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Full text of "A Biographical History of England: From Egbert the Great to the Revolution: Consisting of ..."

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LIBRARIES 



(IFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES , STANFORD 



.'ERSITY LIBRARIES STANFORD UNIVERSITY 



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BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



OF 



ENGLAND, 

dFtom Kfibttt t^t tSittSLt to t^e lUboIution: '^ 

CONSISTING OF 

CHARACTERS DISPOSED IN DIFFERENT CLASSES, 

AND ADAPTED TO 

A METHODICAL CATALOGUE OF ENGRAVED BRITISH HEADS: 

INTENDED AS 

AN ESSAY TOWARDS REDUCIMO OUR BIOGRAPHY TO SYSTEM, AND 
A HELP TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF PORTRAITS : 

INTBRSPEB8BD WITH 

A VARIETY OF ANECDOTES, 

AND 

MEMOIRS OF A GREAT NUMBER OF PERSONS^ 

MOT TO BB FOUND IN ANT OTBBB BIOOBAFBICAL WOBB. 

WITH A PREFACE, 

SHEWING THE UTILITY OF A COLLECTION OF ENGRAVED PORTRAITS TO SUPPLY THB 
DEFECT, AND ANSWER THE VARIOUS PURPOSES, OF MEDALS. 



BY THE REV. J. GRANGER, 

VICAR OF SHIPLAKE, IN OXFOI^DSHIRE. 



Animom piotoriL pascit inani. — Virg. 
Celebrare domestioa facta. — Hob. 



FIFTH EDITION, 

WITH UPWARDS OF FOUR HUNDRED ADDITIONAL LIVES, 

IN SIX VOLUMES : 

VOL. I. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR WILLIAM BAYNES AND SON, 

FATBRKOSTER ROW : 

A V D SOLD BY W. CLARKE, NEW BOND STREET ; J. MAJOR, FLEET STREET ; J. AND J. ARCH, 
^^ COKNHILL: J. I'ARKER, OXFORD: DEIGHTON AND SONS, CAMBRIDGE: 

H.S. BAYNES AND CO. EDINBURGH; AND R. M. TIMS, DUBLIN. 

1824. 

r -". 



Or 



V. I 



y 



Printed by J. F* Dove, St. Joliu*t Square. 



\ \ 






THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 



i 



c 
t 



GBORGE JOHN EARL SPENCER, 



K. 6., &o, &e. 



THE FIFTH EDITION 



OP 



GRANGER'S BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



OP 



ENGLAND 



IS. 



WITH PERHIS8I0K, HOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 



BY 



lUS LORDSHIPS OBUGED HUMBLE SERVANTS, 



THE PUBLISHERS. 



palerfKMter Row, 
Oct. f£0, 1893. 



' 



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t<..:y \^^.- 



^^ __ //^b 



..<^ » ^^ .^ P ^ -L ^- 









BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



OP 



ENGLAND, 



FROM EGBERT THE GREAT TO THE REVOLUTION. 



TO THE 

HON. HORACE WALPOLE. 



SIR, 

' HAV£ DO intentioii in this dedication to commend your 
^tmgs, which speak for themselves ; nor your virtues, 
^otae .of wbicdb :are as well known as your literary accom- 
^bneDts. I mean no more by it than an honest and un- 
CEsgned tribute of gratitude and respect, without design and 
"^thout flattery. My name and person are known to few, 
^ I had the good fortune to retire early to independence, 
obscurity, and content : my lot, indeed, is humble ; so are 
Jny wishes. I write neither' for fame nor bread; but have 
taken up the pen for the same reason that some of my bre- 
thren have laid it down, that is, on)y to amuse myself. I 
present you. Sir, with a numerous catalogue of the portraits 
of our countrymen, many of whom have made a consider- 
able figure in the world. To this 1 have added Sketches 
of their characters. But I pretend to little more merit than 
the keeper of a muster-roll, who is by no means entitled to 
share the honours or rewards of brave and active soldiers, 
only for writing down their names. 

This singular book, which has been the employment of 
niy leisure hours for several years of my life, will, doubt- 
less, be numbered among my idlenesses, perhaps my weak- 
nesses ; but, I hope, never amongst my sins. The per- 
formance falls far short of my own expectation ; I wish. 
Sir, it may, in any degree, answer yours. I was not suffi- 
ciently informed of my ignorance when I undertook it: 



Viii DEDICATION. 

like one walking in a fog, I fancied I saw it at a 
when I was sarrounded with it. The work, with all its de- 
fects, has aflforded me much amusement, and not a litlb 
laboar: the pleasure of writing resembles that oftravelr 
ling ; many delightful scenes present themselves on the 
road ; but there are also objects to create disgust, and it is 
attended with languor and fatigue. 

However well-meant my poor endeavours my be, I do 
not expect to escape censure. To this I shall very patiently 
submit. All the favour that I desire from the reader iH) 
that he will judge with the same candour vrith which 1 have 
written. I have attempted to act the part of an humble au- 
thor; but have no kind of anxiety for fame. If I have an 
ambition for any thing, it is to be an honest man; and a 
good parish-priest; and in the next place, to have 
honour to be esteemed. 

Sir, 
Your most obliged, 

most grateful, and 
most obedient humble Servant, 

JAMES GRANGER. 



PLAN OF THE CATALOGUE 

or 

WHICH ABB 

FOLLOWED BY THBIR RESPBCTIVB CHARACTBRS.* 



In the following Catalogue^ all portraits of sach persons 
as flourished before the end of the reign of Henry the Se- 
venth are thrown into one article. In the succeeding 
reigns, they are arranged in the following order : 

CLASS I. — Kings, Queens, Princes, Princesses, &c. of 
the Royal Family. 

CLASS II.— Great Officers of State, and of the House- 
hold. 

CLASS III. — Peers, ranked according to their prece- 
dence, and such Commoners as have titles of Peerage ; 
natnely, sons of Dukes> &c. and Irish Nobility. 

CLASS IV.— Archbishops and Bishops, Dignitaries of 
the Church, and inferior Clergymen. To this Class are 
subjoined the Nonconforming Divines, and Priests of the 
Church of Rome. 



* The author, when he first entered upon this work, intended only to 
compile a Methodical Catalogue of British Heads ; but he afterward ex- 
pended his plan, and made it also a Biographical History. 



CLASS V. — Commoners who have borae great employ- 
ments; namely. Secretaries of State, Privy-connsellors, 
Ambassadors^ and such Members of the Honse of Com- 
mons as do not fall under other Classes. 



V* 



CLASS VI. — Men of the Robe ; including Chancellors, 
Judges, and all Lawyers. 

CLASS VII.— Men of the Sword ; all Officers of the 
Army and Navy. 

. CLASS VIII. — Sons of Peers without titles. Baronets, 
Knights, ordinary Gentlemen, and those who hare enjoyed 
inferior civil Employments. 

CLASS IX. — Physicians, Poets, and otfier ingenioos 
P^sons, who iiaye distinguished themselves by their 
Writings. 

CLASS X. — Painters, Artificers, Mechanics, and all of 
inferior Professions, not included in the other Classes. 

CLASS XI. — Ladies, and others, of the Female Sex, 
according to their Rank, 8cc. 

CLASS XII.— Persons of both Sexes, chiefly of the 
lowest Order of the People, remarkable from only one cir- 
cumstance in their Lives ; namely, such as lived to a great 
Age, deformed Persons, Convicts, &c. 

The following particulars have been observed : 

1. To admit such foreigners as have been naturalised^ or 
have enjoyed any place of dignity, or office, and also such 
foreign artists as have met with employment under the 
British government. * 

* I look upon employment as a kind of naturalization of an artist. 



2. To place the persons in that reign^ in which they were 

at the highest pitch of honour or preferment^ if statesmen, 

or peers; or in which they may be supposed to have been 

in the full vigour of their understanding, if men of letters. 

fiat if the painter or en^ftaver has given the date when a 

portrait was taken, or the age of a person may with any 

probability be concluded from the representation of him, 

then to place it in that period' when it resembled him most. 

3. If a person has been emipent in several reigns, or in 
different characters or employments, to place the descrip- 
tions of the prints of him in the several reigns and classes, 
or to refer from one reign and class to another.* 

4. To mention, after the English heads, at the end of 

each reign, 1. Such foreign princes as were allied to the 

royal family. 2. Foreign princes, and others, who have 

been knights of the Garter. 3. Foreign princes, who have 

visited this kingdom. 4. Ambassadors and envoys who 

have resided here. 5. Foreigners who have been sojourners 

at either of our universities. 6. Foreigners, who have been 

fellows of the Royal Society. 7. Travellers of eminence 

who have been in England. Lastly, Such as do not fall 

under the above divisions. 

It should here be observed, that the biographical part of 
the work is generally confined to those persons of whom 
there are engraved portraits ; and that this takes in almost 
^U characters of distinction, especially from the reign of 
Henry VIII. to the Revolution. 

* It is ID conformity with this rule that references to different reigns 
^^ classes are occasionally made in the course of the work. 



PREFACE. 



In every age and nation, distingoished for arts and learn- 
ing, the inclination of transmitting the memory, and even 
the features of illostribns persons to posterity, has uni- 
formly prevailed. The greatest poets, orators, and histo- 
rians, were contemporaries with the most celebrated 
painters, statuaries, and engravers of gems and medals ; 
and the desire to be acquainted with a man's aspect has 
ever risen, in proportion to the known -excellence of his 
character, and the admiration of his writings.* This in- 
clination appears to have been no less prevalent in the 
earlier ages of the world. The old Egyptians preserved a 
mammy, for the same reason that the Greeks cut a statue, 
or painted a portrait, though it could retain little more of 
the human form than a skeleton.^ 

* Several persons wbo had read Jostas Lipsios*s works in Sarmatia, 
made a voyage into the Low ConntrieSy on purpose to see him. It may 
not be improper to otMcrve, that these persons were greatly disappointed, 
when they saw, in that celebrated writer, a man of a very mean aspect. 
Tide AuBERTUS MiR£US, in *' Vita Lipsii,'* p. 32. 

t In the learned Coper's *' Lettres de Critiqae," &c. p. 363, in a Latin 
epistle to Mons. te Clerc, is the following passage ; which intimates that 
portrait painting Is of very remote antiquity. ** Versatnr mlhi subinde 
ante ocnios," v. 14. eap. xiciii. Ezekielis propbetse; ** Cumque vidisset 
tiros depictos In pariete, imagines Chalda;omm/* So;. *' uti vertit Hebrai- 
ea verba vnlgatns interpres ; xal tXBev &vBpac l^^ry^^iy/Uvotic i^l rov roixov, 
ikSvag XoX^oiwv, jnxta LXX interpretes. Et bine roihl dobiom ortam 
an bae pictnrae ftierint in ipsis aedium parietibos, an vero in tabalis ex pa- 
rictibns suspensis ? Quominus enim ta[>etia dcsignari, nt mibi eqnidem 
^idetnr, possint, faciont colores, vet certe minium." A little below is this 
question : ** An Cbaldseornm pictores Hierosolymam venerint, ibiqne ar- 
tem suam exercuerint, an vero illi etiam sese dederint Judaei, postqiiam 
praecipue Deo nuntinm remisemnt, et profana numina coliiernnt V 

VOL. I. c 



^iv PREFACE. 

But no invention has better answered the end of perpe- 
tuating the memory of illustrious men, than the modem art 
of engraving, which I shall, without scruple, prefer to the 
boasted art of the Egyptians ; and I would much rather be 
possessed of a good collection of prints of my countrymen, 
than a collection of their mummies, though I had a pyramid 
for its repository. 

This art, which had its origin in Italy,* was slow in its 
progress into our part of the world ; and after it fixed here, 
was long before it arrived at its present excellence : yet 
some of its early productions have their merit, independent 
of their antiquity ; and the passion for engraved portraits 
seems to have been almost coeval with the art itself.f 

But the greatest excellency of this art has frequently 
brought it into contempt : I mean the multiplication of 
copies; many of which have been neglected and destroyed, 
merely because they were multiplied. The engravier is, in 

* Some say in Germany, others, in Holland. See a curious account of 
the origin of engraving in the preface to the ** Chronological Series of 
Engravers ;' Cambridge, 1770. 

t Sir Jolin Harington, in the advertisement to his translation of Ariosto, 
published in 1591, tells us, *< that he never bat once saw pictures cut in 
brass for any book except his own ; and that thai book was Mr« Brough- 
ton's * Treatise on the Revelation/ 8vo., in which he says there are three 
or four pretty pictures. That the other books which he had seen in this 
realm, with pictures, were Livy, Gesner, Alciat's Emblems, and a book 
de Spectris, in Latin ; and in our own tongue, the Chronicles, tbe Book 
of Martyrs, the book of Hawking and Hunting^ and Mr. Whitney's Em- 
blems ; yet all their figures were cut in wood." According to John Bag- 
ford, in his Collections for a History of Printing, published in the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions," 1707, the rolling-press was first brought into 
England by John Speed, author of tlic Hii?tory of Great Britain, who first 
procured one from Antwerp, in 1610; but it is certain, from what we are 
told by Sir John Haringten, and other accounts,.^ that we wrought off 
copper-plates from some engine or other, even before Justus Lipsias is. 
said to have invented it. 



X By George Turberville. 

$ See Mr. Walpolc's ** Catalogue of Engravers." 



PREFACE. XV 

this respect^ the same to the painter, that the printer is to 
the aothor. I wish I could carry on the parallel, and say 
that the works of both come from the press with additional 
beauty ; though it is saying a great deal, that the produc- 
tions of some of our modern artists go near to rival the 
pencil itself. 

As to the utility of a collection of English portraits, it 
may perhaps be sufficient to say, that Mr. Evelyn, Mr. 
Ashmole, Mr. Samuel Pepys secretary to the admiralty, 
Mr. Thoresby, and several gentlemen of distinguished parts 
and learning, now living, have made considerable collec- 
tions of this kind.* But I shall borrow the following 
quotation from a late author,t who says that a collection 
is useful : ^' Not so much for the bare entertainment and 
curiosity that there is in such artful and beautiful imitations^ 
or the less solid intelligence of the different modes or ha- 
bits, and fashions of the times, as the more important di- 
rection and settlement of the ideas, upon the true form and 
features of any worthy and famous persons represented : 
and also the distinction of fainilies, and men of superioif 
merit in them, by their arms and mottos, or emblematical 
allusions to their actions, writings, &c. the inscriptions of 
their titles of honour, preferments, and most signal services, 
or other observables, with the chronological particulars 
thereof : as of their birth, age, death, &c. and the short 
characters or encomiums of them, often subjoined in verse 
or prose ; besides the name of painter, designer, graver, 
&c. and the dates also of their performance: whereby a 
single print, when an artist is thoroughly apprehensive, or 
well-radvised, in what he is about, and will embrace the ad- 

• I was lately infbrmod that the king of France has a great number of 
JBoglish portraits, ranged in ^nie sort of order, and that his collection id 
continually increasing. 

t Mr. Oldys, author of the Life of Hollar, in the " Biographia Bri- 
taonica.'' 



XVi PRBPAGC. 

vantages or opportdnities he may, to answer the expectan 
lions of the curious in their various tastes and inquiries, 
may become a rich and plenteous banquet, a full-spread 
table of choice and useful communications, not only most 
delightful to the eye, but most instructive to the mind." To 
these observations I shall take the liberty to add, that in a 
collection of this kind, the contents of many galleries are 
reduced into the narrow compass of a few volumes ; and 
the portraits of such as distinguished themselves for a long 
succession of ages may be turned over in a few hours.* 

Another advantage attending such an assemblage is, that 
the methodical arrangement has a surprising effect upon 
the memory. We see the. celebrated contemporaries of 
every age almost at one view, and by casting the eye upon 
those that sat at the helm of state, and the instruments of 
great events, the mind is insensibly led to the history of 
that period .t 

There are also many curious particulars found in the in«- 
scriptions of prints, not to be met with in any other records. 

* Whatever was beauteous, and whate'er was great. — Pope. 
t " A portrait is a sort of general history of the life of the person it re- 
presenls, not only to him who is acquainted with it» but to many others, 
who, upon occasion of seeing it, are frequently told of what is most mate- 
rial concerning him, orliis general character at least: the face and figure 
is also described, and as much of the character as appears by these, which 
oftentimes is here seen in a very great degree. These, therefore, many 
times answer the ends of historical pictures, and to relations or friends 
give a pleasure greater than any other can.f' The same author says, 
*' that in a good portrait we conceive a better opinion of the beauty, good 
sense, breeding, and other good qualities of the person, than from seeing 
themselves, and yet without being able to say in what particular it is un- 
like ; for nature must be ever in vicw.$'* " Let a man," saith he, " read 
a character in my Lord Clarendon (and certainly never was there a bet- 
ter painter in that kind), he will find it improved by seeing a picture of. 
the same person by Vandyck.||** 



t Jonathan Richardson's Works, p. 179. § P. 247. 1 P. 6. 



PRBFACS. Xvii 



These, together ^itb the arms, mottos, and devices, convey 
much the same kind of instruction as the reverses of me- 
dals.* The relation that prints bear to paintings, from 
which they are generally taken, is also a considerable help 
in leading to the knowledge of them. The antiquaries at 
Home have recoorae to ancient coins to prove the authen- 
ticity of a statue ; and the collectors of portraits make the 
same use of prints in authenticating a picture. A methodi- 
cal collection of engraved heads will serve as a visible re- 
presentation' of past events, become a kind of speaking 
chronicle, and carry that sort of intelligence into civil story, 
that in popish times was almost the sole support of reli- 
gion ; with this difference, that instead of those lying le- 
gends, and fabulous relations, which spread error and 
superstition through the minds of men ; these, by short and 
accurate inscriptions, may happily convey, and that in a 
manner almost insensible, real and useful instruction. For 
such a collection will delight the eye, recreate the mind, 
impress the imsigination, fix the memory, and thereby yield 
no small assistance to the judgment. 

There is another great benefit that may be derived from 
this, and which cannot be had, or at least cannot so well 
and easily.be had, any other way. It will establish in the 
mind of the attentive peruser that synchronism which is so 
essential a part of the British history ; and in which, how- 
ever, some, otherwise no contemptible writers, have egre- 
gioasly failed. For by studying such a collection, together 
with the following work, the personal history of the illus- 
trious in every rank, and in every profession, will be re- 
ferred to its proper place; and statesmen, heroes, patriots, 

* See Spanhemius " DePraestantiaet Usu Nuniisinatum Antiquomm." 
See also Mr. Addison's ** Dialogues upon the Usefulness of ancient Me- 
dals," and Evelyn's ** Numismata,'' especially chai)ter VIII., in which 
the author treats largely ** of beads and efSgicit in prints, and taille-douce, 
and their use as they relate to medals/* 



?tviii PRBFACB. 

divines^ lawyers^ poets^ and celebrated artists^ will occapy 
their respective stations, and be remembered in the several 
periods in which they really flourished : a thing in itself of 
very great consequence, and which once thoroughly at< 
tained in this manner, more especially by yoong people, 
will be recollected with great facility, and prove of won- 
derful service in reading histories and memoirs.* 

I may add to this a still more important circumstance^ 
which is the power that such a method will have in awaken- 
ing genius.f For as Ulysses is said to have discovered 
Achilles under the disguise of a female, by exhibiting amis 
and implements of war; so the running over these portraits, 
together with the short characters of the persons, will fre- 
quently excite the latent seeds of a martial, philosophic, 
poetic, or literary disposition. A skilful preceptor, when be 
exhibits such a collection, and such a work as this to his ' 
pupil, as a mere amusement, will presently perceive the i 
true bent of his temper, by his being strnck with a Blake ; 
or a Boyle, a Hyde or a Milton. In persons of a warm \ 
and lively disposition it will appear at first sight ; in those i 
of a sedate mind, more slowly, and perhaps not till after I 

* Zacli. Conrad ab Ulfenbacli, wlio was deservedly called the Pciresc j 
of Germany, in the year 1704, began with avidity to collect, and nictbo- \ 
dically to arrange, the prints of persons of eminence ; with which, as he i 
aclsnowledgfd, he greatly refreshed his mind and memory after his se- j 
T&rer studies. He was particularly cautions to procure genuine por- ] 
traits, rejecting the ideal as toys and trifles fit only for the amusement o( 1 
children. His friend, the excellent Schelhorn, who used to assist him in ■ 
his collections, tells us, that he retained his passion for this pursuit to the 
time of his death. See this and more in Schelhorn*s tract ** De Stadid ' 
Uffcnbachii Bibliothecario,*' p. XLVI to Llll. 

t *' Nam ssepe audivi, Q. Maximum. P. Scipionem, praeterea civitatis 
nostrse prseclaros viros, solitos ita dicere: cum mnjorum imagines intnc- 
rentur, vehementissime sibi animum ad virtutem accendi ; scilicet non 
ceram illam neque tiguram tantam \im in sese habere ; sed menioria rc^ 
rum gestarum cam flammam egrcgiis viris in pectore crescere, neqne 
prius scdari, quam virtus eornm famam atque gloriam adsequaverit/*^ 
" Sallust. Fraefat. ad BcUum Jugurth." 



PRBFACE. XIJC 

frequent perusal. But it may be safely asserted^ that if a 
young person had real principles of action, and a character 
impressed by nature, which is the only solid foundation of 
a vigorous attachment to any science or profession, it is in 
this way most likely to be found, and ought then to be 
cultivated with the utmost care and attention; for the 
efforts of nature will very rarely, if ever, deceive. 

I have reason to hope, that when the great utility of such 
jcoUections, and of this work, come to be thoroughly un- 
derstood, it may incline gentlemen of learning, and who 
have the necessary opportunities, to inquire after and 
bring to light many portraits that have hitherto remained 
in obscurity, and have served only as ornaments in private 
families. It may be remarked, that in the uncastrated 
edition of Holinshed's ** Chronicle,*'* there are large ac- 
counts of some great families, and persons who have filled 
important employments. In Weever's '* Funeral Monu- 
ments/' there is a copious detail of the ancient family of 
the Howards ; and in Dugdale's " History of Warwick- 
shire," there is the like display of the families of Beau- 
champ, from the famous manuscript history of John Rosse 
the antiquary. 

I may likewise indulge myself in the expectation, that 
when it is seen how much light may be thrown on history 
by the heads of royal, noble, and remarkable personages, 
greater care will for the future be taken, especially as the 
arts of engraving and mezzotinto are now arrived at such 
perfection, in transmitting, with all possible care and ex- 
actness, this kind of prints to posterity ; and that due at- 
tention will be paid to propriety and correctness, more 
especially in respect to dates, in all the inscriptions that 

* 'I'he ancastrated Holinshed is extremely rare : one of the copies has 
been known to sell for near 46/. v. ** Tbuenix BritanniciLs/' 4to. p. 558. 



XX PRICFACE. 

are placed under and over them : by fvhich means ^^ 1^^ 
material informations may be given^ the negle€t of ^^^\[ W 
in earlier times, is justly regretted ; and many errors 0^ \^ 
mistakes prevented, which embarrass the historical i^ 
moirs of former ages.* 

As collections of engraved portraits, however useful ill 
tbcraselves, have lain under the same prejudices with 
ancient coins, and have been generally esteemed as little 
more than empty amusements; I have endeavoured, at 
least, to point out a method to render them of real utility 
to the curious, who, by forming a collection, may supplj 
the defect of English medals.f Though nothing is more 
useful, I have seldom, in repositories of prints, seen aay 
thing like order: the poetaster frequently takes place of the 
poet, and the pedapt of the man of genius ; John Ogilby is 
exalted above Mr. Dryden, and Alexander Ross j: has (he 
precedency of Sir Walter Raleigh, because engraved by a 
better hand. The following catalogue, which is carried 
down to the Revolution, is chiefly compiled from the vala- 
able collections of the Honourable Horace Walpole, and 
James West, Esq. ; § to whom, and to Sir William M«is* 
grave, I acknowledge myself under a very great obliga^ 
tion, for their copious communications and ready assist- 
ance in the course of this compilation. I am at a loss to 

* See a very ingenious and apposite passage on the utility of poHraiti 
of great men, in Ihe ** Melanges d'Histoirc at de Literature/' hy DoD< 
Botiaveiiture d'Argogne, under the feigned name of De Yigneui Mar- 
ville, torn. iii. edit. 4. Paris, 1725, p. 386. 

t See Mr. Evelyn's ** Nuniismata,*' where he recommends such a col* 
lection with that view. See also an account of the defect of English me* 
dais in the " Guardian,'* No. 96. Dr. Swift, in order to supply this de- 
fect, proposed to Lord Oxford, to coin halfpence and farthings with >a- 
rions inscriptions and devices, aUuding to the most signal events in the 
course of Queen Anne's reign. 

I The continualor of Raleigh's History. 

$ Dei eased since this preface was written. 



PREFACE. XXI 

express my gratitude to Sir William Masgrave^ who upon 
every occasion assisted me with bis adir ice, supplied me 
with books^ and favoured me with the use of two large vo- 
lumes of English heads, collected by the late Mr. Thoresby 
of Leeds, which are now in his possession; My thanks 
are in a particular manner due to Mr. Walpole^ who, with 
his own hand, did me the honour to add to the catalogue a 
description of many heads not found in Mr. Wesfs collec- 
tion.* My very grateful acknowledgments are due to the 
Dotchess-dowager of Portland, for the sight of a fine col- 
lection of heads at Bulstrode, and for other favours, con- 
ferred in the most obliging manner, by her grace. I am 
proud to own my obligations to so distinguished a writer as 
Dr. Campbell, for several useful observations in this Pre- 
face, and also for notices of various persons mentioned in 
the ensuing work. I must also gratefully acknowledge, 
that I have received the greatest assistance from a truly 
worthy and judicious gentleman in the neighbourhood of 
Reading, though I am not at liberty to mention his name. 
But his extraordinary parts and extensive learning, espe- 
cially in the history and antiquities of our own country, 
have rendered him more known than his great modesty 
ever inclined him to be ; as merit of every kind will sooner 
or later discover itself. I can, with the utmost truth, apply 
to him what Sir Richard Steele says of his excellent tutor, 
Dr. Ellis; that ^' he is above the temptation of (what is al- 
ways in his power) being famous." 

I must here inform the reader, that the collection of Eng- 
lish heads, in twenty4hree volumes folio, which was in the 
possession of James West, esq., was of great use to me ; 

* I muftt also acknowledge myself greatly indebted to Mr. Walpole, in 
my accounts of Artists; and for the first hint of the plan of this work, 
communicated to me by a gentleman who had seen the fine collection of 
heads at Strawberry Hill. That this acknowledgment was not made be- 
fore, is entirely owing to an oversight. 

VOL. I. d 



XXII PR£FACR. 

as was also Mr. Joseph Ames's catalogue of about two 
thousand heads, in ten volumes folio and quarto, collected 
by the late Mr. Nickolls, F.B.S. I was assured, from 
what I thought the most unquestionable authority^ that this 
collection, whence Mr. Ames^ took his catalogue, was pur- 
chased by Mr. West.* I have not followed the example 
of Mr. Ames in describing the dress of each person ; but 
have generally made some remarks on the dresses of the 
times, at the end of the several reigns ; and to avoid swell- 
ing the work to too great a bulk, I have retained only as 
much of the inscription as was necessary to ascertain the 
print, or inform the reader of any thing particularly me- 
morable, in relation to the person. I have, for the direc- 
tion of collectors, followed the example of Mr. Ashmole, 
in referring to many of the books before which the heads 
are to be found.f I have frequently described variety of 
prints of the same person ; but as they were generally done 
at different periods of his life, or by diflferent hands, there 
needs no apology for inserting them ; and especially, as by 
comparing the several portraits, the true likeness may with 
more certainty be determined. 

As the method of the catalogue is historical, there was 
the le^s occasion for the Sketches^ or great Outlines, 

* Dr. Ducarel did me the honour to in form me, in a letter, that on Iho 
26th of December, 1771, he caUed on Dr. Fothergill ; and that, goin^ 
into his library, he did there see and handle Mr. Nickolls's original col- 
lection of English heads ; and that Dr. JPothcrgill bought it of Mr. 
Nickoiki's father, after his decease, for eighty guineas ; and, that they 
have never been out of his possession, since he became master of them. 
Were I to give the reader a detail of my authorities for Mr. West's being 
the proprietor of this collection, it would be a singular instance of the 
difficulty of finding Truth ; who sometimes lurks at the bottom of her 
well, when she is, in appearance, before our eyes. I am now fully con^ 
vinced that Dr. Fothergill is the owner of the prints in qnestiou. 

t He usually made memorandums under bis heads from what books 
they were taken. 



PRBPAGE. XXiii 

6f personal history, and the brief anecdotes which I have 
added. Bnt these I have stadied to make as concise as 
pcMsaible: they sufficiently answer my purpose, if they give 
die reader a general idea of the character of ^each person, 
and afford a hint to some abler hand to reduce our biogra- 
phy to system. 

I did not think myself obliged to quote my authors upon 
every occasion ; but hare always endeavoured to apply to 
Bsch as are of the best authority, both for my collections 
and anecdotes. 

I have been also particularly careful with respect to 
Sates, in which there are doubtless some seeming contra- 
iictions, occasioned by the different customs among our 
Dhronologists^ of beginning the year with the 1st of Janu- 
Eiry, and the 25th of March. Hence it is not unusual 
to find, that the same person died on the same day of the 
month for two years successively.* I have added the 
dates of engraving to some of Smith's beads, from an au' 
Qientic manuscript, communicated by the late Mr. Mac 
Ardell, and copied from a catalogue of Smith's hand-writ- 
ing. — It will perhaps be objected, that I have given a 
place to mean engravings, and prints of obscure persons : 
but whoever studies for a useful collection should make it 
numerous; if for an elegant one, he may select such as 
please his eye, and arc conformable to his taste. Of many 
persons there are none but meanly engraved heads ; but I 
can easily imagine that the meanest that is described in the 

• The following absurdities, among many others, were occasioned by 
these different computations. In 1667, there were two Easters ; the first 
on the 25th of April, and the second on the 22d of March following : 
and there were three different denominations of the year of our Lord 
affixed to tlirec State Papers, which were published in one week ; 
namely, his Majesty's spccclj, dated IT32-3; the address of the House 
'^l Lords, 1732; the address of the House of Commons, 1733. 



XXIV PRBPACE. 

following work may preserve the likeness, which is the es- 
sence of a portrait, and might serve to ascertain a doubtful 
picture.* And this is the more probable, as most of the 
prints were engraved when the. persons represfented were 
well known, and any one could judge of the resemblance.; 

As to the obscurity of the persons, though there are a few 
whose merit is derived merely from the painter or engra- 
ver,t and some authors who have written volumes of inanity 
that deserve to perish ; yet there are others, whose names 
are now forgotten, who were justly celebrated in their 
time : and one reason for making collections of this kind, 
is to perpetuate the memory of such as have deserved well 
of posterity, though their works have scarce reached it. It 
is fortunate for these authors that there are such reposito- 
ries, and that the epgraved plate, as well as the impressed 
metal. 



u 



Faithful to its charge of fame> 



Through climes and ages^ bears each form and name." — Pope.| 

But how would it allay the thirst of fame in a writer, if ho 
could foresee that the perpetuity which he promises his 
productions will be limited to their frontispiece ; and that 

* Mr, Walpole authenticated a portrait of Richard Cromwell, painted 
by Cooper, from a head engraved by J. Gammon; who, says Yertne, 
conid hardly be called an engraver, ro poor were his performances. See 
the ** Catalogue of Engravers." 

t Good heav'n! that sots and Icnaves should be so vain 
To wish their vile resemblance may remain, 
And stand recorded at their own request. 
To future times, a libel or a jest.— Dryden. 

The author is well assured that he shall be accused of vanity, and con- 
sequently of folly, in prefixing his own portrait to this work. He has 
nothing to allege in his excuse, but that it was originally placed there at 
the repeated request of a person of distinction, to whom he had obliga- 
tions. To look the world in the face without a blpsli was neither his vo- 
luntary act, nor is it conformable to his characlcr. 
I Verses occasioned by Mr. Addison's " Dialogues on Medals.'' 



PRBFAOB. XXT 

a few days' work of an engraver will, in the next age, be 
preferred to the labours of his life?* 

But the engraved portrait of an author, whatever is the 
fate of his works, might still remain an honorary memorial 
of him. There is much the same kind of existence in the 
shadow of a man's person, that there is in the sound of his 
name, the utmost a posthumous fame can attain to ; an ex- 
istence, which numbers have too eagerly sought for, with 
infinite disquiet to themselves and the rest of mankind.f 

As painters and engravers of portraits have met with en- 
couragement in England, I flatter myself that this first at- 
tempt towards a methodical catalogue of English heads 
will meet with pardon, if not with approbation^ from the 
curious ; which I am persuaded it would more easily do, 
if the reader knew under what disadvantages the author, 
who lives in the obscurity of the country, has laboured in 
the course of the work. 

* It appears from the 186th Epigram of the XIV. book of Martial, 
where, speaking of Virgirs works, he says, 

** Quam brevis immensnm cepit mcmbrana Maroncm! 
Ipsius Tultas prima tabella gerit ;^ 

that it was a castom among the ancients for authors to prefix their pic- 
tures to their works. This is mentioned in the '* Menagiana/' torn. i. p. 
141, where there is still farther proof of the antiquity of this practice. 

t At page 173 of Yincentii Paravicini '* Singnlaria de Yiris Eruditionc 
Claris/' Centuriae tres, Basil. 1713, mention is made of several eminent 
persons of the last age who would neither have their portraits painted nor 
ongraved. Their number might easily be enlarged, by instances in pre- 
ceding ages, lliere is great reason to believe that some of these persons 
could, by no means, be persuaded to have their pictures drawn, lest 
witches and sorcerers should make use of them for incantations. Others 
ha?e declined it from pride, which frequently assumes the guise of mo- 
desty. Mons. Dassier, the medallist, as well as De la Tour, the painter, 
could not prevail on Baron Montesquieu to sit for his portrait, till tho 
former, with an air of pleasantry, said to him, " Do not yon think that 
lljcrc is as much pride in rciiising my request as there would appear in 
granting it?*' Upon this he presently yielded. 



XXVl PREFACE. 

I dhall only add^ that the collector of prints might farther 
improve himself in the knowledge of personal history from 
engraved coins and medals.* In Speed's ^' Chronicle^ Are 
medals of as many of the Roman emperors as had any 
concern with Britain ; a considerable number of coins of 
the Saxon, Danish^ and Anglo-Saxon kings ; and a com- 
plete series of coins and seals from William the Conqaeror 
to. James the Firsts cut in wood with great exactness, from 
the originals in the Cotton Collection, by Christopher 
Switzer. In the old and new editions of Camden's " Bri- 
tannia/' are various coins from the same collection. Mr. 
Evelyn has published a book of medals in folio ; Vertne 
has engraved an elegant volume in quarto of the medals of 
the famous Simon ; Dr. Ducarel has published a curious 
book of coins of our ancient kings ; and Mr. Folkes a col- 
lection from the Conquest, in sixty-one plates.f There are 
also several plates in Dr. Hickes's *^ Thesaurus ;" a laiige 
one in Mr. Thoresby's " Museum ;" and a great variety «f 
medals struck in the reigns of William and Mary, Anne, and 
Ceorge the First, engraved for the ''Continuation of Rapin's 
History." Some of our English coins were engraved by 
Francis Perry; and there are many engravings in Mr. 
Snelling's " Treatises of the Gold, Silver, and Copper 
Coinage of England." 

Note, that the heads in each class of the first article are 
placed according to the order of the reigns in which the 
persons flourished. The prints described by large h. sh. i. e. 
large half sheet, are such as are sometimes printed on paper 
of the imperial size, or on an ordinary sheet. Such as are 
distinguished by lUtist. Head, belong to the set of portraits 

♦ Much may be learned also from tombs and cenotaphs, 
t There arc some plates of coins in Martin Leake's " Historical Ac- 
count of English Money," secontl edit. U-ib; 8vo. 



PREFACE. XXVIl 

engraved by Houbrakcn and Vcrtae. When the names of 
Stents Cooper^ &c. are simply mentioned in the descrip- 
tions of prints, they denote that these people sold, or 
wrought them off at the rolling-press. Dates of promotions, 
in the margin, relate precisely to the rank or office in which 
the persons stand in their respective classes. 



TO 

tn^e fisumovp 

OF THE 

REVEREND JAMES GRANGER, 

AUTHOR OF THIS WORK, 

Who, on the Sunday after Easter (when the Sacrament 
is administered in the Chnrch of Shiplake, in Oxfordshire, 
of which he was Vicar, as well as on Easter-Snnday itself)^ 
was seized with an Apoplectic fit, while at the Communion- 
table there, after having gone through the duties of the 
Desk and Pulpit as usual ; and notwithstanding every me- 
dical assistance, died early the next morning, April 15, 
1776. 

His death was similar to that of the Cardinal de Berulle. 

More happy end what saint e'er knew ! 

To whom like mercy shewn ! 
His SaTioar*s death in rapturous view 

And unperceived bis own. — Ann. Rbg. 



BIOGRAPHICAL 



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 



ARTICLE I. 



FROM EGBERT TO HENRY VIII. 



CLASS I. 



KINGS, AND OTHERS, OF THE HOYAL FAMILIES 

OF ENGLAND. 

JCiGBERT, king of the West Saxons, first monarch Began 
of all England ; a medallion^ from a silver coin ; Vertue Rdgns. 
sculp, half sheet. Engraved for Rapm's " History J^ 
There is a set of heads by Vertue^ for the Svo. edition 
of the same book. 

The history of England, during the Heptarchy, is yerhaps the 
least interesting, and the most barren of great events, of any history 
of the like period in the annals of any nation. It is an almost un- 
interrupted series of violence, \viEirs, and massacres, among petty 
tyrants, mdst of whom were a disgrace to the human species^ Eg- 
bert, who was bom with talents to conquer and to govem, reduced 
the Heptarchy into one kingdom ; and defended his new conquest Anno 827. 
with the same vigour as he acquired it. Ob, 838. * B«pm. 

jELFREDUS magnus, &c. Vertue sc. half sheet, sri. 
From an ancient picture at University College in Oxford; 
also from an ancient stone head now in O.tford. At the 

VOL. T. B 



2 3I0ORAPDICAL HISTORY 

Began bottom of the plate he is represented as a common mm- 
Reign». stf el playing in the Danish camp. 

The story of his going into the enemy's camp in this disguise is 
extremely improbable ; as it is not mentioned by Asser bishop of 
Sherborne, who was contemporary with Alfred, and the most au- 
thentic writer of his life.* ' 

-^LFREDUS MAGNUS ; Vertite sc. Svo. 

-^LFREDUS MAGNUS ; a Small head-piece, Vertue sc. 

^LFREDUS MAGNUS; a Small tail-piccc, Vertue sc. 

These three last were engraved for Asser*s " Life of King Al- 
fred," published by Mr. Wise, 8vo. 1722. 

Ali^redus Saxonumrex; Faberf. 1712, large Ato. 
one of the set of Founders. 1i 

A head of Alfred ; from a manuscript in the Bod- 
leian Library. M. Burghers sc. 

The title of Great, which has been' lavished on the destroyers 
and plunderers of. mankind, was never more. deservedly given: than 
to Alfred, who had in his character a happy mixture of every great 
and good quality that could dignify or adorn a prince. Having 
rescued his country from slavery, he enacted excellent laws, built a 
fleet, restored learning, and laid the foundation of the English con- 
stitution. Ob. 900, as Carte has sufficiently proved in his *' History 
of England," vol. i. p. 316. The monument at DriffieFd in York- 
shire, erected in memory of Alfred, a learned king of the North- 
umbrians, who died in 704, has been mistaken for this king's, who 
was buried at Winchester. 

EDiGrAR REX ; J. Strut f del. et sculp, in Strut fs 
'^ Regal Antiquities,'' plate I. 

<< Edgar is here delineated as piously adoring our blessed Sa- 
viour, who appears above, seated on a globe to shew his enrpire, and 
jBupported by four angels, emblems of the four gospels : under his 

* See what an ingenious writer has said upon this subject, in the " Reliques of 
Ancient English Poetry," vol. i. p. 16. 

t This set of prints, done in niezzoti n(o, by John Faber the elder, are in large 4to. 
or small folio. They have been printed with the addition of borders, and sonic of 
them have been Tetouched,'afid publbhed by Parker. 



OF ENGLAND. 3 

feet are two folding-doors, in his left hand he holds the book of B^ gan ' 
judgment which is to be opened at the last day, &c. Reigns. 

*' This engraving is taken from a curious and ancient illumination 
found in a book of grants, given by King Edgar himself to Winches- 
ter Cathedral ; it is dated A. D. 966. See St rut t. 

CANUTE the Danj: ; Vertue sc. h. sh. From a ^oi^. 
silver coin^ folio and 8i;o, 

Canute possessed himself of the kingdom after his countrymen had 
struggled for itabovetwo hundred years. In thebeginning of hisreign 
he struck terror into his subjects, by the many sacrifices he made to 
his crown, and by the rigour of his administration. But when he 
found himself in secure possession of the throne, he relaxed the 
reins of government, and grew popular. In the latter part of his 
life, to atone for his i^tiany acts of violence, he buik churches, en- 
dowed monasteries, and imported relics ;* and had indeed a much 
better title to saintship than many of those that disgrace the Roman 
calendar. 06. 1036. 

EDWARD the confessor; from his great seal. 
Ob. 1066. R. Cooper sc. 

Edward the confessor, with his Queen Edi- 
THA, Earl Goodwin, &c. at a banquet^ in Strutfs ' 
'* Regal Antiquiti^'' 

Edward the confessor, in Strutfs *^ Dresses,'' 
plate 28. 

Edward the confessor; drawn and engraved by 
James Smith, from the altar window of Rumford Church, 
h. sh* TJiis window is modern. 

There is an ancient wooden print of him in Caxton s '^ Lives of 
the Saints." 

Edward the Confessor was more celebrated fpr his piety, jus- 1041. 
tice, and humanity, tban his capacity for gqvernment. His denying 
the rights pf the marriage-bed to his amiable Queen Editha, is ex- - 
tolled by the monkish writers as a signal instance of heroic chas- 

* He commissioned an agent at Rome to pnrchase St. Augustine's arm for one 
handred talents of silver and one of gold ; a much greater sum than the finest statue 
of antiquity would then have sold for. 



4 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Began tity, and contributed to gain him the title of Saint and Coq&ssor. 
fiidffiis. ^® ^^ the 'first that touched for the king's evil.* Ob. 5 Jan. 1066. 
Canonized by Alexander the Third, 1165. 

HAROLD, slain by an arroWy in Strutfs " Regal 
Antiquities J' 

Harold, a whole length; an outline only, from F. 
Montfaucons *' Monumens de la Monarchie Fran^ise,'^ 
vol. i. p. 402. It is the first plate in Dr. DucareFs 
** Anglo-Norman Antiquities^ 

1065. Harold, son of Earl Godwin by his second wife, the niece of Canute, 
was for his virtues, as well as his great and amiable qualities, worthy 
of the throne which he ascended upon the death of the Confessor/ 
his brother-in-law. The English were happy under his administra* 
tion, during the reign of that bigoted and weak prince. He 
greatly fell at the battle of Hastings, and with him the liberties of 
his country, 14 Oct. 1066. 

K. WILLIAM the conqueror; G. Vertue ^c. h. 
sh. After three silver coins of him, and a small illumi- 
nation in ** Domesday £ooAr."f 

* Mr. Whiston inipates the cure of the evil to the prayer used at the time of 
touching ; (James ▼. 14.) Mr. Carte to the royal touch ; and he endeavours to prov^e 
the power of curing to be hereditary. See Whiston's " Life/' by himself, and 
Carte's " History of England." 

t The most authentic prints of our monarchs extant, are the large heads engraved 
by Vertue ; who has also engraved the headsof the kings from the Conquest, in one 
quarto plate; and another set, consisting of four plates in 8vo. for SaIn(ion*8 *' Chro- 
nological Historian." In Kastell's Chronicle, entitled, " The Pastym'e of the Peo* 
pie," are folio prints of the kings of England, from the Conqueror to Richard IIL 
They are whole lengths, cut in wood, and have uncommon merit for that age. 
Holland, who published the " Heroologia Anglica," has also published a volume of 
heads of the kings, from the Conquest to the year 1618. These prints are the same 
with those in Martin's *' Chronicle," except the title and head of Wifliaral. Hon- 
dius has engraved many heads of our kin^s ; and Vandrehauc a set after Lutterel's 
drawings. Vertue's large heads have been copied for a " History of England," 
published by Walker, under the name of James Robinson, Esq. It should be ob- 
served, that Vandrebanc engraved, the prints of our kings and queens to Elizabeth ; 
and that the series, done for Kennet's '* Complete History,", is continued to Aime 
by other hands. Several of them, cut in wood, are in ** Grafton's Chronicle." 
There is also a set in wood published by T. T. (Thomas Timmes); 1597, see. Ames's 
** Hist, of Printing," p. 432.. The set of etchings, in Svo. whole lengths, from Wii-* 
liam I. to Elizabeth, are for the most part ideal ; their arms are upon their shields. 



OF ENGLAND. 6 

William i. 8vo. G. Vertue sc. Begm 

William i. aval. R. E. (Elstracke.) SSgn^ 

William the conqueror, duke of Normandy, 
&c. R. Elstracke sc. Are to be sold by Compton Hoi- 
hmd: scarce. 

William the conqueror^ a whole length; for- 
merly painted on a wall of the abbey of S^. Stephen, -at 
Caefi, in Normandy. Copied from MontfaucorCs ** Mo-- 
mmens de la Monarchic Fran^ise,^ t. i. p. 55.* In 
Dr. Ducarefs ^^Anglo-Gallic Coins,'' plate 6, No. 75.t 
William the conqueror, attended by his guards, 
and conferring a grant of lands on Alan, eafl of Bre- 
tagne: a curious print, before ** Registrum Honoris de 
Richmond,"* published from his " Domesday Book,'' by 
Roger Gale, 1 722, fol. 

These prints of William the Conqueror are very unlike eacb 
other. Accuracy of drawing is not to be expected in an age, i« 
which the generality of artists had not arrived at sufficient precision 
to distinguish between a monkey and a man. 

William, duke of Norcnandy, gained a complete victory over Ha- 1066. 
rold at the battle of Hastings, in which above thirty thousand men 
were slain. On the spot where this decisive battle was fought, he 
erected an abbey of Benedictines, the remains of which lately be- 
longed to the Lord Viscount Mpntacute of Cowdray, near Midhurst, Sometimes 
in Sussex. ^ Upon his accession to the throne, he endeavoured to ^^*^ 
reconcile himself to a people, who could by no means be reconciled 
to hinn, by the gentle methods of lenity and indulgence. But find- 
ing the nation extremely averse from a foreign yoke, however easy, 
he ruled with aU the rigour and jealousy of a conqueror. — Ob. 9 Sept. 

~~—~^ - ■ '- - - - ■ !■■ ■■-■■■ 

Anolber tet» fmn thiB Conqaeror to Charles II. is in Matthew Stephenson's '* Floras 
Brilannicas/' 1662, fol. A considerable number of these are done by Elstracke, 
and some by Delaram : the plates are nearly of a quarto size. The best impressions 
were poblished by Compton Holland, in a set entitled " Baziologia/' 1618. George 
King has engraved folio prints of several of oor monarchs : many of their heads, are 
in Gardiner's '* Hbtory of the Coal Trade at Newcastie." 

* In this book are various monumental effigies of our ancient monarchs, some of 
which are copied in Dr. Ducarel's " Anglo-Norman Antiquities." 

i In the first letter of this book, is a good account of the writers on English coins. 



1087. 



6 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Be^D 1087. The survey taken in this reign of all the landg in England,* 
^** called ** Domesday Book," is the most ancient record in the king- 
dom, and is of singular use in regulating assessments, ascertaining 
limits, &c, 

WILLIAM il. R.E. (Elstracke.) Sold by Comptm 
Holland, afterward used in Hay ward* s ^' Lives of William 
J. il. and Henry /." 1613. 

William ii. in Hume's " England,'' 8t;o. 1803. 
C. Warren so. 

William it. surnamed Rufus; Vertue sc. h. sk. 
jPone after the two. silver coins assigned to him by the 
Antiquaries. 

9 Sept. William Rufus, who found the kingdom totally subdued to h\& 
hands, ruled with more lenity than his father ; but he was in his na- 
ture disposed to be equally violent and tyrannipal ; and his avarice, -J- 
^hich seems to have been his predominant passion, prompted him 
to be more rapacious. He bailt the city of Carlisle,^ the Tower of 
London, Westminster Hall, and London Bridge. 

HENRICUS I. REX ; Vertue sc. h. sh. From a sil^ 
v^r coin ; and partly from a broad seal of was, now ex- 
tant. 

Henry i. in Hume's ^'England," 8vo. J, Delatre sc. 

Henry i. <§'c. R. E. Compton Holland. 

Henry I. youngest son of William the Conqueror, gained the 
crown by usurpation, and defended it with vigour and dexterity. 

• The three northern counties- were not surveyed. — Lord HaUet. 

t When I see imperial works, &c. executed by WiUiam Rufus, I doubt as to 
Ihe charge of avarice : that he was tyrannical, I doubt not ; and it is plain enough, 
that, like the late King of Prussia and the late Emperor Joseph, he could not conceal 
his hatred and contempt of received opinions in religious matters. — Ibid, 

William Rufus built so large a part of Carlisle,* that he has been considered as 
the founder of that city, which is of greater antiquity. It was destroyed by the 
Danes, and began to be rebuilt by William the Conqueror. Some of Rufus's build- 
ings are remarkably magnificent 

* Not ihe city, but the cattU, Vid, Chro. Sax» p. 198.— Lord Hailet. 



OF ENGLAND. 7 

His engaging person and address, hia courage, learning, and elo- Be^ 
qaence, have been much celebrated. The greatest blemish of his ^.^ 
reign was his putting out the eyes of his elder brother, and con- iioo. 
fining him twenty -eight years in Cardiffe Castle, in Glamorganshire.* 
In II 10, he began to restore learning in the university of Cambridge. 
The first great council of the nation, by some called a parliament, 
was assembled in this reign.f 

MATILDA, QUEEN. J. Strutt sc. in StnUfs " Re- 
gal Antiquities,'' plate 34. 

V Matilda, first wife to King Henry the First, was daughter to 
Malcolm, the third king of Scotland : her mother was Margaret, 
daughter to Edward the son of Edmund Ironside, king of England. 
She was married to the king, and crowned queen on St. Martin's 
day A. D. 1100. She died 1118." See Strutt. 

KING STEPHEN ; Vcrtue sc. h. sh. From a silver 
coin. The head of the Empress Matilda ^ in the same plate, 
is from a parchment roll in the HeraUTs Office. 

Stephen, in Hume's ^^ England, 1803, Sto.'* J.Nea- 
gle sc. 

Stephen, a valiant prince. Campton Holland. 

Stephen, earl of Bolc^ne and Mortaigne, upon the death of Henry Dec, t 
I. seized the crown, which had been settled on the Empress Matilda, ^^^^ 
the sole descendant of that monarch, who came into En^and to as- 
sert her i%fat. Hostilities presently commenced in erery quarter 
of the kingdom, and were carried on with the highest animosity. 



«. In the dioir of the cadbednl at Glooonter it a caoibent figwe of Robert CmtU 
hose, croit4eggcd, n the poatnre of a knigbt-tenplar, cot in Irah oak. It h said 
to be above sb baadtcd jean old ; bat the best Judges ^aatiqnitjeoadade» both 
fimn the scnlptnie and pfcaervaiioo, that it is of a later dale. Ldand, in tfae loartli 
Tolaae of bis ** hmtnrj,^ sajs, '^Tbeie b on bb lonUianiMage of wood paynted. 
Made longe anee bb dca^." See a MOst satisCKtoiy acconnt of dbb c%y in 
Sandfofd's ** GencalogM Hbtor^." 

Tbeie b an cmct etdin^ of Ibe bend of Bobcrt, by Bxtberton^ done fnm a 
dianring in tbe poaession of JoKpb Gniiton, E^. wfaieb vas lakes bj Vcrtnefros 
the toad> at Ch mc ei l er , 

IxMd Ljttellon, in c^BCt, contndicu tbe storj of potting oet tbe ejes of Abneak 
and nnfiDBtnHle prinee. See " Hbt. of Hen. IL"* roL i. p. 136, tbbd cdb. 

t AyiiBiint Mil to itvas^bnt not Hkimiiin: anything like aMidem 
In aMim PmHrmmi§, aars In^ripbnf, of m asicndity of tbe 




8^ BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Be^ and with various raccess, to near the end of this reign. Daring this 

^J* period, a spirit of independence prerailed among the barons,* who, 

taking advantage of the weakness of the goTemment^ built a great 

number of castles and fortresses, which were demolnhed by 

Henry II. 

HENRY II. Vertue sc. h. sh. From the effigy on 
his monument at Fontevraud, in Anjou^ where he was 
buried. Vertue took it from the engraving in Montfau- 
cori^ ** Antiquities^^ 

Henry ii. in Hume's " England'' J. Neagk sc. 

Henry ii. Compton Holland. 

1154. Henry II. the first king of the house of Aijou, or Plantagenet, 
was endowed with qualities which raised his character above any of 
his predecessors. He, with a noble spirit, asserted the mdepend- 
ency of his kingdom, in opposition to papal usurpation, annexed Ire- 
land to the English crown, and obliged the King of Scotland to do 
him homage.f His courage and conduct as a soldier, his wisdom 
as a legislator, and his impartiality as a dispenser of justice, were> 
like the rest of his accomplishments of body and mind, far above the 
level of the princes of this age. 

RICHARDUS I. G. Vertue sc. h. sh. From the 
statue on his monument at Fontevraud. 

Richard i. in Hume's " England," 8vo. C.Pye sc. 

Richard i. in the " Royal and Noble Authors,*' by 
Park, 1806. E. Bocqtcet sc. 

Richard the right valiant prince, Compton 
Holland. 

• The nobility in general were anciently called barons. And they were so, and 
they are so at this day ; duke, marquis, earl, viseount, lord, have different ranks among 
themselves ; but, wiUi respect to the people, or the king, they are all banm. The 
king's vassals, held to be of less eminence or opulence than the barons having a seat 
in the upper house, appear not in person, but by proxy ; and they are huddled in 
■with a multitude of vassals of the crown, such by taxation, not juritdiction. — Lard 
Bailes, 

t For the estates in England, which were possessed by that kingi Mx. Gianger 
speaks ambiguously; I wish that all his countrymen had done so too: even my ho- 
noured friend Lord Lyttelton sjieaks, with the vulgar, as to the homage of the king- 
dom of Scotland. — Ibid, 



? 



OF ENGLAND. 9 

The saint-errantry of Bichard, who sacrificed all other views to Bcpn 
the glory of the crusade, was productive of much misery to himself ^j*^^ 
and his subjects ; and is an instance, among a thousand others, that July 6, 
oifensive and enterprising valour may be a worse quality than cow- ^^^^' 
srdice itself. He was but eight months in his kingdom during a 
reign of ten years. 

JOELAJVNES RBX ; Vertue sc. h. sh. From the effigy 
(m his tomb at Worcester, which very nearly resembles 
the broad seal of him. 

Johannes rex, &c. &)ld by Peake. 

John, in Humes " England,'' 8t;o. ' Trotter sc. 

John, king of England, &c. Compton Holland. 

This weak and infamous prince tamely suffered his foreign domi- April 6, 
nions to be ravished from him by the King of France,* and even sur- ^^^^* 
rendered his crown to the Pope's legate. Overawed by a confede- 
racy of his barons, he signed and sealed the famous deed called 
Magna Charta, in Run^ Mead, betwixt Windsor and Staines. His 1215. 
whole administration was without vigour, and yet arbitrary and ty- 
rannical ; which rendered him, at.the same time» the object of hatred 
and contempt. The story of his being poisoned at Swinshead Ab- 
bey, in Lincolnshire, rests on no good foundation.f 

HENRICUS III. Vertue sc. h. sh. From his mo- 
nument at Westminster. 

Henry hi. and Queen Eleanor, in one plate; pre- 
fixed to Mr. Walpole's ** Anecdotes of Painting."* It 
was taken from a window in the church of Boxhill, in 
Sussex. The original is now at Strawberry Hill.X 

* Rather ** taw them ravished i" no exertion of his could have protected them.-^ 
LordHnnlM. 

t Jnlj "iff 1797, while the cathedral church of Worcester was under a general 
repair, the shrine of this monarch being opened, the remains appeared entire, 
his robes undecayed, excepting the colour, which was undiscemible ; the figure mea- 
sured fire feet fire inches; the stone coffin lay even with the surface of th^ church* 
&e thB account by Mr. Valentine 'Green. 

t The use of painted glass in our churches is thought to have commenced aiwut 
this era. See an ingenious pamphlet, intitled " Ornaments of Chuiches considered," 
p. 94. 

VOL. I. C 



10 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

2« Henry ni. in Hume's " England,"' 8vo. J.M.Jk^ 
»ifiit. latre sc. 

Henry hi. R. Elstracke sc. Compton Holland. 

u 19, Henry III. though a better man, can scarcely be said to hivt 
^^* been a better politician than his father. He wanted that dignit} 
and firmness of. character which is necessary to procure respect and 
maintain authority. His haughty barons, at the head of whom wtf . 
the Earl of Leicester, taking advantage of the errors of his gofen- 
ment, and the imbecility of his nature, made large advances towardi 
independency ; and, for a time, deprived him of his throne. The 
civil broils of this reign, however calamitous, were productive of a ' 
spirit of liberty, which diffused itself through the whole body of the 
people. The first approach towards the present method of assem- 
bling parliaments was at this period, which was the era of the arts 
in England."^ A great part of the present structure of Westmioster , 
Abbey was built by this king. 

Eleanor, queen of Henry III. was second daughter to Raymond, ^ 
earl of Provence. The marriage and coronation of this princos -. 
were celebrated with, such pomp and festivity as had never .been 
seen in England before on the like occasion. The most memora- 
ble circumstance in her life, is her raising a very powerful army in 
France, to rescue the king her husband, who was detained in cus- 
tody by the Earl of Leicester. This formidable army, which tllrea^ 
ened the liberty of the kingdom, was prevented from landing by 
contrary winds. 

EDWARD I. Verttce sc. h. sh. From the remains 
of an ancient statue, over the gate of Caernarvon Cdstk. 
He is represented in the ornaments, sitting as umpire &• 
tween Baliol and Bruce. 

Edward i. in Hume's " England,'' 8vo. Milton sc. 

The noble and victorious Prince Edward. 
( Elstracke.) 

16, Edward I. completed the conquest of Wales, and ordered all their 
bards to be put to death, f He afterward conquered Scotland, re- 

♦ See *« Anecdotes of Painting." 

t That Edward I. ordered all the Welsh barda to be put to death is, I suspect, not , 
tme in any sense but this, that aU the Welsh bards were engaged in what he consi* 



OF ENGLAND. 11 

ceivedl a formal rosigqation of the crown from the haads <)£ John Bem 
Baiioiy and brought from thence the stone which was regarded as ^^q. 
the palladium of that kingdom. His character as a legislator was ^^ 
such, that it gained him the appellation of the English Ju8tinian> 
His ambition ever prompted him to great designs, which his per- 
sonal courage and vigour of mind enabled him to execute. 

There is a print of Llewylyn ap Griffith, the last Prince of Wales 
of British blood, engraved for ^^ A true (though a short) Account 
of the ancient Britons, &c. by J. L. a Cambro-BritOD," Lond. 1716. 
4to. but there is no reason to believe that this is a real portrait. 

EDVARDUS 11. Vertue sc. h. s7i. From his tomb 
at Gloucester. 

Edvardus secundus,.&c. Coll. Orielemis Fundr. 
1324. J. Faber /.large 4to. mezz. 

Edwakd II. in Hume's " England^'' 1803, Sw. C. 
Armstrong sc. 

Ed^ward II. " Royal and Noble AtUhors,^' by Park, 
1806. Bocqtiet sc. 

Edward ii. in the " Oaford Almanack,'' 1746. 

Edward ii. (Elstracke.) Compton Hollatid. 

This may be called the reign of favourites, of an imperious and July 7, 
intriguing queen, and a factious nobility, rather than of the pageant ^^^' 
who sat on the throne, whose weakness and misconduct soon preci- 
pitated the kingdom into all those disorders which are the natural 
effects of an unsettled constitution under a feeble administration. 

During this confusion, the royal favourites, Gaveston and the two 
Spencers, were sacrificed to the jealous rage of the rebellious ba- 
rons ; and, in conclusion, the wretched king was dethroned and fell 
a victim to the criminal passion of Isabel his queen, and Mortimer 
her gallant. 

deied to be rebellion. I take some merit to myself as haying been the first historian 
who attempted to speak fairly of Edward I. and to develope his character ! My sub- 
ject did not lead into many particulars which belong to English history. — Lord 
HaUes. 

* *<The English Justinian*' ic an ambiguous commendation. The emperor of 
(bat name was extremely versatile in bis measures : thus affording evidence but too 
apparent of a weak sovereign, or of a servile administration. Wise politicians never 
make any important changes in jurisprudence, without sufficient and obvious reason. 



12 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Baim EDWARD III. Vertue sc. h. sh. From an ancient 
R^^ painting in Windsor Castle. 

Edward hi. R. White sc. engraved for Brady's 
'* History of England.'' The two first Edwards were 
engraved by White, for the same book. 

Edwardus III. Sapientia fortem, h. sh. 

Edwardus hi. Sceptre and globe, hat buttoned with 
a diamond, Svo. 

Edwardus hi. copied from the next above, fol. 

Edwardus hi. whole length, completely armed; en- 
graved for Barnes's '^ History of Edward the Third.'' 
This was evidently done from the old portrait of this kmg 
at St. James's. 

Edward hi. in Hume's " England," 1803, Svo. 
Anker Smith. 

Edward hi. in the/^ Oaf ord Almanack, 1761." 
Edward hi. R. E. sculp. Compton Holland. 

Jan. 25, Edward the Third raised his own and the national character to a 
1327. greater height than any of our English monarcbs had done before or 
have done aiter him. His valour, conduct, and fortune, are ecjually 
the objects of our admiration : but he acquired more solid glory by 
his domestic government than by all the splendour of his victories* 
His ambition seems to have been rather to humble than to crush his 
enemies ; and he was satisfied with the arms and title of the King of 
France, and a small part of his territories, when it was in his power 
to have made himself master of that kingdom. 

He gained the victory at Cressy, Aug. 26, 1346, and instituted 
the order of the garter* April 23, 1349. Woorbegan to be ma- 

* In Rastell's <* Chronicle/' 1. vi. under the life of Edward III. is the following 
curious passage. " About the 19 yere of this kinge, he made a solenpne feest at 
Wjndesore, and a great justes and tumement, where he devysed> and {>«rfjted 
aubstanegally, the order of the knyghtes of the garter ; howe be it some afferme that 
this order began fyrst by Kyng Rychard, Cure de Lyon, at the sege of the citye of 
Acres ; wher, in his great necessy te, there were but t6 knyghtes that fynnely and 
surely abode by the kinge ; where he caused all them to were thongci of blew )ey« 
ther about theyr legges. And afterwarde they were called the knygbtea of tbo blew 
thonge." I am obliged for this passage to John Fenoi Esq. a curioas and ingenious 



OF ENGLAND. 13 

hnfiKtored here by Uie Flemiiigt in thif reign ; and gold was said to Bepa 
be first coined.* The largest silver coins were groats and half- ^^L^ 
groats. 

PHILIPPA R£GiNA ; Murray p. Faber f. whole 
kngth, h. sh. mezzo. This print was engraved from a 
fainting at Queens CoUege, in Oxford. The face was 
taken from an ancient stone head ofPhilippa, which was 
ooer the hack gate of that college next to Edmund Hall. 

Philippa, qu££9 of Edward III. from her monu- 
viental effigy; a singularly-curious costume of the head- 
dress of the time. R. Cooper sc. 

Fhilippai qneen of Edward III. was a daughter of the Count of 
Bidnanlt. While die king her husband was in France, the northern 
comities were invaded by David, king of Scotland, at the head of 
above BRj thousand men. This heroic princess assembled an army 
of about twelve thousand, of which she appointed the Lord Percy 
general ; and not only ventured to approach the enemy, but rode 
through the raidos of the soldiers ; exhorting every man to do his 
duty; and would not retire from the field, till the armies were on the 
point of engaging. In this memorable battle, the King of Scots Oct. w 
was taken prisoner. The story of the condemned citizens of Calais, ^^^^ 
said to have been saved at the intercession of Philippa, is of very 
doubtful authority. 

EDWARD, prince of Wales and Aquitaine, (first) 
dnke of Cornwall ; Vertue sc. h. sh. From the numu- 
mental effigy on his tomb at Canterbury. He is repre- 
sented, in the ornaments beneath the head, as presenting 
John, king of France, and David, king of Scots, to his 
father. 



geoUenian of East Dereham, in Norfolk, who is in possession of the most rare book 
whence it is taken. Hence some affirm, that the origin of the garter is to be dated 
from Richard I.t and that it owes its pomp and splendour to Edward III. 
• There has been a gold coin of Henry III. lately discovered. 

t Winstanley, in hit ** Life of Edward III.** says, that the original book of the in- 
Uituti&n deduces the intention from King Richard I, 



14 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

»^n Edwardus, cognom. Niger Princeps; efigravd \ 
luigns. for Barnes's " History.** Done from the ancient for- \ 

trait at St. James's. 

Edwardus Princeps "Walliae; Elstracke sc. matt 

4to. This has been copied by Vertue, far the octavo 

edition of Rapin ; and by another handy for Barneit 

*' History:' 

Edward^ prince de Galles, holding a lancey a Jim 
on his breast. From a painting on glass, in the priory 
church of Bouteville ; h. sh. 

Edward the Black Prince; agedA% 1376, wkk 
lengthy in armour ; Overton. There is a whole TengHk 
of him in armour, holding a spear, in Sir Richard J?i*- 
shows '^Lusiad:'* 

Ed WA RD, Prince, in Fuller's " Holy State;* by W. 
Marshall. 

Edward the most renowned Prince. R. Elstrack 
sc. Compton Holland. 

** Mr. Onslow, the late Speaker, had a headf of the Black Prince, 
which, there is great reason to believe, was painted at.the time. It 
is not very ill done : it represents him in black armour, emboBsel 
with gold, and with a golden lion on his breast. He. has a hat on, 
with a white feather, and a large ruby, exactly in the shape of th^ 
rough ruby still in the crown. He appears lean and pal§, as he was 
towards the end of his life. This very curious picture came'out of 
Betchworth Castle, in Surry," ** Anecd. of Painting,'* vol. u p. 2ft 
2d edit. — This is engraved in the ** Antiquarian Repertory," bj 
R. Godfrey. • ' 

* How his print shoald get there is very extraordinary ; it is called Prince Hemj 
of Portugal, and is accompanied with the arms of Portugal, encircled indeed "M 
the garter, and other circumstances belonging to the country of that prince; bottliep 
he has the George and garter on, which Prince Henry had no right to. X sappoM 
the plate was engraven for some history of the Black Prince ; and the igpiooat 
printer, wanting a portrait of his Portuguese hero, finding this ready for his pQrpoie» 
adopted it for his book, without attending to those marks which made it so unfit (i> 
be introduced into that place. — Bindley, 
It is still in the family. 



OF ENGLAND. 15 

. The Black PruiGe» with an army of twelve thousand men, en- Began 
bilged the French anny near Poictiers^ which consisted of above ^' 
9Bs^:f Aousandy whom he entirely defeated, and took John, the king 
of France, prisoner. In this battle he displayed all the military ta- 
lents of a consummate general ; and in his behaviour afler it, all that 
moderation and hupoanity, especially towards the royal .captive, of 
which none but great minds are capable ; and which did him more 
bonour than his victory. Oh. 8 June, 1376. Mtat. 46. 

Joan, princess of Wales, in StnUt's " Regal 
Antiquities^ plate 35. 

This plate represents Joan, countess of Kent, who became the 
wife of Edward the Black Prince, in the year 1361. She was the 
daughter of Edmund, earl of Kent, brother by the father's side to 
King Edward the Second, and had been twice married before; first, 
to the valiant Earl of Salisbury, from whom she was divorced ; and 
afterward to the Lord Thomas Holland. She died 1386. See Strutt. 

JOHN of Gaunt, king of Castile and Leon, duke 
of Lancaster ; • Vertue sc. -h. sh. Painted on glass, in 
an ancient window belonging to the library of All Souls 
Coll. Oxon. The Bible on the left alludes to his pro- 
moting Wicliffis doctrine.* 

Johannes Gandavensis ; sold by Roger Daniel^ 
^to. 

9 

John of Gaunt, &c. in an erminedrobe; small. 
John of Gaunt, in Harding s Shakspeare. R. 
Clamp. 

There is a very ancient painting of him at Badminton, in Glou- 
cestershire, the seat of the Duke of Beaufort. 

John of Gaunt, or Ghent, so called from the place of his birth, ' 
was the third son of Edward the Third. He enjoyed only the 
empty title of king of Castile, from his marriage with Constance, 
second daughter of Peter the Cruel.f . Though he was not in- 
vested with the power, he had in reality the authority, of a regent 

* I cannot imagine that the book, called here the Bible, had any allusion to the 
£ivouT shewn to the .WiclifBtes : such circumstances could not find a place in church 
windows. — Lord Hailes. 

t She was a natural daughter of that prince, by Mary do Padilla^ liis mistress. 



16 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Bepan of the kingdom^ during the minority of Richard the Seoond. The 
Reieiif. ^Aug^^c^ ^^ t^ prince rendered him very uniKq[>idar. Ob. 3. 
Feb. 1S99. 

RICHARD IL at his devotion. He is represented as 
youngs and kneeling by his three patron saints, John the 
Baptist, King Edmund, and Edward the Confessor. 
His robe is adorned with white harts and broom<ods, 
alluding to his mother's arms and his own name of Plan- 
tagenista. In the other part of the picture, which con- 
sists of two tables, is the Vifgin Mary surrounded with 
angels, to whom the king addresses his devotions. On two 
brass plates affixed to the original picture, which isintki 
collection of the Earl of Pembroke, is engraved the fid- 
lowing inscription : 

*' The invention of painting in oil, 1410/' 

The picture was painted in 1377. It was in the royd 
collection, but was given by James the Second to Lord 
Castlemain. The print was engraved by Hollar, m 
1639; h.sh. 

RicHARDUs II. Grisoni delin. Vertue sc. 1718, 
whole length, sh. Engraved from a drawing in the est 
lection of Mr. Talman the architect, which was taken be- 
fore the ancient picture, in the choir of St. Peter*s, West- 
minster, was painted upon. 

RiCHARDus II. from the satne original as thejbre- 
going ; Vertue sc. h. sh. In the scroll is represented hit 
resignation of his crown. 

Richard ii. engraved by R, White, for Brad^'^ 
" History of England,'" fol. 

Richard ii. Grisom delin. in Harding sShakspean* 
W. N. Gardiner sc. ^ 

Richard ii. from the original in the Jerusa^ 
Chamber. J. T. Smith sc. 1791. 



OF ENGLAND. 17 

Richard xi. in Hume' s^^ England'' C. Armstrong sc. »*«« 

Richard ii. in " Royal and Noble Authors^' by ^^ 
Park. Bacqtcet sc. 

Richard ii. R. E. sc. Compton Holland. 

There are several curious historical portraits of Richard II. &c. 
inStrutt'8 ** Regal Antiquities." 

Richard the Second, a prince of a mean genius, was neither be- June 21', 
loved nor revered by his people. The contempt for his person na- ^^^^' 
turally extended itself to his government, and subjected him to the 
tyranny of his nobility. His impatience of this subjection impelled 
him to several acts of violence, from which his nature seems to have 
been averse. His uncle, the duke of Gloucester, was assassinated 
by his orders; and he unjustly detained the estate of Henry duke 
of Lancaster, by whose procurement he was dethroned and mur- 
dered. The authors who lived nearest to his own time inform us 
that he was starved to death. 

Anne of Bohemia, queen to Richard ii. Tfie 
coronation, in Strut fs ^^ Regal Antiquities " p. xviii. 

There is a fine monumental effigy of her, with Richard II. on his 
tomb, in Westminster Abbey. 

Anne, daughter of the Emperor Charles lY. and sister of Wen- 
ceslaus, king of Bohemia, and the queen of King Richard the Se- 
cond, died at Sheene, in Surrey, 1395. 

HENRICUS IV. Vertue sc. h. sh. From the an- 
dent portraits of him at Kensington,* and at Hampton 
Court in Herefordshire. 

Henry iv. in Hume's " England'' Delatre sc. 

Henry iv. in Harding's Shakspeare. C. Knight sc. 

Henry iv. Compton Holland. 

* The set of kings at Kensington, .\irhence Vertue, for want of better, took several 
heads, were all painted by one hand, and are certainly not original. There is another 
set still worse, in tiie same place. One of the sets, probably the better, came from 
Lord Comwallis's gallery, at Culford, in Suffolk, and were begged of hiro by Queen 
Caroline, There is another set at Hardwick, and others elsewhere, equally unauthen- 
tic 1 owe this note and other additions and corrections to Mr. Horace Walpole. ' 

VOL. I. D 



18 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

"Be^ Several prints of him when Duke of Lancaster, are in Stnitt'i 

11^,, ^' Regal Antiquities/* 

Sept. Henry, W of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, obtained the 

1399 crown by usurpation, and held it by the sword ; a tenure which gave 
him perpetual disquietude, and afterward opened such a scene of 
blood and cruelty as is hardly to be paralleled in any history; and it 
was not closed, till the two houses of York and Lancaster were nnited 
in the person of Henry the Seventh. The act for burning heretics 
was passed in this reign, end one of the Lollards was burnt. 

HENRICUS V. Vertue sc. h. sh. From an ancient 
picture in the palace at Kensington. At the bottom is a 
representation of his marriage. 

Henry v. Elstracke sc. Ato. 

Henry v. Sold by Roger Daniel^ in Lombard-stred^ 
Ato. The family of Henry the Fifths from a curious 
ancient picture in the collection of James West, Esq. is 
in the ** Anecdotes of Painting.'' It was engraved by 
Grignion. 

Henry v. on his Throne. On his right hand are 
two ecclesiastics. He who is on the fore-ground^ has 
been conjectured to be the famous Cardinal Lewis de Lua> 
embourgy chancellor of France^ afterward bishop of Te- 
rouennCy and archbishop of Rouetiy and perpettuil admi- 
nistrator of the diocess of Ely. On the other side of the 
king is a courtier holding a mace of office. It has also 
been conjectured^ that he may represent the Duke of Ejy- 
eter, third son of John of Gaunt, who signalized his va- 
lour at the battle of Azincourt, and on other occasions. 
The person presenting a book to the King, is John Ga- 
lopes y dean of the collegiate church of St. Louis , of Sal- 
soye, in Normandy. He was translator of Cardinal Bo- 
naventure's ** Life of Christy' which he presented to 
Henry y in a manuscript finely illuminated. The prints 
which is an outline only, is etched with great eractness 
by the Rev. Mr. Michael Tyson, of BmeH Colkge, in 



OF ENGLAND. 19 

Cambridge, from an illumination done in Henry's time, Benn 
md belonging to the manuscript which is in the library Reigns. 
tifthat college, ^his has far greater merit than thege- . 
wttalitjf of illuminated portraits, which are altogether 
\deal, and drawn with little skill or truth. I have ea*- 
tiyu^ed this description of the etching from an account of 
the illuminated manuscript, written by Mr. Tyson, and 
f^rinted in a single sheet. The print and this sheet were 
mtendedfor companions.* 

Henrt v. in Hum£s ^* England.'' Neagle sc. 
Henry v. in Harding^s Shakspeare. J. Parker sc. 
Henry v. &c. R. E. sculpsit. Compton Holland. 

The glory that Henry acquired by his yietory in the plains of March : 
Aancourt, was equal to that which Edward the Third and his son ^^^^ 
gained in the fields of Cressy and Poictiers ; as his situation, valour, 
oonducty and fortune, were much the same. He afterward entered 
ato a treaty with the Kiug of France, married Catharine de Valois 
his only daughter, and was declared regent and heir-apparent to 
that kingdom. 

'^ This monarch was so averse to luxury, that he prohibited the . 
use of featherbeds ; and, to prevent the English courage from de- 
generating, designed to follow the method of Lycurgus ; being de- 
termined, when he should ascend the throne of France, to plough up 
an the vineyards.** — Anstis's "Regist. of the Garter," vol. ii. 320. 
The English were remarkably abstemious in this age, and long after ; 
Peacham (Gentleman, p. 1945.) says, that 'within these fifty or 
Bixty years, it was a rare thing with us in England to see a drunken 
man/ our nation carrying the name of the most sober and temperate 
of any other in the world. But since we had to do in the quarrel 
of the Netherlands, about the time of Sir J. Norris first being there, 
die custom of drinking and pledging healths was brought over into 
England. 

* This acoooDt of the manoscript was lately reprinted in the second volume of the 
" Archaeologia" of the Society of Antiquaries, where the print is to be seen com- 
pletely etched. A print from the same original is in Stnitt's " Regal and Ecclesi- 
astical Antiquities of England;" a curious work, in which are portraits of our English 
noaaichs, from Edward tlie Confessor to Henry VIII. besides other portraits of 
persons of eminence. 



20 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

^?" CATHARINE, queen of Henet v. There isa 
R^i'ipif. portrait of her, in the family of Henry, in the first vo- 
lume of the " Anecdotes of Painting f but there i» 
little or no reason to believe it authentic: itnaj» 
however, serve as a memorial. 

Catharine, queen of Henry v. in Har&i^ 
Shakspeare. S. Harding sc. 

Catharine was daughter of Charles VI. of FVance, and Isabeltii 
queen. Henry, when he first saw her, at the treaty of Mdan, f* 
instantly struck with her beauty. It is probable that she was broo^ 
thither to captivate the conqueror of her father's kingdom. Ttii 
princess, who, after the death of Henry, was regarded as dowagei 
of England and France, did not disdain to mix the rose and lily oi 
these kingdoms with the Welsh leek, by descending to a marriagf 
with Owen Tudor, a gentleman of a fine person and address, whon 
she fell in love with at Windsor, where he attended the court* 

Edward, prince of Wales, son to Henry VI 
from a drawing in the British Museum. S. Harding sc 
in Harding's Shakspeare. 

Edward, prince of Wales, with Lady Anni 
AND Richard hi. &c. in Strutt's ** Regal Antiqui- 
ties/" plate xlviii. 

* III the annotations subjoined to Drayton's epistle from Owen Tador to Quceo 
Catharine, is the following passage : " Owen Tudor, being a courtly and active gen- 
tleman, commanded once to dance before the queene, in a tnme (not being able to 
recover hiroselfe), fell into her lap, as she sat upon a little stoole, with many of ber 
ladies about her/'t 

Sir John Wynne tells us, that " Queen Catharine, being a French woman home, 
knew no difference between the English and Welsh nation; until, her marriage being 
published, Owen Tudor's kindred and countrey were objected to disgrace bim, a> 
roost vile and barbarous, which made her desirous to see some of his kinsmeo. 
Whereupon he brought to her presence, John ap Meredith, and Howell ap liew- 
elyn ap HowcII, his neare cosens, men of goodly stature and personage, but wholely 
destitute of bringing up and nurture ; for when the Queen had spoken to them in di* 
verse languages, and they were not able to answer her, she said they were the good- 
liest dumbe creatures that ever she saw." — ** Hist, of the Gwedir Family," p. 69. 

t The gentlemen sat on high chairs, the ladies before them on low itoo/s:— -t^ 
fashion, so unlike modei'n manners, continued througlwut the reign of James L—hff^ 
Hailes, 



OF ENGLAND. 21 

"^ • Edward, prince of Wales, was the only child of King Henry and Be^ 
^ Vueen Margaret, and had an hereditary interest in the quarrel of his ^/ 
r ^Wn house with that of York. After the battle of Hexham, he fled ' 

^^hk hh unfortunate mother into a forest ; where, after being plun- 
dered, and observing another robber approach her with his naked 
^word, she courageously advanced to meet him, and, presenting the 
Jroung prince, said, ** Here, my friend, I commit to your care the 
' Safety of yonr king's son." The trust was duly honoured by the 
man, who afforded the royal fugitives every assistance in his power. 
Prince Edward afterward married Lady Anne, daughter of the 
Earl of Warwick. He was murdered at Tewkesbury, Anno 1471, 
in tiie 18th year of his age. 

HENRY VI. Vertue sc.h. sh. Painted on boards 
in the palace of Kensington. His character is alltided 
to in the ornaments. 

H£NRicu8 VI. &c. Coll. Regalis Cantab. A". 1441. 
Fundr. Faberf. large 4 to. mezz. — : — In the '* Anecdotes 
of Painting,'' is a print of his marriage, engraved from 
an ancient picture at Strawberry Hill. In the Hone 
Btatte Maria Virginis totius anni secundum Novem Sa- 
rum. Paris, per Fr. Regnault, 1535, is a prayer to 
Saint Henry (Henry VI.) together with his portrait. 

Henry vi. whole length. F. Bartolozzi sc. 

Henry vi. whole length, painted on glass, in King's 
College, Cambridge. Bretherton sc. 

Henry vi. in Harding's Shakspeare. W. N. 
Gardiner sc. 

Henry vi. with a view of Kings College, in Wilsons 
"Cambridge;' Svo. E. Harding, 1801. 

Henry vi. in Hume's *' England;' 1803, Svo. 
Rhodes sc. 

Henry vi. in ** Royal and Noble Authors,'' by 
Park. Bocquet sc. 

Henry vi. &c. R* E. sculpsit. Compton Holland. 



22 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

-j^T— Henrt VI. kneeling, holding a chalice. T. Cook sc. 
Reignt. prefixed to the Paston^ Letters^ 4to. 

A monk's cowl would have fitted this prince's head much better 
than a crown. He was a king only in name ; and may be si^d to 
have reigned under his queen, a woman of a martial spirit. He lost 
his father's acquisitions in France ; a great part of which, to the r^ 
proach of the English, was retaken by an army headed by a womnn, 
sprung from the dregs of the people. In the civil war between the 
Yorkists and Lancastrians in this reign, the greater part of the no- 
bility fell in the field, or by the hand of the executioner ; and the 
throne itself was at length overturned by the prevailing faction. 
The king is said to have been murdered by Richard, duke of Glou- 
cester. 

MARGARET, queen of Henrt vi. m Harding^s 

Shakspeare. N. Scheneker sc. 

Margareta, Hen. vi. uxor, &c. Coll. Regime 
Cantab. Fundx. 1446. Faber f. large Ato. The por- 
trait is in the refectory of that college. 

Margaret, queen of Hen. vi. holding a croum in 
one hand, and a truncheon in the other, 4to. 

Margaret, with a view of Queen's College, in Wil- 
son' s^^ Cambridge.''' E. Harding, 1801. 

It is to be questioned, whether either of these portraits of Marga- 
ret be of any authority. There is a figure of her in Montfaucon's 
'< Monumens de la Monarchic Fran^oise." This perhaps, with som^, 
may be still questionable ; but it is natural for antiquaries to consi- 
der every thing as authentic, which is of undoubted antiquity. 

The heroic, but unfortunate Margaret, was ever vigilant and 
active, while the king her husband slumbered upon the throne. She 
knew how to act the part of a general as well as that of a queen ; 
and deserved to wear the crown which was wrested from her. 

JOHN, duke of Bedford, regent of France ; Vertu^ 
sc. h. sh. From a curious limning, in a rich MS. 
** Common- Prayer Book,'' presented by himself to King 
Henry the Sixth, in the possession of the Dutchess 
Dmvager of Portland. 



OF ENGLAND. 23, 

JoHir, DUKE OF Bedford, in Harding's Skaks- JSS^ 
peare. S. Harding sc. Reign*. 

The Duke of Bedford, who was regent of France in the minority 
of ^enry VI. was one of the most valiant and accomplished princes 
of his age. He was second brother to Henry V. and nearly resem. 
bled that hero in^every thing but his good fortune ; which was forced 
to yield to that of Joan of Arc, an enthusiastic visionary, who caused 
the English to raise the siege of Orleans, and soon after to eva- 
cuate their conquests in France. 06. 34 Sept. 1435. 

HUMPHREDUS, dux Glocestriae, in fenestra ec 
clesiae de Greenwich, in Agro Gantiano ; a head-piece 
in the catalogue of the Bodleian Library y over the letter K. 

HuMPHKEY, duke of Gloucester. W. N. Gardiner 
sc. from the original at Strawberry Hill for Harding s 
Shakspeare. 

HuMpHRiBT, duke of Gloucester. Gerimia sc. in 
''Noble Authors;' by Park, 1806. 

HuMPHEEY, duke of Gloucester, in the " Oxford 
Almanack^' 1742. 

Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, commonly called the Good, was 
youngest brother to Henry V. and the first founder of the university 
library in Oxford, which was pillaged of the greatest part of its 
books, in the reign of Edward VI. Grafton has recorded a remark- 
able instance of his sagacity.* A fellow, who affirmed that he was 
bom blind, pretended to have received his sight at St. Alban's 
shrine. The duke had the curiosity to examme him ; and asked of 
what colour his gown was, and the colours of several other things in 
the room. He told him the several colours without a moment's hesita* 
tion; and the duke, with as little hesitation, ordered him to be set in 
the stocks as an impostor. This prince's vault, in which his body 
was preserved in a kind of pickle, was discovered at St. Alban's in 
the year 1703. Ob. IWJ. 

Edmond of Langley, duke of York. R. Clamp 
sc. from a limning in the British Museum^ in Harding s 
Shakspeare. 

♦ Vol. u. p. 598. 



24 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Began Edmond Plantagenet (surnained De Langley, from the place of 
Reiens. ^'^ birth) was the fifth son of King Edward III. who« by his &ther, 
was first created Earl of Cambridge in the thirty-sixth year of his 
reign ; and afterward by his nephew, Richard II. duke of York. 
He was a person of much valour and conduct in the field, and of 
great honour in the cabinet. He endeavoured strenuously to sap- 
port King Richard against Henry of Lancaster. When Henry ob- 
tained the throne, he retired from the court, and died at his manor 
of Langley, where he was interred, 1402. 

RiCHAHD Plantagejj^et, dukc of York. E. Hard- 
ing sc. in the south window of Penrith Church, Cumber- 
land. 

Richard succeeded his uncle Edward as duke of York; and, having 
been restored to his paternal honours by King Henry VI. (forfeited 
by his father's treason) soon became one of the most powerful subjects 
of the day, in estate, dignities, descent, and alliance; and, supported 
by the family of the Nevils (having married the daughter of Ralph, 
earl of Westmorland, grand-*daughter of John of Gaunt), and other 
great nobles, boldly urged his pretensions to the crown, which he 
was on the point of obtaining, when death put an end to his ambi- 
tious career at the battle of Wakefield, 1460. 

JAQUELINE, duchess de Gloucester; a small 
head. 

Jacob A, Hertogen van Bayeren, &c. Jacob Folk- 
ema sc. 1735, h. sh. AJine head; andit has for its com- 
panion, Frank Van Boiselem, her fourth husband. 

There are several other prints of her ; but that fine ancient one, 
afler John Van Eyck, the inventor of painting in oil, is too consi- 
derable to be unnoticed. It is a large h. sh. without the name of the 
engraver. 

Jaqueline, who was daughter and heir of William VI. of Bavaria, 
earl of Hainault, was first married to John of France, dauphin of 
Vienna, son of Charles VI. ; next to John, duke of Brabant, cousiQ- 
german to Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy. As she lived in no 
harmony with her second husband, she suffered herself to be carried 
into England, under a pretence of force; where she was soon mar- 
ried to Humphrey, duke of Gloucester. This marriage embroiled 



OB ENGLAND. 25 

the duke with Phflip, who intended, if pbflsible, to prevent her from Benii 
having any children. At length the Pope interposed in the quarrel, ^^^^L^ 
and annulled the marriage. The duke soon afler married Eleanor 
Cobham. The good duke of Bargnndy suffered Jaqueline to enjoy 
her fourth husband in peace, after he had forced her to resign her 
dominions to him. 

CiciLT Nevil, dutchess of York, E. Harding sc. 
1792, from the south mndow of Penrith Church, Cum- 
berland. 

Cidly, daughter of Ralph Nevil, earl of Westmorland, and grand- 
daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, married Richard 
Plantagenet, the third duke of York, and was the mother of King 
Edward IV., King Richard III., and George duke of Clarence. 

EDWARD IV. a woodeti print, cut in the rtipi of 
Queen Elizabeth. 

Edwardus IV. Elstracke sc. Ato. 

. Edwardus iv. without his name, engraved by R. 
White, for Rymer^s " Feeder a ^^ It was placed in that 
book before the reign of Henry V. but is undoubtedly a 
'profile from the whole length of Edward IV. painted by 
Van Belcamp, which is now over the chimney in one of 
the apartments at St. Jameses. 

Edward iv. Vertue sc. h. sh. From an ancient 
fainting at Kensington Palace. At the bottom is reprc* 
sented his magnificent interview with the King of Fnmce, 
on the bridge of Pequigny, over the Soame. 

Edward iv. in Harding's Shakspeare. Parker 

sc. 

Edward iv. in Hume's ''England,'^ 8vo. W. Brom^ 
hi sc. 

Edward iv. in Rymer's '' Fosdera,'' R. White sc. 

In Habington's "History of Edward IV." folio, London, 1640, 
is a portrait of that king in a small escutcheon. At the left baud 

VOL. I. K 



26 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

corner, is a dore sitting on a padlock, with this motto, Hic Hac 
Hoc Taccatis.* 

In a north window of Canterbury Cathedral, as you ascend the 
steps into the choir, are portraits of Edward IV. his queen, Edward 
his son, afterwards Edward V. and Richard, duke of Glocester, 
painted on glass, with their names under them. 
• Edward IV. of the house of York, opened his way to the crown 
with the sword. There is a great contrast in the character of this 
prince ; who, in the former part of his reign, was as remarkable for' 
his activity and enterprise, as he was in the latter for his indolence, and 
his love of pleasure and dissipation. His heart was hardened against 
every movement of compassion, but extremely susceptible of the pas- 
sion of love. His unrelenting cruelty toward the Lancastrians was 
scarcely exceeded by that of Sylla the dictator, towards the Marian 
faction. . . 

ELISABETHA, Edvardi IV, uxor, CoU. Regintp, 
Cantab. Fund', altera, A. D. 1465. J. Faberf. large 
4to. 

Elizabeth (Woodville,) in a curious dress. Fa- 
cius so. 1803. 

Elizabeth, queen of Edward iv. in Harding's 
Shakspeare. Gardiner sc. 

Elizabeth was daughter of Sir Richard Widville, by Jaqueline of 
Luxemburg, dutchess of Bedford, and widow of Sir John Grey of 
Groby, who was killed fighting for the house of Lancaster. As her 
husband's estatie was forfeited to the crown, she first appeared before 
the king as a suppliant, with all the attractives that beauty, height- 
ened by distress, could give her ;t and soon found her way to his 
heart, and to the throne. 

GEORGE, duke of Clarence, brother to King Ed- 
ward IV. Clamp sc. in Harding's Shakspeare. 

* The intention of the motto and device, as belonging to a royal portrait, maj be 
interpreted thus : Hic, &c. may each man, each woman, and each thing, keep the kbilft 
tecrets. The padfock is no uncommon emblem of secrecy ; and the dove, being abiid 
which never repeats any note but it» own, is perhaps equally symbolical of fideli^ 
as well as innocence; and shews the guilt of disclpsing the arcana of state. 

t — r- ^Lacrymseque decone, 

Gratior et pnlchro veniens in corpo e virtus. Virg. 



OF ENGLAND. 27 

Qeovlge, duke of Clarence, in LordOrforcTs Works, ^"^ 

AlO. Reigns. 

George, a younger son of Richard, duke of York, and brother 
to King Edward IV. married Isabel, eldest daughter of Richard 
Nevil, eari of Warwick and Salisbury ; with whom he joined in con- 
federacy agabst his brolher. He was attainted of high treason, and 
suffened death by being drowned in a buU of Malmsey wine, 1478. 

EDWARD V. Vertue sc. h. sh. From a limning- 
in a manuscript, now in the library at Lambeth. 

EbwARB V. prefixed to his " Life'' ( W. Hollar.) 

Edward V. in Harding's Shakspeare. S. Hard- 
ing sc. 

Edward v. in Hum^s *' England," 8w. Delatresc. 

Edward v. Compton Holland. 

His cruel uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, after propagating a re- April 9, 
port of his illegitimacy, is said to have caused hinx and his brother ^^^ 
the Duke of York to be murdered in the Tower, in the eleventh 
year of his age. See the article of Richard III. See also ^* His- 
toric Doubts," &c. by Mr. Horace Walpole. 

RICHARD III. Hollar/. 8vo. 

Richard hi. Vertue sc. h. sh. From an ancient 
original painting on board at Kensington Palace. At the 
bottom is a dragon overcoming a boar. The device of 
Richard the Third was a boar ; and that of Henry the 
Seventh was a dragon, which was the ensign of Cadwal- 
lader, from whom Henry was supposed to be descended. 

Richard hi. and Anne his queen ; an outline. 
Vertue delin. Grignion sc. h. sh. Before Mr. WaU 
pole's *' Historic Doubts,'' Sgc. Ato. 

Richard hi. prefixed to his " Life'* by Buck. T. 
Cross sculp. 4to. 

Richard hi. when duke of Gloucester, whole 
length, in Harding's Shakspeare. 



1483. 



28 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

^ip" Richard hi. holding a broken scq)tre, sold by Conf- 
Reigns, ton Holland. 

Richard hi. in Hume*s '^England,"" 6w. 1803. TT. 
Bromley sc. 

June 29, Richard III. if we may depend apon the generality of our hiito* 
rians, seems to have been influenced by that capital manm of pefiii- 
cious policy, not to be wicked by halves ; as he is said to have beea 
restrained by no principle of justice or humanity in obtaining Ae 
crown, and to have endeavoured to muntain it by fraud and vio« 
lence. George Buck,* who affirms, that be was neither deformed 
in mind nor body, was thought to have discovered as mudi confi- 
dence, and as little truth, in that assertion, as Richard himself didin. 
asserting his title. He had undoubtedly talents for government, and 
affected popularity ; which occasioned the saying concerning him, 
That he was a bad man, but a good king.f 

Anne, queen of Richard iiz. in Hardif^'s 
Shakspeare. E. Harding, Jun. sc. 

Anne, with Richard the Third, in Walpole*s 
^' Historic Doubts.*^ 

Anne, in StrtUfs " Regal Antiquities,^ p. xlviii. 

Anne Neville, queen of Richard Ill.t was widow of Prince Ed* 

* See hu life of Richard UL in Kennet's " Complete Hlttoiy." 
t Mr. WaJpole, who is well known to have itnick new light into some of the 
darkest passages of English hbtorj, has bronght yarions presumptive proofs, uo- 
knowQ to Buck, that Richard was neither that deformed person, nor that monster of 
cmeltjr and impietjr, which has been represented by our historians. . But it most , 
be acknowledged, that though this gentleman has done much towards clearing op 
the character of Richard, he has left the matter still pibbleq^tical. His ail- 
ments to prove that Perkin Warbeck was the real duke of York appear more con- 
clusive. I am assured bjr a good hand, that the Lord-treasurer Oxford* who read 
as much of our history, and with as much judgment, as any man of hu time, was 
entirely of that opiuion. 

% The Croyland Chronicle, a contemporary history, gives a curious account of Ri- 
chard duke of Gloucester's marriage with Anne Neville, daughter and coheiress of 
Richard earl of Warwick, and the betrothed wife of Edward prince of Wales, son 
of Henry VI. — Clarence, who had married the eldest sister, Vas unwilling, to share 
the rich inheritance of the JVIontacutes, the Beauchamps, and the Le Despencera, 
with bis brother, and concealed the young lady. Gloucester, however, was too vi- 
gilant for him, and discovered the Lady Anne, in tiie dress of.a cook-piaid, in Iion- 
don, whence he removed her to the sanctuary of St. Martin. The brothers pleaded 



\ 



<>F EKffiLAND. 29 

ward, wh6 was kSled at Tewksbuiy by Richard, to whom i^e was Be^an 
soon after inarried. Such a marriage as this, unnatural as it may j^q,. 
seeop, is not much to be wondered at in a barbarous age, when mas- 
sacres and murders were so familiar as to have lost their usual hor- 
ror. Richard's treiitment of her is said to have been such as a wo- 
man may be supposed to have merited, who married the murderer 
of her husband. It is also recorded^ that that treatment was so jn- 
tQleralile as to have quickly hastened her death. The admirable 
scene in Shakspeare, between Richard and Anne, is, or ought to be, 
wiell known to every one of my readers. 

HENRY VII. Payne sc. Cor regis inscrutabUe. 

Henry vii. with his Queen, Elizabeth of York, 
who is in Utile ; Vertue sc. h. sh. From an original^ in 
oil colours^ in the royal collection. 

HfilrttY VII. three Latin lines prefixed to his " His- 
tory in Yerse^ by Charles Akyne^ 1638. small %oo. 
W. Marshall sc. 

Henry vii. when earl of Richmond; in Harding's 
Shakspeare. Parker sc. 1790, after J. Mabuse. 

Henry vii. in the print of his marriage. Grigmon 
sc. after Mabuse. 

Henry vii. inLarrey. G. Vakksc. 

Henry vii. and Elizabeth his queen, small ovals: 
no name of engraver. 

Henry VII. the most mighty and prudent prince, 
Henry the Seventh. Compton Holland. 

IJenry VII. and Elizabeth his queen; together 
with Henry Vlll. and Jane Seymour his queen. 



their cause in person before the elder brother in council ; and every man/ says the 
author, admired the strength of their arguments. The king soon composed their 
difierencesy ^stowin^ the maiden on Gloucester, and dividing the estate between 
himself and Clarence. Hie Countess of Warwick, mother of the heiressesi who had 
brought that vast wealth to the house of Neville, was the only sufferer, being re- 
duced to a state of absolute necessity. 



30 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

^^ Standing in a roam rich^ adorned. Done by Vc 
Rdgni. from the copy after Holbein^ by Van Leempui^ w tk] 

lace at Kensington. The original was consumed in 

fire which burnt Whitehall in 1697, large sh. 

and the other family and historical pieces by VertuCt 

among the best of his works. 

1485. Henry the Seventh, of the race of Tudor, or Theodore,, not < 
put an end to the civil wars between the two contending hoorfl 
York and Lancaster ; but, by humbling the powerful and 
barons, opened the way to peace and liberty. As all hb 
especially in the latter part of his life, centred in avarice, Ik' 
too selfish to study the interest, or gain the esteem, of his 
The good that he did, appears to have been done for his 
sake.* 

Elizabeth, queen of Henry VII. One of^ 

heads of illtcstrious persons. '\' 

Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII. i 
Harding^ s Shakspeare. A. Birrelh 1790. 

Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII. J 
Houbraken. Birch's " Lives of Illustriotcs Persons^ fy 

Elizabeth of York, &c. W. T. Fry sc. 18K 
'from the original in the collection of the Right Honota 
able the Earl of Essex ^ in Mr. Lodges ** Illustrious P(n 
traits.'' 

Elizabeth of York, the amiable queen of Henry the Seventh, 1 
whose marriage the two houses of York and Lancaster were unitei 
was a pattern of conjugal duty and obsequiousness ; but met iril 
very cold returns of afiection from the king, whose malignity to A 
house of York, and jealousy of its title to the crown, extended itte 
even to his queen. Ob, 11 Feb. 1503. 

Three children of King Henrt VII. and Eliza 

* Mr. Astle in Uie pre&ce to his will, published in 1775, speaks of this pnM 
mixed character, '* which seems to have deserved neither all the censure nor all t 
commendation it has received." 

t The set consists of 108 large folio prints, which are finely executed. 



OF ENGLAND. 31 

BETH his queen, I. Prince Arthur. 2. Prince ^^ 
Henry. 3. Princess Margaret. J. Mauheugimf. cir. ReigM* 
1496. Vertue. sc. large ^h. 

The origmal picture is now in the China closet at 
Windsor. 

Arthar, prince of Wales, eldest son of Henry the Seventh, was 
married to Catharine of Arragon, 14 Nov. 1501. Ob, 2 April, 
1502. JEtat. 16. 

Prince Henry, when he was only three years and four months 
eld, which was not long before this portrait was painted, passed 
through the streets of London and Westminster, sitting on- horse- 
back^ and making one of the cavalcade which attended Sir Richard 
Chawry the lord-mayor, at the entrance on his office, 1494?.* 

See a short account of the Princess Margaret, afterward queen 
of Scotland, under the reign of Hen. VIIL 

MARGARET A, mater Hen. VIL Com. Richmond 
died et DerbuB ; Fund". Colleg. Christ. Anno Domini, 
1505. Faberf. large 4to. mezz. 

Margareta, &c. Fund*. Coll. Divi Johannis Can- 
tab. Anno Domini 1508. mezz. 

Margaret, countess of Richmond and Darbt/ey and 
John, duke (earl) of Somerset, anno 1400; two small 
ovals f in one plate. 

Margaret, with view of St. John^s College^ in Wil- 
son s Cambridge. E. Harding y 1801. 
Margaret, in Harding's ^* British Cabinet'' 

Margaret of Lancaster, mother of Henry VII. 
JR. Cooper sc. 1816, from the original in the collection 
of the Right Honourable the Earl of Derby. In Mr. 
Lodge's " Illustrious Portraits." 

Margaret was daughter and heir of John Beaufort, duke of So- 
merset, who was grandson of John of Gaunt Her principal bene; 
fisKrtions, next to those above mentioned, are the two perpetual lec- 

• Hairs " Chronicle," vol. i. p. 236, 237. 




32 BIOGRAPHICAL HI3T0RY 

Bagtn tures of divinity whidr she founded at Oxford and Cam|l>ridge, vi^ 
j^JL^ the grammar school at Winbume, in Dorsetshire. After sbe 
married her third husband, the Earl of Derby, she engaged 
in a vow of celibacy; which is the reason, as Mr. Baker 
tures,* of her being painted in the habit of a nun. She 
much higher upon the list of benefactors, than upon that of autbni^ 
See '^ Cat. of Royal and Noble Authors ;" or Greorge Ballarfi 

** Memoirs of Learned Ladies.** There is a portrait of heril 

Hatfield House. 

KINGS, &c. of SCOTLAND.! 

" 1. MALCOLME III. J was crowned the 15. oi;; 
April, A"*. 1057. He created the first earles in Scot- 
land, and erected the bishopprickes of Murray aodi 
Caithnes. He raigned 36 y . and was slain at Ah- 
wick, by a wound in the eie,§ and was buried it 
Dumfermeling. 

* See her Foneral Sermon, by Bishop Fisher, repablisbed, with a letmed pnftc% ' 
by Mr. Baker, 1708. 

' t There is a neat set of small ovals of the kings of Scotland, two inches sevei 
eighths, by two and one fourth ; and another set, engraved by several good hsod^ 
for Guthrie's " History of Scotland,'' 1767, 8vo. In the book intitled, " De Ori^ 
Moribus, et Rebus gestis Scotorum Libri decern ; Auctore Joanne Leslaso, "Btit^ 
1578, 4to. are a considerable number of medallions of the Scottish kings, aevenltf 
which Bollard has copied in his folio prints. The fine collection of coins md^ ONHI 
published by Anderson, at the expense of the Scottish parliament. Is a well knon 
work. But books of this kind are not strictly within my plan ; though some coOedtf 
place medallions, and even small coins, in the same portfolios with portraits. 

t The head of Malcolme, who succeeded Macbeth, is in a small round, witlioit 
the engraver's name. This, and the following heads of the Scottish kings thit M 
numbered, are of the same set. The inscriptions, which are literaUy taken, aveli 
square borders. The variations from the dates, as I find them in Dr. Blair's Ott 
oology, are inserted. In Holyrood House, at Edinburgh, are paintings of the kbf 
of Scotland from Fergus I. These were engraved and published in Scodand If 
Cooper. The series, from Fergus to Charles II. was the work of one band4 nif 
were painted when the Duke of York was resident in Scotland. Many of 1be» 
are said to have been taken from porters and common soldiers. They lUre in gemn] 
wretchedly executed. 

§ He was killed at Alnwick Castle, in Northumberland, by a soldier, who pn 
tended to deliver him the keys of that fortress on the point of his spear. The Pov 
family are said to have taken their name from this event. But Collins, in U 
** Peerage," informs us, that this family had nothing to do in the north till a ceo 
tary afterward, and Dr. Percy agrees with him. 



OF BtfOLAND. 33 

There is a curious print ipscribed, SAKCTA b^ 
BIARGARITA, Regina Scotiee ; engraved by Ckwet Rdguaw 
from a drawing of Castiliaj by command of Jarne^ the 
Second; but it certainly is an imaginary head. 

Sancta Margarita, &c. Gantrel so. large sheet. 

Saiot Margaret was queen of Malcolm III. ftumamed Canmore. 
She was sister of Edgar Atheling, and died A. D. 1093. One of her 
daughters, Maude, was married to Henry I. king of England. Rud- 
diman, speaking of Malcolm/ says, ^* D. Margaretam, Edmondi, 
Ferrei lateris cognominati. Regis Anglin proneptem, Uxorem duxit, 
anno 1070." 

" 2. DONALD-BANE,* by thfe support of the 
king of Norway, obtayned the crown. Anno 1092 
(1093) ; but after 6 monthes was deposed by Dun- 
can, base sone to king Malcolme, whom by treasone 
he slew, and againe raigning 3 y. was lastly cast in 
prison by Edgar, (and) ther died. 

" 3. DUNCAN, base son to king Malcolme, sup- 
ported by William Rufus, obtayned the crowne from 
Donald his uncle, and rayned one yere and six 
monthes, with such cruelties towards his subjects, 
y*. Ma^pender E. of Memes slew (l;iim), and re- 
established K. Donald. 

" 4. EDGAR, the thirde son of king Malcolme, 
and first anoynted king of Scotland, a just and godly 
prince, was crowned at Scone in An**. llOlf (1097). 
He raigned in great quietnes the space of nyne yeres, 
and died at Dundee, Anno 1110. 

*' 5. ALEXANDER I. surnamed the Feirce, and iio 
brother to king Edgar, in the beginning of his raigne 
was much disquieted by the rebellions of his barons ; 
but, suppressing both them and other robbers of his 

* The seventh of the name of Donald. 
t Probabljr a mistake of the engrarer. 

TOL. 1. F 



34 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Bigan people, raigned . 17 y . and died without issue 1 125 

i^U (1124)." 

DAVID I. in Pinkertons Scotch History. 

" 6. David i. brother to Alexander, began his' 
raigne 1124. He built 15 abbays, and erected 4 
bishoprickes ; namly, Rosse, Brechin, Dunkeld, and 
Dublane ; wherein he was so bountiful y* the crownc 
was thereby much impayred : he new waled Car- 
leill : he raigned 29 y." 

MALCOLM IV. in Pinkerton's Scotch Hisfory. 

" 7. Malcolme IV. surnamed the Mayden, at 9 
yeres of age was crowned. He ayded H. of England 
against Lewis the 6. k. of France, and resigned his 
tittle for him and his successors to Northumberland. 
He raigned 12 yeres, and was buried at Dumferme- 
ling, 1185(1165). 

" 8. WILLIAM, brother to Malcolme, was crowned 
1 197 (1 165), taken prisoner at Alnwick and sent into 
Norm, to k. H. 2^. to whom he did homage for the 
kingdom of Scotland, and delivered the castles of 
Barwick, Edenborow, Roxburgh, and Striveling, 
erected the bish. of Argill; raigned 49 y. 

" 9. ALEXANDER the IL began to raign in 
Anno 1219 (1214). He wan the city of Carleill from 
Hen. 3"*. king of England, which was againe delivered 
upon exchange for Barwick. He raigned 35 yeres, 
and died aged 51, and was buried at Melros, Anno 
1242. 

'' 10. ALEXANDER III. at 9 yeres was crowded, 
1249 : against him rose the Cumings, lords of S(X)t- 
land, which imprisoned (him) at Striveling, whence 
he was delivered by his subjectes. He was slaine by 



OF ENGLAN D. 35 

^fall from his horse, April 10, 1290, having raigned Bepia 

'in 99dfc their 

42yeres. * Reigns. 

The two following heads may have a place here, as father and 
mother of the next king. 

JOHANNES DE BALLIOLO, pater Johannis de 
Balliolo regis Scot o rum ; generis nobilitate^ virtute^Jide^ 
fnetdtCy clarissimus ; Fundator Collegii Ballioknsis. M, 
Burghers so. 

Johannes Balliol, &c. Fundator Coll. BalliO" 
lensisy Anno Dom. 1263. 

, I have heard it asserted, that the portrait of John Baliol was 
drawn from a blacksmith, who lived in Oxford ; but of this I have 
no direct proof. * ^ 

John Lord Balliol, in the Oxford Almanack^ 
1742. 

DERVORGILLA,t ,fili(^ Alani comitis Galvidi^py 
uj^or Johannis de Balliolo^ fundatrix collegii Balliolen- 
sis. M. Burghers sc. 

Dervorgilla, &c. Faberf. large 4to. mezz.^ 

Dervorgilla Lady Balliol. Parker sc. 

m 

* According to other accounts, 37 years ; then followed an interregnum of several 
years. This prince married a daughter of Henry III. king of England^ 

t Sometimes written Devorgiida. 

X The picture in the Oxford gallery, whence the print of Dervorgilla was taken, 
was drawn from Jenny Reeks, an apothecary's daughter at Oxford, who was 
esteemed a beauty. She afterward married Mr, Mogg, who was rector of Stockton 
in Warwickshire, and of Inkborougji in Worcestershire. Her husband, dying, left 
ber the advowson of Stockton ; for the sake of which one Allen, a buccaneer, and 
afterward a clergyman, courted her, and obtained the advowson; of which he 
had no sooner got possession, than he brought from Jamaica a wife and several 
cbildren.$ 

. $ I am obliged for this anecdote, and on other accounts, to my late worthy 
riend, the learned and ingenious Mr. William Huddesford, sometime keeper of 
Ubniole*s Miiseura. 

Myitis ille bonis flebilis occidit ; 

Nulli flebilior quam mihi. 




Uidr 



36 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

"11. John Balltol, croyrned at Scone, Novemb. 
30, 1292. He first did homage to E. I. king of 
England, for his kingdom, at Newcastle, and after- 
wards resigned it wholye to him. He was impri* 
soned at London, but thence released, went into 
Nor. and ther died." 

John Baliol* was competitor with Robert Brace for the crown 
of Scotland. Bruce was the son of Isabel, second daughter of 
David earl of Huntingdon ; and Baliol the grandson of Margaret, 
the eldest daughter. Bruce alleged that his claim was not only 
founded in consanguinity, but that Alexander had moreover declared 
hhn his heir. 

ROBERTUS BRUCEUS ; Boitardf. h. sh. He 
is represented in the ornaments, killing Cummin. 

Robert Bruce, grandson of the competitor with Baliol, stabbed 
John Cummin, a powerful nobleman who opposed him in his design 
of throwing o£P the English yoke, in the Cloysters f of the Grey 
Friars at Dumfries; upon which he proceeded to make* himself 
master of the kingdom, and took possession of the thtone. His 
great valour and conduct in the decisive battle of Bannockbum 
have been much extolled. 

«5Juiie, « 12. ROBERT BRUCE, crowned at Scone 
March 27, 1306. Unto him John Balliol resided 
all his right to the crowne of Scotland : the like did 
also E. III. of England. He raigned 24 y. and died 
at Cardos, July 7, 1329, requesting his hart to be 
buried at Jerusalem.'* 

His will was accordingly fulfilled by Sir James Douglas,:^ ancestor 
of the duke of Queensberry^ who made a pilgnmage thither on pur- 

* John Balliol, son of Hugh Baron of Biwell (K. Hen. td). He married Dei^ 
vorgilla, one of the three daughters to Allan of Galwaj, a great baron in Scotland, 
by Margaret, eldest sister of John Scot, the last earl of Chester, and one of the heirt 
of David, sometime earl of Huntingdon. 

t Several authors say be was kiiled before the altar. 

% Sir James Douglas, if he had any children, ought to hate been oftlled tbe 
ancestor of Lord Doyglas of Forfar, not of the duke of Queentberry. Hit |nJ* 
grimage to (he Holy-Land is now known to have b«ea ideal ; he was killed fitt- 
ing against the Saracens in Spaip. — ^Loref Hailcb 



1314. 



OF ENGLAND. 37 

]K)se. This p%rimage is commemcorated in hit grace^s armft; in Be|iHi 
liluch is a hearty gules, crowned with an imperial crown. ^?' 

" 13. EDWARD BALLIOL, asysted by E. 3. 
king g( England, forced younge king David into 
France, and was himself crowned at Scone, Septem. 
24 (27), Anno 1332. In great trebles, he raigned 4 
yeres, and then resigned his right to king Edward 3. 
Anno 1355." 

Robert Bruce, and Edward Baliol, neither of whom was lawfully 
possessed of the crown, are sometimes left out of the series of the 
longs. 

" 14. DAVID 2. at 7 yeres, was crowned Novemb. 
22, 1331 (1329). In his second yere, he was forced 
into Fraunce, where he remaigned 9 yeres : yet 
thence returning, recovered his kingdom, but was 
taken in battaill by the English, and with y™ re- 
teyned 11 y. raigned 30 ye. Obit. 1370. set. 59." 

ROBERT II. in PinkertorCs Scotch History. Ro- 
berts sc. 

" 15. Robert ii. and first Steward,* at the age 
ef 47 yere was crowned king at Scoen, the 25 of 
March, A"*. 1370. He fortunatly fought against the 
English. He raigned 16 yeres, and died at Dundo- 
bald the 19. of April, 1390, and is buried at Scone." 

ROBERTUS III. holding a jewel in his hand; Ato. 

" 16. ROBERT III. was crowned king at Scone, 
the 15. August, 1390. He raigned 16 yeres, and 
died in melancholy for grief of his son David's violent 
death, and his other son James captivity in England, 
Anno 1408. His body was buried in Pasley Ab. 
(Abbey)." 

* The title of Steward was an appendage to the estate and office of the steward 
of Scotland, which was settled on this family. — There is another head of Robert II. 
in a cap, with a jewel in the front. 



38 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Began "17. JAMES I. the inscription torn ojf." 

their ^ -^ 

i^'g»»- James I. Ato. one of the set of Stitarts.* 

* 

James i. in Noble Authors, by Park, 1806. Bocqud. 

. JACOBUS dei Gratia Sector, etc. Rex. Whok 
lengthy with pointed shoes. Arms supported by a stag. 

Jacobus dei Gratia, copied from the last, in Icom- 
graphia Scotica. Adam sc. 

These scarce prints were first published in " Inscriptiones Histo^ 
ricee Regum Scotorum," &c. Joh. Jonstono, Abredonense, Scoto 
Authore. Amstel. Excudebat Cornelius Cleessonius, Andrseo Hartio, 
Bibliopolse Edemburgensi, 1602. The set begins with Robert II. 
and ends with James VI. In 1603 they were republished with 
alterations, llie short biographical inscription under each head was 
originally in Latin, but afterward in English : the following is under 
the head of James the First: / 

'^ James I. began to reigne in the yeire of the warld 5394, in the 
yeire of Christ 1424.t He was a gude, learned, vertuous, and just 
prince. He married Jeane, daughter to John duke of Summerset, 
and Marquis Dorcet, sonne to John of Ghent, &c. He was slaine 
at Perth traiterously, by Walter earl of Athol, and Robert Grahame, 
&c. in the 31. yere of his reigne." 

This king was seized during a truce, in the latter end of the reign 
of Henry IV, and ungenerously detained a prisoner in England 
almost nineteen years. 

JANE Queen of Scotland, ann. dom. 1424; JOHN 
Earl of Somerset, anno 1397 ; ttvo small ovals, in one 
plate ; very scarce. This earl hath been already mo- 
tioned. 

a 

Jane, Queen of Scotland, daughter of John 
Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, by Margaret, daughter 
of Tho. Earl of Kent. J. Thane, 1794. 

* There are prints of five Scottish kings of the name of James, engraved by Gay- 
wood, for Drummond*s " History of Scotland." 

t In the year of the Julian period 6119, and of Christ 1406, according to Dr^ 
Blair. 



OF ENGLAND. 39 

Jaue* queen of Scotland was daughter of John earl of Somerset, Beean 
atad Catharine/daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent. She was ^^' 
married to James I. the 2d of February, 1424, at the priory of St 
Hary Overy, in Southwark, The match was concluded with the 
^(msent of the Scots nation. 

JAMES II. 8vo. Oaywood. 

James ii. in the set of the. Stuarts^ Ato. 
• " 18. James u. at the age of 6 yeres, was crowned 
k. at Scone, Anno 1436 (1437). He was slaine at 
the siege of Roxburgh, the 3. of Aug. 1460, in the 
yere of his age 29, and of his raigne twenty-foure, 
and was buried at Holy-Rode House." 

JAMES III. from the original at Keiisington. J. 
Herbert, 1796. 

James in. kneeling ; from the picture at Kensington. 
A. Birrell so. 1796. 

Jacobus hi. rea^ Scotorum; cap and feather ; Mo, 

" 19. James 111. at 7 yeres of age, was crowned 
king at Kelso, amongst his army, Anno 1460. He 
followed lascivious counsell ; for which he was first 
imprisoned at Edenborough, by his nobles, and after 
29 y. raigne, slaine by them at Bannockesboren, 
1488." 

He was a prince of a mean genius ; was remarkable for slighting* 
the nobility, and lavishing his favours upon persons of low birth and 
education. 

* She is sometimes called Joan, and in Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops, 
p. 112, Jehane. In Fuller's Worthies, under London, p. 202, it is observed, that 
Joan, in later times, hath been accounted a coarse and homely name, and that some 
proverbs of contempt have been thrown upon it, which occasioned its being mollified 
into Jane. But Jane occurs in Leland's Collectanea, and in Holinshed, Stow, and 
Speed. In the 32 of Elizabeth, it was agreed by the Court of King's Bench, to be 
all one with Joan jt and they are both the feminine of John, and answer to Joanna 
in the Latin. I have not observed, that Jane Shore any where occurs under the 
name of Joan. 

t See Camden's Remains, by Philipot, p. 12^. 



40 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

•a JAMES IV. from the picture at Kensington. J. 
^ Herbert, 1796. 

James iv. in Noble Authors, by Park, 1806. Gt- 
rimia sc. 

James iv. with Margaret, eldest daughter rff^ 
Henry 7th of England: small ovals; rare. 

fac simile copy of the above. J. Ihtm, 

1796. 

James iv. worthy prince, 8cc. Ato. Sold by Ccm^ 
ton Holland. 

Jacobus iiii. Rex Scotorum ; a thistle in hisl^ \ 
hand. Ato. ' 

James the Fourth, erminedrobe; %vo. 

Jaques IV. a bust; Vander Werff p. G. VakkK* \ 
h. sh. \ 

** James the Fourth, king of Scotland, a worthy pnnce; he 
raigned 25 years ; slaine at Floyden Field, 1513. Mi, 39. He lIla^ 
ried Margaret, eldest daughter to Henry VII." Stent e±c. 4/o. 

Bishop Fox advised Henry VII. to marry his eldest daughter t» 
James IV. and his youngest to Lewis XII. of France, with a vienr 
to the contingency of a union of the crowns of England and Sco^ 
land. — It is remarkable, that James I. II. III. and IV. who suc- 
ceeded each other in the throne, died unnatural deaths. The last 
of these kings wrote a book on the Apocalypse,* as did also 
James VI. 

See the series of the kings of Scotland continued in the reign of 
Henry VIII. &c. 

* James IV. nerer wrote on the Apocalypse. — Lord HmUt. 



OF ENGLAND. 41 

CLASS 11. 

GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE. 

See Thomas Becket, WUliam of Widkham, John Alcock, and 
William Waynfleety who were all lords chancellors^ in the fourth class, 
'^ntb Hhe clergy. See also Walter Stapledon» lord treasurer jU> Ed^- 
^imd III. in the same class. 

HENRICUS DE MONMOUTH, vulgo diet, (de) 
Torto Collo, Dux Lancastriae, Fund^. Coll. Corporis 
Ckristi, Cantab. 1351 ; Faberf. large Ato. mezx. 

Henry Duke of Lancaster, in Harding's Shah- 
^re. 

Henry Dus:£ o^ Lancaster, in " Noble Authors^'' 
by Parky 1806. Gerirma. 

Henry Duke of Lancaster; ovalj with view of 
Chrisfs College, in Wilsons Cambridge. 

Henry Plantagenet, duke of Lancaster, who descended from a Creat. 
younger son of Henry HI. signahzed himself as a soldier and a * 
statesman ; having accompanied Edward III. in most of his expe-> 
ditions, and acquitted himself with reputation in several treaties and 
nnbassies. In the 11th year of Edward, he was created earl of 
Deihy; and upon the death of his father, in 1345, he became earl 
of Lancaster and Leicester, and high steward of England : his re- 
dnue was numerous and splendid; and he is supposed to have 
spent above a hundred pounds a day, a great sum in that age. A 
few such powerful peers as thU falling into the. contrary scale to 
that of the crown, have, on some occasions, been known to over- 
poise it. He died of the pestilence, at Leicester, 1361, and was 
buried there, in the collegiate church of St. Mary. Mr. Masters, 
in his valuable '' History of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge,'^ 
conects the date of his creation as duke of Lancaster, in which 
Heylin and others are mistaken. It was, undoubtedly, in the 25th 
of Edward IIL 

HENRY STAFFORD, duke of Buckingham ; J. 
Houbraken sc. Anist. 1745. From a picture at Mag- 
ialm College, Cambridge. Illust. Head. 

VOL. I. G 



42 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, lord high-constable of 
England, in the reign of Edward I V.» was descended from a soa 
of Edward III. He had great talents, which he is said to have 
prostituted to the infamous purposes of Richard III. and to have 
bad a principal share in liis usurpation* It ia certain that he bid 
many honours and preferments conferred upon him by BidudL 
Afterward, being apprehensive that that prince meditated Us ds^ 
struction, he conspired to set the earl of Ridmiond on die Aurm} 
for which he was beheaded, 1484.t 

DUKE OF AUMERLE, son to the duke of YorL 
E. Harding, Jun. sc. From a limning in the British 
Museum. 

Edward Langley, son of Edmond duke of York, fifth son of 
Edward III. and nephew to Thomas duke of Gloucester, upon die 
murder of his uncle, to which he is said to have been instrumoital, 
obtained the dukedom, 1397; and for treason to Henry IV. mi 
divested of it. He was killed at the battle of Agmcourt, 1415. 

Humphry Stafford, duke of Buckingham. J^ 
Allen. W. Bond. 

Humphry Stafford, son of Edmund and Anne, daughter o^' 
Thomas duke of Gloucester, was created duke of Buckingfaan^j 
1445, and obtained from Heury VII. a special grant unto himwf^ 
and his heirs, for precedence above all dukes whatever, exceptbf 
such as were of the blood royal. But on this elevation, great %. 
putes arose between him and Henry duke of Warwick, to whom % 
king had given precedence next before him; for the adjostuj 
whereof there was a special act of parliament, that they shonff 
have precedence by turn, the one one year and the other next, te 
The duke of Buckingham did not long enjoy his advancement; wf 
was slain at the battle of Northampton, 1460. -i 

EDWARD PLANTAGENET, son to Geotg^ 
duke of Clarence. E. Harding^ jun. sc. Prom t 
drawing in the British Museum. ^ 



* He b said, bj seyeral of qar historians, to iiave been appi^nted loni U^ 
constable by Richard III. He was first advanced to that office ia thq ran fld 
Edw. IV. in which he was soccecded by Tha Loid Stanley, 1 Rich. HI. Tiil 
Spelman. Gloss, sub voce Comstabulahius. 

t This is Edward duke of Buckingham : the inscription on Houbrakea's print ii 
erroneous. 



OF ENGLAND. 43 

Edward Plantagenet ; an outUnCj in Lord Or- 
ford's Works, 4to. 

Tlusrizmocent and unfortunate prince, who had been reared from 
in&ncy in prison, fell a sacrifice to the jealous policy of Henry VII. 
who never conceived himself in safety on the throne while a Plan- 
tagenet remained alive. A pretext was made of his conspiring with 
Poddn Waifoeck in designs to disturb the government; and, bein^ 
amigned for high treason, he was condemned and beheaded on 
Tower HiU, 1499. 

JOHN HOLLAND, duke of Exeter. S. Harding 
<wr. ifi Harding^ s Shakspeare, Rich. IL 

John Holland, &c. in Strut fs " Regal AntiqJ** 
/^24— 26. 

John Holland was created ^rl of Huntington, 1388, and duke 
of Exeter, 1398. But after the deposal of Richard II. he was ad- 
judged in parliament to lose his honours and lands. He afterward 
jcnned his brother/ {he earl of Kent, in a conspiracy against Henry 
IV. ; and whilst at supper at a friend's house; he was seized and 
conveyed- to Plessey, where his head was cut off, 1416 ; in Ihat very 
place where the duke of Gloucester had been treacherously taken 
bv Kins: Richaird. 

raOMAS DUKE OF GLOUCESTER R.G«,. 
frey sc. in the " Antiquarian Repository.*' 

Thomas Duke of Gloucester ; in Strutfs " -Re- 
gal Afkiquittes,'' N"* 67. 

Thomas of Woodstock was the seventh and youngest son of 
Edward III. and was by his nephew Richard II. created dtik'e of 
Gloucester and lord high constable in 1386. He was a man o^ 
valour, but turbulent and ambitious, of extreme passion and obsti- 
nacy : findii^ that both resentment and jealousy on the part of the 
king prevented him from acquiring authority, he determined to re- 
venge himself on those in favour, and often affected to speak con- 
temptuously of the king and government He was unexpectedly 
arrested and carried over to Calais, where he was smothered between 
two {hIIows by lus keepers, 1397. 

JOHN HOWARD, first duke of Norfolk. Sche- 
neker sc. in Harding's Shakspeare. 



44 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

John Howard, &c. with his autograph. J. Thane. ] 
John Howard; small circle. Colnaghi. 1809. 

Sir John Howard, the son of Sir Robert Howard, Knt. and Maiy, 
eldest daughter of Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk^ in yibxm 
right he was created duke of Norfolk by King Richard IH. in 14fi[3. 
He distinguished himself in the cabinet as well as in the wan of 
Henry VI. and Edward IV. ; and for his great services was kni^ited 
in 1473, made captain-general of the king's fleet, and installed 
knight of the garter ; and was no less attached to Richard HI. bf 
whom he was also made earl marshall, lord high admiral of Eo^ ; 
land, &c. He was slain fighting for Richard at the battle of Bos- 
worth Field, Aug. 22, 1485, and was buried in the abbey church at 
Thetford. The following well-known lines were set on bis gate the ; 
night before the battle : 

" Jack of Norfolk, be not too bold. 

For PicoPi tby master, b bought and sold." 

Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk; when earl of ^ 
Surrey, 1483, with autograph. C. Hall so. 1791. 

Thomas Howard, 2d duke of Norfolk, was created earl of Sairey r 
at the same time his father was created duke of Norfolk, and was 1 
taken prisoner at Bosworth Field, fighting in the cause of Richard ^ 
IIL He was confined for three years and a half in the Tower of j 
London by Henry VIL; but being a person of great prudence, \ 
gravity, and courtesy, was restored to his honours and digiiity, and 
had the office of lord treasurer and lord high admiral conferred iq)o& 
him. He particularly signalized himself at the battle of FloddeO) 
for which service he was advanced to the. dignity of duke of Nor- j 
folk, 1513. In 1521, he performed the office of lord high-stewaid \ 
on the trial of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham ; and gave i 
sentence of death on him, whereat he was so much concerned as to r 
shed tears. — He made earnest suit to King Henry VIII. at Kdi- 
mond, that he plight, in respect to his advanced s^e, resign his office 
of lord treasurer of England. The king was unwilling to part with 
so able a minister ; but his importunity at length prevailing, he in- 
stantly, on receiving the staff from the father, told him he would de- 
liver it where he should think it best bestowed ; and then calling his 
son (the earl of Surrey, at the time playing at bowls on the green), 
gave it him, December 4, 1522. The duke died at Framlingham 
Castle, May 21, 1524, and was buried in the priory of .Thetfixd, 



OF ENGLAND. 45 

vbence his bones were removed at the dissolution to Framlingham. 
Die description of his monument is preserved in Blomefield's Nor- 
folk. See the reign of Henry VIII. 

JOHN BEAUFORT, first duke of Somerset. 
Thane. 

' John de Beaufort, the second natural son of John duke of Lan- 
caster, was eminently conspicuous in most of the military cam- 
paigns in the reigns of Henry V. and VL, and by the latter was 
cieated duke of Somerset and earl of Kendal, 1442. Ob. 1444; 
buried in Winbom Minster, Dorsetshire. He manried Margaret, 
daughter of Sir John Beauchamp, of Bletshoe, by whom he had a 
daughter, named Margaret, the grandmother of Henry VH. 

THOMAS HOLLAND, duke of Surrey; in 
Strut fs " Regal Antiquities T plates XXIV. XXV. 
and XXVL 

DuKB OF Surrey. E. Harding so. in Harding's 
Shakspedre. 

Thomas Holland, son and heir of Thomas earl of Kent, by Alice, 
sister of Richard Fitz- Allan, earl of Arundel, &c. was created duke 
of Surrey by Richard II. 1398 ; but in the early part of the reign of 
Henry IV. he forfeited his life and honours, by conspiring with the 
duke of Aumerle and Exeter, earl of Salisbury, &c. against the life 
of the king. Ob. 1401. 

HENRY BEAUCHAMP, duke of Warwick; small 
whole lengthy in Lord Orford's Works, 4to. 

Henry Beauchamp, son of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, 
by his second wife, Isabel, daughter of Thomas earl of Gloucester, 
was a great favourite of Henry VI. and by him created duke of 
Warwick, 1444, with precedence next to the duke of Norfolk, and 
before the duke of Buckingham ; which so extremely displeased the 
duke, that an act of parliament was passed, declaring they should 
take place of each other by turn every year. He was also by 
Henry himself crowned King of Wight. These high honours he did 
not long enjoy, dying on the 11th of June, 1445, when only twenty- 
two years of age. 

RICARDUS FITZ-ALLAN, Comes ArundelHse, 
&c. Crotvn on his head, kneeling, with his Countess 
Eleanor. J. Basire sculp. 



46 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Richard Fitz- Allan, 5th earl of Arundel^ earl of Warran and 
Surrey by right of his mother, was one of the most distinguished 
men in the reign of Edward III. He was in the expedition to Flan- 
ders, and in sereral of the French wars, particularly at the battle of 
Cressy. He filled many high offices, and execut^ several import 
tant embassies. Ob. 1376. His first wife was Isabel, dau^ter to 
Hugh Lord Despenser, from whom he was divorced : bis teiecond 
was Eleanor, daughter of Henry earl of Lancaster. 

THOMAS OF BROTHERTON, eari of Norfolk j 
in StnUt's " Regal Antiquities.'' 

Thomas Plantagenet, sumamed de Brotherton» from the place of 
his birth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, where his mother. Queen 
Margaret, second wife to King Edward I. when a hunting, was de- 
livered. He was by his brother Edward II. created earl of Norfolk, 
1315, and soon afterward earl marshal of England. Ob. 1338, and 
buried in the abbey of St. Edmunds Bury. 

HENRY PERCY, earl of Northumberland ; Clamp 
sc. in Harding's Shakspeare. 

Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland; in Strutfs 
" Regal Antiquities r plates XXVII. XXVIII. XXLX. 
and XXXIII. 

Henry Percy was made earl marshal of England at the coronation 
of Richard II. anno 1377, and at the same time created earl of 
Northumberland. After a long series of public services, he ¥ra8 ba- 
nished the realm, for reflecting i^)on the unconstitutional meastdres 
at that time pursued. He immediately joined with Henry duke of 
Lancaster, and assisted him in his advancement to the throne.-^Oir 
the accession of Henry IV. he was raised to the high o£Bce of con- 
stable of England for life. At the battie of Homilden, he gained 8 
complete victory over the Scots army ; but the king took all the 
prisoners (which the earl regarded as his right)^ intending to detaur 
diem^ that he might make a more advantageous peace with Scot^ 
land. The earl, enraged at this act of injustice and ingratitude, aa 
he conceived it, for raising Henry to the throne, joined Edmond 
Mortimer, earl of March, Owen Glendower, and other disaffected 
persons, in a plan to depose Henry : but at the battle of Shrews- 
bury the insurgents were defeated, with the loss of the eatl's son, 
the celebrated Hotspur. Northumberland was afterward paidoBMl> 



OF ENGLAND. 47 

bat deprived of his honoura and estates, though they w^re at length 
mtorad to him again. Reflecting on the death of his son, and 
ioding himself slighted by the king, he joined With Thomas Mow- 
bray, son of the duke of Norfolk, and Scrope, archbishop of York, 
vho lost atmr lives : the earl was forced to seek refuge in Scotland, 
and was slain at Branham Moor, near Haslewood, 1407. 

ROBERT VERB, earl of Oxford, with Philippa 
de Courcy, his countess ; an old print, 4to. 

Robert Vsrb, &c. p'oftle in an aval. Hall sc. 
From the original at the Hon. Tho. Walpok's. 

Robert, the ninth earl of Oxford, a great favourite of Richard IL 
was created marquis of Dublin and duke of Ireland : but after some 
time enjoying the royal favour, his insolence and ambition became 
mtolerable ; his absolute rule and authority excited the indignation 
of the nobility, which terminated in his being accused of high trea- 
son, and sentenced to banishment. He died at London, 1392, of 
a wound received by a wild boar, in great distress. His wife yt^a 
Philippa, daughter of Ingelram, earl of Bedford, whom in the height 
of his prosperity he forsook. 

EARL OF SALISBURY. S. Harding del et sculp. 
Frtum the original in the British Museum. 

Earl of Salisburt ; in Strutfs " Regal Antiqui- 
ties T plates 24 — 27. 

John de Montacute, the third earl of Salisbury, was almost the 
pnly temporal nobleman that remained firm to King Richard after 
the invasion of the duke of Lancaster. When Richard was deposed, 
he joined in a plan for his restoration ; which being discovered, he, 
wi^ the earl of Kent and others, was seized by the citizens at Ciren- 
cester, who beheaded them in 1400. 

TKOMAS MONTACUTE, earl of Salisbury; 
vhole length, standing in armour ; John Ltdgate pre- 
senting him with a book ; in StrutCs " Regal Antiqui- 
tksr N-XLV. 

Thomas, 4th earl of Salisbury, was concerned in most of the 
mihtary exploits during the reign of Henry V. ' He died in the ser-* 
Tice of his country, being mortally wounded when commanding the 
Engtish army at the siege of Orleans, 1428. 



60 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Ports, constable, of Dover, and sheriff of the said county ; and beinj^ 
a person of so great power, at the landing of William the Conqueror, 
King Harold, who was then in the North, sent him a letter to raise 
all the forces under his command, to withstand the invader. And 
when the king came up to Oppose the Conqueror, the said Bertram, 
.who had an eminent command in the battle, received so many .wounds, 
that soon after he. died thereof;* and since which time, through the 
mercy of Ood, the said family, in a direct male line, have continued 
at Ashbumham afo^ssdd ; and are the present possessors thereof." 
The portrait is in Guillim's " Heraldry," fol. 

SIR JOHN OLDECASTLE, the worthy Lorde 
Cobham, &c. fnmi the " Bref Chrmycle concemynge 
his Examinacyon and Dedth,^' by Bale ; whole length ; 
8vo. This has been copied in the new edition of the 
" Bref ChronycU;' 1 729. . 

Lord Cobham, in a fur gown, 12mo. There is a 
small head ofhim^ which nearly resembles this^ in Clark^s 
" Marrow of Ecclesiastical History."^ 

Lord Cobham ; in the " Royal and Noble Authors,'' 
by Park. Gerimia sc. 

Sir John Oldcastle married the niece and heiress of Lord Cobham^ 
and, upon his marriage, assumed that title. He was the chief of the 
Lollards, or disciples of Wicliffe, in the reign of Henry V. The pro- 
digious increase of that sect was sufficiently alarming to the govern- 
ment, but much more so with a man of spirit and enterprise at the 
head of it. The king, with whom he had been in favour, tried every 
gentle method of bringing him back to the church ; but he was in- 
flexible. He was burnt in St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, in Feb. 1418, and 
was said to have died in expectation of rising the third day.f 

* He wasi according to other accounts, beheaded by command, of William tb^ 
Conqueror. See Coilins's ** Peerage," artic. Ashburnham. 

t Sir John Oldcastle was exposed as a buffoon character, by some Roman-Catholic 
poet, in an old play, entitled, ** The famous Victories of Henry V. containing the 
honorable Battaile of Agiucourt ;" in which the scene opens with prince Henry's 
robberies; and Sir John Oldcastle is mentioned as one of his gang. As Shalupeare 
seems to have borrowed some hints from this play, it gave occasion to the mistake, 
that Sir John Oldcastle was originally the droll of his historical play of Henry IV. 
and that he changed his name to Falstaif. 




«,...*«>.',«.....,'">«"■'"«''"""■' 



OF ENGLAND. 51 

' ," JHON TALBOT, of the noble familie of Sheros- 
berie,'*'' 8^c. a most curious prints with an ornamented 
border, in the Bodleian Library. It appears to be very 
ancient, and is much damaged. It is evidently the ori- 
ginal of that in Andrew Thevet's " Lives,'' fol. 282. The 
date is " M. HIP XLIII." On the blade of the sword 
is this barbarous inscription; " Sum Talbottipro vincere 
Inimico meo'' Others give it " Inimicos meos.^' After 
a summary of his history under the portrait, it is said, 
" his pourtraicture, as I represente it to you, was tafcen 
out of the pallace which the said John Talbot had built.'' 
Pictures of this earl and his consort are in the gallery 
of Castle- Ashby, in Northamptonshire, and judged 
by Mr. Walpole to be the most antient oil paintings 
in England. 

John Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, &c. great mar- 
shal to King Henry VI. of his realm of France, who 
died in the battle of Bourdeatuv, with Lord Viscount 
IdslCy his son, 1453, and is buried at Roan in Nor-^ 
m&ndy. T. Vecill sc; 4to, 

Jban Talbot, Capitaine Anglois; in And. Thevet. 
4t. 



iTaken from an old MS. in the possession of Louisa de Savoy, 
mflbsx of Francis the First, king of France. His picture was also 
^ be 9een in 1580, at Castle, built by him. 

John Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury. /. Basire sc. 
two different. 

John Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury. J. Parker sc. 
in Harding's Shakspeare. 

Tliis great general, who was for near twenty-four years the terror 
•iid soioiiigiB of France, was victorious in no less than forty battles 
and skirmishes. The generaUty of our historians agree in his being 
loDed at the siege of Chastillion, after he had taken BofUideaux ; 
though his epitaph informs us, that he was killed in the battle of 



52 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Bomdaatix. He was above -eighty years of iige at tfaa time of hii 
death. The duke of Shrewsbury, who died in 1718, was lineally 
descended from him ; so is the present earl of Shrewsbury. Se^ 
Ghraoger's Letters, p. 313. 

ANTHONY WIDVILLE, Earl Rivers, attended 
by Caxton the printer, presenting his book to Edr 
ward IV. From a curious MS. in the archbisho^9 
library at Lambeth. In the same print are the parr 
traits of the queen, prince of Wales, ^c* That oftk 
prince, afterward Edward the Fifth, is the only one 
known of him. It was engraved by Vertue. — Frontis- 
piece to the " Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors!" 
Grignion sc. 

Anthony Wi dvillb, Earl Rivers. Clamp sc. in 
Harding's Shakspeare. 

Anthony Widvijlle, Earl Rivers, for ^^ Nohk 
Authors'' Birrel sc. 

Anthony Widville, Earl Rivers. Gerimia ^. 
in ^* Noble Authors," by Park. 

Anthony Widville, Earl Rivers, &c. in Strutfs 
■* Regal Antiquities^" 47. 

The Earl Rivers^f who was the most valiant and accomphsbed 
nobleman in the court of Henry the Fourth, had the care of the 
education of his nephew, the [i^ce of Wales. He was the greatest 
restorer and patron of learning among the nobiUty of his age, and 
translated himself several books from the French. That which he 
presented to the king was ** The Dictes and Sayinges of the Philo- 
sophers,*' which is said to have been the second or third book printed 
in England by Caxton.J It is dated Nov. 18, 1477. — ^Beheaded at 
Pontefract, by order of Richard the Third, 13 June, 1483, in the 
41st year of his age. 

^ I have inserted deacriptioBs of « lew prints of this l^ind, wfiicbf tbongli ^^Mj 
Imtorical coiupositions, may be considered as assembiages of portraits. 

t He frequently occurs in our histories under the title of Lord Scales. 

X If ** The Game of Cliess" was the first book printed by Caxton. this was tte 
third. See Ameses " History of Printing." 



OF ENGLAND. §3 

CLASS IV. 

THE CLERGY. 

JOHANNES Vin. Pont. max. /. Baptista de 
Covakriis sc. 8vo. 

Joannes 8. Wm. Richardson. 

The history of John VHI. or Pope Joan, if true, is a remaiicable 
instance of female frailty, and strength of parts, and a signd proof 
of what th^ sexjs cap^tei especially when proi](ipted by the tender 
passion, Some fmfEff^asfl^ tliat ste wa« bspm in Endand; but 
the generality a^eee'f^ Aq was a na^^ of Ments; scha that her 
&tlier was an Ei^iUsIl priest . fflia,. ^etj, tiarlf Ja liBi^.jBbgaged in 
an amour with fin ifidb^pi^ftiCy-friio becfioie h^ jbitpn I^e Eloisa, 
she proved a t^ wt sdudar, and joaa4j^'a great -prpgi^s in what- 
ever he taught hex. She attended her lover .to Athens, heard the 
professors lliere, and^ais to Ta|Md % pioSdenliy that when she re- 
moved to Homey .die faand fiew or npnis'.thatc^d equal her in the 
learning of the f^^ andespecially in <^vinit^. She, by her know- 
ledge and addrjSjS^ acquired so great respect and infiuen/pe, that she 
succeeded Leo Ijiy.? in the papal throne. She ciuiKted herself to be An^ 
{^ot with child lyy one of her domestics, and falling; suddenly in ^^- 
Jabour, as she was. going to the Lateran church, diexl upon the 
spot. She continued to pass for a man, with all but her lovers, to 
the time of her death. Such is the story of Joan ; which is ex- 
ti^mely improbable in itself, and is mentioned by no author who 
lived near the time. It is now generally, if not absolutely, given 
up, after it hath been tiioroughly lufted. Dr. Hutchinsqn, bishop 
of Down and Connor, is, I believe, the last author who has troubled 
himself on either side of the question.* He hath tacked a Disser- 
tation on Pope Joan, by way of postscript, to a sermon preached on 
tiie fifth of November, 1731, to which her story appears to have 
no relation. This occasioned the following stanza, written by an 
Irish wit: 

** God*s blessing be upon bis heart,! 
Who wrote the book of Witches, 
And proved Joan in petticoats 
The same with John in breeches;^' 

* Joan was first mentioned b^ Marianas ScoUib, a writer of the eleventh century, 
t " God's blessing be upon. her. heart/' b an expression applied to the queen in 
the sermon here mentioned. 



} 



} 



^^^^^F 


^^M 




i^fl 




i^mi 




k -^ ^^.Uli^^^^^^ll 




V.HuiH^^ll 




_^Jill^^BI 






56 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

8vo ; the latter is dated 1585. The bett set ib thfllt by Phil. Oalk, 
Antverp, 1572, a pot folio. 

Nicholas Breakspear, who, upon his advancement to the pope- 
dom, assumed the name of Adrian IV. was, in the early part of his 
Kfe, reduced to the necessity of submitting to servile offices for 
bread. He studied in France, where, though he laboured under 
the pressures of poverty, he made a wonderful progress in learning. 
He was, for his merit, chosen abbot of St. Rufus, in Provence; 
and, in 1146, made a cardinaL In 1154, he succeeded Anastasius 
the Fourth in the pontificate. He told one of his intimate friends, 
that all the hardships of his life were nothing in comparison of the 
burden of the papal orown. Such were the difficulties and sorrows 
which he had experienced, that he had been, as he expressed it, 
'' strained through the limbec of affliction." Frederic, king of the 
Romans, at an interview with this pope in Italy, condescended to 
hold his stirrup, while he mounted his horse. He was the only 
Englishman that ever sat in St. Peter's chair.* Ob. 1 Sept. 1 159. 

ST. THOMAS BECKET, episc. Cantuariensis et 
Martyr; HoUarf. 1647, 12^0^ 

There is a neat small oval of him, by L. F. Lucas 
Vorsterman. 

St. Thomas Becket, with emblems^ folio. Wester- 
hout sc. 

St. Thomas Becket, kneeling before the altar. 
G. Hurst sc. octavo. 

St. Thomas Becket's Murder, fol. J. Carter sc. 

St. Thomas Becket, ditto. W. Fowler. 

St. Thomas Becket, oval. Van-Eyck. Thane. 

St. Thomas Cantuariensis, wfiole length; mitre^ 
crosier^ 8gc. 8t;o. neat^ scarce. 

This haughty prelate, who aimed at papal supremacy in England, 
began the famous controversy between the crown and the mitre, in 
the reign of Henry the Second ; which was ended by his assassina-^ 

• See " Biographia Brit." p. 39. Fuller, in bis •' Worthies,** p. 13, tells us, 
that there were fonf popes who were Englishmen ; but he does not mention their 
names. 




rrr/iii , 



':w-lArH,d.mh^Yrh/lw.-:\"^iy!vja,/ 




'fiaului' 4-'^ 



r--'.XJ}\,,Uns<\'!'^-^\''lU.>r.f~-,,X-rklh,.',-.\-USlnJ 



OF ENGLAND. 57 

tiopy 29 Dec. U70p He was canonized two years after. The pro- 
£giou8 confluence of pilgrims to his shrine may be jessed at by 
the deep channels worn in the marble pavement of the cathedral 
at Canterbury, where they offered their gifts and their devotions. 
Forty-eight years after his decease, a controversy was started among 
the doctors of the Sorbonne, whether he was saved or damned ; and 
in the reign of Henry VIII. he was cited to appear in court, and 
tried and condemned as a traitor. 

Hif ^* Life** was written in seven volumes, by Roger, abbot of 
Gffowlaiid, who spent fifteen years in composing it.* 

Lord Lyttelton, in his admirable character of Becket, has repre- 
sented him in such strong and various lights, that he has left us 
at a loss to determine, whether we more admire the polished cour- 
tier and the able statesman, or detest the haughty and bigoted 
t»Telat$ and oatnigeous incendiary. 



HUGO DE BALSAM, episc. Eliensisy Sgc. Fund'', consec, 
Lmus St*. Pet. A.D. 1265. Faberf. large 4to. ?nezz. {^^^^ 

Hugo de Balsam, when subprior of the convent of Ely, was 
elected bishop of that see, by the monks, in opposition to the earnest 
KGommeadation of Henry III. to elect Henry de Wingham, his 
dimiceUor. Hereupon Balsam, going to Rome, procured the pope's 
eonfirmatSon* Windham, averse to his own promotion, declared 
Aat a more wopthy person than himself had l^en chosen. The 
king at lengdi acquiesced, and he was accordingly consecrated. 

He died in 1286, havmg sat twenty-eight years in the see of 

THOMAS RAMRYGB, abbot of St. Alban's, is 
rtfresented tfpon hU knees ^ praying to the Holy Trinity; 

* few niea have done more muchief in the world than a great namber of- those 
^ have been caaoniced ibr saints ; who were not only bigots, bat incendiaries 
•od penecntors. As the trae histories of their lives would have done them no 
boQoar, the compilers of their memoirs were not onl^ under a necessity of filtering 
fbeir chaiact^n* bat ei faaTfaig recouise to fiction. It is not to be lamented, that 
nch elaborate works as this of the " Life of Becket," together with the innume- 
fikle Uatories of miracles, pilgrimages, relics, habits, beards, and tonsures, are long 
WQI mftipt KWB^ among the refuse of things. 

In 1682 were published, in 4to. ** Epis^olse et Vijts Divi Thorns Cantuariensis, 
&C. &c &c. in locem producta ex Manuscripto Vaticano : Opera et Studio F. 
Christiani Lopi Iprensis,'' &c. Bruxellis. 

VOL. I. I 



58 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

and on the altar before him is deposited His mitre. Bj 
the side of the abbot is a scroll^ on which is written : 

*' Sancta Trinitas, U7ius Deus, miseris animiSj T. 
Ramryge'' 

" Holy Trinity y one Gody have mercy upon the soul 
of T. Ramryge'' 

" He* was an excellent man in his time, beloved as well by God 
as men ; for which reason his name was had in perpetual blessingi 
amongst posterity." — See Weaver, p. 557. 

WALTERUS DE MERTON, summus Anglic 
Cancellarius, Episc. Roffensis, Fund^ Coll. MertOD, 
1267. Faberf a Tabula in Bibl. "Bodleiana; large Ato, 
One of the set of Founders. 

Walter de Merton, in the, ** Oxford Almanack" 
for 1737. 

Walter de Merton, lord high chancellor of England, in the reign 
of Henry III. and afterward bishop of Rochester, was the founder 
of the first college in Oxford, which was incorporated by royal 
charter. It was called after his own name, and was regulated with 
such prudence, ^^.at it was recommended by King Henry to Hugh 
Balsam, bishop ot Ely, as a model for his foundation of Feter- 
Le Ne?c house. He died the 17th of October, 1277. 

MATTH.EUS Parisiensis, Historicus, qui ob. 1269, 
&c. T. Cecil sc. whole lengthy 4to. 

MATTHiEi Parisiensis, Historici^ &c. vera effi- 
gies ; ex Libro ejtcs Chronicorumy MS. olim sui ipsiusy 
. nunc Regio desumpta. A whole length; before the 
last edition of his " History.'' 

Matth^eus, Parisiensis, &c. whole length. W. 
Richardson. 

Matthew Paris, a Benedictine, of the monastery of St. Alban*8, 
stands in the first rank of our monkish historians. . He was no in- 

• In Strutt's " Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiq," plate LX. 



,o 




Ihjff/,,-, //>/',■',-. ,1,' .!,'r"-,'fi,<i„jl'yLi'i 
rrrn rH'':jir.,rx i^ii /III.; H'!! l/i(-r :'iiii ')( ■> 
' ■'/,!/ .,'11. ij'.,'!:.,. : ",.'■ Il'riii.^'fyml.hi 



OF ENGLAND. 59 ' 

cmsidenble poet and orator for the time ia ivhich he flourished ; 
nd ia said to have understood painting, architecture, and the ma- 
bematica. He was author of the '' Historia Major/' and ** Historia 
^inor^" which is an abridgment of the former; to which is pre- 
ixed hia portrait. He is censured for a mixture of fable in his 
lisfcory ; Imt this censure affects the character of the age, rather 
han that of the author.* 

BACCHON (Bacon) Rog. Anglus ; a small head 
In the title to Crollius's " Basilica Chymica ;" Eg. Sa- 
iekrinc. 

There is another small print of him holding a book. 

Roger Bacon ; profile in a hat^ from the original 
at Knok^. R.. Godfrey sc. 1786, in the " Antiquarian 
Repertory.** ' 

Roger Bacon ; enlarged from the one by Eg. Sa- 

deler, 4fo. 

Roger Bacon, a Franciscan friar, was styled Doctor Mirahilis^ for 
big great' learning, but much more for his invention, the charac- 
teristic of genius. He discovered the telescope, burning-glasses, 
camera-obscuray gunpowder, transmutation of metals, and many 
other things, the utility of which was only known to himself. Dr. 
Freind says, that a greater genius in mechanics had not risen since 
the days of Archimedes. A variety of authors bear much the same 
testimony to his abilities in other branches of science. He was 
persecuted by the barbarians of his age ; in which philosophy had 
inade a less progress than any other kind of knowledge ; and geo- 
metry and astronomy were branded with the odious name of necro- 
mancy. Oh. 11 June, 1292. See his " Opus Majus," by Dr. Jebb, 
and Dr. Freind's '* History of Physic." 

* Matthew Paris gives us the roost particular history of the wandering Jew that 
is to be found in any author.t He received this account from an Armenian arch- 
bishop, and one of hii domestics, who were here in the reign of Henry III. and who 
afiBnned that they had their relation from the wanderer himself. This man is men- 
tioned by a multitude of writers. V. Wolfii ** Bibiiotheca Hebraea," tom. ii. p. 
^093, where these authors are enumerated. It is to be concluded hence, that there 
^^ such an impostor, and that he well acted his part. 



t V. Hist, sub fumo 12'?8. 



60 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

JOHANNES DUNS SCOTUS, Doct(yr Subtilis; 
from the painting in the public library in Oxford;* J. 
Faberf h. sh. mezz. 

Johannes Duns Scotus. Bloemart sc. 

Johannes Duns Scotus, yb/. F. Chauveau sc. 

Johannes Duns Scotus. Eckhurst sc. 

Johannes Duns Scotus, octavo. N. Habert sc. 

Johannes Duns Scotus. Jollain sc. 

Johannes Duns Scotus, small folio. W. Mar- 
shall sc. 

JoHANNEi^ Duns Scotus^ a sheet. J. Killian sc. 

Johannes Duns Scotus, in his study, 8vo. J. 
Neefs sc. 

Johannes Duns Scotus. Des Rochers. 

The portrait of Duns Scotus at Windsor, which is much the 
sSime with that at Oxford, is said to have been painted by Espa- 
g^olet. It is probably not genuine. — I have been, in general, very 
cautious of admittmg ideal heads ; but have not been so scrupulous 
as to exclude every one, when other memorials have been wanting. 

Johannes Duns Scotus, &e. Ord. F. M. (fra- 
trum minorum) Conv. l2mo. 

There is a small print of him inscribed^ Doctor Sub- 
tilis, Scotistarum Princeps. 

It requires one-half a man's life to read the works of this pro- 
found doctor, and the other to understand his subtilties. His 
printed works are in twelve volumes in folio.f His manuscripts 
are sleefMng in Merton College Library, in Oxford, of which society 
he was a member. He was the head of the sect of schoolmen called 
Scotists. Oh. 1308. 

* The pictoie of Dens in the Bodleian Gallery was painted by Aahfield. So 
Heame informs us, at p. 793, of Tho. Otterboame and John Whethamstede, where 
there is some account of that punter. 

t Voluminous works frequentljf arise from the ignorance and confused ideas of 
the authors. If angels were writers, says Mr. Norris, we should have few folios. 



OF ENGLAND. 61 

NICHOLAUS TRIVETUS; Historicus, e litera 
imtiali Codids MS. Verttce sc. Svo. 

Nicolas Trivety a Dominican friar, was author of the ^* Annales 
6. Regum Angliee,'^ published by Mr. Ant. Hally of Queen's College, 
Oxford, in 2 vols. 8vo. 1719. He liyed in the reigns of Edward I. 
IL and III., in the second year of whose reign he died, aged near 
seventy. 

GUALTERUS STAPLEDONUS ; episc. Exon. Consec. 
el magn. Anglia Thesaurarius, ColL Exon. et Aula ^ 
Cervifue Fund"". Anno Domini 1316. /. Faberf. large 
ito. mezz. 

Walter Stapledon annexed Hart Hall, formerly called Stapledon 
Hall, to Exeter College ; but it is now independent of it, and vms 
erected into a college by the means of Dr. Newton, Sept. 8, 1740. 
This prelate was beheaded by the seditious burgesses of London, 
at the standard and cross in Cheapside, 15 Oct. 1326. 

WILLIAM OF WICKHAM, bishop of Winches- 
ter. Houbraken sc. large h. sh. From a picture at 
Winchester College. Illnst. Head. 

GuLiELMUs DE Wykeham; cpisc. Winton. et. totius 
Anglue Cancell. Fund"". ColL B. Maria Winton. vulgd 
vocat. New Coll. 1379; et paulo post (1387) Coll. B. 
Maria Winton. prope Winton. J. Faberf. large 4to. 

William of Wykeham ; taken from a most ancient 
picture of him, preserved in Winchester College, Grig- 
mm sc. whole length, sh. 

The great and useful talents of William of Wickham, especially Consec. 
his skill in architecture, appear to have recommended him to the ^^^'J* 
&yoar of Edward the Third. He persuaded that monarch to pull 
down a great part of the castle of Windsor, and rebuild it from his 
plan, m that plain magnificence in which it appears at present.* He 
also drew the plan, and superintended the building, of Queenborough 

* Edward III. assessed every county in England, to send him a certain number 
of masons, tilers, and carpenters, for that work. Ashmoie's '< Hbt. of the Garter," 
p. 129. 



62 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Castle. He was afterward made secretary of state, and lord privy 
seal ; and had other accumulated preferments, before he was pro- 
moted to the see of Winchester. Ob. 27 Sept. 1404. 

Dr. Lowth, late bishop of London, who did great honour to both 
the colleges founded by Wickham, has done due honour to the 
illustrious founder, by writing the history of his life. 

CARDINAL BEAUFORT, bishop of Winchester. 
/. Parker sc. From an original picture in the collection 
of the Hon. Horace Walpole; in Harding's Shakspeare. 

Henry Beaufort, son of John duke of Lancaster, and brother to 
Henry IV. successively bishop of Bristol and Winchester, and three 
times lord chancellor, was presented with a cardinal's hat, by Pope 
Martin V. He, with his brother Thomas duke of Exeter, was ap- 
pointed governor and tutor to Henry VI. then only nine months 
old. The cardinal, being of an ambitious and intriguing disposi- 
tion, had continual disputes with his brother the duke of Gloucester, 
regent of England, commonly called Good Duke Humphrey ; whose 
death, attributed to secret strangulation, was universally ascribed 
to the machination and connivance of Winchester y who, shortly after, 
on his death-bed, testified the bitterest remorse for the share he bad 
in that horrid transaction. Oh. 1447, aged about eighty years. 

THOMAS FITZALLENIUS FiUus Cornitis Arun- 
dellia Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis Constabularius 
Castre de Queenbourgh 27 Ap. Anno Decimo Regni 
Henrici Quarti. From a painting in Lambeth Palace^ 
copied from the original at Penshurst. 

THOMAS ARUNDEL, &c. in Strut fs '' Regal An- 
tiquities,'' plates 23. 32. and 38. 

Thomas Fitzalan, second son of Richard, the fifth -earl of Arun- 
del, was successively bishop of Ely, archbishop of York, and after- 
ward of Canterbury ; being the first instance of the translation of 
an archbishop of York to the see of Canterbury. — Having been im- 
peached, and banished the kingdom, for the part he had taken in 
his brother Richard's treason, he retired into France; but returned 
again into England with Henry duke of Lancaster, who had also 
been banished by king Richard II. He procured. a bull from the 



OF ENGLAND. 63 

pope, and publicly preached; promising Paradise to all that would 
aid him against the enemies of Henry duke of Lancaster ;* who, on 
his accession to the throne under the title of Henry IV. made him 
lord high chancellor of England, anno 1412. He died in 1414. 

GULIELMUS BATEMAN, episc. Norwic. Aula 
S. S. et individtuB Trinitatis Fund^. Anno Dom. 1360. 
Faberf, large 4to. 

: ivith view of Trinity Hall. E, Harding sq. 

- Bishop Bateman was the founder of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Consec. 
which was originally an hotel, or house of entertainment for stu- ^^' j. 
dents. He erected this hotel into a coUege^f and was a great 
master of the civil and canon law. He died and was buried at 
Afignon, 1354. 

ROBERTUS EGGLESFIELD; Coll. Regime 
Fund\ Burghers sc. 

RoBERTUS Eggl£sfi£ld; Murray 'p. Faberf. 
whole lengthy h. sh. mezz. 

Robert Egglesfield, in an oval folio. 

The outline of the head of this portrait was taken by Murray, 
from an effigy engraved on a brass plate, formerly affixed to Robert 
Egglesfield's tomb, in the old chapel of Queen's College, in Oxford. 
The painting, and the plate, to which the whole length of Queen ' 
Philippa is companion, belong to the society of that college. 

RoBERTUs Egglesfield; Regince Philippa Ed- 
vardi 3. Regis Anglice a sacris confessionibusy Coll. 
Reginense fundavit Anno D*. 1340. /. Faberf large 
ito. 

On the feast of the Circumcision, the Bursar of Queen's College 
gives to every member of that society a needle and tiiread, in re- 
membrance of the founder; the words aiguille Jil composing a kind 
of rebus on his namie. — I cannot find that he had any higher prefer- 
ment in the church than the rectory of Brough, in Westmoreland. Pronoun 

ced Bnifi 

* See Stratf s " Regal AnUqaities," p. 45. 
i Cantab. I>epict; Wilson's Cambridge, p. 51. 



64 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

JOHANNES WICLIF, S.T.P. &c. A tabuk 
penes nobilissimum dticem Dorsetice ; G. White/, h. sk 
mezz. This has been copied. 

John Wicliffe, with Luther, Calvin, &c. a sheets 
scarce. P. Perron sc. 

In Balers ** Illustrium mqjoris Britannia Scripto- 
ruTUy Sgc. Summarium,'' 1548, Ato. is a curious head of 
Wielif. There is another of him, and other English 
divines, ^ Prastantium aliquot Theologorumy £gc. Effi- 
gies ; quibus addita Elogia, Sgc. Opera Joe. Verheiden f 
Hdga Com. 1602, excud. Hen. Hondius. This is printed 
exactly in the same manner with the " Heroologia,' mi 
was, doubtless, the model of it. 

Jean Wiclef, Anglois, &c. in an oval of oaken 
foliage^ done in wood, 4to. 

Johannes Wiclef, &c. IVom the Continuation of 
Boissard*s Bibliotheca Chalcographica, Ato. 

Jean Wiclef ; Desrochers sc. 8vo. 

Johannes Wickliffe; /. Faber f. 1714, h. sh. 
mezz. 

Johannes Wiclif; A. Vanhaecken f large Ato. 
mezz. 

Johannes Wickliffe; JR. Houston f. large Ato. 
mezz. A tabula in ColU Reg. Cantab.* 

Wicliffe may be regarded as the father of the Reformation; as 
be was the first in Europe who ventured to bring religion to the test 
of Scr^tune and eedesiasticsal antiquity. The austerity of his life, 
aad the sanctity of his manners, added great weight to his doctrine* 
He was indefiidgable in his labours, and generally went alioot barer 
footed, in the gaib loi a pilgrim. He translated the New Tefltement 
fttom the Vulgate, whidi was printed ¥dth Lewis's ^^ History of tJiie 
English Bibles,'' in fol. 1731. Calmet informs us, that he trans- 

* Hooatonhisei^jqiTeQikielieadsoraUtlieiefonaenlbrR^ 



OF ENGLAND. 65 

lated the whole Bihle ; and that there were ge? eral manuscripts of 
tiug translation,* but that it was never printed. He died at his 
rectory of Lutterworth, in Leicestershire, 1385. His tenets were 
much the same with those of Calvin.f 

WULFSTAN, archbishop of York, in StrutCs 
^' Dresses,'^ plate 27. 

WuHstan, bishop of Worcester and archbishop of York 1002, 
died 1023, and was buried at Ely. 

SIMON SUDBURY, in Strutfs " Regal Antiqr 
plate 17. 

Simon 3e Sudbury, so called from the place of his nativity, was 
Nurly made chaplain to Pope Innocent VI. At his return to Eng- 
land, he was appointed chancellor of Salisbury ; and in 1361, bishop 
of London. He was much beloved as a wise, learned, and liberally-^ 
spirited divine. In 1375, he was promoted to the see of Canter- 
bury. He performed the solemnity of crowning King Richard II. 
and was made chancellor of England in 1380. Archbishop Sudbury 
tost his life in Wat Tyler's rebellion, being barbarously murdered 
on Tower Hill, 138^1. The rebels had taken particular offence at 
his having imprisoned one John Ball, a famous incendiary preacher, 
in Maidstone gaol. 

THOMAS TRILLICK, in the *' Oxford AlmamcK 
1750. 

Thomas Trillick, dean of St. Paul's, and brother to John bishop 
of Hereford, was appointed bishop of Rochester 1364; and was 
consecrated by Ghiido, cardinal of Bologn, in the chapel of his pa- 
lace. He died 1372. 

HENRICUS CHICHLEY, Archi^. Cant. Fund\ 
Coll. Onrn. Animarunty An"". Dom. 1437. J. Faber /. 
large 4to. 

* In the library of Emanuel College, in Cambridge, is a beautiful manuscript of 
tiie whole Bible, on vellum, which is of Wicli£fe's time, or very near it. 

t Lcwifi, in his " History of the Translations of the Bible,'* 8vo. p. 47, &c. has, 
I think, sufficiently proved, tliat the word knave instead o{ servant of Jesus Christ, 
said by Dr. Fuller to be in Wicliffe's " Translation of the Bible,**t ^as on^J an artful 
interpolation. 

♦ *• Church Hist." lib. iv. p. 142. 
VOL. I. K 



60 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

H. Chichley, &c. M. Bnrghers sc. h: sh. 

Dr. Henry Chicuele, &c. M. Burghers sc. 8«w. 

Henry C ji ich ely, &c. Bartolozzi sc. whole lengthy 
fine. From a plate in All Souls" College. 

Henricus Chicheley, Archiep. Cantrar. From 
an ancient painting on boards in Lambeth Palace. In 
'' Lambeth Illustrated,'' Ato. 1806. 

Archbishop Chicheley, at an advanced period of 
life, from an ancient painting on glass in Lambeth Pa- 
lace, in " Lambeth Illustrated,'' 4to. Roffe sc. 

Henry Chicheley, in Harding's Shakspeare. E. 
Harding sc. 

Henry Chicheley, mezz.fol. W. Robins. 

I have some reason to believe, that all the above prints, except 
that by Bartolozzi, were done after a picture which belonged to 
the late Dr. Doyly, prebendary of Ely, and some time fellow of 
All Souls ; who, when he was at that college, in 1738, had a^r- 
trait of Archbishop Chichely, the face of which, as he then told 
Mr. Cole, of King's College in Cambridge,* was taken from one of 
the family. There is .some probability that this may be like him; 
as a face, at least some features of it, has certainly been transmitted 

Tr. from to many generations. 

Ui^ Archbishop Chichely was employed in several embassies by 

Henry V. whom he artfully diverted from his purpose of dissolving 
the abbeys, by persuading him to a war with France, which he 
thought would find sufficient employment for his ambitious and 
active . spirit. Besides the college of All Souls, he founded St 
Bernard's Hostle at Oxford, afterward improved and converted 
into St. John's College ; aibd a hospital for the poor, at Higham 
Ferrers in Northamptonshire, the place of his nativity. Ob. 12 
April, 1443. 

WILLIAM LYNDEWODE, author of the " Pro- 
vinciale," seated at a reading-desk^ small oval. Thane. 

* Afterwaid rector of Blcclieley, Bocks, an cmineut antiquary, and no less 
worthy man; to whom the author of this work is greatly obliged fur his kipd 
assistance. 



OF ENGI.AND. 67 

William Lindwood, a learned civilian, who was member of the 
University of Oxford, and sent by Henry V. as ambassador to 
Spain and Portugal, in 1422. On his return to England, he was 
miade bishop of St. David's, in 1434, and died in 1446, He com- 
piled a collection of canons and constitutions of the archbishops of 
Canterbury, printed at Paris in 1/K)5, and at Oxford in 1663. 

RICHARDUS FLEMING ; episc. Lincoln. Fun- 
dator Coll. Line. 1427. /. Faber. f. large Ato. mezz. 
Om of the Set of Founders. 

Richard Fleming; in the Oa^ford Almanacks for 
1743. 1747. 

Richard Fleming, a native of Croyston, in Yorkshire, received 
his education in the university of Oxford. In 1420 he was ad- Consec 
vanced to the bishoprick of Lincoln by the pope ; and after he had ^^^^' 
sat in that see about four years, was, by the same power, translated 
to York* But this provision was, according to Godwin, so stre- 
i^uously opposed by the dean and chapter of that church, and dis- 
approved of by the king, that he was forced to return to Lincoln. 
He disting^hed himself in the former part of his life by asserting 
the doctrine of Wicliffe ; as he did in the latter, by his opposition 
to it. He caused the bones of that confessor to be taken up and 
burnt, according to the decree of the council of Sienna. It i$ said, 
that the college which he founded was intended as a seminary for 
learned men who should oppose WiclifiPe's opinions. He died 25 
Jan. 1430, and was buried in his own cathedral, where a sump- 
tuous monument was erected to his memory. 

WIJLLIAM WAYNFLEET, bishop of Winchester. 
Houbraken sc. 1 742. From a picture at Magdalen Col- 
lege^ Oxford. Illust. Head, large h. sh. 

GuLiELMUS Patten, alias Wayn fleet; totitis 
Anglice Cancel, epis. Winton. Coll. B. Marice Magd. 
Oxon. et Aulce adjunctce Fund^. A. D. 1459. J. Faber 
f large 4to. mezz. 

William Waynfleet, in the Oxford Almanacks 
for 1729, 1730. 1749. 

William Waynfleet, who had been twelve years schoolmaster of 



68 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Wiuchester,' was afterward successively schoolmaster and provost 
of Eton ; and in April 1447, he succeeded cardinal Beaufort in the 
bishoprick of Winchester. He was made lord chancellor of Eng- 
land in the room of Archbishop Bourchier. Ob, 11 Aug. I486. 
His magnificent tomb, and that of the cardinal, are still in good 
preservation, in the cathedral to which they belonged. 

DAN JOHN LYDGATE, of Bury, poet-laureate; 
ad exemplar MS. elegantissimi ab J. Lydgate Henrico 
VI. dicat. etiamniim in Bibliotheca Harkiana asservati; 
large h, sh. One of the Set of Poets ^ by Vertue. 

John Lydgate, 12mo. T. Trotter. 

John Lydgate, in Strutt's " Regal Antiq.'^ Nos. 
42. 45. 

John Lydgate was a Benedictine monk of the abbey of St. Ed- 
mondsbury. He travelled into France and Italy, to acquire the arts 
and languages of those countries, and was a good poet for the age 
in which he lived. Bale and Pits have given us catalogues of his 
English and Latin works ; and in Weever's '' Funeral Monuments'* 
are many specimens of his poetry, collected from tombs in the 
county of Suffolk. Ob. 1440, M. 60. — See the character and 
accountof him in T. Warton on Spencer, vol. IL p. 103, 104. 

ROBERTUS WOODLARKE, D.D. Coll. Reg. 
prtepositus, acad. Cantab. CanceUarius, et Aula Sanctce 
Catharine Fund. 1473. /. Faberf large Ato. mezz. 

Robert "Wood LARK, S.T.P. with a view of Cathe- 
rine Hall, Ed. Harding. Wilson's Cambridge. 

He was the third provost of King's College, in Cambridge. 

THOMAS de ROTHERAM, alias $cot ;* one oj 
the Set of Founders, by Faber ; large 4to. inezz. 

Thomas de Rqtheram, in Harding's Shakspeare. 
T. Nugent. 

9 SomeCinict more proper)^ wrillen Thomas Scot, alias dti Roihcram. 



OF ENGLAND. 69 

Thokas de Rotheram, in the " Oxford Alnia- 
Mck;' 1743. 

Thomas de Rotheram, so called from the place of his nativity in 
Yorkshire^ is styled the second founder of Lincoln College, in Ox- 
ford ; which was begun and carried on by Richard Fleming, and 
completed by Rotheram, after he had succeeded him in the 
bishoprick of Lincoln ; whence, in 1480, he was translated to York. 
He .was some time lord high chancellor of England, and chan- 
cellor of Oxford ; and wa6 secretary of state in four reigns. He 
was also , legate of tlie apostolic see. He died the 29th of May, 
1500. Heame has published largely concerning him, in *' Lib. Nig. 
Scaccarii," p. 666. 756. 

" The portraiture of JOHN ROUS (Ross), some- 
time a chantry priest here ; as it was taken from an At Wa 
ancient roll, drawn by himself, wherein the pictures ^**^'^' 
of the earls of Warwick are curiously delineated ; 
M. B. (Burghers) sc. %vo. 

This print is copied from that by Hollar in Dugdale's 
Warwickshire. 

John Ross has been sometimes called a regular canon of Oseney, 
near Oxford. He was author of the " Historia Regum Anglice," 
under his name ; of Mrhich an edition was published by Heame, in 
8vo. 1716. His portrait is prefixed to his history. Oh, 1491. 

In '* Mons Perfectiones," otherwyse called, in 
English, *' The Hill of Perfectyon," emprynted by 
Richarde Pynson, in the xiii. yere of our soverayne 
lord, King Henry VII. In the frontispiece of this 
rare book is the portrait of JOHN ALCOCK, and I 
believe one in the Latin title at the top of the first 
page. See Har. Cat. 6917, vol. 3. 

John Alcock, bishop of Ely, with a view of Jesus' 
College. E. Harding. Wilson's " Cambridge.'' 

Johannes Alcock; episc. Eliensis, totius AnglicB 
CancellariuSj Fund^. Coll. Jesu Cantab. Anno Dorn. 
1497. 



T'O BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

om John Alcock, who was chai\ceIlor . to Edward the Fourth and 

ester, Henry the Seventh,* convert^ the old nunnery of St. Radegund 

ipto Jesus College. Bale speaks in very high terms of his pi^ty 

and mortification. Ob, 1 Oct. 1500. 

Mr, Bentham, in his excellent history of the church of Ely, in* 
. 182, forms us^ that he was master of the rolls, and a privy counsellor, 
^^' iij the rpign of Edward IV. ai^d employed in several embassies by 

that prince : that he was preceptor to Edward V. was a consider-! 

^ble writer, and of eminent skill in architecture ; of which there is 

a beautiful but ruinated Qpecimeq, in the cfiapel of £)ly cathedral 

th^t bear^ his name. See plate xxi. of the elegant book ju^t ipen-i 

tioned. 






CLASS V. 

COMMONERS IN GREAT EMPLOYMENTS. 

SIR GILBERT TALBOT ; a small head, in voLn. 
/?. 2 1 1 , of Anstis's " Register of the Garter J^ This was 
taken from the bicst, at his seat, at Grafton, in Worces- 
tershire. 

Sir Gilbert Talbot, 15l6ywith his arms (Fittler), 
W. Richardson. 

Sir Gilbert Talbot, third son of John, the second earl of Shrews- 
bury, was a man of various talents, and equally qualified for the 
business of peace or war. He commanded the right wing of the 
earl of Richmond's army, at the battle of Bosworth, where he was 
unfortunately wounded. He was one of the persons sent by Henry 
Vn. on the expedition in behalf of Maximilian the emperor. It 
appears from a curious indenture, now extant, that John Pounde, 
citizen and grocer of London, " was placed an apprentice to Sir 
Gilbert Talbot, citizen and mercer of London, and merchant of the 
staple at Calais ;" of which place he was deputy, in the same reign. 
He was, by Henry* sent amb<issador to Rome, to congratulate 

* Before the revival of literature, the era of which was about the same time wkh 
tlie reformation of religion, the highest offices of state were usaally borne by the 
clergy, who were possessed of almost all the learning of those times ; and their know^ 
ledge was generally limited to school divinity, and the civil and canon law.* 



( 



OF ENGLAND. 71 

Pius HI. upon his election to the pontificate. Though a corartoner 
and a dtizen, he was honoured with the order of the garter in the 
reign of Henry VII. He died on the 19th of September, in the 
seventh year of Henry VIII. 



CLASS VI. 

MEN OF THE ROBE. 

SIR JOHN FORTESCUE, knight, lord chief- 
justice, and lord chancellor of England, under K, 
Henry VI. W. Faithorne sc. h. sh. Frontispiece to 
Waterhouse's Commentary en his Book " De Latulibus 
Legum Anglice.^^ Fol. 

Sir John Foetescue, and prince Edward; G. 
Vandergticht sc. 4to. Frontispiece to one of the transla- 
tions of the abovementioned book. 

^^in John Fortescue, in his robes, whole length, 
^9. Etched by Bretherton, from a limning in a MS. 
of the time in the possession of Sir William Musgrave, 
hart. 

Sir John Fortescue, kt. in Blackstone^s Commen- 
taries. T.Cooksc. 1793. 

This great lawyer and statesman, who was one of the most Fromot 
learned men of his age, was lord chief-justice of the King's Bench ^^^ "* 
in the reign of Henry VI. and constituted chancellor to that unfor- 
tunate prince, after Edward IV. was in possession of the throne. 
He followed the fortunes of the house of Lancaster, and was many 
years in exile, with Queen Margaret and Prince Edward her son. 
Soon after the decisive battle of Tewksbury, he was thrown into 
prison, and attainted, with other Lancastrians ; but found means 
to procure his pardon from Edward IV. His celebrated book ** De 
Laudibus Legum AnglisB," was written for the use of Prince Ed- 
ward. Several editions of it have been published in Latin and 
English ; to one of which Mr. Selden wrote notes. His book on 
the " Difference betwixt an absolute and limited Monarchy," wa^ 



72 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

published by John Fortescue Aland, esq. afterward Lord Fortescue, 
in 8yo. 1714. See an accoant of bis English and Latin MSS. ia 
" Biographia Britannica." Ob, circ. 1465. JEt, circ. 90, 

Judge LITTLETON (or Lyttleton)> the famous 
English lawyer. R. Vaughan se. In an ermined rok, 
kneeling, h. sh. — Another, copied from the former, small 

Sir Thomas Littleton, oval, in Noshes Worm- 
tershire, Svo. 

Sir Thomas Littelton, from the original in the 
Inner Temple hall. T. Trotter sc. 1792, 

There is a whole length picture of him at Hagley, in Wotceh 
tershire. This is a copy from the painted glass in the Middle 
Temple hall: 

Sir Thomas Littleton was a judge of the Common Pleas, and a 
Promot. knight of the Bath, in the reign of Edward IV. He was author of 
I46^r**' the celebrated book of " Tenures, or Titles V' by which all estates 
were anciently held in England. Sir Edward Coke's *' Book rf 
Institutes*' is a comment on this work. The first edition of it was 
printed at Roan, about the year 1533. This great lawyer ivas 
ancestor of Sir Edward Littleton,* lord-keeper in the reign of 1 
Charles L 06.1481. 

SIR WILLIAM GASCOIGNE. S. Harding sc. 
From his monument at Hartvoody in Yorkshire. 

Sir William Gascoigne, born 1350 at Gawthorp, in the- parisb 
of Harwood, Yorkshire, was descended from an ancient family in 
Normandy, one of whom came into England with William the Con* 
queror, and was a student in the Inner Temple. He was made 
loid chief-justice of the King's Bench in 1450 1 ; and is memorable 
for his resolution in committing the dissolute Prince Henry to 
prison, for insulting him in his duty on the bench, until the plea- 
sure of the king was known ; who, when he heard the intelligence, 
<^ gave God thanks for his infinite goodness, who at the same time 
had given him a judge who could administer, and a son vbo 
could obey, justice." — He died Dec. 17, 1412. 

• Dr. Plot, in his " History of Staffordshire," p^ 280, observes, that there iven \ 
successively nine Sir Edwards of this family 5 to the great embanassment of ge- j 
nculogists. 1 



OF* BNGLAAB. 73 

CLASS VII. 

lidiN 6t 1%!EI SWORD. 

WILLUlfr WALUiCEv Walker sc, matt, £b- 
groped for Dr. SmoOete* Hutory. 

GfVtixxiMxat Vajexas, ftc. snUUl A. iA. fttetw. ni the 
mmef of the ebkr FtOer. 

StU ifithjAvt Wi^tLACE. 3yrti the pmi/aii^ at 
&fyro&i Smue. WaUon (jun.)*jicU, lar^ h\ sh. 

WKXXm 

fhti^ vHt afkaoij^; poifAnits, at least paSnt^ mi^Mo^ 
lieils^ of Sir WiU^ WaJIacie in S6btl«UDtd. 

'dm gnmi man*8 heroic acticnu shew, ^rbsX pertoiu^ intrqiidityi 
iMpea liy lieiev^^ aiid'Afabnt^ by bucccm; it able to ^ecaioL 
Jhtor^y^ Asb^luld ittbndtt^^to ft feri^ yoke/ U, 8C tite hWi^ 
of afisw ftifitiyet and deipdhidoes^'dared tx^ aissert th^ iitdfep«nd- 
c^ioa of bis countiyt and toolc ev^ry opportunity of attacking the 
Ebj^h. AlB he #at €^&t sncceSsful, he WBS'Coiitinaally joined by 
ofter raalecontenta ; and was, at length, at the bead of an aitey 
which drove them oat of Scotltoid^ and app<Hnted hiln regent of 
die kingdom. He was basely betrayed into the hands of Edward 
£ by his infionbas friend Miatnteithyt and sdon after executi^ as ft Or Mq 
tn^tpr, in t3p44 ^^ HesA wbb fixed upon a piole on London ^^ 
Andge:; and bis quarters were sent', into Scotland, to be placed * 
over ihie gates of as many of the principal cities. ... 

•^ life pb^^ afed- cioatf-anttour of Sit Wlli^ 
Q7AM!I>£l^^ to tbe pr^jsent iSir 

•'!HkiMUfi6liTiibm4i; Aines is^ ntiAd of ikie oAer engvkWr Iti mmbt&ito. 
t'Hi was gDvenfor of I>aii|kartoa (kyittfe £9? ]^ward {. Tlie story o^his betrajr- 
ii% WalliM U aa idle popiiliir taIe.--I<oni HatW . 

t The Scots, In former ages, were as eminent for arms, as they are at piesent for 
liteaiy accompliriiments. Dand Cameraiius has written a book upon the TaiouTf 
Hc» of tiiat people. 

f Sir WiHiaia Oelanem was author of the Lives and Deaths of Kings Edward IL 
andni. 

VOL. U L 



74 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Edward More, of More Hall,* and Bank Hall, in 
Lancashire, bart. ; which said Sir William was made 
knight-banneret by Edward the Black Prince, at 
the battle of Poictiers in France." Whole lengthy in 
armour. The print is in Guillims " Heraldry^'" fol. 

JOANNES ACUTUS ; a portrait, in Pauli Jm 
" Elogia,' lib. ii. p. 115. There is another portrait of 
him, among other great captains of his age, in^\ Bitratti 
di Capitani illustriy' 4to. There is a Grub-street life 
of him in the black letter , with a suitable print. BtA 
that which carries with it the greatest appearance of 
authenticity, is the folio print, engraved from the eques- 
trian figure on his monument in the church of Santa 
Maria Florida, at Florence, by T, Patch, 1771. It is 
inscribed, " Joannes Acutus, Eques Britannicus, Dux 
Mtatis sua cautissimus, et reimilitaris peritissimus ha- 
bitus est. Pauli Uccelli 0(pw^, 1436." 

SIR JOHN HAWKWOOD, in Poggio. " Hist. 
Florent:' 
John Hawkwood, small. Barrett sc. 

No hero had ever a greater hand in forming hunself, and framing 
his own fortune, than Sir John Hawkwood. He was the son of a 
tanner, at Hendingham Sibil, in Essex, where he was bom in tbe 
reign of Edward III. He was bound apprentice to a tailor, in 
London; but, being fortunately pressed into the army, was sent 
abroad; where his genius, which had been cramped and confined 
to the shop, soon expanded itself, and surmounted the narrow pre- 
judicesf which adhered to his birth and occupation. He signalized 

* The famoas ballad of the Dragon of Wantley was made upon one of this family. 

It is accoanted for in the " Reliques of Ancient English Poetry," vol. iiLp. 277, j 

where it is supposed to have been written ** late in the last century." \ 

t The prejudices of military men in that age might be more expanded than ihoie » 

of mechanics, but were not more laudable. Sir John Hawkwood was captain oft p 

band of those mercenary adventurers called Condettieri, who let themselTes out for f 

hire, to fight for or against any body, and often alternately. Sir John was remaii-. t- 

ably guilty in that respect, and deserves to be honoured for nothing but his coutage. '^ 

— Lord^ Orford, \ 



OF BNGLANb. 76 

biiseU ai m siMer Jn . IVaiioe and Itidy, and particalariy at Pfaa 
ind FlCMrence. He ccnnmanded with great ability and auccesi in 
the army of GaleaoEo^ duke of Milan, and was in lo high eatemn 
vidi Baniabaa hia brother, that he gave him Domitia, hia natural 
laaghter/ in marriage, widi an ample fortune. But he,' afterward, 
3rom mottvea which we cannot well account for, and tibat aeem to 
reflect upon hia honour, turned hia anna against hia fiUher-in-law. 
He. died, at Ilornice^ fidl of years and military fiune,in 1394. 
Haling gained, among the Florentines, die character of the best 
soldier of the age, they «rected m sumptuous monument to .his me^ 
moiy. PanlJoTuis^ the- celebrated biographer of illustrious men, 
hath written his- el^gy. He, in the monumental inscription, and 
ttie ^^EIogia,''*is . styled Joannes Acutus ; hence it is that some of 
our traTeUera hare, in their joumala, mentioned him under the 
name of John Sharp, the great captain. See more of him m Mo- 
riBt's '< Essex," Tol. ii/p. 287, Aec. 

, The portrait of VLISNBY FITZ ALAN, or AL- 
WINE, thejfirst lord mayor o/Londony who was elected 
in 1189, is engraved from a picture^ called original^ in 
Drapers^ HaUl 

There is also a print of SIR WILLIAM WAL- 
WORTH, another lord mayor, who bravely stabbed 
Wat Tyler to the heart, and by that stroke put an end 
to a formidable rebellion, in the reign of Richard 11. 
This, as some ass&rt^ gave occasion to the dagger inXhe 
Hrst guarter of the city arms. The print was engraved 
by Grignion, *^ after the original statue,"^ as it is called, 
m Fishmongers' Hall.* Sir William was elected lord 
mayor in 1380. 

SiE Willi AM Walworth, knt. Godfrey sc. From 

* Antiquaries are sometiinet apt to believe lastily, with respect to the aatbentidty 
of paintings or scnlptores ; and admit some things into their .collections with as much 
readiness as they ought to be rejected. Sach trash may serve to fill the chasms of 
a series, to add to its namber, and answer the purpose of refreshing or fixing the 
memory. In this view, the portrait of the blacksmith at Oxford may be just as 
jsefnl as if John Baliel had sat for it. 



76 BIOGRAPHIPA}. HISTORY 

the originai picture in the coUectim of Richard BuU, 
esq. 1784. 

The true effigies of that valiant knight ^ and merchant 
tailor, SIR RALPH BI.ACKWELL; gold chain; 
arms of the city of London on the right, and fhe achieve" 
Wfffd of the merchant tailors on the left. This was ear 
graved for a bqqky in th^ plack letter, called *< JSc J^f^ 
nmr of Merchant Tailors,'' small 4to.* 

Thi& book appears to be of the same class^ if not written by tk 
same hand, with the well-known history of Sir Richard Whittin;- 
ton. It contains the adventures of Sir John Hawkwood ; cf 
William^ his fellow 'prentice ; and of Sir Ralph Blackwell, lAo 
was a journeyman in the same shop. Hawkwood and Blackwd 
are said to have received the honour of knighthood from Edward 
III. for their valour. Romantic and extravagant a^ this histcMry is^ 
it is rather more probable than that of Whittington ; as, in an sge 
when courage and military address opened the way to fame and 
fortune, and the honour of knighthood was a capital distinctioa 
among mankind, there is greater probability that one poor man 
should raise himself by his sword, than that another should by a 
cat Ralph Blackwell is said to have married his master's daugh- 
ter, and to have enriched himself greatly by trade. It was thii, 
chiefly, that enabled him to be the founder of Blackwell Hall. The 
reader will pardon a ludicrous remark fot the sake of the truth of it: 
the author of this history hath so characterized his heroes, as to 
reverse the vulgar adage Uiat nine tsdlors make a man : on the eon- 
trary, accQrding to his standard^ nine ordinary men are required to 
make a tailor. The same author informs us^ that Sir Ralph Qlack- 
well was sheriff and alderman of London ; but I do not find his 
name on the list of sheriffs. 

SIR RICHARD STACPOOLE; in armour; Se- 

gulta p. from a profile on a monwnent ; James Watson 
f. large h. sh. mezz. From a private plate, belonging to 
Mr. Stacpoole, of Grosvenor-place, Westmimter. Uiyiff' 
the print is the following inscription: 

• His Dfe, by W. Winstanley, is in print. 



OP ENGLAND. 77 

'' Sir Richard Stacpoole, of Pembrokeshire, who was knighted 
hj William the Conqueror. The different Welsh histcnrtans, and 
the old records of that principality, mention him among the most 
respectable men in the year one thousand and ninety-one, being 
the fourth year of the reign of King William Rufus. He married 
Margaret, second sister of Sir Richard Turbervile, lord of Coyty, 
and died without issue. Robert, the only brother of Sir Richard 
Stacpoole^ married a daughter of Sir John Sitsylt, or Cecil, an- 
cestor to Sir William Cecil, lord Burleigh, and lord high-treasurer 
of England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Sir William Stac- 
poole, his eldest son, married a daughter of Howel ap Ithel, lord of 
Boos and R3^oniac, now Denbighland. The said Sir William had 
a command in an army, raised in the reign of King Stephen against 
DaTid, king of Scots ; but died young, leaving three sons aiid one 
danghtar. His eldest son, Sir Richard Stacpoole, of Stacpoole, in 
the connty of Pembroke, married a daughter of Sir Henry Vernon, 
of Haddon, in the Peak. No mention is made of the second son ; 
but Robert, the youngest, encouraged by his cousin Robert Fitz 
Stephen, went over to Ireland with Richard, earl of Strigule, known 
by the name of Strongbow, and was a captsdn of archers in that 
division of the army which Fitz Stephen commanded under Strong- 
bow, in the year eleven hundred and sixty-eight, being the four- 
teenth year of King Henry the Second. The said Robert after- 
wards settled in Ireland, and from him the Stacpooles of the county 
of Clare are descended. The old mansion of Stacpoole Court, and 
a large estate, in Pembrokeshire, descended to a grand-daughter 
ofthe second Sir Richard Stacpoole, and is now the property of 
the son of the late Pryse Campbell, esq. who was member for that 
county.^ 

SIR JOHN FASTOLFF, in the '^ O.vford Alma- 
naeV'for 1731. 

Sir John Fastolff. S. Harding sc. A small etch- 
ing from the above. 

Sir John Fastolff, bom about 1377, and descended from an 
ancient family in Norfolk, was engaged in several military cam- 
paigns in France during the reigns of Kings Henry IV. V. and VI. 
where he distinguished himself in defeating the Count of Dunois 
at the siege of Orleans, commonly called the battle of Herrings. 
He was afterward attacked at the village of Putay, where he re- 



78 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

treated with dis^ce ; and the order of the garter was takeniioD^ t. 
him as a punishment for this instance of cowardice. He died 1459) . 
aged 82. 

ROBERT CHAMBERLEYN, knight, inaprar 
ing posture^ offering up a scroll, which is received by H 
hand izbove. On the scroll is tvrittenj in the characters 
of that time, " Miserere mei DeusT—^^ Have mercy 
upon me, O GodT In Strutfs ^' Regal Antiquities^ 
plate 59. 

Robert Chamberleyn, supposed to have been 
in France with Henry the Fifth at the battle of Agin- 
court • The chief reason for engraving this picture waSy 
for the representation of the armour worn by the knights 
at that time, tvhich is here exactly delineated, and is much 
more perfect than in general can be found, 8gc. Fide 
Strut t, page 117. 



CLASS VIIL 

KNIGHTS, GENTLEMEN, &e. 

" The true portraicture of RICHARD WHITING- 
TON, thrise lord maior of London ; a vertuous and 
godly man, full of good works, and those famous. He 
builded the gate of London, called Newegjite, which 
was before a miserable doungeon. He builded Whit- 
ington CoUedge, and made it an almosehouse for 
poore people. Also he builded a greate parte of the 
hospitall of St. Bartholomew's, in West-Smithfield, 
in London. He also builded the beautiful library at 
the Gray Friars in London, called Christe's Hospi- 
tall. He also builded the Guildehalle Chappell, and 
increased a greate parte of the east ende of the said 



OF ENGLAND. 79 

halle; beside many other good workes." R. El- 
stracke sc. Collar of SS. his right-hand on a cat. 

The cat has been inserted, as the common people did 
not care to buy the print without it. There teas none 
originally in the plate, but a scull in the place of the 
cat. I have seen only two proofs of this portrait in its 
first state, and these were fine impressions. 

A print representing the death of Whitington is in 
Malcolm's " London,'' vol. iv, p. 515. 

Sir Richard Whitington flourished in the reigns of Richard II. 
Henry IV. and Henry V. His last mayoralty was in HIQ. 

WILLIAM CANYNGE, a small etching, profile in 
an ovaL H. Englefield, 1785. 

William Canynge, oval. J. Jehner, 1787, from 
his bust in St. Mary Ratcliffe, Bristol, where is the 
following inscription : 

" Mr. William Canings, y* richest marchant of y* tonne of Bris- 
towy -afterwards chosen 6 times mayor of y* said toun6, for y' good 
of y' Comon Wealth of y* same. He was in orders of priesthood 
7 years ; and afterwards deane of Westbury, and died y^ 7th of 
Novem. 1474. Which said William did build within the said 
tonne of Westbury a Colledge (with his Canons); and the said 
William did maintaine by space of 8 yeares 800 handy craftsmen^ 
besides carpenters and masons, every day 100 men. Besides King 
Edward 4th had of the said William 3000 marks for his peace to 
be had in 2470 tonns of shiping, with the list of the ships. 
14 English verses." See " Bristol Guide," 1794, p. 66.— Britton's 
"* Historical Essay relating to Redcliffe Church, 1813." 



80 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

CLASS IX. 

MEN OF GENIUS AND LEARNING. 
G. CHAUCER. 

^^ Al yogh his life he queynt^ ye resemblaunoe 
Of him hay in me so fresh Uffyness, 
Yatte to putte other men in remembraunce 
Of his persone, I have here his lykenesse. 
Do make to yis end in sothfastnesse^ 
Yat yei yat have of him left youg^t and myndc^ 
By yis peynture may again him finde.-'* 

An exemplar Thomce OcclevCy in Ubro mcy de Rt 
mine Principisy Wallice Principi (postea Hen. V.) 
scripto. Ob. 1400. Mtat. 70. G. Verttce sc. larg/^ 
sh. One of the Set of the twelve Poet^. 

Geoffrey Chaucer; Tho. Occlev€j content 
et discipulus ejmdem Chauceriy ad viv. delin. Verttu 
large h. sh. 

Geoffrey Chaucer. Verttie sc. Bvo. 

Geoffrey Chaucer, ?w-BfrcAV ^^ Lives. ^' ffoul 
ken sc. 

Geoffrey Chaucer, with Milton^ Butler, Cow 
and Waller. Yertue sc. 8vo. 

Geoffrey Chaucer, witkSpemer, Shakspeart,i 
Johnson ; h. sh. mezz. 

Geoffrey Chaucer; from the original in thep 
lie library at Oxford; a small mezz. 

Geoffrey Chaucer; "his portraiture and p 
genie" (genealogy), with the tomb of Thomas Chati 
esq. his son, on which are twenty coats of arms. 

* These verses differ widely, in the speliing, from those in hb Life befoi 
Works, 160 J, fol. 



OF ENGLAND. 81 

the upper ledge of the tomb is this ifiscription : " Hie 
facet, Thomas Chaucer armiger^ quondam JDomi- 
nus istius VUla, et Patronus istius ecclesia, qui obiit 
Ikcemh. 13, 1434,* et Matildis u.vor efuSj Ap. 27, 

1436."t - 

Geoffrey Chaucer, by W. Finden; from a lim- 
ning in Occleve's " De Regimihe PriricipiSy' preserved 
in the Harleian Library. 

The portrait is after the original of Occleve; the tomb, which, is 
not near so entire as it is r^resented in the print,, is in. the church 
of Ewelm, in Oxfordshire. In the same church is the tomb of the 
Dutchess of Suffolk, daughter of Thomas Chaucer, esq. 

Th^ curious print is prefixed to the life of G. Chaucer, before 
hb Works, 1602, fol. We are therejnformed, that it ** was done 
by M. Spede, who hath annexed thereto all such cotes of armes, OrSpeig 
as any way concern the Chancers, as he found them (travailipg for 
that purpose) at Ewelme, and at Wickham." — George Gre^wood, 
of Chadeton, in Oxfordshire, esq. was said to have had an original 
pictitto of O. Chaucer* 

Dr. Timothy Thomas, author of the preface prefixed to Vrrfs 
edbion of his Works, in a manuscript note, communicated to me by 
my honoured friend, Jdm Loveday, esq. of Caversham, says of the 
same portrait, that ** it is by no means certain, that it is a picture 
of Chaucer." J 

Hie great poet, whom antiquity and his own merit have contri- 
bated to render venerable, is saidt to have been master of all the 
kaming of his age. We see, and admire, in his works, the out- 
lines of nature; but the beauty of colouring, and the delicate 
touches, are now lost, as a great part of his language is grown ob- 
solete. It is probable that his contemporaries fbiind little or no 

* This inscription .disagrees with the date of his death, in the " Biographia 
Bihannica.** He is there sud to have died the 28th of April, 1434. 

. t The genoiiie inscription is in '* Leland's Itinerary," yoI. ii. p. 5. 

X These verses are characteristic of his figare : 

His stature was not very tall ; 
liean he was, his legs were small ; 
Hos'd within a stock of red : 
A hutton'd bonnet en his head* 

VOL. I. M 



^ BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

djisofiance* in bif verses ; but they are very ill acoommod^ted to 
the ears of the present age. 

JOHANNES GOWER; Anglorum Pacta, S^. 
Vertue sc. large h. sh. 

John Goweb, a small oval (Trotter) Simco, 1791. 

John GoWER shooting at the world, in Strutt's " Re- 
gal Antiquities,'' 56. 

John Gower, by C Warren; from a limning in his 
" Vojp Clamantis,'' preserved in the Cottonian Library. 

Taken from his monumental effigy in St Mary Overie's church, 
Southwark. The nose, which was broken off, has been added of 
late years ; the head should, in strict propriety, have been repre- 
aented without one. The engraver of the antiques of Fulvius Ur- 
sinujB has, among the busts and cameos of gnany celebrated persons 
of antiquityy given us the statue of Pindar without a head; to which 
Mr. Piqpe ^lludes^ 

" And a true Pmdv stood withoot a head." 

Oower, who, with Chaucer, helped to refine th^ finglish Jan- 
gHHfg^^ J149 ^ver been e«teemie4 ^ ^^^ ^^ J»erit to him» of his co- 
tan^r^ry po^t||. ge was author qf t^e ^' Confi^o Aaumtia*^ 19 
AygUfllht ^ ** Spf^ouliw M^dijt^^" in French ; and the *' Vox 

CHuiimtii'' w l4^.. P^ 1402. Mai. ^ire. SO. 



CliASS X, 

A&tlSTS, kc. 

WILLIAM CAXTOJV ; the initials of his name are 
in a cipher; invK Bagford, %vo. 

William; Caxton; with his cipher in old black 
capitals, small, cut in wood, for Ames's ^^ History of 
Printing.^' - 

* There is no dissonance when the verses are prononneed properly. Dr. Watts 
imagOMid that w ytftrsi Urriblu, In Boilean, was prboonnced mjfttlires tmrtbUt, and 
teveoii fiomwd a judgment on Fiench poesies. — Lord HuUes. 



OP ENGLAND. 83 

Caxton, who was bred a mercer, and was some time factor to the 
mercer's company, in the Low Coantries, introduced and practised 
the art of printing in England, in the reign of Edward the Fourth. 
He translated many books from the French, which he printed him- 
self, in Westminster Abbey, by permission of John Esteney, the 
abbot.* The book <m " The Game of Chess," dated 1474, but 
without Caxton's name, k generally reckoned th^ first production 
of the Ei^Ibh press.f 

. JOHANNES MABUSIUS ; with an imcriptian of 
sU' Ldtin V€r9e9* This belongs to a set of Heads of 
eminenl Painters j tng^dved by Henty Htmdius, 1^18, 

M 

JoHH Mabusji ; copied front the above^ in the ^^ Amc^ 
30a» of Paintingy" 4io. 

Titeix is a head ofMabuse, and prints of other painters 
that belong to the English series, in Sandrarfsfne booft.'!^ 

Mabose, a Oerman painter of great merit, came into England in 
the reign of Henry VII. He painted a picture of that kingV mar- 
lia^ wtih Elisabeth of Y(»rk» and the portraits of three of hU 
(Mdren in one piece. The latter has been described in the first 
Class. There is an engraving of the former by Crrignion, in the 
''Aaecdotoi of Painting,'' Urotti the oiiginsd 9t Strawbekry HiB. 

ALLEN STRAYLER, painter and illuminator of 
MSS. in Strutfs « Dresses,"" plate 109. 

• See Wkliiiore's «« Hist of Wentin. Abbey/' 1751, 4to. 

t See an ezceDent note by Mr. Thomas Warton, in voL iS. p. f65-6, of lus 
" Obsehrationtf on the Fairy Qoeen of Spenser.** Thb sets tiie character o^Caxtoii 
ia Hs tme light. 

. I la Ptel Fiehe^s •* Theatram Viiwiim Enidilicnie dflMmin," 9 vol. foL 1^80, ia 
i.coi«ldeBahl0 UfuAbcr of English heads. They are done onch in the nanner of 
tadrvt's. I ne?^ saw this book b«l m the Bodleian libraiy. 



84 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



CLASS XL , 

LADIES, 

AND OTHERS OF THE FEMALE SEX. 

MARGARET BROTHERTON, dutchess of Nor- 
folk, in Strutfs " Regal Antiquities^^ plate ZQ. 

'^ Margaret, Dutchess of Norfolk, daughter to Thomas of Bro- 
therton, fifth son of Edward the First, was twice married. Her 
first husband was John lord Segrave, who died in th6 27th year of 
Edward the Third ; by whom she had no issue. She remarried^ 
and her second husband was Sir Walter Manny, knight of the ' 
garter, lord of the town of Manny, in the diocess of Cambray: 
him she outlived, and died the 24th of March, in the first year of 
Henry the Fourth* She put in her claim to the marshalship of '• 
England at the coronation of Richard the Second." See StrutU 

MARGARET DUTCHESS OF BURGUNDY, 
sister of Edward IV. king of Englaind. T: Kerrish 
del Facius sc. Ii804. An ancient picture, in the passa- 
sion of 71 Kerrish^ M. A. ^c. 

Margaret, with her husband, in the Paston Let- 
ters. 

Margaret, third daughter of Richard Duke of York, married 
Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who was sladn 1477. She 
afterward lived among the Flemings with much dignity, as well as 
economy, with the dowry which she inherited from her husband. 
Her resentments and friendships were equally warm ; and, v^U 
knowing the jealousy entertained by King Henry agamst ber 
family, she determined to do all in her power to make him r^pebt; 
for which purpose she hired a body of two thousand veteran 6e^ 
mans, under the command of Martin Swart, a brave and experi* 
enced officer, and sent them to Ireland to joih Simnel, who was 
crowned at Dublin as Edward V. but was afterward defeated at 
the battle of Stoke, in the county of Nottingham. She then patro- 
nized and supported the unfortunate Perkin Warbeck, acknow- 
ledging him as her nephew and legitimate successor to the English 
throne ; assigning Warbeck an equipage suitable to his pretensions, ) 



OF ENGLAND. 85 

^d honouring him with the appellation of the White Rose of England. 
His success is well known. She died 1503. 

MARIA de St^ PAULO; Comitissa Pembroc. 
hnd'. Aulce Pemb. A. D. 1343. J. Faber /. large 
ito. mezz. 

MARY COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE, with a 
view of Pembroke Hall. E. Harding ^ 1801. 

Mary Countess of Pembroke, in Strutfs " Re- 
gal AntiquitieSj'' 55. 

Mary of St. Paul was third wife to Aumer de Valence, earl of 
Pembroke, who was killed, at a tilting, on the day of his marriage. 

She soon after renounced the world, and devoted herself to 
works of piety and charity. 

EUSABETHA DE CLARE, Comitissa de Ulster, 
ace, Aula Clarensis Fund'. 1326.* Faber f. 1714; 
large Ato. mezz. E. Tabula in AulA Clarensi. 

Elizabeth de Clare, countess of Ulster, with a 
view of Clare Hall. E. Harding, 1801. in Wilson's 
" Cambridge'^ 

Elizabeth, third sister of Gilbert Earl of Clare, and wife of John 
deBur^, lord of Connaught, in Ireland. She founded Clare Hall, 
in Cambridge, on the spot where University Hall had been built. 
This was burnt down, by a casual fire, sixteen years after its erec- 
tion. She also endowed it with lands sufficient to maintain one 
master, ten fellows, and ten scholars. 

CATHERINE, DUTCHESS OF NORFOLK, 

from a drawing by Vertue, taken from her monument. 

Catherine, daughter of William Lord Molines, first wife of John 
Duke of Norfolk, who was killed at Bosworth, fighting on the side 
of Richard III. This lady lies buried in the south part of the church 
of Stoke, between the high altar and the choir, with this inscription 
at the feet of her effigy : '^ Under this stone is buried the body of 

* This is the date of the foundation of University Hall, by Richard Badcvr, 
chancellor of the university of Cambridge. See " Cantabrigia Dcpicta," p. 30. 



86 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

the-rig^t honourable woman bnd ladle, some time wife tihto the 
right high and mighty prince, Lord John Howard, dnk^of Noiielke, 
and mother unto the right honourable and puissant prince Thomas 
Howard, duke also of Norfolke ; which lady departed this present 
life, Ann. Dom. 1451." 

AGNES, DUTCHESS OF NORFOLK, from m 
driginal picture by Hans Baldungy lSi3> /n the cotkc- 
tion of Dr^ Farmer. 

. Agnes Tilney, second wife of Thomas Howard ^ secDnd ixkt of 
Norfolk, was daughter of Hugh Tilney, and sister and heir of Sir 
Philip Tilney, of Boston, in the county of Lmeoin* She was mo- 
ther of Lord William Howard, ancestor of the extinct earls of itfbt- 
tingham, and of the present Earl of Effingham. 

ROSAMOND CLIFFORD, fnm an ancient fie^ 
turej half sheet. Noble sc. 

Rosamond Clifford^ /r(?m the same. R. Cooper 
sc. Svo. 

Rosamond Clifford (commonly called Fair Rosamond), was 
daughter of Walter Lord Clifford^ and mistress or concubine to 
Ring Henry H. ; by whom she had two sons, William Longne-esp^) 
or Long-sword, earl of Salisbury ; and Geoffiry Bishop of lincdn, 
afterward archbishop of York. She is Idid to hate died by poison 
in 1177, administered by Queen Eieaiiior through jetttonsy ; bat 
this is ably refhted by Carte, in his " History of Eng^Kod," rd. I 
p. 662. who states, that through grief at the defeetion of her rojti 
admirer on his marriage with Eleanor^ she retii^ from the worid, 
and became a nun at Godstow, where she died, and bad n todb 
erected to her memory, the remains of which are preserved to the 
present time. 

MRS. JANE SHORE, froyn the original picture 
in Eaton College, by John Faber; large Atb. mezz^ 
The print, which is scarce, is dated 1483,. w MS, 

Jane Shore, ffvm an original picture in the Pro- 
vost's Lodge, at King's College, in Cambridge. Etched 
by the Rev. Mr. Michael Tyson, Felloiv of C. C C. C 
Ato. . V 



OF ENGLAND. 87 

Jane Shore, from iht original at Dr. Peckard'Sy 
of Magd. Coll. Camb. origifialh/ in the possession of 
Dean Colety in Harding's Shakspeare. F. Bartolozzi so. 

Jane Shore, with naked breasts^ in the same. F. 
Bartolozzi sc. 1790. 

Jane Shore, mistress to Edward the Fourth, was the wife of a 
substantial citizen of London. She was a woman of great beauty, 
tnd of extraordinary accom^^lishments. '' There was nothing in 
her body that you would have changed, unless you would have 
wished her somewhat higher.*^ But her courtly behaviour, face- 
tious conversation, and ready wit, were more attractive than her 
person. It is recorded of her, that she could read and write ;t 
qaaTifications very uncommon in that age. She employed all her 
interest with Edward in relieving the indigent, redressing wrongs, 
and rewarding merit. She met with cruel treatment after the death 
oftkat monarch, and lived in great poverty and distress to the 
eighteenth year of Henry VIIL The Dutchess of Montagu had a 
k>ek of her hair, which looked as if it had been powdered with gold 
dust — ^There is a good deal of history coneeming her in the ** fie- 
Iiques of ancient English Poetry ,** vol. li. p. 248. 



REMARKS ON DRESS. 

The wearing of long hair during the reign of Edward the Con- 
fessor was so common, that Bishop Wulston not only boldly in- 
veighed against the custom, and severely reproached the people 
for their effeminacy ; but when any one bowed down their head to 
receive his blessing, before he gave it he cut off a lock of their 
hair with a little sharp knife that he carried about him ; and com- 
manded, by way of penance, that they should cut the rest of their 
hair in the same manner, denouncing dreadful judgments against 
SQch as disobeyed that injunction. 

Bishop Wulston avoided all appearance of pride in his dress : 
and though very wealthy, he never used any furs finer than lamb's 

♦ Speed, p. 916, from Sir Thomas Mere's *' Life of Rich. Ill," 
t Ibid, from Sir T. More. 



88 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

skin for the lin'mg of his garments. Being blamed for such need- 
less humility by Geoffry Bishop of Constans, that '' he ought to 
wear those of sable, of beaver, or of £ox" he replied, " It may in- 
deed be proper for you politicians, skilful in the affairs of this 
world, to adorn yourselves with the skins of such cunning animals ; 
but for me, who am a plain man, and not subject to change ray 
opinion, the skins of lambs are quite sufficient/' Vide Strutts 
" Habits," vol. i. p. 122. 

In the time of Henry VI. the king's palace was surrounded by 
little barbers' shops, under the direction of the barber of the house- 
hold, &c. There being then no carriages, and the streets being 
dirty, it is probable that those who went to court were first shaved 
and dressed in these shops. — A considerable fee was given to this 
barber for shaving every knight of the bath on his creation ; forty 
shillings from every baron; 100 shillings from every earl; and 
ten pounds from every duke. 

Stow says, that the ancient covering of men's heads was hoods ; 
and that before the time of Henry VII. neither cap nor hat is 
spoken of. In this reign square bonnets came into use, and were 
worn by noblemen, gentlemen, citizens, and others. Henry VIII. 
wore a round flat cap of scarlet, or of velvet, as did the citizens, 
&c. &c. 



OF ENGLAND. 89 



APPENDIX 



TO 



THE FIRST ARTICLE. 



FOREIGN PRINCES, 

WHO VEKE KNIGHTS OF THE GARTER, &C. 

SIGISMUNDUS, Romanorum rex ; a large me- Bom lat 

Oh \A3ll 

dallion. In Goltzius's " Series of the Emperors" done 
in clare obscure. 

Sigismund, emperor of Germany, and king of Hungary and Bq- 
hernia, was installed knight of the garter at Windsor^ 1416. He 
caused John Huss, and Jerome of Prague, in violation of a safe 
conduct which he had given them, to be burnt at the council of 
Constance. Ob, 1437. 

PHILIPPUS Burgund. Cogn. Bonus. C. Van 
Sichem sc. Whole length, in Grimestone's " History 
of the Netherlands r fol. 

There is a better portrait of Philip^ and of several 
ether foreigners who have been knights of the garter, 
^c, in " Hadriani Barlandi Hollandice Comitum His* 
toria et Icones,'' Lugd. Bat. 1584,/o/. In *^ Meter am 
Historia Belgica" are also good portraits, which belong 
io this division, and the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Philip Burgund, Bonus Dux, Ato. de Jode ex. 

Philip Burgund, Bonus Dux, fol. Soutman. J. 

Louys sc. 

Philip was elected knight of the garter, but never invested with Elect. R 
the ensigns, on account of a quarrel betwixt him and Humphrey, '*®"* ^' 



VOL. I. N 



Hen. YI. 



90 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

duke of Gloucester.* — His popularity gained him the appellation 
of Good ; but there are few princes who have been less scrupulous 
' of sacrificing the tranquillity of their country and the lives of their 
subjects to their private ambition. He was the great aggrandizer 
of the house of Burgundy, and was possessed of five dukedoms, 
fifteen earldoms, and many lordships. — He instituted the order of 
the golden fleece. Ob, 1467. 

ALBERTUS 11. D. G. Romanorum rex ; a large 
medallion ; in the Continuation of Goltzius^s " Series of 
the Emperorsy 

ElecL^R. Albert is in the list of the knights of the garter; as he was 
elected into that order, but was never installed. He reigned only 
one year ; and was, during that short period, embroiled with the 
Hussites. Ob. 1439. 

CAROLUS, Dux Burgund. C. Van Sichem sc. 
whole length. From Grimestone's " History of the 
Netherlands ;" fol. 

Charles the Bold, or the Hardy, the last Duke of Burgundy, son 
of Philip the Good, was remarkable for his haughtiness and pre- 
cipitate courage. His father was thought to have exerted as much 
wisdom in curbing the impetuous spirit of his son, and keeping 
him within the bounds of duty and respect, as he did in extending 
his dominions. He married Margaret, sister to Edward IV. in his 
father's lifo'^time, when he was earl of Charolois. Charles, who 
bad often signalized himself as a soldier, was, in 1476, bravely de- 
feated by the Swiss, at the battle of Morat. 

It is observable, that a church was built near the place, of the 
Ixmes of the Burgundians that fell in that memorable battle. Ob» 
1478. JEtai. 46. See more of him in '' The Spectator,** No. 491. 

MAXIMILIANUS, Rom. rex ; a large medallion; 
in the Continuation of Goltzius's " Series of the Em- 

Maximilianus Austriacus^ &c. Lucas Van Ley- 
den. Con. Visseher sculp, sheets fine. 



a4 » 



'I 

... * See JiiQK BLINK, in the first Clusa. 



.r OF ENGLAND. 91 

^ Maximilianus I. in an oval. J. M. Gaillard, Svo. 

^f' MAXiMiLiANVSfScc. small, anonymous. Vorsterman. 

'^ Maximilianus, &c. on horseback^ dressed for a 
j^ immament. H. Burghnairj in chiara scuroy 1608; 
mrce. 

Maximilian, &c. mez. C. Tmifier. 

Maximilian. L. van Leyden, 1520 ; order of the 
pldenfUecey arms at bottom, large quarto. 

Burgkmair engraved a set of two hundred and thirty-seven 
plates, entitled Des Wey*s Koneg^ or the Wise King. The principal 
actions of the Emperor Maximilian I.— and a set of thirty-eight 
plates of the triumphal entry of Maximilian L 

Maiimilian L grandfather to Charles V. well knowing that to 
loothe the vanity of Henry VIII. was to take him by the right 
handle, served under him as a common soldier, for a hundred 
crowns a day, at the siege of Terouenne. Henry was very near 
being egregiously duped by this monarchy under a pretence that 
he would resign the imperial crown to him ; though, at the same 
thne, he was meditating, by dint of bribery, to add to it the papal 
tiara. Some parts of Maximilian's conduct are shining, some mean, 
and others ignominious. The curious reader may see a character- 
' istic account of this little great man, and his ridiculous writings, 
• in the fourteenth number of " The World." He was a much better 
^ silversmith than author. At the Escurial, is an embossed pot for 
^ holy water, and a crucifix, of his manufacture. Maximilian was 
installed knight of the garter, by the Marquis of Brandenburgh, 
^ his proxy, in the reign of Henry VII. He married Mary, daughter 
^ and heir of Charles the Bold ; by which marriage, and that of his 
son Philip, with Joan, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, the im- 
mense dominions of Spain and Burgundy devolved to his grandson 
Charles ; and the house of Austria began to threaten the liberties 
of Europe. Ob. 1519. 

Maximilian said of himself, ** That whereas other princes were 
Reges Hominum, he was truly Rex Regum ; because his subjects 
would do only what they listed.'* Anstis's " Register of the Gar* 
ter,"ii.p. 316. 



.« 






92 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

FOREIGN PRINCES, 8cc. 

WHO HAVE BEEN IN ENGLAND. 

LOVYS VI L Roy de France; a mtdallim. Jaciim 
de Bie sc. h. sh. 

■ 

Lewis VII. who makes a much more considerable figure in Ae 
Lives of the Saints, than in the annals of France, ivas as wellknoim '] 
for his weakness as a bigot, as Eleanor his queen* ^fas forber 
frailties as a woman* He was deep in the abject superstition d 
the age ; was a crusader^ and a pilgrim. His veneration foi^ Becked 
rose to enthusiasm, and extended itself even to his a$hes« He made 
a pilgrimage to England, on purpose to visit the shrine of that saint 
He died in September, 1 180. 

JEAN, Roy de France ; a medallion^ in the Series ;^ 
hf De Bie; h. sh. 

Crowned . john, king of France, a prince of eminent valour and many good 
1331. qualities, was taken prisoner by the Black Pxince, in the battle of 
Poictiers, and brought into Ejagland, where he was confined in the 
^avoy. It was abpye four years before he could raise 60,0001. in 
part of his ransom. Charles, his son, was the first that bore the 
title of Dauphin, from the reunion of the province of Dauphiny to 
the crown. John died at London 1364, soon after bis retuato 
England. It was conjectured, that he came to vbit the -Countess of 
Salisbury, one of the most beautiful women of her age, with whom 
he V7as known to be in love. The noble maxim of this prince, 
'* That if good faith should be totally abandoned by the rest of 
mankind, it ought still to find a place in the breast of princes,*' is 
well known. 

HADRIANUS V. Papa Romanus; I. Bapt. de 
Cavaleriis, sc. 8vo. 

Adrian V. a Genoese, of the Ottoboni family, was created a car* 
dinal by Innocent IV. his uncle, 1251 ; and sent legate into Eng- 
land, to reconcile tienry III. and his barons. He was advanced 
to the pontificate 12th July, 1276 ; but died in thirty-six days after 
his election. 

* Afterward married to Henry II. of England. 




-cidsu-UXJontJb^ aubrt^ttuccjCmsfJiMsJrJitSam.bmt' dsa. 
Qmmamdmms djs3^9y-fZnhSS^^ S Vir.e^L6VIS.XI. 

is/A StfUimbwl 4,7 4.. 



ri£NN£»:Glietdiar; *' Seigneur du Vignaa,' 
mifli le'Gtate^ «t ftiil3«B^ tiduxj 66fl8ein6k' tt 

lire des commandemens des roys Charles \IT. 
is XI, et leur ambassadeur en Angleterre, e^ 
lie; decede le 3 Septemhre, 1474." Shofi 
lelcind of coUar of fur loujid his neck. 
ISnne, Cbevalier, &c. W. Richardson. 



« 



AS SYLVIUS Picolomineus, dictus Pius IF.', 
Jn, Boissard, small Ato. ^ 

flvius, afterward pope Pins II. who was a native af 
J tbe territory of Sienna, was descended from thai 
ti family. He succeeded Calistus III. in the pontificate, 
e was R singular ornament. He was an excellent poeUl 
Ire orator, a wise politician, aod b pious, honest, and b^ 
an. He was employed in the capacities of secretar])^ 
, and legate, in several embnssiefi. It appears, at pj 
I works, that lie was in Scotland iu the reign of James I, 
»!Beively bishop of Triesita and Sienna; was advanced 
Itile in 1456 ; and, soon after, on tbe ground erf his meri^ 
J throne. He bad himself a particular regard to merit 
ing dignities. One of hie favourite maxims was, ti 
^t to be presented to dignities, and not dignities 
> died tiie 13th of August, 1464. His prose works, id 
1 contain 1086 pages in folio, were printed at Basil is 
1 to this volume are lives of bitn, written by diifereni ^ 

ilPPUS COMMINEZ, Argentoni Dominus, 
trialis's " Museum Historicum" p. 29. There 
i head of him before the English translation of 
mrs, 8m 1G74. 
(Lrppus CoMMiNEz. Aubcrt sc. 
[tijipu* CoMMBNis. Gain sC. 
Hippus CouMBNis. C. Vermeukn. 

■.X^,' vfao was a gr^at master of king-craftj'femployed FbOip 
tiuei, a moet able mioister, in embassiea.to> almost ereiy 



94 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

court of Europe. He tells us himself, in his Memoirs, that he was 
sent to that of England in the reign of Edward IV. Comines, vho 
was formed as a writer more from experience than learning, is 
esteemed one of the most sagacious historians of his own, or any 
other age. He penetrated deeply into men and things ; and knew, 
and exemplified, the insignificancy of human grandeur. He saw 
the inside of the tapestry ; and found, that, with all its gaudy co- 
lours, it created disgust, as much as it excited admiration. He has 
been ranked in the same class with Tacitus. The English reader 
will be particularly interested in his account of the expulsion of his 
countrymen from France, in the reign of Charles VII. Imperialis 
informs us, that he died tired of the world ; but does not mention 
the time of his death, which was in 1509. I ha^e placed him here 
as an ambassador. 

JEAN FROISSARD, Historien: De Larmessimc. 
Ato. size. In ^^ Academic dcs Sciences et des Arts,'* par 
Bullart, 1682, /o/.* 

Jean Froissard ; a small oval. Thane. 

John Froissard, a native of Valenciennes, an able historian; 
who, to gain intelligence, had visited the courts of several princes, 
came over to England in the reign of Edward 111. to offer to Phi- 
lippa, his countrywoman, the first part of his History. She received 
him and his work graciously, and rewarded him like a queen. Frois- 
sard hath written the life of this amiable princess. He hath been 
accused of being lavish of his panegyric on the English, and too 
sparing of it on his own countrymen. La Popeliniere, if the accn- 
sation be just, hath accounted for it, by saying, that he received 
nothing for his labours from the French, but was rewarded with a 
good pension by the English. He died 1402. His Chronicle was 
translated from the French into English by John Bouchier, knigfat, 
Lord Bemers, at the command of Henry VIII. and printed in f<^o, 
by Pinson, 1525.t 

* In this book are various heads of foreigners, which may have a place in the 
English series. 

t There is a good account of him in 0Idys*8 " British Librarian," p. C^ikc At 
p. 70, it appears that he was a clerk of the bed-chamber to Queen Philippa, and 
that he was knighted and beneficed in England. He raaj therefore be placed vitli 
the clergy. — It is much to be lamented, that Froissard 's complete work, rerouuing 
at Breslau in MS., has never been printed : what we have in print is an abridg- 
ment. — Lord Hailes, 



OF ENGLAND. 95 



HENRY VIII. 

BEGAN HIS REIGN APRIL 22, 1509. 



CLASS I. 

THE ROYAL FAMILY. 

HENRICUS VIII. Holbein p. Hollar/, ex Collect. 
Arundel. 1647. \2mo. 

H£NRicus VIII. H. Holbein p. Faber (sen.) f. one 
of the Set of Founders, large Ato. 

There is another, if not more of him, by the same 
hand; and a large h. sh. mezz. by his son, after Holbein. 

Henry viii. Holbein p. Houbraken sc. h. sh. Illust. 
Head.^ 

Henry viii. Holbein p. Vertue sc. h. sh. 

A most curious print o/^Henry viii . inscribed ^'Hen- 
rims, Dei Gratia, Rea: Angliae, 1548," engraved by Cor- 
nelius Matsis, the initial letters of whose name are in two 
ciphers ; one in the right position, and the other inverted. 
He has a most enormous fur tippet about his neck, which 
seems to be sunk into his shoulders. The like?iess is so 
ridiculous, that it has much of the air of a Caricatura. 

It is very scarce. 

Henricus viii. 8vo. From Hollands " Heroologia 
Anglica.'' 

Henricus Octavus ; F. Delaram sc. 4to. — Another 
by J. Payne. 

* The collar, which was commonly called the inestimable Collar of Rubies, is 
represented in this print ; it was sold for Charles I. in the time of the civil wars« by 
the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Holland. 



96 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Henry VIII. Regemdediiratuseis.Bvo. T. Cecil sc, 

Henricus VIII. W, F. (Faithorne) f. \to. Frontis- 
piece to Lord Herberts Hist. 

Henri viii. Vander Werffp. G. Valck sc. h. sh. 

Henri viii. Vander Werffp. P. a Gunst. sc, h. sh. 

Vander Werff drew sixty-seven portraits for Mons. Larrey's 
" History of England," which were engraved by Valk, Gunst^ 
Vermeulen, B. Audran, Ch. Simmoneau, P6ter Drevet, and Des- 
rochers. 

Henricus Octavus ; inscribed " H. O. J?." Vertue 
sc. small. 

Henrick de viii. &c. small 4to, 

Henry viii. givi?ig the Bible to the Clergy, Sfc. in 
the Jine frotitispiece to Cranmefs Bible, printed by R. 
Grafton and E. Whitchurch, 1539 : it was desigfied by 
Holbein. There is a copy of it, with a large explanation, 
in Lewis s " History of the English Translatio7is of the 
Bible,'' 8vo. p. 1 24. Copied in StrutC^ ^* Dresses^" 

' Henry Viii. EDtrARD vi. Philip and Mary, and 
Elizabeth, with emblematical figures. TT*. Rogers sc. 
Mr. Walpole never saw but one of these prints, besides 
his^bum, and that was in the King of France's library^ 

Henry viii. giving the charter to the surgeons' com- 
pany; Holbein p. Baron sc. large sh. 

This company was incorporated 1541, 32 Hen. VIII. 

Henricus viii. Fund^. Coll. Trinit. Cantab. -4*. 
D*. 1546. J. Faber f large 4to. mezz. 

This is after his portrait at Trinity College. 

Henry the Eighth, and Jane Seymour his queen. 
See Artie. I. Class I. 

Henry viii. with view of Trinity College, in Wil-^ 
i *^ Cambridge,'^ 6vo. E. Harding, ISOi. 



f 



OF ENGLAND. «7 

H£NBY VIII. in Hume's '^ England^ 1803. Bromky. 

Henry viii. oval^ when prince. W. Richardson. 
This is copied from the children of Henry VIL by 
Vertue. 

Henry viii. in " Royal and Noble Authors,'' by 
Park, 1806. Bocquet, 

Henry VIII. in Harding* sShakspeate* Clausin. 

Henry viii. toith sc^tre and ball (different from 
Delarurns) : are to be sold in Lombard Street by Henry 
Balaem; scarce. 

Henry viii. on horseback, hat and feather, wood- 
cut; folio; rare. 

Henry viii* in the Antiquarian print, with Hemy 
VII.^c 

Henry viii. his children, and Will. Summers. 
F. Bartolozzi sc. 

This despotic monarch held the nation in greater subjection than 
any of its conquerors; and did more by his will, than any of his 
predecessors could have done with the sword. He was, in his own 
estimation, the wisest prince in Europe ; but was the known dupe 
of as many of the European princes as paid their court to him 
under that character. He was more governed by vanity and ca- 
price than principle ; and paid no regard to mercy, nor even to 
justice, when it stood in the way of his fissions. He persecuted 
both protestants and papists ; and gained the character of a gene- 
rous and munificent prince, by dividing the spoils of the church, to 
which he had no right. His whole administration, after he was 
possessed of those spoils, is a flagrant proof of the impotence of 
law, when opposed to the violence of arbitrary power. But, though 
a tyrant, he, by depressing the nobility, and increasing the property 
of the Commons, had a considerable hand in laying the foundations 
of civil liberty ; and, though a bigot to almost every error of the 
chucch of Rome, he was the father of the Reformation. 

CATHARINA princeps. Arthuri uxor, Henrica 
regi nupta; Holbein p. R. White sc. h. sh. 

VOL. I. O 



98 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Catharine of Arragon ; Holbein p. Hmbrakeii sc. 
1743. h. sh. Illust. Head, 

In the collection of the Honourable Horace Walpole. 

Catharine d' Arragon; Vander Werff p. Vermeu- 
left sc. h. sh. 

Catharine, in Harding's Shakspeare. S. Harding 
sc. From the original at Strawberry Hill. 

Catharine; small oval. Vertue. 

Catharine, in ''Noble Authors,'* by Park. Bocquet. 

As soon as the person of Catharine became unacceptable to the 
king» he began to entertain scruples about the lawfulness of his 
marriage, which were much increased by his consulting casuists, 
particularly the works of St. Thomas Aquinas, whose authority he 
thought decisive. His passion for Anne Bolen added weight to all 
these, and was more decisive than the casuistry of St. Thomas him- 
self.— She was divorced in 1533. Ob. 8 Jan. 1535-6. JEtat. 51; 

ANNA BULLEN (Bolen) ; a circle; Holbein delin. 
Hollar/. l2mo. 

Ann Bvllzv, queen of King Henry VIII. Hd- 
iAi p. HaubrikeH sc. Illust. Head. 

In tlM cdllectioB of the late Earl of Bradford. 

Airy BoLfekr. F. Delaram sc. rare. 
Ann fioLETN ; Elstracke sc. 
' AUNfe DB Boulen; Vmder Werff p. Vermeulen sc. 

m 

• HsNftT the Eighth declaring his passimi for Anne 
Bauir ; Hogarth p. et sc. sh. 

Axil BuLLEN, whfde lengthy as Faith. H. Holbein. 
M. HoUarftai, 1647 ; scarce. 

Akne BvLlBK ; Bocgutt sc. In '' Noble Authors,'* 
L Airit. 1806, 8m. 

na ■» poMnk of licr ■! Wobum Abbey. 



OF ENGLAND: 99 

This beauteous queen fell a sacrifiice io the violent passions of 
Henry the Eighth ; to his anger for bringing him a dead son ; to 
Iiis jealousyi for the innocent, but indiscreet familiarities of her 
behaviour ; and, above all, to his passion for Jane Seymour, whom 
he married the next day after she was beheaded.-^Exec. 19 May 
1536. 

JOHANNA SEYMOUR, regina Henric. VIII. 
Holbein p. Hollar f. 1648; in a circle. 

JaneSeymouk; Ulust. ffead. 

Jane Setmour: see her portrait in the family- 
piece descrifoed in Article I. Class I. 

Jane Seymour ; H. Holbein. F. Bartolozzi sc. 
1795 ; in the Royal Collection. 

Jane Seymour, fol. Vermeulen sc. 

Ja^« SeYMOUE ; W* Bond sc. From the original of 
Holbein, in the collection of his Grace the Duke of Bed- 
ford J in Lodgers ** Illustrious Portraits.*^ 

Jane Seymour was the best beloyed wife of Heni^ VHJ. an4 
had indeed the best title to his affection^ as she possessed more 
merit than any «f his queens* She died in childbed of Edward Yh 
14 Oct. 1537. The king continued a widower two years after h^ 
decease. 

CATHABJNE HOWARD ; H. Holbein pins. HoU 
larf. 1646 ; richly adorned; ^vo. 

Oatharin* Howaep, queen of Kwig H^nry VIJL 
Holbein p. Houbrakm 4C. Jlfycstp Jffead. In the colhcr 
tvm of Mr. Richardson. 

It'is now at Strawberry-hill. 

Vertue took this head for that of Mary, queen of France.— See 
^ AnQod- iof Fainting/' vol. i. p. 95. 2d edit. 

Cathai^ink HowAjiD ; Vander Werff. p. Vermeulen 
sc. h, )sh» 

Catharine Howard was niece to the Duke of Norfolk, and cousin- 
german to Anae Boleh* Sow «fter .the king had ordered a public 



100 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

thanksgiving to be offered up, for his happiness with this queen, 
she was executed for incontinence. Beheaded 12 Feb. 1541-2. 

ANN of Cleves; Holbein p. Houbrahen sc. 1733. 
Illust. Head. In the collection of Thomas Barret, esq. 

This is said to be the portrait which was done in Germany for 
the king. 

Anna Clivensis ; Hollar f. 1648 ; A. sh. 

Anne de Cleves; Vander Werff p. Vermetden sc. 
h. sh. 

Ann of Cleves; H. Holbein. F. Bartolozzi sc. 1796. 
in the Royal Collection. 

Ann of Cleves, twoy by Hollar; one a profile. 

The portrait of Anne Cleves, drawn by the flattering hand of 
Holbein, was not unpleasing to the king ; but her ungracefal be- 
haviour shocked his delicacy at first sight ; and he peevishly asked 
if '< they had brought him a Flanders' mare.'' He was soon di- 
vorced from her, upon several frivolous pretences ; one of which 
was, that he had not inwardly given his consent when he espoused 
her. Oft. 16 July 1557.» 

CATHARINE PARRE ; Vander Werff p. Vermeu- 
len sc. h. sh. 

Catherine Pare; from the original in Lambeth 
Palace, in Herbert's " History of the Palace,'' 4to. 
1806. 

Catherine Parr; Holbein p. Bocquet sc. in Park's 
" Rx>yal and Noble Authors," 1806. 

Catherine Parr ; oval, in a sqtcare frame (B. 
Reading). W. Richardson. 

Catherine Parr; with her autograph ; from the 
picture at Lambeth. J. Thane. 

Catherine Parr; W. N. Gardiner sc. 1793. 

* She died at Cheiiea« her usual place of residence. 



OF ENGLAND. lOl 

Catherine Parr, inscribed Catherine Principes, 
&c. Holbein. R. White sc. in Burners " History of 
the Reformation^^ 

Catherine Parr ; H. Meyer sc.from the original 
of Holbein in the collection of Dawson Turnery esq. 
A.M. F.R. A. L.S. in Lodgers " Illustrious Portraits. ^^ 

There is an original whole length of her at Lord Denbigh's, at 
Newnham Padox. Mr. Walpole had a small one like it, by Hol- 
bein. Dr. Ducarel informed me, that the picture of her, on boards 
m the long gallery at Lambeth, is much like her print in Larrey*3 
History. The portrait at Windsor, with the king and his children, 
is doubtful. 

Catharine Parre was widow of Nevil Lord Latimer. She was a 
woman of merit, but very narrowly escaped the block for tamper- 
ing with religion. She was, presently after the king's decease, 
married to the Lord Admiral, brother to the Protector Somerset. — 
The Rev. Mr. Huggett, a very accurate antiquary, has given un- 
doubted authority for the death of this queen,* at the castle of 
Sadley, in Gloucestershire, Sept. 5, 1548, and for her interment in 
the chapel there. These particulars were desiderata in her history, 
as it appears from Ballard's '' Memoirs," p. 96. 

MARIA princeps, Henrici VIII. regis Anglise filia; 
E. Holbein p. W. Hollar f ex collect ione Arundeliana; 
1647, in a circle. 

Mary was daughter of Henry VIII. by Catharine of Arragon. 

The Princess ELIZABETH ; Holbein p. 1551. /. 
Faberf 1741. Whole lengthy mezz. large h. sh. 

The painting was in the collection of the late James West, esq.f 
Elizabeth was daughter of Henry VIII. by Anne Bolen. 

* Who is supposed to have died by poison, administered, as it is believed, bj 
W profligate husband. Her leaden coffin being opened in 1782, her face, and even 
^er eyes, appeared in a state of uncommon preservation. — See Archaeologia, vol. ix. 

t Mr. Walpole always doubted whether this was a portrait of the Princess Eliza- 
^th. It may possibly be no portrait, but an emblematical picture of a good wife. 
^'' Bull informs me, that ht lately saw a very curious painting, similar to that of 



102, BIOGRAPHICAL. HISTORY 

These two last princesses^ who succeeded to the throne^ were de- 
clared illegitimate by act of parliament, in this reign ; and by a 
subsequent act, the succession was limited to them, on failure of 
issue from Prince Edward. 

MARGUERITE; A. Vander Werffp.G. Valcksc. 
Four French verses; h, sh. 

Margaret, queen to James IV. of Scotland ; small 
oval. J. Thane. 

Margaret, in the print with her brother Prince 
Arthur, &c. 

Margaret, front face^ head dressed withJemeUy Jgc. 
See James iv. 

There is a very ^od picture of Margaret at Hampton Court, 
whole length ; and tinother^ with her second or thhrd husband, was 
at the Earl of Scarborough's, in Audley Street : it is now at the 
Marquis of Bute's. 

Margaret, wife of James IV. and mother of James V, king of 
Scotland, was eldest sister to Henry Vlii. Her second marriage 
was with Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus, who had by her a 
daughter, named Margaret, married to Matthew Stuart, eail of 
Lenox, by whom she was mother of Henry Lord Damley; the un- 
fortunate husband of the more unfortunate Queen of Scots. After 
her divorce from the Earl of Angus, she was married to Henry 
Stuart, brother to the Lord Avindale, 

MARIE d'Angleterre, 3. Epouse dn Roy Louis 
XII. 4e son portrait^ de Londres : in " IKstaire de France 
par MezerayT 3 tom.fol. 1646. The prints in Mexe^ 



Mr. West's; and round the old frame, now altered to a giU one, Jthe ibllewkig 

lines : — 

Uxor amet, sileat, servet, nee ubiqoe vagelur : 

Hoc Testado docet, Claves, Labra junctaqae, Tiutor. 

The print is exactly described by tbese verses. The picture was part of the Lexing- 
ton 'Collection, and now belongs to Xord George Sutton, who inherits Lord Lexing- 
ton's estate. There is a tradition in the family, that the portrait was painted at 
the request of Sir Thomas More, who add^dthe verses; and that it is one of his 
daughters. At the bottom were these words, " -Hsc tatlis fuit;" - * 



i 



OF ENGLAND. , 103 

rajfs History tvere engraved by Jaqtces de Bie, but are 
without his name* 

Mary, queen of France, in Brydges* " History of 
Peers:' 

Mary, queen of France, and Charles Brandon, 
duke of Suffolk ; G. Verttie sc. From an original in 
the possession of the late Earl of Granville. — It is now 
at Strawberry-hill. — On the right hand of the Duke of 
Suffolk is his lance, appendant to which is a label, in- 
scribed, 
• • • f 

'^ Cloth of gold, do not despite, 
Tho' thou be matched with cloth of frize : 
Clodi of frize, be not too bold, 
Tho' thou be match'd with cloth of gold.'' 

Large sh. 

Maiy, queen of France, youngest sister to Henry V III. was one 
of the most beautiful women of her age. It is pretty dear, that 
Charles Brandon gained her affections before she was married to 
Lewis XII. ; as, soon afler the death of that monarch, which was 
in about three montiis after his marriage, she plainly told him, that 
if he did not free her from all her scruples within a certain time^ 
she would never marry him. His casuistry succeeded within the 
time limited, and she became his wife. This was probably with 
the king^s connivance. It is however certain, that no other sub- 
ject dufst have ventured upon a queen of France, and a sister of 
the implacable Henry the Eighth. Ob. 1533. 

CHARLES BRANDON, duke of Suffolk ; E. 
Harding, jun^^sc. in Harding* s Shakspeare. 

Charles Bkandon, &c. with cat beard; in a circle. 
Hollar, 1649. 

Charles Bsanddk, &c, E. Scriven sc. in Lodge's 
" Illustrious Portraits:' 

* In this book are variottS portraits that may be taken into the Engliili series. 



104 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Charles Brandon, with Mary, queen of France; 
G. Vertue sc. f 

Charles Brandon was remarkable for the dignity and graceful- ! 

ness of his person^ and his robust and athletic constitution. He '• 

distinguished himself in tilts and tournaments, the favourite exer- |. 

cises of Henry. He was brought up with that prince, studied bis \ 

disposition, and exactly conformed to it. That conformity gra- ^ 

dually brought on a stricter intimacy ; and the king, to bring him i 

nearer to himselfi raised him from a private person to a duke. i 

ii 

KING OF SCOTLAND. 
JAQUES V. a bust; Vander Werff p. P. a Gunst. 
sc. h. sh. 

James v. king of Scotland ; Clark sc. 8vo. 

James v. Svo. Gaywood sc. 

James v. in the set of Stuarts. 

James v. in " Noble Authors^'' by Park, 1806. 

James v. on horseback, tvood-cut, folio; rare. 

James v. in Pinkerton's ^* Scotch History'' Harding. 

Jacobus v. D. G. Scotiae Rex. Slic German verses, 

by Peter Myragenis ; 8t;o. 

James v. of Scotland ; small oval. J. Thane. 

James V. was a prince of great personal courage, and of un- 
common talents for government; but he was not able, with all his 
prudence and vigour, to wrestle with domestic faction and a foreign 
enemy at the same time. He died in the flower of his age, of 
grief, occasioned by the defeat of his army by the English. This 
was more owing to the divisions which prevailed among the Scots, 
than to the courage or conduct of the enemy. Ob. 14, Dec. 1542, 
Mt. 33. He was the author of the famous ballad of '* Christ's 
Kirk on the Green \'* to which Mr. Pope alludes in his imitation 
of the first Epistle of Horace : 

« A Scot will fight for Christ's kiik o'the green." 

* So Bishop Gibson and Bishop Tanner tell us; bat Dr. Percy says, that it has 
all the internal marks of an earlier age. If the matter in question rests upon internal 
evidence. Dr. Percy was nnqnestionablj the beat judge. 



.OP ENOLAN1X 106 

MADELEINE de Vnnce, Vender Werf p. P. a 
Crunst. sc: h. sh. 

, Magdalen, eldest daughter of Francis I. a woman of an elegant 
person, but a sickly constitution, espoused James V. 1 Jan. 1537, 
The marriage was celebrated at Paris with such pomp and magni* 
ficence as had scarcely ever been displayed on tbe like occasion in 
France.* This young queen died of a fever on the 22d of July 
the same year.f James espoused to his second wife Mary of Lor- 
ndn,t dutchess dowager of Longueville. 

MARY, &c. queen of Scotland; a muill oval, ie- 
longing to a set of Scottish kings. 

Marie de Lorraine. Vander Werff p. P. a Gunst. 
sc. in Larrejfs " History. ^^ 

Mary, &c. in Pinkerton's ** Scotch History^' Hard^. 
ing sc. 

There is a head of her at Newbottle^ the Marquis of Lothian^s^ t^ 
few miles from Edinburgh. 

Mary, queen of James V. and after his demise regent of Scot- 
land, was a woman of superior understanding, and of an elevated 
qiirit. Her great qualities w^re happily tempered with the gentle 
and tiie amiable; and she was as engaging as a woman, as she was 
ai^rful as a queen. But her attachment to her brothers, the prmcef 
aS Lorrain, who were rarely checked by conscience in the career of 
their ambition, unfortunately betrayed her into some acts of rig6ur 
and oppression, that ill suited the gentleness of her nature, aB4 
which ended in her b.eing depriwsd of the regency. Tow^sth^ 
close of her life, she saw and deplored the errors of her condiict; 
liie eilects of private afiection coinciding with zeal for religfon^ 

. * See an accoant of die nMrriage, aiid a list of die aany rich pieients nt^ by 
Francis to Jamei, in Guthrie's " Hist, of Scotland," toI. v. p. 165, 166. 

t Keith, in his 'f History of the Affairs of. Church and State in SooUand," s^ys* ihat 
" by her gracious deportment the little time she was among us, she had so gained the 
hearts and affections of persons of all ranks and conditions, that her death was much 
lamented ; and^ for a testimony of their sorrow, they put on mourning ; wbioh,'ai 
Mr. Buchanan judges, was the first time that mourning clothes were womin Scot- 
land." It seems as if (his custom was first brought thither from Jrance. 

X Sometimes called Mary of Guise. The family oi Guise wasa branch of thf^ 
of Lorrain. 

VOL. I. P 



106 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

which prompted her to break the common ties of morality, and the 
faith which she owed her subjects. Ob. 10. Jun. 1560. 

Her daughter Mary, born in an evil hour, lived to experience the 
advantages and the miseries of royalty in a still more exquisite de- 
gree than her mother. 



CLASS IL 

GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE, AND OF 

THE HOUSEHOLD. 

SIR THOMAS CROMWELL, &c. Holbein p. 
engraved by Peacham^ author of the " Complete Gentle- 
many This print i» rery rare. 

Sir Thomas Cromwell, knt. Holbein p. The 
bottom was etched by Hollar ; 4to. 

Thomas Cromwell, comes Essexiae. H. Hol- 
bein p. R. White so. h. sh. This nearly resembles 
the portrait of Sir Thomas More in the Picture 
Grallery at Oxford, which was done by Mrs. Mary 
More. 

Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex. Holbein p. 
Houbrahcn sc. Illust. Head. In the possession of Mr. 
Southwell, at King's Weston, near Bristol. 

There is a mezzotinto^ in Ato. by Manwaring, copied 
fiam this print. 

Tbomas Ceomwellus; m the '* Heroologia;' 8vo. 

Thomas Cromwell. J. Filian sc. 4to. 

Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex ; in Harding's 
^^fhe^cispeare. Holbein pin. L. Schiavonetti sc. 

• ." . ■ 

'''hohas Cromwell, earl of Essex; in Smollett's 
tory." (R. Strange sc.) 



OF ENGLAND. 107 

Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex. W. Hall sc. 
1815. From the original, by Holbein, in the collection 
if Sir Tho. Clifford, bart. in Mr. Lodge's " Illustrious 
Portraits.'' 

Cromwell, vicegerent; in Larreys ** Histtyry^ 

Thomas Cromwell was the son of a blacksmith at Putney, and 
some time served as a soldier in Italy under the Duke of Bourbon. 
He was afterward secretary to Cardinal Wolsey, and ingratiated 
himself with Henry VIII. by discovering that the clergy were pri- 
vately absolved from their oath to him« and sworn anew to the 
pope. This discovery furnished the king with a pvetenoe for the 
suppression of monasteries, in which Cromwell was a principal in- 
strument. The king, whose favours, as well as his mercies, were 
cruel, raised him to a most envied pitch of honour and preferment, 
a little before his fall. He first amused him with an agreeable 
prospect, and then pushed him down a precipice. Cromwell, as 
vicegerent, had the precedence of all the great officers jof statue. 
Beheaded July 28, 1540.* 

THOMAS MORE, lord-chancellor. See a de- 
*scription of his portrait with the lawyers, in Class 
VI., which I have assigned for the chancellors, as 
tdmost all of them owed their preferment to the law. 

THOMAS HOWARD, dux et comes Norfolciae, 
&c. comes marescallus, summus thesaurarius, et admi- 
rallus AngluBj S^c. JEt. 66. Ob. 1554. In a furred 
gown, holding the staves of earl-marshal and lord-trea- 
surer. Holbein p. Vorsterman sc. h. sh.'\ 

The original, from which this fine print was done, is in fhe«ol<- 

* In StoVt " Surrey," p. 187, edit 1633, is a remarkable instance of his rapine, 
in seizing on another's property, which shews that he forgot himself after bis eleva- 
tion. Bat the story of his gretitode to Frescobald, a Florentine merchant, who bad 
lieen extremely charitable to him when a poor foot-soldier in Italy, and was nobly 
drewarded when he found him, many years afterw9Fd, in a distressful condition, In 
the streets of London, tells greatly to his honour. See Hakewil's *' Apqlogici," 
p. 435, edit. 1630. 

t The plate engraved by Vorsterman was lately discovered. The print was befQj:^ 
#ery scarce* 



108 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



« 1 



Jection which b^loDged to the late Princess Dowager of Vales, 
There is a copy of it at Gorhambury, the seat of Lord Grimston. \ 

There is a wood print of hitriy with an omawM I 
border, large 4to. or small h. sh. 

Thomas Ho WAED, duke of NoHblk; in Lan^i 
" History:' V. Gunst sc. 

Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk; in Harding'i 
Shakspeare, 1791. Scheneker sc. 

This yenerable peer, who, almost every year of bis life since be 
had been honouried with that dignity,* distihgunhed himself bjUi 
-faithftil services to the crown, was very near being sacrificed, inlA 
old age^ to the peevish jealousy of Henry VIII. who, in his last il- 
lness, entertained an <^inion that the family of the Howards wet^ 
too asjMring. He was tried, and found guilty of high-treason, tt 
1)earing arms which his ancestors had publicly borne before, td 
•which hiihself had often borne in the king's presence^ His eie- 
cution was prevented by the death of the king. When he vtt 
above; eighty years of age, he appeared, with his usual spirit, >t 
the head of a body of forces, and helped to suppress Wyatt's re* 
bdlion. 

EDWARDUS STAFFORD, Dux BuckinghaiB, 
&c. Coll. Maria Magdal. Fund"". 1519- Faberf. 1714; 
one of the Cambridge Founders. 

Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, here- 
ditary high-constatfle of England ; in Harding's Shak- 
speare. L. Schiavonetti sc. after Holbein. 

-Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham ; tt/iti 
a view of Magdalen College. E. Harding sc. in Wilsons 
" Cambridge.'' 

Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham; i» 
Birch's ^^ Lives." J. Houbraken sc. It is there, hjf 
mistake, engraved Henry D. of Buckingham. 

* He was for his merit created Earl of Surrey, 5 Hen. VIII. 




TAVAGO HENTKICl GVTJ)EFORDE COS' 
TRORCrrOLATOB.IS B.OSTICII HI3SrBlClVS 

keGts an^Glec 

TSnVban pin^^jJ^ 



OF ENGLAND. 109 

Edward, duk^ of Buckinghaiii, son of Henry Stafford, who was 
beheaded in the reign of Riqhard III. was restored to his father*« 
honours and estate. He was a distinguished favourite of Henry 
VIII. whom he attended in his interview with Francis I. and seemed 
to vie with those monarchs in pomp and splendour. When he was 
in the height of his glory, his fdl was precipitated hy some, who are 
supposed to have regarded him with a jealous eye; and the sus- 
picion fell diiefly upon Wolsey.* He was accused of treasonable 
practices, widi aidew of succeeding fo the crown ; in consequence 
of a propfaQcy of one Hopkins, a monk, who foretold that Henry 
ironMi die'wKhout issue male. He was declared guilty, and exe. 
cated on Tower-hill the 17th of May, 1521. He was the last who 
.eojofpi the eettkd post of lord high-constable of England ; an 
.^piSicB whichf from the power wherewith it was attended, was alone 
MJikie^t to give umbrage to so jealous a prince as Henry VIIL 

^jHENRICUS GULDEFORDE, controrotulator 
ijpitii, &c, Holbein p. Hollar/. 1647. Collar of 
\j garter, white staff; small Ato. 

W-'V^ '^'^ Sfafiford's gallery is, or was, a portrait of him by Holbein. 
^*^nom this original the following head was engravedL It is in 
4Ph^I fijiigiit's <' Life of Erasmus.** 

? . .HisNBT GuLDEFORDE. V&rtue SO. A small oval. 

Sir Henrt GyLDSFOBDE ; from the Royal Colkc- 
twn.^ Holbein. F. Bartolozzi sc. 

Sib Henby Guldefobde. Holbein. Dalton sc. 

Sir Henrt Guldeforde. Holbein, with ornaments 
in the escutcheon on the cap. Dalttm sc. 

Sir Henry Guldeforde. W. Richardson. 



'■ • Dod, IB his " Church History of England," informs us, that Wolsey, who Vol. i. 
longed to supplant his rival favourite, eitlier from vanity or insolence, dipped his P* 1^^ 
fingers in the basin which the duke had just before held to the king while he washed ^^^* 
his hands : upon which he poured the water into the cardinal's shoes. This so pro« 
voked the haughty prelate, that he threatened to sit upon his skirts : which menace 
occasioned his having no skirts to his coat when he next appeared in the royal pre- 
sence. The king asking the reason of this singular appearance, he, with an air of 
pleasantry, told him, that it was only to disappoint the cardinal, by putting it out 
of kb power to do as he had threatened. 




1 



110 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Henry Guldeforde, or Guilford, was one of the greatest onia' 
ments of the court of Henry VIII . In the early part of his life, be 
served with reputation in the wars with the Moors in Spain under 
Ferdinand and Isabella. His learning and personal qualities re- 
commended him to the esteem of the great Erasmus, with whom 
he held a correspondence. In the seventh year of Henry VIII. he 
was constituted master of the horse for life. Ob. Mt. cir, 40.-* 
The mother of the Lord Guilford Dudley, who was also mother to 
the earls of Warwick and Leicester, was of this family. 

HENRY FITZROY, duke of Richmond. Clamp 
^c. In Harding's " Biog. Mirror.'' 

Henry Fitzroy was natural son to King Henry VIII. by the Lady 
Elizabeth Talboys, daughter of Sir John Blount, knt. and widow 
of Gilbert Lord Talboys, born at Blackmore, in Essex. King Henry 
had a particular fondness for this child ; at the age of six years, 
June 18, 1525 (17 Henry VIII.) he was first made knight of the 
garter, then advanced to the dignity of Earl of Nottingham, and 
the same day created Duke of Richmond and Somerset; the cere- 
mony being performed at the royal palace of Bridewell, in the city 
of London. Among other honours , the lieutenancy of Ireland was 
granted him ; but, on account of his juvenile years, Sir Willian 
Skeffington was appointed his deputy. Leland informs us, that he 
had a spirit turned to martial affairs, was master of the languages 
then in vogue, and had an excellent taste in polite literature. This 
taste, no doubt, was not a little improved by the mutual intercourse 
between the young duke and the celebrated Henry, earl of Surrey, 
with whom he was educated at Windsor ; and both went in the 
royal train of Henry VII L to attend his interview with Francis I. 
Such an affection grew between these noble youths, that, to cement 
the tie of friendship, the duke, on their return, married the earl's 
sister. Lady Mary Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, third 
duke of Norfolk. The nuptials were, probably, never consum- 
mated, the duke dying without issue 1536. JEt, svce. 17. See 
Harding's ^ Biographical Mirror.'' 

AUDLEY, lord- chancellor. Ha?is Holbein. P. W. 
Tomkins. From the original y in the possession of Lord 
Howardy at Audky End; in Harding's Shakspeare. 

The plate was engraved at Lord Howard's expose, aad was 



OF ENGLAND, 111 

tonsiderably larger than at present; but^ titer a few impressions 
were taken for private friends, Mr. Harding was permitted to insert 
it in his work. 

Hiomas Audley, speaker of the House of Commons, on the resig- 
nation of Sir Thomas More, was made lord-chancellor ; at which 
time the king conferred on him the honour of knighthood ; and, 
being a great favourite of Henry's, in 1538 he was created Lord 
Aadley of Walden. He in part founded and endowed Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, for the maintenance of able poets. — He died 
I564f, MU 66, and was buried at Saffron Walden, Essex. 

WILLIAM FITZWILLIAMS, earl of Southamp- 
ton. Holbein. F. Bartolozzi sc. 

William FiTzwiLLiAMS, &c. Holbein. R.Dalton. 
From a drawing in the Royal Collection. 

William Fitzwilliam, third son of Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam, of Aid- 
warke, in the county of York, knight, was not only eminent for his 
military skill in the reign of Henry VHI. but was also appointed 
to divers high posts and offices of honour^and advanced to the dig- 
nity of Earl of Southampton in 1537. He died in 1543, while hav- 
ing the ccMnmand of the van of the English army then marching 
mto Scotland. In such estimation was he held, that, to honour 
his memory, his standard was borne throughout that whole ex- 
pedition. 

ROBERT RATCLIFFE, earl of Sussex. J. Thane 
ex. From his monument in Boreham Church. 

Robert Ratcliff, baron and viscount Fitz- Walter, was in 1529 
created Earl of Sussex ; and obtained a special patent, to himself 
and his hdrs, to exercise the office of server, at the time of dinner, 
upon the coronation day of any future king or queen of this realm, 
with the fee of £20 per annum. He was also made lord high- 
chamberlain for life. He distinguished himself in the wars of 
France, and was the complete courtier to his capricious sovereign. 
He died at Chelsea 1542. 

LORDVAUX. Holbei?t. F. Bartolozzi. 
Lord Vaux. Holbein. Dalton. 



112 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Lord Vaux. Holbein. L. SchiavonettL In Hard- 
ing's Shakspeare. 

Nicholas Lord Vaux. Holbein. In *' Royal and 
Noble Authors,'' by Park, 1806. 

Sir Nicholas Vaux was a great ornament to the courts of Henry 
VII. and VIII. His father, by adhering to Henry VI. in the con- 
tention between the houses of York and Lancaster, had forfeited bis 
estates : they were, however, restored to the son, with the honour of 
knighthood, on his fighting valiantly at the battle of Stoke, on the 
side of Henry VII. against the Earl of Lincoln ; and in the reign of 
Henry VIII. for his martial spirit, he grew so much in favour, as to 
be one of the ambassadors for confirming the peace between Henry 
and the French king, and also one of the commissioners for prepar- 
ing the famous interview between those monarchs near Ouienes. 
He was advanced to the dignity of a baron, by the title of Lord 
Vaux of Harwedon, the 15th of Henry VIII. and died soon after, 
according to Mr. Lodge, 1524. 

EARL OF WESTMORELAND. S. Harding del 
^t sculp. From a miniature in the British Museum. 

Earl of Westmoreland ; in Strutfs *' Regal 
AntiqJ' plate 33. From the same miniature. 

Ralph Nevill, son of Sir John Nevill, one of the most .eminent 
noblemen of his time, was a knight of the garter, earl-marshal of 
England, and lord-warden of the Scotch Marches. He filled other 
high o£Bces of state, and was created Earl of Westmoreland 1398. 
He was an able commander, a shrewd politician ; and so managed 
die fluctuating interest of the day, that he always contrived to pre- 
ibrve himself in power. He died H25. 

'.. CHARLES SOMERSET, Ist earl of Worcester. 
Harding sc. 

, Charles, natural son of Henry, duke of Somerset, by Joan Hill, 
assumed the name of Somerset ; and being a person of great abi- 
lities, as well in honour as estates, was by Henry VII. constituted 
ne of his privy council, aduiiral of the fleet, vice-chamberlain of 
bousehold) sent ambassador, with the order of the garter, to 
lieror Maximilian; and was with Henry VIII. in his expe- 



OF ENGLAND. 113 

ditioninto France. For his heroic actions he had the office of lord-* 
ciramberlain bestowed on him for life, and was created Earl of Wor- 
cester. He iharried Elizabeth, daughter and heir of William Her- 
bert, earl of Huntingdon ; from whom descended the late Lord 
Rivers. 06.1526. 



CLASS III. 



PEERS, 

AND SirCH AS HAVE TITLES OF PEERAGE. 

HENRICUS HOWARD, comes Suniae ; M. 24. 
Holbein p. Hollar f. h. sh* 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. Holbein p. G. V. 
( Vertue) sc. 4to. 

Henricus Howard, &c. Holbein p. Vertue sc. 
1747 ; h. sh. 

Henry Howard, &c. Houhraken sc. Illust. Head. 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey; after Holbein. 
F. Bartolozzi sc. In the Royal Collectio?i. 

The same, by Dalton. An outline in Harding's 
Shakspeare. Harding sc. 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. Rivers sc. In 
" Noble Authors;' by Parky 1806. 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. Holbein pinx. 
E. Scriven sc. In the works of Henry Howard, E. of 
Surrey, and Sir Thomas Wyatt the elder, by G. F. Nott, 
D.D. 2 vol. Ato. 1785. 

His portrait is at Kensington. 

The great and shining talents of this accomplished nobleman 
excited the jealousy of Henry, who strongly suspected that he 
aspired to the crown. He was condemned and executed for high- 
treason, after the formality of a trial, Jan. 19, 1546-7. His father 
the doke of Norfolk's head << was upon the block f but he was 

VOL. I. Q 



1 



114 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

happily deliTered by the death of the king. The Earl of Surrey was 
famous for the tenderness and elegance of hit poetry, m which lie 
excelled all the writers of his time. The fair Geraldine, the fame 
of whose beauty was raised by his pen and his lance, has been 
proved by Mr. Walpole, from a coincidence of many circumstanceB» 
to have been Elizabeth, second daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, earl 
of Kildare, by Margaret, daughter of Thomas Grey, marquis of 
Dorset, and to have been the third wife of Edward Clinton, earl of 
Lincoln. 

SIR ANTHONY BROWNE, on horseback, with 
King Henry viii. In the '^ Vetusta Monumental' 
vol. Hi. plate 33, S^c. " The king is mounted on a stately 
courser y whose head-stall^ reins, and stirrups, are studied 
and embost with gold. He wears oh his head a black 
bonnet, ornamented with a white feather, and is drest in 
ajacquet of cloth of gold, and a surcot or gown of brown, 
velvet, with breeches and hose of white silk. His coun- 
tenance appears serene and sedate. All the features of his 
face are highly finished, and the portrait hath, by good 
judges f been esteemed to be of the greatest likeness we now 
have of that monarch . Behind the king are two persons on 
horseback ; that on the right Jiand is the Duke of Suffolk, 
mounted on a black horse, and dressed in a scarlet habit, 
with a black bonnet on his head; his beard is remarkabli/ 
white, curled, and parted in the middle. The other is 
Sr Anthony Browne, mounted on a white courser. ''^ 

ITiere is a copy of Sir Anthony Browne, on horseback, 
tnthout the king, ^^. 

Sir Andiony succeeded his father in the honourable post of 
standard-bearer throughout the whole realm of England and else- 
where; he attended his sovereign Henry VIII. in his conquests in 
Fhmca; and was ambassador for conveying the order of the garter 
to FxtBcis L &C. 30 Henry VIII. He had a grant of the office of 
Ike aoastar of the horse, and of the site of Battel Abbey, and was 
at the aame tkiie with Lc^ Audley, lord-chancellor, elected knight 
of Iha gaitar. He betrothed Aime of Cleves as pro^gr for Henry 



OF ENGLAND. 115 

VIII. and was in such favour with the king, that he left him 4 
Jq^acy, and appointed him one of his executors^ and one of the 
coonoil to Prince Edward his son. Ob, 1548, and was buried at 
Battel Abbey. 

GEORGE TALBOT, earl of Shrewsbury, with 
Ank Hastings, his first wife; large quarto. J. Thane, 

George, son of John earl of Shrewsbury, was only five years old at 
the death of his father in 1485. He was early made one of the king's 
privy council and one of the principal commanders of the forces 
sent in aid of Maximilian the emperor against the French ; was 
with King Henry VIII. present at the memorable interview with 
Francis I. of France, and one of the witnesses examined in the cause 
of divorce between the king and Catharine his first wife. In the 
rebellion in the north, called the Pilgrimage of Grace, occasioned 
by the dissolution of the lesser monasteries, he was appointed the 
king's lieutenant, and, with the Duke of Norfolk, brought them to 
make their submission, and obtained for them the king's pardon. 
He is said to have been noble, prudent, and moderate, through the 
whole of his life ; and died at his manor of Wingfield, in the county 
of Derby, 1542. He married two wives; first, Ann, daughter of 
William, lord Hastings, chamberlain to King Edward IV; ; his 
second wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Walden, of 
Erith, in Kentt 

A SCOTCH PEER. 

ARCHIBALD DOUGLASS, earle of Anguish 
(Angus), &c. ; a small ovaly belonging to a set of the 
kings of Scotland. 

Akchibald, earl of Angus, with Mary, queen 
dowager. J. Thane. 

Archibald, earl of Angus, united the talents of the gentUmao, 
the statesman, and the soldier. Margaret, widow of James IV. 
and regent of Scotland, ^' for her better support," as Crauford tells 
us, married this lord. She had, doubtless, another inducement : 
he was the most accompliBbed of her subjects/ In the minority of 

* Buchanan says : *' Archibaldo Doglassioi Comiti Angusiae, adolescent!, genere, 
forma, omnibos denique bonis artibus, Scotictt jav^ntoti^ prbnario, nupflit/' This 



\ 



116 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

James V. his son-in-law, he was one of his privy counsellors. In 
1521, he was promoted to the high office of chancellor of Scotland. 
But afterward, falling under the king's displeasure, he was out- 
lawed; and, retiring into England, was graciously received hy 
Henry VIII. who took him into his privy council. Upon the death 
of James, he returned to his own country, and his outlawry was 
annulled by parliament He commanded the vanguard of the 
Scots army against the English, at the disastrous battle of Pinkie- 
field, where he gave sufficient proof of his bravery. Ob. 1.557., Sec 
Crauford's "Peerage," p. 102, 103. 



CLASS IV. 
THE CLERGY. 

CARDINALS. 

THOMAS WOLS^US, card, et archiep. Eborac. 
&c. Holbein p. Faber f. One of the Founders, Ato. 
rri^zz. 

Wolsey intended to procure copies of all the MSS. in the Vati- 
can, for his college at Oxford ; which, if finished according to his 
plan, would have been the noblest foundation in the iKorld. He 
founded the first professorship fbr the Greek language jg^ that 
university. 

Thomas Wolsey, &c.; a }ttbel proceedings from his 
mouth, inscribed^ " Ego, meus et rex;""4^. 

The cardinal has been much censured for his arrogance in this 
egotism : but any other order of the words would, according fo the 
strictness of the Latin idiom, have been preposterous^ Here the 
schoolmaster seems to have got the better of the cburtiiM^* 

THoi^iAs Wolsey, &c. R. Elstracke so. 4to. 



author not being^accocate as to the time of the marriage/ his learned editor, Roddi- 
man, adds this note : ** 6 Augusti, anno 1514, Leslsus et Hoiinsbedius noptam 
testantur.'' 
f He was.8chooli|tptfter of Magdaleo College, in Oxford, 



OF ENGLAND, 117 

There are hvo copies of the same, one of them with 
arms. Eight Latin verses. Compton Holland ere. 1529. 
rare. 

The original print is, as I am informed, before his 
W'^i ky -^^- Cavendish, the founder of the Devonshire 
fttmily who was his gentleman^usher. Perhaps this 
has been copied for a latter edition of that book. Ifind^ 
m a large manuscript catalogue of English heads by 
Vertue, in my possession, ' that there is a head of him by 
Loggan. 

Thomas Wols jeus ; in Holland^ s " Heroologia ;' 8vo. 

Thomas Wolsey. W. M. (Marshall) sc. Small; 
in Fuller's " Holy State:' 

Thomas Wolsjeus. Fourdrinier sc. h. len. h. sh. 
In his Life, by Fiddes ; fol. 

Caiidinal Wolsey. Houbraken sc. Illust. Head. 
In the possession of Mr, Kingsley. 

Thomas Wolsey, &c. Desrochers sc. 4to. 

Cardhstal Wolsey ; inscribed C. W, Vertue sc. 
A small oval.* 

Cari>inal Wolsey; in Harding's Shakspeare. 
Harding sc. 1791. 

Thomas Wolsey ; in Hutchinson's Durham. 

Thomas Wolsey ; in the " Oxford Almmiacks^ for 
1724, 1730, 1748. 

Cardinal Wolsey possessed, for some years, all that power and 
grandeur which could be enjoyed by the greatest favourite, and 

* There is no head of Wolsey which is not in profile. That which is carved in 
wood, in the central hoard of the gateway which leads to the Butchery of Ipswich, 
has such an appearance of antiquity, that it is supposed to have been done when he 
was living: by the side of it is a butcher's knife. It is said, that his portraits were 
done in profile, because he had but one eye. This defect has been imputed, per- 
haps.-fa^sely, to a disgraceful disteropeff 



118 BIOGRAPHICAL HI8TORY 

Sept 7, most absolute minister, under an arbitrary prince. After he wai 
created cardinal, and constituted legate, he exercised as absoIuU 
a power in the church, as he did before in the state. His abilities 
were equal to his great offices ; but these were by no means eqna 
to his ambition.* He was the only man that eyer had the ascend 
ant over Henry ; but his friendship for him did not ^* exceed dM 
love of women :'* the yiolence of that passion was not only to< 
strong for the ties of friendship, but of every law human and diviod 
Had the cardinal not opposed it, he had perhaps beep safe; He 
fell into disgrace soon ailer the king's marriage with Anne Bolen. 
0^.29 Nov. 1530. 

CARDINAL BEATON. G. Sibelius sculp. In Pm^ 

nanfs " Scotland^'' ito. 

David Beaton, cardinal ; in Iconographia Scatica. 

David Beaton was born in 1494, received his education iathe 
university of St. Andrew's, and afterward at Paris, where b£ 
studied divinity. In 1519 he was appointed resident at the court 
of France ; about which tin&e his uncle gave him the rectoijr oi 
Campsay, to which was added, in 1523, the abbacy of Arbroath. 
After filling the office of lord privy seal, and being employed in 
several public concerns, he was made a cardinal in 1538, and on 
the death of his uncle succeeded him in the archbishopric of St. 
Andrew's. Being zealously devoted to the papal authority, be 
laboured with great earnestness to root out what he denominated 
heresy ; and many persons of consequence were prosecuted with 
the greatest rigour. On the death of the king, the archbishop 
made considerable exertion to be acknowledged one of the re- 
gency; instead of which he was thrown into Blackness castle. 
After a short confinement, he obtained his release by the £arl of 
Arran, then the sole regent, who conferred upon him the post of 
chancellor, and obtained him the appointment of legate k latere 
from the pope. His power being thus restored and increased, he 
made use of it with redoubled ardour in suppressing the new reS* 
gion ; and among others who were condemned to the flames by 
him, was the celebrated George Wishart, whose execution took 
place under the window and before the eyes of the cardinal. A 

* He bad one thousand in family ; see his speech »pon bis disgmce So Dod'f 
" Church History/' vol. i. p. 310, or in Stow; the cardinal iiMatioRs tiiis biasdf* 



OF ENGLAND, 119 

tun ii toicL that Withart. at ^ atake. danonnoed die divine 
jicfgiiwnta against hit penecutor; but it rests upon no credible 
ttpdatiaii; ' Soon: aftenraid, however, a conspiracjr was entered 
mi bjr.sdme. enemiet of Ae prdate, headed by Noiman Lesley^ 
lideBt son of the Earl of Kothes, and his undo John, who broke 
bin die eaette^ and murdered the archUshcq), on the 29th of May, 
)f46>^Ste left three neterai sons, who were all leigitimated in the 
Httinie cf iheir fiither. It is said, that the cardinal wrote memoirB 
.rf'Us emhisities, but aotfaing is known of the manuscript. 

■ ' " • 

JOHANNES FIS(:;H£RUS, episcopus Roffensis* 
H. Holbem wp. F. V.W. esc. 4to. 

iPi8H£R» bishop of Rochester. Holbein p. Ifau- 
broken sc. lUmt, Head. In the coUection of Mr. 

JoAKHTES Roffeii8i& episc* 6 Latin verses, Ato. 

FxftCHVRUs^ episcopua Roffeosis; m 
''Smrthvi^Chakog.'' 

JouK Fischer, bishop of Rochester. Vaughan sc. 
\ Ss Efig. verses;- 12mo. 

Jean FiscRER, Anglois; hand on an hour-glass; 
; m Thevet, Ato. There is a foreign wooden print ofhim, 
> !ftfA 0s^ ornamented border^ large 4/0* 

John Fischer; in '' Imagin. 12 Cardin,*' 159B. 
■ T.GaUcsQ, 

JoBvFitOHEE; Ato. De Larmessin sc. 

ioisns Fisher; in *' Recueildes Portr.*^ Des Ro- 
thtfssc. 

JoHK Fisher. H. Holbein pin. F. Bartohzzi sc. 
h the Royal Collection. 

John Fisher ; in Larreifs " History T 

* This coHection was soM and dispersed. . 



120 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

His portrait, at St. John's College in Cambridge, is like the old 
prints. 

He is placed here as a cardinal, as his name is on the list of the 
church of Rome. He may be placed lower, as an English bishop. 

This prelate, bom at Beverley in Yorkshire, was respectable for 
his unaffected piety and learning, and stood for some time very 
high in the king's favour. But refusing the oath of supremacy} 
and concealing the treasonable speeches of Elizabeth Barton, the 
famous nun of Kent, he was deprived of his bishopric, thrown into 
a loathsome prison, and stripped of his very clothes. When he 
was reduced to the lowest condition of human nature, the pope 
created him a cardinal. He was a great lover of learning, and 
a patron of learned men ; and was remarkable for learning the 
Greek language of Erasmus when he was an old man. Beheaded 
June 22, 1535. 

ARCHBISHOPS AND BISHOPS. 

WILLIAM WARHAM, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and lord-chancellor of England to King Henry VIII. 
Holbein p. Vertue sc. From an excellent original in 
the archbishop's palace at Lambeth. Illust. Head. 

William Warham; archbishop of Canterbury. 
jBT. Holbein p. Vertue sc. 8vo. 

William Warham, after Holbein. F. Bartolozzi. 
From the Royal Collection. 

William Warham. Dalton sc. From the same. 

William Warham, &c. C. Picart sc. 1816. 
From the original of Holbein^ in the collection of his 
grace the archbishop of Canterbury, in Mr. Lodge's 
" Illustrious Portraits.^ 

Archbishop Warham shone as a divine, a lawyer, and a statesman, 

in the reign of Henry VII. with whom he was in great &vour ; but 

mm supplanted in this reign by Wolsey, who treated him with 

baughtiness, took every occasion of mortifying him, and even of 

ping bis privileges. Erasmus makes honourable mention of 



OF ENGLAND. 121 

this prelate^ whom he esteemed a perfect model of the episcopal 
character • Ob. 23 Aug. 1532. 

THOMAS CRANMERUS, archiep. Cant In 
Holland's " Heroologia^'' Svo. 

Though Cranroer owed his prefbrment to the part that he acted 
ID the bosmess of the divoroe, he was^ in every respect, worthy of 
his high dignity ; and has bjeen justly esteemed one of the greatest 
ornaments of our church and nation. He was, for his learning, 
sincerity, prudence, and moderation, in high esteem with the king; 
and possessed a greater share of his confidence than any other pre- 
late of Jiis time, except Wolsey. See the two next reigns, 

EDWARD LEE, archbishop of York ; in tkc 
" Oxford Almanack;^ 1743. 

Edward Lee was bom in Kent, and sbnt to St. Mary Magdalen 
College about 1499. He was appointed chaplain and almoner to 
King Henry VIII. and employed by that monarch on several em- 
bassies. In 1529 he was appointed chancellor of the church of 
Salisbury, and in 1631 made archbishop of York. A. Wood says, 
" He was a great divine, and very well seen in all kind of learning, 
fiunous as well for his wisdom as virtue, and holiness of life ; a: con- 
tmual preacher of the gospel, a man very liberal to the poor, and 
exceedingly beloved of all sorts of men.'' He appears to have been 
a violent antagonist, and no great friend, to Erasmus. Ob. 1564, 
&c. A list of his writing is in Wood's '' Athenss Oxoniensis." 

CUTHBERTUS TONSTALL, episcopus Dunel- 
mensis. JP. Fourdrinhr sc. h* ^h.; in Mddes's " Zifs 
of Cardinal Wolsey^ 

CuTHBEBT Tonstall; 4to. (Facius). Richardson. 

CuTHBERT Tonstall; in Hutchinsorts Durham. 

Bishop TonstelU who was one of the politest scholars, appears Tr. from 
also to have been one of the most perfect characters, of his age ; as ^^^"' 
the zealous reformers could find no fault in him but his religion. 
The celebrated Erasmus, one of whose excellences was doing 

* ** NoUam absolali pnesolia dotem in eo devideres." See hb duffacter at large 
ia Erasmas's ** EpdesiaslesV' lib. L 

VOL. I. R 



122 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

justice to the merit of his friends^ tells us, that he was comparable 
to any of the ancients.* His book '' De Arte Supputandi/' which 
was the first book of arithmetic ever printed in England, has gone 
through many editions abroad. Ob, 18 Nov. ^559, ^t. 85. 

JOHN LONGLAND, bishop of Lincoln, 1521. In 
the " Oxford Almanack" 1743. 

John Longland, bom at Henley in Oxfordshire, was fellow of 
Magdalen College, and celebrated for his exemplary life and devo- 
tion. He was made principal of Magdalen Hall, and succeeded 
Dr. Will. Atwater in the deanery of Salisbury in 1519; he was 
alsQ made canon of Windsor ; and being in great favour with Kii^ ■ 
Henry VIII. for his excellent preaching, he appointed him faii^l 
confessor. In 1521, he was consecrated bishop of Lincoln; and ! 
was the first that mentioned to the king a divorce between him and | 
his queen Catharine; for which he was much blamed. He <fied 
1547, at Woburn in Bedfordshire; his heart was buried in the 
cathedral, and his body in the chapel of Eton College. See a list j 
of bis works in Wood's <' Athene Oxoniensis.*' 

• . * 

RICHARDUS FOX, episcopus Winton. Henrico 
septimo et octavo a secretioribtcs, et privati sigilli custoSj j 
Coll. Corp. Christi Oxon. Fundator,'\ A\ Z)"'. 1516. 
Johannes Corvus Flandrtis faciebat. Vertue sc. 1723. 
In Fiddes's " Life of Cardinal WolseyJ' 

He is represented as blind, which calamity befel him at the latter 
end of his life. The original picture is at C. C. C. Oxon. 

Richard Fox was born at Roperly, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, 
educated first at Boston in the same county, studied at Magdalen 
College, Oxford ; afterward, on account of the plague, renaovedte 
Cambridge ; where, on the death of Dr. Leybome, bishop of Carftfe 5 
he was chosen master of Pembroke Hall, 1507; which place h^ 
resigned 1514. He was chancellor of this university two years, f 
1500 and 1501.' ' 

Richard Fox ; in Hutchinson's " Durham.'' 
Richard Fox, holding apian; in " Oxford Alm&'^ 
nack;' 1726, 1758. '^ 

* Erasmi Epist. lib. xvi. ep. 3. 

t He was founder of Corpus ; and, being blinclt w^ led twice cpund the quadno^ ^ 
to make him believe it was larger than it was. ^ 



OF ENGLAND. 123 

RiCHARDUs Fox; JSf. 70. G. Glover sc. 

RicHARDUs Fox; JEi. 70. Sturt sc. 

RiCHARDUs Fox; a small oval. — A7iother for Dr. 
Knighfs '^ Life of Erasmus.'' 

RicuARDus Fox, &c. J. Faberf. large 4to. mezz. 
one of the set of Founders. 

This prelate, vdio was successively bishop of Exeter, Bath and Tr. from 
Wells, Durham and Winchester, was employed by Henry VII. in q"[*^??' 
his most important negotiations at home and abroad ; and was, in 1500. 
his last illness, appointed one of his executors. He was also at 
the head of affairs in the beginning of this reign ; but, about the 
year 1515, retired from court, disgusted at the insolence of Wolseyi 
whom he had helped to raise. Ob. 14 Sept. 1528. 

HUGH OLDHAM, bishop of Exeter; in the 
" Oaford Almanack^ 1726 and 1758. 

Hugh Oldham, hem at Manchester, in the county of Lancashire, 
was first sent to Oxford, and afterward to Cambridge, where he 
took a d^ree ; in 1495 he was made a prebend oi South Aulton 
in the church of Sarum, and canon of the cathedral church of Lin- 
coln ; and about that time was chi^plain to Margaret, countess oi 
Richmond. In 1504, he was elected bishop of ExetiBt. He died 
1519, and was buried in the cathedral church of Exeter, i^ a chapel 
of his own erectipn. 

GULIELMUS SMYTH, episc. Lincoli^. primus 
WalluB prases^ Academice Ojcon. cancellarius, Atdce^ 
RegiiT, et Coll. JSnei Nasi Fund^. unusy A. D. 1512. 
/. Faberf. large 4to. mezz. 

William Smyth, bishop of Lichfield; in Hard- 
ing's " Shakspeare.*' Nugent sc. 

William Smyth ; in the " O.vford Almanack'' for 
1736, 1739, 1743. 

William Smith, some time fellow of Pembroke Hall in Cam- 
bridge, was successively bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, and of 
Lincoln. He founded an hospital and free-school at Lichfield, 



124 BIOORAPHICArl HISTORY 

and gave lands of ten pounds per annum for the maintenance of a 
schoolmaster at Farnworth, the place of his nativity. He, with 
his kinsman^ Ric. Sutton, of Presbury in Cheshire, was cofounder 
of Brazen-nose College. Ob. Dec. 1513. 

HUGH LATIMER was consecrated bishop of 
Worcester in Sept. 1535, and resigned liis bishopric 
the first of July, 1539.* See the two next reigns. 

DIGNITARIES OF THE CHURCH, &c. 

JOHN ISLIP, abbot of Westminster ; small aval. 
Thane exc. 

Abbot Islip began the government of his abbey at a troublesome 
juncture ; for at that time he had under his protection and sanctuary 
•Elizabeth, queen of Edward IV., who, with her younger son and 
daughters, had claimed protection at this place against the ma- 
chinations of the Protector, afterward Richard III. ; who was so 
jealons of the escape of the royal fugitives, that the church and 
monastery, during their residence there, was enclosed like a camp, 
and strictly guarded by soldiers, under one Nefieid; and none were 
sii&red to go in or out, without special permission, for fear the 
{MriBceBfles should convey themselves over sea, and defeat the 
usurper in his designs. 

After Henry VIL came to the crown, Abbot Islip became a great 

favourite and counsellor with that monarch; and when Henry 

founded his magnificent chapel, Islip laid the first stone of it ; and 

lif his exertions repaired and beautified the church, and added, in 

iMflk along the buttresees, the statues of kings that had been 

iBiMftttftrp. He likewise designed a lofty tower and lantern, with 

ft diiuBfi of bells, to be placed over the midst of the cross ; but the 

vBtn were too weak to support it ; the bells were therefore hung 

^'!&^wiMleni tower, where they still remain. He founded the 

d called by his name (and dedicated it to St. Erasmus), as 

'Ti by the rebus on his name, painted on glass in the windows ; 

, on a sJlji of a tree. He likewise built the dean's house, and 

mk lis |Nit^ lit episoopd rdiei at bis resignmtion, he sprang ibm the 
r|A «Mal dMrily. deduiug thtt lie frand Umaelf nradi fighter Uimi he 

»....■ ■ 



OP ENGLAND. 125 

offices to the monaBtery ; aad, dying Jan. S, I5IO9 8 Henry VIIL 
>as buried in his own chapel. 

JOHANNES COLETUS ; &vo. In the " Jferoo- 

John Collet^ D. D. some time dean of St. Paul's, 
&c. W. Marshall sc» small. 

John Collet, &c. Faithome sc. \2mo. 

John Collet; 24o. 

John Colet. Holbein pin. Bartohzzi sc. In the 
Royal Collection. 

John Colet. Dalton sc. From the same. 

John Colet. W. Sherwin ^. 12mo. 

John Colet, at his devotions, 1693, 12mo. J. 
Sturt sc. 

John Colet. J. P. Wedgwood sc. 

Johannes Coletus, &c. J. Sturt sc. 

Johannes Coletus. Faberf. large 4to. 

Johannes Coletus. jR. Houstoj^if. mezz. 

Johannes Coletus ; super cathedram magistripri- 
marii: natus 1466, Dec. Sti. Pauli 1504, fundavU 
scholam 1512, ob. 1519. This head vms engraved by 
Vertue for his ^^ Life^' by Dr. Samuel Knight^ 1724, 
Btw. There is another octavo print of him by the same 
hand: both are without the engraver's name. 

No higher testhnony need to be given of the merit of Colet, than 
his great intimacy with Erasmus. There was a similitude of man- 
ners, of studies, and sentiments in religion, between these illus- 
trious men, who ventured to take off the veil from ignorance and 
superstition, and expose them to the eyes of the world ; and to 
prepare men*s minds for the reformation of religion, and restoration 
of learning. Erasmus, who did him the honour to call him his 
master, has given us z. hint of his religious sentiments, in his fa- 



126 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Van edit, nious colloquy, entitled^ " Peregrinatio Religionis ergo,^ in which 
p. 43d. Colet is the person meant under the name of Gratianus PuUus. 
Colet, Lynacre, Lilly, Grocyn, and William Latimer, were the 
first that revived the learning of the ancients in England. 

GULIELMUS TYNDALLUS, martyr, Svo. b 
the *' Heroologia.'* One in Frekerm. 

William Tindall (canon of Christ Church in Ox- 
ford), 24to. 

William Tindall, at his martyrdom; wood-cul 

There is a very indiffisrent portrait of him in the library of Mag- 
dalen Hall in Oxford, of which he was a member. 

William Tindale, who was deservedly styled ** The English 
Apostle/' was the first that translated the New Testament into 
English, from the original Greek.* This translation was printed 
at Antwerp, 1526, Svo. without the translator's name. Three or ^ 
four years after, he published an English translation of the Penta- 
teuch, from the original Hebrew, and intended to go through the 
, whole Bible. The first impression of the Xes&ment, which gave 
umbrage to the popish clergy, was bought up at Antwerp in 1527, 
by order of Tonstall, then bishop of London, and soon after pub- 
licly burnt ya Cheapside. The sale of this impression enabled the 
translator to print a larger, and more accurate edition. He was 
burnt for a heretic at Wilford, near Brussels, 1536. 

JOHN LELAND, some time canon of King's Col- 
lege, now Christ Church, in Oxford, a most learned 
antiquary, and not an inelegant Latin poet,'|' did great 
honour to his age and country. He wa? educated 

* Tiudall's translation of the New Testament, supposed to be unique, was sold 
for fourteen guineas and a half in Mr. Ames's Collection, by Mr. Langfcnrd, May 
13, 1760. This book was picked up. by one of Lord Oxford's collectors, and was 
esteemed so valuable, that his lordship settled twenty pouuds per ann. for He on 
the purchaser. His lordship's library was afterward purchased by Mr. Osborne, of 
Gray's Inn. It was of him purchased by Mr. Ames for fifteen shillings. Tbis 
translation was finished in the reign of Henry VIII. 1526; and the whole impies- 
sion, as supposed (tbis copy excepted), was purchased by Tonstall, bbhop of Lon- , 
don, and burnt at St. Paul's Cross that year. 

t His encomiums on illustrious and learned men, his contemporaries, are a soffi- 
cient proof of his poetical abilities. 



OF ENGLAND. 127 

^oBoAer the fiaimous Lilye, and successively studied at 
/j&mbridge^ Oxford, and Paris. He was library- 
keeper to Henry VIU., being perfectly qualified for 
that office by his great skill in ancient and modern 
languageSy and his extensive knowledge of men and 
ihings. His " Collectanea'' and his " Itvierary,'' the 
:i&[anuscripts of which are lodged in the Bodleian li- 
brary, have been a most copious fund of antiquity, 
biography, and history, to succeeding writers. He 
spent six years in travelling through the kingdom ; 
being empowered by the king to examine the li- 
braries of cathedrals, colleges, abbeys, and priories. 
Hence it was that, at a critical juncture, he ravished 
almost an. iqfinity of valuable records from dust ai\d 
oblivion. His vast mind, which had planned greater 
things than \vere in the power of one man to exe- 
cute, at length sunk under its burden, and he was 
for some time before his death in a state of insanity. 
He died the 18th of April, 1552. There is an elegant 
print of him engraved by Grigjiion^froin his bust at All 
Souls College J and prejued to his " Life^' lately pub- 
lished; but. I see no reason to believe it to be an authentic 
portrait. 

CHRISTOPHER URSEWICK, D.D.; his effigy 
and fhonumentj from brass plates in the old church of 
Hacknof, in Middlesex ; half sheet. 

Christopher Ursewick descended from a very ancient family, 
different branches of which were seated in Lancashire and York- 
shire ; and which, the male line having been long extinct, is now 
represented chiefly by the houses of Le Fleming and Standish. 
He was a person of much eminence, both as an Ecclesiastic and 
a statesman ; g^ned the favour of Heniy VII. to whom he was a 
chaplain and almoner, by his successflil endeavours to accomplish 
the marriage between that prince and Elizabeth of York; and 
served him and his successor in eleven several foreign embassies!. 



128 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY . 

He held, at different times, the prebend of Botevant, in York ; the 
archdeaconries of Richmond, Wilts, and Oxford, and the deaneries 
of York and Windsor. Having not only resigned all his lucrative 
preferments, but refused the bishopric of Norwich, he accepted, in 
1502, from Richard Hill, bishop of London, a presentation to the 
rectory of Hackney ; doubtless from an earnest inclination to pasi 
the last years of his life solely m the duties of his ministry. He 
retired thither accordingly, and there died, March 24th, 1521, aged 
74 ; having, by his last will, desired to be buried before the image 
of St. Austin, in the church of that parish. 

Imago ERASMI Roterodami, ab Alberto Durero, 
ad vivam effigiem delineata. Half lengthy h. sh. — He i$ 
repjxsented standing and writings according to his usual 
practice* 

Erasmus had a very high opmion of the painter of this portrait, 
whom he thought a greater artist than Apelles. ** Equidem arbitroi 
(says he) si nunc viveret Apelles, ut erat ingenuus et candidos, 
Alberto nostro cessurum hujus palmee gloriam.*' Dial, de recti 
Fronunciatione Lang. Grcte, et Lai, 

Erasmus Roterodamus. Holbein p, Vorstermafi sc. 

Erasmus Roterodamus. Holbein p. P. Stent esc. 
Ato. 

Erasmus, &c. Holbein p, Stockiusf. 

We have Erasmus's own testimony, that his portnut by Holbein 
was more like him, than that which was done by Albert Durer. It 
was with great difficulty that he could be prevailed upon to sit to 
either painter, as he intimates in his own account of his life. 

Desiderius Erasmus, &c. 

** Ingens ingentem quem personat orbis Erasmum, 
Heec tibi dimidium picta tabella refert ; 
At cur non totum ? Mirari desine lector, 
Integra nam totum terra nee ipsa capit.** 

W. Marshall sc. half length; h. sh. 

* Several eminent persons of this time are represented standing at their stody.— 
It was the general practice of Whitaker, a famous divine of Cambridge, in the reign 
of Elizabeth \ of the learned Boys, one of the translators of the Bible in the rdgo 
of James I. &Ct &c. 



OF ENGLAND. 129 

The tfaoug)iHn this much applauded epigram^ which was written 
)7 Beza, is ft>unded oq a very evident falsehood, as will appear bj 
the print next described, 

Desiderius Erasmvs ; a whole lengthy standing on 
a pedestal. This is his stattte at Rotterdam ; sh. 

Erasmus ; his right hand resting on a term. Phi- 
lippus Fredericus Glasseriisf. copied from X ab Heyden; 
h. sh. 

Erasmus, &c. nattis A"*. 1467, obiit il^ 1636, R. 
Houston/, large Ato. mezz. Engraved for Rolfs ^^ Lives 
of the Reformers ^'^ foL 

Erasmus Rotterodamus. Vandyckf Aqmfortiy 
h, sh. 

Erasmus. Holbein pin. Visscher sc. 

Erasmus; in Mus^e Napoleon, Ato, 1804. Cha- 
taigne sc, 

Erasmus ; in " Oxford Almanack^ 1746, 

Erasmus; in Mtcs6e Napoleon^ Holbein^ Bou- 
trois sc, 

Erasmus, &c. J. H, (Jerome Hopffer)^ Two Ger- 
tnan lines^ 

Imago Erasmi, Rot. &c,; a circle, in Mr, Dibdin's 
" Decameron,'' vol, ii, p. 172. 

There are also prints of him by F. H. Francis Hogen- 
bergh, Gaytoood, P, a Gunstj ^c, 8^cJ* 

The picture of him at Longford is Apposed to be by Holbein. 

This great man, who was the boast and glory of his country, 
distmguished himself as a reformer of religion, and restorer of 
learning. His religion was as remote iirom the bigotry and perse^ 

* There is a set of heads, and anKmg them that of Erasmus, well cut in wood, by 
Toby Stimmer, who took many of them from Paulus Jovius. Some of Stimmer's 
bave been copied in Reusner's Jcones, which are also in wood. The book was 
printed m 8vo. at Strasburg, 1587. 

VOL. I. S 



130 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

cuting spirit of the age in which he lived, as his learning war from 
the pedantry and barbarism of the schools. He was much esteemed 
by the king, and the English nobility, whom he celebrates as tlie 
most learned in the world. He lived in the strictest intimacy with ^ 
More, Lynacre, Colet, and Tonstall; and preferred the society of i; 
his ingenious and learned friends to that of the greatest princes in }. 
Europe, several of whom sought his acquaintance. xWe find in his p 
works, particularly his Colloquies and Epistles, a more just and t:. 
agreeable picture of his own times, than is to be met with in any > 
other author. His " Moriee Encomium,*' which will ever be admired ^ 
for the truest wit and humour, is an ample proof of his genius. He l 
was Margaret professor of divinity at Cambridge, Greek professar = 
at Oxford* and Cambridge, and minister of Aldington in Eentf 
The best edition of his works is that by John Le Clerc, published 
at Leyden, in ten vols. fol. 1703. 

POLYDORE VIRGIL. Thane. 

Pplydore Virgil, a native of Urbino, was sent over to England 
hy Pope Alexander VI. to collect the papal tribute, called Petei^t 
pence; and was so well pleased with the country, that, having ob- |e 
tained the archdeaconry of Wells, he resolved to spend the re- 
mainder of. his life in it; and, at the command of Henry VII. i^ 
undertook to write a History of England, on which he spent above f- 
12 years; though at this time it is not much valued. He also pub- is 
lished a Collection of Proverbs ; a treatise De Rerum InventorittUi fc 
and on the Prodigies. His age requiring a warnier climate, be re- ji 
turned to Italy, and died at Urbino in 1555. v 

JOHN SKELTON ; from an original picture w !^ 
the possession of Mr. Richardson, Svo. . ^ - 

John SKELTON,^tew£/iw^ in a pew, and reading; taken P 
out of a book in the black letter y called " The Boke^^^ 
the Parrot ;" without date. ^ 

* Grocyn, who studied in Italy, first introduced the Greek tongue into Engl^ \^ 
which he professed at Oxford. The introduction of that elegant language pkve tte ■ 
alarm to many, as a most dangerous innovation. Hereupon, the university divided 
itself into two factions, distinguished by tlie appellation of Greeks and Tn>juBf ^ 
bore each other a violent animosity, proceeded to open hostilities* and even insQltc4 ^ 
Erasmus himself. 

i Sec Kilburne's " Survey of Kenk*' 



OF plNQLAND. 131 

John SkeltOD, a laureated poet in Uie rei^^n of Henry VIII. was 
t native of Cumberland. Having entered into holy orders, he be**' 
came rector of Dysse, in Norfolk. He is said to have fallen into 
some irregularities, too natural to poets, and by no means suitable 
to the clerical character. He was eminently learned and ingenious; 
bat licentious, even to scurrility, in his satires upon some of the re- 
gular clergy ; and dared to lash Cardinal Wolsey ; which occasioned 
his taking sanctuary at Westminster Abbey, under the protection 
of John Islip the abbot. He died in 1 529, and was buried in the 
church of St. Margaret, Westminster. Erasmus, in an epistle to 
Henry VIII. styles him, " Britannicaruro Literarum Lumen et 
Decus." It is probable, that if that great and good man had 
read, and perfectly understood, his '^ pithy, pleasaunt, and profit- 
able worksy" as they were lately reprinted, he would have spoken 
of him in less honourable terms. See more of him in Bale, viii. 66, 
and in Davies's '< Critical History of Pamphlets," p. 28, &c. See 
also the article of Rummim, in the 12th Class.* 

There are three small prints, namely, the Prior of the Hermits 
of the order of St Augustin, John Stone, and George Rose, of the 
same fraternity, who are said to have suffered martyrdom in the 
reign of Henry VIII. 

THOMAS LINACRE, M. D. Thane ; 8vo. 

Thomas Lynacre, bom at Canterbury, 1460, descended from the 
Lynacres of Lynacre Hall, in the co. of Derby, and was educated 
at the King's School at Canterbury. He went from thence to All 
Souls College, Oxford, and was chosen fellow. He aflierwi^rd tra- 
velled into Italy with the learned prior William Selling, his former 
schoolmaster. On his return to England he was appointed pre- 
ceptor to Prince Arthur, eldest son of Henry VII. and was succes- 
sively physician to Henry VII. and VIII. and to the Princess Mary^ 
He founded three physical lectures in the two universities ; besides 
which, as an encouragement to men of learning, he projected the 
foundation of the College of Physicians in London ; and by his 
interest with Cardinal Wolsey procured the letters patent in 1518. 
He was the first president after its erection, and held that office till 
his death. In the latter part of his life he apipUed himself to the 
study of divinity ; and, entering into holy orders, was collated^ 
1509, to the rectory of Mersham, which he soon resigned, and was 

* Likewise Warton on Spenser, ▼oU ii* p* 107. 



"* 

^ 



13^ BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

installed prebendary of Wells, York, &c. He was much addicted 
to swearing ; and having, it is said, never looked into the Scrip- 
tures till he was advanced in life, when he happened on the words 
of our Saviour, where he forbids swearing ; Lynacre, surprised at 
what he read, cried out with a great oath, '^ This book is not the 
gospel ; or there are no Christians in the world." — He died of the 
stone 1524, ^t. 64, and was buried in St. Paul's cathedral. He 
translated some of 6alen*s works into Latin, and other works, highly 
commended by Erasmus. 

ALEXANDER BARCLAY, presenting his book to 
Sir Giles Alington ; a wood-cut. 

Alexander Barclay, or Berckky^ a writer of the sixteenth century, 
is supposed by some to have been a native of Scotland, though it 
is far more likely that he was of the family of Berkley, in Glouces- 
tershire. He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford ; after which 
he travelled into Germany, Italy, and France. On his return, he 
became one of the priests of the monastery of St.- Mary Ottery, in 
Devonshire, and next a monk of Ely« In 1546 he was presented 
to the living of Baddow Magna, in Essex ; and, in 1552, to that 
of Allhallows, Lombard- street; but died a few weeks after his in- 
duction > and was buried in the church at Croydon. His works 
are : — 1. A ryght fhitefnli treaty se, intituled, TheMyrrour of Good 
Maners ; conteyning the four Vertues^ called Cardynall ; compyled 
in Latin by Domynike Mancyn, and translate into Englyshe at the 
desyre of Sir Gyles Alyngton, kt by Alexander Bercley, priest and 
monke of Ely. ImjH^lited by Rychard Pynson, and at the instance 
and request of the ryght hble. Rychard Yerle, of Kent; but with- 
out date. In the title-page is a wood-cut, representing the trans- 
lator, Bercley, presenting the book on his knees to his patron. Sir 
Giles Alington, sitting in a chair. 2. Sallust, translated into Eng- 
Msfa by Syr Alexander Barclay, priest, at commandment of the 
right hye and mighty prince, Thomas duke of Northfolke. Im- 
prented by Richard Pynson, without date. 3. The Castell of La- 
bour^ wherein is Rychesse, Virtue, and Honour ; translated from 
the Prench, and printed by Wynken de Worde, 1506. 4. The 
Shyp of FolySy or Ship of Fools, printed by Pynson^ 1509 ; and 
again by Cawood ia 1570. 5. Here begynneth the Egloges of 
Alexander Barclay, priest, whereof the first three containeth the 
Miseries of Courters and Courtes; printed by John Herforde, quarto. 



OF ENGLAND. 133 

CLASS VI. 

MEN OF THE ROBE;— Viz^ 
CHANCELLORS, &c. 

SIR THOMAS MORE, lord-chancellor. Holbein. 
p. Vorsterman sc. A dog lying on a table. This is very 
different from his other portraits * 

Thomas MoRUs^ &c. Holbein p. R.White sc.h.sh. 

Sir Thomas More. Holbein pin. F. Bartolozzi sc. 
1793. 

Sir Thomas More. Holbein pin. Dalton sc. These 
two are from the Royal Collection. 

Sir Thomas More ; in an oval, 8vo. mez. H. Hol- 
bein. Sam. Taylor; scarce. 

Sir Thomas More, with a scroll^ l2mo. J. Valdor, 
1621 ; j^we and scarce. 

. Sir Thomas More ; in the " Oxford Almanacky^ 
1746. 

Sir Thomas More. Holbein p. Vertue sc. %vo. 

Sir Thomas More. Holbein p. Houbrakensc. 1740. 
In the possession of Sir Rowland Wynne^ bart. Illust. 
Head. 

Thomas Morus ; in the " Heroohgia^ Sw. 

Sir Thomas More. Elstracke sc. 4ito. 

Sir Thomas More; a small oval. Marshall sc. 
Jk the title to his Latin Epigrams y in ISmo. 1638. 

Thomas Morus Anglus ; 4 Latin verses, Ato. 

* Erasmus mentions the following particularitj of him, which is not expressed in 
bif portraits. '* Dexter humerus pauIo videtur eminentior Icvo, praesertim cum in- 
Dedit; id quod illi non aocidit naturft, sed assnetudine, qualia permulta nobis solent 
idbaerere." Epist, ad Ulricum Hnttenum. 



134 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Thomas Morus ; " Htec Mori effigies,^' S^c. Ato. 

Thomas Morus; in Boissard; Ato. 

Thomas Morus, quondam Anglia cancellarius, 8^c. 
l2mo. 

Thomas Morus ; a small square. Ant. Wierxf. 

Thomas Morus. Vander Werffp. P. a Gunstsc. 
h. sh. 

Sir Thomas More. Vertue sc. A roll in his right 
hand. 

Thomas Morus; a Jictitious head, neatly engraved 
bj/ Gaytoood^ after Rembrandt, Ato. 

Thomas Morus ; in wood, with an ornamented biff- 
der, large Ato. a foreign print. \ 

Thomas Morus, M.B. (Michael Burghers) sc. 
This was copied from an old print pasted before a manu- 
script of " Gulielmi Roper i Vita Thomce Mori^^ which 
belonged to Mr. Murray, of Sacomb, and which Mr. | 
Hearne esteemed a great curiosity, and supposed it to k f 
the first prmt of Sir Thomas that was done after his j 
death. Burghers' s copy is prefixed to this book, which t 
was published by Hearne. 

Thomas Morus. F. v. W. exec. Ato. neat. There is \ 
another neat print of him in Stapletons ** Tres ThomcB^ '- 
Duaci, 1588, Svo. '\ 

Sir Thomas More, who is the first lay-chancellor upon record,* T- 

Promoted presided in the Chancery with great abilities. He was no leis |b 

15^^^^' qualified for this great office, from his extensive knowledge of law ^ 

and equity, than from the depth of his penetration^ and the exact- ''•^ 

ness of his judgment. See Class IX. 

* It bas been said, tbat he was the first lay-chanceUor siiice the reign of Heivy Q* 
But it b certain that'Becket, who was chancellor in that reign, was in holy'orden jj 
when he bore that office, though he had thrown o£f the clerical habit. 



OF ENGLAND. 135 

Familia Thom^ Moef. Johannes Holbein ad Vivum 
dtUn. Lcfndifii 1530. Christian Mechel sculp. 1787, 
sheet. 

Familia Thomje Mori. A Jo. Holbe?iio delineata. — 
1. Jo. Morus^ Thorns pater J An. 76. — 2. Anna Grisa- 
cria, Jo. Mori sponsa^ An. 15. — 3. Thomas Morus^ An. 
50. — 4. Alicia^ Thtmue Mori uxor^ An. 57. — 5. Mar- 
garita Ropera^ Th. Morijilia^ An. 22. — 6. Elisabeta, 
Damsaa, Th. Morijilia^ An. 21. — 7. Ccecilia Heronia, 
Th. Morijiliaj An. 20. — 8. Jo. Morus^ JTi.Jilius, An. 
19. — 9. Margarita Gige affinis, An. 22, — 10. Henricus 
PatensonuSy Th. Mori morioy An. 40. — Cochin so. The 
engraving is only an outline; large oblong h. sb.; very 
scarce. It belongs to a book^ called " Tabellce selecttB 
Catharine Patincey' 1691,jfe/. 

Familia TnoMiE Mori. Copied by VertuCyfrom the 
next above, for Dr, Knight's ^* Life of Erasmus,' 1 726, 

The plate of this is lost. 

Sitt John Mor£. Holbein pin. F. Bartolozzi sc. 
From the Royal Collection. 
Sir John More. Dalton sc. From the same. 

Sir John More. H. Holbein. E. Scriven^ 1816 ; 
in Mr, Jjodges^' Illustrious Portraits'' 

JOHANNES MORUS, Pater. 

He was many years a puisne judge of the King's Bench. It is 
observable, that his son, in passing through Westminster Hall to 
the Chancery, never failed to fall on his knees and ask his blessing, 
whenever be saw him sitting in the court. Ob. 1^33. Mt. arc 90, 

ANNA GRISACRIA. 

Sir John More married this lady in his old age. 

ALICIA, 

Second wife of Sir Thomas More, by whom he had no issue. 



136 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

MARGARITA ROPERA, 

Eldest daughter of Sir Thomas More, married to William Roper, 

son and heir of John Roper, esq. prothonotary of the Kings 
Bench. 

Tills lady, who inherited the genius of her father in a very high 
degree, was not only mistress of the fashionable accomplishments 
of her sex, hut was also a great proficient in languages, arts, and 
sciences. The parental and filial affection between the father and 
the daughter, was increased by every principle of endearment that 
could compose the most perfect friendship. She died in 1544; 
and was buried, according to her dying request/ with her fathei^s 
head in her arms.* 






ELIS. PAMSiEA, 

' Second daughter of Sir Thomas More, married to John Dancjr, * 
son and heir to Sir Jphn Dancy* . , 

CMCIUA HERONIA, . j 

Third daughter to Sir Thomas More, married to Giles Heron, of i 
Shacklewell, in Middlesex, esq. \ 

CiECiLiA Heron ia; small oval. J. Thane. 
JO. MORUS, 

Only son of Sir Thomas More. His father's jest in regard to 
his capacity is well known : there was undoubtedly more wit than 
truth in it ; as Erasmus speak» of him as a youth of great hopes^t 
and has inscribed to him his account of the w(^ks of Aristotle.} 



* Her body is in the Roper^ vault, at St Dunstan's charcli, Canterbory ; netf 
which, part of their ancient seat is still remaining. In the wall of this Tault is a smtD 
niche, where, behind an iron grate, is kept a seal!, called Sir Thomas More's; wbB 
Mr. Gosling, a learned and worthy clergyman of Canterbary,$ informs me be b* 
seen several times, on the opening of tbe vault for some of the late Sir £d^ 
Bering's family, whose first lady was a descendant of the Ropers* 

t Epist. lib. 29. No. 16. 

t The episUe dedicatory of Grynaeus before the Basil edition of Plato's Worbi 
ful. 1534, is addressed to him. 



$ I am much obliged to this gentleman, and Mr. Duiicombe, another learned and 1 
worthy clergyman of the same place, for several useful and curious notices relative i 
to this work. ^ 




LORD DENNY. 



or ENGLAND- i37 

HENRY PATENSON, fool to Sir T. More ; ^malL 
Henricus Patensonus, Mono, &c. 

Fool to Sir ThomaSy wbo would sometimes descend to little 
nffboneries himself. " Vale More (says Erasmus to him), et Mo- 
iam tuam gnaviter defende.*** After his resignatiou of the great 
383, he gave this fool to ** my lord mayor, and his successors.^' 
he proverbial saying of ** my lord mayor* s fool,** probably Paten- 
m, is too well Imown to be repeated here* Sir Thomas More's 
bildren, and their families, lived in the same house with him at 
Ihelsea. 



CLASS VIL 

OFFICERS OF THE ARMY, &c. 

THOMAS HOWARD, duke of Norfolk, who was 
.ppomted captain-general of all the king's forces in 
he ncNTth, 34 Hen. VIIL, signalized his valour upon 
aany occasions in this reign. See Class II. 

JOHN, LORD RUSSEL, afterward earl of Bed- 
brd, captain-general of the vanguard of the royal 
irmy at Boulogne, , gained great reputation as a 
(oldier at this period.t See the next reign. Class 11. 



CLASS VIIL 

KNIGHTS, GENTLEMEN, &c. 

LORD (Sir Ant.) DENNY; Anm 1541, M. 29. 
H. Holbein p. Hollar /• ex Collect. Arundel. 1647; 
roundy small 4to. 

A copy by W. Richardson. 

• Dedication of the ** Moria Encomium." 

t lie lost 000 of bis ejes at the siege of Montrcil ; for which, and other services, 
he was made comptroller of the king's household, knight of the garter, &€. 

VOL. I. T 



138 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY [ 

Lord Dennt (Sir Ant.) Holbein. E. Har^ng, 
jun. sculp.; in Harding's Shakspeare. 

Sir Anthony Denny, who was one of the gentlemen of the privy- 
. chamber and groom of the stole to Henry VIII. was the only person ;: 
about the king, who, in his last illness, had the courage to inform j 
him of the near approach of death. He was one of the executors of ^ 
the king's will, and was of the priyy->Gouncil in the next reign.* | 
The first peer of this family was Edw;ard, lord Denny, created a 
baron, 3 Jac. I. and earl pf Norwich, 3 Car. I. 

SIR NICHOLAS CAREW ; from an mgird j! 
picture. Wm. Taylor sc. 4to. 

Sir Nicholas Carew was beheaded on Tower-hill, March 3, 1539, ^ 
on a charge of high-treason ; being concerned (with others) in the 
alleged attempt to dethrone Henry VIII. and set Cardinal Pole on 
the throne. The Marquis .of Exeter, Lord Montacute, and Sir 
Edward Neville, all parties in the conspiracy, suffered at the same 
time. Sir Nicholas CareW was buried in St. Botolph's chordi) 
Aldgate, where a monument remains sacred to the memory of Urn- t 
self, his wife Elizabeth, and his daughter Mary, married to Arthur, 
lord Darcy. 

RICHARDUS SUTTON, eques auratus. Aula [ 
Regite, et Coll. JEnei Nasi Fundr. Alter, Anno Dcftnf* ^ 
1612. jr. Faberf. large Ato. mezz. See Gul. Smyth, ^ 
Class IV. 

THOMAS DOCWRA, ordinis S. Jokannis Hiero- a 

solum, vulgo de Malta, Pras. in Anglia, et eques ult» t 

whole length, h. sh. ; in Segar's " Honours,''^ foL (TT. * 

Rogers.) \ 

This order, which is partly religious, and partly military, was . . 
abolished in England by Henry VIII. z 

SIR GILES ALLINGTON, in the print with 
Ale^v. Barclay. 

* For a farther account of Sir Anthony Denny and liis family, see Dr. Thomas 
Fuller*s" History of Waltham Abbej/'p. 12,13. 



OF ENGLAND. "" 139 

Sir Giles Allington, of Bower-hall, in Horseheathy in the county 
of Cambridge, was master of the ordnance to King Henry VIII. 
iras at the siege of Boulogne, and brought from thence a bell ; 
which, within Ihe memory of man, was used as a dinner-bell at 
Horseheath-halL Sir Giles, or his son of the same name, enter- 
tained Queen Elizabeth at * Horseheath in the year 1578, in her 
progress from Norwich to London. He seems to have been an 
CBcourager of learning by Barclay's dedicating this book to him. 

SIR THOMAS KYTSON. Holbein pin^. From 
the original at Hengrave. Sievier del. 4to. in Gage's 
History and Antiquities of Hengr/ive, in Suffolk. 

Sir Thomas Kytson, citizen and mercer of London, commonly 
called Kytson the merchant ; had very extensive mercanUle trans- 
actions, particularly at the cloth fairs or staples holden at Antwerp, 
Hiddleburg, and other places in Flanders, "by the merchant adven- 
turers, to which company he belonged. He was sheriff of London 
in 1533, previously to which he had been knighted. In the 4th 
year of the reign of Henry VIII. Sir Thomas purchased the manor 
of Hengrave, in Suffolk, and Colston Basset, from the trustees of 
Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham ; but upon the attainder and 
subsequent execution of that nobleman, the aforesaid manors were 
claimed as escheats to the crown, for treason committed by the said 
nobleman previous to the sale to Sir Thomas Kytson ; however^ 
upon petition, the king restored to Sir Thomas the estates, and the 
same were confirmed to him by an act of parliament, passed in the 
15th year of that king's reign. 

The importance of Sir Thomas Kytson in the city may be inferred 
from the minute relating to the seizure of Hengrave by the crown, 
in which he intimates that the heavy impost on the citizens had 
been imputed to his influence. In the same document he notices 
the large contributions by himself. The mansion of Hengrave is a 
monument of his magnificence. He purchased considerable estates 
in the counties of Suffolk, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, and Notting- 
ham. He died the 11th of September, 1540, aged fifty-five. 



140 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

CLASS IX. 

MEN OF GENIUS AND LEARNING. 
HENRY VIII. &c. Defender of the Faith ; Ato. 

I have placed Henrj VHI. as an author, at the head'of the 
learned men of thb reign ;* a place which that Tain prince vouid 
probably hare taken himself, with as little ceremony as he did that 
of head of the church. He was author of the *' Assertion of the 
Seven Sacraments," against Martin Luther, for which he had tbe 
title of Defender of the Faith.f This hook' was first printed in 
1521. He was also the reputed author of the '* Primer*' which 
goes under his name, and of Uie *^ Institution of a Christian Man.". 
This hook, which is in Latin, is most prohably not of the kmgs 
composition,, but the joint work of sereral eminent clergymen.l 

PHYSICIANS. 

ANDREW BOARD, standingy whole length. Hol- 
bein pinjc. Clamp sculp. 

Andrew Borde; in Latin, Andreas Perforatus, 
physician to Henry VIII. and an admired wit in this 
reign. He is represented in a pew, with a canopy over 
him ; he wears a gown with wide sleeves ^ and on his head 
is a chaplet of laurel. 

This portrait is fronting the seventh chapter of the followmg 
book : '* The introduction of knowledge, the which dothe teache 
a man to speake part of all maner of languages, and to know the 
usage and fashion of all maner of countries : dedycated to the 
right honourable and gracious lady, Mary, daughter of KingHeDry 



-Bat if a king 



More wise, more just, more leam'd, more every thing. — Pope. 

t It is probable that Bishop Fisher had a great hand in this work. 

t Henry should not only be remembered as an author, but as one skilled in 
music, and a composer. '* An Anthem of his composition is sometimes sung at 
Christ Church cathedral : it is what is called a full anthem, without any sok) part, 
and the harmony is good." Barrington's '* Observations on the Statutes,*' &c> 
p. 448,3d edit. Erasmus, in his Epistles, informs us, that he could not only justly 
sing his part, but that he composed a service of four, five, or six parts. 



OF ENGLAND. 141 

the Eyght,*' Black letter, imprinted by William Coplande, without 
date. 

Before the first chapter, in which he has characterized an Eng- 
lishman, is a wooden print of a naked man, with a piece of cloth 
hanging on his right arm, and a pair of shears in his left band. 
Under the print is > an inscription in verse ; of which these are the 
four first lines : 

<* I am an Englishnuui and naked I sUnd here, 
Masmg in my njnde what rajment I shall were : 
For now I will were thys, and now I will were that, 
And now I will were, I cann6t tell what, &c.'* 

Our author Borde is thus hinted at, in the bomijy '* Against Ex- 
cesse of Apparel." " A certaine man that would picture every 
countryman in his accustomed apparell, when he had painted other 
nations, he pictured the Englishman all naked, &c" He was also 
author of " The Breviary of Health ;"♦ "The Tales of the Mad 
Men of Gotham,"t &c. See an account of him in Heame's Ap- 
pendix to his preface to '' Benedictus Abbas Peti*oburgensis." 

Borde was bom at Pevensey, in Sussex, and brought up at Ox- 
ford ; but before he took a degree there, he entered himself a bro- 
ther of the Carthusian order ; of which grown tired, and having a 
rambling head and an inconstant mind, he travelled '* through and 
round about Christendom and out of Christendom." 

On his return he settled at Winchester, where he practised with 
success. In 154^ he was at Montpelier, and probably took his 
doctor's degree at Oxford.! At length, " after many rambles to 
smd fro, he was made a close prisoner in the wards of the' Fleet .in 
London," though the reason of his confinement is not discovered. 
He died in April 1549; his will being dated the 11th and proved 
the 25th of that month. 

Wood Athense Oxon. says, that our author, Borde, was esteemed 
a noted poet, a witty and ingenious person, and an excellent phy- 
sician of his time. See Gent. Mag. vol. lix. p. 7. 

WILLIAM BUTTS ; in Harding s Shakspeare, after 
Holbein. W. N. Gardiner so. 

• fiefore this book, printed 1557, is his portrait, a whole lehgth, with a Bible 
before him. 

t A book not yet Ibrgotten. 

X He took his doctor's degree at Cambridge; and in 1519 petitioned to be in- 
corporated ad eundem at Oxford. 



142 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

William Bvtts. Holbein, W. Hollar, I6i9. AdM Y 



■\ 



Alexius Bierlhig exc. 
William Butts ; in the Royal Collection. \ 



Wmiam Butts, physician to Henry VIII. and one of the founds 
of the College of Physicians, in whose records he is menti<Hied wiA 
honour, as a man of great learning and experience,- and ranch ex- 
tolled for his learning, hy divers of his ootemporaries : Bidiop John 
Parkhurst has several epigrams on him. He died in 1545, and lies 
buried in the church of Fulham. See his portrait in the dehvery of 
the charter to the surgeons^ described Class L See Cients. Maga- 
zbe 1812, p. 431. 

POETS. 

SIR THOMAS WYATT ; a wooden print, after a 
painting of Hans Holbein. Frontispiece to the book of 
verses on his death, cfititled, ^^Ntenia,** published by 
Lelandj who wrote the following elegant inscription 
under the head; 4to. 

<' Holbenus nitida pingendi maximus arte, 

Effigiem expressit graphic^, sed nullus Apelles 
' Exprimet ingenium felix, animumque Viati." 

This print hath been copied by Michael Burghers 
and Mr. Tyson. The drawing of this head by Holbein, 
at Buckingham House,* is esteemed a masterpiece. 

Sir Thomas Wyatt. Holbein jnnx. F. Bartotoszi 
sc. In the Royal Collection, 

Sir Thomas Wyatt. Dalton sc.from ditto. 

Sir Thomas Wyatt. Holbein. Scriven sc. Inthe 
Works of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, and Sir Tho- 
mas Wyatt, by G. F. Nott, D.D.2vols. Ato. 1816. 

Sir Thomas Wyatt was one of the most learned and accomplished 
persons of his time, and much in favour with Henry VIII. by whom 

* Holbein's drawings liave been removed from Kensington to Buckingham Hoisc 
in St. Janies*s Park. 



OF ENGLAND. 143 

fe was employed in several embassies. Some of his pioelical pieces 
were printed in 1565> with the works of his intimate friend the Earl 
of Surrey^ who, with Sir Thomas, had a great hand' in refining^ the 
English language. He was the first of his countrymen that trans- 
lated the whole book of Psalms into verse. Ob. 154<1, JEt. 38. 
Mr. Walpole in No. 2. of his ** Miscellaneous Antiquities/' has given 
U3 a cnrions and elegant account of his life. 

THOMAS LEGGE, master ofCaius Coll. J.Jones 
8C. small mez. from the picture at that college. Twenty 
proofs only were wrought off^ when the plate was de- 
stroyed. 

Thomas Legge, bom at Norwich, became a member of Trinity 
and Jesus Colleges in Cambridge, where he acquired a consider- 
able reputation as a dramatic writer. He was afterward made the 
second master of Gonvil and Caius Colleges, a doctor in the court 
of arches, one of the masters in chancery, the king's law professor, 
and twice vice-chancellor of Cambridge. He died 1607, JEt. 72. 

MISCELLANEOUS AUTHORS. 

THOMAS MORUS, &c. very neatly engraved, de- 
dicated to the chancellor of Liege, by Jo. Valder, 1621, 
12mo. 

Sir Thomas More was a great master of the elegant learning of 
the ancients.* His .** Utopia/' a kind of political romance, which 
gained him the highest reputation as an author, is an idea of aper- 
fect republic, in an island supposed to be newly discovered in 
America. As this was the age of discoveries, it was taken for true 
history by the learned Budeeus, and others ; who thought it bighly 
expedient, that missionaries should be sent to convert so wise a 
people to Christianity.f He was beheaded for denying the king's 
supremacy, 6 July, 1535, Mt. 53. See Class VI. 

The following lines are attributed to Sir Thomas More : if they 
do not establish his reputation as a poet, they at least confirm the 

* See bis Epistles to Era^mas. 

t There is a loDg letter of the famous Oer. Jdao Vossins upon the « Utopia." 
See his (Vossi) Epistolse, Lond. 1693, fol. 



144 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

account of the more than philosophic indifference with which In 
went to his execution : 

" If evils come oot, then onr fears are vain ; 
And if they do, fear but aagmetits the pain.*' 

JOHANNES LUDOVICUS VIVES; in Boi^ 
card's " Bibliotheca Chalcographica,'' 4to* 

Johannes Ludovicus Vives, in Frehems. 

John Lewis Vives was a native of Valencia in Spain* He studied 
^t Louvaine, where he became acquainted with Erasmus, and 
assisted him in several of his estimable works. He was in 1523 
appointed one of the first fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxfoid, 
by Bishop Fox the founder* 

Soon after his arrival in England, he read Cardinal Wolsey's 
Lecture of Humanity in the refectory of that college, and had the \ 
king, queen, and principal persons of the court for hb auditors. 
He instructed the princess Mary in the Latin tongue. Ob, 1541, 
His works, the chief of which was his comment on St. Augustin 
*' De Civitate Dei," were printed at Basil, in two vols. fol. 1555* 

JOHN STANBRIDGE, done in wood; sitting in a 
chair y gown, hood on his shoulders. Before his " Em- 
bryon relimatunij sive Vocabularium metricum^ printed 
in black letter, in, or about the year 1 622 ; Ato. This has 
been copied on copper. 

This author, who was one of the most x^onsiderable grammarians, 
and best schoolmasters of his time, was many years master of the 
school adjoining to Magdalen College, in Oxford. 

WILLIAM LILLY, master of St. PauTs. School, ; 
JEt. 52, 1520 ; hand on a book, arms of Lilly. 

. William Lilly, or Lilye, was born at Odyham * in Hampshire, . 
elected one of the dernies or semi-commoners of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, 1486. He took one degree in arts and went on his travel \ 
to Jerusalem. In his return he made some stay at the Isle of i 
Rhodes, where he perfected himself in Greek and Latin, and at 

* There Is an edition, Frankfort or Hamburgh, 2 vols. 4to.'1661i in which all the i 
passages supposed to be heretical, or which reflect on the clergy, arc marked with 
aji asterisk (♦). ] 



OF ENGLAND. 145 

• 

ftome heard Su^ius and Sabmui read and teach Latin. At his 
neturn to London, he tanght grammar, poetry, and rhetoric, with 
^eat success, and was by Dean Colet made first master of St 
Paul's School ; after which he published his well-known grammar 
uid other school-books. He died of the plague 1522. His son 
Greorge, who was canon of St. PauFs, is said to have published the 
first exact map of Britain ; and erected a monument to the me- 
mory of his learned fieUher in St. Paul's church. 



CLASS X. 

PAINTERS, ARTIFICERS, &c^ 

HANS HOLBEIN, junior, Basiliensis. Sandrart 
dd. 8w. 

Joannes Holbenus ; in the set of painters by 
if. Hondius; h. sh. 

Hans Holbein. Vorsterman sc. holding the pencil 
in his left hand. Probably reversed, by being copied from 
another print. This occasioned the mistake of his being 
left-handed. 

Hans Holbein; in a rounds JEt. 45, Anno 1543. 
Hollar f \2mo. 

Giovanni Holbein, &c. sui ipsius effigiatory JEt. 
45. Menabuoni del. Billiy sc. h. sh. One of a set of 
lieads of painters done by themselves, in the Grand 
Duke's gallery at Florence. 

Johannes Holbein; ipse p. And.Stokiusfh.sh. 
Hans Holbein. Gaywoodf. Ato. 

. Hans Holbein. Chambarssc.Ato. Inthe^^Anec^ 
dotes of Painting,'' Sgc. 

Hans Holbein- See his portrait in a groupe, in 
the print of Edward VI. delivering the charter of 
BrideweH. 

VOL. 1. y 



146 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Helbeit), who may be deemed a self-taught gtnius, was acde- 
brated painter tf history and portrait^ In tfais^ aad the foUowiog 
reign. His eamatioos,* and indeed all his colours.^ are exquisite, 
and have the strongest charactera of troth and nature. He«ai 
recommended to Sir Thomas More by Erasmus, and sufficientif 
recommended himself to Henry VIII. who was struck with joit 
admiration at the sight of an assemblage of his portraits in Sff 
Thomas's hall. He was the first reformer of the Gothic style sf 
architecture in England. Ob. 1554, JEt 56.- 

THEOD. BARNARDUS (f;e/ Bernardus), 4^c. 
four Latin verses. H. H. exc. Ato. 

Theod. Barnard. Goltzius. 

Theodore Bernard, or Bemardi, a native of Amsterdam, studied 
under various masters ; particularly Titian. He, as Vertue thongfat, 
painted the pictures of the kings and bishops in the cathedral of 
Chichester. There is a family, supposed to be descended from 
him, still remaining in the neighbourhood of that city* See *^ Aneei 
of Painting," i. 109, 2d. edit. 

Mr. MORETT. Holbein p. Hollar f. ex Collect 
Arundel. 1647 ; small Ato. 

Morett was goldsmith to King Henry VIII. and an excellent 
artist. He did many carious works after Holbein's designs. 

HANS van ZURCH, Goldsmidt. Holbein p. 1532. 
Hollar/. 1647, ex Coll. Arund. 

In Mr. West^s collection was a curious carving in box by this 
artist, inscribed, <^ Zurch Londini." 

PRINTERS. 

WYNKEN DE WORDE, printer; a small ml, 
cut in wood; in Ames's " Typographical AntiquitieSy&r 
Historical Account of Printing in Englaf^.'' Under 
the head are the initials of Caxtoris ^mmeywhwh he (A 
first used. He was long a servant to Caxtw, endj/hu- 
risked in the reign of Henry VIZ. and VIII. 

♦ Flesh colours. 



OF ENGLAND. 147 

Mr. Ames informs us, that he and his numerous servants per- 
formed all parts of the printing business ; and that the most ancient 
printers were also bookbinders and booksellers. The two latter 
Jbnmches were carried on, at least, under their inspection. The 
tftme author adds, that he *' cut a new set of punches, which he 
sunk into matrices, and cast several sorts of printing* letters, which 
he afterward used ; and Mr. Palmer, the printer, says, the same 
are used by all the printers in London to this day, and believes they 
were struck from his punches/'* 

Mr. Pahner here goes rather too far* The fact, however, is, that 
Ae best printing types were imported from Holland, At length an 
English artist arose, who reversed the tables, and exported types to 
the continent. It is almost needless to mention the name of Caslon; 
as the types of his son continue still in universal esteem, notwith- 
standing the acknowledged excellence of those cast by Jackson* 
a papil of the elder Caslon^ and the striking neatness of those by 
Wilson of Glasgow. 

RICHARD PINSON, esq. printer to King Henry 
VII. and VIII. a small oval; in Ames's book. 

Pinson was also a servant to Caxton. He was bom in Nor- 
mandy, and died about the year 1528. 

ROBERT COPLAND, printer, betwia^t a 'porter 
and a beggar, a ivooden cut. It belongs to a qtcarto 
pamphlet, entitled, " The Bye Way to the Spyttdl House,'' 
which is a quaint dialogtie in verse, and begins with " The 
Prologue of Robert Copland, Compylar and Prynter of 
this Boke:' 

Robert Copland. Thane. 

RICHARD GiKkVTO^, esq. printer; a small oval, 
cut in wood, with the initials of his name, and a rebus. 

Richard Grafton was born in London, and flourished in the 
reigns of Henry VIII. Edward VI. Mary, and Elizabeth. In his 
own name were published^ " An Abridgement of the Chronicles of 
England," and " A Chronicle, and large meere History of the 

• *• Ames's Tjpog, Antiq." p. 80. 



148 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Affayers of England, and Ki'ngea of the same ; deduced from tbe 
Creation of the World," &c. 1569. His rebus is a tun, and i 
grafted tree growing through it. The head of Grafton, and tlial 
of the nest person, are in Ames's History; where the author hu, 
with great industry, compiled catalogues of books printed by Ihc 
artisans whom he has commemorated. 

REYNOLD WOLF, esq. king's printer ; an ovai 
within a $qutire, cut in wood. 

Wolf, who was a Oennan or a Swiss, wu a great collectw o[ 
' sntiqnitieB, and fiimished Ralph Hotinshed, who wu one of hit 
esecutors, with the bulk of the materials for his " Chronicle.'' He 
made his will the 9th of January, 1473-4, and prt^Mblf died mod 
after. His device was the Braiea Serpent^ whiidi wu aln Ik 
sign. ■""■ 

The books printed by these, and other old printers, have, oflBte 
years, been eagerly bought up, at immoderate prices ; and fortho 
most past by capricious collectors, who regarded Caxton and Wyo- 
kyn as highly as Tom Folio is stiid to have esteemed Aldus and 
^zevir.* Some have preposterously considered ibese books as 
golden mines of English literature, 'i^ie contents our modem 
writers have been continually draining, refining, and beating thio, lo 
display with pomp and ostentation. But there are Hveral lei^Bcd 
and ingenious gentlemen, whom I could nam^ who hsna tmntd 
over our books in the black letter to some purpose, and ImTe,b; 
their he^, illustrated Sbakspeare, and other celebrated wrilm< 



CLASS XI. 

LADIES. 

CATHARINA BOLENA, &c. mil; arms; Urn. 

This lady was aunt and governess of the Princess Elizabeth. 

The LADY GULDEFORDE (or Guilford), J^. 
28, 1527. El- Collect. Arundel. H. Holbein p. W. 
Hollar/, small 4to. 

• Taltec, Mo- 1^ ' 




THE lADY GfVXiDEFORDE 



■y^mtufrntiT 







OF ENGLAND. 149 

This lady was wife of Sir Henry Guldeforde, comptroUer of the 
boQsehold to Henry VHI. I take her to be Mary, daughter of Sir 
Robert Wooton, second wife to Sir Henry. His first was Mary, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Bryan. 



CLASS XII. 
PERSONS OF BOTH SEXES, 

R£MARKABL£ ONLY FROM A SINGLE CIRCUMSTANCE 

IK THEIR LIVES. 

WILLIAM SOMMERS, King Henry the Eighth s 
jester.* Fran. DeL (Delaram) sc. In a long tunic ; 
JI. R. an his breast ; a chain and a horn in his hand. 
Eght English verses. Engraved from a painting of 
Hans Holbein, whole length, h. sh. very scarce. There 
it a portrait of him at Kensington, looking through a 
leaded casement. 

Will. Sommers ; copied from the last by W. Rich- 
ardson. 

William Sommers, looking through a leaded case- 
ment ; from an ancient picture in the collection of 
Richard Aldworth Nevill,esq. R. Clamp sc. Engraved 
for Caul/ield's " Memoirs of Remarkable Persons."'' 

Will. Sommers ¥ras some time a servant in the family of Richard 
Farmor, esq. of Eston Neston, in Northamptonshire, ancestor to 
lie Earl of Pomfret. This gentleman was found guilty of a prctmu- 
fire in the reign of Henry VIII. for sending eight-pence and a cou- 
de of shirts to a priest, convicted of denying the king's supremacy, 
ffho was then a prisoner in the gaol at Buckingham. The rapacious 
nonarch seized whatever he was possessed of, and reduced him to 
I state of miserable dependance. Will. Sommers, touched with 

* That species of wit, which was the province of William Sommers, and other 
offoons, in this, and several of the succeeding reigns, became the hig!ic»t rccom- 
lendalion of a courier in the reign of Charles II. 




150 BIOGRATHICAL HISTORY 

I 

compassion for his uhhaippy master, is said to have dropped some 
expressions in the king's last illness, which reached the consdenceof 
that merciless prince ; and to have caused the remains of his estate, 
which had been much dismembered, to be restored to him.* 

ELYNOR RUMMIN (or Eleynour of Rum- 
myng), an old, ill-favoured vxnnany holding a black pt 
in her hand; a wooden print: frontispiece to one 9^ 
Skelton's pieces^ called by her name: under the print an 
these lines : {very rare.) 

" When Skelton wore the lawrel crowne. 
My ale put all the ale-wives downe.'* 4to. 

There are good copies of this by Richardson and, 

Elynor Rummin lived, and sold ale, near Leatfaeihead in 
Skelton was probably one of her best customers. The coi 
works of this poet, which contain little beside coarse obscenitj tftt 
low ribaldry, were reprinted in octavo, 1736. 

I shall here, and at the end of most of the subsequent reigipy 
take occasion to introduce a few remarks on the dress and fashkiui 
of the times, as they occur to me, without any design of hAg 
particular. 

In the reign of Richard II. the peaks, or tops, of shoes and boots 
were worn of so enormous a length, that they were tied to Ae 
knees, j: A law was made in the same reign, to limit them to two 
inches. 

Bulwer, who published his " Artificial Changling" about 1650, 
mentions the revival of this fashion. " To wear our forked shoes 
almost as long again as our foot ; but our boots and shoes are so 
long snouted, that we can hardly kneel in God's house." 

Hats were invented at Paris, 1404, by a Swiss : they were manu- 
factured by Spaniards, in London, in the reign of Henry VIII. : be- 
fore this, both men and women in England wore close-knit woollen 
caps. 

We are informed by several antiquaries, that in the time of Anne, 
Richard's queen, the women of quality first wore trains, which oc- 

• In the wardrobe account of Henry VIII. in the fourth vol. of the Arch«o- 
logia, page 249, is an account of the dresses made for Will. Soroniers. 
f Aubrey's " Antiquities of Surrey." 
i Baker's Cbron. p. 310. 



ir 



£i:.xN0VB Rvu u in, 
The famous Ale-wife of Hiagland. 
en by Mr. ShdUm, Poet Laureat to King 
Henry the eight. 




When Skelton wore the Lawrell Crowned 
My Ale put all the Ah-wiues damte. 

LONDOK 

Printed for Samuel HomJ l6S4. 



he Original, in the Library of the Cathedral Charch at 
Lincoln. 

Published, March lit, 1821, 
By W.BxwNsa and Son, Pateinostei tUmi. 



OF ENGLAND. 151 

ned a well-meaning author to write '^ contra Caudas Domina* 
"* The same queen introduced sidesaddles^f Before, the 
lish ladies rode as the French do at present ; and as it is pre- 
id the English will again, if some woman of beauty, rank, and 
:, one of the charioteers, for instance, should set the example.^ 
es who throw a whip, and manage a pair of horses, to admira- 
would doubtless ride a single one with equal grace and dex- 
f. It is strange that, in a polished age, the French have not 
1 followed in so safe, so natural, and so convenient a practice, 
he variety of dresses worn in the reign of Henry the Eighth, 
be concluded from the print of the naked Englishman, holding 
ice of cloth, and a pair of shears, in Borde's '* Introduction to 
wledge.''§ The dress of the king and the nobles , in the be- 
ing of this reign, was not unlike that worn by the yeomen of 
{uard at present. This was, probably, aped by inferior persons, 
recorded, *' that Anne Bolen wore yellow mourning for Catha- 
of Arragon.'Tl 

s far as I have been able to trace the growth of the beard from, 
raits, and other remains of antiquity, I find that it never flou- 
)d more in England, than in the century preceding the Norm;^ 
|uest. That of Edward the Confessor was remarkably large, as 
jars firom his seal in Speed's *< Theatre of Great Britain." 
T the Conqueror took possession of the kingdom beards became 
shionable, and were probably looked upon as badges of dis- 
Ity, as the Normans wore only whiskers. It is said, that the 
lish spies took those invaders for an army of priests, as they ap^ 
ed to be without beards. 

V'ide " Collectanea Historica ex Dictionario Theologico Thomae Gascoigtiii,^ 
ined to Walter HemingCord, published by Heame, p. 512. 
^ossi " Wafwicen3is Historica/* p. 205. 

t Sesostris like» such charioteers as these 
May drive six hamess'd monarchs, if they please. — Young. 

lee Qass IX. 

' Anecdotes of Painting." The same circumstance u in Hall's " GhroBicIe," 
the addition of Henry's wearing white mourning for the unfortunate Anne 
1. Crimson would have been a much more suitable colour. See Hall, 
!7, 228. 



156 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

bis excellences, raised him to great honours. He died the 28th of 
May, 1521. 

JOHANNES SLEIDANUS, &c. natus Sleid«, 
A. D. 1506. Legatus in Anglia pro-Protestantibus, 
1545, &c. W. F. (Faithorne)f. In the English trans- 
lation of his History yfoL 

Joannes Sleydanus; /owr Latin vers'es^ H. H.f. 
in Verheiden, 1604. 

JoHANNis Sleidani; four Latin lines at top^ and 
deven at bottom; quarto. 

John Sleidan, who was born at Sleid% near Cologpne, was, in the 
early part of his life, a domestic of Cardinal de Bellaj. He, on 
several occasions, acquitted himself with honour as an ambassador; 
particularly in his embassy to Henry VIII. from the whole body oC 
Protestants in France. His '' Commentaries," written with can«^ 
dour, spirit, and politeness, is the most considerable of his woi^ 
We are told, in the " life of Dr. Swift,"^ that this was one of the 
books which he read at Moor Park^ and that he took from it large 
extracts. It was probably recommended to him by Sir William 
Temple, who was eminently read in history. The author died in 
1556.t 

SYMON GRYNiEUS, philos. et theol. nose. Fe- 
ringce in Suevia, A''. 1493; Ob. Basilece, A"". 154L; 
Kal. Aug. From Boissard; 4to. 

Simon GayN^Eua; four Latin verses; in Verheiden, 

Simon Gryn^us; a wood-cut. 

Simon Grynjeus ; in Freherus, p. 1442, No. 68. 

Gryn«us, who studied at Oxford about the year 1532, was emi- 
nent for his skill in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, languages ; and 
for his knowledge in philosophy and the mathematics. Mr. Wood 
informs us, that when he lefl the kingdom, he made no scruple o^ 
carrying away several Greek books with him,^ which he had taken 

• See Dean Swift's "Life of Swift," p. 276. 

t See a great and just character of him in Schelfaorne*8 '* Amoenitatcs Hist^Ecclei. 
ft Lit." Umi* i. p. 4. 



OF ENGLAND. 153 

Carolus v. with his dog. Titian; Fersehnd; 1778.' 

Carolus V, profile^ large ovaly wood-cut y rare. 

Charles V. on horseback. Vandyke; Richard Ear- 
lorn, mezz. half sheet. 

Charles V. emperor of Germany and king of Spain, is said to have 
Veen a great politician at sixteen years of age. But it is certain 
that his geniuSj which was solid and very extfaordinary, was not of 
the quickest growth. His wars^ and his vast designs, which were 
hown to every one conversant with history, are now better known 
than ever, by the work of an historian that does the greatest honour 
to the Scots nation. He came to England twice in this reign, to Ini55C 
mit the king, to whom he paid his court as the arbiter of Europe ; as ^ ^ ^ 
Henry then held the balance between him, and Francis I. of France. 
Tired of those' active and busy scenes in which he had been long 
engaged, he, in the latter part of his life, resigned his kingdoms to. 
his brother and his son, and retired into a monastery. He was 
thought to have been very strongly inclined to the religion which he 
persecuted.* Some days before his death, he commanded his fu- 
neral procession to pass before him in the same order as it did after 
his decease. Ob. 21 Sept. 1558. He was elected knight of the 
garter in the reign of Henry VII. and personally installed at 
Windsor, 1522. 

FERDINANDUS, D. G. Rom. Imp. a large me- 
dallion ; in the " Continuation of Golzius's Series of the 
Emperors.'' 

Ferdinand I. ^t. 29, 1531. B. B. probably a 
companion to Charles V. 

Ferdinandus Dei Gratia Romanorum, &c. One 
of the set by F. Hogenberg^ quarto. 

Francois I. Du Rom. &c. Thomas de Leu; octavo,^ 

Ferdinand was brother to Charles V. and his successor in the 
empire. He was elected knight of the garter the 23d of April, 
1522, when he was archduke of Austria, and king of the Roman's. 

- * AHoat 200,000 men are said to have been kiOed, lipon the account of ffe]%itfii 
in the ireign of this prince. ^ 

VOL. I. X 



OF ENGLAND. 149 

This lady was wife of Sir Henry Guldeforde, comptroller of the 
household to Henry VHl. I take her to be Mary, daughter of Sir 
Jlobert Wooton, second wife to Sir Henry. His first was Mary, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Bryan. 



•0»m 



CLASS XII. 
PERSONS OF BOTH SEXES, 

EEMARKABLE ONLY FROM A SINGLE CIRCU^ISTANCE 

IN THEIR LIVES. 

WILLIAM SOMMERS, King Henry the Eighth's 
jester.* D^an. Del. (Delaram) sc. In a long tunic ; 
■H. R. an his breast ; a chain and a horn in his hand. 
Eight English verses. Engraved from a painting of 
Hans Holbein, whole length, h. sh. very scarce. There 

its a portrait of him at Kensingto?i, lookifig through a 
leaded casement. 
"Will. Sommers ; copied from the last by W. Rich- 

\ . William Sommers, looking through a leaded case- 
ment ; from an ancient picture in the collection of 
Richard Aldworth Nevill, esq. R. Clamp sc. Engraved 
for Caulfield's " Memoirs of Remarkable Persons.''' 

Will. Sommers was some time a servant in the family of Richard 

-Farmor, esq. of Eston Neston, in Northamptonshire, ancestor to 

■the Earl of Pomfret. This gentleman was found guilty of a prctmu- 

jore in the reign of Henry VIII. for sending eight-pence and a cou- 

^1^ of shirts to a priest, convicted of denying the king's supremacy, 

was then a prisoner in the gaol at Buckingham. The rapacious 

seized whatever he was possessed of, and reduced him to 

";. a state of miserable dependance. Will. Sommers, touched with 

* That species of wit, which was the province of William Sommers, and other 
boffoons, in this, and several of the succeeding reigns, became the highest recom- 
mendation of a courtier in the reign of Charles XL 




150 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

• 

compassion for his unhappy master, is said to have dropped some 
expressions in the king's last illness, which reached the consdeoceof 
diat merciless prince ; and to have caused the remains of his estate, 
which had been much dismembered, to be restored to him,* 

ELYNOR RUMMIN (or Elefnour of Rom- 
myng), an old, ill-favaured womany holding a black ft 
in her hand; a wooden print: frontispiece to one tf 
Skelton^s pieces ^ called by her name: under the print an 

these lines : {very rare.) 

- • 

" When Skelton wore the lawrel crowne. 
My ale put all the ale-wives downe." 4to. 

There are good copies of this by Richardson and. 

Elynor Rummin lived, and sold ale, near Leatlieiliead in 
Skelton was probably one of her best customers. The coi 
works of this poet, which contain little beside coarse obscenity ttl 
low ribaldry, were reprinted in octavo, 1736, ' 

I shall here, and at the end of most of the subsequent reig^ 
take occasion to introduce a few remarks on the dress and ftislikH 
of the times, as they occur to me, without any design of beng 
particular. 

In the reign of Richard II. the peaks, or tops, of shoes and boots 
were worn of so enormous a length, that they were tied to 4e 
knees.;]: A law was made in the same reign, to limit them to two 
inches. 

Bulwer, who published his '^ Artificial Changling" about 1650, 
mentions the revival of this fashion. " To wear our forked shoes 
almost as long again as our foot ; but our boots and shoes are so 
long snouted, that we can hardly kneel in God's house." 

Hats were invented at Paris, 1404, by a Swiss : they were manu- 
factured by Spaniards, in London, in the reign of Henry VIII. : be- 
fore this, both men and women in England wore close-knit woollen 
caps. 

We are informed by several antiquaries, that in the time of Anne, 
Richard's queen, the women of quality first wore trains, which oc- 

• In the wardrobe account of Henry VIII. in Ihe fourth vol. of the Archao- 
logia, page 249, is an account of the dresses made for Will. Soniniers. 

♦ Aubrey's *' Antiquities of Surrey.*' 
X Baker's Cbron. p. 310. 



OF ENGLAND. 163 

feck J 1650; eight Latin verses by Richard Morisin ; 
half sheet; rare. 

Edward VI. mezz. Houston. 

Edwakd VI. Holbein. Bartohzzi so. 1793, three 
different ; from the Royal Collection. 

Edward VI. Holbein. Dqlton sc. three different ; 
from ditto. 

Edward VI,; in Noble Authors by Parky 1806? 

Edoardus, Dei Gratia Angl. Francia, et Hibem, 
Rev. in cap and feathers; at bottom two Latin lines, 
Rzxfuit ejptrefyni hi^ Edvardus, i^c. scarce. 

Edwardus VI. &c. ; in the ^^ Atrium Heroicum Ca- 
sarum, Regum, aliarumque Summatum et procerum, qui 
intra proximum seculum vixere et hodie supersunt. Chal- 
cographo et Editore Dominic. Custode Cive Aug. Vin- 
deir Pars prima, Sgc^ XQ^Q^pars qaarta J 602; sm4ill 
folio. A scarce qnd curious book : it is in the Bodleian 
library. 

!p)DWARD VI, sitting on his throtit, giving the Bible 
to Archbishop Cranmer, nobles kneeling; Holbein del, a 
wooden prints Ato. From Cranmer^s " Catechi^,''' 
printf^ by Walter Lynn^ 1548. 

Edward VI. giving the charter of Bridewell to the 
lord mayor of London^ Sir George Barnes, knt. ^c. 
On the right of the^ throne is the lord-chancellor , Tho. 

, Goodrich y Huhop of Ely 9 standing ; on the 10 is Sir Ro^ 
bert Bowes, master qf the Rolls f The portrait with the 
collar of the garter is William, earl of Pembroke ; be- 
hind whorn js Hans Holbeifi the painter. — The two per- 
sons kneeling behind the lord mayor, are William Ger- 

' rard and John Maynard, aldermen^ and then sheriffs of 
ffondon : their names are omitted in the inscription of 



Of ENGLAND. 16^5 

Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset; in Lar- 
rey's^^ History. ^^ V. Gunst sc. 

Edward Sey^iour, duke of Somerset, 8vo. W. N. 
Gardiner sc. 1793. 

Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset; in Park's 
" Noble Authors^ 1806. 

The Diikeof Somers^et, ancestor of the present Duke of Somerset Created i 
and Earl of Hertford, was lord-protector of the kingdom, lord high- ^^^' ^^* 
treasurer, and earl-marshsd, in this reign* Though his administra- 
tion was not without blemishes, his conduct was generally regulated 
by justice and humanity. He repealed the sanguinary and tyran- 
okal laws of Henry VIH. and by gentle and prudent methods pro- 
moted the great work of the reformation. Such was his love of 
equity, that he erected a court of requests in his own house, to hear 
and redress the grievances of the poor. His attachment to the re- 
formed religion, but much more his envied greatness, drew upon hiih 
die resentment of the fectious nobility, at the head of whom wa»his 
own brother the lord-admiral, and John Dudley, earl of Warwick.* 
He caused the former to be beheaded* and was soon after brought 
to the block himself, by the intrigues of the latter, to whose crooked 
politics, and ambitious views, he was the greatest obstacle. Exe- 
cuted the 22d of Jan. 1551-2. See Class VII. 

JOHN RUSSEL, the first earl of Bedford, 1549. 
Houbrakm sc. Illtist. Head. In the collection of the 
Duke of Bedford. 

JoHif Buss£L> earl of Bedford. Holbein. Barto- 
lozzif 1796. In the Royal Collection. 

John Russel, earl of Bedford; from the same by 
Dalton, inscribed lord privy-seal, with one eye. 

John Russel, first earl of Bedford. W. Bond sc. 
1815. From the original in the collection of his Grace 
the Duke of Bedford; in Mr. Lodge's ^'Illustrious 
Portraits'^ 

* Afterward Doke of Northumberland. 



152 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



APPENDIX 



TO 



THE REIGN OF HENRY VHL 



FOREIGN PRINCES, 

WHO WERE KNIGHTS OF THE GAaTER, &C. 

CAROLUS V. Imperator, &c. JSneas Vicus Tar- 
mensis sc. adorned with trophies and emblematicm 
figures; wood-cut^ MDL* 

This famous print raised the reputation of the engraTer, andpio 
cured him a considerable reward from Charles himself. 

Carolous v. Imperator, &c. Mneas Yicus Parnm 
sis; same design as the last^ 1550. 

Carolous V. Imperator, &c. Nich. de la Casah 
tharingus fe& . the reverse way of the last. 

Carolus V. Lombart sc. Frontispiece to his lifi 
Ato. 

The original, from which this last is engraved^ i 
marked with B. B. near the top on the left hand, andu 
very rare. 

Both these prints represent him older than when he irasm 
England. 

Carolus V. Frisius sc. 

Charles V. in an oval. P. Soutman. Francois. 

Carolus V. in armour, very fine folio. Titian cni 
Rubens. 



OF ENGLAND. 167 

Thomas Seymour, with his autograph. Thane excu. 

Thomas Seyinoiir, baron of Sudley and lord-admiral of England, 
was a younger brother of the protector Somerset. He was a man of 
a good person and address ; and no stranger to the arts of the cour- 
tier, or the gallantry of the lover. The impression which he made on 
the heart of Catharine Parre, whom he married, and on that of the 
Princess Elizabeth, whom he would have married, was, by credulous 
people, in a credulous age, imputed to incantation. His love seems 
to have been only a secondary passion, that was subservient to his 
ambition.* His views were certainly aspiring ; and he was justly 
regarded by his brother as an active and dangerous rival. Me was 
executed, in consequence of an act of attainder, without even the 
formality of a trial, the 9th of March, 1548-9. . Mr. Warton, in his 
" life of Sir Thomas Pope," has given us a curious account of some 
coquetries which passed between die Princess Elizabeth and the lord- 
admiral.f 

GULIELMUS HERBERTUS, comes Pembro- 
chise ; in the " Heroologia,^' 8w. 

There is a portrait of him in the delivery of the charter of Bride- 
well, in the preceding Class. 

This nobleman was esquire of the body to Henry VIII. a privy- 
counsellor, and one of the executors of that king's will. He was' 
nearly allied to Henry, by his marriage with Anne, sister to Catharine 
Farre. He was, in this reign, constituted master of the horse, elected 
a knight of the garter, and created earl of Pembroke. In the reign Cr. 155 
of Mary, he was appointed general of the forces raised to suppress 
Wyatt's rebelhon, and had the command of the army sent to defend 
Calais. , He was lord-steward of the household in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. . Ob. 1569, Mt. 63. His head may be placed in the last, men- 
tioned reign. 

* In ^e preamble to an act of parliament, in the second and third year of 
Edward VI. entitled, ** An Act for the Attaynder of Sir Thomas Seymour, knight, 
Lorde Seymour of Sudley, high-admiral of England,'* printed by Grafton; 1549, 
folio, it is said, " that he would have done what he could secretly to have married 
the Princess Elizabeth, as he did the late (/ueen, whom, it may appear, he married 
first, and after sued to his majesty and the lord-protector, and their council, for his 
preferment to it ; whom, nevertheless, it hath been credibly declared, he holped to 
her end, to haste forward his other purpose." 

t Vide Hayne's *' State Papers." 



170 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

the consent of the inward man of the Virgin, was made flesh."* See 
the reign of Mary. 

EDMUND BONNER, bishop of London, was 
deprived 17 Sept. 1549, and was restored in the next 
reign. See the reign of Mary. 

NICOLAUS RIDL^US, (Episc. Loud.) Svo. in 
the " Heroologia'^ 

Tr. from This pious and learned prelate, who was indefatigable in his la^ 
Rochester, bour to promote the reformation, had a considerable hand in the 
j5^, ' Liturgy of the Church of England, which was first compiled, and 
read in churches, by command of Edward YI. There was a second 
edition published, with many alterations, in this reign. Both these 
are to be seen in Hamon L'Estrange's <' Alliance of Divine Offices, 
or Collection of all the Liturgies since the Reformation ;^' fol. f 
The first copies are very scarce. See the next reign. 

STEPHEN GARDINER, bishop of Winchester, 
was imprisoned in the Fleet, and afterward in the 
Tower, in this reign. Though he subscribed to aD 
the alterations in religion by Edward VI. he was «till 
regarded as a secret enemy to the reformation, and 
was therefore deprived of his bishopric. See the 
following reign. 

THOMAS GOODRICK (Goodrich J), bishop of 
Ely, lord-chancellor. His portrait is in the delivery 
of the charter of Bridewell. See Class I. 

Consec. Thomas Goodrich, who was some time a pensioner of Benet Coir 
19 Ap. lege, in Csunbridge, and afterward a fellow of Jesus College, in 
that university, was an eminent divine and civilian. He was one of 
the revisers of the translation of the New Testament; and a com- 
missioner for reforming the ecclesiastical laws, in the reigns of 

• Baroet, vol. ii, col. 35. 

t The second edition was printed in 1690. 

X His name was Goodrich, as appears by this epigram made upon it : 

" £t bonus, et dives, bene junctos et optimns ordo ; 
Pfsoedit booitfi8,poiie scqnuBtar opes." 



OF ENGLAND. 149 

This lady was wife of Sir Henry Guldeforde, comptroller of the 
liousehold to Henry VHT. I take her to be Mary, daughter of Sir 
^bert Wooton, second wife to Sir Henry. His first was Mary, 
dai^hter of Sir Thomas Bryan. 



CLASS XII. 
PERSONS OF BOTH SEXES, 

BEMARKABLE ONLY FROM A SINGLE CIRCU3JSTAXCE 

IN THEIR LIVES. 

WILLIAM SOMMERS, King Henry the Eighth's 
jester.* Fran. Del. (Delaram) sc. In a lojig tunic ; 
■H. R. an his breast ; a chain and a horn in his hand. 
Eight English verses. Engraved from a painting of 
Hans Holbein, whole length, h. sh. very scarce. There 

^ is a portrait of him at Kensingto?i, looking through a 

Ik kaded casement. 

p Will. Sommers ; copied from the last by W, Rich- 
I ardson. 

. "William Sommers, looking through a leaded case- 
ment ; from an ancient picture in the collection of 
Richard Aldworth Nevill^esq. R. Clamp sc. Engraved 
for Caulfield^s " Memoirs of Remarkable Persons.'''' 

Will. Sommers was some time a servant in the family of Richard 

-Farmor, esq. of Eston Neston, in Northamptonshire, ancestor to 

the Earl of Pomfret. This gentleman was found guilty of a prctmu- 

«re in the reign of Henry VIII. for sending eight-pence and a cou- 

- pie of shirts to a priest, convicted of denying the king's supremacy, 

«lpfao was then a prisoner in the gaol at Buckingham. The rapacious 

^nonarch seized whatever he was possessed of, and reduced him to 

a stale of miserable dependance. Will. Sommers, touched with 

* That species of wit, which was the province of William Sommers, and other 
baffbons, in this, and several of the succeeding reigiis, became the highest recom* 
Mcndation of a courtier in the reign of Charles XL 



rmour. 



172 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

considerable sums, of whidi he. had been. defrauded.* I have 
transcribed the following . passage from one : of : his , disi^rses 
preached before Edward VI. as it relates to his personal history, 
and is also a just picture of the ancient yeomanry. 

*' My father was a yoman, and had no lapdes of his owne; onlye 
he had a farm of 3 or 4 pound by. yere at the uttertnost!; and here- 
upon he tilled so much as kepte halfe a dozen men. He had waike 
for a hundred shepe, and my mother mylked 30 kyue. . He was 
suit of able, and did find the king a hamesse, with hym self, and hys 
borsse, whyle he came to the place that he should receyve the 
kynges wages. I can remembre that I hackled fays hames, when he 
went into Black Heeath felde. He kept me to schole, or eU.es I 
had not been able to have preached before the kinges majestie nowe. 
He marryed my systers with 5 pounde, or 20 nobles a pece ; so 
that he broughte them up in godliness and feare of God. . He kept 
hospitalitie for. his pore neighbours, and sum almess he gave to 
the poore,» and all thys did he of the sayd farme.'' See the next 
reign.^ 

JOHANNES BALiEUS, Osorien&is episcopus; in 
Boissard's " Bibtiotheca^''' 4to. 

Joannes Balaus; in the " Heroologia^'' 8vo. 

Joannes Baljevs^ presenting his book to EdwardYL 
a wooden print, 24to. 

A good copy of this is in Dibdin's " Decameron^' vol 
a. p. 209. 

Joannes Bal^us; four Latin lines. Hh. HondiuSf 
in Verheiden. 

There is a head of him in bis ^' Examinationf and Death of Sir 

John 01dcastle.''t 

There is another head of him, well eut in wood, on the back o> 
the title of the book first ooentioned in his article; ;( 

* See Biailford, in the next reign. Class IV. 

t Mr. Oldys, author of the Dissertation on Pamphlets, in the " Phoenix 'RnWaof 
cub/' 4to. p. 558, sajs, that he has known Bale's " Examination/' &c. of Sir Joli> 
Oldcastle, sell for three guineas, on account of its rarity. This is to be ondent^''^ 
of the first edition. 

t There is a small neat bead of Bale, and other English clergymen, in Lsptoo'* 




S:&ttiut Jirmtt- 



AiiiAi^ iyl*^-SkA^nii>n, CaiAStnUiaa^iu-fUia*, 



OF ENGLAND. 173 

Jahn Bale was bishop of Ossory* in Ireland, and author of 
Catalogus Scriptorum illustrium Brytanniee, Basil. 1557,"fol. He 
^as also author of " A Comedy, or Interlude, of Johan Baptyst*s 
Ireachynge in the Wildernesse; opening the Crafts of Hypo- 
ytes," &c. 4to. 1558 : it is printed in the '' Harleian MisceU 

By. 

Be .hath given us a detail of all his dramatic pieces, which were 
ItteD when he was a papist. There was a time when the lamen- 
ble comedies of Bale were acted with applause. He tells us, in 
B iocoant ef his yocation to the bishopric of Ossory, that his 
medy of John Baptist'^ Preaching, and his tragedy of God*s Pro- 
'mBBf were acted by young men at the Market-cross of Kilkenny, 
Km a Sunday in 1552. Surely this tragedy must be as extraor- 
uujWL composition, in its kind, as his comedies. This piece will 
I tamd in Dodsle/s " Collection of Old Plays.** 
The intemperate zeal of this author often carries him beyond the 
ittidB of decency and candour in his accounts of the papists. An- 
tooj Wood Btyles him ** the foul-mouthed Bale ;" but some of his 
>ol language translated into English^ would appear to be of the 
me import with many expressions used by that writer himself. 
•6. 1563, JBi. 6a. 

Dk. CHAMBERS (Chamber), Ja. 88. Holbein p. 
ioUarf. 1640 ; h. sh. 

De. 6uamber; in the print of Henry VIII. giving 
he Qharter to the surgeons. 

Da. Chamber; in the " Oxford Almanack^'' 1737. 
Dr.Chamber. Holbein p. W. Richardson^ Svo. 

Dr. John Chamber, who was some time physician to Henry VIII. 
as, with Lynacre and Victoria, founder of the College of Physi- 
ans in London. In 1510, he was preferred to a canonry of 
Hodsor ; and in 1524, to the archdeaconry of Bedford. In 1526, 



History of the modern Protestant Divines/' Lond. 1657. The prints are copied 
t>m the " Heroologia/' &c. 

• Ossory is a district in Ireland, the cathedral of which sec is at Kilkenny. " Similar 
the case in Scotland, while that was an arcliiepiscopal church ; of the diocpsses of 
oray, Ross, Caithness, Orkney, Galloway, and Argilc ; the respective cathedrals 
which sees were at Elgin, Channcry, Dornock, Kirkwall, Whilcrux, and Lisraore." 



174 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

he was elected warden of Merton College in Oxford; and about 
&e same time made dean of the King's Chapel at Westminster, 
dedicated to the blessed Virgin Mary and St. Stephen.* He en- 
joyed several other less considerable preferments. Ob, 1549. See 
more of him in Wood's ** Fasti Oxon." i. col. 50. 

DAVID BEATON, cardinal, archbishop of St. 
Andrew's, and lord-chancellor of Scotland ; from (tn 
original picture in the Duke of HamiUofCs apartments 
in Holyrood House^ 8w. Wilkinson ea:c. 

David Beaton was bom in 1494 ; and, after receiving a libenl 
education, in 1519 was appointed resident at the court of France: 
in 1523 he obtained the rich abbey of Arbroath; and in 1528 he 
was made lord privy-seal. He negotiated the marriage of James V* 
with Princess Magdalen of France, and afterward with Princess 
Mary. Paul III. raised him to the cardinalate in 1538, about wliidi 
time he was made primate of Scotland. On the death of the kingf 
the lords of the council sent the cardinal to prison, from whence be 
was released, not long after, by the regent, and made chancellor. He 
persecuted the Protestants widi gr^t fury, and among others caused 
the celebrated George Wishart to be burnt before his own palace. 
Shortly afterward he was assassinated in his house by Lesley and 
other Protestants, in 1546. 

FOREIGN DIVINES, 

WHO HAD PREFERMENT IN ENGLAND. 

PETRUS MARTYR VERMILIUS, S. S. theo- 
logiae apud Oxonienses, professor Regius, natm jFfc- 
rentice, Sept. 8. Anno MD. Ob. Nov. 12, MDLXll 
Sturt sc. h. sh. in Strype's '^Memorials of CranmeTy 
fol. 1 694. 

This seems to have been done from the portrait of him now in 
the hall at Christ Church, Oxon. given to that college by Dr. Raw- 
linson. 

* He was at the expense of building a fine cloister adjoining to this cliapel ; to 
which, and the canons belonging to it, he gave the perpetuity of certain lands, whicb 
were afterward seized bjr the rapacious Henrjr VIII. 



OF ENGLAND. 175 

Petrus MABxya Vermilius. H. H(ondius)in Vtr- 
heiden ; four Latin lines ; wood-^ut. 

Petrus Martyr Vermilius. R. Houston/, large 
Uo. mezz. in Rolfs " Lives of the Reformers.'' 

Peter Martyr, some time prior of St. Fridian in the city of Lacca, 
ed from his native country on account of the Protestant religion, 
nd took shelter in Switzerland; whence he was, in 1547, invited 
> England by the Protector Somerset, and Archbishop Cranmer. 
[e was, the next year, made Regius Professor of Divinity; and in 
550, installed canon of Christ Church. His numerous woric9, 
'hich are in Latin, consist chiefly of commentaries on the Scrip- 
ires, and pieces of controversy. He desired leave to withdraw 
yon after the accession of Mary, and died at Zurich 12 Noy. 1562. 
lU study, which he erected for privacy in his garden, was pulled 
own by Dr. Aldrich, when he was canon of Christ Church, 

MARTIN US BUCERUS, S. S. theologiae apud 
3antabrigienses, professor regius. Natus Selestadiiy Appoint* 
.491 ; denatus, 1551 ; h. sfi. 1550. 

BtrcER. Vander Werffp. G. Valck. sc. h. sh. 

Marti Nus Bucerus, &c. R. Houston f. large 4to. 
nezz. in Rolfs " Lives of the Reformers.'' 

Martinus Bucerus; book in left hand; sir Latin 
oersesy Lcedibrium Sortis, 8^c. 4to. scarce. 

Martinus Bucerus. H.H.(ondius) finVerheidan. 

Martinus Bucer; a wood-cut. 

Martin Bucer, bom at Alsace, took the habit of St. Dominic at 
seven years of age, and afterward became a considerable person 
ttnong the reformers. He was in part a Lutheran, though superior 
to him in controversy. He was invited to England by Archbishop 
Cranmer; and apartments, with a salaiy, were assigned him in the 
oniversity of Cambridge to teach theology. He was much admired 
)y King Edward 6th, and composed several works : the principal are, 
lis Commentaries on the Evangelists and Gospels. He died 1551, 
ged 61. His bones were dug up and burnt in Queen Mary's reign. 



176 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

PAUL FAGIUS, Aleman. de Zabem, pasteur 
rSglise de Strasbourg , Sgc. a wooden prints Ato. 

Paulus Fagius, 8cc. in Boissard*s ^^ Bibliothecay 
;small 4to. 

Bucer and Fagius, who fled from the persecution in Germany, 
were appointed to ingtruct young students in the Scriptures at Gam- 
bridge. Bucer undertook to explain the New Testament, and Far 
gius the Old: but the latter died^ before he had been aMe to resd 
any lectures, on the Idth of November^ 1550. In the next reign, 
the queen ordered Jtheir bones to bje taken up and burnt.* 

Z« Pearce, late bishop of Rochester^ in his " Review of ihe Text 
of Milton's Paradise liOst," published without a name, says, siyi the 
last page, that Fagius was a favourite annotator of Milton's. 

JOHN ALASCO, a Polander, first pastor of the 
Dutch church in England, regn. Edw. VI. J. Savage 
^c. in Strype's ^ Memorials of Cranmer^' foL 

John a Lasco ; four Latin lines; H. (ondius) in 
Verheiden; wood-cut, 4to. 

John Aiasco, uncle to the king of Poland,t and some time a 
bishop of the church of Borne, having been driven from his country 
for his religion, settled at Embden, in East Friesland. He was 
there chosen preacher to a congregation of Protestants, who, under, 
the terror of persecution^ fled with' their pastor into England, where 
they were incorporated by charter, and had also a grant oi the church 
of Austin Friars. These Protestants differed in some modes of wor^ 
ship from the established church. John Alasco was ordered to 
depart the kingdom, upon the accession of Mary. He purchased 
Erasmus's valuable library of him, when he lay upon his death-bed. 
He died in Poland, in 1560. 

♦ " Id cmerem, aot mane ere dis curare sepultos?"— Fifr^. 
t Fox, vol. iii. p. 40. 



OP ENdLANi): 177 

CLASS V. 
COMMONERS IN GREAT EMPLOYMENTS. 

SIR THOMAS SMYTH. . Holbein p. Houbraken 
sc. 1743. In the possession of Sir Edmund Smyth, of 
Kill Hall, in Essex, bart. lllust. Head: 

3ir Thomas Smith, secretary of state to Edward VI. and Queen 
^izabeth; was sent ambassador to several foreign princes m these 
reigns, and had a principal hand in settling the public affairs in church 
and state. See Class IX. in this reign^ and V. under Elizabeth.^ 

JOHANNES CHECUS, Eques Auratus, Sic. in 
Holland's " Heroologia^'' Qvo. 

His portrait is at Lord Sandys's, at On^rsley, in Worcestershire^ 

Sir John Cheke, some time tutor to the king, was also secretary 

of state in this reign, and one of the privy^council.i* See dass Wi 



CLASS VI. 

MEN OF THE ROBE. 

SIR ROBERT BOWES, master of the Rolls. 

Sir Robert Bowes; in the print of King Edward VL 
delivering the charter of Bridewell. See class L 

• 

* He had the rectory of Leveriogton in Cambridgeshire, in Jfae reign of Henry 
Vltl. - Bot a rectory might have beeh held by any one who was a clerK at larg^. 
For though the law of the chorch was, that !h such a case he should take the'order 
of pijesthood within one year after his institution, yet that w&s fireqaently dispqiksed 
with. Indeed, there is no appearance of evidence • for this person's having been in 
holy orders; and it is presumed that Strype, in the Xife of him, page 41, was the 
first that suggested . his " being at least in deacon's orders ;"a suggestion that pro- 
bably arose from his not being able otherwise to account for the spiritual preferments 
which he enjoyed. ,; 

t He is supposed to have been in holy orders, as he held a canonry of the King's 
College, afterward called Christ Church, in 1543. See " FasU Oxon." yol. i.col.^68. 
But Dr. Birch speaks of lay-deans in his ** life of .Prince Henry," p. 14^ If a 
deanery miglffi^ held by a lay-man, so might a prebend, or canonry. 
VOL. I. 2 a 



178 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Sir Robert Bowes ; a small ovaU from the above. 
C. Hall sc. 



V 



CLASS VIL 
MEN OF THE SWORD. 

EDWARDUS SEIMERUS, Somerseti dux, &c 
12mo. 

The Duke of Somerset made too great a figure as a soldier, to 

be omitted here ; as he neyer shone more in any station than at the 

pt. 10, head of an army. He defeated the Scots at the memorable battle 

^* of Musselburgh, in which 14,000 of the enemy were killed. This 

was so total an overthrow, that they could never recover it. 

There is a very scarce pamphlet of his expedition into Scotland, 
which hath been sold for four guineas, though the whole of it is 
printed in Hollinshed.* See *' Phosnix Britannicus,'' p. 568, I 
mention this as an instance of literary insanity. 

JOHN DUDLEY, earl of Warwick, an excellent 
soldier, was lieutenant-general under the Duke of 
Somerset in the expedition to Scotland, and had a 
principal share in the victory at Musselburgh. Sir 
John Hayward teUs us, "that for enterprises by arms, 
he was the minion of this time." Hist. Edw. VI. p. 
15. See Class IL 

SIR THOMAS CHALONER. See a description 
. of his portrait, class IX. 

TluB gallant soldier attended Charles V. in his wars, particularly 
in his unfortonate expedition to Algiers. Soon after the fleet left that 
place, be was shipwrecked on the coast of Barbary, in a very dsA 
night; and having exhausted his strength by swimming, he chanced 
to strike his head against a cMe^ which he had the presence of 

^TlMOilg^dediliQiikMiiidedniightockfaicaB^Hiienti^ Such as tbey aif i 

tlNjaenvtoHoitniie the iirtoiy of that celebimled ouDpaignT— Ijinrf Hmku 



OF ENGLAND. 179 

mind to catcH hold of with his teeth ; and with the loss of several of 
them, was drawn up by it into the ship to which he belonged. The 
Duke of Somerset, who was an eyewitness of his distinguished 
bravery at Mu8selburgh> rewarded Um with the honour of knight- 
hood. 



CLASS VIII. 

KNIGHTS, GENTLEMEN, &c. 

SIR JOHN GODSALVE; in Harding's '' Bio- 
^aphical MirrouVy' Ato. Clamp sc. 

Sir John Godsalve was a person of considerable note in the reign 
of Edward VI. at whose coronation Strype, informs us, he was 
created knight of the carpet ; according to Heylin, be was ap- 
pointed commissioner of visitation the same year ; and two years 
gJter comptroller of the Mint. A portrait of him is in the closet at 
Kensington; another, a miniature, in the Bodleian library at Ox- 
Tord, from which the print is taken. On this picture, which belonged 
to Christopher Godsalve, clerk of the victuaIling-o£5ce in the reign 
of Charles I. is written, 

Captam in Castris ad Boloniam, 1540. 

By the spear and shield, with which he is anned, Sir John ap^ 
pears to have served his sovereign in a warlike capacity ; and though 
knight of tl\e carpet, seems to have been no carpet-knight. 

RICHARD WATTS ; a bust in Rochester cathe- 
dral, J. Berry sc. Qvo. 

Richard Watts ; a bust; mezz. E. Adams; 8vo. 

Richard Watts was a member of psyiiament for the city of So<« 
cheater, and had the honour of entertaining Queen Elizabeth at his 
house in 1573. At her departure, Mr. Watts apologized for the 
smallness of his house; the queen, in return, made use of the Latin 
word satis only, signifying that she was well contented vnth it, 
The house, oh that occasion, situate on Bully Hill, acquired the 
name of Satis, He founded the well-known alms-house near the 
market-cross, Rochester, for poor travellers; the following in- 



18(» 

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OP ENGLAND. 181 



MISCELLANEOUS AUTHORS. 

SIR THOMAS SMITH, knt. bom March 28, 
1612; deceased August 12, 1577, in the 65th year of 
his age : round cap^ furred garment. Frontispiece to 
his LifCi by Strype ; %vo. 

Sir Thomas Smith, when he was Greek lecturer at Cambridgei 
assisted by his learned friend Mr. Cheke, first introduced the true 
pronunciation of that language ; upon which he wrote a treatise in 
Xatin* Flushed with his success, he set about reforming the Eng** 
lish alphabet and orthography. He composed an alphabet of twenty- 
oiAe letters, of which nineteen were Roman, four Greek, and six 
English or Saxon. His general rule in orthography was, to write 
all words as they are pronounced, without the least regard to their 
derivation.* This project had been generally looked upon as chU 
meiical. His book on the Commonwealth of England is esteemed 
a just account of the English constitution, as it was in the reign of 
Elizabeth. He was appointed dean of Carlisle 1546, and provost 
ofiBton, 

SIR JOHN CHEKE, knt. Ob. 1557. Jos. Nut- 
ting sc. Frontispiece to his Life^ by Strype^ 1705 ; Qvo. 

The first impression is inscribed to the Honouf^able the 
Lady Topping, from the original at Purgo : the above 
was erasedy and Ob. 1557 inscribed. 

Sir John Cheke, who was elected first professor of the Greek 
language in the university of Cambridge when he was only twenty- 
six years of age, was an intimate friend and fellow-labourer in the 
same studies with Sir Thomas Smith, iand helped greatly to bring 
the Greek learning into repute. These two celebrated persons, and 
Roger Ascham, tutor to the Princess Elizabeth, were the politest 
scholars of their time in the university.f Sir John Cheke was 
cruelly used on account of his religion, in the reign of Mary, and 
>ms supposed to have died of grief for signing a recantation against 

* The practice of Dr. Middleton, who has regard only to derivation in his ortho- 
graphy, would b« much better. 

t An elegant edition of Roger ilscham's works was published in 4to. in 1761. 



182 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

his conscience. His writings, which are mostly in Latin, are on 
theological, critical, and grammatical subjects. 

THOMAS CHALONERUS, JEt. 28, 1548. HoU 
beinp. Hollar/. 1655; h. sh. 

On the back of the title of his book, ^* De Republica, &c.^ is a 
good wooden print of him. 

So various were the talents of Sir Thomas Chaloner, that he ex- 
celled in every thing to which he applied himself. He made a con- 
siderable figure as a poet. His poetical works were published by 
William Malim, master of St. Paul's School, in 1579; but his ca- 
pital work was that Of right ordering the English Republic^ in ten 
Booksy* which he wrote when he was ambassador in Spain, in the 
reign of Elizabeth. It is remarkable that this great man, who knew 
how to transact, as well as to write upon the most important affairs 
of states and kingdoms, could descend to compose " A Dictionary 
for Children,'^ and to translate from the Latin a book of the *^ Office 
of Servants,*' merely for the utility of the subjects. Ob, 7 Oct, 
1565, and was buried in St. Paul's church : Lord Burleigh walked 
as chief mourner. He was father of Sir Thomas Chaloner, tutor to 
Prince Henry. 



CLASS XL 

LADIES. 

JANA GRAYA ; ^vo. in the " Heroologia.'' 

j£ANN£ Gray. A Vander Werffp. Vermeulen sc. 
in Larrejfs " History'' 

The Lady Jane Grey was daughter to Henry Grey, marquis of 
DoTsetyf by the Lady Frances Brandon, elder of the two surviving 
daaghterg of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, by Mary, queen 
of France. This lady, who was highly in the king's favour, was 
possessed of almost every accomplishment that is estimable or 
ftnuable4 If her tutors, Ascham and Aylmer, may be credited, 

* "I>e Rep. Anglonim iDstoaranda," lib. x. Lond. 1679, 4to. 
t Afterward Doke of SafEolk ; beheaded 155^ 

I " Qujcqnid duloe animain corapleverat, utile qaicquid ; 
" Ars cerebmiD, pietes pectus, et on sales." — ^Anov. 



OF ENGLAND. 183 

she perfectly understood the Greek, Latin, French, and Italian 
languages, and was also acquainted with the- Hebrew, Chaldee, and 
Arabic. She played on several musical instruments, which she 
sometimes accompanied with her voice. She wrote a fine hand, 
and excelled in various kinds of needle-work. All these accom- 
plishments were '* bounded within the narrow circle, of sixteen 
years.*' The happiness of this excellent person's life concluded 
with this reign. See the next. 

ANNE, DUCHESS OF SOMERSET. A. More 
T^nx. T, Nugent so. in Harding's '^Biographical 
Mirrour^' 1792. 

Anne, duchess of Somerset, second wife to the great Protector, 
was daughter to Sir Edward Stanhope, of Sudbury, in Suffolk, and 
of Rampton, in the county of Nottingham, knight. Lord Seymour, 
of Sttdley, brother to the Protector, a man of insatiable ambition, 
arrogant and assuming, by his flattery and address prevailed on the 
qneen-dowager to marry him immediately upon the demise of the 
king. This circumstance gave great umbrage to the Duchess of 
Somerset, a woinan of a haughty spirit, not brooking that, while 
her husband was virtually king, she should be obliged to yield pre- 
cedence to his brother's wife : she used, therefore,, all her influence, 
which was excessive, with her -husband to widen the breach already 
subsisting between him and Lord Seymour. The Protector him- 
selfy being at length, through various dissatisfacti<>ns, obliged to 
resign his office, was committed to the Tower : the duchess was 
also committed to the same place ; where she remained till she was 
released by Queen Mary, Aug. 3, 1553. After her deliverance 
she married Francis Newdigate, esq. Oh. 1587, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. 



CLASS XII. 

PERSONS REMARKABLE ONLY FOR ONE 

CIRCUMSTANCE, &c. 



184 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

V. 

APPENDIX ^ 



TO 



THE REIGN OF EDWARD VI. 



li 



FOREIGNERS. &c. 

HENRY II. Roy de France, 7. de Bie sc. h. sh. 

Henry IL W.L. in a curious dress. B. Boittrius sc. 
in Musi Francois. 

Henry II. Morris sc^ half sheet. 

Henry II. Sergent sc. 

. Henry II. ^.28, 1547, in curious armour; fol 
ynthmit name of engraver ; scarce. 

,. Henrt IL Four French verses; profile crowned 
jmthytttrel; %vo. 

• 

''^^MfigrlL Mm of Frands I. kug of France, was a prince of 

^pr^tter courage than capacity. He, on several occasions, 

^' die fiisld; but made no figure in the cabinet. He lost 

■ore by the treaty of peace which followed the disastrous 

^ St QuintiD, than his enemies had gained by that victoiy. 

vaa ■■ Umited in his yiews, and as fluctuating in his reso^ 

■■ Catherine de Medicis, his queen, was comprehensive 

Brmined. In the reign of this king, the English lost Bou* 

id Calais. He was invested with the order of the garter, in 

i'WbA died the 10th of July, 1559, JEt. 40, of an accidental 

a received at a tournament. 

HIERONYMUS CARDANUS, Mediolanensis, 
Klicinee, doctor; 4to. in the continuation of Boissard. 



OF ENGLAND. 185 

HiERONYMUS Cardanus, ^t. 43 ; a medallion. 
Thomassin. 

HiERONYMUS Cardanus, J^. 49, 1553 ; dittOj 
l2mo. 

HiERONYMUS Cardanus; in FreheruSy 1265, No. 

57. 

Jerome Cardan, a very celebrated Italian physician, naturalist,* 
and astrologer, came into England in this reign, and was intro- 
duced to Edward, on whom he has passed a very high encomium. 
He regarded astrology as the first of all sdences ; and was, in his 
own estimation, as well as in the opinion of his contemporaries, the 
first of all astrologers. He, like Socrates, was supposed to have 
been attended by a demon, or familiar spirit.t ' There are many 
ingenious as well as whimsical and fabulous things in his works, 
which were printed at Lyons, in ten volumes, fol. 1663. It is re- 
markable, that he drew the horoscope of Jesus Christ; and that 
bis description of the unicorn is exactly correspondent to dmt ficti- 
tious animal, which is one of the supporters of the royal arms. Ob. 
circ. 1575, JEt. 75.% See more of him in Dr. Robertson's " History 
of Scotland," 4fo. I. p. 116* 



* He was called a magician, which, at this time, was another term for a naturalist. 
Vide J. Baptisto Porto " De Magia Natarali." 

t See Beaumont's ** .Account of Spirits," &c. p. 50, et seq. 

t His book " De propria Vito" b very curious. He appears not to have studied 
Caesar's Commentories before he wrote these memoirs ; as he has collected all the 
testinionies of his contemporaries relating to his own tiharacter, and has placed at 
the head of them, ** Testimonia de me.'' Sec <' Cardanus de propria Vita, 1654, 
ISmo. 



VOL. I. 2 B 



laa BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

I 

I 

MARY 

BEGAN HER REIGN THE 6th OF JULY, 1553. 



CLASS L 

THE ROYAL FAMILY. 

QUEEN MARY L Antonio More p. G. Vertue 
sc. h. sh^ Drom a picture in the possession of the Earl 
of Oxford. 

Maria Hen. VHL F. &c. Regina, lfi55; owrf. 
JP. H. (Frands Hogenberg) at the top; well executed. 

This was perhaps engraved after the year 155^ which mi^ 
have been inserted ^ the eia. of her reigiu . 

Maria L &c. a jewel hangit^ at her breasf. 
W. F. 1568. 

Marie, &c. lira. Delaramm sc. 4to. holding in her 
hand the suppUcaAm of Thomas Hangar. 

Thtfa^H impresmn is brfort the oval, both hands are 
fetm; very rare. 

Mart. E. Bocquet sc. in Noble Authors, by Parky 
1806. 

Mart Princess ; inscribed the Lady Mary, after 
Queen. H. Holbein. F. Bartolozzi sc. In the Royal 
VoUection. 

ICart Princess ; in an aval, JEt. 39. " lUa, EgOy 
^- Sic. F. H (ogenberg). 

Labi Mari, daughter to the mast vertuaus Prince 
jT. Henri the Eight; la quarto. 



OF ENGLAlffD, 187 

MlET> in thefimily print of Henry VIII. 
Maria, Angltit^ Htspania?, ^. Regina; small h.sh. . 

Maria, &c. m it large ruff; sold by Thomas Geek; 

krge %ve. 

Queen Mart, 8w. with this motto ■: ** Ihrtissimi qui- 
que. interfecti smt aSb isa /' ik Ike translation of Bishop 
Godwin's " Annals of England^'' 1630. In this book 
are cy)i€s of some other heads of our kings. 

Maria, &c. J.Janssonius exc. large Bvo. 

Maria, by de Grntie Qods, Sgc. Ato. 

Marie. Vander Werffp. P. a Gumt sc. h. sh. . 

The melancholy complenon of this princedS) her narrow capa- 
city, obstinate and unrelenting temper, and blind attachment to her 
iteligion, contributed to carry her to the extremes of bigotry and 
persecution. No less than 284 persons were burnt for heresy in 
Ais short reign.* These horrid cruelties ALcilitfeited the progress of 
the reformation in the next.+ 

PHILIP 11. King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, &c. &c. 
^onsort of Queen Mary.) Titianop. Vertu^ sc. VJZ^. 
From an ea^cellent original painted by Titian^ in the noble 
collection of his grace^ William, duke of Jbevonshire; 
h. sh. 

Philippus II. Titiamcs p. I^i9. C.Vischer sc. h.sh. 

Philippus 1L F. H. (Francis Hogenberg) sc. It 
is dated 1 555, and is companion to Mary^ by the same 
hand. 

* Rapin. 

t In Blackstone's " Commentaries of theLawaof En^pland," bode iv. p.424»495, 
is the following passage : " To do justice to the shorter reign of Queen Mary, many 
aalutary and popular laws, in civil matters, were made under her administration ; 
perhaps, the better to reconcile the people to the bloody measures which she was in- 
duced to porsue for the re-establishment 'of religious slavery: the well-con^rtcd 
schemes -for ejecting which were (through the providence of God) defeated by the 
seasonable accession of Queen Elizabeth." 



188 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Philippus II. Marcelli Clodii Formis, RimuPy 1588, \^ 

^ne. In the " Citta da Cremona" da Antonio Camp, y] 

1585, folio, are heads of Philip and his four queens. \ 

Philip II. Rabel excudit ; small oval, neat. 

Philip IL A Morepinx. J . Suyderhoef sc. 

Philip IL in afi oval; large 4to. H. Jacobs ex. 

Philip II. Frisius sc. 

Philip II. in an oval, with arms; 8vo. V. Werff. 
M. la Cave sc. 1735. 

Philip II. Titian pinx. Caroline Watson sc. 

Philip II. in an oval, a lion at each comer; six 
Latin verses; small quarto. C. Pass. 

Philippus II. J. Bapt. Parmen. Formis RomtSy 
1689 ; a large border of arms, sh. curious. 

There is a fine picture of Philip and Mary, by Holbein, at 
Woburn Abbey.* 

Philippics .II. Ant. Wierx f small. . 

Philippe IL VanderWerff.p. P.aGunst sc. h.sh. 

Though the abilities of Philip were more adapted to the cabinet 
than the field, he was generally the dupe of his own politics- His 
ambitioii erer prompted him to enterprises which he had neither 
Goarage nor address to execute. 

■ ■ • ■ 

. * The iDllowing deicriptioB of Pbilip's person, which may be considered as a 
flBBldi Itom fbe life. U in John Elder's \e\Xei to Robert Stoarde, bishop of Caithness, 
lSBft.t ** Of ^^ge lie it well fiiTonred, with a broad forfaead and grey eyes, streight 
It and nanlj cowitenance. From the forhead to the point of his chynne, his. 
B pDwetfa small ; his pace is princely, and gate so streight and upright, as he 
h BO inchof hit higthe ; with a yeallowe head, and a yealloweberde : and thus to 
fade ; be b so well proportioned of bodi, arme, legge, and every other limme 
■^ suae, at nature cannot worke a more parfite pateme : and, as I have learned, 
wtjgetYitziW. yean; whose majesty I judge to be of a stout stomake, preg* 
Nf willed, and of most gentel nature.** 



See Amea't •• Typogmplucal AnUq." p. 213, «14. 
UaiNi, at p. Sir (tf hit " Memoin,'* informs us, that Queen Elizabeth eon; 
kept FliiUp»t i^tme by her bed-ride, to the time of ^er death. 



OF ENGLAND. 189 

He was severe and haughty, impenetrable and distrustful, full 
of revenge and dissimulation. So far was he from using his influ- 
ence to restrain, that he actually bore a part in the cruelties of this 
reign, and entered into persecution with the spirit of a grand inqui- 
sitor. The most memorable of his actions was the victory at St. 
Quintin, in which the English had a considerable share. He is 
said to have built the Escurial, in consequence of a vow which he 
made at that time.* Ob. 1598. 

At the Duke of Hamilton's, in Scotland, there is a full length of 
Philip II. with some singular emblematical ornaments: it answers 
▼eiy well to the description in the note. 

There is a small head of the Princess ELIZABETH 
jyrefixed to " Nugae Antiquae," a miscellany of original 
papers, by Sir John Harington, 8gc. printed at London, 
in 1769, 12^0. which deserves a better title. The editor 
tells tis, that the plate, engraved about 1554, belonged to 
Queen Elizabeth, who made a present of it to Isabella 
Markham, mother of Sir John Harington. There is a 
small whole length of the princess at Woodstock, with a 
book on a table by her. I. S. invent. Martin D. 
(Droeshotit) sc. \2mo. 

* This immense pile by no means merits the encomiums which have been gene- 
rally g^ven it. It is. Indeed, venerable for its greatness ; but it is a greatness with- 
out magnificence. It is too low in proportion to its extent, and consequently appears 
heavy .t The principal entrance to it is mean, and the quadrangles are small. The 
imagination of the architect seems to have been too much taken up with the capri- 
cious idea of a gridironi to attend to the principles of beauty and proportion* I 
need only appeal to the eyes of those who have seen this celebrated structure, for 
the tnidi of these remarks ; from which the church and the pantheon are allowed to 
be exceptions. The latter was the work of another architect. 



t In the *^Deacription of the Escurial," lately translated from the Spanish by 
Mc, Thompson, is a very great mistake in the height, as will appear by comparing 
the several parts of the d^scriptioa with the pript. 



190 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

CLASS III. H 

PEERS. '-* 

EDWARD COURTNEY, earl of DevonsKifi 
Ant. More p. T. Chambers sc. From an origindt^ 
Sir. Antonio More, at the Duke of Bedford's, at WolnifH.- 
" En! puer ac inBom, etfidhuc juvemlibusanniS' 

AnnoB bis septem carcere clansus eram :. , • I 

Me pater his tenuit vinc'lis que filia Bolrit 
Son mea sic tanden Teititur& superiB." 
In Ike " Anecdotes of Painting," Ato. 

Edeabdo de Courtenav, conte d^ Devoi 
from Greg. %et^s" Life of Queen Elizabeth. 

Edward Courtenat, earl of Devonshire. /. 
man sc. From the originalin the collection of his 6\ 
the Duke of Bedford; in Mr. Lodge's " Porlruh 4 
Illustrious Persons." 

!Edward CotiRTENAv, carl .of Devonshire; Sw. 
W. Richardson. 

Edward Courtney, the last earl of Devoa of that naqie, dejc 
ed from the royal family of France,* vbs, ihoagh accoaedo 
crime, confined in prison erer since the attEunder of his&lU'' 
the reign of Heury VIII. He was restored in blood in thefinCfl 
of Maiy, to whom he was proposed for a husband. The p 
^eems to have eatirdy coincided with the queen's iDclinatioSrli 
by no aeaas with the Earl of Devonshire's, who had a 
gird for the Princess Elizabetb.f The harsh treatment of^ 
princess during this reigo, was supposed to be in a | 

* Tbe Eul (if DeTonihire nii ■ collateral branch of Ihose Cnarfnejt whi}!^ 
the blood-Tojal of France. See CleaveUnd's •' Geneuiogical UUL of the Fi ' 
Coiirtenaj." Oion. 1735, fol. 

t In tbe British Miueum is a nwDDtcript paper, entitled, " A B«Ulioa bM0* 
Clelwr. 1556, proclainied tlie Ladie Elisabelh Quene, and bet beloved Bedfllla*! 
Iflrde Edward Courlnrje, Kjiige." MS. HarE. 537, i(5. See Mr. Wartoo'l"!* 
ofSirTbomasPope,"p. 31. 




KD Courtney Eari <£ i>iivo3rsHiKB. 

tflttm carofrt- djnuut tram,.\ Sort nu,a tin landem. vtrHtui- a, Suf.-'ii 



0J? ENGLANP. 191 

dng to Mary's pride and jealousy upon this occasion. The earl 
IS said to have been poisoned Ut Italy by the Imperialists, in 
•56. >■ • - 

" HENRY RADCLIFE (RatcliffeJ, earl of Sussex, 
scount Fitzwalterj baron Egremond (Egremont), and 
urnelj knight of the garter ^ ch. justice and ranger of 
I the royal forests, parks, <§r. on this side Trent, lord- 
Mtenant of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and 
iptain-general of the forces to Queen Mary^ whom 
I rescued from the disorders that affected the beginning 
^ her reign. Upon the condition of hostilities in 
^ancCj and all his embassies there, he was honored 
numg the chief of the nobility, and in all negotiations, 
<Ah of peace and war^ was esteemed one of the first am- 
^madoTs. He died the fifth of July, 1 5B6, aged 
^ first interred at London,^ but afterward removed^ to 
%afreham churchy in Essex j at the dying request of his 
m Thomas, earl of Sussex, This effigy is taken from 
m exquisitely well-wrought monument there^ of him, his 
m, and his father'' The print, with this inscrtptionj 
ms engraved by John Thane ; but is without his name. 
ft is in 8vo. 

The privilege was granted to this earl, which was formerly 
bdmed by the uoMes of Castile, and is still retained by the Spar 
ish grandeesy of wearmg bis hat in the royal presence^f 

* In the chaicb of St. Lawrence Poultnej. 

t This pmilege hath been granted to Lord Khigsale, and to several other penons 
1 ▼arions acooiint»| . See « Cat of the Harleian MSS." 1169, 10. 1856, 2. 
186,5. 

% It was ofien granted tO: persons who had scald heada« — ^Lobd Oreoiu>. 



192 ' BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



CLASS IV. 
THE CLERGY. 

A CARDINAL. 

REGINALDUS POLUS. Raphael, vel S. del Pi- 
ombo p. h. sh.Jine, In the Crozat Collection^ vol. i* 

Reginaldus Polus ; Svo. in.tke ^' Heroologicu' 

Reginaldus PoLus, cardinalis; small; in Impe^ 
rialk's " Museum Historicum,'' Venet. 1640 ; 4to. 

Reginaldus Polus. Larmessin sc.Ato. 

* Reginaldus Polus, cardinalis; natu^ ^Iw. 1500, 
Mail 11. Card. St. Marice in Cosmedih, 1536, Mail 22. 

* There is a copy of thU fine print by Major, prefixed to a well-written life of Ae 
Cardinal, by Thomai PhiJips, a priest of the church of Rome. Li partii. of thii 
book, p. 248, is the following passage: ** It has been objected to the effigy of Cl^ 
dinal Pole, which is prefixed to the first part of this work, and represents him tf 
advanced in years, that it is attributed to Raphael, who died in the year iStO, 
when the cardinal was only in the 20th year of his age. Bat the objectors did dd^ 
reflect, that besides Raphael of Urbino, who died in the year they mention, tiiera 
were several other great masters of that name. To go no farther tiian' Raphael da 
Colle Borghese, who flourished chiefly whilst Cardinal Pole was, in Italy; andtk 
prime of whose life coincides with the decline of the cardinal*s.t Hentis oinni 
the most celebrated artists under Giulio Romano." Dr. Ducarel informs me,^ 
the portrait of the cardinal at Lambeth nearly resembles the head in the *f Hefoih 
logia.^^ The print in Thevet, which represents him in a bat, is certainly fictioBk 

4»9t99 t The fine original was in the collection of Mons. Crozat, and was sold last jetf 
with tlie rest of that collection, to the Empress of Russia, Mens. Manette and <ke 
best judges ascribed the portrait of Cardinal Pole to Sebastian del Piombo. 

t The following note is from the same learned and communicative gentli 
The Long Gallery at Lambeth palace, and several of the adjoining apartment!, vb? 
built by Cardinal Pole. In this gallery, and the great dining-room next to it, t^ 
picture of every archbishop of Canterbury from Warham to Uie present. The Ai* 
portrait of Warham, painted by Holbein, was by him presented to that prelate, ^ 
gether with the portrait of Erasmus : and these two pictures passed, by willof Wl^ 
ham and his successors, till they came to Archbishop Laud ; after whose death thef 
were missing, till the time of Sancroft, who had the good fortune to recover thai « 
Warham. It is uncertain what is become of the other. 



OF ENGLAND. 193 

Consecr. archiepisc. Cantuarensis 155f, Mar. 22. Ob. 
1588, Nov. 17. R. White sc. h.sk. Copied from Im- 
oerialis's " Museum.^' 

Poms. Y(tndtr Werffp. P. a Gunst sc. A. sh. 

Cardinal Pole; from a curious ancient paifUing 
in Lambeth palace. W.Maddocks sc. in " Lambeth Pa- 
lace Illustrated;' 1806. 

Cardinal Pole ; in " Imagin XIL Card."" 1598. 
T. Galle. 

Cardinal Pole ; prefixed to his Life^ by Phillips; 
4to. Raphael pin. Major sc. 

Cardinal Pole. Pernetus. 

Cardinal Pole ; in " Albi Eloges Cardin.'' F. 
Wyngarde. 

Cardinal Pole. C, Picart sc. 1816. From the 
original by Titian^ in the collection of the Right Hon. 
Lord Arundel, of Wardour; in Mr. Lodge's " Illustrious 
Portraits'' 

Reginald Pole was a younger son of Sir Richard Pole, by Mar- 
garet, conntess of SaliJBbury, daughter of George, duke of Cla- 
rence, brother to Edward IV. He was much esteemed for the in- 
tegrity of his life, the elegance of his learning, and the politeness 
of his manners. Daring^ his residence in Italy, he lived in the 
strictest intimacy with Sadolet, Bembo, and other celebrated per<p 
sons of that country ; and upon the demise of Paul III. was elected 
pbpe.*^ He came into England in the beginning of the reign of 
iSlary, and succeeded Cranmer in- the archbishopric of Canterbury. 1556. 
He was not without a tincture of bigotry ; but generally disap* 
proved of the cruelties exercised in this reign. 

* He was cliosen pope at midnight by the conclave, and sent for, to come and L>e 
admitted. He desired that his admission might be deferred till the morning, i|s it 
was not a work of darkness. Upon thb message, the cardinals, witliout any farther 
ceremony, proceeded to another election, and chose the Cardinal de Monte; who, 
before he left the condave, bestowed a hat upon a servant who looked after hit 
monkey. 

VOL. I. 2 C 



194 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

ARCHBISHOPS ANI> BISHOPS. 

THOMAS CRANMERUS, archiepisc. Cant 
Holbein p. natus 1489, July 2 ; consecrat. 1533, Mar. 
30. Marty rio cororiatus 1556, Mar.2\ ; h.sh. Fron- 
tispiece to Strype's " Memorials.'' ' 

This head was probably copied from that in Thoratons 
^^ Nottinghamshire,'' which was done after Holbein ; as I 
believe by Loggan. Vertue mentions such a print by 
that engraver in a MS., in my possession. Aportrmtj 
with the name ofAbp. Parker , which is exactly similar ta 
thisy was engraved by VertuCy whose widow told me that it 
was owing to a mistake.*^ 

Another by White, engraved with four others; small 
sheet. 

Thomas Cranmerus^ &c. J. Faberf. large 4lo. 

mezz. ^ 

Thomas Cranmerus, &c. R, Houston f. large 4t(y. 
mezz. In Rolfs " Lives ;" four Latin verses. 

Thomas Cranmerus. H. Hondius sc. 1599. 

Thomas Cranmerus; in the ^^ Heroologia'' 

Thomas Cranmerus; in Larreys ^^ History'' 
V. Gunst sc. 

Thomas Crankier, &c. C Picart sc. From the 
original of Gerbicas FUcciiSy in the British Museum; 
in Mr. Lodge's collection of ^' Illustrious Persons'' 

After Cranmer had been, with the utmost difficulty, prevailed 
upon to sign a recantation against his conscience, he was ordered 
to be burnt by the perfidious queen, who could never forgive iBe 
part which he acted in her mother's divorcer He had a considec- 

* It iis observable, that the prints here mentioned represent him without a beaid^ 
but Ijo is exhibited with a long one in the " Heroologia." 



OF ENGLAND. 195 

able hand in composing the homilies of our church. Almost all 
the rest of his writings are on subjects of controversy. 

He suffered martyrdom with the utmost fortitude, at Oxford, 
1556, (Bt. 67. 

ROBERT HOLOATE, archbishop of Ywk, 
J. Stow sc. h. sh. 

Robert Holgate, bishop of LlandafiT, in 1537, was promoted to 
the see of York, Jan. 10, 1544, and made lord* president of the 
North. Deprived of the see of York by Queen Mary 1553. He died 
at Hemsworth, in Yorkshire, the place of his nativity, 1555, and 
was there buried. 

NICHOLAS RIDLEY, bishop of London; small. 
Marshall sc. In puller s " Holy State'* 

NicoLAus RiDLEius, cpiscopus LondinjBnsis. 
R. White sc. natus in Northumbr. consecr. episcopm 
Roffensis 1547, Sept. 5. Jit episcopus Londinensis 1550^ 
Apr. Marlyrium passus 1555, Oc<. 16 ; li. sh. 

Nicholas Ridley, &c. R.White sc. Engraved in 
a sheet with Cranmer^ and the four other bishops who 
suffered martyrdom. 

NicoLAus RiDL^ius, &c. R. Houston f. large 
Ato. mezz. In Rolfs ** Lives.'' 

NicoLAUs Ridley, &c. Holbein p. Miller f. 
Before his Lifey by Qlocester Ridley, LL. B.* 1763, 
Ato. 

Nicholas Ridley, &c. in Burnet's " Reformation." 
R. White sc. 

Nicholas Ridley, bishop of London, preached a sermon to con- 
▼ince the people of Lady Jane Grey's title to the crown. This 
affront sunk deep into the queen's mind, and he soon felt the 

* Afterward D. D. and prebendary of Salisbury. He was collaterally related to 
Bishop Ridley, and has done that pious prelate and himself great honour by this 
work. It is worthy of remark, that Dr. Ridley derived his christian name from his 
being bom on board the Gloccstcr ludiaman, as his mother was returning from the 
XM Indies. 



196 BIOGRAPHICAL KISTORY 

fktal efibcts of het reseDtmeat. Ih hh dispitles with the Roman 
Catliolic divioes,* he fQrceijL them to acknowledge, that Chrigt, in his 
Jast supper, held himself in his hand, and afterward ate himself. 

EDMUND BONNER, bishop of London, whip- 
ping Thomas Hinshawe ; a toood print, in thejrst 
edition of Fox'' s " Acts and Monuments^^ p. 2043. 

Sir John Harrington tells us, that '^when Bonner was shewn 
ihis print in the book of Martyrs on purpose to vex htniylie laogM 
at it; sayings ' A veng^atice on the fool, how could he get «y 
picture drawn so right?' "f There is another print ^tf him in thit 
book burning a man's hands with a candle. 

Edmun-d Bonner; both the nh&oe subjects on the 
same plate ; autograph. J. Caulfield exc. 

Edmunp Bonner, bishop of London, 1640. 
Etching by Facius ; 8t;o. W. Richardson.. 

Bonner was the natural son of a priest^ named SaTage, by Bi- 
zabeth Frodsham, who afterward married one Edmund Bonnier, a 
sawyer of Henley, or Hanley, in Worcestershire, by whose name 
he was afterward cdled. He' was rector of East Dereham in 
1538, the year in which parish registers were first prdered to be 
kept. 

This man, whom nature seems to have designed for an execu- 
tioner, was an ecclesiastical judge in the reign of Mary. He is 
reported to have condemned no less than two hundred innoceDt 
persons to the flames; and to have caused great numbers to suffer 
imprisonment, racks, and tortures. He was remarkably fat and 
corpulent; which made one say to him, that he was " full of gats, 
but empty of bowels." Consec. 4 Ap. 1540, deprived, 17 Sept. 1549, 
restored, 22 Aug. 1553 ; again deprived, 29 June, 1559.J: He died 
in the Marshalsea, the 5th of Sept. 1569. 

See his Pedigree, &c. in Faulkner's " Fulham," p. 201, 202. 

STEPHANUS GARDINERUS, episc. Winton. 
Holbein p. R. White so. h. sh.^ 

• On the subject of the real presence. 

t Harington's " Brief View of the Cbnrch of England/* 1653, ISroo. 
t " Biographia." 

§ The print of Gardiner, which was engraved for Bamet*s " History of the Refor* 
mation/' has been taken from Bishop Horn's, from the circumstance of theariiM: btt 



Con. 1; 



OI- ENGLAND. 197 

. Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester; in 
Harding'^ " Skakspeare" W. N. Gardiner sc. 1 790. 

Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, with 
the seals, in an oval; 8vo. 

Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester ;* 4to. 
J. Harding del. W. N^ Gardiner sc. 

Stephen Gardiner, lord- chancellor and prime minister in this Jj'"p*J; 
feign, was distinguished for his extensive learning, insinuating rest, la 
address, and profound policy ; the masterpiece of which was the 
treaty of marriage betwixt Philip and Mary, which was an effectual 
bar to the ambitious designs ' of Philip.f His religious principles 
appear to have been more flexible than his political, which were 
invariably fixed to his own interest. He was a persecutor of those 
tenets to which he had subscribed, and in defence of which he had 
written: He was author of a treatise " De Vera Obedientia," and 
had a great hand in the famous book entitled <' The Erudition of a 
Christian Man." He also wrote an " Apology for Holy Water,** 
&c. Ob. 1555. 

HUGO LATYMERUS; in the '' Heroologia T ^vo. 
Hugh Latymer; 24to. 



Mr. Thomas Baker observes that Bishop Horn's arms were withoat a chevron: and 
the portrait of Gardiner seems to answer to the description of his person, quoted 
by that learned gentleman from Poinet, in the Appendix of Papers, at the end of 
BardetV History, Vol. iii. p. 411. But see an aggravated description of Horn's 
jpetson in Pit's " De Illust. AngHae Scriptoribus," p. 797. 

* This was engraved for the " Biographical Mirrour," from an undoubted portrait 
of Bishop Gardiner, in the possession of Edmund Turner, esq. and is without a 
beard. 

t There is no qnestioB bat Philip intended, if possible, to make himself roaster of 
the kingdom by marrying Mary. When the queen was supposed to be £ar ad- 
vanced in her pregnancy, Philip applied to the parliament to be constituted regent 
during the minority of the child, and offered to give ample security to surrender the 
regency, when he, or she, should be of age to govern. The motion was warmly de- 
bated in the house of peers ; and he was like to carry his point, when the Lord 
Paget stood up, and said, " Pray who shall sue the king's bond ?" This laconic 
speech had its intended effect, and the debate was soon concluded in the negative.J 



X Sec Howell's Letters. 



198 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Hugh Latimer, bishop of Worcester. R.White 
sc. One of the Jive bishops engraved in one plate ; sh. 

Hugo Latimerus, &c. Vertuesc. h. sh. 

Hugh Latimer, &c. J. Savage sc. A staff in his 
right handy a pair of spectacles hanging at his breast, 
and a Bible at his girdle; h. sh. From Strype's ** Me- 
morials of Cranmer'' 

Hugh Latimer; in Larrey's** History.^* V.Gunstsc. 

_ * 

This venerable prelate, worn out with labour, old age, and im- 
pri&onment, walked thus equipped to his trial, and probably to the 
place of execution. When he was chained to the stake, two bags 
of gunpowder were fastened under his arms, the explosion of whicli 
presently put an end to his life. While he was- burning, a large 
quantity of blood gushed from his heart, as if all the blood in his 
body had been drawn to that part.* He was burnt 16 Oct 1555. 
— He had a principal hand in composing the Homilies^ in which lie 
was assisted by Cranmer, with whom he usually resided at Lam* 
beth during the reign of Edward VI. See the two preceding 
reigns. 

ROBERT FARRAR, bishop of St. David's, suf- 
fered at Caermarthen^ Feb. 22, 1555. R. White sc. 
One of the Jive martyred bishops; sh. 

. Bishop Farars (Farrar); 9>vo. 

Robert Farrar; with his autograph. Thane. 

This prelate, after much inhuman treatment, was burnt in his 
own diocess. His character is represented in different, and even 
contrary, lights. Bishop Godwin speaks of him as a man of a 
litigious and turbulent behaviour ;f Strype, as a pious reformer of 

abuses.:^ 

Some of the articles which he was put to answer in the reign of 

Edward VI. were, to the last degree, frivolous, &c. : vide riding 

a Scottish pad, with a bridle with white studs and snaffle, wbit^ 

• Turner's " Hist, of Remarkable Providenccft." 
t Life of Q. Mary, p. 345. :5^{), 

* Mem. of Crnnoicr, p. 184, 



15d0. 



OF ENGLAND. 199 

Scottish stirrups, and white spurs ; wearing a hat instead of a c&p; 
whistling to his child ; laying the blame of the scarcity of herrings 
to the covetousness of the fishers, who, in time of plenty, took so 
many that they destroyed the breeders ; and, lastly, wishing that 
at the alteration of the coin, whatever metal it was made of, the 
penny should be in weight' worth a penny of the vsame metal. 

JOHN HOOPER, bishop of Gloucester, suffered 
at Gloucester ^ Feb. 9, 1555. R. White so. One of the 
five bishops engraved in one plate ; sh. 

Joannes Hooperus, Episc. Vigorn. Martirio Co- 
ronatus A. Dom. 1555. J. Faberfec. large Ato. mezz, 

Joannes Hooperus; in RoWs ^^ Lives'' Houstmi 
sc. mezz. 

John Hooper, bishop of Gloucester, was a man of great strictness 
of life, and an eloquent preacher. When he was nominated to his May 15 
bishopric, he obstinately refused to wear the rochet and chimere,* 
which he looked upon as profaned by superstition and idolatry. 
The archbishop would by no means dispense with his wearing the 
episcopal habits : Hooper was determined not to wear tl;)ese odious 
vestments, and was ordered to prison till he should think proper to 
submit. After much altercation, Peter Martyr, and other foreign 
divines, were consulted, and the tnatter was brought to a compro- 
mise : he was to be consecrated in the robes, and to wear them only Consec. 
in his cathedral. This is the era of the multiplied controversies in 
relation to caps, gowns, and other clerical habits. When he was 
chained at the stake, a pardon, on condition of his recantation, was 
placed on a stool before him. Both his legs were consumed before 
the flame touched his vitals. He bore his torments with invincible 
patience. ^ 

ROWLAND MERRICK, bishop of Bangor; in 
the ^' Oxford Almanack^' 1750. 

Rowland Merrick was bom in the Isle of Anglesey, mostly edu- 
cated in academical learning in St, Edward^s hall, became principal, 
'while he was bachelor of the civil law, of New Inn ; afterward 
doctor of his faculty, chancellor of the church of St. David, and 

* Soroetlmei written cymarre. 



8 Mar. 
1560-1. 



Promoted 
1556. 



1560. 



200 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

canoQ residentiary in the time of King Edward VI. and was one ot 
the persons who drew up articles against Bishop Farrar. He was 
consecrated bishop of Bangor 1559. Ob. 1565, and was buried in 
the chancel of the cathedral of Bangor. 

DIGNITARIES OF THE CHURCH, &c. 

BERNARD GILPIN; oval; over the oval, ""Lt 
your light so shine before men :" etched by the Rev. Mr. 
Wm. Gilpin, late of Queen's College, Oxon. who is de- 
scended from the family of Bernard. Frontispiece to a 
well-written account of his Life, by the same hand that 
etched the print.* 

Bernard Gilpin. G.Vertuesc. 

BERNARD Gilpin ; oval. 

Bernard Gilpin, archdeacon of Durham, and rector of Houghton 
in the Spring, was commonly styled *^ The Northern Apostle :" and 
he was indeed like a primitive apostle in every thing but suffering 
martyrdom, which he was prepared to do; but the queen died 
whilst he was upon the road to London, under a guard of her mes- 
sengers. He refused the bishopric of Carlisle, which was offered 
him by Queen Elizabeth, and about the same time resigned liis 
archdeaconry. He died lamented by the learned, the charitable, 
and the pious, the 4th of March, 1583. 

JOANNES BRADEFORDUS, Mar. in the ''He- 

roologia;' Sw. 

John Bradford ; in Freherus. 

John Bradford, who descended from a genteel family at Man- 
chester, was some time a clerk, or deputy, under Sir John Harring- 
ton, who was, by Henry VI 11. and Edward VI. appointed trea- 
surer and paymaster of the forces at Boloign, and of the workmen 
employed in the fortifications of that place. Whilst he was in this 

* This gentleman was a schoolmaster at Cbeam, in Surrey. He did several otber 
etchings in the same book. He afterward published the "Life of Latimer/' and 
another volume of the Lives of eminent Reformers. The anonymous " Essaj od 
Prints" was written by the same hand. 



OP ENGLAND. 201 

pmU he jieUfid to a temptatkmy whick ofiered itself, of under or 
oner-clargiiig flome article in his accoonts, by which the king was 
a consideiabte loser. Some time after, he was so deeply affected 
with a seimon of Latimer upon Restitntion, that he resolved to 
restore the wMe sum of which he had defrauded the king ; and 
he strictly adhered to this resolution. When his mind had in some 
measure recovered its tranquillity, he sedulously applied himself to 
the study of divinity, took the degree of master of arts at Cam- 
hridge, and became one of the most eminent preachers of his time. 
His piety was in the h^est degree exemplary, his labours were 
iicessant, his zeal was tempered vrith meekness, his charity was, 
on every occasion, extended even to his enemies ; lus whole' life 
after his conversion, and especially his calm resignation to the 
flames, is a striking instance oi the force of the religious principle. 
He was burnt in Smithfield the Ist of July, 1555.* The long im- 
prisonment and cruel usage of this meek and pious martyr is alone 
sufficient to blacken the reign of Mary. He is placed here as pre- 
bendary of St. Paul's. 

JOHANNES ROGERSIUS; in the '' Heroolo- 
giaT Svo. 

Johannes Rogersius ; in ** Freherus'' 

John Rogers, wKo was the first martyr in this reign, was inde- 
fatigable in his ministerial labours, and of a most exemplary cha- 
racter in every relation of life. He had strong attachments to the 
world, having an amiable wife, and ten children, lliough he knew 
that his death approached, he still maintained his usual serenity ; 
and was waked out. of a sound sleep, when the officers came to 
carry hitn to the stake.f In the reign of Henry VIII. he translated 
the whole Bible, which he published under the fictitious name of 
Thomas Matthew.! Ob. 4 Feb. 1555-6. 

LAURENTIUS SANDERUS, Mart, in the ''He- 
roologiaT 8t;o. 
Laubentius San0erus ; in " Freherus'' 

* The roost remarkable passage in his life is that of his being let out of prison 
on his parole. See Fox. The story is also in the '* Biographica Britannica."— 
LoKi) Hailss. 

t Indifferent in his choice to sleep or die. — Addison's Cato. 

X Fuller's " Worthies;" in Jjuic. p. 108. 

VOL. I. 2d 



202 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Laurence Sanders was one of the exiles for religion in the reigf^ 
of Henry VIII.' Upon the accession of Edward, he retumed W 
England, and was preferred to the rectory of AUhaliows, Bread- 
street, in London,* and soon after constituted public professor <^ 
divinity of St. Paul's. lb the next reign, his zeal prompted him to 
preach contrary to the queen's prohibition. When he came to tbe 
place of execution, he ran cheerfully to the stake, and kissed it, 
exclauning, *' Welcome the cross of Christ, welcome everlastii^ 
life I" Ob. Feb. 8, 1555-^. 

It is remarkable, that almost all the martyrs in this reign died for 
denying the doctrine of real presence, which was made the test of 
what was called heresy^ 

JOHANNES CNOXUS (Knoxus), Scotus. R. 
Cooper sc, h. sh. 

John Knox, one of the exiles for religion in Switzerlanxi, pub- 
lished his *' First Blast of the Trumpet against the Government of 
Women," in this reign. f It was lucky for him that he was oot 
of 'the queen's reach when be sounded the trumpet. In the oext 
reign, he had the courage to rend the ears of the Queen of Scots 
with several blasts from the pulpit. See the reign of Elizabeth. 



CLASS V. 

COMMONERS IN GREAT EMPLOYMENTS. 

SIR JOHN GAGE, K.G.; from the original at 
Hengrave. Edward Scriven sc. 4to. In Gage's Histoiy 
and Antiquities of Hengrave^ in Suffolk. 

Sir John Gage, at his father's death, was a minor, in ward to 
the Duke of Buckingham, under whose eye he was formed for the 
camp and the court. He accompanied the young King Henry to 
the sieges of Tournay and TheroiieaDe ; where his majesty gave 
kim the command of the castle of Guisnes, and afterward of Oye,. 

* Where is a monumental tablet to bis memory in the vestry. He is said, bj 
mistake, to have been vicar of St. Sepulchres. See Newcourt, I. 246, and JMai> 
colm's Londinensis Aedivivum, vol. 3. p. 17. 

t This pamphlet was levelled at the queens of England and Scotland.. . 



OF ENGLAND. 203 

Tn the limits of Calais : whence he was recalled to take his seat in 
the privy council, and to assume the offices of vice-chamberlain and 
captain of the royal guard. On the fall of Cromwell, earl of Essex, 
Sir John Gage was appointed comptroller of the household, chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and constable of the Tower of 
London ; the krng, at the same time, honouring hhn with the garter. 
About tins time he appears to have represented the county of Sussex 
in parliament. In Uie expedition to Scotland, which terminated in 
the rout of the Scots at Solway, he was a principal commander, 
and subsequently was sent commissioner with the Chancellor Aud- 
ky, and others, to conclude treaties of peace with Scotland, and 
of marriage between Prince Edward and Mary the Scotch queen. 
At the siege of Boulogne he held the stations of lieutenant of the 
camp, jointly with Charles, duke of Suffolk, and of general captain 
of the bands of horsemen. The king, by his will, nominated him 
one of the council of sixteen, to assist his executors in the manage- 
ment of public affairs, during the minority of his son ; bequeathing 
to Sir John ^wo hundred pounds. 

' At the commencement of Edward's reign Sir John Gage assisted 
at the cQuncil; but Somerset prevailing, he retired from the board, 
and was afterward displaced from his office of comptroller, which 
was given to Sir Anthony Wingfield. He appears not to have at- 
tended the council again uatil the day after the secret meeting at 
Ely House, when, joining Southampton, then the avowed leader of 
the Catholic party, he signed the declaration against the Protector. 

Dudley, who now acquired the ascendancy, was found to be 
equally a favourer of the reformed church ; upon which Southamp- 
ton and Sir John Gage, on the same day, resigned their seats in 
the council. Gage and Dudley had both formed alliances with the 
Guldeford family, one having married the daughter of Sir Richard 
Guldefbrd, the other, the daughter of Sir Edward, his youuger 
brother. Nevertheless a few days before the death of King Ed- 
ward,, at the moment when Dudley, aiming at the crown for his 
:daughter-in-law, the Lady Jane Gray, placed her in the Tower, as 
well-in the affectation of royal state, as for personal security. Gage 
^was superseded in the command of that fortress ; which had been 
conferred on him for life : a fact strongly illustrative of his prin- 
ciples. 

Mary coming to the throne, called Sir John Gage to her council, 
appointed him lord-chamberlain of her household, and restored him 
to the office of constable of the Tower ; in which character he had 



206 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

a painting in the presidents lodgings at St. John's 
College. 

I have been credibly informed, that a sister of Sr 
Thomas y who very nearly resembled him, sat for the face 
of this portrait. 

Sir Thomas White ; in the middle compartment of 
the " Oafbrd Almanack,'' 1733 and 1734, 

Beside the above benefactions. Sir Thomas White left a fund for 
100/. per annum, to be lent every year to four young tradesmen, 
for ten years. This loan was, according to his will, to be lent to 
the inhabitants of twenty-four towns, who were to receive it bj 
rotation.* 



CLASS IX. 

MEN OF GENIUS AND LEARNING. 

SIR THOMAS WYATT, the younger. A. 
McKenzie; 4td. 

Sir Thomas, though a Roman Catholic, was one of the discon- 
tented at the proposed marriage of Queen Mary with Philip of Spain. 
Rashly, with the Duke of Suffolk and others, he proposed to raise 
Kent and the inland counties, in hopes of recovering the crown for 
the Lady Jane Gray ; and, meeting at first with success, led his 
forces to Southwark ; where he required, that the queen should pot 
the Tower into his hands, and should deliver four counsellors as ^ 
hostages ; and, in order to ensure the liberty of the nation, she 
should immediately marry an Englishman. He had imprudently 
wasted so much time at Southwark, that the critical season vai 
entirely lost. He was seized near Temple-bar by Sir Maurice 
Berkeley, and was condemned and executed April 11, 1554. 

PHYSICIANS. 

JOANNES CAIUS, Medicus ; in the " Heroolo- 
gia;"' Suo. 

• See Green's " History »nd Antiquities <rf Worcester," vol. ii. p. "'• 




g hy'^<ichardji'> ;V--J, /l^and 



OF ENGLAND. 207 

JbHANNEs Caius, med. Gannevil et Caii Coll. 
iiiad\ alter y An\ 1567. Faberf. large 4 to. mezz. . 

There is a small oval of him cut in wood, which is un- 
9(MBwAvf* Qfuere, if this is prefixed to his book, ^* De 
^adendi Methodo/' Zot;. 1556; 8vo. 

i-::Jqann£s Caius ; mezz. Robins sc. scarce. 

^'JoANNfis Caius ; with two Latin lines. 

# . 

John Caius, M. D. oval; with view of Cairn Col- 
kge; in Wilson^s Cambridge. E. Harding, 1801. 

The old portrait of him on board, at the college, is an undoubted 
original. 

. Dr. Caius, or Key,* physician to Edward VI. Queen Mary, and 
Qp^en Elizabeth, was one of the most extraordinary persons of his 
tge for parts and learning. He was Greek lecturer at Padua, and 
nider of physic in that university. His medical works do honour 
tp Ui genius and his skill in his profession ; not to mention his phi- 
ikiQplucal and historical pieces, and his book of British Dogs," 
ii Iflitin. His ** History of Cambridge** gave occasion to a contro- 
vert between the two universities, in relation to their antiquity ; as 
Dr. Key has asserted in that work, that the university of Cam- 
liridge was founded by Cantaber, three hundred and ninety-four 
before Christ. His epitaph is as follows : 

Fui Caius.f 

Vivit post Funera Virtus. 

Ob. 29 Julii, Ann Dn*. 1573, JEtatis a.u8B 63. 

POETS. 



1-. - 



-^ JOHN HEYWOOD; several wooden prints of him, 
mhis ^* Parable of the Spider and Flie,'' London, 1556 ; 
4to. 

* " His true name was Key/' says Mr. Baker. See Hearne's Appendix to his 
Prefrce to " Tho. Caii Vindiciae Antiq. Acad. Oxon. contra Joan. Caium Cantabri- 
gSeiM.*' p. 56. 

t Shakspeare, wanting a name for a pragmatical physician, consulted the Chro- 
lide, and found a Dr% Coins ; who has no more similitude to this Dr. Caius, than Sir 
Fohn FalstafF has to the Sir J. F. pf History. — Lord Hailes. 



208 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

JoHK Heywood ; whole length. W. Richardson* 
Copied from a wood<ut the same size. 

- John Heywood was an admired wit in hia time» and. in much 
favour with Queen Mary. He wrote several plays, a book of epi< 
grams, &c. Dod, in his " Church History,*** says, that he is re- 
puted the parent of our English epigrammatists, and an improver 
of the stage ; and that his pleasantry and repartees were admired 
by Sir Thomas More. Ob, circ. 1565. I have somewhere seen 
John Heywood mentioned as jester to Henry VIII. I take this to 
be the same person. 



CLASS X- 

ARTISTS. 

ANTONIUS MORUS, Ultrajectensis Pictor. 
H. H. (Hondius) s. small h. sh. 

Antonio Moor, o Moro. Campiglia del Gregori 
sc. In Museo Florentino. 

Sir Antonio More; in ^^ Academic des Sciences.'' 

Sir Antonio More. Boulonois sc. 

Sir Antonio More. T. Chambers sc. In the 
" Anecdotes of Painting ;" 4to. 

Sir Anthony More, history and portrait painter to Philip II. was 
in England during the reign of Mary. Several of his pictures were 
in the collection of Charles I. and at Sir Philip Sydenham's, at 
Brympton in Somersetshire. He had one hundred ducats for 
his common portraits. Ob. 1575, JEt. 56, See ** Anecdotes of 
Painting." 

JOAS VAN CLEEVE. Vivebat Anttverpice in Pa- 
tria, 1544. 

JoAS Van Cleeve ; inscribed '^Justo ClivensiAnt- 
verpiano Pictori.'' 

• Vol. i. p, 369, 370. 



OF ENGLAND; 209 

JoajtVak Cliteve. Mutkrsv. In the ^^Anecdc^es 
of Painting;'^ 4/0. 

His bead is aldo amooig tbe painters ^graTed by H. Hondius. 

Van CleeTe was a painter of merit, wbo came into England, 
san^Mi&e'hi.yB eiipiectation of meeting witb encouragement from 
Pbitijp : but ai he aikd hid works were slighted,* the disappointment 
timed his brain. 



ii« I 



CLASS XI. 

LADIES, &c. 

JANE GRAY. Marshall #c. In Fuller's '' Holy 
State ;'* small. 

Jana Graia. R. White sc. h. sh. 

Jeanne Gray. Vander Werff p. Vermeulen sc. 
h, sh. 

The Lady Jane Grey. A miniature^ hung against 
the pyrannd of a large monument, the invention of the 
engraver ; from an original in the possession of Alger- 
nan, late duke of Somerset. G.Vertue sc. large sh. — 
There is, or was, a portrait of her at Penshurst, in 
Kent.' 

Jana Graya. Esme de Bolonois f oval; neat. 

Jane Grey ; a circle. Verttte. Basire sc. 

Jane Grey. V. Schuppers. 

Jane Gray; in the '^ fferoohgia.'' 

Lady Jane Gray ; m *' Noble AiUhors,'' by Park, 
1806. 

* A man of genius most have a name, which is usually acquired by patronage, be- 
fofehb #ork»will gain die attention of the generality of those who set apfor jadgei 
m arts or learning. 

VOL. I. ' 2 E 



210 BIOaRAPHICAL HISTORY 

In the beginning of this reign, the excellent, the amiable Lady 
Jane, who never had an ambitious thought herself, was sacrificed U> 
the ambition of her relations. The simple incidents of her story, 
without ** the tender strokes of art,'' would compose one of the 
most pathetic tragedies in the English language. Fox tells us, that 
the tears burst from his eyes, while he was writing her history ia' 
the '' Book of Mart3rrs ;*' and the page of that book which contains 
her sad and untimely catastrophe, has been sullied with the tears of 
many an honest labourer.* Beheaded on the same day with her 
husband, the Lord Guildford Dudley, Feb. 12, 1553-4. 



CLASS XIL 

PERSONS REMARKABLE FROM ONE 
CIRCUMSTANCE, &c. 



REMARKS ON DRESS, &c. 

I have before observed, that much the same kind of dress which 
was worn by Henry VI 11. in the former part of his reign, is now 
worn by the yeomen of the guard. It is no less remarkable, that 
the most conspicuous and distinguishing part of a cardinal's habit, 
which has been banished from England ever since the death of 
Cardinal Pole,^is also now worn by the lowest order of females, and 
is called a cardinal. 

I take the reign of Mary to be the era of ruffs and farthingales,! 
as they were first brought hither from Spain. Howel tells us in his 
** Letters," that the Spanish word for a. farthingale, literally trans- 
lated, signifies cover-infant, as if it was intended to conceal preg- 
nancy. It is perhaps of more honourable extraction,, and might sig- 
nify caver-infanta, 

A blooming virgin in this age seems to have been more solicitous 

* The *< Book of Martyrs/' was placed in churches, and other public places, to 
b.e read by the people. 

t The first head described in the Catalogue with /& ruff, is that of Queen Mary. 
Class!. 



OF ENGLAND. 211 

to hide her skm^ than a rivelled old woman is at present. The very 
neck was generally concealed ; the arms were covered quite to the 
wrists ; the petticoats were worn long, and the head-gear, or coif- 
fure, close ; to which was sometimes fastened a light veil, which 
fell down behind, as if intended occasionally to conceal even the 
face. 

In this reign square-toed shoes wt^re in fashion ; and the men 
wore them of so prodigious a breadth, that Bulmer says, if he re- 
members right there was a proclamation issued that no man shoidd 
have his shoes above six inches square at the toes. 

Fine Spanish needles were first made in England in this reign, 
by a negro in Cheapside^ 

If I may depend on the authority of engraved portraits, .the beard 
extended and expanded itself more during the short reigns of 
Edward VI. and Mary, than from the Conquest to that period. 
Bishop Gardiner has a beard long and streaming like a comet The 
beard of Cardinal Pole is thick and bushy ; but this might possibly 
be Italian. The patriarchal beiu'd, as I find it in the tapestries of 
those times, is both long and large ; but this seems to have been the 
inventicm of the painters who drew the Cartoons. This venerable 
appendage to the fj^ce was formerly greatly ^regarded. Though 
learned authors have written for and against almost every thing, I 
never saw any thing written against the beard.* The^ pamphlets on 
the " Unloveliness of Love-locks," and the "Mischief of long 
Hair*' made much noise in the kingdom in the reign of Charles I. 

* There are maay acts of provincial council against beardM,' When used byeccle* 
4^^ic8, the J are always reprobated as the marks of secular vanity. — Load Ha i lav 



912 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



APPENDIX 

THE REIGN OF MARY, 



FOREIGNERS. 

FERDINANDUS ALVARES, Toletanus, Dux 
Alvae, &c. in a round. In Meteranus^s " Historia 

El Duque D'Alva ; in armour; large beard; half f 
sheet. 

Dux ALViE ; in armour. Weest; scarce. 

Fernand Alvarez de Toledo, &c. wood-cut^ 
with arms ; French inscription ; half sheet. 

Fernand Alvarez ; curious border, with monkeys; 
quarto. 

Ferdinando Alvares, of Toledo, duke of Alva, a name " damned 
to eternal fame" for his cruelties in the Low Countries, was a most 
apt and ready instrument for a tyrant. He frequently executed 
with all the rage of a soldier, what his master had predetermined 
in cool blood. Philip's counsels and Alva's conduct, which seem 
to have perfectly coincided, kindled such a war, and produced such 
a revolt, as is scarcely to be paralleled in the history of mankind. 
He died, according to Thuanus, in 1582, aged 77 years. 

MARGARITA AUSTRIACA, Ducissa Parmffi, 
&c. Van Sic hem sc. S7?iall h, sh. 

Margarita Austriaca. Pass. 

Margarita Austriaca ; on horseback. 

* The Buke of Alva was in the train of Philip when he came into England; •* 
appears from a pamphlet translated from the French, entitled, " New Lights thrown 
on the Historj of Mary, queen of England/* addressed to David Hume, esq. 



OF ENGLAND. 2J3 

Margaret of Austria, duchess of Parma and Placentia, and go- 
verness of the Low Countries for King Philip, was, together with 
the Duchess of Lorraine, dispatched into England in this reign. 
They were commanded to bring back with them, into Flanders, the 
Princess Elizabeth, between whom and the Duke of Savoy, Philip, 
for political reasons, had projected a match. The queen, Avho had 
been frequently slighted by him, and was probably jealous of the 
Duchess of Lorraine, with whom he was known to be in love, 
would neither permit her nor the Duchess of Parma to visit the 
princess at Hatfield. It was about this time, that the queen, in a 
fit of rage occasioned by Philip's neglect, tore in pieces his por- 
trait. See the Life of Sir Thomas Pope, p. 104, 105.* 

HADRIANUS JUNIUS, Homanus, mediciis. 
Theodore de Bry sc. In Boissard's '' Bibliotkeca Chat- 
oogra^hkay' stmllAto. 

Almost all the heads in the '^ Bibliotheca*' were engraved by de 
Bry, for Boissard, an industrious collector of Roman and other an* 
dquities. See an account of the latter in the preface to Montfaucon. 

Hadrianus Junius. Larmessin sc: 4to. 
Hadrianus Junius ; ovcdy mezz. Faher; scarce. 

N.B. The one I have is a proof 

Hadrianus Junius; sheet. Visscher. 
Hadrianus Junius ; half sheet. H. Allardt. 

Hadrianus Junius, one of the most polite and universal scholars 
•f his age, was a considerable time in England, where he composed 
several of his learned works ; particularly his ** Greek and Latin 
Dictionary," to which he added above six thousand five hundred 
words, and dedicated it to Edward VI. He was retained as phy^ 
aician to the Duke of Norfolk, and afterward, as Monsieur Bayle 
informs us, to a great lady. He wrote various books of philology 
and criticism, notes on ancient authors, a book of poems, &c. in 
Latin. His " Epithalamium on Philip and Mary" was pubhshed iq 
1554. Oh. 16 June, 1575, ^E^ 64. 

* Mr» Warton, at p. 58 of this book, mentions a satirical print of her which I 
never saw. It represents her naked, wrinkled, and haggard, and several Spaniards 
socking her: beneath are legends, intimating t^iat they had sucked her to skin and 
bone, and enomeratuig the presents she had lavished upon Philip. Mary was highly 
incensed at this impudent pnsquinade. 



214 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



ELIZABETH 

BEGAN HER REIGN NOVEMBER 17, 1558. 



CLASS I. 

THE QUEEN. 

QUEEN ELIZABETH. Ant. More p. M. Van- 
dergucht sc. Svo. In Clarendon's " Hist" 

Elizabetha Regina. Hillyard (or Hilliard) p. 
Simon/, h. sh. mezz. 

Elizabetha, &c, Hillyard p. Kytef. 4to. mezz. 

Elizabetha Regina. Hillyard p. Vertuesc. Sw. 
This print and the other octavo, engraved after Isaac 
Oliver f were done for " Camdeni Annates^' by Hearm: 
the latter is in profile. 

Elizabet, &c. Isaac Oliver effigiebat. Crispin 
Van de Pass inc. whole length ; large h. sh. 

Elizabetha, &a I. Oliver p. * Vertuesc. 2 prints; 
h. sh. and ^vo. 

' Oaeen Elizabeth^ who reasoned much better upon state-afTairs 
" -illaU on works of art, was persuaded that shadows were unnatural 
m painting, and ordered Isaac Oliver to paint her without any. 
•Oae striking featdre in the queen's face was her high nose.f I 
menticm this circumstance, because it is not justly represented in 
manj pictures and prints of her. 

Elizabetha, &c. o;i her throne; three persoyis stand- 
ing^y her; a wooden print ; date in MS, 1567 ; small. 

* Thb was In tbe collection of Dr. Mead, &c. 
t Naimton*! *« Fragmenta Regalia,'* p. 4. 



OF ENGLAND. 215 

Elizabeth, &c. holding a sphere. Inscript. Sphara 
Civitatis ; a wooden print ; from John Cases " Ratio 
Reipublica administrandce" 1593, <§*c. 4to. 

Elizabeth, &c. camp at Tilbury y Spanish Armada ; 
a wooden print ; h.sh. 

Elizabeth ; on her throne. Cursed is he that curseth 
thee, 8gc. a wooden print; 8vo, 

Elizabeth ; whole length ; sitting enthroned between 
2 pillars, crowned; globe and sceptre in hei^ hands ; 
arms supported by a lion and dragon; ornaments of 
roses ^ 8^c. eight Latin lines ^ 1579, by W. Rogers; rare. 

Elizabeth ; in the dress in which she went to St. 
Pauts, by C. Turner ; fol. 

Eliza BETH A Dei Gr. m^tto, Posus Deum Adictore 
Meum ; arms at the corners. C. de Pass sc. small 
gtuirto ; in Nautical Portraits. 

Elizabeth A ; " Lo heare her Type;' small oval, 
border on a separate plate. Sold by Roger Daniall; 
very neat and scarce. 

Eliza BETH A, &c. Elstracke sc. Ato. 

Elizabeth A, &c. F. Delaram sc. 4to. 

Eli z ABET, &c. Crispin de Passe eji:c. Ato.* lam 
credibly informed y that there is a h.sh. and an 8vo. print 
of Elizabeth, by the same hand, neither of them whole 
lengths, and that the former hath been copied. 

Elisabeth ; a lohole length, by Simon Pass. 
Elizabetha, &c. in Holland's ^^ Heroohgia ;' 8vo. 

Elizabeth, &c. Compton Holland exc. small 8vo. 
Elizabeth ; pompously dressed, holding a fan of 

* Crispin de Pass published heads of illustrious persons of this kingdom, from the 
jearlSOO, to the beginning of the seventeenth century. - 



21G BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

ostrich's plumes ; from her " History by way of AnnaU^' 
1625; Ato. 

Elizabeth, toith a feather fan^ well copied from 
the above. Frontispiece to another edition of the same 
booky infol. 1630. 

Elizabeth; a large heady by Hen. Hondius ; done 
at the Hague, 1632. 

Elizabeth ; a small oval, with the heads ofJcmtes L 
and Charles I. in the title of Smith's *' History ofVvr* 
ginia;' 1632 ;/o/. 

Elisabetha, &c. Frojitispiece to Carevfs " Pacata 
HibemiaT fol. 1633. 

Elizabeth, &c. in armour, on horseback; horse 
trampling on a hydra, Sgc. T. Cecill so. h. sk. 

Elizabeth, &c. inancval. Emblems of Faith^S^c. 

Elizabeth, seated on her throne; on each side are 
lions, with the letter E ; eight Latin verses; large h.sh. 

Elizabeth, wukr an arch ; three Latin lines. Sold 
by Compton Hollaiid; quarto. 

Elizabeth a. Anton Wierjc ; small square, 

Elizabeth ; whole length ; standing between two pil- 
lars ; ships, ^c. Latin inscription ; small sheet. 

. Elizabbtqa ; eight English verses. Ger. Mountin 
McyJpnt. Sould bi Roger Danielle S^c. 

^UZABETH, &c. sceptre afid globe; sia: verses : the 
td empress, ^c. Stent exc. h. sh. 

zabetu, under a canopy, holding a feather-fan. 
pt. cut off. There is a print of her, under a canopy, 
White; h. sh. 

~ZAB£TH ; oval. In the " Genealogy of the Kings 
ndyfram. the Omqtiest, by M. Calm /' large Ato. 



OF ENGLAND. 217 

Elizabeth, crowned by Justice and Mercy; large Ato. 

£lisabet> &c. Fiilei Chnstiame propugnatrix acer^ 
rima ; Ato. 

Elisabetha, &c. Non mepudet Evangelii, ^c. h. sh. 

Elisabeth, &c. Cock exc, 4to. This belongs to a set* 

Elizabetha, &c. W. Marshall sc. small; in Ful- 
lers '' Holy State;' 1642 ; fol. 

Elizabeth; a wooden print ; small 4to. in Benlowe's 
" Theophila^ or Lovers Sacrifice f^ fol. 1652. There is 
a wooden print similar to this, but not with the same in- 
script iony in ^^ A Booke of godlie Praiers^' &;c. Lond* 
1608. To each page of this book, which is in the black 
klter, is a border of ornaments, elegantly cut in wood, 
containing Scripture Histories and Death's Dance. 

Elizabetha, &c. 

*^ Shee* was, sbee is, what can there more be said, 
In earth the first, in heaven the second maid." 

These lines, which are under the head, are the last verses of an 
inscription on a cenotaph of Queen Elizabeth which was in Bow- 
church, f Theophilus Gibber tells us, in his ** Lives of the Poets,"t 
that they are an epigram of BudgeUs, upon the death of a very fine 
young lady ; and that he did not remember to have seen them pub- 
lished. 

Eliza betha, &c. 

Tros absit, merito mirabitur Afer Elisam ; 
Anglus idem tibi non prcestet Elisa tuus.§ 



* Sic Orig. t See the *' View uf Londoa,** p. 371. Svo. 1708. 

t Vol. T. p« 16. 

$ Tl^ia poor distich relates to the Duke of Anjou's courtship of Elizabeth. If the 
iQosionto the affair of Dido and ^neas had been well expressed, perhaps the writer 
of the veBses, and the engraver of the print, would have had their right hands cut 
off; at John Stobbe bad for his spirited pamphlet against the duke*B marriage with 
the qaeen.| 

I See the article of Stubbe, In Masters*s Hist/of C. C. C. C. p. AVT, 428. 
VOL. 1, ' 2 F 



218 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

There are several foreign prints of Elizabeth^ Mary, 
queen of Scots, the Earl of Leicester ^ S^c. in Meteranus's 
and other Histories of the Belgic War. Her portraits 
in the title-plate to the Bishops' Bible, mentioned under 
the article of Lord Burleigh.* There is another curious 
print of her, with emblems, prefixed to " Compendiosa 
totius Anatomes Delineatio, per Thomam Greminum," 
Lond. 1559. Van Sichetn has engraved a whole length 
of hevy and there are copies, and vile copies of copies, 
not worth mentioning. The same may be observed of the 
prints of the two Charles's, Sfc. S^x. 

Elizabetha, &c. oval, l2mo. neat. 

Elizabeth, sitting under a canopy. Lord Burldgh 
on her right hand, and Sir F. Walsingham on her left. 
— Title to Sir Dudley Digg's " Compleat Ambassador^ 
1 655 ; fol. Faithorne sc. h. sh. 

Elizabetha, &c. R. White sc. h. sh. 

Elizabeth, &c. Van Somerexc. Ato. 

Elizabeth, &c. Vander Werff p. (delin.) Vcr- 
meukn sc. h. sh. 

Elizabeth ; a la7*ge pearl hanging at her breast. 

G. V. ( Vertue ) sc. Sw.f 

Elizabeth, E: Harding sc. In Harding's ^* Shah- 
speare.'' 

* Itiboold be ol)9enred, that the title to tlie Bishops' Bible has been printed from 
different plates. 

f In the " ArehflBologia of the Society of Antiqaaries/' vol. ii. p. 169, &c. is a 
copy of a proclamation in the hand-writing uf Secretary Cecil, dated 1563, which 
piohibits-" all manner of persons to draw, paynt, grave, or pourtrayit her majesty's 
penontge or visage for a time, on til by some perfect patron and example, the same 
iMy h^ by others followed, &c.; and for that hir majestic perceiveth that a grete 

■ber ofhir loving subjects are much greved and take grete ofibnce with the errors 

I defonnitiet already committed by sondry persons in this behalf, she straightiy 
\ all bir officers and minbters to see to the due observation hereof, and as 
|y tap to xeform the errors already committed, &c." 



OF ENGLAND. 219 

Elizabeth ; /o/. Zucchero. Adamsc. 1796. 

Elizabeth, on her throne, sceptrey and emblems of 
uti^tnumy and geography ; eight Latin lines; An. Dni. 
1579 ; half sheet ; no name of engraver. 

^ Mr. Richardson has a curious miniature of Elizabeth 
when young y by Isaac Oliver: it came from old Somerset 
Hou^e. 



HISTORICAL PIECES, &c. 

Queen ELIZABETH, going in procession to Lord 
Bumsdoris home in Hertfordshire^ circ. A. 1 580. Marc. 
Giarrardp. Vertue sc. 1742 ; large sh. 

fai this print are the portraits of the Earl of Leicester, Henry, 
lord Hunsdon, William, lord Burleigh, Charles, lord Howard, 
afterward earl of Nottingham ; Lady Hunsdon, Elizabeth, sister to 
Lord Hunsdon, and wife of Lord Howard, &c. The painting was 
mistaken for a procession to St. Paul's, till Vertue ascertained the 
history of it. The original is in the possession of Lord Digby. 

Queen Elizabeth, sitting in full parliament ; fron- 
tispiece to Sir Simonds D' Ewes' s ** Journals of the Par- 
liaments of this Rdgn ;''^ fol. 1682. 

John Fenn, esq. of East Dereham, in Norfolk, has a most curious 
engraved roll of the procession of the knights of the Garter in the 
reign of Eliatbeth ; it is sixteen feet three inches in length, and 
abonf a foot in breadth. It contains fifty-nine portraits, between 
fimrand five inches in height. At the end is a MS. dedication of 
it to the queen, signed Thomas Daws, and dated 1576. The 
names of Uie persons represented are also in MS. It is, perhaps, 
a. proof-print engraved by Theodore de Brie ; but some nice judges 
haye, I hear, taken it for a drawing. 

Queen Elizabbth, on her throne in parliament, 
by Elstrack ; very scarce in this state, as it was soon 
altered to James. L 



220 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

There is a curious head of Queen Elizabeth, when old and hag« 
gard, in the '* Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors,*' done with 
great exactness from a coin, the die of which was broken. 

The following summary of her history is under several of the 
above-mentioned portraits. 

" Having reformed religion; established peace; reduced coin to 
its just value ;* delivered Scotland from the French ; revenged do- 
mestic rebellion; saved France from headlong ruin by civil war; 
supported Belgia; overthrown the Spanish invincible navy; ex- 
pelled the Spaniards out of Ireland; received the Irish into mercy; 
enriched England by the most prudent government, forty-five years; 
Elizabeth, a virtuous and triumphant queen, in the seventieth year 
of her age, in a most happy and peaceable manner,t departed this 
life ; leaving here her mortal parts, until by the last trump she shall 
rise immortal." 

Elizabeth, who was raised from a prison to the throne, filled it with 
a sufficiency that 4pes great honour to her sex, and with a dignity 
essential and peculiar to her character. Though her passions were 
warm, her judgment was temperate and cool : hence it was, that 
she was never led or over-ruled by her ministers or favourites, 
though men of great abilities and address. She practised all the 
arts of dissimulation for the salutary purposes of government. She 
so happily tempered afiability and haughtiness, benevolence and 
severity, that she was much more loved than feared by the people; 
and was, at the same time, the delight of her own subjects, and the 
terror of Europe. She was parsirnqnious, and even avaricious : but 
these qualities were in her rather virtues than vices ; as they were 
the result of a rigid economy that centred in the public. Her 
trea^ent of the Queen of Scots, the most censurable part of her 
conduct, had in it more of policy than justice, and more of spleen 
than policy. This wise princess, who had never been the slave.of 
her passions at the time of life when they are found to be most 
powerful, fell a victim to their violence at an age when they are 
commonly extinguished. 

^ The base coin of Henry VIII. was culled in, and the queen and the subject 
weieeqodlj losers in reducing it to the jost standard, 
t See Lady Effingham, Class XI. 



OF ENGLAND. 221 



THE ROYAL FAMILY OF SCOTLAND. 

MARY BEGAN HER REIGN, 1542. 

MARIA STUART, Reg. Fran, et Scot. Francisci 
II. Regis* uxor; in a round frame on a pedestal, 

Marie Stuart, Reine de Fran. &c. ; four French 
verses. Tho. de Leuf Ato. very neat. 

Marie Stuart, epouse du Roy Francois II. with- 
out the engraver's name. 

Marie Stuart, &c. in ** Histoire de France, par 
Jkfezeray.'' De Bie sc. but it is without his name. 

Maria, &c. Cock eo'C. 

When Mary, in the full bloom of her beauty, was walking in a 
procession at Paris, a woman forced her way through the crowd to 

* Francis the Second, king of France, a prince of a mean genius and weakly con- 
stitation, died of an imposturae in his right ear, in 1560.t See a circunistantia] ac- 
eouot of his death, in " D'Avila," p. 67, 68. edit. Lond. 1765, 4to. He is said, in 
the " Biographia Britannica," p. 3326, to have been accidentally killed at a tilt by 
a lance. Several ingenious persons have been led into the same mistake ; in which 
they were possibly confirmed by his medal, on the reverse of which is a broken lance. 
But a medal of Catherine de Medicis, his mother, has the same reverse \t and it al- 
ludes to the death of Henry the Second, his father, who was killed by a splinter 
which flew from Montgomery's lance, at a tilt It is observable, that he was exe- 
cuted for this accident fifteen years after it happened.^ Both these medals are in 
the British Museum. The former is remarkable for a striking resemblance of a lady 
of the highest rank. ^ 

t In Lord Hardwicke's State Papers, a very different cause of his death is sug- 
gested. 

^ At that very early period, probably for want of appropriate circumstances, the 
same reverse was frequently used for medals of different persons, as is well known 
to the collectors : there was, however, no great impropriety in commemorating the 
accident of the father's death on the son's medals. I think I have seen the broken 
lance also on the back of a medal of the Duchess de Valentinons, Henry's mistress : 
her common reverse is, Diana trampling on Cupid, with this legend, Omnium Vic- 
torem Vici. — Bindley. 

$ So we are informed by several authors; but, perhaps, his having joined the Hu- 
gpnot faction, and being found in arms at Rochelle, was the principal cause of his 
execution, which might have been accelerated by the former fact. 



222 * BIOGRAlPHIGAL HISTORY 

touch her. Upon being asked what she meant by her bold intra- W 
sion, she said, it was only to satisfy herself whether so angelic a IL 
creature were fle^ and blood. L 

Maria Stuart, &c. Scotiae regina, douag. Galli«; 
4to. 

Maria Stuart, regina Scotiae, &c. From the or'u 
ginal painting of C. Janet,* at St. James's. J.Fakr 
f. h. sh. mezz. 

Maria Stuart, &c. Janet p. Fertue sc. 1721; 
Svo. A copy by Boitard ; foL 

There is an 8vo. print of her after Janet, by HukU. 

Maria, &c. Zucchero p. Vertue sc. 1725 ; A. sh. 
The original, which by some is not esteemed genuine,] 
belonged to Lord Carlton, and afterwards to Lard Bur- 
lington. 

. Maria, &c. a copy of the ne.vt above by FertuCj 
without the painter's na7n€ ; 8vo. 

Maria, &c. a mezz. after Zucchero' s painting ; h,sk 

Maria, Scotorum regina, &c. a small oval, e«- 
graved an a gold plate, from Dr. Mead's miniature. G. 
Vertue sc. This is sometimes printed with an engraved 
border. 

Mary, queen of Scots. J. Oliver p. Houbrakensc, 
copied from the ne.vt above. 

Mary, queen of Scots. J. Oliver p. copied from 
Houbraken by Strange, for Dr. Smollefs " History;'* 
small; in a round. 

Maria, &c. a genuine portrait of her, from an on- 



♦ Janet's portraits are often mistaken for Holbein^s. 

t Vertue did not believe it a genuine portrait, though employed to engrave it— 
Lord Orford, 



OF ENGLAND. 223 

r 

giml in tie palace ofM. lameis, dated ISSOj Anno 
^. 38 ; Vertue sc. h. sh. engraved for Rapin's ** His- 
toryr ; 

Marxa, Regina, &c. 1643. Oriis of the scarce^set 
of the Kings of Scotland. ' ' 

Marie, &e. copied from the same set, done at Am- 
sterdamy 1603 ; 4fo. 

Marie, &c. standing and resting her left hand on 
tf two^rmed chair: T. V. O. at the bottom. From 
Montfaucon's ^' Monumens de la Monarchie Fran- 
foise/' In the same plate are portraits of her two 
husbands. 

Maria, &c. Elstracke sc. 4to. 

]M[ari A, &c. R. M. E. in a cypher.* 

Mary, he. a small head. Hollar f. 

MaIiie, &c. Vander Werf p. (delin.) P. a Gunst 
sc. h. sh. 

Maria, &c. in black velvet, trimmed with ermine. 
/• Simon h. shtfmezz. A copyinmezz. byPelham;Ato. 

From a picture in the possession of the late Duke of Hamilton. 
Thb is a very different face from the portrait in St. James*s. 

Maria, &c. Hans Liefrinck eve. F. H. in the left- 
hand comer ; h. sh. , 

Maria, &c. Mt. 44, 1583; veil, cross hanging at 
her breast ; arms on the left side of the head; h. sh. 
scarce. 

MARiiE, &c. in an oval; two Latin verses, " En 
Tibi Magnanimce,' &;c. P. M. quarto ; scarce. 



* -I am informed, that there is a pdnt of her from the medal struck at Rome; in 
the obverse of which she is staled Queen of England, as well as Scotland. This 
^ve umbrage to her riral Elizabeth. 



224 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Maria, Scotia et Gallia de Facto de Jure Anglias 
et Hybemia Regino, Martyrum Cansummavit Aetatis 
Regn 45, A. D. 1587. /. Leopoldi sc. ; four crcucM 
suspended over her head; arms of the four kingdoms at 
each comer ; ^vo. scarce. 

Maria ; in an oval^ to which four oromns are sm- 
pended; two Latin verses ; small octavo ; scarce, 

Maria ; whole length; with James I. a child. Zuc- 
chero. F. Bartolozzifec. 

Maria ; in Harding's '* ShakspearCy'' and mam/ others 
by Kay^ S^c. Sfc. 

Maria; three quarters; hand on a cushion. C 
David; rare. 

Maria ; whole length. F. H(ogenberg); curious. 

Maria; oval, in a square; in a cloak trimmed with 

fury covered with fleur de lis ; cross and pearls at her 

bosom ; crown on her cap ; round the oval Marie Stuard 

Royne D'Ecosse ; neat; in Causins " La Cour SainteJ' 

vol, a. 1657 y p. 272. 

Maria; small circle; engraved from a cast. IT. 
Schiavonettiyjun. sc. In Iconographia Scotica. 

Mary, queen of Scotland, and Lord Darnley. \ 

Elstracke sc. h.sh. 

Mary, queen of Scotland, and Lord Darnley; 
two small ovals in one plate. No ?iame of painter or 
encrraver. 

Mary, queen of Scots, and her son James ; intm 
rounds joined ; on the right and left of which are the 
heads of her two husbands. 

Mary, &c. in the di^ess in which she went to her 
execution; a crucifix in her right hand^ Gaytvoodf. 
1655; ^to. 



OF ENGLAND. 225^ 

» 

4uarA^ &c. a head in an aval, with a represeiUati&n 
W^ execution; a large h. sh.Jine. 

lj» print y according to Yeftv£s manuscript^ was 
^irifroad by William Pass. There are copies of it 
pfetera^ms's " History^' 8^c. There is a very scarce 
li of her going to execution, which is well engraved; 
^ her head are two angels with palms; a small oblong 
* sheet. ' There are also neat prints of her, which re^ 
tnt her execution, by Huret and Vignon; the former, 
^vo. is very scarce. The quarto print, by Soudan, 
the date of her execution, viz. " Matt'yrium passa 
1587." 

fARiA, &c. sitting. J. Couay sc. large h. sh^ 
cution at a distance. 

is unhappy princess, though naturally disposed to virtue,. ap- 
» to have heen too guilty of the crimes laid to her charge, 
such were the graces of her person and behaviour, that every 
that saw and conversed with her was inclined to think her in- 
Dt, at least to wish her so, and all concurred in pitying her suf- 
gs. She was behfeaded in the hali of Fotheringay-castle, the 
of Feb. 1586-7. Queen Elizabeth, who, among her other ex- 
nces, was an excellent dissembler, immediately dispatched a 
r to her son, disavowing her privity to his mother's execution. 
Y was soon after enrolled among the martyrs of the church of 
le, 

[ENRY, LORD DARNLEY, (titular) king of 
ftland, A\ Do*. 1563, JEt. 17. Lucas de Heere p. 
Vertue sc. From an original at St. James's ; h. sh. 

Ienry, lord Darnlev, duke of Albany, &c. sold 
jreo7ge Humble ; 4to. 

iOrd Darn ley's Cenotaph: by it are kneeling , 
tthetv, earl of Lenox, and Margaret his wife; 
i?ies their son, and the king of Scots their grandson, 

)L. I. 2 G 



OF ENGLAND. 227 

nrmour, holing a stoord and an olive branch ; a wooden 
jprint; Ato. prefixed to the dedication of the following 
iooky '' Icones, id est verae Imagines Virorum Doc- 
trina simul et Pietare illustrium,'' &c. Geneva, 
1580, 4to. 

To each print is subjoined^ in pure Latin, by Theodore 
Bezay a short account of the life and character of the 
person represented. The heads, among which are several 
belonging to the English series, are well cut in wood. 

Jacobus VL &c* in his right hand a scepter, with 
a crescent at the top ; Ato. 

Jacobus VL &c. J. Janssonius exc. Ato. See the 
next reign, Class I. 

Jacobus VI. &c. in armour : ** Quod sis esse 
velis/' &c. neat and uncommon. 



CLASS XL 

GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE AND OF 

THE HOUSEHOLD. 

^* SYR WILLIAM PAULET, &c. marques of 
Wynchester.** In the jx)ssession of Dr. Glynn, of Cam- 
bridge. The print, which represents him very old, was 
etched by Mr. Tyson. 

Sir William Paulet, marques of Winchester. 
Harding sc. 

The Marquis of Winchester, who was so much of the courtier as to Created 
accommodate himself to princes, as well as subjects of very different 9^l\^^* 
characters, was, from his natural and acquired abilities, perfectly 
qualified to act with propriety in one of the highest offices of the 
state. Having been comptroller, and afterward treasurer of the 



228 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

household i^ Uie reign of Henry VIII. in which he was hoi 
with the Garter, he, in the fourth year of Edward VI. was 
lord high-treasurer of England, in which office he continued d 
the next reign, and part of that of Elizabeth, to the time 
'death, which was on the 10th of Mardi, 1571^2, at Basing-taill"V 
C^imden tells us, that he lived to see 103 persons deseeded ll^ft£ 
him.* Being asked hy what means he maintained himself is 
lugh station during so many changes in the administration, bii ijpil * 
8wer was ^' By heing a willow and not an oak." He built the 
nificent structure more like a palace than a villa, called 
houAe, which was taken and burnt by Cromwell in the ciyil vir* 

i5r«. WILLIAM CECIL, lord feurleigh (lord higi£ 
treasurer). Houbraken sc. In the collection of 
JEar I of Burlington. Illust. Head. Ir^ 

GuLiELMUs Cecilius, &c. in the " HeroQhg,¥i^k\ 
9>vo. 

Sir William Cecil, knt. baron of Burleigh, 
Cor unurriy via una ; 4to. 

Sir William Cecil, &c. T. Cecill so. \2mo. 

William Cecil, baron of Burleigh, &c. Mdf- 
shall sc. small ; in Fuller's '* Holy State.'' 

GuiL. Cecilius, &c. Vertue sc. h. sh. 

There are portraits of Lord Burleigh and the Earlof 

Leicester, in the characters of David and Joshua^ in tk 

frontispiece to the *' Bishops' Bible," printed by Juggc* 

The print was engraved by Humphry Cole. There arc 

also wooden cuts of them in the same book.^ 

^ " Annales/ p. 269. 

t " I hope (says Mr. Walpole) that the flattery ta the favourites wis the incense 
of the engraver.'* I am persuaded that it was. But offensive as the portraits are, 
the large G, at the head of the first chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews, in the 
same edition of the Bible, is far more offensive. It represents a naked Leda, witji 
a swan, as shocking in point of indecency as can be imagined, and still more so in 
point of impropriety, as it makes a part of so awful a word. It is highly probable, 
that this letter was cut for one of Ovid's books, and that il was thus grossly misap' 
plied by the ignorant printer. 



OF ENGLAND. 229 

luord Burleigh, master of the court of wards, 
tod his assistants, sitting. From a picture of the 
Duke of Richmond's. Vertue sc. large sh. 

Sit William Cecil was made president of the court of wards the Great. I 
■ K)th of January, 1561 ; at which time he was secretary of state. ^"jJ^^JF 
•Be immediately applied himself to the reforming of many scanda- 1570-1, 
loos abuses in that court, and presided in it with great sufficiency. 

William Cecil, lord Burleigh; in " Noble Au- 
thors/* by Park. Geremia sc, 

William Cecil, lord Burleigh ; %vo. W. N. Gar- 
iinef* sc. 1793. 

Lord Burleigh. See his portrait in the procession 
<f Queen Elizabeth to Lord Hunsdons. 

Lord Burleigh has been deservedly placed at the head of our 
Snglish statesmen ; not only for his great abilities, and indefatiga- 
bla application, but also for his inviolable attachment to the interests 
of his mistress. There needs no stronger proof, perhaps no stronger ' 
can be given, of his great capacity for business, than the following 
passage from his life: 

** Besides jail business in council, or other weighty causes, and 
such as were answered by word of mouth, there was not a day in term 
wherein he received not threescore, fourscore, or a hundred peti- 
tions, which he commonly read at night, and gave every man an 
answer the next morning, as he went to the hall : whence the excel- 
lence of his memory was greatly admired ; for when any of these 
petitioners told him their names, or what countrymen they were, he 
presently entered into the merit of his request, and, having dis- 
cnssed it, gave him his answer.'' He had a principal share in the 
administration forty years. Ob, 4 Aug. 1698.* 

THOMAS HOWARD, duke of Norfolk (earl- 

* ** Lord Bmieigh, and the other great ministers of Elizabeth, were absolately of 
lier.own cboice^ and thpir characters and conduct were such, that nothing can be 
more jost than what Mr. Waller observed of her to James II. who, in diminution of 
Iwr personal merit, allowed her to have an able council. To which he replied, with 
hu uaoal ▼ivacityt'Aad when did your majesty ever know a foolish prince to choose 
•Viae dnc ?** •' Hbtorical View of the Negotiations between England, France, and 
Bmaself/' p. 216. 



230 



BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



marshal). Holbein p. Houbrakensc. IntkecoUtdmv 
of Mr. Richardson. Itlust. Head. — This is now Mi. I 
Walpole's. 

Thomas Hoavard, duke of Norfolk, &c. under at ; 
arck. Ujider a correspondent arch, are thirty coatttf 
arms quartered in one shield, about which are badges tj 
the order of the Garter and St. Michael ; above art 
Gothic ornaments : four English verses. The print it 
old and neatli/ engraved. If there ever had been at^ 
jiame of an engraver, it is defaced. It measures thirtecH 
inches and three quarters wide, iy nine inches and a half 
high, and is in the possession of John Fenn, esq. of End 
Dereham, in Norfolk, who drew and sent tne a sketch of 
it. This curious print came from a farm-house belong- 
ing to the Norfolk family ; and the tradition is, that it 
proof was formerly given to every tenant of the duke; 
but how long since, or by whom, is uncertain. 

Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, &c. fac simik 
ccpy of the above; in the Woodbum Gallery. 

Thomas Howabd, duke of Norfolk, as earl of 
Surrey. H. Holbein. F. Barlolozxi sc. 1796. 

Thomas HowAan, earl of Surrey. H. Septan. 
J. Dalton K. Tbete are in the Royal Collection. 

Wtitit^ The great virtue and merit of ibis nobleman guned him the b- 
■9463. ,(mf of )^p queen, and the universal love and eiteem of the people, 
till he unhappily engaged himself in the desperate cause of Maiy, 
queen of Scots, whom he endeavourDd to espouse, and re«tore to 
her ihfooe. He Beems to have been strongly actuated by two 
powerfnl pasuoDi, love and ambition, which soon ptecijMtated bin 
Oft liw few. '*• fr» a sacrifice to the jenlouiy of Elizabeth, m Wi 
faihrr Uit Er-.i .'ny did to that of Henry VIII. Behead« 

OifSdotJii... 

NGS, earl of Huntingdon, wifi 



OF ENGLAND. 231 

Henry, earl of Huntingdon, was the eldest son of Francis, second 
earl of Huntingdon: this pious and good man was held in such 
esteem by Queen Elizabeth, that he was installed knight of the 
most noble order of the Garter, next after the Emperor Maximilian, 
and was made lord-lieutenant of the counties of Leicester and Rut- 
land. He was one of the peers who had charge of Mary, queien of 
Scots, and is said to have been of an amiable disposition. Bishop 
Hall styles him the " incomparably Religious and Noble Earl ;'* and 
Archbishop Grindal, to Lord Burleigh, writes : " My Lord Presi- 
dent's good government here among us, daily more and more disr 
coreretb the rare gifts and virtues which afore were in him, but in 
private life were hid from the eyes of a great number, and the old 
proverb was verified in him, Magistratus probat Virum.'* He is said 
to have died very poor, — 1595» .The charges of the funeral, amount* 
ing to upwards of 1342/., was defrayed by Queen Elizabeth. 

EDWARD STANLEY, earl of Derby. Bartolozzi. 

Edward Stanley, earl of Derby. Dalton. From 
the Royal Collection. ' 

)Sdward Stanley, earl of Derby. Harding. 

Edward Stanley, third earl of Derby, was in the early part of his 
life in the retinue of Cardinal Wolsey, and attended Henry VIIL at 
his interview with Francis 1st. He acted as cupbearer at the coro* 
nation of Queen Anne Bullen, and was by King Edward VL in-* 
stalled knight of the Garter. He was one of the privy council to 
the queens, Mary and Elizabeth ; and lived in the greatest splen- 
dour withont dependance on the court. — Camden said, *' That with 
Edward, earl of Derb/s' death, the glory of hospitality seemed to fall 
nltep!* He is said to have been well skilled in surgery ; and dying 
at L^tham-hoqse, 1574, was buried with the greatest magnificence. 

HENRY STANLEY, earl of Derby ; fr(m an 
ifriginal picture in the collection of the Earl of Derby, 
at Knowskt/j in Lancashire. H. R. Cooke sc. 4to. 

Henry, fburth earl, of Derby, was the eldest son of Edward, the 

Affd earl, by his first wife, the Lady Dorothy, daughter of the 

'€ .of Norfolk, lie was elected a knight of the Garter on the 

of April, 1574; and was installed at Windsor, with Henry 

ten, earl of Pembroke, in the mouth following. In 1576, he 



234 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

and Elizabethy the youngest, married to Henry Haatings, eail of 
Huntingdon. 

WILLIAM HOWARD, lord Effingham ; M. 86, 
Z. He. i. e. L. de Heere p. 1558. J. OgbornCy 1774. 

Lord William Howard was one of the courtiers who attended 
King Henry VHI. at his magnificent interview with Francis Ist, 
and assisted at the coronation of Queen Anne Bulkn as earl-mar- 
shal of England. He was sent ambassador into France ; and soon 
after his return he and his lady were indicted for misprision of trea- 
son, in concealing the misdemeanour of Catharine Howard, and con- 
demned to perpetual imprisonment. He was soon after pardoned, 
and attended the king at the siege of Boulogne. On the accession 
of Queen Mary, he was created Lord Howard of Effingham, and 
soon after lord high-admiral of England, &c. He was also a great 
favourite of Queen Elizabeth, who continued him in his former ap- 
pointments, and employed him in the weightiest affairs of state. 
He died 1573, and was buried in the parish-church of Rygate, 
Surrey. 

WILLIAM PARR, earl of Essex ; with his auto- 
graph. C. Hall sc. 

William Parr, &c. Holbein. Bartolozzi. 

William Farr» son of Sir Thomas Parr, and brother to Queen 
Catharine Parr, was created a peer of the realm, first Baron Parr, 
and after Earl of Essex; and by Edward IV. Marquis of Nor- 
thampton, who always called him " his honest uncle.'* On the ac- 
cession of Queen Mary he was deprived of his honours, for having 
taken a part with the Duke of Northumberland to raise Lady Jane 
prey to the crown ; but was restored by Queen Elizabeth. He is 
niid to have been well skilled in the arts of war» music, and poetry. 
Be died 157 1, and was buried in the church of St. Mary^ Warwick. 

ROBERT DEVEREUX, eari of Essex, 1601. 
^* Oiiverp. Houbraken sc. In the collection of Sir 
RtAert Worsley, bart. Illust. Head.* 

• * -TUt it now at Stnwberry-hill, and hts beea engraved by Bartolozci, for Hard- 
¥9^ ftekapcHTc. 



IB 



OF ENGLAND. 235 

• The portraits of him are remarkable for the black hair, and red 
beard. At Warwick Castle there is an original of him by Zucchero. 
There is also a whole length in the gallery at Longleat. 

Robert Devereux, &c. earl-marshal of England, ^™™^* 
and new lord-general of her mqjesty*s forces in Ire- 1597. 
land. Wm. Rogers so. Sold by Joh. Sudbury and Geo. 
Humble; h. sh. 

Robert Devereux, &c. in the " Heroologia;^'Svo. 

Robert, earl of Essex, on horseback. W. Pass sc. 
h. sh. This has been copied. 

There is another neat print of him on horseback, 
iated 1601. Fleet, army, &c. Robert Boissard sc. 
Kip. exc. h. sh. This has been well copied. 

RoBERTUs Devereux, &c. hat and feather. Co. 
Holland excu. 4to. 

Robert Devereux, &c. W. Dolle sc. Bvo. In Sir 
Hen. Wottons *' Remains'" 

Robert Devereux, earl of Essex. Gerimia sc 
In " Noble Authors,'' by Park, 1806. 

Robert, earl of Essex ; mezz. W. Humphrey. 

Robert, earl of Essex, on horseback. C. Pass. 

Robert, earl of Essex ;^iftto. Wierer. 

Robert, earl of Essex and Ewe, &c. Stent ; Ato. 

Robert D'evereux, &c* Vander Werff p. P. a 
Gunst sc. h. sh. 

The valiant and accomplished Earl of Essex, who was the object 
of the queen's ,♦ as well as the people's affection, was very ill-qua- 
lified for a court ; as he was as honest and open in his enmity, as 
he was sincere in his friendship. He was above the little arts of 
dissimulation, and seemed to think it a prostitution of his dignity to 
put up an aflfront even from the queen herself. His adversaries, 

♦ Sec Hume*5 "Hbt." and the " Cat. of Royal and Noble Authors.'* 



u\^\> 



^30 BIOGRAPHJOAli HISTORY 

V^ho were cdol 8^d deliberate in their malie^, knew how to aNl p 
^eiii^selves of the warmth and openness of his temper, and secietl) h ^ 
drove him (o those fatal extremities, to whioh the Yiolence of bi& p 
i>ature seemed to have hurried him. Beheaded the 25th of Fe- 
bruary, 1600-1. See Class VII. 

HENRY FITZ ALLAN, earl of Arundel, in <l^ 
mour ; half length ; round cap, ruff. The inscryfdm is 
v( ffmmi^cnpt, 

IIknhy Fitz Allan, earl of Arundel. H. HoUm. 
C Ilalisc. 1778; late in the Torringtan Collection. 

Vfp%i^ Henry > earl of Arundel, waa a principal instrument in setting 
Mavy upon the throne. He was, soon after her accession, ap- 
polut^d steward of the household, and eontinned to act in the saiae 
^n^ployment under Elizabeth. He is said to have entertained the 
ttvoug^est hopes of marrying that princess ; and to have left the 
kingdom in disgust, when he saw himself supplanted in her favour 
by the Earl of Leicester. AAer his return to England, he appealed 
Ugain at court, and joined with Leicester, and other courtiers, in a 
plot against Cecil. He was the last earl of Arundel of the name 
of Fitz Allan. 06.1579.* 

G. TALBOT, earl of Shrewsbury ; 1580, T. Cook 
sc. a heady with large beard and ruff; i?i Mr. Lodge's 
^^ Illmtrations of British History y^ 1791 ; 4 to. 

George, the sixth earl of Shrewsbury, in 1561, was chosen one 
of the knights of the Garter, and installed at Windsor the same 
year. He had the custody of Mary, queen of Scotland, committed 
to his charge ;t in 1571-2, at the arraignment of the Duke of Nor- 
folk, he was made lord high-ateward of England ; and after the 
execution of that peer, was constituted earl-marshal of England.— 
Camden says, " In those ticklish times he made a shift to assert 
his honour, and make good his trust, for 15 years together, against 
all the machinations and slander of the court party, aiid the ill con- 

• The first coach ever publicly seea in li^ngland, was the equipage of Henry, earl 
of Arundel. This vehicle was invented by the French, who also invented the post- 
'Chaise, which was introduced by Mr.Tull, son of the weli-knowa writer on bas- 
bandry. 
t See Lodge's ** Ijlustratloas ofBritiah History,'' vol. ii. 



OF ENGLAND. ^7 

4nct of his second wife, to such a degree, that he left behind him 
ihe double character of a wise and faithful statesman, and a brave 
and worthy commander." He died 1590, and was buried at Shef- 
fUif IB Yorkshire. s 



GREAT OFFICERS OF THE HOUSEHOLD; 

ROBERT DUDLEY, earl of Leicester; peties 
Illust. Com. Oxon. Vertue ^c. 8vo.* 

Roi^EftT Dud tEY, earl of Leicester* J. Houbraken 
9C. In the collection of Sir Robert Wgrsley^ bart. Illust. 
Head. 

* 4 ' '■ 

■ » o • . - . 

RqBehtvs Dum,Eiu»^ &c. W. P/ (Wm. Pass) f. 
In the, " Jierootogia;' 8w. 

RoBEKTUJi DuBLEius, &c. W. Pass SQ. Two Latin 
verses. 

RoBERTUs DuDLEius, &c. Hieronimus Wierex f. 
small oval ; neat. 

Robert Dubli:y, &c. Marshall sc. 12mo. Fron- 
tispiece to thefammbs libel, entitled, *' Leicester's Common 
Wealthr 1641. 

RoBERTus Dudleius, &c. Ob. 1588 ; 8w. 

Robert Dudley, &c. Vander Werff p. Vermeulen 
sc. h* sh. 

Robert Dudley, &c. Bouttatsf. Antverjnce^h.sh. 

RoBERTUS DuDLEUs, &c. on horscback ; from a 
'^ History of the N^herlands, or the Belgic War,' in 
High Dutch ,'^ h. sh. 

Robert Dudley, &c. Sold by John Hinde. 

* Since inscribed Geoige^ esarl of Cambesla^d, whicb is correct 
t In this book are several English portraits bj a gofl|4 hand« 



238 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester; a small oval, 
by Goltzius ; from a gold plate ; scarce. 

Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester; in Rogers's 
** Imitation of Drawings '' F. Zucchero. Watts sc. 
1773. 

Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester ; from the same, 
Adam sc. 1795. 

Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester; in arnumr, 
hat and feather; 4to. oval; scarce; and in the " Oxford 
Almanack,'' 1736. 

Robert Dudley, K. G. wood-cut; at the top two 
English lines J " Reason rules Lord Robertas Ijife,^* ^. 
at the bottom four English verses, " The Physnogm 
herp figured,' Sgc. prefixed to ^^ The most Ancient ad 
Learned Playe, called the Philosopher's Game;^ hj 
PT. 1^.1653; scarce. 

Robert Dudley, &c. See his portrait in the 
procession to Hunsdon-house. There are also heads 
of him, copied from others, in " Strada de Bello 
Belgico," and other histories of the Low Countries. 

Cr. 1564. Leicester's engaging person and address recommended him to 
the favour of Queen Elizabeth.* These exterior qualifications vitb- 
out the aid of any kind of virtue, or superiority of abilities, gaiadi 
him such an ascendant over her, that every instance of his miscoD- 
duct was overlooked ; and he had the art to make his faults the 
means of rising higher in her favour. He is said to have been tbi 
first who introduced the art of poisoning into England.f It is cer- 

* Nothing could form a more curious collection of memoin, than Anecdotes H 
Preferment. Couid the secret history of great men be traced, it would af 
that merit is rarely the first step to advancement. It would much oftener be fooolj 
to be owing to superficial qualifications, and even vices. The abilitiea of the 
ralily of mankind unfold themselves by degrees, and the office forms the num. 
Christopher Hatton owed his preferment to his dancing. Queen Elixabeth/ 
all her sagacity, could not see the future lord-chancellor in the fiqe dapcer. 

t Howcl's " Letters,** voL iv. p. 451. 



OF ENGLAND. 239 

tain, that he often practised it himself, and that he sent a divine to 
convince Walsingham of the lawfuhiess of poisoning the Queen of 
Scots, before her trial. He was appointed master of the horse» 
1 Eliz. ^nd steward of the household, Dec. 1587. Ob. 4 Sept. 1588. 
See Class VII. 

HENRY CAREY, lord Hunsdon, chamberlain of 
the household. His portrait is in the procession of 
the queen to his own house, Class I. 

Lord Hunsdon; small oval; from the procession. 
Jl Thane exc. 

Henry, lord Hunsdon, who was cousiu-german to the queen, Cr. bar 
by Mary, sister to Anne Bolen, was much in her confidence and i^pjf?" 
&vour, and had the charge of her person at court, and in the camp 
at Tilbury. He was of a soldierly disposition himself, and was a 
great lover of men of the sword. He was remarkable for a freedom 
of speech and behaviour, oflener to be found in a camp than a 
court ; made no scruple of calling things by their own names, and 
was a great seller of bargains to the maids of honour. It is said, 
that the queen offered to create him an earl, when he lay upon his 
death-bed, and that he refused the honour as unseasonable.* He 
died at Somerset-house, 1596, iEJ^ 71. 

GREAT OFFICERS OF SCOTLAND. 

MATTHEW STUART, earl of Lenox, regent of 
Scotland. His portrait is with Lord Darnly's ceno- 
taph. See Class L 

Matthew Stuart, earl of Lenox; with his auto- 
graph. Thane exc. 

The Earl of Lenox, father of Lord Darnley, was chosen regent 
in 1570. His abilities were by no means equal to the government 
of a headstrong Sind factious people during a minority. He was 

* It should here be remembered, that the last Lord Hunsdon, before he sue* 
ceeded to his title, was bound apprentice to the mean trade of a weaver ; so low was 
the family reduced. But, considering the probability of his becoming a peer, he 
betook hnnfldf to a military life, and rode privately in the guards, I think in the 
raign of Aane. He was 9 commissioned officer before the title devolved to him. 



a4tf BIOGRAMllCAt in0TORY 

ifmrdered by Queen Mary'a faction in 1571 , lU^ordtng to Dr. Ro» 
bertson; according to others/ in 1572. 

, JAMES, earl of Morton ; 1 58 L J. Houbraken sc. 
1740. In the possession of the Earl of Morion. Illugli 
Head. 

James Douglas, earl of Morton ; in oval, 12m 
deceased 1581. J. Houbraken. 

. The Earl of Morton was chancellor of Scotland in the reign of 
Elected re- Mary, and regent of that kingdom in the minority of James Vl 
gent 1572. jj^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ persons concerned in the assassination of Rizio, 

* ' and was afterward appointed to treat with Elizabeth s deputies, 

^ concerning the reasons for deposing Mary. He looked upon his 

own interest as inseparable from that of the Queen of England^to 

whom he was ever firmly attached. He governed Scotland witb 

vigour and dexterity ; but his government has been very justly 

censured as oppressive and rapacious. He was secure while he 

Resigned held the regency ; but was, upon his resignation, abandoned to the 

1578-9. fy„y Qf ijjg enemies. He was executed for the murder of Lord 

Daruly ; in which he was no otherwise concerned, than in being 

privy to that atrocious fact. Beheaded the 2d of June, 1581. 

GREAT OFFICERS OF IRELAND. 

HENRIGUS SYDNEIUS, Eques Auratus. 01 
1586. In the '' Heroologia;' 8vo. 

Sir Henry Sidney ; in Harding's *^ British Cabi-^ 
netj'' 1799. In the collection of the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Egrermnt. 

Henricus Sydneius; in Freherus. 

Sir Henry Sidney was the son of Sir William Sidney, a gentle- 
man who distinguished himself as an officer by sea and land, in the 
reign of Henry VIII. to whom he was chamberlain and steward. 
His mother was Mary Dudley, eldest daughter of John, earl of 
Warwick. The beauty of his person, the brightness of his parts, 
and the politeness of his manners, were conspicuous at an early 
period, and highly recommended him to Edward VI. with whom^e 



^t. 



OF ENGLAND. 241 

was educated. Whedier we consider him as a gentleman, a public 
minbter or a Ticeroyy his character is shining, and, in some in- 
ttawfleai great. His administration in Ireland, of which he was 
Area-tniea a lord-justice, and four times deputy, shews how wortliy 
he was of his viceroyaJty, and how consummate a master of the 
icieDoe of government Though he was of a gentle nature, and of 
grett pnhiio 'apirit, he knew that firmness, and sometimes severity, 
irera aeiaesaaiy to rule a fierce and uncivilized people, who were far 
Crom being totaUy subdued. His strictness in levying the cess im- 
posed upon, the Irish rendered him very unpopular, and was the 
Dccadm of Us being recalled from his government. He hath roo- 
desdy ' displayed his own character, with greater advantage than 
any other himd can draw it, in his letters, published with many 
other letten of his illustrious family. It is perhaps needless to in- 
Ibmi the reader, that this great man, who deserves to be much 
better known, was father of Sir Philip Sidney. 

JOANNES PERROT, Prore^v Hibernue, 1584 ; 

The head is prefixed to an anonymous '' History of his Govern- 
nentin Iidand,^ 1626 ; 4io. 

Sir John Perrot; mezz. V. Green sc. In Dr. 
NoMs '* ITutoTy of Worcestershire^ 

Sir Joh n Perrot"; copy of the last. W. Richardson. 

Sir John Perrot was son of Sir Thomas Perrot, gent, of the bed- 
chamber to Henry VIII. and Mary, daughter to James Berkeley, 
esq. a lady of the court; who, as Sir Robert Naunton tells us» 
** was of the king's familiarity ;" and he adds, that " if his picture, 
qualities, g^ture, and voice, be compared with that king's, they 
will plead strongly that he was a surreptitious child of the blood 
royal.** 

Henry, upon hearing of his valour in a rencounter at the Stews 
in Sonllkwark, sent for him, and promised him preferment. He 
was of a size and stature far beyond ordinary men, seems never to 
have known what fear was, had a terrible aspect when provoked, 
and distinguished himself in all martial exercises more than any 
of his contemporaries. He was employed both by sea and land 
against Ireland in this reign ; but in subduing that kingdom gave 
too great a loose to the natural ferocity of his temper; for which, 

VOL. I. 2 I 



242 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

und Ufi MfM ttfigaarded ezpmsioiis wbich he let fall against the 
i|i»«<tn»* tus was attaiDted, and died in the Tower in a few months 
9iX\¥f liin trial, in Sept. 1592. Dr. Swift says, in the preface to 
kin *' I'ollU Conversation/* that he was the first that swore by 

HODKRT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, was ap- 
imintiul lord-deputy of Ireland, and commander of 
\\\» ft>n?i>ii in that kingdom, 1598-9. 

HU tilkviuy this command was entirely correspondent to the 
wUk^ \>t hU vi(j;Uaut and artful enemies, who soon contrived to 
|iui (uiu uvou tk^ forlorn hope. See the first division of this class. 

UUALTKHUS DEVEREUX, comes Essexiae; 
in the •* Hit^volog^ia r 8t;o. 

Waltkk Devbreux, earl of 'Essex; in Park's 
^' JRoj/al mid Noble Author s.^ Geramia sc. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex. H. Meyer sc. 
From the original in the collection of the Right Hon, 
Lord Bagot. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex, and earl-marshal of Ireland, 
was father of Elizabeth's favourite. He distinguished himself by 
suppressing a rebellion in the North, which was raised and sup- 
ported by the Earls of Cumberland and Westmoreland. He was 
afterward sent to chastise the Irish rebels ; but was unsuccessful 
in this expedition, as he was crossed in his designs by the Earl of 
Leicester and the lord-deputy Fitzwilliams. He died of a dysen- 
tery at Dublin, the 22d of September, 1576, not without a violent 
suspicion of poison, given him by the procurement of the Earl of 
Leicester, who was soon after married to his widow. f — ^**The Re- 
porte of his death" is inserted by Heame, in his preface to " Cam- 
deni Elizabetha," sect. 26, from which copy there are several con- 
siderable variations noted in ** Hemingi Chartular. Eccles. Wigorn." 
published by Hearne, p. 707. 

* The queen, having sharply reprimanded him, afterward sent him a soothiirg 
letter ; which occasioned his saying, " Now she is ready to bepiss herself for ft« 
of the Spaniard, I am again one of her white-boys." 

t Lettice, daughter of Sir Francis Kuolles. 



a 



it 



244 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

great damage to the Spaniards, and eminent service to the state; |M 
but greatly impaired his own fortune. Ob, 30 Oct. 1605-, -^(.47.* 

FRANCIS RUSSEL, the second earl of Bedford; \U 
Ob. 1585. J. Houbraken sc. 1740. In the collectm 
of the Duke of Bedford. lUust. Head. 

Francis Russell, earl of Bedford. H.Holbdnf. 
F. Bartolozzi sc. 1796. In the Royal Collection. 

Francis Russell, earl of Bedford \frofn thesam, 
R. Dalton sc. 

Francis, eldest son of John, lord Russel, afterward earl of Bed- 
1548. ford, was made a knight of the Bath at the coronation of Edward VI. 
Upon the demise of that prince he was at the head of those spirited 
partisans of Mary who took arms against the faction of the Lady 
Jane Grey* He attended Philip, consort to the queen, in his expe- 
dition to France, where he shared the glory of the memorable vic- 
tory of St. Quintin. He succeeded his father in honour and estate!} 
and was sent ambassador to France and Scotland by Queen Eliza- 
beth ; who did justice to his merit, by conferring upon him several 
offices of trust and dignity.f He founded a school at Wobum, in 
Bedfordshire, and two scholarships in University College, Oxford. 
He was so bountiful to the poor, that Queen Elizabeth would mer- 
rily complain of him, " that he made all the beggars ;" " and sure," 
saith my author, " it is more honourable for a nobleman to make 
beggars by their liberality, than by their oppression :" and, what 
was more to his honour, he was, in the opinion of all that knew 
him, a firm friend to religion and virtue. Ob, 1585, Mt. 58. 

HENRICUS HERBERTUS, comes Pem. In the 
" Heroologiaf 8vo. 

1551. Henry Herbert, earl of Pembroke, and knight of the Garter, 
was much in favour with Elizabeth, and a great friend and patron 
of religion and learning. He married Mary, the accomplished and 
amiable sister of the celebrated Sir Philip Sidney, who survived 
him many years. Ob. Jan. 19, 1600-1. 

* See a curious account of the burial-place of the ClifTords, in Skiptoa churcb, 
in Whitaker's History of the Deanery in Com. York, p. 313. ; and Banks's Extinct 
Baronetage, vol. ii. p. 97. 

t See Colllns's *' Peerage." 



OJP ENGLAND. 245 

[LIP HOWARD, ead of Arundel, mth his 
iph. J. Thane cv. 

, eldest son of the unfortunate Thomas, duke of Norfolk, 
id Earl of Arundel by descent from his mother, and was, at 
times, imprboned for his attachment to Mary, queen of 
nd corresponding with Cardinal Allen and Parsons the 
Alarmed by those repeated attacks upon his liberty, h6 
to retire abroad, and was preparing to avoid the severity 
ws, when, by treachery, he was apprehended in a retired 
the coast of Sussex* After a year's confinement he was 
d to pay a fine of £10,000 and to be imprisoned during 
n's pleasure. In 1589 he was arraigned of high.treason ; 
ig required to hold up his hand, he raised it very high ; 
' Here is as true a man* s heart and hand as ever came into this 
le was found guilty and condemned. to die; as, however, 
had been convicted merely on a religious account, the 
d not allow the sentence to be put in execution, but suf- 
n to languish in the Tower, where he died, 1595, in the 
r of his age. A memorial of his piety, carved by his own 
the stone wall of his secluded apartment, is still to be 
ee Lodge's ^' Illustration,*' vol. ii. p. 329. See Pennant's 
1," p. 258. edition 1805. 

BROSIUS DUDLEIUS, comes Warwici; 
* Heroologia ;' Svo. His portrait is at Wobiirn 

)se Dudley, earl of Warwick, was son of John, the great Cr. 1562. 
^Northumberland. Mary had scarcely ascended the throne, 
together with his father, and under his direction, appeared 
as a partisan for Lady Jane Grey. He was, for this act 
on, attainted and condemned to die. At the accession of 
I, he was regarded as one of the ornaments and favourites 
urt ; and, in the fourth year of her reign, was created earl 
ick. He was a man of great courage, tempered with 
dence. At the battle of St. Qnintin, he signalized himself 1557. 
ttive bravery, and displayed, at the siege of New Haven,* 
he was governor, such passive fortitude as none are ca- 
>ut great minds. He was long shut up in this place by 

* Since universally called Havre de Grace. 



1 



246 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

a numerous army; but held ii, with invincible firmness, daring tbe 
complicated miseries of war, famine, and pestilence, till he T^celved 
an express command from Elizabeth to surrender it. In defence 
of this fortress, he received a wound in his leg, of which he long 
languished. At length he submitted to an amputation, which pat 
an end to his life, the 20th of February, 1589, about the satieth 
year of his age. There is a fine monument of him in a chapel be- 
longing to the church at Warwick. 

THOMAS ARUNDELL, first lord Arundell of 
Wardour ; small oval, within an engraved frame.-- 
Upon the miniature ^ and round the portrait is 1584. 
Tho: Arun: . dell S: R: I: Go', in Corpore sano. En- 
graved by R. Cooper, from a miniature in thepossmm 
of the Right Hon. Lord Arundell. — Private plate. 

Sir Thomas Arundell, son and heir of Sir Matthew Arundell, knt 
though but a young man, his father then living, went over into 
Germany, served as a volunteer in the Imperial army in Hungary, 
behaved himself valiantly against the Turks, and in an engagement 
at Gran, took their standard with his own hands ; on which account, 
Rudolph II. emperor of Germany, created him count of tlie sacred 
Roman empire by patent, dated Prague, 14 Dec. 1595. 38 Eliz.for 
that he had behaved himself manfully in the field, as also, in as- 
saulting divers cities and castles, shewing great proof of his valour 
&c. so that every of his children, and their descendants for ever, of 
both sexes, should enjoy that title, have place and vote in all Impe- 
rial diets, purchase lands in the dominions of the empire, list any 
voluntary soldiers, and not to be put to any trial but in the Imperial 
chamber. The year after, on his return home, a dispute arose 
among the peers, whether that dignity conferred by a foreign po- 
tentate, should be allowed here, as to place and precedence, or any 
other privilege ; which occasioned a warm dispute, that Camden 
mentions in his history of Queen Elizabeth ; and that the queen 
being asked her opinion, answered, that there was a close tie of 
affection between the prince and subject, and that as chaste wives 
should have no glances but for their own spouses, so should faithful 
subjects keep their eyes at home, and not gaze upon foreign 
crowns ; that she, for her part, did not care her sheep should wear 
a stranger's marks, nor dance after the whistle of every foreigner ; 
whereby it passed in the negative, and the queen wrote the same 



iw 



rd 



I 



OF ENGLAND. 247 

'Car to the emperor, acquainting him, that she forbid her subjects 
^viog him place and precedence in England. He was in high fa- 
vour with Rodolph IL who made him several great offers, but he 
hose to return to his native country. King James I. to ceun- 
dnance his. merits, in the third year of his reign, created him a 
•aron of England, under the title of Baron Arundell of Wa^rdour, 
y letters patent dated May 4th, 1605, with limitation thereof to the 
eirs male of his body. He died at Wardour Castle Nov. 7th, 1639, 
ged 79, and lies buried at Tisbury in Wilts. 

A SCOTCH PEER. 

HAMILTON, Comte dArran. Vander Werff pi 
P. a Gunst sc. h. sk. From Larreys " History T 

James, the third earl of Arran, and second duke of Chatel- 
herault, a title conferred upon his father by Francis 1. was, in the 
es^rlier part of his Ufe, the most amiable and accomplished gentle- 
man of his family. In 1555, he went to the court of France, then 
the gayest and most polished in Europe, whcire he was highly in 
avour with Henry H. who made him captain of hist Scottish lifc- 
piards. Here he was first dazzled with the charms of Mary ; but 
le regarded her with that admiration with whidi a subject beholds 
lis sovereign. As his fi|ther had been regent of Scotland, and was, 
ipon failure of issue from that princess, declared by the three 
(States of the kingdom heir to the crown, his views were aspiring, 
md he was once in hopes of gaining Queen Elizabeth in marriage.* 
^hen Mary returned to her native country, he conceived the 
itrongest passion for her ; a passion in which ambition seems to 
lave had little or no part ; but being treated with coldness and 
leglect, he abandoned himself to solitude, and indulged his me- 
aiichdly, which brought on an almost total deprivation of his rea- 
ion, and cut short the expectations of his friends and .admirers 
>*. 1609. 

JOHN MAITLAND of Lethington, lord Thirles- 
;ao, and lord high-chancellor of Scotland. Trotter 
c. In Smith's ^^Iconographia Sc&ticay 

*Dod, in his " Church History/' vol. ii. p. 51, says, that this earl, the £ar( of 
Lfundel, and Sir William Pickering, "were not out of hopes of gaining Queen Eli- 
ibeth's affections in a matrimonial way/' 



248 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

John Maitland, second son of Sir Richard Maidand, boniAi. It 
I537y after being educated in Scotland, was sent to Fmo^U L 
study the law ; in which he was eminently conspicuous. IbU^T 
his father resigned the privy-seal in his favour; but hevaiMlATH 
prived of that office for his attachment to Queen Mary. W^fa^mu i' 
excellent qualities brought him into favour with James VI.; n» 
for his great merit, probity, and faithful service, in 1586, bedi*^ -^^ 
made lord-chancellor of Uie kingdom of Scotland ; and is ISlfm'cfi 
he was created Lord Maitland of Thirlston. — He died 1595,flMil "^ 
lingering disorder, from having incurred the king's displeasneslp 
consequence of espousing the queen's plan to remove Prince Hoql ^ 
from the government of the Earl of Mar. He was interred in til': jF' 
church of Haddington ; King James honouring bim with tn 9'|1|^-X' 
taph. See " Iconographia Scotica ;" '^ Noble Authors,'' by Paik»^ li 



CLASS IV. 



^^ 



•la 



IkS 



THE CLERGY. lU 

ARCHBISHOPS AND BISHOPS. IM/ 

MATTHiEUS PARKERUS, archiepiscopusCaDt.f ''^ 
H. Holbein p. * Vertue sc. h. sh. K^ 

Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, r| 
Mt. 70. 1573. R. Berg (alias Remigius Hogenb€rg\) 
f. A book is open before him^ a bell on the table^ amu 
at the four cor?ie?^s, 12mo. Vertue thought that the arch- 
bishop's head by Hogenberg was the first portrmt en- 
graved in England, The print correspofids with an Uk- 
mination in the original copy of the Statutes of Carptu 
Christ i College in Cambridge, done by Berg, and exadlj 
traced off and etched by Mr. Tyson, and with a paint- 
ing lately in the possession of James West, esq. but it 
now the property of his Grace the Archbishop-of Canter- 

* Painted before he was archbishop. 

tThis engraver and Richard Lyne were retained in the arcbbbfaop's family* 
The latter both painted and engraved. 



OF ENGLAND. 249 

It is eMremehf probabie that this portrait vkxs 
y Lyne, who was an artist of great merit. 

THiEus Parkerus; in the ^' Heroologia P 8w. 
/ in Boissard. 

rxHiEus Parkbrus, &c. Decanus Lincoln, sub 
do VI. consec. archiep. Cant. Dec. 17, 1569. Ob. 
E7, 1576. JR. White sc. h. sh. 

iKER, archeveque de Cantorberi. Vander 
p. JP. d Gunst sc. h. sh. 

TTHiEus Parkerus, &c. 1672, JEt. 69. Vertue 
sh. 

TTHJEus Parkerus, &c. Vertue sc. 1729. Fron- 
I to his book " De Antiquitate Britanmca Ec- 
" Sfc. published by Dr. Drake ^ 1729 ; fol. 

TTHEW Parker; in an oval^ 4to. (G. Fertue.) 

TTHEW Pari&er, &c. C. Picart, 1816, from 
ginal in the collection of his Grace the Archbishop 
xterbury^ in Mr. Lodge's " Illustrious Portraits. ^^ 

bew Parker, the second Protestjuit archbisbop of Canter- Consec. 
eis a strict discipliharian, and exacted an entire conformity iT'J^ec. 
ational religion. He made a large collection of mahiacript» 
nted books, many of which belonged to abbeys, colleges, 
thedral churches, before the reformation. They relate 
o the ** Hidtory of England," ancj were given by hhn to the 
of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge. He loved and 
>ed the arts ; and employed a painter and two engravers in 
ce at Lambeth. B^sfdes the above-mentioned book, he pub- 
be " Bishops* Bible/'* and several of the best of the old 
historians ; namely, Matthew of Westminster, Matthew 
\.sser, and Walsingham. He translated the Psalms into 
verse. It should also be remembered to his honour, that 

al prelates were concerned in this translation. Mr. Selden, a Very able 
his " Table Talk/' pronounces the Englisb Bible, inclading itils and King 
raaslation, the best in the world, and the nearest to the sente of the 



I. 



2 K 



242 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

4 

and for some unguarded expressions which he let (all against the 
queen,* he was attainted, and died in the Tower in a few months 
after his trial, in Sept. 1592. Dr. Swift says, in the preface to 
his <* Polite Conversation," that he was the first that swore by 
G— 8 W— s. 

ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, was ap- 
pointed lord-deputy of Ireland, and commander of 
the forces in that kingdom, 1598-9. 

His having this command was entirely correspoodent to the 
wishes of his vigilant and artful enemies, who soon contrived to 
put him upon the forlorn hope. See the first division of this class. 

GUALTERUS DEVEREUX, comes Essexiae, 
in the " Heroologia ;" 8vo. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex; in Park's 
** Rqi/al and Noble Authors.'' Geramia sc. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex. H. Meyer sc. 
Frotn the original in the collection of the Right Hon. 
Lord Bagot. 

Cr.earl, Walter Devereux, earl of Essex, and earl-marshal of Ireland, 
was father of Elizabeth's favourite. He distinguished himself by 
suppressing a rebellion in the North, which was raised and sup* 
ported by the Earls of Cumberland and Westmoreland. He was 
afterward sent to chastise the Irish rebels ; but was unsuccessful 
in this expedition, as he was crossed in his designs by the Earl of 
Leicester and the lord-deputy Fitzwilliams. He died of a dysen- 
tery at Dublin, the 22d of September, 1576, not without a violent 
suspicion of poison, given him by the procurement of the Earl of 
Leicester, who was soon after married to his widow. f — ^''The Re- 
porte of his death" is inserted by Hearne, in his preface to " Cam- 
deni Elizabetha," sect. 26, from which copy there are several con- 
siderable variations noted in ** Hemingi Chartular. Eccles. Wigorn." 
published by Hearne, p. 707. 

* The queen, having sharply reprimanded him, afterward sent him a soothing 
leUer ; which occasioned his saying, " NoImt she is ready to bcpiss herself for fev 
of the Spaniard, I am again one of her white-boys.'* 

t Lettice, daughter of Sir Francis Kuolles. 



157«. 




■tr- b Qt.^ fl.lZ.ASETU 




?^.-. 



OF ENOLANb. 243 

CLASS III. 

PEERS. 



GEORGE CLIFFORD, earl of Cumberland; a 
ead in a sjnall oval; sLv va^ses underneath, ** Like 
Mars in valour^'' S^. This print appears to be older 
ban any, other t/iat I have seen of him. 

G£OR6ius Clifford^ comes Combriac. In the 

Herodbgiar 6w- 

iprJBORGB Clifford, &c. Ro. Va. (Vaughan) sc. 
rare. 

rEORGE, cafl of Cumberland ; dressed for a tour- 

vent ; curious. R. White sc. h. sh. rare. 

'"■ . 

p&EORGE, earl of Cumberland; dressed for a tour- 
t^ 8w- W. Richardson. 

PSsoRGE, earl of Cumberland. G. Ferine sc. See 
' ' fer. 

'j^CrEpitGE, earl of Cumberland, and his family; from 
|p| original at Skipton Castle. 

SB, earl of Cumberland. C. Prest sc. From 
^^orijginal picture, in the Bodleian Gallery, Oxford. 
^Mr. Lodge's ** Illustrious Portraits.'^ 

^George Clifford, earl of Cumberland, 158G; 
'^sh. a good print, without the name of the pai^iter or 
'Over ; in the character of the queen's champion.* 

Clifford, earl of Cumberland, the celebrated adventurer, 0. 152! 
one of those gallant noblemen who, in 1588, put themselves on 
the fleet, to oppose the Spanish Armada. He made no less 
■eleven voyages, chiefly at his own expense ; in which he did 

* His armour complete, excepting ouc gauntlet, is in a press at Appleby Ca&tlc. 
— Lord Uaxles. 




244 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

great damage to the Spaniards, and eminent service to the state; 
but greatly impaired his own fortune. Ob, 30 Oct. 1605-, ^t 47.* 

FRANCIS RUSSEL, the second earl of Bedford; 
Ob. 1585. J. Houbraken sc. 1740. In the colkctm 
of the Duke of Bedford. lUmt. Head. 

Francis Russell, earl of Bedford. H. Holbmp. 
F. Bartolozzi sc. 1796. In the Royal Collection. 

Francis Russell, earl of Bedford \fro1n the same, 
R. Dalton sc. 

Francis, eldest son of John, lord Russel, afterward earl of Bed- 
Cr. 1 548. ford, was made u knight of the Bath at the coronation of Edward VI. 
Upon the demise of that prince he was at the head of those spirited 
partisans of Mary who took arms against the faction of the Lady 
Jane Grey. He attended Philip, consort to the queen, in his expe- 
dition to France, where he shared the glory of the memorable vic- 
tory of St. Quintin. He succeeded his father in honour and estate!, 
and was sent ambassador to France and Scotland by Queen Eliza- 
beth ; who did justice to his merit, by conferring upon him several 
offices of trust and dignity.f He founded a school at Wobum, in 
Bedfordshire, and two scholarships in University College, Oxford. 
He was so bountiful to the poor, that Queen Elizabeth would mer- 
rily complain of him, " that he made all the beggars ;" " and sure," 
saith my author, " it is more honourable for a nobleman to make 
beggars by their liberality, than by their oppression :" and, what 
was more to his honour, he was, in the opinion of all that knew 
him, a firm friend to religion and virtue. Ob, 1 585, Mt. 58. 

HENRICUS HERBERTUS, comes Pem. In the 
" Heroologiaf 9>vo. 

Cr. 1551. Henry Herbert, earl of Pembroke, and knight of the Garter, 
was much in favour with Elizabeth, and a great friend and patron, 
of religion and learning. He married Mary, the accomplished and 
amiable sister of the celebrated Sir Philip Sidney, who survived 
him many years. Ob, Jan. 19, 1600-1. 

* See a curious account of the burial-place of the ClifTords, in Skipton churcbi 
in Whitaker's History of the Deanery in Com. York, p. 313. \ and Banks*s Eitinct 
Baronetage, vol. ii. p. 97, 

t See Collins's *' Peerage." 



1^ 

r 

61 

It 
11 



Of ENGLAND, 245 

PHILIP HOWARD, ead of Arundel, with his 
autograph. J. Thane ea\ 

Philip, eldest son of the unfortunate Thomas, duke of Norfolk, 
ivas called Earl of Arundel hy descent from his mother, and was, at 
different times, imprboned for his attachment to Mary, queen of 
Scots, and corresponding with Cardinal Allen and Parsons the 
Jesuit. Alarmed by those repeated attacks upon his liberty, ht 
resolved to retire abroad, and was preparing to avoid the severity 
of the laws, when, by treachery, he was apprehended in a retired 
part on the coast of Sussex* After a year's confinement he was 
sentenced to pay a fine of £10,000 and to be imprisoned during 
the queen's pleasure. In 1589 he was arraigned of high.treason ; 
and being required to hold up his hand, he raised it very high ; 
saying, " Here is as true a matCs heart and hand as ever came into this 
hall.** He was found guilty and condemned to die ; as, however, 
the earl had been convicted merely on a religious account, the 
qneen did not allow the sentence to be put in execution, but suf- 
fered him to languish in the Tower, where he died, 1595, in the 
39th year of his age. A memorial of his piety, carved by his own 
band on the stone wall of his secluded apartment, is still to be 
seen. — See Lodge's " Illustration,*' vol. ii. p. 329. See Pennant's 
** London," p. 258. edition 1805. 

AMBROSIUS DUDLEIUS, comes Warwici; 
in the ^* Heroologia ;''' 8vo. His portrait is at Wobiirn 
Abbey. 

Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick, was son of John, the great Cr. 156 
duke of Northumberland. Mary had scarcely ascended the throne, 
when he, together with his father, and under his direction, appeared 
in arms, as a partisan for Lady Jane Grey. He was, for this act 
of rebellion, attainted and condemned to die. At the accession of 
Elizabeth, he was regarded as one of the ornaments and favourites 
of the court; and, in the fourth year of her reign, was created earl 
of Warwick. He was a man of great courage, tempered with 
equal prudence. At the battle of St. Quintin, he signalized himself 1557. 
by his active bravery, and displayed, at the siege of New Haven,* 
of which he was governor, such passive fortitude as none are ca- 
pable of but great minds. He was long shut up in this place by 

* Since universally called Havre de Grace. 



246 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

a numerous army ; but held ii, with invincible firmness, daring the 
complicated miseries of war, famine, and pestilence, till he received 
an express command from Elizabeth to surrender it. In defence 
of this fortress, he received a wound in his teg, of wbich he long 
languished. At length he submitted to an amputation, which put 
an end to his life, the 20th of February, 1589, about the sixtieth 
year of his age. There is a fine monument of him in a chapel be- 
longing to the church at Warwick. 

THOMAS ARUNDELL, first lord Arundell of 
Wardour ; small oval, within an engraved frame.-- 
Upon the miniature^ and round the portrait is 1584. 
7%o: Aran: . dell S: R: I: Go'. i?i Corpore sano. En- 
graved by R. Cooper^ from a miniature in the possession 
of the Right Hon. Lard Arundell. — Private plate. 

Sir Thomas Arundell, son and heir of Sir Matthew Arundell, knt 
though but a young man, his father then living, went over into 
Germany, served as a volunteer in the Imperial army in Hungary, 
behaved himself valiantly against the Turks, and in an engagement 
at Gran, took their standard with his own hands ; on which account, 
Rudolph 11. emperor of Germany, created him count of the sacred 
Roman empire by patent, dated Prague, 14 Dec. 1595. 38 Eliz.for 
that he had behaved himself manfully in the field, as also, in as- 
saulting divers cities and castles, shewing great proof of his valour 
&c. so that every of his children, and their descendants forever, of 
both sexes, should enjoy that title, have place and vote in all Impe- 
rial diets, purchase lands in the dominions of the empire, list any 
voluntary soldiers, and not to be put to any trial but in the Imperial 
chamber. The year aflter, on his return home, a dispute arose 
among the peers, whether that dignity conferred by a foreign po- 
tentate, should be allowed here, as to place and precedence, or any 
other privilege ; which occasioned a warm dispute, that Camden 
mentions in his history of Queen Elizabeth ; and that the queen 
being asked her opinion, answered j that there was a. close tie of 
affection between the prince and subject, and that as chaste wives 
should have no glances but for their own spouses, so should faithful 
subjects keep their eyes at home, and not gaze upon foreign 
crowns ; that she, for her part, did not care her sheep should wear 
a stranger's marks, nor dance after the whistle of every foreigner ; 
whereby it passed in the negative, and tlie queen wrote the same 



OF ENGLANP. 247 

year to the emperor, acquainting himy that she forbid her subjects 
giving him place and precedence in England. He was in high fa- 
vour i/vith Rodolph II. who made him several great offers, but he 
chose to return to his native country. King James I. to coun- 
tenance his. merits, in the third year of his reign, created him a 
baron of England, under the title of Baron Arundell of Wa^rdour, 
by letters patent dated May 4th9 1605, with limitation thereof to the 
heirs male of his body. He died at Wardour Castle Nov. 7th, 1639, 
aged 79, and lies burled at Tisbury in Wilts. 

A SCOTCH PEER. 

HAMILTON, Comte d'Arran. Vander Werff pi 
P. a Gunst sc. h. sk. From Larreys " History T 

James, the third earl of Arran, and second duke of Chatel- 
herault, a title conferred upon his father by Francis I. was, in the 
earlier part of his life, the most amiable and accomplished gentle- 
man of his family. In 1555, he went to the court of France, then 
the gayest and most polished in Europe, where he was highly in 
favour with Henry H. who made him captain of his Scottish life- 
guards. Here he was first dazzled with the charms of Mary ; but 
he regarded her with that admiration with which a subject beholds 
his sovereign. As his fi|ther had been regent of Scotland,, and waa, 
upon failure of issue from that princess, declared by the three 
estates of the kingdom heir to the crown, his views were aspiring, 
and he was once in hopes of gaining Queen Elizabeth in marriage.* 
When Mary returned to her native country, he conceived the 
strongest passion for her; a passion in which ambition seems to 
have had Fittle or no part ; but being treated with coldness and 
neglect, he abandoned himself to solitude, and indulged his me- 
lanchdLy, which brought on an almost total deprivation of his rea- 
son, and cut short the expectations of his friends and . admirers 
Oh. 1609. 

^ ' - * 

JOHN MAITLAND of Lethington, lord Thirles- 
tan, and lord high-chancellor of Scotland. Trotter 
sc. In Smith's *^ Iconograpkia ScoticaJ' 

*Dod, in his " Church History/' vol. ii. p. 51, sajs, that this earl, the Ear) of 
Arandel, and Sir Wiliiam Pickering, "were not ou| of hopes of gaining Queen Eli- 
zabeth's affections in a matrimonial way." 



3 



248 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

John Maitland, second son of Sir Richard Maitland, born about 
1537y after being educated in Scotland, was sent to France to 
study the law ; in which he was eminently conspicuous. In 1567, 
his father resigned the privy-seal in his favour; but he was de- 
prived of that office for his attachment to Queen Mary. His many 
excellent qualities brought him into favour with James VI. ; anct 
for his great merit, probity, and faithful service, in 1586, hevas 
made lord-chancellor of the kingdom of Scotland ; and in 1590) ^ 
he was created Lord Maitland of Thirlston. — He died 1595, ofi 
lingering disorder, from having incurred the king's displeasure in 
consequence of espousing the queen's plan to remove Prince Henry 
from the government of the Earl of Mar. He was interred in the 
church- of Haddington ; King James honouring bim with an epi- 
taph. See " Iconographia Scotica ;" " Noble Authors," by Park, Ac. 



wf 
V 



CLASS IV. 
THE CLERGY. 

ARCHBISHOPS AND BISHOPS. 

M ATTHiEUS PARKERUS, archiepiscopus CaBt. 
H. Holbein p. * Vertue sc. h. sh. 

Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, 
Mt. 70. 1573. JR. Berg (alias Remigius Hogenberg\) 
f. A book is open befoi^e him, a bell on the table, arm 
at the four corners, 12mo. Vertue thought that the arch- 
bishop's head by Hogenberg was the first portrait en- 
graved in England. The print corresponds with an ilk- 
mination in the original copy of the Statutes of Corpus 
Christi College in Cambridge, done by Berg, and exactly 
traced off and etched by Mr. Tyson, and with a paint- 
ing lately in the possession of James West, esq^ but it 
now the property of his Grace the Archbiskop^of Canter- 

* Painted before he was archbishop. 

t This engraver and Richard Lyne were retained In the arcbil)bhop's famii^' 
The latter both painted and engraved. 



y 
\ 



i 



OP BNOLAND. 249 

^n^. It is eMremety ptofmble thai this portrait was 
flone fpy Lyne,who was an artist of great merit. 

Math^us Parkerus; in the ^' Heroologia ;' %vo. 
A copy in Boissard. 

Matthjeus Parkerus, &c. Decanus Lincoln, sub 
Edi^drdo FT. consec. archiep. Cant. Dec. 17, 1559. Ob. 
Mmn, 1679. R. White sc. h. sh. 

Parker, archeveque de Cantorberi. Vander 
^rffp. P. a Gunst sc. h. sh. 

Matth^eus Parkerus, &c. 1572, ^t. 69. Verttte 
sc. h. sh. 

Matthjeus Parkerus, &c. Vertuesc. 1729, Fron- 
tispiece to his book " De Antiquitate Britannica Ec^ 
clesicB,''' 8^c. published by Dr. Drake j 1729 ; fol. 

Matthew Parker ; in an ovaly Ato. (G. Fertue.) 

Matthew Parker, &c. C. Picart, 1815, from 
the original in the collection of his Grace the Archbishop 
of Canterbury^ in Mr. Lodge's " Illustrious Portraits.^' 

Matthew Parker, the second Protestant archbishop of Canter- Consec 
bui^, was a stric^t disciplihdrian, and exacted an entire conformity 17' Dec. 
to the national religi6n. He made a large collection of manuscripts 
and printed books, many of which belonged! to abbeys, colleges^ 
and cathedral churches, before the reformation. They relate 
cMefly to the *' History of England," and were given by hhn to the 
library of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge. He loved and 
patronised the arts ; and employed a painter and two engravers in 
lii0':^hkc€i at Lambetii. B^sfdes the ab6Ve-rtiehtioned book, he pub- 
lished the " Bishops' Biblcj*'* and several of the best of the old 
English historians ; namely, Matthew of Westminster, Matthew 
Paris, Asser, and Walsingham. He translated the Psalms into 
Englitth tetse. It should also be remembered to his honour, that 

^ Several prelates were concerned in this translation. Mr. Selden, a very able 
judge, in his " Table Talk/ pronoances the English Bible, ihclading this and King 
James's translation, the best in the world, and the ne&rest to tli^ seh^e of the 
original. 

VOL. I. 2 k 



242 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

A 

and for some unguarded expressions which he let fall against the 
queen,* he was attainted, and died in the Tower in a few months 
after his trial, in Sept. 1592. Dr. Swift says, in the preface to 
his <* Polite Conversation," that he was the first that swore by 
G— s W— s. 

ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, was ap- 
pointed lord-deputy of Ireland, and commander of 
tiie forces in that kingdom, 1598-9. 

His having this command was entirely correspondent to the 
wishes of his vigilant and artful enemies, who soon contrived to 
put him upon the forlorn hope. See the first division of this class. 

GUALTERUS DEVEREUX, comes Essexise; 
in the '^ Heroologia ;" 8vo. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex; in Park's 
** Royal and Noble Authors.^' Geramia sc. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex. H. Meyer sc. 
From the original in the collection of the Right Hon. 
Lord Bagot. 

Cr.earl, Walter Devereux, earl of Essex, and earl-marshal of Ireland, 
was father of Elizabeth's favourite. He distinguished himself by 
suppressing a rebellion in the North, which was raised and sup- 
ported by the Earls of Cumberland and Westmoreland. He was 
afterward sent to chastise the Irish rebels ; but was unsuccessful 
in this expedition, as he was crossed in his designs by the Eavl of 
Leicester and the lord-deputy Fitzwilliams. He died of a dysen- 
tery at Dublin, the 22d of September, 1576, not without a violent 
suspicion of poison, given him by the procurement of the Earl of 
Leicester, who was soon after married to his widow. f — ^**The Re- 
porte of his death" is inserted by Hearne, in his preface to ** Cam- 
deni Elizabetha," sect. 26, from which copy there are several con- 
siderable variations noted in ** Hemingi Chartular. Eccles. Wigorn." 
published by Hearne, p. 707. 

♦The queen, having sharply reprimanded him, afterward sent him a soothing 
letter ; which occasioned his saying, " No^ she is ready to bepiss herself for fttt 
of the Spaniard, I am again one of her. white-boys." 

t Lettice, daughter of Sir Francis Kuolles. 



157«. 




a^lefr. 



i JlSOItEt whu-i AtiwA/*. f><rl iTAJ.'PA. /t^j /bur/A 






r OP ENGLAND. 253 

This learned pselate, who baJd the felicity, and I may add the Consec. 
^vjy of being preceptor to the Lady Jane Grey,* was one of the ^57^"' 
exiles for veligion in the reign of Mary. During his residence in 
Switzerland, he assisted John Fox in translating his Mart^rology 
into Latin, and wrote a spirited answer to Knox's " First Bla^ of the 
Trumpet, against the monstrous Regiment and Empire of Women:" 
a pamphlet, not only remarkable for its insolence in re&ipect of tb^ 
subject,t but also for the acrimony of style which distinguishes ithe 
works of that turbulent reformer. The zeal and assiduity of this 
bishop, in maintaining the doctrine and discipline of the church of 
England,. reeommended him to the particular favour of Queen Eli- 
zabeth. It was usual with him, when he saw occasion, to rouse the 
attention of hb audience to his sermons, to take a Hebrew ]^ible 
out of his pockiet, and read them a few verses, and then to resume 
his discourse. Strype tells us in his '^ Life," among other instances 
^liis resolution, that he had a tooth drawn, to encourage the queen 
to submit to the like operation.} Ob, 3 June, 1594. See Ascham's ^ 
Schoolmaster, p. 11. 

RICHARD COX, bishop of Ely ; from an orir 
ginal picture in Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Clamp sc. 4to. 

This learned divine was born at Whaddon, in Buckinghamshire, 
of obscure parents, in the year 1499. After receiving the rudiments 
of his education in the small priory of Snelshall in the parish of 
Whaddon ; he was sent to Eton school, and thence elected into a 
scholarship at King's College in Cambridge, in 1518, of which he 
became fellow in 1519, and having become eminent for piety and 
learning, was invited to Oxford by Carclinal Wolsey, as one of the 
scholars to fill up his new foundation. But by his aversion to many 
of the popish superstitions, and open preference for some of Lu- 
ther's opinions, he drew on himself the displeasure of the governors 
cf th^university, who. deprived him of his preferment, and impri- 
soned him on suspicion of heresy. On his releasement be left Ox- 
ford, and was some time after chosen master of Etoh school, which 

* Whom he taught so gently, so pleasantly, and with ^ch fair alloreip^s to 
learning, that she thought all the time nothing while she was with him ', and when 
sl^ -was called from him, she would fall a weeping because that whatsoever she did 
also but learning, was to her full of trouble, grief, and altogether roislikuig to her. 
AMcham's Schoolmaster, p. 13. 

t Written agMast the <}aeenB of England and Scotland. 

t Altbougli the Bbhop lost hia tpotb, iba qoeeii kept her*--— Lo;»d Haxlxs. 



^UM BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

- ' flboiiilied exceedingly through 

k commenced doctcnr in divinity at Cambridge ; in 1640 vean^ 
archdeacon of Ely; and. in 1541 waa appointed the first pcttMB^ 
darj in the first stall of Uie same cathedral, upon Ae new fiiandiBg 
of it by King Heniy VIII. 

Soon after Queen Mar/s accession to the crown, Dr« Cos mi 
stripped of his preferments ; and in 1553 conimittad to die Maiii 
.sbalseay but soon being released froni confinement, and f o i ' e« a is g 
the persecution likely to ensue, he resolved to <juit the tedn, and 
retire to some place where he might enjoy the free nercise of 1m 
rdigiony according to the form established in the leign of Ebi^ 
Edward* 

After the death of Queen Mary he returned, to Bngbnd, and ml 

<me of those divines who were i^pointed to revise tlie litaigjK 

•July 15/1559, he was elected bishop of Ely, and enjoyed the tfidr 

copal dignity about, twenty-one years and' seven moiidis» ifag 

' July 22, 1581, in the 82d year of his age. 

JOANNES JUELLUS, episc. in the " Berooih 
giar %vo. 

Joannes Juellus; in the ** Continuation of 
sard/' 4to. 

John Juell; 24to. 

John Jevell (Jewell), bishop of Salisbury, S^^ 
12mo. 

Johannes Jewell, 8cc. frontispiece to his ^* Ap(h 
^gy" together with his " Zi/e, made English by a Per- 
son of Quality/' 1685 j %vo. 

Johannes Jewellius; J^. 40. Vertue sc. h. 

J. Jewel, &c,. with several other small heads 
Vertue. Before the " Abridgment of Burners ITu 
of the Reformation/' \2mo. 

John Jewel ; in the ** Oxford Almanack^ 
1758. 

Consec. This excellent prelate was one of the greatest champions of thi| 
1559-60. reformed religion ; as he was to the church of England what Bdltf* 



OP ENGLAND. 265 

lame was to that of Rome. His admirable ^^ Apology'' for the 
natioDid church was translated from the Latin, by Anne, the second 
of the four learned daughters of Sir Anthony Coke, and mother of 
Sir Francis Bacon. It was published, as it came from her pen, 
in 1564, with the approbation of the queen and the prelates. The 
jame '^ Apology" was printed in Greek at Constantinople, under 
the direction of Cyril the patriarch, who was murdered by the 
Jesuits.* 

. Bishop JeweKs " Defence of his own Apology against Harding, 
and other Popish Divines," was in so great esteem, that it was 
commanded by Elizabeth, James I. and Charles I. and four suc- 
cessive archbishops, to be kept chained in all parish churches, for 
public use. He had the most extraordinary memory of any man 
of his age ; being Me to repeat a sermon of his own composing, 
after once reading. 

JOHN STILL, bishop of Bath and Wells ; Ob. 
Feb. 26, 1607, JEt. 64. Drawn by S. Harding; en- 
graved by J. Jones ; private plate ; rare. From an ori- 
ginal painting (dated 1607), in the library of Trinity 
College, Cambridge^ Sgc. Sgc. 

The plate was engraved at the expense of the late 
George Steevens ; who, after taking off twenty impres- 
sions^ which he presented to his friends^ destroyed the 
plate. 

It has been lately copied. 

He was son of Wm. Still, of Grantham, in Lincolnshire ; and be- 
came a member of Christ College, Cambridge, where he took the 
degree of M. A. He was afterward rector of Hadleigh and arch- 
deacon of Sudbury, and successively master of St. John's and Tri- 
nity Colleges in Cambridge, and yice-chancellor, prebendary of 
Westminster; and in 1592 bishop of Bath and Wells ; to which he 
was appointed after the see had remained vacant two years, upon 
the death of Bishop Godwin. Here he continued till his death. 
It is not known that he left behind him any writings in the line of 
his profession ; but if the following circumstances are judged suf-^ 

* Ricaut^t " Tarkish Hist." p. 1491. 



Its BIOORAPHIQXL BnTO&r 






fliSeat'to eatkUuh hini Uw aatlm^ of Qammer Gtitbi 
fint regnl&r Engltih cotatdj, hir cfium to a ccmsiderabl^ 
dramatic reputadoa cannot be rofuied kim. The title m fte Ut 
impression of that play nms thus : " A Ryght Pithy Pleasarit>4 
nerie Comedie, Intytnled Gammer Gurton'a Nedle -, Played ■ 
Stage, not longe Kgo in Chritte's CoUedge in Cambridge ; mii 
bj Mr- S. M' of Art Imprynted at London in Fleete Slra| 
beneath the Conduit, at the aigne of S. John Evangelist, by lUt 
aaaColweU. (Date at the end of the boolc) 1575. Black ldB^ 
qnttrto." In the Burger's Books of Christ's College, reign of A 
tabeth 1566, is this entry: " ftem, tor the cstpenters sHbBe>4| 
tbe ictiSbld at the place sx'.'' As at tliat time there was ne'dte 
Aaster of arts At Christ's College, whose name began with U^ 
sUd it is not probable that any other person than one belonj 
the house where the play was acted, would be empioyed ia 
it, there is little reason to hesitate in ascribing this pli 
Still as its author. 

HERBERT WESTPHALING, W. ^ch* 
From an original' picture, Am. Dni. 1601 ; 
sua: 67. 

Herbert Westphaling, so called from his grandfatlier being i 
native of Westptialing, at the ag^ of 15 was entered a studentof 
Christ Church, and took the degrees of master of arts; was is- 
stalled canon of the said church ; in 1577 was canon of Windsof! 
and in 1585 was consecrated bishop of Hereford, and was esteemed 
a person of great gravity, integrity, and most worthy of his ftiiifr 
tion. Me died 1601-2, and was buried in the cathednll church d 
Hereford. — See Wood's Athense Oioniensis. 

WILLIAM BLETHEIN, LL. B. bishop .<if 
daff; in the " Oxford Almanack" 1750. 

William Blethein, or Bleythyn, anative of Wales, was edocAedn 
New Inn, or Broadgate Hall ;• where, applying himself to the stndj 
of civil law, he took one degree in 1562 ; and afterward in I57I 
became archdeacon of Brecknock and prebendary ofOsbaldswjfa 
in the church of York, In 1575 he was consecrated bishop rf 
LandaiF. Ob. 1590, and was buried at Mathem, in Monmcmti- 
shire. 

" Now Pembroke College. 



1 



OF ENGLAND- 247 

^ to the emperor, acquainting him> that she forbid her subjects 
^iQg him place and precedence in England. He was in high fa- 
■aur with Rodolph II. who made him several great offers, but he 
'Cse to return to his native country. King James I. to ceun- 
tiance his. merits, in the third year of his reign, created him a 
kvoQ of England, under the title of Baron Arundell of Wa^rdour, 
^ letters patent dated May 4thy 1605, with limitation thereof to the 
sirs male of his body. He died at War dour Castle Nov. 7th, 1639, 
^d 79, and lies buried at I'isbury in Wilts* 

A SCOTCH PEER. 

HAMILTON, Comte d^Arran. Vender Werff pi 
*. a Gunst sc. h. sk. From Larreys " History T 

James, the third earl of Arran, and second duke of Chatel- 
irault, a title conferred upon his father by Francis I. was, in the 
ulier part of his life, the most amiable and accomplished gentle- 
an of his family. In 1555, he went to the court of France, then 
le gayest and most polished in Europe, where he was highly in 
ivour with Henry H. who made him captain of his Scottish lifc- 
uards. Here he was first dazzled with the charms of Mary; but 
e regarded her with that admiration with whidi a subject beholds 
is sovereign. As his fi|ther had been regent of Scotland, and was, 
pon failure of issue from that princess, declared by the three 
states of the kingdom heir to the crown, his views were aspiring, 
ad he was once in hopes of gaining Queen Elizabeth in marriage.* 
\rhen Mary returned to her native country, he conceived the 
trongest passion for her ; a passion in which ambition seems to 
ave had little or no part ; but being treated with coldness and 
eglect, he abandoned himself to solitude, and indulged his me- 
inchdly, which brought on an almost total deprivation of his rea- 
)n, and cut short the expectations of his friends and .admirers 
>A. 1609. 

JOHN MAITLAND of Lethington, lord Thirles- 
an/ and lord high-chancellor of Scotland. Trotter 
*:. In Smith's ^^ IconographiaSc&tica'' 

* Dod, in his " Church History," vol. ii. p. SI, sajs, that this eatl, the Earf of 
rundel, and Sir William Pickering, "were not out of hopes of gaining Queen Eli- 
tbeth's affections in a matrimonial way/' 



In 



■ I 



i 



\ 



•I 



OF ENGLAND. 247 

fcar to the emperor, acquainting him, that she forbid her subjects 
^ving him place and precedence in England. He was in high fa- 
vour ^lih Rodolph II. who made him several great offers, but he 
chose to return to his native country. King James I. to coun- 
tenance his. merits, in the third year of his reign, created him a 
baron of England, under the title of Baron Arundell of Wa^rdour, 
by letters patent dated May 4thy 1605, with limitation thereof to the 
heirs male of his body. He died at Wardour Castle Nov. 7th, 1639, 
aged 79, and lies buried at llsbury in Wilts* 

A SCOTCH PEER. 

HAMILTON, Comte d^Arran. Vender Werff p. 
P. a Gunst sc. k. sh. From Larreys ** History.''' 

James, the third earl of Arran, and second duke of Chatel- 
herault, a title conferred upon his father by Francis I. was, in the 
es^rlier part of his life, the most amiable and accomplished gentle- 
man of his family. In 1555, he went to the court of France, then 
the gayest and most polished in Europe, where he was highly in 
favour with Henry H. who made him captain of his Scottish life- 
guards. Here he was first dazzled with the charms of Mary; but 
he regarded her with that admiration with whidi a subject beholds 
his sovereign. As his fi|ther had been regent of Scotland, and was, 
upon failure of issue from that princess, declared by the three 
estates of the kingdom heir to the crown, his Views were aspiring, 
and he was once in hopes of gaining Queen Elizabeth in marriage.* 
When Mary returned to her native country, he conceived the 
strongest passion for her; a passion in which ambition seems to 
have had little or no part ; but being treated with coldness and 
neglect, he abandoned himself to solitude, and indulged his me- 
lancholy, which brought on an almost total deprivation of his rea- 
son, and cut short the expectations of his friends and .admirers 
Ob. 1609. 

JOHN MAITLAND of Lethington, lord Thirles- 
tao, and lord high-chancellor of Scotland. Trotter 
sc. In Smith's ^^ Iconographia Skotica J' 

* Dod, in his " Cbarch History/' vol. ii. p. SI, sajs, that this earl, the £ar( of 
Arandel, and Sir William Piclcering, "were not out of hopes of gaining Queen Eli- 
zabeth's affections hi a matrimonial way/' 



242 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

A 

and for some unguarded expressions which he let fall against the 
queen,* he was attainted, and died in the Tower in a few months 
after his trial, in Sept. 1592. Dr. Swift says, in the preface to 
his <* Polite Conversation," that he was the first that swore by 
G— s W— s. 

ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, was ap- 
pointed lord-deputy of Ireland, and commander of 
tiie forces in that kingdom, 1598-9. 

His haying this command was entirely correspoodent to the 
wishes of his vigilant and artful enemies, who soon contrived to 
put him upon the forlorn hope. See the first division of this class. 

GUALTERUS DEVEREUX, comes Essexise; 
in the *' Heroologia ;" 8vo. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex; f;; Park's 
** Royal and Noble Authors.''' Geramia sc. 

Walter Devereux, earl of Essex. H. Meyer sc. 
From the original in the collection of the Right Hon, 
Lord Bagot. 

Cr.earl, Walter Devereux, earl of Essex, and earl-marshal of Ireland, 
was father of Elizabeth's favourite. He distinguished himself by 
suppressing a rebellion in the North, which was raised and sup* 
ported by the Earls of Cumberland and Westmoreland. He was 
afterward sent to chastise the Irish rebels ; but was unsuccessful 
in this expedition, as he was crossed in his designs by the Earl of 
Leicester and the lord-deputy Fitzwilliams. He died of a dysen- 
tery at Dublin, the 22d of September, 1 576, not without a violent 
suspicion of poison, given him by the procurement of the Earl of 
Leicester, who was soon after married to his widow. f — ^**The Re- 
porte of his death" is inserted by Hearne, in his preface to " Cam- 
deni Elizabetha," sect. 26, from which copy there are several con- 
siderable variations noted in ** Hemingi Chartular. Eccles. Wigorn." 
published by Hearne, p. 707. 

♦The queen, having sharply reprimanded him, afterward sent him a soothing 
letter ; which occasioned his sajing, " Now she is ready to bepiss herself for ft«f 
of the Spaniard, I am again one of her. white-boys.'' 

t Lettice, daughter of Sir Francis Kuolles. 



157«. 



2fi0 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Latin oration, spoken at his funeral in St. Mary*8 chwrch, 25 May, 
1607; or the translation of it, in Fuller's ** Abel Rediyivus." 

GULIELMUS WHITAKERUS ; in the ''Heroo- 
logia ;" %vo. 

GuLiELMus Whitakerus ; in the Continuation of 
Boissard; 4to. 

W1LI4IAM Whitacres (Whitaker). Marshall sc. 
small. In Fuller's '' Holy Stated 

Will. Whitaker; 2Ato. 

The right learned divine Wm. W bit AH.'ERy of Trinity 
College, in Cambridge, and master of St. John^s Collie 
there. He wrote many learned books against these 
English priestSy Stapleton, Sanders, Reignolds,* and 
Campian ; as also against that great arch-Jesuit Robert 
Bellarmine. He lived godly, was painful in precxhing, 
and died peaceably, 1595. Sold by Stent; 4to. 

JTiere is a portrait of him at St. John's College, in 
Cambridge, much like the print in the ** Heroologia.^' 

William Whitaker. John Payne sc. Sold by 
Compton Holland. 

Dr. Whitaker was presented by the queen to the chancellorship 
of St. Paul's, London, the 1st of Oct. 1580. He resigned this pre- 
ferment in 1587. It was a maxim with him, that refreshing the 
memory was a matter of great importance in every kind of learning, 
but especially in the most useful parts of it. He therefore read 
over his grammar and logic once every year. Bellarmine, his an- 
tagonist, said he was the most learned heretic that ever he read. 
Oh. 1595, Mt. 43. 

THOMAS BECONUS, &c. M. 49, 1560; on the 
back of the title to his works, printed by John Day, 
1564 ; fol 

I dm informed that there is a small head of him on 

• Sic Orig. 



OF ENGLAND. 261 

the back of his ^' Reliques of Rome^'' in l2mo. and 
that it represents him in the A\st year of his age, and 
i^ dated 1553. 

Thomas Beconus ; in the " HeroologiaT Sw. 

Thomas Beacon was professor of divinity at Oxford,* in the reign 
of Edward VI. In the next reign, he retired into Germany, whence 
he wrote a consolatory epistle to the persecuted Protestants in Eng- 
land. His works, which are all in English, except his book ** De 
Coena Domini," are in three vols., fol. He is said to have been the 
Brst Englishman that wrote against bowing at the name of Jesus. f 
Re had no higher preferment in the church than a prebend of Can- 
kerbuiy, to which he was promoted in this reign. 

HUGH PRICE. Vertue sc\ h. sh. 

Hugh Price; in the *^ Oxford Almanack,'' 1740, 
kneeling to Queen Elizabeth. 

Hugh Price, or ap Rice, prebendary of Rochester, and treasurer 
of St. David's, left 160/. a year to Jesus College, in Oxford; for 
which donation he is sometimes styled the founder. Ob. 1574. 

DAVID WHITEHET (Whithead, or White- 
head) ; in the " Heroologia ;' 8vo. 

David Whitehead ; in Fuller's " Holy State.'' 
Marshall. 

David Whitehead ; in Freherus. 

David Whitehead, styled by Mr. Wood " a most heavenly pro- 
fessor of divinity,*' was some time chaplain to Anne Bolen. In the 
reign of Mary, he went into voluntary exile in Germany, and upon 
the accession of Elizabeth returned to England. He had a hand 



* So says the author of the ** Heroologia ;" bat Bishop Tanner says that be was 
.educated at Cambridge. 

t It is probable that he was not the author of a Treatise against bowing at the 
name of Jesus; as it is not specified in the list of his works by Holland, nor by 
Bbbop Tanner. Wood mentions a person of both his names, as the author of such 
a Treatise. See Athen. Oson. i. col. 409. He was doubtless a prebendary of 
Canterbury ; but is by BatteJy, and Lc Neve after him, called Thomas Bacon* 



Si 



i 



244 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

great damage to the Spaniards, and eminent service to the state; 
but greatly impaired his own fortune. Ob. 30 Oct. 1605-, MAI* 

FRANCIS RUSSEL, the second earl of Bedford; 
Ob. 1585. J. Houbraken sc. 1740. In the colkctm 
of the Duke of Bedford. lUust. Head. 

Francis Russell, earl of Bedford. H. Holbemp. 
F. Bartolozzi sc. 1796, In the Royal Collection. 

Francis Russell, earl of Bedford \from the same, 
R. Dalton sc. 

Francis, eldest son of John, lord Russel, afterward earl of Bed- 
Cr. 1 548. ford, was made u knight of the Bath at the coronation of Edward VL 
Upon the demise of diat prince he was at the head of those spirited 
partisans of Mary who took arms against the faction of the Lady 
Jane Grey. He attended Philip, consort to the queen, in his expe- 
dition to France, where he shared the glory of the memorable Yich 
tory of St. Quintin. He succeeded his father in honour and estate 
and was sent ambassador to France and Scotland by Queen Eliza- 
beth ; who did justice to his merit, by conferring upon him several 
offices of trust and dignity.f He founded a school at Wobum, in 
Bedfordshire, and two scholarships in University College, Oxford. 
He was so bountiful to the poor, that Queen Elizabeth would mer- 
rily complain of him, " that he made all the beggars ;" " and sure," 
saith my author, " it is more honourable for a nobleman to make | 
beggars by their liberality, than by their oppression :" and, what 
was more to his honour, he was, in the opinion of all that knew 
him, a firm friend to religion and virtue. Ob. 1585, ^t. 58. 

HENRICUS HERBERTUS, comes Pern. In the 
" Heroologiaf 8w. 

Cr. 1551. Henry Herbert, earl of Pembroke, and knight of the Garter, 
was much in favour with Elizabeth, and a great friend and patron, 
of religion and learning. He married Mary, the accomplished and 
amiable sister of the celebrated Sir Philip Sidney, who survived 
him many years. Ob. Jan. 19, 1600-1. 

* See a curious account of the burial-place of the Cliffords, in Skipton churdif 
in Whitaker's History of the Deanery in Com. York, p. 313. y and Banks's Extinct 
Baronetage, vol. ii. p. 97. 

t Sec CoUins's «' Peerage." 



OJ ENGLAND. 246 

IILIP HOWARD, earl of Arundel, with his 
raph. J. Thane ea\ 

ip, eldest son of the unfortunate Thomas, duke of Norfolk, 
led Earl of Arundel by descent from his mother, and wa3> at 
It times, imprisoned for his attachment to Mary, queen of 
and corresponding with Cardinal Allen and Parsons the 
Alarmed by those repeated attacks upon his liberty, h6 
d to retire abroad, and was preparing to avoid the severity 
aws, when, by treachery, he was apprehended in a retired 
1 the coast of Sussex. After a year's confinement he was 
;ed to pay a fine of £10,000 and to be imprisoned during 
sen's pleasure. In 1589 he was arraigned of high-treason ; 
ling required to hold up his hand, he raised it very high ; 
*' Here is as true a man's heart and hand as ever came into this 
He was found guilty and condemned to die; as, however, 
1 had been convicted merely on a religious account, the 
iid not allow the sentence to be put in execution, but suf- 
lim to languish in the Tower, where he died, 1595, in the 
iar of his age, A memorial of his piety, carved by his own 
n the stone wall of his secluded apartment, is still to be 
See Lodge's " Illustration,*' vol. ii. p. 329. See Pennant's 
on," p. 258. edition 1805. 

[BROSIUS DUDLEIUS, comes Warwici; 
** HeroologiaT Sw. His portrait is at Wobiirn 

rose Dudley, earl of Warwick, was son of John, the great Cr. 1562. 
* Northumberland. Mary had scarcely ascended the throne, 
3, together with his father, and under his direction, appeared 
I, as a partisan for Lady Jane Grey. He was, for this act 
lion, attainted and condemned to die. At the accession of 
th, he was regarded as one of the ornaments and favourites 
lourt ; and, in the fourth year of her reign, was created earl 
wick. He was a man of great courage, tempered with 
nidence. At the battle of St. Quintin, he signalized himself 1557. 
sujtive bravery, and displayed, at the siege of New Haven,* 
h he was governor, such passive fortitude as none are ca- 
r but great minds. He was long shut up in this place by 

* Since universally called Havre de Grace. 



to 
b 

1 



[kt 



246 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

a numeroas aimy ; bat held H, with hiTiiicible finnn^, doling the 
complicated miseries of war, famine, and pestOence, till he ftcdvei 
an express command from Elizabeth to surrender it. In defence 
of this fortress, he received a wound in his leg, of which be kng 
languished. At length he submitted to an amputation, which pot 
an end to his life, the 20th of February, 1589, about the sixtkA 
year of his age. There is a fine monument of him in a chapel be- 
longing to the church at Warwick. 

THOMAS ARUNDELL, first lord Arundell of 
Wardour ; small oval^ within an engraved frame,- 
Upon the miniature^ and round the portrait is 1 584. 
TTio: Aran: dell S: R : I: G(f. in Corpore sano. £«• I 
graved by R. Cooper, from a miniature in the possession y * 
of the Right Hon. Lord Arundell. — Private plate. r' 

lea 

Sir Thomas Arundell, son and heir of Sir Matthew Arundell, knt 1.^ 

though but a young man, his father then living, went over into |^ 
Germany, served as a volunteer in the Imperial army in Hungary, 
behaved himself valiantly s^ainst the Turks, and in an engagement 
at Gran, took their standard with his own hands ; on which accoont, 
Rudolph II. emperor of Germany, created him count of the sacred 
Roman empire by patent, dated Prague, 14 Dec. 1595. 38 Eliz.for 
that he had behaved himself manfully in the field, as also, in as- 
saulting divers cities and castles, shewing great proof of his valour 
&c. so that every of his children, and their descendants for ever, of 
both sexes, should enjoy that title, have place and vote in all Impe- 
rial diets, purchase lands in the dominions of tlie empire, list any 
voluntary soldiers, and not to be put to any trial but in the Imperial 
chamber. The year after, on his return home, a dispute arose 
among the peers, whether that dignity conferred by a foreign po- 
tentate, should be allowed here, as to place and precedence, or any 
other privilege ; which occasioned a warm dispute, that Camden 
mentions in his history of Queen Elizabeth ; and that the queen 
being asked her opinion, answered, that there was a close tie of 
affection between the prince and subject, and that as chaste wives 
should have no glances but for their own spouses, so should faithful 
subjects keep their eyes at home, and not gaze upon foreign 
crowns ; that she, for her part, did not care her sheep should wear 
a stranger's marks, nor dance after the whistle of every foreigner; 
whereby it passed in the negative, and the queen wrote the same 



OF EN0LA17D: 365: 

criM the silyfir-toiigiied pifeacher; as dioagh he were seeond to 
DtarfBCtttouiy to whom the epithet cfgokkH h s^topriated. Ob. dr. 
IdOOi 

, CUUELMtrS PMKINSIUS ? in the '^ Heroo^ 

GuLi£LMt/s PiRKiNsius; ifi the CdTttiAuaiion of 
Boissard; a copy from the above.* 

GuLiELisrus P^RKiNsius, Aiig, nervosiss. et clar. 
ihtot Sim. Pass sc. a good head : the ornaments were 
Invented by Crisp. Pass, junior. Title to the Dutch 
edition of his works j 1615 ; foL 

William Perkins, &c. Marshal sc. small; in 
Filler's '' Holy State.'' 

William Perkins; 24to. 

Willi Aiic Perkins; sia: verses; Ato. G. Glover; 
scarce. 

William Perkins. R. Elstracke sculp. Sold by 
Ccmpton Holland. 

William Perkins, with emblematical figures; by 
T. Matham. 

" William Perkins, Christ's College, in Cain- 
bridge, born at Mars tone, in Warwickshire, a learned 
divine. He' wrote many learned works, dispersed 
through Great Britain, France^ Germany, the Low 
Countries, and Spain; many translated into the 
French, German, and Italian tongues : a man indus- 
tHous arid painful, who, though he were lame of his 
right hand, wrote all with his left. He died at Cam-' 
bridge, 1602." Sold by Stent; Ato. 

* The heads in Boissard's ** Bibliotbeca Cbalcographica*' and the Continttatien 
are copies; but |he engritven have generally done justice to the likenesses of the 
pfrsons. 

VOL. I. 2 M 



260 BIOQRAPHIOAL Uli^TORY 



f. 



An unoominoii quiclmeM of sight and apprehensioiiy oontriboted 
to give Yam the ezceUent knack he was maater of, in quickly nm- 
niog through a folio, and entirely entering into the author^s subject^ 
while he appeared to be only skimming the aurfoce. He was de- 
prfred by Ardibishop lyhitgift for Puritanism. This, and the two 
fdlowing divines, were snch as were sometimes called co/rfmrmu^ 
mmeorfarmiits, as they were against separation firom the national 
church. 

RICHARD US ROGERSIUS, theologus Canta- 
brigiensis ; two Latin verses ; in the Continuation of 
Boissard; 4to. 

Richard Rogers, ** Preacher of God's Word at 
Wethersfield in Essex J* 

Richard Rogers, a learned divine of Puritan prfaiciple8y.fiouri8hed 
at Cambridge at the same time with Perkins, and waa about the 
same time deprived by Archbishop Whitgift.* He waa much ad- 
mired as a preacher. Bishop Humphreys, in hia MS. additions to 
the '^AthenflB Oxonien8es,'^t mentions an archdeacon of St. Asaph 
of both his namea. Quaere, if the same person? 

Mr. BRIGHTMAN, Mat. sua^ 45 ; frontispiece 
to his " Revelation of the Revelations.'* 

Thomas Brightman, rector of Hawnes, in Bedfordshire, was edu- 
cated at Queen*s College, in Cambridge. He wrote commentaries 
in Latin pn the ^* Canticles," and the '' Apocalypse ;** the latter of 
which, for a long time, made a great noise in the world. He, ia 
that book, makea Archbishop Cranmer the angel having power over 
the fire, and the Lord-treasurer Cecil the angel of the waters, justi- 
fying the pouring out the third vial. The church of England is the 
lukewarm church of Laodicea ; ** the angel that Giod loved," is the 

* His Commentavj ea Judges was poUished in 1615* Mid dedicated ta Sir Ed- 
ward Coke, lord chief-justice, and bis seven Treatises were printed in 1616, dedi* 
cated to King James. In neither of these dedications, nor in his prefisces, does he 
make complaint; but professes aU due honour both to his majesty and to the 
^ord chief-justice.^ 

f Vide T. Caii Vindiciss Antiquitatis Acad. Onm. p. 650. 



t If therefore^ dofitftaee any giaund to suppose that he bad been deprived.- 
Loan Hailbs* 











^ 

^ 




1 


ll'Jl'l Ceonre H:irt^ilL [|| 


■ 



i/rsAW Ji-/! j;^^. if WH ichardton York Hnttsr Jtrand Lon 



OP ENGLAND. 267 

UDtiepiscopal church of Geneva, and that of Scotland ; and the 
power of prelacy is Antichrist. In the reign of Charles I. when 
the bishops w«re expelled the house of peers, and several of them 
imprisoned, Brightman was cried up for ati inspired writer ; and an 
abridgment of his book entitled, '^ The Revelation of the Revela- 
tions," was printed.* He is said to have prayed for sudden death, 
and to have died travelling in a coach, with a book in his hand, 
1607. 

JAMES ACONTIUS, a reverend divine; in a square^ 
small quarto ; scarce. 

James Acontius, a philosopher, civilian, and divine, bom at 
Trent in the 16th century; embraced the reformed religion, and 
came to England 1565, where he was much honoured by Queen 
Elizabeth, which he acknowledges in the dedication to his celebrated 
work, Stratagemata Satance. He died about 1570. 

• 

GEORGE HARTGILL ; a small whole kfigth, mi 
in wood ; underneath^ " Christianus Philosophus." It 
is in the title to his general " Calendars^ or Astronomical 
Tables/' Sgc, 1 594, foL — In 1656, an improved edition 
of his book was published by Timothy and John 
Gadbury. In the titk-plate is his portrait^ byGaywood. 

George Hartgill, <;haplaia to the Marquis of Winchester, was a 
painful preacher, a reverend divine, and a most' excellent mathema- 
tician, as appears by his ^ Astronomical Tables ;" which, according 
to the judgment of the best astronomers, could not have cost him 
less than se^en years' labour.^ considering the perfection of the woric. 



NONCONFORMING DIVINES. 

Mr. THOMAS CARTWRIGHT; long beard, 
furred gqwn; 4to.; in " Clarke's Lives/' 4to. 

Thomas Cartwright was some time Margaret professor of divinity Chosen 
at Cambridge, and a very celebrated preacher. When he preached 

* This occasioned the mistake in the " Magna Britannia/' vol. iv. p. 17, of his 
flourishing during the time of the Rump Parliament. See Walton's " Life of Bishop 
Sanderson," 



268 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

in St. Mary*8 church there, the concourse of people to hear him 
was so great, that the sextoa was obliged to take down the wta- 
dows. He was expelled the university for Puritanism, ^y Dr. WUt- 
gift, the yice-K^hapcellor, with whom he maintained a long contio- 
versy about ohurch-discipline. This controversy is in print. He 
was at the head of those rigid Calvipists, who openly oppos^ the 
Uturgy and episcopal juri|(diction» and were advocates for the pha 
of religion established at Geneva. Ob. 1603. 

, JOHANNES FOXUS; inth^ '' H^roohgm T ^vo* 
Johannes Foxtrs Lancastriensis^f &c. in the Con- 
tinuation of Boissard ; 4to. 

Joannes Foxus. Martin D. (Droeshout) sc. Svo. ] 
sold by Roger Daniel. 

John Fox. Glover sc, 4 to. A good head. 

John Fox. Start sc. Frontispiece to the last edition 
of his " Book of Martyrs.** 

~ Johannes Foxus. J, de Leu. 

The book was republished when the nation was under great ap- 
prehensions of popery, 1684. This edition is printed in a Rom^ 
letter, with copper cuts, in three vols, folio. 

The great work of the " Acts and Monuments of the Church," 
by John Fox, may be regarded as a vast Gothic building : in which 
some things are superfluous, some irregular, and others manifestly 
wrong : but which, altogether, infuse a kind of religious reverence; 
and we stand amazed at the labour, if not at the skill, of the archie 
tect. This book was, by order of Queen Elizabeth, placed in the 
common halls of archbishops, bishops, deans, archdeacons, and 
heads of colleges ; and was long looked upon with a veneration 
next to the Scriptures themselves. The same has been said of 

* This is the first engrav^'d English portrait that I remeniber to have seen with t^ 
hat. There is, however, reason to believe, that the hat was worn before the reign 
of Elizabeth. The following note is taken from the late professor Ward's papers: 
" Dr. Kich. Rawlinson is possessed of a MS. of the works of Ch^acer, thought to 
be written in the time of King Henry VII. with the capital letters finely illumi- 
nated : and in that which begins his * Moral Tale/ there^ is painted % mail with s 
high-crowned hat, and broad brim." 

t |t should be Lincolniensis. He was born at Boston, 



OF ENGLAND. 269 

J?ox, which was afterward said of Burnet ; that several persons fur- 
nished him with accounts of pretended facts, with a view of ruining 
the credit of his whole performance. But the author does not stand 
IB need of this apology; as it was impossible, in human nature, to 
Rvoid many errors in so voluminous a work, a great part of which 
consists of anecdotes. Ob. 18 Ap. 1587, ^t. 70. 



A SCOTCH DIVINE. 

JEAN CNOX, (Knox) de Gifford* Enescosse; a 
wooden print ; 4to^ 

Johannes Cnoxus theologus Scotus, &c. in the 
Continiuition of Boissard ; 4to. 

Jean Cnox, &c. Desrochers; small Ato. 

John Knox, " The Scottish Rtfcyrmtr^ ^vo. J. 
Kay sc. 

John Knox, with ttvo Latin lines. 

Joannes Cnoxas Scotus ; four Latin lines. H. 
(ondius) fecit ; in Verheiden. 

John Knox was a rigid Calvinist, and the most violent of the 
reformers. His intrepid zeal, and popular eloquence, qualified him 
for the great work of reformation in Scotland, which perhaps no 
man of that age was equal to but himself. He affected the dignity 
of the apostolic character, but departed widely from the meekness 
of it. He even dared to call the Queei^ of Scots Jezebel to her 
lace, and to denounce vengeance against her from the pulpit. The 
address sent by tlie Scottish rebels to the established church was 
supposed to be penned by him. This title, which is diaracteristical 
of the man, was affixed to it : " To the generation of Antichrist, 
the pestilent prelates, and their shavelings, in Scotland, the congre- 
gation of Christ Jesus within the same sayeth, &c." He was author 
of several hot pieces of jcontroversy, and other theological work*. 
He was also author of a " History of the Reformation of the Church 
of Scotland, from 1422 to 1567," in folio. Ob. 24 Nov. 1572. 

• He was d€ Gifcrd, as being a native of a village bearing that name in East 
Lothian. — Lord Hailxs. 



270 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

John Knox the Younger; from an origmal painlii^ 
in Hamilton Palace. Trotter sc. %vo. 

This person wai the, contemporary and acquaintance of Joha 
Knox the Reformer, but in no way related to him or his fiimily <a 
the score of consanguinity ; however, their christian and somaae 
bdng the same, as well as the time in which they respectively floQ^ 
rished, and both also of the clerical order, biographers have mil- 
taken one for the other, and by that means have confounded thoa 
together. John Knox the Toonger was moderator of the synod 
of Mersa, in Oermany, in the year 1583; also preacher at Rottor- 
dam, in Holland, and afterward at London; and it was he (and not 
the Reformer) that was the transcriber of the (bnowhig histoiy of 
the Rdbrmation of Scotland, and might be one of the assistants in 
revising it at the press; of which history there is a manuscript copy 
•till eadsting, in die library at Glasgow, which bears the fidlowing 
title : 

** Tl» Hist(>ry of the Reformation of Religion widim the retime 
of Scotland; conteening the manner and by qnaht personnes the 
light of Christ's evangel hes bein manifested unto this realme, after 
that horrible and universal defection from the troth, which hes tarn 
to be the meines of|hat Roman Antichrist.'' — ^There is another book, 
in the same hand-writing, wherein are these words : '< In nomine 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi," ^c. Septembris quarto, M. Jo. Knox, 
August 18, 1581; evidently proving that they could not have been 
the performances of the Reformer Knox, who died in the year 1572. 

DIVINES OF THE CHURCH OF ROME. 

ALAN US, Cardinalis; Esme de Boulonois fAto. 
In the " Academie des Sciences^'' torn. ii. p. 37. 

Cardinal Alan, Allen, or Allyn ; a small bust: 
taken from the ^^ Oxford AlmanacU^ for 1746, nohttt 
it is placed under the head of Edward II. It is probably 

authentic^ as it was engraved by Vertue.* 

* 

Cardinal Allen. S. Freeman sc. From the ori- 



* Vertoe had a considerable collection of CMrjuos heads from Bf dab, of whicb h$ 
fircqueatl^ took drawings and casts. 




^/irhiJ Iff.fV/i^Ma^-^i"^ <5"A 



OF ENGLAND. 271 

girial in the possession of Brown Mostj/n, esq.; in Lodge's 
*' Illustrious Portraits" 

William Alan, cardinal priest of the church of Rome,* and a Cr.28Jo 
celebrated writer in its defence, was educated at Oriel College, in ^^^'^' 
Oxford ; and in 1556 chosen principal of St Mary HalL Upon 
the accession of Elizabeth, he retired to Louvain, where he pub- 
lished his book on the subject of ** Purgatory ,. and Prayers for the 
Dead ;" in which rhetoric, of which he was a great master, held the 
place of argpument. This was the ground-work of his reputation. 
He afterward returned to England, where he lurked several years- 
in disguise, and printed an apology for ills religion, which he in- 
dustriously difipersed. He had the chief hand in establishing the 
English seminaries at Douay and Rheims, and several others ia 
Spain and Italy. He was justly regarded as a most dangerous 
enemy to the civil as well as religious liberties of his country ; as he 
persuaded Philip II. to undertake the conquest of EngUmd^ and 
endeavoured, by a book which he published about the same time^ 
to persuade the people to take up arms against the queen. 0(. 
5 Oct. 1594, JSt. 63. 

THOMAS STAPLETON, Anglus ; M. Ixiii. 
Qb. Obt. 12, 1598. L. GuaHier indditj neat. 

Thomas Stapleton; copy of the above. W. Rich^ 
ardson. 

Thomas Stapletonus, &c. in a doctor of divinity s 
habit, 4to. neat. 

Thomas Stapleton ; an etching in a square^ by 
the Earl of Ailesfbrdy 1794; scarce. 

Thomas Stapleton^ a native of Yorkshire, was educated at New 
College, in Oxford. In the reign of Mary he was promoted to a 
canonry of Chicester. In that of Elizabeth he settled at Louvain, 
where he greatly distinguished himself by the controversial writ- 
ings which he published against Jewel, Whitaker, and other emi- 
nent divines of the established church. He afterward went to 



* He was created cardinal under the title of St. Martin in Monlibus ; and in 1589 
was made archbishop of Mecklin, the metropolis of Brabant. — Wood, Ath, Oxen, 1. 
714. 



272 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Douaj, where be took the degree of doctor in divinity, of vti<i 
faculty he was elected professor; but being offered thechaifai 
Louvain, he returned thither , and was about the same time ad* 
vanced to the deanery of Hilverbeck, in Brabant. It is said, 
Clement VIIL intended to bestow upon him a cardinal's hat; 
that this honour was prevented by his death, which was on the 
12th of October, 1598. Clement was so great an admirer of bis 
writings, that he ordered them to be read publicly at his table. 
Cardinal Perron, who wai an eminent author himself,* esteemed 
him, both for learning and acuteness, the first plolemical divine of 
his age. There is a catalogue of his works, .wldch are in four 
volumes folio, in Dod's «* Church History," ii. 86. His "Tres 
Thomee," containing the lives of St. Thomas the Apostle, St Tho- 
mas Becket, and Sir Thomas More, is one of the 'most curious of 
his books. 

RICHARD WHYTE; in Latin Titus; Basmto- 

chiuSj comes Palatinus ; ^vo. 

RicHABD Whyte ; 8vo. W. Rkhardson. 
Richard Whyte ; sir Latin verses ; scarce. 

Richard Whyte, some time fellow of New College, in Oxford, 
was, in the reign of Elizabeth, constituted Regius Professor of the 
civil and canon law at Douay, and created count palatine by the 
emperor. Having buried two wives, he, by the dispensation of 
Pope Clement VIII. took priest*s orders, and was presented to a 
canonry in St. Peter's church at Douay. His principal work 
was, " Historiarum Britannicee Insulee, &c. Libri novem, Duac. 
1602 ;" 8vo. to which is prefixed his head. Among other things, 
he wrote an explanation of the famous enigmatical epitaph at Bo- 
logna, which has been so variously interpreted. It is probable, that 
the author of it, who might have beeu better employed, made it on 
purpose to puzzle the idly inquisitive among the learned. 

The following priests and Jesuits, who have been recorded in the 
black catalogue of criminals by Protestants, and in the bright list 
of saints and martyrs by papists, were more formidable to the 
queen and her people than is commonly imagined. As she stood 

• This cardinal had a printing-press in his house ; and his castom was to have a 
few copies printed of any work that he intended to publishj for the revisal of his 
friends before the publication. 




Vittj %ntmn6mm.'yita.,yakpucdm 
'Vjtii'^nf(}i>mvm,^uid enim?njft twrtvocem 

lyLoriuanSfucjvt(mmu tmmorocUltt J^lai^ 
Omnis) &anh^uoS(mikpult£pii. 



v^^ £/ >i<ici^m^^r^/c^rj,yf^^^j. 



I 



OF ENGLAND. 273 

cnmunicated by a bull of Piiis V. and was the main pillar 
ie reformed religion, she was compelled by the great law of 
ssity, though not without grief and relactance,* to let loose 
laws against seminary priests and Jesuits, her known enemies ; 
?r personal safely y and that of her kingdom^ depended upon it. This, 
ler Parsons himself was so candid as to own, in a private letter 
>ne of his friends.f These unhappy missionaries, enterprising 
dangerous as they were, are, however, entitled to our pity ; as 
acted in their proper character, and in conformity with the 
us of their religion. 

:!UTHBERT MAYNE, executed at Launceston, in 
nwallj 1579, 4to. mezz. 

yUTHBERT Mayne. W. Richurdson. 

athbertMayne was bom in the parish of Yalston, in Devonshire, 
first took his degree of master of arts in the university of Ox* 
Some of his letters having been intercepted by the bishop 
lOndon, Mayne absconded, and went to Douay ; he was after- 
d sent upon the mission to England ; but being an obstinate 
Qtainer of the pope's power, he was the first missionary priest 
ilngland that was convicted uppn the law against Agnes Defs, 
He was executed at St. Mary's Fane, commonly called Lau'n- 
on, in Cornwall, Nov. 30th, 1577. Dod's *' Church History," 
n. p. 90. 

^ EDMUND. CAMPIANUS, qui primus e Soc- 
;u, Londini, pro Fide Cath. Martyrium consuni'^ 
.vit,J 1 Dec. 1581 ; a small head. This, and several 
zrs that follow^ were taken from a sheet prints entitled^ 
i^ffigies et Nomina qxwrundam e Societate Jesu, qui 
Fide vel Pietate sunt interfecti, ab anno 1549, ad 
mm 1607," don£> at Rome. The sheet contains twenty^ 
r heads. 



Vide " Camdeni Eliz.'* sab Ann. 1581. 

'< Concertatio Kccles. Cathol. adversos Ang. Calvino PafHstaa," Pars ii. foL 

Tqers, 1583, 8vo. 

Parsons and Campian were the first missionaries Uiat the Jesoits sent into 

and. 

OL. I. 2 N 



274 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Edmund Campian, his execution, S^. fol. 

Edmund Campian was educated at Christ's Hospital, in LeiAi> 
whence he removed to St. John's College^ in Oxford. Heie bcfr 
iinguished himself as an orator and a disputant; inbothwUi 
capacities he entertained Queen Elizabeth at a public act, when ^ 
visited that university. He soon after became a convert totkl 
church of Rome, and retired to the college at Douay, vbeiete 
took his bachelor of divinity's degrees. In 1573) he travelkdti 
Rome/ became a Jesuit, and was soon after sent by his sopeiioti 
as a missionary into Germany, where he composed his Latin tn* 
gedy, called " Nectar and Ambrosia," which was acted widi gio^ 
applause in the presence of the emperor. The last scene of biali^ 
was in England, where he was re^urded as a dangerous advemij 
of the established church. He was executed at Tyburn, the lit 
of December, 1581. His writings shew him to have been a nua 
of various and polite learning. His '' Decern Rationes/' written 
against the Protestant religion, have been solidly answered \sf 
several of our best divines. The original manuscript of his "Hii- 
tory of Ireland" is in the British Museum. See Dod, ii. p. 137,&c 

ALEXANDER BRIANT, Soc. Jesu, Londini, 
pro Catholica Fide, suspensus et sectus, I Decemb. 
1581 ; small. 

Alexander Briant, who was born in Somersetshire, studied at 
Oxford, and afterward at Douay. He was sent into England, in 
character of a missionary, in the reign of Elizabeth. In 1581, he 
was imprisoned, and, as Dod tells us,* was cruelly treated while he 
was in the Tower, by thrusting needles under the nails of his 
fingers, to force him to a discovery of what was acting abroad 
against the queen and govemment.f He was a young man of sin- 
gular beauty, and behaved at the place of execution with decent 
intrepidity. Execut Dec. 1, 1581. 

THOMAS COTTAMUS, Anglus, Londini, pro 

♦ " Cburch History," H. 114. 

t It was at this time strongly reported, that a plot was hatching in the Eng&b 
colleges at Rheiras and Rome, with no less a view than the total sabversion of the 
national religion and government. The fears and jealousies of the people were 
more alive than usual at this juncture, as the Duke of Anjou was io the height of 
his courtship with the queen. 




fu^U^i^ A,4.pusf ,Se,. ir Ti'^JiitAardsenXft-kMott^ 



OF ENGLAND. 275 

Fiide Cathoiica, suspensus gladioque sectus, 9 Jul. 
mB2 1 small. 

Hioiiiat Cottani) who .was bom in Lancashire, studied some time 
at Brazen-Nose College^ in Oxford » and af)terward at RheimSf 
ivliere he was ordained priest In 1580, he was sent on a mission 
hOo England, but was apprehended soon after his landing. Dr. 
Ely^ a professor of the civil and canon law at Douay, happened to 
be at Dover when he was taken, and with great address contrived 
aiid[ eflEected his escape ; but as this benevolent act was like to be 
aSttraded with the ruin of him and his family, Cottam veiy gene- 
rously sorrendered himself to save his benefactor. He was several 
ttfb^ put to the torture in prison, but could not be prevailed witii 
to make any confession, or renounce his religion. He and Briant 
art| taid to have been admitted into the Society of Jesus a little be- 
bre their death. He was executed at Tyburn, with several of hii 
fraternity, the 30th May, 1582.* 

EDMUND GENINGES, (Jennings) alias Iron- 
monger, JEt. 24, 1591 ; eight Latin verses ; Martin 
bas sc. crest and arms, Ato. before his Life^ St. Omer's^ 
1614. 

. Edmund Jennings was admitted into the Englbh college at 
jELheiois, under doctor, afterward cardinal, Allen, and, when he 
was twenty years of age, ordained priest. He was soon after sent 
iaCo England, where he was apprehended in the act of celebrating 
mass* He was executed, by hanging and quartering, in Gray*s»Inn* 
Fields, the 1 0th of December, 1 59 1 . 

In the rare book above mentioned, are several historical prints, 
representing the principal circumstances of his life and death. This 
work was published, at a considerable expense, by the Papists, in 
order to perpetuate the remembrance of two ^* miracles," which 
are there said to have happened at his death. The first is, that, 
after his heart was taken out, he said, *' Sancte Gre^ori, ora pro 
me ;*' which the hangman hearing, swore, " God's wounds ! see his 
heart is in my hand ; yet Gregory is in his mouth." The other is, 
that a holy virgin, being desirous of procuring some relic of him, 
contrived to approach the basket into which his quarters were 

* Dod. ii. p. Xi6^ 



276 



BIOGRAFHICAIi^^'HlSTORY 



throwiif and touched hu ligfat hand, winch die eeteemediDOit) 
from its having been employed in acta of oonaecration audi 
ing the host; and' immediately hit thamb came off wiAoit 
or diacorery, and she carried it home, and pr eae r n e d it yAS 
||M)ateat care* 

' P.. ROGERUS FILGOCKUS, Ang^, 
pro Catholica Fide^ suspensus et Bectos, 22 
lebl; smali: 



by Mr. Stow erroneooaly called Thomii, I 
Ida education at Seyille» in Spain^ where he waa oidabed 
andsoon after tent hitte aa a mianonary. Dod inAnatlC! 
he.and Sfark Backworth, a gentleman who acted in the 
racter, were executed at Tybom, the 27th of Fdnov;, 
together with Mra. Anne Lyne, wiio Aiffined death jhr 
and assisting missionaries.* 

P. FRANCISCUS PAGIUS, Anglus, Soc. J 
Londini, pro Catholica Fide, suspehsus' et 
30 April, 1602; smaU. 

Francis Page, having for some time applied himself to the itni] 
of the law, went abroad, was ordained priest, and sent back npost 
mission. He was, according to Dod's account of him, seised s^ 
(Condemned to die for receiving holy orders, and was ezecnlal^ 
Tyburn in 1601. The same author adds, that Mrs. Lyae^l 
widow gentlewoman, with whom he resided, was prosecuted tfs 
suffered death for entertaining him.f This appears to be the pea* 
mentioned above in the article of Filcock. 

POMINICUS COLLINUS, Hibemus, e Soe. 
Jesu, &c. pro Catholica Fide, Corkse, in Hibemii^ 
suspensus et sectus, ult. Oct. 1602 ; smali. 



Sib. 



)0 

I 



£ 



* Dod, u. p. 106. 



t Dod, ii. p. lis. 



OF Elf GLAND. 277 



* CLASS V. 



^^OMMONERS IN GREAT EMPLOYMENTS. 

Sir THOMAS SMITH, knt. born March 28, 
^^2; deceased August 12, 1577, in the Q5thyear of 
fige. Round cap, furred garment. 

f r'SiE Thomas Smith, holding a book; a wooden 
^f^i motto, Ingenium nulla manus. In " Gabrielis 
Witrveii, Valdinatis, Smithies, vel Musamm Lofihrymx 
•W Obitu, <§-c. 1678 ;" Ato. 

* Xn the same book is a wood-cut of his tomb^ with an 
Ipitaph and elegy. 

-Sir Thomas Smith ; in Birch's " Lives" Holbein 
•ittr. Houbrakensc. 

Sir Thomas Smith was several times sent ambassador into Franc^ 
^ this reign; and on the 24th of June, 1572, he was appointed 
*^cretary of state. In 1575, he procured an act of parliament, 
Pmt a third part of the rent upon college-leases should be always 
gBierved in com, at the low price at which it then sold. He 
^Searly foresaw that the collegiate bodies would reap great advan- 
tage from this act ; as there was the highest probability that the 
|Uice of grain would be much advanced. 

SIR FRANCIS WALSINGHAM; Frederico 
^icchero p. J. Houbraken sc. In the collection of Sir 
itobert Walpole. Illust. Head. It was afterwards Mr. 
Horace Walpole^s. 

Franc. Walsinghamius; in the '* Heroologia ;^* 

Fr. Walsingham, secretaire d'Elizabeth. Vander 
^erffp. P. a Gunst sc. h. sh. 

Franciscus Walsingham, &c. Vertm sc. h. sh. 

Sir Francis Walsingham. H Meyer sc. 1815. 



il6^ 



m 



S80 BIOORAVHICAL SlgTORY 

afterward sent to the Hagae to manage die 
affairs in the United Provinces ; and was 
into their council of state, where he sat next to < 
Maurice. See Class IX. 

GUALTERUS MILDMAT, Eques'Auratos, 
EmtnanueUs Fund". Aif. 1684. X Faberf. target 

Sir Walter Mildm at, with a View oftht 
E. Harding sc. Wilson's *' Cambridge.'* 

The Rer. Mr. Henry Jerom de Salit gave an origiod 
Sir Walter Mildmay to the Eaii of Sandwich, who 
to Dr. Richaidtoiii master of Kmmaimel College^ in 

Sir Walter Mildmay wai tanreyor of the coiirl of 
in the reign of Henry VIH. and pri?y-counsdlor» chenftfilfcli 
vnder-treasurer of the Exchequer, to Elizabeth; apdii 
by Camden, and other historians, for hit nnconmon moit fc 
private and public character. Oh. 31 May> 1589. Henv 
in the church of St. Bartholomew the Great, in West-Si 
where is a monument to his memory, which has been 
at the expense of the society at Cambridge of his foundatioik 

SIR HENRY LEE, knt. with his trusty I^SJ^i 
Basire sc. In Pennanfs *' London'' 

Sir Henry Lee, knight of the Grarter, the faithftd and devotedio^ 
yant and knight of Queen Elizabeth, made a vow to present hioMl 
on the 17th day of every November as her champion. This go* 
rise to the annual exercise of arms on that day ; but in the thiitf* 
third year of her majesty's reign, being very much disabled by^t 
he resigned his office, and recommended as his successor the Ri^ 
Noble George Clifford, earl of Cumberland, on the 17th pf NoYca* 
her, 1 590. Having first performed their exercise in armour, they pf^ |ti 
sented themselves unto her highness, at the foot of the stairs under 
her gallery-window in the Tilt-yard at Westminster. The present, 
and prayer, being with great reverence delivered into her majesty's 
own hands, he himself disarmed, offered up his armour at the foot 
of her majesty's crowned pillar ; and, kneeling to the queen, p^ 
sented the Earl of Cumberland armed, and mounted him upon his 
horse. This being done, he put upon his own person a coat of black 
velvet, pointed under the arm, and covered his head' (in lieu of a 



OF ENGLAND. 281 

bdmet) with a buttoned cap of the country-fashion.* Sir Henry 
died in 161 1, aged BO. See his monumental inscription at full length 
in €olKn'8 " Peerage ;" article Earl Litchfield. 



CLASS VL 

MEN OF THE ROBE. 

SIR NICHOLAS BACON, lord-keeper. Fred. 
Zucchero p. J. Houbraken sc. In the collection of the 
Duke of Bedford. Illmt. Head. 

At Gorhambnry, his seat near St Alban's* now in the possession 
of XfOrd Grimston, are his portrait and his bust. There are also 
busts of his second lady, and Lord Bacon, their son^ when a. little 
boy. A great part of the furniture which belonged to the lordr 
keeper is still carefully preserved. Besides the portrsuts of the 
Bacon family, there are a great many others, well worth the notice 
of the curious.f The greater part of them are copies, but they wer^ 
done in the time of the persons represented. , 

NicdLAUs Baconus ; in the " Heroologia;' %vo, 

Nicolas Bacon. A. Vander Werff p. P. a Gunsi 
sc. h. sh. 

NicoLAUs Baconus, custos magni sigilH, 1559. 
Vertuesc^h. sh. 

N. Bacon, lord-keeper. Vertue sc. large 4to. 

N. Bacon, &c. Vertue sc. a small oval; engraved 
with other heads. In the frontispiece to Burnet's 
^* Abridgement of his Hist, of the Reformation;'' \2mo. 

* See Walpole's Miscellaneoas Antiquities, No. 1. p. 41, and Pennant's London. 

t In Pennant's Journey from Chester to London, p. 224, is a catalogue of the 
most remarkable of <them» and 'a view of the old house* which was taken down 
178-, and an elegant modem mansion erected a small distance from the old spot. 
Lord Grimston, the present owner of this estate of the Bacons, is a successor in part 
to their titles ; having been created baron of Yerulam in June 1790< 
VOL. I. 2 o 



283 BIOQKAPHICli: BISTORT 

'KNDoted SirNk^o1asBac(nlmdmiidiordi«tpen«i«tiii«genif,«H9r 
•*«»■'• ofj«dgment.per.p«riTeeloq.««,Woo«q«d«ri«te^ 
of law and equity, .whicb aAerward ahoae foflbv&li m p^\ 
luBtre in his son, who was as much inferior to his fether ^F^ Ictd C 
prudence and integ^y; a»hi» fethei was to Ini inlilersry iBH^f 
pKfthmenti. He was the first Tord-leeferlbai ranked w^hA^\ 
ceUor. 06. 20 Feb. 1578-9 « jU? 

LORD CHANCELLOR HATTOW. JBocjurf**^ 

In " Noble Authors,'' by Purk, 1806. 

Lord Cuancblloa; small wMcleg^tk.W.BJ^* 

Sir Christopher Hattov, mth- oulogfrMgiA. A' 
Thane exc. Fnm the original iU &r Thomas^ £ba^ 

Snr Christopher Ratton was bom nt Holdenbjt m N mfl ii Uiip Bfc* 
shire, and breil to the law. He came to the ooarC 8f a MMi^ 
when Queen Elizabeth first took notice of Urn fbr Us pt ii m 
dandngt and elegant person. For his great abiBdea lie was^horil 
lord hi^^:hancellor of Bigland. His sentence was a latr aM 
subject; and so wise, that his opmibtt was in oracle to lU^jiiifc 
Sir John ttarrrogton describes him as a ** man taught yyrtiie, (had 
to wisdom,*' &c. The queen rigorously demanding payment of sosii 
■arrears, and he failing in his request for longer time, it went to Ui 
heart, and he fell into a mortal disease. The queen, sorry for vbl 



she had done, brooght him cordiuls^with her own hand ; but in 
He died 1591, aged 51, and was buried in Su Pkurs cathedrsl^r 

Vera Effigies JACOBI DYER, Equitis aurati, qui 
prime reginae Elizabethse '' Capitalis Justiciarius de 
Banco constitutus ; elapsis tandem viginti et quatuor 
Annis, a Morte exauctoratus est." J. DrapaUierx* 
aboriginali; h.sh, 

* He caught his death by sleeping in his chair, with a Miiidow opem 
t Alluded to by Mr. Gray, in his poem of the Long Story : 

*' Full oft within these spadons watts. 
When be had fifty winteci o'er hiny, 
•1^7 gntve Lord*>Keeper led the brawh }X 
Tbo' Seal and Maces dane'd btlbie hin.'^ 

I A sort of figikre-dance tbc» in Togoe. 



ill 

(!) 

k 



OF EKGLANO* 283 

tes Dyer was author of a book of reports in Trendi, of 
eral editions have been published. His head is prefixed 
L Ob. 24 Mar. 1581-2. 

CHRISTOPHER WRAY, knt, lord chief- 
)f England, 1582, aged 59 ; Ato.; from an ari- 
rtrait in the possession cf Sir Cecil Wrajfy barf, 
ing sc. In Harding's " Biographical Mirrour^^ 

stopher Wray was bom at Bedole, in Yorkshire, in 1523* 
d his academical education at Magdalen College, in Cam- 
1 was from thence removed to Uncoln's Tnn. He senred for 
-idge, in Yorkshire, in all ^e parliaments of Queen Mary; 
an eminent lawyer^ and well vecsed in parliamentary pro- 
iras chosen speaker of the House -of Commons in the par- 
lied in 1571. He was soon after advanced to be a justice 
nmon Pleas, and was, in 1574, constituted lord chief- 
England. Sir Christopher Wray, with his contemporary 
ttled the form of the commission of the peace, as it con- 
h very little alteration, to this day. He was an upright 
. possessed a clear discerning judgment, with a free ana 
ocution : though he respected every man in his proper 
en he was off the bench, yet when tie was upon itj he had 
!gard for the greatest of men, as to bias his judgment, 
indful of what is past* observant of things present, and 
for things to come^ indulgent to his servants, and charita- 
poor. In Liucolnshire he acquired a very considerable 
>perty, as appears by the inquisition taken at his death- 
eservation of an estate, he used to say four things were 
;* to understand it — not to spend till it comes — ^to keep 
ts — to have a quarterly audit. — He was a munificent be- 
Magdalen College, Cambridge, where, as we have 
eceived his education: to which college also both his 
i his daughter Frances, countess of Warwick, were con- 
benefactresses. He died 1591, aged 68, and was buried 
ch of Glentworth, where is a monument to hi^ memory. 

OND ANDERSON, knt., lord chief-justice 

♦ Llof d's " Worthic*/' 



284 



BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



of the Common Pleas, JEt. 76. W. Faithorne k. frm- 1 

tispiece to his " Reports," in French, 1664, 1665;/i^ 

Sir Edmund Anderson sat in judgment upon Mary Queen d 

, in October, 1586 ; and the next year presided at thetn^Il 

avison, in the Star-chamber, for signing the wanailB! 

jn of tJial princess. His decision in that nice poiBl«fi 

bat -lad done jusli! Ill, mn piste ; hf had done tehat innrijit« 

an mdaiBjvl manner ; olhenme he thought him no bad man,"* Ot. 1^ 

Vera Effigies JOHAI* IS CLENCH, Eqmtis 
Aurati, unus . 



nuper Reginse 
Regina tenenda Has 

This judge 
writings were evei 
Juridiciales," 16 i n 



..l;>. 



1 serenissimae Dominffii 
ad Placita coram ips* 
Marf. 1664. 
his profession, but none ofla 
Dugdale's " OrigiW 

Mench, and also the bust of In li 

lealh, in high aod perfect pie- l 

,1 Bealiog's Magna, neat Wood- I 



wife, with foi i 

servation, in 

bridge, Suffolk. 

WILLIAM AUBREY, LL. D. from an origM 
picture, in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. J. Ciml- 
field, exc. Ato. 

William Aubrey, a civilian, was born in Brecknockshire, and edu- 
cated at Oxford, where he became fellow of A11-Sou1'b College, 
professor of civil law, and principal of New-Inn Hal!. He also 
held some considerable employments under Queen Elizabeth, and 
died at the age of 66, in the year 1595. None of his works are in 
print, except some of his letters, which are in Strype's Life of Gric- 
dal. Dr. Aubrey was grandfather of the celebrated antiquary, JuW 
Aubrey, and lies buried in St. Paul's church, London, 

EDMUND PLOWDEN, serj. at law; fol. T 
Slagner, before his '" Rep07-ts." 

* This ivBi eicellG&l logic for finding ea innocent mBn guiltj. It wu in" 
from tlie same mood nod figore trilh (he queen's order, and no-otiter, fiii Dtnioi'i 
lil^niiig the nnrraat. The lord dilef-justjce, who waa oihgrwise no bad niD tiin- 
lelf, WDB obliged to find him guilly, upon pain of being deprived of hb office, Scr 
the puticuiaij rf the cnit in KoberUou's " Hist, of Scotluid." 



OF BNtSLANP; ' 28a 

: Sdmund PlOiWdeK was descended fk^m an aocieht falnity iii Shtdp- 
ihire. He studied the el^meiits of the legal Imowledge, in which 
be afterward became'so emin^it a proficient, at the Middle Temple, 
tad held the office of treasurer during the Rebuilding of the great 
hall ; in one of the windows of which his arms, with the date 1576, 
Still 'femain. HiA Commentaries and Reports are still held in esteenki 
He died in 1584, and lies huried in thfe Temple church, where therd 
is a monument to his memory ; from which a print' has been en-^ 
graved by J. T« Smith, for his illustrations of Pennant, &c« 

A SCOTCH CIVILIAN. 

GUIL. BARCLAIUS, J, C. M. 53, 1699. C. D. 
Mallery f. oval : in the same plate are eight coats of 
arms of the families to which he was allied. 

GuiL. Barclaius, JEf. 53, 1599. C. Mellan. 

. Williara Barclay, a native of Scotland, and allied to the best fa« 
milies of that kingdom, was an eminent civilian in France, in the 
reign of Henry IV. He wrote a book, '* De Regno, et Regali Po- 
testate, adversus Monarchomachos," 1599 ; Ato, in which i^ his head, 
tteady engraved.* Though he had very considerable preferment 
in France, being first royal professor in the university of Angiers, he 
came into England, in 1603, with a view of settling, here ; but not 
meeting with encouragement, he returned to France, where he died 
about^the year 1605 ; according to other accounts, 160^. He wa« 
father of John Barclay, the celebrated author of the " Argenis." 



CLASS VII. 
MEN OF THE SWORD. 

OFFICERS OF THE ARMY. 

ROBERT DUDLEY, Graaf Van Leicester, &c, 
in armour; Ato. 

* He was also author of an excellent comment on " Taciti Vita J. AgrieoUc" ' ' 



286 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

l»85. The Earl of Leicester was lieutenant-general of the forces sent 
into the Low Coontries against the Spaniards, and deputy-goyeraor |) 
of the United Provhices under the queen. He waa not only un- 
successful as a general ; but he ventured to lay an q^presahre hand 
upon a people who had lately shaken off the Spamsk yoke, who ex- 1 
nked in ^ir new liberty, and were extremely jealous of it. Upoi || 
thb, sereral complaints were brought against him, which eecasioDed 
his return to England. 



SIR PHILIP SIDNEY. Isaac Oliver p. Hou^ 
braken sc. 1743. In the collection of Sir Broumlow 
Sherrard, bart. Illmt. Head. 

Sir Philip Sidnj:y; in Hentzner's ^^ Travels f 
9vo. 1797. 

Sir Philip Sidney. E. Scriven sc. From theory 
ginal of Sir Antonio More^ in the collection of his Grace 
the Duke of Bedford. In Mr. Lodge's " Illustrious 
Portraits.^' 

There is a portrait of him in one of the apartments of Warwick- 
castle, which is with good reason believed to be an original, as it 
belonged to Fnlke GreviHe, k>rd Brooke, his intimate friend. 

Sir Philip Sydney, knt. Ob. 1586, JEt. 32. 
X Oliver p. Vertue sc. From a picture in the Earl oj 
Oxfords collection; h. sh* 

Sir Philip Sidney. J. Oliver p. Vertue sc. 1745. 
From a limning of Dr. Mead's; whole length. PrC" 
Jived to the Sidney-papers^ published by Collins. 

In this print is a view of Penshurst, in Kent, the ancient seat of 
the Sidneys, which at the time of its engraving was in the posses- 
eion of William Perry, esq. whose lady was niece to the last earl 
of Leicester of that family. 

Philippus Sxdneius. Elstracke sc. Ato. Compton 
Holland exc. 

This print, which was done in the reign of Elizabeth, is supposed 
to be the first head published by Elstracke. 



1 



OF BNGLANIX 287 

Sir Philip Sydney, govemor of Flushing; whole 
Jengih ; sold by John Hind, Ato. scarce^ 

Sir Philip Sydney ; a very small ovat^ with Lord 
JSacoHy neatly engraved by Faitkome. There is a vile 
print of him, in armour, before one of the editions of the 
*' Arcadia^^ without the engraver's name. It is copied 
from Elstracke's. 

pHiLippus Sydney ; in the •* Heroologia /^ 8vo. 

The original picture was in the possession of the late Earl of 
Chesterfield. 

Sir Philip Sidney, a bust prefixed to the Arcadia, 
8tw. De Courbes. 

Sir Philip Sidney. Inveniam viam, out faciam. 
Vertuesc. l2mo. 

The painting of him at Wobum Abbey is like the print among 
the illustrious heads. 

Sir Philip Sidney was governor of Flushing, and general of the 
liorse under his uncle the Earl of Leicester. His yalouTy which was 
esteemed his most shining quality, was not exceeded by any of the 
heroes of his age; but even this was equalled by his humanity. 
After he had received his death^s wound at the battle of Zu4)hen^ 
and was overcome with thirst from excessive bleeding,^ he called 
for drinky which was presently brought him. At the same time, a 
poor soldier was carried along desperately wounded , who fixed his 
eagei* eyes upon the bottle, just as he was lifting it to his mouth ; 
upon which he instantly delivered it to him, with these words: 
^' Thy necessity is yet greater than mine."* 

* This beautiful instance of humanity is worthy of the peneil of the gfeatett 
painter ; and is a proper subject to exercise the genius of our rising artbt8,t who, 
by the rules of the Society for^tlie Encouragement of Arts, are confined to English 
history.) 

t The subject has been painted by Mortimer, from which there are two en- 
gravings ; one by Bartoloszi, and one by S. Ireland : the same subject has been 
painted by Carter, and engraved in mez. by Jones. 

X Since the first edition of tlie " Biographical History" was printed, the very in- 
genious Mr. West told me, tliat he should employ his pencil on this subject. Every 
iover of painting, and especially those who have seen the Death of General Woff, 
by his baud, will hear this witti pleasure. 



I 

I 



f 



i 







ir JKSiaAj„.iiivn rtiirStart Jb-arul, 



290 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORT 

Charles Howard, earl of Nottmglkurn/w >w»| 
back; view of the Armada^ 1688 ; half sheet; ran. 

s Charles Howard, eari of Wfotlingharo ; urm 
to his face ; four Latin verses; %vo. curious. 

HpwARDf \atd h)g1)-adinin(l; opal^Bifo. ]^. lb 

CfMted C^iaiks Ho«ard» eui of Nottbgbm* im» fov 1^ 
^^ in nftnd affurs, ftdniiocd, in 1«B8, tothe oStit tfllonl 
Biidi. v^ In:lliisinemoral>k year he^ and the galltt^ 

did «Hick in sinking and destroying the Spani^k Anindaif 
viadi did more. Upon this great event, Ifae qn^an oadered ai 
to he struck, with this inscription, f AfflaiitDeoi, ftt 
** He hlew. with his wind, and they were 8cattered.t** In UM^J 
lord-admiral, had a great ihare in taking Gadii, and bmuigl 
Spanish fleet. He was a lover of magnificence, having no leai 
s^ven 'Standing houses at the same time.*^ He eq^q^bli 
about thirty-two jeaf^ 8efi the next reigfi. Class fl. 

# « ■ ■ - • 

The suit of tapestry at the House (f Lords, 
by Pine, with the heads of the Lord Admiral, and 

who commanded under him against the Spanish AmM 
is a Justly-admired work. The heads, which are cM 
the size of a half-crown, are in the borders ofthejiMi 
which exhibit the particulars of each day's er^agenkii 
The hangings were executed from the des^ns ofHaifi 
Cornelius Uroom. The following is an alphabetical U 
of the persons represented. Tt^ir najnes are spdt ^ 
they stand on the prints. Christopher Baker^ Sjf 
George Becton^ Sir Charles Blunt, Sir Bobert 0»S 
Captain Crosse, the Earl of Cumberland, Sir Frond 
Drake (Charles Howard, baron of Effingham), tk 
Lord Admiral, Sir Martin Frobisher, Sir Thomas ijrSt^ 
rat. Captain Benjamin Gonson, Sir John Hawkins, & 

* The rojal navj at this time consisted bat of twenty-eight ve^els* — Humb* 
t O nimimnin dilecta Deo ! cui militat sther, 
£t coDJorati veniunt ad dassica venti. — Claudian. 

t Fuller'! " Worthies." 



OF ENGLAND. 291 

Edward Hobye, the Lord Thomas Howard j Mr. Knevet, 
the Earl of Northumberland, Sir Horatio Pahodnij 
Captain George Fennar, Captain Fenton, fhe Lord 
Henry Seymour, the Lord Sheffield, Sir Robert South- 
welly Sir Thomas Sycile, Sir Roger Tounsand, Thomus 
Vavasir, Mr. Willoughby, Sir William Winter, 

These brave ofBcers and volunteers embarked with a rei^ltition 
suitable to the greatness of the occasion, and of that age of heroes 
in which they lived ; but by the favour of heaven, which fought for 
the English^ there occurred no such opportunities of signalising 
their valour as presented themselves to the Hawkes and Forrests 
of the present age. See some curious particulars, relative to their 
engaging the Armada, in the '^ Harleian Miscdlany," vol i. 
p. 123, &c. 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE ; from an original in the 
possession of Sir Philip Sydenham, bart., knight of the 
shire for Somerset. R. White so. h. sh. In the first edit, 
of Harris's ^^ Voyages,'' vol. I, p. 19. 

I take this print to be the most authentic portrait of Sir Francis 
Drake extant. The original picture descended to Sir PhiUp Syden- 
ham, 4of Brimpton, in the county of Somerset, from his ancestor, 
Sir George Sydenham, whose only daughter manied Sir Francis 
Drake.* 

Draeck (Drake), ^t. 4^; an ancient print; his 
right hand resting on a helmet ; a terrestrial globe sus- 
pended under an arch ; sh. The plate has been retouched 
by Vertue. 

Sir Francis Drake, leaning on a globe, ttobert 
Boissard sc. One of the set of Admirals : this is copied 
by Vaughan. 

Franciscus Dracus, &c. two hemispheres befot^e 
him. Jodocus Hondius Flanderf Londini; 8vo, 

* See an accdaik^ off the family in Copier's *' Dictionary." 



282 BJOOEAFHICAL HISTORY 

Dra£CK, &c. JEt: 43; Jo. Rubel. Thomas deLeusc. 
4to^ ami one bjf Wierix. . 

Fbanciscus Deake ; in the ^ Herookgia;" 8w. 

Sir Francib Drake. W. Marshall sc. small, b 
Holler's '' Holy State." 

Sir Francis Drake. Vaughan sc. in anmur;^ 

Franciscus Drake. De Larmesmn sc. Ato. 

FitAKCiftcus Drake, &c. H. Goltziusf. 9na. 

Sir Francis.. Drake k J.,JE[mibraken sc..h.A. 
lUust. Head.. 

Sir Francis Drake. Blood sculp. In Prindi 
'' Worthies of Dewmf Ato. 1810. 

Franciscus Draco, 1598 ; motto, ^^Audentes F&r- 
tunalrvatr sij? Latin verses'; small, Ato. in^^Nauticd 
Portraits:' C. v. P. 

Francis Drake and Candish ; on a sheet, sur- 
rounded by letter-press in Dutch ; atyns of Englard; 
published by J. Hondius ; scarce. 

Sib Francis Drake ; small oval in a square, E. 
Harding sc. 

Sir Francis Drake, before he had the royal sanction for his de- 
predations, was a famous freebooter against the Spamards. The 
queen made no scruple of employing so bold and enterprising a 
i|^an against a people who were themseWes the greatest freebooten 
and plunderers amongst mankind. He was the first EnglishmaB 
that encompassed the globe^ Mag^lan, whose ships passed the 
South Seas some time before, died in his passage. In 1587, he 
burnt one hundred vessels at Cadif , and suspended the threatened 
invasion for a year ; and, about the same time, took a rich East 
India carrack near the Terceras by which the English gained so 
great insight into trade in that part of the world, that it occasioned 
the establishment of the East India Company. lu 1588 he was 
appointed vice-admiral under Lond Effin^iam, and acquitted him- 




.Smw,ii.LTE'R KALEIGH. 



OF ENGLAND. 295 

but a battered hulk. He died on board the Spanish fleet three 
days after, expressing the highest satisfaction, in his last moments, 
at his having acted as a true soldier ought to have done.^ Ob, 
1591. He was grandfather of the famous Sir Bevil Greenvile. 



CLASS VIII. 



KNIGHTS, GENTLEMEN, &c. 

HUMPHREDUS GILBERTUS, MUes Auratus; 
in the " Heroologia ;" %vo. 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert, knight; copied from the 
above ; 4to. 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert, holding an arrnillary 
sphere ; Virginia at a distance. 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert, half-brother, by the mother, to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, possessed, in a high degree, the various talents for which 
that great man was distinguished. He gained a considerahle repu- 
tation in Ireland, in his military capacity, and was one of those gal- 
lant adventurers who improved our navigation, and opened the 
way to trade and commerce. He took possession of Newfoundland 
in the name of Queen Elizabeth, but was unsuccessful in his at- 
tempt to settle a colony on the continent of America. He, as well 
as Sir Walter Raleigh, pursued his studies at sea and land, and 
was seen in the dreadful tempest which swallowed up his ship, sit- 
ting unmoved in the stem of the vessel, with a book in his hand ; 
and wa9 ofteti heard to say, ** Courage, my ladsf we are as near 
heaven at sea, as at land." He always wore pn his breast a golden 
anchor suspended to a pearl, which was given him by the queen. 
There was a portrait of him in the possession of his descendants 

f 

* This Was that ehthasiasm, or rather madness of cbarage, which some will have 
fo be the hiehest |»erfection id a sea-officer. It was a maxim of Admiral Howard, 
who lived in the reign of Henry VIIL that a degree of frenzy was necessary to 
qualify a man for that station-.f 

t Had not oiur immortal Nelson that necessary degree of frenzy?^ 



afK BIOORAPIiICA.L HISTORY 

io Deronshire, with thiq honourable badge. He wrote a dis- 
coiine to prove that there is a north-west paaaage to the Indies* 
06.1583. 

RICARDjUS SGELLEIUS, Prior Angliie, An. 
JEt. LXIII« a medallion, with two reverses. Basire «. 
4to. This curious medallion is in the king's collection. 

Sir Richard Shelley was the last of our countrymen, that I efer 
heard of,whowastitnlarprior of the Englishknightsof St Johnof 
Jemsaleniy or knights Templars.*: He, ia thQ reiguL of Elisabell^ 
without leave of that princess, resided in Spain and the Low Com- 
tries, whither he retired on account of his religion. Hie leader, 
who is curious to see particulars concerning him, it referred la 
the Collection of Letters to which the print is prefixed ; tO' *' Can* 
deni Elizabetha,'' sub annis 1560 et 1563; to the Index of the tbird 
volume of Strype's ** Annals of the Reformation,'* and to Dod's 
" Church History," vol. ii. p. 57. 

THOMAS CANDYSSH, Nobilis Anglus, JEtatw 
sudd 28. — HiBC ilia est, candide inspector, ithutrimm 

ThonuB Canndyssk^ fiobilis Angli^ ad vivum imago ; jti 
ejT Anglia 21 Julii^ 1586, navem conscendens, totum 
terra ambitum circumnavigavit, rediitque in patriae p&T" 
turn Plimouth, 15 Septemb. 1588. Jodocus Handiussc. 
Londini. 8vo. 

Thomas Candish (or Cavendish); in the. "jBfc^ 
roologia ;" 8w. 

Thomas Cavendish, esq. six English verses; he- 
longing to the set of Admirals, Sgc. by Boissard; h.sk. 

Thomas Candyssh, &c. two hemispheres before hiiB; 
six Latin verses ; 8vo. at. xxx. motto, Extremos Pu- 
deat Reclissce. C. v. P. In " Nautical Portraits^* 

The7*e is another neat print of him in Ato. with Ac0 
hemispheres, and six English verses. 

* Thejr aie now' better known by the appeilftlion «f knights of Malta. 



OF ENGLAND. 297 

Thomas Candish. Larmessm sc. Copied from the 
^ Heroologia.** 

Thomas Candish, with Drake. See Drake. 

Thomas Cavendish was a gentleman adventurer, who, soon after 
the commencement of hostilities between England and Spain, un. 
dertook to annoy the Spaniards in the West Indies, and carried fire 
and sword into, their remotest territories. He burnt and destroyed 
luneteen of their ships, and took the admiral of the South Seas, 
Tabled at 48,800/. In this expedition he encompassed the globe, 
and returned in great triumph to England. His soldiers and sailors 
were clothed in silk, his isails were damask, and his top-mast co- 
vered with cloth of gold. In his second expedition, he suffered 1591. 
almost all the miseries that could attend a disastrous voyage.* His 
men mutinied, and he was thought to have died of a broken heart 
in America, 1592,+ 

SIR JOHN PACKINGTON ; from an original 
picture atWashwood^ Worcestershire. Clamp sc. 4to. 

Sk John Packington was a person of no mean family, and of 
4brm and feature no way desjdcable : for he was a brave gentleman, 
and a very fine courtiei: ; and for the time he stayed there, was very 
high in the queen's grace: but he came in, and went out, and 
through disassiduity lost the advantage of her favour; and death 
drawing a veil over him, utterly deprived him of recovery. — Had he 
brought less to the court than he did, he might have carried away 
more than he brought : for he had a time of it, but was an ill hus- 
Imnd of opportunity. His handsome features took the most, and 
Jm neat parts the wisest at court He could smile ladies to his 
service, and argue statesmen to his design with equal ease* — His 
season was powerful, his beauty more. — Never was a brave soul 
anore bravely seated; nature bestowed great parts on him, and edu- 
^»tion polished him to an admirable fVame of prudence and virtue. 
<^en Elizabeth called him her Temperance, and Leicester his Mo- 
desty. By the courtiers he was called Moderation. 

^ * In tlie Straits of Magellan hu men perished in great numbers from cold and 
famine. Knivet's feet tamed qtute black with the cold, and his tpes came off with 
^na stockings. Another blowing his nose with his fingers, threw it into the fire. 

t Dr. Dacarel has a curious drawing, by Vertue, from an original painting, of 
Captain Thomas Eldred, who sailed round the globe in the sixteenth century. 
VOL. I. 2 Q 



298 



BIOGRAPHICAL HISTOBJT 



Thii new courtHitar was a nine days' wonder, engaging d ejttj 
until it set satisfied with its own glory. He came to court, he mV 
as Solomon did to see its vanity ; and retired as he did, to i^l 
it It was he who said first what Bishop Sanderson urged aftff- 
ward, that a sound fiuth waa the best divinity, a good conscieBC»| 
the best law, and temperance the best physic. — lioyd in his ** 
Worthies," says. Sir John Paddngton was virtuous and modest,! 
died in his bed an honest and an h^ipy man. 

A wager was laid by Sr John^ commonly called lusty Pi 
ton, that be would swim firom Whitehall-stairs to Greenwicb, 
the sum of 3000/. But the queen, who had a parttculai 
ness for handsome fellows, would not permit him to run the 
of the trial. 

THOMAS 6RESHAMUS: D^ pktura arQhaff\ 
penes Mercerorum Societatem. Vertue sc. h. sh. 

SirThomasGreshah. JDelaram sc. 4to. P.Steri* 

Sir Thomas Gresham ; with a view of the Ry(i\ 
JEjxhange. Overton wc. whole length; h.sh. 

Sir Thomas Gresham; copied from the newt abwtl 
sold by Walton ; Ato. 

Sir Thomas Gresham ; a small oval. 

Sir Thomas Gresham, Miles, &c. Faberf. large. 
4to. mezz. 

Sir Thob^as Gresham ; a whole length; abak^ 
goods f ship under sail, Sfc. 4to. 

Sir Thomas Gresham, sitting. A. More p' 
R.Theivsc. 1792; /we. 

Sir Thomas Gresham. A.Morepinx. Michel sc* 

Sir Thomas Gresham; 4to. /• T. Smith. 

Sir Thomas Gresham ; from his statue by GiAaf) 
in the Royal Exchange. G. Vertue sc. 

* The first impresnon, " Soold by Jo. Sadbnry, ancl 6. Wuaiik,** 







>.^.'4i*'^j?4^^^/^A^^^^^"-^~3/-'/..'i«^>y3?'»^"^ 




/ .^irM-e^^ iy 



W,iV>'^^'" 7r-ciiJ>-'-"-i 




Efti;mviij'i.>m ai Thu^ug Pri/U /'i eh( (ol/f<-Uo?t ofSirJefin S'Juim&K' 



OF ENGLAND. 299 

Sir Thomas Gresham; in a small circle^ in Hoi- 
lar^s view of the Royal Exchange. 

Sir Thomas Gresham was agent in the Low Countries for Ed- 
ward Vl.y Qaeen Mary» and Queen Elizabeth. His mercantile 
genius exerted itself not only in contriving excellent schemes for 
paying the debts of the crown, and extending our foreign trade ; 
bot also in introducing into the kingdom the manufactures of small 
wares, such as pins, knives, hats, ribands, &c. He was, in a word, 
the founder of commerce ; and, beside other great and charitable 
acts nobly endowed, he founded Gresham College, the seat of learn- 
ing and liberal arts, and the Royal Exchange; which alone is a Fiouhi 
monument that ivill deservedly last as long as trade flourishes in ^^^* 
this kingdom. Ob. 21 Nov. 1579. 

SIR JOHN BROCKETT. Sir A. More pim\ 
1568. G. Barret sc. 

Sir John Brockett was a respectable Spanish merchant, and more 
than once member of parliament for Oxford : his residence, called, 
after his name, Brockett Hall, was near the village of Wheathemp- 
stead, in Hertfordshire. He had three daughters, to each of whom- 
he left a house in Wheathempstead, with a handsome portion in 
money : from one of these houses came the picture from which the 
print was engraved ; and there still remain, to die present time, the 
arms of Brockett, correspondent with those in the picture, carved 
over the mantlepieces of the two parlours. — In Chauncy's Hert- 
fordshire is a very copious account of Sir John, and the rest of the 
Brockett family. Brockett Hall, which has been rebuilt within the 
last forty years, is now the property and country-seat of Lord Vis- 
count Melbourne. 

A set of the Lord Mayors of London, from the first 
year of Queen Elizabeth to 1601; when the prints, 
which are cut in wood, were published. Some of them 
serve for several mayors.* Under the portraits are 
mentioned their charitable gifts, and places of burial, 
with a few other particulars. Among them are seven 

* This circuinstance brings in qaestion the authenticity of the set. Possibly tht 
repetiHon of the prints was only when originals could not be procured. 



300 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

clothworkerSy sir drapers^ one fishmonger ^ two goldsmthsy 
six grocers, five haberdashers ,* four ironmongers^ 
mercers^ two saltersy two skinners, two merchant-tagh 
and one vintner. 

The personal history of these city magistrates is almost mi 
form as their dress ; and the simplicity and plainness c 
ners were as different from those of some who have since fiUeA^ 
chair, as the delicate engraving and the bold and flaring 
are from the rude effigy cut in wood. It would be anniiiiig^ 
trace the progress of a lord mayor, from the loom or the 
monger's stall, to the chair of the chief magistrate : to be ini 
with what difficulty he got the first hundred pounds, with 
much less he made it a thousand, and with what ease he 
his plumb. Such are, in the eye of reason, respectable 
and the niore so, as they rose with credit from humbler stationii '.\ 

WOLSTANUS DIXI (Dixie) Miles, Major 
vitatis Londini, 1585. H. Holland exc. Qvo. In 
collection of the Marquis of Bute. 

Sir Wolstan Dixi£; from the original pictun^ 
T. Trotter sc. 1795. 

Sir Wolstan Dixie, who was a friend to his country and to 
kind, deserves to be remembered for his exemplary character i 
magistrate, and his extensive charities ; for a detail of whkih 
reader is referred to StQ.w's ** Survey of London/' The 
Sir Wolstan Dixie has more reason to boast of having such an 
cestor in his family, than of the tradition that the founder of it 
allied to King Egbert. See the *' English Baronets," ii. p. 89. 

The set of the lord mayors, and the head of Sir Wolstan Dizie/^l 
are extremely rare ;t the former was in the possession of Jdaepk 
Gulston, late of Ealing Grove, in Middlesex, esq. and the latter \^ 
was the property of Richard Bull, esq. member of parliament for 
Newport, in Cornwall.^ /• 

* Among tbese is Sir George Bame, who was lord major in 1586. Hewai the 
first mercbant-adventarer to Barbary, Russia, and Genoa. 

t The set of lord mayors are at present in the collection of Sir John St. Aubyn, 
bart. 

- tit would be ingratitude not to acknowledge the favours which I have received 
^V>jn Sir William Musgravc and both these gentlemen, not only in the free access 



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■rki^l^m.^n7C.^<Trti ^.■Ka/j/i7r:15d^. 






s 



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biR THof Lee Mercer, 

Lord Ma^-or of ihe C'ny of London, li^. 




• y'i /////: ^ /r^fy/,! , .viKHrH.i^"' 



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'/^//.-V-;„ r^,/-.U„ !7fi^„<j„i.. 



OF ENGLAND. 301 

SIR HENRY TIRELL, of Springfield, Essex ; 
JEt.lOy 1582; froyn the original in the possession of 
Mt. Cosway. Elizahetha Bridgetta Gulston del. et f, 
in aquafortis 8w. 

Sir Henry Tirell descended in a direct line from Sir Walter, who 
accidentally shot William Rufus, in New Forest, in Hampshire. 
This jTamily, which long flourished at Springfield, is said to have 
enjoyed the honour of knighthood, in every descent, for six hundred . 
yeartv John Tirell, esq. of that place, was created a baronet 22 Oc- 
tober .1666. I know of nothing particularly memorable concerning 
Sir ittory, who '< married Thomasine, daughter of William Gunston, 
of London, esq. by whom he had several children."* 

SIR THOMAS LEE> lord mayor, 1668. Rich- 
ardst^. / • 

Sir Thomas Lee, or Leigh, son to Roger Leigh, of Wellington' 
Shropshire, was brought up under Sir Rowland Hill, a rich mer- 
chant of London ; by whon^, for his knowledge and industry, he 
was made his factor beyond sea; in which trust he behaved ao 
well, ihat Sir Rowland gave bim in marriage his favourite niece, 
Alice, daughter of John Barker, alias Coverall, of Wolverton, in 
the couiky of Salop. Sir Thomas became lord mayor in 1558, 
and during his mayoralty was knighted. He died in 1571, and 
was buried in Kfercers' Chapel. From htm descended Francis, 
who was created Lord Dunsmore, and afterward Earl of Chichester, 
by Charles 1st; who dying without issue male, the title became ex- 
tinct. His second son, Thomas, was cidled to the House of Peers 
by the title of Lord Leigh, of Stonely . 

SIR WILLIAM HARPER, lord mayor. W. 
Richardson. 

Sir William Harper, son of William Harper, of Bedford, was 
lord mayor of London in 1561 ; founded and built, in his lifetime, 
a free grammar-school in his native place; and conveyed to the cor- 
poration thirteen acres of land in the parish of St. Andrew, Holbom, 

which I have had to their very copioilA and valuable collections of English portraits ; 
bat for their readiness to commnnicate any notices relative to this work, and their 
generous encouragement in the coarse of it. 
* " English Baronets/ ii. p. 454. 



302 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

for its support, and the marring of poor maidens of the tava of^ 
Bedford : the rents are said now to produce neai 6000/. per am 
and a farther increase, of course, is expected. He died 1574, 
was buried in St. Paul's church, Bedford, where a monuinrat 
erected to the memory of Sir William and hit lady. See 
" Bedfordshire "page 52, &c. — PenDaut's " London," 1805, p.. 

SIR RICHARD CLOUGH, knight, ifiin;. 
In Pennant's " London ;" 4to. 

Sir Richard Clough, by birth a Welshman, originally 
Sir Thomas Gresham, by his merit and industry advanced hi 
to be his correspondent in the then emporium of the 'woTld,^A^^ 
xixrp; was afterward knighted, and gave the original hint U^sIe 
Thomas for the building the Royal Exchaugfi or Bourse for at* 
chants. See Pennant's " London," &c. 

CORNELIUS VANDUN; scldier »«^.. 
Henrj/ VIII. at Tournay. T. Trotter, 1794. \ 

Cornelius Vandun ; witk a view of his 
houses in Petty France. I. T. Smith. In his '**' 
trationsfor Pennant," S^c. 

" Cornelius Vandun, born at Breda, in Brabant ; a soldier wid 
King Henry the 8tli, at Tournay, yeoman of the guard, and uihet 
to King Henry, King Edward, Queen Mary, and Queen Eliiiabeth: 
of honest and virtuous life, a careful man for poor folk. Built 
eight of these almshouses, and twelve others on St Etmin'a Hill, 
at his own cost, for poor widows of this parish." He lies boned 
in the north isle of St. Margaret's, with these words round hii 
eiBgy : " Obiit Anno Domini 1577 ; buried y< 4th of Sept. .Statii 

WILLIAM HERVEY, herald ; with his autograph. 
C. Hall. 

William Harvey, or Hervoy, was first patronised by William, lord 
Paget; and whilst Somerset herald attended in the king's coat at 
the funeral of the queen dowager of Henry VIII. and is the only 
one of the officers at arms who is mentioned at that solemnity. , 
His abilities were thought of that consequence, that he was seat 
seven times to Germany, and deputed by Queen Mary to declan 
war against Henry 11. He died at Thame, in Oxfordshire, \5S&-1- 



1 




KJKT. HKKKT AT TirRTTET, TEOSiAH" Off Til£ 
OBIIX li/^-ETATIS SU.E (94. 







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Puin/kcJJu»cl.,^JfShW.,ckardf^?r''JlJfr^^ 



OF ENGLAND. 303 

PETER BLUNDELL; in the ''Oxford Almanack;' 
42. 

i^eter Bluudell was born 1520, at Tiverton, in the county of 
ironsbire, of parents in so low a station, that when young he was 
iged to run on errands for the common carrier. He saved a 
e money » with which he bought a piece of kersey cloth, and sent 

London by one of the carriers ; who sold it to great advantage : 
m similar returns he bought as many kerseys as would load a 
ree, with which he went himself to London, where he continued 

1 he had acquired, sufficient fortune to begin a manufactory of 
iseys at Tivertpn. The fortune that he acquired Was very great. 
is liberality was unconfined^ his bounty ^neral to animate the 
(iustrious, and to reward virtue. He resided for some years in 
ondon, where he died in 1601, aged 81 ; and was buri6d in the 
Lurch of St. Michael Royal, 'Paternoster Row. He gave 2000/. 
r the maintenance of six scholars at Oxford and Cambridge. For 
list of his extensive charities^ see Prince's '' Worthies of Devon,'' 
id Damford's " Tiverton." 

J. BRU35 ; tf ww<^// A^fifrf »i^ C/^rA:'^ '^ Marr&w of 
'cdesiasti&A History '' 

J. Bruen; 8vo. W. Richardson. 

John Bruen,' of Stapltsford, in Cheshire^ w^ a man of consider- 
le fortune, wboreeeivtd his education at Alban HiJl, ih the uni- 
rsity of Oxford, where he was a gentlemaDL-commoner.' Though 
was of Puritan principled, he was no slave to the narrow bigotry 
a sect. He was hospitable^ generous, and charitable, and be- 
^ed and admired by men of all persuasions. He was conscien- 
•asly punctual in all the private and public duties of religion, and 
nnity was his study and delight. He was a frequenter of the 
blic sermons of these times, csdled prophecyings ; and it was his 
Dstant practice to commit the substance of what he had heard to 
itmg*. 06. 1626, JSJf. 65. 

* See more of him in the second part of the book above mentioned. The author 
^rms as, that Mr. Bmen had a serrant, named Robert Pasfield, who was " mighty 
the Scriptoresy" thoogh he could neither write nor read. He was, indeed, as re- 
vkable for remembering texts and sermons as Jedidiah Boxtbn for remembering 
tubers. " For the help of his memory, he invented and framed a girdle of 
tiler, long and large, which went twice about him. This he divided into several 



304 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



CLASS IX. 

PERSONS OF GENIUS AND LEARNING, toj 

ELIZABETHA, Regina, R. Houston f. ma, 
Copied from the " Heroologia T for Rolfs " Lives'' 

Queen Elizabeth, who understood six languages, makes a 
siderable figure among the learned ladies.* Her translation of 
** Meditations of the Queen of Navarre/* was printed at M 
in 1548; her translation of '^ Xenophon's Dialogue between Hie 
and Siroonides," was first printed in 1743, in No II. of the " 
laneous Correspondence." Several of her letters are in the " Syl*] 
loge Epistolarum." See the '' Catalogue of Royal and Nobk| 
Authors." 



PHYSICIANS. 

DR. WILLIAM GILBERT, physician to Queeu 

Elizabeth ; from an original picture in the BodiM 
Library^ Oxford, Clamp sc. 4to. 

Dr. William Gilbert was bom at Colchester in Essex in 1540. 
His father Hieron Gilbert was recorder of that town, who having 
educated his son at the grammar-school, sent him to Cambridge 
Having studied physic there for some time, he travelled abroad f* 
farther improvement, and in one of the foreign universities had the 
degree conferred on him of M. D. He returned to England with a 
most enlarged reputation for his learning in general ; and had espe- 
cially the character of being profoundly skilled in philosophy and 



parts, allotting every book in the Bible, in their order, to some of these difiaoiu) 
then, for the chapters, he affixed points or thongs of leather to the several divisioosi 
and made knots by fives or tens thf^eupon, to dbtinguish the chapters of that book; 
and by other points he divided me chapters into their particular contents or vencsi 
as occasion required. This he used instead of pen and ink, in bearing sermonti 
and made so good use of it, that, coming home, he was able by it to repeat tbe 
sermon, quote the texts of scripture, &c. to his own great comfort, and to the be 
nefit of others ; which girdle Master Bruen kept after his death, hang it up in 1>b 
study, and would merrily call it The Girdle of Verity." 
* See Roger Ascham's Works, p. 242. 272. 




VV. B. 



,"U-V' : I.., II ■■'H..-h..r.,, „ i.,rk //,„„,- su-.,..d 



OF ENGLAND. 305 

chemistry. He was elected a fellow of the College of Physicians 
in London, in 1573. His. success and great reputation having in- 
curred the attention of Queen Elizabeth, she sent for him to court, 
appointed him her physician in ordinary, and gave him, besides, an 
annual pension to encourage him in his studies. 

. Dr. Gilbert is highly conspicuous for being the first who disco* 
Tered several of the properties of the loadstone. In 1600 he pub- 
lished his treatise '' De Magneti, Magnetisque Gorporibus, et de 
xnagno Magnete tellune Physiologia Nova;" ue. ** Of the Magnet 
and Magnetical Bodies, and of that great Magnet the Earth." This 
work is the first regular system on. this curious subject ; and in this 
piece our author shews the use of the declination of the magnet, 
which had been discovered by Norman in finding out the latitude ; 
for which purpose he contrived two instruments for the sea. 

After the death of Elizabeth, the doctor was continued as chief 
physician to King James L but did not long enjoy that honour, 
paying his last debt to nature,' November 30, 1603. His body was 
interred in- Trinity church at Colchester, the place of his nativity. 

By his last will he left all his library, consisting of books, globes, 
instruments, &c. and a cabinet of minerals, to the College of Phy- 
sicians. 

WILLIAM B ULLEYN, physician ; a wood j>rint ; 
profile; long beard: from his ^^ Government of Health,'' 
1648; Svo. with his initials W. B. 

William Bulleyn ; copt/ by W. Richardson. 

There is a whole length of him cut in wood, with four 
English verses. It belongs to his works in folio. 

WiLHELMus BuLLEN, M. D. &c. F. WiL Stukeley, 
1122% floruit 1570; smdil. 

William Bulle3rn was a physician of great learning and experi- 
ence, and a very eminent botanist. He travelled over a considerable 
part of Germany and Scotland, qhiefly with a view of improving 
himself in the knowledge of plants; and was not only familiarly 
acquainted with the names aiid characters of English vegetables, 
but was also well skilled in their virtues.* He read the Oreek, 

• The knowledge of plants is usually limited to their names and clasies, without 
attending to their virtues. But the greatest .lovers of the^deUghtful study of botany 
VOL. !• 2 R 



306 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Roman, and Arabian authors, in his own ftu^ulty, and wrote lere- 
ral medical treatises himself. The collection of his works is en- 
titled, ** Bulleyn's Bulwarke of Defence against all Site 
Serenes, and Woundes, that doe daily assaulte Mankind; wluii 
Bulwarke is kept with Hillarius the Gardener, Health the Pby* 
sician, with their Chj^rurgian to help the wounded Soldiors, &c. 
1562 ; fol. In this collection is his " Book of Simples,"* his "Dii- 
logue betwixt Soreness and Surgery, &c«" He was an ancestor to 
the late Dr. Stukeley, the antiquary. 06. 7 Jem. 1576. 

RICHARD HA YDOCKE, M. D. Frontispmts 

his translation of Lomazzo, or Lomatius*s " Art of 
Painting j'" 1598; a pot folio. 

There is a copy of this head by John Thane. 



Richard Haydocke was educated at New College, in Oxford, 
practised physic at Salisbury, and afternrard in London. He pub* 
lisbed a translation of Lomazzo's ** Art of Painting,'* which vas 
first printed at Milan, in the Italian language, 1583. Mr. Hogaitl^ 
fancied he saw the fundamental principle of his '< Analysis of 
Beauty" in this translation, f couched in the following precept of 
Michael Angelo to Marco da Sienna his scholar ; " That he should 
always make a figure pyramidal, serpent-like, and multiplied by 
one, two, and three."| Sir Richard Baker tells us, " that one 
Richard Haydocke, of New College in Oxon, pretended to preach 
in his sleep, and was by King James discovered to be an im- 
postor.''^ He died in the reign of Charles I.|| See the Class of 
Artists. 

WILLIAM CUNYNGHAM, of Norwich, doctor 
in physic, JEt, 28 ; toell cut in woody with Dioscoridess 
Book of Plants opeyi before him. It is prefixed to his 



must own, that a common farmer, who knows what simples will make a goo^ 
drench for a cow, is possessed of more valuable knowledge than a mere verbal be 
tanist, who can remember all the names in a vegetable system. 

• The oldest herbal in the English language is tbat by Dr. Turner, in the blac 
letter, 1551 ; folio, 
t See the *' Analysis." X Haydocke's " Translat." &c. p. 17. $ Chron. p. 59 

II See a full account of his impostures in Wanley's Wonders of the little Worl 
and in Lodge's " Illustrations," vol. iii. 






'l ■ 




ifiis ttb Elifa J^utk-en'^ awmaiu. per am/no's 
JimaCis. riAj (fx/is tc l^ooat iUa/ ({amu/}n/ 
^Juil matni/rrmiu'is qIo/tus madmzfwt caUs^ 



7'a iy HT' f?%chardpn CafileStntt t«.^fl~K'.W. 



OF ENGLAND. 307 

" Cosmographical Glasse, conteyning the pleasant Prin* 
ciples of Cosmographie, Geographic, Hydrographiey or 
Navigation" 

There is a good copy of this portrait. 

In the dedication, he mentions other works of his own com- 
position, in astronomy and chronology ; and a commentary upon 
Hippocrates de Acre, AquiSy et Regionilms, He was also author of 
a Treatise of the French Disease. He executed several of the cuts 
in the *' Cosmographical Glass" himself. The map of Norwich, 
belonging to this book, which was printed in the black letter, folio, 
1559, is curious and fine. 

MARCUS RIDLEUS, Cantabrigiensis, impera- 
toris Russiae archiatrus, JEt. 34, 1594 ; with coat of 
arms. % 

'' Missus ab Elisa Ruthenis quinque per annos, 
Anglis nl desis, te vocat ilia domum. 
Tute mathematicis clarus, magnetica calles, 
Feeonias laudes doctus ubique capis." 

A small qtuzrto print. 

Mark Ridley ; from the above. W. Richardson. 

■j. .' • 

Mark Ridley was physician to the company of English merchants 
residing in Russia, and afterward to the Russian emperor. After 
his return to England, he was chosen one of the eight principals or 
elects of the College of Physicians. He was author of a " Treatise 
of Magnetical Bodies," in which he intimates, that longitudes 
might be rectified by the nautic needle.* About the year 1617, 
he published animkdversfons upon Barlow's *' Magnetical Adver- 
tisement.'' See ** A'then. Oxon." I. col. 495. 



a 



THOMAS GALUS, Chirurgus, M. 66, 1563; 
oval; cut in wood; Svo. size. 

Thomas Gale is said, by Bishop Tauner,t to have been the most 
celebrated surgeon of his time; and to have been educated under 
Richard Ferris, princ^al surgeon to Queen Elizabeth. Yet the 
same author informs us, that he was in the army of Henry VIII. at 

* Vide cap. 43. . t Sec his " Bibliotjieca-" 



308 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Muttrel (Montreuil), in 1544; and with King Philip at S,t. Quintin, 
in 1557. This seems to clash with chronology; but is, however, far 
from being impossible ; as Ferris might have flourished in the time 
of Henry and the three subsequent reigns, without being so old as 
some eminent surgeons now living. He was author of an " Enchi- 
ridion of Chirurgerie," of ** An Institution of a Chirurgean,"* and 
also published a collection of his own pieces in folio, 1563 ; to aU 
which his head hath been prefixed. The most curious of his works 
is a Herbal, consisting of such plants as are used in surgery, 
with figures. He practised in London, and died in the year 1586. 

J. H. (JOHN HALL, surgeon), M.35, 1564 ; 8vo. 
He holds a plant in his hand. Under the head are several 
Latin verses. It is before his translation of the " Chi- 
rurgia Parva," of Lanfranke. 

John Hall; from the above. W. Richardson. 

John Hall, a surgeon of Maidstone, in Kent, wrote and trans- 
lated several chirurgical treatises, of which Bishop Tanner has 
given us a detail. He was also author of a book of Hymns with 
musical notes. 

PETER LEVEIES, holding a urinal. I.C.(hantry) 
sc. Before ** The Path-way to Health^'' 1664 ; \2mo, 

Peter Levens, who studied and practised both physic and sur- 
gery, is styled, ** Master of Arts, of Oxon," in the title to his book, 
called, " The Path-way to Health ; wherein are most excellent and 
approved Medicines of great Virtue," &c. This book was first pub- 
lished in 1587. Mr. Wood informs us, that the author, or rather 
collector, of these receipts, who appears to have been no graduate 
in physic, was some time fellow of Magdalen College, in Oxford. 
Mr. Boyle's " Medicinal Experiments, or a Collection of choice 
and safe Remedies," for the use of families and country-people, is 
the most noted book of this kind. John Wesley hath published a 
collection of receipts called " Primitive Physic," among which are 
some very good ones, particularly Sir Stephen Fox*s remedy for 
weak eyes. This book, by the help of the title, hath had a good 
run,t particularly among the Methodists, whose faith, co-operating 

* A. Treatise of Wounds made with Gonne Shot, 1563. 

t The thirteenth edition, now before nic, was printed in 1768« 



OF ENGLAND. 309 

with nature, frequently made them whole, when Mr. Wesley had 
the credit of the cure. 

SIR GEORGE BAKER ; a small wood print, 
whole length, standing in his laboratory; from his 
second " Book of Distillations, containing sundrie excel- 
lent Remedies of distilled Waters^' 1599 ; Mo. 

These remedies are now neglected ; as Galenical have generally 
given place to chymical medicines. 

WILLIAM BIRD ; in the print with Tallis. 

William Bird was the son of Thomas Bird, one of the gentlemen 
of the chapel royal in the reign of King Edward the Sixth. He 
received the principal part of his musical education under the cele- 
brated Thomas Tallis, and was elected organist of the cathedral 
church of Lincoln in 1563. Six years after he was appointed a 
gentleman of the chapel royal, and was considered the finest player 
on. the virginal of his time. His compositions were numerous and 
of great variety. In the check-book of the chapel royal he is 
styled '' the father of music." The well-known canon of ^021 
Nobis, Domine, was of his composition. He died 1623, ^t, 80. , 

ENGLISH POETS. 
EDMUND SPENCER. Vertue sc. 

'' Anglica te vivo vixit plausitque poesis, 
Nunc moritura timet te moriente mori." 

Camdsk, 
One of the set of Poets ; large h. sh. 

Edmund Spencer. Vertue sc. 8vo. 

There is a painting of him at Castle Duplin, the resi- 
dence of the Earl of Kinnouly in Scotland. 

Edmund Spencer; in the print with Chaucer, 
Shakspeare, and Jonson. 

Edmund Spencer ; in BeWs ^' Poets f' \2mo. Cooky 
1777. 




'fwea mi l 

jponcigpPy wiio pfcmnca 

to bare Aooglit die lowest defk in bis offce a Boie des 

peniOD. It was Terj bard, diat a gennis wbo did bcaioar 

coantiyy sbooM get less, by writing, tban a jomneyman ne 

employed in printing bis works. He died in want of bread, 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE; adarig.tab. 
D. Hurley. Vertue sc. 1721 ; 4to. 

William Shakespeare, &c. Vertue sq. \ 
Done from the original^ now in the possession of I 
Keck, of the Inner Temple, esq.X large h. sh. 

* Fecolijuritjr of anj kind is ftrikiDg ; and in proportion as it b so, is | 
more iroitable, either in poetry or painting. It is easier to initate the st 
mannerist, than the simplicity of Raphael or Foossin. 

t Notes to the second book: of the Life of Henry II. p. 53. 

t It has been said, that there never was an original portrait of Shakipe 
that Sir Thomas Chvges, after his death, caosed a portrait to be diami 
from a person who nearly resembled him. Mr. Walpole informs me* ttal 
ofifhial pictnre of Shakspeare is that which belonged to Mr. Keck, firom 
pissed to Mr. Nicoll, whose only daughter married the Marquis of Gil 
This agrees with what is said in the " Critical Review," for December, 17; 



OF ENGLAND. 311 

William Shakespeare ; in the possession of John 
I^coll^ of Southgate^ esq. Houbraken sc. 1747. Illust 
JSead. 

William Shakespeare. Zoustp. From a capital 
picture in the collection of T. Wright^ painter y in Covent 
Garden: J. Simon f h. sh. mezz. 

This was painted in the reign of Charles II. 

William Shakespeare ; with a laurel-branch in 
his left hand. W. Marshall sc. Frontispiece to his 
poemsy 1640; \2mo. 

William Shakespeare. Ar laud del. Duchange 
sc. 4to. 

William Shakespeare. J.Paynesc. Heis repre- 
sented with a laurel-branch in his left hand. 

William Shakespeare. L.du Guernier ^c. 

William Shakespeare; small; with several other 
heads, before JacoVs ^^ Lives of the Dramatic PoetSy^ 
1719; 8w. 

William Shakspeare, bom April 23, 1664, died 
April 23, 1616. C. Knight. From a drawing by Ozias 
Humphrey y prefixed to his ^^ Works ^'^ by Mr. MaUmCy 
1790; %vo. 

William Shakspear, JEf. 40 ; 8w. J. Hatl sc. 
1772. 

William Shakspear ; 4to. T. Trotter sc. 1794. 
From the original picture. < 



lation to the same portrait, which is there also said to have been " painted either by 
Richard Burbage, or John Tajlor, the player, the latter of whom left it by will to 
Sir William Davenant After his death, Betterton, the actor, bought it; and when 
he died, Mr. Keck of the Temple gave forty guineas for it to Mrs. Barry, the 
actress.*' Mr. Walpole adds, that Marshall's print i> genuine too, and probably 
drawn from the life. . • 



312 BIOQRAPHICAL..HI8TORY 

William Shakspbar, tmth autogrcph, head ail 
fanshed, from ditto. T. Trotter. te.n^A, 

William Shakspear ; ovtU ito. C. Warrm ft 
1806. 

William SnAKaPEAE; to Hitmnier^$ editm, 4h 
Gravelot sc. 1744. 

WiLLiAK Shajelspeab; mezz. C. Turner^ 1815. 

William-. SHAKSP£AR;m Har£ng*8 *i Shakspear* 
LtGoux ic. 

William Shakespearb, mth the heads of Jonm^ 
Sfc h. sh^ mezz. 

Thoagh Shakspeare be a writer of a mixed chanuster, he?nl 
evisr be timked m the first class of our EnglisE poets. Hb beas- 
ties are his owii> audi in the strictest sense, original. The fitmlti 
found in him are chiefly those of the age in which he lived, b» 
transcribers, aitad his editors. He not only ezoeUed in copying 
nature, but his imagination carried him beyond it. He had all the 
creative powers of fancy to form new characters ;* and was more 
an original genius than any other writer. He, like other great poets, 
has had the felicity of having his faults admired, for the sake of bis 
beauties. See the next reign. 

JOHN DONNE, M. 18. Marshall sc. Frontis- 
piece to his Poems, 1635 ; l2mo. 

John Donne, styled by Mr. Dryden " the greatest wit, tbougli 
not the greatest poet of our nation," wrote on various subjects; 
but his greatest excellency was satire. He had a prodigioas rich- 
ness of fancy ; but his thoughts were much debased by his versi- 
fication. Drummond, the famous Scottish poet, affirmed to Ben 
Jonson, that he wrote his best pieces before he was twenty-five 
years of age if 

" 'Twas then plain Donne in honest Tengeance rose* 
His wit hannonioas, but his rhyme was prose.*' 

Dr. Bbowm's Essay on Satire. 

* His Caliban, Fairies, &c . . 

t Or, rather, Ben Jonson affirmed to Drummond. — Lqbd Hailbs. 



S'^ John HajTiri()ti'n 



MWA^/.0!y^miA>T^£' y.^ffouf^S^fhijj.,, 



OF ENGLAND. 313 

3 was for a considerable time after his marriage, a sojourner at 
•'rancis Vooley's house at Pirford, in Surrey. Winstanley says, 
a.s in prison when he wrote ''Done and Undone," after his 
and his wife's name. See Brit. Biog. IV. 244 ; Winstanley, 
9; Floyd's Bibliotheca; Biog* British, B. IV. p. 369. N.~ 
:lie next reign, Class IV. and IX. 

»HILLIPPUS SIDNEYUS. Van Hove sc. 

lis accomplished gentleman seems to have been the delight 
admiration of the age of Elizabeth, rather for the variety than 
preatness of his genius>. He that was the ornament of the uni- 
ity, was also the ornament of the court; and appeared with 
^ advantage in a field of battle, or at a tournament; in a private 
versation among his friends, or in a public character as' an am- 
Bador. His talents were equally adapted to prose or verse, to 
:inal composition or translation. His ** Arcadia'' was not only 
:iired for its novelty, but continued to be read longer than such 
^positions usually are, and has passed through fourteen editions. 
3 reader will find the l^mguage of the. Arcadia incomparably 
ter than the afiected pedantic style of lill/s f' Euphues,*' which 
much read aild admired by the ladies at court'in this reign. He 
I* the 16th of Oct. 1585. See Lord Lyttelton's Henry II. 
3. 359—62. 

SIR JOHN HARRINGTON ; with a watch lying 
t table ; a small oval, engraved byWm. Rogers: in the 
e to his translation of ** Orlando Furioso,'' 1591 ; 

3iR John Harrington; a copy of the above. 
Richardson. 

Sir John Harrington, knight; JEtatis sua 50; 
ir English verses y ** His Body's here,'' Sgc. scarce. 
There is another print of him by Thomas Cockson, 
^ore a later edition of his " Translation of Ariosto." 

[here were two original pictures of him in the possession of the 
i Dr. Harrington of Bath, who was lineally descended from him. 

* <* Ennobled by himselfi by all approved, 

Frais'd, wept, and honour*d, by the muse he lov'd." — Pope. 

^OL. 1. 2 S 



314 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Sir John Harrington had, m his time, a y^ry consiberable refpa- 
tation as a poet and translator, and was also noted for his ready wit 
He -was author of four books of epigrams, which were printed after 
his decease. His '' Translation of Ariosto" was published in Ui 
lifetime, with cuts.* His genius was thought to be better suited 
to epigram, than heroic poetry. He was godson to Queen ElizabeA. 
— Granger's Letters, p. 269. 

GEORGE GASCOIGNE; in armour; ruff; large 
beard ; on his right hand a musket and bandeleers ; on 
his left, books, Sgc. ; underneath, *' Tam Marti, quam 
Mercurio.'' 

George GAscoioiiiE; wood-cut. Machel Stace. 

George Gascoigne. F^^y sc. very neat. 

George Gascoigne, a gentleman of a good education, served 
with reputation in the wars in the Low Countries ; and after his 
return to England, distinguished himself by his writings in prose 
and verse. He published several books of poems with fantastic 
titles, namely, ''Flowers," ** Herbs," " Weeds," &c. Among which 
are several dramatic pieces. He was esteemed the best love-poet 
of his age. There is a pamphlet in the black letter, entitled, '^ A 
Remembrance of the well-employed Life and godly End of George 
Gascoigne, esq. who deceased at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, Oct. 7, 
1577," by George Whetstone, gent. This contradicts the date of 
his death in the '' Athenee Oxonienses." See ** Reliques of ancient 
Enghsh Poetry," ii. p. 136, 2d edit The print of him is prefixed 
to his " Steele Glass, a Satire," Lond. 1576 ; 4to. before which are 
commendatory verses by Walter Rawley, and others. Oh. 1578. 

THOMAS NASH; small whole length, in fetters; 
wood-cut y 'prefixed to *' The Trimming of Thomas 
Nash, gent. 1597. 

Thomas Nash ; from the above. W. Richardson. 
Thomas Nash ; in an oval. J. Thane. 

Thomas Nash was born at Leostoff, in Suffolk; he received his 
education at St. John's College, in the university of Cambridge, 

* See the preface to this work. 



jOP ENGLAND. 315 

^"^^te he took the degree 6f B. A. 1585. He was the companion 
1^ intimate of that libertine R. Green. His « Prince Pennyless," 
^B'^gfa wrote with spirit, breathes despair and disappointment. 
J"* i said to have become very pious, before his death, and wrote 
^Christ's Tears over Jerusalem." He wrote three dramatic pieces; 
*•• Dido, Queen of Carthage ; Summer's Last Will and Testament; 
*^d The Isle of Dogs ; though his principal talent was satire. He 
^^ engaged in a violent paper war with Dr. Gabriel Harvey, and 
* supposed to have died about the year 1600. 



SCOTCH POETS. 

GEORGE BUCHAJf AN. ^.Pourbusp. J. Hon- 
f^aken sc. 1 74 1 . In the collection of Dr. Mead. Illmt. 
-Head. 

. Georgius Buck ana nus, JEt. 76. Esme de Bou- 
^onoisf. 4to. 

Another by the same hand, JEt. 77, A. sh. 

Georgius Buchananus. J. C. H.f. A copy from 
the above; in Boissard; Ato. 

" Georgius BucHANANus. JR. V. S. F. in a cypher; 
J2mo. 

■ _ 

Georgius Buchananus. R. White sc. h. sh. 

There is a mean print of him by Clarke^ small %vo. 
or \2mo. 

George Buchanan, ^. 76. R. Cooper. 

George Buchanan ; six verses. M. F. 8w. 

George Buchanan. Granthome. 

George Buchanan ; in Freherus. 

George Buchanan, a very celebrated Scottish poet and historian, 
who in both those characters has happily emulated the simplicity 
uid beauty of the ancients, was preceptor to James VI. The most 
ipplauded of his poetical works is his Translation of the Psalms, par- 



316 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

ticularly of the CIV* His History of Scotland, in which he \m li 
treated the character of Mary, the mother of his royal pupil, witii |ri 
great freedom, has been read in the schools in that kingdom as a 
Latin classic.f Ob. 28 Sept. 1582, ^t. 76. Ii 

Buchanan came into England in the reign of Edward VI. ; bat It 
soon left the kingdom, and retired to France, where he found that p 
studious leisure and undisturbed tranquillity which he had in Yaia i 
sought for here, in the minority of the king. 

JACOBUS CRITONIUS, Salminkio sc. octavo 
size: in the " Museum Historicum' of Lnperialis. 
Poorly executed, but most probably authentic. A print 
of him was engraved by J. Hall, for the secofid part of 
Mr. Pennant's " Tour in Scotland. '^ The drawing was 
taken from a picture in the possession of Lord EUock, a 
lord of the session at Edinburgh. This is a copy, by a 
grandson of Sir John Medina^ from the original^ in the 
possession of Mr. Graham^ of Airth. 

The Admirable Crichton ; from a painting at 
Frendraucht. Rivers sc. 1795. 

There is a genuine picture of him in the possession of Mr. Alex- 
ander Morrison, of Bagnie, in the county of Bamff, in Scotland. It 

* This Psalm has been translated mto Latin by nine Scottish poets. Eight of 
Ihew tftntlatioBS were printed at Edingbargh, 1699, 12mo. together* with the 
** Poetic DmI" of Dr. George Eglisem with Buchanan. The former accused tbit 
§n«t poet oC bad Latin, and bad poetry, in bis version of this Psalm, and made no 
icnple of preferring hb own tnuudation of it to Buchanan's. The ■* Consilium 
Colte g ii Medici Paiisiensis de Bfania G. Eglisemii, quam prodidit Scripto,''^is well 
worth the reader't perusal for its pleasantry : it is prefixed to the " Poetic Duel'' 
The idntfa Latm translation of the CIV. Psalm was by the famous Dr. Pitcaime. 
It was pnbfiahed in the name of Walter Danniston. There is an admired versaon 
of thb Psalm in E ng lish by Blacklock, a poet of the same nation, who was bora 
himd. See his Poems poblished by Mr. Spence. 

t The <« History of Scotland," by Dr. Robertson, has added to the number of 
oar Aigltsh classics. 

t The CoMifiiim b by Arthur Johnston, M.D. the best part is the Epitois tf Sl 
"•■^ The poen is laoch too long, and has great affectation of learning ; tlioagh» 
i**«fcapt, tWt alio BMiy he satiricaL — Loan Hailed. 



OF ENGLAND. 317 

ie supposed that this portrait was sent from Italy, by himself, to 
Viscount Fendraught, the chief of the family of Crichton.* 

This amazing genius seems to have surprised and astonished 
mankind like a new northern star. He, together with an athletic 
strength and singular elegance of form, possessed the various 
powers of the human mind in their full force, and almost every 
acquired talent that could recommend the man, or adorn the gen- 
tleman. One would imagine that he was master of the art for which 
Raymond Lully is said to have been distinguished ; that of talking 
readily upon subjects which he did not understand : but he disputed 
with adepts and learned doctors, and foiled literary champions at 
their own weapons. If all that is said of him by authors of cha- 
racter be true, he is much better entitled to the appellation of 
Phoenix than John Picus Mirandula ; but the elevation and exten- 
sion of the genius of this wonderful man appears to have been 
** more a flight than a growth. If he had lived longer, and written 
iDore,t it is probable that his works would not, like those of his 
countryman Buchanan, have continued unimpaired by time. Crich- 
ton shot up like the mountain pine ; Buchanan rose slowly like the 
oak4 The one is rather an object of temporary admiration ; the 
other retains its strength and beauty, after it hath stood the shock 
of ages. It is probable, that the great qualities of Crichton served 
to precipitate his fate. Vicencio de Gonzaga, prince of Mantua, 
his pupil, prompted by jealousy or envy, basely attacked and bru. 
tally murdered him, in the street, in the time of Carnival, in the 
year 1583, and the twenty-second^ year of his age. If the reader 
should, in a collective view, consider what is said of him by Impe- 
rialis, in his '^ Museum ;" by Mackenzie, in his '^ History of Scotch 
Writers;" by Bishop Tanner, in his ** Bibliotheca ;" and by Dr. 

* See Pennant's *' Tour in Scotland," p. 125. 

t Dr. Samuel Johnson informed me, that two copies of verses, one, at least, of 
which is in the " DeUcuc Foetarum Scotorum" are the only known pieces of 
Crichton. Bishop Tanner is, perhaps, nustaken, in attrihoting several books to 
him, which belong to another writer of the same name. 

X " Crevit oeculto velut arbor m)o** 

$ Sir Thomas Urquhart, in a very scarce book, entitled " The Discovery of a 
most exquisite Jewel," &c. Lond. 1652, in which he gives a long and very wonder- 
ful account of Crichton* says he was killed in the thirty-second year of his age.|| 

H That strange book is a greater curiosity than Crichton was ; the language more 
bombast than the marvels attributed to his hero. The account of hu intrigue and 
dei^th is a compound of gravity and obscenity. — Lord Obfobd. 



318 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Hawkesworth, ia " The Adventurer ;" he will find full enough to 
exerciHe hi> faith, though mankind be naturally fond of the marvel- 
lous, and ever willing to stretch their faculties to the utmost to 
reconcile it with truth. 

ALEXANDER BODIUS, Bonil. Christi liber, 
M. 33, an. 1596. 

Hie ego qui tacitus video meliora proboque, 
Non odiosa sequor. 
T. de Leu f. It is Tab. 10. of Sir Robert Sibbai^i ' 
" jprodromus Historic Naturalis Scotue" whence the 
following article is extracted. The inscription on the 
print alludes to his being set at liberty at Thoulouse, 
after a tedious confinemaii, which was occasioned by a 
popular insurrection in that city. 

Alexander BoDtus, enlarged from the last hg 
Donaldson; engraved by Beugo; prefia^edto his Life in 
quarto. 

Hark Alexander Boyd,* iHio was comparable, if not equal, to 
the admirable Crichton,t was bom in Galloway, on the 13th 
day of January, 1562, and came mto the world with teeth. He 
teamed the rudimBnts of the Latin and Greek languages at Glasgow, 
■nder two grammaritiw, but was of so high and intractable a 
spirit, that they despttired of ever making him a scholar. Having 
quarrelled with his maaters, he beat tbem both, burnt his books, 
and forswore learning. While he was yet a youth he followed tlie 
court, anil did his utmost to push his interest there ; but the fer- 
is temper soon precipitated him into qnarrels, from which 
AoBlridi honour and safety, though frequently at the hazard 
' H the approbation of bis friends, went to serve 
my. and carried his little patrimony with hiioi 
poled at p\ay. He was shortly afler roused by 

.Bojd, wtio wai t\itA ion ot Adam Boyd, of I%ikluJI, 

Bo^i^. arclib'ubopaf Glugow, vu • joDDgeraun of 

"^^jj ,bo vtu descended {ram the lune femilj nilh Muk 

''^^(iit ticrai a miuiviscilpt m hl» poMeuion, Md iittCTtBd itin 

^olwulii SoMi*-" IJ**- "L P""- '"■ P- '— *■ 




OF ENGLAND. 319 

tb&l emulatioti which is natural to great minds, and applied him- 
self to letters with unremitted ardour, till he became One of the 
most consummate scholars of the age. His parts were superior to 
his learning, as is abundantly testified by his writiogs in print and 
manuscript. The Greek and Latin were as familiar to him as his 
mother ton^e. He could readily dictate to three scribes in as many 
difierent languages and subjects* He had an easy and happy vein 
of poetry, wrote elegies in the Ovidian manner, and his hymns were 
thought to be superior to those of any other Latin poet.* He wrote 
a great number of other poems in the same language, and translated 
Csesar's Commentaries into Greek, in the style of Herodotus : this 
translation was never printed. His other manuscripts on philolo- 
gical, political, and historical subjects, in Latin and French, are 
.enumerated by the author of his Life, who tells us that he was the 
best Scottish poet of his age ; and that, as a writer in his native 
language, h6 was upon a level witli Ronsard and Petrarch. He 
was tall, compact, and well-proportioned in his person; his coun- 
tenance Was beautiful, sprightly, and engaging ; he had a noble 
air ; and appeared to be the accomplished soldier among men of 
the sword, and as eminently the scholar among those of the gown. 
He spent the greatest part of his unsettled life ib France, biit died 
at Pinkhill, his father's seat, in April, 1601, about the thirty.eighth 
or thirty-ninth year of his age. 

T hat sun. 

Which not alone the southern wit sublimes, 
But ripens spirits in cold northern climes* 

seems to have shed as great influence on Scotland in the sixteenth 
century as it hath in the present age. I have proceeded to an un- 
usual length in this article of Boyd, as he is mentioned by none of 
bur English writers. 



MISCELLANEOUS AUTHORS. 

RALPH (or Rafe) BROOK, esq. York-herald, 
died 15 Oct. 1625, aged 73 ; ruff; heralds coat; Ato. 

• Olans Borrichius, a very eminent and judicious critic, at p. 150, of his ** Dif- 
j^rtettonet Aeademieit d$ Poetif,'* spoOukig of Boyd, sajs, " In Mare9 AUxaaadro 
Bodio, Seoto, redivivum tpedamut Natonem ; ea ut in gutdem EpittolU Hercidum, 
hue, candor, dextmtas." He speaki as highly of his Hymns in heroic verse. 



320 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Ralph Brook, who naturally follows Camden as his antagonist, 
discovered many errors, in relation to pedigrees, in the ** Britan- 
nia/' which he offered to communicate to the author ; but his offer 
was waved, and he was superciliously treated. Upon this, urged 
by personal resentment, he sedulously applied himself to a tho- 
rough examination of that celebrated work, and published a dis- 
covery of the errors which he found in the fourth edition of it. This 
book, in which Mr. Camden is treated with very little ceremony, or 
even common decency, was of great use to him in the fifth editiooi 
published in 1600. Brook's '* Second Discovery of Errors," to which 
his head is prefixed, was published in 4to. 1723, about a century 
after his decease. 

WILLIAM LAMBARDE, of Kent, esq. Ob. 
M. 66, 1601. Yertm sc. 1730 ; h. sh. 

William Lambarde, &c. Verttie sc. Frontispiece 
to his ** Alphabetical Description of the Chief Places 
in England and Wales;'' the same plate as thejirst, re- 
duced to a quarto. 

William Lambarde; Ato(Dorrell) sc. In Mai- 
colm's *' Lives of Antiquaries,'^ Ato. 1816. 

William Lambarde, a learned and industrious antiquary, was au- 
thor of the '' Archaionomia, sive de priscis Anglorum Legibus,*^ 
1568 ; 4to. and of the " Perambulation of Kent," 1570. He care- 
fully collected many of the old MSS. which were in the Cotton 
library, and was the founder of an almshouse at Greenwich. His 
^' Archaionomia," which is his capital performance, is a translation 
of the Anglo-Saxon laws, which had been translated more justly, 
but less elegantly, by John Brompton.* This work of Lambarde 
was begun by Lavnrence Nowel, dean of Litchfield. 

JOHN STOW, historian and antiquary. Vertuesc. 
A bust, from his monument in the church of St. Andrew 
Undershaft ; large h. sh. The tvhole monument was 
engraved by Sturt, for his Survey. 

John Stow ; 4to. T. (Trotter) sc. In Malcolm's 
* Lives of Antiquaries^" 4to. 1816. 

* Preface to Gibson's " Cbronicon Saxonicum," p. 4. 



OF ENGLAND. 321 

JoHK Stow, writing; from his monumenty Ato. 
W. Smith, 1792. 

John Stow, who was bred a tailor> quitted his occupation, to 
pursue his beloved study of the history and antiquities of England, 
to which he had an invincible propensity. He was not only inde- 
fatigable in searching for ancient authors and MSS. Of all kinds 
relating to English history, but was also at the pains of tran- 
scribing many things with his own hand. As his studies and col- 
lections engrossed his whole attentioui he, in a few years, found 
himself in embarrassed circumstances^ and was under a necessity 
of . returning to his trade ; but was enabled by the generosity of 
Archbishop Paricer to resume his studies. His principal works are 
his *^ Survey of London ;" a book deservedly esteemed ; his '^ Ad- 
ditions to Hollinshed's Chronicle," «nd his '' Annals.'' The folio 
volume, commonly called ''Stow's Chronicle," was compiled from 
his papers after his decease, by E. Howes. Our author. Stow, had 
a principal hand in two improved editions of Chaucer's Works, 
published in this reign. Ob. 5 April, 1605, ^t, 80. 

HUMPHREY LLOYD (or Lhuyd), of Denbigh, 
esq. antiquary, 1661. J. Faber f. 1717 ; h. sh. mezz. 
scarce. 

Humphrey Lloyd; Ato. Birrell sc. 

HuMPHRkY Lloyd. Bandsc. 

Humphrey Lloyd ; in " Biographical Mirrour'' 
Clamp sc. 

Humphrey Lluyd ;/ro7W an original picture painted 
by Marc Gerrard^ 4to. Wilkinson exc. 

Humphrey Lluyd (or Lloyd), only son of Robert Lluyd, by Joan 
his wife, daughter of Lewis Pigot. This gentleman, who may be 
considered as one of the founders of the modem antiquarian school, 
or who, in other words, was one of the first students that endea- 
voured to divest the study of antiquities of its irrational fables and 
superstitions, was born in the town of Denbigh, where his father 
resided, and was educated in the university of Oxford ; where he 
took the degree of bachelor of arts in 1647, and that of master in 
1551 ; at which latter date he was a member of Brawn-Nose Col- 

VOL, I. 2 T 



322 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

lege. He was designed for the medical profession, and for some 
time practised it in his native town ; but was, probably, detached 
from it by a marriage above his rank and expectations with Barbara, 
sister and heir to John, 16rd Lumley. He passed the remainder of 
his life in his favourite studies, the historical antiquities of Wales, 
and the theory of medicine ; and has left us the following worb: 
'< Commentarioli Britannicse Descriptionis Fragmentdm/' pmblished 

^in 1572 ; as was a translation of it in the following year, under the 
title of " The Breviary of Britain ;" " De Armamehtario Romano,*' 

* 1573 ; '' Chronicon Walliae, a Rege Cadwalladero usque ad 1294." 
He translated from the Latin '* The History of Cambria, now -called 
Wales," 1584 ; and wrote two medical tracts, *^ The Judgement of 
Urines," 1551; and "The Treasure of Health," 1586. It has been 
said, erroneously as it should seem from the above dates, that he died 
in the year 1570; apointwhich might probably be cleared up by re- 
ference to th^ parish register of Whitchurch, near Denbigh, where 
he was buried, and where a monument was erected to his fiiemory. 
— He had three sons ; of whom one only left issue, Henry ; whose 
great gi*andson, Robert Lumley Lloyd, D. D. rector of St, Paul's 
Covent'Garden, in 1723, unsuccessfully prosecuted in the House of 
Peers, a claim to the ancient barony of Lumley, in right of descent 
from Barbara, the wife of Humphrey Lloyd, the subject of this 
article. 

The ancient Society of Antiquaries, in the list of whom are many 
great and respectable names,* was erected in this reign. In the 
next, their assemblies were interrupted ; as James looki^ upon this 
learned body as a formidable combination against his prerogative. 

THOMAS BODL^US,&c. M.Burgherssc.h.sh. 
From the original at Oxford. 

At the four corners of this print are the heads of William, earl of 
Pembroke, Archbishop Laud, Sir Kenelm Digby, and Mr. Selden, 
who were benefactors to tTie Bodleian library.f * 

Thomas Bodleius, miles; ex marmore quod in 
BibL Bodl. posuit CI. Th. Sackvilliis, com. Dorset. 
Acad. Cane. — Idem; ex effigie in Xysto BibL BodL 
two small ovals J in one head-piece. M. Burghers sc. 

ft 

* See the list in " Biograph. Britan." Artie. Aoard. 

t This is the frontispiece to the Catalogue of that library. 



OF ENGLAND. 323 

Sir Thomas Bodley ; in the " Oxford Almanack,'' 
1737. 

,- Sir Thomas Bodley. E. Scriven. From the ori- 
^nal of Cornelius Janson, in the Bodleian Gallery, Ox- 
ford, in Mr. Lodge's '^ Illustrious Portraits" 

. Sir Thomas Bodley merited much as a man of letters; but in-, 
comparably more, in the ample provision he has made for literature, 
^tt which he stands unrivalled. In 1599, he opened his library, a, 
. Iiausoleum which will perpetuate his memory as long as books them- 
, selves endure. He drew up the statutes himself for the regulation 
of this his library, and wrote memoirs of his own life. Hearne, in 
his ^' Camdeni Elizabetha," hks published ''An Account of an 
Agreement between Q. Elizabeth and the United Provinces, wherein 
she supported them, and they stood not to thei^ agreement ; written 
by Sir Thomas Bodley." Ob. 28 Jan. 1612. 

JOHN- DEE ; a small square, inscribed, " Doctor 
Dee avoucheth his stone to be brought by angelical 
ministry'^ 

Dr. John Dee. Harding del. Scheneker sculp. In 
Lysons's " Environs." 

Dr. John Dee; from the original picture in the 
Ashmolean Museum J ornamented frame ; Aio. Clamp sc. 

John Dee was a man of extensive learning, particularly in the 
mathematics, in which he had few equals ; but he was vain, credu- 
lous, and enthusiastic. He was deep in astrology, and strongly 
tinctured with the superstition of the Rosicrusians, whose dreams 
he listened to with eagerness, and became iEis great a dreamer him- 
self as any of thg^t fraternity. He appefrs to have been, by turns, 
a dupe and a cheat ; but acquired prodigious reputation, and was 
courted by the greatest princes in Europe, who thought that in 
possessing him they should literally possess a treasure : he was of- 
fered large pensions by the emperors Charles V., Ferdinand, Maxi- 
milian, Rodolph, and the czar of Muscovy.* He travelled over 
^eat part of Europe, and seems to have been revered by many per- 
sons of rank and eminence, as being of a superior order. He pre- 

* See Heame's <' Appendix to Joh. Glastoniensis Cbron." p. 505. 



324 BIOGRAPHICAt HISTORY 

tended that a black stone, or speculum, which be made great use 
of, was brought him by angels, and that he was particularly in^ 
mate with Raphael and Gabriel. 

Dr. Dee died yery poor at Mortlake, in Surrey, in the year 1608, 
and the eighty-first of his age. 

" The black stone into which Dr. Dee used to caH his spirite*' 
was in the collection of the earls of Peterborough, whence it came 
to Lady Elizabeth Germaine. It was next the property of the late 
Duke of Argyle, and is now at Strawberry-hill. It appears, upon 
examination, to be nothing but a polished piece of cannel coaL 
But this is what Butler means, when he says, 

Kelly did ail his feats upon 
The devil's looking-glass, a stone. 

Hod. Part II. cant iii. v. 691, 2. 

See '^ A true and faithful Relation of what pass^ed for man; 
years between Dr. John Dee and some Spirits :" London; 1659, fol. 
It is observable, from the analogy of style, that the discourses of 
the true and false angels were composed by the same hand* 

EDWARD KELLY, prophet or seer ta Doct<yr 
Dee, holding a book with planetary figures in his. hand: 
it it inscribed " Trithemiits.'' These prints are com- 
panionSy before Casaubon's " Relation concernir^ IkCy' 

Edward Kelly was bom at Worcester, and bred Xo the h^ipef^ 
of an apothecary : he is sometimes called Talbot, and wa9 a great 
proficient in chemistry. He pretended to haye tjie ^and elixir (or 
philosopher's stone) ; which Lilly, in hiSt Life, says he made, or at 
least received ready made, from a friar in Germany, where he tra- 
velled with Dr. Dee, at 50/. per annum, as his chief seer, or skyror, 
as he calls him ; and is said to have written down what came from 
the qiouths of the angels or demons that appeared in the speculum. 
His reputation as a. Rosicrusian was equal at least to that of Dr. 
Dee. — Kelly was knighted by the Emperor Rudolph at Prague. — 
Prince Rosenberg, the emperor's viceroy in Bohemia, was^ oftep 
with him and Dr. Dee at their apparitions ; as was also the King of 
Poland himself. But Lilly says, he was so wicked, that the angels 
would not appear to him willingly. He offered, to raise up devils 
befbre Aleski', palatine of Poland, June 19, 1581. His spirits told 
bim, 1^4, thq,t h^ fh9i44 d^ a yiplent d^thi-r'iW^v^ says he 




OF ENGLAND. 325 

^ ears at Lancaster, and raised a dead body by necromancy* 
was, by order of the Emperor Rudolph, confined for his iropru- 
^^jfi/^t conduct, and died in 1595, occasioned by a fall in endeavour-' 
^^JS to escape out of a window. — He wrote a poem on chemistry, 
v^ one on the philosopher's stone, printed in " Theateum Chymi- 
Britannicum." 



. JOHN 3LAGRAVE ; a small head, D. L. (oggan) 

J^^^^ci^. In the engraved title to *^ Planispherium Catho- 

"cum^ quod vulgo dicitur The Mathematical Jewel,^ 

^c. Loi^d. supaptibus Joseph! Moxon, 4to. The editor 

yHis John Palmer^ M. A. lohose head is also in the title. 

There is another small head of the former in a ruff. His 

^ fortrait is in the possession of George Blagrave, esq. of 

' BuUmarsh Court. 

m 

John Blagrave, of Southcote, near Reading, in Berkshire, was 
the secojsd son of John Blagrave, of BuUnxarsh Court, near the viU 
]a|pe of Sunning, in that county. He was a man of a strong head 
and a benevolent heart, and had the honour of being an inventive 
genius. This excellent mathematician did not pursue phantoms, 
like Dee and Kelly, but reduced his speculations to practice ; and 
his iVi^nd^, bis. neighboursi and the public, reaped the fruits of his 
studies, HU '' Mathematical Jewel," which is in a great measure 
W original work, is his capital perfor«aance. He cut the figures 
fox this book with his own hand, and they are well executed.* This 
gefntleoian, wbo possessed an independent fortune, was not only 
^^tinguifthed by his knowledge in mathematics ; he was, and is 
stiJU, kilQ^n lor his judicious charities. He died the 9th of August^ 
ISllf^t. 61^ and liea buried in St. Laurence's church, in Reading, 
jfb/^Ke a fine BAonunient was erected to his memory. See more of 
hlTOy and Doctor Dee, in the *^ Biographia Britannica.*' 

JOHN QEjlARPE; engraved bi/ Wimam Rogers, 
for the first edk. of his ^^ Herbal.'' 

* la ^^ Db^arse tp the Header, before his *^ Mi^fhematical Jewel/' he expresses 
himself thas : " Nerer give over at the first, though ai^ thiog seeme hard ; rathqr 
si0^e a Ultle V^^ • <^^ K you desire to b^ excellent perfile in yoar iostrument, 
i^brldg^ my whole, worke, afic| you shall find it will stand j(oa more stecde than 
twenty times r$;i4}fU;*. - 1^ M^^P (tlwajs ^one so with anj^ booke I like4«" 



326 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

John Geraude ; engraved by Payne^for Johnsons 
edition of the sanie book. 

John Gerarde, a surgeon in London, was the gpreatest English 
botanist of his time. He was many years retained as chief gardener 
to Lord Burleigh, who was himself a great lover df plsAts, and had 
the best collection of any nobleman in the kingdom : among these 
were many exotics, introduced by Gerarde. In 1597, he published 
his '' Herbal/' which was printed at the expense of J« Norton, who 
procured the figures from Franldbrt, which were originally cut for 
Tabermontanus's '' HerbaP in High Dutch. In 1633, Thomas 
Johnson, an apothecary, published an improved edition of Gerarde's 
book, which is still much esteemed.* The descriptions in this 
Herbal are plain and familiar; and both these authors have laboured 
more to make their readers understand the characters of the plants, 
than to give them to understand that they knew any thing of Greek 

or Latin. 

• 

ROGER AS CHAM; a small wJmle length ;readir^ 
a letter to Queen Elizabeth. In the engraved title to 
Mr. ElstoVs edition of his '' Epistles y^' M. Burghers sc. 
Copied by W. Richardson. 

Roger Ascham, wha was bom at North AUerton, in Yorkshire, 
and educated at St. John!s College, in Cambridge, was one of the 
brightest geniuses and politest scholars of his age. He was public 
orator of the university of Cambridge, and Latin secretary to Ed* 
ward VI., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth; the last of whom he 
taught to write a find hand, and instructed in the Greek and Latin 
languages, of which he was a consummate master. His letters are 
valuable both for style and matter, and are almost the only classi- 
cal work of that kind written by an Englishman.f The most peifect 

* Thomas Johnson, who, for his labours in this work, was honoured with a doctor 
of physic's degree, by the university of Oxford, was lient col. to Sir Mannadake 
Rawdon, goremor of Baslng-bonse, in the civil wars. He set fire to the Grange 
near that fortress, which consbted of twenty houses, and killed and burnt aboat 
three hundred of Sir William Waller's men, wounded five hundred more, and Xivk 
arms, ammunition, and provision, from the enemy. He died in Sept. 1644, of a 
wound which he received in a sally from the garrison. 

t Daniel George Morhoff speaks thus of him, at p. 283 of his " Polyhistor. Li- 
terarius," published by the learned John Albert Fabricius : ** Rogerus Ascbamos, 
Anglus, Regine Elizabethsa fuit a Latinis Epistolis, ciijus Epistolas Thuands ele- 



OF ENGLAND. 327 

collection, of them, which may be still enlarged, was that published 
>y Mr. Elstob ; but he had omitted the author's poems, which are 
Printed in other editions. His '' Schoolmaster*' abounds with great 
3^ood sense, as well as knowledge of ancient and modem history ; 
it is also expressive of the great humanity of the author, who was 
for making the paths of knowledge as level and pleasant as possi- 
ble, and for trying every gentle method of enlarging the mind and 
irinningthe heart. His *' Toxophilus,*' a treatise of shooting in the 
long-bow, of which he was very fond, is rather whimsical. He seems 
to think, that a man who would be a complete archer, should have 
as great* a compass of knowledge as he possessed himself. He died 
the 4th of January, 1569. 

' THOMAS HILL, JEt. 42; a small oval, cut in 
wood. 

He was author of " The Contemplation of Man^inde ; contayn- 
ing a singular Discourse, after the Art of Physio'gnomie, on all the 
Members and Partes of Man; from the Head to the Foot, in a more 
ample Manner than h<^herto hath been published," 1 57 1 , small 8vo. 
or 12mo. This frivolous writer hath given the reader his own head 
to contemplate in the title to his book. 



AN AUTHOR AND ACTOR. 

RICHARD TARLTON ; in a cloums dress, playing 
on his pipe and beating his drum ; in Harding* s '* Bio- 
graphical Mirrour.^ The original is in the title-page to 
Tarlton's " Jests,' 1611; wood-cut ; of which there is a 
copy the same size 12mo. 

Richard Tarlton, born at Condover, in the county of Salop, was 
brought to London by a servant of Robert, earl of Leicester, who 
found him in a field keeping his father's swine: being highly 
pleased with his answer, he took him under his patronage, and in- 
troduced him to court. He performed at the Bull theatre in Bi- 
sbopsgate-street, and acted the part of the judge in the play of 



gantissime icriptas judicat. Pene unas e gente Anglica e&t cujus stylos veterem 
Latinitatem sapit Com Joanne Stormio singalarem coloit amicitiani ; cajus exem- 
plo eiectas, etegans dicendi genas sectatns est.'' 



330 



BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 



phecieo. In the upper part is heaven opened, and the Etei 
Fadier in the midst of a large group of seraphs, vith his right h 
extended, in a posture of benediction, and grasping a. gtobe 
left. Next below him is the Holy Ghost ; and on each »de \ 
the several orders of angels, supported by clonds, singing, T 
playing on various instmments of music. Just without the m 
circle of the arch, on the right and left, are Adam and Eve ■« 
conspicuous, in melanclioly postures ; intimating tbat the b 
the Messi^ was for the redemption of fallen man. Tfaeie itf 
fine print of this painting by ComeUus Cort, in two sheets, ISf 
04. 1602. 

HENRY CORNELIUS UROOM. Is. Otiv 

T. Chambers sc. 4to. In the " Ana:dotes of Painth^ 
His head is also in tfie set of Painters, engraved i 
Heti. Hondius. 

Uroom, who was a native of Haarlem, was employed by 1 
Howard of Effingham, afterward Earl of Nottingham, ii 
the designs of the tapestry, now in the House of Lords ; in whi(^ 
represented the history of the engagements with the : 
Armada. There is a fine set of prints of this tapestry published tr 
Pine, in 1739. 

MARC GARRARD ; sc ipse p. ^c. Baimennan sc.\ 
4to. In the " Anecdotes of Painting." It is copied from,\ 
Hollar. — The original picture was done after the! 
death of Queen Elizabeth. 

Marc Garrard, a native of Brussels, painted history, laadscajie, J 
architecture, and portrait; he also illuminated, and designedfli' 
glaas-painters. His etchings of Esop's Fables, from which Bar 
has frequently borrowed, are executed with great spirit. See tl 
idgn of Charlei 1. 

SIR NATHANIEL BACON ; se ipse p. Ckt 
bers sc. 4to. In the " Anecdotes of Paint'mg." 
Sir Nathaniel Bacon ; 8vo. W. Rkkardson. 
Sir Nathaniel Bacon. De Bouhnois. 
Sir Nathaniel Bacon; with autograph. Thane. 



* # 




XuhUih^Mtnii i,ijt>3,fy JT^Miardiiin.lipriBiiujeJi SoimJ,. 



OF ENGLAND. 331 

Sir Nathaniel Bacon, second son of Sir Nicholas Bacon by his 
irst lady, painted his own portrait, and a cook-maid with large and 
mall fowls, in a masterly manner. Both these pictures are at 
jrorhambury, near St. Alban's. He was ancestor to the present 
X)rd Townshend,* 

THOMAS LANT, gent Mt 32 ; a small aval 
kead; before a very scarce and curious set of plates, about 
hirty-four in number , exhibiting the funeral procession 
f Sir Philip Sidney. It was designed by Lant, and 
mgraved by Theodore de Brie. 

Thomas Lant; in an ornamented oval, with coat of 

irms and crest, 1687. *^ God createth — Man immi- 
ateth — Virtue fhurisheth — Death finishethr Copied 
^rom the former by Fittler. Richardson, 1803. 

The book of Prints to which this head is prefixed contains a con- 
liderable number of portraits. Lant was portcnllis pursuivant to 
Jueen Elizabeth, and author of a treatise on heraldry. He was 
K>me time servant to Sir Philip Sidney. 

ENGEAVERS. 

THEODORE DE BRIE, engraver. Prefixed to 
some of the volumes ofBoissard*s ** Roman Antiquities.'' 
The print of the son, in Fludd*s " Anatomia Amphi- 
theatrum,'' Franc. 1623, folio, has been mistaken for 
the father's. 

Theodore de Brie, a native of Liege, who lived the greater part 
of his time at Frankfort, engraved Sir Philip Sidney's funeral pro- 
cession, at London. He also engraved the four first volumes of 
Boissard's ** Roman Antiquities," the fifth and last of which was 
executed by his sons Theodore and Israel after his death. The 
prints for the two following books, by Boissard, were done by 
Theodore the father : " Vitce et Icones Sultanorum Turcicorum et 



* He boilt a hall, at StifFkey, in Norfolk; and there is a handsome monament to 
his memory in the chancel of the chuich. 



* # 




n^'i.j ivji^^,(^,^^^,aji^ Si-^x-i^^ j-^d,. 



OF ENGLAND. 333 

IHON WYGHTE, or John Wight; a small wood 
print, whole lengthy inscribed J. W. and about the oval, 
" Welcome the Wight that bringeth such light.'' His 
print is also in Ames's " Typographical Antiquities," ' 
p. 278. : 

I. W. (John Wight) ; oval in a square frame. 
W. Richardson. 

That author saj^s of him, that he had a shop, at the sign of the 
Rose, in St. Paul's Churchyard. The most considerable of the 
books printed by him are, the Bible, fbl. 1551, and ^* Don Alexis of 
Piemont his Secrets,*' 1580, 4to. This book was well known 
throughout Europe. 

RICHARD JONES, alias Ihones, or Iohnes ; a 
small wood print , like that in Ames's " Typographical 
Antiquities'' p. 345 ; round cap, gofwn, S^c. 

Richard Jones printed in partnership with Thomas Colwell, in 
the year 1570, and afterward with others. He had several shops, 
one of which was at the south-west^ door of St. Paul's church. This 
quarter of the town was more considerable than any other for 
printers and booksellers. 



MUSICIANS. ' . 

TOMASO TALLIS, with William Bird, 

Thomas Tallis, one of the greatest musicians that this or any 
other country ever produced, was a gentleman of the chapel royal 
in the reign of Edward the Sixth and Queen Mary; and received 
for thip service 7 Jrf. per day. Under Queen Elizabeth, he and Bird 
were gentlemen of the chapel and organists. The studies of Tallis 
seem to have been wholly devoted. to the church; for his name is 
not to be found to any of the lighter kinds of music. The most 
curious and extraordinary of all Tallis's labours was his Song of 
Forty Parts which is still extant. The entire composition con- 
sists of one hundred and thirty- eight bars in alia breve time. He 
died 1585, aged 85, and was buried in the chancel of the parish 



334 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

church of Greenwich, in Kent, with an inscription. See more of 
him in Dr. Bushy's Musical Biography, 8yo. 

DAVID RIZZIO ; playing on a lute; from an 
original picture painted in 1564, in the possession of 
H. C. Jennings, esq. Engraved by C. Wilkin. 

David Rizzio was bom at Turin, and brought up in France, 
where his father was a dancing-master. David visited Scotland 
about 1564 in the suite of the ambassador of Savoy ; and there, by 
his vocal powers, attracted the notice of the unfortunate Queen 
Mary. Having once obtained a footing at court, Rizzio behaved 
in such a manner as to excite the envy and hatred of the courtiers; 
but there is every reason to beUeve, that his religion contributed 
as much as any thing to exasperate the Scots. In 1566', Lord 
Damley and some of his nobles murdered Rizzio in the queen's 
presence. As a performer he excelled on the lute ; but it is not 
true that he improved the music of Scotland. 



CLASS XI. 

LADIES. 

MARGARET, dutchess of Norfolk, second wife 
to Thomas, duke of Norfolk, who was beheaded the 
1 5th of Queen Elizabeth, daughter and heir to Thomas, 
lord Audley, MtBXis XXII. Painted by Lucas de Heere, 
Anno 1562. Engraved by P. W. Tomkins, 1791, from 
the original in the possession of Lord Howard, at Audley 
Endy 4to. Private plate ; very rare. 

Margaret Audley, daughter and sole heir to Thomas, lord Aud- 
ley, of Walden, in Essex, and chancellor of England, was twice 
married ; her first husband was Lord Henry Dudley (younger son 
of John, duke of Northumberland), slain at St. Quintin's, in Picardy, 
Aug. 10, 1557, leaving no issue by his lady, who at the time of his 
death was scarcely aged seventeen ; her second husband was Tho- 
mas Howard, duke of Norfolk, beheaded in 1572. This lady had 



OF ENGLAND. 335 

e by the duke, three sons ; Thomas Howard, afterward made 

of Suffolk; Henry, who died young; and William, of Naworth, 

"umberland, ancestor to the Earl of Carlisle ; with two daughters, 

;abeth, who died in her infancy, and Margaret, married to 

3ert Sackville, earl of Dorset. — At the time her portrait was 

ited 1562, the dutchess was but twenty-two years of age, and 

not long survive that period. The duke^ her husband, was three 

55 married ; his first wife, Mary Fitz Alan, died in 1557, and at 

time of his death, he was married to his third wife, Elizabeth, 

y Dacre. 

FRANCES, dutchess of Suffolk, and Adrian 
okes, her second husband. Lucas de Heere p . Verttie 
large sh. In the collection of the Honourable Horace 
alpole. 

Frances, dutchess of Suffolk, as marchioness of 
orset. Holbein ; F. Bartolozzif 1795. In the Royal 
illection. 

Frances, dutchess of Suffolk, was the eldest of the two surviving 
ughters of Charles Brandon, by Mary, queen of France, young- 
t sister to Henry VIII. Adrian Stokes was master of her horse, 
lis match has been very di£Perently spoken of. Some have blamed 
B dutchess for so far forgetting her dignity, as to marry her do- 
3stic. Others have commended her for so far remembering her 
ar relation to the crown, and the jealousy which it might have 
cited, as to provide for her own security, and to marry a person 
10 could not give the least umbrage to the queen. Oh, 1563. 

FRANCISCA SIDNEY, comitissa Sussex, Coll. 
dney -Sussex Fund*. 1598. Faber f. A tabula in 
'kiibus Coll. Sidney r Sussex Ma^. asservata; large 
0. mezz. 

Frances Sidney, countess of Sussex ; with a 
iew of the College, in Wilsons *' Cambridge/' 1801. 
. Harding sc. 

France^ countess of Sussex; an etching; Hut- 
\insony 1773. 



336 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Frances, countess of Sassez, was sister to Sir Henry Si(inej,j 
lord-deputy of Ireland, and relict of Thomas Ratcliffe, earl 
Sussex. She left by will 5000/. besides her goods unbeqaeatfa^l 
for the erection of the college in Cambridge called after her Dane.! 
Ob. 9. Mar. 158a 

ELIZABETH, baroness of Effingham, and after- 
ward countess of Nottingham^ wife of Admii 
Howard^ and one of the ladies of the queen's hou8e-| 
hold. See her portrait in the procession of the quees] 
to the house of her brother, the Lord Hunsdon. 

Elizabeth Carey, baroness of Effingham. 
J. Thane, ere. From the above print. 

The following story, which now appears to be sufBcieotly con- 
firmed* is related of this lady by several authors. 

When the Earl of Essex was in the height of favour with the 
queen, she presented him with a ring, telling him at the same time, 
*' That whatever he should commit, she would pardon him, if he 
returned that pledge." When he lay under sentence of death, this 
ring was delivered to the Countess of Nottingham, who undertook 
to carry it to the queen ; but at the instance of her husband, the 
earl's avowed enemy, she betrayed her trust. This she confessed 
to Elizabeth, as she lay on her death-bed. The strong passions of 
that princess were instantly agitated ; the high-spirited Essex was 
now regarded as a suppliant ; every spark of resentment was ex- 
tinguished ; the amiable man, the faithful servant, the injured lover, 
and the unhappy victim, now recurred to her thoughts ; threw her 
into the most violent agonies of grief, and hastened her death. 

LADY HUNSDON, wife of Henry Carey, lord 
Hunsdon, and one of the ladies of the queeiis 
household. See the procession to Hunsdon-house, 
page 180. 

Lady Hunsdon; small oval. Thane eax. From the 
procession. 

♦ See Birch's " Negotiations," p. 206, and "Memoirs," vol. ii. p. 481. 505,506. 
See also " Rojal and Noble Authors," Art Essex. 



338 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

twelve hundred pounds to five of the companies, to be lent to y6uiJ^ 
tradesmen for four years. She gavie to Bristol, her native place, one 
thousand pounds, &c. &c. This excellent woman died 1596; 
and a monumental inscription to her memory is in Christ Church. 

ANNE THROGMORTON, daughter of Sir Ni- 
cholas Carew, of Beddington, in Surrey, knight 
of the Grarter, sister and heir of Sir Francis Carew, 
and wife of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, Queen Eliza- 
beth's famous ambassador, who lies buried in St. 
Catharine's Cree church, London ; ^tatis suse 53. 
Anno Dfii. 1590. (Thomas Trotter.) 

C. BRETTERG; in a large ruff and high-crowned 
hat. Before her Life, in the second part of Clark's 
" Marrow of Ecclesiastical History J' 

Catharine Bretterg, a woman of uncommon beauty and most 
exemplary piety, was daughter of Mr. John Bruen^ of Bruea 
Stapleford, in Cheshire, and sister to a pious gentleman of the same 
name, whose character, which is similar to her own, hath been men- 
tioned in the course of this work. She was, in the twentieth year 
of her age married to Mr. William Bretterg, of Bretterghold, near 
Liverpool, in Lancashire, with whom she lived in the most perfect 
harmony for about two years ; when, to the regret of all that knew 
her worth, she was snatched out of the world by a fever, on the 
31st of May, 1601. She had on her death-bed some misgivings of 
mind as to her spiritual state ; but these idle dreams, the effects of 
her distemper, pesently vanished; and she died exulting in the 
hopes of a happy immortality. 

MARGARET BULLEN ; from an original picture 
in the collection of Marmaduke Tunstally esq. John 
Ogborn sc. ^vo. 

Of this lady who was sister to Queen Anne Boleyn, and aunt of 
Queen Elizabeth, little of personal history is known, more, than 
that she many years survived the melancholy catastrophe of that 
unfortunate and unhappy queen, and her equally unfortunate and 
unhappy brother, Lord Rochford, who fell a sacrifilce to the jealousy 



OF ENGLAND. 389 

of that turbulent and tyrannic monarch, Henry the Eighth, on si 
bare surmise of a criminal connexion with his ill-fated sister. . 

MARGARET MIDDLETON; whole length. 
J. B. Barbe; scarce. 

Margaret Middleton, martyrdom of. J. Neefs. 

Margaret Clithero, whose mmden name was Middleton, of a 
good family in Yorkshire, was prosecuted, under that violent per- 
secution raised by the Earl of Huntingdon, lord-president of the 
North, The crime she. was charged with was relieving and harbour- 
ing popish priests. She refused tp plead, that she might not bring 
others into danger ; and was accordingly, as the law directs, pressed 
to death at York, in March 1586. 



A SCOTCH LADY. 

MARGARET, countess of Lenox, daughter of 
Margaret, queen of Scots, eldest sister to Henry VIIL 
by Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus. See her portrait, 
with that of Matthew Stuart, her husband, &c. in 
Lord Darnley*s cenotaph. 

LADY MARGARET DOUGLAS, mother of 
King Henry Darnley ; /ram a painting in the possession 
of Lord Carter ety at Hawnes. Rivers sc. 8t;o. 

This illustrious lady was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 
seventh earl of Angus, hy Margaret, daughter of Henry VII. of 
England, and widow of James IV. 

Her mother having taken refuge in England, from the tyrannic 
sway of John, dukei of Albany, regent of Scotland, was delivered of 
this daughter at Harbottel Castle, about the 18th of October, 1515. 
In 1544, Lady Margaret wa» married to Matthew Stuart, earl of 
Lennox. Their progeny were Henry, lord Damley, afterward tiie 
unfortunate husband of Mary, que'len of Scotland ; and Charles, fifth 
earl of Lennox, father of Lady Arabella Stuart. 

Lady Margaret was thrice imprisoned. — 1. By her uncle Henry 
VIII. for a design, to wed Thoma§ Howard, son of the Duke of. 



340 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Norfolk. 2. By Elizabeth, for permitting her son to espouse Mary. 
3. For corresponding with Mary in her captivity. She died in 1578, 
and lies buried in Westminster Abbey. 

ALICIA STEWART ; from her monument in the 
Savoy. Pirrell sc. Svo. In Pinkerton's *' IconograpU 
Scotica'' 

Of this lady, no more is known than what her epitaph bears, 
that she was daughter of Simeon Stewart, of Lakenheth, in Suffolk, 
and died on the 18th of June, 1573. 

This Simeon Stewart seems to have been the second son of Tho- 
mas Stewart, of Mildenhall, in Suffolk, a family wliich displayed 
twenty quarters in their coat armorial. Stewart of Barton-mills, in 
Suffolk, was another branch. This family also extended to Norfolk, 
and Cambridgeshire : and seven generations being in Elizabeth's 
time reckoned from their first ancestor's leaving Scotland, that event 
must have happened in the fourteenth century.!^ 

An ingenious and respectable antiquarian who has made collec- 
tions for Suffolk, says, '* My notes for Lakenheath, only mention an 
altar-tomb of grey marble for Simeon Styward,t who died 30th 
April, 1568. Arms, — 1st and 4th, a lion rampant, over all, a bend 
regulated. Sty ward ; 2d, quart ; 1st and 4th, Sty ward ; 2d and 3d, 
(|uart ; 1st and 4th, 3 boars' heads couped ; 2d and 3d, a lion ram- 
pant; 3d, Sty ward imp. ahon rampant gardant, crowned. Against 
the wall, an inscription for Johanna, daughter and heir of Edward 
Pestney, wife of Simeon Sty ward." 



CLASS XII. 

PERSONS REMARKABLE FROM ONE 
CIRCUMSTANCE, &c. 

MARGARET VERGH GRYIFITH, aged 60, 
1588 ; in Caulfield's " Remarkable Persons." 

* VisiUtion of Suffolk, (emp. Eliz. MS. Htrl. 1560. p. 343. 
t In this monumeat, and the MS. Stewart, Steward, or Stew-ward, seems the 
origioal appellation ; and Senischaleus implies chief herdsman. 



OF ENGLAND. 341 

This woman was the wife of one David Owyn, of the parish of 
Uahan Gaduain, in the county of Montgomery, and seems to have 
made money by the exhibition of her personal monstrous appear- 
ance. The original print is a wood-cut, prefixed to ''A mjrraculous 
and monstrous, but yet most true and certayne, discourse of a 
woman (now to be seen in London) of the age of threescore years, 
or thereabouts, in the midst of whose forehead, by the wonderfuU 
worke of God, there groweth out a crooked home of four jnches 
long. ' Imprinted at London by Thomas Orwin, and are to be sold 
by Edward White, dwelling at the little north dore of Paul's church^ 
at the sign of the Gun, 1558.'' .. 

OLD SCALEITS, sexton of Peterbro' ; from an 
ancient picture in the cathedral. Ob. July 2, 1594. R.S. 
jEtatis 98; an etchings whole length, standing y holding 
a spade in his right hand, and a large bunch of keys in 
his left ; with his arms. 

Old Scaleits; copied from the same picture, in 
Caulfield's ** Remarkable Persons'' 

You see Old Scaleits' picture stand on hie. 
But at your feate there doth his body lye ; 
His gravestone doth his age and death-time shew ; 
His office by these tokens you may know ; 
Second to none for strength and sturdye limme, 
A scare babe mighty voice with visage griin. 
He had interred two queens* within this* place, 
And this town's householders in his lives space, 
Twice over ; but at length his own turn came : 
What hee for others did, for him the same 
Was done no doubt ; his soule dothe live for aye 
In heaven, tho' here his body's clad in clay. 

JOHN SLADE and JOHN BODYE ; a wood-cut, 
prefixed to an *^ Account of their Execution,'' 1583. 

^ Catherine, divorced by Henry VIII., and Mary, queen of Scots, afterward re- 
-moved to Windsor. 



342 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

John Slade and John Bodte; copied from the 
above; in CatUfield^s " Remarkable Per sons. ^^ 

Slade and Bodye are joined together, because they were tried and 
condemDed for the same cause and at the same time, though they 
neither suffered at the same place nor on the same day. John Slade 
was born in Dorsetshire, and was sent to the university of Douay. 
On his return to England he commenced schqolmaster, John 
Bodye was the son of a wealthy merchant in the city of Wells^ 
Somersetshire : and was sent to New College, Oxford, where he 
took the degree of M. A. Ant. Wood says, he was well versed in 
the civil law, and esteemed by those of his opinion a learned man. 
They were both tried upon the article of supremacy, and con- 
demned at Winchester. They were twice, at different times, sen- 
tenced to death upon the same indictment. Slade was hanged, 
drawn, and quartered, at Winchester, Oct. 30 ; Bodye at Andover, 
Nov. 25, 1583. See " Memoirs of Missionary Priests," 2 vol, 1741. 

JOHN JARVIS, a dwarf. Walker piruv. Clamp sc. 
In CautfteliTs '* Remarkable Persons. ^^ 

The resemblance of this diminutive person is preserved by his 
statue, most inimitably carved in oak, and coloured to resemble the 
life. All that is known of his history is, that he was in height but 
three feet eight inches ; and was retained by Queen Mary as her 
page of honour. He died in the year 1558, aged 57 years ; as ap- 
pears by the dates painted on the girdle, at the back of the statue, 
in the possession of Geo. Walker, esq. Winchester-row, Lisson- 
green, Paddington. 



REMARKS ON DRESS, &c. 

We are informed by Hentzner,* that the English,^ in the reign of 
Elizabeth, cut the hair close on the middle of the head, but suffered 
it to grow on either side. 

As it is usual in dress, as in other things, to pass from one ex- 

♦ See his " Journey to England." 



OF ENGLAND. 343 

treme to another, the large jutting t:oat became quite out of fashion 

in this reign, and a coat was worn resembling a waistcoat. > 

The men's ruffs were generally of a moderate size ; the women's 
bore a proportion to their farthingales, which were enormous. 

We are informed, that some beaux had actually introduced long 
swords and high ruffs, which approached the royal standard. This 
roused the jealousy of the queen, who appointed officers to breal^ 
every man's sword above three feet long, and daggers twelve 
inches ; an4 to clip all ruffs which were beyond a certain length.* 

The breeches, or, to speak more properly, drawers, fell far short 
of the knees ; and the defect was supplied with long hose, the topf 
of which were fastened under the drawers. 

Starching of linen was brought into England, 1564, by Mrs. 
Dinghen Vanden Plasse, born in Flanders, who came hither, and 
professed herself a starcher; she first taught the art; her price 
being five pounds to teach how to starch, and twenty pounds to 
teach how to make it, viz. boil it. 

William Lee, master of arts of St. Jojin's College, Cambridge^ 
first invented the art of weaving silk stockings in 1599. 

John Tyre, of Shoreditch, was the first Englishman who brought 
to perfection the making of tufted taffatis, cloth of tissue, wrought 
velvets, branched satins, and other curious silk stuffs. 

Pins were first made in England in this reign : before they were 
imported from alwroad, to the value of £60,000 a year. 

William, earl of Pembroke, was the first who wore knit stockings 
in England, which were introduced in this reign. They were pre- In 1564. 
sented to him by William Rider, an apprentice near London Bridge, 
who happened to see a pair brought from Mantua, at an Italian mer- 
chant's in the city, and made a pair exactly like then(i.+ 

Masks, busks, fans, perukes, were first invented by the courtesans 
of Italy, and introduced into England about the time of the mas- 
sacre at Paris. 

Coaches were first invented in Hungary, and called cotzki : they 
were first introduced into England by Fitz Allan, earl of Arundel. 

The first English coachmaker is recorded to have been Walter 
Ripon, who in 1555 made one for the Blarl of Rutland, and a hol- 
low turning coach in the year 1564 for Queen Elizabeth. 

Spurs were worn, both on foot and on horseback, so long, that 
the speaker directed the memberis of the House of Commons to come 
without spurs. 

• Townshcnd's «' Journals/' p. f 50. t See Stew's " CkioB." p. 869. 



BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

igsed in 1571, enjoinina; all above the age of six yean, 
except ibe nobility aad some others, on eabbath-daya, aaii holy- 
days, to wear caps of wool, knit, throwed, and dressed in Eng- 
land, upon penalty of ten groats. 

John Fox, the martyrologist, who died in 1587, wore a deepsh- 
crowned, shallow-brimmed, slouched hat. This is the firstportnit 
that appears with a hat ; and men then began to sit uncoverri m 
the church. 

Edward Vere, the seventeenth carl of Oxford, was the first tkl 
introduced embroidered gloves and perfumes into England, whicb 
he brought from Italy. He {Keeented the queen with a pairof pet- 
fumed gloves, and her portrait was painted with them upon her 

At this period was worn a hat of a singular form, which re- 
Bcmbted a close-stool pan with a broad brim.1- Philip II. in tiie 
former reign, seems to wear one of these utensils upou his head, 
with a narrower brim than ordinary; and makes at least as gro- 
tesque an appearance, as his countryman Don Quixote wilh the 
barber's basin.] 

The Reverend Mr. John More, of Norwich, one of the worthiest 
clergymen in the reign of Elizabeth, gave the best reason that 
could be given, for wearing the longest and largest beard of bdj ■ 
Englishman of his time; namely, " That no act of his life might be 
unworthy of the gravity of his appearance."^ I wish as good t 
reason could always have been as)iigned for wearing the longest 
hair, and the longest or largest wig.|| 

It was ordered in the first year of Elizabeth, that no fellow of 
Lincoln's Inn " should wear any beard of above a fortnight's 
growth ."If 

As the queen left no fewer than three thousand different hsbits 
Id her wardrobe when she died,** and was possessed of the dresses 

■ " Stow's " Annalt" p. 686. 

t Thi> indecent idea fbrcibl; obtradei ibelf ; and I am under ■ kind of nueult; 
■f Diing Itie compsrinn, ai I knoM nothbg else that in an; degree reieniblM it- 
See the bead of the Eul of Moiton. by Houbraken, &c. 

t See bit head by Wlerix, ot la Lnckiui'i " Sjlloge Nniniim. elegant AigeDdnE," 
1610; fal. 

4 Alebat ille quidem Qon camam, at baibam, at nihil tmta grsvitate in^um 
eonmilteret. Holland's " Hemologia," where may be leen hii head. 

I See "The Mischief of LoDg H«i," and. Mulliner " Aguoit Periwigs, and P<n- 
wig-maken," 1708; 4to. 

% Digdale'a " OHghiei JDrididalei." '* Carte, tiA. in. p. 701. 



OF ENGJjAND. 34$ 

3f all countries, it is somewhat strange that there is such a uni- 
Tormity of dress in her portraits, and that she should take a pleasure 
in being loaded with ornaments. 

At this time the stays, or boddice, were worn long-waisted. 
Lady Hunsdon, the foremost of the ladies in the procession to 
Elunsdon-house, appears with a much longer waist than those that 
follow her. She might possibly have been a leader of the fiishion, 
as w«ll as of.th&procession» 



VOL. I. 2 y 



BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORX 



APPENDIX 



THE REIGN OF ELIZABETH, 



FOREIGNERS. 

KNIGHTS OF TU£ OAKTEK. 



MAXIMIL. II. Raid. Imp. a medaUion; i 
Cotaimuaion of GoUzius'a " Series of the Empe, 
fU. 1745. 

Maxiaulun II. ion of Ferdiund, brother to Chariea V. 
gaged in a very tTOublesome war with the Turks, which ' 
newed in the rdgn of Rodolph his bod. He was a munidcen' 
oflearned men; and the greatest master of languages of anj 
if not of any man, of his time, being able to apeak no lesstlu 
with facility. He was elected King of Poland ; but his dei 
vented his taking possession of that kingdom. Ob. 12 Oct 

RODOLPHUS II. a large medallion; ubi st 

RoDOLPHUs II. when young, m rick at 
M. Rota sc. 

RoDOLPHUs II. m armour. Sadeler. 

RoDOLPHus 11. in armour ; \2mo. A .Wierii 

RoDOLPHUs II. eagles in the comers, with s< 
croum, <§:<.'. sir Latin verses; oval. C. Pass. 

RoDoiiPHUs II. &c. H. van Luyck eav. 6vo. 

Rodolph II. SOD of Maximilian II. was unsuccessful in '. 
with the Tories, who took from him a considerable part of B 



on ^NOJ^ANl), 347 

Kodolph was a friend to arts and learning in ^eneiai, particuhrly 
to painters and mathematicians. He made a coUection of pictures, 
at an immense expense, from sSl parte of Europe ; and- had the 
pleasure of sfiteiag the arts. flpHrish under his owp eye^ in Genp^j. 
John, Raphael, and Giles Sadeler, who are deservedly reckoned 
among the best engravers of their tune^ were patr^ttised by bun. 
The most eminent of these brethren was Giles, or ^gidius,* who 
was exceeded by none of the workmen of that age, Ob. 1612, 
^t. 59. 

CHARLES IX* roy de FyancQ ^om^f the set of 
the Kir^s af France, by Jaques de Bie ; hn sh. 

Charjl^ IX* hat and feather. Thomas de Leufec^ 

Charles IX. king of Frcmce, was^ a prince equally perfidroos and 
crueLf After he had inade peace with the Hugonets, and lulled 
them into a profound security, he ordered a general slaughter to bd 
made of them at Paris, at the celebration of the King of Navarre's August 24^ 
marriage. This bloody massacre wffl be a stain in the annals of ' 
the French nation, to the end of time. The English court went into 
mourning upon this melancholy occasion ; and the most undis- 
sembled sorrow sat on every counjtenance, when the French am- 
bassador, soon after that event, had his audience of die queen. 
Ob. 1674. 

HENRY III. roy de Fran, et de Pologne ; one 
of the set iy J. de Bie ; h. sh. 

Henri III. roy de France, &c. very w€o/, in an 
6oal border ; small 4to. 

Henry III. 8vo. Harrewyn. 

Henry III. and Henry IV. 2 ovals, vignet of the 
Assassination, Sge. twelve Dutch verses ; rare. 



• Mr. Evelyn mistook Giles and JEgidios for two person^. See his '• Sciilplura.'' 

t Nee tibi diva parens, generis nee Daidtnus i^oQtor, 
Perfide ! sed doris genuit te cautibus hcrrens 
CaacasuSf HjrcanflBqoe admoribit Ubeiii Hgres* 



348 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Henry III. De Leu. 

Henby Ilhfol. John Wierex. 

Henry \\\. from the same picture. J. Wierex. 

Henry III. W. Risers. 

Henry HI. four French verses. Jacobus Gran- 
thomme fecit. 1688. Qvo. 

Henry III. king of France, who was suitor to Elizabeth when he 
was dulre of Anjou, lost, by bis mal-administr ation, the great repu- 
tation he had acquired before he had ascended the throne. After 
he had caused the Duke of Guise, and the cardinal his brother, to 
be assassinated, and had entered into a confederacy with the Hu- 
gonots, he was mortally wounded himself by Jaques Clement, a 
Dominieaik friar ; who had the good fortime to die by the swords 
of the courtiers, upon the spot where he killed the king. Oh. 
1 Aug. 1589. 

HENRY IV. roy de France et Navarre ; one of 
the set by J. de Bie; h. sh. 

Henry IV. &c. one of the set of the Gallery oflUuS' 
trious meriy in the Palais Cardinal ^ now called the Palais 
Royal; h. sh. 

Henry IV. with emblems^ 1585. C. Albert* 

Henry IV. F. Pourbus^jun. St. Aubin* 

Henry IV. in his robes. Firens. 

Henry IV. M. 40; 1692,/o/. Comeilk ; H.Golt^ 

zius. 

Henry IV. in a high-crowned hat ; 8vo. Ditto. 

Henry IV. in his robes, foL H. Hondius, 1598. 

Henry IV. N. Larmessin. 

Henry IV. fol. De Leu. 
Several others by the same. 

Henry IV. Masson. 



OP EKGLAND; . 34d 

Henry IV. M. 40. Pass. 

Henry IV. with and withotU a hat. Wierex. 

Henry IV. crown and sceptre ; 4to. DeJode. 

Henry IV. %v(k Harrewyn. 

Henry IV. 1596. P. Thomassintcs. 

Henry IV. 1696.^* De bon Roy^ bon Heur ;'' Svo. 
Pass. In " Nautical Portraits.^' 

Henry IV. Sw. Jannet; DeMarcenay. 

Henry IV. 1596 ; with Justice and. Prudenci. 
De Brie. 

Henry IV. on horseback ^ riding over weapons , Sgc. 
Gis Vcenias. 

Henry IV. and Marie de Medices; Christ 
joining their hands. Visscher ex. scarce. 

Henry IV. in Lavater^ ^to. P. P. Rubens ; J. HaU, 
1780. 

Henry IV. in rich armoury oval. J. de Gheyn. 

Henry ly. and Marie de Medices ; seated in the 
clouds ; the world suspended by a chain, supported by 
Lewis XIII. and Anne of Austria ; with Princess 
Elizabeth and Princess Christiane; at the top Anagrami 
" Prophetic du Roy.'\ 

Henry IV. on horseback, in armour ; the horse 
richly caparisoned ; armies engaging ; four English 
verses, " Uie Phomix Monarch all the world admires^^ 
S^c. R. Elstracke. Sold by Sudbury and Humble ; scarce. 

Henry IV. the same; four French verses, '* Toui 
ceddeala.^' J. Halbeck. 

Henry IV. JEt. 46; 1598; oval, Svo. H.Hondius. 



850 BIOaRAPHICAL HISTORY 

Henry IV. oval, in the centre of d triumphal altar, 
with trophiesy S^c. De Leu ; scarce. 

Henby IV. biLst in a niche; 1605. De Leu. 

Henry IV. with emblems of his victoria. Briot. 

Henry IV. touching for the evil. P. Firens feeiL 
scarce. 

Henry IV. lying in state, description in French. 
Briot sc. sheet ; scarce. 

Henry IV, on horseback; two French lines. P. Hoi- 
brouek sculp, scarce. 

Henry IV. the same by C. Turner ; mezz. 

There are several portraits of him in die Luxemburg Gallery. 

The capacity of Henry IV. was equally adapted to peace ^ wan. 
France^ which had been harassed and torn by eivil wars for near 
half a century, had an interval of repose under this great prince; 
who, by the assistance of the Duke of Sully, one of the most able^ 
indnstrioua, and faithful ministers that ever served a king, brought 
order into the finances, encouraged agriculture and th^^manual arts, 
and laid the foundation of that power and grandeur to which the 
French numarchy afterward rose. The Bishop o£ Rodm, in his 
'' Life of Henry/' intimaets, that his extravagant passion for the 
female sex, was the occasion of his death. He in I61Q, was assas- 
sinated by Raviliac, a lay Jesuit. 

FREDERICK VI. duke of Wirtembergh; in 

" Atrium Heroicum." 

Frederick VI. prefixed to the work mentioned below. 

Frederic!^ VI. duke of Wirtembergh^ &c. was elected kni^t of 
the Garter in this reign. He was invested with the ensigns of the 
order by Robert, lord Spencer, of Wormleighton, 1603 ; behaving 
been sent into Germany, by King James, for that purpose. His 
porti^ait is at Hampton-court; and there is ajtrint of him in a quarto 
volume which I have seen, entitled, '^ Equis Auratus Anglo Wirtem- 
bergicus." It was written in Latin by Erhardus Cellius, and con- 
.tains a particular account of the order of the Garter and the inves- 



OP ENGLAND. 361 

^^^in^ of &e didte, and ia mterspened with a variely of memoirs 
dre to Frederick asd his fanoily* This piince was deservedly 
ried '* the Magnanimous." Upon the demise of his unde, Lewis 
he recovered the dutchy of Wirtemberg^ and shook off the 
dominion of the house of Austria. He was more than once in Eng- 
IfKud in quality df ambassador. Ob. ^9 Jan. 1608. 



w: 



FOREIGNERS, WHO WERE IN ENGLAND. 

FRANCOIS, due d'Alen^fon, depuis due d'Anjou; 
in armour^ whole length, h. sh. 

Fraitcois, due d'Aleni^n ; in '^^ Atrium Hermci»m" 

Francis, duke of Anjou« brother to Francis II. Charles IX. and 
Henry III. was twenty- five years younger than Elizabeth. He had 
made some progress in his suit with that princess before lie came 
Into England,* and liad a secret interview with her at Greenwich ; 
In which, though his person was not advantageous, lie gained consi- 
derably upon her affections. He came into England a second time 
the same year, and was graciously received by her. On the anni-* 
versary of her coronation, she publicly took a ring from her £nger, 
and put it on the duke's. This wise princess was very near being 
Hihe dupe of her passions ; but, after a long struggle between her 
reason and her love, she reluctantly yielded to the former, and the 
match was broken off.t 

It liath been observed, that Queen Elizabeth had .much better 
have married the tailor who died for love of her than the Duke of 
Anjou.t 

* When the Esencb commissioners weieieot to make their proposals-ofiBarnnge 
between'EEzabeth and this prince, they were attended by a great train of the French 
nobility, in all the pomp and glitter of dress. The English vied with ihem up«n this 
.OBoa.'MOii^'MAi -the court was never seen so brillhmt. Jnsts and tonmaraents were 
.ceh»l»atod^ in xiJuch the : pnme ao&ility where ^chailengers ; and a ntgnifieeiice was 
displayed in this romantic solemnity, superior Ao what had beea seen in the time of 
Henry VHI. 

1 1 never. could believe that ^ueen EUzabeth meant to marry the Duke of 
: Aleopon, a mcRn^looldng diseased debauchee. — ^Lord Hailes. 

X It must be a matter of concern to a true antiquary, that the name of this iU- 
starred wight was never recorded. Osborne mentions his disastrous passion, styling 
him " that tailor reported to have whined away himself for the love of Queen Eliza- 
beth.'*— Osbecae^aWofks, p. 54, edit. 9; 



352 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

CECILIA, marchioness of Baden, and sister of 
Eric, king of Sweden, was here in the reign of Eliza- 
beth.* Her print is in Letts *^ Elizabetha,'^ torn. i. 
Helena, marquesse of Northampton, to whom Spen- 
cer dedicated his ^* Daphnaida," was in her retinue, 
as appears from her monument in Salisbury cathedral. 

There is a medal of this marchioness. 

The Duke of FERIA ; an etching ; collar of the 
Golden Fleece; cloak ; halfkn. 12mo. 

Don Gomez Suarez, de Figueros y Cordova, came into England 
with King Philip, and was afterward created duke of Feria in 
Spain. He married Jane, daughter of Sir William Dormer, knight 
of the Bath, maid of honour to Queen Mary, and sister g£ the first 
baron Dormer, of Wenge, in the county of Bucks. He was em- 
ployed in several embassies from Philip to Elizabeth, in the begin- 
ning of her reign ; and was much incensed against her for not suf- 
fering his wife's g^ndmother, and other Catholics, to reside in the 
Low Countries, and preserve their estates and effects in England. 

In Leti's " Elizabethan'' torn. i. is a print of Don 
DIEGO GUZMAN DE SILVA, ambassador from 
Philip 11. in 1564. 

There is also a print of POMPONE DE BEL- 
LIE VRE, chancellor of France; it is a large quarto 
engraved by Boissevin. 

He was sent into England in the quality of ambassador by Henry 
IV. as was also the Marquis of Rosni, mentioned in the next reign. 

HARRALD HUITFELD. Sysang sc. octavo size. 
In Hofmans '' Portraits Historiqties des Hommes 
illmtres de Dannemarcke^'' part i. 

Harrald Huitfeld ; in the set of Ambassadors^ 
folio. N. v.. Hulle. 

. • See Stow, Holinshed, and Camden, under the yvar 1565, 



OF JINGLAND. 363 

- Rarrald Huitfeld, lord of Odisberg, chancellor and senator of the 
kingdom of Denmark, was advanced to the important office of prin- 
cipal secretary of state when he was but twenty-six years of age. 
Iq 1597, he, together with Christian Bernekau, was sent ambas- 
sador to the English court. He was charged to propose a renewal 
of the former treaties between the two crowns ; to complain of the 
depredations of the English privateers upon the Danish merchaptSi 
and to offer his master's mediation in negotiating a peace between 
England and Spain. The queen readily consented to a renewal of 
lie treaties, and promised to make restitution for the damages done 
>y the privateers, and to put a stop to their hostilities, provided that 
he subjects of the King of Denmark would no longer supply her 
snemies with warlike stores. Her majesty waved the overture of 
nediating a peace between England and Spain ; alleging, that if 
lie Spanish monarch were desirous of putting an end to the war, 
le should propose it himself. Chancellor Huitfeld stands high on 
lie list of historians. His ** Histories of Denmark and Norway" 
ure his capital works. The best edition of the former is in two 
volumes folio. He died the 16th of December 1608, aged fifty-nine 
^ears. 

CHARLES GONTAUT,ducdeBiron. P.JOare^ 
Tn " Illust. Franc:' 1652. 

Charles Gontaut, &c. J. deLeUf 
Charles Gontaut. Tardieu. 

Charles Gontaut de Biron, son of Marshal Armand de BIron, wai^ 
\t the age of fifteen so excellent an officer, that he was chosen by 
the consent of the army to supply the place of his father as general, 
nrho was prevented by his wounds. In 1601 he was sent ambas* 
sador to Queen Elizabeth ; and was so imprudent as not only to 
mention the Earl of Essex, whom she had lately .beheaded, but to 
lament the fate of that nobleman. He intrigued with Spain and 
Savoy against Henry IV. ; but when brought to the scaffold, he 
who had so often looked upon death with intrepidity in the field, 
beheld it upon the scaffold with the utmost fear; and the execur 
doner was obliged to do his office as Jby stealth, in 1 602. See 
Sully's Memoirs, &c. 

CHRISTIAN FRIIS, Chancellier. T. van Bleys- 

VOL. !• 2 Z 



354 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

'wykdel. Sg f. a small head; in Hofmans ** Portraits 
HistoriqtieSj^ &;c. 

Chrtstiani Frisit, with emblematical figures, arms 
suspended. S. P. (Simon Pass) fee. scarce. 

Christian Friisy lord of Borreby was sent ambassador into Eng* 
land by Frederic H. king of Denmark, in the reign of Eiizs^th;: 
and by Christian IV. in the next reign. He was eminent es a 
scholar, and distingubhed himself in the higher provinces of busi- 
ness. Christian, after his worth had been sufficientiy tried, raised 
him to the great office Of chancellor. He died the 29th of Juoe, 
1616. 

WILLIAM DU BARTAS; cia in wood; be/m 
Sylvester's translation of his works ; ovaL 

William du Bartas, an eminent French poet and a gallant sol- 
dier, was agent for the King of Navarre, afterward Henry IV. at 
the courts of England and Scotland. He was sent as agent into 
the latter kingdom, with a view of bringing about a match between 
Henry's sister and James VI.* James did his utmost to prevail 
with him to enter into his service, but he was too strongly attached 
to Henry. He has been ranked, by some, with the modem heroic 
poets of the 6rst form ; a distinction to which he is by no means 
entitled.f Though Sylvester got more reputation by translating the 
** Weeks and Works of Du Bartas" than by all his own compo- 
sitions, he has been justiy accused of debasing the original with 
false wit. One of the most considerable of Du Bartas's works is 
his poem on the memorable battle of Ivry, won by the king his 
master in 1590. 

PIERRE de BOURDEILLE, Seigneur de Bran- 
t6me. J. V. Schley sc. 1740, 12ma. In the I5th tome 
of his works. 

Peter Bourdeille, abb6 of Brant6me, by which name he is gene- 
rally distinguished, was, in the former part of his life, a man of un- 
common curiosity and spirit, which carried him not only through 
most parts of Europe, but into Africa and Greece. He enjoyed 

♦ Thuanus. t See Davenant's preface to *' Gondibert." 



OF ENGLAND^ 355 

the couiHenance and favour of several royal and noble personagea^ 
and was an acute and nice observer of men and manners ; but 
was particularly inquisitive into the character and conduct of the 
female sex* He is best kno\^ to the world as the biographer of 
gallant and illustrious xoomen, and. has given us memoirs of some 
great ladies whom he personallj Jknew^ find drawn their principal 
and most characteristic features from the life. For this he was 
particularly qualified in the instance of his unhappy mistress, Mary» 
queen of Scots, whom he saw in the morning of her beauty, and 
admired in the meridian of her splendour; nor was he a stranger to 
that thick and settled cloud of misfortune, guilt,* and misery, that 
almost totally eclipsed the remainder of her life. He, together with 
several of tiie French nobility, accompanied Mary to Scotland, and 
returning to France through England, was, by his curiosity, de- 
tained some time in London. He died in the year 1614, JEt. 87. 
Hie reader who is inclined to know more of his personal history is 
referred to the account of him prefixed to the 15th tome of his 
works, or to his article in Moreri's " Dictionary ."f In Jebb's' 2d 
folio '^ De Vita et Rebus gestis Mariee Scotorum Reginee," occurs 
all that Brant6roe has written of this princess. '* Mary Stuart, queen 
of Scots, being the secret History of her Life, &c. translated from 
the French ;" 8vo. 2d edit. 1726, is, as I am informed, from the ori- 
ginal of the same author. 

CAROLUS UTENHOVIUS. a de Pass. 
Carolus Utenhovius; in Boissard^ par. in. 

Carolus Utenhovius; in Freherus^ p. 1491.. 

No. 76. 

Charles Utenhovius, of Ghent, was distinguished by his writings 
in verse and prose. He was a friend and correspondent of Tume- 
bus, and was of a similar genius with that great man. He seems 



* The word guilt is misapplied. He was the firm champion of the honour of 
i^oeen Mary ; thai honour which has now become so tremendoosly sacred, that he 
who once Tentores to suspect it, or even her prudence, will have an octavo volume 
thrown at his head. It is to be hoped, that no more apologies for her will be offered 
to the public ; the measure of her defence is filled up anchruns over; it is supposed 
that the last Apology in three volumes was never perused but by three persons, the 
compositor, the corrector at fbe press, and the author. — Lord Hailbs. 

f See BouRDsilLE. 



356 BIOGRAPHICAL HldTORY 

to have travelled into England from a motive of curiosity. It if 
certain, that Queen Elizabeth, who was well acquainted with, and 
knew how to value, his talents, found emplo3anent^ for his pen, and 
rewarded him with unusual liberality. His. works consist chiefly <^ 
poems, in Greek and Latin^ on a variety of subjects. He died 
at Cologne, in the year 1600. See more of hun in the ^^ Diction* 
naire de Moreri." 

FRANCISCUS GOMARUS, Theologise Prima- 
rius Professor ; in Meursius^s " Atherus Batava, sivt 
de Urbe Leidensi et Academia^ Virisque Claris^'' Sec, 
1625, 4to. Most of the heads in this volume have been 
copied in the " Continuation of Boissard.'^ 

Franciscus Gomarus, JEt.4:5, 1608. CDanckers. 

FRA^XIscu$ GoMARUs ; in Freherus. 

Francis Gomarus, an eminent divine and orientalist, was bom at 
Bruges in 1563, and educated at Strasburg, under the celebrated- 
John Sturmius. In 1582 he came over to England, and heard the 
theological lectures of Dr. Reynolds at Oxford, and Dr. Whitaker 
at Cambridge. He was professor of divinity at Leyden, read pub- 
licly in that science in Middleburg, had the divinity chair at Sau- 
raur, and, lastly, was professor of divinity and Hebrew at Groningen, 
where he died, on Uie 11th of January, 1641. He was a great 
antagonist of Arminius, with whom he disputed before the States 
of Holland. He gained great reputation by revising the Dutch 
translation of the Bible. His works were printed at Amsterdam, 
in folio, 1645. 

LUCAS TRELCATIUS, Pater, &c- 4to. inMeur- 
sius's ^* Athen. Bat.'' 

Lucas Trelcatius ;/owr Latin lines. H. (ondius.) 
Lucas Trelcatius; in Freherus, p. 821, No. 16. 

Lucas Trelcatius, the elder, was a divine of eminent learning and 
piety, who, in the early part of his life, suffered greatly by re- 
nouncing the Romish religion, in which he had been educated. 
Threatened and terrified by the civil war which raged in Flanders, 



OP ENGLAND. Z&f 

I 

fae sheltered himself in England, where he taught school with great 
reputation for eight years. He was afterward minister of the 
French church at Leyden, and professor of divinity in that uni« 
versity- He died in 1602, aged sixty. His son Lucas, who was 
bom in England, and was also a divine of eminence^ succeeded him 
in the professorship, and died at Leyden 1607, in the thirty-fourtb 
year of his age. His print is also in ** Athen, Bat J' 

PETRUS BERTIUS, CoUegii Ulust. Ordinum 
Regens (in Academia Leidensi), 4to. in '^ Athen. 
Bat:' 

Petrus Bertius ; in Freheries. 

Peter Bertius, a very learned and eminent divine, was bom in 
Flanders, and brought into England, when he was but three 
months old, by his parents, who dreaded the persecution which 
then prevailed in the Low Countries. He received the rudiments 
of his exceUent education in the suburbs of London, under Chris- 
tian Rychius, and Petronia Lansbeirg his learned daughter-in-law* 
He afterward studied at Leyden, with unwearied diligence and a 
suitable proficiency ; and was, for his distinguished merit, appointed 
regent of the college of the States. He was author of several 
theological treatises, and of a volume or two of poems and orations* 
He published " Gorleeus's Cabinet of Medals ;" to which werQ 
added plates of Roman coins, not to be found in Fulvius Ursinus. 

JOHANNES DRUSIUS, Linguae Sanctae Pro- 
fessor (in Academia Leidensi), 4 to. in ^* Athen. Bat:* 

Johannes Drusius ; in Freherus. 

John DrusiuS) commonly called Vander Driesche, whose parents 
were also driven into England by the persecution in the Low Coun* 
tries, was, for his knowledge in Greek and the oriental languages^ 
equal, at least, to any divine of his age. He was a member of 
Merton College, in Oxford, and was admitted to the degree of 
bachelor of arts, having continued four years in that houses and 
read Hebrew, Chaldee, or Syriac lectures. He was mig:hty in the 
Scriptures, as appears by his Commentaries, a great part of which 
are in the ** Criiici Sacri.** I have placed him here among the divines 
celebrated by Meursius, aS; in 1576, he was chosen Hebrew pro* 



J 



a^. BIOORAfBICAL HISTORY 

faiiOK «t Jbtydfliii and wiii. afterward -deeted -pofisisor at Frar' 
oeker^ where he oootiniied many yean, ai^d die^ the 12th of 
F^broaiy, 161{ft-16, ia the lixty-aizthjear of hn age. 

, PETRUS MOUNEUS, Philosophise Naturalis 
Pkofessor (in Academia Leidensi), Ato. in '' Athen. 
Bat.'' 

i P£tEUjs MoxjtNCus. JL Bcmmn. 

' P£TEU9 MOLINEDS, JEt. 74. DoMtUS. . 

Peteus Molineus ; two Latin lines. DeLcu. 
Peteus Molineus. Suuderhoof. 

» ■ • . . . . ^ 

Peteus Molineus, JEt. 74 ; two Latinlinci. 

Peteus Molineus ; in J^herus. 

•. ■ . . • ... 

.- Peter du Moulin fled from thepereeen^nof thePfotestantsiit 
Firance, to pome hU ttndieB in Kngland, whefe ]ie cnhivatadaa^ 
acquaintaiKe with the famooa Reynolds and Whitaker, men of a 
tinUlar diaracter with his own, as he was mnch more a diTine than 
a naturalist. He died at Sedan, in 1658, in the ninetieth year of 
hb age. One of his theological works is, *' Dtfetuio Fidei Cutholkas 
pro 9trtniumo MajorU Britafmut Rege Jacobo.*' 

' DOMINICUS BAUDIUS, J. C. et Historiarum 
Professor; in ** Athen. Bat'' Ato. 

DoMiNicus Baudius; in Crasso *^ Ehg. Hum. 
Literat'' 

Dominicus Baudius, professor of histoiy in the universi^ of 
Leyden, was a man of general learning ; but he particiilarly show 
in polite literature. He h^d a happy vein of poetry ; was mastier 
of a good Latin style» which, though not of the purest kind, was, is 
eliiegance at least, superior to that of most of the modems. He 
was some time ooie of the advocates at the Hague, and afterwanl 
admitted an advocate in the parKament of Paris. ^He was twice in 
England in this reign, where grei^ respect was paid him by several 
persons of learning and politeness, especially by Sit Phifip Sidney. 
Qis esiceUence, as a man (^wit and a adbobtr, mAj be seen in liia 



OP ENGLAND^ 369 

^Letters'' and his '^Amours/'* which strongly mark hiB charact^ry 
ind his weakness in regard to wine and women. This sometimes 
wrought him into ridiculous distresses, and exposed him to the con- 
empt of such as were every way his inferiors but in point of pru- 
lence. He died the 22d of August, 1613. 

PAULUS MERULA, J. C. et Historiarum Pro- 
Fessor ; 4to. in ** Athen. Bat.'' 

Paulus Merula, JEt. 44. 1602. Matham, 

Paulus Merula; in Freherus. 

Paul Meriila, an eminent Dutch lawyer, was successor to the- 
celebrated Justus LipsiuB in the professorship of history at Leyden. 
[t is a su£Eicient encomium on him, to say that he was deemed wor« 
thy to succeed so great a man. Meursius, who informs us that he 
was in England, has given a list of his works, which are chiefly on 
liistorical subjects. 06. 1607, J5?^ 49. 

JANUS DOUSA, Academiae Curator, &c. Ato. 
in " Athen BatP 

Janus Dousa. Ytsscher^ 1649. 

Janus Dousa ; in Crasso ** Elog. Huom. Literati 
Several others. 

Janus Dousa the elder was the first curator of the university of 
Leyden, which he bravely defended against the Spaniards as a 
governor, and ably pre^ded over as a scholar. He was author of 
various Latin poems, and of the ^' Annals of Holland*' in verse and 
prose, and wrote notes upon several classic authors, as did also his 
son Janus, though he died at the age of twenty-six years. He had 
three other sons who distinguished themselves as men of letters* 
The father died of the plague in 1604. He is placed here as having 
travelled into England. 

DANIEL HEINSIUS, Biblioihecarius et Politices 



* Entitled " Dominicii Baudii AmoreSf* edente Petto Scriverio, Lug» Bat, 1638. 
Before the first page h uneat print of the anttior. 



3eO BIOORAPHICllL HtSTORT 

Professor (m Academia Leidensi)^ Ato. m *^AM I J 
Bat'* ^^ Ctuantum est quod nescimuSy at the tap if At p; 
aval. 

Daniel Heinsius; inBuUarf$*^ Acad.desSk$m^ 
Node Larmessin sc. 

Daniel Heinsius ; tit Freherusjp. ^538^ No. 81. 

Daniel Heinsivs; dght Latin tjmes bgfW. Gro6m., 
Jferak pinsit. J. Suyderhoof sc. 

Danid Heiniaofy to whom '^ QiMMhMi ef^ qmd scmmjTmKjwan 
iptlybe apiriiedywas one of the most lewnedfilid ingenioiiivai 
of hit age and country. He was author of poems in Gn^ litis, 
and Dutch, and wrote Latm notes and interpretaftidn* on sefttd 
capital Greek authors. He was very young when he otee ialo 
Eng^andin the reign of Elizabeth. His son Nicholas was abon 
ingenious poet and pUIologer. 

FRANCISCUS RAPHELENGIUS, ftc; w 
" Athen. Bat." 4to. 

Franciscus Rapjielengius; in Freherus. 

Francis Raphelengius, a Fleming, celebrated for his skill m the 
oriental languages, studied at Paris, whence he was driven by the 
civil wars into England, where he taught Greek in the university of 
Cambridge. He was for a considerable time corrector of the press 
to the famous Christopher Planting* whose daughter he married. 
He had a great hand in the famous Antwerp Bible, published in 
the original Hebrew by Benedictus Arius Montanus^ with an inter- 
lineary version. He made a great proficiency in the Arabic, and 
composed a Dictionary in that language* In the latter part of bis 
life, he resided at Leyden, where the Hebrew professorship was con- 
ferred upon him by the curators of that university. The many notes 
and corrections which he furnished for the learned works printed 
by Plantin, to which he was too modest to affix his name, were saf- 
ficient to have transmitted it with honour to posterity. He died the 
SOthof July, 1597. 

* He printed both at Antwerp and Lejd^. 



OF ENGLAND. 361 

JANUS* GRUTERUS, &c. Ob. 20 Septembris, 
1627 ; four Latin verses ; h. sh. 

Janus Gruterus ; in Freherus. 

Janns Gruterus, a native of Antwerp, and one of the most labo- 
rious and voluminous writers of his time, was, when a child, brought 
mto England by his parents. His mother, who is said to have been 
an English woman, and whose name was Catharine Tishem, was 
his first tutor ; being perfectly qualified for that employment, as 
she was one of the most learned women of the age. She is said 
to have superintended his education, for several years, at Cam- 
bridge. He afterward studied at Leyden, where he took his doc- 
tor's degree in the civil law, but soon quitted that study, and ad- 
dicted himself to philology and history. He wrote notes upon the 
Roman historians and several of the poets ; published all the works 
of Cicero with notes, a book once in great esteem, but it hath since 
given place to the edition of Greevius, as that hath to Ohvet's. His 
** Florikgium magnnnij seu Folt/antheaf* is a voluminous common- 
place book, formerly valued as a treasure. His " Chronkon Chro* 
nicorunC* is a proof of his industry iu history ; but the chief of all 
his performances is his ** Collection of ancient Inscriptions," a work 
not only estimable for the historical knowledge contained in it, but 
because it throws the clearest light upon a multitude of obscure pas- 
sages in classic authors. It would, be superfluous to mention his 
**'Jjampas Crkica"-\ supposed to be hurled at Dr. Norris's head by 
John Dennis, in his frenzy, as the admirable piece of humour in 
which it is related is probably known to every one of my readers. 
O^. 24 Sept. 1627. 

ABRAHAM ORTELIUSi thus inscribed : 

'^ Spectandum dedit Ortelius mortalibus orbenl, 
Orbi spectandum GalleusJ Ortelium." 

Frontispiece to his *' Theatrum Or bis,'' 1603; /o/. 



* Janus means John. See Joan6» in the tract of natne^, in Camden's '* Remains.'' 
t It is entitled, " Lampas» sive Fax Artiam liberalium/' &c. 
t Galle, the engraver of this head, did a plate for Ortelius of the death of the 
Virgin; ^ich is esteemed, by the curious, one of the most elegant produOti^ns of 
that age. The print, which is very scarce, is inscribed ; " Sic Petri Bragelii arche- 
typum Galleus imltabatur. — ^Abrab. Orteliss sibi et araicis, fieri curabat" Sh. 
VOL. I. 3 a 



Mil BIOORAPKICAL. BISTORT • 

to vAM i$ pr^xed hit Ufe. Then u a cofg tf UA 
head in the ^' Continuation ofBrieeard/* 

Abeaham Ortslius > ni a small round. CrotoAu. 

ABftAHAM OfiTSuus. PernotuB. 

. Abraham Ortelius; at the hack jtf 'Noriadi 
Dedication to Xing Jamu; email owtl. 

Abndiim OrteEiis^ fhe odej^^ 
•It'Ozfiird mdieieignofEdwudTlaiidcaliieate^^ 
fini^aiid in 1577. H»*«Tlie«biimCMii^w«sflieiti(^^ 
.cT die kind duitluid erer beoi pabliilied, and g^nk^V"^ ^.^^ 
tataoneqaal toliis immenie lalxmr in compiing k. The i^jodfl w 
not pplji; obliged to Inm for tliig yeef eetimabfe book, bat alio Ifi 
the *^ Britannia^"' ifUdi be first persiladed Ckondte to jadi&At 
ttb. 1698. 



MATTHIAS de LOBBL, &c. pOttnam sir. W15; 
scarce. 

.' Mattbiat Lobd, a Flemisb pbyaictanr wa» one of tbe greafteit 
botanists of his time. He spent the latter part of hia life in Ei^fiand, 
^faere he published his '* Stir{^am Adyersaria," 1670^ foh in whki 
work he was assisted by Peter Pena. . In 1576, he repnblidied the 
sane book^ with considerable additions. He was alsaantfaorift 
Herbal in the Dutch language^ and was engaged in anoth^ great 
work, which he did not tive to finish. Qerarde, wha was iiiibaiti- 
mate friend, has followed the method of the ''AdTeraanSy^iaJv 
Herbal. The name of Lobel is familiar to all botanists, and affiled 
to the names of many plants, as characteristicat o£ tbeur iqiedes. 
The time of his death is not known. He calls himself an old man, 
in his Latin epistle addressed to Gerarde, 1597, and prefixed to his 

Herbal. 

» 

CAROLUS CLUSIUS, Clariss. Botanicus Pro- 
fessor honor. 4fo. in *' At hen Bat.'' There is a mi 
print of him in Boissard. 

Caroxus Clusxus^ j3Et. 75. 1600^ DeGhein. 

Garolus Clusius. Goltzim. 



OF ENGLAND. 363 

Charles Clusias, a native of Arras, who ranks in the first class 
of botanists, pursued his favourite study with all that ardour which 
is necessary to a conqueror of the vegetable kingdom ; and without 
a degree of which, no man ever rose to eminence in any art, science, 
or profession.* He, with a principal view to botany, travelled over 
France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Hungary, England, and Hol- 
Iand,t where he at length settled, in consequence of an honourable 
invitation from the curators of the university of Leyden. He died 
in 1609, aged eighty-four years. Tournefort, who has given the 
best account of him, informs us, that he was chief gardener to the 
emperors Maximilian II. and Rodolph his son, and that he excelled 
all his predecessors in botany, and was also well versed in history 
and cosmography, and master of eight languages. He occasionally 
delineated the figures of plants with great readiness. His botanic 
works are in two volumes ; the first contains 1 133 figures of plants, 
the second consists chiefly of fruits and animals. 

ORLANDUS LASSUS, &c. in Boissard, small Ato. 

Orlandus Lassus ; in Hawkinses ** History of 
3fusic.'' J. Caldwall sc. 

Orlandus Lassus, JEt. 61, 1593. J. Sadeler. 

Orlandus Lassus, JEf. 39 ; 4to. PhiL J. R. ere. 

Orlandus Lassus, who, when a boy, was several times spirited 
away from his parents for the excellence of his voice, was chief 
musician to Albert and William, successively dukes of Bavaria. He 
was, for his great musical talents, ennobled by the Emperor Maxi- 
milian II. who equally admired his singing and his compositions, 
in both of which he was without a rival. He travelled into France 



* It was this passion that caused Touraefort to brave the dangers of the " great 
deep/' to scale moantains, penetrate caverns, and traverse desert84 It carried our 
oountryman Ray through most parts of Europe ; improved his health, cheered and 
prolonged his life» and amply rewarded him for his labours, by the mere pleasure of 
the pursuit. It made lister incomparably more happy under a hedge in Languedoc, 
than when he saw the romantic beauties of Versailles, though recommended by all 
the charms of novelty.$ 

t Isagpge in Rem herbariam, p. 41. 



t Sec his " Tmveh/' J •• ^arM j to Paris," p. 3. 



364 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY, Ac. 

and England,* and died at Monaco, in Italy, in 1585, at die age cf 
75. If he had travelled over every nation in Europe, he woold pio* 
bably have found, that both his sacred and profane pieces were per- 
formed in all its lan^ages. 

* He was invited to reside in France by Charles the Ninth ; bat that king djiag 
while Lassus was on his joomey, he returned into Ba^aiui. 



END OF VOL. I. 



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