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THE ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA 



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THE NEW YOFK 

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THE 



ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA 



BY 



H. LING ROTH, 



Fellow of the Anthropological Institute ; Author of ** The Agriculture and Peasantry of 
Eastern Russia ; " The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo,'' (St., S'C, 



ASSISTED BY 

MARION E. BUTLER; and JAS. BACKHOUSE WALKER, 
OF HoBART, Tasmania, with a Chapter on the Osteology by 

J. G. GARSON, M.D. 



PREFACE 

BY 

EDWARD B. TYLOR, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Professor of A nthropolony at the University of Oxford ; Vice-President 
of the Anthropological Institute, &c„ &c., &c. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with Map 



HALIFAX (England): 
F. KING & SONS, PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS, BROAD STREET 

1899. 



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THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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ASTOfI, LENOX AND 
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PREFACE 

To First Edition (1890) 

BY 

EDWARD B. TYLOR, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

Profeiior of Anthtopology at the University of Oxford, Vice-President of the Anthropological Institute 

of Great Britain and Ireland^ etc., etc. 

TN the present work, the recorded knowledge as to the extinct native 
^ race of Tasmania has been brought together with, I think, an 
approach to absolute completeness. 

If there have remained anywhere up to modern times men whose 
condition has changed little since the early Stone Age, the Tasmanians 
seem to have been such a people. They stand before us as a branch 
of the Negroid race illustrating the condition of man near his lowest 
known level of culture. Tribes who like them knew no agriculture nor 
pastoral life are common enough, indsed this is the most convenient 
definition of savages. Many tribes in the late Stone Age have lasted on 
into modem times, but it appears that the aborigines of Tasmania, 
whose last survivors have but just diied out, by the workmanship of 
their stone implements rather represented the condition of Palaeolithic 
Man. Years ago, the evidence already pointed towards this important 
point in the history of civilization. In 1865, in comparing the imple- 
ments of the Drift with those found elsewhere, I put on record as 
follows : — ** The Tasmanians sometimes used for cutting or notching wood 
a very rude instrument. Eye-witnesses describe how they would pick 
up a suitable flat stone, knock off chips from one side, partly or all 
round the edge, and use it without more ado ; and there is a specimen 
corresponding exactly to this description in the Taunton Museum." * 

The inforniation here given is on excellent authority, havmg been 
obtained in answer to my inquiries of Dr. Joseph Milligan and other 
representatives of Tasmania at the International Exhibition of 1862. 
But it would not have been safe to assume without further information 

• *' Early History of Mankind," London, 1865, p. 195. 



VI H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

that the Tasmanians were not in the habit of making stone implements 
of higher types for other purposes. Now, however, further evidence has 
come in, showing that the implement in question (see Plate facing p. 
137) is typical, and the description of the making fully to the purpose. 
In the present work, the excellent dissertation published by Mr. R. 
Brough Smyth in his ** Aborigines of Victoria " is condensed, and beside 
his results is placed a statement of the evidence of Mr. James Scott, 
Mr. Morton AUport, and other competent authorities, all agreeing that 
the stone implements were shaped and edged not by grinding but 
merely by striking off flakes, this being generally if not invariably done 
on one side only. The implements thus bear a resemblance to those 
flakes trimmed on one side, which are known to archaeologists as 
scrapers. It is thus apparent that the Tasmanians were at a somewhat 
less advanced stage in the art of stone implement making than the 
Palaeolithic men of Europe, who habitually shaped many of their flint 
implements into more regular and effective forms by skiltul alternate 
flaking on either side. Moreover, it will be seen that these descriptions 
of the Stone Age in modern Tasmania contribute evidence bearing on 
the interesting problem, how the men of the Quaternary Mammoth- 
period used their rude stone tools and weapons. Careful study of these 
Palaeolithic implements, while clearly illustrating the practice of holding 
them grasped in the hand (possibly often with a piece of hide or other 
coating as a hand-guard), has not shown that they were ever fixed in 
wooden handles. The question thus arises whether the art of hafting a 
hatchet, which to us moderns seems so obvious, may have been un- 
known to the primitive savages of Europe, and only have arisen toward 
the Neolithic age. W.e are now able to say that such ignorance in 
tool-craft was quite possible among the prehistoric Drift-men, for it 
actually prevailed among the natives of Tasmania. According to the 
testimony of numerous observers, they grasped their stone implements 
in the hand, but never fixed them in a handle, unless where foreigners, 
whether savage or civilized, had introduced this improvement. On the 
whole, the life of the Tasmanians may give some idea of the conditions 
of the earliest prehistoric tribes' of the Old World, allowing for a milder 
climate on the one hand, but a want of the great animals on the other, 
and remembering that the modern savage was in some arts below the 
ancient, for there is no record of the Tasmanian having made a needle 
for sewing his skin garments with his sinew thread, nor did he in 
drawing or carving show anything of the artistic skill of the Cave Men 
of Central France. 



PREFACE. vn. 

Looking at the vestiges of a people so representative of the rudest 
type of man, anthropologists must join with philanthrophists in regret- 
ting their unhappy fate, which fills a dismal page of our colonial history. 
We are now beginning to see what scientific value there would have 
been in such a minute careful portraiture of their thoughts and customs 
as Mr. Howitt is drawing up of the Australian tribes just across Bass* 
Straits. As this cannot be, at least it is necessary that the existing 
information should be diligently collected and critically sifted. To this 
task Mr. H. Ling Roth has devoted long and conscientious labour, 
examining in all likely quarters so as to gather together the notices 
scattered through voyages, histories, colonial documents, and other sources 
from which first-hand information, however fragmentary, could be obtained. 
Anthropologists, who have so often had to complain of the scantiness of 
materials as to the native Tasmanians, will find with surprise that much 
more is really known than was supposed, and will be glad to possess 
this book, the more so that its object being technical rather than 
popular, only a small number of copies has been printed. 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE 

TO SECOND EDITION, 1899. 

During the nine years which have elapsed since the publication of the 
first edition, I may observe that Mr. Ling Roth's diligent search for new 
evidence bearing on the history, language, arts, and habits of the Tas- 
manians, has been, as a comparison of the two editions will show, by 
no means barren of result. Particular attention has to be called to the 
progress lately made in the anthropological study of the Tasmanians. That 
these rude savages remained within the present century representatives 
of the immensely ancient Palaeolithic period, has become an admitted 
fact. There may now be seen in the Pitt- Rivers Museum, in Oxford, 
a collection of Tasmanian stone implements, illustrating the principal 
types found on the surface of the fields, or in shell-heaps, which 
are mostly shown by the evidence of eye-witnesses to be such as were 
made and used by the natives up to colonial times. Some of the best 
of these were sent by Mr. Alexander Morton of the Hobart Museum, 
and my own collection, containing numerous formed implements and chips 
of varied quality, was mostly procured for me by Mr. Williamson of Brown's 
River. That the workmanship of the Tasmanians may be generally 
taken as below that of the Palaeolithic Drift and Cave men, is apparent 



VIU H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

m 

from the absence of any native Tasmanian implement comparable to the 
symmetrical pointed picks worked on both sides, characteristic of the 
Mammoth Period in Europe. The typical tool of the Tasmanian, a flat 
flake trimmed by striking off" secondary flakes or chips on one side only, 
may be classed with the so-called scrapers which hold their place as 
efficient tools even into the early metal age. At the same time, the 
shaping which gives these tools a hand-grip on one side belongs to the 
early stage of implement-making which preceded the introduction of 
the wooden haft. Rude as the native Tasmanian tools are, they are 
not devoid of skill, and within the last year or two some forms have 
come imder view which are even remarkable for delicacy, such as is 
seen in neolithic work. Concave scrapers suited for such work as 
smoothing spears appear in Tasmanian collections, and Mr. J. Paxton 
Moir, of the Shot Tower, Hobart, has made especial study of these, as 
well as the gravers to which he gives the descriptive name ** duck- 
bills." We thus see among the Tasmanian stone tools signs of special 
development where needful. But judged by general character, their nearest 
Old World relatives seem to be those oldest and rudest palaeolithic imple- 
ments, the plateau-flints of Kent. To enforce this comparison, I may add 
that it agrees with the opinions of the late Sir J. Prestwich, and of 
General Pitt-Rivers. The reader will find in the present volume some 
additional figures of implements, illustrative of these new points of argu- 
ment, and I may add that the short remarks here made on them have 
been carefully tested by me in conjunction with the Curator of the 
Pitt-Rivers Museum, Mr. H. Balfour. 

The view stated in the foregoing Preface that Palaeolithic Man 
survived in Tasmania within human memory, has since received wider 
extension. It is now many years since I called attention to the prob- 
ability of the ground stone hatchets of the Australians having been 
derived from the islands beyond Torres Straits. This was a theoretical 
inference, but it now appears that an older state of things comparable 
to that of Tasmania has survived in West Australia. Half a century 
ago Mr. W. Ayshford Sanford brought home from the Perth District 
mounted stone hatchets of Tasmanian type, and lately Mr. Alex. Morton 
found natives on the Murchison River using unground implements of 
similar nature, so that in this region the connexion with palaeolithic 
natives has continued till now. It may be added that stone imple- 
ments from New Zealand make it probable, that found with bones of 
the Moa, palaeolithic conditions there prevailed among the race which 



PREFACE. IX 

preceded the Maori settlement. It is thus becoming clearer and clearer 
that the anthropology of this remote district can give us clues to the 
earliest state of civilization of which traces have reached us and which 
has been thought to be lost in a past of almost incalculable antiquity. 
Man of the Lower Stone Age ceases to be a creature of philosophic 
inference, but becomes a known reality. 

In the preparation of this second edition, Mr. Ling Roth has been 
greatly assisted by Mr. James Backhouse Walker, the son of the late 
George W. Walker, the companion of the late James Backhouse in their 
joint mission to Australia and Tasmania, more than sixty years ago. 
Mr. J. B. Walker's local knowledge of Tasmania, and his unwearying 
labour, have been invaluable in the augmentation and revision of the 
work. 

E. B. T. 



CONTENTS. 



Chap. I. — Introduction. — Description of Tasmania. — Climate. — Discov- 
ery and early voyages. —First Settlement. — Aborigines 'massacred. — The 
Black War. — G. A. Robinson's Rescue. — Unsuitable Quarters. — General 
Decay. — Return to Mainland.— Final disappearance of the aborigines. 

Chap. II. — Form and Size. — Forehead. —Eyes. — Nose. — Mouth. — Lips. 
— Teeth. — Jaws. — General development. — Limbs. — Two savages. — Natural 
parts. — Fourteen aborigines. — Height. — Appearance of women. — Contrast 
between married and single. — Peron*s description. — Method of suckling 
infants. — Weight of children.— Comparison of European children. Phy- 
siognomy. — Features flat and disagreeable. — General description. — A good- 
looking native. — Calder*s account. — Features of women. — Pleasing among 
unmarried. — Fine features of children. Hair. — Contradictory evidence as 
to characSler. — Comparisons. — Description by Pruner-Bey and by Barnard 
Davis. — Peculiarity in the individual hairs. — Growth abundant. — Tufted 
pellets on whiskers. —Body hair. Colour. — Great disagreement as to 
colour among eye-witnesses. — Petit*s description. Odour. — Peculiar smell. 
Motions. — Methods of climbing trees. — Use of big toe in climbing. — 
Manner of carrying children. — Posture in sitting, reclining, and in sleep. 
— Standing. — Carrying spears with the toes. — Agility. — Feats performed 
by chief. — Dexterity in avoiding spears. — Records of agility by Peron 
and West. — Faculty of concealment by mimicry. — Carriage and gait. — 
Accounts of climbing powers. — Joy. — Anger.— Bad habits. — Strzelecki*s 
account. Pathology. — Withstanding cold. — Health and teeth. — Wounds. 
— Condition after European settlement. — Pulmonary complaints. — Causes 
thereof. — Catarrhal fever. Abnormalities. — Breast. — Teeth. — Navel. 
Physical Powers. — Wrestling and running.— Dynamometrical hand tests. 
— Vigour lacking. — Comparisons with other races. — Prolonged exertion. — 
Agility in leaping. Senses. — Acuteness in hearing, smelling and seeing. 
— Powers of tracking.— Ability to discover existence of water. Repro- 
duction. — Statement as to paucity of children. — Contradii5lion of same. — 
Children met with by early travellers. — Limits of child bearing. 

Chap. III. — Psychology. —Low condition of intelledl. — Opinions of 
settlers. — Comparison with Australians. — Mental incapacity accounted for. 
— Favourable opinions. — On an equality with Europeans in own sphere. 



i 



Xll H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

— Comparison of children with Europeans. — Interviews with La Billardi^re. 
— Timidity at first sight. — Interchange of presents. — Gestures. — Expression 
of joy. — Confidence shown by a mother. — Indifference as to presents. — 
Girlish intelligence. — Humorous trick played on a Frenchman.— Curiosity 
as to sex of Europeans. — A promise kept. — Powers of imitation.— A 
native on board ship. — Botanical knowledge. — Expressions of good will. 
— Conclusion of La Billardi^re's narrative. — Interviews with P6ron. — 
Surprise at fairness of European skin. — Curiosity at sight of boat. — In- 
telligence. — Two females. — Their appearance. — Surprise at gloves. — A spirituel 
girl.— Demonstrations of friendship. — Twenty females interviewed. — Effedl 
of European singing. — Singing imitated.— A curious escort. — Ill-will of 
husbands. — A welcome meeting. — Desire to ascertain sex of Europeans. — 
Curiosity as to European's insensibility to pain. — Embracing unknown. — 
Review of characSler by P6ron. — Women's afFedlion for offspring. — Dom- 
estic affecSlion. — Love of country. — Pathetic scene. — Gratitude. —Kindness 
to those in distress. — Humour. — Revenge. — Improvidence. Irksomeness of 
civilization. — Memory. — Intelligence in military tadlics. — Contradicflory evi- 
dence as to courage. — Interviews by Mortimer, Bass, Bligh, and Marion. 
— An old settler's views. — Absence of curiosity. — Curious behaviour witnessed 
by Bligh. — Explanation of indifference. — Variety of temper and talent.— 
A chief attempts to comb his hair. Morals. — 111 treatment suffered by 
women. — Jealousy of men.-^-Same contradi(5led. — Wives exchanged for bread. 
— A peaceful, inoffensive race. — Preference of women for white protedlors. 
— Maternal devotion. — Original friendliness towards whites. — Instances of 
generosity and kindness. — P6ron*s experiences not satisfa<5lory. — Theft and 
treachery. — Violence and ingratitude.— Narrow escape of Peron and party. 
— Attitude towards settlers. — Euroj^ans the first aggressors. — Resentment 
of wrongs. — Testimony of Gov. Arthur, — III treatment at hands of convi<5ls 
and sealers. — Evidence in Government notice and in Report of Aboriginal 
Committee. — Ingratitude and treachery. — A barbarous murder. — West's 
testimony. — Occasional generosity towards enemies. — Ross's testimony. — 
Friendly when well treated.— Gratitude.— Cruel treatment of animals. 
Religion. — Belief in Supreme Being doubtful.— Good and bad spirit. — 
Inferior spirits. — Women's religious chant. — The moon not a deity.— rPoly- 
theism. — Bones as charms. Immortality of soul. — Name applied to spirits 
of departed friends. — England the aboriginal Hades. — Fatalism. — Good 
and bad spirits.— Future state.— Fear of darkness. — Devil believed to be 
white. — Creation.— Future state. — Absence of idols. — Prophetic communica- 
tions. — Vagueness of ideas. — Jump up white men.— No word for Creator. 
— Apparent incantation.— Future existence. — Sacred stones. A sermon. 
Government. — No elecfled or hereditary chief. — Chiefship falls to bullies. 
— Prowess in war sole cause of supremacy. — Chiefs destitute of authority. 
— Statement contradicfted. — Chiefs merely heads of families.— Friendly 
relations with Europeans hampered by want of authority of chiefs — 



CONTENTS. XUl 

Respedl for boundaries of hunting grounds. — Trespass a casus belli, — No 
"^armanent villages. — No individual property in land. — Quarrels settled by 
duels, — A primitive pillory. — " Growling." Customs. — None remarkable. 
— Kissing and embracing unknown between the sexes. — Handshaking. — 
Dislike to kissing.— Manner of receiving friends and strangers. — Abandon- 
ment of sick and infirm. Tabu. — Three sorts. — Names of deceased or 
absent not mentioned. — Avoidance of burial grounds. — Abstinence from 
certain foods. — No indications of totemism. Medicine. — Scarcity of in- 
formation. — Laceration of body. — Decay a result of imprudence. — Severe 
case of laceration. — Probable use of cautery. — Scarifications. — Rheumatism. 
— Inflammations. — Leprosy. — Snake-bites. — Bones worn as charms. — Tri- 
angle of bones against headache. — Stones for causing and counteracting 
evil. — Mesembryantkemum eqiiilaUraU, — Women in labour.— Care of sick left 
to women. — No regular doctors. — Eruptive disease due to over-eating. — 
Illnesses in latter days ascribed to devil. — A native impostor. — Supersti- 
tious belief. — Alleged specifics. 

Chap. TV. — War. — Kelly's conflicfl. — Weapons of rudest description. — 
Absence of throwing-stick and boomerang. — Use of sharp stones. — Shields 
of wood? — Spears. — Their length and material. — Point hardened in fire. — 
Sharpened with flints. — Jagged spear in use by northern tribes.— Poisoned 
spears. — Way of storing spears. —Making spears. — The waddy. — Its length 
and purpose. — Thrown with rotatory motion. — Its material. — The spear a 
formidable weapon. —Skill in throwing it. — Victims pierced while running. 
— Feats of a chief— Stone throwing. — Frequency of intertribal wars. — 
Cause of wars after arrival of settlers — Women a source of strife. — Ex- 
tremity of these feuds, — TacSlics and war march. — Personal quarrels settled 
with waddie. — Native skulls inferred to be thicker than Europeans. — First 
hostile encounter between natives and Europeans. — War challenge. — 
Treacherous attacks on P6ron*s party. — Objecflion to be sketched. — Stones. 
— War party seen by Capt. Hamelin.— Flight after hostile demonstration. 
— Original inoffensiveness. — Probable real cause of original enmity towards 
Europeans. — An unhappy mistake. — Tactics during War of Extermination 
— Cunning. — Assaults on European dwellings. — Numbers of attacking par- 
ties. — Methods of attack. — Robbery an obje(5\ of attack. — Women not 
permitted to fight. — A notable exception. — Spears held between toes. — 
Skill of war parties in concealing approach. — Europeans warned by native' 
women. — Laplace's account of method of attack.— ** Diabolical '* patience, 
— Spears thrown in at windows. — Tenacity of purpose and of life. — 
Apparent friendliness of hostile approach. — Massacre of Hooper family. — 
Evidence of Gov. Arthur. — Minutes of Executive Council, — Solitary in- 
stance of open hostility. — Ashes of enemy's body used as amulets. — 
Difficulty of pursuit of natives. — Skill displayed in eluding adversaries. — 
Ideas of perfe(5lion of war. — A clever attack. — Assault on Mr. Jones's 
premises. —Military obedience and tactics. — Dismay at death of chief.— A 



XIV H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

greasy captive. — Warlike carriage. — Mutilations of European dead. — 
Women's lives generally spared. — Merciful disposition of native women. 
— Effe(5l of this on the men. — No mention of boomerang or throwing 
stick. — Signs of friendship. 

Chap. V. — Fire. — Supposed ignorance of art of producing fire. — Flint 
implements mistaken for fire flints. — Fire drills. — Tongue and groove fire 
sticks. — Stars tumble down. — Fire drill. — Torches. — Tinder. — Carrying fire. 
— Native fires different to those of settlers. — " Smokes." — Legend of the 
origin of fire recorded by Milligan. — Castor and Pollux. Food. — Original 
dislike to European food and spirits. — Repugnance overcome. — Killing 
sheep. — Objecflions to European cookery. — Enormous appetites. — Cause of 
voracity. — Every variety of animal eaten. — Fat objecfled to. — Birds. — Fat 
of soup smeared on head. — Stricflures with regard to consumption of 
male or female wallaby. — White grubs. — Caterpillars. — Shell-fish. — Scale 
fish never eaten. — La Billardiere's account of a repast. — Ross's account. 
— Rayner's and Walker's. — Alkali ashes used as salt. — Primitive methods 
of cookery. — Hearths of clay. — No native ovens. — Wide distribution and 
antiquity of shell mounds. — Varieties of edible shell-fish enumerated. — 
Shell mounds described. — Native cider. — Ignorance of art of boiling water. 
— Varieties of edible sea- weed and vegetable food : sea-wrack, truffle, 
punk, fern-tree, fern-roots, native potato, etc, etc, the canagong. Canni- 
balism unknown. Hunting anp Fishing. — Hunting Kangaroos. — Grass 
firing. — Use of dogs in hunting.— Description of a hunt by Lloyd. — 
Capture of opossums by women. — Women's skill in climbing. — Da vies', 
Lloyd's, and Backhouse's accounts of opossum hunting. — Special stone 
used.— Fish-hooks unknown. — Diving of v/omen for shell-fish.— Use of 
baskets in diving. — S/>a/w/a^.— Spearing scale fish for sport. — Lloyd's des- 
cription. — Seal fishery. — Birds supposed to be caught with hands.— Jealousy 
of hunting grounds.— Women not permitted to hunt. — Diving, beneath the 
dignity of men. — No storage of food for future use. 

Chap. VL — Nomadic Life. — A wandering race. — No fixed habitations. 
— Statements by Rossel and Peron.--Marks of encampments.— No travelling 
at night. — The objedt of the migration. — N.E. coast frequented by shell- 
fish. — Direction of journeys. — Inadlivity in winter. — Statement by West. — 
Periodicity of wanderings. — Average numbers to each party. — Respedl 
accorded to tribal boundaries. — Women the beasts of burden. — Separate 
fires for each family.— Encampments fixed near water— Reason for this. 
Attachment to nomadic life a hindrance to civilization. Habitations.— 

Trees hollowed by fire used as such Native huts Temporary nature of 

same.— Ingenious construdlion of one seen by La Billardiere.— Further 

account of huts.— Number of huts — Breakwinds Thatched huts on western 

coasts.— Wicker work huts.— Number of huts seen together— Permanency of 
same.— Kangaroo skin pillows mt headstools.— Curious strucftures described 
by Walker and La Billardiere. Agriculture entirely unknown. Domestic 



CONTENTS. XV 

Animals.— None known.— Dogs obtained from Europeans.— Affedlion for 

dogs.— Women suckle puppies.— Vermin A disgusting habit.— Courtship. 

Unsupported statements.— Love affairs.— Social and Marital Relations.— 
Wives stolen from other tribes.— Divorce allowed.— A succession of wives. 
—Polygamy.— Evidence of West and Lloyd.— Exceptions to polygamy.— 
Case recorded by La Billardiere.— Succession of husbands.— Conjugal 
modesty.— Abjeift condition of women.— Ill-treatment by men.— Subordina- 
tion to men,— Account of scene witnessed by La Billardiere.— Indolence 
and selfishness of men.— Evidence of Davies, Lloyd, and Calder.— Huts 
and canoes built by women.— Refusal of men to assist in fishing.— A 
selfish father and an unselfish mother.— Domestic affedlion.— Instance related 
by West.— Relations between sealers and native women.— Unwillingness 
of women to re-join their native tribes. Relationships —Nothing known. 

Education limited.— Obedience of children Affecflion of mothers.— Paternal 

corred^ion.— Careless mothers. Initiatory Ceremonies.— Scarification of 
males arrived at puberty. Phallism unknown.— Deformations — Extradlion 
of front teeth.— Circumcision not pracflised. Burials.— Discovery of human 
bones in ashes of native fire.— Remarkable tombs seen by Peron.— Struc- 
ture and situation.— Characf^ers marked on inside of bark.— Scarcity of 
monuments due to their perishable nature.— Rock tomb described by 
Jorgenson.— Burial-place of a warrior.— Spear left in grave.— Reason for 
this.— Methods of disposal of dead.— Burning.— Use of ashes as amulets. 
Hollow trees converted into tombs.— Native graves.— Tree burial.— Body 
fixed in upright position.— Funeral customs.— Preservation of skulls- 
Ceremony observed at a death.— Lighting a funeral pyre.— Power of dead 
to cure the sick.— Ashes of dead smeared over survivors* faces.— A man 
ordering his own funeral pyre.— Curious idea. -Cremation recorded by 
West.— Burning of two bodies witnessed by Robinson.— Binding the limbs 
of corpse.— Haste in disposal of dead.— Erecfl posture in burial.— Mourn- 
ing. — Ashes and laceration. 

Chap. VII.— Method of wearing hair.— Use of red ochre and grease. 
Men's hair drawn out in ringlets or rat-tails.— Heads of women generally 
shorn.— Nicking off the hair with shells, glass, etc.— Time occupied in 
shaving head.— Hamy's description from Petit's drawings.— Hair worn low 
on the forehead.— Whiskers.— Destruction of vermin.— Beards smeared with 
red ointment and allowed to grow long.— Cicatrisation.— Scarification a 
general custom.— Evidence of several writers.— Use of charcoal. — Scars 
made in symmetrical lines.— Observed oftener on men than on women. 
—Cicatrices seen by La Billardiere.— None.— Destrudion of the cellular 
membrane.— Ornamental Scars.— Scarification of males at age of puberty. 
Description of method of making scars.— Painting.— Red ochre or earth. 
—Bodies smeared with red ochre and grease.— An amusing story.— Charcoal 
used as a paint.— Painting a protection against inclement weather.— 
Experiences of Peron.— Ideas of beauty.— The painter painted.— Use of 



XVI H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA.. 

mineral substances as paint. Clothing.— Nudity of natives.— Kangaroo 
skins worn by women and used for carrying children.— Skins as cloaks 
worn only in winter or in sickness.— Nakedness of most of aborigines 
seen by La Billardiere.— Some exceptions.— Evidence of P6ron.— Nudity 
of the women.— Women's indifference to clothing.— Imagined use of Alga 
jnarina.— Use of loin-cloth mentioned only by Thirkell.— Alleged sewing 

together of strings No head covering.— Mocassins.— Dislike to civilized 

dress,, and discarding it at earliest opportunity.— Personal Ornaments. 
Strips of skin worn as ornaments.— Flowers and feathers stuck in hair. 
Necklaces of kangaroo teeth, berries, and shells.— Bones worn.— String 
necklace,— Shell necklaces, and how they are made.— Metallurgy.- Total 
ignorance of the art. 

Chap. VIII.— Astronomy.— Time observed by apparent motion of the 
sun. Arithmetic— Table of numerals.— Ability to count up to three and 
up to five.— The word for ten.— Word for five same as word for man. Music. 
— Effe(5l of the Marseillaise. — Softer airs less appreciated. — Effecfl of 
European singing on the women. — Imitation of a European song. — Rapid 
singing.— Indifference to a musical performance.— A violin solo and its 
results.— Native Singing.— Its correctness.— Its sweetness — Bonwick's descrip- 
tion.— A musical corrobory Kangaroo rugs used as drums or gongs.— 

Softness and melody of songs.— Singing accompanied by dancing.— Songs 
descriptive of hunting or war.— Hymn to Good Spirit(?) sung by women. 
—No record Tasmanian music. Drawing. — Marks on bark.— Rude drawings 

frequently met with Animal traced in charcoal.— A drawing at Belvoir 

Vale. Tracings on bark of huts.— A native chef-d'oeuvre.— Description 
by Bunce of a native drawing. A copy from life.— Origin of draw^ings 
doubtful. Games and Amusements.— Corrobories or native dances the 
favourite pastime. -Description by Backhouse.— Horse, Emu, thunder and 

lightning dances.— Dances end with shouting Accounts by Walker and 

Davies.— The kangaroo dance.— A violent kind of dance.— Other dances.— 
Description by Lloyd.— A full moon corrobory.— Aboriginal full dress.— 
• A warrior abused and defended.— Musical accompaniments.— Prominent 
part taken by the women.— Kelly's description.— Throwing waddies and 
spears as an amusement. 

Chap. IX.— String.— Grass ropes used in climbing String plaited 

from bark of a shrub.— Grass cords used in making rafts.— Rope of 
kangaroo sinews.— Skins sown with bark threads.— Making string.— Basket 
or Bag Work.— Baskets used in fishing.— Their manufacture by women, 
—Drinking vessel or pitcher made of sea- wrack.— Only one method of 
making or plaiting known.— A curious grass basket.— Stone Implements. 
Johnston's description.— Detailed account by Brough Smyth.— Nature of 
rocks whence obtained. -Manner of obtaining and treating them.— The 
cutting edge flaked.—Skill shown in this.— Edge not serrated.— Manner of 



CONTENTS. XVll 

flaking.— Specimens left unchipped.— Two scalpriform implements.— Skilful 
treatment of the same.— Weight of implements.— Absence of handles.— 
Edges not ground.— Method of using stone knives described by James 
Scott.— Stone implements found at Mount Morriston.— Method of holding 
the flints.— Purposes for which they were used. -Number of stones dis- 
covered at one locality.— Other stones described by Smyth.— Morton 
Allport's colle<5lion.— Used without haft or handle.— Statements made before 

Royal Society of Tasmania Scott's evidence.— Rollings' evidence.— Stone 

knives used in skinning kangaroos.— Stones for hair-cutting.— A tomahawk. 
—Stone implements never used as tomakawks by Tasmanians — The ques- 
tion of ground stone implements.— TyIor'$ quest.— Ground stones referred 
to by Barnard Davis— Ground stones in Brighton Museum.— G. A* 
Robinson's and Milligan's mistake.— Tasmanians did not grind their stone 
implements.— Discovery of native quarry.— Rayner's description of quarrying. 
—Description of quarry.- Johnston's account of stones used by natives.— 
List of localities where stones were obtained. 

Chap. X. — Trade.— No known system of trade or barter.— Bartering 
a woman for seals.— Women exchanged for bread.— Backhouse's account of 
some bartering.— A girl traded for a dog.— Attempts to teach bartering. 
Communications.— No roads but beaten paths.— Difficult paths.— Indicating 
the dire<5lion in forests by means of broken branches.— Powers of tracking. 
—Graphic description of this by Lloyd.— Natives employed as mounted 
police. Navigation.— No boats or canoes met with by early explorers. 

—Rafts or canoes.— Details of measurements.— Further descriptions Hobart, 

Oxford, and Brit. Museum specimens.— Account by Mrs. Meredith 

Rafts found on South and West Coasts only.— Natives sat on the canoes 
(or raft).— Sticks employed as oars.— The natives good weather judges. 
—Bon wick's account of a dugout.— Dove's mixing up of bark rafts (canoes) 
and log rafts.— Log rafts. -No skin boats as described by Ratzel.— 
Catamaran found by Lieut. Gunn.— Number of persons carried by canoes. 
—Propulsion by swimmers on either side. Swimming.— Men inferior in 
this art to women — Remarkable diving powers of women.— Account by 
La Billardiere.— Submersion twice as long as any European diver.— The 
women good swimmers.— Calder and Kelly the only authors who speak 
of the men swimming.— Men wade in water to spear sting-ray. Topo- 
graphy. — Accuracy of geographical knowledge. Natural Forms.— Primitive 
nature of articles used.— Little ingenuity displayed in adapting natural 
productions to wants.— Beauty of Boronia remarked. Natural History. 
—Habits of wombat, hyaena, snakes, and porcupine, as described by 
the natives. 

Chap. XL— Infanticide.— Not practised before advent of Europeans. 
—Prevalence in later years.— Dogs suckled in place of infants.— Abandon- 
ment of children during dearth of food.— Rapid flights a cause of infanti- 
cide.— Hatred towards half-caste children.— Their destruction oftener the 



XVill H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

act of the tribe than of the mother.— Case recorded by West- 
Duration of period for suckling infants. Population.— Robinson's estimates. 
Milligan's view.— Numbers met with and estimates. - Statistical table of 
population from 1817 to 1877.— Death of last representative of the race 
in 1876. Tribes.— J. B. Walker's divisions.— Southern Tribes.— Western 
Tribes.— Central Tribes.— Oyster Bay and Big River — Northern and North 
Eastern.— Stony Creek, Port Dalrymple, Ben Lomond, North-East coast. 
Contact with Civilized Races.— Nature of struggle between aborigines 

and settlers.— Ruthless massacre of natives by a party of soldiers 

Brutal murder of an infant.— Hunting the aborigines a favourite amuse- 
ment.— Loss of hunting grounds resented by natives.— Cruelties towards 
them denounced by the Governor.— Ill-treatment of native women by 
stockmen ; this the alleged original cause of hostility.— Atrocious treatment 
of women described by Parker.— A tub of native ears. —Decay at 
Flinders Island.— Various causes.— Want of usual employment and nourish- 
ment. -Home sickness.— Ill-treatment of native children by European 
children.— George and John Briggs.— Strzelecki's views on telegony contra- 
dicted by Lieut. Friend.— Description of first half-caste born in Tasmania.— 
Beauty of half-caste children.— Half-castes of the present day.— Stephens' 
account of them. 

Chap. XII. — Language. — The thirteen known vocabularies.— Their 
enumeration. — Sterlings and Wilkinson's lost vocabularies. —G. W. 
Walker's vocabulary.— How obtained — Milligan's standard vocabulary.— 
How obtained.— Difficulty in attaining accuracy for putting words to 
paper.— Effects of hostility, superstition, gesticulation and carelessness of 
expression.— Affixes — Shortcomings in syntax. —Dialects.— Abstract ideas.— 
Elision, rejection and disuse of words. -Borrowed words.— Softness of 
language.— Vowels.— Semi-vowels. — Diphthongs.— Consonants. — Adjectives. — 

The suffix -wj.— Plural.— Personal pronouns.— Verbs.— Infinitive mood 

Person and number.— Construction.— Agglutinating character of the lan- 
guage,— Expression of the Singular, Negative, Magnitude, Diminutive 

Word building.— Name given to Europeans.— Explanation ot word ** break- 
wind. "—Paw7(6r^ Afrt6iy/«'.—Prefixes.~Interpolations.— Corrupted forms. 

Chap. XIII. — Osteology. — Locality of existing skulls and skeletons. 
— Memoirs on Tasmanian Osteology.— Stature. — Skull, and its peculiarities. 
— Vertebral column. — Thorax. — Pelvis. — Limb bones. — Scapula. — Clavicle. 
—Humerus.— Radius. — Ulna. — Hand. — Femur. — Tibia. — Foot. — Proportions 
of entire extremities. — Intrinsic proportions of limbs. — Intermembral index. 
AntibracheaJ index. — Tibio-femoral index. — Humero-femoral index. — Con- 
clusion. — Topinard's measurements of Tasmanian skulls in Paris.-— Harper 
and Clarke's skull measurements — Barnard Davis' skeleton measurements. 
— W. L. H. Duckworth's skull measurements. 

Chap. XIV. — Origin. — Views of various writers. — Huxley. — Fried. 
Muller. — Brinton.— Earl.—Topinard. — Bon wick. — Flower. — Quatrefages and 



CONTENTS. XIX 

Hamy. — Garson. — Comparative study of the hair. — Barnard Davis and 
Hickson. — Dampier's frizzly haired Australian. — Comparative study of the 
language. — Fried. Muller and Latham. — Conclusion : Tasmanians the 
aborigines of Australia. 

Appendices. 

A : Norman's Vocabulary. — B Vocabularies : Braim, Cook, Dove, 
Gaimard, Jorgenson, La Billardiere, McGeary, Peron, Roberts, and Scott. 
— C. Milligan's Vocabularies, Sentences, Names, Verses, and Two Songs. 
D Phrases and songs after Braim. — E Walker's Vocabulary. — Two songs 
and names. — F Tasmanian- English Vacabulary. — G Mrs. F. C. Smith 
not a last living aboriginal. — H Tasmanian Fire-sticks. 

Index. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



»• 



»> 



)) 



7) 



Wybalenna 

Portrait of Patty ... 

Wm. Lanney 

Wapperty 

Bessy Clark ... 
Four Portraits of Aborigines 
Portrait of Eydoux's Aborigine ... 

** Shinev " 
Skin mortuary ashes bag 

M A A C «^ L l.C#fVo ••• ••■ ■•• ••• ••• ■» 

Breakwinds 

Marked pieces of bark 
Artificial Scars 

Ground Stone Implements (Australian) 
String' necklace ... 
Truncatella necklace 
EUnchus necklace 
The Taunton Stone Implement 
Kelp pitcher 

Pattern of basket or bag work, Tasmanian .. 
,, „ „ Australian . 

Stone Implements (i) (Hobart) ... 

(2) (Tylor's Collection) 

(3) 

(4) 
Aboriginal Quarry ... 

Canoe and baskets (bags) 

v^anoes ... ... > 

Portraits of Half- Castes . 

«^ J\ UA£ ••• •mm ••• • 

and Cast of Interior 



To face Title page. 









99 






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-Portrait of an Australian... 
Portrait of Mrs. F. C. Smith ... 

,, of Truganini 
Profiles of Tasmanians 
Profile of Mrs. F. C. Smith 



99 

n PP- 



To face 






To face 



To face 



To face 






To face 



n 

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I 
I 

9 

9 
17 & 25 

P- 33 



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131 
132 

132 

137 
142 

H4 
145 
145 
145 
H5 
145 
150 
153 
156 

174 
194 

195 
200 

202 

,, 203 

„ 227 

App. To face p. lxxxv\ 



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LXXXVI. 
n 



r L OjL^ix^ i-.» !->» v^i A I . 



ASTOR. LENOX AND 
TKDlN FOvvNUATIONS. 



ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



CHAPTER I. — Introduction. 

TASMANIA, formerly known as Van Dieman's Land, is situated between 
parallels of 40^33' and 43^39' S. Lat., and between 144^39' and I44°23' 
Meridians E. Long, and corresponds with Southern France. It is irre- 
gularly heart-shaped and occupies an area of 26,215 square miles ; nearly 
the area of Scotland. The main axis of the Great Cordillera bordering 
the eastern coast line of Australia may be traced across Bass Strait in 
a chain of islands, which almost continuously link Tasmania with Aus- 
tralia. Tasmania is wholly occupied with the ramifications of this chain 
which in the western half of the island rises into an extensive plateau 
with peaks attaining* a height of 3,000 to 5,000 feet above sea level. The 
island is beautiful in its scenery, with its open plains bordered by far 
extending precipitous mountain tiers, its isolated shaggy peaks and wooded 
ranges, and its many fine rivers and lakes. Its coasts, especially towards 
the south, are bold and frequently indented by splendid bays and har- 
bours, such as the Derwent on which stands Hohart the Capital. On 
the western side the scenery resembles that of the Highlands of Ross 
and Inverness. Settlement has principally taken place among the plains 
and lower levels of the South Eastern, Midland, and North Western 
parts of the island, and more recently in the mineral districfls of the 
West and North East. The climate is exceptionally genial and is one 
of the finest in the temperate zone {Johnston's Tasm, Official Record), 

The island was discovered on the 24th November, 1642, by Abel Jans- 
zoon Tasman, who named it after the Governor of the Dutch East In- 
dies, Anthony Van Diemen. It does not appear to have been visited 
by any European after Tasman until March, 1772, when Marion du 
Fresne, in command of a French expedition, spent some days in exploring 
the coast. A twelvemonth later it was visited by Captain Furneaux, in 
the Resolution, during his temporary separation from Captain Cook during 
the Second Voyage. The latter celebrated navigator visited the island in 
January, 1777. He was followed by Captain Bligh in 1788 and again in 
1792, Captain Cox in 1790, the French Admiral Bruny d'Entrecasteaux in 
1792 and 1793, and Captain (afterwards Sir John) Hayes of the Bombay 
Marine, in 1794. In the early part of year 1798 Dr. Bass in an open 

p 



2 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

whaleboat, entered Bass Strait from Sydney, and in the latter part of 
the same year and in the beginning of 1799 Lieut. Flinders and Dr Bass 
in the ** Norfolk " sailed through Bass Strait for the first time and circum- 
navigated Van Dieman's Land. The French Captain Baudin visited the 
island in 1802, and the first European settlement, consisting of a small 
party was made under Lieutenant Bowen at Risdon on the Derwent, 
some three miles above Hobart, in September, 1803. Lieut. Governor 
David Collins' settlement was made at Hobart Town 20th February 1804. 

The first Aborigine killed by a European was during a misunder- 
standing between the natives and Marion's party. The first meeting of 
English with the aborigines was Dr. Bass' interview with one man in 
January 1799. The next meeting was with James Meehan who was en- 
gaged in making short surveys in conne(ftion with Bowen's party but 
some distance above Risdon, on the north bank of the river. This was 
in February, 1804, Meehan's note book is preserved in the Tasmanian 
Lands Office, and his words are as follows : ** Are here invested with a 
considerable body of natives who endeavoured to surround us — had taken 
one of my marking sticks — am obliged to fire on them ". . . . ** The 
natives are in a considerable body — assembled again and endeavoured to 
steal behind a hill — on which, fired another gun and they dispersed for 
this night." "Tuesday morning.— The natives again assembled in a large 
body on a hill over us — all around with spears and in a very menacing 
attitude. They followed us a short distance and then stopped. They 
appear to be very dexterous at throwing stones. Them who surrounded 
us yesterday in such multitudes had no arms but a few waddys, but 
several of them picked up stones. . . . 

** In the first affray with the blacks, which was at Risdon, May, 1804, 
the best evidence goes to show that very few were killed— perhaps five 
or six. Future hostilities do not appear to have been caused by this 
episode. The real fac5l is, that in the early years of the Colony, th^ 
blacks though regarding the whites with jealousy and mistrust, too often 
well-founded, were on fairly good terms with the settlers; frequently 
visiting their home-steads, and receiving food and other small presents. 
Bodies of them, * Mobs' as they were called, often came to Hobart, 
where they were always well treated and never sent away empty handed. 
Occasional murders were committed by the blacks, when opportunity or 
provocation tempted. Many cruelties were perpetrated on them by Convicfl 
Shepherds and Herdsmen in isolated parts, but the stories told of brutal 
murders by the settlers are," G. W. Walker believes, "gross exaggerations 
or inventions, almost without exception." It was not till about 1825, that 
the deadly feud began. It originated in the execution of some blacks for 
killing some whites. The blacks at once retreated from the settlements, and 
from that time never came near the settlers, except to murder and to burn. 
Then the war became one of extermination. The reign of terror which 
ensued in the remoter distriifls of the Colony has not yet faded out of local 
memory. It is quite a mistake to suppose that the Colonists were nearly 
driven out of the island, but enormous efforts were made to capture and 
bring in the whole of the tribes, which then could only have numbered a 
few hundreds. Governor Arthur called a general levy of the population, and 
formed some five thousand men into parties constituting a line across 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

the island. His plan was for the parties to advance and drive the blacks 
before them into the south eastern comer of the island, where it was 
thought they would be trapped in Tasman Peninsula. As might have 
been expe<5led from the wild and rugged nature of the country, the 
thick forests and dense scrub in many parts, the ^^ Black Line'' was a 
complete failure. The natives easily passed through the lines and only 
one boy was captured. The ^^ Black War'' of Colonel Arthur cost the 
English Government some ;^36,ooo. 

** What five thousand armed men failed to do, was accomplished by 
one man, unarmed and almost single handed. George Augustus Robinson, 
accompanied by a few *tanie' blacks whose confidence he had gained, set 
out to trace the miserable remnants of the tribes in their wild haunts. 
Between the years 1831 and 1836, he succeeded in bringing in, by 
persuasion alone, various parties numbering altogether two hundred and 
three persons. With a few scattered exceptions, these were all the 
surviving natives in the island. As they arrived in the settled distric5ts 
they were transferred to Swan Island, then to Gun Carriage or Vansittart 
Island, and finally in 1831, to Flinden Island. . . . 

•* In 1832 Messrs. Backhouse and Walker found the natives at the 
Settlement looking plump and healthy, notwithstanding that they had 
been suffering from shortness of provisions. The arrangements for supplies 
had been shamefully deficient. The white people had for some time 
been living on oatmeal and potatoes, which were far from good. The 
blacks, who abhorred oatmeal, lived on potatoes and rice. Fortunately 
mutton-birds {Nectris brevicaudus) supplemented their scanty provision. 
A little while before, when left in charge of Surgeon M'Lachlan on 
desolate Gun Carriage, if it had not been for some potatoes they obtained 
from the sealers, the unfortunate blacks would have been actually starved. 

** The site of the settlement at *The Lagoons' was most unsuitable. It 
was a narrow sandbank, running parallel with the shore, producing nothing 
but fern and scrub. It was bounded on one side by the sea, and on the 
other side by a salt lagoon bordered with thick tea-tree, and cutting off 
access to the main. 

" When first placed on the islands the blacks had been put under the 
charge of most unsuitable officers — ignorant men, quite unfit for the diffi- 
cult and delicate task of managing savages fresh from their native forests. 
It was not therefore strange that at first there was much disorder, and 
that quarrels between members of different tribes were of frequent occur- 
rence. At this time, however, they were under the care of a commandant, 
who threw himself into the work before him with an unselfish enthusiasm. 
The commandant was Lieutenant William J. Darling, a young officer of 
the 63rd Regiment, a brother of Sir Charles Darling, who was afterwards 
(1863-66) Governor of Victoria. He was ably seconded by the surgeon, 
Archibald M^Lachlan. The self-denying exertions of these two officers for 
the welfare of the poor blacks cannot be too highly praised. To promote 
their advancement in civilisation the Commandant and Surgeon spared no 
pains. They treated them with uniform and patient kindness and consider- 
ation. They seldom sat down to breakfast or tea in their own little 
weatherboard huts without having some aborigines as guests, with the view 
of exciting in them a desire for improvement in civilisation. 



4 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

** Yet the arrangements for the aborigines, well meant as they undoubt- 
edly were, seem to have been singularly injudicious. They were lodged 
at night in shelters or * breakwinds.' These * breakwinds ' were thatched 
roofs sloping to the ground, with an opening at the top to let out the 
smoke, and closed at the ends, with the exception of a doorway. They 
were twenty feet long by ten feet wide. In each of these from twenty 
to thirty blacks were lodged. The fires were made along the centre of 
the breakwind, and the people squatted or lay on the ground around them. 
Blankets were provided for them to sleep in. To savages accustomed to 
sleep naked in the open air beneath the rudest shelter, the change to 
close and heated dwellings tended to make them susceptible, as they had 
never been in their wild state, to chills from atmospheric changes, and 
was only too well calculated to induce those severe pulmonary diseases 
which were destined to prove so fatal to them. 

** The same may be said of the use of clothes. In their wild state the 
blacks had gone entirely naked in all weathers, protecfling their bodies 
against the elements by rubbing them with grease. At the settlement 
they were compelled to wear clothes, which they threw off when heated 
or when they found them troublesome, and when wetted by rain allowed 
them to dry on their bodies. In the case of Tasmanians, as with other 
wild tribes accustomed to go naked, the use of clothes had a most mis- 
chievous efFedl on their health. In their native bush the constant and 
strenuous exertion which they were compelled to make in hunting wild 
animals for necessary food kept them hardy and healthy. Cooped up in 
the settlement and regularly fed, they lost the motive for exertion, and 
sank into a life of listless inacflion, in which they lost their natural vigour, 
and became an easy prey to any disease that attacked them. ... In 
facfl, the unhappy captives pined and died from * home sickness.' 

** How to treat the poor remnant of the native tribes was a difficulty, 
perhaps an insoluble problem under the circumstances. If they could have 
been left in possession of a portion of their ancient hunting-grounds— a re- 
serve to which they could have been confined — they might have lived 
healthily and even happily for a long period of years, though even that 
would not have averted the final doom. But the feud between the two 
races had been too deadly to permit of their being left in proximity, and 
the seclusion of an island was imperative, as much for the prote(5lion of 
the blacks as for the safety of the whites. 

"To the credit of the authorities, it must be said that from the time 
Lieut. Darling took charge in 1832, every possible effort was made to 
secure the well-being of the few survivors of the native tribes. They 
were well supplied with food, and they supplemented the ordinary supplies 
by taking mutton-birds and their eggs, and, while the game lasted, by 
occasional hunting excursions. . . . The care of the authorities extended far 
beyond ensuring them plentiful food. No exertion was spared to drill 
these children of nature into the habits of a civilisation unto which they 
were not born. 

The blacks, in 1833, "were removed to a place called by the sealers 
Pea Jacket Point, then rechristened * Civilisation Point,' about fifteen 
miles north of their old location. The village was named ' Wybalenna,* 
signifying, in the language of the Ben Lomond tribe, * Blackman's Houses.' 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

. . . Wybalenna was a much better location than The Lagoons. There was 
sufficient water, good pasturage, and land fit for cultivation as gardens. 
The officers of the establishment had weatherboard houses, and about 
twenty thatched wattle and plaster huts had been built for the blacks. 
. . . They now had a regular instrucflor or catechist, who tried to instil into 
their minds some ideas of religion. To aid in this work he had attempted 
a translation of the first three chapters of Genesis into the language of 
the Ben Lomond tribe ! The worthy catechist's version is obviously 
worthless from a linguistic point of view, whatever effecft it may have 
had on the native mind in other ways. The catechist made most perse- 
vering efforts to instruct the blacks, and even succeeded in teaching some 
of the boys and younger men to read a little. 

** In 1835, George Augustus Robinson, who had just completed his mission 
by bringing in the last party of wanderers, was sent by the Government 
to take charge of the Flinders establishment. In a speech which he made 
at Sydney some few years later, he gave a long account of his administration. 
He boasted that his efforts to lead forward the blacks in the scale of 
civilisation had met with flattering success. Their minds were beginning 
to expand. In their intercourse with each other they were affable and 
courteous. They were placed under no restraint, but enjoyed the fullest 
degree of personal freedom. They were instru(5\ed in the Christian religion. 
Two services were held on Sunday, and others during the week. The 
services were condu(5ted in English, which the natives well understood. 
Attendance was voluntary, yet all attended. He had established schools, — 
a day-school for boys, a day-school for girls, an evening school, and a 
Sunday-school. Periodical examinations were held, from which it appeared 
that the youths were able to answer questions in the leading events of 
Scripture, in Christian docflrine, arithmetic, geography, and several points 
of general information. Some of them could write very fairly. The girls 
were taught sewing and knitting, and could make clothes. The people 
had neat cottages and gardens, and conformed in every respe(5l to Euro- 
pean habits. He had formed an aboriginal police, and a court composed 
of himself and three chiefs, who adled as constables. He had established 
a circulating medium, and also a market to which the natives brought 
their produce. The men had in three years cleared a considerable area 
of ground, and had made a road nine miles long into the interior of the 
island. He concludes with the remark, * The only drawback on the 
establishment is the great mortality among them ; but those who survive 
are happy, contented, and useful members of society.' 

" A significant comment on his * flattering success ! ' While Robinson 
and others were doing their best to make them into a civilised people, 
the poor blacks had given up the struggle, and were solving the difficult 
problem by dying. The very efforts made for their welfare only served 
to hasten on their inevitable doom. The white man's civilisation proved 
scarcely less fatal than the white man's musket. Yet it would be wrong 
to estimate lightly the disinterested labours of men who perseveringly 
worked for the fading race. Amongst these men the name of Mr. Robert 
Clark, the catechist, stands first. From the time of his appointment to 
Flinders Island in 1834 to his death in 1850 this estimable man gave 
himself with an absolute devotion to the care of the unhappy remnant 



6 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

of the captive tribes. The poor blacks on their part showed that they 
were not * insensible to kindness, or devoid of generous feelings.* While 
Mr. Clark lived they regarded him with a touching love and veneration. 
When he died, after sixteen years spent in their service, they mourned 
him as their one true and constant friend, and to the last the miserable 
remnant of Tasmania*s native tribes affecflionately cherished the memory 
of their beloved * Father Clark.' 

" In 1838 the aborigines on Flinders, probably at the suggestion of 
Robinson, who had been appointed Protedlor of the Aborigines in Port 
Phillip, petitioned Governor Franklin to be removed to that colony. The 
Home Authorities interposed and forbade the removal. On Robinson's 
departure from Flinders, Captain Smith, and afterwards Mr. Fisher, took 
charge of the settlement. In 1842 Dr. Jeannerett received the appointment 
of Commandant from Sir John Franklin. Five years later, in 1847, . . . 
in the face of considerable opposition from the colonists, the Government 
resolved to remove the few survivors to Oyster Cove, in D'Entrecasteaux 
Channel. Dr. James Milligan was appointed superintendent, and under 
his care the transfer was effe(fted. Among the children thus removed 
was Fanny Cochrane (now Mrs. Fanny Cochrane Smith, who is still 
living on her farm at Port Cygnet, the sole survivor of the Flinders 
Island settlement.) At Oyster Cove the blacks rapidly deteriorated. A 
new phase of civilisation was here presented to them in the shape of 
low whites and rum. The mortality was accelerated by the drunken habits 
into which many of them fell. A few lingered on — a disgraced and degraded 
remnant. In 1854 there remained only three men, eleven women, and 
two children— sixteen in all. In 1865, Billy Lannee, the last male aborigine, 
died, and only four women remained. Truganini, the last survivor of her 
race, died in 1877.'" — (G. W. Walker, Trans. Roy. Soc. of Tasm., 1897). 



CHAPTER IL — Physical Characters. 

I^HE very remarkable differences in the descriptions of these people 
handed down to us by eye-witnesses may perhaps induce the belief 
that there was ocularly appreciable difference in the physiognomy^ of the 
various members of the tribes. This belief finds support in the state- 
ment of Kelly (Colonies and Slaves, p. 51), who states that "the tribes 
to the southward and westward are a much finer race of men than those 
to the eastward and northward." It also finds more limited support in 
an examination of their portraits and photographs. The differences are 
not very marked, but still they are appreciable. We will now give a 
detailed description of the face, and follow it up with others of their 
general physiognomy and other physical characteristics. 

The forehead was high, prominent (Laplace, III. ch. xviii. p. 200), 
narrow and running to a peak (Davies) ; the malar bones were prominent, 
and the cheeks hollow (West, p. 77), and the faces massive (Dumoutier, 
ix. p. 134). 

£y«.— Their eyes were small (Prinsep, p. 79; Marion, p. 28), and 
hollow (Laplace, p. 200; Prinsep, p. 79; Dumoutier, p. 134). Breton 
says (p. 349) they were more deeply set than those of any other people, 
and Milligan (p. 25) that the natives " had projecfiing eyebrows and 
sunken orbits," agreeing herein with Leigh, who describes them as much 
sunk in the head and covered with thick eyebrows (pp 242-3). According 
to Laplace (p. 200) the eyes were yellowish, and according to Marion 
(p. 28) of a bilious colour. Cook (Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) says they had 
" good eyes," while Anderson records them as being of a middling size, 
less clear than in us, and, though not remarkably quick or piercing, such 
as give a frank cheerful cast to the countenance. This is very different 
from Davies, who describes the eyes as dark, wild, and strongly expressive 
of the passions. According to West (p. 77) the eyes are full, the eye- 
lid drooping, the iris dark brown, the pupil large and jet black. 

Nose. — This has been described as flat (Milligan, p. 25; Davies; 
Marion, p. 28; and Leigh, p. 242), not remarkably flat by Cook (Voy. 
Bk. I. ch. vi.), and as very flat by Widowson (p. 187). According to 
Laplace (p. 200) it is short and flat, and Anderson says their noses, 
though not flat, are broad and full. According also to Calder (J.A.I, 
p. 20) the nose was broad. Prinsep (p. 79) describes the nose as broad 
and short, and he speaks of the nostrils being widely distended. Davies, 
as well as Leijgh (p. 242), says the nostrils were wide, and Widowson 
(p. 187) that the natives had immense nostrils. Dumoutier (ch. ix. p. 
134) tells us the nose was exceedingly big, being about the quarter of 
the entire length of the face. Nostrils flat and distended says Walker 

(P- 97)- 



8 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Mouth. — Anderson considered the mouth rather wide ; Davies and 
Widowson (p. 187) consider it wide; Marion (p. 28) gave them very 
large mouths; while Dumoutier (ch. ix. p. 134) says the mouth was 
extremely broad. Laplace says it was enormous; Prinsep (p. 79) that 
it was uncommonly "Targe; while Calder's account is that the mouth 
generally protruded extremely (J.A.I, p. 20). The lips have been described 
as not remarkably thick (Cook, Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi. ; D umou tier. ch. ix. 
p. 134); as thick (Laplace p. 200); as slightly thickened (Milligan, p. 35); 
and as particularly thick (Widowson, p. 187). On the other hand, 
(Loyd, p. 43) says the underlip was smaller than that of the negro; and 
Davies, " the lips are not full, like those of the negroes, at least not 
generally so." "Generally thick lips" (Walker, p. 97). 

Teeth. — Cook (Voy. Bk. L ch. vi.) found their teeth tolerably even, 
and Anderson broad, but not equal. Davies says their teeth were large, 
strong and even, while Laplace (p. 200) describes them as ** pointed." 
La Billardi^re tells us they* all had very good teeth (IL p. 39), and 
Widowson that they were tolerably good (p. 187). According to Strzelecki 
(p. 334j they were large and white ; according to Marion (p 28) very 
white, and according to Lloyd of an "exquisite whiteness" (p. 43); while 
Anderson describes their teeth, ** either from nature or dirt, are not of 
so true a white as is usual among a people of a black colour." 

Jaws. — Prinsep (p. 79), who was not by any means enamoured of the 
race, states the jaws to have been elongated like those of the orang- 
outan! According to Davies the jawbones are large, strong, and promi- 
nent, and show a great width in front, agreeing herein somewhat with 
Anderson's statement that the lower part of the face proje(5ls a good 
deal. La Billardi^re (IL p. 39) makes the curious statement that "in 
the children the upper jaw advances considerably beyond the lower, but 
sinking as they grow up, both jaws are nearly even in the adult." 

Development, Fornij Size. — " The native of V. D. Land possesses, on 
the whole, a well-proportioned frame. His limbs, less fleshy or massive 
than those of a well -formed African, exhibit all the symmetry and 
peculiarly well-defined muscular development and well-knit articulations 
and roundness which characterize the negro ^ (Strzelecki, pp. 334-336). 
Cook (Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) thought the people slender, and Anderson 
{ibid.) well proportioned; while Prinsep (p. 79) says they were "short 
in stature, with disproportionately thin limbs and shapeless bodies," and 
Mortimer (p. 19) that most of the party he encountered were of the 
middle size, and though lean, were square and muscular. Laplace (III. 
ch. viii. p. 200) speaks of the lanky limbs and inflated stomachs of the 
native ; but Dixon (p. 22) agrees with the others that the limbs were 
muscular and well proportioned. La Billardiere (ch. v. p. 222) mentions 
a very tall and muscular savage, and elsewhere (ch. x. p. 73) he speaks 
of a savage of middle size whose figure was very finely proportioned. 
To Marion (p. 29) they " seemed to be generally slender, fairly well 
made, broad-chested, and the shoulders thrown back." According to 
Hamy (Anthrop, II. p. 610) Petit remarks that "the slender limbs are 
an essential charadler of the race,"Qind W^est describes (p. 77) them with 
" breast arched and full, the limbs round, lean and muscular, the hands 
small, the feet flat and turned inwards." They had small natural parts 



T- NEW VORK 

TUBLIC LIBRARY. 



ASTO«. ttNOX AND 
TlUOtN FOUNDATIONS^ 



FORM AND SIZE. 



(Marion, p. 29). Dr. Knox (Races of Men, Lond., 1850, p. 286) says: 
** The reprodudlive organs in the Tasmanians are said to be quite peculiar 
in men and women.'* He gives no authority, he makes no distincflion 
between Australians and Tasmanians. In describing an interview with four- 
teen of the Aborigines, Peron says, **The majority of them were young men 
of about sixteen to twenty-five years of age ; two or three appeared to 
be thirty to thirty-five years old; one alone, older than the rest, appeared 
to be fifty to fifty-five years of age. . . Generally all the individuals 
were of a stature proportionate to their age. Among those arrived at 
manhood there was one who was not less than i metre 786 millimetres 
(5 feet loj inches), but he was much thinner and slimmer than his 
fellows. All the others were from i metre 678 millimetres to 732 
millimetres (5 feet 6 to 8 inches) in height. One of them . . . was 
a young man, twenty-four to twenty-five years of age, called Bara-Ourou, 
with a much finer constitution than the others, although spoilt by the 
same constitutional defecft common to all his race, that is to say, with 
a well -developed head, ample and fleshy shoulders, broad chest, and very 
muscular buttocks, all his extremities were slender and weak, particularly 
his legs; his stomach* also, proportionately, was much too big" (ch. xiii. 
p 280). One man killed by Marion's party was five feet three inches 
in height! (Marion, p. 31). They are rather below the average stature 
of Europeans. . . . Both sexes are stout and their limbs well-propor- 
tioned (Walker p. 97). Near Port Davey, Kelly (p. 7) met some natives 
** six feet high, their stomachs very large, legs and arms very thin " ; at 
Retreat River some men were '* six feet high and very stout made " 
(p. 8) ; at Cape Grim he says he measured a man six feet seven inches 
high (p. 10). ** Robinson found some at Port Davey about six feet. In 
1819, a man was killed six feet two inches high. Dr. Story informs me 
that * the general size of the men was from five feet two inches to five 
feet five inches ; the women in proportion to the men, of course smaller.' 
He adds, * Balawenna was a fine athletic man, more than six feet. His 
wife was in proportion'" (Bonwick, p. 119.) 

Laplace (HI. ch. xviii. p. 202) deemed the women as repulsive [sic] 
physique as the men,yand Lloyd (pp. 43-44) speaks of their attenuated 
frames as "comparable only to animated skeletons. The spinsters, how- 
ever, . . . presented a marked and pleasing contrast, . . . possessing a 
tolerable amount of rounded limb . . . and sleekness of person." Widow- 
son considered the women better formed than the men (p. 187). Of two 
women P6ron writes (ch. xii. pp. 222-223) • ** ^^^ former appeared to be 
forty years of age, and the large folds of the skin of her stomach showed 
unmistakeably that she had been the mother of several children. . . . 
The young woman of twenty-six to twenty-eight years of age, had a fairly 
robust constitution, . . . her breast, already slightly withered, appeared 
nevertheless fairly well formed. Of a party of some twenty aboriginal 
females he writes (ch. xii. p. 252) : " Their forms were generally thin 
and withered, their breasts long and hanging; in a word, all the details 
of their physical constitution were repulsive. One must, however, except 

• Probably from the indigestable food such as fern roots, &c. 

t Old French measure. 



i 



lO H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

from this general description two or three young girls of from fifteen to 
sixteen years of age, whose forms were fairly agreeable and their contours 
rather pleasing, and whose breasts were firm and well placed, although 
the end of the mamelles was rather too big and too long." Peron also 
speaks (ch. xii. p. 223) of another female native about twenty-six to 
twenty-eight years of age, who was still suckling her little girl : " her 
breasts . . . appeared . . . sufficiently furnished with milk." While on 
this subject we may mention Davies' remark to the efFecfl that as the 
women ** suckle their children over their shoulders, the breasts of the 
females are consequently preposterously long." This statement should 
probably read : — Their breasts being long and pyriform they can con- 
sequently suckle, &c. The following results were obtained by Hull, in 
1849, when he weighed and measured the children then in the orphan 
schools at Newtown. They showed " that they were shorter than the white 
race of the same age, but much heavier. One young female, eleven 
years of age, weighed one hundred and two pounds ; another of eight, 
eighty-six pounds. The average weight of European children of these 
ages is stated to be seventy-eight pounds and sixty pounds respedtively : — 
sixty as compared to eighty-six ; seventy-eight as compared to one hundred 
and two." 



Physiognomy. 

Several writers have given us anything but a flattering account of the 
Tasmanians. We are told their lineaments were gross, flat, and forbidding 
(Dixon, p. 22) ; their features were extremely disagreeable (Melville, p. 
346) : they had a most hideous expression of countenance (Prinsep, p. 
79) ; their features were flat and disagreeable (Breton p. 349) ; features 
anything but pleasing (Widowson, p. 187). Lloyd speaks of the women 
as being repulsively ugly (p. 43), and West that the women had masculine 
features (II. p. 77). Peron's descriptions, unfortunately bearing, in general, 
the impress of Rousseau's influence, runs thus : — ** Amongst these savages the 
physiognomy is very expressive ; the passions depicft themselves with force, 
and succeed each other rapidly. As changeable as their afledtions, all the 
features alter and modify according to them. Their expression is fearful 
and wild when roused ; restless and treacherous when in doubt ; and when 
laughing, of a mad and almost convulsive gaiety. Amongst the aged the 
expression is sorrowful, hard, and gloomy ; but in general, among all the 
individuals, and whenever one looks at them, their expression has some- 
thing fierce and sinister about it, which does not escape the attentive 
observer, and corresponds only too completely with their characfter " (ch. 
xiii. p. 280). On another occasion Poron speaks of a native whose 
** physiognomy had nothing harsh or wild about it ; his eyes were lively 
and spiriiuel^ and his air expressed at once good will and surprise " (ch. 
xii. p. 221). On the other hand, Calder reports more mildly of them 
(J. A. I. p. 20): "The features of neither sex were prepossessing, especially 
after they passed middle age. ... In youth, some of the women were 
passably good looking, but not so the most of them ; " and elsewhere 
he says (Wars) : *' Our natives were not generally a good-looking race. 



PHYSIOGNOMY. HAIR. II 

. . . Some of the youths of both sexes were passable enough, and one 
woman whom I remember . . . was remarkably handsome. Some of the 
men, too, though very savage-looking fellows, were, in most respects, in 
no way the inferior of the European. A native of one of the West 
Coast tribes . . . possessed as fine and thoughtful features as any one 
would desire to look upon." Lloyd speaks of the yet unmarried women 
as having something winning about them (p. 44). Cook (Voy. Bk. I. 
ch. vi.) says their features were far from disagreeable, and also that 
many of the children had fine features {ibid,) ; he is supported by 
Backhouse (p. 174), who found ** many of their countenances fine and 
expressive," while Walker (p. 97) says, " many of their countenances are 
pleasing, and very few of them forbidding," he also (p. 167) speaks of 
a man with a black beard and moustache, and a " countenance decidedly 
Jewish." 

Hair. 

There has been some difference of opinion as to whether the hair of 
the Tasmanians was woolly or not, but this difference may have arisen 
from the peculiar way in which the natives wore their hair. Bass (Collins, 
p. 187) says of the black he saw at Derwent, ** His hair short and stiffly 
curled, did not think it woolly," but in a note he says, ** Raven cut some 
* undoubted wool ' from the head of a native in Adventure Bay ; " and 
Flinders (p. 187) says, ** it had not the appearance of being woolly." 
Milligan (Beacon, p. 25) speaks of the hair as being crisp. Peron (p. 252) 
and Prinsep (p. 79) say it was frizzled, while Backhouse (p. 78), Breton 
(p. 349), Calder (p. 22), La Billardiere (p. 38), Jeffreys (p. 125), Widow- 
son (p. 187), Mortimer (p. 19), and Henderson (p. 144), all state it to be 
black and woolly. Furneaux says, ** Their hair was black and as woolly 
as that of any native of Guinea," while Da vies (p. 410) considers it 
** black and woolly, but not so much so as that of negroes." Dixon (p. 
22) compared it to that of the negro, but Lloyd (p. 43) only says it is 
coarse, short and curly. "Their hair is uniformly black and woolly, like the 
African negroes" (Walker p. 97). Henderson is very positive of "there being 
no tribe, or individuals composing part of a tribe in V. D. Land who 
have been found with the smooth black hair of the Asiatic." Strzelecki 
says (p. 334) that some natives have it " soft and curling ; while with 
others again it is of a woolly texture, similar to that of the Africans ; " 
but as this writer makes no distincflion between the aborigines of Tas- 
mania and those of the continent of Australia, his opinion in this matter 
cannot be accepted. 

Scientifically the hair has been thus described: "Two specimens from 
V. D. Land, one black, the other yellowish-white, approach the hair 
of the New Irelanders by their tresses, their diameters, and internal 
dispositions. Diameters of the black hairs ^=25: 15; of the light hairs 
= 25 : 15 to 27 : 20. The first has no medullary substance ; the second 
has it much enlarged" (Pruner-Bey, p. 81).* The yellowish -white colour 
to which Pruner-Bey refers, mast have been caused by the bleaching due 

* For details of the hair as a ccmparison with that of other peoples see Chapter on Origin. 



12 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

to the presence of Jime in the ochre, or other substances with which the 
hair was plastered. ** The Tasmanians had hair growing in small cork- 
screw ringlets. . . . The individual hairs . . . are fine, and, in sed^ion, 
o£ a very eccentrically elliptical or flattened form. Upon this form depends 
the tendency to twist, and the kind of curliness which is seen in these 
small corkscrew locks. This peculiarity allowed them to load the hair with 
red ochre, and make it thus hang down in separate small ringlets of 
varying length. Such ringlets give a distinguishing characfler to all the 
corre(5l portraits of the Tasmanians . . . The Tasmanians had no deficiency 
of hair, but were well provided on the head, face, chest, pubes, and other 
parts ; they had whiskers, moustaches, and beard ; but all of the same 
slender character, inclined to twist into spiral tufts. On the borders of 
the whiskers there were little tufted pellets of hair, like pepper-corns upon 
the cheeks. The beard grew precisely in the same manner, and the pubic 
hair was not difierent," so says Barnard Davis (pp. 9-10) who got his 
information from Milligan or Robinson. According to table given by Peron 
(see post p. 20) some natives had hair on their backs, and we gather 
the same fadl from Petits' illustrations — (Hamy. Anthrop. II. p. 610). 
La Billardiere tells us the men had the back, breast, shoulders and 
arms covered with downy hair (II. pp. 59-60). 

Colour. 

Anderson says, ** Their skin was black. . . . The females were as 
black as the men," and later on, ** Their colour is a dull black, and not 
quite so deep as that of the African negroes.'* Peron (p. 252) says 
their skin and hair was black, and so does Laplace (p. 200) and Calder 
(p. 20) : ** Their bodies were naturally a dull black colour." Breton 
(p. 349) describes them to have had a ** perfectly black complexion." 
According to Milligan (Beacon, p. 25), ** they had a complexion and 
skin of a dark brown, or nearly black colour," and according to Hen- 
derson (p. 144), "The inhabitants of V. D. Land are slightly darker 
coloured than those of Port Jackson ; and considerably more so than 
those in the interior of N. S. Wales." Mortimer (p. 19) describes them 
as of a dull black or dusky colour; Backhouse (p. 78) gives them a dark 
olive colour; while Walker (p, 97) says, ** Their complexion is very dark, 
almost black ; a few are of a lighter hue, approaching to the colour of 
copper ; the soles of their feet are as light as those of Europeans who 
go without shoes; the palms of their hands are also much lighter than 
their bodies." West (II. p. 77) affirms that: ** The skin is bluish-black; 
less glossy than the native of the continent ; " and Davies, ** There 
colour is bluish -black, less black than that of the African negroes, but 
slightly more so than Lascars," Peron also says they were black ; but: 
La Billardiere on one occasion (I. p 222) says they were of a blackish 
colour, and on another (II. p. ^S)j ** Their skin is not of a very deep 
black." Hamy tells us (Anthrop. II. p. 610) that Petit describes the 
skin colours as follows: — Violace in Bara Ourou ^^ toutefois cetU couUur 
est attenuee et passe au violet rose; fuligineux in Ouriaga moins jaune que 
dans r atlas; hrun violace in Grou-Agara ^ les hommes sont peints plus fonces 
que Us femmes ; violace in Paraberi violace brundtre in Arra-Maida peint 



COLOUR. ODOUR. MOTIONS. I3 

plus clair in her child chocolat an lait in another person ; then teini du cuir 
neuf in another child ; hrun ful gineux in a man and grisdtre on the sole 
of his foot; hrun violace in a man, his lips brunatre rose and others with 
a skin violace un peu brunatre. Finally, Jeffreys maintains (p. 125), ** Both 
sexes are of a jet black, and not, as some writers have described them, 
of a brown colour," but then he was a careless observer. 

Odour. 

Davies (p. 410) says : " The men grease their bodies 

Unconnedled with this besmearing, a very peculiar odour proceeds from 
theii bodies." Bon wick, writing apparently of his own experience (p. 123) 
says : ** The odour proceeding from the natives, though not equally 
offensive with that distinguishing the negroes, was sufficiently disagreea.ble, 
though I have heard my friend Mr. Clark, the Flinders Island Catechist, 
declare he could notice nothing of the sort." 

Motions. 

Climbing Trees, -^We have some good accounts of the manner in which 
the natives used to climb trees, which are given in the chapter on Hunting. 

Method of Carrying Children. — There appear to have been two methods 
of carrying children common among the Tasmanians. The one described 
by Widowson (p. 190), who says the children are generally carried (by 
the women) astride, across the shoulders, in a careless manner ; and by 
Calder (p. 22), *' The woman carried her infant, not in her arms, but 
astride her shoulders, holding its hands." This carrying astride the 
shoulders is perhaps illustrated in one of Peron's plates where the child 
is seated astraddle on the mother's right shoulder, his right leg hanging 
down her chest while his left leg encircles her neck and comes over 
the left breast. The other as described by West (II. p. 79), who 
mentions that a woman, with a new-born infant, followed the tribe ; the 
infant was slung on the back, and suckled over the shoulder ; and by 
Davies who only differs from West in saying that the infants were 
carried in a kangaroo skin. [Kangaroo rats or bandicoots were slung upon 
their backs or fixed to a stick like a rabbit man's in London (Ross, 
p. 154).] In Peron's portrait of Arra Maida, the child appears to be 
carried slung on the mother's back below the shoulders in a horizontal 
position, its head showing under the right arm, which is thrown back 
to support the child. 

Sitting and Reclining. — Lloyd mentions (p. 113) coming unawares across 
a group of natives seated in tailor-fashion, occupied in making spears. 
Bligh states (p. 51), "They talked to us sitting on their heels, with 
their knees close into their armpits;" and Peron repeats (pp. 226 and 
251) that the natives squatted, on their heels. With regard to the 
women, La Billardiere mentions (II. pp. 47-48), "We observed with surprise, 
the singular posture of the women, when they sit on the ground. . . . 
It appears to be a point of decorum with these ladies, as they sit with 
their knees asunder, to cover with one foot what modesty bids them 
conceal." Jorgenson also has said : " The females, always in a state of 



14 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

nudity, would invariably, when sitting down, do so in a decent posture" 
(Bonwick, p. 58). And Ross in describing an aboriginal meal which he 
witnessed, says, '* These aborigines, I found, were quite ... classical 
in adopting the Roman method of reclining at meals, lying round their 
fire, resting on one elbow and holding the half-roasted leg of an opossum, 
eating in the other.'* "At night they encircle themselves round a large 
fire, and sleep in a sitting posture, with their heads between their knees" 
(Widowson, p. 190). 

Standing, Walking, and Agility, — According to Anderson (Cook's Sec. 
Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.), " The posture of which they seem fondest is to 
stand with one side forward, or the upper part of the body gently 
reclined, and one hand grasping (across the back) the opposite arm, 
which hangs down by the projecSling side," which account of their 
peculiar mode of holding the arms is corroborated by La Billardiere (II. 
p. 49) in the following : " The men followed with a grave pace, each 
carrying his hands resting one against the other upon his loins ; or 
sometimes the left hand passing behind the back, and grasping the right 
arm about the middle." This holding of the upper limbs in this peculiar 
fashion may perhaps have something to do in connection with their method 
of carrying their spears by their toes so as to appear without weapons, for 
we read (Meredith, p. 195), ** The aborigines, when they wished to 
appear unarmed, had a habit of walking without any weapon in their 
hands, but very adroitly trailing their spears, which they held fast by 
their toes, along the ground after them, to be picked up at any moment 
they were required;" and Davies says, ** If the ground is smooth upon 
which they are walking, as a beach for instance, they have a habit of 
trailing their spears after them, the point held in some manner between 
their great toe and that next it ; this seems to be that they may have 
their waddy ready to heave at any small objecfl that may appear. The 
spear is transferred from the foot to the hand in an instant." It would 
appear that this stealthy carrying of arms is a warlike precaution, for 
Calder (pp. 21-22) says: "The Tasmanian aboriginal, in advancing on a 
victim whom he meant to kill, treacherously approached . . . with his 
hands clasped and resting on the top of his head, a favourite posture 
of the black ; . . . but all the time he was dragging a spear behind 
him, held between his toes, in a manner that must have taken long to 
acquire. Then by a motion as unexpected as it was rapid, it was 
transferred to the hand, and the victim pierced before he could lift a 
hand or stir a step." The first white man, George Munday, who was 
killed by an aborigine, fell a victim to this practice ; for, as Knopwood 
relates (p. 53), "the native had a spear concealed, and held by his 
toes, and as Munday turned from him, he caught up his spear and 
threw it at him." 

" They walk remarkably eredl, assuming a dignified mien, and in 
all their movements exhibiting agility and ease" (Walker, p. 97). West 
states (pp. 81-82) that the member of the tribe who had committed an 
offence " had to stand while a certain number of spears were thrown at 
him," but that, " the keenness of his eye, and the agility of his motions, 
usually enabled him to escape a fatal wound," and Calder (p. 60) describes 
similar agility when alluding to the inter-tribal wars in which they 



MOTIONS. 15 

engaged. These fights, he says, " often lasted for hours, but such was the 
dexterity of the savage in evading the spears of his adversaries that 
they seldom struck him. Without moving an inch from his post, he 
would avoid a discharge of three or four well-dire(5ted spears sent at him 
at the same instant. By a contortion of his body, a movement of his 
head to the right or left, or raising his leg or arm, he seldom failed 
escaping them all, any one of which would have transfixed the less agile 
European with the most perfedl certainty." Their quickness is further 
vouched for by an account of Peron (p. 221) during one of the excursions, 
** We arrived at a small creek, at the end of which was a pretty valley. 
. . . We had hardly set foot ashore before two aborigines showed them- 
selves at the top of a hillock precipitous almost to the top. At the 
signs of friendship we made them, one of them threw himself, rather 
than descended, from the top of the rock, and in the twinkling of an 
eye was in our midst." Rossel (I. ch. iv. p. 99) gives an account of a 
woman who on being frightened slipped down from the top of a rock 
on to the sea-shore, and La Billardiere adds (ch. v. p. 234), this precipice 
was forty feet high, and that the woman ran away and was soon hidden 
by the rocks below. Of their nimbleness in another direction West (p. 
85) tells how some aborigines ** did " some Europeans : "A shooting party 
approached a native camp near the Clyde, and found they had just 
abandoned their half-cooked opossums and their spears; excepting a small 
group of wattle bushes, at the distance of ten yards, the ground was 
free of all but the lofty trees : the travellers immediately scoured this 
thicket, but on turning round they, in great astonishment, discovered that 
opossums and spears were all gone. It was the work of a moment, but 
no traces of the aborigines were to be seen." They appear to have 
possessed that extraordinary faculty common to nomadic savages in other 
parts of the world of making themselves indistinguishable from the sur- 
rounding scenery while still perfedlly visible. West quotes (p. 86) the 
following from Ross : ** I remember a fellow of the Grimaldi breed ; he 
undertook on a fine summer's evening, to place himself among the tree 
stumps of a field, so that not two of a large party should agree as to 
his identity. He reclined like a Roman on his elbow, projedled his arm 
as if a small branch, and drew down his head. No one could tell which 
was the living stump, and were obliged to call him to come out and 
show himself." This art was no doubt more probably made use of in 
hunting than in warfare, and the tribe would no doubt be aware of the 
ta(5\ics of the enemy. ** Both the men and women hold themselves very 
ere(5l; indeed the men, probably from the habit of balancing the spear, 
throw back the shoulders so much as almost to make it appear a 
deformity " (Da vies). Marion also states that they kept their shoulders 
back, and Dixon (p. 22) that " the body was ere(5l and the gait firm 
and stately." Bunce's party (p. 55) admired their upright and even elegant 
gait. La Billardiere (IL p. 41) speaks on one occasion of their pace being 
** sufficiently slow for us to follow them with ease." When they came 
in conta(5l with the Europeans, their knowledge of the power of climbing 
did not come amiss, for Meredith relates (p. 206) that ** a wounded native 
woman having been shut up for the night in a hut, the latter was visited 
in the early morning to see how the patient fared ; but, though the door 



k 



l6 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

had been closed and fastened, the chimney had not and up it the dark 
lady had gone." This is, however, not so difficult an operation as appears 
at first sight. In the old bush hut, even now common, there was a wide 
fire-place, with a wide chimney of rough stones or perhaps of bark or 
split palings ; the whole chimney was perhaps ten feet in height. On 
an earlier occasion La Billardiere (II. pp. 39-40) found himself watched 
from an unexpected quarter, thus : ** I had not perceived the young girls 
for some time ; . . but, happening to look behind me, I saw, with sur- 
prise, seven who had perched themselves on a stout limb of a tree, more 
than three yards from the ground, whence they attentively watched our 
slightest movements.*' 

Bad Habits.— Oi one habit among one lot of men La Billardiere (II. 
p. 72) says : ** We were much surprised to see most of them holding 
the extremity of the prepuce with the left hand, no doubt from a bad 
habit, for we did not observe anything of the kind among some others 
who soon afterwards joined them." This habit may have been common, 
as Peron gives an illustration of a group in which one man is drawn 
with the left hand in the position named. 

We cannot perhaps close this chapter better than with Count Strelecki's 
summary of their motions (p. 336) : ** Compared with the negro, he is 
swifter in his movements, and in his gait more graceful. His agility, 
adroitness, and flexibility, when running, climbing, or stalking his prey, 
are more fully displayed; and when beheld in the posture of striking, 
or throwing his spear, his attitude leaves nothing to be desired in point 
of manly grace." Of the first tribe Ross met, in 1823, he tells us, " We 
could not help admiring their upright and even elegant gait, which would 
be a pattern to any Bond Street lounger. Their air of independence 
was quite charming (Bonwick p. 100). 

Pathology. 

Marion, who was in Tasmania in the middle of summer, found the 
climate very cold, and as he says (p. 34) : ** We could not understand how 
the natives could live there in their naked state." La Billardiere was also 
astonished that the natives could live in such a climate without clothing ; 
his words are (II. ch. x. p. 34): ** It appeared to us very astonishing, 
that in so high a latitude, where, at a period of the year so little advanced 
as the present, we already experienced the cold at night to be pretty 
severe, these people did not feel the necessity of clothing themselves. 
Even the women were for the most part entirely naked, as well as the 
men." The same writer bears witness to the good general health enjoyed 
by these savages. Thus (II. ch. x. p 47) : "I imagined that these people 
passing most of their nights in the open air, in a climate of which the 
temperature is so variable, must have been subjec5l to violent inflammations 
of the eyes ; yet all of them appeared to have their sight very good 
except one who had a cataracTt," and (ch. xi. p. 77), " We did not see a 
single person who had the least trace of any disease of the skin." If 
the state of a person's teeth may be taken as a standard of health, then 
La Billardiere's evidence is still more emphatic. " We did not see one 
among them [forty-two natives] in whom a single tooth of the upper jaw 



Tin: r:E\v york 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 




if: 

a * 5 

I « i 

C M 5 

8 s i 

sis 



PATHOLOGY. 1 7 

was wanting ; indeed, they had all very good teeth " (ch. x. p. 39). On 
the other hand, he remarks that their mode of life exposed them to wounds. 
** These savages, going completely naked, are liable to wound themselves, 
particularly in the lower extremities, when they pass through the woods. 
We observed one who walked with difficulty, and of whose feet one was 
wrapped up in a piece of skin " (ibid.). Widowson (p. 192), writing after 
the settlement ot the Europeans had taken place, says : ** These people 
are subje<fl to a disease which causes the most loathsome ulcerated sores. 
... It is occasioned by a filthy mode of life. . . . Their having no 
means of procuring vegetables, besides being constantly exposed to the 
weather, together with their offensive habits of living, produce the disease 
above mentioned with its fatal consequences." But this sweeping statement 
must be taken with reservations, for in the chapter on Food it will be seen 
that vegetables and fruits formed a large portion of their sustenance. 
Robert Clark, in a letter to Bonwick (p. 84), said, " ' I have gleaned from 
some of the aborigines, now in their graves, that they were more numerous than 
the white people are aware of, but their numbers were very much thinned 
by a sudden attack of disease, which was general among the entire pop- 
ulation previous to the arrival of the English, entire tribes of the natives 
having been swept off in the course of one or two days* illness.'. . . *The 
Rev. Mr. Horton, in 1823, refers to scorbutic diseases, and remarks, * It 
is, perhaps, occasioned by their extreme distress, and exposure to the 
weather. I observed that the fronts of their legs, which, in the manner 
they seat themselves round the fire, are mostly exposed to its heat, were 
most disfigured by this dreadful eruption : * . . . and * in the Gazette of April 
1826, there is an account of the trial of two natives for murder, in which 
it is affirmed that one, the elder, was so covered with leprosy, as to be 
kept apart from all in the court. A sort of catarrh now and then spread 
among the people, as in 1827. Most of those who died in captivity were 
affe<fted by consumption : the lungs were ever the weak part of their frame.* *' 
{ibid pp. 87-8). In the Hobart Town Gazette, 1826, a party of aborigines 
is specially referred to as being free from cutaneous eruption {ibid, p. 87.) 
Backhouse, who visited these people as early as 1832, mentions (p. 105) 
that the inhabitants on the west coast had scars which '* appeared to have 
proceeded from irregular surgical cuts, and were principally upon the chest, 
which is very likely to be affecSled by inflammation, that often speedily 
issues in death. A large proportion of these people died from this cause, 
in the course of the late inclement season.'* Da vies also refers (p. 417) 
to the prevalence of disease of the lungs : ** Pulmonary complaints appear 
to be by far the most prevalent, particularly rapid inflammation of the 
lungs. Rheumatism is said to be common amongst them, as is likewise 
face-ache.* They all suffer more or less from scabby sores. In the children 
these are dreadful, and disgusting in the extreme; with them all parts 
of the body are affe(5led : with the adults the sores are more confined 
to the head : these are doubtless caused by their coarse living, aided by 
their dirty habits.'* In contrast to their habits as mentioned above by 
Marion and La Billardi^re, he says (p. 415): **The aborigines . . . cannot 

• Rheuniatism is common amongst Europeans in Tasmania. The changes of temperature are 

very sudden. 

o 



l8 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

. . . bear constant exposure to bad weather; when such sets in, they will 
cower round their fires, under the lee of their break-winds, . . . until a 
change takes place." Calder, who has gone more fully into the particulars 
of their illnesses, writes as follows (J. A. I. pp. 14, 15) : ** Their rapid declen- 
sion after the colony was founded is traceable, as far as our proofs allow 
us to judge, to the prevalence of epidemic disorders. . . . The naked 
savage soon discovered the comforts of clothing, and such things as blan- 
kets and clothing were often given them by the settlers ; . . . but ... he 
often kept his prize no longer than it suited the idle habits of the wanderer 
to carry it. Hence he was wrapped up like a mummy one week, and 
was as naked as a new-born infant the next. The climate of Tasmania is 
a variable one, . . . there are very rapid changes of temperature, from 
moderate heat to coolness. . . . Now any person, whether savage or civ- 
ilized, who wraps up at one time, and goes perfecflly naked at another, 
exposed to any frequent changes of temperature, ... is assuredly laying 
the foundation of fatal consumptive complaints, from which (such was 
the peculiar constitution of the Tasmanian savage) almost immediate death 
was certain, and whenever he took cold it seems to have settled on his 
lungs from the first. . . . Robinson says * they are universally susceptible 
of cold, and unless the utmost providence is taken to check its progress 
at an early period, it fixes itself on the lungs, and gradually assumes 
the complaint spoken of, i.e, the Catarrhal Fever (Report, May 24, 1831)." 
Again he says :. *' The number of aboriginals along the Western Coast has 
been considerably reduced since the time of my first visit [1830] ; a 
mortality has raged amongst them, which, , . . with other causes, has 
rendered their numbers very inconsiderable (July 29, 1832)." 

Abnormalities. 

Under this heading we can only give some information colledled by 
La Billardiere. In Vol. ii. ch. x. p. 49, he remarks : ** In one of them 
[young women] it was observed that the right breast acquired its full 
size, while the left was still perfedlly flat." In ch. xi. p. 76, he says : 
** We observed some [natives] in whom one of the middle teeth of the 
upper jaw was wanting, and others in whom both were gone," and in 
the same chapter (p. 76), ** In many the navel appeared puffed up, and 
very prominent, but we assured ourselves, that this deformity was not 
occasioned by a hernia. Perhaps it is owing to the too great distance 
at which the umbilical cord is separated from the abdomen." 

Physical Powers. 

■ 

P6ron seems to have taken considerable trouble to ascertain the true 
state of the physical powers of the aborigines, and collecfted, so far as 
he could, all the details which would in any way tend to throw light on 
this subjecft. He records (pp. 235-236) that on one occasion Maurouard, 
one of the midshipmen, on Bruny Island " had proposed to one amongst 
them, who seemed the most robust, to wrestle with him ; and that the 
V. D. Lander had accepted the challenge ; was several times thrown by 
the French middy, and forced to acknowledge his inferiority." On another 
occasion, also on Bruny Island, he relates (p. 256) : ** It was not long 



PHYSICAL POWERS. I9 

before we encountered two women, who, from the top of a neighbouring 
hill, were dire(5\ing their steps towards the sea-shore. . . . My companions 
started to pursue them, but had hardly gone 200 paces when the women, 
^vhom they thought easily to overtake, were already out of sight : this 
I had predicfled beforehand, having had several opportunities of convincing 
myself that the inhabitants of these shores were in general much swifter 
in running than we were." In describing an interview with fourteen 
male aborigines, P6ron says (pp. 285-286) : ** Wishing at any cost to 
repeat certain observations which I had already begun in the Channel 
[d'Entrecasteaux] on the development of the physical powers of the people 
of these regions, I had Regnier's dynamometer brought ^rom the boat, 
where I had till then left it. I hoped that the form and use of the 
instrument might perhaps fix the attention of the savages whom I wished 
to submit to its test. I was not mistaken. They admired the instrument ; 
all 'wished to touch it at the same time, and I had great trouble in 
preventing its being broken. After giving them an idea of the objecit in 
view by a series of attempts ourselves, we began to make the^n a(5l them- 
selves on the instrument : seven individuals had already submitted, when 
one of them, who had previously tried, and had been unable to make 
the needle of the dynamometer go as far as I could, appeared indignant 
at this impotence, and, as if to give the instrument the lie diredl, he 
seized my wrist angrily, and seemed to defy me to disengage myself. 
I succeeded, however, after a few efforts, and having in turn seized him 
with all my strength, he was unable, in spite of all his endeavours, to 
free himself, which seemed to cover him with confusion and fill him with 
anger." Later on he continues (p. 449) : ** Nevertheless, all my [dyna- 
mometrical] observations having been made on the best constituted 
individuals of the nation, and the results being very decided and, above 
all, certain, one can, without fear of mistake, apply these results to the 
generality of the people of this race : they indicate a want of vigour 
truly remarkable : in fa(5l, although my experiments had been repeated on 
the most vigorous class of the population — those from eighteen to forty 
years of age — not a single V. D. Lander was able to press the needle 
beyond the 6oth degree, and the mean of the twelve observations which 
I was able to make was only 50*6 kilogrammes. . . . The opposing 
strength of man to man confirms these a priori returns of the instrument. 
Our sailors always won when they wrestled with the savages, and the 
latter were not luckier with one of our officers, Maurouard ; the one 
amongst them that seemed to us the most robust . . . wished to provoke 
him to wrestle ; the officer threw him easily, several times running, and 
my own experience had like results." Poron's similar experiments carried 
out among other people gave the following results for their manual force 
expressed in kilogrammes (p. 456) : — v^ 

Van Diemen*s Landers ... ... ... ... 50-6 

New Hollanders (Australians) 51-8 

Natives of Timor ... ... ... ... ... 58*7 

Frenchman ... ... ... ... ... ... 69*2 

Englishman ... ... ... ... ... ... 71*4 

** The ages given in the table, on p. 20, are only approximately corre(fl, 
the numerical system of the people of Van Diemen's Land and New 



20 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Holland not extending beyond three,* and the individuals here concerned 
had not any idea of their age " (p. 476). 

Contrary to Peron, La Billardi^re states (II. ch. x. p. 49) that the 
European could run better than the natives, but the circumstances of the 
race which we give tend to show that this was not a fair test : ** Four 
young girls, also, were of the party . . . They ran races several times on 
the shore . . . and some of us endeavoured to catch them ; when we had 
the pleasure to see, that Europeans could frequently run better than these 
savages." West (p. 36) says : ** They were swift of foot ; when they 
possessed dogs,t they ran nearly abreast of them . . . and were generally 

Power of Hands of Van DUmcn's Landers taken with Regnier's dynamometer. 



No. of 
Trial. 


Age. 


Name. 


Strength In 
Kilogrammes. 


Remarks. 

• 


I 


i8— 20 




410 


Of a fairly strong constitution 
for the country. 


2 


20 — 22 


•~— 


400 


Extremities thin and weak ; 
stomach big. 


3 


22 — 24 


-^ 


600 


Trunk fairly strong; limbs 
weak. 


4 


24—25 


— 


500 


Habit of body thin and miser- 
able: stomach distended. 


5 


25—27 


Ouriaga 


570 


Fairly well made; shoulders 
large and strong. 


6 


28-30 


Bara-Ourou 


543 


One of the finest constituted 
individuals of the nation. 


7 


30—32 




517 


Feeble constitution ; legs very 
weak. 


8 


32—34 


— 


46-2 


Cruel face ; very strong baard ; 
much hair on his back. 


9 


34-36 




550 


Savage physiognomy; habit of 
body sluggish. 


10 


34—36 


^"~ 


490 


Back not very muscular; weak 
limbs; stomach inflat^. 


II 


35-38 


— ■ 


590 


Savage face ; thick black beard ; 
much hair on body. 


12 


38-40 




440 
Mean 50 6 


Legs and arms very weak. 



in at the death." La Billardiere also gives an account (II. ch. x. pp. 
41-42), showing that the aborigines were not capable of continued exertion: 
" At length we parted with our new guides, whose pace was sufficiently 
slow for us to follow them with ease. It seemed as if they were not 
accustomed to take a long walk without interruption ; for we had scarcely 
been half an hour on our way, before they invited us to sit down, saying 
mediy and we immediately stopped. This halt lasted but a few minutes 
when they rose, saying to us tangara, which signifies, * let us set off.* 
On this we resumed our journey ; and they made us halt again, in the 
same manner, four times at nearly equal distances." This weakness is 
corroborated by Davies (p. 415): ** The aborigines are capable of great 



• See Chapter on Arithmetic. 

t The aborigines possessed no dogs until after the arrival of the Europeans. 

dingo was absent from Tasmania. 



Even the 



PHYSICAL POWERS. SENSES. 21 

but not of lasting exertion. They cannot stand continued fatigue equal 
to a hearty European." G. W. Walker ascribes their susceptibility to 
fatigue to the facfl that in their native state they confined their excursions 
to tradls not more than twenty or thirty miles in extent, and then moved 
about without extraordinary expedition (MS. Jour). They travelled, how- 
ever, on occasions with marvellous rapidity, for according to Laplace (III. 
ch. xviii. p. 197) often, several farms [of the settlers] , though far-separated 
from each other, are pillaged in one night by the same enemies [the 
aborigines]." Rossel states (II. ch. x. p. 44): "These savages . . . and 
we walked together along the beach. . . . Some trees, that lay on the 
ground, . . . gave them an opportunity of displaying their agility to us 
by leaping over them. But I believe . . . they would have found them- 
selves excelled by a European tolerably expert at this exercise." 

Senses. 

Melville remarks (p. 348) : " They were naturally very keen-sighted, 
. . . and their sense of hearing and smelling remarkably acute, and 
all the writers who have touched on this subject confirm this fa(5l." 
Captain Bligh (ch. iv. p. 51) says they ** had a very quick sight." 
According to Davies (p. 413), ** their senses of hearing and seeing are 
particularly acute, and a glance will suffice to tell them when there is 
an opossum in the tree." In the Report of a Parliamentary Committee 
(Evidence, Col. and Slav.), O'Connor states (p. 54) they are remarkably 
keen -sighted, and Hobbs (p. 50) that they smell tobacco smoke at a great 
distance. Backhouse (pp. 103, 104) gives the following account of their 
keenness of vision : ** I observed a woman looking carefully about among 
the grass, and inquired what she was seeking. Her companions replied, 
to my surprise, * A needle.* ... A. Cottrell, who sat by, said, * You 
will see she will find it : you have no idea how keen-sighted and 
persevering they are ; * and after some time, she picked up her needle, 
which was one of English manufacture, and not of large size ! " This 
great acuteness of vision led to their possession of great powers of 
tracking, of which Widowson (ch. xxi. p. 189) speaks thus : ** If they 
[the natives] take to cattle, they are, beyond anything, quick in tracing 
and finding those lost. So acute is their power of discrimination, that 
they have been known to trace the footsteps of bushrangers over 
mountains and rocks, and although the individual they have been in 
pursuit of has walked into the sides of a river as if to cross it, to 
elude the vigilance of his pursuers, and has swam some distance down 
and crossed when convenient, yet nothing can deceive them. Indeed, 
so remarkable is their discernment, that if but the slightest piece of 
moss on a rock has been disturbed by footsteps, they will instantly 
detecft it." According to Calder (Wars, ch. ii. p. 61) Robinson, in 
hunting fugitive tribes, was much assisted in tracking them by friendly 
natives. ** When he [Robinson] came on their footmarks at last, his 
people — such was their acute knowledge of these faint imprints on the 
grass, which a European Would not discern at all, that they at once 
pronounced them to be those of the Big River and Oyster Bay tribes 
united. * A female,' says he, * assured me they were the Big River 



22 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

and Oyster Bay tribes. She knew them by their footmarks.' " Calder 
also says (ibid.) : ** We learn from . . . Jorgen Jorgensen, that they 
possessed a faculty for discovering water in situations where no European 
would thing of looking for it, and that these strange places were their 
favourite camping grounds." 

Reproduction. 

Brough Smyth makes the following statement (II. p. 387) : " The 
women were seldom accompanied by many children ; but there is no 
reason to suppose that they were less prolific than people of other races." 
With the latter part of his statement we have no cause to differ in so feu: 
far, of course, as it relates to the aborigines before contadl with civilization ; 
but the first part of the statement is quite opposed to the very complete 
and reliable evidence of the early French voyagers. On the other hand 
it does not follow because the children are not always mentioned, that 
there were none. In the three interviews narrated below it will be 
seen children predominated over the adults. P6ron states (ch. xii. pp. 
225-226), "As soon as they [a family of aborigines] saw us, they . 
. . . doubled their pace in order to rejoin us. Their number was 
increased by a young girl of from sixteen to seventeen years of age, 
by another little boy of from four to five years, and by a little girl of 
three to four years. This family was composed therefore of nine people, 
the elders being apparently the father and mgther: the young man and his 
wife appeared to us to be at the same time * epoux et frere ' ; we 
considered the young girl to be the sister of the latter ; the four children 
must have been those of the young man and the young woman." La 
Billardiore (II. ch. x. p. 37) encountered a party of forty-two savageF, 
** seven of whom were men, eight women, the rest appeared to be their 
children ; and among these we observed several marriageable -girls," and 
further on {ibid, p. 54) he says : ** We had scarcely gone a mile before 
we found ourselves in the midst of eight-and-forty natives ; ten men, 
fourteen women, and twenty-four children, among whom we observed as 
many girls as boys." Bonwick states (p. 85), ** Apart from the long 
suckling, for three or even four years, the period during which their 
powers of reproduction existed was much shorter than with Europeans. 
Very few of them had children after thirty-five years of age, and the 
majority perhaps, were barren before thirty." 



CHAPTER III.— Psychology. ^ 

ANDERSON, the . first man who described these people, was not 
favourably impressed with their intelledlual powers, and he records 
his opinion as follows (Cook's Third Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi. p. 45) : ** With 
respedl to personal acflivity or genius we can say but little of either. 
They do not seem to possess, the first in any remarkable degree, and 
for the last, they have, to appearance, less than even the inhabitants of 
Terra del Fuego, who, though furnished with the materials, have not 

invention sufficient to make clothing for themselves Their 

expressing no surprise at seeing men so unlike themselves, their indifference 
to our presents, and their general inattention, were sufficient proofs of 
their not possessing any acuteness of understanding." He continues : 
** The inhabitants had little of that fierce or wild appearance common 
to people in their situation ; but seemed mild and cheerful, without 
reserve or jealousy of strangers." But some of the settlers looked upon 
them as little better than wild animals. Thus Lloyd (ch. iv. p. 43) 
says : " Their moral and intelle<5lual energies were of the most inferior 
order." Prinsep says much the same (p. 79) : ** They are undoubtedly 
in the lowest possible scale of human nature, both in form and intellect:," 
and Wentworth is equally emphatic (p. 11 5) in a like opinion: "The 
aborigines of this country are, if possible, still more barbarous and 
uncivilized than those of New Holland." 

Dumoutier, who had, however, little opportunity for observation, says 
of them (ch. xii. p. 217) : ** The Tasmanians, among whom the human 
form is most degraded, must be placed nearly at the bottom step of 
the ladder in the human race. One can say that there is not a trace 
of any civilization. Thev are groups of savage men, living almost like 
animals, unless contacfl with Europeans has exerted any influence upon 
them;" while Jeffreys (pp. 118 and 126) only allows that they were less 
barbarous than the natives of New Holland. Breton, on the other hand, 
thinks the latter superior (pp. 348-349) : " They are very different to the 
New Hollanders, and, if possible, even more barbarous, approaching 
nearer to the * mere animal ' than the former. . . . From whatever 
part of the world they may have come, these people must have deteriorated, 
as a nation so utterly savage can scarcely be found elsewhere." '* Rev. 
Mr. Horton says : * What I have seen and heard of the original 
inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land convinces me that they are in every 
resp6(fl the most destitute and wretched portion of the human family. 
Indeed, the shape of their bodies is almost the only mark by which one 
can recognise them as fellow- men ; and were it not for the . force of other 
evidence besides that which their condition and habits present to the 



24 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

mind of the beholder, I should, without hesitancy, affirm that they are 
a race of beings altogether distincfl from ourselves, and class them amongst 
the inferior species of irrational animals.*" (Bonwick, p. loo). Dixon 
says (p. 22) : " They were sunk in the grossest barbarism, and apparently 
had not made one move in the progress of civilization ; " but he immedi- 
ately afterwards qualifies his opinion by stating on the following page : 
** They have been designated as the lowest order of human beings, 
removed but one shade from brutality ; but I think unjustly, . . . 
their routine of life was so simple, and required so little ingenuity to 
maintain it, that their exhibiting any intellecftual vivacity at all argued 
the possession of a considerable amount of latent capacity." In like 
manner Calder, Dove, and Ross (?) state that the aboriginal native was 
much maligned, and that he was by no means the low animal he was 
said to be. Calder 's words are (J. A. I. p. 19) : "It has been customary 
to rank the Tasmanian savages with the most degraded of the human 
family, and as possessed of inferior intelligence only. But fa(fts quite 
disprove this idea, and show that they were naturally very intellecflual,* 
highly susceptible of culture, and, above all, most desirous of receiving 
instrudlion, which is fatal to the dogma of their incapacity for civilization. 
. . . His ingenuity was seldom brought into exercise. His faculties 
were dormant from the mere bounty of providence. His wants were few, 
. . . and the country supplied them all in lavish abundance." Calder, 
however, appears to be somewhat partial, for Tasmania is by no means 
what can be designated a fertile country where nature is lavish in 
abundance, and his opinion expressed elsewhere (Wars, pp. 54-55) is 
perhaps more to the point : '* An idea prevailed which has not yet died 
out, that they stood almost on a level with the brutes of the forest. . 
. . This was not the case, for they ^vere naturally an intelledlual race, 
with faculties susceptible of very easy culture, as they showed when in 
their wild state, by the clever manner in which (after a brief association 
with, firstly, the half-civilized Musquito,t and, secondly, with some other 
domesticated blacks) they planned all their operations against the settlers, 
in which they seldom failed of success ; and by the facility with which, 
when in captivity, and under good guidance, they received instruction, 
and accommodated themselves to European habits." Dove, who had charge 
of them at the settlement, and therefore ample opportunity for observation, 
remarks (I. p. 249) : ** The aborigines of Tasmania have been usually 
regarded as exhibiting the human charadler in the lowest state of degra- 
dation. . . . If we look, however, to the methods they devised of procuring 
shelter and subsistence in their native wilds ; to the skill and precision 
with which they tracked the mazes of the bush ; and to the force of 
invention and of memory which is displayed in the copious vocabulary 
of their several languages, they claim no inconsiderable share of mental 
power and atflivity." Finally an anonymous writer (Hemy Melville) in 
the V. D. Land Annual for 1834 (pp. 77-78) says : ** Although low in 

* To talk of the Aborigines being intellectual is absurd. They appear to have been 
imitative, with a desire for instrudtion and with a susceptibility for adopting the 
outward appearance of civilisation, but they cannot be corre<5lly described as 
intelle<^ual. 

t A ruffian, ju<wt-civilized aboriginal of New South Wales. 



TTE NEW YORK 

F'JDIIC LIBRARY. 



ASTOR. LENOX AND 
TILDELN FOUNDATIONS. 



s * * 

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PSYCHOLOGY. 25 

the scale of human beings, sufficient had been presented by the occasional 
intercourse between themselves and the Europeans to arrive at the con- 
clusion that the nature of their intelledtual powers was by no means 
questionable. They have frequently shown themselves endowed with great 
quickness of perception, or an acuteness in the senses, not unusually 
bestowed by Providence ... to supply other deficiencies." Elsewhere 
(p. 348) he confirms this view. West's opinion of them, probably founded 
on that of Backhouse and Walker, was (II. p. 88), ** their intelledlual 
chara(5ler is low; yet not so inferior as often described. They appeared 
stupid, when addressed on subjecfls which had no relation to their mode 
of life ; but they were quick and cunning within their own sphere. Their 
locomotion sharpened their powers of observation, without much increasing 
their ideas." Backhouse's opinion was very similar (pp. 173-174), "After 
having seen something ot the natives of V. D. Land, the convi(5\ion was 
forced upon my mind, that they exceeded Europeans in skill, in those 
things to which their attention had been dire(5led from childhood." W'hile 
Walker reports : " We are perpetually reminded that in their taste for 
amusements, and, in some respedts in their capacities, they are children. 
But in many things that occur within the range of their knowledge and 
acquirements, they shew a quickness of perception and powers of refle<5lion, 
that prove them to be far from deficient in intelle(5l" (p. 105). In after 
years, Bon wick (p. 4) writes: "When I saw the aboriginal boys and 
girls in the Orphan School, near Hobart Town, I enquired of their 
teacher in what respedl they differed from the children of the convic5\s 
among whom they were thrown. All of the white race were very inferior 
in point of physique and intellect to others of their age and colour, of 
different parentage. They were, however, superior to the dark children 
in facility of learning arithmetic and grammar, though not so in geography, 
history and writing. Two of the coloured lads readily and cheerfully 
answerec) my questions in geography, and indicated places on the map 
with great correc5\ness." Walker speaks of an aboriginal boy at the Orphan 
School, at Hobart, " who writes a very fair hand for any lad of his age. 
The master informs me that with some exceptions these aboriginal 
children are not inferior in capacity to European children (MS. Jour. 
28th May, 1834)." 

We are, however, indebted to two eminent Frenchmen for the fullest 
details which throw light on the intelligence or of the want of it in these 
natives. La Billardiere and Peron who visited the island within twelve years 
of each other (1792 and 1803 respe(5lively) have left such minute records 
of their intercourse with the aborigines of Tasmania before the days of 
settlement that we cannot do better than reproduce their accounts as fully 
as space permits of. Commencing with La Billardiere, the first explorer, 
we find his companions had some difficulty in opening communication, as 
on their approach the natives fled away with precipitation (I. ch. v. pp. 
i8i-2ii). At last, "Two of the officers of our vessel . . . determined 
to land. . . . They found four savages employed in laying fuel upon 
three small fires. . . . The savages immediately fled, notwithstanding all 
the signs of amity which they made them. . . . One of these savages 
. . . having left behind him a small basket ... was bold enough to 
come quite near to Cretin [one of the officers] in order to fetch it, with 

K 



26 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

a look ot assurance with which his bodily strength * seemed to inspire 
him" (I. ch. V. pp. 221-222). Then when a boat landed, "the natives, 
who, notwithstanding all the signs of amity they made them, would not 
let them come within two hundred paces distance of him " (ibid. ch. v. 
p. 223). Similar results were recorded the following day (ch. v. p. 225). 
Finally we are told (ch. v. pp. 233-234), ** One of the officers . . . met 
six of them [natives] walking slowly towards the south. . . . Their 
surprise at so unexpected an encounter was visible in their countenances ; 
but their numbers inspiring them with courage, they approached at the 
invitation of the European, and bound round their heads a handkerchief 
and neck-cloth which he offered them. They, however, appeared terrified 
at the sight of his hanger, which he showed them how to use ; nor 
were their fears quieted till he made them a present of it. He en- 
deavoured in vain to persuade them to come to the place where our ships 
lay at anchor; the savages walked away ... in a direction . . . 
opposite to that which led to the shore. Some of our men, having landed 
on the other side of the strait, came to a large fire round which eight 
savages . . . sat warming themselves . . . They immediately ran away as 
soon as they saw our people. On old woman, who had the care of 
their provisions, which she did not choose to leave behind her, was 
soon overtaken by some of the sailors. She accepted with an air of 
satisfacflion a handkerchief which was given her, but was so terrified at 
the sight of a hanger, which they presented to her, that she leaped 
down a precipice more than forty [sic] feet in height, and ran away 
amongst the rocks, where they soon lost sight of her.'* After this "they 
discovered a number of the savages landing from a raft. As timid as 
those we had seen before, they had hastened with all possible speed to 
the land, where they made their escape into the woods*' (ch. v. p. 230). 
It was, however, not until their second visit that the Frenchmen 
succeeded in obtaining intervie^ys with the natives. La Billardiere then 
relates (II. ch. x. pp. 32 — 66), "We advanced a few steps when a 
sudden cry, arising from several voices united, issued from one spot, 
and we perceived through the trees a number of natives, most of whom 
appeared to be fishing on the borders of the lake. . . . We had 
gone only a few steps before we met them. The men and youths were 
ranged in front, nearly in a semicircle ; the women, girls and children 
were a few paces behind. As their manner did not appear to indicate 
any hostile design, I hesitated not to go up to the oldest, who accepted^ 
with a very good grace, a piece of biscuit I offered him, of which he 
liad seen me eat. I then held out my hand to him as a sign of 
friendship, and had the pleasure to perceive, that he comprehended my 
meaning very well ; he gave me his, inclining himself a little. These 
motions were accompanied by a pleasing smile. My companions also 
advanced up to the others, immediately the best understanding prevailed 
among us. They received with great joy the neck-cloths which we 
offered them : the young people approached nearer us ; and one of them 
had the generosity to give me a few shells of the whelk kind, pierced 
near the middle and strung like a necklace. . . . This ornament was 
the only one he possessed. ... A handkerchief supplied the place 
of this present, gratifying the utmost wislies of my savage, who advanced 



PSYCHOLOGY. 27 

towards me, that I might tie it round his head for him, and who 
expressed the greatest joy, as he lifted his hand up to feel it again and 
again. . . The women were very desirous of coming nearer to us ; 

and though the men made signs to them, to keep at a distance, their 
curiosity was ready every moment to break through all other consider- 
ations. The gradual increase of confidence, however, that took place, 
obtained for them permission to approach. ... A pole-axe which 
we used for cutting off some branches from the trees excited the 
admiration of these people. As they perceived us willing to give them 
anything in our possession, they did not scruple to beg it ; and when we 
granted their request, they were overcome with joy. They were fully sen- 
sible also of the value of our knives, and received a few tin vessels with 
pleasure. When I showed them my watch, it attradled their desire, 
and one of them, in particular, expressed his wish to possess it ; but 
he quickly desisted from his request, when he found I was not willing 
to part with it. The readiness with which we gave them our things 
led them, no doubt, to presume that they might take anything belonging 
to us, without asking for it : this obliged us to set bounds to their 
desires ; but we found that they returned to us, without the least 
resistance, such things as we could not dispense with for our own use. 
. . . I wished to get a kangaroo skin ; among the savages about us 
there happened to be only a young girl who had one. When I 
proposed to her, to give it me in exchange for a pair of pantaloons, 
she ran away to hide herself in the woods. The other natives appeared 
truly hurt at her refusal, and called to her several times. At length 
she yielded to their entreaties, and came to bring me the skin. . . . 
She received a pair of pantaloons. . . . We showed her the manner 
of wearing them ; but notwithstanding, it was necessary for us to put 
them on for her ourselves. To this she yielded with the best grace 
in the world, resting both her hands on our shoulders, to support 
herself, while she lifted up first one leg, then the other, to put them 
into this new garment. . . . We invited them all to come and sit 
near our fire, and when they arrived there, one of the savages informed 
us by unequivocal signs, that he had come to reconnoitre us during the 
night. That we might understand he had seen us asleep, he inclined 
his head on one side, laying it on the palm of his right hand, and 
closing his eyes, and with the other, he pointed out the spot where we 
had passed the night. He then acquainted us, by signs equally 
expressive, that he was at the time on the other side of the brook, 
whence he observed us. . . . We were desirous of showing these 
savages the effecl: of our firearms. . . . They appeared to be a little 
frightened at their report.*' 

He continues, " I had not perceived the young girl for some time, 
but happening to look behind me, 1 saw, with surprise, seven [women j 
who had perched themselves on a stout limb of a tree, whence they 
attentively watched our slightest movements. As they all squatted on the 
bough they formed a pleasing group." Some of the savages accompanied 
La Billardiere to the coast, and he says : ** They no doubt conceived it 
to be our intention to return to Port D'Entrecasteaux, for we were twice 
mistaken in che path, and they both times pointed out to us that which 



28 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

led direclly to it. . . . We hoped to be able to prevail on some of them 
to go on board with us ; but they were already leaving us to rejoin their 
families. At our invitation, however, they deferred their departure. As 
soon as the boat came, we invited some oi them to go on board. After 
taking a long while to decide about it, three of them consented to get into 
the boat ; but they got out again in great haste as we prepared to push 
off from the shore. We then saw them walk quietly along by the sea, 
looking towards us from time to time, and uttering cries of joy. The 
next day we returned in a large party. Some of tlie natives soon came 
to meet us, expressing by their cries the pleasure they felt at seeing us 
again. A lively joy was depicted on all their features when they saw 
us drawing near. The pains taken by one of the mothers to quiet her 
infant, yet at the breast, who cried at sight of us, appeared to us very 
engaging. She could not pacify him till she covered his eyes with her 
hand, that he might not see us. None of these people appeared with 
arms, but probably they had left them in the wood near ; for several of 
us having expressed an intention of going into it, one of the savages 
urgently entreated them not to go that way. Part of the crew, however, 
walked a little way along the shore that they might enter the wood 
unobserved by him ; but no sooner did one of the women perceive their 
design, than she uttered horrible cries, to give notice to the other savages, 
who entreated them to return towards the sea. Their confidence in us 
was so great, that one of the women, who was suckling a child, was 
not afraid to entrust it to several of us. When we departed for Port 
D'Entrecasteaux, more than half these peaceful natives rose to accompany 
us. Four young girls were also of the party, but they received with 
indifference the garments we gave them, and immediately hung them on 
the bushes near the path, intending, no doubt, to take them with them 
on their return. As a proof they did not set much value on such presents, 
we did not see on any of them a single garment which we had given 
them the day before. All of them were of very cheerful disposition. No 
doubt we lost much by not understanding the language of these natives, 
for one of the girls said a great deal to us ; she talked a long while 
with extraordinary volubility, though she must have perceived that we 
could not comprehend her meaning ; no matter, she must talk. One of 
the young girls having perceived a head at a distance, which the gunner 
of the * Esp6rance * had carved on the stump of a tree, appeared at first 
extremely surprised, and stopped short for a moment. She then went up 
to it with us, and after having considered it attentively, named to us the 
different parts, pointing them out at the same time with her hand. . . 
'* The next day a great number of us landed near Port D'Entrecasteaux 
to endeavour to see the savages again. It was not long before some of 
them came to meet us, giving us tokens of the greatest confidence. They 
first examined, with great attention, the insides of our boats, and then 
they took us by the arm, and invited us to follow them along the shore. 
W^e had scarcely gone a mile before we found ourselves in the midst of 
eight-and-forty of the natives. The little children were very desirous of every- 
thing shiny, and were not afraid to come up to us, to endeavour to pull 
off our buttons. Their mothers, less curious with respedl to their own 
dress than that of their children, held them up to us, that we might 



PSYCHOLOGY. 29 

decorate them with the ornaments which we had intended for themselves. 
I ought not to omit a waggish trick which a young savage played one 
of our people. The sailor had laid down a bag of shell fish at the foot 
of a rock : the youth slily removed it to another place ; and let him search 
a long while for it in vain ; at length he replaced it where the sailor 
had placed it, and was highly diverted at the trick he had played him. 
This numerous party was transported with admiration, when they saw the 
effe(5ls of gunpowder thrown on the burning coals. They all entreated 
us to let them have the pleasure of seeing it several times. Not being 
able to persuade themselves that we had none but men among us, they 
long believed, notwithstanding all we could say, that the youngest of us were 
w^omen. Their curiosity on this head carried them further than we should 
have expecfled, for they were not to be convinced till they had assured them- 
selves of the fact. When we re-embarked these good people followed us 
with their eyes for some time, before they left the shore, and then they 
disappeared in the wood. Their way brought them at times to the shore 
again, of which we were immediately informed by the cpes of joy with 
which they made the air resound. These testimonies of pleasure did not 
cease till we lost sight of them. . . . We saw with pleasure, that the 
savages, who, at our last interview [the day before] had promised to 
come near our anchoring place within two days, had kept their word. 
We perceived a fire not far from our watering place. A great number 
of us repaired immediately to the place of rendezvous. They soon quitted 
their fire in order to come still nearer to us. We went to meet them ; 
and when we were near them, they stopped, appearing well pleased at 
seeing us come ashore. Being invited by some of our crew to dance in 
a ring with them (they) imitated all their movements tolerably well. We 
made them presents of a great number of things, which they let us 
hang round their necks with strings, and soon they were almost covered 
with them, apparently to their great satisfaction ; but they gave us nothing, 
for they had brought nothing with them. A native, to whom we had 
just given a hatchet, displayed great dexterity at striking several times 
following in the same place, thus attempting to imitate one of our sailors 
who had cut down a tree. We showed him that he must strike in 
different places, so as to cut a notch, which he did immediately, and was 
transported with joy when the tree was felled by his strokes. They 
were astonished at the quickness with which we sawed the trunk in two ; 
and we made them a present of some hand- saws, which they used with 
great readiness, as soon as we had shown them the way. These savages 
were much surprised at seeing us kindle the spongy bark of the Eucalyptus 
resinifera in the focus of a burning-glass. He, who appeared the most 
intelligent among them, was desirous of trying the effects himself, threw 
the converging rays of the sun upon his thigh by its means ; but the 
pain he felt took from him all inclination to repeat the experiment. We 
let one of the natives see our ships through a good perspective glass, 
and he soon yielded to our solicitations to go on board the * Recherche.' 
He went up the side with a confident air, and examined the inside 
of the ship with much attention. His looks were then directed chiefly 
to such objects as might serve for food. Led by the similitude in shape 
between two black swans on Cape Diemen and the Geese of Guinea, 



30 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

which he saw on board, he asked for one, giving us to understand it 
was to eat. When he came opposite our hen-coops, he appeared struck 
with the beauty of a very large cock, which was presented to him ; and 
on receiving it, he let us know^ that he would lose no time in broiling 
and eating it. After having remained on board more than half-an-hour, 
and been loaded with presents, he desired to return, and was immediately 
carried ashore. We had taken an ape on shore with us, which afforded 
much amusement to the savages ; and one of the crew took a goat with 
him, which formed a subject of conversation for them for a long time,- 
and to which they occasionally spoke, saying, tnedi (sit down). They 
have given particular names to every vegetable. We assured ourselves, 
that their botanical knowledge w^as unequivocal, by asking several of them, 
at different times, the names of the same plants. The rest, before they 
went away, gave us to understand, that the next day their families would 
be at the place where we were ; but they appeared to apprehend our 
meaning when we acquainted them that we should sail the same day, 
and seemed to be much grieved at it." 

At other meetings {tbid. ch. xi. pp. 72-75) ** from time to time, they 
answered with shouts of joy to the shouts of our sailors. . . . Wlien we 
were but a little way from the beach, they advanced towards us with- 
out arms, their smiling countenances leaving us no room to doubt that 
our visit gave them pleasure. Their joy was expressed by loud bursts 
of laughter, while their countenances showed that they were well pleased 
to see us. These savages expressed much thankfulness when we gave 
them a few small pieces of stuffs of different colours, glass beads, a 
hatchet, and some other articles of hardware. Several other savages came 
out of the wood and approached us. An officer imagined that he should 
not frighten them by letting them see the effects of our firearms ; but 
they were alarmed at the report of the gun, immediately rose, and would 
not sit down again. . . . We expressed our wishes to see them [the 
wives and children] join us ; the savages informed us that we should 
find them, after walking some time across the wood, in a path which 
they immediately took, inviting us to follow them. This we did ; but it 
was not long before they expressed their desire to see us return towards 
our ships, and parted from us, frequently looking back to watch our 
motions. On my pronouncing the word qnangloa, however, which signifies, 
jijtll you come, they stopped, and I went up to them, with an officer of 
the * Recherche.* They continued to lead us along the same path. In 
this way we walked on for a quarter of an hour, holding them by the 
arm, when on a sudden they quickened their pace, so that it was not 
easy for us to follow them farther. It appeared to us that they wished 
we should leave them, for some of them would not allow us to hold them 
by the arm any longer, and walked by themselves, at some distance 
from us. One of our crew, desirous of rejoining one of tlie fugitives, 
ran after liim, bawling ; this alarmed all the rest, who immediately 
hastened away and kept at a considerable distance from us. No doubt 
they were desirous to reach the place where they had deposited their 
weapons ; for they struck out of the path a little, and presently we saw 
them with three or four spears each, which they carried away. They 
then invited us to follow them, but we were not willing to go any farther." 



PSYCHOLOGY. 3 1 

Peron*s account now follows. " In looking in the dired^ion from which 
cries had proceeded, we perceived two savages, who ran along the shore, 
both making great gestures of surprise and admiration. . . . We answered 
by some shouts, and tried to approach the bank ; but instead of waiting 
for us, they dived into the forest and disappeared. In continuing our 
journey, we arrived at a small creek, at the end of which there was a 
pretty valley. We had hardly set foot ashore before two aborigines 
showed themselves at the top of a hillock. At the signs of friendship 
we made thehi, one ot them threw himself, rather than descended from 
the rock. His physiognomy had nothing wild or harsh about it, his air 
expressed at once goodwill and surprise. That which seemed to strike him 
was the whiteness of our skin : wishing, no doubt, to assure himself that 
this colour was the same on the whole of the body, he opened suc- 
cessively our waistcoats and shirts ; and his astonishment manifested itself 
by great cries of surprise, and, above all, by extremely rapid stampings 
of the foot. Our long boat, however, appeared to occupy him even more 
than our persons; and after having examined us for some moments, he 
jumped into this vessel. There, without in the least troubling himself 
about the presence of the sailors, he appeared as if absorbed in his new 
examination ; the thickness of the ribs and timbers, the solidity of its 
construcf^ion, its rudder, its oars, its masts, its sails; he observed every- 
thing with that silence and deep attention which are the least doubtful 
signs of interest and profound admiration. Just then, one of the oarsmen 
wishing, doubtless, to add to his surprise, gave him a glass bottle full 
of arrack, which formed part of the rations of the crew. The lustre of 
the glass made the savage utter a cry of astonishment, he took the 
bottle and examined it for a few moments; but his curiosity was soon 
brou»;bt back to the boat, he threw the bottle into the sea, and then 
returned to his former examination. Neither the cries of the sailor for 
the loss of his bottle of arrack, nor the haste of one of his comrades 
to jump into the water to save it, appeared to affe(5l him. He attempted 
several times to push out the long boat; but the cable which held it 
fast rendering his efforts useless, he was forced to abandon them, and 
to return to us, after having given us the most striking example we 
had ever seen of attention and reflection among savage peoples. Arrived 
at the top of the hillock, we found the second aborigine ; he was an 
old man, about fifty years of age ; his physiognomy, like that of the 
youn^ man, was open and frank ; and despite some undoubted signs of 
agitation and fear, one could easily distinguish candour and good nature. 
This old man, having examined us both with as much surprise and 
satisfacftion as the first one, and having verified, as he did, the colour 
of our chests by opening our waistcoats and shirts, he made a sign to 
two women, who held off, to approach ; they hesitated for a few moments, 
after which the elder one came to us, followed by the younger more 
timid and troubled one. The former appeared, like the old man, good 
and well disposed. The young woman had an interesting physiognomy. 
Her eyes had expression and something spiritneL [in them] which sur- 
prised us, and which we have never found since in any other woman 



32 . H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

of her nation;* she appeared, moreover, to dearly love her child [a girl], 
and her care for it had that affe<5lionate and sweet charatfter which is 
the particular attribute of maternal tenderness. At this juncture the young 
woman had a surprise. One of our sailors had a pair of fur gloves 
which he took off and put in his pocket on nearing the fire. On seeing 
this the young woman uttered so loud a cry that at first we were 
alarmed ; but we were not slow to understand the cause of this species 
of fright, and by her expressions and gestures we could not doubt but 
that she had taken the gloves for real hands, or for a species of live 
skin, which could be taken off, put in one's pocket, and put on again 
as one pleased*' (ch. xii. pp. 220-224). 

Then, Peron continues, " The young girl made herself more remarked 
every moment by the sweetness of her physiognomy and the equally 
amiable and spirituel expression of her looks ; of a constitution much 
feebler than her brother and sister, she was more lively and passionate 
than they. M. Freycinet, who sat beside her, appeared to be more 
especially the obje(5l of her enticing ways, and the least experienced eye 
could have distinguished in the looks of this innocent pupil of nature 
that delicate shade which gives to simple playfulness a more serious and 
deliberate characfter. Even coquetry itself appeared to have been called 
to the aid of natural attractions. Having taken some charcoal in her 
hands, she in a moment made herself black enough to frighten one : 
what seemed most singular to us was the complacency with which this 
young girl appeared to regard us after this op>eratioD, .and the confident 
air which this new ornament had spread over her face. While this was 
going on, the little children were imitating the grimaces and gestures of 
their parents, and nothing was more curious than to see these little 
negroes stamping their feet for joy at hearing our songs; they had 
unconsciously familiarized themselves with us, and towards the end of 
the interview, they made use of our notice as freely as if they had 
known us for a long time. Every little present we gave them filled 
them with pleasure, and redoubled their regard for us; altogether they 
appeared to us lively, frolicsome, and mischievous. Oure-Ouri had a 
rush bag of an elegant and peculiar construction, which I very much 
desired to have, as this young girl also showed me some very amiable 
attentions. I ventured to ask her for her little bag; she immediately, 
without hesitation, put it into my hands, accompanying the gift with an 
obliging smile and some affectionate [sic] phrases, which I regretted to 
be unable to understand. In return, I offered her a handkerchief and a 
tomahawk, the ^ use of which I showed her brother, and which was a 
cause of astonishment and exclamation to the whole family. As night 
was approaching, we prepared to re-join our long boat ; the old mother 
and the young woman with her children, except the biggest, remained 
in the hut ; the others came with us ; the path along which we walked 
bristled with shrubs and briars ; our poor savages, being quite naked, 
seemed to have much to suffer from the scratches they received ; we 
pitied Oure-Oure, but without appearing to perceive the numerous scratches 

• Judging from the extravagant way in which this girl is spoken of later on, it appears 
probable that the susceptible naturaUst was much smitten with her charms. 



mmi^mmmMbA*** 



FIDLX UBRARY. 



AdTOK, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNOATIONi. 



PSYCHOLOGY. 33 

which covered her thighs and stomach, she walked bravely in the middle 
of these thick brakes, chatting to Freycinet, without hope of making 
herself understood, getting angry at not being so, and at not being able 
to understand herself, accompanying her talk with enticing gestures and 
gracious smiles, which coquetry could not have rendered more expressive. 
In approaching our place of landing, we heard several musket shots, 
which caused great fright to our good companions, poor Oure-Ouri, above 
all, was horribly afraid ; her fears soon increased at the aspect of a 
numerous troop of our companions from the * Naturaliste * who came to 
meet us. After telling them of the good reception we had met with at 
the hands of the aborigines, they hastened to load them with various 
presents ; but nothing produced such a good effect as a long red feather 
which Breton gave to the young OurS-Ouri ; she jumped for joy, she 
called her father and brother, she cried, she laughed, in a word she 
seemed intoxicated with pleasure and happiness. At last we boarded 
our two long boats. The good V. D. Landers did not leave us for an 
instant, and when we pushed out, their sorrow showed itself in a most 
touching manner : they made signs for us to come and see them again ; 
and as if to indicate the place to us, they lit a large fire on the little 
hillock of which I have spoken, and it seems they even passed the night 
there, for we saw a fire there until dawn. Thus ended our first inter- 
view with the inhabitants of V. D. Land. All the details I have 
described are given with the most rigorous exactitude. The sweet con- 
fidence which the inhabitants had in us ; the affectionate proof of good 
will which they lavished upon us, the sincerity of their demonstrations, 
the frankness of their manners, and the touching ingenuousness of their 
caresses, all concurred in developing in us feelings of most tender 
interest" {ibid. ch. xii. pp. 227-231). 

Later on he says : " On my return, I found that the little yawl of 
the ' Geographe,' having gone to fish on Bruny Island, the aborigines 
had appeared in large numbers, and that, loaded with presents by our 
companions, they had passed the greater part of the day amongst them 
(ch. ii. p. 235). Early in the morning of the 31st of January, I landed 
on Bruny Island. I had already proceeded out of sight of the landing 
place, when, having rounded a big point, I perceived about twenty 
savages who were approaching me along the shore : I did not hesitate 
to retrace my steps, and in thus withdrawing met Heirisson and Bellefin. 
They offered to return with me to the savages in order to open com- 
munications with them. We were already close to the troop, when, 
suddenly, it entered the forest and disappeared ; without attempting to 
pursue the aborigines, which their agility would have rendered quite 
useless, we contented ourselves in calling them, showing them different 
objects, and, above all, in waving our handkerchiefs. At these signs of 
friendship the troop hesitated a moment, then stopped and decided to 
await us. We then discovered we had to do with women ; there was 
not a single male amongst them. We were preparing to join them, when 
one of the oldest, separating herself from her companions, made a sign 
to us to stop and sit down by calling out loudly, midi-midi (sit down, 
sit down) ; she seemed also to beg us to lay aside our weapons, the 
sight of which frightened them. These preliraiilary conditions having 



34 H- I-ING ROTH. —ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

been fulfilled, the women squatted on their heels, and from that moment 
appeared to abandon themselves without reserve to the liveliness of their 
dispositions, all speaking at once, all questioning us at the same time, 
appearing often to criticize us and to be laughing at our expense; making, 
in a word, a thousand gestures and contortions as singular as they were 
varied. Bellefin began to sing, and accompanied himself with lively and 
animated gestures ; the women were immediately silent, observing his 
gestures with as much attention as they seemed to give to his songs. 
As soon as a couplet was finished, some applauded by loud shouts, 
others laughed to splitting, while the younger, and no doubt more timid 
girls, remained silent, showing nevertheless, by their actions and the 
expression of their faces, their surprise and their satisfaction. Two or 
three young girls, of from 15 to 16 years of age, had in the expression 
of their countenances something most artless, affectionate, and sweet, as 
if the better qualities of the soul must exist, even in the midst of the 
savage tribe of the human race, as the especial appanage of youth. 
Amongst the elder women, some had a coarse and ignoble face ; others, 
fewer in number, a wild and sullen look ; but, in all, one observed that 
air of uneasiness and dejection which misfortune and servitude imprint 
on the forehead of every being who bears the yoke. One only had, 
among all her companions, preserved great confidence, with much cheer- 
fulness and gaiety. After Bellefin had finished his song, she began to 
imitate his gestures and his tone of voice in a very original and funny 
way, which greatly amused her companions. The deference we showed 
these women, and perhaps also the fresh charms which we owed to 
their cares,* seemed to increase their goodwill and their confidence in 
us ; but nothing, however, could decide them to approach any nearer. 
At the least movement which we made, or seemed to make, to break 
the conditions imposed, tl)cy all jumped up in a hurry, and took to 
flight : in order, therefore, to enjoy their presence longer, we were 
obliged to conform entirely to their wishes. After having loaded them 
with presents and caresses [sic] we judged it time to return to the 
landing place ; and our V. D. Landers, appearing to be about to go in 
the same direction, the two troops started ; but we were still obliged to 
give in to these inexorable women, and were condemned to walk along 
the flat shore, while they marched over the parallel sand-hills. Our route 
all the time was not less lively than our interview; and from the top of 
the sandhills many pleasantries and enticements were sent to us, to which 
we endeavoured to respond as expressively as was possible. All at once, 
one of the women uttered a loud cry, which the others repeated with 
fright: they had discovered our small vessel and our companions. We 
tried to calm their fears ; it was all useless, and the troop was already 
plunging into the forest, when the woman, who almost alone had borne 
the responsibility of our interview, appeared to alter her mind. At her 
voice there was a movement of hesitation ; she spoke for a moment or two 
to the others ; but being, as it seemed to us, unable to persuade them to 
follow her, she descended alone from the sand-hills, and walking along the 
shore at some distance in front of us, with much assurance, and even 

* These women blackened the faces of their visitors. 



PSYCHOLOGY. 35 

with a kind of pride, she seemed to defy the timidity of her companions. 
The latter, in their turn, appeared ashamed of their weakness ; little by 
little they became bolder, and decided at last to return to the shore. It 
was, therefore, with this numerous and singular escort that we arrived at 
our ships, near to which, by a chance difficult to foresee, all the husbands 
of these poor women had been assembled for some minutes. In spite of 
the most unequivocal proofs of the goodwill and generosity of our fellow- 
countrymey, they still preserved a disturbed and sullen expression ; their 
looks were wild and threatening ; and in their whole attitude one distin- 
guished an air of constraint, and malevolence, and treachery, which they 
in vain sought to hide ; it seemed as though they were mortified at the 
failure of their various attacks,* while at the same time they dreaded our 
vengeance. A few days later I had the pleasure of meeting the same 
woman who has so often been mentioned. I then learnt that her name 
was Arra-Maida, Petit drew her portrait ; therein will be noted that ' 
character of assurance and dignity which so eminently distinguished this 
woman among all her companions " (ch. ii. pp. 250-256). 

During another excursion, says Peron, *' on approaching the bank, we 
found a very great fire. Round about it, as if strewn by chance, were 
nearly all the objecfls which we 'had given to the aborigines, or which 
they had stolen from us even at the peril of their lives. We had pre- 
viously found several other things, spread here and there in the woods, 
and we were convinced that, having satisfied a childish curiosity, these 
ignorant men, as if embarrassed by our favours, abandoned the objetft as 
soon as it ceased to please or amuse them " (ch. xii. p. 257). Still later 
Peron's party met, on the south side of Oyster Bay, fourteen aborigines 
colle(5led round the fire, who received it with transports, expressive at 
once of surprise, admiration, and pleasure. '"• Medi-medi' (sit down, sit 
down) were the first words they spoke to us. We sat down : they grouped 
themselves around us. The arms laid aside, we regarded each other mutually 
for some moments. We were so novel each to the other ! The abor- 
igines wished to examine our calves and our chests ; we allowed them 
to do this as much as they desired, and cries, often repeated, were the 
expression of surprise which the whiteness of the skin seemed to excite 
in them. They soon wished to carry their examination further still : per- 
haps doubting whether we were constituted like them, or wishing to assure 
themselves with regard to our sex ; perceiving, however, our extreme 
repugnance to such an examination, they only insisted with regard to one 
of our sailors, who, on account of his youth, seemed better able to verify 
their conje(5\ures or to dissipate their doubts. At my request, this young 
man decided to give them this satisfaction, and the savages appeared 
quite satisfied ; but hardly had they recognized that we were constituted 
like themselves, than they began to shout so loudly together for aston- 
ishment and joy, that we were stunned. After thus devoting some 
moments to the examination of each other, Petit did some jugglery tricks 
which greatly diverted them, and drew from them the most bizarre 
demonstrations of pleasure and enthusiasm ; but nothing surprised them 

* The aborigines had on several occasions thrown spears at P^ron's party, they themselves 

being hidden in the forest. 



36 H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

more than to see Rouget stick a pin into the calf of his leg without 
showing the slightest pain, and without drawing a single drop of blood. 
At this wonder, they looked at each other in silence, and then, all together, 
they began to howl like madmen. Unfortunately for me, there were some 
pins among our presents, which they had begged of us. One of the men, 
wishing no doubt to ascertain whether I shared this insensibility which 
they had just admired, approached me without saying anything, and gave 
me such a dig in the leg with a pin that I could not restrain myself 
from uttering a cry of p$in, all the sharper from the greatness of my 
surprise. [He then says he obtained the native words for several adlions, 
but he does not state what the native words are.] Generally, they 
appeared to me to have much intelligence; they grasped my gestured 
with ease; from the very first instant they seemed to perfedlly under- 
stand their objedl ; they willingly repeated words which I had not been 
able to seize at first, and often laughed to splitting, when, wishing to 
repeat them, I made mistakes, or pronounced them badly. I must not 
here omit to mention an interesting observation which I then made: it 
was that they had no idea of the adlion of embracing. [He tried to 
make them understand by pradlical demonstrations what an embrace is, 
but as their sole response was ** Nidegd " (I do not understand), he con- 
cluded that kissing and embracing were unknown to these people.] While 
Petit and I were thus engaged in our investigations, we suddenly heard 
loud cries in the forest. At these cries the savages rose precipitately, 
seized their weapons, and looked towards the sea with an expression of 
surprise and fierceness. They seemed very agitated when we perceived 
a small boat from our ships running along the coast at a little distance 
off. I do not doubt that this was the cause of their alarm, and that 
it was signalled from various points by some sort of sentinels, perhaps 
by their women. Soon, fresh shouts were heard, and as they no doubt 
indicated that the boat was receding from the shore, the aborigines 
appeared to calm down a little.'* [He relates that he managed to pacify 
them so far as to get them to lay down their weapons, but neither he 
nor Petit could continue their drawings and observations, because the 
aborigines had become so restless and distradled.] (ch. xiii. pp. 278-283). 
Reviewing the general condition of the Tasmanian aborigines, Peron 
says (ch. xx. sec. i. p. 448) : " Without any form of regular government, 
without any special arts, without any idea of agriculture, of the use of 
metals, or the domestication of animals, without clothing, without any 
fixed habitation or retreat other than a miserable break-wind of bark, 
without any other weapons than the spear or club, always wandering, 
the inhabitant of these regions unites without doubt all the characteristics 
of a non-social man ; he is, par excellence, the child of nature, differing 
how much though, both morally and physically, from the seductive pic- 
tures created for him by imagination and enthusiasm." 

We have seen above that Peron spoke of the affecflion one of the 
women manifested for her offspring, and in the V. D. Land Annual for 
1834 (p. 78), it is stated, ** They are extremely fond of their children, 
and treat their women kindly." Backhouse relates (p. 83) that a sealer 
came and took away a child that he had had by a native woman, now 
married to a man of her nation ; its mother was greatly distressed at 



PSYCHOLOGY. 37 

parting with it;" and continues (p. 147), "When walking with J. Batman* 
in the garden, he pointed out the grave of a child of one of the blacks 
that died at his house. When it expired, the mother and other native 
women made great lamentation, and the morning after it was buried, 
happening to walk round his garden before sunrise, he found its mother 
weeping over its grave ; yet it is asserted by some that these people are 
without natural affedHon." West describes the following incidents (II. 
p. 80) ; ** It was noon : the mother, her infant, a little boy, had been 
without food all day ; the father refused any part of that he had pro- 
vided. Another of the tribe was more generous : when he handed the 
woman a portion, before she tasted any herself, she fed her child. . . . 
They were sensible of domestic affections : the tribes were scattered by 
the last war, some were captives, others fugitives, eleven were already 
lodged at Richmond, when Gilbert Robertson brought up two others, a 
man and woman ; they were recognized from afar by the part]^ first 
taken ; these raised the cry of welcome ; it was a family meeting, and 
deeply moved the spe(5lators. The parents embraced their fchildren with 
rapture and many tears." " When a separation for a long period has 
happened, on meeting again, they show all the attachment of relatives " 
(Walker p. io8). At Flinders island when W. J. Darling brought in 
some women, Jumbo one of the women already resident, called one of 
these her sister, having belonged to the same mob as herself; I witnessed 
the joy she evinced on hearing that this woman was , in the neighbour- 
hood. A. Cottrell informed me that their first interview was very afFecSling. 
Neither spoke for some time, but throwing their arms round each other's 
necks, they remained in that attitude, the tears trickling down their 
cheeks, until at length, these first emotions having somewhat subsided, 
they began to talk and laugh, and exhibit all the demonstrations of 
extravagant joy {ibid. 119). Nor was their affedlion limited to their 
domestic circle, for West (II. p. 21) tells us: **Nor were they indifferent 
to the charms of a native land. A visitor inquired of a native woman 
at Flinders whether she preferred that place to several others mentioned, 
where she had lived at times, and she answered with indifference ; but 
when, to test her attachment to early haunts, the querist said, < and not 
Ringarooma ? * she exclaimed with touching animation, * Oh yes ! Ring- 
arooma I Ringarooma!* A chief accompanied the commandant to Launceston 
in 1847. At his own earnest request, he was taken to see the Cataracfl 
Basin of the South Esk, a river which foams and dashes through a narrow 
channel of precipitous rocks. It was a station of his people. As he drew 
nigh, his excitement was intense ; he leaped from rock to rock, with the 
gestures and exclamations of delight. So powerful were his emotions that 
the lad with him became alarmed, lest the associations of the scene 
should destroy the discipline of twelve years* exile; but the woods were 
silent; he heard no voice save his own, and he returned pensively with 
his young companion." The same historian also states (II. p. 89) that 
some captives became strongly attached to their gaoler who had treated 
them with studious compassion, so that they left the prison with tears! 

* John Batman, the founder of Melbourne, one of the principal persons employed in 

capturing the Tasmanian aborigines. 



3B H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Backhouse mentions (p. 90) that one of the natives, having been nursed 
through an illness, " showed many demonstrations of gratitude. This 
virtue is often exhibited among these people." Walker found (p. iii) 
** that they are far from being insensible to kindness, but are susceptible, 
on the contrary, of some of the best feelings of the heart." They also 
showed kindness to those in distress, thus : ** Two white men were lost 
in crossing a river on a raft before the tide was out. When some of 
the native women saw them in danger, they swam to the raft and 
begged the men to get upon their backs, and they would convey them 
to the shore ; but the poor men refused, being overcome with fear. These 
kind-hearted women were greatly affecfted by this accident " (Backhouse, 
p. 147). 

From the pracftical jokes they played on the Frenchmen there is no 
doubt they possessed a considerable sense of humour. West says (II. 
p. 88) : ** They were fond of imitation and humour : they had their drolls 
and mountebanks: they were able to seize the peculiarities of individuals 
and exhibit them with considerable force." 

We have seen above (p. 33) that they received presents with great 
joy, that they stamped their feet for joy (p. 31), and (p. 36) that the 
natives laughed to splitting at ,the mispronounciation of their language 
by Peron, that at friendly meetings and other occasions Backhouse (pp. 
81-180) and Peron (p. 225) tells us they shouted for joy. Their joy was 
expressed by loud bursts of laughter ; at the same time, they carried 
their hands to their heads, and made a quick tapping with their feet on 
the ground (La Billardiere, II. p. 72). According to Walker (p. 100), 
" They appear to be a very sociable people, and a(5l remarkably in 
concert. The occupation of one is generally the occupation of all, 
whether in their amusements or engagements of a graver nature. If a 
stranger accosts them in their own language, or by any other means 
affords them gratification, they express their pleasure by a simultaneous 
shout, so universal that one would imagine they were acftuated by the 
heart of one man." Nevertheless, according to the same traveller (p. loi), 
** They show some relucftance to hunt together, if the tribes that compose 
the party have once been at warfare. . . . They seem to be aware that 
these are times of high excitement, when they might be off their guard 
and quarrels might ensue." 

Backhouse mentions that under circumstances of rage among this people 
it is common for them to seize a stick and brandish it about (p. 103). 
During the war they naturally became vindictive. Desperate characfters, 
who have absconded into the woods, have no doubt committed the 
greatest outrages upon the Natives, and these ignorant beings, incapable 
of discrimination, are now filled with enmity and revenge against the 
whole body of white inhabitants" (Colonel Arthur, Col. and Slav., p. 5). 
A Government Order says : ** It is evident, from the hostile spirit of the 
natives, and from the cunning which Seems comn^on to all savages, that 
they are not to be approached without some personal danger (ibid, p. 
34), and for such behaviour as this no one can reasonably blame them." 

Backhouse, Walker and Davies speak of their improvidence. The 
first-named says (p. 175), **The W'allaby and Brush Kangaroo are become 
scarce on Flinders Island, in consequence of the improvidence of the people 



PSYCHOLOGY. 39 

in killing all they can, when they have opportunity, and often more than 
their wants require.'* Walker says : ** An aborigine has no idea of re- 
straining his dogs so long as they will run and have plenty of game. 
This kind of wholesale destru(5\ion has rendered the kangaroos extremely 
scarce in the nei«;hbourhood of the settlement, though once very abundant. 
(MS. Jour., 6 Dec. 1833.) Davies repeats this practically (p. 415). 

Like many other savages they found civilisation very irksome. Back- 
house mentions (p. 96), ** W. J. Darling had four natives that he brought 
from Flinders Island, dressed in decent clothes, and he took them into the 
town, where their cheerful intelligent appearance excited a favourable 
impression in the minds of many who had knovvn little of the aborigines 
but as exasperated enemies; also (pp. 480-481) that at the settlement on 
Flinders Island they have left off their dancing and hunting, and are 
acquiring the English language and useful arts, as well as an historical 
knowledge, at least, of Christianity." Nevertheless, when they had the 
opportunity, they preferred roaming about in their wild state. Hobbs 
(Evidence, Col. and Slav., p. 50) says: "Our natives are not susceptible 
of civilization ; their children, even if taken away when infants, would 
return to their parents, like wild ducks, when they grew up.'* Prinsep 
(p. 79) says : ** Great pains have been taken with those that are caught, 
to civilize and educate them ; but, except learning a few English sentences, 
it was to little purpose, as they invariably ran back to the woods when 
an opportunity offered." West (II. p. 16) relates: "The children of abor- 
igines, adopted by the whites, when they grew to maturity, were drawn 
to the woods, and resumed the habits of their kindred. A black girl, 
trained in Launceston, thus allured, laid aside her clothing, which she had 
worn nearly from infancy. It was thus with many." Calder's researches 
lead to a similar conclusion (J.A.I, p. 10): "Of firearms they learned 
the use from men and women of their own race, who, having been taken 
in early infancy by the settlers, were brought up in their own families, 
mostly as their own children ; but they invariably left them when they 
grew up, and rejoined their own people ; possessed, as the whole race 
was, of most excellent memories, they never lost the language of our 
country." 

But while in the settlement they showed themselves apt pupils. Back- 
house relates (p. 93) : " The four aborigines took tea with us in the 
cabin ; they were very cheerful, and used cups and saucers with dexterity. 
A large number of the native women took tea with us; they condudled them- 
selves in a very orderly manner, and after washing up the the tea-things, 
put them in their places, and showed other indications of advancement 
in civilization. Another party of aborigines breakfasted with us. We 
distributed among them some cotton handkerchiefs, and some tobacco. 
Some of the women immediately commenced hemming the handkerchiefs, 
having learned this art from the wife of the Catechist " (Backhouse, p. 
170). J. B. Walker has in his possession a very well written letter of 
Geo. Walter Arthur, of the Ben Lomond tribe, perhaps the aborigine 
who had advanced furthest of any in civilization. They also improved 
in the art of war during their last struggle for existence (Arthur, Col. 
and Slav., pp. 22-23): "The aborigines have during a considerable period 
of time evinced a growing spirit of hatred, outrage, and enmity against 



40 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANU. 

the subjedls of His Majesty, and are putting in pradlice modes of hostility, 
indicating gradual, though slow advances in art, system, and method." 
Laplace (III. ch. xviii. p. 197) is not quite corre<5l when he says: "These 
islanders, whom the first European navigators described to us as men whose 
intelledlual faculties were hardly superior to the instindt of animals, have 
changed greatly ; for to-day, when excited by the thirst for vengeance or 
for pillage, they show such an intelligence, such a craftiness, that the 
colonists, whose dwellings lie farthest back at the edge of the forests, 
among whom fear engenders superstition, believe them sorcerers." The 
early travellers, such as Peron and La Billardi^re, spoke well of the 
people; and the colonists, even the unfortunate lowest, never regarded 
them as sorcerers, but certainly considered them as little better than wild 
beasts. Dove's statement (p. 251) is a little too severe : ** Beyond the 
construcflion of rude canoes, their ingenuity was rarely exercised in devices 
of a useful or ornamental kind. Of a sluggish and phlegmatic tempera- 
ment, they were aroused to adlion only by the pressure of want, or by 
the joyousness which nature has connedled with muscular play." In fadl 
they were very like human beings in general. 

Regarding their courage, Laplace says (III. ch. xviii. p. 197): "They 
make up for the courage and physical force which is lacking in them 
by cunning and an incredible agility." Burnet (Arthur, Col. and Slav., p. 
35) also says that they are quite undistinguished by personal courage. 
Other evidence (Govern. Ord., signed by J. Burnet as Colonial Secretary, 
see " Col. and Slav./* p. 66) would seem to confirm this : " The native 
tribes of this island are well known to be, with few exceptions, extremely 
timid, flying with precipitation at the appearance of two or three armed 
persons, yet the numerous attacks they have made on defenceless habitations, 
and the cruel murders they have committed with impunity on the white 
population, have had the effecft of rendering them daily more bold and 
crafty." But on the other hand Breton (p. 404) allows that: "It is uni- 
versally admitted in the colony, that these children of the wilderness are 
not deficient in courage, and are wont to show each other fair play, not 
seeming at all inclined to avail themselves of any unfair advantage," and 
Cook's people found them absolutely without fear, for, as Anderson records 
(Third Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) : "They approached us from the woods with- 
out betraying any marks of fear, or rather with the greatest confidence 
imaginable, for none of them had any weapons, except one, who held in 
his hand a small stick. When, however, the officer of that party fired 
a musket in the air, it sent them off with the greatest precipitation. [But 
the next day] we had not been long landed, before about twenty of them, 
men and boys, joined us, without expressing the least sign of fear or 
distrust." Holman recording what he heard says : " They seem to have 
but little fear of death" (IV, ch. xii. p. 405). Walker (p. 105) "Found 
nothing servile or abjedl in their condudl when they are under the influ- 
ence of fear. But during the war of extermination it was said (Minutes 
Ex. Coun. Col. and Slav., p. 11): "Such is the distrust of the aboriginal 
natives, that it seems they invariably fly from any two or three armed 
persons." 

We have seen how difficult the French discoverers found it to open 
communication with the natives, nor were they at all singular in this 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



PSYCHOLOGY. 4 1 

respecft. Mortimer, for instance, gives us the following account of an 
interview* (pp. 18-7.0) : ** Our third mate on landing, saw several of them 
[natives] moving off. He approached them alone and unarmed, making 
every sign of friendship his fancy could suggest; but though they mimicked 
his adlions exadlly, and laughed heartily, he could not prevail upon them 
to stay. The next morning, as we approached the shore, we observed 
several natives walking among the trees. When they perceived we had 
landed, and were pretty near them, they began to chatter very loud and 
walk away ; upon which we called to them, imitating their noise as well 
as we could, and had the satisfadlion to see them stop at a little distance 
from us. Several of them having long poles or spears in their hands, 
we made signs to them to throw them aside, with which they immediately 
complied ; and in return we put away our muskets. They now suffered 
us to come so near them as to take some biscuit, a pen-knife, and other 
trifles from us; but they took great care to avoid being touched. Some 
of them, indeed, would not accept of anything unless it was thrown to 
them; and the whole party kept edging off by degrees. They seemed 
eager to procure everything they saw ; and had a great inclination for 
our hats. Cox gave one of them a silk handkerchief, and in return he 
threw him a fillet of skin which he wore tied round his head. The 
party which we saw consisted of about fourteen or fifteen men and women, 
but there were several more concealed among the trees. Upon the whole, 
they seemed to us to be a timorous, harmless race of people, and afford 
a fine pi(5ture of human nature in its most rude and uncultivated st£ite. 
We spent some time in endeavouring to inspire these poor people with 
confidence ; but though they appeared to be very merry, laughing and 
mimicking our adlions, and frequently repeating the words, Warray Warruy 
Waiy they kept retiring very fast, and we soon lost them among the 
trees. Being willing to, if possible, see something more of these singular 
people, we followed the track they had taken. We saw a smoke on the 
opposite side of the island, and made all the haste we could to come 
up with it ; but the natives had fled before our arrival." Bass's experience 
was very similar : ** Their extreme shyness prevented any communication. 
As soon as the boat approached the shore, they ran into the woods " 
(Collins, ch. xv. p. 168). Captain Bligh was more fortunate when he 
first met the natives (pp. 50-51), and the account he gives * of another 
party, met by one of his associates, is as follows \ihid, p. 52) : ** The 
account which I had from Brown was, that, in his search for plants, 
he had met an old man, a young woman, and two or three children. 
The old man at first appeared alarmed, but became familiar on being 
presented with a knife. He, nevertheless, sent away this young woman, 
who went very reluctantly." Lieutenant Marion's party did not find the 
people at all shy. for he says (pp. 27-29) : ** The next day some officers, 
soldiers, and sailors, went on shore without any opposition. The aborigines 
seemed good-natured; they collecfled wood, etc., and made a kind of pile. 
They proceeded to offer to those newly landed some branches of dry 
wood, lighted, and appeared to invite them to set fire to the pile. The 
savages did not seem at all astonished ; they remained round us without 



At Oyster Bay. Maria Island (not Grelat Oyster Bay on the East coast). 



Q 



42 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

making any demonstration either of friendship or hostility." In the Papers, 
Roy. Soc. Tas. for Aug., 1873, is the following statement of an old 
settler, whose testimony tends to show that later on some at least were 
neither timid nor shy. ** Robert Thirkell, of Woodstock, near Longford, 
arrived in Tasmania in the year 1820, and was constantly among the 
natives. He found them a peaceable and inoffensive race of people, and 
in no case had he to resort to force to prevent mischief. On the first 
occasion the natives visited his place of residence on the Macquarie River, 
about twenty men, and the same number of women and children came, 
after which various numbers came at intervals. When he was engaged 
building a house, the men came and curiously inspe(5led the work, and 
would use gimlets and other tools. At other times, Thirkell states that 
he met them in the bush, and in no case had he any cause to fear. 
. . . He has met the chief, who would walk up and put his hand on 
the horse's neck, talk as well as he could, and be quite friendly." 

Their apparent want of curiosity seemed to arouse the astonishment 
of many of the early explorers and settlers. Anderson remarks (Cook's 
Third Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) : ** They received every present we made 
them without the least appearance of satisfa(ftion," while Marion's 
historian reports (pp. 28-29) : ** We endeavoured to gain their goodwill 
by giving them little presents : they rejedled with disdain all that we 
offered them, even iron, looking-glasses, handkerchiefs, and pieces of 
cloth. We showed them the fowls and ducks which had been brought 
from the vessel, in order to make them understand that we desired to 
purchase of them. They took these animals, which they showed they 
did not know, and threw them angrily away." Bass narrates the 
following incident : — ** In their [his and his companions] way up, a 
human voice saluted them from the hills ; on which they landed, 
carrying with them one of several swans, which they had just shot. 
Having nearly reached the summit, two females .... suddenly 
appeared at some little distance before them, snatched up each a small 
basket, and scampered off. A man then presented himself, and suffered 
them to approach him without any signs of fear or mistrust. He 
received the swan joyfully, seeming to esteem it a treasure. With 
some difficulty they made him comprehend their wish to see his place 
of residence. He pointed over the hills, and proceeded onwards ; but 
his pace was slow and wandering, and he often stopped under pretence 
of having lost the track ; which led them to suspecft that his only aim 
was to amuse and tire them out. Fearing, therefore, to lose the 
remaining part of the Hood tide, . . they parted from him in 

great friendship . . . He was a man of middle age, with a counten- 
ance more expressive of benignity and intelligence than of that ferocity 
or stupidity which generally characfterized the other natives . . . No 
part of their dress attradled his attention, except the red silk handker- 
chiefs round their necks. Their firearms were to him objedls neither 
of curiosity nor of fear. . . . His frank and open deportment led 
them to form a favourable opinion of the disposition of the inhabitants" 
(Collins, ch. xvi. pp. 187-188) ; and Captain Bligh has the following 
account of their strange behaviour when he offered them articles which 
must have been unknown to them before: — "The natives not coming 



PSYCHOLOGY. 43 

near us, I determined to go after them, and we set out, in a boat, 
towards Cape Frederick Henry. ... I found landing impradlicable, 
and therefore came to a grapnel, in hopes of their coming to us. . . 
Soon after we heard their voices like the cackling of geese, and twenty 
persons came out of the wood, twelve of whom went round to some 
rocks when the boat could get nearer to the shore than we were. 
Those who remained behind were women. We approached within 
twenty yards of them, but there was no possibility of landing, and I 
could only throw to the shore, tied up in paper, the presents which I 
intended for them. I showed the diflferent articles as I tied them up, 
but they would not untie the paper till I made an appearance of 
leaving them. Then they opened the parcels, and as they took the 
articles out, placed them on their heads. On seeing this, I returned 
towards them, when they instantly put everything out of their hands, 
and would not appear to take notice of anything that we had given 
them. After throwing a few more beads and nails on shore, I made 
signs for them to go to the ship, and they, likewise, made signs for 
me to land, but as this could not be eflfe(fted, I left them. . ... 
When they first came in sight they made a prodigious chattering in 
their speech. . . . They spoke so quickly that I could not catch one 
single word they uttered " (pp. 50-51). When Bunce first met them 
they scarcely deigned to look at his party (p. 55). Backhouse's later 
experience at the settlement on Flinders Island throws a little light on 
their apparent apathy. He relates (p. 81) : ** A considerable number of 
the aborigines were upon the beach when we landed, . . . but they 
took no notice of us until requested to do so by W. J. DarUng ; they 
then shook hands with us very affably. It does not accord with their 
ideas of proper manners to appear to notice strangers, or to be 
surprised at any novelty. On learning that plenty of provisions had 
arrived by the cutter, they shouted for joy. After sunset they had a 
corrobery or dance round a fire, which they kept up till after midnight, 
in testimony of their pleasure." ** When Jumbo [a native woman] 
first came on board, she was shown a musical box construdled like a 
musical snuff box. Having been brought up among Europeans, she 
did not feign inattention to novelties, as is common with her country 
people, but showed pleasure and astonishment in a remarkable degree " 
(ibid. p. 93). 

*' There is similar variety of talent and of temper, among the 
Tasmanian aborigines, to what is to be found among other branches of 
the human family," so says Backhouse (p. 174); while West (II. p. 89) 
describes the natives as variable from ignorance and distrust ; probably 
from mental puerility : thus their war whoop and defiance were soon 
succeeded by shouts of laughter." 

Backhouse narrates the following incident : " One of their chiefs took 
a fancy to a japanned comb, such as he saw a woman use, that had 
been among the sealers ; but when he obtained one, he was much 
disappointed to find that he could not get it through his tangled hair, 
which had among it knots of dried ochre and grease, notwithstanding 
he had ceased for some time to use these articles and had tried to 
wash them out. In this dilemma he applied to me ; and being 



44 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 

desirous to please him, I did my best, but was soon obliged to hold 
the hair back with the one hand, and pull the comb with the other. 
From this he did not shrink, but encouraged me in my work, saying 
frequently, ^ Narra coopa^ very good.* And when the work was accom- 
plished he looked at himself in a glass, with no small degree of pleasure. 
He was a man of an intelligent mind, who made rapid advances in 
civilization, and was very helpful in the preservation of good order at 
the Settlement.*" (pp. 180-181). 

Morals. 

Like the majority of savages they did not treat their women well. 
La Billardiere states (IL ch. x. p. 59): "It gave us great pain to see 
these poor women condemned to such severe toil. We often entreated 
their husbands to at least take a share in their labour, but always in 
vain. They remained constantly near the fire, feasting on the best bits.*' 
An old settler (John Lyne) has described to J. B. Walker, Dr. Milligan*s 
coming to Swanport with Black Tom and some others: "They had three 
women with them. The men sat in front and the women behind them. 
Apples were given to the men, who ate the finest and tossed the little ones over 
their shoulders to the women. As it happened the little apples were much the 
best, which caused much amusement at the men's expense." And P6ron, des- 
cribing a meeting with twenty female aborigines, says : " They were nearly all 
covered with scars, the miserable results of the bad treatment of their brutal 
husbands." These women accompanied him to his boat, being heavily laden 
with fish, and here they found their husbands. The women appeared dismayed 
"their fierce husbands looked at them with anger and fury, which did 
not tend to reassure them. After having deposited the results of their 
fishing at the feet of these men, who immediately divided it up without 
giving them any, they proceeded to group themselves behind their hus- 
bands ; (ch. xii. pp. 252-256). La Billardiere mentions an incident which 
may tend to show that the women were chaste: "Two of the* young 
girls followed the different windings of the shore without mistrust, at a 
distance from the other natives, with three of our sailors, when these 
took the opportunity to treat them with a degree of freedom, which was 
received in a very different manner from which they had hoped. The 
young women immediately fled to the rocks most advanced in the sea, 
and appeared ready to leap into it and swim away if our men had 
followed them. They presently repaired to the place where we were 
assembled with the other savages ; but it seems they did not disclose 
this adventure, for the most perfecft harmony continued to prevail between 
us" (II. ch. X. p. 51). Bass thought the men jealous of their women. 
He mentions encountering a native Tasmanian whose two women, on 
Bass's approach, ran away, and who, on being requested to show them 
his hut, assented, but led the way to it with so many stoppages, that 
they, fearing to lose the tide, parted from him, and returned to their 
boat. " The most probable reason of his unwillingness to be their guide 
seemed his not having a male companion near him ; and his fearing th^t 
if he took them to his women, their charms might induce them to run 
off with them, a jealousy very common with the natives of the continent " 



MORALS. 45 

(ch. xvi. p. 187). On the other hand, when the aggressiveness of the 
natives was making the life of the settlers fearfully unsecure, Brodribb 
said, ** Fourteen years ago there was a constant communication between 
the stock-keepers and the female natives, but that did not excite ill -blood 
in the males ; the men would offer to give up their wives for bread : 
but did not feel indignant at the intercourse they permitted.'* But here 
again the evidence is contradicflory. Robert Thirkell "found them a 
peaceful and inoffensive race of people. . . . He never considered it 
necessary to carry firearms to protedl himself against them. 
Thirkell considered any injury sustained by the white people was entirely 
occasioned by their own ill-usage of the females." The Hon. C. Meredith 
did not agree with the idea : ** Among the blacks there was no such 
feeling as jealousy, and it was notorious to the early settlers that the 
blacks were in the habit of forcing their gins to visit the whites in order 
to obtain what they could from them " (Papers, etc., Roy. Soc., Tas., 
Aug., 1873). With regard to this matter, Calder (J.A.I, p. 10) says: 
**The natural propensity of the domesticated black females to be with 
their own people, operated on them, and they became the instrudlors, 
in mischief at least, of the wild natives, and, strangely enough, were 
foremost in every aggression on the whites, by whom, with hardly an 
exception, they had been treated with unvarying kindness." Accepting 
this statement as corredl, there can only be two reasons for such conducfl 
on the part of the women, either they had not been treated well by the 
whites or they wished to gain favour with their own men, who were 
jealous at their freedom with the white men. The following instance of 
maternal devotion given by Jeffreys supports my view of the case : 
" Those [women] who have united themselves to our sailors have mani- 
fested a faithful and afFecftionate attachment, and are extremely jealous 
of a rival. This may be partially occasioned by their great dread of 
being abandoned by the sailors to the mercy of their native tribes, who 
never fail, on such occasions, to treat them with extreme severity. In 
some instances, their young children, the offspring of their illicit inter- 
course with Europeans, are forcibly taken from them and thrown into 
the fire, where they are destroyed. An instance of this kind in which, 
however, the child was saved by the affecftion and courage of its parent, 
happened within the author's knowledge. One of these women, who had 
been for many years attached to a sailor, one evening wandered from 
her sealing party with a young child at her breast, and accidentally 
falling in with a band of natives, was immediately attacked, her infant 
was snatched from her and thrown into a large fire; this treatment 
inspired the woman with the most desperate courage : she rushed with 
the rapidity of lightning through the horde of barbarians, and in an 
instant plucked her child from the devouring element, and ran off with 
it into the woods, whither she was followed by the savages ; but she 
contrived, aided by the shades of night, to conceal herself and her scorched 
infant behind the thick trunk of a fallen tree. Considerable search was 
made for her by the men, but finding it useless, they returned to their 
fire, round which they lay down and went to sleep. The poor woman 
observing this, quietly left her hiding place, and before morning reached 
the town of Launceston, a distance of about ten miles, where she once 



46 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

more found a comfortable home at the residence of a gentleman of that 
place. The poor mother suffered greatly, as well from fatigue as from 
the fire through which she had rushed to save her infant, and the child 
itself was so much burnt, that an inflammation taking place, it shortly 
after departed this life" (Jeffreys, pp. 118-124). At first, without doubt, 
the natives were friendly. Rossel, referring to the difficulties his party 
(same as La Billardiere*s) had with the natives, says (I. ch. iv. p. 76) : 
" The apparent simplicity and gentleness of the inhabitants of V. D. 
Land, seen at Adventure Bay by Capt. Cook, and Oyster Bay by Capt. 
Cox, seem irreconcilable with the hostile behaviour of the natives witnessed 
by the French vessels. Perhaps the superiority of the European arms, 
which were unknown to them before the arrival of the French, of which 
they made trial on the unfortunate occasion when they were obliged to 
be used, has simply rendered them more cautious and timid ; which seems 
to indicate the necessity to be constantly on one's guard, and to keep 
them in check by fear." But natives were very friendly to this party 
at first, and La Billardiere describes an interview in the following words : 
** One of them had the generosity to give me a few small shells of the 
whelk kind, strung like a necklace. This ornament was the only one 
he possessed, and he wore it round his head. We were quitting this 
peaceable party with regret, when we saw the men and four of the 
youths separating from the rest, in order to accompany us. One of the 
most robust presently went into the wood, whence he returned almost 
instantly, holding in his hand two long spears. As he came near, he 
made signs to us, that we might be under no apprehensions ; on the 
contrary, it appeared as if he were desirous of prote<5ling us with his 
arms. No doubt they had left their weapons in the woods when they 
came to meet us in the morning, that they might give us no alarm " 
(II. ch. X. pp. 33, 34, 40); and later on (II. ch. x. p. 42) he continues: 
**The attentions lavished on us by these savages astonished us. If our 
path were interrupted by heaps of dry branches, some of them walked 
before and removed them to either side : they even broke off such as 
stretched across our way from the trees which had fallen down. We 
could not walk on the dry grass without slipping every moment ; but 
these good savages, to prevent our falling, took hold of us by the arm, 
and thus supported us. They continued to bestow on us these marks 
of kindness : nay, they frequently stationed themselves, one on each side, 
to support us the better." 

Peron, who was the next explorer, did not, however, find them so 
amiable. While as above narrated (p. 32), the surprise of one of the 
women on seeing a sailor take off his fur glove caused the party to 
laugh heartily, a native stole a bottle of arrack. ** As this contained a 
large portion of our drink, we were obliged to make him return it, at 
which he seemed to feel some resentment, for he was not slow in departing 
with his family, in spite of all I could do to retain him longer " (ch. 
xii. p. 224). The probable result of this little contretemps is described 
by him thus (pp. 235-6) : ** On my return I found that the little yawl 
of the * Geographe ' having gone to fish on Bruny Island, the aborigines 
had appeared in large numbers ; that, loaded with presents by our com- 
panions, they had passed the greater part of the day amongst them ; 



MORALS. 47 

that Maurouard, one of our midshipmen, had proposed to one amongst 
them who appeared the most robust, to wrestle with him, and that the 
V. D. Lander had accepted the challenge ; was several times thrown by 
the French middy, and obliged to acknowledge his inferiority ; that from 
that moment until their departure several hours had elapsed, without any 
signs being shown that the confidence and friendship of the aborigines 
had been weakened or altered, and that, loaded with presents by our 
friends, even at the moment when the latter were re-embarking, it was 
impossible to conceive the slightest suspicion of their intentions, when, 
all of a sudden, a long spear, thrown from behind some neighbouring 
rocks, struck Maurouard in the shoulder ; that this rude weapon had 
been thrown with such force, that, after slipping along the whole surface 
of the shoulder-blade, it opened a passage through the flesh of the 
shoulder and of the neck. The crew of the yawl, indignant at this 
perfidious cowardice and savageness, had wished to pursue the savages 
in vengeance, but they had already disappeared among the rocks and 
brushwood." Shortly after this event, Peron's party were much troubled 
with the thefts committed by the natives. In describing an interview* 
with fourteen savages, he says (ch. xiii. p. 279) : ** Rouget, to whom we 
had confided the musket, placed it by his side, keeping it, however, well 
in view, for fear that some aboriginal would snatch it up and flee with 
it into the forest ; a sort of condu(5l, with which, with other objedls, we 
had had some experience of in the Channel [D'Entrecasteaux] ." We 
may here mention in parenthesis that there are very few cases of theft 
brought against the aborigines, as Davies says : " They do not appear 
given to pilfering, although instances have occurred." From this time 
forth all friendly intercourse between the natives and the Frenchmen was 
at an end, for, after describing a long, and so far very friendly interview, 
with fourteen male aborigines, Peron narrates how the sight of a little 
boat belonging to his [Peron's] vessels, cruising off the shore, threw them 
into a state of angry terror, in which he had the greatest difficulty to 
pacify them and to induce them to lay aside their arms. " Gradually 
they appeared to become bolder, they spoke among themselves in an 
excited way ; when they looked at us, their expression was gloomier and 
more savage than it had previously been ; they appeared to meditate 
some violence, but the musket of Rouget seemed to restrain them, 
whether from curiosity or treachery, they worried him every minute to 
begin shooting the birds in the neighbouring trees, but we judged our 
position too critical to comply with their request. Their audacity grew 
with their defiance. One of them wanted my waistcoat, the bright colours 
of which had attrad^ed his attention. He had already several times 
demanded it of me, but I had so positively refused that I did not think 
he would return to the charge. However, one minute, when I was not 
paying attention, he seized hold of me by the waistcoat and pointed his 
spear at me, brandishing it furiously. I pretended to take his threats 

* This interview took place at Maria Island, on the East coast, where the Blacks seem 
to have been more hostile and suspicious (Oyster Bay Tribe) than those whom the 
French had usually found so friendly at D'Entrecasteaux Channel in the extreme South. 
The latter (Southern Tribes) are said to have been of a finer race. To these belonged 
Wooreddy and Truganini. 



48 H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

as a joke, but seizing the point of the lance, turned it aside, and showing 
him Rouget, who had just aimed at him, I said this single word in his 
language mata (dead) ; he understood me, and deposited his weapon with 
the same indifference as if no hostile demonstration against me had escaped 
him. I had hardly escaped this danger, when I found myself threatened, 
if not perilously, at least as disagreeably. One of the large gold ear- 
rings which I wore excited the desires of another savage, who, without 
saying anything, slid behind me, cunningly slipped his finger through the 
ring, and tugged so hard that he would undoubtedly have torn my ear 
had not the clasp given way. It must be remembered that all these 
men had been loaded with presents by us ; that we had given them 
mirrors, knives, coloured glass beads, pearls, handkerchiefs, snuflf boxes, 
etc. ; that I had stripped myself of nearly all the buttons on my coat, 
which, being gilt copper, had seemed specially valuable to them on account 
of their brightness. Further, it must be r'ecoUedled that we had lent 
ourselves to all their desires and caprices, without asking anything in 
return for our presents, and then one can judge how unjust and treacherous 
their conducfl towards us was. I can, indeed, positively assert, that, but 
for Rouget and his scarecrow, Petit and I would have fallen vi(5lims 
to these fierce men. I must frankly declare that their adlions were of 
such a treacherous and savage nature as quite to shock both myself and 
my companions ; and remembering what had happened to several of our 
companions in the channel, we came to the conclusion that it was 
necessary to appear among these people with the means to restrain their 
ill will or to repulse their attacks. Before leaving, I thought it advisable 
to bestow upon them fresh evidences of our goodwill : hence I approached 
the old man, took him aifecflionately by the hand, gave him a glass 
bottle, a knife, two gilt buttons, a white handkerchief, etc. The old man 
seemed the more pleased with these last gifts from the facfl of our being 
about to leave him ; he smiled with a contented air, mixed, however, 
still with something uneasy and savage. Meanwhile Petit, who wished 
to possess a spear, had bought one for a mirror. I myself desired to 
have a club, and I had already procured one, when the savages, thinking 
better of it, suddenly seized their weapons afresh, and uttering loud cries 
all together, they menaced us in such a threatening manner, that Rouget, 
in order to restrain them, was obliged to shout loudly, at the same time 
taking aim at the one who had shown himself the most furious against 
me. After this last show of violence, there was not a moment to lose 
in regaining the shore ; but fearing that these savages would overwhelm 
us with stones or spears during our retreat, as they had done already 
several times in the channel, we decided to retire very slowly, Petit and 
I walking in front, while Rouget followed behind with his musket. These 
precautions were successful, and we regained the boat without accident. 
I have thought it proper to give the principal details of this long and 
perilous interview in order to enable the reader to rightly judge of the 
extent of the difficulties which arise when travellers communicate with 
savage races, and how impossible it is to triumph over their natural 
ferocity and their prejudices against us " (ch. xiii. pp. 283-287). 

During the war of extermination a good deal of evidence was colleif^ed 
regarding the attitude of the aborigines towards the white settlers, and 



MORALS. 49 

it is not astonishing to find that, with a few exceptions, the Tasmanians 
are condemned as treacherous, aggressive, ungrateful, and cruel. The 
following extradts confirm this statement : ** We are undoubtedly the first 
aggressors, and the desperate characflers amongst the prison population, 
who have, from time to time, absconded into the woods, have no doubt 
committed the greatest outrages upon the natives, and these ignorant 
beings, incapable of discrimination, are now filled with enmity and revenge 
against the whole body of white inhabitants. . . . Even the inhabitants 
of the settled districfts were insecure at their farms and homesteads, attacks 
having recently been made upon them, and unoffending and defenceless 
women and children having fallen vidlims to the cruelties of those wretched 
people. In the atrocities recently committed by the natives, it was painful 
to find they had, in several instances, manifested a desire to kill and 
destroy the white inhabitants whenever they had dared to attack them, 
and not for the purpose of plundering for food or property (Min. Exec. 
Coun., Col. and Slav., pp. 5-10). The lawless convicfts . . . and the 
sealers . . . have, from the earliest period, ad\ed with the greatest 
inhumanity towards the black natives, particularly in seizing their women 
. . . ; and these outrages have, it is evident, first excited, what they 
were naturally calculated to produce in the minds of savages, the strongest 
feelings of hatred and revenge. On the other hand, it is equally apparent 
that the aboriginal natives of this colony are, and ever have been, a 
most treacherous race ; that the kindness and humanity which they have 
always experienced from the free settlers has not tended to civilize them 
in any degree, nor has it induced them to forbear from the most wanton 
and unprovoked adls of barbarity, when a fair opportunity presented itself 
of indulging their disposition to maim or destroy the white inhabitants" 
{ibid.f pp. 15-16). 

In a Government Notice, mention is made of the ** series of outrages " 
perpetrated by the aborigines, and the ** wanton barbarity in which they 
have indulged by the commission of murder in return for kindness in 
numerous instances shown to them by the settlers and their servants" (Col. 
and Slav. p. 20). ** It is evident from the hostile spirit of the natives, and 
from the cunning which seems common to all savages, that they are 
not to be approached, even with a view to reconciliation, without some 
personal danger " (Burnet, p. 34). ** They [the natives] were sacrificed 
in many instances to momentary caprice or anger, . . . and they 
sustained the most unjustifiable treatment in defending themselves against 
outrages which it was not to be expec5ted that any race of men should 
submit to without resistance, or endure wdthout imbibing a spirit of 
hatred and revenge. . . . It is the opinion of the best -informed 
persons . . . that the former [the native tribes] are seldom the 
assailants : and that when they are, they adled under the impression of 
recent injuries done to some of them by white people. . . . The 
Committee . . . are, however, not prepared to say that the description 
given by Lieutenant-Governor Sorell of the passive and inoffensive character 
of the aborigines, unless when previously attacked, is entirely supported 
by the evidence before them. . . . It is manifestly shown, that an 
intercourse with them on the part of insulated or unproteifted individuals 
or families has never been perfedlly secure. Although they might receive 

H 



50 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

with apparent favour and confidence such persons as landed, from time 
to time, on various parts of the coast, or fell in with them in other 
remote situations, yet no sooner was the store of presents exhausted, or 
the interview from other causes concluded, than there was a risk of the 
natives making an attack on those very persons from whom they had the 
instant before been receiving adls of kindness, and against whom they 
had up to that moment suffered no indication of hostility to betray itself. 
. . . These adts of violence on the part of the natives are generally 
to be regarded, not as retaliating for any wrongs which they conceived 
themselves coUedlively or individually to have endured, but as proceeding 
from a wanton and savage spirit inherent in them, and impelling them 
to mischief and cruelty when it appeared probable that they might be 
perpetrated with impunity " (Rep. Aborig. Com. pp. 36, 38). ** Natives 
in V. D. Land are not so brave as those in N. S. Wales ; they are 
more cruel and treacherous. If they were ever so well used, they 
would turn upon those that fed them ; the women visit the stock huts 
as spies, and then the men attack them " (Hobbs, p. 50). Evidence of 
Kelly : ** Has been a great deal among the natives ; found they were 
generally met by them in a friendly manner, but upon leaving them they 
would attempt to spear them. . . . They were always friendly at 
meeting, but treacherous at parting ; noticed this whenever he met them. 
. . . At Port Davey the natives enticed a boat to put in ; received 
bread from the crew, and when it was departing, threw spears at it, 
and speared one man " (p. 51). ** The natives are grateful for kindness " 
(Bedford, p. 51). " Brodribb was not inclined to think that the whites 
were the first aggressors, nor did he think that the intercourse between 
the native women and the whites caused any resentment in the minds 
of the native men '* (p. 53). Evidence of the Rev. R. Knopwood : 
** The first white man who was murdered by the natives was George 
Munday ; he was out hunting ; I believe at that time if any person 
had been surprised in the bush unarmed, the natives would have 
murdered him. Munday had fed the man who speared him . . . ; 
conceives this treacherous and ungrateful disposition prevailed amongst all 
the natives " (p. 53). A chief, with nine other men, having been 
induced to come to the house of Batman, were treated by him 
** with the utmost kindness, distributing to them clothing and food ; 
they were placed under no restraint. . . . Batman . . . was, with 
his family, most assiduous in cultivating the best understanding ; but, 
after remaining with him eight or nine days, they silently withdrew in 
the dead of the night, robbing Batman of everything they could lay 
their hands upon, and in their progress plundering every hut, and 
spearing every white man who had the misfortune to encounter 
them. . . . Eumarrah, the chief of the Stoney. Creek Tribe, was 
captured two years ago ; for some time after his capture he was 
narrowly watched, but by his apparently artless manner, and strong 
protestations of attachment, he was gradually confided in more and 
more. ... I have . . . personally satisfied myself that he fully 
Miderstood that the wishes of the Government were those of kindness and 
benevolence towards his race. ... I entrusted him to condu(5l a 
party of natives, assuring him that they should be clothed, and fed, and 



MORALS. 51 

prote<5led ; but to my disappointment and sincere regret, he availed 
himself of the first moment to abscond, and has, I fear, rejoined his 
tribe, with the most hostile intentions*' (Arthur, Col. and Slav., pp. 
58-59). " The aboriginal natives of this island not only are without 
sense of the obligation of promises, but appear to be insensible to acfls 
of kindness " (Min. Ex. Council, Col. and Slav., p. 64). 

Melville says (p. 349) : ** Some of the tribes were much more 
ferocious than others — the greater number were remarlcably quiet and 
tracflable," and Lloyd : ** The men . . . were artful to a degree, and 
possessed of a most unamiable and morose expression of countenance " 
(p. 44). Holman (IV. ch. xii. pp. 404-405) states : ** An instance of 
humane consideration among them is, that, in the gratification of revenge 
for any injury they have received, they generally spare the children of 
those whom they have destined to be their vicftims; but on p. 425 he 
gives an account of a murder by some aborigines, in which no humane 
consideration was shown : "A barbarous murder was perpetrated by 
them . . . which will serve to show the savage nature of their 
dispositions. A settler having left his hut to perform some work at a 
little distance, his wife took a walk into the garden with a child in her 
arms when some natives, who no doubt had watched the departure of 
her husband, rushed forward, and instantly despatched both her and her 
child with a shower of spears, after which they robbed the hut and 
made their escape." Leigh says, the aborigines "are peaceable towards 
those who use them well, but revengeful of injuries" (IIL p. 242), and 
West (IL p. 89): "They were cruel in their resentment, but not prone 
to violence ; . . . they were not ungrateful, especially for medical 
relief. . . . The English were seen by some friendly natives to 
draught the toad fish, which is poison, by which several have perished ; 
the natives, perceiving its preparation for food, endeavoured to show, 
by gestures, that it was not to be eaten, and exhibited its effecfts by 
the semblance of death." La Billardiere mentions the case of a native 
who expressed his gratitude for a cock given him by pointing to the 
bird on his shoulder (IL ch. x. p. 66). The following three incidents 
related by Backhouse show they had some sense of generosity for a foe, 
and of gratitude, even if not often exercised : " We passed the remains 
of a hut that was burnt about two years ago, by the aborigines of the 
Ouse or Big River district. An old man named Clark lost his life in it : 
but a young woman escaped ; she rushed from the fire and fell on her 
knees before the natives, one of whom extinguished the flames which 
had caught her clothes, and beckoned her to go away. They killed a 
woman on the hill behind the hut (p. 30). Two white men . . . 
were lost in crossing a river on a raft, before the tide was out. When 
some of the native women saw them in danger, they swam to the raft, and 
begged the men to get upon their backs, and they would convey them to 
the shore ; but the poor men refused, being overcome with fear. These 
kind-hearted women were greatly affedted by this accident (p. 147). 
We visited Hugh Germain. . . . He came to V. D. Land . . . 
at the first settlement of the colony, . . . [when] he says, he rarely 
carried a gun, though he often fell in with parties of the aborigines, 
in whom there was no harm" (p. 212). Dr. Ross found the natives 



52 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

very friendly ; as he says : one day " I was alarmed by the appearance 
of fires in three or four situations on the opposite side of the river, 
and soon after, a scattered crowd of about sixty aborigines walked up 
to my cottage. . . . I did my best to conciliate my guests — I made 
them as welcome as possible. . . . After several fruitless attempts, I 
succeeded in making one, who, I afterwards found, was a chief among 
them, sensible of the loss I should sustain if the fire were allowed to 
approach my corn or my dwelling, for it was already on my side of 
the river, and spreading up the bank within a few yards. We were 
doing our best to extinguish it, . . . but our efforts would have been 
in vain, . . . had not the whole tribe of blacks all at once come 
come forward to assist me. Even some hours afterwards, when the 
flames again broke out in two or three places, they were on the alert 
in a moment and put them out. I mention this incident, as it was 
an adt of friendship on their part, and shows, that where they have 
not been insulted, or had cause of revenge, and are able to discriminate 
their friends from their foes, they are not wanting in reciprocal offices 
of friendship and humanity. I am convinced that, had I wished it, 
they would have stopped' with me several day^, and given me any 
other assistance I might stand in need of, as well as dividing with me 
the opossums and other game they had caught in the bush (Ross, pp. 
145-146). On the day following this incident, when Dr. Ross was very 
anxious concerning a convidt servant of his, named Cook, who had 
already robbed him several times, and at whose hands he feared further 
outrage, . . . these natives appeared again ; and for once I felt a 
sort of security from having tkem beside me." After describing their 
manner of cooking and eating a meal, he continues : " Their natural 
politeness was constantly urging me to partake with them, and, not to 
disoblige them, both I and my child each took a leg of nicely cooked 
kangaroo- rat in our hands. . . . I had scarcely entered, when the 
report of a gun among the natives made me hasten back. ... I 
learned that a person, whom from the description ... I readily 
recognized to be Cook, had been seen by the dull light of the fire, 
standing among the trees a few yards behind. When he found himself 
discovered by the natives, he shouldered his musket and fired it off, 
pointed to the most crowded part, as they stood or laid roimd the fire. 
Happily, it was without effe(5l. ... I was now joined by two of 
my own servants, and we were all, to the number of about a dozen, 
started in instant pursuit of the runaway. . . The night, however, was 
very dark, . . . we were compelled, after running about a quarter of 
a mile, searching all about, to give up the pursuit. Whether it was 
from this little incident or not, I cannot say, but henceforth an un- 
interrupted understanding and reciprocity of good offices subsisted between 
me and these wandering and, as they afterwards proved to be, most 
savage blacks. . . . They never once committed the smallest tres- 
pass or annoyance on my farm, . . . and while the most dreadful 
outrages were committed by them all round, they never once attacked 
my farm or anything belonging to it" (ibid. pp. 153-155). Bonwick 
informs us (p. 9), that : '* Dr. Jeanneret, once Superintendent on 
Flinders Island, in a letter to me, hits off one of their weaknesses 



MORALS. RELIGION. 53 

thus : * My aborigines are happy and healthy, but so frail in purpose 
that the most ordinary temptation suffices to throw them of the balance, 
and few could be depended upon not to resort to that natural law of 
revenge were they again ill-treated without redress.' " We should in all 
probability have a poor opinion of them if they did not resort to the 
natural law of revenge. 

From the above accounts it is very clear that originally the aborigines 
were by no means generally hostile. Wentworth, in fadl, lays the whole 
responsibility of the hostility between the blacks and whites on an unfor- 
timate occurrence which occurred in 1803, about thirty years before the 
hostility reached its climax.* With regard to their treatment of animals, 
Davies says : ** They appeared much to enjoy the tortures of a wounded 
bird or beast, nor did I ever see them put such to death to relieve it 
from its misery;" and West (II. p. 89) makes a similar statement. 

Religion. 

As will be seen with regard to their religion and to a belief in a 
Supreme Being, authorities differ considerably. Widowson believed (p. 188) 
it to be "generally supposed that they have not the slightest idea of 
a Supreme Being." Breton (p. 349) says : ** They do not appear to have 
any rites or ceremonies, religious or otherwise." If we may trust Jorgen 
Jorgensen : ** Nothing has been elicited from them to give reason to believe 
that they possess any sort of creed, or trouble themselves about anything 
in the form of religion. They certainly have no religious rites" (quoted 
by Bonwick p. 72). Bishop Nixon says : " No trace can be found of the 
existence of any religious usage, or even sentiment, amongst them, unless, 
indeed, we may call by that name, the dread of a malignant spirit, which 
seems to have been their predominant, if not their only, feeling on the 
subjedt." On the other hand, most writers who touch on this subjedl agree in 
attributing some idea of religion to them. Thus, Leigh says (III. p. 243) : 
"Their notions of religion are very obscure. However, they believe in 
two spirits ; one, who, they say, governs the day, and whom they call the 
good spirit; the other governs the night, and him they think evil. To 
the good spirit they attribute everything good, and to the evil spirit 
everything hurtful. When any of the family are on a journey they are 
accustomed to sing to the good spirit for the purpose of securing his 
prote(5lion over their absent friends, and that they may be brought back 
in health and safety." This statement regarding a belief in a good and 
bad spirit looks very much like an introduced religion ; Mr. Leigh was 
a missionary. Speaking of the aborigines of both N. S. Wales and Tas- 
mania, Henderson (Bk. II. p. 148) states: ** A common belief prevails in 
both countries regarding the existence of inferior spirits, who conceal 
themselves in the deep woody chasms, during the day ; but who wander 
forth after dark, with power to injure or even to destroy. Their rude 
encampments are frequently alarmed by these unearthly visitors, whose 
fearful moanings are at one time borne on the midnight breeze, and at 
another, are heard mingling with the howling tempest." Jeffreys is more 

• See Chapter IV. 



54 H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

positive as to their belief in a Godhead. His words are (p. 124): "It 
frequently happens, that the sealers . . . are compelled to leave their 
[native] women for several days together. On these occasions, these affec- 
tionate creatures have a kind of song, which they chant to their imaginary 
deity, of whom, however, they have but a very indistindl notion ; and 
who, they say, presides over the day, an evil spirit or demon making his 
appearance in the night. This deity, whomsoever it is, they believe to 
be the giver of everything good, nor do they appear to acknowledge any 
more than one God." But Lloyd, from their attitudes at their corroborries, 
was inclined to think that they considered the moon a deity (pp. 48-49) : 
** Amongst the neighbouring tribes of aborigines it was customary to meet 
at some time-honoured trysting-place at every full moon, a period regarded 
by them with most profound reverence. Indeed, judging from their extra- 
ordinary gestures in the dance — the upturned eye and out-stretched arm, 
apparently in a supplicating spirit — I have been often disposed to conclude 
that the poor savages were invoking the mercy and protecftion of that 
planet as their guardian deity." According to Bon wick's statement (p. 190) 
" The sun was an objecfb of superstitious feeling, though not of worship ; " 
then he says : ** The moon shared in the affecftions of the rude tribes, 
. . . the dances held under her mild light were doubtless associated with 
respe(5l for her" (p. 192): and again "As the moon was regarded by the 
ancients as presiding over childbirth, the Tasmanian dances by moonlight 
might be associated remotely and primarily with that sentiment" (p. 196). 
There is no evidence that they were in awe of the sun, nor that they 
associated childbirth wdth the moon. The native names for moon and fire 
were very similar (see Milligan's Vocabulary). Bonwick in referring to 
the moon is thinking of Hull's statement on the Victorian aborigines who 
appear to have had a monthly corroboree in honour of the moon (Rep. 
Aborigines Committee, Legislative Council, Melbourne, 1858-9, p. 9). Lyne 
informed J. B. Walker that he once saw (at a considerable distance) a 
corroboree of blacks at full moon ; he thought that it was a sort of 
superstitious worship of the moon. He gave no reason for his so thinking. 
The natives were greatly afraid of the dark, and would naturally choose 
bright moonlight for a dance. (See Dances.) 

Milligan gives us two versions of his experience regarding their religious 
beliefs. The one in the voyage of the Beacon (pp. 29-30) runs thus : 
" They were polytheists ; that is, they believed in guardian angels or 
spirits, and in a plurality of powerful but generally evil-disposed beings, 
inhabiting crevices and caverns of rocky mountcains, and making temporary 
abode in hollow trees and solitary valleys ; of these a few were supposed 
to be of great power, while to the majority were imputed much of the 
nature and attributes of the goblins and elves of our native land. The 
aborigines were extremely superstitious, believing most implicitly in the 
return of the spirits of their departed friends and relations to bless or 
injure them, as the case might be ; and they often carried about with 
them one or other of the bones of the deceased as a charm against 
adversity." The other account of Milligan, taken from Papers Roy. Soc. 
of V. D. Land for Jan. 1855, is as follows: "Milligan said he had 
ascertained that the Tasmanian aborigines, previous to their intercourse 
with Europeans, distinctly entertained the idea of immortality as regarded 



RELIGION. 55 

the soul or spirit of man ; their legends proved also their belief in a 
host of malevolent spirits and mischievous goblins, whose abodes were 
caverns and dark recesses of the dense forests, clefts in rocks on the 
mountain tops, etc. ; and that they considered one or two spirits to be 
of omnipotent energy ; but that they do not seem to have invested even 
these last with attributes of benevolence, although they reposed unqualified 
trust in the tutelar agencies of the spirits of their departed friends and 
relations. To these guardian spirits they gave the generic name War- 
rawak,* an aboriginal term, like the Latin word umbra, signifying shade, 
shadow, ghost, or' apparition." Calder relates that on one occasion, 
** while the natives were making the funeral pile, Robinson took occasion 
to extracfl from them what their ideas were of a future state, and where 
they thought the departed went to. They all answered, ^ Dreeny,' that 
is, to England, saying, * Parleevar loggernu uenee toggerer Teeny Dreenyy 
mMerly Parleevar Dreeny' (native dead, fire; goes road England, plenty 
natives England). He tried to convince them that England was not the 
home of the departed, but did not argue them out of their belief. This 
simple reply shows that they quite believed in a life . . . after the 
destru(5lion of the body at the funeral pile. Robinson adds that they 
were fatalists, and also that they believed in the existence of both a 
good and evil spirit. The latter, he says, they called Raegoo wrapper, to 
whom they attributed all their afflicftions. They used the same word to 
express thunder and lightning" (J A.I. p. i8). Davies (p. 417) thought 
it hard to believe that the natives have ^* no idea of a future state, 
. . . and yet from every enquiry, both from themselves and from whites 
most conversant with them, I have never been able to ascertain that 
such a belief exists. They believe in the existence of an evil spirit, 
called by some tribes Namma, who has power by night ; of him they 
are much afraid, and never will willingly go out in the dark. I never 
could make out that they believed in a good deity, for although they 
spoke of one, it struck me that it was what they had been told ; they 
may, however, believe in one who has power by day. I have never 
been able to ascertain that they put either weapons or food in the tree 
with the dead." But Davies' opinion that the natives did not believe 
in a future state is contradicfted by several whom one would think should 
know. According to West (II. pp. 89-90) : ** Their religious ideas were 
exceedingly meagre and uncertain. To Horton's inquiries, in 1821, they 
answered, * don't know,* with broad grins. They appear to have had no 
religious rites, and few congenial ideas : they dreaded darkness and feared 
to wander from their fires; they recognized a maligant spirit, and attributed 
strong emotions to the devil [sic] . The feats imputed to his agency do 
not much differ from the sensations of night-mare. They believed him 
to be white — a notion, suggested by their national experience. They 
ascribed extraordinary convulsions to his malignant power, and to his 
influence they traced madness. Lord Monboddo might have contrived 
their account of the creation : they were formed with tails, and without 
knee-joints, by a benevolent being ; another descended from heaven, and 
compassionating the sufferers, cut off the tail, and with grease softened 

• Cf. Cox ante, p. 41. 



56 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

the knees. As to a future state, they expecfied to re-appear on an island 
in the Straits, and to jump up white men. They anticipated in another 
life the full enjoyment of what they coveted in this. These scraps of 
theology . . . are of doubtful origin ; nothing seems certain, except 
that they dreaded mischief from demons of darkness. They had no idols." 
G. W. Walker remarks likewise in their relucSlance to travel in the dark 
.(p. 106). 

Backhouse, who may be considered, with Dove, as a person likely 
to have made good inquiries as to their beliefs, says (pp. 181- 
182) : " These people have received a few faint ideas of the existence 
and superintending providence of God ; but they still attribute the strong 
emotions of their minds to the devil, who, they say, tells them this or 
that, and to whom they attribute the power of prophetic communications 
It is not clear that by the devil they mean anything more than a spirit; 
but they say he lives in their breasts, on which account they shrink 
from having the breast touched. One of their names for a white man 
signifies a white devil or spirit ; this has probably arisen from mistaking 
white men at first for spiritual beings. They have also some vague ideas 
of a future existence, as may be inferred from their remarks resped^ing 
the deceased woman on the Hunter Island. They also say they suppose 
that when they die, they shall go to some of the islands in the Straits, 
and jump up white men : but the latter notion may be of modem date." 
Finally we give Dove's views in his own words (I. p. 253): "The moral 
apprehensions which prevailed among them were peculiarly dark and 
meagre. It is remarkable that a persuasion of their being ushered by 
death into another and a happier state of existence was almost the only 
remnant [sic] of a primitive religion which maintained a firm abode in 
their minds. As might be expecfled, however, their ideas of a life beyond 
the grave were entirely of a sensual kind. To be enabled to pursue the 
chase with unwearied ardour and unfailing success, and to enjoy in vast 
abundance and with unsated appetite the pleasures which they courted on 
earth, were the chief elements which entered into their picture of an 
elysium. While there was no term in their native languages to designate 
the Creator of all things, they stood in awe of an imaginary spirit, who 
was disposed to annoy and hurt them. The appearance of this malignant 
demon, in some horrible form, was especially dreaded in the season of 
the night. Two customs of a superstitious kind are still retained among 
them; neither, however, bearing the slightest reference even to low and 
misguided views of religious homage." 

The following curious facfl is extracfled from West (p. 87) : ** A gen- 
tleman, on guard during the black war, watched a small group in the 
gaol yard round their night fires. One of them raised his hands, and 
moved them slowly in a horizontal dire(5\ion ; and spreading, as if 
forming an imaginary fan or quarter circle : he turned his head from 
side to side, raising one eye to the sky, where an eagle hawk* was 
soaring. The adlion was accompanied by words, repeated with unusual 
emotion ; at length they all rose up together, and uttered loud cries. The 
whole adlion had the appearance of an incantation," West's remarks 

* One is inclined to ask does an eagle hawk soar during the night ^ 



RELIGION. GOVERNMENT. 57 

(II, p. 90), are very just. We may distrust all accounts of their ideas 
of a Supreme Being or of a future life. These were mere echoes of 
what they had been told by Catechists and Teachers. The ** Black- 
fellow jump up white man on an island in the Straits " is doubt- 
less a late idea, after white men had come to them from over the sea. 
Bonwick (p. 192) states: ** Druidical Rites were not unknown in Tasmania," 
and also " Circles have been recognised in Van Dieman's Land." For 
the first statement there is no authority and as to the second, no 
aboriginal stone or other circles have yet been discovered. 

According to Bonwick (p. 181) ** My friend, Mr. Clark, the Catechist 
of the Tasmanians, wrote to me thus: The greater portion, but not all of 
them, believed that they were to live after the body died. Some of 
them showed me the stars where they were to go to. Others imagined 
they were to go to an island where their ancestors were, and be 
turned into white people. The more western portion of the aborigines 
had no idea of a future existence. They thought they were like the 
kangaroo." He also intorms us that ** A friend of my own was recog- 
nized by a Tasmanian tribe as one of their men, and treated accordingly." 
(p. 185). 

Regarding the use of a sacred white stone for use at the initiatory 
rites of the boys, of which Bonwick gives a long description (p. 201) ; 
it must be pointed out that the stone and the rite referred to are 
Queensland institutions, and taken from A. H. Davis (whom Bonwick 
has mistaken for R. H. Davies). Brough Smith (II. pp. 398-399) has 
the following statement : ** It is said that they carried sacred stones, 
with which they could cause diseases among their enemies, and cure 
those that afflidled their friends; and that they had the same belief in 
the evils that could be worked by any one who might possess himself 
of a portion of their hair." This statement has been taken from 
Bonwick (pp. 178, 194, &c.) and a similar statement is made by Sir 
John Evans (The Ancient Stone Implements, 2nd Ed., 1897, P* 4^^) 
likewise on Bon wick's authority, who has obtained it from A. H. Davis, 
who is a Queensland writer, and wrote nothing about the Tasmanians. 
Backhouse writes (p. 104) : ** One day we noticed a woman arranging 
several stones that were flat, oval, and about two inches wide, and 
marked in various dire(5\ions with black and red lines. These we learned 
represented absent friends, and one larger than the rest, a corpulent 
.woman on Flinders Island, known as Mother Brown." Out of this 
statement, Bonwick evolves (p. 193) the possibility that **The Tasmanian 
was communing with the spirits of her friends lost in the Black War." 

Lloyd gives (pp. 254-256) a sermon which was written down by a 
converted native in English in 1838, and preserved by Robinson. There 
is nothing of any note in this produ(flion. 

Government. 

According to Dove (I. p. 253) : ** Instead of an elective or hereditary 
chieftancy, the place of command was yielded up to the bully of the 
tribe." This statement is confirmed by Hackhouse (p. 105), who says : 
** The chiefs among these tribes are merely heads of families of extra- 



58 H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

ordinary prowess;" and also by Davies (p. 418), who tells us that, "Each 
tribe, or portion of a tribe, is under a chief, who does not appear to be 
hereditary, but to obtain his rank from his daring in war." Breton (p. 349) 
and Dixon (p. 22) both state that each tribe had its own chief or leader ; but 
it is evident that their position can have had but little, if any, dignity 
or authority attached to it, for La Billardiere observes (II. p. 61): that 
"during the whole of the time we spent with them, nothing appeared to 
indicate that they had any chiefs. Each family . . . seemed to us to 
live in perfe<51 independence." P6ron authoritively remarks (p. 448), that 
"the aborigines were without any chiefs, properly so called, without laws, 
or any form of regular government." We have, on the other hand, the 
opinion of Lieut. Jeffreys, who considered the statement that the Tasnia- 
nians were without any chiefs to be an erroneous one ; and thought they 
had persons to whom they paid a kind of homage and obedience. He 
quotes (pp. 1 30- 1 31), in support of this view, the following incident: 
" Some time ago a number of bushrangers took it into their heads to 
run away with a Government boat ; being driven on shore, . . . they 
soon fell in with a number of natives. A person of the name of Howe 
had the command of the bushrangers ; and one of the natives, perceiving 
by his gestures, and the condu(5\ of the rest of the men, that Howe 
maintained a sort of authority over his fellows, stepped forward a little 
from his companions, and showed a disposition to have some personal 
intercourse with him, refusing at the same time to hold anv conversation 
with the others. . . . Howe ordered his men to go and drag the boat 
up . . . The native, seeing this, beckoned to his men also to go and 
assist Howe's men, . . . but held Howe himself by the collar, intimating 
that they should neither of them suffer their dignity to be lessened by 
themselves rendering the men any assistance in so servile a piece of 
labour. This anecdote sufficiently proves that the native tribes of V. D. 
Land do, in fatft, observe a degree of obedience to those whom they 
considered to be their chiefs or heads." Such an anecdote from such a 
source requires corroboration. West observes (p. 81) that their chiefs 
were merely heads of families, . . . and were thought to possess very 
trifling and uncertain control. He adds : "Little is known of their policy 
and probably there was but little to be known :" while Robinson, the 
special friend of the aborigines, was only " of the opinion that they 
were divided into various tribes under chiefs occupying particular distri(5ls" 
(Col. and Slav., p. 10) ; but he has left us no further definite information 
as to the amount of authority and influence possessed by these leaders. 
Walker (MS. Jour.) observes " A sort of Patriarchal authority under 
certain limitations has been exercised by the chiefs of the respecflive tribes; 
but they have been far from exadling an implicit obedience to their 
commands, and in many respecls it appears to have been little more than 
nominal. " This, apparently probable, entire absence of any form of gov- 
ernment among the Tasmanian tribes increased the difficulties attending 
upon the establishment of friendly relations between them and the English, 
to no inconsiderable degree; thus in the Minutes of Exec. Counc. p. 11, 
we find it stated that, " The independence of the several tribes one of 
another would make a separate communication with each necessary. . . . 
And, after all, ... so totally do they appear to be without government 



GOVERNMENT. 59 

amongst themselves, that the Council much doubt if any reliance could 
be placed upon any negotiation which might be entered into with those 
who appear to be their chiefs, or with any tribe collecftively. " And 
again on p. 64, this same difficulty is referred to in similar terms, 
making it evident that these so-called ** chiefs *' possessed but the minimum 
amount of recognized authority among the tribes to which they belonged. 
We have no dire(5\ evidence to show that they were ever in the habit 
of meeting in council, to discuss matters concerning the tribes. The 
boundaries of various hunting-grounds belonging to each tribe were res- 
pe(rked, and, as we shall see,* trespass was equal to a declaration of war ; 
but being an entirely nomadic race, '* they had no permanent villages, and, 
accordingly, no individual property in land" (West, p. 20). 

The settlement of personal quarrels was effec^ted by a primitive, but 
striking, description of duel. ** If an offence be committed against the 
tribe, the delinquent has to stand while a certain number of spears are, 
at the same time, thrown at him ; these, from the unerring aim with 
which they are thrown, he can seldom altogether avoid; although from 
the quickness of his sight, he will frequently escape unhurt ; he moves 
not from his place, avoiding the spears merely by the contortions of his 
body." (Davies, p. 419). The Tasmanians varied this form of punishment 
by another, which closely resembled that of the pillory, Davies informing 
us, that their custom was, ** to place the offender upon the low branch 
of a tree, point at and jeer at him.'* 

Two men of the Western or Port Dairy mple tribe exhibited before 
Backhouse and Walker **the manner in which quarrels are decided amongst 
them ; or it may be described as the mode of giving vent to those feelings 
of irritation which, among Englishmen, would terminate in a pugilistic 
encounter. The parties approach one another face to face, and folding 
their arms across their breasts, shake their heads (which occasionally 
come in contadl) in each others faces, uttering at the same time the 
most vociferous and angry expressions, until one or the other of them 
is exhausted, or his feelings of anger subside. This custom is called by 
them * Growling,' and from the specimen afforded us by the Western 
lads, will not probably issue in anything worse than a bloody lip or 
nose*'* (Walker, p. loi). ** At Flinders Island on one occasion one of 
the men differed with his wife, because she had broken a bottle, or some 
other article which he highly prized. Instead of showing his displeasure 
by taking a stick and retaliating on the offender, he arose and cut 
deliberately the feet of seven women who happened to be lying near him 
asleep, but offered no kind of violence to his wife. After this burst of 
rage, his anger was appeased and they became reconciled. The aborigines 
on occasions of this sort, do not generally shew a disposition to retaliate 
on the person who thus wreaks his vengeance on them ; they rather 
endeavour to get out of the way. This circumstance, however, came to 
the Commandant's ears, and he thought proper to notice it, and infli(fl 
some punishment on the man who thus injured so many innocent women. 
He caused him to be brought before him, and made him to understand 
that he was much displeased ; and as the women through his misconduct, 

*See Chapter on War. 



6o H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

were unable to bring their quantum of water from the well, the offender 
was required to bring all the water himself. Without saying a word or 
making the least difficulty, the man set about his task, which he soon 
completed, and there the whole affair ended. A quarrel originating in 
one of their superstitious customs fell out thus : A married woman had 
selected a certain tree, according to their pracftice when in the bush, which 
tree, in such case, is considered the representative of the person who 
makes choice of it, and is regarded as their inviolable property, at all 
times to be held sacred. Through some accident this tree, which had 
been seled^ed by Roomtyenna, was pulled down or mutilated by a party 
of her countrymen, which she so violently resented that, snatching up 
a fire-brand, she ran in amongst them and dealt her blows very freely 
around. Her husband, who was of the party, at length struck her on 
the head and drew blood ; on which Roomtyenna desisted, but was greatly 
displeased, as may be supposed, with her consort. When he saw that 
she bled, he was apparently as disconcerted as she was, and would 
have gladly made it up, for they are a remarkably affedlionate couple, 
and in most things shew a more than ordinary degree of intelligence ; 
but it was some time before Jackey (Trygoomypoonaneh) could regain 
the smiles of his wife, who for the rest of the day was quite in a pet, 
though he certainly evinced much sorrow at the event " (Walker, pp. 
102-103). Biickhouse (p. 103) mentions that to seize a stick, and brandish 
it about, **is common under circumstances of rage among this people." 
Beyond this, however, we know nothing concerning either the nature 
of the offences, considered as such by the aborigines, or of the punish- 
ments which they inflidled for the same. 

Customs. 

No very remarkable customs are recorded as having prevailed among 
the Tasmanians. We are told by Pcron (p. 221), that kissing and 
embracing were seemingly unknown to them as salutations, for having 
thus saluted one of the natives, Peron adds : " From the air of indifference 
with which he received this proof of our interest, it was easy to judge 
it had no meaning for him ; '* while in another place (p. 282) he says : 
" I must not omit to mention an interesting discovery I then made [in 
an interview with fourteen aborigines] ; it was, that they had no idea of 
the adlion of embracing." He then proceeds to describe how he en- 
deavoured to make them understand by pracf^ical demonstrations, but 
that their only response was Nidego (I do not know), leading him to 
believe that the custom of embracing was unknown to these people. 
He adds ; ** I must, however, guard myself from stating this to be a 
positive facfl, only adding here that I have never seen a savage, either 
in V. D. Land or New Holland, embrace [? kiss] one of their own, or 
one of the opposite sex." According to La Billardiere (H. p. 33), the 
at^lion of hand-shaking was not unfamiliar to them, judging from the 
following incident which he has recorded. A party of natives having been 
met with, '* I hesitated not," he says, ** to go up to the oldest, who 
accepted ... a piece of biscuit. ... I then held out my hand 
to him as a sign of friendship, and had the pleasure to perceive, that 



CUSTOMS. TABU. 6l 

he comprehended my meaning very well : he gave me his, inclining him- 
self a little, and raising at the same time his left foot, which he carried 
backward in proportion as he bent his body forward." The indifference, 
and possibly dislike, of the Tasmanians, to kissing, is amusingly illustrated 
in the following anecdote narrated by West (p. 89) : ** A little boy, 
captured by a surveyor in 1828, ... on entering a room where a 
young lady was seated, was told to kiss her ; after long hesitation, he 
went up to her, laid his fingers gently on her cheek, then kissed them, 
and ran out ! " While they appear to have been demonstrative in their 
reception of friends, strangers were treated with indifference. Thus Back- 
house (p. 81) says: "A considerable number of the aborigines were upon 
the beach when we landed . . . but they took no notice of us until 
requested to do so by W. J. Darling; they then shook hands with us very 
affably. It does not accord with their ideas of proper manners to appear 
to notice strangers, or be surprised at any novelty." On a subsequent 
occasion, however. Backhouse (p. 180) tells us, that ** On approaching 
this place, we were discovered by some women . . . they now recog- 
nized us as old acquaintances, and gave us a clamorous greeting . . . 
with such a noise as, had we not known that it was the expression of 
friendship on the part of the people, would have been truly appalling." 
Peron also describes a friendly greeting on the part of some aborigines 
whom he had previously met. He slates (pp. 225-226) that : ** As soon 
as they saw us they raised great shouts of joy, and doubled their pace 
in order to rejoin us. . . . The old man taking Freycinet, made the 
sign for us to follow, and conducfled us to the miserable cabin we had 
just left. The fire was lighted in an instant ; and after having repeated 
several times medi, tnedi (sit down), which we did, the savages squatted 
on their heels," etc., etc. 

The Tasmanians, like some other savage races," were in the habit 
of abandoning the sick and infirm ; Widowson informing us (p. 191), 
that "those who are aged or diseased, are left in hollow trees, or under 
the ledges of rocks, to pine and die. Backhouse confirms this (p. 84), 
and further tells us that, ** when any of these people fall sick in their 
native state, so as to be unable to accompany the others in their daily 
removals, they are furnished with . . . food . . . and a bundle 
of the leaves of Mesemhryanthemum equilaterale^ . . . which the natives 
use as a purgative ; and they are left to perish, unless they recover in 
time to follow the others." This custom was but the 'necessary result 
of their wandering life ; for as West points out (p. 90), " their tribes 
could neither convey them, nor wait for their recovery." He adds, 
that ** this custom was modified by circumstances, and sometimes by 
the relatives of the sufferer." 

Tabu. 

We know of three forms of tabu, as pradHsed among the Tasmanian 
aborigines. These were the absolute exclusion from conversation of 
the names of all deceased, or even absent, relatives and friends; the 
avoidance of their burial-places ; and abstinence from certain kinds of 
food, such as the wallaby and scaled fish. 



62 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 

Milligan (Papers, Roy. Soc. Tas. III. p. 281) says: ** It was a 
settled custom in every tribe, upon the death of any individual, most 
scrupulously to abstain ever after from mentioning the name of the 
deceased — a rule, the infradlion of which would, they considered, be 
followed by some dire calamities : they therefore used great circumlocution 
in referring to a dead person, so as to avoid pronunciation of the name — 
if, for instance, William and Mary, man and wife, were both deceased, 
and Lucy, the deceased sister of William, had been married to Isaac, 
also dead, whose son Jemmy still survived, and they wished to speak of 
Mary, they would say, * the wife of the brother of Jemmy's father's wife,' 
and so on." Calder (J.A.I.) observes that " they never spoke of the dead, 
nor ever again mentioned their names." Braim likewise states (II. 
p. 267), ** Nothing could offend an aborigine so much as to speak of, 
or inquire about, his dead friends or relations." We have further 
the testimony of Dove (I. pp. 253-254), who, after referring to this 
curious ** fear of pronouncing the name by which a deceased friend was 
known, as if his shade might be thus offended," goes on ta say : 
** Nothing is more offensive to them than a. departure from the rule 
which they have prescribed to themselves on this point, by the white 
people with whom they may be drawn into converse. To introduce, 
for any purpose whatever, the name of any one of their deceased 
relatives, calls up at once a frown of horror and indignation " It 
would appear from the following incident, recorded by Backhouse (p. 93), 
that this strange avoidance of the pronunciation of names extended to 
those of the living absent, as well as the dead ; for he tells us that, 
" W^hen on the island one of the women threw some sticks at J. 
Thornloe, on his mentioning her son, who is at school at Newtown. 
The mention of an absent relative is considered offensive by them, and 
especially if deceased." W^e are also told by Walker (p. 108)^: Great 
dislike is shown to allusions to the absent, whether the separation be 
caused by difference of situation or death. If the name of the 
individual who is merely absent by distance be mentioned, it is custom- 
ary with them, when with Europeans, to signify their dissatisfacflion by 
signs, as if they considered it unpropitious." But, judging from anala- 
gous customs amongst other races, it is not probable that the tabu on 
mentioning the name of one deceased is due to " delicacy to the feelings 
of the survivors " (Bon wick, p 97). What particular fear or super- 
stition was involved in this practice we have no evidence to show. 

With regard to their dread of passing by burial-places, we have it on 
the authority of Braim (II, p. 267) that : '* W^henever they approached 
places where any of their countrymen had been deposited, they would 
on all future occasions avoid coming near such spots, and would rather 
go miles round than pass close to them." 

Concerning their rejecftion of certain kinds of food, Davies (p. 414) 
states, that *' Some tribes, or portions of tribes, will not eat the female 
wallaby, others will not eat the male : to what superstition this is 
attributable, I am ignorant. Others will not eat scaled fish ; and it 
appeared to me, when at Flinders Island, that the western natives 
would not eat the smooth-shelled haliotis, though the easterns did." 
Backhouse, whom Davies was perhaps quoting (p. 171) also informs us 



TABU. MEDICINE. 63 

that some of the natives only eat the male wallaby, others only the 
female ; and adds : ** We were unable to learn the reason of this ; but 
they so stridlly adhere to the pracflice, that, it is said, hunger will not 
drive them to deviate from it." His companion, G. W. Walker repeats 
(p. no) his statements and adds: ** The morning we arrived at Pea- 
jacket, a wallaby was taken by Tommy, at a time when meat was by 
no means plentiful ; he however gave the whole of it away, nor could 
I induce him to taste it. It was a male, and the only answer I 
could get from him was, he never eat the male of that animal. The 
rest of the party partook of it.*' We further learn from Calder (J. A. I., 
1873) that no fish, except shell-fish, ** would any native of Tasmania 
ever touch ; whether it was from natural aversion or superstition, is not 
known ; but scale-fish of any kind " was an abomination to the entire 
race. This tabu of male and female wallaby, as the case may be, 
may probably be akin to similar tabu pracflised by other totemistic 
uncivilized races; but with regard to the Tasmanians, we do not appear 
to have any indications of totemism. 

Medicine. 

We have very little information under this heading. According to 
Calder, Robinson says : ** ; . . The savage of Tasmania was more 
than ordinarily liable to attacks (of epidemic disease), which ... he 
knew no remedy for, and sought only to relieve his pain by . . . 
the excessive laceration of his body with flint [sic] , or glass if he could get 
it, which, by producing weakness, made death only the more speedy 
and certain. I quite believe that the original cause of their decay lay 
in their own imprudence generating fatal catarrhal complaints, from 
which ... by proper remedial measures, resorted to early, (they) 
would have recovered. These imprudences were . . . pra(ftised only 
by a few tribes inhabiting the settled distridls, but the consequences, 
which are epidemic, infe(5^ed all before long" (J.A.I, p. 15). Robinson 
also relates of a sick woman who was afflidted, according to her hus- 
band, with sick head, breast, belly : — ** On each of these parts incisions 
had been made with a piece of glass bottle. The forehead was much . 
lacerated, the blood streaming ,down her face. Her whole frame was 
wasted; she had a ghastly appearance" (Calder, J.A.I, p. 16). La 
Billardi^re remarks (II. ch. x. p. 57) : ** One of the savages has 
several marks of very recent burns on his head. Perhaps they employ 
the adlual cautery in many diseases." Holman says much the same 
(IV. ch. xii. p. 405) : ** Bleeding by scarification is a mode of treat- 
ment in general use among them, in cases of sickness." G. W. 
Walker often told his son that the natives used to make cuts on their 
bodies, with a piece of glass ** to let the pain out." ** Truganina, 
finding her husband in much pain, from a swollen thigh, made six 
incisions, which produced much sloughing, and cured him in nine days. 
Tight bandages, kept wet, relieved pain in the head and stomach," 
(Bonwick, p. 89.) West records (II. p. 90) that "they suffered from 
several diseases which were often fatal. Rheumatism and inflammation 
were cured by incisions ; the loathsome eruption,, called the native leprosy, 



64 H, LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES 

they relieved by wallowing in ashes: the catarrh was very destruiflive 
in certain seasons. . . . Their surgery was simple : they cut gashes 
with crystal." Dove's evidence is similar (pp. 252-3). Backhouse, 
noticing that the inhabitants of the west coast did not mark their 
bodies with same regularity as those on the east, considered that the 
scars upon those on the west coast appeared to have proceeded from 
irregular surgical cuts, and were principally upon the chest " (p. 1051. 
They treated a snake bite by boring the wound with a charred peg : 
stuffed it with fur, and then singed off the surplus to the level of the 
skin" (West, II. p. 90). "The aborigines . . . often carried about 
with them one or other of the bones of the deceased [friend or relation] 
as a charm against adversity. Bones of the leg, arm, foot, and hand, the 
lower jaw, and even the skull, have in this way, and for this purpose, 
been found suspended round the necks of individuals amongst them " 
(Milligan, Beacon, p. 30}. , Walker (p. 98) also relates the application 
of the bones of deceased relatives, for the purpose of easing the pain 
of the part applied to; and 
in his MS. Journal he 
states that " RoometitymJ- 
enna,# the wife of a chief, 
carries constantly, on her 
bosom, the skull of an 
infant. They conneifl some 
superstitious notions with 
the pra»ftice, evidently re- 
garding it in the light of a 
charm."'. " The aborigines 
use charms, and they wear 
the dead bones of their 
friends slung round their 
necks as such. Those that 
I have seen have been 
most commonly the jaw- 
bone, or the bone of the 
thigh ; as also the skulls 
of children, the latter wrap- 
ped up in a skin. These 
l>ones are worn by people 
in perfeijl health, most 
probably as mementos of 
deceased relations ; but if 
Kc. TOP AND siiiE VIEW, supposEu SO, they Icud them to others 
cEs OF HUMAN BONES. THE KLAT of their own ttibe when ill, 
BOBABLv DUE TO i-ACKiSG. D]A. who Wear them as charms 
74 INCHES.— BRIT. Mus. found their necks" (Davies, 

p. 416-417). When being 
conveyed to Flinders Island, " Mr. Batman, commanding the colonial brig 
' Tamar,' describes them as reconciled to their fate, though during the 
whole passage tbey sat on the vessel's bulwark, shaking little bags ol 
human bones, apparently as a charm against tlie danger to which they 



MEDICINE. 65 

felt exposed'" (Stokes, Vol. II., p. 466). * Dove also refers (pp. 252-253) 
to their "anxiety to possess themselves of a bone from the skull or the 
arms of their deceased relatives, which, sewed up in a piece of skin, they 
wear round their necks, confessedly as a charm against sickness or prema- 
ture death." * According to Robinson, quoted by Bonwick (p. 10) Mana- 
lagana had the jawbone of a friend covered over with native string, and 
hung upon his chest." In the British Museum pi(5lure of Wooreddy by 
B. Dutureau, the jaw-bone is hanging by the condyles. A story is told 
of a child, belonging to the Oyster Bay tribe of Eastern Tasmania, being 
buried in a blanket provided by a kind-hearted settler. The tomb was 
observed next day to have been disturbed, and, upon investigation, the 
head was found to be missing. In two days* time the skull of the little 
one was seen upon the broad chest of a native (Bonwick p. 179). He 
adds the following without quoting his authority. ** It was not only by 
the application of the bone to the seat of pain, but scrapings from it 
were especially valuable ; even the water in which the sacred relic had 
been steeped had charming properties." Barnard Davis says these charms 
were suspended by *' fine native cords " (Osteology, p. 9). Backhouse, 
while considering them worn as tokens of affecftion, also found them used 
as charms, for he relates : ** A man who had a head-ache to-day had 
three leg bones fixed on his head, in the form of a triangle, for a charm " 
(ch. vii. p. 84). 

" When any of these people fall sick, in their native state, so as to be 
unable to accompany the others in their daily removals, they are furnished 
with a supply of such food as the party happens to have, and a bundle 
of leaves of Mesemhryanthemum equilaterale—a. plant known in the colony by 
the name of Pig-faces, — which the natives use as a purgative, and they are 
left to perish, unless they recover in time to follow the others " (Backhouse, 
p. 84). ** When a woman was taken in labour, the tribe did not wait 
for her, but left her behind with another woman, and afterwards followed 
as she best could" (Davies, p. 412). The office of watching over the 
sick and dying was left to the women (Dove, p. 252). According to 
Dove, (p. 252) : ** No one presumed to be more qualified than another to 
suggest or administer a cure," but West says (II. p. 90), "There were 
some who pracftised more than others, and therefore called docftors by the 
English." i From Backhouse we have the following accounts : ** An eruptive 
disease prevailed among the aborigines at this period : it was attended 
with fever fpr about four days, and was supposed to have arisen from 
feeding too freely from young mutton-birds. One of the men suflfering 
under it, and covered with sores as large as a shilling, lay by a fire, 
and was literally wallowing in ashes, having covered himself with them 
from head to foot. This, we are informed, was one of their common 
remedies" (p. 90). He also mentions (p. 103) meeting a woman who was 
the last of the tribe, and "on inquiring what killed them all, an aged 
man, one of their dodlors, replied, *The devil.' I desired to know how 
he managed. The women began to cough violently, to show me how 
they were affecfted. The old do<5^or is affecfted with fits of spasmodic 
contra(5lion of the muscles of one breast, which he attributes, as they do 
all other diseases, to the devil ; and he is cunning enough to avail him- 
self of the singular effe6i produced upon him by this malady, to impose 



66 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

upon his country people, under the idea of Satanic inspiration. The 
doiflor had his instruments lying by him, consisting of pieces of broken 
glass ; with these he cuts deep gashes in any part affedled with pain.' " 
And Backhouse ends up this subjedl with : ** Lately one of the women 
died. The men formed a pile of logs, and at sunset, placed the body of 
the woman upon it. They then placed their sick people around it, at 
a short distance. On A. Cottrell inquiring the reason of this, they told 
him that the dead woman would come in the night and take the devil 
out of them" (p. 105). 

According to Bon wick (p. 89) : " A bath in salt water was the pre- 
scription for cutaneous affecftions. Drinking plentifully of cold water, and 
then lying by a fire, adled as a wet sheet for promoting perspiration. 
Alum was an important article in their pharmacopoeia. Shampooing, 
especially with the utterance of favourite charms, was held efficacious in 
various disorders. Cold water was sprinkled on the body in cases of 
fevers. A decodlion of certain leaves was applied to alleviate acute pain. 
Ashes were used for syphilitic sores, and the oil of the mutton-bird for 
rheumatism. Blood was staunched in severe wounds with clay and leaves, 
while women constantly poured water over the part. Leaves of the Ziera 
(Stink- wood) worn round the head relieved pain. Magnetism, in gentle 
fridtion of the limbs, was applied, and passes used. The urine of females 
was a specific. . . . Soft whisperings of magical words reached the 
ear of the believing invalid. The blood of another was often employed 
as a healing draught." The student must ascertain for himself the correct'- 
ness of the use of these specifics not mentioned by other writers. 






68 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

ordered his men to give us a volley of stones, which they did, he giving 
the time in most beautiful order, swinging his arms three times, and at 
each swing calling ** Yah ! yah ! yah ! " and a severe volley it was. I 
had a large pair of duelling pistols in my pocket, loaded with two balls 
each, and seeing there was no alternative I fired amongst them, which 
dispersed them ; the other I fired after them as they ran away. Two 
of them dragged Briggs along the ground a little distance to get the 
swans from him, but were not successful. The chief and his men ran 
into the bush, and were quickly out of sight. On looking round after 
they had all scampered we found the six feet seven inches gentleman 
lying on his back on the ground. We thought, of course, he was dead, 
but on turning him over to examine his wounds, found he had not a 
blemish on him. His pulse was going at 130. It must have been the 
reports of the pistols which frightened him. We set him on bis feet tg 
see if he could walk ; he opened his eyes and trembled very much. We 
led him a few feet towards the bush ; he stood up straight, looked round 
him, and took one jump towards the scrub — the next leap he was out 
of sight. As soon as he was lost to our view, the hills around echoed 
with shouts of joy from the voices of men, women, and children. We 
measured the first jump the old man took, it was exadlly eleven feet; 
but the second must have been more, for they were more like the jumps 
of a kangaroo than a man. We found several marks of blood on the 
stones in the dire(5lion that the natives ran away when the pistols were 
fired. Some of them were most probably wounded. We then got into 
our boat. Just as we were pulling away, we received a large volley of 
stones and spears frpm the natives. One spear went through the side 
of the boat, but luckily no one was hurt. We landed on a small rock, 
covered with birds. They were laying, and we got six buckets full of 
eggs — a good supply. This seemed to offend the natives, as a number 
of women came down on a point of rocks and abused us very much 
for taking their eggs." 

It is very remarkable that the Tasmanians, who developed in their 
last struggle for life and liberty such remarkable warlike powers, should 
originally have been armed only with the very crudest weapons. We are 
distindlly told that these people had neither throwing-sticks (wommeras) 
nor boomerangs (Jeffreys, p. 126; Breton, p. 355; Da vies, 419; Wentworth, 
p. 115). According to Marion (p. 28): ** The men were all armed with 
pointed sticks, and some stones which appeared to us to have cutting 
edges, similar to the iron one of hatchets," while Calder (J.A.I, p. 21) 
says : ** When his [the Tasmanian*s] other weapons failed him, he fought 
with stones, and even with these was a very formidable opponent." One 
authority (Meredith, Papers Roy. Soc, Tasm., Aug., 1873) says they had 
no shields. But Thirkell (ibid,) says, ** They used a shield made of a 
piece of flat wood." The shield would probably have been introduced 
by the Sydney aborigines in later times. Their weapons were thus 
limited to the spear, waddy, and stones. 

La Billardiere (I. ch. v. p. 233) speaks of javelins sixteen or eighteen 
feet in length, and says of them (II. ch. x. p. 25), " This weapon was 
no more than a very straight long stick, which they had not taken the 
pains to smooth, but which was pointed at one end." Melville describes 



WAR. 69 

the spear as " a straight stick, varying in length from five to eight feet, 
usually made of curri-john, or the tea tree, with the bark scraped off 
and pointed at the thickest end" (p. 347). Widowson (p. 190) describes 
it as ** about twelve feet long, and as thick as the little finger of a man: 
the tea tree supplies them with this matchless weapon ; they harden one 
end, which is very sharply pointed, by burning and filing it with a 
flint prepared for the purpose." 

Fumeaux (Cook, Second Voy. Bk. I. ch. vii.) thought the spear was 
made sharp by means of a shell or stone. Mortimer (p. 20) says, "Their 
only weapon seems to be a rude spear, or lance, which is cut or scraped 
to a point at one end, but Calder (J.A.I., p. 21) says, "The spear was 
pointed at both ends, and ten feet long or more." Henderson describes 
the weapon as follows (Bk. II. pp. 150- 151) : ** Their principal weapon 
is the spear, which is commonly six feet in length, and about the thickness 
of a man's finger. Straight boughs of several descriptions of shrubs are 
sele(5led for the purpose of preparing them ; and these, after being dried 
to hardness over a fire and carefully pointed, require but little strength 
in order to infli(5l a very severe wound." According to Davies (p. 419) 
the spear was made of the wood of Uptospermum or fnelaUuca, hard heavy 
woods. In the Report Roy. Soc., V. D. Land for 1852, p. 325, there 
is the following statement : ** Milligan presented a waddie and six hunting 
spears of the aborigines of Tasmania, measuring between ten and fifteen 
feet in length, and made of a tall straight -grained Leptospermum^^ * tea 
tree,* of the colony.*" Backhouse states (p. 172): ** In dressing their 
spears they [the aborigines] use a sharp flint or knife ; in using the latter 
for this purpose, they hold it by the end of the blade. They straighten 
their spears till they balance as accurately as a well-prepared fishing rod, 
performing this operation with their teeth.** J. Scott (Papers Roy. Soc., 
Tasm. July, 1873) also says : ** The ends of the spears were hardened 
by being a short time in the fire.*' Thirkell speaks of the spears being 
jagged at the sharp end (Papers Roy. Soc. Tasm. Aug., 1873), ^"^ ^^ 
reference to this statement we find {ibid.)^ ** In the eastern distri(5ls, with 
which MereditH was familiar, the blacks never jagged their spears, nor 
did they make use of a shield. The jagged sf>ears and shields would 
therefore appear to have been used more particularly by the northern 
tribes, which were specially referred to by Thirkell.** + The only reference 
to a poisoned spear is by Melville (p. 109), who, in the course of a 
fight, refers to a heavy barbed spear thirteen feet in length, "fatally 
poisoned by plunging it into some decomposed carcase.*' Calder (J.A.I.) 
quotes the following from an official letter from W. B. Walker : " At 
their places of rendezvous, the natives keep a large stock of spears and 
waddied. The spears are carefully tied to straight trees with their points 
at some distance from the ground.*' Bonwick says the spears were made 
of she-oak and smoothed with flint and glass (p. 42). They cannot, 
however, be made of she-oak, as this wood does not grow long and 
straight enough, and there is no flint in Tasmania; the glass may have 
been used in later years. Lyne has informed J. B. Walker that " the 

• Bunce says (pp. 23-24) it was L. lanigerum. 
t It is quite possible jagged spears may have been introduced from Australia. 



yO H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

spears were ten or twelve feet long and made of tea tree lepiospermnm 
or melaleuca. After the bush has been burnt the tea tree grows up in 
long straight shoots. It was these that were used for spears. The green 
wood was held over, or passed through, the fire to soften and supple 
it. It was then straightened and scraped ; sharpened at the end and 
the point hardened in the fire." It is said that in straightening their 
spears the natives used their teeth as a vice to hold them. On the 
borders of creeks the tea tree grows in dense scrubs, very tall and straight 
and yet slender enough for spears ; the wood is very tough, hard and 
heavy. In the Museum at Hobart there are ten spears, all apparently 
of tea tree {melaUtica), measuring from ten to fourteen feet in length. 
They are carefully scraped smooth, and scraped to a rather blunt point. 
Most taper rapidly from the middle to the hinder end, which is often 
not thicker that the thin end of a riding whip. This confirms Mr. Lyne's 
statement that they were made of the young shoots of tea tree, growing 
up after a bush fire. The shortest is ten feet long ; diameter at thickest 
part, three quarters of an inch, tapering to one quarter of an inch. The 
thickest, eleven feet eleven inches long. Thickest part (twenty inches 
from point), three inches in circumference. In the middle, two and a 
quarter inches in circumference. From the middle it tapers rapidly, and 
two inches from the hinder end is only half an inch in circumference. 
G. Raynor, a very old resident, writes me that they made their 
spears of the tea tree shoots. ** I'hey would select the finest and 
straightest of them, pull them up and burn off the roots, they would 
place the thick end on the fire again till it was slightly burned, and 
then they would rub off the burnt part with a rough sandstone ; they 
would repeat that till they made a sharp point, the fire of course would 
make the point very hard ; and by working the spear through a crevice 
in a sandstone rock all roughness would be removed, and by rubbing it 
with a little grease it would shine as if newly varnished." 

Their other weapon, " the waddy, was a short piece of wood, reduced 
and notched towards the grasp and slightly rounded at the point " (West, 
p. 84). Henderson speaks of it as about two feet, long and ** this they 
are in the habit of employing for the purpose of despatching a wounded 
vicftim " (Bk. II. p. 151). Thirkell says it is ** about two feet six inches 
long," while Backhouse speaks of it (p. 90) as a short ** stick about an 
inch in thickness, brought suddenly to a conical point at each end, and 
at one end a little roughened, to keep it from slipping out of the hand. 
This, they throw with a rotatory motion and with great precision." **The 
waddy was made of the leptospermitm and melaleuca^ the hard, heavy woods 
used for making spears" (Davies, p. 419); and, according to Hull (Proc. 
Roy. Soc, V. D. Land, vol, i. p. 156), ** The young wood of Pittosporum 
bicolor was formerly in high estimation among the aborigines of Tasmania, 
on account of its combined qualities of density, hardness, and tenacity, 
as the most suitable material of which to make their warlike implement 
the waddy." Bligh (p. 51) speaks of the natives being armed with a 
** small stick, two or three feet long," which was probably a waddy. 
Breton (p. 356), Melville (p. 348), and the V. D. Land Annual, 1834 
(p. 78) also mention the waddy. Lyne told J. B. Walker that the waddy 
was about thirty inches long, about one and three quarters thick at 



WAR. *ji 

the heavy end and tapering to one and a quarter inches. The heavy 
end was sometimes knobbed. It was made of waddy wood pittosporum 
hkolor ; native box, hursaria spifwsa ; and perhaps also of he-oak, casiiarina 
suberosa. In the Hobart museum there are two waddies apparently 
of nielaleuca, but doubtful. The larger one is two feet one inch in length. 
Thickest part three and a quarter inches in circumference ; tapering to 
three inches just above the roughened part. The other is one foot ten 
and three quarter inches long. They are scraped smooth, except three 
inches at thinner end, which is hacked rough. 

According to Mortimer (p. 20), who met some natives on an expedition, 
*' Mr. Cox made signs to one of them to throw his spear, which he did, 
to a considerable distance, and with a good deal of force; but I cannot 
conceive them to be a dangerous weapon." But, as we shall see, Mor- 
timer is the only writer who doubted the effecfliveness of the Tasmanians' 
weapons, although Wentworth does say of their spears (p. 116): "In using 
them they grasp the centre ; but they neither throw them so far nor so 
dexterously as the natives of the parent colony" [New South Wales]. 
Mrs. Prinsep in her letters, has the following statement (p. 80): "You 
will not wonder at our anxiety to avoid a recontre with them and their 
formidable spears; a weapon they wield with deadly eflfe(5l. We had seen 
six or seven kept as prisoners in Hobarton . . . They threw the 
spear for our amusement. This is merely a slender stick, nine or ten 
feet long, sharpened at the heaviest end ; they poise it for a few seconds 
in the hand, till it almost spins, by which means the spear flies with 
great velocity to the distance of sixty yards, and with unerring aim." 
Dixon (II. p. 23) speaks of the personal agility and dexterity of the 
natives in wielding their weapons; and Jeffrey says (p. 126): "They 
discharge the spear itself from their hands and are excellent marksmen." 
Regarding the distance to which they could throw their lances, Lloyd 
says (p. 45) : " Forty yards was the extreme range of corre(5l aim, with 
either spear or waddie, by the blacks of Tasmania." Breton (p. 353) 
says : " That they throw the spear by the hand alone, and yet will strike, 
a small objedl at a distance of from forty to fifty yards," and of the 
waddy, it is "a formidable instrument, as it is sent with almost unerring 
aim, and with such force that any person struck by it would receive a 
dangerous contusion or even a severe wound. It can be thrown with 
ease forty yards, and in its progress through the air goes horizontally, 
describing the same kind of circular motion that the boomerang does, 
with the like whirring noise" (ibid.). Of the spear Calder says (J. A. I. 
p. 3i) : It " was thrown from the hand only, with great force and pre- 
cision, having a range of, I believe, about sixty or seventy yards," and 
of the waddy, " It was held by the thinner end and was used either 
as a club or missile. Used for the latter purpose, it was hurled with 
awful force and certain aim." According to the anonymous author in 
the V. D. Annual (1834, p. 78): "They are so extremely dexterous in 
the use of the spear ; as seldom to miss a mark, even at a consider* - 
able distance; and in managing their waddies also,, they display great 
skill and prowess," while Melville (pp. 347-9) speaks as follows : " They 
were extremely dexterous in the use of the spear ; in throwing these to 
a considerabte distance, or in using them when spearing fish in the water^^ 



72 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

they seldom missed the obje<5l aimed at," and of their waddies : " These 
they would throw with considerable force and extraordinary dexterity." 
** In throwing the spear they are very expert " (Widowson, p. 190). ** A 
shower of their spears, which they send through the air with a quivering 
motion, would be terribly destru(5live" (Backhouse, p. 172). Meredith, in des- 
cribing the murder of one of his father's stockmen, named Gay, by the 
blacks, says : "About four hundred yards from the hut was a creek, in which 
the body of Gay was found, covered over with sticks ; on being drawn out, 
many spear wounds were discovered, and one spear remained in one of 
the feet, having been driven through his thick boot-sole into the foot ; but 
for this one spear, he might probably have escaped, being a very swift 
runner, and this fatal weapon must have struck him when flying at full 
speed from his murderers** (Home in Tasmania, p. 204). Ross mentions 
(p. 151), that on one occasion one of the stock-keepers was pursued by 
a party of natives, who "struck him as he ran with five or six spears," 
three of which " had struck him in the back," and " one especially had 
penetrated his loins several inches.*' When Peletega, a chief, was confined 
in Hobart Gaol, in the year 1830, "he took up an old broom stick, 
whilst standing at a distance of about twelve yards, threw it in the 
manner of casting a spear, right through a small hole, although the 
aperture was scarcely half an inch larger than the stick that passed 
through it. At another time, taking up a small bit of lath, which 
some gentlemen trying to throw could not cast half the distance, he 
struck it diredlly through and through the middle of a hat, set up 
thirty yards off" (Parker, p. 34). 

As we have seen above stones were used as weapons, and Kelly, 
on more than one occasion,, mentions the showers of stones with which 
the aborigines were wont to attack their enemies. As we shall see 
diredlly, Marion's party was attacked by a shower of stones. G. Ray- 
nor writes me that the waddy, the spear, and "a round stone about 
two inches in diameter, formed their weapons of war and chase." To 
throw stones at any one was also an evident sign of displeasure 
(Walker, p. no). 

Of their inter-tribal wars, and the causes thereof, we have necessarily 
only the meagrest accounts. The V. D. Land Annual (1834, P* ^^) says ; 
" They were perpetually engaged in conflidls between rival tribes, and 
we are told that these were frequently attended by fatal issues. . . . 
Some of these tribes are infinitely more savage . . . than others, 
and more skilled in the arts of war,** and Milligan (Beacon, p. 26), 
" The numerous tribes of which the population of the island consisted 
were constantly at war with one another." Davies reports similarly 
(p. 419) : ** Each tribe occupied certain tracfts of country, but they 
were constantly invading and at war with each other.*' ** The natives 
far to the southward and westward take part with the natives in the 
interior ; those on the northern and eastern coasts do not take part 
with the tribes in the interior" (Kelly, p. 51). According to G. Robertson 
(Col. and Slav., pp. 47-48), many of the Oyster Bay mob have been 
killed by the Port Dalrymple natives. The Oyster Bay and - Big 
River tribes were hostile to the northern natives." Of the cause of 
these wars we have not far to look, the chief cause beilig probably 



WAR. 73 

I 

the pressing presence of the Colonists, as Melville (p. 349) states : 
" Ever after the arrival of the English, they were at war with each 
other — tribe against tribe ; and this was owing to their having been 
forced to trespass on each other's hunting-grounds, being driven from 
their own by the white population.** West, the historian, also ascribes, 
the inter-tribal wars to this cause (II. p. 85). ** The wars among them 
latterly, provoked by driving one tribe on the boundaries of another, 
were not infrequent ; as everywhere, women were the cause and obje<5^ 
of strife. . . . Those [tribes] on the east of the Launceston Road 
were confederate. Towards the last, the Oyster Bay tribe committed 
their children to the care of the Big River tribe, many of whom had 
been slain by the Western tribes, as well as by the English." Calder, 
who has gone through Robinson's voluminous reports, speaking of their 
internecine wars, says Q.A.I, pp. 24-25) : '* Animosities ran high amongst 
them, and their quarrels never died out except with the extincflion of 
their enemies. They made long marches to surprise them ; and to come 
on them unperceived, if possible, was their constant objecft. But it was 
most difficult to approach them thus, the greatest circumspedlion being 
necessary, for such was their vigilance, that it was rare to catch them 
oflF their guard. . . . There seems to have been an hereditary feud 
between the men of the east and the west, and whenever their captor, 
Robinson, met them, they were either on the march to meet their 
ancient enemies, or were returning from a vidlory ; for I do not recolledt 
a single instance in which they ever acknowledged defeat. Their march 
was described to me as a very regular one, and that they stepped 
pretty well together, singing or shouting some war-chant, and rattling 
their spears as they went along, striking the ground with great force 
with the foot every third or fourth step. The look of each was deter- 
mined and ferocious beyond expression," and on p. 27 : ** The Big 
River and Oyster Bay tribes and the Stoney Creek tribe were the most 
ferocious and predatory of all the natives." 

** If any quarrel took place among the men of the same tribe, it 
was the waddy that decided their affairs of honour" (Melville, p. 349). 
" When they meet with the intention of fighting, it is the custom for 
one to receive a blow on the cranium, and then to return the blow 
on that of his adversary " (Breton, p. 355). " When they fight among 
themselves, the chief weapon is the waddy, which they flourish in 
the air for some time, with boisterous threats and gestures, and then 
ffirfl to in good earnest. . . . Their skulls are thicker [sic] than those 
of Europeans. They had need be so, to receive the blows that are 
inflidled on these occasions, as they sometimes appear heavy enough to 
fell an ox [sic]** (V. D. Land Annual, 1834, p. 78). 

The first Tasmanian blood spilled by Europeans occurred during 
Marion's exploring visit. His party had landed and established friendly 
relations with the natives. But ** when Marion landed, a savage detached 
himself from the mob, and came to present him . . • with a fire 
brand to light a little pile. The captain, thinking it was a ceremony 
necq^sary to show that he came with peaceful intentions, did |iot hesitate 
to set fire to the pile; but it soon appeared to be quite tbP contrary, 
and, that accepting the brand signified the accepting of a challenge, or 



74 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

declaration of war. As soon as the pile was lighted, the savages retired 
precipitately on to a hill, from which they threw a shower of stones, 
wounding Marion and another officer with him. . . . Everybody re- 
embarked. . . . The savages conveyed their women and children into 
the woods, and followed the boats along the shore. When we wished 
to land, they opposed our doing so. One of them uttered a fearful shout, 
and immediately the whole mob discharged their pointed sticks, by which 
a black servant was wounded in the leg. The wound was not a great 
one, and the rapidity with which it healed proved that these javelins of 
wood were not poisoned. We replied to their shower of spears by firing, 
which wounded several and killed one. They fled into the woods, howling 
fearfully, carrying with them those who, being wounded, were unable to 
follow" (Marion, pp. 29-31). Why the lighting of the pile should have 
been the cause of the attack is not explained. The next party to come 
to blows with them was Peron*s party, and on this occasion also the 
encounter seems to have been caused by a misunderstanding. He relates 
that, on one occasion, when they had unwittingly given offence to a large 
body of aborigines by one of their number being wrestled with and 
overthrown by a middy named Maurouard, as they were in the acft of 
re-embarking, ** all of a sudden a long spear, thrown from behind some 
neighbouring rocks, struck Maurouard in the shoulder ; this rude weapon 
had been thrown with such force that, after slipping along the whole 
surface of the shoulder-blade, it opened a passage through the flesh of 
the shoulder and the neck. The crew . . . wished to pursue the 
savages in revenge, but they had already disappeared among the rocks 
and brushwood. ... A few days afterwards, in another part of the 
channel [D'Entrecasteaux] , there was a fresh attack, in which the savages 
rained a storm of pebbles down upon us ; fortunately no one was hit " 
(Peron, ch. xii. p. 236). Another time he states: **A short time after our 
return, the Commander himself came back from a short excursion which 
he had gone to make on the mainland [Tasmania] with Captain Hamelin, 
Lechenault and Petit. These gentlemen had again encountered the 
aborigines, and the interview had again terminated in a violent attack 
on the part of the latter. The fact was. Petit, having sketched several 
of the savages, the party was preparing to return to the ship, when 
one of them [savages] threw himself upon the artist in order to take 
from him the drawings he had just made ; upon his trying to defend 
himself, the savage became furious and took up a log, with which he 
would have killed our weak companion, if the others had not run to his 
rescue. Far, however, from seeking to revenge such audacity, they were 
pleased to shower new presents upon the aggressor, in the hope, no 
doubt, of calming his fury by such generous condudl, and to gain the 
goodwill also of his fellow-countrymen ; but hardly had these savage men 
seen our party occupied in re-embarking, than they re-entered the forest, 
and a moment afterwards there came a shower of stones, one of which 
struck the Commander in the back, causing a large and painful contusion. 
Our comrades, in spite of this treachery, did not wish to cease being 
magnanimous. It was in vain that the savages exposed themselves to 
their shots, by provoking them from the top of the bank they had just 
quitted; vainly they brandished their spears and multiplied their threatening 



WAR. 75 

gestures; not a single shot was fired at them. * These last hostilities,' 
says our botanist, Leschenault, *were committed by the aborigines without 
our having given them the slightest provocation ; on the contrary, we had 
loaded them with presents and kindnesses, and nothing in our condudl 
could have offended them.' . . . The morning after the attack 1 have 
just spoken of, Captain Hamelin started in his yawl to reconnoitre the 
bank, and approached sufficiently near to observe what was going on. 
It seemed that the event of the previous day had made the savages 
uneasy, or that they intended to attack us should we descend on their 
shores; for the Captain saw thirty-six men marching along the shore, 
in squads of five or six individuals, one in each group of which carried 
a bundle of spears; and at the head of this little army a man, with a 
flaming brand in his hand, set fire at intervals to the brushwood which 
covered the ground. Did this precaution seem necessary to them for 
observing us from a distance, or to take away from us the means of 
hiding ourselves and surprising them ? " (ch. xii. pp. 237-239). 

Later on, ** Freycinet and I landed [some distance up the Derwent, 
the R. du Nord of the French,] to engage in some intercourse with the 
natives. Their ways on this cape seemed to be even wilder than those 
in the Channel . . . ; it was impossible to get near them ; at sight 
of us they all fied into the forest. . . . Having crossed the little 
bay, ... we saw a sight similar to that of which I have spoken 
at our entry into the north-east port. Black clouds of smoke rose on 
all sides ; the forest was everywhere on fire ; the wild inhabitants of the 
region appeared to wish to drive us from their shores at this cost. 
They had retired on to a high mountain, which itself looked like an enormous 
pyramid of flame and smoke; from this they made their shouts heard, 
and the assembly of individuals seemed numerous. . . . As we approached 
the top of the mountain, the shouts redoubled, and we soon exped^ed to 
be under the necessity of sustaining or repelling an attack. All of a 
sudden the ^ cries ceased. We arrived, and saw with surprise that the 
aborigines had fied, abandoning their miserable huts. After having col- 
le<5led several weapons which they had forgotten, we followed this route 
for some time . . . without meeting a single one of the aborigines" 
(Peron, ch. xii. pp. 244-246). Again, during another excursion, ** We were 
about to land at Maria Island in order to pass the night, when we 
perceived a mob of 25 or 30 savages, who, armed with long spears, 
advanced towards us with loud shouts. . . . We should have been 
obliged, with such hosts, to pass the night under arms ; we resolved, 
therefore, to go further up the bay, being convinced the savages would 
not follow us. In reality, they continued their route to the west, and soon 
disappeared" (Peron, ch. xiii. p. 277). But on the last occasion of meeting 
an armed party at Oyster Bay, Maria Island, Peron's company landed 
and found fourteen savages colledied around a large fire, and who received 
him with friendship. ** They were armed for the most part with long 
spears; the others had clubs in their hands; these they deposited by 
their side" (ch. xiii. p. 278). 

After these accounts of Marion and Peron, and allowing on the other 
hand for the fadl that Cook's party had none but friendly intercourse 
with them, it sounds strange to read as follows in Wentworth (pp. 116- 



76 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

117): "They have seldom or never been known to a<5l on the offensive, 
except when they have met some of their persecutors singly. Two persons 
armed with muskets may traverse the island from one end to the other 
in the most perfedl safety." 

Perhaps the following account by Calder, compiled from the sources 
already mentioned, gives the best conception of the methods and tad^ics 
adopted by the aborigines in their final struggle with the Europeans. 
This account appears in the Journ. Anth. Inst. 1873, PP' 7-^'» ^^^ ^^ 
supplement it by important extratfts from other sources. " Tribal 
dissensions, causing mutual destru(flion (for such were their jealousies 
and hatreds, that they fought one another all the time they were 
thrashing the whites), contributed to their decrease in some degree. . 
. . Beyond all doubt, they [the settlers] were no match for the blacks 
in bush-fighting, either in defensive or offensive operations. ... If 
it had been possible to bring the savage into fair and open fight, with 
something like equal numbers, this would have been reversed. But the 
black assailant was far too acute and crafty an enemy to be betrayed 
into this style of contest, and never fought till he knew he had his 
opponents at a disadvantage to themselves. He waited and watched 
for his opportunity for hours, and often for days, and when the proper 
moment arrived, he attacked the solitary hut of the stock-keeper, or 
the hapless traveller whom he met in the bush, with irresistible numbers, 
taking life generally singly, but often ; the largest number I read of 
his destroying on one occasion being four persons. In these assaults 
on the dwellings of his enemy he contrived his attacks so cleverly as 
to insure success at least five times in six, and if forced to abandon 
his enterprise, his retreat, with few exceptions, was a bloodless one. 
The natives so managed their advance on the point of attack as not 
to be seen until they were almost close to the dwelling of their vi<5lim. 
They distinguished between a house and a hut, and seldom approached 
the former. . . . They never attacked except in parties of twenty, 
fifty, a hundred, or even greater numbers. Their mode of assaulting a 
dwelling when there were several inmates at home, which they knew by 
previous watching, was to divide into small gangs of five, ten, or more, 
each concealing itself, . . . their approach being so quiet as to 
create no suspicion of their presence, to which the woody and uneven 
nature of the country is eminently favourable. Then one of these 
parties, which was prepared for instant retreat, made its presence known, 
either by setting fire to some shed or bush fence, or by sending a 
flight of spears in at the window, shouting their well-known war-whoop 
at the same time. This never failed of bringing out the occupants, 
who, seeing the authors of the outrage, now at a safe distance, but in 
an attitude of defiance, incautiously pursued them. . . . The blacks 
then retreated just as quickly as the others advanced, keeping out of 
gunshot, and defying them, generally in good English, to come on. . . 
Having decoyed their pursuers to a safe distance into the woods, and 
generally with rising ground between them and the hut, the others 
sprang from their cover, and rushing into the place, plundered it of its 
contents, often finishing their work by burning it to its foundations; 
first, however, killing or leaving for dead, any unfortunate persons — 



WAR, 77 

mostly a mother and her children — who chanced to be left behind. 
They then fled with their booty, re-uniting with the decoy party at 
some distant point. In their first systematized assaults . . . their 
principal objeifl was murder, but in later times, plunder. . . . They 
took everything that was useful, and often what was of no use at all 
to them, . . . such, for example, as clocks, workboxes, etc. . . . 
But provisions of all sorts, and, above all, blankets, firearms, and 
anununitipn, were the articles they prized most ; of which latter they 
eventually surrendered many stand to the Government, pistols, muskets, 
fowling-pieces, powder and ball, all perfe<5lly clean and dry, and in 
excellent order. Of these latter it was found that they knew not 
only the use, but were also pra<5lised in using them ; but their is no 
instance of their bringing them into the field, though they afterwards 
assured Robinson that they meant to have done so, but to the last 
they seem to have preferred their own arms in both fight and chase — 
namely, the spear and waddy. . . . Notwithstanding the ancient 
customs of the blacks, not to permit the women to take any part in 
adlive war, these individuals could not be restrained from joining in and 
sometimes leading the attack. One of these persons, ... a woman 
of one of the East Coast tribes, . . . planned and executed nearly 
every outrage that was committed in the distri(5ls bordering on the 
north and north-western coast. In the days of their decay, she colle<5ted 
the poor remnants of several tribes into one hostile band, of whom she 
was the leader and chieftainess." On p. 20, ibid.y Calder continues : 
•* They never permitted their wives or children to accompany them in 
their war expeditions, either against the whites or enemies of their own 
race, but left them in places of security or concealment," and on pp. 
21-22, ibid, : <* The Tasmanian aboriginal, in advancing on an unsuspect- 
ing vidlim whom he meant to kill treacherously, approached apparently 
quite unarmed, with his hands clasped, and resting on the top of his 
head, a favourite posture of the black, and with no appearance of a 
hostile intention. But all the time he was dragging a spear behind 
him, held between his toes, in a manner that must have taken long 
to acquire. Then, by a motion as unexpe(5^ed as it was rapid, it was 
transferred to the hand, and the vi<ftim pierced before he could lift a 
hand or stir a step.'* 

Regarding these surprise ta<5^ics, in a long account of the hostilities 
carried on between the natives and a man named Thomas Tucker, Calder 
(Wars, pp. 99-100) narrates the following: "The Cape Portland tribe 
were still here, though not close to the harbour. But as the day advanced 
some indications of their approach which no European would observe, 
reached the ears of the black woman [an ally with Tucker] ; but she 
said nothing. . . . The land, all along the north-eastern shores, is 
very open, so that with the commonest vigilance there was no danger 
of any sudden surprise. All at once, however, the woman started and 
whispered to Tucker, * Here are the black fellows,' pointing at them at 
the same. He looked round just in time to see the head of one of them 
peering at them over a low rise, which was withdrawn diredlly, and not 
a vestige of the hundreds who were creeping stealthily on them, to 
surround them, was to be seen. Our natives managed their attacking 






/^ 



V- 



78 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

movements with uncommon skill, and hundreds are the instances of their 
surrounding dwellings, in perfedl swarms, without their exciting the 
smallest suspicion of their being at hand. No more subtle race could 
be than the Tasmanian savages." Similarly : •* In several instances, the 
lives of white people were saved by the native women, who would often 
steal away from the tribe to give notice of an intended attack. On one 
occasion, one of our boat's crew had landed for the night on the shore 
of Great Swan Port, made their preparations for supper, and lighted a 
fire, when two native women came stealthily to them, warning them to 
hurry away, as the tribe was hidden behind the nearest bank, only 
waiting till the moon rose to make a descent upon them. Accordingly, 
the men hastily gathered up their paraphernalia, and decamped to their 
boat, but had scarcely pushed out into deep water before they saw the 
enemy come stealing down, one black figure after another gliding past 
their fire, evidently with the intention of surrounding them " (Meredith, 
p. 201). Laplace's accounts run to the same tune : ** When the dwelling 
which they desire to ransack appears to them too large, or too well 
guarded to be attacked by the ordinary means, that is, by surprise, or 
violent force favoured by the darkness, then they employ a patience and 
a cunning truly diabolical. . . . The farmer, in spite of his restless 
vigilance, often passes close to the trunks of trees without perceiving the 
savages, who now, drawn back against the branches blackened by the 
flames, or now, imitating by their attitude and perfedl immobility those 
which the axe has cut off, await, often during whole days, the moment 
when he sets out, with all his convidls, to work in the fields. Hardly 
has he gone away, before they surround his farm, massacre his wife and 
children without pity, and have already conveyed their booty far away, 
when the flames, rushing above the buildings, foretell to the unfortunate 
colonist the extent of his misfortune. The aborigines do not wait always 
to shed the blood of Europeans till a proje(ft for ravaging some house 
has brought them together. Often one among them approaches inhabited 
places alone, glides along the paling fence surrounding the houses, till 
just by the lower room where the family of the proprietor is assembled. 
In an instant, his body is pierced by a spear, and his wife, as well as 
the child which she held to her breast, fall also, stricken dead by an 
invisible hand. The blood-thirsty savage, having satisfied his cruelty, 
disappears into the woods, and rejoins his tribe. ... A convicfl, 
employed in guarding flocks, whose barbarity the natives had experienced 
more than once, was traversing the forest with a companion. He encoun- 
tered a native, who, hidden behind the trees, threw a spear at him, 
missed him, and took to flight. The convidt, exasperated, pursued and 
overtook him, and, after an obstinate struggle, the V. D. Lander, his 
head fradtured by the blows of the club, was left for dead upon the 
ground ; but hardly had the viclor taken a few steps, before his vicflim 
raised himself, armed himself with a new spear, pierced with it the heart 
of his enemy, and disappeared into the thickest part of the wood" (Laplace, 
III. ch. xviii. pp. 197-199). These accounts appear somewhat coloured 
and could only be noted by Laplace on hearsay. ** The blacks, when 
they came in secret to attack a hut, always did so by ambuscade, watching 
whole days and nights together for an opportunity to pounce upon their 



WAR. 79 

prey. And even should they approach openly, with a hostile intention, 
they still did so under the cloak of friendship, coming up from different 
sides, and dragging their long spears, held between their toes, unperceived, 
through the grass, so as to have those deadly weapons ready at a 
moment's warning to dart upon their victim " (Ross, p. 87). 

In the case of the massacre of the Hooper family : ** A black woman 
some time after told the whole of their plans and schemes to achieve 
this terrible murder : she said that a party of them had. for three days 
kept watch unseen on one of the rocky hills close to the cottage, in- 
tending to wait there until Hooper went out to work without his gun. 
. . . One unhappy day he did go out without it, and instantly the 
descent was made and the massacre effedled with the terrible success they 
anticipated" (Meredith, ch. xii. p. 212). The first white man who was 
murdered by the natives was George Munday : ** the native had a spear 
concealed and held by his toes, and, as Munday turned from him, he 
caught up his spear and threw it at him '* (Knopwood, p. 53 ; Parker, 
p. 28). This cunning is well summed up in Colonel Arthur's Despatch 
(Col. and Slav., p. 61) : ** Although their [the natives'] natural timidity 
still prevents them from openly attacking even two armed persons, how- 
ever great their number, yet they will, with a patience quite inexhaustible, 
watch a cottage or a field for days together, until the unsuspe<5ling 
inhabitants afford some opening, of which the savages instantly avail 
themselves, and suddenly spear to death the defenceless vidlims of their 
indiscriminate vengeance. . . . Two Europeans who will face them 
will drive fifty savages before them, but still they return and watch until 
their unerring spears can bring some vi<5lim to the ground," and further, 
in Minutes Exec. Council (ibid, p. 63): "The Council cannot but remember 
the repeated proofs it has had before it of the skill with which the 
natives have availed themselves of the facilities presented to them . . . 
to make their hostile approaches unperceived, of their patience in watching 
for days the habitation of those whom they design to attack, and of the 
frightful celerity with which they avail themselves of any unguarded 
moment to fall upon the inmates and put them to a cruel death ; 
nor can it forget those instances in which they have effe<5led their pur- 
pose by means of the most consummate and deliberate treachery, by 
sending some of their people, sometimes women, sometimes unarmed men, 
who have approached huts with apparently the most friendly disposition, 
and have succeeded in engaging the attention of the inmates, or in 
alluring some of them to a distance, and thus enabling their armed con- 
federates to fall suddenly upon their unsuspeifiing vidUms and destroy 
them." ** The facility and rapidity with which they moved to some secret 
hiding-place, after committing any atrocity, rendered pursuit in most 
instances fruitless" (Memorandum, ibid. p. 72). 

Against this, what may be called the silent system of attack, there 
are a few records of a party of natives declaring open hostility. In 
narrating one of his pursuits of the hostile aborigines, Robinson says : 
** * The wild natives had assembled on the opposite bank of the river. 
Here they continued to exhibit the most violent gestures, and were 
exceedingly boisterous in their declamations, threatening to cross the 
river and massacre us.' Robinson also learned that it was their intention 



8o H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

to have killed the whole of the party except the women. But for him- 
self was reserved a special fate, namely, the mutilation and burning of 
his body, *and my ashes,' he says, *made into Ray-dee or Num-re-mur- 
he-kee,' ».^., amulets to be worn by the natives ' " (Calder, Wars, p. 70). 
The natives invariably run away if one man be shot ; an instance of 
this happened at the Coal River; the body was left, but a wounded 
man was taken away (Hobbs, p. 50). In their mode of warfare^ "Parties 
in pursuit can only come upon them in the morning by watching their 
smokes ; they leave their women and children behind them, when they 
go upon their plundering excursions ; they are more shy and difficult to 
come up with than the kangaroo" (Hobbs, p. 50). On one occasion 
Gilbert Robertson was within four miles of them for four days near 
the Blue Hills ; * they beat round and round him like a hare ; he 
had natives with him, who had been captured, to trace them, and 
whom he could trust. In July he was upon the track of from 100 
to 200 natives at the Blue Hills ; he supposed there were two tribes, 
one party going towards Oyster Bay, the other towards the westward ; 
the party he followed to the westward suddenly disappeared, and he did 
not know by what means they hid their tracks. He continues : " They 
cannot be surrounded by several parties coming upon them ; they have 
no rendezvous except where game is plentiful ; they go over the whole 
island; they always keep regular sentries, and pass over the most 
dangerous grounds, and by the brinks of the most dangerous precipices; 
they leave their women and children behind them, and send out parties 
to commit depredations ; . . . the natives do not move by night ; 
they are afraid of the moon " (Col. and Slave, p. 47). West, the his- 
torian, gives the following accounts of hostile encounters with the natives: 
" In the estimation of Europeans their pracflice in war was savage or 
cowardly ; ' they do not, like an Englishman,' complained a colonial writer, 
*give notice before they strike.' The perfeiflion of war, in their esteem, 
was ambush and surprise; but an intelligent observer sometimes saw 
considerable cleverness in their tadlics. Franks was on horseback, driving 
cattle homeward ; he saw eight blacks forming a line behind him, to 
prevent his retreat, each with an uplifted spear, besides a bundle in 
the left hand. They then dropped on one knee, still holding the weapon 
in menace ; then they rose and ran towards him in exadl order ; while 
they distradled his attention by their evolutions, other blacks gathered 
from all quarters, and within thirty yards a savage stood with his spear 
quivering in the air. This weapon, ten feet long, penetrated the flap of 
the saddle, and the flesh of the horse four inches, which dropped on 
his hind quarters. The rider was in despair; but the spear fell, and 
the animal recovered his feet and fled. The servant, less fortunate than 
his master, was found some days after, slain. The attack was well 
planned, and exhibited all the elements of military science. A tribe, 
who attacked the premises of Jones, in 181 9, at the Macquarie, were 
led by a chief six [sic] feet high ; he carried one spear, of a peculiar 
form, and no other kind of weapon ; this he did not use, but stood 

* Near Bothwell ; there is a place of the same name south of Little Swan River on 

the East Coast. 



WAR. 8l 

aloof from the rest, and issued his orders with great calmness, which 
were implicitly obeyed. They formed themselves into a half moon ringy 
and attacked the English with great vigour. The chief was shot; they 
were struck with dismay, and endeavoured to make him stand ; * they 
made a frightful noise, looked up to heaven, and smote their breasts. ' " 
West also relates : "A party, under Major Grey, went out in pursuit ; 
overtook a few blacks ; one was seized ; but was so smeared with grease, 
that he slipped through the hands of his captors. . . . They were 
bold and warlike in their carriage, and when exhibiting spear exercise, 
commanded the admiration of the specflator." 

** After killing a white man, the natives have a sort of dance and 
rejoicing, jumping and singing, and sending forth the strangest noises 
ever heard. They do not molest the body when dead, nor have I heard 
of their stripping or robbing the deceased" (Widowson, p. 191). Other 
authorities, however, do not agree with Widowson as regards the non- 
mutilation of the dead. Calder expressly states (J.A.I, p. 21): ** In 
fight, the vengence of the savage was not appeased by the death of an 
enemy. The mutilation of the body, and particularly of the head, always 
followed, unless the vi(ftor was surprised or apprehended surprise. This 
was done either by dashing heavy stones at the corpse or beating it 
savagely with the waddie." When Meredith's father's stockman was 
killed, "All his finger-joints were broken, and his body brutally muti- 
lated, according to the usual custom of the blacks, when not hurried 
or disturbed in their deeds of horror " (ch. xii.) ; and when the Hooper 
family was killed, the same author gives the following account : at ** the 
cottage, where, lying all round, frightfully mangled and full of spears, 
were the dead bodies of Hooper, his wife and all their children. They 
had hammered their bones in pieces, broken their fingers, etc., etc. 

Occasionally they seem to have spared women ; thus Backhouse 
mentions the following incident : " We passed the remains of a hut 
that was burnt about two years ago, by the aborigines of the Ouse or 
Big River district. An old man named Clark lost his life in it, but 
a young woman escaped ; she rushed from the fire and fell on her 
knees before the natives, one of whom extinguished the flames which 
had caught her clothes, and beckoned to her to go away. They killed a 
woman on the hill behind the hut. A few weeks after they surrounded 
the house of G. Dixon, who received a spear through his thigh, in 
running from a barn to his house " (p. 30). Calder states (Wars, p. 
56) : ** They [the aborigines] were naturally opposed to taking the life 
of a female." ... A Mrs. Cunningham having been murdered by 
Le-ner-e-gle-lang-e-ner, chief of the Piper's River tribe, " a Cape Port- 
land native, who was staying at the time with the Piper's River fellows, 
. . . when he heard of the death of this woman, spoke very 
disapprovingly of it, adding that * the men of his tribe never killed a 
white woman.' " If, on the one hand, there was an inclination on the 
part of some males to spare white females, so there was on the other 
hand a disposition on the part of the Tasmanian females to save life 
where [Possible. We have already seen in this chapter two cases where 
the native women did so save life ; and with regard to the murder of 
Parker and Captain Thomas, Calder says : ** The demeanour of the 



82 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

women . . . was only what they always displayed on occasions like 
this. They were seldom present at a fight, unless it was an unexpecled 
one, being always left behind, as many have thought, for their safety, 
but really because their presence was embarrassing to their husbands ; 
for, with rare exceptions, they were against excessive violence being done ; 
and it would not be difficult to give instances where their interposition 
in stopping it was more successful than it was at this time " (Wars, 
p. 83). 

No account says anything of a boomerang, and West states they 
had no throwing sticks (II. p 84). It is certain they had neither 
boomerang nor throwing stick. 

Speaking of some aborigines at Retreat River, who at first appeared 
hostile, but were propitiated by a present of black swans, Kelly (p.- 8) 
says they ** went away holding up one hand each as a sign of friend- 
ship ; " at Cape Grim some decidedly hostile natives were " holding up 
both hands as if they did not mean any mischief" (p. 9). 



if 

is 



Is 



S8 ? 



84 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

common in these trees, and with this dust he filled the crack in the 
log. He then chose a dry stick, and shaped it a little at one end until 
it roughly fitted the crack. Inserting the stick in the crack, he then 
rubbed it vigorously and firmly up and down. After steadily persevering 
for some time, the dust began to smoke and eventually took fire. 
Another informant of James B. Walker, a Lieut. Pascoe (who visited 
Flinders Island in the schooner " Vansittart," attached to H.M.S. Beagle, 
when commanded by Captain Stokes, 1837-43) said that when he (Pascoe) 
was out with a black on a mountain in Flinders, he asked the black 
to make fire by rubbing wood, but the black could not understand him, 
and said they never did it ; this black said ^* star tumble down, make 
fire" (see below Fire Legend). "They procured fire from the fri(ftion 
of a stick, rapidly moved between the palms of their hands, with the 
point bedded in a piece of soft bark ; but as it was difficult at times 
to obtain fire by this means, especially in wet weather, they generally, 
in their peregrinations, carried with them a fire-stick, lighted at their 
last encampment" (Melville, p. 347). Their fire-sticks consisted in pieces 
of decayed wood lighted at one end and burning slowly (La Billardiere, 
II. X. pp. 26, 63), or of a "sort of lighted bark torch" (Peron, p. 
220). Lyne, a third informant of J. B. Walker, informed him that the 
Tasmaliians ** carried torches, or rather firesticks of the thick fibrous 
bark of the stringy bark {Eucalyptus obliqua) ; also that they carried 
large pieces of an epithytic fungus which grows on the Eucalyptus, 
and is locally known as * punk.' This punk, when dry, burns like tinder, 
and will smoulder for a whole day." Lyne says that "in wet weather 
the aborigines squatted and kept fires going." Mrs. Meredith says, that 
when the natives crossed over to Maria Island, " they provided a little 
raised platform on the raft, on which they carried some lighted fuel to 
kindle their fire when they arrived there" (p. 139). "They always 
made very small fires, and from a peculiar art in laying the sticks, 
the smoke, in calm weather, would rise like a coiling pillar ; few, if 
any, of the whites could imitate them in this respe(5l, and native fires 
were, at all times, easily distinguished from those of bushrangers, or 
settlers exploring or hunting " (Melville, p. 346). Smokes are still used 
for telegraphing by half-castes in the Straits, and even by whites. There 
is a regular code, well understood, according to the number and position 
of the smokes. Kelly, in the Boat Expedition, refers to the smokes 
as signals ; in Banks Straits (p. 14), he writes : " Smokes were made 
on the beach inviting us to come over, according to promise ; " on p. 
15 he makes a similar remark, and when he left that coast he writes 
" The natives made three smokes to say good bye." 

Legend as to Origin of Fire. 

" The following is the legend of the origin of fire and of the Apotheosis 
of two Heroes, by the aborigines of Tasmania, as related by a native of 
the Oyster Bay Tribe : * My father, my grandfather, all of them lived a 
a long time ago, all over the country ; they had no fire. Two black 
fellows came, they slept at the foot of a hill — a hill in my own coun- 
try. On the summit of a hill they were seen by my fathers, my 



FIRE. FOOD. 85 

countrymen, on the top of the hill they were seen standing : they threw 
fire like a star, — it fell among the black men, my countrymen. They 
were frightened — they fled away, all of them ; after a while they 
returned, — they hastened and made a fire, — a fire with wood ; no more 
was fire lost in our land. The two black fellows are in the clouds : 
in the clear night you see them like two stars.* These are they who 
brought fire to my fathers. The two black men stayed awhile in the 
land of my fathers. Two women (Lowanna) were bathing ; it was near 
a rocky shore, where mussels were plentiful. The women were sulky, 
they were sad ; their husbands were faithless, they had gone with two 
girls. The women were lonely ; they were swimming in the water, 
they were diving for cray fish. A sting-ray lay concealed in the hollow 
of a rock — a large sting-ray ! The sting-ray was large, he had a very 
long spear; from his hole he spied the women, he saw them dive; he 
pierced them with his spear,— he killed them, he carried them away. 
Awhile they were gone out of sight. The sting-ray returned, he came 
close in shore, he lay in still water, near the sandy beach ; with him 
were the women, they were fast on his spear — they were dead ! 

** * The two black men fought the sting-ray ; they slew him with their 
spears ; they killed him ; — the women were dead ! the two black men 
made a fire — a fire of wood. On either side they laid a woman — the 
fire was between : the women were dead ! 

" * The black men sought some ants, some blue ants (puggany eptietta) ; 
they placed them on the bosoms {parugga poingta) of the women. Severely, 
intensely were they bitten. The women revived, — tthey lived once more. 
Soon there came a fog {maynentayana), a fog dark as night. The two 
black men went away, the women disappeared : they passed through the 
fog, the thick, dark fog ! Their place is in the clouds. Two stars you 
see in the clear cold night ; the two black men are there, the women 
are with them : they are stars above ! " ' (Milligan, Papers, etc., Roy. Soc. 
of Tas., III. p. 274). 

Food. 

With regard to European food Cook says : " When some bread was 
given them, as soon as they understood it was to be eaten, they returned 
or threw it away, without tasting it" (Third Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi. p. 39). 
On one occasion La Billardiere's party left them some ships' food, and 
he thus reports the result : "It appeared that they had made use of the 
bread and water which had been left for them on the preceding day ; 
but the smell of the cheese had probably given them' no inclination to 
taste it, as it was found in the same condition in which it had been 
deposited " (ch. v. p. 225). Later on he tells us : ** We did not know 
to what to ascribe their repugnance to our viands, but they would taste 
none that we offered them. They would not even suffer their children 
to eat the sugar we gave them, being very careful to take it out of 

* Castor and Pollux. 

t The revival of apparently dead human beings by means of the bites of ants is not 

uncommon in Australian Legends, 



86 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

their mouths the moment they were going to taste it" (II. ch. x. p. 47). 
Nor did the natives originally like spirits, for the same Frenchman relates 
(11. ch. X. p. 39): "One of the sailors, who accompanied us, thought he 
could not regale them better than with a glass of brandy ; but, accustomed 
to drink nothing but water, they quickly spat it out, and it seemed to 
have given them a very disagreeable . sensation." During the war, 
according to O'Connor (Col. and Slav., p. 55) : ** The chief thing they 
want is bread, and they prefer getting a sack of flour by robbing a hut 
to himting opossums." And Thirkell says they "were much pleased to 
get potatoes from the white people." ** None of the sheep killed by the 
savages were eaten ; spears were left in some of them " (Espie, p. 47) ; 
but this statement is not quite corredl. ** They wantonly kill sheep, but 
never eat them " (Brodribb, p. 52). " The natives frequently have speared 
sheep, and if they were taught to skin them, would soon eat them " 
(O'Connor, Col. and Slav., p. 55). The natives did not care for European 
cooking, for according to La Billardiere, ** We invited them [the natives] 
to eat with us some oysters and lobsters which we had just roasted on 
the coals ; but they all refused, one excepted, who tasted a lobster. At 
first, we imagined that it was yet too early for their meal time, but in 
this we were mistaken, for it was not long before they took their repast. 
They themselves, however, dressed their food, which was shell -fish of the 
same kinds, but much more roasted than what we had offered them." 

Regarding their appetites, O'Connor (pp. 54-55) says: "They have 
very great appetites ; saw a child of eight months old, then at the -breast, 
eat a whole kangaroo rat, and then attack a craw-fish." In the V. D. 
Land Almanac for 1834 (p. 78) it is stated they devour their food "with 
greediness." Dixon (p. 22) speaks of their food being " devoured vora- 
ciously," and says, " As their subsistence was precarious, their gluttony 
was great;" and Widowson (p. 190) writes of them: "They eat voraciously, 
and are very little removed from the brute creation as to choice of food, 
entrails, etc., sharing the same chance as the choicest parts." But Davies, 
to a certain extent, explains their voracity as follows : — " They were often 
a long time without food, and then ate it in large quantities. When 
they are short of food, they tighten a string of kangaroo sinews, which 
they wear round their middle. The enormous quantity of food which 
they are capable of eating, when they have an opportunity, would scarcely 
be credited. A native woman, at the settlement at Flinders Island, was 
one day watched by one of the officers, and seen to eat between fifty 
and sixty eggs of the * sooty petrel ' {Proccllaria, sp.), besides a double 
allowance of bread ; these eggs exceed those of a duck in size " (p. 414). 
At one of the meetings of the Royal Society of Tasmania the following 
remarks bearing on the aboriginals' power of gorging were reported: — 
"Ogilby stated it to be no uncommon circumstance for an individual [of 
the aborigines] , at a single meal, to eat twelve pounds of meat, and 
wash it down with a gallon of train oil. These were, however, only 
occasional gorges. Breton observed that Ogilby must surely have meant 
his remarks to apply to the aborigines of some other country,, as those 
of Tasmania never had the opportunity of obtaining train oil'^ (Tasm. 
Journ. III. p. 238). There seems little doubt that they lived upon all 
the animals they could kill. Davies says (p. 413): " W^ith respecft to 



Food. 87 

the general nature of their food, that depends in a great measure on 
their locality. The western portion of the island is more mountainous, 
wet and thickly wooded than the rest ; kangaroos are more difficult to 
obtain, and the natives live, consequently, more on shell-fish, than on 
the eastern coast ; these are principally the haliotis and crayfish, which 
they obtain by diving. . . . The tribes in the interior subsist upon 
kangaroos, wallaby, and opossums ; more particularly the latter." Where 
Bass and Flinders landed they . " fell in with many huts along the shores 
of the river, . . . but with fewer heaps of mussel shells lying near 
them. The natives of this place probably draw the principal part of their 
food from the woods ; the bones of small animals, such as opossums, 
squirrels, kangaroo-rats, and bandicoots, were numerous round their 
deserted fire-places " (Collins, p. 188). Peron found in one place, near 
some huts, remains of kangaroos and birds (ch. xii. p. 243), and Milligan 
says (Beacon, p. 26), " They lived chiefly on animal food ; the kangaroo, 
wallaby, bandicoot, kangaroo rat, the opossum, and the wombat ; nearly 
every bird and bird's egg that could be procured, and in the case of 
tribes near the sea, cray-fish and shell-fish, formed the staple articles of 
their diet." " The craw-fish and oysters, if immediately on the coast, 
are their principal food. Opossums and kangaroos may be said to be 
their chief support " (Widowson, p. 190). Cook found they were fond of 
birds (Third Voy. Bk. I. ch: vi.), and Flinders mentions that meeting 
with a native and offering him a black swan, '^ it was accepted with 
rapture" (sec. iv. p. 187). "All of them were particularly fond of the 
flesh of the deadly snakes and guana" (Melville, p. 346). Backhouse 
mentions that the natives so abhor fat that " they even rejedl bread cut 
with a buttery knife," and on some soup being offered them, ** they 
skimmed the floating fat off with their hands, and smeared their hair with 
it, but would not drink the soup!" (p. 166). The animals that inhabit the 
forest especially the kangaroo and wallaby are generally lean (G. W. 
Walker, p. no). In his MS. Jour. Walker says: "They are fond of 
most European food, but tea and potatoes are their favourite diet. The 
former they like extremely sweet, and they seem as if they could drink 
any quantity. Butter, and food that is fat or greasy, they show an 
aversion to, though several have overcome it." Later, he adds: "Aborigines 
becoming fond of milk. Also prefer mutton and beef to the salt meat, 
and even to kangaroo, which is becoming scarce." Backhouse also says 
I p. 171), " Several wallabies were killed by the natives who accompanied 
us. Some of these people only eat male animals, others only the females. 
We were unable to learn the reason of this, but they so stridlly adhere 
to the practice, that, it is said, hunger will not drive them to depart 
from it." These statements about the native dislike to fat, and the eating 
of wallabies, are repeated by Davies (p. 414). " When at Moulting Bay, 
. . , we counted fifty-six black swans, in pairs. . . . Formerly, a 
tribe of aborigines resorted regularly to this neighbourhood, at this season 
of the year, to coUedl swans' eggs" (Backhouse, p. 219). "Mutton- 
birds (sooty petrels) and penguins are the principal birds used by them, 
emus being very scarce. There are some other birds, however, that are 
considered good eating, as the swan and the duck ; but these they 
cannot often catch, unless it be the young swans. They are very partial 



88 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

to their eggs [i.e. swans] . ^The emus are considered a great delicacy, 
which may be one reason that emus are said to be more numerous now 
than a few years ago, when the number of aborigines in the bush was 
greater " (Walker MS. Jour.)* Speaking of the large white grubs, which 
were found in old dead or dying trees, Mrs. Meredith tells us, " The 
aborigines eat them greedily, and I have heard that some English people 
do so, and say they taste like nuts or almonds " (p. 232).! Melville also 
says (346) : ** The wood grub was to them a great delicacy." Davies 
mentions (p. 414) that ** A large white caterpillar, about two inches in 
length, found in rotten wood and in the Banksia, together with the eggs 
of the large ants, are considered luxuries." 

Although Holman (IV. ch. xii. p. 405) speaks of " their expertness 
in spearing the finny tribe," it appears very probable that they never 
touched scale fish. Melville (p. 346) certainly says : ** Those near the 
sea-shore lived almost entirely upon fish ; " but then he makes in the 
context no reference to shell-fish, and from what follows he probably 
means the latter. Lloyd states most emphatically (p. 51) : "Through- 
out my hunting experience with the aborigines, I never saw them 
capture an edible fish excepting of the shelly species." Collins, describing 
Bass's discoveries (ch. xv. p. 169), while speaking of the shell-mounds, 
says : ** No remains of fish were ever seen." Rossel (I. ch. iv. p. 56), 
speaking likewise of the mounds, says : ** We perceived, moreover, no 
debris of fishes ; " but La Billardiere says (IL ch. xi. p. 77) : " They 
acquainted us that they, as well as the other inhabitants of Cape Diemen, 
lived upon fish." The reader will notice that La Billardiere does not 
say they lived on fish, only that they said they did. Cook reports 
(Third Voy. Bk. L ch. vi. p. 39) : ** They also refused some elephant 
fish, both raw and cooked." And, finally, in describing the settlement 
at Flinders Island, Calder says (J.A.L, p. 16): **Of shell-fish there 
were few or none, and no other fish would any native of Tasmania 
ever touch . . . ; they would rather starve than eat it." West (IL 
p. 89) mentions that the natives warned some Europeans that the toad 
fish was poisonous (which it certainly is), but can such warning imply 
that they did eat scaled fish ? 

Their method of eating is thus described by La Billardiere : ** About 

noon we saw them [forty-eight savages] prepare their repast. Hitherto 

we had had but a faint idea of the pains the women take to prepare 

the food requisite for the subsistence of their families. They quitted 

the water only to bring their husbands the fruits of their labour, and 

frequently returned almost direcflly to their diving, till they had procured 

a sufficient meal for their families. At other times, they stayed a little 

while to warm themselves, with their faces towards the fire on which 

their fish was roasting, and other little fires burning behind them, that 

they might be warmed on all sides at once. It seemed as if they 
were unwilling to lose a moment's time, for while they were warming 

themselves, they were employed in roasting fish ; some of which they 

• Since the above was written the emu has become extin<ft in Tasmania. 

t J. B. Walker knows several people who eat them and say they have a very pleasant 
nutty flavour when roasted in ashes. Many school-boys are fond of them. 



FOOD. 89 

laid on the coals with the .utmost caution : though they took little care 
of the lobsters, which they threw anywhere into the fire, and when 
they were ready, they divided the claws among the men and children, 
reserving the body for themselves, which they sometimes ate before 
returning to the water. Their husbands remained constantly near the 
fire, feasting on the best bits, and eating broiled FucuSy or fern roots. 
Occasionally they took the trouble to break boughs of trees into short 
pieces to feed the fire. Their meal had continued a long time and we 
were much surprised that not one of them had yet drank ; but this 
they deferred till they were fully satisfied with eating. The women and 
girls then went to fetch water with vessels of sea-weed [see basket work] , 
getting it at the first place they come to, and setting it down by the 
men, who drank it without ceremony, although it was very muddy and 
stagnant. They then finished their repast " (II. ch. x. pp. 57-60). 

Ross, describing a visit paid him by sixty aborigines, says : " They 
made a small cooking fire on an eminence behind my cottage, and 
squatting round it by turns, while others walked about and hunted here 
and there, they continued cooking and eating, more or less, from nine 
o'clock in the morning to about four in the afternoon, when they all 
of a sudden . . . rushed into the broadest and deepest part of the 
river in front of my cottage, and splashed and gambolled about for at 
least an hour." On another occasion his old visitors, the blacks, 
reappeared. " They encamped on the same spot they had formerly done. 
About an hour before sunset, the hunters having returned home, some 
with one opossum, others with two or three kangaroo-rats or bandicoots. 
. . . They had begun cooking, and had nearly finished dinner, for 
these aborigines I found were quite fashionable as to their dinner hour 
as well as classical in adopting the Roman method of reclining at meals, 
lying round their fire, resting on one elbow, and holding the half- roasted 
leg of an opossum eating in the other. They evidently knew the 
advantage of not overdoing their roast meat, but, by the process they 
adopted, retained all the best of the gravy. The fiames of the fire 
having burned down, the animals, with all their natural coats upon them, 
were thrown on the live embers, occasionally turned from side to side, 
till not only all the fur was singed off, but the entire carcass tolerably 
well done throughout. It was then taken off, cut up with a sharp flint 
or stone, or, if their intercourse with Europeans had enabled them to 
procure that march of civilization — a piece of glass— quartered and dis- 
jointed. Occasionally they would dip the savoury flesh into the alkali 
ashes of the fire, instead of salt, before putting it to their mouth. As 
I stood with my little child watching with much interest this aboriginal 
scene, their natural politeness was constantly urging me to partake with 
them, and, not to disoblige them, both I and my child each took a 
nicely-cooked leg of a kangaroo-rat in our hands. Not liking, however, 
to eat it down, with my best expressions of gratitude I moved gradually 
away till I reached my house, when 1 gave the pieces to Danger and 
Juno [the dogs]" (Ross, pp. 146 and 153-154). In this account it will 
be noticed that the natives made use of a substitute for salt, an article 
which is not referred to by any other writer. Backhouse's account of 
a meal off a kangaroo-rat, witnessed by him, runs : ** The animal was 

N 



90 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

thrown into the ashes till the hair was well singed off, and it became 
a little distended by the heat ; it was then scraped., and cleared of the 
entrails, after which it was returned to the fire till roasted enough. 
This is the common mode of cooking practised by the aborigines, who 
find, that by thus roasting the meat in the skin, the gravy is more 
abundant. In eating, they rejedl the skin " (p. 85). Bunce's description 
of their cooking is almost the same as that given by Backhouse (pp. 
55'5^)' ^' Raynor writes me that ** their method of cooking was to 
throw the opossum on the fire, whole, till the fur was burnt off and 
the skin began to crack ; shortly after, it was taken off, and the entrails 
removed with a sharp flint." In roasting mutton-birds " the plan 
they adopt in cooking them is, to throw the bird on the fire until 
all the feathers are singed off, when it is withdrawn and gutted. 
When several are prepared in this manner, they are spitted on a stick 
between two and three feet in length, one end of which is run into the 
ground, while the other enables the person who is standing by to turn 
the birds, or give them such a diredtion towards the fire as ensures 
their being properly cooked A choice part was separated from one. of 
the birds and presented for our acceptance, which in courtesy we could 
not decline, as nothing pleases these children of nature more than to 
accept, and appear gratified with, that which is offered by them '* 
(Walker, p. 98). 

W^e have above recorded La Billardiere's and Ross's account of their 
meals, including a few words on their cooking. Of this art, Peron says 
(ch. xii. p. 226) : ** The fire was lighted in an instant, . . . the 
cooking was neither a long nor a tedious operation. The large shells 
were put on the fire, and there, as if on a dish, the animal cooked ; it 
was then eaten without any other seasoning or preparation. On tasting 
shell-fish prepared in this way, we found them very tender and succulent." 
On another occasion (ch. xii. p. 243) his party came upon ** fourteen huts 
or wind-shelters ; . . . several fires were still burning before these huts. 
. . . In front of them there were several bones of kangaroos and 
birds ; and some flat stones warm and greasy, on which it seemed to 
me meat had been broiled." Lloyd tells us (p. 51): **The task of gathering 
and cooking the latter description of food devolved entirely upon the 
gins. The culinary arrangements of those children of nature were most 
primitive. They lived in happy ignorance of any cooking apparatus save 
the bright red embers engendered from the wood of their native trees." 
** The manner of cooking their vidluals is by throwing it on the fire, 
merely to singe off the hair" (Widowson, p. 190). "They used to half 
cook the opossums whole " (Thirkell). Backhouse describes the cooking 
of limpets and bandicoots thus (p. 86) : ** The bandicoot and limpets were 
cooked, the latter being pitched by the natives, with great dexterity, into 
the glowing embers, with the points of the shells downward : their con- 
tents, when cooked enough, were taken out by means of a pointed stick." 
*' Having thrown the carcase, without any preparation upon the fire, when 
but just heated, the limbs were torn asunder, and devoured voraciously" 
(Dixon, p. 22j. Only one settler testifies to the cleanliness of their 
cookery : ** They scrape their kangaroo and opossum very clean before 
they roast them" (O'Connor, p. 55). 



FOOD. 91 

" The hearths of clay which Anderson noticed at Adventure Bay, at 
the foot of trees hollowed out thus [by fire] , are not, I believe, the 
work of the natives ; for the trees which we saw rooted up and thrown 
down, had dragged along with them layers [couches] of clay mixed with 
stone, so hardened by the fire that one could easily have been deceived 
and taken them for masonry. The natives, indeed, use these hearths 
to broil their shell-fish ; fragments of shells have been found among the 
ashes at the foot of these 'trees" (Rossel, I. ch. iv. p. 63). With 
reference to the hearths La Billardiere states (I. ch. v. pp. 175-176): 
" Most of the large trees near the edges of the sea have been hollowed 
near their roots by means of fire . . . They seem to be places of 
shelter for the natives whilst they eat their meals. We found in some 
of them the remains of the shell-fish on which they feed, and frequently 
the cinders of the fires at which they had dressed their vicfluals. . . . 
Anderson speaks of hearths of clay made by the natives in these hollow 
trees . . . ; but . . . the natives of this country do not make their 
fires upon hearths, but kindle them upon the bare ground, and prepare 
their vi6tuals over the. coals.*' Bonwick's statement (p. 19) that, "Ovens 
are occasionally met with on the Tasmanian island " is probably founded 
on Anderson's supposition ; at least he gives no authority for his state- 
ment. The trees were not hollowed out artificially by means of fire. 
The hollowing out is the ordinary effect of successive bush fires eating 
into the heart of the gum tree, the heart being softer than the out- 
side wood. 

Backhouse says (p. 79) : "They daily removed to a fresh place, to 
avoid the offal and filth that accumulated about the little fires which 
they kindled daily." ** By the considerable heaps of shells we met with 
from time to time, we judged that the ordinary food of the savages 
consisted of mussels, wing-shells, scallops, chama, and other similar shell- 
fish '* (Marion, p. 34). Furneaux follows withHhe remarks (Cook's Second 
Voy. Bk. I. ch. vii.) : ** Landed with much difficulty, and saw several 
places where the Indians had been, and one they had lately left where 
they had a fire, with a great number of pearl-scallop shells round it, 
. . . with some burnt sticks and green boughs. . . . Mussel, pearl- 
scallop, and cray-fish, I believe to be their chief food, though we could 
not find any of them ; " and Anderson reported : ** But it was evident 
that shell-fish, at least, made a part of their food, from the many heaps 
of mussel-shells we saw in different parts" (Cook, Third Voy. Bk. L 
ch. vii. p. 41). After Anderson came Bass, who relates (Collins, ch. xv. 
p. 169): "The large heaps of mussel-shells that w^ere found near each 
hut proclaimed the mud banks to be a principal source of food." He 
also mentions {ibid, p. 172), " that having landed on an island off the 
north-east coast, * the whole of which wore an aspecft of poverty,' yet 
they found * this place was inhabited by men, as was shown by the old 
fire-places, strewn round with the shells of the sea-ear,' " and so also 
did Flinders (p. 165) : " Mussels were abundant, . . . and the natives 
appeared to get oysters by diving, the shells having been found near 
their fire-places." La Billardiere likewise noticed them (I. ch. v. p. 212), 
" The heaps of shells which we found near the sea-shore showed that 
these savages derive their principal means of subsistence from the shell- 



92 H. LING ROTH. — ABORI&INES OF TASMANIA. 

fish which they find there.*' Rosse], who was with La Billardiere, remarks 
(I. ch. iv. p., 56), **They appear to subsist upon shell-fish only, for large 
heaps of shells were found in the neighbourhood of places where they 
must have been living ; " and Backhouse says (p. 348) : ** At Little Swan 
Port we visited the mounds of oyster-shells left by the aborigines, who 
formerly inhabited this country. . . . They must have been the 
accumulation of ages." It is, however, strange that we have been unable 
to find any reference to these shell-mounds in Peron, otherwise the 
testimony regarding the widespread nature of this food is universal. 
Mortimer mentions, that on Maria Island, they saw trees hollowed by 
fire, "and great quantities of shells heaped about them" (p. 17). Mrs. 
Meredith thus describes the mounds : " Enormous quantities of dead 
[oyster] shells are found, forming large banks, forty feet high, on two 
low isthmuses, one of which unites the two groups of the Schouten 
Mountains, and the other joins the northernmost of these with the main- 
land. Similar banks are also found at Little Swan Port. After high 
winds, both live and dead shells are thrown up on the two former shell 
banks, but not on any other beach in the vicinity. This having doubt- 
less been the case for centuries, the aboriginal inhabitants would be 
accustomed to resort thither for the oysters, and very probably added 
to the shells thus naturally collecfled. . . . They would convey the 
oysters to the nearest shore for the purpose of eating them, . . . 
and the banks there would gain perpetual additions from their ample 
repasts. ... In Little Swan Port, beds of living oysters now exist, 
and on the adjacent shore are high banks of shells; . . . but there 
is no surf or *wash' in the still waters of this estuary, to cast up shells, 
so that, unless the one kind of 'natives' consumed the other to such 
an extent as to account for the accumulation, the banks must have been 
upraised from the sea. ... At East Bay Neck, a low isthmus 
between Forestiers Peninsula and the mainland, large banks of cockle- 
shells appear, in the same manner as those of oysters at Swan Port, 
at about four or five yards above high -water mark, and are now overgrown 
with grass and rushes" (pp. 137-140). And Lloyd, who spent seventeen 
years in the Colony, referring to the early days of settlement, says 
(pp. 78-79) : "In those primitive times, almost every particle of lime used 
in the colony was obtained by burning oyster shells, firmly knit beds of 
which were discovered on the bay shores of my uncle's farm, to the 
extent of one chain (twenty-two yards) from high-water mark, and vary- 
ing in depth from six to eight feet, imbedded in rich black sandy loam. 
. . . On closely examining the oyster-shells, there was nothing to 
indicate their having been thrown up by any volcanic agency or extra- 
ordinary acftion of the sea ; on the contrary, they were promiscuously 
mixed together like to those opened at an oyster-eating rendezvous; thus 
affording, in my humble opinion, incontrovertible evidence that Tasmania 
has been peopled from time immemorial ; and many other places along 
the shores of that colony exhibit the same proof in support of such a 
suggestion. . . . The banks wherein those large deposits of shells 
were found are fifteen or twenty feet above the level of the sea; and 
many an oyster-roasting feast have I gladly joined in with the natives, 
on those very spots whereon their ancestors must have revelled in like 



FOOD. 9^ 

riunions for ages past." R. Gunn was the first to undertake a scientific 
examination of these shell mounds. He reports (II. pp. 332-335), "The 
aborigines of Tasmania appear at all times to have derived a considerable 
portion of their food from the sea; . . . the testaceae and crustaceae 
constituted the principal and almost only supply they drew from that 
element. ... In cooking, the shells appear in all instances to have 
been merely roasted in the simplest manner, as I never could trace any 
indications of ovens, or stones arranged to be heated. ... In the 
majority of cases, they consumed their food as near as possible to the 
fishing stations ; occasionally going a little inland to avail themselves of 
a spring or stream of water. I have, however, observed in a great 
number of instances, that there were unusually large accumulations of 
shells on proje(5ling points, headlands and places commanding extensive 
views — even where not apparently the most eligible for cooking; whence 
I have supposed that they adopted these sites for their repasts, to prote<5l 
themselves from the sudden attacks of hostile tribes. . . . Heaps and 
mounds of shells, of sizes varying from what might be supposed to be 
the debris of a family dinner to accumulations several feet in thickness, 
and many yards across, abound on all our shores, and upon every indenta- 
tion of the coast ; the species of which these heaps are composed 
varying according to locality. . . . On the estuary of the Derwent 
these remains are found for several miles above Hobart, towards New 
Norfolk, until they disappear altogether at about three miles from the 
latter town. On the Tamar they are found at still less distance from 
the sea; and it does not appear that the aborigines at any time were 
in the habit of carrying their shell-fish many miles inland ; the farthest 
I have observed being two to three miles. The principal kinds of 
Testaceae used by the aborigines as food were two species of Haliotis 
(if. iuherculata ? and laevigata), which both attain a large size. . . . 
They were removed from the rocks (to which they closely adhere) 
by means of a wooden spatula-shaped instrument. . . . The 
Mussel {Mytilus sp.) ... is very common on the Derwent, on the 
Tamar, the north-west coast, etc. . . . The heaps on the Derwent 
and Tamar consist principally of this shell. Oysters (Ostrea sp.) : these 
are now rather scarce in many places where their remains are abundant. 
The Warrenah {Turbo sp.), which is very common in many situations, 
seems to have been a very favourite article of food." At Cape Grim 
there is a heap, several feet in thickness, of this shell, formed on the 
top of the Cape. Limpets {Patellae sp.) : on the south and west coasts, 
these attain to a very great size. Fasciolatia trapezium : this shell I saw 
principally in the small heaps on the north coast ; it is there abundant. 
A species of Purpura occurs occasionally in the heaps near Circular Head. 
A species of Cardium, and some of the smaller bivalves, were used on 
the Derwent, where these shells are common. . . . The period of time 
which has elapsed since the shells were removed from the sea (in most 
cases the latest must be upwards of thirty years), joined to their partial 
calcination by the aborigines in roasting, has caused their decomposition 
to be considerable." 

• In Milligan's Vocabulary Warrenah is given as the name for Haliotis or Ear Shell. 



94 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Milligan has remarked " that shell -mounds were of two sorts. Shell - 
beaches, which fell under the domain of the geologist ; and shell-mounds 
proper, formed by aboriginal inhabitants. Shell-beaches were usually not 
far from the shore. In Tasmania and the adjacent islands, the elevation 
of the land had left a succession of terraces ; one about fifteen to sixteen 
feet above present high-water mark yields thick beds of shells, now 
quarried out and burned for lime, chiefly of a pectunculus still extant in 
the sea below. On the soft sunny sides of river banks, and by the 
grassy margins of springs of water near the sea, heaps of shells occurred 
under conditions which stamp them as the feeding places of the aborigines. 
A main feature of difference between shell-mounds proper and shell-beaches 
was, that in the former the shells had all undergone the process of 
roasting, and he had accordingly observed that they had gone fast to 
decay. When the refuse-mounds consisted of oysters, mussels, cockles, 
and other bivalves, flint knives were usually found in them. On the 
other hand, where the food had been derived from univalves, round stones 
of different sizes were met with — one, the larger, on which they broke 
the shells, the other and smaller having formed the hammer with which 
they broke them. The aborigines had assured him that these stones and 
flint implements would always be met with in such mounds; and, upon 
examination, he had found it so. Bones would also probably be found 
in artificial shell-mounds ; as it was not reasonable to suppose that 
aborigines would live on shell-fish, in a country where kangaroo, wallaby, 
opossums, wombats, and other animals are abundant. Accordingly their 
custom was to sojourn chiefly in the interior, and only occasionally, by 
way of variety, to visit the sea-coast, whence they would make hunting 
excursions inland, carrying back to the scene of their feasts on the sea- 
shore the produce of the chase ; thus mingling bones with the exuviae 
of the shell-fish on which they fed *' (Trans. Ethn. Soc. II. 1863, p. 128). 

Peron describes a family which was returning from fishing; nearly all 
the individuals were loaded with shell-fish belonging to that large variety 
of oreille de mer peculiar to these shores (ch. xii. p. 226), and [ihid. p. 
254) his meeting with some twenty female aborigines, ** as they were 
returning from fishing, they were all laden with large crabs, craw-fish, 
and shell-fish grilled on the charcoal, which they carried in their rush 
baskets." 

Bunce states (p. 47) that " the natives obtained from the cider-trees 
of the Lakes (Eucalyptus resinifera) a slightly saccharine liquor, resembling 
treacle. At the proper season they ground holes in the tree from which 
the sweet juice flowed plentifully. It was collecfled in a hole at the bottom 
near the root of the tree. These holes were kept covered over with a 
flat stone, apparently for the purpose of preventing birds and animals 
coming to drink it. . . . When allowed to remain any length of 
time, it ferments and settles into a coarse kind of wine or cider, rather 
intoxicating if drunk to excess." 

** I should not omit to notice their extreme fondness for tobacco. . 
. . When not occupied in hunting, cooking &c , they are rarely without 
a pipe. One pipe is made to serve several. After the husband has 
taken a few whiffs, it is passed to the wife, and then to others, If a 



FOOD. 95 

stranger is present nothing is more likely to please them than to take 
a few whiffs from their pipe." (Walker MS. Jour.) 

Davies was of opinion that "before their intercourse with Europeans 
they do not appear to have had any knowledge of boiling water." 
Walker indeed states (MS. Jour.) "They seem to have been acquainted 
with no other mode of cooking than that of roasting. Boiling was quite 
strange to them, and meat prepared in that way appears less agreeable 
to them than the other." 

As was to be expecfled of a race in their condition, the Tasmanians, 
appear to have availed themselves largely of the edible vegetable pro- 
ducflions which abounded in their island. La Billardiere noticed that 
they made use of fern roots, sea-weeds, fungi, etc. (II. ch. v. p. 235 ; 
ch. X. p. 14 ; ch. X. p. 50). The sea-wrack (Fuais palmatus) they broiled, 
and when it was softened to a certain point, they tore it to pieces to 
eat it, . . , and the ficoides they eat without preparation. Rossel 
also refers (I. ch. iv. p. 99) to the fern roots eaten by the natives ; 
and Melville says : " And at certain seasons they procured, in great 
abundance, what is called the native bread, a kind of truffle " (p. 346). 
Gunn (I. p. 47) describes the large white fungus, called in the Colony 
* punk,' which grows from the stringy bark, and is said to have been 
eaten by the aborigines when fresh. Milligan, after describing their fish 
diet, continues : *' With these they mingled the core or pith of the fern 
trees, Cihotium Billardieri and Alsophila Australis (of which the former is 
rather astringent and dry for a European palate, and the latter, though 
more tolerable, is yet scarcely equal to a Swedish turnip) ; the young 
shoots of the Pteris esculenta, common ferns, as they emerge from the 
ground full of viscid mucous juice and various epiphytic fungi, of which 
one of the most important is that which grows on the Eucalypti, and 
is known, when dry, under the name of Punk, and used as tinder in 
the Colony. Punk, when young, is nearly snow-white, soft, and to the 
taste insipid, with a distant flavour of • mushroom ; in this stage they 
eat it freely, either raw or slightly roasted. The Cyttaria of the myrtle 
tree, a small morelle-looking, honey-combed fungus, growing upon a fine 
pedicle, was a great favourite ; but that which afforded the largest 
amount of solid and substantial nutritious matter was the native bread, 
a fungus growing in the ground, after the manner of the truffle, and 
generally so near the roots of the trees as to be reputed parasitical. 
Several mushrooms were also eaten by them ; the onion-like leaves of 
some orchids, and the tubers of several plants of this tribe, were 
largely consumed by them, particularly those of Gastrodi sessamoideSy the 
native potato, so called by the colonists, though never tasted by them. 
. . . The green seed-vessels of Acacia sophora, A, maritima^ and several 
others were eaten freely by them, after having been half- roasted by the 
fire ; the amylaceous roots of the bulrush were roasted and eaten by 
them, together with the carrot-like roots of some small umbelliferae. Of 
berries and fruits of which they partook, the principal were those of 
Solatium laciniatumj or kangaroo apple, when dead ripe, of Leucopogon 
gnidium and ericoides, of certain species of Coprosmaf of the Gualtheria 
hispida^ the Billardiera longijiora, of Cyathodes, etc. Besides these, the 
leaf of the larger kelp, whenever it could be obtained, was eagerly 



\ 



96 H. LING ROTH.— ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

looked for and greedily eaten, after having undergone a process of 
roasting and maceration in fresh water, followed by a second roasting, 
when though tough, ... it is susceptible of mastication" (Beacon, 
pp. 26-28). Another account says (Proc. Roy. Soc. V. D. Land, I. p. 
164), ** The pith in the uppermost part of the column of a young and 
vigorous Alsophila is soft and succulent^ and, as compared with that 
from the common Tasmanian fern tree (Cihotium Billarderi), is devoid of 
astringency, and has a bland sweetish taste. The pith of both tree 
ferns was formerly eaten in a half-roasted state by the aborigines, but 
that from the Alsophila was preferred. Their maxim was, that the pith 
of the Cihotium must be eaten along with the flesh of the kangaroo, 
etc. ; while that from the Alsophila was considered so good that it 
might be partaken . of alone.*' Backhouse records, ** We saw many of 
the tree ferns, with the upper portion of the trunk split and one half 
turned back. This had evidently been done by the aborigines to obtain 
the heart for food, but how the process was effecfled I could not 
discover. It must certainly have required considerable skill." In the 
Appendix to his book he adds a list of native plants, from which I 
extrac5l particulars of those made use of by the natives for purposes of 
food. " Geranium parviflorum : the aborigines were in the habit of digging 
up the roots of this plant, which are large and fleshy, and roasting 
them for food. It was called about Launceston, native carrot. This 
species is very widely distributed over the Colony, and is usually found 
in light loamy soil. Although we possess about sixty species of this 
[pea] family, exclusive of the AcaciaSy none of them yield good edible 
seeds. The aborigines were in the habit of colIecSling the ripening pods 
of Acacia^ Sophora, or the Boohialla, and, after roasting them in the 
ashes, they picked out the seeds and eat them. Orchidaceae : a number 
of plants of this family have small bulbous roots, which were formerly 
eaten by the aborigines. Xanthorrhoea Australis ? Grass tree: The base 
of the inner leaves of the grass-tree is not to be despised by the 
hungry. The aborigines beat ofi* the heads of these, singular plants by 
striking them about the tops of the trunks with a large stick ; they 
then strip off" the outer leaves and cut away the inner ones, leaving 
about an inch and a half of the white tender portion, joining the trunk; 
this portion they eat, raw or roasted ; and it is far from disagreeable 
in flavour, having a nutty taste, slightly balsamic. The most extensively 
diffused edible root of Van Diemen's Land is that of the Tara-fern. 
This plant greatly resembles Pieris aquilinay the Common Fern, or Brake 
of England. . . . The Tasmanian plant is Pteris esculentay and is known 
among the aborigines by the name of Tara.* . . . The root is not 
bulbous, but creeps horizontally, at a few inches below the surface of 
the earth, and where it is luxuriant, attains to the thickness of a man's 
thumb. . . . The aborigines roast this root in the ashes, peel off" its 
black skin with their teeth, and eat it with their roasted kangaroo, 
etc., in the same manner as Europeans eat bread. Cyhotium Billardieri, 
Tree Fern : The native blacks of the Colony used to split open about 

• None of the vocabularies give the name Tara for a fern. The name had probably 
(like many other words used at Flinders) been imported from elsewhere. 



w. 



FOOD. CANNIBALISM. HUNTING AND FISHING. 97 

a foot and a half of the top of the trunk of the Common Tree-fern, 
and take out the heart, a substance resembling the Swedish turnip, 
and of the thickness of a man's arm. This they also roasted in the 
ashes, and eat as bread ; but it is too bitter and astringent to suit an 
English palate. It is said the aborigines preferred the* heart of another 
species of tree-fern, AlsophUa Australis^ found at Macquarie Harbour and 
in other places on the northern side of Van Diemen*s Land. Mylitta 
Australisy Native Bread : this species of tuber is often found in the 
Colony, attaining to the size of a child's head ; its taste somewhat 
resembles boiled rice. Like the heart of the Tree-fern, and the root 
of the native potato, cookery produces little change in its characfler. 
On asking the aborigines how they found the native bread, they 
universally replied, * A Rotten Tree.' " Gunn says the Mesembryan- 
themum aequilaterale (pig faces) is the canagong of the aborigines : ** The 
pulp of the almost shapeless, but somewhat ob-conical, fleshy seed vessel 
of this plant is sweetish and saline " (I. p. 48), and Gell also refers to 
this {ibid, II. p. 323). Lists of plants that could have been used for 
food by the aboriginal Tasmanian natives have been made out, but it 
is not necessary to repeat them here. 

Cannibalism. 

" They were great flesh-eaters, but not cannibals, and never were : 
some of them, being incautiously asked if they ever indulged in this 
pracflice, expressed great horror at it. They never named the dead, and 
certainly never ate them" (Calder, J.A.I.). Holman (IV. p. 404) remarks: 
** It is certain fhey are not cannibals : " and Melville (p. 346) further 
confirms the above by telling us that : " Those who suffered most from 
thfir warfare, and were, consequently, likely to attribute to them their 
worst propensities, never charged them with cannibalism." Bonwick says 
(p. 22) : ** Several cases have been narrated by early voyagers of bones 
of' men having been found with burnt pieces of flesh still hanging to 
them, it was at once concluded that this was decided evidence of can- 
nibalism. But as the blacks of that southern coast were accustomed to 
burn their bodies, and bury the ashes, the proof of the custom is far 
from being established. Two excellent authorities, Mr. G. A. Robinson 
and Mr. Mckay who spent so much time among the race deny the 
impeachment." It may, therefore, be safely accepted as a fadl that can- 
nibalism was not one of their customs. 

Hunting and Fishing. 

The occasional firing of the grass in order to induce fresh growth to 
tempt the approach of kangaroos appears to have been a common pradlice 
among the aborigines (Meredith, Home in Tasmania, ch. vii. p. 109 ; 
Backhouse, p. 112). "Their usual method of killing kangaroos was by 
surrounding a scrub, setting fire to it, and spearing the kangaroos as 
they came out" (Davies, p. 412). This method is thus described by 
Holman, the blind traveller (IV. ch. xii. pp. 405-6) : ** One of their modes 
of hunting the kangaroo is generally as successful as it is ingenious. 



r 



98 • H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Having discovered a spot to which they know a number of these animals 
resort, they make a fire round it, taking care to leave two or three 
openings by which they may endeavour to escape ; they then station 
themselves at these places, and on the animals attempting to pass, they 
spear them with such dexterity, that few are ever permitted to escape. 
They use similar means when any of these animals are found on a small 
hill, by making a fire round its base. This pradlice, however, is rather 
negledled of late, since they have become acquainted with the use of 
dogs, . . . which they invariably treat w^ith great kindness from a 
consciousness of their value." West says (II. pp. 85-86), regarding the 
chase by aid of dogs, the aborigines ran nearly abreast of them : stimu- 
lated them by imitating the cry of the kangaroo, and were generally in 
at the death. Entrapping by fire was not their only method of capturing 
the kangaroos. White (Evid. Col. and Slav., p. 53) reports that once 
in May, 1803, while hoeing near a creek, he saw ** 300 of the natives 
come down in a circular form and a flock of kangaroos hemmed in 
between them ; . . . they had no spears with them, only waddies ; 
they were hunting." 

Lloyd's account of such a hunt is quite graphic : ** When but a boy, 
I passed many happy days in following the chase with those primitive 
children of the woods, who took great delight in teaching me to wield 
the quivering spear and whistling waddie. . . The method of 

capturing the forest kangaroo . . . was exceedingly interesting and 
exciting. On sighting their prey, the most skilful hunter instantly 
dropped to the earth, and creeping alternately on hands, knees, and 
stomach, behind trees and stumps . . .—now insinuating his supple 
body through the high grass, like a wily snake, until he^ had successively 
arrived within thirty or forty yards of the unwary vid^im — he would 
carefully raise himself up behind the trunk of a tree presenting the best 
point of attack, when, poising the fatal weapon, he bounded towards his 
prey with the agility of a panther, and hurling the spear, seldom failed 
in transfixing the poor animals. Their mode of hunting in the ferns, 
scrubs, and underwood, was by clearing a patch of about twenty feet 
square. Men, women, and children then distributed themselves in a large 
circle, and advancing towards the cleared space drove the game — brush, 
kangaroo, wallaby, and bandicoot — indiscriminately to the slaughter " (p. 
45). The catching of an opossum was a more difficult matter. West 
(II. p. 85) says ; ** The opossum was hunted by the women, who by a 
glance discovered if the animal were to be found in the tree," and 
Backhouse (p. 172) refers to such a hunt in the following terms: "The 
climbing of the lofty smooth-trunked gum trees, by the women to obtain 
opossums, which lodge in the hollows of decayed branches, is one of the 
most remarkable feats I ever witnessed." Davies (p. 413) describes the 
capture in this way: "The natives, especially the women, get opossums 
by climbing trees. Their senses of seeing and hearing are particularly 
acute, and a glance will suffice to tell them when there is an opossum 
in the tree. They always carried with them a small rope, made of 
kangaroo sinews, and their mode of climbing the trees was as follows : 
They first, as high as they could conveniently reach, cut a notch with 
a sharp stone in the side of the tree, then threw the bight of the rope 






HUNTING AND FISHING. 99 

up, and leaning back, it held against the tree by their weight, until 
with its assistance the climber got his right great toe into the notch 
that had been cut ; then grasping the tree with his left arm, the rope 
by a sudden jerk is thrown higher up the tree, a fresh notch is cut for 
the left toe, and so the climber proceeds. If branches interfere, they are 
a hindrance to the climber, but he then throws the end of the rope 
over it, and holding both ends raises himself up." According to Lloyd 
(pp. 46-47) : ** The method of catching the climbing opossum ... is, 
notwithstanding the imminent danger which attends it, an extremely 
interesting sight to mere bystanders. The thrilling exclamation of * Wah ! 
Wah ! Wah ! * denoting that traces had been discovered of the cat-taloned 
animal having very recently ascended the tree, soon brought other 
natives to the spot : whereupon — the most cunning in such matters 
deciding in council that the impressions made on the smooth bark were 
of the preceding night — one of the boldest and most agile of the hunters 
prepared to ascend the formidable- looking blue gum. The flint tomahawk 
and the strong hay-band supplied the want of a ladder. . . . The 
strong wire-grass rope, made into close three-strand plait, being passed 
round the tree and tied in a loop sufficiently large, the native placed 
himself within it ; then with his tomahawk he made a slightly roughed 
score in the bark, into which, inserting his muscular great toe only, he 
steadily and unerringly raised himself upright. The band was then 
dexterously jerked higher up the trunk ; another score made and so on, 
until he had succeeded in reaching the required height. The scores or 
steps were never less than three feet and a half apart. Having scaled 
the tree, the next feat was to follow the tracks of the opossum along 
some bare projecfling bi;anch; upon which the native walked upright and 
confident, as if he also resided amidst the boughs of towering gums. 
The snug domicile of the opossum being discovered, the ticklish operation 
came of thrusting in the bare arm into the hollowed branch, pulling him 
out by the tail, and tossing him from the dizzy height into the midst 
of the eager hunters who were assembled round the tree. Frequently, 
however, the wary little animal . . . would retreat from its nest, 
and perching itself ... at the extreme end of the branch, would 
remain till fairly shaken off by its ruthless pursuer." ** When the 
opossum was got out of a hole in the tree, they would knock its head 
against the tree and throw it down. Those below would catch it up if 
not dead " (Thirkell). Bass, although he did not see an opossum hunted, 
considered that the trees were climbed by means of the rope, ** for once, 
at the foot of a notched tree, about eight feet of a two inch rope made 
of grass was found with a knot in it, near which it appeared to have 
broken " (Collins, p. 169). He also had seen notched trees (ibid., p. 188). 
Tasman and his crew, in 1642, had also seen these notches, and reported 
them to be five feet apart (Gell. H. pp. 323-325). Thirkell (Papers, Roy. 
Soc. Tas., Aug., 1873) states: ** The mode of climbing trees was to get a 
grass band twisted, put it round the tree, and hold the two ends in 
one hand, and then with a sharp flint stone they would chip the bark 
downwards and make a notch for the big toe, then change hands and 
do the same on the other side." Backhouse's description is of all the 
best. ** The climbing of the lofty, smooth -trunked gum trees, by the 

1^3301 



too H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

women, to obtain opossums, which lodge in the hollows of decayed 
branches, is one of the most remarkable feats I ever witnessed. This 
is effecfled without making any holes for the thumbs or great toes, as 
is common among the natives of New South Wales, except where the 
bark is rough and loose, at the base of the tree. In this a few notches 
are cut by means of a sharp flint or hatchet ; the latter being preferred. 
A rope, twice as long as is necessary to encompass the tree, is then 
thrown around it. In former times this was made of tough grass, or 
strips of kangaroo-skin, but one of hemp is more generally used. The 
left hand is firmly twisted into one en€l of the rope, the middle of 
which is tightly grasped by the right, the hatchet is placed on the 
bare, closely-cropped head, and the feet are placed against the tree : a 
step or two is then advanced, and the body, at the same time, is 
brought into a posture so nearly exa(5l as to admit the rope, by a 
compound motion, to be slackened, and at the same moment hitched a 
little further up the tree. By this means a woman will ascend a lofty 
tree, with a smooth trunk, almost as quickly as a man would go up 
a ladder. Should a piece of loose bark impede the ascent of the rope, 
the portion of rope held in the right hand is taken between the teeth, 
or swung behind the right leg and caught between the great and the 
fore toe and fixed against the tree. One hand is thus freed, to take 
the hatchet from the head, and with it to dislodge the loose bark. On 
arriving at a large limb, the middle of the rope is also secured in the 
left hand, and the loose end is thrown over the limb by the right hand, 
by which also the end is caught, and the middle grasped, till the left 
hand is cleared. This is then wrapped into the middle of the rope, 
and the feet are brought up to the wrinkles of the bark, which exist 
below the large limbs. One end of the rope is then pulled downward, 
and this causes the other to ascend, so that, by an effort of the feet, 
the body is turned on the upper side of the limb of the tree. In 
descending, the woman places one arm on each side of the limb of the 
tree, and swings the rope with one hand till she catches it with the 
other : she then turns oh the limb, and swings underneath it, till she 
succeeds in steadying herself with her feet against the trunk, around 
which ^he then throws the loose end of the rope. Having secured this, 
she lets go the portion by which she was suspended under the limb, 
and descends in the manner in which she ascended. Although this is 
done with ease by women in vigour, one who had been out of health, 
but seemed recovered, could not get many steps off the ground, so 
that not only skill, but a considerable measure of strength, appears 
necessary to ascend the gigantic gum-trees.'* J. B. Walker was informed 
by E. O. Cotton that the latter possessed " a water- worn ironstone 
* paving stone ' broken into just the tool (without handle— to lie on top 
of head) for making the bruises in gum-tree bark, lor toe-grip to go up 
to an opossum hole. The trees so marked were not infrequent near 
Kelvedon (Swansea, east coast) once." 

Widowson's account (p. 190), on the other hand, describes a method 
of climbing trees which is accomplished without the use of the rope: 
" They are extremely expert in climbing, and can reach the top of the 
largest forest trees, without the aid of branches : they effecfl this by 



HUNTING AND PISHING. lOI 

means of a small sharp flint, which they clasp tightly in the ball of 
their four fingers, and, having cut a notch out of the bark, they easily 
ascend, with the large toe of each foot in one notch, and their curiously 
manufadlured hatchet in the other." * Widowson wrote in 1829, and 
was therefore one of the earliest writers, but his statement omitting any 
mention of rope, can only apply to slender trees, as it is hard to believe 
it possible that a large smooth gum tree can be climbed without rope. 
Milligan told Tylor, at the International Exhibition of 1862, that he 
had seen women, even dressed, go up trees 200 feet high. To English 
readers the height of the tree, let alone the height reached, may appear 
an exaggeration, but W. Botting Hemsley informs me that in Miiller's 
Eucalyptographia ** three species of Eucalyptus^ namely : E, obliqua, E. 
amygdalina and E, globulus are recorded as occasionally reaching a height 
of 300 feet in Tasmania." 

Under the heading of food it was shown that the Tasmanians did 
not eat fish. On this subje(5l Anderson remarks (Capt. Cook's Third 
Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.): "They were ignorant of the use of fish-hooks. 
. . . We did not see any of them employed in catching fish, nor 
observe any canoe or vessel in which they could go upon the water " ; 
and La Billardiere states (II. ch. x. p. 63) : " From the manner in 
which we had seen them procure fish, we had reason to presume that 
they had no fish-hooks ; accordingly we gave them some of ours." 
According to Wentworth they ** have no knowledge whatever of the art 
of fishing" (p. 115). Barnard Davis (p. 6) is evidently wrong in saying the 
a^rigines had fishing nets; and so is Brough Smyth (II. p. 392) in 
statmg the aborigines used nets, and fish-hooks made of bone or shell; 
no authority, except Bonwick (p. 15), mentions these, and his account 
evidently refers to the Flinders Island period, but even for this he brings 
no evidence. It is possible that there the aborigines had some super- 
stition about the "nurse," a shark {Odontaspis Atnericanus) which grows 
about ten feet long. Jas. F. Young (a connecflion of G. A. Robinson) 
who lived in Bass Straits Islands informed J. B Walker that he believes 
the aborigines, when on Flinders Island, used to eat fish, and were 
particularly fond of the " parrot-fish " and the " blue fish." Fumeaux 
(Cook's Third Voy. I. ch. vii.) uses the word " nets," but the context 
clearly shows fish nets were not meant, but " some bags and nets made 
of grass, in which I imagine they carry their provisions and other 
necessaries." The women dived for holiotis and crayfish. " They take 
down with them a small grass basket, slung round their waist, into 
which they put their shell - fish " (Davies, p. 413); and P^ron and La 
Billardiere frequently refer to this method of obtaining food from the 
sea {see Food). " Adhering to the rocks . . . the Mutton-fish are 
met with abundantly. These are often taken in deep water by the 
native women, who dive for them, and force them from the rocks by 
means of a wooden chisel. They put them into an oval bag, and bring 
them up suspended round their necks" (Backhouse, p. 103). The same 
author continues, on another occasion : "In the afternoon we went . . 

* It has been said that the notches cut in the trees were about 3} feet apart (Tasman's 

Journal : 5 Dutch feet). 



I02 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

on a fishing excursion. . . . Some of the women went into the water 
among the large sea-tangle, to take crayfish. These women seem quite 
at home in the water, and frequently immerse their faces to enable 
them to see objecfls at the bottom. When they discover the objecSl of 
their search, they dive, often using the long stems of the kelp to 
enable them to reach the bottom ; these they handle as dexterously in 
descending as a sailor would a rope in ascending" (Backhouse, p. i68). 
Walker's account (p. 170) is very similar to Backhouse's, but he adds 
" they appear to float with their heads in an upright position above 
water without eiFort," and also that ** seizing the crayfish by the back, 
they ascend promptly to the surface, where, they readily disengage them- 
selves from the kelp and weed, and throw the prey to their companions on 
shore." A. O. Cotton says the women swam certainly well at times ; in 
diving for shell-fish and crayfish they were very expert and persevering 
(communicated to J. B. Walker) [see Swimming] . One of the French 
explorers saw the wooden chisels being made. ** We observed some of 
the savages employed in cutting little bits of wood in the form of a 
spatula, and smoothing them with a shell, for the purpose of separating 
from the rocks limpets or sea-ears, on which they feast " (La Billardiore, 
II. ch. X. p. 52). 

At times fish were speared for sport only, and such pastime is thus 
described by Lloyd (pp. 50-52) : ** On one of these occasions [corroboree] 
. . . the black and white auditory were informed by the head warrior 
that a * big one fish spear um * (fish hunt) would come off on the 
following morning, . . . not with the objec5l of obtaining food, but 
merely as a matter of sport. . . , The locality chosen for the sport 
was called Sweet Water Bay. At high-water its greatest depth did not 
exceed three feet for upwards of one-third of a mile from the shore. 
Its waters literally teemed with the dangerous ray-fish. The preparation 
for the onslaught upon the finny monsters commenced by simultaneous 
entry into the water of the whole assembled tribes, men, women, and 
children, numbering upwards of 300, who, dividing, entered at two different 
points, distant from each other about 250 yards, and continued to wade 
out until they had formed themselves into a half circle ; then, with their 
long sticks furiously beating the water, accompanied with frantic yells, 
and other unearthly sounds, they generally succeeded in retaining within 
the goal numbers of the dreaded fish. The serried cordon having so far 
completed their work, a few of the most acftive and skilful young savages, 
each armed with the keen-edged tomahawk and two heavy barbed spears, 
boldly entered the scene of acflion. Quickly discovering their devoted prey, 
they cast the deadly weapon ; the awkward fish, writhing and plunging, 
darted along the surface of the water ; . . . but the firmly-planted 
spear once grasped by the muscular hand of the excited hunter, the 
vic5\im was soon hauled to the shore and finally despatched. . . . 
After having satisfied their warrioi:-propensities by destroying numbers of 
those dangerous creatures, the hunters would retire to their camp-fires 
and regale themselves upon the usual coast fare, oysters and steaming 
opossum." A. O. Cotton told J. B. Walker that the oborigines speared 
the sting-ray on the flats, but he does not know of their ever eating 
fish. Melville also refers to fish spearing (p. 347). 



HUNTING AND FISHING. IO3 

In Banks Straits the catching of seals was thus described by Kelly 
(p. 14) : ** We gSLve six women each a club that we had used to kill 
the seals with. They went to the water's edge and wet themselves all 
over their heads and bodies, which operation they said would keep the 
seals from smelling them as they walked along the rocks. They were 
very cautious not to go to windward of them, as they said, * a seal 
would sooner believe his nose than his eyes when a man or woman 
came near him.' The women all walked into the water in couples, and 
swam to three rocks about fifty yards from the shore. There were about 
nine or ten seals upon each rock, lying apparently asleep. Two women 
went to each rock with their clubs in hand, crept closely up to a seal 
each, and lay down with their clubs alongside. Some of the seals lifted 
their heads up to inspedl their new visitors and smell them. The seals 
scratched themselves and lay down again. The women went through the 
same motions as the seal, holding up their left elbow and scratching 
themselves with their left hand, taking and keeping the club firm in 
their right ready for the attack. The seals seemed very cautious, now 
and then lifting up their heads and looking round, scratching themselves 
as before and lying down again ; the women still imitating every move- 
ment as nearly as possible. After they had lain upon the rocks for nearly 
an hour, the sea occasionally washing over them (as they were quite 
naked, we could not tell the meaning of their remaining so long) ; all 
of a sudden, the women rose up on their seats, their clubs lifted up at 
arms' length, each struck a seal on the nose and killed him ; in an 
instant they all jumped up as if by magic and killed one more each. 
After giving the seals several blows on the head, and securing them, 
they commenced laughing aloud and began dancing. They each dragged 
a seal into the water, and swam with it to the rock upon which we 
were standing, and then went back and brought another each, making 
twelve seals." 

Regarding the capture of birds, Anderson reported (Cook's Third Voy. 
Bk. I. ch. vi.) : ** There are several sorts of birds, but all so scarce and 
shy, that they are evidently harassed by the natives;" while La Billardi^re 
has the following (II. ch. x. pp. 42-43) : ** A trifling incident gave us 
reason to presume that they sometimes catch birds with their hands. 
A paroquet . . . flew by us, and pitched on the ground at a little 
distance. Immediately two of the young savages set off to catch it, and 
were on the point of putting their hands upon it, when the bird took 
wing." 

According to O'Connor (p. 55), " The natives are as tenacious of their 
hunting grounds as settlers of their farms." Robinson told Calder (J. A I. 
p. 23), that though their wives went with them in their hunting excur- 
sions, they did not allow them to participate in the sport, and that they 
acfled only as drudges, to carry their spears and the game ; but that the 
fishing (for shell-fish only, obtained by diving) was resigned wholly to 
them. The men, he said, considered it beneath them. 

** They lay up no stores of provisions, and have been known in 
winter time to eat kangaroo skins " (Brodribb, p. 52). 



CHAPTER VI. 



Nomadic Life. 



** HTHEY were of wandering habits, yet they seldom advanced beyond 
A the boundaries which marked their own respe(flive possessions — 
their place of encampment depended on the food they had obtained in 
hunting or fishing — as it was their custom to make their sojourn where 
they procured their prey and took their last meal " (Melville, p. 346). 
Furneaux (Cook's Sec. Voy. Bk. I. ch. vii.) thought they were nomadic : 
** They lie on the ground, on dried grass ; and I believe they have no 
settled habitation (as their houses seemed built only for a few days), 
but wander about in small parties from place to place, in search of 
food, and are actuated by no other motive. We never found more 
than three or four huts in a place, capable of containing three or four 
persons each only." The following extra<5ls from Rossel (I. ch. iii. p. 
51 ; ch. iv. pp. 69 and 82) confirm Furneaux's supposition : " I found 
near the stream the remains of some encampments of the natives of 
the country. The oyster-shells and limpets, pieces of burnt wood, and 
the down-trodden grass near, assured me that they had stayed there. 
, . . At a short distance from the shore, three huts, which were 
abandoned, made us think that the natives of the country came to live 
on this little island during certain seasons of the year. This island 
[La Haye] is covered with trees ; at every step, there, we came across 
oyster-shells, and recent traces of. fire, which seemed to show that it 
had been inhabited by the natives of their country, and that they could 
only have abandoned it very recently " [time of year, May] . Breton 
says (p. 349) ** they lead a wandering life," and Widowson (pp. 189-190), 
that " they have no appointed place or situation to live in ; they roam 
about at will. . . . They rarely move at night." " They are not 
fond of travelling in the wet, nor will they do so but in cases of 
necessity. They show the same relucfiance to travelling in the dark. 
As soon as it is dusk they take care to admonish you that it is time 
to rest " (Walker, p. 105). P6ron (ch. xx. sec. i. p. 448) speaks of their 
** always wandering," and states (ch. xvi. pp. 337-33^) • "From what I 
have elsewhere narrated of our dealings with the inhabitants of Van 
Diemen's Land, it can be seen that, not only those on Bruny Island 
belong to the same race, but, further, that they migrate alternately from 
the one region to the other. It is probable that at the time of our 
anchorage in Adventure Bay they were on the mainland ; for we could 
not discover any traces of their ac5lually living there. It would appear, 
likewise, that this part of Bruny Island is less frequented by them 
than that opposite V. D. Land ; which seemed to me to arise from 
scarcity, in Adventure Bay, of the large Haliotis, big Turbos^ and oygte*^ 



\ 



NOMADIC LIFE. I05 

which constitute the principal food of these people. To make up for 
this, however, the Bay, daring summer, when the channel is dried up, 
supplies them with all the water which they need." According to 
Holman (IV. ch. xii. p. 405): "Migration from one part of the island 
to another is usual with the respedlive tribes, according to the season 
of the year ; the attainment of food appearing to be their principal 
objecfl in the change of place." 

Governor Arthur mentions that the north-east coast df V. D. Land 
was continually frequented by the natives for shell-fish, and also on 
account of its being the best sheltered and warmest part of the island, 
and remote from the settled distridls" (Col. and Slav. p. 4). Brodribb 
(ibid, p. 52) mentions that "The natives from the eastward do not go 
further west than Abyssinia,*' and amongst certain places visited by 
them ** there is one in the Campbell Town districfl, where they go to 
obtain flint. The natives remain more stationary in the winter than in 
the summer . . . they are then comparatively inacflive." The Rev. 
R. Knopwood (ibid, p. 53) understood that the natives cross the country 
from east to west in the month of March. O'Connor (ibid. p. 54) states : 
'* They are never seen in winter ; . . . they then retire into tlie 
interior." It is strange Jeffreys (p. 127) should say, "They but seldom 
visit the coast," for all other writers refer to such visits, and we have 
the evidence of the recent shell-mounds. He, however, continues : " Their 
excursions, in the autumn, are supposed to be from west to east, and 
in the spring from east to west." There can be no doubt from all the 
above that the migrations of the aborigines were periodical, and West 
(II. p. 20) sums up the question thus ; " The tribes took up their 
periodical stations, and moved with intervals so regular, that their 
migrations were anticipated, as well as the season of their return. The 
person employed in their pursuit by the aid of his native allies, was 
able to predi(5l at what period and place he should find a tribe ; . . . 
and though months intervened he found them in the valley, and at the 
time he foretold," adding (II. p. 83), *• During the winter, the natives 
visited the sea-shore : they disappeared from the settled districfts about 
June, and returned in 0<5lober." 

From Furneaux's account it did not seem that they moved in large 
numbers ; but Prinsep (p. 78) says : ** They move in large bodies, with 
incredible swiftness, forty or fifty miles in one night." This statement 
contradi(5ls that of Widowson, as regards travelling at night ; but as 
regards numbers agrees with O'Connor (p. 54), who says they " travel 
in parties of ten, twenty, and thirty." " Though they rarely remain two 
days in a place, they, seldom travel far at a time. Each tribe keeps 
much to its own districfl " (Backhouse, p. 104). According to Walker 
each tribe confines itself generally to a districl seldom exceeding twenty 
or thirty miles in its widest extent. Their principal journeys were those 
made in the summer season to the high lands from the lower tracfls 
(the haunts of the game) which were their resort in the winter" (MS. 
Jour.) We have seen above that Melville also says they keep within 
their boundaries ; but both statements appear to contradicfl the reasons 
usually described as the cause of their intertribal feuds (see War). 
According to Laplace (III. ch. xviii. p. 201), in their constant journeys 



lo6 H. LING ROTH. — AfeORlGlNES Of TASMANIA. 




NOMADIC LIFE. HABITATIONS. IO7 

it was the women who had **to carry the hunting or fishing utensils, 
the provisions, and the children unable to walk." 

" Each tribe of the aborigines is divided into several families, and 
each family, consisting of a few individuals, occupies its own fire '* 
(Backhouse, p. 104). Lloyd (p. 137) says also: ** Wherever a tribe of 
aborigines locate themselves, each family kindles its separate fire at 
fourteen to twenty yards apart.*' ** They never kindle large fires, lest 
their haunts might be tracked, but choose retired situations, and generally 
where food and water are easily attainable " (V. D. Land Annual, 1834, 
p. 78). "Their encampments were always formed on the margin of a 
stream or lagoon. To be within reach of a natural reservoir was of 
prime importance to a people who had no means of digging wells, or 
of carrying about with them, for any considerable distance, a stock of 
water" (Dove, L p. 250). Colonel Arthur refers to "The migratory 
habits of the aborigines, and their attachment to their savage mode of 
life, as raising difficulties in the way of their settling down in any one 
distridl " (Col. and Slav. p. 4) ; and Dove, years afterwards, makes the 
same complaint : " Such is the force of habit and association, that even 
yet these children of the forest gladly quit the neat and substantial 
cottages which have been built for them, for the luxury (as they account 
it) of wandering over the bush, and of reclining under the shade of a 
roofless break- wind. In the hour of sickness and death, they often 
breathe a wish to meet the issue of their maladies amidst the wilds of 
Nature" (L p. 249), 

Habitations. 

Cook and Anderson were both under the impression that the natives 
hollowed out, by means of fire, the lower part of tree trunks in order 
to make use of such openings for habitations (Third Voy. Bk. L ch. 
vi. pp. 41-45). Mortimer (pp. 17-18) also mentions these burnt-out hollows. 
Rossel held similar views, and they were confirmed by the fa(5l that these 
burnt-out hollows were always on the east side of the trees (L ch. iii. 
pp. 51-53; ch. iv. pp. 55, 61-62). Marion (p. 34) "saw no signs of any 
houses, only some break-winds, rudely formed of branches of trees, with 
traces of fires near them," and according to Dixon (p. 22), it "was only 
in the coldest weather that they thought of erecfling a shelter. This was 
always of the rudest strucflure, being a few upright sticks, leaning together, 
and scantily covered with strips of bark; but as soon as the fine weather 
returned, the frail habitation was deserted." Furneaux thus describes the 
huts (Cook's Sec. Voy. Bk. L ch. vii.) : "The boughs of which their 
huts are made are either broken or split, and tied together with grass 
in a circular form, the largest end stuck in the ground, and the smaller 
parts meeting in a point at the top, and covered with fern and bark, 
so poorly done that they will hardly keep out a shower of rain. In the 
middle is the fire-place, surrounded with heaps of mussel, pear-scallop, 
and cray-fish shells. ... I believe they have no settled habitations, 
as these houses seemed built only for a few days." Bass's description is 
somewhat different: "Their huts, of which seven or eight were frequently 
found together like a little encampment, were construcfled of bark, torn 



Io8 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

in long strips from some neighbouring tree, after being divided transversely 
at the bottom, in such breadths as they judge their strength would be 
able to disengage from its adherence to the wood, and the connecfling 
bark on each side. It is then broken into convenient lengths, and placed, 
sloping wise, against the elbowing part of some dead branch that has 
fallen off from the distorted limbs of the gum tree ; and a little grass 
is sometimes thrown over the top part. But, after all their labour, they 
have not ingenuity sufficient to place the slips of bark in such a manner 
as to preclude the free admission of the rain" (Collins, p. i68). ** Dr. 
Ross saw some huts in V. D. Land which he compared to a teacup 
broken in half, and set upon its mouth. His description of those he 
observed upon the Shannon, in 1823, runs as follows: *They stood 
irregularly within a few yards of each other, and we counted seventeen 
of them. From the appearance of the fires, we guessed they had been 
inhabited about a week before. The wigwams, or huts, were built en- 
tirely of bark, supported here and there by a piece or two of dry wood. 
The bark which had been stripped oft the trees, was piled in upright 
lengths close to each other, rudely joined together at the top ; the whole 
forming but a segment of a globe, open to the east. We had the curiosity 
to enter two or three of these huts, and miserable indeed must have been 
the shelter they afforded ' " (Bonwick, p. 49). " Mr. Robinson relates 
having fallen in with a similar charadler of edifice, when near Macquarie 
Harbour. These had a framework of wattles, and a thatch of reeds in 
regular and beautiful tiers, commencing at the bottom. The orifice for 
the door was small. Each hut would hold from twenty to twenty -five 
persons " {ibid). Against this we have La Billardiere's testimony, which 
says (H. ch. x. p. 10): **The ingenuity with which they had disposed 
the bark that covered its roof, excited our admiration ; the heaviest rain 
could not penetrate it. It can be supposed that the different tribes did 
not all build their huts or break-winds on exa(fHy the same pattern." 
Flinders mentions that Cox saw ** a hut, or rather hovel, neatly con- 
strudled of branches of trees and dried leaves" (Sec. IV. p. 91): and 
from Mortimer's remarks it is to be inferred he also met with huts 
constructed of leaves and branches, without bark (pp. 17-18). The spongy 
bark of the Eucalyptus resinifera, which peels off naturally, seems also to 
have been used for coverings for the huts (La Billardiere, I. ch. v. p. 
174), and the same author tells us that, in fixing up the framework, 
the branches were fixed into the ground by both ends {ibid, pp. 179- 191). 
The illustration on p. 106 (after Petit) shows the break- wind nature of 
these construcflions, and Peron's own words will bear out the illustration. 
Describing one of these he says (ch. xii. p. 225) : " It was simply a 
wind shelter of bark, arranged in a semi-circle, and leaning against some 
dry branches. The sole objecft of such a frail refuge could only have 
been to protecfl the man from the acflion of the very cold winds. I 
observed that its convexity was opposed to the effecfl of the S.E. winds, 
which on these shores are the most constant, the most impetuous, and the 
coldest." Some huts that Calder met with (J.A.I, p. 20-21) *' in the 
Western Mountains, seemed to have been construdled in a great hurry, 
and were composed of a few strips of bark laid against some large dead 
branches that were used just as they had fallen from the trees above, 



HABITATIONS. lOg 

Others that I have seen had evidently been occupied for several nights. 
These were also of bark, supported on sticks driven a little into the 
ground. . . . These huts were closed only on the weather side, and 
perfe(5\ly open in front, some large enough for several persons, others less." 
The west coast tribes do seem to have had better shelters than the 
other tribes, owing perhaps to the wetter climate on that coast. J. B. 
Walker was informed by Lyne ** that their huts were mere break- winds 
of sheet or bark, set up against a stick or branch placed in a slanting 
diredlion. The fire was placed to leeward of the break- wind. When they 
camped without putting up a break-wind, they would have several small 
fires round and would sleep in the centre." Geo. Eyles overseer to 
W. A. B. Gellibrand, informed the latter that "their shelters were formed 
of sheets of bark (stringy bark*) laid against a large fallen tree, making 
a sort of kennel into which they crept." This was in 1836, at the London 
marshes, near Marlborough, not far from the river Nive, on the central 
plateau, west of lake Echo (communicated by W. A. B. Gellibrand to 
J. B. Walker). In later days when hunted they were probably content 
with the slightest shelter. 

** It was only on the west coast, between Port Davey and Macquarie 
Harbour, that huts were in use continuously, for periods of about six 
months together ; these huts were conical, and thatched with grass, having 
an opening on one side, to answer the double purpose of door and chimney; 
(Milligan, Beacon, p. 25). It would seem this account is taken from 
Jorgenson (a romancer) out of Eliiston's Almanack, 1838 (p. 69): "They 
were very neatly built and well thatched ; they appeared much in the 
form of a beehive, and would with ease contain thirty persons.** Another 
description of these huts runs : " Three pieces of timber are placed in 
an oblique position with their ends sunk a little into the ground, and 
meeting in a point at the top, where they are fastened by a cord of 
bark. Two of the three sides of this dwelling are then filled with wicker- 
work, like their canoes ; and the whole is completely secured from the 
inclemency of the weather by a covering of long grass" (Jeffreys, pp. 
128-129). Jeffreys is a somewhat random writer and his statements must 
be accepted with caution. The term wicker-work as applied to huts and 
canoes is misleading, as it conveys the idea of osier or willow — basket- 
work in fadl. A more accurate expression would be ** wattled " perhaps, 
but that would only be approximately correct. The work could only have 
been roughly interlaced branches or strips of bark (as shown in illustration). 
Speaking of the break-winds, West says (II. p. 82.): "These huts formed 
rude villages, and were seen from seventeen to forty together. The former 
number being raised by a tribe of seventy, from four to five must have 
lodged under one shelter. Some, found at the westward, were permanent ; 
they were like beehives, and thatched; several such were seen by Jorgenson, 
on the western shore — strong and apparently eredled for long use." In 
their camping places "some of them sat on kangaroo skins, and some 
others had a little pillow, which they called roSrSy near a quarter of a 

* •' Stringy bark " (Eucalyptus ohliqva) has a very thick fibrous bark known as " bulls 
wool." By hacking the bark at the base of the tree and loosening it at the bottom, 
long broad sheets may be stript off, 



no H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

yard long, and covered with skin, on which they rested one of their 
elbows" (La Billardiere, II. ch. x. p. 47).* In the Journal of the first 
Chaplain at the Derwent, Rev. R. Knopwood,. under date 21st June, 1804, 
there is an account of the visit of Mr. William Collins to the Huon 
river. ** He was conducfled to the town (sic) by some of them {i.e, the 
blacks), where there were about twenty families ; he stayed all night with 
them." There is no description of their habitations. 

Curious Structures, — **A curious account of one of their places of meeting 
is preserved in an official letter, written by Mr. W. B. Walker, dated 
December 24, 1827, from which the following is taken: — * Some time since, 
Mr. W. Field had occasion to search for a fresh run for some of his 
cattle, in the course of which he found a fine tradl of land, to the west 
of George Town, in which is an extensive plain, and on one side of it 
his stock-keepers found a kind of spire, curiously ornamented with shells, 
grass-work, etc. The tree of which it is formed appeared to have had 
much labour and ingenuity bestowed upon it, being by means of fire 
brought to a sharp point at the top and pierced with holes, in which 
pieces of wood are placed in such a manner as to afford an easy ascent 
to near the top, where there is a commodious seat for a man. At the 
distance of fifteen or twenty yards round the tree are two circular ranges 
of good huts, composed of bark and grass; described as much in the 
form of an old-fashioned coal-scuttle turned wrong side up, the entrance 
about eighteen inches high, five feet or six feet at the back, and eight 
feet or ten feet long. There are also numerous small places in the form 
of birds'-nests, formed of grass, having constantly fourteen stones in each. 
The circular space between the spire and the huts has the appearance 
of being much frequented, being trod quite bare of grass, and seems to 
be used as a place of assembly and consultation. In the huts and the 
vicinity were found an immense number of waddies, but very few spears. 
. . . There are two others, but of inferior construdlion, one about five 
miles from the Supply Mills, and the other west of Piper's Lagoon, north 
of the Western River. He [my informant] has frequently met small 
parties of natives on their way to and from the two last-named places. * " 
(Calder, J.A.I, pp. 23-24). This was on the banks of the Tamar, and 
not the west coast, and the period some twenty-five years after the 
aborigines had been in European contac^^. The evidence for huts as 
distinguished from break- winds having been built by blacks in their wild 
state, rests upon the unreliable testimony of Jorgenson, and this only for 
the west coast. Bon wick's statement (p. 50), " When so harassed by 
Europeans, they left off building huts and were satisfied with break- 
winds," would imply that huts were originally built, which, however, 
is as mentioned very doubtful. La Billardiere describes a curious struc- 
ture of another sort (ch. v. pp. 178-179): ** We found on the skirts of 
the forest a fence construdled by the natives against the winds of the 

* His words are: — " et quelques autres avoient un petit oreiller qu'ils nomment ro^rrf, long 
d'environ deux decimetres, et couvert de peau sur lequel ils appuyoient un des 
coudes" (II. p 43); but Prof. Ratzel (Volkerkunde, Leipzig, 1894, 2nd Ed., |. p. 351) 
translates areiller into kopfschemel, i.e. headstool which is manifestly not correcft. It 
is not at all improbable that this oreilUr is the kangaroo rug rolled up for using as 
a drum as described by Lloyd (ch. iv. p. 50). 



HABITATIONS. AGRICULTURE. DOMESTIC ANIMALS. COURTSHIP. Ill 

bay, in consisted of strips of the bark of the Eucalyptus rcsinifera^ 
interwoven between stakes fixed perpendicularly into the ground, forming 
an arch, of about the third of the circumference of a circle, nine feet 
in length and three in height, with its convex side turned towards the 
bay. . . . We found another of the fences above described on the 
skirt of the forest. It was of the same construcflion and height as the 
former, but twice as long.** 

Agriculture. 

Of agriculture in all its branches the Tasmanians appear to have been 
absolutely ignorant, for we find no mention anywhere of their possessing 
any knowledge of the cultivation of the soil. 

Domestic Animals. 

Davies (p. 418J remarks: "They have no domestic animals, unless a 
young tamed kangaroo could be esteemed such ; and it is much to be 
doubted, whether, in their wild state, they even had . this. Of later years 
they have had dogs." These dogs, according to Backhouse (p. 85), "were 
highly valued by their owners, who obtained them from Europeans, there 
being originally no wild dogs in V. D. Land." Widowson also tells us 
(p. 190) that the aborigines " roam about at will, followed by a pack of 
dogs, of different sorts and sizes, which are used principally for hunting. 
He adds (ibtd,) a curious fadl in conne<5\ion with their fondness for these 
animals, namely, that the " females are frequently known to suckle a 
favourite puppy instead of a child." According to Walker (pp. 99 and 
167) they are all excessively fond of their dogs, hugging them like children, 
carrying them in their bosoms, and allowing them to lick their faces." 
In 1816, at Banks Straits, Kelly states the aborigines had "at least 
fifty dogs" with them (p. 14). 

W'ith regard to the question of vermin, we have the following state- 
ment by La Billardiere (II. p. 55): "These people are covered with 
vermin. We admired the patience of a mother, who was a long while 
employed in freeing one of her children from them ; but we observed 
with disgust, that, like most of the blacks, she crushed the^e filthy inse<5ls 
between her teeth, and then swallowed them." 

Courtship. 

West has the curious statement: "It is said they courted with flowers" 
(II. p. 78). Bonwick (p. 69) gives a long account of the courtship, but 
it is evidently Australian, probably Vidlorian, for writing in 1870, he says 
that the account was given by a black fifteen years before, and that only 
two years before he had visited the same black at his mountain hut. 
Therefore it could not be a Tasmanian black. Bonwick also says: (p. 71) 
" A lock of hair was not an unknowoi present among Tasmanian maidens 
to some heart chosen one of the foreign sex." He gives no authority for 
the statement. Lloyd (p. 45) says females were betrothed from childhood, 
nevertheless there must have been occasionally some romance, judging by a 



V 



112 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

love affair reported by Walker (p. 103). It runs as follows : Pannehrooneh 
had long felt an affedlion for Pellonnymyna, but no persuasions of his 
could induce her to become his wife. One day they were crossing a river 
along with many more of their countrymen, when Pellonnymyna was 
suddenly seized with an attack of illness, and became unable to support 
herself. The faithful lover was at her side. Seizing her in his arms, 
he bore her to a place of safety, and during her indisposition, which was 
tedious, he nursed her with the greatest attention, and most affe<5lionate 
assiduity. She at length recovered, when, overcome with gratitude, she 
declared that none but Pannehrooneh should be her husband ; and from 
that time they have become united by the most inviolable attachment." 

Social and Marital Relations. 

No marriage ceremony seems to have been described or even witnessed 
by any European. 

** It was rarely the custom amongst them to seletfl wives from their 
own tribes, but rather to take them furtively, or by open force, from 
neighbouring clans ; .they were monogamous, but the pradlice of divorce 
was recognized, and acfled upon, on incompatibility of disposition and 
habits, as well as on grosser cause given. Tasmanian lords had no diffi- 
culty, and made no scruple, about a succession of wives, and would 
thus occasionally, after temporary separation, readjust differences, and live 
happily ever after with their first loves : still they never kept more than 
one wife at one time" (Milligan, Beacon, p. 29). Calder also speaks as 
though they were a monogamous people : "It is nowhere stated . . . 
that polygamy was pracflised by the Tasmanian ; but as the man Joe 
. . . had two wives at the same time, it cannot be said the prad^ice 
was unknown to them" (J. A. I., p. 22). Peron mentions meeting with a 
family of aborigines, " two members of which, a young man and a young 
woman, appeared to us to be at the same time epoux et freres " (ch. xii. 
p. 226). There is, however, plenty of evidence to show that the natives 
were polygamous. West says (II. p. 78): "Polygamy was tolerated; 
women were, latterly, bigamists." Lloyd settles the question in favour 
of polygamy thus (pp. 44-45) : ** Plurality of wives was the universal law 
among them. Amongst the Oyster Bay tribe, in 1821, I scarcely ever 
knew an instance of a native having but one gin. On the contrary, two 
or three were the usual allowance. I have known a grey-headed old 
savage to possess three wives of the respe(5\ive ages of thirty, seventeen, 
and ten years, all betrothed to him from childhood, who from the time 
of their betrothal, became members of his family circle, entirely dependent 
on him for support." In spite of Lloyd's experience, there were doubtless 
exceptional cases when monogamy prevailed, for on one occasion during 
an interview La Billardiere reports : " Two of the stoutest of the party 
were sitting in the midst of their children, and each had two women by 
his side. They informed us by signs that these were their wives, and 
gave us a fresh proof that polygamy is established among them. The 
other woman, who had only one husband was equally careful to let us 
know it. It would be difficult to say which are the happiest; as the 
most laborious of their domestic occupations devolve upon them, the former 



SOCIAL AND MARITAL RELATIONS. II3 

had the advantage of a partner in them, which perhaps might sufficiently 
compensate their having only a share in their husbands aifedtions" (II. 
ch. X. p. 60). Bonwick (p. 74) says as follows of the wife : " Even 
when divorced she was by no means free, as the tribe exercised juris- 
di(5lion in the woman's affairs, and the disposal of her person. She soon 
came under bondage again to another man, though perhaps to a younger 
than her first affianced one ; as the young fellows were in most instances 
supplied with their first partners from the overflowing establishments of 
their seniors, or by the grant of a cast-off bit of property." There is 
no evidence that there were any overflowing establishments — three wives 
being the greatest known number of women attached to one man. He 
continues : ** My friend Truganina, in the course of her rambles with the 
Conciliatory Mission of Mr. G. A. Robinson, seems to have changed her 
partners in a free way. One of the women attached to Mr. Robinson's 
party acftually went a distance of seventy miles from her residence to 
catch a husband in an alien elan." 

We have seen above that the women had a sense of modesty. G. A. 
Robinson and Catechist Clark, at Flinders Island, who lived for years 
with the aborigines, both declare their convidtion of the modesty of the 
young females" (Bonwick p. 60). The latter spoke to Bonwick (p. 12) 
"of their observance ot cleanliness in such private duties, their decency 
in the conjugal relation." Jorgenson had this good word for them : 
** Notwithstanding a few instances to the contrary, the aboriginal females 
were modest in their discourse, and discreet in their manners ! Adultery 
was punished by blows or , leg-spearing. The Moore River blacks gave 
a man so many spears at his legs, but allowed the females of the tribe 
to sit on the adulteress, and cut her body about with flints" (Bonwick 
p. 60). 

Dove considers that from the fadt of polygamy prevailing, the condition 
of the women must have been abjed^ (I. p. 252). Regarding their 
treatment by their husbands, Peron, describing an interview with some 
twenty females aborigines, says ; ** They were nearly all covered with 
scars, the miserable results of the bad treatment of their brutal husbands" 
(p. 252). These scars may perhaps have been only the cicatrices with 
which they adorned themselves. The manner in which the men took the 
food from the women, giving them only the remnants, has been described 
in the chapter on food. On one occasion some twenty women had 
deposited the results of their fishing at the feet of the men, **who imme- 
diately divided it up, without giving tliem any ; they proceeded to group 
themselves behind their husbands, who were seated on the back of a large 
sand-bank ; and there, during the remainder of the interview, these unfor- 
tunates dared neither to raise their eyes, speak, nor smile." Such condud\ 
is perhaps explained by La Billardiere's statement (II. ch. x. p. 61) that 
the women showed the greatest subordination to their husbands : It 
appeared that the women were careful to avoid giving their husbands 
any occasion for jealousy." The men are very indolent, and make the 
women their beasts of burden, and do all their servile operations, such 
as cooking, etc. . . . While the men are taking it easy in front, the 
women follow at some short distance behind, sweltering under a load of 
one or two children on their backs, a couple of puppy dogs in their 



il4 H. LING ROTM. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 

arms, and a variety of miscellaneous articles slung around them. The 
men are extremely selfish ; if, after being short of food, one kills a 
kangaroo, he does not divide it with the others of the party, but, after 
his wife has cooked it, and taken her place behind his back, he satisfies 
himself with the choicest parts, handing her from time to time the half- 
devoured pieces over his shoulder ; this he does with an air of the 
greatest condescension, without turning round*' (Davies, p. 415). Lloyd's 
account is very similar (p. 44) ; ** Hard labour is the matrimonial inheri- 
tance of the poor ^m [woman]. In travelling, the task of carrying her infant, 
the food, and all the worldly goods and chattels of the family, devolved 
upon the wretched woman ; whilst her lord, with head erecfl, unburdened 
except with the spear, the shield, and waddie, walked proudly in advance 
of his frail tottering slave;" and so is Calder's (J.A.I, p. 20): ** They 
[the men] did not allow their wives to participate in the sport, . . . 
they ac5ted only as drudges to carry their spears and game ; but the 
fishing (for shell fish only ... J was resigned wholly to them. The 
men considered it beneath them, and left it, and all other troublesome 
services, to them, who, in nine cases out of ten, were no better than 
slaves. If a storm came on unexpe(51edly, the men would sit down while 
the women built huts over them, in which operation, as in all others of 
a menial nature, the men took no part." ** The construcflion and pro- 
pulsion of the catamaran, or boat of the native, was always the work of 
the women " (ibid. p. 22). In Peron's drawing of the canoe it is pro- 
pelled by men. La Billardiere relates (II. ch. x. p. 59) that it gave him 
and his party great pain to see the poor women condemned to the severe 
toil of diving for shell-fish, . . . and often entreated their husbands 
to take a share in their labour at least, but it was always in vain. 
The men remained constantly near the fire, feasting on the best bits." 
" Horton records an instance of unkindness, perhaps not general, nor very 
uncommon ; it was noon : the mother, her infant, and little boy, had been 
without food all day ; the father refused any part of that he had provided. 
Another of the tribe, however, was more generous ; when he handed the 
woman a portion, at Ilorton's request, before she tasted any herself, she 
fed her child" (West, II. p. 79). The V. D. Land Almanac for 1834, 
p. 78, says the men treat their women kindly. 

The arrival of the first white men, chiefly sealers, without any female 
companions, naturally led to close relations between the aboriginal women 
and the sealers. ** These connecftions became so common, that the 
Governor, . . . thinking to do an adt of justice by setting these 
women at liberty, ordered them to be sent back to their tribes ; but the 
magistrates charged with the carrying out of the decree were so moved 
by the despair and the prayers of these poor creatures, that they demanded 
fresh orders, and things remained as before" (Laplace, III. ch. xviii. 
pp. 202-203), and in Jeffreys (pp. 118-119), we find the following words 
bearing on these liaisons : ** The author had several opportunities of 
learning from the females, that their husbands acfl towards them with 
considerable harshness and tyranny. These women are known sometimes 
to run away from that state of bondage and oppression to which they 
say their husbands subject them. In these cases they will attach them- 
selves to the English sailors. . . . They give their European proted^ors 



RELATIONSHIPS. EDUCATION. INITIATORY CEREMONIES. II5 

to understand that their own husbands make them carry all their lumber, 
force them out to hunt, and make them perform all manner of work ; 
and that they find their situation greatly improved by attaching them- 
selves to the sealing gangs." 



l^ELATIONSHIPS. 

"In Australia and Tasmania men were held relatives of their mothers' 
relatives," so says Bonwick (p. 62). We really know nothing of such 
relationship amongst the Tasmanians. 

Education. 

** Pracflising throwing small spears, and other savage exercises, appear 
to be the whole education and employment of the children." Beyond 
this statement of Davies (p. 412) we have no knowledge of the way in 
which their children were brought up. La Billardiere ** observed in the 
children the greatest subordination to their parents" (II. ch. x. p. 60). 
The women had the entire care of the children, and the natives were 
extremely fond of their offspring (V. D. Land Almanac, 1834, P* 7^)' 
Bonwick (p. 78) adds, ** boys were preferred to girls," A French party 
alarmed some children, upon which La Billardiere remarks (II. ch. x. pp. 
54-55) : "The least of the children, frightened at the sight of such a number 
of Europeans, immediately took refuge in the arms of their mothers, who 
lavished on them marks of the greatest affe(5lion. The fears of the 
children were soon removed ; and they showed us, that they were not 
exempt from little passions, whence arose differences, to which the mothers 
almost immediately put an end by slight correction ; but they soon found 
it necessary to stop their tears by caresses." " I shall not pass over in 
silence the corre(5lion a father gave one of his children for having thrown 
a stone at the back of another younger than himself : it was merely a 
light slap upon the shoulder, which made him shed tears, and prevented 
him doing so again" (ibid, II. ch. x. p. 48). On the other hand, it is 
reported (Widowson, p. 190) : ** So , careless are they of their children, 
that it is not uncommon to see boys grown up, with feet exhibiting the 
loss of a toe or two, having, when infants, been dropped into the fire 
by the mother." 

Initiatory Ceremonies. * 

Nothing is known concerning any initiatory rites pracflised by the 
Tasmanians. Davies (p. 412) tells us that when "the males arrive at 
the age ot puberty, they are deeply scarified on the shoulders, thighs> 
and muscles of the breast." 

Bonwick after describing Australian initiatory ceremonies, continues 
(p. 202) " From all that I was able to gather in my enquiries among 
very old residents in V. D. Land, it is my opinion that the customs 
here described, in connetflion with young-men-marking in New Holland, 
existed more or less with the different tribes of the Tasmanians." 



\ 



Il6 ' H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Phallism. 

Bonwick states, ** the phallic idea was not unknown in Tasmania " 
(p- 195); 3.nd again ** the corrobories of the Tasmanians, which elsewhere 
are shown to have a mystic meaning were some of them evidently of 
a phallic design." ** The Broad Arrow, evidently connedled with ancient 
phallic rites was known in the very early times of V. D. Land, as marks 
made by Aborigines and not by runaway convi(5ls. The capture parties 
describe its being in the almost inaccessible Western Tasmania " (p. 196). 
An examination of any of the published accounts of the corrobories does 
not show any phallic design about them. 

Deformations. 

Some natives were observed, in " whom one of the middle teeth of 
the upper jaw was wanting, and others in whom both were gone. We 
could not learn the objedl of this custom ; but it is not general, for 
the greater part of the people had all their teeth " (La Billardiere, IL 
ch. xi. p. 76). Henderson says: (Bk. H. p. 148): "The extradlion of 
one of the front teeth from the males is not pra(5lised in V. D. Land." 
Barnard Davis tells us the skulls ** of the man and woman in the 
Museum of the Roy. Coll. of Surgeons have had teeth punched out at 
an early age. This custom of knocking out the front teeth is not known 
to have been pradlised by Tasmanians, and is not attributed to them 
in any account 1 am acquainted with. Still the condition of the 
skeletons named leaves no doubt whatever that it has prevailed. The 
male skeleton at the College had had the two middle upper incisors 
punched out in this manner, and what is more singular, that of the 
woman, also, has had the whole four upper incisors knocked out in 
the same manner. The alveolar process in both is absorbed and wholly 
effaced. Among the Australian tribes this pradlise is spread generally. 
It must have been exceedingly rare among the Tasmanians, most likely 
confined to one tribe, as nothing is known ot such a custom by those 
best acquainted with the Tasmanians" (p. 18). 

Marion mentions that the natives he saw were not circumcised (p. 
28), and he is the only author who refers to circumcision. 

Burials. 

As the members of d'Entrecasteaux's expedition, with one exception, 
did not anywhere come across human bones, they concluded that the 
natives buried their dead (Rossel, I. ch. iv. p. 56). Some human bones 
were once found amongst the ashes of a fire made by the natives. 
Several bones of the pelvis were pronounced by their form to have 
been part of the skeleton of a young woman ; some of them were still 
covered with pieces of broiled flesh (La Billardiere, L ch. v. p. 205). 

It was left to Peron to make the remarkable discovery at Cape 
Maurouard, of the verv curious way in which the aborigines buried 
some of their dead. ** On a large piece of green sward, under the 



II 



i i 



BURIALS. 1 17 

shadow of some old Casuarinas, a cone was raised, roughly made of 
bark, fixed into the ground at the lower end, and joined at the top 
by a band of the same materials. Four long poles, fixed at one end 
in the ground, served to support all the bark under which they were 
placed : these four poles seemed also intended to serve as an ornament 
to the strucfture ; for instead of being united at the top like the bark, 
and so forming a simple cone, they were crossed at a little more than 
half of their length, that is to say, precisely at the point of their 
projection beyond the roof of the monument. From this arrangement a 
sort of tetragonal pyramid resulted, on the apex of which appeared an 
inverted cone. ... At each of the four sides of this pyramid there 
was a broad strip of bark, of which the two ends were bound below 
by the big band which bound all the others at the top. The result 
was, that each of these four strips formed a sort of bow, more pointed 
at the lower end, and large and rounder on the top ; as each of these 
bov/s corresponded with one of the sides of the pyramid, it can be 
easily imagined what elegance and picfturesqueness such an arrangement 
would offer. ... I took off some of the thick pieces of bark and 
easily penetrated right under the cover. The whole of the upper portion 
was free; at the bottom there was a large flattened cone, formed of a light 
and fine grass, arranged, with much care, in concentric and very deep layers. 
. . . Eight small wooden wands, crossing one another at the top of this 
cone. of grass, served to hold it together; every wand had its ends pushed 
into the ground, and was held down by a large piece of flat granite. 
. . . Hardly had I raised some of the upper layers of grass when I 
perceived a large heap of white ashes which appeared to have been 
colledled with care ; I plunged my hand into the middle of them ; I 
felt something which resisted more strongly ; I wished to draw it out ; it 
was a human jaw-bone, on to which some shreds of flesh were still adhering. . 
This verdure, these flowers, the protecfiing trees, the deep layer of young 
grass which covered the ashes, all united in convincing me that • I had 
just discovered a tomb. As I removed ' the ashes, I noticed a very 
black, friable, and light charcoal ; I recognized animal charcoal ; at the 
same moment I drew out a portion of a femur with some shreds of flesh ; 
one could still distinguish fragments of large arteries full of calcined 
blood, reduced to that state at which this fluid resembles a resinous 
substance. These first bones were succeeded by others no less recog- 
nizable ; vertebrae, fragments of the tibia, humerus, tarsal and carpal 
bones, etc., they were all much changed by fire, and were easily reduced 
to powder. . . . These bones were not lying, as I had at first 
thought, simply on the surface of the earth ; they were colledted at the 
bottom of a circular hole, 40 to 48 centimetres (15 to 18 inches) in 
diameter, and 21 to 27 centimetres [8 to 10 inches) deep. ... At 
the foot of the hill on which this monument was eretfled, there was a 
brook of sweet, fresh, and limpid water. . . . This monument, the 
only one we had been able to discover on these shores, appeared to 
have been a memorial strutflure. . . . The tomb which I had just 
been observing was situated in that part of Eastern Bay which alone 
could have afforded us fresh water ; at this same point, also, the large 
shell-fish, which formed the aborigines' daily food, was more abundant. 



Il8 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

This presumption with regard to the deliberate choice of the position 
of the tomb was strengthened by an observation I made on the following 
day in Oyster Bay, regarding a similar strucflure, which was also 
placed on an eminence, at the foot of which ran a fresh-water stream, 
the only one we had been able to discover along the whole stretch of 
the latter bay. The same feeling, therefore, which consecrated these 
monuments, caused them to be erecled in the most interesting and 
cherished spots, and where, brought thither frequently by his wants, 
man would most strongly experience the desire for commemoration. . . 
The drawing of this tomb, made with great exadlitude by Petit and 
finished by Lesueur, leaves nothing to be desired regarding the details 
of this strucflure and the pleasant view front the hill on the top of 
which it was situated. I have ^ spoken of a second tomb which we 
visited next day in Oyster Bay. ... I will describe in a few words 
its peculiarities. Placed on a slight eminence, at the foot of which ran 
a fresh-water stream, . . . this second monument differed in the main 
but little from the one I have just described ; but being older than the 
former, its shape was less regular ; the poles which should have supported 
the bark had fallen with it ; the grass covering the ashes was greatly 
changed by the moisture of the atmosphere : otherwise, the bones and 
ashes were arranged in much the same way as those in the tomb at 
Eastern Bay. The only peculiarity deserving of careful note was, that 

on the inner surface of some of the 
best and largest pieces of bark some' 
charaiflers were crudely marked, simi- 
lar to those which the aborigines 
tatued [sic] on their forearms. 

" From the nature of these monu- 
ments one must not be surprised at 
MARKED PIECES OF BARK FOUND NEAR THE the sttiall numbcr of them met with. 
TOMBS DRAWN BY PETIT. ^^^ ^^^^ protec^iug them is soon 

destroyed by the acflion of the atmosphere or dispersed by the winds. 
The tender grass which covers the ashes is not long in decomposing ; 
and the ashes themselves, partially scattered, would soon present the 
appearance of a fire having been recently lighted there ; and, as the 
bones had been coUetfted at the bottom of a hole, they remain naturally 
buried, and would not be met with on the surface of the earth. Added 
to which, the thorough burning they had been subjecfled to necessarily 
hastened their decomposition and complete annihilation " (Peron, ch. xiii. 
pp. 265-273). 

The only other account of a sepulchre is given by Braim (II. ch. vi. 
pp. 266-269), taken from Jorgensen's Journal : ** Mungo, our black guide, 
conducted us to a number of large rocks . . . extremely 
difficult of access. Under one of these projecling rocks, we found a species 
of cave, where Mungo pointed to a heap of flagstones, round which were 
placed, in a very compact manner, pieces of gum-bark, the whole appearing 
as a small pyramid. This was a grave, and in the middle of it was 
deposited a spear, pointed to the depth of two feet, and the upper end of 
it pointed with a human bone. We opened the grave with our bayonets, 




BURIALS. 119 

and, in so doing, met with several layers of flat stones. ... At the 
bottom, we found some human bones, which, from the state they were 
in, clearly indicated that they had for a long time remained in the grave. 
. . . Mungo did not behold unmoved our . sacreligious invasion of the 
solemn and silent repository of one of his countrymen, whom he described 
as a great warrior from the circumstances of his burial. When I asked 
Mungo the reason of the spear being struck into the tomb, he replied 
quietly, * To fight with when he is asleep.' He also confirmed the opinion 
that the aborigines buried their dead in an eredl position." This account 
by Jorgensen cannot be accepted except with every reserve ; he is not 
usually accepted as trustworthy, and in this case the reference to flagstones 
and a spear pointed with a human bone must put him out of court. Mil- 
ligan (Beacon, pp. 30, 33) says : ** Some of the tribes were in the habit 
of burning the remains ; in which cases the ashes were sometimes taken up 
very carefully, and carried about as an amulet, to ward off" sickness, and to 
insure success in hunting and in war [V. anU, p. 64] . Other tribes placed 
their dead in hollow trees, surrounded with implements of the chase and 
war, building them in with pieces of wood gathered in the neighbourhood ; 
while others would look out for natural graves, made by the upturn of 
large trees, and there deposit the bodies of their dead, leaving them but 
slightly covered with stones and loose earth.'* It should be remembered 
that the aborigines had only sticks to dig with, and would have found 
considerable difficulty in digging a grave with such tools. According to 
Holman (IV. ch. xii. p. 404) : " If they cannot find a tree which decay 
has fitted for their purpose, they, by the use of fire, procure a cavity 
sufficiently large for the occasion."* ** Other tribes, again, when it was 
not convenient to carry off" the dead body to some place of interment, 
would put it into some hollow tree, in as upright a position as possible ; 
and to preserve him in this position, a spear was stuck through his neck 
into the tree. . Another spear was left with the dead" (Braim, II. ch. vi. 
p. 268). Meredith, in describing the only instance he knew of in which 
a native lost his life at the hands of the whites, says : " The man who 
had the gun fired at the foremost native, and shot him dead : the others 
ran to their fallen companion, and our men escaped." Afterwards these 
Europeans ** returned to the place where the black was shot. The other 
natives had dragged his body into a hollow tree, and covered it with 
dead wood, but none of them were then to be seen" (pp. 199-200). This 
may probably refer to the skirmish which Lyne lately related to J. B. 
Walker. Lyne once, when in company with Rayner and another man, 
was attacked by blacks on the East Coast, ^he blacks threw spears, 
and Rayner shot one of them. On returning afterwards to the place 
where tlvs native had been shot, they found that the body had been 
placed in a hollow tree. It was doubled up, covered with boughs of the 
" native cherry " (Exocarpus cupressiformis). Dead wood was piled over all. 
Gilbert Robertson's words (Col. and Slav. p. 48) are to the same effect. 
Davies (p. 417) does not quite agree with the above accounts; he 

• Very large hollow gum trees (Eucalyptus) are exceedingly common in the bush. Some 
of them will accommodate quite a number of people at once. Bush fires often eat into 
the trunks of the gum trees and thus the tree is hollowed out, the heartwood being 
the softest. 



I20 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

says : ** When a death occurs in a tribe, they place the body upright in 
a hollow tree, and (having no fixed habitations) pursue their avocations. 
When some time has passed, say a year or upwards, they return to the 
place and burn the body, with the exception of the skull; this they carry 
with them, until they chance (for I do not think they lose much time 
in seeking it) to fall in with a cemetery, in which a number of skulls 
are heaped together, when they add the one with them to the number, 
and cover them up wdth bark, leaves, etc. They do not bury them in the 
ground. I have never been able to ascertain that they put either weapons 
or food in the tree with the dead." The same author continues (p. 418): 
" During the whole of the first night, after the death of one of their tribe, 
they will sit round the body, using rapidly a low continuous recitation 
to prevent the evil spirit from taking it away. They are extremely 
jealous of this ceremony being witnessed by strangers ; but I had, upon 
one occasion, an opportunity of being an ear-witness of it the whole 
night." Lyne says skulls of natives were often found in the bush, while 
Cotton also tells J. B. Walker that he has known two skulls ploughed 
up, and has seen a fragment of one, and an oyster shell inside it, wash- 
ing in the mouth of the Sandspit River. Professor Ratzel in his Volk- 
erkunde, 2nd Edition, Leipzig 1894 i. p. 352 speaks of the mummifying 
(mumifiziercn) of the body. There is no authority for such a statement. 

The lighting of a funeral pyre is thus described by Backhouse, who 
was on the spot shortly after the event occurred at the aboriginal settle- 
ment on Flinders Island. He says (p. 105) : ** One of the women died. 
The men formed a pile of logs, and at sunset placed the body of the 
woman upon it, supported by small wood, which concealed her, and formed 
a pyramid. They then placed their sick people around the pile, at a 
short distance. On A. Cottrell, our informant, inquiring the reason of 
this, they told him the dead woman would come in the night and 
take the 'devil' out of them. At daybreak the pile was set on fire, 
and fresh wood added as any part of the body became exposed, till the 
whole was consumed. The ashes of the dead were collecfted in a kangaroo 
skin, and every morning, before sunrise, till they were consumed, a portion 
of them was smeared over the faces of the survivors, and a death song 
sung, with great emotion, tears clearing away lines among the ashes. The 
store of ashes, in the mean time, was suspended about one of their necks 
[K. aniCy pp. 64, 119] .. . A few days after the decease of this woman, 
a man, who was ill at the time, stated that he should die when the sun 
went down, and requested the other men would bring wood and form a 
pile. While the work was going forward, he rested against some logs that 
were to form part of it, to see them execute the work: he became 
worse as the day proceeded and died before night. The pfacfWce of 
burning the dead is said to have extended to the natives of Bruny Island ; 
but those of the east coast put the deceased into hollow trees, and fenced 
them in with bushes. They do not consider a person completely dead 
till the sun goes down ! " 

As the account given by A. Cottrell to G. W. Walker is somewhat 
different to that related by Backhouse, it will be as w^ell to insert it 
here : The western tribes appear to have been generally in the prac5lice 
of burning their dead. The body is placed in an upright posture on 



BURIALS. I'll 

logs of wood, which are also piled around it till the super-strudl:ure 
assumes a conical form. The pile is then fired, and occasionally re- 
plenished with fuel, till the remains are consumed to ashes ; these are 
carefully collecfled by the relatives of the deceased, and are tied up in 
a piece of kangaroo skin, and worn about their persons, not only as 
tokens of remembrance, but as a charm against disease and accident. 
It is common for the survivors to besmear their faces with the ashes 
of the deceased. Those who labour under the complaint of which they 
died, resort to the same pradlice as a means of cure. It is also cus- 
tomary to sing a dirge every morning for a considerable time after the 
death of their friends. The chief relative takes the most prominent part 
on these occasions ; but it is not confined to relatives, many others join 
in the lamentation, and exhibit all the symptoms of unfeigned sorrow. 
A singular idea prevails among them, that no one fairly dies until the 
sun sets. If the parties are dead in point of facfl, survivors profess to 
regard the symptoms as mere indications, that life will depart as soon 
as the sun goes down, and until that period do not treat them as 
dead (Walker, p. 120). 

According to West (II. p. 91): ** A group of blacks was watched in 
1829, while engaged in a funeral. A fire was made at the foot of a 
tree ; a naked infant was carried in procession, with loud cries and 
lamentations ; when the body was decomposed in the flames, the skull 
was taken up by a female, probably the mother. The skull was long 
worn, wrapped in kangaroo skin.'* On one occasion Robinson, the pro- 
te(5lor, found on his return that a woman having died, her body had 
been immediately burned by her husband. He mentions that the body 
was placed in a sitting posture. The husband's turn was soon to come. 
This dying man had a keen perception of his approaching end, and when 
he knew it was at hand, his last desire was to be removed into the 
open air to die by his fire. Robinson says he was busy preparing for 
his departure for Hobart Town for medical assistance, when the groans 
of this man ceased, and with them the noise of the other natives. *' A 
solemn stillness prevailed. ... I went out when he had just expired. 
The other natives were sitting round, and some were employed in gathering 
grass. They then bent the legs back against the thigh, and bound them 
together with twisted grass. Each arm was bent together, and bound 
round above the elbow. The funeral pile was made by placing some 
dry wood at the bottom, on which they laid some dry bark, then placed 
some more dry wood, raising it about two feet six inches above the 
ground ; a quantity of dry bark was then laid upon the- logs, upon which 
they laid the corpse, arching the whole over with dry wood, men and 
women assisting in kindling the fire, after which they went away, and 
did not approach the spot any more that day. The next morning I 
went with them to see the remains . . . ; they were then collecfled 
and burnt. I wished them to have burnt the body on the same spot 
where his body had been burnt, . . . but they did not seem at all 
willing, so I did not urge it. After the fire had been burnt out, the 
ashes were scraped together, and covered over with grass and dead sticks" 
(Calder, J.A.I., pp. 16-18). This haste to get the dead bodies of their 
friends burned as soon as possible is referred to by Braim (II. ch. vi. 



122 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

p. 226) : ** Those to the south were burned, a large pile of wood having 
previously been heaped up and set fire to ; for scarcely was the body 
dead before it was placed among the flames, and even when it appeared 
that a native could not long survive, preparations were made for con- 
suming the body the very moment life had fled." He adds : " The 
aborigines could assign no other reason for burying their dead in an 
eredl posture except custom." Lyne told J. B. Walker he knows nothing 
of the burning of their dead by the aborigines. 

'* Among themselves they have no funeral rites" (Widowson, p. 191). 
This is the only reference I have found relating to funeral rites. 

Mourning. 

Bonwick (p. 97) tells us that the women in mourning plastered their 
heads with pipeclay, lacerated their bodies, &c., &c., but such mourning 
customs are distinclly Australian. Walker, (MS Jour.) says : " Besmearing 
the face with the ashes of the deceased is generally an accompaniment 
[of these dirges] , and tears may be observed frequently streaming down 
the cheeks of the mourners. This traveller (p. 108) was " assured that for 
those who are removed by death, they are in the habit of setting apart 
a certain portion of the day to indulge in lamentation ; near relatives 
are said to keep up the pradtice for months after the decease of their 
companions." 



CHAPTER VII. 
Method of Wearing the Hair. 

rHE following accounts describe the method of wearing the hair. 
Anderson (Cook's third Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) says '* Their hair is 
perfecftly woolly and clotted, or divided into small parcels, with the use 
of some sort of grass, mixed with a red paint or ochre,* which they 
smear on their heads," and Backhouse (p 78), ** The men clotted their 
hair with red ochre and grease ; and had the ringlets drawn out like 
rat tails.*' According to Davies, ** The men allow their hair to grow 
very long, matting each lock separately with grease and ochre." 
Judging from drawings, etc., the V. D. L men appear to have dressed 
their hair into thin spiral ringlets about three to four inches long, and 
described as follows by various travellers. Marion^ speaks of it being 
tied in knots — pdotons (p. 28). *' The men allowed their hair to grow 
very long, and plastered it all over very thickly with a composition of 
red ochre and grease, and when it dried a little their locks hung down 
^so as to resemble a bundle of painted ropes," (Calder J. A. I. p. 20). 
While Backhouse says (p. 79) : " The men clotted their hair with red 
ochre and grease, and had the ringlets drawn out like rat-tails." ** The 
men wore it long, and gave it a mop-like form and appearance by 
smearing it with fat of the wombat and kangaroo, and then daubing it 
full of red ochre, by which it was made to hang in corkscrews all 
around, and over the face and neck down to the shoulders '* (Milligan, 
Beacon, p. 28). Lyne informed J. B. Walker that ** they used \o work 
their locks, by means of red ochre and grease, into little pellets like 
peas. When they shook their heads, these rattled in a way that was 
much admired." All the drawings by the French, by Thomas Bock, 
and others, however, show that the description of the long stringy 
locks was the usual (if not exclusive) fashion of male adornment. 
There is no drawing showing pellets of hair. According to Bonwick 
(p. 25) ** a rebellion nearly burst out on Flinders Island, whither the 
remnant of the Tasmanians were removed, when orders were once issued 
forbidding the use of ochre and grease." W^alker in his MS. Jour, 
says this grease and red ochre is called balldowinny. 

The women wore their hair differently to the men, thus, according 
to Anderson : ** The females differed from the men, that though their hair was 
of the same colour and texture, some of them had their heads com- 
pletely shorn ; in others this had been done only on one side ; while 

•The red ochre was probably obtained from an ore of iron found in various places in 

the island, e.a. Tamar and Sorell. 



124 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

the rest of them had all the upper part of the head shorn close, 
leaving a circle of hair all , round " (Cook's Third Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) 
Backhouse p. 79) also states that ** the women cropped their hair as 
close as they could with sharp stones or shells.*' Da vies' description 
is much to the same efFecfl : ** The hair of the female appears more 
woolly than that of the male ; this is probably owing to the female 
keeping her hair cut extremely close, leaving a narrow circle all round, 
as if a basin had been put over the head, and the hair inside of it 
cut away." In describing a friendly meeting with twenty female 
aborigines, Peron (p. 252) says, " Their hair was short, frizzled, black 
and dirty, reddened in some with ochre." Calder says (J. A. I. p. 20) : 
*' The women appeared to great disadvantage, by their fashion of 
shaving the head quite closely, which in their wild state was do with 
flint and shells, and afterwards with glass." The women ** carefully 
prevent the hair from growing to any great length, by cutting it off 
with the sharp edges of two pieces of broken crystal (Jeffreys, p. 119). 
Speaking generally Lloyd thus describes their toilet customs (pp. 43-44) : 
** During the summer months it was cut singularly close to the skin by 
means of sharp flint stones ; but, latterly, with the more artistic 
appliances of broken glass bottles. The tedious ceremony was accomplished 
by severing ten or twenty hairs at each incision. A similar process was 
adopted in native shaving and performed with such skill and precision 
as seldom, if ever, to excoriate the skin ; but it occupied the sable 
barber at least three hours to turn off a moderate-sized head in proper 
trim for a grand cotrohoree or dance." ** They never suffer their hair to 
grow very long. This they prevent by cutting it off frequently with 
sharp shells or pieces of broken crystal" (Leigh, IIL p. 243). Bonwick 
(p. log) when stating that the women practised depilation probably 
meant close cropping. La Billardiere (IL 59-60), in describing how the 
natives break pieces of wood over their heads, says : " Their hair forms 
a cushion, which diminishes the pressure, and renders it less painful. . . . 
Few of the women, however, could have done as much ; for some had 
their hair cut pretty short, . . . others had only a simple crown of 
hair. We made the same observation with respect to several of the 
children, but not as to the men." Hamy tells us (Anthrop. IL p. 610) 
that according to Petit's illustrations the hair was teints en rouge on 
Bara Ourou, that Grou Agara had a moustache Ugvre, La cheveliire est 
coupee raSy mats il teste tout autour une handellette de cheveux plus lofigs 
formant comme une hordure de petits glomerules capillaires, que Von voit a peine 
Uuiiques daus la planche, Ce mode de coiffure parait avoir etc ires usite chez 
les Tasmanians rencontres pas V expedition ;'' one man had cheveux crepus tres 
courts ; another had les cheveux ras, en forme de calotte hordee d'une handeletic 
etroite and cheveux plus longs. Quelques poils de moustache ; harhtche and favoris 
courts, Une certaine quantite de poils a la naissance des epaules an niveau des 
omoplattes ; another case he describes of calotte chevelure circonscrite par une 
handelette de cheveux plus longs; a third case of chevelure rasee ronde autour 
de la ti'te avee hordure de cheveux tenus un pen plus longs, ici la handelette 
de glomerules capillaires est double ; then a man with cheveux et sa haihc 
entiere ; one with tete rasre, sauf deux vtroites couronnes concentriques de 
glomerules de cheveux, harhe entiere pen fournic, poils a la naissance du dos ; 



METHOD OF WEARING THE HAIR. CICATRISATION. 125 

a man with cheveux en glomeruUs^ pas de barbe and finally a child with 
all its hair on. 

Milligan (Beacon, p. 25) speaks of the hair growing remarkably low 
upon the forehead, and extending down, in both sexes, on each side of 
the temples, in the shape of a whisker." 

Strzelecki tells us (p. 334) : ** The hair is subject to filthy customs. 
I allude to the anointing of the head with a mixture of clay7 red 
ochre, and fish grease, in order to prevent the generation of vermin." 
There seems to be no proof that the greasing and the colouring of the 
hair noticed also by Cook (as above), Widowson (p. 187), Flinders (Sec. 
iv. p. 187), Melville (p. 346), La Billardiere (II. ch. xi. p. 73), P6ron (ch. 
xiii. p. 280) and Marion (p. 28), was resorted to on account of the cause 
ascribed by Strzelecki. 

Furneaux refers to the men smearing their beards with a red 
ointment, and Poron (p. 222) refers to an old man whose beard was 
partly grey. La Billardiere (I. p. 222) says some had long beards, and 
later on (11. p. 38) that they let their beards grow. The beards of the 
men are shown in most illustrations. 

Cicatrisation. 

Most of the early travellers refer to the peculiar scars with which 
these people adorned themselves. Marion speaks of some sorts of designs 
incrusted in their skin on the chest (p. 28), and says (p. 31) that one 
savage had his chest gashed like the Mozambique Kaffirs. Flinders (sec. 
iv. p. 187), while sailing up the Derwent River, met with a native who 
had marks raised upon the skin. Bligh speaks (p. 51) of their skin being 
scarified about the shoulders and breast. Mortimer (p. 19) observed 
** several of them [fifteen natives] to be tattooed [sic] in a very curious 
manner, the skin being raised so as to form a kind of relief." ** The 
shoulders and breasts were marked by lines of short raised scars, caused 
by cutting through the skin and rubbing in charcoal. These cuts some- 
what resembled the marks made by a cupping instrument, but were much 
larger and further apart " (Calder, J.A.I, p. 20). Milligan (Beacon, p. 
29) tells us of the ** symmetrical lines of scars raised by incisions made, 
and long kept open, across the chest, and upon the arms and thighs, 
a pra(ftice to which the women appear often to have submitted, though 
more chara(51eristic of the men their masters." Lyne examined the body 
of a recently shot aboriginal and found *' the hips were marked with 
gashes or scars ; the upper part of the arms was similarly marked '* 

(communicated to J. B. Walker). Similar scars are 
shown in Peron*s plates viii. ix. and x., and in La 
//IW Billardiere, plates vi. (woman) and vii (man). According 

fCff/ to Hamy (Anthrop, II. p. 610) in Petit's illustra- 

tions, the chest of one man has two lines of vertical 
cicatrices while another man has two vertical incisions 
at the joint of the left arm. Davies (p. 414) says he has seen the 
women scarified, " but whether for ornament, or from surgical treatment, 
I know not." Anderson (Cook's Second Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) relates 
they are " masters of some contrivance in the manner of cutting 



126 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

their arms and bodies in lines of different lengths and direcflions, which 
are raised considerably above the surface of the skin, so that it is 
difficult to guess the method they use in executing' this embroidery 
of their persons;" and Cook himself says (ibid.): ** They wore no 
ornaments, unless we consider as such some large pund^ures or ridges 
raised on different parts of their bodies, some in straight, others in curved 
lines. . . . The women had their bodies marked with scars in the 
same manner." La Billardiore, in speaking of a party of natives (II. 
ch. xi. p. 76), says : *' Almost all of them were tatued [sic] with raised 
points, sometimes placed in two lines, one over the other, much in the 
shape of a horse-shoe ; though frequently these points were in three 
straight and parallel lines on each side of the breast : some were observed, 
too, towards the bottom of the shoulder-blades, and in other places." 
He also speaks (p. 73) of a man so *♦ tatued [sic] with great symmetry." 
The reader will perhaps see it is incorred^ to term this class of orna- 
mentation tatuing. Previous to this La Billardiere has related (II. ch. 
X. p. 38) : ** On their skin, particularly on the breast and shoulders, may 
be observed tubercles symmetrically arranged, exhibiting sometimes lines 
four inches in length, at other times points placed at different distances. 
The application, by which these risings w^ere produced, had not destroyed 
the cellular membrane, however, for they were of the same colour as 
the rest of the skin." Backhouse (p. 84) describes these ornamental scars 
thus : ** The blacks make symmetrical cuttings on their bodies and limbs, 
for ornament. They keep the cuts open by filling them with grease, 
until the fiesli becomes elevated. Rows of these marks, resembling neck- 
laces around the neck, and similar ones on the shoulder, representing 
epaulets, are frequently seen. Rings representing eyes are occasionally 
seen on the body, producing a rude similitude of a face." Walker's 
account is very similar (p. 97). *' When the males arrive at the age of 
puberty, they are deeply scarilied on the thighs, shoulders, and muscles 
of the breast, with a sharp flint or glass. When 1 witnessed the opera- 
tion, a female wa.< the operator, and such, I believe, is always the case. 
The sul)je(fl was a young man named Penderoine^ brother to the celebrated 
western chief Weymerrickc ; the instrument was a piece of broken bottle, 
and, although the fat of his shoulder literally rose and turned back like 
a crimped fish, he was, during the whole operation, in the highest glee, 
laughing, and continually interrupting his operatrix by picking up chips 
to fling at our party, in play. These scarifications are intended as 
ornaments" (Davies, p. 412). BonwMck states: ** One, who saw the 
inflicl:ion of the adornment upon a girl, describes her screams of agony from 
the torture. Her head was secured betwe(Mi the legs of a strong fellow, 
while another operated on her. The boys would emulate each other in 
standing unflinchini^ly the long deep cuts made l)y the sharp stone or 
bit of glass. The wound was kept open with wood ashes ; and when 
healing, the raised scar remained for life. A gash is described in a girl 
whirh was an inch long and three-sixteenths in depth, and half an inch 
from its neighbouring wound " (p. 124). 

La I^illardiere met some women wliose abdomen was marked with 
three semicircular risings, one above the other (II. ch. x. p. ^'j). 



PAINTING. 127 



Painting. 

" Their bodies appear to be daubed with a kind of dirty red paint 
or earth" (Mortimer, p. 19). **The young men . . . draw a circle 
round each eye, and waved lines down each arm, thigh, and leg, which 
give them a frightful appearance to strangers" (Leigh, III. p. 243). 
Anderson thought (Cook's Sec. Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.) that they "sometimes 
heightened their black colour by smutting their bodies, as a mark was 
left behind on any clean substance, such as white paper, when they 
handled it," and Flinders met a savage on the Derwent River whose 
face was so blackened (Sec. iv. p. 187). Marion (p. 31) tells of a savage 
who on washing turned reddish, and it was seen that it was only smoke 
and dirt which made him appear so black. According to Bligh (p. 51), 
** One of them was distinguished by having his body coloured with red 
ochre, but all the others were painted black, with a kind of soot, w^hich 
was laid on so thick over their faces and shoulders, that it is difficult 
to say what they were like," and Bass describes meeting with a native 
whose face was blackened, and the top of his head was plastered with 
red earth (Collins, ch. xvi. p. 187). Backhouse thus describes the painting 
of a party of sixteen natives (pp. 165-166), "They were smeared from 
head to foot with red ochre and grease ; and, to add to their adornment, 
some of them had blackened a space of about a hand's breadth on each 
side of their faces, their eyes being nearly in the centre of each black 
mark," and he tells the following funny story: "John R. Bateman, master 
of the brig Tamar, once had some soup made for a party of these people 
whom he was taking to Flinder:> Island. They looked upon it com- 
placently, skimmed off the floating fat with their hands, and smeared 
their hair with it, but would not drink the soup ! " Elsewhere (p. 104) 
he says, " These people not only smear their bodies with red ochre and 
grease, but sometimes rouge the prominent parts tastefully with the 
former article, and they draw lines, that by no means improve their 
appearance, with a black, glittering mineral, probably an ore of antimony, 
above and below their eyes," He believed that this greasing and colour- 
ing had other uses than mere ornamentation, for he tells us (p. 79), 
**To enable them to resist the changes ot the weather, they smeared 
themselves from head to foot with red ochre and grease." Da vies (p. 140) 
gives a like explanation ; " The men grease their bodies, and streak them 
with red ochre, and a variety of plumbago ; this is partly done for 
ornament, but they say that it in a great measure protedls them from 
the inclemency of the weather." " Oure-Oure [Peron's friend] showed us 
for the first time the kind of paint in these regions, and the manner of 
its application. Having taken some charcoal in her hands, she reduced 
it to very fine powder ; then, putting it in her left hand, she took some in 
her right, rubbed first of all her forehead, and then both her cheeks, 
and in a moment made herself black . enough to frighten one : what 
seemed to us most singular was the complacency with which this young 
girl appeared to regard us after this operation, and the confident air 
which this new ornament had spread over her physiognomy " (Peron, 
pp. 227-228). At the Retreat River, Kelly (p. 60) records meeting some 



128 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

aboriginal men whose faces were "greased and blacked." In describing 
the twenty females already referred to, Peron remarks : " Their skin 
was black and disgusting from the fat of the catfish . . . their faces 
daubed with charcoal" (p. 252). They delighted in smearing the faces 
of the early explorers, and both Peron's and La Billardiere's friends 
suffered under their hands. Peron thus describes the scene (ch. 
xii. pp. 252-253) : " The woman who had just been dancing had 
hardly finished, when she approached me with an air of kindness, took 
out of her rush basket. . . . some charcoal which was in it, crushed 
it in her hand, and began to apply to me a coating of the ordinary 
paint of these regions. I lent myself willingly to this friendly caprice. 
Heirisson . • . received a similar mark. We then appeared to be an 
objecft of grand admiration to the women ; they seemed to regard us with 
a sweet satisfacSlion and to congratulate us on the new ornaments which 
we had acquired." This is La Billardiere's account of the operation 
performed on one of his party (IL ch. x. p. 48): "The painter to the 
expedition expressed to these savages the wish to have his skin covered 
with powder of charcoal. His request . . . was favourably received, 
and immediately one of the natives selected some of the most friable 
coals, which he ground to powder by rubbing them between his hands. 
This powder he applied to all parts of the body that were uncovered, 
employing nothing to make it adhere beside the rubbing of the hand, 
and our friend Peron was presently as black as a New Hollander.* 
The savage appeared highly satisfied with his performance, which he 
finished by gently blowing off the dust that adhered very slightly, taking 
particular care to remove all that might have got into the eyes." 
According to Hamy (Anthrop, H. p. 610) Petit's illustrations indicate red 
dabs on a child's cheeks and eyelids, on a child's forehead and cheeks, 
and on a woman's cheekbones, chin and forehead. 

With regard to the material used by them : on one occasion at a 
meeting of the Royal Society of Tasmania, Gunn " exhibited specimens 
of Iron Glance, obtained by Joseph Milligan, from near the Housetop 
Teir, Hampshire Hills, being the only locality known in the Island. This 
mineral was used by the aborigines of Tasmania for the purpose of 
colouring themselves, and from its scarcity much valued by them." 
Peron records (ch. xiii. p. 300), "Amongst the mineral produdtions of 
Maria Island one must mention a sort of oxidized iron ore, of a beautiful 
reddish colour, with an earthy grain and a clayey look, which is found 
on different parts of the island, and which furnished the aborigines with 
the chief ingredient which they used for dyeing [sic] their hair red." 

Clothing. 

Cook found the aborigines quite naked, adding, " The females wore 
a kangaroo skin tied over the shoulders and round the waist. But its 
chief use seemed to be to support their children when carried on their 
backs, they being in all other respedts as naked as the men." This 

• The explorers all considered the aborigines of Tasmania of the same race as the 

Australians. 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMAI 



mf^ 



'I' L. \:\-:\v YORK 
r:i?i:C LIBxRARY. 

A'^TOn, LCNOX AND 
TUO..N FOUN 



CLOTHING. 129 

surmise of Cook is supported by Peron, who says he met with ** two 
female aborigines, who were absolutely naked, except that the younger 
one had on a kangaroo skin in which she carried her little girl " (p. 223). 
Bligh (p. 51), Marion (p. 28), Prinsep (p. 79), and Mortimer (p. 19), say 
the natives were entirely naked ; the latter qualifying his remark by 
excepting some of the women who, had a kind of cloak or bag thrown over 
their shoulders. A certain minimum amount of clothing appears to have 
been used at times. Flinders recorded seeing ** two natives, a man and 
a woman, who had something wrapped round them which resembled 
cloaks of skin" (p. 155). Bass mentions that ** he saw two females, 
who had a short covering, hanging loose from their shoulders " (Collins, 
p. 187) ; while Laplace also says : ** For defending themselves against the 
cold and wet, they have only a cloak, made of skin, sewn together 
with threads of bark. This coarse and disgusting clothing hardly covers 
the back" (III. p. 201). Widowson observes, that ** their only covering 
is a few kangaroo skins, rudely stitched, and thrown over the shoulders ;" 
and he adds, that ** more frequently they appear in a state of nudity " 
(p. 187); while Lloyd tells us (p. 48) that "the thick, woolly-haired 
skins of the large opossum, and the skin of the kangaroo, formed the 
only description of garment patronized by the aborigines." Other writers 
attribute the little clothing they wore to the absolute necessity of 
protecting themselves against the cold. Leigh's evidence is to the fact 
that, " In the winter the men dress themselves in the dried skins of 
the kangaroo. The females are clothed in the same kind of garment, 
with the addition of ruffles, made also of the skin, and placed in front 
of the garment. The dress is fastened on by means of a string over 
the shoulders and round the waist. In the summer season their clothing 
is useless, and therefore cast off till winter returns" (III. p. 243). 
Jeffreys confirms this statement (pp. 125-126) thus: ** During the winter 
season the natives dress themselves m kangaroo skins, and the females 
are always partially clad in a robe of the same kind, cut and decorated 
with lesser pieces in front, the whole fastened over the shoulders with 
a sort of string, and round the waist with a similar band." Milligan 
' says : ** They wore no clothing whatever, except only in case of illness, 
when a kangaroo skin was put on, with the fur inwards, laced together 
in a way to fit the body " (Beacon, p. 25). With regard to the women, 
this writer tells us ** they went about usually quite bald, and devoid of 
covering. . . They wore a strip of the skin of the wallaby or kangaroo 
under the knee or around the wrist or ankle " {ibid. pp. 28-29). La 
Billardiere describes most of the savages seen by him and his ship's 
company as being absolutely naked ; but on one occasion he met with 
some who had the skin of a kangaroo wrapped about their shoulders 
(I. p. 22?.). In another place he says : ** Some of our men came to a 
large fire, around which eight savages, each of whom had a kangaroo 
skin wrapped round his shoulders, sat warming themselves. . . . An 
old woman . . • had the skin of a kangaroo wrapped about her 
shoulders; she had likewise another of these skins bound round her 
waist in the form ot an apron " (I. pp. 234-235). At a subsequent 
interview with a party of the natives, he describes their dress [?] as 
follows : ** The women were for the most part as entirely naked as the 



130 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

men. Some of them only had the shoulders and part of the back 
covered with a kangaroo skin, worn with the hair next the body ; 
and among these we noticed two, each of whom had an infant at the 
breast. The sole garment of one was a strip of kangaroo's skin, about 
two inches broad, which was wrapped six or seven times round the 
waist ; another had a collar of skin round the neck, and some had a 
slender cord bound several times round the head" (11. pp. 34-35). 
Peron says : ** The absence of clothing did not seem to cause the women 
any embarrassment even in the presence of strangers," and the same 
author mentions that ** another young girl, called Oure-Ourey was, like 
her parents, perfecftly naked, and did not seem in the least to suspect 
that there could be possibly anything immodest or indecent in this 
absolute nudity " (p. 227). In describing another meeting with twenty 
female aborigines, his words are : ** With the exception of kangaroo 
skins, which some of them wore on their shoulders, all these women 
were perfecftly naked ; but without appearing to regard their nakedness 
in the least, they so varied their attitudes and postures that it would 
be difficult to form a just idea of the bizarreness and picturesqueness 
which this meeting afforded us" (p. 252). A third party of savages 
whom Peron met with was also perfedlly naked. One alone, older than the 
rest, had a kangaroo skin on his shoulders (pp. 279-280). According to 
Hamy (Anthrop. II. p. 610) Petit's illustrations show that the skin in 
which the child is carried is turned inwards ; in another case the skin 
covering the man is also turned inwards ; in another a skin is on right 
shoulder ; one man simply covered with a skin ; a fifth with a band of skin 
forming a ** couronne " ; a sixth covered w^ith a skin. Rossel says : 
** Some of the sailors saw some savages, . . . among whom was a 
w^oman, who, ... a remarkable circumstance, had the throat and 
the private parts covered." Like the others, he suspected the severity 
of the season, rather than decency, caused the one seen to take this 
precaution (I. pp. 99-100). Rossel also mentions (I. p. 60) the finding 
in a hut of a piece of dried Alga marifM, which he thought was 
designed to cover the natural parts, but we know this alga was used 
as a drinking vessel. From R. Thirkell we learn that ** the natives had 
merely a piece of kangaroo skin round their loins, or rather hanging in 
front, with no other covering," this being the only reference we have 
to a loin cloth. By G. W. Walker (MS. Jour.) we are told ** neither 
sex wear any article of clothing — unless a few strips of fur, which are 
sometimes tied round their limbs, generally in the thickest part, can be 
called such." 

It will be observed that Widowson alone talks of skins being sewn 
together by string of bark, while Milligan at Flinders Island speaks of 
lacing the skins together. Both methods were probably learned from 
Europeans. 

The natives appear not to have been in the habit of using any 
covering for the head, La Billardiere remarking, that their heads were 
constantly bare, and often exposed to all weathers (II. p. 59). 

As regards any coverings for the feet, we have only W^est's testimony 
(p. 85) : ** The tribes . . . from South Cape to Cape Grim . . . 
wore mocassins on travel." 



CLOTHING. PERSONAL ORNAMENTS. 



131 



The Tasmanians, like many other savage races, never took kindly 
to the civilized dress of Europeans. When the English first established 
a colony in V. D. Land, many efforts were made to induce them to 
make use of clothing as a matter of decency, but they were almost all 
unsuccessful. Widowson tells us, they never avail themselves of the 
purposes for which apparel is given them (p. 188); while Breton relates: 
** They show no small aversion to clothing their sable-like bodies in a 
Christian-like manner, and availed themselves, when taken, of the earliest 
opportunity to escape, at the same time throwing away their clothes 
the moment they got into the bush " (p. 352). 



•»iaj»»*3 



1 



t^ £ 



so 



Personal Ornaments. 

Although Cook says they wore no ornaments, 
he states : ** Some of the group [men] wore loose 
round their necks three or four folds of small cord, 
made of the fur of some animal ; and others of 
them had a narrow slip of kangaroo skin tied round 
their ancles" (Third Voyage Bk. I. ch. vi.) ; and 
Backhouse says : ** They sometimes ornamented 
themselves by strips of skin with the fur on, which 
they wore round the body, arms or legs " (p. 79). Some 
of their necklaces were formed of kangaroo sinews, one 
twisted round another so as to resemble braid, and then 
dyed with red ochre, their favourite colour (Walker p. 
no). According to Dove a love of ornament was dis- 
played in the flowers and feathers with which the 
heads of both sexes were generally found to be attired " 
(I. p. 252) ; while Milligan (Beacon, p. 28) observes 
of the women : ** They wore a fillet of gay flowers, 
of festoons of showy berries, or strings of shells 
upon their bare heads." " The young men fasten 
to their woolly locks the teeth of the kangaroo, 
short pieces of wood, and feathers of birds, which 
give them a savage appearance" (Leigh, IIL p. 
243). ** They wear necklaces formed of kangaroo 
sinews rolled in red ochre, and also others of small 
spiral shells. They likewise wear the bones of de- 
ceased relatives around their necks, perhaps more as 
tokens of affedlion than for ornament. . . . The 
shells for necklaces are of a brilliant pearly blue : 
they are perforated by means of the eye-teeth, and 
are strung on a kangaroo sinew ; they are then 
exposed to the acftion of pyroligneous acid, in the 
smoke of brushwood covered up with grass ; and in 
this smoke they are turned and rubbed till the 
external coat comes off, after which they are polished 
with oil obtained from the penguin or the mutton- 
bird " (Backhouse, p. 84). G. W. Walker (p. 36) 
quite confirms Backhouse — this was in 1832. Davies 




132 M. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

says the shells were polished with grease and sand (p. 418). According 
to Calder (J.A.I, p. 23) in their captivity to get rid of the outer crust 
" they used vinegar. I think a moderate heat was necessary in removing 
this outer covering, for, on visiting their, huts when they were preparing 
them, a woman handed me a saucer of them, which she took from the 
fire-place." The necklaces are thus described by Mrs. Meredith (p. 146) : 
** A pretty little white Columhellay common here, used 
to be much collec5led by the female aborigines, for mak- 
ing necklaces ; some of which were several yards long, 
formed of these little shells neatly bored, and strung tasmanian 

closely on kangaroo sinews, and were worn by their necklace, shells 

sable owners twisted many times round the neck, and °^ truncatella 
, . , . , ,. marginata, kuester. 

hangmg low over the breast. brit. mus. 

The shells composing the necklaces are strung together as shown in 
the illustration, being perforated with rough and large holes, one only 
in every shell. The string passes through 
the artificial hole and the natural aperture of 
the shell so that the stringing together is 
of the simplest possible kind, and the shells 
do not lie in any fixed or symmetrical position 
with regard to one another, but lie quite irregu- 
larly. The British Museum and the Oxford 
Museum both possess specimens of the shell tasmanian elknchus shell 
necklaces, and in both cases the shells are necklace. 

Elenchus and not Columhella (p. 145). Brough Smyth had in his pwDssession 
a necklace eighty-nine inches long and consisting of 565 of these shells 
{Elenchus hellulus). In the Tasmanian Museum, at Hobart, there are two 
necklaces ; one of light coloured shells, the other of a dark lustrous 
green : the latter measures 6 feet 4 inches doubled, i.^. the single string 
of shells is 12 feet 8 inches long. The shells which are abundant on 
the long giant Kelp (not the Bull-Kelp) and elsewhere are locally known 
as ** warrener " or ** mariner " shells. No native name for shell necklaces 
is on record. 

Metallurgy. 

Furneaux found the natives without any knowledge of the metals 
(Cook's Sec. Voy. Bk. I. ch. vii.), and Cook found they set no value on 
iron or iron tools (Third Voy. Bk. I. ch. vi.). Subsequent writers make 
no mention of the use of metals by these people, and it seems certain 
they had no conception of their uses. 




134 H- LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

itself is incorredl for 5, then pugga-na marah may probably be the numeral 
five, being literally fnan one (pugga, man ; «a, singular ending ; mara, one). 
Backhouse (p. 104) says the aborigines could only say one, two, plenty, 
and in order to state the number of persons present on any occasion 
gave their names. 

Music. 

Peron's party, being -desirous of seeing the effecfl of music on the 
Tasmanians, on one occasion sung the Marseillaise. ** At first the savages 
appeared more troubled than surprised, but after some moments of un- 
certainty, they lent an attentive ear ; the repast was suspended, and the 
proofs of their satisfacflion manifested themselves in such bizarre contor- 
tions and gestures, that we could hardly restrain ourselves from laughing. 
. . . Hardly was a verse finished than great shouts of admiration 
escaped simultaneously from all mouths ; above all, the young man was 
as if beside himself; he clutched his hair, he scratched his head with 
both hands, he shook himself in a thousand ways, and repeatedly pro- 
longed his shouts. After this strong and warlike music, we sang some 
of our light and little tender airs; the savages appeared to grasp the 
true sense, but it was easy to see that sounds of this sort had a very 
slight effecfl upon their organs " (pp. 226-227). ^^ another occasion 
Bellefin, one of his companions, ** began to sing, and accompanied him- 
self by lively and animated gestures ; the women were immediately silent, 
observing his gestures with as much attention as they appeared to give 
to his songs. As soon as a couplet was finished, some applauded by 
loud shouts", others laughed to splitting, while the young girls, no doubt 
more timid, remained silent, showing nevertheless, by their a(5lions and 
the expression of their faces, their surprise and satisfadlion. After 
Bellefin had finished his song, one of the women began to imitate his 
gestures and the tone of his voice in a very original and funny way, 
. . . she then herself began to sing, so rapidly that it would have 
been difficult to reproduce such music within the ordinary principles of 
our own" (tbid, p. 51). The other French parties were not so successful 
in their attempts to get the natives to listen to European music. La 
Billardiere (II. ch. x. p. 45) tells us: ** Our musician had brought his 
violin on shore ; . . . bul his self-love was truly mortified at the 
indifference shown to his performance. Savages, in general, are not very 
sensible to the tones of stringed instruments." Later on, a similar attempt 
had a very comical ending (ibid. p. 55) : " We knew already that these 
savages had little taste for the violin ; but we flattered ourselves that 
they would not be altogether insensible to its tones, if lively tunes, and 
very distincfl in their measure, were played. At first, they left us in 
doubt for some time ; on which our musician redoubled his exertions ; 
. . . but the bow dropped from his hand, when he beheld the whole 
assembly stopping their ears with their fingers, that they might hear no 
more." According to this traveller the natives attempted " more than 
once to charm us by songs, with the modulation of which I was 
singularly struck, from the great analogy of ^he tunes to those of Arabs 
in Asia Minor, Several times, two of them sung the same tune together 



MUSIC. 135 

but always one a third above the other, forming a concord with the 
greatest corrediness " {ibid, p. 50). Backhouse (p. 93) mentions that when 
** Jumbo," a native woman, was shown a musical box, ** listening with 
intensity, her ears moved like those of a dog or horse, to catch the 
sound." 

Respecfling their singing Geo. Hull says : ** It was, I think, in the 
year 1824 or 1825, that some ten or twelve natives appeared on the 
west bank of the Tamar, opposite Launceston. They * coo-ed ' and 
made signs to be taken across, which was instantly complied with. 
There was not a man or boy among them. . . . We made signs to 
them to sing and dance. . . . They sang, all joining in concert, and 
with the sweetest harmony ; the notes not more than thirds. They 
began, say, in D and E, but swelling sweetly from note to note, and 
so gradually • that it was a mere continuation of harmony — very melan- 
choly, it is true. It was like what it would be if you began one 
chord on the organ before you took your fingers from the keys of the 
other " (Smyth, II. pp. 390-391). Dr. Ross says, in the Courier of 1832, 
** they sang several of their national songs ; but their music is of the 
rudest kind, being little more than a frequent repetition of the same note 
in soft, liquid syllables. The general characfler of their music may be 
described in words almost as intelligibly as by dotting the notes down. 
They begin by singing a third from the key-note several times, and finish 
with a third above the key-note. They sometimes vary it by suddenly 
running into the octave. Their music bears a close resemblance to the 
monotonous chant of the Highland bagpipe " (Bonwick, p. 30). While 
Bonwick (p. 30) writes : ** Walking out in the evening by the sea- 
shore of D'Entrecasteaux Channel, I heard a low chanting tune of 
the Tasmanian old women of the station, which had a peculiarly mournful 
sound, and in which I detecfted a droning hum with a shriller note." 
' In describing a corrohoru of the natives which took place at full 
moon, Lloyd says (ch. iv. p. 50) : ** Their minor tones and monotonous 
voices they accompanied by playing upon greasy kangaroo rugs, which 
were rolled up in some peculiar manner, so that, when struck by the 
open hand, the sound resembled that of a muffled drum. Others joined 
in the rude concert by beating time with two short dried sticks, and 
that with a precision adapted for an orchestra." He adds that often 
** an inspiring allegretto movement of the thumping band had a very 
invigorating effect on the dancers. Leigh found their song may 
be listened to with pleasure, their voices being sweet, and the melody 
expressive (HI. p. 243). Backhouse gives an account of their sing- 
ing, as follows, on an occasion when he once visited the huts. The 
natives were lying around a central fire : ** On our entering the people 
sat up, and began to sing their native songs— sometimes the men, at 
other the women— with much animation of countenance and gesture. 
This they kept up to a late hour ; they are said often to continue 
their singing till midnight. To me, their songs were not unpleasing ; 
persons skilled in music consider them harmonious*^ (p. -83). ** A fire of 
sticks, or boughs, that make a lively blaze, was made, around which 
of expressions frequently repeated, and uttered in a drawling monotone, 
the men formed a circle, and began a kind of song, consisting [but 



136 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

more like a chant than singing" (Walker, MS. Jour.)]. ** The subjecfls of 
these songs are various ; sometimes the pursuits of hunting and the 
enumeration of the animals that become a prey to their dexterity and 
prowess ; at other times the feats of war and their sanguinary conflicts 
with adverse tribes. . . . They sung two of their songs. The 
first was sung by the chief of the Port Dalrymple tribe. I 
observed that the same words were repeated many times in succession, 
accompanied by many impassioned gestures, and so much exertion of 
breath as was almost painful to witness. Occasionally he gave a short 
sigh, as if his breath was spent, in which the rest united with one 
accord. The shout that succeeded allowed the performer a moment's 
pause, when he resumed the song with great animation. A great deal 
of charadler was displayed in the course of this exhibition, the chief 
often becoming highly excited, pointing significantly with his finger, and 
showing remarkable expression in his countenance, as if the subject of 
the song was one of a most important nature, the people meanwhile 
listening with profound attention. A short time after the chief had 
concluded, the women began a song in chorus, which showed a greater 
knowledge of music ; and I was very much surprised to hear some sing 
tenor, while others sang treble, which to those who know anything of 
music will appear strange, because the power of doing so denotes some 
advancement in the art. It was a hunting song, enumerating the animals 
that the young married woman is wont to chase (Walker pp. 99-100- 10 1). 
Davies simply says (p. 416) ** their singing is far from unmusical ; " 
that ** they commence singing in a low monotonous tone, and rise 
to a higher key as they get excited. According to Jeffreys 
(pp. 124-125), " their song is accompanied with considerable grace- 
fulness of action, and is poured forth in strains by no means 
inharmonious ; on the contrary, the voice of the singer, and in 
many parts the sweetness of the notes, which are delivered in pretty 
just cadence, and excellent time, afford a species of harmony to which 
the most refined ear might listen with pleasure." Melville (p. 348) 
speaks of their dancing ** to the tune of a monotonous yet expressive 
song and chorus, in which old and young took part." Their songs, as 
seen under heading Games and Amusements, were generally sung at 
corrobories. Robinson says : " They ahvays retired to rest at dusk, 
rising again at midnight, and passing the remainder of the night in 
singing, ... in which they all join. This is kept up till daylight." 
. . . After he became acquainted with the hostile tribes, he says 
that the most popular of their songs were those in which they recounted 
their attacks on and their fights with the whites (Calder J.A.I, p. 18). 
According to Bonwick (p. 29) Protector Robinson remarks of the ** Black 
War" period of Tasmanian history: ** At this time several of the most 
popular songs of the hostile Aborigines consisted in relation of the 
outrages committed by Blacks on the Whites, in which they repeat in 
minute details their predatory proceedings, such as taking away fire- 
arms, tea, sugar, &c., and kneading flour into bread." Both Leigh and 
Jeffreys (as quoted above) state the women sang a hymn or song to a 
good spirit to secure the safety of absent husbands or friends ; but 
Melville, in opposition to Robinson (when speaking of their singing), 



» -sf 






I C S " 






liil^ 






III! 



MUSIC. DRAWING. I37 

says (ch. xiv. p. 348) : ** They never kept late hours, for. no sooner 
was the sun down than they huddled round their fires, and went to 
sleep." 

On p. 31 Bon wick publishes what he calls ** a true Tasmanian 
tune." It is copied from Freycinet. It is, however, an Australian tune 
as is very clearly indicated in Peron's work. From what Bonwick States 
(p. 32) as regards Bermilong's song, which he reprints, the reader would 
understand that the song is Tasmanian ; it is, however, not so, as can 
be seen by a reference to Edw. Jones* Musical Curiosities (London, 181 1). 

Drawing. 

In the tomb discovered by Peron (ch. xiii. p. 273) the inner surfaces 
of some of the best and largest pieces of bark were crudely marked 
with charadlers similar to those which the aborigines cut on their 
fore-arms. (See illustration, p. 118) 

" In several parts of the colony rude drawings have been discov^ered. 
Cattle, kangaroos, and dogs, were traced in charcoal. These attempts 
were exceedingly rude, and sometimes the artist was wholly unintelligible. 
At Belvoir Vale, the natives saw the Company's two carts, drawn by 
six oxen ; they drew on bark the wheels and the drivers with their 
whips. .They were the first that ever passed that region " (West I. p. 
89). Similarly on the first occasion of some carts of the V. D. Land 
Company passing Mount Cleveland, Bunce says (pp. 49-50) : " It appears 
that some natives had observed this ; and, a short time afterwards, 
one of the Company's servants passing that way, found in one of their 
rudely constructed huts, a piece of the bark of a tree, with a rough 
drawing of the whole scene. The wheels of the carts, the bullocks 
drawing them, and the drivers with the whips over their shoulders, 
were all distinctly depicted in their rude but interesting manner." It 
is quite possible West's account Js a periphrase of Bunce's. The V. D. 
Land Company's first establishment (on the north coast) was in 1826-27; 
so that there is a possibility that the drawings had been made by 
Europeans. According to Bonwick (p. 47). ** Mr. G. A. Robinson saw 
drawings of men and women, with some curious hieroglyphics, like the 
totems* of tribes, when he was on the west goast, in 1831 ; " and that 
** Dr. Ross relates his discovery of geometrical figures, as squares and 
circles, on the bark in the valley of the Ouse." Bonwick also (p. 191) 
speaks of ** the red hand, marked on trees and rocks alike in Tasmania 
and Australia ; " no mention is made as to the locality where this hand 
is seen nor on whose authority the statement is made. Calder 
(Tasmanian Journ. p. 419) mentions some huts, and ** on the bark that 
covered them, were some extraordinary charcoal drawings ; one representing 
two men spearing an animal, which, from its erect position, was, I 
presume, meant for a kangaroo ; though the artist, by a strange over- 
sight, had forgotten the animal's tail, and had made the forelegs about 
twice as long as the hinder ones. There was also an outline of a dog, 

* Would Robinson know anything of totems ? 



138 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

and an emu, really not badly done ; and some other designs, the exa(5\ 

meaning of which I was not able to make out.'* Elsewhere (J.A.I. 

p. 21) he states : ** But the chef-d'auvre was a battle-piece — ^a native 

fight — men dying and flying all over it." 

The whole question of the existence of drawings by aborigines before 

European advent is pra<5lically an open one, for as seen above the 

evidence is not satisfacSlory. It should be mentioned that Milligan in 

his vocabulary gives " Depict — draw in charcoal : macoolana" This at 

first sight seems conclusive. But in this same vocabulary he gives 

other words for objects not known to the natives in their wild state — 

e.g. 'bread,' * spaniel,' * gun ' and 'gunpowder.' 

Games and Amusements. 

On one occasion Backhouse reports (p. 81) : " On learning that plenty 
of provisions had arrived by the cutter, they [the natives] shouted for 
joy. After sunset they had a corrobory or dance round a fire, which 
they kept up till after midnight, in testimony of their pleasure." ** The 
corrobory, or native dance, was their favourite pastime, and seemed to 
excite them considerably " (Melville, p. 348). Of these corrobories we 
have four separate detailed accounts, each account giving a different 
version of the dance. 

According to Backhouse (p. 82) : '' In these dances the aborigines 
represented certain events or the manners of different animals ; they had 
a horse dance, an emu dance, a thunder and lightning dance, and many 
others. In their horse dance they formed a string, moving in a circle, 
in a half- stooping posture, holding by each other's loins, one man at the 
same time going along, as if reining in the others, and a woman as 
driver, striking them gently as they passed. Sometimes their motions 
were extremely rapid, but they carefully avoided treading one upon the 
other. In the emu dance they placed one hand behind them, and alter- 
nately put the other one to the ground and raised it above their heads, 
as they passed slowly round the fire, imitating the motion of the head 
of the emu when feeding. In the thunder and lightning dance they 
moved their feet rapidly, bringing them to the ground with great force, 
so as to produce a loud noise, and make such a dust as rendered it 
necessary for spedlators to keep to windward of the group. Each dance 
was ended with a loud shout, like a last effort of an exhausted breath. 
The exertion used made them very warm, and occasionally one or other 
of them would plunge into the adjacent lagoon. One of their chiefs 
stood by to dired^ them, and now and then turned to the bystanders 
and said, Narra coopa corrobory — very good dance — evidently courting 
applause."* "A very frequent manoeuvre during most of their * corrobories ' 
is, to leap from the ground whilst running in a' circle round the fire, 
and in descending, to turn their faces to it, crouching at the same time 

• The word Narra sounds like a corruption of " very," as does coopa of " good," and 
corrobory is an Australian and not a Tasmanian word. The horse dance they call 
barracoota (G. W. W. — MS. Jour.), but it is the common local name for a large fish 
— in the latter sense perhaps of West Indian origin (J. B. W.). According to Jor- 
genson, horse = &atr coutanot and to Norman sparcouttnar. 



GAMES AND AMUSEMENTS. 139 

to the ground on their haunches and striking the earth with their hands. 
The exercise attendant on these diversions is often very violent, occasioning 
individuals to drop out of the ring, bathed in perspiration, until they 
have recovered. The good humour they exhibit throughout the amusement, 
which generally lasts for some hours, often till midnight, is remarkable, 
considering the excitement that prevails. Sometimes one will jostle against 
another, and perhaps occasion a fall to both, which is sure to be succeeded 
by a general laugh. Though their exhibition in a state of nuidity must 
necessarily offend the eye of a European, there is not the slightest adlion 
or gesture that would offend the modesty of the most scrupulous" 
(Walker, p. 99). 

Davies's account (p. 416) runs thus : ** Their principal amusement 
consists in their corrobories or dances. These are sometimes held in the 
day-time, but far more generally at night ; they light a large fire, round 
which, quite naked, they dance, run, and jump, keeping time to their 
own singing, which is far from unmusical. These songs are various, 
each having its own peculiar dance, intended to illustrate some a(5lion 
or effedl from causes. One is called the kangaroo dance, and is, along 
with some others, most violent ; in this the party (I have seen as many 
as ninety joined in one corroborie) commence walking round the fire 
slowly, singing in a low monotonous tone. After this has continued for 
some time, they begin to get excited, singing in a higher key, walking 
faster, striking their hands upon the ground, and springing high in the 
air. By degrees their walk becomes a run, then solitary leaps, a series ; 
their singing, perfect shrieking ; they close upon the fire, the women 
piling fresh branches upon it. Still leaping in a circle, and striking the 
ground with their hands at every bound, they will spring a clear five 
feet high, so near to the fire, so completely in the flames, that you 
fancy they must be burnt. Excited to frenzy, they sing, shriek, and 
jump, until their frames can stand it no longer, and they give up in 
the uttermost state of exhaustion. Some of their dances are evidently 
lascivious ; some are medicine, etc. ; though had I not been told by them- 
selves that intended to represent making bread, taking such was the 
case, I never should have perceived any analogy." 

The following is Lloyd's account (pp. 49-50) : " The assembling of the 
tribes [at full moon] was always celebrated by a grand cortoboree, a species 
of bestial bal masque . On such occasions they presented a most grotesque 
and demon- like appearance; their heads, faces, and bodies, liberally greased, 
were besmeared alternately with clay and red ochre ; large tufts of bushy 
twigs were entwined round their ankles, wrists, and waists; and these 
completed their toilet. They would then retire in a body to a short 
distance from the spot selected for the festive scene. At the extreme 
end of the tabooed space might be seen, squatted in Turkish fashion, 
the dark * Sultanas ' of the respective tribes. When the preliminaries of 
fire-making and slightly brushing round the sacred spot were completed, 
forth strode ... a sorry loquacious old beldame, taunting some noted 
warrior for his woman -like cowardice at the top of her screeching voice ; 
in bitter terms challenging him to appear and answer to the charge. 
. . . Stung to the quick by her foul aspersions, he bounded in fierce 
rage through the midst of a flaming brushwood fire, proclaiming aloud 



140 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

with frantic gestures his many deeds in war and the exciting chase. 
When he paused from sheer exhaustion, the lay was taken up by his 
female admirers. They soon turned the tide against his wretched accuser, 
and in loud and solemn chant recounted and confirmed his heroic career. 
Their minor tones and monotonous voiges they accompanied by playing 
upon greasy kangaroo rugs, which were rolled up in some peculiar manner 
so that, when struck by the open hand, the sound resembled that of a 
muffled drum. Others joined in the rude concert by beating time with 
two short dried sticks, and that with a precision adapted for an orchestra. 
Frequently, upon some inspiring allegretto movement of the thumping 
band, thirty or forty grim savages would bound successively through 
the furious flames into the sacred arena, looking like veritable demons, 
. . . and after thoroughly exhausting themselves, by leaping in imita- 
tion of the kangaroo around and through the fire, they vanished in an 
instant. They were as rapidly succeeded by their lovely ginSy who, at 
a given signal from the beldame speaker, rose en masse, and ranging 
themselves round the fresh -piled flames, in a state unadorned and genuine 
as imported into this world, contorted- their arms, legs, and bodies into 
attitudes that would shame first-class acrobats. The grand point with 
each . . . was to scream down her sable sister. Thus was the savage 
reunion kept up till one and two o'clock in the morning."* 

In Bank's Straits, after a capture of some seals, Kelly witnessed a 
dance as follows (p. 15) : "The whole mob of them — about three hundred 
in number — formed a line in three divisions, the men and women 
forming two of them, and the children another. Tolobunganah then gave 
the signal to commence the dance, and it was a most singular one. 
The women in the centre division began a song, and joining their 
hands, formed a circle, dancing round the heap of dead seals. They 
then threw themselves upon the ground, putting themselves into the 
most grotesque attitudes, beating the lower parts of their bodies with 
their hands, and kicking the sand over each other with their feet. The 
loud laughter of the men and children evidenced their gratification with 
the sport ; and the women having sat down, the children went through 
a similar dance. The men then commenced a sort of sham fight with 
spears and waddies, dancing afterwards round the heap of seals, and 
sticking their spears into them as if they were killing them. This 
game lasted about an hour. Tolo (the chief) then informed us that the 
dance was over." 

Another amusement of the male aborigines was the throwing of 
waddies and spears at grass-tree stems, set up as marks, which they 
frequently hit. They still [i,e, in the settlements] strip off their clothes 
when engaged in this amusement (Backhouse, p. 172). John Radford 
told E. O. Cotton, who in turn told J. B. Walker ** that they would 
practise spearing at a ball made of kelp— of the large stems of that 
variety which grows on tocks on the edge of the sea. The ball 

* According to Bonwick (p. 187), the "solemn" dances were held at the spring 
of the year and (p. 198), "the spring likewise was the festival of eggs with the 
Tasmanians." Hull in his Report, Victorian Aborigines (Legislative Council, 
Melbourne, 1858-9, p. 9), says these people- had grand corrobories in the spring. 



GAMES AND AMUSEMENTS. I4I 

bounces well, and would be bowled swiftly passed them. And they 
would stand out a boy in an open space, and drive pegs on either side 
his feet, and then spear at him, two or three at a time. He was to 
dodge the spears without moving his feet, and would do so with great 
coolness, letting spears pass between arms and side, just wringing the 
body enough to escape being struck." This looks very much like 
practice for future emergencies, and reminds one of Davies* account of 
punishment. (See Government). 



H. UNC ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 



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144 **• LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

> 

plant, which she split with dexterity, and after having divided them into 
strips of proper width, softened by drawing through the fire*' (p. 103). 
La Billardiere speaks of clumsy baskets made of a reed called Juncus 
acutus (I. ch. V. p. 211), while Rossel (I. ch. iv. p. 56) found some 
** baskets, woven with strips of the bark of trees, very straight and 
slender, and twisted nevertheless with some skill, fastened like a bag 
with a string of the same material. 

Another little kind of bag, made of a dried Alga marina and very 
hard, seemed designed to draw water with, and to serve as a cup " 
(see p. 142), regarding the manufadlure of which. Backhouse* (p. 102) 
says they either open an oblong piece, so as to form a flat bag, or run 
a string through holes in the margin of a circular piece so as to 
form a round one. Mortimer (p. 20) evidently refers to these bags 
when he speaks of certain ** small buckets for holding of water, made 
of a tough kind of sea-weed, and skewered together at the sides." La 
Billardiere evidently refers to these (II. ch. x. pp. 57-60) when he 
speaks of the women carrying " water in vessels of sea- weed, Fucus 
Palmaius " (see supta food), and also elsewhere (ch. v. p. 169), and 
so doeb Peron (ch. xii. p. 229). Bon wick speaks (p. 18) of close 
plaited vessels used for carrying water, but gives no authority. Milligan 
in the vocabulary gives the native name of water-pitcher as moirunah. 
Bunce (p. 30) says baskets were made of the leaves of the Anther icum 
semibarbata as well as of the Dianclla. 

The illustrations (facing p. 143) are from a basket or bag in the 
Tasmanian Museum, Hobart. The basket consists, as shown diagram- 
matically in Fig. i, of a series of upright pieces of reed held parallel 
in position by means of two pieces of twisted fibre, which two are again 
twisted into each other in such a manner as to enclose 
at every twist one of the upright reeds. This method of 
manufacture is identical with basket work or tissue made 
in several parts of the world ; thus it is similar to 
some fabric from Kobenhausen and Wangen (Swiss 
Lake-dwellings), the same as bast mats and bags made 
by the Ainus of Japan, and the same as a variety fig. i. 

of baskets and bags from various parts of Australia. 
In Petit's drawing of a basket, he shows the two pieces of twisted 
fibre doubled, so that it looks as though the woofs a and b in Fig. 
I. were placed close together at intervals instead of quite apart as 
they really are. There are ten similar specimens in the museum 
at Hobart, all made of a species of JuncuSj none of Dianella, 

In the first edition of this work, two other forms (Fig. 2.) of basket 
were illustrated but although Milligan had obtained these from G. A. 
Robinson, it is extremely doubtful whether these baskets are Tasmanian ; 
G. A. Robinson became afterwards protedtor of Aborigines in Vi(5loria 
(Australia), so that it does not follow that articles coming from him 
must necessarily be Tasmanian ; the two baskets are of a form very 
common in Australia. I am the more inclined to believe that the 
Tasmanians only made one class of basket, as shown in Fig. i. as in 
Petit's original drawing, of which I have a copy, this pattern only of 
a Tasmanian basket is given. 




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BASKET OR BAG WORK. • 1 45 

Bass gives the following curious description of a basket : ** The 

single utensil that was observed lying 
near their huts was a kind of bas- 
ket made of long wiry grass, that 
grows along the shores of the river. 
The two ends of a large bunch of 
this grass are tied to the two ends 
of a smaller bunch ; the large one is 
"G. 2. then spread out to form the basket, 

PATTERN OF BASKET WORK WITH AND while the Smaller answers the purpose 
WITHOUT THE HORIZONTAL STRAND ; ^^ ^ j^^^^j^ ^j^^j^ apparent use is to 

THESE FORMS ARE MET WITH IN v n /• 1 r i_ 

QUEENSLAND (WALTER E. ROTH, OTing shcll-fish from the mud banks 
"ETHNOLOGICAL STUDIES*'). AND IN where they are to be colle<5led " (Collins, 

CENTRAL AUSTRALIA (BALDWIN SPEN- pp^ i68-I6q). 
CER AND GILLBN, "NATIVES OF C. A.") 

Stone Implements. 

Johnston in his Geology of Tasmania (pp. 334-335) thus describes the 
" flints " of the aborigines : ** The rudely chipped flints of the Tasmanian 
aborigines are of the simplest chara(5ler, rarely symmetrical, and are 
more like the earliest Palaeolithic flint implements of Europe. . . . One 
of the scalpriform hatchets in the author's collecflion weighs 2 lbs. It 
is semicircular in form ; the base of the arch is nearly 2 inches thick ; 
length of base, 7 inches ; greatest depth at centre of arch, 44 inches. 
The circumference of arch has been skilfully chipped to a fine strong 
cutting edge. The smaller stone knives vary in size from ij inches by 
I inch to 4 inches by 2^ inches,'* and he compares them to those 
figured in the M6moire of M. de Ribeiro which appeared in the Proc. 
of the Congres Inter. d'Anthr. et d'Archeol. Prehist (Comp. Rend. 6th 
Session, Brussels, 1872), published 1873. 

Since Brough Smith has gone as thoroughly into the subje(5l of 
stone implements as circumstances will allow, it is as well to lay 
the matter before the reader in his own words. Having described how, 
for the purpose of investigation and comparison, several stones used by 
the Tasmanian aborigines, and now in the Tasmanian Museum, were 
lent by him, he continues : " They are nearly all chert or cherty 
varieties of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, obtained, probably, from 
the neighbourhood of granite or porphyry. Cosmo Newbery agrees with 
me in the opinion that, while some of them have been split by hand 
from larger blocks, others are fragments of rocks occurring naturally, 
and selected because they were of suitable form. These fragments , . 
. have been treated in one way only ; having selecfled that which 
appeared to be the best for a cutting edge, the native has improved it 
by simply striking off" small flakes all along the edge, from one side of 
the edge only. This has been done, however, with so much skill, in all 
cases, as to keep the line straight. It is not a serrated edge. It would 
appear that the fragment was held in the palm of one hand, with the 
edge outwards, and that with a piece of stone in the other hand, blows 
were given towards the palm and away from the edge, until flakes 

u 



146 ' H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

were detached in such a manner as to leave it even and sharp. Some 
specimens, however, have been detached by one blow from a larger rock. 
These exhibit a semiconchoidal fra(5lure, and having a good edge, have 
not been subsequently altered by chipping. . . . Amongst R. Gunn's 
specimens, there are two scalpriform implements, very skillfully made. 
One, the best, of a triangular shape, and with a remarkably sharp 
cutting edge, has been improved by striking off flakes — in size from a 
sixteenth of an inch to a quarter of an inch — from the base of the 
triangle ; and the other, a smaller stone, about three inches in length, 
and two inches in breadth, formed in the same way, is scarcely 
inferior. These were evidently struck off by hand from some larger 
blocks, and afterwards improved in the manner described. The first was 
found near Westbury, and the other near Ross. . . . The largest 
stones do not weigh more than six or seven ounces, and the smallest 
are not much heavier than the chips of black basalt used by the 
natives of Victoria for cutting and cleaning skins. . . . None of them 
were provided with a handle, and it is not probable, judging from the 
shape of them, that the native had even the protection of the opossum 
skin for his hand. . . . The greater number — nearly all of them — 
may be classed as fragments of metamorphosed rocks, cherts, and 
porcelain ites. Owing to having been buried for a lengthened period, 
many are coated with a thin yellowish-brown or grey skin. I can state 
with certainty that not one of them has been ground, nor in any cise 
has been attempted to give an edge by grinding." 

Smyth then quotes the following statement of Scott, received through 
Gunn ; — ** * Memorandum of the Stone Implements used by the Aborigines 
of Tasmania, found at Mount Morriston, eight miles south from Ross, 
on the east bank of the Macquarie River, on Lot 78, Parish of Peel, 
County of Somerset : The space over which they were found is about 
three by five chains, or one acre and a half, in a sheltered bend of 
river, at the head of a deep lagoon, above one mile long, the Saltpan 
Plains lying to the west, and the hills rising suddenly to the east. The 
original place where these were first obtained by the aborigines is 
between the Split Rock and the west shore of the Great Lake, about 
forty miles distant, where Pitt has seen the ground covered with stones, 
partly broken and shaped — * like a workshop ' — by his statement to me. 
. . . In using the flints, the thumb was placed on the flat surface, 
and held by the other fingers resting in the palm of the hand, and the 
sharp edges used to cut the notches in the trees for climbing, cutting 
spears, and making the handles of the waddies rough, so as not to slip 
from the hand. They devoted much time to chipping the edges of the 
flints, and the small pieces broken off show very distinctly in good 
ones ; the pieces not so marked, and smaller, are probably the pieces 
left in making them into ship-shape at first. Whilst the flints were 
used to cut notches in the trees for the great toe to rest in, for 
climbing, the body was supported against the tree by a strong grass rope, 
passed round the tree and the body, held by one hand, whilst with the 
other they used the flint. . . . The number of stones of the same 
material (but different shades in colour) which I found at that spot was 
upwards of 218. . . . Adjoining the spot where the flints were found 



' STONE IMPLEMENTS. I47 

there were also some common water-worn stones, broken in the edges, 
as if used for chipping, but of no interest otherwise. Jas. Scott, 
Surveyor,* '* Smyth says of some other specimens he received from the 
Royal Society of Tasmania that " they are of the same characfter as 
those already described. One — a heavy thick stone, with a rough edge 
was probably used for cutting wood. It is a fragment of a dark bluish- 
grey siliceous rock. Small flakes have been struck off to form a cutting 
edge. Another — a thinner and broader fragment, and triangular in shape 
— is formed of the same kind of rock, and the cutting edge is in like 
manner made by striking gff thin small flakes. The weight of each is 
a little less than seven ounces" (II. pp. 402-407). 

Some fifteen years ago Morton Allport sent some stone implements 
to the Anthropological Institute, London, and accompanied them with the 
following letter : *' The stone implements are of the rudest make, but 
are frequently met with near old camping places and shell -mounds, often 
very far from the parent rocks. In one locality, on the high 
table-land in the centre of Tasmania, large numbers of these rough 
implements appear to have been manufactured, as chips of the rock, knocked 
off so long ago as to present weatherworn surfaces, abound, and cannot 
otherwise be accounted for. Many of the old residents in the country 
assure me they have frequently seen natives using these stones, both 
for skinning animals and for cutting notches in the thick bark of the 
eucalypti, while climbing. The stones were invariably grasped in the 
hand, never fixed in any kind of handle." What became of Allport*s 
coUecftion is not known. 

At a meeting of the Royal Society of Tasmania, in June, 1873, Jas. 
Scott volunteered the following information received from his late brother, 
Thos. Scott, who had had many opportunities of observing the habits, 
etc., of the aborigines : ** I may state that I never learnt that they used 
the flint implements as tomahawks, but invariably held them in their 
hands with the thumb resting on the flat surface, and turning the stone 
as found convenient to get the cutting edges where required. He had 
seen the men sitting for an hour or so at one time, chipping one flint 
with another, so as to give them the peculiar cutting sharp edges. The 
flints were used principally for cutting and sharpening spears, waddies, 
and for making notches or rough edges on the end of the waddies, for 
the hand to grasp firmly, in order to prevent slipping when in the act 
of throwing, etc. They were also used for cutting notches in the bark 
of trees to enable the natives ' to climb. ... I have found them 
[flint implements] . . . always in the shape used by holding in the 
hand, never in the shape of a tomahawk. . . . Some years ago I 
sent to England a round stone chipped all round to a circle about seven 
inches diameter, and one inch and a half thick in the centre, to one 
inch thick at the edge. On this the females broke the bones of animals 
for the marrow, using another stone about six inches in diameter for 
striking." In the same journal (Papers, etc. Roy. Soc. of Tasm. July, 
1873) it is stated the aborigines ** merely used sharp-edged stones as 
knives. These were made sharp, not by grinding or polishing, but by 
striking off flakes by another stone till the required edge was obtained. 
As a very general, if not invariable, rule, one surface only was chipped 



148 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

in the process of sharpening. They werq made from two different kinds 
of stone — the one apparently an indurated clay rock, the other con- 
taining a large proportion of silex." Robt. Thirkell also adds his testi- 
mony to the facfk that the stones were used without handles of any sort 
{ibid, Aug. 1873). Jas. Rollings, in a letter addressed to Dr. Agnew, 
dated 5th May, 1873, says that in his youth he was constantly in the 
habit of seeing the aborigines of Tasmania, . . . and that he had 
many opportunities of seeing how they used their stone knives and 
tomahawks. ** The knives [referred to] when used for skinning kangaroos, 
etc., were held by the fore-finger and thumb, and the arm, being extended, 
was drawn rapidly towards the body. The carcase was afterwards cut 
up, and the knife was held in the same way. In cutting their hair, 
one stone was held under the hair, another stone being used above, and 
by this means the hair was cut, or rather, by repeated nickings, came 
off." He then continues, ** A larger stone, well sele(ffced, about four or 
five pounds in weight, was used for a tomahawk, a handle being fastened 
to it in the same way as a blacksmith fastens a rod to chisels, &c., 
for cutting or punching iron, being afterwards well secured by the 
sinews of some animal. The handles were strong saplings of wattle or 
curryjong." 

Regarding the handle mentioned above and by Lloyd (pp. 50-52), at 
the meeting of the Fellows of the Royal Society of Tasmania, in June, 
1873, above referred to, after full discussion, Dr. Agnew reported "it 
appeared the general belief of the Fellows present was, that the stone 
axe with the handle attached was never used by our natives until taught 
by those from the neighbouring continent.*' The evidence at this meeting 
set the question at rest. But there was another question still unsolved, 
and that was as to whether the Tasmanians ground any of their stone 
implements. As pointed out by Prof. Tylor (On tiie Occurrence of Ground 
Stone Implements of Australian type in Tasmania, Jour. Anthrop Inst, 
xxiv. 1894, pp. 335-340) Thirkell, in a letter to Dr. Agnew (Papers, Roy. 
Soc. of Tasm., Aug., 1873) direcflly states that he knew them to grind 
their implements. " Their mode of climbing trees was to get a grass band 
twisted, put It round the tree and hold the two ends in one hand, and 
then with a sharp flint stone they would chip the bark downwards and 
make a notch for the big toe, then change hands and do the same on 
the other side. They had no handle to the stone, merely an indent for 
the thumb, and the edge ground as sharp as they could against another 
stone.'' Tylor continues : " After a long quest, made to ascertain whether 
specimens could be found to justify the statements that stone axes ground 
and handled were known to some aborigines, and, if so, what was their 
make, I found a paper * On the Osteology and Peculiarities of the 
Tasmanians* by the eminent anthropologist, Dr. J. Barnard Davis. In 
this little-known paper, published in the * Nat. Hist. Trans, of the Dutch 
Society of Science,* he mentions as Tasmanian works of art * a few 
exceedingly rude stone chippings or implements, made from a dark coloured 
chert, probably of volcanic origin, exadlly like that employed by the 
Kanakas of the Sandwich Islands.* Dr. Barnard Davis continues as 
follows : * I have a more finished stone implement of an oblong form 
with one extremity slightly sharpened by grinding, which was employed 



STONE IMPLEMENTS. I49 

by the women without any handle in notching the bark of trees, up 
which they climbed in an ingenious manner in search of the opossum.* 
With some difficulty I was able to ascertain that Dr. Barnard Davis's 
collecflions were sold at his death, and had passed into the hands of a 
gentleman at Brighton from whom the three implements (J.A.I. Plate 
XVII., Figs. I, 2, 3) were purchased by the Corporation and placed 
in the Town Museum. Their proofs of authenticity are absolute. Figs. 
2, 2«, 3, 3«, vouched for by tickets * Tasmanian, G. A. R.' must have 
come from G. A. Robinson, the first Prote(5\or of the Tasmanian 
aborigines, the survivors of whom he brought in after the war ; the oblong 
shape and slight edge at the end of Figs. 2, 2a, identify it as the one 
mentioned by Barnard Davis as grasped in the hand for tree-notching. 
A written card, proved by its mention of the weight to refer to the 
specimen, Fig. i, la, is photographed at the back of Fig. i. * Tas- 
manian stone axe. Weighs 2lbs. 90Z. av. Used by the native women 
without haft for notching the fibrous bark of the trees they were in the 
habit of cliinbing. It is still red from the ferruginous ochre with which 
they painted themselves. Presented by Jos. Milligan, M.D., (and Lady 
Franklin). See his let. of Sep. 5, 1864, and that of G. A. Robinson, 
of Feb. 16, 1865.' 

'' It would thus appear that the three were collecfled by G. A. Robinson, 
that they passed from him to Dr. Milligan, who died in London some 
years ago, and that from him Dr. Barnard obtained them. 

** On inspedlion of these implements it may be said without hesitation 
that they are of tlie Australian type of ground stone implements. The 
two shown in Figs, i and 3 are described as made to grasp in the 
hand, and with this agrees the thumb indentation, particularly well seen 
in Fig. 3. Such notching stones made with a thumb indentation for 
grasping in the hand, and edged by grinding against another stone, 
correspond exactly with what Mr. Thirkell describes the natives making 
to climb witli. Such implements grasped in the hand are known in use 
among the Australian natives. Mr. A. W. Howitt states that the 
natives of Cooper's Creek do not fasten wooden handles to the stone, 
but they grasp the tomahawk with the fingers and thumb, holding the 
blunt end in the hollow of the hand, and use it in cutting exacflly as 
the Tasmanians used the chips of chert which served them as hatchets 
(Smyth, I. p. 358 ; 11. p. 304). Some of the Australian hand choppers 
have been recognised by the thumb-indents by Mr. H. Balfour in the 
Pitt Rivers Museum. It is thus probable that Dr. Barnard Davis's 
three ground implements were either made by Australians or by Tas- 
manians, who had learnt the craft from them." 

The following account of the re-fixing of the locality of a native 
quarry in a communication to me, from J as. B. Walker, will be read 
with interest : ** Leaving the Plenty Station and proceeding in a S.S.W. 
direction, we work upwards across the spurs which run steeply down 
to the left bank of the Plenty. A walk of less than two miles brings 
us to the ridge of a spur some 400 feet above the level of the Der- 
went. The top of the Native Tier is high above us to the right 
front. The hill side on which we stand is thinly timbered, and looking 
through the trees, we see below to the S.E. the Derwent Valley, here 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 



a S ^ 



hi 

sis 



STONE IMPLEMENTS I5I 

about a mile and a half wide. The sheep and cattle runs are diversi- 
fied by small agricultural farms and orchards with homesteads, and the 
valley is bounded on each side by steep hills. 

"The steep hill side on which we stand is lightly wooded with the 
prevailing ** gum,'* but affords fair feed for sheep. The underlying forma- 
tion is a mud-stone (Upper Paelaeozoic) which crops out irregularly over 
a considerable area. Walking a little distance further our guide, Mr. 
G. Rayner, makes a halt and points out to us the so-called quarry. 
He tells us that his father was one of the early settlers, deported from 
Norfolk Island to Tasmania in the year 1808. Somewhere between the 
years 181 3 and 181 8 he was making his way by the bush track from 
Hobart to his location near Hamilton (formerly called Lower Clyde). 
The track passed round the Native Tier, and at this spot Mr. Rayner 
(Senior) suddenly came upon a mob of blacks, busily engaged in breaking 
stones from the hill side. There were twenty or thirty of them ; men, 
women, and children. Nosily chattering, they were breaking the stones 
into fragments, either by dashing them on the rock or by striking them 
with other stones, and picking up the sharp edged ones for use. One 
old fellow he describes as dashing his stone upon another one on the 
ground and leaping up and spreading his legs out at the same time, 
to avoid as much as possible being struck by the splinters. This is all 
he observed, for even in those days— long before the great feud between 
black and white — the two races were, as a rule, shy of each other, and 
did not often cultivate a closer acquaintance than was necessary. At 
first sight there was little to distinguish the * quarry* from other parts 
of the hill side. Early this summer a heavy bush fire had swept 
over the hill, and had done its best to obliterate the natural features 
of the place. There was no quarry or excavation, except two or three 
small and shallow holes, which might well have been caused by the 
uprooting of gum-trees, but which may probably enough have been due 
to the removal of pieces of rock eighty years before. On examining 
the ground more closely, we found in the fragments of stone lying 
about a certain difference of form from those which are ordinarily 
the result of natural disintegration. Just at this point, and apparently 
at this point only, the mudstone had been altered, doubtless by the 
action of heat caused by the intrusion of an igneous rock, and con- 
verted into a hard flinty chert. It had a crystallised structure, and 
was capable of being split into flakes, very different from the irregular 
cubical fragments resulting from breaking the unaltered stratified mud- 
stone. The ground was strewn with flakes and wedg^-like pieces of stone; 
many of the flakes having an edge sharp enough to serve for a black- 
fellow's scraper. It seemed plain that these fragments were not the 
result of natural disintegration, but were due to the hand of man."^ 
Unfortunately, just at the point where the flinty rock cropped out, 
where the shallow holes occurred, and where the broken fragments were 
thickest, there lay the burnt remains of a large deadwood fence of logs, 
forming the boundary between the estates of ' Charlies Hope ' and ' Glen 

* Some of the Specimens sent me show distinct evidence of artificial chipping along the 

edge.— H.L.R 



152 H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Leith.* The ground for a considerable distance was strewed with burnt 
debris, with branches and gum leaves, which were a great hindrance to 
our investigations. The chips were scattered over a space of perhaps 
half an acre to an acre, being less numerous as we left the central 
point. They were of various shapes and sizes ; some mere chips with 
a sharp edge, some larger flakes, and some large pieces of stone showing 
where flakes had been struck off. 

" With respecfl to the chara(5ler of the stone of which the * flint * 
implements were manufadlured, I can add little to the description 
given by Mr. R. M. Johnston in his * Geology of Tasmania,' p. 334, 
There is no flint, properly so called, in Tasmania. Mr. Johnston men- 
tions one instance of one implement made from a fragment of opalised 
fossil wood, such as is found near New Norfolk. With this exception, 
I believe, all are manufacflured from a hard dark coloured cherty rock : 
an altered mudstone. In various parts of the island extensive beds 
of mudstone occur. These mudstones, according to Mr. Johnston, belong 
to the Upper Palaeozoic series. At a number of points there have been 
intruded through the mudstone, at a later geological epoch, dykes or 
masses of an eruptive greenstone or basalt. Where such intrusions 
have occurred the adjacent mudstones have been altered, and have become 
crystalline in strucflure. In its unaltered state the mudstone is not very 
hard, shows stratification, and its fracflure is cubical. But where it has 
been altered, it is crystalline in charadler, of flinty hardness, and its 
fradlure is conch oidal. Mr. Johnston mentions the following places 
where this altered mudstone occurs ; and most, if not all of these places 
seem to have been resorted to by the blacks for the sake of the * flints ' 
afforded ** : — 

1. Between the * Split Rock* and the western shore of the * Great 
Lake ' (on the Central Plateau) which is mentioned by Mr. Scott 
as a resort for * flints.' See * Geol, of Tas.* pp. 336-37. 

2. * Stocker's Bottom,' on Mount Morriston Estate, Macquarie River 
— Near here the * Scott coUecflion ' of flints (now in the Tasmanian 
Museum) was obtained. 

3. * The Tea Gardens,' Macquarie River, eight miles South of 
No. 2. 

4. * Hunter's Mill,' Native Point ; on the South Esk, near Perth. 
The intrusion is here very plainly marked. The name implies 
that it must have been a favourite resort of the natives. 

5. Pipe Clay Lagoon, South Arm. 

6. Oakhampton, near Spring Bay. 

7. On the Tamar River. To these may be added : — 

8. Native Tier, River Plenty. 

9. Mt. Communication, Saltwater River, Tasman's Peninsula. 



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CHAPTER X. 
Trade. 

OWING to the entire lack of information on the point, we know 
nothing about any regular system of trade or barter being in use 
among the Tasmanian tribes. During the latter part of their existence, 
however, when they had been brought into conta(5l with Europeans, we 
have a few words showing that they bartered with the colonists ; thus 
we read in Hobb's Evidence (Col. and Slav. p. 50), that **the native 
men would sell a native woman for four or five carcases of seals." 
And again, in Brodribb's Evidence (ibid. p. 52), we find it stated that, 
" the men would offer to give up their wives for bread." Backhouse 
(p 170) tells us on one pccasion when his party distributed among the 
aborigines some cotton handkerchiefs and some tobacco, they presented 
his friends with *' some spears, and shell necklaces in return." He also 
mentions the following incident (p. 58) : ** One of them [the aborigines] 
exchanged a girl of about fourteen years of age, for a dog, with the 
people at the Pilot Station ; but the girl, not liking her situation, was 
taken back, and the dog returned." 

G. W. Walker remarks on the difficulty the Commandant found in 
inducing the blacks to preserve the wallaby skins, it being their invariable 
custom to singe oflf the hair. Presents were made to those who brought 
wallaby skins, but they could not be taught the idea of barter, or to 
look beyond the immediate moment (MS. Jour.) 

Communications. 

The Tasmanians were without roads of any kind, except simple 
beaten paths, trodden down by them in various places in the course of 
time. La Billardiere (H. p. 23) tells us that : *• On the borders of the 
sea we had observed many paths, which the natives had cleared ; but 
nothing gave us any intimation that they had ever come into the midst 
of these thick forests." In another place (I. p. 233) he mentions that 
one of the officers of the ' Recherche,' following a beaten path made 
by the savages through the wood, met six of them walking slowly 
towards the south. We further learn from the same writer (II. p. 25) 
that the aborigines did not shrink from using a route because of any 
difficulties it presented ; he says : ** We were soon obliged to climb 
over steep rocks, at the foot of which the sea broke in a tremendous 
manner. This road, notwithstanding its difficulty, was frequented by the 
natives, for we found in it one of their spears." Cook (Sec. Voy. Bk. 
I, cb. vii.) noticed a path which led from a place the aborigines had 



154 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

just left, through the woods; and Rossel (I. p. 83) mentions seeing a 
hut, at which several beaten paths met. 

According to Backhouse (p. 121) they adopted the following method 
for finding their way through the intricacies of the forest. ** Many of 
thfe small branches of the bushes were broken and left hanging ; by this 
means these people had marked their way through the untracked 
thicket." A somewhat similar device is also mentioned in the evidence 
of Brodribb (p. 52), who tells us that a man " saw some sticks placed 
in the bush, near the Green Ponds, in a track of the natives, in such 
a position as denoted, as he supposed, that they had come from the 
westward." 

A graphic account of the power possessed by these aborigines in 
tracing the steps both of animals and men is given us by Lloyd (pp. 
53-54). He says : *' The aborigines possessed the faculty ot tracing the 
footprints of men and animals to an extraordinary degree. Frequently I 
have enlisted a sharp-eyed native in search of strayed sheep. . . . 
By the first gleam of morn we had traversed miles of hills, green 
forests, and fields. . . . Suddenly, the galvanic exclamation * Wah ! 
wah ! ' would imply traces of the wandering sheep — so slight as to be 
almost invisible even to my pradlised eye, but so obvious to my 
aboriginal companion that he could instantly declare the hour of the night 
or morning on which the impression had been made. Once found, he 
would follow on their track at a quick-march pace — no matter what 
description of country the animals might have travelled over — until, lo ! 
to my great joy there stood the truants, perched on the very summit 
of some rocky, sugar-loaf-shaped hill, gazing at us as if in perfedl 
astonishment at having been discovered. . . . Such, indeed, was the 
skill of the natives in tracing footprints, that during the eventful days 
of Busbranging . . . The government employed several of them as 
mounted police. In that capacity they are of infinite value." 

Navigation. 

When the Hummock Island Flinders (Sec. iv. p. 171) was much 
puzzled to know how the Tasmanians got there, for he was certain the 
natives at Port Dairy mple had ** no canoes nor any means of reaching 
islands lying not more than two cable lengths from the shore," and the 
island in question was incapable of supporting permanent subsistence. It 
would also seem certain that the aboriginals visited the Maatsuyker 
Islands on the stormy south coast, the nearest of which is three miles 
from the main land, for Flinders noticed that the scrub and grass land 
had been burnt (I. Intro, p. clxxx). Kelly found they visited Hunter's 
Island, north of Cape Grim. Bass was similarly puzzled. He met with 
no canoes anywhere (Collins pp. 169, 180, 188), nor did he see any trees 
so barked as to indicate canoe making, yet he found that the De Witt 
Isles, and, in fadl, all the islands in Frederick-Henry Bay, had evidently 
been visited. Neither did Furneaux nor Cook meet with boat or 
canoe or any vessel to go upon the water. Nevertheless the natives 
did contrive constructions which served them in their navigations. 

La Billardiere speaks (I. ch. v. pp. 230-231) of native rafts ** which 



NAVIGATION. 155 

are only fit for crossing the water when the sea is very tranquil ; other- 
wise they would soon be broken asunder by the force of the waves.'* 
In describing one rude raft found on the western shore of Adventure 
Bay, he says (II. ch. xi. pp. 80-81): "It was made of the bark of trees; 
in shape nearly resembling that which is represented in the plate [in 
his book] , being as broad, but not so long by more than a third. The 
pieces of bark that composed it were of the same strucflure as that of 
the Eucalyptus resinifera, but its leaves were much thinner. These pieces 
had been held together by cords, made of the leaves of grasses, forming 
a texture of very large meshes, most of which had the form of a pretty 
regular pentagon.'* Rossel who was La Billardiere's companion, describes 
them thus (I. ch. iv. p. 93) : " On the shore of our little bay we found 
some sort of canoes {pirogues)^ seven to nine feet long, equally flat above 
and below. Their width was from three to four feet in the middle, 
diminishing to each of their two extremities, which ended in a point. 
They were made of very thick bark of trees, joined parallelly, and 
fastened together with reeds, or other fibrous grasses. They were, indeed, 
but very small rafts, to which had been given the form of a canoe." 
P6ron (ch. xii. p. 225) speaks of the canoe being ** formed of three rows 
of bark roughly joined together and held by thongs of the same nature " 
(i.e. not of grass). The drawing he gives is almost identical with La 
Billardiere's. Freycinet describes the canoe as follows : ** Three rolls of 
Eucalyptus bark formed the body. The principal roll or piece was 4m. 
55cm. (14ft. iiin.) long by im. (3ft. 3in.) broad, the two other pieces 
being only 3m. 90cm. (12ft. 9in.) long by 32cm. (i2iin.) broad. These 
three bundles, which bore a fair resemblance to a ship's yards, were 
fastened together at their ends ; this made them taper and formed the 
whole of the canoe. The scarfing was made fairly compacfl by means 
of a sort of grass or reed. So completed the craft had the following 
dimensions: length inside, 2m. 95cm. (9ft. Sin.) ; outside breadth, 89cm. 
f2ft. iiin.); height, 65cm. (ift. 3iin.) ; depth inside, 22cm. (Sjin) ; thick- 
ness at the ends, 27cm..(ioJin.). Five or six savages can get into these 
canoes, but generally the number is limited to three or four at a time. 
Their paddles are simple sticks from 2*50 metres (8ft. lin.) to 4 and 5 
metres (13ft. and 16ft. 3in.) long, by 2 to 5 centimetres (Jin. to 2in.) 
thick. Occasionally when the water is shallow they make use of these 
sticks to propel themselves as we do with poles. Generally they sit 
down when working their canoes and make use of a bundle of grass as 
a seat ; at other times they keep standing. We saw them crossing the 
channel [d'Entrecasteaux] only in fine weather ; it is quite conceivable 
that such frail and imperfedl vessels could not make progress or even 
maintain themselves in a rough sea. It seems also they have never tried 
to make longer journeys than to navigate from one promontory to another, 
or to cross a bay or port in the channel. They always place a fire at 
one end of their canoes, and in order to prevent the fire from spreading 
they place underneath it a sufficiently thick bed of earth or cinders " 
(Peron's Voyage redige par Freycinet, Paris, 1815, pp. 44-45). 

Bonwick writes (p. 51) : ** Mr. Roberts, formerly of the Bruni Salt- 
works, described to me the mode of constructing catamarans in the 
channel. They were of thick bark, interlaced ^ like a beehive with 



156 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Corrijong bark string, and were strong enough not only to carry men across 

that stormy sea, but even on the Southern Ocean to De Witt and 

other islands, which were visited by the natives on sealing excursions. 

The head and stern were raised high alwve the water like horns. Each 

boat would hold from four to six men. Long sticks, or spears, or bark 

paddles, plied first on one side, then on the other, supplied the place 

of oars, and propelled this rude 

contrivance as quickly as an 

English whaleboat. At each 

s c u stroke the rowers uttered a 

B. < J loud ' Ugh," like a London pavior. 

jj 2 3 The boats have been known to 

" s K live in very rough seas. An old 

„ I £ whaler told me he had seen one 

^^ S j_ o of them go across to Witch 

^^» ° ^ Island, near Port Davey, in the 

■* E S midst of a storm. No cata- 

5 u ^ marans were used on the northern 

^ * B side of Tasmania." 

a X a li> the Hobart Museum there 

X ^ * sre three small models of canoes 

. y 2 made by aborigines. Each of 

s S ^ the three is made of three 

Q » K bundles of bark — thick in the 

J, o z middle and tapering to each end, 

w * o like a Tenerlffe Cigar. One of 

■ z !^ these cigar-shaped bundles forms 

H ^ J. the floor or keel ; another bundle 

°- ^ . of similar shape and size is on 

^ ^ CO each side of the keel and raised 

K ' K above it, to form the sides. 

M H ^. The three bundles are firmly 

§ S 5 bound together with coarse tough 

" g ' grass fibre, partly knotted, form- 

< - ►- ing a sort of rough open net- 

< H work, very irregular. The bow 

< w "^ and stern are finished ofT with 
^ 5 g thin projecting rolls of bark, 
° § g bound to the main part with 
HJ " a tough grass, tightly served round 
c them (See Peron Col'd. Plate 

xiv). In the largest model, 
the two side rolls or bundles 
{which are slightly curved on the 
inches; the beam measurement is 6 inches; 
stem and stern projet'i 6 inches and 13 inches respeiflively from the 
body of the canoe. I cannot say which is the stem, and which is the stem. 
The two largest models are made of bundles of the thick fibrous 
bark of the " Stringy -bark Eucalyptus" (£. Obliqua) and bound with 



floor piece) measure 



NAVIGATION. 157 

grafts. This grass is very tough and course, and resembles the ** cutting 
grass," (Cladium Psittacorum. Nat, Ord, Cypetaceae), but is smooth, with- 
out the cutting edge of that plant. The smallest model is evidently 
very much older than the others. It measures 23 inches in length over 
all, and has very little proje(5\ing stem or stern (like the largest figure 
in Peron*s Col'd Plate). It is formed of three bundles of the velvety 
bark of the paper-barked tea tree {Leptospermum), and is bound together 
with a network of fibre, partly knotted, in the same manner as the 
others. But in this model the fibre is not of grass, but of strips of the 
bark of a shrub — ^probably ** Currijong " {Plagianikus Sidoides). 

The model canoe in the British Museum was obtained from Dr. 
Milligan, in 185 1, and is made of three bundles of bark of leptospermum 
and melaleuca roughly bound together by an extremely crude sort of net- 
work of partially twisted grass, the grass being merely wound round the 
bark and partly knotted. Length, 2 feet 6 inches. 

Mrs. Merediths says (p. 139): "They were formed of many little bundles 
of gum-tree bark, tied with grass, first separately, and then bound 
together in the required form, thick and fiat, without any attempt 
at the shape of a boat or canoe, and not keeping the passenger above 
water when used, but just serving to float him on the surface. In, or 
rather on, these, the natives sat and paddled about with long sticks, or 
drifted before the wind and tide ; and in calm weather frequently crossed 
over from the mainland to Maria Island ; on such occasions they pro- 
vided a little raised platform on the raft, on which they carried some 
lighted fuel to kindle their fire when they arrived there." Robinson, 
who, according to Calder, called this raft a machine, said it was only 
used by the natives of the south and west coasts. He describes it as 
**of considerable size, and something like a whale-boat, that is, sharp 
sterned, but a solid strucflure, and the natives in their aquatic adventures 
sat on the top. It was generally made of the buoyant and soft velvety 
bark of the swamp tea-tree (MelaUucay sp.), and consisted of a multitude 
of small strips bound together. . . . Common sticks, with points 
instead of blades, were all that were used to urge it with its living 
freight through the water, and yet I am assured that its progress was 
not so very slow. My informant, Alexander M'Kay, told me they were 
good weather judges, and only used this vessel when well assured there 
would be little wind and no danger, for an upset would have been 
risky to some of the men, who . . . were not always good swimmers " 
(Calder, J. A. I. pp. 22-23). In Knopwood^s Diary (21st June, 1804), 
describing the visit of Collins to the Huon river, we read that three of 
the natives in " cathemarans or small boats made of bark that will 
hold about six of them." 

Bonwick reproduces (p. 50) an account given him by a convicfl, in 
which it is stated that a handled axe was used in order to get sheets 
of bark off the tree, out of which a real canoe was made. But all the 
above authorities state that the vessels were made of bundles of bark, 
and from their descriptions are not canoes at all. and their testimony 
is safer than that of Bonwick's informant, who, by his mention of a 
handled axe, shows that he could not have been speaking of Tasmanians, 
Excepting such as had been in contacf^ with imported Australians and 



158 H. LING ROTH, — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

their methods. G. W. Walker (MS. Jour. 5, Dec. 1832) mentions that 
at the Arthur River, a large and deep river, when Cottrel was trying 
to induce a tribe to surrender, a Sydney native^ made a rude canoe of 
bark to cross the river. 

According to Dove (I. p. 251), a species of bark or decayed wood, 
whose specific gravity appears to be similar to that of cork, provided 
them with the means of constructing canoes. The beams or logs were 
fastened together by the help of rushes or thongs of skin. This sounds 
something like Jeffrey's account. He says : " Their canoes have been 
very inaccurately described, but in fadl, they do not appear to have 
very frequent use for these vessels, as they but seldom visit the coast. 
. . . When, however, . . . they come to . . . the sea, a large river, 
or a lake, they make canoes from the adjoining woods. These, when 
formed, are not unlike a catamaran, and are sufficiently large to support 
from six to ten persons in crossing the largest rivers. These canoes are 
formed by the trunks of two trees about thirty feet long, and laid in 
a parallel direcfiion, at a distance of five or six feet from each other, 
and are kept in that position by four or five lesser pieces of wood, 
fastened at each end by slips of tough bark. In the middle is a cross 
timber of considerable thickness, and the whole interwoven with a kind 
of wicker-work. This flat and completely open canoe, or rather float, 
is made to skim along the surface of the water, by means of paddles, 
with amazing rapidity and safety. The natives are frequently seen on 
them near the southern mouth of the Derwent, between Isle Brune and 
the main, when the canoes are often found deserted, after they have 
answered the immediate purpose for which they were construdled " (pp. 
126-128). But Dove's account appears to be made up out of two 
accounts, one as to making the vessels out of bundles of bark, and one 
as to the making out of logs. It seems to be probable that the abori- 
gines made use of logs in crossing rivers and narrow straits, and may 
occasionally have fastened two together. The Eucalyptus wood is too 
heavy to float, and few Tasmanian woods have sufficient buoyancy to 
serve for rafts unless very dry. In any case, Jeffrey's wicker-work must 
be a touch of imagination, or very superficial examination as at a distance 
the illustration might possibly give the impression of wicker-work to a 
careless observer, and the speed he speaks of is extremely doubtful. Cotton 
informs J. B W^alker : ** 1 never heard of a canoe. We were told by 
our elders that the aborigines got dry Oyster Bay Pine logs each, 
and a leafy branch, and w^hen the wind favoured, crossed thus the 
Schotten Passage to Schouten Island, and also to Maria Island. I always 
heard that in crossing a river the aborigines used a bundle of bark, or 
a suitable log if procurable." Ratzel's statement (Valkerkunde, 2nd Germ. 
Ed. I. p. 352) that the aborigines had small canoes made of ^outspread 
skins [Kleine Kahne aus ausgespannten Fellen) is unsupported by any authority. 

West tells us (II. pp. 76-77) : ** Lieut. Gunn found and preserved 
for several months, a catamaran, sufficiently tight and strong to drift 
for sixteen or twenty miles: each would convey from four to seven 
persons ; " . . . and that " Taw, the pilot of Macquarie Harbour, saw 
the natives cross the river ; on this occasion a man swam on either side 
of the raft, formed of the bark of the * swamp tree.' " The latter mode 



NAVIGATION. SWIMMING. 1 59 

of propulsion is also recorded by Backhouse when speaking of the rafts 
(p. 58) : " On these, three or four pers9ns are placed, and one swims 
on each side, holding it with one hand." 



Swimming. 

We have just seen above that in the use of their floats a native 
swims on each side, holding the float with one hand, and under the 
heading fishing we have read of some of their powers of swimming 
and diving. Calder says (J.A.I, p. 23): "Some of the men, unlike the 
women, were not always good swimmers, though most of them were 
perfect." La Biilardiere ** wishing to know whether these islanders were 
expert swimmers, one of our officers jumped into the water, and dived 
several times ; but it was in vain that he invited them to follow 
his example. They were very good divers, however, . . . for it is 
by diving that they procure a considerable part of their food" (II. ch. 
X. pp. 51-52). Later on he was more successful, and thus describes a 
diving scene : " Hitherto we had but a faint idea of the pains the women 
rake to procure the food. . . . They took each a basket, and were 
followed by their daughters, who did the same. Getting on the rocks 
that projected into the sea, they plunged them to the bottom in search 
of shell-fish. When they had been down some time, we became very 
uneasy on their account. ... At length, however, they appeared, 
and convinced us they were capable of remaining under water twice as 
long as our ablest divers. An instant was sufficient for them to take 
breath, and then they dived again. This they did repeatedly till their 
baskets were nearly full " (II. ch. x. p. 57). In Banks Straits Kelly 
(p. 13) records the old chief, Tolobunganah swimming out to his boat. 
Backhouse mentions that ** two whitemen being in danger of drowning 
on a raft, some of the native women . . . swam to the raft, and 
begged the men to get upon their backs, and they would convey them 
to the shore ; but the poor men refused, being overcome with fear " 
(p. 147) ; and on another occasion that " two women waded and swam 
from Green Island to the settlement — a distance of three miles" (p. 8g). 
Meredith mentions that " a native woman, to avoid being captured, 
rushed into the sea, where she swam and dived for some time, before 
she could be induced to come ashore" (p. 205). Davies speaks of the 
women ** being generally, if not at all times, the divers" (p. 413). With 
the exception therefore of Calder, no writer speaks of the men as 
swimmers. 

As telated above Lloyd saw a party of aboriginals in the water 
spearing sting-ray tor sport. Ross, in *' Hobart Town Almanack, 1836 " 
(p. 146), describes a mob of blacks, about sixty in number, cooking and 
feasting from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., " when they all of a sudden, naked as 
they were, rushed into the broadest and deepest part of the river, in 
front of my cottage, and splashed and gambolled about for at least an 
hour." The river was the Shannon, one of the northern tributaries of 
the Derwent, and the tribe was the Big River tribe. 



l6o H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Topography. 

" Their geographical knowledge of the country in which they lived is 
remarkably accurate and minute. The relative bearings and distances of 
its more prominent headlands, bays, mountains, lakes, and rivers are 
distindlly impressed on their minds. When at any time a chart of 
Tasmania is presented to them, it seems, at least, in the case of the 
older and more intelligent aborigines, only to embody the pi(5lure of its 
form and dimensions which their own fancy had enabled them to sketch** 
(Dove, I. p. 251). 

Natural Forms. 

The very primitive nature of the Tasmanians is perhaps best exhibited 
by the unartificial use they made of articles supplied them by nature. 
They occasionally made use of caverns as habitations (West, II. p. 82). 
They used large shells (Dove, I. p. 250), oyster-shells (La Billardiere, 
II. ch. X. p. 43), and the Fucus palmatus (ibid, ch. v. p. 169 ; Peron, 
xii. p. '229), as drinking vessels. Their stone implements were of a 
palaeolithic character, showing in several specimens artificially chipped 
edi{es to improve them ; their spears were simple sticks, having the 
thicker end sharpened and hardened in the fire (Backhouse, p. 90). 
We have also seen that their habitations were chiefly only break- winds, 
made of bark, and put together in the rudest fashion. Their canoes 
did not show much more ingenuity. It may indeed be said they made 
use of what nature provided them, with the minimum amount of labour 
compatible with adapting them to serve their purposes. 

Bunce mentions that from the rare beauty of thp Boronia variabilis 
the natives were in the habit of naming their wives and daughters 
after it" (p. 26). 

Natural History. 

The following curious notes on the habits of some of the fauna of 
Tasmania were related to Milligan by the aborigines : 

** Wombat (Phascolomys Vombatus), — The aborigines of Tasmania state 
that, though this animal often crosses streams of water, it never does 
so by swimming, however deep they may be ; but that it walks along 
the bottom of the water channel from the side at which it enters to 
that where it emerges. 

^^ Hycena {Thylacinus cymcephalus),— The aborigines report that this animal 
is a most powerful swimmer ; that in swimming he carries his tail 
extended, moving it as the dog often does, and that the nose, eyes, and 
upper portion of the head are the only part usually seen above water. 

** Stiakes, — The aborigines inform me that snakes often climb lofty trees 
in order to plunder the nests of parrakeets and feed upon their young; 
and that when disturbed, they drop from a great height, and move off 
apparently uninjured by the fall. They say that snakes often feed, and 
even gorge themselves, upon the fruit of the native currant tree (when 



NATURAL HISTORY. l6l 

dead ripe). The aborigines describe a tail-less snake whose bite is they 
say most deadly " (Papers, Roy. Soc. V. D. Land, 1852, p. 310). 

** One of the aborigines of Tasmania reports having often discovered 
the nest of the Echidna setosa, porcupine or ant-eater of the colony ; that 
on several occasions one egg had been found in it, and never more" 
(Proc. Roy. Soc. V. D. Land, L p. 178). 



CHAPTER XI. 
Infanticide. 

** T HAVE no reason (says Davies, p. 412) to suppose that infanticide 
^ existed amongst the aborigines in their former wild state ; there is 
little doubt, however, but that it was common of later years, driven to 
't, as they in all probability were, by the continued harassing of the 
whites, . . . dogs became so extremely valuable to them, that the 
females have been known to desert their infants for the sake of suckling 
the puppies." Laplace's words are very similar (II. ch. xviii. pp. 201- 
202) : " The women are only too happy if . . . the little beings, who 
owe to them their birth, are not snatched from their arms ; for, in the 
times of dearth, to which, through a too dry or too wet year, these 
savages, who are completely destitute of foresight, are exposed, it 
frequently happens that the children are abandoned in the middle of the 
woods, because their father dreads hunger, or prefers to keep the dog 
which aids him in hunting down the game." Chas. Meredith (pp. 201- 
202) attributes infanticide to somewhat different causes: **The disappearance 
of all the young children among the natives compels us to the inference that 
they were destroyed, doubtless on account of the difficulty of conveying them 
about in the rapid flights from place to place which the blacks now 
pradiised in the perpetration of their murders. No white people ever 
found or killed any children that I am aware of,* and few after this 
time were seen with the tribes ; the dreadful conclusion seems therefore 
unavoidable." Leigh (p. 243), without stating that infanticide existed 
says: "They are careful not to increase their number greatly. To prevent 
this they have been known to sell their female children." But Dove's 
words are more positive (I. p. 252) : " The force of the parental instindl 
was usually strong enough to render the maintenance of their offspring 
a care and a delight. Instances, however, have occurred in which the 
child has been wantonly sacrificed to the dread of famine." 

According to Calder (J.A.I, pp. 13-14), "The decadence [of the race] 
cannot be traced to infanticide, at any rate of children of their own 
blood, of whom the mother was passionately fond ; though it seems 
possible that the peculiar exigencies of their state may have sometimes 
produced a forced, but certainly most unwilling, abandonment of them. 
Instances of infanticide did, indeed, come within Robinson's knowledge ; 
but then the viiftims were half-castes, whom the savage woman both of 
Australia and Tasmania is known generally to have hated. In the cases 
m question, a mother suffocated two of her offspring by thrusting grass 
into their mouths till they died." 

♦ Aborigiual children were killed by Europeans — vide infra, Contadt with Civilisation. 



INFANTICIDE. POPULATION. 163 

To Robinson's testimony we must add that of West (II. pp. 80-81): 
** The half-caste children were oftener destroyed. A woman, who had 
immolated an infant of mixed origin, excused herself by saying it was 
not a pretty baby ; this was, however, far from universal, and more 
commonly the acfl of the tribe than the mother. A native woman, who 
had an infant of this class, fell accidently into the hands of her tribe : 
they tore the child from her arms, and threw it into the flames. The 
mother instantly snatched it from death, and quick as lightning dashed 
into the bush, where she concealed herself until she made her escape."* 

We are told by Bonwick (p. 76) that abortion was frequently prac- 
tised, ** to preserve elegance of figure " The reason he gives is not 
credible ; he gives no authority for the statement. He repeats his state- 
ment as to the prevalence of abortion on p. 85. 

Population. 

** In his various reports, Robinson always maintained that this people 
was nothing but a remnant of the six or eight thousand who were living 
in 1804, and his reports of their strength he had from the most accurate 
sources, viz. the natives themselves (who, though they had no words to 
express numbers higher than units, could repeat the names of the 
individuals of the tribes), and thus he learned their real force, which he 
never rated higher than seven hundred — that is, after 1803 ; and year 
after year his estimates decreased as they died out, and he then reports 
five hundred, and finally three hundred or four hundred, and when he 
got the last of them, they had sunk to about two hundred and fifty ** 
(Calder, J.A.I, p. 13). Backhouse considered there were ** probably never 
more than 700 to 1000 " Tasmanians, ** their habits of life being unfriendly 
to increase" (p. 79); while Melville estimated ihem in 1803 at nearly 
20,000 (p. 345). Whatever the original number may have been, at the 
end of the war only 203 were captured (West, II. p. 72). 

Although it is quite useless at the present day to try to estimate 
the native population at the time of the advent of the Europeans, 
Milligan's remarks in reference to this question are well worth listening to. 
He says : ** When V. D. Land was first occupied by Europeans . . 
. its aboriginal population, spread in tribes, sub-tribes, and families, 
over the length and breadth of the island, from Cape Portland to Port 
Davey, and from Oyster Bay to Macquarie Harbour ; and their aggregate 
number at that time has been variously estimated at from 1500 to 5000. 
. . . We receive with some allowances the higher estimates formed 
of the aboriginal population of this island, at or about the time of its 
discovery. Assuming that the number of tribes and sub-tribes throughout 
the territory was then about twenty, and that they each mustered of 
men, women, and children fifty to two hundred and fifty individuals, 
and allowing to them numbers proportioned to the means of subsistence 
within the limits of their respecftive hunting-grounds, it does not appear 
propable that the aggregate aboriginal population did materially, if at 
all, exceed 2,000. For it is to be borne in mind, that on the western 
side of the island, . . . physical conditions most unfavourable to a 

• Davies (p. 412) believed the women suckled the children for upwards of two years. 



164 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



natural abundance of animal life prevail; while our traditionary know- 
ledge of the tribes . . . along the east and centre is sufficiently 
accurate to enable us to form a close approximation of their actual 
strength '* (Milligan, Papers, etc., Roy. Soc. Tasm. III. pp. 275-276). 

Bonwick has colle<5ted various statements as to the number of abori- 
gines seen at different times (p. 83) : — ** Mr. G. A. Robinson thought in 
1832 there were but 700 alive. An old man told me he saw 300 in 
one mob near the Derwent in 1820 ; another saw 200 at once in 18 19 
on Mr. Archer's run ; 500 have been known to assemble at a grand 
hunt; Robert Jones saw 200 in 1819; and another speaks of 160 at 
Birch's Bay in 1825. A party of 300 tried to cut off some seamen 
watering at Brown's River in 1806. A writer in 181 5 estimates the 
native population then at 7,000. In 181 8 at Oyster Bay 500 were seen. 
In October, 1829, there were assembled 300 near Ellenthorpe Hall, and 
300 at Tamar River. Mr. Sams, (Under Sherifl) informed me he had seen 
300 together. Mr. Carr, in 1830, spoke of 400. Old Dutton told me 
he saw 400 in Governor Davey*s time. Kelly reports (p. 14) meeting 
with 200 men, women, and children in Bank's Straits, in 1816." On 
reading the above figures one is inclined to ask whether in any one case 
these mobs were individually counted ? 

From Hull's * Statistical Summary of Tasmania,' published in 1866,* 
and other sources. I extra(5l the following concerning the numbers of 
the aboriginal population : 



Year, 


Number. 






Year, 


Number 


1 


1803 


... 20,000 estimated (a) 


1840 


... 58 


1803 


... 6,000 or 


8000 


(h) 


1841 


... 49 


1803 


700 to 


1000 


{c) 


1842 


... 51 


1803 


500 to 


660 


[d) 


1847 


... 48 (/) 


1824 


... 340 + 






1848 


... 38 («) 


1825 


32b 






1854 


... i6 


1826 


320 






1855 


... 15 


1827 


300 






1856 


... 16 


1828 


280 • 






1857 


... 15 


1829 


250 






1858 


14 


1830 


225 






1859 . 


... 14 (n) 


1831 


... 190 {e) 
... 176 (/) 






i860 . 


.. ri (o) 


1832 






1861 . 


8 


1833 


... 112(g) 






1862 . 


8 


1834 


... Ill (k) 






1863 . 


6 


1835 


... iii(») 






1864 . 


.. 6 iP) 


1836 


... 116 






1865 . 


■■ ^(r) 


1837 


97 






1869 . 


I 




1838 


... 82(;) 






[1877 ■ 


o' 




1839 


68 













• Bonwick says : — " Old settlers have not much belief in his figures as to early times 
though public records gave to him statistics for later years (p. 84). 

t This is the number of the known tribes [180 males, 160 females? J 

(a) [Melville (p. 345).] 

(b) [Calder (Jour. p. 13).] 

(c) [Backhouse (p. 79).] 
id) [Walker (p. 119).] 



POPULATION. 165 

(e) [According to Bonwick (" Last of Tasm." p. 222) Robinson in his 
report of June, 1831, states he had communicated with 236 aborigines.] 

(/) [Walker says about 250 (p. 119).] 

ig) [It was said at this date that the proportion of male to females 
was six to one (V. D. Land Annual, 1834, pp. 79-80).] 

(h) [S5 males, 56 females ; Walker's MS. Journ., 15th Jan., 1834.] 

(1) [Strzelecki says (pp. 352-355) that in 1835 there were at the 
Settlement on Flinders Island 210 natives, and in 1842 only 54. During 
the seven years interval between his visits only 14 children had been 
born.] 

(/) [According to Dumont D*Urville 42 males and 40 females ; and 
West says of this number 14 were children.] 

(/) [10 children.] 

(m) [12 men, 23 women, and 8 children, (Barnard, Papers, Roy. Soc. 
of Tasmania, I. 1849, p. 105), making a total of 43.] 

(n) 5 males, 9 females. 

(0) 4 males, 7 females. 

iP) I male, 5 females. 

(r) All females. 

The last representative of the race, a female, died in 1876. 

Tribes. 
(From a Paper by Jas. B. Walker in the Proc. Roy. Soc. of Tas., 1898). 

"Of the tribal organisation of the aborigines pradlically nothing is 
known, and the limits of the tribal divisions cannot be laid down with 
any approach to certainty. G. A. Robinson and other writers use the 
word * tribe ' with a good deal of laxity. Sometimes it is used to 
designate a small sub- tribe living in one community— ^.^., the Macquarie 
Harbour tribe, numbering thirty souls only — sometimes to indicate a whole 
group — eg. the Oyster Bay and Big River tribes, which included several 
sub- tribes and a Considerable population. As the whole group in some 
cases took its name from a prominent sub- tribe {e.g.. Oyster Bay) it is 
often doubtful whether the group or the sub-tribe is intended. 

" G. W. Walker says that the members of the same • tribe ' spoke 
of each other as • brother ' and * sister.* Kelly, in his Boat Expedition, 
1815-16, says that the chief, Laman-bunganah, at Ringarooma Point on 
the North-east Coast, told him that he was at war with his *' brother" 
Tolo-bunganah, a powerful chief at Eddy stone Point, on the East Coast. 
The term translated 'brother' must therefore have had a wide applica- 
tion, being used with relation to tribes or sub-tribes which were hostile, 
as well as to those which were friendly. 

** In 1830, Robinson stated that he had been in communication with 
sixteen * tribes.* As this was long after many of the native hunting- 
grounds had been invaded by the whites, and the original tribal 
organisation had consequently been much disturbed, it is probable that 
the number of tribes was originally greater. As we have seen, Milligan 
conjecturally puts the number at twenty. Although Robinson dignifies 
the tribes with the name of * nations,* they were known to the settlers 
by the designation of * mobs.* This conveys a more correcft idea of 



l66 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

their numerical strength, which in many tribes was as low as 30, and 
probably in no case exceeded 200, or at the most 250. 

** These * mobs * or sub-tribes group themselves into several broad 
divisions, more properly deserving the name of * tribes.' In these larger 
divisions separate languages or dialedls were spoken, the vocabularies of 
which were widely different, as appears from Milligan's Vocabulary. 
Minor differences of dialecfl must have been numerous, for Rol>ert Clark, 
the catechist, states that on his arrival at the Flinders' Settlement in 1834, 
eight or ten different languages or dialed^s were spoken amongst the 200 
natives then at the establishment, and that the blacks were * instructing 
each other to speak their respec5live tongues.' 

** Robinson, as already cited, says that there were four main languages. 
Of these Milligan gives us the vocabularies of three ; viz. : — (i) South ; 
(2) West and North- West ; and (3) East Coast. To these we may add 
(4) North -East tribes. 

** We may now proceed to consider these four main groups more in 
detail. 



I. Southern Tribes. 

* Tribes about Mount Royal, Brun6 Island, Recherche Bay, and the 
South of Tasmania.* — Milligan's Vocabulary, 

** These tribes occupied both shores of D'Entrecasteaux Channel and 
the coast of the mainland as far as South Cape. The French voyagers 
in 1792, and again in 1802, had opportunities of observing these natives 
in their primitive states. They found them friendly and well disposed. 
La Billardiere and Peron have preserved many interesting particulars 
respecting them. In the more southerly part of the district the mountains, 
heavily wooded, nearly approach the shore, and here the blacks must 
have been mainly dependent on the sea for their food. Further north, 
towards the mouth of the Huon, at Port Cygnet, North-West Bay, and 
North Bruny, the country was more open and favourable for game. The 
banks of the Upper Huon were too heavily timbered to afford much 
subsistence. The Bruny Blacks were numerous, especially on the lightly 
wooded northern part of the island, which was a favourite hunting-ground. 
It seems to have been visited by the mainland natives, who crossed the 
channel in canoes. The natives were numerous on the west bank of 
the Derwent — at Blackman's Bay, Brown's River, &c. At the latter 
place 300 were seen in 1806. In all this country wallaby, kangaroo and 
opossum would be fairly plentiful. It cannot be determined how far these 
tribes extended to the northward. They may possibly have occupied the 
present site of Hobart, and even further up the western shore of the 
Derwent, but it is also quite possible that this country was claimed as 
a hunting-ground by the Big River tribe. There is nothing in the 
features of the ground to forbid either alternative, and there is no 
evidence to decide the point. Kelly (Evidence, Aboriginal Committee) says 
that the Southern natives were a finer race than those in the interior, 
and also that they * took no part * with the latter. 



TRIBES. 167 

2. Western Tribes. 

* North-West and Western Tribes.' — Milligan's Vocabulary. 

** The natives on the west of the island must have been mainly con- 
fined to the sea coast, where they could draw their support from the 
sea, the country inland being generally unsuitable for game. Kelly, whose 
boat voyage was made at midsummer, 181 5, found natives at various 
places all along the coast, from a point opposite the Maatsuyker Islands 
off the south coast to beyond Cape Grim in the north-west. From the 
nature of the country we may conclude that those to the east of South- 
West Cape belonged to the Western tribes rather than to the Southern 
group established at Recherche Bay. They were bold enough to cross 
to the Maatsuykers, which lie three miles from the main, for Flinders in 
1798 noticed with surprise that the scrub on the largest island had been 
burnt. There was a small tribe at Port Davey, and another at Macquarie 
Harbour, which according to Stokes and Backhouse numbered some thirty 
souls only, the latter had canoes of bark in which they crossed the harbour. 
They made an attack on Kelly's party. 

'* At Trial Harbour, near Mount Heemskirk, there are very large 
extensive shells mounds. Further north, on the Pieman and Arthur 
Rivers, there were either one or two tribes, probably near the coast, 
though here and there are occasional tradls which would support game. 
In 1832, Robinson speaks of four tribes, numbering colledlively 100 souls, 
between Port Davey and Cape Grim. It is not clear whether he meant 
to include the Cape Grim natives. The latter were a strong and fierce 
tribe. In 181 5, Kelly fell in with a mob of fifty on the largest of the 
Hunters' Group, ».^., Robbins Island. They made a fierce attack on his 
party. It is said that the natives visited all the islands of the Hunters' 
Group by swimming, no doubt with ' the help of logs or canoes. They 
probably reached Albatross island, seeing that they had a name for it, 
TangaUma, Though the mainland is in many places densely timbered, 
there are open downs at Woolnorth and other spots where game would 
be fairly plentiful. 

** There were tribes at Circular Head and at Emu Bay. Most of the 
hinterland was covered with dense, almost impenetrable, forest, but the 
high downs of the Hampshire and Surrey Hill and Middlesex Plains 
were favourite resorts Other patches of open country at intervals would 
probably afford to these tribes the means of inland communication with 
their kinsmen on the west, as well as the more circuitous route by the 
coast. These open spaces were formerly more numerous, being kept clear 
by burning. Many of them have become overgrown with timber since 
the removal of the natives. 

** Hobbs (Boat Voyage, 1824) says that the natives travelled along the 
coast between Circular Head and Port Sorell, keeping the country burnt 
for that purpose. This group of tribes may possibly have extended as 
far east as Port Sorell, though the Port Sorell blacks were more probably 
connected with the Port Dalrymple tribe. 

" Kelly (Evidence, Aboriginal Committee) states that the West Coast 
natives were a finer race than the tribes in the interior, and had no 



l68 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

intercourse with them. The southern and western groups appear to have 
been quite isolated from those on the eastern side of the island. 

3. Central Tribes. 

'Tribes from Oyster Bay to Pittwater.* — Milligan's Vocabulary. 

" The interior and eastern parts of the island were occupied by two 
powerful tribes — the Oyster Bay and the Big River. Their northern 
boundary may be roughly described as an irregular line beginning on the 
East Coast south of St. Patrick's Head, passing along the ranges to 
the south of the South Esk River to a point at St. Peter's Pass (north 
of Oatlands), and thence to the Great Lake. It was these two tribes who 
were the most implacable enemies of the settlers, and it was against 
them almost exclusively that Colonel Arthur's " Black Line " operations 
were direc5led. 

(a) — The Oyster Bay Tribe. 

" The Oyster Bay tribe or group of tribes occupied the East Coast, 
and extended inland to the central valley. They took their name from 
Oyster Bay (Great Swanport). The long extent of coast, following the 
inlets and peninsulas from north of Schouten Main (Freycinet's Peninsula) 
to Risdon on the Derwent, abounds in cray-fish and in oysters and other 
shell-fish, affording an abundant supply of their favourite food. On the 
East Coast the hills lie some distance back from the sea, and the 
country yielded a supply of game. Here the natives were numerous, 
especially at certain season. It is said that as many as 300 have been 
seen in one mob. Robinson mentions two tribes on the coast — the Oyster 
Bay proper and the Little Swanport tribes. Their canoes were seen at 
Schouten and Maria Islands. The latter was a favourite resort, and here 
Baudin's expedition (1802) fell in with a large mob, who showed them- 
selves decidedly hostile. Marion came into collision with them at Marion 
Bay in 1772. They roamed as far south as Tasman's Peninsula, resort- 
ing to a spot near Mount Communication to obtain ' flints.' Tribes 
belonging to this group occupied the country behind the East Coast 
Tier — Eastern Marshes, Native Plains, and Prosser's Plains. They were 
numerous in the Pittwater district — comprising Coal River and Richmond, 
Sorell and South Arm. Mobs of 100 were seen at South Arm and also 
at Kangaroo Point (opposite Hobart), and 300 at Risdon, in 1804. To 
this same group of tribes doubtless belonged the natives who occupied 
the fine hunting country in the Jordan Valley, about Bagdad, Green 
Ponds, and Lovely Banks, towards the great central divide. The names 
Hunting Ground, Native Corners, Native Hut River, and others, indicate 
some of their ordinary resorts. Brodribb (Evidence, Aboriginal Committee) 
says that the eastern natives did not go further west than Abyssinia, 
near Bothwell. 

{b) — The Big River Tribe. 

** The country to the west of the Central and Jordan Valleys was 
occupied by the Big River Tribe. They took their name from the Big 
River, the early name of the river, now known as the Ouse. They 



TRIBES. 169 

occupied the valley of the Derwent, — with its tributaries, Ouse, Clyde, 
and Shannon, — and the elevated plateau of the Lake Country, 2000 to 
2500 feet above sea level. They travelled westward to Lake St. Clair 
and Mount King William, and probably still further west beyond Mount 
Arrowsmith. All this distridl abounds in game— kangaroo, wallaby, and 
opossum. At Split Rock (near the Great Lake), at the London Marshes 
(near Marlborough), and at the Native Tier, on the River Plenty, they 
found stone suitable for their rude inpiplements. From the great central 
plateau they seem to have made descents into the distridl between 
Bothwell and Oatlands. We cannot determine the boundary between 
them and their eastern neighbours, the Oyster Bay tribes. Brodribb 
(Evidence, Aboriginal Committee) says that he considered the Oyster Bay 
and Big River natives were one tribe, though the eastern natives did 
net go further west than Abyssinia. When harried by the whites the 
two tribes made common cause against the strangers, and finally the 
Oyster Bay natives took refuge in the Lake Plateau, where Robinson 
captured them, not far from Lake St. Clair or Mount Arrowsmith. It 
cannot, however, be concluded that they were not originally distincfl 
tribes. They were hostile to the northern tribes. Gilbert Robertson 
(Evidence, Aboriginal Committee) states that either the Stony Creek or 
Port Dalrymple natives had killed many of the Oyster Bay natives. 

4. Northern and North-Eastern Tribes. 

"There remain to be considered the tribes of the North and North- 
East. The language of the Ben Lomond tribe is described as a distindl 
()jale<5l by Kelly, Walker, Backhouse, and others. Kelly (Boat Voyage, 
I$i5) states that Briggs, the sealer, could speak the language of the 
North-East Coast tribes fluently. We may infer that this was the fourth 
language of which Robertson speaks, and it may have been common — 
^ith more or less variation — to the North -East Coast and Ben Lomond 
natives. It is difficult to determine the relationship of the tribes of the 
North Centre, the Port Dalrymple, and the Stony Creek tribes. The 
balat^ce of probabilities inclines us to the belief that they were related 
ra^l^er to the North-Eastern group than to their Southern neighbours of 
the Pyster Bay tribe (with whom we know they were at fued), or to 
the tribes of the North-Webt. There is no mention of these tribes 
using canoes. 

(a) — The Stony Creek Tribe, 

"** The pastoral distri(5l now known as * The Midlands,' lying in the 
centre of the island, to the north of the Oyster Bay and Big River 
natives, was occupied by the Stony Creek tribe. They took their name 
from 1^ small southern tributary of the South Esk, near Llewellyn, to 
the north of Campbell Town. They occupied the Campbell Town and 
Ross di§tri(5ls, going south to Blackman's River, Salt Pan Plains, and 
Antill Ponds, and up to the foot of the Western Mountains, probably 
ipcluding the valleys of the Macquarie, I sis, and Lake Rivers. A mob 
of -^too were seen on the Macquarie River in 18 19. It is stated that 
about 1829, under their chief Eumarrah, they frequented Norfolk Plains 



170 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

on the lake River. If so they must have been allies of the Port 
Dalrymple natives. The country they occupied abounded in game, being 
lightly timbered and well grassed. They had excellent 'flint* quarries 
at Stocker*s Bottom and Glen Morriston, to the south-east of Ross. In 
the Tasmanian Museum there is a fine colle<5lion of stone implements 
procured at Glen Morriston by the late Mr. Scott. It is said that the 
Oyster Bay natives also obtained 'flints' from the same localities. The 
Stony Creek natives were a strong tribe and gave much trouble to the 
settlers. Part of their distridl was included in the ' Black Line* 
operations. 

{b)—The Port DalrympU Tribe. 

"The country to the north of the Stony Creek natives — including the 
neighbourhopd of Perth, Evandale, Launceston, the North £sk, and 
probably bqth banks of the Tamar — was occupied by the Port Dalrymple 
tribe.* They are said to have mustered in large numbers on various 
occasions. Once 200 of them proceeded from the neighbourhood of 
Launceston, by way of Paterson's Plains (Evandade) tb the Lake River, 
Native Point, near Perth, a favourite haunt. Here they got stone for 
their implements. They probably roamed westward as far as Long- 
ford and Westbury, if not further. The districts they occupied are 
some of the finest in Tasmania ; in its native state, a well grassed 
country with abundance of game. Their relation to other tribes is 
uncertain. They appear to have been in league with their Southern 
neighbours—the Stony Creek natives— and were, probably, also related to 
the North-Eastern group. The tribes as far as Port Sorell, and even 
as far as the Mersey, may have belonged to this group. But there is 
no evidence to show how far to the eastward the North-Western group 
of tribes extended. Possibly, the boundary may be placed in the forest 
country on the west bank of the Mersey. But it is uncertain to which 
group the Mersey and Port Sorell natives belonged. The evidence of 
language is not of much assistance. The Tamar was Panrahbel ; the 
Mersey was Paranapph or Piritiappl. The variation is hardly sufficient to 
establish either difference or consanguinity. 

" Kelly (Evidence, Aboriginal Committee) states that the tribes of the 
North and East take part with the tribes in the interior. He probably 
means that the Port Dalrymple natives (North) were in league with 
those of Stony Creek ; and the Oyster Bay natives (East) with those 
of the Big River. 

{c) — The Ben Lomond Tribe, 

**The Ben Lomond natives occupied the fertile valley of the South 
Esk, abounding in game. Their neighbours to the west were the Stony 
Creek tribe. They may have had access to the sea coast at Falmouth, 
by St. Mary*s Pass, though this was a dense forest. They took their 
name from the great Ben Lomond range, rising to an elevation of over 
5000 feet. The valleys of the mountain were probably too densely 
wooded to afford much game, but that they roamed over the highlands 

* The settlements on the Tamar were at first known under the name of Port Dalrymple. 



TRIBES. CONTACT WITH CIVILIZED RACES. 171 

• • ' 

is shown by their having given the name of Meenamaia to the lagoon 
on the plateau at the summit of the mountain. Perhaps the strongest 
proof of the saparateness of the North-Eastern tribes— or, at least, that 
of Ben Lomond — is afforded by the variation in the word for "river." 
The South Esk was Manganta limta. Elsewhere the word was linah: 
e.g., Huon, Tahuni linah (South); Jordan, Kutah linah (S. interior). 

(d) — North-East Coast Tribes. 

"We find mention of tribes or sub-tribes along the whole stretch of 
coast from George's Bay, on the East Coast, to the entrance to the 
Tamar (Port Dalrymple), on the North. On various occasions mobs were 
met with at George's Bay and George's River; at the Bay of Fires 
and Eddystone Point ; at Cape Portland, in the extreme north-east ; at 
Ringarooma Point ; at Foresters River ; at Piper's River ; and on the 
east side of the mouth of the Tamar. In 1806, a mob of 200 natives 
came to the first settlement at George Town, just within the entrance 
to Port Dalrymple, on the east bank of the Tamar. In the north-east 
part of the island the country is, in many places, open for some miles 
inland from the coast, and in such places there would be game. The 
interior is mountainous and heavily timbered, and, very probably, was 
not occupied by the natives. 

" In conclusion, to sum up the result of our enquiry, we find, (i) 
That the aboriginal population probably did not exceed 2000 : (2) that 
there were four main groups of tribes; viz.— (a) South; (b) West and 
North- West; (c) Central and East; {d) North and North East : (3) that 
these groups were divided by strongly marked differences of language: 
(4) that the Southern and Western tribes were completely isolated from 
those on the eastern side of the island, and that a similar separation 
existed between the North and North-Eastern tribes on the one hand, 
and those of the Centre and East on the other : (5) that within the 
groups each tribe and sub- tribe probably occupied a definite distridl which 
was recognised as its special territpry: (6) that the tribes within each 
group, though generally leagued together, were at times at feud with 
each other: (7) that in later years, after the European occupation, the 
tribes— especially those of the east and centre of the island—laid aside 
their differences, and made common cause against the white intruders." 

Contact with Civilized Races. 

In Chap. IV. when treating of war, we showed how desperately the 
aborigines fought for life and independence. That they should have 
been more successful in their struggles with Europeans than other races 
better provided for such struggles, was hardly to have been expecfted. 
Whatever may have been the ideas entertained on the subje<5l by the 
natives, the war between the two races was considered by the colonists 
as one of extermination. 

Brough Smyth quotes the following from Hull, whose word is often 
much doubted. Hull says : " A friend once described to me a fearful 
scene at which he was present. A number of blacks, with the women 
and children, were congregated in a gully near town . . . and the 



172 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 

men had formed themselves into a ring round a large fire, while the 
women were cooking the evening meal of opossums and bandicoots; they 
were surprised by a party of soldiers, who, without giving warning, fired 
upon them as they sat, and rushing up to the scene of slaughter, found 
there wounded men and women, and a little child crawling near its 
dying mother. The soldier drove his bayonet through the body of the 
child, and pitchforked it into the flames. < It was only a ckild^ he said ! 
It is stated also,'* Mr. Hull adds, "that it was a favourite amusement 
to hunt the aborigines; that a day would be sele<5led, and the neighbour- 
ing settlers invited, with their families, to a pic-nic. • « . After 
dinner, all would be gaiety and merriment, whilst the gentlemen t>f the 
party would take their guns and dogs, and accompanied by two or thite 
convidl servants, wander through the bush in search of black fellows. 
Sometimes they would return without sport ; at others they would succeed 
in killing a woman, or. if lucky, mayhap a man or two. ... As 
the white settler spread his possessions over the island — over the natives* 
favourite camping-grounds, driving away their kangaroos, and replacing 
them with bullocks and sheep — the natives objedled, in their own way, 
to the inroad. In many cases, no doubt, the blacks were sacrificed to 
momentary caprice and anger, and suffered much wrong. Indeed, one 
of the Governor's proclamations states, that cruelties had been perpet- 
rated repugnant to humanity and disgraceful to the British people." 
Hull, in his MS. notes, states that dne European had a pickle tub in 
which he put the ears of all the blacks he shot. From his account no 
mercy was shown on either side. 

Ross, quoted by Bunce (p. 57), mentions meeting a half-starved 
stockman who had got * bushed ' while running after a female black 
who had escaped the bullock-chains with which he had bound her. He 
adds : '* There is little doubt, indeed, but such, and even worse treat- 
ment than this, by the white stock-keepers, in the earlier periods of the 
colony, was the chief and original cause of the hostility which the 
aborigines have since indiscriminately shown to the whites." 

Parker relates (p. 29) that *' a man named Carrots killed a native in 
his attempt to carry off his wife, and having cut off the dead man's 
head, he obliged the woman to follow him, it suspended round her 
neck, and to use it as a plaything ! The second is that of Harrington, 
a sealer, who procured ten or fifteen native women, and placed them 
on different islands in Bass's Straits, where he left them to procure 
skins; if, however, when he returned, they had not obtained enough, he 
punished them by tying them up to trees for twenty-four to thirty-six 
hours together, flogging them at intervals, and he killed them not 
infrequently if they proved stubborn." 

But while acflual warfare and convicfls' brutality were direcfl means 
towards the extermination of the Aborigines, there were other equally 
powerful causes at work in wiping them off the face of the earth. 

According to Calder, a rapid and remarkable declension of the numbers 
of the aborigines had been going on long before the remnants were 
gathered together on Flinders Island. ** Whole tribes (some of which 
Robinson mentions by name as being in existence fifteen or twenty 
years before he went amongst them, and which probably never had a 



CONTACT WITH CIVILIZED RACES. 1 73 

shot fired at them) had absolutely and entirely vanished. To the causes 
to which he attributes this strange wasting away ... I think 
infecundity, produced by the infidelity of the women to their husbands 
in the early times of the colony,' may be safely added. . . . Robinson 
always enumerates the sexes of the individuals he took ; . . . and 
as a general thing, found scarcely any children amongst them ; . . . 
adultness was found to outweigh infancy everywhere in a remarkable 
degree. . . . Their rapid declension after the colony was founded is 
traceable, as far as our proofs allow us to judge, to the prevalence of 
epidemic disorders ; which, though not introduced by the Europeans, 
were possibly accidentally increased by them. Many of the tribes par- 
ticularly of the Western and South -Western coast districts, which were 
known to be very strong in numbers, long after the first colonization 
of the country, were not exposed to contacfl with the whites, and yet, 
when taken, they hardly ever consisted of twenty persons, and when 
larger numbers were brought in at any one time, they were always of 
more than one family ** (Calder, J.A.I, pp. 10-15). When once settled 
on Flinders Island, their rapid mortality was iattributed by Robinson to 
the injudicious system of changing their food and manner of life, by 
which catarrhal and pneumonic attacks were induced (Calder, J.A.I, p. 
25). His evidence is supported by that of James Allen, a surgeon to 
the aboriginal settlement. He thought that **a residence in an open and 
somewhat exposed situation, after having grown up in the recesses of the 
forest, is uncongenial to them ; and that their remaining very constantly 
on the settlement (which they are encouraged to do, in order to promote 
more rapidly their civilization), instead of making frequent excursions, 
for a few days together, into the bush, also tends to deteriorate their 
health" (Backhouse, p. 491). 

West, with the settlement before his eyes, gives a most pathetic 
account of their decay : ** Towards the last days of their savage life the 
sexes were disproportionate, although the balance was partly restored by 
associating the women who had been longer in captivity with the men 
whose wives had died; but many of these women had become licentious, 
and by an extraordinary oversight the Government permitted unmarried 
convi<5\s and others to have them in charge ; . . . the result need 
not be told. The infant children had perished by the misery and con- 
trivance of their parents; thus, in 1838, of eighty-two there were only 
fourteen children, and of the remainder eight had attained the usual term 
of human life. Many who surrendered were exhausted by sickness, 
fatigue, and decrepitude. They were the worn-out relics of their nation, 
and they came in to lie down and die. The assumption of clothing 
occasioned many deaths; they were sometimes drenched with raiur— 
perspiration was repressed, and inflammatory diseases followed ; the licen- 
tiousness, and occasional want of the last few years, generated disorders, 
which a cold brought to a crisis. . . . The abundant supply of food, 
and which followed destitution, tended to the same result ; it was a 
different diet. The habits of the chase were superseded, and perhaps 
discouraged ; the violent ad^ion to which they had been accustomed ; the 
dancing, shouting, hurling the waddy and spear — climbing for the opossum 
—diving, and leaping from rock to rock — assisted the animal funcftions, 



K. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 



Note— The man in moleskin- trousers in front is believed to have had a. half-cast mother-. 



CONTACT WITH CIVILIZED RACES. 1 75 

and developed muscular power. To continue them required the occasion, 
as well as the permission ; but the stimulus was gone. . . . There 
were other causes. The site of the settlement was unhealthy : they 
were often destitute of good water. ... It is admitted that they 
frequently suffered this lack ; but it is stated that they had sufficient 
allowed them when sick ! It is, however, clear that many perished by 
that strange disease, so often fatal to the soldiers and peasants of 
Switzerland, who die in foreign lands from regret of their native country. 
They were within sight of Tasmania, and as they beheld its not distant 
but forbidden shore, they were often deeply melancholy ; to this point 
the testimony of Mr. Robinson is decisive." His words are (Bonwick, 
p. 90) : " It is my opinion that the inhabitants of this island suffer much 
from mental irritation. Various circumstances produce this effecft ; and 
though the deaths of the aborigines at Flinders Island may be ascribed 
to other causes, as catarrh, inflammation, &c., still it will be found that 
mental irritation accelerated, * if not the disease, the sufferings of , the 
patient, and, in too many cases has proved fatal. When the aborigine 
is first affedted, either from cold or otherwise, he immediately desponds, 
refuses natural sustenance, and gives himself up to grief: mental irrita- 
tion follows, and at length he dies in a state of delirium. And I think 
I am borne out in my opinion by the sudden dissolution of the wife 
after the death of her husband, although at the time she may be in 
apparent health ; and that of the husband after the decease of the wife *' 
(West repeats this II. pp. 72-74). 

According to Surgeon Barnes (Pari, Papers, quoted by West), "more 
than one-half have died, not from any positive disease, but from a 
disease physicians call home-sickness" Davies also thought change of living 
and food conducive to low birth- and high death-rate, but attributed 
their decline more ^* to their banishment from the main land of V. D. 
Land, which is visible from Flinders Island; and the natives have often 
pointed it out to me with expressions of the deepest sorrow depicfled on 
their countenances. The same thing has occurred on board the vessel 
when passing some part of the coast with which they were acquainted " 
(p. 419). 

Of the aboriginal children at the Orphan School near Hobart, Bon- 
wick states (p. 4) : ** They were not kindly treated amidst the many 
rough boys and girls of the large establishment of Hobart Town, and 
seemed depressed, troubled and sickly. Death rapidly delivered them 
from their sorrows at the school/' 

Kelly, the circumnavigator of Tasmania, tells us (p. 13): *'The custom 
of the sealers in the straits was that every man should have from two 
to five of these native women for their own use and benefit, and to 
seledl any of them they thought proper to cohabit with as their wives ; 
and a large number of children had been born in consequence of these 
unions — a fine a<5live hardy race. The males were good boatmen, kan- 
garoo hunters, and sealers ; the women extraordinarily clever assistants 
to them. They were generally very good looking, and of a light copper 
colour." In the course of his narrative he frequently refers to a sealer 
of the name of George Briggs, an able man, who in 1816 had two 
native women, one a daughter of the chief Lamanbunganah, and five 



176 H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

half-caste children (p. 12). Curiously, Brough Smyth (I. pp. 94-95) 
gives an account of a half-caste Tasmanian called John Briggs, as 
follows : " John Briggs, a half-caste Tasmanian, who intermarried with 
a half-caste Australian, has had ten children, of whom eight are now 
living — three boys and five girls. John Briggs was born in one of the 
islands in Bass's Straits. His wife is the daughter of an Australian 
woman, who, with her sister, was taken to Tasmania at the time that 
Buckley was removed from Port Phillip to that colony. His eldest son 
is between seventeen and eighteen years of age, and the youngest child 
is two months old. He says he was married in 1844. ^^ ^^ ^^ intelligent 
man ; tall and well-formed, but weather-beaten in appearance. His hair 
is grey ; his complexion yellow — dull yellow ; his teeth large, and not 
close together ; his hair woolly, somewhat like that of a negro ; his eyes 
dark-brown ; his nose arched and almost Roman ; his forehead well- 
shaped — not harsh and bony, but curved, and the lines are good : the 
frontal sinuses are not prominent. He is the only half-caste Bass's 
Straits man I have ever had the opportunity of closely examining. He 
is very different from the half-caste Australian, and is also, unlike the 
half-caste negro." 

The well-known views of Strzelecki with regard to certain supposed 
fadts in reproducftion were controverted by Lieut. M. C. Friend, who 
has recorded two instances upsetting Strzelecki's arguments. In one case 
**& black woman named Sarah, who had formerly four half-caste children 
by a sealer with whom she lived, has had since her abode in Flinders 
Island, where she married a man of her own race, three black children, 
two of whom are still alive. The other, a black woman named Harriet, 
who had formerly, by a white man with whom she lived, two half- 
caste children, and has had since her marriage with a black man, a fine 
healthy black infant, who is still living" (Tasm. Jour., III. pp. 241-242). 
It may not be out of place to note here Jeffreys' statement that the 
first child borne by a native woman to a white man in V. D. Land, 
** was, like all the other children since produced by an intercourse 
between the natives and the Europeans, remarkably handsome, of a light 
copper colour, with rosy cheeks, large black eyes, the whites of which 
are tinged with blue, and long well-formed eyelashes, with the teeth 
uncommonly white, and the limbs admirably formed " (p. 123). 

At the present day there are a considerable number of half-castes 
living on the Furneaux Islands in Bass' Strait. Edward Stephens,* 
the superintendent on Cape Barren Island, states that the present in- 
habitants are not the descendants of those aborigines who were deported 
there from the mainland of Tasmania in 1835. Mr. Stephens states 
that those who show most of the European nature in their physique 
succumb readiest to disease in the same way that those who show ** a 
taste for learning, a liking for requirements of civilization, and a stronger 
attachment to religious duties are the first to sicken and die. This is 
so well understood by the survivors as to make them rather indifferent 
to the efforts made to raise their mental and moral standard." They 
can copy but not originate, and are soon tired of new ideas; altogether, 

* For a copy of his notes I am indebted to the kindness of the Bishop of Tasmania. 



CONTACT WITH CIVILIZED RACES. 177 

in the eyes of the Europeans, they appear listless. Stephens once 
aroused them from their apathy by repeating snatches of an Australian 
corrobory. In fadl, he says, civilisation is to them irksome if not 
offensive. They are fairly good boatsmen, but will not venture out to 
sea if the weather be at all rough, and mostly lose their boats in 
consequence of defecftive moorings. They are very improvident. There 
is not only European blood in these p>eople, but also that of Australian 
and Maori, introduced into Tasmania in the early days of settlement. 



CHAPTER XII.— Language. 

^PHE vocabularies of the Tasmanian language which have come down 
1 to us are thirteen in number. In vol. ix. of the Jour. Roy. Geograph. 
Society, Dr. Lhotsky published a vocabulary, (which fell into the 
hands of a lady at Sydney) by a man named McGeary (i), who lived 
many years in contact with the aborigines, and attributed to Peron, 
whose vocabulary (2) is not the same. The Tasmanian Journal in 1842 
(vol. i.) published a long vocabulary by Jorgen Jorgensen (3), compiled 
from documents in the Colonial Secretary's Office at Hobart. Tlhs list 
included three other separate vocabularies, one (4) from a locality not 
indicated, and a second made by the Rev. Dove (5) at Flinders Island, and 
the third. La Billardit-re's (6) vocabulary taken during d'Entrecasteaux's 
expedition in 1792, which the naturalist published in his account 
of that voyage. Braim's is apparently a copy of Jorgen Jorgensen's, 
and if so, contains transcription errors. Cook (7) has given us ten 
words, and Gaimard (Dumont D'Urville, Philologie, pp. 9-10) gathered 
some words (8) at Port Dalrymple from the lips of a native Tasmanian 
woman. E. M. Curr, in his ** Australian Race," has published two 
vocabularies which hitherto had not seen the light, namely, one by 
Roberts (9), and another by the Rev. Jas. Norman (10). Milligan 
issued a small vocabulary (11) by Thomas Scott, an old Tasmanian 
squatter, made in 1826, and one drawn up by Milligan {12) himself, 
which is by far and away the completest vocabulary of the Tasmanian 
language.' Since the first edition of this work w^as published, my friend 
J: B. Walker, of Hobart, has discovered in the MS. Journ. of his 
father, one more vocabulary, prepared about fifteen years before 
Milligan's, making the thirteenth on record. 

According to Jorgensen the vocabularies ** might be considerably in- 
creased by that of a young man named Sterling, who made the native 
language his study ; his vocabulary was taken away at the death of its 
author by a person ignorant of its value." (Tasm. Jour. I. p. 309) : 
In the above mentioned MS. Jour., G. W. Walker states that Thos. 
W' ilkinson, catechist, of Flinders Island, ** had composed a considerable 
vocabulary of words." What has become of it ? 

In the appendix will be found : (a) Norman's vocabulary ; (b) a 

' It must be remembered that, as was once pointed out by E. B. Tyler (Early Hist. 
of Mankind, 3rd ed. p. 78), many words in this vocabulary appearing as one are, 
in reahty, several joined together ; thus : 

noonalmeena father (lit. noonal-mee-na) 

father my 
ncingmena mother (lit, neing-me-na) 

mother my 



LANGUAGE. I 79 

vocabulary which I have compiled of those of Dove (Braim and 
Jorgen Jorgensen), Cook, Gaimard, La Billardi^re, McGeary, Peron, 
Roberts, and Scott ; {c) Milligan's, and (d) Walker's vocabulary. 

J. W. Walker wrote as follows in his journal at the Flinders Island 
aboriginal settlement, on 15th Oct. 1832 : ** Several of the aborigines 
were invited into the commandant's hut for the purpose of enabling me 
to take down a few words as specimens of the language, which I had 
already commenced doing. The plan I adopted was to point to different 
objecfls, which they named, several repeating the word for my better 
information. At a subsequent period, I uttered the words in the hearing 
of others with whom I had had no communication on the subject of 
their language. If these understood my expressions, and pointed to the 
objedl the word was intented to represent, 1 took for granted I had 
obtained with tolerable accuracy the word used by them for that pur- 
pose. When I read to them in their own language one of their native 
songs, they were beyond measure astonished and gratified ; following the 
words with their voices, and frequently interrupting me with shouts of 
approbation. Their language appears to me to be far from inharmonious, 
and when accompanied by a chanting tune, as in the songs of the 
women, is pleasing to the ear. On the other side I propose giving a 
few specimens reduced to writing. There are some objecfts, and these 
very numerous, for which every tribe or mob, has a different name. 
There are also some peculiarities (of dialecfl we may suppose) in the 
languages of tribes dwelling in remote situations, that render them not 
easily, if at all, understood by each other. Several individuals, particu- 
larly G. A. Robinson, and his colleague, Anthony Cottrell, are able to 
converse with tolerable fluency in the native dialecfls, but I understand 
that no one has reduced the language to writing, which is to be 
regretted. . . . " It is extremely difficult," he continues *' to come 
at the idiom, as every tribe speaks a different dialedl, it might 
almost be said a different language, and even among the individuals of 
the same tribe a great difference is perceptible. The pronounciation is 
very arbitrary and indefinite. The literal translation is confined in great 
measure to the verbs and nouns. It is not clearly ascertained whether 
prepositions or conjunctions or anything analagous to the expletives in 
use with us are contained in the aboriginal tongue. Some of the 
aboriginal terms have a very indefinite and extended meaning ; as in the 
words ctackny and pomleh. The former means to be, to exist, to rest, to 
sit down, or lie down, to stop, remain, dwell, sleep, and I know not 
how many more significations. The latter is used in a great variety 
of ways, but more particularly where art, or ingenuity, or an exertion 
of power is applied to the producStion of anything. Everything that has 
required any sort of manipulation has been ^pomleh,' i.e., made, or put 
together, or called into existence. It is also remarkable that they have 
hardly any general terms'. They have not even a term to represent 
* trees' or * animals ' generally." 

The description given by Milligan as to the manner in which he 
obtained his vocabulary, and the great care he took to insure correcflness, 
is better given in his own words. It much resembles the method 
originated by Walker. He wrote about the year 1847 : — 



l8o H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

** In order that ethnologists and others interested in the vocabulary 
of aboriginal dialecfts [of Tasmania] may be inclined to put perfecfl con- 
fidence in their accuracy, T have to explain that every word before being 
written down was singly committed to a committee (as it were) of several 
aborigines, and made thoroughly intelligible to them, when the corres- 
ponding word in their language, having been agreed upon by them, was 
entered. . . . On being completed the manuscript was laid aside for 
two or three years, when it was again submitted verbatim et seriatim^ to 
a circle of aborigines, for their remarks. A revision which led to the 
discovery and corre<5lion of numerous blunders originating in misappre- 
hension, on the part of the aborigines in the first place, of the true 
meaning of words which they had been required to translate. But I 
found the fault had oftentimes been my own, in having, failed to seize 
the exa(fl and essential vocal expression, which on being repeated to the 
aborigines at any time afterwards, would infallibly reproduce the precise 
idea which it had been stated to imply in the first instance. 

" The circumstance of the aboriginal inhabitants of V. D. Land being 
divided into many tribes and sub-tribes, in a state of perpetual antagonism 
and open hostility to each other, materially added to the number . . . 
of the elements and agents of mutation ordinarily operating on the 
language of an unlettered people : to this was super-added the effedl of 
certain superstitious customs everywhere prevalent, which led from time 
to time to the absolute rejedtion and disuse of words previously employed 
to express objedls familiar and indispensable to all, thus . . . tending 
arbitrarily to diversify the dialedls of several tribes. The habit of ges- 
ticulation, and the use of signs to eke out the meaning of monosyllabic 
expressions, and to give force, precision, and characSler to vocal sounds, 
exerted a further modifying effedl, producing, as it did, carelessness and 
laxity of articulation, and in the application and pronuciation of words. 
The last-named irregularity, namely, the distindlly different pronunciation 
of a word by the same person on different occasions, to convey the same 
idea, is very perplexing, until the radical or essential part of the word, 
apart from prefixes and suffixes, is caught hold of. The affixes, which 
signify nothing, are la, lahj le^ lehy leahj na, ne^ nah, ba, be, beak, bo, ma, 
me, meah, pa, poo, ra, re, ta, ie, ah, eh, ih, etc.*^ Some early voyagers 
appear to have mistaken the terminals la, le, etc.^ as distinction of sex 
when applied to men, women, and the lower animals. The language, 
when spoken by the natives, was rendered embarrassing by the frequent 
alliteration of vowels and other startling abbreviations, as well as by the 
apposition of the incidental increment indifferently before or after the 
radical or essential constituent of words. To defedls in orthoepy the 
aborigines added shortcomings in syntax, for they observed no settled 
order or arrangement of words in the constru(5\ion of their sentences, but 
conveyed in a supplementary fashion by tone, manner, and gesture, those 
modifications of meaning which we express by mood, tense, number, etc. 
. . . Barbarous tribes, living in isolated positions, antagonistic . . . 
to each other, would each, within its own sphere, yield to various 

* As will be shown, Milligan was not quite corredl here, for some of these suffixes bad 
pronominal and other meanings. 



LANGUAGE' l8l 

influences, calculated to modify language, and to confirm as well as to 
create dissimilarity. . . . Rude, savage people often adopt the most 
arbitrary and unmeaning sounds through caprice or accident, to represent 
ideas, in place of words previously in use ; a source of mutation, as 
respecfls the various diale(5ls spoken amongst the aborigines of V. D. 
Land, fertile in proportion to the number of tribes into which they were 
divided, and the ceaseless feuds which separated them from one another. 
Hence it was that the numerous tribes of Tasmanian aborigines were 
found possessed of distincft diale(5ls, each differing in many particulars 
from every other. 

" It has already been implied that the aborigines had acquired very 
limited powers of abstracflion or generalization. They possessed no words 
representing abstracfl ideas; for each variety of gum tree and wattle tree, 
etc., etc., they had a name, but they had no equivalent for the expression 
" a tree " ;* neither could they express abstradl qualities, such as hard, 
soft, warm, cold, long, short, round, etc. ; for ** hard " they would say 
" like a stone ; " for ** tall *' they would say ** long legs," etc. ; and for 
"round"! they said **like a ball," "like the moon," and so on, usually 
suiting the a<5\ion to the words, and confirming, by some sign, the 
meaning to be understood. 

•* The elision and absolute reje(flion and disuse of words from time 
to time has been noticed as a source of change in the aboriginal 
dia]e<5ls. It happened thus : The names of men and women were taken 
from natural obje<5\s and occurrences around, as, for instance, a kang- 
aroo, a gum tree, snow, hail, thunder, the wind, the sea, the Waratah 
— or Blandifofdia or Boronia, when in bloom, etc. ; but it was a settled 
custom in every tribe, upon the death of any individual, most scrupul- 
ously to abstain ever after mentioning the name of the deceased, — a 
rule, the infradlion of which would, they considered, be followed by some 
dire calamities. . . . Such a pracflice must, it is clear, have 
contributed materially to reduce the number of their substantive appellations, 
and to create a necessity for new phonetic symbols to represent old 
ideas, which new vocables would in all probability differ on each occasion, 
and in every separate tribe ; the only chance of fusion of words between 
tribes arising out of the capture of females for wives from alien and 
hostile people. . . . " 

La Billardiere (II. ch. xi. p. 73) states that the words they learned 
from one tribe were found useful in communicating with others, but it 
must be remembered that the people he met with were all more or less 
in one distri(5l. Davies confirms Milligan as regards the inability of the 
eastward and westward tribes to understand each other when brought 
together at Flinders Island, and so does Dixon (II. p. 22). Jorgensen 
says (Tasm. Jour. I.) : ** Those who are not of the same tribe appear 
to converse in broken English." Stokes (II. 461) says: "The Arthur 
River's people's language was not understood at Flinders Island by the 
other tribes." That the dialecfls are all of the same language does not 

* Davies, on the other hand, says : "I much doubt their ever having separate names 
for all the different kinds of birds with which they were conversant; yula (a bird) 
appeared to answer for most." 

t For "round" and iov . '' tesUt" he gives the same word matta. 



l82 



H. LING ROTH.-^ABORIGINBS OF TASMANIA. 



admit of a doubt. This is proved by the numerous similar words 
expressing the same objecfl found throughout the vocabulary. A good 
example, showing the affirmity of constru<5^ion of the dialects spoken, 
can be made up from Milligan's vocabulary, thus: 



According to Bonwick (p. 153), Robinson declared : The different 
tribes spoke quite a different language ; there was not the slightest 
analogy between the languages. When a captured woman from Cape 
Grim, to the north-west, was brought to Flinder's, it was found that 
she was as ignorant of the dialacft of the rest as they of hers. It was 
this ignorance of each other's language that kept alive those tribal 
jealousies and antagonisms, which so often threatened the peace of the 
Strait settlement. When, however, they had construtfted, by force of 
circumstances, a sort of lingua franca — a common language — their friendship 
grew, and local feeling improved. Mr. Clark, the catechist, thus wrote 
to me of the condition of linguistic affairs then : The languages spoken 
were different ; so much so, that, on my first joining them in 1834, I 
found them instrucfling each other to speak their respedlive tongues. 
There were at one time eight or ten different languages or dialecfls 
spoken by about two hundred persons who were domiciled at Flinders.'* 

Dr. Lathom in the appendix to "Jukes' Voyage of the Fly" (p. 319) 
says : — {a) ** The Tasmanian language is fundamentally the same for the 
whole island although spoken in not less than four dialedls mutually 
unintelligible. (b) It has affinities with the Australian. (c) It has affi- 
nities with the New Caledonian. It is doubtful whether the affinities 
between the Tasmanian and Australian are stronger than those between 
the Tasmanian and New Caledonian." 

Jorgensen tells us in the introduction to his vocabulary : ** It is difficult 
to imagine the rapid and ever-changing corruptions to which an oral 
language is subjedl in the mouths of a savage tribe ; and in the present 
case many words, borrowed from the English, have added to. the con- 
fusion produced by the irregular and careless pronunciation of the 
aborigines. Thus picamni, a child ; huckelou or bacala, bullocks ; tahlety 
corrupted from travel, to go, which again was contracfled into iahlee, are 
all from the English. Luhra is a word introduced by the English from 
the Sydney natives (who do not at all understand the languages of our 
aborigines), and it appears to have been substituted for lurga or lolna^ 
a woman." 



English. 


Oyster Bay and 
Pitwater Tribes. 


Mount Royal and Bruni 
Island, Recherche Bay 
and South Tasmanian 
Tribes. 




eye 

eyelash 
eyelid 
to see 
dizzy (faint) 


mongtena 
mongtalinna 
moygta genna 
mongtone 
mongtantiack 
1 


nubre or nubrenah 
nubre tongany 
nubre wurrine 
nubratone 
nubretanyte 





LANGUAGE. 183 

To Crozet (Marion, p. 29) their language appeared harsh, and they 
seemed to draw their sound from the bottom of the throat. On the other 
hand, Robinson (Calder, J.A.I, p. 28) found it ** peculiarly soft ; and 
except when excited by anger or surprise, was spoken in something of 
a singing tone, producing a strange but pleasing effedt on the sense of 
the European." Davies considered the language soft and liquid, and 
Breton (ch. vi. p. 355) describes it as musical and soft. According to 
Meredith the vowels are sounded peculiarly full and round. 

Vowels. 

a as in cat, rap. a as in potato (also written e by Milligan). e as 
m the. e as in thee, see, me. % when before a vowel, as in shine, riot. 
i as in sigh, fie {ei is pronounced as in Leipsic). y as in holy, glibly. 
as in flow, go. 00 as in moon, soon, u as the French use, usage, 
fumier, usuriej, but never like the u in flute, u as in musk, bump, 
lump. 

Semi- Vowels, 
y as in yonder, yellow. 

DiphiJumgs, 
aa as aw in lawn, oi as in toil, ou as in noun. 

Consonants. 

^f ^ [? *]> ^> A (only at the end of words), ky /, tn, «, /, q (qu) 
[? k]f r, t [w] , ch and gh (pronounced as in German hochachten). 
There appears to be no d, /, v, 5, or z, 

Milligan uses a i in the words gdulla acid, and mannaladdy cough, 
also in lowide scab, and in tendyagh (or tentya) red, and rhomdunna (or 
romtena) star ; it is of course conceivable that the Tasmanians used 
occasionally the soft equivalent for t so common among them. But as 
they had no hisses or buzzes, it is not probable that they had a th, 
which Milligan places in the words elaptJmiea beauty, flne, ree-mutha flst, 
pothyack no, and riaputhaggana tame. The absence of the th is confirmed 
by Milligan's spelling of the words ree-muttay hand, and poyenna pottatyacky 
vanish, where the t takes the place of the th, Norman has th in several 
words. McGeary is the only writer who systematically uses a Vy but he 
uses this letter where others use a w or te/, thus: 

McGeary, mutton bird yavla, Roberts, black man wihar 

Braim, ,, youla, Milligan, ,, weiha, • 

McGeary, night levira, McGeary, moon vena, 

Braim, „ leware, Roberts, „ too-weenyer 

McGeary, black-man vaiba. 

As Milligan, who has been so careful in the compilation of his vocabulary, 
completely ignores the letter v, we are no doubt correcft in stating the 
Tasmanians did not know the letter. The letter z is used by La 
Billardiere in rizlia. (hand), but this is evidently a misprint for rialia, 
Milligan has a f, which apparently reads like an s (and not like k)y thus: 
oghnamilce (ask). This is probably also a misprint. 

In the V. D. Land Almanac for 1834, it is stated that the letter 
r is sounded ** with a rough, deep emphasis, particularly when excited 



184 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

by anger or otherwise." Braim says (II. p. 257) that to meet the corre6i 
pronunciation the soft h should be added where any words end in a. 
As an illustration of their inability to pronounce certain hard letters, 
Davies mentions they cannot say do<5tor and sugar, but say instead togata 
(or iokata) and tugana.* 

Words largely commence with a consonant ; the consonants conjoined 
at the beginning of a word are : — 

cr- (Ay-), /r-, and also tr-, all very common; br'-j gr-y ng-, pi-, and 
gH' very rare. 

Conjoined consonants are otherwise met with, as br, gr, kr, ng, nt 
(very common) ; rare are chtj ghr, ght, gl, kn, Ih, mp, ngh, ngl, ngt, nky 
nr, pr, rk, rn, rt^ and tr. 

Words largely end with a vowel, and the soft aspirate, unless they 
terminate in -ack, -ak, -tacky -yaky etc. (Where most of the vocabularies 
make the words end in -a -ahy Norman makes the same words end in 
-flr, -^).t 

The adjecflive is placed after the noun, thus: 

pannogana malittye\\ Iowa maleetya\\ 

earth white {i,e. clay) woman adult 

The suffix -na denotes the singular. 

The plural may perhaps have been expressed, as La Billardiere states, 

by the suffix lia, thus: 

tagara-lia family. iria-lia hands (La Billardiere). 

cuengi'lia ears. \ria-na hand (Milligan). 

Or the plural may have been formed by reduplication, thus: 

inubra-na eye. [kardl five. 

\nubru-nubere eyes. [karde-karde ten. 

lori-lori fingers. 

It is possible the plural may have been expressed by simply omitting 
the singular termination na, but this is merely surmise. 

Personal Pronouns. 
I vn-na (nue-na) Dative mi- to, 

you (thou) ni-na (nee-na) ,, ni-to (nec-to). 

he, she, narrar (Norman), 

they, he, her, nard (Milligan and Braim). 
it 9tiggur (Norman), 

we warrandur. 

The first person also takes the form mi-a in the dative case when 
conjoined to the verb, thus : 

teeanymta'PCy give me. 
The suffix 'to {-too, -tUy -ta) denotes ih6 dative case, thus: 
nanga-tOy to the father. Icnu-too (<«), to the hut. 

The first personal pronoun in the possessive case is expressed by 
mi-a ; thus 

• This is something like the South-Sea Islanders, most of whom say BokkU for Box. 
t All that relates to the vowels, etc., and their pronunciation, is based on Milligan ; 

what follows, so far as " Construdlion," is largely based on Fr. Miiller's chapter 

on the Tasmanian language in his Sprachwissenschaft. 

'■ This word is also translated as beautilnl, white, and adult. 



LANGUAGE. I 85 

nanga - mia numbe 
father my here 

But when the first personal pronoun is conjoined to the verb, it takes 
the same form, thus: ntia-tyan, I give. There does not appear to be any 
special form for the possessive case of the second personal pronoun ; thus 



S"* """ ^ 1 (- husband). 



your 

Verbs. 

In his vocabulary Milligan gives no indication of an infinitive mood, 
the verbs quoted having a variety of terminations; it is therefore to be 
inferred that they underwent some modification, but in what manner is 
not clear. On the other hand, in the few short sentences quoted by 
Milligan, the verbs mostly end in -pe or -bea {-beah), Fr. Miiller thinks 
these terminations indicate the imperative mood, and that these termina- 
tions may occasionally be dropped.* 

Person and number are indicated by the pronoun, which is sometimes 
affixed to the verb, thus : 

noia mee-ah'teang mu-na nee-to linah (li-na) 

not I give I you (dative) water 

Occasionally the pronoun is placed between the root of the verb and 
its termination, thus : 

tyen-na-mi'beah wee-na 

give I (nom.) stick 

And occasionally the pronoun is not conjoined at all, thus: 

loi-nu tyen-na-beah mi-to 
stone give me (dative) 

As examples of the Imperative, Fr. Miiller has drawn out the 
following : 

onna-bea nanga-to 
tell father (dative) 

tied wee pella haeeia 

take stick beat dog 

The sentence, monna langarrape^ translated by Milligan, I like to drink 
water, Fr. Miiller divides up into: 

m-onna lia-ngara-pe 

I like [? ask] water drink 

Lia is the root for water, thus : 

lie-na eleebana;\ lye-tta ; lie-nna wittye (wuttya) 

water fresh ; rollers on sea-beach ; water salt (i.e. the ocean) 

ngara is a corruption of nugara, drink. Perhaps the verb langara (based 
on the root of lia) is the further corrupted form, although in common 

• Perbaps this can be explained by the fadl that in Milligan's work the translation of 
the short sentences is very loose and certainly not so carefully done as the vocabu- 
lary, and Fr. MilUer's supposition appears to be corre<5l. For instance. Milligan 
translates tyenna-mi-beak wee-na as: we will give you a stick; but it should be: 
give me a stick. 

t Also translated as long. 



1 86 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

use, as Braim and McGeary give lugana, La Billardiere and Peron laifuty 
for to drink. 

tugganna luna-mea [mia] -tah [to] 
walk hut my (dative) 

lotta monte mee-tia cotU 

4 

^ tree see [eye] I yesterday 

lowa-na olle tubbra-na 

woman makes basket 

Construction. 

The following examples will help to show how the words are con- 
strucfled and prove the agglutinating characfter of the language. 

Perhaps the suffix -yenna has the same signification as -»fl, it is very 
common, thus : 

Adult man (? your husband) Pugga-na nunymna 

Adult woman ( ? your wife) Lowall minyenna 

Ant eater and Porcupine Mungyenna 

Bird Puggunycnna 

Bat Peounyenna 

Boy (a small child) or Son Melangyenna {Maldngena) 

Brushwood Weena-keetyenna 

Hair Poinglycnna 

Opossum (ringtail) Tarripnyenna 

,, (mouse) Lowowymna 

Penguin Tomenyenna 

Sole of foot Lug-yenna 

This interpretation of yenna is perhaps confirmed by the phrase : 

malang pia-wah 

child two 
where there is no termination -yenna. 

We have seen above that the negative is expressed by the word 
noia. There is,, however, another method of expressing a negative, by 
means of the suffix -iack, thus : 

leaf porruiyS leafless porrutyS-mayeck 

tooth wugherina toothless wugherinna normyack 

to see mongtone dizzy numgtangiack 

never nooeack 
and so on. 

The Mount Royal tribes use timy (no) instead of tacky thus : 

never ttmeh or timy 

bachelor lowatimy (lit. womanless) 

barren woman Iowa puggatimy (lit. woman manless) 

beard cowinne 

beardless cowintimy 

leaf proie 

leafless paroytime-na 

The suffix 'iack^ however, does not always mean a negative, it very 
often expresses general unpleasantness, thus : 

acid nowieack 



1 



LANGUAGE. 



187 



apparition 
hot 

ashamed 
bitter 
carcase 
rage 
catarrh 
cold 
dirty 
effluvia 
stomach 
hungry 
. stomach ful ( ? unpleasantly) 



krottomien toneack 

peooniack 

leiemtonnyack 

laieriack 

tniak hourrack (merack hourack) 

neoongyack 

teahnonyak 

tunack 

mawpack (mahack) 

memhreac 

plotter 

pionerpurtick 

plonerhoniack 



But there are also cases where the termination -iack appears to have na 
particular signification, thus : 

another tabbouiack 

asleep tugganick ( ? tugna go, ick the negative) 

black maback (mawpack) 

dine prooloogoorack 

The word bourrack also appears in widely different significations, thus i 

to clutch niack bourrack to drown iong bourrack 

to cry neagh hourrack dead miaek bourrack 

heal riack bourrack ripe crang boorack 

plant mellang hourack 

Magnitude is expressed by the suffix lang-ta, thus : 



f wood 

I large timber 

J stone 

j rock 

water deep 



wte-na 
wyee-langhta 
lo-na 
loe-langta 
loa-magga langta 



i wind rawlina 

\ gale raa-langtfi 

speak loudly kuka-na langhta 
heavy rain prugga langta 



The Mount Royal Tribes used proie-na to express size, thus : 



wind high 

large 

log of wood 

loud (to speak) 

fat woman 



rallinga proiena 
proina nughaba 
weea proingha 
kanne proine waggaba 
Iowa proina 



The Diminutive is expressed by the kaeeia. 



kaeeia 

kaeeta boena 

loatta keeta-na 

weena keetyenna 

lowa-na keetanna 

lowa-fta kaeetanna 

kauta-na mallangyenna 

manenge keeta-na 

manaee keeiannah 

manenya keetanna 

kaeto kekrabanah 

teggremony keetanna narra long- 
bromak 



spaniel, dog 

gosling 

twig {loatta tree) 

brushwood (wi-na, wood) 

girl 

young (little) girl 

„ II boy 

brook 

river (little) 
creek 

barren woman 
twilight 



i8d 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



It is very evident kauto and keeta are the same word, and that they 
are diminutives. The Tasmanians had no dogs or geese, and they may 
have applied the word kaeeto to these animals to signify their smallness. 
The following illustrates the method of making a new word by tacking 
on to one word another word or a syllable. In some cases the first 
word undergoes a slight modification in the process : 

knee 

I tremble 

I tumble 

kill (deprive of life) 

fight 

battle 

war 

war (skirmish, one or two kiHed) 

war (battle, all killed but one or two) 
(mahhele many) 

hot 

fever (lit. I hot) 

excrement my 

intestines 

pain I (evidently some bowel 
I sick t complaint) 

spear 

testes or scrotum 

penis 

hill (little one) 

peak (a hill) 

tor (a peaked hill) 

point (of a spear) 

nipple (^parooqualla dug; parugana wo- 
man's bosom) 

foot 

step (lit. foot one) 

instep my 

sole of foot 

paw 

claw 

talon) 

footmark of black man 

footmark of white man 

The two last-named words formed from pus^ga-na for (black) man, and 

ria-na for European. The name for finger is rie-na, and there appears 

to be no name for toe (Norman gives lugarner for toe, which is of course 

identical with luggana). The Tasmanian name for black man is pugga-na^ 

the same as the word for five, and as the Europeans on first arrival 

all wore boots, which look like one toe (or finger), it is not improbable 

that the aborigines a(5\ually called Europeans the ** One-toe (people)."* 

* A native of Muhangiro, south west of Vidoria Nyanza thus speaks of his first seeing white 
people: "They had large black clubby sort of feet, their toes, unlike ordinary people's, 
were all together in one" (R. P. Ashe: Two Kings of Uganda, London, 1889, p. 216). 



a, mun-na 
mieani-tuack 
mun-touka 
tnienemiento 
mienmengana 
mienyengana 
moi mengan nmhele 
moemntte 
moemabhyle 

h, peooniack 
mie-mpeooniack 

c. tia-mena 

tia-crackena 

crackanyeack 
mi'Crackanyeack 

d. perenna 
fnattah 
tnatiah-prenna 

e. poimena 
poymalangta 
poymalyetta 
poyeenta 
prugga poyeenta 

/. luggana 

luggana marah 

lugga poola mena 

lugyenna 

lugganlereena 

kurluggana 

{kuluggana 

Puggaluggana 

rialusgona 



LANGUAGE. 



189 



g, wurrawena 

ria-wuyrawa\ 

wurrawa lowanna 

kukanna wurrawhina 
h. lennoy line 

nialunne, line 

pune line 

(Punna 

lieeminetta 

palinna 

Una wughta rotaleehana 



(Oyster Bay) apparition 

(Mount Royal) apparition 

widow (lit. apparition woman) 

echo 

house or hut, place 

nest (birds) 

nest (little birds) 

bird) 

eagles' nest 

? eggs (contraction of puna Una) 

encampment (lit. hut earth long) 



It has been shown on pp. 107-111, that the natives construdled two 
sorts of huts or break-winds, those which, on the ramblings of small 
partfes, were to last for a night only, and those more permanent ones 
to last a season ; hence the last-named explains itself. 



nuore nubre-na 


eye 


nubre-tongany 


eyelash 


nubre wurri-ne 


eyelid 


nubre rotte 


wink 


neHubra latai 


fury 


nubretantye 


dizzy 


nubretone 


see (behold) 


pugga-nubra-na 


sun {pugga, man) 


palla-nubra-na 


„ {palla, man) 


panubre 


»> 


panubre roeelpoerack 


sunrise 


panubra tongoeieera 


sunset {tongf sink, dive, etc.) 


panubratone 


dusk 


panubre mabbyle 


fornicatrix 



The words for sun thus seem to be made up of the words pugga-na 
and palla-wah, both meaning black man {i.e. Tasmanian native), and 
nubre y eye ; panubre is evidently the corrupted form of palla-nubra-tui. We 
may perhaps consider that the Tasmanians looked upon the sun as a 
man, and this, may help to explain the meaning of the expression 
panubre mabbyle {mabbyle, many). 



k. kanna {ka-na) 
palla-kanna 
kukanna wurrarena 
kukanna wallamonyiack 
ka-walla (corrupted form of 

above) 
ka-kanina 

kuggana (ku-ka-na) langhta 
purra kantia 
kukana lengangpa 
luona kunna 
granna kunna 



talk 

to shout, yell {palla man) 

do 

noise 

to shout, yell 

mouth 

to talk loud {langhta much) 

to whistle 

to whisper, speak low 

to belch 

to yawn 



t Compare this with ria above; the aborigines appeared to have thought at one time that 
Europeans were apparitions. 



«2 



190 H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

tegryma kannunya to wail (tagara tear) 

kukunna poypuggeapa to displease (make angry) 

hohoUeny hongua to demur (grumble) 

temeta hunna creak (fridlion of limbs of tree) 

fia-cunah song (Wa, European) 

kukanna wurrawina echo (wurrawinna^ apparition) 

Prefixes are not so easily distinguishable as suffixes, but that they 
exist we have evidence in such words as kakanina mouth, he-nubra latai 
fury, in which the prefix appears more like reduplication. 

Of an interpolated syllable the word palahamahhyle^ conflux, is a good 
example ; palla, man, and mabbyle, many, being joined by the syllable 
ba. Perhaps another interpolation exists in the word loufa lloo-manyetu 
pregnant, thus : Iowa woman, lloo (lu) interpolated syllable, and manyene 
adult (big). 

Corrupted forms are seen in the words panubere sun : from pallanuhrana ; 
palina nest, from pune Una ; ka-walla shout, from kukana ; wallamonyiack 
noise, and so on. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
Osteology, by J. G. Garson, M.D. 

• 

TT was only very shortly before the Tasmansians became extincfl, that 
*• the importance of preserving their osteological remains, seems to Havp 
been recognized, and means taken to secure what specimens were still 
available. The largest colleiflion of these is lodged in the Museum of 
the Royal College of Surgeons of England. This consists of specimens 
procured from various sources at various times by the College itself, 
and of the coUecflion made by the late Dr. Barnard Davis, acquired by 
the College in 1880. The specimens collected by the College of Surgeons 
consists of two complete skeletons and seventeen skulls. Of the former, 
one is the skeleton of an adult male, the other that of an adult female. 
The male skeleton was obtained from a grave on Flinders Inland, where 
the remnant of" the aboriginal population, when removed from Tasmania, 
was located between 1832 and 1847. The female skeleton is that of 
one of the last survivors of the race," Betsy Clark, described in Bonwick's 
" Last of the Tasmanians,** 1870, where a portrait of her, from a photo- 
graph taken in 1866, is given, who died at Oyster Cove on the 12th of 
February, 1867, at an age of probably forty years. The other specimens 
are the skulls of six adult males, six adult females, and three young 
specimens. Besides these there is an adult male skull and that of a 
young person reported to be Tasmanians, but regarding their being 
authentic there is great doubt. The Barnard Davis colletftion comprises 
a complete skeleton of an adult male, the skulls of eight adult males* 
and five adult females, three young skulls, and the cast of an adult 
male and female skull. The Natural History Museum at South Kensing- 
ton possesses one complete skeleton of an' adult male, which was formerly 
the property of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 
In the Musee d*Histoire Naturelle, Paris, the skulls of five males, three 
females, and one child are preserved. In the Museum of the University 
of Oxford there are seven skulls ; in the Museum of the University of 
Cambridge there are two skulls ; in the Museum of Science and Art 
in Edinburgh there is one skull ; the Museum of Netley Hospital 
possesses two skulls ; the Museum of the Roy. Coll. of Surgeons, in 
Dublin, has one dried head. Mr. James Bonwick possesses one skull 
in his collecflion of Tasmanian relics ; one skull is preserved in the 

* There seems to be some doubt ah to two of these being skulls of Tasmanians. 



192 H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Museum of Breslau ; the Museum of Vienna also contains one skull. 
In the Museum of the Royal Society of Tasmania there were reported 
to be two skeletons and sixteen skulls, but in a recent paper by Messrs. 
Walter R. Harper, and Arthur H. Clarke,* they give the number of 
genuine Tasmanian crania as twelve, of which six are those of males 
and six those of females ; besides these there are three doubtful specimens 
which in their opinion are the crania of half-castes. They make no 
mention of the skeletons, but their paper, it should be noted, deals only 
with crania. 

As far as I am able to ascertain, these appear to be all the osteological 
remains now extant of this interesting people. Added together, this list 
comprises four or six complete skeletons, and not more than about seventy 
skulls, including the young specimens. 

Several of these specimens have been described already, and some of 
their measurements recorded; thus Dr. Barnard Davis in 1874 published 
a valuable paper on the Osteology and Peculiarities of the specimens in 
his Colle(5lion in the " Naturerkundige Verhandelingen der Hollandische 
Maatschappij der Vetenschappen, 1874;" Sir William Flower has descrited 
the specimens in the Royal College of Surgeons' Colle<5lion previous to 
the incorporation of the Barnard Davis specimens, in his ledlures on 
Anthropology, published in the "British Medical Journal," Vol. I. 1879, 
and the principal measurements are recorded in his edition of the Cata- 
logue of the " Osteological Series, Part I. of the College of Surgeons' 
Museum." The Paris colleiflion has formed the subjedl of a valuable 
monograph by Dr. Paul Topinard, in the " Memoires de la Soci6te 
d' Anthropologic," Vol. III. p. 307, and it has also been described by 
Quatrefages and Hamy in the ** Crania Ethnica." The specimens preserved 
in the museum at Hobart are described as stated above by Messrs. 
Harper and Clarke. 

The measurements given by these authors unfortunately differ consid- 
erably owing to the various systems of measurements which have been 
followed. The most extensive series of observations on the dimensions 
of the skulls are those given by the three French authors on the Paris 
specimens, whose tables I shall include in this monograph, and have 
taken as the basis of measurements of the specimens in British museums, 
which I have been able personally to measure. In measuring the long 
bones I have followed the directions laid down by Topinard and Hamy. 

Stature, — The materials at my disposal for estimating the stature of 
the skeleton are very inadequate for the purpose, consisting as they do of 
only three articulated male skeletons, and one female skeleton. I have 
been unable to ascertain the measurements of the two skeletons in the 
Museum of the Royal Society of Tasmania, as they do not appear to 
have been published. 

The male skeleton (No. 1096 in the Catalogue of the Royal College 
of Surgeons' Museum) measures 1607mm. in height; that in the Bar- 
nard Davis Collection 1640 mm.; and that in the Natural History' 

* Notes on the Measurements of the Tasmanian Crania, in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart : 
by Walter R. Harper and Arthur H. Clark, M.R.C.S., Proc. of the Royal Soc. of 
Tasmania, 1898. 



OSTEOLOGY. I93 

Museum 1635 mm. The average stature of the three male skeletons 
therefore is 1627 mm. The female skeleton in the Royal College of Surgeons' 
Museum measures 1422mm. The question will naturally be asked : What 
do these measurements of the height of the articulated skeletons represent 
in the living subject ? A series of observations made in Paris on twenty- 
four bodies measured before and after dissecflion showed that the difference 
between the height of the entire subjecfl and of the articulated skeleton 
is . 34 mm.* Adding this difference to the measurements of the male 
Tasmanian skeletons, the stature of the three when in life would average 
i66j mm., the shortest being 1641mm., the tallest 1674 mm., and the 
intermediate one- 1669 ™"^' ^^ the same way the female skeleton would 
represent a woman 1456 mm. in height. These calculations from the 
skeleton, of the stature of the person when in life, depend upon the 
manner of articulation, which differs very much, and are therefore 
probably not to be relied on so much as the estimates of height deduced 
from the lengths of the lower limbs, which will be discussed when 
treating of the measurements of the appendicular parts of the skeleton. 

Let us now compare the average and individual statures of the 
skeleton with the records of observations made by travellers on the 
living. Dr. Barnard Davis states that the stature of twenty-three 
Tasmanian men measured by G. A. Robinson varied between 1548 mm. 
and 1713 mm., the average being i6i8mm. Peron, on the other hand, 
states that the usual stature of the Tasmanian ranges between 1678 mm. 
and 1732 mm. The mean of the average statures of Robinson and Peron 
is 1 66 1 mm., which is exacflly the same as the average stature we have 
shown the three skeletons would probably have during life. Marion gives 
the measurement of one man as 1600 mm. Dr. Barnard Davis states 
that Robinson found the height of 29 women measured by him ranged 
from 1295 mm. to 1630 mm. and averaged together 1503 mm. 

The Skull, — The localities from which most of the skulls in the 
Royal College of Surgeons' Collecftion were obtained are unknown. 
Particulars regarding the locality of skeletons have already been given. 
The cranium numbered in the Museum Catalogue iioi was marked 
"Tasmanian warrior killed at Brushy Plains;" No. 1106 is from 
Port Dalrymple ; No. 1108 is from a grave in Bruni Island; No. 11 13, 
the cranium of an infant, was also obtained from Port Dalrymple. 
Three of the Barnard Davis specimens, Nos. 1414, 141 5. 141 7» were 
obtained on the north-west side of the island, in the distridl of the 
Surrey Hills ; the localities whence the other specimens in his colledlion 
came from is unknown. Several of the skulls appear to have been 
obtained when the natives were being removed from place to place, 
shortly before they finally became extincft. The skulls in the Paris 
Colle(5lion were obtained from the voyages of the Astrolabe and the Zelie 
to the South Pole and Oceania, during the years 1826-1829, and of the 
Favorite during 1830- 1832, and from the expedition of M. Jules Verreaux 
in 1843. Five of the specimens were obtained from the south side 
of the island, three of these were procured from the neighbourhood of 
Hobart during the voyage of the Favorite by M. Eydoux ; the other 

* Topinard ; " Elements d' Anthropologic G6n6ral," pp. 1032- 1065. 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA 




196 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

two from Lake St. Clair, the source of the Derwent, were brought home 
by M. Dumont D'Urville in the Astrolabe and Zelee expedition. Four 
of the specimens were obtained from the north side of the island in 
the basin of the Tamar ; two of these, from Launceston, were colledled 
by Verreaux ; a third came from Port Dalrymple, collecfled by Dumont 
D'Urville , and a fourth, that of a young subjedl, from the distri(5l of 
Furneaux, collecSled by M. Dumontier during the voyage of the Astrolabe 
and Zelee, 

Some differences have been observed between skulls from the north, 
south, and north-west parts of the .island by Quatrefage and Hamy in 
the *' Crania Ethnica," and these authors have accordingly described 
separately the skulls from each districfl. While some skulls from one 
districfl are shorter than others from another distridl, the small number 
of specimens at their disposal from each districfl does not, in my opinion, 
justify such importance being attached to the variations observed, as to 
render it necessary, or advisable, to follow them in separating the skulls 
into different groups, according to the locality whence they were obtained, 
although I admit there may have been influences, such, for example, as 
conta<5l at one part of the island with neighbouring people of one race, 
and at another part with an entirely different race, which may have 
caused slight variations in the population of particular parts of the 
island. For pracflical purposes, however, all the specimens may be classed 
together, so long as the different sexes are kept separate. 

Dr. Topinard describes the skulls in the Paris Colle<5lion very fully 
in his monograph referred to. He states their general configuration is 
sufficiently charac'leristic to enable a pracflical eye to distinguish them 
from those of other races. When viewed from above, the vault of the 
cranium presents the appearance of a regular oval, narrow in front, 
widening rapidly till it attains its greatest breadth at the level of the 
parietal eminences, and then decreasing suddenly. The narrowest part of 
the frontal region is about 25 mm. above the root of the nose, and 
8 mm. above the ophryon. At this place there is a transverse depression 
more or less marked, from which the frontal bone rises and curves 
backwards without presenting any noteworthy prominence or crest : but 
2 or 3 cm. in front of the bregma, a convexity of oval form begins to 
appear ; this narrows, and after passing the bregma, resolves itself into 
an antero-posterior crest, depressed in the middle line for the sagittal 
suture ; it then seems to become double, and terminates about midway 
between the anterior and posterior fontanelles. On each side of this 
crest, about i cm. in front of the coronal suture, two grooves running 
from before backwards appear, which become deeper as they extend 
backwards ; these terminate gradually about the middle of the parietal 
bones. Lastly, quite outside are situated the parietal bosses very much 
developed and even conical. This characfleristic carinate appearance is 
constant in varying degrees in all the Tasmanian skulls in Paris. The 
posterior part of the parietal region is smooth, and recedes gradually at 
first, but rapidly afterwards, towards an elliptical convexity, the long 
axis of which is transversely placed, formed by the supra-occipital region. 
The inion is feebly marked, corresponding to an average of No. i of 
Broca. The sides of the cranium present an important characfler. They 



OSTEOLOGY. I 97 

are rounded in the region of the spheno-temporal suture, their upper 
limits being defined by a rather feebly developed temporal crest. 

The characflers of the cranium may be summed up as follows : 
Globular in form, sub-dolichocephalic, without notable transverse depression 
as to the rise of the forehead, broadening rapidly from before backwards, 
with rounded sides and large conical parietal bosses. The frontal crest 
is absent, but a characfleristic disposition of the vault termed keeled is 
present. The posterior parietal region is receding. 

Compared with Parisian skulls the supra-occipital portion of the 
Tasmanian cranium is 17 mm. shorter, and the difference between the an- 
tero- posterior maximum and iniac diameters shows that the cerebellum 
is not so much covered by the cerebral lobes as in the Parisians. 
The basio-iniac radius on the other hand is 19 mm. longer in the 
Tasmanians, showing that their cerebellum is notably larger. The anterior 
central lobes have nearly the same relative development in both 
Tasmanians and Parisians, the anterior part of the posterior central lobes 
is somewhat less developed in the former than in the latter. The 
cerebellum is larger in the Tasmanians by a quantity approximatively 
equal to the diminution of the other parts. 

The facial portion of the skull is as charadleristic as the cranium. 
The first thing which strikes one is the wild and sinister appearance 
which invests the whole physiognomy, and which may be attributed to 
the depth of the orbits and the form of the notch of the nose. These 
peculiarities are due firstly to an excessive development of all the facial 
portion of the frontal bone, and secondly to a backward recession en bloc 
of the superior ends of the nasal bones and ascending processes of the 
superior maxilla, the curve of the frontal bone being prolonged down- 
wards to meet the nasal bones at their inferior and anterior extemity. 

The superciliary ridges on approaching the median line swell, curve 
inwards below, and, by their union, produce a strongly marked glabella 
which divides the supra-nasal region into two parts, namely a superior, 
occupied by an important depression which extends to the base of the 
frontal, where it marks the point of demarcation between the cranium 
and the face ; the other part is inferior and forms part of the notch of 
the root of the nose ; this notch, which, relative to its small height, is 
deeper than Topinard has observed in any other skulls in the Paris 
Collecflion, is formed above by the inferior plane of the glabella diredted 
backwards at an angle of 30° to 40° with the horizontal, and below by 
the backs of the nasal bones sharply curved forwards and upwards. Its 
real depth varies from 6 to 10 mm. The external orbital processes of 
the frontal bone play the same role with respedt to the orbits as the 
glabella does to the root of the nose, that is to say, by being strongly 
developed in all but one instance, they augment the depth of the orbit 
and give an exceptional prominence to the superior orbital borders, 
causing them to projedl from 2 to 6 mm. beyond the inferior borders. 
The openings of the orbits are small and thin, and their transverse axes 
are only slightly inclined downwards and backwards, so that the two 
eyes are visible in the same line; their form is that of a parallelogram 
transversely elongated and generally of regular outline. The orbital index 

AX 



198 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

is 77*8. The orbital depth from the posterior margin of the optic foramen 
to the anterior part of the superior orbital border is 55 mm. 

A second marked chara(5ler of the face is the heaping up of the 
bones in the median line producing shortening of the vertical diameter 
and ag appearance as if the facial skeleton had been forced outwards 
by pressure direcfled from below, the effe(5l of which is first visible at 
at the union of the root of the nose and frontal bone, as a semi-luxation 
backwards of the nasal bones and of ascending apophyses of the maxillae. 
The facial length of the Tasmanian is considerably shorter than that of 
the French, while both are of about the same breadth. Each se<5lion 
of the median portion of the face, except the supra-nasal, contributes 
to this shortening in the Tasmanians. The inferior bi-maxillary and the 
bi-malar diameters are greater, while the bi-zygomatic diameter is smaller 
than in the French skull. The malar bones are of small dimensions, 
their two surfaces are placed edgeways and form either a slightly obtuse 
angle or a right angle ; the inferior border is exatftly horizontal and 
the zygomatic apophyses are direcfled horizontally backwards. 

The measurements of the mandible are diminished in every case ; 
thus the symphyses is vertically short, the bigonial width is diminished, 
as well as the height of the posterior branch. The prognathism of the 
face is moderate, and in all cases considerably less than in the Australians. 
The borders of the palatine vault diverge behind, that is to say, the 
palate is parabolic, but there is a tendency to inflexion of its posterior 
ends in some cases. The teeth are in a good state, and in one skull 
are well set ; but in another the incisors have been split or broken, 
without doubt during life ; the crowns of the molars are ground down. 

The most notable characflers of the face may be summarized as 
follows : — short, relatively broad, and unusually developed in the supra- 
and inter-orbital parts, giving to the orbits, the notch of the nose and 
the inter-superciliary space, special characflers ; the superior maxillary 
shortened vertically, broadened transversely, and as it were thrust under 
the cranium, the lower jaw small in every proportion ; the malars small, 
moderately wide apart, placed edgeways, the anterior surface looking well 
forwards, and their external surface well outwards ; prognathism moderate. 
Dr. Topinard considers the Tasmanian skull is constru<5\ed on a uniform 
type, recognizable at first sight, and that it is the skull of the Melan- 
esian surmounted with the parietal bones of the equatorial Polynesian. 
The face, moreover, is not homogeneous. Dr. Topinard's opinion regarding 
them is that while they present certain characters which would lead us to 
consider them as the remains of an autochthonous race originally pure, 
and very distincfl from their neighbours, there are others which seem to 
favour their multiple origin. 

The average measurements of the skulls are given at the end of 
this chapter. 

Quatrefages and Hamy distinguish as ** Tasmanians of the south" the 
former inhabitants of the basin of the Dervvent and Huon rivers. From 
this distridl three of the male and two of the female skulls in the Paris 
Colle(51ion were obtained. Their antero-posterior diameters are relatively 
a little shorter than those of the north and north-west of the island, 
their cephalic index being 77* i ; while those of the north are 76-34, 



OSTEOLOGY. 199 

and of the north-west 76* i6. Upon this ground these authors place 
them in a separate group. Taking the skull which has been reproduced 
in Figs. I and 2, they proceed to call attention to the carinate form 
of the cranial vault, which they state appears to be constant in the 
adult Tasmanian. 

The frontal bone is more elongated (measuring over the curve 
138 mm.), also more oblique and depressed (the bregma being only 
131 mm. above the anterior border of the occipital foramen), likewise a 
little narrower at the base (the minimum frontal diameter being 97 mm.), 
than that of the Papuans of Rawak, which in some respecfls it resembles, 
whilst the maximum diameter of both is the same (118 mm.). The 
superciliary arches are large, and their size is exaggerated by the sunken 
appearance presented by the upper part of the face situated immediately 
below them. The frontal bosses are well marked, while the median 
portion is expanded as a convex surface of oval form, which extends 
beyond the bregma and is fused with a kind of parietal crest, the sides 
being separated from the eyebrows by a slight depression and from the 
median boss by a flat portion which is continuous with that which bounds 
the sagittal convexity of the parietals. The temporal line is feebly 
marked, and the portion of the frontal which forms part of the temporal 
fossa is moderately flat. 

The curves and planes of the frontal bone just described are con- 
tinued on to the parietal bones as far as the level of their tubera, 
which are strongly marked, almost conical in shape, and situated 
equidistant from the coronal and lambdoidal sutures in the course of the 
temporal line. The antero-posterior median convex * surface is prolonged 
as far as the middle of the sagittal suture, which is situated in a slightly 
undulating groove, and is separated from the tubera by two depressions 
very nearly symmetrical and fairly well marked. It is the presence of 
these three crests and two intermediate concavities which gives the 
carinate appearance resembling the keel and sides of a ship to the 
cranium. Beyond the bosses the antero-posterior curve changes suddenly : 
the median elevation completely disappears, as well as the lateral 
depressions, and there remains only a convex plane slightly flattened in 
the centre which ceases at the lambda. From the tubera the parietals 
descend without bulging, but converge slightly below, especially in front 
towards the squamosals, which are greatly reduced in size. The great 
wings of the sphenoid are short, and do not articulate with the parietals. 

The central part of the occipital bone is short and narrow, and 
markedly convex from above downwards ; the occipital protuberance is 
feebly marked. The cerebellar part is relatively large, the two pro- 
minences corresponding to the cerebellar lobes are well marked, and the 
muscular attachments are strongly developed, as are also those of the 
base. 

The sutures are simple and generally somewhat more occluded in 
front than behind. The bones are dense and polished ; the skull is 
heavy, although its walls are of moderate thickness. The impressions 
of the convolutions on the interior surface are relatively clear and deep, 
particularly at the base, a condition which Grateolet has shown to occur 
charadteristically in lower races. 



200 H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

The face is charadleristic not on account of size, which is not 
exceptional, but owing to its shortness, and its particularly brutal 
appearance. The malar bones are depressed at their superior angles. 
The nose is of moderate length, but very broad, and is deeply pressed 
in at the root. The nasal bones proper are concave in profile, some- 
what flattened, very convex, and pinched together (especially above the 
ascending branches of the maxillae which support them), and are 
alternately concave and convex from above downwards, and from without 
inwards. The inferior border of the nasal opening is rounded and 
elevated in the middle line. The nasal spine is double. The orbital 
openings are horizontal and of elongated square form. The canine fossae 
are deep, and the anterior alveoli are visible on the surface of the 
dentary arch as large rounded swellings. 




tasmanian skull in b. davis' collection, 
drawn by dr. garson, almost exactly 
one fourth size. 

Fig. 4. 

The prognathism is moderate, and affe<5ls the whole face, but is not 
very marked in the sub-nasal region. The disposition of parts resembles 
that found in the Mintiras, a true Negrito race. The prominence of the 
lower part of the forehead is considerable, so that the facial angle, measured 
by taking the supraorbital point as the upper end of the facial line, 
attains 75°, although the upper jaw taken by itself shows a projedlion 
corresponding to a very much smaller angle. The alveolar angle is 66°, 
and the dentary angle is 59°. 

The palate is deep and elongated, and the difference between its 
breadth in front and behind is much less than usual. The teeth are 
very large, the molars and premolars are marked by having very distincft 
and sharp tubercles, the canines are prominent and thick (11 mm.); the 
incisors, especially the central ones, attain quite an exceptional development, 
being spade-like, 11 mm. broad by 13 mm. in length to the neck, and 
projecft forwards, 



OSTEOLOGY. 20I 

The mandibular arc is ellipsoidal, the thickness of the horizontal 
branch is considerable, the external surface is somewhat rough, the 
mental fossettes are deep and well marked ; the chin is of irregular form, 
arched, and of considerable height, the mental angle 73°, notwithstanding 
the alveolar projection. The projecftion is more accentuated on the internal 
surface where the superior genial tubercles are very large, and the mylo- 
hyoid ridge is strongly marked. The ascending rami are feeble, and 
present a marked contrast to the stronger horizontal branches. The 
surfaces for the insertion of the temporal muscles are feebly marked ; 
the same has been already noted in respedl of the surfaces of origin on 
the cranium, indicating that these muscles were feebly developed, as the 
other muscles of mastication also appear to have been. The ascending 
branch is high, but narrow and very slender ; the coronoid process is 
short and sharp, the condyle is very slender, twisted on the inside and 
below, and is supported by a very short neck. The sigmoid notch is 
little hollowed out. The posterior angle is rounded, and does not present 
the least trace of a prominence, and the mandibular angle is very obtuse. 

This description, Quatrefages and Hamy state, is applicable in general 
to all the other Tasmanian skulls, though in some specimens the muscular 
ridges are more fully developed, while in others they are feebler. In 
one case the frontal bone articulates direc511y with the temporals. 

The female skulls they state do not differ from those of the males 
except in those charadlers which differentiate generally the skulls of the 
two sexes. The form of the cranium, while differing little in its propor- 
tions from the general type, is very appreciably softened down, but 
within relatively narrow limits. 

The specimen taken as the basis of the description of the Tasmanian 
skull by Quatrefages and Hamy, shown in Figs, i and 2 of the present 
work, was brought home to Paris as an entire head preserved in 
spirits, and after being photographed was disse(fled and prepared as 
a dry specimen by Prof. Gervais some years ago. On opening the 
cranium, it was found that the encephalon was greatly altered, and indeed 
was reduced to an amorphous mass, so that its morphological charadlers 
could not be studied, but a cast was made of the cranial cavity and 
corredled very carefully with the brain itself while still covered with the 
dura mater, so that it might be as exacfl a representation of the external 
form of that organ as possible. The cast is illustrated in Fig. 3. It 
measures 163 mm. antero-posteriorly, and its maximum width is 132 mm., 
while the transverse diameter of its anterior part is 93 mm. When 
compared with the encephalon of a Bushwoman studied by Cuvier and 
de Blanville immediately after death, it is seen to possess characflers of 
an entirely different type. The length of the Bushwoman's encephalon 
measures 160 mm., its maximum breadth 125 mm., and the breadth of the 
anterior part 100 mm. The brain of the Tasmanian is more arched, and 
consequently more elevated, than in the Bushwoman, agreeing in this 
respecfl with the form of the brain of Europeans. The middle meningeal 
vessels are less marked than in the Bushwoman, notwithstanding her sex. 
The antero-posterior part of the middle lobe is more voluminous, and 
appears to be proportionately more convoluted than in the Bushwoman ; 



202 



H. LING ROTH. ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



indeed, the correspondiDg portion of the cerebral dura mater indicates a 
condition of parts more approaching what obtains in the white races. 

The characflers of the skulls preserved in the Museums of this country 
agree very closely with the specimens in Paris which have been so well 
described by Quatrefages, Hamy, and Topinard. In some specimens the 
markings distindlive of the Tasmanian skull as set forth by those authors 
are less pronounced than in others, but the range of variation is very 
small. The general measurements also agree very closely, and the wood- 
cuts, Fig. 5, 6, and 7, from Topinard's work, give a very good average 
representation of the male skulls in the College of Surgeons Museum. 




FIG. 5. — SKULL OF TASMANIAN AFTER TOPINARD. 

There are one or two instances in which the degree of prognathism is 
considerably in excess of any of the Paris specimens, especially in the 
skull belonging to the skeleton of the male in the Barnard Davis collec- 
tion. This skull having some of its characters much exaggerated, it has 
been thought desirable to give an illustration of it in Fig. 4, as the 
only other published drawing of it in the Thesaurus Craniorum is somewhat 
too small to convey to the mind an adequate idea of its charadlers. 
The original drawing, of which the illustration in Fig. 4 is a reducf^ion 
by photography to one-fourth the natural size, was made direcflly from 
the specimen itself by means of Broca's stereograph, and is geometrically 
accurate representation of the skull, except that the zygomatic arches 
are thicker than they should be. The prognathism of this skull exceeds 
that of any of the Australians, and the teeth are of larger size than in 
any skull in the Museum The incisors are also very wide, and markedly 
of the shovel-shaped pattern mentioned by Quatrefages and Haray. The 



OSTEOLOGY. 



203 





Figs. 6 and 7.— »koxl of tasmanian after tornard. 



204 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

small size of the coronoid processes of the mandible is noteworthy, all 
of it being seen some distance below the zygomatic process of the malar 
bone. The illustration also shows the mastoid processes to be of small 
size. The form of the glabellar region is more rounded than usual in 
this specimen, but all the charadleristic features of the Tasmanian are 
well marked. 

As regards the general characters of the cranial portion of the skull, 
the angular form, the prominent median ridge, and the flattened upper 
parietal region already described, are generally well marked. The parietal 
eminences are developed to a greater or less degree in all the specimens. 
Seen from behind the brain -case appears five sided. The glabella is 
prominent, and overhangs the nasals in every case, even in the females. 
The mastoid inion and the muscular ridges are rarely much developed. 
The skull of the skeleton in the Natural History Museum, and that of 
an old woman in the College of Surgeons CoUecflion have the median 
frontal suture unobliterated, that is to say, they are metopic. In no 
case does the squamosal bone meet the frontal at the pterion, though 
they almost meet in several specimens. The size of the skulls appears 
to be about the same as those in Paris, judging from the measurements 
of circumference, height and the cranial capacity. Sir William Flower 
has noted those in the College of Surgeons CoUeiflion to be smaller, 
while those in the Barnard Davis Colletflion are larger than the Paris 
specimens ; but when the measurements of the two former series are 
united, their average measurements agree with those of the Paris skulls. 
In about 20 per cent, the height of the cranium is greater than the 
maximum breadth, but the average breadth-index is greater than the 
altitudinal index. 

The face is very short from above downwards between the nasion 
and alveolar point, and the depression of the upper part, upon which 
Dr. Topinard lays so much stress, is well marked. The orbits of the 
males are low, elongated, of quadrilateral shape, and their upper margins 
projecfl greatly beyond their lower,' as ' Topinard has noted in the Paris 
specimens. Between the orbits of the males and females there is a 
marked difference, contrary to what has been noted in the Paris 
specimens. In the females the orbits are more rounded and open, owing 
to the upper margins being less strongly developed ; consequently the 
orbital index is higher. The nasal portion of the face agrees very 
closely with that of the specimens in Paris already described. In some 
cases the nose is not so broad as in others, and a few specimens are 
mesorhine ; but the mean nasal index is 56 — 57, which places them in 
the platyrhine group. Sir William Flower has noted an interesting 
point regarding the teeth in which the Tasmanians seem to differ from 
all other kindred races, namely, ** the tardy development and irregular 
position of the posterior molars. These teeth are generally of large 
size, but there appears to be too little room for them in the jaw, so that 
only in two out of eleven adult skulls in which their condition can be obser- 
ved are all of them normally placed ; in all the others one or more of the 
wisdom teeth are either retained beneath the alveoli or are in oblique 



OSTEOLOGY, 205 

or irregular positions." * In estimating the size of the teeth that author 
measures the length in a straight line of the crowns of the five teeth 
of the upper molar series in situ between the anterior surface of the 
first premolar and the posterior surface of the third molar, which he 
designates as the dental length. + As this absolute length is hardly 
sufficient for the purpose ot comparing races, since the size of the in- 
dividual . and of the cranium generally should be taken into account, he 
takes as a standard length to indicate the general size of the cranium 
the distance between the basion and the nasion— the basio-nasial length 
— as the most convenient with which to compare the dental length and 
so form a dental index. In the Tasmanians the dental length averages 
in the males 47-5 and to the females of 48* 7. These indices show 
them to have 'proportionately the largest teeth of any race known, the 
nearest approach to them being the dental index of the Andamanese 
and Australians : in the former the dental index of the males is 44*4, 
and of the females 46-5 ; and in the two sexes of the latter 44*8 and 
46*1 respedHvely. 

A point of interest and perhaps of importance, from a sociological 
aspecft, is the absence of the two upper central incisors of the male 
skeleton and of the four upper incisors of the female skeleton in the 
College of Surgeons Collecftion. The teeth have been lost during life, 
and the alveolar border where they formerly were situated is so atrophied, 
that there is no trace of the sockets remaining. This points to the 
facfl that the teeth have been lost a considerable time before death. 
On comparing the male skull with the skulls of Australians, in which 
the upper central incisors are absent, owing to their having been knocked 
out of the head as part of the Initiation Ceremonies through which the 
youths are put on reaching manhood, the appearance presented is exacftly 
similar. It would seem from the condition of this skull that such 
ceremonies may have also existed among the Tasmanians, though it is 
difficult to account for the loss of the teeth of the women in this way. 

Regarding the skulls in the Tasmanian Museum, Harper and Clarke 
state that the keel-shaped vault already mentioned is noticeable in all cases 
and is specially well marked in some. " The parietal eminences are well 
defined and prominent in every case, and the root of the skull is 
markedly obovate in shape. Six of the skulls have the obelion depressed. 
The parietal foramina are very minute in most cases, but are present 
in all the skulls. Viewed sideways the rounded form of the skulls in 
the region of the squamosals is striking in all the crania, and in the 
majority the temporal fossae are deep and extensive. The temporal ridge 
is well marked, especially so in the male crania." As regards the 
characfter of the face, ** All the skulls show the depressions at the root 
of the nose, and the projecflion of the glabella and supra-orbital ridges 
noticed by Dr. Topinard and others." " The malar bones as a rule 
are small if anything, and their front thrown well forward. The anterior 
nares are broad at their base and narrow very gradually ; in some of 
the skulls they appear almost retflangular. The nasal spine is almost 

• Flower, On the Native Races of the Pacific Ocean, Royal Institution Lectures,. 1878. 

t Flower, Journ. Anthrop. Inst., Nov. 1884, p. T83. 

U2 



2o6 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

obliterated in most of the skulls, Id the remainder it is distin(5lly double. 
The nasal bones, when present, are high and very concave at the ends, 
and then sink somewhat abruptly and at the root have that pinched 
appearance noted by Topinard. The superior maxilla adds to the con- 
tracfled appearance of the face ; the ascending process dips backwards, 
and further, just below the inferior border of the orbit and near its 
juncflion with the malar bone, quite a well is formed in the majority 
of the skulls.*' From the measurements of these skulls it would appear 
that the superior border of the orbits do not in all cases, though 
usually, projedl over the inferior border. ** In all the skulls the orbits 
are re(5langular in shape; in the males this is particularly noticeable, 
in fadl iq three or four they are almost perfedlly oblong. In all the 
male skulls the palate is parabolic in shape, but the females* palates 
show the U formation." The coronal suture is simple, and the com- 
plexity of the sutures increases as we go backwards. Wormean bones 
are frequently found in the lambdoidal suture and at the pterion epipteric 
bones are present in several specimens. In none of the skulls is the 
frontal suture open, and the obliteration or closure of the sutures 
increases from before backwards. The mandible is small and the condylar 
height exceeds that of the coronoid in every case except one. The 
teeth are unfortunately incomplete in all the specimens, having been 
lost alter death in most cases. 

The cranial capacity is small, averaging 1281 cc. in three males, and 
1089 cc. in five females, according to the way in which this measurement 
was made on these skulls. These figures are not, however, stridlly 
comparable with those of the specimens in Paris or London Museums, 
which were ascertained by other methods than those used by the authors. 

The cephalic index of the six male skulls averages 74*0, and varies 
from 73* I to 75*6; in five females it averages 77*0, and varies from 
75-4 to 78-5. 

The height to length index averages 70*0 in the males, and 72*5 
in the females. The orbital index in the males averages 79*4, and in 
the females 84'8. The nasal index averages 540 in the males, and 55*2 
in the females, which is higher somewhat than in the specimens in 
London and Paris. The relative proportions of the Basio-alveolar length 
to that from the basion to nasion averages 107 '5 in the males, and 
io2'7 in the females. The facial index of Broca, that is the relative 
proportion of the ophryo-alveolar length to th^t of the bizygomatic diameter 
averages 72*6 in the males, and 69*7 in the females. 

In some respecfls the series of Tasmanian crania at Hobart shows 
slight differences from those we have in Europe, but in the main they 
closely agree in possessing the same characfieristic features. 

The Vertebral Column. — The length of the vertebral column from the 
upper surface of the atlas vertebra to the under surface of the last 
lumbar vertebra (neglecfting the dorsal lumbar and sacral curves) averages 
in the three male skeletons 511mm.; the length of the female spine is 
459 mm. Topinard gives the length of the trunk from the spinous process 
ol the seventh cervical vertebra to the apex of the sacrum as averaging 
474 mm. in three skeletons, and shows that in respedl to the length of 
the spine the Tasmanian differs from the European in being both 



OSTEOLOGY. 207 

absolutely and proportionately shorter to the total stature, and it agrees 
with the measurements of the spine in the Australians and Negritos. 

Prof. Cunningham of Dublin has studied with great minuteness the 
curve of the lumbar vertebrae of different races. If the sum of the vertical 
heights of the posterior surfaces of the bodies of the five lumbar vertebrae 
equal the total of the individual measurements of the anterior surfaces of 
these vertebrae, it is evident the lumbar portion of the spine would be 
straight Cunningham has shown that in the Europeans the index formed 
by the sum of the posterior measurements is less than those formed by 
the anterior measurements, and he expresses the difference by means of 
the Lumbo- Vertebral index. Taking the anterior measurements as the 
standard, he finds that in Europeans the Lumbo- Vertebral index is 95*8, 
which indicates that the convexity of the curve is dire(fted forwards. In 
the Tasmanians the Lumbo- Vertebral index averages 108*5 in the males, 
and 104*7 in the females, and in the Australians 110*1 in the males, 
and 103*1 in the females; and in the Andamanese 106*3 ^^ ^^^ males, 
and i02'4 ^^ ^^^ females, This shows that in these latter races the 
vertebrae are thicker behind than in front, and that if they were placed 
together without the intervening discs, the lumbar region would have 
a curve in an opposite direcflion to what obtains in the European. 
In this chara<5ler they resemble the Apes, in which the Lumbo- 
Vertebral ^ index is always over 100. But it may be asked, has 
the moulding of the vertebral bodies any relation to the degree of 
lumbar curvature, and is a low lumbo-vertebral index associated with 
a high degree of curvature and vice versa ? Cunningham has shown that 
there is a general correspondence, and that the bodies of the vertebrae 
in the lumbar region are found in a more or less marked manner in 
accordance with the degree of the lumbar curve, though the difference 
in height between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lumbar 
vertebrae is so slight that it has little or no influence in determining 
the curve. The differences in height between the anterior and posterior 
surfaces of the lumbar vertebrae he considers must be looked upon 
as the consequence but not the cause of the curve. ** The cause is a 
hereditary one, and it has originated from influences operating upon 
the bodies of the vertebrae, as the lumbar curve has become in successive 
generations more and more firmly established."* In the savage state 
he explains this ape-like condition of the lumbar vertebrae is retained 
in connecflion with the habits of life of the people, where flexibility 
of the spine is more necessary than stability. In the European, on the 
other hand, the manner of life for generations past has developed 
stability, as it is evident that the deeper the bodies of the vertebrae 
become in front, the more permanent, stable and fixed the curve will 
become, and the more restricted will be the power of bending forwards 
at this region. In the Tasmanians, Australians, and other low races 
whatevre lumbar curve there may be, is entirely produced by the inter- 
vertebral discs, and in no way by the vertebrae. 

The Thorax, — The average antero- posterior diameter of the thorax of 
the males is 185 mm., and the transverse diameter 297 mm., giving a 

• Cunningham, Memoirs Roy. Irish Acad. No. ii. 1886. 



2o8 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

thoracic index of 160-5, the antero-posterior diameter being taken as 100. 

The last rib is well developed, measuring on the average along the 
curve 8 cm. 

The Pelvis, — The only Tasmanian pelvis which has been described is 
the specimen in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. Dr. 
Barnard Davis has given a few of the measurements of the pelvis in 
this country. With the exception of those (if such exist), in the Tas- 
manian Museum at Hobart the only specimens that remain of this portion 
of the skeleton is that of a male, just mentioned, in Paris, and 
the three male pelves and one female pelvis belonging to the skeletons in 
this country. But before describing this small series, I may state Dr. 
Verneau's conclusions regarding the specimen in Paris, which I had an 
opportunity of measuring a few years ago. He says the height of the 
pelvis is somewhat small in proportion to its breadth, the iliac crests 
are farther apart behind than in Melanesian pelves, the anterior curve 
of the crests is very considerable. The ilii are less developed than in 
Europeans, and are very little hollowed out or twisted outwards. The 
transverse diameter of the brim is greatly diminished. Owing to the 
broken state of the sacrum the dimensions of the pelvic outlet could not 
be ascertained. The symphyses pubes are short, measuring only 33 mm. 
The pubic arch forms an angle of 65°. The lower part of the pelvis 
is a little smaller than in Europeans. The sciatic spines are situated 
very low, and the distance which separates them from one another is 
greater than in Europeans. The obturator foramena and the cotyloid 
cavities are small, the height and breadth of the latter are equal. The 
sacrum is narrower throughout, and at its base is 16 mm. narrower than 
in Europeans. 

The following are the principal measurements of the pelves taken as 
I have recommended in my monograph on Pelvemetry ^ (see page 209) : 

For purposes of comparison 1 have placed side by side with the 
column of the average measurements of the Tasmanian male pelves the 
corresponding averages of seventeen New Caledonian and forty European 
male pelves, neither of which I have previously published ; the European 
pelves are chiefly English and French. The sacrum is largest both in 
length and breadth in Europeans ; its shape is also different, as shown 
by the sacral index, which is considerably higher in the Europeans, 
indicating that the sacrum is proportionately broader in the the latter 
than in the Tasmanians or New Caledonians. In respe(5l to the meas- 
urements of the sacrum and several other pelvic measurements, it is 
curious how closely each of the four Tasmanian specimens agree in many 
instances. I was not aware of this fadl till I came to write out in 
tabular form the measurements made at various times and at different 
institutions in which the specimens are preserved. I was still less prepared 
to find the averages of the Tasmanian and New Caledonian male pelvis 
correspond so exactly as they do. Sir. W. Turner f gives the mean sacral 
index of thirteen Australian males as 98*5 ; in the Negro it is 106, and 
Sir William Flower's measurements show that eight male Andamanese 

* Journ. of Anat. and Physiol, vol. xvi. p. 106. 
t •• Challenger " Reports, pt. xlvii. p. 47. 



OSTEOLOGY. 



209 



had a sacral index of 94. The Tasmanians in respecfl to their 
sacrum agree with the New Caledonians, and occupy a middle position 
between the Andamanese on the one hand and the Europeans on the 
other, and are not far removed from the Australians. From the meas- 
urements between the antero-superior iliac spines, the maximum crest 
width and the maximum length of the innominate hone, it will be seen 
that the pelvis in the Tasmanians and New Caledonians is as a whole 
smaller than in the European. The breadth-height and height -breadth 
index averages 124-9 ^"^ ^o*» according as we follow Topinards or 
Verneau and Turner's method of estimating it. In this respecfl the 
proportions are very nearly the same in the European, Nevv Caledonian, 
and Tasmanian. The Brim measurements are perhaps those to which 
most interest attaches. The antero-posterior diameter of the brim is. 



i 


•-• R. C. Surgeons 
P ' specimen 1096. 
Male. 


B. Davis 
specimen 1406 
Male. 


•-I Skeleton in 
^ Nat. Hist. Mus. 
Male. 


Paris 

Specimen. 

Male. 


Averaj^e of the 
4 Male Tasma- 
nian Pelves. 


Average of 17, 

Male New 
Caledonians. 


Average of 40 

Male 

European 

Pelves. 


Sacral length 


104 


^^^^ 


104 


106 


1 
no 


, , breadth . . 


103 


103 


Ill 


102 


1047 


107 


119 ' 


,, Indfx 


99 


99 


1067 


— 


1007 


lOI 


108 2 1 


Width between antero-superior iliac 
















spines 


213 


213 


215 


207 


212 


215 


241 1 


Maximum crest-width . . 


247 


247 


255 


256 


251 


254 


277 1 


Maximum length of Innominate bone 


209 


195 


198 


201 


2007 


205 


222 


Height-breadth Index 


846 


789 


776 


77 


80 


807 


80 I 


Breadth-height Index 


Ii8 I 


1266 


1237 


127-3 


124-9 


128 


^25 ; 


Breadth of ilium (maximum transv.) . . 
Width between the centre of the one 


155 


144 


150 


151 


^50 


151 


165 ; 














1 


postero-superior spine to the other. 


70 


73 


69 


78 


727 


70 


75 t 


Width from posterior edge of the ace- 














1 


tabulum to the symphyses. . 


"3 


104 


106 


107 


107-5 


114 


^25 ! 


Distance from top of pubis to ischium 














1 


(vertical) 


94 


89 


96 


96 


937 


95 


103 


Antero-posterior diameter of Brim . 


lOI 


104 


107 


94 


loi 5 


106 


lOI j 


Transverse diameter of Brim . . 


114 


105 


109 


108 


109 


112 


129 


Brim Index 


88-6 


99 


982 


88 


93 I 


946 


78-31 


Antero-posterior diameter of outlet, 












1 




sacro-pubic diameter 


115 


107 


107 


— 


1093 


' 115 


1 107 1 


Transverse diameter of outlet . . 


85 


86 


91 


95 • 


889 


, ^9 


102 


Sub-pubic angle . . 


55° 


60° 


64° 


bf 


61^ 


' 60'' 


1 64" ■ 

; 1 



according to my measurements, almost identical on the average in the 
European and Tasmanian males, but a notable difTerence occurs in the 
measurement of transverse breadth, the Tasmanian being considerably 
narrower than the European ; consequently there is a considerable 
difference in the Brim-index of the two races, that of the former being 
93*1, while in Europeans it is only 78*3. In seeking for the affinities 
of the Tasmanian m this respec^t, we find the Brim-index of the 
Australians is 98 according to Turner, that of the Andamanese 98 8 by 
Flower. The Tasmanians therefore in this respecU hold an intermediate 
position between the Europeans on the one hand and the Australians 
and Andamanese on the other, and agree very nearly with the New 
Caledonians, in whom the Brim-index is 94'6. This is unfortunately the 



2IO H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

only Melanesian group of which there are sufficient pelves to give any- 
thing like valuable data. The sub-pubic angle is more obtuse in the 
Europeans than in Tasmanians and New Caledonians, in whom it 
averages 6i° and 60° respeclively. 

From the measurements of the Tasmanian pelvis we conclude that 
in its essential form it occupies an intermediate position between the 
European pelvis on the one hand, and the Australian and Andamanese 
(the latter being taken as a type of the Negrito race) on the other, 
and agrees very closely in all its important measurements with the New 
Caledonians. 

Limb Bones. — The only Tasmanian limb bones I have l")een able to 
measure are those of the skeletons. It may be stated regarding them 
generally that they are well dexeloped and as robust as those of Europeans. 
In this respect they differ very materially from the slender lx)nes of the 
Australian natives. As an example of this I may say that I have 
confirmed Dr. Barnard Davis*s observation that while the circumference 
of the most slender part in the centre of the shaft of the femur averages 
in the three Tasmanian skeletons 84 mm., in the Australian male it is 
only 75 mm., which is exactly what the minimum circumference of the 
female Tasmanians measures, while in two Australian females it averages 
70 mm. The other bones show a similar proportion. 

The Scapula, — The form of the scapula in the Tasmanians differs 
most unexpecledly from that of the other black races, the average 
scapular index (which expresses the relation of the breadth of the bone 
to the length) and the infra-spinous index (which shows the relation 
between the breadth and infra-spinous portion of the bone) being much 
lower than in Europeans, while in the black races it is always higher 
than in Europeans. The scapular index of the Tasmanian skeletons in 
the Royal College of Surgeons averages 60* 3, and the infra-spinous index 
81*4. In the skeleton in the Natural History Museum these indices are 
still lower, reducing the average scapular index down to 59'0. In 
Europeans they average 65 and 89 respectively, in Australians 88*9 and 
92*5, and in Andamanese 69-8 and 927. In the Apes these indices are 
considerably higher than in man, while in Bats, in which the scapula 
fun<5^ions as a basis for the attachment of the muscles of flight, the 
indices are lower than in man. Tiie peculiar character of the scapula 
in the Tasmanians then is its vertical shortness in proportion to its 

breadth. 

The Clavicle, — The length of the clavicle in the three males averages 
145 mm., and in the female 130 mm. In two of tiie males the left clavicle 
is the longer, and in the female both are of ecjual length. 

The Humerus, — The average length of the male humerus is 319 mm., 
and of the female 174-5 mm. The right humerus is slightly longer than 
the left in all cases except the female, in which the left is i mm. 
longer than the right. There is no instance of an olecranon foramen 
being present in any humerus. 

The Radius --This bone averages in the three males 255 mm., and in 
the female 214*5 mm. The left radius is on an average 2 mm. shorter 
than the right, in one instance the bones are equal, but in the female 
the right is 5 mm. shorter than the left. 



OSTEOLOGY. 211 

The Ulna, — The average length of the ulna in the males is 277 mm., 
the right being the longer bone in two instances, and in the third the 
bones are of equal length. 

The Hand. — Measured from the tip of the middle finger to the top 
of the OS magnum measures in one male 171 mm., and in the other 
180 mm. ; in the female the bones are wanting to enable it to be measured. 

The Femur, — The left femur is in each of the males the longer, its 
average length being 460*5 mm., while the right is 457 mm., the average 
of both femurs being 459 mm. In the female the right and left bones 
are equal, measuring 397 mm. 

The Tibia, — Unlike the femur the right tibia is in each case the 
longer, the average length of the right tibia being 387 mm. and 384mm. 
of the left ; thus the diminished length of the right femur is counter- 
balanced by the increased length of the right tibia and vice versa in 
the case of the left femur. The average length of the right and left 
tibiae is 386 mm. In the female the average length of the right and 
left tibiae is 314 mm., the right measuring 318 mm. 

The Foot. — The length of the male foot averages about 220 mm. 

Proportions of the entire Extremities. — By adding the length of the 

humerus to that of the radius and the length of the femur to that of 

the tibia, we are able to compare the lengths of the limbs (less their 

terminal segments, the hand and foot) with the stature and with one 

another. We found that the average stature of the three male skeletons 

averaged 1627 mm.; taking this as 100, we found that the length of the 

upper extremity (as represented by the added lengths of the humerus 

and radius) is as 35*4 to 100, and that of the lower limb (as indicated 

by the lengths of the femur and tibia together) is 51*9; in the female 
these relations are 34*3 for the upper limb, and 50-0 for the lower. 

Topinard gives the relations in the New Caledonians of the upper and 

lower limbs to the stature as 35-5 and 51*7 respectively in the males, 

and as 34*6 and 52'6 in the females. In Europeans Topinard states the 

relations as 35'o and 49-4 respe(5lively in males, and as 34*1 and 49*5 

respectively in females. From these results we see that while the upper 

extremity in the Tasmanians bears almost the same relations to the 

stature as it does in Europeans, the lower extremity is somewhat longer 

proportionately in the former than in the latter. 

The Intrinsic Proportions of the Limbs. — Relative to the average stature 

which is taken as 100, the proportions of the limb bones are as follows : 

in the males, the humerus 19*6, the radius 15*7, the femur, 28*2, the 

tibia 23'7 ; and in the female, the humerus 19*2, the radius i5'o, the 

femur 27*9, the tibia 22*1. In 8 male New Caledonians the proportions 

are: humerus 20*2, radius, i5'3, femur 27*9, tibia 23*8. In European 

males Topinard gives these relations as humerus 20-7, radius 14*3, femur 

27*1, tibia 23-3 ; and in females, humerus 19*8, radius 14*3, femur 27*4, 

tibia 21*8. These results seem to show that, with the exception of the 

humerus, the limb bones are somewhat longer in proportion to the 

stature in the Tasmanians of both sexes than they are in Europeans, 

The very limited number of specimens from which the averages are 

derived in the case of the Tasmanians reduces considerably the value of 

these figures. 



212 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Intey-membral Index, — The relation which the upper limb bears to the 
lower in the Tasmanians is as 68-o to loo ; in Europeans the relation 
is 69'3, in the Andamanese 68-3. 

The Aniibracheal Index. — The relation which the radius bears to the 
humerus, in the Tasmanians, is 79*9 in the males, and 78' i in the 
females ; while in Europeans it is 73-0 in males and 72-4 in females ; 
in the African Negro 79*0, and in the Negress 78*3 ; in Andamanese 
81-7 and 8o'6 in males and females respetflively ; in Australian males 
76-6 ; in New Caledonian males 76'0, and in females 75'8. The 
forearm of the Tasmanian therefore agrees with the black races in being 
much longer in proportion to what it is in Europeans, and consequently 
more simian in chara(5ler. It will be noticed that this index in the 
Tasmanians corresponds more closely with that of the Andamanese and 
Negros than the Australians and New Caledonians. 

The Tihio-femoral Index. — This shows the proportion which the distal 

segment of the lower limb bears to the proximal in the same way as 

the antibracheal index does those of the segments of the upper limb. 
It averages 84-1 in the male Tasmanians, and 79*1 in the female. In 

Europeans this index averages 81 -i in males and 8o-8 in females; in 
New Caledonian males 83' i and in females 82-3; in African Negro 82-9, 
in Negress 84-4, in Andamanese 84*4, in males and females respeclively 
in Australians 84. The tibiofemoral index of the Tasmanian, Andam- 
anese, and Australian males is practically the same. The index being 
higher than in Europeans shows that the distal segment of the limb is 
longer than the proximal. 

The Hmncro-femoral Index, — In the Tasmanian males it averages 69"5, 
and in the female 69*0^; in Europeans 72-5 in males, in Andamanese 
males 70* 3, and in females 69*2 ; in Australian males 71*4- The humerus 
of the Tasmanians therefore is relatively shorter in proportion to the 
length of femur than in Europeans. 

Conclusions. 

Having now discussed the various points connedled with the osteology 
of the Tasmanians as far as materials will permit, there remains to be 
considered the relations of the Tasmanians to other races. Throughout 
the previous pages references have been made to the Australians, 
Andamanese, New Caledonians and other races resembling the Tasmanians 
in one or more respei5\s, in order to ascertain generally the relationship 
between their various morphoiogical characflers, so as to be able to form 
some conclusions regarding the stock from which the Tasmanians are 
descended. The want of material from various islands in the Australasian 
and Pacific Archipelagos which still exists is a serious drawback to 
being able to study the Tasmanians to most advantage. 

The race to which the Tasmanians might naturally be thought most 
allied from their geographical position is the Australian, but many 
points in the morphological charac5lers of the two races are so totally 
unlike as to render this relationship problematical. Topinard and others 
have tried to show that there is a woolly-haired race in Australia as 
well as the type familiar to us with straight or wavy hair. Most 



OSTEOLOGY. 



213 



authorities agree 111 regarding the Australians as a homogeneous race 
peculiar only to Australia, not showing affinities to any of the popula- 
tions of the neighbouring islands. In some respecfls the Tasmanians 
resemble very closely the Negrito race, not only in the charadler of 
their hair, but in some of their osteological chara(5lers. Their relation- 
ship to the Polynesians, though suggested, has not received much support. 
The Melanesian race has by many persons been claimed as that to 
which the Tasmanians are most nearly allied, and many of their mor- 
phological charadters support this hypothesis. Unfortunately, the material 
at our disposal for an exhaustive study of the Melanesians from the 
various groups of islands is very limited, and indeed insufficient for an 
adequate determination of the question, the best represented being the 
New Caledonians ; they are, however, probably tinged, to some extent, 
with Polynesian blood. From the osteological charadlers and those of the 
hair, skin, etc., it appears as if the Tasmanians were most allied to the 
Negrito and Melanesian types. In any case the Tasmanians have 
remained for a long period isolated from other races, as evidenced by 
the uniformity of their osteological charadlers. It may seem somewhat 
difficult to relate the Tasmanians to the two races just named so far 
separated under the present existing geographical distribution of land 
and water. The Negritos appear to have been much more widely spread 
than at present, and give every evidence of being a very primitive type ; 
so that, as Flower has suggested, they may be the primitive stock from 
which the Melanesians on the one hand and the African Negroes on 
the other have been derived. Such an hypothesis of the relationship 
of the Negrito to the Melanesian would explain perhaps the similarity 
of morphological charadlers found to exist between these races and the 
Tasmanians. Should this be the case, the Tasmanians would, like the 
Andamanese, be the remnants of a primitive stock from which the other 
Melanesians have sprung. 

In order to give a full list of the different measurements of the 
skull the series of measurements made by Topinard of the Paris speci- 
men has been subjoined. 



Tasmanians in Paris. 
The Head as a Whole. 



1 Vertical maximum projedlion 

2 Diam. trans. Max. or Bizygomatic 

Index of the ist to the 2nd 



Circumference 
Antero- 
posterior 



Transverse 
Circumference 

Horizontal 
Circumference 



Skull 

Cerebral part of frontal 
' Parietal 
Supra-occipital 
Sub-occipital . . 
Length of foram, mag. 
Basio-supraorbital radius 
Total circumference 
Supra auriculo-bregmal curve 
Circ. or diam. trans, supra-auric. 
Total circumference 
Anterior curve, pre-auricular 
Posterior curve, post-auricular . 



6 Males. 


2 Females 


190- 


171- 


130-4 


123-5 


1457 


137-6 


ii6*6 


110-5 


126-5 


121- 


57- 


53* 


54' 


51- 


34' 


32. 


1094 


105- 


497-8 


472-5 


3033 


284- 


122- 


1205 


4253 


4045 


2425 


237 


281 I 


269 


5236 


506 




C2 



a 14 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF 






It 



«« 



Antero-post. diam. max. 

Diam. bi-parietal max 

Cephalic index^ horizontal 
Vertical diam. (basio-bregmal) 
Index cephalic vertical 
Diam, trans, frontal, min. f taken on the 

M supr. \ crest, temp. 
,, ,. maximum (proper) 

„ occip. (bi-asteric) • . 
,, antero postiniac .. 
Approx. relation of the eftter. volume 
Capacity .. 
Basilo-ophryal radius 
Basilo-mental 
Max. fiacial angle 

Max. facial length from ophryon to chin 
Max. facial br^uith, (bizygomatic) 
Index of max. L. and- B. 
Bist. o( supr. orb. p<Mnt to line of min. icont. diam 

to root of nose 
to sup. alvelor point 
to Bub-naaal pomt . 
Diam trans, ext. bi-orbital median (bi-malar sup.) 
., bimalar (des pommettes) 
,« inferior 

Orbital height 

,, breadth . . . . .• 

Oitntal index . . • . 

Dapth of Orbits 

Overhang of sup. orb. border beyond infr. 
Interorbital width 

Depth of naaal notch 

Length of nasal bones (median) 
Ntision to sub-nasal point 

Vutd breadth 

Minimum height of sub. maxillae 
Minimum sup. maxillary breadth 

Length ci palate vault 

lieight 0i symphyses of mandible 
Height of posterior branch 

Bigonial width 

Honz. dist. from p. supra orb. to p. sub-nasal 

p. 9UD-nasal to p. alveol sup. 
M p- sAv. sup. to incisor summit 

M .. p. iucis. sammit to p. alv. infer. 

.. M P- slIv. inf. to sub-mental p. 

Prognathism alv. dent. sup. 

•I »> mi. • • 

Angle facial max. (Camper) 
,1 „ median 

,, ,, mm. . . 

Difference of max. and mim. . . 

Different Measurements. 

Horizontal axis of Broca 

Height of occ. for. (ant bord. above the axis) 

Breadth of occ. foramen 

Index of occ. for. L = loo 

Basilo-iniac radius 

Basilo-lambdoidal radius 

Basilo-nasial radius 
Basilo-subnasial radius . . 
Basilo-alveolar sup. radius 



TASMANIA. 




1 6 Males 


2 Females 




184-5 


175-5 




142-8 


131-5 




774 


749 




1312 


1205 




7£I 


687 




945 


92*2 




107- 


io6- 




III-2 


107- 




1098 


103-5 




180-3 


174- 




1 1035 


9670- 




1376 


1103- 




1094 


105- 




115-1 


99- 




69^ 


72° 




1266 


I20' 




130-4 


"3-5 




973 


968 


" 


99 


4 




i6-6 


185 




803 


8o- 




66-8 


63- 




1073 


103- 




IIO-8 


98- 




914 


95- 




29*9 


30- 




39- 


37- 




766 


8i- 




56 


535 




5- 


2- 




23-6 


21- 




r 


7- 




14*6 


135 




488 


435 




275 


265 




146 


14' 




666 


62- 




56 


52' 




30- 


25- 




54- 


39' 




933 


92- 




iO'4 


7* 




4-2 


5 




5' 


— 




15 






2*5 


65 




92 






4' 






75°7 


8o°3 




69°5 


72°I 




63°7 


— 




12° 






195-9 


184- 




, IO-8 


8- 




281 


26- 




855 


81-2 




876 


84- 




"34 


104 




966 


103- 




968 


93 




100-4 


59- 



OSTEOLOGY. 



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H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 






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H. LING ROTH.^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Measurements of Six Tasmanian Crania from the Oxford University 

M u SE u M. — (Pitt-Rivers* Collection). 

By dr. GABRIEL FARMER, Department of Human Anatomy. 

The Seventh skull was not obtainable. 
Catalogue No. 



1017 
1019 
1020 
1021 



Date of receipt. 
January 8th, 1864 
January 8th, 1864 



No. 



No. I. — Tasmanian Skull 

No. 2. — Tasmanian Cranium 

No. 3. — ^Tasmanian Cranium Rev. W. W. Spicer, Donor. 

No. 4. — Skull Tasmanian (?) said to have been brought back 

by Capt. Cook, and to be Polynesian. Appears to 

be Tasmanian from Dr. Ridd*s catalogue. G. R. 

Ch. Ch. 
No. 5.— Tasmanian Cranium (Ruxton). Pitt-Rivers' Collection, 

1887. 
No. 6. — Tasmanian Cranium (Ruxton). Pitt- Rivers' Collection, 

1887. 

6 Craniam appears to be the only one which can be said to be female (adult) ; 

the rest are probably all male (adult) crania. 



I02IA 



I02IB 



1 


No. I 


1 
No 2 


No 3 


No. 4, 


No 5' 


No. 6 








cc. 


cc. 


cc. 


cc. 


cc. 


cc, 






Cubic Capacity 


II60 


1 120 


1 100 


1200 


1 120 


1025 


All Microcephalic 




« 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. , 


mm. 


mm. 






Glabellar occipital length 


183 


170 


180 


170 


171 


160 






Ophryo occipital length. . 


184 


170 


177 


170 


169 


162 






Basi bregmatic 


123 


132 


X2I 


129 


127 


125 






Vertical Index 


667 


77*5 


67 


75-5 


74 


7« 


No. I & 3 = Tapein- 

scephalic. 
No. 4 & 5 =s Metrio- 

cephalic. 
No. 2 & 6 = Akro- 




Minimal frontal diam. . . 


90 


95 


91 


95 


97 


87 




Stephanie ,. 


97 


102 


98 


103 


112 


lOI 




Artinonic 


1035 


105 


98 


104 


99 


99 




Greatest breadth 


130 


128 


128 


140 


134 


130 


cephalic. 




Cephalic Index 


705 


75 


71 


82 


78 


8i-5 


No. I & 3 = Dolico- 




Horizontal circumference 


504 


490 


495 


507 


495 


470 


cephalic. 




Frontal longitudinal arc. 


130 


125 


124 


130 


lao 


"5 


No. 2 &5=Mesati- 




Parietal ., ,, . . 


125 


118 


"5 


128 


118 


112 


cephalic. 




• WW » » 

Occipital „ „ .. 


112 


105 


J115 


107 


112 


105 


No. 4 & 6sBrachy- 


i Total 

1 


367 


34« 


' 364 


365 


350 


332 


cephalic. 




Vertical transverse arc . . 


290 


290 


280 


300 


297 


285 






1 Length of Foramen mag.. 


40 


37 


335 


32 


30 


32 






Hasi- nasal length 


95 


97 


92 


95 


98 


94 






Dasi-alveolar length 


96 


103 


91 


96 


101 


94 


, 




! Gnathic Index 


lOI 


106 


99 


101 


103 


100 

r 


No. 2 = Prognathous 




Tnterzygomatic breadth. 


123 


128 


126 


127 


126 


' 120 


the rest meso^ath- 




1 Inter malar 


III 


114 


117 


116 


1 "3 


109 


ous. 




! Ophryo-alveolar length . . 


72 


76 


80 


76 


81 


81 






Naso-alveolar length 


53 


59 


1 56 


57 


58 


60 






Facial Index 


586 


59-3 


63-5 


59 5 


63 


67-5 


1 


, Nasal height 


43 


42 


"^l 


45 


42 


46 


t 


j Nasal width 


27 


26 


1 26 


26 


26 


27 






' Nasal Index 


62-8 


62 


62 


5« 


62 


58-5 


All Platyrhine. 




Orbital width 


40 


40 


37 


38 


41 


40 






; Orbital height 


32 


30 


29 


31 


30 


30 


X 




. Orbital Index 


80 


75 


7^-5 


«i-5 


73 


75 


All Microseme. 




ralato-maxillary length. 


55 


62 


' 52 ? 


57 


57 


i 55 






ralato-maxillary breadth 


62 


64 


' 63 


64 


63 


61 

1 






1 *ALATO- MAXILLA k Y 






1 
1 




1 
1 


1 

r 






Ini)i:x... 


112- 7 


103 


121 


112 

1 


1 


|iio-5 







OSTEOLOGY. 



219 



Mandibles of No, 1 and No, 4. 



Symphysial height 

Covenoid 

Condyloid 


27 
55 
48 


26 
58 
42 


« 

Genio — Symph. length . . 
Intergonial width 
Breadth of asc. ram. 


94 
76 

38 


95 
85 
38 



Table of Measurements of Articulated Tasmanians, 

BY 

J. Barnard Davis. 



(All MbASURBMBNTS in MlLLBMBTfeSS). 



1. Height of the Skeleton, from the Vertex to the 

prominence at the base of the Os Calcis 

2. Length of the Vertebral Column, from the upper 

surface of the Atlas to the lower surface of the 
last Lumbar Vertebra 

3. Length of the Os Sacrum, in a right line 

4. Breadth of the Os Sacrum 

5. Height of the entire Pelvis, from a line on the level 

of the top of the Cristas Ilii to another on a level 
with the lower surface of the Tuberosities of the 
Ischia ' 

6. Distance between the Cristae Ilii, inside 

7. Distance between the Anterior Superior Spines of 

the Ilia, inside ^ 

8. Transverse diameter of the superior opening of the 

Pelvis 

9. Conjugate diameter of the superior opening of the 

Pelvis 

10. Pelvic Index, or ratio of conjugate to transverse 

diameter, taken as unity 

11. Transverse diameter of the outlet of the Pelvis, in- 

side the Tuberosities of the Ischia 

12. Conjugate diameter of the outlet, from the lower 

edge of the Symphises Pubis to the tip of the 
Sacrum 

13. Breadth of the shoulders from the outside of one 

Acromion to that of the other 

14. Length of the Humerus, extreme length 

13. Length of the Ulna, extreme length 

16. Length of the Radius, extreme length 

17. Length of the Hand, from the upper arch of the Os 

Lunare to the point of the middle finger . . 

18. Length of the wnole upper extremity 

19. Length of the Femur, extreme length 

20 Length of Tibia, extreme length 

21. Lengtli of Fibula, extreme length . . 

22. Length of Foot, extreme length 

23. Length of the whole lower extremity 

24. Proportion of the length of the Arm to that of the 

L^ =100, of No. 18-23 

25. Proportion of the length of the Radius to that of 

the Humerus — 100 

26. Proportion of the length of the Tibia to that of the 

Femur = i-oo 

27. Proportion of the length of the Femur to the Stat- 

ure 

28. Angle formed by the arch of the Pubis 



No, 1 761 
(f aet. 
c. 30. 



mm. 
1640 



523 

107 

99 



175 
234 

208 
107 

lOI 

•94 
76 

109 

302 
312 
274 

251 

167 

725 
463 
383 
370 
215 

893 
81 

■80 

•82 

28 
62° 



Anthrop 

Inst • 

S aet. 

c 30. 



mm. 
1584 



533 
107 

92 



192 
234 

208 

109 
104 

•95 

78 

117 

302 

302 
265 

246 

178 

710 

434 
380 

360 

234 
875 

81 
80 

•87 

27*4 
68- 



R. C. Surgeons. 
England. 



? aet. 
c. 25. 



mm. 
1612 



477 

89 

102 



185 
243 

233 
114 

104 

91 

82 

112 

368 
312 
284 
265 

190 

755 
458 

395 
338 
231 
898 

84 

84 
•86 

283 
70^ 



? aet. 
c. 25. 



mm. 
1408 



459 
95 
99 



151 
237 

214 
120 

99 

•83 
105 

117 

315 
266 

266 
234 

208? 

622 

388 

309 

317 
177 

743 
■81 

•78 
80 

28 
92° 



Now in Nat. Hist. Mus , South Kensington. 



220 



H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Dimensions of the Skulls of Aborigines of Tasmania from the 

Cambridge University Collection. 



Measurements made by W. L. H. Duckworth, Esq., Jesus College, Cambridge 

20th, 1893. 



Oaober 



Skull No. 


1095 


1096 


B t 


Skull No. 


1095 


1006 


B , 


Sex 


Male 


Male 


Male' 




^<j 


7 


1 


Age 


Adult 


Adult 


Aged ! 


Palato maxiliary brea- 






1 

1 








1 






1 


Cubic Capacity 


■ • 


1 130 


1 130 

(•PP)- 


dth 
Horizontal circumfer- 


63 


63 


• • 


Maximum length 


• • 


180 


180 ' 


ence 


. . 


499 


502 


Ophryo-occipital len- 






1 
1 

1 


Supra auricular arc 


290 


282 


285 , 


gth 


• • 


174 


177 


Oblique parietal arc 


• • 


347 


340 , 


Ophryo-iniac length 


• • 


172 


177 


Frontal arc 


125 


124 


124 ' 


Occi pi to-spinal length 


• • 


184 


■ ■ 1 


Parietal arc 




121 


128 


Occipito-alveolar len- 








Occipital arc supr. 


. 


56 


55 


gth 


• ■ 


192 


1 

• • 


Occipital arc, infr. 


a • 


50 


1 

■ « 


Maximum breadth 


« a 


I33P 


130PI 


Jugo- nasal arc , 


103 


104 


.. 1 


Bi-asterical breadth 


• * 


109 


105 








.1 


Bi -auricular breadth 


112 


118 


118 ' 


— ™ __ 




- -, 




Bi-stephanic breadth 


107 


100 


96? 


Lower Jaw. No. 


1095 


A 


• . 1 


Mmimum frontal brea- 
















dth 


92 


84 


88 ' 


Symphysial Height 


31 


22 


. . 1 


External biorbital 






105? 


Coronoid Height 


52 


51 


« * 


breadth 


104 


103 


24 


Condylar Height 


55 


50 


. . 


Minimum interorbital 






1 


Gonio-symphysial 






1 


breadth 


M 


25 


1 


length 


77 


70 


• • 


Jugo nasal Breadth 


93 


94 


• > < 


Intergonial breadth 


95 


80 


.. 1 


Bi-malar breadth 


no 


108 




Intercoronoid breadth 


85 


84 


, . 


Bi-zygomatic breadth 


• ■ 


124 


' ' 1 


Intercondylar breadth 






1 


Bi-maxiliary breadth 


85 


87 


. . 1 


external 


105 


103 


• a 

1 


Ophryo-mental length 


129? 


■ • 


1 


Intercondylar breadth, 






1 


Ophryo-alveolar len- 








internal 


67 


71 


a ■ 


gth 


82 


87 


1 


Breadth of Ascending 






1 


Naso-mental length 


102 


K • 


• ■ 1 


Ramus 


34 


31 


• • 


Naso -alveolar length 


58 


58 


1 


Angle of Ascending 






1 


Basi-mental length 


no 


■ ■ 


1 


Ramus 


108° 


114- 


1 


Basi -alveolar length 


103 


98 










1 


Basi -nasal length 


91 


95 












Basi-bregmatic length 


123 


123 


1 

.. 1 


Indices, No. 


1095 


1096 


B 


Basion-obelion length 


• ■ 


118 




- — 







— - - 


Basion-lambda length 


• • 


107 




Cephalic 


• • 


73 9 


723 


Basi-iniac length 


• • 


81 




Vertical 


« • 


684 


• • 


Basion-opisthion len- 








Alveolar 


1132 


103 15 


• ■ 


gth 


• a 


37 




Orbital 


763 


784 


a • 


Breadth of Foramen 








Nasal 


634 


649 


• • 


Magnum 


28 


28 




Palato maxiliary 


105 


1235 


• • 


Orbital Height 


29 


29 




Superior Facial (Bro- 








Orbital Breadth 


38 


37 




ca) 


• ■ 


70- 2 


• • 


Nasal Height 


4i 


37 




Superior Facial (Koll- 








Nasal Breadth 


26 


24 




mann) 


« ■ 


468 


1 

a a 


Palato maxiliary len- 








Stephano zygomatic 


■ • 


806 


• • 1 


gth 


60 


51 


• • 


Naso malar 


no 75 


iiO'6 





Note. — The mandible with No. 1095 does not appear to really belong to it. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
The Origin of the Tasmanians. 

A GREAT deal has been written about the Origin of the Tasmanians, 
and we seem gradually to be nearing a definite settlement of the 
question of the origin of the lost race. As many writers of eminence 
have interested themselves in this subjedl, it will not be out of place 
here to give a recapitulation of their views. In this recapitulation the 
views of early writers and explorers have not been included, for the 
reason that they are mostly guesses based on erroneous or quite 
insufficient knowledge, nor do they in any way help in the inquiry. 

Prof. Huxley (J.E.S. ii. pp. 130- 131), while pointing out that the type of 
Australian man is quite distinct from that of the Tasmanian, considered 
it ** physically impossible that the Tasmanian could have come from 
Australia, and apparently the only way of accounting for the presence 
of the Tasmanian was to assume his migration from New Caledonia and 
the neighbouring islands. It would appear that at one time a low Negrito 
type spread eastwards and reached Tasmania, not by means of direct 
and uninterrupted land communication between New Caledonia and Tas- 
mania, but rather by means of broken land in the form of a chain 
of islands now submerged, similar to that which at present extends 
between New Caledonia and New Guinea.'* In a later paper, ** On 
the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Man- 
kind '* {ibid p. 404), Prof. Huxley classifies the Tasmanians as one of the 
group belonging to the Negroid type and to which the name Negrito is 
given : ** In the Andaman Islands, in the Peninsula of Malacca, in the 
Phillipines, in the islands which stretch from Wallace's line eastward 
and southward, nearly parallel with the east coast of Australia, to New 
Caledonia, and, finally, in Tasmania, men with dark skins and woolly 
hair occur who constitute a special modification of the Negroid type — 
the Negritos. Only the Andamans have presented skulls approaching or 
exceeding -an index of 80 ; all the other Negritos, the crania of which 
have been examined, are dolichocephalic. But the skulls ot the eastern 
and southern Negritos present, as I have mentioned,* a remarkable ap- 
proximation to the Australioid type, and differ notably from the ordinary 
African Negroes in the great brow ridges and in the pentagonal norma 
occipitalis. The best known and most typical of these eastern Negritos 
are the inhabitants of Tasmania and New Caledonia, and those of the 

* *' No skulls are, in general, so easily recognizable as fair examples of those of the 
Australians, though those of their nearest neighbours, the inhabitants of the Negrito 
Islands, are frequently hardly distinguishable from them." 

E2 



222 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

islands of Torres Straits and of New Guinea. In the outlying islands 
to the eastward, especially, in the Feejees, the Negritos have certainly 
undergone considerable intermixture with the Polynesians; and it seems 
probable that a similar crossing with Malays may have occurred in New 
Guinea." 

Prof. Fried. M tiller (ii. p. 182), without acflually stating that the 
Tasmanians are allied to the Australians, or even showing that any 
analogy exists between these two, classifies the Tasmanians under the 
heading of Australian races. He calls the Australians smooth, straight- 
haired (straf'shlichthaartg) races. He ignores altogether that the Tas- 
manians were a pronounced woolly-haired race. 

Dr. Brin ton's classification, is tabulated as follows :* 

Scheme of Insular and Litoral Peoples. 

I. Negritic Stock. — i. Negrito Group: Mincopies, Aetas, Schobaengs, 

Mantras, Semangs, Sakaies. 2. Papuan Group : Papuas, New Guin- 
eans. 3. Melanesian Group : Natives of Fiji Islands, New Caledonia, 
Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, &c. 

II. Malayic Stock. — i. Malayan Group: Malays, Sumatrese, Javanese, 

Battaks, Dayaks, Macassars, Tagalas, Hovas (of Madagascar). 2. 
Polynesian Group : Polynesians, Micronesians, Maories. 

III. AusTRALic Stock. — i. Australian Group : Tasmanians, Australians. 
2. Dravidian Group : Dravidas, Tamuls, Telugas, Canarese, Malayalas, 
Todas, Khonds, Mundas, SantAls, Kohls, Bhillas. 

According to Brinton, therefore, there is no connecflion between the 
Nigritos and the Tasmanians. Speaking of the Australians, he continues (p. 
240). *• Their appearance differs considerably, although it is generally con- 
ceded that they speak related idioms, and originally came from one lineage 
or language. The Tasrhanians had quite furry or woolly hair, and according 
to reliable observers, corresponded closely in habits and appearance to 
the Papuas," and in a foot note he adds : ** This is the positive state- 
ment of Geo. W. Earl, who had seen Tasmanians." I think, however, 
there is some mistake here, for while Earl says+ the Tasmanians " are 
Papuans in their general characSleristics ; indeed their habits and appear- 
ances correspond with those of the Andaman Islanders," he does not 
say he ever saw a Tasmanian, nor is there any record that he visited 
any but the northern portion of the Australian continent. 

Topinard, publishing in 1871 (Mem. Soc. d'Anth. vol. iii. p. 322), and 
in summarizing his study of the crania of the Tasmanians, stated that 
the skulls of Australians and Tasmanians examined by him differed con- 
siderably, and he gave it as his opinion that these two peoples were 
distinct races. He then made comparisons with other peoples, and said 
(P' 323) the black New Caledonians are not closely allied to the 
Tasmanians, but are closely allied with the Australians, and on p. 324 
that amongst the Australians and New Caledonians the face resembles 
the Tasmanians, whilst amongst the Polynesians of Tahiti and the Mar- 

• Races and Peoples, New York, 1890. 
t The Native Races of the Indian Archipelago, Papuans, London, 1853, p. 188. 



ORIGIN. 223 

quesas it is the skull which resembles that of the Tasmanians. He 
places (p. 325) the Tasmanians between the Australians, New Caledonians, 
New Hebrideans, Torres Islanders and natives of Papua generally on 
the one hand, and between the New Zealanders, Tahitians and Northern 
Polynesians on the other. His general summary is (p. 126), that if 
there are certain reasons for considering the Tasmanians to be 
the remains of an autochthonous race, originally pure and very distin(5l 
from those who surrounded them, there are equally valid reasons for 
considering them to be of multiple origin ; in the latter case they would 
be the fixed product of a cross between the black autochthonous race 
and of one of the invading groups of the great Polynesian family." 

Although Topinard did not publish his paper until the end of 1871, 
it was really written two years previously, and he had before then 
communicated his views to Bonwick.* In so far as I am able to under- 
stand Bonwick, he considers the whole of Eastern Australia to have 
been originally peopled by the late Tasmanians as an autochthonous 
race which was exterminated by the Australians, who, however, not 
having the means to invade New Guinea, New Caledonia or Tasmania, 
has left us the aboriginal races in these islands (Journ. Ethn. Soc. vol. 
ii. N S. 1870, p. 121). 

Sir Wm. Flower, writing in 1878, and after a general comparison of 
the Tasmanians with the Australians, says : ** The view, then, that I am 
most inclined to adopt of the Origin of the Tasmanians is that they 
are derived from the same stock as the Papuans or Melanesians; that 
they reached V. D. Land, by way of Australia, long anterior to the 
commencement of the comparatively high civilization of those portions of 
the race still inhabiting New Guinea and the adjacent islands, and also 
anterior to the advent in Australia of the existing native race, char- 
a(fterized by their straight hair and the possession of such weapons as 
the boomerang, throwing-stick, and shield, quite unknown to the 
Tasmanians. But these speculations on the relations, history, and migra- 
tions of the people who inhabit South-Eastern Asia and Australasia, 
require for their confirmation far more minute examination and comparison 
of their languages, customs, beliefs, and as I think, most important of 
all, their physical characflers, than has yet been bestowed upon them." 
(Royal Institution Ledlures, 1878.) Seven years later in his presidential 
address, he says: ** The now extinift inhabitants of Tasmania, were 
probably pure but aberrant members of the Melanesian group which have 
undergone a modification from the original type, not by a mixture with 

• In a foot note (p. 328) at the end of the table of measurements Topinard speaking 
of the publication of Bonwick's book " The Daily Life of the Tasmanians," says: 
"It contains a list of measurements, which I have placed at his disposal, and a 
note which I did not intend for publication. They were only simple notes, a pre- 
liminary enquiry for further verification. Since then I have had to discard from 
my series one cranium of doubtful origin ; I have added two others and I have 
replaced some of the measurements for others which are more corredl. 

" In conclusion the opinions expressed in the present m^moire are the only ones 
I am prepared to uphold, as resulting stridlly from the analysis of my eight certain 
skulls. It is my intention to compare them shortly with other Tasmanian series» 
especially those of Barnard Davis, and to draw common conclusions from them." 



224 H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

other races, but in consequence of long isolation, during which special 
characters have gradually developed. Lying completely out of the track 
of all civilization and commerce, even of the most primitive kind, they 
were little liable to be subjecfl to the influence of any other race, and 
there is in fad\ nothing among their chara<5lers which could be accounted 
for in this way, as they were intensely, even exaggeratedly Negroid in 
the form of nose, proje<5lion of mouth, and size of teeth, typically so in 
character of hair, and aberrant chiefly in width of skull in the parietal 
region. A cross with any Polynesian or Malay races sufficiently strong 
to produce this would in all probability have left some traces on other 
parts of their organisation " — J.A.I. 

De Quatrefages and Hamy state (p. 238): *'From whatever point we 
may look at it, the Tasmanian race presents such very special char- 
acteristics that it is quite impossible to discover any well-defined affinities 
(affiniies etroiUs) with any other existing human race. Placed in certain 
respecfls between the groups studied above [the Negritos and the Negrito- 
Papuans] and those to be studied next [the Papuans] , it detaches itself 
completely from both, and the anthropologist who studies it with attention 
soon convinces himself that from among the negro races it forms quite 
a division to itself. It is, however, less remote from the races we just 
studied [Nigritos and Nigrito-Papuans] than from those we we are about 
to study [Papuans] ." 

Abstract of Genealogical Table after De Quatrefages, to show the 
Relationship between the Tasmanians and other 

Negroid Families. 

Negro or Ethiopian. 



)-M« 



Austro- African. Australian. Indo-Melanesian 

African 

{aberrant 

type). 



Saab. Kamr. Negritic. Nubian. Negrillo 



Papuan. Tzismanian. Negrito, 



Australians Australians Negrito- Papuans. Dravi- Negrito, 
proper. Neanderthalo'ides. dians. 

Andaman- 
ese. 

In a later publication De Quatrefages (Introdudlion a 1' Etude des 
Races Humaines, Paris, 1889, p. 343) again places the Tasmanians 
between the Negrito-Papuans and the Papuans, but he also enlarges 
considerably against his previous view by giving a very definite opinion 
as to the relationship between the Tasmanians and other races. He 
says (ibid. p. 364) : ** All philologists who have studied the Tasmanian 
language have described therein grammatical affinities which conne<5l 
them with those of Australia. Maury unites them both in one family; 
Jukes recognises still closer relationship between the languages of 



ORIGIN. 225 

Tasmania and of New Caledonia — an opinion agreeing with that of Logan. 
These results throw some light on the ancient past of this unhappy race. 
They permit of an insight into the ancient relationships between these 
various groups, and seem to indicate the route taken by the Tasmanian 
race in reaching the island where it was to develop and to extinguish 
itself. Moreover, they justify the conjecfture I am about to make 
regarding the Australians." . . . He then goes on to point out that 
in Australia there are two distindl types, which he calls Australians 
proper and Australians neanderthaloides — a small group occupying the 
country about Adelaide, and having among other chara<5\eristics hair which 
closely resembles the woolly hair of the negro ; and he points out that 
the existence of this small group is analogous to similar grouping found 
among the Dravidians. ** This facft [of the existence of Australians with 
woolly hair] can be accounted for by presuming that true negroes formerly 
occupied the whole or a part of Australia ; that they were invaded by 
a black race with straight hair; and that it is to a blood mixing that 
the differences in the hair must be attributed. It is very probable that 
the Tasmanians furnished this negritic element. Their former existence 
in Australia has nothing about it which may not be very natural, and 
their facial characfleristics occasionally approximate closely enough to those 
of the Australians to allow of the probability of this hypothesis. An 
examination of the skulls of Australians with woolly hair from the 
southern tribes would probably solve the question. Finally, if my con- 
je<5lure be well founded, we must admit that the crossing must have 
taken place at a very remote period, and that the woolly hair could 
only reappear more or less modified by atavistic phenomena'' (pp. 

368-369). 

Dr. Garson says : ** From the osteological charadlers, and those of 
the hair skin, etc., it appears as if the Tasmanians were most allied to 
the Negrito and Melanesian types. In any case the Tasmanians have 
remained for a long period isolated from other races, as evidenced by 
the uniformity of their osteological charad^ers. It may seem somewhat 
di^fficult to relate the Tasmanians to the two races just named so far 
separated under the present existing geographical distribution of land and 
water. The Negritos appear to have been much more widely spread 
than at present, and give every evidence of being a very primitive 
type ; so that, as Flower has suggested, they may be the primitive 
stock from which the Melanesians on the one hand and the African 
Negroes on the other have been derived Such an hypothesis of the 
relationship of the Negrito to the Melanesian would explain, perhaps, 
the similarity of physical characters found to exist between these races 
and the Tasmanians. Should this be the case, the Tasmanians would, 
like the Andamanese, be the remnants of a primitive stock from which 
the other Melanesians have sprung.*' 

Regarding the hair : Barnard Davis (J.A.I, ii. p. 100) speaks of 
the delicate ribbon-like hair of the Tasmanians and Andaman islanders, 
and on the same page he states : ** The Tasmanian hair and that of 
the Mincopies [Andamans] is the same." The method of wearing the 
hair by the male Tasmanians resembles that of Papuan and Negro and 
Negrito tribes. But this is mere - custom, and from the following 

K2 



226 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 









comparative study of the hair of Tasmanians, Australians, Andamanese, 
and Papuans, for which I am indebted to Prof. Sydney J. Hickson, 
F.R.S., it will be seen that in the chara<5leristics of the hair the 
Tasmanian is more nearly allied to the Andamanese than any other race. 

Prof. Hickson states : 

" The hair of the Tasma- 
nians is of a light golden-brown 
colour, curly, and very flat in 
transverse se(5lion. Comparing 
it with the hair of other races, 
I find that it is lighter in colour 
than the hair of the Anda- 
manese, which is of a rich 
brown colour ; of the Papuans 
of the South Coast (New Gui- 
nea) which is of a dark -brown 
to almost black colour ; or of the 
Australians, which is quite black. 

" The curliness of the hair 
of the Tasmanians is less than 
that of any of the Papuans or 
Andamanese, but more than 
that of the Australians. Thus 
the average diameter of the 
curl of the Andamanese is 2 mm. 
of the Papuan 3 mm., of the 
Tasmanian 5 mm., but in the 
curliest hair of the Australians 
the curls are 10 mm. in diameter 
and the average must be nearly 
15 mm. 

** As to flatness. The hairs 
of the Tasmanian and Anda- 
manese are much flatter than 
those of the Australian and 
^apuan. The hair of the 
^apuan is flatter than that of 
the Australian, but is remark- 
ably round for a curly-headed 
race. This applies only to the 
Papuans of the South Coast 
« «rT.vro ^*e (Ncw Guiuea). The hair of 

SECTIONS OF HAIR OF AUSTRALIANS, PAPUANS, TAS- ^, _ . • i. j i 

MANiANs. AND ANDAMANESE AS A COMPARATIVE the Papuaus mvestigatcd by 

STUDY. Prepared and drawn by Prof. S. J. Pruner Bey seems to have been 

Hickson, F.R.S. The hair of the Tasmanians much flatter. The hair of the 

examined was taken from the colleaions of MM. Tasmanians is finer than the 

Eydoux and Demoutier. and kindly placed at ^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^ Papuans and Aus- 
my disposal by Dr. Verneau, of the Muse6 1 ^ ^ n ^, 

d'Anthr. Jardin des Plantes. Paris. The others tralians, but not SO fine as the 

from Prof Moseleys Collection. hair of the Andamanese." 




-Tc 



asmanians. — 



— /? nittm aneSC:— 




o 






THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



ASTOR. LENOX AND 
TILDLN FOwNDATIONS. 



ORIGIN. 227 

As to the existence of woolly haired Australians we may refer to 
Dampier's Voyages (I. p. 464) wherein describing, in 1668, the aborigines 
of the west coast he says : " Their hair is black, short, and curl'd, 
like that of the negroes, and not long and lank like the common 
Indians." Earl (p. 189) tells us : ** Frizzled hair is, however, very 
common among several aboriginal Australian tribes more especially those 
of the north and north-east coasts, and from the rough appearance of 
their uncombed locks when cut short, travellers have on several occasions 
been led to suppose that their hair resembled the wool of negroes, until 
undeceived by a close inspeiftion. But the peculiar tufted hair ef the 
Papuan has never, so far as the writer*s own experience goes, yet been 
dete(5led among the aborigines of the continent of Australia." 

As to Language : Fr. Miiller (iv. p. 39) says : " The language of 
the Andamans shows no affinity either with the Papuan languages or 
the idioms of the Nicobar islanders, or with the language of any of the 
island inhabitants of the Indian Ocean. We must acknowledge it as 
quite a peculiar isolated idiom ; ... in constru(ftion it belongs to the 
agglutinating languages." . . . According to A. J* Ellis (Trans. Philol. 
Soc. 1882-84, p. 48), " It will be observed the South Andaman language 
is very rich in vowel sounds, but is totally deficient in the hisses /, tk, 
s, sh, and the corresponding buzzes v^ dh, z^ zh" Further on he tells 
us (p. 51): "The word constru<5lion is twofold, that is, they have 
affixes and prefixes to the root ot a grammatical nature. The general 
principle of word constru(ftion is agglutination pure and simple." 

On turning to the chapter on Tasmanian language we find that it 
is agglutinating with suffixes, and apparently also with prefixes, in its 
word construdlion, and wanting in those hisses and buzzes similarly 
wanting among the Andamans As to any particular idiom I have not 
been able to distinguish it. From this it will be seen that the Tas- 
manian language is not only distiniftly non-Papuan, but that it has 
Andamanese charadlers. This is opposed to Latham's view {v. supra, 
p. 182). 

A comparison of the profile of a South Queensiander, photographed by Mr. 
J. J. Lister, of Trinity Coll., Cambridge, as shown on opposite page, will 
show how very closely such profile approximates to that of the Tasmanians. 

It would therefore appear that, from comparisons made between 
Tasmanians and Negritos, we find close relationship as regards the 
osteology, the hair, and the language, and we are, perhaps, not far 
wrong in concluding that this Nigritic Stock once peopled the whole of 
the Australian continent and Tasmania, until annihilated and partly 
assimilated by the invaders now known as Australians. The evidence 
of a neolithic invasion, brought forward by Professor Tylor at the Bristol 
Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, appears 
to give further support to the theory.* Furthermore, it may possibly 
be that some of the now known Australian ceremonies have been 
borrowed by the invaders, for we are told by Spencer and Gillen that 
f a wne rly the Australian women were allowed more cognisance of the 

* Oil the Survival of Palaeolthic Conditions in Tasmania and Australia, with Special 
Reference to the Modern Use of Unground Stone Implements in West Australia. 



228 H, LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

mysteries than at present, and as even in savage warfare women are 
rather captured than killed, the conquering Australians may have adopted 
some Tasmanian customs. Some of our meagre accounts of Tasmanian 
customs show a possible likeness to Australian customs, always bearing 
in mind the possibility that the records may be mixed ; such Tasmanian 
customs are the corrobories, the curious strudlures, fire legends, ants 
reviving dead people, the use of a separate fire by each family, and 
the alleged use of mocassins, the latter possibly the same as the feather 
tracking shoes of the Australians. Pra(ftically, however, although these 
customs may show a link between the incoming Australians and the 
ancestors of the Tasmanians on the island continent, we know too little 
of them to give a definite opinion. Nevertheless, the fanSi that we find 
Tasmanoid features (hair, shape of skull, unground stone implements) amongst 
the Australians, but no Australoid features (lank or curly hair, throwing- 
stick, hafted ground stone implements, boomerangs, and shields) among 
the Tasmanians, supports the theory that the Tasmanians were the 
aboriginal inhabitants of Australia. The sad and untimely destru<5lion 
of this interesting primitive race is one of the greatest losses Anthropology 
has suffered, for the race, while' living, carried with it all possibilities 4ag. 
for such studies as for years past have been made with ever increasing 
success amongst the Australians, but which, in the case of the Tasma- 
nians, we have unfortunately negledled. 



APPENDIX A. 



NORMAN'S VOCABULARY. 



**'PHE following vocabulary, which has never been in print, was 
1 forwarded to me by the late J. E. Calder. It was colledted by 
the late Rev. James Norman, at Port Sorrell, Tasmania, at which place 
he resided for many years as minister. In what tribes the words 
recorded were in use is not known." — (Curr, Vol. III.) 



English 

Ant (large) 
Ascend (v) 

Back (s) ... 
Bark, to ... 
Bark (s) ... 
Baskets (native) 
Be quiet ... 
Beef 
Big 

Birthplace ... 
Bite, to 
Black beetle 
Blood 

Blow, to ... 

Bone 

Bread 

Break, see Kill 

Breasts 

Bring, to ... 

Bring water 

Bush 

Calf (of leg) 

Caress, to ... 

Cat (domestic) 

Catamaran (raft) 

Chief 

Child (black) 



tyanermlnner, wayenennfir 
taccarnar, tangaruar 

karmurar, kamdurrenar 

tSlarnter 

moomSre 

tringherar, poakilar, meerar, parnellar 

carranSr 

parkallar 

jack^rdmSnar 

moledderner 

leeanner 

tarrargar, noonghenar, wollibbfimer 

myagurmeener, wyatSrmeener, pentSrwar- 

tener 
IScoonghenar, loangare 
trarmenar, triannar, pSnarthenar 
tooreelier 

narrargoonar, trarw€rlarner, tSburcarlodner 

worrar 

mokenur, woorunar 

meethSnar, pungalannar 

warkellar 

kayerpangurner, kamerminner 

wyarningherwunghemer 

lodcrapperner 

nS&ndrarner 

p56rnethenar 



M, 



NORMAN S VOCABULARY. 



Climb, to 

Clothing 

Cockatoo 

Cold 

Come 

Conveyance 

Convalescent 

Copulate ... 

Cramp 

Crow 

Cry, to 

Cuts in skin (ornamental) 

Cut, to 

Dead 

Deception ... 

Descend, to 

Dig, to 

Dirty 

Dive (v) ... 

Dog 

Drink, to ... 

Dull — stupid 

XZtfdl ... ... 

Earth 

Exclamations of surprise 
Exclamation to draw attention 
Evil spirit... 
Excrement... 
Expression of Salutation 

jL i/ y ^ • « • • • • 

Fall down... 
Fiddle 

A 1 i C^ • • ■ • • ■ 

Fire-tail (a bird) 
P'ire a gun, scourge 
Flatulent ... 

Fold up ... 

Food 

Foot 

Forehead ... 

Frightened 

Frog 

Flv 

Give away, to 
Go, to 



tarrarnarrar, croanghinnfee 

tuemar, tuernarnar 

toonanarnee 

krarwarlar 

teeaner 

leearmoorar 

taggurpeelar, numenopeetar 

trokenur 

worgoodiack 

lunyer, mokerer, teeanderoodenar triunyur 

terrar 

potthenar 

tatraanghiner, oongurterpooler 



blagurdediur, wordiock 

parmereuco, garhSrehobere 

mabberkennar, congurlunhiner 

martielcootenar, nonermeenar 

pleggurlermlnner, triagurbugherne 

togurlongurberner 

moograr 

temokenur 

toanner 

teemurladdenane 

triagurbugurne, plegurlarner 

tegurner 

allar ! nomebeu ! 

nee ! nee ! 

lagueropperne 

tvaner, teethanSr 

peulTnghenar, plegagenar 

plegurlethar, nebbelteethenar, neurikeenar 

nabberallick, nayendree 

lagapack, lagrerminner, langamark 

partroller 

pootherenner 

llnghenefi 

tickarnar, teeagurnaunerne 

neunar 

languenee 

glbbly 

langoonar 

monur, noonghiner 

terrewartenar 

roUaner 

neboolyunar, marnar, marpooemartenar 

parragonee, teaghener, rappee 
tagurner, trarwernar 



NORMAN S VOCABULARY. 



Ill 



Go back, to 




canghene 


Go 




topeltee 


Go away ... 




parrarwar 


Goat 




martillarghellar 


Good 




narrarcooper 


Ciood-bye . . . 




woUighererpernarner 


Grape 




turrurcurtar, turrocurthenar 


Grass 




rorertherwartener 


Grass (long) 




troonar, nungurminner 


Grub, found under the roots 


narnar, narnarnanne 


of trees 






Gum 


• • • • • ■ 


marnar, mdonar 


Gum-tree ... 


• • • ■ • • 


warterooenar, planduddenar 


Hair 


• • ■ ■ • • 


lagurnerbarner 


Han^^ (execute) 


• ■ • • ■ • 


troguiligurdick, wartherpoothertick 


Hand 


• • • • • ■ 


rajurner, narneruienner, partererminner 


He, she 


• > • ■ • ■ 


narrar 


Head 


• • • • • « 


neucougular, neugolar, peecarkerleinarmer 


Here 


• • • ■ • ■ 


lumbe 


Horse 


■ » • • • • 


parcoutenar 


House 


• ■ ■ • • • 


leebrerne, lopenarne 


Hungry (stomach 


empty) . . . 


plonerpurtick 


Hut 


■ • * • • • 


peungurnee, nartick 


Iguana [sic] 


« ■ • • « • 


martherrddenar, leenar, peelena, meethenna 


It 


• • • • • ■ 


niggur 


Jaw (under) 


• • • • * ■ 


camuner 


Jaw (upper) 


« » • • ■ • 


naarwinner 


Kangaroo . . . 


• • • • • • 


terrar, woolar, iilar, pleathenar 


Kangaroo rat 


• • « • • • 


keuperrar 


Kangaroo sinew 


• « • * • • 


laerpenner 


Kill or break 


• • • • • ■ 


crackerpucker, tamur 


Kiss, to 


• • * • • • 


melikener, pigurner 


Knead, to ... 


• • • • • • 


trallerpereener, benghernar, narrynar 


Knee 


■ ■ • • • ■ 


narnerpenner, pleanerpenner 


Laugh 


• • • • • • 


pilleurmolar, pickernar, mackererpillarne 


Lazy 


• ■ • • • • 


warterpoolyar, nemeener 


Leg 


• • • ■ ■ B 


plegurner, lurerener 


Lips 


• ■ • • • ■ 


wurlerminner 


Look ! 


• ■ • • « ■ 


tronecartee ! 


Look, to ... 


• • • • • • 


labberar 


Look at me 


• • • • ■ • 


labberar meener 


Magpie 


■ • « • • • 


callecotoghener, trubrarnar 


Man (White) 


• ■ « • « • 


loderwinner 


Man (Black) 


■ ■ • • • * 


wibar 


Me 


• • • • • • 


meener 



IV 



NORMAN S VO<"ABULARY. 



Mimosa (prickly) 
Moon see Sun 
More 
Mouth 
Move 
Music 

Mushroom (not eaten by the 
Blacks) 

aVA LXsJVC^L «•« •«• •»• 

Al USS6i ... ... ... 

Mosquito ... 
Mutton 

i^ aus ... ... ... 

Nprk 

^ ^ V./'V' AV •«• ••• •*• 

Nice or palatable ... 

^ ^ v.' A*. •■• ••• 

No good ... 

x^ v#s^ •.• «•« ••• 

X-^ &AVr/ •.• ••■ ••. 

open 
Opossum ... 

Jk V^ d^^ » M ■•• ••• ••■ 

Peppermint-tree 

Pie 

Pigeon 

Pidture 

Plenty 

Posteriors ... 
Pregnancy ... 
Presently ... 
Prick, to ... 
Pull to (a boat) 
Put or place (v) ... 
Put on (v) 

XVdlll ... ... ... 

Raw (relating to meat) 
Roast, to ... 
Rub, to 
Run, to 

Salt-water or sea ... 
Scorbutic complaint, name of 
Seaweed 

^j^^\> ••• *.« >•• 

Sirk 
Sing, to 



pavem Inner, rapprinner 

weemintr 

mOkerlecbrer 

lingurninne 

nayameroocamee, neberle, carnee 

plennar, neerar, neeraik, nieerorar 

partrollarne (see Fire), leunar, loeen ir 
poackerler, parnellar, warkeller 
niokerer 

mart. liar 

teuniincr, mar there roomenar 

plea. .« I .rdbberner, loorener 

leek ' ler, troanghener 

nuiM'iierv/ar 

noiul'Mrk 

maiiC A urrar, moonar 

niarit rv an, borar, parmere 
lce.:r av, leeangwullerary 
wo In niemer, tarrarnderrar 

wari( roorarnar, beemguoganar 

meet erbenar, moighenar 

com* artlnguner, probrithener 

lariui:, larrenar 

neeni.rteekener, loteebemeenemer, loteeghe- 

nai 
pannerprar 

catorar, warbererteener 
trairardlck, nomercurtick, planewoorask 
parroniack, peemar 
trounglienne 

parijonee, wayabbemer, lucroppener 
plangener 
toan()hinnee, mokenurminner 

toorar 

pleenduddiack, mancar 

meer rrr, marngumer 

newmertewghenar 

nounqhenar 

mokenur, trarwerlar 

peunerminner, leallerminner 

penneagurner, neoonendenar 

neunkenar 

loneroner, memunrack 

carnerwelegurner 



NORMAN S VOCABULARY. 



Sit down ... 

Shake hands 

Shake, to 

Shut 

Skin 

Sky 

Sleep, to 

Smoke 

Soldier (a corruption) 

Song, sung by women in a 

standing posture 
Sprat 

Speak, to ... 
Spear 
Spit, to 
Stare or track 
Starfish 
Stay 
Stone 

Stomach . . . 
Stomachful 
Strike 
Strong 
Suck 
Sun and Moon (left undis 

tinguished) 
Swim, to ... 



Take off, to 

Thighs 

Tiger (native) 

Toadstool ... 

Tobacco 

Toe 

To-day 

Tooth 

Tongue 

Touch, to ... 

Trinket 
Three 

There 

Throw, to ... 

Two 

Unfinished... 
Urine 

Vomit, to ... 
Waddy (club) 
Walk, to ... 



crackemee 

namermeriner, parlerlerminer 

peeng wartenar 

pomeway, pewterway 

neeamurrar, loantagarnar, moomtenar 

tooreener 

logurner 

noon wartenar, eularmmnSr 

tooyar 

mazgurickercarner 

pellogannor, ploo-criminnur 

carmee 

arlenar, peeamer, pleeplar 

mamerminner, petherwartenar 

lamgerner 

maenkdo, maarkanner 

ulvugheme 

teewartear, lamar, peurar, noeenar 

ploner, plaangner 

plonerboniack 

lurgurnarmoonar, riagurner 

noomeanner 

marrarwar 

tooweenyer, larthelar, warkellenner, larther- 

tegumer 
tringhener 

licanghener, licdorar 

trungermarteenar, kaarwerrar 

crimererrar 

pyagumer 

mayerkeperlarlee 

lagurner 

larthertegurner 

leeaner 

trarwerner, kanewurrar 

narnerminner 

derenner, neandramer 

wyandirwar 

marnder 

perrerpenner, lugurpemeller 

pyanerbarwar 

permayniertick 
moonghenar 

neugonar, wyangurner, penagherermeener 

Hilar 

podplanghenack, warkcrdoner 



VI 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Wash, to ... 






legumer 


Water 






mookenner 


Wattle-tree 






mdonar 


Wind 






linghenar, teeverluttenar, langumeiiai 


Wipe, to ... 
Wing of bird 

We 






nagunner, nabruckertarner 
podrunnar, paranerrar 

warrander 


Woman, anything appertaining to 
Wombat ... 


teebrarmokenur 
probriddener 


Wood 


• • « 


ft • • 


weenar, weenarname 


Wood ashes 


• • • 


• • • 


weentiennar, protroltiennar 


Whistle, to 
Whiskers . . 


• • • 

• ■ • 


■ ■ • 
• * ■ 


peucannor, ploogaminner, peunoonghener 
carmeener 


Yes 
You 


• • * 
■ • • 


• • • 

• • • 


paruxar, parwarlar 
neener 



Names of Natives given in the Rev. Mr. Norman's Vocabulary. 

Ben Lomond Mob. 

Leemogannar, the Chief. 



Women's Names. 



Teemee 

Mayt^enner 

Mallangarparwarleenar 

Prlgnapannar 

Parthernerpennener 

Teetherwubbelar 

Teeturterar 

Treearpanner 

Tinghererperrar 

Teewerlerpooner 

Tarthertildrer 

Rangurmanner 

N eandererpooner 

Keeterpooner 

Teelutterar 

Teugurerpanner 

Morennar 

CuppSrlangunar 

Peurupperleenar 

Py'angurerterrar 

Peuneroonerrooner 

Carnerleetenar 

Neemgurannar 

Planegarrartoothenar 

Teewerlerpooner 

Poorooneenar 

Pennererpurwurlennar 

Naggurpanner 

Pennerooner 

WarFlierlookertennar 

Plengurrerterrar 



Men's Names. 



Poorertenn€r 
Pebberpooter 



Teetherpooner 

Terrerpeenfirlangiimar 

Larwarlarparwarleenar 

Tewterpunnar 

Ting'urerperrar 

ParlerterwopittSner 

Carwerterwinner 

Lar'gunnar 

TeethermobbSrlar 

Pennerooner 

Trallarpeenar 

Plaanneroon€r 

Meemoolibbemer 

May'ennar 

Troon'etherpodner 

Leenereleanghener 

Larkigunar 

Puunerweeghunar 

Loonerminner 

Poothererterrar 

Pring'urtoolerar 

Teethermoopelrar 

Eb'belranner 

Laartennar 

Peb'beranar 

Pling'thodtenar 

Par'lerpeupgrtertenar 

War'ternammertinn^r 



NORMAN S VOCABULARY, 



VU 



Mowfirtennar 
Treegurpanner 
NeenSrcleener 
Wart€rl66k€rtennar 



Trar'nereener 

NamekSranner 

WartermeeluttSrweener 



Note. — Sexes of the Big River Tribe not distinguished. 

Big River Mob, 
Montfirpeelyarter, the Chief, 
Perrerparcootenar Tereetee. 



APPENDIX B. 



VOCABULARIES. 





D 




Dove, J 


orgen-Jorgensen & Braim. 




C 




Cook. 






G 


=^ 


Gaimard 


• 




L 




La Billardi^re. 




M 




McGeary. 




P 




Peron. 






R 




Roberts. 






S 




Scott. 






« 




Doubtfu 


I (owing to errors in transcription). 


Able or Strong 






• • • 


relipianna (D) 


Afar off 
Albatross 






■ ■ • 
• ■ • 


renene (P) 
tarrina (D) 


All round ... 




1 • • 


• • « 


metaira (M) 


Ankle 






• • • 


lure (P) fpena (S) 


Arm 






• ■ • 


regoula (G), womena (R), alree (D), naniiii- 


Arm, Fore- 






• • ■ 


anme (G) 


Arms 






• * • 


gouna Ha (L), abri (\V) (M), guna-lial (P) 


Ashamed (to be) 






■ • • 


vadaburena (M) 


Back 






• • • 


tabrina (R) 


Bad 




t ■ • 


• a ■ 


carty (D), katea (M), poamori (R), pein- 
driga p) 


Badger 






• • • 


publedina (D), napanrena (M) 


Bandicoot ... 






« • • 


lennira, padina (D), padana (M) 


Bark 






• ■ • 


une bura ? (P) 


Bark of a tree 


1 




• ■ • 


toline (L) 


Basket 






• • • 


terri (L), tareena (R), terri (P) 


Basket of sea-weed 


containing 




their water 




k • ■ 


• • • 


regaa (L)* 



t lia appears to be a plural termination (P). 



Vlll 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



.^jdi\^l\ ••• ••• ••• 

.J^CcLUd ••« ••• ••• 

.^jCckHX ••• ■•• >•• 

Beat (to) ... 
Bellv 

Bird, a small ; a native of 
the woods 

* * * * v& ••• ••■ ■•• 

Birth ... ... 

Bite (to) 

X^ldli^XV ••• ••■ «•« 

Black-man 

.X-^Ax^wVA •■• •■• ••• 

Blood 

Blow (to) ... 

Blow-flies ... 

Blush 

j3oai ... ... ... 

Boat, native 

Bone 

Bottle 

^^Xjy ••• •«• ■•• 

Boy (a little) 

Branch 

Xjicau ... «•• ... 

Break-wind or hut ... 

Break wind (to) 

J3I6aSl ... .a. ... 

Breast (of a man) ... 

Breast (of a woman) 

Brother 

Bullocks 

Bum oneself (to) ... 

Buttocks 

By-and-bye and soon 

Call (to) 

Canoe, see Catamaran, see Boat 
Cape Grim 
Casuarina, truit of . . . 
Cat 

Cat (native) 

Catamaran, see Boat, see Canoe 
? Cereopns ... 

Charcoal reduced to powder, with 
which they cover their bodies 



minna (D) 

perelede (P) 

kongine (P), coquina (R), conguine (L), 

kide (G) 
lane (G), kindrega (P) 
maguelena (G), lomodina (R), kaviranara 

(W) (M), miulean, cawereeny (D) 

lae renne (C) 

muta-muta (P), greigena (R), mouta mouta 

(L), iola (G), darwalla (S) 
aya (R) 
iane (G) 

wadene wine (G) 
palewaredia (D) 
keena teewa (D) 
balouina (G), balooyuna (S) 
bure (P) 
mounga (D) 
wadebeweana (D) 
luirapeuy, lallaby (D) 
pokak (D) 

pnale (G), toodna (R) teewandrik (D) 
luga (P) 

plerenny (D), plireni (M), leuna or luena (R) 
cuckana hudawinna (D) 
porshi (P) 

taoorela (S) towereela (D) 
tama leeberinna (D) 
tanina (L)* 
wagley (D), voyeni (M), lere (P), pouketa- 

lagna (G), potelakna (G) 
ladine (L) 
here (L) 

pleragenama (D), pleaganana (M) 
benkelow (D) 
laguana (Pj 

nune (L)*, wabrede (G) 
pairanapry (D) 

toni (P), tadkagna (G) 
lukrapani (M), nenga (P) 
pellree (B), pilni (M) 
lubada (P) 

largana (D), neperana (D) 
lila (E) (M) 
nungana (R) 
ronenan (G) 

loira (L) loira (P) 



VOCABULARIES. 



IX 



Cheek 

Cherries 

Chief 

Chier 

Child 

Children 

Chin 



Circular Head 

Cloak of kangaroo skins 

Cloud 

Cockatoo ... 
Cockatoo (white) 
Cockatoo (black) 
Coition, see Propagation 
Cold 
Come 

Come (to) ... 

Come ? will you 

Corrobory ... 

Country (The) all around 

Country 

Covering ... 

VyO iV ... « • a 

v^raL) • • > ... 

Crayfish 

Crooked 

Crown of Shells 
Cry (to) 
Crying 
Crystal 
Cut (to) 



neprane (G) nobrittaka (D) 

poaranna (R) 

bungana (D), bungana (M) 

tiouak (G) 

pugyta (R), louod (G), badany (D), leewoon (D) 

looweinna, pickaninny (D) 

onaba (L), coomegana (S), congene (R|, 
kamnina (M), onaba (P), camena (D) 

makita (M), martula (D) 

boira (P) 

bagota (R), limeri (M), white y pona (D), 
blacky roona (D) 

eribba (D) 

ngarana (R) 

moingnana (R) 

drogue (G) 

malanii (R), mallareede (C) 

todawadda (R), tepera (D), ganemerara (D), 
tarrabilye (D) 

tipera (M) 

canglonao (P), quangloa (L) 

terragoma (D) 

wallantanalinany (D) 

walana-lanala (M) 

legunia (D) 

cateena (D) 

renorari (P) 

nubena (R) 

powena (D) 

kella-katena (M), nanapatta (D), lina (D) 

canlaride (L) 

targa (D) 

taarana (R) 

keeka (D), heka (D) 

rogueri, toidi (L), rogeri, tordi (P) 



Dance 
Day 

Day (a) 

Day (fine) ... 

Day (to) 

Dead 

Death (to die) 

Den 

Devil 



Dine (to) 
Distance, at a 
Diver 



galogra (G), ledrae (P) 

tridadie (G), tagama (R), megra (M), lanena 
(D), loyowibba (D), loina (D) 

magra (D) 

lutregela (D), lutregala (M) 

waldeapowt (D) 

moingaba (R), lowatka v, (D), lowakka p, (D) 

mata (L), krag baga (G), mata (P) 

lewnana (D) 

comtana, nama (W), rediarapar(s) (M), 

comtena, patanela, rargeropper (D), talba 

(D), namneberick (D) 

bugure (P) 
renaue 
morana (R) 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Doe (forest) 
Dog 

Dog (native) 

Door 

Down there, a long way off ... 

Drake 

Drake (wild) 

Dress or covering 

Drink (to) ... 

t)ry 

Eagle 
Ear 



M.^tCLm O ••« ••* ••• 

Earth or ground 
Earth or sand 
Eat (to) 

Eat, I will ... 

Eat, let us go and ... 

^m'^^ ... ••• ... 

A_/ 1 OOAnf *.• .•• .•• 

£«II1U ... ... ... 

Evacuate (to) 

Eucalyptus tree 

Eucalyptus, branch^of the, with 

its leaves 
Eucalyptus resinif^a, seed of the 
Eucalyptus, trunk of . . . 

Mm^ It ^? ••• ••• ••• 



Eyebrow . . . 
Eyebrows ... 
Eyes 

Eyelash 

Face 

Fall (to) 
Family (my) 
Father 

Feather 
Feathers . . . 



ragana (D) 

moukra (G), booloobenara, kuayetta (S), 
mooboa (D), comtena (D), 

leputalla (E) (M), ioputallow (D), lowdina (D) 

temminoop (D) 

renave (L) 

malbena (M), lamilbena (D) 

malbena (D) 

legunia (D) ^ 

lugana (D), laina (L), kible (G), lugana (M), 
laina (P) 

katrihiutana (M), catrebuteany (D) 

nairana (R) 

tiberatie (G), roogara (S), pitserata (M), 
cuengi-lia (P), cowanrigga (D), koy'gee (C) 
pelverata (D), towrick (D) 

cuengi-lia (L), wegge iR), pelverata (D), 
lewlina (D) 

gunta (D), natta (M) 

emita (D) 

kible (G), teegera (C), newinna (giblee), 
meenawa (D) 

made guera (L), madegera (P) 

mat guera (L), matgera (P) 

komeka (G), palinna (D) 

rowella (D), rowella (W) (M) 

padanawoonta (S), ngananna (R), rekura (D), 
rakana (M) 

legana (D), legard (M), tere (P) * 

tara (P), tara (L) 

poroqui (L) 

monouadra (L), monodadro (P) 

p6rebe (L), pirebe (D) 

elpina (G), nubrana (R), everai (C), name- 
ricca, lepena (D), lepina (M), nubere (P), 
poollatoola (D), lemanrick (D) 

tipla (W) (M), bringdeu (D) 

blaktera (G) 

nubru nubere (L), nepoogamena (S), polla- 

toola (D) 
leelberrick (D) 

niparana, manrable (D), niperina, manarabel 

(W) M) 

midugiya (P) 

tagari-lia L), tagari-lia (P 

nimermena (G), munlamana (D), tatana D), 
mumlamana (M) 

kaa-oo-legebra (S) 

munwaddia (D) 



VOCABULARIES. 



XI 



Feminina ? see also Uterus and 
Vagina ... 

Fern tree ... 
Fight (to) ... 
Fighting ... 

Finger 

M/ ultf CI 9 •*. •«• ... 

Fire 

^ XwIa •** ••• •*• 

Fishes (smalt) of the species of 

^rcMcivO ••• •■• ••• 

Fist 

^ft> AiJ^ ••• •■• ••• 

JL. A V ^7 ••• ••» ••• 

X^ i A 1116 ••• ••• ••» 

•A Iwdll ••• ■** ■■• 

Flint, or a knife 

X^ l(/^nr 6X ••• ••• ••• 

X^ tj \ci) • • • • • • • • • 

Flying 

F 06LUS ••• ••• ••• 

•1 ^^n ••• ••• >>• 

JL ^/\^L ••■ ••* •>* 

Forehead ... 

X^ (^I C&L «•• ••• ••• 

Friendship... 

X^ 1 ^w ••• ••• ••• 

X 1 x^w L ••• ••• ■•• 

Fucus palmatus 

Oannet 
Get 

^JXX * •■• ■»• ••* 

Girl (little) ... 

Give me 

Go home ... 

Go and eat 

Go, I will ... 

Go, I will, or I must be gone... 

Go away ... 

Go away, let us 

Gone, I must be, or I will go ... 

Good 

Good, yes ... 

Go on 

Goose 

vJ&dSS • . • • • • 



tibera (M), megua (P) 

tena (L) 

memana (D), menana (M) 

monganenida (R) 

patarola (D) 

anme (G) ; fore-finger, motook (D) 

lori lori (L), reena (R) 

une (D, padrol (G), nooena (S), ouane (R), 
lopa, unee, leipa (D), lope (M), une (P) 

breona (R), pinounn (G) 

pounerala (L), punerala (P) 

trew (D), reannemana (D) 

karde (G) 

lopatin (D) 

cragana (R) 

teroona, trawootta (S) 

paraka (D) 

oelle (L), oille (P), mounga (D; 

pinega (M), pinega (D) 

leward (J) 

mina (M), muna (D) 

dogna (G), lagarra (R), lula, labricka, (D), 
langana (M) (D), labittaka (D) 

rouna (G), druan a malla (S), rougena (R) 

loviegana (M) 

caradi (R) 

pulbena (M) (D) 

ounadina (R), ulta (D), oltana (M) 

rugona (P) 

crupena (R) 

mengana (D), mengana (M) 

deeberana (R), ludineny (D), sudinana (M) 

cuckanay (D), ludineny 

noki (L), noki (P), muru-manginie (D) 

tackany (D), kabelti (M), haku-tettiga (D) 

mat guera 

ronda (L) 

toga*-rago (C) 

tagara (R) 

tangara (L;, tangara (P) 

toga*-rago (C) 

paegrada (R), naracoopa (D), pandorga (D) 

erre (P) 

tabelty (D) 

robenganna (D), robengana (M) 

poene (L), rawinuina (S), rodidana, myria, 

megra, rodedana, publi (M), poene (P), 

neena (D) 



xu 



H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Grass tree (Xanthorrhaa) 

Grease the hair (to) 

Ground 

Gull 

Gum-tree ... 

Gun 

Hair 



Haliotis 
Hand 

Hands 

Handsome... 

Handsome (very), or very* good 

Hawk 

Hawk (black) 

Hawk (eagle) 

Hawk, see Sparrow-hawk 

XX edu ... ••• ••• 



Heart 
Heaven 

\ XCwx • • • • • • 

Here, or this 

High 

Hill 

Horse 

House 

Huitrier noir 

Hunger 

Hunt, I will go and 

Hut 



JL • • • ••• ••• ••• 

I, or me, or mine... 

Insec5l of the order Circeftdela 

Island 

Island (large) 

Jump (to) ... 
Kangaroo ... 



Kangaroo Boomer .. 

Kangaroo Brush 

Kangaroo Pouch 

Kangaroo Rat 



comthenana (D), komtenana (M) 
lane poere (L), tane poere (P) 
gunta, longa, nata (D), gonta (M) 
rowennana (D), rowenana (M) 
greeta iR) 
lila, lola (D) 

cethana, palanina, pareata, parba (D), zitina 
(M), ciliogeni (P), pelilogueni (L), kide 
(G), nukakala (S) 

caene (P), caene (L 

dregena, reegebena (S), nuna (R), anamana, 
rabalga (D), anamana (M), ri-lia (P) 

riz-lia (L) 

marakupa (M) 

naracoopa (D) 

ingenana (M) pueta (D) 

putuna (M) 

eugenana (D), coweena (D) cockinna (D) 

eloura (G), neeanapena (S), pathenanaddi, 
pulbeany, ewucka (D), cuegi (P) awit- 
taka (D) 

retena (G) 

renn hatara (G) 

rigl (G), laidcSga (P) 

nuka (D) 

vatina 

neika (D) 

baircutana (D) 

lineda (R) 

lele (G) 

tigate (G) 

mena malaga latia (M), poopu (D) 

leprena (D), temma, poporok (D), tama 
leberinna (D) 

mana (P) 

mena (D), manga (D) 

paroe (L),* paroe (P) 

lewrewagera (D), lirevigana (M) 

laibrenala (D) 

w^aragra (P) 

lalliga (D), lelagia (W) (M), leina (R) tara- 
mei (G), male^ lemmook (D), female^ 
lurgu (D 

rena (S) 

lena (S) 

kigranana (D), krigenana (M) 

reprenana (D), riprinana (M) 



VOCABULARIES. 



^m 



Kangaroo skin 

Kernel of Eucalyptus resinifera ... 

Kick (to) ... 

XvUl ... >.. ... 

XvALIk •.* •.■ ... 

A^AwO ••■ ■•» ... 

X^UCC ••• ••• *•« 

Kneel (to) ... 

Knife, see Flint 
Know (to) ... 
Know, I do not 

Lad 

X^cllgC ••• ••■ ••■ 

Laugh (to) 
Laughing ... 

^^ wC»X ••• ••» ••• 

^^ wfif ••• ••* ••■ 

1 #CwO ■•• ■■« ••• 

Let us go . . . 
Lie (verb) ... 
Light 
Lightning 

J-^*L9w ••• ... ... 

jL'irtie ... ... ... 

Lobster 

Long way or time ... 

Louse 

Low 

Magpie 

ivx an ... ... ... 

Man (black) 
Man (old) .. 

Man (white) 

Manchot bleu 

Many ... ..: 

Marrow of a bone ... 

Me 

Me or mine, or I 

Me (for) ... 

Mersey (river) 

Moon 

Morning 



boira (L), bleagana (S) 

manouadra 

vere (P) 

wanga (D) 

bungana (D) 

modamogi (R) [lips ; mogudi] 

ienebe (G), nannabenana (D), minebana (M), 

ranga-lia (P) 
guanera (P) ■ 

ragua-lia (L) 

tunapee (J), tunepi (M), manga-namraga (D) 
nideje (P) 

plerenny (D), marinnook (D) 

elpenia, elbenia (G) 

pigne (G), tenalga (D), drohi (P) 

binana (R) 

driue (P) 

langna (G), leurina (R), lathanama (D), leea 
(D), latanama (M) 

tavengana (M) 

tangari 

kateena (D) 

unamenina (R) 

une bura (P) nammorgun (D) 

mogude lia (L), mona (G), mogudi lia (P) 

bodenevoued (G), moboleneda (R), canara or 

curena (D), lavara (M) 
nude (L), nuele (P) 
mannta (D) 
nure (P) 
liutece (M) 

kenara (M), canara (D) 

looudouene (G), nagada (R), penna (D), 
wybra, ludowing (D), lusivina (M) 

wibia, palewaredia (B), vaiba (M) 
lowlobengang, pebleganana (D), lalubegana 
(M) 

ludowing, numeraredia (D), ragina, ragi, 
rytia (S), reigina, begutta (R) 

penewine (G) 

nanwoon (D) 

moomelena (S) 

mana (L), pawahi (P) 

mena (D) 

paouai (L) 

pirinapel (M), paranaple (D) 

tegoura (G), wee-etta (S), weethae (R), weipa 
(D), lutana, weena, webba (D), vena (M) 

nigrarua (R) 



mr 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Mortal (that is) 
Mosquito ... 
Moss 
Mother 

Mountain ... 
Mouth 

Mouth, teeth, or tongue 
Mussel (sea) 
Mutton bird 



Nails 

Nails on the feet 

Nails on the hands 

Name of a man 

Name (another) of 

Navel 

Neck 



Night 

No 
Nose 



a man 



Nurse 

Oak 

Oar 

Ochre 

Old 

One 

One side 

Opossum 

Other 

Oyster 

Oysters 

Oyster-shell 

Parrakeet . 
Parrot 

Pelican 



Penis, see Virilia 

Petrel (black) 

Phalanger . . . 

Pillow (little) on which the 
men support themselves ... 

PinP 



mata enigo 

redpa (D) 

manura (P) 

blemana (G), tattana (M), powamena (D), 

pamena (D) 
meledna (G), trdwala (M), truwalla (D) 

mona (G), moonapena (S), canina (R), you- 
tantalabana, canea (D) 

ka'my (C) 

mire (L) 

yavla (M), youla (D), laninyua (D) 

reerana (R), nil (G) 

pere lia (L) 

toni lia (L), toni lia (P) 

mara (L) 

mera (L) 

lue (L), Hue (P) 

oinhlera (G), loobeyera (S), lepina, denia 
(W) (M), lepera (D), denia (D) 

livorc (G), luena (R), burdunya (P), levira 
(M), leware (D), crowrowa (D), rorook 

neudi (L), poutie (G), nendi (P), pootia (D) 

muguiz (L), medouer (G), megrooera (S), 

mudena (R), muidje (C), minarara (Si), 

mugid (P), mena, rawarriga (D), rowick 

(D) 
makrie-meenamru (D) 

lemena (M), lemana (D) 

panna (D) 

mallaue (L) 

petebela (M), petibela (D) 

pammere (G), marai (P), par-me-ry (D) 

mabea (M) 

milabaina (M), milabena (D) 

naba (D) 

tarlagna (G), rauba (R), lonbodia (P) 

taralangana (D) 

luba (P), louba (L) 

mola (P) 

girgra (P), mola (L), carraca (D), murrock 

(D) 
treoute (G), trudena (M), trewdina (D), 
lanaba (D) 

line (L)*, pelgana (G) 

iola (G) 

lognenena (G) 

roer6 (L) 

menk (D) 



VOCABULARIES. 



XY 



Play (to) ... 
Plenty 
Plunge (to) 

Polishing (the acftion ot) wood 
with a shell 

Porcupine ... 

Porpoise 

Port Sorrell 

Posteriors ... 

Propagation (the acfi of), see 
Coition 

Put wood on the fire 
Rain 



Rain -drops... 

Raven 

Red 

River 

River (large) 

River (very large) .. 

Rivulet 

Round turn 
Run (to) ... 



Salt water... 

fc^dllU ... ... ... 

Sand or earth 

Sapling 

Scar, a, or mark on the arm 

Scars elevated on the body ... 

Scelerya (a species of very large) 

%_^V^v.^AVX •■• •■• ••■ 

w_7^^Cl «■* •«• ■■« 

Sea- swallow 

Sea-weed (dried) which they 
eat after having softened it 
in the fire 

Sea- weed (Fucus ciliatus) 

Sea-weed (jointed) 

Seal 

Seal (otarii) 

^3CC ... 

Sexual organs, see Feminina, 
see Penis 

Sharpen ... 

wI711dA ■•■ »•• ■•• 



pass (P) 
nanwoon (D) 
bugure (L) 
rina (L), rina (P) 

tremana (M), trewmena, milma, menna (D) 

parappa (D) 

panatani (M) panatana (D) 

wobrata (M), nunc (L) 

loidrougera (L)* 

treni (V) 

manghelena (G), boora (R), talawa (D), 
taddiva (D) 

rinadena (D) 

trenn houtne (G) 

bolouine (G) 

nabowla (D), waltomana (Mj 

warthanina (D) 

waddamana (D) 

montumana (D), montemana (M) 

megog (M) 

mabea (D) 

moltema, mella, tagowawinna (D), moltema^ 
mella (M), tablene pinikta (G) 

lena (R) 

gune (P) 

emita (B) 

prebena (R) 

troobenick (S) 

no'onga (C) 

leni (L) 

kenweika (D) 

legana (G), neethoba (D), nirripa (D) 

mole (G) 

rauri (L), rori (P), roorga (D) 



roman inou (L) 

nowalene (L)*, roenan inu (P) 

marina (R), cartela (D), kateila (M) 

oulde (G) 

lamunika lapree (D), manga-namraga (D) 

quendera rL), rendera (P) 



nemewaddiana (D), rulemena (D) 
keekawa (D) 
kaa-ana (S) 



itvi 



H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Shell-fish ... 

Sheoak (a species of fir-tree) ... 

Ship or boat 

i3XllU ••* .•• •«• 

Shout 'to ... 

Sing (to) 
Singing 
Sit down 

Sit, see Stand 

%^ JVA&I ••• ••• ••■ 

Skv 

Slap (to) 
Sleep (to) ... 

Small 

tOII10J\6 ... •«. ••< 

OllcLKe ••. ... ..i 

Snow 

Soon, by-and-bye 

Sparrow-hawk, see Hawk 

Speak (to) 

^peai • • • ... • . I 

Spear (to) ..." 

Spit (to) 

^^L/llllC ••• ... ••! 

Stand, sit, stop or stay 

Star 

Stars (little) 

Star-fish 
Stay, see Stand 
Stone (a) ... 

Stop, see Stand 

Stop (to) ... ... ' 

Storm 

Stout 

Strangle (to) 

Stringy bark 

Strong or able 

ouiivy ... ... .. 

Sultry 

Sun (the) .. 



Swam 
Swimming ... 



barana (R) 
lube(R) 
luiropony (D) 
tedeluna (R) 

carney (D), ca walla |D), kami (M) 
meena (D) 

kanewedigda (G), ledrani (P) 
tiana (R) 

medi (L), crackenicka (D), meevenany (D,) 
mevana (M), medi,medit6 (P), crackena (D) 

kidna (G), tendana (R) 
poiedaranina (R) 
loila (D) 
noeni (P) 

malougna (L), nenn here (G), loagna (R) 

makunya (F), roroowa (D) 
teeboack 
boorana (R) 

powranna (D), katal (M) 
oldina (D,^ oldina (M) 
pairanapry (D) 
gan henen henen (G; 
kane (G) 

preana (S), preena (R), raccah, rugga (D) 
kie (P) 

pinor bouadia (G) 
crackbennina (R) 
crackena (D) 

murdunna (D), potena, marama (M) 
pa Ian a, marama (D), daledine(R), moorden (D) 

lenigugana (D) 
oneri (P) 

loTne (L), lenn parena (G), peoora (S), nannee 
(D), nami (M), loine (P), lenicarpeny (D), 
longa (D) 

neckaproiny (D), mekropani (M), crackena (D) 

tihourata (G) 

canola (M) 

lodamerede (P) 

toilena (R) 

ralipianna (D) 

ratairareny (D 

ratavenina (M) 

panumere (L), tegoura ? (G), paganubrana 
(S), pannubrae (R), petreanna, nabageena 
loyna (D), piterina (M), panubere (Pk 
loina (D) 

robigana, publee, wybia, cocha (D), rowen- 

pugara (R [dana M 



VOCABULARIES. 



XVll 



Talk 

Tattoo (to)... 
Tattooing ... 
Tear (to) ... 
Teeth 



Tell, I, you 

Ten 

Testicle 

Testicles ... 

That 

That or them, or they, he, her 

That belongs to me 

That kills . . . 

They 

Thigh 

Thirst 

This 

This way ... 

Three 

Throw (to)... 

Thumb 

Thunder . . . 

Tie 

Tiger 

Time (long) or long way ... 

To-morrow 

Tongue, The, see also Teeth . . . 



JL X ^7^? •■• ••• ••• 

^ X C^CO ••• •■• ••• 

^ wjf\J ■•• ■•• ••• 

Two, A higher number than 



palquand (R) 
palere (L) 
palere (L) 
ure (P) 

pegui (L), beyge (R), yanna, yannalople, 
cawna (D), yana (M), pegi (P), or mouth 
or tongue ka*my (C), iane (G) 

mena lageta (M) 

karde karde (G) 

kewatna (G) 

mada lia (L) * 

avere (P;, av6re (L) 

nara (D) 

patourana (L), paturana (P) 

mata e nigo (P) 

nara <D) 

teigna (R), tula (D), tula (M) 

kabrouta (G) 

lonoi (P), nicka (J) 

lone (P), lomi (L) 

aliri (P) 

pegara (Li, (P) 

manamera, tagina (S), rennitta (R), wan (D) 

bura (P), nawaun (D) 

nimere (P; 

lowerinna (D) 

manuta (D) 

ligrame (R) 

mene (L), guenerouera (G), mene (R) mene 
(R), mena, tullana, mamana (D), mina 
(M), mene (P), or mouth or teeth, 
ka'my (C) 

moumra (G), weena (R), lupari (P), tor- 
onna (D) 

moogootena (S) 

kateboueve (G), cal-a-ba-wa (D), bura (P) 

car-di-a (D) - . 



Understand, I do not 
Untie (to) ... 
Upset (to)... 
Uterus 

Vagina, see Feminina 

Valley 

Virilia, see Penis 

Waddie 

\ V aice . • • • • • 

Walk (to) ... 

Walking 



nidejo (P) 
laini (P) 
moido-guna (P) 
tioulan (G) 

megua (L) 
logowelae (R) 
lipi (M) 

rocah (D), lorina 'R), lerga (D) 
lowenruppa (D) 
tagna (G), tabelti (M) 
tablety (D), tieriga, tablue (D) 



/ 



kviii 



H. LING ROTH^ — ABORIGINBS OF TASMANIA. 



Wallaby ... 
Warm . ... 
Warm oneself (to) ... 
vv as •.* ... 

Water 

Water-bag... 
Water (fresh) 

Water (salt) 

Water (to make) 

Way (long) or a long time 

Weapon ... 

Weep (to) ... 

What do you call this ? ) 

What is your name ? ) 

White 

Whiting 

White-man 

Whistle (to) " ... 

Wife 

Wind 

Wing 
Woman 

Woman (black) 
Woman's ... 
Woman (white' 
Wombat ... 
Wood 

Wood (fire) 

Wood Dead- ■ ... 

Wound 

Yellow ochre 
Yes! good! 
You 



. . 



tarana (R), tana (D) 

lagarudde (R) 

gagvui (P) 

tanah (D) 

boue lakade (G), mookaria (S), leni, moga 
(mocha) (D) 

nitipa (Dj 

l^ana, moka (D), lugan4y moga (M), lia (P), 
leena (R), mogo, lerui (D) 

moahakali (M) 

tiouegle (G) 

manuta (D) 

le(P) 

tara (P), gnaiele (G) 

wanarana (P) 

lore (G) 

pinougna (G) 

mimeraredia (D 

menne (P) 

cuani (P) 

tegouratina (G), ragalanae (R), ioyorajina (D), 
leewan (D) 

lappa (D) 

quani (L), loubra (G), !quadne, lolna lubra» 
(D), lowlapewanna (D), lurga (D) 

louana (R) 
le'pa (D) 

reigina loanina (R) 
rogeta (R), quoiba (D) 

moumbra (G), mouna (R), moomara, weela 
(D), mumanara (E) (M), gui (P 

walliga (B) 
weegena (S) 
barana (G) 

malane (P) 

erre (P) 

nina (L), nina (P), nena ninga (D) 



APPENDIX C. 

Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 

List of Short Sentences. 

List of Aboriginal Names of Places. 

Lists of Names of Men and Women. 

Aboriginal Verses in Honour of a Great Chief. 

Sung as an Accompaniment to a Native Dance or Hiayei. 

Fragments of Two Songs. 

By JOSEPH MILLIGAN, F.L.S. 

(From Papers and Proceedings Roy. Soc. of Tasmania, Vol. III., Pt. II., 1859). 







Tribes about Mount Royal, 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay 


Brune Island, Recherche 


North -west and Western 


to Pitwater. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania. 




Abscess 


Lieemena 


Limete 


Wallamale 


Absent 


Malumbo 


Taggara 


Wakannara 


Abstain 


Miengpa 


Parrawe 


Wannabea Tough 


Abstra<5\ (to dedutft) 


Nuna-mara 






Accompany 


Taw6 




Tawelea Mepoilea 


Acid (taste) 


No-Wieack 


Noilee 


'Gdulla 


Acrid (taste) 


Peooniack 


Mene wutti or mene 
ruggara 




Across (to put or place) 


Prolon-unyere 


Wuggara Tungale 


Tienenable poingh 


Add to or put 


Prolone 


Poggona nee Wughta 


Poilabea 


Adult man 


Puggana Minyenna 


Pallawah 


Pahlea 


Adult woman 


Lowalla Minyenna 


Nienate and Lowanna 


Noallea 


Afraid 


Tianna Coithyack 


Tiennawille 


Camballat6 , 


Afternoon 


Kaawutto 


Nunto-ne 


Kaoonyleah 


Aged (literally rotten - 
boned 
Agile 


Tinna-triouratick 


Nagataboye 


'Gnee-mucJcle 


Menakarowa 


Narra arraggara 




Ah! 


Ah! 


Mile-ne ! 




Air 


Oimunnia 


Rialannah 




Albatross 


Pookanah 


Tarremah 




Aloft 


Muyanato 


Crougana Wughata 




Altogether 


Nimtyemtick 


Mabbyle 




Amatory (rakish) 


Rinnyowalinya 


Lingana looa renowa 




Anger 


Miengconnenechana 


Poine moonalane 




Angle (crooked like the 


Wien-powenya 


Wiena and Wienenna 




elbow) 









XX 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Tribes from Oyster Bay 
to Pitwater. 



Ankle 
Anoint 
Another 
Answer (to) 

Ant, large blue 

Ant, small black, strong 

smelling 
Ant, largest black veno 

mous 
Ant, red body, black 

head and tail 
Ant-eater (Echidna 

setosa) 
Apparition 

Aquiline (Roman- 
nosed) 

Arm 

Ashamed 

Aha I you are sulky all 
of a sudden 

Ashes 

Ask 

Asleep 

Awake (to open the 
eyes) 

ditto 

Awake him, rouse him 

Awake (rouse ye, get 
up) 

Ay (yes) 

Azure (sky) 

Babe 

Bachelor 

Back (the) 

Backward 

Bad (no good) 

Bald -coot f Pofphyrio 

melanotus) 
Bandy-legged 
Bandicoot (Parameles 

ohesula) 
Bark (of a tree) 
Bark of a tree (flapping) 
Barren (woman) 

Ditto, ditto 
Baskets 
Bat 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Bnine Island. Recherche 
Bay. and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Munnaghana 
Yennemee 
Tabboucack 
Ouneeprape 

Pugganeiptietta 
Ouiteitana 

Tietta 

Nowateita 

Mungyenna or Moy- 

nea 
Wurra-wena, Krot- 

tomientoneack 
Muunna puggawinya 

Wu'hnna 
Leiemtonnyack 
Annyah ! Teborah ! ^ 

Tontaiyenna 
Ongheewammena 
Tugganick 
Cranny-mongthee 

Wennymongthee 
Lientiape 
Lientable, tagga 

muna! 
Narramima 
Noorbiack 

Cottruluttye 

Pugganara mitt ye 

Me-inghana 

Lenere 

Noweiack 

Leah.Tyenna 

Lackaniampaoick 
Tiennah or Tienyenah 

Poora, poora-nah 
Poorakunnah 
Kaeeto Kekrabonah 
Nangemoona 
Tughbranah 
Peounyenna or Pug- 
wennah 






North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Munna-wanna 
Ruggara 
Neggana 

Oghnemipejm^ Ogh- 
nerope 

Moy berry 

Tite 

Lalla and Loattera 

Munnye or Meemmah 

Ria-wurrawa 

Maitingule 

Wu'hnna 
Lienute 

Keetrelbea-noomena, 
peniggomaree ! 
Toiberry 
Oghnamilce 
Longhana 



N unneoine-roidukate 

Nawate, pegrate, 
wergho ! 
Narrawa 
Warra-ne 

Puggata riela 

Lowatimy 

Talinah 

Talire 

Noile 

Tipunah 

Rentrouete 
Tenghanah or Tenna, 
or Leningha 
Warra 

Lowarinnakunna 
Lovva puggatimy 
Loakennamale 
Trenah 
Lerinah or Lueekah 



Roughtuly ne 

Onabeamabbele 

Nenarongabea 



Illetiape 
Takkawugh ne 

Narra baro 
Loaranneleah 

Rikent6 

Paponnewatte 

Teerannelee-leah 

Kelabatecorah 

Ee-ayngh-la-leah 



Lugoileah Mungo- 
inah leah 
Poora leah 

Lopiteneeba 

Tille 





milligan's. 


XXI 


Vocabulary 


OF Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of 


Tasmania. 






Tribes about Mount Royal, 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay 


Brune Island, Recherche 


North-west and Western 


to Pitwater. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania. 




Battle 


Miemyenganeh 


Mialungana 


Mungymeni leah 


Beard 


Comena purennah 


Cowinne 


Comen6-waggel6 


Beardless 


Comena-ranyah 


Cow-in-timy 


Cominerah leah 


Beat (to strike) 


Legganegulumpte 


Lugguna 


Menghboibee rate 


Beau (coxcomb) 


Pugganatereetye 


Pallowah-tutte 


Papponne tughte 
leah 
Noa noughanoatte 


Beauty (fine looking 


Lowanna-elapthatye 


Nire-lowa 


woman) 








Ditto, ditto 


Lowanna - eleebana - 
leah 


Loa-minery 




Bed (sleeping-place in 


Oortrackeomee 


Orragurra wurina 




the bush) 








Ditto 


Noonameena 


Orragurra nemony 




Before 


M eal t et r iangul ebeah 


Prungee 




Behind 


Mealtitta lerrentitta 


Talina 




Belch (to) 


Luonna-kuima 


Loona kanna 




Belly 


Tree-erina 


Lomate 




Big (large) 


Teeunna 


Papla 




Bill (birds) 


Meunna 


Peegra 




Bird 


Puggunyenna 


Punna 




Bite 


Ralkwomma 


Rebkarranah 




Bitter 


Laieeriack 


Poina noily 




Blandfordia mhilis 


None in the District 


Remine 




Black 


Mawback or Maw- 
banna 


Loaparte 




Blood (my) 


Warrgata nieena 


Coccah 




Blossom 


Maleetye 


Nannee Purillaben- 
annee 




Blow-fly 


Mongana 


Monganah 




Blow (with the mouth 


Loyune 


Loinganah 




forcibly) 








Boil {Furunculus) 


Lieemena 


Lieematah 




Bosom (woman's) 


Paruggana 


Parugganah 




Bosom (man's) 


Puggamenyera ' Parrungyenah or li- 

atiiny 




Boy (Small child) 


Malengyenna Puggatah Paw-awe 


• 


Boy (large ditto) 


Cotty-mellitye 


Poilahmaneenah 




Bread 


Pan n a boo 


Pannaboo-na 




Bread (give me some) 


Tienna miape panna- 


Tiengana ma panna- 


Tunghmbibe tunga- 




boona 


boo 


ringalea 


Breast (chest) 


1 Meryanna 


Toorinah 




Brook 


Manenge-keetanna 


Wayatinah 




Broom (a besom) 


Perruttye | Beroieah 




Brother (little) 


Nietta mena or niet-: Piembucki 
arrana 




Brother (big) 


, Puggana Tuantittyah Peegennah 




Brow (forehead) 


Rogoona ' Roi-runnah 




Brushwood 


Weena-keetyenna 


Looranah 




Burn (hurt by fire) 


Punna ineena 


Wuggatah 




Bury (to) 


Purrawe peanglunta- 


Pomanneneluko 






poo 


1 
1 


6 



XXll 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Buttock 

Buzz (like a fly ; also 
name of fly) 
By and bye 



Come along, I want 
you 
Call 

Canoe (Catamaran) 
Carcase 

Cat (large native) 
Cat (small native) 

Catarrh 
Catarrh 

Ditto with Dyspnoea 
Caterpillar (small) 
Cavern 
Caul 

Cease (to) 

Charcoal 

Chase (to) 

Chirrup (to) 

Chin 

Chine (backbone 

Chiton (sea shell) 

Cider from Eucalyptus 

Circle 

Claw (talon) 

Clay 

Clean 

Climb (to) 

Clutch (to) 

Cobbler's Awl (a bird; 

Cold 

Come (to) 
Ditto 

Conflux (crowd) 

Conflagration 

Conversation (a great 
talking) 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Cord (a small rope) 

Corpse (a dead carcase) 

Correct 

Cough 

Coxcomb (a fine-look- 
ing fellow) 



Tribes from Oyster Bay 
to Pitwater. 



Liengana 
Mongana 

Piyere 



Talpyawadyno Tu- 
yena-cunnamee 
Ronnie 
Mallanna 
Miackbourack 
Luyenna 
Pringreenyeh 

Teachrymena 

Teaknonyak 

Takkaruttye 

Rianna 

Lielle wollingana 

Roongreena 

Myeemarah 
Maweena 
Rhinyetto 
Tetyenna 
Comnienna 
Myingana-tenena 
Puggamoona 
Way-a linah 
Lowamachana 
Kurluggana 
Pannogana Malittye 
Pannyealeebna 
Krony6 
Tiackboorack 
Ya-warramakunnya 
Tunack 

Tal pey awadeno 
Tallya-lea 
Tirranganna menya 
Kawaloochta 
Rhineowa mungonag 
unea poj^gana karn( 
Karnyalimenya 
Karnalirya 
Metakeetana 
Myack boor rack 
Onnyneealeeby(? 
Tachareetya 
Puggana tareetya 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brune Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Nunnah 
Monganah 

Gunnyem waubera- 
boo 

Tattawattah onga- 
neena 

Ronnypalpee 
Nunganah 
Miepoiyenah 
Luyennr 
Lapuggana 

Manah 

Tekalieny 

Manah larree 

Peenga 

Poatina 

Meena, or Loarinah 

Parrawfc 

Loarra 

Lerypoontabee 

Telita 

Wahba 

Turarunna 

Taroona 

Way-a-linah 

Riawunna 

Kuluggana 

Pappalye Mallee 

Mallea 

Kroanna 

Tigyola 

Memma 

Mallane 

Tutta watta 

Palabamabbylfc 
Loiny or Una paroina 
Poyara kanna 

nuemena 
Karnamoonalane 
Karnalare 
Mite 

Moye or mungye 
Nirabe 
Mannaladdy 
Pallawah tutty 



Tunnakah makun- 
nah talmatieraleh 

Nunghuna 

Lunna or Laboib*^ 
Labaggyna, or Na- 

boineenele 
Teachreena 
Teeakunny 
Poorannacalle 



Mena lowallina, or 
Kuttamoileh 



MILLIGAN S. 



XXlll 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Coxcomb 
Cockatoo, white 

Cockatoo, black 

Crab (largest) 
Crazy (cranky) 



Crevice or fissure in 

rocks 
Creek 
Cross 
Crow 
Cry (weep) 

Ditto 
Cut (to) [guage) 

Cape Portland (Ian- 
Creak (from fri(flion of 

limbs of trees) 

Dance 

Dark 

Daughter 

Daylight 

Dead 

Deaf 

Deep (water) 

Demon 

Demur (grumble) 

Den (of wild animals) 

L>epi6\ (draw a design 

in charcoal) 
Deplore (to lament, as 

at an Irish wake) 
Desire (to) 
Desist (to) 
Devil (Daayurus ursintts) 
Dine (to) 
Dirt (mud of a whitish 

colour) 
Dirt (mud dried) 
Dirt 
Dirty 

Displease (to make 
an^ry) 

Dispute (to) 
Distant 



Tribes from Oyster Bay, 
to Pitwater. 



Puggatimypena 
Weeanoobryna or Oi 

ynoobryna 
Menuggana or Meno 

kanna 
Wugherapunganah 
Tagantyenna or Mug 

gana Puggoonyack 

Liellowullingana 

Manenya keetanna 
Oeilupoonia urapoonie 
Lietenna or Lieetah 
Naoutagh bourack 
Tagara toomiack 
Logoone 
Tebrycunna 
Temeta kunna 



Rianna riacunha 
Taggremapack 
Neantymena 
Taggre marannye 
Mientung bourrack 

and merack- bourack 
Guallengatick guan 

ghata 

Loa Maggalangta 
Mienginya 
Kokoleeny konqua 
Lienwollingena 
Macooboona 

Tagrunah kamulug- 

gana 
Oonacragniack 
Parrawureigunepa 
Poirinnah 
Pooloogoorack 
Panogana maleetya 

Pengana rutta 
Pengana 
Mawpack 
Lieneghi miaweroor 

Kukunna poipug- 

geapa 

Rinnea guannettya 
Manlumbera 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brune Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Pallawahpamary 
'nghara or Oorah 

*nghara rumna or 
Nearipah 

Tannatea 



Riengeena 

Liapota 
Poire tungaba 
Taw wereiny or Linah 
Moi luggata 
Tarra toone 
Toagarah 

Retakunna 



Rialangana 

Nune meene lareaboo 

Loggatale meena 

Luggaraniale 

Moye 

Wayeebede 

Kellatie 

Ria warrawah nolle 

Riengena Poatina 
Pallapoirena 

Moalugatta Kanna- 
proie 

Poykokarra 
Parawuree 
Tarrabah 
Tuggara nowe 
Mannana Mally6 

Mannana rulle 
Mannana 
Mawpa 
Poinawalle 



Kanna Moonalane 
Kantoggana webbery 



North-west and Western 
Tribes 



Wayenoeele or Poi- 
etanatc' or Konga- 
tun€ or Kongatueele 



Pawtening-eelyle 



XXIV 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Dive (to) 

Diversion (sport, play 

Dizzy 

Dog 

Dove (wild pigeon) 

Draw (to pull) 

Dream 

Drink 

Drop (water) 

Drown 

Drowsy 

Dry 

Ditto 
Duck (gender not dis- 
tinguished) 
Dug 

Dull (stupid dolt) 
Dumb 

Dung (excrement) 
Dusk 
Dust 
Dwarf 
Dysentery or Diarrhoea 

East Bay Neck 
Eagle Hawk Neck 
Eagle 

Eagle's nest 
Ear 

Early (in the morning 
at twilight) 
Earth (mould) 
Earthquake 
Earthworm 
Eat heartily 
Eat (to) 
Eat (to) 
Eagle (Osprey) 

„ (Wedge-tail) 
Echo 
Eel 
Effluvia 

Elbow 

Elf or fairy (fond of 
children and dances in 
the hills, after the 
fashion of Scotch fai 
ries) 

Eloquent (talkative) 

Ember (red hot) 

I 



Tribes from Oyster Bay, 
to Pit water. 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brune Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania 



Tone lunto 

Leenyalle 

Mongtantiack 

Kaeeta 

Mongalonerya 

Ko-ulopu 

N each a puggaroamee 

Lougholee 

Liemkaneack 

Tong bourrak 

Tugganemenuiack 

Rongoiulongbourrack 

Roungeack 

Wiekennya 

Paroogualla 

Koullangtaratta 

Manemmenena 

Tiamena 

Kaoota 

Pughrenna 

Wughwerra paeetya 

Tiaquennye 

Lueenalangta 

Teeralinnick 

Gooalanghta 

Lieemunetta 

Mungenna 

Tuggamarannye 

Pengana 

W ug h y r a n n iack 

Lollah 

Telbeteleebea 

Tughlee 

Tuggana 

Tortyennah 

Kuynah 

Kukanna wurrawina 

Lengomenya 

Mebreac 

Liena punna 

Wieninnah 

Nang-inya 



Munkanniira walah 
Toneetea 



Togana Lea-lutah 

Luggara Riawe 

Nubretanyt6 

Panoine 

Moatah 

Menghana 

Neaggara 

Nugara 

Mikany 

Tong Poyere 

Nueen6dy 

Karnaroid e 

Woaroir6 

Paruggana 

Poyetannyte 

Menawely 

Tiena 

Panubratone 

Nuggatapawe 
Tiamabbyl6 

Lueenalanghta 

Teralinna 

Weelaty 

Lieewughta 

Wayee 

Nunawenapoyla 

Mannena 
Munna Potrunne 
Lollara 

Tughrah 
Tuggranah 
Neathkah 
Korunah 
Kannamayete 
Lingowenah 
Poine noile 
Pateenah 
Wayeninnah 
Nungheenah or noilo- 
wanah 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Kannamoonalan6 
W'eealuttah 



MILUGAN S 



XXV 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Embowel (to dis-j 
Embrace (Platonic) 



Emmet (small ant) 
Emu (bird) 
Encampment 

Enfeeble (to) 
Ditto 
Enough (sufficient) 
Entrails 

Evening 
Exchange 

Excrement 
Expectorate 
Extinguish 
Exudation 

Exu via (skin of a snake) 

Eye 

Eyebrow 

Eyelash 

Eyelid 

Eyry 

Falmouth and George's 

River 
Face 

Face (fine) 
Facetious 
Faint 
Fairy 

Falsehood 

Fang (canine tooth) 

Far 
Ditto 

Fat 

Fat man 
Fat woman 
Father 

Feast 

Feather 

Feces 



Tribes from Oyster Bay 
to Pitwater. 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brune Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Parrawe tiakrangana 
Talwattawa 
Rugana wurranaree 
Ramuna reluganee 
Ouyeteita 
Punnamoonta 
Lena wughta rota- 

leebana 
Miengotick 
Mienkomyack 
Miemeremele 
Regana Tianna or 

Tiakrangana 
Kaoota 
Tientewatera nente or 

Tiangtete-wemyna 
Tiamena 
Teagarea kraganeack 
Parliere 
Wailina or Wallenah 

or Wallamenula 
Lierkanapoona or 

Liekapoona 
Mongtena 
Lyeninna poorinna 
Mongtalinna 
Moygta genna 
Malanna meena 

Kunawra Kunna 

Neingheta 

Niengheta elapthatea 
Poigneagana 
Mongtaniack 
Murrumbuckannya 

or Nanginnya 
Maneentayana 
Wugherinna Rugo- 

toleebana 
Tongoomela 
Lewatenoo or Nan- 

gummora 
Niennameena 
Poonamena moonta 
Nienna langhta 
Noonalmeena 

Tuggely pettaleebea 

Puggerinna 

Tianana 



Parratibe 
Tallawatta 



Lallah 
*ngunannah 
Line rotali 

Mungawele 

Narramoiewa 
Poine 

Kawootah 
Tayenebe or Tayene 

nyelutera 
Tiannah 
Manna merede 
Patingunabe 
Wialine 

Liergrapoinena 

Nupre or Nubrenah 
Leeininne 
Nubre tongany 
Nubre wurrine 
Linenah 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Moilatena 



Noienenah 

Neiena nire 

Pane or Penamabbele 

Nubretannete 

Murrumbukannya 

Laninga noil6 
Payee rotyle or Coo- 

rina 
Lomawpa 
Tomalah 

Pangana wayedee 
Pallawah proina 
Lowa proina 
Nanghabee or Nan- 
ghamee 
Tuggety proibee 
Lowinne 
Tianah 



XXVI 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OP TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary • of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



iTribes about Mount Royal, 
Tribes from Oyster Bay I Brune Island, Recherche 



to Pit water. 



Feeble 

Feel (to pinch) 

Fern 

Fern -tree 

Fetch (to bring) 

Fetch (a spirit) 

Fever 

Few 

Fiend 

Fight 

Filth 

Fin (of a fish) 

Finger 

Fire 

Fire-tail [Estrelda hello) 

Fire in the bush grass 

Firm (not rotten) 

Firmament (sky) 

Fish (a) 

Fish (cray) 

Fist 

Five 

Flambeau 

Flank 

Flay 

Flea 

Fleet (swift) 

Fleece (or fur of ani- 
mals) 

Flesh (meat) 

Fling 

Flint 
Ditto (black) - 

Float (to) 

Flog 

Flounder (flat fish) 

Flow (as water) 

Fly (like a bird) 

Fly (inse(f\) 

Foam (froth) 

Fog 

Foolish (or fool) 

Foot 

Foot (right) 

Foot (left) 

Footmark of black man 

Footmark of white man 

Ford, of a river 

Forehead 



Tuggemboonah 

Wughanne 

Lawitta-brutea 

Nowarracomminea 

Kunnywattera 

Preolenna 

Miempeooniack 

Luowa [mienginnya 

Winnya Wainettea or 

Miamengana 

Lenymebrye 

Wunha 

Ri-ena 

Tonna 

Lyenapon tendiah 

Kawurrinna 

Weerutta 

Warratinna 

Mungunna 

Nunnya 

Ree-Trierrena 

Pugganna 

Poorena Maneggana 

Poolominna 

Relbooee trawmea 

Lowangerimena 

Wurrangata 

poonalareetye 
Pooeerinna 

Wiangata 

Peawe 

Trowutta 

Lia ruoluttea 
Luggana Poogarane 
Lerunna 
Lia tarightea 
Koomeela 
Mongana 
Kukamena-mena 
Mainentayana 
Mungana paonyack 
Luggana 

Luggana eleebana 
Luggana aoota 
Puggalugganna 
Ria luggana 
Teeatta kannawa 
Raoonah or Rogoun- 
im Lienya 



Bay. and 
Tasmania. 



the South of 



*ngattai 
Winghanee 
Tughanah 
Lapoinya 
Kanna watta 

Mie luggrata 

Potalughye 

Winneluaghabaru 

Moymengana 

Line poine noil6 

Purgha lamarina 

Rye-na 

'ngune' 

Lyekah or Layngana 

Lienah 

Weerulle 

Warrangale Lorunna 

Peeggana 

Nube 

Ree-mutha 

Mar ah 

Leewurre 

Poolum ta and Tiawal6 

Lergara Leawarina 

None 

Loongana 

Longwinny 

Palammena 

Pakara 

Mungara 

Mora trona 

Puggata or Rannyana 

Lunghana 

'ngupota-metee 

Lia teruttena 

Coaggara 

Monga 

Lia laratame 

Warratie 

Noiiee 

Lugganah 

Lugga worina 

Lugga Oangta 

Pallowa lugganah 

Reea lugganah 

Penghana 

Roee Roeerunna 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Reeleah 
Winnaleah 



Nubyna 



Lann6 



Pulangale 

Louneeate 

Lugh 

Malleeare 

oolatyneeale 

Pah lug 

Matyena lugh 

Rioona 



MILLIGAN S 



XXVll 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Tribes from Oyster Bay 
to Pit water. 



Forest ground 

Forget 

Four 

Fragrant (smell) 

Freestone 

Fresh water 
Friend 

Frigid (cold) 

Fright 

Frog 

Frost 

Frost (hoar) 

Fuel 

Full (after a meal) 

Full (a vessel filled) 

Fun (sport) 

Fundament 

Fur of animals 

Fury 



Gale 

Gannet (5»/a Australis) 
Gape 

Ghost 
Giri 

Glutton 

Good Person 

Go 

Good (things) 

Goose (Cape Barren) 

Cereopsis Nov. Holh ' 
Gosling 
Grandmother 
Grass 
Great-bellied (with 

child) 

Green (thing) 
Greeting (a) 
Grin (to make faces) 

Grinder (back tooth) 

Gristle 

Groin 

Ground 



Teeatta kannamarra- 

nah 
Poeenabah 
Pagunta 
Noya leebana 
Boatta or potha mal- 

leetye 
Liena eleebana 
Kaeetagooanamenah 

Tunnack 
Tian-cottiack 
Rallah 
Parattah 
Parattiana 
Wielurena 
Riawaeeack 
Rueeleetipla 
Riawena 
Leieena 
Pooerinna 

Leenangunnye or ko- 
ananietya 

Ralanghta 

Rooganah 
Grannacunna 

Wurrawana 
Lowana keetanna or 

Kottomalletye 
Lemyouterittya 
Kekanna elangoonya 
Tawe 

Noona meena 
Weienterootya or 

Wientalootya 
Keeta boena 
Lowan kareimena 
Rouninna 
Lowallaomnena 

Norabeetya 
Yah ! Tahwattywa 
Moonapaooniack 
paoreetye 

Wuggarinna Ryana 
Comyenna 
Mungalarrina 
Pvengana [?] 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brune Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Wayraparattee 

Wannabayooerack 
Wullyawa 
Poine nire 
Potta mallya 

Lienir6 

Lapoile lu nagreenah 
moolanah 
Mallane 
Tianawilly 
Tattounepuyna 
Oorattai 
Oorattai 

Ooeena or Winna 
Ma teelaty 
Kanna 
Luggara 
Loie Loinmge 
Longwinny 
Liapooneranah 



Rallana proiena 

Rahra 

Granna canaibee 

Riawarawapah 
Longatyle 

Pamoonalantutte 

Niree 

Takavvbee 

Ooraimabile 

Nove. 

[Wyemena 
Ooaimena or 
Nemone 

Puggata Lovvatta 
lutta 
Nobeetya mallya 
Yah ! Nun'oyne 
I MoyetungaH 

I Payelughana 
Weyale 
Tramina 
Mannina 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Pallanyneen6 

Lyinneragoo 

Polimganoanate 
Poningalee 

Lie nonghate 
Matete loguattame 

*Ptunarra 
Micumoolaka 
Lora 
Oolrah 

Ooee 

Mapilriagunara 
Yeackanara 
Riawe 

Waggele 
Neenubru-latai 



Loweeny Rulloi leah 
or Loweeny loileah 

'ngana kankapea ool- 
ralabeah capueeleah 
Teeananga winne 
Noamoloibee 

Tuggattapeeatto 
Kanna noangate 
Tawe 
Noonamoy 
None, 



Neenambee 

Probluah 

Lomallee 

Mallabeabu 

Yah! 

Boabenneetea 

Yennaloigh 
Pengai 
Tarrant 
Nattie 



xxvm 



H. LING ROTH.— -ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 







Tribes about Mount Royal, 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay 


Bniae Island, Kecherche 


North-west and Western 


to Pit water. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania. 




Grow (as a tree, child) 


Myallanga bourack 


Mangapoiere 


Mallacka 


Growl 


Nanneaquanhe 


N un n aq uannapeiere 


Dyekka namenera 


Grub 


Menia or Mungwenya 


Larraminnia 


Langw6 


Gull [Larus Pacificus) 


Lueeteianna 


Lieppetah or 'ngawah 


Payngh 


Gulp (to) 


Tongwamma 


Tongane 


Tonnabea 


Gum (wattle tree) 


Munganna 


Reeatta 


Reeattawe6 


Gum tree [Eucalyptus) 


Lottah 


Moonah 


Loyke 


Gums (of the mouth) 


'ngenna 


Carena 


Kattamoy 


Gun (musket) 


Leryna or le langta 


Pawleena 


RuUe 


Gunpowder 


Lerytiana 


Paw4eenatiana 


Lughtoy 


Glow-worm or phos- 


Pugganga lewa or 


Payaleena 




phoresence 


Monghtamena 






HaliotU (ear shell) 
H. tvbercalata 


I Yawarrenah 


Netepah 
Lorokukka 




H. glabra 


Magranyah 






Hail 


Pratleratta 


Turelai 




Hair 


Poinglyenna 


Poiete longwinne 




Ditto (matted with 


Poinghana 


Poina 




ochre) 








Halo (round the moon) 


Weetaboona 


Panoggata 




Halt (limp on leg) 


Ungunniack 


'nganee 




Ham or Hough 


Pryenna 


Tabba 




Hamstring (the) 


Metta 


Tapmita 




Hand 


Kiena 


Reenmutta 




Harlot 


Pugganatingana or 
meneteruttye 


Patingana 




Hastily (quickly) 


Lemya or tuggana 


Cothe 




Hawk ihraddea) 


Nierrina 


Pengana 




Ditto small (Astur 


Nowarra nenah 


Toeenah 




at>proximans 








Heron (Egret) white 


Yennenah 






[Her dtas sytmaio- 








phofiis) 








Heron (blue crane) 




Lunga nua wah 




(Ardea Nov. Holland.) 








Head 


Oolumpta 


Poiete 




Head-ache 


Oongena Hack 


Poiete merede and 
poingata 




Heal 


Raick bourrack 


Nire 




Heap (to make a) 


Prolmy nunty menta 


Teeate 




Hear (to) 


Toienook boorack 


Wayee 




Hen (native) 


Mienteroony6 


Riacoone 


Reeakallingalle 


Hold your tongue, be 


My-elbeerkamma or 


Kanna moona lane 


Wannabee or kan 


patient, by and bye 


Mealkammah 


mentakuntiby or 
Konnyab 


nebo 


Heart 


Teeackana warrana 


Teggana 




Heat 


Peooniack 


Lughrah 




Heave (to pant) 


Tengoonyack 


Teggalughrata 




Heavy 


Miemooatick 


Moorah 




Heel 


Tokana or Toggana 


Tokana 





MILLIGAN S. 



XXIX 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Help 

Hide (to conceal 
kangaroo) 
Hide one's self 
Hill (little one) 
Hill (mountain) 



Hit 

Hither and thither 

Hoar-frost 

Hoarse 

Hole (like wombat 

burrow) 
Honey- sucker (Melip- 

Jiaga Australasiana) 
Hot 

House or hut 
Howl (in distress like 

a dog) 

Humid (wet damp) 
Hunger 
Husband 

Hurt ^with spear) 
Hurt (with waddie) 

Ice 

Iguana (lizard) 

111 (sick) 

Imp 

Impatient 
Inacflive (indolent) 
Indolent (lazy) 

Infant 

Ditto female 
Infant, newly born 
Inform (to tell) 

Ditto (tell me) 
Instant (quick) 
Instep 
Intersedl 
Intestines 
Intimidate 
Invigorate 



awbone 
ealous 



Tribes from Oyster Bay, 
to Pitwater. 



Nelumie 
Lyeemena kamei 

Mur kamiah 
Poimena 
Poimena tylenkan- 

ganarrah Tineare- 

warrah 
Menny 
Pughawee nyawee 

Tyeebertia 
Lonypeack 
Lowa lengana 

Liapatyenna 

Peooniack 
Lenna or Leprena 
Tuggermacama or 

Myluggana 
Malleeack 
M eeoongy neack 
Puggan neena 
Mayannee rayeree 
Payalee 

Paratta 

Lyennah 

Crackanaeeack 

Winya waumetya 
Telwangatea leah 
Meallee tonerragetta 
Mimooneka nentaca 
nepoony 
Malangenna 

Cotruoluttye 

Oana 

Oana mia 

Krottee 

Lugga poola mena 

Unginnapuee 

Tiacrakena 

Tiencootye 

Neingtera teroontee 

Yangena 
Pachabrea longhe 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brun6 Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Lagrah 
Muggrah 

Muggrah 
Layete paawe 
Layete proigh 



Merrhe 

Takra, tungal^, 

tungale 
Warattai 
Lonnabeeade 
'ngeanah 

Tarrerikah 

Lughrata 

Line 

Cockata 

Layekah 
Teecotte 
Pah -neena 
Roaddah 
Loipune 

Rullai ungaratin6 
Toorah 

Merede and merydy- 
neh 

Ria warappe nolle 
Kannamoonalann6 
Rannah moorinah 
Rannah moorinah 

Puggetta 
Lowa luggata 
Puggata Riale 
Oanganah 
Ongana meena 
Koatte 

Lugga umene 
Poany puere 
Lomatina 
Tienweale 



Wahba and wabranna 
Mahrewealai and 
poinewealai 



Lanne 



Lebrina or Leebra 



Ralloileah 
Monaganurrah 



Lapoitale or Lapoit- 
[endayl6 



Ninenna leah 



8 



XXX 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



_- 


1 




Tribes about Mount Royal, 


^ ~ 


T7rk«iicK 1 Tribes from Oyster Bay 
*^"^"^"* to Pitwater. 


Brun^ Island, Recherche 


North-west and Western 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 




C 




Tasmania. 




■ erk 


)o-ule 


Cokura 




" uice of a plant, red 


Miangatentye 


Miengaleena 




Ditto, white Tuggara maleety6 


Taramena 




unip 
] uvenile 


Wughallee 


Warrakara 




Croat ta meleetye 






Kangaroo (forester) 


Newittye 


Tarrana 


Tarraleah 


Ditto (bush) 


Ooaleetya Ree-enna 
or Lyenna 


Lazzakah or Lenah 


Kuleah 


Kangaroo, j oey (young ) 


Tumnanna 


Rarryna 


Piaclumme 


Kangaroo rat Nienyennah 


Koonah 




Keep 


Tialapue 


Tiagarra 




Kill (deprive of life) 


Mienemiento 


Lungana 




Kingfisher {Alcyone 


Teepookana 


Turrah 




Diemenensis) 








Kiss (to) Miewalle 


Moee Mire 




Knee Mienna 


Ranga 


Rawinna leah 


Kneel 


Mealle mianaberre 


Leetarangah 


Wannabya ramin- 
naerybee 


Knuckle 


Reekateninna 


Ria puggana 


Releenulah leah 


Lad 


Puggan naereebana 


Pa-ga-talina 




Lake (lagoon) 


Miena, mena 


Lia mena 




Lame 


Playwarrungana 


Luggamutte or Rag- 
gamuttah 




Lance (wooden spear) 


Perenna or Prenna 


Pena 




Large I big) 


Paw pel a 


Proina nughabah 




Last (to walk last in 


Loente wamla 


Mituggara murawa- 




file) 




mena 




Laugh 


Poeenyeggana 


Pcenghana 


Pen inn a 


Lax (Diarrhoea) 


Tiacroinnainena 


Tia noileh 




Lazy (see Indolent) 


Mienoyack 


Ruete 


Rudanah 


Leaf 


Poruttye 


Proie 


Parocheboina 


Leafless ! Poruttye-mayeck and 


Paroytimena 


Parochyateemena 


; paruye noyeinaeck 






Lean Tughenapoonyack 


'Ngattai 


'ngatta 


Leap (see Jump) \\ ughalleh 


Wurragara 




Leech Pyenna 


Pangah 


Liawena 


Left hand Riena-aoota 


'N gotta 


Oottamutta 


Leg, left Leoonyana 


Luggunagoota 


Luggrangootta 


Leg, right Leoonya eleebana 


Warrina niro 


Lugra-nire 


Lick (with the tongue) Neungulee 


Nugra inainre 




Lie (falsehood) 




Manengtyangha 
. Tyangamoneeny 


Linughe noile 




rappare 






Light of a fire | Tonna kayinna 




Unamayna 


Lightning , Poimettye 


Poimataleena 


Rayeepoinee 


Limp (see Lame) right \\ ughnna eleebana 






foot 






Ditto, left foot 


Playwuglirena 


Raggamuttah 




Limpet 


A 


A'attah 


Tangah 







MILLIGAN S 


XXXI 


Vocabulary 


OF Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of 


Tasmania. 






Tribes about Mount Royal,', 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay, 


Brun6 Island, Recherche 


North-west and Western 


to Pitwater. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania. 




Lips 


Mounah 


Moye 




Little birds 


Wurramatyenna 






Lizard 


Preeatenna or Priet- 


Runnawenah or Pry- 






tah 


aminna 




Load 


Mahgeluhwa 


Munghe mabblely 




Lobster, freshwater 


Tayatea 


Tay-a-teh 




Locust (V.D.L.) 


Ganammeny6 


Ganemtnanga 




Log (wood) 


Wyee langhta 


Weea proingha 




Long 


Rogoteleebana 


Rotuli 




Long way 


Murramanattya Ona- 


Noina inuttaina or 


Rowe leah 




marumpto 


Maantah 




Look (to gaze) 


Reliquamma 


Lutubreneme 




Loud (to speak) 


Kuggana langhta 


Kanne proine wag- 
gaba 




Low 


Lunta 


Pranako 




Magpie 


Poirenyenna 


Reninna 


Curraillyle 


Maim 


Mennanwee 






Man (black) 


Pugganna or Weiba 


Pallawah or Wiebah 


Pah-leah or Pahly- 


Ditto (white) 


Rianna • 


Ludowinn6 


Namma [ekka 


Many (a great number) 


Luawah 


Mabbolah 




Marrow 


Moomelinah 


Lebrana 




Me 


Mina [ena 


Meenah or Manah 




Menstruate 


Teebra wanghatam- 






Mid-day (or noon) 


Tooggy malangta 


Toina wunna 




Milk (of aboriginal 


Proogwallah 


Prooga neannah 




woman) 








Milt of fish 


Lowalinnamelah 


Perina 




Mirth 


Leeneale 


Penamoonalane 




Mischief 


Puoynoback 


Tannate 




Mole — cricket 


Nawywemena 






Moon 


Wiggetena 


VVeetah 


Weenah leah 


Moonlight 


Wiggetapoona 


Weetapoona 


Weenapooleah 


Moss 


Lagowunnah 






Mother 


Neinginena 


Neeminah 


Neena Moygh 


Moth [punctata) 


Commeneana 






Mountain Buck (Anas 


Lonna mutta 


Opah 




Mouse 


Terangate Munug- 
gana 


Pugganarottah 


Ptoarah leah 


Mouth 


Kakannina 


Kaneinah 


Kapoughy leah 


Mud, sediment 


Kokeree Kokeleetye 


Manannywayleh 




Murmur 


Mannyaquanee 


Kanaroiluggata 




Mushroom 


Neatyranna 


Nearanna 




Musk Duck (Biziura 


Tenghyenna 


Rangawah 




lohata) 








Mussell (shell fish) 


Paraganna 


Teeoonah 




Mutton bird (sooty 


Yolla 


Yolla 




Petrel) 








Mutton fish, smooth 


Magrannyah 


Lorokukka 




(Haliotis) 








Mutton fish (rough) 


Yawarrenah 


Netepa 





XXXll 



H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 







Tribes about Mount Royal, 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay 


Brun6 Island, Recherche 


North-west and Western 


to Pitwater. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania. 
Ryeetonye 




Nail (finger) 


Tonye or Pounye 


Wante leah 


Nail (toe) 


Peyerrena 


Lugga-tonny6 


Perrarunne 


Native hen 


M iengterawinny a 


Tiabunna 




Native cat, large (Da- 


Pungeranyah 






sytirus maculatus) 








Ditto, small {D. viv- 


Luvennah 


Roonah 


errinus) 








Navel 


Mienanuggana 


Tunoh or Lughi 




Nautilus shell (Argo- 


Wietatenana or Wie- 


Weettah or Wibalen- 


Weena runnah 


naut) 


tenah 


gah 




Near 


Malumnyella 


Rene 


Neck 


Pilowettah 


Lorainah 




Nettle 


Miatowunnameena 


Miny i 


Nest (birds) 


Malunna 


Line 




Nest (little birds) 




Pun6, Line 


Never 


Noye myack or Nooe- 
ack 


Timeh or Timy 

1 




New (not old) 


Croatte 


Boile 




Night 


Tagrummena 


Nun6 Dayna leah 


Nip (to pinch) 


Reloye Tonyere 


Redeekatah 




Nipple 


Prugga poyeenta 


Pruggapogenna 




No 


Parra garah 


Timeh or Timy or 


Mallya-leah 






Pothyack 


Noise 


Kukanna wallamony- 
ack 


Kanna 




Nose 


Mununa 


Muye or Muggenah 


Muanoigh 


Now (at this time) 


Croattee 






Ochre (red) 


Ballawinne 


Ballawinne 




One 


Marrawah or Mara 


Marrawah or Merah 




Opossum, black {Phal- 


Neoolangta or Nual- 


Tony t ah or Toarkale 


Temytah Temyta 


angista fulginos) 


aiigtamabbena 




Malughlee 


Ditto, ringtailed (P. 


Tawpenale or Tarri- 


Pawtella or Nangoo- 


Pawtelluna Nuckel- 


Cookii) 


pnyenna 


nah 


ah 


Opossum mouse (Ph, 


Logongyenna or Lo- 


Leena or Namtapah 


Paponolearah 


nana) 


woyenna 






Ore of iron. Iron 


Latta 


Lattawinne 




Glance (used by the 








aborigines as a black 








paint 








C)rphan 


Kollyenna 


Wah-witteh 




Outside 


Tulenteena 


Pratty-toh 




Owl, large {Strix Cast- 


Tryeenna or Terrin- 


Kokatah or Rrukah 


Tayeleah 


anops 


nyah 






Owl, small {Athene 


Laoona or Luggana 


Wawtronyte or Taur- 


Kokannaleah 


Boohook) 


nienyah 


an or Tannah 




Oyster 


Looganah 


Ledderakak 




Pain 


Crackanyeack 


, May rude 




Palm of the hand 


Rielowolingana 


1 Reea-rarra 

1 

1 









milligan's 


xxxiii 


Vocabulary of Diali-xts of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 






Tribes about Mount Koyal, 




Englisti. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay 


Brun6 Island, Recherche 


North-west and Western 


to Pitwater. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania. 




' Parrot (Co. green) 


Cruggana 


Cruddah 




Ditto (Rosehill) 


Pruggana 






Parakeet (swift) 


Welleetya 


Wellya 




Ditto (musk) 


Walya noattye 


Marraryka 




Ditto {Eiiphema chry- 


Mungananenah 


Kenganuowah 




sostoffte) 








Paw 


Luggantereena 


Togga-ne 




Peak (a hill) 


Poymalangta 


Letteene 




Pebble, rolled quartz 


Kughaweenya 


Tramutta 




Pelican 


Treeontalalangta or 


Toy no or Lazz'leah 






Troountah 


[waredekah 




Penguin {Spheniscus 


Tomenyenna 


Teng- Wynne or 'nga- 




mifwr) 








Penis 


Lubra, M attah-prenna 


Leena or Leenai 




Perspire 


Regleetya 


Laywurroy 




Periwinkle (sea shell) 


Winnya 


Rannah 




Pet (pettish) 


Lowabereelonga 


Poyneh 




l^ewit, wattled {Lohiv- 


Tarranyena 






(melius lohiaus) [ed) 




Poogharottya 






Pigeon (bronze-wing- 


Mooa 


oonya or 


Mootah or Lappa 




Place (a) 


Lenna 


Lineh 




Place, this 




Linepoynena 




Plant 


Mellangbourack 






Platypus {Omithorhyn- 


Ongyennah 


Oonah 




chus paradoxus) 








Play 


Lyaneh* 


Luggarrah 




Point of spear 


Poyeenta 


Poyeenna 




Pool or Lagoon 


Mienameena 


Kannah 




Porcupine 


Mungyenna 


Mungye [onyah 


Mungynna Kangale 


Porpoise 


Minga-oinyah 


Poyrennahor Weno- 




Pregnant 


Lowalloomanyenea 


Loinatilutta 




Prickly 


Mona-meenee 


Moynena 




Punk 


Wullugbetye 


Rarra 




Pubes {mons veneris) 


Maga 


Magana or Megah 




Quaff (drink) 


Lowelly 


N ugar a h [or Tee wah 




Quail {Cotarnix pector- 


Terranguatta 


Tena Terrangutta 


Tena Teewarrah 


alts) 




[Maytee Kantimbeh 


1 


Quiet 


Coamnyena 


Maytee Pangrutta or 




Rage 


Neoongyack 


Leecote 




Rail {Rallus pectoralis) 


Ria lurinah 


Neekah 




Rain 


Pokana or Pogana 


Porrah 


Moka 


Rain (heavy) 


Progga-langhta 


Porra 




Rainbow 


Weeytena 


Wayatih 




Rascal 


N owetty e-eleebana 


Pawee 




Rat 


Lyinganena 


Tooarrana 




Ditto water or musk 


Renah 


Moinah 




{Hydromis chrysogas- 








ter) 








Ditto long-tailed 


Lung 


anenah 


Luringah 


9 



XXXIV 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary op Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 







Tribes about Mount Royal, 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay 


Brun^ Island. Recherche 


North-west and Western 


to Pitwater. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania. 




Ditto long bandicoot 


Tarrangha munukana 


Wierah 




Ray (Stingaree) 


Leranna 


Pireme or Lourah 




Red 


Tendyagh or Tentya 


Koka 




Red-bill 


Lutyenna 


Tikah 




Red-breast, Robin 


Poughynyena 


Tenganeowah 




Repair 


Trulee 


Peruggareh 




Respire 


Tyackanoyack 


Taykalyngana 




Retch (to vomit) 


Nutyack 


Nukatah 




Rib [with red ochre 


Tolameena [bana 


Tene 




Ringlets (corkscrews 


Pow-ing-arootelee- 


Poeena 


Poenghana 


Rise 


Takumuna 


Peggaruggarua 




Ripe 


Crang-boorack or Pn- 
nelongboorack 


Pegarah 




River riittle) 
Rock (large) 


Menaee Keetannah 


Lia-pootah 




Lonah or Loelanghta 


Loynee Broyee 




Rod (small) 


Weenah Keetannah 


Weea Pawee 




Roll (to) [on sea-beach 




Wangana weepootah 




Rollers or breakers 


Lyeltya 


Panaminna 




Roe of fish 


Leena bunna 






Root (tree) 


Remeenye 


Monalughana or 

Pughweady 




Rotten wood 


Treoratick 


Tawnah 




Rough 


Payralyack 


Rulle 




Round like a ball 


Mieawiack 


Mattah 




Row (a long one) 


Raondeleeboa 


Reekara 


* 


Rub (rub in fat) 


Mungannemoee 


Ruggarra 




Ruddy cheeks 


M iy pooeetany ack 


Koka 




Ditto 


Mientendyack 






Run 


Rene 


Legara 




Run together 


Rene nunempte 


Loongana 




Rush 




Roba 


t 


Salt on the rocks by 


Lienowittye 






Ditto [the sea-side 


Liopackanapoona 






Sand 


Mungara mena 


'nguna 




Sand-lark {Hiaticula 


Tetaranyena 


Ruwah 




Sap \ruficapilla 


Miangatentya or Mi- 
angmalleetya 




1 


Ditto (milk white) 


Poorwallena 






Scab 


Loryomena or Loir- 
mena 


Lowide 




Scales (of fish) 


Poerinna 


Lowinna 


Nangennamoi 


Scar 


Trugatepoona 


Mungarapoona 


Toolengennaleah 


Scarify 


Lowoone 


Towatte 




Scent 


Mebryack 


Poanoile 




Scratch 


Larre 


Larre 




Sea (ocean) 


Lienna wuttya and 


Pan am una 


Leah le 




lialeetea 






Sea-horse {Hippocam- 


Layanunea 


Poolta 




pus) 









MILLIGAN S 



XXXV 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Seal (Phoca) on sandy 
beach 

Ditto, black on rocks 
Ditto, white-bellied 
See (to behold) 
Serious (sad gaze) 
Serpent (black snake) 



Ditto (diamond snake) 
Sexual intercourse 

Sexual organs : — 
Male, penis 

„ scrotum 
Female, fnans veneris 
,, vagina 
Shallow 
Shadow 

Shag, cormorant black 
{Phalacrocorax corboi- 
des) 

Ditto, white -breasted 
ditto {P. leucogasUr) 
Shark 

Sharp (like a knife) 
Shave, to (with flint) 
She-oak tree 
Ship 

Shore 

Shore (sandy beach) 
Go ashore 
Shoulder 

Under ditto (arm -pit) 
Shout (yell) 
Shower (of rain) 
Shrike (magpie) {Gym- 
norhina organUum) 

Ditto, black (magpie) 
(Strepera fuliginosa) 
Shrub 
Sick- 

Ditto 
Side (the) 

On one side, aside 
Sinew (Kangaroo) 
Sing (to hiss or fizz in 

the fire) 



Tribes from Oyster Bay 
to Pitwater. 



Tribes about Mount Royal.l 
Brun^ Island, Recherche North-west and Western 



Naweetya 

Pienrenya 

Prematagomoneetya 
Mongtone 
Relgany-quoriga 
Loiena or Lounabe Of 
Loyganah 



Preawintaroetta 
Loanga metea or Po- 
anghametea 

Matta-prenna <?y Lu- 
Mattah [bra 

Mahgana 
Teebra poynghta 
Waylearack 
Wurrawina Tietta 
Pooragana, Poora- 
kanna, or Moorah 

Moogana 

'ngunna 
Lyetta 

Poyngha runnyale 
Luggana-brenna 
Lotomalangta loome- 
na 

Malompto 
Koynaratingana 

Puggarenna or Tolu- 
nah 

Luranah 

Kukanna wurrarenna 
Pokanna kuanna 
Toongyenna 

Pocerrenyenna 

Tarra coonee 

Micrackanyach 

Miycracknatareetya 

Lietelinna 

Mebbya 

Metah (met-ah) 

Lyenny 



Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Wayanna 

Nubratone 
ManattaTulla 
Loina or Luthgah 



Pawerak 



Leena or Leenai 
Matta 

Magana or Megah 
Teebra poyngta 
Rohete 
Maydena 

Cabarrarick or Moor- 
ah 

Moorak or Moorah 

Meningha 

Nenah 

Poynghate ranayal6 

Luh-be 

Lune poina makkaba 

Loccota 

Tawe loccota 
Parangana or Parang- 
he 
Kawdah 
Palla-kanna 
Tungatinah 



Reninna 

Tarrara manne 
Mimerede 



Tribes. 



Rau-anah or Rounah 
or Rawannah or 
Pallawaa - royanah 
or Roallabeah 



Belanyleah 



Loallyb^ 



Taynna 

Mitah 
Lyenne 



Kawallah 



Mawbya 



XXXVl 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



[Tribes about Mount Royal, 

Tribes from Oyster Bay , Brun6 Island, Recherche 

to Pit water. | Bay, and the South of 

Tasmania. 



Sing a song 
Sink 
Sister 
Sit down 

Skeleton (bones of) 
Skin 

Ditto of Kangaroo 
Skull 

Sky (cloud in) 
Sleep 

Sleep (very sound) 
Smile 
Smoke 
Smooth 
Snail 
Sneeze 
Snore 
Snow 

Sole (of foot) 
Song 
Soon 
Son 
Sour 

Spaniel (dog) | 

Spark 

Ditto, fire 
Spawn (of frogs) 
Spear (wood) 
Spew (to) 
Speak 
Spider 
Spine 
Spirit of the dead 

Ditto, of evil — the 
devil [tive power 

Ditto, of great crea- 
Spit 

Sport (play) 
Spring (wattle blossom 
Scjuall [season 

Stamp (with the foot) 
Stand (stand up) 
Star 

Starlight 
Shooting star 
Steal 

Step (foot-step) 
Stomach 
Stone 



Lyenny riacunna ' 
Tomla, tome, boorka ' 
Nowantareena | 

Mealpugha or craek- 
ena ! 

Terynah ! 

Tarra meenya i 

Trameeneah 
Pruggamoogena ' 

Mienteina , 

Lonny 

Pughoneoree i 

Progoona or prooana | 
Panninya 

Lonughutta 

Teakanarra loneah 

Paratta or Parattianah 

Lugyenna 

Riacunnah 

Leemya 

Malengena 

No-wiyack 

Kaeeta or Mookra 

Tonypeprinna 

Tonna 

Manughana 

Perenna 

Nuka 

Puellakanny 

Tangana 

Myinguna terrena 

Wuirawena 

Mieng-inya 

Tiggana Marrabona 

Tyackaree-meena 

Riawena 

Pewenya paeena 

Ralangta 

Taoontekiipe 

Tackamuna 

Teahbrana 

Teahbertyacrackna 

Puggareetya 

Maneena langatick 

Luggana marah 

Teenah 

Loantennina 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Cracka-nekah 

Terannah 

Leewur6 
Poetarunnah 
Warrena and Warren 
Longana [tenna 

Panapawaweab^ 

Poodah 

Temlih 

Mengana 

Lonolarre 

Roggara 

Turrana 

Lugga-lunnah 

Luna-raibe 

Kothe 

Puggatah 

Noile 

Mookrah 

Powitte 

'Ngun6 

Manunghana 

Pe-na 

Nukara 

Poeerakunnabeh 

Waytanga 

Tuherarunnah 

Warrawah 

Namma or Namne- 

boorack or Rigga- 

[ropa 
Kamena meena 
Riawe 

Luggarato paw6 
Rallana proee 
Taoontekape 
Cracka-wughata 
Romtenah 
Oarattih 
Pachareah 
Maneenah Layawe 
Luggacanna 
Teena 
Loinah, Louna, or 

Loin6 



Nunabeah [leeto 
Nunabeah temaru- 



Liaiarragonnah 

Rienalbughy 

Riacannah 



va.c 
Pughweenyna wein:- 
Lopah or Lxyhah 'r 
rPatrdia 
Poena, Pilhah 
Nugrynna 
Pooracan nabeh 



Comptena 



Kaimonamoee 
Riawe wayboree 
Lughra pawee 
Raali poyngnah 

Pegrette wergho 
Rhomdunna or 

[MeabeemcDai: 



Teenah 
Noanyale 



MILLIGAN S 



XXXVll 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 







Tribes about Mount Royal, 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster Bay, 


Brun6 Island, Recherche 


North-west and Western 


to Pitwater. 


Bay, and the South of 


Tribes. 






Tasmania 




Stoop 


Puggana narratyack 


Puggana Narrangbe 




Stop 


Poyeer6 


Kuneeame 




Straight 


Ungoyeleebana 


Tunghabe 




Strike 


Luggana golumpt6 


Lunghana 


Lanne 


Strong 


Oyngteratta or Rel- 


RuJla, Rullanih 


Ramana-rule or Rel- 




beah 




beack 


Stump of a tree 


Pomya kunnah 


Ortawenah 


Weealynghana 


Stupid 


Koa-langatick 


Oyelarraboo 


Wayeelarraboo or 
Puggytomoorah 


Suck 


Mole 


Mokra prugh 




Sullen 


Lowattobeolo kakan- 


Poininna or Keetrel- 






nene or Monna Pe- 


bya 






rinna or Lowaperee 








longha 






Summer 


Wingytellangta 


Lughoratoh 




Sun 


Pugganoobranah or 


Panubere or Pallanu- 


Panubryna or Ton- 




Pukkanebrenah 


branah 


ah-lea 


Sunrise 


Puggalena parrack 


Panubre roeelapoe- 






boorack 


rack 




Sunset 


Wietytongniena 


Panubra tongoieerah 




Suspiration (sigh) 


Teangonyack 


Takone 




Survivor 


Lugga poerannea 






Swallow (a bird) 


VVaylelimna 


Papalawe 




Swallow (adl of deg- 


Tonyquamina 


Tonganah 




lutition) 








Swan 


Kelangunya or Rob- 
eegana 


Pugherittah . 


Korah or Puble 


Sweat (to perspire) 


Malleeack Regleetya 


Leghromena or Lee- 






or Regooleetya or 


wurra-moina 






Regleepoona 






Swell 


Lienyack 


Lin eh 




Swim 


Puggely 


Pughrah 




Swiftly 


Oaranghate 


Rangare 




Switch, a 


Tarra koona 


Tarraweenah 


Tarrawinne 


Tail 


Manna poona 


Pugghnah 




Take 


Nunn6 


Nunnabeh 




Talk 


Pueelcanne 


Poieta kannabeh 




Ditto (too much 


Kukanna liereah or 


Kukanna moonalane 


Kunrar6 or Kun- 


speaking) 


Mealpeal kamma 




moonera 


Tall 


Takkaro deleeaban 
righ-eleebana 


Rotulih 




Talon 


Kuluggana 


Kubluggana 




Tame 


Riaputheggana 


Tiagrapoineena 




Tarantula (large spider) 


Ne-ungalangta 


Temmatah 




Taste 


Wughne 


Weene 




Teal 


Ryennatiabrootea 


Weah wangh rutah 




Tear (a) 


Tagarrena 


Tarragatte 




Teat 




Pruggana 




Testes 


Matta 


Matta 




There 


Nekah 


Nekaleh 


lO 



XXXVlll 



H, LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Tribes from Oyster Bay- 
to Pitwater. 



Thigh 

Thirsty 

Throw 

Throw or put away 

Thrush, spotted 

Ditto, dense forest 
Thumb 
Thumb-nail 
Thunder 

Tick (parasitic inseifl) 
Tide (low water) 

„ (high water) 
Tie (a knot) 
Tide 
Tiger V. D. L. {Thyla- 

cinus cynocephalus) 
Timber (large) 

Ditto (small) 
Tired 
Toad or frog 

Toe 

Toothless 
Tooth 
Tongue 

Top 

Topaz (crystal) 

Tor (a peaked hill) 

Torch 

Touch 

Touch - wood (rotten 

wood) 
Tough 
Track (footmark) 

Trample (to) 
Transfix (to) 

Travel 

Tree (gum tree) 

Ditto (Blackwood) 
Tree (fall of a) 
Tremble 
Trickle 

Triton (sea-shell) 
True 

Try (to) [or line) 

Tug (to, at a rope 
Tumble 
Turn (to) 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brun^ Island. Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Nungunna 

Kukannaroonyack 

Miengy 

Parraw6 

Noyennah 

Lemarrcootya 

Rianaoonta 

Tony6 

Poimettya 

Loangaritea 



Kukannaboee 

Luggatick 

Lagunta 

Wielangta 
Wiena 

Pryennemkoottiack 
Leawinnawah or Ral- 
lah 

Mengha 
Wugherinna noimyak 
Wughrinna 
Kayena 

Tulendeena 

Tendeagh 

Poymallyetta 

Poorena moneggana 

Neungpa 

Wei tree ouratta 

Lughteeac 
Puggataghana and 

Tughanaloumeno 
Teentiah 
Myenny-pingaterrelu- 

teo 
Tackamoona 
Loatta 
Rialimme 
Poengboorack 
Mienintyak 
Kukkamena meena 
Tullah 

'N gony neealeebya 
W ugh nee 
Koyule 
Mientonka 
Wughannamee 



Tughrah 

Rukannaroiet6 

Menghana 

Moneerah 

Peggarah 

Ryanaootta 

Toiena 

Papatongun^ 

Pranimanah 

Payaw6 

Pilangootah 
Lughruttah 
Ka-nunnah or Laoon- 
ana 

Wee-a-proinah 
Weeapawe 
Kakara Wayale 
Talleh 



Payeatimy 
Pay-ee-a or Pa- y ana 
Menn6 or Mayna or 

Maynenah 
Wughata 
Mughra mallee 
Layatinnah 
Leewure 
Winganah 
Weeawanghratta 

Rulli 
Luggaboin6 

Teeantibe 
Nenavitete 

Tackramoonena 
Lott6 or lote 

Moona Pungana 

Tieneweleh 

Truggara 

Tunah 

Ughana kanna nire 

Ween6 

Kottub6 

Moonapangana 

Miewangana 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Nowam of Noamma 



Loarinnah 



Yennaleah 
Tullah 



MILLIGAN S 



XXXIX 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



[Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Tribes from Oyster Bay, \ Brun6 Island, Recherche 



to Pitwater. 



Tusk (canine tooth) 

Twig 

Twins 

Twilight 

Twirl (twist) 

Twitch (pluck) 

Two 

Typha, Bulrush, a na- 
tive marsh plant, roots 
yield arrowroot 

Ugly 

Urine 

Uxorious 

Vale or Valley 

Vanish 

Vassal (serf) 

Venomous 

Venom 

Vent 

Vertex (crown of head) 

Volute, large {V. mani- 
illa) 

Volute, long, (F. fust- 
for mis) 

Wade 

Waddie, a truncheon- 
like weapon used as 
a missile in war and 
hunting 

Wake 

Wail, to lament 

Waist 

Wait 

Walk 

Wallabee {HalnuUurus 
Billardieri) 

War 

War (skirmish, one 
or two killed) 

War (battle, all killed 
but one or two) 

Warm 

Warratah {Tolopeai- 
runcata) 

Wart 

Wash (to) 

Water (fresh) 



Wuggerinna rotalee- 
Loatta keetana [bana 
Maiynabyeck 
Teggrymony Keetana 

narra longboorack 
Wughannemoe 
Kole 
Pia wah 
Plinemlena 



Nowatty nieealbana 

Mungana 

Lowa puggelanny6 

Ma-ra comenya 
Poyena potattyack 
Pueetoggana mena 
Ree punnere nungha- 
Mana mena [pa 

Loa lingana 
Toganee 
Mebryna 

Krayarena 

Moimenniac 

Lergah or Lughrana 



Lientiack 

Tegryma kannunya 
Pooalminna 
Myelpoyere 
Tahlpoonere 
Lukangana or Rak- 
anguna 

Rennamoimenya 
Marana 

Moeelughawa 

Peoonyack 
Kiuntah 

Kr6man poona 
Nonelmoi 

Liena or Lin'-Elee- 
bana 



Bay, and the 
Tasmania. 



South of 



Payee, a rotyle 
Weea wunna 
Meinna-na 
Nun-to-neenah 

Oaghra 
Ko-kra 
Pooalih 
Poi-erinna 



Noallee nuggabah 
Munghate mungha- 

[beh 

Mara- way -lee 

Tienbugh 

Potaigroee nara-na 

Nunghboorack nung- 

Kamona moina [abah 

'ngeenah 

Togari 

Poirah 

Moorleah 

Mowerrenah 
Lughrana 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Wee winna 



Weeny 

Meeluggrana 

Pooariumena 

Krattabe 

Tawtaboorana 

Taranna or Tarra 

Moi mengan mabeli 
Moeemutt6 

Moeemabbyle 

Lughreto 



Ta-winn6 
Nunu gra 
Liawenee 



Luttibeah 



Tabbelte 

Noguoyleah or Tan- 

[ah 



Lia winne and Lil- 
eah 



xl 



H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Tribes from Oyster Bay 
to Pit water. 



Water (cold) 
(warm) 

„ (salt) 
Water-pitcher (made 

of the leaves of the 

large kelp) 
Wattle bird 

Ditto smaller 
Wattle-tree 

Ditto sea- side {Acacia 
Wave [marititna) 

Weak 
Weed 
Weep 

Well (spring) 
Wet (rainy) 
Whale 

What ? what's that ? 
When and where 
Whisper, speak low, 

let nobody hear 

WMiistle 

White 

Whiz (like a ball, etc.) 

Whore, fornicatrix 
Wherry (sea-shell) 
Widow 

Wife, newly married 
Will-o'-the-wisp {Ignis 

fatuus) 
Wind 

Ditto, high 
W^indpipe {Pomum Ad- 
Wing \ami) 

Wink 
Winter 
Witch or female goblin 

said to be clothed in 

grass or fibrous bark 
Woe's me ! ah me ! 
Woman 

Ditto, handsome 

Ditto, young girl 
Ditto, adult 
Ditto, aged, old 
Ditto, white 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brun^ Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Lietinna 

Liena peoonya or Li 
ena peoonyeck 
Lia noattye 
Moirunah 



Toorittya 
Leewurenyenna 
'Nghearetta 
Boobyallah 
Legleetya mengena 
Koomyenna 
Pannabon bruttye 
Tagarramena 
Loy-ulena 
May-niack 
Mitawennya 
Telingha ? Tebya ? 
'gnamela Mayleh ? 
Kukkanna lenagangpa 
or nunte pateinuyra 
or Kukanapunyepara 
Purra Kanna 
Malleetye 
'Ngona Kunna 



Wurrawa-noattye 
■ Wurrawa Lowanna 
Kroatta langunya 
Packareetea 

Rawlinna 
Raalanghta 
Lonna 
Poilinna 
Mentroiack 
Tunna 

Murrambukanya 
lowana 

Pagra ! Kum leah ! 
Lowanna or Lowa 
Loanna eleebana and 
loa niry 

Krotto melleetye 
Puggya malleetye 
Payanna 
Ria lowana 



Liawenee 
Lialughrana 

Moirunah or Moirah 



Manna 
Boobyallah 
Leaturi or Pan nam - 
Mia wayleh [ena 
Tallarattai 
Tarra wayleh 
'Ngyena 
Lay-ka 
Parrabah 

Pallawaleh ? or An- 
Wabbara ? [neah 
Poeta Kanna paway 



Munnakanna 
Mallee ofMalluah 
Payngunnana or Po- 
yngunna Kunna 
Panubr6 Mabbyle 
Leeka 
Nena tura tena 

Poya lanune 
Puckarenh 

Rallinganunne 
Rallinga proiena 
Lonna and Loarinna 
Maykana Pounghna 
Nubra rott6 
Turra 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Wayleabeh [na 

Ne-eanta and Lowan- 
Loa-nire lyady wayack 

Loalle puggana 
Longatallinah 
Nena ta poiena 



Kourah 



Mokah or Mogga or 
[Moggana 
Tarraginna ? 

Onabeah dayaleah 



Plubeah 

M ungyanghgarrah 

Nangoinuleah 



Waggapoonynurrah 



Lewan 
Lewanhock 



Loyorunna 



Taqueate 
Nowaleah 



MILLIGAN S 



xli 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania. 



English. 



Wombat {Phascolomys 
vomhatus 
Wood, firewood 

Wren, blue-headed 
{Malurus longicaudus) 
Wrinkle 
Wrong 
Wrist 

Yawn 
Yes 

Yesterday 

You 

Young (little) boy 

Ditto (little) girl 



Tribes from Oyster Bay 
to Pitwater. 



Raoompta, Raoomata 

Wiena and Winna 

Poitenena 

Niangte nepoony 

Miengana 

Rapoolmena 

Granna Kunna 
Narramoona, Narra- 

wallee 
N6ntegga Menyawa 
Neena 
Kaeetenna Mallangy- 

enna 
Lowanna Kaeetenna 



Tribes about Mount Royal, 
Brun6 Island, Recherche 
Bay, and the South of 
Tasmania. 



Rowitta 

Muggrawebe and 
mattaweb6 
Lueena 

Pelanypooneh 

Nuyeko 

Riapoolumpta 

Leakanny 

Narrawarrah, Nar- 
rawe, Narraluawah 
Neea nunnawa 
Neena or Nee 
Puggata paweena 



North-west and Western 
Tribes. 



Koeebah or Problat- 
tena 
Moomerah 



Narro-barro or nar- 
rapa 



Short Sentences in the Native Language. 



Give me a stone 

Give him a stone 

I give you some water 

I will not give you any water 

You give me food 

You do not give me food 

Give me some bread 



We will give you a stick 

We will not give you a stick 

Give me some bread to eat, I am 
hungry 

This is my hand 
This is not my hand 
Sing a song 
Where is your father? 
My father is here 
He is my father 
He is not my father 
Tell your father of this 
We go to see the river 
I like to drink the water 
I make the boat go fast 
The ship goes upon the sea 



Lonna or Loina tyennabeah mito 

Lonna tyennamibeah 

Lina tyennamibeah 

Noia meahteang meena neeto linah 

Tyennabeah tuggen6 

Noia meah teang meena neeto tuggen6 

Tyenna miape pannaboona or Teengan- 
ana ma pannaboo or Tunghmbib^ tun- 
garingaleah 

Tyennambieah weena 

Noia tyennambieah weena 

Teeanymiape tuggane, Meeongyneeome 
or Teeanymeiape teeacottpm'na or Tee- 
ampiap6 Matughala Mapilrecottai 

Reena or Riena narrawa ! 

Mi-ang-unnah 

Lyenne riakunna or Rialinghana 

Ungamlea i\ang6ena 

Nangamea numb6 

Nangamea numb6 

Miangunnana 

Onnabea nangato 

Nialomiah manaiah 

Monna langarrap6 

Parapetaleebea malanna talea warrangat6 

Tiretya teeakalummala 



IZ 



xlii 



H. LING ROTH.-^ABORIGINBS OF TASMANIA. 



f» 



}» 



ij 



>> 



The waves make the sea rough 

You see the sea over the hill 

Go down from the hill 

Run over the ground 

Do not run along the road 

The man feeds the dog 

The woman makes a basket 

The woman is very fair 

The child eats his food 

The child is small 

A horse 

The horse runs on the ground 

The horse kicks the child 

A cow or ox 

Numerals — One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

I shall go to my house 
I strike the horse 
Touch his hand 
Do not touch his hand 
Cut down the tree 
Tell him to go to the house 
Speak to the man 
He is in the house 
They jump over the river 
They walk through the river 
Run along the side of the river 
They swim in the river 
They sink in the river 
We drink water 
He cuts his hair with Rint 
My brother has a long arm 
My sister is very tall 
He has two children 
Take a stick and beat the dog 
The dog is beaten with a stick 
The sun is rising 
The sun is set already 
The moon is risen 
The moon is not seen 
The moon is behind the cloud 
You stand behind the tree 
They climb up the tree 
The swan swims in the water 
The water is very warm 
The water is not warm 
Salt water 



Leea leetyah poinummeah 

Roogoomale linoiyack 

Rongtane Tyungerawa 

Ringapyanganawebere 

Parrawe ringapa 

Ty^nnabeah kaeetebeah 

Lowanna 0II6 tubbrana 

Lowa maleetya 

Teeana malangeebeah 

Malangeebeah 

Pangooneah 

Pangoonea rene pateleebea 

Pangoonea paraingumenah 

Packallah 

Marrawah , 

Piawah 

Luwah 

Pagunta wulliawah 

Pugganna marah 

Tugganna lunameatah 

Pell a pangooneah 

Rientonnabeah 

Tell6 talle parrawe 

Ugana puye lot6 

Talle lenuttoo, or Talle leebraluto 

Oonah beah 

Lunaretah 

Wuggala menaye 

Yang6 menaye 

Tawe rante webere 

Puaw6 menaye 

Tonge menaye 

Lao \\y€ 

Tugganna pugheranynee trautta 

Nietta mena oon root' eleebana 

Nienta mena tuggara root* eleebana 

Malang- piawah 

Tial wee pella kaeeta 

Pella kaeeta naoota mena 

Puggule6na pare^bara 

Pugguleena toomla pawa 

Ooeeta or Weeta poona 

Ooeeta mayangti byeack 

Ooeeta toggana warratena lunta 

Mangana lutena 

Cronge lotta 

Kalungunya tagumena liyetitta 

Lia pyoonyack 

Lia tunnack 

Lia noattye 



MILLIGAN S VOCABULARY. 



xliii 



Fresh water 
He is a good man 
He is a bad man 
Come and drink the water 
This water is salt 
That water is fresh 
Milk comes from the cow 
Send him to get milk 
I saw the tree yesterday 
I have cut my finger 
He limps with one leg 
He sees with one eye 
My face is very black 
Make the horse run fast 
When the warm weather is come 
It is now cold weather 
They are white men (the men are 
white) 

This woman is very white 
Bring him and put him down here 

Come along, I want to speak to 
you 

Aha ! you are sulky all of a sudden 



Hold your tongue — be patient— by 
and bye 

Come here 

Walk naked 

Go ashore 

Make a light, I want to see you 

Run together (a race) 

Stay or keep a long way off 

Awake, rouse up, get up 

Don't wake him, let him sleep 

Whisper, speak low, let nobody 
hear 
Hither and thither 



Lian eleebana or liana eleebana 

Puggana tareety6 

Tagantyaryack 

T'alle le loolaka lia 

Lia noattye 

Liana eleebana 

Prughwullah packalla 

Rang6 prughwullah 

Lotta mont6 meena cotte 

Ri6 poye pueningyack 

Raggamuttah 

Raggunnah 

Raoonah mawpack 

Pangoonya ren6 wurrangate 

Nente pyoonta 

Tunna 

Riana Rianowitty6 

Lowana eleebana 

Nunnalea pooranamby or Kannawattah, 
ponnawe or Kannawuttah ponnapoo 

Talpyarwodeno tuyena kunnamee, or 
Tutta wuttah onganeenah, or Tunneka 
makunna talmatieraleh 

Any ah ! Teborah ! Keetrelbya noomena 
peniggomaree 

Mealkamma or metakantibe, or kannyab 
mielbeerkammah, or kanna moonalane, 
Wannabee kannybo 

Tia nebere, or Tialleh 

Tia reea lungungana 

Tawe locata 

Men6 le monghatiaple monghtoneel6, or 
matangunabee nubratonee 
Rene nunempte or leongana 

Onamarrumnebere, or crackn6 lo maba, 
or kleaba row6 

Tientable taggamunna, or nawatty peg- 
raty ! wergho ! or takka wughra 

Tialenghpa lontun-narra, or Kunuyam 
tilanga bah, or Kunnyam narraloyea 

Kukkana lengangya nunty pateinuyero 
or Onabeah dayaleah 

Tack way bee Tutta watta or etc. 



Some Aboriginal Names of Places in Tasmania. 



Cape Portland Distridl 
Country extending back from Ringa- 
rooma Township 
Douglas River 
Nicholas's Cap 



Tebrakunna 

Warrentinna 

Leeaberryaek or Leeaberra 

Mita winnya, Kurunna poima-langta 



xliv 



H, LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Dodlor's Creek (East Coast) 

Long Point 

Salt Water Lagoon, near the Coal 
Mines 

Governor's Island 

George's River Districfl 

Maria Island 

Mount Royal and Port Cygnet, 
country lying between 

Oyster Bay 

High lands behind ditto 

** St. Valentine's Peak, on Surrey 
Hills, Peak like a Volcano" of 
Flinders 

Piper's River Distridl 

Port Davey 

East Bay Neck 

Eagle Hawk Neck 

Hampshire Hills Distri(5l, in the 
North-west 

Barren Joey Island 

Glamorgan Districft 

Port Arthur 

Macquarie Harbour 

Recherche Bay 

Port Esperance 

South port 

Brune Island 

South Arm 

Huon Island 

Betsy Island 

Three-hut Point 

Tinder-box Bay 

Brown's River 

Arch Island 

Tamar River 

Piper's River 

Swan Island 

Arthur River 

Schouten Island 

Cape Grim 

Mount Cameron (West Coast) 

Mount Hemskirk 

Mount Zeehan 

Circular Head 

Frenchman's Cap 

Albatross Island 

Hunter's Island 

Pieman's River 

District north of Macquarie Har- 
bour 



Wuggatena menennya 
Wuggatena poeenta 

Mungarattya 
Tittanariack 
Kunarra-kunnah 
Toarra-marra-monah 

Talun6 

Poyanannupyaek 
Pothy munatia 



Naton6 

Orramakunne 

Poynduc 

Lueene langhta Muracomyiack 

Teeralinnack or Tera-linna 

Pateena 

Roobala mangana 

Tebranuykunna 

Pr6maydena 

Parralanogatek 

Leillateah 

Raminea 

Lamabbele 

Lunawanna-alonnah 

Reemere 

Prahree 

Temeteletta 

Taoonawenna 

Renna kannapughoola 

Promenalinah 

Poora tingale 

Ponrabbel 

Wattra Karoola 

Terelbesse 

Tunganrick 

Tiggana marraboona 

Kennaook 

Preminghana 

Roeinrim or Traaoota munatta 

Weiawenena 

Monattek or Romanraik 

Mebbelek 

Tangatema 

Reeneka 

Corinna 

Timgarick 



MILLIGAN S VOCABULARY. 



xlv 



Lake St. Clair 

Huon River 

Satellite Island 

Derwent River 

Mount Wellington 

Clarence Plains 

Crooked Billet and on to the Drom- 
edary 

Range of Hills between Bagdad 
and Dromedary 

Jordan River 

Lovely Banks 

Ben Lomond 

South Esk River 

Lagoon or summit of Ben Lomond 

St Patrick's Head 

Track on the Coast between De- 
tention River and Circular Head 

Small Island half-way between 
Maria Island and main land 



Leeawulena 

Tahune-linah 

Wayaree 

Teemtoomel6 menennye 

Unghanyahletta or Pooranettere 

Nannyeleebata 

Unghanyenna 

Rallolinghana 

Kuta linah 

Tughera wughata 

Toorbunna 

Mangana lienta 

Meenamata 

Lumera genena wuggelena 

Purreka 

Lughretta 



Some Names of Aborigines of Tasmania. 



Mannalaggana 

Tonack 

Wureddy or Ooareddy 

Pooblattena (literally, Wombat) 

Kakannawayreetya (literally, Joey 
of the Forester Kangaroo) 

Bonep 

Kellawurumnea 

Lanney 

Kunnarawialeety6 

M eenapeckameena 

Maywedick or Maywerick 

Redaryioick 

Reeamia puggana 

Menepackatamana 

Paloona 

Rienaebuhye (literally, snow falling) 

Rialim 

Laranah 

Noblatigh 



Mooltea langana 

Rawaeleebana 

Noteningunna 



Men. 

A native of Macquarie Harbour 
Native of North-West Distri^ 

V 

A native of Oyster Bay 

A native of Macquarie Harbour 

A native of Pit water 

A native of the North-West 

A native of Oyster Bay 

A native of Lovely Banks 

A native of Circular Head Distri(5l 

A native of Port Davey 

A native of Pitwater — the only capture 

when **the line" was out in 1830 
A native of the Derwent River Distri(5l 
A native of Circular Head Districfl 
A native of same Distridl 
Ditto 
A native of Cape Grim interior 

These two last-named were of the fam- 
ily captured in 1842 or 1843, and no 
wild aborigines have been seen on the 
mainland since. 

A native of Launceston Districfl 

A native of Bay of Fires 

A native of Port Sorell 



Z2 



xlvi 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



M unghepuganna 

Punghabonyena 

Rawanegh 

Lannamena 

Pennabookh 

Tarooltigh 

Kaeetapanna 

Lekamughn6 

Monopeletto 



A native of the District about Bothwell 
and Oatlands 

A native of St. Paul's River Distritft 

A native of North-West Distridl 

A native of Ben Lomond 

A native of Circular Head Distridl 

Ditto 

A native of Oyster Bay 

A native of Districft of Circular Head 

A native of Distri(5> of Derwent River 



Women. 



Taenghanootera (literally, weeping 
bitterly) 

Worromonoloo (literally, boughs) 

Rammanaloo (literally, little gull) 

Wuttawantyenna (literally, nausea) 

Plooranaloona (literally, sunshine) 

Tenghanoop 

Trooganeenie* 

Metakartea 

Tiabeah 

Koonya 

Pueelongmeena 

Unghlottymeena 

Rayna 

Penghanawaddick 

Oattamottye or Wattamottye 

Rhomdy6 

Kittawa 

Mialughtena 

Kannabootya 

Tialeawe 

Poingana-comyena 

Mooreenunga 

Pooratamena 

Tangaragootta 



A native of George's River 

A native of the Piper's River Road 

A native of Cape Portland [Distridl 

A native of East Bank of Tamar River 

A native of George's River 

A native of Port Davey 

A native of Mount Royal 

A native of North -East Quarter 

A native of Bruni Island 

A native of Sorell 

A native of Oyster Bay 

A native of North-East 

A native of Pieman's River 

Ditto 

A native of the valley of the Tamar 

A native of Oyster Bay , [River 

A native of Districfl near Detention 
River and Circular Head 

A native of Campbell Town Districft 

A native of North- West interior 

A native of Port Sorell 

A native of Pitwater [Head 

A native of North-West near Circular 

A native of George's River 

A native of Banks of the Derwent River 



Aboriginal Verses in Honour of a Great Chief, sung as an 
Accompaniment to a Native Dance or Riawe. 

Pappela Rayna 'ngonj^na, Pappela Rayna 'ngonj'na, 

Pappela Rayna 'ngonyna ! 
Toka mengha leah, Toka mengha leah, 

Toka mengha leah ! 
Lugha mengha leah, Lugha, mengha laah, 

Lugha mengho leah ! 



* This woman was the last representative of the race. 



MILLIGAN S VOCABULARY 



xlvii 



Nena taypa Rayna poonj^na, Nena taypa Rayna poonjrna 

Nena taypa Rayna poonyna ! 
Nena nawra pew^llah Pallah nawra pewyllah, 

Pellawah, Pellawah ! 
Nena nawra pewyllah, Pallah nawra pewyllah, 

Pellawah, Pellawah ! 



Fragment of another Song. 

K5lah tunname neanymS 

Pewyllah pugganarra ; 
R5onah Leppaka malamatta 

. . . Leonalle 
Renape tawna newurra pewurra 
Nomeka pawna pool&pa Lelapah, 
Ndngane mayeah melarootera 
K5abih remawurrah 
&c., &c., &c. 



Fragment of another Song. 

WannUpS Wappere tepara, 
Nenname pewyllah kellape 

Mayngatea 
Maynapah Kolah maypelea 
Wappera Ronah Leppakah 
&c., &c., &c. 



APPENDIX D. 



I. 



PHRASES AND SONGS AFTER BRAIM. 



English. 

I love you. 

1*11 go and hunt. 

I see a vessel on the water sail- 
ing fast ; but she is a long way at 
sea. 

When I went hunting, I killed no 
less than one wallaby, one kangaroo, 
two badgers, and one black swan, 
and being hungry, I felt in my 
pocket for my fireworks, in order 
to make a iire and cook some of 
my game, but I found none. I 
therefore had to walk home before 
I broke my fast. 

When I returned to my country 
I went hunting, but did not kill 
one head of game. The white men 
make their dogs wander and kill all 
the game, and they only want the 
skins. 



Tasmanian. 

Mena coyetea nena. 
Mena mulaga. 

Mena lapey lucropey tackay pen- 
ituta mocha carty manuta. 

Mena mulaga laveny powa par- 
mera, tara, lathakar, catabewy, pro- 
bylathery, paniery, haminen, trairna, 
pooty, lapry, patrol a, pomely, pooty, 
ribby, mena, leprena, meena. 



Malanthana- mena - tackay mulaga, 
pooty, nara pamery, lowgana, lee 
calaguna, cracky, carticata, ludarn- 
ny, parobeny, nara moogara nara 
mena loewgana, reethen tratyatetay 
tobantheelinga nara laway, rel-bia 
mena, malathina mobily, worby, pua- 
yunthea. 



xlviii 



H, LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Song. 

Poo-ye-carne-koon a meta 
Num-ba, keta-rel-ba-ena 
Too-ya-wa-ta-loo-ta-warra 
Koon-a-meta-panta-warra 
A ka-la-leba-iony-eta 
A ka-ba-mar-keen-a 

Song. 

A re-na-too 
Ket-a-ta-e-vepa 
Mel-re-pa-too 
A re-na-too. 



Song. 
Taby-ba-tea-mocha-my boey-wa 
Taby-ba-tea-mocha-my boey-wa 
Taby-ba-tea-mocha-my boey-wa 
Lonia-ta-roch-a-ba-long-a ra 
Loma-ta-roch-a-ba-long.a ra. 

Song. 
Ne-par-me-ry-wa 
Ne-cat-a-ba-wa 
Ne-par-me-ry-wa 
Ne-cat a ba-wa. 



Portions of Genesis, by Thos. Wilkinson, at Flinder's Island. 



Genesis — Chapter I. 

1. In the beginning God created 
the heaven and the earth. 

2. And darkness was upon the face 
of the deep. 

3. God said, Let there be light, 
and there was light. 

4. And God saw the light that it 
was good, and God divided the 
light from darkness. 

5. God said. Let the earth bring 
forth grass, and it was so. 

16. God made two great lights, the 
greater light to rule the day. and the 
lesser light to rule the night. He 
made the stars. 

17. God set them in the firmament 
of heaven to give light upon the 
earth. 

21. God made great whales, and 
every living creature that moveth, 
which the water brought forth abun- 
dantly. 

25. And God made the beast of 
the earth, and He saw it was good. 

26. And God said, Let us make 
man in our own image, after our 
own likeness. 

27. And God created man in His 
own image. 

31. And God saw everything He 
had made, and, behold, it was very 
good. 



Translation. 

1. Trota, Godna pomable heavena 
coantana. 

2. Lewara crackne. 

3. Godna carne, tretetea, tretetea, 
crackne. 

4. Godna capra tretetea lawarra. 



5. Godna carne coantana, nigane 
rothana rotana tibra. 

16. Godna pomale cathebewa tre- 
tetea lackrana wahalenna narra po- 
male purlanna. 

17. Godna propara narra wealicatta 
tringane trecktea. 

21. Godna pomale lackrane penun- 
ganna, cardea, penungana. 



25. Godna pomale panalla, ilia, ta- 
bela, sheepana, Godna, capra narra 
coopa 

?.6. Godna carne, mena pomale, wi- 
beelicka mena. 

27. Godna pomale wibalicka narra. . 

31. Godna capra, cardea, narra po- 
male, narra carne-narra coopa ! coo- 
pa. 



G. w. walker's phrases and songs. xlix 

Commenting on this translation, G. W. Walker (MS. Jour.) says : 
" Those words commencing with an English syllable are such as the 
aborigines have none, expressing the idea in their own language. 
Thus they seem to have no idea of a presiding power, nor any term 
corresponding with such a sentiment in their vocabulary. The English 
word has therefore been adopted by the translator with the native ter- 
mination added, making * Godneli.' The same with respe(ft to several 
others. Several of these anglified terms are now in such common use 
among the natives that they may be considered as incorporated in the 
language. The word * grassneh ' for * grass,' is more frequently used 
among those at the settlement than the original term given above. It 
is doubtful whether ** myneh ' for * me * or * I,' may not be traced to 
the same origin." 

II. 

Song of Ben Lomond Tribe. 

From Davies (p. 411), who says: "I cannot translate it, nor could 
I do so, is the subjecfl very selecfl ? " — 

Ne popila raina pogana 

(Every line is repeated three times) 

Thu me gunnea 

Thoga me gunn6a 

Naina thaipa raina pogana 

Naara paara poivella paara, 

Ballahoo, Ballahoo, 

Hoo, Hoo ! 
(Their war whoop very gutteral). 



APPENDIX E. 

Vocabulary. 

Two Popular Songs, and Names of Men and Womkn ; 

after 
G. W. Walker, (MS. Joiir.) 

The sounds of our own language, represented in the upper line, are 
expressed in theirs by the nicxle of spellinj^ adhered to in the line 
below it. 

English sound of ... a e i o u - a (as in hall), 

Tasmanian orthography e y i o u - au 

\palc), 
English ... a (as in har)^ e (as in Ujt), lon<; sDund of a (as in 
Tasmanian a eh ai 

Other sounds according to English modes of spelling. 

13 



1 



H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASWAiOA. 



[The long and short marks appiear 
quantity. J.B.W.] 

Paninn^wathlnnSh 

Plennfirrehwarreh 

jLehpehneh 

Minnerreh warreh 

Kehmyneh 

KehmQnngh 

TukkehkuUa 

Yaneh 

Myneh 

MoDeh 

Kythinneh . . 

Nyleh 

TShnyneh .. 

Bullehbyneh 

LoorennSh 

Langehneh 

'LangehnSh pyn'Sh-wathinnSh 

Anneh minneh 

MekkehthinnSh pepp^neh 

TrehnythS wathinn^ 

Topplete 

PokSrrakany 

Noonggnneh wangen dunnSh 

LungShby nany ... 

JL^ariiy .*• ... ... 

v./a aCKH Y •.. ... ... 

Ningenneh 

Lj^prenny 

Lygunnjreh 

Trarty 

Kepehginngh 

Tringeginneh 

Gibleh 

Tyweh rattjrneh ... 

Wakeh lenna 

Nuggeli lenna 

Lingenneh bunneh 

Woomerreh (Australian) 

Coantanneh 

Wlber 

LooberrSh (Australian) . . . 

Potya 

Alle 

Alia 

Arpee 

Nickeh 

Tr^mepa 

Gad^eh 



\ 

j 



to indicate accent rather than 

the head 

the ear 

the eyes 

the nose 

the cheek 

the chin 

the thigh 

the teeth 

the tongue 

the lips 

the skin or hair 

the eyelash 

the nail 

the bones 

the leg 

the foot 

the toes 

the hand 

the finger 

the blood 

to walk 

to talk 

to run 

to strike 

to beat 

to sit down or rest 

to bring 

a house 

skin or exterior covering 

stupid 

to eat 

to swallow 

to eat 

the wind blows 

the sun shines 

it rains 

a swan's egg 

wood 

the ground 

a black man 

blackwoman 

no 

yes 

this or the 

take it 

plenty or many 



G. W. WALKER S PHRASES AND SONGS. 



ft 



L5d6wini3j^ 

Lrooneh 

Myneh 

M jneh 

NamSnnolunny 

Narreh coopeh . 

Pjnicketta 

Pan6h peckinninneb 

Lackyra 



a white man 

white or black woman, or ghrl 

I or me 

thou or you 

they or them 

very good 

quickly 

a little boy 

fern root * 



March terrennSh . 
The white kangaroo-rat. 

Lookoothinneh . . 
The ring-tailed opossum. 



Aboriginal Song, 

Sung by the women in chorus, by various tribes of the natives of 

V. D. Land. 

Nikkfih ninggh tibreh nickSh mdll^ga pdllyla . . . 
The married women hunts the kangaroo and wallaby. 

Namu rj^kenneh trehgana . . . 
The emu runs in the forest. 

NabSh thinninneh trShgana 
'I'he Boomer runs in the forest. 

Nehnaneh k^hgrenna . . . nynabythinneh . . . 
The young emu. The htde kangaroo. 

Tringgh guggSrra . . . Pyathtnneh . . .. 
Little Joey (or the suckling kangaroo). The Bandicoots 

Nj^nabj^thinneh-kdobryneh . . . 
The little kangaroo-rat. 

P^athinna pungathinneh . . . 
The little opossum. 

Mytoppyneh . . . Trj^noonfih 
The big opossum. The tiger-cat. 

WathSrrungmna . . . MarSh bunna 
The dog-faced opossum. The black cat. 

A Popular Song 

among all the aboriginal tribes, of which I have not obtained the mean- 
ing, being involved by them in some mystery. 

Poppjla-renung onnyna-Poppj^la, &c,, Poppjla, &c. . . 

temingannyS-lemingannya-lemmg, &c. 
Taukummingannj^a Taukummingann5'a, &c., &c. 

Nyna tepe rena ponn^na, nyna, &c., nyna, &c. . . 
Nyna nar apewilly para, Nyna nara, &c., nyna nara, &c. . . 

Nara pewiUj^ pallawoo ! pallawoo ! *' 
Nyna nara pewilly para nara pewTlly pallawoo ! pallawoo ! 

Nyna nara, &c. Nyna narll, &c., &c. 

[Compare this song with the one given by Milligan on p. xlvi. H.L.R.] 

The following are a few of the Aboriginal Names of men and women 
adopting their own appellations. Those who have wives are men- 
tioned together, the wife's name being the last. 

TobSlahngta and Roomehtymj^Sna, (chief of the Oyster Bay Tribe and 
his wife.) 

M6nn6p€liyata and Mellonnfihmetya, (chief of the Big River tribe and 
his wife. 



Hi 



H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Tr5olpaneh and LegehnyminnSh, (chief and his wife, of the tribe infest- 
ing Port Dalrymple and region around Launceston. 

Trygoomypoonaneh and Roomtjenna. 

Pannehrooneh and Pell6nnym5'na. Roolpanehny, a great warrior of the 
same tribe — the chief w-as also renowned as a warrior. 

Ramehlal5onehny. (Munro's Woman * Jumbo.') 

K5onehbonneh and Mynalalteii}'. LabryehnynanJ' and Mymehlannyehnany. 
Notyehkehprenna (a female), Wathylaccotyy (a female.) 

Tronegrehbch, Llllchloeh and Waw^, are three young men of Port 
Dalrymple tribe, who subsequently proceeded with the commandant 
in the * Charlotte ' to the Hunters Island. 



APPENDIX F. 

Tasmanian-English Vocabulary. 

AS all the vocabularies handed down to us are English -Tasmanian and 
none are Tasmanian-English, it was suggested to make a compilation of 
one Tasmanian-English vocabulary from all the vocabularies. The initiative 
is due to Mrs. E. B. Tylor. In preparing this vocabulary I have 
attempted to simplify the spelling as follows where I have felt that I 
could safely do so without impairing the integrity of the word : — 

For oo the letter u with Italian pronunciation has been substituted ; 
thus for boorana, burana is used ; for Kaaoolegebra read Ka-u-legebra. 
For ee the Italian i is used, thus for keeta read kita ; for kaeeta 
read kaita ; for lia, liah, lya, leah, lea read lia ; for leh read le ; for c 
and ck read k; for y read i, and for ya read ia. All duplications of 
consonants are dropped, thus for erre read ere ; for kroatte read kroate. 
The conjoint consonants of which the pronunciation is not clear, such 
as th, ch, etc. are left as printed. B}; the adoption of this method 
words of same meaning but of widely different and, therefore, misleading 
spelling have been brought together, and the work of the student much 
simplified. 



Abri 


Arms 




Balawine 


... Ochre (red) 


xVia • • • • • • 


Birth 




Baluiuna 


... Blood 


xVia, x\ie>.> ... 


Yes 




Barana ... 


. Wound ; shell-fish 


Aliri 


Three 




Beige 


... Teeth 


Anamana, Ane- 


Hand 




Belanilia 


... Shadow 


mine 






Beguta ... 


... Man (w^hite) 


Ania ! tebora ! . . 


Aha ! you are sulky 


Beroia . . . 


... Broom (a besom) 




all of a 


sudden 


Binana ... 


... Laughing 


Ania 


. What ? 


What's 


Blaktera... 


. . Eyebrows 




that? 


- 


Bleagana 


... Kangaroo Skin 


Anme 


. Finger, 


Forearm 


Blemana 


... Mother 


Arpu 


. Yes 




Boabenetia 


... Grin (to make faces) 


Avere 


. That 




Boata 


... Freestone 


A witaka ... 


. Head 


• 


Bodenevoued 


... Little 


Badani ... 


Child 




Boile ... 


... New (not old) 


Bagota ... 


Cloud 




Boira 


... Kangaroo Skin, 


Bairkutana 


. Horse 






also cloak of K.S. 



TASMANIAN-BNGLISH VOCABULARY. 



liii 



Bolouina 


Blood ; red 


'Gnamela Mail6? 


When and where 


Boue lakade ... 


Water 


'Gni-mukl6 


Aged (literally rot- 


Breone ... 


Fish 




ten-boned) 


Bringdeu 


Eyebrow 


Grana Kuna or 


Yawn, gape 


Bubialah 


Wattle tree (sea-side) Kanaibi 






(Acacia maritifna) 


Greigena 


Bird 


Bugure 


Plunge (to) ; dine 


Grita 


Gum-tree 




(to) 


Gualangta 


Eagle 


Bukalo ... 


Bullocks 


Gualengatik gua- 


Deaf 


Bulebine 


Bones 


ngata 




Buliibenara, kua- 


Dog 


Guanera .. 


Kneel (to) 


ieta 




Guenerouera ... 


Tongue, the 


Bungana 


Chief, King 


Gui 


Wood 


Bura 


Two 


Guna-lia 


Arms 


Bura 


Thunder; rain 


Gune ... 


Sand 


Burana ... 


Smoke 


Guniem waubera- 


By and Bye 


Bure 


Blow (to) 


bu 




Burdunia 


Night 


Gunta, gonta ; 


Earth or ground 


Daina Hah 


Night 


gunta longa 




Daledine . . 


Stars 


Haku-tetiga 


Go home 


Darwala... 


Bird 


Heka 


Crystal 


Deriia ... 


Neck 


Here 


Breast (of a woman) 


Diberana 


Girl 


lane 


Teeth ; to bite 


Dieka namenera 


Growl 


I-aing-la-lia 


Bad (no good) 


Dogna ... 


Foot 


lenebe ... 


Knee 


Dregena ... 


Hand 


Iletiape ... 


Awake him, rouse 


Driue 


Leaf 




him 


Drogue ... 


Coition 


Ingenana 


Hawk 


Drohi 


Laugh (to) 


lola 


Bird, black petrel 


Druan a mala . . . 


Forehead 


Ka-ana ... 


Shell 


Elbenia ... 


Large 


Kabararik 


Shag, cormorant 


Eloura 


Head 




black {Phalacro- 


Elpenia ... 


Large 




corax corhoides) 


Elpina ... 


Eye 


Kabelti ... 


Go 


Emita ... 


Sand or earth 


Kabrouta 


Thirst 


Ere 


Yes ! Good ! 


Kakbenina 


Spittle 


Eriha 


Cockatoo 


Kaene 


Haliotis 


Eugenana 


Hawk (Eagle) 


Kaita 


Dog 


Everai ... 


Eye 


Kaitaguanamena 


Friend 


Ewuka ... 


Head 


Kaitena Malang- 


Young (little) boy 


Gadi6 


Plenty or many 


iena 




Gagvui ... 


Warm oneself (to) 


Kaito Kekrabona 


Barren (woinan) 


Galogra... 


Dance 


Kaimonanio'i 


Spit 


Ganameni6, gane- 


• Locust 


Kal-a-ba \va 


Two 


manga 




Kakanina 


Mouth 


Ganemerara 


Come 


Kakara waiale . . . 


Tired 


Gan henen hener 


I Sparrow-hawk 


Kambalate 


Afraid 


'Gdula ... 


. Acid (taste) 


Kamena... 


Chin 


Gible 


Eat 


Kamena mina ... 


Spit 


Girgra 


Parrot 


Kamnina 


Chin 



14 



Hv 



H. LING ROTH. — ^ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Kamonamoina.. 
Ka*ini 

Kana 

Kana 

Kana munalane 



Kana muna lane 
mentakuntibi 

Kanamaiete 
Kana noangate 
Kanara ... 
Kanara ... 
Kana roilugata 
Kana wata 
Kane 
Kanebo ... 



Kaneina, Kanea, 
Kanina [aba 

Kane proine wag- 
Kanewedigda . . . 
Kanglonao 
Kanlaride 
Kanola ... 
Kantogana weberi 
Ka-nuna 

Kapougi lia 
Karraca ... 
Karadi ... 
Karde 

Karde karde 
Kar-di-a... 

Karena ... 
Karnalaif 

Karnam una lane 
Karnaroide 

Karnialimenia, 

Karnalirya 
Kami 
Kartela ... 
Katal 



Venom 

Mouth, teeth, or 

tongue 
Pool or Lagoon ; 

full (a vessel filled) 
noise 

Impatient; to dis- 
pute ; eloquent, 

talkative 
Hold your tongue, 

be patient, by and 

bye 
Echo 

Good person 
Magpie 
Little 
Murmur 
Fetch (to bring) 
Speak (to) 
Hold your tongue, 

be patient, by and 

bye 
Mouth 

Loud (to speak) 

Sing (to) 

Come ? will you 

Crown of shells 

Stout 

Distant 

Tiger V. D. L.lJAy- 
lacinus cynocephalns) 

Mouth 

Parrot 

Friendship 

Five 

Ten 

Two, a higher num- 
ber than 

Gums (of the mouth) 

Conversation (a 
great talking) 

Conversation (a 

Dry 
great' talking) 

Conversation (a 
great talking) 

Shout (to) 

Seal 

Snake 



Katamoi 
Katia, Kart6 
Kateboueve 
Katina .. 
Katina . . . 
Kateila . . . 
Katribiutana, 
Katrebutiani 
Kaviranara 
Kaiena ... 
Ka-u-legebra 
Ka-unilia 
Ka-uta ... 
Kawaluchta 
Kawala ... 
Kawala ... 

Ka wda . . . 

Kawerini 
Kawna ... 
Kawurina 



Kawuto ... 
Kekana elangunia 
j\eiva ... ... 

Kelabate Korah 
K61angunia 
Kela-katena 
Kelatie ... 
Kemunn6 
Kemin6 ... 
Kenara ... 
Kenganuowa 

Ken weika 

Kep6gine 

Kita boena 

Kethana... 

Kewatna 

Kible 

Kide 

Kidna 

xvl\? • • • • • ■ 

Kigranana 
Kikawa ... 
Kina tiwa 
Kindrega 
Kithin^ ... 
Kitrelbia 



... Gums (of the mouth) 
... Bad 
... Two 
... Lie (verb) 
... Cow 
... Seal 
Dry 

... Belly 

... Tongue 

... Feather 

... Afternoon 

. . . Evening ; dusk 

... Conflagration 

. . . Shout (to) 

... Shoulder, under 

(atm-pit) 
... Shoulder, under 

(arm-pit) 
. Belly 
... Teeth 
... Fire in the Bush 

grass 
... Afternoon, evening 

Good person 

Crystal 

Backward 

Swan 

Crow 

Deep (water) 

Chin 

Check 

Magpie \ 

Parakeet (Euphema 
chrysostofne) 

Scold 

Eat 

Gosling 

Hair 

Testicle 

Eat (to) drink (to) 

Hair, beard 

Skin 

Spear (to) 

Kangaroo Pouch 

Sharpen 

Bleed 

Beat (to) 

Skin or hair 

Sullen 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Iv 



Kitrelbia- nume- Aha ! you are sulky 
na, penigomari ! all of a sudden 
Kiunta ... .. Warr3itah(Tolopea- 

truncata) 
Koagara ... Fly (like a bird) 

Koa-langatik ... Stupid 
Koamniena ... Quiet 
Koananietia ... Fury 
Koantane .. Ground 

Koat6 ... ... Instant (quick) 

Ko'iba ... ... Wombat {Phascolo- 

mys vomhatus) 
Koi*gi ... ... Ear 

Koinaratingana Shore (Sandy-beach) 
Koiule, Ko-ule, Tug (to, at a rope) 
Kocha ... ... Swan 

Koka ... ... Red, blood, ruddy 

cheeks 
Kokanalia ... Ovf\^sm3\\{Anthene 

Boohook) 
Kokata ... Howl (in distress 

like a dog) 
Kokatah... ... Owl, large {Strix 

Castanops) 
Kokeri Kokelitie Mud, sediment 
Kokina ... ... Hawk, (eagle) 

Kokolini konkua Demur (grumble) 

Ko-kra Twitch (pluck) 

Kokura ... ... Jerk 

Kokuina ... Beard 

Kole ... ... Twitch, (pluck) 

Koliena ... .. Orphan 

Komeka... ... Egg 

Komen6-wagel6 Beard 
Komena-purena Beard 
Komena-rania ... Beardless 
comineralia 

Komeneana ... Moth 
Komniena ... Chin 

Komptensl, Kom- Spirit of evil— the 

tanor devil ; dog 

Komtenana ... Grass-tree 
Komiena ... Gristle 

Kongatuile, Kon- Crazy, Cranky 
gatune [guin6 
Kongine, Kon- Beard 
Kongene ... Chin 

Koniab ... Hold your tongue, 

be patient, by and 

bye 



Koruna ... ... Eagle (wedge-tail) 

Kothe ... ... Soon, hastily, 

quickly 
Koti-meliti6 ... Boy (large child) 
Kotomaletie ... Girl 
Kotrulutie, Kot- Babe, newly bom 
ruolutie infant 

Kotube ... ... Tug (to, at a rope 

or line) 
Kowanriga ... Ear 
Kowin6 ... ... Beard 

Kow-in-timi ... Beardless 
Kowina ... Hawk (eagle) 

Ko-ulopu Jerk, draw, pull 

Kraka-neka, Sit down, rest 

Krakn6 
Kraka-wugata .. Stand (stand up) 
Krakena .. ... Stand, sit, stop, or 

stay 
Krakanieak ... Pain, ill, sick 
Kragana... ... Flesh 

Krag baga ... Death (to die) 
Kraiarena ... Volute, long (V, fu- 

st formiz) 
Krani-mongthe6 Awake (to open the 

eyes) 
Krang-burak ... Ripe 
Kratabe... ... Wait 

Kreman puna ... Wart 
Krigenana ... Kangaroo Pouch 
Kroana ... ... Climb (to) 

Kroate ... ... New (not old) ; now 

(at this time) 
Kroata meliti6 ... Juvenile 
Kroata langunia Wife, newly mar- 
ried 
Kroti ... ... Instant (quick) 

Kroto m6liti6 ... Woman, young 

girl 
Krotomientoneak Apparition 
Kronie ... ... Climb (to) 

Krowrowa ... Night 

Krudah Parrot (Green) 

Krugana ... Parrot (Green) 

Krougana wugata Aloft 
Krupena... ... Gannet 

Kuadne, Kuani... Woman, wife 
Kuangloa ... Come? will you 

Kuegi ... ... Head 

Kuendera ... See, I 



Ivi 



H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Kuengi-lia 
Kugana langhta 
Kugawinia 

Kuina ... 
Kukana 

Kukana lieria ... 
Kukana hudawina 

Kukana muna- 

lan6 
Kukana puniepara 

or lenagangpa 

Kukana walamo- 

niak 
Kukana wurarena 
Kukana wurawina 
Kukanaroiete 
Kukanaboi 
Kukamena-mena 

Kukuna poipug- 

iapa 
Kulia 
Kulugana, Kurlu- 

gana, Kublugana 
Koulangtarata ... 
Kumegana 
Kumila .. 
Kumiena 
Kuna 
Kunawra Kuna... 

Kuniame 

Kuniwatera 

Kunmunera 

Kunrare 

Kuoiba ... 
Kura 
Kourah ... 



Kurailih; 
Kurena ... 
Kurina ... 
Kutainoile 



Ears 

Loud (to speak) 

Pebble, rolled 

Quartz 
Eagle (Wedge-tail) 
Girl (little) 
Talk (too much) 
Boy (a little) 

speaking) 
Talk (too much 

speaking) 
Whisper, speak 

low, let nobody 

hear 
Noise 

Shout (yell) 
Echo 
Thirsty 
Tie (a knot) 
Foam (froth), 

trickle 
Displease (to make 

angry) 

Kangaroo (brush) 
Claw (talon) 

Dul^ (stupid dolt) 

Chin 

Fly (like a bird) 

Weak 

Kangaroo rat 

Falmouth and 

George's River 
Stop 

Fetch (to bring) 
Talk (too much 

speaking) 
Talk (too much 

speaking) 
Wombat 
Swan 
Water-pitcher 

(made of the thick 

leaves of the large 

Kelp) 
Magpie 
Little 

Fang (canine tooth) 
Caul 



Labagina 

Laboib6 

Labitaka, labrika 

Ladine ... 

Lae rene 

Lagana, lagara . . . 

Lagarude 

Lagra 

Lagowuna 

Laguana 

Lagunta 



Laianunia 

Laiatina 
Laibrenala 
Laid6ga 
Laieka ... 
Laiiriak .. 
Laiete pawc 
Laiet6 proig 
j...^ai *iva ... 
Laina 
Laingana 

Laini 
Laiwuroi 
Lakaniampaoik 
x^aia ... 



Lalabi ... 
Lalubegana 
Laliga ... 
Lamilbena 
Lamunika 
Lanaba ... 
Lane poere 

Lanena .. 
Langna ... 
Langana, langeno 
Langeno pin 6 wa- 

tinc 
Langwe . . 
Laninga noile ... 
Laniniua 
Lapa 



Cat (small native) 

Cat (large native) 

Fo^t 

Breast (of a man) 

Bird, a small 

Foot 

Warm 

Help 

Moss 

Burn oneself (to) 

Ticrer V.D.L. 

{Thylacinus cynoce- 

phalus) 
Sea-horse [Hippo- 

C'lmPus) 
Tor (a peaked hill) 
Island (large) 
Heel 

Humid (wet damp) 
Bitter 

Hill (little one) 
Hill (mountain) 
Wet (rainy) 
Drink (to) 
Fire-tail (Estrelda 

helh) 

Untie (to) 
Perspire 
Bandy-legged 
Emmet (Ant), red 

body, black head 

and tail 
Boat 

Man (old) 
Kangaroo 
Drake 
See 

Pelican 

Grease the hair (to) 
Hit, strike, flog. 
Day [beat 

Leo" 
Foot 
Toes 

Grub 
Falsehood 
Mutton bird 
Pigeon (bronze - 
winged), wing 



ENGLISH-TASMANIAN VOCABULARY. 



\vn 



Lapoile lunagrina 


L Friend 


Lemiouteritia 


... Glutton 


mulana 




Lemuk ... 


... Kangaroo (male) 


Lapoinia 


Fern -tree 


Lena 


... House or hut, place 


Lapoitale, lapoit- 


Infant, newly born 


Lena wugta rota- Encampment 


endail6 




libana 




Lapri 


See 


Lena 


... Brush Kangaroo 


Lapugana 


Cat (small native) 


Lena, leni 


... Salt-water, fresh 


Laraminia 


Grub 




water 


Largana... 


Cat 


Lenere ... 


... Backward 


Larni 


Beat 


L6ngomenia 


... Eel 


Lare 


Scratch 


Leni 


... S(:/^r//a fa species of 


Lata, latawin6 ... 


Ore of Iron, Iron 




very large) 




Glance (used by 


Lenigugana 


... Stars (little) 




the aborigines as 


Lenikarpeni 


... Stone (a) 




a black paint) 


Lenimebri6 


... Filth 


Tiatanama 


Leg 


Leninga ... 


... Bandicoot (Parame- 


Launa ... 


Owl, small {Athene 




Us obesula) 




Booiook) 


Lenira ... 


... Bandicoot 


Launana 


Tiger V.D.L. {Thy- 


Len parena 


... Stone (a) 




lacinus cynocephalus) 


Lepena . . . 


... Eye 


Lavara ... 


Little 


L6p6n6 ... 


... Eyes 


Lawita-brutia . . . 


Fern 


Lepera . . . 


... Neck 




Kangaroo (brush) 


Lepina ... 


... Neck 


Laz'lia 


Pelican 


Leprena... 


... House or hut 


Lebrana ... 


. Marrow 


Leputala 


... Dog (native) [?] 


Ledrae . . 


Dance 


Lerana 


... Ray (Stinj^aree) 


Ledrani... 


Sing (to) 


Lere 


... Breast 


Lederakak 


Oyster 


Lerga . . . 


... Waddie, a trunch- 


Legana ... 


Water (fresh), sea 




eon-like weapon, 


Legana, legara . . . 


Evacuate (to) 




used as a missile 


Leganegulumpte 


Beat (to strike) 




in war and hunt- 


Legara ... 


Run 




ing. 


Legara liawarina 


Flay 


Lerina ... 


... Bat * 


Leglitia mengena 


. Wave 


Lerina ... 


... Gun (musket) 


Legromena 


Sweat (to perspire) 


Leripuntabi 


... Chase (to) 


Legunia 


Dress or covering 


Leritiana 


... Gunpowder 


Leiemtoniak 


Ashamed 


Lerui 


... Water (fresh) 


Leiina 


Fundament 


Leruna ... 


... Flounder (flat-fish) 


Leina 


Kangaroo 


Letin6 ... 


... Peak (a hill) 


Liinine 


Eyebrow 


Levira ... 


... Night 


Leipa 


Woman's 


Leuna ... 


... Boy 


Leipa 


Fire 


Leuniana 


... Leg, left 


Leiagia 


Kangaroo 


Leunia elibana Leg, right 


Lelangta 


Gun (musket) 


Leurina ... 


... Leg 


Lele 


. Huitrier noir 


Lewan ... 


... Wind 


Lemanrik 


Eye 


Lewanhok 


... Wind, high 


Lemar kutia 


Brush , dense forest 


Leward ... 


... Foetus 


Lemena ... 


. Oak 


Leware ... 


... Night 


Lemia 


Hastily (quickly), 


Lewatenu 


... Far 




soon 


LewHna... 


... Ears 



»5 



iviii 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Lewnana 
Lewrewagera . . . 

^^^ • ■ • • * ■ 

T fa 

Lia 

Liakani ... 

j-#ia ic ... . . . 

Lialaragono 
Lia laratame 
Lialitea ... 
Lialugrana 
Lia mena 
Lia noatie 
LiaTiel6 ... 
Liapatiena 

Liapunerana 
Liapota, liaputa 
Lia ruolutia 
Lia tarigtia or 
terutena 
Lia tiena 

Liatimi ... 

Liaturi ... 

Liawena 

Lia wen ie, lia wine 

Liawinawa 

Libra, lebrina ... 

J— /icKa . • . . • . 

LielowuUngana 

lielle woUingana 
Lieltia ... 

Liemkaniak 
j.^i6na ... ... 

Liena puna 
Liena wutia 
Liena pe-unia ... 
Liena pe-uniek ... 
Liena elibana ... 
Liena 
Liena 
Lienapontendia 

Lienegi miawero 

X^lvf uc ... ... 



Den 
Island 
Weapon 
Leg 

Water (fresh) 
Yawn 
Sea (ocean) 
Sneeze 
Foam (froth) 
Sea (ocean) 
Water (warm) 
Lake (lagoon) 
Water (salt) 
Play 

Honey-sucker (Mel- 
iphaga A ustralasiana) 
Fury 

Creek, small river 
Float (to) 
Flow (as water) 

Bald-coot, (Porpky- 

rio melanotus) 
Bosom (man's) 
Wave 
Leech 

Water (fresh, cold) 
Toad or Frog 
House or hut [bella 
Fire- tail {Estrelda 
Crevice or fissure in 

rocks, caverns 
Rollers or breakers 

on sea-beach 
Drop (water) 
Fire in the bush 

grass 

Egg 

Sea (ocean) 
Water (warm) 
Water (warm) 
Fresh water 
Iguana (lizard) 
Kangaroo (brush) 
Fire -tail (Estrelda 

bella) 
Displease (to make 

angry) 
Sing (to hiss or fizz 

in the fire) 



Liengana 
Lieniak ... 
Lienina purina .. 
Lienir6 ... 
Lieni riakuna ... 
Lie nongate 
Lienowitie 

Lientable, taga 
nmna ! 
Lientiak... 
Lientiap6 

Lienute ... 
Lienwolingena ... 
Liepeta ... 

Liergrapoinena 

Lierkapuna,lierk- 
anapuna 
j_#ieia ... • . . 
Lietelina 
Lietina .. 
Liimata liimena 

Liimena kamei 

Liimuneta 

Liinganena 

Liita, lietena ... 

Liiwugta 

Ligrame... 

Ligunie 

JL^lKa • • « • • • 

Likot6 ... 

ji_#iia ... ■ . . 

Lilberik... 

Lilia 

Limeri ... 

Limete ... 

Lina buna 

Lina 

Lina, linai 
Linangunie 
Lina 
Line 



Buttock 

Swell 

Eyebrow 

Fresh water 
Sing a song 

Fresh water 

Salt on the rocks by 

the seaside 
Awake (rouse ye, 

get up) 
Wake 
Awake him, rouse 

him 

Ashamed [mats) 
Den (of wild ani- 
Gull {Larus Pact- 

ficus) 
Exuvia (skin of a 

snake) 
Exuvia (skin of a 

snake) 
Sharp (like a knife) 
Side (the) 
Water (cold) 
Boil {Futunculus) 

abcess 
Hide (to conceal 

kangaroo) 
Eagle's nest 
Rat 
Crow 

Eagle's nest 
To-morrow 
Skin or exterior 

covering 

Wherry (sea-shell) 
Rage 
Cat, gun 
Eyelash 
Water (fresh) 
Cloud 
Abscess 
Roe of Fish 
Opossum mouse 

(Phalangista nana) 
Penis 
Fury 
Crow 
Nest (birds), house 

or hut, place, smell 



ENGLISH-TASMANIAN VOCABULARY. 



lis 



Line 

Lineda ... 
Linelibana 
Linena ... 
Linepoinena 
Lin6 poine noil6 
Line rotali 
Lhneraga 
Lingana lua re- 
nowa 
Lingen6 bune ... 
Lingowena 
Liniale 

Linug6 noiI6 

Liopakanapuna . . . 

Lipi 

Lipreni ... 
Lirevigana 
Litaranga 

Liue 

Liutece 

Livore 

Li wun 

Li-wuramoina ... 

Liwur6 

Liwure 

Liwureniena 
Loagna ... 
Loakenamal6 . . 
Loale pugana ... 
Loalib6 ... 
Loa lingana 
Loa Magalangta 
Loa-mineri 

Loana elibana ... 
Loanga metia ... 
Loangaritia 

Loa niri . . . [iak 
Loa-nir6 liadiwa- 
Loantenina 
Loaparte . . 

Loara 
Loaranelia 
Loarina ... 



Penis 
House 

Water (fresh) 
Eyry 

Place, this 
Filth 

Encampment 
Forget 
Amatory (rakish) 

Swan's egg 
Eel 

Mirth, Diversion 
(sport, play) 
Lie (falsehood) 

Salt on the rocks 
by the seaside 

Virilia 

House 

Island 

Kneel 

Navel 

Low 

Night 

Child 

Sweat (to perspire) 

Flambeau 

Skin of kangaroo 

Wattle bird smaller 

Sleep (to) 

Barren (woman) 

W^oman, young girl 

Ship 

Vent 

Deep (water) 

Beauty (fine-looking 
woman) 

Woman, handsome 

Sexual intercourse 

Tick (parasitic in- 
sect) 

W'oman, handsome 

Woman, handsome 

Stone 

Black 

Charcoal 

Azure (sky) 

Caul, windpipe 
(Popum Adami) 



Loarina ... 

Loata . . . 
Loata kitana 
Loatera . . . 

Lobah . . . 
Lodamerede 
Lodowine 
Loelangta 
Loente wamla 

Logatal6 mina 
Logongiena 

Logowelae 
Logune ... 
Lognenena 
Loidroug6ra 

Loi6 loining6 
Loigana . . . 

Loik6 

Loila 
Loina 

Loina, loiena 

Loina, loine 
Loini Broyi 
Loingana 

Loiorana 
Loioruna 
Loiowiba . 
Loipune . . . 
Loira 

Loirmena 
Loi-ulena 
Loiun6 ... 

Lokota ... 
Lola 

Lola, lolara 
Loina 
Lomali6 . . . 



... Tiger V.D.L. (Thy- 

lacinus ciinocephalus) 
... Tree (gum-tree) 
... Twig 
.. Ant, red body, black 

head and tail 
... Spark, fire 
... Strangle (to) 
... Man (white) 
... Rock (large) 
... Last (to walk last 

in file) 
... Daughter 
... Opossum mouse 

(Phalangista nana) 
... Valley 
... Cut (to) 
... Phalanger 
... Propagation (the 

a<5l of) 
... Fundament 
... Serpent (black 

snake) 
... Gum-tree (Eucafyp- 

tns) 
... Sky 

... Sun (the), day, con- 
flagration 
... Serpent (black 

snake) 
... Stone 
... Rock (large) 
... Blow (with the 

mouth forcibly) 
... Wind 
... Wing 
... Day 

... Hurt (with waddie) 
... Charcoal reduced 

to powder 
... Scab 

... Well (spring) 
... Blow (with the 

mouth forcibly) 
... Shore 
... Gun 
... Earthworm 
... W^oman 
... Great-bellied (with 

child) 



h 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Lomatiluta 
Lomawpa 
Lomodina, loma- 

tina, lomate 
Lomi 
Lona 

x^ona • . • • . • 
Lonabiad6 
Lonbodia 
Lona muta 

Lone 

Lonoi 

Longa ... 

Longana, lonrly 

Longatalina 

Longatyle 

Lonipak 

Longwini 

Lonolare 

Lonuguta 

Lopa 

LfOpatin ... 

Lopiteniba 

Loputal . . 

j-^Oi a • • • . • > 

Loraina ... 

Lore 

Lori lori... 

Lorina ... 

Loriomena 

Lorokuka 

Lota, lotte 

Lotomalangta lu- 

mena 
Louana ... 
Louba ... 
Lougoli ... 
Louna ... 
Lounabe 
Louniat^ 
Louod ... 
Loura 
Lourfgana 
Lowa, lowana ... 
Lowana-elaptha - 

ti6 or elibanalia 



Pregnant 

Far 

Belly, intestines 

This way 

Windpipe 

Rock (large) 

Hoarse 

Oyster 

Mountain Duck 
{Anas Punctata) 

This way 

This 

Stone (a) 

Sleep, asleep 

Woman, adult 

Girl 

Hoarse 

Fleece (or fur of 
animals) 

Sneeze 

Sneeze 

Fire, spark 

Flame 

Barren (woman) 

Dog (native) 

Frog 

Neck 

White 

Fingers 

Waddie 

Scab 

Mutton fish, smooth 
(Haliotis) 

Gum-tree (Eucalyp- 
tus) y tree 

Ship 

Woman (black) 
Oyster-shell 
Drink 

Stone [snake) 

Serpent (black 
Foolish (or fool) 
Child 

Ray (Stingaree) 
Forest 
Woman 

Beauty (fine-looking 
woman) 



Lowana Kaitena Young (little) girl 
or Kitana 

Lowan kareimena Grandmother 
Lowa lugata ... Infant, female 
Lowa Miniena... Adult woman 
Lowala omnena Great -bellied (with 



or umanienia 
Lowlapewana . . 
Lowajjroina 
Lowa pugatimi . 
Lowa pugelanie 
Lowarinakuna .. 

Lowatimi 
Lowa lengana .. 

Lowaberilonga . 

Lowalinamela .. 

Lowamakana .. 

Lowangerimena 

Lowaperi longha Sullen 

Dead 
Dead 
Sullen 



child) 

Woman 

Fat woman 

Barren (woman) 

Uxorious 

Bark of tree (flap- 
ping) 

Biachelor 

Hole (like wombat 

burrow) 
Pet (pettish) 
Milt of fish) 
Circle 
Flea 



Lowaka (/>) 
Lowatka (v) 
Lowatobeolo ka- 

kanene 
Lowdina 
Lowell ... 
Lowenrupa 
Lowerina 
Lowide ... 
Lowini loilia or 

ruloi 
Lowina . . 
Lowine ... 



Dog (native) 

Quaff (drink) 

Wake 

Tiger 

Scab 

Gale 

Scales (of fish) 
Feather 



Lowlobengang ... Man (old) 



Lowun6 .. 
Lowoiena 

Luawa .. 

Luba 
Lubada . 
Lube 

Lubeiera 
Lubere .. 



Scarify 

Opossum mouse 
{Phalangista nana) 
Many (a great num- 
ber) 

Oyster-shell 
Casuarina, fruit of 
She oak (a species 
of fir-tree) 
Neck 
Woman (black) 



Lubra [Australian W^oman 

ivord] 
Lubra, matah- Penis 

prena 



ENGLISH-TASMANIAN VOCABULARY. 



Ixi 



Lu-be ... 

Ludineni 

Ludowine 

Liidowing 

Lue 

Luika 

Luena . . . 

Lug, lugana 

Lugana a-uta or 

aguta or oangta 

or anguta 
Lufra worina or 

eiibana 
Lugaboine 
Lugana mara or 

kana 
Luga-luna, lugie- 

na 
Luga umene or 

pula 

Luga tonie 
Lunganterina . . . 
Lugamute 
Luga poerania ... 
Luga 
Lugana ... 

Lugana ... 
Lugana nienia ... 

Lugana-brena ... 
Lugana Pugaran6 
Lugara ... 
Lugara Riawe ... 

Lugaraniale 
Lugatik ... 
Lughi 
Lugorato 
Lugoilia mungoi- 

na lia 

Lugra lugrata ... 
Lugra-pawi, lug- 

arato pawe 
Lugrana... 



She-oak tree 
Girl (ITttle) 
Man (white) 
Man (white) 
Navel 
Bat 
Night 
Foot 
Foot (left) 



Lugra-nire 



Foot (right) 

Track (footmark) 
Foot-step 

Sole of foot 

Instep 

Nail (toe) 

Paw 

Lame 

Survivor 

Bottle 

Water (fresh) to 
drink 

Oyster 

Owl, small (Athene 
Boohook) 

She-oak tree 

Flog 

Fun (sport), play 

Diversion (sport 
play) 

Daylight 

Tide 

Navel 

Summer 

Bandicoot {Parameles 
ohesula) 

Heat, hot 

Spring (wattle-blos- 
som season) 

Waddie, a trunch- 
eon-like weapon, 
used as a missile 
in war and hunt- 
ing 

Leg (right) 



Lugreto .. 
Lugruta... 
Lugtiak ... 
Lugtoi ... 
Luguna golumpte 
Luiena ... 

Luina 

Lumalangta 
Luiroponi, luira- 

peni 
Luiteiana 

Lukangana 

Lukrapani 

ji_#uia ... « . • 

Luna 

Luna-riab6 

Lune poina mak- 

aba 
Luna kana 
Lune 

Lungana 

Lungana 

Lungebi nani ... 
Lunga nua wah 

Lunganena 
Lunta 
Luona-kuna 
Luow^a ... 
Lupari ... 
Lurana ... 

Lure 

Lurene ... 
Lurga 
Lurgu 
Luringa ... 
Lusivina 
Lutana ... 
Lutibia ... 
Lutiena ... 
Lutga 



Warm 
Tide 
Tough 
Gunpowder 
Beat, to strike 
Native cat, small 
(Dasyurus viverrinus) 
Wren, blue-headed 
(Malurus longicaudus) 
East Bay Neck 
Ship or boat 

Gull {Larus Puci- 
ficus) 

Wallabee (H alma- 
turns Btllnrdieri) 
Canoe 
Foot 

Cat (large native) 
Song 
Ship 

Belch (to) 
Woman or girl 

(white or black) 
Fleet (swift), run 

together 
To flog, to strike, 

to kill 
Strike 

Heron (blue crane) 
(Ardea Nov, Holland) 
Rat (long-tailed) 
Low 

Belch (to) 
Few 
Free 
Shoulder (under 

arm-pit), brushwood 
Ankle 
Leg 
Woman 

Kangaroo (female) 
Rat, long-tailed 
Man 
Moon 
Wake 
Red-bill 
Serpent (black 

snake) 

i6 



Ixii 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Lutregala 


Day (fine) 


Maluna ... 


Nest (bird's) 


Lutubreneme ... 


L4)ok (to gaze) 


Maluta ... 


Circular Head 


Luiidouene 


Man 




(locality) 


Luweina 


Children 


Mamana 


Tongue, the 


Mabia ... 


One side, round 


Mana 


I, me 




turn 


Mana 


Wattle-tree 


Mabil^ ... 


Altogether 


Mana 


Catarrh 


Mabola 


Many (a great num- 


Mana lari, man- 


Catarrh with Dys- 




ber) 


naladi 


pnoea, cough 


Mada lia 


Testicles 


Mana m6rede . . . 


Expedlorate 


Madeguera, mad- 


■ Eat, I will 


Mana mena 


Venom 


egera 




Mana puna 


Tail 


Maga, magana .. 


Pubes {tnons venetis) 


Manamera 


Thumb 


Magra ... 


Day (a) 


Manana, nianena 


Dirt, earth, mould 


Magrania 


Haliotis tjlahra. 


Manana Mali6 ... 


Dirt (mud of a whit- 




smooth, mutton- 




ish colour) 




fish 


Manana rul6 


Dirt (mud dried) 


Maguelena 


. Belly 


Mananiwaile 


Mud, sediment 


Mainentaiana ... 


Fog 


Manata rula 


. Serious (sad gaze) 


Maiinabiek 


Twins 


Manemen^na ... 


Dumb 


Maitingule 


. Aquiline ( Roman - 


Manina langatik, 


Steal 




nosed) 


or laiawe 




Makrie-minamru 


Nurse 


Manintaiana 


Falsehood 


Makubuna 


. Depidl (draw a de- 


Manenge or Man- 


Brook 




sign in charcoal 


enia kitana 




Makunia 


Sleep (to) 


Manengtianga, 


Lie, Falsehood 


Malabeabu 


Green (thing) 


Tiangamonini 




Malaka 


Grow (as a tree, 


rapar6 






child) 


Manga ... 


. I, or me, or mine 


Malana 


Canoe (Catamaran) 


Mangapoiere 


Grow (as a tree. 


Malana mina ... 


Eyry 




child 


Malane ... 


Yellow ochre 


M anga-namraga 


Know (to), see 


Malan6, molanii 


Frigid (cold) 


Mangelena 


Rain 


Malangiena 


Boy (small child). 


Mangeluwa 


Load 




infant 


Manina ... 


Ground 


Malaride 


Cold 


Manlumb^ra 


Distant 


Malbena 


Drake (wild) 


Manrable 


Face 


Malia 


Clean 


Manta 


Long way or time 


Mali 


White 


Maniakuani 


Murmur 


Maliak ... 


Humid (wet damp) 


Manouadra 


Kernel of Eucalyptus 


Malliak reglitia... 


Sweat (to perspire) 




vestttifera 


Maliare ... 


Foot (right) 


Manugana 


Spawn (of firogs) 


Malitie ... 


White, blossom 


Manura ... 


Moss 


Malengena 


Son 


Manuta 


. Way (long) or long 


Malia-lia 


No 




time 


Maloinpto 


Shore 


Mapilriagunara .. 


Full (after a meal) 


Malua ... 


White 


Mara 


Name of a man 


Malougna 


Sleep (to) 


Mara, marawa, 


One 


Malumbo 


Absent 


marai 




Malumniela 


Near 


Mara 


Five 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



1. • . 
Xlll 



Ma-ra komenia.. 
Marakupa 
Marama... 
Marana ... 

Maranek 

Mara-wai-li 

Mararika 

Marewialai 

Marina 

Marinuk .. 

Martula... 

Mata 
Mata e nigo 

^Vl dla . • • • • ■ 

^viaia ... ... 

Mata-prena 
Mataweb6 
Matet6 loguatame 
Mat guera, mat- 
gera 
Matiena lug 

Matilati... 
Mawbak 
Mawbana 
Mawina .. 
Mawpa, mawpak 
Mawbia... 
Maiani raieri ... 
Maidena 

Maikana poungna 
Maina, moinena 
Mai-niak 
Mairude... 
Maiti Kantimbe 
or pangruta 
Mebia ... 
Mebriak 
Mebrina... 

Medi, medito ... 

Medouer 

Mega, megna ... 

Megog ... 
Megra ... 
Megruera 



Vale or Valley 

Handsome 

Stars 

War (skirmish, one 

or two killed) 
Burn oneself (to) 
Vale or Valley 
Parakeet (musk) 
Jealous 
Seal 
Lad 
Circular Head 

(locality) 
Death (to die) 
That kills, that is 

mortal 

Round like a ball 
Testes, scrotum 
Penis 

Wood, firewood 
Friend 
Eat, let us go and, 

go and eat 
Footmark of white 

man 

Full (after a meal) 
Black 
Black 
Charcoal 
Dirty 

Side, on one, aside 
Hurt (with spear) 
Shadow 
W^ing 
Tongue 
Wet (rainy 
Pain 
Quiet 

Side, on one, aside 
Effluvia, scent 
Volute, large V, 

mamilla) 
Sit down 
Nose 
Pubes (mofis veneris), 

vagina 
Rock 

Day, grass 
Nose 



Meina-na 
Me-ingana 
Meketine pepine 
Mekropani 
Mela 

Melangburak ... 
Meledna... 
Mema 

Memana... 
Mena, mene 
Mena 

Mena rawariga ... 
Mena lowalina ... 
Mena 

Mena lageta 
Mena malaga la- 
tia 
Mena 

Menai Kitana ... 
Menakarowa 
Menanwi 
Minawa... 
Menaweli 
Mene 

Meno rugara 
Meneterutie 
Men6 wuta 
Menia ... 
Meni 
Meninga 
Menga ... 
Mengana 

Mengana 

M engboibi rat6 . . 

M enokana 

Mentroiak 

Menugana 

Mera 

Mera 

Merak-bourak .. 

Merhe ... 

Merede ... 

Meriana... 

Meridine 

Meta 

Meta (met-a) 

Metaira .. 

Metakitana 



Twins 
Back (the) 
Finger 
Stop (to) 
Run (to) 
Plant 
Mountain 
Cobbler's Awl, a 
bird 

Fight (to) 
Tongue, the 
Pipe 
Nose 
Caul 

Me, mine, I 
ril tell you 
I will go and hunt 

Porcupine 

River (little) 

Agile 
Maim 

Eat ito) 

Dumb 

Whistle (to) 

Acrid (taste) 

Harlot 

Acrid (taste) 

Grub 

Hit 

Shark 

Toe 

Draw (to pull), 
throw, get 

Snail 

Beat (to strike) 

Cockatoo (black 

Wink 

Cockatoo (black) 
. Name of a man 

One 
. Dead 

Hit 

111 (sick) 

Breast "(chest 
, 111 (sick) 
, Hamstring (the) 
, Sinew (kangaroo 
. All round 
. Cord (a small rope) 



Ixiv 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Meuna ... Bill (bird's) 

Mevana, mivenani Sit down 
Miabimena ... Star 
Miakbourak ... Carcase, corpse 
Mialanga burak Grow (as a tree, 

child) 
Miale mianaber6 Kneel 
Miali tonerageta Inadlive (indolent) 
Mialkama . . . Hold your tongue, be 

patient, by and bye 
Mialpeal kama .... Talk (too much 

speaking) 
Mialpuga ... Sit down 

Mialtetriangule- Before 

bia 
Mialtita lerentita Behind 



Mialungana 
Miamengana 
Miangatenti6 ... 

Miangmalitia ... 
M iato wunam ina 
Mia waile 
Midugiia 
Mieawiak 
Mi-elbirkama ... 

Mielpoier6 

Mie lugrata 

Miimara 

Miemeremele .. 

Miemiengane .. 

Miempeuniak .. 

Miemuatik 

Miena, mena 

Miena ... 

Mienamina 

Mienanugana 

Miencmiento 

Mienintiak 

M ieni-pingatere- 

luteo 
Miengalina 
Miengana 
Mienginia 

Miengi ... 
Miengkonenecha- 

na 
Miengotik 



Battle 
Fight 
Red juice of a plant 

(sap) 
Sap 
Nettle 
Weak 
Fall (to) 

Round, like a ball 
Hold your tongue, 

be patient, by and 
Wait [bye 

Fever 
Cease (to) 
Enough (sufficient) 
Battle 
Fever 
Heavy 

Lake (lagoon) 
Knee 

Pool or lagoon 
, Navel 

Kill (deprive of life) 
. Tremble 
Transfix (to) 

Juice of a plant, red 
Wrong 

Demon, fiend, spirit 
of the dead, of evil 
Throw 
Anger 

Enfeeble (to) 



Miengpa 

M iengterawinia . . . 

Mienkomiak 

Mienoiak 

Mienteina 

Mientendiak 

Mienterunie 

Mientonka 

Mientung burak 

Miepoiiena 

Miewale... 

Miewangana 

M i* ikraknataritia 

Miinguna terena, 

or tenena 
Miipuietaniak .. 
Mikani ... 
Mikakaniak 
Mikumulaka 
Milabaina, mila- 

bena 
Mile-ne!... 
Milma ... 
Milugana 

Mima 

Mimerede 
Mimuneka nenta- 

ka nepuni 
Mina 
Mina 
Mina 
Mina 

Mina, mino 
Mina, mine 
Minarara 
Minebana 
Mineware 
Minpa-oinia 
Mini 
Min'> 
Miria 

Mita 

Mitawenia 

Mite 

Mitugara mura- 

wamena 
Miulian ... 
Miunginiak 



Abstain 
Native hen 
Enfeeble (to) 
Lazy 

Sky (cloud in) 
Ruddy cheeks 
Hen (native) 
Tumble 
Dead 
Carcase 
Kiss (to) 
Turn (to) 
Sick 

Spine, chine (back- 
bone) 
Ruddy cheeks 
Drop (water) 
Sick 
Fright 
Opossum 

, Ah! 

Porcupine 

Howl, in distress 

(like a dog) 
. Ant-eater {Echidna 

setosa) 

Sick 

Indolent (lazy) 

. Sick 
. Me 

Fog 
. Beach 
. Tongue (the) 
. I, me 
. Nose 
. Knee 
. Nose 
. Porpoise 
. Nettle 
. Mussel ''sea) 
. Grass 

. Sinew (kangaroo) 
. W^iale 
. Cord (a small rope 

Last (to walk last 
in file) 
. Belly 
. Hunger 



TASMANIAN-E.VGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixv 



Moahakali 


Water (salt) 


Monalugana 


... Root (tree) 


Moalugata Kana- 


Deplore (to lament, 


Mona-mini 


... Prickly 


' proie . 


as at an Irish -wake) Mona perina 


... Sullen 


, Moata ... 


Dove (wild pigeon) 


Monga, mongana Fly (insecf^), blow 


Moboleneda 


Little 




fly, burr 


Moelugrana 


Wail, to lament 


Mongaloneria 


... Dove (wild pigeon) 


Modamogi 


Kiss 


Monganenida 


... Fighting 


! Moga (mocha) ... 


Water, fresh 


Mongtalina 


... Eyelash 


Moga, mogana ... 


Wet (rainy) 


Mongtamena 


... Glow-worm or phos- 


Mogude lia 


Lips 




phoresence 


1 Moiberi 


Ant, small black, 


Mongtaniak, mon- Faint 




strong-smelling 


gtantiak 




Moido-guna 


Upset (to) 


Mongtena 


... Eye 


Moie 


Corpse (a dead car- 


Mongtone 


... See (to behold) 




case), lips 


Monira .. 


... Thrush, spotted 


Moietungali 


Grin (to make faces) 


Monodadro 


... Eucalyptus resinifera^ 


1 Moigta gena 


Eyelid 




seed of the 


1 Moilatend 


Embrace (Platonic) 


Monouadra 


... Eucalyptus resinifera, 


Moilugawa 


War (battle, all killed 


I 


seed of the 




but one or two) 


Montumana 


... Rivulet 


Moi lugata 


Cry (weep) 


Morana ... 


... Diver 


Moimabile 


War (battle, all killed Mora trona 


... Flint (black) 




but one or two) 


Motuk ... 


... Finger- fore 


Moimeniak 


Wade 


Mouna ... 


... Lips 


Moimengana 


Fight 


Mounga ... 


... Fly, blow-fly 


Moimengan mab- 


War 


Mowerena 


... Wade 


eli 




Mualunia 


... Pigeon (bronze- 


Moimute 


War (skirmish, one 




winged) 




or two killed) 


M uanoig 


... Nose 


Moi Mir6 


Kiss (to) 


Muboa ... 


... Dog 


Moina ... 


Rat water or musk 


Mudena ... 


... Nose 




{Hydromis chrysog- 


Mugana ... 


... Shag, white-breast- 




aster) 




ed cormorant black 


Moinea 


Ant-eater {Echidna 




( PhalacrocoraxgUu' 




setosa) 




coaster) 


Moin6na 


Prickly 


Muganapuguniak Crazy (cranky) 


Moingaba 


. Dead 


Mugena ... 


... Nose 


Moingnana 


Cockatoo (black) 


Mugid ... 


.. Nose 


Moira, moirunah 


Water- pitcher (made Mugra ... 


... Hide one's self, to 




of the thick leaves 




conceal kangaroo 




of the large kelp 


Mugra mali 


... Topaz (crystal) 


Moka 


Water (fresh), wet, 


Mugra web6 


... Wood, firewood 




rain 


Muguiz ... 


... Nose 


Mokri prug 


. Suck 


Mugutena 


... Trees 


Mola 


. Parrot 


Muianato 


... Aloft 


Mole 


Sea-swallow 


Muidje ... 


... Nose 


Mole 


. Suck 


Muie 


... Nose 


Moltema 


. Run (to) 


Mulu-manginie... Give me 


Mona, mone 


. Mouth, lips 


Mukaria... 


... Water 


Monaganura 


. Ill (sick) 


Mukra ... 


... Spaniel (dog) 



17 



Ixvi 



H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Mumara, mumra, 


, Wood, tree, fire- 


Murumbukania... 


. Fairy 


mumanara, mum 


- wood 


Muramanatia ... 


Long way 


Mumelena [bra 


L Marrow of a bone 


Murden ... 


. Stars (little) 


Mumelina 


Marrow 


Murduna 


Star 


Mumlamana 


Father 


Mur kamia 


Hide one's self 


Muna 


Fog, wood, gum 


Murlia 


. Volute, long (V, 


Munagana 


Ankle [wood 




fusiformis) 


Munakana 


Whistle 


Murok ... 


. Parrot 


Munapaiiniak pa- 


Grin (to make faces) 


Muta 


. Pigeon (bronze- 


oritie 






winged) 


Munapena 


. Mouth [tumble 


Muta-muta 


. Bird 


Muna pungana ... 


Tree (fall of a), to 


Muuna pugawinis 


I Aquiline (Roman- 


Muna potrune ... 


Earthquake 




nosed) 


Muna wana 


Ankle 


Naba 


Other 


Mungalarina 


Groin 


Nabagina 


. Sun (the) 


Mungana 


Gum (wattle tree) 


Naboininele 


. Cat (small native) 


Mungana 


Urine 


Nabowla 


. River 


Mungana paoniak Foolish (or fool) 


Nala 


. Ground 


Mungananena ... 


Parakeet (Euphema 


Nairana... 


Eagle 




chfysostome) 


Nagada 


Man 


Munganemoi ... 


Rub (rub in fat) 


Nagataboye 


Aged (literally rot- 


Mungara 


Flint 




ten-boned) 


Mungara mena... 


Sand 


Nama ... 


Man (white) 


M ungate mungh- 


Urine 


Nama, namne- 


Spirit of evil — the 


abe 




burak 


devil 


Mungawele 


Enfeeble (to) 


Namerika 


. Eye 


Mungena 


Ear 


Namenoluni 


They, or them 


Mungerapuna ... 


Scar 


Nami 


. Stone (a) 


Munguna 


Fish (a) 


Namorgun 


Lightning 


Mungwenia 


Grub 


Namtapa. 


Opossum mouse 


Mungh6 mableli 


Load 




{Phalangisia natta) 


Mungiangara ... 


White 


Nanabenana 


Knee 


Mungie, mungi- 


Porcupine, corpse, 


Natiiakuanhe . . . 


Growl 


ena 


echidna setosa 


Nani 


. Stone (a) 


Mungimeni lia ... 


Battle 


Nani Purilabena- 


Blossom 


Mungina Kangale Porcupine 


ni 




Munkanara wala 


Eloquent (talkative) 


Nangabi... 


. Father 


Munlamana 


Father 


Nangenamoi 


. Scales (of fish) 


Mununa... 


Nose 


Nangemuna 


Barren (woman) 


Munwaddia 


Feathers 


Nang-inia 


Elf or fairy (fond of 


Mura 


Heavy 




children, and dances 


Murah, murak ... 


Shag, black cormo- 




in the hills, after the 




rant {Phalacrocorax 




fashion of Scotch 




corboides), or [leucog- 




fairies) 




fls/^r) white-breasted Nangoinulia 


Whiz (like a ball. 




cormorant 




etc) 


Murambukania 


Witch or female 


Nangumora 


. Far 


lowana 


goblin, said to be 


Nanguna 


Opossum, ringtail- 




clothed with grass 




ed {Phalangista 




or fibrous bark 




Cookii) 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixvii 



Nanim-pena 

Nanwun .. 

Naoutag burak 

Napanrena 

XN ai a • • • • ■ • 

Narabaro, naralu- 
awa narawa, nar- 
awe, naramuna, 
narapa narawali 

Narakupa 

Naramoiewa . . . 
Narapalta 
Nara waragara... 
Nata, natie 
Nawate pegrate, 
wergo ! 
Nawaun .. 
Nawitia... 

Nawiwemena . . 
Negana ... 
Neienanire 

iNClKa ••• ••• 

Neingmenli ' ... 
Neka, nekal6 ... 
Neka proini 
Nelumie... 
Nemewadiana ... 
Nemone... 
Ne-ianta 

Neingtera terunti 
Nena 

Nenarongabia ... 
Nena ta poiena... 
Nena tura tena... 
Nenavitete 
Nendi ... 
Nenga ... 
Nen-here 
N6ntega Meniawa 
Nepugamena . . . 
Neprane... 
Netepa ... 
Netepa ... 

Neudi 

Neulangta 



Arm 

Many, plenty 
Cry (weep) 
Badger 

That or them, or 
they, he, her 
Ay (yes) 



Ne-ungalangta ... Tarantula (large 

spider) 
Rage 
Touch 

Lick (with the 
Eat (to) [tongue) 
Kangaroo (forester) 
Gape 



Handsome (very), or 
very good 

Enough (sufficient) 

Crow 

Agile 

Earth or groimd 

Awake, (rouse ye, 
get up) 

Thunder 

Seal iPhoca) on san- 
dy beach 

Mole — cricket 

Another 

Face (fine) 

Hill 

Mother 

There 

Stop (to) 

Help 

Sheep 

Grass 

Woman 

Invigorate 

Sharp (like a knife) 

Asleep 

Woman, aged, old 

Widow 

Transfix (to) 

No 

Canoe 

Sleep (to) 

Yesterday 

Eyes 

Cheek 

Mutton fish (rough) 

Haliotis (ear shell) 

No 

Opossum, black 
{Pkalangista fulgi- 
nos) 



Neiingiak 
Neungpa 
Neunguli 
Newina ... 
Newiti6 ... 
'Ngana kankapia 

ulralabia kapu- 

ilia 
Nganana 
'Ngani ... 
*Nghara, nghara 

rumna 
Ngarana 
*Ngata, ngatai .. 
*Ngawa ... 
'Ngawaredeka ... 

'Ngeana, ngina... 

'Ngena 

'Ngheareta 
'Ngiena ... 
'Ngona Kuna ... 
Ngoninialibia ... 
'Ngota ... 
*Nguna ... 
'Nguna ... 
'Ngunana 
*Ngune ... 
*Ngupota-meti ... 
Niacha pugaro- 
ami 
Niagara... 
Niangt6 nepuni... 
Nianapena 
Nia nunawa 
Niantymena 
Niarana... 
Niaripa ... 
Niathka 
Niatirana 
Nideje, nidejo ... 

Niena langta 
Nienamina 
Nienate ... 
Niengeta 
Niengheta elap- 
thatia 



Emu 

Halt (limp on leg) 

Cockatoo (white) 

Cockatoo (white) 
Lean, feeble 
Gull [Lams Pacificus) 
Penguin (Spluniscus 
minor) [burrow) 
Hole (like wombat 
Gums (of the mouth) 
Wattle tree 
Well (spring) 
Whiz(likeaball,etc.) 
True 
Left hand 
Shark 
Sand 

Emu (bird) 
Fire, spark 
Flounder (flat fish) 
Dream 

Dream 
Wrinkle . 
Head 
Yesterday 
Daughter 
Mushroom 
Cockatoo (black) 
Eagle (Osprey) 
Mushroom 
I do not know or 
understand 
Fat woman 
Fat 

Adult woman 
Face 
Face (fine) 



Ixviu 


H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMAl 


NIA. 


Nieniena 


. . . Kangaroo rat 


Noina niutaina ... 


Long way 


Nierina ... 


... Hawk (Jeracidea) 


Noienena 


Face 


Nieta mena 


... Brother (little) 


Noki 


Give me 


Nietarana 


... Brother (little) 


Non6 


Flea 


Nigrarua 


... Morning 


Nonelmoi 


Wash (to) 


Nika 


... Ra\\ (Ralluspectoralis) No*onga... 


Scars elevated on 


Nika, nike 


... This or the 




the body 


Nil 


... Nails 


Noperena 


Cat 


Nile 


... Eyelash 


Norabitia 


Green (thing) 


Nimere ... 


... Tie 


Nowalia... 


Woman 


Nimermena 


... Father 


Nowalen6 


Sea-weed (jointed) 


Nina 


... Grass 


Nowam ... 


Thunder 


Ninambi 


... Grandmother 


Now^antarina ... 


Sister 


Nina Moig 


... Mother 


Nowarakominia 


Fern -tree 


Nina, ninga 


... You 


Nowara nena ... 


Hawk small {Astur 


Nin6 


... Thou or you 




approximans) 


Ninena lia 


... Jawbone 


Nowateita 


Ant, red body, black 


Ningen6... 


... Bring 




head and tail 


Ni, nina ... 


... You 


Nowati niialbana 


Ugly 


Ninubru-latai 


... Fury 


Nowiak 


. Bad (no good) 


Nimina ... 


... Mother 


No-wiak 


Acid (taste), sour 


Ni par ana 


... Face 


Nowetie-elibana 


Rascal 


Nirabe ... 


... Correct 


Nualangtamabe- 


Opossum, black 


Nire 


... Heal [ing woman) 


na 


{Plwlangista fnlginos) 


N ire -Iowa 


... Beauty (fine-look- 


Nubra rote 


Wink 


Niri 


... Good person 


Nubrana, nubre- 


Eye 


Niripa ... 


... oCd 


na, nubere 




Nithoba . . . 


... %3Cc* 


Nubratone 


See (to behold) 


Nitipa ... 


... Water bag 


Nubretanete 


Faint 


Noalia ... 


... Adult woman 


Nubretanit^ 


. Dizzy 


Noali nugaba 


... URly 


Nubr6 tongani .. 


. Eyelash 


Noania ... 


.. Thunder 


Nubre wurine .. 


. Eyelid 


Noamoloibi 


... Girl 


Nubru nub6re .. 


. Eyes 


Noanialo 


... Stone [ing woman] 


Nubena, nubina. 


Crayfish 


Noa noughanoate Beauty (fine-look- 


nube 




Nobitia malia 


... Green (thing) 


Nuele 


. Lobster 


Nobritaka 


... Cheek 


Nuena ... 


. Fire 


Noeni 


... Slap (to) 


Nuieko ... 


. Wrong 


Noguoilia 


. . . Wallabee (Halmatur 


- Nuiak 


. Never 




us Billardieri) 


Nuinedi ... 


. Drowsy 


Noia libana 


... Fragrant (smell) 


Nugara 


. Drink 


Noie miak 


... Never 


Nugatapawe 


. Dwarf 


Noiena ... 


... Thrush, spotted 


Nuge tena 


. Rains 


Noile 


... Bad (no good), acic 


i Nugra niainre .. 


. Lick (with the 


Noili 


. . . Foolish (or fool) [sour 


tongue) 


Noilowana 


... Elf or fairy (fond of Nugrina 


. Spew (to) 




children, and dances Nuka 


. Here, or this 




in the hills, after the Nuka. nukara, 


Spew (to) 



fashion of Scotch nukacah 
fairies) Nukakala 



Hair 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixix 



Numeraredia ... 
Nuna 

Nuna, nunc 
Nunabe ... 
Nunabia 
Nunabia temaru- 

lito 
Nunalmina 
Nuna-mara 
Nuna mina 
Nunamina 

Nunami ... 

N unakuanapeiere 

Nunawenapoila 

Nungana, nungu- 

na 
Nungburak nung- 

aba 
Nungina 



Nungene wangen 

dune 
Nunguna 
Nunne ... 
Nune 
Nune mine laria- 

bu 
Nuneoine-roidu- 

kate 
Nunia ... 
Nunu gra 
Nunte pateinuira 

Nuntiemtik 
Nunto-ne, nunto- 

nina 
Nupre ... 
Nurbiak ... 
Nure 

Nutiak ... 
Oana 
Oagra ... 
Oangana 
Oarangate 
Oarati ... 



White man 

Hand 

Buttock 

Take 

Sleep 

Sleep (very sound) 

Father 

Abstract (to deducfl) 

Goods (things) 

Bed (sleeping place 
in the bush) 

Goods (things) 

Growl 

Early (in the morn- 
ing at twilight) 

Catamaran 

Venomous 

Elf or fairy (fond of 
children, and dances 
in the hills after the 
fashion of Scotch 
fairies) 
Run 

# 

Thigh 
Take 
Night 
Dark 

Aw^ake (to open the 

eyes) 

Fish (cray) 
Wash (to) 
Wliisper, speak low, 

let nobody hear 
Altogether 
Afternoon, twilight 

Eye 

Azure (sky) 

Louse 

Retch (to vomit) 

Inform (to tell) 

Twirl (twist) 

Inform (to tell) 

Swiftly 

Starlight 



0€\e 
Oeilupuniaurapu- 

nie 
Ognamilii 
Ognemipe 
Oielarabu 
Oiinubrina 
Oimunia 
Oingterata 
Oldina ... 
Ghana ... 
Omblera... 
Onaba ... 
Onabia dai'alia ... 

Onabiamabele ... 
Onamarumpto ... 
Oneri 
Ongana ... 
Gngiena 

Gnghiwamena ... 

Oninialibie 

Opah 

Gragura wurina 
or nemoni 
Ortaw'ena 
Guane ... 
Guieteita 
Guiteitana 

Guide 
Gunadina 
Gimiprape 
Padana, padina... 
Padanawunta ... 
Padrol ... 
Paegrada 
Paganubrana ... 
Pa-ga-talina 
Pagra ! Kum lia ! 
Pagunta ... 
Paiana ... 
Pa-iana, paiVa ... 
Paiie rotile 
Paiatimi 
Paielugana 
Paialina . . . 



Fly (a) 
Cross 

Ask 

Answer (to) 

Stupid 

Cockatoo, white 

Air 

Strong 

Snow 

Frost 

Neck 

Chin 

Whisper, speak low, 

let nobody hear 
Ask 

Long way 
Star-fish 
Inform 
Platypus {Ornithor- 

hynchus paradoxus) 
Ask 
Corredl: 
Mountain Duck 

(A nas punctata) 
Bed (sleeping-place 

in the bush) 
Stump of a tree 
Fire 

Emmet (small ant) 
Ant, small black, 

strong-smelling 
Seal [Otarie) 
Frost 

Answer (to) 
Bandicoot 
Emu 
Fire 
Good 
Sun (the) 
Lad 

Woe's me ! ah me ! 
Four 

Woman, aged, old 
Tooth 

Fang (canine tooth) 
Toothless 

Grinder (back tooth) 
Glow-w^orm orphos- 

phoresence 



lb 



Ixx 



H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Pa iali 
Paiawe ... 
Paii, »i rotile 
Paing 

Paingunana 

Pairaliak 
Pairanapri 
Pachabria longhe 
Prtkara ... 
Pacharia 
Pakaritia 

Palabamabile ... 
• Pala-kana 
Palamena 
Palana ... 
Palanina 
Palaninine 
Palanubrana . ... 
Palapoirena 

Pala wa, palia, pal- 

ieka 
Palawapamari ... 

Palawa proina ... 
Palawa-tute 
Palawa- roiana ... 
Palawale? 

X dlCl C ... ... 

Palewaredia 
Palina ... 
Palkuand 
Pamena ... 
Pamere ... 
Pamunalantute . . . 
Pa Iowa lugana, 

pah lug 
Pana 

Panabu ... 
Panabon brutie. 
Panamena 
Panamuna 
Panatani 
Panapawawiabe 
Pandorga 
Pah-nina 
Pane pekinine 



Hurt (with waddie) 
Tide (low water) 
Tusk (canine tooth) 
Gull (Larus Pactfi- 

Ciis) 

Whiz (like a ball, 
etc.) 

Rough 

Soon, by -and -bye 

Jealous 

Fling 

Shooting star 

Will-o-the-wisp 
(Ignis fatuus) 

Conflux (crowd) 

Shout (yell) 

Flesh (meat) 

Stars 

Hair 

Forest ground 

Sun 

Depict (draw a de- 
sign in charcoal) 

Adult man (black) 

Coxcomb (a fine- 
looking fellow) 
Fat man 
Beau (coxcomb) 
Serpent (black snake) 
What? What's that? 
Tattoo (to), tattooing 
Black man 

Egg 
Talk 

Mother 

One 

Glutton 

Footmark of black 

man 

Oar 

Bread 

Weed 

Wave 

Sea (ocean) 

Port Sorrell 

Smile 

Good 

Husband 

Boy (little) 



Panialibna 
Paninia ... 
Paniniwathine . 
Panga 

Pangana waiedii 
Pangana malitia 

Panogata 

Panoine ... 
Panuber6, panu- 

brae, panubrina, 

panumere 
Panubr6 roilapo- 

erak 
Panubra tongoiira 
Panubraton^ 
Panubr6 Mabile 

Paouai 

Papalie Mali 
Papal we... 
Papatongun6 ... 
Papla 

Papanewate 
Papon6 tughte Ha 
Paponoliara 

Paraba ... 
Paragana 
Para gara 
iraraKa ... ... 

Paranaple 
Parangana, par- 

ang6 

Parapa ... 
Parata, paratiana 
Paratibe... 
Parawureigunep>a 
Parawuri 
Paraw6 ... 
Paraw6 ... 
Paraw6 tiakran- 

gana 
Parba 
Pariata ... 
Parlier6 ... 
Par-me-ri 
Paroe 

Paroitimena 



Clean 

Smooth 

Head 

Leech 

Fat 

Dirt (mud of a whit- 
ish colour) 

Halo (round the 
moon) 

Dog 

Sun 



Sunrise 

Sunset 
Dusk 

Whore, fornicatrix 
Me (for) 
Clay 

Swallow (a bird) 
Thunder 
Big (large) 
Bachelor 
Beau (coxcomb) 
Opossum mouse 
{Phalangisia nana) 
W^hale 

Mussell (shell fish) 
No 

Flower 

Mersey (river) 
Shoulder 

Porpoise 
Snow, frost, ice 
Embowel (to dis-) 
Desist (to) 

Cease (to), abstain 
To throw or put away 
Embowel (to dis-) 

Hair 
Hair 

Extinguish 
One 

Insecfl of the order 
Circcndela 
Leafless 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixxi 



Parocheboina ... 
Parochiatimena 
Paruie noiemaek 
Parungiena 
Parugana, paru- 
guala 

X 09S • • • . • • 

Patanela 

Patarola 

Patina ... 

Pathenanadi 

Patingana 

Patingunabe 

Patourana 

Patrola ... 

Pawahi ... 

Pawerak 

Pawi 

Pawlina ... 
Pawlinatiana 
Pawpela... 
Pawtela Pawtelu- 
na mikela 
Pawtening-ilil6 ... 

ST 6ol W C • . • ... 

Pebleganana 
Pegara ... 
Pegara ... 

x^cKai A ... ... 

Pegarugarua 
Pegi, Pegui 
Pegrete wergo ... 
Peyerena 
Peindriga 
Pelanipune 
Pelgana ... 
Pelilogiieni 
Pel vera ta 

x^eiin ... ... 

Pena (wibra) ... 
Penamabele 
Penamunalane ... 
Penina ... 

X wAlW • • • • • • 

Pengana 
Pengana .. 
Pengana 



Leaf 
Leafless 
Leafless 
Bosom (man's) 
Bosom (woman's) 

Play (to) 

Devil 

Fine 

Egg 
Head 

Harlot 

Extinguish 

That belongs to me 

Spark, fire 

Me 

Serpent (diamond 
snake) 

Rascal 

Gun (musket) 

Gunpowder 

Large (big) 

Opossum, ringtailed 
{Phalangista Cooh'i) 

Demon 

Fling 

Man (old) 

Throw (to) 

Thrush, dense for- 
est 

Ripe 

Rise 

Teeth 

Stand (stand up) 

Nail (toe) 

Bad 

Wrinkle 

Penis 

Hair 

Ears 

Lance (wooden 
spear) 

Man 

Facetious 

Mirth 

Laugii 

Facetious 

Laugh 

Hawk (leracidea) 

Earth (mould), dirt 



Pengana ruta . . . 

Pengana... 

Pinga 

Pengai ... 

Penewine 

Peouniena 

Perarune 
Pere lia ... 
P6reb6 ... 
Perelede .. 
Perena ... 

Perina ... 
Perugar6 
Peruti6 ... 
Petebela... 
Petreana 
Pewenia paina ... 
Peiiniak ... 

Peiira 
Piaklum6 

X Id Wn. ... ... 

Piembuki ... 

Piena 

Pienrenia 

Pigana ... 

Pigena ... 

Pigra 

Pigne 

Piyere 

Pilanguta 

Pilri, pilni 

Piloweta... 

Pinega ... 

Piniketa 

Pinor bouadia ... 

Pinougna 

Pinoun ... 

Pireme ... 

Pirinupel 

Piterina ... 

Pitserata 

Plaiwugrena 

Plaiwarungana ... 

Pleneweware 

Pleragenana 

Plereni, plireni ... 



Dirt (mud dried) 
Ford, of a river 
Caterpillar (small) 
Gristle 
Ma,ichot bleu 
Bat 

som season) 
Nail (toe) 
Nails on the feet 
Eucalyptus^ trunk of 
Beads 

Lance (wooden 
spear) 
Milt of fish 
Repair 

Broom (a besom) 
Old 

Sun (the) [som 

Spring (wattle-blos- 
Heat, hot, warm, 
acrid (taste) 
Stone (a) 
Kangaroo, Joe 
(young) 
Two 

Brother (little) 
Leech 

Seal, black on rocks 
Fish (a) 
Brother (big) 
Bill (Bird's) 
Laugh (to) 
By-and-bye 
Tie (a knot) 
Cape Grim 
Neck 
Flying 
Quickly 
Spit (to) 
Whiting 
Fish 

Ray (Stingaree) 
Mersey (river) 
Sun (the) 
Ear 

Limp, left foot 
Lame 
Ear 

Brother 
Boy 



Ixxii 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Pliagana;ia 
Plinemlena 



Plubea ... 
Pnale 
Poamori... 
Poanga metea ... 
Poanoile... 
Poani puere 
Poarana... 
Poatina ... 
Poia lanune 
Poiara kana nue- 

mena 
Poirakunabe 
Poeta Kana paw- 

aii ba 

Poieta kanabe ... 
Poiedaranina, po- 

etaruna 
Poiete 

Poiete longwine 
Poiete merede ... 
* Poingata 
Poingana, poina, 

poina 

Poingati* ranaial6 
Poingliena 
Poinga runiale ... 
Poine munalano 
Poietanate 
Poietanite 
Poinewialai 
Poinawale 

Poina noili 
Poyne ... 
Poinina ... 
Poire tungaba ... 
Poigneagana 
Poiniegana 
l'oyiiia» poiinta... 
Poi-erina 

Poikokara 
Poengi)urak 
Poyena potatiack 
Poyiie ... 



Brother 

Typha, Bulrush, a 
native marsh plant, 
roots yield arrow- 
root 

Whistle 

Bone 

Bad 

Sexual intercourse 

Scent 

Intersect 

Cherries 

Cavern 

Wife, newly married 

Conversation (a 
great talking) 

Speak 

WHiisper, speak low, 
let nobody hear 

Talk 

Skull 

Head 

flair 

Head-ache 

Head-ache 

Hair (matted with 

ochre) 

Shave, to (with flint) 
Hair 

Shave, to (with flint) 
Anger 

Crazy (cranky) 
Dull (stupid dolt) 
Jealous 
Displease (to make 

angry) 
Bitter 

Pet (pettish) 
Sullen 
Cross 
Facetious 
Laugh 

Point of spear 
Typha, Buh'ush, a 

native marsh 
Desire (to) 
Tree (fall of a) 
Vari^>,h 
Stop 



Poene 
Poerina ... 
Poilabia ... 
Poilamanina 
Poilina ... 
Poimalangta 
Poimalietta 
Poimena... 
Poimena tilenkan- 

ganara Tiniar- 

ewara 
Poimatalina 
Poimetie 
Poine 
Poine nire 
Poine noile 
Poinguna Kuna 

Poira 

Poirena ... 
Poireniena 
Poirina ... 



Poitenena 
Pogona ni wugta 

xOKaK ••• ... 

Pokana ... 

Pokana kuana ... 

Pokerakani 

Polatula... 

Polimganoanate 

Pomaneneluko ... 

Poniia kuna 

Pona 

Poningali 

Poporok... 

Pora 

Porokui ... 

Porshi ... 
Porutie ... 
Porutie-maiek ... 
Posereniena 



PotaigroT nara-na 
Potalugie 
Potha malitie, or 
111 alia 



Grass 

Scales (of fish) 

Add to or put 

Boy (large child) 

Wing 

Peak (a hill) 

Tor (a peaked hill) 

Hill (little one) 

Hill (mountain) 



Lightning 

Lightning, thunder 

Entrails 

Fragrant (smell) 

Effluvia 

Whiz (like a ball, 
etc.) 

Volute, large (V. 

Porpoise [mamilla) 

Magpie 

Devil {Dasyurus 
ursinus) 

Wren, blue- headed 
M alums longicf nidus) 

Add to or put 

Boat (native) 

Rain 

Shower (of rain) 

Talk 

Eyes 

Fragrant (smell) 

Bury (to) 

Stump of a tree 

Cloud, white 

Freestone 

Hut 

Rain (heavy) 

Eucalyptus, branch of 
the, with its leaves 

Branch 

Leaf 

Leafless 

Shrike, black (mag- 
pie) Sirepera fnligi- 
nosn) 

Vassal (serf) 

Few 

Freestone 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixxiii 



Poinaba ... 
Potelakna 

Potena 

Potia, potiak ... 
Pouginiena 
Pouketa-lagna ... 
Pounerala 

Pounie ... 
Poutie ... 
Powamena 
Powena ... 
Pow-ing-aruteli- 

bana 
Powite ... 
Powrana 
Pramana 

Pramatagomoni- 
tia 

Pranako... 
Praterata 
Prati-to ... 
Prebena... 
Prengana [?] 
PriariJi 
Priatena... 
Priawintametia 

Priolena ... 

Priamina 

Priena ... 

Prienemkutiak 

Prieta 

Pringrinie 

Problatena 

Problua... 
Proga-langta 

Proguna 

Proi6 

Proina nugaba ... 
Prolminimti raen- 
ta 
Prolong ... 
Prolon-uniere ... 

Pruana ... 
Pruga neana, 
prugwala 



Forget 

Breast 

Star 

No 

Red- breast, Robin 

Breast 

Fishes (small) of the 
species of Gadus 

Nail (finger) 

No 

Mother 

Crooked 

Ringlets (corkscrews 
with red ochre) 

Spark 

Snake 

Tick (parasitic in- 
sect) 

Seal, white-bellied 

Low 

Hail 

Outside 

Sapling 

Ground 

Spear 

Lizard 

Serpent (diamond 

snake) 

Fetch (a spirit) 

Lizard 

Ham or Hough 

Tired 

Lizard 

Cat (small native) 

Wombat (Phascolo- 

mys vomhatus) 
Grass 

Rain (heavy) 
Smoke 
Leaf 

Large (big) 
Heap (to make- a) 

Add to or put 
Across (to put or 

place) 
Smoke 
Milk (of aboriginal 

woman) 



Prugana, pruga, 
poiinta, pruga 
pogena 

Prugamugena ... 

Prugana 

Prnngi 

Ptoara lia 

P'tunara 

Puali 

Pualmina 

Puariumena 

Publedina 

Publi 

Publi 

Puda 

Pueta 

Pugalena parak 
burak 

Pugalugana 

Pugameniera . . . 
Pugamuna 
Pugan nina 
Pugana ... 
Pugana ... 
Puganakribana ... 
Pugana Miniena 
Puganara mitie 
Pugana naratiak 
or naangbe 
Puganarota • 
Pugana taritia ... 

Puganatingana 
Pugana tuantitia 
Puganeiptieta ... 
Puganga lewa ... 

Puganubrana . . . 
Pugara ... 
Pugarena 
Pugaritia 
Pugarotia 
Pugata ... 
Pugata ... 
Pugeta ... 
Pugata lowata 

Pugata Paw-awe 
Of panina 



Teat 



Skull 

Parrot (Rosehill) 

Before 

Mouse 

Frigid (cold) 

Two 

Waist 

Waist 

Badger 

Swan 

Grass 

Smoke 

Hawk 

Sunrise 

Footmark of black 
man 
Bosom (man's) 
Chiton (sea-shell) 
Husband 
Five 

Man (black) 
Lad 

Adult man 
Bachelor 
Stoop 

Mouse 

Coxcomb (a fine- 
looking fellow) 
Harlot 

Brother (big) 
Ant, large blue 
Glow-worm or 
phosphoresence 
Sun 

Swimming 
Shoulder 
Shooting star 
Pigeon (bronze- 
Float (to) [winged) 
Son 
Infant 

Great-bellied (with 
child) 
Boy (small child) 



Ixxiv 


H. LIN0 ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 


Pugata riela 


. Babe, newly born 


Puragana, pura- 


Shag, cormorant 


Pugataghana .. 


. Track (footmark) 


kana 


black {Phalacrocorax 


Pugatimipena .. 


. Coxcomb (a fine- 




corhoides) 




looking fellow) 


Pura Kana 


. Whistle 


Pughawi nyawi 


Hither and thither 


Purakanab6 


Speak 1 


Piigeli 


. Swim 


Purakuna 


. Bark of tree (flap- 


Pugerina 


. Feather 




ping) 


Pugerita 


. Swan 


Pura lia... 


Bark (of a tree) 


Pughra 


. Swim 


Puranakale 


. Catarrh with Dys- 


Pugia malitie .. 


. Woman, adult 




pnoea 


Pugita 


Child 


Pura, pura-na ... 


Bark (of a tree) 


Pugitomura 


. Stupid 


Purawe piang- 


Bury (to) ' 


Pugna 


Tail 


luntapu 




Pugoneori 


. Smile 


Purena Manegana Flambeau 


Pugrena 


. Dust 


Purgalamarina . . . 


Fin (of a fish) 


Puguniena 


.Bird 


Purwalena 


Sap (milk-white) 


Pugwena 


. Bat 


Putark 


Cave 


Pugwiadi 


. Root (tree) 


Putia 


. No 


Pugwinina weimi 


- Spark 


Putuna 


Hawk (black) 


ale 




Rabalga 


Hand 


Puierina 


Fleece (or fur of 


Ragalanae 


. Wind 




animals) 


Ragamuta 


Limp, left foot, lame 


Puilakani 


Speak 


Ragana 


Doe (forest) 


Puitogana mena 


Vassal (serf) 


Ragi, ragina 


Man (white) 


Pukana .. 


Albatross 


Ragua-lia 


Knees 


Pukanebrena ... 


Sun 


Raik bourak 


Heal 


Pukaren... 


Will-o-the-wisp {Ig- 


Raiipoini 


Lightning 




nis fatuus) 


XvdKcL ... ... 


Spear 


Pulangale 


Fog 


Rakana ... 


Emu 


Pulatula .. 


Eye 


Rakanguna 


Wallabee {Halmatu- 


Pulbena... 


Frog 




rus BiUardieri) 


Pulbiani 


Head 


RaJa 


Frog, toad 


Pulomina, pulum 


■ Flank 


Ralangta 


Gale, squall, high 


ta 






wind 


Puha 


Sea-horse {Hippo- 


Ralana proi of 


' Squall 




campus) 


proiena 




Pulugurak 


Dine (to) 


Raali poingna ... 


Squall 


Punamena munta Fat man 


Ralinganune 


Wind 


Punerala 


Fishes (small) of the 


Ralinga proiena 


Wind, high 




species of Gadus 


Ralipiana 


Strong or able 


Punna mina 


Burn (hurt by fire) 


Ralkwoma 


Bite 


Punamanta 


Emu (bird) 


Raloilia ... 


Ice 


Puna 


Bird 


Ramana-rule 


Strong 


Pun6 line 


Nest (little birds) 


Ramuna relugani 


Embrace (platonic) 


Punelong-burak 


Ripe 


Rana 


Periwinkle (sea shell) 


Pungerania 


Native Cat, large 


Rana murina ... 


Inacftive (indolent) 




{Dasyurus maculatus) Ranga, ranga-lia 


Knee 


Piioinobak 


Mischief 


Rangare... 


Swiftly 


Piipu 


Hunt, I will go 


Ranga wa 


Musk Duck {Biaiura 




and 




lobata 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixxv 



Raniana... 

Rapulmena 

Raondeliboa 

Rara 

Rara 

Rargeropa 
Rarina ... 

Ratairareni 
Ratavenina 
Rau-ana . . . 
Rauba ... 
Raiimpta 

Rauna ... 
Rauri 



Rawana ... 

Rawlina... 
Rawina lia 
Rawinuina 
Rebkarana 
Rediarapa 
Redikata 
Redpa . . . 
Regaa . . . 



Regana tiana ... 
Reglitia, reglipu- 
na regulitia 
Regoula... 
Reigina ... 
Reigina loanina 
Rekuna ... 
Relbia ... 
Relbiak ... 
Relbui ... 
Relinula lia 
Relgani-kuonga 
Reliquama 
Relipiana 
Reloie tonyer6 ... 
Reminy6 
'Remin6 ... 
Rena 



Float (to) 

Wrist 

Row (a long one) 

Punk 

Gannet {Sula Aus- 
tralis) 

Devil 

Kangaroo, Joey 
(young) 

Sulky 

Sultry 

Serpent (black snake) 

Oyster 

Wombat (Phasco- 
lomys vombatis 

Forehead 

Sea-weed (dried) 
which they eat after 
having softened it 
in the fire 

Serpent (black 
snake) 

Wind 

Knee 

Grass 

Bite 

Devil 

Nip (to pinch) 

Mosquito 

Basket of sea-weed 
containing their wa- 
ter 

Entrails 

Perspire 

Arm 

Man (white) 

Woman (white) 

Emu 

Strong 

Strong 

Flay 

Knuckle 

Serious (sad gaze) 

Look (to gaze) 

Able or strong 

Nip (to pinch) 

Root (tree) 

Blandfordia nobilis 

Kangaroo Boomer 



Renah ... 



Renamoimenia 
Renau6 ... 
Renave ... 

Rendera 
R6n6 
Ren6 

Renene ... 
Rene nunempt6 
Ren hatara 
Renita ... 
Renina ... 



Renorari 
Rentrouete 
Reprenana 
Retakuna 

Retena ... 
Rhineowa mung- 

onagunea pog- 

gana karne 
Rhinieto 

Riakana, riakuna 
Riakalingale 
Riakun6 
Rialana ... 
Rialangana 
Rialim6 ... 
Ria lowana 
Ria lugana 

Ria lugana 

Ria lurina 

Riana riakunha. . . 
Riana 
Riana 

Rianaiita riana- 
aunta 

Rianemana 
Ria pugana 
Riapulumpta ... 
Ria-rara... 
Riatta, reattawee 



Rat, water or musk 
(Hydromts chry- 
sogaster) 

War 

Distance, at a 

Down there, a long 
way off 

See, I 

Near 

Run 

Afar off 

Run together 

Heaven 

Thumb 

Shrike, black (mag- 
pie) (Strepera fuli- 
ginosa) 

Crab 

Bandy-legged 

Kangaroo Rat 

Creak (from fricflion 
of limbs of trees) 

Heart 

Conversation (a 
great talking) 

Chase (to) 

Song 

Hen (native) 

Hen (native) 

Air 

Dance 

Tree (Blackwood) 

W^oman, white 

Footmark of white 

man 
Footmark of white 

man 
Rail (Rallns pector- 
alis) 
Dance 
Man (white) 
Caterpillar (small) 
Thumb 

Fist 

Knuckle 

Wrist 

Palm of the hand 

Gum (wattle tree) 



Ixxvi 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Riaputhegana ... Tame 

Riawaiak . . . Full (after a meal) 

Riawarawapa ... Ghost 

Ria warape nolle Imp 

Ria warawa noil6 Demon 

Ria-wurawa . . Apparition 

Riaw6, riawena Sport (play), fun 

Riawe waibori Sport (play) 

Riawuna ... Circle* 

Rielowolingana Palm of the hand 

Riena ... ... Hand, finger 

Riena-aiita ... Left hand 

Rienalbugi ... Snow 

Rienatiabrutia ... Teal 

Riengena Poatina Den (of wild ani- 
mals) 

Riengina ... Crevice or fissure in 

rocks 

Rigaropa ... Spirit, of evil— the 

devil 

Rigebena ... Hand 

Rigl ... ... Heel 

Riitonie ... ... Nail (finger) 

Rikara ... ... Row (a long one) 

Rikatenina ... Knuckle 

Rikent6 ... ... Babe 

Ri-lia ... ... Hand 

Rilia ... ... Finger 

Ri-mutha ... Fist 

Rina ... ... Fingers 

Rina ... ... Polishing (the action 

Rinadena ... Rain-drops 

Rinia guanetia . Dispute (to) 
Riniowalinia ... Amatory (rakish) 
Rinmuta ... Hand 

Riprinana ... Kangaroo Rat 

Ripunere nung- Venomous 
hapa 
Rirana ... ... Nails 

Ritia ... ... Man (white) 

Ri-trierena .. Fist 

Riuna ... ... Forehead 

Riz-lia ... ... Hands 

Roada ... ... Hurt (with spear) 

Roalabia ... Serpent (black 

snake) 
Roba ... ... Rush 

Robengana ... Goose 



Robigana 



Swan 



Rodedana ... Grass 

Roenan inu ... Sea- weed (jointed) 

Roere . . ... Pillow (little) on 

which the men sup- 
port themselves 

Rogara ... ... Snore 

Rogeta ... ... Wombat 

Rogotelibana ... Long 

Rogounira Lienia Forehead 

Rogueri, toidi ... Cut (to) 

Roguna .^ ... Brow (forehead) 

Rohet6 ... ... Shallow 

Roi Roiruna ... Forehead 

Roi-runa ... Brow (forehead) 

Roka ... ... Waddie 

Roman inou ... Sea-weed (Fticus cil- 

Romduna ... Star [iatus) 

Romtena ... Star 

Ronda ... .. Go, I will 

Ronenan ... Cereopris 

Rongoiulong bo- Dry 
urak 

Ronie, ronipalpe Call 

Rori ... ... Sea- weed (dried), 

which they eat 
after having soft- 
ened it in the fire 

Roruk Night 

Roruwu... ... Sleep (to) 

Rotuli ... ... Long, tall 

Rougena ... Forehead 

Rougtuli ne ... Ashes 

Rouna ... ... Forehead 

Rouna ... ... Serpent (black snake) 

Roungiak ... Dry 

Rounina... ... Grass 

Rowela ... .. Elbow 

Row6 lia ... Long way 

Rowenana ... Gull 

Rowendana ... Swan 

Rowik ... ... Nose 

Rowita ... ... Wombat (Phascoi- 

omys vomhaius) 

Rudana ... ... Lazy 

Ru6te ... ... Lazy 

Ruga ... ... Spear 

Rugana ... ... Gannet {Sula Aus- 
tralia) 

Rugana wuranari Embrace (platonic) 

Rugara ... ... Ear 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixxvii 



Rugara ... 


Rub (rub in fat), 


Taiatia 


Lobster, freshwater 




anoint 


Taieneb6, taiene. 


Exchange 


Rugona ... 


Fucus palmatus 


nielutera 




Ruilitipla 


Full (a vessel filled) Taikalingana 


Respire 


Ruka 


Owl, large {Strix 


Taina 


. Side (the) 




Castanops) 


Takamuna 


Stand (stand up), 


Rukanaruniak ... 


Thirsty 




travel 


Rula, Rulani ... 


Strong 


Takani ... 


Go home 


Rulai ungaratin6 


Ice 


Takaro deliaban 


Tall 


Rule 


Rough 


rig-elibana 




Rule 


Gun (musket) 


Takarutie, tacha- 


Catarrh with Dys- 


Rulemena 


Sheep 


ritia 


pnosa^ cough 


Ruli 


Tough 


Takawbi 


Go 


Runa 


Cloud, black 


Takawug n6 


Awake (rouse ye, 


Runa 


Native cat, small 




get up) 




( Dasyurus viverrinus) 


Takon6 .., 


Suspiration (sigh) 


Runawena 


Lizard 


JL aKli cL ... . . . 


Root (fern) 


Rungrina 


Caul 


Takra, tungal6 


Hither and thither 


Rurga 


Sea- weed ( dried ) 


Takramunena ... 


Travel 




which they eat af- 


Takuiat6 


Woe's me ! ah me ! 




ter having soften- 


Takumuna 


Rise 




ed it in the fire 


Talaratai 


. Weed 


Ruwa ... 


Sand- lark [Hiaticula 


Talawa .. 


. Rain 




ruficapilla) 


Talawata, talwa- 


Embrace (Platonic) 


Sudinana 


Girl 


tawa 




JL aoa ... . • ■ 


Ham or Hough 


Talba 


Devil 


Tabelti 


Walk (to), walking, 


JL die ... . . • 


Toad or frog 




go on 


Talina ... 


Back (the), behind 


Tablene pinikta 


Run (to) 


Talire ... 


Backward 


Taboukak 


Another 


Talia-lia 


Come (to) 


Tabrina... 


Back 


Talpiawadino 


Come along, I want 


Tadiva ... 


Rain 


Tuiena-cunami, 


you 


Tadkagna 


Call (to) 


talpeiewadeno 




Tagama ... 


. Day 


Talpunere 


Walk 


Tagantiena 


Crazy (cranky) 


Tama leberina .. 


. Hut, breakwind 


Tagara 


. Go away ; absent 


Tana 


Wallaby {Halmatu- 


Tagara tumiak, 


Cry (weep) 




rus Billardiefi) 


tagaramena 




Tana 


. Was 


Tagarena 


Tear (a) 


Tana 


.Owl, small (Athene 


Tagari-lia 


. Family (my) 




Boobook) 


Tagina 


. Thumb 


Tanate ... 


. Mischief 


Tagna ... 


Walk (to) 


Tanatia ... 


. Crazy (cranky) 


Tagowawina 


. Run (to) 


Tane poere 


. Grease the hair (to) 


Tagre maranie .. 


. Daylight 


Tanina ... 


Break wind (to) 


Tagremapak 


. Dark 


Tanga ... 


. Limpet 


Tagrumena 


. Night 


Tan gana 


. Spider 


Tagruna kamulu 


- Deplore (to lament. 


Tangara, tangari 


Go away, let us 


gana 


as at an Irish wake) Tapmita 


. Hamstring (the) 


Taialia 


. Owl, large {Strtx 


X Aid ... . . 


. Weep (to) 




Castanops) 


Tara 


. Eucalyptus tree 



20 



Ixxviii 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Tara, tarana 


... Wallaby {Halma^ 


Taw wereini 


. Crow 




turns Billardieri), 


Ta- win6 


. Wart 




Kangaroo (forest- 


Tawna ... 


. Rotten wood 




er) 


Tawpenale 


. Opossum, ringtail- 


Taraba ... 


... Tasmanian Devil 




ed {Pkalangista 




{Dasyurus ursinus) 




Cookii) 


Tarabibie 


... Come 


Tawtaburana .. 


. Walk 


Tara kuna 


... Switch, a 


Tekananga wine 


Ghost 


Tara kuni 


... Shrub 


Tebrikuna 


. Cape Portland 


Taralangana 


... Oysters 




(language) 


Tarlagna 


... Oyster 


Tedeluna 


. Ship 


Taralia ... 


... Kangaroo (forester) Tegalugrata 


, Heave (to pant) 


Tara minia 


... Skin 


Tegana ... 


Heart 


Taramei... 


.. Kangaroo 


Tegoura 


. Moon, Sun 


Taramena 


... Juice of a plant, 


Tegouratina 


. Wind 


' 


white 


Tegrima kanunia Wail, to lament 


Tarana ... 


... Crying 


Tegrimoni Kitana Twilight 


Taran6 ... 


... Groin 


narra longbural^ 


w 


Taraniena 


. . . Pewit, wattled (Lob- 


Teigna ... ... 


. Thigh 




ivanellus lohatus) 


Teiriga 


, Walking 


Taranga munuka- Rat, long bandicoot 


Tekalieni 


Catarrh 


na 


nose 


Telbetelibia 


Eat heartily 


Taragat6 


... Tear (a) 


Telinga ? Tebia ? 


What ? what's that ? 


Taragina ? 


... What? what's that? 


Telita , 


. Chirrup (to) 


Tarara man6 


... Shrub 


Telwangatia lia 


Impatient 


Tara tune 


... Cry (weep) 


Tema 


. Hut 


Tara waile 


... Weep 


Temata ...• 


Tarantula (large 


Tarawine 


... Switch, a 




spider) 


Tareraa, tarina 


L... Albatross 


Temeta kuna ... 


Creak (ifrom friction 


Tarerika 


. . . Honey-sucker {Meli- 




of the limbs of trees) 




phaga Australasiana) 


Teminup 


Door 


Targa ... 


... Cry (to) 


Temita, Temita, 


Opossum, black 


Tarina . . . 


... Basket 


malugli 


(Phalangisia fulginos) 


Taripniena 


... Opossum, ringtail- 


Temli 


Smooth 




ed [Phalangista 


Tena 


. Fern tree 




Cookii) 


Tena 


. Bandicoot {Parameles 


Taruna ... 


... Chiton (sea shell) 




ohcsula) 


Tatana ... 


... Father ; mother 


T6na Teranguta Quail (Cotumix pedi- 


Tatawata onga- Come along, I want 


or tiwara 


oralis 


nina 


you 


Tenalga... 


, Laugh (to) 


TatounepuVna 


.. Frog 


Tend ana 


Skin 


Taiintekape 


... Stamp (with the 


Tendiag 


Topaz (crystal) 




foot) 


Tendiag 


Red 


Tauran ... 


... Owl, small {Atheru 


Tene 


. Rib 




Boohooh) 


Tengana 


Bandicoot (Parameles 


Taiirela ... 


... Bread 




ohesula) 


Tavengana 


• « . L^ess 


Tenganeowa 


Red-breast,' Robin 


Tawe 


... Go, accompany 


Tengiena 


MuskJDuck [Bi%iura 


Tawelia Mepoilia Accompany 




lohata) 


Tawe lokota 


... Shore, Go ashore 


Tenguniak 


Heave (to pant) 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixxix 



Teng-win6 ... Penguin (Sphenis- 

cus minor) 

Tenine Nail 

Tentia ... ... Red 

Tepara ... ... Come 

Teralina, tiralinik Eagle Hawk Neck 
Terana ... ... Skeleton (bones of) 

Terangate munu- Mouse 
gana 



Teragoma 
Teranguata 

Teri 

Terina ... 
Terinniah 

Teruna ... 
Tetaraniena 

Tetiena ... 
Tiabrana 
Tiabertiakrakna 
Tiabuna... 
Tiagara ... 
Tiagaria kragan 
iak 
Tiagrapoinina .. 



Corrobory 
Quail (Cotumix peCt- 
' oralis) 
Evacuate (to) 
Basket 

Skeleton (bones of) 
Owl, large {Strix 

Casianops) 
Flint or a knife 
Sand-lark (Hiatictda 

ruficapilla) 
Chirrup (to) 
Star 

Starlight 
Native hen 
Keep 
Expedlorate 

Tame 
Heart 



Tiakana warana 
Tiakanarra Ionia Snore 
Tiakanoiak ... Respire 
Tiakari mina ... Spit 
Tiakburak ... Clutch (to) 
Tiakrakena, tiak- Intestines 

ragana 
Tiakrina, tiak- Catarrh 

noniak, tiakri- 

mena, tiakun^y 
Tiakroinamena... Lax (Diarrhoea) 



Tialapue 
Tiamabile 



Keep 

Dysentery or Diarr- 
hoea 

Dung (excrement) 
Excrement 
Singing 



Tiamena 
Tiana, tianana .. 
Tiana 

Tiana Koitiak, Afraid 
tian Kottiak 
Tianawili ... Fright 

Tiangoniak ... Suspiration (sigh) 
Tiangtete-wemina Exchange 



Tia noil6 
Tiantibe 

Tiatakanamarana 
Tiatta kanawa ... 

JL IcIlC ... ■ . • 

Tiawale ... 
Tiboak ... 
Tibra poingta ... 
Tibra wangata- 
men a 
Tibera ... 
Tiberatie 
Ticote 
Tiena 
Tiena 

Tiena miap6 pan- 
abuna, Tiengana 
ma panabu 

Tienawile 

Tienbug... 

Tienenable poing 

Tienewele 
Tienkutie 
Tientewatera 
nente 
Tien weal6 

X 16la ... . « • 

Tigana marabona 



Tigate ... 
Tigera ... 
Tigiola ... 
Tihourata 
Tiibertia 

XllC ... ... 

X IKa ... • . • 

Tim6, timi 

Tina 

Tina-triouratik... 

Tintia ... 
Tiouak ... 
Tioulan ... 
Tipera ... 
Tipla 



Lax (Diarrhoea) 

Trample (to) 

Forest ground 

Ford, of a river 

Heap (to make a) 

Flank 

Small 

vagina 

Menstruate 

Feminina ? 
Ear 

Hunger 

Dung (excrement) 
Bandicoot {Paratne- 
les ohesula) 
Bread (give me some) 



Tipuna 



Afraid 
Vanish 

Across (to put or 
place) 
Tremble 
Intimidate 
Exchange 

Intimidate 

Ant, largest black, 
venomous 

Spirit of the dead, 
of great curative 
power 

Hunger 

Eat (to) 

Clutch (to) 

Storm 

Hoar-frost 

Baskets 

Red-bill 

No, never 

Stomach 

Aged (literally rot- 
ten-boned) 

Trample (to) 

Chier 

Uterus 

Come to 

Eyebrow [melanotus) 

Bald-coot {Porphyrio 



Ixxx 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Tipukana 


. Kingfisher {Alcyone 


Tong bourak or 


Drown 




Diemenensis) 


poiere 




Tiraneli-lia 


. Back (the) 


Tongumela 


. Far 


Tirangana menia Conflux (crowd) 


Tongwama 


,. Gulp (to) 


Tite 


.Ant, largest black, 


Toni 


. Call (to) 




venomous 


Toni lia, tonie .. 


,. Fingernails 


Tiiina 


. Big (large) 


Tonikuama 


. Swallow act of de- 


Tiiina 


. Mussell (shell fish) 




glutition) 


Tiwa 


. Quail (Coturnix pec- 


Tonipeprina 


. Spark 




totalis) 


Tonita 


. Opossum, black 


Tiwandrik 


. Bone 




(PJudangista ful- 


Tiweh ratin6 


. Wind blows 




ginos) 


Toagara. . . 


. Cut (to) 


Tontaiiena 


Ashes 


Toarkale 


. Opossum, black 


Toplete .. 


Walk 




{Phalangista ful- 


Torona ... 


. Tree 




ginos) 


Tortiena 


. Eagle (Osprey) 


Todawada 


Come 


Towat6 ... 


. Scarify 


Toina 


. Hawk small (Astur 


Towerila 


. Bread 




appro xtmans) 


Towrik 


. Ear 


Togana 


. Heel 


Trakueni6 


. Dysentery or Diarr- 


Toga-n6... 


. Paw 




hcea 


Togana lia luta.. 


. Dive (to) 


Traminia 


. Skin of Kangaroo 


Togani ... 


. Vertex (crown of 


Tramina... 


. Groin 




head) 


Tramuta 


Pebble, rolled quartz 


Toga-rago 


. Gone, I must be, or 


Trarti 


. Stupid 




I will go 


Trawala .. 


, Mountain 


Togari 


Vertex (crown of 


Tremana, trew- 


Porcupine 


Toiberi ... 


Ashes [head) 


mena 




Toiena ... 


T-humb-nail 


Trena ... 


Baskets 


Toienuk burak ... 


Hear (to) 


Treni 


Put wood on the fire 


Toilena ... 


Stringy bark 


Trenita watina ... 


Blood 


Toina wuna 


Mid-day (or noon) 


Tren houtne 


Raven 


Tointi 


Pelican 


Tr6oratik 


Rotten wood 


Tokana ... 


Heel 


Treoute ... 


Pelican 


'1 olamina 


Rib 


Trew 


Fist 


Toline 


Bark of a tree 


Trewdina 


Pelican 


Toluna ... 


Shoulder 


Tridadie .. 


Day 


lotnalah 


, Far 


Tri-erina 


Belly 


Tomla,tome,bur- 


Sink 


Triina ... 


Owl, large {Strix 


ka 






Castanops) 


Tomeniena 


Penguin [Sphenisctis 


Trimepa 


Take it 




mifwr) 


Tringegine 


Swallow 


Tonabia... 


Gulp (to) 


Triontalalangta... 


Pelican 


Tona 


Spark, fire 


Triouegle 


Water (to make) 


Tona-ba .. 


Sun 


Trowuta 


Flint, or knife 


Tona kaiina 


Light of a fire 


Trubenik 


Sc^r, a, or mark on 


Tone liinto 


Dive (to) 




the arm 


Tonitia ... 


Ember (red hot) 


Trudena... 


Pelican 


Tongana, tonganc 


' Swallow lacl of 


Trugara... 


Trickle 




deglutition) 


Trugatepuna ... 


Scar 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixxxi 



Truli 

Tniunta... 
Truwala 
Tuarana 
Tudna ... 
Tugamaranie . . . 

Tugana ... 
Tugana ... 
Tugana ... 
Tuganaloumeno 
Tuganemenuiak 
Tuganik 
Tugara malitie ... 

Tugara nowe . . . 
Tugatapiato 
Tuta wata 
Tugbrana 
Tugeli petalibia or 
proibi 
Tugembuna 
Tugenapuniak ... 
Tugermakarna ... 

Tugi malangta ... 

Tugli 

Tugra, tugrana... 

Tugra ... 

Tuheraruna 

Tukekula 

Tula 

Tula 

Tula, tulana 

Tulendina 

Tulengenalia . . . 

Tulentina 

Tumnana 

Tuna 
Tuna 
Tunak ... 
Tunaka makuna 

talmatieral^ 
Tunapi, tunepi ... 
Tungabe 
Tungatina 
Tungiena 



Repair 

Pelican 

Mountain 

Rat 

Bone 

Early (in the morn- 
ing at twilight) 

Eat (to) 

Hastily (quickly) 

Fern 

Track (footmark) 

Drowsy 

Asleep 

Juice of a plant, 
white 

Dine (to) 

Glutton 

Come (to) 

Baskets 

Feast 

Feeble 

Lean 

Howl (in distress 

like a dog) 
Midday (or noon) 
Eat (to) 
Eat (to) 
Thigh 
Spine 
Thigh 
Thigh 

Triton (sea-shell) 
Tongue 
Top 
Scar 
Outside 
Kangaroo, joey 

(young) 
Triton (sea-shell) 
Winter 
Cold 
Come along, I want 

you 

Know^ (to) 
Straight 
Shower (of rain) 
Shrike (magpie) 

{Gymnoykina organ- 

icum) 



Tungmbibe tun- 
garingalia 
Tuno 
Tura 
Tura 

Tura 

Turana ... 
Turelai ... 
Turaruna 
Turina ... 
Turitia ... 
Uaimena 
Ualitia Ri-ena ... 
Ugana kana nire 

Ui, Uina 

Ulatiniale 
Ulra, Ulla 
Ulumpta 
Unah 

Unakragniak ... 

Unamaina 

Unamenina 

Una paroina 

Une 

Une bura 

Une Bura 

Ungena liak 

Unginapui 

Ungoielibana ... 

Unguniak 

\J 1 cl ... ... 

Uraimabile 
Uratai ... 
Ure 
Urtrakeomi 

Utamuta 

Vadaburena 

Vaiba 

Vatina ... 

veiid ... ... 

V v^I c ... ... 

Voyeni ... 

V V d xJoL ... « • • 

Wabara ? 
Wabrana 
Wabrede 
Wadamana 



Bread (give me 

some) 
Navel 

Iguana (lizard) 
Kingfisher (Alcyone 

Diemenensis) 
Winter 
Snow 
Hail 

Chine (backbone) 
Breast (chest) 
Wattle bird 
Grandmother 
Kangaroo (brush) 
True 
Fuel 

Foot (left) 
Frost 
Head 
Platypus (Ornithor- 

hynchus paradoxus) 
Desire (to) 
Light of a fire 
Light 

Conflagration 
Fire 

Lightning 
Bark 

Headache 
Intersect 
Straight 

Halt (limp on leg) 
Cockatoo, white 
Goods (things) 
Frost (hoar) 
Tear (to) 
Bed (sleeping-place 

in the bush) 
Left 

Ashamed (to be) 
xMan (black) 
High 
Moon 
Kick (to) 
Breast 

Chin, jawbone 
When and wliere 
Jawbone 
Buttocks 
River (very large) 



21 



Ixxxii 



H. Ling roth. — ^aboriCines op Tasmania. 



Wadebewiana ... 
Wadene wine ... 
Wagapuninura . . . 
Wagele ... 
Wagle ... 
Wai-a-linah 

VVaiana ... 

Waiati ... 

Waiatina 

Waii 

VVaiibed6 

Waiilarabu 

Waienina 

Waienoile 

Wailelimna 

Wailiabe 

Wailiarak 

Wairaparati 

Waitanga 

Wakanara 

Wake tena 

VValamal6 

Walamenula 

Walana-lanala ... 

Walantanalinani 

Waldeapowt 
Walena ... 
Walia noatie . . 
Waliga ... 
Waltomana 
Wanabaiiierak ... 
Wanabi ... 



Wanabia toug ... 
Wanabia ramina- 
eribi 
Wanarana 



Wan 

Wanga ... 

Wangana wiputa 

Wante lia 

vv ara ... ... 

Waragra 

Warakara 

Wara-ne 



Blush 

Black 

Wife, newly married 

Fur of animals 

Breast 

Cider from Euca- 
lyptus 

Seal, black on rocks 

Rainbow 

Brook 

Ear, to hear 

Deaf 

Stupid 

Elbow 

Crazy (cranky) 

Swallow (a bird) 

Woe's me ! ah me ! 

Shallow 

Forest ground 

Spider 

Absent 

Sun shines 

Abscess 

Exudation 

Country 

Country (the) all 
around 

Day (to) 

Exudation 

Parakeet (musk) 

Wood (fire) 

River 

Forget 

Hold your tongue, 
be patient, by- 
and-bye 

Abstain 

Kneel 

What do you call 
this? 
What is your name ? 
Thumb 
Kill 

Roll (to) 
Nail (finger) 
Bark (of a tree) 
Jump (to) 
Jump 
Azure (sky) 



Warangal6 Lor- 

unna 
Waratai... 
Waratie .. 
Waratina 
Warawa 
Warena, waren- 

tena 

Wargata mina ... 
Warina nir6 
Warthanina 
w ara ... ... 

Wawtronite 

Wa-wit6... 
Weba ... 

V V wC^ w ■ • • • ■ • 

Weial6 ... 
Weiba ... 
Weienterutia . . . 



Weipa ... 
Weitri ouratta ... 

Welia, welitya 
Wenimongthe^ . . . 

Wenunia 
Wia wuna 
Wialina 
Wialingana 
Wialuta 
Wiangata 
Wianubrina 
Wiapaw6 
Wia-proina, wia- 
proinga 
Wiawanghrata . . . 

Wiahwanghruta 
Wibalenga 

Wiber ... 
W^ibia ... 
W^ibia ... ... 

Wieba ... 
Wi-eta ... 
Wiekenia 



Firmament (sky) 

Hoar-frost 
Fog 

Firmament (sky) 
Spirit of the dead 
Sky (cloud in) 

Blood (my) 

Leg, right 

River (large) 

Limpet 

Owl, small {Athene 

Boobook) 
Orphan 
Moon 
Ears 
Gristle 
Man (black) 
Goose (Cape Bar- 
ren) Cereopsis Nov. 

Holl. 
Moon 

Touch-wood (rotten 
wood) 

Parakeet (swift) 
Awake (to open the 

eyes) 
Porpoise 
Twig 
Exudation 
Stump of a tree 
Ember (red hot) 
Flesh (meat) 
Cockatoo, white 
Timber (small), rod 
Timber (large), log 

of wood 
Touch -wood (rotten 

wood) 
Teal 
Nautilus shell 

{Argonaut) 
Man (black) 
Man (black) 
Swan 

Man (black) 
Moon 
Duck (gender not 

distinguished) 



TASMANIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ixxxiii 



Wielangta 
Wielurena 
Wiemena 
Wiena ... 

Wiena, wienena 
Wienina 
Wien-powenia ... 

Wientalutia 

Wiera 

[tenana 
Wietena, wieta- 
Wietitongmena . . . 
Wigena... 
Wigetapuna 
Wigetena 
Wiitena .. 

Wila 

Wilaty 

Wina 

Wina 

Wina Kitana oy 

kltiena 
Wina runa 
Wina, wina-lia .. 

Winalia 

W^inapulia 

Win6 

Wineluaghabaru 
Wingana, wingani 
Wingitelangta ... 
Wini 

Winia ... 
Winia Wainetia 

Of wauwetia 
Wirul6, wiruta . . 

Wita 

Wita, withae ... 

Witabuna 

Witapuna 

Wi wina 

Woaroire 

Wobrata 

Wornena 

Wugal6 

Wugan6 
Wugara tungale 



Timber (large), log 

Fuel [of wood 

Grandmother 

Wood, firewood, 
small timber 

Angle (crooked like 

Elbow [the elbow) 

Angle (crooked like 
the elbow) 

Goose (Cape Barren) 
Cereopsis Nov. HolL 

Rat, long bandicoot 
nose [gonaut) 

Nautilus shell (Ar- 

Sunset 

Wood, Dead- 
Moonlight 

Moon 

Rainbow 

Wood 

Eagle 

Fuel 

Tree 

Rod (small), brush- 
wood 

Nautilus shell 

Moon [(Argonaut) 

Fire 

Moonlight 

To taste, try 

Fiend 

Touch, feel, pinch, to 

Summer 

Wake 

Periwinkle (sea shell) 

Fiend 

Firm (not rotten) 
Nautilus shell 
Moon {(Argonaut) 
Halo (round the 
Moonlight [moon) 
Twig 
Duck 
Posteriors 
Arm 
Leap 

Feel (to pinch) 
Across (to put or 
place) 



Wugarina riana 
Wugata .. 
Wugata... 
Wugerapungana 
Wugerina noimi- 

ak 
Wugerina rugoto- 

libana or rotali- 

bana 
Wuganemoe, 

wughanamoe 
Wugiraniak 
Wugna elibana 
Wugne ... 
Wugrina 
Wugwera paitia 
Wu'hna... 
Wuliawa 
Wulugbetie 
Wumer6 
Wunha ... 
Wuragara 
Wuramatiena ... 
Wurangata puna- 

laritie 
Wurawa-noatie, 

Wurawa Low- 
ana 
Wurawana 

Wurawina tieta 
Ya ! Nun'oine ... 
Ya ! tahwatiwa 
Yana, yanalople, 

yenalia 
Yangena 
Yavla, Yolla, 

youlla 
Ya-waraniakunia 

Yawarena 

Yenaloig 
Yenemi ... 
Yenena ... 



Grinder (back tooth) 

Top 

Burn (hurt by fire) 

Crab (largest^ 

Toothless 

Fang (canine tooth) 



Twirl, twist, turn to 

Earthquake 

Limp, right foot 

Taste, try, to 

Tooth 

Dwarf 

Arm 

Four 

Punk 

Wood 

Fin (of a fish) 

Leap 

Little birds 

Fleet (swift) 

Widow 



Yiakanara 
Youtantalabaua 
Zitina ... 



Spirit of the dead, 
apparition 
Shadow 
Greeting (a) 
Greeting (a) 
Teeth 

Jawbone 

Mutton bird (sooty 

Petrel) 
Cobbler's Awl (a 

bird) 
Haliotis tuberculata 

(mutton fish) 
Grinder (back tooth) 
Anoint 
Heron (Egret) white 

(Herodias syrmato- 

phorus) 

Full (a vessel filled) 

Mouth 

Hair 



APPENDIX G. 

Mrs. Fanny Cochrane Smith not a " Last Living Aboriginal 

of Tasmania." 

fi2eprint from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, February, 1898.] 

IN September, 1889, Mr. Jas. Barnard read before the RoyaJ Society 
of Tasmania a short paper entitled ** Notes on the Last Living 
Aboriginal ot Tasmania." This paper was pracftically a claim asserting 
that an old resident at Irishtown, near Port Cygnet, named Mrs. Fanny 
Cochrane Smith, was a pure blood Tasmanian aborigine and hence the 
sole survivor of her race. As, since the year 1876, we had been under 
the impression that with the death of Truganini no pure blood aboriginal 
survived, the claim was naturally much doubted by anthropologists. A 
reference to Mr. Barnard's paper was made in ** Nature," November 14th, 
1889, and the statement was, without apparent examination, accepted as a fa<5l 
and reproduced by Prof A. H. Keane in his *' Ethnology," published 
seven years later (p. 294 note). I had, however, on receipt of a news- 
paper copy of Mr. Barnard's paper pointed out in ** Nature," December 
5th, 1889, reasons which to me appeared to be sufficiently strong for at 
any rate withholding my judgment on the question until further proof 
should have been forthcoming. The chief objetSlions to our accepting 
Mrs. Smith as the survivor of the race were to my mind an absence 
of any description of her . physical characfleristics which could enable us 
to judge, and a general absence of proof of identity — for much seemed 
to depend upon the proof that she was a certain girl known at Flinders 
Island Aboriginal Establishment about the year 1848 et. seq, I was not 
aware when I wrote that at the meeting ( ** Pap. and Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Tasm. for 1889," p. 64) at which Mr. Barnard's paper was read, one 
Fellow asked Mr. Barnard " not to press the matter too strongly on the 
Society. While Parliament was free to ac^ at its discretion in enter- 
taining a claim, the Royal Society would not be justified in showing 
any amiable weakness in the same direction. If, however, he threw out 
a challenge to ethnologists, he ran the risk of depriving Fanny Smith 
of what she now enjoyed," for Parliament, accepting her claim, had 



MRS. FANNY COCHRANE SMITH. IxXXV 

granted her an annuity. It was therefore evident that locally Mrs. 
Smith's claim met with no scientific support. 

Since that date I despatched to Port Cygnet a brother of Mr. J. 
W. Beattie, the well-known Hobart photographer and present possessor 
of Woolley's negatives of Tasmanian aboriginals. He was successful in 
getting me three photographs of Mrs. Smith — full face, three-quarters, 
and profile. He also obtained a lock of her hair, but from what por- 
tion ot her head he does not state. Mr. J. W. Beattie has sent me 
several particulars of her from two correspondents of his, the one the 
Rev. A. T. Holden, formerly Wesleyan Methodist minister at Port 
Cygnet, the other a Mr. Geeves, an old resident at Hobart. Mr. 
Holden says she is about 5 feet 6 inches in height, while Mr. Greeves 
says she is about 5 feet 2 inches or 5 feet 3 inches ; the latter says 
her colour is dark brown or olive, and the former speaks of her " curly " 
hair. She appears to be a very religious, hard-working woman with a 
numerous family, viz., six boys and five girls, and about thirty grand- 
children (Geeves). She can read and write well, appears to be a very 
fluent and popular speaker, and ** apt in illustration drawn from her 
aboriginal life and associations " (Holden). Both correspondents are of 
opinion that she is an aboriginal, and she certainly thinks so herself 
(Holden). 

To come to definite detail, however, in the absence of any other 
living representatives now we must confine ourselves to a comparison of 
the various photographs of Mrs. Smith with those of Truganini, who 
died in 1876, and who was a pure blood aboriginal without any doubt. 

The five chara(5leristics of Truganini's face in common with those of 
her fellows (see Dr. Garson on the Osteology supra) are (i) the wild 
appearance due to the great development of the facial portion of the 
frontal bone and the deep notch below the glabella at the root of the 
nasal bones ; (2) the shortness of the face ; (3) the smallness of the 
lower jaw; (4) the very dark skin; (5) the woolly nature of the hair. 

Comparing these facial characters with those of Mrs. Smith, we find 
(i) less development of the frontal bone, less deep notch below the 
glabella ; (2) a longer face ; fe) a normal lower jaw ; (4) a lighter skin ; 
(5) the hair woolly on the forehead and wavy on the temples — alto- 
gether an Europeanised type of countenance. 

If we now turn to Fig. i, where I have arranged a set of profiles, 
traced and reduced from Mr. Woolley's photographs, and compare them 
with that of Mrs. Smith (Fig. 2), we find : — All have a receding upper 
forehead, while Mrs. Smith's rises higher than any. Excepting W. Lan- 
nay (as to whose parentage there is some doubt — it having been said 
that the notorious Sydney aboriginal Mosquito was his father) all have 
very projecting brows : Mrs. Smith's are not so beetling as any of them. 
All have the deep notch at the root of the nose ; in Mrs. Smith's profile 
this is not so marked. The eyes in all, including Mrs. Smith's, are 
deeply set. The noses in all may be termed stumpy and broad, while 
Mrs. Smith's is decidedly longer and narrower, and her whole face is 
proportionately longer. There is little prognathism in any of the faces, 
while in Mrs. Smith's face there is less. The lips in all, as well as 
in Mrs. Smith's, vary very much. The chins are weak, while Mrs. 



Ixxxvi 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Smith's is decidedly stronger. The result we arrive at then is the same 
as in our first comparison. 

Regarding the evidence as to hair, Prof. S. J. Hickson. F.R.S, who 
has kiiidly examined Mrs. Smith's lock, reports to me. ** If I had no 




Fig. I. 

1. William Lannay, with beard. 

2. Wapperty 3. Bessy Clark. 
4. Patty 5. Truganini. 




Fig. a. 
6. Mrs. F. C. Smith. 



further evidence of the owner's race than her hair, I should say she 
might be either Tasmanian or Andamanese." In reply to further inquiries, 
he writes me : ** I should be quite prepared to find in any half-caste, 
hair of the exatfl form and colour of one parent. I have seen thousands 
of half-castes between Malays and Europeans, and I have often observed 
that the aboriginal parent's influence predominates in a marked degree 
in the matter of hair. Nearly all these half-castes have the coarse black 
hair of the Malay.- The point of deviation between the specimen of 
Mrs. Smith's hair and the hair of other Tasmanians I have examined, 
is that the average curl is rather bigger, viz., 10 mm. instead of 5 or 
6 mm. ; but I do not lay much stress on this, as the hair may have 
been brushed." As mentioned above, I do not know whether the 
specimen was taken from the top of the head or from the temples — from 
the examination it would appear not to have been from the temples, as 
in the photographs it is shown as wavy. 

To digress a little, it is very curious that there should still be doubt 
as to the woolliness of the hair of Tasmanian aboriginals. Professor 
Ratzel in his ** Volkerkunde " (2nd German, ed. I, pp. 350 and 351), 
gives a portrait of Wm. Lannay with woolly hair, and one of Truganini 
with curly hair ! Dr. Topinard does not go so far, but he sees a differ- 
ence, probably due to the engraver's art, unless he is referring to the 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



ilSTO^, LENOX ANO 
TllC i FOUN0ATJ0N8. 






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TIT. NEW YORK 

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T»LDCN FOUNDATIONS. < 



MRS. FANNY COCHRANE SMITH. IxXXvii 

natives' hair in its natural • and artificial states, for he says, " Dans le 
livre de M. Bonwick sur les Tasmaniens etaient represent6es deux sortes 
de figures, les unes avec des cheveux en petites boules 6parses, les 
autres en boucles tres longues" ("Bull. Soc. d'Anthrop," Paris 1878, 
3rd Ser., I. p. 63).- 

As regards the colour of the skin described as above by Geeves, 
it description tallies with that of Backhouse and Milligan, but is con- 
tradictory to that of most other observers ; hence as well as on account 
of the generally loose way in which skin colour is described it had 
better be left out of consideration here. 

From the above comparisons we may, I think, now venture to 
conclude thar, while Mrs. Fanny Cochrane Smith's facial charadleristics 
partake largely of those of the Tasmanians, still there is a considerable 
modification in almost every feature which tends to show that she is 
of mixed blood. Hence we cannot consider her a true Tasmanian 
aboriginal, and must conclude that with the death of Truganini we 
have lost for ever a living representative of the Tasmanian race. 



APPENDIX H. 

Tasmanian Fire Sticks. 

SINCE going to press I have received from Mr. Rayner a further 
account of fire making by Tasmanian aborigines. This account is 
in answer to my enquiry addressed to him through Mr. J. B. Walker. 
It runs as follows : — ** A piece of flat wood was obtained, and a groove 
was made the full length in the centre. Another piece of wood about 
a foot in length with a point like a blunt chisel Avas worked with 
nearly lightning rapidity up and down the groove till it caught in a 
flame. As soon as the stick caught in a blaze, a piece of burnt fungus, 
or punk^ as it is generally termed, was applied, which would keep alight, 
&c., &c. I cannot say what kind of wood it was. My father has seen 
them light it. The piece with the groove, he said, was hard, the other 
soft. The blacks in Australia get fire by the same method. I have 
seen that done. I think it almost impossible for a w^hite man to do 
it for I have seen it tried and always prove a failure." Rayner's 
account agrees in the main with Cotton's, and we are therefore in 
possession of accounts of three distincfl methods of fire production, viz. : 
(i) by means of flint and tender; (2) by means of fire drill and socket; 
and (3) by means of stick and groove. At first sight it may appear 
incredible that a race so low in culture could have known and used 
three methods, nevertheless in reality such a supposition might occur, 
for some neighbour tribes in Australia have at least two methods, the drill and 
the saw (Walter E. Roth ** Ethnographical Studies, p. 105). However, 
as regards the Tasmanians, for reasons given on p. 83, we may, I think, 
leave out of consideration the flint process and decide that this process 
was unknown to them, restridling our enquiry to the fire drill and stick 
and groove process. To clear the way for this we must eliminate the 
indefinite accounts which simply refer to the process as one of rubbing 
two sticks together, although rubbing describes rather the stick and 
groove method than the drill method. We must also omit the statement 
of the bush-ranger mentioned by Bonwick, on account of the latter*s 
general mixing up of Tasmanian with Australian customs. We are thus 
left with the two specimens of fire drill supplied by Milligan and 
Robinson respe(5lively, with Melville's description and with Davies' des- 
cription. When Melville published his V. D. Almanac in 1833 ^® gave 



TASMANIAN FIRE STICKS. Ixxxix 

a short account of the aborigines, but to fire making he made no 
reference at all ; when he wrote his Present State of Australia (mostly 
an account of Tasmania) printed in London in 1850, he described the 
drill method of making fire as in use by the Tasmanians. But in the 
meanwhile, R. H. Davies writing in 1845 in the Tas. Jour, of Science, 
says he is " informed " that the Tasmanians raised fire by the drill 
process. But this statement on heresay was made long after the 
Tasmanians had been deported to Flinders Island and after they had 
been long familiar with Australian aborigines imported into Tasmania, 
so that although his statements may in general be relied on this one 
wants confirmatory support, especially as his statement is the first one 
describing the drill process as being a Tasmanian method, Melville's 
account must be taken as copied from Davies. Milligan knew nothing 
of the aborigines until 1847, when he was put in charge of them at 
Oyster Cove after their return from Flinders Island, and at a time 
when it was not likely that in the close proximity of European settle- 
ments they would have continued to produce fire by any native process. 
Although we are much indebted to Milligan for the vocabularies, on the 
other hand there is considerable carelessness in his translations of the 
native sentences, and it is well known locally tliat he was not personally 
interested in his charge. Hence his presentation to Barnard Davis of a 
fire drill as a Tasmanian implement does not prove the drill to have 
been Tasmanian. Robinson, in spite of his intimate intercourse with the 
aborigines and his volumnious reports on his doings while capturing the 
wretched remnants, has left us such a small comparative amount of 
information concerning them that I have for a long time past come to 
the conclusion that he was a very unobservant man, an opinion largely 
confirmed by his presentation to Barnard Davis of ground Australian 
stone implements as Tasmanian, but the real origin of which was settled 
(as Australian) by Prof. Tylor's paper on the subject, read at the Oxford 
Meeting of the British Association. As he was also afterwards Protector 
of Aborigines in Victoria it is not at all unlikely that he confused his 
specimens and called them Tasmanian instead of Australian. On the 
other hand we have the circumstantial accounts of stick and groove fire 
making apparatus by two settlers well advanced in years, who carry us 
back to the early part of the century when the natives were still roam- 
ing about the country, before they were wholly robbed of it, and at a 
time when they had been little in touch with Australians or Europeans. 
Either there were two methods of fire production used by the natives 
or the stick and groove process was the only one. 



22 



i( r 



APPENDIX I. 

DuTERREAu's PORTRAITS OF Tasmanian ABORIGINES. The Penny 

Magazine, June 21, 1834. 

rHE following is the account, taken from a V. D. Land newspaper, 
of the first effort that has been made to fix and hand down to 
posterity, a true resemblance of this interesting people in their original 
state and costume : for, according to the local authorities we quote, the 
few random diminutive attempts in water colours, and rough engraving 
that have yet been tried, can scarcely be considered as affording any 
true pi(flure of this singular race. 

** * We had the pleasure the other day, in visiting Mr. Duterreau's 
colledlion of paintings in Campbell Street, to be agreeably surprised by 
remarkably striking portraits of our old sable acquaintances, the aborigines 
of this island. 'Ihey are painted of the natural size in three-fourth 
lengths, having come to Mr. Duterreau, and stood till he took their 
likeness with the greatest satisfa(5\ion. They are all drawn exa(5lly in the 
native garb. Wooready, the native of Brune Island, who has attended 
Mr. Robinson in all his expeditions, has his hair smeared in the usual 
way with grease and ochre ; three rows of small shining univalve shells 
strung round his neck, and the jaw-bone of his deceased friend suspended 
on his breast. This relic of affedlion is carefully wrapped round with 
the small string which these interesting people make from the fibres of 
the large dag or j uncus which grows in all parts of the island. They 
obtain it by passing the green flags over fire until they have stripped 
off the more friable part of the green bark, and the fibres, which are 
strong, are easily twisted into threads. A kangaroo skin, with the fur 
iubide, is passed round him and fastened over the shoulder in the usual 
manner in the bush, before they obtained blankets from the whites, and 
his brawny athletic arm is stretched out to wield the spear. His wife 
Truganina, the very picflure of good humour, stands beside him, with 
her head shaved, according to custom, by her husband with a sharp- 
edged flint. Besides these, Mr. Duterreau has in like manner painted a 
pow^erful likeness of the chief, Manalagana and his wife, two most excel- 
lent, well-disposed people, who, with the others, have been of immense 
service to Mr. Robinson, and through him to the colony, in his several 
arduous and often dangerous expeditions to conciliate their countrymen ; 
and are now, we learn, stationed about Campbell-town, doing their best 
endeavour to assist in ridding the country of the dreadful scourge of the 
flocks — the ravenous wild dogs. Great praise is due to Mr. Duterreau 
for his thus fixing on canvas, which may commemorate and hand down 
to posterity for hundreds of years to come, so close a resemblance in 
their original appearance and costume, of a race now all but extin(51.*" 

While great praise is undoubtedly due to Mr. Duterreau for his work, 
his portraits do not bear comparison with Mr. Woolley*s photographs, 
that is, they fail in the same way as do those of Bock, namely, in not 
catching that sinister form of expression, which is so charadleristic of 
the late owners of the island. 



APPENDIX K. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Agnew, James Wilson, 5iV, M.D. Verbal Remarks on the Stone Imple- 
ments of the Tasm. Aborigines. Pap. and Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 
for 1873 (1874) p. 22. 

The Last of the Tasmanians. Proc. Australian Assoc. Adv. of 

Science. Sydney, 1888. pp. 478-481. 2 plates. 

Aimard v, Dumont D*Urville. 

Allport, Morton. Remarks on six photographs and two casts of skulls 
and two masks of Native Tasmanians and Stone Implements. 
Jour. Anthrop. Inst., 1873 ^^^' P* ^7^* 

Anderson v. Cook. 

Anon. Nekrolog der Tasmanier. Ausland, 1870. No. 7. 

Arthur, Geo., Col. v. Colonies and Slaves. 

Backhouse, Jas. Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies, 8vo. 
London, 1843. 
Backhouse spent nearly four years in Tasmania. 

Barkov. Comparativ Morphologie . . . Greifswald. Breslau, fol. 1862- 

1875. 
Contains description of Tasmanian skull. 

Barnard, Jas. The last living aboriginal of Tasmania. Fanny Cockrane 

Smith. Pap. and Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1889 (1890). pp. 60-64. 
The Aborigines of Tasmania. Trans. Australian Assoc. Adv. Sci. 

for 1890. p. 597. Melbourne, 1890. 
Bass Geo. v. Collins. 
Baudin, Nich. Capt. v, Peron. 

Bedford, Rev, Wm., D,D, v. Colonies and Slaves. 
Bibra, F. L. Von. und Roeding C. N. Schilderung der Insel V. D. 

Land. 8vo. Hamburg, 1823. 
This is a translation of G. W. Evans, V.D.L. q.v. 
Bischoff, Jas. Sketch of the History of Van Diemen's Land, and an 

Account of Van Diemen's Land Company. 8vo. London, 1832. 
Occasional references to the aborigines by Hy. Hellyer. 
Bligh, Wm., Lieut. A Voyage to the South Sea. 4to. London, 1792. 
Back, Thos. v, Fenton. 
Bonwick, Jas. The Last of the Tasmanians. 8vo. pp. viii. -|- 400. 

London, 1870. 
Daily Life and Origin of the Tasmanians. 8vo. pp. x. -f 304. 

London, 1870. 

The Lost Tasmanian Race. i2mo. pp. vi. + 216. London, 1884. 



Braim, Thos. H., ArcMeacon, History of New South Wales from its 
settlement to the year 1844. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1846. 



XCU H. LING ROTH. ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Breton, William Hy., Lieut, R.N, Excursions in New South Wales, 
Western Australia, and V. D. Land during 1830-33. 8vo. London, 

1833. 

Brodribb v. Colonies and Slaves. 

Bunce, David. Twenty-three Years' Wanderings in the Austfalias and 

Tasmania. i2mo. Geelong, 1857. 
Published also in Melbourne under the title " Australasiatic Reminiscences," 1857. 

Burnett, J. v. Colonies and Slaves. 

Calder, James Erskine. Some Account of the Wars, Extirpation Habits, 

&c. of the Native Tribes of Tasmania. i2mo. pp. 114 + i"« 

Hobart, 1875. 

Compiled (inter-alia) from the Government Archives (17 large volumes in MS. at 
Hobart) which include G. A. Robinson's despatches. And also from the recollec- 
tions of McKay and others whom Calder personally interviewed. 

Some Account of the Wars of Extirpation, and Habits of the 

Native Tribes of Tasmania. Journ. Anthrop. Inst., 1874 IH. pp. 7-28. 

A different account from the foregoing. 

Boat Expeditions round Tasmania, 181 5- 16 and 1824. Papers 



of Legislative Council of Tasmania. Hobart, 1881. 
Contains : First Discovery of Port Davey and Macquarie Harbour by Capt. Jas. Kelly ; 
and J. Hobbs' Boat Voyage round Tasmania in 1824. 

Language of the Aborigines of Tasmania. Pap. and Proc. Roy. 



Soc. Tasm. for 1876 (1877). pp. 7 and 72. 
Charency, H. de. Recherches sur les Dialedles Tasmaniens. Actes dfe 

la Societe Philologique, T. xi., i®*" Fascicule pp. 1-56. Alen9on 

1880. 
Clarke, Arthur H. v. Harper, W. R. 
Collins, David. An Account of the English Colony in New S. Wales, 

2 vols. 4to. London, 1798- 1802. 

In Vol, ii. is an abridged account of the discovery of the Straits, taken from Bass' 
own Journal. The information about the Tasmanian Aborigines, is very meagre. 
Flinders, in the introdudlion to his " Voyage " says : " He leaves the description 
of the Tasmanians to be given by his friend, Bass." It would therefore seem 
that Collins must have considerably abridged Bass' account. On the other hand, 
as Collins enters so fully into the details of the life of the Australian aborigines, 
it is not likely he would have left out any important information about the 
Tasmanians, had Bass given such in his journal, ii. pp. 167 and 187. 

** Colonies and Slaves." House of Commons Papers. Session 14th 

June to 20th Odlober, 1831. Vol. xix. Fol. [London]. 

Contains, No. 259, V. D. Land, 23rd September, 1831 : "Copies of all Correspondence 
between Lieut. Gov. Arthur and H. M. Secretary of State for the Colonies, on 
the subjedl of Military Operations lately carried on against the Aboriginal Inhabi- 
tants of V. D. Land." It includes a Report of a Committee which sat on the 
Aboriginal Question at Hobart, the minutes of the Executive Council relating to 
the Aborigines, and the evidence amongst others of Messrs. Bedford, Brodribb, 
Burnett, Espie, Hobbs, Kelly, Knopwood and O'Connor. 

This portion appears to be a reprint by the Colonial Office, London, of the 
Report published in Hobart in 1831, entitled, " Correspondence ... on the 
subject of the Military Operations lately carried on against the Aboriginal Inhabi- 
tants of V. D. Land." 

Cook, Jas. Capt. [Second Voyage] . Voyage toward the South Pole and 
round the World, in H.M.S Resolution and Adventure, in the years 
1772-1775. 2 vols. 4°. London, 1777. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. XCUl 

Vol. I. pp. 1 1 3- 1 15. contains Capt. Furneaux's observations on huts and implements. 

[Third Voyage], Voyage to the Pacific Ocean in H.M.S. Resolu- 
tion and Discovery, in the years 1 776-1 780. 3 vols. 4°. London, 
1785. [First edition 1784]. 

Vol. I, pp. 96-103. Cook's observations. Dr. Anderson's account of the Tasmanians. 
Ibid pp. 111-117. 

Cox, John Henry v. Mortimer. 

Crozet. Nouveau Voyage a la Mer du Sud. Edited by the Abb6 Rochon. 

i2mo. pp. 290. Paris, 1783. [An English edition, by H. Ling Roth, 

London, 1891.] 
Crozet took command on the death of Marion du Fresne. ^ 

Cull, R. On some water-colour portraits of natives of V. D. Land. 

Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1855 (1856) pt. 2. p. 142. 
Cunningham v, Latham. 
Curr, Edward Micklethwaite. The Descent of the Tasmanians. Proc. 

Geogr. Soc. Australasia. IL pp. 79-82. Sydney, 1885. 

The Australian Race. 8vo. and fol. 4 vols. Melbourne, 1886-87. 

Davies, R. H. On the Aborigines of V. D. Land. Tasm. Jour. Science. 

n. pp. 409-420. Launceston and London, 1846. 
Davis, Jas. Barnard, M,D., F.R,S. On the Osteology and Peculiarities 

of the Tasmanians, a Race of Man recently become extin(5l. 4°. 

p. 19. Haarlem, 1874. 
With plates of skeletons and skulls of Australians and Tasmanians. 
Dixon, John. The Condition and Capabilities of V. D. Land as a place 

of Emigration. i2mo. London, 1839. 
D'Entrecasteaux, Bruny, Admiral v. La Billardiere. 
Dove, Thos. Rev, Moral and Social Charad^eristics of the Aborigines of 

Tasmania as gathered from intercourse with the surviving remnant 

of them now located on Flinders' Island. Tasm. Jour. L pp. 247- 

254, Hobart Town and London, 1842. 
Dumont D'Urville, J. Voy. au Pole Sud et dans I'Oceanie, sur les 

corvettes L' Astrolabe et La Zelce pendant les Annees 1837- 1840. 

Anthropologie par le Dr. Dumoutier. Paris, 1842- 1847. 

Plates 22-24, busts of Tasmanian heads ; plate 36, skulls of Tasmanian male, female, 
and child. 

Voyage de decouverte de L' Astrolabe . . . pendant les Annees 

1 826- 1 829, Zoologie par MM. Quoy and Gaimard. Paris, 1830. 8vo. 

Aborigines of V. D. Land p. 45, &c. 
Dumoutier. M. Dr, Le Tasmanien de Eydoux. Description d'une tote Tas- 

manien conservee dans ralcohol. Bull. Soc. d'Anthrop. ix. 2nd Ser. 
V, Dumout D'Urville. 

1874, Paris, pp. 808-813. 
Espie V, Colonies and Slaves. 
Evans, Geo. Wm. A Geogr. Hist, and Topographical Description of V. 

D. Land, 8vo. London, 1822. 
Eydoux, Fortune v. Laplace, Dumoutier, and Gervais. 
Fenton, James. A History of Tasmania, from its Discovery in 1642 to 

the Present Time . . . pp. xvi. + 462. Hobart, 1884. 

With four coloured facsimiles of Portraits of Tasmanians, painted by Mr. Bock for 
I-ady Franklin. The colour of these reproductions is wrong and misleading. 



XCIV H. LING ROTH.— ABORIGINBS OF TASMANIA. 

Flower, W. H., Sir, Professor ^ F.R.S. The Aborigines of Tasmania. An 
Extindt Race. A Lecflure, 8vo. pp. 7. Manchester and London (1878). 

Flinders, Matthew. Voyage to Terra Australis, . . . prosecuted in 
the years 1801-3, in the Investigator, the Porpoise, and the Cumber- 
land. 2 vols. 4to and folio Atlas. London, 1814. 

Freycinet, Louis v. P6ron, F. 

Furneaux, v. Cook. 

Friend, Matthew C. Lieut. R.N. On the Decrease of Aborigines of 

Tasmania, Tasm. Jour. IIL pp. 241-2. Launceston and London, 1849. 

Gaimard, Paul v. Dumont D'Urville. 

Garnot v. Leeson. 

Gervais, Paul. Zoologie et Paleontologie G6n6rales, Paris, 1876, 4to. 

In Vol. ii. (Sec. Ser.) pp. 1-8, the first Chapter is entitled : " Un des Derniers 
Naturels de la Terre de Diemen." being the description of a head of a Tasma- 
nian (preserved in spirits) brought home by Laplace. Two plates of this head 
and two plates of Skull and brain surface. 

Giglioli, E. H. Professor. I Tasmaniani cenni storici ed etnologici di un 
popolo estinto. 8vo. pp iv 4- 160. Milan, 1874. 

Gunn, Ronald C. On the Heaps of Recent Shells which exist along the 
Shores of Tasmania, Tasm. Jour. II. pp. 332-336. Launceston and 
London, 1846. 

Remarks on the Indigenous Vegetable Producflions of Tasmania 

available as Food for Man. Tasm. Jour. I. pp. 35-52. Launceston 
and London, 1842. 8vo. 

Hamy, E. T. L'Oeuvre Ethnographique de Nicolas — Martin Petit, 

Dessinateur a bord du Geographe 1801-1804. L'Anthropologie II. 

1891, pp. 601-622. Paris. 

An account of the recovery (with descriptions) of the lost drawings of the artist who 
accompanied Peron, Freycinet, and Lesueur. 

V, Quatrefages 

Harper, Walter R. and Clarke, Arthur H. Notes on the Measurement 
of the Tasmanian Crania in the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart, with 
tables of measurements and 6 plates. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 

1897 (1^9^) PP- 97-110. 
Hellyer, Henry v Bischoff. 
Henderson, John. Observations on the Colonies of New South Wales 

and V. D. Land. 8vo. pp. xxviii and 180. Calcutta, 1832. 
Hobbs V. Colonies and Slaves, also Calder. 
Holman James, R.N. Voyage round the world. 4 vols. 8vo. London, 

I834-35- 
Holman was blind, but his information is considered reliable. His references to the 
Tasmanians are to be found in vol. iv. 

Hull, Hugh Munro. Tabular return of the Stature and W^eight of 
Children in Tasmania. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. Vol. II. p. 172. 
Hobart, 1851. 
Includes measurements and weights of several Aboriginal Children. 

Experience of Forty Years in Tasmania. i2mo. pp. 96 -|- 6. 

London, 1859. 

With Map and Ten Illustrations. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. XCV 



— Statistical Summary of Tasmania from the year 1 816-1865 inclu- 
sive. Fol. p. 8. Tasmania, 1866. 

The Aborigines of Tasmania (MS. in Royal Colonial Institute). 



Huxley, T. H., F./?.S. On the Geograph. Distribution of the Chief 
Modifications of Mankind. Jour. Ethn. Soc. London, 1870. II. p. 130. 

Jenneret, Dr. Vindication. 8vo. pp. 66. London, 1854. 
Reports of the Aborigines Establishment at Flinders' Island. 

Jeffreys, Ch. Lieut, V. D. Land. Geographical and Descriptive Delinea- 
tions of the Island of V. D. Land. 8vo. pp. 168. London, 1820. 

Johnston, Robt. M., F,LS. Systematic Account of the Geology of Tas- 
mania. 4to. pp. xxiv -\- 408. Hobart, 1888. 

Observations on the Kitchen Middens of the Tasmanian Aborigines. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. Hobart, 1891. pp. 93-4. 

Jorgensen, Jorgen. A Shred of Autobiography. Elliston's Hobart Town 
Almanac for 1838. pp. 86-106. Hobart, 1838. 

The Aboriginal Languages of Tasmania. Tasm. Jour. Nat. Sci. 

1842 I. pp. 308-318. Hobart and London, 1842. 

Jukes, Joseph B. Voyage of the Fly. 2 vols. London, 1847. 
On p. 319 Latham writes on the Tasmanian language. 

Kelly V. Colonies and Slaves, also Calder. 

Knopwood, Robert, Rev. v. Colonies and Slaves, also Shillinglaw. 

La Billardiere, Jacques Julien de. An Account of a Voyage in Search 
of La P6rouse in the years 1791, 1792, 1793. 2 vols. 8vo. Plates 
4to. London, 1800. 
This expedition paid two lengthened visits to Tasmania under the command of Bruny 
D'Entrecasteaux, in the ships Recherche and Esp^rance. 

Laplace, C. P. T. Voyage Autour du Monde sur la corvette La Favorite, 

1830-32. 3 vols. 8vo. Atlas fol. Paris, 1835. 
It was on this Expedition 'that Surgeon Eydoux brought home some skulls. 

Latham, R. G., M.A., M.D.y F,RS, Elements of Comparative Philol- 
ogy. 8vo. pp. xxxii. -f 774. London, 1862. 
Pp. 362-371 deal with the Tasmanian language. The vocabulary, which he attributes 
to Allan Cunningham is, however, La Billardidre's. 

Ethnology of the British Colonies and Dependencies. i2mo. 

pp. vi. + 264. London, 1851. Tasmanians p. 222. 

V. Jukes. 



Leigh. "The Aborigines of Van Diemen's Land.'* 
Missionary notices .... of the Methodist Conference vol. iii. London, 1822. 

Leeson and Garnot Memoires sur les Papous, les Tas- 

maniens, les Alfoures, et les Australiens. Ann. Sci. Nat. x. pp. 93- 
112, 149-162; Bull. Soc. Geogr., Paris, 1829. xviii. pp. 336-339. 

Lhotsky, John, Dr, Some Remarks on a Short Vocabulary of the Natives 

of Van Diemen's Land. Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. Vol. ix. pp. 157- 

162. London. 
Contains P6ron*s Vocabulary, dated 1803, and apparently in possession of Roy. Geogr. 
Soc. ; another Vocabulary is dated 1835, 21°^ drawn up by M' Geary, upwards of 
twenty years resident in the island. 

Lloyd, George Thomas. Thirty-Three Years in Tasmania and Victoria, 
being the actual experience of the author, interspersed with historic 
jottings. 8vo. London, 1862. 



XCVl H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Marion du Fresne v. Crozet. 

McKay v, Calder. 

M'Geary v, Lhotsky. 

Melville, Henry. Van Diemen's Land, comprising a variety of statistical 

and other information. i2mo. Hobart Town, 1833. 

Van Diemen's Land Annual for 1834. i2mo. Hobart Town, 1834. 

History of the Island of Van Diemen's Land from 1824- 1835. 

London, 1835. 

Australia and Prison Dicipline. 8vo. pp. xiv. 4- 392. London, 



1851. 
Meredith, Charles, Mrs. My Home in Tasmania during a Residence of 

Nine Years. 2 vols. i2mo. London, 1852. 
Meredith, Charles. Verbal Remarks on the Tasmanian Aborigines. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. for 1873 (^^74)* P- 28. 
Milligan, Jos. Vocabulary of the Dialedls of some of the Aboriginal 

Tribes of Tasmania in Papers, &c., of Roy. Soc., Tasm., iii. 

pp. 239-274. Hobart [1858.] 

On the Diale(5ls and Language of the Aboriginal Tribes of Tas- 
mania, and on their manners and customs. Ibid. pp. 275-282. 

These two papers were reprinted by the Government of Tasmania, 1866 and 1890. 
The reprint includes a short vocabulary, by Thomas Scott, taken in 1826, of the 
Oyster Bay Tribe Dialedt. 

Religious Belief of the Tasmanian Aborigines, Pap. and Proc. 



Roy. Soc., Tasm., for 1854, P- ^^o* 
— V, Nixon 



Minutes Executive Council v. Colonies and slaves. 

Mortimer, George, Lieut, Observations and Remarks made during a 
Voyage to the Islands of Teneriffe, Amsterdam, Maria's Islands near 
V. D. Land ... in the Brig Mercury, commanded by John 
Henry Cox, Esq. Illustrated with a Plan of Oyster Harbour at 
the Maria Islands, with some views of the land. . . . 4to pp. 
xvi. and 71. London, 1791. 

Miiller, Fried., Ph,D. Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft, etc. 3 vols, and 
suppls. 8vo. Vienna, 1876. 

Nixon, Francis Russell, D.D.j Bishop of Tasmania, The Cruise of the 
Beacon. A Narrative of a Visit to the Islands in Bass's Strait. 
With illustrations. Svo. pp. 114. London, 1875. 
On pp. 25-31 he gives Milligan's account of the aborigines. 

O'Connor v. Colonies and Slaves. 

Parker, H. W. The Rise, Progress, and Present State of V. D. Land, 

London, 1833, pp. vi. + 244 + xiv., chap. 3. pp. 27-35, Aborigines, 

2nd ed., 1834, i2mo. 
Peron, Fran(;ois, and Freycinet, Louis. Voyage de Docouvertes aux Terres 

Australes. . . . le Geographe, le Naturaliste, et le Casuarina. 

. 2 vols, and atlas, 4to., Paris, 1807- 18 16, and atlas of 

Maps, 1 81 2. 
The first Vol. is by Peron, 1807, the 2nd was edited by Freycinet after P6ron's death 
(1816). 2nd ed. 4 vols. Svo. and Atlas 4to, Paris, 1824. These volumes contain 
a complete account of the voyager's transactions in Tasmania ; the atlases contain 
coloured portraits of the Tasmanian Aborigines, drawings of their implements, 
canoes, &c. This was Baudin's Expedition. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. XCVll 

Pickering, Chas. On the Photographs of Tasmanians at the Centennial 
Exposition. Proc. Acad, of Nat. Sc. of Philadelphia, 1876, p. 169. 

Prinsep, Augustus Mrs. The Journal of a Voyage from Calcutta to V. 
D. Land, comprising a Description of the Colony during a six 
months* residence. . . . Second Edition, 8vo. pp viii and 118. 
London, 1833. 

Quatrefages de Breau, A. de. Histoire Generale des Races Humaines, 
Paris, 1889. Svo. pp. xxxiii and 333. 
On p. 366 Tasmanian Skulls figs. 263-267. 

and Hamy, Ernest T. Crania Ethnica : Les Cranes des Races 

Humaines. Paris 1882, 2 vols. 4to. 

Quoy Jean Rene Constant v. Dumont D'Urville. 

Report Aboriginal Committee v Colonies and Slaves 

Robinson, George Augustus. Australian Aborigines Protection Society. 
Report of Public Meeting held [at Sydney] on October 19th, 1838, 
containing the speech of G. A. Robinson, Commandant of Flinders 
Island and Chief Protector of Aborigines in the Colony [of Tas- 
mania.] 
Reprinted from "The Colonist" of Odober 31st, 1838. 8vo. Bath, 1865. 

V. Calder. 

Ross, James, L,L.D. The Settler in V. D, Land fourteen years ago. 

Ross' Hobart Town Almanack for 1836. 
Rossel, E. P. E. de. Voyage D'Entrecasteaux, 2 vols, 4to. Paris, 1808. 

This is another account of the expedition described by La Billardi^re. 
Roth, H. Ling v, Crozet. 

Salvator, Ludwig, Archduke. Hobart-town order Sommerfrische in den 
Antipoden. 4to. Prag. 1886. 

Scott, James. Letter on the Stone Implements of the Tasmanian Abori- 
gines. Pap. and Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1873 (1874). p. 24. 

Shillinglaw, J. J. In Historical Records of Port Phillip. 8vo. pp. 142. 

Melbourne, 1879. 

Contains Journal of the Rev. Robert Knopwood, 24th April, 1803 to 31st December. 
1804. Knopwood was the first Chaplain of the Settlement at Hobart. His Journal 
(pp. 65-141) contains references to the Tasmanian Aborigines. 

Aboriginal Stone Implements from Mount Morriston, Tasmania. 

Ibid for 1876 (1877). P- 7<^- 

Scott, Thos. V. Milligan. 

Symth, R. Brough. The Aborigines of Vicftoria; with notes relating to 
" Habits of the Natives of other parts of Australia and Tasmania. 

2 vols. 4to. Melbourne, 1878. 
The account of thd Tasmanians is contained in the second volume. 
Stokes, Jas. Lort, R,N . Discoveries in Australia . . . during voyage 
of H.M.S. ** Beagle" 1837-1843. ;2 vols. 8vo. London, 1846. 
Tasmanian Natives. Vol, ii. pp. 450-470. 
Stoney, H. Butler. A Residence in Tasmania. 8vo. London, 1856. 
Strzelecki, Paul E. de, Count, Physical Description of New South Wales 
and V. D. Land. 8vo. London, 1845. 

The author rarely distinguishes between the aborigines of the mainland of Australia 

and of the island of Tasmania. 

23 



VCVlll H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 

Tasman, Abel Janszoon. Journal van de Reis naar het Onbeken de 

Zuidland in den J are 1642. Edited by [acob Swart. 8vo. Amster- 
dam, i860. 

Taylor, Alfred J. Notes on the Shell Moulds at Seaford, Tasmania. 

Proc. Roy. Socy. Tas. iSgi. pp. 89-93. 

Topinard, Paul, Dr, Etudes sur les Tasmaniens. Memoires de la Soc. 
d'Anthropologie. Paris. Vol. III. 

Etudes sur la taille. ' Rev. d'Anthrop, 1876. pp. 24-83. 

Tasmanians, p. 71. 

Cheveux en Touffes des Negres. Bull. Soc. d*Anthrop. Paris, 

1878. 3rd Ser : I. 

Tasmanians, p. 63. 

Sur les Tasmaniens. Bull. Soc. d'Anthrop. Paris, 1869. 2nd 

Ser: IV. 

Thirkell, Robert. Notes on the Aborigines of Tasmania. Proc. Roy. 

Socy. Tasm. for 1873 (1874) P* ^^^ 
Tylor, E. B., F.R.S. On the Tasmanians as Representatives of Palaeo- 
lithic Man. Jour. Anthrop. Inst, xxiii. London, 1893. 
Referred to in Globus Ixv. p. 166, 1894. 

-- On the Occurrence of Ground Stone Implements of Australian 



Type in Tasmania. Journ. Anthrop. Inst. xxiv. London, 1894. 

Walker, Geo. Washington. The Life and Labours of G. W. Walker, 
edited by Jas. Backhouse and Chas. Tylor. 8vo. pp. xii. and 556. 
London, 1862. 
Tasmanians, pp. 43, 46, 97-125. et pagnm, 

Journal in MS. 1832- 1840 v. Walker J. B. 

Walker, James Backhouse. Notes on the Aborigines of Tasmania, ex- 
tracted from the manuscript Journals of George Washington Walker, 
with an introduction. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1897 (1^9^) PP- 

H5-I75- 
Comprises a vocabulary taken down by G. W. Walker at Flinders' Island in 1832. 

Some Notes on the Tribal Divisions of the Aborigines of Tas- 
mania. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1897 (^^9^) PP- 176-187. 

Wentworth, W. C. A Statistical, Historical, and Political Description of 
the Colony of New South Wales and its Dependent Settlements in 
Van Diemen's Land. 8vo. pp. xii. and 446. London, 1819. 

West, John, Rev. The History of Tasmania. 2 vols. 8vo. Launceston, 

1852. 

Vol. I. pp. 1-98 contains the best account of the aborigines which had appeared so 
far. 

Widowson, Henry. Present State of Van Diemen's Land. 8vo. London^ 
1829. 



INDEX. 



Abandonment of sick, 61 

Abnormalities, 18 

Absent relatives tabu, 61 

Affe<5lion, 36, 37, 45 

Age, 19 

Agility, 14, 21 

Amusements, 138 

Andamanese, comparisons with, 221, 

222, 224, 225, 226 
Ancestors, join, at death, 57 
Anger, 38, 59 
Antimony, 127 ' 
Appetites, 86 
Aptitude for learning, 39 
Arithmetic, 133 
Arra-Maida, 35 
Arthur, Governor, 3 
Astronomy, 133 
Atrocities, 2, 38, 171, 172 
Australians, woolly haired, 225, 

227; compared with Tasmanian, 

227, 228 
Australian Origin of Tasmanians, 228 

Bad habits, 16 

Bag work, 144 

Bags of human bones, 64 

Bandages, 63 

Barter, 153 

Basket work, 144 

Bass, Dr., i, o. 

Batman, John, 37 

Baudin, Capt., 2 

Beard, 12 

Ben Lomond Tribe, 170 

Big River Tribe, 168 

Black War, 3, 49 

Blacking Faces, 32, 34, 127, 128 

Bleeding and Cupping, 63 

Bligh, Capt., I 



Boiling unknown, 95 
Boomerangs, none, 68, 82, 228 
Bones as charms, 64. 
Bonwick, Jas. on Origin, 223 
Bowen, Lieut., 2 
Breakwind shelters, 107 
Brinton, D., Prof., on Origin, 222 
Burial places, tabu, 61 ; dread of, 
62 ; burials, 1 1 6- 1 2 2 

Cannibalism, none, 97 

Canoes, 154-159 

Carrying children, 13 

Catarrhs, 63 

Central Tribes, 168 

Ceremonies, initiatory, 115 

Chara<5ler, 23 

Charms, bones as, 64 

Charcoal, 32, 34, 127, 128 

Chastity, 44 

Chiefs, 57, 58, 67 

Children, how carried, 13; suckling, 
10; weight of, 10; numbers of, 22; 
physique of, 25; intelligence, 25; 
behaviour, 28 ; affedlion for, 36, 
37, 45; at orphan school, 175 

Cicatrices, 125 

Circumcision, none, 116 

Civilisation, irksome, 39, 107 

Clark, Rob., catechist, 5 

Climate, i, 18 

Climbing Trees, 13, 99 

Clinging to customs, 107 

Cloaks, 129 

Clothing, absence of, 16, 128; irk- 
some, 39 ; objedlion to, 18, 131 

Cochrane, set Fanny C. Smith 

Cold, susceptibility to, 18 

Collins, Governor, 2 

Colour, 12 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Combs, 43 

Communications, 153 

Conducfl during interviews, 25-36 

Conta(5\ with civilised races, 39, 171 

Cook, Jas., Lieut., i 

Cooking, 88-91 

Comparisons with other peoples, 

225-227 
Corroberries, 135, 138 
Courtship, 1 1 1 
Cox, Capt., I 
Cruelty pra(5lised on aborigines, 2, 

38, 171 
Cunning, 15, 40 

Curiosity, apparent want of, 42 

Curious ceremony, 56 

Curious strucflures, no, in; see 

Tombs 

Customs, 60 

Dances, 138 

Darling, W. J. Lieut., 3, 4 

Davis, B., measurements, 219; 

on hair, 225 

Darkness, fear of, 54, 55 
Dead, relatives tabu, 62 ; reappear 

in England, 55 ; placed in hollow 

trees, 119 
Declension of population, 163, 172 
Deformation, 116 

D'Entrecasteaux, Bruny, Admiral, i 
Development, 8 
Discovery of Tasmania, i 
Diseases, eruptive, 65 ; cure for, 66 
Diving, 159 : for shell-fish, loi 
Dogs, not indigenous, 20 ; use of, 

98, III 
Domestic animals, in 
Drawing, 137 
Drinking, 89 

Druidical rites alleged, 57 
Duterreau*s portraits, App. xc 
Dynamometrical observations, 19, 20 

Earl, G. W., on origin, 222 ; on 
hair, 227 
Eating, 88 
Education, 115 
Embracing, unknown, 60 
Eyes, 7 



Eyesight, 16; keenness of, 21 

Facial chara(5lers, 7 
Families occupy own fires, 107 
Fat objected to, 87 
Fearlessness, 40 

Fire making, 83, App. Ixxxviii ; 
legends of, 84 
Fires, separate, 107 
First aborigine killed, 2, 73 
Fish not eaten, 62 
Fish, spearing, 102 ; hooks unknown, 

lOI 

Fisher, Mr., 6 

Flinders, Lieut., 2 

Flinders Island, 3 ; bad treatment 

at, 4 
Flower, Prof., Sir Wm., on Origin, 

223 
Franklin, Sir John, 6 
Friendship, signs of, 82 
Form, 8 ; see Osteology 
Food, 85; tabu, 61, 62 
Funeral pyres, 66, 120 
Furneaux, Capt., i 
Future life, 55-57 

Games, 138; in water, 159 
Garson, Dr., Osteology, 195-216 ; 

on Origin, 225 
Geography of Tasmania, i 
Generosity, 51 
Glass for hair-cutting, 124 
Gloves, surprise at, 32 
Gospel teaching, 5 
Government, 57 
Gratitude, 38, 50, 51 
Greasing bodies, 81, 127, 128 
Ground stone implements Australian 

not Tasm., 149 
Growling, 59 ; see Anger 

Habitations, none settled, 107 

Hair, 11, 43; method of wearing, 
123; cutting, 124; Barnard Davis- 
on, 225; Hickson on, 226 App. 
Ixxxvi. 

Half castes, 174-176 

Handles to stone implements none, 
148 



INDBX. 



CI 



Hamy, Dr., on Origin, 224 
Hayes, Sir John, i 
Headstools, none, no 
Hearing, 21 
Height, see Stature 
Helpfulness to Settlers, 52 
Hickson, Prof., on hair, 226, App. Ixxxvi. 
Home sickness, 37, 173, 175 
Hostilities, commencement of, 2, 73 
Human bones in bags, 64 ; as 

charms, 65 
Humour, sense of, 29, 36, 38 
Hunting, 38, 97-101 
Huts, 107- 1 10 
Huxley, Prof., on Origin, 225 

Immortality, 54 

Improvidence, 38 

Indolence of men, 114 

Infants suckled, 163 

Infanticide, 162 

Ingenuity, 24, 40 

Initiatory Ceremonies, 115 

IntelleiSlual Powers, 23, 24, 

Inter-tribal wars, 72 

Interviews with early discoverers, 

25-29, 40-43, 46-48 
Intoxicating drink, 94; dislike to, 86 
Iron glance, 128 

Jaws, 8, see Osteology 
Jealousy, 44, 45 
Jeanneret, Dr., 6 
Jokes, 29, 36, 38 
Joy, expression of, 38 
Jump up white man, 56 

Kindheartedness, 38 
Kissing, unknown, 60 

Laceration of body, 63, 66 
Language, 178-190, ,227 
Lanney, Wm., 6 
Latham, Dr., on Language, 182 
Leprosy, 17 

Marion du Fresne, Capt., i 
Marital Relations, 1 1 2- 1 1 5 
Maternal afFecflion, 45 
Medicine, 63-66 



Meehan's Note book, 2 
Migrations 105 
Milligan, Jas., Dr., 6 
M'Lachlan, Surgeon, 3 
Modesty, 13, 113, 130 
Moon worship alleged, 54 
Mosquito, Australian aborigine, 24 
Motions, 13, 16 
Mourning, 122 
Mouth, 8, see Osteology 
Miiller, Fr., Prof., on Origin, 222 
Muranifying, none, 120 
Music, 134-137 

Mutilation of enemies, 81 ; of selves, 
63, 66 

Nakedness, 16 

Namma, great spirit, 55 

Natural forms, 160 

Natural history, 160 

Navigation, 1 54- 1 59 

Necklaces, 131 

Nets, fishing, unknown, loi 

Nomadic life, 104 

North East Coast Tribes, 171 

North and North- Eastern Tribes, 169 

Nose, 7, see Osteology 

Nostalgia, 37, 173, 175 

Ochre, red, 127 

Odour, 13 

Origin, 221-228 

Osteology, 191-220 

Oure Oure, 32 

Oyster Bay Tribes, 168 

Oyster Cove Settlement, 6 

Painting, 127 
Pathology, 16-18 
Paths, 153-4 

Personal Ornaments, 131 -132 
Phallism, alleged, 116 
Physical characters, 7-10; of women, 
9; powers, 18-21 
Physiognomy, 10 
Physique, children's, 25 
Pitcher, water, 89, 142 
Plants, knowledge of, 30 
Plumbago, 127 
Polygamy, 112, 113 



cu 



H. LING ROTH. — ABORIGINES OF TASMANIA. 



Polytheism, 54 

Population, 163-5 

Port Dairy mple Tribes, 170 

Provisions not stored, 103 

Psychology, 23-44 

Pulmonary complaints, 17, 18 

Punishments, 59 

Quarrels, 59, 73 

Quarries, 146, 149; list of, 152 

Quatrefages De, on Origin, 224 

Racing Europeans, 20 

Raegoo Wrapper, great spirit, 55 

Rafts, 155 

Religion, 53-57 

Reclining, 13 

Reproducflive Organs, 9 

Reprodu<5lion, 22 

Rheumatism, 17, 63 

Robinson, Geo. Aug., 3, 5, 6 

Risdon massacre, 2 

Sacred stones alleged, 57 

Salt, substitute for, 89 

Salutation, 60 

Scale fish not eaten, 88 

Scars, 125 

Seal hunting, 103 

Sealers, women with, 114, 175 

Sewed (stitched) skins, 129, 130 

Shell necklaces, 46, 131 -132; shell 

mounds, 91-94; shell-fish, 86 
Shields, none, 68, 69 
Sick and infirm, 61, 65, 66 
Signs of friendship, 82 
Sitting, 13 

Size, 8, see Osteology 
Skin canoes none, 158 
Skin cloaks, 129; collars, 130 
Skin diseases, 16, 17 
Skull of infant worn as charm, 64, 

65; measurements, 213-220 
Smelling, 21 
Smith, Capt., 6 
Smith, Mrs. Fanny Cochrane, 6, 

App. Ixxxiv-lxxxvii 
Smoke signals, 84 
Snake bites cured, 64 
Sociability, 38 



Social relations, 11 2- 115 

Songs, 135-137 

Sores, 17 

Southern Tribes, 166 

Spears, 67-70; jagged, barbed, 69; 
throwing, 15, 71-2,80, 140; carry- 
ing, 14 

Spirits, 53-56; of friends, 54 

Spirits, intoxicating, dislike to, 86; 
making, 94 

Standing, 14 

Stature, 9, 67, 80, see Osteology 

Stephens, E., on Half -Castes, 176 

Stoney Creek Tribe, 69 

Stone circles, alleged, 57 

Stone Implements, 145-152; for tree 
climbing, 99, 10 1 ; hair cutting, 
124 ; sacred alleged, 57 ; as mis- 
siles, 67, 68, 72; no handles, 148; 
none ground, 149; quarries, 146, 
149, 152 

String, 132, 143 

Strucflures, curious, no, in, see 
Tombs 

Suckling infants, 163 

Sun worship, alleged, 54 

Supreme Being, 53, 54; none, 57 

Swimming, 159 

Tad\ics of war, 15 

Tasman, A. J., i 

Tabu, 61-63 

Tatuing, none, 125, 126 

Teeth, 8; not wanting, 16, 17; 
wanting, 18; knocked out, 116 {see 
Osteology); as ornaments, 131 

Telegony, 176 

Tinder (punk), 84 

Throwing sticks, none, 68, 82, 228 

Tobacco, 94 

Tracking, 21, 154 

Trade, 153 

Treachery, 49, 50 

Tree climbing, 13, 99 

Tribes, 165-177; independence of, 58 

Truganini, 6, App. Ixxxvii 

Tombs, remarkable, 117 {see Curious 
Stru<5tures) 

Topinard, Dr., on Origin, 222 

Topography, 160 



INDEX. 



cm 



Torches, 84 
Totems, alleged, 137 

Unkindness, 114 

Vegetable foods, 95-97 
Vermin, iii, 125 
Vocabularies App., i — Ixxxiii 

'Waddy, 70 

"Walker on atrocities, 2 
Walking, 14 

"War, 67, 82; learning the art 
of, 39; tactics, 15 



Water pitcher, 89, 142 

Western Tribes, 167 

Wild state, returning to, 39. 

Wives, 112 

Women, physique of, 9 ; physiog- 
nomy, 10- 1 1 ; abjedl position of, 
34; treatment of, 44; not present 
at fights, 77, climbing trees, 98; 
workers, 114; as sealers, wives, 

Women, European attacked, 81. 
Wrestling, 18 

Wybalenna, Flinders* Island, settle- 
ment at, 4, 5 



' I 



148 





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