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ABOUT 

TOBACCO 

AND 

ITS DELETERIOUS EFFECTS 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR: 

HivSTORY OF The Ohio Country Between the 
Years 1783 and 1815; IncIvUding MiIvITary Oper- 
ations THAT Twice Saved to The United States 
THE Country West of the Ai^i^egheny Moun- 
tains After the Revoi^utionary War. 8vo. 

History of The Maumee River Basin: Em- 
bracing Best Important Historic, Ci^imatic, 
Agricui^tural and Business Regions of North- 
western Ohio incIvUding THE Great Petroi^eum 
and Gas Districts; Northeastern Indiana, 
AND Southern Michigan. Imperial 8vo, 688 
pag-es. Illustrated with Maps, Plans, Weapons 
and Pioneer Articles of Utility, Forts, Rivers, 
Landscapes, Etc. 

History of Frances Slocum; For Sixty-nine 
Years Captive With Dei^aware and Miami 
Aborigines During Their most Savage History. 
A Study in Civilized Heredity' vs. Savage and 
Eater Barbarous Environment. Thin 8vo, 
Well Illustrated. 

History of The Si^ocums, Slocumbs and Si,o- 
coMBS OF America; Genealogical, Biographi- 
cal, Marriages, and Descendants in Both Male 
AND Female Lines; From A. D. 1637 to 1908. 
Two Volumes 8vo; Vol. I, 644 pages, Published 
1882; Vol. II, 559 pages, Additional to Vol. I, Pub. 
1908. Both Vols. Well Illustrated. 

White Children and Adults Captive With 
THE Savage Aborigines in the Ohio Country. 
12mo. Illustrated. 

The Deleterious Effcts of Fiction Reading. 
12mo. 

Address THE SEOCUM PUBLISHING CO., 
Toledo, Ohio. 



ABOUT 

TOBACCO 

AND 

ITS DELETERIOUS EFFECTS 

A BOOK FOR EVERYBODY, BOTH 
USERS AND NON-USERS 

B Y 



CHARLES ELIHU SLOCUM, M. D., PH. D., LL. D. 

(CoL'UMBiA University, and University of Pennsylvania) 
Member of Local, Ohio State, and The Amer- 
ican Medical Associations 



There is neither tobacco nor alcoholic beverage in 

the science of good health or the conditions 

for true manhood 



1909 
THE SLOCUM PUBLISHING COMPANY 

TOLEDO, OHIO 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



?; 






f^^ 



QlY^2cf(XJzL^^ 



TO LIVE PROPERLY REQUIRES 

a conscience and will cultured 

to duly respect the health of 

body and mind of self, and the 

rights of others. 




TO THE 

FREE MEN AND FREE WOMEN 

OF AMERICA 

This Book 

Is Respectfully Dedicated 

In Recognition of Their Freedom 

From the Slavery of Narcotics 

And the Exemplariness thereby Exhibited 



206902 



^ THE CRAVING FOR TOBACCO, OR ANY 
OTHER NARCOTIC 

is but a perversion of ph3'siolo^ic, healthful 
appetite which, if gratified, soon leads to 
perversion and destruction of the victim's 
will, or the facult}' of conscious or deliberate 
action to quit what appeals to ever}^ clean, 
well-informed mind as an unclean and most 
sinful habit against self, and against the 
human race. 



wrr I nc 



UNIVERSITY 

OF 



PREFACE 



The writer, a physician of over forty years 
practical experience, like all physicians of 
ample patronage, has seen very largely of 
the baneful effects of tobacco, as enumer- 
ated on succeeding pages. He is impelled 
by a sense of duty to put forth this book in 
hope to awaken the conscience and sense of 
propriety of users of tobacco, and to warn 
all non-users, including the young, against 
beginning its use. 

It is hoped that the reader may herein be 
shown, forcefully, that the use of tobacco is 
one of the most unnatural, useless, and worst 
of habits, from the continued efforts and 
sickness necessary to form the habit, from 
its impairment of body and mind, its en- 
slavement of the will, its disgusting en- 
croachments on the pure air and other rights 
of those not addicted to it, and its further 
sinfulness in its entailment of degeneracy. 

From the writer's observations among his 
patrons a large book could be written ; but 
it appears to him preferable to bring togeth- 
er in small compass, for the general reader, 
succinct statements of many medical men, 
prominent in the different lines of profes- 
sional activity in different countries, rather 
than let the evidence, herein given against 
the use of tobacco, rest on individual testi- 
mony. 



When a young man, the writer, hke so 
many others, 'learned to use tobacco' and 
continued its use for several years in what is 
called moderation by the average user. Be- 
fore entering upon the study of medicine, 
however, the ill effects of the weed became 
so apparent to him that he threw into the 
falls of Niagara nearly all of the last cigar 
he lighted, the holder with it. Fortunately 
he had enough of moral courage and strength 
of will left to overcome the habit's craving 
for continuance; and he has since been en- 
tirely free from tobacco. During all of these 
forty-five years of freedom, he has not ceased 
to be thankful for his deliverance from 
one of the most unnatural, enslaving, and 
degenerating of habits. 

The writer has thus had ample personal 
experience with tobacco and, having for 
many years had in mind the publication of 
evidence against its use, his observations of 
its ill effects have probably been closer on 
this account. He fully accords with the 
strong indictment against the habit shown 
on the succeeding pages of this book. 

Charles Elihu Slocum. 

Toledo, Ohio, December, 1909. 



CONTENTS 




I 

The Discovery of Tobacco and of its 
Habitual Uses .... 


PAGE 
13 


II 




Tobacco's Place in the Vegetable 
Kingdom 


16 


Ill 




The Component Parts of Tobacco 


21 


IV 




The Poisonous Action of Tobacco 


24 


V 




The Pathologic (Diseasing) Effects 
of Tobacco 


30 


VI 




Further Mention of Diseases Caused 
by Tobacco 


35 


Vii 


1 



Tobacco Impairs the Functions of 

Both Body and Mind ... 43 

VIII 

Tobacco Begets Indolence, and In- 
difference to Propriety, and to 
Well-Being ..... 49 

IX 

Tobacco Causes Organic Degenera- 
tions, and the Transmission of De- 
generacy 55 



Contents — Continricd 
X 

Questions Answered. The Corrupters. 
Reformers Wanted For Their Sup- 
pression ..... 62 



IT IS THE INHERENT RIGHT OF 
CHILDREN to be born healthful; and to be 
led and guided, and held, only along the 
paths of purity of body and mind, to the 
strenghtening of the judgment, and the will, 
for their freedom of thought and action 
along the lines of the pure, and the right, 
in all things. 



13 



I 

The Discovery of Tobacco and of Its 
Habitual Uses. 

The use of tobacco began with the Abor- 
iginal people of the more central part of 
America in prehistoric time, so far as de- 
finitely known.* 

The discovery of the use of tobacco by 
Europeans in November, A. D., 1492, led to 
their first discovery of the plant. Christo- 

*The writer is aware that Mayer, in his Geogra- 
phy of Plants, states that the smoking of tobacco 
began with the Chinese people in ancient times; and 
that he observed on very old sculptures in China the 
representation of the same form of pipe that is yet 
in use there. In archeologic sense there is nothing 
definite about Mayen's statements, however, as many 
very old products of man according to some writers, 
do not antedate one century even. 

The valuable scientific results of the Morris K. 
Jesup Exploring Expedition through northwestern 
America and northeastern Asia in recent years, make 
it appear very probable to many well informed peo- 
ple, that even the Chinese people are descendants 
of the American Aborigines, improperly called 
Indians. If such be the case, the migrating Chinese 
ancestors carried with them from America the great 
vice of tobacco using. ^ 



14 



pher Columbus sent out a company for ex- 
ploration from the caravels (small ships) of 
his first expedition in the discovery of Amer- 
ica when anchored off the island the land 
of which was the first he discovered and on 
which he first landed and named San Sal- 
vador, now of the Bahama group. This 
exploring company reported to Columbus, 
among other things, that they saw people 
with fire brands lighting a dried herb, with 
the smoke of which they perfumed them- 
selves. 

This habit of smoking by these Aborigines 
was first formed by their unavoidable inha- 
lation of the smoke of naturally matured and 
dried wild tobacco plants in the tropics, as 
with other vegetation, in the spread of forest 
fires; it being noticed that the smoke from 
this particular class of plants produced results 
that demanded its continuance, that is, 
fixed an uncontrollable habit upon them. 

The habit of snufBng finely powered dry 
leaves of tobacco up the nostrils, was the re- 
sult of gathering and preparing the naturally 
dried leaves for smoking use; the dust from 
crushing the leaves being satisfying to the 
desire for smoking. This habit of snuffing 
was first observed and described by Ramon 
Pane, a Franciscan, who accompanied Co- 
lumbus on his second voyage to America, 
A. D. 1 494- 1 496. 



15 

The chewing of tobacco naturally followed 
the habit of smoking, particularly when fire 
for smoking could not readily be obtained 
in wet seasons by the crude pocesses of fire- 
producing known to the Aboriginal and early 
peoples. This mode of using tobacco was 
first observed, and described, by Spaniards 
on the coast of South America in the year 
1502. 

The name tobacco was first observed used 
by the people on the island first called by 
the Spaniards Hispaniola, now known as 
Santo Domingo, and Haiti. The word to- 
bacco, as here heard, was recorded by Orviedo 
in his History of the West Indies, A. D. 
1535, as applying to the pipe formed of 
hollow twigs in the form of the letter Y, 
the upper parts to be inserted into the nos- 
trils to draw into these cavities the smoke 
from dry tobacco through the larger part be- 
low. Benzoni, however, in his Travels in 
America, 1542-15 56, published in 1565, found 
in Mexico the name *tabacco' applied to the 
dry leaves of the plant. 



i6 



II 

Tobacco's Place in the Vegetable King- 
dom. 

There is infinite variety in all of Nature's' 
works, and particularly where there is life. 
This is seen in all classifications. Every 
family, in both Vegetable and Animal King- 
doms, shows certain very strong contrasts. 

In no classification is this fact seen in 
greater extremes, for both good and evil to 
mankind, than in the Solanaceae or Potato 
Family. 

The Potato, tuber of our tables, with gen- 
eral and specific names Solaitmn tuberosum, 
belongs to this Solanaceae Family. It is 
well styled the King of Vegetables, and is 
one of the great gifts of America to all other 
parts of the earth. 

On the other hand the Tobacco plant, be- 
longing to the same family with generic 
name Nicotiana and specific names given on 
later pages, contains the most active poison 
known, which poison when continually taken 
into the system in minute quantities enslaves 
the users, and makes the use of tobacco a vice 



17 

equalled in its baneful effects only by the 
use of alcoholic beverages.* 

The number of species of Tobacco plants, 
genus Nicotiana,^ growing in different cli- 
mates and described by botanists, is about 
fifty; but few of them however, are culti- 
vated for smoking, chewing or snuffing uses. 

The tobacco most used in historic times 
by the Aborigines of the northern States 
east of the Missouri River, and sometimes 
cultivated by their women, is the hardy plant 
bearing the name Nicotiana rustica L. 
Some plants of this specie are yet occasion- 
ally seen growing wild in fields and waste 



*In the Potato Family, theSolanaceae, also belong, 
in different genera, the Ground Cherries, Night- 
shades, Horse Nettle, Cherry Tomato, the common 
edible Tomato, Henbane or Hyoscyamus, the Da- 
turas including the Jamestown Weed usually called 
Jimson Weed with specific name Stramonium; 
and the Petunias. There are in this family of plants 
twelve genera and somewhat over forty species grow- 
ing, mostly in wild state, in the northern United 
States and Canada, most of them being noxious 
weeds, and several of them poisonous. 

f Named from Jean Nicot French ambassador to 
Portugal, where he was presented with seeds of a 
tobacco plant which he caused to be planted in 
France about the year 1560. Later, he 'rendered 
service' in spreading knowledge of the herb, and 
botanists united in the use of his name, latinized, for 
the genus; and chemists used his name for the most 
poisonous ingredient. 



i8 



places from Ontario to Minnesota, and south- 
ward to Florida. Its hight varies from two 
to five feet. Leaves are broadly ovate, thin, 
entire, slender-petioled, two to eight inches 
long, one to six inches wide; petioles one- 
half inch to five-and-a-half inches long; 
flowers greenish-yellow, about one inch long, 
panicled. The leaves of this specie remain 
greenish when dry; it flowers from June to 
September. This specie was the first one 
cultivated in England and most other parts 
of the eastern continents; and it was often 
given the name of the country where culti- 
vated, viz: English Tobacco, Syrian Tobac- 
co, etc. It is at present not so much culti- 
vated in the United States as formerly. 

Other species recorded as cultivated or 
used by the American Aborigines, are: Ni- 
cotiana qtiadrivaivis along the Missouri 
River and westward; N, multivalvis along 
the Columbia River; and N. nanis among 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The specie N. longifloraQ.2M., Long-flow- 
ered Tobacco, is native of South America, 
and has been cultivated thence northward to 
Ohio. It may sometimes be seen growing 
wild near the places where at present, or 
formerly, cultivated. 

The specie generally cultivated in Vir- 
ginia, formerly at least, is Nicotiana taba- 
ctun. It was this specie that the older phy- 



19 

sicians formerly exploited as a 'medicine' 
with very serious results. In good soil the 
plant attains a hight of five to six feet; has 
lanceolate sessile leaves six to eighteen inches 
long; flowers rose-colored, the throat of the 
corolla inflated, the segments pointed. 

The 'best' Havana cigars, it is supposed, 
are made of the leaves of Nicotiana repanda 
grown in Cuba. This specie contains less 
of the more active parts of tobacco than 
many other species. 

Nearly every one of the more prominent 
tobacco-growing regions, in the United States 
particularly, has its favorite specie of the 
plant, from seed generally, imported from 
Cuba or other distant place; and the tobacco 
produced is often given the name of the 
person or place whence obtained or where 
grown, as the Havana Seed-leaf, the Gadsden, 
etc. The Perique is from Louisiana; the 
White Burley brand originated in Ohio. 

The claim is made in later years that Aus- 
tralia, New Caledonia, Persia {^Nicotiana 
Persicd), and one or two other' countries, 
have indigenous tobacco herbs or small trees, 
as members of this genus often attain larger 
size in hot climates. But seeds, or plants, 
for their propagation may have been carried 
there several centuries ago, even by pre- 
historic migrating people, and the claims 
of the earlier writers may be true that 



20 



tobacco plants were indigenous only in 
America. 

Different soils and climates produce tobac- 
co of different strengths and flavors; and dif- 
ferent processes of culture, of drying the 
leaves, and of preparing them for each of 
the ways used, produce effects desirable to 
different tastes and desires. * 



*The term tobacco has been applied to a number 
of other herbs, among their other common names, 
although these plants possess little if any resem- 
blance to tobacco plants in proper sense. They be- 
long to different families, viz: 

1. Wild, or Indian Tobacco, is a lobelia, Lobelia 
infiata (L.) Richards. It has been used as an 
emetic, and is not so prostrating and poisonous as to- 
bacco. It belongs to the Belleflower Family, the 
Cafnpanulaceae . 

2. Ladies Tobacco. Other common names are: 
White Plaintain-leaf Everlasting, Mouse-ear Ever- 
lasting, also Pussy-toes. Its scientific name is An- 
tennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards, of the Com- 
positae or Thistle Family. 

3. Mountain Tobacco, Arctic Leopard's bane, Arc- 
tic Arnica. The Arnica alpina (L.)Olin, of the 
Thistle Family {Compo sitae.) 

4. Oregon Tobacco, Tobacco-root, Edible Valer- 
ian. The Valeriana edulus Nutt. Of the Valerian- 
ceae or Valerian Family. 

5. Tobacco-weed, Woolly Elephant's-foot. The 
Elephantopus tomentosus L. Of the Thistle Family. 



21 



III 

The Component Parts of Tobacco. 

The French chemist Louis Nicolas Vau- 
quelin, born in the year 1763, died in 1829, 
was the first, in 1809, to make a more scien- 
tific analysis of a tooacco plant, and to de- 
termine most of its active parts. His work 
was followed and somewhat elaborated by 
chemist Hermbstadt, and in 1828 by Posselt 
and Reimann who ascertained the alkaline 
nature of the most active part named by dif- 
ferent ones nicotin, nicotina, and nicotia, 
like the genus name of the plant in honor 
of Jean Nicot. 

Nicotin is an alkaloid with chemic formula 
C10H14N2, it possessing the largest part of 
nitrogen of all the many component parts of 
tobacco. It is colorless, or nearly colorless 
fluid when fresh, but soon assumes an amber 
color. It is entirely volatilizable, inflam- 
mable, very soluble in water, alcohol, ether, 
fixed oils and turpentine. Its solvents do 
not destroy or appreciably modify, its active 
poisonous nature, which is one of the most 
active poisons known. It forms crystalliza- 
ble salts with many acids. In tobacco it is 



22 



supposed to exist in combination with malic 
acid as a malate. 

The second most active chemic part of 
tobacco as noted by some analysts has 
been named by them Nicotiana, or Tobacco 
Camphor. It was separated by distillation 
of the leaves, fresh or dry, with water. It 
is somewhat fatty in consistency, and dries 
in minute acicular crystals, with tobacco 
odor. Much of the poisonous activity of 
this product, however,* is probably due to 
nicotin. 

The leaves are the strongest part of the 
plant and contain, in addition to the more 
active poisonous parts named in the fore- 
going paragraphs, albuminous substances and 
from sixteen to twenty-seven per centum of 
inorganic substances in form of different 
combinations not definitely differentiated 
into all of their natural forms. The great 
number, and strength, of the constituents of 
tobacco plants, account for the great ex- 
hausting effects of tobacco crops on soils. 
Poor soil cannot produce 'good' tobacco. 

The smoke of burning tobacco, as drawn 
into mouths and throats of 'smokers' has 
been carefully gathered by different appara- 
tuses made for the purpose, in addition to 
the different forms of pipes in more or less 
general use; and the smoke, with and with- 
out its accumulations along the tubes, has 



23 

been analyzed. These analyses have varied 
as much as, probably more than, those of the 
plant itself, principally from the dej?ree of 
skill of the analyzers. A few do not note 
Nicotin in the smoke as they collected it, 
while others have discerned it distinctly in 
different combinations. 

All capable observers agree in the complex- 
ity of the empyreumatic, resinous deposits 
in pipes and apparatuses with which the 
smoking iS done; that it is exceedingly poi- 
sonous, and that more or less of every part 
of it is taken into the system in smoking as in 
other modes of use of tobacco. 

Vohl and Eulenberg (see The Dispensa- 
tory of the United States of America by 
Doctors Wood, Bache, Remington, and 
Sadtler, 15th edition) noted the following 
named gases in tobacco smoke, viz: carbon 
monoxid, CO; carbon dioxid, CO2; and a 
hydrocarbon with composition of marsh gas, 
CH4; hydrogen cyanid, HCy, or prussic acid; 
hydrogen sulfid, HS; different ammonias; 
and an oily-like substance as it condensed 
along the pipe or tubes, which has been an- 
alyzed as containing pyridin, C5H5N; pico- 
lin, CgHtN; lutidin, C7H9N; collidin, CsHnN; 
parvolin, C9H13N; coridin, C10H15N; rubi- 
din, C11H17N; and viridin, C12H19N. 

Pyridin was found to be most abundant in 
smoke from tobacco in pipe, and picolin, 



24 



lutidin, and collidin in smoke from cigar. — 
Doctor B. W. Richardson in his book on 
Diseases of Modern Life. 



IV 

The Poisonous Action of Tobacco. 

Tobacco has no health-giving or health- 
aiding action on animal life. Its effects are 
wholly disease-producing, in double and most 
pernicious senses. Many capable and con- 
scientious physicians of all countries for 
generations, and in far increasing number 
and ability, have been careful observers of its 
evil effects in the systems of their patients, 
and friends. A summary of its effects when 
first, and however, used, are here given 
together with the names of a few of the ob- 
servers, and of the publications wherein re- 
corded, viz: 

The first taste of tobacco is acrid and, 
with very small quantity of the weed or of 
its smoke in the mouth, there is immediately 
absorbed into the blood enough of its active 
parts to produce violent poisoning effects, 
however active the glands about the mouth 
to throw out the poison. These symptoms 



25 

are: palpitation of the heart, faintness, diz- 
ziness, nausea and, with slight increase of 
quantity taken, vomiting, tremor, paralysis, 
and quick death, frequently in convulsions 
caused by poisoning of the spinal cord, the 
first stage of tobacco poisoning being spinal 
excitement. — Treatise on Therapeutics, Ma- 
teria Me die a and Toxicology by Dr. H. C. 
Wood. 

Such deaths have been numerously re- 
ported. But few of them will be here 
referred to: 

A boy aged thirteen years died from ci- 
garet-smoking. — Reported by Dr. Broom- 
head in the Medical Chronicle for March, 
1889. 

The medical journal the Lancet, London, 
England, 2nd April, 1892, reports the deaths 
of one hundred boys under sixteen years of 
age from cigaret-smoking. 

A girl nine years old was acutely poisoned 
to death in Louisville, Ky., Tobacco Stem- 
mery where she was hired to work. — Dr. 
Chapman in the Medical Standard, Chica- 
go, January, 1892. 

The French poet M. Santeuil died of acute 
poisoning by Tobacco Snuff taken in a jok- 
ing way. — Doctors Woodman and Tidy's 
book on Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 
page 380. This authentic book reports a 
number of other deaths from tobacco used in 



26 



different ways, including for murder, and for 
suicide. Taylor's Manual of Medical Juris- 
prudence also contains similar reports, as do 
other similar books. 

From the faintness and loss of voluntary 
motion 'from learning to use tobacco' some 
physicians early in the 19th century tried 
poultices, stupes, lotions, and ointments, 
made of it, on the skin; and decoctions, so- 
lutions, etc., by enema, for the relief of 
colic, for the relaxation of the muscles in 
strangulated hernia (rupture) and some 
other spasmodic affections. All such uses of 
tobacco showed symptoms of poisoning im- 
mediately. When applied externally where 
it could be removed before much symptom of 
poisoning occurred, or in case of enema was 
expelled from the body sufficiently, some of 
the patients recovered from its use; but the 
deaths from its poison were relatively so 
numerous that the plant was banished from 
the Officinal Medical List (Pharmacopeia) of 
every countr}^ See Treatise on Therapeti- 
tics by Doctors Trousseau, Pidoux, Paul, and 
Lincoln, 1880, Volume II; Dr. Wood's Trea- 
tise on Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and 
Toxicology ; Dr. Copeland's Dictionary of 
Practical Medicine, article on colic, etc., 
and Dr. Husemann in Handbuch der Toxi- 
cologie, Volume II, page 483. 

Doctor Griscom's book on The Use of 



27 

Tobacco^ quotes Dr. Tyrell of Ohio who was 
called to see a healthy young girl with sore 
on upper lip from burn she suffered three 
weeks before, whose mother, hoping to heal 
the sore, had placed on it a little of the 
sediment from the bottom of her tobacco- 
pipe — and the girl died in convulsions a few 
hours after the application. 

The difficulty of separating the compo- 
nent partsof this empyreumatic oleo-resinous 
sediment from tobacco smoke into the exact 
chemic formula and combinations therein 
existing, makes it impossible at present to 
determine the exact effect of each part; and 
this is not necessary to know. In the com- 
bination as found in the smoke inhaled, the 
settlings in every pipe, mouth-end of cigars, 
also accompanying the dark coloring of the 
teeth in all ways of tobacco use, the numer- 
ous observations in man, and experiments on 
lower animals, show them all to be viru- 
lently poisonous with the same effects as 
nicotin, nicotiana, nicotia, or the entire to- 
bacco leaf, in whatever way used. 

Physicians prescribing the use of tobacco 
in any form, set up complex ailments if not 
specific ones, writes Doctor Dujardin-Beau- 
metz in his book on Diseases of the StomacJi 
and Intestines, Doctor Hurd's edition. 

Alcoholic beverages do not counteract, or 
retard, the poisonous effect of tobacco; as 



28 



persons intoxicated with whiskey have died 
from 'taking a little too much of it' writes 
Doctor Griscom in his book on The Use of 
Tobacco. People have been poisoned to 
death by taking tobacco into the stomach in 
rum, and in whisky. — Forensic Medicine and 
Toxicology by Doctors Woodman and Tidy, 
page 381. 

The effects of tobacco are the same on 
the system of the lower animals as in man- 
kind;* but it has been presumed that some 
of the herbivora can take more of it without 
fatal effect than the carnivora. This is 
probably due to the tolerance begotten from 
occasionally browsing the tobacco plant. 

*This statement may call to the mind of some 
reader the 'tobacco worm and beetle', the enemies 
of the plants, as possible exceptions to the rule. 
A careful study of the biology, and biochemistry, 
of growing plants will show innocuous stages in poi- 
sonous plants, as well as stages of difficult digestion 
in some edible fruits and vegetables in their unripe 
stages. A detail scientific study of the changes oc- 
curring in seeds in their germinating, growing, and 
ripening stages, gives glimpses of the marvelous pro- 
cesses of nature. Pharmaceutical chemistry shows 
the proper time for gathering any one or more parts 
of a plant for the active ingredient or part wanted 
for medicine. The professional tobacco-grower, and 
the 'manufacturer' have grown 'wise' in their efforts 
to produce 'desired results' in their products. It is, 
however, at times difficult to preserve any vegetable 
or animal matter from the destructive influences of 
saprophytic fauna and flora. 



29 



Tobacco is injurious to digestion, writes 
Dr. Wilson Fox in his book on Diseases of 
the StomacJi, 3rd edition. 

The influence of tobacco, however used, 
extends to both mucous membrane and mus- 
cular layers of the stomach, and produces 
great irritation, redness and injection of 
vessels. When the tobacco is stopped these 
changes somewhat subside, but not entirely. 
The mucous membrane secretes irregularly 
and, as a general rule, does not produce the 
due amount of gastric fluid; hence digestion 
is impeded. Afterwards an acrid fluid is left 
in the stomach which irritates and give rise 
to heartburn, eructations, frequent nausea 
with an almost constant sensation of debil- 
ity of the stomach. Carried to somewhat 
further excess it produces a palsied condi- 
tion of the muscular fibers, leading to a great 
increase of debilit}^ in the digestive organs 
and probably death. From analogy derived 
from the inferior animals, which analogy 
must be very perfect, the condition of the 
vital organs when first using tobacco are as 
follows: The brain is pale and empty of 
blood; the stomach is reddened in round 
spots, so raised and pile-like that they re- 
semble patches of dark Utrecht velvet; the 
blood is preternaturally fluid; the lungs are 
pale as the lungs of a calf when we see them 
suspended in the shambles; while the heart 



30 



overburdened with blood and have little 
power left for its forcing action, is scarcely 
contracting, but is feebly trembling as if, 
like a conscious thing, it knew equally its 
responsibility and its own weakness. It is 
not a beating, it is a fluttering heart. — 
See Dr. Richardson's book on Induced 
Diseases of Modern Life. 



V 

The Pathologic (Diseasing) Effects of 
Tobacco. 

The action of tobacco whenever and how- 
ever used is a disease affect and effect, a 
general call to, and rallying of, all the pow- 
ers of the system to aid in preventing se- 
rious harm, and in eliminating the poison. 
This process of protection is constantly at 
work in the system of every user of the poi- 
son, however long continued or deep in the 
vice of the habit; and no one can foretell 
when the system may succumb to the dire- 
ful effects of the habit. 

However used, the active parts of tobacco 
are quickly absorbed into the blood, and 



31 

however small the quantity absorbed the af- 
fects and effects are baneful. Every func- 
tion of the system is quickly affected through 
the blood and the nerves. 

One of the most important parts of the 
brain, the medulla oblongata connecting 
directly with the spinal cord, receives the 
brunt of tobacco poison and transmits its 
serious effects throughout the entire system. 
Hereby we understand its effects on the 
nervous system in general and the great 
joint-nerve of the lungs and stomach (pneu- 
mogastric nerve) in particular. — See Dr. 
Huchard's Ldcttwes, first printed in Le Bul- 
letin Me die ale 22-26 May, 1889. 

But this is not all. Much is due to its ac- 
tion on the muscular system in general, and 
particularly upon the vascular walls. Thus 
we see why it is that tobacco is such a strong 
poison to the heart throughout its vascular, 
nervous and muscular systems, and to every 
other organ, and every part of the general 
system also, through the same sources. 

The spasmodic (vasoconstrictive) action 
of tobacco has been thoroughly demonstra- 
ted. It has been demonstrated that the 
effects of tobacco resemble absolutely those 
produced by electrifying (galvanization) of 
the great sympathetic nerve. It produces 
a rigid spasm which, secondarily, constricts 
the blood vessels and deprives the muscles 



32 



of proper nourishment, thus producing mus- 
cular ischaemia, which explains in part the 
tremor, muscular weakness, and paralytic 
symptoms (paresis) observed in the testings 
of tobacco on the lower animals. Such vaso- 
constrictive action produces disturbances 
in every part of every organ in the body, 
and disorders proper function throughout. 
(In this connection see Dr. M. Allen Starr's 
address on Vasomotor Trophic Neuroses in 
The Joui'nal of the A merican Medical A sso- 
ciation 17 July, 1909). 

In the use of tobacco the nerve centers 
exhibit signs of improper blood supply (is- 
chaemia), producing brain-spinal (cerebro- 
spinal) irritation, headache, nausea, morn- 
ing fatigue, impairment of memory, mind 
(psychical) irritation, inaptitude for work, 
disability of speech and writing (aphasia), 
symptoms of paralysis of one side (hemiple- 
gia) alternating from right to left, etc. 

The constricted, oppressed breathing 
(dyspnoea) is due to the action of the to- 
bacco on the medulla oblongata and through 
its systems of nerves to the respiratory 
muscles, and including the muscular layers of 
the pulmonary circulatory system. 

The untoward effect of tobacco on the 
kidneys is traced to this hyperarterial ten- 
sion, combined with the general irritation. 
Tobacco is thus a factor in Glycosuria (dia- 



( UNIVERSITY ) 



33 

betes mellitus). See Dr. Love's article in 
The Jour, of the Am. Med. Assn. Vol. 36, 
page 540. 

It is upon the heart itself, however, that 
some of the most deplorable effects of this 
vascular lock-jaw (tetanization) are pro- 
duced. Herein arises the source of the par- 
ox3'smal pain about the heart (angina pec- 
toris) with suffocation, syncope and often 
death, due to the spasm and changes in the 
coronary arteries and consequent poor nour- 
ishment (ischaemia) of the great muscles of 
the heart. The hard, small, quick, and of- 
ten' irregular tobacco pulse is caused by this 
vasoconstrictive action, and weakened 
heart. 

The heart, arteries, and gastro-intestinal 
system suffer great rise of pressure from 
the undue effect of tobacco on the vasomo- 
tor center of the medulla oblongata, thus 
weakening the heart from affection of the 
vagus nerve and inhibitory ganglia of the 
heart. — See the medical journal Pi^actitioner, 
London, England, July, 1905. 

Tobacco affects the heart by paralyzing 
the minute vessels which form the batteries, 
so to speak, of the pneumogastric nerve 
which furnishes motive power for lungs, 
heart, and digestive apparatus. Proof of 
this is seen in the congestive cough, and 
dyspeptic symptoms often in connetion with 



34 



tobacco heart. Enlargement of the heart 
is apt to follow. — Dr. Maine in the Medical 
News 26 July, 1902. Also see article by Dr. 
L. P. Clark in The Medical Record New- 
York City, 29 June, 1907. 

At first these effects are functional; and 
with the habitual tobacco user there is con- 
stant functional disturbance. It should be 
evident, therefore, to everyone that the con- 
tinued use of tobacco begets an increasing 
permanency of functional effect that cannot 
but beget organic disease. Every organ of 
the body is subject to a variety of forms of 
organic disease from this cause. 

The effects of tobacco are cumulative, 
writes Dr. Mitchell in the Lancet-Clinic 13 
June, 1908. The effects of tobacco are con- 
centrated on either the respiratory, the 
cardiac, or the alimentary system. — Dr 
White in the Birmingham Medical Review^ 
1904. 

Continued use of tobacco, in any form, 
begets permanent narrowing (contractures) 
of the blood vessels, and a sort of peripheral 
circulatory barrier accumulates. Arterial 
tension is increased; the heart suffers from 
successive dilatations, which in turn become 
permanent; and there is produced a general 
hardening and degeneration of the coats of 
the arteries (arterosclerosis) making sudden 



35 

death from heart failure, or apoplexy and 
paralysis very probable. 

With the smoker, particularly, the mon- 
oxid of carbon, CO, in the smoke produces 
drowsiness, unsteady movements of the 
heart, tremulous and even convulsive move- 
ments of muscles, and often vomiting, writes 
Dr. Richardson in his book on Diseases of 
Moderfi Life. With but slight increase of 
this virulent poison, death is caused. 

The monoxid of carbon in tobacco smoke 
affects the hemoglobin of the blood, con- 
verting the oxyhemoglobin into carbonic 
oxid (CO) hemoglobin, a stable compound 
not reduced in the circulation; hence pro- 
ducing difficulty of breathing, and quick 
death if the poison be not discontinued. — 
Dr. Dudley in the Medical News, i6 Sep- 
tember, 1888. 

Every user of tobacco, in every form used, 
is constantly receiving within his system 
numerous warnings by nature to stop its 
use, viz: irritation of the lips, mouth, throat, 
airtubes and lungs, in addition to the sick- 
ening symptoms mentioned in the foregoing 
paragraphs. 



36 



VI 



Further Mention of Diseases Caused 
BY Tobacco. 

From the preceding description of the ef- 
fects of tobacco throughout the entire sys- 
tem, it can readily be understood how it is 
that these effects can, and do, originate any 
one, or all, of the organic diseases, and in- 
cite to increased activity all of those diseases 
to which the user was inclined at the time 
of his beginning the use of the poison. 
Here, again, but few of the great number of 
illustrative cases, with references, will be 
adduced, viz: 

From an examination of more than one 
thousand men, women and children, work- 
ers in tobacco manufactories, every one was 
found poisoned more or less, and suffering 
generally, and particularly with one or more 
of the following named diseases: of the eyes, 
heart, exaggeration of reflexes, headache, 
fainting fits, etc. — Madame Walitzkaja in 
\he Medical Press, 1887. 

Tobacco poisoning by the air of tobacco 
works, even to death, has been reported by 
different physicians^ and from different 



37 

works, including Dr. Chapman in the St. 
Joseph, Mo., Medical Herald, November, 
1891 ; and in the Medical Standard, Chicago, 
January, 1892. 

With three thousand tobacco workers ex- 
amined for eye effects by Dr. F. DowHng of 
Cincinnati, he found a large percentage af- 
fected by blindness, in addition to lesser 
irritations, from disease of the optic nerve, 
retina, spine or brain (amaurosis, and am- 
blyopia). — The Medical and Surgical Re- 
porter, Philadelphia, 22 October, 1892. 

Tobacco amblyopia is the most common 
of all toxic amblyopias. — Dr. Dowling in 
The Lancet-Clinic, 13 June, 1908. Blindness 
(amblyopia) from use of tobacco is reported 
by Dr. C. A. Wood of Chicago, in Annals 
of Opthalmology and Otology, Kansas City, 
Mo., July, 1892. 

Blindness (amaurosis) was found in horses 
that had eaten the weed Nicotiana siiaveo- 
lens, the 'native' Australian tobacco. Abso- 
lute blindness was developed in the horses 
that had eaten of the weed somewhat from 
six months to two years. Wasting (atro- 
phy) of the spinal cord and its nerves near 
the medulla oblongata was found in these 
horses on post mortem examination by Dr. 
Heusmann of Gottingen, Prussia; reported 
in the medical book Schmidf s Jarbiicher, 
• Leipzig, Saxony, 15 February, 1895. 



38 

Tobacco amblyopia (blindness) at first a 
functional disorder, perhaps a circulatory or 
nutritional disturbance, leads to organic 
change, producing atrophy (wasting and 
decline) of the papillo-macular fibers, writes 
Dr. Ramsey of Scotland in the Glasgow 
Medical Journal, December, 1894. 

Some observers have reported that in to- 
bacco amblyopia (blindness) vision did not 
decline below 20200ths;but Dr. Polkinhorn 
reported in the Opthalmic Record, Chicago, 
July, 1900, that one-half of his cases were 
beyond this strong degree of blindness. One 
of his cases was a wife who did not smoke, 
but was closely confined in caring for a 
paralytic husband who was a regular smoker 
of tobacco. 

Tobacco causes retro-bulbar neuritis (in- 
flammation of the optic nerve, and blind- 
ness. — Dr. A. T. Haight in the Chicago 
Clinic March, 1899. 

Tobacco amblyopia is the result of axial 
neuritis (central inflammation) of the optic 
nerves. — Dr. Bruns in the New Orleans Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal, 12 August, 1888. 
See also reports on tobacco blindness by 
Dr. Baker in Cleveland Medical Gazette^ 
June, 1888; by Dr. Doyne in the Royal Lon- 
don Hospital Reports January, 1888; and 
several cases of tobacco blindness (tobacco 
amaurosis) by Dr. Ay res in The Lancet- 
Clinic 21 January, 1888. 



39 

Tobacco causes atrophy (wasting in size 
and integrity) of the optic nerves and sub- 
sequent amaurosis and amblyopia. — Dr. J. 
Solberg Wells in his large book on Diseases 
of the Eye, 2nd American from the 3rd Eng- 
lish edition. Tobacco produces amblyopia 
by causing degeneration and destruction of 
the ganglion-cells of the macula lutea, the 
most important center of sight. — Dr. De- 
Schweinitz in the American Joiwnal of the 
Medical Sciences September, 1897. 

All smokers of tobacco have more or less 
serious affections of the eyes. — Dr. B. H. 
Brodnax in the journal L Encephale Paris, 
October, 1892. Use of tobacco in any way 
has injurious effect on eyes, and other organs. 

Tobacco causes deafness by irritating, 
producing hyperaemia and thickening of the 
pharynx and eustachian tubes, writes Dr. 
Wingrave of England in the Medical Press 
and Circular 11 February, 1903. Tobacco 
has direct action on the auditory nerve 
producing trophoneurosis and deafness by 
its action on the circulation through the 
sympathetic nerve. Like other toxic neu- 
rites it is progressive, and affects both ears 
simultaneously. — Dr. Delie in the journal 
Hebdomadaire de Laryngologie, 1905. 

In his book on Diseases of the Throat and 
Nose Dr. Bosworth of New York City des- 
cribes bad effects of tobacco on these parts. 



40 



Doctor Coomes, of Louisville, Ky., in a 
paper read before the Ninth International 
Medical Congress describes serious results of 
tobacco on the respiratory tubes; see 
Transactions of this Congress, Volume IV, 
pages loi, 1 02. 

The sense of smell is blunted, oft^n 
destroyed by the effects of tobacco in the 
nasal and post-nasal fossae, causing atrophic 
rhinitis and pharyngitis. — Dr. Parker in the 
Medical News Philadelphia, 20 September, 
1890. 

Epithelial changes are produced on the 
lips, in the mouth, and respiratory passages 
by tobacco, causing perversion of taste and 
other senses. — Dr. Barbaran in Revue Medi- 
cale de r Est^'d.wQ.y, France, 15 September, 
1890. See, also, the British Medical J 02ir- 
nal, London, 25 October, 1890. Tobacco 
causes sore throat, cancer of the mouth, 
throat and lips. — Dr. Merlin of Algeria in the 
Gazette Me die ale de P Alger ie 1 5 August, 1 892. 

Doctor Favarger of Vienna, Austria, in 
the Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 
1887, also Dr. Gigliarella of Italy in the Ita- 
lian medical journal Rivista Clinica, 1887, 
report cases of chronic nicotinism (tobacco- 
ism) causing disease of the heart with pal- 
pitation, irregularity, dyspnoea ( 'heart asth- 
ma'), angina pectoris (spasms of pain with 
suffocation), chronic myocarditis (fatt}^ de- 



41 

generation), Gastralgia (great pain in sto- 
mach), great disorder of bowel from inflam- 
mation of some parts and paralysis of other 
parts, etc. 

Doctor Anstie reports in his book on 
Neuralgia and Similar Diseases, angina pec- 
toris caused by tobacco. 

The use of tobacco not only lessens the 
efficiency of respiratory movements and the 
internal distribution of oxygen, but exerts 
a special deleterious influence on the heart, 
often disturbing the uniformity of its rhythm 
and impairing its force; and not unfrequent- 
ly causing sudden death by cardiac paraly- 
sis. — Dr. Brunton in his Lectures on the 
Action of Medicine pages 321-323. 

Doctor Robert of Algeria, Africa, writes 
in the Gazette Medicate de V Algerie 30 May, 
1889, that if a tobacco user's system is so 
fortunate as 'to apparently tolerate its effects 
for some years, the heart becomes enfeebled, 
hardening and degeneration of the arteries 
(arteriosclerosis; develops, making sudden 
death imminent. Dr. Dumas of Algeria, in 
the same Gazette 10 November, 1887, reports 
fatal case of tobacco angina pectoris. Such 
cases are not curable, says Dr. Huchard in 
his Lectures in Le Bulletin Medicate. 

Experiments by the prevailing methods 
demonstrate that the gastric fluids are de- 
minished, and digestion impaired by the use 



42 



of tobacco. — Dr. Ydan-Pouchkine in the 
medical journal Wratch St. Petersburg, 
Russia, Number 48, 1890. 

Tobacco is responsible for a variety of 
functional derangements which terminate 
in organic diseases. Diseases of the kidneys 
are caused thereby, writes Dr. A. G. Auld of 
Glasgow, Scotland, in the London Lancet 
20 April, 1889. Sugar in the urine (Diabetes 
Mellitus, Glycosuria, Glucosuria) is not only 
aggravated by tobacco, but it may be caused 
by tobacco. — Dr. H. Stern in the Medical 
Record 2^ April, 1901. 

Doctor Kitchen writes in the Medical 
Record 27 April, 1889, that it is easy to see 
the dire effects of tobacco in the stunted 
growths of adolescents in size, and other 
forms of development; from disorders of 
functions, including the heart, intellectual 
sluggishness, loss of memory, color-blind- 
ness, loss of or depraved appetite, neurosis 
of motion, marked blunging of various func- 
tions of sensation, hereditary degeneracy, 
etc. Twenty per cent, more money is ex- 
pended for tobacco in America than for 
bread; and this comparison represents but a 
small part of the real cost of the use of 
tobacco. 



43 



VII 



Tobacco Impairs the Functions of Both 
Body and Mind, 

The French writer, Andre Thevet, des- 
cribed the serious effect of tobacco on the 
sexual system in the year 1555. — The journal 
Ame7'ican Medicine 22i h\)r\\, 1904. See also 
regarding the same aifection Dr. Prodel's 
article in the Gazette Medicale de PAlgerie 
30 June, 1890; Dr. Decroix in the medical 
journal Times and Register 15 November, 
1890, and the Weekly Medical Review St. 
Louis, 28 March, 1891; Dr. Lewin in the 
Journal of Comparative Neurology Septem- 
ber, 1893; E)r. Le Juge de Sagrais of Lu- 
chon, France, in the Archives Generales de 
Medicine 1902; and Dr. Petit in the medical 
journal II Policlinico Rome, Italy, 1904. 

Mental disease (Nicotinosis Mentalis) as- 
cribed to the increased consumption of to- 
bacco, is described by Dr. Kjellberg of 
Upsula, Sweden, in the Wiener Medizin- 
ische Presse, Vienna, Austria, 17 August, 
1890, as characterized by distressing emo- 
tions of indisposition and weakness, halluci- 
nations, and delusions with suicidal intent. 



44 

Nicotinic Psychosis (tobacco mental dis- 
ease) among marines, and workmen in fac- 
tories- at Upsula who used tobacco, is 
described by the same writer in the Weekly 
Medical Review of St. Louis, Mo., 29 August, 
1891, as manifesting itself by feebleness, in- 
activity, and despondent ideas. Hallucin- 
ations follow at an early period, accom- 
panied by depressive ideas and, later, by 
exalted and maniacal ideas and actions. Dr. 
Lewin mentions similar effects of tobacco 
in the Journal of Comparative Neurology. 

Tobacco intoxication, from external ap- 
plication of tobacco infusion for the destruc- 
tion of lice, is reported by Dr. Auche in the 
Journal de Medicine de Bordeaux, France, 
22 March, 1891. 

Rabbits slowly poisoned by cabbage leaves 
wet with solution of tobacco, showed in post- 
mortem examination progressive hardening 
(sclerosis) of liver with proliferation of bile 
ducts. Kidney and heart-muscle changes 
were also found. ^Dr. Adler in AmeiHcan 
Medicine 10 May, 1902. 

/ Tobacco, as poisonous as it is, is not a 
bacteriacide, or even an insecticide in the 
true sense. Used against lice it has poisoned ' 
the host nearly to death while leaving the 
parasite unhurt. As a fumigator against 
germs, even the smoke of smoldering wood 
has been found more efficient while far less 



45 

objectionable.— The medical journal Lancet, 
London 4 May, 1907. 

Bacilli Tuberculosis, from the mouth of 
the cigar-maker, have been found alive and 
ready for infection in the mouth-end of 
cigars for the shaping of which spittle had 
been used. 

The Cigarmakers' International Union, 
which has had an average membership of 
less than 40,ocx) for ten years, reported in 
the year 1909 that during the last twenty- 
seven years it had expended close upon 
$4,500,000.00 for the relief of the sick and 
disabled, and for funeral charges, of mem- 
bers of the Union. 

At the Tuberculosis Congress in 1908, the 
statement was made that this disease 
had cost Amereica the vast sum of $1,100,- 
000,000.00 every year. Many of these suf- 
ferers were users of tobacco. 

The use of tobacco conduces to the cause 
of tuberculosis and, thereby as a matter of 
course, detracts from the cure and treat- " 
ment of this disease. See the medical jour- 
nal The Hospital 2^ November, 1908, on the 
report of the Henry Phipps Institute. 
/ Tobacco has no value as a medicine. It 
is injurious in convalescence from disease, y 
writes Dr. Coughlin in The Jour, of the Am. 
Med. Assn. 23 August, 1902. 
/ Tobacco is injurious to the sense of taste, 



46 

to the throat, voice, nervouse system, di- 
gestion, the bones, muscles, respirator}- sj's- 
tem, heart, senses of sight and hearing; to 
mental and physical development, and to 
one's ability, generally, writes Dr. Blaisdell 
in his book on Life and Health, 1902. / 

Tobacco users do not stand surgical oper- 
ations well; the}- are liable to collapse, 
writes Dr. Bangs in the Medical Record, 
New York City, 14 March, 1908. 

A comparative study of the users and non- 
users of tobacco among the students at Yale 
University in respect to their physical de- 
velopment, showed the following results of 
one class in four years, viz: 

Average increase in lung capacity in users, 
.15 litre; in non-users, .25 litre, or an in- 
crease of 66 per cent, greater for non-users. 
Inflated chest measurements, in users, .304 
metre; non-users, .364 metre, an increase 
of 19 per cent, greater in non-users. Height 
in users, .0169 metre; non-users, .0202 metre, 
an increase of 20 per cent, greater for non- 
users. Weight, in users, .4 kilogramme 
(i pound); non-users, .5 kilogramme (i 1-4 
pounds), an increase of 25 per cent, greater 
for non-users. Of the entire class 70 per 
cent, did not use tobacco. The prominent 
athletes, with one exception, did not use to- 
bacco, and all candidates for the boat crew 
abstained from its use. — Dr. Jay W. Seaver 



47 

physician and instructor in athletics at 
Yale University, in the Sa/iifnriau New 
York, September, 1891. 

Doctor Seaver also reported to the Na- 
tioiial Popular Rcviczv, San Diego, Califor- 
nia, January, 1893, ^he comparative condi- 
tion of yy non-users of tobacco, 22 irregular 
users, and 70 habitual users at Yale Univer- 
sity, viz: 

In weight the non-users increased 10.4 
per cent, more than the regular users, and 
6.6 per cent, more than the occasional 
users. In height, the non-users increased 
24 per cent, more than the regular users, 
and 14 per cent, more than the occasional 
users. In chest-girth the non-user had an 
advantage over the regular user of 26.7 per 
cent.^'and over the occasional user of 22 per 
cent. In lung capacity the growth was in 
favor of the non-user 77.5 percent, when 
compared with the regular user, and 49.5 
per cent, compared with the irregular user. 

Similar pernicious effects of tobacco have 
been noted by Dr. Hitchcock among the 
students at Amherst College {^American Med- 
icine 13 September, 1902, by Dr. Lewin in 
the Jotirnal of Comparative Neurology, and 
by man}^ other physicians and educators, 
including those of Defiance (Ohio) College, 
whose tobacco-using students also could not 
make good grades in their studies. 



48 

Aside from alcoholic beverages, tobacco 
is the most commonly used poisonous sub- 
stance/ One of its active parts, Nicotin, 
has long been known as one of the most 
deadly poisons. Adler and Hensel have, 
by injecting solutions of Nicotin, seen 
arterial degeneration produced in rabbits. 
— Editorial in The Jour, of the Am. Med. 
Assn. 13 October, 1906, based on an article 
in the Journal of Medical Research of 1906. 

Doctor Kellogg very appropriately and 
forcefully contends that the use of tobacco 
is the fundamental vice cff the habit of 
drinking alcoholic beverages; the tobacco 
exciting a craving for strong drink. From 
the year 1879 he has refused to undertake 
the care of any case of alcoholic inebriety 
without full understanding, and consent of 
the patient, for the quitting of tobacco also. 
— Modern Medicine June, 1899. 

All persons who are thinking that they 
get tobacco that satisfies the habit's crav- 
ing, and which contains no nicotin, are 
referred to the experiences of the Austrian 
Government which, having monopoly of the 
tobacco trade, began to sell its subjects 
tobacco with the nicotin removed. The 
people addicted to full tobacco at once 
recognized the loss of the desired active 
part, and refused to purchase the weakened 
weed. — Vienna Letter in The Jour, of the 
Am. Med. Assn. 16 March, 1907. 



49 



VIII 

Tobacco Begets Indolence, and Indif- 
ference TO Propriety, and to 
Well -Being. 

Observers of the evils of tobacco-using 
in general are not agreed upon the form of 
use that is the most injurious, or the most 
disgusting. Nor are tobacco-users agreed 
among themselves on these questions. 
Every user having a favorite form of use, 
contends that it is the least harmful of all 
other forms. The tendency with users of 
the weed, however, is to become so deeply 
sunken in the vice as to desire tobacco in 
different forms. It is a truism that the per- 
son who uses the least in quantity suffers 
the least from the poison regardless of the 
form or way in which it is used. 
I Cigarets are thought by many users of to- 
bacco to be more injurious than other ways 
of smoking because of the habit of deeper 
(?) inhalation of the smoke of cigarets 
which, some think, possesses relatively more 
of the noxious ingredients of tobacco/ But 
many smokers of cigars, and pipes, also in- 
hale the smoke, and get even more of the 



50 

poison into the system, relative!}', than do 
cigaret smokers. Possibly some 'manufac- 
turers' add other noxious ingredients to the 
tobacco as has been charged against them. 
Analysis of some cigaret papers have shown 
them clear of such treatment; but there are 
many kinds of papers, and of tobaccos, not 
reported upon. 

Cigarets may be used in greater number, 
and by younger bo3^s, than cigars or pipes 
and, other things being equal, the 3'ounger 
the age the greater the evil effect from the 
same quantity of tobacco of the same 
strength. 

In an article on poisoning of the blood by 
the use of tobacco (Tobacco Toxemia) by 
Dr. R. V. Dolby of Vancouver, British 
Columbia, printed in the journal Northwest 
Medicine, Seattle, Washington, October, 
1909, he writes in part, that: Chewing is 
without doubt the most pernicious form in 
which to employ tobacco. The pipe and 
cigar, far from being the safest medium for 
the indulgence of tobacco, are the most dan- 
gerous. Tobacco amblyopia, cardiac syn- 
cope, angina, loss of memory, tardy and 
delayed cerebration, are found chiefly in 
heavy cigar and pipe smokers. Even can- 
cer of the lips or tongue seems to be the 
special heritage of the pipe or cigar smoker. 
The cigaret is responsible for the cardiac 



51 

irritability, largely in neurotic people, also 
responsible for irritable laryngitis and phar- 
yngitis. . . . 

y^The tobacco habit not only enslaves the 
will, but it often perverts the mind and ac- 
tions of its victim. When called to account 
for their continued adherence to the unde- 
sirable habit, men either change the subject 
of conversation, or begin to talk about 'use 
and abuse of the weed' as though there 
could be the least use of tobacco without 
abuse of the system, which is impossible. It 
is also impossible for the user of tobacco not 
to use it to 'excess. ^^/ 

'^It has been estimated that there is more 
money expended in the United States each 
year for tobacco and alcoholic beverages 
than for bread and education combined./ 
The taxes of the General Government (Inter- 
nal Revenue Receipts; for 1908 are reported 
as being $49,862,754.00 on tobacco, and 
$140,158,807.00 on spirits. To these very 
large amounts should be added hundreds of 
millions received by the tobacco and grain 
growers and the manufacturers. The pecun- 
iary cost of these habits, however, is small 
compared with their vicious, demoralizing, 
weakening and degenerating effects now, and 
their entailing effects of misery upon future 
generations. No one can afford such habits 
in any true sense. 



52 



Americans are not nervous in imagination 
only, as has recently been promulgated in a 
book which has been noticed broad-cast in 
newspapers. Talk with the tobacco-users in 
their moods of honesty with themselves and 
with you, and they will tell you the fault is 
with tobacco, and with the alcohol if they 
have this habit also. Physicians, non-users 
of tobacco, could tell the same regarding the 
cause of men's nervousness, and of their 
necessarily shortened lives by these habits; 
of the cause of the 'break-downs' ; the heat- 
stroke deaths; 'brain-storm' murders, and 
suicides; also of the cause of deaths from 
'accidents' attributed by reporters to 'de- 
fects in the steering apparatus of the auto- 
mobile, the horse becoming unmanageable' 
and many other subterfuges. 

Most of the fires, as well as a large per- 
centage of the death-rate arise from the 
direct and cumulative results of tobacco, 
alcohol, or both combined. 

Associated Press Dispatches from Johns- 
town, Pa., II September, 1909, mention 
death, and serious injuries, from explosion 
of a keg of powder by a spark from a ci- 
garet being smoked over the open keg; and 
near Key West, Florida, was reported 28 
August, 1909, the death of twelvp men and 
serious injury of five others by the explosion 
of seven hundred pounds of dynamite from 



53 

a lighted cigaret thrown into a box of 
fuses. Such is the thoughtless, indolent, 
often careless, indifference to propriety, even 
to well-being, begotten by tobacco using! 

The ever-ready matches are also scattered 
so that children get them — and numerous 
children have been thus burned to death, 
others maimed for life, and much valuable 
property destroyed, by the fires they have 
caused. Could all the facts be gathered 
from every community regarding deaths, 
maimings and misery from these allied 
causes, the list would be appalling. 

Newspapers seldom report the true cause 
of death in any community, from regard for 
.the feelings of surviving friends. Such is 
also the case with physicians' reports and 
certificates throughout most of the long Hst. 
The true cause of death is evaded when pos- 
sible, and the report is made to read: acci- 
dental, from violence, despondency from 
poor health, chronic inflammation andchange 
in one or another of the vital organs, etc., 
etc., without naming the exciting cause. 

These enormities have been so frequent in 
every city and township that the people soon 
forget those that have occurred in their lo- 
cality, and read with little concern about 
the similar catastrophes coming to their 
notice from other places. 

Tobacco has never been charged with its 



54 

proper share in the causation of the sad 
property losses, diseases, sufferings, and 
deaths mentioned on the preceding pages. 

Modern science is just beginning to show 
the iniquities of the use of alcohoHc bever- 
ages. It is, however, as yet deahng only 
with bodily or physical phases of the great 
evil. Tobacco-using should be combatted 
as a close companion evil, not only in a 
physical sense but as a mental, psycholog- 
ical, and moral evil. 

Every observing person can point to num- 
erous evil effects of tobacco and alcohol in 
every community, both of recent and of he- 
reditary origin. Many physicians for many 
years have been sounding notes of warning, 
and they are now taking more advanced and 
practical measures in all civilized countries 
for the suppression of these evil habits, and 
for lessening the increase of physically and 
mentally defective children. Even the 
English Press has therefrom had occasional 
spasms of 'regretting that the British race 
is deteriorating.' — See abstracts in The 
Literary Digest of 24 July, 1909. 



55 



IX 

Tobacco Causes Organic Degenerations, 
AND THE Transmission of Degen- 
eracy. 

To the medical profession the credit is 
due for the degree of hygiene and sanitation 
- that prevails, as well as for the pure food 
and drug law, and for other improved modes 
of living. But the medical profession should 
have more power from the governments. 
The American Medical Association has been 
laboring for a generation, and longer, for a 
National Department of Public Health, 
with a-free-from-political-bias physician as 
a Cabinet Officer at its head. Progress has 
been made toward this desirable result. 
/ There has been, and yet is, a sorry need for 
uniform human-hygiene and other far-reach- 
ing health laws, and for their uniform en- 
forcement throughout the Nation. The 
Congress has expended millions of dollars for 
the improvement of the 'blood' and the 
health of the farmers' live-stock (which was 
proper) but scarcely a dollar has it expended 
for the improvement of the blood or health 



56 



of the people, other than for quarantine and 
the marine hospital service, ostensibly in 
the interest of commerce./ 

Not until the United States has a De- 
partment of Public Health with the dignit}^ 
of a Governmental Department, and there is 
a uniform system of health laws throughout 
the States, will there be a fully equipped 
rallying center for the Christian Good Sense 
of the Nation in the support of all wise 
measures best calculated to ameliorate the 
evils and defects that now exist, and to in- 
troduce and carry forward measures for the 
proper endowment, physically and mentally, 
of future generations. 

Everyone can, and should, help in this 
most worthy eiFfort; in talking ab'out it and 
begetting favorable interest in the commun- 
it}^ that will help to secure nominations, and 
elections, only of men of correct habits who 
will, in State Legislature, and in the Con- 
gress, subserve the best. interest of the peo- 
ple in these most important reforms, as well 
as in other ways. 

Anj^ habit, or act, of a parent that pro- 
duces much of even functional disturbance 
has bad effect upon the children begotten 
by such parent. The deep defects produced 
by tobacco on the generative system, men- 
tioned on preceding pages, perniciously af- 
fect the germ plasm, and germ cells, and 



57 

cannot but show blight, more or less, in the 
children that may be born of a parent 
addicted to this vice. 

Tobacco, in some ways even more than 
the alcoholic-beverage habit, touches force- 
fully the nerve centers; the medulla ob- 
longata, the spinal center, the generative 
center, and the great sympathetic nerve 
centers, leaving therein its trail of debility, 
defects, and degeneration, all of which af- 
fections are in line of transmission to pos- 
terity. 
^.-^^any children not showing pronounced 
effects of degeneration in early life, will 
exhibit great defects in later years, from 
want of physical or mental strength to with- 
stand the duties of life. A careful obser- 
ver can discern many such cases, in many 
variations of defects, in every community. 
Some of the defects or perversions may 
have alcoholism as well as nicotinism as 
a contributing factor; and some may be 
traced to result from one or more grand- 
parents in different generations; but most 
of them are due to cumulative evils. 

As the generations have come and gone, 
the number of perverted or otherwise de- 
generate children have increased; and with 
the impetus the cause has obtained, they 
will continue to increase for some length of 
time, even after the tobacco and alcohol 



58 



habits are suppressed, and a thorough sys- 
tem of 'breeding up' be inaugurated. 

Eugenics is a new science in human race 
improvement that is as yet not fully devel- 
oped, even in theory. Too many of its ad- 
vocates are addicted to tobaccoism at least, 
and yet take too narrow a view of the re- 
quirements of the science. However, some 
investigators along this line are doing good 
work so far as they can with their present 
serious handicaps. In this connection see 
the July, 1909, number of The Annals of 
the A inerican A cadeiny of Political and So- 
cial Science Number i of Volume XXXIV, 
all of the 171 pages of which are given to 
the discussion of Race Improvement in the 
United States. Also see late discussions, 
and enactment, of the Indiana Legislature. 

The prevention of improper marriages or, 
more properly and far reaching, the preven- 
tion by surgical operations of propagation 
of children by the diseased, by criminals, by 
those mentally unfit, and all manner of de- 
generates, of both sexes, may become a 
necessity if the vices of narcotism and its 
great brood of evils are not suppressed. 

The advances made by mankind in civili- 
zation have been tortuous and slow, mainly 
from bad habits. Nations and their accum- 
ulations have been overthrown by the 
results, directly and cumulatively, of narcot- 



59 

ics, wrongly called stimulants, such as al- 
coholic beverages, opium, tobacco, etc., 
and their perverting effects. 

There can be properly-healthful manhood, 
and properly-true and sure progress, only as 
mankind is fed on the plainest most whole- 
some foods, and the purest water; and the 
entire life, and action, strictly governed 
along the line of what is for the best. 
Poverty, misery, crime, and all the horde of 
otherevils now existing, can be banished only 
by giving children their proper heritage of 
sound health, and rearing them along this 
reasonable, most important, and obligatory 
line of sanity. 

All writers, and other workers, for the 
welfare and betterment of mankind have 
friends, many friends or relatives, addicted 
to, enslaved by, degenerating habits. And 
many well-meaning people do not mention 
or strongly combat these habits on account 
of these friends or relatives. This is often 
from a sentiment that cannot well be wholly 
justified. Do good, let your light and in- 
fluence shine, and be felt, whatever 'friend,' 
relative or enemy oppose. 

None but good, clear minds, honest and 
brave hearts will well inaugurate and carry 
forward any thorough movement for the 
overcoming of evil habits and the better- 
ment of the human race; and it is incum- 



66 



bent upon everyone to do everything possi- 
ble to help forward this most worthy move- 
ment. 

Everyone who flaunts the vice of tobacco 
or alcoholic enslavement in public, is an 
enemv to the human race, in that he there- 
by exerts a pernicious example to his or his 
neighbors' children, which may in turn 
cause their enslavement in the same vice and 
thus contribute to the increase of degener- 
ates in the land. 

/' It is a duty that everyone owes to his 
God, to his family, to himself, community. 
State and Nation, to be exemplary in his 
habits and, so far as possible, a worthy 
character for the youth and others to pat- 
tern after. The greatest responsibility na- 
turally rests upon the parents; but no one 
has right to exemption from the duty stated^ 

The word reformer is one of the best of 
words; an^it has been more manifest each 
year that every right-minded man and wo- 
man should work together, prudently and 
forcefully, for the replacing of evil habits in 
their community with those habits best for 
the individual, the family, and for the State./ 
With right-minded people it is more evident 
to day than ever before that tobaccoism is 
second in evil only to alcoholism, and is 
generally a recruiting stage for alcoholism. 

The two greatest things that block the 



6i 



wheels of Progress in civilization to day, 
are these enslaving habits and a debased 
commercialism founded upon them. Were 
it not for the economic feature of vice 
shortening the lives of the enslaved, and 
the work of the few thoroughly Christian 
parents and reformers — the salt of the 
earth — there would be reversion even worse 
than to the dark ages, with little other than 
idiots, weaklings, criminals, and anarchy 
abroad in the land. 

The Southern States have been making 
noble strides against the vice of alcoholism. 
The Northern States should rise equal to 
the occasion and carry the wave of reform 
yet further, against tobaccoism as well as 
alcoholism, the twins in opposition to free- 
dom of the will, and to civilization. No 
one can afford to oppose these efforts for 
reform. 

/ The culture of tobacco and the distilleries 
of alcohol have been the greatest curses of 
the United States./They have been the 
greatest detractors from proper agriculture. 
Farms have been sadly neglected where 
alcohol abounded. /Tobacco has not only 
impoverished the soil^but it has bred night- 
riding, anarchy and death. The United 
States should be the great food and cloth- 
ing (grain, and other foods, cotton, flax, and 
wool) producers for the nations. The agri- 



62 



culturists are rising year by 3^ear to greater 
freedom from enslaving habits. But they 
cannot rise to the full dignity of their work 
until fully free; and until every acre of land 
is devoted to its best and most honorable 
use. 



X 

Questions Answered. The Corruptors. 

Reformers Wanted For Their 

Suppression. 

Doubtless many questions will arise in the 
minds of those who have read this little 
book through to this page. Most of the 
questions that have been presented to the 
writer at different times about tobacco, are 
answered in this section. Some of these 
answers have been embodied in preceding 
pages. In fact much of this book may be 
said to be line upon line, precept upon pre- 
cept, and warning upon warning. 

There are many noxious, even poisonous, 
plants growing by the roadside, in waste 
places, and in fields, for which no particu- 
lar use to mankind has been discovered. A 
few of such plants are of some service to 
mankind when discreetly used. Not so with 



63 



tobacco. Tobaccoism or nicotinism is 
classed with opiumism or morphinism, co- 
cainism, hashishism, and alcohoHsm. To- 
bacco and alcohol possess not one redeeming 
feature for use as medicine like opium, 
cocain, and hemp. Alcohol has valid use 
only in the arts and sciences. -^Tobacco has 
no valid use whatever^ 

Tobacco habit is not formed from natural 
desire for the pungent weed. Some persons 
have formed the habit from unwise advice 
of physicians or others addicted to it. 
Generally, however, the habit is formed by 
boys who are induced to persist through 
the sickening tastings to form the habit, by 
the dares or challenges, taunts and gibes of 
their already degraded associates. Too of- 
ten this pernicious influence has come from 
men upon whom the boys have looked as 
exemplars, but who are degenerates; also 
from dealers in tobacco who desire pecun- 
iary profit thereby ! Recently a boy in 
England three years and nine months of 
age, ill generally and with a tobacco heart, 
was presented to hospital for treatment; and 
it was there learned that his father had 
trained him to smoke, and was giving him 
ten cigarets a day, and was gathering money 
from those to whom he was exhibiting the boy 
in public in the act of smoking them! — The 
Medical Times, New York City, 1909. 



64 

Surely, many people in the palmy days of 
old Greece were put to death for corrupting 
the young to less degree than in these in- 
stances. 

Often the depravity and perversions of 
the tobacco habit are asserted in most un- 
reasonable and untoward ways. The victim 
being so strongly enslaved that the will 
power cannot reinstate itself, every shadow 
of fallacy is seized at in an effort to excuse, 
even to warrant, continuance of the vice. 
Assertion is made that tobacco preserves the 
teeth, which is not true. Also that it aids 
digestion; the fallacy of which statement 
has been shown over and over on preceding 
pages of this book. An impure breath is 
combined with a worse odor by tobaccoism. 
There can be nothing worse than tobacco 
reek. 

Tobacco conduces to unhealthy flesh in 
both the lean and the overfleshy. If any 
change in weight occurs, it is likely to be 
from fatty degeneration, or a wasting from 
indigestion and malassimilation, from the 
tobacco. 

The physicians and clergymen who are 
tobacco inebriates, contracted the habit 
with their fellow boys, or in another unto- 
ward state, and are, like others, so enslaved 
that they cannot readily quit the vice. 
They should be the first to keep their shame- 



65 

ful indulji^ence out of sight ; and should wholly 
quit the habit as soon as possible. If their 
volition is so far deteriorated that they can- 
not reform within themselves, they should 
abide in a sanatorium until their will power 
and general strength for abstaining from 
the vice are fully restored. 

The fact that an occasional user of to- 
bacco lives to old age, is but a rare excep- 
tion to the rule that tobacco produces dis- 
ease and greatly shortens life. The human 
system shows remarkable powers of tolera- 
tion, accommodating itself to the many 
serious impositions upon it. Were it not 
for the extra strong eliminating, and accom- 
modatingly elastic powers possessed by some 
people, there would be more shortened lives, 
even of early and sudden deaths, from to- 
bacco, alcoholic beverages, and overeating, 
than there are at present, as numerous as 
such deaths now are. 

When a man tells of the composure of 
his nerves and mind by tobacco, it is but 
the confession of his enslavement b}^ the 
habit. The cravings for tobacco are but the 
appeals of the habit for forging yet stronger 
the chains of its victim's enslavement. One 
so enslaved cannot think, or work, naturally 
well when using and under the influence of 
tobacco, and much less can he think or 
work well without it; hence the habit is a 



66 



great impairer of natural thinking and work- 
ing ability. Because some men of great 
natural ability have done some good work 
when addicted to the vice, it is not at all to 
the credit of tobacco; they could have done 
far better without it. 

Insistence upon total abstinence from al- 
coholic beverages, tobacco, and all other 
narcotics, is not antagonistic to personal 
liberty in any reasonable sense; but it forms 
the best assurance for personal liberty in 
every true sense. Alcoholic and tobacco 
inebriety are the worst kind of slavery. No 
one can have moral, legal or personal lib- 
erty with either. Even 'moderate' use of 
tobacco or alcoholic beverage of any kind 
is as unsafe to personal liberty as it is dan- 
gerous to health, and the formation of a 
wholly uncontrollable habit that will ruin 
both body and soul. 

C It is the duty of the State to outlaw every- 
thing inimical to the welfare of its citizens. 
Hence it is that every grade of court has 
decided that the traffic in spirituous liquors 
is illegal; and so it should be with tobacco, 
the only dangerous narcotic that is at pres- 
ent not under proscription of a just and 
rigorous law. 

It is a wholesome sentiment, that it is the 
duty of parents, and of States, to see strictly 
to the matter, that the children, and 



67 

adults, are not blighted in body or mind by 
any narcotic, or other cause, as only such can 
make proper citizens^ 
Alankind needs neither the vice of tobac- 
co using, alcoholic beverage using, nor any 
other vice, to do his or her best work. In 
fact, one's bodily, business, and mental troub- 
les multiply, and their friction increases, 
from such habits^ To be temporarily 'sooth- 
ed' (have the sensibilities blunted) by such 
habit, is but to blunt, obscure or pervert 
thoughts and realizations of duty. (In this 
connection, see Dr. James L. Tracy's paper 
on The Psychology of the Tobacco Habit in 
the journal American Medicine ^ New York 
City, July, 1909)- 

The statement has been made occassion- 
ally, and often implied, that it is necessary 
for the young to *sow wild oats' and neces- 
sary for mankind to have tobacco or alcohol 
habit, or some other vice. This is the 
most fallacious and pernicious of assertions, 
and could emanate only from an evil mind. 
Because people with these habits are per- 
verted in mind, it is a most outrageous work 
for them to proclaim that others are, or 
should be, like themselves. Such enslaved, 
perverted wills, and minds, are dangerous 
factors to be abroad in the land. Mental 
and moral obliquity go hand in hand. When 
the body and mind, the physical and the 



68 



psychical, are perverted, an}- other evil is 
likely to be near at hand; and the converse 
is also true. 

The personal habits, of body and mind, of 
everyone seeking patronage, or employment 
should be carefully and thoroughly investi- 
gated. Such investigation should be even 
more thoroughly made regarding those seek- 
ing public office. It can readily be under- 
stood by thoughtful, observing persons, that 
anyone handicapped with enslaving, per- 
verting habits cannot retain the full measure 
of a trustworthy man. All public servants, 
and distinctively mental and moral teachers, 
should possess full}^ rounded characters free 
from all vicious habits, and possess influences 
that tend only for the betterment of their 
community and commonwealth in all ways, 

Total abstinence people in every com- 
munity should club together and work pru- 
dently, and forcefully for all of the rights of 
those who desire to live clean and worthy 
lives. 

That many tobacco users often have such 
worthy feelings and desires, is without ques- 
tion. The ph3^sical sufferings wrought by 
tobacco are not so keen as are the frequent 
dissatisfied, even disgusted, condition of the 
minds of yet sensible and would be respect- 
able men, who chafe under the fact that 
they are enslaved by such filthy, vicious 



69 



habit. However, too many, alas, lose all 
will power even to make manly effort to 
quit the vice, and lose, or ignore, their self- 
respect also; even assume the vicious role of 
bravado, in effort to appear wholly regard- 
less of their own welfare, and of the rights 
of those so unfortunate as to be afflicted 
with their presence.* 

No one has any right to flaunt his depra- 
vity and his depraving habit in public. No 
one has a right to circulate on a street or 
elsewhere in public reeking with tobacco, 
much less puffing its smoke in the faces of 
others. Such bravados are becoming intol- 
erabl}' numerous. In business places, public 
offices, even in postofifices, courthouses, 
hotels everywhere, and restaurants, where 
free women and free men are obliged tt) go, 
it has become necessary to pass through an 
atmosphere vitiated by tobacco breaths and 
tobacco sputa! 

These are public outrages upon civiliza- 
tion that self-and-rights-of-others respecting 
men and woman should not longer continue 
to endure meekly, as they have done in the 
past. The right of everyone to pure air, 
unadulterated by tobacco or other deleteri- 
ous odors, should be insisted upon by all 
clean people, forcefully if necessary. 

*See Report on National Vitality^ Its Wastes and 
Conservatism, b}^ Professor Irving Fisher, 1909. 



70 

From the foregoing, and from the candid 
thought by every one, can there be any 
question about the extreme sinfulness of 
tobacco using, and other narcotic habit, — 
of their extreme sinfulness against self, 
against the community, against future gen- 
erations, and against The Creator? 

Reduced to the ultimatum, tobacco is 
worthy of no less an anathema or curse than 
Shakespeare applied to the influence of al- 
coholic beverages: If thou hast no other 
name I will call thee Devil ! Also, of the 
terrible arraignment of its companion evil 
by Reverend Robert Burton (born A. D. 
1577, died 1640) who wrote of tobacco in 
162 1, that: *Tis a plague, a mischief, a 
violent purger of goods, lands and health; 
hellish, devilish, and damned Tobacco; the 
ruin and overthrow of body and soul ! 




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