixed and determined with scrupulous exactness. A 
studied plainness of style has been adopted, as suitable to 
the nature of the work; and it maybe safely affirmed, 
that in no single article has any attempt been made to give 
a distorted or partial colouring to the character delineated. 
To THIS THIRD EDITION the Author has annexed a refer-- 
ence to the Authorily of each article; an addition^ the va- 
lue of which zcill be felt by every Man of Letters. 


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. '*■ 

The author has endeavoured to render hb \i'ork coMPtETEj 
by inserting every interesting name and event likely to bo 
sought for in a collection of this ^ind ; and although he can- 
not presume that there are not many defects and omissions, 
3'et it will be obvious on comparisons that this work now 
contains from two to three thousand articles more than 
ai^ti to be found in any similar work in the Snglish^ or 
perhaps in any other language. 

Observing, with regret, the great number ofdistinguish^ 
cd names which have been passed over by preceding Biogra^ 
phers, be has diligently employed himself in rescuing a con- 
siderable number of thosp names from neglect aqd oblivion. 
}Ic has not contented himself with barely gleaning from 
all other Dictionaries, but'^has sought in every respectable 
quarter for memoirs of departed excellence. Many single 
jyiemoirsand fugitive pieces,. and many scarce tracts and vo- 
luminous periodical publications, have in the preparation of 
the NEW EDITION b^cn scdulously examined. 

The additional articles will be found to be very numerous 
and important, especially of modern characters; and it is 
hoped that, in the accuracy of narrative and impartiality of 
delineation, the most essential duties of ^. biogapher have 
been faithfully discharged. 

For the numerous valuable communications which th^ 
Auihorhas received from various correspondents, aqd lite-? 
rary friends, and by which he has been enabled consider*, 
ably to enrich the present edition, he begs leave tq retiu*^ 
his most grateful acknowledgments. , 

I^ondoftj December^ 1806, 

y Google 

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A A R 

A A (Peter Vander), a booksellef of Ley- 
den, who published at the beKiimiug 
(of the ISch century, an AtUs, with a eol- 
lection of prints, r^resenting the town^ 
lohabitaRts, and productions, of difierent 
parts of the world, V6 volt. foL Me ako 
continued Grxvius^s Thesaurus, or an ac- 
count of modern Italian writets* — Nvuv, 

Aji^Ann (^Kcholas and Christian), bro- 
thersj.born at Wieburg, in Denmark, the 
))eginnin^ of the last century. The first 
was a plulosophical writeri and the latter 
.« poet. ' Nicholas died in \65i, and Chris- 
tian in 1664- — Mbreru 

Aalst (Everard^> a Dutch painter, born 
at Delit, 1603. He was eminent in fruit 
pieces, and died in l65B.r^I{ouBraiat, 

Aalst (William), nephew of th6 above, 
but more celebrated ; born in 1620, died 

Aaaon, the elder brother of Moses, was 
horn about A. M. 2434. He accompanied 
his brother in all his interviews \vitn Pha- 
raoh, aind afterwai-ds assisted him in the 
govemmciit of the Israelites. But he was 
ruiky of a great error in complying with 
the idobtrous dispositida of the people^ 
and making them a ^Ideo calf, wlucb 
they worshipped is their God. Notwith- 
standing this, the Almighty ordained that 
the priesthood should be con£ned to Aaron 
and his sons, which occasioned discontent 
among the people. Aaron enjoyed the of- 
fice of high pMest tin old age compelled 
him to resign it to his son Eleaxar. He 
.toon afterwards died #n Mount Hon— ^5. 

Aarok, a British s^int, who suffered 
martyrdom with hU brother JuUus in Dio- 
dcsian's persecution. Their bodies were 
interred at Caerleon, the metropolis of 
VTales.— Aof. >r. 

Aakon, a {Physical writer of th^ 7th cen- 
tury. He wrote .in Syriac several treatises 
on medicine, entitled the Pandects, of 
wHch there are no remains. Hfe was the 
first author who described the imaU-pox 

A A R 

Aaron (Schaschoh), a learned rabbi, 
who wroife the Law of Truth, Venice, 1631, 
folio. — Moreri. 

AaroW the Caraite, a Jewish physician 
%t Constantinople, in 1 294. He wrote a 
conlmentary on the Petitateuch, printed at 
Jena, 17ia There was another of the 
same name who wrote a Hebrew granrniart 
printed at Constantinople, \5^l.-^ILid, 

Aaron (Hacharon i. e. Posterior, t© 
distinguish him from the .preceding), bora 
in Nicomedia, in 1346. He wrote a book 
on the Jewish doctrines and customs, called 
the Oarden of Edexu — Uid^ 

Aaron (Levite), of BatcciOna, wrote 
'617 precepts on Moses, printed at Venice 
I52S; died 1292.— il^vw/. 

AaRon (Ben Chaim), an African Jew, 
of Morocco, who wrote some treatises oa 
the scriptures, wh^ch were printed at Ve- 
nice, A. D. 1609.— 7i/i/. 

Aaron (Ben Aser), a learned rabbi, to 
whoni some have attributed the invention 
of the Hebrew points and accents, in the 
5th century. He is the author of a Hebrew 
grammar, printed 1515. — Ibid. 

Aar^ens (Francis), lord of Someldyck, 
in Holland. He became agent for the 
United States at Paris, in the reign of 
Henry !V,, who ra^cd him to the rank of 
nobility. But after fifteen years residence 
in France, he was recalled and employed 
as ambassador to several other powers. In 
1620, he was sent to England; and again 
in 1641, to negotiate the marriage of the 
prince of Oraqge, with a daughter of 
Charles I. In 1G24, he went again to 
France, and was much esteemed by cdrdi-' 
nal Richelieu. He died very old, leaving a 
son immensely rich. — Bay'le, 

Aarsens, or Aersens (Peter), a cele 
brated painter, born ^t Amsterdam, in 
1519. He painted a fine altar-piece, repre- 
senting the crucifixion, at Antwerp, which 
was destroyed in an iusurrectioii in 1566. 
He died in 1585i and left three jons, all 
' eminent ^^\nttn.-^Houbraiau 
■ Aa^rtoss. or A(i».yoj^N<3.f «ni»ent 



painter, born at I^yden,in 149.*^. He was 
at first a wool-comber, but turning his at- 
tention to painting, became so distinguish- 
ed, that Francis Floris went to Lcvdeu on 
purpose to see him, and findin<r Kin> in a 
mean hut, promised him a handsome main- 
tenance if hfi would settle at Antwerp, 
which he refused. He was drowned in a 
drunken frolic, in 1564. — Pitkingtom. 

Aba, or Albon, crowned king of Hun* 
gary in 104S, after defeating^ Peter, sur- 
namcd the Gentian. He involved his coun.- 
trv in perpetual wars, and cruelly oppreis- 
ea his subject.^, who put him to death in 
1044— -Wot/. Ua, Hist. 

AbaKa-Kh.^n, eighth emperor of the 
mogols of the race of Zingis, succeeded his 
father Hulagu in 1264. He defeated the . 
king of fiolmaria and the Egyptians, who 
had invaded his dominions. He died ia 

Abano, Peter de, see Apono. 
Abaris, a personage of antiquity, con- 
cerning whom there is more fable than 
truth. One author says, that the world be^ 

'ing visited with the pestilence, the oracle 
require«i that the Athenians should offer 
prayers for all other nations, on which va- 

' rious countries sent ambassadors to Athens, 
among whom was Abaris the Hyperborean. 
His learning and accomplu^hmcnts are 
spoken of highly by several writers, but 
from what country he came is an unde- 
cided question. Some lay he was a Scy- 
thian, and a modem makes the hyperbo- 
rean countri^ to be the western islands of 
Scotland. The Greeks say that he rode 
through the air on a sacrea arrow, which 
he gave to Pvthagoras, in rctufn for the 
instructions &e received from that ^lv\ji>' 

Abas (Schah^ the Great, 7th kinft of 
Persia, ascended the throne in 1585. with 
the assisunce of the English, in 1632, he 
took Ormus from (he Portuguese. He died 
in 1629. He was the first who made Ispa- 
han the capita! of Persia^ — M»d. Uh, H'nt. 

Abas (Sch^h), great-grandson of the pre- 
ceding, be^^ to reign in 1642. He was a 
tolerant prmce, being used to say, ^ tbait 
Ood alone was lord of men's consciences;** 
a^nd that <* it was his duty to watch over 
tht ^vemment of his country, andto ad- 
minister jusuce with impartiality to all his 
subjects of every persuasion.** He died 
in 1666, aged 37.— Z^nH 

Abasson, an impostor, ^r^o pretendfed 
to be the grandson of Abas the Great, king 
(tf Persia. On visiting Constantinople, he 
was taken notice of by the grand seignior, 
but being discovered, was beheaded^GMu 
Bl9g, Dkt, 

Abate (Andrea), a painter of fruit and 
still life, was born at Naples, and employ- 
ed by the king of Spain^ He died in 173S. 
— PiUhgtM. 

Abauzit (Urmin), born at Usez in 
yi«79. Hi* fvhcr dying when he was aa 

infant, his mother sent him to Genera, tm 
prevent his being brought up in the Rom- 
ish persuasion. For this she was confined 
in the castle of Somies es ; and did not ai^ 
rive at Geneva till two years after her son. 
She gave him an excellent education, which 
he repaid by his improvement. H:iving fi- 
nished jiis studies, he went to Holland and 
England, and in the latter country formed 
an intimacy with sir Isaac Newton. King 
William wished him to settle here, but <? 
lial alfection recalled hijn to Geneva,where 
in 1726 he was admitted a* citizen, and 
apjjointed libraricn. In 1780 htf-publiahed 
an improved edition of Spon's History of 
Geneva.^ He died in 1767. His writings in 
defence 'of Christianity are very valuable^ 
•—S^nn^iers Hist, of Geneva, 

Abbadie (James), ah eminent divine, 
was bom at Nay, in Beam, in 1658. He 
took the degree of P.p. at Sedan, and was 
afterwards made mtmster of the French 
church at Berlin. In 1688, he accompanied 
mareschal Schomberg to England with the 
prince of Orange, and was with that great 
man when he fell at the battle of the 
Boyne. On his return to London, he was 
appointed minister of the French church 
in the Savoy; and not long after promoted 
to the deanry of Killaloe, in Ireumd. He 
died in Lonnon, in 1727. l}is chief work 
is a *« Treatise of the Truth of the Christiaa 
Religion,** 1684.— i^iW Brit, 

Abbas (Halli), or Ma^s, being one of 
tlie magi, a Persian physical author, whO 
flourished in the 10th century. A treatise 
of his, entitled « The Royal Work,*' is still 
ex\.znt.-^D" HerheUt, 

ABfAS, son of Abdalmothteb, uncle of 
Mohammed, was at first an enemy to that 
impostor, but being taken prisoner by him, 
he altered hU sentiments, and became a 
zealous Mussulman. He died in 653 ; and 
a century after his death, his grandson 
Abulabbas, surnamed SafBih, was chosen 
caliph, in whom bc^n the dynasty of the 
Abbassides, who enjoyed that dtgnity 524 
years. — D*HerL'lot, 

• Abbas s A, sister of the caliph Haroun at 
Rasclrid, by whom she was married to 
Gia£ar, his vizier, on condition that they 
should never cohabit together ; but haviog 
broken the contract, the caliph put Giafar 
to death, and turned his wife out of tl|e 
palace. There are extant some Arabic 
verses by lier, on the subject of her love 
for Giafar. — JTHerhla. 

Abbiati (Filippo), an historical painter, 
was bom at Milan, in 1640» and died in 
i715.— /»;/i. 

AuBoN , a Norman monk, who wrote an 
account of the siege of Paris by tlie Nor- 
mans, At ^e end uf the 9th century, in 
Latin verse.— ilforrr/. 

Abbon (de Fleury), a learned French- 
man of the 1 1th century. He became ab- 
tot of the monastery of Fleury. King Ro- 
bert sent kirn to Emrc to avert the wrath 

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A B D 

•f Gregory V, v/ho thieatencd to lay the 
kisgdfmi under an interdict, and Abbon 
obcamed all that he asked* He was kiUed 
in' a quarrel between the French and the 
Gascons, -1004. His letters were printed 
in 1687, foUo^-^Moreri, 

Abbot (Geor^), an Engrliah prelate, was 
horn in 15^, at Guilford, in Surry, where, 
his father was a Weaver. He was educated 
at the grammar school of that place, from 
whence he was removed to Baliol college, 
Oxford, of which he became a fellow. In 
1597, he was chosen mailtp of University 
college In 1599, he was made^ dean of 
Winchester* and the year following vice- 
chancellor of Oxford, which office he filled 
in 1608, and also in 1GQ5. He was one of 
the diviiies employed in the present trans- 
lation of the Bible. I^ 1609, he was made 
bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, from 
whence, the same year, he was translated 
to London, and in 1610, to Canterbury. 
He had the courage to oppose the court on 
some occasions, particularly in the afl&ir of 
the divorce of the lady Essex, and the Book 
of SportS) which he mrbade being read at 
Croydon. A sad misfortune happened to 
him at the close of his life : for being at the 
seat of lord Zooch, and exercising nimsdf 
in the park with a cross bow, he by accident 
shot the keeper instead of the deer. A com- 
BDSsion was appointed to examine whether 
by this irregnla^ty he was incapacitated for 
discharging the office of primate ; and the 
determinaQon being left with the king, he^ 
gave it in favour S[ the archbishop. He 
ever after kept, a monthly fast on account 
of the misfortune, and settled SO/, a year 
on the widow of the keeper. He attended 
king James on hjs death-bed, and assisted at 
die coronatiofi of Charles L In 1687, an 
tsiiae sermon of Dr. Sibthorpe, preached at 
NiHthamptott, was sent to the archbishop, 
with an order from the king to license it| 
wfakh he refused to do, as it contained ex* 
ceptionable panages. For this he was b^ 
■ished to his house near Canterbury, and 
the archiepiacopal authority was put into 
coimnissscMi ; but when the psirliiiment met, 
he was restored to his office, but never fully 
gecoteted the royal ftivour. He died at 
Croydob in 1639, and was buried il> the 
dmrch of the Holy Trinity at Guilford, 
irhere he endowed an hospitaL The arch- 
bishop was a rigid Calvinist and a great fa* 
voarer of the Puritans. His writiogs are 
«Mstly polemiealv jcxcept a geographical 
description of the world^J^n^. Bri*. 

AaaoT (Robert), ddest brother of the 
archbishop, was bom at Guilfordv iir 1500, 
and educated at the same school and college 
with iihsL King JaiQes appointed him (pie' 
of his chaplains in ordinary, and was so 
pleased with his book « Da Amichasto;' 
diat he ordered it to be repridn^wit^ his 
own on the Revelations. Ia l€el9% be was 
4»Ctcd master of Batiol college, acid the 
ycif folloninf the kinf n o m i m^^ him to 

a fellowship inliis college at Chcti^eay found- 
ed for the e>i<rouragement of polemical di* 
vinity. In 1612, he was made regius pro- 
fessor of divinity at Oxford, where he vin* 
dicated the supremacy of kings against Bel" 
larmine and Siiarez, for which he was ad- 
vanced to the see of Salisbury in l(n5. He 
died iiY 1617, and his remains were interred 
in Salisbury cathedral. — i?/<y. £rit. 

Abbot (Maurice), brother of the above, 
was bred a merchant, and became a direct- 
or of^ the Kist-lndia Company. He was" 
appointed, in 1618, a commissioner in the 
treaty made with the Dutch concerning the 
trade to the Molucca islands. In 1623, he 
was one of the farmers of the customs, and 
the next year one of the council for settlhifi^ 
Virginia. He was the first person knighted 
by Charles I.; and in 1625, was chosen onet 
of the representatives for the city of Lon- 
don, of which, in 1638, he was lord mayor. 

Abbot (George), son of sir Maurice, was 
bom in 1600, elected probationer fellow of 
Merton college 1625, and admitted to the 
degree of LL.B. in 1630. He was tiie au- 
thor of, 1. <* The book of Job paraphrased, 
1640." 2. VindidsB Sabbati, 1641." 8» 
« Notes on the Book of Psahns, 1651.** He 
died in }G48,^Iiid, 

Abbot (Thomas), a German wnter, warn 
bom at Ulm, in 1738. He trandated Saliust 
into German, and wrote two treatises, oete 
<* Conceming^ Merit," and the other <* Of 
dying for one*s Country.** He died ia 176$ 
-"Gem, Biog, 

Abi>a|;la, father of Mohamsiod. H^ 
was only a camel-driver^ but the Mussul- 
mans boast that he was offered the finest 
women of his tribe, when he was fourscore 
years old ; and that on^l^is wedding nieht^ 
9 hundred girls died of ^ief, for having- 
losr the honour of being his bride^— i)*^«v» 

Abo A LLA H-KBN-A LI, the unde ofthe twi» 
first caliphs of the Abbassides, under whom 
he served as a eeneral against the caliph. 
Merwan, and naving vanquished that 
prince, proclaimed his nephew. Ho was 
guilty of horrible cruelties on the family of 
we Ommiades. When his eldest nepnew 
died, his brother Aimanzor assumed this 

Sveroment, which so displeased Abdallah 
It he raised an army against him, bm was 
defeated. He was put to death A. D. 75V 

AaoALXrAH-BBN-zoBBia, Btt Arabian 
chief, who seized the caliphate, ia 680, a- 
gaiast the claim of Yezid, the son of Moaw-. 
ijah, and enjoyed the dignity nine years. 
He lell bravely fighting' in the defence of 
Mecca, in the 72d year of his yg^—XM. 

Abdalmblbk, fifth caliph ofthe race of 
. the Ommiades, commenced his reign A. P. 
684. He extended his eonqtitets i«o India 
and Spain, and eonqnered Mecca. He 
reigned twenty-one years, and was succeed- 
«lby.hiseldcit soaV^d. Hewpsiog»>, 



vcrouB as /lat to take a church from the 
Christiajss, which they had refused to gram 
him when he requested it- — D^Hcrheht. 

Abdalhaiiman, a Saracen general, and 
governor of Spain in the 8th century, who, 
after ravaging France with fire and sword, 
was attacked at Tours by Charles Martel, 
and slain, in T^'i^^MoJ, U, H. 

AsoALaAHMAN, sumamcd the Just, of 
the family of the Ommiades, who, in the 
ruin of it, went to 'Spain in 75f>, where 
he commanded the Saracens against their 
king Joseph. Abdalrahman slew that 
prince, and was then acknowledged caliph. 
He also assumed the title of king of Cor* 
dova, where he died in 790.— ZJ/i/. 
' Abdas, a Persian bishop in the time of 
the younger Theodo&ius, who indiscreetly 
brought upon the Christians a violent per- 
secntion', and was the first that fell in iL 
The clergy called in Thcodosius to their 
aid, by wKom the Persians were worsted ; 
but the persecution raged forty yearfc — 

- Abdolonvmus, king of Sidon. When 
Alexander conquered that country, he al- 
lowed Hephestiou to dispose of the crown, 
Hephestion oiTeredit ta three brothers, who 
aH refused it ; and being requested to point 
out a proper person, they fixed on Abdolo- 
cymiit, who was of the blood roval, though 
oulv a gardener. Being brougnt to Alex- 
ander, the conqueror, observing the digni- 
ty of his aspect, said to his courtiers, ** I 
wish to know how he .bore his poverty." 
Abdolonymus hearing this, said, " WouKl 
to heaven I may tear my prosperity as 
well!*' This answer so pleaoed Alexander 
that he confirmed the appointment*— Z><adl 
SU, Plutarch. 

Abdias of Babylon, author of a legend 
entitled Htstoria Certaroinis Apostolici, 
printed at Basil in 1571. He pretended that 
be was one of the seventy-two disciples 
sent out by Jesus Christ, and that having 
' been an attendant on Simon and Jude, he 
was made by them the first bishop of Ba- 
bylon. — Bayle, 

' ABOOLMUMEMf.or AsDii^lnoM, though 
the son of a potter, became a general, and 
at last a monarch, by the style of Emir At 
rAlumaiin (head of the true b'eiievers). He 
«ook Morocco, and destroyed the whole of 
.the Ahnoravide family. After numerous 
^onquests be died in LI 56, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Joseph. — Mod, Umv, Hisil 

Abeillk f Gaspard), a native of Rei», in 
• Provence, wno came to Paris when very 
youn^, where he iv-as gteatly admired for 
iih wit, particularly by the marshal de X^ux- 
.cmburg, to whom he was . secretary. I-fe 
was a member of the French acad4:my, and 
prior of a convent. Hi« writings consist 
of odesy ept&tles, and sonie dramatic pijeces. 
He died at Paris, in ni&^*r^Merfri.i 

A»p.ii.i.a (Scipio^i- brother of the above, 
was surgeon-major in tin: army, and author 
•t Thr-«otapla^ Amy .^rgepn,- !(>(>&» 

19mo. amfa History of the Bones, ISma 
1 0*85. He died in 1 6*97.— Morcri. 

Abel, the second son of our first parents; 
. He was murdered by his brother Cain out 
of envy, because his odering was accepted 
and Cain's rejected. — SS, 

Akkl (Frederic Gottfried), a German 
physician and poet, was born at Halberstadtv 
m 1714. He was bred a divine, but not 
obtaining the preferment he. expected, he 
turned liis attention to pliysic, in which he 
took his'doctor's degree at Konigsburg, in 
1744. He practised at Halberstadt with 
great reputation till his death, whtbh 
liappened in 1794. He published a German 
translation of Juvenal in 1788. — Gen. J3ug» 
^ Abkl, king of Denmark, the aon of Val- 
dimer II. He assassinated his brother Eric 
ih 17.50, and took 'possession of his throne. 
He was put to death by the Prisons, who 
revolted against him on account of the , 
heavy impositions which he had laid upon 
them,— Mod. U. H. 

^ Abicl (Charles. Frederic), an eminent mu- 
sician, whose compositions will be ever held 
in the highest estimatiiui by the lovers of , 
Irarmony. He died in 1787. He excelled 
on the viol di gamba. — Burnty. 

Abel A (George Francis), comnwmder of 
the order of KicUta, and author of a work 
entitled Maltha Ulustrata, 1647, folio, or a 
description of that island and its antiquities; 
printed at Malta, curioiu and scarcer— 

ABELARn (Peter), was bom in 1079, at 
Palais, near Nantz, in Britany. He Studied 
logic and metaphysics with such eagemesa 
that he soon became a ix>werful disputant | 
and turning his talents against his old mas- 
ter Champeaux, professor of philosophy at 
Paris, obliged him to quit his chair ana re- 
tire to a convent. Abelard then applied 
to the study of divinity, and in a short 
time became celebrated m that faculty. A 
wealthy canon, called Fulbert, took Abe^ 
lard into his house on condition that he 
should teach bis niece Heloise philosophy, 
instead, however, of abstruse learning, ie 
taught her love, and Abelard was so intox- 
icated with the passion that bis lectures lott 
the charms which used to attract the ad- 
miration of 4rrowdcd audiences, and every 
body saw the reason of it except Fulbert^ 
who at last, being <.-(mvinced of the truth, 
turned Abelard out of doors. Heloise, on 
this, followed her lover, who conveyed her 
.to his sister's house in Britany, where she 
was delivered of a son, named Astrolabius; 
and Abelard offered Fulbert to marry his 
niece, but it i» astonishing, that though the 
nncle was pleased with tiie offer, the lady 
refused it. She afterwards, indeed, con- 
sented to a private marriage, .but never 
would own it, and indeed sometimes 
wojild not scruple to swear that it was 
not true. This added greater fury to the 
canon's r^ge; and Abelard sent her. in con* 
lequeiKe, to the Qipoasterv of ArgenteaiL 

Digitized b\ " . ^^ 



where the pnt on the rcfieious habit, but 
ooc the veil. The enraged I'ulbcrt caused 
AbeUrd to be emasculated by rulHans, who 
broke into liis chamber ; on whicli he turn- 
ed monk in the abbey of St. Denis, wliich 
he soon left, and retired to Champaigne, 
where he became lecturer, and with great 
luccesa. This raised him numerous ene- 
•Biies particularly ihe professors at Kheima, 
who charged him with heterodoxy on the 
subject of the Trinity, and got him censured 
at the council of Soissons, in 1 1^1. He after- 
wards erected an oratory in the diocese of 
Trayes, called the Paraclete, but was soon 
driven from it by Ids enemies. He next be- 
came abbot of Ruis, in the diocese of Van-' 
aes, and gave Helois£ and some other nuns 
the Paraclete. In 1 140, his works were con- 
demned as heretical by a council; v/hich de- 
cree was confirmed by the pope, who or- 
dered Abelard to be confined; but at the 
request of Peter, abbot of Clugny, this sen- 
tence was mitigated. After a life of extra- 
ordinary vicissitudes, ^belard died in the 
priory of St. MarcelUis, in 1142, and the 
corpse ban; sent to Heloise she deposited 
it in the Paraclete. The names of these 
lovers are eternized by the epistles publish- 
ed by Pope and other poets. Heloise died 
an ] Ica, and was buried in the Paraclete ; 
and in 1780, the abbess, madame de Roncy, 
prdcred the bon^ of the lovers to be placed 
in a leaden coffin and deposited under the 
altar. She also caused a monument of 
black marble to be placed over the spot. 
The works of Abelard were published at 
Paris in one volume, 4ta 1616*. — Ber'mgton^ 
Hut.»/ Ahelardaiid HtUhe^flO. Baylf, Moreri, 

Abcll (John), an J£nglish musician celc» 
brated as a singer, and as a player on the 
lute: He belonged to the chapel royal ; but 
being a papist, be was dismissed at the Revo- 
lution, when be went abroad, and gained 
considierable .sums as a singer: but some- 
times his extravagance brought him so low, 
that he was obliged to tnivel on foot with 
hit lute at his b^k. ^ At Warsaw, the king 
4A Poland sent for him to court, but Abell 
refused to go, on which peremptory orders 
werft ^ compel his attendance. On 
his arnval he was seated in ji chair In a spa- 
ci4)i.s hall, and drawn up to a great height, 
when thekiogandhis train appeared in a gal- 
lery opposite to him.Several wild bears were 
then turned into the hall, and the king told 
him to take his choice, either to sing or be 
Jet dcmn among the bears. Abeil preferred 
the first, and used to say that he never bung 
so v.-ei! in his life. In 1701, he published » 
collection of songs in several languages, br.t 
when he died is unknown. He is said to 
iiave had the art of preserving the natural 
tooe of his voice to extreme old age. — 
Bvrntji Hist. Music, 

^RciLi (l.ewis), a French prelate, 'n'as' 
bom in 1008. i^Ic obtained i^e bisl:^pr c of 
Rhodes in 16C-1, but re-Mgned it three ycat^ 
«i^erwardf» iU»d leiired to St. JLasare^ where 


hediedki 1691. He wrote Medulla Theo- 
logica, 2 vols. I2mo. — Moreri. 

AsENDANA (Jacob), a Spanish Jew, was 
prefect of a synagogue in London, and died 
m 1685, in which year a Hebrew commen- 
tary of his on several passages of scripture 
appeared at Amsterdam. — G^i. B, D, 

Abenezra (Abraham), born at Toledo 
in 1099. He was skilled in v;u*iou8 Ian-* 
guages and sciences, and composed several 
works, the most valuable of which is his 
commentarv on the Old Testament, printed 
in Buxtorf s Hebrew Bible. He died at 
Rhodes in 1174. — Moreri. 

Abencnepil, an Arabian physician of 
the li^th century, and author of a' book, the 
translation of which, entitled De Virtutibua 
Medicinarum et Ciborum, was printed at 
Venice in 1581, folio.— /"r/.-Wi Hist. Phyu 

Abkn-melec, a Jewish rabbi, author of 
a Hebrew commentary on the Bible, en- 
titled "The Perfection of Beauty," Amster- 
dam, 16G1, folio. This work has been 
translated into I^atin.-^ AforrW. 

Abercrombi£ (Ralph), a British general, 
was descended from an ancient /amily in 
Scotland, and entered early into the army, 
as did two of his brothers, one of whom 
was killed at the battle of Bunker Vhil I, 
in America. The first commission of 'flir 
Ralph was a cometcv in the guards, and 
in 1760 he obtained a lieutenancy. In 
1762 he became captain in the third regi- 
ment of horfse, in which corps he rose to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1773. In 
1787 he was made major-general, and in 
1798 had the command of the 7th regiment 
of dragoons. Soon after the commencement 
of the late war he was employed on the 
continent, and commanded the advanced 

fuard in the action of Cateau, when the 
uke of York, in his dispatches, made an 
honourable representatibn of his conduct. 
He was tvounded at Nimeguen, and in the 
winter of 1796, conducted the retreat of 
the troops out of Holland. Next year he 
was appointed commander in chief of the 
forces m the West Indies, where he took 
possession of several French and Dutch 
settlements. On his return to Kurope he 
was rewarded with the order of the Bath, 
and made governor of the Isle of Wight, 
Fort George, and Tort Augustus, In 1797 
he was raiv'cd to the rank of lieutenant-ge- 
neral. Sir Ralph was next fixed on to take 
tlie command of the forces in Ireland, 
where he exerted himself with great ability 
in maintaining the discipline of the army, 
suppressing the rising rebellion, and ]>ro- 
•tecting the people from military opj;re!i.sicn. 
He was afterwards employed under the 
duke gf Yoik in the enterprise against 
Holland, where it was confes&ed, even by 
the cnemvjthat hi^militarv talents weie of 
the most brillifint order, it being Vesolvcti 
to send anyinny to disposf e.^s tlic French of 
Egypt, sir Ralph was appointed to the con?- 
muka of ihK e.4..diu»u. ^^tU,g^.^^f^ 

A B I 

A B R 

>pvHh Ae troops March 8th 1801» and de- 
feated the French at 'Aboulur, afier a 
bloody action. On the 2Ut of the same 
month was fought near Alexandria a me- 
morable battle, in which the £ng;iish were 
again the victors, bat with the loss of their 
gallant general, who died the 2flth, on 
board the ship which was conveyinir him to 
Malta, in the great chnrch of which island 
he was buriea with military honours. In 
1774, sir Ralph represented the county of 
Kinross in parliament, and continued in 
.that capacity till the general election in 
1780. — MofObly Mag, Public CbaractcrSy 

rot, in. 

Abercromby (Thomas), a physician, 
was bora at Forfar, in the county of An jyus, 
1656, and educated at St. Andrews, from 
Whence he w«|il*<to Leyden, and took the 
degree of M. XXln 1685. On his rctui n to 
Scotland he professed the Romish religion, 
and was maoe physician to James II. He 
compiled ** The Martial Achievements of 
.^ouand,*' in S vols^^^dtfo; also a treatise on 
wit. He died at ^nburgh, in 1 7^.— Gm. 

Abekzybtrt (John), a divine, was bom 
in 1680, at Coleraine in Ireland. He was 
educated at Glasgow, where^ he took the 
jlegree of M* A. ; and then went to £din« 
burgh, and studied divinity.^ In 1708,^ he 
"became pastor of a congreg^ation at Antrim ; 
not long after which a society of dissenting 
ministers was, established at selfast, whose 
object was to\h«ke off subtcripdon to th« 
Westminster confession, in which Aber- 
nethy concurred with great sKaL In 1726f 
the general synod passed a resoluttop that 
the nonsubscribtng ministers should not be 
of their body, in consequencl of which ma- 
ny congregations became dissatisfied with 
iheir pastors. That of Abemethy decreased 
ao much, that he accepted an invitation 
from thecongregation of Wood-street, Dub- 
lin, wherehecontinned till his death,inl740. 
Two voluines of his sermons were printed 
at London, in 1748, and are held in great 
estimation^-v^iof . Br. 

ABGAaus^ king of Edessa, in Mesopota- 
Biiay and contemporary with our Saviour, 
to whom, it is said, he wrote a letter, and 
received an answer, both extant and well 
known. Many learned writers have vin- 
dicated their authority, while Oithers reject 
them as fotgerics.— ^v/f^'tfr. 

Aboillus, sumamed Prester lohn, wa« 
aon to a king of the Frisi, and attended 
Charlemagne to the Holy Land, but did 
not return with him to Europe. He gained 
mighty conquests in Abyssinia, which coun* 
try was afterwards called from him the em- 
pire of Prester John. He is said to have 
written the history of Charlemagne's jour- 
jiey, and of his own to \ht East — MorerL 
Abijah, king of Juoah, was the son %f 

rfioboam, ana began his reign 958 B. C. 
the second year of his reign he defeated 
^eroWmt J(»Dg pf lBraeU-f£4 

ABiATHAa,a Jewish high priett, was the 
son of Abimelech, who was killed by SauL 
He succeeded his father, and attached him- 
self to David, but on his death attempting 
to put Adonijah on the throne, he was de< 
posed and banished by Solomon, B» C. 1014 

Able, or Abel (Thomas), was educated 
at Oxford, where he became M. 1516 
and, entering into orders, was made chap 
lain to Catherine, wife of Hedry VHl 
whom he taught music and the languagei 
His attachment to liis royal mistress brou^ 
him into great trouble. He wrote a trea 
tisc against' the divorce; and in 1534 wa 
attainted for being concerned in the affai 
of the holy maid of KenL In 1 540, he sui 
fered death for denying the king's suprc 
macy.— JTflo/. Biog. Br. 

Abker, the uncle of Saul, whom h 
served with great loyalty against Davie 
He was treacherously murdered by Joal 
B.ai048.— 5.S. • 

ABouGHEHEL,an Arabian idolator, and 
bitter enemy to Mohammed, who is said t 
have passea upon him sentence of reprobj 
tion, but his son Acramas was converted I 
the Mussulman faitli. The Mohammedan 
by way of contempt, call coloquintida tl 
melon or cucumber of AbougheheL- 
D' HcrbeUd. 

Abou-hanxfah, was the son of Thab< 
and bom at Coufa A. D. 699. He is c 
teemed among the Mussulmans for his e 
positions of their law, but was perseeutf 
for claying predestination, and died in pi 
son at Bagdad. SH5 years after his death tl 
reigning caliph bnilt a mausoleum to 1 
memory, and founded a college for his f< 
lowers. — jD' HerheUu 

Abou-Joseph, a miissulman doctor, wl 
.was the first that had the title 6f kadhi 
kodhat, or mdge of the judges. He liv 
in the caliphate of Haroun-au-aschidw— /3 
Abgulaina, a Mohammedan doctor,: 
mousforhis wit, of whom thefollowing stc 
is told. Moses, son of the caliph Abdalmal< 
havbg put to death secretly one of Abe 
laina's friends, gave it out that he had fit 
the doctor, on being asked what 'was 1 
come of his friend, replied in the words 
scripture, Mo*cs tmote him amdbeJied. 1 

J>rince being told of this, sent -for Ab< 
aina, and threatened him with severe ] 
nishment; on which Aboulaina replied 
die words of acripture. Wilt tbtm kill me 
day as iUu didst the other yesttrdaj f The prii 
was so pleased with his wit, that he < 
missed him with presents. — Ibid. 

Abouxx>la, the surname of Ahmed 1 
Soliman, an Arabian poet, who lost 
sight by th$ small-pox, when only th 
years old. At the age of 45 he embra 
the notions of the Brahmins respecting 
mete9tp8ycho9is,and lived theremaindc 
his life on vefeubles. He died in 1051 

/)^m4i4NEi.(lMac)y a Hpfnedrabbii i 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


A B R 

' ^mh at Lisbon in 14S7. He was a member 
of the council of Alphonsus, kin;^ of Portu- 
nl ; but fell into disgrace on rhe death of 
that monarch, and fled to Castile, where he 
was |>rotected br Ferdinand and Isabella. In 
1492, he was obh'^ed to ^uit Spain in con- 
Kquence of an edict agamst the Jews, on 
which he retired to Naples, where he re- 
commended himself to the favour of kin^ , 
Ferdinand, and his successor Alphonso. 
When the latter was driven from Naples by 
Charles Vlll. king of France, Abrabanel ac- 
companied him to Sicily, and at his death 
retired to the island of Corfu; but in 149& 
he returned to Italy, and was employed at 
Venice to settle a dispute between the Por- 
tuguese and Venetians, respecting trade. 
Here he finished his commentaries on the 
scriptures, and died in 1.508w-^iUy/^. 

Abraham, the patriarch, was at first 
called Abram, which was altered by divine 
appoiQtment. He was bom A. M. 20(M, at 
Ur, in Chaldee. His father Terah, in his 
old age, went to reside at Haran,in Canaan, 
where Abram received a promise that he 
ahoold be the Cither of a great nation ; oo 
which be, with his wife Sarah, and his ne* 
phew Ixn, left Haran,and dwelt at Sichem. 
A fomine drove them from thence intp 
^gypt, and cm their fetnrh, a dispute arose 
between the servants of Abram and those 
of Lot, wMch indu^sed the two kinsmen to 
part When Lot was taken prisoner by 
ch^ prince of £lam, Abrum armed his ser- 
vants, and retook bis nephew, and the spoil 
Having no prospect of a child by Sarah, he 
* took Hagar, an Egyptiai^ as a concubine, 
by whom he had Ishmael ; but at the age of 
nmety faje rccdved a promise that Sarah 
should have a son, and, in consequence, hit 
name waa changed to Abraham, which sie- 
nifies ** the father of a great multitude.** At 
this time circumcision was instituted. Going 
afterwards to Gerar, Sarah was delivered of . 
a son named Isaac. Wlien Isaac was growh 
to maturity, Abraham was comnvmdcd, as 
a trial of his faith, to offer him up as a sa- 
crifice; but as he was about to fulfil the 
^vine command, an angel ftopped hts hand, 
and provided a ram for a bumt«oiFering. 
After the death of Sarah, Abraham mar- 
ried Keturah, by whom he had six sons. 
He <Ked about A. M. 2179.-55. 

Abraham (Nicholas), a learned Jesuit, 
was born in Lorrain, in 15^9. He was 
theological professor in the university of 
Pont-a-MousBon, where he died 1655. Ht 
wrote a commentary on some of Cicero's 
orations, and on VirgiL— Af©r«-^ 

Abb A a AM (Ben.Chaila), a Spanish rabbi 
and ibtrologer, who predicted the birth of 
the Messiah to happen in 1358, but died in 
1303, fifty-five years before the time. He 


Athias, in 1553, a translation of the Bible 
into Spanish. — Moreri. 

Arrusi (John), an Italian physician and 
astronomer, who lived in the beginning of 
the IGth century. His Dialogue on Astro- 
logy, 4to, Venice, 1494, is in the Index £z- 

Absalom, the son of David, was a'hando 
some, b\it vicious prince. He assassinated 
his brother-in-law Amnon for violating his • 
sister Tamar, and raised a rebellion against 
his father, hut hrs army being routed,he was 
slain by Joab about K)30 years B.C.— 55. 

Arttemius (Laurentius), axv Italian wri* 
ter, was born in Ancona. He was librarian 
at the court of Urbino, where also he taught 
the belles-lettres. He wrote some pieces of 
repute, but the best knoym are his fables, 
which have been /requently printed with 
those of .£sop, Phxdrus, &c. He lived in 
the 1 5th centurv.— A?y/r. 

Abu B E K E K, tne successor of Mohammed, 
and the first who assumed the title o^caliph. 
He acquired a grea^ extent of territory, 
by conquering the Persians, Syriuis, and 
Greeks* He died in 632, and was interred 
by thp si4e of Mohammed, his son-in-law.— 

Abu CAR AS (Theodore), bishop of Caria 
in the 8th century, was a partizan of Pho- 
tius, but recanteo at the council of Con^ 
stantinople and was re-admitted to his seat. 
He wrote several controversial treatises, 
which were published at Ingoldstadt, in 
4to, IfXX). lliere was aho published at 
Paris, in 1685, a work entitled « De Unione 
et Incamatione," by this writec, from a 
MS. found in the Bodleian library.—- Cov// 
Hist. Lit BayU. 

Abu DM All EX, founder of the sect calM 
Karmatiansn and a great enemy to the Mus- 
sulmans. He plundered Mecca, slewthe pil- 
grims, and carried away the 6/acJt stwie;which 
the 'I'urks pretend came down from heaven* 
But the relic was returned when the Kar- 
matians found it to be of no v^ue. He 
died in OSS.^jrHerMoi. 

Abulearacius (Gregory), an Armenian 
physi^ah, bislxop, and historij^n, was born- 
in 122^, at Malatia near the source of the 
Euphrates. He wrote an universal histoty 
in Arabic, which Dr. Pococke published in 
1663, with a Latin translation, and a supple- 
ment. He died in liiHG^^FoeocAt^s Frcf. r# 
Sptcimtm Hitt. Arab. Bay!e, 

Abulfeoa (Ismael), prince of Hamah, 
in Syria, who wrote a valuable piece, enti- 
tled ^ A Description of Chorasmia and 
Mawaralnahre,orthe Regions beyond the 
River Oxus, from the Tables of Abulfeda 
Ismael, prince of Hamah.** This book was 
edited by John Greaves, who added to the 
orijg^nal, iHiich is in Arabic, a Latin tran»i 

wrote a treatise on the figure of the earthy" lation. A new edition was published at O^ 
— JVoMv. Diet. Hist. ford, in 1712, by Hudson. Abulfeda also 

ABKABAMUsQux,a Portuguese Jew, but wrote the lives of Mohammed and Sa 
thought bv some to have been a Christian, ladin. H^ died about tl^ year lS3Jl-w 
li« piblid^ in conjunction with Tobias ^yle. Mtrtri, Digitized by LjOOgl . • . 

A C A 

A C C 

ABtTLOAji-BATATuijkhan of the Tar- 
ta-s, was born at Urgciw, the capital of 
Khara$m,in 1605. After a reign of twenty 
▼car* he resided the crown to his son, and 
led a retired Ufe, during whicli he wrote the 
history of the Tartars,' which valuable 
work, having^ been brought into Europe, 
has been published in German an4 French. 
He died in 1663.— Afer^-r/. 

Abu-Moslkm, governor of Khorasan, 
vho, in 747, changed the caliphate from 
t^ie family of the Ommiades to the Abbas- 
sides, in producing which above 600,000 
men lost their lives. Afer rendering the 
caliph, Almanzor, the most important ser- 
vices, that prince caused hixii to be assassi- 
nated— i)*/fcrr^^/or. MoJ, U. H, 

Abu MOW AS, an Arabian poet, bom at 
$ara, m 762. He dwelt in the palace of 
Haroun al Raschid, with Masat and Rc- 
kashi, two Other poets. His work^ are still 
•xtant. HedjedA.D.810.— Z)*^rr^*/<rf. 

Abu-Obeidah, a companion of Moham** 
med, served first under Caled, in Syria ; but 
at last he was invested with the suprpme 
command, and Caled served as his second. 
After conmieringSyrja and a gre^ part of 
Palestine, ne was carried ofF by a pestilence. 

Abusaio Khan, the last sultan of the 
race of Zingis Khan, ascended th^ thron<» 
in 1817, and died in 1336— Z)7f<r^^/«/. 

Abusaio Mirza served in the army of 
Uleg Beg, when he was at war with hia 
son. He took advantage of this dissension, 
and set up for himself in 145a He greatly 
extended his dominions, but fell in an am* 
buscade, in 1468, aged 42.— /4/dL 

^hc prince Of Arabian poets, was bom in 
842, or 846, at Yasem,n«ar Damascus— /^/dl 
Abyden US, author of the history of the 
Chaldeans and Abyssini^s, thq only re- 
mains of which are in the Prcparauo 
Evangelica of Eusebius.— iv2ir/*«w Bih. Gr^e. 
AcAcius, surnamed Monophthalmus, 
from having lost an eye, vras the disciple 
and successor of Eusebius, bishopof Cacsarea. 
Jie was deposed b^ the council of Sardic^ 
for heresy ; on wluch he, and some others, 
a8sem})!cdat Plulippolis,and anathematized 
Athaoa-sius and, the rest of their adversaries. 
Acacius was concern^ in banishing pope 
X^iberius, and settling Felix in thp see of 
Jlome. He was the founder of a sect call- 
ed Acaciani, and died about the year S65. 
He wrote the i.ife of Eusebius, and other 
works.— .Gov// Hist, tit, 

Acacius, bishop of Amida, on theTigri#, 
flourished about the year 42a He sold the 
plate belonging to hi? church, and with tlie^ 
money ransomed 7000 Persian slaves, and 
sent thenj to their king.—G/^iar*/ Hht. cf 

Acacius, patriarch of Constant iuople. 
fie was excommunicated by po-f)e Felix III. 
and in ^is turn ca:nmanded the nr^me of 
<ki: prelate to be struck out of th^c ii*t of 

bi.shop9 who were to be nientioned in tho 
public prayers. Jie dipd in 487-— ilfwA«« * 
J^:cUs. Hist. 

AcACJus, bishop of Bercea, ii& Syria, was 
at the council of Constantinople, held iq 
SB I. H^ was the means of deposing St. 
Chrysostoiji, and also Cyril, bishop of 
AJpxandria. He died about the year 436, 
aged considerably above lOOw — Cave, Dufik, 
AcADEMus, or KcADEMUS, an Athcniaii 
citizen, whose house being employed as ^ 
philosophical school in the time of Theseus, 
he had the honour of giving his name to a 
sect of philosophers, or rather three sects, 
called Academics. The old academy had 
PUto for its chief, the second Arcesilas, an4 
the last Cameades. Cicero called his coun- 
tryrhousc at Puzzolanum, Academus. No 
one was suffered to laugh ih the academy 
at Athens, under the penalty of expulsion. 
— Milan Var, Hut. 

AcCA, bishop of Hexhani ip Iforthum-: 
berland, in the eighth century. He oma"; 
mented hie cathedral, improved church 
music, and encoura^d learning. He wa^ 
banished for some time from his see, for 
what cause is unknown, but he was aifter-« 
wards restored, and died at Hexham In 740i 
He wrote a treatise on the sufterings of the 
saints, epistles, and other works.^ — Bio^. Brit* 
AccA Laurentia, was the wife of 
Faustulus the shepherd^ and nur^e to Remus 
and Romulus. Some say she was a courte* 
san, and have, therefore, called her Lupa. 
The Romans made her a ^ddess, and de-i 
voted a holiday to her service.— iWorw/. 

AccARisi (Francis J, native of Ancona, 
was professor of civil law at Sienna, and 
afterwards at Pisa. He died at Sienna, in 
1622.— JV»«v. Diet. Hist, 

AcciAjuoLi (Dooatus),a learned Floren- 
tine in the fifteenth century, was a disciple 
of Argyropylus, and published commenta* 
ries On his translation of Aristotle's Ethics. 
He also translated the Lives of Alcibiade^ 
and Demetrius from Plutarch, to which he 
added tlwse of Hannibal and Scipio, and 
wrote the life of Charlemagne, and some 
other works. He died at Milan, and his 
corpse was removed to his natiye city, and 
interred in the church of the Carthusians. 
•^Bayif, * 

AcciAjuoLi (Zenobio), of the same fa* 
mily with the alwve, was born in 1 40*1 , and * 
entered into the order jpf St.' Dominic. Ha 
became librarian to pop{« Leo X. and died 
in 15sa He translated bQine of the father* 
into Latin, and left several pieces of his 
own, some of which were published^ — /hid, 
AcciAjuoLi ( An/T;ero), was al^ a native 
of Florence, of which he became archbi-; 
6hop, and died in 1407. He was raised fo^ 
his merit to the car^iinalship. — Moreri. 

AcciAioLi (Renatiis), a Floreutinp, who 
conquered Athens, Corinth, and part of 
Bceotia, at the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. He bequeathed Athens to ili^ 
Veneiiaiis; Coriiith to Th^dosius Paleol^* 

A C H 

gut» who married hu eldest daughter; and 
Bootia, with 'rhebesitto his natural snn An- 
thunj) who alto got Athens; but this was 
retaken in 1455 by Mohammed II. — Moreri, 

Accius (i.ucius), a Latin tragic pocf, 
flourished about 170 years B. C He wrote 
srveral tragedies on subjects taken from the 
Grecian history, and one, entitled Brutus, 
from the Roman. Two comedies, one named 
the Wedding, and the otlier the Merchant, 
are also ascribed to him. His style has been 
accounted harsh,but he is generally allowed 
to have bc^n a great poet : none of his 
works areext^nt^ — QuintUioM, There was also 
in the same age, an orator of the nnme of 
Accius, against whom Cicero defended 
Claeotius. He was a native of Pisaurum. 

Accius TuLLius, prince of the Volsci 
jn Italy, to whoqi Coriolaous fled for re- 
fuge. — Lhy. Fluiareb^ 

AccojLTi (Benedict), secretary to the 
Itateof i-lorence.^ He wrote a history of 
the holy war, printed at Venice, in 1532, 
4to. which was consulted by Tasso in the 
composition of hi» Jerusaiem Delivered. 
Pe Ukewsip wrote a little book ^f the 
famous men of hit time. He died ia 1466t 
fged 51w-«A/«r«rr. 

AccoLTi (Francis), brother to Benedict, 
was called the prince of lawyers. He died, 
vastly rich, about 1470<— /^^ 

AccOLTi (Peter), of the same family, 
was bom at Florence in 1455. He wa« 
created a cardinal, and died at Florence 
b 1532. He wrote soxhe historical pieces, 
ffis brother Benedict Accolti, duke of 
Nepi, wrote some dramatic pieces of merit. 

AccoiDS (Stephen Tabouret, seigneur 
de), advocate in the parliament of Dijon, 
and author of two trifling books, one enti- 
tled «• Les Higarrures," and the other ** JLes 
Touches." He died in 15o'l, aged 46^-r 
Aipora. Diit. Marrri. 

AccoRso' (Fraacis), professor of law at 
Bologna, was born at Florence in 1 1 8'J. He 
reduced the code, digests* and institutes, 
into one system, printed at Lyons, in 6 vols, 
toiio, 1(>27. He died in 1260, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Frincis. — BayU. 

AccoRso (Mariangelo), a learned Nea- 
politan of the sixteenth century, was very 
industrious in collecting ancient MSS. He 
published rem.arkson Ausonius, Solinus, and 
Ovid, in 15&24, entitled **• Diatriba: ;" aho an 
edition of Ammianus MarceUinus, at Augs- 
)}urg, in 15:id, and some other valuable 
works. — BayU. 

AcxsiL's,'bishop of Constantinople in the 
t:me of Cunvtanttne. He maintained that 
t,o communion was to be held with those 
^rho hadonce departed from the faith, even ' 
lh*ugh they sliould afterwards repent. 
Coosuotinc said to him,*^ Make a ladder 
for yourself, Acesius, and go up to heaven 
aIone."~-Z)b/M. Lardner, 

Aca, VA:c,or AcBEN (John), was bom 
^ Cologne in 15(>0'» and became enuseiU 

A c H 

in historical. and portrait painting. He died 
in \C^\.^P}iJtwxton, 

AcHAj'os (Eleazar), -was bom at Avig- 
non in 1679, and became bishop of that «iec 
When the plague raged tJiere, he conti- 
nued at the hazard of his life, performing- 
the offices of charitv and religion. Clement 
XII. sent him to China to settle the dis- 
pntes which prevailed among the miefion* 
aries. He died at Cochin, in 1 741 , without 
having accomplished the object of his voy- 
age.-* JV^n^. Diet. Hist, ^ 

AcRERi (Luc d'), a bencdictjnc monk, 
born at St. Quintin, in Picardy, in 1609. 
He published several books in ecclesisstical 
histpry, as the Lives of Saints, &c. He died 
at Paris in IGSJi — Moreri, 

AcMiLLiNi (Alexander), an eminent phi* 
losopher and physician of Bologna, where 
he died in 1512, aged 40. He is said to 
have discovered the hammer and anvil, two 
small bones in the organ of hcnring. His 
works were published in folio at Venice, in 
1568.— 7irtfA«/f/»r. HalUri Bibliotb., 

AcHiLLiNi (John Philotheus), brother of 
the above, wrote a poem, entitled " Viri- 
dari©,** containing the eulogy of many learn- 
ed men of his tune. He died in 15S8w^ 

AcaiLLiNi (Claude), a relation of the 
preceding, was bom at Bologna in l.')74. 
He was a man of universal learning and 
genius, and was professor of Jurisprudence 
for several years in difFerent universities. 
Cardinal Richelieu is said to have rewarded 
him for a poem, with a gold chain valued at 
1000 crowns. He died in lfJ40. Inscrin* 
tions to his honour were placed upon the 
schools in which he taught. — Moreri, 

AcHALEN, a sovereign of the northern 
Britons, who in the 6th century, on losing 
his territory, fled Into Wales. He and his 
brother Arthanad are famous for a journey 
performed on one horse, up the hill of 
Maclwg in Cardiganshire, to re verge the 
death of their father.— Owfrt'/ Canbr'ran Bio^. 

^CHMET I. emperor of the Turks, suc- 
ceeded his father Mahomet III. in 1603, be- 
ing then about 15 years old. He began his 
reign by combatii^ a formidable rebellion, 
which lasted two years. He was next en- 
gaged in a war with the Germans, in which 
he ^vas assisted by the fajnous Bcthlcm Ga- 
bon Peace was concluded in ir>06; but 
his rei^ continued to be disturbed by in- 
surrections, and his rest was troubled by 
a pretender to his throne. He indulged 
himself in sensual pleasures and in field 
sports: but, though proud and ambitious, he 
was less sanguinary than his preilecessors. 
He died in 1617, at the age of i.»9.— Jl/o<^. 
Un. HUu 

Ac 11 MET n. succeeded his brother SoIyi 
msn in 1691. He was u good-natured 
prince, but weak and irresolute. He died 
m 1695. — Void. 

Ac u MET HI.wa.s the son of MahcmctlV. 
and un (j^e dcpo$itiuu of his brother J4"^ta^ 

A C 


pha n. in 1 70S, ascended the imperia] 
throne. He sheltered Cliarles XIL of Swe^ 
den, after the battle of Pultowa, and de- 
clared war aeainat tike RuMians, but- soon 
after concluded an advantageous peace. 
He likewise made war on the Venetians, 
and recovered from them the Morea : bat 
in an attack on Hunj^ary, the Turkish army 
ivas defeated by prince Eugene in 1716, at 
the battle of Peterwaradin. Achmet was 
dethroned in 17S0, and died suddenly in 
confinement in 1736. — M^d. Univ, Hht. 

AcHMiET, an Arabian author, who wrote 
a book on the interpretation of dreams, 
which was published at Paris, in 1603. He 
Mved about the fourth century ^^JitryU, 

AcoLUTiins (Andrew), # was born at 
Breslaw, of which place he became arch- 
deacon, and professor of the oriental lan- 
guages. He wrote, 1. A Treatise de Acquis 
amaris, 1682, 4to. 2. A Latin Translation 
of the Armenian Version of the Prophet 
Obodiah, 4to, Leipsic. He died 1704^-/^. 
AcoNTios names), was bom at Trent, 
in the sixteentn century. On turning pro- 
testantjhe went to £ngiand, where he met 
with a kind reception froin queen Eliza- 
beth, to whom .he dedicated a work, enti- 
tled, ** The Stratagems of Satan,** printed 
at Basil, in 1565. The author dieSl soon 
after. Another edition of this work ap- 
peared at Basil, in 1610, to which was ad- 
ded, a letter of Acontius*s " De Ratione 
edendorum I jbrorum ;** but his best work 
is a treatise **On Method,** printed at 
Utrecht, in 1656.— ^j/a TiraUtcii, ti^ia 
iMa Lm. ItaU 

Ago ST A (Gabriel), canon and professor 
of divinity at Coimbra, who wrote a com- 
mentary on i^art of the Old Testament, fol. 
1641. He died in 1616.— Aforw. 

Acos I A Hoseph), a Spanish Jesuit, bom 
at Medina del C.ynpo, in 1547. He was a 
missionary in Peru, and became proyincial 
of his order. Ho died at Salamanca, in 
kXX). His ** History of the West-Indies" 
first printed in Spanish, in 1521, uni- 
versally known and esteemed. — Morerh 

Acc^TA (Uriel), an extraordinary cha- 
racter, was born at Oporto, where nis fa- 
ther was a Roman-catholic, though de- 
scended from Jewish ancestors. At the age 
of 25, he was made treasurer of a church, 
l^ut having embraced Judaism, he resolved 
to quit Portugal, with his mother and bro- 
thers, whom he had converted to the same 
faiih. I'he new converu went to Amster- 
dam, and were received into a synagogue. 
J<ot lon^ after he became dissatisfied with 
|he^ Jewish rites, and expressing his senti- 
ments with freedom, he was excommuni- 
cated. He then wrote a book in which he 
denied the immortality of the soul; for 
. which he was thrown .into prison, from 
whence he was sooi^ bailed, but all the co- 
pies of his book were seized, and a fine le- 
vied upon the author. After lying under 
cz^mmunicattoo fifteciji years, ne wstt re- 

admitted into tile synagogue on makia; 
his submissioq, but was expelled again for 
not conforming to the laws of Moses, and 
for dissuading two Christians from tam- 
ing Jews. In this state he remained seven 
years, abandoned by His frfends, and re< 
duced to a wretched condition. At the 
end of that time he made his submission, 
and underwent ia. extraordinary penance 
in the synagogue ; where after making hit 
recantation, he was publicly scourged, and 
then laying himself down on the threshold, 
all the pecvple walked over him. He shot 
himself with a pistol, in 1640, or according 
to others in 1647. — Boyle. 

AcQVAViVA (Andrew Matthew), duke of 
Atri and prince of Teramo in the kingdom 
of Naples, was bom in 1456. He was one 
of the greatest luminaries of his age'; and 
seems to have been the first who conceived 
the idea of an Encyclopaedia, or Universal 
Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Me pub- 
lished a work under that title in 2 vols. fol. 
which, though scanty and defective, was 
sufficient to give some hints for conducting 
a - compilation of that kind. He died im 

AcRON, a Sicilian physicTan, flourished 
439 B.C. He expelled the plague from 
Athens by burning perfumes^— iMorm. 

AcaoN, or Ac«o,an ancient scholiast ea 
Horace, who lived in the 7ih century. His 
work is extant, in an edition of that poet, 
printed at Basil in 1527, 8vo.-^Jl^mT. 

AcaopouTA (George), a writer on the 
Byzantine history, was bom at Constanti- 
nople, in 1220. He disputed at the age of 
twenty-one with a physician, conceraingso- 
Jar eclipses, before the emperor Johm He 
afterwards rose to the rank of chancellor of 
the empire, and died in )2S2. His Chro- 
nicle of the Greek Empire was printed at 
Paris in Greek and Latin, in 1651, f<^^— 
Fott. de Hist. Grse, Fabricii BiU. Grac. 

AcROPOLiTA (Constantine), son of the 
above, was called the younger Meta- 
phrastes, and was great cnancellor of the 
empire. He flourished about 1270.-«-ZW. 

AcTVAaios (John), a Greek physician of ' 
the Jewivsh faith, flourished in the 12th cen- 
tury at Constantinople, where Actuarius it 
a title still bestowed on physicians of the 
court' His books on Therapeutics, the 
Animal Spirits, on Urines, &c. have been 
printed together, and in parts^— /rMv/f 
Hkt. of Physic. 

• AcuN A '(Christopher), a Spanish jesuit, 
born at Burgos, in 1597, was many years a 
missionary in South America. He publish- 
ed, in 1641,** A Description pf the Great 
River of tl\e Ama«ons,** which was after- 
wards translated into French, in 4 voK 
i2mq. 1682.— iTdry/f. Mpr<-ri, 

An AIR (James), an eminent lawyer, wai 
the son of an army agent, ^nd being design- 
ed for the law, entered at Lmcoln's-inn,and 
in due time was called to the bar. In 1774, 
]^ was raised to th^ degree of aojeant at 


hnr, 99^ on the death of tei^nt Glvnne, 
was chosea recorder of I>ond6iv In the 
|Nu1iameiit of 1780» he was elected for 
Cockermouth, but afterwards he sat for 
Higham Perrers. On being promoted to 
be one of hU majestj's servants at law, he 
leNgned the recordcnhip in expectation of 
higher preferment, but was disappointed.' 
He was employed to carry onthe prosecu- 
tion against one of the persons accused of 
high treason in 1794, on which occasioi^ he 
outshone all the other cfc'own lawyers. He 
wrote two tracts, one entitled, ** Thoughts 
jOD the dismission of Officers for their Con* 
duct in Partianent," and the other, ■> Ob- 
servations on the Power of Alienations of 
the Crown, before the £rst of Queen 
Anne.** He died in 1798^ — Monthly Mag, 

AoALAKD, or AoRLAi.D,bom about A. O. 
Y53, was cousin-german of Charlemagne. 
He was divorcra from his wife, which 
grieved him so much that he went into the 
abbey of Corbie, of which the emperor 
made him abbot. In 823, he founded the 
abbey of New Corbie, in Saxony, and died 
in 826. Some fragments of his writings are 
extantf— Alsrrrx. 

Adalbeaon (Asceiimts), bishop of IJion 
in 977. He treacherously delivered up 
Amoul archbishop of. Rheiips, and Charles 
duke of I^rrain, who had put themselves 
under his protection, to Hngh Capet. He 
£ed in lOSO. There is a poem of his ex- 
tant, which contains some curious historical 
lactSd — Dupia, 

Adalbert, archbishop of Magdeburgh, 
was employed by the emperor Otho I. in 
961, to preach the gospel to the Russians, 
among whom he met vrith little success. 
He afterwards laboured to more advantage 
among the Sclavonians^ — Morrri. 

AsAi;B Ear, archbishop of Prague, in the 
tenth ceiitury, was a succo^nftil missionary 
tn Hungary, Pnissia, and Lithuania, where 
he was murdered by a pagaif priests — Mo' 
thttM. Moreri. 

Adam, the father of mankind, was creat- 
ed out of the earth, and placedin the garden 
of Eden, from whence he was expelled for 
eating of the forbidden fruit.. The creation 
of Adam is generally placed in *thc year 
4004 before Christ. After his exile he hved 

Adam (Melchior), a German biographer, 
bom in Sdesia, and educated in the college 
of Brieg. He published 5 vols, of memoirs 
of eminent men, a work still esteemed. He 
died in 1621L— ^^i^. 

Adam (Scotus), a monkish historiiui, in 
the twelfth centurv, mu bom in Scotland 
and educated in tne monastery of Lindis- 
€uB. From thence he went to Paris, and 
became a member of the Sorbopne. He af- 
terwards returned to his native countrv, 
wd was a monk, first at Melross, and lastly 
at Durhaqi, where he wrote the life of St. 
.Cohnnbus,aiid that <^ David I. kin^ofScot- 



land. Hts works were printed at Antw^i^ 
in 1659 fol. — Moreri, 

4dam (Lambert Si^sbert), a French 
sculptor, born at' Nanci in 1700. Various 
works of his are scattered over France, and 
are greatly admired. He died in l759ir— 
2)* Argenvitles Lives ofSeyltiors. 

Adam (Nicholas), brother of the above, 
was born at Nanci in 1705. He was also 
an eminent artist-; and executed the mauso- 
leum of the queen of Poland at Bonsecours, 
and some other fme pieces. He died ia 
1778, having lost his sight some years be- 
fore-— /&/</. 

Adam ^Francis Gaspard), younger bro- 
ther of tlie aforegoing, was bom at Nanc^ 
in 1710, and followed the same occupation 
with his brothers. He went to Prussia* 
where he gained a great reputation. He 
died at Paris i» 1759.— Jtt*//. 

Adam of Bremen, a canon of that citj 
at the close of the eleventh century. His 
work entitled " Historia Ecclesiastica Ec- 
clesise Hamburgcnsis et Bremensis/' was 
printed in 1670, 4to. — Dupin. 

Adam (Billaut or master) a French poet, 
was originally a joiner of Nevers, and pa- 
tronized by cardinal Richelieu. His poems 
are now extremely scarce. — Moreri. 

Adam (Robert), architect, was bom 
in 1728, at Kirkaldy, in Fifeshire, and edu- 
cated at the university of hdinburgh. He 
went to Italy, and on his return was made 
architect to the king, which office he r^ 
signed, in 1 768, on being chosen member <f. 
parliament for the county of Kinross. He 
gave a new turn to the architecture of tl.ts 
country, aud procured great fameby the 
number and elegance of his de^'gns. He 
died in 1702, whHe the new university of 
Edinburgh and other public works were 
erecting according to his pUms. He was 
buried in Westminster abbcv^ — G*-*. B^. 

Adam ^Thomas), an English divine, W7C 
born at Leeds in Yorkshire in 1701, and 
educated at Wakefield, from whence he 
was removed to Christ's coUep^, Cambridge* 
but after two years stay there he went to 
Hart hall, now Hertford college, Oxford, 
where he took his degree of R A. On en- 
tering into orders, he obtiiiucd the living 
of Wintringham in Lincolnshire, of which 
he continued rector 58 years though he 
might have had aonsiderable preferment, 
but being set against pluralities I;e refused 
every offer of promotion. Mr. Adam wSls 
a conscientious parish-priest, residing ccn» 
timi^Uy with his people, and adorning his 
office by a suitable life. He died at Win- 
tringham in 1784. He published a para- 
phrase of the eleven first chapters of the 
Romans, Pva His other works are leoturcs 
on the church catechism, a volume of ser- 
mons, and a postluimous collection of 
Thoughts, to which Ms life is prefixed. 
Ao AMI {jax Thomas), lord mayor of Lo%- 

Digitized by 




4Eoa,wai>^oni at Wezn, in Shropshire, edu- 
cated at Cambridge, and afterv-ards brought 
up a draper iu X/Ondon. In 1609, he was 
chosen alderman of the citV) and in 16-15, 
MTved the office of ]ora mayor. His 
loyalty was so great, that the republicans 
«edrclied his house, in hopes of finding the 
king, and tliough they were ^lisappninted, 
Tct they confined Mr. Adams m the 'I'ow^r. 
lie sent Charles II. l0/:00/. during hib exile, 
and when the Rescoration was revived <m, 
he was appointed by the city to wait on the 
Icing, who knighted him at the Hague, and 
in 1661, created him a baronet. >Ie died 
in 1667, aged 81; and after his death a 
itdne was taken from him weighing twen* 
ty-five ounces, which is now in the labora-* 
lory at Cambridge. He fouiided a school 
ait wcm, and an Arabic professorship at 
Cambridge, and was at the cxncnceof print- 
iKg the Gospels in Persian and sending them 
to the EaMU—Biog, Br. 

Ada MS (Thomas), A. NLa fellow of Bra- 
zen-nose college, Oxford, who was ejected 
in lf:6'i, for non-conformity, on which he 
became chaplain to sir Samuel Jones, of 
Shropshire, and afterwards to lady Clare in 
>iorthamptonshire. He died in 1670. He 
vrote " Protestant Union, or Principles of 
Religiop,** a very useful work.-^C<</(i«grjr*/ 
jUctunt •fejecttd MinisUn. 

AiiKyL% (Richard), A.M. was also edu- 
cated at Brazen-nose college, Oxford, and 
afterwards had the living of St. Mildred, 
Bread-street, from whence be was ejected 
IB 1662. He died in 1698. He was one of 
the editors of Chamock*s works, and help- 
ed to finish Matthew Poole's annotations on 
the Bible.— /^ii/. 

Ad.amson (Patrick), a Scotch prelate, 
was born at Perth, in 1536, and educated at 
St. Andrews. In 1566, he travelled with 
a young gentleman, but writing a Latin 
poem on the birth of James Vl. he was 
arrested at Paris, and confined for six 
months, but wa»>rcleased at the intercession 
of queen Mary. He then went to Bourges, 
where he was at the time of the massacre 
of Paris, bnt kept concealed for sev^ 
months at an inn, the master of which was 
thrown from the top .of the house by the 
enraged catholics for his charity to heretics. 
Here he translated the book of Job into La- 
tin verse, and wrote the tragedy of Herod 
in the same tongue. He returned to his 
own country in 1573, and became minister 
of Paisley. In 1575, he sat as commissioner 
for settling the government of the churchj 
and Jioon after was raised to the see of St. 
Andrews, on wliich he was violently per&e- 
riitcd by the pres^yterians. In 158-2, he 
feil d.-)ngerously ill, and was cured by tak- 
.ing a medicine from an old woman, who 
^ras burnt for it by the fanatics, as a witch. 
In 1583, he was sent ambassador to (|ucen 
ZhVabeth. On his return to Scotland in 
15H'I, he found the prcibytcrian party very 
violent, and at a $\-nod in i 5(<6, tlicy excom- 

municated him. The king also aliesated- 
the revenues of his tec, and thereby reduced 
him. and his family to a wretched condition. 
He died in 1501. His works have been 
collected and published in Axo* — Bi«g. Brk. 
Adoinoton (xVnthouy), a physician, 
was educated at Trinity college, Oxford, 
-where betook his degree of M. A. in 1740, 
and that of doctor in physic in 1744. He 
was admitted of the college of physidana, 
London, in 1 756. Dr. Addington settled at 
Reading, where he had considerable prac- 
tice, paiiicuUrlv in cases of insanity. He * 
died ni 17^K>. ile wrote an Essay on the 
Scurvy, with the Method of preserving Wa- 
ter sweet at Sea, 8vo j another on the mor« 
. taUty among cattle, 8vo ; and a pamphlet 
concerning a negotiation between loM 
Chatham and lord Bute, 8vo. He was the 
father of viscount Sidmouth. He is not to 
be confounded with Dr. Stephen Addington, 
a dissenting teacher, who published a Greek 
grammar, and a life a| St. Paul, in 8vo^^ 
Rurop, A£ag, 

AonisoN (Lancelot), a divine, was bom 
at Crosby Ravensworth in ^\''estmo^e]and^ 
in 163:2. From Appleby sdiool he wa» 
sent to Queen's college, Oxford, where he 
took his degrees in arts. He was chosen 
one of the terra-fiUi at the act in 1658, but 
being satirical on the men in power in his 
oration, he was obliged to askpardon on his 
knees. He soon after quitted Oxford and 
lived retired till the Restoration, when he 
became chaplain to the garrison at Dun- 
kirk ; and in 1 663,to that atTangier. He re-' 
turned to England in 1670, and was made 
chaplainin ordinary tofhismajesty. Soon after 
lie^ obtained the living of Milston, in Wilt- 
shire, and a prebend m the cathedral of Sa- 
lisbury. In 1683, he was promoted to the 
deanry of Licliield. He died in 1703. 
His writings, the chief of which are, « An 
Account of tlie present State of the Jews,** 
and a " Descriution of West i3arbar)r,'* shew 
him to have oeen a man of learning and 
observation^ — AVjf. Biit, 

Addison (Joseph), son of the above, vnu 
born at MiUton, in Wilts, May 1, 1672. 
After recieWng the rudiments of education, 
he was seat to the Charter-house, where he 
contracted an intimacy with sir Richard 
Steele. In 1687, he was admitted of Qucen*s 
college, Oxford, but afterwards was elected 
demy at Magdalen. In 1693, he took his 
degree of M. A. and became eminent for his 
Latin poetry. At the age of a2, he adr 
dressed some verses to Dryden in English, 
and not long after pulilished a translation of 
part of Virgil's fourth Georgic. About 
this time he wrote the argifmcnts prefixed 
to the several books of Dryden's Virgil, and 
composed the e^^say on the Georgics. In 
IGiJ.^he addrcs-ed a poem to king William, 
whiv'Ii recornxneiided-him to lord .Somers. 
In icao, ho obtained a pcnsioa of 30()/. a 
y«ir, to enable hini to traveL He went 
through Irauce and Ualv, injproving hi« 

Digitized by VjOOv I 

xn D 

A D e 

tfind to the best advanta^, as appears from 
h» « Letter to Lord Halifax," reckoned 
tke most ele?ant of his pqeticiil works, and 
bas « Travels in Italy," which he dedi- 
cated at his return to lord Somen. He 
returned home in 1703, and found l)is old 
friends owt of place. In 1 704, he was intro- 
duced by lord Halifax to lord Oodolnhin 
at a fit person to celebrate the victoay of 
Blenheim ; on which occasion he produced 
the Campaign, for which he was rewarded 
with the place of commissioner of appeals. 
Next year he went to Hanover with lord 
Halifax, and soon after was appointed 
under-secretary of state. The rage for 
Italian operas which then prevailed, indu- 
ced him to write his "Rosamond," which 
did not succeed, probably because it was 
English. When the luarquis of Wharton 
went to Ireland as lord lieutenant, Addison 
^companied him as secretary, and was 
made keeper of the records tliere,with a 
salary of SOO/. a year. While he was in 
Irebiid, Steele commenced the Tatler, to 
which Addison liberally contributed. This 
was followed by the Spectator, which was 
enriched by the contributions of Addison, 
whose papers are distinguished by one of 
the letters of the word CLIO. In 17 IS, 
his tragedy of Catowas brought upon the 
stare, amidst the ]>Iaudits of both whigs 
and tones. Catd was praised by most of 
the contemporary poets, criticised by Den- 
nis, attacked as a party play at Oxford* 
and vindicated by I>r. Sewel. \t was trans- 
lated into Italian, and performed at Fl6^ 
rence, and into Latin at the college of St. 
Omers. At tkU time the Guardian appear- 
ed, to whitrb Addison contributed, and 
lus papers are marked by a hand. But the 
violence of politics «oon put a stop to this 
paper, and Addison engaged in the party 
warfare, but his political pieces sunk into 
neglect. An attempt was made to revive the 
Spcctator,bat after the publication of eighty 
Bombers, which compose the eighth volume, 
the work was relinquished. Addison*s quota 
amounts to about a fourth part. In 1715, 
he began the Freeholder, and continued it 
till the middl* of the next year, in defence 
of the government, (n 1716, he rtarried 
the countess^ dowager of Warwick, after a 
long courtship. He had beto tutor to her 
sno, but the niarriage did not prove happy. 
In 1717, he became secretary of state, which 
pbce he soon resigned, on a* pension of 
1500/. a year. In bis retirement he planned 
a trageciy on the death of Socrates, which 
he abandoned for a work of a more exaltod 
kind,*A Defence of the Christian Religion," 
part of which appeared after his death, and 
makes us regret that he did not live to per* 
feet it He also laid the plan of an EnglLsh 
dictionary in the manner since so happily 
.executed by Dr. Johnson. In 1719, he en- 
gage?l in a political dispute with Steele, on 
the peerage^bill, then bwJvght in to re- 
strain the long fivmcrtatii); '4ny newpecty, 

excfept in case of the extinction of an cAd 
family. Steele's pamphlet was entitled «*The 
Plebeian," and was dalculatcd to alarm the 
people on the occasion; and Addison ro«» 
piled to it ia another called ** The Old 
Whig," fn which he contemptuously styled 
his opponent ** liule Dicky." That year 
terminated his life, and he ended it ma 
mannV suitable to his character. He sent 
for lord Warwick, and affcciionately press- 
ing his hand, softly said, " See m what 
peace a christian can die I** After giving di- 
rections to Mr. Tickel respecting the 
publication of his works, which he himself 
dedicated on his death-bed to Mr. Cra^gs, 
he breathed his last, June 17, 1719, at Hol- 
land-house, leaving only one daughter, wh» 
died unmarried, in 1797. Dr. Johnson, aft>er 
drawing his character'in a forcible and ele- 
gant manner, says, ** whoever wishes to 
attain an English style, familiar but not 
coarse, and elegant but not ' ostentatious^ 
must give his days and nights to the vo- 
lumes of Addison. — Bio^, Brit, AMMnians^ 
2 vols. 1803. 

ApELARD, a monk of Bath in the twelftb 
century. Ho traveOed into Egypt and Ara- 
bia, and translated Euclid's £lements out of 
Arabic into Latin, before any Greek coiiies 
were discovered. He also translated and 
wrote several other treatises on mathemati- 
cal and medi^ subjects, which remain in 
MS. in the libraries of Corpus Christi and 
Trinity colleges, Oxfordr-^HutionT Math, 

Adelbold, bishop of Utrecht, died irf 
1027. He wrote the life of the emperor 
Henry II. which is still extant^ — Moreri. ' 

Adcler (Curtius), also Earned Servisen, 
was born in Norway, in 1622. After ^rv* 
ing in the Dutch navy, he went to Venice, 
wheptf he was raised to tlie rank of admirad; 
and performed'manv gallant exploits against 
the Turks, foi^hich he was made knight of 
St. Mark, and obtained a pension. Oa 
leaving the Venetian service, he went to 
Amsterdam, where he married a lady of 
rank. He ended his days at Copenhagen^ 
in honour and tranquillity, beuig made 
admiral-in-chief, and created a noble. He 
died in 1^75, — Moreri, 

AnEi.cREipr (John Albrecht), a German 
fanatic, was put to death at Konigsberg, in 
I5tJ6, for blasphemy, magic, and sedition. 

Adelman, bishop of Brescia, in the 1 1th 
centiiry. He wrote a letter on the euchar- 
ist, which is in a collection printed at Lov- 
*ain, in 1561, in 8vd. He ^ed about lOo'st 

AoBLPRus, a Platonic philosopher, who 
composed^ a strange doctrine from* Plato, 
the Gnostics, and others, which was greatly 
followed in the third century. He was Op- 
■posed by Plotinus.— /i5"./. 

Adrodatus, or *• God's-^ift,** a pope, 
was bom at R(«me. He obtained the tiar* 
in 67». and ^i ii^a^*.^ ^^ Q^^ig^l^cru. 


i*opti, PlatinA. 

ADEJt (William), a physician of Thou* 
louse, at the beginning of the 17th centyry, 
who wrote a Ixwk in 16'i21, entitled, *• De 
jEgrotiset Morbis Evangelicis;'* in 'wliich 
be proves, that the diseases healed by our 
Savxourwere inairable by medicinew — Mar, 

AouAD-£»Doui,AT, emperor of Persia, 
succeeded his uncle Amad-Eddoulat, and 
by his ccmquests greatly enlarged bis terri- 
tories, in 977, he became master of Ba^ 
dad, which he adorned with hospitals, 
mosques, and other public works^ He was 
also a great cnCourager of poet& and men of 
learning. He died in 982, aged 47. — 

Adhelme was the son of Kenred, and 
nephew to Ina, king of the West Saxons. 
He became abbot of Malmesbury,and was 
the first Englishman who wrote in Latin, 
the first who brought poetry into this coun- 
try, and the first bishop of Sherborne. He 
died in 709, and was canonized. His writ* 
ings are in the Bibl. Pat.^ — Bale, Pits, 

Adsemar (William), a native of Pro- 
vence, and celebrated for his poetry. He 
died ai^put 1 1 90. — Moreri, 

AoiUANTus, of the sect of the Mani- 
chees, flourished about the end of the 
third century. He denied the authority of 
the Old Testament, in a book which was 
answered by St. Augustiuev— Xar^rr j Cr«- 

AoxMAm (Raphael), was bom at Rimint, 
of whtchr country he wrote the history,i< vols. 
4tO. 1616d— iV<wv. Diet, HisK 

Adxmaei (Alexander), ht»n\ at Florence 
in 1579. He gained great repuuiion by his 
poems, and died in 1<>49^— i^/^. 

Adlzreittxr (John), a German histo- 
rian. He was chancellor of Bavaria in th« 
I7th«encury, and w^rotc the annals of Ba- 
varia in Latin, printed at X^psic, in 1710, 
foiior— iWorm. 

Aj)|.eilfeldt (GusUTQs), was bom near 
Stockholm, and became gentleman of the 
bedchamber to Charles XII. whose hfstorv 
he has written with great fid^ity; of which 
' a French translauon wat published by his 
ion, in 4 vo]#. ISmo. 174a He was killed at 
the battle of Pultowa,i& 1709^ — G<«. B, 1>. 
A D o,archbishop pf Vicnne, in Dauphiny, 
died in 875, aged sfrvcdiy-five. He wrote, 
1, An universal Chronicle, piloted at Parity 
15^22, foUo, and at Rome in 1745, folio. 
S, A Marty rology, published Ifi 1^13.-* 

ADoi.pBi«,.emperor of Germany, was 
the count of Natiau, apd elected to theim- , 
pecial dignity in 1292. His rapacity aixl 
t/rannical conduct caused a confedera^^lion 
against him, at the head of which was Al- 
bert duke ol Austria. Adolpbus fell in 
Rattle, J uly 2, 1 298.— -Mo^ Un., IJijt 

Ado^pbus-Feedeexck IL of HoUtein 
Gottorp, king of Sweden, born in 1710, 
fad succeeded hit father in 1751. He re^ 

formed the laws, a«d fn^ouni^ icaminif 
and the arts of peace. He aho instituted an 
academy of inscriptions and beile84ettre6:» 
at Tomco in Lapland ; and died in 1771.— 
Nwv. Diu. Hist, 

Adorn B (Francis), a Genoese Jesuit^ 
wrote a treatise on ecclesiastical disciplinew 
He died January 1.*), 1586, aged 56. 

AoRETS (Francis de Beaumont, baron 
des), a man of a turbulent spirit, s!ded witlv 
the Huguenots in 1562, and signalised him»» 
self by many daring exploits, but more hj 
his cruelties. At some places he oblieed hia 
prisoners to rhrow themselves from me bat* 
tlcments, upon the pikes of his aoldiera. 
Reproaching one of them for retracting^ 
twice from 3ie fatal leap, ** Sir, (replied th« 
man,) I defy you with all your bravery to 
take it in thuree." This witticism saved the 
soldier*a life. After the peace he turned 
Catholic, and died universally hated i« 
1587. A son of his was concerned in the 
massacre of Parik—iVswu DitL HisL 

Adrian (Publius ^ius), emperor of 
Rome, was Dorn there A. D. 76. He entered 
early into the army, and became tribune o£ 
a legion. He married Sabina, tbe heiress off 
Trajan, whom he accompanied in his expo* 
ditions, and became successtivly prsetor, 
governor of Pannonia, and consul. On the 
leatb of Trajan, in 1 17, he assumed the go- 
vernment, made peace v^th tbe PersiAns^ 
and remitted the debts ef the Roman peo- 
ple. No monarch travelled more than 
Adrian. In 120^ he visited Gaul, from 
whence he went to Britain, where he built 
a wall, from the mouth of the Tyne to Sol- 
way-frith, eighty miles in length, to secure 
the Ronvin province from the incursions of 
the Caledonians. On leaving Britain, he 
went into Africa and Asta» and was initiated 
into the Eleusinian mysteries at Athens, in 
125. In Im reign the Christians suffered a 
dreadful persecution. He built a temple to 
Jupiter on mount Calvary, and placed asta* 
tue of Adonirin the manger ofBethlem; he 
also had the images of swine engraved on the 
gates of J erusalem. He died at Bais in. the 
6Sd year of his agt, having reigned twenty^ 
one years. On his dcatlMMdne composed 
some Latin venes, addressed to his soul, 
which betray Kis uncertainty with regand^ 
to a future state. He had great virtues, 
which were, however, blended with aa 
great vices. He adopted Titus Antoninu% 
.on condition th^ he should adopt Marcus 
Annius Verus, and the son of L.ucius VemSk 
— i)/> Cassims, 

Adrian, a virriter of the ^th centurjr, 
wrote an introduction to the sc*-ipturcs, ii^ 
Gre*kt printed at Augsburg, in 1602, 4to^ 
and in Latin, in 161*0, folio-^ilfcra-i. 

AnaiAK, a Carthusian monk, is known 
by a treatise, entitled De Rem^is Utrius- 
que Fortunst, printed ftt Cologne, in 1471, 

A|>aiAN 1 (popf), was elected in ?72, 
Hf waa of a p«taOJ|n fanilv at Rgm^ U^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


^ane^Kmed the worship of imagvs, which 
hid been allowed in a council held at Nice 
in 737 ; but was oppo«ed by the kings of 
f ranee and England. He died in 795^— 
jB^tnr. Platiaa, 

AniiAN li (pope), was born at Rome, 
and succeeded to the papal chair in 867% 
He contended with the patriarch of Con- 
stantiaople for the saperiority ; and attempt- 
ed to extend his authority over the cro^vncd 
heads of the West, but without success in 
Ixith cases. He died in 872.— /^/</. 

ADS.IAN IIL (pope), was also a native of 
ItonKT; and obtained the tiara in 884, but 
•died the next year, on his journey to a diet 
at Worms.. — Au, 

. An aiAN IV. (pope), tod the only English- 
znan who ever had that dignity, was born 
at Langlcv, near St. Albans. Hu name was 
Mtchaus Brekespere; and he was some time 
in the monastery of St. Albans in a low con- 
dition. Being refilled the habit in that 
liouse, he went to France, and became a 
clerk in the monastery of St Rufus, in Pro- 
'vence, of which he was afterward chosen 
abbot. Eugemus III. made him a cardinal 
in 1 146, and in 1 148 sent him legate to Den- 
mark and Norway, which nations he con- 
verted to the christian faith. In 1154, he 
was chosen ix>pe, on which, Henry II. king 
of England, sent the abbot of Sl Albans, 
with three bishops, to congratulate him. 
The pope, disregarding the alight formerlj- 
pot upon him, granted considerable privi- 
leges to the monastery of St. Albans, and a 
bull to Henry for the conquest of Ireland. 
In 1 155, he exoommunicatcd the king 9f 
Sicily; and about the same time, the empe* 
ror Frederic, meeting the pope near Suti- 
Bam, held his stirrup while he raounted on 
horseback; after which his holiness con- 
^hurted htm to Rome, and consecrated him 
king of the Romans in St. Peter's church. 
The next year, the king of Sicily submitted, 
"and was absolved. Adrian, by his active 
conduct, left the papal territory in a better 
state than he found it in; and died, not with- 
oot suspicion of poison, in 1 159. I'hera are 
tome letters and homilies of hitf exunt>^ 
Bug. Br, 

Adkian V.^<pope), was a native of 
Oenoa; and ascended the papal throne in 
1276. He was legate in England in 1254, 
and again in 1265, to settle the disputes be- 
tween the king and his barons. He dic^ 
thirty-dght days after hii election .-^^'mmt. 

AouAM VL (pope), was bora at Utrecht, 
and educated ofi charity at Louvain. 
*He was made bishop of Tortoso by Ferdi- 
nand, king of Spain; and his succeMsor 
'C3iarlei,4ari]:u^ his minority, chose him to 
be r^ent. WftntA that prince became em- 
peror, by the title of Charles V. he placed 
an unlimited confidence in Adrian; who, 
4o the death of X/eo X. in 1 521 , was'cLected 
pope. He died in 1523. — RyceuO. Uvw^r, 

A^x^ia {de CastcUoJ^ wai bora at Cpr- 

^ G I 

netto, in Tuscany; and acquired several eror 
plovn>ent6 at Rome, ^c came to England 
m tne reign of Henry VII. who made him 
his agent at Rome; and gave him first th* 
bishopric of Hereford, and afterwards that 
of Hath and Wells. Adrian farmed out his 
bishopric to Wolscy ; living himself at Rome, 
where he built a superb palace, which he 
left to the king of England and his success- 
ors. Alexander VI created him c rdunk 
in 1.503; soon after which he narrowly ct 
caped being poiK>acd with others of his or* 
der, at a feast giieii by the pope and his son 
CaMar Borgia. ' Engaging in a plot against 
pope Leo X., to which ne was led by the 
prediction of a fortune-teller that Leo 
should die a violent death, and be succeed- 
ed by one Adrian, he was fined 12,500 du- 
cats and restricted from leaving Rome. 
However, in 1518, he fled from that city, 
and was excommunicated. At this time he 
was at Venice ; and what became of him af- 
terwards i» unknown. Polydore Virgil sayf, 
he ended his days at Riva, in the dtoceae of 
Trent ; and givci him a Wgh character fpr 
eruditioa.f-»-^/o^. Br, 

AoKXANi (John Baptist), was born at 
' Florence in 1511. He wrote the history of 
his own times in Italian. He died at Florence 
in 1579.— Jlfd«ri. 

AomciioMiA (Cornelia), a nun of the 
order of St. Augustine, and of a noble family 
in Holland. She wrote a poetical versioa 
of the Psalms in the sixteenth century^^' 


Adkichomius (Christian), born at Delft, 
in Hi^land, in 1533. He wrote a description 
of the Holy Land, and a chronicle of the Old 
and New Testaments, 159^, foL He died 
at Cologne, in 1585. — BayL, 

Adson, abbot of Luxeuil in 0^4. He 
was the author of a book on the miracles of 
Su Wandalbert,^d of another concerning 
Antichrists — MortrL 

i£o ESI us, a Platonic philosopher of the 
fourth centurv, succeeded Jamblichus, as 
t<^her of philosophy at Cappajocia. He 
pretended to hold communion with the 
dsMiOA.'^B tuckers Hist. Pb'tl, 

^oKATE8(John), a Ncstorian monk» 
wKo Uved about tlie year 485. He wrote 
an tccle»i«^tical history, and a treatise 
against the council of Chalcedon. — ilf£- 

JEoihias (Petrus Albicosis), a great tra- 
veller in Asia and Africa, who died in 1555, 
aged ^. He wrote a description of 
Thrace^ Constantinople, axul other works. 

^GiDius (Atheniensis), a Greek eccleiij 
astic and physician in the eighth century, 
who wrote severalbooks, the chief of which 
are, De Pulsibus et de Venenis- — FricnJ. 

iEoioxus (de Columna), general of the 
Auj^ustines ih theJSth century. He tauj^ht 
divmity at Paris with great reputation^ 
and was called according to the humour 
of ihe timet Joft-^ fn^i^itmus^^Ml hi* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

jE M I 

MS e 

worlcs bare long^smce sunk into contempt. 
One of his books, however, as ^n early spe- 
cimen of typography, is still sought for. 
He died in 1 3 1 9,^DufiM. 

JEciszTA (Paulus), a native of the 
kfand ^gina, flourished about the year 6^0. 
He first noticed the cathartic quality of 
rhubarb, ' His works were publiBned at Pa* 
risjln I53S, foHo. — Fr:eriJ, 
l| ^ciNHARD, secretary to Charlemagne, 
^hose daughter Immaissaid to have carried 
him through the snow from her chambcf, 
to prevent his being tracetfby his footsteps; 
and being seen by her father, he consented 
to their union. — ^JEginhard was a German, 
and wrote the life of Charlemagne, also his 
annals from 741 to 889. The first edition is 
that at Paris, in 157(), 2 vols. fol. — Moreri. 

MhiAii (Claudius), historian and rhetori- 
cian, was born in Italy about the year 80 of 
the christian era. Though he never left hit 
native country, he became so perfect a mas- 
ter of the Greek lan^age, as to write it 
with the greatest purity. He taught rhe-. 
toric at Rome, under the emperor Anto- 
nions. His Various History is a curious 
collection of anecdotes, the best editions of 
which are, those of Peri^onius, in 1701, 
and Gronovius, 1781. His History of 
Animals is also valuable. His works were 
eoUeeted and published by Gesner at Zu- 
rich, in l556^-f^ejs,de Gntc. Hist. 

JEliancs (Meccius), a physician men- 
tioiked ^h respect by Galen. He was the 
first who made use of treacle against the 
' plaTue, and found it to succeed.— M^rm. 

.mMiLXANj (Jerom), one of the founders 
of the regular clerks of St. Maieul, in the 
sixteenth century, was a Venetian of k no- 
ble family. — Moiheim. 

.Smilianus (C. Julius), a Moor, who 
rose from the lowest station to the imperial 
dignity. He prevailed on the army to elect 
Lim einpcror, and marched a^inst Gallus, 
who wa.*( slain by his own soldiers, and thus 
^=£milinnu8 easily obtained the throne ; but 
he did not long enjoy that dignity, being 
killed by some of his own troops, wno gave 
the crown to Valerian. This^ happened 
four months' after his accession, in the 46th 
year of his age, — UmJv. HuU 

^MiLius (Paulus), a Roman general. He 
was born of a' noble family about 228 B.C. 
Having passed through several civil offices 
With reputation, he obtained a military 
command, in which be acquired great 
glory. At the age of 46, he served the of- 
fice of consul ; and when he was ^ he ac- 
cepted the command of the armies against 
t^erses, king of Macedon, whom he made' 
prisoner, leading him in triumph through 
ttalj, with thekingof Illyria his ally. On his 
arrival at Rome, he obtained a magnificent 
triumph, in which pcrses and his family led 
the way. He afterwards served the office 
of con«or,and died universally lamented, in 
tlie 64 ih year of his age. — Plutarch. 

iEMiUvs (Paulus), bora at Verotta* He 

was emfiloyed thirty years irt writing: tfie 
history of the kinj^s o'f France, which he 
left unfinished at his death in 1529. It was 
first printed in IS.SG; and continued after- 
wards by Arnold Feron, in 2 vols, folitf, 
1576. He had a Canonry in tKe cathedral 
at Paris, and was inicfred in that churcL 

^N RAs (Gazeus), a Platonic philosophef, 
who became a convert to Christianity in the 
fifth century. He wrote a dialogue on the 
immortality of the soul, and the resurrec- 
tion of the body, printed in Greek and 
Latin, at Basil, 1560, and at Leipsic in 165Ji 
'^F.tbricii BhL Grse. 

Ms^A% (Svlvius), see Pius IT. 

.£keas (Tacticus),a Greek author on the 
art f >f war, who lived about 336 B, C. His 
work was prefixed, b^ Casaubon, to his edi- 
tion of Polybius. Pans, 1609; and reprinted 
in 12mo, at Leyden, in \GA^.^^Fahrichu, 
> ^>i u s, a presbvter of Sebastia, in Pontus. 
lived about 385. he started the notion that 
there is no distinction between bishops and 
presbyters, to which he added Arianism« 
and procured many followers. — Mabam. 

^scHiNEs, a disciple of Socrates, was the 
son of a sausage-maker. He went to the 
court of Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily; 
and afterwards kept a school at Athens for 
his support. His dialogues are so much ill 
the manner of Socrates, that Menedemus 
charges him with having stolen them from 
that philosopher^ Only three of them are 
now extant; of which Mr. Le Clerc pub- 
lished a ^atin translation, with notes, in 
1711, Byo. "■—Diegenes Laertius. Fairicim*. 

.^scHiNEs, an ancient orator, bom at 
Atheos, B. C- 397, was the coteraporary 
and rival of Demosthenes ; and being van- 
quished, he went and kept a school at 
Sapios, where he died at the age of 75. 
There are only three of his orations extant, 
which are exquisitely beautiful. They were^ 
first fpublished by tne Aldi in 1613, folio, 
and several times since* — Pl^arcb in VTi. 
Dcmottb. Fabrieius* 

iBscHTLUS, a tragic poet, was bom at 
Athens' B. C. 460. He was in the sea^fi^ 
at Salamis, in which his brother Aminias 
gallantly distinguished liimself. .Mian re- 
lates, that jffischylus, being accused of 
blasphemy, was sentenced to be stoned to 
deatn ; on which lus brother exhibited his 
arm which had lost a hand at Salamis, and 
thereby made such an impression on the 
judges, that they immediately pardoned 
.^chylus. Tliis behaviour of his country- 
men, added to the resentment which he 
felt on the preference -shewn to the pieces 
of Sophocles, induced him to retire to Si- 
cily. It is said that he died of a fracture 
in hii scull, occasioned hy an eagle letting 
fall- a tortoise from a great height on hts 
head ; this was in the 69th year-of his age. 
The Sicilians interred him magnificenuy 
near the river Gela. .£schylus wrote many 
I^7«> of iHsid) oal/^setcn km eitili^-.- 1^ 

Digitized by VjC 


ku a noble boldness of expression and a lof- 
ty ima^nation, but is frequently bombastic, 
ind 9Q obscure as to be hardly understood. 
The best edition is that of Stanley, printed 
first at London in 1663, folio, and siuce by 
Paawr, at the Hague, 2 torn. 4to. 174.5. Mr. 
Potter pubiislied an elegant translation of 
-ffischylus, in English verse, in 1777. — Foj» 
tiai. BayU. 

-Ssor,the fabulist, w^ a Phrygian by 
birth, and lived in the time of Solon about 
600 years B. C The life of him by Pla- 
oudci, an eastern monk, is confessedly fabu- 
lous, and indeed his whole history is ex- 
tremely obscure, not excepting the account 
of him by Plutarch. All that seems worthy 
of credit in the different writers who have 
treated of him is, that he was first bought 
as a slave by on Athenian, from whom he 
learned the Greek language, and then 
pawed sucessively into xh& service of Xan- 
thus and Idmon, both of the isle of Samos. 
The latter g^ave him his freedom, on which 
he was retained by Croesus. He is 6aid to 
haveheen put to death by the Del phians, 
for some remarks he passea on their licen- 
tiousness. Great respect was paid to his 
memory, and his fables have been univer- 
sally held in esteem ; but it must be con- 
fened that a great part of the fables which 
pass under his name have an eastern origin ; 
^ indeed there are so many striking coin- 
cidences between what is related of .^l^sop, 
and of Ix)kman, as to Induce a strong sus- 
picion that they were one aad the same 
person, ^sop^s fables were first published 
at Milan, in 1476, folio, which edition now 
bears an exorbitant price. But the first 
Greek edition is reckoned that of 1480, 4to. 
^^Herodotiu. Plutarch, Fabric. Basle, 

^sop, tbe author of a romantic history 
of Alexander the Great, in Greek, which 
has been translated into Latin and German. 
Tbe age in which he lived is unknown^ — 

^ ^sapos (Clodius), a famous actor, who 
Kved about the 670th yeir of Rome. He 
luid the honour bf instructing Cicero in 
oratory. iBsop was a great epicure, and at 
an entertainment is said to have had a dish 
of singing birds which cost above 800/. His 
•On was also noticed for his luxuriousness ; 
and Horace says, that he gwallowed a pearl 
of mat value dissolved in vinegar. He 
died, notwithstanding his epicurism, worth 
above 160,000/*— ^ordtf^. Fai-Max. 

JEthcrius, an architect of the sixth cen- 
tury. He is supposed to have built the wall 
which runs from the sea^ to Selimbria, to 
keep out the Bulgarians an4 Scythians.^— 
Ga, B, D, 

MTiQHt a Grecian painter, who having 
diewn his picture of the nuptials of Alex- 
ander and Roxana at the Olympic games, 
^ imknown as he was, the president gave the 
) painter his daught^* in marriage. — Plim. 
Nai. Hia, 
AxTlc •» a £umyuf |itneral in the reign of 
> Vtituriniin 111* Hi was Drought up la \)m 


emperor's guards, and after the battle of 
P(>jJentia, in 403, was delivered as a hos- 
tage to Alaric, and next to the Huns. On 
the death of Honorius he sided with the 
usurper John, for whose service he en* 
gaged an army of Huns. He was afterwards 
taken into tavour by Valentiuian, who gave 
him the title of count. Being jealous of the 
power of boniface, governor of Africa, he 
secretly advised his recal, and at the same 
time cbmisellcd him not to obey the man* 
date. This occasioned a revolt, w hich pro- 
duced an irruption of the Vandals into 
that province. The treachery of Aetiu* 
being discovered, a war ensued between 
him and Boniface, in which the latter was 
slain. AtJtius retired among the Huns, 
and retnming with a large army, so alarm- 
ed Placidia, mother of Valentinian, that 
she put herself into his power. He defend- 
ed the declining empire with great bravery, 
and compelled AttiJa to retire beyond the 
Rhine. But Valentinian being suspicious 
that he had a design upon the throne, stab- 
bed him in 454. — £//»/v. Hist. 

Aetius, bishop of Antioch in the fourth 
century, refined upon the heresy of hia 
master Arius. Before his entering into or- 
ders he was a physician, and remarkable 
for a contentious and scepticah spirit. He 
contended for a dissimilarity between the Fa- 
ther and Son, for which he was banished by 
Constantius, but recalled by Julian. Ht 
died in 766. — Fabric. Hares. Gibbon. 

AETius,aphvsician of Mesopotamia, wh# 
wrote on the cfi^c.ises of women, and other 
w^orks, which are extant in Greek. He is 
supposed to have been a Christian, and 
lived in the sixth century.— /"r/rW. 

ArER (Domiiius), an ancient orator, waf 
a native of Niimes, and obtained the pras- 
torship of Rome ; but being disappointed* 
of further promotion, he turned informer 
against Claudia Puichra, cousin of Agrippa, 
and gained the cause, which procured hin 
the favour of Tiberius. Quintilian men« 
tions two books of his on witnc-ises. He 
brought himself into a dilemma by an in- 
scription which he put upon a statue of 
Cahguia, mentioning that he had been % 
second time consul at the age of twenty* 
two. This was meant for an encomium* 
but the emperor resented it as a sarcasm, 
and made a violent speech in the senate 
against the author. Afer, instead of re* 
plyine, supplicated pardon, saying, that h« 
feared less the emperor's power than hit 
eloquence, which nattery so pleased Cali» 
gula, he^raised him to the consular dig* 
nity. He died A, D. 59^-^Qyintiliun. BayU. 

Afranius, a comic poet, lived about 
100 years B. C. He wrote some Latin co* 
medies, of which only a few fragments ror 
main.— Jl/orrr/. fossius de Poet. Lat. 

Africa Nus (Julius), the author of a 
chronicle, of which a fragmeilt is extant 
in Eusebius. He also wrote a letter to Ori- 
gen, exposing the story of Susan uih as a 
torgery ; ^j^ auotheri ]» which bf jrtcoa^ 


A G A 

A G L 

cOed St. Matthew and St. Luke*s genea- 
logies of our Saviour. — Dupin, Bahrk, ^Ut, 

AoAPETUs I. (pope), was born at Rome, 
and raised to the papal throne in 5'S5, He 
opposed the attempts of Justinian to invade 
the rights of the church ; but -died within 
twelve months after his election^ — Bvxuer. 

Agapetos II. (pope), was a native of 
Rome, and obtained the tiara in 946, and 
died in 956, having the reputation of being 
a very holy man* — Ibid, 

Agapetus, deacon of Constantinople in 
the 6th century. He wrote a letter to Jus- 
tinian, on the duties of a Cliristian prince. 

Ac A PIUS, a Greek monk of the 17th cen- 
tury, who wrote a treatise on the salvation 
of a sinner, printed at Venice, in the mo- 
dern Greek, 1641 — Ibid, 

Agard (Arthur), an. English antiquary, 
was born at Fostou, in Derbyshire, 1540 ; 
and held the office of deputy' chamberlain 
in the exchequer forty-five years. lu con- 
junction with sir Robert Cotton and other 
eminent men he formed a society of anti- 
quarie9. He wrote a treatise to explain the 
Domesday-book, which was deposited in 
the .Cotton library. Some tracts of his 
on antiquarian subjects were published by 
Hearne. He died in 1615, ana was buried 
in the cloisters of Westminster abbey. — 
i^ood. JBieg, Br. * 

AGATUARciDES,a uative of Cnidu8,who 
flourished about 180 B. C. He wrote in 
Greek a history of the successes of Alex* 
ander. — Fossitu H'ui, Gr. 

Agatharcus, a native of Samos, who 
was employed by .^schylus to paint scenes 
for his stages — FlutarcL .^ • 

Agatuemer (Orthonis), the author of a 
•'Compendium of Geography," in "Greek, 
which was published by Hudson, at Ox« 
ford, in 1 70ii- — Fabric ius» 

Ag AT HI AS, a Greek historian of the 6th 
century, is supposed by some to have been 
a christian. He wrote a history of the 
reign of Justinian, which was printed in 
Greek and Latin, at Leyden^in 1594, and at 
l*aris in 1658.— /^/V/. 

Agathon, a tragic poet, who gained the 
prize at the Olympic games, B. C. 419. His 
works are lost. — BayU. yossitu. 

Agatho ^pope),' was born at Palermo, 
and elected m 679. In .his time a council 
was called at Constantinople to condemn 
the Eutychians, or Monothelites, to which 
tliis pontiff sent legates. . He died in 682.^— 
Fhtina. Bcxver^ 

AcAXBOCLit, the Sicilian tyrant, wa« 
the son of a potter; and became successive* 
)^ a thief, a soldier, centurion, general, and 
pirate. — ^Havinjg^ defeated the Carthagixu- 
ans, he proclaimed himself king of Syra- 
cuse, and at length of ail Sicily. Hit tol- 
lers, on account of arrears, obliged him t« 
. %j fruA hit CMBp, uid murderd lu» chfl* 

dfen, whom he had left behind. Return- 
ing afterwards with a strong force, he put 
to death the mutineers, with their wives 
and children. He died of poison, at th« 
age of seventy-two, B. C. 289, having reign- 
ed twenty-eight years- — Ditd, Sic, Fltttarcb, 

Agelius (Anthony.) bishop of Acemo, 
in the kingdom of Naples, who died in 
1608., He wrote commentaries on some 
parts of the Old Testament. — Moreri, 

AoELNOTH, archbishop of Canterbury 
in lO'iO, was a favourite of king Canute ; 
on the death of whom he refused to croAvn 
his son Harold, pretending that the de- 
ceased king had commanded him to crown 
none but the issue of queen Emma. It i» 
uncertain whether Harold ever was crown- 
ed or not. This archbishop died in la^S. 
He wrote some religious pieces. — Bi^g. Br, 

Agesilaus, king of Sparta, succeeded 
his brother Agis, and was appointed general 
of Greece in the Peloponnesian war, which 
was then raging. He acquired great^ re- 
nown by his exploits against the Persians. 
While he was pursuing the path of glory, 
intrigues were formed agamst him, and 
he was recalled. He was afterwards engaged 
against the Thebans and Athenians, bui 
was defeated by Epaminondas, who lost hi< 
life at the instant of victory. He ncxi 
went to assist Tachos in his attempt to ob- 
tain the throneof Egypt, but wa* bribed tc 
^ over to the side of Nectanabis, his aiita< 
gonist. He died on his return, on the coasi 
of Africa, B. C 2Q2^Xenopbon. FUtiarcb 

AoGAs (Robert), or more commonly 
called Angus, a painter of landscape in th 
reign of Charles H. He died in I>ondon ii 
1679. — Veriuis Anecd. of Ftiiniers. FiUingtm 
AciLULr, from being duke of Turin, wa 
chosen king of the Lombards in 591. H 
renounced Arianism.and embraced the ca 
tholic faith; but committed great ravages L 
the Ecclesiastical states while engaged in 
war with some of the Italian princes. H 
died in 619, and was succeeded by his so: 
Ad:dnald.^e//f/v. Hist. 

Aois III. king of Sparta, was the grand 
son of Agesilaus, and began to reign B. ( 
346. He st'irred up several of the Grecia; 
states against Alexander, but was slain in 
battle he fought with the Macedonians i 
the year 387 KC^^Ibid. 
. Agis IV. "king of Sparta, was the son c 
F.udimadas. He enaeavoured to refori 
the constitution and manners of Sparta, fo 
which he was basely put to death by h 
countrymen & C. 841- — iWt 

AcLiONBT (John^, a divine, was bor 
in Cumberland, and educated at Qtteen 
college, Oxford. He was made chaplai 
to queen Elisabeth ; and in 1601 was eteo 
ed principal of £dmund-halL He wi 
concerned in the present translation of tli 
New Testament ; and died atlslip, of whie 
K« was rector, ia/Wia agedi^^Thcrc wi 

Digitized by VjC ~ 

A G R 

A G R 

MLother John Aglionby, who was dean of 
Canterbury, but died a few months after 
his nomination, in 1()4S. He appeafs to 
have been the son of the preceding. — IVooJ, 
A. O. TofWi Deans ofCnnttrbury^ 8v<>. 

Agnellus, abbot of Ravenna in the 
ninth century; he wrote the lives of the 
bishops and archbishops of that city^ — Mo- 

Agnes I (Maria Gactana), an illustrious 
Italian lardy for birth, learning, and vfrtues.> 
She was born at Milan in 1718, and toolc 
the religious veil. Her application to ma- 
thematical learning was ardent, and her 
progress therein so distinguished that be- 
fore her adoption of the cloistered life, pope 
Benedict XlV. appointed her, in 1750, pro- 
fessor of mathen:iatics in the university of 
Bologna. Her Analytical Institutions were 
pubhshed at Milan', in 2 vols. 4to. 1748. 
They were translated into French by M. 
Cousin, and published at Paris in 1 775. Lately 
they have appeared in P.ngHsh, in 2 vols. 
4t«. with her life prefixed, taken from 
Montuda. She died about 1770. 

Agobard, archbishop of Lvons, in the 
ninth century, was deprived o^ his dignity ' 
for deposing^ewis the Meek, in the assem- 
bly of Comp^igne, but was afterwards re- 
stored, and died in 840. He opposed image- 
worship, and wrote against the belief of 
witchcraft, and the practice of duelling. 
His works were printed in 1666, in 2 vols. 
•vo. — Moreri, 

AcosTiNo (Paolo daValerano), a cele- 
brated musical composer, and master of the 
pope*s chapel at Rome ; died in 1629, aged 
36. His choruses are spoken of with aL^- 
tmm\OTL.-^Burnfys Hist. Mus, 
. AcouLT (Guulaume d'), a gentleman 
of Provence, who wrote ballads about the 
year 1 1 98- — Mor'erL 

Agkeda (Marie d'), superior of the con- 
Tent of the immaculate conception at 
Agreda, in Spain, was bom in 1 602, took 
the veil in 16'iO, and died in 1665. She 
pretended to have received directions in a 
vision to write the life of the Virgin Mary, 
which she accordingly executed It was 
not, however, published till after her 
death, and was then prohibited at Rome, 
and censured by the Sorboime, though 
highly esteemed m Spain- — Bayie. Mcreri. 

AcRESTi (Livio), an historical painter, 
was employed in the Vatican by Gregory 
XIIL Hedicdin 1580^-i»/7i. 

Agrestis (Julius), a Roman captain, 
who, when Antonius revolted to Vespasian, 
and laid in ruins the city of Cremona, ob- 
tained leave of the- emperor to survey the 
•tate of the enemy's forces. He returned 
with a faithful report, but not being be- 
lieved he put an eikd to himself. — Tmituu 

AcRicpLA (Cnzius Julius), a Roman 
commander, was born A. 1). 40. His father, 
Julius Craecinus, was an orator, and was put 
to death by Caligula for refusing to plead 
^atatt wuuxl. A^coia was carefully 

brought up by his mother, Julia Procillt. 
He served first in Britain, and on his return 
to Rome married a lady of rank. He was 
next made quxstor of Asia, and became 
tribune of the people, and praetor, under 
Nero. In the commotions of 69, his mother 
was murdered, and her estate in Liguria 
plundered by the fleet of Otho. Being in- 
formed on his journey thither, that Vespa- 
sian had assumed the government, he espous- 
ed his cause. The twentieth legion having 
mut^iicd in Britain, he was sent to reduce 
them to obedience, in which he succeeded. 
On his return to Rome, he was raised to the 
rank of patrician, and made governor of 
Aquitania, in Gaul. In 77 he was chosen 
consul with Domitian ; and the same year 
married his daughter to Tacitus the histo- 
rian. Next year he was appointed governor 
of Britain, wherehere8toredtraiiquillity,and 
brought the natives to a love of the Roman 
language and manners. He extended his 
conquests into Scotland, and built a chain 
of forts from the Clyde to the frith of 
Forth, to prevent the mcursions of the in- 
habitants of the North. He defeated Gal- 
gaciis on the Grampian hiils, and then 
made peace with the Caledonians. On the 
accession of Domitian, Agricola had a tri- 
umph decreed him, and was recalled. He 
then went into retirement, and died A. D. 
9fJ, leaving a widow and one daughter. — 

Agricola (George), an eminent metal- 
lurgist and physician, was born at Clauchen, 
in Misnia, in 1494. He wrote a number of 
books, chiefly on metals and subterraneous 
animals. He 'died in 1555. — Melc.Adam. ViU 
Med. Germ. 

Agricola (John), a German divine, was 
bom at Isleben, in 1492, and studied theo- 
logy at Wittemberg, where he embraced 
the sentiments of Luther. He acquired re- 
putation as a preacher ; but embroiled him- 
self in a dispute with Melancthon, on the use 
of the Law under the Gospel dispensation. 
He then retired to Berlin, and engaged 
with the bishop of Nuremberg and others 
in eadeavouring a reconciliation between 
the catholics and pretestants, but in vain. 
He died in 1566. He wrote commentaries 
on St. Luke, and a collection of German 
proverbs. — Melcb, Adam Moreri. 

Agricola (Rodolphus), a learned writer 
of the 15th century, was a native of Fries- 
land, and was educated at Louvain, after 
which he settled at Ferrara,and taught Latin 
with great reputation. Here he studied 
Greek, and attended the philosophical lec- 
tures of Theodore Gaza. In 1477 he return- 
ed to the Netherlands, and on visiting De- 
venter saw Erasmus, who, though only t^n 
years old, he predicted would be a great maok. 
In 1482, Agricola settled in the Palatinate, 
giving occasional lectures at ' Heidelberg 
and Worms. He died at the former place in 
1484. Agricola was the first who introdu- 
ced the Greek lani 

C 2 



A G R 

A G U 

His works were printed at Lou^ain m 15l<i, 
and at Cologzke m 1539, 4to. — MeUb, Adam* 

Agricola (Michael), a Lutheran minis- 
ter, at Abo, in Finland, was the iirst who 
translated the New Testament into the lan- 
guage of that country. He died in ISSQf^ 

AGRippA,an astronomer of the first cen- 
tury, was a native of Bithynia. He was a 
very accurate observer. — Moreru 

AoRippA (Henry Cornelius), was born 
at Cologne in 14S6, of a noble family. He 
became secretary to Maximilian I. by whom 
he was knightea for his bravery in the Ita* 
lian wars, and afterwards was created doctor 
in law and physic. He travelled through 
various parts of Europe, and while in Eng- 
land wrote a commentary on St. Paul's 
epistles. In 1518 he settled at Mentz, as 
counsellor of the city, which however he 
Was oblic;ed to quit at tlic instigation of 
the monKs, whom he had provoked : from 
thence he went to Cologne, in 1520, and the 
year following to Geneva. Francis I. ap- 
pointed him physician to his motlier, which 
post he lost for not gratifying his mistress's 
curiosity by an astrological judgment. From 
France he went to Antwerp in 15iJ8, and 
was taken into the service of Margaret of 
Austria, governed of the I.ow-countries. 
In 15.30, he published his treatise of the 
Vanity of the Sciences, and soon after Iiis 
Occult Philosophy. In 1535 he was at 
Lyons, where he was imprisoned for de- 
faming the king*s mother, his former mis- 
tress. He was discharged in a short time, 
and died the same year at Grenoble. He 
was married twice ; by his first wife he had 
one son, and by the last five children. All 
his works were collected, and printed at 
Lyons in 1550, in 3 vols. 8vow— -Say/tf. MeUb, 

Ageippa L (Herod), grandson of Herod 
the Great, was born A. M. 4024. He was 
made by his grandfather governor of I'ibe- 
ria, where he lived so extravagantly as to 
incur Herod's displeasure. He then went 
to Rome, and attached himself to Caius, the 
son of Germanicus, who succeeding Tibe- 
rius,made Agrippa tetrarch of Batanxa and 
*l*rachonitis ; to which Claudius added the 
whole kingdom of Judca, with that of Chal- 
cis. He commenced a persecution against 
the Christians to please the Jews, and put 
St. James the Great to death. Bein^ soon 
after at Ccsarei, he instituted games m ho- 
nour of the emperor, at->vhich the Tyrians 
waited on him to sue for peace. A?rippa 
made a pompous appearance on his throne, 
and when he spoke, his flatterers exclaimed 
it was the voice of a god, v.rhich impious 
adulation he was weak enough to receive 
with pleasure. He was immediately smitten 
with a disr>rder in his bowels, of which he 
dUed, A. D. -i\r^Jostfh»is. Aos Apost. 

AcRiPfA II. (Herod), son of the above, 
gucceeded to the throne at the age of tcTeu- 

teen. St. Paul pleaded his cause before 
him with so much eloouencc, that Agrippa 
acknowledged he haa ** almo<t persuaded 
him, to be a Christian." He was greatly 
disliked by the Jews, and died at Rome 
about A. D. 94.— /^i<i 

Agrippa (Marcus Vipsanius), the friend 
of Augustus ; he accused Cassius to cbe se- 
nate, and was concerned in the sea-fight 
against Antony, by which Octavius ob- 
tained the empire. He married first that 
emperor's niece, and afterwards his daughter 
Julia, the widow of Marcellus. He ac- 
4}uired ^rreat tame by his military exploits, 
for which triumphs were decreed him, 
whicli he refused to accept. He died B. C. 
12. — Siteton. yAlrius, Patrrc. 

Agrippa (Menenius) .was consulof Rome 
B. C. 503. He is celebrated for having ap- 
peased a commotion among the Roman 
people, by the fable of the belly and the 
members. — D-on. HaI. Liv. 

AawivisA the elder, was the wife of 
Germanicus Ca.'sar, whom she accompanied 
in his military expeditions. He died at An- 
tioch, A. D. 19. and his ashes were brought 
home by his disconsolate widow, accompa- 
nied by two of her children. She was ba- 
nishcti l)y Tiberius to a barren isle, where 
Slie died A. D. 33. — Tariiyt. Suftonhs. 

AoHippivA the younger, was the daugh- 
terof the above. After Insi'ig two husbands, 
slie was married to her uncle Claudius, the 
emperor, whom she poi :oned, A. D. 54, to 
make way for her son Nero. That mon- 
ster caused her to be assassinated, and exhi- 
bited to the senate a list of all the infamous 
crimes of which she had been guilty- — Ihid, 

Ac.u F. ssK A u (Henry Francis de), was bom 
at Limoges in 1G68, of an ancient family. 
His father, who was intcndant of L.angue- 
doc, was his first instructor. In 1691 he 
was admitted advocate-general of Paris ; 
and in 1700 was named procurcur-generaj, 
in which he appeared to the greatest ad- 
vantage, regulating those jurisdictions that 
were under the controul of parliament, pre- 
serving a strict discipline in the tribunals, 
improving the proceedings in criminal mat- 
ters, and making several excellent regula- 
tions; but what he set himself most upon 
was the administration of the hospitaLs. 
After the death of Louis XIV. the regent» 
duke of Orleans, made him chancellor; btit 
in 1718 he was displaced. In 1720 he had 
the seals restored to him, of which he wa» 
again deprived two years afterwards. In 
1737 he became once more chancellor* 
which office he held with the highest ho- 
nour to himself, and benefit to the nation ^ 
till 1 750, when infirmities obliged hitja to 
resign it. He died in 1751. His worki 
make nine volumes quarto, and are held in 
great estimation. D'Aguesseau never pass- 
ed k day without reading some portion of 
Scripture, which he said was the bairn of 
his life. — 27ouv. Dht. Hist. 

Aguillon (Francii^Flenusfaii 

Digitized by VjC 


A J A 

tician, of the order of Jesus, died at Sevifle, 
in l6\7,SLgcd 51. He wrote a book on 
spheric projections, and another on optics. 
^^Mor.'ri. Nottv. Diet. Hist. 

AcujRRz (Joseph), a Spanish Benedictine 
monk, was made cardinal by Innocent XI., 
and died at Rome in 1699, ag^ed bj>. He 
compiled a collection of the councils of 
Spain, in six vols, folio, and wrote some 
theological pieces. — BayU. M- rcri, 

AgyIee, or AcYLjEUf, (Henry), was a 
native of Bois-le-diic, and died in 1595, 
aged (>2. lie translated the Nomocanon 
of Photius, gnd was a profound Greek 
»choiar.r— ikforrr/. 

AiiAB, king of Israel, was the son of 
Amrt, whom he suceceded. He surpassed 
in impiety all his predecessors, being in- 
stigated to acts of idolatry and cruelty 
by his wife JezebeL He was slain by anar^ 
row in a war with the Syrians, and his blood 
was licked by the dogs on the spot where 
he had caused Naboth to, be murdered, 
about A- M. 31:58. — 1 A7/i^/xvi, \lfc. 

Ahaz, king of Judah, succeeded his fa- 
ther Jotham B. C 742. At the beginning 
of his reign, he defeated RerAn, king of 
Syria, according to the promise of Isaiah. 
Notwithstanding this, he abandoned the 
worship of God, and fell into idolatrous 
practices, for which his country was ra- 
vaged l>v the Syrians. He shut up the tem- 
ple, and destroyed the holy vessels. His 
unpiety was so great that his body was not 
permitted to be buried in the roval sepul- 
chres- — 1 Kings xvi. 2 Cbrcn. iXViiL 

AHAZiAH,kingof Israel There are two 
kings of this name mentioned in Scripture; 
the first w;^soxi of Ahab,(I Kings xxii.),and 
the other king of Judah. I'his last was slain 
by Jehu, B. C. 819.— *i Xingi viil 

Ahlwardt (Heter), a learned German, 
was the son of a shoemaker, at Griefs- 
walde, where he was bom in 1710. After 
studying at different universities, he settled 
at his native place, as professor of logic and 
metaphysics. He wrote ** On the Human 
Understanding," ** The Immortality of the 
Soul,** and ** Thoughts on '^I'hunder and 
Ughtning." He died in 1131 .f-^cblicbte" 
groiifs Genman Nscrol, 

Ahmkd Khan, son of Hulagu, and bro- 
ther of Abaka Khan, whom he succeeded, 
and was the first of the Mollis who pro- 
fe:ki»ed Mohammedanism, which gave great to his family. A consjjiracy was 
formed against him by his courtiers in fa- 
vour of Argoun, his nephew, and he was 
put to death A. D. l^M^-D' Her/u^Ut. 

Ajala (Martin Perez d*), a Spanish ec- 
clesiastic, was bom in the diocese of Cartha- 
gena in 1 504. He was sent by Charles V. 
to the council of Trent, and afterwards 
made archbishop of Valentia. He discharged 
the duties of his station in an exemplary 
manner, and died in 1566. The principal 
of his works is entitled ** De Divinis Tradl- 
tionibus.*' — ^There were two others of the 
; Dame 1. Baltbawr Ajala^ of Aatwerp, 


who wrote ** Dc Jure et Ofliciis bellicis, ac 
militari Disciplina." — 2. Gabriel Ajalay phy- 
sician at Lquvain in the 16th century, and 
brother of the preceding. He wrote •* Po- 
pularia Epigram." *• D« Luc Pestilenti," &c. 

AiDAN, a British bishop in the seventh 
century, who was greatly succrssful in con- 
verting the peopk of the northern parts of 
England to Christianity. He was bishop of 
Lindisfarae, or Holv Island, in Northum- 
berland, where he died in GfA . He was a 
prelate of exemplary piety and charity.r— 
Biog. Br, 

AiKMAN (William), a Scotch painter, 
was the only son of William Aikman, esq. 
of Cairncy, advocate, by Margaret, sister of 
sir John Clerk, of Pennycuik,bart.andbom 
in 16*82. He was designed for the bar, but 
abandoned that profession, and applied him- 
self to painting. After studying three years 
in Italy, he went to Turkey, and taking 
Rome on his way came to England, where 
he was patronized by the duke of Argvle. 
He excelled chiefly m portraits, and die^ in 
1731.— G\/». B.D. 

An LY (Peter d'), bishop of Cambray, 
was born at Compiegne in 1S50. He was 
a zenlous champion for popery, and pre- 
sided at the council of tonstaucc, where he 
condemned John Huss to the stake. Pope 
John XXIII. created him a cardinal. He 
wrote several books, and died in 1420. — Mc^ 

AiLRED, Etiielked, or Ealved, abbot 
of Rcvesby, in Lincolnshire, was bom in 
1 109. He wrote a •• Genealogy of English 
Kings," **The Life of Edward the Con- 
fessor," and other pieces. — Biog. Br. 

AiMON,a French benedictine, who wrote 
a history of France, to be found in the third 
volume of Duchcsine's Collection. He lived 
about 840. — Moreri. 

AiNswoRTH (Henry), a biblical com- 
mentator at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. Turning Browni&t or Independnnt, 
he leftEngland, and went to Amsterda;n, 
where he gathered a congregation ; bu^ on 
account of some difference with his people, 
he left them, and went to Ireland, but re- 
turned again to Amsterdam when the vio- 
lence of party zeal wasa little cooled. He is 
said to have been poisoned by^a Jew, who 
had lost a diamond of great value, which 
was found by Ainsworth, and when the 
Jew offered him any rev^ard, he onlv re- 
quested to have a conference with some of 
the rabbis on the prophecies respecting 
the Messiah. This the Jew promised him, 
but being unable to obtain the conference, 
he contrived to put Ainsworth out of the 
way. This story, however, wears little ap- 
pearance of probability. Ainsworth was 
well versed in the Hebrew, and his com- 
mentary on the pentateuch is abundantly 
curious and valuable. Dr. Lightfoot is sup- 
posed to have been considerably indebted 
to our author's researches into tlie writiugq 
of the rabbis.— if/ojf. Br^ 


A K E 

AiMSwoRTH (Robert), a learned lexico- 
grapher, was bom at Woodyate, in Lan- 
cashire, in 1660, and educated at Bolton, 
in the same county, whore he afterwards 
kept a school. From thence he removed 
to London, and carried on the same occu- 
pation many yecrs. He died in 1745, and 
was buriea at Poplar. He printed «♦ A 
short Treatise of Grammatical institution ;" 
but he is best, known by his "Dictionary, 
X^atin and English," 4to. and 8vo. in the 
compilation of which he spent twenty years. 
The first edition appeared in 1 7t^'/ and it 
has been since revised and published by 
Drs. Patrick and Morell. — Bi g. Brit, 

AiRAULT (Peter), was lieutenant-crimmal 
of Anrier8, and was born there 1536. 
He published, LThe Declamations of Qui n- 
tilian, with notes. 2. A Treatise upon the 
Power of Fathers, &c. He died iu 1601, 
leaving ten children<— Afor^ri. BayU, 

AiRAULT (Ren^), eldest son of the above, 
was bom at Paris in 1567. His father 
placed him under the Jesuits, on condition 
that he should not be persuaded to enter 
into the society. This, however, they 
broke, nor could he get him out of their 
fiands, on which he wrote his book on the 
Power of Fathers. The son died at La 
Fleche in \644^md. 

AiRAY (Henry), an English divine, was 
born in Westmoreland in 1560. He was 
fellow of Queen's college, Oxford, of which 
in 1600 he was elected provost ; and in 
1606 he served the office of vice-chancellor. 
He was a rigid calvinist, and wrote a few 
theological pieces. He ditd in 1616- — 
fVood, A. 0. 

Air AT (Christopher), a divine related to 
the above, was fellow of Queen's college, 
Oxford, and had the living of Milford, in 
Hampshire. In 1642 he took the degree 
of B. D. and died in 1678, aged 69. He 
wrote a few pieces in Latin and EngUsh^ — 

AisTULPH, or AsTOLPHUs, king of the 
Lrombards succeeded his brother Rachis in 
750. He commenced his reign by making 
an inroad on the territories of the Roman 
see. Pepin, king of France, besieged him 
in Pavia, and compelled him to restore all 
the places he had taken. But afterwards 
the Lombard violated the treaty, and again 
beset Rome with his army. 'Pepin once 
more entered Italy to the succour of the 
pope, and Aistulpn retired to Pavia, where 
he was forced to sue for peace. He was 
killed in hunting, in 756. — Univ. Hist. 

ArroN (William), was bom in 1731, near 
Hamilton, in the county of Lanark, and 
being br^ to gardening, came in 1754 to 
London to seek employment. At the re- 
commendation of Philip Miller, in 1759^ 
be became superintendant of the botanical 
garden at Kew, which |ie greatly improved, 
and in 1783 he was appointed to manage 
also the pleasure and kitchen gardens. In 
1169 he published kis ^.Honus Kewensis." 

He died in 1793, and was buned in the 
churchyard at Kew. The king appointed 
his son to succeed him in both his places. 

— Gent. Mug. A fay 1793. 

AirzEMA (Leo), was bom at Dorkum, 
in Friezland, in 1600. He was appointed 
by the Hanse towns to be their resident at 
the Hague, where he died in 1669. H« 
wrote a history of the United Provinces, in 
Dutch, in fifteen vols. 4to. of which a con- 
tinuation down to 1692 was afterwards pub- 
lished^ — Buy/f. 

Akakia (Martin), professor of phvsic at 
Paris, was a native of Chalons, in Cham- 
pagne. He tran&lated into Latin Galen de 
Ratione Curandi, and Ars Medica. He 
died in 1551. — Moreri, 

Ak A K X A (Martin) , son of the former, wat 
physician to Henry III. He wrote a trea- 
tise De Morbis Mulieribus, et Consilia Me- 
dica, to be published after his death, which 
happened in 1588. There are several other 
persons of the same nime and family, who 
acquired reputation in different professions. 
— i?jy/«'. Moreri. 

Akbar, sultan of the Moguls, succeeded 
his father Heymayun in 1 556. He regained 
Delhi from the Patans, and quelled several 
rebellions. He also made an expedition 
into Beu^l,and conquered all the country. 
Next he invaded and obtained possession of 
Kashmeer by treachery, took the kingdom 
of Scindi, and was preparing for further 
conquests, when the attempt of his son _Sc- 
lim to dethrone him diverted his attention. 
Selim made his submission and was par- 
doned. Akbar died of poison, which he 
had prepared for another, and took by ac- 
cident, in 16a5. — Mod, Univ. Hist. 

Ak EN SIDE (Mark), an English poet and 
physician, was bom at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne in 1721. When young he was lamed 
by the falling of a cleaver on his foot in the 
shop of his father, who was a butcher. It 
is remarkable that he vns always ashamoi 
of his origin i though the limp of his gait 
was sufficient to ktep him in constant re- 
membrance of it. His parents being dissent- 
ers intended him for the ministry in that 
line, and at the age of eighteen he was sent 
to Edinburgh ; but instead of divinity he 
•tudied physic. In 1741, he went to Ley- 
den, where in 1744 he took his degree of 
M.D. The same year appeared his " Plea- 
sures of Imagination,'* a poem. In this piece 
he offended Warburton, by asserting in a 
note, Shaft&ibury*8 notion, that ridicule is the 
test of truth. Warburton attacked him in 
a preface, and Akenside was defended by 
his friend Dyson, in an " Epistle to the 
Rev. Mr. Warburton." In the next edition 
Dr. Akenside left out the obnoxious not& 
As a physician he began to practise at 
Northampton, but meeting with little suc- 
cess, he removed to Hamnstead, and Mr. 
Dyson generously allowed him 300^ a year 
tin he could fix himself in practice. Having 
obtained his doctoi^degree at Cambrid^ 

Digitized by VjOUQI •• .*• 



fie was dected fellow of the collegfC of phy- 
siciaitiyone of the physicians of St. I'homas's 
hospital, and physician to the queen. In 
1764 he printed a discourse in Latin on the 
dysentery, and was i n a fair waj of attaining 
considerable eminence in his profession, 
when he was taken off by a putrid fever, 
IB 1770. His remains were interred in the 
church of St. James, Westminster. The 
poem on the « Pleasures of Imagination" 
was published in an elegant form, with a 

preface, by Mrs. Barbauld, in 1795. 

£ntg. Br, 

Akiba, a Jewish rabbi, who was at first 
a shepherd, but at the age of forty devoted 
himself to learning, and became a precep- 
tor, in the first century. He joined Barcho- 
chebas, for which, with his son Pappus, he 
was flayed alive by the Remans, A. D. 135. 
He was one of the'first compilers of the ca- 
balistic traditions of the Jews- — Moreru ^ 

Alabaster (William), an English divine, 
was bom at Hadleigh, in Suffolk, and edu- 
cated in Trinity college, Cambridge. He 
accompanied tne earl of Essex to Cadiz, 
where he turned papist ; but on his return 
to England again embraced protestantism, 
and had some church preferment. He ap- 
plied to the study of the Hebrew language, 
and became enthosiastacally fond of the Ca- 
bala. On taking his doctor's degree, he 
preached a mystical sermon from 1 Chron. 
ch.1 ver. 1, AJam^ Si^^ Enoch. He was the 
author of a Latin tragedy called Roxana, 
acted at Cambridge by the students, on 
which occasion a remarkable accident hap- 
pened: a lady hearing the words /rfMir, 
Mtquar^ pronounced in a terrible manneTi 
was so affected as to lose her senses. Ala- 
baster was also the author of a Lexicon 
Pentaglotton, folio, 1637. He died in 164a 
r^FuUsr* Worthies. 

Alain (John), a Danish author, was 
bom in 1569, and died in^ 1630. He wrote 
**' On the Origin of the Cimbri," and other 
trcAtisesr— -Mirfr*. 

Ala IK (De Tlsle), sumamed the universal 
doctor, was a divine of great renown in the 
university of Paris, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury; he died in 1 294 ; Uis works were print- 
ed in 1658, folio. — Ihid, 

Alain (Nicholas), a French dramatic au- 
thor at the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. His performances are only some tri- 
ttiog comedies<<— iVMM/. Diet. Hist. 

Alain (Chartier), a French writer, flou- 
rished at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. He wrote several pieces; the 
most esteemed of whichr is his** Chronicle of 
Charles VIL" to whom he was secretary. — 

Alamakni (Lewis), bom at Florence 
in 1495, of a noble family. He conspired 
against Julius de Medici, on account of 
much he was obliged lo quit Florence ; but 
when Charles V. took Rome, and gave thie; 
Florentines an opportunity of regaining 
thdr iibeity, Al^manni returned to his 

own conntry,and was employed in public 
affairs till tlie re-establishment of the Medi- 
ci famil V obliged him to leave Florence again . 
He finally settled in France, and was in fa- 
vour with Francis I. who in 1544 sent him 
ambassador to the Imperial court. He died 
in 1556. He wrote many beautiful poems 
in the Italian language. His son Baptiste 
became almoner to (]ueen Catherine of 
France, and successively bishop of Bazar 
and Maion. He died in 1 58 1 . A collection 
of his letters is extant, but in MS. — Morerh 
Alamos (Balthazar), was born at Me- 
dina del Campo, in Castile, and educated at 
Salamanca. He entered into the service of 
Anthony Per«5, secretary of state to Philip 
U. and when that minister fell into disgrace 
Alamos was sent to prison, where he lay 
eleven years. On the accession of Philip III. 
he obtained his liberty, and was employed 
by the duke of Olivarez. ' After goiiw 
through several important stations, he died 
in the eighty-eighth year of his age. He 
translated Tacitus into Spanish, and left 
other works^ — Moreri. BayU. 

Alan, Allkn, or Alleyn, (William), a 
cardinal, was bom at RossaJ, in Lancashire, 
in 15S2, and educated at Oriel college. Ox- 
ford, of which he became fellow in 1550. 
In 1556 he was chosen principal of St. Ma* 
ry-hall. In 1558 he became canon of York, 
but on the accession of £li2:abeth he went 
to Louvain, and was appointed head of the 
English college. Here he wrote several 
treatises in defence of the Romish church i 
and his reputation stood so high as a con* 
troversialist, that he obtained several valua- 
ble preferments, but in his own country hir 
was considered as a traitor, and a man was 
hanged for bringing over some of his books. 
In 1586 he pubhshed a defence of the pope*t 
bull for excommunicating queen Elizabeth, 
to which he added an exhortation to her 
subjects to revolt against her in favour of 
the Spaniards. For this he obtained the 
archbishopric of Mechlin, with the dignity 
of a cardinal. He died at Rome in 1594^— 
Biog. Br. 

Alan (of Lynn), so called from the 
place of his nativity ; he lived in the fif- 
teenth century, and became famous for hit 
theological writings^ — Uid. 

Aland (sir John Fortesciie), an English 
judge, was born in 1670, of the ancient fa- 
mily of Fortescue, in Devonshire ; he took 
the name of Aland, in compliment to hia 
lady, who was the eldest daughter of Henry 
Aland, esq. of Waterford iu Ireland. He 
was educated at Oxford, frOm whence he 
reitioved to the Inner Temple, and was 
called to the bar about 1 690. In 1 7 1 4 he was 
appointed solicitor-general to the prince 
of Wales, and afterwards to the king. In 
1717 he was made a baron of tlie exche- 
Quer, and next year one of the justices of 
tne court of kingVbenclu On the acces- 
sion of George 11. he was removed from that 
•ituatios, but fcj^. ^J||t^caiue does act »p- 


A t B 

Jiear. In 1728 he was made one of ttic 
justices of the cdmmon-pLeas : he resigned 
m 1746, arid was created a' peer of Ireland, 
by the title of baron Fortescue of Creden, 
and died soon after. He was an able Iaw« 
ver, an impartbl judge, and versed in the 
plorthcrn and Saxon literaturd. He pub- 
lished, in 1714, 8vo. his ancestor sir John 
Tortescue's treatise on " absolute and limit- 
ed Monarchy/* Since his death have been 
print«d his Reports. This judge was re- 
markable for a small flat nose ; a serjeant 
lurho had lost an arm was one day arguincr 
a cause in an awkward manner, on which 
the iud^e told him, that '' he appeared to 
handle the cause rather lamely ;" to which 
the other rephed, " If your lordship will 

S've me patience, I trust to be able to make 
le case as plain as the nott in your lordship's 
Szctr-^Gef,. B. D. 

Alankava, the wife of Doujoun, kin^- of 
the Mogols, after whose death she took .he 
reins of government into her own hands. 
She is said to have conceived miraculously, 
and to have brought forth three children, 
■which story is universally believed among 
the Mogols and Tartars. — D*Herbelo», 

Alard, a Romish divine, born at Am- 
sterdam, died at Louvain in 1541; he 
•wrote a greit number of theological pieces, 
now little known or regarded. — Moreri. 

AlarjcI. king of the Visigoths, was de- 
scended from an illustrious family, and 
served in the wars between the Gotns and 
Romans till tlie year 332, when his coun- 
trymen submitted to Theodosius. He af- 
terwards served in the imperial army, but 
being refused a chief conunand, he revolted 
against Arcadius. After ravaging several 
countries, he entered Greece, which he de- 
solated with fire and sword; bu*^ while he 
Vras in the Peloponnesus he w^s encounter- 
ed by the famous Stilicho, and compelled to 
retire to the mountain Pholoe, in Arcadi«i, 
where he was in imminent danger of perish- 
ing; but taking advantage of the security 
of nis adversary, he broke the barrier, and 
penetrated into Epirus. About this time he 
was acknowledged king of the Visigoths. 
la 400 he entered Italy, and carried away 
a quantity of plunder and several captives. 
Two years afterwards he again entered that 
country, but was opposedby Stilicho, and af- 
ter a hird battle lost his wife and children, 
who were taken prisoners. He then entered 
into a treaty, and retired across tne Po. We 
next find him employed in the service of 
Honorius', but he soon entered the Roman 
territory again demanding a large sum as 
arrears which were due to him ; this being 
refused, he advanced to Rome, to which he 
laid siege; and the Romans, being driven to 
the greatest necc^'>ity, were obliged to make, 
peace with Alaric on his own terms. He 
then withdrew to Tuscany, where he waited 
the arrival of his brother Ataulphus with 
^8 troops. The emperor, to prevent this 
JuActioD, toUected his forces, and sent them 

to ittack Ataulphus, which Alarie re^rd« 
ing as a commencement of hostilitie8,marcH* 
ed against Rome, and the emperor 'waa 
again obliged to make peace with him ; 
this however was soon broken, and Alaric 
returned to Rome, which he plundered in 
410. After this he ravaged Italy, and enn<> 
barked for Sicily, but a tempest obliged 
him to re-land his troops; on which he 
took the city of Cosenza, where he died.-—' 
Un. Hbt, 

Alaric II. king of the Visigoths, ascend- 
ed the throne in 484 ; he was slain in a 
battle which he fought with Clovis, kinp of 
France, near Poitiers, in 501^~-Umv. Hi^t* 

Alasco (John), uncle to the king of Po- 
land, was at first a Romaa-catholic bishop, 
but having embraced the protestant reli- 
gion, he came to England in the reign of 
Edward VL and became pastor to a Dutch 
church in London. On the actcession of 
l^ary, he returned to his own country, 
where he died in 1560. He was a learned, 
moderate, and pious man, and greatly 
esteemed by the leading men among the 
reformers; particularly by Erasmus, whose 
library he purchased- — -Strypet Crawutr, 
Fox*t Ads I3 Jlioa. 

Alava (Diego Esquiesel), bishop of Corw 
dova, in Spain, in the sixteenth century. 
He was at the council of Trent, and wrote 
a book on " General Councils/' and died 
in 1562. — Mereri, 

Alban (St.), the proto-martyr of Britain, 
was born at Vcrulam, now St. Albans, in 
the third century. He served in the Roman 
army, and on his return to Verulam, he 
became a convert to Christianity throug-h 
one Amphilabus, a monk. He suffered 
death for his religion in the persecution un<* 
der Dioclesian, A. D. 303v— ^ri* HLL Eecl. 
JBiog. Br, 

Albani (Francis), an Italian painter, 
was born at Bologna in 1578. His tirst 
master was Denys Calvert, who left him to 
the instructions of his pupil Guido, whom 
he accompanied to the school of the Carac- 
ci. Having finished his studies at Bologna; 
Albani went to Rome. His second wife was 
a very beautiful woman. She brought him 
several fine boys, and Albani painted pieces 
in which his wife and children served as 
models for Venus and Cupids. He was fond 
of representing the fair sex, and his com- 
positions on love-subjects ars held in high 
esteem. He died in 166a His brotlier 
and disciple, John Baptist, was an eminent 
historical and landscape painter. He died 
in 1668^— Z)tf Files^ Vies des Feintret, 

Albani (John Jerome), a civilian and 
cardinal, was born at Bergamo. He wrote 
some books in vindication of the papal 
power, and died in 1591^ — MtrerL 

Albategni, an Arabian astronomer, 
who lived in Mesopotamia about A. D. 911^ 
A book of his, on the knowledge of the 
Stars and the obliquity of the zodiac, wat 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



pointed at Nuremberg in 1537, 4lo. and at 
Boliigan in 1545^ — D'Herl.loU Morerh 

Alh£kcati Capacelli (the marquis 
Francis), a senator of Bolo?na, and a great writer, was btvin atxmt 17.S0; he 
»Deut Iii» early vouth in every kind of dJ»- 
«iy)^tion, and' (fid not apjjiy to his sttidies 
before he had attained his 34th year. It 
t*as therefore an uncommon felicity of cir- 
ramstances for hira, that at forty he proved 
not only a lirst-ratc dramatist, out such an 
excellent performer, a» to deserve from his 
learned friends the Mattering title of the 
Gurrrci of lit Italian nobility. Ilis works are 
perhaps unrivalled for wit, humour, face- 
tious sallies and knowlege of the world. 
A complete edition was publiehed at Ve- 
nice in 1783, iu 12 vols. 8vo. He died in 

Albergotti (Francis), an Italian civilian 
in the 14th century. He was the disciple 
of Baldi, and after exercising his profession 
as an advocate at Arcrzo, removed to I'lo- 
rcnce, where he received the honour of 
Bobility. His character was so great that 
he had the title of ttacbcr of t^lid triib. He 
wrote Commentaries on the Digest, and 
other works. He died in 1370". — Moreri. 

ALBEiijc,or At BERT, a French liistorian. 
He ^-as canon of Aix, and not being able to 
go on the first crusade, he wrote its history 
from the year 1095 to 1120. It was printe<l 
at Helmstadt in 1584^ — Noitv. Did. Hist. 

Albkric de Rosate, of Bergamo, a 
lawyer of the 14th century, who wrote 
Commentaries on the Decretals- — Mor. 

Alberuni (Julius),a cardinal, was a gar- 
dener's son at Placentia, where he was born 
in 1664. Having entered into orders, he 
became ciirate of a village near Parma, 
where he happened to relieve the secretary 
of the duke of Vendomc, who had been 
robbed. 1 he duke, some time after, enter- 
ing with bis army into Italy, found that the 
peasants had concealed their com. The se- 
cretary recollecting his old host, the curate, 
near whofe village they were, spoke of him 
in such terms to the duke, that he sent for 
him. Albcroni not only did the French 
army essential service, by discovering the 
hoards of grain, but recommended himself 
to the duke in such a manner, that he took 
him to Madrid, where he got into the fa- 
vour of the princess of Urfius, the favou- 
rite of Philip V. At her recommendation 
he was appointed agent. for the duke of 
Parma to the Spanis&court, and did great 
service to his sovereign, in getting a prin- 
cess of Parma for the second wife to the 
king of Spain. Alberoni was presently 
made privy counsellor, then prime minister, 
and next a cardinal. While he was engaged 
in great projects for the Spanish nation, he 
T/is, through forci^ influence, deprived of 
his posts, and banwhed to Rome. He died 
at Placentia in 17oiJ. The ** Testament Po- 
Ktique," under his name, is spuriou*.— — 
Hmv. D'uU HiiU 

Alhfrt L «mpcror and duke of Austria* 
viras crowned in 1298, after defeating and 
slaying his competitor Adolphus of Nassau. 
He w.'»8 assassinated in 1308,by^ his nephew- 
John, son of the auke of Suabia, whose pa- 
ternal estates he had seized. — Mod. U^iiv^ 

A 'BER T II. emperor and duke of Austria, 
was born in 1S04, and having married the 
daunfhter of Sigisir.ond, emperor and king 
of Hungary, that monarcli left him his do- 
minions of Hunpirv and Bohemia. He 
died in 1439^il/c^. iji>. Hi t. 

Albert, king of Sweden, was elected 
to the throne in 1363, bv the dis-iUected 
nobles, who had deposed Magnus II. '1 hat 
monarch, aided by Norway and Denmark, 
endeavoured to regain his kin^'dom, but 
was defeated and taken prisoner by Albert^ 
who afterwards fell into the same errors 
as his predecessor. The exasperated nobles 
applied to Margaret, ciueen of Denmark 
and N«>rwnv. who marched into the coun- 
try, and took Albert and his s<m prisoner! 
after a bloody battle. This was in 1387. 
Albert wi>» kept in confinement till 1:J94, 
when he recovered his liberty on condition 
of ceding Stockliolm to Margaret* He at- 
tempted again to recover his crown, but 
falling, spent the remainder of his life in 
Mecklenburgh, where he died in 141i^w — 
Mod. Uir. Hist. 

Albert, archduke of Austria, was the- 
sixth soil of the emperor Maximilian IL 
and was bom in 1559. Having embraced 
the eccJe.siastical state, he obtained a car- 
din«>,hfp and the archbiahopric of Tolc<lo. 
In 15H4 he was inade viceroy of Portugal, 
and his conduct gave such satisfaction to 
his uncle i'hilip II. king of f^pain, that he 
sent him into the Low-countries, the seven 
united provinces of which were then in a 
state of insurrection. Here, however, he 
had little success. In 1598 be married the 
daughter of Philip, on which he renoiuiccd 
the ecclesiastical character. In 1600 he 
was defeated by prince Maurice at Nidi- 
port ; but the year following he lad r.ic;,'e 
to Ostend, the capture of which took Ij'in 
three years. At length he was obliged to 
make a truce with the Dutch f^r twtlxe 
years. He died in 1621.— — 77»artf/7/ ILis:. 
Groiius de Bell. Moreri, 

Albert, margrave of Brandenburg, 
grand-nia.Ater of the Teutonic onier, aud 
the first duke of Prussia, was born in I4l«). 
He was elected grand-master in 1511, aiid 
entered into a war with 5i^smond,kIng of 
Poland, iu defence of the mdependance of 
that order. A ])eace was concluded at Cra- 
cow in 1525, by which it was .«»ripulatcd 
that the grand-master should possess Prus- 
sia as a fief of Poland. Not lung after this 
Albert avowed himself a protestant, .lud 
married a princess of Denmark. Tor this 
he fell under the ban of the cr.ij)iri\ He 
died in 1568. — Mm. Vn. Hi t. SUtrnoirs •/ 
Mfiiwlcnburg by tbc king of Pruyiin, t 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Albert, margrave of Brandenbarg, 
rifled tlio Alcibiades of Germany, born in 
1 ',;'A WHS I lie son of Casimir, nurgrave of 
Coleinb.icb, who, dying ^vi)en he wa*' an in- 
fant, leit him inthe care of his um Is. In 
1541 he took possession of his hereditary 
e9tatc>, \\c took an active part in the dis- 
lurbances of (icrmany durinn^ the rcig^n of 
CharltM V. npiirret whom he loined in the 
cimfedu acy tonned by Maurice, elector of 
{t.-^Tony, and other prjnce$. He committed 
Buuv exceiwcs in this war, burning: towns, 
pikI Kvyirin^ heavy contributions wliercver 
he marched. He was, however, admitted 
into favour with the emperor; but re- 
ftisin^R: to yield up wkat he had taken from 
the ecclcMastical states, a league wa» form- 
ed a^Minst him, at the head of which \\-a8 
his old ally the elector of Saxony. A bloody 
hattlewas fought between these two princes 
fn 1553, in which Maurice was slain and 
Albert wounded. He was afterwards put 
imder the ban of the empire, and deprived 
of his fwssessions. He died in \53H. Albert 
was bold and generous; but arrogant, 
cruel, and iiitcmperate.r— JWorm. Robertson* 
Ojarifs V, 

Albert (Charles d'), duke of Luynes, 
was born in J 578. He was a favourite \vith 
Henry IV. who made liim page to his son 
tlie dauphin, afterwards Louis XIH. Under 
this bst mouarch he rose to the highest 
honours, and procured the destruction of 
the marshal d'Ancrc After this he ruhed 
the kin^lom as he pleased ; so that even 
his master was jealous and afraid of his 
power. He fomented the war with the Hu- 
vtienotii, and in 1621 laid siege to Montau- 
ban, where he was seized with a fever 
which carried him oflF! — Morcri, 

Albert (Jane d"), daughter of Margaret 
qneen of Navarre, was married at the age 
of eleven to the duke of Cleves, which 
marrrai^c was annulled by the pope. In 
1518 she <spcused Antony de Bourbon, 
duke of Vendome. In 1553 she was deli- 
vered of a son, who was afterwards Henry 
IV. of i ranre. A curious anecdote occur- 
red on this occasion. The king, her father, 
promised to ptr^ into her hands his w/i/, on 
condition that during the pangs of child- 
birth she sung a Bearnowe song. To this 
the acceded, and when her father entered 
the chamber, she sang a noted song in the 
language of Beam. The king after her de- 
livery gave her a gold boi containing his 
tvill, and at the same time threw round her 
neck a chain of gt)ld. « These are for you, 
my da'jghter," said he, *« but this is mine!" 
then taking the infant in his arras, and co- 
vering it with his gown, he carried it to his 
ch-amber. On the death of her father in 
155", she became queen of Navarre. In 
1562 she lost her husband, when she set 
herself to establish the Reformation in her 
kingdom, though opposed by the kings of 
France and Spain. Being invited to the 
^rcDch court to assist at the nuptials of her 

ton with Margaret of Valois, she expired 
suddenly, not without suspicion of poison^ 
in 1572, in the forty-fourth year of her age. 
She left several composilions in prose and 
verse. — BuyU, 

Albekt (Era^mu^), a German divine, 
educated under Luther, is known as the 
author of a book entitled the Koran of the 
CordelitTS, ridiculing the impiety of the 
Franciscans, who compare the actions of 
Francis with Jesus Christ. This was print- 
ed in German, with a preface by Luther, 
in 15SI, and in Latin in i "tS. The last e<li- 
tion of it is that of Amsterdam, in 2 voU. 
12mo. 1734. He died in l5S\^—Nouv, DUU 

Albert (Josq)h d'), of Luynes, prince 
.of Grimber^hen, died in 17.S8, aj^cd «7. 
He was ambaswtdor from the emperor of 
Germany to the French court, and wrote 
1. " Timandre instruit parson Genie" 2L 
•* Le Songe d*Alcibiade," 1759, 8vow — Nouv. 
Diet. Hist. 

Albert (Krantz), professor of divinity 
at Hamburgh. He wrote the " History of 
Saxony, and of the Vandals ;** «* A Chroni- 
cle from Charlemagne to 1504,'* &c. He 
died in 1517. — Ff>ts. df Hist. Lai. 

Albert, of Stade, a benedictine monk, 
who wrote a Chronicle from the creation 
to 1256. He lived in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. — Moreri, 

ALBERT,of Strasburg, who compiled "A 
Chronicle from 1270 to 1378." He lived in 
the fourteenth century.^— Aforfr/. 

Alberti (Ari5totile),was bom at Bolo^ 
na, and flourished in the 16th century. 
He is said to have removed a steeple to the 
distance of S5 paces. He went to Hunjrary, 
where he built various works, and obtained 
the title of chevalier. — Gen, B, D. 

Alberti (Andrew). He wrote, in I.atiii, 
a book on perspective, printed at Nuremr 
berg, 1678, folio. — Uid. 

Alberti (John), a Grerman lawyer, who 
abridged the Koran, with notes, for which 
he was knighted: he published in 1556 the 
New Testament in Syriac, of which tlie 
emperor kept 500, and the rest were sent 
to the East : he also wrote a Syriac gram- 
marw — Mureri, 

Alberti (Leander), a native of Bologna, 
was provincial of the Dominicans, and died 
in 1552. He wrote, 1. A History of illus- 
trious Dominicans, folio. 2. A DN»cription 
of Italy, 4to. 3. Various biographical Me* 
moirs. 4. The History of Bologna^ — Vtslut 
de Hist, Lat, Moreri, 

Alberti (Leoni Baptista), an eminent 
architect, who was employed by pope Ni- 
cholas v.: he wrote upon painting, sculp- 
ture and architecture, and also on mer^^Iity 
and arithmetic. He died in 1485^ — Tirci- 

Alberti (Cherubino), an eminent histo- 
rical painter and engraver of Italy, died io 
1615, aged ^S^^FiU. 



gbove,was born near Florence in T 558, and 
died in 1601. He excelled in perspective 
and in historical subjects. — Pilk. 

AtBrRTi (Domiiiico),an Italian musician, 
w» 2 native of Venice. He came to London 
vriih the Spanish ambassador, and after- 
wards went to Rome, where he attained 
grcit eminence as a singer and a performer. 
He excelled on the harpsichord, and in- 
vented a new style of playing on that in- 
strument. In 1737, he set' to music Metas- 
tasio's * Endimione," and published some 
other fine pieces of liis composition. — Bur- 
tteyx Hist. Music, 

Albcrtinus (Francis), an Italian Jesuit, 
who died in 1619. He wrote a system of 
theology, 2 vols, foli^; and a book m which 
he m^ntained th^t brutes have their guar- 
dian angels. — Al j(.'mbc de Script. Soc. Jcs, 

Albertixus (Mussatus), an ItaMan in 
the ninth century, who wrote the history of 
the emperor Henry Vil. and several poeti- 
cal pieces. He died in 829. — Gen. B. D. 

Albertus, archbishop of Mentz, was 
bom at Lorraine. He entered into a con- 
spiracy against the emperor Henry V. for 
which he was imprisoned a short time.' He 
died in 1 187. — Merer i. 

Albertus (MagnusJ, a learned domini- 
can, was born in Snabia. He became suc- 
cessively vicar-general and provincial of his 
order, and pope Alexander IV. made him 
master of the sacred palace, and bishop of 
Ratisbon, which he soon afterwards resign- 
ed, and retired to his cell to enjoy his stu- 
dies .His knowledge of nature was so great, 
that he was accounted a magician, and se- 
veral ridiculous tales are told of him He 
died at Cologne in 1280. His works, in 
twenty-one vols, folio, were printed at 
Lyons in 1615- — Moreri. 

Albi (Henry), a learned Jesuit, born at 
Bolene, in Venaissin, and died in 1659. He 
wrote the History of illustrious Cardinals, 
1653, 4tO. — Morrri, 

Albicus, archbishop of Prague, who 
ihewed great favour to Huss, and the other 
reformers, for which the Roman-catholic 
writers have poured abuse upon hia me- 
mory. He wrote some medical pieces, 
which were printed at I^eipsic in 1484. — 

Albinovanits, a Latin poet, was cotem- 
porary with Ovid, and honoured by him 
with the title of divine. There is nothing 
of his extant but two elegies, which were 
printed at Amsterdam in 1703, 8vo. — f^os- 
siat de Poet, Lat, 

Albi NU » (Decimus Clodius), was born at 
Adrumetum. He obtained the command 
in Britain, and was consul in 194, with Se- 
reri^j-who having hired assasssins to murder 
himi Albinns in revenge assumed the title 
of emperor. The two rivals met in Gaul, 
and after a bloody' engr.gement, the army 
of .A-lbinus was defeated, and himself slain, 
A-D. \97j—Dion Cassius. Hrrodian, 

/Llbim(7s (A. Posthumius), a Romaa his^ 

torian. He was consul in the year 151 B, 
C. and wrote a history of Rome in Greek, 
which Cicero has commended- — Fotsius. 

Albinus (Bernard), whose real name 
was Weiss, L e. White. He was born at 
Dessau, and studied physic at Leyden, where 
he became professor iii that faculry in 1702, 
after having discharged the same oiHce at 
other places with great reputation. He 
wrote several valuable treatises on medi- 
cine, and died in 1721. — Moreri. 

'Albinus (Bernard Sigfred), son of the 
above, was bom in 1683. He became profes- 
sor of medicine at Leyden. His anatomical 
plates in 3 vols, folio, 1744, 1749, and 1753, 
prove him to have been one of the greatest 
anatomists that ever lived. He died in 
1771. His younger brother, Christian Ber^ 
nard, distinguished himself as medical pro- 
fessor at Utrecht. — Halters Bio. An. 

Albinos (Eleazar). Of this writer no- 
thing more-is known than that he published 
a natural history of birds, a French trans- 
lation of which appeared at the Hague in 
1 750, 2 vols. 4tO — Gen. Bio^. Diet. 

Albinus (Peter), professor of poetry and 
mathematics at Wittemberg, and secretary 
to the elector at Dresden. He published the 
Chronicles of Misnia in 1^80, and other 
pieces.— il/or^-r/. 

Albezi, or Albizi 8, (Bartholomew), or 
Bartholomew of Pisa, a Franciscan monk. 
He wrote several books, the most noted of 
which is that on the conformity of St. Fran- 
cis with Jesus Christ, in which he maket 
the saint equal, if not superior, to the Sa- 
viour. He died in 1401. — Moreri, 

Alboin, king of Lombardv, was the son 
of Audoin. On ascending tne throne, he 
demanded Rosamond, the daughter of Cu- 
rimund, in marriage, and bein^ refused, he 
commenced hostilities, and having slain Cu- 
rimund, converted his scull into a drinking^ 
cup. Rosamond also fell into his hands, 
and Alboin made her his wife. In 567 he 
conquered Italy, and removed the seat of 
his government to Pavia. But he did not 
long enjoy his possessions, for having sent 
some wine to Rosamond in her father's 
scuU, she caused him to be assassinated ia 
570.— Ww/V. Hist. 

Albon (James d'), marquis of Fronsac, 
and marshal of St. Andre, a celebrated 
French nobleman, was made gentleman of 
the bedchamber by Keuiy II. in 1547. In 
1559 he was deputed to bear the collar of 
his order to Henry VIII. of England, by 
whom he was invested with that of the gar- 
ter. On his return he commanded at Cham- 
pagne vKth great reputation, but at the 
battle of St. Quintin he was taken prisoner. 
At the death of Henry II. he was chosen 
one of the regency. He was killed at the 
battle of Drcux in 15C2. The Huguenots 
called him ** the harquebuseer of the West. * 
His daughter, it is said, was poisoned by 
her mother for the sake oLber property^-* 

JMorcrU Digitized by VjC ' 


Alborno^ (Giles Alvarez CariUo), arch- 
Tjishop of I'oledo, was born in New Cas- 
tile. On beino^ raised to the dignity of car- 
dinal he resigned the archbishopric. He was 
of a very bold spirit, and taking up arms 
in favour of pope Urban, he bronjjht all 
Italy into subjection, and then retired to 
' Viterbo, where he died in ISo?. He found- 
ed tlie grand college at Barcelona. — AlorerL 
Alrkjcl's, a philosopher and physician, 
who flourished about A. D. 121 7, was bom 
in London, and educated at Oxford- He 
wrote, Virtutes Antiquorum; Cannnes Spe- 
Culativi ; De Origine Deorum — Pits, hnje, 
Albucasa, or Albucasis, an Arabian 
physician in the 11th century. Hectimpos- 
ed many excellent worlcs, and excelled in 
Burgery, and describes many instruments 
and operations.— /"r;>/i/j Hist. Phytic^ 

Albumazar, an Arabian physician and 
astronomer of the ninth century. His 
work entitled " De Majpiis CQnjunctioni- 
bus, Annorum Revolutionibus, ac eorum 
Pcrfcctionibus," was printed at Venice in 
15*2G, 8vo; and his Introductio ad Astro- 
Domiam in Hft9. — fcisiu/ de Matbem. 

Ai BUQU Er.QUE (Alphonso), a Portucriiese 
commander, was sent, in 1505, with a 
gqu.'dron to In^lia, by king Emanuel, who 
the «;nmc vear dispatched another under 
Irancls Albuquerque Francis arrived first, 
and having restored the king of Cochin to 
his capit.ll, was joined by his brother. Here 
they built a fort, and compelled Zamo- 
rin to sue for peace. The two brothers scoil 
after sailed for Portugal, where Alphonso 
arrived in safety, but the other was lost. 
In 1 J08 Alphonso subdued the king of Or- 
muz; but he was soon oblii'cd to quit that 
plarc 2nd return to India. Here in a rash 
attack on Calicut he was wounded, and 
com pr I led to retreat. In 1510 he took 
Gca, but AV2S oV)liged to rc-cmbark on ac- 
count of a mutiny on board his fjcct. He 
afterwards took the strong city of Malacca, 
and projerfcd other enterprises, when he 
was taken ill, and died at Goa, December 
Ifi, 151j:, ared ().S. His son was ennobled 
by Fmanucl, king of Portugal, who ordered 
h-m to take the name of Alphonso. He 
wr(;te memoirs of his lather's transactions. 
\\c died 'n\ l.").W. — Mvicri. 

Albuqukrcue CoFi.iio (Kdward d'), a 
noble Portuguese, who distinguished him- 
self as a soldirr, and wrote a History of the 
Wars of Brazil, printed it M.jdrid in 10,54, 
4to. He died in 16'5k. — AUmi. 

Aleut JUS Silus (Caiur), a Roman ora- 
tor in the time of Augustut^, was a native of 
No vara, which he left on account of some 
instdt he had received, and went to Rome, 
but returned to his native place in his old 
age, and there starved himself to death.-~- 
Suctoriu! d: Ctnr. Rhtor, 

Albutius (TituF), a Roman philosopher, 
and pro-prxtcr of Sardinia, who for cor- 
ruption was banished by the senate. On 
account of his attachment to the CJreciaa 

A L c 

language and customs he is ridiculed hf 
Cicero. He died at Athens^ — Baylc. 

ALCiEus, an ancient lyric poet, was bom 
in the island of Lesbos, and flourished B. C 
604. The invention of lyric poetry is at- 
tributed to him, but only a few fragmcau 
of his writings have come down to us.— 

Vosiius dc Poet. GfKC. 

Alcafak (Louis d'), a Jesuit, was born 
at Seville, injl.554. He wrote a commentary 
on the Apocalypse, and other works, and 
died in l^\^,— Baylc. 

Alchauitius, an Arabian astrologer of 
the li^lh century ; he wrote " On the Judg- 
ment of the Stars," *• the Conjunction of 
the Planets," and '* Optics," priuicd at Ve» 
nice in 1491, and at Seville in lj21. — BajU, 

Alchinous, an Arabian astrologer and 
physician, some of whose works are extant ; 
one of which, upon the art of magic, is full 
of superstition and absurdity. H« lived 
about the twelfth ce; itury .—-Afo/vrr. 

Alciat (Andrew), a famous lawyer, was 
bom at Milan in 1492; hewasch.un pit— 
fessor of law at Anjou, and in IJ:^:' he re- 
moved to BourgCH, to discharge the same of- 
fice, at the desire of f rancis \. 1 he duke of 
Milan prevailed upon him to return to his 
native country, whore he was created a se- 
nator; he died at Pavia in 1j550. His most 
esteemed woik is his Kmbiems. He left 
hisfortuneto irancis ./Vlciat, who succeeded 
him in the professorship at Pavia, and ac- 
quired great eminence in his profession ; he 
was made cardinal, and died at Rome in 
1580.— A'^//v. Dicti Hitt. 

ALciKiADF.s.the son of Clinias, an Athe- 
nian captain, was the disciple of Socrates^ 
who took great pains to form his mind ta 
the love of virtue, and accompanied him 
on some of his military ^peditiona. l*hc 
distinguished rank of his family gave him 
considerable advantages, and the vivacity 
of his temper render* d him acceptable in 
all companies. This led him into extrava- 
gances, and a love of pleasure prevailed 
over the charms of philosophy, though he 
never totally forgot the lessons of his tutor. 
He early entered on a military life, and 
gained several prizes at the Olympic games. 
Ill the Peloponnesian war, he was appoint- 
ed to command withLysimachus under Ni- 
cias, in an expedition against Syracuse ; but 
while he was thus employed, a charge wa» 
preferred against him at home of impiety^ 
One morning all the i^Ierms, of half-statues 
of Mercurv, which abounded at Athens, 
were founa defaced, and on a reward be* 
ing offered for the discovery of the offend- 
ers, some slaves ^ve information that it 
was done by 'Alcibiadcs and his drunken 
companions. For this he was ordered home; 
but, fearful of the consequcnceR, he with- 
drew to Sparta, and stirred up the Lacede- 
monians to declare war against Athens. He 
afterwards went over to the king of Persia, 
by whose interest he obtaia«d his pardotf 

Digitized b • 


A L C 

snd recal. He then commancled with suc- 
Ctti against the Lacedemonians, whom he 
compelled to sue for peace, and was re- 
ceived at Athens in triumph. But his po- 
pularity did not last lonqf : for the defeat 
of the Athenian fleet by Lysander, the 
Spartan commander, being attributed to 
Alcibiades, he was deprived of his command. 
On .this he retired into Thrace, and after- 
wards placed himself under the protection 
of Pharnabazus, the Persian governor of 
Phnr^a ; but the tyrants of Athens, dread- 
ing nis spirit and talents, prevailed on Phar- 
nabazus to murder him. Accordingly, the 
cottajre in which he resided was set fire to in 
the ni^t, and in his attempt to escape he 
was slam, in the 4(>th year of his age, B. C. 
404. It is related of him, that while a young 
man he entered a school, and asked the 
schoolmaster for Homer*s Iliad, and finding 
that he had it not, he gave him a box on the 
ear, saying, that the man who had not Ho- 
mer was not a proper person to instruct 
routh.^ — Plutarch tt Nepos in FlL AleiL Tbw 
t^id^t. Xftutpbon, 

Alcidamas, a Greek rhetorician, who 
was the disciple of Gorgias, B. C. 4iJ3. 
There are two orations extant under his 
■ame; the first printed by Aldus in his edi- 
tion of the Greek orators, 1518, and the 
second in the same printer's edition of Iso- 
erates, 1518. Cicero notes a discourse of 
lus m praise of death. — Fabric B'lbh Or etc, ^ 

Alcimus surnamed Jachim, high-priest 
•f the Jews, B. C 163; he obtained that 
officefrom AntiochusEupator, kin^ of Sy- 
ria, but rendered himself odious to his coun- 
trymen by his avarice and cruelty. He 
died two years after his election. — Jose*hus» 
Alcimdi (Latinus Alcimus Aletnius), 
bom at Agen in the fourth century; he 
wrote the history of Julian, and of Sallust 
the consul under that emperor, both which 
are lost. An eprigam by him is in Mat- 
taire's Corpus Poeranim, 17.54. — MorerL 

Alcinous, a Platonic philosopher of the 
second cent urv, who wrote an " Introduc- 
tion tathe Phdosophy of Plato," which has 
been translated into English by Stanley. — 
fakr'u. B'tbl. Grac, 

Alciphron, a Grecian philosopher, who 
Kved in the time of Alexander the Great. 
There was a sophist of the same name, 
whose epistles give a curious picture of 
Grecian manners. They were printed by 
Berglerat L.eip4ic,in 1715, and an English 
traitflation was published in 1791. Lucian 
is soppKSied to have imitated him. — Ibid. 

Alcman, of Lacedemon or Sardis, one of 
fhe oldest Grecian writers, who flourished 
aboat 67S2 B. C. Some fragments of his 
poems remain in diflerent authors. He is 
•aid Co have been the first writer of amorous 
poetry. There was another of the same 
name, and a lyrk poet, who flourished about 
«12ac.— Aform. 

ALcuxoN,a philosopher of Crotona, and 
dia^iiciple of Pytkaguras ; h» wat the first 

A L D 

writer on natural philosophy; but he held 
strange notions, particularly that tfie stuir* 
were animated beings. — Climens Atexand. 

Alcock (John), an English prelate, wi? 
born at Beverley, in Yorkshire, and edi!- 
cated at Cambridge. He became de.^n of 
Westminster, and master of the rolls, and in 
1471 was preferred to the see of Rochesrcr, 
from wliencc he was trans! it ed to Worcester, 
and finally to fJy. Henry Vll. made him 
lord president of Wales and chancellor of 
Englaud. lie endowed a school at Kint;-- 
ston upon Hull, built the hr.ll at the prdace 
in Ely, ;uid founded college Cam- 
bridge. He died in 1500, and was buried in 
the chapel which he built at Kingston upon 
Hull.— 2^/0^. Br, 

Alcuinjs (Albinus Flaccu^), an English 
divine, was born in Yorkshire, and educated 
first by the venerable Lede, and then by 
Edwin, archbishop of York, who made hvu 
his librarian; he afterwards became abt>*)t 
of Canterbury, and in 793 went to Fr.iacc, 
at the request of Charlemagne, who g tve 
him several rich abbeys; he attended that 
prince to the council of Frankfort. He 
died in 801. His works were p;:Mishe'i <a 
one volume folio,at Paris, in IG 17. — Pitutu, 
Bale. Biog.Br, 

Alcyo.nius (Peter), an Italian writer, 
who was corrector of the press to Aldus 
Manutius, and afterwards professor at Flo- 
rence. He (quitted that place to seek his 
fortune at Rome,wherehepe4ishcd during 
the troubles excited by the Colunnas ab.jut 
1527. He wrote some ingenious pieces in 
Latin, and among the rest, a treatise on ba- 
nishment, which he is said to have taken 
from a MS. oh ^lory bv Cicero, found by him 
in a monasterv, ana which, after copying 
the above, he Durnt. — Bjyle. 

Aldebert, or Adalbert, a French im- 
postor in the eighth century, who pre- 
tended to be inspired, and exercised the 
episcopal fmiction without authority; he 
was condemned by a council at Rome, and 
thrown into prison, where he died. — Bar^-^ 

ALDEGRAPr (Albert), an eminent histori- 
cal painter and engraver, was a native of 
Zoust, in Westphalia, where he died poor, 
about the middle of the sixteenth centur^'. 
—7).' PiUs, 

Alderette (Bernard and Joseph), two 
brothers of the society of Jcsus, and natives 
of Malaga, vho lived at the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. ' Thev wrote two 
le:irned works, entitled, 1. Origines Lingux 
Castillanicac, 1G06*, 4to. % The Antiquities 
of Spain, 16M,lto. They were so perfectly 
alike as to be frequently mi:.taken for each 
other. — MorerL 

borne, was born at Malmsbury, and conse- 
crated bishop at Rome bv Scrgius I.; he 
is said to have been the first Englishman 
who wrote iu Latin, and the 6cst who in- 

A L D 


troduced poetry into England. The people 
were at tnat time almost barbarians, and 
paid little regard to sermons, on which Ald- 
nelm used to entertain them with ballads 
of his own composing", in which he blended 
reli-nous subjects wuh those of a li^rhter 
kind, and thus effected a considerable re- 
formation. He died in 709. — i?/'^. Br. 

Aldii UN, the founder of the see of Dur- 
ham. In S^, he became bishop of Lin- 
disfarne, or Holv-island, which place he 
left on account o^ its bcirfg infested by the 
Danes. 1 aking with him the body of St. 
Cuthbert, he went to Durham, wfiere he 
built a church, and died in 1018. — Ibid. 

Aldini (Tobias), of Ccscna, physician to 
cardinal Farnese; he wrote Descriptio Plan- 
tarnm Horti Farnesiaui, Ruma:, 1525^ folio. 
— G<'>». Biog. Diet. 

Ald r ED, abbot of Tavistock .and bishop 
of Worcester, was sent ambassador to the 
emperor of Ccnnany, and in 10J8 took 
a journey to Jcnir.alem. On his return he 
was made archbishop of York, with leave 
to hold his former see ; but the pope refused 
liimthe pallium unless he resigned the bi- 
shopric. On the death of Kdward, in 1066, 
Aldred crowned his son Harold, and after- 
wards performed the same ceremony to 
William the Conqueror. He died in 1069. 
— Biog. Brit. 

Aldric (St.), bishop of Mans; he held a 
distinguished station in the court of Charle- 
magne, and of Louis the Debonair, which 
he renounced for the ecclesiastical state, and 
in 832 was made bishop of Mans. Lothaire 
expelled him from his see, but he was re- 
stored by Charles IL He convoked an as- 
sembly of bishops for the reformation of 
abubes in the church, and died in 85u : he 
compiled a body of canons. — Mnr^ri, 

AldriCu (Robert), an English prelate, 
was born at I3ur:jham,in 13uckin;<liamshire, 
and educated at Eton and Kini^'s colleges, 
Cambridge. He was afterwards appointed 
provost of Eton. In 15S4 he was made ca- 
non of Windsor, and register of the order of 
the garter. In 15:^7 he was consecrated bishop 
of Carlisle, and died in \555. He wrote a 
few pieces, wliich shew his learning, — 
Biog, Bf it, 

ALoaicH (Henry), a divine, was born in 
Westminster, in 16'47. JYom M Cbtniinster 
school he went to Chrisichurch, Oxford, 
wherehewaselectedstudent. Inl(i8I hewas 
installed canon of Christchurch, and in the 
same year took the degree of D. D. He 
wrote, in the reign of James II. two able 
tracts, " On the Adoration of our Saviour 
in the Euchaiist." At the Revoludon he 
was made dean of Christ church, in which 
station he behaved in the most exemplary 
manner, and every year published a Creek 
classic, or part of one, by wav of present to 
the students o^ ihe college, he was one of 
the persons entrusted with the publication 
of lord Clarendon's Hjj>tory: heliad a great 
k^owled^e of ajrkhitccturp aed music, as ap- 

pears by Peckvi'ater-squnre, in Oxford, th< 
chapel of Trinity college, .and the church of 
AH Saints, designed by him; and the nume- 
rous church-services and anthems which he 
composed. The dean was also the composer 
of two catclies viz. " Hark the bonny 
Christchurch belU," and the other, ** A 
smoking Catch.** He -held the rectory of 
Wem, m Shropshire, and in the convoca- 
tion of 1 70'i he sat as prolocutor. He died 
in 1710. Besides the above works he print- 
ed " Artis Logics Compendiui^,'* and the 
tlements of Arcliitecture, in Latin. — Biog. 
Brit. \ 

Ald RINGER, general of the empire. He 
was of mean extraction in lAixembourg,and 
was a servant to some young students at 
Paris, where he proiitca by his situation, 
and acquired a knowledge of the languages 
and sciences. He then went to Italy, and 
had a place under the cardinal Ma<£rucci; 
but being deprived of it, he returned to 
Germany, and entered into the army as a 
common soldier. He was quickly raised to 
the rank of captain ; and passing through 
different gradations, was made a field -mar- 
shal, and was also* employed as ambassador. 
He distinguished himself on many occasions 
as a brave commander, but his avarice and 
cruelty were extreme. He was slain near 
Landshut in 16.'J4. — Moreri. 

Alorude, countess of liertinoro, in Ro- 
magna, celebrated for her beauty and mag- 
nanimity. In conjunction witli WiUiani 
degli Adelardi, a citizen of Ferrara, she 
compelled the Venetians and Imperialists 
to raise the siege of Ancona. The risin* 
consequence of that port having excited 
the jealousy of the Venetians and the em- 
peror, they united their forces and laid 
siege to it in 1172. I'he citizens made a 
brave resistance, but being closely pressed 
they were driven to extreme exigency for 
want of provisions. In this distress they ap- 
plied to William degli Adelardi aud the coun- 
tess of Bertinoro, who assembled their vassals, 
and marched to the relief of the Anconians. 
Aldrude, by her presence and exhortations, 
inspired the troops with courage ; and on 
their arrival, the besiegers fled in confusion. 
Aldrude on her return encountered several 
parties of the enemy,and came off victorious 
m every action. W illiam, having disbanded 
his troops, went to Constantinople, where 
he was received by the emperor with di>« 
tinguishcd honours.«^7)yt^;. Hist, Jet Frmmct, 
Aldus, see M.tNUTius. 
Aleander (Jerome), a cardinal, wai 
bornm 1480; he taught the belles-lettres at 
Paris, and afterwards entered into the ser» 
vice of pope Leo X. who sent him nuncio 
to Germany in 151.), and next year ap- 
pointed him librarian of the Vatiisan. In 
the diet of Worms he displayed great elo- 
quence against Luther, and' procured his 
books to be burnt, and iii« person pro* 
scribed. Clement VIl. made him archbi^op 
of £nuMti^9 siAd soESt tunL miAcio to ^ rai^cfe 



He went again in the same capacity to Ger- 
maoy in 1531, where he endeavoured, but 
in vain, to hinder Charies V. from making a 
truce with the protes^aots. In 1536 he was 
made a cardinal by Paul IIL He died in 

ALEANDza (Jerome), nephew of the 
above, was born in the principality'^ of 
iriuh; he was first secretary to cardinal 
Octavio Bandini, and lastly to cardinal Bar- 
berinL He died of excessive eating ia 16:11. 
He wrote some pieces on anti^^uarian sub- 
jects. — Uid. 

Aug AM BE (Philip,) a Jesuit, was born at 
firusseis in 159:^ ; he took the religious ha- 
bi: iu Sicily, and afierwaids became pro- 
fessor ot philosophy and divinity at Gratz, 
ia Austria. In lOSd he went to Home, and 
was retained there by the general of his 
order as secretary for Germiuiy, and prcsi* 
dent of spiritual affairs. He died in 1652. 
Hi* works are but few, and relate to the 
history of his order. — BayJf. 

Alecrixus (^John), cardinal and patri- 
»rch of Constantinople, was born at Abbe- 
VL!:e,ia Picardy; he went as legate to Spain 
juid Portugal, and died in 1240. 

Aleman (JL^wis),a Roman cardinal, wa»- 
born in 1390. In 1422, being archbishop 
of Aries, he wa9 sent legate to Sienna by 
pope Martin V. to procure the removal of 
the council of Pavia to that city ; and the 
aame pontifl'made him cardinal He was af- 
terwards president of the council of Basil, in 
which he opposed Eugenius IV. who excom- 
municated him. Nicholas V. restored him 
to his dignities, and sent him as legate into 
Germany. He died in 1450, and was after- 
wards canonized. — Moreri, 

Aleman (JLewis Augustine), a lawyer of 
Grenoble, born in 165S'. he published, in 
1690, the posthumous remarks of Vaugelas, 
with a preface and notes of his own ; he 
also wrote the Journal Historique de I'Eu- 
rope, and some other works. — Ibid, 

Alembkrt (John Le Rond d'), a French 
philosopher, was born at Paris in 1717 ; he 
had the name of J. Le Rond, from the 
church near which he was exposed as a 
foundling, and being discovered by the 
onrerseer of the district he was put out to 
nurse. His father hearing of his situation 
was touched with parental feeling, and took 
care of his education and maintenance ; he 
was placed in the college of Mazarin, where 
be composed a commentary oa the Epistle 
to the Romans, which the Jansefnists beheld 
with Bstonbhrnent. They then engaged 
kam in the study of the mathematics, in 
wifeicfa he made a surprising progress. On 
leaving the college he went to live with his 
moxw^ with wfamn he resided forty years, 
contented with the little fortune which had 
^ecn left him. His friends advised him to 
better bis condition by studying the law, 
vicb which be complied, and took hisde- 
«recs ID that faculty, but soon abandoned 
«if pcofftiitWy and applied to the study of 

physic. This also he relinquished, and de- 
voted himself to the mathematics. In 1741 
he was elected into the academy of sciences, 
and two years afterwards published his 
treatise on dynamics. In 1 746' he obtained 
the prize-medal from the academy of Ber- 
lin, for a discourse on the theory of winds. 
In 1749 he solved the problem of the pre- 
cession of, the equinoxes, ascertair.ed its 
quantity, and explained the rotation of the 
terrestrial axis. In 1752 he publuhed an 
essay on the resistance of fluids, and soon 
after obtained a pension from the king. 
He next engaged with Diderot in compiling 
the celebraiea Encyclopediei fur which he 
wrote the preliinLiiary discourse. While 
engaged on mathematical subjects his name 
was not much known, but now he b.»came 
celebrated by works of an historical and 
miscellaneous nature, such as his " Philoso- 

{)hical, Historical, and Philological Miscel* 
anies," •* The Memoirs of Christina, queea 
of Sweden," and his " Elements of Philoso- 
phy." The king of Prussia ofl'ercd him 
the office of president of his acaueuiy, and 
the empress of Russia invited him into her 
dominions as tutor to the grand-duke, but 
Alembcrt refused both these oilers. Ia 
1765 he published his dissertation on the 
destruction of the Jesuits. He also publish- 
ed !^ vols, of memoirs and miscelUneous 
pieces, and the Elements of Music. In 177 J 
he was elected secretary to the f rencJi a- 
cademy, and wrote the history of seventy 
of its members, who died between 1700 
and 177i. He died in 1783. D*Alcmbert, 
with all his affected moderation and can- 
dour, was a bigoted enemy to cliristianity; 
and projected with more art than honesty 
the Encyclopedic as a means of rootii^ 
out, if possible, that religion from amon; 
men. In this design he was supported by 
the talents and influence of Voltaire, Dide- 
rot, Condorcct, the king of Prussia, and 
other infidels. Unhappily their ellbru had 
too much success in France, as the history 
of that^ country will evince to tlie huedt 
generation^ — Nouv, Diet, Hist, HuUoms 
Matb. Diet, BarrueVs MrtMoiri gf Jtuobiuijm 

Alen (John Van), an eminent Dutdl| 
painter, was born at Amsterdam in 1651, 
and died in 1698. He painted landscape* 
birds, and still Mie^-^Houbrak^/u 

Alenio (Julius^, a Venetian Jesuit. He 
propagated Christianity in China with great, 
success thirty-six years, and died in i64d 
He wrote several books on religious and 
mathematical subjecu in the Chinese laa- 
guage^ — Moreri, 

Alkqtti (Jean Baptiste), an emijient ai^ 
chitect, was at first a common labourer, but 
applied with great diligence to the study of 
geometry and arcbitecture, in which sci- 
ences he wrote several books. He died ia 
163CV— i^iriL 

Atsa, or Halbs, (Alexander d*), a learn 
ed Englishman, who taughtphiloeopby and 



He was called the irrefragable docto fw 
I*h fi/j. I}ubi/i, 

Ales (Alexander), a Scotch divine, was 
hi^m at Edinburf;h ia 1500. From he' tig a 
rcalous catholic he became as zealous a pro-- 
tcitaut. In 1535 he visited Fnorland,and was 
greatly esteemed by archbishop Cranmec, 
but »qon after went to Germany, and was 
successively professor of divinity at Fnink- 
fort and Leipsic. He died in* 15()5. He 
"nvrote severvil books on theological subjects, 
pavticulirly on the necessity oi good works 
to justification. — Euy/r, 

Alksso (Matthew Perez d*). an eminent 
painter and er.jjfraver, wa;> born at l^nme, 
and died in IGOO. His most celebi.iicd 
performance is the figure of St. Chrtsto;)!ier, 
painted in fresco in the great churc'i of 
Seville. The calf of e:icU \tg is an ell in 
thickness, and all the other parts are ia 
proportion.— A'c:/v. Drd. Hist. 

Alessi (Galea?), a famous architect, was 
bora at Pcru-ia in IJtXK Vaiious placev 
are adorned with buildings of his construc- 
tion ; but he acquired the greatest reputa- 
tion by his plan of the monastery and 
church of the Escuria^. He died in 1572. 

Alettmo (Benedetto), the fictitious name 
of a professor of philosophy in the Jesuits' 
college at Naples, who printed, in 1(»88, 4 
vols, with a view of overthrowing Carte- 
sianism, and establishing the system of 
Ari stotl e. He died in 171 9. — Ibid, 

Alexander thk GRFAT,was the son of 
Philip, king of Maccdon, andbocii at Pella, 
B. C. f^FtSs the same year in which the famed 
temple of Diana at Ephcsus was destroyed, a 
circumstance which was considered after- 
wards as ominous of his character. He had 
great advantagcsinhiseducatio.-', beir.t^pla- 
ccd first under Lysimachus, and afterwards 
under Aristotle, who appears to have taken 
uncommon pains with so illustrious a pujiil. 
VHicn young he discovered miMiL-roi.s evi- 
dences of his restless and amljitious spirit. 
Being told that Philip had gained a great 
victory, he seemed dissatisfied, and said, that 
if** his father went on at that rate, he would 
leave him nothing to achieve." At ano- 
ther time when his father expressed his 
fwrprize that he did not engage in th^ 
Olympic games, lie replied, " Give me 
kings to encounter, and I will enter imme- 
diately." At a very early age, he succeeded 
in breaking-in liis famous horse Bucephalus, 
tvhich no one else had been able to manage. 
When Philip had repudiated Olympias tlie 
mother of Alexander, and t iken another 
wife, he gave a public entertair.uient, during 
which one of the courtiers, to please the 
kifig, observed, that the gods should be 
supplicated to grunt him a lawful heir. 
Alexander, fired at this, threw a goblet 
at his bead, and exclaimed, '* Do you dare 
call me a bastard ?". 'Philip in a rage iii- 
•tantly drew his sword iind rushed towards 
AltxaadeiTy but )^m% in licjuor, f«4 on tke 

floor; on which the youth sarcastically t»d, 
• See what a general you have got, wh<r 
cannot take a step without falling!" The 
king was then about to march against Persia, 
but was assassinated soon after, on which 
Alexander ascended the throne, and though 
some of the Grecian states endeavoured to 
shake ofF the Macedonian voke, the young 
king soon quelled the desi^;jTi, and was ac- 
knowledged general of Greece. He then 
marvhed into Thraee, and gained several 
conquests. During his absence, Thebes re- 
volted, on the intelligence of which Alex- 
ander returned into Greece, took that city 
by storm, and made a dreadful carnage of 
the inhabitants. He also destroyed all the 
buildings except the residence of Pindar the 
poet. This severe example had its cftcct on 
the otfier states, and even Athens, which 
was the n)o;,t impatient under the domi- 
nation of Macedon, distinguished itself by 
a servile submission to the conqueror. He 
next turned his arms against Darius Co- 
domannus king of Persia, and in his 2i?d 
year crossed the Hellespont, with an army 
of about 40,0C)O man. With this force he 
defeated the Persians at the Granicus, with 
a prodigious slaughter, after which he 
made himself master of numerous places. 
At Gordium, where he asse.nbk*d his army, 
he is said to have cut the famous knot on 
which the fate of Asia was said to depend. 
While he was in Cilicia he fell into a 
dangerous fever, owing to his imprudently 
bathing in the river Cydhuswhen very hot. 
In this state he received a letter from Par- 
menio, intimating his suspicions that his 
physician Philip had been bribed to poison 
him. When Philip atteaded with a strong 
medicine, Alexander took it, and gi\'ing 
him the letter to read, drank olF the potion. 
On his recovery from this illness, he liber- 
ally rcwardcd'the physician for his skill 
and integrity. 

Shortly after this he defeated Darius near 
Issus, took a quantity of treasure and a 
number of prisoners, among whom where 
the mother, wife, and children of the king 
of Persia, who fled. The generous con- 
duct of Alexander to these princesses forms 
the most brilliant action of his life. This 
victory was followed by the conquest of 
Phoenicia, Damascus, ana other places. The 
siege of Tyre, however, took him seven 
mont^is, and in revenge he committed hor- 
rible cruelties on the inhabitants. He next 
marched to Jerusalem, where he was met 
by the high-priest dressed in his sacerdotal 
vestments. On seeing this venerable per- 
sonage, the hero bowed to the ground with 
such reverence as excited the astonishment 
of Pariiienio who nttendcd hi:r»; whem 
Alexander infoin^cd aim, ihnt a person of 
this description Lud appeared to iiim in ^ 
dream in Macedonia, and promised him 
success in Iiis expedition. The high-pries( 
then presented to the monarcli the pro- 
piiccy of Daoicl, iQ;^rlu^it,wasfo:ietol4 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


A L fe 

t!iat a Grecian prince should destroy the 
Persian empire: in consequence ox this, 
Alexander bestowed liberal presents on the 
Jews, and passed into £^pt> which country- 
he subdued. While there he founded the 
city of Alexandria, and consulted the ora- 
cle of Jupiter Ammon, the priest of which 
flattered his vanity by asserting that he was 
the son of that deitv. Darius having col- 
lected a consideraole armr, resolved to 
make another struggle for nis dominions ; 
hue yns defeated at Arbela," and the fate of 
Asia was decided. This battle was followed 
by the taking of ^sa and Persepolis. The 
last city Alexander caused to be burnt, 
at the insti^tion of the harlot Thais. 
While pursuing Darius he received intel- 
firence of his having been slain by Bessus, 
' whom he ordered to be put to death. 
Every new conquest only served to increase 
his ambition; and being told there were 
other Worlds besides this, he is said to have 
wept, because he could not be m«ster of 
them. At length he crossed the river Indus, 
00 the banks of which he was opposed by 
Poru3, an Indian prince, with a numerous 
anny, in which were several elephants* 
The wonted fortune of the Macedonians 
prevailed, but Alexander was so pleased 
with the gallantry of Poms, that he re- 
stored him his kih^idoro, and entered into 
an alliance with him. After ranging India 
he returned to Babjrlon, which city he in- 
tended greatly to improve, when he was 
Uken off by a fever m the 33d year of his 
a^e, K C 323. He had four wives : Barsina 
the daughter of Artabazes; Roxana, a 
Persian princess, by whom he left a son of 
his own name, who was assassinated with 
his mother by Cassander ; Parisatis daughter 
of Artaxerxes Ochus; and Statira daught. 
ter of ^ Darius Codomannus. By his own 
direction his body was carried to Alex- 
andria, where Ptolemy Lagus deposited it 
in a gold coffin, which one of his suc- 
cessors changed for a glass one. Havine 
appointed no successor, his generals divided 

hts conquests among themselves^ The 

character of Alexander was made up of 
very ^cat and very bad qualities. He 
committcdmaoy odious cruelties; and he 
d.'^nk to a shameful excess. In one of his 
drunken fit< he stabbed his most intimate 
friend Cfvtus with his own hand. Yet he 
often performed deeds that indicated a be- 
De\'o(ent mind; and though he was pleased 
with the fulsome ascription of divinity, on 
"other occasions he expressed his abhorrence 
of adulation and (lattery. He had a taste 
for learning and the fine arts, and had al- 
ways about liim men of science, philo- 
•opiier% and poet^^.^ — Plutarch, Nrpts g. 
Cw^tu. Arrian, Josffibus. 

Alexakoka (Balas)," an impostor, who 
vasemplojed by the Romans to personate 
the son of Antiochtts £piphnne«, king of 
Syria, in order to take possession of that 
kaipknii. He de£eated Demetrius Soter, the 


kwfulheir, but that prince, with the aid ef 
Ptolemy king of Egypt, afterwards gained 
a victory over the usurper, who fled into 
Arabia, where he was slain, B. C. 146. — 

Alexander SEVERns,a Roman emperor, 
was a Phgenician. His father, Gencsius 
Marcianus, had been consul, and his mo- 
ther was related to the emperor Helioga- 
balus; but though her family were noto- 
riously vicious, she was distinguished by 
the purity of her manners, and is supposed 
to have been favourable to Christianity. 
From such a parent he could not but de- 
rive good instructions, which enabled him 
to resist the temptations held out in the 
odious court of his relations. His virtue 
excited the hatred of Heliogabalus, who at- 
tempted his life; which so enraged the Pros- 
torian guards, that they put the emperor to 
death, and raised Alexander to the throne in 
the 17thyear of his ape. Not lon^ after- 
wards he was engagea in a war with the 
Persians, over whom he ^ned a great vic- 
tory in person, and on his return to Rome 
was honoured with a triumph. He next 
marched against the Germans, who had 
made an incursion into Gaul, but while 
there a sedition broke out in his army, at 
the head of which was a Tfaracian named 
Maximin. In this mutiny the emperor and 
his mother were murdered A. D. 235, after 
he had reigned thirteen years. Alekander 
was pious, temperate, frugal, humane, and a 
great encourager of literature. He was 
also friendly to the Christians, and is said 
to have haa the inu^ of Jesus Christ in hi^ 
private chapeL — Univ, Nut. GiUom. 

Alexander Janneus, king of the Jews, 
was the son of Hircan, and succeeded hia 
brother Aristobulus, B. C 106. Aristobulu* 
had cast him into prison, from wlience he 
was taken at his death and placed on the 
throne. He began his reign oy murdering 
one of his brothers; and had a long war 
with Ptolemy Lathyrus, king of Egypt. His 
cruelties irritated his subjects, and produced 
a civil war, which lasted six years. Alex- 
ander, however, proved successful ; _ and in 
one day caused eight hundred captives to 
be crucified, after their wives and children 
had been murdered before their eyes. Hav- 
ing secured the throne, he carri)^^ his arms 
into foreign countries, and made several 
important conquests. He died of intemper- 
ance, B. C. 79. Joseplms, 

Alexander II. was the son of Aristobulu« 
the second king of the Jews. He was sent 
prisoner to Rome by Pompey, with his fa- 
ther, brdther Antigonus, and two sisters. 
On being delivered from prison, and gqiug 
into Judefl, he raised an army, and opposed 
Hircan the brother of Aristobulus, but waa 
defeated by Gabinius the Roman general, 
A. M. 897B, and sent to Rome. ^ Cffsar 
afterwards restored him to liberty, in ho^c 
that he would be serviceable to him m 
Syrk; but he s^aifi turn^ against the Ro- 



ttam, and with the nine bad success. Scipio 

?ut him to death at Antioch, by order of 
ompej, B. C 49 — JvtfiBm, 

Ai,EXANi>KR, king of Poland He was 
chosen on the death of his brother^ John 
Albert, in 1501, andtlxcdin l^06, a^ed 4.5. 
He was a courageous, htsnane, and liberal 
prince. — Un. Hist. 

Alezanosr L king of Scotland, succeed- 
ed his brother Edgar, in 1 107. Before his 
accession he was remarkable for his seeming 
pietj and humility, but afterwards he was 
as distinguished for his fiery disposition, on 
which account he was called tlftf Fierce. He 
was very rigorous in the administration of 
justice, on which account several insurrec- 
tions took place, all of which he defeated, 
and died in 1 124. — Bucbaiian, 

Alexander ILkingof ScotIand,succeed- 
ed his father, William the Lion, in 1214, 
at the agre of sixteen. He had a long and 
destructive war with John, king of Eng^ 
bnd, who invaded his dominions, but he re- 
taliated severely, by marching into Engw 
land, where he committed great disorders. 
In 1221 he married the sister of Henry IlL 
of Eiigland, in consequence of which peace 
was restor^ between the two kingdoms. 
He died in 1249^/^^. 

ALEXANnBR III. kingof Scotland, was the 
•on of the preceding by his second wife, and 
came to the crown at tne age of eight yean. 
Soon after he was^married to Mai^garet, 
daughter to Henry III. of England, whom 
he assisted against the English barons. He 
also dcfeat«l the king of Norway, who 
had invaded Scotland with a large ^rmy. 
He was killed in himting, in 1265, l^yio^ 
the character of a great and good prince^ 

Alexander, bishop of Hierapolis in the 
i9th century. He espoused the doctrine of 
Nestonus, that there were two different 
natures in Christ, which he supported in the 
council of Ephesus. . He died in exile. .. 

Albxanoer I. bnhop of Rome, was a 
Ronun by birth, aund succeeded Evaristus 
in 109. He stands as a martyr and saint in 
Che Roman calendar. He died in 129^ — 
Platina attributes the introduaion of holy 
water to this pope. 

ALcxAvnER iL pope* "Was raised to the 
papal see in 1061. The imperii P"^ °P~ 
posed hk election, and in a council held at 
basil procured Cadaleus, bishop of Parma, 
to be elected pope by the name of Honorius 
II. After a atrone contest the party of 
Alexander prevaikd, and all Europe ac- 
knowledged him- pope. He carried the 
papal power to a ^eat height, and most 
of the sovereign pnnces yi^ed to h\$ au- 
thority. He£ed in KyiS^^'-^JPIatiMt «md 
Bwofrs Lhtet •fibe Po^, 

ALexAMDEt^ lit. succeeded Adrian VIL 
in 1 1 59. The imperial party sided witfa.hi4 
competitor Victor lY. but England and 
Trance acknowledged Alexander. On the 
4«ath of Victor^ vol 1164, the epijperor pro* 

cured cardinal Guy to be elected pope, by 
the name of Paschal III. but Alexander 
being supported by the Roman clergv, de- 
posed the emperor, and absolved his su1>iects 
from their allegiance. On this, Frederic 
marched to Rome, and having driven out 
Alexander, placed lus rival in tne pontifical 
chair. At length, grown weary of the con- 
test, he acknowledged Alexander as legal 
pontiiF. He died in 1181.^/W. 

Alexander IV. pope, was raised from 
the bishopric of Ostia to die papal ,throne, 
in 1254. He claimed a right to dispose of 
the crown of Sicily, but was unsuccessfuL 
He died in 1261^— /^V. 

ALEXANnxR V. pope, was bom in the 
isle of Candia, of sucn poor parents, that in 
his childhood he was obliged to go about 
beggiufi'-An Italian monk taking a fancy 
to him, got him admitted among the friars 
minors. After studying at Paris, he ob- 
tained the bishopric ofVicenzia, and next 
the archbishopric of Milan. Pope Inno- 
cent VIL made him cardinal, and appointed 
him legate. On the deposition of Gregory 
XIL in 1409, the council of Pisa elected 
him pope. He died the year following' at 
Bologna, not without susj>icion of poison. 
He was a liberal and mnnificent ponti0I — 

Alexander VI. pope, was born at Va# 
lencia, in Spain, 1431. His original name 
was Rodenc Borgia, and his mother was 
sister to Cahxtus IILby whom he was made 
cardinal in 1455. On tne death of Innocent 
VIIL he contrived by his intrigues to ^t 
himself elected by the conclave, though he 
had then four sons and a daughter by a 
Roman lady. His son, Cxsar Borgia, was 
a monster of wickedness like^ nimself. 
There is hardly a crime of which these 
profligate wretches have not been ac- 
cused, and it seems with justice. At length 
Providence punished them by the same 
means whicn they had prepared for the 
ruin of others. In 1503, the pope and hla 
son attempted to poison a rich cardinal on 
account, of his wealth, when, by a mistake 
of the butler, they drank the wine which 
they had destinea for tlieir victim. Th« 
pope died almost directly, but Borgia ro. 
covered, and was killed some years after. 
•—GMicciardinL Gordons Life of Alex and^ J^I. 
Alexander VII. pope. His original 
name was Fabio Chigi, and he was bom at 
Sienna» in 1599. After passing through ai 
variety of offices with credit, he became a 
bishop and cardinal On the death of In- 
nocent X. in 1655, he was plected pope, 
owning to his affectation of extraordmary 
piety and humility. He published, in 165^, 
a famous bull against the Jansenists; yet, it 
is said, he was a liberal-minded prelate, aad 
particuUrly favourable to the protcstanta^ 
He was an eminent scholar, and an encou- 
rager of learning. He died in 1667>-- ^ 

Alszandbr Vin. pope, was bom at V#^ 
aice^a W(K He recuTed levend prefer 



to«Dts from Urban VHT. Innocent %. 
created him a cardinal, and in 1639, the 
ccUe^ raised hr*u to the papal chair. He 
died in I591v— 'Morrrr. 

AtezAN'Oza, an abbot in Sicily, who 
wrote the life and reign of Roger, king of 
that idaod, which was printed at Ssiragossa, 
io 1578. He lived in the 12th century. — 
A«m. Diet. JTut. 

AtKXANoci, bishop of Alexandria, was 
exemplary in his life, and apostolical in his 
^Qctnne. He opposed Anus, who was a 
priest of his church, and condemned his er- 
rors in a council. He was also at the coun- 
cil of Nice on the same occasion, and died 
about S25^^Cave. 

ALKXANoea of JEgea, a peripatetic phi- 
loiopher, was the tutor of Nero, whom it is 
«id he q>mipted by his instructions. He 
wrote a commentary on Aristotle's Meteo- ' 
nilogy.^ — Smidas. 

Aleza n oee (Aphrodis^eus), aperipatetic 
pliilosopher in the 2d century. He was 
called the Commentator, on account of his 
clear explications of Aristotle's works. His 
book •* De Fato" was printed at London 
in 1588, and his Commentaries on Aristotle 
were printed by Aldus, at Venice. — r<uui/t 
it FtiU,, 

Alex A vn EX (Polyhistor), an historian, 
who lived about 80 ^. C He was the slave 
of Corqelius JLentuIus, who became his pu- 
pil, and save him his freedom. He was 
onrnt to c&ath in his house at Laurentum, 
which so affected his wife, that she handed 
hersell He wrote five books concemmg 
Rome; and various other works of his, in 
ikirtory and philosophy, are mentioned by 
Hotarch and others. Suidas says, that in 
Qoe of his pieces he mentions a Hebrew 
woman named Moso, who was the author 
of the Jewish laws. All his writings are 
wsL— fwj/jtf dt Hist. Grac. 

Alexamdke (St.\ was bom in Asia 
Minor, and ^uittea the court for a reli- 
poos retirement. He founded the order 
called Acemetay because one of them was 
■lway»to be on the watch (o cng hymns. 
He died about 430 — Moreru 

Alcxamder (Trallianns), a philosopher 
■id physician of the 6th century. His 
wocfa were |>rinced at Paris in 154S, and 
tt Lausanne in 1772, 2 vols. 8vow— /r/mi'/ 
Hist. PbytU, 

A1.EXAXDER, bishop %A Jerusalem^ in the 
third centnry, is celebrated for his piety 
•nd for his sufierings. He studied under 
Psaotxntts, and afterwards under St Cle- 
BMnt of Alexandria. Bein^ made bishop 
«f Cappadoda, he was imprisoned in the 
pcisecucion begun by Seven]s,and remained 
>« confinement near eight years. On his re- 
lease he was associated in the government 
of Jerusalem with Narcissus, on whose 
doth he became sole bishop; but in the 

' a of 0(Ecias Ynt wae again i<nprisoned, 

cmeUy used. He died in 251. He 

ijr letten, wMch ar» lost; buc 


Rica ( 

£usebius has preserved extracts of four. 
This holy bishop founded a library at Je- 
rusalem, of which Jeromemakes mention^-^ 
Euscbius, Dupin. Cave, 

ALBXANOEa of Lycopolis in Egypt, who 
was a zealous writer against the Manichean 
svstenu It is undecided whether he was a 
cnristian or a pa^an. His work was pub- 
lished at Paris m 1672, folio — Fakriciuu 

AxEXANOta, a Norman by birth, was 
made bishop of Lincoln in 1123. He re- 
built his cathedral, which had been burnt 
down, and enlarged the revenues of his see; 
he also built the castles of Banbury, Sleaford, 
and Newark, and founded two monasteries. 
He died in 1 147^— Go^w/jr de Prsesul, Biog, Br, 
Alexander de St. Elpide, archbishop 
of Amalfi; he wrote a book in the vmdica<* 
tion of the papal authority over the em- 
peror, which was printed in 1624^ He lived 
m the fourteenth century- — Moreri, . 

Alexander of Paris, a French poet in 
the twelfth century; he wrote a poem on 
the life of Alexander the Great, m verses 
of twelve syllables, which measure has ever 
since been called Alexandrinew — lUd, 

Alexander, an English abbot, who was 
sent by Henry III. to support the rights of 
the English nation at the court of Rome, 
which commission he discharged with such 
fidelity, that Pandulphus, the pope's legate 
in £no4and, excommunicated him, and 
caused nim to be imprisoned; he died about 
1217. His works are, Victoria a Proteo; do 
Ecclesix Potestate; de Potestate Vicaria; 
de Cessatione Papali, &Cw — BoUms^ BiiL. 
Brit. PitsiuM dt Scrip. AngU 

Alexander (Neckam), an English wri« 
ter, was bom at St. Albans, and taught'phi- 
losophy with reputation at Paris. On re» 
tummg to his own country he was made 
abbot ofExeter. He died 1227. His works 
are stiU extant in public librarie8.F— >J^« 

Alexander AB Alcxandro, an eminefit 
li^wyer, bom at Naples in 14G1. He re- 
nounced his profession, owing to the cor- 
rupt state in which the practice of it was ^t 
that time. He wrote a curious book en- 
titled ** Genialium Dierom," in the manner 
ofAulus Gellius's Attic Nights. 'He died 
about 1524. — yostius. Bayle. 

Alexander (WllliatnJ, a Scotch states- 
man and poet, was bom in 1580. He pub- 
lished his poem, entitled Aurora^ in 1604 ; 
and in 1607, a collection of tragedies, in 4to. 
In 1613, he became gentleman-usher to 
prince Charles, and received the honour of 
Knighthood. In 1 621 , the Idng-'gave him a 
grant of Nova Scotia, which ne intended 
to colonize, and Charles T. patronized the 
scheme by appointing him "^eutenant of 
that ccuntryi and founding an order of 
knxgfat94)aronet hi Scotland; (ach of whom 
wa9 to cdntribiite towards the settlement, 
and to bare a portion for the same. The^ 
Aombcr of these bvp]^et« wuUiwted to 150.^ 



Sr William afterwards sold Nova Scotia to 
c French, but the order still continues. In 
1630, he was created viscount, and after- 
wards earl Stirliujr: he died in 1640. His 
^poetical works make one volume folio. — 
jS/og. Br. 

Allxander (Noel), called in Latin Na- 
talis, was born at Rouen, in No.-mandy, in 
4631). He entered into tlie order of the Do- 
minicans, and became a doctor of the Sor- 
bonnc. He published a church history, in 
06 vols. 8vo. in '.atln, and the history of 
the Old Testament, in 6 vols. 8vo. At the 
close of liis life, he lost his sight, which lie 
bore with great patience. He died in 1 724. 
He wrote many books besides those above- 
ttientioned. — Moreri. 

ALixANDEa (Nicholas), a benedictine 
monk, was born at Paris, and died in 1728. 
lie practiced physic,and gave his fees to cha- 
iriuole uses. He published, I. Physic and 
Surgery for the Poor, Paris, ITJH, 12mo. 
2. A Botanical and Pharmaceutical Diction- 
ary, 8vo. — Nouv. Did, Hist. 
. Alexander (Nevskoi), grand-duke of 
Russia, and a saint of thit church, was hern 
in 1218. His father, Yaroslaf, in l'J'J7 re- 
n\oved his residence from Novgori»d to Pe- 
ryaslaf, leaving at the former place his two 
sons, P'eodor and Alexander, as his repre- 
sentatives. Five years after, Fcodor died, 
and Alexander became sole viceroy. About 
J2;?9 he married a princess of Pulofzk,and 
began to strengthen hiskingdom against the 
incursions of his nciglibours, who drew to 
their interest Vaklnnar II. kinj^ of Den- 
mark, with the Swedes and the Teutonic 
knights. Notwithstandingthiscombination, 
^Alexander mustered his forces, and proceed- 
ed to enj;:ige the enemy. The battle began 
.at six in the morning, and lasted the whole 
day, on tiie banks of the Neva, where he 
i ;::^iined a complete victor\*. ^ttcr his death, 
he was canoni/.ed : ana Peter the Great 
erected a monastery on tlie spot where he 
gained his fame, in 1712; to which, in 172:?, 
nc caused the bones of tiie saint to be 
brought in great pomp. The empress Ca- 
therine b;]ilt a su|)crb churcli v,:ithin the 
#ame mona^torv, wjth a magnificent mauso- 
leum for herself and Iicr descendants. The 
shrine of the siint is of massy silver. Peter 
the Great in -.tituted the oriler of St. Alex- 
ander Nevskoi, but dying before he had 
named the knights, this was done by Ca- 
therine l,in 1725. — C'j^t^s Tr^xvels. 

Alexanduini dk Nkustaiv (JuliusV a 
native of 'iVnt,was physician to Maxnni- 
\<Ji.i\ II. who conferred several honours on 
him. He died in 15iX), aged 85. He wrote 
Sa/uf^ritttUfOT Jr ^\ -•::/, 2/. turnJa', Dc lAtrJicina 
ft J\^tJ.'eo i Annotaiivius in GaUnwin^ ^t.— JWt- 

Ai.^xis, a Greek comic poet, and uncle 
to N-Ienander, lived aboi:t r.83 vears before 
Christ. A few fragments ot h;'s works are 
extant.— /W. <ie Pr^ t. Grac 

Alexis of Piedmont, the author of 

« Medical Secrets,** printed at Banl in 1 59^ 
and translated into Latin, French, and Eng 
Lish. He was of a noble family, and tra- 
velled fifty-seven years; but at thea^ of 
eighty-two being at Milan, and seeing a 
poor man expire through the unskilfulnest 
of the surgeon, he was so struck with re- 
morse for not interfering to save hi» life, 
tliat he became a hermit. When he died is 
unknown. — Moreri. 

Alexis (Michaelovitdi), the son oC Mi- 
chael, czar of Russia,ascended the throne in 
1645, at the age of sixteen. His reign was 
disturbed by foreign and civil wars. Hav- 
ing quelled the insurgents, he entered into 
a Tvar with Poland, in which he was suc- 
cessful, and thereby enlarged hisdonunions; 
tnit he was not so fortunate in a contest 
with the Swedes, who compelled him to 
retire within his own territories. Hehadalso 
a long war with the Turks, and joined his 
forces with the Poles, under the famous 
John Sobieski, who oaincd a splendid vic- 
tory in 1674. He died in 1677, aged 4«. 
He was an upright but severe prince, and 
was the first who caused the laws of Russia 
to be printed. He also encouraged the 
arts and sciences, paid attention to the in- 
terests of commerce, and laid the plans of 
tliosc projects which his son Peter the Great 
afterwards carried into execution^— ilf«(^ 
Univ. Hist. 

Aj^exius or Alexei (Pctrovitch), son 
of Peter the Great by hudocia Lapukin, 
was born in 1699. When a child, be was 
committed to the care of the Russian priests^ 
who instilled into him all their baroarous 
prejudices. At the age of eleven he was 
put under baron Huysen, by whose in- 
structions he might liave profited, had he 
not been taken from him by prince Menzi- 
ko(F, who placed about him persons of the 
most improper description, wherebv he be- 
caote vitiated in his manners, fond of low 
company, and addicted to drinking. Find- 
ing his associates set against his fatherll 
measures for the reformation of the peo[ 
he joined in their co.iiplaints, and avowt 
his inieniion of restoring the old state 
things when he should come to the croi 
On this account his ruin was determii 
and after suflrerinf-i several persecutions, 
was ohii^^red to si^a his renunciation of tl 
right of succession in 1716. Soon aftc 
wards lie cscapetl to Vienna, and put him 
self umlcr the protection of Cliarles V 
who sent him first to laspnick, an:*, then t 
Naples. He was betrayed by a Finlandii 
girl, whom he had long kept, and, undc 
promise of forgiveness, was prevailed upo 
to return to Moscow, where he wr.s throM( 
into prison, tried secretly, and condemn^ 
to death. The trial Vtras printed by orderi 
the emperor. The public manifesto asse^ 
that he died of ana{K)plecticfit, but it is si| 
pected that he was secretly put to deaths 
Gen,Bt9g. Dici» „ 

Alexius L (Comacaus), emperor of t 


A L F 

fest, was born at Constantinople in 1048. 
Oo the deposition of Niccphorus in 1081) 
Jie wa.*^ rhosen cniperor by the troops. The 
frea:cs. part of his reign was disturbed by 
w.»r.- vrntx the Turks, Scythians, and other 
poMCiS. He died in 1118. He was a 
virlant prinVre, well versed in the art of 
jlfovcmment, and attentive to th« interests 
of hi? people. He was the father of the 
(;flebrated Anna Comaena, who has drawn 
his character lu the most flattering co- 
lour*— /r/cj. Ua. Hist. 

Alilxi^ s H. (Comnenus), surnamed Por* 
pRTRooENiTus, was the son of Michael 
Comnenus, whom he succeeded in 1180, 
under the care of the empress Mary, his 
mother. Her conduct gave offence to the 
nobility, and at length an o])en insurrection 
ensued, headed by Andronicus Comnenus, 
who took Constantinople in 1188, im- 
prisoned the empress, and compelled the 
young emperor to admit him as his asso- 
ciate in the empire. The year following, 
bowrrer, he caused Alexius to be strans- 

Alexius III. (Angelus), emperor of the 
last; he deposed his brother Isaac, and 
ihrew him into prison, where he was de- 
prived of his sight. Alexius, the son of 
Isaac, escaped, and prevailed on the French 
and Venetians to espouse his cause. A 
large army besieged Constandnople in 
llS03,and tne usurper Hed with his treasure 
to Thrace. The people then released Isaac, 
and placed him on the throne. Alexius 
fell into the hands of Theodore Lascaris, 
who put out his eyes, and confined him in 
a monastery, where he died^ — /W. 

Ajlexius IV. was associated with his fa- 
ther Isaac in the government, on the flight 
of his uncle. He was<kposed and put to 
death by the people in I*J04, for endeavour- 
ing to raise heavy contributions to' pay his 
allies and to bring the eastern empire un* 
do- the avthoritv of the pope^ — Hid. 

Alexius V. (JDucas), called Murtzuflle, 
from his black neavy ere-brows. On the 
murder of the last-mentioned emperor, he 
vas raised to th« throne : the Latins, how* 
ever, laid siege to Constantin()ple, and 
pressed k eo ckxely, that MurtzuiHk was 
oUi^iedtoescape by nigfat. He was deprived 
ef his eyes by his father-iiiF>law, to whom 
he Hed for refuge; and, after rambling 
about as a mendicant, he was seized by the 
LadiiB,who cast him from the top of Theo- 
dosios's pillar, by which he was dashed 
to pieces^ ■ A§9d, Um, Hist, 

Alctk^ Charles), an English poet, was 
educated at Sidney-coUegc,Cambndfe, and 
became usher to Thomas Farnaty, in Loi^ 
don ; be was afterwards tutor to the soft of 
Edward Sherburne, esq. and died in 1640. 
He wiose t^o poems on thebactlesof Cressy 
and Pofcuevs, and soneother pieces^j9fijf. 

Alfevo^ VARfjs (Poblitis), a native of 
Cnuwa, who from being a shoemaker 
; as advocate and at length consul : 

A t F 

he wrote forty books of digests, and somt 
collections, cited by Aitlus Qellius. Hor|ice 
mentions him in his third satire, and Vir<* 
gU speaks of his conduct towards him 
with gratitude. He is not to be confounded 
with another of thisnamej'who was captain 
of the guards to VitcUius. — Mwcri, 

Alford (Michael), an English Jesuit* 
was born ini^ondon in 1587; he studied 
in 3pain and at Re me, and was sent by his 
society as a missionary to England, where 
he resided above thirty years. He died at 
St. Omers in 1652. He wrote ** Britannia 
lUustrata,'* and **Annaiesi:.ccksiasttciBri* 
tannorum," &iJC.»^Mornri, 

Alfraganus, an Arabian astronomep, 
who lived aliout the year 883; he wrote an 
introduction to astronomy, which wa$ 
printed by Golius, at Amsterdam, 1669^-* 
Golius in p.- a fat, Alfrag, 

Alfred or Aelpred the Great, the 
youngest son ofKtlielwolf,kin^ofthe West 
Saxons, was born at Wantage^ in Berkshire» 
in 849. At the age of five years he was 
sent to Rome, Snd the pope anointed him 
with the royal unction. Ethelwolf died xi» 
858, leaving his dominions to Ethelbald and 
Ethelbert, and his personal estate to his 
vounger sons, Ethelred and Alfred. Ethel'* 
bald did not long survive his father ,and was 
succeeded by Ethelbert; but -he dying in 
866% left the throne to Ethelred, who made 
Alfred his prim^minister and general of 
his armies. Kthelred dying in 871, Alfred 
found himself, at the age of 22, in posses- 
sion of a distracted kin^om. After several 
actions with the Danes, his followers were 
so dispirited, that he foimd himself unable 
to make head against the invaders, where- 
fore laving aside the ensigns of royalty, he 
concealed nimself in the cottage of one of 
his herdsmen. One day as he sat by the 
fire trimming his bow and arrows, his 
hostess left in his care some cakes, which 
were placed on the earth to be baked. 
Alfred, however, was so intent upon his 
employment as to suffier the cakes to be 
burnca; and when the woman returned she 
scolded him heartily, saying, "he could eat 
the cakes fast enou|^ thouj^h he would not 
take the trouble of loolcing after them.** 
He afterwards retired to the Me of Athel- 
ney, in Somersetshire, with a few followers, 
and there received information that Odun, 
earl of Devon, had obtained a ^eat victory 
over the Danes, in Devonshire, and had 
taken their magical standard. On this, AU 
fred is said to ha^e disguised himself as a 
harper,and entered the Danish cam)), where 
his skill was so much admired tlut he re* 
mained a considerable time, and was ad* 
mitted to play before the chiefs. Having 
gained a imoidedge of the state of the 
enemy, he directed his nobles to collect 
their vassals, and to meet him at Selwood^ 
in Wiltshire, which was done so secretly, 
that the Danes were surprised at Eddin^ 
ton« and oompletely deflated. Alfred be* 
haved with great liberality on this 0Cf> 


A L G 

iuioii, gWiag Qp the Idngdom of th* nutt he landed in England unth a chostH 
East Anglet to those of theDanei who handofNormanft,and would hare succeed- 
embraced the Christian religion. Having ed in dethroning Harold, surnamed Hare^ 
some respite,he put his kingdom into a state /m#, if it had not been for the treachery of 
of defence, and increased his navy; and- earl Godwin. Alfred was uken prisoneri 

having recovered London from the Danes, 
he soon brought it into a flourishing stare. 
After a rest of someyears,an immense num- 
ber of Danish forces hinded in Kent; on 
which those who were settled in North- 
umberland broke their trea^, and fittine 

and his eyes were put out ; after which he 
wat confined in the monastery at £W, where 
he died, or rather was murdered, about 
1037— ^/of. Jr. 

^ Alfred, an English prelate in the tenth 
century, was a benedictine in the abbey of 

out two fleets sailed round tne coast, and I^lmesbury, of which he became abbot. 

eommitted mat ravages. They were, how« 
ever, BO«n oef eated by Alfred, who caused 
several of the pirates tobe executed ^t Win- 
diester as an example. Thus he seciired the 
peace of his dominions, and struck terror 
into his enemies, after fifty-six battles by 
land and sea, in all of which he was per- 
sonally engaged. But what makes him most 
an object of admiration, is his character as a 
jreformer of laws and manners, and the pro- 
moter of leaiping. He composed a body of 
etatutes, instituted the trial by jury, and 
divided the kingdom into shires and tith- 
ings. He was so exact in his government 
that robbery was unheard of, and valuable 
goods might be left on the high-road with- 
out danger of beinjgr meddled with. He 
also formed a parliament, which met in 
London twice a year. The sute of learn- 
ing in his time was so low. in England, that 
ttom the Thames to the Humber haridly a 
man could be found who understood Latin. 
To remedy this evil, he invited learned men 
from all parts, and endowed schools 
throughout his kingdom; and if he was 
not tl^ founder of the university of Ox- 
ford, certain^ it is he raised it to a re- 
putation which it never enjoyed before; 
and amon;^ other acts of munificence to 
that eminent seat of learning, he founded 
University-college. Hewashimself a learn- 
ed prince, and composed several works, and 
translated others from the Latin, particu- 
larly Boetius's Consolations of Philosophy. 
He divided the twenty-four hours into tnree 
equal parts, one devoted to the service of 
Ood, another to public afi&urs, and the 
third to refreshment. To Alfred, also, Eng- 
land is indebted for the foundation of her 
naval esublishment, and he was the first 
who sent out ships to mak^ the discovery 
of a north-east passa^ge. In private life he 
was benevolent, pious, cheerful, and afiau* 
blc; and his person was amiable, dignified, 

and afterwards bishop of Exeter. He i 
esteemed the most learned man of his age, 
and wrote, 1. De Naturis Rerum. 2. The 
Life of Adelmus. 3. The History of the 
Abbey of Malmesbury. — Pih. 

Alfred, surnamed the Philosopher, an 
Englishman of the 13th century, who was 
greatly esteemed at Rome, where he served 
Die cardinal Ottoboni, whom he attended 
to England on his being appointed legate. 
He died about 127a He left five books on 
the Consolations of Boethius, four upon the 
Meteors of Aristotle, and one uponvegeta^ 
bles. — LtUnd, Bah, Pitt. 

Alfride or Elf RID, the illegitimate son 
of Oswy, king of Northumberland,on whose 
death be was violently persecuted by Eg- 
frid his brother; and to avoid his violence 
he retired to Ireland,or, according to others, 
to Scotland, where he led a phtlosophtcal 
life. His brother, however, followed him 
with implacable malice, and waged war 
with those who granted him an asylum. 
In this contest Egifrid was slain, on which 
the Northumbrians elected Alfride to the 
vacant throne in 6^. He greatly endeared 
himself to his subjects, and was a libera) 
encourager of literature, being himself- a 
learned prince. He ^ed in lOS^^-^BetUf U'tii^ 
Steles. Biog. Br, 

Algardi (Alexander)-, a painter and 
sculptor of Bologna. He studied under 
Lewis Carrachi, and died at Rome in 1645. 
There is in the church of St. Peter of the 
Vatican a fine bas-relief by him, represent- 
ing St.Xjeo appearing before Attua ; and 
at Bologna, a group of the beheading of 
St. PauL— Aftfr^^ri. 

Algarotti (Francis), a polite writer, 
was bom at Padua in 1 7 1 2. He received a 
liberal education, and then visited diflVrent 
countries; he was at Paris in 1733, where 
he composed his Newtonianism for the La- 
dies. After making a long stay in France 

and ravaging. He died in 901, aged fifty- he came to England, and then went to Ger- 

three. By his queen Elswitha, Afred had 
two sons and three daughters. He was suc- 
ceeded by Edward his second son, com- 
monly called Edward the £lder.»^M(r. Bn 
Alfred. or Aldrkd, the son of £thel< 

many. Frederic, king of Prussia, made him 
chevalier of the ord^ of merit, created 
him a count, and appointed him his cham- 
berlain. The kii^ of Poland also highly 
esteemed him, and gave him the title of 

red the Unready, by Emma, daughter of privy counseUor of the affairs of war. The 

Richard L duke of Nonnandy, bom A. D. count died at Pisa in 1764 ; his works were 

ICXXl. The ravages oftheDanesmdttced his fa- published in Italian at Leghorn, 1765, in 

ther to send him with his brother, afterward 4 vols. 8vo. and afterwards translated intc^ 

Edward the CanfiK8or>,to Mormandy, where French, in 8 vols. Svo. Algarotti was a man 

they were educated. O9 the deatn of Q^ pf lively hvx siic^^cial genius, and though 


A L I 

Kiwritini^shew a taste for the fine apt^,they 
convey little information. — Nouv. Dut. Hut. 

Alg.azil, an Arabian writer and hermit 
of the 12th century, was born at Thous, a 
city of Chorassan. The work by which he 
15 mrt*t known, is on the different branches 
of science that relate to religion. — Foeocy^ 
Sfedmem Httt. Arab, 

Alhazcn, an Arabian mathematician, 
flourished about 1 100. He wrote a large 
treatise on optics, and other works^— ^mj/m 

Aujthe cousin and son-in-law of Mo- 
haquned, whom he ought to have succeeded, 
Imt being successfully opposed byOmar and 
Otfinun, he raised a sect of his own, and 
j^iined many followers. On the death of 
Othroond he w?9 declared caliph in S55^ but 
b 669 he was assassinated in a mosque. He 
had nine wives, by wliom he had fourteen 
sens and eighteen claaghtera.— i)*/f^rAf&/. 

Ali Beg, iirst dragoman or interpreter 
to the grand-signior, was bom in Poland 
of christian parents, but bein^ taken pri- 
•.jner by the Tartars when a chdd, and sold 
to the Turks, he was brought up in the 
Mahometan faith. He understood English, 
and translated the catechism of the church 
of England, and ail the Bible, into the Turk- 
ish langua|;e. His greatest work is a book 
«o the Liturgy of the Turks, their pil- 
{[Hmages to Mecca, &c. translated into La^ 
tin by Dr. Smith. He died in 1675^— ^oy/r. 
Ali Bey, an adventurer, was bom in 
Naiolta in 1728. When young, he was taken 
by robbers, and conveyed to Grand Cairo, 
where he was bought by Ibrahim, lieute- 
nant of the janisaries, who entered him 
uBoog the m^meluket. For hit gallantry 
tgainst the Arabs he was created a bey. In 
1 758 his patron wasmurdered by the party of 
Ibrahim the Circassian. In 1763 he at- 
taned the -dignity of scheik-ecbaiad, which 
is the first in the republic, and soon after 
tkw Ibrahim, to revenge the murder of his 
master. This raised against him a host of 
enemies who obliged nim to fly to Acre, 
where hewas proteciedby the scheik Daher. 
In 1766 he was recalled bv the people, and 
after taking vengeance o{ his enemies, he 
declared war against the Arabs, in which 
he was successfuL Egypt now began to re- 
vive ; agriculture flourished, and that rich 
country seemed to bid fair to recover its 
former splendour. In 1768 war broke out 
between the Turks and the Russians, and 
AH sent I'lfiOO men to serve in the Otto- 
sum armv. His enemies reported at Con- 
stantinople that these troops were designed 
to aiaist the Russians, in consequence of 
which a capigi, and four attendants, were 
cent to uke off his head. A^ being in- 
formed of this seized the messengers, and 
put them to death. The Egyptians then 
Mared war against the Porte, and for a 
tine preserved their independance,and ob- 
<>i&ed several conquests. At last his pria- 
cijai CQnmunders revolted with their 

A t L 

troops, and in a battle which took place 
between Ali and the malcontents, he was 
taken prisoner, and died of his wounds, in 
177.3. His object was to restore the freedom 
of Egypt ; and had the people possessed a 
similar spirit, the Turkish yoke would have 
been broken, and they agamhave occupied 
a place in the scale of nation& — F^lneyt 

Trtivelt in Mgypt, 

ALiMENTUs(Cincius),a Roman historian, 
flourished about 150 years B. C. Livy 
gives him a great character, but none of 
his works arc come down to us. He wrote 
the history of Hannibal, and of Gorgias of 
Leontium^ — r©«. d< Hijt, Grac. 

Anpos, bishop of Ta^te, in Africa,' 
was the countryman and intimate friend of 
St. Augustine. Like him he was for a time 
a zealous Mantchee, and accompanied him 
to Rome, where he studied the law, and 
liad some considerable employments. On 
embracing the christian relinon he was 
baptized at Milan by St. Ambrose on the 
same day with his friend Augustine. He 
afterwards went to Palestine, and on his 
return to Africa was chosen bishop of Ta- 
gaste in .394 ; he assisted at several coun- 
cils, particttkrly that of Carthage, where 
he opposed the Donatists. He died in 43a 
—'AugUitin, Comf, Dufin, 

Alkmaar (Henry d*),a German poet of 
the 15th century; he wrote a satire called 
the Fable of Reynard, whichhas been trans- 
lated into several languages. It is however 
asserted by credible authors that Alkmaar 
is only a fictitious name assumed b^ Ni- 
cholas'Baumann, a Frieslander, who diedia 
\50S,^Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

Allainval (Leonor Soulasd'),a French 
abbe and poet, was born at Chartres ; he 
wrote several comedies, and some operas, 
which were well received. He died of the 
palsy in the Hotel Dieu, at Paris, in 175S..-i 

Allias (Dcnys Varaisse d*), a French 
writer, was bom at AUias, in Languedoc 
In 1665 he served in the English navy under 
the tluke of York, and on his return to 
France taught the English language. He 
wrote a French andEn^ish Grammar, and 
a political romance, entitled ^ The History 
of Severambia,** printed first in 1677, S volt. 

All AM (Andrew), an English divine, 
was born at Garsingdon, in Oxfordshire, in ' 
1655; he was educated at Edmund-hall, of 
which he became vice-principal. He died 
in 1685. He published a translation of thi 
life of Iphicratcs,in8vo. andassisted Wood in 
compiling his Athcnx Oxonienses. — Bif^^. Br, 

Allard (Guy), a French writer, who is 
principally known b^r numerous works 
upon the genealogical history of Dauphiny ; 
he is also the author of a romance, entitled 
«* The amorous History of Prince Zimin.*' 
He died in 1715. — Mtreri, 

Allatius (JLeo), was bom in the isle of 
Scio in 1586 ; he was educated first in Cala- 


WtiZnd lastly at Rome, where he taught- 
the b^es-Iettres ; he was appointed keeper 
of the Vatican hbrary by Alexander VIL 
who once asked him, *' why he did not enter 
into orders ?" " because, replied Allatius, 
•* I would be at liberty to marry." *« Well 
then "replied his holmess,** why don't you 
marry ?" ** Because," answered he " I 
would be free to take orders." He pub- 
lished several MSS. some translations of 
Creek authors, and various pieces of his 
own, in which he is said to have shewn 
more learning thai^ judgment. H^ died at 
Rome in 1669, aged 83- — MererL 

Allectus was prefect in Britain to the 
emperor Carausius, whom he murdered in 
294, and seized the imperial crown. He wa? 
defeated and slain by the Roman genera^ 
Asclepiodotus in 297- — I6id. 

Alleqrain rChristopher CabrielJ, an 
eminent Frencn sculptor; his principal 
works are the figure of a young man, for 
y^hich he was admitted into the academy, a 
Venus, and a Dianau His father and grand- 
father were both members of the academy 
of painting ; his manners were simple, and 
his temper exceedingly modest. He died 
in 1795- — Nouv, Diet, 

Allegri, see Cokregio. 
A L L ECR I (Gregorio), a celebrated musical 
composer ; his compositions are still retain- 
ed inlhc pontifical chapel. The chief is 
the " Misercr^," which is always sung pn 
Good Friday. Clement XIV. sent a magnifi- 
cent copy of it to our pr^ent king ip 1773. 
Allegri died in 1672- — Bumeys Hist. Mux. 

Al L E I N (Richard) a nonconformist divine, 
was born in 1611« at Ditchet, in Somerset- 
shire, of which place his father was rector. 
He was educated at Oxford, where he took 
the degrep of M. A. and afterwards became 
curate to his father. In 1641 he obtained 
the living of B^tcomb, in Somersetshire, and 
was made assistant to the commissioners for 
ejecting scandalous ministers. At the Resto- 
ration he was turned out for nonconform!' 


book entitled, ** An Alarm to nnconTerted 
Sinners," has gone through numerous edi- 
tions. — Life fy Baxter. 

Allen (John),archbishop of Dublin, wa% 
educated ?t Oxford, but took his degree of 
}uL. B. at Cambridge. Archbishop Warham 
sent him on a commission to the pope, and 
he continued .at Rome nine years. On 
his return he was appointed chaplain t# 
Wolsey, and was judge of his court, a* le- 
gate a latere, in which office he conumtted 
many dishonest acts. Tn 1528 he was made 
archbishop of Dublin, and chancellor of Ire- 
land. He was cruelly murder^ bv Tho- 
mas Fitzgerald, son of the earl of Kildarc, 
in 1534-— J?iW.^r. 

Allen (Thomas), a divine, was born iQ 
1573, and educated at the king's school at 
Worcester, from whence he went to Brasen- 
nose college, Oxford. He was admitted 
probationer fellow of Merton in 1593, and 
soon after entered into orders. By the in- 
terest of sir Henry Savalle, he got a fellow^ 
bliip in Eton-college. He was a lajjoriouf 
scholar,and wrote Observationes inlibclluiu 
ChrysostOiui in Esaiam. He died in 1633- — 

Almx (Thoma»i% a mathematician, wa» 
born at Utu>xc:er,in Staffordfihire, in 1542. 
He was oflVinity-coUcge, Oxford, and took 
hi5 degree of M. A. in 1 567. In 1 570 he re- 
niovedto Gloucester-hall, where he devoted 
himself to the study of the mathematics, 
Robert, earl of Leicester, would have pro- 
cured him a bishopric/but he declined the of- 
fer through his love of retirement and study. 
That nobleman placed so much confidence 
in his abilities as to consult him on afiairs 
of state. He published in Latin the second 
and third books of Ptolqmy, ** On the Judg- 
ment of the Stars, " w ith au exposition. He 
died in 16li2.— ^«k/,y*. 0. 
Allen (sir Thomas), a bravcEnglish admi- 
ral; he was the first that entered upon hosti- 
lities against the Dutch in 1665, by atuckin^ 
their Smyrna fieet. His squadron consisted 

ty ; after which he settled at Frome Splwood, only of eight ships ; but wliat he wanted in 

where he preached privatply till his death, 
in 1684. His writings on practical divinity 
have been very usefuL — CaUmy's Account of 
^fcted Minhiers. 

Allein (William), son of the above, took 
his degrees m arts in Corpus Cluristi college 
Oxford, after which he settled at Blandford 
in Dorsetshire, from yrhpnce he was ejected 
for nonconformity. He died in 1677. He 
wrote a curious oook on the millennium, 
and some othf r theological works. — Calany. 
Allein (Joseph), a nonconforpiist mi- 
nbter,wasbcrn at Devizes, in WiUshire, in 
1633. He was first placed in Lincoln-col- 
lege, Oxford, from whence he removed ip 
1651, to Corpus Christi college, where he 
took his degree of B. A. Jn 1655 he be- 
came curate pf Tajinton. In 1662 he was 
ejected for nonconformity, but continued 
%o preach privately, for which he was im- 
priicn^ He di^d at Bath in le^d. Hjs 

force he supplied by skill and \'^alour. He 
killed their commodore Brackel, took four 
rich merchantmen, and drove the rest into 
the bay of Czidiz. In 1666, he defeated 
the van of the Dutch fleet, and killed the 
three admiralnof that divi^ion.It was in that 
memorable action that De Ruytcr ex- 
claimed, «* What a wrptch am I ! Among so 
m^iny thousand bullets, there is not one to 
put me out of pain." — Granger s Bog. Hist. 
Allestry or Allestree (Richard), a 
divine, was bprn ?t Uppington, in Shrop- 
shlrc,in 1619. He became si udcntof Christ •? 
church, Oxford, and in 1641 took up arm* 
with many pther younjj: men of the unirerr 
sity, in favour of Charles I. After serving 
some time in a rnilitary capacity, he return- 
ed to his studies. When the parliameo^ 
forces entered that city he narrov/ly escaped 
bad usage, owing to his being concerned in 
rcinpving the tr^wury from Chridichurch. 

' Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Sooo altier this he anin entered the army, 
and was at the battle of Kenton-field. At 
the end of the war he took orders, and 
wat chosen censor of his college; but 
when the parliamentary visitors came to 
Oxford, he withdrew, and became chaplain 
to Mr. afterwards lord Newport, with 
whom he lived till after the fight at Worces- 
ter, when he was appointed by the royal* 
itti to wait on the long at Rouen. In 1659 
he went to his majesty in Flanders, and on 
his. return was seized at Dover, but found 
means to secure his dispatches: he was 
however kept prisoner about eight weeks in 
Lambeth-house. At the Restoration he was 
made canon of Christchurch, and served one 
of the lectureships of Oxford, the salary of 
whkh he gave to the poor. In 1660 he 
look the degree of D. D. became chaplain 
to the king, and regius professor of divmity. 
In 1665 he was appointed provostof Eton. 
In 1673 he resigned the professorship, and 
died in January following. He was buried 
in the chapel of Eton-college, where there 
is a monument to his mesaoty^^Life fre/ixed 
Uhu Sermws,foli0^ 1684. 

Allestry (Jacob),nephewof the above, 
was the son of James Allestry, a I/Ondon 
bookseller ; he was educated at Westminster- 
school, from whence, in 1671, he was sent 
to Christchurch Oxford, where the year 
following he was elected student. He took 
his degrees in ans, was music-reader in 
1679, and terrx-filius in 1681. He was au- 
thor of verses spoken in the theatre at Ox- 
ford before James, duke of York, printed 
in the ** Examen Poeticum.'* He died in 

1686^— fFW A. 0. 
Allev (William), a bishop, was bom 

at Wycomb, in Buckinghamshire, and 
educated first at Eton, and then at Kinj^'s- 

coUege, Cambridge;. He afterwards studi cd 

at Oxford, and entered into orders; but on 

the accession of Mary, he practised physic, 

pad kept school. When Elizabeth came 

fo the throne, he was appointed lecturer at 

^Paul's, and in 1560, bishop of Exeter. 

He died in 157a He published a commen- 
tary on the first epistle of St.Peter,and trans- 
lated the Pentateuch in the, bishops' Bible. 

— ii%. Brit, 
Alletn (Edward), founder of Dulwich 

college, in Surry, was born in London in 

15661; he acquired great reputation as an 

actor, and b^ame proprietor of a play- 
house in ^oorfields, and keeper of the royal 

bear-garden. Aubrey relates a ridiculous 

story, that the devil appeared to him when 

personating the character of Satan, which 

wo frightened him, that he grew serious, and 

quitted the stage. He laid the foun(Luion 

of his college in 1614, and completed it in 

16 17, at the expence of lOfiOCU; he then en** 

dowed it with 800/. per aimum for the main- 
tenance of one master, andone warden (who 

must be unmarried, and always of the name 

of Atteyn, or Allen), and four fellows, pf „^ „ 

TPhom thrfe to be ciergymeo, and the fomtk astronomical tables^ and ci 

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an organist; besides six poor men and sit 
women, with twelve boys, who are to be cdu* 
cated till the age of fourteen or sixteen, when 
they are to be apprenticed to some trade. 
This building is called *''lhe College of - 
God's Gift." He was himself the first master. 
He died in 1626, and was buried in the 
chapel of the coUegei — Bior. BnL 

Allix (Peter), a learned divine, was born 
at Alen^on, in France, in 1641. He be- 
came mmister of the reformed church at 
Rpuen, and afterwards of that at Charen- 
ton; but on the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes he sought an asylum in England, 
where he met with a flattering receptiout 
being created D. D. at Oxford, and made 
treasurer of the church of Salisbury. He 
died at London in 1717. His most esteemed 
works are, 1. Reflections on all the Books 
of Holy Scripture, published at liondon in 
16S8, and reprinted bv bishop Watson, in 
his Collection of I'heoiogical Tracts. 2. A 
Vindication of the ancient Jewish Chiirdb, 
a^inst theiUnitarians, 8vo. 169I,mencioned 
with great respept by bishop Horsley in lue 
Letters to Dr. Priestley. S. Remarks on 
the Ecclesiastical History of the ancient 
Churches of Piedmont, 4taf—/i(c^. 

Alloisi (Balthazar),an eminent histori- 
cal and portrait painter, was bom at Bo- 
logna in 1578, and studied under the Ca- 
racci He died in 16.18^— P/Vi/^yfwr. 

Allorx (Alexander), a painter of Flo- 
rence, was instructed by his uncle Bronzin, 
and had for his pupil the celebrated Avoli. 
He excelled in naked figures, and died in 
1607, aged 72^—Moreri, 

Al MACRO (Diego d*), a Spanish ccmi* 
mander,of mean descent, who accompanied 
Pixarro in the expedition against Peru in 
1525. He is accused of having had a share 
in the murder of Atahualipa, the inca. Tii 
1535 he took Cuzco, the capital of Chili, 
and reserved the plunder' for himself, which 
giving ofi*ence to Pizarro*s brothers, who 
were there, he made them prisoners, and a 
civil war ensued. For some time Almagro's 
party liad great success, but at length he 
was taken prisoner, after an obstinate bat- 
tle. After a long confinement he was 
strangled, in 1538, aged 75. His son Diego 
endeavoured to revenije his father's death, 
but failed in the attempt^ and was beheaded 
by De Castro in \5<'^^^MariaM. 

Alma IN (James), divinity-professor in 
the college of Navaire, at Paris. He virrote 
a vindication of Lewis XIL against pope 
Julius 11. and defended the authority of 
councils against Cajetan. He died in 1515. 

Almamon, or Ardallah, caliph of Bag- 
dad, was the son of Harouu Al Raschid, and 
succeeded his brother Al Amin in 813; he 
was a great encourager of learned men, and 
founded an academy at Bagdad, to which 
he invited able professors to teach the lan<« 
guages and sciences. He calculated a set of 

A L M 


tlie most celebrated ancient authors to be 
iranslated into Arabic. He died in 833. — 
ifcfar/. Uii. Hist, 

Almansor, king of Cordova, in Spain, 
ascended the throne after Alhaca, who died 
in 976 : he was in perpetual war with the 
Christians, and gained many great battles 
He died in 1002. — Moreri. 

Almanzor (the Victorious), was the se- 
cond caliph of the race of the Abba^sides, 
and ascended tlie throne in 753. He was 
opposcdby hisunclc, Abdallah-ebn-Ali, who 
was defeated by Aktianzor's general, Abu 
Moslem. Fearing this general's ahilitien 
and popu]arity,he caused him to be ussassi- 
Bated. Several insurrections took place in 
his reign, which were all suppressed. He 
dbed on a pilgrimage to Mecca in the 63d 
year of his age- — Mod, Uh. Hist, 

Almarus, or Aklmerus, was abbot of 
the nK)nastery of St. Austin, in Canterbury, 
and bishop of Sherborne in 102U. On be- 
coming blind lie retired to his cell, and 
spent the remainder of hi« days iir devo- 
tion- — Biog, Br. 

Ai^McjoA (Francis), a Portuguese gentle- 
man, was appointed, in 1505, tne first vice- 
roy of Inditu lie took the city of Quiloa, 
and made many other important conquests. 
Being informed that a rich Arabian fleet 
lav in the harbour of Panama, he proceed- 
ea thither with his squadron, and found the 
•hips protected by a rampart and a strong 
rarrison. Almeida, however, ventured to 
land, and, after an obstinate conflict, de^ 
feated the enemy, and set the city and ships 
on fire. While he was thus engaged, Al- 
buquerque received orders from Portugal 
to supersede him, but Almeida, being about 
to proceed to Dabul with a ^eet, refused 
to deliver up his government. In this 
expedition he sullied his reputation by 
putting all the inhabitants of the citv 
to the sword. He afterwards fell in with 
the fleet of the enemy, and defeated it; 
this produced a peace. On his passage to 
Burope he was slain at the Cape of Good 
Hope, in a skirmish with the natives- 

Almeida (ApoUinarius de), a Portu- 
yiesc Jesuit, who was a missionary in Ethi- 
opia. On being driven from that country 
he suffered great hardships. Afterward* 
he ventured to return with two other ec- 
clesiastics, and was put to death with them 
in I568^^1&id, 

Almeida (Emanuel de), another Jesuit, 
who also engaged in the same arduous ser- 
vice, and resided in Ethiopia ten years. He 
died at Goa when he was about to return 
in 1646. He wrote the history of Ethiopia. 
— Uid, 

Ai^mon (John), a political vmter, wa» 
|)orr, at Liverpool in 1738, knd educated at 
Warirt^^ton. He served his apprentice- 
^hi^) t< . „ bookseller, after which he travelled 
pio ioroign countries. About 1759, he set- 

tled in tendon, and became a writer by 
profession. On the death of George II. he 
wrote a review of his Majr^ty's reign, which 
went through two editions. In 1761 he pub- 
liscd a review of Mr. Pitt's administration, 
Wiiich was also well received, and procured 
for the author die friendship of earl 
Temple. He was also the zealous friend of 
Mr. Wilkes, whom he defended against 
Kidgell. Tn 1765 he began business as a 
bookseller in Piccadilly; but he stUI con- 
tinued to exercise his pen in politics. Not 
long afterwards he was tried, and foun<l 
guilty, for publishing Junius*s letter to the 
king ; for which he was fined, and obliged 
to mid security for his good behaviour for 
three years. In 1774 he began the Par- 
liamentarv Register, which was the first 
periodical jwirnal of the kind. On the 
death of lord Chatham, he wrote Anecdotes 
of his life, which passed through six editions. 
After a considerable interval, he^ublished 
biographical, literary, and political Anec- 
dotes of several of the most eminent persona 
of the present age. In 1804 he gave to the 
world the genuine correspondence of Mr. 
Wilkes ; which was succeeded by a col- 
lection of the poetical works of the author 
of the Heroic Epistle to Sir William Cham- 
bers, and since by a valuable edition of 
Junius*s Letters, illustrated by numerous 
biographical and explanatory notes ^which 
w€re much wanted), and preceded by a 
critical inquiry respecting their real author, 
in which that question is satisfactorily re- 
solved, and laid at rest for ever. Mr Almon 
died Dec. VJy 1805, having retired from 
business several ye/trs. — Monthly Mug. 

Almuvadad (Ismael),an Arabian histo^ 
rian, who wrote an account of the Saracens 
in S'rcily, from 842 to 940. 'i'his MS. is in 
the library of the Lscurial in Spain, and a 
Latin version in Muratori's Rerum Itali- 
canim Scriptores. — Gen. B. D 

Aloaddin, better known by the appel- 
lation of the Old Man of the Mountains, wa* 
prince of the Arsacides, or Assassins, fronj 
whence the word assassin is derived ; his resi- 
dence was a castle between Antiochand Da- 
mascus, and he had a number of youn^ 
men with him, who were so devoted to his 
will, as to engage in any undertaking he 
chos'b to send them upon- — MorerL 

Alpaoo ^Andrew), an Italian philoso- 
pher and physician of the 15th century. 
He travelled many years in the East, and re- 
sided a considerable time at Damascun^ On 
his return to Europe he became pnTfessor 
of philosophy and medicine at Padua, 
where he died in 52a He left behind him 
several MSS. some of which were published, 
among which is a history of Arabian phi- 
k)sophers and physicians. — Moreri. 

Alp Arslan, second sultan of the dy- 
nasty of Seljuk, succeeded his uncle Togrul 
Begml06S; he defeated Romanus Diogel 
nes, emperor of the Greeks, in 1068. H-* 

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wu tubbed bT a desperate Carizmlan, 
whom he had taicen prisoner and sentenced 
to death, in XCn^^^iy HerkUL 

ALrHBKrrNicephonis),a Rassian prince, 
who when tnat coantrj was rent in pieces 
\j ciTil dissensions, at the end of the 16th 
centnrr, 'Aras sent with two of his brother! 
to fngiaod, to the care of a Russian mer- 
chant, by whom they were placed in the 
ttiUTersity of Oxford, where two of them 
(fied of the small-poz. The other entered 
into orders, and in 1618 obtained the rec« 
tory ci Wariey, in Huntingdonshire, from 
whence he was ejected in the civil war, and 
barbarously treated by the republican party. 
At the Restoration he was remstated in his 
liring, but being^ old and infirm, he com- 
mittd the care of it to a curate, and re- 
tired to Hammersmith, where he- died* — 
WaHtrs Suferuigs •ftbe Ciem 

ALPaEsius,a Jewish rabbi, who made an 
abridgment of the Talmud. He died in 
llOa^— Jlvxlor/: 

Alpbids (Avitus), a Roman poet, who 
floorished in the 3d century ; he wrote the 
lives of eminent persons, and the history of 
tht Carthaginian war, in verse^ — Foss, de 

Alphom so I. king of Portugal, was the 
fon of Henry, count of Portupil, by The- 
resa, daughter of Alphonso, king of Leon 
and Castile. At his father*8 death, in U 12, 
he was only three years old. In 1139 his 
territories were invaded by the Moors, 
bat though his troops were greatly inferior 
m numben, he obtained a signal victory 
on the plains of Ourique. In consequence 
of this, the government was changed to a 
monarchy, and he was proclaimed king on 
the field of battle. He is regarded by the 
Portuguese as the founder of their inde- 
pendance. He died in 1185, aged 76^ — 

Alpbonso rv. king of Portugal, was 
born in 1290^ and succeeded his father 
Denis in 1325. He instituted many good 
laws and regulations for the benefit of his 
subjects, and dispensed justice with impar- 
tiahty, though sometimes with too great 
seventy. He died in 1357^— iJiU 

Alpbohso V. king of Portugal, was 
horn in 1432, and succeeded his father 
Edward when he was but six years old. 
He invaded Africa several times," and took 
Arziila and Tangier, and died of the plague 
at Cintrain 1481. He was a beneficent 
prince, and an encourager of learning. 
The Portuguese discovered Guinea in his 
reiguw— Af«d l/a. Hut. 

Alphokso IIL (the Greats, king of the 
Ascnrias, was bom m 847, and ascended the 
throne in 865. He was successful in his 
wars with the Moors, but in the decline of 
life his peace was disturbed by insur- 
rections. In 906 he resigned his crown to 
hit ion Garcias, who engaging soon after 
V^ a war with the Moors, Alphonso headed 
|he army, and qbuined a great victory in 

913; he died soon after at Zamora, leavi 
ing a high character behind him. He- 
wrote a chronicle of Spanish afiairs^ — MeJL 
Unhf, HisU 

Alphonso V. king of Arragon, was bom 
in 1384, and succeeded his father, Ferd^ 
nand the Just, in 1416. Soon after his ac« 
cession a confederacy was formed against 
him, which he frustrated, but pardoned the 
conspirators. He laid claim to the throne 
of Naples, by an agreement with Joan, 
queen of that kingdom, that he should be 
her heir. This embroiled him in a war 
with several of the Italian states, and he 
and his fleet were taken by the Genoese. 
The king was conveyed to Milan, where he 
made the duke his friend, and was thereby 
enabled to conquer Naples, in 1442. He 
died there in 1458, leavmg his Neapolitaa 
dominions to his natural son Ferdinand; 
and those of Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily, to 
his brother Juan, king of Navarre. He 
was a learned prince, and a patron of men 
of letters; he was besides valiant and li- 
beral, and greatly beloved by his subjects. 
A courtier remonstrating with him for 
walking about without a guard : ** A fa- 
ther,*' says Alphonso, <*has nothing to 
dread in the midst of his children." One of 
his vessels being in danger of pwrishiog, he 
jumped into a boat, and hastened to her 
relief, saying, ** I had rather partake, than 
behold, the calamity of my people.*' — JBuyie, 

Alphonso II. king of Naples, succeeded 
his father Ferdinand in 1494. He was of 
so cruel and tyrannical a disposition that his 
subjects invited Charles VIII. of France to 
invade the country. That prince took Na- 
ples ; and Alphonso, after abdicating the 
throne, retired to a monastery in Sicily, 
where he died about 1496. — Comities^ 

Alphonso X. (the Wise), king of ham, 
and Castile, was (K)rn in 1203, and suc- 
ceeded his father Ferdiriand IIL in 1232, and 
died in 1284. His reigii was unprosperous, 
but he acquired a great reputation as a 
man of learning and science. The Alpbonslne 
Tables were drawn up under his direction, 
and at his expence. He also wrote on the 
motions of the stars, and a history cf 
Spain; but he has been charged with ut- 
tering this foolish expression, "• that if he 
hnd been consulted on the creation of the 
world, he would have given the Almighty 
better counsel." Some have supposed that 
this was merely in reprobation of the Pto* 
lemaic system, then commonly received; 
but this, it must be confessed, is a poor 
excuse for an assertion which can hardly be 
called less than blasphemvw — Moreri. 

ALPiioNsus(Peter), a Spanish writer of 
the 12th century, was at first a Jew, but 
embraced Christianity, and had Aiphonsus, 
king of Arragon, for his godfather, in 1 lOG. 
He wrote a vindication of the Christian re- 
ligion, which was printed at Cologne in 

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A L U 

Alfkteoin, a Turk, who from htmg a 
■lave ro»e to be governor of Kiiorassm and 
•overeipi of Guzna; he reigned sixteen 
years ie tving the thtone to hw son-in-law, 
Sebck Teghin, whose son Mahmoud found- 
ed the dynasty of the Gazncvids^— /)*i/</^ 

Alpini (Prosper), physician and botanist, 
was born in 1 •;.;:;, in the state of Venice. 
He was at first a soldttr,but quitt^ that 
profession and went to Padaa, where he 
made so great a in learning that he 
became deputy rector ;nid syndic. In \r.'7H 
he took hiji degree of M, D. and in ir,i<{} 
went to Eg\pt as physician to the Venetian 
consul, lie resided ' there three yeai*s, in 
which time lie greatly improved himself in 
botany. He was the* first who discovered 
the sexes and generation of piants. On 
his return to Venice in 1.58(>, Andrew 
Dorit, prince of Melfi, appointed liim his 
physician, and in I59li he was called to the 
botanical professorship at Padua, which he 
<illed, where he died in 1017. His works are, 
"Dc Mcdicina yi.^\ptiorum, libri iv," " De 
Plantis ^^gypti," ^* i)c Balsamo,*' " Dc Pr:c. 
sagienda Vita tt Morte ^Egrotantium,*' 
•« De Medicina Mcthodica," « Dc Raphon- 
tico, Dinputatio in Gymnasio Patavino !iab- 
ita, &c." *' Dc Plantis Kv«>ticis."—il/«rrr/. 

Alsop (Vincrnt), a nonconformist di- 
vine, was born in Northamptonshire, and 
educated at St. JohnVrolkge, Cambridge. 
He v;as for some time usher in the school 
ar Okcliam in Rutlandshire, and afterwards 
minister at Welhec in North^tmptonshire, 
from whence he was ejected in lCh2 foe 
nonconformity. He next became pastor to 
a congregation of difisenters in Westmin- 
ster. He was in some favour with king^s T|. vlio pardoned his son after having 
hi-cn oonvicted of treason. He died in 17CX5. 
He wrote a l><><;Ic entitled, •♦ Antisozzo," in 
answer to l)r. Sherlock, and some other 

pieces. — (:,:iuft.y. 

Alpop r Anthony), an English divine, 
was educated at Westminster-school, from 
\i'hence he wa? elected to Christ-church, 
Oxford, where l»c took the degree t^M. A. 
in I6i)6, and that of B, D. in Mm. In 1698 
lie [Ml Wished « Pabular um yEsopicarum 
Drl/ctuv," «vo. Dr. Trelawney, bishop of 
Uinchester, appointed him li'ij> chaplain, 
.ind gave him a ^prebend in his catht-dral, 
;\ith the rectory of Briglitwcll in Berkshire. 
I 'I 1717 a verdict being given again-t him 
iur the breach of a marriage contiact, he 
found it ncce.--.ary to go aliroad, but how 
lojig he continued in c::ilc is unknown. 
He died in 17'J0. In 17j*i was puhilshcd 
" Antonii Ali>opi,yEdiM Christi olim Alumni, 
Od;irum Libri duo;' bcnides which he wrote 
some poems, to be found in Dodsley's and 
otiier collections^ — 6V». Bh!^. Diet. 

Ai lUKDius (Jolin Henr)), a Cermnn dif 
\ ine, and professor of philosophy and divi- 
nity at Hcrborn, in the county of Nassau, 
aiiti al'terwards at Waissemburg iji Transyl- 
vania, where he died in IGCB, a^^-ed fiftv. 

His Encyclopzdia was much read, and held 
in esteem even by Roman-catholics; but he 
appears to greater advantage in liis Theolo- 
gia Polemica — Bayle. 

Alston (Chai'les), an eminent physician, 
was l>orn in Scotland in 1683, and educated 
at Glasgow, from whence he went to Ley- 
den, w&re he took his doctor's degree. On 
his return he settled at Edinburgh, and 
became lecturer on the materia mcdica and 
botany ) he died in 1760. He published 
*♦ Tirocinium Botanicum Edinburgense," 
I75;i, in which he attacked the sexual sys- 
tem of Linnxus. Kis ** Lectures on t^e 
JV* tteria Medica** were published in two 
vols. xio. 1770. He 'Am wrote some papers 
in the " Editiburg'u Medical Essays.'* — iW- 
ieney'i Sktrtches of Botany. 

Altuammkr (Andrew), a German di- 
vine of the sixteenth century, w:tb a native 
of Nuremburg; he was a learned man, and 
strongly attached to the priiK'nles of the 
Reformation. He wro^e " Not*..- on Taci- 
tus> Treatise on the Manners ol ue An- 
cient Germans," 4ta 1529, and bvo, 1609 • 

Althusius (John), a democratic writer 
of the 17th century, was a German lawyer. 
He wrote a treatise in defence of the sove- 
reignty of the people, in which l^e opposed 
all forms of government as being tyranni* 
cal— ./^/.y. 

ALT!i.iiJs(Gabriel), a modem Latin poet, 
was a native of Naples and of Poli- 
castro. He died about LjOO. His poemi 
are in the Delicix Poetarum Ttalorum.-^ 


Ai-Ti KG (Henry), a German divine, wai 
born at Embden 'in 1 JS3. In 1612 be ac- 
rompaiiitd his pupil the electoral prince- 

{>al;uine to Fngl;uid. 'i'lie year foliowinj 
le took his degree of D. D. at Heidelberg; 
and in 1 61 8 he was appointed one of the 
deputies of the palatinate at the synod of 
Dort. When Heidelberg was taken m 1622, - 
he narrowly e.-.e aped with his life. In 1627 
he was chosen professor of divinity at Gro- 
ningen, where he died in 1644. lie wrote 
several books on religious subjects. — Buyif, 

Al riN(» (lames), son of the above, wa* 
born at Heidelberg in 1{)18. Having com- 
pleted his studies he came to England, and 
was ordaiiied by Dr. Prideauz, bishop of 
Worcester. In 1 643 he was chosen Hebrew 
professor at Groningen, and in 1667 pro- 
fessor of divinity in conjunction with Des 
iMareU, with whom he had so violent a 
dispute that the university of / evden was 
resorted to for its advice, and tlie judgment 
rcturned'was a censure on both parties. 
Alting died in 1679, and his works were 
published at Aau(terdam in 1687, in 5 voU 

Alt I NO (Menson), a* burgomaktcr of 
Groningen, who wrote a book, entitled* 
"Dcscriptio Gernianir: Inferions,'* AmsteL 
16i}7,fol. He died in 1718, aged 76.— 

Al^r£09 of Bererlej, aa ancient Bnf^ 

A I- V 

A M A 

li*h hlnon'an, was' canon and treasurer of 
the church of St. John in Beverley, and 
died about the year 1 1 iJS. H<. wr'tc a chro- 
nkle of the English kiags, which was pub- 
Kihed by Hei~»)C in 1716*. — B.o^^.Br. 

Alva (rerdlnand Alvarez, duke of), was 
descended from one of ihe most ancient 
fafliiUes in Spain, and born in l.^Od. He 
made his first campaign at the age of 17, 
and was present at the battle of Pavia. He 
wvj^ in great favour with Charles V. who 
CLdJe him a ^nend, but though he dis- 
tinguished liimself by high orintary talents, 
he was equally noted for the cruelty of 
his disposition. At the siege of Met2 he 
pexfonned prodieies of valour; but the 
place was so well aefended that the emperor 
was obliged to raise the siege. In the cam- 

Alvarotto (Jamci), professor of law at 
Padua in the 15th century. He wrote 
" Commcntaria in Libros Feudorum." 
Frankfort, 15.S7, foL He died in 1542, 
aged 68. There were several other famous 
men of this f.imily. — Morrri, 

Alviano (Bartholomew), a Venetian ge- 
neral, who obtained signal advantages over 
the emperor Maximilian, for which he re- 
ceived triumphal honours. He died at tJie 
sie;yc of Bre«cia in l/JI.'J, a,^cd (K). The 
Slate of Venice gave him a in:ij!^i^cent bu- 
rial and pensioned his family. — Alod. Un. 

Alyattks, king of Lydia, began his 
reign B. C. 619 ; he was engaged in perpe- 
tusd wars with the Cimmerians and the 
Mcdes, and took Smyrna. He died in the 

paign against thcpope, Alva was completely 57th year of his reign. — Handatx 

successful, and obliged the pontiff to sue 
for peace, after which he repaired to Rome, 
fell on his knees before his holiness, kissed 
his feet, and solicited his forgiveness. Thus 
it appears that superstition was as promi- 
nent a part of his character as cruelty. Phi- 
lip IL sent him into the Low-countries in 
1367 to reduce them to the Spanish yoke, 
from which they were about to revolt. 
Here he established a council called the 
U9^trihmaL He filled the United Pio- 
▼inces with terror and scenes of carnage, 
for which his memory is held in detesta- 
tion to this day. After obtaining great 
advantages over the malcontents, the tide 
of success turned in their favour sOrapidlv, 
that Alva quitted the government. He 
was afterwards employed against Portugal, 
where he greatly added to his military re- 
nown, by driving don Antonio from the 
throne in 1.581. He died the next year, 
aged 74. — RoherUws Charles F, Mod, Uu. 
HlJ, lidoreri. 

Alvar£z (Francis), a Portuguese divine 
scot by Emanuel, king of Portugal, on an 
embassy to Ethiopia or Abyssinia ; he died 
in 1540, and the year following w<^u pub- 
lished a relation of his mission. — Moreri. 

Alvarez db LuNA,or Ai.VAUo,wa& the 
favourite of John II. king of Castile. He 
was the natural son of donAlvarodelAina, 
and bom in ISttS. He was in \40i^ ap- 
pointed gentleman of the l>ed -chamber to 
the king, but the courtiers dlslikin<^ Iiim, 
he was obliged to retire from court, but 
was afterwards recalled by the king, who 
at liis request banished his enemies. Aft er 
enjoying the spleridour of royal favour 
fortr-five years, he fell into di^^ace, and 
was beheaded for high tieason m 1453. — 

Alvarez (F.manuel), a Portuguese Jesuit, 
fins bom at Madeira in 1526. He wrote 
a Latin grammar of great merit, and died 
at the college of Evora, «f which he was 
rector, in l.^Si?^ — iiiJ* 

Alvarfz DE PAZ (James), a Spanish Je- 
suit, was a native of Toledo, and wrote se- 
veral spiritual treatises. He died m IClX^,— 

Alt PI us, a Platonic philosopher of 
Alexandria ; he is said to have been very 
diminutive in stature, but of a strong and 
capacious mind. He died in the 5th cen- 
tury. — Bayle, 

Altpius, a geographer of the 4th cen- 
tury, who was employed by the emperor 
Julian, first in Britain as depyty governor, 
and next at Jerusalem in relMiilding the 
temple. At the close of Hfe he was ban- 
ished, but for what cause is not known. 
A geographical description of the world 
by hira was printed in 4to. at Geneva in 
1628.— i?tfy/<f. 

AMAnEODULAT, the founder of the dy- 
nasty of fiuiyan, was the son of a fisher- 
man. He first served as a common soldier, 
and rose to command in the armies of Ma- 
kan, sultan of Dilem. He, and his tvfti 
brothers, took Persia Proper, Persian Irak, 
and Caramania, which they divided be- 
tween them. He settled at Schiraz, in 
Persia Proper, in 933, and died in 919. 
He was a liberal and warlike prince.— 

Amadeus V. count of Savov, bpn^an his 
government in 1285; he hniuortalizcd his 
name by his defence of Rhodci against the 
Turks, on which occatiion he added to his 
arms the cro^s of the order of St. John of 
Jerusalem. He died in \\V2:\.-^Mod. U, H. 
Amadeus VL count of Savoy, was one 
of the most warlike prince<5 of hxs age. He 
assisted John, king oflYan.'c, anainst Ed- 
ward, king of England, and in \:.66 passed 
into (;:c':ce to the ns'^i stance off he emperor 
John Pa!rol«>gu^. On hi- rptuni I'o presented 
tlie patriarch of Constatitinopie, who ac- 
companied him, to popt* Urban V. at Vi- 
tcrbo. He died of the plague ui ir}8;i, after 
a glorious rclj^ of ^o y/ai?. — Mun-n. 

Amadki's VII!. coiint of S^voy, entered 
upon the soverc'jjnty in 1 ;>.♦!. In 1416 
Savoy wa^ created a duchy, ?nd not lonf 
after the duke retired from tlie tl'.rone and 
his family to a monastery, where he in- 
stituted an order of knighthood, by the 
name of the Annunciata. The knights 
however lived in a luxurious style, with- 
out any of tlic severities of mocaciiism. In 

A M A 

A M A 

1459 he procured himself to he elected 
pope by the council of Basil, on which he 
took the name of Felix V. but he wasitis- 
possetsed of his title, and made a formal 
abdication in 1449, in f^vAur of Nicholas 
V. who gave lum a cardlnalship, and made 
him dean of the sacred college. He died 
in 1451, aged fi9- — Moreri, 

Amadeus IX. duke of Savoy, was a 
very charitable prince, and so beloved by 
his subjects, that they /called him the blessed 
Amadeus. He died in 1472, aged 37. — Ibid. 

Amadeus, a Portugiiese monk, of the 
order of St. Francis, published at Rome 
•ome whimsical revelations, which excited 
considerable attention at the time. He died 
in 1482. — Ibid. 

Amadeus, bishop of Lausann*, in the 
12th century, wrote a ** Panegyric on the 
Blessed Virgin,** printed at Basil, in 1587. 
He died in 1 I58^1bid, 

Amaja (Francis), professor of c!vil law 
m the university of Salamancha an Spain. 
H& wrote a commentary on the three last 
books of the Code, printed at Lyons, 1639, 
folio, l)esides other works of credit. He died 
at Valladolid, about 1640^-IAid, 

Amak, or Abulnaoie al Bokhari, a 
Persian poet in the 5th century ; he was 
entertained at the court of the sultan Khe- 
dar Khan, who instituted an academy of 
poets, of which he made Amak president. 
He lived to a great age. His chief ]K>em is 
the <♦ History of the I.oves of Joseph and 
^ Ahalaric or Amaurt, king of the Vi« 
Bigoths, was the son of Alaric 11. He suc- 
ceeded his grandfather Theodoric in 5S6. 
He married Clotilda, the daughter of Clo- 
▼it, king of France, whom he used barba- 
rously to make her embrace Arianism. At 
length she complained to her brother Chil- 
lleMrt, king of Paris, who marched against 
Amalaricyand defeated him in 581. He was 
privately slain not long afterwards.^— Afbr. 

Amalasontha, daughter of Theodoric 
kinrof the Ostrogoths, was married in 515 
la £utharic, who died soon after, leaving 
a son, Athalaric, to whom Theodoric left 
his dominions under the guardianship of 
his mother, who endeavoured to make him 
worthy of the bequest. She was an en-* 
li^htened princess, and well acquainted 
with the languages and philosophy; but 
her son, instead of profiung by her in- 
ttiurtions, gave himself up to debauchery, 
and died at the age of 16. Amalason- 
tha then placed her cousin Theodatus on 
the throne, by whom she was murdered in 
534. — Mortri. 

AMALBK,the $on of £Iipa2,and grand- 
son of Fsau, gave name to a warlike people 
of Arabia Pctrea, who were always at w«r 
with the Hebrcws.^-55. 

Amalric (Augeri), a writer in the 14th 
centuxy, who dedicated a history of the 
popes to Urban V* — MwtrL 

AatA&THXA, the Cuveao libyl, who vf* 

fered Tarquin nine books oa the fate of 
Rome, for which shedemanded 300 crowns. 
Tarquin refusing the purchase, ^e burnt 
three of them, and demanded the same sum 
for the remainder; which being rejected^ 
she then burnt three more, and required 
as much for those which were left. The 
king, astonished, consulted the priests, and 
by their advice made the purchase, and the 
books were committed to the care of two 
magistrates, who were to consult them on 
extraordinary occasions. The Sibylline 
Oracles, printed at Amsterdam, in 2 vola* 
4to. 1688, are deemed spurious. — Lactamtius* 
Titus Livim, 

Amaltheds (Attilius), a native of Italy, 
was made archbishc^ of Athens, by Paul 
V. who also sent him to Cologne in tne cha- 
racter of nuncia He '^fn» a learned man, 
and died about IGOO, — Mereri, 

Amaltheus (Jerom), an Italian physi- 
cian and poet, was born at Oderzo, m the 
Trevisan, in 1,507. He was professor at 
Padua, and died 1574. His Latin poetry 
is in great esteem. — Ibid. 

Amaltheus (John Baptist), brother of 
the above, was bom in 1525. He attended 
the Venetian ambassador to England ; and 
on his return was made secretary to p<>pe 
Phi« IV. He died at Rome in 1 573. His 
Latin poems were printed in 1550. There 
was also another brother, CTnt4itu AmuA-' 
tbeus^ who was eminent in physic and 
poetry. His Latin poems were printed at 
Venice in 1627.— /*«/. 

Amama (Sixtinus), a learned man of the 
17th century, was a native of Friesland in 
Holland, and educated at Franeker, where 
he became eminent for his knowledge of 
the Oriental languages. He was at Oxford 
in 1613, and tau^t Hebrew in Exeter col- 
lege. After residing there some vears he 
returned to Franeker, and became liebrew 
professor. He died there in 1629. Hit 
greatest work is a censure of the Vulgate. 
^fVood, A, 0. Savk. 

Am AND (Mark Anthony Gerard, sieur 
de Saint), a French poet, was bom at 
Rouen in Normandy, in 1594. His father 
was a commander in the English navy, and 
was three years confined in the Black 
Tower at Constantinople. Our author's 
poems, -v^ch are chiefly comic, were pub- 
lished in 8 vols. 1649, Paris. He died in 
1 661 rf»— Aform. 

Amasbus (Romulus), professor of Latin 
and Greek at Bologna, and secretary to the 
senate of that place. He published a trana* 
lation of Pausanias, and other ^works ; he 
died in 1558. His son Pompilius was pro- 
fessor of Greek at Bologna, and published & 
translation of part of Polybius,^— J?ayA. 

Amasis, kin^ of Egypt; he was prime 
minister to Apnes, king of that countiy, on 
whose deposition he mounted the thrtne, 
B. C 569, and immpdtately put Apraci t» 
death. Egypt flourished ereatiy in hU 
retgo, He^edB.C*525«-^&r«^w. 



^ AuATos Di PoRTDGAi, s Icarocd phy- 
ncian, whose real same waa Joha Castd- 
Wancho, was living In 155a He published 
commentaries on I)ioscoride& and Avicenna. 
— Af»r*r£, 

Amauri I. king of Jerusalem, succeeded 
his brother Baldwin IIL in 116'.^ ; he was a 
cocr^geous and enterprising prince, but 
these qualities were sullied by avarice and 
cruelty. He died in 117-1 — MaimBurgs Hut, 
oflk* Cntjadfj. 

AifAoai II. king of Jerusalem, succeeded 
fcw brother Guy de Lusignan, in 1194; 
his title was contested by Isabella, second 
daughter of Amauri I. but on her becom- 
ing a widow he married her, and was 
crowned- The Saracens having taken his 
capital, he applied for assistance to the 
European pri^ices, but before the succours 
arrived he died, in lti05.r^Moreru 

Am AC * 1 (de Chartres), a French vision- 
vrj of the thirteenth century, who main- 
tained the eternity of matter, and that re- 
Ujpon has three epochs, agreeable to the 
liree persons of the Trinity. His opinions 
were condemned by the council of Paris in 
1^209, and some of his followers were burn- 
ed. To avoid a similar fate, he renounced 
Ws errors, and retired to St. Martin des 
Champs, where he died of vexatioa^^ATpr. 
AMAZI4I1, kingof Judah, succeeded fat» 
father Joash at the age of 25. He blended 
idolatry w^th the worship of God ; defeated 
tke Edomites in the Valley of Salt, with 
the asftistanc* of the Israehtes ; but after- 
wards commenced war on his allies, by 
whom he was taken prisoner. He was slain 
by his own subjects, & C H\(X^-SS, 

Amboisk (George d*), a cardiaal, was 
bom of a noble French family, in 1 46a Be- 
ing brought up to the church, he became 
•■cccasivelY bishop of Montauban, archbi- 
rfkop of Narbofme, and bstly of Rouen. 
Lewis XU. made him prime-minister, and 
he loon acquired great popularity, by 
taking off tho uxes which had usually 
been levied on the people at the accenion 
rf every new monarch. The king, by his 
idtice, undertook the conquest of the Mi- 
haese, and succeeded. Soon after this he 
vas appoiBted the pope's legate in France, 
with tn^ dignity of cardinal, and in that 
txpapXf t&cxeA a considerable reform 
ainong the religious orders. He died in 
1510,and on his death-bed often said to the 
friar who attended him, ** Brother John, 
why have not I been my whole life Brother 
John?** D'Amboise was one of the best 
iRatemien France ever had : he reformed 
the church, purged the courts of justice, 
cased the bvraem of the people, and en- 
^ovoored to promote the pubhc happiness. 
His nephew, George D'Amboise, succeeded 
hioi in the archbishopric, and in 1546 was 
ereaied a cardinal. He died in 1546^— 

Ajfsoisz (Francis), a French writer, was 
Ike ton of a yorgeoii, and educated in the 

A M B 

college of Navarre, after which be 1 
an advpcate in the parliament of Paris, and 
lastly counsellor of state. He published se« 
vera! poetical pieces in French, and some in 
the Latin language ; he also edited in 1-616, 
the works of Peter Abelard, to which he 
prefixed a preface.^ — MwcrU 

Amuoise (Frances de), the wife of Peter 
IL duke of Britann^r, wlvo treated her with 
great brutality, which she bore with meek- 
ness. She distinguished herself by eflectiag 
a reformation in the manners of the Bretons. 
On the death of the duke, in 1457, she- was 
solicited in marriage by the prince of Savoy, 
but refused the oiTer, and retired into a 
monastery, wiicreshe died in 1485ir— Zf/Sr 
by Barrin, 

Ambrose, deacon of the church of Alex- 
andria in the third century, was converted 
from the errors of VaTentius or Marcioa 
by the arguments of Qrigen, for whom he 
ever after had the greatest veneration. la 
the time of Maximin he narrowly escaped 
martyrdom, and died at Alexandria about 
the year 25(X St. Jerome mentions sorrne 
excellent letters of his, which are now lost. 
—-Dupin. TiUemont, 

Ambrose (St.), archbishop of Milan, was 
bom about S40. His father was prefect of 
Gaul, and gave his son an excellent educa- 
tion. His eloquence as a pleader procured 
for him the governorship of Lijj^ria aad 
^milia. On the death of Amentius, arcJ^ 
bishop of Milan, in 374, a contest arose be- 
tween the arians and catholics about elect- 
ing a sifcccssor. The tumult in the church 
was so great that Ambrose found it neces- 
sary to go thither to restore peace. His 
harangue to the people was so majestic and 
aSTecting, that a votce from the multitude 
exclaioMd, ** Let Ambrose be bishop." This 
operated so powerfully upon the people 
tliat all his endeavours to resist the a]^iat- 
nient proved ineflfectual, and he waa 
consecrated bishop. la 338 he was sent 
by the emperor Vaknttnian to the tyrant 
\Iaximus,and prevailed upon him nottv 
enter Italy. About the same time, the hea- 
thens endeavouring to restore their reli- 
gion, employed Symmachus, prefect of 
Rome, to plead tl'ieir cause, in which h^ 
was baffled by "Ambrose, who also experi- 
enced some trouble from the Arians. The 
empress Justina was of that sect, and de- 
manded of him the Portian church at Milan 
for the Arians, which he refused. He waa 
sent again to Maxiz^us; but notirithstand- 
ing his eloquence the tyrant entered Italy, 
and made himsdf master of the western em- 
pire, and entered Milan in triumph. Vsh 
leotinian sought refuge with Theodosius,. 
who defeated Maximus, and restored tlie 
fugitive monarch to his throne. ^ While 
Theodosius wasin Italy an Iniurrectton hap* 
pened in Thessal0Dica,in which the empe- 
ror's lieutenant was slain. Theodosius in 
revenge put to death a vast number ofper^ 
•onaia cool blood. Soon after this mijfccte 

A k E 

A M te 

he came to Mitan, and was about t0 enter 
the p-eat church, when he was met at the 
door by Ambrose, who refused h»m ad- 
mittance as a homicide ; and it was not 
till a year afterwards, and his shewin^r to- 
kens of repentnnce, that the prelate would 
admit him to christian communion. Am- 
brose died at Milan in 397, and was buried 
in the great church of that city. The best 
edition of hir works is that of Paris, in 
2 vols, folio, led I. He composed that no- 
ble hymn « Te Deum laudamus." — Dupin. 

Ambrose, general of the order of Ca- 
maldiilt, was born at Portico, in Romagna. 
He distinguished himself by his eloquence 
in the Greek lans^ at the council of Ba- 
sil, and by transliiting several ancient au- 
tfasrs. rte diedin 14;>9. — rossiut. Dup'w. 

Ambkose dk Lombez (pere), a learned 
capuchin, was born at Lombez in 1708; 
he wrote several pieces on spiritual subjects, 
and died at St. Saviour, near Bareges, in 
niB^Nouv. Diet. Hht. 

Ambrosz (Isaac), a nonconformist di- 
vine, v,-ns bom in" I.ancashire; he wapof 
Br3s?nosc-coUcge, Oxford, where he took 
the deforce of B. A. catered into orders, and 
served ^ small cure in his own country. On 
the breaking out of the rebellion-he quitted 
the church of Knjrhmd, took the covenant, 
and became a prcsbyterian preaclier, first at 
Garstanj:, and afterwards at Preston. lie 
died in 1574. His works are much esteemed 
by the Calvinijts, particularly one entitled, 
•* Looking unto Jesus." — CaUitny. 

AMHROiiNi (Barth^^lomew), professor of 
phvsic, and director of the botanical garden 
at l5ol(;.;;ia, where he died in 1657. He 
published, 1. Pan;iC3ea ex Herbis qux a 
Sanctis denomJnantur, IGfW, 8vo. fi. Histo- 
ria Cnpsiconim cum Tconibi:s, Ifu^O, liJmo. 
.*J. Thcodorica Mcd'rma, lA'.'Vi, -jto. His 
brother ami sv.ccc>sr.r. Hyacinth, published 
several valuable works on botany.^ — Gen, 
JB. D. 

AMnRosius AuRiTLiANus, king of the 
Pritons; alx.ut A. D. ^157, he came from 
Ar.norica, to assist in expelling the Saxons, 
who had been invited o^^cr by Vorti*.;cm. 
On ihe dc:'lh of that monarch, the sove- 
reign ty v/:is invented in him, a!id he main- 
tained \\\c dimity v/'th credit. The famous 
Artlii.r Av;.s brought up under him. Am- 
brcsius died at Winchester in 508. — ^/Vj-. 

Amklius (Ccini!iaiius),ap!r.tonic Phito- 
sopher, was the disc'ple of Plotinus, by 
whom he was cmph)%cd to teach hi** other 
pupilr. Nf;ne of his v.orks vsv cxtr.nt. He 
Lvrd in the third con^r.ry — Hoylr. 

Amet.ot vt. i-a Hur-v; 'V\k (Abraham 
M';hcl!::.\a Fre'ich writer, was born at Or- 
lrr\r.i^ in l?^rM. He became secretary tw the 
Frencli ?riibass.''dcT at Venire, but bcintj 
imprudcnr, he died very pcorin 17(>6. He 
wrote a Liftory of thc'governinent of Ve- 
nice, and translated ipt(^ French Mnchia«'el's 
iV^e, Father Paul's History of the Coun- 
cil of Trent, Graiian's Courtier, Tariius's 
«&Asuds, and gome other v/orks.—- il/^rrr/. 

Amelot (Denis), a priest of the oratoty^ 
and doctor of the Sorbonne, was bom ui 
ItfOti. He translated the New Testament 
into French, with notes» four volumes 
8vo. 166; he aUo wrote "An Abridg- 
ment of Theology, 4to. and •» A Har- 
mony of the Gospels," 12mo. He died 
in 1678.P— JVforrr/. 

Amerbach (John), a printer of Basil, in 
Switzerland, in the 15th century. He first 
made use of the Roman type instead of the 
Gothic and Italian. Heoicd in 1515. His 
son John was professor of law at Basil, and 
syndic of that city ; he was the intimate 
friend of Erasmus, and died in 1562, aged 
err^—MdcL Adam. Vii. 

AMERicA. This extensive continent, 
both north and south, takes its name from. 
Amer'icus Vespniimy who first discovered 
Mexico, in 1498, attributing to Columbus 
the knowled7;c of the West India islands 
only. Terra Firmay which reaches from Da- 
rien to Nicaraga, was conquered by the 
Spaniards under Pedrarias in 1514, and the 
other parts, as far as the river Oronoqae, 
were reduced by private adventurers. Bra.* 
tH was discovered by the Portngese in 
1500. In 16.^} the Dutch took possession of 
the northern part, but were expelled in 
1664. Prru was conquered by Francis Pi- 
zarro in l.'JSt?, in tJie reign of Hunscur 
the thirteenth inca from Manco Capac, the 
founder of the governn^ent, about 1270i 
Chill was conquered Iry Baldivia, a Spanish 
general, in 1540. Me\uo was conquered 
by Cortez in 1521. Louisiana was disco- 
vered by the French in 165.S, who did 
not take possession of it till 1718. In 1763 
they yielded to the English that part which 
h'cs to the east of the Mississippi, which was 
ceded to the Si^aniards at the peace of 1783, 
who resigned it to the -Frencn in 1801, by 
whom it was sold to the United States in 
1 80U. Florida remained in the possession of 
the Spaniards from 1521 to 1763, when it 
was ceded to the English, l^ whom It was 
relinquished in 178ft. * North America was 
di*jcovered by Sebastian Cabot in 1497. The 
first part of it colouized by the English was 
Virginia, in lo'OT, when'james-town was 
buiit. Nirrv i^.W^TWi/ was first settled in 1614. 
In U)'2()the puritpnsfled thither from Eng- 
land, and built New Plymouth, Bostoii, and 
other places. Part of N<nt*Vort was settled 
by the Dutch in \GOK The ^wedes arrived 
shortly after, and fixed themselves in an- 
other pirts; but they were both dispossessed 
in Ifi64 by the English. Fennsylt'OKia wai 
firn settled by William Pean in "l681 ; Jl£»- 
n-i'"'/ by lord Bahinore in 1633; CantitM 
in Itao ; ?nd Gmr^h by general Oglethorpe 
in MM. All the'^e cohraies, from New fcn^ 
hnd in the norrh, lo Georgia in the ?outb, 
revolted from ^ Jreat Britain in 1775, and the 
next vear .isserted their indepchdancc, which 
was allowed in 178S. Ncoa Scotia was settled 
by sir William Alexander in 1662, but ten 

?'ear8 afterwards it wa<* sold to tfcc French* 
t was taken ng:nin iu 1654, and ceded back 
in 1662;^ ecovcred by &ir W^iUiam Pbippt 

A M H 

A M M 

m 1690, and given again to the French in 
1697 ; but tlie Eng^Hsh conquered it once 
note in 1710, «iid it was cooiirmed to thcxQ 
at the peace of Utrecht in 1714. Canada was 
taken possessioft of by Che French in 1525. 
Quebec was built in 1608 ; but the whole 
coimtry- was conquered by the English in 
2759, and has been in their hands ever 
unctr^Mod. UHiiK Hist. Robertsons HisU 
Amer.. Burkes HuL of European SMlemmts in 
Jhur. Gvri9na Hist, eftbe Atfuruan War. 
AMZKIC17S, see Vrsputius. 
AiiEs(li(''iUiam), a puritan divine, wa« 
born in Norfolk ^ 1576, and educated at 
Christ-college, Cambridge, where he be- 
csime a rigid puritan, on which, to aVbid 
esnatsioQ, he went to Franeker,in Holland, 
and was chosen professor of divinity. He 
afterwards setded at Kotterdam as associate 
vith Hugh Peters, who ha4 gathered a 
coQgre^dun of Brownists in that city. 
Anies died in 1 633. He was a man of leam«* 
iD^, but his principles were narrow. The 
pnodpal of his works is entided '* Medulla 
Iheologica.** Uis son William was ejected 
Cram the living of VVrentham, in Suffolk j in 
16(2, and died in lf>i9. He published a 
sennon, called ** The Saint's Security against 
tedudfig Spirits, &c"— JViw/Zj Hist, I^krUant. 
CaUwnfs Jtccwni cf^i^ Ministers. 

Amks (Joseph), secretaxy^to the societr 
flf aQnqiiaries,.was originaUy a ship-chand* 
ler ia WApping. ^ He devoted himself to the 
itodyof amii)uities, in whidx he acquired 
j^eat eminence^ and published a work en- 
tided, « Tvpogtaphical Antiquities, bein^ 
an histoncal Account of Printing in Eng- 
land, &c." 4to. 1749 ; also in 8vo. a list of 
Eariish portraits, engraved and mezzotinto, 
and compiled the ** Parcntalia>" from the 
papers of Mr. Wren. He died in 1759w— 
Niibois's Anccd, of Boioyer^ 
. AjtaEasT ( Jeilery, lord), was descended 
fram an ancient family at Scvenoaks, in 
Kent, were he was bom in 1717. He en-* 
teredinto the army in 1731, and in 1741 
ms aide-de-camp to general I jgonier, under 
whom he served at the battles of i3ettingen, 
Fontenoy, and Rocoux. In 1 756 he ^as ap- 
pointed cdoncl of the 15th regiment of 
ioot. in 1758 he went to America, and 
commanded at tlve siege of Louisbourg. 
llie same year he was appointed com- 
mander in chief of the forces in America, 
and governor of Virginia. On .the acces^ 
sion of George UI. he was made knight of 
<hebatfa,andin 1763 returned to England, 
la 1771 he was appointed governor of 
^«eRisey,and the year following lieutenant- 
geaeral of the ordnance. In 1776 he was 
created bnron Amherst of Holmsdale. In 
J774 he had the command of the army in 
England; and in 1783 he received the gold 
stick from the Idi^ ; but on the change of 
minisien his military appointments were 
trauf erred to other £umds. He was again 
moint^ commander in chief of Great 
naiaia 1733, but. resigned in 1795, and 

was made field-marshal. He diad' in 
1798, and his remains were interr^ tn 
Sevenoaks diurch. Though a strict dis- 
ciplinarian, he was the soldier's friend, and 
his private character was very respectable. 
He was twice married, but left no issue, 
and the title devolved to his nephew^— ^> 
Necrology for 1798. 

Amuurst (Nicholas), was born atMar<« 
den, in Kent, and educated at Merchant 
Taylors* school, from whence he was re^ 
moved to St. John's colle|ie, Oxford, b u 
was expelled for irregularity without ta k 
ing a degree. In consequence of this dfs« 
grace he wrote several satires against the 
university, under the title of Terrs FiUust 
S vols. 1 2mo. 1726. On settling in London* 
be became a writer by profession ; his most 
celebrated undertaking, was « I'he Crafts- 
man," which was carried on for many 
years with great success.^ In this paper h< 
was assisted by lord Bolingbroke an4 Mr. 
Pokeney, who negleaed nim whenihey 
got into place.' Hedied of a broken heart 
m 1 74SL— C/tfrr'/ Liws •/ the Poets. 

Amxconx (Giacomo), an historical and 
portrait painter of Venice, who came to 
Bngland in 17S9, and painted many £se 
pieces for the principal nobility. He after- 
wards went to Spain, and was appointed 
portrait painter to the king, an^ (bed thera 
mil 52,^BilkiHgten. 

Amxcu s TAntonius), a .Siciliftn priest, and 
can«n of tne cathedral of Palermo, who 
distinguished himself by some consider- 
able Works in history and antiquities. Philip 
IV. of Spain conferred on him the title of 
historiographer royaL His principal wor)c 
is entitled, *< Sicilide Regum Annales ab 
anno 10(>0 usque ad prxsens seculum." He 
died in 1641. — Moreri. 

Amin, the son of the caliph Haroun al 
Raschid, succeeded his father in 809, on 
condition that bis brother Almamon was 
to reign after him. ' He endeavoured to 
deprive his brother of the succession, and 
in consequence a war broke put between 
them. Thacr, the general of Almamon, 
took Bagdad, and having seized Amin as he 
attempted to escape, cut ofFhis head. ' He 
was theh t)iirty years old, and had re^ed 
but fivejf<<ar8. — D^RerM^t. 

Amman (John Conrad), a native of Swit-< 
iterkhd, and a physician, Qbtaii)ed great 
credit by teaching per^ns to spe^k wh.9 
were born deaf. He published an excel- 
lent work on that subject, entitled ** Siirdlie 
Loquens," in 1692. Fie died at Amsterdam^ 
about nSO.—'ffalleri JSii. Anat. 

AMMAN (Paul), a Aactive of Breslaw, and 
. piKjfessor of physic at Leipsic. He wrote 
sorafe descriptive pieces in botany, and didi 
in 16D0.— (?«-». B.D, 

Ammanati (Bartholomew), a Florentine 
sculptor and'architca, was bofnioI5llp 
and died in 1.592. He built many elegant 
edi£ces in his owxi country add a^Rofik v 
Ifeuv. DicU HUi^ - , . .* . 


A M O 

A>titfAKAn (Laura Battiferri), tvifie of 
the pKcedinfT', was the dnughter of John 
Aruonlo Battiforriy and born at Urbino in 
1^3. Her poems, which were published at 
Florence in 1^60, and at Naples in 1594, 
arc held in great esteem. She was elected 
a. member of the academy oi Jntronatl at 
Sienna, and died at Florence in 1589.— t 
Noirv. Dick Hist, 

Ammianus (MarceHinus), a I^tin histo- 
rian, was bom at Antioch, and served in 
the army of Julian. He wrote.the Roman 
history from the reign of Nerva to the death 
of Valcns, in thirty-one books, of which 
only eighteen are extant. The best edition 
is that of Gronovius in 1693. He died 
about 3JX).— f^M^w de Hist, I.aU BayU. 

Ammirato, or Ammirati (Scipio), an 
Italian writer, Was born at X^ucca, in tht 
kingdom of Naples, in 1331. He first prac- 
tised the law, and tlien took orders ; but 
being disappointed of preferment, he en- 
tered into the service of a nobleman as ee- 
cretary. The city of Lucca employed him 
on a mission to the pope ; he afterwards 
settled at Florence, of which republic he 
wrote the history, in 2 vols, folio, and re- 
ceived in recompencc a canonry in the ca- 
thedral. He died in 1600. He wrote se* 
veral other works in the Italian langnage, 
both in prose and ver^e.^^Morrri, 

Ammon, the son of Lot, was father of the 
Ammonites, who were generally at war 
with the Israelites. He lived about 1900 
years before Christ. — S5. 

Ammonius, a peripatetic philosopher at 
Athens, who flourished about A. D. 60. 
Plutarch, who was his pupil, often men- 
tions him in his works.— P/v/. /'« f^it, Tbf 
tnitt, Suidaa, 

Ammonius, another philosopher of the 
lame sect who lived in the 6th century, and 
taught at Alexandria. He was the disciple 
of Procius, and obtained great reputation 
as a preceptor. His Commentaries on Aris- 
totle and Porphyry are still extant^ — BayU, 

Amm«kjus Saccas, a philosopher of the 
third century, and the founder of the ec- 
lectic sect, was bom of christian parents, at 
Alexandria, where he studied under Athena- 
goras PantaBnusjAnd Clemens Alexandrinus, 
which seems to refute the assertion that he 
took tlie surname of Saccas from being a 
porter. Porphyry says that he renounced 
the christian rcligion,io which he had been 
educated, and embraced paganism; but 
£bi«btus and others deny it. He instituted 
an academy at Alexandria. to reconcile the 
principles of Plato and Aristotle, and among 
other eminent disciples he had the cele- 
brated I^onginus. He died about the year 
243w — Porphyr. Fit. Plotin. S,d>ridu\ JJjyU. 

Ammomus the grammarian, flourished 
at Alexandria at the end of the fourth cen- 
tury. ' A* lexicon of Greek synonymcs, 
printed at Venice in 1497, is attributed to 
bim.— i\jii ictus. 

AuMaNitfi^ a famous surgeon ^f Alex* 

andria, invented a method of extracting tht 
stone from the bladder, which procured him 
the fcurname of the litbat^istw—Le CicnA 
Hitt. of Physic, 

Ammonius (Levinu8),a Carthusian monk 
in Flanders, was greatly esteemed by Eras- 
mus and other emi Dent men for his learning 
and piety. He died at Ghent in 1556 . 

Ammonivs (Andrew), a learned Italian, 
who came to England at the beginning of 
the 15th century, and became secretary to 
Henry VIIL He died in London in 1517. 
He wrote some poetical pieces in Latin*— 

Awo NTO N s (William), a French philoso- 
pher, was born in Normandy in 16(>3. 
Becoming deiif, he applied himself to the 
study of mechanics and practical mathe- 
matics. In 1687 he presented a new hr- 
groscope to the academy of sciences, which 
was 4ipproved. He also discovered a 
metliod of conveyiiig information from 
one place to another by signals, and which is 
now known by the name of the telegraph. In 
1695 he pubhsl\ed a book On the construc- 
tion of barometers, thermometers, &c. 
which is the only piece' of his in print, ex- 
cept some papers m the Memoirs of the 
Academy of Sciences, In 1699 he was ad* 
mitted a member of that learned body. 
He died in noS^^FoHteneUes Eulogy. Noitv. 
Vict. Hitt. 

Amory (Thomas), a dissenting divme, 
was bom at Taunton, in SomersctAirc, in 
1700. He was educated onder his uncle 
Mr. Grove, whom he succeeded as pHa- 
cipal' tutor in the academy at Taunton. He 
also oificiated to the congregation there 
till 1759, when he removed to London, and 
became afternoon preacher at the meeting 
in the Old Jewry ,#>f which, on the death of 
Dr. Chandler, he was appointed sole pastor. . 
In 1768, the university of Edinburgh con- 
ferred on him the degree of D. D. At this 
time he became one of the lecturers at 
Salters -hall. In 1 770 he was chosen morning 
preacher at Newington green. He was 
also chosen one of the committee appointed 
by the dissenters, in 1 772, to procure an 
extension of tiie act of toleration. He died 
in 1774,and was interred in Bunhill-fiekis 
burying-ground. He wrote two volumes 
of sermons,** The Life of Mr. Henry Grove," 
"Memoirs of Dr. Benson," and of •Dr. 
Samuel Chandler."— i?/of. Br. 

Amory (Thomas),anextraordinary wri- 
ter, was the son of counsellor Amory > wht 
was appointed by king William secretary 
for the forfeited estates in Ireland. H e ajH 
pears to have been bred to physic* bui 
never practised that or any ether profession. 
He led a very recluse life in his house i% 
Westminster^ carefully shunning company, 
and never stirring out till -the eveninff. 
He died there at the age of 97, in 178$C 
Our author wrote, 1. Memoirs containing 
tlie Lives of several Ladies of Great fir%Y 



bun, 8vo. 175.?, and afterward* irt 2 volt. 
12mcK This singidar work is of the novel 
kind, btit it is nuidcthe vehicle of arianism 
or socinianism, as also is his next publica- 
tion, « The Life of John Bnnclc, Esq.'* in 
4 voU. 12ino. He wrote likewise two letters 
in the Theological Repository, on the na- 
t«ral proofs of a future state. — Eutvpean 
Mag. veL XV. 

Amos, the third of the minor prophets, 
was a shepherd of Tekoa, and supposed to 
have been the father of Isaiah. He pro- 
phesied in the reigns of Jehoram, king of 
Israel, and Uzziah, king of Judah. — SS. 

Amove (William dc St), doctor of the 
Sorboone, >ind canon of Bouvais, was bom 
at St. Amour, in Franche Comte ; he was 
a cealous defender of the rights of the uni- 
TcrsitT of Faris ; his book on the perils of 
the latter times was condemned by Alex- 
ander rv. who s1k> banished him to his 
■atfre place ; t>ut on the death of the pope 
he returned to Paris. He wrote other 
works, and died in 1272^— D«r^/n. McrfrL 

Amour (Lewis de St.), doctor of the St)r- 
boooe, and rector of the university of Paris 
He went to Rome as the advocMc fur the 
jansenistB. He was expelled the borbonne 
for not stgniiigf the condemnation of Ar- 
naold. He died in IG87^-— /)»/m. Moreri, 

AMriiTLOCBius, bishop of Ironium in the 
4th century, was at the coimcil of Constan- 
tioople in 381, and president of that of 
Sida .in ^&5» He zealouslv opposed the 
arians, and recovered Theoaosius from that 
party. He died about 394.r^Diip/m Cave* 
Hut, Lot, 

AMPBiBALus,stimamed Brito, because he 
was a native of Britain, lived in the third 
century. He is said to have been a native 
of Exeter, where he acauired a knowledge of 
lan^ruages ; after whicn he went to Rome, 
and having completed his studies, returned 
to his native country. He preached the 
gospel succeasliiUy in England and Scotland, 
and wrote pious pieces. Some authors siiy 
he was bishop in the isle of Anglesea, and 
others that he suffered martyrdom in 891^— 
HeehrB«eee, Hut. Scwlia, P' Scrift. Angl. 

AMpBiicoPusandANAFiuSftwo richbn> 
thers of Catania,' in Sicily, who, in an 
ertrption of mount ^tna, abandoned all 
their property to save their aged and infirm 
par^ts by carrving them on their shoul* 
^/Stij-^VaUrius Maximiu. Seneca de Bene/. 

^Mpsmcius (John Asstu'us), professor 
of physic at Rostock in the beginning of 
the 17tK century. He wrote some learned 
treatises on ihedical subjecu in Latin, print- 
ed in 16I9.-^-Gm. B. /X 

AMKv-aBM»AL-AS, a famous Saracen ge- 
neral, was at first a great enemy to Moham- 
med, but afterw2uds he became his zealous 
disciple. He conquered Syria and Egypt, 
fmm whence he extended his victorious 
anns to Africa. He died governor of Egvpt, 
which fkmrished greatly under lii* acfmi- 
niitratiod, A. D. tCS^-^JD'HtrMa, MU 

Amsdorf (Nicholas), bif hop of Murcrh* 
berg, and a zealous hitheran. He held, in 
opposition to Melancihon, that good works 
arc not nerc^sary to salvation ; and a srct 
wns formed called Amsdoriians. He died in 
1 54 1 , — Ahreri. Mosbeim. 

AwURATfi I. sultan of the Turk's, succeed- 
ed his father Orchan in 1380. He com- 
pleted the conquest of the Greek empire, 
and defeated a formidable army of confede- 
rates 6n the plain of Kossova ;'but after the 
battle he was stabbed by a soldier of the 
enemv, of which wound he died in 1389, 
aged n^Mod, Un. Hht. 

Amur ATI! II. succeeded his father Mo- 
hammed I. in 142'i. The beginning of his 
reign was disturbed by pretenders to the 
throne, who were supported by the Greek 
emperor. After quell In^^ these attempts, he 
resi^ne<l his throne to his son Mrthomet, 
and retired in 1443 to a society of dervises. 
from whence he was soon recalled to en- 
gaije against the Hungarians, who had in- 
vaded the Turkish dominions. Amurath 
gHined a great victory over the christians 
at Varna, and then returned to his retire- 
ment, but was called from it .igain in 1446 
to ^Uell a revolt of the janizaries,, and to 
resist the famous Scandcrbeg. He suc- 
ceeded in both these objects, and the;i 
turned his arms against the Hungarians 
with his wonted good fortune. Finding 
his son inadequate to the imperid station, 
he sent him to govern Asia Minor, and re- 
sumed the throne. He died in 1451, aged 

Amur.vth IU. succeeded his father Selim 
II. in 1575. On his accession he caused his 
five brothers to be murdered, which so af- 
fected his mother that she stabbed herself. 
He added several of the best provinces of 
Persia to the Turkish empire, and died iii 
15y*), aged b^L—Ibid. 

Amurath IV. succeeded his uncle Mus- 
tapha in 1622. He recovered Bagdad from 
the Persians in 10*37, after which he put 
30,000 of the enemy, who had surrendered 
at discretion, to tlie sword. He died of 
excessive debauchery in 1640, aged 31.— 

Amv (N.), an advocate in the parliament 
of Aix,diedin 17G0. He wrote, I. Obser- 
vations on the Waters of the Seine, &c, 
12mo. «2. New Filtrating Fount.iins, li^mo. 
3. Reflections on Copper, Lead, and Tia 
Vessels, I'imo. — Nnm: Diet, H-st. 

Amyot (Jame.j},bi.^hop cf Auxerre, and 
great almoner of France, was born of low 
parents at Milan, in 1514, and educated at 
Paris on charity. He left fhe university at 
the age of twenty-three, and became tutor 
to the children of a secretary of state, wh© 
recommended him to the duchess ofBerrv, 
by whose means he became professor of 
Greek and Latin fai the university of 
l^ourgcs. Here he translated into French 
the memoirs of Theagenes and Ch aricJea, 
which procured bim an abbey. Bv the reii. 



commendation of cardinal de Toumon he 
was appointed preceptor to the two youn^ 
est sons of Henry II. While en^ged in 
this station he translated the lives of Plu- 
tarch. Charles IX. g:»ve him the abbey of 
Cornelius de Compeigne, and made him 
grand almoner of France, and bishop of 
Auxerre. He was also appointed curator 
of the university of Paris. Henry III. added 
to these distinctions that of commander of 
the order of the Holy Ghost. He died in 
1593. Besides the above works, he translated 
seven books of Diodorus Siculus, some 
Greek tragedies, and the pastoral of Daph- 

Amyrawt (Moses), a French divine, was 
bom in 1596, at Bourgueil, in Tourain. He 
studied theology at Saiimur, where he was 
chosen professor df divinity. The council 
of Charenton deputed him to make a re- 
monstrance to the king on the infraction of 
the edicts in favour of the protestants. His 
conduct on this occasion brought him ac- 
quainted with cardinal Richelieu, who held 
him in great esteem. ' Departing from the 
hiph calvinistic notions of election and re- 
probation, he brought upon himself the 
charge of heresy from Peter du Moulin. 
Ttus dispute occasioned for a time consider- 
able disturbance among the French protes- 
tants, But Aniyraut, by his moderation, 
came off with great honour, and was re- 
spected by good men of both religioi>p. 
He also gained gjteat credit in 1C47, by 
writing again&t the notion, that subjects 
have a right to take up arms against their 
sovereign. He was a mai^ of uiuversal cha- 
rity, and distributed liis salary to the poor 
without any regard to their religious sen- 
timents. He died in 1 60"4. — BayU. 

AMvkuTZEs, a .peripatetic philosopher, 
and native of T^rebizond, flourished in ^he 
fifteenth century. Having abjured the 
christian religion, the sultan Mahomet IL 

fave him several preferments, and employed 
im in translating some book^ol the chris- 
tians into Arabic^ — Bayle, 

Ana CHAR SIS, a Scythian philosopher, 
travelled to Athens in tlie time bf Solon, by 
whom he was greatly esteemed. He was 
the only stranger the Athenians ever ad- 
mitted to the honour of citiz^enship. Crucsus 
invited him to Sardis, with the pifer of 
riches, but he replied, ** tliat he came to 
Greece for ipiprovement ^nd not for mo- 
ney." After a long stay in Greece, he re- 
turned to Scythia, where he attempted to 
introduce the customs and institutions of 
Greece, which brought upon him the en- 
mity of his countrymen. Going one day 
into a wood to perform a sacred rite to the 
goddess Cybele, he was shot with an ar- 
'row, by the king. Many of his apoph- 
thegms ar^ preserved by Lzlius, who 
wrote his life, ty Plutarch and others. An 
Athenian once reproaching him with being 
a Scythian ; ** True," says Ajiacharsis, " my 
country is a disgrace Co mp,but you are a 

disgrace to your country." — HerUotns. //»- 
tarch, Dipg. Laert, 

ANACLETus.bishop of Rome, succeeded 
I jnus in the second year of Titus,'A. D. 70. 
He is said to h;^v« sufTered martvrdora, 
after governing the Roman church thirteen 
ycarsw— /:///fwW. Hupim. 

An AC LK JUS, an anti-pope, was set up 
by Roarer king of Sicily, against Innocent 
VL whose cause was espouJ^ed by the em- 
peror Lotharius II. After a violent stni|f- 
gle, |he latter obtained the papal chair, 
and Anacletus died obscurely in 1133. — 

Anacrion, a Greek lyric poet, was bom 
at Teos, in Ionia, about the 6th century 
B. C He was entertained at the court of 
Polycrates,at Samos, who held him in great 
esteem. At the invitation of Hippardius, 
son of Pisistratus, he vi-jited Athens; and on 
the death of that prince he returned to 
leos, and remained there till the revolt of 
Hista:us, when he removed to Abdera, 
where he was choked, while drinking* by 
a grape-stone. From the few particulnrs 
that can be gathered of his life, it is evi- 
dent Anacreon was a man of vicious prin- 
ciples and most debauched manners. His 
poems, which are amatory andbacchanalian, 
are exquisitely i>eautiful, livdy, and natn- 
rral. The best editions of Anacreon are 
those of Barnes and Pauw. Two excellent 
translations of this poet hiive becnpt^lishcd 
in English, that by Fawkcs in It^rao, and 
the ouier by Moore, in lL>mo- — V.sstuz, 

Anagkosia ^Jolm), a Byzantine histo- 
rian, was living in the year i-l3ii. He wrote 
De Rebus Constantinopolitanorum Mace- 
donicis, which was published in Greek and 
•Latin at Cologne in m'y'Xi-^Hanhu dc Bjxcjd^ 

Anastasius t. emperor of the east, was 
Ixjrniu 4.40, at Duras, in lUyriciim.ofmcan 
parentage. He w;is an oliicer in the impe- 
rial palace for many years, and in 1491 be- 
came emperor by marrying the empress 
Ariadne, widow of Zeno. He was very 
popular at first, but lost the public favour 
by embroiling himself in religious feuds, 
and siding with tlie Eutychians: several 
commotions were excited on this lurcouot, 
and the emperor was at last obliged to re- 
scind what he had doue in favour of the 
•heretics. He died in 51H. — Jdad.Vn. Hut, 

Anastasius II. was raised to t{ie throne* 
"in 71.3, from a private station^ v A rival ap- 
peared against him, called Theodo>iiiu, bo 
was so well supported, that Anastasius ^a^ 
obliged to fly into Thessak)nica. \\ en 
Leo ascended, the throne in 719,Anast;i ius 
.prevailed -on titer Bulgarians to assist hif in 
taking Constantinople; but finding a grc ter 
resistance than they expected, they :li- 
vered. him up to Leo, who. put bin to 
death. — Ji>Uf. 

Akasta«?ius I. pope, succeeded Sin ittt 
in 398. He condemned the work* ot < ri- 
gejii and eicoxnmuuicated Rtu^nus^ ' \^ 



Hd tranilated one of that father's treatises. 
He died in 410^1,^ Flai'tna, Dupin. 

An A STA «i u s II. p<»pe, succeeded Gelasus 
in 495. He endeavoured to bring about a 
unkm between the eastern and western 
churches, bat was cut oiF by death from 
«xecut7ng his design in 498. — Ibid, 

Anastasius 111. pope, succeeded Ser- 
gius in 91 7, and died in 919. — IbU. 

Anastasius IV. pope, succeeded Euge- 
nius III. in 1 153, and died the year follow- 
ing. He w^<s a humane and liberal-minded 
pontilE — IbU, 

ANASTAsius,an antipopCjWas supported 
by the imperial army a^nst Benedict III. 
in 855, but was soon obliged to yield to his 
rival, 2iid died in "obscurity. — MoVeri, 

Ak.astasius the Sinaite, sb called from 
being a monk of mount Sinai, lived in the 
7th century. He wrote some pieces on 
practical divinitv, published at Ingolsladt, 
160^, 4tO. — Ca^es Hist. Lit. 

AxA5tA5iU5 (Theopolitanus), bi^op of 
Antioch in the 6th century, was bariWhedin 
570 for holding the opmions of the incor- 
ruptiblcs, «r tl^t the body of Christ wai in- 
capable of suffering even before the rcsur- ' 
reaion. In .5r»3 he was restored to his see, 
ar)d died in .*;09. His successor was also 
CiUed Anasta.«ius, and there are some reli- 
^05 discour«»es of his extant. — fabric. BibL 

AxASTASius BiBLioTHECARiU8,a Grcclc, 
was librarian of the Vatican, in the 9th 
century. His great work is the Liber Pon- 
tiBcalis; the best edition of which is that 
of 1718,4 vols, folio. He is said to have 
asanted at the council of Constantinople in 
^5, and to have translated its canons into 
LaiitL — Dupin. 

AvAToLios (St.), a native sf Alexandria, 
w?A bishop of Laodicea, in Syria, in 269. 
He was an eminent mathematician, and 
wrote a tract on the time of celebrating 
Eifier, printed in the •* Doctrina Tempo- 
nimr Antwerp, 1(53'L — Euschfui. l)iij>}n. 

Akatolius, patriarch ofConstantmople 
in the .^th century. He contended for some 
time with pope Xeo for the equality of the 
two churckcs, but afterwards yielded the 
point, Olid behaved with more submission 
to the pcntiffthan became his station. He 
<fied m 458j — MerrrL 

Anaxagohas, an fflustrioiis philosopher 
of antiquity, to whom by way of emi- 
nence was given the name of Mi/tJ or 
Spirit, He was a native of Clazomenc, in 
fcoia, and renounced a large estate to study 
philosophy undisturbed. After studying 
Banr years, he commenced preceptor, and 
had numerous disciples, amoi;^ whom were 
Kcripides and Pcnclcs. He held that the 
noon was inhabited, and that the sun was a 
nnas of burning matter, from which the 
otSer heavenlv bodies derive light and heat. 
For these opinions, so contrary to the su- 
pemitious ideas of the Athenians, which 
ascribed divinity to those luminaries, he W2s 


charged with atheism, and condemned to 
death, which sentence, through the exertions 
pf Pericles, was changed to oanishmenL He 
thenar eti red to Lam psacus, where he taught" 
philosophy till his death, which happened 
B. C. 4'J8, at the age of 70. In his last ill- 
ness, his friends asked him if his tiody should 
be carried to Clazomene, on which be gave 
this answer, " It would answer no purpose^ 
as the passage to Hades i« the same from 
one place as another." His only wish was, ^ 
that the day of his death should be kept as a 
holiday yearly by the boys of Lampsacus, 
which was complied with — i>/of. Laert, 
Stawfty. Mortri. 

Anazakorides, king of Sparta, began 
his reign about 550 B. C. He had two 
wives, which was unusual among the La- 
cedemonians; by one he had a son, called 
ClcOmenes, who succeeded hirfi; and by 
the other, 4hree cliiidren, one of whom was 
the famous Leonidas. — Univ. Hist, 
^ Anaxandrides, a comic poet of Rhodes, 
in the time of Philip of Macedon, who was* 
starved to death for censuring the govern- 
ment of Athens. — yosjius, Ba^ L\ 

Anaxarchus, a philosopher of Abdera, 
and the favourite of Alexander the Great. 
He is said to have been pounded to death 
in ah iron mortar by command of Nico- 
crcon, king of Cyprus, but the story docs 
not appear well founded, as he gained the 
name of the Fortunate. — Diog. Laert. Stan^ 
leys Lives of Pbilus'jphert. 

Anaxilaus, a Pythagorean philosopher 
in the time of Augustus, who banished him 
from Italy as a magician, though he a,ppears 
only to have been a juggler, A. D.28. — PUn,, 
Nat, Hist. 

Anaximandek, a philosopher of Mil^ 
tus, the disciple and successor of Thales. 
He had a considerable knowledge of astro- 
nomy and geography, atid was the first 
who noticed the obliquity of the ecliptic ; 
he tauglit that the moon receives her light 
from the sun, and that the earth is globular; 
to him also is ascribed the invention of the 
sphcre,and geographical charts. He lived 
B. C. 547. He is oot to be confounded with ' 
Anaximander the historian, who was also 
of Miletus. — Stanley. Moreri. 

Anaximknes, the pupil and successor of 
Anaximander, the philosopher, maintained 
that **air" was the first principle of aU 
things. Pliny attribiites to him tne inven- 
tion of the sun-dial; he flourished B. C. 
548.— P/i*. Nat. Hist, ro^sius. 

Anaximenes of Lampsacus, a Greek 
historian, who instructed Alexander the 
Great in rhlitoric, and accompanied him in 
the war against the Persians. His country 
having joined Darius, Alexander threatened 
its ruin, but was diverted from his jwoniise 
byAnaximenes-Hewrotea history of Greece 
and the lives of Philip and Alexander. His 
nephew Anaximenes wrote a historical trea- 
tise oft the death of kings, cited by Clemens 
Aleiandrinus, — FusJasJc Hist. Cr4tc4jQ[^ 



Ancharano (Peter d')» a learned civi- 
lian of Bologna, was brought up under 
Baldiu, whom he equalled in reputation. 
He died in 1417. He wrote commentaries 
on the Decretals. — Morerl, 

Ancillon (David), a French divine, was 
born at Mentz in 1G17. He had the early 
part of his education in the Jesuits' college, 
and then went to Geneva, where he studied 
divinity. He was for some years minister 
of the church of Meaux; from whence he 
removed to Metz •, but on the revocation 
of the edict of Nahtes he retired to Fr?mk- 
fort. The same year Jie was called to the 

of the stock and new annuities ; he wai 
besides a trustee for establisliing tlie colony 
of Georgia in America, and one of the 
court assistants of the Scots corporation 
in London. In 1762, he published the 
Historical and Chronological Deduction of 
Trade and Commerce, of which' a ocw 
edition has since appeared in 4 vols. 4to. 
Mr. Anderson was thrice married, axul 
died in 177 5* — Ihid. 

Anderson (sir Edmund), an English 
judge, was born in Lincolnshire, and edu- 
cated in Lincoln-college, Oiford, from 
whence he removed to the Inner I'emple. 

co-pastorship of the French church at Ha- About l.)71 he was made a judge, and in 
nau, where he w^« greatly followed. This j.sgii h^rd chief justice of the common pleas. 

excited the envy of his colleagues, who 
making his situation uneasy, he quitted it, 
^ndwent first to Frankfort, from whence 
he removed to Berlin, and olficiatcd as 
minister of the French church; here he 
enjoyed rrcat favour, and his t:itnily were 
honoarcd with places of distinction. He 
died in I0'9i. His works are, 1. A Relation 
of the Controver-jy concerning Traditions, 
4ta 'i. An Apolog)' for Luther, Zamglius, 
and Beza. 3- The Life of William Farcl. 
His son printed a miscellanv of his conver- 
sations, i2 vols. VZmo.^Bayfe. 

Ancillon (Charles), eldest son of the 
above, was bom at Mctz, in 1659. He 
became inspector of the French courts of 

He was iu tlie commission for trying Mary, 
queen of Scots -, and presided at the tnal 
of secretary Davison, for issuing the war- 
rant by which that unluippy princess was 
executed, 'i'hc chief justice was an able 
lawyer, and kept strictly to the letter of 
the statutes.. He was, however, of an in- 
flexible icjTiper, and ventured on some oc- 
casions to oppose the arbitrary measure of 
the court. He died in 1605. His Reports 
were printed in 1644, foL and Resolutions 
and Judgments in the Courts of Wcitrainster 
iu the hitter end of Elizabeth, in 1633.— 
Blorr, Brit. 

Anderson (James), was bom at Edin- 
burgh in 1670, and became an advocate. 

justice at Berlin, and historiographer to In 1700 he was appointed clerk to the 
the king of Prussia. He wrote some books Scotch parliament, and in 1701 he printed 

against the revocation of the edict of 
Nanics,and other works. He died in 1715. 

Ancourt (Flo rent-Carton d'), a French 

comic writer and jictor, was born at Fon- 

' taiaebleau in 16(>1 ,aud cducate<l in the Jesuits* 

college at Paris. Lewis XIV, distinguished 

him by nuny marks of favour. In 1713 he 

a Vindication of the Independency of Scot- 
land, for which he received the thanks of 
the parliament, and a pension of four hun- 
dred pounds a yean. He made a collection 
of Scottish records, which was published ia 
1 vol. folio, with a preface by Thomas Rud- 
diman. He died in 1712.— Gc/i. B.D, 
Anderson (Jolin), a Scotch divine, i 

quittedthe stage, and spent the reniainder of born iu 1671, and received his education 
his diiysin devotion. He died in 1726. His at St. Andrew^s, where he took the degree 

works were published iii 9 vols, liimo. 
17i2iJ. — Nouv. Di:t. Hitt. 

Angus Martius, fourth king of Rome, 
was the gr-mdson of Numa Pompilius. He 
was elected B. C. f»;^/4. lie obtained tri- 
vmphs for victories gained over the Latins, 
Sabines, and Vcieutes, and extended liis 
territories to the sea-coast, where he built 
the port of Ostia. He died after a reign of 
4J years.— X/»jF. /^.tm, 

Andchson (Alexander), a Scotcli mathe- 
matician of the l()th century. He was 
Erofessor of mathematics dt Paris, where 
c published, in 150'i, a Supplement to 
ApolloniMSw— f^w/^'w/ de M^ithim. 

Anderson (Andrew), a Scotch printer 
at Edinburgh, who in the reign of Charles 
IL obtained a patent for printing every thing 
in Scotland for 4] years. It was afterwariu 
rtr.itricted to bibles and acu of parliament. 
— ri'w. Bi9g, Diet, 

Anderson (Adam), a Scotch writer pf 
considerable merit, for -10 year» clerk 
in the South Searhouse, and also chief clerk 

of A M. In 1704 he became minister of 
Dumbartot), from which he removed 
in 1 7 1 6 to Olasgow. He was a zealous de- 
fender of presbyterianism, and died in 

Anderson (John), was bom in 1674 at 
Hamburgh, of which citj he became Syn- 
dic, and was employed m negociating its 
concerns in diflercnt courts of Kurope. Hc 
published the Natural History of Iceland, 
Greenland, Davis's Straits, and other nor- 
thern regions. He died in 1 743.— iV/crrrfc 

Anderson (George), an Kaglish mathe- 
matician, was born at Weston, in Bucking 
hamshire, in 1760. His parents were pea- 
sants, and he was obliged to work as a day- 
labourer. His genius, however, overcame 
every difficulty, and he attained by himself 
a great knowledge of the mathematics. His 
extraordinary acquirements recommended 
him to a worthy clergyman, who sent him 
to a grammar-schcM)!, and next to New-col- 
lege, Oxford, where hc took the degree of 
M. A He entered into deacon's orders 

Digitized by VjOOQ I 



fot haTin^ no relish for a countrr curieyy 
he went to London, where he oDtained a 
pbce as clerk to the board of controul. - 
He attended with such assiduity to business, 
as to lay the foundation of n disorder which 
carried'himofTin 170G. Heleftawidow^who, 
b consideration of her husband's merits, 
obtained a pension. Mr. Anderson pub- 
Kshed Arenarius, or a Treatise on measuring 
the Sands, translated froift the Greek of 
Archimedes ; and a General View of the 
Vanatjons which have taken place in tiie 
A£Fair3 of the East-India Company, since 
the conclusion of the War in India m 1784. 

^Aanual Necnlofry for 1798. 

Andocides, an Athenian orator, ivho 
lived B. C. 470; he was banished from his 
country several times, but as often recalled. 
There arc four orations of his in the Ora- 
tores Grseci of Stephens, 1575, folia — Flu- 
larch, FubrUius. 

A NOR ADA (Diego de Payva d'), a Por- 
tuguese divine, was born at Coimbria, and 
distinguished himself at the council of Trent, 
the canons of which he defended against 
Chemnitius. ,He died in 1575, aged 47. 
He had two brothers : 1. Frunchtvrho was 
historiographer to the king of Spain, and 
irrote the history of John III. king of Porr 
tugal, printed in 1533. 2. Thomas, a monk, 
and cidled bv his order Thomas of Jesus. 
He attended King Sebastian to Africa, where 
the Moors shut him up in a cave. In this 
place h« wrote a book entitled, " The Suf- 
ferings of Jesus", which was translated inta 
English by Walton. He died in 1582. 


Andraoa (Anthony d'), a Portuguese 
Jesuit, who discovered in 1624 the country 
of Cathay and Thibet, of which he pul>- 
fahed an account. He died in 1634. — Ihid, 

Asdre' (Nathaniel St.), a French" sur- 
jjeon, who attended Mr. Pope, and was 
unposed upon by Mary Tofts the rabbit 
breeder, for wliich he apologised in the pa* 
pers in 172G. He died at Southampton in 
J776-— G«». Blog.D'ut, 

Andre' (John), an unfortunate British 
-officer, was originally a merchant's clerk, 
hut quitted the . compting-house for the 
camp, and so highly distinguished .himself 
IB the American war, as to be raised to the 
rank of major. General Clinton had so 
hi^ an opinion of hi^ address and integrity, 
th^ when the American general, Arnold, 
made a secret offer of surrendering an im- 
portant po«t to the British, he emploved 
the major on the dangerous mission. Mr. 
Andr^, on being challenged by the Ame- 
rican guard, imprudently olFered them his 
watch and purse, which they refused, and 
conducted him to their commanding officer, 
by whose orders he was searched, and the 
fatal papers discovered. General Washing- 
tOD caused him to be tried as a spy by a 
€oun-martial,and the major was condemn* 
ed to be hanged, which sentence was rigo- 
iMsly esecuted. On going to tke pUce of 

cicct!tron he said, with concern, ^•Miwt I 
die in this manner T' Being told h was un- 
avoidable, he replied, " I am reconciled (o 
my fate, but not to the mode; it will, how- 
ever, be but a momentary pang," His for- 
titude excited the admiration, and melteil 
the hearts of all the spectators. He W3» 
asked if had any thing to say: '^Notlung 
(says he), but to request that you wiU 
witness to the world that I die like a 
brave man.** The conduct of the Ame^can 
commander on this occasion \% not to be 
excused; and the intelligence was received 
in England with general indignation. A 
monument was erected to his memory in. 
Westminster Abbey, on which is the fol- 
lowing inscription : Sacred to the memory 
of Major John Andr£, who, raised by hit 
merit, at an early period of his life, to the 
rank of adjutant general of the British 
forces in America, and employed in an Jin- 
portant but hazardous entefpri^, fell a sa- 
crifice to liis zeal for his.king and country, 
on the 2nd of October' 1780, aged 29, ufti^ 
versally beloved and esteemed by the army 
in which he served, and lamented even by 
his foes. His gracious sovereign king 
George III. has caused this monument to ^ 
erected."-*--^ii«. Rcfr. 1780. 

Andreas (James^, an eminent Germaiv 
reformer, was born m the duchy of Wir* 
temberg in 1528. In 1546 he was apixnm- 
ed minister of the church of Stut^ra ; but 
on the publication of the intenm, he re- 
tired to Tubbgen. He was at the diet of 
Ratisbon,-and secretary at the conference 
at Worms. He was also at the diet of Augs- 
burg ; and soon after was made chancellor 
and rector of the university of Tubingen. 
He died in 1590. Adrcas was employed in 
reforming most of the churches in Germany, 
and wrote several learned treatises, th« 
most known of which is that on concord.— 
MelcL Adam, f^it. Germ. Theoi, 

Adreas (John), a canonist of the Hth 
century, was born at Muzello, near Flo- 
rence, and educated at Bologna, under Guy 
de Baif. He gained great reputation as 
professor of civil law at Padua and Bo- 
logna. His daughter, Novella, in his ab« 
sence used to read lectures to his pupils, 
and had a curtain drawn before her that 
the attention of' the auditors might notvbe 
taken oiF by her beauty. His affection for 
her was so great, that he entitled his com- 
mentary on the decretals of Gregory X. 
the Novella. She married John Calderi- 
nus, a famous canonist. Andreas wrote 
several learned works, and died in I34f ^«« 

Andreas (John), a Moorish convert, 
was born at Xativa, in Valentia, and suc- 
ceeded his father as alfaqui of that city. 
He became a convert to Christianitv, on 
which he was ordained a priest, ana was 
employed as a missionary among the Moon 
of- Granada. He translated into Spanish 
the law of the Moors j and wrote a bookea* 

A N tt 

AN 6 

AtltA thi Coflfuftion of the ^&ctof Mohaiil- 
med. it has been translated from the ori- 

S'naL Spanish into sereral lan^ages.— 

Andreas (John Valentine), a German 
^rotesfant. divine, was born in 1546, and 
died in' 1654. He wrote several mystical 
books in Latin, which have made some be- 
tieve that he was the founder of the sect of 
rosic rusi ans^—- il£9rrr /. 

Andreje (John Gerhard Reinhard\ an 
ingenious naturalist of Hanoyer,was bom 
in 1724. His father was an apothecary, and 
his son succeeded him in his businesa. He 
gained an extensive knowledgein ohemistry, 
botany, and natural history, and travelled 
through several countries to make himself 
Acouamted with their productions. 'He 
Published several pieccs,partJCuLirly aTour 
m Switzerland,.! 776, 4to. and a Treatise on 
the severil Kinds of Earth in Hanover, 1 769. 
He died in 1793 Seblicbtt^roll's Necrology, 

ANDKEiNf (Isabella), a celebrated actress 
of Padua, was bom in ISBH. She was also 
ibsttfemcd a good poetes, and was admitted 
it member of the academy at Padua. When 
in France she received the most flattering 
Inarks of distinction from their majesties. 
She died at LyOns in 1604. Her poems 
4vere printed it Milan In 1605. — Bayte. 

^NDREtNi (Francis), husband of the pre- 
cedinfe, was for a length of time a comc- 
ai^, but quitted that profession on the 
death of hu wife, and became an author. 
He wrote some dialogues which passed 
thrdugh several editions.^— -/^fi. 

Avr^KiSLi^us (PubUus Fostus), a native 
Jjf I'drli in Italy, was professor of poetry 
ind philosophj^ in the university of Paris, 
ilnd poct-laureat to Lewis Xll. His letters 
i^ere printed at Strasburg in 1571. His 
jpoems, which are mostly in Ldtin, are in 
the Delicidb Poetarum Italorum. He died 
inl51l^.— /i/V. 

Andrew (St.), the apostle, was bom at 
Bethsaidft in Galilee, aiid with his brother 
Peter tcllowcd thtir father's trade of a 
fchcrman, till called by our Saviour. He 
had been the disciple of John the Baptist, 
tirhom he left to follow Jesus Christ. He is 
0aid to have preached the gospel in Scythia, 
and to have befcii crucified on a cross shaped 
like the letter X. — Cattes Lives of the yl^osilcj. 

Andrew I. king of HungarV, was the 
VIdost son of Ladislaus the Balti. He and 
his brother B^a were obliged t» quit Hun- 
gary in 10-14, on the accession of Peter. 
Afterwards they were recalled by the Hun- 
^Arians, on promising to abolish Christiani- 
ty, and to restore paganism. But when 
Andrew obtained the throne, he broke his 
*c;igagement, and compelled his subjects to 
turn chrisri'ins. He was defeated and 
iUin by hb brother in l059.-^Mjd. Vn. Hist, 

Andrew II. succeeded his nfephew La- 
dislaus as kin|[ of Hungary in 1204. He 
Was engaged in the crusade against the 
Turks*, and oo Ws return eardeavouxed lO 

reforrti iht manners of Ms snbjecW. Hfe 
died in 12».';.— il/iw/. Un.HisU 

ANptEW 111. king of Hungary, was the 
n-andson of the preceding, anci ascended 
the throne on the death of Ladislaus, in 
1299. He ^as opposed by Charles, son of 
the king of Sicily by a sister of L^dixlaus; 
tnd these rivals kept Hungary iu a distract- 
ed state till theix deaths, wluch happened 
ill the same year, 1 305, — Ihid. 

Andrew of Hungary, king of Naplei, 
called by the Neapolitans Andrea*so, was 
the second son of Charobert, king of Hun- 
gary. He married Joan, que^n of Naples* 
who caused him to be murdered in 1 345, iff 
the 1 9th year of his aee. — Ibtd. 

A NBRKw, bishop of Crete, was bom at 
Damascus, and died about 720. He wroi« 
commentaries on the scriptures, and ser- 
mons, which were published at Paris, 1644^ 
folio. — Cave^ Hist, Lil, Fabrichtt, 

Andrew (John), secretary of the Vati- 
can library ; died in 1 403. He was a learn- 
ed and inclustriousman, and became bishop! 
of Aleria in Corsica. He edited Livy, Au- 
hiR GcHiiis, and Herodotus, with other 
works. — KoHv.D'ut. Hht, 

Andrew of Ratisbon,an historian of the 
15th centurv. He wrote a chronicle of the 
dukes of Bavaria, and a history of Bohe- 
mia. — foss. de Hist. Lai, 

Andrlw, bishop of Samosata, lived in 
the 5th centurv. He zealously vindicated 
Theodorat against CyriL Some epistles of 
his ate extant. — Dupin, 

Andrew of Fisa, a sculptor and arch*-* 
tect, was born in 1270. He built several 
structures at Florence; and the arsenal of 
Venice is said to have been designed by him. 
He was also a painter, poet, and musician. 
He died in 134J.— iVbrro;. />;>/. Hht, 

Andrew del Sarto, an Italian painter, 
was born at Florence in 14S0. His copy of 
the portrait of J^eo X. by Raphael, was 
taken for the ori^^inal bv Julio Romaiio, 
though that painter did tfie drapery of the 
picture himself. He died in 1530 — D*Ar^ 

Andrew (Tobias), professor of history 
and Greek at Groningen. He was a zea* 
lous Cartesian, and wrote in defence of that 
system a treatise entitled Mcthodi Cartesia- 
ns assertio, printed in 1653. He died in 
1G76.— ^ay/iT. 

Andrew (Valerius), was horn in Bra« 
bant, 1588. He became professor of civi! 
law at Louvain, and librarian of that uni* 
versity. He wrote a book entitled Bihlio-^ 
theca Belpi<^ dc Belgis vita scriptisque cla-t 
ris, printed in 1643. He was alive in lGJ2l 

Andrew (Yves MaryV a French Jesuit, 
was born in 1675; he' became professor 
of mathematics ^t Caen in 172f>, ar.d 
held it till 1759. He died in MfA, Hi$ 
Treatise oh Man is a judicious discourse? on 
the union between the soul and body ; but 
his gmost CBfefcrate^ pipcc is the Esvay oj|' 

A N I5r 


feuty. All his worts were printed in 
llGCj, in 5 vols. l*Jmo- — Nouv. Diet, Hht, 

Andrews (I^ncelot), an English pre- 
late, was bbni in London, in 1565, From 
Merchant Tavlors' school he was sent to 
Pembroke-half, Cambridge; where having 
taken hi« de^ees iu arts, he applied iiini- 
idf to divinity."' Sir Francis WaTrin^hAm 
obtained for nim the living of St. Oiles, 
Cripplegate, and afterwards a prebend 
and residentiary ship of St. Paul's. On the 
death of Mr. Fulke he was chosen master 
of Pembroke-hall, to which he was a preat 
benefactor. He was also appointed chap- 
lain to queen Elizabeth, who greatly ad- 
mired his preaching. King James l'. em- 
ployed him to defend the sovereignty of 
kin^ against BcUarmine, who had attack- 
ed it under the name of Matthew Tortus. 
Dr. Andrew* did this in a piefe called 
Toraira Torti, for v/iiich he waR mndfc 
almoner to the kin^, a privy counsellor, 
dean of the chapel royal, ana sncccssively 
bi-hop of Chichester, Ely, and Winchester. 
The following anecdote of bishop Andrews 
will show him to great advantat^e. Waller 
the poet was one day at court, while king 
James was at dinner, who wa<? attended by 
the bishop of W^inchester, and Ncalc, bishop 
of Durham. His majesty said to the pre- 
lates, " My lords, cannot 1 take my sub- 
jects* monev when I want it, without rU 
this formiirity in parliament ?" Biaiiop 
Keaie quickly replied, •* CJod forbid, sir, 
but you shoufd ; you are thf breath of our 
nostrils.'* On which the Innj^ said to the 
bishop of Winchester, ** Well, my lord, and 
what say you ?** «* Sir, ** rei)lied' Andrews, 
*• i have no skill to judge of parliamentary 
eabcs." 7 he king answered, ** No put-o(b, 
my lord ; answer me prescnfiy." " '1 hen, 
sir,** sar^he, ** I think it lawful for you to 
take my brother Neale's money, for he of- 
fers W He died in 161?(;, and was b»iried 
in the church of St. Saviour's, Southwark, 
\*-hcre there is a monument to his m^^mory. 
He hsri a share in the present translation of 
the bible. A voltmic of his sermons was 
printed after his death. His priv;ite de- 
votions and meditations in Greek were 
translated into English by Dr. Stanhope^— 
B':cg. Brit. 

Andrews, or Andre wt (Ensebins), a 
gentleman of a good family in Middlesex, 
who was secretary to Ifid Caj^ci, and » 
barrister. In 164ii! he quitted the gown and 
tno^x wp arms in defence of Charles I. whom 
he served ns colonel. Oii the failure of the 
king's afluirs he settled in London, and 
practised the law ; bu^ being a suspected 
royulift, traps were laid to entanj^le him in 
a conspiracy against the usiirper'^. By these 
tie was ensnared, and brought I>efo're the 
high court of jttstice,asit was called, where 
l»e made so gallant a defence that the court 
Ttsdf bccarme gcterally odious, and wa« dts- 
continired. 'i"he sentence of han^'ring and 
quartering was changed, by liis pccitivn, 

into decapitation, which he tiiffered with 
christian fortitude on Tower-hill, August 
22, 1650^— /^ V. 

ANnRiscus, on impostor who assumed 
the name of Philip son of Perses, kiujg of 
Macedon.-The Macedonians acknowledged 
him, and the Romans sent "an army against- 
him under the command of Scipio Nasica^ 
whom Andriscus defeated, and thus estab- 
lL<;hed himself on the throne. He was af- 
terwards defeated by Metellus, on which 
he took refuge among the Hiracians, who 
delivered him to the Romans, and he was 
put to death by order of the senate, H C 
1^7. —Univ, Hht, 

Andromachus, a native of Crete, wat 
physician to Nero in H5. He invented the- 
riaca, which he described in some elegiac 
verses addressed to the em per on i Bd\U» 

Andronicps I. Comnemis, a Greek em- 
peror, was tlie son of Isaac, and grandson 
of Alexis Comnenus. He was imprisoned 
for treasonable practices against the em- 
peror Manuel, twelve years, but at last ef'^ 
fccted his escape, and fled to Russia. On 
the accession of Alexis 11. he got 'himself 
chosen as a partner in the ^vernment, and 
soon contrived to put his uinocent coadju- 
tor to death, in 1 1 PH. Andronicus behaved 
in the most tyrannical manner to his sub- 
iects, particularly to those who were re- 
lated to the royal family. At last the peo- 
ple, wearied with his oppressions, raised 
Isaac Angelus, a descendant of Alexius I. 
to the throne, who caused Androaicus to 
be given up to the insults of the populace. 
He endured the most miserable tormenti 
with uncommon patience, and behaved in 
his last moments like a true penitent. He 
died in 11 8. "J, aged 7:^. — Air J. U,u His^ 

Andronicus If. Palscologus, came tO 
the crown in V2^X He was deposed by 
his grandson Andronicus the younger, on 
which he retired to a monastery, where he 
died in lSf3*i, aged 74.— 73/V. 

Andronicus III. PaK-eologus. He was 
the grandnon of the preceding, wliom he 
deprived of hie crovvn. He fell a victim 
to an irregnlar life, aj^ed 4.>, in ]341. — Ib':d. 
An'dronicus (Cyrestcs), an Athenian, 
who first applied him elf to the study of 
the winds. He built liie famous octagonal 
temjile of the winds at Athcn?, and was 
the inventor of weathercocks. — Aulus Gd^ 

Andronicus (Liviu?), the oldest drama- 
tic author in the Latin language. His first 
piece was ])crformed about L'lu years befort 
Christ. Hiii works are lost. — yossiut de PoA, 

Andronicus of Rhodes, a peripatetic 
philosopher, to whom we ure indebted for 
restoring and pnMisI)ing the works of 
Aristotle, in the time ot SVIla. He also 
wrote commentaries on some of th it phiiojl 
sopher's writings. He Um^" ~ - - 

Digitized by 

A N G 

A N G 

Afmwnticijz of ThetsaioBica, a learned 
nan of the 15th century, who taught the 
Greelc language at various places with great 
yciiHtatiott. He died at Pari* in 1471). 

Androitt.t i>u Circeau (James), 2 
FreiYch architect of the Kitli century. He 
de'iijcned the grand gallery of the l.ouvre, 
the Pont-r.euf, and many other noble edi- 
lice*. He k-tt France on account of his re* 
tigiuD in 1585, and died abroad. He wrote 
on architecture and perspective.— JD'^r* 
jrfMvuJr y'uj dci ArcbiUctes. 

An»r» (Nicholas), a French physician, 
was born at Lyons in H)58. He became a 
fnrofessor in tlie royal college, and dcaii of 
the fcvcuity of medicine. He died in 1742, 
agred 84, His writings are, 1. A Treatise on 
the Generation of Worxni in the human 
Bodv. 2. Orthopxdia, or thcAr* of cor- 
recting Deformities in Children. S. On Phle- 
botomy.— iliortri. Halters Bibl. Med, 

Aneixo, see Mas&aniello. 

An EuaiN, called the sovereign of bards 
snd of flowing muse, a British poet. He 
was likewise a chieftain among the Olodi- 
■iaa Britain ft, who bore a consj)icuou« part 
in the battle of Cattraeth, which he made 
the subject of a poem, to be found in tiie 
Welsh archaiology, with another piece of 
Itis, entitled the Odes of the Months, being 
all that i* preserved of hi« works. He died 
about A. 1). J70. It is supposed, with some 

{jfausibilitv, that Aneunn was the cele- 
iratcd Giklas the ecclesiastical historian. — 
Civeni Cambruin Biog^ 

Ange i>e St. Joseph (La Fere), a car- 
mclite of I'houlousc, was a missionary in 
Persia. He translated the Persian Pharma- 
copanainto Latin, which was printed at 
Paris in 16'81, 8vo. He also published the 
.CcizopUvlacium Linguat Pcrsarum, Amst. 
lt;84, foL He died m lf;y7.— A'o/w. Diet, 


Angk de St. Rosalie, an Augustine 
monk, was born at Blois in 1655, and died 
in 1 7Si«. He compiled the History of the 
Jiouse of France and of the great Ofiiccr* 
erf the Crown, which ^'as published after 
his death in D vols. foL He was also the 
autl:or <?t t'le State of Prance, in 5 voh. 
IL^mo. — Ktuv. PieL Hhi, 

ANG£Li (Peter), a modem Ijitin poet, 
was a native of Barga in Tuscany. He 
became professor of ethics and politics, in 
ti.e university of Pisa, where he died in 
liMUj. He wrote several Latin poems, the 
'most esit-emed of which arc, L Cyncgeti- 
C('n,or of the Chace, 156S, Sva ii. Syriuu, 
cvr the expedition of Godfrey of Bouillon, 
f<jr the Recovery of the Holy Land, 15^1, 
4to, He died in 1596, aged 79. — Morrri. 

ANf;ELi (lionavcnture), an Italian writer, 
wijs professor of law at Ferrara,which place 
he i|utttcd and settled at Parma, where he 
died in 1576'. He wrote the history of Par- 
ma, which was printed in 1501. — M'jrcrL 

Anokli (Baldu»),a physician, wss. bora 

in Romana ia the Kith* century. H» 
wrote a Latin piece on the nature of vi- 
pers, printed in 1589. 4 to. — Gen. Jf. D, 

Anoelxco (John), an Italian painter, was 
born at tizeole, and entered into the so- 
ciety of dominicaiit. He painted the clia- 
pel of Nicholas V. who offered him the 
archbisliopric of Florence, which he re- 
fused. He died in 1455, aged G8. — Fasari 
Vies des i^eivtres, 

ANGELis^Dominicod*), an Italian eccfe- 
siastic, was born in 1675, at Lecce, in the 
kingdom of Naples. Philip V, king of Na- 
ples, appointed him principal Iiistoriogra- 
pher. He died in 1719. He wrote seve- 
ral historical and biographical pieces of 
merit, in the Italian language, beiides some 
poems.— Aforrrx. 

ANotLo, see Buonarotti. 
Anok.lo (Thomas d*), a domi nican, died 
at Mcs&ina, 1720. He wrote an ecclesias- 
tical history of Sicily, and other works^ — 
Nouv. Diet! HiiU 

Anoelom (Francis), an historian, wai 
born at Temi, in the duchy of Spalattcs 
and died at Rome in 1652. He wrote aa 
illustration of the hisiorvof Rome bv me- 
dals, which was printed in 1685, foL alsa 

the history of Tecni, 4to» 1646. Nukv^ 

Diet, Hut, 

Angehts (Christopher), a native, of 
Greece, who, after sulTering many cruelties 
fnmi the Turks, arrived in England, where " 
he was well received. He taught Greek in 
the university of Oxford, and wrote seve- 
ral books ; the most interesting of which is 
an account of his sufTcrings, printed in 
1617, in Greek and English. He died in 
16*38.— iVfor^rW. 

Angi kr ( Samuel) »a nonconformist divine, 
was born at Ledham in Essex, and bred at 
Emanuel-collc^e, Cambridge, after which 
he settled as minister at Denton in Lan* 
cash^e, till he was ejected by the act of 
uniformity in IQO'2, He died in 1617, aged 
7a. He wrote a treatise concerning GodV 
worjihip, entitled, "A Help to better Hearts. 
for better Times." — CaLiay, 

Anc.ilbert (St.), was oom h\ Ncustria^ 
and educated at the court of Charlemag-ne» 
whose daughter \\e married. That mo- 
narch also made Iiim his secretary, and am- 
bassador, and governor of the French coast» 
from the Schddt to the Seine. He afterw 
wards liecame abbot or requier, and died 
m 814.— GVn. S. D. 

Anuiolello (John), an historian, was 
born wt Vicenza. Being taken captive by the 
Turks, he became slave to sultan Mustapha, 
whom he attended in an expedition to Per-> 
sia in l57tJ. He wrote the history of Ma- 
homet II. in the Italian and Turkish ian-> 
guages ; :dso the history of Ussun Casson.— 


Anolicus (Gilbertus), an eminent £ngw. 
lish physician, about tlie end of the X^xh. 
century. He wrote a xompc&dium of phr«> 
•ic— OV/i. A Dk ized by GOOQie 

A N K 


A)7CLicus (RlcanluO> ^^ English znedi- 
ral writer, lived about 1 2:J0. He studied at 
Oxford and P*ris. His works are lost.— G. //./>. 

A^^GLUs (Thomas), an tnglish priest, 
"whose family name was White, which he 
itscd to disguise under that of Anglus, Ai- 
bus, or Richworth. He was the friend of 
iir Kenelm Di^by, and adopted his opi- 
nions. He resided chieHy at Rome or Pa- 
ris, and was well JLnown by his philoso- 
phical publications, in which ho was a great 
champion for Aristotle. Some of his books 
were condemned at Rome and at Douay. 
He died in the reign of Charles IL — BayU, 

A.VGUIER (Francis and Michael), two 
aculptors, were natives of Eu in Normandy. 
Francis was made kcej>er of the royal cabi- 
net of antiquities, and executed »cvcA-al 
great works, particularly the tomb of 
James Souvre, in St. John de Lateran, and 
the mausoleum of the duke of Montmo- 
rency. He died in i6C9. Michael per- 
formed greater works than his brother. 
Tlie last piece of his was a crucilix over 
the altar of the church of the Sorbcnnc. 
He died in 1686. — V'Arg.avilic Fia J'ej Sau/f' 
Uwrs. , 

Angdillara (John Andrew dell*), an 
Italian p<jet, was born in I J17. He wrote 
a tragedy, entitled Oedipus, and translated 
Ovid*s Metamorphoses, printed at Venice, 
1554, 4to. — Tiraboscbi.y 

ANcuscioLA(Sophonisba), an Italian of 
great eminence in historical and portrait 
painting. She was born in 1 53S at Abno- 
na,anddiedin 1626. She had two sisters, 
Lu^ and Europa, both ingenious in the 
same walk with their sister. Sophonisba 
became blind by over-application to her 
profession. — Piliington. 

An'icetus, pope, succeeded Pius about 
157. He filled the see of Rome 1 1 years- — 
Flatima. Moreri, 

Anich rPeter), mathematician, was the 
fon of a labourer, at Obcrperzuf, near 
Inspruck, where he was born in 1723. His 
genius being discovered by father Hill, a 
Jesuit in the university of Inspruck, he 
oecame his tutor and patron. In a little 
while Anich became an able astronomer, 
and ingenious mechanic. He made an ele. 
gantpair of globes for the university of 
InspFuck, and constructed various mathe- 
matickl instruments. He also drew maps 
and charts with great accuracy and neat- 
ness. He died in 1 706. — Nouv, Dkt. Hist. 

Anicuini (Lewis), a native of Ferrnrain 
Italy, who made a medal for pope Paul III. 
on which was represented the interview 
between Alexander the Great and the high 
priest at Jerusalem, so exquisitely engraved 
that Michael Angelo, on viewing it, ex- 
claimed that the art was arrived at the 
height of perfection. — Moreri. 

Akkarstkom (John James), a regicide, 
w« born of a noble family in Sweden, and 
after fiwislung his education at the univer- 
wy of Up:al, he catered * jto the guards as 

ensign. He afterwards sold out of t!ie 
army, married, and retired into the coun- 
try as a farmer. He was of an avaricious 
vengeful di'^position, and readily joiiic4 
with some other conspirators agam$t Gus- 
tavus III. king of Sweden, whom Ankar- 
strom shot with a pistol at a masked balL 
He confc'.sed the crime, for whicn he stood 
in the piilorv three ^times, was publicly 
scourged, hrid his right hand cut t>ff, and ' 

lastly, Vf/^ beheaded April, 22, 17^)2.— 

Ntiitv, Diet. Hist. 

Anna Co mn*:n a, daughter of the -em- 
peror Alexis Comnenus I. was a princessof 
extraordinary lalents. .She was mai ried to 
a man of rauk, nr'.med Nicephorus Brycn- 
nias, and was ct>riCerned in a, conspiracy 
against her bi(tJ;er the emperor, which 
was frustrated. Mie was treated with great 
lenity, but lost all favour at court, in con- 
sequence of which she went into retire- 
ment, where she employed hcrjclf in writ- 
ing the history of the reign of lier father. 
This work, which hns great merit, is stiU 
extant.— ^c<r/i/J. Dupin. Gibkfm. 

Anna Ivanovma, empress of Ru«Ma,wai 
the daughter of the czar Ivan Alcxiovitch,. 
and byni ill 10*!)*3. In 1710 she married 
Frederick U'^illiam, duke of Courland, who 
died without issue the year following. She 
then took into favour Ernest Johu Biren, 
a man Of low origin, by whom fihe was 
ruled in an arbitrary maoner the remnin- 
der of her life. lnl7S0shc ascended the 
throne of Russia, and Biren managed all 
the affairo of government with such rigonr, 
that it is said above twenty thousand per- 
sons were banished to Siberia. The em* 
press herself WHS, however^ meek and mer- 
ciful; but she was forced to acts which she 
disapproved, bv a wretch to whom she 
had yielded up ner affection. She died m 
1740, leaving the crown to her grand- 
nephew Ivan,— Co vf. NouHK t)i^t. Hist. 

Annanu (William) a Scotch divine, was 
born at Edinburgh m 1633, and educated 
at Oxford. In 1G70 he was made dean of 
Edinburgh, where he died in 1689. He 

wrote several theological tracts, Wbod, 

A. 0. Blog. Br. 

Ann at (Francis), a French jesiiit, and 
confessor to Lewis XIV. was born in 15fK)- 
He wrote many books in Latin and French, 
particularly against the provincial leiter* 
of M. Pascal. He was a learned, libera!, 
and pious man, and died at Parib in 1670. 

AnN£ of Austria, queen of Fmnce, was 
daughter of Philip III. king of Spain, and 
married Lewis XUI. in 161. >. She lived on 
very bad terms with her husband, owing 
to cardinal Richelieu, who per-.iiaded him 
that she was eng:i;jjcd in conspiracies. On 
the de:ith of Lewis, she became sob regent 
during the miuot ity of her scm l>ewis XIV. 
By placing her confidence in cardinal Ma- 
zarine, she embroiled herself with the na- 
tion, and >xas •'Wij'c^ytG^bfcSgfe^'^ 


A N S 

At length matters were accottimodated,and 
when the king took Upon himself the go 
•vcrnment in 1661, she went into retire- 
ment, and died in 1 66€, — iVi«v. I)kt. Hist. 

Annc of Beaujeu, daughter of l.c^^i8 
XI. and wife of the duke of Bourbon, was 
appointed regent during the minority of 
her brother Charles VIII. She was an ac- 
tive and enterprising princess, and died io 
1522, aged about 60. — Moreri, 

Anne of Bn'tanny, daughter of Francis I. 
duke of Britanny, and queen of France, 
was £rst wife of Maximilian of Austria, 
next of Charles VIII. of France, and lastly 
of Lewis XII. his «uccessor. She was a wo- 
man of liigh mind, but of a liberal dispo- 
sition, and died in 1514, aged S8. — 

A"NNEof CIcves.thewife of Henry VIII. 
king of England, was the daughter of John 
HI. duke ot Cleves. A picture of her, by 
Holbein, .being shewn to the English mo- 
narch by "I'honias lord Cromwell, he de- 
manded ncr in marriage ; but soon growing 
disguned with the " Flanders mare," as he 
politely called her, a divorce ensued ; and 
Anne, no way disconcerted, returned to 
her own country, where she died irf 1557. 
m^De Thou. Nisi'. Mor^ri. 

Anne, qucpn of Great Britain, was the 
2d daughter of James II. by lady Anne 
Hvde, daughter of the great carl of Claren- 
don, and was born in 1CG4. In 16o*8 she 
married prince George of Denmark, by 
whom she had several children, but all of 
them died young. In 1 702 she succeeded 
to the crown on the death of William III, 
by whom she Imd been always treated with 
great unkin<lncs«!. Her reign wa* a con- 
tinual scene of public glory ; and the do- 
mineering power of the French nation was 
completely subdiicd by the vigour of the 
Biitish troops under the command of the 
duke of Marlborough. She had aKo some of 
the first statesmen in the world for her 
ministers, in the former part of her reign, 
but at length the contentions of party 
threatened to throw the nation into con- 
fusion, which wa? prevented by the death 
of the p,i:(< n in AuJ^;J^t 1714. One of the 
greatest tvcnt?; of thi-. Important reign was 
the union with Hcotlnnd. .On acctnint of 
the number of eminent literary characters 
which at ihis period, it lias been 
callqo the Augustan a;;e of I^riiain. Queen 
Annc, though too nr.ichthc dupe of her 
ministers and favourites, will e^ stand 
djstingii'sl'.ed for her unshaken atlfthment 
to theVliv.vch of England, and for the ex- 
cellenre of her private cluiacter. — Hune, 

tlj/.i licit. (Samuel), a. nonconformist 
divii:e,was born in Cuniberlaud,-and edu- 
cated at QuccnVcollege, OxiVrd, where 
he obtained the degree of LL. D. in con- 
sequence of his zeal for the parliament 
cai'.sc in the K^eat rebellion. He preached 
some violent r.ernions against the crown and 
church, for which he was presented to the 

vicarage of St. Giles, Cripplcgate, but i^ 
166*2 was ejected from it for nonconformity, 
' He died in 1696, aged 76. John Wesli-}'^ 
the founder of the methodists, was his 
grandson by the mother's side. The doc- 
tor has some sermons in print. — CaUmy, 

Annlsi.ev (Arthur), earl of Anglesey, 
was born in 1C14, at Dublin. At the age 
of J 6 he was entered of Magdalen -college, ^ 
Oxford, from whence he removed to l^in- 
coln's-inn, where he studied the law, and 
then went on his travels. At thcbeginnii^g 
of therebcllioo he joined the royal party, 
and sat in the parliament at Oxford in 1643, 
but afterwards he made his peace with the 
republicans, and was .sent commissioner to 
Ulster in 1 64.^. He took an active part in 
the restoration of the king, with whom he 
held a correspondence while his majc5>ty 
was in exile, and for which he was created 
earl of Anglesey, ;jnd in 1667 he was made 
treasurer of tiie navy. In 1672 he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner for inspecting the 
settlements in Ireland, and the next year 
was made lord privy seal. In 1680 he was 
accused by Danger^eld at the bar of the 
house of commons, with endeavouring to 
stifle evidcnceconcerningthepopibhplot. In 
1682 he pre'iented a spirited remonstrance 
to Charles II. relative to the state of the na- 
tion, and the danger to be apprehended 
from the duke of York*s being a papist. 
Soon after he was dismissed from his oflice, 
on which he retired to hb country seat. He 
died in 1686, leaving Kcveral chiiaren. He 
wrote a History of the Troubles of Ireland, 
from 1641 to 16tO, which is lost; but his 
Memoirs, publi.shed in 1608, 8vo. are full 
of interesting matter. — Bi9g. BriU 

Anfius of Viterbo, whose true name 
was Jobm Nanuij a dominican monk, and 
master of tlie sacred palace; died at Rome 
in 1502, aged 70. He wrote 17 books of 
antiquities, pretended to be the remains of 
several eminent ancient authors, particular- 
ly Manctho, Archilochus, and Xenoph«n. 
Theywere first printcf^ in 1498, folio. The 
fraud was well managed, and imposed for 
a time upon several learned men. — BayU, 

An scH ARILS, bishop of Hamburg and 
Bremen, was born in France in 801. He 
was very successful in converting the 

Danes to Christianity, and died in 865. 

Dtipin. M'jrcri, 

An sKGiMJs, abbot of Lobies,a henedic- 
tine monastery in the diocese ofCambray. 
He lived in tl'ie 0th century, and compiled 
in 827 the capitularies of Charlemagne, 
and LevvHs the Godly. — IbiJ, 

Ansklm, arclibishop of Canterbury, was 
born at Aobt, in Piedmont, in 1033. He 
became a monk in the abbey, of Bee in 
Normandy, of which he became abbot. In 
109:J he was made archbishop of Canter- 
bury by William Rufus, to whom he had 
been confessor But soon after differences 
arose between the king and the archbishop, 
which were aggravated by the obstinate 
attachment of the latter to 'the pope*s au- 


' -A N S 

Aonfy. The trdiBUiop left the kingdom, 
aod uMon 2S he was gojie, the kiDg seized 
opoB his revenues. Anteim went to Rome, 
aod was honourably entertained by the 
pope, whom he accompanied to the council ' 
of fiari, where he distrnguished himseif bv 
nfudng the objections of the Greeks wixn 
re«pect to the procession of the Holy Ghost. 
The pope afterwards deserted An^elm, 
who went to Lyons, where he resided till 
the death of Wiiltam, when he returned to 
Knj^laadf and was received with great re- 
spect; but a new rupture arose, occasioned 
by the archbtshop^s refustnf^ to be re-in- 
vestcd by the king; on which the dispute 
'Was referred to the pope, who decided 
in favour of Anselm. lliis induced the 
nobility to advise the kin^ to break abso- 
lutdy with Rome, for which some of them 
were excommunicated: at length the pope 
siade a concession, by allowing the English 
bi&hops and abbots to do homage to the 
king for their temporalities, which restored 
Anselmto favour. He died at Canterbury 
in 1 109. His wbrks were printed at Co- 
logne in 1612, and at Lyons in 1630. He 
was the first archbishop who restrained the 
£o|rli8h clergy from marrying, in a synod 
held at Westminster in 1 102. — Bhg. Br, 

Akselm of Paris, an augustine monk, 
was bom in 1 625. He wrote the Historfcal 
Genealogies of the House of France, 1694. 
it was continued by father Ange in 172C, 
9 vols. fol. He die<l in 1 691 . — Moreri, 

Anser, a Latin poet, was the friend of 
Mark Antony, who gave him a country- 
seat at Falernnm, in return for his panegy- 
cica] verses. He is mentioned, but not with 
respect, by Virgiland Ovid.— /^Mj/i« ds Hist, 

Ahson (George lord), was bom at his 
father's seat in StafForU<»hire, in 16«J7. He 
went to sea very early, and in 1724 was 
made post-captain. Being sent to South 
Carolina, he purchased land, and built a 
town there, called after his name. In 1739 
he was chosen commander of an expedition 
against the Spanish settlements in South 
America, and sailed from Portsmouth 
September 18, 1740, with live men of war, 
a sloop, and two victu.ollera. He doubled 
Cape Horn in March, 1741, after losing 
two of his ships. In t\mc following he ar- 
rived off Juan Fernandez, with only two 
ships and two tenders. This place he left 
ta September, took some prizes, burnt 
Pai'a, and continued on the American 
coast, in expectation of falling in with the 
annual Acapulco ship, till May 1742; when 
having only his own ship, the Centurion, 
of 64 gunsi left, he crossed the touthem 
ocean for China, where he staid several 
nonthi,and then r-.urned in quest of the 
galleon, which he fell in with, and captur- 
ed after a smart action. Haviwt^ sold his. 
prixc in China, he sailed for England, apd 
arrived at Spithead, Jiuie 15, 1744, having 
sailed, la a fo^, through the midst of a 

French fleet liien cruizing iti the channel. 
Not long after his return he was made rear- 
admiral of the blue, and one of the lords a£ 
the admiralty. He was also chosen mem- 
ber of parliament for the borough of Hey- 
don. In 1747 he comm.inded the channel 
fleet, and captured sir French nven-of-war, 
and four East^lndijmen. For these servicei 
he was created lord Anson, and on the 
death of sir John Ni)rri8, he was name4 
yice-admiral of Enj^land. In 1751 he was 
appointed first lord of the admir.ilty,v/hJcii 
post he held, with a short interval, till his 
death. In 17. 5S he a^r^^in comiuamled the 
channel fleet, having under him tlie gal- 
lant sir Edward Hawke. After this he vv;«i 
appointed admiral and comraander-in- 
fhief of his majesty's fleets. The last ser- 
vice he was engaged in, was in convoyin* 
to England her present majesty. He ciieJ 
in 17f>2. He married a daughter of the 
earl of Hardwi(;ke, who died before hist 
without issue. Lord Anson unR a cool :ii»d 
steady man, but too foncf of play, of which 
knowing little, he was ilie ctmsrant dupe 
of sharpers; this made sok.c person say, 
that " though he had been rouixl tile 
world, he was never in it."— Bi,'^. Br. 

Anstey (Christopher), an ingenious pcv- 
et, was born in Wiltshire, and received his 
education at Eton and Ca-nhridge. but 
was obliged to quit the naivcrslty v/itlioat 
a deg^ree, for a satirical speech made by 
him m the ptiblic schools. After this hc^ 
went into the amiv; but resid^J tlx- pi4j»- 
cipal part of his fite at B.iih, wbciv Ive 
published, anonymously, the Hath Ouid«, 
a ludicrous poem, in 17GC»'. The year fol- 
lowing appeared his poem on the death itf 
the manjuis of Tavistock. Some }near» »i* 
terwards he published,** /Vn Election BaJB, 
in poetical letters from Mr. Inkle at Iiatl^ 
to his wife at Gloucester.** He was like- 
wise the author of ** A Poetical i*araphra«e 
upon the 13ih chapter of the first jep4stfe 
to the Corinthians, 1779;'* ** The Prie.'st 
dissected, a poem ; A. D. C. W. Bamp- 
fylde, Epistola poetica familiaris, &c. :** 
** Speculation, or a Defence pf Mankind, ' 
4to; ** Liberality, or Memoir^ of a De- 
cayed Macaroni," 4to; ** The Farmer's 
Daughter, a p6etfcal tale;*' and othar 
works. -Mr. Anstey died m 1 805. — MoniUj 

Anstis (John), an English antiquaxr, 
was born at St. . Neots, in Cornwall, vi 
leo'O. He was «ducated at Oxford, frsm 
whence he removed to the Inner Temple 
In 170*2 he represented the borough of jJt. 
Germains. In 1714 he was appointed jra*^ 
ter king at arms, which h^ held till his 
death in 1744. He publif^hed, 1. A Ltt- 
ter on the Honour of the Ea-l Marshal, t-vo. 
I7CW. 2. The form of the Installation of 
the Garter, 8vo. 171.H. S. The Register of 
the most noWe Order of the Garter, 'j vols 
folio, 1724. 4. Obvifrvations introdartoty . 
to an hiMorical ^ssa)* on lh£ Kaightku«xl 



•f the Batli, Ato. 1725. His son, Jj>Kn Ansti'j, 
LI-.D. wa» educated at Corpus Cluisu-col- 
lege, Oxford, and >va? joined with his fa- 
ther in the office of garter. la 172,5 he 
obtained tlie post of ^enenloori$t and re- 
gister of iltc bath. He died in 1754.— 
£^icl^ls's Anec. of B>i7i\cr» 

Antagoras, a Rhodian poet, in the ser- 
vice of Antij^oDus, king of Macedon. None 
of his works arc ertant. — Pluinrch. Atbaiarus, 

Antelmi (Joseph), a French ecdcaiasti- 
cal liistorian, was canon of Frejus iu Pro- 
vence. He published an historical Disser- 
tation on the Church of I'rcjus, aiid a cri- 
tical Enquiry concerning ttie Author of 
Athaitasius's Creed. He died in 1697,aged 
Al^^Nomu DuL Hst. 

Antesignan (Peter), a grammarian, was 
honi in Languedoc tn the Ifjih century. 
He wrote a CJreck and universal grammar, 
and publislied an edition of Terence . 

ij^NTHEMius, emperor of the West, was 
frrandscm of Ant)iemiu8 the minister of 
Theodosius the younger. By marrying the 
daughter of the emperor M'arcian,.hc rose 
to the highest offices of the state. In 467 
he was called to the throne amidst the ge- 
neral applau&es of the people. He married 
his daughter to Ricimer, who took arms 
against his father-in-law, carried Rome by 
storm, and raurdei'ed Anthemius, in 472^— 
Umtf. Hut. 

Anthemius, a famous architect, who 
was employed by Justinian in building the 
church of St. Sophia in Constantinople?, and 
other structures. He was also a good ma- 
thematician and experimental-philosopher, 
and lacceeded so well in imitating an earth- 
quake, as to fri,{;'hlcn one Zeno out of his 
house. He is likcwi«r said to have made 
s tiiming-glass.^— ^liw rr/. 

Antmony (Francis), a famous empiric, 
was bom in I^ondon in 1550, and educated 
at Cambridge, where ho studied chemistry. 
He acquired a great tortune in J^ondon by 
the sale of a nostrum, called the aurum po- 
tabilc, concerning w^hicii a • treatise was 
printed at Hamburg in 151)8. He die4 in 
1623.— i>VoiT. £rit, 

Anthony (John), son of the preceding, 
obtained a handsome income by the sale of 
hi? father's medicine. He wrote Luca Re- 
diviv:is, or the Gospel Physician, 1(JS(», 4to. 
He died in lfi55, aged 70, and w;'s buried 
with, his father in the church of St. Bar- 
tholomew the Great, l^ondon. — Ihiii, 

Antigen IDE 5, a Theban musicilm, who 
was famous for his skill on the flute, and 
Itad the honour of teaching Alcibiades,znd 
Irther celebrated men. — Mcr^L 

ANTiGONUft I. a Macedonian ca]>tain, 
who on tlie death of Alexander obtained 
tlie-pr(»viHce8 pf. Pamphvlia, I.ydia, and 
Phryifia Major, after which his ambition 
led him to enlarge h s territories. He suc- 
c<2edcd greatly, and obtained all Asia. He 
waft 4aui isk a battle whicli he fought with 

Sefeurus and Lystntacfius at Ipsus, tn t&p 
84th year pf his age, R C. IV?\. — Un. Hi A 

Antioonus Gonatuj., son of.Dcmetriui 
Poliorccteg, and j^randson of the above, was 
a prince distinguished by his filial piety, and 
his extraordinary humanity. Though com- 
pelled to enter into war, first with the 
Gauls, and next with Pyrrhns, king^ of 
Epirus, in which he was successful, he 
shewed a noble spirit of forbearance. _ When 
his son brought him the head of Pyrrhusln 
triumph, he expressed his resentment at it, 
and caused the body to be interred with 
funeral honours. He died B. C. 243, aged 
above SCK^JSiJ. 

Antioonus Do son, king of Macetlon, 
succeeded his brf)ther Demetrius I!. R C. 
237. He defeated Cleomenes, and to<»k 
the city of Sparta. He also repelled the 
Ulyrians, who had invaded his territories, 
and died soon after, B. C. 2*21, being suc- 
ceeded by Philip his nephew.-^7^;z 

Antioonus Carystius, a Greek pbifo- 
sopher and historian, flourished B. C. SOa 
He wrote several b(K>ks, one onlv of which 
remains ; viz. A Collection of Wondeifal 
fitorios. which was published at Basil ia 
15«8, 8vo. and at X^eyden in 1619. — f^trins 
de Hist. Gnrc Fahticius, 

Antioonus SocuiKus, the founder of 
the Jewish sect of the Saddueees, about 300 
years B. C. He opposed the Pharisees on 
the merit of good works, and some of his 
followers taught that there is no future 
state of rewards, or resurrection of the dead. 
•^Basnan-f Hist. Jud. 

Antimachus, a Greek poet, was the 
son of Hipparchus, and .flourished B. C. 
408. He wrote a poem entitled Thebaid, 
on the war of 1 hebes, but it is now lost.— 
Vossius. \ 

Antimaco (M;:rc Anthony), a learned 
Italian, was a native of Mantua. He taught 
Greek with great reputation at Ferrara, 
where he died in 1552. He translated some 
pieces from the Greek, and wrote some 
I^tin poems. — Tirabascbi. 

Antine (Maur Francois d*),a benedic- 
tJhe monk, was born at Gouvieux, in the 
diocese of Liege, in l<i88. He published 
the first five volumes of Du CangeV Glov 
sary in 1786; and wrote the Art of verify- 
ing Date;; in 1750, 4to. .ifterwards reprinted 
iu 1770, folio. He died in 1746* — AW*. 

ANTiocnus I. (Sotcr),theson of Seleucr-, 
He fell dangerously ill in consequence f 
his passion fbr Stratonice^ his mothcr-i . 
law, which being discovei cd by IDrasist • 
tus the physician, and communicated i 
the king, he giive to his son the object ; 
his aiTections, together with the kingdo : 
of Upper Asia. Cm iiis father's death I • 
succeeded to the empire, and fixed tl t 
roval residence at Antioch. He died B. • 
261.— .CAf/i.. Wit. 
Antioghus II. friTeos). He wat cor . 



^fiUvens^ the people of Miletus from tHe 
oppru>ton of Timarchus, governor of Ca- 
ria. In his reign the Parthians revolt edy 
aod established an independant govern- 
ment, and their example was followed bv 
others ; so that they saw him stripped of 
a considerable part of his /empire. He was 
poisoned by his wife Laodice, B. CX 246.— 
UaJv. HitU 

Amtiocuus ni. j[thc Great), was the son 
of Scieucus C^iHinicus; and on the death 
«fhis brother Seleucus Ceraunus, he suc- 
ceeded to the crowTi, B. C. 225, H« was 
defeated by Ptolemy Philopatcr ait Raphla, 
B. C. 217; in consequence of which An- 
tiochus gave up Palestine and Ccclosyria. 
He afterwards marched to India, where liis 
success was so great as to procure him the 
title of great. On the death of Ptolemy 
Philopater, Antiochus recovered Pale^tine 
and CorUs^yria, and reduced a great part 
of Upper Asia. 1'his alarmed the free ci- 
ties of Gre«ce» who applied to the Romans 
for aid, w^hile Hannibal sought the pro- 
tection of Antiochus. After several em- 
basiies between the king and the republic, 
hostilities commenced, in which the armies 
of the latter, under the two Scipios, were 
victorious, and Antiochus was forced to 
make an ignoble peace. He died B, C 1^7. 

— l\''V, Hist 

Antiochds IV.(£ptphanes),yomiger son 
•f the above, succeeded his brother Seleu- 
oxs Philopater, B. C. 1 76. He was a hos- 
tage at Rome for thirteen years after the 
defeat of his father at Magnesia. He in- 
vaded and reduced E^pt, except Alex- 
andria, and took the kmg Ptolemy Philo- 
meter prisoner, on which the people of 
Alexander placed Ptolemy Euergetcs on 
the throne. Antiochus restored his pri- 
soner to that part of his dominions of which 
he was possessed; and the two brothers, 
after he was departed, agreed to reign in 
conjunction. Antiochus afterwards invaded 
Jemsalem, where he committed such cru- 
elty, that the Jews revolted, and recovered 
tfadr indepcndancc. He died B. C. 165, 
aged SSt— /2/V^. 

Antiochus V. (Ettpator), was only nine 
years old at the d<ath of his father tlie pre- 
ceding kiog, and w:is slain by Demetrius, 
the son of Seleucus Philopater, after reign- 
ing about two years. — Jhrd, 

AsiTiocKos (Sidctes, or the-ff»/rfrr), was 
the son of Demetrius Hoter. He married 
Cleopatra^ the wife of Demetrius, his bro- 
ther ; and having slain Tryphon, who ha4 
usurped the throne of Syria, was crowned 
B. C 13^"^. .He was at last defeated and 
killed in a battle with the Parthians, under 
Fhraates, B. C. 150,— /^iV. 

ANTiocaus (Grypus)i the son of the 
above by Cleopatra, succeeded his brother 
Scleucu4, who was murdered by hid mother 
B. C 123. Cleopatra, finding that Anti- 
«chu6 was resolv»l to reign independent of 
her lafliience, prepared a b^wl of puison 

for him, which lie being aware of^ obliged 
her to drink it, by which she suHTered thefate 
she had meritei His half-brother Cy«i- 
cenus afterwards laid claim to the crown, 
which occasioned some bloodshed. At 
length it was agreed to divide the kin<*; 
dom between thtin. Grypus was slain by 
one of his own subjects B. C. 97, and tlie 
other was killed by his nejdiew Seleucus a, 
few years afterwards, — IhiJ. 
' Antiochus, a stoic philosopher, flourish:* 
ed B. C. 100. Cicero and Plutarch speak 
of him with great respect. — HuLCr, 
Antiochus, a monk of Scba, in Pales- 
tine, in the 7th century, who wrote 190 
homilies on the Scriptures, still extant in 
the Bibl. Patrum- — fabridiu. 

Antipater, an eminent Jew, who waf 
prime minister to Hyrcan, the brother and 
rival of Arisiobulus the lii^h priest. Anti- 
pater so ingratiat<>d himself with tlie Ro- 
mans as to procure the governorship of Ju- 
dea, which excited the hatred of his coun- 
trymen against him. He died of poison 
B. C. 42.--t^wv. Hist, 

Antipater, a n.itive of Macedon, pupi! 
of Aristotle, and the faithful minister of 
Philip and Alexander. The former moj- 
narch once coming late to the levee, said, 
" I have sl^pt sound this morning, but \ 
knew Antipater was waking." A pcraoit 
observing to Alexander that all his officers 
of state w(^re purple except tliis prime mi-\. 
nister; '* Yes (answered he), but Ant^pa^e^. 
is all purple within." While Alexander 
was abroad, he left Antipater in tlie gon 
vcniment of Macedon; and by his prudent', 
management he kept all Orocce in order.' 
On the death of his master, in the distrir 
bution of his territories, Antipater obtained . 
the £uro])ean provinces. Not long after 
the confederate states of Greece attacked 
him, but he subdued them, and subverted 
their democratic forms of governaient, 
on which he was called the fatl^r d 
Greece. His last advice to his successor 
was, " never to admit a woman to medjlle 
in state afiairs." He died B. C. 318.— i^/u- 

Antipater (Ladius Cxlius), wrote the 
history of the Punic war,wliichwas greatly 
esteemed by Cicero, and preferred T>y the 
emperor Adrian to Sallust. f ragn-fccnts of 
this wc»rk were printed by Riccoboni ia 
l.-5()S, and by Augustin, at Antwerp, Ia 
1595.— /^vj.f/«j. 

Antipater of Sidon, a stoic philoso- 
plier and poet, is praised by Cicero imd Set 
neca. He lived about the 171st Olympiad. 
— Moreri* 

Antipater, bishop of Bostra, in Arabic, 
about the end of the 5th century, wrote a«, 
ariswer to £usebiu» s Detence o/ Orlgea.— 
Fiihric. Dupin. 

ANTiniiLus, a painter, and the rival of 
ApcUej, is celebrated for several fii>e pit>- 
tures, the principal of which was therepr«- 
sentatioA of a you|i^^ Wq^^^^vkctf 



fire, vrheTthy it sbotild seem thait the an- 
cients were not ignorant of the magical ef- 
fects of the chiaro obscuro. — .Plin. Nat. Hist. 

Antiphon (the Rhamnusian), an Athe* 
nian orator, flourished about 430 B. C. He 
tras tlie first who laid down rules of ora- 
tory. He is said to have assisted in estab- 
lishing the tyranny of the four hundred, 
for which he was put to death B. C. 41 1. 
There arc sixteen orations under his name, 
in the Collection of Ancient Orators. — Plu- 
iarcb, FabrUius. 

Antistmemes, founder of the sect of the 
cytiics, was born at Athens. He procured 
Melitus to be put to death, and Anytus 
banished, for their persecution of Socrates. 
Of liis works only a few apophthegms xt» 
main.'—Statilry. Dhg, Laert. 

Antoni A, daughter of Marc Antony and 
Octavia, inherited the virtues and misfor- 
tunes of her mother. She was married 
white young to Drusus, brother of 1 ibe- 
rius, who expired as he was returning to 
receive a triumph for his victories in (Ger- 
many. Antonia, disconsolate at the Irtss, 
refused every offer of a second marriage, 
and devoted herself to the education of her 
three children. The assassination of her 
•on Oermanicus, by order of Tiberius, and 
the bad conduct of her youn^r son Clau- 
dius, and her daughter LiviJla, brought 
new miseries upon this excellent woman, 
who died in the reign of her grandson, the 
infamous Caligula. — Suetonius. BayU. 

Antoniano (Sylvio),an Italian poet and 
cardinal, was born at Rome in 1540, of 
mean parents, but* shewing early marks of 
genius, he was patronixed by men of rank. 
Pope Pius IV. made him professorof belles- 
lettres in the college, of which he was after- 
wards chosen rector. Pius V. gave him the 
office of secretary to the sacred college, and 
Clement VHI. made him secretary of briefs, 
his chamberlain, and at last cardinal. He 
died in the G.*^ year of his age, owing to 
Excessive fatigue in application to business. 
Hft was the author of several pieces in prose 
and verse. — BajU. 

Antonides Vandkr Goes (John), a 
Dutch poet, was bom at Goes, in Zealand, 
1647. He improved his taste upon the 
best models of antiquity, and produced se- 
veral translations of ancient authors. He 
next wrote a tragedy, entitled, The Invasion 
of China, which was followed by a poem, 
called Bellona Chained, on the peace of 
•J667.' But his greatest work is a poem on 
the river Y, on which Amsterdam is built. 
Antonides was bred an apothecary, but 
under the patronage of one of the lords of 
die admiralty, he obtained a place at <hat 
board. He died in 1634. His works were 
published at Amsterdam, in 1 vol. 4to. 1714. 

Antoninus Pivs {JTttus Aureilui Fuhiiif 
JBt^ionu* A»tfin:nus)y Romiui emperor, wni 
bom inR6 of a noble family. In ISO he 
was raised to tbe CQJMulftte. He w^ adopt* 

cdby the emperor Adrian in 13^, and sec* 
ceeded him in the same year. His reign was 
distinguished by its tranquillity, and by the 
emperor 'suniform good management, which 
procured him the title of FIus. He used to 
say, ** that he rather chose to save the life 
of one citizen, than to destroy a thousand 
enemies.** I'his emperor was also a friend 
to toleration, and extended his protection 
to the christians. He died in 161. — /)/• 
Cat J ins, Utt. Hrst. 

the Pbil'^cfL'r, emperor of Rome, was born 
A. D. 121. He altered his same in com- 
plaisance to the Aurelian family, by whom 
ne was adopted. When Adrian chose An- 
toninus Pius for his successor, it was on con- 
dition that he should adopt, Marcus Aure- 
lius for his. In consequence he married 
Faustina, the daughter of that emperor, by 
whom he had several children. On the 
death of Pius he entered on the govern- 
ment, and chose for his colleague Lucius 
Verus, his son-in-law, whose character was 
the reverse of that of Antoninus. Verus 
died in 169, and thus the government, to 
the joy of the empire, devolved solely oa 
Antoninus, who continued to prosecute the 
German war with vigour; but in 174, be- 
ing blocked up by the Quadi in a disad- 
vantageous situation, the army was on the 
point of* perishing either by the eneiny, oi: 
by thirst, when on a sudden the sky was 
overcast, and there fell a vast quant itv of 
rain. At this juncture the enetiny attacked 
the Romans, and would have defeatedthcin 
had not a thunder-storm come on, which 
frightened the barbarians, and put them to 
the rout. Pagans and cliristians are agreed 
in the truth of this prodigy, but they ac- 
count for it on different pounds; the 
first attribute it to a magician or to Ju- 
piter, and the latter to the prayers of the 
tw^elfth legion, consisting of christians, and 
which was in consequence honoured by the 
emperor with the title of the thunderm^ U- 

fhn. In 177 he chose his son Commodus to 
»e consul, though t>nly sixteen years old ; 
he. also honoured him with the title of im> 
peraror, and entered Rome with him iu 
triumph, on account of his German victo- 
ries. He remitted all the debts d\\^ to 
himself and the public treasury, and ap- 
plied zcaloufly to the reformation of abuses, 
and the formation of beneficial regula- 
tions. In pju*ticular, he restrained the 
brutalities of the public games, and or- 
dered that the gladiators should fight with 
foils. He died in 180, and his memory 
was so revered that the Roni'.ns cnroUccI 
him among their household deities. His 
Meditativons have been translated into £ng^ 
lish by Collier, 8vu.—7^/\> Caiffrs. 

Antonjnus, a geographical writer 
whose age i:$ unknown; his valuable work, 
entitled Itinerarium, has been several times 
prxiucd; the best edition is that by Cale» 
LoadoB) 1709, 4to^ Burton publ&hed an 



nrelWnt commentary on if as far at re* 
• lates to Britain, in folio. — f^cstius de Hiit, 

. Ahtokio (de Messine), a native of Mes- 
. ana, was the drst Italian wKo painted in oil, 
which art he learned ot John Van £yck in 
Flanders. On his return to Italy he impart- 
ed the secret to Bellini and Donnnico, 
which last conmiunicate<i it to Andrew del 
.Castafrno, who, from tht desire of gain, 
basely assassinated him. . Thus, by tnese 
incidents, oil-painting soon spread over 
Italy. Antodio flourished about 1430/^—- 

. A.VTON-I0 (Nicholas), a Spanish histo- 
rian, was horn at Seville in 1617, and edu- 
cated at Salamanca, ^e compiled the Bib- 
hocheca Hispanica, which was published 
at Rome in 1672, m 4 vols, fcilio. He died 
. ia 168*, and left nothing behind him but 
his library and his MSS. He printed in 
1639 a Latin work on ^xiic-^^Bayie. MorerL 
Anto snu ft(MaTcus),a celebrated Roman 
orator, was made consul in the year of 
j Rome 653, and was afterwards governor of 
I Cilicia,. wiiere lie distinguished himself by 
hn military achievements, and obtained the 
honcHir of a triumph. After his return he 
discharged the office of censor with great 
credit. Cicero says, that in him Rome 
might boast hersflt a rival in eloquence to 
Greece itself. He was killed iii the com- 
.modons raised by Mariusand Cinna, B. C 
€7* — Ltvy. Cicero de Orat. BayU. 

AxTONius (Marcus), the triumvir, was 
the grandson of t>: preceding, and son of 
M. Antonins Creticus, by Julia, a nohte 
iadv of great merit. On" the death of his 
. fatter he led a vefy dissipated life. After- 
wards he applied to the art of war, and 
shewed great courage and address in re- 
storing Ptolemy to the throne of Egypt. 
.He next served in Gaul with great reputa- 
tion nnder Cxsar, who enabled him to go 
to Rctme, where he obtained the <|uestor- 
stip, in which office he became very active 
in behalf of his beneiactor. He assisted 
, Cxnr in gaining possession of the sovereign 
power, anid was made by him governor of 
Italy, and commander of the legions, in 
. whach ofHce his liberality endeared him to 
the soldiers. Catsar afterwards, appointed 
him master of the horse for his conduct at 
the battle of Pharsalia, and chose him as his 
colleague in the consulship B. C. 44. On 
the death of Caesar, Antony behaved with 
psat art, first getting the acts of his col-* 
i«ague cnafirmol by the senate, and next 
that he should liave a pubhc funeral, at . 
which he made a harangue in his favour, '* 
vdiich produced such an effect on the p6- 
pabce,that Brutus and Cassius were obliged 
to quit the city. He then began to exercise 
kis authority in such: a xnanner, as to con- 
gee all parties that he meant 'to assume 
jfce sovereignty. The patriots, to check 
«s career, espoused the cause of Octavia- 
tt«»i the heir of Cicsar, mi which Antony 


. cCtired to his government of- CtSfJpine 
Gaul, and began a civil war by Ia>ing siege 
to Mertina, now Modenal The consul 
Hirtius and Pansa, with Octavianus, were 
sent against him, and though Antony was 
defeated, both consuls were slain, and Oc« 
tavianus fdund himself at the head of i 
victorious army. After his defeat AntonV 
crossM the" Alps', apd joined Lepidus, with 
whom and Octavlanus h^ contrived to 
form the . second triuniv\rate,. ty which 
Cicero fell a victim through the personal 
revenge of Antony. After the defeat b£ 
Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, h^ went 
into Ajia, and outrivalled all other princes 
by the spleikdour Af liis cour^. Here Cleo- 
patra, queen of Egypt, captivated him by 
her charms, and he accompanied her to 
' Alexandria, where he gave himself up to 
pleasure. In the mean time.Octavianus, at 
the instigation of Fulvia, the wife of An- 
tony, commenced hostilities in Italv; but s 
reconciliation being effected between them, 
Antony married Octavia, the sister' of his 
colleague. A new division of the empire 
was the consequence of this alliance, the 
west being allotted to Octavianus, and the 
dast to Antony, and Africa^ to Lepidus* 
Antony soon after renewed his iiltercour$e 
with Cleopatra in so shameful a manner ,thit 
he was deprived of his consular dignity, and 
war was declared against the Egyptian 
queen by the Senate. Immense prepara^ 
tipns were making on both sides, out An^ 
tony was immersed in dissipation, which 
destroyed his military spirit. At the battle 
of Actium he escapea in a small vessel, and 
finding himself deserted on all sides, he 
stabbed himself, B. C. 30, aged SS^FlutarcL 
BajU, • 

Antonius ^arcus Junius), the son of 
the former by Fulvia, was made consul in 
the year of Rome 744. His intrigue with 
Jiilia, daughter of Augustus, beine disco- 
vered, he slew himself. Horace addressed 
an ode to him. He left a son named JuUiis 
Antonius, in whom expired this unfor- 
tunate family. — Ihid, 

Antonius (Honoratus), bishop Of Coil- 
stantine in Africa, in 435. A letter of his 
may be seen in the Bibl. Pat.-^2)iff///f. 

Antonius '(Liberalis), the anthor of a 
work in Greek, entitled Metamorphoses, 
printed at London 1676, and at Amsterdaib 
in 1688.— /'fl^rir. Blhl, Grmc, 

Antonius, sumamed Nuiif issiVf 9is,i. •• 
of Le$ruca, his native place, a Spanish writer 
of the 15th century. He' Was aji ^^minent 
professor of the languap>s in' cardinal Xt-' 
menesV university at Alcala, where he 
died in 15*22. He had a share in the cele- 
hrated Polyglot of that cardinal, and was 
also the author of some considerable works. 

An To n T (St.), the Sunder of monachism, 
was born at Coma, in Upper Egypt, in 251. 
Although he had a large estate from his an- 
cestors,^e r«B»unced a^ef^Of^^g!^*" 

A N V 

he resided in a cell in the desert near twenty 
.vears, and the fame o^ his sanctitv drew to 
liim many foITowers, for whom ne erected 
numerous monasteries. In the'pcrsacution 
of Maximihhe visited Alexandria, to mi- 
"foisicr consolation to the suIFering christians, 
arid when the storm wa^ over he retunled 
to his solitude. In 33"5 he went again to 
'Alexandria to assist the orthodox againw 
the arians. He died in 356. The Roraan- 
cntholitf writers relate many wMmsical sto- 
't'xcs of the assaults wiiich this sstint encoim- 
(ered froni evil 'spirits.— Dw/xii. 

Anton? of Padua, a francUcan monk, 
^sbom at Lisbon in 1195. He taught 
^tb reputation at different universities in 
ftaly, and died at Padua in 1231. His 
trorVs were printed at the Hague in 1641. 

Antony of Bourbon, king of Navarre, 
"♦rhkh title he obtaihed by Iiis marriage 
with 'Joan d* Albert in 1548. He was the 
ifon of Charles of Bourbon, duke of Ven- 
dome, and duitted the protestant religion, 
In xvmch h^ nad been educated, and united 
Wth the^ duke of Giiise and Montmorency 
in forming the famous league. On the 
breaking out of the civil war he raised an 
^nny, and took Bloia, Tours, and Roneti. 
'Ax, tae siege of the la»t«<mentioned place he 
Vas wounded m the shoulder, of which he 
'died in 1 ^2. He left a son, who was af- 
'terwardsHenry XV^^JjiforerL 

Ant d«Y or Pratovecchio in Tuscany, 
in Italian lawyer of the 15th century, wds 
profcssof at Bologna, and distinguished 
Ijinjself by a Course of Feudal I,aw, pub- 
};shed in 1428, and other works on similar 

iubjects." He died about 14^4. La«di 

Jlitt, Lit. ctXtat, 

, A;«vAR|,an degant Persian poet, was a 
native of Chorasan, and became eminent in 
the service bf Sangiar, sultan of the Seljuks. 
lie was also well versed in astronomy, aird 
composed several work» on that science. 
*But ^having failed in an astrological pre- 
dyiction, the ridicule upon him was so great, 
that he retired from court, and died ih 
«xilc A.D. \200,^D' HerUoU 

Anville (John BaptistcBourgufgnon d*), 

.geographer to the king of France, was 

'Ibom at Paris in 1697. He was a most in- 

'dustrious student, labouring, it is said, ftf- 

tecn hours a day for fifty vcars, to improve 

his favourite science. *rie died in 17?^ 2. 

"His map« are in the highest estimation, and 

his works are all vahiable. They are a* 

follow:^ 1. A Dissertation on the Extent of 

the ancient JerusaVm. 2. Some Particulars 

* of ancient Gaul, driwn fr(«n the Rtmnixis 

cf Vhe Romans. S. On ancient and moderja 

"Egypt, with a Dc«criinion of tlie Arabian' 

' Gulph. 4. An Abridgment of ancient 

9«>^3phy, 3 vols. 5. A IVeatisc on itlne- 

'yary Me;^s«re9 ancfbnt and modern. Q. 

/rht; Covemfn^nts formed i a Kurope after 

she' Pali of the Roms;i Jdnplre*— — -JVmv. 



A'KTTvs, rhetorician of Athens, and 9^ 
enemy of Socrates. He prevailed on Ari^ 
tophanes to ridicule the philosopher in a 
comedy, and never ceased his persecatiofit 
till, in conjunction with Melitus, he pr^ 
cured his condemnation. ^^Hien the peopCe 
discovered their error, Anyt us was banish- * 
ed, and was stoned to death at tie- 
raclca. — PiutarcL Dlo^. Laert, 

Antta, a Greek poetess, some of whole 
verses are in a^collection of exuinent female 
poets, published at Hamburgh in 1 794, 4to. 
' -^yosiw de Pcet. Grac, 

Ap B L(. E s, called the Prutce of Pahtters,vm 
born in the isle of Cos, and lived in the tsia^ 
of Alexander the Gr^at, vrtio would penmt 
no other person to draw his picture, and 
gave him Campaspe, one of his mistress^i 
for a wife. Alexander often visited him, 
and one day talking absurdly on paint- 
ing, Apelles bade him hold his tongue, 
for that the boys who mixed the colours 
laughed at him. The most famous picture of 
this artist was that .of Venus rising out of 
the sea, which Augustus purchased of the 
people of Cos, and placed in the temple of 
Ca:sar. The lower part had been hurt, bgt 
no painter would venture tp repair the in- 
jury. He is said to hate written several 
treatise on his art, but they are, together 
vi^th his paintings, swept off by the hand of 
time. Apelles was a man of ynu and mudL 
- addicted to pleasure. He is said to have 
been the first who had a connexion widi 
I.lis,the courtezan.— P/m. Nat, Hist. jRUaii» 
Suidat. Sayle, 

ApELL£5,the founder of an heretical «ect 
of the second century, was bom in Syri^ 
He was at first a marcionite, but attadwA 
himself afterwards to a pretended prophet- 
ess, called Philumena, whose revdationilte 
{>ublished. They denied the prophets, tUe 
ax^^ofMoBcs, and the doctrine of the re* 
fcurrection. — tave, Moreri, ' 

APELticoN, a peripatetic ph]loeopber,fo 
whom the world is indebted for the woHb 
of Aristotle, which he bought at a vik 
price about ninety years Sefore* Christ. 
They were afterwards seized by Sylla, adl 
earned to Rome.— i?fly/r. 

Ap£r (Marcus), a Roman orator of tlw 
first century. Some attribute to him tNb 
<* Dialogue of Orators," which used to Be 
printed with the works of Tacitus vA' 
(Juintilian. He died aboiit ^3.^^I^mfirk^ 

ApHtHONius, a rhetorician of Antiobh. 
in the third century, who wrote, 1. A Sy^ 
tern of Rhetoric, printed at Upsalin I67dk 
8vo. 2. Fables, pruned with those of iEaop^ 
Pranckfort, 1610, 8vo.— F^'rw*. 

Apicius, the name of thnee ceiebrat^ 
'Rpmati gluttons. The first lived undor 
Sylla, the second nnder Augustus and "IV 
berius, and the third under Trajan. Ot 
these the second is the most noted ; Ite# 
spent immense sums upon his belly, and it|i* 
vented sevend sorts of Calfts, which w«« 
called by hi^aSift^ Fiadii^^ idnacif n^ 

A P O 

A P0 

Aioed to I2fi00l which he thought woUld 
Hot keep htm from starving, he poisonea 
himself. The third found out the method 
of presemng oysters. There is a treatise, 
De He CttUnaria, junder the name of Api- 
cius, which, though ancient, is suppoised 
not to bdohg to either of the ahove*^ per- 
•0OS^-W«M»i/. Martial, Pliny. 

Apien ^Peter^, a German astronomer, 
yoA horn m Misnia in 1495, and became 
mathematical profe^or at Ingolstadt, where 
hedied in 155^2. Hi* ** Cosmography" was 
printed about 1530; he published a^o se- 
Terai other learned workL— Jlfi:^. Adam. 


^fiBK (Philip), son of theprecedl^g^was 
horn at Ixigoktadt in 1 531 , and died at Tu- 
biafen in 15S9 He wrote a treatise on du- 
rlfia^, and some other wo^ks. He also 
JUidted medicine with success. — I6id. 

AnoK, an ancient granimarian, was a 
native of Oasis* ^ in ^SJV^* ^^^ ]\ved at 
Kame in the reign of Tiberius. In his 
* Antiquities in £gypt,*' he attacked the 
Jews, and was answered by Josephus. This 
was not the onljr evil Apion did that peo- 
pie, for be insti^ted Caligula to raise a 
persecution against them. His works are 
fca.— ^«w;w. £afU. 

Apollznarxs (C Sulpitius), a native of 
Cartha^, was a professor of grammar at 
Steme in the second century. He is sup- 
posed to have written the verses prefixed 
tothe plap'of Terence^^<qF/^. 

AfoLuxARis (CUfidius),bishopof Hiera^ 
pefis, in Phrygia, about A. D. 171. He 
Wrote an Apology for the Christian Reli« 
fion, addressed to Marcus Aurelius, ^d 
soae pieces against the heresies of those 
tanek - EmMiiuj. JDufift. 

ApoLLiNARiyS) father and son. The first 
XBs apresbyter of Alexandria in the fourth 
ceatury. The son became bishop of Lao- 
dkea: be wroteia treatise against psk^tusj^ 
vfaich he sent to Julian, who returned i|t 
Mkthss contemptuous answer: ** I have 
iesd, fiRderstood, and condemned;** to 
Mhkh the bishop spiritedly replied, ** You 
love read, but «ot understood, or; you 
^sould not have condemned.'^ He held 
the erroncus position that Christ did ^ot 
.take human flesh, but passed through the 
jiijpn as through a pipe or canal, which 
WmioQwas condeased in two councils. 
iledied about 3^2.— Jlftfx^etflr. 

ArotLODoaos, a grammarian of A^ens, 
whqBourished B. C. 104. Three books of 
hk «n the oirigm of the gods are extant, the 
fet edition of which b that of Gale, 1675. 
^^J)i0g.-Laert. yottuu, 

AyoL2.oi>oKt7S, a famous architect, was 
iom at Damascus, and lived under Trajan 
uA Adrian. ^ He was employed by the 
Ibnner to build the great bridge over .the 
Biaube, and other structures. Hisblunt- 
wsspioved his ruin; for when Adrian sent 
baa the design oi a temple of Venus, which 
itt had joit bttil^jthe udutect fouo^ that it 

w^ too small for the sisse of th^ statuci, and 
said/ ** that if the goddesses should have a 
mii^ to rise and go out, they could noC* 
This sarcasm cost mm his Mio^Bayie, fd^ 
rert. v 

AP0LI.0D011US, a famous painter at 
Athens, who flourished B. C. 408. He wstt 
outshone by Zeuxis, which he greatly Ja- 
' mented' in a poem. — Pliny Nat, llut.^ 

Afollonia, a female christian of Alex- 
andria, who, when very old, was require4 
to renounce her religion, or be ournt 
alive. On requesting to be imbound, she 
threw herself into the fire, and was coq- 
sum ed.-— ^i//fi&uM. 

Apollonius, a Creek poet,was bom a( 
Alexandria, and educated by CalUmachus, 
whom he treated with ingratitude. K(^ 
wrote a poem, in four boolu, on the expes* 
dition of the Argonauts. He afterward* 
taught, rhetoric at Rhodes, ^nd 
^he name of Rhodius. Ptolemy Euergei^ 
piade him keeper of the library, at Ale^ 
andria, where h^ died. The best ediuohs 
of his poem are those of Oxford, 2 vojis. 
4to. 1777,and.thatofBrnnk,in 8vo. Henry 
Stephens piibUsbed an edition in 1574, ,^tQ} 
it has been translated into English verse by 
X)r. Ekins, late dean of Carlisle.— iSi(«&4. 

Apollo Nius of Perga, a city of Pam- 
phylia, lived at Alexatndria in the reign of 
J*tolemy Euergetes, fi, C* 240. He ,wa» 
called, DY way of. eminence, the Geoae- 
frhian. Of all nis vroT\a only part of hU 
Conies remains, which was first pul^Iishect 
.by Commandihus at Bolognain 1566. Pn 
rialley gave a noble edition in 1710, at Ox- 
ford, in folio. — Faivicitu. Hutions Mut^. . 

Afollonius (Pyscolus, or the Lean\ ft ; 
g^mmarian . of Alexandria in the secon4 
oentury. He wrote, in Greek, a work 
•*0n Syntax," which was printed first in 
1495, at Venice, and at Frankfort in 1590, 
There is also ascribed to him a colIecti(^n 
of historical curiosities, printed at ^asil in 
1^68, and at Ijejdcn in ,1 G20.— row/w. 

^POLtoNius, a christian martyr of tl^e 
.second centujry. He was a member of tl^e 
.Roman senate, and a man of great eloquence 
and learning. — £uscl>lus. 

Apollo Nil) 5, a learned grammarian in 
the time of Augustus, who compiled a 
Greek lexicon to Homer, which was print- 
edvat Paris in 17t^, 2 vols. ^to.-^Nou'v. 
Viet. Hut. 

Apollonius, a stoic philosopher of 
■ Chalcis, who came to Rome, and was aferit 
for by the empcrqr. Antoninus ^ius to be- 
preceptor to .Marcus Aurelius, on which 
the philosopher rudely .answered, that it 
was the place of the scholar to wait oh the 
master, and not the master on the scholat* 
The emperor mildly observed, that he Was 
surprised Apollonius should find it .farther 
from his lodgings to the palace, thaa from 
Chalcis^Q Rome.-;iibrr^^, ^^ GoOglc 


A P U 

ApoLLONiDS of Tyana, in Cappadocia, 
who flourished in the first century. He 
adhered to the rules of Pythagoras, and set 
himself up for a reformer of public morals. 
fie took up his abode in the. temple of 
./Esculapius, where he is said to have per- 
formed numerous miracles. These are 
given in disgusting detail in his life by 
Philostratus. — BayU, * 

Apollonius CoLLATins (Peter), a priest 
ef Navarre in the 15th century, who wrote 
at poem on the' siege of Jerusalem, which, 
with other poems, was publislied at Milan 
in' 1692, 8vo. — Mnreri. 

Apollos, an eloquent Jew of Alexan- 
dria, who was converted to Christianity, 
and became so zealous a preacher, parti- 
cularly at Corinth, that many of.the Chris- 
tians netd him in higher esteem than St. ' 
PauU-.^/ of the ApottUu 
' Apono (Peter d*), a phflbsopher and 
physician, was born near P^dua in 1250. 
He took the degree ofM. D. at Paris, and 
became eminent in that line. He was pro- 
'secuted by the inquisition on the charge of 
magic, but died before the process was 
completed, in 131G. He wrote, I. Hepta- 
meron, printed at die end of Agrippa's 
Occult Philosoph^';" 2. Elucidarium Ne- 
cromanticum Petri de Apono ; 3. Liber Ex- 
perimeutoAim Mirabilium de Annulis Se- 
cundum xxviii Mansiones lAina:; 4. De 
Medicina Omnimoda, &c. — Bayte, 

Apostolius (Michael), a learfied Greek 
of the l'5th century, who wrote a collection 
•f apothegms of wise men, and another of 
proverbs, but only abridgments of them 
have been published ; of tne first in 1^19, 
and ofthesecondln 1.5?J8. — Nouv.Dtct. Hi it, 
Appian, an ancient historian, was born 
at Alexandria, from whence he went to 
Rome and became an eminent pleader. He 
wrote the Roman historj in Greek, of 
which only a part remains, which was 
published at Geneva in 1592, folio, and at 
Amsterdam in 1()70, 2 vols. 8vo. — Fotsius tU 
Hist, Grxe. 

Apries, king of Egypt, succeeded his 
father Psammis B.C. 594. He was an en- 
terprwing monarch, and is supposed to be 
the Pharaoh-Hophra of scripture. He was 
deposed hy his subjects, and afterwards 
strangled^— •Tiiu/j&i&t/j. Herodotut. 

Aprosio (AngcIico),a monk of Genoa, 
wrote a number of books, chiefly under 
fictitious narriesibQt he i^ West known by a 
curious work, entirled Bibliotheca Apro- 
siana, Bolo^a, 1G73. He died about 1680. 
-^BayU, M<irerr, 

Apvleius (Lucius), a platonic philoso- 
pher in the second centur)', was born at Africa. He spent his fortune 
in travelling; but at last settled at Rome, 
and became eminent as an advocate. Hcr.e 
a rich widow married him, which irritated 
her friends so much, that they prosecuted 
' iiitnon x\x charge of having used magic to 
£ain her aife^tions. ' ApUleius defended 


A Q U 

himself before the proconsul in a discourse 
which St. Augustine calls eloquent and 
flowery. He composed several books, the 
chief of wliich is entitled the •* Golden 
Ass," a romance. His works were prinfed 
at Paris, in 1688, in 2 vols. 4to. — Pbotiuu 
Aug, de, Citt. Dei. Moreri, 

AQUAvivAfOctavio), cardinal and arch- 
bishop of Naples; was bom of an ilhmri- 
ous fa^nily in that kingdom, and distin- 
guished himself by his love of letters and 
learned men. He entertained sewral in his 
service, and had a particular friendship for 
the learned Peifesc. Pope Clement VIII. 

fave him the legation of Avignon, where 
e governed with great moderatron and 
wisdom. He died in 1612. — Moreri. 

Aqua VIVA TGlaude), the son of the duke 
of Atri, was bom in 1542. He enfered 
into the society of the Jesuits, of which he 
became general in I.78I. He wrote some 
pieces relative to his order and religion, 
the best of which is one on the cure of 
mental diseases. He died about 1607 . ' 

Aqulia, a mathematician of Pontus, 
who was employed by Adrian to rebuild 
Jerusalem, where he embraced the chris- 
tian religion, and was baptized. But bein^ 
excommunicated for practising astronomy, 
he turned Jew. He translated the Old 
Testament into Greek, of which only a few 
fragments remain.— fv/r^/M. Falricin*, 

Aquilano (Serasino), an Italian poef, 
^vasbom at Aquila, in Abmzzo, in 1466. 
His poems were published at Rome in 1503. 
The sonnets are most admired. He died in 
1500,— Moreri, 

^ Aquilanus (Sebastianus),an Italian phy- 
sician, was born at Aquila, in the kingdom 
of Naples. He practised with reputation 
at Paidua, and died there in 154.1. He 
wrote some pieces on physical subjects, and 
was a zealous defender of Galen. — Moreri.^ 

Aquinas (St. Thomas), called the Am^em 
licai Boctory was born of a noble familv in 
the castle of Aquino, in Italy, in 1224: 
He entered into the society of preaching 
friars at Naples, against the inclination of 
his parents. In 1244 he went to Paris, and 
from thence to Cologne, where he attended 
the lectures of Albertus Magnus. He af» 
terwards returned to Paris, and read lec- 
tures on the book of sentences with ap^- 
plause; in 1255 he was created D. D., and 
. about 1263 went to Rome, and after teach« 
ing divinity in various universities, he set- 
tled at Naples, and obtained a pension from 
the king. He refused the archbishopric of 
NapIcH, which was offered hin by pop^ 
Clement IV. In 1274, he was sent for to 
assist at the second council of Lyons, but 
died . on- the journey, at the monastery of 
Fossanova, near Tcrracina. The authii* 
ritv of Aquinas has always been very hi^ 
^ in the Roman church, an3 he was canoni^-> 
ed in 1323. His works, making 17 voU» 
folio, have been printed •everal time*, a^ 


R B 

ft sertral places. — Dmpiiu Cane Hut. Zk. 

Aqoino (Philip), a Jewish convert of the 
17th century. He taught Hebrew at Paris, 
corrected the Hebrew and Chaldee texts of 
Le iay*s Polyglot, and compiled a Hebrew, 
nbbinical, and talxhudicai lexicon. He 
died in 1650. His grandson Anthozxy was 
fine physician to L4>uis XIV. — BayU, 

Arabia. I'his country has never been 
csnqisa-ed, though it has often been attempt- 
ed About ()U^ the Arabians became for- 
midable under the name of Saracens, and 
extended their conquests into various coun* 
tiies. In 891 the sect of Karmatians arose 
and got possession of Arabia ; but about 
990 their power fell to nothing. After 
this, Ismael, a nephew of Saladin, took 
upon him the title of caliph, but his subjecu 
rcrolted, and put him to death. His de- 
scendants, however, it is said, still possess 
pan of the country^— Jl^«^. Univ. Hist. 

Akabscbaji, a Mohammedan historian, 
was a native of Damascus, where he died 
in U50L He wrote a history of Tamerlane, 
aid a treatise on the unity of God^— 


' Aram (Eugene), a self-taught' genius, 
was bom in Yorkshire. He received from 
his parents a scanty education; but by 
pei severing industry, he obtained a know- 
ledge of the mathematics, and an extensive 
acquaintance with the Latin and Greek 
languages, together with the Hebrew and 
Chaldee. In 1744, he taught Latin and 
writing at a school in London ; and after- 
wards became an assistant in a boar4ing^ 
school at Hayes in Middlesex. He was 
next employed to transcribe the acts of 
parliament to be registered in chancery ; 
and in 1757, assisted in th*e free-school at 
Lynn. Dtiring this period, he studied 
hutory, antiquity, and heraldry;^and obtain- 
ed so«ne knowledge of botany. He was 
besides a tolerable poet. It is to be lament- 
ed, that a man of such talents should have 
dbgraced them by the commission of the 
nost atrocioue of crimes. In 1753 he was 
apprehended at Lynn, for the murder of 
Daniel Clarke, a shoemaker of Knares- 
borough, l.S years before, and removed to 
York-castle. He was brought to his trial 
August 3y 1759, and made an admirable 
defence, but was found guiltjr; and the 
next morning confessed the crime, alledg- 
ii^, that he was prompted to it through a 
stispicioh of Cli^rke's having a crixmnal 
intercourse with his wife. On being call- 
ed from his bed to have hirirotis taken ofF, 
it was found that he had cut his arm in two 
places with a razor ; and in that condition 
was taken to the gaUows at York, and 
there executed.^^Crrir/. Maft. 

Araxtius (Jiilius Cauar), « physician 
and anatomist, was bom at Bolo^a in 
159KX He was the disciple of VesaUus and 
9anholomew Magus. He died in 1589b 

printed at Venice in IS^S^^Haltfr SiU» 


AaATDs, a Greek poet, was born in CU 
licia about SOO B. C. His poem entitled 
Phenomena, which is still extant, shews him 
tahave been an astronomer as well as a 
poet. It was translated by Cicero into . 
Latin ; and St. Paul quotes a passage froQ 
it in his speech t& the Athenians. Oretiut 
published it in Greek and Latin at Leyden ■' 
in 1600, 4to; besides this ther^ are severai 
other editions. — Fabridus. 

.Aratus ofSicyon, son of Clinas, wat « 
bom B. C. 273. He was only seven years 
old when his father was murderea by 
Abandidas, and narrowly missed the same . < 
fate. Escaping into a house which wat ' 
that of the tyrant*s sister, she took pity on 
him, and sent him privately to Argos 
where he received a liberal education. At ■ 
soon as he had attained maturity, he de- 
termined to restore the liberty of his • 
country, which he did without bloodshed. 
By his activity he brjiught about the > 
Achaean league, and revered Corinth • 
from Antigonus of Macron. It is tu]> 
posed that he died of poishn, administered 
by order of Philip of Macedon, EC. 216. 
He wrote Commentaries of hit OWA 
Transadtionti—- Zf/r by Plufarch. ' 

Arbogastes, a general and count of 

the Roman empire, who, after murdering 

' Valentinian, placed one Eugenius on the 

throne. He was defeated by Theodoaiuj^ 

and slew himself A. D. 394.— JW»rm. 

Arbdcklx (James), a Scotch poet,waa . 
born in Glasgow in 1700, and kept a school 
tit the north of Ireland. His poems were 
published in 1 vol. ISmo. He died in 17S4. 
,^Gen. Bitg.Vict. 

Arbuthnot (Alexander), a Scotch di- 
vine, was the son of baron Arbuthnot, and 
born in 15dt). He edited Buchanan's His* 
tory of Scotland, and was a strenuous 
champion for the Reformation, and an eo- 
courager of learning. He died at Aberdeen 
in 15SS. H^wote orations on the origin 
and dignity of the law, printed in 1572.^— 
Biog. Brit. 

Arbuthnot (John), a Celebrated writer» ' 
was bom at Arbuthnot near Montrose, * 
and educated at Aberdeen, where he took 
the degree of M. D. on which he came to 
I^iondott, and supported himself at first by 
teaching the mathematics. By accidentally 
administering relief to prince George of 
Denmark, he became physician to his royal . 
highncM, and in 1709 ne was appointed 
physician in ordinary to queen Axme,and 
admitted a feUow of the college of phy« 
sicians ia^ 1714: he engaged with Pope . 
and Swift in a scheme to write a aatireon 
the abuse of human learning, under the 
title of Memoirs of Martinus Scriblems | • 
but the death of the queen put an end to 
the project. In 17^7, he puhiiyied Tablet 
of andent Coins, Weights, and Measurtt, 
410. which were followed by aa Eitay c^* 



e#Mbg^Alfmcnft,&b. and another oh the 
£^ctsofair on human Bodies. He died 
in* 1735. Dr. Arbnthnot was one of the 
greatest wits of hi» thne, and hit humour is 
gflieraUy Attic, without any mixture of ill- 
nature, for he was himself a most humane 
sued amiable man. — Bicg* Brit, 

Ajcc (Joan of). Vide J oak. 

AtLCADixriy emperor of the East, suc- 
ceeded his father, Theodosius the Oreae, in 
d^,.at winch time his brother Honorius 
was emperor of the West. He was govem* 
ed by hif ministers, and died in 408.-*Kr. 

AadAsius, an African bishop, who ren* 
dered himself so obnoxious to the arians, 
by his zeal for the orthodox faith, that, by 
their instigation, Gemeric, . kin^ of the 
Vandalft, caused him to be put to death in 

Ancms (Antony), a learned Frenchman, 
wtts a native of Marseilles. At the age of 
19' he entered into the congr^tion (^ the 
efilory, and applied to the study of the 
oriental langnages. He made a tour into 
the£asr, and returned richly furnished with 
inimuBcriptt. After this he began a dfction- 
ary> Jn-CQch and Turkish, in which he 
hjld made a great progress, when he was 
taken off by a fever in 169d, at th9 eariy 
a^ of 35^— JVforf jr/. 

AxczjLE, (Lewis Stephen), priest of the 
entory, was a native of Marseilles, and 
diid vety old in 1 7BU He wrote the His- 
tory of the Town of Rocheiie, and the 
CouBuy of Auait, 1756, 2 vols. ^o^Noitv^ 

Arcesilavs, a Greek philosopher, Was 
bCBn^Slfi B. C Hie succeeded. Crates in the 
nanag^ement of the academv, and made 
sonie Ganges, which producca a new school 
c^i^ the M^ie Academy. H^ taught a 
wranfi^ling lystem, and seems to have been a 
compTete sceptic. Yet he was of a genet>- 
Qut disposition, and delighted in perform- 
ing acts of kindness. The Atheniang 
honoured him with a pnblic funeral ■ 

AncHXLAUS, son of Herod the Great, 
kini^of tUe JeWs, on the death of whom he 
was opposed by Antipas ; and the cause be* 
ing referred to the emperor, he allowed 
Archelans YtsAt his father's dominionB, over 
which £(truledsatyrannically,tfa8t Augu^ 
tosr conibca'ted his effects, and banished 
him, A. I>. 6, to Gaul, where be dicA' 
Jhifhu. DU Castmu 

. ACRCHELAus, king of Macedm, was the 
DMuralson of Percyccas iL and succeeded 
biin after nnrdering^ Aicctas, brother to 
Berdiccsfi. He put liii kingdom into 
state of great strengtht and liberally en- 
coilraged literature and the arts. Euripi- 
des was entertained at his court, and nxs 
pai^ice was ornamented by the pcneil of 
Sbulis. He died about S96 B. C.— i^/ft/. 

itacc&xui08, a Greek pfaih)0Opber» ww 

th« disciple and successor of Aaasigorat'se 
Lampsacus, but afterwards removed to 
Athens, where he had Socrates for a pnpil. 
— Bayle, Stanlty. 

Arc HE LAVS, bishop of Mesopotamia, and 
a warm defender of the catholic faith 
against the manichaums. A JLatin tran^ 
lation of a work bv him against Matiii is 
extant. He lived about A.D. 278.— 

AacHELAus, a geographer, was the an- 
thor of a treatise on all the countries con^ 
c|nercdby Alexander, in whose time be 
lived. Stobaeus quotes also another book 
on rivers written by one Archelaua.— — 

Arcs IAS, a native of Antioch, whose 
cause was pleaded by Cicero. He wrote r 
poem on tlie war of theCimbri, and some 
other pieces, of which only a -few fra^ 
•ments remain. He lived aoout 60 years 
B. C^Vtnn de Put. Lot. 

Arc HID A Mus, king* of Sparta, succeeded 
his father Agesilaus, B. C. S61. He was a, 
warlike prince, but going to assist the Tr« 
reatines a^painst the Messapians^ he was 
slain, after reigning 15 years^ — Ptt/iareb, 

Arc HI GEM cs, a GrceK physician of emi- 
nence in the time of Trajan, is celebrated' 
by Juvenal and quoted by Galen^^—^wiW. 
yandfr Lundtn dt S<ript, Med, 

Archtlochus, a Gredk satirist, Iwss 
bom in the isle of ParOs, about 600 Bi C. 
Hiel^acedemonians laid a prohibition on iris 
poems. He wax the inventor of tamfoic 
verses. Most of his writings' arc lost . 
Bayie, Moreri. 

ARCBXMEDrs, a great inathematieian, 
was bom ^ at Syracuse, and rdatied to 
,Hiero kin? of that place. He boasted, 
that if he had a ^ace to fix his machines, 
he would move the earth. His method of 
discovering the fraud of a jeweller^ dis- 
covers the singular penetration of hi^ 
mind. Hiero suspecting that the cn^wn he 
had ordered did not contain the qusntitf 
of goM which had been given to the wo9i&* 
man, desired Archimedes to find out the 
fraud. His thoughts being intent upon tfaoi 
problem while he was in the bath, he ob* 
served that a quantity of water over- 
flowed equal to the bulk of his .body; 
which at once suggested to him a nrathod 
of determining the question ; and leaping 
out of the baui, he ran home, exclaiming 
as he went, / Aaw/oumd it/ Then procur«* 
ing two masses of gold and silver of equal 
weight with the crown, he careAiUy no« 
ticed the quantity of water which each 
disfUaced, after which he observed how 
much the crown clused to flow over ; and 
ott comparing this quantity with each of 
the former, 'he was able to ascertain the 
proportions oit gold and silver in the 
crown. Some ancient authors c^bratea 
glass m^ictrine made by him, whic^* r^re- 
sented the motiolis of the h^aVehly bodies. 
H« is alio ^^^ iMd« buraing^^a^ 

A »C 


CI vluch destroyed ships at a great dU- 
tmce. la \he siege of Syracuse by Mar- 
ceHus, Archimedes contrived a variety of 
i^chines for aonoyine the «neiny; but 
the place was taken at last, and theRomaa 
commaader gave strict orders, that his 
house and person should be respected. He 
was, however, slain by a soldier, while he 
leas deeply engaged in solving a . geometri- 
cal pn>olem« and inattentive to the noise 
occasjoned by the taking of the city, 
lliis happened B. C 20$. Several of his 
irorks are extant, but some of the most va- 
luable are lost. Those which remain were 
primed at B^sU in 1554, folio; but the b^st 
<ditU)Q is that of Oxford, in 1792, printed 
from the revision and collection of Joseph. 
TorreUi, nurchascd of his executor Albert- 
ioi, by tne corrcctoos of the Clarendon 
nreis. When Cicero was qusstor in Sici- 
ly he discovered Arcfaimedes's tomb, with 
an inscription upon it.— P/vter^A. Livy» 

AacHON (Louis), a Fr^ch antiquary 

' and divine, was born at Riom, in Auvergne, 

in 1(»45. He wrote the history of the chapei 

of the kings of France, printed at Paris, in 

nil,STola.4Co. HedMinl7I7^JVaarv. 

^ AacHTTASya Pytfaagprean philosopher 
of Tarentam,* flourished about 400 B. C. 
He was alevfisuaous for his valour, and was 
qiosen gc^crai of theTarentine army seven 
times. He was besides a good mathemati- 

i dan aad mechanic. -A treatise of his con- 
ccnuBg the univene, was published at Ve* 
^icevi 1751^— ^MTMf Je Matbem, 

AacoKs (Caesar de), w«s born in Gas- 
cony, and becaipc an advocate in the par- 
hsment of Bourdeaux, He published se- 
veral treatises on philosophy and theology, 
theprincspai of which are, 1. on the Fhix 
apsdftffluctson of die Sea, and on JLongitude;- 
^ DNscrtations upon the Scriptures. He 

A«C9 (Philip Augusttv4e Foyj chevalier 
^ bpra at. Paris, and supposed to have 
bem the natural son of the count de Tou* 
louse, and consequently the grandson of 
tans XIY ; he cultivaied lettars and wrote 
SQi»e esteemed works as, 1. Loisirs, 1755, 
I[vol; S. Le Teipple dn Silence ; S. Letters 
of Qinimn, 3 vols. l^o. ; 4. General His- 
tory of Warv 2 vols. 4to.; 5. History of 
Comnercc and Naidgatioo* At the close 
of kit life he retired to Centilly, where he 
detoced the remainder of his 4a3rs to devo* 
tiosal excrcisM. He died in 1779^—-^ 
Xmm. DitL Hitt-' 

A&cnoiqs (Peter), a Greek priest, wae 
l|Om in the isle of Corfu, and was sent by 
UcBcnt VUL to Russia to>settle some reh» 
gious di^ren^es ; he wrote some 'zealous 
pieces in defence of the Roman cht^rch, 
•oiwttfaftGtcakW Pxotmant churches. 
as died about 1 621 ^^Mwr'u 
« A^cvpi (AUoBindcr Thomas d*), a domi-* 
mean of Venice,, obtained considerable 
6ae by his works, chiefly biographicalt of 

which his GaiaUm Ltiterata is the {>rinc!pa|l 
His last pecformance was the History oC- 
Athanasius. He died about 17a a - i ■ 

Ar(;uuiu8, a French divine of the 7tk 
century. He visited the Holy-land, and at 
his return wrote an account of hisi travels, 
which was printed at Ingobtadt in 16l9u*— 
Cave HisU Lit, 

Ardsn (Edward), a Roman-catfaoUc 
gentleman of good family in Warwickshire^ 
was bony in 1592: he was executed in 
1593, for a supposed plot against queen. 

AanERN (John), an Enj^Ush surgeon af 
Newark upon Trent, who u mentioned a« 
the reviver of surgery in Bogland: be 
flourished in the 14th century: he wrote 4 
book on the fistpla in ano, published in 
158>8, and left a MS. in the Solanian libra- 
ry, entitled De Re Herbaria, Physica, et 
Chirurgica^— ^r/rw/ / iif/rl. Fbyt* ftdUttey*, 
Sietcket ofB«toty, 

AaEACTATHus a ' Greek phystoian,who 
flourished & C 269. He practised with 
repute at Rqme, till for making use q& 
caustics and the knife, he was banished/— 

Arxna (Anthony de), or da Sable, 9 
French poet of the 16th century. Flit 
poem on the war of Provence, carried oa- 
ny Charles V. was reprinted In 1747 : his 
other pieces were priitted in 1670, in 12mou 
He died in 1544- — MorerL 

Are SI (Paul), bishop of Tortona in the 
Milanese, was born in 1574. He. wrote 
some phUosophlcal and religious piecest 
aU>d died in IQ^Sr^Msrerl 

ARKTAU9,a Greek physician, who flou* • 
risked in the time of Vespasiln« Hisworks» 
which are in gre^at esteem, were published 
by Dr. Wigan at Oliord in 1723; folio, 
and by Bomaave atLeyden in 1731^-^' 
VtStHlo FrwuL 

Arstapuxla of Cyrene, the wife o£ 
PhGedimus,a nobleman of that place, who 
was murdered by Nicocrates, for the sake 
of his wife. The tyrant however, suspi- 
cious that she intended to poison him, caused 
her to be racked to extort a confession, and 
afterwards soUdted her forgiveness. By 
her management Nicocrates was slain, and 
I^eander, his brother, ascended the throne, 
whom she dehvered to Anabus king of Ly- 
bia, and thus freed her country from op* 
pression. — Plutartk, . 

Arctr, the daughter of Aristippus off 
Cyrene, flourished- about 360 B. C. She 
taught her father's system of philosophy 
after hit death, with great refutations-— 
Dio^» Laeri* 

Arztiias, bishop of Czs ^rea in Cappa- 
docia, Mrrote a commentar 7 on the Reve* 
iations, about the lOth century, which ie 
still extents — Cave. Fabrifluu 

Arrtxn (Francis), an Italian lawyer o( 
the 15th eenl^ry. Ue taught in several 
universities with applause, and his opini- 
ons on Uw-caseswers generally decmvei 


A R I 

Imt he disifracfd his reputation by his cOr 
v^tousness. He is not to be confounded 
with another of the ssme name and age, 
who translated St. Chrysostom's Commen- 
vinm on Jdhn into jLatin,' and wrote a 
treatise on the baths of Puteoliv— ilfarm. 

ARETiN'(Guy), an Italian monk of the 
11th dtht^y, who invented the gamut. He 
published a' treatise on music, entitled Mt- 
crologues, and a letter printed by Baronius 
in his AnnaU, under the year 1022. — Wd, 

Are TIN (Leonard), an Italian historian, 
was bom in 1370^ He was secretary to 
•everal popes; and afterwards to the re- 
public of Florence. He added a supplement 
to Livy on the Punie war; and wrote the 
Jiistory of Italy, with other valuable works. 
He died about 1 443.-^/i/^. 

AacTiN (Peter), called the scourge of 
princes, was born at Aresszo, about 1491. 
he was so dreaded for his satirical powers, 
that crowned heads courted his friendship ; 
on which he caused a medal to be struck, on 
one side of which he 19 'represented with 
this insenpHon, ** The divine Aretin," and 
on the reverse he is seated on a throne re- 
ceiving the oblations of princes. He wrote 
many obscene and irreligious pieces, but 
in his- latter days he employed himself in 
writing devotional tracu. He died in 1556. 

Aroall (John)» an English divine, was 
bom in London, and educated at Oxford. 
He died at his living of Hs^lesworth, in 
Suffolk, in 160^. He wrote some religious 
tracts in Latin.-^^W. 

Aroehs (John Baptist de Boyer, mar- 
quis d*), a French writer, was bom at Alx, 
in Provence, 1704. He served sometime in 
the array, but retired in disgust, and went 
to Holland, where he wrote some pieces, 
which recommended him to the notice of 
Uie king of Prussia, who made him his 
chamberlain. He died at Aix in 1771. His 
Works are, Jewish Letters, Chinese Letters, 
Cabalistic Letters, and the Philosophy of 
Good Sense, 3cc. Learning and ingenuity 
are evident in these productions, but mixed 
with infidelity and lic«atiousness.F— JV««v. 
DicL Hilt, 

Argkns^n (Mark Ren^ le Voyer, mar- 
quis d!), an eminent man in the reign of 
JM>uis XIV. was bom in 1652 at Venice, 
where his father was then resident as am- 
bassador. In 1697, he was made lieutenant- 
general of the police in Paris, in which 
Dfiice he behav^ with uncommon vigi- 
lance, and Ke first introduced lettres-de» 
cachet in the police. In 1719,hewas made 
chancellor in the room of d'Aguesscau, but 
the year foUowin? he was deprived of all 
Itfs places, and died of chagrin in 1721. 
He was a man of great talents and perse- 
verance.— '72^^. * 

AResNTixK (Jofm),an Italian physician, 
was bom at Castienuovo, in Piedmont, in 
15H, aod died ai Turin la 1^72. }U$ 

WAt^cs were pnnted at Venice, in 2 toTs, 
folio, 1592. — Moreri 

Argentina (Thomas d*), a general of the 
Augustines in 1345. He wrote Conimen- 
Uncs on the Master of the Sentences, 
printed at Strasburg, 1400, folio. — Wd. 

Aroentre (Chars. Duplessis d'), a learned 
and laborious French prelate. He was bom 
in 1673, and became doctor oftheSorbonn^, 
almoner to the king, and bishop of Tulle?*. " 
Of his works, the most valuable is, hs« 
Cc^lectio judiciorum de novis erroriljus, 
&c. 'in 3 vols, folio. This judicious com- 
pilation contains nearly the same materials 
as the great work of Bosfuet» L*Histoirc 
des Variations. Argentre died in 1740 ^ 
Nouv. Did. Hhf. 

Argenville (Anthony Joseph DesalKcr 
tf), an ingenious French writer, was the 
son of a bookseller at Paris, and member of 
several societies in lEurope. He wrote a 
valuable treatise on Gardening, 4to. 1747 ; 
the Lives of the most famous Painters, in- 
3 vols. 4to. 1755 j a Catalogue of Fossils 
found in France, and other curious works. 
He was also one of the writers engaged in 
the Encyclopedie. Hedied in 1766^-^/Jii/. 
Arooli (Atodrew), an Italian* mathema- 
tician, was bom at Tagliacozzo in the- 
kingdom of Naples. He was appointed, by 
the senate of Venice, professor of mathe- 
matics at Padua, with the tide of chevalier, 
in 1636. He died in 1653. Hef)ublished 
a treatise, de Diebus criticis» in 4to. 1652» 
and Epheraerides, from 1640 to 1700 ^ 

Argoli (John), son of the preceding-. • 
He wrote an admired poem, entitled En- 
dymion, and other works. He was pro- 
fessor of jurisprudence at Bologna, azid died 
about 1660v— AM. 

Aroonne (Bonaventure d*), a c^husjan 
monk, was bom at Paris in 1640, and died 
in 1704. He wrot« a Method of readinff 
the Church Fathers, 1697, 12mo. • and 
Miscellanies, historical and literary, under 
the name of Vigneul de MarviUe, reprinted 
in 1725, in 3 vols. 12mo.— iVovo. Dirt. Hist* 
Argues (Gerard d*), a French mathema- 
tician, was born at Lyons in 1597, and 
died in 1661. He was the friend of D^- 
cartes, whom he defended with gf eat spirtt. 
He wrote a treatise on Perspet^tive | of 
Conic Sections ; the Pracrice of Drawing; 
and on Stonecutting. — IMd. 

Argtropvlus (John ),an eminent scholar 
of the 1 5th century, was bom at Constan- 
tinople, and coming to Florence, was cho- 
sen professor of Greek. He also became 
tntor to the son of Cosmo de> Medicis. 
He died at Rome in the 70th year of his 
age,' about 1478. He was a great glutton, 
and spent all that he got in good cheer. He 
wrote a Commentary on Aristotle*s l^thics, 
printed in 154r, folio^^^BaytU, Fabri^ita. 

Ariarathes V. king of Cappadocia, be- 
gan his reign B. C. J^4, and iQarried tho 

' Digitized by VjOOQIC* 



^qifiter of Antiochvar the Great, He was' 
a^carned princei and a great encoura^rer of 
men of letters. He died B. C. 16:^; after 
iciijaiajr 62 yevc%,—Univ. Hist, 

AftULHATHEs VI. surnamed PbiUpattr^ 
lustheion of the preceding. His riyal, 
Oloph«ni€s, succeeded for a time in driv^ 
iii^ hint from his throne ; but at length, by 
t^ help of Attalus, kin^ of Per^amu«» he • 
recovered it. He was slain in battle, B. C. 

AuAJiATHES VIL son of the above, mar- 
ried Laodice,si6ter of MithridatM the Great. 
He was murdered by his brother-molaw, 
liho ^4rri9oned the towns of Cappadocia 
with his troops; but the Cappadocinns 
rttse, and having expelled him, placed on 
the throne 

AaiAaATnxs VIIL son of the last-wien- 
tioned. He was basely a»sa£>iinated by his 
nude Mkhridates, who seized the kinj^om 
B. C 9tf, and placed upon the throne his in- 
&nt soo» by the name of Ariarathes lX.r^ 
RU, ' 

AaiAS MowTANUs (Benedict), was born 
at Seville. He distiny^Aished himself b^ his 
skili in (he orieotal languages. Philip II. 
CBiplorcd him in editing a Polyglot )3ibie, 
which' was printed at Antwerp in 1569 — 
1572, in 8 vols, folio. He refused a bi- 
•koprtc, and contented himself with a pen- 
sion of 2000 ducats, and the place of king's 
chaplain^ He died in 1598, aged ll^^Mo- 

AaiETB (Jacob Juda), rabbi of the syna- 
fnogue at Amsterdam^ in the last century. 
He wrote a description of the Tabernacle 
is Hebrew, which has been translated into 
Lasmr^Nomf. Diet. Hist, 

Arzobarzakbs L king of Cappadocia, 
was elected by the people of that coimrry, 
B. C 91, but expelled shortly after by '1 1- 
gnmcs, king of Armenia. He then went to 
Rome, where'he obtained such support as 
enabled him to recover the crown, which 
he afterwards resigned to his son.— >£/niv. 


AxTOBAazANES 11. was greatly attached 
te Csaar, and io consequence was declared 
an enemy by the republic, and put to death 
ly Ca^sius, & C. 4S>.— /*«/. 

AxioBARZ AKEs III. brother and sncces.M>r 
•f the preceding, was detJ)roned and put to 
death by Mare Antony. — JbiiL 

AjtiosTi (Attilio), an eminent musician, 
was bom at Bologna, and entered among 
the dnminicans; but quitted that order by 
a di«pen9ation from the pope. He was an 
opera-composer at Bologna and Venice for 
some time; after which he travelled into 
(Germany and England, He distinguished 
himself as a performer on a new instru- 
Bent, called the nM tfumnre. He was 
greatly esteemed in this country ; and pub- 
lished^ book of cantatas, bv subscription, 
about \':15. When he die^ » not kogwn. 

Aiti09T0 (Ltidovxco, or Lewis), an fta^, 
lian poet, was bom at the castle of Re^<^o, 
in Lombardy, in 147^. He was patronised ' 
by the cardinal d'Iste, by whose interest Ije 
oDtained several employments. He aftet^ ^ 
wards entered into tne service of Alfonto, ' 
duke of Ferrara, who appointed him go- 
vernor uf Grafhngnana. His most fiimouf 
piece is entitled ** Orlando Furioso,** of 
which there are two English translations; 
the first by sir lohn Harrington, in 16S4, 
folio; and the last by Mr. Hoole,in 1783, 
8vo. Arioit^^ also Wrote some comedies, 
which were performed in the hall of Eer-' 
rara before the duke and his court. He 
died at Ferrara in 153S, in which year he 
had been honoured with tbe laurel by 
Charles V. His remains were interred in 
the church of the bcnedictines, where there 
is a tomb to his memory. He left two ha- 
tnral sons.— *A/»r<T«. Nouv. D'ct. Hist. 

Ariosto (Gabriel), brother of the above, 
was accounted a good Latin poet, and his ' 
poems were printed at Ferrara in 1582. ^ 
He died about 155'A. Hia <iOn Horace was 
the author of an heroic poem in lulian, . 
called Alphatis.-^Mwrri: 

AatovifsTus, king of the Gcmiians, who 
being called into Gaul to assist the Seqnani, 
made himsei f master of part of the country ; 
on which the inhabitants applied for assist- 
aveeto Caesar, whodcfeated Ariovistus with 
a. great slaughter, near Besan5on. After this 
we read no more of him^ — CVf<fr df BM, Gtrtt. 

Aristjknetes, a Greek writer of the 4th 
century. He died at Nicomeilia in 358. 
Two books of love-epistles by him are ex- ' 
tant, very elegant and tender. They were 
printed at Paris in 1595. — Falridifs. 

Akistanoer, a celebrated soofhsayer^ 
who accompanied Alexander the Great in 
his expedition, and was of great service to 
him by imposing upota-the credulity of his ' 
■oldier&r^Q. Curtius, Plutarch. 

Aristarciius, a Grecian philosopher,' 
was a native of Samos, and is said to have 
been the first who asserted the rotation of 
the earth upon its axis, and its motion round 
the sun. He is also said to have invented 
8un-<lials. There is only one work of liia 
ejEtant, on the foii^k and distance of the srn 
and moon, which was published by Dr. 
Wallis in Greek and Latin in 16HH. — Fabrf 
Cius. Htittont M.rth. Diet, 

Aristarchus, a grammarian, was bom 
in Samothrace, but settled nt Alcxrtndria, 
where he taup-ht the son of Ptolemy Philo- 
meter, B. C. 160. Cicero and Horace men- ' 
tion his name to exprcHs a severe critic ; and 
it is used at this day for the same purpose. 
He starved himself to death at the age of 

Aristarchus, a converted Jew of Thes- 
salonia,who was the friend and companion 
of St. Paul in his travels through Asia^-*' 
Acts, • • 

AiiiSTiAS, a Greek bistofian and,poet, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


4iMmthedaUnut550&C. Sevferal-maFrel- 
1<H19 storie». lure told of him by Herodotus 
a|id others. Hi» works are all loslf-^FoutM 
d^ Nut. Grite. Bavle. ' 

AxisTiLASy 8ai6> t(f have been one of the 
1% tian^ator»<of the Hebrew ncriptures, at. 
th» court -of Pililadelphui, according to Jo* . 
Mphuib A letter at (ribotcd to hixn on the 
subject of that vcrsiocr U extent, and was 
printed at Oyford in IG^Z-^Zhfijfi.- FabrU. 

Aaistevs, a. Greek mathematician, flou- 
rnhed aboat 350 3* C It -is said that Euclid 
pmiited ^eatly byjue writings but they. 
4re now iDsc— JKdry^ : 

AnisTinss, a cclcbretcd Athenian, who 
ipse to the fu'st offices in the state^and das- • 
char^^'them with so much 'credit, as to 
obtain the honourable surname of the JtuU 
He was a git'.it admirer of the Irtwsof Ly* 
cur;^u6, and very ripid in his notions of puo^ i 
lie justice. At the battle of IVIaratiion, he . 
distinarui she'd hinwcif " by his bravery ; but 
thon^ he liad tlie diat^ of the spoils, he 
toi»k nothing for hknself. Tlie party of 
*ThcsiustoclGs 9i% \^ph prevailed aj«:iin8t 
him, and he wasjbani^hed by the ostraciem. 
"When the Athenians were apprehensive of 
a, visit from Xerxes, they recalled Aristides, 
who, nobly forget tingr past injuries, g^vehis " 
assistance to i hemietocles for the b^efit of 
the conuncnweeith ; and when that com- 
inander, vv-j« prosecuted, he refused to pve 
hifrconsent to the sentence of bis banobment. 
Ari^cfes wa& held in the hij>;hest.esteem by 
JXi the cou^deiltia} states of Greece* and was 
appointed by themio regulate the propor«>. 
tionau assessments'wiiich they were to pay 
fer the support of the war. In-thi&he acted 
with so much wisdom and justice, as to gkia 
icRfwersiii admiration. He died very poor 
about 467 B. C The Atheniaas bestowed a ' 
ina^iBcent ftinerai on Imh, and ji:ave his 
son* LytttBachus,an estskte and pension, and- 
portioned his daubers at the public es<« 
pCBtfe.^— /;A»/#rtf^' Fit, Arist, 

AnxSTiDse, a j^losopber of Athens, ia^ 
tike second centuryrwho became a convert 
ttt christtaAicy, but without quittingius pro- 
lession. lie composed an excellent apoloj^y 
for the cluristtana, which he pcceented to the 
emperor Adrian when he was at Atbeos, 
about A. D. I2!k — Etuebiu*. Jhtpim. 
. Aki^tides (jPiius), a ac^hist of th« 2d' 
century, was born- at Adriant in Mysta. la 
Vi% chesty of Smy^nar was destroy^ by 
sui earthquake ; on which he wrote so pa* 
tLedc a letter to the emperor, thache caused 
ic to be rebuih; and the inhabitants out of 
jCratitudet erected a statueto Aristides. He 
was an eloquent man, but* very supersd- 
t|»us. He died abaut the 60eh year of his 
age. His works were published at Otfordf 
iXk 1723, S vols: 4to,— /iff^rrciifi. 

AaisTiDES, a Theban painter, who flou^r 
rished about 34() 9. C. He is celebnued for . 
a picture of a town taken by storm, ia 
^Gh Im npreisUied % child creeping X» 

AS r 

the mangled Went of its dyin^ aoriiwv 
who still retained sufficient racoftection t» 
feel tin; most expressive anxtctf^ that the 
child should not suck her blooa instead o€ 
her nrUk. He excelled in. eKpretsion, and. 
in delineating. the affKtiaos and enwtiomr 
of the-souL — P/w/y. 

Ari sti o je » of ^letus, an historttin .ofteA 
mentioned by Plutarch. One of his work* 
was a history of Italy. His writings, how- 
ever, were fuied with such licentious talest 
that their kMs is not (o be regretted<-~f^dir«ii(t. 

AaiSTiPPos of Cyrcne, the disciple oC 
Socrates, and founder of the cyrenatc sect, 
differed widely from the doctrine of hia 
nf»ster.> Hu maxun was> that pleasure ia 
the^ chief good of man. Dionysius the Xy^ 
rant entertained him at his court, whers 
Aristippus revtUcd in luxury. The tyrasC 
once asked him why die iHiiloeophers aU 
ways sought the company of the ^:raaf» 
whereas the lauer seldom visited phdoso* 
phers;'to wjwch the other replied, <^ Be- 
cause the physicians usually go to the sick.** 
Diogenes having said td hiin, **■ If Aristippus 
could be content to. live upoa VQgetab!es» 
hewoiild^ot demean himself in cooxtinip 
thefa^fDur of princes;" he rcpliedj *.* If he 
who ceosures me were qualified to pay hia 
court .to princes, he would not live on ve- 
getables." A person boastins before hJsa 
that he bad read^ great desu« Axistippua 
remarked, ^ it was no sign of ^ood healtii 
to eat more than <me could digest.** He 
flourished about 400 & C. His daadhter 
'Aretpwas famous for wisdom as w^ aa 
beauty.-^-^/an/*^*/ Live* ojfPbiUs. 
^Aniaro of Chios, a stoic philoaoplier, 
who lived about 260 JBL C. He endeavoured 
to form a sect of his own, and treated 
logic and physics as useless. Ua taugbt 
that all actions are indiiCvent in thcniselve% 
though he maintained, that 'nrtue is the 
supreme good. He died in conH>({uence c>f 
the scorcliing rays of the sun striking upon 
his bald head.— tW/r)'. 

AaisTO, a peripatetic philosopher, wh» 
flottrished about 230 B. C. . Ke was the au- 
thor of Amatory Epistles, qooMd by Aliie- 

Aristo ^Titus), an eminent Roman ]aw«« 
yer in the tme of lYajan. Pliny the yoons^ 
er mentions his abilities and virtues in the 
highest terms. He wrote several booka^ 
tb« very titles of which are XotiLr^SayU, 

ArtstobulusI. king of the Jews, was at 
first high priest, in which he succeeded hia 
father Hyrcanus. He took his elder bro- 
ther Antigonus into partnership with him 
in liie government, but put his mother and 
two younger brothers mto piisoa^whera 
they were starved. He afterwarda caused 
Antigonus to be put to death. He died 
B^ C 10^ having reignad hot a y^ar.-^-Je* 

Aus-roaozari IL was the son of AUxan- 
derJanxuBus. ln€9B.0>h^<VpthnyA% 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ' 


A It I 


' BfMflB^ n^rcsROB^ lull wti iwpoifn. IBrhl^r 
tumbftlie RDmaoridider Pbmpsy^ who 
caottd fabn to be pdiioned/<-Jair^iatf . • 

Axtft-MMiurs, a Jew-of Akiandria, who 
HMued th« peripatetic phikw>pky with the 
Isir of McMk He »• fl«qDently quoted b^ 
Euielnus, but his works are lost; he iloa« 

AaisToetTON,a]i Athankn dtiKea^who 
wkhhis liriend HaamodkB formed a con* 
ipiracj a|(aiBsrHipparchct8 and Hijypiar, 
tiietynait»of Athens, BbC 516. HarBuxiive 
was IdiM after dis^chiog Hipparchuey 
and Anstogkcnt being made prUoneif, was^ 
toitared to make faimr confess the xxmiea of 
his confedeFttea^ on whieh he named thA 

Sot'^f fiends^ who were dbecdj put to 
h ; and beings aAed' if there were no 
mwe, he answerad, that there rcfnained 
oiAf Hipfsiaa, who deserved to-die^ The 
mniory of chcsetwofrlends were celebrated 
at Atbeas with epthiiwawn^— -g^iwdto*. 

Aairro m s n e s, a celebrated Greek* was 
the nm of Nieoniedes^and descended- from 
die kings of Messcnew He roased the Mes" 
seaians'fo arms against Spairta, K C 085. 
He defeatted' the Spartans in the fsnthattle, 
fdt wlikh his countrymen wo«dd haare 
msde him king, bat he oontented himself 
with the title \)4 general. He was twice 
taken prisoner, but escaped. Fomme at 
lo^ mrned againii the Messemans^.mott 
ef whom, under the son^ of'AristonMbS»» 
ciiigrattd to Sicily, where thef bnUt the 
cit^ of Messina. ArsBtometu^ died ' at 
RkKfes, -where he was buaned with great 
pemp^ — DioSwiu S'umlms. Uojv. Hi.t, 

AvisToFHAWts, aft Athenian cootie poet, 
war cotemporary with Socnces, Plato, and 
Earipides. He attacked- the deifgn^of chose 
whs aimed atxhe soverdgo powerat Athens 
wkb such saceessi thac kas was Iftteraif^r. re- 
warded by Kis fello#<<^ic}zens for ins pa» 
triotk estftmns. His detections- of the 
nuumers of die Athenians were so faith&l, 
that wftea Dionysins^ the -tyntnt wrote to 
I^KO Ibran account of the state andlaiv 
pMgeof that country, he sent him his plays. 
Oidy etfifven of his {neces ao^e extant. Tne 
Cloods was written to ridieule Socrates,- 
whfr had a great oontssspc ftf r the- eomiG ' 
poets; and to the dishonottr «f the Athe- 
aiiitt, tisey applauded the poet and perss^ 
otted the philosopher. The time of his 
d^ath is nncertaiii. The beftt editions are 
those ef Kuster, Be^glefr Bninck^ and Bur* ' 
nsB. An Eaglish translation of The 
Ctoods hsa been publi^d by Mr. Cim* 
berlted. — FmIm dk P9et, Gfutt, Martrn 

AsiSTOTLv, the head bf the peripaf ctfie 
t^ was bcm at Stagyra, in Thrace, B, C. 
M. He was the son of NicOmachtiv, phy* 
sidaa to Amyfitas/gnundAit^r of Aletad- 
d^the Grtaf He loet his narents when 
fMlg, dn wlllch, it is saidv he led sneh a « 
naapiitil Hfb as to sfuaiider away* liis es- 
tate ; but others assert, that he became a 

pnpi^of BlatD at tbe age of/seveatflMb ISm 
srodkdwith indefatigable diiigsnoe undss^ 
thitrgmiC>philosopiter, tn whom, however^ 
sotte cbsT)^ him witb being, guilty of baso 
ingratitude. Oa the doath of Biato he^stent 
to the conn of Bietmias, at Ataraa, in^My- 
siakaodfttarrted thar princess- sister. He 
was afcersvards ssttr fbr by Philip of Mace« 

• den to take upon him>the tuitioiLof Alex** 
ander, and gave suchksatisfaoiion. to the 
king, tliat he ewcted statues to his hooonr, 
and for his sake-rebuilt Sugyra. On tike ae» 
cession of Aitandsr to the throne, Anstode 
refused ta aosdinpany! him in his ezpedti* 
tian, but re^smmeedsd to him his reiatiaai 

.. Cansthanes, and' then s0tt)ed at Athens, 
whcare the magistrates gave him the Lf* 

• ceKm,in which bata«i{fhc his philosophy to 
a great' monber of disciples. Here he conK 
posed' his prinoipBAl worNs, pardcalurly his 
animai'hittorr, which he undertooU at the 
retquest of^ Alexander, who suppiisd* him 
with subjects, and liberaUv rewarded idm. 
Being accused of impiety, ne wrote ais apo* 
logy for bifftself> addressed td tlis ntagis- 
trates , but he soon after qpaitted Atheos,and^ 
spent theremaiadar of his days 'at Chalcis^ 
a city in Euboeak Some say that he put an 
end to himsetf by poison ; othors that kecasv 
himself into 'the river £uripus« bseause hm 
cdddaot comprehend the re«son»o( its ebb- 
ing and flowiiig'; and some assert, that ha 
di«d of the co]>G) in the 63d yeatf of his 
age^ B; C. 38S. Etfs body was caSfisdaway 
b^ his ccAtttrymea, wlso- «rected= altars to 
his memory. His works may be clasaed 
under the JMads of rhetciri«, p<wcr)rvpofi» 
tifs, ethics, physics, mathemjitics, k)gic, and 
metaphysics; and, in the words "Of aa slew 
gant writer, ** whoever sarveys the trariet^ 
and perf«ctio>B of his productions, all^ deli* 
vst«ed in the diastest style, in tbe clearest: 
order, and the most pregnant brewy^ ie 
amazed at the immensity of his:gicmiis.** 
The bes^ edition of Aristotle is that oif Pa« 
risi 1 6SB, in'2 vols, foho^— i)% £»a€ft, iMayUk 
Stmiey.- ■ • 

• AaisTMCBNVs, a Grecian phdnsopber and 
musician, was the dii^iple of Aristotle, and 
boen at Tiirentam. Ha flourished ab<>ot 
324 B. C. Of all his works, his trsatxse on 
Harmoaic Siements only remains, which 
iN«S printed by Meursius at Leyden, 1626^ 
4tOd — Mire^ Burney, 

Ar iirs) founder of thfe sect of the arianii 
vftiA b<Wh at Lihrya.^He became popular at 
Alexandria,, and, yrl» orthodox till he was 
dlteppointed of church-preferment, when 
he broached his opinion against the drvcinity 
of the Wdrd, which occasioned such dis- 
putes, that the .emperor called a oonncil at 
Nice, in 3^5, to pat an end to them. In 
this council the heresy of AriuS was con- > 
demncd, and the celebrated confession of 
faith, knowh by th« name of the Kfcene 
Oeed, drawnup. Atius was then banished 
by the eMperor ; but two years after he^ 
was reeatted to Coinumiiiople, and made 



a confession of iiii /aitb« vhicfa was rtctir* 
edas qi'dbiodox. In SSI, he went to Alex- • 
aodria, )vhere Athanaslus refused to re- 
ceive him. When that prelate was ban- 
ished, Arius again came. to that city, but 
the people, beiu^ enraged against him, 
obliged Lim to withdraw. He then went 
nto Egypt, where he raised new disturb- 
ances by hi^ opinions; on which the em- 
peror sent for nim to Constantinople, and 
demanded of him, whether he adhered to 
ihe Niccne faith ; to which Af ius answer- 
ed on oath that he did, at the same time • 
delivering his own confession, which ap- 
pearing sound, the emperor ordered that he 
should be re^ndmitted into the church. 
He was then conducted in triumph by his 
followers to the great church, but on the • 
way being pre&sed by a natural necessity, 
he retired to a house of convenience, where 
he died, in 386. His doctrines did not ex- 
pire with him^but occasioned fierce- con- 
tentions in chxistendom for ages^— Cavr 

Hut, Lit. Matheim. Bayle, 

AsKEL (Cornelius Van), a Dutch divine, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1760, and edu- 
cated under Limbroch and Le Clerc. He 
was a celebrated preacher among the re- 
monstrants, or armenians, and died in 
17i24. He published Hadriani Junii 
Romani Medici animadversio, ejusdemque 
de Coma Commentarius, &c^ — Mteri. 

Arkenholz f John), a Swedish writer, 
was born at Helfmgfocs in 1695. He stu- 
died at Upsal, and travelled throu|rh a 
great part of Europe. While at Pans, he 
wrote a piece, entitled Considerations sur 
la Francepar Rapport a la Soede, in which 
he severely censured cardinal Fleury, who 
complained of him to the Swedish court, 
by which means he lost his place of regis- 
trar. In 1743 he obtained the office of 
secretarv of public accounts, and in 1746 
he was keeper of the cabinet of curiosities 
atCasscl. He was afterwards^ emplo^^ed 
in writing the history of Frederic I. which 
he never finished. He died in 1777. He 
published the letters of Grotius to Queen 
Chri;>ttna, Memoirs of the same Queen, and 
several pieces on politic?! and other sub- 
jects. — CcH, Bii>j(. 

AtKWRiGBT (Sir Richard), an English 
manufacturer, wan onginally a barber at 
Wirksworth in Derbyshire, situation 
lie quitted about 1767, and went about the 
country buying hair. At Warrington he 
|rot acquaint^ with one Kay, a clock- 
vuker,and projected with him a machine 
for ginning cotton, in perfecting of 
which they w«re assisted by Mr. Athertonof 
JLiverpgoll Mr. Arkwright afterwards 
went into partnership with Mr. Smalley 
of Preston, but not succeeding there, they 
went to. Nottingham, and erected a cot-, 
ton-null, which was worked by horses. By 
this time Mr* Arkwright had taken out 
a patent for his machine, which, however, 
was set aside in 178J^ in th« court of kingV 

bc&dL He af{erwardi " erected works it 
Crumford, in Derbyshire, and acquired a 
fortune of near half a millioa sterling. He 
was knighted on presenting an adoress to 
his majesty in 1786, as high sheriff of the 
coancy of Derby, aod died at his seat ia 

Arlavo (James Antony), an eminent . 
painter, was born at Geneva in 1668. He 
went early to Paris, where he was patro- 
nized by the king. Here the painted hi» 
Ltda, a copy of which he sold in ixmdon 
for 600/. but he could never part with the 
original. In a fit of enthusiasm he destroy- 
^this exquisite production, by cutting it 
topieces. He died in 1743- — Moreri. 

Arlotta, mother of William the Con- 
queror. She was 1 tanner's daughter at . 
Falaise, where she attracted the notice of 
Robert duke of Normandy, who made her 
his mistress. On his decease she married a 
Norman gentleman, by whom she had three 
children, who were all provided for by 
William^— .fifof. Brit. 

ARLOTTo,a religious buffoon, was bora • 
in Tuscany in 1395. Having entered into 
orders he obtained several preferments, and 
was greatly esteemed by Lorenzo de Me- 
dici, and other great men, on account of 
his wit. He resided at Florence in 1483. A 
collection of his jests was published after 
his death- — Nouv. Diet, Ilift, 

Armenia Major, or Adherbitxan, 
was part of the empire of the Medes, and 
passed through the same cliaoges till 224 
B. C. when Zadriadcs and Artaxeas re- 
voked from Antiochusthe Great, the for- 
mer taking possession of Armenia Minor, 
and the latter of this country. Tigranea 
the Great, who reigned Ixere in 95 B. C. 
reduced Armenia Minor and other pro- 
vinces. He became tribittary to Rome in 
66 B. C. and Trajan made tins country a 
Roman province in 106. In S70 it was 
conquered by Sapor king of Parthi^, but 
the Romans soon recovered it. ^ Afterwards 
it was governed by its own princes, till the 
Saracens obtained it about 651. It was 
' conqiiered by the Seljukian Turks about 
1046, after which it suffered many changes 
till it was reduced by the prince of Kha- 
rasm in l*iOO, who was driven out of it by 
Genghis Klian in 1218. In 1335 the Uka- 
nian dynasty began here, and continued till 
1385, when it was conquered by Timur, 
from whom it was soon after recovered by 
the Ilkanian princes. On the death of 
Ahmed Jalayr, the last of that line, in 
1405, Kara Yuscf, the chief of the Turco- 
mans, got possession of it. 'lliis dynasty 
had the name of the Blatt Sbeepy and in 
1488 it fell by conquest to the family of the 
WbHe Sherfi, In 1500 it was conquered by 
lamael Sosi, and reduced bv Selim II. in 
1552, since which the Turlcs have held 
possession of all, except ■ the eastern part« 
which behiogs to the Pcr«iaiuv*«l^ivfw 

Hi*t. - - 

Digitized by 




A«MtNiA Minor underwent the saoie 
changes nKth Armenia Major» till about 

' 1HMB. C. when it became a distinct king- 
dom under Zadriades. In 95 B. C. I'igra- 
nes conquered it, after whom it came to 
the Romans, who reduced it in 7 1 to a R(v 
nan province. When the Roman empire 
<!eclined, this country fell to the Persians, 
but about 651 the Saraceiis took possession 
of it. In 1046 the Seljukian Turks took it, 
but in 1200 the prince of Kharasm made a 
conquest of the country, which was taken 
from him by Jenghis iChan. In 1355 the 
Ukaitian dynasty commenced here. Tiniur 
CMi^ered'it in 1381, and the Turcomans 
^otit in 1495, when it "v^as called Tur- 
comanta. In 14fi8 it was reduced, with 
Armenia Major, hj the family of the H^&ite 
Skaf, Ismael Sob conquered it in 1500, 
but m 1514 it was taken by Seiim L sultan 
•f the Turks.— /(/(/. 

AailiNlvs, or the Deliverer 9/ Germany f 
was the son of Sigimer, a chieftain of the 
Catti. He served with reputation in the 

I Rocoan armies, and was honoured by An- 
fostus with knighthood, and the citizenship 
of Rome. But his attachment to his native 
country prevailed over all considerations, 
and at his instigation the Germans revolt- 
ed ;4;atnst the Romans. By - his contriv- 
ance Varus fell into an ambuxade, where 
he perished with nearly all his forces. 
A.D. 16 Gennanicus marched to revenge 
the death of Varus, and after a variety of 
fortune, Arminius wa& treacherously as- 
sassinated in the S7th year of his age, A D. 

AmMff Nins (James), a Dutch divine, was 
bom at Oudewater in 1560. He lost his 
&ther in his inlnncy, and his mother, sister, 
and brothers, were put to death by the 
Spaniards while he was at MarpiiVg in 
1575. He afterwards studied at Lejden 
and Geneva, from whence he travelled into 
Italy, and spent some time at Padua. In 
. 1588 he was ordained, and became a 
popular preacher. About this time Lydius, 
theological professor at Franeker, desired 
him to refute a piece which had been 
written against Beza on predestination, by 
some divines at Delft. In studying thu 
point Arminius became a convert to the 
opinion which he was employed to confute, 
in 1603 he was appointed professor of 
divinity at Leyden; where his lectures 
made a great noise, and brought oiFmany 
from the'rigid doctrines which had hitherto 
prevailtrd on the divine decrees. His 
great adversary was Gomanis, with whom 
■e h^ several conferences. In ]6'07 he 
wrote an apology to the elector palatine, 
respecting the <usputes< in which he was 
engaged on the controverted points. It is 
supposed that these ^rce dissensions oc- 
casioned the illness of which he died in 
1609. Arminius was a very learned, pious, 
and eloquent man, and remarkable, for the 
cveanessoC his temper. His.motti) waa^^ 
*A y0gd C(iiMci«pM i> a paradise." His 

works werepubUdied at Frankfoi^ in 1 voK 
quarto, 16"81, The Arminians in Hofland 
^re still a distinct sect from the establish- 
ments — Brundft Hut. viL Arm, Bayle, 

Akm STRONG (sir Thomas), an English 
gjentleman, who was very active in the 
time of the rebeUion in behalf of the kintr, 
for which Cromwell threw him into prison, 
and threatened his life. He was an avow- 
.ed enemy to popery, and engaged with 
great aeal - in the service of the duke of 
-Monmouth. 'Soon after the new sherifi 
were imposed on the city of London by 
the influence of the court, an insurrection 
was planned by the countrv party. Sir 
Thomas Armstrongs went wim the duke of 
• Monmouth to view the Idog^s guards, in 
.order to judge whether the v mig^t venture 
to attack them in the projected msnrrec- 
tion. Finding himself obnoxious to the 
court he fled the kingdom, and was out- 
lawed. He was seized abroad and sent to 
Xiondon, where hewa^ condemned and ex- 
ecuted without atrial, in 1684. — Biog. Br, 

Arm STRONG (John},a poetand physician, 
, was born at Castleton in Roxburghshire, 
where his father and brother were minis- 
ters. He. took his 'degree of M. D. at 
Edinburgh, in 17S'i. In 1735 he published 
an anonymous tract, ' entitled An Essay for 
the Abridging the Study of Phytic. In 
l?.*)? appearM his Synopis of the History 
and cure of the Venereal Disease, 8vo. 
Not long after came out hi^ Economy of 
Love, a poem in which he has caught tile 
spirit of Ovid, with his licentiousness. In 
the edition of 1768 the author purged tliis 
piece of many offensive passages. In 1744 
he published the Art of preserving Health, 
one of the best didactic poems in our Ian-- 
guage. In 1746 he wasappolntedone of the' 
physicians to the military hospital behind 
Buckingham-house. In 1758 he printed 
Sketches, or Essays on various subjects, by 
I^uncelot Temple, esc^. In 1760 he was 
appointed physician to the army in Ger- 
many, and the neit- rear wrote a poemcalU 
ed Day,- an Epistle to John Wilkes o€ 
Aylesbtiry, esq. ^n this letter he threw 
out a reflection upon Churchili, wbicH. 
drew on him thr resentment of that satirist. 
Dr. Armstrong published a collection of 
.Miscellanies in -1770, in 2 vois.lSmo. anil 
the year foUowing a short ramble through 
some partsof Frai^ce and Italy, by Launce- 
lot Temple. In 1773 appeared his Medical 
Essays m 1 vol. 4tO. He died 1779. Dr. 
Armstrong was greatly beloved by 
his friends . for the goo<hiess of his heart, 
as well as for his literary talentsw — Bicg. Br. 
Armstrong (lohnX a Scotch writer, 
was born at LeitK and educated* at £din« 
burj^h, where he took the degree of M. A. 
Durmg his residence in the university, he 
published a volume of Juvenile Poems, 
with an Essay on the Means of pnniahirvg 
and preventing Crimes. Ui 1790 he came 
. to London^ and • supported himself by 
writing bat the daii^r papers. He also 



liresfoliedoccannn^lyin some ofdte St* 
•enting meetinghouses, and was rising ia 
•rqmution asd prospect, when he' wsts 
taken off m the 2Gth year oT hi» a^e, 1 797. 

ARMTNe (lidy ^-JJary), an, English lady, 
sras the daughter of Hen»^ Talbot, 'fourth 
*Mn of George «n*l of Shrevtnbury, ami 
•^rife of sir Wiiiiam Amyne.. She was dfs- 
tingaished for her taleots aod her piety, 
fihe was miitrei^ of the French and lAtin 
lan^ages, and. skilled in. history and di- 
mnity. It was her custom to distribute 
dMiftks amooj^ the ix>or; and she f^ave 
large sums to the missionaries employed in 
converting tlie Indians in JNorth America. 
€hc endowed three ho9pitaIs»<and perform- 
'jed several other noble deeds of charity. 
'Shetiifjd in l675.-^Glarie4 Lives. 

AtiNjLiM (Richard), an Enpl-ish divine, 
•«ns born in' London I and educated at Beue't 
college, Cambridge, but afiterarards became 
-fdlow of jfimanuel coUflge. In 17i?8 he 
took the degree of B.'D. and was presented 

• to the rectory of '^hurcaston, in Leiccsier- 
«ahire. Hepuolished several siogle sermons, 

buthismost celebrated performance is iiis 
iConmfentaiy on tb&t^ocrvpfaa. He died 
in 1756v— Gtfrt. B. D. 

lAaNALL (Wtiliam), a political writer, 
who was empiloyed by sir Robert Walpolc 
'to defend his .administration, for -vvhieh 

• he is said to have received near 11,000/. in 
>4 years. Notwithstanding this, he died in 
videbt, in 1741, a^ed S6.r^Cejr^£hg. i)ict. 

As N Aun (Francis),abbeof Grand Champ, 
'.was bom at Aubignan. He was employed 
in writing the Journal Stranger,, and 'the 
.Gazette litterairc -de TEurope. He also 

• published a collection of pieces on Philoso- 
iphy, UMtaturc, aod the Arts, Paris, 1770, 

4 vols. IJfeao. He .was a man of genius stnd 
CBte.— JViirv. 

ARifAULD'nB.Vi£LA Nova, a physician 
.at Paris, of the 14th centinry,'was a-nian of 
. learning, htftbfloachingsQme^niyscical no- 
» tioQs in religion, he fouod it ntcessary'to 
. 4iuit Franccand ntire to Sicily, where, he 
was entertained by Etederic, Idng of Ar- 
;ragon, who sent hmi to attend pope Cle- 
ment in his illness, but in the -voyage Ar- 
nauld perished by^shiwrecky about l.'ilO. 
. His works were pnnted at Ij^ota in 2 vols, 
^lio, 15S0* and at Basil, 1585.— ilforrW. 

Arnauld (Antony), a. French lawyer, 
was bom at Paris in ISSDyandtookhisd^- 
>gree^f M. A. in 1579. He became advo« 
cate of jparliament,8]Bd«noniey<pge&eral to 
4|ueen Catherine de Medids. His plead- 
ings in behalf of the vmivcrsity of Pauis, 
Against thejesttitf, in 1194, .procured him 
■ a great reputation* A* tract cooceming 
the re-establishment of the Jesuits has 
been ascribed to him, but teemingiy 
without reason. He died in l6l9>t^BayU, 

AaNAtrtn D*AifD(nxx{RDben), eldest son 
ofth* xboTt^vrai. bocs4tt>I'ariLS ia 1^39,- 

•Kelidd some connderable offices, anil^ttl« 
^Ued them in thenunt honouralde mariner. 
-At the age of 55 he retinsd to^e cgavenc 
>of PortKoyal des Champs» where be spent 
the remainder ofhisdaysin religious stu- 
pes. He published a translation of Jose- 
phus, a Memoir of the House of Poet 
Royal, Memoirs of his awn life, and seve- 
ral other works. He died in 1674. — Moreri, 

• Aewauld (Antony), brother of tbe 
«bove, was born at Paris in 1^12, and 
studied philosophy at the college of Calvi, 
'from whence be removed to Uuit of the 
-Sorbonnc. In 1641 he commenced doctor. 
:In 164.*) he publijbed a book on frequent 
•communion, wliich • gave oifence^ to the 
.Jesuits. The controversy between chem 
• and the jansenists was then .at its heights 
and M. Arnauld joixiedtbe latter, whom he 
defended with great ability. For Uiia hft 
was expelled the Sorbonne, .on which be 
went mto retirement^ and- employed him- 
self in writing a great number of treatises. 
When this fanious controversy subsided, in . 
16od, Amaold turned his polemical wea- 
pons against the caivinists. His trenti^, . 
entitled JLa Perpetuitede la Foi, in which 
het\yas.assisted by -M. Nichole, brought on . 
-the grand dispute between liiem and M. 
Claude, in which each party claimed the 
victor^'. In 1679 he quitted France, and 
iwent mto the Netherlands, where he con- 
tinued to write against the Jesuits . ai|d 
Srotestants, with equal sharpness aodfiuj- 
ty. He died in i<f94, and his heart, at his 
own request, .was seat to- be d^>osited in 
the Port Royal. The works of Araaiild 
are ^xceediu'giy numerous, but mostly 
.polemical, leather Quesnel published hu 
letters m 9 vis. — Bayie. Mttreri* 

ARNAUiD-(Henr'y), brother of theabove, 
was born at ;Parisin 1597. He was made 
dean «>f Goornay, and in 1649> bishop of 
-Angen, which diocese >ie ^never left but 
once, and that was to reconcile the prinee 
of Tarento to his father, the 'duke de la 
Tremouille. Wlien. Angers revolted in 
J 652, the qaeen-mother was about to take 
heavy vengeance -upon .it, but was -pre- 
vented by this; who, as he admi- 
nistered the .sacrament to her, said; •'Take, . 
-madam, the^ody of hsiiwho forgave liis 
enemies when he was dying on the cross." 
He divided his time between prayer, read-- 
ing, and. his public duties. . A fnend say- 
ing to him that he ouglu to allow hbnsHf 
one day in the week for recreation ; «Tt 
I will da with .all my heart," he replii 
** if you will name a <hiy wherein 1 am » 
a bishop." He died at Augers in ,l6i 
His ** Ncgociatioos at Rome*' were p\ 
iished at Paris, in 5 vols. I'ixap, in 1748. 

Arnauld (Aogelique), sister of tb 
preceding and abbess of the convent f 
Part Royal, was born in. 15ft6. 5he inst 
tuted a ri>;:orous reformation of her societ 
and tfbvined .se. great u rtpuuiion i^ 



•«ictr!*r, tliat nnmbers of ptrtons of t)ot1i 
•«« Doilt huts about the convent, under 
the name of jansenists penitents. At the 
age of 29, she was aprpoihted to reform the 
convent of Maubinsson, wliere she re- 
inainedfiveyeftrs. She afterwafds hadthe 
kinxVpermusion to remov^ her society to 
Fans. She died in 1661. Six sister* of 
the Arnauld3> with their lAothcr, ' ended 
their days in this convent.— AforfW. Bayle. 
Akkdt (John), a Gerihati divine, Was 
bora at Bailenttadt, iu the duchy Of 
Anhah, iu 1555. . He became minister 
*fim at Quedlinburg, and then at Brnn^ 
vick, from whence he removed to IsYebeft. 
In 1611, the duke of Lunenbiirg- gave Imn 
the church of Zell, and appointed him sn- 
.permtendant of all tbechurches inrtheduch^. 
He died in 1^25. His most celebrated wonc 
in his Treatise on true Christianity, the 
int part of which appeared in 1605, and 
the rest in 1608. It was translated into 
English byMr.Bodmi,inl71'A*5TOU.8vo. 

Akmot (loshua), a German divine, tras 
born at Gustrow. He became professor 
•f logic at Rostock, and chaplain to the 
duke of Mecklenburg.' He died in 1678. 
He wrote Miscellanea Sacra, »vo. 1648 ; 
Qavis Antiquitatum Judaicarum, Letps^c, 
1707, 4io ; and Tractatu* de Supefsritione. 
!& son Charles was professor of poetry 
and Hebrew at Mechlin, and died in 1721. 

Aase ^rhomaa Augustine), a masician, 
irubomm 1710. His father Avas an up- 
holsterer in Corent-garden. He Had his 
education at Eton, and was afterwards 
articled for an attorney; but music' lutd 
more charms for him than the law, and 
he lOon abandoned the desk for the iiddle : 
kis proficiency was 66 great« that in no 
long time he was engaged as leader of the 
hand at ]>rury-lane; and in 1733, he c?om- 
pQted the music for Addison's xjpera of 
Kosamond, which was received with nni- 
tersal applause. In 1738, he acquired great 
credit by setting Milton's Cbmus. In 1740 
he set Mallet^kmasque of Alfred, inwhidi 
first appeared the song of Rule Britannia 
He bad great success in setting popular 
baUads to music. In 1 759 theumversity of 
Oxford conferred bn him -the degree of 
doctor of music He died In 1778. Hav- 
ing been bred a Roman-catholic, he had 
recourse in his last illness to the conso- 
lations of that religion for support ,^thougHh 
in the progress ofliis life he had paid little 
respect to any form of worship. — Moktbly 
Mag. 17^. , 

ARNoRtM (Tonas),a 'Clergyman of Ice- 
land, was a ' man of considerable learning 
and merit, and illustrated the history of 
his country by several Able disauisition^. 
He ilso wrote a piece on the Runic letters, 
to be found in Ohius Wormius's -CoUec- 
tioi^ He died in 1649. — Gen, Bhg. 

Aax'isxus (Henoingins), a learned Ger- 
'mw,wai H native of rialbcritadt) and bf« 

came profesfcfr of meditine ?it HelmttaJt.. 

"'He wrote some' poetical pieces in defence 
of the doctrine of passive obedience, and . 
some on physic and philosophy. He jdied 
in iO'S5w — Marni. • 

Ar n o biu s, professor of rhetoric at* Sicca, 

' in Nutnidia, at |h<^end bf the 8d century, 
was at first an enemy to chrl<itianity : bit 
afterwards became a convert, and wrote 

■an eloquirat piece against the gentiles, 
which has been priiked several times^ 
Lactantius was Wli pupiL — Cave, Dapiti. 

Arnobius of Gaul/a christian divine of 
the 5th century. He wrote a commentary 

'cm the Psahns, and defended the Pelagians 
against the followers of St. Augustine.-** 

Arnold, a monk af the 12th century, 
was a native 6f Brescia; and became '% 
pupil of Abelard. On his return to Italy, 
• he set up for a reformer; and averted that . 
it was a deadly sin for the clerjjy to en- 
joy a temporal estate. His doctrmcs prd- 
cnredd him many followers. . In U 39 they 
were condemned, by pope Innocexit 11. ; on 
which Arnold ivent 'to Swtt^erlaml. Oa 
the de:tth of the pope he returned • tx>- 
Rome, and excited commotions • against 
the papal^authority, which obliged Adrisa 
IV. to lay the city under an interdict, ttU 
the Arnoldists were banished. Arnold arid 
his followers then retired to Tuscany, 

• where he 'was treated as a prophet : but 
was executed in 1155. Some of his foU- 
lowers came to", England, in 1160; -but 
they were all of them put to death.— ffiiite, 

'Arnold (Samuel), a musical pomposer,- 
waf educated at the chapel royal St. James*s, 
under Mr. Gates and Dr.* Nares. About 
176*0 he became composer to ^ Covent-^ar- 
den theatre,' where he distinguished him- 
self by several- fine 'productio"n8, Hk ; 
Cure of Saul attracted crowded houses, 
this was succeeded by the Prodigal Son* 
an oratorio, for which m 177.') he obtained 
"his doctor's degree at Oxford. At thii* 
time he was proprietor of the Marybone 
gardens, then a favourite place of public 
amusement. On the death of Dr. Nares in 
1783, he was appointed organist and com- 
poser to the chapel royal. In 1786 he com- 
menced a splendid edition of Handel*s 
works. He died in 1802, and was buried 
in Westminster-abbey, of which church he 
was organistw — Monthly Mag. 

Arnold (Nicholas), a protestant divine, ; 

> was born at Lesna, in 1618. He became 

professor of divinity at Franeker, where he 

died in 1630, He wrote some polemical 

pieces, printed atLeipsicin 1698/^5dry/f. 

Aruold (Jeflfery), a zealous pietist aind 
minister of the church of Perleberg, wh* 
wrote several works, particularly a History 
of the Church, and pf Hferetics, printed at 
Leipsic, in 1700. He died in 1714.—- 

ARNotD of Hilddsheim, a German his- 
tohsA of the 13th ceatury. He wrote a 



canrimatian of KeTmeUlui's dfrronicle of 

' the Sclaronians, which was publiiihed at 
Lubeck in lG5ih — Moteri. 

Akkold (Christopher), a learned Gcr- 
mao, wa« hrorp ntar Nuremberg, in 1627. 
He studied at Altorf; after which he 

^ Tisited England and other countries. On his 
retaril he chosen professor, and died 

* in ie>'>5. His worics arc, 1. Testimonium 
Ftarianum, seu» Epist'obe de Joseph!^ tcsti- 

' moaio de Christo ; 2. Ruperti Historia 
tl&iversalis; besides several editions of 
L^in authors, with prefaces and commen- 
taries.— ^orrrr. 

Arnold (Benedict), an American gttne> 
ral of singular fortune and character, was 
a native of New England, and bred a sur- 
geon, which profession he quitted for a 

' sea life. He was fr»r many years master of 
» trading vessel ; but on the commence- 
Buent of nostitities between Great Brit^iin 
and the colonies, he entered into the service 
of the Utter, and was chosen captain of a 
company of volunteers at Newhayen. He 
soon r<ffe to. the rank of colonel, and com- 
manded an expedition to Canada. He 
inarched through great difficulties with an 
intention of faking Quebec by surprise, but 
the garrison was apprized of his approach. 
He was afterwards joined by ' general 
Montgomery, and in the attempt to storm 
the city received a wound in the leg. On 
the death of Montgomery he drew off the 
troops and retreated to Crown Point ; he 
next commanded a flotilla on Lake Cham- 
plin, \riiere he- distinguished himself b)^ his 
bravery. He continued in the American 
service till 17*10, when lie opened a cor- 
respondcjnce with sir Henry Clinton for 
betraying West Point ,to the British, in 
which uegocLitton, major Andre became a 
victim. Arnold had a narrow escape, and 
got on board an English sliip of war. He 
now served with equal .ardour on the 
other side, and at the peace retired to 
England, where he had a pension. He 
afterwards went to Nova Scotia, from 
whence he sailed to the West Indies, and 
en his passage was taken by the French, 
from whom he ellected an escape. He 
died in T^ondonin 1801. — Monthly Mag, 

Arntzenius (John Henry), professor of 
law at Utrecht, was a good poet and a man 
of extensive erudition. He died fn 1799. 
His works are, 1.. Academical Discourses, 
and Dissertations. 2 Miscellanies. 3. 
Institutiones juris bdgici^ '2 vols. 8vo. 4. 
fiedulius et'Arator. 5. Panegyrici Vcterps, 
'—'Neuv. Diet. 

Ahnoul, bjshop of Listeux in the 12th 
centur)-; he died in 1184w His Letters 
relating to the history of his times, were 
printed at Paris in lo8.5, 8vo. — Moreri„ 

Aknu (Nicholas), a learned don^inican, 
was born in Lorrain, \iVi% and died in 
1692, at Padua, where he was professor of 
metaphvsics. He wrote ten vokimes on 
the phiTosopKy <iud theulogy-of At^ainas,-^ 

• Aii>JVJ-i'H,enlperorof Oemia|»y, wastha 
natural son o*f Carlomau, king of Bav'arii, 
and elected in 888. He was crowned at 
Rome by pope Formosus in 896, and died 
in 809, 'as it is' supposed of poison. He 
.was succeeded by his son Lewis the IV.— 
Med. Univ, Hhtj, 

Arnulph, of Ernulpb, bishop of Roch. 
ester in the reign of Henry I. ; died in lia-i, 
aged 84. He wrote a liistory of the cburch 
of Rochester, entitled Texius RofFensis. — 


Arhway (John), a divine was bom in 
Shropshire in IbOl, and educated at Ed- 
taund-hall, Oxford, where he took the 

' degree of M. A. • He lield the rectories of 
Hodret and Ightiicld, in his native county, 
of which he was deprived in the rebellion. 
He also suffered the loss of his temporal 
estate. In 1640 he attended the king at 
Oxford, and was created D. D.aod aiade 
archdeacon of Coventry; he afterwards 
Went to Virginia, where he died in 1653. 
He wrote some tracts in defence of Charles 
l^BJcg. Br. 
Arpn (Peter), a musical writer m the 

,16th century, was Ijorn at Florence, and 
became canon of Rimini ; he also betoAgcd 
to the chapel of Leo X. He wrote several 
books in Italian, on music. One of which, 
entitled De Insitutione Harmonica, was 
translated into Latin, 1516. — Burney. Hnw 

Armno (Joseph d', or Josephino), an 
Italian painter, was born at the castie of 
Ai-pino m 15G0. When a boy he was put 
under scnne painters employed in the 
Vatican, in the time orR*egory XIII. who, 
observing his genius, allowed nim a crown 
of gold a day. Ha became eminent In his 
profession, and was knighted. .He died at 
Rome in IG-ttX — MwerU 

Akraoon (Joan of), an illustrions Ita- 
lian lady of the 16th century, was married 
to one of the princes of Colonna, by whom 
she had the famous Marc Antony C^Ionna, 
who vanquished the Turks at Lepaoto. 
Several elogies were printed at Vemce, in 
1555, to her honour. She died in 1^77. 

Arran (James Hamilton earl of), was 
in the earlier part of his life the most &c- 
coniplished gentleman of his family. In 
1555 he went to the court of France, where 
Henry II. made him captain of the Scottish 
guards. Here he became enamoured witb 
queen Mary, but he regarded her with i * t 
admiration with which a subject beh( s 
his sovereign. He had afterwards sc e 
hopes of espousing queen Elizabeth, i t 
when Marv became a widow he j i 
violently in love with her, and being trc - 
ed with indtiference, lost his reason. e 
died in 1609. — Granger. 

Arria, the wife of Cascina P«tU8, " e 
Roman, consul, is immortalized fbr 1 r 
heroism and conjugal affection. , When I r 
husband was sentenced to put hixnsd s 
death by Claudius, ilic, perceiving t 



liesititidn, ylun^ed a ^^Ot ihW htr 
bosoni,and drawing itoursaid,** My PietUs, 
it is not paififuU'* — Murttal. T^iiiiuj, 

Arn'mAGAfRoddfic d*), a Sp.mirfh jestilt, 
was born in I59S. He becslme pr<^fe45or in 
^heold^ an& p^'lo^ophjr ait PrJigiie, ^here 
he died in 16b^. Hi* coUrSe df Phflosophj 
was printed at Antwerp in lofVi, arid hi* 
Course of Theology in 1 6*13, 8 Vols, folio. 

Arrian, \ Gretfk historian df the Cd 
centary, was a nritire Of Nicomedia, and 
r<ti&ed to the highest dignities at komc. 
He uhitedth'e character df a warrior and 

HIlr»sypher. He tvrdfe, Dissertations On 

Cpictetus ; the History Of Ale'xander the 
Oreat ; An account dt a Voyajje in the 
^uxine sea; on Huntidfj^, atid 'Tactics ; all 
which are extant. To hirti atsd'We afc 
indebted, for the tnchWdidn, or Dis- 
courses ofEpict«ns,whdiB disciple he Was. 
Xn Frij^irsh translation of his Hiitdi^ 6f 
Alexaucli?r ^v^s piu.!islied by Rooke, in 2 
vols. T?vo. 1759. In-Pliny*s Ittters afc ^evfcn 
Wdrcs?ed to AfrTah — FbJtius de Hist. Gr^c. 

AnrowsMrTH (J^)hn), a h'oTiCortformftBt 
divine, Svas "theological pfdrcJ^sOr at Cam- 
bridge in 1660: HeVrdte Tactita ^adfa ; 
Oodnxan, or an, Ex[H)wiion of the first 
Chapter t>f St- Tbhh's Gd<p61 ; a'Ch^jtiji of 
"P^incjjilcs, pr'a c(Vi!i'sc of Thcol^e^y ; all kl 
'4to. and hiehiy CAtviniJtic. He died abdtit 
'(he time cif trie I'esloratidni — Narles Hist. Pur. 

ARSACE5 Lfoartdei Sf the Wrthiat^lnib- 
"nafchy. He t>cr«iiadi»dliis countrymen to 
■brfalc'olTtbe Macedonian yoke, li. C. *, 
6n which they rji'-cd him to the throrte. 
Arshces was stain in battle, lifter rclgniflof 
SS. year$ : his successors idl took his name. 

Ajt:<i Acts II 'son of the abflr e, was a for- 
fti'.daljJe 6nemy df Antif5c4i\is the Great : he 
left lil» throne to his son Arsaces Friapa- 

Ar SACKS TfjiA^jis, k?rf^ bf 'Armenia, 
^«ras tre-icheroudy taken prisoner by Sapor, 
jVing of Persia, wbo dailkcd him to be 
'boTjnd'with silver chains, arid cast into 
'^r?son at i^cbatana, whcfe he died B. C 
J5C2. H'r country then became a ii^ersiiin 
'prdvE^ce- — /flr'f/. 

'Aiisr.^ius,'bjsh6p 6f CotistanthiApIc hi 
^lic- inch cc-afury. 'He exccmmufikatc^d 
'Michiel Palcdl<\<ii5 for takinu^ the imperial 
VhovsTi fi-om Jotiu LlascnHs, the son of 
jfl-^ndofe. IVTlchael S(>li6tcd ab^oloticm, 
"Vhilh'the purri^i-ch fcF\i.sed On tmy t)thCr 
' :oiVdition than tbat of rtstiliU'ion. "Ar5eni"Ds 
Wis baihi5h<^ to a sfnill ii-laud, Wbere he 

AasRsius, a "Rdman dcacdn of the 4th 
entury; and tutor to ArCadilis, «on of 
"heftd'^ius": -The eih^er^r {•dtning inldhii 
ludy, and seeing the pupil sittidg and tlte 
lii^tcr sjaijding,' drderW hi»' s6n to rise, 
d receipt his ' Itftsoh^ iri a' bocomirtg 
rst\)x<?, Which so ifritatbd the prlncc', 
eu -fee'tUrc^tidna^ offiirir to itlspittck 

Atitoutit; bnt the officer ^re Idmfrffo^ 
mation t)f the pttn<Jc*8b«8ein?s8, on which he 
fled into Egypt, ^bbre he died at the-^ 
of ^5, A tract of to, for -flic conduct ^f 
the moiAs, f 8 eftanL — kiiforeri. 

Air!rE>*jus, archbishop of "WThHisia, in 
the Morta, irho subtttitfed to the ^hu«h 
of Udmcfor which *he wds 'efx<^o^nntIrii- 
cated by the Greek patriarch. He'died ^t 
Venice m J 485. He i«^rdte a coHcction tof 
Greek apophthegms, and scholia «n seven 
of £uripides*» tragedies. — B^ivfe. 

AKTA3ANV8 II, Wat kiiig of Media, 
when he was invited -about A.D. 16 by 
the Parthians to be theirking, in oppo- 
^•Itidn to Vondries, who was in the interest 
of the Rdmans. He ruled With -great 
-severity fdr <ome tinfe, tv-hich made ^e 
Parthians call ih the -aid Of the ^djnalis, 
who compelled himto -fly into Hyreania. 
•He Vras r*rice deposed tor hb arbitraiy 
trdnduct, atid as often teimitared on tixe 
thmiie ; he then ^vented with such dis- 
cmidn ihat liis death was lamented by 
ixJs subjects, al^ut A.D.4k.-^C^.;t>. Hut. 

•ATiT:\BA?rC5 rV. brdther of Vdk)geses Itl. 
Citracalla'behaved'to him in atrinfahibui 
WtiiiTTer ;'fdr, dn ^ntetiflg hircapttal,WheTe 
he -Vjtis received with the greatest fnertd- 
Bbip^he'gave asipial to (he Rrmtan soldieh^ 
Who fell upon the poimiace, and'madea 
'dreadful massacre.. 'Artabaitus, eiciiped 
*withdifilcuJty, m:u8ter6d-ati Aritiy,aml'^Ht- 
tacked thei^nmni^s, the batrfe lasted Wo 
*tbys,btit^8the a^mfes \*ere prCparirtg -^o 
rene\y the combat, the Roman general sent 
to inform Artabantis of the ^cath of 
Caracalla ; peace was then hiath; dn 4ib- 
nourable terms: this happen^ -m 'ST?. 
'Artaierres' incited "his 'sutijUcts to revd!t, 
and -in a Ijattle, in 1ft^, Ambanus Was 
' taken ' dnd^put w detrth. Thuj' etid^ the 
Parthian' eimpi rc—^Iitit/. 

AKTAtis (Joseph), >n Italian ^ptfet ai^d 
sdldier, was born in Sicilv in h528. He 
was -at the'1»iei^e bf Candia, • and for- his 
br.Tvery received thV honour of knighthoc/cl. 
He died "at Naples in HHV. He Hvrote 
' sonie poetical pieces in Itabnu,- — iHfereri. 

AaTAut), archbi^hdp ofKhe^mi, -is fit- 

mous for his disipAte 'with Hebert aild 

Hiigues, cdimts of Paris. These noblemen, 

with the assistance of William duke -ti 

'Normandy, 1:iid"8ic^e to Rlichns, t>n which 

* he was olyligtd to rciign his see: he th'^a 

" retired frdm Cdtiet; and rhigues wa8 ohhtined 

in his room ; but in f>47 the king restored 

•"Artiiud To 1u« 'diocese. Hc'dred tbey^r 

' fdi lowing. — Mortri.. 

Art ADD (Pettrr Joceph),^ bishop -of C%^ 
vaillon, in France, died in 17(jX), 'agQd 54. 
He was a verj^^remplafy pnelaie,^ a\\xi 
"Wrote sofrte rehgilH^ "aiscourses, in'whi<?h 
good sense and elodiiencer are displayed^ 
dvantajre. — A'cc^n. Z^Lf: tUxt. 
Art aV a 5t> e 9 I. - kin ^ of Armetna, • i^t- 
ce<^ded his father Tlgriuicra. 'He joined tHiie 



.deserted and went over to the enemy, in 
consequence of which the Romans wore 
defeated and Crassus slain. He behaved in 
a similar manner to Marc Antony when 
engaged against the Medes. Antony, about 
two years after, got Artavasdts into his 
power, and took him, with his wife and 
children, to Alexandra, where they were 
dragged at his chariot wheels in chains of 
goll After the battle of Actium, Cleopa- 
tra caused his head to be struck off, and 
sent to the king of Media. — Univ, Hut. 

Artavasdes II. grandson of the above, 
was placed on the throne of Armenia by 
Augustus, but \vas expelled soon after by 
his own subjects, who preferred the go- 
vernment of the king of P/.rthia. The 
emperor restored Artavasdes to liis throne, 

, but he died shortly after. — IhiJ. 

Art4XErx£s 1. surnamed Longimanus, 
was the thirdson of Xerxes, king of Persia. 

. fie slew liis brother Darius on suspicion of 
his bein^ guilty of the murder of his fa- 
ther, which crime was, in fact, committed 
by Artabanus, captain of the guards. Ar- 
taxcrxesthen ascended the throne B. C. 465, 
and in his time peace was restored between 

, Persia and Athens, after a war of fifty-one 
years. Artaxcrxes is generally supposed to 
nave been the Ahasuerus of scripture, who 
married Esther, and by whose permission 
£zra restored the Jewish religion at Jeru- 
salem.^ The 70 weeks of Daniel are also 
dated in his reien. He died B. C.424, and 
was succeeded oy his only son Xerxesw — 

Artaxerzes II. surnamed Mnemon on 
account of his great memory, was the 
eldest son of Darms Nothus, and began his 
reign B. C. 404. His brother Cyrus formed 
a conspiracy against him, for which he 
was sentenced to death, but at the inter- 
cession of his mother Parysatis he was ba- 
nished to Asia Minor. This act of kindness 
' Cyrus rejiaid by mustering a large army of 
^ Atdatics, and" hiring some Greek troops, 
*■ under Clearchus, with which he marched to 
" Babylon, but was met by Artaxerxes, and 
defeated, C^'rus himself beinjg numbered 
with the slain. The Greeks, however, 
^ escaped, and reached their own country, 
' under Xenophon. After the death of 
' Statira, who was poisoned by the mother of 
■ Artaxerxes, he married his own daughter ^ 
such was the morality of that sfge ! He died 
'^t the age of 94, after reigning 6*2 years* — 

Artaxerxes III. succeeded his father, 
t-lic preceding monarch, B. C 359. To 
. pave his wriy to the succcuion he murder- 
ed two of his brothers, and afterwards put 
to death all the rcihriiniujr branches of the 
f.iTT.ily. He qucUed several insurrections 
tSiiit were raised against him. In Eyypt he 
sIctC- the sacred In*!) AuijJ, and ^rvc the 
flesh to* his soldiers; Tor whifii his eu- 
nuch, Bagoas, an Egyptian, caused him 
to be poisoned, and after giving the carsasc 

to the c«t8,made knife handles of his hoM^ 
This happened B. C S38.— /A/^ 

Artaxeexes BxB£GA>r or Arosbir> the 
first king of Persia, of the race of Sassatiide*, 
waff the son of a shepherd ; but hie grand- 
father, by the motherVside, being governor 
of a province, he received a good educa- 
tion, and was introduced at tne court of 
Ardavan. On the death of his grandfather 
he solicited the government, but hone re- 
fused, he retired to Persia Proper, wnere 
he excited the people to revolt.^ He de- 
feated and slew Ardavan and his son, on 
which he assumed the title of ii^g of himgu 
He made great conquest, and regulated 
the affairs of his kingdom with wisdom, 
restraining the power of the nobles within 
proper limits, and ministering justice to all 
nis subjects: he married the daughter 
of Ardavan, who attempted to poison him, 
for which she was sentenced to aeath . The 
officer, however, to whom the execution 
was committed, concealed the queen, wfco 
was in a state of pregnancy, and she was 
afterwards delivered of a son. The secret 
being discovered to the king, he applauded 
the conduct of the. officer, and acknowled^ 
ed the child as his heir. Ardshir died A* 
D. 240-— /^/V. 

Artaxias I. king of Armenia, of which 
country he was jomt governor with 2^ 
driades, under Antiochus the Great, but 
setting up for themselves they established 
the two kingdoms of Greater and lesser 
Armenia, the first of which was obtained 
by Artaxias. H^ was made prisoner by 
Antiochus Epiphanes, but afterwards olf- 
tained his liberty and his throne. — IbiiL 

Artaxias II. king of Armenia, was 
placed oh the throne when his father Arta- 
vasdes I. was taken prisoner ; but he was 
soon expelled by Antony, and by the as- 
sistance of the Parthians he recovered his 
kingdom : he was slain by his subjects, and 
was succeeded by his brother Tigranesw— 
Vni'v. Hist. 

Artaxias III. son of Poleno, king of 
Pontus, was placed on the throne by Gefr- 
manicus, in the room of Orodcs, son of 
Vonones. He reigned 17 years.— />«/. 

Arte AC A (don Estevano), a Spani&k 
Jesuit, and the author of jeveral works in 
different languages; the principal of which 
are, 11 A Treadse on ideal beauty, in Spa- 
nish, a new edition of which, revised and 
enlarged, has been published in Italian. 
2. Lc Rivoluzzioni del teatro musicale ItSk- 
liano dalla su^ origine fino al presente, 
1785,3 vol. 8vo. He left the MS. ofan^ 
other Italian work, entitled R'Otito Scntrp 
Mel riitm tnuin dcgli Anticbly full of learned 
remarks on what the ancients called rythnie. 
He died at Paris in 1800, aged 5J.— iVitfv. i 
DuuHist. ^ 

.Art EDI (Peter), a Swedi.-;h naturalist, 
was l)orn in 1705, and educated in the uni- 
versity of Upsal, where he applied to the 
Study of medicine. There wus so great a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



fnnidship between him and Linnzusytliat 
ihey made each other heirs to all their 
MdS. Artcdi devoted himself chiefly to 
kJithyolugy, in which he made great ira» 
provemeot. He was drowned at Leydea 
in 17S5. LioDSiis published in 1738 hit 
BibHotheca Ichthyologica, and his PIu1om>« 
phia IchthTologica.r— ilferrr/. 

AaT£MiAs, or Artbmon, the founder of 
a sect in the third century, ^ught that 
Jesus Christ was but a mau, and he and 
his foUowert are accused of having cor- 
rupted the scriptures to support their 
heretitai opinions. — Lardntr. 

Artjcmidorus, was born at £phesus,and 
^quired fame by his book on dreams ; be 
lived in the time of Antoninus Pius, Jiis 
work was first printed by Aldus in Greek, 

AaTEMinoRus of Ebk<siu wrote a de- 
icription of th« earth at>out lOOB. C. Of 
this work only a few fragments remaiiL^— 

Artxmisia I. queen of Caria ; she assist* 
td Xerxes in person against the Greeks, 
^d behaved with such valour that the 
Athenians offered a reward for taking her, 
and the Spartans erected a statue to her 
kooottr. — Umi'o, HuL 

AarzMisiA IL queen of Caria, is cele* 
brated for her conjugal affection. She 
erected a monument to her husband Mau- 
krfus, which was so magnificent as to give 
a name to structures erected in honour of 
the dead. ^ She is also said to have mixed 
his ashes in tier drink, and to have given a 
prize for an euiogium upon his character. 
Having captured the whole Khodian fleet, 
^went with it to Rhodes, and took that 
city, R C. 351^-/«i 

AxTBiNGTON (Hcnrv), a fanatic of a 
food i93DAj in Yorkshire. Becoming a 
zealous puritan, he exerted himselt actively 
in promoting what was called the work of 
reformation ; in prosecution of this d^gn 
he joined with £dmund Coppinger, who 
introduced him to Hacket, a pretended 
prophec These men were guilty of the 
nost frantic proceedings, for which 
Hacket was executed. Ari hinjcton recant- 
ed, and was pardoned — Bio^, £r. 

AxTBua, a British prince, was the son of 
Uiher pendragOD, Or dictator of the^Bri- 
tcos, by the wi/e of the duke of ComwaU. 
He succeeded Uther in 51€, and was imme- 
^ely engaged in a war- with the Saxons; 
in which he was completely successful : he 
next turned his arms against the Scots and 
Picts, in which he was also victorious. le 
is moreover said, that he conquered Ireland 
and the western isles of Scotland ; and that, 
after a series of warlike exploits, he passed 
the remainder of his days in peace, govern- 
ing: his kingdom with great wisdom apd 
iDoderation. He instituted the military or- 
<)er of the knights of the round' table, and 
Ktded chriitianity at York in the room of 
PgamszB. Thcic appear t« be the' real 

htstoricai facts of this celebrated person, of 
l;^hom many fabulous .circuilistances are 
related. He died A. D. 5A^.-^jBiog. Brit, 

AaTHUR, duke of Brittany, the posthu- 
mous son of GeolTrey Plantagenet, son of 
Henry the lid., by Con8tautia,daught,er of 
the duke of Brittany, was born in 1187, 
and was declared heir by his uncle Richard 
I. who afterwards devised his kingdoms to 
his brother John. A pestce, however, took 
place, and Arthur did homage to his i^ndc 
for the dukedom of Brittany. In another 
rupture between England and France, Aiv 
thur was taken prisoner by John, who 
caused him to be confined in the castle of 
Rouen, where it is supposed he was mur« 
dered^— /AA/. 

AaTioNi (Anthony Cachet), was bom at 
Vienna in 1704. He wrote Memoires d* 
Hist6ire de Critique & de Utterature, 7 
vols. ISmo. Paris, 1749. He was canon of 
the Greek church at Vienna, where he died 
in 1768* — Nouv. Diet, Hht, 

Artusi (Gianuiria)) a musical writer of 
the 16th century, he published at Venice, 
in 1586, the Art of Counterpoint reduced t« 
Tables, which he completed in 1589 : he 
^Iso wrote on the imperfections of modern 
Music, 1600 and 1603^-^Burnev, Hatvtins, 

Arvieux (Laurent d*), was bom at Mar- 
seilles in 16S5. He resided in Syria and 
Palestine twelve years, and returned t» 
France, stored with oriental knowledge, ia 
1665. In 1668 he was sent envoy to Tunit, 
and brought back with him 380 Frencis 
captives. In 1672 he was employed at Con* 
stantinople,, and in 1674 went to Algiers, 
where he obtained the freedom of ^40 
French slaves. In 1679 he was i^puinted 
consul at Aleppo,'from whence he leturned 
to Marseilles m 1686. He died in 170 A 
His travels were published id 1734, Ia S 
vols.i2mo. — Mor4j-i, 

AviRAGUS, a British king, said to have 
flourished in the time of Domitian. Jef- 
fery of Monmouth says, that alj^er a long 
and prosperous Vei^n, jiedicd, ^d was bu- 
ried at Gloucester, tn a temple rWhich wae 
built b^r him to the bonyur of Claudius^-^ 
Bi9g^ Br. 

Arundel rThomos), archbishop of Can- 
terbury, was oorn in 1353. At the age of 
SI he was conseorated bishop of Lly. la 
1396 he was raised to the primacy, witb 
which he exercised the ofiice 6f lord high 
chancellor. Richard II. banished him ior 
some attempts to establish a regei^cy, oa 
which he went to Rdme. When Henry IV. 
ascended the thfone, Arundel returned to 
England. He was a zealous defender of! 
the temporalities, of .the church, and ex- 
erted hunself with great violence against x 
the Wickliffites, and died in 14 1 3.— iM^ 

Arunobz,. ^ary), was firft the wife of 
Robert RatcUfi^ w^ dyingin 1566,Ac mar- 
ried Henry Harvard) earl of Arundel. She 
was a learned wopi^o, and tranklated the 
Wise SayuiA-^kfidrPeeds of the£0pe(er 



Alenndtr Serrerus, Ind from the Greek 
into liarin the Apophthegms of the seven 
wi<e Philosophcn. — Bullants Brit. Ladies. 
>' Arundel (BLinche, Udy), the daughter 
4bf tlieeariof Worcc«ter,.and wUe of lord 
Arundel, deserves commemoration for heir 
gallant defence of Wardous castle against 
the* rebel armj under sir £dwRrd Huuger- 
Ibrd The besiegers . were about ISOO, 
•0nd the garriton consisted of no more than 
35 ; yet with this little force she bravely 
siaintained the • placl^. six. days, and.ithen 
eapituJated oti honourable terms, which 
iiie rebels b;i<;ely violated. /She died in 
lb'4i^, aged m.^^c^^t£s Aneedotgi. . . t . 

Arzaciiel, a Spanish astronomer of the 
1 1th century, who wrote a.- book of Ob- 
«er\«ticm$ on the Oblit^uity of the Zodiac. 
—Jid^ori^L . , .... 

Asa, king of Judah, ■ the aon of < Abijah, 
%egan his reign about O-W B. C. He was 
zealous in repressing indohitry ; but in a vizr 
between him and the king of. Israci, he 
cillod in the siid of }3enh.idad, king of Sy- 
»ia, for which; the prophet Hiinani was 
^eat to reprove him ; he reigned 41 vears. 
-^5. • • ... ' . 

AfcAPH, a Hebrew musician of the tribe 
of Levi, was cotcmporary with David, and 
<*omposcd several of tlie psalins.-r-Z(>//i 

As Am (St,), a Welsh prelate, >>dio.gare 
ifameto the- see. he gtn'crned, flourished 
about the year 400. Ke wrote the life c^ 
hii predecessor*, Kentigern, and some other 
pieces^— *i?/>^'-.. J9r. , 

• • AsAR-HADDON,i»onof Sejinacherib,king 
4f Assyria, succeeded his father B. (i 712. 
Aftef reigning S'2 years in Nineveh he ob- 
isiined the kingdom of Bsibylon, and died 
B.C. aei.-^pJras J. 

: Asckun; adWine of the 1 1th century, 
who defended transubstantiation against 
* 3ereiiger.-^Af#r^rf. ' 

• Asc«AM f Ro^cr), a learned writer, wa« 
bom in Yorkshare about 1J15. In. 15S0 he 
eiitercd kt -Sl luhn*s cpllcge, Cambridge, 
where he obtained a icllowsiiip, and was 
atpj>uinted tcachef of Greeks In 1544 
Hcnrv VIII. settled a pension of 10/* a year 
ttfK)!!!!!!!!) and about the same time lie was 
kppoinnsd classical tutor to lady Klizabeth. 
After 'being thiis honourably employed 
t\V0 years, ne retiirned to Cambridge, H»d 
had a pension 'settled upon him-by^kang 
£dwara;' here he filled the office of pablic 
Orator with great tcpOtation. In 1550 he 
attended- sir Richnrd Morysinc in his em* 
bas^sy l€r the emperor Ciiarlca V. and re- 
tnairfed in Germany throe years. During 
this time he was appointed Latin secretary 
to king Ediyard, bur on the de;kth. of that 
prince he lost hit place and im pensicm. 
Aflrerw;ard5 he was made Latin secretary to 
T^uecn Marv, atidw'as employed by cardinal 
]pulc. On i\\e accession of .queen Klizabedi 
ht continued In* hit otiRice of iectt^tMy^ and 
%tcame "her private tutor in^the learned 
Uaguagrs. The only prefiirmcnt- he ob- 

tuined tras a prebend in the church of Y«rk. 
He died in London in .156S,, His most es- 
teemed work is entiiled, The Schoolmaster^ 
of which an excellent cUitiqn by Mr, Upi- 
ton appeared in 1711; his L^pn epistlcf 
have lieen frequently printed. %nd are ad- 
mired by all good judg^ of elegant con)' 
position. His worJ« .w,ere pj-inted entire, 
m 1 vol. 4 to. in 176D- — Biog. Brit. Life by 
Dk. Johnson , . , • 

. A* CHAM. (Anthony),* pries* and yicar 
of Biirnishton, in' Yorkshire,, to ifj^ch he 
was presented by Edward YL .He puV 
lished several tracts pn astrplcfgy, and a 
book entitled, A lyttel Herbal of the I*ra- 
perties of Herb&, <5^c.made aodgathercdia 
;he year l.>50, by ^thony Aschajpa, Phy- 
sician, Vlmo^— Pulicnrys Sict^^s of Bttany* 
■■ AsciiAM (Anthony), a^ ^n^h reptd>- 
licnn, was educated at Eton schpol and 
KingvcoUegcCambridgc., At the Uegin- 
ning of the rebellion he joined the.pre*- 
byterians, and became, a member of the 
long parliament, in X6-1U he w:«s sent M 
envoy to Madrid where six cxikd royal- 
Iss assa-istnated him aud his in'er^reter, iji 
L650. He was the author of a pt^course 
on the Revolutions and. Con fusions of Go- 
vernments, 8vo. 1648-— /roe// Atk, «nu 
. AscH^Ri, the hcj^d of a sect of mii^sul- 
man^, whr>«denied fate and predcatipatton. 
He died at Jlagdat, A. X^.^O^^iXlLrU'^^L, 

Asci.EPiADiu J?, a Greek philosopher, lived 
about ii50 B. C He and his, friend Aleqo- 
demus studied under .Plato, at Athens ; and 
their poverty was so great, that .they were 
obliged to work at the mill .in the mghtito 
enable ihem to aticud the acadc;my lu tht 
day. This being mentioned . to th^ " m;tra-. 
trates they, presented ithe young disciples 
wi^ two h undretl drHChmas, — ikkiaiiy, ^jtylu 

AiCi.F-1'iAOEa, a physician of Bicliynia, 
who lived iit Rome iil the time of Po;upeyt 
and fiiunded a new sect in physic. — FUny 

Nat.Hiit , 

. AscQi.i( Cecco di), whose right qame w^s 
Francesco ^n Stabili, was on«.of thj^e few 
luminaries who brigbtenefl the horizuta of 
the dark ages. He was professor of .ma- 
thematics at Bologna, aixd authcc of a.conp^ 
mentary on the sphere* pf J.ohp Holy wood 
(<*. ^. Sacrobosco) : be also- wrote ^\ Italian 
p6em^ on the. system of Zmpedodes, ior 
which he was accused of heresy, and burn- 
ed alive at Florence, in 1328, aged 70^ 
TirabojiU, • 

» . AscoNxu!* (Pedianus)» an.anciept grt • 
marian, was a native of Pa(}ua> aJid fli • 
rished about the. time of.. Augustus s . i 
wrote- notes on Cicero's iQrations, wh i 
are still &xuxkt.-^.FubriJui Bibl.J^.* 
' AscouGM (V.'illiam),an hnghsh Jbisl. » 
was descended from an ancient family i 
Lincolnshire, and c4nsecraicd btsbop I 
Salisbury in i4aH. He wfs inhunu r 
murder€Ki at the altar by Jack Cade ' \ 
hi^ followers in 1450. — Aoj[. Br.^.^. 

AsARUJiA^a Cartiiaglniaa conuxum • 



WM brother-io4«w of Hannibal, and snc- 
-ceedol Hamilcar in Spain, where be built a 
city named New Carthage, now Cartlia- 
^na, and reduced the whole country inijo 
•ubjectioa to the Carthaginians. He was 
sp»$sinated \y a Gaul, in revenge for hav- 
ing put hij matter to ikstxhr^PoIyiiui, ^/u^ 

AsoauBAL Ba RCA, the brother of Hanni- 
bal, comnunded in Spaui, where he was 
se^crai times defeated by the Romans : l^e 
afterwardii entered Italy with a niunerous 
Y^^y to u&sist his brother, but at the river 
Alctaurus he was attacked by the Romans, 
and after a bloody battle his army was 
routed, and himself slain, h, C. SOSr-Zi^'rf. 

Asri.Li (Gaspard), was bom at Cremona, 
and became professor of anatomy at Pa- 
via. Mc discovered tiie lacteal veuis in the 
niyicniery He died in I6ti6, and the year 
after his description of the lecteals was 
published in 4u>. at MUAn^^HaUo' BW- 


'AsoiLL (Jo^), an English writer, was 
porn about the middle of the 17th century. 
H^ studied in Xincoln's-inn, and in 1^90 
went to fa-cJand, where he acquired a for- 
ttine, ana was elected a member of par- 
liament ; but ih. 1700 he was expelled the 
house for writing a book entitled An Ar- 
r^ment, proving that Man may be trans- 
lated from hence without passing tlirough 
teith, 6sx, This work was voted a blas- 
pliemous libel, and ordfirpd to be burnt, 
linding^iiis aiTairs desperate, he returned to 
England, where he was chosen member for 
Bramber, io Sussex, and enjoyed his seat 
two veara. During an interval of pri vi- 
le^ he was committed to the Fleet for debt ; 
WLilc he was in conflnement, the house took 
into con^dcration the above book, and hav- 
iiig voted it blasphemous, he was expelled 
from hi^ seat. He continued in (he rules 
of the Fleet and King*s-bcnch thirty veani, 
in which time he publishixl several political 
tracts, and died in 175fiw--i?/cf . Srh. 

Ashe (^imeon), a non.conforjnist divine, 
iras educated at finanuel-college, Oun- 
bridge^ and exercised the niinistry amortg 
the precsbvt^rians in London above twenty 
y^^i^ He was an active man in the re- 
belii<>n,and very jealous a^sunst the church* 
He died in' t662. Severai sermons by him 
are in prints — Catamj. 

Ash LET (P^pbcrt), a native of WiUfhirc, 
wa^ educated at Hart-hall, Oxford, fropi 
whence he removed to the Middle Temple, 
and was call^ to the bar. He die4 in 
i64j. He pubU^ed a Relation of the 
Kingdom of Cochin China, and the IMfi 
of ^Imanzor. — Biog. Br* Wo^d, 

A^uMoLE (^Uas^j s(n eminent antiquary, 
was born in 1617 or litchiield, and edu- 
cated at the gf ammar-Achool there ; after 
which he served bar#n Paget of the exch^ 
quer. Zn I#JS he settled in London as an 
attorney ; but on the breaking out of the 

rebellion he went to Oxford, and entered 
of l^raienose-coilege. He was for some 
time ill the royal armv, but when the king*s 
affairs were ruined ne settled in London, 
and became a member o^ the society of 
as t rologers. In 1 649 he married lady Ma^- 
warlng, with whom he had a good for- 
tune. Inlfjj8 we find him at Oxfortl^ enj- 
plioyed in drawing up a description of the 
coins given' to the public library by arc^ 
bishop Laud. On the Restoration of Charles 
IL he was appointed Windsor herafd, anid 
became one of the first members of tJj^e 
^oyal Society. In 16^9 tl^ uaiversity of 
Oxford conferred on him tlie degree of 
liA. D. In 167'J he presented hh EUstory of 
the Order of the Garter to the king, w^o 
rewarded Iiim with 400/. hi 16S.<J he gave 
to the university of Oxford nis coQection of 
curiosities, whicb gift Was augmented ^t 
his death by the beq^iest of his MSS. anid 
library. He died in IfJO'i, and lies buried 
in Lambeth churcli. He left a number 
of MSS. soijie -of which w«re pi>blishedy. 
viz. The Antiq^utties Of Berksliire ; Vlisc£;|- 
cellanies on several curious subjects; and 
Mejnoirs of his own Life — Bfag.Br. 

AsuToN (Charles), a learnecf divine, w;as 
chOlen master of Jesus^'ColJege, Cambridge, 
in 1701; and at the same time installejl 
prebendary of Ely. He published some 
valuabh? works, ]^ut anonymously, particf* 
larly, l.XiOcus Justiui Martyris emendates 
in Apol. 1, p. 11. ed. T^iirlby, m the Bi^ 
lioth. Liter. 1744, No. viii. 2." ToUy auad 
Hirtius reconciled aK to the Time of Oesar's 
going to the Africap war, with an Accout^t 
of the old Roman Year made by ' Ca;sar, 
No. iii. p. '29. 3. Origen. c^ Oratione, 4to. 
4. F^ieroclis in Aufea Camuna Pythjigorea, 
Comment. 174*Jj — Cen. Biog. Diet, 

AsuTo N (Thomas), a learned divine, was 
born io 1716, and educated at Eton, from 
whence he was removed to J^ing*s>coUege, 
Cambridge, in 17:>3. In 1719 he was prer> 
sented to the rectory pf Sturminster jy[ap«< 
shall, in porsetsbire. In i7o:i^ he obtained 
the rectory of St. Eotolph, Bishopsgate, a^ 
in 1759 took t!:c degree ol D.]^. In 176SI 
he was appointed preacher at Lincoln 's-inn, 
which he. resigned in 1764. He died in 
1775. A volume of his sermons was pub- 
lished in! 770.w/W/ . 

Asfiw ELL (George), a divine, was borni/i 
Londoti in 1612, and educated qt Wadhaoi 
college, Oxford, of which society he be- 
came tellow, and was preseuted to the iiv 
ing of Hanwell^ in* pxfordshire, where he 
died in 1693. He published a work aa 
the Aposfo|ic, Atiiana(ian, and Nicene 
Creeds, Hvo. Id'.'iS, and some other piecep. 

Ash WOOD (Bartholomew),a nonconform- 
ist divine, was ejected from the living of 
Axntii^ttter, in Devonshire, in 1662 ; he af- 
terwards ojliciated to a congregation of dis* 
setters at i'vckham, in ^rry, where hp 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^ed abottt 1690. He wrote two tracts, one 
entitled The Heavenly Trade, and the other 
The best Treaaure. — Cahmy, 

As u WORTH (Caleb), a dissenting minister, 
was bom in Northamptonshire in 1709, and 
bred a carpenter, which calling he aban- 
doned, and became a student under Dr. 
Doddridge. He afterwards had a congrega- 
tion at Daventry, and kept an academy 
there: he was created D. D. by some uni- 
▼ersity in Scotland, and died in 1774. He 
wrote on the paradigms of the Hebrew 
T^rbs, and some other pieces.— G^«f. Mag. 

Askew (Anthonv), a learned physician, 
was born at Kendal, in Westmoreland, in 
1722, aqd educated at Sedberg school, 
from whence he was ^removed to Emaniiel 
college, Cambrid^je, where he took his de- 

Sreeof B. A. in 1745,and then went to Ley- 
eq, After studying there a year he ac- 
companied the English ambassador to Con- 
stantinople. On finishing his travels he re- 
turned to Cambridge, and took his de;>rce 
of M. D. soon after which he was admitted 
fellow of the Roval College of Physicians, 
and of the Royal Society. He collected a 
lioble librarv, which at nis death was sold 
ly auction tor upwards of 5000/. and died 
at Hampstead in 1784.— G^n/. Ma^. 

Askew (Anne^, an accomjilishe'd English 
lady, was the daughter of sir WiUian As- 
l^ew, of kelsay, in Lincolnshire, where she 
was bom about 15120. She had a learned 
education, and when youn^ was married to 
onp Mr. Kyme, much agamst her inclina- 
tion. On account of some harsh treatment 
from her husl^nd she went to the court of 
Henry VIII. tOfue for a separation, where 
she was grreatly taken notice of by those 
ladies who were attached to the Reforma- 
tion ; in consequence of which she was ar- 
rested, and having confessed her religious 
principles, was committed to Newgate. She 
was first racked with savage cruelty in the 
Tower, and then burnt in Smithheld, in 
1546, in company with her tutor, and two 
•tlier persons of the same faith. From her 
letters and other pieces in Fox and Str3rpe, 
It appears that she was an accomplished as 
.well as a pious woman. — Ballard, 

AsPAstA, a Grecian lady, celebrated for 
her talents, was born at Miletus, but settled 
at Athens, where she kept a brothel. She 
was so eminent, however, for philosophy 
' and rhetoric, that the greatest men of the 
age, and even Socrates, did not scruple to 
visit her house, ^ericles having divorced 
his wife, married Aspasia, though she had 
been his concubine. After his death she 
became the mistress of a man of low con- 
dition, whom she raised to a post of impor- 
tance in the state. — Bayle. 

Astasia, the mistress of Cyrus, was by 
bi'rih a Phocean. Her name was originally 
Mtlto^ which Cyrus clianged to i^pasia, 
and admitted he^ to hi« councils. When 
Cyrus was slain by his brother, she became 
the mistress of the victor. — Moreru 
Ass KLIN (Giles Themas), a French poet, 

and doctor of Sorbonne, was a native of 
Vire. In 1709 he gained the prize from 
the academy for the best poetry, and died 
in 1 767. His best pieces are, an Ode on the 
Existence of God, and another on the Im- 
miwtality of the SouL — Now, Did, Hht, 

AssELYN (John), a Dutch painter, was 
born in 1610. . After studying under Vaij- 
(lervelde, a painter of battles, he went to 
Italy. In 1645 he returned to Amsterdam, 
where he obtained great reputation as a 
landscape and histoncal painter. He died 
in 1 650.— D'ytf rnr<'/rv/7//i J'iei des Pelntrcu 

AssER,a Jewish rabbi; he lived in the 
5thVentury, and wrote the Talmud of Ba- 
bylon, so called from the place of the au- 
thor's residence. It was printed at Amster- 
dam, with notes, in VI vols, folio, 1744. — 
Nqw.k Diet. HUt. . 

AssER, or AssiRTUS Menevensij, bi- 
shop of Sherborne in the 9th centur)'', was 
a iMtive of VViiles, and a monk of St. Da- 
vid's. It is «?aid that Alfred founded the 
univerait)' of Oxford by his advice. In gra- 
titude to that prince, by whom he was 
created a bishop, he wrote his life, ^irhich 
•way ])uhlished by archbishop Parker in 
1574. The Annpls of Asserius were printed 
at Oxford, in folio, in 1691. He died ac* 
cording to some in 883, and to others in 
901».— Ga/Tt/m de Pntud. Cave, 

AssHETON (William), nn English divine, 
was born at Middleton, in Lancashire, in 
1641, and educated at Brasenose college, 
Oxford, where he took the degree of D. D, 
He became rector of Bcckenham,in Kent, 
and was several times chosen prolocutor, 
in the convocation.. He was a pious and 
learned man, and published several pieces 
in defence of the established church. But 
he is chiefly entitled to respect, for being 
the author of a project for providing for 
clergymen's widows, and others, by a 
, jointure pavable by the mercers' company. 
He died in 'l71 1.-^^/V. Br, 

Assouci (Charles Co^T^eau sieur d'), a 
French poet, was born at Paris in 1604. 
He Was an idle adventurer, and suffered 
imprisonment in the Bastille and Chatelet 
for imposture and intrigues ; and at Rome 
-he was lodged in the inquisition, which 
office he called a ♦* pious hell." He died in 
1679. His poems, in 3 vols, were publish- 
ed in 1678, but they possess little merits — 
Nouv, Diet, Hist, 

AssyaiA. This ancient and exten' ; 
empire cannot well be dated before ! 
establishment of monarchy at Nineveh, i 
the person of Pul, B. C. 790. This emp i 
was overthrown, and Nineveh taken r 
Cyaxares, king of Media, and Nebuchc - 
nosor, king of Babylon, 609 B. C. 1 » 
country afterwards shared the fate of ! 
Babylonian and Persian empires, the gr< ■ 
est part being added tO the Parthian 
-pire. In 1514 it fell into the h;ai(!s of - 
mael Sofi, and wfls finally conquered b; ! 
TiirW in 16.S7. — Uftiv,' Nist, 

AsTELL (Mary), an ingenious lacly i 



torn at Newcastle-upon-Tvne in I $68. Her 
lather wa« a merchant, ana from her uncle, 

! a clergyman, she learnt Latin and French, 
with mathematicf and philosophy. At the 
age of twenty «hc •ettle^^near London, 
where she devoted herself to a studious 

I life, and formed an acquaintance with 
aome of the gzcatest men of die age, as 
Atterhtuy, Hurkes, Norri9,and others. She 
died of a cancer, ' after suffering amputa- 
tion with great patience, in 1731. Her 
works arc: 1. Letters concerning the Love 
« of God, Svo. 2. An Essay? in Defence of 

I the female Sex, in a Letter to a Lady, Svo. 

' &A serious Proposal to the Ladies for the 
Advancement of their true and greatest 

I Interest, &c. 2 parts, * 12mo. 4. A fair 

j- Way with the Dissenters and their Patrons, 

, ito. 5. Reflections upon marriage, Svo. 

I €. The Christian Religion a« professed by 

I a Daughter of the &urch of Englana, 
Bra &c. — Bitfg. Br, 
AsTERius, an arian writer of the 4th 

S century, was bom in Cappadocia. In the 
{Krsecutittn bv Maximian he forsook Chris- 
tianity, on wliich account he was never 
afterwards held in estimation even by the 
Met to which he attached himself. He 
wrote several books against the catholic 
faith, none of wluch are extant* — Lardner, 

AsTERius, bishop of Amasea, in Pontus, 
in the 4th century, was bom at Antioch, 
aa4 educated by a Scythian slave. Some of 
his homilies are contained in the BibL Pat. 

AsTERius Urbakus, a christian presby- 
ter or bishop of the 3d century. He held 
a disputation with the montanists at 
Aocyra, in Galatia, an account of which is 
extant in lusebi ui ^ C€ne. Lardrur^ 

AsTLE (Thomas), an English antiquary, 
was the son of a farmer in Staffordshire, 
and after receiving a ^od education ob- 
tained the patronage of Mr. Grenville, who 
employed htm about 1 763, with sir Joseph 
Ayiqne and Dr. Ducarel,in superintending 
the records at Westminster. In 1766' he 
was appointed to manage the printing of 
the ancient records of parhamerit. In 1 775 
he became chief clerk in the record office 
in the Tower, and on the decease of sir 
lohn Shelly he succeeded to the office of 
keeper of the records. He died in 1803. 
>fany papers by him are in the volumes 
of the Archaeologia ; besides which, he 
wrote the Origin knd Progress of Writing, 
as well hiero^yphic as elementary, first 
printed in 1784, 4to. and again in 1803^— 
Gad, Mag. Monthly Mag, 

AsTON^sir Arthur), a commander in the 
service of Charles I. during the great re- 
belEon,was bom at Fulham, in Mddlesex, 
of an ancient family.' He made several 
campaigns in foreign countries, and rcturn- 
hig to England at the commencement of 
tliecnril war, engaged in the* king's cause ; 
he comihanded VM drago(m$ at the battle 


of Edge-hiU, and thrice defeated the earl of 
Essex. He was successively governor of 
Reading and Oxford. Having the mis- 
fortune to break his leg^ he was obliged to 
have it amputated. After the murder of 
the king he served in Ireland, and was ap- 
beat < 

AsTQN (sir Thomasjj was bora in Che- 
shire of an ancient family, and educated at 
Brasenose-coUege, Oxford. In 1G^8 he 
was created a baronet, and in 1635 was 
highsherififof Cheshire. On the breaking 
out of the rebellion he raised a troop, of 
horse for the. king, but was defeated and 
wounded in 1642 near Nantwich. He was 
afterwards taken prisoner, and carried to 
Stafford, from whence, as he endeavoured 
to escape, a soldier gave him a blow on his 
head, of which he died in 1 643. He wrote, 
LA Remonstrance against Presbytery, 4to, 
a Short Survey of the Presbyterian Dis*- 
ciple. 3. Brier Review of the Institution, 
Succession, and Jurisdiction of Bishop8.F— 
IVowi, Biog,BrH, 

AsTRONOME (L'),an historian of th« 9th 
century. He wrote the Ufe of his patron, « 
Lewis the Debonnaire, to be found in Du 
Chesne's collection. — Ntato, Diet, Hut, 

AsTRUC (John), a medical writer, wa« 
bora in 1684 io the diocese of Alais, and 
studied physic at Montpelier, where he, 
becameprofessor. In 1743 he was appoint- 
ed physician to the king, and professor in 
the royal college at Paris: he was some 
time at Warsaw, as first physician to the 
king of Poland, which post be quitted for 
his native country and literary pursuits^ 
He died in 1766. The principal of hia 
works are: 1. De Morois Veneris. 2. 
Memoirs relative to the Natural History of 
Languedoc. 3. A Treatise on Pathology, 
4. A Treatise on I'herapeutics. 5^ On the 
Inoculation of the Small-pox. 6. On.Tu* 
mours and Ulcers. 7. On the Diseases of 
Women. The first and last have been trans- 
lated into English*— '-Ywv. Diet. Hist, 

AsTTAOEs, king of the Mede-J, began his 
reign in the 594ih year B. C. ' He was the 
grandfather of Cyrus the Great, and is 
called by some the Abasueru* of the scrip- 
ture. — Univ, Hist. , 

Atabalipa, or Atahdalpa, the last of 
the incas. His father dying in 15-29 he be- 
came king of Quito, and his brother Hii-. 
ascar obtained the throne of Peru, on which 
a war broke out between th6m, in which 
Huascar was defeated. About this time 
the Spaniards headed by Pii^arro, invaded 
Peru, where they were hospitably enter- 
tained by the king ajid his people, in re- 
turn for ^hich they treacherously held him 
in captivity. The mca offered as a ransom, 
to fiH a room full of gold ; but after the 
Spaniards had got the treasure, thcv basely . 
burnt the unhappy niQnarch at tne stake 
f in IStiS^-^J&obcrtsoni H'ut,c/ Afuerita, 

AT ^ 

Athai-i An. the. daughter of Abab,,or of 
Oiriri, vnfc of JeH^ram, and mother of 
A^aziah, king of Jqdah. She counselled 
her son ia all manner of wickedness"; and 
after his death, 'that she might obtain the 
throne, murdered the whole royal family, 
except ^oA&h a child, who waa pr<oerved 
'by Jehqs^aba, thedaughterof Jehpram. Af- 
ter enjoying the, Bupreme power for «even 
years she wa* justly put to death. — SS. 

ATHANA8ID3 (St), was bom in Alciiin-. 
dria ; he distinruished himself so much at 
the council of Nice, that on the death of 
Alexander, bishop of Alexandria) he war. 
chosen to succeed him in 326^ when he was 
about twenty-eight ye^rs of age. Hehadbeeo 
^eatly persecuted by the Arians before 
Kis consecration, apd now their rage 
against him was redoubled, particularly as 
Ije refused to admit their leader into the 
church, though cojnmandcd to do so by 
Constantine. They raised against him 
rarious false accusations,, and at length 
•ucceedcd in getting hkn banished. On 
the death of the emperor he returned to. 
Alexandria^ where ne was received with 

Seat joy. When Coqstantius came to 
e throne, his enemies prevailed, on which 
• he fled to B-ome, where pope Julius ear 
paused his cause, and by his good office 

Ehim reinstated in his bishopric. At 
end of Julian's reign he was drivei) 
1 ej^ile again, but on the accession of 
lo\:ian he was restored* and the Kicene 
creed with him. He continued to enjoy 
hts seat unmolested till his death in 371. 
*V\ic best edition of his works is that of 
|*aris, in 3 vols. folio> 1698". The cree<f 
which goes by his name is supposed to. 
have been compiled by ah African bishop 
lo the 5th cpntury. — Ihfin. Caw. 

Atheling (Edgar), tne son of Edward, 
the spn of Edmund ironside, king of Eng- 
land, yTTia bred up by Edmund ihe Con- 
fiessbr, hi* g^eait iincle, who intended him 
for his successor, put on his death he was 
supplanted by Harold, son of earl Godwin, 
in 1066', after whose death the people 
considered Kdeac as king; but the success 
of William duke of >brmandy frustrated 
their loyal intentions. He then retired to 
the north, where he collected many fol- 
lowers, and made himself master of York, 
but beine; deserted by niany of his troops 
he was obliged to retire to Scotland. Fron> 
tlience he went to Normandy, where he 
was well received by duke'Robert. He 
was with Baldwin II. in the crusnde, and 
tin. his return was honotu-cd by several of 
the European sovereigns for his valoiir. 
He died at ^AzLmsbiiryf-^Bfog, 6r. 

Atuelstan, king of England, n^u the 
natiu'al son of Edward the eMer,whom he 
succeeded in 9*25i tte obtained a great 
victory over the Danes in Northumber- 
land, after which he reigned in tranquil- 
lity : he greatly encouraged commerce by 


c vjferrin^ tJ»e tixlc of thajie on ^:%ery W^ 
diant who had made three voyagt^s, rije 
died in O'l 1 . — Butne't Sift, rf Bng. ^ 

ATHP.NAOonAS, a christian philpsopbcf 
of Athens in the 5?d century^, who addtesjK 
ed an apolog^ for X^^ christians to A".-' 
tnninus and Commodus. He aho wrote % 
Discourse on the Resurrection of the Dead, 
These pieces were printed in Greek ^n4 
Latin at Oxford in 1706, 8yp- — •_ — Cjvt, 

ATiiENi:vs,a Greek graxnQiarian ojf thp 
Sd century, \}'m a native of Na^ucrati^, ir^ 
Egypt : his work, entitled the Tabl^ Tal^^ 
or the Sopliistfe, was published by Casauba^ 
in ir^S'J^—BnyU, Fabric, SibL Grae. 

Athenjeus, an ancient matbematiciat^ 
who lived about 200 years B.C. A tract 
of hfs on warlike nnchin^s vy^as printed ^ 
Pads in 1693. — Puhrictuu 

Athen^us, a Roman orator ^nd per|<t 
patettc philosopher in the time of August uv 


ATHEN0D0R17S, a BtoJc philosoplief; h^ 
wa.s the tutor of Augustus, who alwavf 
paid him tlte greatest respect. In his uldj 
age AthcnodyniB retired toTar.«i.s,in Cili- 
cia, bla native pl^^ce^ where he died at iJia 
age oir 82. Hw countrymen hououredhin% 
with an altar, and a yea'riy festix'al. Tljer^ 
was another plulo>ophcr,ofthe5a?ne nan.o 
and place, who was the fniiriiate friend o^ 

CatO. — D}og. Lasrt. Fabrhiuf. 

Athens was founded by Cecrops B- C^ . 
1080. On the death of Co'c^us, iaS04, t\ 
became a republic, and attauicd to great 

{)owcr ; but in 404, at tj^e close of the Pe; 
oponesian war, it fell into the hands of 
the Spartans. In 481 Thrasybulus altered 
the form of government, and the At he- 
nians recovered their liberty. It was taken 
by fiylla in 87 B. a When Constantinople, 
was taken by the Latins in 1204, Athens' 
was given to the Venetians, from whon\ 
the Turks took it in 1455. The Venctiun|^ 
recovered it in 1 687, but it was soon after- 
wards taken ftom them by the Til rks, wUq^ 
still hold possession. — Univ. Hist. Toung^ 

Athias (Joseph), a Jewish primer at 
Amsterdam in the 17th century. He pub-. 
Ushed ^ Hebrew Bible in 2 vols. IG67, whiclV 
is held in great esteem v he also printed 
the Bible In Spanish, German, and English^ 
'rhe states presented him with a gold medal 
and chain tor his useful labours. — Af^rerL 

Athias^ (Isaac J, a Spanish Jew, who 
wrote an explicatpn of the law of Mo5cs,\ 
printed at Venice and Amsterdam, — XBi^i. 

^TKiNs (James), a Scotch prelate, was 
born at Kirkv/alUn Orkney, and educated 
first 9t Edinburgh, an4 '•I'-Vy *' Oxford^ 
where he took tfu? degree oft), p. \n 1G77 
he was made oishop of Moray, froin 
whence he was afterwards translated to 
Gallow:ty. He di.ed in \^87. Tins bUbw^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


frrote some pieces in defence of episco- 
pacy^ — Gen. Btog. DicL 

Atkyn» (sir Robert), an English judge, 
was born in Gloiicestershire in 1G21. He 
received hi* education at Baliol-cbUege, Ox- 
ford, from whence he removed to one of 
the inna of court. At the Restoration he 
iKras made knight of the bat^, and in 1672 
appointed a judge of the common pkas ; 
but being dugusted with the court he ;-e- 
signed the office in IC79, and retired to his 
estate. He assisted lord Russ^l with his 
tdvlce. ffx 16B9 king William appointed 
him chief baron of the ei^chequer, and 
the some year the honse of lordB chose 
him speaker. In 1695 he resigned his 
place, and went to hi* seat in Gloucester- 
jhrre, where he died in 1709. Hit tracts^ 
in one vol. 8vo. are valued a$ a treasure of 
ronscitutional aad legal . knowledge. — Bio^, 


Atictms (sir Robert); the son of the 
preceding, was born in 164?>. He wai 
educated under liis father's inspection, an4 
became representative for his native county 
in parliament. He wrote thp history of 
GioucestersbJre, which has been twice 
printed in folio. He died in 1711. — JifiJ, 

Atkyns (Richard), a typographical au- 
thor, was born in G!oucesti?rsnite and edu- 
cated at Oxford. He published the Origt- 
nal and Growth of l*tinting in England, 
4.16. !fi?4, and son^e other pieces, and die4 
hi the Tvlarshalsea in ltj77. — U.'.f. 

ATiATiw, or Black (HugJi), a cardin:ii 
m the liJth century, was burn at Eve- 
sham, m Worccsterslure,and maje ^ great 
a progress in the sciences, particularly 
philosophy, nathe ".latics, and medicine, as 
\o obtain the >ippeIIation of bciug the phoe- 
nix of his age. Pope Ma^nin IJ. made him 
a cardinal in 12.B1. He died oi the plague 
in 1£??7. He wrote Genealoo^iis Humania ; 
frublem^ta C^nones Medicinalei. — J*jij, 

At T ALUS U king of Pergamus began hh 
rei^n B, C.241. He was a. warlike prince, 
and an encodrager of learned men. He 
made great conquests in Ionia, and vi- 
jprouslv rcpcljed Philip IL of Macedon. 
He die J in the 7iid year of his.age,'jin4 the 
4'Jd of his reign. — U.ti v. Hht. 

An.K\.'jill. son of the i^bove, su$:ceeded 
lu9 brother J-!umene3 B. C. 150. His co.m- 
^y wa.5 in voided in Jiis time b/ Prusias, 
fang of Bithynia, but relieved bv thp 
Rotnai^. Attains paused the remainder (tf 
fci^daysin peace, and dicil a^^cd 8i^, after 
rci^ngSl y£arf — ThlJ. 

Ati-alus III. nephew of the preceding, 
|>cgao his reign E. C. iri^, - to dpaJi 
njott of his o\yn faciiiy, and a f^reat num- 
Eerofpther per^iins, ofV/huwi he was sus- 
picious. He dlucj in tl^e iin yoar of his 
r$ign, »od havi;i;; ifft liis ^j>Js to the Ru- 
tntni, tiisv seized thp VI, kolc ot \\is d(>:ai- 
ni'jn?, a^<! thu;-, put au cad ^"J t'- « king ioi?! 


Attalus, a Christian martyr in the 2d 
cciKury, WHS a native of Pefgajnus, . ia 
Pbrygia, and was burnt alive in the per- 
secdtioa of Marcus Antoninus, A. D. 177. 

ATTEttBuav (Lewis), an English diving 
was born at Mifton, lA Northamptonshire, 
m 1C31, and became studej^it of Christ- 
church, Oxford, in 1647. In 1G54 hewaf 
presented to the living of Broad Kissing- 
ton, Gloucestershire. In 1(757 he obtained 
tke rectory ot iMilton,in Buckinghamshire: 
and after the Restoration he vrxs created 
U I>. at Oiford. He was drowned in 
1623. He printed a few singl© s^rmo^s.-^ 
Biog. Br. ' ' V • 

A rxERBURT (Francis), an English prft. 
^tc, was tlie son 6f the above, add born at 
his father's rectory in Buckinghamshire iii 
166*2, He was educated at Westminster 
school, from whence he was elect'ed^ to 
Chmtchurch, Oxford, in 1681. In 16i}t 
betook his degree of M. A. and the same 
year vindicated the character of Luther 
against Obadiah Walker. He Had for j, 
pupil the hon, Charles Boyle, whom he as- 
sisted m his controversy with Beutley". In 
lOyl he came to Looaon,whe^e his elo- 
quence brought him into notide ; He be- 
came chaplain to William and Mary, lec- 
turer of St. Bride's; and preacher at the 
Bridewell cliapel. One of his sermons, on 
the Power of Charity to cover Sin, was at- 
tacked by Hoadley ; and another, entitlecf 
The Scorn er, was severely animadverted 
upon by an anonymous disputant. In 
1^00 he eiigaged in a dispvite with Dr.' 
Wake on the rights of convocations, an4 
was presented with his doctor's degree by' 
the university of Oxford ; the same year he 
Wiig installed airchdeaqon of 'I'otness. In. 
170t he was promoted to the deanryof 
Carlisle, ^nd in 1707 bishop "7>clawney. 
app'jimed him canon residentiary of£xe-» 
ter. In J 70i> he had a another dispute wiij^ 
Hoadly on passive obedience. In 1710 he^ 
assisted Dr. Sacheverel in drawing UR* 
his defence, for which the doctor left Iiii^ 
a legacy. The same year he was chosen pro- 
lucuxor of ihe lower house of convocation. 
In 11 IJ he was made dean of Chri^tchurch, 
and the year folio wing promoted tp th^ 
bishopric of Rochester, and the deanry 
of \Ve.;nuics*er. The death of queen Ani^ 
put .1 sL.n it> furilier a«ivancemcut. Wher^ 
the rcbellioa brokte out iu Scotland he ar.O[ 
bj%hop Sirialricl;;e refused to si^ii the De- 
claration in V.rJ lij.hops; besides which 
Attcrbury tlc^v up some violent protcs:s 
in tne h.'i^t; o/!ordi. In 177'2 he waa ap- 
prehended Oil suspici(m of being' cngi^ed 
m a plot to bring ia thv pretendo;-, for 
v/hicji lie v.-a* coinnii'.tcd to the Tower. 
An act r.f parliament having- passed, though 
not wit}n;.jt much cj^po^jitioij, for " iiiiX'ct- 
iug j^ains and pon^.ldc* on the bishop," he 
wa.i l)a.u-.l\ed for Hfe, Uisd left the Un(^c!oia 
ia June 172:4. Jie died at y^rU ia ^/l. 


yhe proccedinors against him were arbitra- 
ry and illeg[al; his remains were brought 
to England and ifitcrjed in Westminster 
abbey. Not long before his death he pub- 
lished a Tindication of himself, bishop 
Smalridge, and <}eaa Ai4rich, from the 
cliarge brought against them, of having 
fcorrupted tjie hli^. ,of lord Clarendon'* 
Jiistory. Bishop Attubury "w«is a man of 
great learning and- brill iapt talents, and 
he shines as a fine writpr Sitid an elegant 
preacher. — J^io^.Hr. 

Attkkbury (X-cwis), elder, brother of 
the bishop, was born in 1656, and educated 
at Westminster school, from whence ho 
went to Chrisit church Oxford. In 1G84 
he was preferred to the rectory Of Symel, 
in Nortnampt(>A»hire ; he took his dtgree 
,bf LX. D. Ip lf)87, and in 1695 was chosen 
preacher of the chapel at Higbgatc ; about 
n^lvch time he became chaplain to princess 
Ann of Denmark. In 1707 he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Shepperton, in 
^liddlesex, and in 1719 to that .of Horusey. 
He died in 17:J1. There jare four volumes 
of his sermons and tracts in print. He en- 
^wed a school for girls at Newport Pag- 
nel, and bequeathed several books to 
Christ church library. — UiJ, • 

Atticus (Herodes), a celebrated orator 
Df'aati^uity, was born at Marathon. H« 
l^ye lectures on elocutionwith such ap- 
plause that Titus Antoninus sent for him 
to instruct Marcus Aurelius and Lucius 
Verus : he was promoted to the consul- 
ship, and several other high offices. He 
was a in>eral benc^factor to Athens, and 
died at Marathon at the age of 76. — Lifi 
iy Burigiiy, 

Atticus (Titns Pomponius), a Roman 
knight, was descended from an ancient fa- 
mily. His manners were so afBible that he 
preserved the good will of opposite parties 
in times of the greatest dissensions. He 
agisted Marius the younger, and preserv- 
ed the friendship of his adversar\', Sylla 
Ja the contest between C^^sar and Pomj>^y 
be kejjt the friendship of both these gene- 
rals ; and he did the same with regard to 
Briitus and Antony. In the contentions 
between Antony and Augustus he not only 
kept himself in quietness, but enjoyed the 
esteem of each. He was greatly oeloved 
by Cicbro, and effected a reconciliation be- 
tween him and Hortensius. Atliciis never 
attempted to aggrandize himself, and to his 
moderation mav be attributed the tranquil-^ 
lity he enjoyecL His daughter was mar- 
ried to Agnppa. He starved himself to 
de:ith at the age of 77, B. C. S^^Comcliut 

Atticus, patriarch of Constantinople, 
flourished in the 5th century* and was by 
birth an Armenian. In 406 lie condemned 
St. Chrysostom, and got possession of the 
patriarchate, for which he was excommu- 
nicated by Innocent I. On t)ie death of 
St. Chrysostom he wassuftered to hold his 
seat., Hcdiedin427.— /^i//!/«. 

A U B 

Attila, king of Hunirary, caxne to th« 
crown with his brother Ble^a in 433, and 
afterwards caused his associate to be assassi- 
nated. Attila obliged I'heodosius II. t^ 
sue for peace, and laid him under tribute. 
In the rdgn of Valentinian, A P. 4.51, hm 
entered Gaul at the head of a numerpus 
army, and committed great ravages. The 
im{)erialists, however, attacked him at 
Chalons, and after a bloody contest forced 
him CO retreat. Not long after he entered 
Italy, which he nearly desolated. At la^ 
he retired, en condition that Valentinian 
should p0iy him a large sum of money, and 
send him his sister Honoria for a wife.' Sooa 
after his return home he married a beautiful 
maiden, and died the same night , by tlie 
bursting of a blood-vesscL Tliis liappened 
in 453, aikd witJi him expired the empire of 
Che Huns. — Univ. Hist. 

AvALos (Ferdinand Francis d'^, marquis 
C>f Pescara, was born in the kingdom of 
Naples : hfi served in the army of Charln 
V. and was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Ravenna in 1512. He beguiled the hours 
of captivity in writing a Dialogue on Ix)ve» 
which he dedicated to his wife. On bein^ 
released he again served the emperor in a 
military capacity, and was present at th« 
taking of Milan, wh«re he died in 1525^ 
a^ed 36^— il4iM-fri. 

AvANTio (John Mario), an eijiinent Ita- 
lian lawyer, was born in 1564. He wa« 
proicssor first at Ferrara, and lastly at 
Padua, where he died in 1622. He wrote 
an ecclesiastical history from the beginning 
of the Reformation, and some other pieces. 
His son Charles was a physician, and wrote 
a commentary on the work of Bapt. Fiera, 
printed at Padua in 1649. — ILIJ, 

AuBfcRT (Peter), a French lawyer, was 
bom at Lyons in 1642. Wlien youn^ he 
published a romance, caUed Retour crisle 
d'Amour. He filled sever^il distin^ished 
stations in his native city, and established a 
public library there. He published 2 volau 
of cases in 1710, and a new edition of 
Richelet*s Dictionary, 3 vols, folio, 1728.— 

AuBERTiN (Edmund), a French protest- 
ant divine, was born in 1595, and became 
minister of the reformed church at Paris in 
163i. In 1633 he printed a work pn the 
Eucharist of the ancient church, wliich was 
attacked bv Arnauld, and other learned 
catholics. He died jt Paris in 1652. — ^^y/e. 

AuiiF.RT (Anthony), a French laviryer 
and historian, was born in 1617 : he was a 
hard student, and preferred a life of retire- 
ment to the hurry of business, and died ia, 
1695. His works are, 1. History of thr 
Cardinals, 5 vols.4to. 2. Memoirs of Car- 
dinal de Richelieu, 2 vols, folio. In this 
work he praises tl\e cardinal at the expence 
of truth. 3. History of the Cardinal Masu- 
rin, 4 vols. 12mo. 4. On the Pre-eminence 
of the- Kings of France, 4to. 5. A Treatise 
on the Pretensions of the King of France XA 
the Empire, 'kto,-^Nouv. Dia. Hut, 

A U B 

A U D 

AuBCHT (John), 3 French physician of 
the 1 7th century. He wrofe an'Ap«Iotry 
for Physic, in Latin,' Paris, 1608, 8 vo. anH 
an Antidote to Ixire, in French, 15 J9, 
I2irux — lihrfri, * 

Atriray (Louis 'de Maurier), a French 
writer* He published Memoir* for a His- 
tory of Holland, 2 vols. I2mo. 1682. He 
die-din 1687. In 1737 apj^eared at Am- 
sterdam, his Memoirs of Hambiurgh, lav- 
beck, Holstein, Denmark, and Sweden. 

AuBESPXNK (Claude de T), baron of 
Chateauneuf. He vras descended of a 
noble family ;it Chartrain, and became 
secretary of -state to several of the French 
kings; he died in 1567- — Ihid. 

AuBESPiNE (Charles de 1'), chancellor of 
France, and marquis of Chateaimeuf, was 
imprisoned ten years, but afterwards be- 
came a favourite with Henry IV. He died 
in 1653.—/^/^. 

• At7B£5PiNjt (Gabriel de T), bishoj) of Or- 
leanSf was of the same family with the 
above. He was a learned divine, and died 
b ! 630, aged 52.— /AW. 

AuBESpiKE (Magdalen de T), a celebrat- 
ed French lady. She was the wife of de 
Ncuvilie, seigneur de Villeroi, and wrote 
several pieces in prose and verse; She died 
in 1596^—/)/^/. Historiqus dts Fenimes CtLI/res, 
AuBiGNE (Theodore Agrippa d'), a cele- 
brated Frenchman, was born about 1550. 
Henry IV. had an esteem for him,. and b©-^ 
stowed on him several places; but at 
length he lost the royal favour by his frank- 
ness, and retired to Gene^'a, wiM^rehe de- 
voted himself to hterary pursuits. His 
chief work is a' Universal Hiistory, in :'» vols. 
foiif>, which was condemned by the. parlia- 
ment of Paris. He also wrote twosatirical 
pieces ; The Confession of Snncy, and The 
Bauron de Fccnestc. The Memoirs of his 
•wn Life were not printed till 1731. He 
died in 1 630. His son Constant d'Anbigne 
was father of the celebrated madame de 
• Maintenon^ — Nauv. Dkt. Hist. 

Aubrey (John), an English antiquary, 
was bom at Easton^picrs, in Wiltshire, 
about 1 62f> ; and educated at Trii>ity-<:ol- 
legc, Oxford. In 1646 he was entered of 
the Middle Temple, but quitted the study 
of the law owing to some embarra^ismcnts 
in his private affairs. He was one of the 
first members of the Royal Society : biit 
being reduced to poverty, he was support- 
ed at the close of his* life by lady Long, of 
Draycot in Wiltshire, and died at her house 
in 1700. His works are : 1. Miscellanies, 
on Apparitions, Magvc, Charms, &c. I<)96 
aiMl 17'il, 8vo.' i^ A Perambulation of the 
County of Surry, 1719, 5 vols. 8vo. Be- 
aldef which he left several curious MSS. to 
the museum at Oxford.— /^vi^f;-- Brit. 

AoBxiOT (Hugh), mayor of Paris, who 
built the Bastille in 136'9,'but bein.o: accused 
•pf faiCresy he wa* sentenced to be coaiined 

between two walls, from whence he wa« 
released in IMSl by the Maillotina, a set oC 
insur<;enls. He quitted them, and retired 
into Burgundy, where he died the yeiir fol* .- 
lowing. From him the French reformed 
were called Hugonots.-i-uT^onr/'. 

Ai'BussoN (Peter d'"), grand master of 
the kni<rhts of Rhodes, was born in La 
Marc) le, ill H*2:>. He entered into the or* 
der of St. John of Jenisileni, of wliich, in 
147G, he was elected grand-ma.ster. He x^f 
gorously repulsed the mtack made upon tlie 
island by the Turks inl'iSO. Prince Zi- 
zira, brother of Bajuzct, having escaped tQ 
Rhodes to avoid the vengeance of the suU 
tan, cfAubusson delivered him to the pope, 
for which treacherv he received a cardi- 
nal's hat. He died In 150:>.-^ilforfrf. 

AuDEBERf (GcrttainV a counsellor of 
Orleans. . While at Venice he wrote a pa- 
negyric in verse upon thit republic, for 
which the senate conferred on liim the or- 
der of knight of St. Mark. Henry III. gave 
him a patent of nobility. He died in l.}9ii- 
• His poems were published in lG02,8vo.— 

AuDEBERT (John Baptist), a French ml- 
.turalist and engraver of natural history, 
was born at Rochefort in 1759. He excel- 
led in elegant representations of animals, 
and his productions are esteemed the most 
valuable of their kind. His fn-st pcrfi)rm- 
ance was I/Hist. Nat. des Singes, des Makif 
et des Galeopitheques, 1 vol. folio, 1800. 
He was engaged upon other works of 
equal splendour, when he died in iSOt). — 
Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

Audi fret (John Baptist), a French geo- 
grapher, was ambassador at the courts of 
Mamua, Parma, and Modena. He died at 
Nancy in 1733, aged 76. He wro^e Ancient 
and Modem Geography^ printed at Paris 
in 3 vols.4to. 1689. — Nnuv. Diit. HisL . 

AuniGUiER (Vital d'),* a French noble- 
man, was born at Naiac, near Ville-fianche 
de Rouergue, about 1565. He wrote ^ 
treatise on Duels, printed at Paris in 1617 : . 
poems, in 2 vols. 8vo. 1614, and some otlicr 
pieces. He died about \6^.-rBayle. 

AuDios, the founder of ^ sect called by 
his name, lived in the 4th century, and 
was banished into Sc vthia, where he gained 
many followers. I'nev celebrated Easter 
after the "manner of the Jewish pas^nver, 
and attrilmted a hpnian form to the Deity. 

AuDLKY (James lord), of Heleigh, in 
Stalford shire, was born about 1S14. He 
distinguished -himself luider Edward III. 
in France, and was one of the fust knights 
of the garter : he was present at the battle 
of Poictiers, where he was so grievously 
wounded that his esquires were obliged to 
bear him out of the field of battle, aff^r 
which the Black Prince bestov.-^ed on him 
-a noble pension^ with maivy marks of re- 



•onstableof Gloucester castle, g^ovemor of 
Aquitaiae, and seneschal of Poktou. He 
died about 138(5. — /?%. Brh. 

Aoj>i.EV (Edmund), a descendant of the 
above, was educated at Oxford, and in 
148QWAS n^^ide bishop of Rochester, from 
whence he was translated first to Hereford, 
and Listljr tq Salijibury : he was a muniiicent 
prielate, and died in 1.W4. He was chan- 
cellor of the order of the garter, which ho- 

■ nour now belong to his successors, through 
the interest of bishop Ward. — lliJ. 
' AuOLEv, or AwDELT (Thomas), chan- 
cellor of England, was born of a noblb 
family in Essex. After receiviifor a univer- 
sity education he entered of the Inner 'J*eni- 
ple'.^ Inil.S^::^ he was chosen speaker' of the 
parliament, in which capacity he was very 
•ubservient to the king, who, on the resigu 
tiation of ptr Thomas Wore, gave him the 
seals, :^nA the priory of Christ church, with 
$\i tt]9 church plafe and lands belong^in^ 
it} that house. He sat in judgment on his 
predecessor, sir Thomas Ivlbrc, and op 
bishop Pishcr.^ Audlcy appears to havp 
i>eena mere tool to Henry, and to have 
been a« rapacious as any in the seizure of 
tfhurch proi>erty'. fte died in" 1544. He 
yas a'^reat benefactor to Magdaleo-cb|^ 
Jege, Caifibridge. — Wd. 
' At;f>'ii AN, the name of a family of artists 
Sn France : viz. C&arlej Ay dram the elder, 
w^ borft at Paris in 1594. His works are 
numerous aiid excellent. They are dSstia- 
l^ished by a K. He died in liil3. — Claude, 
a nephfei'/ of the pretecHn;^;, v/as born it 
JLyons in 1639, and studied under his uncl^. 
He was employed by I.e Brun ia painting 
pare of the picture* of Alexander's battles, 
At Ver&ailles,and became professor of pciint- 
ing in the royal acadeitiy of Paris, where 

' ht died in 1(564^ — Glrarift the brother of 
(he last -mentioned, and the mOst celebrated 
of the lamily^ was born at Lyons in 16*40, 
and studied under Le Brun at Paris. He 
engraved that artiat's pictures of Alex- 
ander's battles in a masterly manner, and 
dted al Paris in 17ai. — C/..Wir, nephew of 
Gii'ard, was' btTrn at Lyons in 1685, and 
hecam;* /amous' for pa'intinj^ ornaments. 
He was apporsucd Viirjc's painter, ahd died 
\n' l734.--<.To^«, brother of the last-men- 
tioned, was born in 1^567, aticl studied en- 
graving' un^er his uncle Girard; he died 
fit Parfs in 11 56,-^MorerL 

Av»:M'AOB,a peripatetic philosoplier of 
\.\ui 12th century. He was a Spani^ moor, 
and for attempting tp explain the Koran 
by tlie system of Aristotle, was committed 
to pri.'on at Corduha. He wrote a < rn- 
mcfit upon Euclid. — P^.oyh Spechun iTst, 

AvVntine (John), 1 C«^rman h* , *an, 
wa<? born in 14<>6';i» •l-. \ . ;;, ''r ... . ria, 
ind ^^tudied at hisJ •. • '■.- -^ f \ ,> " . Fn 
l.^lti he became v ' - * •' t^- ' •• > Of 

the duke of Bavi'r-; :•• rot; r .^ .\if- 

' naU oC Bavaria. !*•' }..•.*. in IJ;ii* — x* ■•/«.•/ 

AvEvzoAT<, a physician of d»e 12th cen- 
tury, was born at Sevillje;tri Spain^ and 4icd 
at Morocco in U39, ag«i \&* He wro» 
a compendious practice *of physic, whicn 
contains many curipus facts ^nd obscrva-* 
tions. — frUnit Hut. Fhys. 

AVerani (Benedict), a native oC Flo* 
fence, became Greek professor at Visa, 
and wrote several critical discourses on 
classical authors. He died in 1707. 'His 
work* were printed at Florence in Q vol*. 
8vo. 1 7 1 7, — Landic HhU Lett, d^ Ifalie^ 

AvERANi (Joseph), brother of the pre* 
ceding, was born in I6G2. He became 
professor of law at Pisa, but applied chieffy 
to the' study of mathematics and natiir^ 
philosophy;.- He died in 1738. Two 
volumes of his oratiniiS in the academv at 
Florence, and other tracts, were priiitc<l afn 
ter his death. — Ibid. 

AvEKDv (Clement Charles de V\ minis* 
ter and comptroller general' of the finances 
under i.ouis XV, was born at Paris isk 
naO. He Was counsellor of parliament, 
and so higb was his reputation that his ap-? 
pointment |^ave gcnend satisfaction to tte 
people : which, however, he lost by misma* 
nogi^menl, and in 1764 he i-eouCTtcd his 
dismibsioni on whiph he retired to his e^ 
tate, where he employed himself in - agrt- 
ciilturcil pursuits; he was guiUot'u^ed Oct, 
2, 179.'J. He wrote, I. Suite des Expe* 
riences de Gamuts sur les bi4s nnirs ou 
caries, 8V0. 2. Mcmoirc sur le Proc^ 
crimioei de Robert d'Artoii, Comte do 
fieamount pair, de France.-^^««v. Dieu 
Hiit, • 

Avi:RROKs,or Aven Rosen, an Arabian 
philosopher of the 12th century; his fa- 
ther was chief ' magistrate ofOorduba, in 
ijpairt, but Averrow was educated at Mo.^ 
rocco, where he studied law, philosophy* 
and medicine. He succeeded las father, 
and became also ajudge in' Morocco, wfaefi* 
he appointed deputies, and returned • ta 
Spain. Tnc frceoom of his opinions gav« 
oiFence to. the zealous mussulmans, wi^m 
complained of him to Alraanzor, the ci- 
^iph, \vho degraded him from his empioy- 
ments. He was also thrown into ^rtsoa, 
but Oft doing penance, and maldn^ a re- 
cantation, he >%'as released. He died at 
Morocco in 13(^6; he studied ardently, and 
never indulged in any diversion. His at- 
tachment to Aristotle was almost enthu- 
srastic, and hid commentaries on that phi- 
losopher's Works procured him the name ot 
tlie tommeuiator ! he Wrote a treatise on the 
art of physic, an Epitome of Ptolemy*s AI- 
magesc, and a Treatise on Astrology. The 
best edition of his works is that o^ VenicCj^ 
in \GOS,—Bjyh. 

AvESBURv (Robert of), an English histo- 
rian of the I4th century. He-wrote the 
history of the reij;u of iidward III. as far 
as 13,-)^, which was published by Hearne 
in 1720.— i^/V. Br. 


[esmt, WM 


A tr G 

brni m 1 5wO.. He. is said to oa^vp .converged 
40,(.XX) protesiaats to the Roman corumi;- 
i^ion by the force pf his.argiunents. Hij 
lAsdl appears to have been honest, for. he 
rcperitcdly refused ^ bi-ihopric,^ apd other 
preterments. He died iii 15^U. — M«n'ri, 
. Augjuel'lo (John ^Vurellp), an It;ilian 
poet, was burn at Rimini in 1411. He vr^s 
profe>sor of. the belles, at. Treviia, 
viiere he died in 1524. The best of his 
works is a Latin poem, entitled Cbrys-jpala, 
or tl»e art of muking ^old, printed in 1J18. 
Thh poem he dedicated to Leo X. who 
presented him with an emprv* purse saying-, 
**: that as he could make jtculd ne knew liow 

to iill it."— :7"/;v^a.'f/^/. Af<^r<ti 

AvcusnsK (St.), a father of the church, 
V.1.5 born at./i'agaste, in Africa, in 3.54. 
Hii father wa^ a plebeian, and liis niotlier 
Munica wjs a woman pf exemplary piety. 
Xliou;^h hp had all the* ' nntagcs of a 
g'sod education h~e gq.iande cd aw:^y his 
rime in debauchery. In :J7l his father sent 
him Co Carthage, where he led a dissipated 
life, and became a convert to tl\e,mani« 
c^iut^ In :380 he tau^^ht rhc^nic at Car- 
i^i^e with great reputation, but .still con- 
tinued hiA liceiuiuiii course of lire, and kept 
a v.'oman publicly, ijy whom he had a son 
lunicd Adcodaju^,. Hrs mother took uncom- 
mon pronsi to brin«f him back to .virtue, but 
finding all her endeavours iuelTcctual, she 
h/id recourse only to prayer on his behalf, 
"U'caricd with his situ;ition in Afric;t, Au- 
gustine removed to Home, where he tauj<ht 
riietoric with great api)Uuse,. aud in '3^3 
was appointed prtifcsijor of rhetoric <\t 
Wilaa. Here the sermons of St, Ambr(.)se 
ciTected. a conversion,. Ha renounced his 
hcredcaj notions, apd was baptised in SS7. 
Tjic next year he returned to AJrica, and 
TB'as ordained iprlejt. He .was at first the 
<jpidjutor. yf, Valerius,, bishop:. (»f Hippo, 
acd afterwards his successor. Me .died in 
430, His writing* have: always been held 
m vencratiofl by the catholic church,. and 
from them was formed that system com- 
monly called scholastic divinitv. The best 
edition of hi* works is that o^ Paris, in 10 
Tpls. foUo, l<*7i> an<l l^.vO. — S::ylc, MomL 
, AuGusTiN'K^Lejoard), or Aco.3TiNi,an 
Italian aniinuarv, was a native of Sicivna* 
and tlouriihed in the .17th century. He 
piiblished an elaborate work on ancient 
gemsi which firat appeared in 3657, in 2 
"Vols. 4to. and the last in 1.707, 4. vols. 4to, 
'x was transJ4ied into Lalip by Cronovius, 
• ind pul/iidhcd at Amsterdam m ICH.?, and 
It Jranekec m IG^L-^Nr^v, D^^t. J-J'ut. . 
^AuGrsriH, or AuiiTiN, .(.St.), the first 
rchhishop of Canterbury, was a Roman 
!ionk, and seat by Gre^^rv I^ with 40 
timers u> convert the inbribitants of this 
bad, about 5i)t;.. ,Ojj landing in Thrmet, 
ity informed king EtheH>crt of their bu- 
i»ess, when, the xij*jc assigned ihum Can- 
vthur-y.Ct!r.xhc'X r^sldeuce,with pernii^on 
^ eierciie their fuiicbda. The good me* 

narcli "himself emVraced Christianity, out 
never attempted to brin^ oyer his subject* 
by force. Augustin Was consecratea a^ 
Aries archbishop and metropolitan of t^le 
church. He fixed his scat at Canterbury^ 
and endeavoured to form a, correspondence 
with th« U'elsh biijhops, for chri.<;tianitT 
had ^on^ before been settled in \V;iIes. A 
conference was accordingly held betweea 
.^iigiisiin.and some mojiks from tiie mo- 
nab t cry of Bangt»r. These fathers, it it 
said, befpire their tleparture from W;des, ap- 
plied to an old hennit for advice how to 
act, who told them, that if Augustin %yaji 
a man of God, they sluudd submit to b^ 
^ircctcd by lum; and, on their a-sking hovr 
Uicy were to linow this, lu; said, " if qn 
your arrival in his presence he rises to sa- 
lute you, he is God'-s me.^bcnger; but if no^ 
he is haughty and proud, you ought to 
^ave np more to do with him.'* ,Whcji 
they came to the asbcmbly, Augustin rdr 
?eivcd thein .sitting, in consLMj;iciice «f 
vhich the Vy'elshincn nppo.scd all me.'isiir(!i 
of accopunodatioiv 'i"i:c points in 'vhich 
they were required to yic!d were, the ce- 
tcbratiou of Kaster,the rjiodc of admifii^tor- 
ing baptism, and the ackaowled,i;ineiit of 
the pop(^-'s authority. Au;;ustip died at 
Cantcr;;ury in 1(^4, and was alicrvvard* 
canonized.-— /jV6.j-. //';/■/. .... 

, AucusjlN (AnthonV), a Spanl.-^h prelate'* 
yrns a native ot Sa: a)i;o; >,a. In J.;.-7 i Ive was 
$ent to Kngl.iud by ti'.e pojio; :iittr which 
he was at the cvuncil of 'Jront. In 1.17.4 
he was made archnishop cf 1 ai ragona. Hf 
wa? so cliaritablc nsnot to Iravc enough to 
bqry Ijim. He died in I'/.M^. i e. wrtJt© 
treatises on law, and di:du;;ue« j>n medals, 
printed in 1 5H7.— Ay ///. hhuti 
, AuGUSTULu?, or AuorsTUSj 
a Roman emperor, was the .son of 0rcsti'4» 
who having dcpo:>cd Jidius Ncijo*?, refiihtxl 
the tiirone for himiilf, but plactd upon, i( 
bis son in 476. Shortly after, j^)d'*ce^ and 
the l^arbarians invaded' Italy, slew Opstcsi 
and deprived the young emperor of hl« 
dignity. He, however, sulVcrexJ to live 
a private life in C;iinpania, and a liberal 
pcuhiou was allowed him. With him ended 
the Roman empire in the west.. — JJn, Hist. 
.. Augustus (L'uius Julius. C.'esar Octavi- 
anus), was the son of Caius Octnitii/ti by 
Attia, the niece of Julius C;tsar. He was 
born B. C. ^l^,and having received aJiberal 
education, was adopted by Julius C^isar, 
He was at ApoHonia in l^pirus, wiieii 
bis uncle was a-s^as^iawtedv aud, on receive 
ing the news, returned. to K<mie, where hfe 
found two parties, the republicans, and the 
follower^ of Antony and Lepidus. Octa- 
vianus was treated wiih.gieat respect by 
the mitgistratcri.and principal citizens; but 
Antony treated him v.ith.con tempt. Whoa 
Antony was proscribed, he joined the nr* 
my that was sent ap,:iinst him: but after- 
xv:ard»J)^ ;houi'.Ut it prudent tp rt'itcr.ijjtp 
a trenty with ciiat conunaader ; and tL<iie 


two leaden, together with LcpidiiSiibcmcd 
the famows triumvirafey by which they 
agreed to enjoy an equal portion of autho- 
rity for,five vcars. Soon after this, Octa- 
Vianus gratified the malicious spiri^ of hi* 
^sociates, by sacrificing his friend Cicero J 
and, in short, tKe tfiumviry filled Rome 
vnth the blood of its best cjtizens. On thd 
death of Brutus at Philippi, Another par- 
tition took place, Antony and Octaxnanus 
sharing the Rcrtn^n empire, and Le^^idut 
taking the African provinces. Octavianus 
obtained Rome, and gave his sister, Octavia, 
in marriage to Antony. At length Lepi- 
idus was deposed, ana a di/ierence broice 
out,betwecn Antony and Octavianus, which 
'ended in the destruction of the former, and 
the establishment of the latter in the empire. 
In the 36th year of his age, the senate gave 
him the title of Augustus. It also cpm- 
iplimented him by chan^ne the name of 
the month StxtUhy in which be came to the 
consulate, to Augutt, After attaining the 
imperial dignity, he seems to have cor- 
tectcd his eager temper, and to have con- 
ducted himsd^ with moderation. He made 
lome ^ood regulations in the government; 
reducing the number of the senators from 
lOOO to 600, and raising the degree of 
wealth which was to qualify them For that 
dignity. He also set about reforming the 
public morals. Augustus carried his arms 
^th success into Gaul, Germany, and the 
East ; but iii the latter part of his life the 
Romans suffered some severe losses in Ger- 
many. He died at Rome A. D. 14. He so 
jgreatly imprt>ved Rome, that it was said 
•* he had found it brick, but left it marble." 
He was a liberal encourager of men of 
letters, and his reign was called the Au- 
gustan age of literature. — Suetonius. Tudtits, 

Auhadi-Maragau, a Persian poet, who 
wrote some religious and amorous verses.- 
He was liberally rewarded by the king of 
the Tartars, ana died m 1^19^- D\HfrbeloU 

Avrci»NNA, an Arabian physician, wa» 
born in 980. At tlie age of 18 he began to 
practise with such success, that he became 
physician to the court of Bagdad. At last 
he fell under the displeasure of the prince 
in whose service he was engaged, and wiu 
thrown into prison, where he died m 103$. 
He left a number of works, chiefly on me- 
taphysical and medical subjects; which 
have been often printed in Arabrc ahd In 
Ijaxisij'^D' HerMot, Moreri, Friend. 

AviKNus (Rufus Festus), a Latin po«t of 
the 4th century. He translated the Pheno- 
mena of Ar^tus ; the Description of the 
^rth by DionvsSus; -ffisop's Fables, &c. 
An edition Of his works was print ^ - iit 
Paris, 12i|io. 1590, and agstin in 8vi>..17«l. 

• AviLA ^Gilles Gonzales), a "Spanish his- 
torian. He was'eddcated^tl(oiri6^aiiid^Tm 
his rettirn i& Ins own* counwy^'ftbtahied a 
rich bene^ce, and was appointed hiuerio- 
^ph^r to th» kipg. Ha wrote the Aa* 

• i* 
tjquities of Salamanca, the Theatre of t^ 
Ctiurches of India, &c. He died in l(>58v— 
Notro, Did.' Hist. 

AviLA (Louis d*), a 'Spanish writer, and 
commander of the order of Alcantara. He 
wrote the history of the war carried on by- 
Charles V. against the German protestaiits,. 
printed in 1546; also. Memoirs of the War 
m Africa- — Ibid. 

AviLKR (Augustine Charles d*), a French 
architect, was born in 1653. On his pas- 
sage to Rome he was taken by the Alge- 
rines, and carried to Tunis, where he de- 
sigiied a grand mosque, which is greatly 
admired. He obtained his liberty in two 
years, and settled at Montpelier, where he 
died in 1700. He wrote a course of archi- 
tecture in 2 vols. 4to- — Moreri. 

AviRON (James le Bathelier), a French 
lawyer 'of the 16th century. He wrote 
Commentaries on the Provincial Laws of 
Normandy, which were publislied after his 
death.— /^/V. 

A VITUS (Marcus Macilius), emperor of 
the West, was born in Auvergne, of an illus- 
trious family. His merit raised him to 'seve- 
ral important stations, and, on the death of 
Maximus, in 455, he was chosen emperor. 
After his etectipn he abandoned himself to 
pleasure, which' alienated the aifiections of 
the Romanft from him, and he was obliged 
to' resign his dignity fourteen months after 
his election, aad the senate intended to put 
him to death, on which he fled towards the 
Alps, but died on the road. His daughter 
married 9idomus Apollinaris, who wrote 
an eulogy on his father-in-law, which is 
still eiXXSiX^^Univ, Biit. 
• AviTu 5(Sextus AlcimusEcdicius),bishop 
of Vienne in Daupliln^, was nephew to 
the preceding. He was raised to the epis- 
copal dignity in 490: He was a great ene- 
my to the arians. He died in 523. A col- 
lection of liis poems; letters, &c. is extant* 
"—Ditpin. Aforeri. 

AuLus Gellius, a grammarian, -was 
born in the reign of Trajan, and died in 
that of Marcus Aurelius. He resided a 
considerable time at Athens. His Noctot 
Attics, or Attic -Nights, is a curious work. 
It has. gone through a variety of edStioc$, 
and been translated into English by Mr* 

•. Au MONT (John d'), count of Chateau- 
roux,*« French reneral of the 16th century. 
He served with ^eat reputation under 
Henry HI. who made him marshal of 
France. Henry IV. appointed him gover 
nor of Champagne, and afterwards of Brit» 
tany< He was shot at the siege of CompCTy 
near Renne$,in 1595, aged 73. — Nouv. Ditt., 

' AuHGERVitB (Richard), bishop of Dur- 
ham, was bom at St* £dmund*s Bury, in 
Suflblk, in It^Sl, and educated at Oxford, 
tie was tutor to Edward III. by whom he 
^as preferred to the episcopal dignity, ia 
IS93 ] the yftar loUowJng4»wa$ made lord 
Digjijzedby vjQOQl 

A U R 

Kigh ohaacellor, and in 1S36 tfesisurer of 
Eriglaod. H« was a learned prelate, and 
' founde4 a library at Oxford. He wrote a 
diKourse oif tlx right use of books, printed 
at Oxford in 1^99. He died at Durham 
in 1345.— ^rVy. ^r/i. 

Ah .spy TMarie Catherine countess d*)t 
a celebratea French lady, was the wife of 
the count d'Auooy^a^d died in 1705. She 
wrote Tales of the Fairies; The Ifistory of 
Hippolytus, Earl of Douglas; Historical 
Mesnoim of Europe, from 1672 to 1679; 
Memoirs of the Court of Spain; and the 
History of John of Bourbon, Prince of Ca- 
rencyv— .W^rw-i. BayU, 

AuRELiAN, emperor of Rome, was the 
SOD of a peasant in lUyricum* He disjplaycd 
soch bravery as a soioier, that Valerian ap- 
pointed him superinteudant of the troops, 
and» at last, consuL On the death of 
Daudius 11., who chose him for his suc- 
cessor, he ascended the imperial throne. 
He delivered lulyfrom the barbarians, re- 
duced Tetricos, who had assumed the' title 
of emperor in Gaul, and conquered Zeno- 
bia, queen ©f Palmyra. After these vic- 
teries he enteredRomein triumph, attended 
by his illustrious captives, to whtwn he be- 
haved in the most generous manner, pre- 
senting Zenobia with a villa at Tibur, and 
restonng' Tetricus to .his rank as senator. 
He next turned his attention to the im- 
provement of Rome, and to the reforma- 
tion of public manners. On his march 
against Persia, he was aatassinated in 275. 
'—Crtvicr^s HisL itom. Emperors. 

AtJRELios Victor (Sextus), a Roman 
hi&torian of the 4th century, was born of 
.mean parents, in Africa; but his talents 
raised him to distinction. Julian made him 
praEfect of the second Pannonia, in S61 ; 
and in 369 he was chosen consul with Va- 
kntinian. His Roman history has been 
,Bever&l times iprinted ; the "best edition is 
that of Amsterdam, in 1733, 4tp. It is 
iaithful and minute. — Fabrlcius. Fossita, 

AuEKLLi, or AacLLi (John Mutio), a 
Latin poet of the 16 ch century. Leo X. 
appointed him governor of some district, 
where he behaved so tyranmcally that the 
inhabitants threw him into a well in 1520.' 
His poems are much in the manner of Ca- 
tullus. — Moreri, 

AuitENO-ZBBc, the great mogul, was 
third son of Schah Jehan,and bom in 1618. 
In his youth he pat on the appearance of 
religiouf sanctity; but, in 1658, he and 
his brother Morad, seized Agra, and made 
their father prisoner. Soon afterwards he 
put lAoTsA and his other brother, Dara, to 
death. He behaved tenderly however to^is 
father, who died in 1666. Aureng-zebe 
greatly enlarged his dominions, and be- 
came 'so formidable^ that all the pastern 
piinces sent him ambassadors. Being jea- 
lous of the ambitious views of his sons, he 
constantly resided in his camp, which was 
prodigiottsly lar^^e, and reiett^led a po« 

pulous city. He died ^t Ahraednagcr i^ 
n07,ajged89. By. his will he divided Itis 
possessions among his sons. — Mud. l/niv, 

AUREOLUs (Manius Acilius), who, from 
being a shepherd in Dacia,rose to the rank 
of general in -the Ri>man army, imder (.ial- 
lienus, whom^pE; caused to be assafwiiiated 
Claudius* II. took him prisoner at Mila'a, 
and put him to death in 267. — Univ. Hku . 

AuRiA (Vincent), a SiciHan writer, was 
born at Palermo in 1625, ami died in 1710. 
He wrote several books in Latin and Italian, 
particularly a History of the eminent Men 
of Sicily, 1704; and a History or the Vice- 
roys of Sicily, 1697, follow— iVez^i^. Diet, 

AuRiPicus (Nichohs), a Carmelite monk 
of the 6th century, who ^jublished several 
books of devotion. He died about laya— 

AuRiGvv (GiUesde),a French poet of 
the 16th century, ticveral '^hvS. pieces by 
liim are to be foimd in the Annales Poe- 
tiques. — Nouv.Dici. 

AuRisPA (John), a Sicilian Jwriter. Ni- 
cholas V. appointed him liis secretary, and 
gave him two abbeys. He died at Ferrara,at 
the end of tlie loth century. He translated 
the works of Archimedes, and Hierocles's 
Commentary on the. Golden Verses of Py- 
thagoras. — Moreri. 

AuROGALLus (Matthcw), professor of 
languages at Wittember^, was by birth a 
Bohemian, and died in 1 543. He assisted 
Luther in his translation of the Bible into 
German, and wrote a Hebrew and Chaldee 
Grammar, printed at Basle in 1539. — Ba\it. 

AusoNius (Decimus Ma.^mis), a Latin 
poet of the 4th centuiy, was the son of 
a physician at Bourdeaux. He became a 
teacher of grammar and rhetoric at that 
place with such reputation, that his fame 
reached Rome, and Valentinian, the empe- 
ror, sent for him to instruct his son Giatian, 
In 379," he was raised to the consular di^i* 
ty. His poems thoug^h unequal liave great 
merit. 'l%e best edition is thatof Amster- 
dam, in 1671.— //,/y<r. Fossiiis. 

Austin (William), an I'nfxHih author, 
was a barrister of Lmcoln's Ian. He was 
the author of Hare Homo, or the KscoU 
lency of Women, 12mo. He appears to 
liave been indebted for a consider-ible part 
of this book to At^rlppa's Dc Ni)bll)tate et 
PraBCcUentia Faminci Sexus. He also wrote 
Meditations on the principal r;ists and 
Feasts of the Church, published after liia 
decease, in folio, 1637. — Gni>:ger, ' ^ 


AuT^ioN (John d"), a French historian of 
the 16th century. He was abbot of Angle 
Jn Poitou, and wrote the History v t France 
from 1490 to 1508, part of which h:.s only 
been printed. He died in 1523. — M.ieri. 

AuTONiNE (Bernard), advocate to the 
parliament of Bordeaux, who wrote a Com- 
parison of the Frea(;h and Koman L^w^^ a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


<?ommenttry oh the t»rovinciaJ^ La^ of 
iKourdeaux; Ccnsura Gallica m /us Civile 
^ontamkm, &c. — Morerii 

AuTREAu (J^mcs d'), a French painter 
iiid pt)ef, who died in the hospital of in- 
curables at Pans in 1745. His dramatic 
works were published in 4 ^s. I2mo. 1749. 
He had little merit as a painter. — Morerl. 
♦' AuviGNV (N. Castrcs d*), a French his- 
torian. ITe was both a writer ahd soldier, 
^nd was killed at the battle of Dettingcn in 
1743, ag-fcd 31. He wrote 1. The Memoir's 
of Madame Bai*neVeldt, 2 vols. Tinio. ; 2. 
the Histories of Rome and France, abridjrcd^ 
for yoting persons ; *^. the HistDry of Varis, 
4 vols: 12mo;; 4. the laves of lUustrious 
frenchmen, 8 vols. 12mo.^ Nouv, Dut. 

' AoxEKViirgj'an A'riah of the 4th century, 
W;fs a nitiVe of Ca'ppadbcia. Coiistantius 
jnade him bishop of Milan; but he was 
McominiinicaLed in a cohntfil held at Rome 
In IJ(>H. However he hfeld his see to Ins 
'death in S74. Th(*r^V:is another of this 
name and party, who chalfenged St. Am- 
"brosc to a public disputation, wHich that 
'great prelate wisely declined — Mt^r^r'u 
• ArzotJT (AdWan), a Frcndh rhathehVa- 
tician, was bol'h -At Rouen, arid died in 
16*91. ,He is said to have invented the 
'xtihrromcter, hi^ fi'drifise on which' was 
minted in ^1(J9:J» folio. He was (he first 
who thoujfHt of applying the telescope to 
tHe astrOhomlcalt^Uadrant. — MutUns miith. 

AiLiOTHtTA, a fernale pIii!oj!op?Ver of 
'^Greece, who lived in (he time of pi.ito,aiid 
■whose Iecture-> she attehddd dressed in man's 
clothes. — lYw^. Lii'rL 

AxTEL (Daniel), a colbriel Jn'tKe parlfa- 
inetitary ahhyin the fei)>n of Charles I. 
He wasori^iiiatly a grocer, but, bett>mmg[ 
Vi follower of thepuritahs, they J^ersiiaded 
1iii^\ to ehgajje aj^lnst^ t^e king; oh which 
fie cntcr^ into the, arm v, " and rose to the 
f^ihk of coIoiicL Axtdl lihd tlie pnncipal 
charge of the kirior hn his triJlt, to whohi 
he behaved 'with singitlar brutality, fie 
accompanied Cromwell to Ireland, Where 
he behaved with great courage, and \\:\s 
hiade goverrior bf Kilkenny, 'in lO'.'Sp he 
Returned to Eng-latld, to'prevent the Resto- 
ration, but was friistraiVi hi I(;W he was 
Iried for hig;h treason, and dxecufed.— '— 
Bro^, Br, " . . 

Ayksiia, the Wil'c Of •MchAmmed, and 
daujjht^r. of Abubeker. Though' she bore 
the impostor no children, yet ';hc loved her 
better thart his other wives. She Opposed 
the succession' 6f AH, aftd lex'idd an ar'iYiy 
ig^iihst him. Aftbr a severe c'dntcst sh^ 
Wis taken pri5ontr,'but was dismiFsedliv 
Ihe' conqueror 'With civility.' Sli'e died m 
677. ^MoJ. Un. Hht, 

Ay Lrs BL^'k r (sir * Thomas), "a ' ttiMh^nia- 
lician, was &orn in r.ondon, knd fdlvpated 
at WtstmTnster-school, from NV'hcrice He i e- 
fhdV^edio^Rriii "ttor^fU, -OXltjrd, Vlifife'he 

'A Y L 

ton/kthe dtfgfee bf M. A. His rtiathfrmati- 
cal i^no;^Iedge recommended him to the 
diike of liuckin^ham, by whose fneans he 
ya5 created a baronet, arid mude master of 
*the ttiint. Me cticoiirsfged in en of science, 
and the famous Thomas Harriot was one 
'of his dcjtcndants. He sttircrdd much dur- 
ing: the rebelHoh, arid oh (he murder of 
'the king retired to Inlanders, \vhcrc he died 
tri 1(757. His daughter married the great 
^carl of Ciar<?ndoft.-r-ir/V. -Or. 
' AVLESUURY (William), scin of flie a?)ov^, 
Vasbornia Westminster, and entered of 
'ChVifet chtlrcJh, Oiford, in lfj28. After tak- 
ing one degree he \Vas made, by Charles 1. 
•Governor *to the fli/ke of Buckingham and 
'his brother, lord Francis Vlllicrs, whom Kr 
"iccomjjanibd On their travels. In ftaly-he 
*ras Woilndcd by tWo HravO^s, Who nii4- 
toofchith f(jr another person. On his re- 
'ttirri the kiti^ made him grOoih of the bed- 
chamber, and comtrianded liihi to tfanslafc 
D'AA-ila's History of the Civil Wars df 
Trance, which Wtfs prin'tdd !nlA>ndon iii 
*1«47, Jmd a*iiin in 1G78, folio. He w.-ii 
reduced to poverty iri tlie rebellion, hvit 
*after\vtirds'procuVed a situUti«Sn at Jamaica, 
%hcre'he died'in f (557.— ;fV>,t 

AyL'KT'r (Rt?bfcrr),art Etiic^i-'h Writer, was 
^ucafed it 'rrlniiy-harll, Cambridge, 
where he took the degree of 1 .!.. D. in 1(T 1 4, 
"and afterWrds'bevJSirte a riiast^rln chan- 
'cci^. He wrote "Susanna, or the Arraig-ri- 
nient of the 'l*wo 3Udefs, a*po<?h1, «?vo. anS 
■stirtie'tithiJr poetical rilccfcs. Wol»d seerrfs 
to attribute to him •the Brftanhia Anfiqua 
IlKis^rhta, Which goes under tlie ftarhe of 
his nephew, Ayl<ftt 8amhies. — i?%. 'Br. 

Atlin (JoKn), an Italian writer df thfe 
*llth eentury. He wrdte the History of 
TFriiili, which maV be' found In Muratori's 
Antfqilltaies 'ItaHtfaj mcdli :/E^I, MUan, 
'1740.— j1f«r>r/. 

Av tUk R ■ (jbhii), *ah 'l^n^Ksh J5r^Iafe, iH^ 
ttorn i n Nof mlk about' 1 Ti? 1 . He \^% ^fihi- 
cared at Cai^bri'dgfe, and •ahcrWafdsi>ecanft 
tutor tblady Jjinc Clrtiy. Iti 1553 he tva» 
Thade Archdehcon of StOwln LmcdlrtshffTt, 
'and citrtcd hiriisclf stVenuoiisly ;t^lnst jxi- 
p^rv. On fhe aoceskibn of Marv he weht 
■ahroad -aiirt "Settled at *Ziifirfi. When 
"qticcn KH2:ab-6lh CaMetbthc thr6he,*he re- 
turned to his native country, ind in 1576 
\*^as matle !>Ishcip bf r!.olid6n.^Ke wfts a verv 
Vlitigcht pr,5i.\!T5, 'and Wept a "stfict hahi 
lijjon the purititnSjTor 'Whlch'he hVis been 
Severely ce\i^vif(id "l>y their WfireK H 
^iM fit 'Hilhahi, ih*i5f?l,le*tyirtg^a lar^^ 
family. *3!3r. * Avlifier wa> a l^nrried an 
Woc|i!ehtriian; tSut bf aVat-rti"ttmp<:r. "f 
Nvrofe ifi ahsWer'to KilOx** feli'st ^p^ti 
SVoriieii.— ^ZT/l- by Sfrypr. 

" 'A\"i6riT. (gif Joseph), *bm. of'Jfafi 
ft6!d, III Sussex, dlfi feminertt'antt^i/liry,'\V . 
K>rn^1>biit 17US, and ^ducal^d ^t vVf'st 
iTJ^nber-Gchooi. In'l7tr4 he N^aj )i<!rthlt^ 
•bf^lJn coin V'nn, Aiid entered "of St. .^oK- 

"<fe^oge,t:^OTd. Hl 'j^jH^t^j^si -mi^ 

Digitized by VjOOQI 


A Z R 

Moyr of the royai'and antiquarian soq:^ 
ties. He wxs secretary to the commis- 
^ionen for building Wesirainster-bridge, in 
1737; and appointed one of , the keepers 
of the ftate-papers in the paper office. He 
|»intcd Izi 1772 Calendars of the ancient 
Charters, &c.ia the Tower of London, 4to. 
HeaJio edited Leland's Collectanea in 9vol#. 
8vo ; Liber Niger Scaccari, 2 vols. 8vo. ; 
and Heame's Curious Discourtesy 2 vols. 
8vo. besides other works. He died in 178 L 
There are many cur^us papers of his in the^ 
Arehzokgia. — Gen. Jffo^. Did. 

At MAR (James), a French impostor, was 
bom at St. Veian in Dauphin^. He gained 
coonderabfe wealth at the close of the 17th 
century, by pretending to have a divining 
rod, for the discovery of hidden treasure. 
The fraud being detected he returned to 
his former obscurity; but it gave occasion 
to de Vallemont's learned book on the 
powers of the divining rod. — Nouv.Dict. 

AmoN (John), a priest of Peidmont, 
who became a protestant, and afterwards 
returi^ed to his former communion. He • 
WW pensioned liy cardinal de Noailles, and 
Wrote several hooks against the reformed 
charches ; he also published the letters of 
Crrtl Locar, Les Sy nodes nationaux des 
^lises reform^es de France, 1720, 2 vols. 
4to.; and Tableau de la Cour de Rome, 
1707, l^mo^^nhf, 

Atres (John), an English penman. He 
WW lervan.t to sir William A9h^ur8t, lord 
ttavor of London, to whom he dedicated 
in ^694 hk Arithmetic made Easy. The 
Vear following he published his 1 utor to 
Penmanfhip, engraved by John Strut He 
Hved at the Hand-«nd-|>en in St. PauFs 
Church-yard, and probably taught school 
there. — Gfft. JSJcg. Dkf. 
. ArtMi>i or AvERMiN (William), bishop 
of Norwich of the Hih century, was born 
io Lincolnshire. Edward III. made him 
thancdlor of England, and afterwards trea- 
surer. He was also sent ambassfulor to 
Rome, where, in^ead of forwarding the 
long's business, he obtained the grant of 
the bishopric of Norwich. This provdked 
the king, who reAised him admission into 
the see for some time. He died in 1.S37. — 
Cadiiin de Pr^tid, Fuller t fVortbie*. 

ArscouoH (George Edward), an English 
ipihtary officer, was the son of Dr. Ays- 
toughi'dean of Bristol, by a sister of lord 
Lyttieton. He died of a consumption in 
177^ He wrote SemJramis, a tragedy, 
1777, and L.etcers from an OlBcer in the 
Onards to his Friend in Enghmd, contain«> 
rag seme Accounts, of France and Italy, 
3778, avo- — Gen. J^h<r. Diet. 

Atscouoh (Samii«'l),an industrious com- 
piler, was bom at Nortinghain where be 
fccehrcd hh education under Mr. Johncon; 
bni his father biing rcduce<l in bis circum* 
Kiaect, the 99n was taken /ri^m scheel xqd 

became servant to a miUor. About 1776 
a gentleman who bad been his tchoolfellowj 
hearing of his distress, sent for him to Lon- 
don, where not long after he obtained ai^ 
employrr.ent in the British Museum,- Here 
his abilities began to be respected and his 
salary encreased till he was appointed as- 
sistant-librarian. He also entered into 
orders, and obtained the curacy of Sl 
Giles in the Fields. In 1790 he was appoints 
ed to preach the Fairchild lecture oo 
Whit-Tuesday at Shorcditch church before 
the Royal Society, which he continued t<> 
do till 1804. He assisted in the regulation 
of the records in the Tower : and compjiJeA 
a catalogue of the MSvS. in the British 
museum ; an index to 5^ vols, of the 
Gentleman's Magazine ; to the Monthjty 
Review ; the British Critic ; to Shak* 
ipeare, and other workf. He was also the 
author of Remarks on the Letters of aa 
American Farmer. Not long before MA 
death the lord-chancellor gave him the Kv* 
ing of Cudhsvn in Kent. He died in 1805. 
— Gr^/. J^f'g' Mfontbly Afaj* 

Atscwr (sir George), a brave admiral, 
was descended fi*om a respectable f-draJLlf 
in Uocolnshirc, and received the honour 
of knighthood from Ciiarles L He dis- 
tinguished himself greatly against th^ 
Dvitch in the time of the commonweaUh, 
and in 1 $66 was appointed to the command 
Of the Royal Prince, the finest ship then in[ 
the world. He was engaged in the great 
fight with the Dutch which lasted foui< 
days; but having the misfortune to strike 
upon the Galloper sand, his crew forced 
bun to yield to the enemy. After remain- 
fag in Holland for some months, he wa^ 
permitted to return to England, where he 
spent the remainder of his day* in retire- 
ment. — CampLetrs Lives nfthc Admirals. 

AzARiAH or UzziAir, king of Judab, 
succeeded Amaziah about 810 B. C. He 
began his reign with great reputation, buf 
at the close of it turned idolaior, and died 
a leper.— 55. 

AzARiAs, a Jewish r.iLbi and historian 
of the Kfth century, publislied at Mantua, 
in 1574, n Hc*bri»w book, entitled. The- 
•Light of tliei:)cs, in which he treats pf 
many historical and niacellancous subjectr. 
It also contains a Hebrew translation o£ 
the letter of /Vrisicas on the Septuagiat.-— 

Sa:. iorjii Bibl. 

Azr.vKDo (Ignatius), a Portuguese Jesuit, 
was born in 1527. Although heir ro « 
large fortune, he resigned it far a religious 
b'fe, and went to India as a missionary. 
On a second voya>/3 thither in 1570, the 
ship wai taken by pirates, who put ail the 
missionar^s to dstaih. — Moreri. 

AzoRius (J<5hn), a Spanish jdsait in the 
16th century. He wrote Institutiomiia 
Moralium ; In canticum, &:c. 3 vok fcUo.' 
He died at Rome in 1603.— /^/V. 

AzRicQETA (^Martin), sunumed Ka- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

B A B 


Vfltrrie, a Spjuiish lawj'er, was born in 1494, -Az^p (Porhus), an -Italian lawyer, wa» 
•at ^Verasoa, near Pampeluna. He wa^ pro- a native of Bologna, where he was chosea 
•fessor in several universities, and died prole- sor of jurisprudence in 1190; he 
'at Rome in 1586\ His works were print- wrote an esteemed work, entitled, A Sura- 
kd at Lyons, in 6 vols, folio, in 1597. — Mo- mary of tlie Code and the Institutes. He 
ri^rL died akbo\lt 1220.— Tin: Jasvbi. 


■gAAHpiN (Mahomet Gebct Amali), a 
Persian doctor, who wrote a summary 
pf civil and cafton law, under the name of 
Abbas the Great, by whos(^ command it 
was written. — Moreri. 

Baan (John d'),aDutchportiait painter; 
.was born in .1683, antl di-cd in 1702. He 
resided in . England under the puirouar^^c of 
Charles. II. . His son J.r/'/rf . v/ns a good 
artist, and came over with prince of 
Orange: he died in 1700, at tlie age of 27. 
v—HIorjrri. .. 

Baarsdorp (Cornelius), physician and 
chamberlain to the emperor Charles V., 
was the author of a work in 5 vols, folio, 
entitled, MethodusUniverhx Artis Mcdic.e, 
printed at Bruges, in 1 538. — Alor^ri. 
^ Baaiit (Peter), a Flemish poet and phy- 
sician.^ Hewroteapoem entitled Flemish 
jjeorgics, and another called l.e IViton do 

Bab A, an impastor amonqf the Turks, 
who appeared in 1 2^10 ; he Uc!d, that thcrq 
is but «ne God, and that he was his mcb=dn-» 
ger ; he procured manj followers in Na- 
tolia. Being defeated, his sect disappeiired, 

'. Baboiuf (Francis ^oel), one of the act- 
ors of the French revolution, was at first a 
tootnxan, then a lawyer's clerk, and after- 
wards an attorney- : he assumed the revo- 
lutionary name of Gracchus^ and conducted 
an incendiary journal called the Tribune 
bf tlie f^eople ; he was condemned to be, 
riiillotined, but prevented the executi(m by 
kUling himself in prison in II'M.^-Anec^ 
motes of Found, 'IS of thi Frciwh R.-putl-c. 

BAiiACOU^cui, mufti of the citv of Cail'.i, 
in Mauris, whose real name was AhtlalrJi- 
inan jVIosthafa. He wrota a boo< called 
The Friend of iVinces : he died in tlje year 
*l^:l of the Hcgira. — ITHcrhLt. 

Babin (Francis), a French divine, was 
|>orn in lOJl at Angers, where he hec-mc 
profosnor of divinity at the a;^c of 'J.l; he 
published tiae Conrercjices of'tl.c UioLCic 
yf Anger-,. In 18 voh. l^mo. :.nd-d:ed in 
yiiVl.—^'^ui;. ir-a. Hist. 

Ba;jingtox (C->rv.iLc\ an F".<-!;.sh pre- 
Iitc, WHHa nritivc of JJcvoniliirc. .mvl tUv!- 
^r.^t:d at 'JVinlty-colle-o, C:.:i-jb:id-«. iio 
wa-; sucret-slv< ly bi-'/noj; of Laudaii", Ejccter, 
and Vvorcet^ttr; ^n^I .Med in J 010; his 
works were printed iu 1 vol. folio, in \(j\3, 

Bahin<;ton (Anthony), a jrenrleman of 
Derbyshir'^, who associa'tcci wi.. li ioruc oibvT 
zealous Kuman-cathclic3 lo asuas-sinatt 

queen Elizabetli, and to deliver Mary 
queen of Scots, Babington was stininiited 
to this entcrprize in the hopes tliat Mary, 
out of gratitude, would take hrm for her 
husband. . This scheme was discovered by 
Waj>injrham,audthr cmispira;orfi executed 
an l5oti. — ^(if'h:. C'lirifii'i Fiizziihtth. 

Babylas, bishop of Aiitioch, who was 
put to de;ah in the persccutiun of Decius, 
A.D.251.— JVf^rtTA 

Babylonia. The first account of thi< 
country is in scripture, wlicre we read of 
Amraphael, king of Babylon, fighting 
under the king of Flam, BI C ISIiy. [Gwvr. 
xiv.} In 681 A&ser Haddon, kin^ of 
Assyria, took possession of tlvis territory. 
In \1.\0 Nabonassa.r, conjectured to be tlie 
son of Pul, founded ihe kin^jdom of Baby- 
lon, and in 6^5 NabopoIla>ar revolted 
^roin the Assyrians. Under Nebuchadnez- 
zer this empire became famous; but in 
5:J8 Babylon was taken by Cyrus, and 
from that time it suncrcd the same chan«^ 
asd^ersia. However, Bagdad on die Tig- 
ris continued subject in sQme degree to the 
Saracens till A.U. lii.lS, when it was taken 
byHulaku, tlie i'aitar, who putan end tothe 
Caliphate. It was taken by the Tiirks in 
15;>4, conquered by the Persians in 1613, 
and reco\ ercd by the former in 1G37. — 
^alv. Hist, 

Baca I, the surname of Ibrahim Bea 
Omar, who wrote on the mussubnan law, 
and the lives of eminent men. He died in 
the year of the Hc^ira SSii. — D'Herlnriot. 

BACAj.ANi,a miiss!i!man doctor, who ex- 
pounded the rT\, srerjcs of tlie Koran. — liiid. 

BvccALAiiY Sanna (Vinccut), marquis 
oC St. Vincent, in Sardinia, and .in eminent 
commander under Ciiarles U.aud Pliilip V, 
of Spaiu. He v/rote the Monarchy of the 
Hebrews, ai.d Memoirs of Philip V. He 
died in 17126". — Xouv. Di^t. Hist. 

was born in lojl, and educated at Parma. 
He published a liicrary journal, fox which 
he c!)li-;t.d to rcmt ve to Modcna, 
where the duice made him his librarian i 
h'-tv-rlo^raphcr. Merc ])c m:;de coUecti s 
for a i;i>io:y p» tJie hjiise of L'>te. w/iicb e 
left to Muratcn. He afierv/ardh been e 
profc>'ror vf ccclesiaL-'ical his:ory at Mo • 
Da,a:.d diiii there in 17-.'l. I'le publisl 1 
scv'^'-al lc»! rued works.— iV/ur/T/. 

liAccKYi.ioEs, a Grtfk poet, wasbon n 
the i.slc of Ceos, and llourisJied -t.>ti B. '- 
Horace is said to have imitated liim i^ 
^>mi: of his od^*. — r^^s. dc I'vgi, G>a»* 

Digitized by 


B A e 

B A€ 

Savchtlus 1 christian writer, of the 2d 
eeatury, and bishop of Cormth,who wrote 
a lerter on the time of celebrating Easter, 
which i» lost. — Euschiut. Dupin. 

Baccio (Andrew), an Italian physician 
of the Iffth century, was a native of An- 
cuna, and medical professor at Rome. He 
wrote on e^ms and precious stones, on 
poisons and antidotes, on hot spring, &c. 

Baccio (Francis Bartholomew), an histo- 
rical and portrait painter, was born near 
Florence in 1469, and died in 1517. His 
■figures have great grace, and his colouring 
is admirable. — P'Jkmgion^ 

Bach (John Sebastian), a German musi- 
cian, was bom at Eisenach in 1685. In 
1708 he became musician to the duke of 
Saxe Weimar, and obtained a victory at 
Dresden over a famous French organist, 
who had challenged all the German musi- 
•cians. He is reckoned to have been equal 
10 Handel on the organ, and his composi- 
tions are of the first style. He died at 
Leipsic in 1754. His sons Charles and 
John were also celebrated as performers 
and composers ; the former was living at 
Hamburgh in 1773, and the other was in 
England in 1763. — Bumeys Hist. Mus, 

Bacuaumont ^Francis le Coigneux de), 
a French poet, ana counsellor to the par- 
liament, which profession he renounced for 
a life of pleasure. He was the ^ intimate 
friend of Chapelle, in conjunction with 
whom he wrote ** A Journey to Mout- 
pelier," which is a lively piece. He was 
also the anthor of some other works of the 
humorous kind. He died at Paris in 1702. 
'—Nuru. Dia. Hut, 

Bachaumont (Louis-Petit), a French 
author, bom at Paris. He wrote Secret 
Memoir* towards a History of the Repub- 
lic of Lttters in France, 36 vols. l*2mo. and 
other works. He died in 1771. — Ibid, 

Bacuclier (Nicholas), a French sculptor 
and architect, was the pupil of Michael 
Angelo. He ornamented the churches of 
his native citj, Thouloiise, with his produc- 
tions. He died about 1554.^ — Moreri. 

Bacjci (John Baptist Gauli), a celebrated 
Italian painter, was bom at Genoa in 1639, 
and dieil in 1709. He excelled in portraits 
and scriptural subjects. — D' Argenvilte, 

Bachovius (Remier),a Gertnan civilian, 
was bom at Cologne in 1544. On turning 
calvinist he was so persecuted by the 
lutherans as to be obliged to remove into 
the Palatinate, whefe he was patronized by 
the elector. He wTotc*a catechism in de- 
fence of Calvinism. His son Rdnier was pro- 
fe>sor of civil law at Heidelberg, and turned 
Roman catholic. His works are, Excrcita- 
lioncs ad Partem posteriorem Chiliados Fa- 
bri, 1GSJ4; De Actionibus, 1626i De Pig- 
noribus ct Hypothecis 1627 ; Disputatioues 
de variu Juris civilis Materiis, 16CK; in In- 
stitutionum Juris Justiniani Libros quaiuor 
Commentarii, 1628.— ^^j/f. Moreri, 

Backer (James), sin historical pabter 
of great merit, was born at Antwerp in 
1530, and died in 1566. — PiUlngton. 

Backer (Jacob), a portrait and histori- 
cal painter, was born at Harlingen in 1609, 
knd died in 1651. His pieces are held in 
great esteem. — UiJ. 

Backhouse (William), an astrologer and 
alchemist, wis bom in Berkshire, and edu- 
cated at Christ church, Oxford, which he 
left without a degree* and settled on his 
estate, where he devoted himself, to his fa- 
vourite studies. He published, 1. The 
pleasant Fountain of Knowledge, translated 
from the French, 8vo. 2. The Complaint 
of Nature. 8. The Golden Fleece- He was 
also the inventor of an instrument called 
the waywiser. Elias Ashmole was his dib- 
ciple,and used to call him fatlier. He died 
in 1662,-^lVoc.d A. 0. 

Backhuysen (LudolphV an eminent 
painter, was born at Embdcn in 16:11, and 
died in 1709. His favourite subjects were 
shipping and sea pieces. — FiUi.igton, 

Bacon (Robert), an English friar, wa» 
born about 1168, and became divinity lec- 
turer at Oxford. In 1233 he was made 
treasurer of Salisburv. He wrote the Life 
of St. Edmund, archoishop of Canterbury, 
and other works. He died in ItliS. — Fits. 

Bacon (Roger), an English philosopher, 
was bom at llchester, in Somersetshire, in 
1214, and educated at Oxford, under the 
auspices of Robert Grosthead, bishop of 
Lincoln, who was through Hte his great 
patron. Bacon was also encouraged and 
instructed in learning by Edmund Rich, 
archbishop of Canterbury, William Shir-, 
wood, chancellor of Uncoln and an excel- 
lent mathematician, and Richard Fishacre, 
an able professor at Oxford and Paris. The 
last-mentioned university being at that lime 
greatly frequented by students on account 
of the learned lectures there delivered, Ba- 
con,after laying in agoodstoreof knowlcd;;e 
at home, went thither, and studied with so 
much diligence and success as to obtaiq the 
degree of D. D. On quitting France he re- 
tired to Oxford, and about the same lime, 
A. D. 1240, entered into the order of St. 
Francis. He now devoted himself prin- 
cipally to chemistry, natural philosophj^ 
and mathematics, and so ardent was he in 
making experiments as to spend in the 
course of twenty years 2000/. entirely on 
these pursuits, which, considering the time 
he lived in, was a prodigious sum. The dis- 
coveries he made, and the celebrity he ob- 
tained, excited the envy ao^ malice of the 
monks. It was reportea, and believed, that 
he had recourse to the agency of evil spirits, 
and that all his knowledge consisted m his 
profound skill as a magician. In conse- 
quence of this, he was forbidden to read 
lectures in the university, and was even 
confined to his cell without being allowed 
to see his friends, or to have a proper sup- 
ply of food. This bigoted and cruel con- 

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dttct elr the monks seems only to hare ex- 
tended his repuution, for while he was un- 
der i^eraccution by the monks he received 
a letter from the cardinal bishop of Sablna, 
the pope*» legate in £n?i:^nd, requesting a 
copy of his worksi which Bacon at first de- 
rlined ; but when that prelate was raised 
to the papal chair by the name of Clement 
rVJie collected his writings idto a volume, 
entitled 0/i/j Majuxj or the Greater Work, 
and sent them to his holiness, who pro* 
mised him his protection. Tliis tranquil- 
lity, however, did not long continue, for on 
the death of that pope he was exposed to 
new and more severe persecutions. His 
Worlcs were prohibited, and he was sen- 
tenced to close imprisonment, in which he 
remained above ten years. On being released 
he retired to Oxford, where he Sled June 
11, 1292. The uncommon attainments of 
Bacon obtained for him, according to the 
custom of that age, the appellation of ** the 
wonderful doctor,** and it must be allowed 
that BO man ever deserved it better* Bishop 
Bale mentions above eighty treatises written 
by this great man, of which he had himself 
teen near forty ; and Dr. Jebb,lhe learned 
editor of his Opus Majus, in 1 voL folio, 
1 733, classes his writings under these heads : 
grammar, mathematics, physics, optics, geo- 
yraj>hy, astronomv, chronology, chemistry, 
magic, medicine, logic, meupiiysics, etliics, 
theology, philology, and miscellanies. It 
must, however, be confessed, that one and 
the same work by him has in other copies 
borne another title. His chemical tractB 
are in the Thesaurus Chemicus, printed at 
Franckfort, in 8vo. 1620. His treatise on 
the "'Means of avoiding the Infirmities of 
«ld Age," was first printed at Oxford in 
1590; and an English translation of it, by 
Dr. Browne, appeared in ' 16S3. Several 
pieces by him yet remain in MS. particu- 
larly one on chronology, entitled Computus 
Rogcri Baconis; another, called Liber Na- 
turaUum, and the Compendhim of Theo- 
logy, are in the king*s Hbrary. Bacon 
was a considerable mathematician, and from 
«ome of his pieces in MS. it appears that he 
had a knowledge of the nature of convex 
and concave glasses, and soir.e consider him 
a> the inventor of the telescope. H<; aho 
gives descriptions which correspond with 
the camera obscura and burning glass. His 
acquaintance with astronomy and geogra- 
phy was likewise very extensive and accu- 
rate. ^ He detcctcil the errors in tl:e calen- 
dar, and suggested that reformation in it 
which was Jong aftcni'ards adopted by 
Crcgory XIII. In chemistry he appears to 
have been misled by the delusion which im- 
posed upon other great men in more en- 
lightened u'mes than the one he lived in, that 
h was possible to tranRnnite metals into 
gold. Ye: this delusion has been the friend 
of experimental science, and Bdcon in pur- 
suing it discovered many secr-'ts which mo- 
dern philosophers l«ve arrogated to them- 

selves. In particular, he gives such a de- 
scription of a certain composition and iti 
powerful effects as proves he yas not unac- 
quainted with gunpowder.— ^••^»'» I'r^- ^ 
Opus Majui, Pits. Bale. Sia^. Br. 

Bacon (sir Nicholas), lord keeper of the 
great seal, was bom at Chislehurst, in 
Kent, in 1510. He studied at Ccne*t col- 
lege, Cambridge, from whence he removed 
to Gr;iy's-inn, where he became so eminent 
in the law that he was appointed attornej 
in the court of wards. He obtained frpiii 
Henry VIH. various manors in SuAblk oa 
the dissolution of the monastery of Jit. Ed- 
mund's Bury. At the accetvsion of Elizabeth 
he was made keeper of the great seal, and a 
nrivy counsellor. He was a man of great 
jndufetr)', prudent and cautious in his con- 
duct, making it his study never to entangle 
himbdf with any party. When the queett 
came to visit him at his new house at Red- 
grave, slie observed, alluding to hU corpu- 
lency, that he had built his house too littlfc 
forliim: "Not so, madam/* answere?d he, 
" but y(mr majesty has made me too big for 
mv house." He died in l579. He left seve- 
ral manuscripts, none of which have becA 
printed. H» was twice married ; by his firrt 
wife he had three sons and three daugliters j 
and by his second he had two sons, Acthaxiy 
"and Francis. — Biog. Brit, 

Bacon (Anne), second wife of the above, 
was daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, tutor 
to Edward VI. and botii about 1^28. She 
Was educated in the aiiclent and modern 
languages, and translated from ,the Italian 
Ochinus*8 Sermons, and from the I^iin 
tewePs Apology for the Church of Eng- 
knd. She died about 1600.— /W. 

Baco!» (Franci5),anillustriousphifo$op!ier 
and eminent statesman, was t^e son of sih 
Nicholas Bacon by his second wife, and bom 
in London in 1551. When a cliiH he gave 
such early mdicalions of future eminence, 
that queen Elizabeth used to call him her 
*« young chancellor." He was educated at 
Trinity college, Cambridge, and while a 
student discovered the futility of the peri- 
patetic philosophy, which then prevailed. 
At the age of sixteen he went to France in 
tlie suite of sir Amias Pawlet, ambassador t» 
• that court. During his residence there he 
wrote au acute piece. On the State of Eu- 
rope, W^liich displayed great observatioa, 
though he was then but nineteen year* ctf 
age. On his return to England he entered 
of Gra.y'3-inn, and at tlte age of twenty- 
eight was appointed one cJ the queen'* 
coimseilors. But I'ly his attachment to th* 
carl of Essex, who waiat enmity with 
Cecil, Bacon lost those advantages at conrt 
v/jji':h he m»ght otherwise- have expected. 
'Vhit gonc/ous bat unfortunate earl, how* 
ever, feeling the^ value of his attachment, 
"preientcfl him with a valuable esute ;^ aa 
act of friendship which Bacon ill requited 
by appearing against him at his trial, hi 
I J93 he was cl\os^ member of Darliaonezit 

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B A C 

§fr ]yG4dIctn» and had the coursMtO op- 
pose several arbitrary m^sures of 3ie court, 
lor which he iocarred the queen's displea- 
ture. On the ^cejision of James t, he ob- 
taioed the honour of ]aiighthood, and ia 
1604 was appointed^ one of the kuigr's 
cocnsel, with a pension. The next vear 
he published a. great work, entitled The 
iidvancanent and Proficiency of JLearn- 
io^, for which he ytm made soUcitor- 
eeneral. About this time he r^arried a 
oaughter of Mr. Bamham, a rich aJderman 
of London. In IGIl he was appointed 
jndge of the m;u:shalsea court, and ootained 
the place of register of the star-cliamber, 
the reversioa of which had been granted 
kim twenty yeai-s before. In 1613 he was 
made attomej-geoeral; and in 1616 sworn 
cf the privy council. At this time he con- 
tracted a Close intimacy with the farourite 
George Villiers, to whom he wrote an ad- 
ninihle letter of advice. In 1617 he was 
made lord keeper of the great seal, and two 
yean after constituted hi^h chancellor of 
Great Briuin at which time he was ad- 
vanced to the peerage by the title of baron 
of Vendam, and the year following was 
created viscount St. Albans. In 1 620 he pub- 
&hed the most elaborate of all his works, 
tbe Novum Organum Scientiarum, shewing 
a perfect method of eiercising the faculty 
iji reason. The year following he was ac- 
cosed in parliament of bribery and corrup- 
tion in his nigh office^ which "heavy charee 
being admitted by his own confession, he 
was sentenced to pay % fine of 40,000/1 to be 
imprisoned during the king's pleasure, and 
for ever rendered incapable ojf holding any 
pohlic office. He was sooq restored to li- 
berty, had hM 6ne remitted, and was sum- 
wmed to the first parliamenf of king 
Charles. It must not be omitted, that the 
greatest part of th« blantc attaches to his 
lervaatSy and of this he was sensible; for 
d&riiig luB trial, as h» passed through the 
«XRn where his domestics were sitting, they 
all rose up at his entrance, on which he 
said, ■■ Sit dowi), my masters, your rise hath 
been my Call." After this disgrace he went 
iato retirement, where he devoted himself 
ta hb studies. Notwi thstauding his pension 
?f 180CV. a year, and his paterqal estate, 
which was worth 700/. a year, his liberality 
yas to great, tha; at his death, an 1626, his 
dsbts amount^ to 2^2fXM His remains 
were imerred in St. Michael's church, at 
St. Albans, where his secretary, sir Thomas 
Meaatvs, erected a moniimeiit xo his mc- 
Biory. His wrhings are an inestimable 
treasure of sound wisdom, and were pi>b- 
lidied in an elegant form in 1778, 5 vols. 
4to. and Lately in 10 vols. Svo. Bacon has 
pmly be?n ciicd the/afber $/ experimental 
t^*pby.^BU£. Br. 

Bacok (Antnony), eld^ brother to the 

duncellor, was eminent for his skill in po- 

. littcs, ba( being very lame he did not enter 

•o publif Ui'^ The t^orl of Essex having a 

rreat * value for htm, took lim iato hit 
house, and settled upon him a handsome 
income. He maintained a strict friendship 
with his brother, and left him his estate,^ 
Bug. Br, 

Bacon (Nathaniel), half-brother to the 
chancellor, had a taste for painting,' and 
executed some fine pieces, which are at 
Culford, where he lived, and at Gorham- 
bury, his father's seat. He excelled in land- 
scape and subjects of «till life. — Grander. 

Bacon (Phanuel), an English divine of 
Magdalen college, Oxford, where he pro- 
ceeded D. D. He was the author of some 
trifling dramatic pieces, and a poem called 
the Artificial Kite. He died in 1783.— Gm. 
B. D, 

Bacon (John), an English sculptor, was 
born in Southwark, in 1740. In 1755 hp 
was bound apprentice to a manufacturer 
of china at Lambeth, where he was em- 
ployed in painting dn porcelain. Here 
ne so greatly improved himself in model- 
ling shepherds, shepherdesses, and such 
small pieces, that in less than two years 
he formed all the models for th£ manufac- 
tory. While here, he had an opportunity 
of obscn,'ing the models of dijOEercnt sculp- 
•tors, which were sent to the pottery to b^ 
burnt, and fronv the sight of them he con- 
ceived a strong inclination for liis future 
profession. He applied himself to this pur- 
suit with unremitting diligence, and his pro- 
gress was so rapid that he obtained nine 
premiums from the society for the encou- 
ragement ef the arts ; the nrst of these w'as 
in 1758, for a figure of Peace. During his 
apprenticeship he formed a design of mak- 
ing statues in artificial stone, wmch he af- 
terwards perfected, and th# same "is now 
carried on in a manufactory at Lambeth. 
About 1763 he began to work in marble; 
and haying seen that operation performed, 
he invented an instrument for transferring 
tlie form of the model to the marble (tech- 
nically called getting out the points), which 
instrument has since been adopted by other 
sculptors. In 1769 he obtained from the 
royal academy the first gold medal given by 
that society, and the year following he was 
chosen an associate. The reputation ac- 
quired by the exliibition of his statue of 
Mars induced Pr. Markham, since arch- 
bishop of York, to employ him in making 
a bust of his majestv, for the hall of Christ 
church, Oxford. While modelling this bust 
the king asked him, " if he had ever been 
out of the kingdom ;*' and on being answer- 
ed in the negative, " I am glad of it (said 
his majesty): you will be the greater honour 
K) it." His execution of this bust gained 
him the royal patronage, and he was em* 
ployed in forming another for the univer- 
sity of Gottingen. In 1777 he was engaged 
to prepare a model of a monuaicnt, to he 
erected in Guy's hospital to the memory of 
the founder, which occ.i'^iuned him to be 
e!-nplL)|x:d in tlie e.iccuiioB of lord Chatt 

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1 am*s monument in Guildhall. The year 
following he became a royal academician, 
and completed a beautiful monument to 
the memor\r rf Mrs. Draper, in Bristol ca- 
thedral. H^^ otlier works arc too numerous 
to be specified; suffice it to mention the 
principal, which are two groupes for the 
top of Somerset-houre ; a statue of jud^^e 
Blac]c>tone for All Souls college, Oxford; 
another of Henry VI. for Eton college; 
the moniinent of lord Chatham in Wei.t- 
minsfer abbey; and Dr Johnson's and Mr, 
Howard's in St, Paul's cathedraL Mr. Ba- 
con died of an inflammation in his bowels, 
in 1799. He was an estimable private cha- 
racter, ai:d of distinguished piety, as the 
inscription which he ortlcred to lie placed 
over his grave evinces : viz. " What I was 
as an artist seemed to me of some impor- 
tance while 1 lived ; but what 1 really was 
as a believer in Chr'st Jesus is tlie' only 
thing of importance lo me now." He wrote 
ihearticle Sculpture:, in Rees's Cyclopxdia. 
— Z//:>y C^r/7, 1801. 

Baconthorpe, or Bacon (John), an 
English monk in the l:'th century, was 
born in Norfolk. He was called l\ic' resolute 
doctor^ and \vTOte Commoutaries cm the Four 
Books of Sentences, a Compendium of the 
Lawof Chriit, &.c. He died in London in 

Bacoue (i.eo)i a French divine, was at 
first a protestant, but on becoming a Fran- 
ciscan, he was made bishop of Pamiersr 
He wrote' a Latin poem on the education 
•f a prince, and died in 1694, aged 94* — 


Bacqubrre (Benedict de)j a physician of 
the 17th century, who wrote a book, enti- 
tled Senum Me^cus, printed at Cologne in 
1673.— /i///. 

BACQUET,advocatetotbe king of France. 
He wrote some learned pieces on tiie law, 
which were pubh'.hcd at Lyons, in 2 vols, 
folio, 1744. He died in L5 9 7. — Nouv. DicL 

Bactishua (George, a christian 
physician, was very eminent at the court 
of the caliph Almanzor, who understanding 
that he had an old woman for his wife, sent 
him three beautiful girls and a larj;e sum, 
as a present. liactishufi sent back the girls, 
and tf.hi rlu- caliph that his religion prehi- 
biied his !);:ving more than one wife at a 
ti.ric ; v.-.hich 'd plf?' Alni.inzor that he 
h .idcd him wiih presents, and permitted 
him to return to hii. f.wn country of Kho- 
r?.>in. His i,iM\ Ciibricl was physician to 
}i iroun al 1 ..?.hid> and hold in great esti- 
mation by that (:A\\i\\.-^D' Ho LJj, 

Badaksc?:;, a Persian poet, who lived 
rrdtr the ca.ipli Moctafi. A coTlection of 
moral poems by him is exant,. — I!>icL 

Badascii an Arribian grammarian, died 
in the year cf the Hr;;,irvi 5'2^.-^—JliJ. 

Badcock (Samuel;, an English divine, 
WIS burn at South Moulton, in Devonshire, 
in 1747. He was educated among the dis- 
senters at St. Mary Ottery, in that county. 

after which he officiated to a congregation at 
Winbourn, in Dorsetshire from whence h© 
removed lo Iiarr.?tap!e in 17^9, where he 
cultivated polite literature, and shook off 
the prejudices of Calvinism. In consequence 
of a disagreement between him and his 
congregation he returned to his native 
place, where he officiated to the dissenters 
till 1787, when he was ordained in Exeter 
cathedral bythe bishopofthat chin*ch.After 
serving a curacy in Devonshire for a little 
time he went to Bath, and became assistant 
at the octaji^on chapel. He died at X,ondon 
in 1788. Mr. Badcock is best known by hii 
Critiques in the Monthly Review on Ma- 
dan's Thelypthora, Dr. Priestley's History 
of the Corruptions of Christianity, &c. ancl 
by the considerable share which he had in 
Dr. White's Bampton Lectures, He w is a 
man of great livelinesss, taste, and learn- 
ing. — Europ. Mii^. 

Baden (James), a Danish writer, and 
professor of eloquence and the I^atin lan- 
guage in the university of Copenhagen, to 
which situation he was appointed in 1779. 
Ho devoted a great portion of his time in 
idv uicing the Danish language to improve- 
ment. He published a German and Danish 
Dictionary, a translation of Tacitus, and 
other esteemed works. He died in iSOJ. — 
Mouthiy Mag. 

BadV.n (Francis), an historical and per* 
trait painter, was born at Antwerp in 1571, 
and died in 1 dOil—Pi/i^n^Un. 

Badkw (Richard de), the founder of 
Clare hall, Cambridge, was born at Badow, 
in Essex. In \:V26 he was clianc^'llor of Cam- 
bridge, and the same year laid the foun- 
dation of a building to which he gave the 
name of University- hall; which be'ng burnt 
down WAS rebuilt by the daughter of sir 
Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, who 
named it Clare-halL — Jiiog. Br. 

Bauile (Antony), an Italian painter, \vas 
born at Verona in 1480, and died in 1560, 
His portraits bore a great resemblance to' 
real \it'e.-^Pi!i-,i:;;jo'i. 

Baduel (Claude), a French protestant 
divine, was born at Nismes. In 1.^57 he 
went to Switzerland, taught philosophy 
and mathematics, and exercised his minimi- 
try till hi-i death in 15G1. His works are 
ch'efly theological. — BayL-. 

Bkak.^ius or Vr.KhSsriL (Henry), a" 
printer and m.sthematician of lx)irvain in' 
the J^th century, who published Tables oF 
the Lorgitudes and latimdcs of the Pla- 
nets, \jiiHy and other works. — Mcrtr:. 

BAKRSTaAT,aDr.tch painter of sea pieces 
and fish, died in lfj--7. J-lis pieces are held 
in great esteem. — Ilcitltrahn. 

BAF-KARKAu,or Abu Zohal, an Arablai% 
commentator on Euclid. — G:n. B. D. 

Bacdeuin (Mylpmmed), an Arabian, 
mathematician of the 1 0th century, who 
wrote a treatise on the Division of Super— 
ficies^ a Latin version of which was pul>«« 
lisked by John Dee. — Vou. de MatL 



Aoemaker in London, but afterwards be- 
I came a booksclJcr, and a great collector 
«f cnriosities. He was employed by Dr. 
Moore, bishop of NorAvich, and the earl 
«f Oxford, to enrich their libraries with 
scarce books and MSS. for which the former 
placed him in the Chnner-hoiise. He died 
in 17H, ajfcd 6.'y. Several of his letters are 
in the British Mujeum. — On. B. D. 

feACGEK (Jcxhn), bishop of Copenhns^en,' 
Wis bom at Lunden, in Denmark, in 164(>. 
His reputation was so hlj^h for oriental and 
theolo^cal learning, th:n at the age of 29 
he was r.-'ased to the episcopal dignity. Ha 
revjjed the Danish litur^', and puulished 
snne Ie;<rhed Discourses in I^atin and Da- 
nish. He died in \69S. — ATorerK 
B.\r,i Zladeh, a Mohamniedm writer^ 
' who commented on the bouk: iischarat u al 
I nadhair. He died in tlie vear of the He= 
gira \0\3.—D' Hcrbilct, 

Baclioni (John Paul), a warlike Italian 
of the 16th century, was a native of Peru- 
gia, wh^rc he exercised a kind of sove- 
reignty, til! he was driven from it by Casar 
Borgia, Afterwards he served with repu- 
taiion in the armies of different Italian, particularly Venice. I.eo X. art- 
\ fully drew him trt Rome, and caused hixn to 
be beheaded in 1520. — Moreri. ' 
Baclivi (Georf^),an eminent phvsician, 
j was bom at Ragusa, and educated at Pa* 
I doa. He became professor of anatomy at 
I Rome, and died there in 17(X;, agtd 39. 
[ Hisjwprks were collected and primed in 
' 1 voL 4to. 1 riO^—Halhr Blbl. M<:d. Fruct. 
Bag.violi (Julius Cx«ar), an Italian poet, 
was a native of Ba^a Cal)ano, and died in 
1600. . He wrote the tragedy of Ara{;onois, 
«id a poem on the Judgment of Piiris. — 


Bacoas, an eunuch (as the word implies), 
was an Egyptian, and governed a long time 
under Artaxer^es Ochus, king of Persia, 
whom he poisoned to avenge the death of 
Apl», which wai worshipped by his coun- 
trymen, and slain by that prince. He aft 
terwards poisoned tnfe son of Ochus, and 
wa» himself put fo death by Darius Codo- 
mannus, B. C. S'G. — Diod. S'uilux. 

Bagot (Lewis), aa eminent bishop, was 
the son of lord Bagot, and educated at 
Westminster- school and Christ CImrch, 
Oxford, where he was elected student and 
completed hVs degrees. He also became a 
<ieanofCbris»tChurch,and in 1784 bishop of 
Briitol^ from whence he was translated to 
Norwich, and lastly to St. Asaph. He died 
m 1802. BJ&hop Bagot was the author of a 
Letter to Dr. Bell on the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, 8vo.; a volume of vScrmons 
on the Prophecies, preached at bishop War^ 
bcrton's lecture in Lincohi's-Inn-chapel, 
and some single discourses. — Gait. M.^<r. 

Bagshaw (^V'illiam), an English divine, 

, wa» borA in 1628, and educated m Corpus 

Christi callegc, Cambridge, after whicii he 

okained the living" of G-essop, in Derby- 

•Jjire, which he hehi till 166*2, when he was 

eyected for nonconformity. He then offi- 
ciated to a congregation of dissenters, and 
died in 170;^. He wrote some good books * 
on practical divinity. — L''frl>y Aibe. Catamy, 
BagshAw (Edward), a violent noncon- 
formist, was student of Christ church, Ox- 
ford, where he took the de;T-ee of M. A. 
He was for some time assistant to Dr.Busby,' 
in Westminster school, and was ordained by* 
Dr. Brownrigg, bishop of Exeter, lie was 
a man of abilities, but of quick passions, 
and was sent to Newgate for refusing to 
take the oath* of allegiance and supremacy. 
He died in prison in 1671. He wrote^ 

1. Dissertationes dux Antisociriianse, 4to. 

2. De Monarchia absoluta Dissertatio poliJ 
tica, ^CC. — Cafamy. 

Baha ai. haka uAldin, the title givcrf 
to Omar Nakhschbendi, and which signifies 
*» the oriiament of justice and religion." - 
He was a Mohammedan saint, to whom th^ ' 
mussulmans attribute many miracles. He 
died in the vear of the Hegira 857.— ^ 
D'HerL'ht. ' ^ ' 

^AHALi, an Arabian, who wrote a book 
on the etymolooics of names. He died in 
the year of the Hegira *J'Jf>. There was an- 
other of the same name, who wrote on the 
dill^renccs of the mussi/lman doctorsw— /J/t/, 
• Bahak al Hefdh, or Tht Sea of Me^ 
wory, isthe surrtame of Abu Othmton beil 
Amru, who wrote a book on the manners 
of princes. » He died in the year of die HV^ 
gira 155,i~-Ibi:f. 

Bahier (John), a French Latin poet, was 
a native of Chatillon, and priest of the Ora- 
tory. He died in 1707. His pieces arc in 
the collection of de Brienne. — Nmn\ Dicf. 

Bah RAM, surnamed GJubin^ a Persiail 
usurper, was an eminent commander in 
the army of Chosroes I. or Nushirvan, and 
his son Hormone, He deposed the latter 
prince, and ascended the throne, from 
which he was driven by Chosroes, the son 
of Hormouz. He then fled to the great 
khan, who, after employing him for some 
time, put him to death: — Univ. Hist. 

Bahrdt ^Charles Frederic), a German 
w^riter, wasnorn at Bischosswerda in 1741^ 
He studied at Leipsic, where he took the • 
degree of M. A. and became deputy fo his 
father, who was professor of divhiiiy. Bcin^ 
forced to quit Leipsic on account of an 
amour, he became professor of biblical an- 
tiquities at Erfurt, and published an Essay 
towards a System of the iSoctrincs con- 
tained jn the Bible, 1767, in which he ad- 
vanced several heterodox opinions. From 
Erfurt he removed to Gicssen, where ht , 
pubhshed a number of theological works, 
jilled with extravagances. He left Giessen 
in 1774, and went to Durkheim, where he 
became a preacher to the count Von Lei- 
ningen Dachsburg, who gavehira hialiouse 
for a scfminary of education, called the Phi- 
lanthropinum, which was opened in 1777. 
Bahrlt went to Holland and England to g«c 
pupils, and in the latter country obuiced 

6 ▲ I 

B A r 

fomr; but on his ret«rn lie found ^t at 
prosecutxoa ha4 been commenced Ag^nAt 
til m at Vienna, in consequence of which he 
was obliged to Ay to PruAsia. He after- 
wards settled at Hilie» where he became an 
avowed deist, and tarzied tavern-keeper and 
farmer. There also he instituted a new so- 
ciety of freemasons, for which he was ini- 
pr-isoRod. ^ On hid enlargement he returned 
(6 his business as a landlord, and having 
turned odP liis wife, kept a mi«tress. He 
4ied in Z792. He wrot« many pieces, most 
of which are extravagant and kcentious^ — 

^Af Ai<, dr Bazon (Andrew), an Indian 
conveiti was bom art Goa, and on becom- 
ing ehristian went to Rome, where he was 
ordained priest about 1630. He wrote se- 
veral ingenious pieces ; and translated the 
^neid into Greek verse, and the Lusiad of 
Camoens into Latinw — Moreri, 

Bajaket L sultan of the Turks, succeed- 
ed his father Amurath I. in 1389, «nd soon 
after put his younger brother to death. 
He pushed his conquests far into Asia %nd 
Europe, and in 1396 gained a great victory- 
over tl^ christian army under Sigismund, 
king of Hungary; but in 1402 he expe- 
rienced a tern,ble defeat from the famous 
*rimttr, or Tamerlane, on the plains of An- 
gora. Bajaset was taken prisoner. Dif- 
fereot accounts are given of his treaimeot 
by the I^ersian ai^ Turkish historians. 
The former asisert that he was entertained 
in a liberal manner ; while the others main- 
tain, that Timur shut him in an iron cage, 
{knd exposed liim to the gaping crowd He 
4ie<i in 1403. — Utu^* Hi^i, 

Bajazet II. sultan of the Turks, suc- 
ceed^ his father, Mohammed 41. in 1481. 
He was opposed by his brother Zizim, 
Whom he defeated. Zi^im escape«l to 
Khodes, frqm whence the graad master sent 
Ijum to Italy, where Baiazet caused him to 
be assassinated. He obtained several ad- 
vantages over the Venetian!} and other chris- 
tian powers. His son S^jlini rebdlcd against 
him, but fiajazet, insterui of punisiui^g him,' 
resigned to him his crown, which the un- 
grateful monster repaid by causing his fa- 
ther to be poisoned in 1512. — Ibid. 

Bai&k (John William), a German divine, 
was born at Nuremberg in 1C47. After 
«(;cciving several academical honours, he 
became the first reclor and professor of 
•divinity at Halle, in Saxony, wfiere he died 
.fei 1694. He wrote a Compendium of rheov 
^gy> *nd other works. — Moreri, 

Baier (John James), a German physi- 
cian, was born at Jena in 1C77. He was at 
first proft^or ot physiology and surger)'^ at 
Altdorf, and afterwards president of the 
xjollege of piiy»iciaDs, and director of the 
botai^ical garden. He fiied in 17S5. He 
wrote,' 1. Gemmarum aiFabre sculptarum 
7'hcsaurus. 2. Pe Hords celebrioribiw Ger- 
manic, et Horti medici Ac<idemi<^i Altdor- 
Sai Hist. .3. OratioBQ« vafii Argumenti. 

4. Xi^graphia Professorum Mtd. ia Acai^ 
Aitd. &c. &u:^-More9u 

Batp (Lazarus), abbot of Charoox and a£ 
Orenetiere, and ooonseilor to thi! parHaF* 
znent of Paris, was a native of La Fleche* 
and employed in various embassies. He 
wrote De Re Vesdaria, and Dc Re Navalt, 
printed at Basle in 1541. His son Jahn An* 
Uny was the author of several poems, and 
died in 1592. — Moreri, 

Bail (Louis), a learned French divine oC 
tiic 17th century, who wrote a Summary of 
Councils, printed at Paris in 8 volk folio, 
1672, and an Account of celebrated Preach- 
ers.*— iV««v. Diet, ffiit. 
^ Bailies (V/Hliam), physician to Frede- 
ric II. king of Prussia, aaid member of the 
colleges of Loiidou and Edinburgh. He' 
wrote an iTs&ay on tlie ^th Waters in 1757. 
^G«. B. D. 

Baillkt (Adrian), a Frenrh writer, wa» 
bona tu 1649 near Beauvais. bi 1676 he 
entered into orders, and obtained a small 
living, on wliich he sujiported his brother 
and himself. He died m 1706. His great 
work is his J^gomens des Savafis, sur lei 
principaux Ouvrages des Auteurs ; or Judgw 
ment of the Learned on the principal 
Work* of Authors, in 9 vols. He wrote a 
great number of books on theologicU and 
historical subjects^ particularly the Li£e of 
l^es Cartes, in 2 vols. 4to. 169J, and tii4 
Lives of Saints, 4 vols, folia — Hd^reri, 

Bailli (Roclic), better bao^-n by the 
name of La Riviere^ was first phj«i€ian te 
. Henry IV, and pretended to great sldU ia 
astrology. He was a great admirer of Pa«« 
racelsus, and wrote a summary of ^s doc<« 
txine. Ho died in I^OS. — ibid. 

Bail LI £ (Robert), a Scotcli divine* waf 
born in 1595 at Glasgow, where he took 
kis degree of JD4. A., received 4^i>scoj»al or- 
ders, and became regent of philoaopl;^ 
He afterwards obtained the living of iCii* 
winning; but in tite civil ^r he joixrcd 
the coveuanters, renounced epi^ropacy, 
and was se»t -to London to exfiibit charges 
against archbishop Laud. While tb^r^hf 
was c)u)sen one of the assembly of di«daet 
at Wosiminstcr, and returned to hU ow4) 
country in 164G^ H^ was one of the com- 
niisfsinncr?- sent by the general assembly of 
Scotland to Charles II. at the Hague. At 
the Restoration he was made prindipai cf 
hid college, aod might liavehad a bishopric 
if he would have conformed. He died ii^ 
1662. His letters, and journal of his traQ»> 
actions in England, were publUlvcd at £d 
burgh, in ^ vols. «vo. 1775, from wrhi< 
•it appears, that though a avan of Icami 
he ^'as an intolerant bigots— A'tfw. iJ 


Bail LOU (Williamde), an eminent Frcn 
pjiysician, w^is born in 15(J8, aud died 
IGIG. He wrote Conciliorum Medicir 
lium Libriduo, Paris, lf>S5, 4tO. AW I 
works were printed at Geneva in 17*% 
vols. 4tQy — NmihDiit.UuU 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 



BuitT a}mS)t a punter, wu bora at 
I^erdca, woere his fai)M:» wbo encoucm- 
«j his indinatioiH placed kiou under dc 
Gejn, «i ea^ver. He afterwards stu» 
died pabdnsrin Holland aud Italy» and at- 
tained consiaerablc eminence as a portrait 
paiotcr. - la 1613 he settled at JLeyden, 
wWe he died sbout fl^Sa He also distin- 
guished himself as a writer.— //«tf^ra/^«. 

Bjullt (JohnSylvaia)y a French astro- 
Domer, was born at Paris in l7Sti. He 
fuij shewed a stroi^ inclination to scien- 
tific pursuits, which was encouraged by his 
fiJeiuk When young he conununicated 
loflse Taluable papers to the royal academy, 
and in 1773 wrote a letter to demouiUion 
sor^ discoveries respecting the laXeliiies of 
ia^er. In 1768 hepublirited the elqge of 
Lesbnitz, for which he received a gjuld 
medjj from the academy of Berlin. I'his 
was followed by the fbgies of Charles V. 
La Caille, and CornciU^ which, with the 
fonaer, were collected together. la 177^ 
j^ppeared the first valua»e of his Hif£ory of 
Xstronomy, the third and iast voiooke of 
which wa» published in 1779. Besides these 
works he published several historical dis* 
ouisiyoifs and astroi^omical observations. 
JU was elected a niember of the French 
Kidtmf ia n&L How is it to be. lamented 
d^ the i>hreDzy of revolutionary politic* 
ihould seiF^e on such a miad as that of 
BsiiJy ! He catered eagerly ijuo the con- 
vuifticns of his native country, awl was 
preudeat of the iixst natiooM assembly. 
On the 14th of July, 1769, he was chosen 
mayor of Paris, but soon lost his popula- 
rity, owiag to the liberal scntimenu which ' 
he expresicd for the royal family, aud h^ 
caforcic^ obedience to the laws. In con- 
te^uence of this he resigned his oiEce im 
IT'Jlj and went into that philosophical re- 
liremeat from whence he ought Oot to have 
iMied. In the sanguinary period which 
foUowcd he was a|i^rehcadedj and after a 
summary process, oua4i?m«ed 4o be guillo- 
tined. He suffered with firmness, Movem-. 
her lli, 1793— JVttw. But HmL 

BAUbBRLDGE (John), a physiciaa and as- 
tronomer, was born at Ashby de la Zouch, 
aa Leicestershire, in 1.5d2; and bred at 
Emanuel college, Cambri^lge, where he 
pok hi!} de^;Tees in afts, and then prac- 
csed physic in hia native town, and taught 
schooL ''Heseuled afterwards in London, 
where ive gained so great a reputation for 
Ids maUicmatical knowledge, that sir Henry 
SaviUe appoint4ai him hi* arst astronomlcul 
professor at Oxford. He published, 1. An 
.Astromimicol DescrIj>tioa of the late Co- 
pet, l<ili>, 4to- 2. Procli Spharra, et Pto- 
iosuci de Hypothesibus Planctarum Liber 
»ngu\zTi%\ to which was added Ptolemy's 
Ciiaan Regnorum, \C'^^ 4to. He i eft also 
several mathematical MSS. — Diu^. JJr. 

B^rruosus, a jcv/, who witli hi«'feIiow 
disciple ^odoc, f oaodtd a >ect whicli denied 
a future state aud reAurrectian. At first 
'9^3. sect was criil^ pmh Baichos«i aod 

Saddncacs, Viit in proom. of time it wai- 

only distio^shed by the laiterw— X^f Aj^ 

Baius (Michael), a divine, was born at 
Melun ia I51& He heCuat professor of 
diuoity at Louyain, whkh appoiated hiat 
iu deputy at the ceuncil of Tceat. H» 
partiality to Augustiot. however, brought 
lipop hira the charge of siding too much 
with Calvin, and several of ms opioioaa 
were condemned by his college and th» 
pope. He died in 1S89. His works vnam 
printed at Cologne in 1696, iCOw^JTsMri. 

BAKaa (David), an English . benecficdn^ 
monks was educated at Oxford, and afcecv 
wards studied law ia the Tenpte. Os 
turning Roman catholic he wient to Ita^f, 
where he entered among the beaedictuie% 
and was sent a missionary to England ih tbb 
xcigo of Charles L Ho died in London im 
a<74i. He was of a mysticid turn, and pn]»- 
lifihed ia that way ao eaiioettion of Waiter 
Hylton^s book, eimtM> The Scale of Peiw 
fection.^l^ooa^ jt, 0. 
' BAKxa (sir Richard), an historical wes- 
ter, was bom at Sissinghurst in Kent, ant 
educated at Oxford, from whence he re- 
amoved to one of the inns of court, after 
wiuch he travelled abroad. In 1603 he waa 
knighted by James I. and in 16^ was high* 
sheritf of Oxfordshire. An vnfortunatfe 
niarriage reduced him to poverty, and he 
was thrown into the Fleet pxison,where he 
wrote seyecal books, the chief of which is 
a Chronicle of the Kings of England, which 
went through several editions ; tiie last ia « 
1730, folio. He died in 1«45-— iP/i;^. jBr. 

£.\Kea (Thomas), a matb^matician and 
diviae, was barn in Somersetshire in 162.5, 
and educa4;ed at Wadham college, Oxford^ 
after viiich he' obtained the living of Bi«> 
fthapV Nymmct in Devonshire. He pub- 
Lsked the Geometrical Key, or the Gate of 
Equations unlocked, 1 G84, 4ta The royal 
society sent him some questions, which he 
solved ih so satisfactory a manner that tttcy 
presented him with a medaL He died in 
l690^^fVood A. 0. 

Bakex (Thomas), a learned aoti^puary, 
was born at X^ancbester, in thd couaty nf 
Darham, in 1650', and was educated at St. 
John's college, Cambridge, where he took 
his degrees in arts, and was elected fellow. 
On entering into orders he had the living 
of Long Newtou, which he resigned ia 
1(>90, because he would not l:ike tne oaths 
to king William, aiid in 1717 lost his i«l- 
lowship, but still continued to ref>ide in the 
coUco:e ; and Prior, who was fellow of the 
same !>>ocictY, retained the place on purpose 
that he might give the prohts to Mr. Bakei'. 
He kept up a corccapondcjice with many 
learned mr^u, and gn atly assisted them in 
tlieir wt)rb^. He died at hi* chfi?tibcrs in 
174'), and wns buried in St. Jobn'^ chapel, 
to which collcj-c he brquciithed liis books 
and MSS. He wrote, 1. Rellcctions on 
LcHrtiiag, 1710, 8vo. 2. The Preface to 
Bij)ho|> Visher's Fancr^l Sermon for Mar- 
garet, Countess of Richmond and Derby« 

• Digitized b:\ C' 

B A L 

fe A t 

1705. He also compiled the History of St. 
John's college, which is in MS. 8vo. — Life 
tj Grey . . 

Baker (Henry), an eminent naturalist, 

was bom in London and brought up to th« 

business of a books^Uisr, which profession 

. be quitted, and undertook to teach deaf 

and dumb persons to speak, by which he 

nuired a handsome fortune. He married 
auphtcr of Daniel de Foe, by wl^om he 
had two sons. He was cho&en fellow of tlie 
antiquarian and royal societies, and ob- 
tained from the latter in 1740 the gold me- 
dal for his microscopici'l experiments on 
saline particles. He died in 1774, ag^ed 70. 
He published the Microscope made £asy, 
8vo. 1742, and Employment for the Mi- 
croscope, 8vo. 1764. He also wrote Origi- 
r:i( Pc^ems, serious and humorous, pub- 
lihed in 8vo. 1 7'J5. His poem entitled The 
Universe possesses considerable merit. Se- 
veral of his papers are in the Philosophical 
Transactions. He left 100/. to the royal 
«ocidiy for an amatomical or chemical lec- 
ture.-^^'Ct,'-. Br. 

Bak kr (David Erskitie), eldest son of tht 
precedlrig, was adopted by an uncle, who 
was a sUk-'hrov ster in Spital-ficlds, nnd h6 
•ucceeded liim in the buniness; but being 
fond of theatrical entertainments, he squarr- 
dered his property and joined some stroll* 
ing CompaAies. fie was the author of ** a 
Companion to the Pla}? house," 2 vols. 
J2mp. 17(>4, since considerably improved 
and enlarged under the title of Biographia 
Drainatica, 2 vols. 8vo. — Gfn. Biog. Dht. 
* BAKEWELLf (Robert), a celebrated gra- 
laer, was born in 17i*6', at his paternal es- 
tateof Disliley, in Leicestershire. He con- 
ducted the farm for several years before his 
father's death, and turned his attention to 
the improvement of the breed of cattle, 
for which purpose he travelled ov(tr Eng- 
land, and into Ireland and Holland. His 
rndeavours were so sticcessful tliat the- 
Di^hley shrcp were di<^t:'ip;lslicd above all 
others, duC, he let o;.e of his rams for the 
eum of ;^\\; jyiiijieas ! One in particuLir pro- 
duced in one i>^:z-v^n rOO r-i'inca.-;, indcpcn^ 
dent of cvvcs of Mr. Iv/ricweii-i own stock, 
which, at tl;c <:\.t?.? r.::f, wcuii h^.-.v made 
a total, the p/oducr '^i" ;i sin;:^!e nini, of 
1200 71: ir CIS 1 'rio rr.CJ of D'Miley shi-cp 
arc known \>y tlit- /Inenc-.'^ rf ih'J\^ hone and 
i[('-A\^ the i't^htrvj:.-: of the off if, the ^'l■'•■p■.•^i- 
lion to qniemess, aid conscquenftv to m;;- 
turo and fatten with less ff:od than other 
pj-.ecp of ei!]u:il v.'(.*ijL;hr. lie r.l-o /(reatly 
improved his cntflc, nnd frcqucfitlv 
let one of hifi h\\\U nt 50 r^uinens a ..c.iLon ! 
He died in /7' .". — A':i,v :' h^rcrd'.^y. 

B.M;A-A\r, the «;-.ii) of Boor, or pM-'-or, a 
snoih.-iiver ot" i*(t.V'or, a tx-wn oi:" \";v "juna- 
mia. Ho was s( .it for hy Balak, kini; of 
]\rIoau, to cwv^e the IsracUu-s; hut, mi;ved 
by A sur.ericT po-.ver, he pfonoiniced a 
blc-sino; iiisieat] of a curse. He WrU< ?tain 
with Balak in battle, about 14j0 i). C. — 

Balauio (Ferdinand), a learned Sicitiaii 
physician, was greatly esteemed by pope 
Leo X. He translated several pieces of 
Galen into Latin, which were published in 
an edition of that author at Venice, m 
\5M. — Moreri. 

Balassi (Mario)-^n historical and por- 
trait painter of Florerice, was born in 1604, 
and died in 1667. He copied the transfi'* 
guration by Raphael with such exactness as 
to astonish the best judges. — Pilhtngton, 

Balathi, the author of a book entitled 
Asch Kati al Kath, or of the Figures and 
Characters of diffbrent Alphabets. He also 
wrote an account of those who maintain 
the two principles, like the Manichees.— 

Balbi (John), a dominican of Genoa, 
who wrote a book entitled CathoHcon, scu 
Summa Grammaticalis, which was printed 
in folio at Mentz, in i 4C0. — Moreri, 

Balbi r*us (DedmuS Cailius), emperor of 
Rome, was born of an illustrious famny, 
and chosen eniperor by the senate in 237, 
in conjunction with Maximus. Both were 
murdered by the soldiers at Rome in 238. — 
■Vmi'u. Hist, 

Balboa (V^asco Nugncsde), a Castilian; 
was one of the first who visited tlie West- 
Indies, where he gained immense riches'. 
He settled on the coast of Darien, and built 
a town. In 1513 he crossed the isthmiis; 
ard returned next year with a prodigious 
quantity of w»ealth. He sent an accrount of 
his discovery to Spain, and the king ap» 
pointed Pedrarias Davila governor of Da- 
rien, who on his arrival was astonished to 
see Balboa in a cotton jacket, sandals made 
of hemp, and dwelling in a thatched htir. 
The governor, jealous of Balboaj caused 
him to be beheaded in 1.517, .tt the ag« oF 
42.— iVfonr/. Robertson s Hi t. Ah::r -j-. 

Balbuena (Bernard dc), a Spanish poet, 
was a native of Toledo, and became a doc- 
tor at Srihmanca. He was appointecl bishop 
of Porio Rico in America, where he died 
in 16'J7. — Morer':. 

Balcanoual (Walter), a learned Scotck 
divine, who attended James I. to England, 
and took his degree of \>X). at Oxford. He 
hvcame cl^^plam to the king, master of the 
»Sa\ oy, and representative of the church of 
Scotland at tiie synod <.f Dordt. in 16'J4 
ho was m.'ide dean cf Roch- -ter, and in 
1 b\^9 dean of.DuHuoTi. He sulTered s^cverely 
in the rebellion, bcinof forced to fly from 
place to place; and died at Chirk ca>-ile in 
I)enbip;hshire, in lfM.5. He wrote the De*- 
cl.iraiion ot Kinj^ C!>arlts I. concerning the 
iatetunuilis in Scotland, folio, 16.U); Epis- 
tlos coiccriiiiitr the .''?ynod of Durdt, in 
John 1 lales's Golden KeiTiains, and some 
fcCrmc>!JS.-r-^f/cv//i//Z»-.;. Own, 

Ealchkn (Jolm), an English admiral, 
was born in l<i(j9, and entered early into 
the nrivy, where pabs'ing through several 
inferior stations he afttained the command 
of a ship, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery in the Mediterranean under -^r 

B A L 

B A L 

George Brng. In 1734 he was made an ad- 
miral, ana in 1743 was appointed governor, 
of Greenwich hospital He soon after went 
wiLb a squadron to relieve sir Charles 
Hardy, who -with, a large fleet of trans» 
ports was blocked up in ijie Tagus. Hav- 
ing accomplished this service, admiral 
Balcher sailed for England, but a violent . 
storm coming on, his ship, the Victory, 
was lo^t on the Caskets near Jersey, and 
e^vy soul on bo^rd perished, October 3, 
1744. A monument was erected comme- 
morative of thii melancholy event in West- 
minster Abbey* — Campbell. 

Baldcric, a French historian of the 
12th century. He became bishop of Dol 
in Britanny, and was at the council of Cler- 
mont. He wrotp a history of the croisade 
lo the year 1099. — There "was another bi- 
shop of the same age, who wrote a chro- 
ni<He cf the bisbbps of ^rras and C:iJnbray. 

Baldi (Bernard), a learned Italian, was 
bom at Urbino in 1553. He studied at Pa- 
dua, and afterwards became mathemati- 
cian lo the duke of Guastalla. He died in 
I 1617. He translated into Italian several 
works of the ancient mathematicians, and 
wrote some good jKicms in that language. 
His lives of mathematicians were. printed 
in 1707- — Tiraboicbi. 

Baldi oe Ubaldis, an Italian lawyer of 
I the 14th century, was born at Perugia in 
1319. He died at Pavia in 1400. His works 
^e in S vols. ioWt.^Ibld, 

Baloi (James), a German Jesuit, was 
Jx>m in Upper Alsace in 1603. He was a 
famous preacher and poet, and died a( 
Neuburg in 1668. His works were printed 
at Cologne in 4to. jmd in 12mo. 1645.^— • 
Moreri, ^ 

Baldi (Lazaro); an historical painter, 
was a native of Tuscany, and the disciple 
of Pictro da Cortona. He was employed 
bv Alexander VII. to paint the gallery at 
l^(»te Oivallo. He died in 1703.— /'///. 

BALDiNi(John Anthony), a learned Ita»' 
lian nobleman, was born at Placentia in 
1654. He was employed as ambassador at 
various courts in Europe, and attended the 
congress at Utrecht. A catalogwe ©f liis 
collection of books and curiosities was 
printed in the Italian Literary Journal He 
died in 1 725-— G^/t. B\og, 

Baldinocci (Philip), an Italian artist 
and biographer, was born at Florence in 
1634. He wrote, l.The General History 
of Painters, 6 vols. *i. A Vocabulary of 
Designs. .S. An Account of t!ie Progress of 
Engraving on Copper. He died in 1696. 
^—Tirahcscbi. • . 

Baloock (Ralph de), bishop of London. 
He was educated at Merton college, Ox- 
ford, and in 1304 was raised to the epis- 
copal bench- In 1.307 king Edward 1. ap- 
pointed him lord high chancellor. He died 
m 1313. He wrote a History of British 
Affiurt, which Leiand had seen, though it 
iiDowloit. There wa« at the samct timt 

one Robert de BalJocky a divine who was ia 
great favour with Hdward II. 'whose mis- 
fortunes he bhared, and died in Newgate^— 
Bkg. Br. 

Baldwin I. emperor of the East,was the 
son of Baldwin, count of Flanders, and 
distinguished himself so greatly in the 4th 
croisade, that on the conquest of Constan- 
tinople by the I<.atins in 1 204, he was chosen 
emperor. But fhe Greeks, assisted by the' 
king of Bulgaria, defeated Baldwin, wh© 
being made prisoner, was never heard of 
afterwards. He was succeeded by his bro^ 
ther Henry. — Univ. Hht. 

Baldwin II. succeeded his brother Ro-^ 
bert in the empire of the East in 1228, be- 
ing only 11 years of age. In 1261 Con- 
stantinople v.'as taken by Airchael PaIaEoI»» 
gus J and Baldwin escaped by sea to Italy; 
where he died in 1 273. — Jbid. 

Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, was 
a native of Exeter. He accompanied Rich- 
ard I. to the Holy Land, and died there 
in 1191 ; he was a generous and learned 
prelate. His works were collected and 
published by Tissier in 1662. — Bale de Scr'ipU 
Brit. Biog. Brit. 

Baldwin I. king of Jerusalem, was the 
son of Eustace, count of Boulogne, and ac- • 
companied Godfrey his brother into Pa- 
lestine, where he gained the country of 
Edessa. He succeeded his brother on th^ 
throne of Jerusalem in 1 100, and the year 
following took Antipatris, Cesaroa, and 
Azotus. In 1104 he took Acre, after al 
long siege. He died after an active life in 
1118, and was interred on Mount Cal- 
vary. — Jifcrcri. ^ 

Baldwin 11. king of Jerusalem, the son 
of Hugh count of Rethel, was crowned iii 
1118, after Eustace brother of Baldwin I^ 
had renounced all claim to the vacant 
throne. He ^ined a great victory over 
the Saracens in 1120, but in 1124 he was 
taken prisoner by them, and ransomed od 
giving up the city of Tyre. He died in 
1131.— /V/orf/v. 

Baldwin III., was the sdn of Fulk of 
Anjou, wJiom he succeeded in 1143 under 
the guardianship of his -mother. He took 
Ascnlon and other places, and died ill 

lie:,.— Ibid. 

Baldwin IV. the son of Amnury, soc- 
ccecicd to the throne ot Jerusitleni on the 
death of his father in 1774, but being le- 
prous, Raymond, count of Tripoli, govern- 
ed the kingdom for him. He aftenvards 
resigned the crown to his nephew Baldwin 
V. and died in 1 1 85. The year following 
his successor died of poison, supposed to 
have been administerecl by his mother, that 
her husband Guyde Lusiijnan, might enjoy 
the throne. — Ibid. 

Baldwin (Francis), a learned civilian, 
was born at Arras in 1520. He recom- 
mended himself successivelv to the patron- 
age of the emperor Charles V. Anthony 
king of Navarre, and Henrv HI. king of 
Poland, the Utte)- of vy^hom invited him te 

B A L 

B A Ii 

bis eotirtt but while he waw prq>aring for 
the journey he dietl in 15V2. He wrote 
Lejres de Re rusti(;<i Novella ; Constitutio 
prima; dc hrtredibus et lep^e Flacidia, &c. 
Baldwin 18 accused of having-, alternate! y^ 
tkeconie a protectant and catholic four 
times . — Aforeri. 

Balk (Robert), an English divine, wai 
born in Norfolk, and entered among the 
carn\el:te« at Norwich, of- which society 
be became prior. He wrote, 1. Annaies 
f«rbrevei Ordinis Carmelilarum. 2. Hi&tci- 
X^ Helia Prophetic. 3. Officimn Slmoni* 
Anffli. He died in 1 50.-9.— Pitts. fVoU 

'Ba^e (Jolin), in Latin BaUujy an Eng-- 
Iith divinci "was bom in Suflbllc, and edu- 
cated in die monafiicry of Carmelites at 
Korwich, from whence he went to Jc^^s 
ci>lle^e, Cambridge. He embraced liic 
protestant religion, and becgiinc a zealous 
writer a^^ainst popery. On the death of 
bb patron, lord Cromwell, he went to 
fJoMand, but returned to England on the 
^cession of Kdward VI. and obtained a 
living in Hainp&hire, and in \552 thebi- 
^opric of Ossory in Ireland, where he 
laboured in reforming his diocc.^c witli such 
K€t\ that hJB iife was threatened by the 
. pricfitf. On tl>e accession of Mary, he re- 
tired to B<i$le in Switzerland, where he re- 
mained till £lizai>eth came to the throne, 
wIkh he returned to £ngland, and obtain- 
ed a prebend of Canterbury. He died in 
J 56ft, agedfii. He wrote several worka, 
ihe beat of which U entitled Scriptonim il- 
lustriiim M^joris Britannia: Ca'alogus, or 
An Account of the Lives of eminent Wri- 
tera of Britain, Basil, 1557. — Bigz- Brit. 

Balkcuou (Kicholas),a Frencli engraver, 
wa« bom at Aries in 1710, and died in 
J 765. He was expelled from the academy 
of painters for taking proof impressions 
of his print of Frederic Augustus, elector 
of S»iO0y and king of Poland, coi>trary to 
tbe ordei's of the dauphiaess. His 'en- 
l^ravings are be(d in liigh estimation.^— . 


Balen (Miithias), a Dutch antiquary, 
was bom at Ilordt in 1611. He wrtite tKe 
ilescriptioix of his native city, which was 
published in 1()77, and is a work of consi- 
derable merit. — Mtrrri. 

Balcn (Hendrick Van), Pn historical 
and portrait painter, was bcn-n at Ant- 
werp iu 15rK), aud died in \CuVl. 'I'he finest 
of his ]>e:formances are tlie drowning of 
Pharaoh, nnd the jud^nncnt of Paris. His 
foa Jvhn Van B;Jcn distinguishes! himself 
as a painter of hietory and laiukcapcs. — 

Bales (Ppttr),a celebrarcd pcDmin,w.i$ 
bom in 1547 : he excelled not (Uily in ele- 
jrant writln<^, bnt in miniature pcnmuu- 
»h«.p; arid w;!8 einpiyycd hy W'aisin^^lmm 
in imitating h'ind-\vrltin<rs. Mc publislicd 
in 1590 theV^'ritiag Maj>tcr.ui liirce pans; 
^z first leacKinn; swift vviiNa;^, the second 
tnie wri;iu;^, -the tliiixl f;;Ir writing. He 
Oiod autmi 1*jv.U — iiV.^. b*. 

Balcstaa (Antony), an eminent bi9(«- 
rical painter, was born at Verona in 1 WQ. 
In 1694 be gained the prize of merit given 
by the academy of St. Luke. He died m 
1720. — PiUington. 

Balky or BAitEY (Waller), an English 
physician, was born in Dorsetshire, an<| 
educated at Winchester School and New 
college, Oxford. He became royal pro- 
fc?5or c»f Physic in that university, and phy- 
sician to her majesty. He died in 1592, 
aged 63. He wrote, 1. A Discovirne of 
Pepper, 8vo. 2. A Brief Treati&r of the Pre- 
servation of the Eye Sight, 8vo. 3. Direc- 
tions for Healthy lio. — Birg. Br. 

Balguy (John), a Icirned divine, wat 
born in 17*^'j at Sheffield, in Yorkslurc. 
in 170J he was admitted of St. John's col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he took his degrees 
in arts. In the Bangorian controversy Mr. 
Balguy diwinguished himself so well that 
bishop Hoadley gave him a prebend in the 
church of Salisbury, and in 1729 he was 
presented to the vicaiage.of Northallerton, 
in Yorkshire. He died in 1748. Mr. Balguy 
wrote, besides liis tracts in the Bangorian 
dispute, 1. On the Beauty and Excellence of 
Moral Virtue, 8vo. 1726. 2.1116 lound- 
ation of Moral Goodness, or a farther Iiv- 
quiry into the Original of our Idea of Vir- 
tue, 17128. 3. Di vmc Rectitude, or a brief 
Inquiry concerning the Moral Perfections 
of the Deity, particularly in respect of Cre- 
ation and Providence, 1 7S0. 4. An Essay 
on Redemption, 1741. 5. Sermons on se^ 
veral Occasions, 2 vols, 8vo. This last i\ 
posthMmous. — Ii>iJ. 

Balgu y (Thomas), son of the abore, \va« 
born in 1716, and educated at St. Joha% 
college, Cambridge, where he proceeded to 
his degree of Doctor in Divinity. He bc-» 
came prebendary of Winchester, and arrfi*- 
deacon of that diocese, and refused in !?8I 
the bishopric of- Gloucester. Dr. Balguy 
died at Winchester in 1795. His works are, 
1. A Sermon on Church Government, 4io, 
% A irermon on tlie respective Duties of 
Ministers and People, 4to. 3. A Charge to 
the Arclidcaconry of JV^nchester^^to. 4. 
^Vccount of Dr. Powell, master of St. John** 
coIle;;c, prefixed to his sermons. 5. Divine 
Btiievok^nce asserted and vindicated, 8tt>. 
fJ. Preface to an E'^say on Redemption by 
his father, 8vo. A. coHecrion of his Ser- 
mons and Char;^c3 has been printed in oncj 
volume 8vo. — Enni?.;, 

Bali (Moula B.iii), a mohammedan wri- 
ter, who is the author of a treati«con rhc 
Jurisprudence of tlie Mussulmans. Ke died 
in tlie 977th year of the Hegira. — D'ffrrU^ 

BAMOLjOrBALLioL fs\r John de), founder 
of a college called Iry liis name at Oifbrd, 
was br.rn at Barnardcastle in Durham. Iq 
1U18 he was mr.cle (jovernor of Carlf^!ei 
and on the miirri:i^e-\»f^'^^^t, d;iugh* 
ter of Henry III. to Alexander III. kin^r o€ 
ScoiLind, ti.e guardiansliip of the n»yal 
pair, as wfill as of the idiigdi?m,T\Yas cwitt 

Digitized by V 

B A 1/ 

B A t 

Hitted to him and another lord ; but m 
about three years they were charged with 
abusiug their trust, and the king of Eng- 
land marched towards Scotland to punisn 
thenr. However, by advancing- a consider^ 
able sum of money Baliol made Ills^ 
In \2C:i he laid the foundation of Baliol- 
ci4' egc, which was completed by his widow. 
In the contest between Henry III. and the 
barons he sided with the king, for which 
the barons seized his lands. He died In 
1269, leaving three sons,— SIo£. Br. 

B.VLiOL (John de), king of Scotland, was 
Km of the above, and being at the iiead 
of the English interest in Scotland, on the 
dearh of queen Margaret in her passage 
froa Norway, he laid claim to the vacant 
throne bv virtue of his descent from David 
earl of Huntingdon, brother to William the 
Lion, king of Scotland. His principal com- 
pctiror for the crown was Robert ^ruce. 
Edward L being declared arbitrator, he 
declared in favour of BalioI, who did ho- 
mage to him for the kingdom, Nov. 12, 
1292. But he did not hold the sceptre 
long; for remonstrating aeainst ithe power 
assumed fay Etiward over Scotland, he was 
nuBmoneo to hi? tribunal as a vassal. Ba- 
liol, provoked at this, concluded a treaty 
with France, the consequence of which was 
a war with England. The battle of Dun- 
bar decided the fate of Baliol, who sur- 
rendered Ki« crown into the hands of Ed- 
ward ; who 'sent him and his son <o Eng- 
land, where they were committed to the 
Tower. At the intercession of the pope 
tbej -v^ere released and delivered to his 
legate in li299. Baliol then went to France, 
where he resided upon his own estate, and 
died there in 1814. His son Edward after- 
wards set up a claim to the kingdom of 
icoiUnd, invaded and recovered it, but 
held it not long, and dying afterwards 
without issue, the family became extiuct.r— 

Balkimi, a mohammedan author, who 
wrote, ] . Qu^tions on the Sciences ; a. On 
the Meditations of Anavi ; and several other 
iKWks.— 2)' Heritlet. 

Ball (John), a puritan divine, was born 
in Qjcfurdihire in 1585, He contrived to 
subsist on a curacy in Staffordshire of 20/. a 
year and a small school. Though he disup- 
ptovcd of the ceremonies and church go- 
vernment in some respects, yet he wrote 
strongly against those who separated from 
the church on that plea. He died in 1G4D. 

^Biog. Br. 

Ballanoen (Sir John), a Scotch divine 
of the 1 6th century, .who translated Hec- 
tor Boetbius's History. Being a firm papist 
he quined Scotland and retired to Rome, 
where he died in 1 550. He was the author 
•f several pieces in pzxjse and verse. — Ibid, 

Ballard (George), an English biogra- 
pher, was bom at Camden, in Gloucester- . 
^e, and bred a taylor ; he became so 
skilled in the Saxon langnage, that lord 
(^ed worth and >ome other gentlemen gave 

tim a pension of GO', a year to pursue ht^ 
studies at Oxford, where ne was made one 
of the eight clerks of Magdalen-coIJege, 
and afterwiixds one of the university Uea^ 
dies. He published Memoirs of laarne^ 
JBriush Ladies, 4ta and 8vo. Ho djed ta 
i75.j. — Gen, B'log. Diet, 

Ballerini (Peter and Jerome), tar» 
priests and brothei*s, were born at Verona, 
the first in 1G98, and the second in 1701& 
They published in conjunction^several edi- 
tions of ecclesiastical authors, besidee 
some learned and in^nious perfoimaoc^ 
of their own. — tsfoim. Did. Hist, 

Ballexoerd (N.), a citizen of Geneva« 
was born in 1726', and died in 1774. He 
wrote a book on the physical education of 
children, which obtained the prisse givea 
by a society ii\ Holland. He was al^ th« 
author of a dissertation, on this (|uestito« 
tVhat are the piincipd Causes of theDeathi 
of so many Cliildren ? 1^75. — IbiJ, 

Balli (Joseph), a scholastic divine, ^fa« 
born :it Palermo in Sicily, and died at Pa- 
dua in 1(>^ He was a canon of Bari^i^k 
the kingdom of Naples, and wrote, 1. J^ 
Fo^cunditate Dei. % JDe Morte Corpfor|u» 
Naturaliuni, — Moreri. 

Balliani (John Baptist), a native and 
senator of Genoa, was born in ].>86';.Ue 
wrote a treatise on th a natural Motion of 
heavy Bodies, 16'46, and died in 166*6.'— 

Ballin (Claude), a French artist, WM 
born in 1615: he was brought up to the 
business of a goldsmith under his father.' At 
tbe i^e of 1^ he made four silver basons, on 
which were represented the four ages of 
thd world ; which were purchased by car- 
dinal Richelieu, who employed him to 
make foiu* vases after tlie antique, to match 
them : he also executed several handsome 
pieces for Louis XIV^ On the death of 
Varin, he was made director of the mint 
for casts and medals. He died in 167S. — 

Nouv. Diet. Hist, 

^ Balsamon (Theodore)^ patriarch of An- i 
Uoch in the 12th century ; who wrote se- 
veral works on the canon bw, which were 
printed at Paris in 162v), fuliow — fabric. BiL 
Crjrc, Dupin. 

Ba lsham (Hugh de), bishop of Ely, and 
founder of Peter-house, Cambridge, flou- 
rished in the ISth centur)\ He died in 
128o\— i?;og-. Br. 

Balthazar ^Christopher), a learned 
French writer of the I7th century, wha 
renounced his profession as an advocate, 
and embraced the protestant reh'gon. In 
16\59 the national synod at Loudunsettled * 
upon him a pension for his services as the 
cliampion of the reformed. He combated 
Baroniuswith great ability. — B.zyh. Moreri, 

Balthazarini, an Italian musician, who 
W35 much admired at tlie court of Henry III. 
•f France. In I.'jai he composed a billet 
for the nuptials of the duke de Joyeuse 
• with niadenioi'^elle do Vaudemont, sister to 
the qucien, cuJled Ceres ^nd. her Nymphs, 



^kich is supposed to be the origin of the 
1^alU^ bcroiqiu ill France. — Nouv. Diet. Hist, 

• Baltds (John Francis), a French Jesuit, 
was bom at Metz in 1667 : he became li- 
brarian at Rheims, and died there in 1743. 
His prineipal work is an Answer to Fonte- 
neirs History of Oracles, StrasUurg, 8vo.— 

• BALOE(John), a cardinal, was born in 
France about 1420, of mean parents. He 
gained several preferments by Iiis servility 
and art, and particularly the see of Angers, 
after the deposition of his jwtron the bishop 
of that diocese. Paul II. g^ave him a car- 
^naVs hat. He enn;aged in correspondence 
with the dukes of Burgundy and Bern, to 
the disadvantage of Louis, which being dis- 
covered, he was imprisoned in an iron 
4age 1 1 years. On regaining his liberty he 
went to Rome, and w:i*5 sent to France as 
legate by Sixtus V. He died in 14JJ1. — 

• BaLuzit (Stephen), a French writer, was 
bom in I6S], and educated at Thoulousc, 
where be was patronized by the archbi- 
shop, on who-^e de:ith he became librarian 
tb-Colbert. -The king made him professor 
of the canon hiw in the royal college, and 
graht^ him a pension, both which places 
be lost by inserting srme obnoxious remarks 
in his Genealoglcril History of the House 
of Auvergne. He dfed in 171 H. Besides 
the above history he wrote the Lives of the 
Popes of AViguon, and the History of 
Tulles, his native place. — Nnuv. DLt. Hist, 

Bal-zac (John I.cwis Guez dc), a noble 
French writer, was born at An.n^ulcmc in 
1594. Cardiml Richelieu ii:r;intcd him a 
pension, and <\:\\e him the places of coun- 
sellor of state, and historiognipher royal. 
He gained •n' poi^ularity by his Letters, 
which were iir^t publ'shcd in 1 ii'l-\. His style 
is rather bom'j.isfU', but his .st•nt^ment?^ arc 
good. At the c!<!'^e of life, I\:!/,;ic, v.r|iO had 
ridulinxl innli the elrj>;:inces of acl:s='p:ited 
court, b/>c u]u* vny d::vout, h;id ^i^Mnments 
{ fitted v.r> for liir.i in a corrt^ent, and ^e>to\vcd 
considcr,'.l,!c sum-, on the poor.- lie died in 
16"54. Besides hit. Letters, he wrote, 1. Le 
Prince; y. l.e .Socrate CMiTcrien ; ti. L'Aris- 
tippe; 4. Lntre.iras; 5. Christ V^icton'eux. 
—2? .•;,/-. N.wj. Did. Hist. 

Bam'jdccio, an eminent p.iintcr, whose 
real lunewaj Peter Van Lrier; but he is 
better known by the nick-rame of B.'-m- 
bocc-t), o;i account of his cicli-nnilA'. He 
was btvr". at I^aerdcnnear K;irden, iii IGLJ. 
He li- ed ut Ronie .-.everal ye-irr.. and ln\- 
proved himself hy ?. a-pplicatio'.i to 
Lis profession. He painted inns, fj^rr cv-i 
. shops, c;utle. and eonver- uions,Avith prwit 
effect. H;"^ stvleis sweet, and his toucli de- 
licate, with r^reat transpir-ency of colour- 
ing. He died in 1 Gli^. — Pill-. 
. Eambrid'Se •f'Ch ri«top!*.cr), archbishop 
of York, to wi:ich see iic was translated 
from Durli.mi in ITOS. He wr.s a native of 
\Vestmore!;ind. and educitcd at Queen's 

college, Oxford. Hienry VIII. sent him a: 
bassador to pope Julius U. who gave him a 
cardinal's hat. He was poisoned by his 
servant, in revenge for some blows be had 
given him, in 1.514. — Biog. Br, 
' Bampfield (Francis), a nonconformist 
di-vine, was bom in Devonshire, and edu- 
cated at Wadham college, Otford, where 
he took the degree of M. A- in 1641 he 
obtained a prebend in Exeter catf;edral, 
and he was also minister of Sherborne iu 
Dorsetshire, but was deprived at the Resto- 
ration for nonconformity. He was impri- 
soned in Newgate, for holding conventicles, 
and died there in 16'84. He wrote a book 
in vindication of the observation of the 
seventh-day sabbath, &c. — Calamy. 

Bangui (Scraphin), a dominican of Flo- 
rence, to whom, in 159.'), Peter Barriere, a 
fanatic, revealed his intention of murder- 
ing the kii]g; which the priest prudently- 
communicated to a nobleman, whereby the 
horrid design was prevented. The king 
gave him as a reward the archbishopric of 
Angoulcme, which he afterwards rcsio^ned, 
and retired *o a monastery at Paris, Where 
he died. — Moreri, 

Banck (I.awrence), a Swedish larwyer, 
was professor at Norkoping, his native 
place. He wrote several books against the 

papal usurpations, and died in 1C62. 


feANCROFT(Richard),archbishop of Can- 
terbury, was born in Lancashire in 1544, 
and educated at Jcsus-coUege, Cambridge. 
He distinguished himself with so much 
learning against the puritans, that in 1597 
he -was made bishop of London. He bore 
a principnl part in the famous conference 
at Hrimpton-court, and on the death of 
archbishop Whitgift, in lf>01, he was tcans- 
lated to Canterbury, where he exerted him- 
self with great vigilance in behaif of the 
Anjrlicau church. He died in 1610. — Mio^. 
Brit. .- ^ 

Ban CROFT (John), a nephew of the above, 
was born in Oxfordshire, and entered of 
Christ-Church, Oxford, in l.-JSO. . In 1609 
he was elected master of University-college, 
where lie continued above twenty years ; 
and was at '^jcni p.iins and expence to re- 
cover the uncient lands belonging to that 
foundation. In K^'I.i he was ni.^de hfshop 
of Oxford, for which see he built the palace' 
of Cuddesden. He died in lG4a — JVocJ 

A. 0, Bic-ir. Brit, 

Bandar 11 A ((Jnnzale'-), a Portuguese fi- 
nfttic, who set up for a prophet in the lo'th 
century, and narrowly escaped being burnt 
as a lieretic l>y the? in(unsrtion in .1541^ 
He <l:od in l.yA — Nouv^ Did. Hit, 

B A N DR!-i,o (Mathew), a dominican monk, 
who wrote' novels in the maimer of Boc- 
c;ice. He was born at Ca'^tlcnovo, ia the 
Milanese, aboivt the end of the 1.5th ct:n- 
tury. On the invasion of that count!*y by 
the .Spanirds, Bandcllo wept to France, 
where he obtained the bishopric of Agea 
'in 15j'J, but he resij^ncd it ijp 1Jj5, aud 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



■sixed in 1561. The best edition of hit no- 
Tels is that of London, 1740, 4 vols. 4to. — 
'N&tnr. Diet. Hiit. 

Bandinelli (Bacio), was born at Flo- 
rence in 14S7. He distinguli^hed himself 
by his skill in sculpture and painting; but 
he excelled in che former line, and his 
group of the Laocoon i"> greatly admired. 
He died in 15J9. — D'Ar^rnville^s Via dis 

Ba xdu r I (Ansclm), a learned benedictine, 
was born at Riigusa in Dalmafia. He stu- 
died in France, where he applied chiefly to 
antiquities, and published, 1. The Anti- 
quities of Constantinople, 2 vols, folio ; 
^ Numismata lihperatorum Romanorum a 
Trajano Decio ad Paleologos Augustos^ 
17J8. He died at Paris in WVC.--Nouv, 
'But. Hist. 

BAN'GitTs (Peter), a Swedish divine, was 
bom at Helsingber^ in 1633. He was pro7 
feasor of theology ^t Abo 3*2 years, and in 
\^^2 was made bishop of Wybiirg. He 
died in ITiDC, and left an ecclesiastical His- 
tory of Sweden, a treatise on sacred Chro- 
n^ilugy, and Otlier works. — Mvreri. 

Bangius (Thomas), professor of divinity, 
nhilosophj, and Hebrew, at Copenhagen. 
He died in 166*1, aged 61. He wrote an 
exercitation on the origin of diversity of 
languages, a Hebrew lexicon, Scc.—BayU» 
Banier (Anthony), a French writer, was 
^ bom in 1673. He studied at Paris, and thei^ 
became tutor to the sons of M. de Metz. 
I He wrote an historical Explanation of the 
Fables of Antiquity, 2 vols. 12mo., which 
was afterwards published under the title 
of Mythology, or the Fables explained by 
History. He died in 1741. He had a hand 
in Picart's Religious Ceremonies, and other 
esteemed -works. An English translation of 
his Mythology was printed in 1741, in 4 
Tols. 8vo. — A«w. Diet. Hist. 

Banister (John), an English physician 
of the 16th century, was educated at Ox- 
ford, where he then graduated in phy.sic^ 
He settled at Nottin^iam, and obtalucd 
great practice, chiefly in surgery. His 
^rks on chirurgical subject? were formerly 
in considerable esteem. — There, was an- 
other physician named RiJiarJ Banister, 
Who wrote a treatise of diseases of the eyes, 
fie resided at Stamford, and was accounted 
a great ocidist. He died about 16'J4.— • 

I Bieg. Brit, " 

' Bank]cs (Sir John), an English judge, 
was born at Keswick in Cumberland, and 
educated at Queen 's-coUege, Oxford, from 
whence he removed to GrayVinn, and ia 
doe course was called to the bar. In 1630 
he was made attorney-general to the prince 
of Wales, and in 1640 chief justice of the 
common pleas. He displayed his loyalty 
and courage at the beginning of the rcbel- 
tioa ; and his lady defended CorfT castle, 
the family teat, against the parliament 
forces, till it was relieved by the earl of 
CaernaryoD. Sir John contiaued with tUe 

Jdcg at Oxford, and died there in 1.644.<-« 
;i?%. Brit. 

Hanks (John), an Engllsli writer, was 
born at Sunning ii^ Berkshire, in 1709, and 
bred a weaver at Reading. ; after which he 
came to London, and turned bookseller; 
but not meeting with success, he had re- 
course to his pen, and published several 
works, one of which, a Critical Review of 
the Life of Oliver Cromwell, was well re- 
ceived. He died in 175L — Gen. B. D. 
. Banks (John), an English play-writer 
of the 18th century, was bred a lawyer, but 
quitted the practice of the courts for the 
trapc muse. , He produced several pieces 
which were once popular, particularly the 
Earl of Essex. When he died is uncertain ; 
his remains were deposited in the church 
of §t. Jamies, Westnunster. — J9/o^. Dram. 

Banxier (John), a Swedish general, wa» 
born in 1601. He served under Gustavu* 
Adolphus, on whose death he became 
commander-in-chief, and obtained several 
victories, and took many important places. 
Afterwards his good fortune failed, and the 
imperialists siiccceJcd in driving liim into 
Bohemia. He died in i6"41. — Morcri. 

Banquo or Bancho, a Scotch general 
of ro^^al extraction, wJio obtained several 
victories over the higlilanders and the 
Danes, in the reign of Donald VII. He 
tarnished his glory by aiding Macbeth 
in the conspiracy against that monarch; 
J)ut was afterwards put to death by the 
usurper^ — Bucbanau. 

Baptist (John), surnamed Monnotre, 
a Hemish painter, was born at Lisle in 
16S5. He was at first ah historical painter, 
but afterwards applied to flower-painting. 
King William employed in decorating 
Keniington-palacc, jVIontagiie-house, and 
other edifices. He died in 1(;99. His son 
Anthony shone in the sanic line with his 
father. There was anotlier painter of tliis 
name, who came from Antwerp, and dis- 
tingiiisiied himself in portraits. He died 
in lfJ9L — Piliir,^-on. 

Baptistin (John Baptiste Struk), a mu- 
sician, wns born at 1 lorencc, and died 
about 1710.' He first brought the violon*- 
cello into fashion in France. He was be- 
sides a good composer. — Jburnty. 

Baracu, 4th judge of the Hebrews, after 
delivering them from bondage to Jal)in, 
kin^ of Canaan, and defeating Sisera. I-te 
ruled 33 years, and flourished about 1240 
B. Q.—SS. * 

Baradjeus also called Zanzalus Jaco- 
Bus^ a monk of the (ith century. He re- 
vived the sect of the monnphvMtes, who 
maintained that there is but one nature in 
Christ. ^ His party made him bishop of 
Edessa. He died ju /^SS, and from him the 
sect took tlie name oi .Jucobitrs.^^Mosbcim. 
. Baranzan'o (Rcdcmptus), a baniabite 
monk, born In L3iXJ, in Piedmont. He was 
professor of phila^^ophy and mathematic*; at: 
Annecti, and the correspondent of lord 

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B A it 

3Bacoa, wlio had a preat esteem, for Mm. 
He died in 162^2. His works are : Urano- 
Kopia, 8CU Univcrsa Doctrina dc Coclo, 
fol. ; Campas Phitosophicus, 8vo. ; De npvis 
Opmionibus physfris, 8vo. — BayU. 

Baratuier ' (Barthclcmy), sin Italian 
lawjer of the 15th century. He was born 
at Placcntia, and became a professor at 
Pavia and Ferrara. He published a New 
Digest of the Feudal Law at Paris, in 161 1. 

Baratirr (John Philip), an extraor- 
dinary yoii^h, born at Schwobach, near 
Nuremburg, in 1721. At five year« old he 
imderstood Greek, Latin, German, ajid 
French. He next studied Hebrew ; and at 
iaine years of a^e was able to translate any 
part of the scripture info Ladn. In 1731, 
lie was entered in the unrver»ity of Altdorf, 
«nd the same year wrote a letter to M. if 
^SsdtTty on a new edition of the Bihle, He- 
brew, Chaidxtc, and Rabbinical^ which it 
kiserted in the Bibliotheque Germanique. 
Tlie year following he published 4he lYa- 
▼cls of Benjamio of Tudela, translated from 
the Hebrew into French. In 1Y34 the 
margrave of Anspach gave him a pension 
of 5b /loHns a year, and the use of his 
tibrafy. The year follovring he submitted 
a plan, for finding the iong^itude, to the 
iroyal society, which, however, proved tQ 
be an old exploded scheme. He was the 
iame year admitted a member of the aca* 
, tiemy at Beriin, and created M.A. by the 
university of Halle. He died in 1740. Be* 
ndes the above, he wrote critical disser- 
tations upon points of ecclesiastial history^ 
and a treatise against the socinians, called 
Anti-ArtemoniuSd — Zifi by Dr. Jobnxo/i, 

BarBa (Alvarez Alonxo), curate of St. 
Bernard de Potosi in the 17th ccntr.ry. 
He wfote a curious book on mctaUurgy« 
printed at Madrid, in 16120, 4to.and abridg- 
ed, in French, 1 vol 12m6. 1730. — A'w/«. 
Drji. Hist. 

Barbadillo (Alphonsus Jcrojn de Salfs), 
a Spanish -dramatic \yriter, born at Ma- 
drid, died about l^SCi He wrote several 
eomedite, and the Adventures of Don Diego 
tfe Noche, ie24, Svov-nTii^ 

Bakbauino, a learned Portuguese, who 
published at Paris, in 1746, a piece in hU 
native language, on the present State of 
Literature m Portugal, which was severely 
attacked by a Portuguese Jesuit, and de- 
fended by Don Joseph de Maymo.^ — Gem, 


Barbaro (Francis), a learned Venetian, 
was born in 1S98. He was governor ojf 
several places: hut distinguished himself 
chiefly by his literary works, particularly 
translations of some of Plutnrch's Lives. 
He wrote I>e Re Uxoria; on the Choice of 
a Wife, and the Duti^ja of Women, printed 
at Paris in 1525. He died in 15.')4. His 
letters were printed in 174.J. — Bt7y!f. Mor. 

Barbaro (Ermolao) tiie elder, nephew 
of the preceding. He was learned in the 

Oreek langtiage, And translate^d some df 
-flSsop's Fables into Latin at the age of 12. 
He became succesdvely bishop of Trevisa 
and Verona, where he died m 1470/— • 

Bar BARO (ErmoIao);grand5on of Francis, 
born in 1454. He gave lectures on the 
Greek language gratuitously. The em- 
peror Frederic, to whom he went amb.'wS- 
sador, conferred on him the honour of 
knighthood, and pope Innocent V!1L made 
him patriarch of At|U?!eia, for which the 
Venetians expelled htm their repnhKc. He 
then went to Rome, where he died in 1493. 
He translated the Rhetoric of Aristotle, and 
other works ; and published critical daor 
dations of PUny. — Ttrahot:bi. 

Barbaro ^Daniel), nephew of the last- 
mentioned, rie was boni in 1519, and be- 
came joint patriarch of Aquileia. He died 
in 1570. lie wrote a Treafise of Elo- 

3uence, Venice, l.')5T, 4to.; Practice of 
'erspectlve, 1568, lolb ; and a translation 
of Viiruvius, in 1584. — Iblit 

Barbako&sa (Aruch), a ftfpmw pirate. 
Being called in to assist the prince of Al- 
ricrs, against the Spaniards, he murdered 
tnat moiwrcli, and took pos$c^aA of hit 
throne. He next defeajted the king of 
l\ims, and having taken the c^iphal, cau^ccj 
himself fo be proclaimed king; after which 
he marched to Tremecen, the inhabitanrt 
trf which put to death their own monarctv 
The h«r to the kingdom of Tremecen ap- 
jrfied to the i^xarquis of Gomare?, governor 
of Oran, who besieged Barbarossa in the 
citadel, and reduced him to the greatest 
distress. He escaped froni thence by a sub- 
terraneous paj^sage, but was overtalten with 
a small number of Turks, the i^^hole of 
whom died swprd in hand, in 1518. — l/tm, 

Barbarossa ' ^eyradin), sncceeded his 
brother in the icingdom oi Algiers,- and 
became commauder of the naval forces c^ 
$elim II. emperor of the TUf ks. Re made 
himself miaster of Tunis, but was driven . 
from it by Charles V. in l.'^JJf?. After this, 
he ravaged several parts of Italy* and re- 
duced Yemen in Arabia Felix "ta the Tur-» 
kish gtivemment. He died in 15^, aged 

Barbaroux (Charles), a native of Mar-' 
scilles, and member of the national assem-* 
bly. Me was an enemy, to Robespierre \ 
and Tallien, and repeatedly brought charges 
against them. He also proposed the trud 
of Louis XVI. and family. When the ' - 
fondists were overthrown he was . * 
rested, but made his escape. But he "W i 
afterwards taken and guillotined at Bpi '* 
deaux, in 179'*.-— />irf. iks Homma Mjr^ ^ 
U jPh: Ju \^me Sihh. 

Barbae ak (Stephen), a French writ ', 
born in 1696, and died in 1770. He $ 
known as the editor of old^French booi >, 
panicnlarlv of Tales and Fabies-of the V !i 
and 19th cemoriet, M(yy, 3 Toit. 1^ a 

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B A R 

' He also wroteTn$tructions from a Fathef to 
I a Son, 1 760, Sva^Nouv, Did. Hhu 

Barbatslli (Bernardino), an Italian 
painter, was the disciple of Ghirlandaio, at 
florencc He afterwards went to Rome, 
where be studied with so much aj^iduity, 
ta frequently to forj^et the refreshments of 
food and sleep. He excelled in painting 
history, fruit, anlmah,. and flowers. He 
died in 1612, aged 70.— P/Zi/iff/wf. 

Barseau db la Bruteri (John Lewis), 
a French writer, was the son of a wood- 
inon|er at Paris, and bom in 17ia He 
pubhshed an historic map of the world, 
which combines geography, chronology, 
«nd histoxy in one view. He edited, and 
for the most part compiled, the Chronolo- 
gical Tables of the Abb6 JLenglet ; the 
Modem Geography of La Croix ; and the 
two last volumes of the ^ibUotheque de 
France. He also translated into French, 
Strahlemberg's Description of Russia, &c. 
He died in lin^—Nonv. Diet. Hist. 

BAr.BSRiK^VFrancis]), an Italian poet, 
was borii ai Carberinp* m Tus-sany, in 12G4. 
He wrote a poem, cnt!tled, The Precepts of 
Lota, ^riatcd at Ronke in IGIO. He died 
« Florence in IS48.— TiV/z^jfi/. 

Babjberino (Francis), a Roman cardinal, 
nephew of pope Urban Vll!. and leeat^ in 
France and Spain. He was the father of 
the poor, aud patron of the. learned. He 
died in 1679. His brother Anthony was 
also a cardinal, but on the election of In- 
nocent X. who was the enemy of his family, 
he retired to France, where he was made 
vchbishop of Rheims, and died in 1671. — 

Barbku DiTBOumG (James), a physician, 
•as bom at Mayenne, in 1709. He pdb- 
liibed, 1. A Journal of Medicine, in 1761 ; 
SL A System of Botany, 2 yols. 1767; 3. 
Aphorisms of Medicine, 1770, 12mo. He 
died in 1779. — Nottv, Diet. Hist. 
^ Barbzyrac (Charles), an eminent phy- 
sician, was born at Cereste, in Proveacei 
' tnd studied at Montpelier, where he settled. 
Locke, who was intimate with him, com- 
pared him to Sydenham. He died in 1699, 
aged 70. He wrote only two works, Tjrait^ 
DOtzveau de Medicine, &c. 1654, V2mo. ; and 
Qucstiones Medics Duodecim, 4to. 1658^— 

Barbstb-ac (John), nephew of the aboye, 
t w.'s bom in 1674, at Bcziers. He was pro- 
faicr of law and history, first at Lausanne, 
lad afterwards at (Jruningen. He trans- 
lated iato French Puflcndorf *8 Law of Na- 
ture and NatioHii, his treatise on the Du- 
ti^ of \tan, and Crotius*^ book of the 
Rights of War and Peace, witli learned 
Bote* of bis own. He also wrote a trea- 
tise on the Morality of the Fathers, 4to. 
lTtJ8; another on Gaming, 2 yols. 8vo. 
1709, &c He died, about 1 747.— .-iv;«/r. 
Did. Hist. , 

BARBiEa D*AucouR (John), a counsellor 
» the parUamefit of Paris, born at Langrc* 
tt 1641, aad educated at Dijon, lU wav 

tutor to the son of the famous Cor^err, and 
in 16-<3 became member of the French/ 
academy. On the death of his patron lie 
returned to the bar, and died at Paris in 
1634. He wrote Sentimens de.Clt.Mnthe 
sur les Entretiens d'Ariste et d'Eugeno, j ar 
le Pdre Bouho\irs, Jesuite, I'in.o. 2 vols. 
1671. He wrote besides several othor 
pieces against the Jesuits. — Nouv. Did. Hist. 

Barbieri (John Francis), an eminent ius- 
torical painter, born in 1590. He studied 
under Caracci, but followed the manner of 
Caravaggio. His taste was natural, but 
not always elegant. Among artists, he 
^es under the name of Guercino. He died 
m 1666, aged 76. His brotlier Paulo An- 
tonio excelled in painting still life and ani« 
mals. He died in 1 640. — D*Ar^envillc. 

Bar BOS A (Arias), a learned Portuguese, 
who was Greek professor at Salamanca 20 
years. I'he king of Portugal appoin ted him 
preceptor to his sons, Alphonsus and 
Henry. He wrote soirie Latin j)oein5, and a 
treatise on prosody. He died m 1510.— . 

Barbosa (Peter), born at Viana in Por- 
tugal. He was first professor of law at 
Coimbra, and afterwards chancellor of the 
kingdom. He died about 159'). His works 
on the Digests were published in 3 vols, foi 

Barbosa (Au^stin), son of the above^ 
Philip iV. of Spam guve him the bishopric 
of Ugento, in the territory of Otranto, in 
1643^ but he died in a few months after. He 
wrote De OiScio Epi&copi, aud other learn- 
ed works.— ////</. 

Barbour (John), a Scotch divine, wag 
born about l'>-^>, and educated in the abbey 
of Abcrbrothiek. King David Bruce made 
him his chapliiin, and sent liim on several 
embassies. He verse the Life ?.nd 
Actions of King Robert Bruce, printed at 
Glasgow in 1671. He died in 137t*. — Cm. 
Bivv. Did. 

Sarbud, a Persian musician in the ser- 
vice of Kosru Parviz. His name was 
adopted to express the master of music in 
all succeeding times. The Persians also ga\ e 
the name of Barbud to a sort of lyre. 
D" Herb dot. 

Barciiusfn, or Barkiiausen (John Con- 
rad), an eminent physiciau and cliemist, 
was borne at Heme, in Germany, in lG<;o*. 
After visitiiig several countries, he settled 
at Utrecht, where he read lectures in clic- 
raistry till his death in 1717. He wroie 
Elcnienta CheniiciC ; liistoria Meclicinx, 
and other esteemed works. — M<.rni. 

Barclay (Alexander), a -.vriter of the 
Ifijth century, waa accurdlng to forne, a 
n.itive of Scotland, but others muint?.iTi tliat 
he was an Knjrhshman, whioii htst is most 
prob:ible, siac^i he received his education at 
Oriel coUt'^e, Oifur;L He al'icrw; rJj tra- 
vel led throve Jji^ most parts of Europe, rui J 
oil his rst j.-Q becatjw a monk ra Li y ; but 
on the dlsotuuioji of his :uon:iTL;.';y he ob- 
tained a hviLff in ie^ex. \\^{^^^h^A\x• 
X • Digitized by VjVJOVrc 



iarcTay vhi» one of the ffm rsfinert of cmr 
KngTiage by hi» productions, which are 
chiefly trantlatioAs from foreign "writers. 
He rendered into En^ish* that curioat 
book entitled Navis Stvltiftnh or Ship of 
V6o\$,^Bi0g. Brft, 

SarclAy (WiUlam), a. learned Scotch 
^vriter, was bom st Ab«»deen, but edu- 
cated in France, where he took hit doctor's 
degree in law, and became profeuor in that 
feculty, first at Pontamousson and after- 
trards at An?ert, where he died in 1605. 
He publishecf some bookaon the rights of 
kings and popea^ — BayU, Mtreri. 

Barclay (John), son of the above, was 
b6m at Pontamoiusonin 1582, and received 
his education among the Jesuits, who want- 
ed to engage him among them, but in thit 
they were frustrated by his father, which 
occasioned their resentment against him. 
On the death of his father he went to Lon- 
doB, where he lived ten years, and then 
returned 'to Paris. He died at Rome in 
1 62 1 . He wrote several ingenious works : 
the chief of which are, Euphormio, a sa- 
tire in Latin, and a romance, entitled Ar- 
fenis. This last has been tranUatcd into 
•everal languages. — lUd, 

Barclay ^Robert), a quaker, was born 
at Edinburgh in 1648, and sent by his 
father, colonel Barclay, to Paris', under the 
care of his uncle, who was principal of the 
Scots' collegei He was drawn over to the 
Romish religion, on which his father sent 
for him home, and having himself embraced 
the opinions of the quakers, persuaded his 
•on to do the same. In 1670 he published a 
defence of his new religion, at Aberdeen; 
jmd in 1675 he printed a catechetical dis- 
course, or system of faith, according to the 
#pinions of his sect^ But his ^eatest work 
is, An Apology for the true Christian Divi- 
nity, as tne same is held forth and preached 
by the people called, in scorn, Quakers, 
printed in Latin, at Amsterdam, in 1676, 
and translated into Engliah, in 1678. He 
not only benefited his party by his writings, 
biit travelled through various countries, 
particularly Germany and Holland, to ob- 
tain converts. He spent the latter part of 
his Life on his paternal estate, and died in 
1690. — Bhg, Brit, 

BARCocHEnAs, or Barcocrai, " the son 
of a star," a famous impostor among the 
jews, who pretended to be the ttar pre- 
dicted by Balaam. He gained many fol- 
lowers, who overran Judea, and puj^ a 
number of Romans to the sword. He was 
' at last defeated and slain by Julius S'everus, 
who committed a dreadful massacre on the 
Jewish nation, by way of revenge, A. t)* 
134- — MorerL 

Bar DAS, a nobleman of Constantinople, 
was uncle and guardian to the . emperor 
Michael lU. He endeavoured to assnme 
the supreme powQjr, but after committing 
several arbitrary acts, was put to death by 
Bflsilius the Macedoaian, in 66C\ — Un. Hhf, 

fi Alt 

lAtOAS called Sinlfnt, fcnerri of tilt 
army under the emperor John Zimtseesiy 
after whose death he ' prevailed with his 
troops to invest him with the purple. Bar* 
das Phocas vanquished him ih Persia, oa 
which he /led to the caliph ef Bagdat, who. 
made him prisoner in 979. After a year'a 
confinement, he obtained bis liberty, and 
joined Phocas, who assumed the imperial 
dignity. On his d«ath, Rardas aobinilted 
to the emperor Basil, who took him into 
favour. — I6iJ. 

Bardesanes, a heretic in the 2d ceiK 
fiury, was a native of Edena, in Metopoo*- 
mta, and the disciple of Valent]nifts,part of 
whose opinions he adopted, with new er- 
rors of his own. He held the existence of 
KOns, and denied the resurrection. . He m 
not to be confounded with another of tha 
same name who lived in the 3d cantttryv 
and wrpte a curious book on the QjmBm^ 
sophists.— ilfb/Z'riw. MorerL 

Bardin (Peter), a French writer.. H» 
was bom at Rouen, and became a membea 
of the French academy. He ^im drowsed 
in the humane act of cndeavoaring to save 
another, in ICS7. He wrote, 2. Le graivL 
Chambellan de France, 16^,iolio; 2, Pen*^ 
sges Morales sur TEcidosiate, l^Sd^rSYo.; 
3. Le Lyc^e, ou de Thonnetc Homme, % 

vols. 8vo.— ^for/rr. 

~ Baronet (Richard), an English monk oC 
the benedictinc order, was bom at Bard- 
ney, in Lincolnshire. He wrote the life 
of Robert Grost^t, or Orosthead, bishop of 
Lincoln, in Latin verse^ and died in 15CM» 

Barebone (Praise God), a rebel andfa* 
oatic, was a leatherscller, and became in 
1654 one of the most active members of 
Cromwell's parliament, which took its de» 
nomination froa iris name. When Monk 
came to London to restore the king, this 
man appeared at the head of «iich a rabble 
as alarmed even that intrepid generaL A 
petition was presented to the parliasaeat 
by their leader for the exclusion of tlw 
long and royal family. Monk, in oonse- 
qucnce, wrote a letter of complaint to tbo 
houvs for encouraging the furious xealot 
and his adherents. Mr. Granger ae^ys, 
there were three brothers of this faaiiy, 
each of whom had a sentence to his nxnae, 
vis. Praise God, Barebone ; Christ came 
into the world to save, Barebone ;*and» If 
Christ had not died thou hadst been 
damned, Barebone: some are said fo have 
omitted the former part of the sentence* 
and to liavo called lum only *< Daxnaed 
Barebone." — Gr4*g^r*s BUg, HisL 

Bare NT (Dieterick), a Dutch painter oC 
history and portrait, bom at Axnsfcniam 
in 1 534. . H« studied in the school of Titian, 
with whom he continued several years, and 
then returned to his own country^ ^vlnsr% 
he died in \5^'2.-^De PiUs. ' 

Bar ETTr (Joseph), an ingenious •wrtcer. 
was ths sou :of aa architect at Tm^ <M 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ' 



A* ext{f ^rt of his life little n known, 
W1I7 that be was a ffrcsLt traTeller. In 
17.U1 }ie came to En^and, and toon «c- 
^tii^ 2 knowled^ of the language, which 
he wrote witli facility and correctness. 
About 1758 he became acquainted with 
Df. Jolmsoii, br whose means he was in- 
tfdduced into Mr. Thrale's family as teacher 
of the Italian language. In 1760 he reinm- 
tA to Italy, and began a periodical wofk 
entitled Flusta Literaria, which was pub- 
lished at Venice, but on account of the 
freedom of its sentiments, he found it ez- 
pedieRt to quit that country, and he once 
■tore Tisked England. In 1769 he was 
txied at the Old Bailey for killing a m?.n 
who asaolted him in the Haymarket, and 
was acquitted. Next year he published his 
Twvels through Fraace, Spam, Portugal, 
and kahr, 4 jnAs, 8vo. On the establish- 
neos of die royal academy, he was ap- 
feinted forei^" secretary, and in lord 
North's adminutration he obtained a pen- 
■on. He died in 1789, aged about 73. He 
Was an ingenious, pleasant, and charitable 
man- He wrote, A Dissertation on Ita- 
lian Poetry; An Introduction to the 
kaliaa Language;. The Italian Library, 
8to.; a Dictionary, English and Italian, 3 
fuls. 4to; A Grammar of the Italian Lan^ 
fuage, 8vo.; An Account of the Manners 
aid Customs of Italy, 2 vols. 8vo.; An In- 
iraductioa to the most Use&il European 
^^''^fS'^g^ 6to.; a Dictionary, English 
Bad Spanish, 4to.; Tolondron Speeches to 
him Bowie, about his edition of Don 
Quixote, 8vo. &c. — Eitre/. Mag, 

BAao&ATS (Isaac), an English dirine. He 
was educated at Clare-hall, Cambridge, 
and became chaplain to James I. and dean 
«f Canterbury, in 1625. At the commence- 
aent of the civil war, he was thrown into 
the fleet by colonel Sandvs, whom he had 
nved from' the gallows, lie lay there three 
weeks, and died soon after, in 1642, aged 56* 
^^TM's Lives of tie Dtam of Canter httiy. 

Bakkham (John), an English ant^iuary, 
was bom at Exeter about 1572, afid edu- 
cated at Oxford. He was made dean of 
Bockingin Essex, where he died in J 642. 
He gave medals and coins to archMehop 
Laud, who added them to the collection 
which he had given to the university of 
Oxford* Dr. Barkham is said to have oeen 
the sole author of the Display of Heraldry, 
which goes under the name of GuiUim. — 
Pr'tnetf Worthier »f Devon* Biov. Br', 

BAmKSDALx(Clement), an English divine, 
was bom zt Winchcombe, in Gloucester*. 
diire, in 1609, and educated first at Abing- 
don-school, and next at Oxford. He be- 
came master of the grammar-school at He- 
rtford ; but when mat city was taken by 
the rebels, he went and kept a school at 
HawtiDg in Gloucestershire. At the resto- 
tation, he v/as presented to the living of 
Nnnton, where he died in 1687. He pub- 
hihed, 1. MouumentaLiut-aria: siveObitus 

et Hogia Doctonnn vironim, ex Historift 
), A. Thuani, 4tb.; 2. Nympha Libethtiib 
or the Corswi^d Muse, 1651, 8vo.; S. Life 
of Hugo Grotius,. 1652, 12mo.; 4. Memo- 
rials of worthy Persons, 1661, 12mo., be-i 
sides several sermons and tracts.r— fTotfi 

Bar LA AM, a learned divine of the 14th 
century, was a native of Calabria ; on v'i^ 
sitin:^ Constantinople, fo study the Greek 
languajre, the erapetor Andronicus the 
younger gave him the abbey of St. Sa- 
viotir, and employed him to negociate A 
union between the two chnrches, and to 
solicit succours from the christian princes' 
against the infidels. Barlaam, on nis re- 
turn, wrote against the Latins; but on be* 
ing made bishop of Gieracij in Italy, he 
changed his principles, and employed hit 
pen against the Greeks. He died in 1348. 
His letters were p'rintedin 1604. — Morerh 
Barljkus (Gaspard), a modern Latia 
poet, was bom at Antwerp in 158'4. He 
Became professor of logic at Leyden, of 
which place he was deprived for oeing an 
arminian. He then taught philosophy at 
Amsterdam, whore he died in 1648. His 
orations and letters have been printed, 
but his Latin poems are most esteemedw-* 

BARLiEus (Lambert), professor of Grec^ 
at Leyden. He translated, in conjimction 
with Rivius, the confesfticn of the reformed 
churches into Greek, and published the ^ 
Timon of Lucian, with notes, also Anno- 
tations on Hesiod's Theogony. He died in 
1655 . — Mc rcri. 

Bar LAND (A*!nan), a learned DutcJi 
critic, was professor of eloquence at Lou- 
vain, where he died in 1543. He published 
Notes on Terence, Virgil, Pliny the younger, 
and Menander; aKw Abridgement of Uni- 
ven<al History; The Chronicle of the 
Dukes of Brabant; De l.iteratis urbis 
Komi'j Principibus &c. — Lhreri. 

Baklkpta (G:ibriel\ a whimsical cha- 
racter in the 15th century, was a native of 
-Barletta in ilie kingdom' of Naples. He 
was U^rn about IKX), and was :i dominican. 
His sermons exhibit such a mixture of re- 
lijriourt Hiid comic exprrs.'>ion8, sublune and 
vulo;.'.r iclcp.'^, the serious and tne ridiculous, 
andjWli.Vi is more remarkable, the whole 
written In such a barbnrwus lanrnacrc, com- 
pounded oi Greek, LJt;iu, and Italian, as 
tohne rendered them one of the most 
extruordltKiry productions in literature- 
S\ich, however, was his fame among -his 
contera'^)orarie^, as to have occasioned this 
proverb: n'icit prcd'care qui nesdt Barleftare, 
His sermous have pasied throi\p^h more 
thau 'JO editions: the bc3t is that ol Venice, 
in 1577, '-i vols. 8vo.—7'/r(j^f;r^/. 

Barlow (TliomaOj an Esig^lish bishop, 
was born in 1607, ai Ortonin Westmoreland, 
and educated at (Queen's colLf^e, GxVord, 
of wiiich society he »^ucccs3i\ ely became 
fellow and provost. He was also chosoa 
keeper of the Bodl^aa library, and Mar- 

. J 2 Digitized by Google 

B A K 


fttet professor of diyinity. In 1675 he waa 
made bishop of Lincoln, and distingtiished 
himself as a zealous writer ajrain&t popery ; 
but on the accession oi J rimes \i. he paid 
bis court to him, and vindicated the royal 
power to dispense with the penal laws. 
Yet at the revolution he took the oaths, 
and was forward in deprivinj^ the oonjur- 
Ing clei^ in his diocese. Besides his tracts 
against popery, he wrote Cases of Consci- 
ence, and some other books. He died at 
. Buckden, in 1691, aped 35.— -fl/y. Br. 

Barlow (Francis), an English painter, 
was born in Lincolnshire, and studied under 
Shepherd, a portrait painter. He died in 
170ti. Barlow excelled in painting birds, 
beasts, and fish, which he inuuted very ex- 
actly.— i*i/i/«f <ow. 

Baklowe (William), an En^rlish prelate, 
was prior of a monastery at the dissolution 
of the reUeious orders in the reign of Hen- 
ry VIII., after which he was made bishop of 
St. Asaph, from whence he was translated 
to St- David's. In 1547 he was made bishop 
of Bith ind Wells, but was deprived by 
queen Mary for being married, on wluch he 
went to Germany. At the accession of 
Clizabeth to the throne, he returned, and 
was made bishop of Chichester. He died in 
165S. He wrote several books. — WcoJ.H.Br. 

Barlowe (William), e.on of the above, 
was born in Pembrokeshire, and educaicd 
at Baliol college, Oxford; after wJiioli, he 
travelled abroad, and became wtll skiiled 
In navigation. On enterine into orders, he 
was made prebend;iry of Wiuclicsler, r.n4 
at last archdeacon of Sarum. He was the 
first writer on the properties of the load- 
stone. He likewise discovered the diil'er- 
- ence between iron and steel, and their tem- 
pers for magneiical usc% To him also are 
we indebted for the way of point in;^ ma<T- 
petic needles, and of piccin<j;; and cement- 
ing loadstones. He died in ie>.-'.7. — IbiJ, 

Barnabas (St.), of the Iriba of Levi, 
born in the isle of Cyprus. On rmbracinjr 
the gospel, be sold his estate, and gave the 
produce to the apostles. He w.ij. sent to 
Antioch to confirm the new disciple;; and 
was the companion of St. Paul. He wa's 
atoned to death by tlic Jews in Cyprus. 
There is an epistle cx'tuiit under }:is name, 
which was printed at Amste.dnm, with 
note.i, in 1721, by Lc Cltrc. — Cavc'j Zi^s 
ejth^ Apostles. 

Barnard (Theodore), a Dutch painter, 
was bom at Am«Jterdam, and afterwards 
settled in I'n^^land, where it is said he 
painted the li;;urci of the kings and bishops 
for Chivhester cathedral. — H.ubf.yhtt, 

Bahnard, or Bernard (J<»hn), an Enjf- 
ligh divine, v/as born in Lincolnshire ?'id 
4[rducated partly at Cambridge, and narHy 
at Oxrord, where he hec..:ne ft^low of Liu'- 
coin colleger. A\ flie ir^'u ration he w;is 
made pre')vndary of i/ln^oii', and, in IWi^, 
tocV his dc^Ti'e of D.D. ) <f» dl/'ti in KTSj. 
•lit' v.-roic the Life of D*-. l^cylvn, a;id 
Vn^c oi!»cr picrci.— i//.^^ liiiu 

Baknard (sir John), an eminent patrioc; 
was bom at Reading ui Berkshire, m 1685, 
of parenu who were qnakers. ll\% father 
was a wine merchant, to whose business he 
succeeded. In his 19th year he quitted the 
quakers, and became a member of the es« 
tablished church. He was first brought into 
notice by being appointed by the body of 
wine-merchants to state befqre the house of 
lords tlieir objections to a bill tlien pending 
in that house, affecting their trade. In con* 
sequence of the abilities he displayed on 
this occasion he was nominated in 171^1 
candidate for the city of London, and tbe 
year following was elected. He contiaued 
to represent the city in parUamcnt near 
forty years, and he discharged that trust 
with such fidelity as to gain the veneration 
of his fellow-citiKens, vrho erected his sta:- 
tuein the exchange. In 17^2 he received 
. the honour of knighthood from George IL 
whom he attended with an address. la 
1737 he served the office of lord mayor, in 
which situation he considerably reformed 
the police. He died at Clapham in 1764. 
leavmg one son and two daughters. . Sir 
John Barnard was a worthy magistrate, an 
upright senator, a good speaker, and a reli- 
gious man. — Uid, 

Bark AVE (Anthony), one of the actan 
and victims of the French revolution. He 
was a member of the national assembly^ 
where he distjuiguished himself by his vehe- 
mcnce. When the king was stopped at Va- 
rennes he was nominated to conduct his 
majesty and family to Paris, in which mis* 
sion he behaved with great respect to his 
illustrious captives. He was guillodned at 
Paris as a royalist in 1794, aged 32.— i>rc& 
dit Hommes Marqnafu dt la Fin du 18«w SitcU^ 

Barnes (Juliana), born at Roding in 
Essex, at the beginning of the 15th century. 
Her singular accomplishments procured ber 
the place of prioress of SopeweU nunnery, 
a ])lace belonging to St. Alban*9. She ipra« 
living in I486'. She wrote on heraldry, 
hunting, and hawking, which treatises 
were printed at the monastery of St. Alban**. 
— i?/«ir. J]riU 

Baunrs (Robert), an English divine and 
DvD. Ho was chaplain to Henry VI 11. who 
sent him to Germany to confer with the 
divincB of that country on the legality of • 
his divorce. Here he became a luthenui, 
and on his return propagated his new opi* 
niuns with such zeal that he was taken up, 
and in 1540 burnt in Smithfield. He wrot« 
a treatise on Justification, and som« other 
books — /'OX*/ Martyrolojrt, 

Ba k n 1 8 (Joshua), a learned divine. He 
was burn in JLondon in IGrA^ and educated 
at Christ *s hospital, from whence he re^ 
moved to Emanuel collcj^e, Cambridge, of 
which he was elected fe'low in lt>75, "llie 
year following he published a poem on, the 
History of Esther, and in U;88 the Life of 
J dward III. In l<iy4 he primed his edition 
of Euripides. In 1700 he married a widovr 
1 tdy 4)f fortune, la ITQ^ he published hi^ 

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IbncrfOB, and the next year his Homer. 
Dr. Bestiey used t* cay that he uaderstood 
u much Creek as a Greek cobler ; yet his 
edition of Anacreon is deservedly in high 
ctteem. He died in 1 7 1 *2.—Bs i^. Brit, 

Barivevildt (John d'Olden), a cele- 
hrated Dutch statesman, who rose by his 
tierit to the first dignities in the govern- 
ment He was sent amb.i»iadoT to queen 
Elizabeth of England, and Henry IV. of 
•France. On his return to Holland he en- 
deavoured to limit the authoritv of Mau- 
rice prince of Orange, which, added to liis 
being the patron of the Arminians, madfe 
Kim obnoxious to the prince, who got him 
tried on the absurd charge of plotting to 
deliver up his country to the Spanish 
monarch. Of this he was found guilty, 
and beheaded in 1619. Hit sons, William 
and K(xk%y formed a conspiracy apainst 
Maurice to revenge their fathcr*t death, 
which was discovered. William escaped, 
but R6ie wms taken prisoner and executed. 
— ^r«iA X Hut. Reform, in the Low Count r'teSf 

Bxao (Peter), a French protestant divine, 
who came to England on account of his 
rehgioQ, and in 1574 was chosen lady Mar- 
garet's professor of divinity at Camoridge, 
where he brought himself into trouble by 
opposing the calvinistical notion pf predes- 
tination. He died in London at the begin- 
nof the 17th century, and was buried 
e church of St. Olave, Hart-street. He 
published some polemical books in Latin. — 
Bi^g. Br. 

Barocbe (Frederic), an Italian painterj 
was a native of Urbino, and died there in 
1612, aged 84. He chiefly excelled on re- 
^pious subjects, and his pictures are held in 
hirii esteenu — De PiUs. 

AAaoN (Bonaventure),aFranciscanmonk, 
wltf>«e true name was Fitzgerald, was born 
at Clonmeli in Ireland. He died at Rome 
in 1696L He wrote a body of divinity in " 
( voU. and three books of Latin poetry.—- 

Baiok (Michael), a famous French actor, 
was the »on of a merchant at Issoudun. Al- 
though his merit in hii profession was very 
great, yet his vanity was iusufTerable ; this 
will appear from a saying of his ; ^^ that 
once in a century we might see a Cxsar, 
but that 2000 years were not sufficient to 
prodnce a Baron." He was about to refuse 
the pension granted him by Louis XIV. be- 
cause the order for it was worded thus, 
• Pay to the within-named Michael Boy- 
mo, called Barwy^ &c. He died at Paris in 
1729, aged 77. Three volumes of his co- 
medies were printed after his death.— Jlform'. 

Baaos* (Hyacinth Theodore), professor 
•f medicine at Paris, who had a consider- 
able hand in the Pbarmacopcria, printed 
tfcere in 17S2, 4to. He also wrote a Dis- 
course on Chocolate. He died io 1758, 
aged 72. — AWi.. Dvf. Itixt. 

&4ftO!f X (Leonora), a Camouf linger, was 

bom at Naples, but resided the greater paxt 
of her life at Rome. She was the daughter 
of the fair Adriana of Mantua, on \^ost 
beauty and accomplishments numerous pa- 
iie^rics were printed. Leonora possessed 
eminent talents, and a volume of poems in 
different languages was printed in 1639 in 
her praise. She idso wrote several poetioal 
pieces of merit. — Bayle, 

Baronxus (CsesarX a learned cardlnil« 
was bom in 1538 at Sora, in the kingdom 
of Naples. In 1560 he entered into th« 
congre^tion of the Oratory, and was for 
some time employed in the instruction of 
youth. la 1583 ne was elected superior- 

feneral of his order. Clement VIII. made 
im his confessor, and in 1596 raised him' 
to the cardinaUhip. He afterwards became 
librarian of the Vatican, and on the death 
of that pontiff would have been elected 
pope if the Spani;ih party had not prevailed. 
He died in I QOT, His Kcclesiastical Annals, 
in 12 vols, folio, have been often printed^^-^ 

Barozzi (James), a famous architect, 
better known by the name of Vigwla from 
the place of hi! birth In the duchy of Mo- 
dena, born in 1507. He first studied 
painting, which he quitted for architecture, 
and became a member of the academy of 
design at Rome. In 1 537 he visited France, 
where lie resided two years. He built se- 
veral palaces in and near Bologna, and con* 
structcd the famous canal which goes from 
thence to Ferrara. He was also employed 
to build some churches at Rome, and sue* 
ceeded Michael Angelo as architect of St.^ 
Peter's. He died in 1577. He wtote a ce» 
lebrated book, entitled Rules for the fiv^ 
Orders of Architecture, which has gone 
through sixteen editions ; also a Treatise on 
practical Perspective^— •i)*^r^rwj//<f/ Vin 
des Arcbit, 

Barral (Peter), a French abbd, bom a| 
Grenoble, and who died in Paris in 1772; - 
he compiled an historical Dictionary, 6 vols. 
8vo. 1759, and a Dictionary of Rocnan An- 
tiquities, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Barrc (Lewis Francis Joseph de la), an 
ingenious writer, was born atTournayin 
1688. He was educated iu the college of 
St. Barbe, at Paris, where he assisted An- 
selm Banduri in his Imperiom Orientale, 
and the collection of medals of Roman em* 

Eerors from the emperor Decios, for which 
e had a pension given him by the dukt of 
Tuscany. He also published Memoirs for 
the History of France and Burgundy, and 
several other works. He died in 17 88 . ■ ■ 


Barrk (JosephV a learned, and [ndu«* 
t^ious French writer, was bom in 1692. 
He was canon of St. Genevieve, tnd chan- 
cellor of the university of Paris, His prin- 
cipal works are, VindiciTe llbroruih deutero* 
canonicorum veterit testasnenti ; a reseral 
History ^ Germany, 11 yoU. 4to.^, Xife af 

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B A K 

jMawhal deFabert, 2 vcAs. 12nip.; History of 
the Laws and the Tribunals of Juj»tiLe, 4to. 
fie died in 1764.— iVoz/v. Dht. Hist. 

BaaRelier (James), an eriilncnt botani»t 
t)i the crder of preachinp;' friars, who died 
in 1G73, aged-67. A posJiumous work of 
'his, entidcd Plantx per Gdliiam* H-ipl- 
jiiam, et Italiam observatx, et Icxuiibus 
•^neis exhibitie, wai printed at Paris, 17i4, 
|olw. — Alireri. • 

Barrere (Peicr^, a phyalcian of Per- 
pienao, who died in 175^. lie wiolc Re- 
lation et Essai sur rHifroirc de la France 
.Eqiiinoxiale, 174.", iLmo. Dissertation sur 
!a Couleur dcs Ise^rcs, 1741, 4to. Observa- 
tions ftur rOri^ir.e des Picrres ligur^esi 
1746, 4to.—- xV.i/v. Diet. Hist.' 

Barrett (Georg^e), an eminent land- 
scape p^irrtcr, was born in Dubh'w about 
^739. He was self-tauj^ht, and obtained 
"when ybung the prtn.Iuja of JO/. oiTcred 
hy the Dubbn society for the best landocape 
in oil. In 1762 he came to London, and 
the year after his arrival he gained the pi e- 
inium given by jthe society for tlie encou- 
ragement of arts, ^c. for t}ic best lo^id- 
scape. He was one of the first who planned 
^he royal academy, of which he became a 
"member. His best pieces i\rc in the pos- 
session of the dukes of For: Laid and Buc- 
clcugh, and Mr. Locke, lie died iu 1784. 

Barrett (WiUJam), an! English topo- 
graphical a^thcTr. He was born in Somer- 
setshire, and set tied in Bristol as a surgeorv, 
in which line he was very eminent. He 
employed above twenty years in coUectluflr 
•materials for a history of that city, wliich 
he published in 17F8, in 1 vol. 4to. He was 
the early patron of the eccentric Chatter- 
ton . Mr. Barrett died in 1 7b9. — Gent. Mar. 
Barrington (John Shute lord viscount;, 
a learned English nobleman, was the son of 
LIr. Shute, a merclumt, and born at Theo- 
bald's, in Hertfordshire, in 1678. He wag 
educated at Utrecht, and on his return to 
England entered of the Inner Temple. In 
1701 be published a tract on the toleration 
of pcotestant dissenters, which was foUov/ed 
ty another, entitled The Rigbt« of Protes- 
tant Dissenters, in' two parts. In 1708 he 
was made a commissioner of the customs, 
but was dismissed in 1711. Mr. VV'ihlman, 
a gentlcm.m of Xmo^t fortune in Berksjuie, 
left him his estate, as did Mr. B.u rijif;ton, 
•ivho had married h"s fiist cousin; in com- 
pliment^^to whom he took his arms and 
name. In 1720 he was cre.-.^cd as: Li-h 
peer, bcin;if then member for Berwick. In 
T725 he pulJislictl IJs Mii.cella:iC.-i Sacra, in 
Syols. 8vo. wiii^^^li was ropriiitcd in JTvO, 
in 3 vols. He \\ ) wrote An Essay on the 
several D.sjiensHtivns of God to Mankiiid, 
and jnher worlis. He died in 17.34. His 
lordsh/p married tl^e daughter of sir WiV 
IUjd Daine^, by whom ^e If ft six tons and 
ifcrec daughters, — JSiog. JSii{. 

. B.VRR1 VGTCN (D.Tinea), fourthsoa oflord 
I^rrington, was brought up to the law, and 
in J7:»7 ftf^as made a WeUli judge, after 
which he was appointed second justice of 
Che'Jter. He resicned these puices long be- 
fore his death, -md lived in a retired way in 
the Temple, amuolug himself chiefly in an- 
tiquarian pursuits. He wrote Observatioos 
on the Slarates, 4to.; Tracts on the Pro- 
bability of reaching the North Pole, 4to. ; 
and a huaiber of curious papers in tJie 
transactions of the ro^'al "imd antiquftrias 
societies, of both which he was a memlier, 
and of the latter vice-president. He died 
in 1800, and was buried in the Tenaplc 
churdi. — G^nt. Mav. Europ. Hfoigi 

Barrington (Sainuel),fc'th son of lord 
Barrington, was born in lYiiJ), and enter k3|^ 
into the n^vy, was «*ade post captain m. 
1747.. In 1778 he was created rear-admir 
ral of the white, and sent to the Weft la- 
dies, where his valour and prudence gaine^l 
him the highest reputation; he distiaguiiJi- 
ed himself particaLirly in the uking of St, 
Lucia. In 178i2 he served under lord 
Howe, and bo/e a part in the memoraWe 
relief of Gibraltar. He died in 1800. — Ihid. 
Barros, or De Barros (John), 4 learned 
Portuguese, was born at Viseo in 14S»^. He 
was preceptor to the sons of king Emanuel, 
and when his pupil Don Juan came to ti>e 
throne he made \\iisk governor oi. a settle- 
ment on the coast of Guinea, and after«> 
wards tre.isurer of the Indies. He died in 
1570. He wrote a History of Asia and the 
Indies, in four decades; the last edidon 'vas 
that of Lisbpn, in 1736", 3 vols, folio. — ilrfo- 

Barrow (Isaac), an English prdate, w^ 
born at Spiney abbey, in CambridgeAhire, 
and educated at Porerhouse, Cambrid^, of 
which he became fellow, but was ejected by 
the prcibyterians about 1643. He then 
went to Oxford, and was appointed one of 
the chaplains pf New col!e;re. He su/Fered 
considerably in the rebellion, and at the 
restoration w;is consecrated bishop of ^sodor 
^nd Man, from whence be was afterwartis 
translated to St. As iph. He was a great 
benefactor to both bishoprics, but parti- 
cularly the fomFUjr. He died in 1680, .and 
was buried in the cathedral of St. Asaph-— 
mui's A. 0. 2>i-j. Brit. 

Barrow (Isahc), a learned divine and 
marliematician, was born in London in 
16.J0. H,e was first pLieed in the Charter- 
l>ouse, and afterwards remQved to Felsted 
school, in Essex, from whence he was sent 
l,o Trinity coJh';j:e^Ca;nbridp;e, of whTch he 
was chosen scii'tiar in 16*7, and subscribed 
the engagement ; but repenting of whiit he 
had done, he went back and struck put his 
name from the list. In 1649 he was ckocen 
fj'llow of his college, and studied phy&ic, 
with a view of making it his profes&ion ; 
but by ^be advice of h»3 uncle, afterwards 
bifthop of St. A4aph, he loraook it, and cU> 

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foted himself to theology. In 1555 h« 
Went OQ his travelA, and at Coastantluople 
read over aJl the wprk« of St, Chryiostom, 
On his return he was episcopally ordained, 
and in 1660 wa* chosen Greek professor at 
Cambridge. In ^1662 he was appointed 
Gresham professor of geometry; and the 
year following was elected fellow of the 
ro)-al society. In 16G4 he gave up tha 
Gre&ham professorship, on bclnj appointed 
Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cam- 
Ond^e, which chair he resigned in 1669 
to his pupil Mr. Laac Newton. la 1670 
pt was created D. D. and two years after- 
irards appointed master of Trinuy college; 
on which occasion th6 king said, " that 
he had given it to the most learned man 
ifl £ngland." In 1675 he served the office 
of vice-chancellor. He died in 1677, and 
was interred in Westinin^tor-abbey. Hit 
works arc numerous. Those in English 
were published by doctor Tillotson, in 
8 vols, folio, 1682. King Charles II. used 
to say that he was an luifair prcacjier, be- 
cause he exhausted every subject on which 
he discoursed. His sermons are inestimable. 
His mathematical works are, Tuclidis £le.« 
Kenta; Eudidis Data; Lectioncs Geometri- 
ex; Ardiiraedis Opera; ApoJlonii Conlco- 
ni3i,lib. iv.; Theomsii Sphericorum, lib. iii. 
Kova Methodo illustrata, et s-j£;cincte De* 
monstrata. After his death a;>peared Lectio 
in qua Theoremata Archimedl. de^phasra et 
Cfundro, &c Mathematics Lectiones ha« 
hitz in Scholis publicis Academics Cantab. 
I)r. Barrow was a man mi courage and 
pleasantry,a8 appears by the following anec- 
dotes. In his voyage between Leghorn and 
Smyma the ship was attacked by a corsair, 
which, after a stout resistance^ was obliged 
to sheer off, Barrow standing to his gun to 
the last. — Being on a visit at a gentleman"! 
house in the country ,where the necessary was 
at the end of a earden, as he was going to it 
before day, a fierce mastiff which used to 
be chained up all day and let loose at night, 
set on him with great fury. The doctor 
caaght him by the throat, and throwing 
him dowiu lay upon him ; once he had a 
mind to KrI lum, but he altered his resolu- 
ti«n,on recoUectingthatthis wouldbe unjust, 
as the do^ only did liis duty. At length he 
was heard by some of the family, who came 
0t2t and freed both from rheir disagreeable 
situatioiu— As a proof of his wit we are 
told the following story : Meeting lord Ro- 
chester at court, his lordiihtp, by way of 
banter, tlius accosted him: '* Doctor, jfam 
yours to my shoe-tie.'* Barrow, seeing hl& 
aim, returned his salute obsequiously, with 
" My lord, I am yoars to the ground." Ro- 
chesierv improving his blow, quickly re- 
^uniod it, with " Doctor, I am yours to 
the centre;'* which was as smartly fol- 
bw^a by Barrow, with *' My lord, I am 
youi* to the aniipodcs.** Upon which Ro- 
qi«»tt-r, scorning to be foiled oy a musty old 
^ix CL dividry, as he issed to call hixn) ex- 


9 A a 

daimod, ** Doctor, I am yours to the lowest 
t olheli.** On which Barrow, turning on 
s heel, answered, " There, mj lord, I leavt 
you.** — Bmt, Brit. Button t Math, Diet, 

Baert (Gxrald), commonly called Giral^ 
ius Camhunxit', a writer of the 12th cfentury, 
was born in Pembrokeshire of a noble fi- 
mily. He received a liberal education, and 
obtained several ecclesiastical preferments. 
He had the care of the church of St. Da- 
vid's for some time, and was chosen bishop 
of that diocese by the chapter, but his elec- 
tion lyas declared void by the pope. Iti 
1215 he was offered the same bishopric, but 
refused it. When he died is unknown. He 
wrote the History of the Conquest of Ire- 
land, and Topographia Hibernica, both 
edited by Camden m 1G02. His Itincra- 
rium Cambria was published by David 
Powel. He also wrote a curious book « 
against the monks, entitled Ecclesix Specu^ 
lum. — Bieg,Br, 

Barry (Spcanger), a celebrated artor, 
was bom at Dubnn in 1719, and bred a 
silversmith, which profession ^e abandoned 
for the theatre, and made his first attempt 
in the character of Othello in 1744. In 
1747 he came to Englaud, and was engaged 
at Dr ury-lane, whi^h he toon quittwi for 
Covent-garden, atid proTed a formidable 
rival to Garrick, who was the leader of the 
i>ther house. In 1758 he went to Ireland, 
and was concerned in two play-houses, 
one at Dublin and the other at Cork ; but 
these failing, he returned to Epgland, where • 
he and his wife were engaged by Mr, 
Foote, at the Haymarket; but in 1766 he 
accepted the proposals of Garrick, and re- 
moved to Drury-lane. About 1773 Barry 
left Drury-lane for Covent-garden ; but he 
did not live long after, being worn out by 
an hereditary gout. He excelled in tra- 
gedy. — J3icg, Dram, 

Barry (James), lord of Santry,and chief 
justice of the king's bench in Ireland, was 
Dorn in Dublin, wlilch city his father re- 

f)resented in parliament. He studied the 
aw, and in 1629 was made king's serjeant, 
and in 1634 pne of the barons of the ex- 
chequer, with the honour of knighthood. 
He was a great friend to the earl of Straf- 
ford, and at the restoration was advanced 
to the olTicc of chief justice and the peer- 
age. He died in 1673. He wrote The 
Case of Tenures upon the Commission of 
defective Titles, Dublin, 1637, folio« and in 
1 725, 1 2mo.—Bio^. Br. 

Barii Y (James;, a celebrated painter, wat 
born at Cork in Ireland, where at the age 
of nineteen, he painted an historical picture 
on the legend of the b-iptism of the klnj^^i of 
Cashel, wiiich was exhibited to the Dublin 
society for the encouragement of arts', and 
recommended the artist to the acquaintance 
of Mr. Burke, who introduced him to sir 
Joshua Reynolds, Dr. Johnson, and other 
eminent men. Mr. Burke enabled him to 
yiftit Ualyi where he studiod with ardour. 

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Cli his rfetwrn in 1775, he published ** An 
Inquiry into the real and imaginary Ob- 
•Lructxuns to the acquisition of the Arts in 
England," 8vo. a work of considerable me- 
rit. Two years afterwards he was elected 
Royal Academician, and in 1786 was ap- 
pointed'professor of painting to the royal 
academy, where his lectures were greatly 
admirta. In 1799 he was removed from 
hi& office; and soon after expelled from the 
royal acadeinv, but for what cause has not 
been clearly explained. He was employed 
by the society fpr the encouragement of 
arts to decorate their great room with 
p:untinp;r,, which are some of the most 
ijeautilul in England, and from wliich he 
engraved a set of prints. H:s Jupiter and 
Juno was cntrraved by Sriith, and Ve:jU3 
rising from the sea by Green, in raezzo- 
tinto and facing in the dotted nianncr. 
]VIr. Barry was engi'^ed some )car3 in 
painting a large picture of Pandora, eigh- 
letni l\'c't K)ng and ton.brrnd, but it was 
not fiui.-hod at his death in ISf>6'. liis rc- 
ma'ns were interred in St. Paul's cathcdi'al. 

Car it Y (Geoige), a presbyterian divine, 
was born in Ilcrwickslp're, and educated in 
the university of Edinburgh, after which he 
became minister successively of the royal 
burgh cf Kirkwall, and of the island and 
parish of Shapinhay in the Orkneys, lie 
died! in t^ie latter place in UU)i, aged 
51, The university of Edinburgh con- 
ferred on him the degree of D. D. and il\e 
•ocietv f.^^r propagating chiistian knov;- 
ledge in Scotland appointed him super- 
intcndant of the schools in Scotland. He 
\Trote a statistical account of Lis two 
parishes published by sir John Sinc!;iir; 
and a History of the Orkney Islands in 

1 vol. 4 to. — Mo::!bly M.J^. 

Barsuma, or B.Mi6'-)MA, metropollran'of 
^esibis, who revived the notions of Nc5io- 
rius in the tim.e of the emperor Jiibiin. 
Tliere are .seveval disccurses and letters of 
his extant in the Syriac language. — /t/a- 

Bartas (William SalUist dc), a French 
poet, w',is lx5rn in 1.5 H. He was <^'.'nt by 
Henry ! V. on several cml^assies. B'.rr;io was 
of t!\c protestant communion, and died 
jii JofK). He' wrote a poem, entitled 'i'he 
Vt"A of the Creation, in 7 books, translated 
^nto English by Sylvester. — Morcri, 

B.\RTii (John), a French naval com- 
fnauder. He was born at Dunkirk, wiiere 
bis father wasv a poor fisherman. Jiarth 
jlistinguibhed hi'.Tiscltby his dating ex[>loits. 
In lO'^J he had the command of a squa- 
dron of frigates and a fire-ship, with which 
Jie destroyed 86* sail of l.ngluh merchant 
fhipb, landed near Newcastlr, where he 
burnt i'K) houses, and returned to Dunkirk 
• witi> prizes valued at 5(X),(Xy» crowns. In 
1(^91 |ie was sent with a squadron of %\x 
$hips to convov a fleet laden with corn. 
1 iii« t^^t bad Dccn captured, when Banh 

fell in with it, by a Dutch squadron 0f ogtt( 
men of war, but though he was %o mucb 
^ inferior, he retook the prizes and ^heir cap- 
tors. For this he obtauied a patent of no- 
bility. He died at Dunkirk in 1708, ared 

Barths (Nicholas Thomas), an inge* 
nious French writer, waa bom at Mar- 
seilles in 1733. He wrote several dramatic 
pieces, and translated Ovid's Art of Lov« 
mto French verse. He died at Paris ia 
1785.— iVcirv. Diet. Hist. 

Barthelemi (Nicholas), a benedictine 
monk of the 15th century, who wrote 
some Latin poems on religious subjects, and 
a book in prose on the Active and Contem- 
plative Life, 1523. — UIJ. 

Bartuelemt (J.ohn James), a learned 
French writer, was bom at Cassis, in Pro- 
vence, in 1 7 J f J. He received his education 
first in the college of the oratory at Mar- 
^etllc^, from v4icncc he removed to that of 
the icsuirs. In 1744 he visited Paris, and 
was nominated associate in the care of the 
cnbinet of medals, and afterwards he, be- 
came secretary to the academy of inscrip- 
tions. In 17f».S he was appointed keeper of 
the c.binet of medah. In 175.5 he visited 
Nnj)lcs, then rendered interesting to an an- 
litjuary by the discovery of the treasurea 
Cf Herculaucum. He vnshed much to hare 
a specimen of the ancient writing in the 
Greek manur.Gripts ; but he was told by 
those who had the care of the curiosrtiet 
that tiiey could not grant his request. On 
this he only asked to see a manuf jript pa^ 
for a few minutes. It contained twenty- 
eight lines, which Barthelemy read atten- 
lively, and going aside, tnnscribed. the 
whole, and $ent the fac-simile to the aca- 
demy of belles-lettres. In 1758 the duka 
•Ic Ch *i-cnl gave him a pension; to which, 
in r;';.5, he added the treasurership of St. 
Martin de Tours, and in 176'8 the place of 
secrerary-gcperal to the Swiss guards. In 
17S8 ho published his great work, entitled, 
Tlie Voyage of the younger Anacharsis in 
Greece, upon which ne had been employed 
thirfv years. In 1789 he was chosen a 
member of the French academy. In Au- 
gust, 1793, this respectable man was arret- 
ed on the charge of being an aristocrat, 
and hurried to prisoii, from whence, hoTr^ 
ever, he was released the same night by 
order of the gt)vcrcment. He died in ! 79.?. 
The abbd was a member of the most di»- 
tinguished foreign societies, as well as of 
those in his own country. He united with 
his profound learning, fnndestv, simpHcitv," 
and good nature. Besides his -'\.nach?.rsis 
he wrote a number of papers, rhielly on 
mcdaliic subjects, in the collection'of the 
academy of inscriptions, and in the Jour- 
nal des Savan*. — Life by the Dui^d^Ni^rmors. 
Bakthius (Gaspard), a le.irncd writer, 
was born at Cuitm, in Brandenburg, in 
1587. At the age of I'J he tranilatcd Da- 
vid's Fsaims into Latin verac Afitr fiiiish-* 

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18 A R 


Ai«^1us studies in his owrn country lie went 
through ^ principal part of Europe. On 
Jus r«urn he settled at Lcipsic, where he 
devoted himself entirely to literary pur- 
•aits, and published several books, the chief 
of which are his Adversaria; and htsCom- 
rcentaries on Statius and Claudiiin. He 
died in 105-^^. — B.jy^f. Moreri. 

Bartuoii!<e (Gaspard), a Dsmwh phy- 
firian and divine, vrs& born at Malmoc, m 
Schonc-n, 1585. He took his decree of 
M.D. at Basil in l^ia After filling the 
medical chair at Copenhacr<?n eleven years, 
he applied to the study of divinity, and was 
iftenvards appointed professor of theolo;Ty, 
and had the canonry of Roachild. He ditd 
ID IS'-li. He wrote lustitutiones Anatomies, 
and various other works. — Morcrr. 

Bartholin^ (Thoni:;s>, son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Copenhagen hi 161 f?, 
tod studied physic at Leyden, but took his 
doctor's de-^ec at Ba^il in 16 15. I'he yeaf 
fbUowin;: he was appointed professor of 
mathematics at Copenliagfen, and in 1643 
he obtained the anatomical chair. He died 
in 1680. I lis .tnatomical and medical works 
ire universally known. His son Gaspard 
loccecded him' in the anatomical profcssor- 
riiip, and his other sons were all men of 
kaming and cm'Lxience. Thomas was coun- 
idlor to the king^, and proiV-^cr in anti- 
quities ; Christopher was professor of xna- 
riiaaatics ; and John was professor in thc- 
olcgy. His daughter Mr.rj^rct distin^t^iish- 
ed .^icriclf by several ingenious ppeihs in the 
Ibmsh language. — M^rcri. 

Saxtholomkw (St.), one of the twelve 
apostles. He preached the gosjjcl in the 
udies, in Ethiopia, and Lvcaooia, and is 
nid to have been flayed alive in Armenb, 
but the assertion is not well founded. — Cave, 

Baetuolomew (of the martyrs), arch- 
bt5hop of Braga, wa» bom at Lisbon in 
1514. He assisted at the council of Trent, 
where he strenuously urged the necessity 
of a reform amon^the ckrgy. He was ^he 
fadier of his flock, and in a time when the 
pestilence raged aniong^t them he remained 
on his post doing got^d. lie resigned the 
archbishopric, and retired to a monasterv, 
where he died in.l5yo. His works are m 
3? vols, folio. — MQr:rrf. 

Bar rt.ETr(John),a nonconformist divine. 
n^was for many years minister of St.Tho- 
mas, near Exeter; from whence he was 
ejected in 1662, on which he removed w 
that city, "where he oiticiatrd to a small 
congrefTTition of diiscnitT*;, ?ind died very 
rfA He wn>te a vohme of medir.irions. 
His brother Wlliiajn. a independent, 
was ejected from the rectOry of Bideford, 
in Dcvon^rc. He wrote aModcl of Church 
Govermnent, and died in l€S*2. — Cahmy. 

Baitoli (Daniel), a learned Jesuit, wa# 
bom at Fcrrara in 1«j08. He published a 
peat number of work?, the chief of which 
w the history of his society, m 6 vols, folio. 
Ue died at Rome in ItiSS.—Noitv. Dht. Hist. 

Ba&tvli (Cosimo^, ^ Itab4ii writer of 

Uie 16tli century, w^s born at florence^ 
He was sent by the great duke Cosmo at 
his resident to Venice, where he ii.-ed five 
years. 'He wrote the life of the emperor 
Frederic Barbarossa in Italian, and other 
tvorks.— tCt'ff. JBlo^. 

Bartoi o, a lawyer of the 14 th century, 
was bom in the marchfe of Ancona. I le 
took his doctor** degree at Bologna, and 
was appointed professor of laws at I^isa. 
from whence he remcrvod to Porugi:u 
Charles IV. conferred on him the titlt^oT 
rounscllor, and other marks of dijtinctioa. 
He died in 1 S59. His works make U) vols, 
folio — Morsr'i. 

Bartolocci (Julius), a c'stwcian monlt 
He was born at Celano in 16!3, and died at 
Rome in lt?87. He publii^hed U'bliuthcca 
Rabbinica, in 4 vols, folio, which was con- 
tinued by a disciple of his in aaother vo- 
lume. — Moreri, 

BAkTON (EHz:ft)eth), called 
** the Holy Maid of Kent," a religi(»u» 
impostor in the reign of Henry VII. She 
was a servant at Altingdon, and under the 
inanagement of the priests was enabled to 
distort her limbs and face in a surprislrg 
manner. She pretended to be honoured 
with divine illuminations, and delivered the 
messages with which she was favoured to 
the crowds who follov/eil her, exhorting 
them to a strict obodicnoe of the Romaa 
church, and to avoid all innovations. She 
was executed, with her asiociatca, iu 15J4^ 
at Tyburn, wht^re she ronf'jssed the In\pos- 
ture, and threw the blame upon her cm-- 
pioyers.--^/c»7. Sr, B;irret*s Hist. Rform. 

Baruch, the prophet, wr.s of a noble 
family, and attacned himself to Jeremiah, 
whom he followed into Egypt. The book 
which bears his name is uot received as 
canonical either by tlic Jc-rs or protectants. 
^Jeretniab^ xxxiii. ^'j. XJ^h^r. 

Bar WICK (John), au English divine, wai 
born at Withcrstack, in Wc-stmordLiud, in 
lol2, and educated at St John's college, 
Cambridge. He exerted himrelf with sin- 
gular dexterity in behalf of the roy.i! cause 
during the civil war, for which he was 
committed to the Tower, where he rcm.»in- 
cd a longtime. At the restoration, in pro- 
ducing which he had a C(msiderable con- 
cern, he obtained the de.tnry of Durham, 
which he afterwards exchanged for that^of 
St. Paul's. He died in 160' 4. — Life by Dr* 
Piter Bjf^vicij 8vo. 

Bar WICK (I'c-ter), an eminent physiciati. 
He was brot!»er to the dern, whose life Ve 
wrote in elegant I/itin. He also defended 
the right of King Ch-irles to the Ethn Basi- 
like, and doctor Harvcv's. doctrine of the 
circulation of the blooiL ' He died in 1705L 
"^Bio^. Brit, 

Bas (le), a French engraver, whose land- 
scapes and sea picccji am held in great 
estcein. He died about 1765. — Nouv, Dict^ 
Hit. . (John Bei'nard), a modem au- 
thor , was the s^o of a bar ber af liaabui^hy 


yrh^t 3»c .Vfa? born, in 1723. He studied 
under Reimarusj aud afterwards at Leipsic. 
In 17.»'3 he was chosen professor of mora! 
philoaopliy and the ^belles Jettres at Soroe, 
pn Denmark, from whence he was removed 
ifor expressing opinions in religion very 
dilTerent from lutherauism. He ne»t form- 
ed a plan of reformed education, for the 
perfecting of. wjiich he collected Iaj:ge 
sums uf money; but the pUnt. after b«ing 
partially tried, c^fnt to, nothing. He died 
'of intemperate living, in. 1790. "His works 
»re ingenious, but full of dogmatjcral a^&er- 
tions ^nd fanciful notions. — ScbUthic^rcU'^ 

Bas uur SEN (Henry James Van), alearned 
divine, was born at Huuau in.l67D. He 
became professor of the oriental language! 
and ccclesi:istical history at Han aa; arter- 
viAicl"; professor of divinity, and raer.iber of 
the royal society at Berlin. He had a print- 
ing-press in iii-, house, iroRi winch he sent 
put Several curious worlw8,:chieflyou ralJbi- 
cical learning. He: died- in l": J.iH-^,G<a, 
jp'/va. ... 

Ba ziL (St.), was born in 32^, and ordain- 
fdhy Euseblus, bishop of Catsare , whom he 
succeeded in ri70» .'He was pot , ecu; ed by 
Valens, bccawie he woijld , livV- cjr.bracd 
iriauism. He di«d in 373. Ilis warki are 
jn 8 voii. folio. — Dvpiiu 

Bas*l, bishop of j\ncyra, was pLiccd in 
that see by Eusebius ana the ailau p;:: i y, 
on the deposition of Marcel lus in 'SMI ; but 
he was excommunicated ^nd deprived by 
the council of Con.sfantinople. — Aiojbeim, 

Basil, a physician and heretic, lie as- 
serted tliat God had another son besides 
Jesus Christ, called Saibanatly who h.^viog 
tcvolted against his father, was cast down 
fromhes^ven to earih, with the angde whom 
he had drawn over to him, and that Jesus 
Christ being sent to destroy his p^wer, 
shut him up in. hell,, and altered 
by cutting oflF the last syllable. He per-, 
■aitted his followers to have every thing, 
tvtn ihcir wrives, in common. The empe- 
ror Alexius Cqmnanus caused him to be 
burnt in 1118. — Mot-eri, ' . 

J^ASiLiDK 5, the founder of a sect at Alcx- 
.•xndria in the second centuryr He enjoined 
his disciples to observe a five years silence. 

BvsiLiticus, emperor of the cast, was 
brotlier to Verina, wife of Leo the -elder, 
by whose means he w^s appointed to the 
command of a fleet sent against Genscric. 
By his mismanagement the greatest part of 
the fleet and army perished, and he fell into 
disgrace. At the instigation of his sister he 
conspired against the emperor Zeno, and 
having succeeded, placed himself on the 
throne in 475 ; but his conduct proving of- 
fensive, Zeno entered Constantinople, and 
Pabiliscus was obliged to resign the crown. 

He died in coniinement in 477. Unh, 


BAtriLius I., c^ed the Maudonija em* 

B A9 j 

perorgof tht east. He wat boni at Adcia^ \ 
nopl^of ppor parenu, and became a conu> j 
mon spldier. His conduct recommended ^ 
him to the eaiperor Michael, w'ho made 
him his equerrv and chamberlain. In 867 ' 
he murdered tLat prince, and took posses* 
sion of the •throne. He defeated the Sarar 
cens at Caesarea,.and was killed by a «ta^ 
in hunting in 836.— £/)i/V. Hut. 

Basilius XL succeeded John Zimisces 19 
•976. He was the son of Romanus the [ 
younger, and was associated in the govern- 
ment with his brother Constantine. He 
turned his arms against the Bulgarians, over 
whom he obtained a great victory in 10J4: 
bii$ trcHvcd his prisoners with horrid bar- 
barity, dividing them into hundreds, and 
then putting out the eyes of 99, gave them 
the hundredth for a leader. In this condi- 
tion they were sent to their kin^, who toolj 
two days to view them. He died in 1025^ 
i^ged 70. — Uriv, IJ-st, 

• Basilui^, an impostor, was born in Ma* 
cedonia^ai^.d excited a revolt in the eastern 
cupire in i>34, by pretending to be Constan- 
ti.ic Ducts, v.- ho had been dead some year*. 
'ihc cmrieror Uomanus caused his right 
h;uul to be cut cff ; on whicli Basil: 'os is «aid 
to h.ive c\>ntrived an arti£cial hand, tb« 
use of which he acquired to great perf«c* 
lioi]. He ihen collected his partizans alul 
obiained several advantages over the ixn-* 
pcrlal. troops, but was at last taken pri« 
soiier, a^id burnt alive at Constantinople^— ^ 

Irlorerl, - . 

Basilowitz (John), emperor of Russia, 
which country he recovered from the do- 
ininion of the Tartars, and thus laid tli# 
ioundation of tha Rus.-ian empire, He wa» 
the first who assumed the title •f, and 
added .^Ystracan to his territories. He die4 
in 1584. — Utiiv. HiSt. 

Basingstoke, or Basinoe (, ^ 
learned man of the 13th century, was born 
at Basing itokc, in Hampshire, and educated 
^t Oxford, from whence he went to Paris, 
where he remained many years. He tra-. - 
veiled to Athens, and obtained a great 
knowledge of the Greek language. On hi« 
return he was made archdeacon of Leices* 
ter. He died in 1252. He wrote some »er^ 
mons, and translated a few Greek bobk« 
into J^Kitin. — Biog, Brit, 

Basirx (Isaac), a learned divine, was 
Sorn in the isle of Jersey, and educated at 
Cambridge, where he toot hi» degree of 
D. D. In i G46 he travelled through Syria. 
and Palestine. On his return to Europe ha 
was n\ade professor 6f divinity iii TransvU 
vania ; but after the restoration he v^-a* re- 
called by the king, and recovered the pre* 
ferments be had lost, of which the prebend 
of Durham was the principal. He died iri 
1676. He wrote some religipus pieces, and 
an account of his travels. — lkid» 

Baskervilli. (Sir Simon), an £nglul\ 
physician, was bom at Exeter in 1573, and 
educated at £xeter-college, Oxford, (i^ 

^Digitized by 


B A"S 

.^csmc physicl.'m to Jamefc L and Ch^^ei I. 
tiic latter of wioin cooferred oq him the 
kaour of kaighthood. He diec} ip ltI4i, 
^d left an immAise fortune behind ium, 
which ^aed hixn the name of' ** Sir Simon 
Jiiskerviile the rich." — Frlnus JVotihies of 

Baskk&vjlle (John'), a ceJebrared prin- 
ter, was born at Wolverley, in Worcester- 
ihirt, in 1706^ In 1116 he kq:t a wiiling- 
«chool in Birmingham. But iu 1 745 he wa* 
engaged in the japanning b'jsiiieas, and 
puj&^sed of considerable property. la 
1750 he turned printer and letter-iounder, 
jjj which he was at first unsiicct»:ful. At 
lrn»th fhe productioni of hii prew grew 
into esteem- He printed in a superb, but 
Wt vtTf correct, manner, Par.idibc l^osi, 
levcral of the Latin classics, the New Te*- 
tjmeai io Greek, and orhcr wgrks. He 
died in 1775, a^ed 69. His tvpcs were 
purcha--ed by a sociery at Pahs in 1779, 
who made use of them in priutlng an fcdi- 
tioQ of Voltaire's work.**. — BiDir, Brit. 

flASNAct (Benjamin), a I reach prote«- 
tam divine, was born in IjoO. He suc- 
ceeded Kis father as minister of the church 
of Carentan, and assisted at the national 
syuod of Charenton. He was also deputy 
from the French national churches to James 
Vi. of :3cotUnd. A work bv him, entitled 
A Trtatisepn the Church, nas been much 
fSiL^aied. He died in 1652. — Buy'^. 

Ua'nage (Anthony), eldest son of the 
above, was minister of Bayeux, and im- 
prisoned on account of his relfg-ion at 
Ha^Tt de Grace. On beii^g liber^Lred he 
weat to ^loUand, and died there in lb'9I, 
a^bl. — Jk'J. 

B A : M A c E ( H eoTy du Fraquenay) , you n-rer 
ton of Benjamin, was bred a lawyer, aiid 
Wcame an advocite in the parliament of 
Korm^mdy. He published the Custom of 
Kormandv, and a Treatise on Mortgages, 
He died in 1695, ag^ed 80.— 7^Ai 

Ba£N AGE (Samuel de Flottemanville), the 
loa of Antony, was assistant to his father, 
aad a man of considerable learning, as ap- 
pears from his continuation of Casaubon*s 
Criticisms on the Annals of Baronius, and 
hU Ann4e9 £ccleda&tici, 3 fols. folio. He 
iiedic 17'il.^-/^*/. 

Bassace (James), a French protestaot 
divmc, w;ts born at Rouen in Uk3:), and 
educated firgt at Saumur, and then at Ge- 
i>iiva, aucr which he became ir^inister of 
the reformed church at Rouen, but on the 
i;evoc«xk>n of the edict of Nantes he retired 
ij) Rotterdam. In ITOa lie wa:»chi>sen one 
of the p.'utors of the Walloon church at 
th£ Hijue; and he was also employed in 
^*.e affairs, which be managed with great 
.iddrtii. The rrench miuistcrs at the 
^^ue were, directed to apply to him for 
his «!oun">ei, and in return for his services 
he obtained the restoration of all iiis pro- 
perty in France. He wa« held in gfeat 
«Heeia by nien of aU partie«i He iUed in 

B A^ 

X79S. He wrote, leyend Takisblt booJb, 
particularly the Hiscor)r of the J<wi tihcf 
the time of Jesus Chriit, 1716, 15 voU, 

iSil^O. — Morcri, 

Basnage (Henry), Sieur de BeauvaJ. 
He was brother of the last-mentioned, an4 
admitted advocate in tlie parliament of 
Rouen in 1679. In 1C87 he retired to Hole 
land, where he succeeded Bayle in writinr 
the History gf th« Works of the Leameo. 
He published several other works. — Ukd, 

BAbNET (Edward;), dean of St. Patrick'^ 
Dublin, was boru in Denbighshire, ia 
Wales, and about 1537 he obtained thf 
above preferment. He was a friend of the 
reformation, and in the rebellion of O'Neal 
in l.WfHaid aside the sacerdotal habit, and 
served in amijitary capacity unSer the lord 
deputy. On account of his good se.rvicet 
he was made a privy counsellor, and ob* 
tained a grant from the crown of the lands 
of Kilternan, near Dublin, and other fa* 
vours. H©> died in tlie reign of Edward 
Vl^^Bsog, Brit. 

Bass A NO (James), an Italian painter, wae 
born at Venice in 1510, and died in 1592: 
He excelled in landscape, and his pieces art 
held in high esti:n.,:ion. Three of his soUi 
were eminent' artisU. Francis put an end' 
t© himself in 1594. Leander was knig;hted 
John Baptist imitated the manner of his fa- 
ther. Jeramt^ another son, was bred a phyv 
fician, but quitted that line, and became ft 
painter also« — D: Piles. 

Bassandyne (Thomas), a printer of the 
16th century. He learnt the art of print* 
ing at Londop, ar^d then returned to £dia- 
burgh, where he produced several bd0ks» 
which are now pcarce. He died in 1591.— 


Ba^sani (Giambattista), a musical com- 
poser of die 1 7th century, aiid master to Cft* 
relli. Iiis compositions are characterised 
as pure and pathetic — Haivkins, BurHey.\ 

Bassantin (James), a Scotch astronomer 
of the IGth century, who was educated first 
at Glasgow, and afterwards at Paris, where^ 
he became teacher of the mathematics. In 
15o2 he returned to his own country, and 
died .there i\\ 1563. His works arc, Astj^o* 
nomia, &c. 15©9; a Treatise on the Astro- 
labe, in French, 1.555; Mathematica Ge^ 
r.ethlutca ; Arithmetica ; Musica secundum 
PJatoncm \ De Machcw in Genere.— -fiiV. 


Basset (Peter), an English liistorian. He 
was chamberlain to king Henry V. whose 
history he wrote, which is sdll extant ia 
MS. in the college of heralds.— -/d/i. 

Bassi (Laura), an ingenious Italian lady. 
She was a native of B^^iogna, and received a' 
liberal education, not only in the accom« 
plishments usual for those of her sex, but ia 
the languages and sciences. Her singular 
attainments procured her, in 1732, the title 
of doctor of philosophy. In 1745 she read 
lecture^ upon ei^perimental philosophy, axid ■ 
coatinued so to de till Jmt death in 1778. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

B A T 

iSht married, Dr. Verati, and preserved an 
excellent character by the practice of every 
virtue.— JVbfrtr. Diet. Hist, 

Bassomtierre . (Francis), marshal of 
France. He was l>orn in Lorrain, of a 
noble family, in 1579. He was a priaoTier 
in the Bastile twelve years, for some offence 
pven to Richelieu, while there he wrote 
his Memoirs, printed at Cologne, in 3 vols. 
1665. After his release he was employed 
in several embawiies, of which he wrote a 
relation, printed in 1668, 2. vols. I2mo. 
Basiompicrre was a man of wit and gal- 
tan try. He tl i ed in 1 646. — MorerH. 

, BrtssuEL ^Pctcr), an eminent surgeon, 
vn^ born at Paris in 1 706. He gained repu- 
tation, not only by his practice, but by his 
dissertations communicated to the academy 
of sciences, and. that of surgery. He died 

in nSlr-'Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

Bast A (George), a celebrated general of 
the l€th century. He was born at Rocca, 
near Tarentum, and served under the duke 
of Parma, with great hoaorsr to himself, 
and satisfaction to his master. Afterwards 
he was engajjed by the emperor, to whom 
he rendered signal services w Hungary and 
Transylvania. " Ke died in 1607. There 
Are two treatises of his in print, on mlliiary 
discipline, in Italian.— iV/^r^r/. 

Bastard (Thomas), an English poet. 
He was born at Blandford, in D6r»etshirc, 
, and educated at New college, Oxford, where 
he took his degree of M. A. He became rec- 
tor of Hamer, in His native county, but 
died in Dorchester prison in lt;i8, where 
he was confined for debt. He wrote some 
ingenious epigrams and sermons.— 5>^. Br. 

Baston (Robert), an Eodish p'>ef of 
the 14th century, was born in Yorkshire, 
and becam« prior of thfe carmclite monav- 
tery at Scarborough, poet laureat, and 
public orator at Oxford. His poetry is to- 
lerable for the age in which he lived. He 
died about 1 S 1 0-—/^xV. 

Bast WICK (JoKn)j an English physician. 
He was born at Writtlc, in »sex, 15''W,and 
educated at Emanuel college, Cambridg:e, 
but took his de^jree of M. D. at Padua. 1 le 
wrote some flagitious libels against the 
church of England, for which he lost his 
ears in the pillory, and was scnrenced to per- 
petual imprisonment in the isles of Scilly, 
la 1640 he was released by th^ parii.-iment, 
and bad a reward of 6000L allowed him 
out of the archbishop of Canterbury's es- 
tates. He died about 1650. — ThiJ. 

Bate (iohn^, a divine of the l.^th cen- 
tury. He was a native of Northumberland, 
and took his degree of D. I), at Oxford. He 
became prior of the convent of carmetites 
at York, and died in 1429. He was skilled 
in Greek ; and wrote a compendium of lo- 
gic, besides other works. — Ihitf. 

Bate (George), a physician, wae born 
near Buckingham, in 1608*, and took his 
det^ree of M.D. at Oxford, in 16S7, s<«on 
ziUr which he became principal phyeiiian 


to Charles !. During the rebellion he tH 
sided in London, where he was highly es- 
teemed, and appointed physician to Crom- 
well. At the restoration he was made 
physician to the king, and elected a fellow 
of the royal society. He died In 1669. Dr. 
Bate wrote a history of the civil wars, in 
Latin, and some tracts on physical subjects- 
— A'ao-. Bnt. 

BaVe (Julius), a learned English divine. 
He was the disciple of the celebrated John 
Hutchinson, whose works he edited, and 
by whose interest he obtained the living of 
Sutton in Sussex. He compiled a Hebrew 
and English lexicon, and wrote some able 
books in defence of the Hutchinsonian sys- 
tem. He died in 1771.--Gm. B. D, 

Batecumbe (William), an English ma^ 
thematician of the 1 5th century. He was 
a teacher of mathematics at Oxford, and 
wrote, I. DeSphnerae concavx fabrica et 
usu. 2. De Sphara solida. S. Operatione 
Astrolabii. 4. Conclusione SopluJC-^Pi/* 
Bcrle, • 

Bateman (William), the founder of Tri- 
nity-hali, Cambridg:e, was bishop of Nor- 
wich, and a great master of the civil and 
canon law. He died at Avignon, where 
he wa.'. ambassador to the pope, in 1S54. — 
J?/.vr. Brit. 

Bates (William), an English noncon- 
formist divxne. He was born in 1 625, and 
educated at Cambridge, where he took the 
degree of B.A. in 1647, and at the restoration 
was admitted to that of royal man- 
date. Me was one of the commissioners at 
the Savoy conference, for revising the li- 
turgy, and was offered the deanry of Lich- 
field, which he refused. He died at Hack- 
nev'in 1699. His theological works were 
collected and published in one volume folio, 
after his death. He published the Lives of 
learned and pious Men, in one volume, 4to. 
1681, Latin. — Calamv. Bio^^. Brit. 

Bathalmiusi, the name of an Arabian 
author, who died in the year of the Hcgira 
421 . He wrote on the Qualities requisite in 
a Secretary and good Writer, and on GfC- 
ncalogies. — Moreri, 

Batue (Henry dc), an English judges was 
bom of an antlent family in Devonshire. 
After studying the law he was advanced by 
Henry III. in 1238, to be one of the justices 
of the common pleas, and afterwards one 
of the justices itinerant; but in l;3J3I he 
fell into disjrrace, upf)n some mab'cidus 
cliarges which were alleged against him. 
However he wjis at length restored to fa- 
vour, and made chief justice of the king's 
bench. He died in 12*il. — Princess IVoribifs. 

Bathk (William), an Irish jesuit,who was 
governor of the seminary belonging to that 
nati\)n at Salamanca in Spain, and died 
there In 1614. He wrote, 1. An Intro- 
duction to the Art of Music, London, 
1.584, 4to. *2. Janua Linguarum, 161 1, and 
some theolo^cal pieces. — WcuTt A. O. 
•Batuvist ^Ralph), a leataet^ physician 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


tdd liiTint. He Was born in 1620, and 
educated at Trinity college, Oxford, where 
he a^ first studied mvinity, which he quitted 
for that of physic. At the restoration he 
entered into orders, was made chaplain to 
the lung, and' elected a fellow of the royal 
»ciety. In 1664 he was chosen president 
of Trmity college, and in 1670 appointed 
4ean of Wells. In 1691 he refused the 
bishopric of Bristol, chusing rather to re- 
side in hil college, the chapel of which he 
reballt. He died in 1704, and was buried 
in the chapel of Trinity college. His Latin 
poems are very neat and elegant : they are 
contained in the Musanlm Anglicanarum 
Analecta. — Li/e 6y Wartw, 8vo. 

Bathurst (Allen), an eminent nobleman- 
He was the son of sir Benjamin Bathurst, of 
I Pauls Perry, Northamptonshire, born in 
I Westminster in 1684, and educated at Tri- 
I nity college Oxford. In 1705 he was chosen 
aieniber for Cirencester in Gloucestershire, 
which pUce he represented the two next 
pariianients. He joined the tory party, by 
' whom he was brought into the house of 
peers in 1711. He was a zealous opposer 
I ©/ the measures of sir Robert Walpole. In 
1704 he married a daughter of sir Peter 
Apsley, by whom he had four sons and five 
daughters. In 1742 he was admitted of the 
pri^^y council : in 1757 he was appointed 
treasurer to the prince of Wales ; at his 
majesty's accession he obtained a pension 
of ^£XX)/.a year, and in 1772 he was created 
earl Bathurst. He died in 1775, aged 91. 
His lordship lived on termsof great intimacy 
^Kith Swift, Pope, Addison, and other shin- 
ing characters. — Bicg. Br, 
Bathurst (I^enry, earl), son of the 
[ above, was born in 1714. Applying him- 
i self to the law, he was in 174(i made suli- 
citor general to Frederick prince of Wales, 
■nd afterwards attorney-general. In 1754 
b«was called to the degree of serjeant at 
Uw, and appointed one of the judges of 
the court of common pleas. In 1771 he 
^created lord Apsley, baron of Apsley 
in Sussex, and eleyatea to the dignity of 
lord diancellor of Great Britain. In 1776 he 
acted as high steward at the trial of the 
duchess of Kingston, and resi.^ned the 
peat sea! in 1778. Lord Bathurst wrotp a 
pamphlet called the " Case of Miso Sword- 
fegcr, 4to.'' He abo puhllsiied the^'Theoiy 
of Evidence," 8vo. wiiich is supposed to 
bave formed the basis on which judge 
Bullcr erected his Law of Nisi 1 rius. Lord 
Bathurst died in 17i>4w — Eurup. Mug. 

Batoni (Pompeo), an eminent painter^ 
was bom in 1708, at Lucca in Italy. One 
•f his most admired pieces is the picture of 
Simon the magician contendir-r wi:h St. 
Peter, in the great chcrch dedicnted to 
* ibat apoede at Rome Batoni*o lame v/as 
so great that the highest per-onag^s \vere 
toaous to obtain his productions. He ob 
lt»ed a profusion of richci, and received . 


B AU^ 

from the «mperor Joseph a parent of xm^ 
bility . H e died in 1 787 . — Fukingion, 

Batoki (Stephen), king: of Poland. He 
was bom of a noble family in Transylva- 
nia, of which country he was elected prince 
in 1571 : and his reputation was such, that 
wh^ Henry, duke of Anjou, quitted the 
throne of Poland, he was chosen to succeed 
him. He corrected many abuses, and re- 
pulsed the Muscovites. He>died in 1588^-* 
Univ. Hist, 

Battaglini (Mark), bishop of Cesemu 
He died in 1717, aged '71. He wrote si 
History of Councils, 16S6, folio, and An- 
nales du Sacerdoce & de TEmpire du zvii 
Siecle, 1701 to 1711, 4 vols. foho. — MvnrL 

Battely (John), an English divine, wat 
born at Edmund's Bury in Suffolk, in i^7, 
and educated at Trinity-college Cambridge. 
He became chaplain to archbishop Sancroft 
who gave him the rectory of Adisham ii^ 
Kent, and the archdeaconry of Canterbury. 
He died in 1708. Dr. Battely wrote Ami- 
quitates Rutupinie, and Antiquitates Su 
Edmundburgi. — Gen, B, £>. 

Batteux (Charles), a French writer, 
was born in the diocese of Rlicims in 171 S. 
He became professor of philosophy in the 
royal college, member of the French aca- 
demy, and of that of inscriptions, and ho- 
norary canon of Rhcinis. He published a 
number of books, particularly The four 
Poetics of Aristotle, Horace, Vida, and 
Boileau, with notes, in 2 vols. Svo. 1771- 
He died in 170.— Ni,uv. Lid. His\ 

Baitie (William), a phy-.ician,wasboni 
in Devonshire in 1708, and educated at 
Eton, from whence he was removed to 
King's college, Cambridge. Having taken 
his degrees in physic he settled atUxbridge, 
from whence lie removed to London, whero 
he obtained considerable practice. In the 
dispute between the college and Dr. Schom- 
berg in 1750, Dr. Battle took so active a 
part, that he was made the *abject of ^ 
satirical poem, called the Lratiad. He was 
appointed iiiiysician to St. Lukt)'f» hospital, 
and kept a private madhouse at Islington. ' 
In 17():2 he was examined before the house 
of conunons on" the state of the private 
madiiouses in England, and in the report 
his name is mentioned in an' honourable 
manner. He died in 1 776". Dr. Battie 
wrote some medical' tracts in Latin ; a 
Treatise on Madness, which was answered 
by Dr. Monro; .iiid he published an cdi- 
tioJt of Iso'.Trttes in 2 vols. Pvo. — Grn.B. D, 

Ba JD1.I.0T DE Dairval (Churles Cxsar), 
advov-ate of the parliament of Paris. \]% 
was horn in 16MS and died in 171^2. He 
wrote a leanied work, Of the Utility of 
Tr.iveliiiir, 2 vols. Itimo. — Nouv. Diet, Hut, 

Ualdlt (Stephen), a Frencli engraver, 
was hi;ru at Bioi^, and died in 1G71, aged 
7;>. His chief work is a print of Adam 
ano l'.\'*:, nom a painting by Dominichino. 

Digitized by 



B A U 

BAVDnm (Michael), hbtsriofrseplber td 
Lewis XlII. He published a General H\s* 
tory of the Religion of the Turki ; The 
Theology of Mahomet, l^;>«, 8vo.; His- 
tory of the Cardinal D\Ainboi$e, 16.51, 
8vo.; History Of Marshal de Toirag, 164^) 
The Histories of Sugtr, Ximenes, &c. — 

Baud IN (Peter Charles), bom at Sbdan 
SB 1751. He became member of the na- 
tional assembly and of tlie convention, in 
which lie behaved with moderation. He 
died in 1 799. He wrote, i . Anecdotes sur 
la Constitution; 2. Of the Liberty of the 
press, Svo. — Noi/v. DUt. Hit, 

Baud lus (Dominic), proft's^^r of history 
at Leyden, was born at i.iila in 1/561. He 
"Attended the Dutch embassy to England, 
where he became acquainted with several 
teirientmen, particuLn ly sir Philip Sidhey. 
He afterwards resided in France several 
years.' He became profcesor of eloquence 
and of history at Leyden. In 1611 he was 
Appointed historiographer to the states, and 
wrote the History of the Truqe. Baudius 
Was an elegant writer, as appears from his 
letters, and his Latin poems, published in 
1607. He died at Leyden in 1613.— ^«jy*. 

Baudot de Juilli (Nichobs), a French 
historian, was bom at Vcnviome in 1678, 
and died in 1759. H« wrote the History 
of Catherine of France, Queen of England j 
Germaine de Foix, a novel ; The secret 
History of the Constable de Bourb#n ; An 
Account of the Invasion of Spain by the 
Mo«rs, 4 vols, and other works of a like 
kind. — Nouv. Dht. Hist, 

Baudouik (Benedict), a FreiKh divine of 
the 17th century. He was a native of 
Amiens, and wrote a dissertation, De la 
Chanssura des Anciens, published in lG8o. 

Bauurakd (Michael Anthony), a g^o^ 
rraphcr, was born at P.iris in I'i.SS, and 
died in 1700. He was prior of Roiivrcs, 
and is the aurhor of a peop^raphical dic- 
tionary, i^ vols. fol. in I^tin' and Irench. — 

Bauhinus (John), a physician, who qnlt- 
ted France on account of his religion, and 
•cttled at Basil, where he diod in 15.S2. I lis 
ion was born at Lyons in 1 rt I. He prac- 
tised physic at Ikisil, and afterward*} be- 
came phpician to the duke of Wirtcmburnr. 
He applied principally to botany, on whicfi 
he wrote a great work, ffiiitled Hisforb 
PUntarum, 3 vols, folio. He also wrote an 
accotsnt of medicinal waters throughout 
Itorope. He died in 161^- — Mot,ri. 

Bauhinus (Gaspard), brother of the 
- hist-mentioned, was bom at Ba^l in 1560, 
and di€4iinl6S4. He wrote lustitutiones 
AoBtOQiieaB : Thtatrum Bota»icum -. Trea- 
the on Henita^farodites : Picax Thcatris 

Baoldju (J^vb^% profotKM* of sacred hls« 
tory at V^fccht. He was born at Rouen in 
1689» axul died in 1706. He published an 

terum, wiih leamcJd netc? •, Chrontflojlctf 
Tables, anc ^'h«» works. — Mtrrcri. 

Bavt^o-t, or BcAdLtzu (James), s ede^ 
br^ated lithotomift, >vas bom in I'Jol, iSf 
pof>r parents. He wm for some trine a s^l- 
d'cr, after whkh he became acquainted 
with ati empirical sul'iE^eon^ who pretended 
to cure the stone. flavSnj received swni 
lesions from this man, he assume*! a mo- 
nastit drcHS, thoiijrh he bfitenged to no re- 
G^ious order ; called himself brother James, 
and after operating in variom provinces 
went to Paris, where his practice WAs B9i 
approved of at iSrst, but sueceeding in the 
cure of a boy, he toon acquired a great 
number of patiefittf. Wh«a he had Ex- 
tracted the stone he left theitoiind to heal 
of itself. His meihod was adopted, with 
improvemcms, by Cheseldeo. He dkd in 
1720.— iVWi.. dA. Hist. 

Baumt, (James Francis de ia), a Frotch 
ecclesiastic, who wrot^ a bombastic piece, 
entitled 'l1ie Christiade,6 vols. 12mo. 175S; 
and some otltcr piecM* He died in 1757w— 


Baumir (John William), a pk^idaa,w» 
born at Rheweiler in 17 1^, and ^ticated 
at Jena and Halte. He wfts at first a minis- 
ter, which profsssion he quitted for physic, 
and became professor in that faculty at£r« 
furt. He died in 1788. He wrote the Na- 
tural History of the Mineral Kingdom, 9 
vol ft. I A N:Knr,il Hi<;tory of Precious StoneH 
and other catecmod works.— Crw. Bng. 

Baumgartkn (Alexander Gottlieb), ^ 
Prus&ian writer, was born at Berlin in 1714. 
He studied at Halle, and bccanie pi«ofe3»f 
of philc^ophy there, and aft«rwafdf at 
Vraockfort on the Oder. He died in 1763L 
He wrote Metaphysics, 8vo. ; Ethica Phi- 
K>8ophica, 8vo. ; Aesthetica; Initia Fhiloso* 
phi;c practicne prima. His brother Sigh* 
mh:ui was a distinguished divine of the Lu- 
theran church, and professor of thicok)^ 
at Halle. 1 le died in 17,57-— /i*V. 

Bauk (John William), a paintor and 
env^ravcr, oi vSirasburg. He died io 1^40, 
a;;cd S<?. His pictures of building^ and 
laiulsc.npes are very excellentw— J> FiUt. 

Baur (Frederic William von), a Rus&iao 
jrcr.tTal, was boni in the county of Hcs»ail 
Hanr:<u. He entered early on a military 
lite, an J in 17.55 was in the British servic^ 
as an otlicer in the Hessian artilfory. la 
17."7 he obtained the rank of general aad 
enri.v.'er. ' Frederic U. of Prussia ennobled 
him. In 17(i9 he entered into the strvic* 
•f Cai.'icriue 11. empress of Russia, -who 
named him director of the saltworks ia 
Novot;Orod. He was also employed in tW> 
preat wori.s: the supplying of Moscow 
with v/i.ter ; and in deepening the canal 
near i\ fc'^/ndrcrh, at the end of which btf 
couRtru ted a large harbour. He died io 
1 71-53. I J e published Mcmoircf Historiquei 
et Citoj^T^iphiqucs sur la Valachie, &c.^h«).; 
Carte dc ia Moidavic, pour servir de 1» 

Digitized by vIjOOQIC 


•^ A Y 

Baoscu, the Bu^bor of s bcokv -eaifed 
Eknsa sii cofat S^baa, or On the sev«n dtf- 
lere&c ways of reading the Kofat). He 
litdin tiM 546tll year of the Hegira^-**— 

Baomwct, •Che aathor ^ 1 potm, «iit»- 
ikd Kankab al Derriat, or the Brifiiam 
Star;iapra280of Mahomet^r-/^. - • 

Bavtku (WilHaiA), member of theTrenich 
Icadtny; He wu bom at Pari« m 1588, 
and died there in 1661. He was a man i0r 
#it, and many of hit boB-mots aro pre- 
MTfed. When in Spidn, he^went ta«ee f^ 
library'of the Eeeunal, the keeiier of-whidi 
wa* exceeding ignorant. The king ask- 
ing his opinion of the library, he answered 
Mt ** it was a very fine one; but your 
naieRy," adds he, « ought to make the K- 
Irarian- treasurer of -your finances.** — f^Wky 
ior-i*id Khe king. « Because,'* says Ba\i- 
•ti, *^he never meddles with what ht is 
entn«ed.'^A&wv. Dirf. ^ff?//. 
- BAXran (Richard), an En^Ish noncon* 
ktmift divine. Hewas bom m Shropshire 
-k UI5, and was rather unlucky ui his 
Kton; who were ekher men of little abiH- , 
rr, or who paid Kttl* aftetition to their dn- 
IT. He was, therefore, left principally to 
tatown diiigenee. In 1638 he was oroain- 
(d,and In 1640 hrf became minister at Kid- 
derminster, which he qulttod on the Com- 
auaceraent of the troubles, being inclined 
lodw parliament side, lie then went to 
Coventry, where he officiated to the gar- 
siMML Afterwards he was chapiain to tbe 
amy, which he left in 1657, and returned tu 
Kidaerminscer. In a conference with Crcm- 
well-hehad the honesty to speak in defct.ce 
of monarchy. At the restoration he w.ts 
sppoinied one of the king*s chaplains, and 
»a» a heading man at the Savoy conferrtice. 
He wǤ i^fered the bishopric of Hereford, 
which he refused.- In 16S5 hewas committed 
to the king's bench, for some passages in his 
pnphtase on the Ntfw Testament, and 
icing dedar^ guilty, was sentenced to be 
*Bmied two years ; but soon obtained his 
jisrhTge. He died in lG9t, atid was 
iuarred in (!!3urist church,' his funeral bcinti^ 
itfieaded by a number of persons, and 
Basy (ygmtarics of the establislied church. 
Hia Works arc numerous, and of 
t^m useful, particularly his Saint*s Ever- 
iwing Retti — Life by Calmmy, 

BAZTvn ( Willnm;, nephew of the above, 
%as bom in I650, 'at Lanlu^ny, in Shrop- 
^^in. He published a grammar of the 
l^ttin tongue in 1679; an edition of Ana- 
fteon m 1695; an edition of Horace 4n 
1710; and a dictionary of British antiqui« 
ites-in 1719. Hia glossary of Roman ami- 
vmes was not prmted till 1726. l^e kept 
nraeveral years a school at Tottenham 
H^;k<ross, and was afterwards appoint-ed 

Baster of the mercers' school in Loadon. 

^'BAtTKit (Andrew), an ingenious ^tef, 
was born in 1687, at Aberdeen, and edu- 
cated in King'»K:6ileg& thetie. He .became 
til tor to-ffoime young gvmlemien, with whom 
he travelled, and on his return settled at 
Whittingham, in East IjOthian, "\^here be 
.died-in 1750.Mr. Baxter is known by tvuo 
good works ; 1 . An Enquiry into the Na- 
ture of the Human Soul, wherein its imma- 
teriality is evinced from the Principles t^ 
Reason and PhiJosoplry, 3 vols. . 8vot *. 
Mntho :. sive Cosmotheoria pnerilis) Dia- 
h^l^us, in quo prima Elementa de Mundi 
.ordxtte et ornatu Proponuntur, Ac, Thia 
book was translated into English, in 2 yoit. 

> BATAan (Peter chevab'er de), a celdt 
brated captain .of .the 16th century, kpt 
horn in Dauphin^, and slain in an acdon 
with the imperialists in Italy, in 1524. ,He 
was at the taking of Brescia, where he per- 
fotmed- a noble act of generosity in return- 
mg to the dauj^hter of his hostess f300() pis- 
toh», which the mother had given him to 
save her hoitso from, plunder. When :mo/- 
tally wounded, he turned himself tow^rdi 
the enemy, sriyin^, •*^ As in Itfe.I alwftyt 
faced the enemy, so in death I will no^trim 
my back upon'them.** — Nam. Dkt.Hrst. 
• Batkr (John), a German a^ronom^^r, 
who pubil^I.ed, in 1<;0!1, an excellent work, 
entitled, Uranometria» being a celestial at- 
las, or folie charts of ail tfae coniteiiritions; 
he first dis;ir.gui«shed the the letter* 
of the Greek alphabet, and according to 
the order of the maeT^itudeof tlie stars in 
each constrll itiou. This work was repub- 
lished, with rreat improvement* by the au- 
thor, in 1C27, under a new- title, viz. Ca- 
him Stcllatuni Chrl-tianunu— //w/.'<jt. 

Bayer (Theophiiiis Sigfrcd), a learned 
pbildlopfisi, v/is born at Koi^i^sbcrg iii 
]()94. He acquired a preat knowledge of the 
cajtem lang'-i^^es, p^ifticularly the Chinr^e, 
In 1717 he wa-> appointed librarian at Ko- 
nigsberg,and in 1 71*') was invited to Peters- 
burg-, where he was made profej»sOr ^f 
Greek and Roman antiquities, aiid died 
ihcre in 17a!<. His Miisaeuin Stnician, 
printed m 17:50, in y vob. 8vo. is a Vcry^ 
curious and learned wnrk.-—Af<r/«r/, 

Bay2UX (N.), an advocate at Caen, ^ho 
obtained from the academy at Houeu t^e 
prise for a poem on fiHal piety. He tc»ns- 
iated the Fasti of Ovid, to which he addled 
curious notcsi minted in 4 Vols. 870. He 
wrote also, Reflectionaon the Reign of Tra- 
jan,, 4to. He was sent to prison at Orleautf^ 
and fell in the massacre there in 17^2. ■ " 
Nou^. Diet. His*. 

Bajle (Peter), a celebrated French writ- 
er, was born at Cai'la, in the c<.'U«rt*y of 
Foix, in lfe'47. He^was eduoared- *»r thtf 
ministry among the protcstwir^, but while 
attending the Jesuits* c^e^rf turned Romaii 
catholic, to the great grief <>f his i»tber, 
•who was a ministjjr among the reformedi. 
However he-did not lox^ i:o4^mievi»tlbat 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


pccmuftion, but returcej to Us fbrmcv com- 
munion, and v/ent to Geneva, where h« 
formed an intu^i^icy wiih Basn;\^. He wa* 
jff)r some years profeasor of phuocophy at 
ScdAu, Ujt when thit academy was sup- 
pressed by the king in 1(531, he removed 
to Hcuterdam, aud was chosea professor of 
philosophy and hisLory' there. In 1()34 he 
beji^AU a litarary journal, entitled Nouvelics 
de la RepubUque des l.a:tre», v^hich ob- 
tiiintdgrcit celebrity, in IG'jti he wasde* 
prived of his prt>fessorsh;p, on suspicion of 
being in the pay of France. The first vo- 
lume of Lis* i^reatcst work, 1 he Historical 
and Critical Dictionary, appcnred in 1695, 
and quickly reached a second edition. It 
^-as, boweVer, attacked by some writers, 

EartlcuLiriy by M. Jurieu, with whom he 
ad bciore a bitter controversy, respect- 
ing* an anonymoii* bcok written against 
'Jurieu's proplictical opinions, and which 
was generally and truly attributed co Bay le. 
He died in rzOH. Besides the work* already 
' jnemionecl,hewrote,'r!io\i2^ht5on Cumstj; 
* Criricism on Maimbourj:^*s History of 
Calvinism} a Philosophical comment on 
the Words^of Christ, * Compel them to 
come in,* 6cc. It must be owned, however, 
that his writiugs betray no smidl portion 
of scepticism on rcli^ous subjects. — Li/l- by 
Des Maizfoux. 

Baylet (Anselm), a divine of the 
Church of England, was of Christ-church 
Collcg^e, Oxford, where he proceeded to Iiis 
degree of doctor of Liws in 1764. He 
became mino.r canon of St. Paul's and of 
"Westminster abbey; and also sub-dean of 
the Chyipei Roy ah He died in 1704. Dr. 
Uuyley published, l.The Antiquity, Evi- 
dence and Certainty of Christianity can- 
vassed, ou Dr. Middleton's examination of 
the Bibhop of London's discour ,es on Pro- 
phecy. SJ. A Praciical IVeati eon i>ingin^ 
^nd Playin^j with just exprc^^^ion ind re:d 
elegance, Svo. .'J. A Plain and C(>.npiete 
(jrammar of the En^^lisli luJirun^e, 8vo. 4. 
A of the Hcbiewl ii.i;ua.q;c, with 
and without point-^,Svo. 5. 'i'i^'^ Oii Tes- 
tament, Krelish and lichrew, w-.fii re .uaks 
CrLiicai and GrainjiiaticaU 4 vols. bvo. G, 
The Commmidmi-Mtii of (lod, ii N.i.'jjt, 
Institution and rciiji'.iou- .iatute^ m t'.c I^v:- 
khand Christliui ci:ur* i.cs: i'wo .N.'rinons, 
8vo. 7. The alliance b^t^.ccn -\Ij;ic a.j.d 
Poetry, 8vo. — K-iop. M *r. G--::. M,^. 

Baylv (Lewis), an <.r..incv.- f)rr!.uj, was 
bom at Caermanhen, jii .^vXiJi W 


educated at Oxiord. in 
bishop of Bangor, and iWd iu I /J. H<j 
wrote that '.rru knowii b-^ok, I 'it i^i uiicc 
of Piety.— W'^r'<»fl'V/i. a 

Baylt (Thomas), son (>f xXm pr^ re ''ihj, 
was educated at Cajnluld^^t;, aud bec.wj.j 
tiubdfcan of Wells in loJS. iU^ ufi crwai Ci> 
turned Roman catholic, and pul)iii.:i^icd some 
books \'\ vl.idicaiion of hi* new faith, to.- 
which he was imprisoned in Ncv/gaif, but 
f ^tcd hie Mcape, ai^d went'^ibroad, where 

B E it 

be died about lC57,^nid. 

Baynard (Anne), an ingenious lady^ 
was the daughter of Dr. Edward Baynard, 
an enunent physician, and born at Prestoil 
in Lancashire m 1C72. Har father gave 
her a very liberal education, and undef 
his instructions she acquired, an extensive 
knowledge of philosophy, astronomy, and 
mnthemixiics, a* well as of the Latin and 
Creok liTi-nif^cs. She died in the prime of 
life in 16)7, aiid w.ii buried at Barnes in 
Surry, ^he wrote Latin with great fiuc&cy 
andeleg^ncc.~Cjj7/.rV //«'. /)lV^ 

BAYjits (Jolin), an rngliah lawyer, was 
boi-n in 1758, at Middleham, iii Yorkshire, 
and educated iirst at Riclimond school, and 
aftci wards at Trinity college, Cambridife, 
from whence he removed to Grays-inn. Ke 
wrote a number of pieces in prose and 
verse in the public paper*; but being po- 
litical, they are sunk into oblivion. He 
intended to hare published a correct edi- 
tion of lord Coke"';. tracts, but was pre- 
vented by death in nsy.-^EuroJi. A%. 
^ Bay.n::3 (sir, an £ngli»h phy- 
sician, and professor of music at Grcsham 
colic {;c, w;is born about IbVJ, and educated 
at Cini&fs couc;tc, Cambridge, where h» 
applied :o the sti uy of physic. He accora- 
jjanied sir John J'incli to Italy and Constan- 
tinople, reccivin^r at the same lime the ho- 
nour of kuij^htiiuod. Ho died at Constan- 
tinople in IG. l,to the great grief of Jr 
Joiin Finch, who did not long survive him. 
T];ey leftin,coiiiunctioa 4000/. to Christ'* 
colic 3;e. — B/o^. Br. 

Bazzaz, the author of the Adab al Mo- 
frcdat,or a Treatise on the particular Con- 
ditions and Propcnici* of Traditions, and 
some other worki on the niohammed^n 
theolo^S^y. — D' H''rb:'ot, 

Bt: (William le), a Fren-rh engraver and 
Ictter-fi>andcr, was born at Troyes in lo'25, 
and died at Paris in 1598. His sons and 
graiidsons were very fitmous as founders 
and printcrj).— ikfor^-ri. 

Bi^ACO.M (iTiomas), an English divine of 
the IClh ccnturv. 6n the accession of 
queen Mary, he lied to Germany, where ho 
wro*fc severia books :ijyainst p>opcry. In the 
reij^ii of LH/' bpth ho returned to England, 
ai:d v/as ta:.\<: prcbcr'iHry f^l Canterbury. 
HJH vvork.i ufcie ;-)iiurrd in J vols. fobo. 

Pii: \i,r iii.p;h>h portrait pain- 
ter. S\i V. as the dau^hicr of Mr. Cradock, 
nn; !-rcr oi Waltor.-upuu-ThcUnc,, and co* 
^ wivh xv.wx r\,i. tne^s tiie work* «jf sir 
'Peter J,.ly .itid-\:;n.i^ ke. Her colouring- 
w.ii cio.ti and sti.juf^, with a great Joi>k of 
nature', ^itc- Imi! aKo a poetical turn, ?nd 
paraph: ,t n-i feomc ^^i David's psaha^. Her 
.bu>])inu \v;;s an .irtjst, a<i were two of 
h'T : .)ij^. but o.ic of Jjcm reliiiqui'.hcdtUt 
inuitastv-.'i, iU'd .itrcr s«tud)ing und'^r iSydcu- 
h.t:n, bcv.u':u a piiysiiinn at Covers ry, 
Mrs, J>( 'le tliuJ )ri l0J7, .Jgcd tit;.— -i)' 'if. 

Blauw (.'ohn;, an iin^iiih actor and 

Digitized by 


B E A 

B E A 

^ojrer, was brought up in the king's cha- 
pel. His Srsf appearance on the itage 

! was in the character of fir John Loverule, 
ID the Devil to Pay, in 1737, at Drury- 
iaue. In 1739 he married hdy Henrietta' 
Herbert, daugJiter of the earl of vvalde- 
grave, and widow of lord Edward Herbert, 
who brought him little fortune. After 
quitting the stage some years, he returned 
to it in 1744, and continued engaged at 
Owcnt Garden till 175«. He died in 
1 768, aged 74,^Bieg, Dram. 

Beaton (David)^a cardinal, aad arch- 
bishop of St. Andrew's in Scotland, was 
bom m 1494. In 15 1 9 he was appointed resi- 
dent at the court of France; and in 1523 

j he obtained the rich abbey of Arbroath. 

i In 1528 he was made lord privy seal. He 

j ne^iated the marriage of James V. with 
princess Magdalen of France, and after* 

j wards with princess Mary. Paul HI. raised 
him to thecardinalatein 1 538, about which 
time he was made primate of Scotland. On 
the death of the Icings the lords of the coun- 
cil sent the cardinal to prison, from whence 
he was released not long after by the re- 
gent, and made chancellor. He persecuted 
tl»e protestams with great fury, and among 
others caused the celebrated Wiahart to 
he burnt before his own palace. Shortly 
afterwards he was assassinated in his house 
by IxiAef and other protectants, in 1546.— 
i%. Br. 

^EATOK (James), nephew of the cardinal, 
ivas bom at Balfour in 1530, and raised t» 
the archbishopric of Glasgow at the age 
of 2a. In 1560 he collected the sacred 
TCsseh and records of his cathedral, and 
went to France, where he died in 1603. 
He wrote a history of Scotland, which was 
acTcr printed — IbU. 

BrArus RnENANU8,.a learned man of 
the 45th century. His name wa« Bilde, 
which he altered to Rhenanus, from the 
place of his nativity, Rheinach. He was a 
profound scholar, and was the first who 

\ published the history of Velleius Patercu- 
Im. He abo edited the works of Tcrtullian, 
t» which he added valuable notes. He 
diedat'Strasburg in 1547. He wrote an- 
notatioiu on several classical works, epis- 
tles, and other learned pieces. — Ge». Bi'^. ' 
Bkattie (James^, a distinguished wri- 
ter, was bom in Kincardineshire in Scot- 
land, in 1735. His father was a farmer, 
who sent htm to the university of Aber- 
deen, where he pursued his studies in such 
1 maimer as to gain the esteem of his su- 
periors, and he became a bursar, that is, 
obtained what in the English universities 
K called an ethibition or scholarship. He 
wu afterwards a schoolmaster at Alloa in 
Fifeshire, from whence he removed to 
^rdeen, where he became assistant in 
"« grammar-school, and married the mas- 
ter's daughter. ' In 1760 he published a 
WttU Toloae of original poems and trans- 
«»Ds. la 17§5 appeared his Judgment 


of Paris.* But his greatest performance 
was a prose work, published in 1 770, en- 
titled, An Essay on the Nature and Immu** 
tability of Truth, in opposition to Sophistry 
and Scepticism. This was an attack upon 
the philosophy of Hume, who ^ras so much 
affected by it, as never to hear the name of 
Beattie mentioned without betraying emo* 
tions of uneasiness. In 1771 x)ur author 
brought out the first book of his beautiful 
poem, the Minstrel, which was completed 
111 1774, and soon ran through several edi- 
tions. This production recommended him 
to the friendship of the earl of Errol, by 
whose interest he was elected professor of 
moral philosophy and logic in the Maris- 
chal college of Aberdeen, which situation 
he filled with reputation till his death. He 
also obtained a pension from the king of 
200/. per annum. About this time he wa» 
created LL. D. and visited London, where 
he was kindly received by the moat emi- 
nent literary characters, particularly Dr. 
Johnson and Dr. Porteus, since bishop of 
London. In 1783 he published Disserta- 
tions moral and critical, 4to. In 1786^ at 
the recommendation of the bishop of Lon<» 
don, he printed two small volumes on the 
Evidences of the Christian Religion, ^e* 
sides these works he published the Blements 
of Moral Science, being a summary of his 
lectures. Dr. Beattie died in October 1803. 

Beattie (James Hay), eldest son of the 
above, was bom at Aberdeen in 1768. Hia 
mildness and docility were such, that his 
father never had occasion to reprove him 
above three or four times in his life. The 
first rules of morality taught him by this 
afiectionate parent were to ** speak truth 
and keep a secret! ;" and " I never found," 
says he, ** that in a single instance he trans- 
gressed either." At me age of 1 3 he was 
entered a. student of the Marischal college, 
and in 1786 took the degree of M.A To 
a young man so qualified and educated in 
a great measure within its walls, the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen was eager to exhibit 
some mark of its regard, and accordin^^iy 
recommended him to his Majesty as a pro- 
per person to be assistant professor of mo- 
ral philosophy and logic to bis father, 
wiiich was granted when he was not quite 
nineteen. He was so impressed with the 
imjjortance of religion as alwavs to carry 
about with him a' pocket Bible and the 
Greek New Testament; he studied music 
as a science, and performed well upon the 
organ and violin ; and contrived to' build 
an orfr;in for himself. This aniiable and 
promising ycung man died of a nervous 
atrophy, Nov. 19, 1790. His father pub- 
lished a small volume of his son's poetical 
performances in 1799, with the life of the 
author, from whence tliis is cxiracied. 

Beau (John Lewis le), professor of rhe- 
toric in the college of the Orasdins, and 
member of the academy of4&8criplion». 

^ Digitized by CiOOglC 

B £ A 

B e: A 

He Wis born at Paris in 1721, an'd died in 
1766. He published an edition of Homer 
in Greek and Latin, 3 vols. 1746, and the 
Orations of Cicero, 3 vols. 1750. He also 
wrote a discourse on the poverty of the 
learned-— JVeiw. Diet, HUt. 

Beau (Charles le), brother of the pre- 
ceding. He was professor in the royal col- 
lege, and secretary of the academy of in- 
scriptions. He was bom in 1701, and died 
at Paris in 1778. His history of the Lower 
Empire, in 32 'vols. 1 2mo. is a judicious 

Eirformance. His Opera Latina were pub- 
hed at Paris in 17«3, 3 vols. 12mo. — Ibid. 

Bbaucaike. ns Pecuillom (Francis), 
archbishop ofMetz, was at the council of 
Trent, where he pleached with ^eat clo^ 
qtience for a reformatidn. He resigned his 
bishopricyand went into retirement, in which 
he wrote his Rcrum Gallicarum Commen- 
taria, abanno 1461 ad annum 1 562, Lyons, 
1625, fol. He died in 1591.— Aforrri. 

Beaucuam p (Richard), earl of Warwick, 
was born in 1381, and died at Rouen 
in Normandy, in 1439 ; he was at the 
council of Constance, and obtained several 
victories over the French. His remains 
were conveyed to England and interred 
with his ancestors at Warwick- — B'log, Br, 
' Beaucham PS (Peter Francis Go^ard), a 
French writer, died at Paris in 1761, aged 
72 ; he wrote Recherehes sur les ITieatres 
de France, 4to. and translateH the Greek 
romances of Ismene and Itmenias, by £u- 
stathius ; and Rhodantes and Doricles, by 
Theodojiats Prodromus : he also pave a po- 
etical version of the letters of Abelard and 
Eloisa. — Neuv, D'ut. ffist, 

Beauchateau (Francis Matthew Chatei- ' 
let), a French poet. He was bom at Paris 
in 16^. While a child his poetical ta- 
lents introduced him to court ; at the age 
of 12 he published a collection of poems, 
entitled La Lyre du jeune Apollon. He 
was drowned in a voyage to the east in 
1660— /JiV. 

Beaver (John), a benedictine monk of 
Westminster in the 14th centurv, who 
wrote a Chronicle of British Affairs from 
Brutus to his own time, and a bool^ de Re- 
bus CQEnobii Westmonasteriensis^- — Pitj, 

Beaupjls (William), a jesiiit, was born 
in Auvergne in 1674, and died at Tou- 
louse in 1758. He published several fune- 
ral discourses, and other works^--— ^A^otrsr. 
JDie:. Jiiit. 

BeaUiort (HenxT-), brother of Henry 
IV. king of England, was made bishop of 
Lincoln, from whence he was translated to 
Winchester : he was also chancellor of the 
iLingdom, and sent ambassador to France. 
In 1426 he was made cardinal and appoint-- 
ed legate in Germany. In 1431 he crowned 
Henry VI. in the lyreat church of Paris. 
He was a proiid, turmilent prelate, and his 
last scene, as described by Sbakspeare, ap- - 
pears to ^ve bcca not merely a poetical. 

but a true picture of the man. He died at 
W^inchestcr in 1447. — Bicg. Brit, 

Beaufort (Margaret), countess of Rich* 
mond and Derby, was the daughter and 
heiress of John duke of Somerset, and bora 
in 1441 ; she married Edmund Tudor, eari 
of Richmond, by whom she had a eon, af- 
terwards Henry VIL Her first kusband 
dying in 1456, she married sir Henry Staf- 
ford, by whom she had no issue, and on 
his death she became the wife of Thomas 
lord Stanley, afterwards earl of Derby. 
She foundea the colleges of Christ and St. 
John in Cambridge, and died in 1509.' She 
was buried in Westminster abbey,— /Ai^ 

BEAuroRT (Francis de Vendome, duke 
of)* was the son of Caesar, duke of Yen- 
dome, and bom in 1616; he was impri- 
soned on the charge of conspiring against 
the life of cardinal Mazarin, but escaped, 
and began a civil war, which sdon subsided. 
On making his peace he was made adi:iiral 
of France, and inl 665 defeated the Turkish 
fleet near Tunis. He was killed at the 
siege of Candia in 1669. — JV«jr». D/c*. Hist, 

Beauport (Louis d'), a learned writer, 
who died at Maestricht in 1795; he was 
chosen fellow of the royal society of JLX>ndon, 
and distinguished himself in tne republic 
of letters by some excellent works, as the 
History of Germanicus ; Dissertation upon 
the Uncertainty of the First Five Ages of 
the Roman Republic; History of the Rf> 
man Republic, or Plan of the ancient Go- 
vernment of Rome^ — Jifd, 

^ BpAtjLnv (Lewis le Blanc), professor of 
divinity at Sedan, was bom m 1611 at 
Plessis-MarlL His I'heses Sedanenses were 
published in 1683, folio. He died iiji 1675. 
— il/crwi. 

Beau lieu (Sebastian Pontault de), a 
French engineer, ^ed in 1674. His views 
and plans of the sieges sSid battlss of 
Lewis XIV. are in 2 vols, folia—- A'^im. 
J)ici. Hut, 

Beau M ARC KAis (Peter Aueustin Cartm 
d'), was the son of a clockmaker at Paris, 
and bom in 1732. He applied with di- 
Hgeoce to his father's profession, and in» 
vented a new escapement, the honour of 
which was' contested by another poucsoa, but 
determined in favour of Beaumarchais hy 
the academy of sciences. He also di^ 
tinguishcd himself by his musical skill, par* 
ticularly by hh taste in playing on the 
harp. This recommended him to Uic notice 
of the sisters of Louis XV. who admitted 
iiini to their concerts. • He was likewise 
engaged in three public causes, ai\ which 
he exercised hi^ literary talents to sacb ad« 
vantage as to obtain a considerable post.un* 
der government. He was an active, intelfi- 
gent,audcnterprisingman. He died in pfl* 
son in 1799. His principal works are,l. Lift* 
moires contre les Sicurs de Goesnian, la 
Llachc, Marin, de Arnaud, 1774. 2i Me- 
moir in answer to William Kornmam^ 

Digitized by 


B E A 

B E A 

h87. S. Eugenie, a play in five act& 4. 
TV Two Friends, a play. 6. The Barber 
of Seville, a comedy. 6. The Marriage of 
F%vo, a comedy. &c- — 3i</* 

Bkaumellk (Lawrencc),a French writer, 
vas born in the diocese of Allais in 1727, 
md died at Paris in 1773; he was for some 
tnne professor of belles-lettres in Denmark. 
He was twice imprisoned in the bastille for 
some libels and satires, but in 177S he was 
ippctiaced librarian to the king. He wrote 
a Defence of the Spirit of Laws, Letters 
to Voltaire, Thoughts of Seneca, a Com- 
meotary upon the Henriade,a Life of Mad. 
Miintenon, &c. — IliJ. 

BcADMONT (sir John), son of Francis 
Beaumont, a Judge of the common pleas, 
was bom at Grace-Dieu, in Leicestershire, 
in 1582, and educated at Oxford, from 
whence he removed to one of the inns of 
court In 1 626 he was knighted by kin^ 
Charles I. and died in 1628. He wrote, 1. 
The Crown of Thorns, a poem. 2. JBos- 
worth Field, a poem, and other pieces, 
wbich VTere collected and published after 
his death bv his son, sir John Beaumont, 

Beaomokt (Francis), a relation of the 
above, was educated at Cambridge, from 
whence he removed to the Inner TemjHe. 
He di^ in 1615, and was buried in West- 
ninster abbey. He wrote a number of 
plays in conjunction with Fletcher, which 
posieis great merit. — Biog-^ Brit, 

BiAOMONT (Joseph), an English divine, 
who was master of Peter-house, Cambridge, 
aod regius professor of divinity. He died 
ia 1699, afred S4. He wrote a religious 
poem, entitled Psyche, or Love's Mvsterj. 
A collection of his poems was publisKed m 
1749, in 4to.— G«». A D. - 

BcAOMOKT DE PcRBPiz (Hardouiii), a 
French historian, who wan preceptor to 
Louii XIV. by whom he was made arch- 
bishop of Pans. He wrote the history of 
Heory 1 V. and died in 1 670. — Mereri. 

Beaumont (Elie d*),a French advocate, 
was bom at Carentan in 1732; he distin- 
foished himself by his memoir in favour 
of the unfortunate family of Galas, which 
produced a powerful eifect upon the na- 
tion. He was abo the author of several 
other esteemed pieces. He died in 1785. 
His wiie waft the author of a novel, entitled 
JLetten of the Marquis de Roseile, l2mo. 
She died in 1 783.— JVitv. lyicL Wsi. 

Beaune (Jame9de),baronof Samblancai^ 
and saperintendant of the finances under 
Tnncis I. When Lautrec was sent to the 
ilefenceof the Mibnese, he stipulated that 
SOQpOO crowns should be? sent to pay the 
troops. This money, l^owevcr, the queen- 
taotker obtained of the su^erintendant for 
lienelf, with threats of ruming him if he 
'W not comply. The expedition having 
failed for want of the promised supply,. 
compS^ntt were laid before the king ap^ainst 
Sttlbn^, who^alkged the real cause ia 

Hlstification of himself. The queen-mothet' 
oribed his secretary to deliver to her the re- 
ceijjtB she had given, which being the only 
testimonies poor Samblancai had, he was 
accused of having appltea the money to 
his own use, and was hanged in 1527. 
Gentil, his secretary, was afterwards exe- 
cuted for another cnme. — Moreri. 

Bbaunc (Floriment d'),a French mathe- 
matician, who discovered a method of de- 
termining the nature of curves by the pro- 
perties of their triangles. He died in J 652. 

Beau rain (John de), geoigrapher to Louis 
XV. was born at Aix in 1697, and died in 
1771. He constructed a number of -charts, 
and published a topographical and military 
Description of the Campaigns of Luxem- 
burg from 1690 to 1694, 3 vols. foL — Nowo. 
Diet. Hist, 

Beaurjeu (Gaspard-Guillard de), an in- 
genious French philosopher, and author of 
tlie excellent work, /* Eleve de la Nature^ the 
Pupil of Nature, 2 vols, and of many other 
publications . He was born in the county 
of Artois in 1727. To the eternal disgrace 
of the revolution, this respectable man, 
died in an hospital in 1795. — llid. 

Beau SOB RE (Isaac de), a French pro* 
testant divine, was bom at Mort in 1659. 
On leaving his own country he went to 
Holland, and from thence to Berlin, where 
he was made chaplain to the king of Prus- 
sia; and died in 1738. His works are; 
1. Defense de la Doctrine des Reform^s ; 2. 
A Translation of the New Testament, with 
notes in conjunction with L*£nfant ; 3. 
Dissertation sur les Adamites de Boh^me ; 
4. Histoire critique de Manich^e et du Ma- 
nich^isme, 2 tom.which has been pfaised by 
Gibbon ; 5. .Sermons.— Jlfcrtfri. 

Bbausobrc (Lewis), counsellor to the 
king of Prussia, was bom at Berlin in 1730«. 
and died in 1783. He wrote Philosophical 
Dissertations on the Nature of Fire; Le 
Pyrrhonisme du Sage ; Les Songfrs d'Epi- 
cure. — Nquv. Diet. Hist. 

Beaovais (William), of the academy of • 
Cortina, and of the literary society of Or- 
leans, born in 1G98, and died in 1779. He 
wrote a History of the Roman Emperors 
by Medals, 3 vols. 12mo. 1767. — I6id. 

Beauvais (Charles Nicholas), a physi- 
cian, bom at Orleans in 1745, and died at 
Montpellier in 1794. He was a member 
of the convention, and a man of turbulent* 
character. He wrote Essais Historiques sur 
Orleans; Description topographique du 
Mont Olivet, &.c.-^Uid, 

Beauvilliers (Francis de), duke of St. 
Aignan and member of the French acade- 
my. He was born in 1607 ; wrote several 
poems, aiid died iii 1687. His eldest son 
Paul, duke of Beauvilliers, was preceptor 
to the duke of Burgundy, father of Louis 
XIV. The bishop of Beauvaid, his bro- 
ther^ was an ofnament to the mitfe, and 
died in 1732: he wrote' some religious 
books. Paul Hippolytus, thiird son (»t the 

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duke of Beauvillien, was born in ir>84,«'ind 
died in 1776': he >yrote a book, entitled, 
Ammemcns Uiteraires. — A'oi/v. Diet, Hht, 

Bkauze'e (Nicholas), a French writer and 
member of the academy, professor of j^ram- 
mar in the military school, was born at 
Verdun in 1717, and died in 1789. He 
wrote the articles on jjrammar in the En- 
cyclopedic ; but though allied with iniidels, 
hVwas nimself a sincere christian. Beau zee 
once asked Diderot how thcv came to elect 
him a member of the acaacmy, since he 
was a christian ? " Because,'* answered the 
other, •* we had not a grammarian among 
us, and we knew you to be an honest man. * 
He wrote a Universal Grammar, or an Ex- 
position of the Elements of Lanj^^uages, 2 
vols. 8vo. ; an Exposition of the Historical 
Proofs of Religion, and other works. — Ibid, 
Berrlk (Henry), professor of eloquence 
in the university of Tubingen. He pub- 
lished a collection of Latin poems at Stras- 
burg in 151ii, 4to. — M^reri, 

Becan (Martin), a learned Jesuit and 
confessor to the emperor Ferdinand II. ; he 
was born in. Brabant, and died at Vienna 
in 1624. He wrote a Sum of Theology in 
French. Some of his pieces were con- 
demned by the parliament .of Paris, and by 
the court of Rome. — Ibid, 

Bkccadelli (Lewis), an Italian ecclesias- 
tic, was born at Bologna; he assisted at 
the council of Trent, and was rewarded 
with the archbishopric of Ragusa, which 
preferment he resigned on being appointed 
preceptor to prince Ferdinand of Tuscany; 
for this he only received the provostship 
of the cathedral of Prato. He died in 
1572. He wrote the lives of cardinals Pole 
and Bembc. — A'otft*. Z)/V/. Hist, ^ 

Beccadklli (Antonio), commonly called 
Antony of Palermo, where he was born in 
1374; he was professor of belles-lettres 
and rhetoric at Pavia, where he received 
the poetic laurel from the emperor Sigis- 
mund in 14S2. Alphonso, king of Naples, 
created him a nobleman, and gave him se- 
veral honourable employments. He is said 
to have sold a farm to buy a copy of Livy. 
He died at Nafiks in 1471. Hewrote'a 
book on the sayings and actions of Al- 
phonso, king of Arragon ; and a collection 
4>f his epistles and other pieces was pi;inted 
at Venice in 1453. But he is know^n chief- 
hr as the author of an obscene work, en- 
titled Hcrmaphroditus. — Moreri, 

Beccafumi (Dominico), an historical 
painter, w:is born at Sienna in 1484, and 
studied the works of Raphael and Michael 
Angek) Buonarotl He died in 1549^ 
J)e PiUj, 

BeccARi (Augusttue), an Italian poet, 
was born at Ferrara : his poems are wholly 
pastoraL He died in 15iO. — TiruLoscU. 

Beccari (James Baitholomew), a phvsi- 
cian of Bologna, born in 1C82, and die<l in 
17C6 : he was professor of chemistry at his 
i|tttive place ouuiy years, and pubbsbed a 

Dissertation on the Impurity of the Aif, 
and Maladies which raged at Bolpgna in 
1729 and 17,)0; a Treatise on the Motion 

of Fluids, and other works. Xouv DiJ» 


Beccaria (John Baptist), a philosopher 
and ecclesiastic, was a native of Mondovi 
.in Piedmont : he was professor of philoso- 
phy at Palermo, and afterwards at Rome, 
from whence he removed to Turin. He 
was greatly respected by the king of Sar- 
dinia, to whose sons he was tutor. He 
made several discoveries in electricity, and 
published some vahiable works on that 
and other philosopliical subjects. He 

Beccaria (Cxsar Bonesana, marquis% 
was born about 1720, and discovered from 
his childhood an inclination to philosophy, 
which he studied under Genovesi at Na- 
ples. His first performance was a Treatise 
oh Crimes and Punishments, for which he 
narrowly escaped a prosecution : his next 
work was entitled DisUviisitions on the Na- 
ture of Style. He died in 1795. — Ihid. 

BeccUti (Francis), an Italian poet, sur- 
named il Cappita, was born .at Perugia in 
1509, and died at the age of 44. He was 
professor of law, but is best known by his 
burlesque poetry in the manner of Berni^— 
Nouv, Did, Hiit, 

BecERRA (Gaspard), a celebrated Spanish 
sculptor, wAs the pupil of Raphael: his 
chief work is a statue of the Virgin, made 
by order of the queen Isabella de Valois : 
he also painted well in fresco. He died at 
Madrid in 1570. — Nouv, Diet. Hut, 

Bechcr (John Joachim), an enuncnt 
chemist, was born in 1645 at Spires, where 
he became professor of medicme, and af- 
terwards was appointed first physician to 
the elector of Mcntz and Bavaria. He re- 
sided for some time at Vienna, and assii^t- 
ed in a variety of .manufactures. Wc^ext 
find him at Hacrlem, where he invented a 
machine for throwiug silk. He died in 
England, in 16K5. His principal works are 
Phyj,ica Subtcrranca ; Institutiones Chy- 
Uiicae ; and Kpistolx ChjTnica:. — Aifarcri. 

Becker (Daniel), physiciar^ to the elec- 
tor of Brandenburg, was a native of Ko- 
nigsburg, and died there in 1C70, aged 4^ 
He published, 1. Commentarius de Theria- 
ca, &c. London, 1660, 8vo. ; 2. De Culti- 
voro Prussinio, Leyden, Svo. — Ihid, 

Becket (Thomas a), archbishop of Can- 
terbury, was bom in London in 1119, 
and educated at Oxford and Paris. Henry 
II. appointed him, in 1 158, chancellor and 
preceptor to the prince. The year fol- 
lowing he attended the king to Tnoulousc, 
having, at his own charge, 1200 horse and 
a train of 700 knights. In 116'0 he was 
sent to Paris to negociate a marriage be- 
tween prince Henrj^, and the king of 
France's eldest daughter, with whom here- 
turned to England. In 1 162 he was elected 
arclibishop of Caiiicrburyj on wlucU he rC" 

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^■fned the cbaiicellorship, and assuming^ 
the 2rn)o;aTice of a sovereign pontiff, came 
l& hr>^Tlitic<) with the king, who endea- 
vinircJ to effect a reform amonjr the clergy, 
la a convention held at Clarendon, laws 
were passed respecting the privileges of 
the church, to which Beckct assented at 
first, bur afterwards retracted, knd endea- 
voured to leave the kingdom to communi- 
cate his grievances to the pope. This oc- 
ca^iuncd a parliament to be called at 
Korthamptpn in 1165, when the archbishop 
wa« sentenced to forfeit all his goods to the 
klag. On this He left the kingdom, and 
Henry seiTied upon the revenues of his see. 
£ecket resigned at Sens his archbishopric 
into the hands of the pope, who returned 
it to him with assurances of support. I'he 
prelate now fulminated his anathemas 
against several bishops and noblemen, 
which 8tf irritated the kmg, that he banish- 
ed all his relations. In 1167 an interview 
took place between Henry and Becket in 
Champagne, which ended without pro- 
ducing any effect. In 1 1 69 another attempt 
wai made to bring about a reconciliation, 
which also failed through the obstinacy of 
the archbishop, and Henry was so exaspe- 
rated, that he obliged his subjects to re- 
nounce, by oath, all obedience to Becket 
and the pope. • He aUo caused his sbn ,to 
be crownea at Westminster by the arch- 
bishop of -York ; for which the pope sus- 
pended that jjrelate, and excommunicated 
those who assisted him. An accommoda- 
tion was at last concluded, but Becket re- 
fusing" to withdraw his excommunication 
of the bishops, they laid their complaints 
before Henrjr, who was in Normandy. In 
a fit of passion the king exclaimed how 
unhappy he was, that among so many at- 
tendants, none hall gratitude enough to rid 
him of one who caused him so much dis- 
t«rl>ance. On this, four knights set out for 
Canterbury,and assassinated the archbishop 
at the ahar of his cathedral, Dec. 29, 1171. 
For this the king was obliged by the pope 
to do penance at Becket*s tomb, where ne 
was scourged by the monks, and passed the 
whole da^rand night fasting upon the bare 
•tones. 'I'he murderers were sent on pe- 
nance to the holy land, wliere they died. 
Becket was canonized two years after, and 
his pretended miracles were so numerous, 
that his shrine became the richest in £u- 
n^.^Lytt/cUnt Hen, IL . 

BUCKINGHAM (Charles), an English dra* 
ttatic writer, who wrote two plays of 
merit, viz. Henrv IV. of France, and Scipio 
Africanus. He also wrote some poems, and 
<iied in 1730, aged 32. — Biog^ Dram. 

Beckington (Thomas), bishop of Bath 
tnd Wells in the 15th centurv. He was a 
p-eat benefactor to New college, .Oxford, 
m which he had been educated. He wrote 
a lAtin book on the claim of the kings of 
tn^and to France.— W^om/*/ A, 0, 

BKCQosr (Antboxry), a celestiue mOnk^ 

who wrote a history of the congregation of 
his order in France, 4to. 1721. He died at 
Paris in I7ii0, aged 76. — Morer'i, 

Bec lASH (CuH), a mussulman writer of 
the Persian sect, who wrote a book, called 
Bostan al Khial,or the Garden of Thoughts. 
— D'Herbciot. 

Bectoz (Claude de), a learned French 
lady, and abbess of St. Honor^ de Taras- 
con in the 16th century. She died in 1547, 
and left several works m Latin and French. 
--^ Merer i. 

Bed A (Noel), a French divine, who at- 
tacked Erasmus on account of his para- 
phrases. Being of a persecuting spirit, he 
reflected on the court for not exercising 
more rigour against heretics, for which he 
was banished to the Abbey of Mont St. Mi- 
chael, where h^died in 1537. He wrote 
several polemical treatises. — M«reri, 

B£DA,orJBEOE, called the ^e/terablcy an 
ancient English- writer, was bom in 672, 
at Wearmouth in the bishopric of Dur^ 
ham, educated in the monastery of St. Peter, 
and ordained by John of Beverly, bishop 
of Hexham. His fame for learning was so ' 
great, that pope Sergius wrote to his abbot 
to send him to Rome, but Bede declined 
the honour. He devoted the whole of his 
life to the writing his ecclesiastical history 
and other works, and in instructing the 
young monks. The best edition of his his- 
tory IS that in 1722, folio. Irle died in 735. 
An English council directed his works to 
be pubhcly read in churches. — Biag. Br, 

Bedell (William), an excellent prelate, 
was born in 1570, at Black Noiley in 
Essex, and educated at Emanuel college, 
CambridjB^e; where he obtained a fellow- 
ship. H* was minister of St. Edmund's 
Bury some years, and in 1604 went with sir 
Henry Wotton to Venice, as his chaplain. 
There he became intimate with father 
Paul Sarpi, who entrusted him with the 
MS. of his history of the council of Trent. 
He also became acquainted with Antonio 
de Dominis, archbishop of Spalato, whom 
he assisted in his book de Republica Eccle- 
siastica. In 1627 he was elected provost of 
Trinity-college in Dublin; and two vears 
afterwards was preferred to the unitea sees 
of Kilmore and Ardagh,the latter of which 
he resigned. He obtained a translation of 
the common prayer into Irish, and had the 
New l*estament rendered into the same lan- 
guage ; but, owing tu the troubles, the last 
was not published in his time. It was after- 
wards printed at the expence of Mr. Boyle. 
So great was the reverence of the Irish for 
him, that when the rebellion in 1641 broke 
out, he was unmolested, and was thus ena* 
bled to shelter several protestants in his 
house. At last orders were sent him to 
dismiss those people, and on his refusal, he 
was seized, with his family, and conveyed 
to the castle of Cloughboughter. After r©- 
maining there some time^ they were re- 
moved %o ihfi houd^ of a protestaot miniscerj 

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where the bishop died fcbrnary 7, 1641. 
The Irish rebels attended his remains to 
the church-yard of Kiimore, and fired a sa- 
lute over his jrrave.— Zi/* hy Bp, Burnet. 

Bed ERIC (Henry), an Augustine monk of 
the 14th century, who is called de Bury, 
from his being born at St. Edmund^s Bury. 
He studied at Paris, where he became a 
doctor of Sorbonne. He wrdte some reli- 
gious pieces, and lived about 1380.— -P///. 

Bedford (John duke of), the third son 
of Henry IV. king of England, In 1422 he 
commanded the English army in France, 
and the same year was named regent of 
that kingdom for Henry VI. whom he 
caused to be proclaimed at Paris. He de- 
feated the French fleet near Southampton, 
made himsclfmaster of Cotoi, entered Paris 
with his troops, and beat the duke of Alen* 

Sn ; thus making himself master of France, 
e died at Rouen, in 143.5, where a hand- 
some monument was erected to his me- 
m.ory, which qne of the courtiers of 
Charles VIII. advised him to destroy. « Let 
|iim rest in peace/' answered he,' «* who, 
when living, made all the French tremble." 
*— 'Mot art, 

Bedford (Hilkiah), an English divine, 
was born in London, in. 1663, and educated 
at St. John's college, Cambridge, of which 
he became fellow, and obtained a Hving in 
Lincolnshire, but was deprived of it for 
refusing the oachs. In 1714 he was sen- 
tenced to three years' imprisonment and a 
heavy fine for writing the Hereditary 
Ri^ht of the Crown of England asserted, 
folio ; the real author of which was George 
Harbin. He translated an Answer to Fon-« 
tenelle's History of Oracles, an •Dr. Bar- 
wicke's Life, from the Latin into English. 
He died in 1724. — Gen. Biog, Diet, 

Bin FORD (Thomas), son of the above, 
was educated at Westminster-school, from 
whence he removed to St. John's college, 
CambridgQ. He took orders among the 
non- jurors, and published, in 17S2, Simer 
onis monachi Dynelmensis libellus de ex- 
.prdioatque procursus Dunelmensis ccdesix. 
He also wrote an historical Catechism. He 
died after 1742.— I&i J. 

Beoloe (Capt. William), an infamous 
character, who pretended to give evidence 
respecting the murder of sir Edmundbury 
Godfrey, for which he was rewarded by 
the commons with 500/. He 4>c<l ui I6bO. 
'•^Grangers Biog. Hiit. 

Bedos de Celles (Francis), a benedic- 
tine monk, and member of the academy at 
Bourdeaux, bom in 1726,and died in 1779. 
He published an esteemed treatiae on Dial- 
JiBg, and another on the construction of 
• Organs. — Now. Diet. I list. 
^ Bedrcddin (BaaJbeki;, a Syrjac phvsi- 
cian,'who wrote a book called Mosarreh al 
ncss. He lived in the 7th century of tlwj 
Hcgira. — D'Hirbtla. 

i5«oA (Cfjrncliua), a Dut^h painter. lU 

was born at Haerlem in 1620, and died of 
the plague in 1664. He excelled in land* 
scape, , cattle, and conversations, and hit 
pictures arc hdd in great esteem. — HmAr»' 
ken. • . 

BcGBR (Lawrence), a German writer, 
who was born at Heidleberg in 165S, and 
died at Berlin in 1705. He wrote, 1. The- 
saurus ex Thesauro Palatinus selcctus, sea 
Genunx, fplio ; 2. Spicilegium Antiquiuris, 
folio; 3. Thesaurus, sive Gemmae, Numit- 
mata, &c. 3 vols, folio ; and several other 
learned works, one of i»diich is in defence 
of Poiyganlv- — MorerL 

Beg'eyn (Abraham), principal painter to 
the king of Prussia, was born in Hol- 
land in 165a He painted some fine land- 
scapes for the royal palaces, and several 
good pictures by him are at the Hague-— 

Begon (Michael), born at Blois in 16S8, 
became intendant of the French West-India 
islands, and died in 1710. He collected a 
noble library, and a cabinet of antiques and 
curiosities. He also caused to be «ngraved, 
portraits of the illustrious men of the 17ih 
century. — Mcreri. 

BKCuiLLbT (Edme), advocate in the par- 
liament of Dijon, and correspondent o£ 
the academvof Belles-Lettres, died in 1786. 
He wrote tne Principles of Vegetation and 
Architecture, 8vo. and several other works, 
on similar subjects. — Aw*. Diet. Hia. 

Bkhaim (Martin), a geographer and na- 
vigator of the 15th century, was a native 
of Nuremberg. He is said to have^ disco- 
vered the isle of Fayal and the Brazils, and 
to liave sailed as far as the straits of Magel- 
lan. John II. of Portugal created him a 
chevalier. There is at Nuremberg a globe 
nude by him, oji which are tracea his dis- 
coveries. He died at Lisbon in 1506.*—— 
Atneriecm Transaction t, 

BcHN (Aphra), an English writer. Her 
maiden-name was Johnson : and her fa- 
ther was appt.inted lieu^eoant-general of 
Surinam, but died on his passage. The fa- 
niily, however, proceeded to that sctt]e« 
ment, where our author became acquainted 
with prince Oroonoko, whose story she 
afterwards gave to the public. On her re- 
turn to EuijJand she married ^r. Behn, a 
merchant of London. In 1666 she was at 
Antwerp, wher^ ^he 'W'as employed as a spy 
by the English government) and is said 
to have di&«:ovcred by means pf a lover, th^ 
design of the Dutch to send a fleet up the 
Thajncs, wh'ch she communicated to the 
English court, but the intelligeuce was 
trfateU with c»>ntemp;. Not Jong after 
this, she rerurned to London, and devoted 
herself to pleasure and the muses. Her ad- 
veniurp^ in the former pursuit we fh::ll not 
detail ; and her productions In the service 
of the latter iippwred ia Hvols. fcvo. She 
wrote several plays, histories^ and novelf, 
which evince ^ lively imagination, but 
marked by ^c^ntJoufapss. She died in 16HS^ 

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md wu buried in the cloisters of Westmin- 
Uiur9bhey.F-'£iofr, Brit, 

Bnca (Joachim Fraacis), an eminent 
painter, was born at Ravemberg, in Swa- 
tua, in 1 665. He excelled in painting land- 
scapes and battles. He died in 1748.—— 
A^M. Diet. Hist, 

Beivascui (John Baptist), an historical 
painter, was a native of Piedmont, and 
ttttdied at Roille under Lanfranc. He 
gained so great a reputation that the ho- 
nour of knighthood was conferred on him. 
He died in 1688, a^ 54.— />/7i. 

Beztuar, an African botanist, who died 
in the 646th of the Heginu He wrote a 
hiitory of plants, arranged alphabetically, 
and other ^ork^^D'HerUUt, 

Bee. (David), a Dutch portrait pointer, 
was born at Arnheim in 16S1, and became 
a disciple of Vandyke. He was appointed 
portrait painter to queen Christina of Swe- 
den, by whose recommendation lie was 
employed to paint the most illustrious per- 
sons in Europe. He ^ed in 1656.^— J^M^rii- 

BsKKEsr (Baithatar), a Dutch divine; 
was bom in 16:V4, at Warthuisen, in the 
prorince of Oroningen. In 1679 he was 
chosen minister at Amsterdam, where he 
published a book entitled. The World be- 
witched* 19 which he opposed the popular 
superstitions respecting witchcraft, incan- 
tationj, &c. This work mad^ a mat noise, 
and brought upon the author the sentence 
of suspension. The magistrates of Am- 
sterdam, however, continued his salary. 
He died in 1698w — MorerU 

BzL (John James), a native of Bourdfauz, 
and counsellor of that city. He died at 
^risJa 1738, aged 45. He compiled the 
Dictionnaire N^ologique ; and wrot^ cri- 
tical Len«rs on the \lariamne of Voltaire, 
and sooi^ other pieces. — /^ouv. Diet, Hut, 

Bel (Mathias), an Hungarian divine, 
was bom at Orsowa in 1684. He ^t first 
studied physic at Halle, but quitted that 
praf^ssiosi lor theology, and became rector 
of the school at Presburg, and minister of 
a congregation. He died in 1749. He 
wrote two works, Apparatus ad Mistorlam 
Hungaria:, & Notitix 1 luogarix nova: ; for 
which the emperor Cliarles VI. made him 
imperiaJ historiographer. Pope Clement 
^L sent him a present for his works, and 
the king of Prussia and the empress of Rus- 
sia distinguished ImQ by marks of iheir es- 
teem. — GtH. J^iog, 

Bel (^Charles Andrew), sop of the above, 
was bom a| Presburg in 1717. In 1741 he 
was appointed professor ektraordinary of 
philosophy at Leipsic, and in 1756* pro- 
fieuor of po^ry and librarian to the univcr- 
b:t. with the title of counsellor of state. 
lli died in 1782. He wroce De Vera Ori- 
not et Epocha Hunnorum, &c. 4to. He 
Ekewisc conducted the Acta Eruditorum, 
from 1781.— Z6rV. 

^CLCAUF (J<^ha Yi^}} ^ l^utcli p.aijJter. 

He was employed in copying pictti^sltt 
the royal collection of Bngland, which ne 
executed with great exactness. He died in 
1653. — Houbr«ien. 

Belchier (John), an English surgeon, 
was bom in 1706, at Kingston in Surrey. 
He served his apprenticeship to Mr. Che- ' 
selden, under wnurn he made a great pro- 
ficiency. In 1736 he became surgeon to 
Guy*s hospital ; and about the same time 
was elected fellow of the royal society, 
to whom he communicated several papers 
and cases, inserted in their Transactions. 
He died in n^5. — Enrop, Ma^. 

Belgraoo (James), an Italian Jesuit, was 
bom in 1704, at Udina, and died in 1789. 
He was an eminent mathematician, anti- 
quary, and poet. The work by which he 
is best known is a treatise on the Existence 
of God, demonstratec^ geometrically.-^— 
Nouv, Diet, Hist, 

Belesis, a Chaldean, who raised Arbaces * 
to the throne of Media, for whicii he was 
rewarded with the government of Babylon, 
770, B. C. When Sardanapalus was burnt 
in his palace with his gold and silver, 
Belesis obtained leave to take away the 
ashes, from whence be extracted immense 
treasures. — l/niv. Hisi, 

Be kino R (Bernard Forest de), a French 
engineer, well known by his Dictionnaire 
portatif de Tlneenbur, his Course of Ma- 
thematics, Hydraulics, Architecture, &e. 
He died in lIGl^r^Nouv, Diet, Hist, 

Beung (Richard^, an Irish writer, was 
born at Beunstown in the county of Dub- 
lin, in 1613; he joined in the rebellion of 
1641, and became an ofiicer, and ambassa- 
dor from the council of Kilkenny to the 
pope in 1 Q45. On his return he went over 
to the marquis of Qnnond, to whom he 
was of great servi^se. At the Restoration he 
recovered his estates, and died in Dublin in 
1677. He wrote, in Latin, Vindiciarum 
Catholicorum Hibemiz.— if<9^. Br, 

Belisarius, general of the armies of the 
emperor Justinian. He ended the war in 
which that prince was engaged with Ca- 
bades, king of Persia, by a treaty of peace 
in 531. The year after he took Carthage, 
and made prisoner Gilimtr, who had 
usurped, the tliroue of tl>e Vandals. Be- 
Itsarius entered Constantinople in triumph 
in 533. He was next sent against the Goths 
in Italy, and arriving on the coasts of Sicily, 
he took Catania, Syracuse, Palermo, and 
other places. Ha then proceeded to ll^aples, 
which he took, arul marched to Rome. 
After this he conquered Vitiges, king of the 
Goths, and sent him to Constantinople, at 
the same time refusing the crown, wiiich 
was offered bim. For these great exploits, 
he was regarded as the saviour of the em« 
pire, and medals are yet extant which bear 
this inscription, Beliiarim gloria Jijmannum^ 
He was soon obliged to %o into the ea3t 
against Chrosroes 1. king of Persia, and hav- 
ing succeeded, he rcturufd iuto Italy, from- 

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vhence he ezpelled the Huns in 558. Three 
years afterwards this great man was ac- 
cused, by the. nobles about the emperor, of 
a design upon the throne ; and Justinian, 
with the jealousy of an old man, was per- 
suaded to confiscate his estates. The story 
of his being deprived of sight and obliged 
to beg for bread, is a modem fiction. 
Umiv. Hist. Gibbon, 

Bell (Beaupre), an English antiquary, 
was educated at Westminster-school, from 
whence he removed, in 1723, to Trinity 
college, Cambridge. He died young, and 
left his library and medals to the college 
where he had received his education. He 
assisted Dr. Stukely and other ingenious 
men in their publications. — Gen. Biog. Diet. 
Bbllarmin (Robert), a Roman cardinal, 
was born in Tuscany in 1542. He entered 
into the society of Jesuits. In 1599 pope 
Stxtus y. in reward of his services and 
learning, made him a cardinaL He died in 
1621. His writings are numerous, but 
chiefly polemical. — Moreri. 

Bel LAY (William du), lord of Langcy, a 
celebrated French general, and negociator. 
He wrote a history of his own times, in 
Latin, the greatest part of which is lost. 
He flied in l54S.—IbiJ. 

Bel LAY (John du), archbishop of Paris, 
was born in 1492; and employed as am- 
bassador at Rome and in England. Paul 
UI. made him a cardinal. When Charles V. 
entered Provence, in 1536, Francis 1. left 
du Bellay in charge of Paris, as lieutenant- 
general On the accession of Henry IT. 
he went to Rome, where he died in 1560. 
His writing* are : Harangues ; Apology 
for Francis L ; Elegies, Epigrams, and Odes, 
in 1 vol. 8vo. 1549. His brother, Martin, 
was a good general and statesman. His 
memoirs were published with those of Wil- 
liam.— Aforrr/. 

Bellay (Joachim du), a French poet, 
was born at Lire, near Angers, in 1524, 
and died in 1560. His Latin poems were 
printed at Paris in 1569^ 4to. and those in 
French in 1561. The last are elegant.— 

Belle (Stephen de la), an Italian eng^ra- 
ver, bom at Florence in 1610, and died in 
1664. His pieces are in estimation^ — Nntv. 
Did. Hiit. 

, Belle (Alexis Simon), a French portrait 
painter. He was a disciple of Francis de 
Troy, and died in 1734, aged 6a He 
was employed by the king of france and 
various other sovereigns. — Ibid. 

Belleau (Renis), a French poet, bom 
in 1528, and died in 1577. His pastorals 
are held in great esteem. — Ibid, 

"Belleeorest ^Francis de), a French his- 
torian, was born m 1530, of poor parents ; 
but he received a good education at 
, Toulouse. He died in 1583. He wrote the 
History of the World, and a universal 
Coemography ; but his chief work is, a Ge- 
Acral Hiitorj of France^— Jli«ryrf. 

Bbllbgarde (John Baptist Morvan de), 
a French writer. He became a Jesuit, from 
which society he was expelled for t^ing a 
Cartesian. He died in 1734, aged H6. He 
translated St. Chrysostom, St. Basil, St. 
Ambrose, Thomas a Kempis> &c. He also 
rendered into French, Las Casas, on the 
destruction of the Indies, and wrote several 
moral treatises. — Nouv. Diet, Hitt^ 

Bellenden (W^illiam), a learned Scotch 
writer of the 16th century. He was hu- 
manity professor at Paris in 1602, where 
he punlished his first work, entitled, Cicc- 
ronis Princens, in 1 608 ; his next was Cice- 
ronis Consul, 1612: both these pieces were 
inscribed to Henry prince of "VVales. in 
1616 he published a second edition, with 
the addition of Liber de Statu Prisci Orbis 
dedicated to prince Charles. These trea- 
tises were edited at London, in 1787, by 
Dr. Samuel Parr. — Pre/ace to bis tvorh. 

Bellenger (Francis), doctor of the Sor- 
bonne ; was bom in the diocese of Lisieux, 
and died at Paris in 1749. He translated 
Dionysius of Halicarnensis, 1723, 2 vols. 
4to. and wrote a critical essay on the works 
of Rpllin.— iVwrv. Diet. Hist. 

Bel LET (Charles), a French writer, who 
died at Paris in 1771. He wrote, 1. L'Ado- 
ration Chretienne, dans la Devotion du 
Rosaire, 12mo. ; 2. Several pieces of elo- 
quence ; 3. Les Droits de la Religion sur 
le Cocur de I'Homme, 2 vols. 12mo. — Ibid. 

Bellet, (Isaac), an ingenious physician, 
who died at Paris in 1778. He wrote on 
the effects of imagination on pregnant wo^ 
men,' history of the conspiracy of Cataiine, 


Bellievre (Pomponius deV a French 
statesman, was born at Lyons m 1529. He 
was employed in several embassies, which 
he discharged so well, that Henry IV. made 
him chancellor: but afterwards the seals 
were taken from him, though he was suf- 
fered to retain the title j on which h^ said, 
a chancellor without seals, is a body with- 
out t soul. He died at Paris in 1C07. — Mtr- 
reri. Nouv. DiJ. Hist. 

Bellin (James Nicholas), an ingenious 
French geographer, who died at Paris in 
1772, aged 69. He was member of the 
royal society of London, and published the 
Hydrograpfiie Frangoise ; Essais geographi- 
ques, sur les Isles Britanniques, and other 
valuable works. — Nouv. Diet. Hist.^ 

Bellini (Gentile), a Venetian painter, 
was born in 1421. He v^as employed by 
the republic in painting the pieces which 
adorn the council hall. It is said that he 
was engaged by Mahomet II. emperor of 
the Tura, for whom he painted the behead- 
ing of St. John the Bai>tist. The empercw 
was greatly pleased with the picture, but 
. discovered a fault in the skin of the neck, 
and to prove his observation caused the 
head of a slaVe to be struck off in his pre- 
sence. This sight so shocked the painter^ 
that he was uneasy till he got leave to fCs 

Digitized by 




IBTB to hu own coimtfy» which he did, 
after rec^ving consideraole presenu from 
the gruid seignior. He died in 1501. 

Bel LI Ml (John), brother of the above, 
whom-he assisted in painting the pictures 
io the council chamber at Venice. He died 
in 1412, aged ^.r^Uid. • . . 

BsLLi M (Laurence), an Italian physician, 
was born at Florence in 1643, and gradu- 
ated at Padua. He afterwards became pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Pisa, which he ex- 
changed for that of anatomy. He died in 
17CH2. He wrote seYeral anatomical and 
isedscal works in the Latin ^language, of 
great merit. — Ncwo, Did, Hht. 

Bbllocq (Peter), a French writer, and 
valet-de-chambre to Lewis X1V« He wrote 
f poem on the Hotel des Invalides, and sa- 
tires on petit-maitres and novelists. He 
died in 1704, aged 59.—Uu/. 

Belioi (Peter)r advocate-general in the 
parliament of Toulouse. He was a native 
of Mcmtauban, and flourished in the reigns 
of Henry III. and Henry IV. of France. He 
ieft several works which are now obsolete. 

BcLLai (Peter Lawrence Buyrette du), 
a French dramatist, was bom at St. Fleur, 
in A w re r gn e , in 1727. He was for some 
time an advocate, which profession he 
fitted for the stage, and went to Russia, 
where he exercised his talents in that line 
with great applause. In 1758 he returned 
IO Paris, and produced his tra^fedy of Titus, 
which was followed by Zelmira, the Siege 
d Calais, and other pieces. 'i*he king 
made him a present of a gold medal, and 
the magifitrates of Calais pive him the free- 
dom of their town in a gold box. He died 
in 1775. His works were printed in 6 vols. 
8vo. in ITJ^.r—Jhid. 

BcLLONi (Jerome), a celebrated banker 
at Rome, who was honoured for his pro- 
bity and talems by pope Benedict XIV. 
with the title of marquis. His Essay on 
Commerce was printed first in 1750, and 
several times since. He died in 1760.F— 

BcLLOt.1 (John peter), an Italian anti- 
quary* born at Rome, and died in 1696. 
He wrote, 1.. Explication des Medallions Ips 
pins rarcs du Cabinet du Cardinal Cam- 
p^goe, 4tO- ; 2 lies Vies des Peintres, Ar- 
cfaitectes, et Sculpteurs modemes, 1676, 
4tQ.; :). Description des Tableaux peints 
par Raphael an Vatican, 1695, foHo, and 
several other works, which shew learning 
and tastew — UiJ. 

Bellotti (Peter), an Italian painter, 
bom at Venice in 182.5, and died in 1700. 
He sometimes painted historical subjects, 
but his portraits are best. — PilkhoiM. 

Bcllucci (Anthony), an Italian painter, 
bom at Venice in 1654. He became the 
disciple of Oominico Definico, and was 
•ftCfVrards appoiiKed principal painter to 

the emperor Joseph, whose service he- left 
for that of the elector palatine. — Ihld. 

Belon (Peter), a French physician, who 
travelled into Palestine, Greece, and Arabia, 
and published an account of those coira- 
tries m 1555, 4to. He was assassinated 
near Paris, in 1564. — Moreri, 

Belot (John), de Blois, advocate to the 
privy council of Louis XIV. He is known 
as the author of an Apologie de la Langue 
I^tine, Paris, 1637, bvo.: his object in 
this publication is to proscribe the use of 
the French language in works of science. 

Belsunce (Henry Francis Xavier de), a 
French prelate, was born in Cuienne, of a 
noble family, and made bishop of Mar^ 
seillesin 1709. He has gained immortality 
by his conduct to his flock, when Mar*- 
smiles was visited by the plague in 172a 
He was magistrate, almoner, physician, 
and priest to his people when those' whose 
duty it was to attend them had fled. H« 
was offered, in 1729, the bishopric of Laon, 
but refused it; saying, **he would not 
leave a church for which he hadxlevoted 
his life." He died in 1755. He wrote, 
L'Histoire des Evcoues de Marseilles ; Des 
Instructions pastorales; and La Vie de Ma- 
demoiselle de Foix Candale. He found- 
ed a college at Marseilles. — Nouv, Diet, 

Belus, the founder of the Babylonian 
empire, flourished 13i^2 years B. C. His 
son and successor, Ni/ii/s, ordered divine 
honours to be paid to his memory. — £/»/«. 

Belyk son of Cynvelyn, a British 
prince, and chief of one of the tliree splcn* 
did retinues of Britain, because they em- 
bodied their troops at their own expencok 
He served under Caradog or Caractacus, 
till that king wns delivered to the Romans. 
— 07ir«*j Cambrian Btog, 

Belyn o Leyn, another British chief, 
and head of one of the golden-banded 
tribes, a terra which they received for 
binding; themselves together with the fetters 
of their horses in resisting the attack of 
Edwin about 620 ; in reward for which, 
they were distinguished with the golden 
band, an emblem of sovereignty. — Hid, 

Bemdo (Peter), a cardinal, nnd i>oct,wns 
born at Venice in 1470. LcoX. appointed 
him his secretary In 151^J, and Paul III. 
made him bishop of Eergamo, and a cardi- 
nal. . He died in 1547. His works nre in Latin 
and Italian ; the former are public and pri* 
vate Letters ; the Life of <;in Ub.-ildo de 
Montefcltro, duke of Ai'ohlno; Speech c? ; 
and the llistoni* of Venice. His Itali;ui 
pieces are wholly poetical. — lilonr}. 

Bekavidio (Alarcus Mantua), an Italian 
writer, was horn at Padua, where ho be- 
came professor of jurisprndpnce. and was 
created a chevalier. He died in 1 "J^S. ?^ed 
9 J. He wrote Collectanea super jus C;;.s<i* 

Digitized by 




n«n,Venice, 158S, folio; Vita viroram illuf» 
trium, Paris, 1564, 4to. — Moreri. 

BiKBow (John), a brave English admiral, 
was bt)m about \6SO. He was broiijrht up 
in the merchant service, and in 1 680 com- 
aunded a ship in the Mediterranean trade, 
with which he beat off a Sallee rover. The 
fpatiantry of thii action bein^ reported to 
Charies II. of Spain, he invited tfie cap- 
tain to court, and dismissed him with a 
tetter of recommendation to king James, 
who gave him an appointment in tr.e navy, 
Jti^ig William sent him to the West Indies, 
where he relieved the British colonies. 0» 
Ikis return home the greatest respect was 
paid to him, though the house of commons 
passed sevtTe censure upon those who sent 
«ut the squadron. He was again dis- 
patched to that quarter, and soon after his 
arrival fell in with the French admiral, du 
Casse, near St. Martha, on the Spanish 
coast, wheh a skirmishing action com- 
OYenced, which continued three or four 
days. In the last the admiral was singly en- 
gaged with the French, his other ships hav- 
ing fallen astern. Though a chain shot 
had shattered his leg, he wotikl not be re> 
moved from the (jua^ter-deck, but con- 
tinued the fight tili morninp, when the 
French bore away. The a£niral made 
signal for his ships t* follow, but his orders 
were disobeyed ; in consequence of which 
he was obliged to neturn to Jamaica, and 
on his arrival ordered those oilicers, who 
had behaved so ill, to fap confined, and 
brought to a court martial, when the most 
culpable of them suffered according to their 
deserts, 'i'his gallant man di<rd soon after, 
Irom the effects of his wound, and the dis- 
appointment he had experienced, in 1702.—- 
ifffif . Brit, 

Ben BOW (John), son of the preceding. 
He was bred to the sea, and the same year 
tliat his father died in the West Indies, suf- 
fered shipwreck on the island of Madagas- 
car, in which he. resided many years, and 
was at last brought away by a Dutch cap- 
tain. — JBid, 

Benci or Bekcio (Francis), a learned 
Italian Jesuit, was a disciple of the cele- 
brated Muretus. He died at Rome in 1594, 
He wrote Latin poems and orations, and a 
poem on the death of the live martyrs of 
>he society in Ind'a. — M*.rcri, 

Benda (Georj^e), a musician, was Iwrii 
about 1721, in Bohemia. His three bro-r 
thers were all musicians, and his sister was 
married to one of that profession. In 1748 
he was appointed - master of the chapel of 
^he duke of Saxe Gotha, who sent liim, in 
1765, to Italy. His compositions for tha 
stage possess great merit, particularly his 
Ariadne in the Ulai^d cf Na\8u In 1778 he 
retired to Hamburgh, from whence he re- 
moved to Vienna. He afterv/jrds returned 
to Gotha, where he obtained a pension and 
published some pieces for the barp9ic|ior4 

by subscription. He died at Gotha ia T79.5L 
'-^Annual Neerota^y 1 798. 

Ben DISH (Bridget), daughter of general 
Ireton, and grand-daughter of Oliver Cron^- 
well, and the wife of Thomas Bendish* 
esq. She resembled her grandfather, and 
on some occasions would appear with tiie 
dignity of a princess, and at others stoofi 
to the lowest drudgery. She lived aC 
Southtown in Norfolk, and, after a day of 
hard labour in the management of har aalt^ 
works, would go in the evening to the 
assembly at Yarmouth, where she waa al* 
ways treated with respect She aliectcd. 
uncommon pi^ty, and pretended to rev^ 
lation, yet her word was not always to b« 
trusted. Though she was proud and arro- 
gant, she could fawn, prevaricate, and da> 
ceive. With such qualifications no wond^ 
that she revered the memory of her graf id* 
father as a hero and a saint, to whom her 
own character had so near a resemblance. 
She died about 1727^— Z><rjir«0v^V Letters, 

Bemdlowbs (F.dwanl\an En^flish writer, 
was bom in 1 61 3, and eoucated m St. John'a 
college, Cambridge; buthe squandered a-wa j 
a Iiandsome fortune in a very indiscreet 
manner, and died poor at Oxford in 16841. 
I It was looked upon by the needy poets aa 
the Macaenas of the age, and hence ntany 
books were dedicated to him with the inost 
fulsome compliments. He wrote some po> 
etical pieces of no merit^^-J6id, 

Benedetto (le), or Benedict CastiglioiM^ 
an Italian painter, bom at Oenea in 16l(i, 
and died at Mantua in 167a His chief 
excellence lay in pastoral scenes, markets, 
and animals. Me was also a good engraver. 
.— JVtfirtr. Diet. Hi.t. 

Benedict (Sl\ thtfovnder of a-religw 
ous order, was bom in Italy about 480^ 
and early embraced the ascetic life, fie 
wrs followed by a number of persons t» 
wJiom he gave rules, and in. a short tim^ 
had 12 monasteries under his direction. 
About 528 he retired to Mount Catsino, 
where he founded a monastery. He died 
between 540 and 550. His Kegula Mon^' 
chorum has been priq|ed several times. — 

Benedict, a famous English abbot, waa 
born in Northumberland, of a noble familv. 
He made frequent tours to France and Italy* 
and brought over several art!f:ts, who were 
eminent in architecture, painting, and mu- 
sic. He introduced chanting in choirs ija~ 
678, and founded two monasteries. He 
died in 703, and was canonised^— i'iti. 

Benedict I. pope, surnasied JSemosMs^ 
He succeeded John III. in 574, and died ib 
578. — ^Benedict II. came to th^ pontifi- 
cate on the death of X.eo 11. and died i« 
685w — Benedict III. was elected in a55, 
and opposed by an antipope called Answ 
stasius. He died in 858. — ^Benkdict IV.. 
9Ucp«99or of /o)m U(. came 19 th« ponr 

Digitized by 




dfittl chair In 900» and held it only 
three years.— -Bbmsdict V. was chosen in 
964, and opposed by JLeo VIII. who was 
sopporttd by the emperor Otho. The 
Roman people were ooliged to abandon 
the cause of Benedict, who died in 965.—- 
Bin EDICT VI. was elected in 97*2, and was 
nurdered in pristm by the antlpope Boni« 
het in 974. — ^BeNXDiCT VI L succet^ded. 
Domis II. in 975, and died in 983. — Bene- 
MCT VUI. obtained the tiara in 101 i>. lie 
crowned the emperor Henry . II. and his 
wife, in the church of St. Peter, on which 
occasion the pope presented the emperor 
with an apple of ifold, surrounded with 
two circles of precious stones crossed, and 
surmounted with a cross ^ of gold. This 
]X>pe united the warrior with the ecclesias- 
tic, and defeated the Saracens and Greeks 
who invaded his territories. He died in 
J<M4.<— Bekedict IX. successor of John 
XIX. ascended the pontifical chair at the 
!!(« of 12 years, his father Alberic, count 
of Tuscnlum, having purchased his elec- 
tion. The Roman people obliged him to 
renoimce the papal di^it]^, and retire to a 
Biaoastery, where he died m 1CX54. — Bknb- 
i>jcT X. antipope. lie was elected by 
some factious persons in 1058, but was 
dgrytn om by the Romans, who elected 
Nicholas U. in his room : he died in 1059. 
— ^Bcnbdict XI. was the son of a shep- 
herd; and in 1S03 was raised to the pope- 
dom, on the death of Boniface VIII. Me 
was poisoned by some ambitious cardinals a 
short time after his election. — Benedict 
Xli. was the son of a baker, and became 
doctor of the university of Paris, and car- 
dinal priest. In 1334 he was elected to the 
papal chair on the death of John XXII. 
On this occasion be said to the cardioaU, 
** You have chosen an ass.'* He corrected 
several abuses in the church, and died in 
1343, at Agivnon.^ — ^Ben edict XUI. was 
bom at Rome in 1649, of an illustrious fa^ 
mlly, and took the religious habft among 
the dominicans at Veivice. In 1672 he was 
nade cardinal, and obtained also the arch- 
btshopric of Benevento ; whif e, in 1688, 
his palace was shattj^ed by an earthquake, 
and the cardinal narrowly escaped with his 
fife. In 17S4 he was chosen pope, and the 
year after he called a coi^ucii at Rome, in 
which the bull Uaigcm^tiu was confirmed. 
He died in 1730.— Benedict XIV. was 
bom at Bologna in 1675, of the noble fn- 
nily of JL.ambertinl. In 1728 he received 
a cardinal's hat, and in 1731 was nominated 
archbisliop of Bologna. On the death of 
Clement XI I- the cardinals were a long 
tinte deliberating on the el^pice of a succes- 
sor, JLambertini, by way of quickening 
them, said, **■ Why do yuu waste your time 
19 discnssions ] If you wish for a saint, 
elect Gi>tti — a politician, choose AUrotartdnt 
»-4 gogd companion, taif mc** This sally 
ptcased them so much, that they elected 
W at once. He reformed abuses^ uitrol- 

duced good regulations, cnkivated Itttcnii 
encouraged men of learning, and was a pa* 
tron of the fine arts. He died in 1758. liis 
works make 6 vols. folitv-^i'Ai/rVra. Rycattu 
Bonjccr. Morer'u Nqmv. Did, Hifi, 

Benedictus (Alexander), an Italian an^ 
tomist of the 15th century. He is known 
by his Historic Corporis numani, printed 
at BasU, 1527, 8vo. All his works were 
printed at Venice in 1535, 1 vol. folio, and 
afterwards at Basil. — AfTeri, 

Bene ri ELD (Sebastian), an English di- 
vine, was bom at Prestbury in Gloucestex^ 
shire in 1559, and educated 4n Corpus 
Christi college, Oxford. In 1608 he w« 
ap{x>inted Margaret professor of divinity^ 
v^hicl^ o&e he held 14 years, and then i^ 
tired to his living of Meysey Hampton, ia 
Gloucestershire, where he died in 163(1 
He wrote several theological works.-— ^ 

Benbzet (Antony), an American phi* 
lanthropist, was bred a cooper, which busir 
ness he forsook, and followed the occo- 
paiion of a schoolmaster. In 1767 he wrote 
a Caution to Great Britain and her Colo- 
nies, in a short representation of the' cala- 
mi tons state of the enslaved negroes in the 
British dominions, 8vo. In 1772 he pub- 
lished Historical Accountsof Guinea; with 
an enquiry into the rise and progress of 
the slave-trade, its nature, and lamentable 
^iTects, 8vo. This amiable man seemed to 
have nothing else at heart but the good of 
his fellow-creatures, and the last act of hla 
life was to take from his desk six dollars for 
a poor widow. A fine eulogium was pro* 
nounced over his remains by an Arnencan 
otHcer. *« I would rather, says he, '* be 
Anthony Bcnezet in that coffin, than 
George Waslington with all his fame.**-^ 
Ccn. B. D, 

Be Nil A dad I. king of Syria or Damascus 
began his reign B. C. 94a At the instiga- 
tion of Asa, king of Juda, he made wa^a 
Israel, and took Dan and Napthallrr-^^ • 

Bbnhadad II. generally accotmted the 
son and successor of the above, began hiji 
reign al)out 900. He laid siege to Samarisi, 
but was routed. l*he year following he r«r 
turned and was defeated, on which he subr 
mitted to the mercy of Ahab, who treated 
him with liberality. The war, however, 
was renewed, in which Ahab was slain. Ii| 
his old a^ Bcnhadad fell sick, and sent 
Hazaeljhis minister, to the prophet Blisha, 
to enquire whether he should recover. 
The treacherous messenger on his return 
stifled his master, and ascended the throncr 

' Ben RAD AD III. son of Hazaol, succeeded 
his father, B. C. 836. He was defeated by 
Joash king of (srael, and lost all hi:> father s ' 
ponquests. — SS, 

Bcni (Paxil), a philologer of great mcrit^ 
was born#n the isle of Candia when i^ was 
under the power of the Venetians. He be- 
came professor Qf thf belles-lettres in the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



pnivaAlty of Padaa, and died in 1G27. H« 
vrote, L Anticruscifc tending to shew the 
inferiority of Petrarca as a writer. *2. Kc- 
znarks on Ariosto and Tasso, and mnny 
other works', collected in 5 vols, folio, 16"2'2, 
Venice — Nouv, Diet. Hht. 

Benjamin, the 12th son of Jacob and 
Rachael, was bom about the year 17:}^, 
B. C. His brother Joseph had a tender re- 
gard for him, and the description of their 
interview given by Moses is peculiarly 
touching. Benjamin was head of the tribe 
called by bi^nanic, which was exterminat- 
ed by the others out of revenge for a vio- 
icQcc done to the wife of a Levite of the 
city of (sihoah^ — SS. 

Benjamin of Tudda was bom at Tndela 
in Navarre, and died in J 17:5. He visited 
the synagogues of the Jews in different 
parts of the world, tp observe their customs, 
and wrote a lying account of his travels in 
Hebrew, which was printed at Constanti- 
nople in 1543, and translated into French 
by John Philip Baratier, in 2 vols, ovoi 
17:M, and intoEiiglish by Mr. Gerrans. — 

Ben IN I (Vincent), a learned physician, 
was bom at Cologne in 171 S, and died in 
1764« He resided at Padua, where he had 
a printing-press, from whence he issued 
some good editions of classical authors. He 
wrote notes on Cefsus ; Observations upon 
Ihe Poem of Alamanni, entitled Culture^ 
and a Translation of the Sypliilis of Fracas- 
toriusi — Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

Benivikni (Jerome), an Italian poet, 

born at Florence, and died in 1542, aged 

89. His Canzone dell Amore celeste e 

diTino, is in great esteem. His works were 

' printed at Florence, 1519, 8 vo. — Tirabotebi. 

Bemnet (Henry), earl of Arlington, and 
an eminent statesman, was the son of sir 
John Bennet, of Arlington in Middlesex, 
where he was born in ir^lH. He was edu- 
cated at Christ church, Oxford, and in the 
rebellion served in the royal army. In 1658 
be received the honour of knighthood at 
Bruges, from Charles II. who sent him as 
bis minister to Madrid. At the Restoration 
he was made secretary of state, and created 
lord ^Irlington. He was an acute politician, 
and was one of the cabinet council known 
by the name of the Cabal ; which word was 
formed from the initials of the noblemen 
who composed it, viz. Clifford, Ashley, 
Buckingham, Arlington, Lauderdale. In 
1672 he was created an earl, and about 
the same time invested with the order of 
the garter. In 1674 he resigned the office 
of Rccretary, and was appointed lord cham- 
berlain. He died in 10'85, and left one 
daughter, who married Henry earl of Eus- 
ton, son t« Charles II. by tne duchess of 
Cleveland, and who was afterwards created 
duke of Grafton. — Biog. Br. 

Ben NET r Christopher), an Er^lish phy- 
sician, w^s born in Somersetshire about 
161 7| and educated at Lincttln-coliege, Ox- 

ford. He was afterwards chosen a fellow 
of the colle;/e of pliysicians in London, and 
died in lO.^.S. Me wroie'Tabidorum 'I'hea- 
trum seu Phthiiicos, Atrophia:, eHl hectics 
XenodochiTim, which wa» translated into 
English in 172 J. — Ibid. 

Ben NET (Robert), a nonconfortnirt di- 
vine, who was ejected from the rectory of 
.Waddesden, in Buckinghamshire, in 16612; 
and died at Reading in 1681. He com- 
piled a concordance of the synonymou* 
words in scripture.— 6*<//a«y. 

Bennkt (Thomas), an English divine, 
was l>orn at Salisbury in 1673, and edu- 
cated at St. JoIin*s college, Cambridge, 
where he took his degrees in arts, and he- 
came fellow. In 17(X) he obtained the rec- 
tory Y)f «t. James, Colchester ; and about 
1716 the vicarage of St. Gites, Cripplcgate. 
He died in 1728. Dr. Bennet was a man of 
great learning, and an acute controvo-sialist. 
His books are chieHy polemical, against the 
papists and dissenters. His essay on the 
thirt)'-nine articles is a good book, and hi* 
Hebrew gramniar shews his knowledge of 
that languap:c to advantage. — Bio^. Br. 

Benoit (iilias), a proiestant divine, was 
born at Paris tn 1640, and retired to Hol- 
land dn the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes. He then became pastor of the 
church oi Delft, ai?d died there in 172a He 
wrote a I listory of the Edict of Nantes, 5 
vols. 4to. 1 69ti, and some other pieces. Be- 
noit was blessed with a wife, in comparison 
of wfibm that of Socrates was an angeL— 
Noft'o. Diet. Hist. 

Benoit (father), a learned marpnite,wa5 
born at Ciusta, in Pheuicia, in 1663. At 
the age of nine years he was sent to Rome, 
and was placed in the college of maronitcs, 
where he applied to the leartied languages 
and sciences with great success. He re- 
turned to his own country, but wai recalled 
by the grand duke of Tuscany, who niade 
him professor of Hebrew at Florence. He 
became a Jesuit, antl died at Rome in ^742. 
He edited the works of Ephrem Syrus in 
3 vols, folio. — Ibid. 

Benseradr (Isaac de), a French poet, 
was born at Lyons, near Rouen Hi» wit 
and poetical talents introduced him to court, 
where he obtamed the patronage of cardi- 
nal Richelieu. He died in 1690. — Morcri, 

Bknson (George), an eminent dissenting 
minister, was born at Great Salkeld, in 
Cumberland, in 1699, and educated first at 
an academy in Whitehaven, and lastly at 
Glasgow. About 1721 he was chosen pas- 
tor of a congregation at Abingdon in Berk- 
shire, from whence he removed in 1729 to 
Southwark. In 1740 he succeeded Dr. Har- 
ris at Crutched Friars. About this time he 
received the degree of D. D. from one of 
the universities in Scotland. He died in 
176:?. His writings are : 1. A Defence of 
the Reasonableness of Prayer, 2. An Illus- 
tration of some of St. Paul'* Epbtles. S. 
History of the first plaating of Chri&tianilEyk 

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S Yoh, 4fOL 4. Tracu on Persecntion; • 5.- 
The Life of Christ. 6. Sermons. 7. His ■ 
posthumous works were published in 1764, 
4to.— iffAy. Brri. 

Bent (John van der), a Dutch land- 
scape painter, was born at Amsterdam in 
IC50, and died in 1090, His masters were 
V;ii3der%'elde and Wouvermans. — Houbrukeit, 
Be.vtuam rrhomas), an English prelate, 
was born in Yorkshire, and admitted fel- 
low of Magdalen-coUcgc, Oxford, in 1.546, 
la the reijqi of tjueen Mary he was de- 
prived of his felluwitiiip, on which he mi- 
niftcred privately to the protestants in 
London till the accession of queen Jiliza- 
be:h, when he was made bishop of Litch- 
field and Coventry. He died in 1578. He 
wrote An Exposition of the Acts of the 
ApOitJes, and translated into English some 
parts of the Old Testamentw — H^ody A. 0. 

B£nthj4M (Edward), an English divine, 
was born at Ely in 1707, and educated at 
the school of Christ church, Oxford, from 
whence, in 172:J, he was removed to Cor- 
pus Christ! college. In 1731 he was ciiosen 
fellow of Oriel college, aiui the year follow- 
ing took his degree t^f M. A,- In 1743 he 
obtained a prebend in the cathedral of 
Hereford, of which church he was after- 
wards treasurer. On the death of Dr. Ian- 
ihaw he was nominated regius professor of 
divinity. He died in 1776. Dr. Centham 
published some single sermons, and tracts 
on religious subjects.. — Gen. Bi«g. Diet, 

Bkmtimm (James), an English divine, 
was brother of the above, and received his 
education first at Ely, and next at Trinity 
colk-ge, Cambridge. In 1774 he was pre- 
senti^l to the rectory of North wold, wh;ch 
he exchanged in 1779 for a prebend of Ely. 
la 1783 he obtained the rectory of Bow- 
brick-hill, and wlien the dean and chapter 
of Ely resolve^ on a general repair of that 
church, he wa!» appointed cUrk of the 
work:*. He published the history and An- 
tiquities of the Church of Ely, with plates, 
in 1 voL 4ta 1771. Mr. Bentham died in 
I7i>4, aged 86.— AJ/i/. 

Bk.niinck (William), the first carl of 
Portland, was born in Holhuid of a noble fa- 
mily, and came to England with the prince 
of Orange, to whom he had endeared him- 
lelf by a singular act of affection and cou- 
rage. When the prince was iU of tiie smnlL 
pox, it was deemed necessary by the physi- 
cians that he should receive the natural 
warmth of a young person in the same bed 
with him- Bentiuck, though he never had 
the disorder, immediately proposed himself 
for this hazardous service. He caught the 
disease in a dangerous manner, but reco- 
vered, and his master had an kifcctionate 
esteem for him ever after. On the prince's 
accession to the English crown he was 
created earl of Portland, and obtained the 
grant of sev^r^ lordships in Denbighshire, 
which occasioned some discontent in par* 

liament, and the grant was revoked ; bifl 
the earl afterwards received a compensa- 
tion elsewhere. He was employed in seve^ 
ral high offices, military and civil, and 
attended his master on his death-bed. He 
died in 1709, and was buried in Westminster 
;d)bey. — Biog. Br. CqU'ihs^s Peerage, , 

Ben rivo CLIO (Guy), a cardinal, was 
born at Ferrara m 1.^79. Pope Paul V* 
made him a cardinal in 1 621, at which 
time he was legate at the court of France. 
His works are ; 1. A History of the Civil 
Wars of Flanders. 2. xSsi Account of Flan- 
ders, 3. Letters and Memoirs. He died 
in 1644, just as he was about to be elected 
pope. — Mortri. 

Bentivoglio (Hercules), an Italian poet. 
He was born in 1507 at Bologna, and died 
at Venice in 1583. He was nephew to the 
duke of Ferrara.— /i/</. 

Bexi Lxy (Richard), a celebrated divine 
and critic, was born at O niton, in York- 
shire, in 1661. >rom WaUeiicld school h« 
removed at the age of 15, to St. John's ' 
college, Cambridge; but he took the de- 
gree of M. A. at Oxford, where he accom- 
panied the son of bishop Stillingneet as pri- 
vate tutor. He was also chaplain to that 
prelate, who gave him a prebend in his 
cathedral. In 1691 he published a Latin < 
epistle to Dr. Mill, cont;rining critical Ol>- 
servations on the Chronology of John Ma- 
lala. He was the iirst who pi cached the lec- 
ture founded by Mr. Boyle, on wliich oc- 
casion he delivered eight admirable dia-< 
courses in confutation of atheism. In 169S 
he was appointed keeper of the royal li- 
brary. In 1697 commenced his famous 
controversy with the honourable Mr. Boyle 
on the genuineness of the epistles of Pfia- 
laris, in which much personal abuse passed* 
on both sides ; but though some of tho 
greatest wits of the age a''ded Boyle on this 
occasion, impartial posterity have deter- 
mined the case in favour of Bentley. About 
thiA time he was presented to the mastership 
of 'rrinity-college, Cambridge, with which 
he held tne archdeaconry of Elv. But he 
was soon brought into trouble ; tor, in con- 
sequence of some encroachments made by 
him in the college for his own emolument, 
a charge was lajd against him* which never 
came to a determination ; but afterward* 
when he was regius professor of divinity, 
having exacted an exorbitant fee from per* 
sons who were admitted to the degree of 
D. mandate, he was suspended in the 
vice-chancellor's court. This arbitrary de- 
cree was reversed by the court of king's 
bench, and the doctor was restored to his 
privileges. He died in 1742. Dr. Bentley 
IS advantageously known as a critic by his 
editions of Horace, Terence, and Phxdrus. 
His intended edition of the Greek Test<L- 
ment never appeared, owing to an attack 
made on the prospectus by Dr. Middleton. 
He was also the author of an excellent an* 

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to Collmft's Dbcobne on Fi^e-think- 
ing, and published an edition of Milton*8 
Paradise Lo^tr^Biog, Br, 

Bentlet (Richard), a dramatic/Writer, 
was the son of the preceding, and died in 
1782. He wrote a comedy, called The 
Wishes, acted at Drury-l«ue in 1161 and 
in 1782; aba Philodamus, a tragedy; and 
Patriotism, a satirical poem.^ — Bfbg, Ipram, 

Benvenuti (Charles), a learned Jesuit, 
was bom at JLcgbom in 1716, and died in 
1789. He was professor of matheiTiatics at 
Rome, but on the eitincticyi of his order 
retired to Warsaw. He wrote, An Ab/idg- 
ment of Philosophy; Dissertation upon 
I^ght ; Reflexions on Jesuitism, &C/— JVotrp. 
JKct. Hist. 

Bentowskt (count Mauritius Augvstns 
de), an adventurer, was born of a noble 
family in Hungary in 1741. He served 
with reputation in the imperial army, 
which he quitted, and entered into the ser- 
Tice of the Poles, who had formed a confe- 
deracy against Russia. He was twice taken 
prisoner ; the first time he was ransomed. 
But the second he was sent prisoner to 
Cazan,from whence he effected his escape, 
but was retaken, and thrown into a dun- 
geon at Petersburg. In 1769 he was sent 
to Kamtschatka, where he was employed in 
servile occupatiof.8, but after some tiine 
his title and abilities recommended him to 
the notice of the governor, who committed 
to his care the education of his son and 
three danghtcrs. The youngest of the last 
fdl in love with him, and her parents con- 
sented to the match. Benyowsky, however, 
had other objects in view, and infamously 
formed a conspiracy against 'the geDett>u9 
governor, who in defending the fort when 
attacked by the insurgents was slain. The 
count ana his companions then quitted 
Kamtschatka in r. small vessel, and after 
traversing the Pacific Ocean arrived at 
Macao, in China, where he entered intd the 
service of the French East India Company. 
He afterwards formed a settlement in tlie 
island of Madagascar, where he assumed 
the sovereignty,' and was acknowledged by 
the inhabitants. After a variety of adven- 
tures he was slain in an action with the 
French, iq 17 86^-^ J'rt/ace to bis Memoirs 
0fiJ Travets, 

Benzcliu$ (Eric), archbishop of Upsal, 
and chancellor of the university there, was 
pom of mean parents in West Gothland. 
Having received a liberal education he be- 
came tutor to the A>n of the chancellor of 
Sweden, by whose means he was made 
fFchbishop of Upsal. He wrote lives of 
the patriarchs, and translated the Bible in- 
to the Swedish language. — M^-crL 

Benzxo (Trifone;, an Italian poet of the 
16th centuiy, who was secretary to several 
popes. He wns very dcformeci in person, 
but the pleasantness of his conversation 
counterbalanced thi» defect; his dispoaiuoa 
to oblige gained him many friends, and his 

probity obtained hiih the name of th? $0^ 
crates of Rome. His I^tin and Italian 
poems are in the collections of Pallavacim^ 
(iruter, and Vacchv — Nouv, Did. Hist. 

Bkolco (An^lo), snmamed Ruzzance, 
was born at Padua, and died in 1543. Hitf 
farces are greatly esteemed by the Italians. 
They were printed in 1584, in 12mo. — 

Beravlt (Nicholas^, a Trench wntcr, 
was born at Orleans, and died about \S40w 
He compiled a Grseco-Latin Dictionary, 
and published several learned books. Fns 
son Francis was a good Grecian ; and 
turning protestant, became principal of 
the coUeges of Montai-gis and Rochelle. — 

Bercrbt fPetcr), a French historical 
painter, was Dorn in 1659, and died in 
1720. He painted the ceiling of the chapel 
iri Trinity-college, Oxford, and pieces for 
several of the Mobility. — Pili:ngtcn. 

BERENOARius(Jacobu8), an emincntana- 
tomist of Carpo, was the first who cured 
the lues venerea with mercurial ointment* 
which brought him great riches. He died 
about 1527. — Tirnboschi, 

Berenger I. kin^ of Italy, was the son of 
Eberard duke of Friuli, and he assumed the 
sovereignty on the death of Charles the first 
in 888. He was opposed hy Guy, duke of 
Spoleto, who twice defeated him ; but by 
the assistance of Arnulph, king of Germany, 
Befenger recovered his throne, from whence 
he was again driven by Lambert, son of 
Guy, and restored by the Italian nobles in 
898. Lewis Boson, king of Aries, next op- 
posed Bcrenger, but being made prisoner 
was deprived of his eyes. Bereliger en- 
joyed his kingdom peaceably twehty years, 
when it was ravaged by the Hungarians* 
In 915 he was crowned emperor, but a 
faction being raised in favour of RoGolph, 
king of Burgundy, a battle was fonght at . 
Placentia in 922, in which Bercngerwatf 
defeated, and was afterwards assassinated. 
— Univ, Hist. 

Berengkr II. was the son of Albert, 
marquis of Yvre, by a daughter of the pre- 
ceding. By means of Otho, emperor of 
Germany, he was crowned king of Italy in 
950j but his' conduct was so arbitrary thaf 
the same emperor deposed hhn» ancl sent 
him prisoner to Germany, where he died.— 

Bkrenger, a French divine of the lltlf 
centurv. He denied transubstantiation,and 
his opinions were condemned at the conn-' 
cil of Paris in 1050, and at Rome in 1079. 
He died in 1088^— il^rm. M^shim. 

Berencer (Peter), the disciple and ad- 
vocate of Abelard, whom he defended with 
great spirit in an apology inserted in thef 
works of that celebrated man. — ^BayU. 

Berenice, daughter of Agrrppa the el- 
der, king of the jews. She was married tc 
Hecod, her uncle, after whose death sh6 
became the wife of FolemoDj king of Ci^ 

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B E R 

B E R 

Mm. ; but f he aftervrarib left her hbfband, 
and lived in an incettuoiu manner with 
her brother Agrippa. Titus fell in love 
widi her, and woHld have declared her em- 
preM, but for fear of the Roman people. 
Tliere were several of the same name, who 
were queens of Egypt, one of whom (the 
wife of Ptolemy Euergetes!) gave name to a 
celestial constellation, in consequence of 
cooiecnuing her hair in the temple of Ve- 

BejixNXcivs, a strange character, who 
appeared in Holland in 1670. lie was 
conjectured to be an expelled Jesuit, and 
got his livelihood by sweeping chimneys 
aad grinding knives. It is reported of him 
that he would turn into extempore verses 
what was said to him in prose; translate 
the gazettes from Flemish into Greek or 
Latin verse, standing on one foot'; tliat mo- 
dern and ancient languages were quite fa- 
miliar to him, and that he knew by heart 
Horace, Virgil, Homer, Aristophanes, and 
several parts of Cicero and Pliny. He was 
seSbcated in a bog, into which ne fell in a 
fit of intoxication. The Georgarchonioma- 
f kia' is auributed to liim^ — Moreri, 

BeacTTiNi (Peter), an eminent Italian 
painter, was bom at Cortona, in Tuscany, 
m 1596, and died in 1669. His pictures 
dtsplaj vrooderful grace and beauty. He 
wa» a4o an excellent architect.-*i>^^«;rii- 
«&•*/ FiCM dn PuHtra. 

Be EG TMathias van den), a Flemish paint- 
er, was bom at Ypres in 1615, and be- 
came a disciple of Rubeiuu He died in 
1687^— Pf'/iM^^M. 

^EECKK (Dirk Tan den), a celebrated 
jaodscape and portrait painter. He was 
bom at Haerlem, and died in 1689. His 
ttaiter was Adrian Vandervelded — Hottbnr- 

BsacKEM (Nicholas), a Dutch painter. 
He was bom at Haerlem in 1624, and died 
thereabout 168S. His landscapes are very 
beratifuL He engraved some with bis own 
hand. — D*Argfmmlle. 

BERGHiEa (Nicholas), historiographer of 
France. He wrote a learned and curious 
^story of the great roads of the Roman em- 
pin^ printed first in 16^, and again in 
1729, S Toie. 4ta He died in 1623.— Jlforrr/. 

BBa9ica (Nicholas Sylvester), a French 
£viae» was oom at Darnay, in Franche 
Cootte, and died at Paris in 1790. He was 
principal of the collefo of Besan9on, and 
caaogi of th4 cathedral Qf Paris. He might 
have obtained several preferments, but con** 
tented himself with a federate pension. 
When oflfeted an abbey, he said, ** I am al« 
ready rich.** He wrote, 1. A Refutation of 
tiie System ofNature, 2 vols. 12mo. 2. Deism 
lelf-confut^, 2 vols. 12mo. 3. Evidences 
of Christiaaity, S vols, and other works fuU 
of erudition, and in an excellent style.-^ 
ffm^ Dut. Hist. 

BiaoLXa {:tephen}, a learned but ec^ 
~ ' c man 9^ tha 18ui century, who iprat 


his life iri rambling from orTe i*nuiitty 
to another, and at last went to Turkey, 
where he abjured the christian religion', 
and died miserably. He wrote several pa* 
pers in the Journal of Leipsic, but he it 
chiefly known by his venions of ancient 
authors, and commentaries. His notfes on 
Aristophanes were inserted in an edition of 
that poet at Lcrden in 1760. — Ibid. 

Bergman (Tarbern), a eelelirated che- 
mist, was bom in 1735 at Calherinehcrg, 
in Sweden, and educated at Upsai, where 
he devoted himself to medicme and the 
sciences connected with it. Here he gained 
the friendship of I.ianxus, to whom he 
eommunicated a coltection of non-descripc 
insects, to one of which Linnseuk gave the 
name of BergmaK. In 1761 he was ap- 
pointed professor of nfathematies and na- 
tural philosophy at Upsal, and we fm^ Km 
name in the list of thoM who observed tl»e 
transit of Venus in 1761. In 1767 he ob- 
tained the chemical professorship. We are 
indebted to him for the knowledge of the 
nature of fixed air, and he made a number 
of experiments on the regulus of manganese, 
terra magnesia, terra ponderosa, and other 
substances. Before his death, which hap- 
pened in 1784, he was appointed rector 9!^ 
the university. Some of his last literary- 
employments were, a Treatise on Etectir^ 
Attractions, and a Theory of tlie Earth.-— 
AcmL Paris. 

Bekigard (dande), professor of phife- 
SQphy at Padua, was born at Moulins in 
1578, and died in 1663. He was the au- 
thor of, 1. Circultu H'sanus, Florence, 4t«. 
2. Dubitationes in Dialogum Galihzi pi« 
Terras immobilitate, 4to. — MtrerL 

Bering (Vitus), professor of poetry at 
Copenhagen, and historiographer to the 
king of Denmark in the middle of the ]7tK 
century. He wrote several Latin poomk-- 
Neuv. But, Hisi, 

Bering (Vitus), a Danish navigator of 
the I8th centurv. He served in the Rus- 
sian navy, and oecame a commodore. Pe- 
ter. I. entrusted to him in 1728 an expedi- 
tion to explore the northern coast of Ame- 
rica. He made no discovery in this voy- 
age, nor in another, but in 1 741, h»ship. 
struck on an island on the coast of Kamt- 
schatka, where he died. This island bean 
his name.— Cs-rrV Account of Russiati Disc^ 

Berkklet ^George earl of), descended 
from Robert pitzharding, of the rovai house 
of Denmark. He was one of th c privy coun<^ 
cil to Charles II. and bestowed on Sion col- 
lege a valuable library. He was the author 
of a valuable little book, entitled Historical 
Applications aiid occasional Meditations 
upon several Subjects, written by a Person 
of rfonour, l2mo. 1670. He died in 1698. 
•—'fVaipoies royal and ntdsU AttOfors, 

BsRKcLBV (sir William), of the same fa* 
im'ly, was vice-admiral of the white, aqd 
ie4 the vaa i» the despecats eugiigemunt 

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B E R 

B E R 

wkh the Dutch, June 1, 1665. He steered 
into the midst of the enemy*! fleet, where 
he was overpowered by numbers, and was 
found dead in his cabin, covered with blood. 

Berkeley (George), a celebrated divine, 
was bom at KUcrin, in Ireland, in 1684. 
He was educated first at Kilkenny, and next 
at' Trinity-ooUege, Dublin, of which he was 
chosen fellow in 1707. The same year he 
published Arithmetica absque Algefsra aut 
Euclide demonstrata. In 1 709 he published 
his Theory of Vision. In 1710 appeared 
tBe Principles of Human Knowledfire, and 
in 1713 the Dialogues between Hylas and 
Philonus, the object of both being to dis- 
prove the common notion of the existence 
of matter, and to establish the hypothesis 
that material objects have no otner exist- 
ence than in the mind. However singular 
lu« opinions were, there was so much beauty 
in his writing that the greatest men courted 
bis friendship, among whom were Steele 
and Swift. For the former he wrote several 
papers in the Guardian, and by his means 
became intimate with Pope. Swift recom- 
mended him to the earl of Peterborough, 
who took him abroad in quality of his 

The adventures of Gaudentio di Lucca, 
and a Letter to Dr. Friend on theTanmtnla. 
— Bhg, Br. 

Berkeley (George), son of the above, 
was born in London in 17.*i3 ; he received 
his education under his father, and then 
becaqie student of Christ-church, Oxford. 
After obtaining different livings he settled 
in that of St. Clement Danes, in London, 
with which he held the rectory of Tyle- 
church, in Sussex, the chanceilorship of 
Brecon, and a prebend of Canterbury. He 
died in 1795, and was interred in the same 
vault with his father. He printed some Ottc 
casional sermons, and a volume has been 
published by his widows — Gen. Bieg. Did. 

Berkenhout (John), a miscellaneous 
writer, was a native of Leeds, in Yorkshire, 
and intended for the mercantile pr^ession, 
which he quitted, and entered first into the 
military service of Prussia, and next in that 
of England. In 1760 he went to Edin- 
burgh, and studied physic, but took his 
doctor's degree ?it Leydcn in 1765. While 
at Edinburgh he published his Clavis An- 
glica Lin^ux Botanies, a book of consider- 
able merit. In 1778 he attended the Bri- 
tish commissioners to America, and on his 

chaplain. In 1714 he returned to England, return obtained a pension. He died in 1791* 

but soon afterwards set out again for the ^ — " " '^' ' ' 

continent, with a son of Dr. Ashe, bishop 
of Clogher, and continued on his travels 
four years; he returned in 1721, and be- 
came chaplain to the duke of Grafton, lord 
lieutenant of Ireland. At this time he took 
his degree of D. D. and a fortune was be- 
queathed to him by a lady of Dublin. In 
17'^4 he was promoted to the deanjy of 
Derry, and the year following he printed a 
proposal for converting the American In- 
dians, by erecting a college in the Ber- 
'mudas: his mind was so intent on this 
scheme, that he obtained a grant of lOfiOOL 
from the commons, and set sail for Ame- 
rica, where he resided near two years; but 
the project failed, owing to the minister's 

aged 60. Some of his works possess consi- 
derable merit ; among these are his Phar- 
macopoeia Medici ; Outlines of a Natural 
History of Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols. 
13mo; Symptomatology; Biographia Lite- 
raria ; Letters to his Son*— JScrro^. Mag, 

Berkhetden (Job and Gerard), two 
Dutch painters ; the first excelled in land- 
scapes, and died in 1696; the other painted 
views and pieces of perspective. He was 
dro^'ued in. a canal in 1693.^- HwlraJtm, • 

Bk R KLET (sir William), ^vemor of Vir- 
ginia, was bbrn of an ancient family near 
London, and educated at Merton-coUege, 
Oxford, of which he became fellow. He 
governed Virginia from 1660 to 1676, when 
he returned to England, and died the year 

applying the monev to other purposes, following. 1 le wrote The Lost Lady, a 

In 1732 he published the Minute PhiIo30- tragi-comedy; The Description and Laws 

pher, in 2 vols. 8vo. which is a m.rsterly at- of Virginia,' folio. — WwttCt Atb. Oxen. 
tack on infidelity. The next year he was BKRNAERT(Nicasius),an eminent painter, 

, made bishop of Cloyne, and about this was the disciple of Snyders, whose manner 

time he published the Analyst, in which he he imitated with success. He died in 1663, 

endeavoured <o prove that the mathemati- 
cians admitted mysteries, and even falsities 
in science, particularly instancing the doc- 
trine of fluxions. He wus answered by se- 
veral writer?, to whom he replied in 1709, 
ib a Defence of Freethinking in Mathen^a- 
tics. In 17SG he published the Querist, ad- 
dressed to magistrates, occasioned by the 
licentiousness of the times. In 1744 ajv 
peared his book on the virtues of tar- 
water. He died suddenly, in 175S, at Ox- 
ford, and was buried in Christ -church, 
where there is a monument to his memory. 
Pope said no less justly than beautifully of 
him, ** To Berkeley every virtue litider 
heaven/* He wrote that curious book, 

aged 70. — PUkingtoa. 

Bernard of Menthon, the founder of a 
religious order, was bom in Savoy in 9tfS. 
He embraced the ecclesiastic life when 
young, and became archdeacon of the • 
church of Aoust, at the foot of the Alps. 
Here he employed himself chiefly in propa- 
gating Christianity among the mountaineers, 
and founded two monasteries in the pas» 
sage of the Alps for the relief of pilffrims 
and unfortunate travellers, which stiU sub- 
sist under the names of the great and httle 
St. Bernard — Moreri, 

Bernard {St.\ a divine of the Roman 
church, was born in 1091, in Burgundy, 
and in 1 1 15 was made abbot of tb« monssr 

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ktty of Clahrrattx, in which situatioa ht 
acquired so great a name, that hardly any 
ecdetiasticaj affiur of consequence was 
transacted without him. Under hi» direc- 
tion no less than 160 monasteries were 
founded. He died in 1153. His works 
Wrere printed in SvoU. folio, 1690^— y^form. 
BxiNAKo ^Edward), a learned astrono- 
mer and critic, was bom at Paul's Perry, 
in Northamptonshire, in 1638. After re- 
ceiving his education at Merchant Taylors' 
school he was removed to Sl John*8-coU 
m, Oxford, where he obtained a feilow- 
M>. In 1669 he was appointed deputy to 
Wr Christopher Wren in the Savilian pro- 
fessorship of astronomy, and in 1673 he suc- 
ceeded that great man. .A plan being form- 
ed of publishing all the ancient mathema- 
tidans at the umversity press, Mr. Bernard 
was nominated to the care of it, and he 
published puut of Eudid as a specimen, 
bat the dMign was never completed. In 
1^84 he took his degree of D.D. and was 
presented to the rectory of Brightwell, in 
Berkshire. He died in 1697. He wrote 
some astronomical papers in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions) A Treatise on ancient 
Weights and Measures, appended to Po- 
cocke's Commentary on Hosea; Private 
Devotions, $lc 1689; Orbis Ernditi Litera- 
tura a chaiactera Samaritico deducu ; £ty- 
mologicum Britannicum ; &c. &c. — J3i^, Br. 
BcaNAaD (James), a French divine, was 
bonk at Nions in Dauphin^, in 1658, and 
educated at Geneva; after which he be- 
came minister of th^ church of Vinsobres, 
but when the persecution commenced he 
retired first to Swiuerland and next to the 
Hanie. He wrot^ an liistorical and Poli- 
tical State of Europe, and succeeded Le 
Clerc in the management of the Biblio- 
theqne Universelle. In 1699 he began the 
MoDvelles de la Republique des Lettres. 
In 17Q5 he was chosen one of the ministers 
of the Walloon church at Leyden,and pro- 
lessor of philosophy and mathematics in 
that university. He died in l7lSr^MTrri. 
Bca N Aao(Cat^rine),aceIebratedFrench 
lady, wss boni at Rouen, and died in 1712. 
She wrote two tragedies, Brutus and Lao- 
daima,and obtained three times the poetical 
prixe at tlie French academy. Sne was 
admitted a member of the Academie des 
Rioovrati at Padua. Two romances. The 
Count d^Amboise, and Inez de Cordova, 
an ascribed to her.'^MorerL 

BcavAtio of Thuringia, a hermit, who 
•nnmmced at the close of the 10th century 
that die end of the world was approaching. 
A total eelipse of the sun happemng at that 
time^ many people hid themselves in caves, 
but the return of light dispelled their fears, 
the hermit retired to his cell, and the world 
Ksmned its tranquillity. — AToro. Dia. Ifht, 

BsavAao (Peter Joseph}, a French poet, 
was bom at Grenoble, in Dauphin^, in 1 708, 
and educated in the Jesuits' college at Ly- 
«Bk He was patronized by the marshal 

B E R 

de Colgiiejr, to whom he was secretary, and 
. by whose mtefest he was appointed secret 
tary-general to the. dragoons. He died in 
1776. His light pieces of poetry and operas 
possess merit. — Moreri, 

^ Bbrnaro (Francis), sm English physi- 
cian, was a man of learning, and a curious 
collector of books. He died in 1697, and 
the year following his library sold for 1600^. 

Bernard of Brussels, an eminent painter* 
is known by his hunting pieces, in which 
he introduced portraits of Charles V. and 
the noblemen of his court. He flourished 
in the middle of the 16th century^^— JVaw. 
Diet, Hut, 

BtRNAfio (Samud), a French painter. 
He died in 1 687, aged 7S. He was professor 
in the royal academy of painting at Parir^ 
and excelled in miniatures. He also painted 
some historical pieces, and engraved a fine 
print of the hi^ory of Attila, after a paint- 
ing by Raphael, in the Vatican. — Nom. Diet, 

Bernardi (John), an Italian artist. He 
excelled in cutting grand subjects in crys- . 
tals for jewellers, and his works are said to 
rival those of the ancients. He died ^t 
Faenza in IS^S^-^lbd. 

fisRNARDiN, a Romish saint, was bom in 
Tuscany, in 1380, and died in 1444. He 
was a frBnciscan,and was sent by his order 
to the Holy l.and. On his return to Italv he 
founded above SOO monasteries, for wnich 
he was canonized. His works have been 
printed in folio and 4to. — Moreri. 

BcRMAZZANo, an Italian painter of the 
16th century. He excelled in landscape.— 
Nouv, Diet. Hut. 

BcRNXA, or Berni (Francis), an Italian 
poet, was a native of Tuscany, and canon 
of Florence. He died in 1 543. He is called 
the Scarron of the It^lians^ — Ibid. 

BzRNiRR (Francis), a French traveller and 
physician, who resided twelve years in the 
court of Aurengzebe as his physician, 
whence on his return to France he obtain- 
ed the name of the Mogul. He died in 
1688. His travels were printed in 1699 
and 1710. — Moreri, 

Bkrnier (Nicholas), a French musician, 
bom in 1664, and died in 1734. He was 
music-master of the chapel royal • at Paris^ 
and published cantatas and other pieces of 
great merit — Nmv. Diet. Hist. 

Bsrnizr (John), a French physician, who 
wrote, 1. A History of Blois, 1682, 4to. 
2. Medical Essays, 4to. 3. Ang-Mcnagiana, 
12mo. 4. Critique on the Works of 'Rabe- 
lais, ]2mo. He died in 1698. — Tbid. 

Bbrnini, or Bernin (John Lattrence), 
a celebrated sculptor and architect, was a 
native of Naples, but resided chiefly at 
Rome, which he adorned With several 
master-pieces of his art. Gregory V."con« 
ferred on him the honour of Knighthood, 
and his successor Urban VIIL employed 
hiin in decorating the church of St. Pstct 

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and other public works. He executed three 
busts of Ciiarles L of Engiand from a pic- 
ture by Vandyke, on viewing which, he is 
said to have miscrvcd, tliat it was the most 
nnfwrlumxitfiice be ever bel-lJ, At the a^c of 
68 he visited Paris, at the pressine invita- 
tion of Louis XV. of whom he made a bust. 
He died at Rome i n 1 «80, aged «2. Bernini 
had also a fine taste for paintinj^, and seve- 
ral of his pictures are in the Florentine gal- 
lerv* — D*Ar]^enville, 

Bernis (Francis Joachim de Pierre de), a 
French cardinal, and archbishop of Aibi, 
%vas bom in 1715, of a noble but reduced 
family. He was indebted to the marchioness 
of Pompadour for his preferments in chiirch 
and state. After having been employed as 
amlKi<»sador to dilftrcnt courts, he was made 
minister of foreijfii aflruir8,and obtained from 
Rome a cardinal's hat. But the ill*success 
of the French arms, and the derangement of 
the finances, occasioned his disgrace and 
temporary banishment from court. In 1 7f>4 
he was recalled and nominated archbishop 
df AlbL He afterwards was appointed am- 
bassador to the pope, and had a consider- 
able share in procuring the destruction of 
the Jesuits. He had the additional title of 
protector of the French' church at Rome, 
where he lived in splendour and hospitality 
till the revohition disordered his finances, 
on which he ubtaincil a pension from the 
court of Spain. He died at Rome in 17M. 
His works, consisting chiefly of poems, are 
in 3 vols. 4to. — NoMv. D'ut, Hist, 

BcANouiLLi (James), a famous mathema^* 
tician, was born at Basil in 1654, where he 
applied to the study of di\'inity, in c<»m- 
piiance with the of his father, f^is in- 
clination, however, lay tothe mathematics, 
which he studied privately and without any 
assistance but from boolcs. In 1676 he set 
out on his travels, and at Geneva devised a 
method of teaching a blind girl to write. 
He wrote a treatise on the comet which 
appeared in 1680, and soon after went to 
' Holland, where he studied the new philo- 
sophy. From thence he crossed over to 
England, where he formed an Intimacy 
with Mr. Boyle and other great men. He 
returned to Basil in >682, and read lec- 
tures on experimental philosophy and me- 
<lhamc«. Aoout 1684, I^eibnitz publisned, 
in the Acta Eruditorum at L.t\m,\Cy sOme 
essays oa his new calculus ditrerentialis, 
but without ditcoTfring the method. Bcr- 
nottilli, however, and nis * brother, found 
out the secret, for which they received the 
applause of Leibnitz. In 1687 he was ap- 
jpomted professor of mathematics at Basil, 
imd in 1699 was chosen membef of the 
royal academy at Pan«. He died in 1705. 
His works were printed In 2 voU. 4to. at 
Geneva, 1744^ — Mortri, Muttons Math. D'ut, 

BtaNouiLH (Jolui), brother to the above, 
was bom at Basil in 1667. He studied un- 
der hb brother, and in 1695 was chc^en 
professor of mathematics at Oroningen. 

On the death of his brother he returned !• 
his own country where be was apponnted" 
to succeed him. In 1714 he published a 
treatise on the management of ships; and 
in 1 7.'J0 his memoir on the elliptical figure 
of the phnets gained the prize of the aca- 
demy of sciences. He was elected member 
of most of the learned societies in Europe* 
and after a long life spent in the improve- 
ment of the mathematics, he died in 1748. 
His writings were published at Geneva in 
1742, in 7 vols. 4to. — M'>reri, 

Bp.iiirouii.i.i (Daniel), an eminent philo- 
sopher, was son of the last-mentioned, aiKl 
Ijorn at Groipngen in 170a After travel- 
ling tlirough several parts of Europe, he 
!»*>ttlcd at Basil, where he became success- 
ively professor of physic and philoeophr. 
He gamed and divided ten prizes from tHe 
academy of sciences, which were contended 
for by the greatest mathcmaticiaRs in Eu- 
rope. In 17:M he divided one with h't 
father, which occa^oned a diffin-ence be- 
tween them. In 1748 l%e succeeded hi« 
father in the academy of sciences^ He died 
•in 178«.— A«w. Dct, Wst, Nwt^'f DUL 

BBRvsToarp (/olui Hartwig Ernest, 
count), a celebrated statesman, was bom of 
a noble family at Hanover in 17 la. After 
a lilieral education he travelled into several 
parts of Europe, and oa his return settled 
in Denmark, at the desire of Christian \1. 
who sent him ambassador todiO^ent courts. 
After receiving several marks of distincticm 
from his sovereign, he became prime mW 
nister of Denmark, in which situation he 
distinguished himself by forming excellent 
institutions, encouragin^f laannfaGtiires an^ 
c<immerce, patronizing men of letters, im- 
proving Hgncukure^ aM other pubNc works 
of the greatest utility. To him Denmark ti 
indebted for the society of Danish lan- 
guage and fine art!(, and the royal agricul- 
tural and economical society, both which 
have been of eminent service to the nation. 
He also patronized a society, the object of 
which was) to send learned men into the 
east, and which occasioned the publication 
pf the travels of Niebuhr. This excellcat 
statesman was created a count in 17<rr,and 
the year following accompanied the long 
to England. But in 1770 he was deprived 
of all his employments, on which he retired 
with a pension to Hamburgli, where be 
died in 1772.— G^-w. Bio^. 

Bernstoiipf (Andrew Peter, count), n^ 
phew of the preceding, was bom at Gartow, 
in Luneburgh, 1735. He studied at Leipsic 
and Gottingen, after which he travelled 
through several parts of Europe, and on 
his return to Denmark became assistant to 
his uncle. In 1769 he was made a privy 
counsellor, but was dismissed the next year, 
in 1772 he was recalled, and shortlv after 
was appointed minister of stato. His first 
public biLslness in this ofBce was a success^ 
ful ncgociation with Russia concerning the 
exchange of the Gottorf part of Hobieia 

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B E It 

for Olden1>urg aiul t>elmenhnrst. t)unng 
the American war BemstorflT effected an 
armed neutrality between Russia, Denmark, 
' Sweden, and Prussia, for the protection of 
their trade from the belligerent powers. 
In 1780 he resigned his employments and 
retired to his estate; but was recalled in 
1784 by the prince of Denmark, and it was 
wholly by his manao^ement that peace was 
maintained when war broke out between 
Russia and Sweden in 1788. His public 
conduct was so acceptable to the people of 
Denmark that medals were struck to his 
honour. He died in 1797, and his funeral 
was attended by a numerous concourse of 
mourners.— G*-*. Bitg, 

6eroai,ous (Philip), an Italian writer, 
was bom at Bologna m 1453. He read lec- 
tures on eloquence in dilTerent universities 
with applause, and at Icn^h settled in his 
native city, were he died in 150.>. His 

works were printed at Basil in 1513. 


Beroaldus (Philip), an Italian poet, was 
nephew of the above, and became librarian 
of the Vatican, under Leo X. He died in 
151S, aged 40. His poems were published 
It Rome in f .530— /W. 

Berosus, priest of the temple of Belus 
at Babylon. He wrote a History of Chaldea, 
of which some fragments are m Joseph us ; 
but he dealt much m fiction, with a view of 
extolling his nation above all others. He 
wa« cotemporary with Alexander the Great. 
The amicjuitiet published under his name 
by Annius la 1545, are a forgery. — f^<mius 
di Hhu Gr^tc, 

Berouim (Lewis de), a gentleman of Ar- 
tois, who was burnt for being a protestant 
at Paris, in 1520. He was a man of a noble 
family, and distinguished at the French 
court'. He suffered death with great for- 

titudCd — Bayie. 

Beri2l' I N (Amauld), an ingenious French 
writer, was bom at Bourdcaux. He dis- 
tinguished himself by his Idyls, which are 
fall of sensibility and sweetness, and Iiave 
been often printed. But lus principal work 
ti his Ami des Enfans (the Cnildren's 
Friend), in 6 vols. 12mo, presenting for the 
instruction of the juvenile mind tne most 
important lessons, under the engaging form 
of dialogues and stories. It has passed 
through a number of editions, and been 
transited into several languages. He died 
in 1791, aged 42.— iVijiw. Diet, Hut. 

Berrctoni (Nicholas), an eminent paint- 
er, was bom at Macerata In 1617, ana died 
in 1G82. He was a disciple of Carlo Ma- 
ratti, and excelled in painting historical 
•objects. — PUiinpfotu 

Berriman (William), an English divine, 
was bom in 16S8, and receivea his educa- 
iSon at Merchant Taylors* school, from 
whence he removed to Oriel college, Oxford, 
where he proceeded D. D. In 1720 he be- 
cune domestic chaplain to the bishop of 
l^Sndoli, who gave htm the living of St. 

Andrew UodersKaft. In 1 727 he was elect* 
ed fellow of Eton-colleg^. He died in 1 75a 
Dr. Berriman' was the author of five volumet 
of excellent lermons, of which the three 
first were preached at Boyle's and M^er*s 
lectures, and the two la»t are posthumous. 

— Gr/i. Biofr. Diet, 

Berruyer (Joseph Isaac), a French jesuity 
was born at Rouen in 1682. His writings 
were condemned by the pope, because they 
were too libefal in theu* sentiments. He 
wrote a History of the People of God, 14 
vols. 4to. He died at Paris in 1 758*— JV«ir«* 
Diet. Hi4t. 

Berry (sir John), a brave English com- 
mander, was the son of a clergyman, and 
born at Knowston, in Devonshire. He di»- 
tin^tished himself at the battle of South- 
woTd-bay, for which be was knighted. In 
1682 he was captain of the Gloucester fri- 
gate, in which he was conveying thjs <lhike 
of York to Scotland, but by the carelessness 
of the pilot, the ship was lost at the en* 
trance of the H umber. Sir John, however, 
by his great presence of miiid, saved xX\9 
duke, for which he was promoted to a flag, 
and commanded under lord Dartmouth at 
the demolition of Tangier. On his return 
he was made a commissioner of the navy, 
which he held with his other appointments?-^ 
after the revolution. In 1691 he was poison- 
ed on board of his ship at Portsmouth, aged 
56. His remains were interred at Stepney. 
— Campbcirt JJtfft of tltc Admiruh. 

B K. R s M A N N (George), a learned German , 
was born in. 1538, at Annaberr, in Misnia ; 
he made a great progress in tne languages 
and sciences. He travelled through France 
and Italy, and after his return taught with 
reputation in different places, till his death, 
which happened in 1611. He rendered 
into Latin the psalms of David, and wrote 
notes on seversu of the classics. — Morcri, 

Bertaut (John), a French poet and di- 
vine, was bom at Caen in 166i2. His wit 
and talents introduced him to court, where 
he became chaplain to Catharine de Medi*' 
CIS, and secretary of, the cabinet to Henry 
IIL He was afterwards made bishop of 
Seez, and died in 1611. His poems were 
printed at Paris in 1620, 8vo. besides which 
he wrote several theological pidces. — MorerL 
•Bkrtheau (Charles), a French protestant 
divine, was bom at Montpellier in 1660, 
and in IGBl was admitted a minister in the 
synod of Vigan, On the revocation of tht 
edict of Nantes, he fled to England, and be* 
came minister of the Walloon church. He 
died in London in 1732. Two volumes of 
his sermons are in prinL^-Gm. Biog. Did, 

Bert HIE R (Wiluam Ftancis), a learned 
Jesuit, wai bom at Tssoudun, in Beny, v\ 
1704. He was one of the editors oi the 
Journal de TVrf mia', which he continued till 
the dissolution of his society. In 1762 he 
was appointed keeper of the royal library,, 
and assisted in the education of Lewis XAn. 
The affairs of his society obliged him to 

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quit tlM court; sod he went to OifembuiY, 
-where he trantUtedthe puinu into f reach, 
with notes, 8 vols. ISmo. 1785. He died in 
ITSS^JVbin,. Via. Hut/ 

fi£iiTi (John Lawrence), an Augustine 
monk, was born in 1896, at Serravezsa, in 
Tuscany. Being called to Rome by his su- 
periors> he was appointed assistant-general 
of his order. He wrote Dc Dtsciplinis 
Theologicis, in 8 vols. 4to. This work being 
attacked as favourable to the Jansenist8,the 
' author by the advice of pope Benedict X!V. 
wrote a vindication of himself, in 2 volt. 
4 to. He also published an Ecclesiastical 
History in JUitin, in 7 vols. 4to. He died 
at Pi:.a in 1766.— iVbw. Did. HUt 

Bert HI KR (Joseph Stephen), a French 
philosopher, of the society of the oratory. 
Me wrote, 1. Physique des Combes, 1760, 
12mo. 2. Physiauedes Corps anim^ 1755, 
12mo. He died in 1783, aged 73-— iViiw. 
Did. Hut. 

BsRTiioLON (N.\ a French writer, was a 
native of Lyons, wnere he died in 1 799. He 
was professor of philosophy some time at 
Montpellier, which place he quitted for the 
history professorship jn the central school 
at Lyons. He published several works on 
electricity, aerostation, and vegetation; but 
his principal performance is a memoir on 
the ancient histoiy of the commerce of 
Lyons, with judicious remarks on machines 
and the art«u — Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

Bertin (Exupere- Joseph), a French ana- 
tomist and ph^ician, was bom at Tre» 
molat, in the diocese of Rennes, in 1712. 
He was for some time first physician to the 
hospodar of Wallachia, but disliking the 
country he returned to France, where he 
died in 1781. He was chosen associate ana* 
tomist to the academy at Paris, and pub- 
lished an Osteology in 17&4, and several 
memoirs on anatom/.— ^©"j. Dirf. Hiit. 

Bcrtim (Nicholas), an eminent painter, 
was bom at Paris in 1664, and obtained a 
prize at the age of eighteen, from the aca- 
oemy of painting, of which he afterwards 
became a member. He died at Paris in 
nse^-^D'ArgcHviUe vUi da PoMtres. 

Bertin (Antony), a I rench militanr of- 
ficer and poet^was bora in the isle of Bour- 
hon in 1752. He finished his education in 
the college Du Plessis, where he acquired a 
taste for poetry: and published in 1773% 
▼otume of poems, and m 1782 a coUectioa 
of elegies, which obtained a great reptita- 
iimL He died in 1790, at St. Domingo, 
just as Jie was on the eve of marriage. His 
works hav'e been printed in 2 vols. ISmo. 
^Nowj.Diti. HUt. 

Be RTiu s (Peter), an eminent geograi 
was bom in Flanders, and became profi 
of philosophy at Leydeh, which place he 
lost for bemg an Arminian. He ihen went 
to Paris, turned roman catholic, and was 
made cosmographer to the king, and pro- 
fessor of the mathematics. He died in 
IQ^t aged 64. Hit principal works are. 

Theatflim Geographis Veteris, 2 voIt.foL 
illustri virorum Epist. select. &c. 8vo. 
Commentariomm rerum Germanicarum, 
1 2mo.— jMorrri. 

Bertram (Cornelius Bonavcnture), pro- 
fessor of Hebrew at Geneva and Lausanne, 
was born at Thouars, in Poitou, in 1531, 
and died at Lausanne in 1594. He pub- 
lished a Dissertation on the Republic of the 
Hebrews, a Revision of the French Bible of 
Geneva,anew edition of Pagnin*s Thesaurus 
Linguae Sanctae, a Parallel of the Hebrew 
and Syriac Languages, Lucubrationes Fran- 
kendalenses. — Moreri. 
^ Bertrand (John Baptist), a French phy- 
sician, was born at Martigues in 1670, and 
died in 1753. He wrote, 1. An historical 
Account of the Plague at Marseilles, 12mo. 
2. Letters to M. I&ider on the muscular 
Motion, 12mo. 3. Disserutions on Sea-air, 
4ta — New. Diet. Hist. 

Bertrand (Nicholas), a phrsictan of 
Paris, who died in 1780, wrote Elemenu of 
Physiology and other work».-^/^n/. 

fisRULLs (Peter de), a cardinal, and 
founder of the congregation of the oratory, 
was bom in Champagne in 1575. Henrv 
rv. made him almoner, and after his deatk 
he became chief of the counciL He was 
employed on several afiairs«of importance, 
and accompanind Henrietta Maria wife of 
Charles I. to England. In 1627 he was no- 
minated cardinid, but refused several other 
preferments. He died suddenly in 1629. 
His works have been printed in 1 vdL folio. 

Bbatllvs, an Arabian bishop of the Sd 
century, who held that Jesus Christ had no 
existence prior to his incamation. Origen 
bad a conference vrith him on this subject, 
and Beryllus, convinced by his arguments, 
renounced his heresy. — Mosbtiwt. 

BiSLBR (Basil), an apothecary of Nurem- 
bui-e, was bom in 1561, and published; 
I. Hortus Evstettensis, foL 2. Icones Flo- 
mm et Heroanim, 4to. His son Michael 
Rupert Besler,who died in 1661, wrote the 
Gazophylacium remm Naturalium, Nurem- 
burg, 1642, toh—Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

BESLsr (John), a French antiquarr, was 
king's advocate, and published, 1. A His- 
tory of Poitou, 1647. 2. The Bishops of 
Poitiers, 1647. He died in 1644, aged 72. 

BBsoiGMt (Jerome), doctor of the Sor* 
bonne, who died in 1763. He wrote the 
Historv of the Port Royal, 6 toIs. 12«mx 
andx>ther works^r— JVwv. Diet. Hist. 

BtsPLAS (Joseph), a French divine, was 
bom in Xjinguedoc in 1734, and died is 
1783. By a pathetic discourse delivered at 
court he procured some regulations to be 
adopted for the comfort of prisoners ia 
jails. He wrote a treatise on the Causes of 
public Happiness, 1778, 2 vob. 12mo. and 
an Essay on the £Joquence of the Pulpit/-* 
Notro. Diet. Hist. 

Bas sAXioN, titular patriarch of < 

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doople, and archbishop of Nice. He tn» 
deaTDorcd to reconcile the Greek and Latin 
duirchcty for which he got the ill-will of 
the former, and settled in Italy, where £u- 
seniua IV. made him a cardinal. Bein^ sent 
legate to France, be inadvertently visited 
the dulce of Burfpuidy before he waited 
on the king, which gave his majesty so much 
oflcDce th^ he took him by his beard, and 
treated him with other marlu of disrespect, 
which occasioned his death in 1478. , He 
wrote some works, besides translations. — A. 
Bbssci. (Henry de), secretary to the acs|- 
demy of inacripuont and medals at Paris. 
He wrote an account of the campaigns of 
Rocroi and Fribourg in 1644 and 1645, 
ISmo. and died in 169S. — Nwv, Diet. Hut, 
BsTHCNcouRT (Johnde',a Norman ba^ 
fon to whom Henry III. of Castile gave a 
graat of the Canary islands, which were 
erected into a kingdom, and held by him as 
a fief of the crown of Castile in 14OS^-^0- 
itrism'j Hut^rf Amtrica. 

Bktis, governor of Gaza, which be de- 
fended vrith great bravery against Alexan- 
der the Great, who, after taking it, basely 
put him to death.and dragged his corpse at 
Lb chariot wheels, B.C 3S2^— (Jw/n/i" CtirtiMs, 
BcTTiKTov (Thomas), a ftimous actor, 
was bom in Westminster, 1635, and served 
his apprenticeship to a bookseller. In 1G56 
he made his first appearance in sir \\ illiam 
Darenant*s company. At the restoration 
he belonged to the kin£*s company in 
>J)niry-Iane, and was sent by Charles 11. to 
Paris, to observe the French stage. He ex- 
cdled in Shakspeare's principal characters, 
as Hamlet, Othelio, Brutus, and Hotspur. 
In 1695 he opened a new playhouse in Lin- 
colnVinn-flelds, but this scheme did not an- 
swer. In 1709 he obtained a benefit, and 
also the vear following, in which he per- 
formed nimself, but having taken impru- 
dent means to repel the gout from his feet 
for this purpose, it prov^ fatal to him in 
1 7 IOl He was boried in Westminster-abbey. 
He published some dramatic pieces^— ifi^. 

BcTTxif I (Dominico), an eminent Italian 
painter, was bom at Florence in 1644, and 
dMd in 17Q5. He excelled in painting still 
life, animals, and fruit. — D*ArgaivHU, 

BcTTs/John), an English physician, was 
bom at Winchester, and educated at Corpus 
Chrtsti college, Oxford, where he took his 
doctor's degree in 1654. At the restoration 
he became physician to Charles II. but 
when he died is unknown. He published, 
1. De Orttt et N:ttura Sanguinis, 1669, 8vo. 
J. Anatomic Thomx Parr, Ac. — Wood, 

BcTu^si (Joseph), an IiuUan poet, waii 
bom at Bas&ano, about 15620. Peter Aretin 
was his great friend. He wrote some 
amorous poems, and translated the I.atin 
. works of Boccaccio into Italian. He also 
wrote the life of that author — Nouv. Diet, 

BEvcaincE (William), an excellent pre- 
|tte, was born at Barrow, in Leicestershire, 

1638, and educated at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, where at the age of eighteen, 
he wrote a treatise of the excellence and use 
of the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, 
and Samaritan, with a Syriac grammar. la 
1661 he was ordained, and soon lifter pre- 
sented to the vicara^ of £alin^, in Mid* 
dlesex, which .he resigned on bemg chosen 
rector of St. Peter's, Comhill. He was 
greatly followed as a preacher, and was 
called ** the restorer and rtvivcr of primi- 
tive piety.** He was successively prebendary 
of St. Paul's, archdeacon of Colchester, and 
prebendary of Canterbury. In 1704 he 
was preferred to the see of St. Asaph, in 
which he behaved as an apostolical prelate. 
He died in 1707, and was buried in St. 
Paul's cathedral Besides the above work, 
he wrote, l.Institutionum Chronologicarum 
Xibri dua 2. Synodicon, sive Pandects 
Canonum S S. Apostoloram et Condliorum 
ab EcdesiaGrsBca receptorum, 1672,2 vols, 
fol. S. Codex Canonum Ecclesis primi- 
tivx. 4. The Church Catechism expuined. 
5. Private Thou^hu upon Religion. 6L 
The great Kecessityof frei^uent Cbmmu- 
nion. 7. Thcsaums Theologicus, or a com- 
plete System*^ of Divinitv, 4 vols. 8vo. 8.^ 
A Defence of the old Version of Psahns. 
9. An Exposition of the 39 Articles of Re- 
ligion, folio. 10. 150 Sermons, 12 vols. 
8va and 2 vols. foWa^^Bitg, BriL 
^ BxvcaLANn (Adrian^, a learned Dutch 
civilian who prostituted hit pen to the com- 
position of obscene books. One of these was 
an essav on original Sin, which was burnt 
at the Hague, and the author imprisoned. 
On being discharged he went to Utrecht, 
from whence he removed first to Leyden, 
and next to England, where he obtained 
a pension. In 1698 he published his treatise 
De Fornicatione Cavenda. \\t died insane 
about 1712. — M^reri, 

. Bevzrjly (John of), an English divine, 
was born at Harpham in Northumberland, 
but where educated is not certain^ He em- 
braced the monastic life and became abbot 
of St. Hilda, till Alfred king of Noifiium- 
berland made him bishop of Hexham, from 
whence in 687 he was translated to York. 
He founded a college for secular priests at 
Beverly, and was a great encourager of 
learnea men. Having filled the see with 
honour thirty-four years, he retired to a cell 
and died in 1721. — Bieg, Brit, 

Bevehkingk [Jeromvan),aDutcb states- 
man, who was employed on several impor- 
tant missions. In 1654 he was sent amoas* 
sador to Cromwell, and eil^cted a peace 
between the two countries. After this he 
was sent on several other embassies, but the 
most interesting negociation in which he 
was engaged ^as at the treaty of Nimeguen, 
which produced a general peace. He died 
in 1690, aged 76. — BapU. 

Beverwick (Johnde),aDutch physician, 
was horn at Dort, in 1594, and took his de- 
gree of M. D. at PaU^a. He then returned 


Digitized by > 


to hiffown country, where he practised ^th 
great reptititii^n. He died in 1947. His 
w6rk« were printed in ^to. in l($5L-»- 

BiOF (John le), a French antiquary, was 
bom at Auierre, in 1687 ; embraced the 
ccclesiastTcal life, became member of the 
Academy of belics-lettrcs and inscriptions, 
and aid io 1870. He published a collec- 
tion of pieces on the History of France ; 
fhat of Paris; Memoirs of tlie History of 
Auxerrc ; andother works/— iVoi/v. /;/;-;. Hist, 

Beurs (William), a Dutch painter, was 
born at Dordt, in 1656. He painted por- 
trait, landscape, and flowers. — HouhraMtn. 

BezA (Theodore), a learned divine, was 
born at Vezelai, in Burgundy, in 1519, and 
^educated for the bar at Orleans. Here he 
imbibed the principles of the reformed re- 
ligion, on which he retired to Geneva, and 
shortly after was choi^n to the Greek pro- 
fessorship at Lausanne. After residing there 
about ten years he became assistant to Cal- 
vip in the church and university of Ge- 
neva. Some time afterwards he went to 
>lavarre by desire of the king, to assist at a 
conference ^eld with the catholic divines, 
where he displayed his eloquence to great 
advantage. In the civil war, which Tiap- 
pened not long after, he accompanied the 
prince of Cond^, and was present at the 
battle of Drcux. In 15^>3 Ik* returned to 
Geneva: and in 1571 went to France to 
assist at the synod of RocheUe, where he 
was chosen moderator. He died in. 1605. 
His polemical pieces are forgotten, but his 
Latin poems printed in 1548 are still read. 
A Greek MS. of the New Testament 
which once belonged to Beza is now in the 
university library at Cambridge, a copy of 
whiph h3A been published by pr. Kipling, 

BxzovT ^Stephen), a Freneh mathema- 
tician, was born at Nemours in 1730, and 
(died at Paris in 178S. He v/as a member 
of the academy of sciences, and examiner of 
the marines, knd the pupijs of artillerv. He 
wrot^ a <:ourc:: of MatfijBmaticf for tne use 
of the marine, with a treatise on Naviga- 
tion 6 vols. 8vo. ; another course of Mathe- 
matics for the corjM of artillery, 4 vols, 
Zyo.\ a general Theory of Algebraic ^qua-r 
tions, and other esteemed works.-«-irw/M. 

Bi.'iNCANX (Joseph), a Jesuit and matke" 
matician, was born at Bologna, and died at 
Parma in 1644. He published an edition of 
the works of Aristotle; Cosmography de- 
monstrated ) a Chronology of emiiieut Ma- 
themSiticians ; Dissertation on the Nattire of 
Mathematics'; apd oth^r works, — Neuv, 
JOict, Nia, 

BlAMciii (Francis), an Italian painter, 
was a n&tiye of Modena, and the master of 
Correggio. H« ^ed in 1 520. — Dff>il€i , 

BxANcui (, an Italian painter, bom 
pit Roine in 1694, and died in 1739. He 
painted history, land8cap<*t, portraits, sea- 
pi^cp^ and aiusu)ifr-*<p'^r^i;//i>, 

B I c 

BxAKCHiNx (Francis), an Italian mathe- 
matician and ecclesiastic, was born it Ve- 
rona, of a noble faniilyj in 1662, and when 
young established a mathematical society 
at his native place. Alexander VIII. made 
him his librarian. He afterwards obtained 
several preferments, and died 
in 1729. He published Palazzo di Ccsari, 
1738, fol.; Inscrizzioni 8cpolcrali dclla 
Casa di Augjsto, 1727, folio; Pieces of 
Poetry and Eloquence ; An Universal His- 
tory in Italian, 1C97 ; but his principal per- 
formance is entitled Hespcri et Phosphori 
nova Phenomena sive Observationes circa 
pianetam Veneris. He is not to be con- 
founded with John Forlunalis BlANCUINX,aXI 
Italian physician, who died professor in that 
faculty at Padua, in 177y. He wrote on 
Medical Electricity ; on the Force of Ima- 
gination on Pregnant VVomen ; Discourse 
on Philosophy; and other pieces — Nmv. 

BiAKD (Peter), a French sculptor, was 
born at Paris, and died in 1609, aged 5a 
He executed many excellent pieces, the 
chief of which is the equestrian statue of 
Henry IV. — Nouv. Diet Hut. 

Bias, one of the seven wise men of 
Greece, was a native of Caria, and flou- 
rished about 680 B. C His apoj^hthegms 
have been recorded by Diogenes Laertius. 
— JlfJ^rff/-/. 

BiBiENA (Bernardo da), a Roman cardi- 
nal, was born of an obsCure family in MTO. 
He entered into the service of the Medici 
family, and by his address was instrumental 
in securing the election of Leo X. who 
made him a cardinal, and employed him <m 
several important missions. But he is said 
to have excited the jealousy of Leo by his 
ambition, and was poisoned in 1520. Bi^ 
biena wrote a famous comedy called Ca- 
landra, which is still in repute among the 
Italians. — T. raboi cbu 

BiBiENA (Ferdinand GalH), an eminent 
painter and architect, was born at Bologna, 
in 1657 and employed by the duke of Par- 
ma and the emperor as 'first painter. He 
also built several magnificeni structures, 
which shew a great taste. He died in 174a. , 

BiBLiANDKR (Th<y>dorc), 8 protcttant di- 
yinc, whose true name was Bouchnian, was 
bom in Switzerland, and became proi^ssor- 
of divinity at Zurich, where he died in 
1564, aged 60. He published a versi jn of 
the Koran, with pieces in refutatiot; of it ; 
also Commentaries on the Scriptures.—-. 

BiCHAT (Marie Francis Xavier), pro- 
fessor and physician in the Hotel Pieu at 
Paris. He commenced his studies in the 
hospital at l.yons, under Mr. Peiit. When 
that city was taken he retired to Paris, 
where he obtained the patronage of De- 
sault, by whose instructions lie greatly pro- 
fited. He died in IbOJ, aged 31. Bichat 
published, 1. Memoirs in Sit Collcctxo» of 

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B J G 

the Medical Society. 2. A Treatise on tl»e 
Membranes. S. Recherches Physiologiquea 
Mir la Vie et la Mort, 1799, 8vo. 4. L^loge 
de Desault, in the 4th vol. of the Journal 
de Chinirgeri& — Neuv, Did. Hist, ^ 

BiDDLE (John), a zealous socinian, wis 
born at Wotton Under Edge, in 1G15. He 
took his degree of M. A. at Oxford, in 
164], after which he became master of the 
^mmar-«chooI at Gloucester, but lost that 
situanon br publishing objections to the 
doctrine ot the Trinity. He suffered also 
imprisonment there for some time ; and af- 
ter luf release, he was summoned before 
the parliament, who ordered him into close 
custody. His writings made so much noise 
as to be tbe cause of an ordinance of par* 
liaxnent, denouncing death to any who 
should deny the ortnodox faith. During 
the distractions of public alEiirs, Bidiile es- 
caped a long time, but at last he wus sent 
to Sl Mary*s Castle for life by Cromwell. 
From thence he was recalled in I65S; but 
in \66*2 he was taken up at a conventicle, 
and on process of common law fined 100/. 
and ordered to be imprisonet^t till it should ' 
be paid. He died in prison in Ib'C A ' 
Tpclmim^j lije <,/ Biddlc, 

was bom at Amsterdam in lo'49. He was 
ttccessively professcir of analomv at the 
Hague ana at Leyden; but was called from 
the Utter place to be physician to king Wil- 
Eam, at whose death he returned to that 
v:uversity, where he died in 1 7 13. His great 
work is entitled Anatomia Corporis Hu- 
naoi, published at Amsterdam, fol. 10*85. 
He also wrote a Latiu poem, printed after 
bisaeath in 1711). — M'>r.'r''. 

BiE (Adrian de), a celebrate:'.. painter of 
portraits and architectural pieces, was born 
at Liere in 1.594, and settled at Rome, 
where he met with considerable emplyy- 
ment. — DcpiUt. 

BiELri£LO (James Freueric, baron de\ a 
cefebratcd modern writer. He was born at 
Hamburgh in 1717, and in 174.3 was :ij> 
pointed by the king of Prussia tutor to his 
brother prince Ferdinand; in 1747 curator 
of the universities; and the vear following 
a baron and privy counselor. He died 
io 177a His works are. Political Inst it u- 
tbnsS voK 8VO.; Progress of the Germans 
in the belles-lettres, 8vo.; Dramatic Amuse- 
ments; Familiar Letters; on Universal Eru- 
dition. His Institutions and Letters have 
been translated into £nglish.r— iVflMn. Vict, 


BiEZKLiNGEN (Christian Jans Van), a 
Dutch portrait painter, born at Delft in 
1558, and died in 16001 — Houhmken, 

Bicif E (Gac^ de la), a French • author. 
He was chaplain to king John, whom he 
accompanied to England after the battle of 
Poitiers. He wrote a poem on the chace, 
entitled Le Roman des Oiseaux; and died 
about 1374- — AUrerl. Nouv, Dkt, Hi it, 

BicMK (Margucrin de la), doctor of the 

B I L 

Sorbonne, and dean of Mans. He was4)oro 
in 154(;, at Bayeuz, and was alive in 1591. 
He compiled the Bibliotheca Patrum, the 
first edition of which appeared in 1575, in 
3 vols. fol. but since it has been greatly en- 
larged.— iV/irfW. 

BiGNicouRT (Simon de), a 'French poet, 
was born at Rheims, and became a coun* 
sellor of that city. His works are ; a Col- 
lection of Latin and French poems, I2mo. ; 
Peus^es et Reflections Philosophiques. ile 
died in 1775, aged GG.-^Nouv. Diet, Wit. 

BiGNoN (Jerome), a French writer and 
statesman, was born at Paris in 1590. He 
becan\e page of honour to the dauphin, af- 
terwards Lewis X HI. He is said to have 
written a description of the Holy Land, at 
ten years of age; and another hook on the 
election of popes at the age of 14. His 
father procuredfor him the pjst of advocate- 
general in the grand council, and sometime^ 
after the king appointed him counsellor o^' 
state, and advocate-general in the parlia- 
ment. The next year he was made king*s 
librarian. Me was engaged in several im- 
portant negotiations, and died in 1656. — 

Bigot (Americ), an eminent eticourager 
of letters, was boin at Rouen in W2G. He 
collected a capital library, and cultivated 
an HCjuaintance with learned men, parti- 
cularly Menage and Nicholas Heinsius. 
He also assisted in the publication of several 
works, but printed onlv one with his own 
name, which was the lite of Chrysostom in 
Gujek, by PaHadius, jliscovered by bim in 
the"duke s library at Florence. To this he 
subjoined a Latin translation. Me died at 
Ronen in 16H9. — Bay!,: 

BiLKiNOER (George Bernard), a German 
writer, was born in 1693, and became pro- 
fessor of philosophy at St. Petersbur^t, and 
of theolnr^y at TuCingen. He died m 1750, 
and is known by several a^ute publications, 
the chief of which is entitled Dilucidatio- 
ncs Philosophies de Deo, Anima Humana, 
Nfundo, et General ibus rerum Afiectioni* 
bus. — Ntttro. D'rci. Hist. ^ 

BiLi.1 (James de), a French ecclesiastic, 
was a naiive vf Guise in Picardy, and died 
at Paris in 1;^S1, aged 46. He translated 
several of the (Jreck fathers into Latin, 
and wn)ie Observations on the Scripture, 
lie is not to be confounded with another of 
both liis names, who wrote, Opus A«trono- 
micoii, and some other mathematical works, 
and died in 1679. — ^areri. 

BiLLiNosixv (Henry), bom at Canter- 
bury and educated at Oxford, after Which 
he was bound apprentice to a haberdasher 
in Londwi, and setting up for himself ac- 
quired great wealth; and served the offices 
of sheriii; aldennan, ?.nd lord mayor of the 
city. ITus last was in J598, when he was 
knighied. Me received into his house 
Whitehead, an expelled friar, from whom 
he learned the mathematics, in which he 
became remarkably skilled. Sir Henry was 

Digitized by 


B I O 

B I R 

the firit who published Eudid!8 Elements 
in Entflish, with annotations drawn from 
the MSS. of his master, London, 1570, fol. 
Dr. John Dee prefixed a learned preface 
to this work. Sir Henrv died in 1616. — 

BiLsoN rrhomas), a learned prelate, was 
born at Winchester in 1 536, and educated 
at the school there, from whence he re- 
moved to New college, Oxford.. His first 
preferment was the mastership of Win- 
chester school, after which he was made 
warden of the collere. In 1585 he pub- 
lished a treatise of the difference between 
chr'stian subjection and unchristian rebel- 
li'^n, dedicated to queen Elizabeth ; and in 
1593 another on the perpctjal Government 
of Christ's Church, which procured him 
the bishopric of Worcester, in 1596; from 
whence he was removed lo Winchester. In 
1604 he published a famous book, on 
Christ's Descent into Hell; and in the 
same year was one of the disputants at the 
Hampton court conference. He had also 
a share in the present translation of the 
Bible, and died m 1616. — B'tog. Br. 

Bingham (Joseph), a learned divine, was 
bom at Wakefield in Yorkshire, in 1668^ 
and admitted of University college, Ox- 
ford, in 1684, of which he was elected fel- 
low. In 1690 lie was presented to the rec- 
tory of Headbournpworthy, in Hampshire, 
where he b^gan his great work, the Ori- 
riues Eccka'asticae, which was completed 
in 1772, in 10 vols, Svo. and 2 vols, folio. 
In 1712 bishop Trelawny gave him the rec- 
tory of Havant, near Portsmouth. He died 
in 172^, and was buried in the church-yard 
of Headboume. He wrote also a Scholas- 
tic History of Lay Baptism, and other 
works. His secona son, Josephs was edu- 
cated at the Charter-house, from whence 
he removed to Corpus Christi-coUege, Ox«i 
ford. I^Ie died at the age of 22; after 
which was published an edition of the 
Theban History, prepared by him for the 
press. — Gen, B. /). 

Binning (Hugh), a Scots divine, was 
born in Ayrshire in 16^5, and educated at 
Glasgow, where he became professor of 
moral philosophy. He died in 1 654. His 
sermons and tracts w,erc published in one 
volume 4to. at Edinburgh, 1735. — Ibid, 

BioN of Smyrna, a Greek poet, who flou* 
rished B. C. S80. Moschus, his disciple, says 
that he died of poison. His Idyls are very 
delicate and tender. They are generally 
publtsiied with those of Moschus.— 9<7j'/f. 

BioN, the philosopher, was a native of 
Scythia, and me disciple of Crates, after- 
wards turned cynic, then atheist, and at last 
he became a foilower of 'Ilieophrastus. He 
appears to have be;n an Ostentatious fel- 
low, pcsscst of more wit than wisdonu He 
^unshed 246 B. C. There was another 
BipQ who was a 'follower of Democritus. — 

JBioH (Nidiolas}, a French mathemati- 

cian' and engineer, who died at Paris la 
173fi, aged 8J. He is diieHy known bv a 
good work on the Construction of Matlie- 
matical Instruments, which has been trans- 
lated into £n^Ii<ih in 1 vol. folio. He also 
wrote a trdatise on the Use of the Glubes, 
4to.— JNTatfv. D.'tff. Ht t, 

BioNDi (Francis), an elegant historian, 
was a native of Liesena, an inland in Dal- 
matia, and was recommended by sir Henry 
Wottoa to king James I. who h>>uoured him 
with knighthood, and gave hi in an ap- 
pointment about his person. He wrote 
the history of ihiTwars oetween the houses 
of York and Lancaster in Italian, which 
was translated into English by Henry earl 
of Monmouth. — Gen. B. D, 

BioNDO (Flavio), in Latin 9/M»/yj, an- 
tiquary and historian of the fifteenth cen^ 
tury, was a iMitive of Porli, and became se- 
cretary to hugenius IV. He served three 
succeeding popes in the same capacity, and 
died in 1463. He wrote, Roma Instaurata, 
a work of labour and learning; Italia Ulu*- 
trata; De Origine et Gestis Venetorum, 
and other works. — Thahosebt, 

BioKNS PAUL, a learned Swede, wajs bom 
at Rotarbo, in Sudermania, in 173r,and be- 
came professor of the Oriental and Greek 
languages at Lunden. He was sent to 
Turkey by the king of Sweden, and died 
art Saluoica in 1772. His travels were pub- 
lished at Stockholm in 1778,3 vols. Svo, 
and a continuation in 1781 ; a German 
translation appeared in 1713, in 6 vols.' 
8vo*— Gfi. Biog, 

BiRAOUB (R^, a Milanese of a no- 
ble family, who escaped to France to avoid 
the ven^an^e of Lewis Sforza. Francis I. 
made htm counsellor to the parliament of 
Paris, and Charles IV. appointed him keeper 
of the seals in 1570, and chancellor of 
France in 1573. He was one of the au- 
thors of the massacre of St. Bartholomew. 
Gregory Xill. made him a cardinal at the 
instance of Henry HI. who, however, de- 
prived him of the seals. Me died in 1583, 
aged 74. I le was a time-serving and un- 
principled character. — Mo.erL 

BiiiAGUE (Clement), an engraver on pre- 
cious stones, and said to have been the first 
who discovered the means of engravinp on 
diamonds. The first work he executed of 
this kind was a portrait of Don Carlos, 
prince of Spain. Birague was a Milanese, 
and lived m the court of Philip IL 
Nouv. Diet. Hitt, 

Birch (Thomas), a miscellaneous writer, 
was bora in London in 170 k His parents, 
who were quakers, intended him for trade, 
but the love of learning prevailed, and he 
was permitted to pursue his inclination on 
condition that he should provide for him- 
self. He was usher in three schools kept 
by quakers, which sect, however, he <jurt- 
ed, and in 1730 was ordained a minister 
of the church of Eujgland; soon after 
which he obtained the bving of Uking in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

6 I R 

B I $ 

Isex. In 1735 he was elected a fellow of 
the royal and antiquarian societies. He was 
presented to seyeral church preferments in 
succession, the last of which was the rec- 
tory of Depdeo in £s«cx, which he held 
wicn the united rectories of St. Margaret 
Patten and St. Gabriel, Fenchurch-street. 
In 175*2 he was elected one of the secreta- 
ries of the royal society, and the year fol- 
lowing the archbishop of Canterbury con- 
ferred on him the degree of D. D. He was 
also anpointed one cf the trustees of the Bri- 
cisb museum. He was killed by a fall from 
his horse in 1T66. Dr. Birch had a consider- 
able share in the General Dictionary, histo^ 
ricaland critical, 10 vols, folio : and publish- 
ed the li'/es of Mr. Boyle, archbishop Til- 
locson, Henry, prince of Wales, and other 
works of a Itlce kmX He also wrote an 
Enquiry into the share which Charles I. 
had in the Transactions of the Earl of 
Glamorgan, Svo. 1747. A History of the 
Royal Society, 4 vols. 4to. 1756, &c. Me- 
BH>trs of the^ Reign of Queen Elizabeth, 2 
Tcds. 4tQ. &c. He left his books, MSS. and 
5O0I, to the British museum, the money to 
2D towards increasing the stipend of the 
two assistant librarians — Jiicg. Br. 

Bxa o (William), an Englishmustcian, who 
belonged to the chapel roval of Edward VI. 
aad im the rdgn of Elizaoeth wiu or^ranist 
of the queen's chapeL He died in 1623, 
aged sa His compositions were numerous 
and excellent.-— i9«r;iir^. Ha^okitu. 

BiRCN (John Ernest), duke of Courland, 
was descended from a mean family in that 
country, and bom in 16B7. ' He ingratiated 
htmselt into the good graces of Anne, 
duchess dowager of Coumnd, who made 
hhn her favourite, and when she became 
empress of Russia, entrusted to him the 
managetnent of affairs. Hi^ conduct was 
arbitrary and cruel. Several noble families 
were rcauced to ruin, and above 20,000 
persons were eriled by him to Silieria. In 
1737 the empress compelled the nobles to 
cbuse him duke of Courland, where he go- 
verned in the same despotic manner. On 
the death of Anne he assumed the regencv 
by virtne of her will, but in 1740 a conspi- 
racy was formed against him, and he was 
eooidenMied to death, which sentence was 
changed to baiyshment. Peter III. recalled 
him, and Catherine restored him to his 
former dignity. He resigned the sove- 
reignty, of Courland to his son in 1769, and 
died in 1772.— CoxA Travth in Ruith, 

BiarxGcoccio, or Bjringcucci (Van- 
nuiccio)»^an Italian mathematician of the 
t6ch centurv, who wrote on the Art of 
Fusing and Casting Meuls, particularly for 
making Cannon. His work entitled Piro- 
technia was printed at Venice in 1540, 4to. 
aad s^irerol tmies reprinted. — Gen. Bieg, 

Bift KEN BKAD (sir John), apolitical writer, 
was born at Northwich, in Cheshire, in 
1615, and educated at Oriel college, Ox- 
lord. Iq the ciril war he conduct^ a p«« 

riod' work in favour of the court, called 
Mercurius Aulicus. Hsalso wrote a number 
of pamphlets ag:iinst the men in power, 
for which he was several times imprisoned. 
At the restoration he wa<t knigmcd and 
made master of requests. He died in 1679. 
-^WoodTs A. 0. 

BiRON (Armand de Gontault, baron de;» 
a celebrated French general, was bom of 
an ancient family in Perigord. He was for 
some time pige to queen Mtr^aret of Na- 
varre; afterwards he entered into the ar- 
my, and signalized himself in the wars of 
Piedmont. He disolayed great courage and 
prudence in the civil war, and in 1577 he 
was made a marshal of France. He saved 
several of his friends in the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew. Henry III. sent hi in into 
the Low countries to* succour the duke 
d*Alen93n,but he was defeated by the duke 
of Parm.a. He was slain at the siege of 
Epernai,in Champagne, in 1592. He wrote 
commentaries of his trans vtions, which are 
lost, — Morfri, 

Biron (Charles de Gontault, duke of), 
son of the above, was admiral and marshal 
of France. He became the favourite of 
Henry IV. who raised in his favour the 
biirony of Biron to a dukedom, and sent 
him ambassador to England and other 
countries. Notwithstanding these favours, 
Biron entered into a conspiracy with 
Spain and Savoy against his sovereign, 
which being discovered, he was beheaded' 
in 1602. I lis love of gaming and pleasure 
seems to -have been the main cause of his 
fall.— /J/y. 

BiscAiNo (Bartholomew), an historical 

Sainter, was born at Genoa in 1632, ansl 
ied In 1657. His designs were so admi- 
rable as to give a promise of his becoming 
one of the greatest painters of his country. 

Biscuop (John de), a Dutch painter of 
landscape and history, was born at the 
Hague in 1646, and died in 1686. His 
drawings are highly priced, as they are cor- 
rect and in a fine taste. He is not to be con- 
founded with CortuVms Bis CHOP, who point* 
ed also in Uiiidscape and history. He was 
the principal of Dol, and died Iq 1674,—. 

Bishop (Samuel), an English divbe and , 
poet, was born in London in 17SI, and 
educated first at Merchant Taylors' school, 
and next at St. John's college, Oxford, 
where he obtained a fellowship, and the 
degree of M.A. He became master of Mer- 
chant Taylors' school, rector of St. Martin 
Outwich, London, and of Ditton in Sur« 
rey. He died in 1795. His poems hav«^ 
been published in 2 vols. 4to. and 2 vols. 
12mo. with his life prefixed. 

Bisi (Bonaventure), an historical and mi- 
niature painter, was born at Bologna, and 
died in 1662. His works are highly valued. 

Bl««BT (Charlei), a physician ; after com* 

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pTtiing his sMidics at Edinhurph, he became 
siirgcon in the army, and v/?9 abroad some 
)ears. On his r'irurn he settled at SkcJton 
111 Yorkshire. He died in 1791, aged 75. 
His writiiiK-; are; I. An l" bsay bn the Theo- 
ry and Coiibinicticin i)f Fortxficatton&, 8vo. 
IT.rl. 2. Treaive on the Scurvy, 8vo. 1775. 
:>. Efcsay on the Medical Constitution of 
Great Britain, Hvo. 17f»y. — Eunp, Mng. 

BissET (Robert), a miscellaneous writer, 
was born in Scotland and educated at 
Fdinliurgh, where he obtained the dep^rec 
4jf doctor of laws, after which he removed 
to J^ondoti and opened a seminary at CheU 
»ea. But he principally relied ff>r support 
©n his Uicrnry labours. He died in 1805, 
igcvl 4^". His words ;ire, 1. A Sketch of 
bemocracv, Hvo. U. Life of Burke, 2 vols, 
ivo. S. HtJtory of the Reign of Ceorge III., 
and some uovcls. — Ala/nh'y Mag. 

Bi roN,amatheniaiician,who lived about 
the year Uf),) B. C I le wrote a treatise on 
warlike mk:c hi iu^^.-hich is extant in the 
Muhematici Vcicrcs, Paris, 1593, folio.— 
Mire, i. 

Bi/.cT (Peter), a French writer, who is 
known by a curious book, entitled Histoire 
Medallique dc la Republique djeHoUandc: 
the best edition of which is that of 1732, 
5 vols, folio. He died in 1696, aged 66. — 

Bi ZZEI.LI (John), an historical and por- 
trait painter who died at Rome in 1612, 
*.ged 56. I le was the disciple of Bronzino. 
• "—PUJunghn. 

Black (Joseph), an eminent chemist, 
was born at Bordeaux in France, of British 
parents, in 1728. He received his educa- 
tion first at Beliast.and afterwards at GI;is- 
gow where he studied physic, and took, his 
doctoi*a decree in 1754.' Soon after he 
was appointed professor of anatomy, and 
lee air er on chemistrv; but as he Ad not 
deem himself quali^cd to discliargc the 
duties of the former station, he exch;;n^d 
it for the professorship of medicine. In 
1766 he succeeded Dr. Cullen in the che- 
mical chair at Edinburgh, and from that 
time devoted himself wholly to that science, 
and the improvement of his pupils, lie 
died in 17f>9. He was the auihor of an 
in.^u^'iir.'il dissertation on taking his doctor's 
degree df acido a cbi\ otto; " Kxperimcnis on 
Magnesia and Quick Lime; Ohscr\aiions 
on the Ready 1 reezing of Boiled Water;'* 
these are in" the Phii(>soplw4al Transac- 
tions; An Aualysis of scmic Boiling Water 
in Iceland, in. the Memoirs of the Roval 
Sociery of Edinburgh. 1 lis lecture* on Che- 
mistry v/cre published in a vols. -Ito. Ui3f), 
by Dr. Robinson, who prefixed to them 'a 
memoir of the aythor. 

Black ALL (Offspring), an eminent Eng- 
lish prelate, was boru in London in 1 654, 
and educated at Catherine-hail, Cambridge. 
In 1694 he was preferred to the rectory of 
St. Mary, Aldermanbury, London ; and ap- 
poimed. chaplain to kin^ William. In 1 700 

he preached the Boyle's lecture ; itnd in 1707 
was advanced to the sec of Exeter, where 
he died in 1716. I lis works were printed 
in 2 vols, folio, I12lh — Biog, Br. 

Blackbourn (William), an architect, 
was born in South wark in 1750. After 
serving an apprenticeship to a surveyor, 
he was s^linitted a student of the r«ya^ 
academy, and in 1773 obtained a prir^e 
medal for a drawing of the inside of St. 
Stephen's churcli, Walbrook. In 1782 he 
gained the premium of 100 guineas for the 
best plan of penitentiary houses, which oc- 
casioned him to be employ<^ in various 
pans of the kingdom to erect prisons, lit 
died on a journey to Scotland on the same 
business in 171K). — Gea. Biag. But, 

Blackburne (Francis), an English di- 
vine, was born at Ricbmond in Yorkshire 
in 1 705. Mc received his education at the 
schools of Hawkeshead, in Lancashire, snd 
Sedburgh in Yorkshire, and in 17S22 wat- 
euiered of Catherine hall, Cambridge. In 
17'ia he entered into orders, and ahout 
1739 obtained the rectory of Richmond^ 
He was some time chaplain to Dr. Hutton, 
archbisJiop of Yprk, who gave him the 
arclideaconrv of Cleveland, and a prebend 
in the cathedral. Mr. Blackburne sat very 
loose to the doctrines and discipline of the 
church of England, as app^rs from his 
writings; the most noted of which is,** The 
Confessional, or, A fiill and free Inquiry 
into the Right. Utility, Edification, and 
Success of systematical Con- 
fessions of Faith and Doctrine in protes- 
tant Churrlies." ITiis work, which was 
anonymous, appeared first in 1766, and 
quicldy reached a third edition. It is nov/ 
forgotten. I'he archdeacon was so partial 
to the dissenters, in this performance, that 
the congregation in the Old Jewry, on the 
deathof Dr. Chandler invited him to be their 
minister. Besides the above performance, 
he wrote a short hist(>rical View of the 
Controversv corcerning the intermedisie 
State, &c.; m which he maintained the no- 
tion of the soul's sleeping in an inconscious 
state durin.-T the interval between de.-ith 
and tlic resurrection. All his works have 
been lately printed in a collected form* in 6 
Vols. 8vo. He died in 1787. — EncycLp. Briu 
Black LOCK (Thomas), a Scotch divine 
and poet, was the son of a poor tradesnun 
at Annan, where he was born in 1721. lie 
lost his sight by the small pox in his infancy. 
In 1740 he was deprived of his father, who 
had been particularly attentive to his edu- 
cation. Dr. Stephenson, a physician of 
Edinburgh, then placed him in the univer- 
sity, where he made a considerable profi-^ 
cienc)r in the clashes and sciences. In 1745 
hej-e^ired into the country, and published 
at Glasgow a small collection of his poems; 
a second edition of which appeared at Edin- 
burgh in 2754. In that year Mr. Spence 
introduced him to public patronage, b^ a 
memoir of him preiixed tc^ a quarto edition 

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•f hli poems : the profits of this publica- 
tiou placed the author in a desirable tiiua- 
tion m the university. Aboi:: 1 JGJ he en- 
tered into the mimstry; uad in 1760 re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. He diml in 
J79I. Besides his poems, he publi^'ncd, 
Par^cletis, or Cunsolatitns deduced from 
natural and revealed Rcl'^ioii, 8vo.; Two 
Discourses on the Spirit and Evidences of 
Christianity, transi.ucd fror.; the French, 
8to. ; The Graham, an heroic b;jllad, in 4 
caDtos, 4to.; Remarks on civil Liberty, 8vo., 
and some other pieces. — Lije in Andenonj 
C^Utctiaa of PociJ, 

Blackj^^ore (Sir Richard), an English 
physician and poet, was born in WilisTiire, 
and educated at Westmintier ^clloc)l, from 
whence he removed to Edmund hall, Ox- 
ford. On Icavifij? the university he went 
abroad, and took his degree of M. D. at 
Padua. At hi? return he was chosen fcllDW 
of the college of phyjiicians.and entered on 
a good line of practice. King W'illiiam ap- 
pointed him physician in ordinary, and 
conferred on him the honour of knight- 
hood. Me died in ^729. His works :i.-e 
very numerous on medical, theological, 
moral, and poetical subjects ; and thinigh 
it was once fashionable to treat his name 
with ridicule, he is entitled to respect as a 
worthy man and a good poet. His poem on 
Creation, is deserving of great praise. — Biog, 

Blackstone (sir Wil!*%m), a learned 
English judge, was bom in London \:\ 1 7'JS. 
Being left an orphan at an early aj^c, his 
nicle sent him to the Charter-house. In 
1738 he was entered of Penibrokc college, 
Oxford, and at the age 2Ci, he computed a 
treatise on the elements of architecture. 
He also cultivated pociry, and obtained Mr. 
Benson's priz.c medal for the best verses on 
Milton. These pursuits, however, were 
abandoned for the study of tJic law ; on 
which occasion he wro^e a copy of vertcs 
called the Lawyer's Farewell to his Muse. 
In 1740 he was entered of the Middle Tem- 
ple ; and in 1744 chosen Icllow of All-souls 
college. In 1749 he was chosen recorder 
of Wallingford in Bcrksl»irc. Tlie year 
followiog he became LL. D. and published 
an Essay on coll^eral Consanguinity, occa- 
sioned by the exiTlusi^e claim t<. fcliowsliips 
niade by the founder's kindred at All-souls. 
In 1758 he printed Considerations on Copy- 
holders ; and the same year wis appointed 
Vlnerian professor of tnc common law, Ids . 
lectures in which capacity gave ri-^e to his 
celebrated Commentaries. In 1759 he 
published Reflections on the Opinions of 
Messrs. Pratt, Moreton, and Wilbraham, 
relating to lord Litchiicld'? disqualification ; 
his lordship being then candicLitc for the 
chancellorship. The r^me*ycar appeared 
lus edition of the Great Charter, and Char- 
ter of the Forest ; and about the same time, 
a small treatise on the Law of Descents in 
Fet-siniple. In 1761 iic w^ u^de kingV 

counsel, and chosen member of parliament 
for Hiiidon in Wilts. The same yoarhe va- 
ca ed his ieliowship by marria-^e, and was 
ap;>oi:.Lcd principal of New-inn-hall. In 
llul he published 2 vols, under ihd title of 
Law Tracis. In 1763 he was appointed 
jolirlL^r-jvcneral to the queen, and bencher 
of the Middle Temple. The next year ap- 
])e:ired the first volume of his Commen- 
1 1' ies, which was followed by three other*. 
In \im he resigned his places at Oxford, 
and In 17')^ was chosen member for West- 
biiry in Wiltsliire. In 1770 he became one 
of the judges in the court of king's bench; 
from v/heijce he removed to the jromjnoii 
plc.ij. He now fixed his residence in Lou- 
don, and attended to the duties of his office 
with great application. He also employed 
himself iu projecting various schemes for 
the pr.blic good.. He died in 1780. After 
hi^ dc.ith were published two vols, of hit 
U C port 8 . — Life prcfi a rd to hit Reports, 

Bi..^cKsroNE (John), a botanical Avriter, 
was an apothoc.iry in London, and died ia 
175:5. He wrote, 1. Fasciculus Plantarum 
circa Hareliold spcnle nriscentium ; with an 
Appe.idix contamiii^^ ionie short Notes re- 
lating to Ha retield, IJmo. 1737; 2. Speci- 
men Kotanicum quo Plancarum plurium 
rariorum Augclix indigenarum Loci nataies 
illustrautur, 8vo. 174G. — PuUereys Sketches. 

Brackwall (.inthrny), a learned di- 
vine, was a native ui ' Derbyshire, and 
educated at Emanuel-collegc, Cambridge. 
After taking the degree of A. M. he be- 
came master ol the irce-school at Derby, 
from whence, in 17'.^'J, he/emoved to Mar- 
kei-Bosworth in Li-i:estersiure, on being 
appointed master of tlie grammar-scho<3 
there. In 172'; he was presented to the 
rectory of C'lapham, iii Surrey, wliich he 
resiirned in IT-'J), and died the year follow- 
ing at Marke:-Bor.worth. He published a 
trau'.Uiion of Theognis, in Latin ; an In- 
troduction to llic Clas.ics, I'Jmo.; [a very 
excellent worivj Sacred Classics defended, 
2 v.lj).; a Latin Grammar.— ijf/cnr. Bi. 

Black-vlll (Thomas), a learned writer, 
was born in 1701 at Aberdeen, and edu- 
cated F.t the M irischal-collc'^e, wiicre he 
took his degree of M.^V. and was appointed 
Greek prottsspr. In 1737 he puolishod, 
anonymously, an Enquiry into the Ij'fe 
and Wiitings of Homer, 8vo., to which he 
afterwards added a Supplement. His Let- 
ters concerning Mythology were printed in 
1748, but without his nair.e. Thesameycar 
he was made principal of the Marischal- 
college. In 1752 he published the first vo- 
lume of his Memoirs of the Court of Au- 
gustus, 4to. ; the second volume appeared 
in 1755; but the last was not published 
till after his death, which happened at 
Edinburgh in 1757. — Biog. Brit, 

Blackwbll (Alexander), a physician, 
was born at Aberdeen, and studie<( under 
Boerhaave at Ley den. He settled at first 
in his Dative place ; but meeting with little 

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^sncou raiment, he went to London, and 
waa employed for some time as corrector 
of the pre!4. Afterwards he set up as 
' printer, but failed. About 1740 he went 
to SAeden, where he got considerable 
practice, and was employed in some public 
works part'c'ilarly in clraining the fens 
and marshes according to his own plan. 
Beings suspected of having a share in count 
Tes8in*8 plot, he was beheaded in 1748.— 
Gent. Af.jg. 

Bl ACKWELL (JElizabeth),wife of the pre- 
ceding, was the diughter of a merchant 
near Aberdeen. When her husband was in 
prison in London, she executed a number 
of botanical plates, drawn, engraved, and 
coloured by herself; the profits of which 
enabled her to procure fhe doctor's liberty. 
The first volume was pubb'shed in 1737, 
with the testimonial of the college of phy- 
sicians, and is entitled, A curi6us Herbal ; 
containing 500 of the most useful plants 
which are now used in the practice of phy- 
sic, &c. The second volume appear^ la 
17S9.— /»«//w/ry*j Sketches o/Btany, 

Blackwood (Adam), a Scotch writer, 
was bom at Dunfermline in 1539, and died 
in 161S. In 1587 he published the Mar- 
tyrdom of Mary Stuart, in French, written 
with ereat asperity. His writings were 
published at Paris in 1644.— Afori-r/. 

Bladen (Martin), a lieutenant-colonel 
under the duke of Marlborough, to whom 
he dedicated a translation of Caesar's Com- 
mentaries. He sat in five parliaments. In 
1715 he was made comptroller of the mint, 
and in 1717 a commissioner of trade and 
plantations. He died in 1746. He wrote 
Orpheus and Kurydicc, a masque; and 
Solon, a tragi-come'dy. — Shg, DramaL 

Blaiu or Janssen (William), a cele- 
brated geographer, was the disciple of Ty- 
cho Brahe ; and carried on a considerable 
trade in Upland by his atlasses. He died 
<t Ajust^dam in 1638, ajged 67. His sons, 
John and Cpmelius pubh»hed their father's 
atlas in 14 vols, folio, in 1663.— il^#r*r/. 
^ Blagrave (John), an English mathcma^ 
tician, was born at Reading, in Berkshire, 
and educated ar St. JohnVcoUege, Oxford; 
after which he devoted himself to a re- 
tired life at his family seat, and died there 
in 16.11 . His remains were interred in the 
church of St. Lawrence, Reading; where 
there is a handsome monument to his me- 
mory. He wrote some l>€^3ks on practical 
xnit hematics. He is not to be confounded 
with Joseph Bi'afrravej a noted astrologer, 
who WHS abo a native of Reading, and 
probably a relation of the former. He 
wrote a Supplement to Culpepper's Herbal, 
and an astrological Practice of Physic, &c. 
He died about 1 6:{8.— ^/mf . Br, Grander, 

Blair (John), a Scotch divine and poet 
in the 1 4th century. He wrota an elegant 

Latin poem on the death of Wallace. 

Gen. Biog. Diet. 

Blair (James), an emiAent divine of the 

Scotch episcopal church, who was sent to 
"Virginia in 1685 by Compton« bishop of 
London, as missionary. He was appointed 
commissary for that province in 1689, and 
was the first president of the college of 
Williamsburg., He died in 1743. Four vo- 
lumes of his sermons were printed at Lon- 
' don in 1742.— G^n. Bitg. Diet. 

Blair (Patrick), a botanist and phvsi- 
cian, was originally a surgeon at Dundee. 
While there/ he had an opportunity of dis- 
secting an elephant, which had bees car^ 
ried about for a show. His account of this 
animal appeared in the PhiloscphicalTrans- 
actions, and was also printea separately. 
Being attached to the Stuart family. Dr. 
Blair was imprisoned in 1715, but was soon 
released. He then visited London, where 
he distinguished himself as a member of 
the royal society by several valuable dis- 
courses, the principal of which was on the 
sexes of plants. This he afterwards pub- 
lished under the title of Botanic £sH]p. 
From London he removed to Boston, in 
Lincclnsjhire, where he practised as a phy- 
sician, and printed a work, entitled Phar- 
maco-botanologia, or an alphabetical and 
classical Dissertation on all the British in- 
digenous and Garden Plants of the New 
Dispensatory, 4to. This came dpwn only 
as far as letter H. Some^ other papers by 
him are in the Philosophical Transactions. 
— Pulteneys Sketches of Botany, 

Blair (John), a learned chronologist. 
H^ was a native of Edinburgh, and came to 
London, where he was employed as an 
usher in a small school. In 1754 be pub- 
lished his ChronologicalTables,folio,wnich 
wefe well received, and reached a second 
edition in 1 768. The author was then in 
orders, doctor of laws, and fellow of the 
ToyzX society, and the repntation he ac- 
Quired by tlus work reconunended him to 
tne princess dowager of Wales, who ap* 
pointed him mathematical tutor to the doko 
of York, and in consequence he obtained 
several church preferments the principal of 
which was a prebend of Westmmster. He 
died tn 1782. After his death were pub- 
lished his Lectures on the Canon of the 
Old Testament.— G^«. Bio^, Diet. 

Blair (Hugh), an emment divine, was 
the son of a merchant at Edinburgh, and 
born there in 1718. He received his 
grammatical education at the high school, 
from which he removed to the university 
of Edinburgh in 1730. While a student 
there he formed a comprehensive scheme of 
chronological tables for his own use, which 
being communicated to his learned friendi 
afterwards Dr. John Blair, mentioned in 
the preceding article, he improved and ex- 
tended the plan into a work of great la- 
bour and vaJue. In 1739 he took the de- 
gree of M. A. and in 1741 was licensed tQ 
preach. The year following he was or- • 
dained to the 'parish of Cplessie in Fife, 
from whence he was recall^ to the second 

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dorre of che CanoD|;ate chiireh* at EdiOf 
harga, where he officiated till 1758, when 
Ik was removed to the hirh church, wliich 
it the most important eccleuastical cliarge 
m Scotland. The uniTerntj of St. An- 
drews conferred on him the decree of D. D. 
ia 1757, a circumstance rather unusual 
from one unitrenity there to another. In 
1759 he beran a course of lectures on rhe- 
toric and belles-lettres, which were so much 
applauded that the Icing endowed,'in 176S, 
a professorship in fevour of Dr. Blair, at 
Edinburgh, v/ith a salary of 70/. a year, 
fai 1763 he wrote a Dissertation on the 
Poems of Oislaii, in which he urges manj 
ingenious observations in behalf of their 
tuthenticity. In 1777 ap[>eared a volume 
of lus sermons, which attained so rapid a 
tale as to induce the author to publish an« 
other volume in 1779, which was as well 
received as the former, and these have been 
followed by three volumes n^re. In 1780 
be obtainea a pension of 200/. a year by the 
particular interest of her majesty. Alx>ut 
l7dS he quitted his professorship th^)ugh 
I mfirmities, but his salary was continued for 
I life, and an addition was made of 100/. a 

Sr to his pension. In that year he pub- 
ed his lectures, which have had a cir- 

I cdation little short of his sermons, and 

I liice them have been translated into various 
languages. In 1796 he published a sermon 

I preached before the society instituted for 
the benefit of the sons of the clergy in 

' Scotland. Dr. Blair died at Edinburgh, in 
IflOa — Z.y> iy Dr. Finiayion^ appended /• 
Vd. r. n/Dr. Blair J Sermons. 

Blaia (Robert), an ingenious poet, was 
the eldest son of the rev. David nlair, one 
of the ministers of Edinburgh, where he 
was bom. He received his education at the 

i sdiool and university of his native dty, 
after which he became minister of AtheU 
iQDeford, in East Lothian, where he spent 
the zcma^idcr of his life. He was a good 
W^niit and florist, and;had an extensive ac- 
yaintance with optical and microscopical 
knowledge. He was very assiduous in the 
dbchar^ge of his ministerial duties, and as a 
preacher vras serious and warm. He mar- 
ried the daughter of Mr. Law, professor of 
moral philosophy at Edinburgh, by whom 
he had &ve sons and a daug^er. He died 
in 1746, in the 47th year of his age.^ Mr. 
Biair is deservedly known by his admirable 
poem, entitled Th^ Graven— Xi^ hy Dr» 

Blake (Robert), a |;allant admiral, was 
bom at Bridfiewater, m Somersetshire^ in 
1599» and educated at Oxford, where he 
look the degree of B. A. in 1617. Be- 
in^ of a grave and severe temjier he joined 
with the puritans, by whose influence he 
was chosen to represent his native town in 
the par^meot which met in 1640, but lost 
bis election for the next. At the beginning 
«f the rebdlioo he took the part of die par« 
id served under colonel Eiences, 

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at Bristol, when it was taken by prince 
Rupert. He next assisted in taking Taun- 
ton by surprize, of which place, he was 
made governor, and defended itag;ainst Gd- 
ring with such bravery that he was pub- 
licly thanked and rewarded by parliament. 
In 1649 he yf2a appointed commander of 
the fleet, in conjunction with Deane and 
Popham ; and soon afterwards sailed in 
quest of prince Rupert, whom he blocked 
up in Kinsale harbour. The prince after" 
wards escaped to Lisbon, whitlier he was 
followed by Blake, who d^.nanded leave of 
the king of Portugal to attack him, and 
being refused he took several Brazil ships. 
When he was |;one, prince Rupert sailed 
into the Mediteranean, whither he was 
followed by Blake, who attacked him in the 
harbour of Malaga, and destroyed nearly 
the whole of his fleets lie then returned 
to England with several prizes, and re- 
ceived the thanks of parliament, by whom 
he was made warden of the cinque portsw 
Soon after this he reduced the Scilly isles 
and Guernsey, for wliich he was made 
one of the council of state. On the prospect 
of a Dutch war in 1C52 he was appointed 
sole admiral, and was attacked in the Downs 
byTromp, who had 45 sail, and Blake only 
23. However, he fought so bravely, that 
the Dutch admiral was glad to retreat. 
In November following Tromp sailed into 
the Downs, with above 80 sail of men of 
war,^ where, after an obstinate battle, he 
obtained a parial victory at a dear rate. 
But so elated was he wiih it that he passed 
through the channel with a broom at his 
maintop, signifying that he had swept the 
sea of the Enghsh ships. In February 1653 
Blake put to sea with 60 men of war, and 
soon after met with the Dutch admiral, who 
had 70 sail, and 300 merchantmen under 
convoy. A most bloody rn^gement en* 
sued, that lasted three days, m which the 
Dutch lost 1 1 men of war, andtJO merchant 
vessels. The loss' of the English was only 
•one ship. In Jime following the fleets of 
the two republics fou^t again off the 
Foreland ; and if the Dutch had not saved 
themselves on Cabus sands all their ships 
must have been taken. In 1654 he sailed 
into the Mediterranean, where he demo- 
lished the castle of Tunis because the dcy 
refused to deliver up the English captives^ 
A squadron of his ships^undcr the command 
of captain Stayner, utercented a itpani&h 
plate fleet, and took the aamiral, vipc-ad- 
miral, and two ^leons. Blake having re- 
ceived informauon that another plate fleets 
lay at Santa Cruz, in TeneriAc, sailed 
thither, and notwithstanding the s:rengftK 
of the place he boldly went in, burnt 
the ships, and came out without any losa; 
Finding his health declining fast he re- 
solved to return to En^and, but died as the 
fleet was entering Plymouth, August 27, 
1658, His body was interred in Henry the 
Vllth'» chapel, \Vc«tmin||^f abbty, trom 


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whence It was removfed at the restoration, 
and buried in St. Margaret** church-yard, 
-—Campbeirs Live* of the Admiral*. 

Blakb (John Bradley), vras born in Lon- 
don in 1745, and educated at Westminster- 
tchool. In 1765 he wa» employed as one of 
^e tnpercargoes of the India company at 
Canton, where he began to collect »uch' 
»ced8 and vegetables as are applied in Cliina 
to useful purposes, of which ne sent home 
a great variety. He died in 1773. — JBiog, 

Blampin (ThSmas), a benedictine monk, 
who published a splendid edition of the 
works of St. Augustine. He died in 17 la 
JkForrr/. • 

Blanc (Thomas !e), a French Jesuit, was 
provincial of his order, and died at Rheims 
in 1669.' There are several works by him, 
fiome on the Duties of persons in diitereut 
callings ; and a Commentary on the Psalms, 
in 6 vols, folio. — Hi J, 

Blanc (John Bernard le), a French wri- 
ter, was bom at Dijon in 1707, and became 
member of the academy Delia Crusca, and 
died in 1781. His best work is Letters on 
the English Nation, in S vols. 12m0b — Nouv 
Diet, Hi*t, 

Blanc (Antony de Guillet de), a French 
dramatist, bom at Marseilles in 1730, and 
died at Paris in 1799. He was a member 
of the congregation of the oratory, where 
he yf29 professor of rhetoric, but at last 
quitted that society, and repaired to Paris, 
where he was appointed |;rofessor of an- 
cient languages in one of the central schools, 
and member of the national institute. He 
wrote, 1. Manco Capac, a tragedy: 2. The 
Druids, a tragedy, for some free sentiments 
in which the clergy procured it to be pro- 
scribed. Besides these pieces he was the 
author of some comedies and romancc$.-i- 

Blanca (Francis le), a French writer, 
who was employed by I^ewis XIV. to draw 
vp a. general account of the moneys of 
Fraoce. It was published, in 1690, 4to. with 
figures. He also wrote a treatise on the 
coins of Charlemagne and his successors 
struck at Rome. He died in 1693. — Morrri. 

Blanchard (John Baptist), a Jesuit, was 
bom at Tourteron, in the Ardennes, in 
1731, and died in 1797. He was professor 
of rhetoric in the ccHcge of Jesuits at Metz 
and Verdun, but after the destruction of 
his order he resided near Namur. He 
wrote, 1. The Temple of the Muses, a 
col^ction of fables, with remarks. 2. 1'he 
School of Manners, consisting of moral re- 
jections and historical facts. — Nouv* Diet. 

BLANcfiARX) (James), an eminent painter^ 
bora in 1600, and died in 16.^8. He ex- 
celled en religious subjects.— Z)r/»/V«. 

BLAKciiAao (William), a French lawyer 
and advocate in the parliament of Paris. 
He published a Chronological I'able of the 
Ordinaaccs of tlis French Kings of the third 

Race, « vols, folio. 1717. It is held in great 
esteem, and the author was preparing a 
supplement to it when he died, in 1724^ — 

Blaw<:be of CastilTe, queen of France, 
was the daughter of Alphonso IX. king of 
CastiHe,and married Lewis VTILof France 
in I'JOO, by whom she had nine 9on« and 
t%vo dnughters, whom she educated in the 
principles of virtue and piety. On the 
death of her husband in 1226* she became 
regent, her son Lewis being only twelve 
^cars old. In this station she behaved with 
lirmness and i)rudence, and kept down the 
aspiring spirit of the great lords. She paid 
particular attention to the education of the 
young king, and married him early to the 
daughter of the count of Provence. During 
.his expedtt ion to the Holy Land she governed 
the kingdom with great' discretion, but the 
news of his defeat and imprisonment so 
affected her tfpiritr, that she died in 1232. 

Bl AN CHIT (Thomas), proffessor of paint- 
ing in the academy of Paris, was bom in 
1617, atid died in 'l 689. His mannrrwj^ 
good, his design correct, and his colouring 
excel lent. — D'ArgmvHU, 

Blanc HET (abW), keeper of thf books in 
the French king*s cabinet. He is known 
by his Vari^t6s Morales et Amusantea, 1 784 ; 
and Apologues et Contcs Orientaux, 175(5, 
8vo. which are sentimental and amusing. 
He died in 1784.— A''.j/v. Diet. Hist. 

Blan'o (Elizabeth), eminent for her 
knowledge of the Hebrew language, was 
born in l^ndon, about 1660, Her maiden 
namewas Fisher, and in 1681 she married 
Mr.Nathaniel Bland, of Boston, in Yorkshire. 
She wrote the Hebrew language wth great 
elegance, and the roy si society have pre- 
8cr\'ed a phylactery of her writing among 
their curiosities. She was living in 1712. — 
Ballarttt Lives of Britifh LetHes^ 

Blandrata (George), an Italian phvsi- 
cian, who having broached the arian ^oc* 
trine, the inquisition of Pavia was desirous 
of burning him, to avoid which he fled to 
Geneva, and from thence to Poland in 1558. 
He became physician to Stephen Battori, 
king of PolanOf who also made him privy 
counsellor. At first he wished to make 
the king a proselyte to his notions, but fiod- 
ing that he could not succeed he relaxed in 
his zeal, and paid his court to the Jesuits. 
He )vas Wrangled by his nephew, whom he 
had made his heir, about the year 1593.—* 

}3la NKop (John Teuniz), aDutch painter 
of landscapes and sea pieces. He was bom. 
at Alkmaar in 1 628, and died zn 1 67a — /f«w 

Bleddyn a British prince, who reigned 
in conjunction with his brother Rhtwallon 
in North Wales till 1068, virhen he ruled 
alone. He was slain in battle in 1072. Bled^ 
dyn was an active prince, and framed ft 
code of good laws^^OwAi*i CamkOug^ 

Digitized by 


B L O 

B L O 


6LtDDTif,3i Bnci^ bard, who floansTxed 
In the ISih century. Many pieces of his 
are in the WeUh Archaiolo^y. — Owen/ C, D, 

Blcoi.1, bishop of LandalF, who died in 
lots, and of whem an historian of that pe-. 
riod, says that he was the greatest scholar 
amon^ tne Welsh, and thence called Bledrl 
the Wise. He greatly encouraged learning 
in his diocese— 7^y. 

Bleeck (Peter Van), an eminent painter, 
who died in London in 17G4. The cele- 
brated picture of Johnson and GriiTin, two 
hmous comedians, in the characters of Ana- 
Bia« and Tribulation in the Alchymist, was 
done by him.— G<'w. B/cg. Diet. 
BLEGWRrn, chancellor of Landaff, under 
his brother Morgan, prince of Glamorgan. 
He was a learned man, and accompanied 
Howel the good to Rome, to consult a!wmt 
the revision of the laws of Wales in 926-— 
Ovfsa*f Camb. Biog, 

Bleon V (Nicholas de), a French surgeon, 
who established in hts house at Paris a so- 
ftcty whtek he called an academy of new 
discoveries. Here he gave lectures on va- 
rious branches of the med'ca! profess'<m. 
He alsoeonducted a periodical, en* 
titled. New Di«coverie» in aH Departments 
of Medicine. Besides this, be published 
various wolts in physic and flinwery. He 
died at the close of the 17th centory.-^//rtr- 
ifr BihL Mc4. Pratt. 

DtEss (Henry), an historical and lant^- 
W3IJO paint or, was born at Bovine, ne-^^r 
Din^Tit, in MW), and died in 15.>0. Hi^ 
pieces are catled owl pictures, because he 
placed that bird as am irk. — P'tlk. 

Bleterir (John Pl«lip Rene dc la), an 
ingeaioi» French writer. He wa^ profrssor 
of eloquence in the royal college at Paris, 
and a member of the ac;idemv of belles- 
lettres. He died in 1772. His principal 
works are. The Life of the Kmperor Julian, 
ISno. Tbe History of the Emperor Jovian, 
5 ^s. 1 2mo. Translation of part of Tacitus, 
2 vols. ISkXtO. — Kouv. Did. Hirt. 

Block -(Mart Elieeer),an ingenious na- 
CsraJist, was born at Anspach, of mean pa- 
teatage. Entering into the service of a sur- 
geon he studied anatomy, medicine, and 
natural hWtory. His first researches were 
into the intestinal vermes, on which he 
wrote a treatise. Many of his memoirs on 
fishct are in the memoirs of the society of 
the friends of nature at Berlin, and he pub- 
iisl^ a capital work, entitled, A History 
of Fishes, 6 vols, folio, with coloured plates. 

Blook n^aaiel), a portrait paister, was 
oora i9 Pomcraoia m 1580, and died in 
IWI. . There were two others of the same 
'Bane, Jaeob and Benjanin ; the one paint- 
^ arthitcetuFe and perspective, and the 
«her portrait and liistory.— ^#i/ir<ii<'». 

Blockland (Anthony de Montfort), an 
nistofscal and portrait painter, was born in 
US2, and died in 1583. His pictures are 
Hiy ctogaaL He 2&ad two br<Hher», Peter 

ind Herbert, who both studied under him. 
The first painted battles and markets, ami 
the other portraits and conversations.— /i//. 

Bloemart (Abraham), a Dutch painter, 
bom in 1567, and died in 16'47. Several 
prints have been engraved after his works. 
His sons Henry and Adrian followed liis 
profession, but Aot with equal reputation. 

Bloeman (John Francis), a Flemish 
painter of eminence, who died at Rome in 
1740, aged 84. His landscapes are in the 
first style of excellence— ^/'//iZ/r^/o/r. 

Blond (James Christopher le), a mintx- 
ture painter, bom at Frankfort on the 
Maine in 1670, and died in 1741. He in- 
vented a method of engraving in colours, 
on which lie wrote a treatise^— JV»//v. Did. 

13 Lo NOEL (David), a FrencK protesfaot 
olivine, was born at Chalon?* \\y 1.:<>I. Hte 
wrote a defence of the reionii'Hl churdies 
of France, in answer to the liif.hop of I.v.- 
con, ai'Jtcr^'ards curdinri! R:ch»»p(*tt, whtcH him great reputation. The natiimal 
synod of Ciiareuton chose him iiom.rn-v 
p'rofcsAor in 1G4J. lie succeeded Vo.^Mits 
at AuLsterdan^pas professor < f liistory. and 
died there in lfj).>. His prirrl pal work* 
are, Kxplioalions on the Encli-.r'st ; of the 
Primacy of the Church: on t!ve Svblk; 
and on Bishops and Prc«hyter% Bfondel 
•odended many zealous pn/tertants by rtf- the story of pope J«>nn. — Bayle. 

Bi.uxoEL (Francis), a French architect. 
He obtuiiicd scTiifi ilistinpiislied 8itu:*ioni 
in the army and navy, and instructed the 
daupUiu In mathematics, lie was a direc- 
tor of the acadwMn\' of ar-liiieciure, mera* 
ber of that ot Kv'iences, and died in 16Pa 
He wrote som(' books on architecture-, ti*e 
Art of throwin;^ i3ouiv>s; flistory of the 
Roman Ca!cnJ;ir \ a new Manner of forti- 
fying Places — D\4rg./ii'ilif. 
' Blondhi.' (John Francis), of the simt 
family v.ith the above, was born at Rmien 
in 1765, and became eminent In archi.ce- 
ture, of which he was elected professor at 
Paris. Jle died in 1774. His works are, 
A Course of Architecture, 6 vols, 8vo.-, Of 
the Decoration of Edifices, 2 vol*. 4to.; 
Discourse on Arqhittcture* VIrao. lie also 
wrote the articles on that science in the 
Encyclopedia. — i^owr, Diet. Hist. 

BIonj^in (Potcr), a botanist, was bom in 
Picardy in 1^3V. He studied under Tour- 
nefort, and in 1712 was admitted mto 
the French academy. He died in 17 IS. 
Though he left several valuable collec- 
tions, none have been priuted— i^/cg^^ar 

Blood (Thomas), an extraordinary cha* 
racter, who rendered himself famous by 
two daring exploits. The first was, the 
seizing the duke of Ormond with an Intent 
to hang him at Tyburn, from which hif 
grace was delivered by his servants : the' 
ether wat that of stealuig the crown and 

Digitized by 



fi A 

Other regalia from the Tower. Blood irts 
taken in the last enterprise, disguised as a 
clergyman. Charles IL caused him to be 
brought into his presence, where he con- 
fessed that he had once formed a design 
against his life, but that the sight of his 
majesty awed him from the execution of it. 
I'he kmg granted him a p.-;rdon, and gave 
him an estate of J()0/. a year in Ireland. He 
died in 1680 — Bieg. Br. 

Uloot (Peter), a Flemish painter of c^n- 
trersations in low life. He died in 1667. — 

Blosius, Or de Blois (Lewis), a learned 
benedictine and abbot uf the monastery of 
Liessies in Hainault. He refused the arch- 
bfshopric of Ca^nbray, and died in loCS. 
He wrote 6p«culum Religiosorum, which 
has been translated into Frencl). — Aloreri. 

Blount (Charles), lord Mount joy and 
earl of Devonshire, was the second son of 
James lord Mountjoy, and was born in 
1563. His person and accomplishments 
recommendea him to the notice of queen 
Elizabeth* who conferred on him the 
lionour of knighthood. In 1594 he was 
made governor of Portsmouth, and the ' 
»ame year succeeded his brother in the 
peerage. He formed a troop, with which 
Le served in the Low Countries' and i^ 
Brittany, but the queen was displeased at 
his absence, and ordered him to remkin at 
court. She made him knight of the gar- 
ter in 1597, and gave htm a military ap- 
pointment in Ireland, where he suppressed 
a rc;^ellion. in 1603 he returned to £ngw 
land, bringing with him Tyrone, the rebel 
chieftain. James I. created him earl of 
JDevonshire, and made him master of the 
ordnance. At the close of life he fell into 
disgrace by marrying the divorced lady 
Rich, daughter of Essex. He died in 1606. 
— Biog.Brit. ' 

B LOO NT (Thomas), an English writer, 
was J)orn in Worcestershire in 10 19, and died 
in 1679. He wrote, Boscobel, or the His- 
torv of the King's Escape after the Battle 
of Worcester, 1681, 8vo ; Fragmenu Anti- 
quitatis, or ancient Tenures of Land ; and 
Jocular Customs of some Manors, 1679. 
The last is a curious bookw— /?/tf^. Brit. 

BLouNT^sir Henry), an ingenious writer. 
Was born in 1602, in Hertfordshire, and 
educated at Trinity-college, Oxford, from 
whence he removed to Gray's-inn, and 
after some time spent there, set out on his 
travels in 1634. He went as far as Grand 
Cairo, and returned to England, where in 
1636 he published his Voyage into the 
Levant, which went through several edi- 
tions. He was knighted by Charles I. and 
served him some time, but at last went <yver 
to the parliament, and was nominated a 
commissioner of trade. He died in 1682^— 

Blount (sir Thomas Pope), eldest son 
of the abovei was born in 1649, and created 
a baronet in 1679. He served, in . several 

parliaments, and at the rerolution wat ap« ' 
pointed commissioner of accounts. He 
died in 1697. He wrote, Censnra Cele^ 
hriorum Autborum, &c. 1690, folio ; Essays 
on different Subjects, 8vo.; a Natural Ha-^ 
tory, 1S93, ISmo.; Remarks upon Poetry. 
-r-^Ag-. Brit. 

Blount (Charles), a deistical writer, 
was the youngest son of sir Henry Blount, 
and born in 1654. A pamiphlet of his, in 
which he grounded King William's clain 
on the right of conquest, was burnt bv the 
hangman; and another, on the Life of 
Apollonius I'yaneus, gaLYt great offence as 
an attack on Christianity. On the death 
of his wife, he fell in love virith her sister, 
and because he could not marry her shot 
himself in 1693. His misceUaneoOs works 
were published by GildoiL-'^Ilid. 

Blow Hohn), an English musician, was 
born at Collingham in Nottinghamshire. 
He became successively teacher of the chil- 
dren of the chapel royal, composer to the 
king, and master of the choristers in St. 
Paul's cathedraL Archbishop Sancroft gave 
him the degree of doctor in music. He be- 
came organist of Westminster-abbey on the 
death of Parcel, and died in 170a— ^ow 
Hms. Bunuy. Bng, Brit, 

Blum (Joachim Christian}, -a German 
poet, was born at Rathenau in 17S9. He 
was educated at^ Brandenburg and BerUo, 
and applied chiefly to the study of the 
belles-lettres. Afterwards he removed to 
Frankfort-pn-the-Oder, where he studied 
under Baumgarten, and then led a philo- 
sophical life, -and cultivated an intimacy 
with the muses. He died in 1790. He 
wrote, Lvric Poems and Idyls; and a 
drama caned Rathenau Delivered. He was 
also the author of orations, and a collec- 
tion of German ^TOVtth^^-^Scblicbtcgroif* 

Bluteau (Dom. Raphael), a Roman 
catholic divine, was horn in LendiMi of 
French parents, and studied at Paris. H« 
afterwards went to Lisbon, where he pnb- 
lihed a dictionary, Portuguese and Latin, 
in 10 vols, folio, of great merit. He died 
in 1784, aged ^Q^-^Moreri, 

BoADiccA, or BoND'ucA,a Britidi heroine, 
was the wife of Prafatapis, king of the 
Iceni who, for the security of his family, 
made the Roman emperor co-heir with h» 
daughters. ^ The 'Roman ofl^ert cm this 
took possession of his palace, exposed the 
princesses to the brutality of the aoldien, 
and scourged the queen m public. BcKgr 
dicea, roused to revenge by this aboai- 
nable usage, assembled hipr countrymen and 
stormed Camaiodunum (now Colchester), 
the garrison of which were pot to che 
sword. Suetonius Paulinus defeated tfaa 
Britons, and Boadicrea fell among the tlaia 
or poisoned herself, A. D. eO^^MuglBe, 
TacitMs. • 

BoATE (Gerhard), a Datch physioiaA, 
who settled in IreUndi of which country 

Digitized by 


B O C 

" ^ H«rtlib m 1652, ism©. Part of 

tki« work treats eo zgncuk^r6^^Pui$emey* 

B«iABT Oacob), a Gensaa gardtner and 
bocaimt, Who had the «are of the physic 
gardoi at Oxford, where he died ia 1679, 
1^ 81. He wrote Catalom Planiarura 
Mm Mediea OzoBienn* seiL Latino-AA- 
liient at Ai»glko*liatifMi^ 1646, 8vo. Of 
ail son Jacob, who also belooMd to the 
)»hTsic-garden, this story is told : Fiodin; 
a dead rat in the |;ardcn, be made it to re- 
semble the ccmiBMm itgart of a dragon, b j 
alteriiiff its head aad tail, and thrusting ill 
• taper sharp scick8,wbich distended the skin 
en each side till it numtcked wings. He 
let it dry as bard as possible. The learned 
pfooounced it a dragon, and one of them 
fare an accurate description of it to Magii- 
ahccchi, librarian to the grand duke- of 
Taseao^; several fine copies of verses were 
abo wrkten on so rare a subject ; but ac 
iaitMr.Bobart discorered the cheat; howw 
e?er it was looked upon as a masterpiece 
^ of art ; and as such deposited in the mi^ 
snBL^ITMtfV A. 0. Grey't Nwlet i9 Hu^ 

BoccAOK (Maria Anne le Page), an in- 
gtoious lady, was bom at Rouen in 1710, 
and at the age of 16 married Peter Joseph 
du Boccage. She displayed a taste for 
poetrr at an caiiy period, and acquired tbe 
friendship of several eminent literary cba- 
lacters, as Voltaire, Heinault ^Montesquieu, 
aad oth^rsu In 1746 she obtained a prise 
from the academy at Rouen ; amd comenck 
fd for another given by the French ac»- 
demy for an enlogium on l.ewis XV. Her 
(onpetitor on this occasion was'Marmon- 
tet, who succeeded. She published a poem 
enddcd Paradis Terrestre, taken from Mil- 
108, and trandated the Death of AbeL She 
died in 180S. ' Her works are in 3 volskSv*. 
— Mwp. Dia, Hist, 

BoccACio (John), a celebrated Italian 
irritcr, was born at Certaldo in Tuscany, 
iA 1313, and, when youn^, became intimate 
with Petrarcha. He resided a long time at 
liaples, where he fell in love with a natural 
daaghter of the king. At the close of life 
2y returned to his natiTi( place, and died in 
1875. Ifis Decameron, or CoUectiott or 
Models, k the moM esteemed of his works; 
bat the stories are licentioufl.*^7fr4^c^r. 

BoccACCi, or JBocciwcciito (Camfllo), 
an IcaJian poiater of histonr and portrait, 
bom at Orempoa, and died in 1546, aged 

BoccAUNf XTrajan), an Italian satirist, 
vii bmn at Rome, and became famous for 
his wit, which in theyend proved his de- 
itniccion; for; making too free with the 
court of Spaift, he was murdered in his bed 
bffouraMdssins. This happened at Venice 
1> 1613. His writings are. News from Par- 
Biis^wlucli baa bM» tfaMtoMd iac9 q^ivf 

B O C 

knguagw* La Secretaria di Apollo; dud 
the Political Touchstone, written against 
the Spaniards. — TtraboscbL 

BocCHus,kinr of Mauri tania,wholeagned 
with Jugurtha,his father-in-law, against the 
Romans, but being defeated by Marius, he 
sought the favour of his conquerors by de- 
livering Jugurtha into their hands. The 
traitor then obtained part of the kingdom^ 
about lOO B. C — £/Ww. Wit, 

BoGciARoi (Clemente), among paantera 
goes under the name of Clementone^ He 
was bom at Genoa in IGSO, and died in 

Bo c COLO (John), commonly called JaSus 
•fLeyJen^ a fanatic and taylor of that city, 
in the beginning of the 16th century. He 
associated himself with Mathias, a baker of 
Haerlem ; and these two, at the head of ft 
rabble of anabaptists, made themsehret 
masters of the city of Munster. The place 
was besieged by the bishop, and Mathias, 
in a frauuc sally, bein? slam, Boccold sue 
ceeded him, assuming the regad and prophe>> 
tic character. He set up a pjovernment 
modelled according to a perversion of scriph> 
tural declarations, and called hhnself long 
of Sion* He aUowed a plurality of wives, 
and liad 14 himself: one of whom he put 
to death for questioning his divine autho> 
rity. When the city was taken, Boccold 
was put to death, in the S6tb year of hia 

Bo ceo MB. (Paul), an Italian naturalist, 
was born at Palermo in Sicily, in 16S3. 
He travelled through most parts of Euiope, 
to acquire a knowledge of their produc- 
tions; but attached himself principaUy to 
botany. He wrote, Icones et Descnptionea 
rariorum plantarum SiciUa^,MelitJB, Gailiae, 
et Italia, lyctu and Oxford, 1674; but hia 
greatest work is entitled Musea di Plantc 
rare, TrnV^, 1697. He died at Palermo ia 
1704w--/f^V BM. BU. 

BoccoR I s, king of Egypt. Tro^s Pom- 
peius and Tacitus relate that this prince 
having consulted the oracle of Ammon, re- 
specting the leprosy which raged in hia 
country, was aavised to drive out the Jewa 
as a people of no service, and odious to tbe 
divinity. The history of Moses confutea 
this fable. 

BocHAa? (Samuel), a French protestant 
divine, was bora at Route in 1599, and^*' 
studied at diflerent universities in his own. 
country and abroad; after which he waa- 
chosen nuniscer of Caen. In 1646 he pub- 
lished Geop-aphia Sacra, which added to 
lus repuuCiod. In 1652 he went to Stock- 
holm at the invitation of the queen of Swe^ 
den, who honoured him with several marUi 
of her esteem. M bis return he became 
member of the academy of Caen, where he 
died in 1667. He Wrote, besides the work 
above mentioikcd, Hierozoicoa, London, 
folio, 1675, tvhich treats of the animal* 
fDBJttioiiod in iviiKU(Ci a tieatisf on tha 


Digitized by 


BO iE 

B O E 

VerrQ»trial Paradise; and some otTiwcwri- 
au^pieces. His works appeared at Leydea 
in 1712, S vols, folio- — B^yU. 

BocHios (John), a modem Latin poet, 
was bom at Bmssels in 1555, and studied 
divinity under Bellarmin. Afterwards he 
became secretary of Antwerp. He d»ed in 
1609. His poems were printed at Cologne 
m 1655. — Moreri. 

BocKRORST (John van), an historical and 
portrait painter, was bom about 1610, and 
studied under Jordaens. — Hwbraken. 

BocQUi LL OT (LaEarus Andrew), a French 
writer, was born at Avalon, becime an 
advocate, and lastly an ecclesiastic. He 
was made canon of Avalon, where he died 
in 1728, aged 80. He wrote. Sermons; a 
Treatise on the Liturgy ; the Life of the 
Chevalier BaVard, &c, — Mcreri. 

Bo DIN (Jonn), a lawyer, was bom at 
Angers in 15S0, and studied at Toulouse. 
Kot meeting with success at the bar, he 
applied himself to writing. His treatise 
De Republica was printed several times, 
and lectures were read upon it at Cam- 
bridge. His work on Demonologv was a 
text book for those who vrere cmpfoyed in 
prosecuti ng sorcerers. He obtained several 
employments in France, and died of the 
plague at Laon in ] 596. Besides the above, 
be wrote several other works. — Moreri, 

BoDLEY (sir Thomas), a celebrated en- 
courager of learning, was born at Exeter 
in 1544. He received the first part of his 
education at Geneva, and on his return to 
England entered of Magdalen college, Ox- 
ford. In XHG^ he was chosen fellow of 
Mcrton college, and the year following 
read lectures in Greek, and served the 
olBces of public orator and proctor. Klrza- 
beth employed him in several emba^sios; 
but in 1 597' he determined ti» retire from 
public life, and the same year began to re- 
store the university library of Oxftird. He 
almost rebuilt that noble fabric, furnished 
it with a great number of books collected 
• «t a considerable expense, and at his death 
be bequeathed ne^rlv his whole property 
for the support ana augmentation of it. 
By this means the Bodleian library i» the 
irst of its kind in the world. At the ac- 
cession Of James I. Mr. Bodley received the 
honour of knighthood. He died in 161^, 
and was buried in tlfe chapel of Merton 
college. — Princes Wtribki af Devon, Jfrog, 

BcccLER (John Henry), historiographer 
of Sweden, and professor of eloquence at 
Strasburg, born in 1611, and died ia 1692. 
He wrote, Commentaries'©!^ Pliny ; a His- 
tory of Tamerlane ; a Commentary upon 
Grotius de Jure Belli et Pads ; an^ other 
works.— ilforrr/. 

BoECE, or Boetbins I. (Hector), a Scotch 
historian, was born at Dundee in 1470, and 
studied at Aberdeen and Paris. On the 
^umlati^a of Kiag'» co^ege, Aberd«ai» by 

urchishop Elphinstone, he v^ras appointed 
the first principal; in gratitude for which, 
at the death of that prelate, he wrote his 
life, with an account of his predecessors in 
that see. But his greatest virork is the His- 
tory of Scotland in Latin, of which the best 
edition is that of Paris in 1574, folio. It kt 
written in an elegant style, but foil of le- 
gendary tales and perveited facts. — Bk^.Br, 
BoEHNiN (Jacob), a visionary, was l>om 
near Goerlitz in ]57«, and brought up a 
sJioemaker. He went on for some years in 
a close application to busineas,and a devout 
attention to religious exercises. At last he 
began to be visited with spiritual illumina- 
tioBs, which overpowered him with extasy. 
These manifestations he put down in writ- 
ing, and in 1612 communicated them to 
the world in a book entitled Aurora. For 
this he wax persecuted by a furious divine 
ntimed Richter, and forbidden to write by 
the magist rates. After obeying t he injunc- 
tion stime time, bis illuminations became 
too powcrfid to be withheld, and he sent 
forth a number of books equally wonderfi^ 
and unintelligible with the former. BGcb- 
men died ia communion with the Lutheran 
church, 1(;24. His writings have fouxMl 
numerous admirers in many countries, par- 
ticularly in England, where a translatio« 
ap{>eared some^ years ago in 3 vols. 4to. 
Dr. More says that the Quakers took a 
good part of their system from Boehmen.— > 


BoEUM ( William Anthony),a pious divine, 
was bom in 1673 at Oestoif, in Germany, 
where his father was a roinisten He was 
educated at Halie under professor Franck. 
Afterwards he came to England and became 
chaplain to prince George of Denmark and •• 
minister of the German chapel, at St. James's. 
He died in 173^. Mr. Boehm published a 
volume of Sermons, and translated into 
English Aradt on True Christianity.^^^ 
Wilford^i Piout Memorials. 4 

BoEL (Peter), a Flemish painter of still 
life and animals, bom in 1625, and died in 
1 680. He studied under Cornelius de Waal, 
and afterwatds at Rome. — Piiiiirgtit, 

Bo ERHAAVE -(Herman), a celebrated phy- 
sician, was bom in 1668, at Voorhobc, near 
Leyden, and educated at that uiiivcrsity 
with a view to the ministry, but falling 
under the false accusation of spinosisai 
while a student, he abandoned tnat line» 
and turned his attention to physic, and the 
branches of science connected with it^ la 
1701 he read loctures upon the institutes of 
physic; and in 1709 was appointed pro- 
fessor of medicine and botany. In 1714 be 
was chosen rector of the university, and 
disjilayed so much spirit against cartesianisni 
as to rouse the resentment of the friends of 
that system against him; particularly a 
theological professor at Franeker, who 
charged Boerhaave with being a deist ; for 
which the furious divine was.obl^ed, U/ 

Digitized by 



B O I 

j iSi ovm umvenity, to make an apolo^. 
h 17 13 he was nomiRated profeuor of che- 
auitrr, a sciex^ which he greatly iraprov- 
ei Hit fame was spread over the world : 
he was chosen a member of the academy 
of sciences at Paris, and of the royal so- 
ciety of London ; and a Chinese mandarid 
it uid to have written him a letter with 
chif direction, ** to the illustrious Boerhaavc, 
pbvMcian in Europe.** He died after a Un- 
feriojr illness, which he bore with christian 
ibrtitude and resi^ation, in I7S8. His 
wntin](s jftre universally known ; we ne^ 
not* therefore, enumerate them.— ilfor^W. 

fioKTBiK (Stephen de la), a French writer. 
He was coonsellor of the pariiameiit at 
BoiiTdeauz,and died in 156*3, afr«d 3S. He 
tniulated some pieces of Pluurch and 
Xcnophpn; and wrote besides some poems 
I in Latin and French^-^Uid. 

Bo iTBius, or BoBTius (Anitius Manlius 
Torquatus Severinus), a Roman philoso- 
plier, was descended of a patrician family, 
sad in 510 was advanced to the consulship. 
He was a profound scholar, and well versed 
ia mathematical leaminj^. He also defend- 
«d the catholic faith againit the Arians, in 
a treatise de Unitate. For his seal in de- 
fending Albinus the senator, I'heodoric, 
kmjf of Ital^, sent him prisoner to the 
tower of Pavia, where he wrote his immor- 
tal book De Consolatione Philosophic, 
which has passed through numerous edi- 
tioas, and was translated mto Ang^o Saion 
by the illustrious Alfred. Boethius was put 
to death, but how is not clearly ascertained. 
ia5»4^-GiMo«. MortrL 

fiorrftAMD (Germain\ a French architect, 

was bom at Nantes m 1067. He built 

• Kveral superb edifices, and constnicted 

a nomber of bridges, canals, and other 

works. He died at Paris in 1755, He 

I Wrote a book on tbe principles of architec- 

Boca n (^Zachary), an English divine, was 
Mni at Little Hempstone, in Devonshirei 
^ educated first at Alban hall, and af- 
•wwards at Corpus Christi coUeee, Oxford. 
He became noted for his skill m the lan- 
pttgc** and wrote additions to Rous*8 Ar- 
dun^ixAttkae; a View of the Threats 
"MtPunishmcms rec6rded in Scripture, 8vo. 
On the Worth of a Christian Life 8vo.; Com- 
pantio Homeri cum Scriptoribus Sacris 
<PMMd Nonnam loquendi, Svo.; Help to 
^yer, 12rao. He died in 1659, and was 
WMd in the chapel of his college.— JTomTi 

A 0. 

BoGOKis,the first christian king of Bul- 
laria. He declared war in 845 against 
Tjeodora the empress, who however con- 
™at«d his esteem by sending back his 
■jjw. who had been taken prisoner on the 
?*tti»s> and she w» the means of convert- 
^^tochristianityv-i-C^v/v. //fi#. . 

BoMAAiN, an Arabian historian of the 



**^ceatnry, wrote the life of Saladin, with 
wiuQ be was a great favourita: An editioil 
«Kai>peartdaiLayd«iin lISS^M^rtrU 

• BoBtMQKD, the first prince of AntiiScb'; 
accompanied his father Robert Guiscard 
duke of Apulia in his attempt on the eastern 
tmpire in \OiSi. On the return of Robert 
to Italy he left the command to his son, who 
defeated the emperor Alexius in two batties.- 
After his father's death he became prince of 
Tarentum, atod distinguished himself in the 
first crusade. In 1098 he took Antioch, of 
which he became prince. He afterwards 
took Loadicea, but was himself made pri-* 
'soner, and on gainin^rhis liberty he married 
the danghtef of Philip king of France. Ha 
then returned to Greece with a brge army^ 
but met jvith little success, ^e died ixa 
1111. Six princes of his name succeeded 
him in the sovereignty of Antioch.-*— AfonprI, 

BoHN (John), a learned physician and 
profenor in that faculty at Leipsic, waa 
oom there in- 1640, and died in 1719. Ha 
wrote several valuable works on medical 
science and chemistry. One, on the duties 
of a physician, was published at Leipsic in 
1704, 4to. with this title, De Officio Medici 
duplici, clini CO & forensic — HalUr BiU. Anat* 

^ BoiARDo (Mattheo Maria), count of Scan^ 
diano, and governor of Reggid, is known 
by some Italian and Latin poefkis. The 
principal is entitled Orlando Inamorato, in 
imhation of the Iliad. This poem was. com-«> 
pleted by Ariosto, whose Orlando Furioso • 
IS only a continuation of it. The best edi- 
tion is that of Venice, 1544, 4to^ — TirabwcbL 

Boi LBAU (Giles)f a member of the French 
academy. . He published a translation of 
Epictetus, two disputations against Mena^^ 
and Castor, and other worlo^ He died in 
1669, aged SS.-^Moreri. 

BoiLEAU (James), brother of tbe aboreft* 
and doctor of Sorbonne, was bor9 at Paris 
in 16.S5, and became dean of the faculty ctf 
divinity, and canon of the holy chapel. 'He 
died in 1716, and left some learned workd 
on ecclesiastical history^ — Ihid. 

BoiLKAu (sieur Despreaux, Nicholas), a 
famous French poet, was bom at Parii 
in 1636, and was ored to the law, in which, 
however, he made little progress. His pro* 
ductions, especially his satires, gained him 
gi«at reputation. Lewis XIV. was highly 
pleased with his works, and distinguished 
him by several marks of his favour. In 
1684 he was chosen member of tive French 
academy, and in 1701 he was elected pen- 
sionary of the academy of inscriptions and 
medals, which he held till 1705, when his 
growing infirmities obliged him to resien. 
He died in 1711. The best edition of hia , 
works is that of Durand in 1747, 5 vol*. 
8vo. — ATstfv. Dift, Hut, 

BoiLKAV (John James), a French diving 
was canon of the church of St. Honorl at 
Paris, and died there in 1 735^ a^d 86. He 
wrote, 1. Letters on Morality and Devotion, 
S vols. ISmo. S.The Lives of th« Duchess 
of Liancourt and Madam Combe. — I6itL 

BorKDm (Nicholas), a French dramatic 
writer, was a soldier, which profession bt 
abandoned for that of Utarature. U 1706 

M 2 Digitized by VjOOQIC 



til 6«cani« Biemfier of thd a Atony of id« 
icriptions and belle* lettref. He died m 
1751 » and was interred without any reUi* 
gioos ceremony, owing^ to his avowal off 
atheism. His works, which are all comici 
were printed in 9 Tois. lUmo. 1753i^-^M>«< 

X>ict, Hist, 

Bois (John du\ or Johannes a Bosco, n. 
French monk of the celesdne order. H« 
quitted his relieious profession for soihe 
tone, and seryea with great credit in th€ 
irmy of Henry III. who used to call him 
the Emperor of Monks. He alterwards 
returnea to his order, and obtained the 
abbey of Beaulieu. He hated the Jesuits, 
and accused them as privy to the death of 
Henry IV. for which he was confined in 
the castle of St. Angelo at Ronid, wher« he 
died in 1026, He printed a coltection of 
fragments of ancieht ecclesiastical authorsi 

Bois (Gerard du), a priest of the oratory, 
was born at Orleans, and died in 1696) 
aged 67. He completed the Ecclesiastical 
Annals of France, of P^re le Cotnte ; and 
wrote a History of the Church of Paris, 2 
vols, folio, l^90, Latin.— /i&fdL 

Bois (Philip du), a French divine, and 
doctor of the Sorbonne. He died in 170H, 
and left, 1. An edition of TibuUns, CatuHus 
et Propertitts, ad Usum Delphini, 2 vols; 
«tQ. \ aild an edition of the worVs of Mal-» 
dbnat the jesuit.^-'/M^/. 

BoiSMORANn (the abb6 Chiron de% a 
French satirist, wiio died in 1740. He was 
bred under the jesuits> whoit^ he afterwards 
severely lashed, and then published a refu- 
tation of himself. He also wrote several 
mcmbin with elegance^— iVoot;. Diet. Hist, 

BoissoBBST (Francis le Metel de), a ce^ 
grated French wit, bom at Caen in 1592, 
and died in 1669, He was greatly esteemed 
by cardinnl Richelieu, who made him abbot 
of Chatillon-tnr-Seine. He Wrote several 
Poems, Letters, Tragedies, Comedies, and 
Tales, Nouvelles H^roiques, ftc. — MoretL 

BoissARD (John James), a French anti" 
quary, was bom at Besan^on in 1528; and 
died in 1602: he travelled through Italy, 
the Greek islands, the Morea,and Germany. 
His great work is De Romanse orbisTopo- 
grapnix et Antiquitate, 4 vols, folio. He 
also published a collection of lives of emi* 
nent persoos, under the title of Theatrum 
Vitas Humanac, 1 599, Frankfort, 4to. After 
his death appeared his Treatise de Divtna- 
■ones et Magicis Pnestigiis.^B'Wr. Mor, 
' BotssAT (Peter de), a native of'^Vienne in 
Sauphiny, who took in succession the gow« 
and the sword, and at last quitted bock 
Taking a fanatical turn, he let his hair and 
beard grow, clothed himself wretchedly, 
and went on pilgrimage. He died in 166it, 
. »^ed68. He was a member of the academy, 
and wrote THistoire N^gr6pontiqu(, ou lei 
Amours d'Alenndre Cattriot,^va-~A&r. 
BoissT (Lewis de), a celebrated French 
eomic writer. While aU Paris was delighted 
with bis peiteBiMicas» tbt poor anchor 

with Kmt wife and child, #cre I 

this condition, without a morsel of 1 
and speechless through hunger, a Irieod . 
stepped ni and found them. When tiis af- ' 
fur became known the marehionesi de Pmh 
padour male him a liberal present, and got 
him the place of compcrolleur de Mereore 
de France, with 4 poirion for hir femilf. 
He was a member of the French academyi 
and died in 1758. His works were printed 
in 3 vols. 8vo.— -^oiw. Dfa, Hist, 

BoTViN (Francis de), a French historiait 
He was secretary to marsh^ de Brissac; an^ 
wrote the History of the Wars of Piedmoit, 
2 vols. 8vo. . He died in 161»j — Mvfri, 

Boiviw (Lewis), advocate in parliameaii 
and an eAnnent scholar, tTal bora at Kfoo- 
rreuil in upper Normandy. He w*ote soart 
indiflerent poeti^, and learned diaseitatioDf 
on historical subjects. He died in iTMi 
aged 75.— Mff*. Diet, Hist, 

BoiviN (John), brother of the abov^ 
became professor of Greek in the royal Col- 
lege at Paris, member of the French aca- 
demy, of that of belles lettres, and keeper 
of the king's library. He died in 1726, 
aged 64. He wrote, 1. The Apology (of 
Homer, and the Shield of Achilles, 12mcK 
2. Translation of the Batradiomyomachiaof 
Homer. 3. The Oedipus of Sophocles, and 
the Birds of Aristophanes, translated into 
French. 4. An edition of the MathentatJri 
Vetcres, 1693, foUo. 5. A Lift of CUwie 
b Peletier, in Latin, «cc — Hid, 

BoKif ARi, a celebrated mussulmatrdoctorj 
t^ho maintaibed absolute predestination, 
and died at Bokharah; ih the 2S6th vear of 
theH^a. His great work is a coUecdon 
of tractions, called Tdnirtck, or the Sin- 
cere* — D'fferMot. ' 

BoL (Ferdinand), a Dliteh painter of his- 
tory and |k>rtrait, bom in 1611, arid died in 
1681. He studied under Rembrandt, and bif 
pictures have great merit*— /fanAr^fc* 

Boi,(John),an adnrirable painter of land* 
scapes and towns; bom at Mechlin in 1534^ 
and died in 1^^^ — I6id, 

BoLANota (John), a disciple of Ouidol 
whose manner he imitated His snbjectk 
were taken from sacred and prolnne historyi 
He died in 1660, aged S^.-^D'ArgotwOe, 

BoLtsLAus I. king of Poland, who suc- 
ceeded his father- Micisfatis i^ 99». Th# 
. emperor Otho III. gave bim the iid« o* 
Wnr, Poland bring only a dnkedoth before 
Boletlans cottqufei^ Moravia, and nnd« 
that country tributary. He wis a princ# 
of great qualities ; and died in 103S^--C^sifc 

Bdlkslavs H. sumaiMNi #«/ Anfif and i^ 
eruds bo«i itt 104S, was elected king nf Po- 
land on the death of His father Casmlir I. in 
la;^'. He wai a warlike prince^ waA t^ 
stored Bela to the throne of Hungw^, and 
afterwards invaded Russia-, where to »• 
mained so km^ <h*< ^^ ^^"^^ ^ ^* VtXvh, 
•oldlers in revenge took their slaW to their 
beds. When the ne^ reached the arai^ 
tfat Midim iMMdMtely jhMMd hoMi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

i^khopt IcK?^ and thr women ^«rp^sl4^ 
their paramours to talpe up arms in defence 
of the fortrcf^es. Bloody actlonp ensued, in 
vhich the women mole a part ; in the xoeaui 
time BoImUus arrived with -a fresh arrays 
9ad SadUsig vpon <both parties made ^ im- 
veose shiug'hter, and treated the survivort 
inth great rigour. He had afurwards a 
contest with the clei;^^' : and beinc; excom- 
mnoicated by the pope, was abandoned by 
bis subiccta. On this he f\fid into Hungary, 
vhexe i^ .4W about 1080.— t/wiv. ffUt. 

BoLKY N (Anne), wife of F leary VUl. king 
c^ England, and mother of queen £lizabf9ih, 
was the daughior of sir Thomaa $oleyn, 
and bom in J 507. Her early years were 
fpent at the Preach cour^, whex^e she a.t- 
tended the ynfe of Lewis XU. on wbos^ 
death ahe .n;turQed to England, and be- 
came maid of honour to .qvt<^ .Catharinje, 
which occasioning her to be oft^ in the 
company of M^nry, the ;aonarch became 
e&amonred of her charms, but not boiix^ 
. able to succe^ on other than honourable 
terms, he xe^ved^ to procure a divorce 
from his wife, lliis design he carried into 
execution, ^d married Anne privately, 
but when ih^ proved with child, he pub- 
jidy ackAowJeoged her 9fi queen, and she 
lo continued till the tynuit conceived ^ pao- 
fion for Jane Seymour. He then caused 
her to be tried for hig;h treason, in having 
been uncjuute with her brother, and fou;* 
other persons. She suffered with je- 
soiutibn. May Idtb, 1536. The Romanists 
Jiave taken pains to vilify the character of 
jthls unfortunate woman, out of malice 
against queen Elizabeth, and the reform- 
attqa, of which she was a great promoter. 
£he viras doubtless gay and thoughtless, bi^ 
the charfre of incontmence was never sub- 
stantiated.-^ j^/of. Srif. 

BoutYK (George), brother of die above, 
yas educated at Oxford, where he applied 
to poetry. On leaving the university he 
meal to (;ourt, and was much adtnired for 
Jiis accomplishment?. In 1539 he became 
yiscount Rochfort, and on th^ marriage of 
Henry VIII. to his lister he was employed 
in several .embassies, made constaole of 
iXyver castle, and warden of the cm que 
ports. But when that tyrant became jeal- 
pos of his consort, the charge of incest was 
broug^ against liis lordship, and he was 
beheaded on I'ower-hill in 1536. He wrote 
poems, songs, yind sonnets. — fVood. 

JBoLOGNESK (Francisco), an emiueiU 
paimer, was born at Bologng, but his true 
|ume was Francis Grimaldi. He studied 
jrader AnnibaJ Caracci. His landscapes 
.are excellent. He died in 1680. His sp(x 
Jllexander was also a good pamte;!'. — ^fU. 

BoLsxc (Jcrom), a carmelite of Paris, 
H>o having embraced some opinions pot 
approved of by his order, quitted it and 
>re»t to Ferrara, where he practised as a 
pbirsician. H.e next removed to Geneva, 
d^a attacl^ hi|ns^)f to Caiyin, )>ut ayow- 


ing the notions of Pelagius, hp was bani^ 
ed the city. He then retired to Bern, from 
yrhence also h^ -y^as ex^^eUed. At last he 
returned to France and his old religipn,an4 
to shew the sincerity of his conversioni 
wrote the lives of Theodore Beqsa and Johv 
Calvin, filled with the blackest faUehpodi. 
He died about 1582. — Bayle. Mgreri. 

Bo LS WEED (Scheldt), ^ c(;lebrs|ted en- 
graver, who executed several good plate;^ 
after Rubens,Vandyke, ancf lordano. Therf 
were two others of th^e ssmie«ame and pror 
fession, A(^m jmd ^prtiviv— ^^Af^ Di4, 

3o Lr N ('Edmund)^ an£nglish antiquary, 
who flourisned at the beginning of the 1 7th 
century. His works are: Nero Cxsar, 6f 
Monarchic depraved, 1624, fojlio, 2. de- 
ments pf Armories, jeiO, 4tp. 3. Hypert 
critica, or a Rule of Judgment for wnting 
or reading our Histories^ — Biog. Brit, \ 
Bolton (Robert), a puritan iiivine,Y^» 
born in 1571, and died in 1631. He wa# 
reader of natural pliilosophy at Oscford. Hf 
wrote treatises on Happmess, and the Four 
last Things^—JToo/*/ XO. 

Bolton^ (Robert), an English diving • 
was 'born in Northamptonshire, and edur 
cated at Wadham college, Oxford, aftef 
which be became chaplain to sir Joseph Je* 
kyl, master of the rolls, and in 1735 wa^ 
prompted to the deanry of Carlisle. In nS0 
ne was presented to the vicarage of St. 
Mary*s, Reading. ^ He died at X^ndon in 
176.'^ and wa^ b.uried in the church porc)i 
of St. Mary, Reading, where fiiere is a mo* 
nument to hi^ memory. Dr. Qolton wrotp 
some tracts on the prevailing foIUes pf this 
day, and a good piece on the JEmploymeat 
of Time.^-Ei/ro/. Mag. 

3ol;aki (l^rbano Valeriano), a learned 
monk of the 15th century^was borp at Bel* . 
luno, and entered into tne order of mino- 
rites, after which he travelled into Greece^ 
Egypt, and Palestine. He alsp twice as- 
cended Mount Etna for the purpose of sui;- 
'yeying its crater. He fixed his residence at 
Venice, whe:re he taught the Greek, and 
was the first who composed a grammar of 
.that language in Latm. He (ued in 152^, 

Bombelli (Sebastian), an eminent histor 
rical and portrait painter; born at Bolpgnji 
in 1635, and died in 1685. His wor]u are< 
in great repute. — PilUngtw, 

Bo MB ERG (Daniel), a celebrated printert 
who gained a great reputation by his He- 
brew ^bles. He was ^ native of Antwerp, 
and settled at Venice. His 3»l>le m 4 vot, 
folio, and the Talmud, in 1 1 vols, are greatly 
esteemed. < He died in 1549. — Moreri, 

BoN St. Hilary (Francis Xavier), a 
learned Frenchman* honorajry president of 
the chamber of account^ at Moiitpellier, 
member of the academy of inscriptions) Pa* 
risr and of the royal society (if London. 
,Hc died in 1761, and left, 1. Memoire tu» 
les Marrone^ d'ljide, 12pio, %, Disiertatioa 

2 Digitized by VjOOQIC 


•urrOtilit^ de la Sole desarraipi^es.— Mw. 
1>/V/. Hut. 

Bona (John), a cardinal, was born at 
Mondovi m Piedmont in 1609. At the aj^e 
of 15 he entered among the' friars mendi- 
cant, and iu 165; waj made general of the 
order, which office he afterwards resigned. 
Clement IX. gave him a cardinal's hat, 
iw;hich if ever man adorned he did. Bona 
tiied In 1674. His works are devotional! 

. •"-' Aforer'i, 

BoNAMY (Petef Nicholas), a French 
writer, was born in r694.' He took the ec- 
clesiastic hibit, which he quitted for lite- 
rature, and became under librarian to St. 
Victor, and historiographer ot Paris. He 
was also a member ot the academy of in- 
•criptioas", td the memoirs of which he large- 
ly coiicributed.' He conducted the Journal 
of Verdun, a periodical work of merit. He 
died at Parfs m XTlQ.^Ncuv. Diet. Hist. 

BoNA>JNi (Philip); a learned Jesuit, whp 
died at Rome in 1 725, aged 87. He wrote, 

1 . Recrcatio Mentis ct Oculi in Observatione 
Animalium T^tacebr'um, Romx, 1694, 4to. 

2. History of jhe Church of the Vatican, 
1696, f6l. "3. Cbllection of th(»' Medals of 
the Popes, 1699, 2 vols. foH 4. Catalogue 
of tlie Orders military and equestrian, 4 
'vols. 4to. 5. Obscnrationes circa Viventia 
in non Viventibus, 1691, 4to. 6. Musseum 
CoUegil Romani Kercherianura, 1709, fol. 

«C. — Moteri. •( ' :.• 

BoN'ARELLi (Guy Ubaldo), an Italian 
poet, was born at Urbino in 1653, imd died 
in 1608." The duke of Ferrara employed 
him on several embassies. I lis Filli de Sciro, 
the best edition of which is that of Glasgow, 
in 1763, 8vo. has been compared to the Pas- 
tor-T\do.—TiraLc$cbi. ' 
'' BoNAVENTURE (John Fidanza), a cai»di- 
nal and saint, was born in Tuscany in 1221, 
and 'studied at Paris with reputation. In 
1256 he'^vas made general of the order of 
Franciscans. '^ So great was his character, 
that on the death o'f Clement IV. the car- 
dinals left^the choice 'of a' pope to him, 
when he nominated Theobald, archdeacon 
of Lieg^, who took tBe title of Gregory 3^. 
«nd made* BonaVentUre' a cardinS. He 
died at Lyons in 1274, and was canonized 
in 1482. His works were printed at Rom^, 
in8 1588.-i:il^ow/. « ' 
• BoNAVENTuRE of Padua, another car- 
dinal, was born in I33i>, and Studied at 
Paris. Urban VI. made him cardinal in 
1378. He was shot in 1386 by an assassin 
employed by Francis de Carrario of Padua, 
for defending the rights of the church 
a^inst him. He wrote several religious 
pieces, and was the Friend of J^etrarcli.-^ 
J\4oreri. ■ - ■ i 

Bond (John), a famous critic, was borp 
In Somersetshire in 1 550, and educated first 
^t Winchester-school, and lastly at New 
Jpoliege, Oxford, where he took the degree 
hi M. A. He was master of the granunar- 


school at Taunton many years, after which 
he practised as a physician, He died in 
1612. He published notes on several of the 
Latin classics, particularly Horace and Per- 
sius —Wood's A. 0. 

BuNEPACio (Venetiano), an Italian pain- 
ter of eminence, lie was the disciple of 
Palma, and imitated his manner with great 
exacrness. He died in 1630, aged 62. 

Bo NET (Theophilus), a celebrated phy- 
sician, was born at Geneva in 1620, and 
died iu 1689. He left a great number of 
learned works. — Hailer Bihl Anat. 

BoNPADius (James), an Italian writer, 
and historiographer of Genoa, of which 
republic he wrote the annals, but «ome free 
remarks made in the work gave offence to 
many noble families, who out of revenge 
charged him with an unnatural crime, fur 
which he was beheaded in 1 550. — Tirabucbi, 
BoNFiNius (Anthony), an historian of 
the 15th centui-y, was bom at Ascoli in 
Italy, but settled at the court of Hungary, 
where he died in 1502. He wrote the his- 
tory of that 'country, printed in 1568. ■ 


BoNFRERius (James), a French Jesuit, 
born at Dinan in 157i3, and died at Tour- 
nay in 1643. He compiled an Onomasd- 
con of tlie places mentioned m Scripture, 
«uid a commentary on the Pentateuchv—T^ii/. 
BoNGARS (James), a learned Frenchman, 
was born at Orleans in 1554, and studied at 
Strasburg. He Edited some ancient authors, 
and published many learned pieces of hit 
own. His Letters, written while he was 
engaged in state affairs, are greatly esteem- 
ed. He died at Paris in lGl2,-~Bayle.' 

Boniface (St.), a saint of the Roman ca- 
leiidar, was a native of England, and sent 
by' Gregory II. to convert the Gcrm.ins. 
Gregory III. made him archbishop. He 
was slam by some peasants in Friesland in 
754, His Letters were printed in 1616.— 

' Boniface I. pope and saint, succeeded 
Zozimus in 418, and was maintained in. the 
pontifical chair by the emperor Honorius, 
against his rival Eulalius. He> died in 4i?2. 
—Boniface II. succeeded Felix IV. in 53a 
I le was born -at Rome, but his father was a 
G oth. He compelled the bishops in a council 
to allow him to nominate his successor, and 
accordingly he pitched upon Vigil; but 
another coQnci! disavowed the proceedings 
of the first.' 'He died in 153'/ — Bonifacs 

III. He succeeded Sabincn in 606, and died 
a few montlis after his election. — Bo.mface 

IV. was the son of a physiciaii,'and came to 
|he tiara in 607. He converted the pan- 
theon into a chiirch. He died in 614. — Bo- 
^iFAc^ V, 'He was a Neapolitan, and suc- 
ceeded Adeodatusin 617, and died in 6^.5. 
—Boniface VI. came to the chair on the 
death of Formosiis in 896, but held it only 
15 days; for being elected by a 
faction,' l^e was deposed.— Bo nifac£ VFK 

Digitized by 




«h<Me$nriuime wsuFraticon.* He a^iimed. 
the chair after murderinf; Benedict VL and 
John XIV. He was acknowledged sove- 
rnga puntifF, in 984,. and died a few montha 
after. Hi6 corpse was exposed in the pub- 
lic streeu, and trodden under fopt. — Bonj- 
FACE VIII. frightened bis predecesi^or Ce- 
lestia into a resignation, hv denouncing to 
him a: midnight eternal damnation if he 
Uid not quit the pontifical chair, 'l^e ere- 
OAiloiu pope, thinking this a supernatural 
?oice, obeyed the command next day, and 
the crafty cardinal was elected. 'I'liis was 
io 1294. He commenced his pontiiicate 
bf imprisoning Jiis predecessor, and laying 
Jieamark under an intendict. He also be^ 
bavedin a haughty manner against tlie Co- 
looaas, who protested against his election, 
aad cidled a council to examine the charge. 
Boniface excommitnicated them as heretics, 
and weached a crusade against them. He 
excited the princes of Germany to revolt 
a^ciitiM Albert. He also issued a bull, in 
which he pretended that " God had set him 
over kings and kingdoms.** Philip the Fair 
cashed thit bull to be burnt at Paris ; on 
which Boniface laid France under an inter- 
dict. Philip appealed to a eeneral council, 
and seat bis army into Italy,- wl^ich took 
Boniface prisoner, 'i'he pontilfs behaviour 
on this occasion was bold enough, for put- 
ting on the tiara, and taking the keys and 
the crosier in his hands, he said, ** I am a 
pope, and a pope 1 will die." He died at 
Hwne a few months afterwards. He wrote 
several works. — Bonitack IX. was a Nca* 
puliian by btrtb, and of a noble faaiiy. He 
was made cardinal in 1:381, and pope in 
lSti6. He died in i404.^i>/(/f/W. B^»er. 
Bo Mir ACK, count of the Roman empire 
in the 5th century, was the intimate friend 
of St. Augustine, who dissuaded hira from 
embracing the monastic state, from the con- 
viction that he could be of more service by 
emploving his talents in public life. He de« 
£ende«f Africa against tne emperor John, 
and obliged Ataulphus to raise the siege of 
Mandlles. He revolted m Africa at the 
iasd^tiun of Aetius, who plotted his ruin. 
Booilace, however,discovered histreachery, 
and returned to his allegiance and the im- 
perial favour. The armies of Aetius and 
Boniface had a desperate contest, in which 
the latter was slain in 43S. — Mortru 

BoNir Acx (Hyacinth), a celebrated advo- 
cate in the parliametkt of Aix, was born in 
16 W, and died in l6l^. Ihere is a work 
by htm, entitled, Arreu Noubles du Par- 
IcmcDt de Provence, JUyoos, 1708,8 vols. 

fioMirAcio (Balthazar), a learned Vene^ 
tian. From being professor of law at Padua, 
he beeame bishop of Capo d*Istria, and 
died in 1&S9, ag«d 75. He wrote, 1. Latin 
Pwins, 1619. 2: Historia Trevigiana, 4to. 
i. Historia Ludicia, 1656, 4to.^-> Jvforrri. 

^•Movft (WiUiam), a French monk of 

the order of St. Augustine, wsCs born at 
Toulouse, in 1670. Pope Clement XI. sent 
him as a missionary to China, where he died 
in 1714. He published, 1. Dissertations on 
the Scripture. 2. Dissertations on the Cop- 
tic Monuments in the Library of the Vati- 
can. — JWsrf ri, 

BoNNKKONt (John), a I^tin poet, was 
born in l.>54 at Clermont in Auvergne,and 
died in 1614. His poems are appended to 
those of Beza, printed by BarfaK»u at Pat is 
in 1757, 12mu^-iVo»v. Sict, Hisi. 

BoNNiiLL (James), a man of eminent vir- 
tue, was the M>n of an English merchant who 
resided at Genoa, where this son was borli 
in 165'), and brought to England in 1655. 
The fortur^ of the family having suiFered 
considerably bv their attachment to the 
royal cuu<)e, Mr. Bonnell at the Restora- 
tion received a patent, to be accomptant- 
general of Ireland, in which his son's life 
was included with his own. The subject ot 
die present notice was educated first a( 
Dublin and afterwards at Cambridge, where 
he took his degrees in arts> and then became, 
tutor in a gentleman's family. On his fa- 
ther's death he succeeded hiiQ as accompt- 
ant-genend 'for the sake of his family,- 
though his own inclination was to the 
church. In the reign of James II. he re- 
mained firm at his post, discharging the du- 
ties of his office with remarkablb firmness 
and integrity. He was a man of amiable 
nunuers, devout without enthusiasm, and 
learned without 08teot;ition. He died at 
Dublin in 1699. Bishop Wettenhall preach- 
ed his funeral sermon. Some of his medi- 
tations are in his Life, written by archdea- 
con Hamilton, I'imo. 170S. 

BovNER (Edmund), an English prelate^ 
was a peasant's son in Worcestershire, and 
educated at Oxford. He afterwards entered 
into the service of Wolsey, who bestowed 
upon him several benetices. Henry VllL 
to whom he was chaplain, sent him to 
Rome to get the sentence of divorce from 
Catherine of Arragon confirmed, and his 
behaviour was so bold, that the pope 
threatened to throw him into a cauldron 
of boiling lead. In 1 5.^8 he was nominated 
bishop of Hereford, being then ambassador 
at Paris; but before his consecration 
he was translated to London. In the reign 
of Edward VI. he scrupled the oa^h of su- 
premacy, for which he was sent to prison, 
but on making hi» submission obtained his 
discharge. His ncgligeuije, however, in 
complying with the laws occasioned him a 
secona imprisonment, and the loss of his bi- 
shopric. Om the ac^(*9&ion of Mary he was 
rt^&tori^d to bis episcopal function, and 
througl) the whole of her rei^n sliewed a 
most sanguinary spirit, by bringing num-. 
\^T% of protestants to the stake. When 
queen Elizabeth came to the throne he waa 
s^nt to the marbhalsea prison, where he 
died in 1569. His body was interred in bu 



Digitized by 




Ckorfe'a chi]rch<^ard, Southwark. Bonntr 
w«^ a mzn of furicm* ^^lOMtioa, but well 
wved in the canon law. — SUg. Br, 

Bon NIT (Charles), a natunuist and me- 
tapikysician, was bom at Geneva in. 172a 
He wa« intended for .the law, but meeting 
with the Spectacle de Nature of Lc Pluche, 
md Reaumur's Memoirs on Insects, he 
ittsoWed to devote hiEnself to the study of 
nature. At the age of SO he had made 
eevepal xiiscoveries m entomology, and at 
97 he formed his system of vegetable ]>hy- 
cics. About this time he appeared as a 
writer in a treatise an psycology, which was 
ft>Uowed by his analytical essay on the men- 
tal powers. lo 17(>2 and 1764 he pt^lished 
Considerations on organiEod ^dies, and 
Contemplations of Nature. His last work 
was Palmgenesia, or Thoughts on the past 
and future State of Animal Beings. He was 
a member of the royal society of LiOndon, 
and of several other learned bodies. Bonnet 
was a inn believer in Christianity, and dieK^^ 
at Geneva, in 17dS.-— Z^/r ofBtMri fuUisbtd 
M Beme^ 1794. 

Bo NN EVA L (Claude Aleiandcrde, count), 
known also by the name of Osman Bashaw, 
was descended from an illustrious family in 
France, and married the daughter of the 
marshal' de Biron. He left the French 
army to serve under prince Eugene ; but 
havmg a quarrel with chat general, for 
which he was imprisoned, he entered into 
the service of the Turks. The grand siig- 
jiiorgave him a military 'Command, with 
the rank o/ bashaw. He obtained a great 
victory over the imperial army on the 
banks of the Danube. He died in 1747, 
and left memoirs of his life^ printed at Lou- 
don in 1755.^iVaiw. Diet. Hist, 

BoNosus, bishop of Naissus in Dacia, or 
according to others of Sardica, was con» 
demned m the council of Capua for heresy, 
inmaibtainingthat the Virgin Mary hsbd 
MherchildrenbesidesJesufi Christ. He died 
in 410. — MoshAm, 

Bo NT E M s (mademe^, an ingenious French 
lady, born at Paris m 1716, and died in 
17^. Slie translated into her native lan- 
jEfuage Thomson's Seasons with great iSde- 
Sty and eiegiance^ — Nou^, Diet, Hitf. 

BoNTFMPi (George Andrea An^elini), 
a musical writer, was bom at Perugia, and 
became master of the chapel to the elector 
•f Saxony. He wrote Nova ^uatuor vo- 
eibus compbnendi Methodus, 1660; but 
his great work is the History of Music in 
leaf ian, prints at Perugia in 1695, folio. — 
Jitnvkins. Burnty* 

BoNTius (James), a Dutch physician, 
who lived at fiatavia in the middle of the 
i7th century. He wrote some good works 
cm die diseases of India, and ODiervations 
en the botany and natural history of those 
parts. The last is entitled De Medicina In- 
4orum, printed at Leyden in 1642, and at 
Amsterdam 1656. He is not to be con- 

a Bostrum called Pilulae tartare2 Bmtii» 
and died at Leyden in lS9%.-^Jlail«n Bihl, 
Med, Preut. 
BoMviNcfNo (AlexaBder)^ an italiiai 

Sinter, borR in 1514, and died in 1564. 
i was the disciple of Titian,and his worka 
fetch a high ^r\ct,'-^PiUitigtom, 

BoKwxcKE (Ambrose), an English divine, 
wtts bom in 1652, and educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors' echoed, from whoue he re- 
moved to St. John's college, Oxford, where 
he proceeded to the degree x)f B. D. In 
1686 he was appointed master of Merchant 
Taylors* school, but was dismissed in 1691 
for refusing the oath of allegiance. He 
afterwards kept a school at Headly in 
Surrey, and brought up many ezcefieBt 
ichxAAX^^-^AneetkUi 4f Bowfer^ 

BooDT (Anselm von), physiciaa, died 
about 1660. He is known by a scarce pieoe^ 
entitled, I'he complete Jeweller, or the 
History of Precious Stones, Leyden, 1646. 

BoojcER (John), an aitroktger, who ia 
said by JLilly ^ to have had a curioue lancy 
in judging of thefts, and as being successfiik 
in resolving love ^estions." Another 
adept, George Warton, puUished a book 
aj^amst him, entitled, Mereuriocodxco Mas- 
tix ; or an Anticaveat to all auch as have 
had the Misfortune to be cheated and de- 
luded by that great and treacherous Impos- 
tor, John Broker. He wrote some pieces 
in astrology, and wu it\ade licenser of joa- 
thematical books. He died in 1667^ 


BooNc (Daniel), a Dutch paiDfeer,wbo 
died in England in 1608. His subjec&i 
were low, but his characters express muck 
humour.—- .Pi/i^iff^Mr. 

Boon EH (Arnold), an eminent Dutch 
painter, was bom at Dordt in 1669, and be- 
came one of the best portrait painten of 
his age. He was the disciple of SchalkaB, 
and died in 1 l^^^-r-Mwhrakem, 

Boot (Arnold), a learned Dutcb physi- 
cian, who defended the integrity of the 
Hebrew text of scripture a^inst Moria 
and Cappel,in a woiik, enutied Animd- 
versiones ad textum Hebraicum. He also 
wrote medical obsorvationa, and died at 
Paris in 1653^— ^sotf. Did. Hist, 

Booth (Barton), «n English aclor,'WM 
a native of Lancashire, and educated at 
Westminster school, where he distia^uiahed 
himselCin theplays which were occasionaily 
performed. At the age of 17 he entend 
mto a strolling company, with which he 
went to IrelaiM. Hie reputation was so 
great that Betterton engaged him for the 
English stage, on which ne gained uncom- 
mon applause. When Cato was {Performed 
he was selected to take upon him the prin- 
cipal character, v^iich h,eeuetained so well 
that one night a subscription of 50 gutneas 
was collected in the boxM and sent to him« 
He afterwards became mai^^er of the 

f qundecl with (^ard BwtiHs% who invented hou&e, but continued to perfoia nearly ya)m 

y Google 

Digitized by > 

B O R 

B O R 

rfntli, which faapptncd i& 1TS8, at (he aM 

fiooTB (hnttfj, cafl of Wajringtoo, wu 
born in the couuty of Chester, which hf 
Kpretented m ««vefal pariiameats, is the 
mga^ Charles II. He was zealoiu against 
the papiscs and the duke 4>f York, which 
made him obnoxious at court. In 16B4 be 
ncceeded to the title oi lord JDielanier, 
wad was committed to the Tower, where be 
maained some time. At the accession of 
Janes IL he was tried oo a charge of hieh 
trcasoD, but acquitted. He assisted in the 
levohidoD, for which king William made 
Jum privy counsellor, and chancellor of 4he 
cichequer. He lost ^ favour of lihat 
prince afterwards bf opposing some of his 
measures; however he was created earl of 
Warrington, with a pension. He died in 
JCH. His works, consisting chiefly of 
speeches in parliament, were printed in 1 
-toL «vo. His son George eari of War- ^ 
ria^on, who died in' 1758, wrote a piece, 
twt it l ed, ConsideratioBs upon the Institu- 
tioo of the Marriage Contract, wherein is 
ceotidered bow far Divorces may or ought 
»hs alkywed,1789.--/%. Brii. 

BomaoMioa ^Nicholas), a French I^atin 
poet of the 16th century. He was highly 
yo sm c d by the most learned men of his 
His ^ocms were printed in 1540L— 

BoR-UA (John Oiarles), a French mathe*- 
■anctan, was bom in 17S3. He entered 
cai'lf mto die navy, and became lieutenant* 
in which capacity he was employed on a 
voyage of discovery on the coasts of £u* 
rope and Africa, wush a view of improving 
navigation and geography. The result ot 
this espeditioB was publinhed in 2 vols. 4to. 
1778. In the American war be served un* 
jio* d'Estainjr, with the rank of rear-ad^ 
miral. Btfore this he had introduced- uni» 
loimity into the architcoture-of the Franch 
ships of ^war. He -contributed numerous 
papers to the memoirs of the academy of 
KJenccs, chiefly relating to theconstruction 
of vessels and (lydraulics. Jn 178? he pub- 
&hed the Descnption and use of the Circle 
of Reflection, in which he recommended 
^ use of the specular-circles invented by 
Tobias Mayer. He also invented the men* 
Ppracian-rod for ascertaining the station 
haes. One of his last labours was the aCf> 
curate detevtaination of the length of the 
pendofauR vib.rating seconds at Paris. lie 
died in 1799.— iSTpKtf. Dut, Jiut. 

BoBDE (Andrew), an English physician, 
was bom at Pevensay in Sussex, about 1500, 
aod after studying at OxfoXd entered amone 
ike canhnsians. He then travelled through 
a great part of £ttrope and Africa. On his 
Kstura he seuled at Winchester cs a phy** 
ncian. He died in the Fleet, wh^re he was 
conliiied fordebt. He wrote the Breviary of 
Hcakh^and some other pieccs.-^4f^W « A, 0. 
BoBOE (John Benjamin )« a French wrij> 
{M-ywatbomatf^mi&ns^. lie became 

int vailet to Lewis XV, and on the death 

of that monarch was ap^oiated iarmer-ge« 
■eral. He employed tus leisure hours in 
studying mii«»c and the belies^lettreSb Hie 
collection of airs in 4 vols. t^vo. and essava 
on flMutc, ancient and modern, in 4 vols, 
quarto, are proofs of bis skill in the first, 
and in the second he distinguished himself 
by the Memoirs of Coucy,^ vols. Stvo. ; loc 
teresting Pieces towards a Hiatory of the 
Reigns of JLewis Xlli. and of Lewis XIV. ; 
Letters upon Swisserland ; History of tho 
South Sea, and other Dforjo. He was guil* 
locined in 1194^-'Nauv, Diet, Hist, 

BoaoBLON (Lawrence), a French writer 
of plays and romances, who died at Paris 
in 1730, aged 77. He is chiefly known by 
a work, entitled. The Historv of the £xtra* 
vagances of Mr. Ouffle, wnich has bees 
translated into English, Svo. In this per- 
forxxMnce he ridicules those persons who 
are fond of reading' books on witchcraft, 
sorcery, magic, &c. — Jbul, ' 

-BoancNAVE (Toussaint), professor and 
director of the academ/^of surgery at Paris, 
bom in 1728, and died in 1782. He wrote 
Elemenu of Physiology, 2 vols. ISmo. — UiJ, 
fioanis (Charles), a French writer, was 
the son of a mechanic at I«yons, and distin* 
guished himself by several ^ood poems^ and 
some dramatic pieces, printed at Lyons, in 
4 vols. 8vo. -He also defended -the sciences 
against Housseau. He died in 17i81 — Ibid, 

BoaOBU (I'heophilus de), an eminent ' 
physician, was the son of Antoay de Bor<* 
deu, physician to the king, and born in 
1782 at Iseste, in Beam. He received his 
education at MontpclKer, and when young 
settled at Paris, where he acquired i^reat 
reputation. He died in 1770. He wroto- 
several works in .the line of Jiis profession* 


BoRDiKGius (Andrew), a famous Danish 
poet. IHis works w«re printed at Copen* 
hafpen in 1736', and are greatly valued in 
Denmark^ — JhiJ, 

BoanoN e (Paris), an italian painter, was 
bom at Trevisa in 1512, and became a dis- 
ciple of Titian. Francis I. of France <:on- 
ferred several favours on him. He died in 
1587^— Z)/^V«. 

Bo at L (Peter), a physician to the king of 
France, and member of the academy of aci^ 
ences, died in 1 68<]^ged 69. He wrmc the 
Antiquities of Castres, his native town ; a 
Tx«asury of old Words and Piirasea; a 
. Treatise on the Inventor of the TeLciuropc, 
and other works.-*- MarrW. - 

Bore L LI (John Alphonsus), a mathemati^ 
eian, was bum at Naples id 1608. He was 
for some time professor of philosophy and 
mathematics at Florence and Pisa; after 
which he aettled at Rome, and taught ma- 
thematics. He died in IGliK He wrote 
many valuable works on mathematical sub- 
jects. — Tirahoicbi, 

BoJtoARUTius (Prosper), an kalian phy- 
licis^ of the lUh ceatury. (ie is tlie aii- 

Digitized by 


B O R 

B O It 

-thor of a treatise of anatomy, and lome 

Bo&ouESE (Paul Gtiidotto), an Italian 
jKiinter aud poet, was born at JLucca, and 
died through want in 162b\ aged €0. Hi» 
vanity 1^ him to rival I'asso, and to write 
a piece entitled J.rusjUm ruined. — Tirakoscbi. 
Bo RG HI Ni (Vincent), a benedictine monk, 
born at Florence in I.'JIj!?, and died at Pisa 
in 15S0. He wrote a Discouric on the 
Hislory of rloreace, whici'i ponesses merit. 
It was reprinted in 1 75.i. — Moreri, 

Borgia (Ca-iar), sOn of pope Alexander 
VL on whose accejsion he was made 
archbishop of Valeiiza and cardinal; but 
bcing^ jcalouA that his brother Francis was 
roost in favour, he comrivcj to. have liim 
drowned, tie aUo dispatched a numlier 
of other persons to gratify his avarice and 
isevengfc. Having^.rcnounced the cardinal- 
ship iie was made a duke by i.cwis Xil.of 
Finance, with . whom he entered intc) a 
leag-ut for the conquest of the Milanese. 
On the death of his father he was sent pn- 
lon^ to i>pain, but made his escape, and 
died fighting under the walls of Viana in 
- 2 507. — GoriioH j J.iifes of Alexander and Bargsa^ 
BoRGiAMi (Orazio), an historical and 
portrait {lainter, was born at Rome in 
1;>.S0, and died in 1681. — FiUingtom. 

BoRi s Gd uBKOt;, %ct2Lt duke of Mnscovy. , 
He obtained this dignity by murderin<^ tHe 
two princes, Demetrius and Feoder, while 
he was recent. Afterwards a young monk, 
called Griska, pretending to be Demetrius, 
got himself acknowledged by the vaivode 
of Saadomir, who declared war against 
Boris, and entered Muscovy with his armv. 
Many of the officers of the usurper join^ 
the mvaders, in consequence of which be 
died in 160.5. The Boyards then elected 
Feodor Borliowltz, the son of Boris, .in hi» 
nxmi ; but the false Demetrius still con- 
tinued his pretensions, and beiqg joined 
by a number uf people took the young 
grand duke prisoner with his mother. The 
itxifbrtimate captivo were put to disath in 
Jt/X>, and the pretended Demetrius at the 
same time. — Univ, Hist. 

Bo R L Asc (Edmund ), a phvsician, and his- 
torian, was the son of sir John Borlase, oue 
of the lords justices of Ireland, and edu- 
cated in the university of Dublin, but took 
his degree of M. D. at Leyden, Afterwards 
Ke settled at Chester, where he died in 16^2. 
His principal vork is a history of the Irish 
rebellion, Ivi^O, folio. — Got. B, i>. 

Borlase (William), an ingenious anti- 
quary, was horn at St. Just in Cornwall, in 
luiM>j and educated at Exeter-college, Ox- 
ford. In ^720 he entered into orders, and 
in 1 7 L'i2 obtained the rectory of L»udgvan, 
and aficrward:* that of ^t. Just. He wa» 
elected a fellow of the royal society, and 
hdving presented a variety of fossils and 
pieces of antiquity to the university of Ox- 
ford, he received the thanks of that learned 
body, and tlie degree of JLL. D. He aisa 
cummuuicated many curious ores and fos- 

sils to Mr. Pope for hi* grotto. He died is 
1772. He wrote an essay on Cornish crysuU 
in the Philosophical Transactions; Anti- 
quities of the County of Cornwali, folio, 
two editions; Observations on the Scilly 
klands, 4to. ; The Natural History of Corn- 
wall, folio; all of them valuable Bi9g, 


' Born (Ignatius), a German baron, and 
a mineralogist, was bom at Carif.burg in 
1 74i«, and died in 1 7 9 1 . He i esidcd chiefly 
at Prague, aQd devoted himself lo the studv 
of natural history and miueralogy,on whicit 
he wrote valuable work&. He was 
also the author of a curious satire on the 
monks, who are whimsically cl -ssed in the 
raiinner of the Linaa:aa system. — T^-whsw* 
'fruvrlt m Huny,:ry, 

BoRRi (Joseph Frmnci?)» a Jesuit and en- 
thusiast, or impostor, w. IS a native of xvlilan, 
and studied at Rome, where he promulgat- 
ed revelations which he pretended to have 
received, and for ;which he was expelled 
the city, lie then retired to Milan, and 
gained' some followers, to 'whom he raijus- 
tercd an oath of secrecy. His designs be- 
ing suspected, the inquisition began to pre< 
pare its engines for him, on which he fled 
to Strasburg, and afterwards To Amsterdam, 
where he turned quack, and obtained 
riches by a universal medicine. His next 
remove was to Hamburg, where he dieated 
Christina, queen of Sweden, by pretending 
to discover the philosopher's stone. After 
« variety of adventures, Borri was sent* to 
Rome> where he was sentenced to perpetual 
imprisonment. He died in 1695. He wrote 
some books on alchemy. — Moreru 

BoRRicHius (Olaus), a Danish physician, 
was born in 16^, and educated at Copen- 
hagen, where, in 166G, he became professor 
of medicine. He was also made counsellor 
of the royal chancery. He died in 169a 
His priaapal works are, 1. De Poetis Grae- 
ciset Latinis; S. Antiqus Romae Imago; 
S. De Somno Somniferis, 1680 ; 4. De Usu 
Plantarum indigenanim, 1 688w— ilisrm. 

BoRROMEO (Charles), a cardinal, was 
born in 1538, His uncle, Pius IV. made 
him archbishop of Milan. Notwithstand- 
ing his youtht he governed his church with 
great discretion, and lib^ally encouraged 
learning. At the council of Trent, while 
the other prelates were deliberating en the 
reformation of the clergy* he set about it 
in his own person and family, dischai^g 
numerous servantt, leaving off gaudy ap- 
parel, and submitting to a weekly fast. He 
also supported works of public utiHty, par- 
ticularly such as* had charity for their ob- 
ject, and began to reform some of the 
orders, for which an attempt was made to 
assassinate him, but he escapied with a slight 
wound He died in 1594, and was ca- 
nonised in 1610 by Paul V. His works 
were printed at Milan, in 5 vob. folio^ 
1747.— Ai«r*r/. 

BoRiqMco (Frederic), cardinal andarchf 
bishop of Milan. Hc^^sras cou«in-germaa 

Digitized by VjOOQ I 



•fthc preceding, atid imitated hiin in his 
wod -vrorks. He founded the AmbrosJan 
library at Milan, and died in 1632. His 
writings are all theological.—- Mi-rirri. 

BoRROMiNi (Francis), an eirtinent archi* 
tect, was. born in 1599. The reputation 
and fame of Bernini turned hin brain, and in 
a fit of madness he stabbed himself in 1 6fv7. 
He built a number of edifices at Rome, 
which deviate from the rules of science, 
hut are noble and elegant. — Neu^ Dkf, 

Bouoffi (Lucian), an Italian painter, 
born at Genoa in 1590, and died in H?45. 
He painted history and portrait with grace 
and elegance. i-Ie had three son«, John 
Baptist, Charles, and Francis, all eminent 
in the same line ; but the last excelled also 
in landscape and tea view^.— Z>*yf nrr»w7A». 

Bo's (Jerome), a Flemish painter, who 
deh'ghted in representing spectres, devils, 
and incantations ; so that his pictures, 
thoQgh well executed, are calculated to Ex- 
cite horror. He died in 1 500, — IhiJ. 

Bos (Lambert), professor of Greek in 
the Mnivenity of Francker, born in 1570, 
and died in 1717. He published an edition 
of the Septuagint, Observations on the 
New Testament, and the Antiquities of 
Greece. — MorrrL 

Bos (Lewis Jan»sen),a celebrated painter 
of flowers, on the leaves of which he re- 
presented drops of dew with uncon|moa 
transparence. He died in 1507 — Pilkin^ton. 
Bosc (Peter du), a French ^rotestant 
diWoe,.was bom at Bayeux in 162JJ, and 
became minister at Caen, in 1645. In 
I<»66fae waited on the king in behalf of the 
persecuted churches of Normandy, and 
gained some favour for them. On the re- 
vocation of the edict of Nantes, he went to 
Rotterdam, where he officiated till Iiit 
death in 1^9'J. 1 le wrote 4 vols, of sermons, 
and some tracts in '2 vols. — Ba^le, 

BoscACER (John), an emment lawyer, 
was bom at Beziers in 1 601. He studied at 
Pam under his uncle La Foret,a celebrated 
teacher of the law, whom he succeeded 
He wrote an Institute of the Roman and 
French law, 4 to.; and after his death was 
published a work of his, De Justitia et 

J^we, lr?mo. He died at the age of 83. 


Bosc AN (John), a Spanish poet, who 
d»ed about 1543. I lis pieces are, 1. Medina, 
1544, 4ta; 2. Salamanca, 1547, 8vo. His 
ffyteis majestic, and his thoughts excellent. 
-^AVtw. liut. Hist. 

BoscAWEv (Edward), a brave English 
adniral, was the second son of Hugh, vis- 
count Falmouth, and bom at the famHy ♦ 
6«« in Cornwall. Having entered into tl»e 
navy, he was, in 1740, made captain of 
the Shoreham. He particularly disiin- 
I r^ishcd himself at the tsucing of Poi>*o Bello, 
I and the siege of Carthaj^ena. At the lattef 
I pJ'ce he took, with a party of seamen, a 
I Vp^oiah bauery, though exposed to a tr»- 


mendotis fire. On his return to Eng;!aad, 
he married the daughter of William Glao- 
villc, csqi and was chosefi member of par- 
liament for Truro. In 1744 he was made 
captain of the Dreadnought, of 60 g'uis, 
and soon after took the Media, commanded 
by M. Hoquart, the first French ship of war 
captured that year. In 1747 he signalized 
himself under Anson, and was in an en- 
gapement with the French licet off Cane 
i-inisterre, on which occasion M. Hoquart 
again became his prisoner. Tlw; same year 
he was made rear-admiral of the blue, and 
commander of the land and sea forces cm- 
ployed in an expedition to the East IndicsL 
On his arrival he laid siege to Pondicherrv, 
but was obliged to quit it on account of r'>e 
monsoon. However he took Madras, and 
peace being concluded, he returned to En- 
gland, where he wa«j appohued one of the 
lords commissioners of the admirahv. In 
175 5 he sailed to intercept a French^squa- 
dron bound to North America, of which he 
took two ships, and Hoquart became h»» 
prisoner a third time. In 1758 he took 
Cape Breton and Louisburgin conjunction 
with general Amherst. The following 
he commanded in the Mediterranean, and 
while lying at Gibraltar, hearing. that IVL 
De la Clue had passed the Straits, he refitt- 
ed his ships, and came up with the FreucK 
fleet, of which he to6k three and burnt two 
in Lagos bay.* In 1760 he was appointed 
general of the marines, with a salary of 
»:X)CV. a year. He died in 1761.-— Zitw of 
the Admirnh* 

BoscH (Bahhasar van den), a celebrated 
Flemish painter, was bora at Antwerp in 
1675, andtliedin 1715. His conversation 
pieces and portraits possess considerable 
merit. He must not be confounded with 
Jacob Bosch, a Dutch^ainter, born at Am- 
sterdam in 1636, and d'ed in 167.5. H>i ex- 
celled in painting fruits. — PUJtin^fon. Htut^ 

BoscuAERTS (Thomas Willeborts), a 
Flemish painter, was born in 1613, and be- 
came pamter to the jnince of Orange ; he 
was food of allegorical subjects. He died ia 
1657. — PfiUn'rfon, 

Bos CO LI (Andrew), an Italian painter, 
was born at ilorence in 1553, and bec.ime 
the disciple of Santa di Titi : he distinguished 
himself by the correctness of his deslgas 
and the force t)f his colouring. — IMJ. 

BoscovicH (Joseph Roger), a celebrated 
mathematician, was born at Ragusa in 17 il. 
He entered among the icsuits, and became 
professor of mathemnf'cs at Rome, P4via, 
and Milan. Wh<»n his order sup- 
prensed he was invited to PArje, where he 
was appointed director of the op-ical in- 
struments of the marine; which led hir\ to 
improve the theory of ariroTvi.itii* '-'isics. 
In 17R3he reiirei to Milan, w'i«»r' :, died 
in 1787. He was employed '^v tlr.- t-Ti, 
perQr in measunn;c a dc^r^»." i> r* ,'.y\ ] f, 
philosoplncal works are j :\.r'.>und, «ni 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



jtl/egftnt, but particularly his Latin poea 
i>n colipM», "entitled i>e Sclis ac l^un^ 

Bosiva (James), an Italian monk of the 
^7th ccnturv, who wrote a history of the 
order of M?lta, Rome, 8 vols. foUo, 1684.— 

J30SIUS (Anthoay^riephewof the above, 
PmA agent of the order of JVIalu. He wrote 
|i description of the christian catacombs in 
italy, under the title of Roma Subterranea, 
^6A% folio. — Mcrcru 

Bo »QUET (Francis),bishop of Mo&tpellier, 
jiras born at Narbonne in 1605, and died in 
,y>7<». He published the Liv^ of the Pi)pes 
^f Avignon, and the History of the Gallican 
church. — ///./. 

BossE (Abraham), a French engraver, 
jRvho gave the iirst lessons of perspective in 
^he academy of painting at Paris. He died 
in 1660, apd left tracuon Drawing the 
X)rders of Ardiitectufe, folio ; on the Art 
fii Engraving, ttvo. ; on Perspective, 8vo.; 
^Representations of divers Human Figures, 
laJocQ from the Antiques 91 Rome, 1656.— 

Bos so (Rene le), a French writer, bom 
^« Pariq in 1631, and died in 1680. He 
jwas a canon in the abbey of St. Genevieve, 
|ind became a teacher of the belles-lettrjcs. 
liis best piece is on epic poetry, which 
Soileau commends in high terms. — Ib'uL 

BofsuET (James), a celebrated French 
divine, was borti at Dijon in 1627,- and 
having gone through his academical stu- 
dies, entered into orders. He soon became 
^ famous preaci^er, and in 1669 was m^de 
bishqp of Cundom, at which time he was 
lilso appointed tutor to the dauphin, to 
whom he addresned his Discourse on Uni- 
versal Hiatory, wluch was printed in 1681. 
The same year he was made bishop of 
J^eaiiz. In L697 he was appointed coun- 
l^llor pf state. Bossuet distinguished him- * 
#eif a« a controversialist against the protes- 
4ants» and his Fjcposition of the- Doctrine 
pf the Catholic phurch upon Matters of 
jControver^y was written with such subtle- 
ty as to draw many persons over to po- 
^itry. It was translated into several lan- 
friiagesfand procured the author the thank;s 
^>f the pope. Several able protcstafits at- 
tacked the bishop, who answered them 
V'hH spirit, if not with i^trpngth. He died 
7n*1704. His funeral oration? are Kplendia, 
fcNcciir.g aud eloquent, llis worlii were 
^iiibliahed Kt Paris in 174:5, 12vols. 4to.— 
y-.- . J he*. }l st^, 

Bo-jTon ri'homas),? presbvterian di^^ne, 
*vM«; born at Dun$c in Scotland, in l(i7<>, 
«ntl edwcntcd at Edinbur^.h, where he took 
i'9 dcjiTcc of M. A. hi 170(5 he became 
ri>nistiT v>f F.ttcrick. He died in 1 7:i2. His 
book on Human Nature in it& fourfold 
.8iait'. ban gone through several editions. 
He aWi wroic some other pieces.-:-X//;' Ly 

Bo»wBLL (James), ^n ingeoiou* wxit«> 
was the son of Alexander Bo^well of Au- 
chinleck, one of the justices of session* and 
born at Kdinburgh in 1740. He received 
his education at the Khool and university 
of his native city ; and early diatingutshed 
himself by his Love of poetry and the belles 
iettres. He was, however, rather fond of 
pheasure and wished to enter into the a^myj 
but his f%*Ker, who designed him for his 
own profession, kept him from a military 
life. At his request he went to London, 
where he contracted an intimacy with 
Dr. Johnson, and other men of uterar^ 
eminence. From thence h» went to Urrechi 
imd studied the civil law ; after which b< 
travelled through Germany and Swit^r- 
iand. In the latter country he wa^ intra, 
duced to Rousseau, and at Ferney visited 
Voltaire, wliich occasioned his friend John- 
son, at his return, to make some garcasrir 
remarks upon him for the company h» 
h&d kept. He next went to Italy, and pass* 
ed over to Corsica, where he foxxnel 9a 
intimacy with general Paoli. On his xc« 
turn he published an account of Corsica. 
About tbi« time he was admitted an advo* 
cate at the Scotch bar, and distinguished 
himself in the famouff Dou^Us cause. But 
his disposition was rather mdolent, and he 
was fond of pleasure, which were powerhd 
impediments to his progress in .the legaf 
profession. In 1773 he accompanied J>r. 
Johnson in a tour through the Highland^ 
and t^e western isles of Scotland, of which 
tour he wrote an entertaining acqount^ 
published in 1784. On the death of iiis far 
ther he removed to London, and was adr 
mitted at the Engli&h bar^ but n«ver atr 
Gained any considerable practice. By the 
favour of lord l<Qn«dale, however, be wi^ 
chosen recorder of Carlisle. In 1790 he 
published a book of high value in biogra** 
phical literature, I'he Memoirs of Dr.John^ 
.ffon, in 2 vols. 4to. and since reprinted in 
3 vols. 8vo. Mr. Bos well died in 1795, 
leaving by his lady y/ha died befor^e hinit 
two £ons and tlirce daughters). He was 4 
man of amiable manners, and, though foa^ 
of convivial society, vu-tuo^is in his pnnci- 
pies, and a sincere christian^*— il/o«/<&(y M*g, 
BoTAL (X^eunard), physician to Henry 
IIL of France. He mtroduced frequent 
bleeding in /«-vers, whi<^ was coodenuied 
by the rest of the faculty. His works were" 
{printed at Leydcn in 16<i{),8vo. — J3aylf. 

BoTEJtQ (John), surnamcd B<xejiut, He 
was a native of Piedmont, secretary to car- 
dinal i$t. Borromoo, and preceptor io ihe 

children of .Charles Emanuel, duke of Sa- 
voy. He dic<\ in 1608. H< wrote, 1 . DcHa 
ragipne di Staco, 8vo. $2. U Principi,>Bvo.— 

Both (John), a land^ape paintpr, waf 

born at^Utrechtin lb 10, aiid'waii the* di^^c^ 

•p!e of Abraham Blocmart at the fcamc time 

' .with ^s brother Andrew. '1 he two hro- 

.(bers wca;^ to flomc, where JoUq «d^pt5| 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

» O T 

B O L 

Jhe naidier of CHaiide Lorraine, amd attain- 
ed an unconimon degree of ezcelleuce.. He 
was droWBcd in a canal at Venice in .1650. 
Andrew returned to Utre<*t, where he 
died in 1650. — D*Argmville, 

JSe-rin.AK, a christian physician of Ba|(f- 
dadtsod the rival of Ibn Rodhwzn. Their 
Aspntes were carried on with much abuse. 
Rodhwam had an indiflerent countenance, 
on which Bothlan called hiin the crocodile 
of fdt dML \ and Rodhwan wrote a book 
io fyro^e thnt it is not necessary a physician 
should be handsome. Bothlan died at Con- 
ftanttnople about 1084.* He wrote some 
Bscdicat tracts.— D^HerbehL 

BoTHirrLi. (James Hepburn, earl), re- 
markable in the history of Scotland for his 
connexion with queed Mary, and his sup^ 
poicd shsre, at least, in the murder of Hen- 
ry Damley, her husband. When that un* 
fortunate prince was bkrwn up in the house 
where he slept, suspicion fell strongly 
vpon l^thwell and the queen. Bothwell 
was tried, but nothing: could be fixed upon 
him, and he was acquitted. After this he 
seizsd M * .-y near Edtnburgfh, and carried 
her priioner to Dunbar castle, where he 
first endeavoured, by soothinfr speeches, 
and prtjte«5tations of love, to prevail on her 
to marry him. That she did ^Q at last^ is 
certain ;'but it \% said, and seemingly whh 
Jbstic^, that she was forced to it, iyj the 
wo^ of advnnta^es bein^^ taken of her. 
Duringc thei*e iniquitous proceedings Both* 
well procnred a divorce between him and 
bis wife. Mary soon after created him carl 
of Orkney. Btit a confederacy ansnujr the 
lerdf betn^ f#rmcd aj^ainst him, he retired 
to the Orkneys, and from thence to Den- 
nlark, where he died in 1577, confessing 
his own guilt and the queen** innocenca 
of the kinjif's murder. — Jfoierttcnj S*oth»d, 
Jt^Utskfrs Vut^atvm «/" Mary ftiem of Scoit, 

BoTfCKLLi (Alexander), an Italian painN 

er, bom at Florence in 1437, and died in 

1515. His Venus rising from the sea, and 

' V^nus adored by the Graces, possess extra- 

erdinary -metiatj^DepHet. 

BoTT (John de)y an atchitect, was born 
in France, but being a protestant he went 
intto the service of WilHam prince of 
Ohmge whotn he accompanied to Eng- 
knd. After the death cf that prince, he 
went to Brandenburg, where the elector 
made him captain of the guards ; he built 
leYeral structures, parttcuhirly the arsenal 
«f BerltxL He was ako made major-gene- 
Al, and shewed his- military skill in the 
forti^eafSobs of WcjeU In 1 7V8 he entered 
into the service of the kin^ of Poland, as 
&lit«hant-geikeral, and chief o€ the en<2fi- 
fteers. ' He died at Dresden in 1745^*— 
Mwr. Diet, HhK 

BoTT (Thomas)^ an Bnglish divine, was 
hotA at Utthy in 1688. He was at first a 
^Msenting tea<^r, but Auitted that way for 
Iktk ehiiFoh ef SagluMt itf ivfakh h» wm 

brdamed, dSKl obtained the rectories of 
Winhurg and Edgefield in Norfolk. He 
died in 1754. He published some sermons 
and religious tracts. — Ga0, Siog. Dkh 

Bo VA DiLLA, or Boha di (LA (don Francis- 
co de), a Spanish commander. In 1500 he 
was appointed governor of St.^ Domingo, 
where he put Columbus and his brothers 
in irons, and sent them to Spain. This 
conduct offended the court so much that 
all the proceedings against the prisoners 
were annulled, and Bovadilla recalled; in 
his passage home, in 1502, himself and the 
fleet richly laden foundered.— W«m. Di€i^ 

Bough ARDOK (Edmund), a French sculp* 
tor and architect, was born in 1G98, and 
died in 1762. He adorned- Paris with s^ 
veral handsome structures^ a list of which ia 
given in his Life by count de Caylusw — IbU. 

BoucuAuo (Matthew-Antony), a French 
writer, bom at Paris in 1719. He was ad- 
vocate in the parliament of that city, but 
quitted that profession for the profc^vrship 
of the law of naturein the college of FraiKe* 
He wrote numerous articles in the KnQyclo* 
pedie, and translated the dramas of Aik»a 
tolo Zeno; the English novel of Juliet Man- 
devilie, and otlier works. He also wrote a 
Commentary on tlie Law of the 'I'welv* 
^rabies, with notes; poetical Antiquities, 6;c. 
He died in. 1804^-/Airf. 

BoucHKR d*Arcis (Authony Gaspartl),* 
French writer, was born at Paris in 1 7(iS, 
admitted advocate in 17'i7, and counsellor 
of Dombes in 17.^3. He published some 
pieces on jurisprudence, and wrote all the 
articles on that subject in the Encyclope- 
die. — New. Diet. Hht» 

Boucui:R (Jonathan), an eminent divine, 
was born at ijlencogo in Cumberland, and 
educated at the grammar-school of Wigton. 
On entering into orders he obtained a ti- 
tiiatiun in North America, where he con- 
tinued to discharge the ministerial duty 
till the breaking out of the revolution, 
when he returned to England, and w:i» 
presented to the vicarage of^ Epsom in 
Surry, where he diod in 1804, aged 67. 
Mr. £k)Utfher was a member of the society 
of antiquaries, and pubAshed in 1797, '* A 
View of the causes and consequences of the 
American Revolution in thirteen Difcour- 
scs, preaclied in North America between 
the years 17(iiJ and 1775." He was also 
the author of twci assisse sermops preached 
in 1778; several biographical articles its 
Hulchinson\i History of Ciitnberland ; and 
a Letter to tiie Inhat>itants of that County 
suggesting objects of improvement. At 
the time of his death he was engaj^ed 
in A Gl(>»s;iry of Provinriul and Arch-xolo- 
gical Words, intended as a Supplement 
to Johnson's Dictionary. Of this work h« 
published a prospectus and speciiYien which 
makes us regret that it was never completed, 

fi(W«BEii, (Francis), an taiiaent French 

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fi^niter. His landscapes are very rich and 
natarad, and his fi^ires graceful and ele- 
gant. He wa» called the Anacreon of 
paintiB];^, and died In 1770.— -G«///. A4aj^. 

BotrcRKR (John), a French divine and 
doctor of I he Sorbonne, who ei erred him- 
self at the trnte of the league on the side •£ 
the insurgents, and recontmended in his 
preachinfTs and writings, the deposition of 
Henry III. and Henry IV. He obtained a 
eanonry at Tournay, and was dean of the 
chapter. He died there very old. — Morerl, 

fioociiKT (John), a Frencn lawyer, was 
b(vm ai Poitiers in 1476', and died in 1.550. 
His Annals of Aquitaine were printed at 
Paris in 1844, folio.- It is a very curious 
irork. He atso wrote some poems. He is 
not to be confonnded with one of IratKiiis 
■ames, who was mnitre d* botti to the King 
oc I' ranee, and died in 16*84. He wrote 
■evenl genealogies of illustrious families. — 

BouciiiER (Thomas)^ srchbishop of Can- 
terbury, died in 1430". He introduced the 
art of printing into England in 1464, by 
brtnnring over a compositor from Haerleoi 
at his own cxpcnce. — GcJivim de Prtrs, 

Boucz CAN'T, or J^bn le Mein^lr^ marshal 
of France, and viscount Turenne, became a 
•oidier .it the a»e of ten year$. He was in 
numerous battles, in which he distinguished 
himself by his valour. In 13£K> he served 
ag-iinst Bajazct emperor of the Turks, but 
WW taken prisoner at th* batt/e of Nico- 
poHs, and rans{>mecl He afterwafrds be- 
came governor of Genoa, where he quelled 
some commotions. He next 'seized upon 
&lilan, and in his absence ail the French 
in Geuoa were massaclred. On his march 
from Milan he was defeated, and escaped 
with difhculty across the Alps. In 1415 
he xs'as taken prisoner at the battle of 
Aerin court, and carried to England, where 
he died in 14^1. Boucicant was a man of 
letters, and had a taste for music. Some of 
Ill's ballads arc. e r t an t.-r I^ ^orci L 

BouoEwiNs rMichael), a physician of 
Antwerp, who published a good work, en- 
titled Vcntilabrum Medico 'Iheologicum, 
] 6^6, 4to. He died in 1 68 1 ^^J^^rni. 

BovKT (Catheflnc), an accomplished Eng- 
lish lady, whose miiiden name was Riches. 
8hc was married at the age of 1.5 to William 
Bovey, esq. a gentleman of large fortune in 
Gloucestershire, who left her a widow. Her 
person wai( handsome, and her talents va- 
rious ; but she was particularly distinguish- 
ed by the benevolence of her disposition 
and her numerous charities, iiir Richard 
Steele, in the dedication of his Ladies* Li- 
brary, speaks of her in the highest terms. 
She died in 17^6, Tiged 57, -^Baiiard** British 

BooFFLKRS (Lewis Francis de), marshal 
of France, was bom in 16*44, and entered 
^rly into the army. In 16G9 he became 
colonel of a regiment of dragoons, and dis- 
tinguished himself io ieveul atiiioB& Ia 

11^08 hd defended Lisle against prince EoT- 
gene, for which he was created a peer. AX 
the battle of Malplaquet, he effected his rei- 
treat without losing any of his artillery or 
soldiers. When kin^ William took Namur, 
he kejH Boufflers prisoner, contrary to the 
capitulation ; the marshal asking the reason 
of this conduct, was told it was on account 
of the French having kept the garrison of 
Dizmude: "Then," said he, "mine ou^ht 
to be detained rather than myseliV* ** Sir,*' 
it waS7ei>iied,**you are of more value than 
laooo men." He died in 171 1. — Moreri, 

Bougainville (John Peter de), a French 
writer, was born at Paris in 1722, and died 
in 1763. He was member of the academv, 
and of several other learned societies. We 
have by him, 1. A Translation of the Anti- 
Lacrctius of Polignac, 2 vols. 8vo. 2. V^r- 
railel between the expedition of Thamas 
Kouli Khan and Alexander^— A»tfv. Diet. 

BouoEANT (William Hyacinth), a learned 
Jesuit, was born at (^^^'''^pc'' i^ 1690, and 
died at Pari/t in 174S. He wrote several 
books, the most noted c5f which is eptitied 
Philosophical Amusements on the Lan- 
guage of Brutes, in which he holds that 
they are animated by demons. His History 
of the Treaty of Westphalia, however, is a 
judicious work. — Noum. Diet, Hist. 

BououER (Peter), a French mathema- 
tician, was born at Croisiein 1698, and be- 
came a member of the academy of sciences 
in'^nsi. He went with Mess. Godin and la 
Condamine to measure a degree in Peru for 
the purpose of ascertaining the 5gure of the 
earth. He died in 175S< His works are; 
La Construction du Navire, 4to. La Figure 
de U Terre, 4to. Trait^ d'Optique, 4tO. Ijl 
Manoeuvre des Veis8eaiix,4to. — likt* 

BouHiBR (John), president of the parlia- 
ment of Dijon, where he was bom in 1673. 
His talents for literature were so eminent 
that he obtained a seat in the French act- 
demy. He died in 1746. He translated 
part of the works of Petntnius, Ovid, and 
Virgil, the Tusculan disputations of Cicem. 
He likewise wrote some ingenious disses- 
tations on classical subjects — Nouv. Viet. 

BooHouKs (Dominic), a learned Jesuit, ' 
was born at Paris in 16'^8. His Entretiens 
d'Ariste et d* Eugene, recommended him to 
the great Colbert, who committed to his 
instruction his jon, the marquis of Seguelai. 
His Remarks and Doubts on the French 
Language is an excellent book. He wrote 
also a number of biographical, religious, 
and miscelbineous treatises. He died at 
Paris in 1702.^-ilf«r#W. 

BouiLi«AUD (Ismael), a French mathe- 
matictan> was bred a protestant, but re- 
nounced that religion, and took orders in 
the Roman church. He died in 1 694, aged 
80. He wrote Opus novunv ad Arithmetl- 
cwm iniinitorum, 1682, folio; A Discourse 
oa Ui» Koforniation of some Religious Or- 

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B O U 

den ; an edition of the iCstoir of Ducas, 
ID Greek and Latin, 1649, folio — Mortrl 

BouiLLE (M. le marqais dc), a French 
{tDcral, was descended from a noble fa^ 
roilT. During the American war he served 
iQ tbe West Indies, and was appointed com- 
mandant of the French islands: he was 
also advanced to the rank of lieutenant-ge- 
neral, and received the order of knight- 
hood called the Holy Ghost. On the 
breaking out of the revolution he opposed 
the projects of the innovators, with great 
zeal. He was tfien governor of Metz, in 
which station he acted with peculiar firm- 
ness. In August 1 1*)0 the garrison of that 
ciiy commenced a dangerous insurrection, 
wliich was with difficulty, and not without 
considerable slaughter ,suppressed. For this 
he was attaekai by the jacobin faction, 
which was increased by the part he bore 
in the king's attempt to escape from France. 
On that occasion he wrote an energetic letter 
to the assembly, acknowledging himself the 
sole adviser of thnt aflair; for which his 
estates were confiscated, and a^ reward of- 
fered for his head. In 1791 he accepted a 
commission in the Swedish service, which 
be quitted, and became a volunteer under 
the prince of Cond^ In 1797 he published 
Memoirs of the French Revolution, a work 
of considerable interest. He died at Lon- 
don, in 1800L — Brithb Magazine. 

Quillet (John), a French physician, was 
Siorn at Servian in 16*90, and died in 1777. 
His works are, Elemens de Medicine pra- 
tique (Elements of practical Physic), 2 vols. 
4to.} Observations sur I'Anasarque, ^c. 
(Observations on the Dropsy), 4co« ; Me- 
moires pour acrvir a l*Histoire del'Academie 
desSciences de Beziers,4tOy — Nouv. Dirt. Hist. 
BocLAi (Cxsftr Egasse du), a French 
writer, who publitbed a History of the uni- 
versity of Paris, in 6 vols, 'folio, 1665, 
which was censured by the theological 
faculty, and defendH by the author. He 
died in 1^8^— ilfwrr/. 

BouLAiNviLLtcRs (Henry de), lord of 
Saise, a celebrated French writer. He was 
bom in 1658. We have bj him a ^reat 
Bumber of books, the principal of which is 
the Life of Mohammed. He died in 1722. 
— iMJwrri. 

BoDLAKGEft (Nicholas Anthony^, a 
French philosopher, was bom at Pans in 
172)2, and died in 1759. His progress in 
the mathematics and architecture, though 
without a tutor, was so great, that he be- 
came engineer to the baron of I'hiers : and 
he was afterwards appointed superinten- 
dantof the highways and bridges. He wrote, 
Trait^ du Dedpotisme Orientale, 2 vol$. 
ISmo. L*Antiquit« devoUi, par ses Usno^cs, 
S vols. 12mo. A Dissertation on Elishl 
snd Enoch. He also wrote some articles in 
the £ncyclopedie.-7-iV«w. Diet. Hist. 

BouLAT (Edmund du), a French writer of 
the 16th"Cen{urx% He was herald* at- arnn 
to die dukes of IiOrraifiu He wrote the 

Jonmey of Duke Ahthony to Charles V. and 
some otiicr books. — Morar'u 

BortLENOKR (Claude Francis Felix), a 
French writer and advocate, bom in 1724, 
and died in 175«. He wrot*, 1. Trattd de 
la Cause et des Ph<-noTO&nesde Tfilectricit^, 
8vo. 2.Rechercl'.es Historicues et Critique?, 
sur ouelqucs ancicns Spectacles, ficc. lilmo. 
3. Fables et Conte* Francois. — IbiJ. 

BouLLiER (David Renauld), an eminent 
protestant divine, was born in 1669, and 
died in 1759. He wrote a Dissertation on 
the Existence of Ood, 17 16, Letters on the 
True Principles of Religion, 1741, 2 \*ols. 
1 Cmo. A Translation of bisliop Berkeley's ^ 
book on Tar-water; and other pieces. — 
— A'atw. Diet. Ilht. 

BouLLONcMr (Lewis),a French historical 
painter of the 17th centwy. His picture of 
Augustus shutting the temple of Janus is a 
grand piece, and sheik's ^rcat judgment and 
taste. He died in 1674. His two sons Bon 
and Letvh Boullongne were also esteemed 
artistsi The first from his various talents 
was called the Proteus of painters. He died* 
in 1697. The last became president of the 
academv of |>ainting and first painter to the 
king, tie died in ITIJS. — D'ArtrmvilU. 

BouLTrt (Hugh), an et em phrry prelate, 
was born in London in 1671, and educated 
at Merchant Taylors' school, from whence 
he removed to Christ-church, Oxford, and 
afterwards became fellow of Magdalen. 
About 1700 he obtained the living of St. 
Clave, Southwark, and the archdeaconry of 
Surry. He became chaplain to George I. 
and tutor to Prince Frcueric, for which he 
was rewarded with the dcanry of Christ- 
church, and the bishopric of Bristol. The 
kingnominated him unexpectedly to the sec 
of Armagh in Ireland, which he accepted 
with reluctance. In this high station he 
proved a blessing to that part of the king* 
dom. He attended all public boards, pro- 
moted every measure of public utility, and 
his charities were extensive. By hit ma- 
nagement the scarcity of silver coin was 
remedied, and he relieved Dublin from the 
horrors of a famine*, he maintained several 
sons of poor clcro^'men at the university, 
built and endowed ho-jpitals, enlarged small 
livings, and procured the royal charter at ' 
his own expcnce for the incorporated so- 
ciety for promoting the protestant schools 
in Ireland* He died in I^ondonio 1 742, and 
lies in Westminster abbey. A collection 
of his Letters wai printed at Oxford in 
1769, 2 vols. Hvo.— ^;<.^. Brit. 

Bouquet ^Dom Martin), a benedictin^ 
of ?t. Maur, born in 1C85 at Amiens, and 
'died at Paris in 1754. He assistod Mont- 
faucon in his compilations, and published a 
Collection of the Historians of France.-?. 
Kquv. Diet. Hist. 

Bourbon (Charles duke of), constable of 
France, was the son of Gilbert count of 
Montpensier, and bom m 1 4»!»; He distin- 
guished himseU* at the famous battle of Ma«* 

Digitized by 


B O U 

B o tr 

rtpiine, bm aoon after ^feU into disj^raee 
through the enmity of the mother of Fran- 
ci« L whose oflfe* of marriage he had reject- 
td. On this he associated with Charles V. 
knd the king of England against his sove- 
reirn. The plot however was discovered, 
and he escaped into Italy, where he became 
lieutenant-general to the emperor, and af- 
terwards commander in chief. He was 
killed in an assault upon Rome, in 1527.—- 

Bourbon (Nicholas), a modem Latin 
poett was bom about 1574. He became 
royal professor of Greek at Paris, canon of 
Orleans and of L^ingres. He died in 1644. 
His poems were printed at Paris in 1651, 
1 2mo,i~^Moreri. 

BouRCKiKR (John), lord Beracrs, in the 
reign of Edward IV. was ec^ually famous for 
his valour and learning, fiy his mother he 
was nearly allieti to the Plantagenets. On 
leaving Oxford he travelled, and returned 
to his own country master of several lan- 
guages. That which first made him known 
to the world was his valour in quelling 
the Devonshire and Cornish reliels. Henry 
Vlll. made him chancellor of the exche- 
<|uer for life. He'also became governor of 
Calais, where he died in 15S2. He wrote, 
1. Of the Duties of the Inhabitants of Ca- 
lais. 2. A Comedy called lu in vinean meam, 
acted in the great church at Calais. He 
also translated some French romances, 
ind the Chronicle of Froissart into English. 

Bou RDA LOU E(Lewi$),a celebrated French 
Jesuit, was bom at Bourges in 163Z He 
oecame the most celebrated preacher of his 
time, and was greatly esteemed by Lewis 
XIV. lie died in 1704. His sermons ia 
l6 vols. 8vo. are excellent. — Msrsrl, 

BouKD»:ii.Lcs (Peter de), a singular 
French character, who is better known by 
the name of Brantome. He was an abbot 
And chevalier, and held besides several 
places at court. He died in 1614, aged 87. 
His Memoirs printed at the Hague in 15 
vols. Timo. 1741, are very curious. He is 
net to be confounded with his nepbow 
Claude de BcurJsillety count de MoBtretbr, 
who wrote Memoirs of his own time. He 
died in 166S. — Ibid, 

Bo u R D e LOT Hohn), a French critic of the 
17th century, tie was advocate in the par- 
liament of Paris, and master of requests to 
Mary of Medicis. We have by him anno- 
tations upon several anoient authors, Greek 
and Latin. He died in 16:i8. — Moreri. 

BovRD£LoT (the abb^), whose true name 
was Peter Michon, a physician, born at 
Geneva in 1610. He became physician to 
tlie ^reat Cond^, and afterwards attended 
Cliristina of Sweden, who obtained for him 
the abbey of Massay. He died in 1685. 
We have by him a treatise on the Viper, 
l6.ii,'12mo. another on Mount ^tna, &o>: 
aftd he loft in M^. a caulogueof taeuical 

books, with lives ef authors, asd a critrqucF 
on their work^i — Nonv, Diet. BUu 

Boui|O0N (Sebasiian),acelebrated French 
painter, and first president of the academy 
of painting and sculpture at Paris, was bom 
at Montpellier in 1610. He left Fraace on 
account of his religion, and entered into the 
service of Christina queen of Sweden. His 
pieces are numerous, but his landscapes are 
the best. He died in 1662. — D* ArfremviUe. 
Bourdon (Am^),a French physiciati and 
anatomist, was born at Cambrar in 1638, 
and died in 1706. He publishea Anatomi- 
cal Tables,folio,and an Anatomical Descrip- 
tion of the Human Body, 12mo. — Amv. 
Diet. Hut, 

BouRnoNXATE (Bcmard Francis Mali^ 
de la), born at St. Malo in 1699, was a mcr- 
cliant and a warrior. He made several 
voyages in the' service of the French East 
India company, and was made governor of 
the isles of France and Bourbon. In 1746 
he took Madras fr