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Full text of "An Abridgement of Mr. Baxter's History of his life and times : With an account of the ministers, &c. who were ejected after the restauration, of King Charles II ... and the continuation of their history, to the passing of the bill against occasional conformity, in 1711"

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An Account of the Minifters, fe'c 

who were Ejefted after the R.eftauration, 
of King Charles II. 

Their Apology forthemfelves, and their Adherents, 
containing the Grounds of their Nonconformity : 
Their Treatment in xh^ Reign of King Charles^ 
and King J^w<?j-5 and after the Revolution : And 
the continuation of their Hiftory, to the paffing 
of theBillagainflOccafionalConformity,in 171 1. 

The ^am <^XA\m, : In Two V O L U M E S. Vol. I. 

By Edmund Calamy, 2). 2). 


Printed for John Lawrence, at the Angel in the Poultry ; 
y. Nicholjorty and J, and B. Sprint in Little-Britain j 
i^. I{pbinjfon in St. Paul's Ghurch-yard, and N. Ciiffe, 
and D. Jacl^fon in Cheapfide. 1 7 1 3 . 

T O T H E 

Duke oiDevcnjJnre. 

May It pleafe Your Grace, 

OVR Acceptance of 
the former Edition of 
this JVork^^ emboldens 
me to lay the Second at Your 
Graces Feet^ with its fre» 
fent Additions and Amende 

A 2 h 

1- ft -ir-na- 

The Dedication. 

It can he no furpri^ing Tubing 
to Your Grace, that Your 2)e- 
fcent from one who appear'^d fo 
early in the Glorious Caufe of 
Liberty^ and Your own firm Ad^ 
herence to the Principles of the 
RevoluticWl,^ in 'which Your 
ISJolAe Father -W;^ fo JBive: 
Yoiir dec lard Averjton ^io iBigO'm 
try and Terfecution • and Your 
Zeal for the Proteftant Sm^ 
cejjion in the lUuflrious Houfe 
of Hanover ; jhould mal{e 

the ' Proteftadr !^^ 

Qwho are not capahie' of having 
any fecular Interefl to ^ve^ 
eppofite to that in T»hich ^hfbur 
Graces fo heartily engag'd^) 
Anihitiousoffemring^^YoHr go$d 

4. - /: While 

The Dedication. 

JVhile fome purfue them mth 
fttrioHS InveHiveSy n^hich they 
can eajtly dejpije^ they are apt to 
Flatter themfelves^that a jufi Senfe 
of Honour:, mU plead for them 
TOoith tho/e of four Gkaces 
ISIohk T>if^ofttion : Jnd produce a 
T^endernep for a "Body of Men^ 
who endurd great Severities 
from the Laws of their Coun- 
try^ before they could be Tolera^ 
ted '^ and have been rudely inftdted 
jince they have been under the 
Jhelter of the AB of Indulgence ; 
and are at la/i rendred incapable of 
any publicly Service^ and yet are 
exceeded by none in a dijtntere/ied 
JfeBion to their QV E EN and 
Country^ or in an irreconcilable 
Averfton to Topery and Slavery. 


The Dedicatioii. 

It u indeed a great wihappinej^^ 
that Proteftants /hould be Jo 
much divided^ and that -where 
there is fuch an Harmony inToints 
of Faithy there /hould be fuch a 
i»ant of Charity in Matters of 
meer Opinion : "But upon compa^- 
ring the Account here given^ mth 
the Narratives of others^ Your 
Grace mU eafilypaf a fudg^ 
went on 'which Side Charity is 
mo/i wanting. The Tt»o proper 
Seafons for an Accommodation in 
1662 and 1^88, mhich xpere fo 
jludioufy lofl^ will be fujjictent to 
determine that 'Toint -^ together 
mth the Hi[tory of that Occa- 

fional Conformity, nphich 

was dejignd to be exprejjive of 
Charity to thofe^ T»ho have unkindly 
reprefented it as intended to ferve 


The Dedication. 

a Turn^ though its well k;non?n 
to have been praBis*d^ before 
there was any Turn to be fervid 
hy it. 

I can affure Your Grace / 
have been Faithful and Impart ialy 
according to the beft Light I could 
obtain : And rphatever elfe I may 
be miftaken in, am well fatuffd 
in this^ that Your Grace has 
too Noble a Spirit^ to be for our 
being run down mth Obloquy and 
Contempt^ meerly becaufe we can t 
jpeal^ and aU as fome would have 
us^ from whom we cannot jujlly 
b^faid to differ morCy than they 
do among themfelves. 

That Your Grace may be 
long continud aTatron of Liberty ^ 
a Supporter of the Reform' dKeli^ 
giony oj our prefent Government, 


The Dedication. 

and the Proteftant Succefjion, 
as it is happily EfiahlijHd by 
han? among us ^ and leave a 
Kace of "Tatriois behind YoUy 
Eminent for the fame Heredi^ 
tary Spirit of- Gtandenr and 
^enefcence^ to tranfmit %ur 
Name \and Honour unfiaind to 
fucceeding Ages^ is 4he T^rayerof 
many, ^efides^ .\ 

May it pleafe Your G r a c e, 
Your Graces 

i. ' 

Moft Hunjble and 

Moft Obedient Servant, 

Edmuod Calamy^ 



IT is well known to many, that Dr. Henry Snmpfon^ 
who at firft defign'd for the Miniftry, and was af- 
terwards an eminent Phyfician for many Years in 
this City, had taken a great deal of Pains in col- 
lecSting Materials for a Hiftory of Nor.conformity, and 
Memoirs concerning the Ancient and Modern Noncon- 
formifts. Several of his Papers having been kindly pnc 
into my Hands, and of ufe to me in this Work, efpeci- 
ally in the Second Part ; and amongft the reft, having 
by me a Plan of his De/ign, I {hall here Communicate 
it to the World. It was to be Entitled, 

" An Ejfay of the Hiftory of PVJ^ITANISM and 
" 'NOI^CONFOBJAITT: Declaring what (he Men of 
** fhofe Chnraciers have done and Jujferd ^ fince tht 
*' Reformation of Religion /» E N G L A N D." It began 

The IntroduBion^ or a Preface, (hewing what were the 
Things contended for, and the Points of Difference, as 
well in DoBrine as Dijcif>line, Government^ Liturp, 8cc, 
wherein they deHr'd Refornutioif. And Twenty fix 
Chapters were to follow in this Order ; 

Chap. I. Of fuch as are faid to have Aded or Suffered 
in the Caufe of Reformation during the Reign of King 
Henry VMl: Particularly, TiW<j/, Frithy Barnes, Bi.n.y, 
Lambert, Garret, Hierom, 8cc. Ihewing how fir they 
jigreed with the Diflenters, or difagreed from them. 

With an Appendix concerning Tindal's Tranllation of 
the Bible, 

Chap. II. Of thofe that were the great Promo- 
ters of the Reformation in the Days of EHveard VI. 
How far they inclinM to Puriianijm and Noticoufr^ 
mity, (fo caird in after Times) or hgw avcife thereco .- 

a «'^^- 


^»v of K}dley^ Hooper, CrnnmeTy Latimer , Verrex^ 
H.irly, Taylor, Pqynet, and Others, compilers of the 
Common Prayer: Of the Mirreprefcntations given of 
the 111 by Dr. Heylin. 

An appendix of the feveral Unglifh Bibles in publick 
Ufe hitbeno. 

Chaf. III. Of the Attempt that was made for the J^tf- 
fofin-itio Legum Ecclefinflicarum, in King Edward's Days ; 
Its beginning, progrels, and frulViation in that, and in 
0.ueen E'li^abeth'i Reign afterwards. 

C'.\^p. IV. Of other principal Perfons that fuffer'd in 
the Matiati Days; how far they feem to own the Puri- 
tan Do6trines and Principles : •&;;(. iipj^erj, Sanders, 
Bradford, Samuel^ Carele/s, &c. 

Chap. V. Of fuch as were Exiles in Queen Mary'*s 
Reign . Their Congregations and Difcipline at Fratik/ord, 
^urlch^ Strashurghy Arrow, Geneva, ^^^fiK ^^* 

With an Appendix of the Tranflation of the Bible, 
and finging Pfalms at Geneva. 

Chap. VI. Of thofe that return'd from Exile in the 
Reign of Queen Eli:{abeth, and became Dignitaries in 
the Church : Their Temper and Difpolition towards the 
Nonccnformifts: vi:{, Grindal, Sands j Parl{lmrft^ CoXy 
Pitktngtov, Noxvel, fVoitingham, Cole^ Humphry s. Turner^ 
Horn, Jewel, &c. With an Appendix concerning that 
Tranllarioo of the Bible callM the Bifloopt Bible, 

Chap. VII. Of the Queens InjunUions^ and the Con- 
troverfie moved thereupon, about Conformity to the At- 
tire, wliereupon divers refus'd Preferment in the Church, 
and others that had already been prefcrr*d were' now de- 
priv'd; amongft whi^h were fome thatcamc from Exile: 
An 1 5f 6. As Covcrdale, Bale, Leaver, Samp/on^ PuUeyn, Carlijlcy 
Peifecu- Fax, ff^hitehead, Gtlby, Crowly, Goodman, &c. Others 
lion i. vvere of the fame Mind, and fuffer'd in like Manner, 
but had never been Exiles: As Gilpin, Morton^ Che/ion^ 
JKjnglmiS, fVitheri, (Fellow of Queen's College Cam^ 
bridge) 8cc, 

Chap. VIII. Of the Opinion of fome Foreign Divines 
about thefe Controverfies and Sufferings ; their inrerpofing 
by Letters to the Queen or Bilhops : Such as Calvin (once 
and again before it came to Deprivation) P^Martyr, 
/^nmhy^ Bc:^a, BuUifigcr, Gualter, 


The P R E F A C B. 

Chap. IX. Of the Admonitign to the Parliament • the 
Authors and Defenders thereof, and Sufferings thereup- 
on ; and other Troubles thar fell upon divers others Per'etru 
from the 1 5th of the Queen, till the Death of Archbi- tion U.* 
fhbp Parker: Which wqsq Edward Dealings Crane, fj/ii- 
coXy Standoriy Field, Cartmight^ I^bcrp Traven, Fcnn of 
Coventry, Grembam, Fw'ky Mnrbury, Gaxvton, Sec. 

Chap. X. Of the quiet Time whilft Edward Grindat 
was Archbifliop of Canterbury, and the great coalefcence 
of Minds, whilft by fo much Moderation and induftri- 
ous Piety, he prefided in the Church : With ReflejSions 
upon Dr. Hey tin and others, as to what ihey fay about 
Grindali:(ers, .; 

Chap. XL Of the firft Storm under Archbifhop ^%iV- 
gift, upon the coming out of his Three ArticJfes, and re- 
quiring Subfcription to them. Of feteral Troubles oc- 
cafion'd to the Nonconformifts by the publifhing of 
Martin-Mar-Prelate, the fpreading of Brownifme, the 
Madnefs and Treafon of Hac^et, &c. which fome did 
endeavour to fix on them. Of the feveral Perfons that 
were troubled, deprived, and filenc'd by this Archbilhop 
or his Agents, in the High CommiiTion Court, the Star- Perfecu- 
Chamber, and the Courts Ecclefiaftical: vi:{. Vdal, Tra- tioa 111. 
^>ers, Dudly Fenner, Gifford, Bjch. I^ogers^ Perkins, Brown^ 
LevervpQodyCharkfGardinery Snape, Bainht ig, Jobnfon^ Penry, 
old Mr. Cavpdry^Scc: John P^yrMs o^ Oxon^ and H^. Wi)i- 
taker oi Cambridge y notefcaping his frowns and menaces. 
Chap. XII. Of the Patrons and Favourers of theNon- 
conformifts during the whole Reign of Queen Eli:[abcth^ 
by whofe Means under God they weather d out all thefe' 
Storms: As the Lord Keeper S^cow, the, Lord Treafurer 
Burleigh, the great Earls of Bedford, fVarwick, Leicefier 
and Huntington^ the Lords Grey and Hoveard^ S'u Fmnck 
Walfingham, Sir H^alter Mildmaye, Sir Amiens Pculet, Sir 
FrancH KjioUes, Mr. Beale, Sec. in the Court ; befides 
divers eminent Gentlemen in the Houfe of Commons, 
aiid in the Country. 

Chap, XIII. Of their principal Adverfaries amongft 
the Nobility, Gentry, and Clergy : Thofe that ad- 
ed or wrote moft keenly againft them ; as the Arch- 
bifljops Parker and fVhitgifi^ the Lord Chancellors 
tiatton and Bromley; the Lord Keeper Pickering} 
The Biihops ^Imtr, Cooper, Bridges, Bancroft; 

a 2 Dr. 


Dr. Sutcliff ^ Dr. Co:(ins^ Dr. Stanhope, Mr. B^gers^ 
Mr. Hoohr^ &c. 

C/7/a/). XIV. Of the entrance of King Jnmes. The Con- 
ference at Hampton-Couu. Of the four Perfons nominated 
"by the King to reprefentthc Cafe of the Nonconfornnifts ; 
vi:{. Dr. Reynolds, Sparkj, ChaJertot:, and Kpevojlub ; with 
an Appendix concerning a Tranflation of the Bible, fol- 
lowing hereupon, commonly cali'd the Kings Tranfla- 

Chap. XV. Of the Convocation that followed not 

'long after, and the Conftituiions there made; and the 

-depriving, filencing, Infpending, and admonilhing of 

above 300 Minifters, during the Time Dr. Bancroft was 

Archbilhpp of Canterbury^ fome of which bore thefe great 

Pe fs-cu- ' 'Sa.mcs, Hilderjham, Dod^ Pnrl{er, Sherwood, Midgeleyy 

lion IV. Burgefi, Bourn, "B/tin, Brad/haw, Taylor,- P^g^^j Carter^ 

BateSy F{othvQelly Broughton^ Brightman, H^ootton^ Jacoh^ 

Pike, John Nicols, &c. With a fujl Catalogue of the 


Chap. XVI. Of their Troubles during the Time of 
Dr. i^^^orj being Archbi(hop, which was a tolerably quiet 
Interval, efpecially in the latter part of it, and produc'd 
many Moderate Conformifts, but fuch as were uneafie 
enough under the Ceremonies, iftid were reputed Puri- 
tans: Such as Bo//^on, Sibbs, Prejlon, Barnard, Stoughton, 
Ward of Ipfmch, John Doxvnham, Pemble, Byfield, Dr. 
■Gouge, &C. Of fuch as were troubled in other Dioccfes, 
vi:(. Ames, Hind^ !{. Nichols, 8(C. 

■' Chap. XVII. Of their great Vexations whilft Dr. Laud 

was Favourite, and Archbifhop, and had his Creatures 

a(5iing in their fevcral Diocefcs ; fuch as Dr. iVren, Peirfe^ 

Perfecii- Lyndfel, (3c. Partly by prefling the legal Conformity to 

tioa V. the height, and introducing fome Things that were cajfd 

new Conformities; partly by putting down and filencing 

all Le£iurers, and partly by fufpending fuch as refus'd to 

read the Book, of Sports : Whereupon above a hundred 

fled into New-England, and divers into Holland: And 

many were forc'd to abfcond, or fiifTei' the trouble of the 

Pcrrecu- "High Commil^on; fome of which were, Hooker, Cotton^ 

lion VX. Eliiot, Stone, Shcpp^rd, Bulkly^ FQtovc^les, Mather, Good^ 

"win, Sim/on, Jof. Sifnmondi^ H^ard^' Herring, Burton, 

Hoxlcy, Edwards, Carter, Tijomas, Crooks, Nevrton, Jenni^ 

foH^ H^r^thy pVilJcnf Valentim, Archer, Capcl, 3cc, 

' ' Chapi 

The PRE FA C E. 

chap, XVIII. Of the entrance' of ihc Long Parlia- 
ment, the calling of the AlTembly of Divines, the Nameg 
and Charaders of thofe that fate, their Bufinefs in their 
many Seflions from 1643 till 1647, with a Vindication 
of fuch of them as Ant. a IVood hath afperfed in bis A- 
thence Oxon. Of the folemn League and Covenant 
which in this interval was compofed, and in many Pla- 
ces rigoroufly imposed, to the prejudice of their Caufe, 
and fequeftring many of the Epifcopal Clergy. 

Ch/fp. XIX. Of the State of Religion, and Carriage 
of thofe heretofore reputed Nonconformifts, from the 
Time of King Charles the Firft's Death, till the Reftau- 
ration of King Charles the Second. 

Chap. XX. Of their Intereft and Agency for the King's 
Rfftauration ; and their endeavours for a Reformation 
after he was reftor'd. Of the Conference at the Savoj. 
The King's Declaration concerning Ecclefiaftical 

Chap. XXL Of the Depriving and Silencing no lefs • 
than 2000 Minifters by an A(St of Parliament, that took 
Place Aug, 24. 1 661, Of another Adl againft Conven- 
ticles the Year following. 

Chap, XXIL Of a Third AA of Parliament procured 
againA them, by which they were oblig'd to quit all 
Corporations, and the Places they Preach'd at, to live „ ^ 
Five Miles from them, or be imprifond. t-l^'^Ma 

Chap, XXIIL Of a Fourth Ad procured agimft '^ ^^^' 
them, whereby their Preaching to above Four Perfons, 
others than of the Family, was declared a Conven- 
ticle; the Preacher to pay 20/, and the Houfe 2o/.Perfecu- 
more, (^c, tion IX. 

Chap, XXIV. Of his Majefty's Declaration for Liber- 
ty of Confcience, Mnrch 15. 167^, and of the Liberty 
of Meeting and Preaching thereupon taken for fome few 

Chap. XXV. Of the abrogation of that Declaration : 
And the prorrading of Liberty not withftanding, in fomc perfecu- 
Places till the Year i68o; From whence the ipvereft of tio^ x. 
thefe Perfecutions enfued. 

Chap. XXVL An Account of thofe 2000 Nonconfor- 
mifks that weredepriv'd and (jlenc'd after the Reftaura- 
tion of King Charles the Second j exhibiting a Lift of 
thisir Names J fome Ihort Account of the Adings, Wri- 

%^ tings. 

The P R E F A C t. 

tings, md Sufferings of fever al of the moft Eminent 
aiDongft them ; and the Charaders of fuch of them as 
jinf. J t4'ocd hath injuriooHy retieded on, and falfly rc- 
prefented, modeftly Vindicated. 

Had this Work been finilh'd, and appear d in the 
World, it might have been a means of convincing fomc, 
that Nonconformity hath all along had a elder eonnexion 
with both oir Civil and Religious fnrereft, than they 
are willing to allow: And that the prefent Nonconform 
mifts, (as much as they are inveigh'd againft) A<9t in the 
main upon the fame Principles with tbofe who have 
been moft Eminent for rcriou<: Religion ever (ince the 
Reformation^ But he did not live to accomplifli his 
Defign, and bis Papers have fince been fcatter'd. Mr. 
lipgcr Morrice alfo had made great CoUedlions for the 
fame Ptirpofe, which might yet help in fuch a Defign, 
when one of fuitable Ability is at leifure for that 

Thefe Two Volomes which I now publilh, take in 
the Nine laft Chapters of Dr. S/impfon^s Plan ; and if the 
other Seventeen Chapters were brought within the 
compafs of another Volume of the like bulk, I appre- 
hend it would be an ufeful Work. 

I here take for my Foundation, Mr. BaxtA^^i Narra- 
tive of his Life and Times, which has been Extant fdr 
feveral Years, and has met with the fame Treatment as 
he in his Life time was fo much us'd to, both as to his 
Perfon and Writings ; It has been much valuM by fome, 
and as much flighted by others : But where it has been 
moft freely cenfur'd, it has been generally acknowledg'd 
to contain a Colle(Sion of many valuable Things of di- 
vers Kinds ; and that an Epitome of it would be accep- 
table and ufefnl. 

' I don't think it needful to trouble the World with a 
particular Account how I came firft to undertake it: 
If 1 had thought that would have wanted an cxcufe, I 
had nfever medled: And tbf reform fhall only fay, that 
thinking I mightthis Way profitably employ forte Time 
and Pains, I was willing to do what I could to make 
mv Abridgement of genferal Ufe. In order to it, tho* 
I ha^e endeavour'd to fay much in ai litde, yet 1 have 
nor willingly omitted any Thing that I tho'i Material. 
I have rcduc'd Thin'gs to that Method that appear 'd to 



me moft proper. Perfonal Reflexions and little Priva- 
cies I have dropt, and Things which were out of date I 
have pafs'd over lightly. Sometimes I have kept pretty' 
much to his Language, and fometimes 1 have taken the 
freedom to ufe my own. I have divided the whole into 
Chapters, and given Things a little Connexion:' And 
perhaps have this way taken more Pains, than it needed 
have coft me, had the Work been entirely new. Of my 
Performance I muft be contented every one Ihould judge 
according to their Pleafure; fori could expea no other, 
whatfoever i might be able to fuggeft to befpeak their 

When Mr. Baxter in his Hiftory comes to the Ad of 
Uniformity, he fubjoyns the Controverfie bet wen the 
prefent Conformifts and Nonconformifts which takes up 
Eleven Sheets. Inftcad of abridging that, I rather 
had recourfe to his Nonconformity Stated and [^indicated^ 
in Quarto; which contains the Sum of his Thoughts 
that are any where extant, upon the feveral Points in 
Debate. 1 have reduc'd the fubftance of them with- 
in the compafs of my Tenth Chapter^ which I have En- 
tituled. The I{eaJons of the Ejected Miniflert for their 
Nonconformity. And that that Title might be the better 
anfwer'd, I have drawn in, what has been Written 
upon the fame Argument by others, with references 
to the feveral TraSs, where thofe Things of which I 
have only given the general Heads, will be found con- 
(ider'd diftindly and at large. The making this Ac- 
count fuccind, clear, and methodical^ was a Work 
of more than a little Time and Labour. 

I have caft that Chapter into this Method. 1 have 
firft given their Reafons why they could not comply 
with the Demands of the A^ of Parlianncnt, in order to 
the continuance of their publick Miniftry. Then 
follows a brief Reprefentation of the Grounds upon \ 

which they f^ill held on in the Miniftry, though they i 

parted with their Livings. I have added the Grounds > 

upon which many People held chemfelves oblig'd to 
adhere to them, while they continu'd their Miniftry; 
how Minifters and People were defended from 
the Charge of Schifra ; and upon what Grounds the 
more Moderate among them yielded to Occafionnl Com- 
mmiion with the Parilh Churches, even while they 

a 4 kept. 


kept up a ftaced Separation. And upcMi the whole I 
thmk 1 may ventnre to fay, that he that will take the 
Pains to perufe that Chapter, may at one view take 
in the whole Caufe in debate, and fee the ftrengih of 
the Argument, abftradted from perfonal Brangles and 
Contefts, which as far as I can difcern, feldom contri- 
bute eirher Light or Strength. 

However, that Chapter having drawn me into a 
Controverfie with Mr. Ollyffe and Mr. Hondly^ wh» 
thought it neceffary to Vindicate thcmfelves, from 
one who had not the leaft thought of affaulting them, 
and was only Hiftorically relating the Sentiments of 
others with their Reafons; and there having been fe- 
veral Books publilh'd on each Side, which all have 
not leifure to read diftindtly, and which few that do, 
are able to retain afterwards ; I have taken the Pains 
in this Second Edition, to give the fubftance of the 
Arguments in this whole Controverfie on both Sides, 
referring to the feveral Traces, where the Matters un- 
der confideration may be feen more at large : And 
though I don't fuppofe it eafie to fatisfie fome that they 
are not mifreprefented, unlefs all their Words are given 
at large, Cwhich quite excludes that compendious way 
of confidering things, which to many is the moft agree- 
able) yet I can fafcly fay there is not any Thing that 
I have delignedly mifreprefented, nor is there any 
Thing that appeared to me to be Material, that I can 
remember I have wholly wav'd. My doing this has 
confiderably enlarged that Chapter, but could 1 have 
entertainM a Thought that the generality ot Rea- 
ders would have thought that to be to their damage, 
it might have favM me not a little Pains. 

But if any fhoald think that Chapter dry or tedious^ 
it may perhaps make the other parts of the Volume re- 
lilh the better, it having been my endeavour, fo to order 
u, that there Ihonld be a convenient mixture of Hiftory 
and Argument running through it: And as this has made 
it the more agreeable to many, fo 1 have fome realon 
ro think, thai: fome have been the more difgutted upon 
that very Account. Belides the fummary of the main 
Controverfie in the Tenth Chapter, there are feveral 
conficlerable Points that are elfewhere canvafs'd, and 
ififertcd in the moft proper Places in the Narrative. 



As for Inftanee, A Debate concerning the Neceirity of 
a clear and uninterrupted Succefllon in the Miniftry 
which fome lay fuch a fttefs upon ; page 1 22, 113, (^c I 
And another, about unwarrantable Impoficions, and 
the true Senfe of thai celebrated Text, ^om, 14. i, x, 5. 
pag. 166. The warrantablenefs, the prudence, and 
the confequences of the Bartholomew Eje(^ion is freely 
Debated, pag. 183, (^c: And the Account given of 
the fevcral Attempcs in order to an accomiKodation of 
the Difference, will appear to contain Argument to 
convince, as well as Hiftory to inform, fuch as are 
ftrangers to thefe Matters, but fo far unprejudic'd as 
to be able to weigh Things with Candor and Impar- 

Mr. Baxters Hiftory proceeds no farther than the Year 
1 684 : And therefore in my former Edition, befidts 
additional Palfages caft all along into the Margin, 
which I thought might not be difagreeable, I added a 
continuation ; containing not only an Account of Mr. 
Baxters Trial, that was never publifh'd before, (in 
which I had the concurring Teftimony of feveral who 
were at that Time prefent in the Court) but alfo the State 
of the Dilfeoters in the Reign of King James^ and in 
the firft Years of the Reign of King iVilliam and 
Queen Mary^ And enter'd on the Debates that were 
on Foot foon after our laft happy Revolution ; endea- 
vouring to reprefent ihem with all pofTible fairnefs j 
particularly that about a Comprehenfion , which the 
Diflenters had at that Time fome realon to have ex- 
pe(5ted ; nor were they wanting in any requifite or be- 
coming ftep in order to it ; nor was it their fault that it 
was not effe(5led. When fo fair an Opportunity will re- 
turn again, God only knows. 

In this Second Edition, befides feveral not inconfidc- 
rable marginal Additions all along, by way of Confir- 
mation and Elucidation; and an Account of feveral 
controverfial Writings on both Sides, inferted in their 
proper Places; and Remarks on thofe Paflages in the 
TKird Volume of the CompUat Hijhry of England, in 
Folio, which unkindly refled on the Perfons or Caufc 
of the Nonconformifts, there is a continuation of the 
Hiftory through King H^illiams Reign, and Queen 
Anne's, down to the pafling the Occafional hiil ih*? laft 


The P R B F A C E. 

Year. Thcfe Additions make up a full Third Part of 
the prefenC Volume. They contain among other 
Things, fome Account of the Conceflions of the Ec- 
clehartical Comroilfioners in 1689: The Carriage of the 
Diflcnters after their Liberty, their Differences among 
themfelves, and their Treatment from their Brethren 
of the Church of England : The whole Controverfie 
about Occdfional Conformity: The Differences of thofe 
of the Eftablifh'd Church among themlelves, about the 
Nature, Power, and Priviledges of Convocations, ^c; 
with a faithf j] Reprcfentation of the fubftance of feve- 
ral Trcatifes about Toleration^ Church Povper, Liberty, 
and divers EcclcfiafticAl Matters^ that were publifh*d 
from 1688 to 171 1. And in the clofe I have fubjoyn'd 
the {{eformed Liturgy ^ which was drawn up and pre- 
fented to the Bidiops in 1661; that the World may 
judge how fairly the Eje(3:ed Minifters have been 
often repreferited as irreconcileable Enemies to all Li- 

I am far from having any reafon to repent of my 
publifhing the former Edition of this Work, noiwith- 
ftanding all the angry Refledhons I have met with. 
The repeated Thanks I have had from all Parts, from 
Perfons of very different Charav5ters and Denominati- 
ons, are to me more than a Compenfition for all the 
Gall and Venom that others have pour'd forth fo plen- 
tifully. I am far from expedting that this prefent Edi- 
tion will be to the guft of fuch as were incens'd by the 
former. But they may take their own Way ; i appeal 
tQ Pofterity, for whom I have taken fome Pams : And 
I hope they'l judge of Things more coolly, than the in- 
flamed Age we Jive in. 

I have indeed had my (hare of Reproach, and yet am 

far from being difcourag'd. For fome Years, there 

was fcarce a Pamphlet came out on the Church fide, 

in which I had not the Honour of being referr'd to in 

the invecf^ive Part of it: But the keen Edge of their 

Authors fecm'd to have been fomewhat abated, upon 

my taking no notice of their At- 

* See dn Apology for the Church tacks,till a Writer who came out the 

0/ England, (^c By John Lewis, laft Year * is pleas'd to difcover his 

late of Exeter-ffl//<r(re in Oxford, fear leaft I fhould be fuffer'd to 

«»</ Mifiifter of Margate. remtin quiet, by rcprcfenting me 


4i one too much hyajTd, to have any Thing I fay, concerning 
the Party I have ejpom'd^ believd on viy hnre IVord, This 
is a flight that I muft confefs 1 little expeAed from 
one of Mr. Lfww's Charaaer. Time has been when I 
have had the happinefs of that Gentleman'i Conver- 
fation, and his Difcourfe and Carriage was fuch as 
made me apprehcnfivc he was delirous to have the 
Credit of lingular Temper and Moderation. If my 
Memory does not fail me, (and 1 believe 1 could pro- 
duce the Hand of a Voucher that was an Ear Witnefs 
if ii was needful) he was pleas d very generoufly to 
give me Thanks for my Abridgement, Which way I 
fiave incurr'd his Difpleafure fince, I am not aware. 
However, if it may be any Satisfadiion to him, I 
here give it him under my Hand, (and I'll certain- 
ly ftand to it) that I have not half the Zeal for the 
Piflenting Party, as fome he knows have for another 
Party, that are too much for monopolizing the Cove* 
nant Mercy of God, and the profitable Favour of Men, 
to thofe of their own Stamp and Chara£ter only. And 
that he mayn't be put upon believing this on my bare 
PVord^ I can give him this Evidence of it ; that I would 
go much further in parting with the known Faults, 
and Infirmities and Imperfeftions of the Diflenten, 
than the G.entlemen I refer to, would with the Difor- 
ders and Irregularities of the Party they have fallen 
in with, which when they have done their beft, they 
cannot juftifie or excufe. 

I would gladly .have fo ordred Matters, as that they 
that had purchased the former Edition, might have 
had the prefent Additions by themfclves : But the 
Nature of the Work would not bear it. However, 
I can now undertake that in any future Editions, 
care ihall be taken to prevent any Complaints of 
detriment in that Refped. I have made fomc 
Alterations in the Courfe of this Work at the de- 
fire of Friends, and fometimes have had the be- 
nefit of help from my Enemies, whom I can at 
any time thank for what Light they help me to, 
while I heartily pity them for their Heat and 

I have nothing to add, but this, as before, that 
if I have mifs'd of Truth in any 'Point, it has been 


unwillingly, and upon better Information I ihall be 
ready to own my Error. I have not been free in 
Perfonal Reflcdions, which are made with much 
more eafe than they are born when returned. Va- 
rious Cenfures will not furprize me, nor will any 
flarts of Wit affect me. Tis enough for me , if I 
may have the Approbation cf Men of Temper, 
I defirc not to offend any ; For I know not the Man, 
much lefs the Patcy, to whom I bear any Enmity or 
ill Will. 




THERE being fome who may be willing to 
fearch into the bottom of that Coniroverfie 
that hath been depending ever (incc the Rcfor- 
noation, between the Affertors of the Perfection of the 
Eftablifh'd Church, and thofe who have adled upon 
the oppofite Principle, of the Neceflity of a further Re- 
formation, in order to an happy Settlement ; I have 
been defir*d in order to their Satisfadiion, to point out 
the Writings, which may be judg'd to Contain the 
ftrength of the Caufe of the DifTenters. In compli- 
ance with which defire, I recommend the following 
Writings to the perufal of the Curious, who arc, with- 
out taking Things upon Truft, for feeing with theit 
own Eyes. 

A part of a ^gifter; containing fundry mennorablc 
Matters, written by divers Godly and Learned in our 
Time, which ftand for, and defire the Reformation of 
our Church in Difcipline and Ceremonies, • according 
to the pure Word of God, and the Law of our Land> 

De Polheia^ EcclefjafticS Chrifti, & Hierarchicha Oppo- 
Jita, Libri Tres : Authore Roberto Parkcro Anglo, ad 
B^gnum Dei doEliUimo, An. Dom. 1 6xi. in Quarto. 

A Scholaftical Difcourfe againft Symbolizing with 
Antichrift in Ceremonies, efpecially in the Sign of the 
Crofs. An, 1607. in Fol. 

Concerning this Book fee Ames's frelh Suit, p,^i, 

DidocUvii Alt are Damafcenum, Quarto. 1623. 

Dav. Blondelli Apologia pro Sententia Hieronymi de Eplf- 
copis ^ Presbyteris, Amftel. 1646. Quarto. 

Ames*s frelh Suit againft Ceremonies, Quartoi 16^' 

Giltejpys Difpute againft Englifhy Popi/h Ceremonies, 
8cc. Quarto, 1637. 

SmeHymnuui, Quarto. 1 640. The Firft and Second Part. 

The Papers that pafs'd in the Conference ar the Savoy 
in 1661, which were Printed fiift in Quarto, a little af- 


ter the ending of the Conference ; and afterwards raore 
at large in Mr. Baxter's Life in Folio, and are here 

Biihoip Stilling fleet* shenicum, Quarto. 1662. 

Mr. Cor^e/'s Remains, Quarto. 1684. 

Mr. Baxter's Englifh Nonconformity, as under King 
CbarlesW. and King James II, truly Stated and Argu'd, 
Qparto. 1690, 

Mr. Ton^s Defence of Mr. Hemys brief Enquiry into 
che Nature of Scbifm, Quarto. 1 6^'^, 

Vindicia Fratrum Dejftntientium in Anglia, Adverfus 
KC/. Guliclmi Nicholfii, S.T.P. Defenfionem Ecclejj<e 
Anglican^e ; AuHore Jacobo Peircio Presbyter 0, O^fiavo. 

He that will be at the Pains to perufc thefe feveral 
Writings, will find that the Diffenters have much to fay 
in their own Defence, and little reafon to be troubie- 
fome to the World by repeating their Pleas, as often as 
fucb as iove Contention, think fit to renew the Charges 
that have been fo oft brought againfl them, and as often 
anfwer'd. What were this but to perpetuate a Difpute, 
the accommodating which by an amicable Agreement, 
would be more for dor Intereft and Safety, Peace and 
Co/nfort on all Hands. 




O F T H I S 


CHAP. I. Mr. Baxter'/ B'rtb and Educntion, 
early Serioufnejs j and entrance into the Mini- 
flryi page, I. 

CHAP. II. Hk firfl Sentiments concerning Conformity. 
His acceptance in hii firjl Minijlerial Labours ; and the 
Difficulties he met with : His Settlement at Kedermin- 
ftcr. p. 1 1. 

CHAP, III. The Oppojftion he at fir ft met with in that 
Town, His indefatigable Labours^ and the admirable 
efficacy of his Miniftry in that Place, p. 12. 

CHAP. IV. The I{ife and Springs of the Civil fVar, 
Some brief touches of the Hiftory of the Times^ tiS the 
cutting off the King, p. 37. 

C H A P. V. I{efleHions on public^ TranfaSlions from 
the Death of Kjng Charles I, to the I{eJiauraticncfKjng 
Charles II. P- ^i• 

C H A P. VI. Mr, Baxter*; ConduB of himjelf during 
thefe publicly Commotions and frequent Alterations, Bis 
Behaviour in the Army, and towards Ciomwel. Hk 
trouble from the SeBaries of thofe Times ; with an Ac- 
count of their I^fe and Prevalence ^ Principles and Pra- 
Biees, P- 74- 

CHAP. VII. His general Vfefulnefs in the whole Coun- 
ty, while he remain d in WorcefterOiire. Hk publicly 
Service by hit pacificatory Endeavours, and other PVays, 

p. III. 

CHAP. VIII. The TranfaBions in Order to the healing 
pafid Breaches after King Charles'; t(eftauration. The 
^ayoy Conference^ and its fruit Icfi Jjfuc, p. i39- 

L/ rl i» 1 • 


CHAP. IX. The AH of Vniformity, and B^efleaions 
upon it ; And the ejeHing and filencing of many worthy 
Perfons by it. page i8i. 

CHAP. X. The Grounds of the Nonconformity of 
the Minifters who were EjeHed, Their Vindication of 
themfelvej, and fuch oi adher'*d to them. p* I9S« 

CHAP. XI. Mr. Baxter'^ Settlement in London. 

The Occafion of his Separation from his beloved People at 

' Kederroinftcr. His Carriage to them after he left them, 

Hk Labour i in London till he woijllencd. p. 294: 

CHAP. XII. Hu own and hi Brethrens Treatment af^ 
ter their EjeHion^ tiS the Indulgence in 167;. p. 304. 

CHAP. XIII. An Account of their Cafe^ from the 
time of the Indulgence in 1671, till the Death of Kjng 
Charles II. p* 334•- 

C H A P. XIV. Their Cafe in the B^eign of Kjng 
James II. p. 366. 

CHAP. XV. Mr. Baxter'j Manifold Temptations, 
His Improvements and Alterations as he advanced inTears, 
Hh Deliverances and Supports. Hvs Inil Sickpefs and 
Death : And Intereft in Men of Note and Figure in the 
Days he liv din, . P* 39o* 

CHAP. XVI. m H^orks and Writings. p. 41 o. 

CHAP. XVIL The Cafe of the Diffenters and their 
Treatment^ and the new State of Things, in the begin" 
ning of the I{eign of 1{ing William and Queen MsLiy, 

p. 421. 

CHAP. XVIII. The Cafe of the Diffenters^ and other 
Ecclefiafiieal Matters in the following Tears of the I{eign 
of Kl"S William; p. 484. 

CHAP. XIX. An Account of the Cafe of the Dijfenters^ 
and of other material Incidents in the ^eigh of Queen 
Anne, tiS the paffing the BiU againfl Occafional Con- 
formity, /» 1 7 1 1 . p. 4zo.' 




O F T H E 


Mr. Richard Baxter. 

CHAP. r. 

His Birth and Education^ Early Serioufnefs^ 
and Entrance into the Miniflry, 

FAR the Greater Number of thofe who have 
bin fent to k(St a Part on the State of this 
Lower World, have either pafsM off filently, 
or mifemploy'd their Activity ; fo that their 
Names are either bury'd in Oblivion, or ftigmatiz'd, 
to the Warning and Terrour of Pofterity. Among 
fuch as have made the greatcft Figure while Living, or 
bin moft applauded after their Deceafe, many have 
ow'd their Diftinguifli'd Reputation^ to the Stock that 
JDore them, to their Peculiar outward Helps and Ad- 
vantages, or to certain Accidental Hits, that are not 
to be accounted for : While in the mean time, there 
have in all Ages bin fome few others, who have bin 
fignaliz'd by their Remarkable Endowments, and ex- 
traordinary Adions^ the Fame of yvhich hath long 

B furviv'd 

The LIFE of Chap. L 

farviv'd them, and given a Luftre to their Names in 
The Annals of Time. Such have bin their MerirSj 
that they have broke thro* all thofe Clouds which En- 
vy and Malice have rais'd to obfcure them. So Great 
Bieirings have they prov'd ro the World, that Attempts 
to detracfl fi om them, have recoil'd upon the Affailants 
to their own Infamy. 

Under the Great Degeneracy of ..the Prefent Age, 
which is the Matter ot fo juft Complaint, we have 
had feme Inftances of this kind. Mr. Pjchard Baxter 
(the Subjedt of the Enfuing Hiftory) cannot be de- 
ny'd to be one of the Number. His Soul was too 
Grear for an Ufelefs and Unacftive Life, and his Piety 
and Integrity too Confpicuous for him lo be juftly 
Charg'd with perverting his Uncommon Abilities, or 
mifemploying his Confiderabic Inrereft. His Rife was 
mean, and his Defcent obfcure; he had no external 
Advantages to raife and diftinguifli him, but as many 
Difficulties to break through as moft Men, and yet 
hath his Perfonal Merit advanc'd his Reputation to that 
height, that it will outlive the Calumnies of ail his De- 
His Birth. . He was a Native of Shropfhire, His Father was a 
Freeholder of that County, who made no great Fi- 
gure His Eftate was but fmall; and fo encumbred 
with Debts, as not to be clear'd without much Thrift 
and Good Husbandry. His Mother was of the fame 
County ; being the Daughter of Mr. ^chard Adeney 
of I{owto7?^ near High Ercal^ the Seat; of the Lord 
Ncvpjfort. There was he born, November the nth. 

1 615, and there he fpent his 
Vr. Bues declares in his Sermon Infancy, which was fo remark- 
et his funeral. That he had receird able in nothing as in the Difco- 

this Teliimony conccrninx his Early ygj.y ^f ^ ^IQUS IncHnation, 

T^cty. H'.s Father faid v^ith Tears ^vhich gave great Hopes to fuch 
fJrl /'/ ! \ ^]r T t' as obfeiv'd him. When he waa 

cnard / ir>pe w.^s SanUihd from , vr r a 1. 

the Womb; Tor ^hen he i^ I lit^ ^^^^"^ J5 ^eatS of Age, hc WRS 

lie Boy in Coats, if he heard other taken Home by his Parents to 

children in Tlay fpeaJc Frofane ^^^^« Connantine , ( a Vlilag^e 
Words, he vffouU reprove them, to aboUt 5 Miles fronj ^hrovosbury) 

f he Tponda of thtm that heard him. where he paft away his Child- 
hood and Youth, which upon 
Refledtion, he according to the Wife Man's Ccijf»Jr«p 
found to be Vanity. Hc 

Chap. I. Mr, Elichard Baxter. 

He was unhappy in his Edocadon, with Refped h/j eJw 
Loch CO Learning and Piety. His Sahoolniafters wete/'^f'^^- 
both Lewd anJ Ignorant. For wane of better Inftru- 
aers, he fell into the Hands of the Readers of the Vil- 
lages he livM in. Learning was at no great height in fo 
remote a Corner of the Land: Neither could much Im- 
provement be expe(fle4 in fo Barren a Soil. His Greac- 
eft Help in Granvper Learning was from Mr.John O^en^ 
Mafter of the Free-School at ^Vroxeter, with whom he 
continu'dj 'till he had bin fome time Captain of his 
School ; and advanc d as far as his Aififtance would for- 
ward him. 

He had not afterwards the Advantage of an Aca- 
demical Education, and yet, (to ufe the Words of the 
Reverend Dr. Bates) by the Divine BleiTing upon his 
rare Dexterity and Diligence, his Sacred Knowledge 
was in that Decree of Eminence, as few in the Uni- 
veriity ever arrive to. None could be more Deiirous 
of Academical Helps than he ; but he was depriv'd of 
them by a Propofal of his SchooImafter*s, much to his 
Sorrow. When he was leaving his School, Mr. Owen 
(as may well be fuppos'd out of real Kindnefs) moti- 
on d his Living with Mr. Rjcknrd J4^ickjlead^ Chaplain 
to the Council at Ludlow^ who had allowance from the 
King for one to attend him. There being no others 
under his Care, he reprefented this as likely to Jdc 
more Advantageous than a Tutor in the Univerfity. 
This Motion eaiily took with his Parents, who were 
much better pleas'd with the Tho'ts of having their 
Son fo near them, than at a much greater Diftance, 
and they Toon embrac'd it. Bjc it anfwer'd ncD Ex- 
pedacion. For Mr. H^ick^end himfelf was no Great 
Scholar, and he took no trains with his Pupil, tho' he 
Wasotherwife very kind to him. So that his only Ad- 
vantage by Living with him, was in the free ufe of 
his Library, which was open to him : And he having 
time eno' for Study, improv'd that Priviledge to his 
utmoft. After he had fpent a Year and half with him, 
he return d home to his Father ; and foon after, at the 
Lord Newpons Requeft, fupply'd the Place of his 
Schoolmafter Mr. John Ovoen for a few Months, while 
he was wafting away in a Confumption, of which he 

B % Intend^ 

4 The LIFE of Chap. I. 

Intending for the Miniftry, he was earneftly Defirous 
of that Knowledge that was necelTary to qualify him 
for it. Being difappointed in his Hopes of going to 
the Univerfity, he apply 'd himfelf lo a clofe Courfe of 
Study, under the Condudt of Mr. Francis Garbett^ (a 
Perfon of Great Note and Worth, then Minifter of 
TVroxeter) and with his Afliftance he run thro* a Courfe 
of Philofophy. Great was his Induftry ; and nothing 
troubled him fo much, as the Hindrance he receiv a 
from his Bodily Indifpofuion, which was very confide- 
rable. He endeavoured to manage his Studies in a Sub- 
ordination to Divinity, and was aflifted by the Advice 
of feveral Neighbouring Minifters, with whofe Help 
he was making an Hopeful Progrefs, 'till a New Moti- 
on was made that bid fair for enfnaring him, and had 
hke to have turn'd his tho'tsinto a quite Different Chan- 
nel, to the unfpeakable Damage of himfelf and others. 
But the Purpofe of God [haU ftand. 
JL Great When he was about 1 8 Years of Age, Mr. H^tckjlead 
Snare e- perfwaded him to forbear further tho*ts of the Mini- 
fcap'd. ftry, to leave the Country for the Court, and to make 
an Intereft for foire Office there, by which he might 
have an Opportunity of rifing in the World, and be- 
coming Great and Confiderable. The thing was Plea- 
fing to his Parents, and upon their Inftigation he came 
up to White-Hall, being recommended to Sir Henry 
Herbert^ who was then Mafter of the Revels. He was 
courteoufly receiv'd, and kindly entertain'd, but found 
. nothing taking in a Court Life ; fo far from it, that he 
was daily entertained with what made him very uneafy; 
Whereupon, after a Month's ftav, he return'd down in- 
to the Country, reaffnm'd his Former Purpofes, and 
apply'd himfelf to his Studies with frefli Vigour ; being 
more Indefatigable in the Purfuit of Knowledge than 
can eafily be imagind ; 'till at length upon the Earneft 
Solicitation of Mr. F{ichnrd Foley of Stourbridge, he ac- 
cepted of the Mafterfhip of a Free-School he had lately 
^ ered^ed at Dudley, having an Ufher under him. And 
by this time God had fitted him for Great Service in 
His Church, by bringing him to more than Ordinary 
Serioufnefs, the Means and Methods whereof defer ve 
particular Obfervation. 


- — — — - ■ ■ — - — -r » I , 

Chap. I. Mr. Richard Baxter. 5 

The Country he liv'd in had very Jittle Preaching. 
The Clergy of thofe Parts were (generally fpeaking) 
Lazy and Vitious. Some by forging Orders, had 
compafsM a Tranflation even from the Stage to the 
PuJpit. With Amazement be it mentiond, feveral 
in that Neighbourhood of the facred Minifteriai Fun- 
<Slion, were more Noted for their Gaming and Drink- 
ing, than either their Good Preaching or Good Living. 
There were not above three or four competent Preach- 
ers all round the Country, and tho' all except one 
were Conformable, they were Derided by the Com- 
mon People as Puritans, becaufe not fo carelefs as their 
Neighbours. In a Word ; there was fcarce the Face 
almoft of Religion left. In the Village he liv'd in, not 
X Sermon was to be heard from Year to Year. And 
the Service was run over very Curforily and Irreve- 
rently ,• and when that was done, the reft of the 
Lord's Day was profanely fpent by the whole Town in 
Dancing under a May-Pole, and a Great Tree. In 
thefe Circumftances, 'tis amazing he did not fwim 
with the Stream. He hath indeed himfelf acknow- 
ledg'd, That the Univerfality of the Corruption did 
fometimes prove a Confiderable Temptation to him, 
but the Goodnefs of God preferv'd him. His Father's 
Good Inftrudtions and Example were lingularly helpful 
to him, under all thefe Difadvanrages. The time that 7-/,^ Benefit 
others fpent in Dancing, his Father employ'd in Read* f,, nceird 
ing and Praying in his Family, and recommending an j^om a Pi- 
Holy Life. He put him upon a careful Reading the o«* Educn- 
Hiftorical Part of Scripture, which being Delightful tion. 
to him, made him in Love with the Bible : And his 
Serious Speeches of God and the Life to come, poflefs'd 
him with a Fenr of Sinning; So that He became the 
firft Inftrument of his Hearty Approbation cf an Holy 
Life. He found his Father reproach'd for his Singula- 
rity, and that much afFedted him. The Profane Crew 
derided him as a Puritan, Becaufe not fo Loofe and 
Carelefs as they ; which mov'd his Indignation. At 
firft indeed, hearing the Generality fpeak fcornfully of 
Puritans, he was apt to think there was Ground for 
it : Why elfe Ihould there be fo common a Confent in 
the Cry that was againft them? And he was too unac- 
quainted with theic Principles or Pradices to be able to 

B 3 defend 

,5 The LIFE of Chap. I. 

defend them. But when he obferv*d his own Father, 
of whofe fincere Piety he had (o good Evidence, bran- 
ded with that Name as a Reproach, by a fottifli 
Drunken fort of People, he caine to difcern that Piety 
was the Ground of that General Obloquy. For his 
Father never fcrupled Common-Prayer or Ceremonies, 
nor ever fpake againft Bifhops, nor lo much as Pray'd but 
by a Book or Form : And yet being zealous for Piety 
and Sobriety, Reproving Drunkards and Swearers, and 
intermixing now and then in his Converfarion fome ie- 
rious Dilcourfe concerning Scripture and the Life to 
come, he was re^ilM ty the Name of Puritan, Precifian 
and Hypocrite; and it was the like with fuch Pious 
Conformable Minifters too, as the Country afforded, 
This Obfervation made him loath the Company of thefe 
Scoffers^ and love Religion the better. 
r/;<r Irre^U' Many Ways however did his Corruption break 
iaritles of forth in his Childhood. He was addicted to Lying for 
his cbi/d' f-ar of Corre61:'ion. He joyn'd fometimes with other 
hfjvci. Naughty Boys in Robbing Neighbours Orchards of 

their Fruit, when he had eno* at home. He was 
much encJin'd to Play, and that with Covetoufnefs 
for Money. He was bewitcVd with a Love of Ro- 
mances and Idle Tales; and tho* he durft not Swear, 
yer was he fometirries drawn to imitate other Children 
in fcurrilous and foolifh "Words and Actions. He was 
too Proud of his feveral Schoolmafters Commendations 
for his Learning ; and too Bold and Irreverent towards 
his Parents. Which things he could not in his advan^ 
ced Years refledl on, without Hearty Concern, Regret, 
and Sorrow. 
TheMtam Bbt about the 14th Year of his Age, being under 
Qj iHs Con forng more than ufual Convidtions of Sin, after his ha- 
rerjiou. ^'^^^ robbM a Kfeig'h hour's Orchard, it plcasM God he 
mcrt with ParJoTis of I{cfnlution^ (as Corrtdled by Bumiy) 
irt the reading of which fuch Impreflions were made 
Upon his Spirit, as never wore off to the Day ef his 
Death. Noiy it was that God tbro'ly awakcn'd his 
Soul, and (hew'd him the Folly of Sinning, and the 
Miiery of the Wicked, the inexprefljble "VVeight of 
Thing"; Eternal, and the nectflity of refolving on an 
Holy Life rhoie than ever before. He had often for- 
merly had thb'ts df this kind Stirring in his Mind, bat 


chap. L Mr. Pvichard Baxter. 

rtow they catTiei in another manner, with Senfe and 
Power anci Serioufnefs to his Heart. This caft him in- 
to Fears about his Condition, and they drove him to 
Cordial Contrition, ConfefTion and Prayer; and ifla'd 
ihaferious Refolution of altering his Courfe. Meet- 
ing afterwards with Dr. Sibbs'j hruifed /^e^.V, he found 
it dpen'd more of the Love of God to him, and gave 
him a Hvelver Apprehenfionthan he had before, of the 
Myfteryof Redemption, and convinc'dhim more than 
ever, how much he was beholden to Jefus Chrift. By 
the reading alfo of Mr, Perkins of B^pentancc^ and of 
7he Art ^f Living ajid Dying voell^ and fome other of 
his Treatifes, he was further informed and con- 

Some time after, being in Expedlation of Death, by Uh sphi- 
a Violent Cough, with Spitting of Blood, of i Years ^^^^^ Ttow 
Continuance, he was av/aken*d to be yet more ferious ^^^ ^f^^^' 
and folicitous about the Everlafting Eftate of his Soul. *^'*''^^* 
He apprehended himfelf to fall fo fhort of that Sence 
and Serioufnefs which a Matter of that infinite weight 
required, that he was long in Doubt about his Sinceri- 
"ty, and fearful that he was yet a Stranger to the true 
Spiritual and Divine Life. He wondred at himfelf, 
that he could think and talk of Sin and Hell, of Chri(t 
and Grace, of God and Heaven, with no more feeling. 
He cry'd to God from Day to Day, againft this Dead- 
ncls, and all his Groans were for more Contrition, and . 
a tender Heart. And between the Expedations of 
Death, and his Doubts of his own Sincerity in Grace, 
he was kept in more Care concerning his Salvation, 
than one of his Natural Temper could (in his own E- 
fteem) have otherwife bin bro't to. The reading of 
Mr. Ezek. Culverwel of Faith at this time gave him 
much Relief. But tho' he had now and then certain 
glimmerings of Hope and Comfort, yet did his Fears 
often return again. And long was he kept with the 
Calls of Approaching Death as it were at one Ear, and 
the Queftionings of a Doubtful Confcience at the 

This Method which it pleafed God to take with Ue Benefit 
him, he often admir'd ; and many were the Benefits of that Ex- 
which he apprehended he receiv'd from it. According cn'ife. 
e© his own Account, this kept hini Humble, and 

~ B 4 made 

8 The LIFE of Chap. I. 

made Pride one of the hacefulleft Sins in the WoiW to 
him. It rcftrainM him from the Sportful Levity and 
Vanity to which Nature and Youth enclin'd him; 
and caus'd him to meet Temptations to Senfuality with 
the grcateft Fear. It made him the better ReliHi the 
Docflrine of Redemption, and rendred his tho'ts of 
Chrift the more ferious and affediing. It made the 
VVorld fcem to him as a Catkafs, without either Life 
or Lovclinefs. It fet him upon the moft Advantage- 
ous Method of Study. It caus'd him firft to feek God's 
Kingdom and his Righteoufnefs ; and moft to mind 
the one Thing needful : To determine tirft his Ultimate 
End; by which he was engag* d to choofe and profe- 
cute all other Studies but as means to that End : And 
therefore he ftudy'd Pradtical Divinity firft, in the moft 
Pradiical Books, and in a Pradiical Order, aiming in 
all Primarily at the Informing and Reforming of his 
own Soul. So that he had read over and digefted all 
the Pra£lical Treatifes he could meet with, before he 
meddled with any confiderable Body of Divinity. By 
which means his AfFed:ions were carry'd on with his 
Judgment, and he profecuted all his Studies with Un- 
weariednefs and Delight. 
The The Chief Grounds of his Doubts concerning his 

Grounds o/Salvation were thefe. Becaufe he could not diftin(^ly 
his Doubts trace the Workings of the Divine Spirit on his Heart, 
and Pears, in the Method which Bolton, and Hooker., and I^^^gerj^ 
and many other Divines defcribe; or poflltively Aflign 
the particular inftant of his Converfion. Becaufe of 
* his want of fuch lively Apprehenfions of Things Spiri- 
tual, as he had of Things Corporeal. Becaufe he had 
at certain Seafons bin under warm Convidtions even 
from his Childhood, and had often obferv'd more of 
Fear than Love in his Duties and ReAraints. Becaufe 
his Grief and Humiliation was not greater and deeper; 
and above all , becaufe of his having Sinn'd delibe- 
rately and knowingly, afcer his apprehended Change, 
But Converfe with Confolatory Books, the Obfer- 
vation of other Chri/lians, clofe Confideration, and 
further Experience, by dcgrpe^ fatisfy'J and quieted 

Chap. 1. Mr. Richard Baxter. 

For upon further fearch, he found that the firft De- The Meam jj 
gre^ of Special Grace was ufually very fmall, and of hu Sa- ^ 

therefore not eafily diftinguiOiable in the feafofi of its tUfaWoH. 
firft Prevalence from Preparatory Grace : That a Soul 
in Flelh doth work fo much after the manner of the 
Flefh, that it much delireth fenfible Apprehenfions ; 
but Things Spiritual and Diftant are not fo apt to work 
upon it, and to ftir the Paffions, as Things prefent and 
fenfible : That Education is God's ordinary way for 
the Conveyance of his Grace, and ought no more to 
be fet in oppofition to the Spirit, than even the Preach- J 

ing of the Word, or any other appointed Means, on " 

which his Bleffing might be expeded : That tho' Fear 
without Love be not a ftate of Saving Grace, yet that 
Fear being the eafier, and more irrefiftible Paffion of the 
two, doth oft hinder that Meafure of Love that is true, 
from being Difcernable ; And that he who had rather 
leave his Sin than have leave to keep it, and had rather « 

be the moft Holy, than have leave to be Unholy, or lefs ' 

Holy, is neither without true Repentance nor the Love 
of God. 

But that which moft perplexM him, and which ere- of sinn'mr 
ated him the Greateft Difficulty, was the finding him- after Con- 
felf Guilty of known and deliberate Sin, after that he verfion. . 
had tho't himfelf Convened : This he for a long time 
could not tell how to Reconcile with true Grace. E- 
very known Sin he committed, in this refpedl, re- 
newed his Doubt. He could not fall in with thofe, 
who reckon that every Sin againft Knowledge nullifies 
former Grace ; and that every renew'd Ad: of Repea- 
tance, is attended with a New Regeneration : For this 
he tho't would be to feek to folve one Difticulty, by in- 
troducing another that is Greater. At length he fix'd 
on this Scheme of Tho'ts, which gave him Satisfadion. 
That all faving Grace doth indeed put the Soul into 
a ftate of Enmity to Sin as Sin, and confequently to 
every known Sin : That this Enmity muft flicw itfelf 
in Vidiory, for bare Striving is not a full Evidence of 
Sincerity : That this Vidory however is not conftant, 
for then the Upright would not Sin at all; whereas, 
He that faith he hath no Sin, deceive tb himfelf: .But 
that the Children of God neverthelefs do always over- 
come thofe Temptations, which would draw them to 


lo The LILE of Ch4p. I. 

a wicked unholy State of Life, or to any particuUr Sin 
which proveth fucb a State, and fignifieih a Heart 
which 'hath more Habitual Love to the World than 
unto God j And therefore, tho' in the moft Upright/ 
Temptations of a lower Son do often prevail, yet is tht 
Inclination of the Soul ftill tnoft to God : And this is, 
very pcflible, even ahho* Sin be corhmitted with fome 
Deliberation. For as Grace may ftrive one Inftant only 
in one A£t, and then be fuddenly overcome ; fo it 
may firive longer, and keep the Mirtd en the Cbrifii 
deration of reltraining Motives, and yet be overcome?: 
For it is not the meer Length of Confideration which 
is eno' to fence the Heart againH Sin, but there muft 
be clearnefs of Light, and Livelincfs in thofe Con{i- 
derations ; which the Beft have x\6i always Expcrienc^e 
of. And tho' a little Sin muft, be hated, and Uni-; 
verfal Obedience muft prove our Sincerity, and no one 
Sin muft be wilfully continu'd in, yet is it cer/ain 
that the Servants of God do not often commit Sins 
ttiaterially Great and Heinous, and yet that they oft^n 
do commit fome leifer Sins, (as idle Tho'ts and Words, 
and Dulnefs in Holy Duties, C^c.) and that the Tehi- 
ptcr oft getterh Advantage even with them, by telling 
them. That the Sin is fmall, and fuch as God's Ser- 
vants ordinarily commit. And therefore one Reafon 
why Idle Words and Sinful Tho'ts are even delibei^=.* 
ateJy oftner committed than mrtft heinous Sins, is'be- 
caufe the Soul is not awakenM to much by Feitt and 
Care to make Reiiftance. Pious Perfbns howevet, be- 
ing Men commonly of the itioft Knowledge in Divine 
Things, do therefore when they are drawn into Sin, 
ordinarily Sin againft mote Knowledge than others. 
Withall, there are fome Sin^ fo difficult to avoid, ind 
{ome Temptations fo ftrong, and the Soul at fome Sea- 
fons is fo fluggifti, and fo indifpos'd to the neccflary 
Refiftance, that good Tho'ts, which are delibctatcly 
usM againft them, are at laft born down, and lefs ef- 
fectual. And as for our Prefent Stock of Habitual 
Grace, 'tis never fufficient 6f it felf, without Co-ope- 
rating Grace from Chrift : And therefore, when we 
provoke him to withdraw his Help, 'tis no wonder if 
we difcovcr our Wcaknefs, altho' we don't turn back, 
and go again from God to the Wovld, But yet, 


Chap, I. Mr. Richard Bixcer. H 

N)vhcn ever Perfons thus difpos'd do fall into Sin, they 
recover again by Repentance ; and the New Nature or 
Habit of Divine Love within them, will work out 
the Sin as foon as it hath Advantage. Tho* in the 
mean Time, 'tis not at all to be wondred at, that fich 
a Thing as Sin Ihould breed Fears and Uneafinefs. 
And the beft Way, when all is done, to keep under 
Doubts and Fears, and maintaio Comfort, is to keep 
up Adtual Obedience, and quickly and penitently re- 
turn after Sin is committed. 

Such as thefe were the Confiderations by which he 
was relieved and quieted. And it much encreas'd his 
Peace to find others in the like Condition : He found 
his Cafe had nothing Singular ; being call'd by the 
Providence of God to the Comforting of others, who 
had the fame Complaints. While he anfwer*d their 
Doubts, he anfwer'd bis own ; and the Charity he 
was conftrain*d to exercife towards them, redounded 
to himfelf, and infenfibly abated his Difturbance. And 
yet, after alJ, he was glad of Probability inftead of 
undoubted Certainty. And for the greateft Part of 
his Life, tho' he had no fuch Degree of Doubtfulnefs 
as was any great Trouble to his Spirit, or procar'd any 
finking difquieting Fears, yet he could not fa/ that 
he had fuch a Certainty of his own Sincerity in 
Grace, as excluded all Doubts and Fears to the con- 

' From the Age of xi, 'till near 13, his Weaknefs His En- 
was fo great, that he hardly tho't it pofHble he (hould trance upon 
live above a Year. And finding his own Soul under ff^e Mini* 
ferious Apprehenlions of the Matters of another A> 
World, he was very defirous to communicate ihofe 
Apprehenlions to fuch ignorant carelefs prefumptuous 
Sinners as the World abounds with. Altho* there- 
fore he had his Difcouragements, thro' his Senfe of the 
Greatnefs and Av/fuln^fs of the Work of the Mirtiftry, 
and his Fear of expofing himfelf to the Cenfure of ma- 
ny, on the Account of his wanting Academical Edu- 
cation, Honour and Dignities ; yet expeding to be fo 
quickly in another World, the great Concernments of 
piiferable Souls prevail'd with him to engage in it ; 
and finding in himfelf a thirty Defire of Mens Con- 
yerfion and Salvation, and a competent perfwading 
- ' Faculty. 

12 The LI F E of Chap. II. 

Faculty of ExprelTion, which fervent AfFedlions might 
help to Adluacc, he concluded, that if but one or two 
Souls might by his Means be won to God, it would 
eafily recompence any Treatment he might meet with 
in the World. And as for his Fitnefs in Point of 
Learning, he determined to fubmit himfelf to the 
Judgment of others. And accordingly he applyM him- 
felf to the Bifliop of fVorcefler-, who after Examination, 
Ordain'd him, and at the fame Time gave him a Li- 
cenfe to teach School at Dudley ; the PJace which his 
Friend Mr. Foley had provided for him. 


Hif Firji Sentiments concermfjg Conforwity, 
His Acceptance in bis firfl Minijierial La- 
hoHrs ; and the Difftculties he tnet with : 
His Settlement at Kedcrminfter. 

Hh Firfi- TN his Younger Years he was troubled with no 

Thots oft Scruples about Conformity. He joynd in the 

the Contro- -■- Commo7i- Prayer with as hearty Fervency as he af- 

yerfy be- terwards did in any other Prnyers. As for the Non- 

trifeen the conformifts, he heard them generally run down, and 

on °''"^- reprefen'^ed as an Unreafonable, Heady fort of People ; 

l^n'-on- ^"'^ therefore, iho' he was perfonally acquainted with 

fomiifts. "f^n^ ^f them, he was as forward as others to Cenfure 

and Condemn them. But when he was about Twenty 

Years of Age, he became acquainted with Mr. 5/w- 

monds^ Mr. Cradocl{^ and other Pious Nonconformifts 

in and about Shrcvosbury^ whofe fervent Prayers and 

Holy Lives and Converfations he found much to his 

Edification. Obferving fuch Perfons as tbefe filenc'd 

and troubl'd by the Bilhops, be was much afFc(5led, 

and refolv'd carefully to ftudy the Caufe in Debate 

between them. Confuking the Neighbouring Mini- 

fters, they furnifli'd him with Oovonhnrn^ Sprint^ and 

Dr. Bur^efjy who had written for Conformity, whom 

he carefully read over : But they could help him to 

none on the other Side, who were reprcfcnted as mean 


Chap. II. Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 5 

Scholars, and Men of little Learning. Whereupon, 
he concluded the Caufe of the Conformifis jaflifiablel 
and the Reafoning of the 'Nonconformifls weak. And 
therefore, tho* he had not diftindly at that Time 
weigh'd Particulars, having never read over the Book 
concerning Ordination^ nor half the Book of Homilies^ 
nor fcann'd the Book of Comjyion-Prayer with any ex- 
adnefs, nor confider'd duly fome controverted Points 
in the Nine and Thirty Articles ; yet his Teachers 
and Books having caus'd him in the general to think 
the Conformifts had the better Caufe, he kept out all 
particular Scruples by that Opinion, and fo fubfcrib'd 
as ufually at the Time of his Ordination. 

But being fettled at Dudley, Preaching frequently W's fur- 
both in the Town and the Neighbouring Villages, he thet Study 
had Occafion and Opportunity to ftudy thefe Matters *"S ''''** 
more particularly. For he there fell into the Acquain- ^*«^*'<^<''/7- 
tance of feveral Nonconformifts, whom he apprehend- 
ed too Cenforious and Bitter in their Inve£lives againft 
Conformity, while yet he found them Honeft and 
Godly People. They fupply'd him with feveral Wri- 
tings on their own Side, and among the reft, with 
Ames's frejh Suit againft Ceremonies^ which he read 
over very diftin^ly, comparing it with Dr, BurgefsV 
^ejoynder. And upon the Whole, he at that Time came * 
to thefe Conclufions. Kjieeling he tho't lawful, and 
all meer Circumftances determined by the Magiftrate, 
which God in Nature or Scripture hath determin'd of 
only in the general. The Surplice he more doubted 
of, but was enclin'd to think it Lawful : And tho' he 
intended to forbear it 'till under NecefTuy, yet he 
could not fee how he could have juftified the forfaking 
his Miniftry meerly on that Account; tho' he never 
adiually wore it. About the I{ing in Marriage, he 
had no Scruple. The Crofj in Baptifm, he tho't Dr. 
jtmes prov*d unlawful : And tho* he was not without 
fome Doubting in the Point, yet becaufe he moft en- 
clin'd to judge it unlawful, he never once us*d it. A 
Form of Prttysr and Liturgy he judged to be Lawful, 
arid in fome Cafes lawfully impos'd. The Etj^Iif? Li- 
turgy in particular, he judged to have much Diforder 
and Defedlivenefs in it, but nothing which fhouli 
trake the Ufe 'of it in the Ordinary Publick Worlhip, 


14 The LI FE of Chap. II. 

to be unlawful to them who could not do better. He 
fought for DifcipUne in the Church, and faw the fad 
Efled:s of its Ncglecft, but he was not then fo fenfible 
as afterwards, that the very Frame of Diocefan Pre- 
lacy excluded It ; but tho't it had bin Chargeable on- 
ly on the Pejfonal Ncgle£ls of the Bifhops. Suhfcrip" 
tion he began to think unlawful, and repented his 
Ralhnefs in yielding to it fo haftily. For tho' he 
could ufe the Common- Prayer^ and was not yet againft 
Piocefans, yet to fubfcribe Ex Animo^ That there is 
nothing in the three Booths contrary to the H^ord of God^ 
was that which he durft not do, had it bin to be done 
again. So that Subfcription^ and the Crofs in Baptifm, 
and the Promifcmus Giving the Lord* s^Supper to all 
Comers, tho* ever fo unqualify'd, if they weie not 
Excommunicate by a Bilhop or Chancellour who 
knows nothing of them, were the only Tilings in 
which he as yet in his Judgment inclinM to Noncon- 
formity. And yet even as to thefe Things, he kept his 
Tho'ts to himfelf. He continued to argue with the 
Nonconform ifts about the Points they diiFer'd in, and 
particularly Kneeling at the Sacrament; about which 
be managM a Difpute with fome of them in Writing, 
'till they did not think fit to purfue it any farther, He 
^ freely reprov*d them for the Bitternefs of their Lan- 
guage againft the Bifhops and their Adherents, and 
exhorted them to endeavour for Patience and Chari- 
ty, but found their Spirits fo exafperated by the hard 
Meafure they had met with, that they were deaf to his 
Adjnonitions. Obferving which, he came to this Con- 
clulion. That he that will have Children, muft be a Fa- 
ther ; and he that will be a Tyrant, mult be contented 
with Slaves. 
fjis labours While he continued 2d. Dudley^ he had a numerous 
in Dudley Auditorv, and a tra^5tabie People to deal with. The 
(^ Bridg- Town had before bin famous for Drunkennefs ; but 
pOJth. he found there a greater Readinefs to hear the Word of 
God with Submiflion and Reformation, than in moll 
Places he was acquainted with. But within Three 
Quarters of a Year, he was by earneft Importunity 
prevailM with to remove to Bridgnorth^ the fecond 
Town in Shropfhire^ to be Alfiftant to Mr. fViliiam 
Madjiard. His Work here being juft what he defired, 


Chap. n. Mr. Richard Baxter. 15" 

without his being put upon any Thing that he fcrupled, ^n. 1640, 
with a fair ProbabiUty of Peace and Quiemefs, was 
his main Inducement to liften to this Motion. For 
Bridgnorth is a Place priviledg'd from all Epifcopal Ju- 
rifdi^ion, except the Arch-Bi(hop*s Triennial Viliuti- 
of>. There is a peculiar Ordinary, who as an Official 
keeps a conftant Ecclefiaftical Court, having Ju- 
rifdidion over Six Parilhes, which lye there together 
which, have all the Privikdge of this Exemption. 
Mr. Madflard, who then was Minifter, was a grave 
and fevere Ancient Divine, very Honeft and Confci- 
entious, and an Excellent Preacher, but fomewhat Af- 
flided thro* the Scantinefs of his Maintenance, and 
much mor€ thro* the Unprofitablencfs of his People. 
He was not only Minifter but Official too. which was 
a Security to his Alliftant. Tlie Town Maintenance 
being inconfiderable, he took the Parfonage of O/df- 
^«r>neaftheTown, a Village of fcarce Twenty Houfes, 
defiring Mr. Baxter to fpend one half of the Lords 
Day in the Town, and the other at the Village. Tho' 
his Lot afterwards fell out to be moftly in the Town. 
He was here put upon nothing which he efteem'd un- 
-lawful. He often read the Common-Prayer before he 
Preach'd, both on LordVDays and Holy Days ; but 
he never adminiftred the Lord's-Supper, nor ever Bap- 
tized any Child with the Sign of the Crofs, nor ever 
wore the Surplice, nor was he ever put to appear at 
any Bilhop's Court. He found the People here, ge- 
nerally Ignorant and dead hearted. The Town con- 
fifted very much of Inns and Ale-Houfes, and had no 
General Trade to employ the Inhabitants which is 
the undoing of many great Towns. So that tho by 
his firft Labours among them, he was Inftrumental in 
the Converfion of feveral Perfons, and was generally 
Applauded, yet be was not fo fuccefsfiil m bis VVorK, 
as afterwards in other Places, Tippling and III Com- 
pany rendred his Preaching ineffeduai. 
^ He was fcarce well fettled ^^^V'.^ before he was di- 0^^^^^^ 
fturb'dby the E.t c<etera Oath, which was f^.^"^ ?/> ^"j;, '^ 
the Convocation then fitting. All ^vere en)^^"^^/;/^'"' 
fwear, That they muld never Confcnt to the f oration oj 
the ?\e[ent Government of the ^,^«^^^' ^ /^^^'Cnn 
Bll^op\ Dems, ArchzD^ams, &c. And that upon 

1 6 The LIFE of Chap. II. 

An.1640. pain of Expulfion. This was a New Engine of Di- 

vifion. Some were Zealous for 

* B!fl}op Hall declares that he ne- this Oath ; * Alfercing the Di- 
ver tender (L this Oath to any one Mi- vine Right of Epifcopacy, which 

nifter of his Viotefs, See fame Sj>e- was fettled by Law, they apprc- 
ciaJties of his Life, drawn up hy headed that upon the Command 
himfe/f, p. 43. of the Sovereign Power, it was 

very warrantable to Swear, ne- 
ver to confcnt to an Alteration. And the King's Ap- 
probation of thofe Canons wherein this Oath was en- 
joyn d, they tho't made them fufficiently Obligatory. 
But others look'd upon Epifcopacy as an indifferent 
Thing, mutable when King and Parliament pleasM. 
Nay, they apprehended the Engli/h Frame, confifting 
of Arch-Bifhops, Deans and Chapters, and Arch- 
Deacons ; and Diocefans having many Hundred Pa- 
rifh- Churches under one Bifliop, as foreign to the 
Word of God, and deftruc^ive of that Epifcopacy 
which was known in the Church at leaft for lOo 
Years. The Swearing to a blind Et cxtera they look'd 
upon as intolerable ; becaufe it took in all the Officers 
of the Eccleiiaftical Courts, Lay Chancellours, Surro- 
gates, CommifTaries and Officials, which was Swear- 
ing to an Anomalous Rabble. They further pleaded. 
That this Sort of Government might actually be Le- 
gally altered by King and Parliament ; and that to 
(wear before-hand not to obey fuch a Law, was in 
fuch a Manner to make an Oath a Bond of Difobedi- 
ence, as was next to a Rebellion. They urg'd, that it 
was againft the Subjeds Liberty to Petition for Re- 
drefs of Grievances, among which fome Branches of 
this Government might well be reckoned : And that 
it was againrt the Priviledge of Parliament, to have 
fuch an Oath impos'd without their Confent. The 
Neighbouring Minifters met together upon this Occa- 
(ion, to confider what to do : Some were for comply- 
ing, but more againft it. This put Mr, Baxter upon 
ftudying the Matter of Epifcopacy, and the Englifh 
Frame of Church Government afrefli ; and reading 
Gerjome Bucer his Dijfertatio He Gubernatione Ecciefia^ 
Didoclnvii Altare Dam/j/cenum^ Parker de Politeia Ec- 
clefiaftica^ (3 Baynes*s Diocefans Try.i! ; and ^comparing 
their Rcafons with Bifliop Downafn:^^ he was convin- 

Chap. II. Mr. Richard Baxter. j j 

ced, that cho* all kind of Epifcopacy tvas not fiaciy un- ^Iw. 1640 
lawful, yet that the EngUflo Diocefan Frame was 
guilty of the Corruption of Churches and Miniflry, 
and of the Ruin of the true Chorcii Diicipline, and 
fubfticuting an Heterogeneal Thing m ics ilea i. So 
that this very Oath, which was impos'd m Order to 
the unalterable fubjeding of the Nation to Dircefans, 
was a great Means to alienate him frona them, ^rii not 
him only, but many others with him. They who be- 
fore tho't it belt to follow their Bufinefs, and live in 
Quietnefs, and let the Bilhops alone, were rowz'd by 
the Terrour of an Oath to look about them, ana un- 
derftand what they did. New Heats were ftirr'a up 
among the Contending Parties, by the Debates which 
this Oath occalion'd : And they who wereagainlt ic, be- 
gan to think better of the Cnufe of Nmicovformity^ and 
to Honour xht .Nono^nformifts more than before. So 
that thnf which was defign d for their Ruin, prov'd a 
great Advantage to chem. 

It unhappily fell our, that while this Divided the r r ^^-a 
Church at Home, the Church of Scot'Und alfo was all J, ^ *■'* 
in a Flame : For when Things v;ere quictihere under a s^ytland. 
more moderate Epifcopacy than ours in England^ ( tho' 
that Nation had bin us'd to Presbytery J a New Com>rjon- 
Prayer Book ( that is the Englifh One, with fome few 
Alterations) was impos'd upon them, together with 
the Englifh Ceremonies. This occafion'd an Infurretftion 
in Edinburgh^ and many dther Places, A Fire being 
once kindled amongft them, was not eafily excin- 
guiih'd. Notwithftanding all the induftry and Care 
of the Earl of Tre./uaire, che King's Ccmmiirioner, the 
Number of the Malecontents To encreas'd, rhat there 
was no opponng them ; but: they got the Power of all 
the Land into their Hand^the Greatelt Part of the 
Nobility fallmg in with the Miniiters and their Ad- 
herents, Hereupon they all enter'ii into a National 
Covenant, to the fame Purpofe-. as fortr erly that Na- 
tion had done againft Popcty, preincy and Supeyflinorj^ 
and to uphold the Gofpel and Beformntion. The Do- 
lors of Aberdeen DifTented Uomi\\t Covenant^ and ma- 
ny Writings pafs'd between them and the Covefw»rc> s up- 
on that Subjeft, 'till at lait the Wars that came on, 
turn'd the Debates into another Strain. 

r. At 


i8 The LIFE of Chap. II. 

yin. 1640. At ihc very iame Time, a Tax which the King had 
Ohh s/ 0- •'^H^'o^'^ ^" EngUnA, cajl'd Ship-Money^ ( zs for ihe 
Money Strengchniiig rhe Navy ) gave general Diiratisfadion. 
This being done without Confenc of Parliament, there 
was a Marinuripe all over the Land, efpecially among 
the Country Nobiliry and Gentry jfor they look'd upon 
ir as the Ovcrthrovooi the FunHatnental L.^ws or ConftitU' 
ti- n of the KSvgdom^ and of Parliamejits and Property, 
This was the Common Cry at that Time, that if once 
ynrHiitncnts and Property were deftroy'd, the Government: 
was dilVolvM, and no Man had any Security of Eftate, 
Liberty, or Life, but the Pleafure of the King, whofe 
Will would be the only Law. Some deny'd the Pay- 
ment o^ this Ta:x, and put the Sheriffs upon Diftrain- 
ing. The Sheriffs, tho' afraid of a future Parliament, 
did it in Obedience to the King. Mr. Hampden and 
the Lord Say brought it to a Suit ; Mr. Oliver S^ Jolmy 
and others, boldly pleading the Peoples Caufe. All the 
J4.;dges except Mutton and Crook, had, when they were 
conlulred, given it as their Judgment, That the King 
in a Cafe of Need might impofe fuch a Tax: And fo 
Judgment paft for the King in the Suit, which caused 
the Matter to make much the Greater Noife. 
TheScotW) The Sects foon after enter'd England vq\i\\ an Army, 
Broils. encourag'd, as it was fuppos'd, by many of the Englijh 
Nobility, who tho't there was no other Way to caufe 
the Calling ct a Parliament to remedy Diforders. The 
EarJs of Ejfcx^ Pf^arvc>icl{, Bedford, Clare, BuUir.gbroo}{, 
'Mulgrave, and Holland^ and the Lords Sny and Brocks 
were reputed of this Confederacy. But Heylin fays, 
Thnt the Scots, after they came in^ did perfvoade thefc 
Perfcns of their Dajiger in England // Arbitrary Govern^ 
ment voent on ; and fo they Petition'd the King for a Par- 
liament, which was all tlffeir Confederacy. And this 
wa^ after their fecond Coming into England too. 

The King met the Scots at Uexo-Caftle, A Pacifica- 
tion was concluded, and a Parliament call'd, and the 
Scots return'd Home. This Parliament quickly difplea- 
fing rhe King, he dilfoL'd it, and again undertakes a 
War agamft the Scots, to which, befides others, the Pa- 
pilts by the Queen's Means, did voluntarily Contri- 
bute : Whereupon, the Scots^ complam of Evil Coun- 
felloius and Papifts, as the Caufe of their renew'd 
Dangers j and raife their Army again, and enter into 


Chap. II. Mr. Richard Baxter. 


Enghnd, The Engli/h iat To'k Petition the King for a A». 1640- 
Parliament, and once more it is rclolv'd en, and an 
Agreement made : But neither rhe Scotti/h nor Ev^Jifh 
Army was Disbanded; And thns in the Yt-ar 1640, 
began that which hath fihce bin cail'd the Lmg PnrLA- 
mem : The moft Celebrated Parliament that ever fate 
iri Englnyid. ^ . , 

During thefe Northern Stirs, the Earl of Bndgevpaccr, Mr. Bix- 
who was Lord-Prefidentof the Marches in H-^ales, paf- ter in jhme 
firg thro' Bridgnorth in his Journey trom Ludlorvxo the ^'*":^f'" fo^ 
King, Complaint was made to him by fome malicious ^''['■'^"»fcf' 
Perfons of the Town, that Mr. MrJfiard znd Mr. B^x- ^'^^' 
ter were defediive in Point ot Conformity ; not fign- 
ing with the Sign of the C/c/r, nor wearing the v«r- 
plice, nor praying againft the Scon, who were juft 
then entring into England^ for which there was a Form 
of Prayer printed by the Biiliops, tho' nO Command 
from the King. The Complaint was made on S.itur- 
day Evening, when the Lord Prefident entered thii 
Town; and he promis'd them, he would himfelf bi^ 
next Day at the Church, and fee how Things went. 
Mr. Mr.dfiArd letir'd, and left Mr. Bixe^, and 
Mr. Swnw the Reader, to ftand alone. But when the 
next Day came, the Lord Prelident ibddenly aktr'd his 
Mind, and went as far as Lichfield ; requiring the Ac- 
cufers and Bailiffs to fend after him to inform him what 
was done that Day at Church. Thty failed not to 0- 
bey his Orders, and threatn'd mighty Things on the 
Account of Noncompliance ; bur all evaporated at 
length into Smoak : For he fent them Word in Anfwer; 
That he had not the Ecchfiafiical Jurifdiilioriy nnd there- 
fore cculd not Theddh with them. 

The Parliament being met, fell directly iipon a /^^- ThOi/enlu^ 
formntion of Church and StatCc Long and Vehement of th: Long 
Speeches were made aigaihft Ship-Money, againlt the Parlia- 
Judges that Approv'd it, againfl the Etdetem Onth, and mcnt. 
the B'/hcps and Convccatioh that form'd it,' and againft 
jny Lord Strajford^ Arch-Bifhop Laud, and other Evil 
Counfellours. There w^s at marvellous Con- 
cord among the Men\bers, ihro" the Complication of 
the Interelts of thofe Caufes, in which ibey federally 
"did moft concern themfclves. For as the King, bad at 
oiice impos'd the Ship^Money^ on the Comn.on-Wealtb; 
itii perirjitted the Bifliops to impof(^upOn the Church 
" £2 ^beir 

20 T^he LIFE of Chap. II. 

An. 1640. their Difpleafing Articles, the Book for Dancing on the 
LordVDay, c^c and to Sufpend or Silence a great ma- 
' ny Minifters, for want of Super Canonical Conformity; 

fo the Parliament accordingly confifted of Two Sorts 
of Men, who by the ConjunCliion of thefe Caufes 
were united in their Votes and Endeavours for a Re- 
formauon. One Party made no great Matter of the 
Alterations in the Church, but faid, That if ?arlicmcnts 
are once dovon^ nnd Property gone^ and Arbitrnry Govern- 
ment fet up, nnd Law fubjeHed to the Princess J4''iU^ then 
aU were Slaves ; and this they reckon'd intolerable : 
For the remedying of it, they faid, No true Englijh Man 
could thinly any Price too dear. Thefe the People call'd 
Good Common PVealth''s Men. The other Sort were the 
more Religious Men, who were alfo fenfible of thefe 
Things, but much more affected with the Intereft of 
Religion. Thefe moft inveigh'd againft Innovations in 
the Churchy the Bowing to Altars^ the Bool^ for Sforts on 
Sundays, the Cafting out Minifters^ the High-Comm''JJion 
Court, the Putting down LeHures and Afternoofi Sermons, 
and Expofjtions on the Lor d'^s- Days ; with other fuch 
Things, which they tho't of Greater Weight than Ship- 
Money. But becaufe they who were of this Stamp, a- 
preed with the others in the Vindication of Liberty and 
Property, therefore did they of the other Sort the more 
eafily concur with them, in Oppofition to the Proceed- 
ings of the Bifhops and High-Commiffion Court^ &c. 

Their Difpofition being known, Complaints and Pe- 
titions were fent in to them from all Parts, with Refe- 
rence both to Ecclefiaftical and Civil Encroachments. 
Great Things, fuch as before were tho*t Impradlicable, 
were compafs'd in a little Time. An A61 pafs'd againft 
the High'CommiJJion Court, and the Secular or Civil Power 
of Church Men. Another, That the Parliament (kould 
not be dijjolvd without its own Confent, And another for 
Triennial Parliaments. Nay, at length, the King was 
forc'd to part even with his Favourite the Lord- Deputy 
Wemworth. All Things in general put on a New Face; 
of which the Sequel of this Narrative gives a further 
j± Refor- Among other Important Matters that were deter- 
mation o/min'd, a i\;formatim of the Clergy was refolv'd on, and 
th: t/fr^ accordingly a Committee was appointed, to hear Pe- 
tntended. titions and Co»plaints againit iheai. Multitudes 


Chap. 11. Mr. Richard Baxter. 


from all Quarters came up immediately with Petitions An, 1640 
againft their Minifters, charging them with Injuff. 
ciency^ Falfe DoHrinCj Illegr.l Innovations^ or Scandnl, 
Mr. John Wnite was Chairman , and was the Publifhec 
of A Century of Scandalous Mlnifters^ which was after- 
wards follow'd with a Second Century ; both were fill'd 
with moft abominable Particularities, the concealing 
which had certainly bin a much greater Service to Reli- 
gion than their Publication ; which was but making 
Sport for Atheills, Papifts and Profane. 

Amongft other Complainets, the Town of Ksder- ^ p ■ : 
minfier in iVorceflerfhire had drawn up a Petition a- front ^ ' Kc^ 
gamft their Vicar and his two Curates, as infufficienc dermin- 
for the Miniftry, and they put it into the Hands offter, the 
Sir Henry Herbert^ who was Burgefs for Bewdley. The Octafton of 
Vicar well knowing his own Infufficiency, agreed to ^/r. Bax- 
Compound the Bufinefs, and was free to allow 60 /. ter'j Settle- 
per An. (out of near 200 the Living was vyorth) to a '"'"^ ^^^^'*' 
Preacher who (hould be cbofen by Fourteen nominated 
Truftees. He that was chofen was to Preach whenfo- 
ever he pleas'd, the Vicar ftiil reading the Common- 
Prayer, and doing every Thing that might be Matter of 
Scruple ; for all which he gave a Bond of 5 %o /. Here- 
upon the Bailiflf of the Town, and all the Feoffees in- 
vited Mr. Baxter to give them a Sermon ; and he upon 
Preaching once to them, was unanimoufly chofen to 
be their Minifter. Thus was he Providentially bro't 
to that Place which had the Chiefeft of his Labours, 
and yielded him the Greateft Comfort. He was the 
rather inclin d to liften to the Motion, becaufe it was 
a full Congregation, and moft Convenient Church ; 
an Ignorant People for the moft Part, who had great 
Need of Preaching, and yet who had among them a 
fmall Company of Converts, who were Humble and 
Godly, and of a Good Converfation, and not much 
hated by the reft ; and therefore the fitter to aflift their 
Teacher : And they had had but little Lively and Serious 
Preaching amongft them. Here therefore hf^ fixt him- 
felf, making this remarkable Obfervarion : That among 
all his Changes he never went to any Place which he 
had before defired, defign'd or tho't off, but only to 
thofe Places he never tho't of, 'till the fuddain Invita- 
tion did furprize him. 


2x lie LIFtL of Chap. Hi. 


Tfje Oppojition he met ^^Ith at firji /> the Town^ 
of Kederminfler. His hidefatigable La- 
honrs^ and the Admirable tfficacy of his 
Mirujlry in that Place. 


F, fpenc Two Years at Kjdermlnfter before the 
War broke our, and above Fourteen Years af- 
trr ir ; and in all that Time never touch'd the 
Virandge H 'ufc, tho' aiuhoriz'd by an Order of Par- 
liament : B t rhe Old Vicar liv'd there peaceably and 
quiedy, without any Moleftation. He found the 
PJac^' like a Piece of dry and barren Earth, Ignorance 
^nd P}of^77^nrfs^ ias Natives of the Soil, were rife among 
them : But by the Bleding of Heaven upon his La- 
hour and Cultivating, the Face of Paradife appeared 
there in all the Fniirs of I{ighteoufne/s. Ac firft, f{agi 
and M?cc created him a great deal of Oppofition ; 
but it wasfbbn over, and a Special Div^'ne Blejfutr,^ gave 
his unwearied Pains among that People an unprece- 
dented Succefs. 
Stranrre In- Before his Corning, the Town, having bin Emi- 
jjaAcei «/nent for Vnniey^ had a Yearly (hew, in which they 
Malignity, bro'c forth the painted Forms of Gyants, ro walk a- 
bout the Streets with. He gave them no Difturbance, 
yet the Rabble of the more Vitious Sort, had ftill 
f<')me Spleen to vent againft him, as one Part of their 
Game And once all the Jgnoiant Rout were Raging 
^'iad againft him for Preaching to them the Dodtrine 
of Original Sin, and telling them, Infants, before 
B^"j^encrntiov^ had Ju much Guilt and Corruption as made 
them loathfonic in the Eyes of God. Whereupon, they 
vented il Abroad in the Country, That he Preach'd, 
that G d hated and loathed hfanti. So that they rail'd 
at him as he pafs'd thro* the Streets. The next Lord's- 
Da he clrar'd and confirm'd the Dodtrine he had be- 
fore deliver'd ; and fhewed them, That if it was not 
true, their Infants had no Need of Chrift, or of 
Baptifm, or of renewing by the Holy Ghoft. And he 
ask'd them, VVtJether they durfl fay, that their Children 


Chap. HI. M**- R^i^hard Baxter. 2^ 

were favdvoltkout n Snviour^ and xvcre no Chrijlinns, and 
xvhy they Bapti:(d them^ &c. And afcerwards ihey were 
Afliam'd and Silent. 

Another Time, one of the Drunken Beggars ot che 
Town rais'd a Slander of hirii^ TL^t he vpdi i.-id^r a 
Tree with n iVjman of III Fame, All the Drunkards iiad 
got it in their Mouths, before he con id find the Ori- 
ginal. He got three or four of chc^n bound to their 
Good Behaviour ; and the Sot himfeif that rais'd the 
Slander, confefs'd before the Court, That he Jnxv him in 
a I{ainy Day on Horfeback^^ fland under ttn a^ky "^''ich 
grew in a thick. Hedq^e, and the t^omnn /landing for (hcltcr 
on tlye other Side the Hedge, under the fam:Tres ; and that 
he helievd they faw not one another : But he fpake i^t as a 
left, and the Company were glad of the Qccafion to 
feed their Malice. They all askt hini For given efs, and 
he defired the Magiftrate to releafe them. Such Things 
as thefc were not uncommon at IQdenninfter. For 
Mr John Crofs, (who afterwards dy'd Minifter of Fn- 
day'-Jireet in London) being a Preacher there fome Time 
before this, a Woman defam'd him openly, and told 
the People he would have Ravifli'd her. Ur.Crojs 
being a Prudent Man, fent one before to the 
and luftice to defire them to call her to Exammation, 
and he came after, and fate in a common dark colour d 
Coat, among many others, in the Bailifts Parlour, as 
if he had bin one of the Magiftrates. Ihe BaiLtt cal- 
led her in, and (he ftood impudently to the Accula- 
tion. The Bailiff askt her, ^oether fh^ kne^ the M^n 
if (he faw him ? Which Ihe confidently affirm d. He 
ask'd her Is it this Man, or that Man, o^ the oth^r 
Man, or any there P She faid, O .. , Gcd forbid that fi:e 
floould accufe any of them, Mr. Crofs faid v^;^ ^^otj he 
Man? And fhe faid, No, fl^e kpevo t^e M.« J^/ -• 
And when they had told her that this was Mr. C;.//, 
fte fell down on her Knees, and ask d him F^^^^^^^^ 
npf*; . and confefs'd. That one of his Nei^^hboms ( his 
Great tcuftr ac the B.fhop's Courcs) >.aUir^ '- '^ 
reports. Buc the good Man forgave them both Hovv 
entirely is the beft eftabUftd Reputation at the Mcy 
of th^ Hsvcngeful and Mdutou>, any farther than a 
Wife Providence fences and fcrcens it . 

At another Time, the Parhament fend ng down jm 
Order for the Deraoliaiog of all Statues and foag« 

C 4 

_f4 The LIFE cf Chap. lir. 

of any of the three Perfon. in the Trinity, or of the 
Virgin M,,)7, which Ihould he found in Churches, or 
or on Crofles in Church- Yards ; Mr. Baxter was for 
obeying u The Church-Warden, feeing a Gr.cifix 
upon the Crofs m the Church-Yard at KfderwiMer, 
fctupa Ladder to reach it, which prov'd too fliort : 
He going to feek another, the Drunken Crew in. the 
Town took tlie Alarum and ran all together with 
Weapons to defend the.r Crucifix and Church Images. 
Ic was reportecK Mr. S,xter was the Adior, and him 
they fot for: Bur. as Providence had order'd it, he 
was walking about a Mile out of Town, orelfehe 

hi Tu lu^^'V^'".^''^'^ h^^H^y^. Miffing 
him and the Church-Warden too, they went raving 
about the Streets to feek them : Two Neighbours ran 
in amongft them to fee if Mr. Baxter was there, and 
they knocked them down, and fo miferably bruifed 
them, that they dy d foon after, never recovering the 
Hurt they rece.v'd. When they had foam'd about 
halt an Hour, and met not thofe whom they fought 

Walk and hearing the People curfing him at their 
Doors, he wondred what was the Matter ; but quick- 
1> found how fairly he had efcap'd. The next I ordV 
Day he dealt plainly with them, and laid open to 
them the Quahty of that Adion, and told them. See- 
tngtheyfo requited him a, to feek bis Blood, he wa, mlli„g 
to leave them, and fave them from that G„ilt. But the 
poor Creatures were fo amaz'd and afham'd, that they 

S hTm ^^'" *" "'"^ '"^' '"''' '° P^" 

Not being at all difcourag'd with this malicious 

Oppofition, he laid out himfdf very Laborioufly in 

the Work of the Lord among this People, and bad 

very eminent Succefs, which under God he look'd 

tipon as procur-d by feveral Advantageous Circumftan- 

ces, which dcfervc Ohfervation 

»•< laho- Before the Civil War, he' preach'd twice every 

»•.», Em- Lord s-Day ; but afterwards but once, and once every 

floyment asThurJday, bcfides Occafional Sermons. Every Thurl 

minte- n^H^'"""i^o'^°'"' °^. •"' Neighbours that had IncI i- 
minnei. nation and Opportunity met at his Houfe, one of 

them repeated the Sermon, and afterwards ihey pro- 


Chap. 111. Mr, Richard Baxter. 


pos'd any Doubts about it, or any other Cafe of 
Confcience, which he lefolv'd. He then caus'd fome- 
times one, and fometimes another of them to Pray, 
and fometimes Pray'd wiih them himfelf ; and fo the 
Meeting brake up with fmging a Pfalm. Once a 
Week fome of the younger forr, who were not fit to 
pray in fo great an Affembly, met among themfelves 
more privately, fpending 3 Hours in Prayer. Every 
Saturday! Night, they met at fome of their Houfes to 
repeat the laft Lord's- Day's Sermon, and to Pray and 
prepare themfelves for the Day following. Once in a 
few. Weeks, there was a Day of Humiliation kept up- 
on one particular Occafion or another. Every Religi- 
ous Woman that was fafely delivered, inftead of the 
old Goflipings, if jfhe were able, kept a Day of 
Thankfgiving, with fome of her Neighbours about her, 
praifing God and finging Pfalms, and foberly Feafting 

Two Days every Week he and his Alfiftant took 14 
Families between them for private Catechizing and 
Conference. His Method was this: He firft heard 
them recite the Words of the Catechifm, and then ex- 
amin'd them about the Senfe, and afcerwards urg'd 
them with all poflible engaging Reafon and Vehe- 
mence, to anfwerable AfFedlion and Pradlice. If any 
were fhy, thro' Ignorance or Baihfalncfs, he forbore 
to prefs them any farther to Anfwers, but made them 
Hearers, and either examind others, or turn'd all into 
Inftrudtion and Exhortation. He fpent about an Hour 
with a Family, and admitted no others to be prefenr, 
leaft Bafhfulnefs Ihould make it burthenfom, or any 
fhould talk of the Weaknefles they obferv'd. His 
whole Afternoon on Mondays and Tuefdays, was this 
way employed. Every firfl Wednefday of the Month 
he had a meeting for Parifli Difcipline : And every 
firft Thurfday in the Month was a Meeting held of the 
Neighbouring Minifters for Difcipline and Difputati- 
on ; in which Difputations he was generally Modera- 
tour, taking the Pains to prepare a written Determi- 
nation of the Qneftion to be debated. And every Thurf- 
day in the Month befides, he had the Company of di- 
vers worthy Minifters at his Houfe after the Lecture, 
with whom he fpent the Afcernoon in profitable Con- 


_^f The LIFE of Chap. TIT. 

verfadon, 'tilJ his Neighbours came to meet for their 
Exercife of Repetition and Prayer. 
His Sue- His Publick Preaching met with an Actentive Dili- 
ce/s. gent^ Auditory. The Congregation was ufuaily full. 

Iho theCburch was very Capacious and Gomm.di- 
oas yet afrer his coming thither, they were forcVi to 
buiJd 5 Galleries to receive the Hearers. Their Pri- 
vate Meetings alfo were full. On the Lod's Days 
there was no Diforder to be feen in the Town but yo J 
might hear a Hundred Families Tinging Pfams, and 
repeating Sermons, as you pafs'd thro* the Streets. 
V\henhe firft came thither, there might be about one 
raniily in a Street that worfliip'd God and calld on 
his Name ; and when he came away, there was not 
above a Family on the fide of a Street that did not do 
It; and that did not by profefTing ferious Godlinefs 
fir^^A. 1?^ ^°P" °^ ^^^'^^ Sincerity. Nay, in the 
Worft Faojihes, Inns and Ale-hjoufes, ufqally fome 
m each Houfe feem'd to be Religious. Tho' the Ad- 
miniftration of the Lord's Supper was fo ordered as that 
many were difpleasM, and the far greater part kepta- 
way themfeives, yet were there 600 Commnnicanrs, of 
v/hom there were not 12 that he had not good Hopes 
of as to their Sincerity. And thofe few that did con- 
lent to Communion, and yet Jiv'd Scandaloufly, were 
afterward Excommiwicated. He had good reafon to 
nope. That many who join'd not in Sacramental Com- 
tnunion with him, were yet Perfons truly fearing 
God. Some of them being kept off by Husbands, by 
t'arents, by Mafters, or perfwaded by Men of oppofice 
Sentiments, rather than Acting according to their own 
Inclinations and Defires. Tho* they were many that 
were kept away, yet they took it Patiently, and for- 
bore Reviling, as if any Wrong were done them. 
And as for thofc unruly Young Men who were Excom- 
municated, they generally bore it Patiently as to their 
outward Behaviour, tho' their Hearts were hill of Bit- 
ternefs. When he fet upon Perfonai Conference with each 
FaiDiIy, and Catechizing them, there were very few 
Families in all the Town that refus'd to come- and 
thofe few were Beggars at the Towns end, who were 
fo Ignorant, that they were afliam'd it fhonid be mani- 
feft. Few Families went away without fome Tears, 
or feemingly fcrious Fromifcs of a Godly Life. Yet 


Chap. III. Mr. Richard Baxter. 27 

many Ignorant and Ungodly Pcrfons there were ftill 
yemainingi but moft of them were in the Parilh, not 
in the Town, and in thofe Parts of the Parilh which 
were fartheft from rhe Town. And whereas one Part 
pi the Parilh was impropriate, and payM Tythes to 
Lay-Men, and the other Part maintain d the Church, 
it To fell out, that almoft all that lide of the Parifh 
which pa)'d Tythe to the Church were godly honeft 
People,- and did it willingly without Contention, moft 
of the bad People of the Parilh liv'd on the other tide. 
Some Poor Men did competently underftand the Body 
of Divinity, and were able to judge in Difficult Con- 
troverlies : Some of them were To able in Prayer, that 
few Mmifters did exceed them in Order and Fulnefs, 
in apt ExprefHons, and holy Oratory with Fervency. 
Many of them were ab'e to Pray very laudably with 
their Families, or with others : The Temper of their 
Minds, and the Innocence of their Lives, was much 
more laudable than their Parts. The Profeflbrs of fe- 
rious Godlinefs were generally of very humble Minds 
and Carriage, of meek and quiet Behaviour unto o- 
thers, and of Blamelefnefs and Innocence in their Con- 

God was plcas-d alfo to give him abundant Encou- 
ragement in the Lectures which he preach'd Abroad in 
other Places; as at ^orceifer^ Cleobury^ Dudley^ Sheffnaly 
Sec. where he had full Auditories, and many Converts. 
Neither were his Labours loft among his Brethren in 
the Miniftry. Their Difputations were advantageous. 
Their Meetings were never contentious, but always pro- 
fitable. When he motion'd a Way of Church Order and 
Difcipline, (of which hereafter) which all might agree 
in, that their Churches might not be ungovern'd, nor 
fall into Divifions amongft themfelves, he was readily 
liften d to, and his Motion reduced to Pradice. And 
when he attempted to bring them all conjuncftly to the 
Work of Catechi:(ing, and'inftrufting every Family by 
itfelf, he found a ready Confent in moft, and many 
adlually comply'd with it, much to their Satisfadion. 
The Praife of all which he freely and heartily afcrib'd 7.;^^ ^j^ 

to God. yantageotu 

* Many were his Advantages in order to this Succefs. cinumftan- 
He came to a People that had never fate under an av«a- ces which 
kening Miniftry before. He was himf^lf ir> the Vigour promoted 

, , oi this Succefs, 


The LIFE of Ch ap. III. 

of his Spirits, and had a very moving Delivery • and do- 
ing aJJ undei- greac BodiJy Weaknefs, as a Dying Man, 
he was the more ^nrm and enme^t. The greateft Ene- 
mies of ferious Religion in that Towrt, were carry 'd 
oflF by the War. He had aJfo the Favour of the Go- 
vernment on his nde. Before the Civil War, the Rio- 
tous Rabble had Boldnefs eno' to make ferious Godli- 
nefs a common Scorn, and call them all Pwitans and 
Precifinns, that did not care as Jittle for God and Hea- 

Yu ^'^^- ^rV^ ^^"^^^^ ^5 ^^^y ^i^- Jf a Man was not 
tulJy fatisfy d with rheir undifciplin'd diforder'd Churcb- 
^u' ^',.^*y"^^^"^^l^<^Ufs Excommunications, ^c If 
they did but Fa^ and Pray together, or go from an Ig- 
norant Drunken Reader, to hear a Godly Minifter aC 
the next Parilh, the Biihop s Articles would enquire af- 
ter them, and the High Commiflion grievoufly afflid 
them. After the War, the Cafe in this refpea was 
mightily aJter'd: For Piety had then full Liberty ; nay, 
and Countenance and Reputation too. WithaJ, he 
gam d a Greac Intereft in the AfFedions of the Inhabi- 
tants of the Town, which is no inconfiderable Thing, 
tor tho to win Eftimacion and Love to our felves on- 
ly, be an End intended by none but Perfons egregioully 
Proud and Hypocritical ; yet it is moft certain, that 
the Gratefulnefs of the Perfon doth ingratiate the Mef- 
fage, and greatly prepare People to receive the Truth. 
He was much affifted by the Zeal and Diligence of the 
Oodly People there j who thirfted after the Salvation of 
their Neighbours, and being dlTpersM thro' the Town 
were ready in all Companies to reprefs feducing Words 
^"^!,^ i^ftify Godlinefs; and to Convince, Reprove 
and Exhort as there wasoccafion. The Holy, Humble 
and BJamelefs Lives alfo of the Religious fort was a fin- 
gular Blcfifing. The moft Malicious could not f^iy here. 
Your Profeilors are as Proud and Covetous as any. But 
the blamelefs Lives of godly People did Ihamc the Op- 
pofers, and put to filence the Ignorance of fooiilli Men; 
and many were won by their Converfation. Their L7- 
nity and Concord alfo was very Advantageous, and 
Jheir Freedom from thofe Seds and Hcrcfies which in- 
tected many other Places. There was no Prtftor ageing 
Paftor, nor Church a'/ainft Church, nor ScSi aoainii Seff, 
nor Chrillian tigainn Chnstian. There was not a Sepal 
raptd, an Annipaptisl^ an Antinomitin in the Town. At 


Chap. III. Mr. Richard Baxter. 2 9 

Bewdly there was a Church of AnabaptiUs ; at Wor- 
ccHer the Independents gathered a Church : But here all 
were of one Mind and Mouth, and Way. One Jour- 
neyman Shoemaker turn'd AnnbaftOi^ but he ktc the 
Town upon it, and went amongft them. When Peo- 
ple faw Diverfity of Setfts and Churches in any Place, 
it greatly hindred their Converfion; they were at a 
Lofs, and knew not what Pnrty to be of, or what PVny 
to go ; and therefore many would be for no Religion 
at all, but derided all whom they faw difagreed. But 
they had no fuch Offence or Objection here; they could 
not ask, Wbkh Church or Party fhall voe be of i For all 
were but as one. So Modeft were the ableft of the 
People, that they never were enclin'd to a Preaching 
Way, nor to make Oftentation of their P/trts ; but took 
Warning by the Pride of others, and tho't they had 
Teaching eno' by their Paftors ; and that it was bet- 
ter for them to beftow their Labour in digefting that, 
than in Preaching themfelves. The private Meetings 
that were kept up, were alfo very helpful to the Propn^ 
gating of Godlinefs. Truths that were flip'd away were 
thereby recall'd, and the Serioufncls of Peoples Minds 
renew'd : Good Defires were cherifli*d, and Know- 
ledge encreas'd. By thefe he had opportunity to know 
their Cafe : For if any were touch'd and awaken'd in 
Publick, prefently they came dropping in to the Pri- 
vate Meetings. And fo remote was the Danger of 
Schifm or Divifions, that this was the principal Means 
to prevent them. All being under his Overfight and 
Guidance, who was ufually prefent with them, anfwer- 
ing their Doubts, and filencing Objedions, and mode- 
rating them in all. Some Private Meetings he found 
were very much defired among them. Had he not al- 
lowed them fuch as were lawful and prcfxtabUy they 
would have bin apt to run into fuch as were unlawful 
and hurtful. And therefore, by encouraging them in 
fuch a Way, in the fit Exercife of their Parts, in T^e- 
petition^ Prayer, and asking Queif ion's; He kept them 
from enclining to the diforderly Exercife of them, in 
Imitation of the SeBaries, Befides, there were fome 
publick Dilputations, whereby the People were much 
confirm'd. The Q^iakers would have made Difturbancc, 
and fe: up a Meeting in the Tov/n, and raii'd bitterly 
at Mr. iaxtsr ; But he giving them leave to meet io 
- " the 

30 The LIFE of Chap. lit. 

the Church for a Difpucc, and opening before the Peo- 
ple their Deceits, none would entertain them more, nor 
did they gain one Profelyte. Mr. Tombes^ the /iyinbaf- 
tj^y who was Le£lurer at Bewdly, had (haken fome. 
But after the Difputc held with him, (of which hereaf- 
ter) the People were fettled, and the Infeaun ftopp'd. 
Another /ldi/:ritage he bad, was the great Honefty and 
Diligence of his Alfiftanvs Mr. I{tchard Scjennt, the 
firftof them, was very Laborious, much belov'd, of a 
meek and humble Spirit^ and blamelefs Life : Andfo 
alfo was Mr. Humphry Jyf'^alHern^ who fucceeded him; 
which rnadethe People fo much the more in Love with 
the Miniftry, and the more ready to fubmitto Inftru£ti- 
on. Another was the Prefence and Counte- 
nance of honeft Juftices of the Peace. Col. John Brid- 
ge:, a prudent pious Gentleman, was Patron of the Li- 
ving, and liv'd in the Parilh, and was a Juftice of 
Peace. And a Bailiff, and Juftice were annually cho' 
fen in the Corporation, who ordinarily were Godly 
Men, and always fuch as would be tho't fo, and were 
leady to ufe their Authority to fupprefs Sin and pro- 
mote Goodnefs. And when once a Sabhnth-hreaker 
tho't to have overthrown the Officers at Law, Serje- 
ant Fountain being then Judge of the Afee, did fore- 
prefs his Malice, as difcourag'd all others from any fur- 
ther Attempts of that kind. His Readinefs alfo to heip 
the Poor, was a great Help to his Succefs. He aiTifted 
them for fome time with his Advice in Phyfick, and 
was very fuccefsful ; but finding it took up fo much 
time as to be burdenfome, he at lengrh fix'd among 
them a Diligent Skilful Phyfician, and bound himfelt 
to him by Promife, That he would Pra^ice no ynqre in 
common Cnfes. But be always was Liberal with his 
Purfe. His ftated Income was not above 90 /. per An^ 
num: Befides which, he lome Years had 60 or 80/. a 
Year of the Bookfellers for Bonks ; which being given 
away anniongft them, except fo much as was necelfary 
for his Comfortable Subliftence, irtade them much the 
readier to liften to him. Several of their Children 
that had Capacities, he took from School, and fenC 
to the Univerfity, where he maintain'd rhem by his 
own and others Contributions: Some of which after- 
'iwards prov'd very uieful Minirtcrs. His giving away 
Bibles atid oiher good Booki amotig foUr EnmiUfSi 

Chap. in. Mr. Richird Baxter. 21 

was a Thing highly pleafing to them. The People ge- 
nerally were of fuch a Trade as allow'd them time 
eno' to Read or Talk, of holy Things, which was a- 
nother Help. His fingle Life alfo was in fome refpeils 
an Advantage to him. Being free from Family Cares, 
he had the Greater Vacancy and Liberty for the La- 
bours of his Calling. And it was alfo fome Com- 
fortj that there were at laft few that were bad, but 
fome of their Relations were Converted. Many were 
wrought on at 14, r^, 16 Years of Age : Which did 
much towards the Reconciling the Minds of the Pa- 
rents and elder fort to Godllnefs. Many there were 
of a conliderable Age, the Converfion of whofe Chil- 
dren was the Chief Means to overcome their Preju- 
dice, and old Cuftoms and Conceits. Many did God 
recover by Sicknefs, and his conftant difowning the Ini- 
quity of the Times tended to the Good of many ; and 
fo alfo did the Unanimity of the Miniilers of the 
Country round, who Affociated in a way of Concord. 
The Quality of the open Sinners of the Place was fuch, 
as difcourag'd others. Thofe given to Drunkennefs 
were fo Beaftly and Ridiculous, that they made thac 
Sin (of which there was the greateft Danger) the more 
abhor'd. The Quality of the Apoitate Sinners of the 
Place was alfo remarkable. They that fell off, (who 
were not many) were fuch as before by their want of 
Grounded Underftanding, Humility and Mortificati- 
on, gave the greateft Sufpicion of their Stability : And 
they fell to no lefs than Familifm and Infidelity, ma- 
king a Jeft of the Scripture; and the EflVntials of Chii- 
ftianity. And as they fell from the Faith, fo they fell 
to Drinking, Gaming, furious PaiTions, and a grofly 
Vicious Life : And were thereupon as Pillars and Mo- 
numents of God's Juftice, to warn all others to take 
heed of Self-conceitednefs, and Herefies -^ and of de- 
parting from Truth and Chriftian Unity. Another 
confiderable Furtherance of the Peoples Good, wai the 
foremention'd Work of Perfonal Conference with every 
Family apart, and Catechizing and Inftruding them. 
That which was fpoken to them Perfonally, and puc 
them many times upon particular Anfwcrs, awaken d 
their Attention, and was more eafily apply'd than Pub- 
liek Preaching, and feem'd to work much more upon 
them. The Exercife of Church Difcipline was anothec 
great Helpo " - 

32 The LIFE of Chap. HI. 

^An ama- About 6 Of 7 Young Men join d with the Congrega- 
%inrr In- tion who were addidked to Tipling, and one of them 
ftanceofan yj^^ ^i weak-headed Fellow, who was a common no- 
IncorrlgibU forious Drunkard. He was admoniftiM o' his Sin, 
Smner. npon offering hiii.felf to Communion ; and cold, T/:rtf 
without an Humble Penitent ConfeJJlon, and Promife of 
Amendment , he muH be declared Vnfit for Church 
Communion. He hereupon lamented his Sin with great 
Bitternefs, and promis'd Amendment; but quickly 
return'd to it again. He was Admoniih'd over and o- 
ver, and great Endeavours were us'd to bring him to 
Contrition and Refolution 5 and he would TtiU con- 
fefs it, and yet ftill go on. Whereupon, Mr. Baxter 
"Warn'd him jpublickly, and Pray'd for him feveral 
Days in the Church : But he went on in his Drun- 
kennefs ftill. At Jaft, he declared him utterly unfit for 
Church Communion, and required all to avoid him 
accordingly, endeavouring to convince him of his Mi- 
fery, and of the Neceflity of true Repentance and Re- 
formation. After his Ejedlion, when he was Drunk, 
he would Hand at the Market-place, and like a Quaker 
cry out againft the Town, and take on him to Pro- 
phefy God's Judgments againft them, and would Rage 
at Mr. Baxter'^ Door, and Rail and Curfe him bitter- 
ly. And once he foUow'd him as he went to Church,' 
and laid Hands on him in the Church-Yard, with a 
purpofe to have kilTd him ; but it fell out that he had 
hold only of his Cloak, which he unbutton d and left 
with him ; and before his Fury could do any more, (ic 
bting the Fair- Day) there were fome Strangers by in 
the Church- Yard, who dragg'd him to the Magiftrate 
and the Stocks. And thus he continu*d raging againft 
him about a Year, and then dy'd of a Feaver^ in Great 
Horrour of Confcience. Three or Four more were 
forc'd to be caft out, one for Slandering, and the reft 
for Drunkennefs : And they were enrag'd, and much 
the worfe after it, and lb were loud H^arnings to others. 
Another Advanta^e^ in order to his Succefs among 
them, was his ordering his Docftrine to them in a Suit- 
abienefs to his main End ; and yet fo as might fuit their 
Difpofitions and Difcafes. The Great Fundamental 
Principles of Chrilfianify^ contJiin'd in the Baptifmal 
Covenant; even a right Knowledge and Belief of^ 
and Subje&ion and Love tOy God the Father ^ the Son, 


Chap. III. Mr. Richard Baxter. 35 

and the Holy Ghcfl^ were the Things which he daily o- 
pen'd to them, and with greateft Importunity laboured 
to imprint upon their Minds. So frequently did he in- 
culcate the Knowledge of God, Creator, Redeemer 
and Sandifier, and Love and Obedience to Him, and 
Unity with the Church Catholick, and Love to Men, 
and Hope of Life Eternal ; that thefe were the Mat- 
ter of their daily Meditations and Difcourfcs, and in- 
deed their Religion. And yet he ufuaiiy put fomt- 
thing into his Sermons that was above their Difcovcry, 
and which they had not known before, ihatchey might 
be kept Humble, ftill perceive their Ignorance, and 
be willing to remain in a Learning State; and to en- 
creafe their Knowledge, and make Religion pleafant 
10 them by a daily Addition to their former Light, and 
to draw them on with Defire and Delight. But thele 
Things, which they did not know before, were not un- 
profitable Controverfies, which tended not to Edifica- 
tion, nor Novelties in Dodtrine, contrary to the Uni- 
verfal Church ; but either fuch Points as tended to iU 
luftrate the great Do(Srines of Religion, or ufually a- 
bout the right Methodizing them, which requires a 
great deal of Tho't and Accuracy. He was abundantly 
convinced of the Neceflity of Care in this refped, by 
long Obfervation : For when Minifters tell their People 
of no more than they kriow, and do not lliew that 
they excell them in Knowledge and Abilities, they will 
be tempted to turn Preachers themfelves : And think- 
ing that they have learn'd all that their Miniiters can 
teach them, they will contemn them, an.i wrangle 
with their Dodrines, and fet their Wits againft them, 
and hear them as Cenfurers and not as Difcipies, to 
their own Undoing, and to the Difturbance of the 
Church ; and they will eafily draw Difciples after them. 
The bare Authority of the Clergy will not Icrve 
the Turn, without confiderable Minifterial Abilities. 
Another Advnntage lay in the Quality of the People 
as to their Outward Condition. They xvere not Rich. 
There were few Beggars indeed, becaufe their Cotri- 
mon Trade 0^ StuffV^-avh^ would find Work for all, 
Men, Women and Children, that were able: But 
there were none of the Tradefren Wealthy, their 
Employment ordinarily finding them but Food and 
Raiment. Few of the MagUtrates were worth 40 /. 

54 The LIFE of Chap. III. 

per Annum 'y and moft not half fo much. Three or 
Four of the Mafter Workmen got perhaps Five or Six 
Hundred Pound in ao Years; but the Generality of 
them hv'd little better than Journeymen, from Hand 
to Movith, excepting that they labour'd not altogether 
fo hard. This kept them from a great many Tempta- 
tions which Weahh is attended with, and made them 
much more pliable and yielding to the Miniftry, than 
could otherwife have been expedted. 

His not meddling with Tythes or IV^rldly Bufinefs was 
another Advantage to "him. Hereby he had the more 
Tim£ for his Study, and his Mind was the freer from 
Entanglements, and he avoided offending the People 
by contentious Law- Suits. There were three or four of 
his honeft Neighbours who manag'd for him all Con- 
cerns of that Nature, and he never took an Account of 
them. After that he was conftrain'd to let the Tythes 
be gather d as by his Title, to fave the Gatherers from 
Law Suits, he gave Orders, That if any Perfons refused 
to fny who voere Poor, it fhculd he forgiven them : But that 
if the Perfons were able ^ what was due floouldbe Jought for by 
the help of the Ma^iftrate with the ; and that both 
his Part and the Dnynages Jhould be given to the Poor, 
When this was once known, none that were able 
would do the Poor fo great a Kindnefs as to refufe 
Payment. His ftaying fo long in this one Place, was 
a further Advantage. By this Means it came about, 
that almoft all the Religious People of the Place were 
of his own Intruding and Informing ; and he ftay'd 
to fee them grown up to fome Confirmednefs and Ma- 
turity. All which Advantages he diftindtly Noted 
and Recorded, with due Regard to that Providence 
whereto they were owing, 
t,. - _ One of his main Difficulties when he fix'd in Kf- 
hout DiCc' ^^^^^^^^''t was how to fet up any Thing of a true Dif- 
p/ine. cipline^ without being fatisfy'd with the Shadow of it, 

inftead of the ReaJiiy on one Hand, or unchurching 
the Parifh Church on the other. After mature Tho'cs 
upon the Matter, he told the People, Toat he w;nt not 
about to gather a Njw Churchy but would take the Parijh 
for the Churchy uniefs they were tinwilling to own their 
Mrmbrtfhip. Al] that did own their Mcmbcrfhip in 
that Pariih Church, and would own him for their 
Faftour, he delired to give in their Names, or any 


Ghap. III. Mr, Richard Baxter. 25 

other Way to fignify that they did fo : And thofe who 
were not willing to be Members, and rather chofe to 
wichdraw themfelves, than to Jive under Difcipline, 
he defired to be filenr. And fo thro' fear of Difci- 
pline, all the Pariih kept off except 600, when there 
were in all above 1600 at Age to be Communicancs : 
Yet becaufe it was their own doing, and they knew 
they might come in when they would, they were quiet. 
If any fcrupled fitting at the Lord's Table, he openly 
told them, They Jhould have the Liberty of their own Ge- 
fture. And he was free to Baptize all their Children : 
But he made them hrft (as he would have done by 
Strangers ) give him privately ( or publickly if they 
had rather ) an Account of their Faith. And if any 
Father were a Scandalous Sinner, he made him confefs 
his Sin openly with Teeming Penitence, before he 
would Baptize his Child. If he refus'd ir, he forbore 
'till the Mother came to prefent it. For he rarely, if 
ever, found both Father and Mother fo deftitute of 
Knowledge and Faith,as in a Church Senfe to be utter- 
ly uncapable. 

There was one Sir I{alpb CUre who liv*d in the Pa- ^'^ ^o»' 
riih, who did rtiore to hinder his Succefs, than could ^"*^ '"" 
have bin done by a great many others. He was a ^'*'' | ^"' 
Man indeed of great Courtlhip and Civility, and car- ^J t* ^ 
ry'd it with much Perfonal Reverence and Refpe(5t, 
and yet coming but once to Church on the LordV 
Days, and abftaining from the Sacrament, his Exam- 
ple did much Mifchief ; tho* at the fame Time his fend- 
ing his Family to be Perfonaliy Inftrudted and Ca- 
lechiz'd, did win with the worft almoft to do the like. 
He made a Motion to Mr. Baxter, That he would 
Communicate with him, if he would adminifter the Sa- 
crament to him Kneeling, and on a diftin(^ Day, and 
not with thofe that receiv'd it Sitting. In a Letter in 
Anfwer to him, he offer'd, // he muld fuhmit to Difci- 
pline, and take him for his Paftour, and firft hear his F^ea- 
fonsy if he could not Convince him^ but if he xvoidd profefs 
that he thot it n Sin agninft God to receive the Sacrament 
unlefs it were put into his Hands Kjieelivg, and that he 
durfl not in Confcience takje it otherwife^ he would fo give 
it him : But as for doing it at a difiin^i ftnted Time from 
the reft, it would make fuch a Breach or Sciiifm^ as he coul4 
have no Hand in» 

D 2 He 

§6 The LIFE of Chap. HI. 

The Cafe of He had alfo Tome Difficulty about the Sequeftrarion 
the Fica- of the Living of Kedcrmir?f}er^ upon the Account of 
ridge of Kt- which he was refleAed on by many, but very unjuft- 
dcrminfler, ]y . p^j. ^^e true State of the Cafe was this. While 
he was kept away from the Place by a Languilhing 
IJinefs, not knowing whether God would make any 
farther Ufe of him, the Towns People tho't fit to re- 
new their Articles againft their old Vicar and his Cu- 
rate ; and upon Tryal of the Caufe, the Committee 
fequeftred the Place, but put no one into it, leaving 
the Profits in the Hands of divers Inhabitants to pay a 
Preacher, 'till it were difpos'd of Mr. Baxter y tho' 
urgently prefs'd, refus'd the Vicaridge, and would 
have only the Lecfture, which by the Old Man's own 
Confent and Bond he held before. And at his Return, 
he found only Mr. Serjeant in PolfefiTion, who was de- 
fired to Officiate during the Vacancy. Being vehe- 
mently urg'd again to accept the Vicaridge, he repeated 
his Refufal, and got the Magiftrates and Burgelles to- 
gether into the Town Hall, and told them, That tbo he 
was offe/H feveral Hundred Pounds per Annum elfe- 
vphere, yet he w/ts vail ling to continue with them in his Old 
LeBurers PUce^ which he had before the 0^ar^ expelling 
they (hould make the Maintenance an loo 1. per Annum, 
with the Addition of an Houfe : Avd if they would promife 
to fuhmlt to that Dotlrine of Chrij}, which as his Mini- 
fier he /hould deliver to them, he would never leave them. 
But he intimated, that this Maintenance fhould neither 
come out of their own Purfes, nor any more of it out 
of the Tythes but the 60 1, which the Vicar had before 
bound himfelf to pay him, But from an Augmenta- 
tion, eafily to be procur'd : And the reft he would have 
nothing to do with. This Covenant was drawn up in 
Articles, and Subfcrib'd ; and he exprefly difclaim'd 
the Vicaridge and Paftoral Charge of the Parifli, and 
only undertook the Lecture. And thus the Sequcfira- 
tion continued in the Hands of the Townfmen, who ga- 
thered the Tyrhes, and paid him ( not an Hundred, as 
they promised) but 80/. per Annum, or 90 at moft, 
and Rent for a few Rooms : The reft they pave to 
Mr. Serjeant^ and about 40 /. per Anvum to the Old Vi- 
car, and 6 /. per Annum to the Lord for Rent, befides 
other Charges. But when they had contmu'd long in 
this Way, they fearM kaft feme one againft their Will 


Chap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 27 

fhould get a Grant of the Sequeftration from the Com- 
mittee, and therefore they went privately and got an 
Order from them to fettle Mr. Baxter in the Title, and 
never fhew'd it him, but kept it fecret, defigning only 
to fecure the Place from a Surprize, and thernfelvcs 
from repaying what they disburs'd. But when King 
Charles came out of Scotland with his Army to H^'orcsjler 
their Houfes being full of Soldiers, they bro't him rhe 
Order, entreating him, if he would not own it, yet at 
leaft to keep it fafe, and to fave them haimlefs by ir, 
if they were call'd to Account Which is the rather 
mention'd fo particularly, to clear him from fome Af- 
perfions, unjuftly caf^: upon him about this Matter. 

Upon the Whole ; fo much of the Spirit oF God 
did Mr. Baxter find accompanying him in his Work at 
IQdermvnJler, and fo affecT:io!;ate was his Regard to 
the Loving People of that Place, that he would not 
willingly have exchanged his Relation to them for any 
Preferment in the Kingdom, nor could he without 
Force have bin feparated from them. . 


The Rifi and Springs of the Civil War : Some 
brief Touches of the Hiflory of the Times 
*till the Cutting off the King. 

NOT long after his Settlement at Ksdermwfter, , 

the Civil War began, and the Times rain'd 
— Blood fo long, 'till the Languifliing State of the 

Kingdom was almoft defperate and incurable. He was 
a Mournful Spedtatour of the Publick Confufions, 
and made fome Rematks on the Occurrences of the 
Times, which are not unworthy the Notice of Pofterity. 

The Nation had for fome Time before bin under rhe further 
Difcontent. The General Cry was for Juftice in the Proceedings 
Punifhment of Delinquents. This went againft the of tU Long 
King, and was a great Trouble ro his Friends and Fa- Parliament 
vourites, who none of them knew how foon his own 
Turn might come. The Lord-Keeper Finch and Secre- 
tary Wmdehank fled beyond Sea and fav'd themfelves. 
The Guilty Judges were deeply accus'd in Parliament, 
jind fome of them ImpriCon* d on the Account of Ship- 

P ^ Money 

58 The LIFE, of Chap. IV. 

^n. 1(541. Money. But the Great Difpleafure was agajnft the 
* Dr. Parr ^^^^ ^^ Strcjford,2iT\A. Arch-Bi(hop Luud. They were 
in the Life toth fent to the Tovoer, and a Charge was drawn up 
of Arch- againft them, and managed prefendy againft the Lord- 
BifI)o]} Ufh- t)€^\ii^' PVentvoorthy by the ableft Lawyers and Gentle- 
er, rvhich men of the Houfe. This was a Matter they were long 
hepuhlifh'd about ; for the King being unwilling to confent to bis 
tn FV/o, Deach, us'd all his Skill to ftop the Profecution. A 
inenttoning D^vifion arofe among the Great ones. The Lords Kj/i^- 
t'o r I "'If ^^^^ ^"^ Digby, and other Perfons of confiderable Note, 
tin \' '^ ^^^^ ^^^ gratifying tlie King by fp^tfirig him. Others 
ztpon thti w^rc vehement on the other Side, faying : That if af- 
Occaf:on ^^^ ^ plain Attempt to fuhvert the Fundnynentnl Ltiws 
fays he xpas ^^^ Liherti^s, no one Man fhould fuffsr Denth^ it xcould 
injnr''d by encourage others hereafter in the like. The Londoners Peti- 
Common tion'd the Houfe for Juftice^ and follow'd them with 
Tame, in their Cries and Clamours : And an unhappy Painter 
the Feport drew the Pidiures of the Chief of thofe Members who 
fpread a- vvere for faving the Lord-Deputy, and call'd thern ^fr^f- 
broad.about fQy^j^„j^ hanging them with their Heels upward on the 
he H ^-^^^^^^^' This Procedure made the Lord Di^hy and 

KXdye. e ^^^ j^Q^d Falkland heartily fall in with the King's Inte- 
('pa'T 6t ]^^^'' being not fo immovable as fome others, whom 
that rphen neither Hope oor Fear, nor Difcontent, would alienate 
that Holy from the Caufe which they thought well of. Yet o- 
Man ivas thers were try'd with the Offer of Preferments. The 
in fuchLoiA Sny was made one of the Privy-Councii ; and 
Dangerous Mr. Oliver St. John the King's Solicitor, &c. But as 
Circumfian- this did not alter them, fo others would accept no Prc- 
ces, (IS that ferment, leaft they fhould be tho'tto feek thcmfelve*, or 
aRtffhowere f^c their Fidelity to fale. At length the Earl of Straf- 
lT r f'''^'^^^^ Condemn d, and the King l^ing defired to 
;of '''J Sign the Bill, had the Advice of divers Bi(hops, and 
rL'H/;: !,"1?"§ ^JV'^' of]iopty/^.>, and l^rjuxon 
Liberty tn Piuiop 01 Lonacn. 1 he totmer'^, as v;as faid, told him, 

a'ih him, If 

he had advis'd tijt King to pnfs the Bill againd the Earl of Strajj'ord? To which 
he reply d, I l:now there is fach a Thing mofl wrongfully laid to my Clmrge - 
forIneithfrg3ve, nor aj^prordof any fuch Advice,astirat the King (hould Af- 
fcnc to the Bill agninft the Earl ^ baton the contrary told hisMajcdy, thatifhe 
was fatisfy'd hy what he hnd h.eard at liisTryaljtliat ih/- Earl was nor guilty of 
Treafon, his Majefty ought not in Confcicncc to confent to hisCondemnatio.n. 
It may perhaps contribute to the Reader's Satisfafiion to compare the Account 
here^iven in the Text and Muy^w^ v^ith Hi (hop Huckct'5 Lkfc of ^(h-Bifhop 
WilUamF, ptfrf. ?. f^^. 1^1. Jhdt 

% — - 

Chap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 20 

That he might lavofully concur with the Judgment of his An. i6ai. 
Parliament Proceeding according to Law, tho his oxon 
'Judgment were, that their Sentence was uvjuft • but 
the latter advis'd him to do nothing againft his'Con- 

There was great Heat auiongthe Members of Parlia- 
ment in thofe Debates which this Matter occafion d. 
Some were much againft Difpleafing and Provoking the 
King, and tho'c themfelves not obiig'd to attempt 
any other Juftice or Reformation, than what they 
could bring him to be willing to. And they thus ar- 
guM : T4^hen you have difpleasd and provoked him to the 
utmofty he will be your Kjng fliU ; and when you have fate 
to the longeft, you mu§i be diffolvd at' laft. Tou have no . 
Power over hps Perfon, tho* you have over Delimjucnt Sub- 
jeHs. If he prote^ them by Arms^ you muFt either your 
felves he ruind by his Difpleafure, or engaged in a War, 
Difpleafing him^ is but exafperating him ; and would ycu 
be E{uCd by a Kjng that hates you ? The more you offend 
him, the lefs you can trufi him*, and when mutual Co^fl' 
dence is gone, a War is beginning. And if it come to a 
War, either you will Conquer^ or be Conquer^ d^ or come to 
Agreement : If you are Conquer d^ you and the Common^' 
wealth are ruind, and the Kjng will be Ahfolute, and neg- 
leEi Parliaments^ and Govern as he pleafcth. If ycu ccme 
to an Agreement y it will either be fuch as you force him to^ 
or fuch as he is willing of : If the latter be the I{efult, it 
may be done more eafily and cheaply before a War than af- 
ter : If the former be the Iffue^ it can have no great 
Strength ; for nothing Violent is lafiing. And if you 
Conquer him, what are you the better ? He will flill be 
Kjng, and confequently have the Power cf Avenging him-- 
felf in his Hands, The Pleas of thofe of the other 
Stamp were of this Nature : // the Kjng be not to be 
difpleas'd, then this Parliament fhould never have bin 
call'd, Ship-Money fhould have gone on, and the Subje^s 
Property and Parliaments have bin fuffer'd to be over- 
thrown: Church Innovations fhould not have bin controul*d^ 
nor any Stop to the Suhverters of our Government and Li- 
berties attempted. Then no Members fhould fpecl^ freely of 
any of theje Things in the Houfe ; And what do we here ? 
Could not the I^ng have pleas' d himfelf without us ? Or 
4o we come to be his Inftruments to give away the Peoples 
Liberties, and Ce$ up that which n begun ? Uither it is our 

P 4 Duty 

40 The LIFE of Chap, IV. 

Jin. 1 64 1. Duty to I{eform^ and to I^covcr ciir Liberties, and ^^ 
lieve our Country, and Pitw'Jh Dclincjucnts^ or not ? If 

- not J let us go Home again. If it bc^ let w do it, and truji 

Qod. For if the Fears of fprefeen Oppp/ition /hall make us 
betrr.y our Count fy and Poflerity, we are Perfidious to 
them. Enemies to our /elves, and worfe than Infidels. As 
/or a iVar, the Danger of it may be avoided. It is aThing 
uncertain ; a-nd therefore a prefent certain l^*in, and that- 
by our ovon Hand, is nqt to be cho/en to avoid it. The f\Jng 
viay/ee the Danger of it as well as we^ and avoid it on bet- 
ter Terms : Or if he were willing, he may not be able^ to 
do any great Harm, Do you thin^ that the People of Eng- 
land arc fo mad oi to fight againjl thofc whom they have 
cho/en to repre/enP them ? To dejiroy themselves and the 
Hopes nf their Pcfierity ? Do thty not know, that if Par' 
liamcnts arede/troyd, their Lives and Ejiates are meerly of 
the Wdl and Mercy 0/ the Conqueror ? And what fear of 
I{cvengey when we miy continue, ^till we confent to our own 
Di/folution ? Can we not avoid confenting to it^ *till we fee 
our /elves cut cf the Danger of [{evcnge ? Thus were 
Mens Minds divided : But fome unhappy Means fell 
out to unite them, fo as to caufe thejn to proceed to a 

The Tore- War. ^ 

runmrs of The King had a confiderable Party that adherd to 
il7€ War. him, made up both of State PoUticians, and Friends 
of the Ecclefiaftical Hierarchy; who jointly fetthem- 
felves againll the Parliament, not only becaufe of their 
apprehended Encroachments on the Civil Power, but 
• alfo becaufe of the Church Reformation intended. But 
the Country Party carry'd ail Things with a High 
Hand, depending upon the Aiififtancc of true hearted 
Englipcmen if Matters came to Extremity. Many 
Things fell in to heighten Difconrents. The London 
Apprentices (enco^^rag'd by fome Members of Parlia- 
ment) in a Tumultuous Manner brought up their Pe- 
titions to I'Vefmiv/icr. In one of I heir Progrcflbs they 
met fome of the Bilhops going to the Houfe in their 
Coaches: Forgetting Civility, they cry*d out, No Bi- 
/}:>ops^ and flouted and ijifulied rudely. The Bifliops 
hereupon in a Fright met together, and declaring 
themlelvts Deterrd from their Attendance in Parliament 
by Clamours and Tumults^ drew up a Proteftation again ft 
aiiy Law that Ihould pafs in their Abfence. This was 
fo refented by the Parliament, iliat they who fubfcrib'd 


Chap. IV. Mr. Elichard Baxter. 41 

it were voted Ddinquents, and fent to Prifon, as ^i- An. 1^41. 
tempting to deftroy the Power of ParJiaments. And e- 
'ven Bifliop l-J^^U himfelf was one of ihem. Thcfc nu- 
merous Petitioners were alfo very OfFenfive to the 
King, infomuch, that when at another Time they 
pafsM by M/hite-hall, they were fet upon by fome of 
hi§ Cavahers, who laying hold of fome cf them, cut 
off their Ears. There was another Scuffle about M^dji- 
minfier^ Abbey ^ when Sir i{ich^rd W.Jcman^ that Head- 
ed them, waskill'd by a Stone from the Abbey Walls. 
Thefe Tumults made the King not think himfelf fafe, 
either in the City or near it. 

Great were the Jealoufies between him and his Par- 
liament. He diftrufted them, as thinking they bore 
hard upon him in every Thing ; and they diOrufted 
him without any Dependence upon his Declarations or 
Prooaifes. They were confident he was immoveable as 
to his Judgment and AfFedions, and that whatever be 
granted them was" but in Defign to get his Advantage 
utterly to deftroy them ; and that he did but warch for 
fuch an Opportunity. They fuppos'd that he utterly 
a^bhorr'd them, and their Adions againft his Ship- Mo- 
ney, his Judges, Biftiops, ^c, and charging him with 
the Brench of former Promifes^ they durft not take his 
Word in any Thing. This their Diffidence was many 
ways encreas'd. The two Armies of Scots and Engllfh 
remain'd undisbanded in the North, 'till the Parliament 
Ihould provide for their Pay. The EngUfh Army want- 
ing Pay, were Difcontented : Hereupon rhey enter- 
tained a Defign to inarch fuddenly up to London^ and 
Matter the Parliament. This being difcover'd, feveral 
of the Chief Officers (as Sir Jncob Aftley, O Keal^ and 
Sii Fulk^Himkj) wereexamin'd, and confefs'd T/?^ryor«e . 
ne^r the Kjng^ h/id treated with them nbout bringing up the 
Army. Which Examinations were publilh'd, and faiis- 
fy'd many, That the K^ng did but wntch vohiie he quieted 
them with Promifes^ to m^fter them by Force^ and ufe them 
at h« Pleafure. The Parliament, to prevent any Infalts, 
provided themfelves with a Guard, which they took to 
be their Priviledge. The Kiag difcharging them, fet 
another Guard upon them of his own choofing. This 
nvade them look like Prifoners ; and they fear'd they 
who made up the Guard appointed by the Kiog, would 


42 The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

jin. 1541. if commanded become the Executioners of his Wrath 
upon them. Upon which they difmiflcd them, and 
caird for a Guard of the City Regiments. At length 
the King, being advis'd no longer to ftand by and fee 
himfelf Affronted, took an unprecedented Step in go- 
ing fuddenly to the Houje of Commons, with a Com- 
pany of Cavaliers with Swords and Piftols, to charge 
five of their Members, vi:{. Mr. Pirn, Mr. Hampden, 
Mr. Hollis^ Mr. Strovod^ and Sir Arthur HnJJerigg, and 
and the Lord Kjmbolton^ ( afterwards Earl of Mm- 
chejler, and Lord Chamberlain ) with High-Treafon, 
Had they bin there, it was fuppos'd they would have 
bin feiz'd by Force ; bnt upon Notice before-hand, 
they abfented themfelves, retiring into the City. 
The Houfe was hereupon Allarum'd, as if their Li- 
berties or Lives muft be affaulted by the Sword, if 
they pleas'd not the Court 5 and thereupon they 
prefently Voted this A£tion, a Breach of their Privi- 
iedges^ and an Effe^}of the Kjr/gs-Evil CcunfeHcrSy and 
publilh'd their Votes, to awaken the People to refcue 
ihem, as if they were in apparent Danger. The 
King being difappointed, publifheth a Paper, in 
which he chargeth the aforefaid Perfons with Treafon, 
as ftirring up the Apprentices to Tumultuous Peti- 
tioning, &c. But confeffeth his Error in violating their 

Not long after, the Lord Dighy and feme other Ca- 
valiers, attempted at Kjngfton upon Thames to have 
•fuddenly got together a Body of Horfe, which the 
Parliament highly refented. But the Party was difli- 
pated, and he was Voted a Delinquent, and orderM to 
be Apprehended : But he fled to France, and thence 
wrote to the King, ( which Letters were intercepted ) 
advifing him to retire from the City to fome Place of 
Strength : Which they tool^ as an Advice to make open 
War upon them. 
The Irifh ^"^ x.\itxt was nothing that wrought fo much with 
Majfacre ^^^ People as the Iri/h Maflfacre and Rebellion. The 
mnd Rebel' ^^'7^ Papifts made an unexpedted Infurredion in all 
/ion. Parts of that Kingdom at once, and feiz'd upon al- 

moft all the Strong Places in the Land, and it was 
very wonderful chat Dublin efcap'd, which was to 
have bin furpriz'd with the reft, OHcb, 23. 1641. 


Chap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. j^-^ 

they murther'd Two Hundred Thoufand Perfons. 
Men, Women and Children were moft 

cruelly us'd, the Women ript up and ^^^^ ^"' John Temple'* 
treated moft Filthily and Barbaroufly, ^'V/ory ; Dr. Junts'j .v^r, 
and Infants us'd like Toads or Vermin. '•'<^»t'^ "f f/^e f-v^m/n^^- 
Thoufands of thofe who efcap'd, came '^^'^ff^'^'^rlofOvt,- 
Stript and-almoft FamilVd to Dublin, ^1 ^M^^^ toaV<tu,,n. 
and afterwards into England to beg their Bread. Mul- 
titudes of them were driven together into Rivers, and 
caft over Bridges and Drown'd. Many Witnefles fwore 
before the Lords Juftices, That at Portdovon-Bridge^ 
a Vifion every Day appcar'd to the PalTengers of 
Naked Perfons, landing up to the Middle in the 
River, and crying out ^evenge^ Revenge, In a Word ; 
fcarce any Hiftory mcntloneth the \i]<i,Q. Barbarous 
Cruelty with this. The Irijh deciar'd, they had the 
King's Commiffion for what they did : And many e- 
ven at that Time, weighing all Circumftances, be- 
lieved as much, while others reprefented it as an hor- 
ridly Unjuft and Scandalous Afperfion upon his Ma- 
jefly ; but as Providence orderd it, a certain Memo- 
rable Particularity help'd to fet this Matter in a juft 
Light. The Marquefs of Antrim^ who was a Noted 
Man among the Lijlo Rebels, having had his Eft ate 
Sequeftred, tho't fit, upon the Reftauration of King 
Charles the Second, to fue for the Reftitutioii of ic. 
The Duke of Ormond and the Council judg'd againft 
. him as one of the Rebels. Whereupon he bro'c his 
Caufe over to the Kin^, and affirm'd, That what he 
did was by his Father's Confent and Authority; and the 
King referred ic to fome worthy Members of his Privy- 
Council, to examine what he had :o fhew. Upon 
Examination, they reported, That they found he hnd the 
Kings Confent, or Letter of InftruHlons for what he did, 
which amaz'd many. Hereupon King Charles wrote to 
the Duke of Ormond and the Council, To reftore his^ E- 
ftate, becaufe it appear'd to thofe appointed to Exa- 
mine it, that what he did was by his Father's Order 
or Confent. The Lord M^tT^arine, and others in Ire- 
land^ not fully fatisfy'd with this, tho't fit fo far to 
profecute the Matter, as that the Marquefs of Antrim 
was forc'd to produce in the Houfc of Commons a Letter 
of King Charles the Firft, by which he gave him Order 
for ihe taking up Arras, which being read in the Houfe, 
- ' ^ produc'4 

44 The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

Jin. 1541- produc'd a general Silence. * The whole Account 
^ jjj ^ of it, with a great many furprizing Particulars, was 
in many P^t)lifh'd in a Pamphlet call'd. Murkier will out, Ac 
JPamphlets the Time when this Barbarity was committed, all Eng- 
ieen Ye- ^^^^ ^as fiU'd wi[h Fear. People were afraid both of 
fictled on ^^^ ^^'7^ and of the Papifls at Home : Infomuch, that 
vrith great '^htn the Rumour of a Plot was fpread about a little 
Seyerity, after in Londcn^ the Poor People all the Countries over, 
ferinfertlng were ready either to run to Arms, or hide themfelves, 
this Paf' thinking the Papifts were coming to cut their Throats. 
f^e of the YhQ Parliament was folicitous to fend Help to Dubtw, 
^r^Kc/} to prevent its being loft. The King prefs'd to go over 
Th "w^T ^'"^^^^^i ^^^^1 which nothing could be more difagreeable 
ofammons ^^ ^^em, who were afraid leaft getting at the Head of 
has been ^^^ Armies he fliould unite them both againft them, 
told 'if it in ^"^ ^y ^^^ Abfence make a Breach, and hinder the Pro- 
a Letter to ceedings of the Houfes. The few that were left in 
them^fpreai Dublin, defended themfelves, tho' under prefling Necef- 
timongft fities, andfcnt over Word, That the lnih.threntned, that 
them before 

the ^oth of January ^ and I hare had hard Katnes given me by federal. But 
if they kpouU conftder that I report it from Mr. Baxter, it might abate their 
Cenfures. If he was imposed upon in this Matter^ I cannot J)elp it. I don't 
iook upon my felf as refponjible for the Truth of it. jind fet had I found 
they had any of them difproy'd it^ I /hould hare forbnrn infertinq^ it. That 
fome of the Irifli Rebels did counterfeit the King^s Commijfon, is not call'd in 
iQueftion by this "Relation. That may hare fufficient ^roof : And yet if a 
Letter ryas actually produc'^d in the Houfe of Commons^ from King Charles 
the Firfi to the Marquef of Antrim, impowering him to take up Arms^ I 
don't fee hov? He can be charg'd vfitb any fuch Counterfeiting. And if King 
Charles was thereupon fatisfy'd to let the Marque fs keep his Lftate, I can- 
not fee why others Jhould be fo dijiurbed that Fojierity fI)ould knoKp it. 
But let the TaCl of the Letter be difproVd 5 let a true Copy of the Letter 
that was read in the Houfe of Commons, ( the Original of tpinch I am in* 
form'd was once in the Taper Office wherever it is now ) be publifl)''d to the 
World, with Evidence of its being genuine ; and let it appear that that Let- 
ter gave the Marquefs no Order or Commiffion to take up Arms, and no fur- 
ther Diflurbance need be feared from this Story. J ^jan't give any Credit to 
it my felf:, and would readily ufe my Endeavours to fatisfy others^ if they 
fiould be fo weak ai ftill to believe it. And I don't fee that any Thing far- 
ther can be reafonably dcfird of me. Whoever was the Author of the Tampit- 
let call d Murder will out, if he vfas the Author of the Letter too ; or if the 
Letter was not to the Furpofe mention J^ 'tis an horrid Impofition on the Horld: 
But if tlje Letter was Genuine, and to the Purpofe mentioned, it defences fo»- 
(iieration : And lUl this ii difproyeii Out-Crys are injtgnifcant, 


Chap. IV. Mr, Kichard Baxter. 45- 

TQhen they had done with the ha?jdful thnt wai left in An. i ^a\ . 
Ireland, they would cowe/wfo England, and deal with the 
Parliament and Protefiants here, Thefe Threatnings 
v%7ith the Name of 200000 murder'd, and the Recital 
of the monftrous Cruelties of thofe Canibals, made 
many Thoufands in England think, that nothing could 
be more neceflary than for the Parliament to put the 
Country into an Armed Pofture, for their own Defence. 

At length the King leaves London, and goes North- Tf^e opening 
ward, and marches to Hull, where Entrance was de- ^/^^'^^ *^'»'^- 
ny*d him by Sir John Hotham. The Parliament pub- 
Jifh'd their Votes to the People, That the Kjng mijlcd by 
Evil Coimfely was raifing a fVar againfl his Parliament, 
They nam'd Lord Lie^i tenants for the Militia of the fe- 
verai Counties, and the Kingnam'd others by aCommif- 
fion of Array, and each command the faid Lord Lieute- 
nants to fettle the Militia : And both King and Parlia- 
ment publifh'd their Declarations, jaftifying their Caufe. 
The Parliament chofe the Earl of E/Z'e.v for General, and 
refolve to raife an Army, for, the Defence of Kjng and 
Parliament^ and the Liberties of the SubjeHs, agaivji Evil 
Counfellours and Delinquents', They publifli'd a Remon- 
ftrance of the State of the Kingdom, and a Declara- 
tion of the Caufes of their taking up Arms : Which 
two Writings contain the Sum of their Juftification. 

. The King went to Nottingham, where he fet up his 

Standard. There were but about 2000 that came in to 
him there ; whereas the Londoners quickly filFd up a 
Gallant Army for the Earl of EJfcx, and the Citizeris 
bro't in their Money and Plate, and the Women their 
Rings to Guild-hall^ for the paying them. The King from 
Nottingham offered a Treaty, and fent fome General Pro- 
pofals. The Parliament fent him Nineteen Propofals 
'of their own : Oflfering, That if he would disband his Ar- 
myy come to his Parliament, give up Delinquents to a 
legal Courfe of Jufiice, &C. he fhould find thm Dutiful, 
The Great Bone of Contention was the Militia. The 
King pleaded, *Twas his by Law, and would not part 
with the Power of it. The Parliament pleaded, ^ That 
as Things flood, they muft eltijer fecure it, or give uj* 
the Proteftant Religion^ the Laws and Liberties of the 
Land, and their own Ncckj, to the iViil of Papifls and 


46 The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

An, 1641. In this Conteft between King and Parliament, the 

/-f^^,.^'//^'"wemoverto him. A great Part of the Knights and 
adherd to Gentlemen of EmUnd adhcx'd to him, except in Mid- 
the King dlefex, Ejfex, Suffolk^, Norfclk^^ and Camhridge-Jhire, 
and to //% where the King never came with his Army. Moft of 
Parliament. ihtw Tenants follow'd them, and moft of the poorer 
Sort of People throughout the Nation. On the Parlia- 
ment's Side, were the fmaller Part of the Gentry in 
moft Counties, and the greateft Part of the Tradefmen 
and Freeholders, and the middle Sort of Men, efpe- 
cially in thofe Corporations and Countries which de- 
pend on Cloathing^ and fuch Maniifadiiires. To them 
alfo adher'd the far greater Part of thofe thro* the Na- 
tion, who were Friends to a Religious StriHnefs, and 
Enemies to Formality and Profanenef's,S:ipeYftition and Im- 
mar/i/ity. It was not indeed properly Bellum Epifcopalc^ 
the Bifhops War, tho* by many fo ftil'd. For Thou- 
fands that wilh'd for Good Bi/bops^ were on the Parlia- 
ments Side. But the Generality of thofe who were call'd 
Puritans and Precifiatis^ and were for Serious Godlinefs, 
both Minifters and People adher'd to the Parliament. 
On the other Side, they who were for Lonfenejsf Sxvear^ 
ing^ Garni fig, and Drinking ; the Minifters and People 
who were againft the ftri^ Obfervation of the Lord's- 
Day^ and fond of Dancing and Recreations at thofe fa- 
cred Seafons, that plac'd all their I{eligion in going to 
Church, and hearing Common- Prayer^ that were againft: 
ferious Preaching, and for running down all thofe who 
were ftri(^er than therofelves, ihefe adher*d aJl along to 
the King. Which one Conftderation was the Thing 
that determin'd many fober and honeji Perfons which 
Side to take. The Nation was long before divided 
SomeRefle-\^[Q two Parties, with refpedt to i^r/zj^»c«5 Matters^ the 
^lom on brief Confideration of the Rife and Progrefs of which 
^.^^^^i^'/^'^'Divifion, adds not a little Light to the yiniincfities 
y £>'/- ^ijjcj^ ^ejg aj fjj^j Time on Foot. ' Thus then ftood 

t]TZt!!^n f he Cafe. 

from the ^^ unhappily fell out in the Days of Qjieen M-iry, 
Time of the ^^^^ ^^^ ^pformcrs being Fugitives at F'nnkford, fell in- 
Reforma- ^^ ^ Divijhn : One Part of them were for Diocefans^ 
tion, and the Engli/h Litwgy and Ceremonies^ that they might 


Chap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 47 

no more than needs depart from the PapiftSf nor feem -^- '^41. 
Inconftant by departing from what King Edward had 
begun. The other were for Calvin s Difcipline and H^ay 
of PVorpoip ; for the fetting up of Parochial Difcipline in- 
ftead of Diocefan ; and to have a Government in every 
particular Church, and not only One over a Thoufand 
or many Hundred Churches ; and for a plain and fe- 
rious Way of Worlhip, fuited as near as polTible to the 
Word of God. 

Thefe two Parties returning into England^ the D/o- 
cefan Party got Queen Eli:{abeth\ Countenance, and were 
Prefert'd, and their Way fet up. The other Party 
Fetition'd, and Hop'd, and Waited, but were Difcoun- 
tenanc'd, Rebuk'd, and by Law Supprefs'd. The Dif- 
countenanc'd Party were fervent Preachers, and of Ho- 
ly Lives: And fo were many of the Bilhops alfo in 
tbofe Days. Had they who fucceeded them been herein 
generally like them, they had in all Probability been 
more Honour'd and lefs AiTaulted. But when Jewel, 
Pill{inton^ Grindal, and fuch like were dead, many fuc- 
ceeded them, who were Men of another Stamp. The 
filenc d Oifciplinarians (as they were ftil'd ) did by their 
Writings, fecret Conference and Preaching, and their 
Godly Lives, work much upon fuch as were Religioufly 
addicted. So that this Opinion fpread very much, 
Thtit a j'uft Parochial Difcipline would very much I{eform 
the Church, and that Diocefam by excluding it cherifh'd 
Vice, The Prelatical Party finding their Places and 
Power, Lands and Lordlhips, aflfaulted by this Opinion, 
tho*t it necelfary more and more to fupprefs the Promo- 
ters of it. Hereupon, putting Epifcopacy, Liturgy and 
Ceremonies into theSubfcriptions which they impos'd on 
all that would be Miniflers or Schoolmaftcrs, they kept 
and caft out many worthy Men. For fome that were 
for Liturgy and Ceremonies, were not for Diocefans, but 
for Parilli Difcipline ; and fome that were for Bifliops 
were not for the Ceremonies ; and fome that were for 
the reft, yet fcrupled fome one 5 and he that could not 
fubfcribe to all, was forbidden to preach the Gofpel : 
Whereas in the mean Time, many Btfliops Preach'd 
but feldom, and abundance of Places had ignorant Rea- 
ders who could not Preach, qr weak Preachers whofe 
Performances were very mean, and ipany of them were 

alfo Scandalous in their Lives. 


48 The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

ubt. 1541. Hereupon, the Difciplinarians cry'd out of the Seve- 
rity and Impofitions of the Prelates, and the Ignorance 
and Scnnd.ilous Llvet of many of their Minifters : And 
they on the other Side, vehementJy inveigh'd againft 
the Noficonformijls. They call'd them Puritans^ which 
was the Name whereby they were commonly known. 
And in Procefs of Time, the Vidous Multitude call'd all 
Puritans that were Strict and Serious in a Holy Life, 
tho' ever fo Conformable. So that the fame Name in 
a Bifhbp's Mouth, fignify'd a Nonconfonniji ; and in an 
ignorant Drunkard's or Swearer's Mouth, a God/y Ohe" 
(iiAjt Chriftian, Now the ignorant Rabble hearing 
that the Bt'/hops were againft the Puritans, were the more 
embolden'd againft all thofe which they gave that 
Name to, and their Rage againft the Godly was the 
more encrcas'd ; and they cry'd up the Bi/hops, partly 
becaufe ihey were againft the Puritans, and partly be- 
caufe they were earneft for that Way of Worfhip 
which they found moft fuitable to their Ignorance, 
Carelefnefs and Formality ; and thus the Intereft of 
the Diocefans, and of the Prophane and Ignorant Sort 
of People, v/as unhappily twifted together in the 

Many alf<) were much fet againft the Bi/h^ps, by 
obferving Men of Parts and Piety (ilencd, while in- 
fnfficient and vicious Men were encourag'd and pre- 
ferred among the Clergy, and many Thoufands of the 
People were perifhing in Ignorance and Sm, for want 
of Help. And it not a little difturb'd them, to fee 
Fafting and Praying, and other Religious Exercifes 
which they found Beneficial, fo ftridlly look'd after, 
and punilh'd in the High Commijfioyi and the Bifhops 
Courts^ as if more Perilous than Common Swearing 
and Drunkenncfs prov'd to the Ungodly : And it ad- 
ded to their Difturbance, to have a Book publifh'd for 
Recreations on the Lord's- Day , with the Biiliops Appro- 
bation, as if they concurr'd with the Profane : That 
Afternoon Sermons and Le&urcs, tho' carry d on by Con- 
formable Men, were put down in divers Counties : 
Thar fo great aNumber of ConformableMinifters were 
fufpendcd or punifhed for not Reading the Book ot Sports, 
or about Altars, (3c, And fo many Thoufand Fami- 
lies, and many worthy Minifters, driven out of the 
Land : That Bowing towards Altars, and other Inno- 

Chap. rv. Mr, aichard Baxter. .^ 

' — — — — 47 

vations, .fere daily bro't in by the Hyper-Conformijis An. 164. 
none knowing where they would end : And finally ^ 

That the B.lhops proceeded fo far, as to fwear Men to 
their whole Government by the Et c.vrcm OatL and 
that thejf ,,pp. cv dofShip-Momy and other fuch Encroach- 
ments on their Civil Inrerefts. Thefe were the Caufes 
why lo many of thofe who were counted moft Reli- 
gious telj m with the Parliament. 

It hath indeed been alFerted, rhni it was Seditious 
Preachers who /itn d up the People, and were the Caufc of 
all the Commotions. Which is a notorious Falfitv 
Many indeed there were, who difcover'd their diflikfe 
ot the- Book of Sports, and Bowing to Altars, and 
Diminilhing Preaching, and Silencing MiHifters ^c 
and were glad that the Patliameiic attempted a Reforl 
Ration ; but very few even of thefe ftirr'd up to War 
but were fearful of the Gonfequences : But this is cer- 
tain. That whether they did fo more or lefs, they were 
almoft all of them Conformsble Mihifters, the Laws 
and 3ifliops having caft out the No?ico,?fo>TniJ} s'hng 
eno before. They who made up the Affembjy im/i- 
m^fter, and who thro* the Land were the Honour of 
rhe Parliament's Party, were almoft all fuch as had 
till then Gonform'd, and tor k thofe Things to be Law- 
ful in Cafe of Neceflity, but jong'd to have that Nccef- 
iity remov'd. 

. ^ Having afterwards the Advantage to be on theRiHn^ 
Side, it had undoubtedly been both their Wifdotn and 
the Nations Intereft, to have kept fome Bounds with- 
out running Things to Ejftremity. Had they endea- 
vour'd only the Ejedion of Lay-Chancellours, the 
Reducing the Diocefles to a narrower Compafs, or ihc 
Setting up a Subordinate Difcipline, and the Corredt- 
ing and Reforming the Liturgy , fo as to leave nothing 
juftly Exceptionable, in all Probability it had been pa- 
tiently born, and the Confufiohs the Nation afterwards 
run into had been prevented. There is good Reafon to 
fuppofe it, becaufe BifllOp Vjher, fVilUams, and Morton^ 
and many othet Epifcopal Divines w^ich them, agreed 
in certain Points of Reformation *, They had Cenfur'd * ^ t^>H 
the moft remarkable Innovations^ both in Doi5lrine and ^*^?" '** *^^ 
Difcipline ; andconcurr'd in altering the Common-Prayer^ ^*""^* ^'Z** 
fp as to obviate the Objections againft it ; and if any ^^^' ^^9- 
Thing of this NaciKe would have fuific'd, bad been like- 

E ly 

JO The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

* Thii ii ly to have fallen in heartily with the Parliament's Inte- 
contradifi- reft: But finding an univerfal Change inliftedon, and 
edhyBijho^ t\\2Li nothing iliort of the utmoft Extremity would fa- 
Hacket *« risfy, they lurn'd againft the Parliament and their Inte- 
his Life 0/ reft, and were as much difpleas'd as any ; except Arch- 
J^n '* Bifhop PVUliams. who afterwards took up Arms for the 
^'/^^^ Parliament* 

TheReafotti The Reafons alledg'd by thofe who adhered to the 
of the Far- Parliament, were briefly thefe. They tho't the Dan- 
liamenta- get of the State evident from fundry Matters of Fadk. 
rians' Ship-Money they found threatned the Overthrow of 

Property. Many Parliaments had been dilfolv'd in 
Difpleaiure, after they had been long forborrt The 
calling up the Army, and demanding the Members, 
fatisfy'd them that the Ruin of the Parliament was de- 
fign'd. And the Murder of fo many Thoufand* in 
Ireland convinc'd them they were far from being Se- 
cure, while Men of the like Malignity were prote^ed, 
and could not be kept out of Arms, nor bro't to Ju- 
ftice. They tho't the Prefervation of a Kingdom was 
fuch an End to aim at, as would make any neceffary 
Means lawful, which God himfelf had not forbidden. 
The Parliament having a Part in the Legiflative Pow- 
er, they tho*t had fo far inherently a Power to defend 
it, which no Law can fuppofe them to give away : 
And as the Peoples Reprefentatives they fuppos'd them 
intrufted to fecure their referved Liberties, which the 
Law givcth not the King any Authority to take away. 
. They tho'c that the Judgments and Executions of the 
Courts of Juftice, being the Effeciis of Laws which 
King and Parliament have made, are of greater Au- 
thority than contrary Commiflions or Commands from 
the King alone. It confirmed them to hear it own'd 
fo generally, that the Sheriffs of Counties may in fome 
Cafes rai^c the Pojfc Comitatus^ tho' the King forbid ir, 
or grant a Commilfion to hinder it. They faid, That 
it belongeth to the Parliament to judge its own 
Members ; and that if on Pretence of punilhing fuch 
of tjicm as ^o offend, the King may come and fetch 
away, or denr.and thofe that difpleafe him, Parlia- 
ments and Liberties, and all the Security of them is 
gone. Many were confirm'd by the King's Anfwer to 
their Propofitions, wherein it was declar'd, That the 
Legijlntive Poxver woi in Kjngy Lords and Commons j and 


Chap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 5 1 

that the Government was mix*d, and not Arhitrnry - 

which they thought it muft be,if his Commiflions were 

of greater Power than his Laws and Courts, and if no 

'Refiftance might be made againft fueh as executed an 

• Illegal Commiffion. The War ( they (aid ) was not a- 

gainft the King, but his Delinquent Subjeds. They 

pleaded, Bnrclrjy, Grotius de Jure Belli & Pact's, Hooker 

' and Bilfiif, who all own the Lawfulnefs of Refinance 

in fome Cafes, and in fuch Circumftances as thciirs 

then were. Grotius fays particularly, Thr.r if fevernl 

Perfons have a Part in the Summa Poteftas, ( of which 

Legiflatiori is a Chief AH ) each Part hath naturally the 

Power of defending its own Intereji in the Sovereignty^ a- 

gainft the other Part if they invade it. And that if in 

fuch a PVar they Conquer, the Conquered Party loofeth to . 

them Im Share. hvAihiLi this h^o tvnc, ihtt it holdcth, 

tho the Law expre/Iy fay^ That one of the Parties floal I have 

the Power of the Militia : It being to be underjicod that 

he fhaS have it againft Foreign Enemies, and Delinquents^ 

iind not againft the other Part, But to go on with the 


\ '■ The King marching from Nottingham to Shrewsbury^ A further 
'fiird up bis Army out of Shro-pfhire^ fVorceftcrfkire, He- Account of 
refordfldire, and H^nles. And the Earl of Effex march'd ^M ^^*** 
-^ith a Gallant Army to iVorceJler, Many excellent ■^' '^42* 
Divines were Chaplains to the feveral Regiments. 
Mr. Stephen Marfhnl and Dr. BurgeJJ, to the General's 
own Regiments. Mr. Obndinh Sedgwick^, to Col. HoU 
Iks Regiment. Dr. Calibute Downijig^ to the Lord i^o- 
berts's Regiment. Mr. John Sedgwicf^, to the Earl of 
Stamford's Regiment. Dr. Spurftow, to Mr. Hamf den's. 
Mr. Perkins^ to CoI. Goodwln\, Mr, Moor, to the 
Lord iVhdrtons. Mr. Adoniram Byfieldy to Sir Henry 
■Cbolmley's. Mr. Nalton, to Col. Grantham's. Mr. Si- 
mean A/h^ either to the Lord Brook's or the Earl of 
Manchefter's, Mr. Morton of Ncw-Caftie, with Sir 
Arthur Haflerigg's Troop. With many more. On 
OBober the 23d 1 642, was the Battle at Edge-Hill, be- 
tween the two Armies ; in which the Advantage was 
on the ParliamentsSide. The King^s Army drew off to- 
wards Oxford ; and Effcxs towards Coventry, for Re- 
frefliment. There were a great many other Fights, 
particularly related by the Hiftorians of thofe 1 imes, 
who may beconfultcd by fuch as therein dcfirc Infor- 

E % mation. 

52 .i-y.^ili-^i^ 1^ ^^^^9 :}^' 

. mation. But ti\aj; ^i^[Hich upon . the Whple was the 
g^^ac^Caufe of j xhp Par J laments Strength, and the 
Kings Ruin, was that ih^ Debauched RabfcJe thro the 
I.and emVoIdenM, by his Gentry, and feconded by the 
Cooapnon Solaier^j(?:f hi5 Army, toi k aJl.that were call d 
Bplyr/tns for their Bjp^mies. And il^' fume of the 
K'ngs Gentry and ouperl>ur Officers we^e fo Civil, 
vthac they would do no. fuch Thing, ycc that was no 
i Security to the Country, while the Multitude did woat 
they Jiit. So that if any one was noted for a ftnd: and 
fanious Preacher, or fgr a Man of a Pious Life, he was 
either plun^'crcd or a{}ufed, and in danger of his Life. 
•And . if a Man did but pray in his Family, or wei:e 
buc heard r»'p-.-.^t' a Sermon, or (ing,a,Pfalro, they pie- 
. fently c^y'd cui: £{cifcis, H^undhcadsy ar^d all their Money 
artd G001I5 that were portable, prpv'd Guilty, how Jn- 
pdcenc loever they were themfciN es. This was it that 
filled the Armie$ and C»arr Tons of tne Parliament with 
Sober, Pi®us Men'. Thoufands had no Mind to med- 
dle, Nvith the Wafp,' bjit greatly deiired to iive Peace- 
ably at Home, when tlx- Rage of Soldiers and Drun- 
'- kards would not lirfFer them. Some :fiay'4 'dll they 
had, bern Imprifori'd. Some 'till^hey had been Plun- 
der d twi' e or .thrice over, and hadj nothing leff 
thcrn.. Some; were qmte ured oir^c : wiih the Abufe of 
all Comers Th^-quarrer d on ihcm ; and fome b> the 
Jo'olenoy of ff>ferii KeighboL-rs. But nijoft were afraid 
An 16 A A, ' -heir Live and fp fought Refuge in the Parliament'^ 

. ' TJlons. 
qP ^ /^ _ 'ftcr-thc War had been carry 'd on for /ome Time, 
/ • r/V'*'<' ' Great Ut)ceitainty in what it would/lflbe; there 

ti 't Jtng.h. a great Change made on the Parlia- 

Side, which had confiderable ' Confequences. 
; Ear] of *\lftx being weakened by a great Lofs in 
ffrf /, was laid by, and another General chofen. 
The Bcnfoti.^ given lor this Change were thefe. Becaufe 
of rhe Dijf'lutenejs of many of bis Soldiers, who were 
grown too like the King's Soldiers in Profancnefs and 
L xtdf?rfs : And withal, it was urg*d, That the Re- 
volt of Sir Faithful Fortcfcue, Sir ^chard Greetiville^ 
Colont- J Vny^ and others, was a fuificient Evidence, 
that they who had not a Senfe of Religion, were not 
much to be truRed, but might ea(iJy be hired by Mo- 
ney to betray (hem. It was dUcover'd> That the 


Chap. IV. Mr, Kichard Baxter. 


Earl's Judgment was againft Ending the War hy the 
Sword, and that he and the wifeft Men ab >ut hiai 
were for aiming only to Force a PntljicntoryT.eaty^ and 
againft a Conqueft. For he tho't, if the Kiug ihouJi 
Conquer, the Government of the Kingdom would be- 
come Arbitrary, and the Subjeds Property and Libe/cy 
would be loft : And that if he fhould Conquer, the 
Parliament would fwaljow up the Prero'rativc of the 
King, and the PrhiUdges of the Lords, aiid not krow 
bow to fettle the Eihte of the Kingdom or the Church, 
without injuring others, and running into Extreams' 
and falling into Divisions amongft themfeJ es. And 
therefore the New Regulators tho't that bv Delay, he 
gave the King an Advantage, and wearied out and 
ruin'd the Country ; aiid faid, TW/z^ Edge-Hill, New* 
bury, and other PUces, he had not profecuted his Vitiory^ 
hut flood ft ill^ andjavp the Kjngs Army I^treat^ andtipver 
purfud them^xvhen it had been eafy to have ended the M^.irs. 
But the main Spring of the Alreration, was the Preva- 
Jence of the SeBarian Intereft in the Houfe, joyn'd 
with Cromvpcl^s in the Army, which now began to can y 
all before it. Many honeft and intelligent People in- 
deed were for new Modelling the Army, putting out 
the Loofer Men, and taking in thofe who were mo^e 
ftridt and fober, but Vane and Cromwel joining toge- 
ther, outwitted and over-reacht the reft, and earned 
on their own Particular Intereft fuccefsfuUy. The Me- 
thod they took for comparing this Defign wicho^t Di- 
fturbance, by ftirring up againft ihemfeh es the Forces 
they disbanded, was hy 2iS elf-denying Vote in the Houfe, 
pafs'd to this Purpofe : That becavfe Commands in the 
Army had much Pay^ and Parliament Men foould keep to 
the Service of the Hou/cy therefore no Parliament Men 
Jhould be Members of the Army, This put out at once 
the Earl o^ Effex, and Earl of Manchefter, the two Ge- 
nerals; ^ndSiiiVilliam Waller, a valiant Major- Gene- 
ral, an4 a great many Colonels j and to avoid Sufpi- 
lion, Cromwei himfeif was put out at the firft. They 
then chofe for General Sir Thomas Fairfax, Son to the 
Lord Ferdinando Fairfax, who had been in the Wars 
beyond Sea, and had foughc valiantly for the Parlia- 
ment in Tork/hire. He was therefore chofen, bccaufe 
neither too Great nor too Cunning to be commanded 
by the Parliaoiem j nor toofubtilfor Cromwel to make 

E J a Tool 

54 The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

a Tool of. He being chofen, CromvoeCs Men could not 
be without hirn : And therefore the Self-denying Vote 
muft be thus far difpensM with, That Cromnelxr\2i^ be 
in the Army, tho' no other Member of the Houfe were 
allow'd it 5 and To he was made Lieutenant-General. 
An. i(54<;. The Army being thus new Modell'd, was really in 
Ciomwci's the Hands ot Crc??iwel, tho* feemingly under Fairfjix's 
Jnterefi in Command. Not long after the Change, was the Fight 
the New- at Nafehy^ where the King's Army was totally routed 
7nodeIl^d and put to flight, and about 5000 Prifoncrs taken, with 
'^'''"•^'''"^ all the Kings Ordnance and Carriage, and abundance 
^l'','- ^ ^^ of his own Letters to the Queen and others inhisCabi- 
-'^ ' •^^' net: Which letters the Parliament printed, thinking 
ihey contained furh Things as greatly clouded the Re- 
putation of his Word and Cauie. Cromvoei in the Ar- 
my did all, and chofe almoft all the Officers. He firft 
made Ircfon Commiirary-General ; and wheii any 
Troop or Company was to be difpos'd off, or any con- 
fiderable Officer's Place was void, he was Cure to put 
a St£lary into the Place And when the Brunt of the 
War was over, he look'd not fo much at Valour as O- 
pinion : So that by Degrees he had Headed the greaicft 
Part of the Army with Anabaptifts^ Antihomians^ Scekr 
ers or Scparatifts^ at bcft ; and he ty'd all together by 
the Point of Liberty of Covfcience, which was theCom- 
lyion Intere/^ wherein they united. At length the Par- 
liament came to be fulicitous about keeping them from 
An. 16 a6. Tumults and Difobedience. But Sir Heii^y Vane Confe- 
Aft. 1547. ^^^"^^^"8 wi^h them, they procur'd 'the Hcufc to Dis- 
band almoft all the honeft County Forces and Garri- 
fons, which might have oppos'd them in their Defigns, 
and fo the Army went on with little Fear of Oppo- 
fition. The next Defign of Vane and Cromvocl was 
to ufc the Army to model the Parliament. With this 
Aim they ftir up the Houfe to pafs lome Votes, which 
they km-w would be moft difpleafingto the Army, and 
then ftir up the Army to the deepeft Refentn.ent. The 
Parliament Voted, Tl:)at Part of the Army fhos'.d go for 
Ireland, Pa^t be disbanded^ and Part continud. The Of- 
ficers told the Army, This was to Divide them, and De- 
prive them of their Pay^ And to get nn Advantage on them 
to I{uin them oi ScFinrieSy &c. A rare Reward for all 
their Services ! Ai Triploe-Heatb they emcr'd into an 


Chap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 55 

Engagement to ftick together, and were drawing up a 
Declaration of their Grievances. Col. Edward Hariey 
acquainted the Houfe with it. Cromwel flifly deny'd it 
and faid it was a Slander, akho' deep in the Secret, as 
he afterward acknowledg'd, when he Headed them in 
their Rebellion. The Parliament order'd all thar were 
faithful to forfake them ; and feveral Officers, as Gene- 
ral F/»c/7^r, Mz]oT ^Ifop^ Major Huntington, and others 
with a confiderable Number of common Soldiers, did 
fo ; but not being able to make a Body to refift them, it 
prov*d a great Addition to their Strength. For now all 
that were againft them being gone, they fiird up their 
Places with Men of their own Mind, and fo were ever 
after the more Unanimous, — —Upon this, Cromrvelznd 
his Obedient L^mhs (as he call'd them) advanced in their 
Defign, came nearer the City, anddrewupanlmpeach- 
ment againft eleven of the moft adive Members of the 
Houfe ; Sir Philip Stapleton^Slx H^iliiayn Lcwm, Col. HoU 
liSy ^11 John Maynard^ Mr. Glyv, Col. Edward Hariey^ &CC. 
And when they had forc'd the Houfe to feclnde them, as 
under Accufation, they Jet fall their Suit, and never 
profecuted them, nor proved them Guilty. Having ad- 
vanced thus far, they expeded to havefeund the Houfe 
very Pliable and Yielding, but were ftill difappointed. 
The City took Courage, and under the Condud: of two 
Major- Generals, Mnjfey and Pcint:^^ were for defend- 
ing the Parliamenc againft the Army ; but the Army 
fpeedily advancing, the Hearts of the Citizens fail'd 
them, and they let the Army enrer the City in Triumph. 
Whereupon, Majfey and Hollis, and others of the ac- 
cufed Members, fled into France ; and among the reft 
Sir Philip Stapletm^ who dy'd of the Plague x\g2.x Calais, 

As for the King, when Oxford was Bfiieg'd by the Par- OftheKittg^i 
liament's Forces, having no Army left, he efcap'd to the fi'i»s tothc 
North, and call himfelf upon the Scots^ who lay there ^**^'"'^-'^ '- "^^d 
with an Army. The Scots were puzled how to Oeer in ^'^^^ft^^* 
this Critical Jundure ; To fend him back to the Englifh "^'j'f ^'■ 
Parliament, feem'd Unfaithful, when he had caft him-{j^^^ J^.^'^'f. 
felf upon them : To keep him, would divide the two J^^^^^^// 
Kingdoms, and be follow'd with a War from England, 
for which they were not provided. After long Conful- 
tations, the Terror of the Conquering Army made them 
deliver him to the Parliaments Commiffioners, upon two 
Cpnditions : That the King's Perfon Ihould be pre- 

E ^ fov'd 

56 The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

f£rv*d in Safety and Honour ; And that their Army 
ihould have half the Pay that was due to them advancM 
immediately. The Parliament hereupon appointed 
(Zo\. Greaves^ and Major- General Broven^ to attend the 
King at Holmby-Houje in Nonhawptcvjhire. Cornet Joice 
by Concert with the Leading Part of the Army, fetchc 
him ihence, and kept him amongft them, till rhey canfie 
to Hampton-Court^ where he was Guarded by Col.PVfoal- 
ley. The Army fawn'd upon the King at firft ; they 
blam'd the Aufterity of the Parliament, tvho had de- 
ny'd him the Attendance of his own Chaplains ; and of 
his Friends, in whom he took moft Pleafure. They gave 
Liberty for his Friends and Cha|)lains to come to him, 
and pretended that they would fave him from the In- 
civilities of the Parliament and Presbyterians. And 
vvhen the Parliament made him Propofals, they pre- 
fented him with Propofals of their own. But all on a 
fuddain they began to cry for Juftice upon him. A 
Council of AgitatouYs was chofen among them, of 
y/hich Colonel Jama Berry was President. They drew 
up a Paper call'd, The Agreement of the People^ as the 
Model or Form of a New Common-wealth. Cromrvel 
feems to be againft them ; and while they were con- 
tending, a Letter came to CoJ. iVnalleyy (from an un- 
^cnown Hand ) intimating a Defign of rhefe Agitntotns 
to Surprize and Murder the King. Some think that 
this was fent from a Real Ftiend, but moft think it 
•was contrived by Crorfiwel, to affright the King out of 
the Land, or into fome defperate Courfe, which might 
give them Advantage againft him. The Colonel gave 
the King a Sight of the Letter; and be thereupon efca- 
ped fecjretly with two Confidenrs only to the Jjle of 
iVight^ committing himfelf to Col. Hnmmond^ who 
was Governour of a Caftle there : And here Cromwel 
bad him in a Pinfold, and was more fecure of him 
than before. While the King was confin'd, feveral 
Armies were rais'd in his Favour. One in Pembroke- 
foire^ by Major- General Langbom ; another in Scotland, 
by the Duke of Hamilton ; a third in Ksnt^ by the 
Lord G'^ring • and a fourth in Ejjex^ by Sir Charles : But were all Defeated. At length the Parlia- 
ment fent to the King, while he continu'd in this 
Ifland, fome Propofitions to be confcnted to in order 
tp his Reftot^tion. Some of them he Granted, and 


Ghap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 57 

others he Refas'd. The chief Thing he ftuck at, was 
The utter Abolifhirig of Epifcopacyy and the Alienating of 
Bi'fhops^ and Deans and Chapters Lands. Upon which 
Mr. Marfhal, Mr. Vines^ and Dr. Sejr?ian^ were fent 
down as Commiflloners to difcourfe with him about it, 
in order to his Satisfaction. They debated the Matter 
with A^'C^I-Billiop ZJfhe , Dr. Hammond, Di\ Sheldon^ 
and others of the King's Divines. The Debates were 
printed, and each Party thought they had the better. 
Arch-Bifhopt^yfe."/ then ofFet'd the King his Redudi- 
oh of Epifcopacy to the Form of Presbytery, which the 
King would have accepted ; and had it been accepted oa 
jhe other fide, might have be^n the Foundation of a .a- 
0ing Agreement. 

The King fending his Final Anfwers to the ParUa- 
ment, there were warm Debates among thm, 14^ ether 
they Jhotild acqwefc: in them Ji a fuyic^ent: ^y .und for 
Peace? And at laft they Voted his Conceffions a iufficient 
Ground for a Perfonal Treaty with him, and were fcr 
fending for him up accordingly. But Crowxvel and his 
Confidents, feeing all their Defigns would be utterly 
(Jifappointed by this Method of Procedure, fent Col. 
Pride to the Houfe with a Party of Soldiers, who 
Guarded the Door. Such Members as were to their 
Purpofe they let in, others they turn d away, and fome 
they Imprifon'd ; and the Remainder of the Houfe was 
henceforward caird the I{ump. The Secluded and Im- 
prifon'd Members publilVd a Writing call'd their Vin- 
dication; and fome of them would afterwards have 
thruft into the Houfe, but the Guard of Soldiers kept 
them out ; and the ks^mp were cry'd up for the only 
Honeft Men. They pafb'd a Vote to eftablifh a Go- 
vernment without a King and Houfe of Lords ; and fo 
the Lords diflblv'd, and thefe Commons fate and did 
all alone. They ereded an High-Court of Juftice \ v rhat the 
brought the King to his Tryal, Condemned him, and Paf>isisth9* 
ereded a Scaffold at White- Hall-Gate^ and there before they ABed 

• behind the 

Curtain^ had a conjiderahle Hani in thefe Commotions and their Tfagicallf- 
fucy there is yery good Eyidence. In the CoUefiion of Letters at the end of 
Dr. Parr's Life of Arch-Bi/hop Uflier, there is one written by Bp. Biamhall, 
(then Abroad) to that Arch-B'i[hr>p. 'Tis Hum. 293. wherein is this Ac- 
count. That in 1646. by Order from Rome, abore a i co of the Bomi/h 
Cler^ were fent into England, confiUing o/Englini, Scots, andhi^^ who 

58 The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

had been K- 2i^yi\\ AlFcmbly of People Beheaded him. The Lord 
ducatcd in General Vnhfax Itood by all the while, full of Regret, 
1 iance,lt>i- [5^. Xrick'd and Oveipower'd by his Lieutenant. At 
ly, Germa- ^.j^^ time of the King's Death, he was in wonderful 
ny, ^ an Perplexity, and when Mr. CnUmy\^ and fome other Mi- 
\[ho mere ^^^^^^ ^^^^ were with him, would have perfwaded him 
moTl^ of ^^ Rcfcue the King, his Troubles fo confounded him, 

them Soldi- 
ers in the 'Parliament'' s jirmy, and- were to hold Correjpondence vith the Ro- 
mamjls that jvae in the King's -A^^yi ^ho were not as yet admitted to the 
Grand Secret. Upon conferring together in 1^47. enquiring into the Keafons 
of each others Meafures^ they froduc'd Bulls ar.d Licenfes for their Warrant. 
Upon tvhich^ ffeing their Capacity of haying Secret Influence^ they wrote to 
their fereral Conrcnts, eJJ>ecially the Soibonifts, to kir^w whether the taking off" 
the K'nir rva^ a Thing to be fcrupled ? ^The anfwcr return d was this^ That it 
might Lawfully be done^ for Mother Churches Jldvancement. Agreeable where- 
to is the Account given by Vr. Peter du Moulin in his Vindicaiion of the 
Sincerity of the Proteftant Religion, written in Anfwer to a Jefuitical LI- 
htl^ caWd Philanax Anglicus 5 where he tells ttf. That thi Tear before the 
Kings Death-i a Sele£} Number of Englifh Jefuites were fent from their whole 
Tarty in England, frfi to Paris, to confult with the Vacuity o/Sorbon, then 
altogether Jefulted^ to whom they put this Quefiion in Writing ; That feeing the 
5f<?fe o/' England i3?<«i /« a likely Frofpeit to Change Government^ whether it 
was Larpful for the Catholich to work that Change^ for the Advancing and 
Securing of the Cathalick Caufe /« England, by making away the King ? Which 
was anfrver''d Affirmatively. After which, the fame Ter fans went to Komc^ 
•where the fame ^uefiion being propounded and debated, it was concluded by 
the Tope and his Council, That it was both Lawful and Expedient for the Ca' 
tholicks to promote that Alteration of Stale. U hen the blow was ailually gi- 
ven, and ihe'FaU exclaimed again/l, the Pope commartded all the Papers about 
that ^ueflion to be gather d and burnt. According to which Order, a Roma^ 
nift at Paris had a Copy of thofe Papers winch he had by him, demanded f-om 
him-^ but he refusd to give it, and ff)ew'd it a Proteftant Friend of his. 
This Account Vr. Du MouVm fir/i publiflfd in the Tear 1661. It immedi- 
ately firuck a Terrour at Sonntrret-Houfe, where the Queen Mother then re- 
fided with her jefuites nbcut her, and where jhc at thai time entertain'd the 
very Lord who conduced the Jefuites in their Progrefs forementioned, as a 
principal Officer of her Houfe. By her Means they demanded Juftice of the 
King a;rainji this Author., for the Affront he had put upon them by publifh- 
iHg fuch a Narrative. The DoHor offer d to give full Proof in Juflification 
of his Report, whenfoever he was required by Autltbrity, and to produce liv- 
"^ Wit>ujfes of the Truth of it. Upon confiiieratlon therefore they tho't it befi 
to ktep Silence, not daring to exafperate him. And they injiftrd no farther 
than that the Secretary of State, Sir William Morrice, jbould be ordered to 
write to him, to charge him to forbear Printing any ihin^ for the future in 
^ngiiih, tonfidermg it ts^as pot his Kative lAugua^ti TnU was accordingly 

Chap. IV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 50 

ihac they darft let no Man fpeak to him. Cromvod (as ^o«e. And 
it was faid) kept him Praying and Confulting, 'till tlie ^^'°' '^-'^ 
Stroke was given. But when a Jictle atcer, War was /''^'^^ ^"^'^^ 
determined againft Scotltvd^ he laid down his Commiifi- ^'^^ ^^'»' 
on, and never had to do with the Army more : And ^^/ fi'^^^^i^ 
Cromwel became General in his ftead. ^'^^' "^f^^^' 

rvardsj and 

lert^e asoft repeated-, y:t did they think fit to contime fiUnt, Tvithout eyer 
ealUng him into ^te/tlon before the Judgci^ according to hn deflre ' To this 
Mr. Piynn'5 Account may be added, who ift a Book called^ TIic 1 nw and Per- 
feft Narrative, p 46. relates thU Pajfa're : That tiin<r Charjts, h^ylnr i„ 
the Treaty tn the Ifle of Wight, agreed to 5 firia b'iUs againft Pcp^ry'^ the 
fefuites in France at a General Meeting there, prefently refoh d to brin'r' him 
to jfuftice, and tah off hU Head, by the Torver of their Friends in the Army, 
of which the King hirnfelf was certify d by an Exprefs from thence, a fid rpflyi 
to provide againft it, but two Days before his Removal by the Army &otn 
that IJland, in Order to thii Execution. All which confiderd, m.ike> the 
'Saffage related by Mr. Baxter, in hit Hiflory, Tart 2. p. 373. muih the 
more Credible ; the Story is this. One Mr. Atkins of GloccrlLrOiiie, Bro- 
ther to Judge Atkins, being beyond Sea, with others that had fery'd KInr 
Charles the Tirft, fell into intimate Acquaintance with a Tneft, that had 
been (or then was) Governour nf one of their CoUedges in Flander^. They 
agreed not to meddle with each other about Religion, and fo continued iheif 
Triendfhip long. A little after the King was Beheaded, Mr. Atkins mec 
this Prieft in London, and going into a Tavern with him, faid to him in 
his Familiar way : What Bufmefs have you here i I'll warrant you 
come about fome Roguery or other? Whereupon the Prieft told him, as 
a Great Secret, That there were 50 of them here in London, who bj 
Inftruftions from Cardinal Mazarine, did take care of Publick Affairs, 
and had fate in Council, and debated the Queftion, Whether the Kin? 
(hould be put to Death, or not? And that it was carry'd in the Aihi*- 
mative, and there were but two Voices for the Negative , which 
was his own and anothers. And that for his Part he could not 
concur with them, as forfeeing what Mifery this would bring up- 
on his Country. This Pajfage was fir ft trjd to Mr. Baxter, ij 
Mr. James Stanfield, a Glocefterfhire Minifter , who had it fi-sm 3.V. 
Alk'ins hirnfelf : And afterwards relating it to Dr. Thomas Goad, wljo 
was well AccjuaiTtted with the faid Mr. Atkins, he deftred him to enquire 
of him concerning it', and he afterwards told him, Tim Mr Atktm ai- 
fur'd him it was true. Which Particularity of -^o of the Jcfuitical Crew 
coming about that time from France w//// a Special Commijjt^n, agrees r cry 
well with the Account given in a Book call'd, The Fiir Wijrning, printed 
many Tears before ; wherein is thii pajfage : That ^O Prices were met 
by a Proteftant Gentleman between Roan and Dicp, to whom they 
(taking Iiira for one of their Party; declar'd, That rhey were going in- 


6o The LIFE of Chap. IV. 

to EngUni The Minifters all this Time generally Preach'd and 

and would Pray'd againft Dinoyalty. Tbey drew up a Writing ro 

take^Arms ^^^ ^^^^ General, (which was printed) declaring their 

2plnlnt ^l^horrence of all Violence againft the Perfun of the 

JlrZyl^nd ^^"^' ^"^ "'■g'"g tiioi and his Army to take heed of 


to be Ag^ltatour:. 

ICotvithftand'.ng the Abundant Kyidenfe of the Concern of the Papifts 
in this jifair, many haye taken tfte pccdom to Char^^e it on the Presbyieri- 
ans, but -very unjujily. He that voould fee the7n fully Vindicated, may Con- 
fitlt The Conformifts firft Plea for tlx Nonconformifts, vhere there is an 
Appendix dejtgn'd on purpofe to wipe of tbat AJperfim. Their Carriage in 
the vhole matter is tfure particularly related, and their Innocence cleared by 
Authentlck Eridence. 

^ In December, 1648. The General, and the Army fent to fey er at of the 
City Ministers to meet the Officers of the Army^ in their Confultations about 
Matters of Religion. Some of them, as Mr. Calamy, Air. Marflial, Mr. Afh, 
A/r. Whi taker, Afr. Sedgwick, CJrc. attended them^ apd manifeJl.d their 
difike of their Anions: And afterwards ahoye 40 c/ the City Alj ni Tiers fent , 
a Letter to the General, te/lffying their Concurrence with their Brethren afore-;. 
faid; freely declarin>r agatnsl their ^Seizing and Imprifoning the Verfon of the 
King, &c. And afterttfards^ when the King's Trial came o«, they publi/h'd 
a Vindication of tltemfelyes-., declaring before the vpJ^ile Worl((^ that that 
vhich put them upon a fearing for the Parliament at firft, wm the Propoiti- 
cns and O'ders of the Lords and Commons, June I o, 1642. for bringing in of 
Money and Plate -, wherein they were ajfurd it fhould be m otlurwife ern- 
floyd^ than to maintain the Proteftant Religion, the King's Authrity, His 
JPerfoft in his Royal Dignity, the fiee Courfe of Justice, the Laws of the Land^ 
the Peace of the Kingdom, and the Priyiledges of ParUament, againfi any 
Force which fhould oppofe them. That, they were wholly unfutisfyed with the 
fr ceedings, jince the Exclufon and Imprifonment of the Members of the lioufe 
of lommons; and held themfeha bound in Duty to God, Religion^ the King., 
Parliament, and Kingdom, to profefs before God, Angels and Men, that they 
Eerily belieyd, the taking away the Life of the King in the way of Trial then 
depend'n:^, was not only not a<i^reeable to any Word of God, the Prtnciples of 
the PiotelianC Religion, (never yet ftaind with the leaft drop of the Blood of 
M King) or the Fundamental Confiitution of the Kingdom ; but contrary to them : 
As alfo, to the Oath of Allegiance, the prote/iation of May 5. 1 641. and the 
Solemn League and Covenant, f-om all which, or any of which Engagements^ 
they knew not any Power on Earth able to Abfolre them or others. And laft- 
ly, thty warn'd and exhorted in the Ji^ame of the peat God, all that belonged 
to thtir charges and Miniftry, ta keep clofe to the Hays of God, the Rules of 
Jteilion, and Fundamental Conftitution and Goyernment of the Kingdom, not 
fufering themfehcs to be feduc'd from it, by being drawn to fabfcribt the late 
Models, or Agreement of the People, which dircHly tmdcd to fubvert the 
Fundamental Goycrmnent ; and to mvtm bitterly for the Sin< of all degrees of 


€hap. I V. Air. Elichard Baxter. 

fuchanAdion: And th^y prefented it to him, when Men-, and 
tlie King was in danger. Neither was this the Aa on- ^^S "/ God 
'ly of a few • for there were 60 of the Presbyterian Mi-'^^*^ f^e 
nifters of London, who fub*fcrib*d the Writing, together ^^^^<^ ^«- 
with many Country Minifters. -f!^'*,'* '^ 

--(:.■'. • . . ^ '6/ence of 

. they might mt dare to draw upon themfches and the Kingdom the Blood of their 
Sovereign. This wof fuhf crib'' d by ^ 

^orn^nus Buirges, D.'p, 
Will, douge, T>. D. ' 
Edi. 5U^iLon,, D.D. 
.T}io. Temple, D. D, ■ 
^Geprge' Walker, ^ '• 
.Edm. Calainy," 
Jer. Whi taker, . . 
Dan. Cawdrey, 
WiU Spunlow, D. p. _ 
La. Seaman, D. D, 
Simeon Afhe, 
Thomas Cafe, 
Nrc. Proffer, 
Tho. Thorowgood, 
Ed w. Corbet, 
Hen. Roborough, 
John Downham, 
Arthur Jackfon, 
J.?mes N a Icon, 
Thomas Caw ton, 

■ Charles' Off- fpring,' ^ 
Samuei Clark, -,' 

Francis Roberts, 
■Samuel Bolton, 
Map. Kaviland, 
John Sheffield, 
-William Jenkjn, 
" John Viner,' 
Elidad Blackwell, 
John CrolTe, 
John Fuller, 
William Taylor, 
Peter Withara, 
Francis Peck, 
Chrift. Love, 
J. Wallis, D. D. 
Thomas Wattfon, 
William Wickins, 

Thomas Manton, D. D. 
Thomas Gouge, 
Williim Blp.ckmoic, 
Robert Mercer, 
Ra. Robinfon, 
Johh Glafcock, 
Thomas Whaccly, 
Jonathan Lloyd, 
John Wu'ls, 
Benj. Needier, 
Nath. Sraniforch, 
Steven Watkins. 
Jacob Tice, 
John Stileraan. 
Jofias Bull, 
John Devereux, 
Paul Ruflel, 
Jofhua Kirby, 
Arthur Bailiam. 

The pubii/hing of this Taper,- iphifh was Intitled, A ferious and faithful 
Reprien Cation, of the Judgments of the Minifters of the Gofpel within 
the Province of London, in a Le:ter to the General and Council of U'ar, 
74«.'f8. 1^48. delivered by fomeof the Subfcribers^ was a plain running 
<r great. lizard as Things then flood, and may be )uftly reckon d an Evidence 
of the great Integrity and Hone fly of the Ferfons that fubjcrib'd it : jtnd 
therefore a late Author *, who does not 

always pafs the mofi farourable Cenfures * Compleat Hiftory of LngUnd 
that mi'^ht be defiid upon Men of their in Folio, To/. 3. p. 175. 
CharaCler, declares. That in Juliice to 

the greater part of the Presbyterian Minifters, it muft be acknowledged, 
that when they faw too late the fad IlTue of Things, they did then labour 
to prevent the Execrable Faft of putting the King to Deatii. But, he 
addsy alas (which was more we hope than they knew) it was all to no 
purpofe. But if he would really hare done them Juftice, he jhould have 
Qwnd this to hay€ hem 4 rtry bold and (ouragioM A^kn as thi Tima ih.n 


62 The LIFE of Chap. V. 

fverc ^ be- And thus thefe Inteftine Commotions came to an 
caufe they ifjQe^ little tho'c off at firft by any that began them, 

hereby ex- which caiinot but furprize all future Generations. 
thofe who 

had the Fower in their Hands y in the lafl decree: And if he would haye 
added Charity to Juftic*^, (rvhich makes a good mixture^ he might haye for- 
born hislaji Rcfle^ion^ unlefs he had good Pr»of at hand-, that they intended 
their B.efrrefentation only for an injtgnifieant Tlourijh, tpithout any efeSt ; 
r?hich in their Circumfiances vfas not yery likc/y. And to fuj^cEi any Thing of 
ihat kindy of Perfons in tffhofe Carriage tlte Credit of Religion it concern d, un- 
iefs there be Proofs tpill not eafily be excused from Cenforioufnefs. Tor them in 
their Circumfi antes to maJce fuch aDeclaratton^ wot to difcharge their Confcienc'es 
in the yietff of the greatefi Danger^ which alone ii fujjlcient Eyidence that 
they were in earnefi : Wlyereas^ if Men fay and unfay upon the fame Sub' 
jecty and declare one Thing one Tear^ and another the next^ and haye Intereji 
to ftvaythcm todiminiji) what they haye faidy and are afraid to fland to what 
they know to be true and Right, (which is a Cafe that has been fnmetimcs 
known) "'tis truly hard to know when they are in Larnef}^ or when Tofierlty 
Tnay depend upon them. 


RefleClhfis on Pnblick TranjaUions^ from 
the Death of King Charles the Fir ft ^ to 
the Reftduration of King Charles the 


An 1(^49. ^"T"^^^ King being taken out of the way, Crom- 
The Bit' I ^''^» pretends to be for a Common-wealth, 'till 

Zazemcnt, ^^ had laid a fufficient Foundation for his own 

Advancement. The I{t4mp prefently drew up a Form 
of an Enoaffement, to be Subfcrib'd by all Men of the 
Age of 1 8 Years and upwards ; vi:{, J do prowi/e to be 
Tme and Fnithful to the Common-vpealth <ii if » won? esia' 
yiifVd^ without n Kj^i^ or Houfe of Lords, Without this 
Engn^cmfrit no Man muft have the Benefit of Suing 
another at Law, nor have any Mafteriliip in the Uni- 
verfitics, nor Travel above fo many Miles from their 
Houic?, CJ^c. Mr. yims and Dr. f{atnbovo were hereup- 
on put o\u of their Headlhips in the Univerfity, and 


A vi 

Ghap. V. Mr. Richard Baxter* 62 

Mr. Sympfon and Mr. Sadler put in their Places: Dr. i^.y- 
nolds alfo was caft out of the Deanry of Chri^ Church 
Oxoriy and Dr. Oxven^ fucceeded him. The Covenant was 
now laid afide, as an Almanack out of Date. Many 
Epifcopal Divines wrote for the Engagements and plead- 
ed for taking it, upon the fame Diltindtion of De Facto 
& De Jure, as hath fince beert fo Celebrated among us. 
But the Moderate Church Party and the Presbyterians 
refus'd it.* 

Tho' Cromvpel had ConquerM England and Irelatid, Cromwel'i 
tho' the Parliament was Imprifon'd and caft • out, the T)[fjknhief. 
King cut off, and the E{ump Eftablilh'd as a New Com- 
mon-wealth ; yet were there ftili feveral Impediments 
to his laying hands upon the Crown according to his 
defire. There were ftill many Cavaliers, who were 
ready for new Enterprizes againft him. The Scots x^- 
folv'd to ftick to the Covenant and the King. The Ar- 
my alfo created him no fmall Difficulty, who muft be un- 
taught all the Principles which he had been inftilling into 
them with fo much care. For he well knew, that thofe 
Principles that were requifiie to bring him to the Crown, 
would be the worft in the World, when once he had 
gotten it. And at the fame time he knew very well, 
that the Minifters of England and Scotland, and the fo- 
ber People who regarded them, were very muchagainft 
him. As for the Royalifts, he after fome Struggling 
crufli'd them, making his Advantage by all their Enter- 
prizes. As for the Army, he was never wholly without 
his Uneafinefs. As for the Body of the Minifters, and 
the foberer Part of the Nation, he could never get them 
heartily tg fall in with his Ambitious Dcfigns ; They 
kept quiet indeed, but never were in his Intereft, and 
waited but for a favourable Opportunity to turn the 
Scale. And as for the Scots, tho' they put him to it at 
firft, yet he at leiigth overcame them, and rcach'd his 
Defigns upon them. Quickly afcer the King's Death, they 
difpatched Meffengers to his Son, Charles the Second, to 
defire him to come over to them, and take the Crown : But 
firft they treated with him about taking the Covenant, 


^ Many of the Minifters of Chediire 4«^ L^nc^niire, and the Fart ^ aj- 
joyning, fubllflM the Reafons of ihcW Kefufal of this Fng^igcmcnl, %^hle 
marty of the Prelatical Stamp printed their Reafonsfor taking it. 

64 The LIFE of Ghap. V. 

and reno'ncing the Wars, and the Blood that had been 
fhed in them by his Father's Party. So great were his 
Neceflities, that he could not but comply with them. 
He took the Covenant, and publilh'd a Declaration to 
the World, Ihr^t he did it Voluntarily nnd Heartily^ and 
that he Lamented the Sins of his P^jher*s Houjcy ticknovo- 
hdging the Gin It of tic Blqod of the late fV.^.rs^ &c, and 
hereupon had the whole Kingdom at his Command 
'.At. id5o. and Difpoftl. This was no (boner uhderftood, than 
an Invalion of ihe Scots was refolv'd on, to keep them 
fron^ Invading England^ without ftaying 'till they 
made an Entrance upon the Land as formerly. So that 
CrornvQel Was Opon them with an Army, before they 
were well fettled in their Affairs. Without .any De- 
Jay he advanced towards Edinburgh^ where the Scotch 
Army lay intrcnch'd : But after long Skirmilhing and 
Expedlations, when he cov'.ld neither draw the Scots 
out of their Trenches to a Fight, nor yet pafs forward, 
Bii Succefs j^jg Soldiers fell Sick, and were impatient of the Po» erty 
wibcotland. ^f ^^^ Country ; and fo with a weakned ragged Army 
he drew off ro return to England: and had the Scots 
but let him go, or cautioufly followed him, they had 
in all Probability fecur'd themfelves, and broken his 
Honour. But at length they drew out, and foliow'd 
him, and overtaking him near t>unbarr^ forcd him to 
a Fight by engaging his Rear. They were totally 
Touted in Fight, and had their Foot taken, and their 
Horfe purfu'd to Edinburgh. Ten Thoufand Prifoners 
•were bro't to Kevo-Caftle, where being negietSted they 
were moft of them FamilhM. The Colours that were 
taken, were hung up as Trophies in M^cjlminjier- Hal/^ 
and never taken down till the King's Reftauration. 
CrowTP^/ enters £^/«/7wr^/j Triumphantly, and drives the 
Scots to Sterlings beyond the River, where they forti- 
fy *d themfelves. He took the impregnable Caftle of 
Edinburgh^ after a fhort Siege, and then pafs'd his Ar- 
my over Sterling River, in purfuit nf the Scotj. Kmg 
Charles with the' Scotch Army, not being a^'!e to fight 
bim, haftily advances towards England^ hoping that 
great Numbers of the En^l Jh would join themfelves 
to him. But many Things concurr d to hinder his ex- 
pedled Fncreafe. The Manner of the Scits coming a- 
way, perfwaded People that NcciTity fojc'd tn^ni. and 
they Were rather look d upon as Flying, than ^s 

Chap. V. Mr, Elichard Baxter. 65 

ing into England, And few will put themfelves into 
a Flying Army, which is purfu d by a Conquering E- 
nemy. Witha], it was .altogether uncertain, how the 
Country would have been treated,had they now appear'd 
for the King, before they were affur'd of an Amnefty 
of part Diforders, and an Abatement of their former 
Burthens. And at the fame time, the Event was very 
uncertain, the Fame of the late Vidtory at Dunbarr 
had rnade great Impreflion, and Cromwel's fpeedy Pur- 
fuit raisM fuch an Expectation, that People were gene- 
rally willing to fee how I'hings would encline upon an 
Engagement between the two Armies, before they'd 
difcover themfelves ; So that tho'the Earl of Derby, the 
Lord Talbot J and fome GentL^men, joyn d themfelves to 
the King's Army, yet the Country in general would 
not follow their Example. The King came by the way 
of Lancnjhire, and fummon'd Shrewsbury in vain, as he 
pals'd thro' Shropfhire : But when all tho't he was haft- 
ning towards London, where it was commonly appre- 
hended he might have attain'd his Ends, encreas'd his An. 16 $i: 
Strength, and had no Reiiftance, he turn d to Worccfter, 
and there refrelh'd his Army. Cromxvsl overtook him 
there, and fought to ftraiten him: But not enduring to 
be pent up, the King refolv'd to Charge him; and the 
Scots at firft behav d themfelves gallantly : but at length, ^^^^ ^. ^^^ 
thinking they had a Security behind them, they retreat- J\i^J^J.^ 
ed into the City, and at the fame time Cromveets Soldi- ^^^ 
ers purfu d them fo clofe at the Heels, that they enter'd 
the City with them. The Surprize of this was fo 
great, that the whole Army fled thro* the City in great 
Confufion, many being trodden down and flain m the 
Streets, and they were utterly rouced. ^ In their flighty 
the Troopers that were fcatier'd up and down the Coun- 
try, difpatcb'd many of them. The Marque fs of H^- 
milton (late Earl of Lanerick) was (lain. The Earl of 
Derby and Capt. Bcnb^vp of Shrewsbury v/ere both taken, 
and put to Death. The Earl oi L^-tidprdMc, and the 
Earl of Craford, were fent Prifoners to iVtndfjr-Caftle, 
where they were detaind 'till the King's Reftoration. 
As for King Charles, when he feparated him ell 
from his Lords, he went to Bofcohl by the iV.j^te In- 
dies, where he was hid in an Onk, in a manner luffici- 
ently declarM to the World; and ihence loMo/ey: 
After which he accompany'd Mrs. Unc as a IraveHer 

6G The LItE of Chap. V. 

and efcap'd all the Searchers Hands, 'till he carre fafe 
beyond Sea. 

Tiie Sects Army being utterly difpers'd in Englnndy 
and many of the Prifoners of Foot fent to the Bari adoes 
zndoi\\e\' American Plantations, parr of c'^^^^w^/'s Ar- 
my wasdifpatch'd into Scotland to profecutc the Victo- 
ry there. All their Garrifons at laft were taken, and 
the Ear] c^Glencar??, and the Noble Ear] o^ Bnlcnrres^ 
(who kept up the laft Forces there for the King) were 
forc'd to fly to King Charles beyond Sea. Upon which 
Major-General Mo)it^\Nis left there, with fome Forces 
to keep the Country in Subjeftion. 
uin. i6^\. A little before the Fight at l^orcesfer, divers Perfons 
Mr. LovL'i^ere feiz'd on in London for holding CorrefpondenCe 
Tryal ^"^ vvith the King. Many of them were Presbyterian Mi- 
Hxecutton. nij^ers, who for meeting together to contrive how to 
raife a fmall Sum of Money for Majfefs Relief in Scot- 
land, were charg'd with Plotting ageing the Government, 
Eight of them were fent to the Tower. Mr. Arthur 
Jaclfon, Dr. Drake, Mr. PVatfon, Mr. Love, Mr. Jenkins, 
Mr. Thomas Cnfe, Mr. I{nlph E^obirijon, and Mr. ^ch.Heyrick^ 
S<c. And Mr.iV^/fow, and Mr. Cnvghton tied into Holland, 
Mr. Love was Try 'd at a Court of Juftice, where Edmurd 
Prideaux Efq; a Member ofthei^w/^/', and Solicitor for the 
Comrnon-vQcalth^ tho't his Place aJlow'd him to plead a- 
gainft the Life and Blood of the Innocent. Mr. Love 
was Condemn d and Beheaded, dying neither Time- 
roufly, nor Proudly in any deCperate Bravado, but with 
as great Alacrity and fcarlefs Quietncfs, and freedom 
of Speech, as if he had but gone to Bed, and had been 
as little concern 'd as the Standcrs-by. A worthy Gen- 
tleman, Mr. Gibbons^ was Beheaded with him for the 
fame Caufe. And at the time of their Execution, or 
very near it on that Day, there was the dreadfulleft 
Thunder, Lightning and Tempeft, that was heard or 
feen of a long time bciore. This Blow funk deeper to- 
wards the Root of the New Common-wealth, than will 
eafily be believ'd at a diftance. The reft of the Mini- 
flers were releas'd upon Mr. Jenkjn's Recantation, and 
Submillionto the Government. 
Cromwcl Cromwel, being fiufli'd by his Succefs in Scotland, tho'c 
difcards the he m'lf^hi now do what he pleas'd. Having thus far 
Rump Par fecmd to be a Servant to the Parliament, and to have 
iiamcnt. work'd for his Mailers the ^mp or CommQn'Wcaltbf he 


Chap. V. Mr, Richard Baxter. 67 

was at length for fetting up for himfelf. In order to this 
he firit ferves them as he had betore done the Presbue- 
rians, fceking to make them odious by hard Speeches 
throughout his Army, as if they intended to perpetuate 
themielves, and would not be Accountable for the Mo- 
ney of the Common- wealth, &c. and then he treats pri- 
vately with manv of them to diflblve themfelves; that 
another free Parliament might be chofen: But they per- 
ceiv'd- the danger, and were rather for filling up their 
Number by New Elcdions, which he was utterly againft. 
Impatient at laft of further delay, he fuddenly took Har- 
rifon and fome Soldiers with him, and in a fort of a Rap- -^' ' ^5 3' 
ture went to the Houfe, and reproveth the Members for 
their Faults, and pointing to Vnne calls him a Jugler, and 
to Henry Martin^ and calls him Whoremafter; and ha- 
ving two fuch to inftance in, takes it for granted that they 
were all unfit to continue in the Government, and fo he 
Difcards them. Few People being griev'd at their being 
laid afide, tho' all except the Sedaries and the Army, 
touk^-bim for a Traytor that was the Inftrument. 

The Young Common-wealth was thus left Headlefs. The Little 
Nothing might now feem to ftand between Cromwel and Parlu- 
the Crown. For a Governour there muft be : And who ""''"'• 
fitter than himfelf ? But Care muft firft be taken to make 
theNeceflity of his Government undeniable, and to make 
his Soldiers out of love with Democracy^ or at leaft to 
make them hateful that adher'd to it. And therefore a 
a Parliament muft be call'd, but the ungodly People are 
hot to be trufted with the Choice j therefore the 
Soldiers^ as more Rehgious, muft be the Choofers: 
And two out of a County are chofen by the Offi- 
cers, upon the Advice of their Sectarian Friends in all 
t^arts^ This was in Contempt call'd Tl.e Little Pnr^ 
liament. This Conventicle made an Ad, Th^t Migi- 
ftrates jhould Marry People inftead of Minifiers*. And 
then they came to the Bufinefs of Tythes and Minift- rs. 
Before this, Harrifon being authorized thereto, had at 

F 2 • once 

*77;c AaOrder% That the Perfons to be Married fhould come before 
fume Juftlce of the Peace: That the Man and Woman fhould pronounce i he 
Words before him, and he pronounce them lawfuUy Married. See Scobel s ^ol- 
kftion of St;itutes. Thns fays Mr Tallents of Shrewsbury m a Letter to 
we, / and others have Married many before a Jufiice, he faying nothi»^> t,ia 
only dedarin^ the Manhge w<u Falid* 

68 The LI F E of Chap. V. 

once put down all the Parifh Minifters of Waks^ becaufe 

that moft C)f them were Ignorant and Scandalous, and 

had fet up a few Itinerant Preachers in their ftead, who 

were for Number incompetent for fo great a Charge, 

there being but One to many of thofe wide Parilhes: So 

that the People having a Sermon but once in many Weeks, 

an.{ nothing elfe in the mean time, were ready to turn 

Papifts, or any Thing clfe. And this is the Plight which 

the /inahaptiji J ^2ind other Sedlaries, would have bro*tthe 

whole Land to. And all was with this Defign, That 

the People might nor be tempted to think the Parifh 

Churches to be true Churches, or Infant Baptifm true 

Baptifm, or therafelves true Chriftians; but might be 

convinc'd, That they muft be made Chriftians and 

Churches in the way of the Anahnptifts and Separatisls, 

Hereupon, Harrifon became the Head of the Se^aries^ 

and C'rmvpsl now began to defign the Heading of a So--*- 

berer Party, that were for Learning and Mmiftry, while 

yet he was the Equal Proccclor of all. At length it was 

put to the Vote in this Parliament, PVnether all the Parifb 

Mlnijh'rs of England fhould at once be put aovon or no? And 

it was but carry'd in the Negative by two 

Voices. And it was taken for gianred, that Tithes and 

ZJnivc fities would next be voted down ; and now Cram- 

wc! muft be their Saviour, or they muft perifh: When 

he had purpofd. caft them into the Pit, that they might 

be Seho!ding to hiun to pv 11 them out. In the Iflue, Sir 

C. I'V. a ^d <"oaie others, take their time, and put it to 

•the \ ore. PV I -ei tht t-JouJc^ ai incapchlc of Jerving the 

C '.'. ^';, P:ould go ^ful deliver up their Power unto 

CroMiwj], fr VI vrhom they had rcceivd it } They carry'd 

it ii. the A^r native, and away they go, and folemnly 

r^fign theii Power to him; who then carries all before 

fiim. Hs Snbtiity lay here; he caus'd and permitted 

^^-^rui^ on to hang over the Nation, to Niccftitate 

, whether they would or not, to take him for ihe'r 

'"'>i-ir. that he m:^ht be their Proredlor. A Juntlo 

"■ :s drew up a Writing, called. The hiftnimcut of 

yn.nt f the Cornm 'u-wcalth of England, Scot- 

' iland. Thi<; Inftrument made Oiiver Crom- 

ivj Pjott^i^or of the Commfn-wealth. The Lord 

• v and Aldermen, the Judges and OiHceys of 

ny were fiuidainly drawn togrther to H^elbniyifter- 

I upon the Reading this Inftrument inftall'd 


Chap. V". Mr. Richard Baxter. 5q 

CrcmvQcl in the Office of PrcteHor^ and fwore him ac- 
cordingly; and thus the Common-wealth feem'd orce 
more to have a Head — ^As for rhe Proceedints of the 
Parliamenrs which he caU'd in hi^ Protedlorihip, th.^ir 
difpleafing him by Ravelling hir Inrtriimenr, an.^ his 
rough and refolutediiiblving them, the Fartici'lais may 
be feen in the Common Hiiiorians of the times. 

One of his Chic 1 Works was the Pwgivg of the Mi- rhe Triert 
n'iftry. The Synod of Weftminfter was dilTolv'd with the ofMmjitrs. 
Parliament : And therefore a Society of Mmifters with 
fome others, were chofen by Crcjnvoel to Cii at I4^hite-' 
Hn!!^ under the Name of Triers^ who were moftly In- 
dependents, but had fomc Presbyterians join'd with 'em, 
and had Power to try all that came tor Inflirution'or In- 
duction, and without their Approbation none were ad^ 
mitted. They themfelves examin'd ail that were able 
to come up to London: But if any were unable, or of 
doubtful Q.ualitications, they referred them to fome Mi- 
nifters in the County where they livM, and approv'd 
them, if they approv'd rhem : And with all their Faults, 
thus much n«ui4 be faid of thefe Triers, that they did a 
great deal of Good to the Church, rhey fav'd many a 
Congregation from ignorant ungodly Drunken Teachers. 
That fort ot Minifters that either preacht againft an Ho- 
ly Life, or preacht as Men that never were acquainted 
with ic; all thofe that us a the Miniftry but as a Com- 
mon Trade to live by, and were never likely to Convert 
a Soul, all thefe they ufualiy rejeded; and in rheir ftead 
admitted of any that were able ferious Preachers, and 
liv*da Godly Life, of what Opinion foever they were 
that was tolerable. 

He had the Policy not to exafpera:e the Minifters and An. 16 $6. 
others, who confented not to his Government; bur he Cromwei.'i 
let Men live quietly, without pmring any Oaths of Fide- CoMduH: 
iity upon them ; except hisParliamenrs, which were not ^^'^e rra- 
fuffer'd to enter the Houfe, 'till they had Tworn Fideli- f^<.7&r. 
ty to him. The Sedfcarian Party in his Array and elfe- 
where he chiefly trufted to, and pleasM, 'till by the Peo- 
ples Submiflion and Qiiietnefs he tho't himfelf vvell (et- 
led: And then he began to undcrmme them, and by De- 
grees to work them out. And tho' he had fo often fpo- 
ken for the Anabaptifts, he now finds them fo heady, and 
fo much againft any fettled Government, and ^okt up- 
on the promoting of ^heir Way and Party, that he doth 


70 Jhe L 1 F tL of Chap. V. 

not only begin to blame their Unrulinefs, but alfo defign- 
eth to fettle himfelf in the Peoples Favour by lupprelfing 
them. In JreUnd they were grown fo high, that the Sol- 
diers were many of them Rebaptiz'd, as the way to Pre- 
ferment : And they who oppos'd them were crulht with 
lincharitabje Fierccnefs. He fent his Son Hen v Cromvoel 
into Ireland^ who mightily fuppreft them, and carry'd ic 
fo obligingly to all, that he was generilly bel.)v'd. So 
that Major-GeneralLv.^/rTr, who headed the Anabaftlfts 
in Irelnnd^ was forc'd to fubmit. And tho' h? longcon- 
nivM at his Old Friend Harrifov^ the Head of the Anabaf- 
tijis here, yet finding it would be an acceptable thing to 
the Nation to fupprefs him, he doih ic in a Trice j and 
makes him Contemptible, whobutyefterday tho*t himfelf 
not much below him. As eafily alfo to the full doth he 
lay by Lambert : Which were very pleafing Adiions. 
An. i6'^2. At length Cromvpel, who had efcap'd the Attempts of 
Jii's Death many who fought to difpatch him, could not efcape the 
ttnd chara- Stroke of God, but dy'd of a Feaver, before he was a- 
ihr. ware. He dy'd very fuddainly, tho' a bold Man, (one of 

the then prevailing Party) praying for him, had faid. Lord ! 
we ask^ not for his Life., for that xvs are fare of; but that he 
mayferve thee better than ever he has done ; to the Di(honour 
of that Prefumption, which fome Men call a Particular 
Faith ; that is, a Believing that that they (hall receive 
ivhatfoever they ask, if they can but ftedfaftly believe 
that they (hall receive it ; tho* it be fuch as they have no 
other Promife for, but that of Hearing Believing Prayers^ 
"which they mifunderf^and. Never Man was highlier 
extoird, or bafelier reported of, and vilify 'd than this 
Man, according as Mens Imerefts led their Judg- 
ments*. The Soldiers and Se(3:aries highly roagnifyM 


* There ii a rery memorable Tajf.i'rc concerning him, related in Eifhop Hacket'5 
Life of Arclj'biffyofjWiU'ums. 'lis this: That Bp. WillhmS' (wijovr/t^ perhaps 
a-s well accjuaintcd rvith Men and Ti)ings oi rnnfl Statefmen rse Jjave ever had in 
this A'ation) being in the Tear 1 6^/\.fent for by K. Ch2r\es the fir /i owto/Wale?, 
vhtther he hadretired, he attended him accordingly at Oxford. Among other Ad- 
yicehe gave the King at that time, he a£urdhim^ That Crnmwcl^ who was 
lately taken intotiif Parliament's Army by h'lsCouiinHambden, wasrhemoft 
dangerous Enuny that his Mnjefty had: And therefore he adyi^'dhim^Ehhcr to 
win himby Promifcsof fair Treatment, or catch him by fome Stratagem and 
cut him fhort. Nay, (faith Bp. Hackei) his Servants often heard him fay long be- 
fore the Events That ihey would live to fee the time, wlien Cromwd would 
bear down all other Powers before him, and fet up himfelf. 

Chao. V. Air. Richard Baxter. 7i 

I him, rtll he began to feek the Crown, and the Efta* 
" blifliinenc of his Family : And then there were fo many 
.hat woald be half Kings tbemfeJves, that a King feem'd 
intoHerable to them. The Royalifts abhorr'd him as a 
moft Perfidious Hypocrite : and the Presbyterians tho'c 
bim little berter in his Management of Publick Matters. 
Upon the whole, Mr. Baxter hath left this as his Judg- 
ment concerning him: Tbnt he began loWy androfe high' 
er in his B^folutions ai his Condition rofe : And the Promi^ 
fes wh'ch he made in his loxver Condition^ he uid as the hi- 
tere§t of his higher foUovoing Condition did require ; and 
l{€pt di much Honefly and Godlinefs, in the main, as his 
Caufe and Interell would aSow him, and there they left 
him. And that his Name ftandeth iH c MoJiitory Monument 
OY Pillar to Pqfterity, to tell them the Inftability of Man in 
ftrong Temptations, if God leave him to himjelf. tpl^ap 
Pride can do, to make Man Selfifh, and Corrupt the Heart 
mth 111 Defigns : What SelfiJhneJ] and I'd Defigns can do, 
to Bribe the Confcience, Corrupt the Judgment, mal^e Men 
julfify the greatest Errors and Sins, and fet againft the 
ckareft Truth and Duty: What Bloodfhed, and great Enor- 
mities of Life, and an erring deluded Judgment may dravo 
Men to do, and Patrpni:(e^ And that when God hath 
Dreadful Judgments to execute, an Erroneous Senary, or a 
proud Self'feeker, is oftner his Inftrumcnt, than an Hur?j~ 
tie Lamb'like Innocent Saint, 

Cromxvel being dead, his Son Richard, by his Will Kiciind'^ 
and Teftament and the Army, was quietly fettled in his Succr(jion. 
Place, The feveral Counties, Cities and Corporations 
of England, fend up their Congratulations, to own 
him as ProteHor, He Interred his Father with great 
Pomn and Solemnity. He callM a Parliament wichnuc 
any fuch Reftraints as his Father had us'd. The Mem- 
bers took the Oath of Fidelity to him, before they cntrcd 
the Houfe. And all Men wondred to fee all lo quier 
in fo dangerous a Time. Many fober Men, that call d 
his Father no better than a Traitorous Hypccnte, began 
to think that they ow'd him Subjedion. But the Arn»y 
itfeems fee him up .only upon Tryal, refolvmg to ule 
him as he behaved himfelf. And tho they fwore Fide- 
lity to him, they meant to keep it no longer than he 
pleas'd them : And when they faw that he began to fa- 
vour the fober People of the Land, to Honour I ariia- 
ments, and to Refped the Minifters call d Presbyterians 

p ^ mey 

The LIFE of Chap. V. 

they prefently refolv'd to make him know his Mafters, 
and that it was they^ and not he, that were call'd by 
God to be the Chief PrcteHors of the IntercB of the Na- 
tion. He was not {o formidable to them as his Father, 
and theref >re every one in a little time boldly fpurn* d 
at him. The Fifth Monarchy Men under Sir Htmy Vane, 
rais'd a violent Clamorous Party againft him among the 
An. 1559. City Sectaries. R^g^^s and^ and fome others of 
their Temper, blow'd the Coals : But the AfTembly at 
iVallingford Hcu/e did the main Bufincfs. It was there 
And Deffo- determined, That Richard'^ Parliametit mufi be dijfolvd^ 
Jiiion. and rhcn he quickly fell himfelf; And it was as foon 
done almoft as determin'd. Tho* Col. In^olshy, and 
fome others, would have ftuck to theProte(5lor, and have 
vcncur'd to furprize the Leaders of the Faction, and 
the Parliament would have been true to him ; Yet 
Berry's Regiment of Horfe and fome others were juft 
ready to begin the Pray againft him. And he, as he 
fought not the Government, fo was refolv'd it fhould 
coft no Blood to keep him in it : And therefore he re- 
fign'd it by a Writing under his Hand, and retired him- 
felf, and left them to govern as they pleas d. His Bro- 
ther-in-Law Fleetwood ^ and his Uncle Deshorough, were 
, fo Intoxicated as to be the Leaders of the Confpiracy. 

The Core of the Bufinefs was this; That Oliver had 
once made Fleetwood believe, that he (hould be his Suc- 
celfor, and drawn an Inftrumcnt to that purpofe; but 
his Laft Will difappointed him. However, now they 
fct up a few of rhemfelves, under the name of a Co«n- 
cil of Stnt^, wherein F>ectwJod wasuppermoft, and Lam- 
bert next him. 
K:n^ The Nation being tired with Changes, foon difcover'd 
Chariest ^heir Uneafinels. Sit Geo' ^^e Booth and S\r Thomas Mid^ 
Jteiiaurati- ^letot?^ rais'd Forces in Chefloire and Korth-H^ates for King 
«"• Charles^ but being faifd by the Cavaliers that Ihould 

have joyn'd with them, Lambert foon routed them : And 
it the fame time Sir Arthur Haflerig^e fiezes Fortfmouth 
for the l{ump. Monk^ purges his Army in Scotland of 
Annbapti^s^ and marches into Enginnd. The I{ump 
Party with Hnflerigge divided the Army at Home, and 
fo difablcd them to oppofe Monk^ who march'd on 
to the great Surprize of all. At firft, he joyn'd with 
the i{}*mp againft the Citizen?, and puU'd down the 
City Gates to terrify them : But at length, being invited 
^ ^ ^ '■• inio 

Chap. V. Mr, flichard Baxter. 7^ 

into the City by Sir Thomas Allen, then Lord-Mayor, he An. i66c 
joynd with them agaitift the Rump, which, was the ve- 
ry Thing that turn d the Scales, and bro'c in the King. 
Aiowi^ calls together tke Old Secluded MsmbcrSy agreeing 
with them. That they fhould fit but a few Days^ and then 
dijfolve themfehes, and call another Parliament. They, 
confented, appointed a Council of State, and diflblv'd 
themfelves. In this Council of State, it was put to the 
Queftion, Whether they Jhould call in the Kjng upon 
Treaty and Covenant^ or entirely confide in him ? And 
it was refolv'd to truft him abfolutely, Mr. A. parti- 
cularly fo perfwading. The New Parliament meet- 
ing, prefentiy appointed a Day of Fafting and Prayer 
for themfelves. The Hou/e of Commons chofe Dr. Gau- 
den, Mr. Calamy^ and Mr. Baxter, to carry on thfe 
Work of the Day. The very next Morning, May i. 
1660, they unanimoufly voted Home the King, N^- 
mine Contradiccnte, The King being fent for over from 
Holland, certain Divines and others were fent by the 
Parliament and City to attend him ; vi7[. Mr. Calamy, 
Dr. Manton, Mr. Bowles, and others : And his Maje- 
fty gave fuch encouraging Promifes, as rais'd in fome 
of them very high Expectations. And when he came 
in, as he pafs'd thro' the City towards H^eftminjler, the 
London Minifters in their Places attended him with Ac- 
clamations, and by the Hands of old Mr. Arthur Jaci- 
fcn, prefented him with a richly adorn'd Bible, which 
he received, telling them. If fioould be the £{ule of his 

e H A p> 

74 The LIB E of Chap. VI. 


Mr. Baxter'/ Cofidu£l of Himfelf during thcfc 
Publick Commotions and frequent Alter ai;^ 
ons. His Behaviour in the nrmy and pvoardt 
Cromwel. His Trouble from the Se<^>a' 
of thofe Times ; xviih an Acconnt of their 
Rife and Prevalence^ Principles and Pra- 

EX T R E A M S are very pJeafing to Humane Na- 
ture: Moft Men are (o fond of them, that they'll 
run as far as from one Pole to another in a Breath, 
rather than ftop in a more Temperate Region. Such is 
their Eagernefs, that nothing but what is violent: and 
furious can fuit them : And fuch their Stupidity, that 
they'll on each Side entertain more favourable Tho'ts of 
thofe in the oppofite Extream, than o£ fuch as keep in 
the Mid-way, being unwilling to bend towards the one 
Side or the other> any farther than a Cogency ot Rea^ 
fon fways them. And therefore it hath been often ol>- 
ferv'd, That Men of a Calm and Healing Spirit^ whofe grent 
Aim it hath been to avoid Extreams^ have been ajfaulted on 
both Sides xvith e/jual Fur;', tis if they vfere a Sort of Common 
Enemies. Hardly any Man ever had more Experience 
of this than Mr. Baxter ; who, in Political Matters en- 
deavoured equally to (hun the flavifii Principles of the 
AfTcrtors of Abfolute Monarchy^ and the confounding 
Notions of Democratical Vnjekors : And at the fame 
Time, in Ecclefiafiical Matters, was equally fearful of 
the Arbitrary Encroachments of ^{ffuming Prelates, and 
and the Uncharitable and Dividing Principles and Pra- 
<fiiccs of the Se^aries, This expos'dhim to the EfTcdts 
of the Malignity of each Party, and created him a 
great deal ot Trouble : But at the fame Time his Con- 
Icience was fatisfy'd in the Meafures he took ; and he 
doubted not but Pofterity, when the Heats were over, 
would judge more favourably of hisCondudt, than ma- 
ny of his Corcmporarics, who were adled by Malice 
and Fury, blind Zeal and Bigottry, in the Cenfures they 
pafs'd upon him. He 

Chap. VI. Mr. Richard Baxter. 7- 

He was far from encouraging fuddam Impulfes, the ARemark- 
Danger of yielding to which he was well aware of ; «^/e Faf- 
and yet was once carry *d quite beyond his Intentions As<^- 
in a P.ublick Performance, the Manner and Confe- 
quence of which was Remarkable. Mr. Madeftard 
( whom he had aflifted at Bridgnorth ) dying, after he 
had been a little While fix'd at K^derminfter^ He was 
defired to preach his Funeral Sermon. He difcharg'd 
that Office under fo deep a Senfe of the Mifery of the 
unprofitable Pe<;ple of that Town, and the deep Groans 
he had heard from their Faithful Paftor for their Ob- 
duratenefs, that he could not forbear to tell them his 
Fears, Thnt jome.fuddain Judgment vcould come upon that 
Plac? ; which they were more capable of laying to 
Heart, than their Paftor 's Death. Neither did he, ei- 
ther before or after, prefume upon fuch kind of Pre- 
didkions ; but the ExpreiHon of that Fear he could not 
then fupprefs. His Text was £;^e/^. 33. 33. And when 
this Cometh to fafsy (^lo^ it will come ) then /hall they fyiox9 
that a Prophet hath been among them. And when the 
War was begun, the Town being againft the Parlia- 
ment, was a Garrifon for the King, kept by the Neigh- 
bouring Gentlemen of the Country, who fortify'd the 
Caftle. When the Parliament's Forces came to take 
the Town, they by the Fire- works from the Caftle 
burnt it to the Ground, together with the Church where 
that Sermon was preach'd, and where Mr. Madejiard 
was Interr'd. So that the Inhabitants were undone, 
and forc'd to lie under Hedges, 'till the Compaflion of 
others afforded them Entertainment and Habitation. 
And as for their Church, it was a great While before it 
was rebuilt,and that after two General CollecSkions for it. 
The firft Time he came among them when the War 
was over, he chofe the fame Text again to preach on, 
to call their Sins againft their faithful Paftor to Re- 
membrance : But both Speaker and Hearers were fo in- 
terrupted with Tears, that it was not without much 
Difficulty, and after feveral Paufes, that he was able 
to proceed on to the End. 

He adher'd to the Long Parliament ^ as far as he could Mr. Baxter 
apprehend theirCaufeand'their Motions juftifiable; hy^t adheres tqt 
no Hopes or Fears could draw or drive him any farther, the ParlU- 
Upon Occafion of the Iri/h Maffacre, they made an ^ent. 
Order, That all the People fliould taf{€ 4 Propejiation, to 


76 The LI FB of Chap. VI. 

defend the I{ing's P:rfor?, Hoyiour and Authority^ the Power 
dr,d Priviledg:i of PariiamcTjtSy the Liberties of the Sub' 
jecf, and the Protestant ^ligiony againjl the Common Ene- 
my. Herein he readily obey'd, and joyn'd with the 
Magiftrace in offering this ProtejUtion to the People ; tho' 
fi;me were much otiended at ir. Soon after, the King's 
Declarations were read in the Market- PJace at f^eder- 
minjhr^ and the Comminion of Arrav was fet a foot ; 
the Lord Hown-d, who was the Parliament's lienrenanc 
for the Militia of the Counry of H'orcefier^ not appear- 
ing. Hereupon, the Rabble grew fo Riotrus and Fu- 
rious, that a Sober Man could h;irdly hope f.r Safety : 
For in the Prt-paration to the Approaching Wa;-, they 
had got the Word amongft them, Down with ch R^ouud- 
hcads ; infomuch. that if a Srranger in many Places 
happen'd to pafs by, that had ihort Hair, ar.d a civil 
Habit, the Cry was, Down with the [{oundbcaas, and on 
they fell, knocking them down in the open Streets, none 
daring to appear in their Defence. 
Hetiref to To avoid Uproars of this Kind, he was advis'd to 
Gloucefter. withdraw a While from F-Iome ; and follow'd the Ad- 
vice. As he pafs'd but thro' a Corner of the Suburbs of 
the City of lVo)ccfter^ the Multitude, the' they knew 
nothing ot him, cry'd, Down with the Roundheads, info- 
much, that he was glad to fpur on and be gone. He re- 
tired to Gloucejier, where he found a Civil, Courteous 
and Religious People, as different from thofe of 
l4^orcefier, as if they had Jiv'd under another Govern- 
mdir. This Coumy came in for the Parliament, while 
" iV^rceflerfhire^ Hereford/hire and Shrnp/hire were wholly 
for the King- It was in this Retirement that he met 
with the i\\i\ An.ib'tptijh that ever he was acquainted 
with. About a dozen Young Men, or more, of con- 
liderable Parts, had received the Opinion againft In- 
fant Baptifm, and were Re-baptiz'd, and labour'd to 
draw others after them, not far from Gioucejler. The 
M.niOcr of the Place, Mr. l^f'innel^ being hot and im- 
paiient with them, k was tho't, hardened them the 
more. He wrote a Confiderablc' Book at that Time 
againft them : But the Nation having then no great 
lixpcrience of the Tendency of their Principles ; the 
People that were not of their Opinion, did but pity 
them, and think it was a Conceit that had no great 
H;irm in it, and J^am d Mr. If'inncl for his Afperity 


Chap. VI. Air. Richard Baxter. 77 

towards them. But this was manifeftly the Beginning 
of the Miferies of Gloucefter : For while the Anabaftifis 
encreas'd on one Side, one Mr. Hart came out of Here- 
fordfoire with Mr. Vaughnn 3l Gencleman, who drew ma- 
ny to Separation on another Side, and afterwards came 
Mr. Bacon, a Preacher of the Army, and he drew 
them- to Antimminnifm on another Side ; which toge- 
ther fo diftradted the good People, and eat out that 
Heart of Religion and Chafity among them, that the 
City which before had as great Advantages for the 
Profperity of Religion among them, as any in the Land, 
in the Civility, Tra6tablenefs and Piety of the People, 
became as low and poor as others, and the pity of more 
happy Places. 

After about a Month's ftay at Glouccfier^ his Neigh- 
bours of Kjderminfter defired his return, leaft the Peo- 
ple (houid interpret his Abfence, either as the Effed: of 
his Fear on the Account of fome Guilt, or as fignify- 
ing his being againft the King. When he came Home, 
he found the drunken Rabble very boifterous, threat- 
ning all fober People, and crying out as they met any 
of them in the Streets, fVe jhall take an Order xcith the 
Puritans eer long : They were like ty'd Maftiffs newly 
loofed, flying in the Face of all that was Religious, 
yea or Civil, which came in their Way. This forced 
him to withdraw again. He fpent a few Days in the 
Earl of EJJex's Army then about iVorceHer, flaying 
with them 'till the March of the King's Army occafi- 
ond their Remove. On the LordVDay following, he 
preached at Alce^ler^ and during his Preaching, the 
Noife of the Cannon inform'd ihem that the Armies 
were engaged ; and this was the Fight at Edge-Hill. 
In the Evening, many flying Troops affur'd them, Th.^: 
all was loft on the Parliament's Side, and the Carriage ta- 
ken and Pf^aggnns plunder*d before they came axvay : But 
they afterwards got a better Account ; vi::^. That while 
Prince Rupert's Men were plundering the PVaggons of 
EfTexV Left Wing which they bad routed^ the main Body 
and the J^ght H^ing frevail'd againft the reft of the Kjngs 
Army^ and got the Day, The next Morning he went to 
fee the Field where the Fight had been the Day before, 
and found the Earl of Ejfex with the remaining Part of 
his Army keeping the Ground, and the King's Army 
facing them upon a Hill a Mileofr,and about aThoufand 


78 The LI FE of Chap. VI. 

dead Bodies in the Field between them, and neither of 
the Armies moving towards each other. But in a lit- 
tle Time they on both Sides retired to Quarters of Re- 
Eetira to ^j. ^j^^g Time Mr. Baxter was very much at a Lofs, 
Covenuy. ^j^^ knew not what Giurfe to take. To live at Home 
was very uncomfortable and hazardous, the Soldiers 
on one Side or other ft ill palling to and fro, and being 
ready to make a Prey of ivhatfoever came before them: 
And yet he had not any Thing tofublift onelfewhere irt 
a Place of Safety. At length he determin'd to go to 
Cove77try^ where Mr. Snmn Kjng, who was his Ac- 
quaintance at Bridgnorth^ was Minifter, determining 
to ftay there 'till one Side or other had got the Victory, 
and the War was ended. For fo little acquainted was 
he, or indeed the Country round him, with Matters of 
War, that it was commonly fuppos'd, a very few Days 
or Weeks bv one other Battle, would bring Things to 
an lifuc. When he had continud with Mr. Kj^g a 
Month, he found the War as far from being like to 
End as before. This put him upon Tho'ts of making 
further Provifion forhirnfelf, that he might not be bur- 
denfome to his Fnenci ; and while his Mind was thus 
employed, as Providence otderM it, the Committee and 
Govcrnour of the City pf Covcnt-y defired him to ftay 
with them, and Lodge in the Govemour*8 Houfe, and 
preach to the Soldiers. The offer fuited well with his 
Keceflities ; and tho' he vva«; not enclin'd to be Chaplain 
to the Regiment, or take a Commilfion; yet, fince the 
meer Preaching of a Sermon once or twice a Week lO 
the Garrifon would fatisfy, he readily accepted the Of- 
fer 'till he he could return Home in Safety. In this 
Poft he follow'd his Studies as quietly as in a Time of 
Peace for about a Year, only Preaching once a Week 
to the Soldiers, and once on the Lord*i-Dny to the Peo- 
ple, not taking any Thing of them for either, excepting 
only his Diet. He had here a very Judicious Auditory : 
Sir F{ichnrd Shffi»gton, Col. Godfrey Bofvile, Mr. hUck^^ 
worthy Mr. George Ahbot^ and many other Pious and 
Judicious Gentlemen were his conftant Auditors^ There 
were alfo about y worhy Minif^ers in the City, who 
fled thither f r Safety from Solders and popular Fury, 
as he had done, tho' ihcy never meddleci in the Wars^ 
Mr,I{icUrU Vine:^ Mr. Anthony Bw2e]s, Mr. Bwdall^ 

"" ' " Mr- 

Chap. VI. Mr. Richard Baxter. 79 

Mr. Brumskill^ Dr. Bryan^ Dr. Grew^ Mr. Stephens^ 
Mr. Craddockji Mr. Morton of Bevfdley, Mr. Diamond^ 
Mr. Overton^ were fome of them. And he was ex- 
ceeding Thankful to God for the Quietnefs and Safety, 
and Sober, Wife, and Religious Company, with Li- 
berty to Preach the Gofpel, which he vouchfafed him 
in this City, when other Places were in the Terrours 
and Flames of War. When he had been above a Year 
at C&ventry^ the War was fo far from being ended, 
that it had difpers'd it felf into almoft all the Land. 
Only Middlejexy Hertford/hire^ moft of Bedford and 
hJorth^mptonfhire^ being entirely for the Parliament, 
had fome Quietnefs. And EJfex, Suffolk,, Norfoll^, Cam- 
bridgejhiie, and Huntington/htre, with the Ille of £/;, 
which were call'd the /^jjoclated Counties^ Hv'd as in 
Pea^e, the King's Armies never coming near them. 
And it was fo for the moft Part alfo with K^nt, Surrey 
and Suffcx, "While on the other Side, Hereford/hire, 
Pf^orcefterfhirey and Shrop/hire^ and almoA all fVales^ 
( PembrGkefhWe excepted ) were only poffefs'd for the 
King , and faw not the Forces of the Parliament. But 
almbft ali the reft of the Counties had Garriibns and 
Parties in them on both Sides, which caus'd a War in 
every County, and there were but few Parifties where 
at one Time or other Blood had not been fhed. The 
Religious Part of the People of Ksderminfter would 
gladly have liv*d quietly at Home, but were forc'd to 
be gone, and retired alfo to Coventry ; where fuch of 
them as had any Eftate of their own, liv*d at their 
own Charge ; and the reft were fain to take up Arms, 
and be Garrifon Soldiers to get them Bread. In Shrop- 
/hire, where his Father dwelt, both he and all his Neigh- 
bours, that were noted for Praying and Hearing Sermons, 
were plunder'd by the King's Soldiers, fo that fome of 
them had nothing almoft but Lumber left in their 
Houfes : Tho* his Father meddled on neither Side, but 
followed his own Bufmefs, and held no Correfpondencc 
at all with his Son. At length Col. Mitton, and other 
Shropfhire Gentlemen, refolving to fettle a Garrifon at 
Wem^ a little Town in their own Country, eight Miles 
from Shrewsbury, and Mr. Mackworth, Mr. Hunt, and o- 
thers, prefling him to go with them, he comply'd, 
partly becaufe *twas his Native Country, and partly 
becaufe he ihould be near his Father, and withal hop- 

8o The LIFE of Chap. VL 

An. 1543. ing he fiiould then have more of his Ksdirminfter 
Neighbours about him. Having ftay'd there and at 
Lcvgford Garrifon about two Months, and redeemed his 
Father out of Prifon at Lillf^ulj he return'd to Coven- 
try^ and fettled in his former Habitation and Employ- 
ment, and follow'd his Studies there in Quiecnefs for 
another Year. 
TheSuteof The Garrifon of Coventry confifted half of Country- 
that City, men, and half of Citizens. The Countrymen were 
foch as had been forc'd from their Dwellings in the 
Neighbouring Places ; and were Men of as great 
.Sobriety, and Soundnefs of Underftanding, as were 
in any Garrifon in England, But one or two of Sir 
Henry Vntie's Party, who came out of New-England^ 
and an Anabaptifi Taylor, had almoft troubled all the 
Garrifon, by infedting the honeft Soldiers with their 
Opinions : So that he was forc*d to Preach over all 
the Controvcrfies againft the Anabaptifis^ and after- 
wards againft the Separatiftsy and fo kept the Garrifon 
found. The Anabaptifi s fent to '^edfordiot one Mr. Ben- 
jamin. Cox, an old Anabaptifi Minifter, a. Bilhop*s Son, 
and nd, mean Scholar, with whom he had a Difpute 
firft by Word of Mouch, and afterwards by Writing, 
which he tho't fit at length to forbear. So that upon 
the Whole, a few Poor Townfmen only were carried 
away, about a Dozen Men and Women : But the Sol- 
•dicrs, and the reft of the City, kept found from all In- 
fecflion of Sedlarics and Dividers. While he liv'd here 
in Peace And Liberty, like one in a dry Houfethat hears 
Srorms Abroad, he was daily entertained with the 
News of fomc Fight or other, or of one Garrifon or 
other won ( r loft, the Particulars whereof are related 
by the Hijiorians of thofe Times. 
n' ih iayc- . When the Earl of Xerv-Cajlle had over-power'd the 
n^-Mf. Lord Fairfax in the North, and the Queen bro't over 

many Popilh Soldiers from. Foreign Parts, and other 
Circumftanccs concurred that made the I^nyaHfts For- 
midable ; the Parliament was glad to dcfire Alfiftance 
from the Scots^ whofe Army was paid off and Disband- 
ed before the EngHfo War. The Scots confented, but 
withal offer'd a Covenant to be taken by both Nations 
for a Rcfolvcd ^formation^ againft Popery^ Prelacy^ 
Srhifm and Profanenc/s. This Covenant was propos'd by 
the Parliament to the Coniideration of the 5>W at 


Chap. VI. Mr. Richard Baxter. 8i 

Weftminjler. They ftumbled at fome Things in it, 
and efpecially ac the Word Prelncy. Dr. Burges, the 
Prolocutor, Mr. Gntakcr, and feveral others, de- 
clar'd their Judgments to be tor Epifcop^cy, even for 
the Ancient Moderate Epifccp/icy, in which one ftated 
Prehdent with his Presbytery govcrnd every Church : 
Tho' iTOt for the Englifh Diocefan Frams, in which one 
Bilhop did without his Presbytery, by a Lay-Chan- 
celiOiir*s ' Court, govern aJi the Presbyters and 
Churchesofa Diocefs^being many Hundred ^ and 'hat in 
a Secular Manner^ by abundance of upftart Secular Of- 
ficers, unknown to the Primitive Church. Here- 
upon there was a Debate in the Aifembly. Some ( ef- 
pecially the Scottifh Divines ) being againft every De- 
gree of Bilhops, and others for a Moderate Epifco- 
pacy. Bat the latter would not fubfcribe the Cove- 
nant^ \i\\ there was an Alteration fuited to their 
Judgments : And fo a Parenthefis was yielded to, as 
defcribing that Sort of Prelacy which they opposed ; 
'vi:{, \That is. Church Government hy Arch-Bijhops, Bi- 
/hopSy Deans and Chaptert^ Arch-Deacons, and all other 
Ecclefiaftical Oncers depending on that Hierarchy.'] When 
it was thus agreed on, the Lords and Commons 
firft took the Covenant themfelves, and Mr. Thomas 
Coleman preach'd to the Houfe of Lords, and gave 
it them with this Publick Explication, That hy Prelacy 
we mean not all Epifcopacy, but only the Form which is 
here defcrib^d. When the Parb'ament had taken it, 
they fent it to be taken by all the Garrifons and Ar- 
mies ; and commended it to all the People of the 
Land. And when the War was ended, they caus'd 
all the Noblemen, Knights, Gentlemen, and Officers, 
which had been againft them in. the Wars, to take it 
before they would admit them to Compofition, and 
they did fo. And they required all young Minifters 
to take it at their Ordination. This Covenant being 
taken, the Scots raised an Army and came into England, 
and clear'd the North; but afterwards lay ftill and did 
no Service, and thereupon were burdenfome. Which 
arofe from the Policy of C^mwel and his Party, who 
tho't them no fit Inftruments for their Purpofes, and 
thereupon kept them without Pay, and without March- 
ing Orders, &c, 

G The 

82 The LIFE of Chap. VI. 

^^_«JM^ - ' — ■-■ - ■ ■ ■ -^ ■ — ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ -- ■ , , , 

TheAffem- The mention of the tVeftyninfter Synod, upon occa- 
hly of VI- iion of this Covenant, feems to require fome Account 
V;"««. of it. This Synod* was not a Convocation according 

* My Lord t6 the Diccefan way of Government, nor was it called 
Clarendon by the Voces of the Minifters according to the Presby- 
7« hif Me- terian Way : But the Parliament not intending to call 
Tnoirs rol.l. ^j^ AfTembly, which Ihould pretend to a Divine Right 
f' '^'5- to make obliging Laws or Canons to bind their Bre- 
/-pX^/V,^ ^/ thren, but an Ecclefiaftical Council to be Advifers to 
/^ ^r^j'. themfelves, did think that tjiey beft knew who were 
AfTemblv^ the fitteft to give them Advice, and therefore chofe 
r:^; fomeof^^^"^ all themfeives. Some Counties had two, and 
them vvtre fome but one. And becaufe they would feem Impar- 
infamous tial, and that each Party might have the liberty to 
ja their fpeak, they chofe alfo many of the moft Learned Epif- 
lives and copal Divines ; as Arch-Bilhop Vfher^ Dr. Holdfvporth^ 
Converfa- Dr. Hnmmond^ Dr. Wlncop^ Bifliop W.-flford, Bilhop 
^ionsj ^n^ p.idrnux, Bifhop J^rowwn^^, "Dr. Sander/en, DT.H<cJ{et^ 
moft of ^j^j feveral others to joyn with them ; but they refused 

them of ve- ^^ come becaufe it was not a Legal Convocation, and 

xy mean '^ ' 

rartfj in 

Learning, if not of fcandilous Ignorance : And of no other Reputatioh, 
than of M;iJice to the Cbiirch of England. —— This is a very Heary Charge 
tipon fuch a Body of Men as they were. Thai' my Lord Clarendon rvas un- 
doubtedly a yefy ^reat /Uan^ yet thti C>infure vfont recommend his Hiftory to 
Tofitrityj vfho^iu be hard pm f) it, to find Men of more Exemplary Fiety^and 
hidre e7>iinent Minificrial Abilitiei:, amon^ their Progenitors in any Age, than 
jhefc ^ere -K?hom he endeavours at fuch a Rate to expofe. fi ho can gire Cre- 
dit to him as an Hifiorian that fhali reprefent fuch Men as Dr. Twif*?, 
llr. Gatakcr, B'flop Reynold'^, Dr. Arrotcfmith, Dr. Tuckney, Dr Light- 
foor, &c. as Men of icandaljws Ignorance, or mean Paris ? Or who runs 
down fuch Men as Dr. Gouge, Mr. Oliver Bawles, Mr. Vine?, Mr. Heile, 
Dr. Spurflow, Mr, Kev^'comcn, Mr. Coleman, c^rc. as Terpens of no orlicr 
Recantation than of Malice to the Church of England i I have added the 
tifi of this Ajfcmhly Let the World Judge of the Hiforian by the .^ffembly, 
<ir the AJfcmhly by the Hifiorian as they fee Occafton. I cant difccrn the lea ft 
HeafoH to fear the Confetjuence, where Terfons are not over-run with the 
gtojfcf} Trcindice and £artialiiy. And therefore I jhould have tho't the Com- 
p Her of the Com\')\c(c Hiftory of Hrifiland, who in Vcl. III. p. \r{/^. takes 
notice of this Rtfle^iion of my Lord Clarcmlon'j, might have f par d a Word 
er two y pen it, wJ)cn l)c i<. fo liberal of his Cenfitres upon other OccaftonSy with 
far lefs Rtafon., It defcrveshis Confidcratioff^ whether his faying nothing to 
fo ur.deferv''d.a Rcfieliionon fuch a Body of worthy Men, has not made it hi4 
o-JCYi ', and whether that he likely to conciliate Credit JO If is Biftorical Labours 
r.rtiong th^fe that (Jjall rife up ttfter us. 


Chap. VI. Mr. Richard Baxter. 83 

becaufe the King declar'd againfl ic. Some few in- 
deed came, and among the relt Dr. Fcatly. Bui being 
charg'd with fending Intelligence to che King at Ox- 
ford oi what pafs'd in Synod and Parjiamchc, he wss 
imprifonM. Their firft Prolocutor was Dr. i^^tlUnm 
Tmfs^ a Man very Famous for his Schoiaftical Wit and 
Writing. The Divines were Men of Eminent Learn- 
ing and Godlinefs, Minifterial Abilities and FideJify. 
They were confind in their Debates to fuch ' 1 
only as the Parliament proposed. And many Lords ^ ""^ 
and Commons were joyn'd with them, to fee char '^*^' '""^^ 
ihey did not go beyond their Commiifion *. Six: or ^;^^^^ ^ ^^ 
Seven Independents were joyn'd to them, that <x\{S\di,Sr,en:nthU 

rfere, Algernon Earl of Northumberland. William Ear/ of B jrw.d. 
Philip Earl of Pembroke. William Earl of Salisbury. Henry Earl of 
Holland. Edward Earl of Manchefter. William Lord Fifcount Say and 
Seal. Edward Lord Fifcount Conway. Philip Lord Wharton Edw^d 
Jlor^ Howard. John Selden Efq-^ Francis Rous f/^f; Edmund Prideaux £/^; 
Sir Henry Vane Sen. Kt. John Glyn Efq-^ Recorder of London. John 
White Eff^ Bulftrode Whitlocke Eff^ Humphry Salloway Efq-, Mr. Ser- 
jeant Wild. Oliver St. John Ef(j-^ his Majefifs Solicitor. S/V Benjamin 
Jludyard Kt, John Pym Efcf-^ Sir John Clotworthy Kt. John May- 
nard Ef^', Sir Henry Vane /««• Kt. William Pierpoint £/gr^ William 
Vv^heeler Efq'., Sir Thomas Barrington Kt. Walter Young Efq-j And 
Sir John Evelin Kt. 

The Minified that wet in this AJfembly were thefe. Vr. William Twifs 
of Newbury, Prolocutor. Dr. Cornelius Buiges of .Watfoid, and 
Mr. John White of Dorchefter, AJfeJfors. Vr, William Gouge of B'ack- 
Fryars, London. Mr. Robert Harris of Hanwell, JB. D. Mr. Jhomas 
Gataker of Rotherhithe, B. V. Mr. Oliver Bowles of Sutton, B. D. 
Mr. Edward Reynolds o/Bramfton. Mr. Jeremiah Whitaker of Stret- 
ton. Mr. Antony Tuckney of Bofton, B. D. Mr. John Arrowfmich of 
Lynne. Mr. Simeon Afhe of St. Brides. Mr. Philip Nye o/Kimbolron. 
Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs of Stepney, Mr. John Lightfoot of Afhley. 
Mr. Stanley Gower of Brampton-Bryan . Mr. Richard Heyricke of Man- 
chefter. Mr. Thomas Cafeo/ London. Dr. Thomas Temple of Bjtter- 
fey. Mr. George Gipps of Ayleftone. Mr. Thomas Carter. Mr. Hum- 
phrey Chambers of Claverton, B. D. Mr. Thomas Micklethwaice of 
Cherryburton. A'Ir. John Gibbon of Waltham. Mr. Chrift. Tifdale of 
Uphusborne. Mr. John Philips of Wrentham. Air. George Walker, B. D. 
Mr. Edmund Calamy of Aldermanbury, B. D. M. Jofeph Caryl of 
Lincolns-Inn. Mr. Lazarus Seaman of London. Mr. Henry W ilkinlbn Sen. 
•/ WaddefdoR, B. D. Mr. Richard Vines of Calcot. Mr. Nicola? Prof- 
fet 0/ Marlborough. Mr. Stephen Marlhalo/Fincliingfield, B.D. Vr. Jo- 

G 1 might 

84 The LIFE of Chap. VL 

Jofhua might be heard. Five of thefc, t;/;^. Mt. Philip Nje^ 
Hoyle. ^j-. Thomtis GcoAvoin^ Mr. Jeremiah Burrcu^hs, Mr. 5y- 
Mr. Tlio. ^raclj Sympfn^ and Mr. If^illinm BnHge^ were call'd the 
tpis Wr- i3iff^,j^t-,ng Brethren. They joyn'd wirh the reft, 'till 
on Of ' ^^^ ^^^ drawn up the Confeifion of Faith, and larger 
Mr Tho SLfi^ fnialler Catechifm: But when they came to Church 
Modgcs of 

Kenfington. Mr. Thorr.:?s Biyiy of Nhningford Biuce. Mr. Francis Tay- 
lor of Ya'ding. Mr. Ihorrns Young of Stowmarkec. Mr. Thomas Va-_ 
Itntinc o/Chalfont Giles, B. D. Mr. William Greenhill of Stepney 
Mr. Edward Peak of Compton. Trhg John Green of Pencombe. Mr. An- 
diev/ Pern o/* VVilby. >iy. Samuel de la Place. Mr. John de la March. 
Mr. John Drury. Mr. Philip pelme. /1'/r. Sydrach Sympfon of London. 
Mr. John L^ngley of Weftnderly. Mr. Richard Cleyton of Showel. 
My. -<4rf/;r;vSalwey o/Seavernftoak. iifr. John Ley o/Budworth. A/r. Charles 
Herleo,^ Winwicki ^/jo was Prolocutor after Dr Twifs. Mr. Herbert Pal- 
mer of AQiWcil, B. D vpho rffas Afefor after Mr- White. Mr. Daniel 
Ciwdrcy. Mr. Henry Painter of Excefter, B.D. MY. Henry Scudder of 
CoMngbiirn. Mr. Thoma? Hill of Tichmarch,.B. D. Air. William Reynor 
of Egham. Mr Ihomas Goodwin 0/ London, B.V. Mr. William Spur- 
ftow of Hampden. Mr. Matthew Newcomen of Dedham. Mr. Jolin Co- 
nant n/ L^'ffiington, B. D. Dr. Edmund Staunton of Kingfton. Mr. An- 
thony Burgeffe 0/ Sutton Coldficid. Mr. William Rathband. Mr. Francis 
Cheynel o/Oxon. Mr. Henry Wiikinfon /««. B. D. Mr. Obadiah Sedg- 
Wick of Cogfhall, B. D. Mr. Edwaid Corbet of Merton-College, Oxon. 
>^/r. Samuel Gibiono/BurJey. Mr- ihomas Coleman 'jfBliton. yV/r. Theo- 
dore Hackhurft 0/ Overion VVatervile. iV/r. William Carter 0/ London. 
t>r. Pctef Smith. Mr. Juhn Maynard. Air. William Price of Paul's 
Covcnt-Garden. Dr, John'p 0/ St. Martin's i«^/je F/e/^<. >/r. Wil- 
liam Bridge 0/ Yarmouth. A:r. Peter Sterry of London. Air. William 
Mew of Efling-on, B. D. Mr Benj. Pickering of Eafthoatly. Mr. John 
S'rickland of New Sarum. Air. Humphrey Hardwicke. Air. Jafper Hickes 
of La wrick. Mr. John Bond. A r. Henry Hall of Norwich, B. D. 
"Mr. Thomas Ford. Mr. Thomas Thorowgood of MalTingham. Mr. Pe« 
rcr C J irk. A/r. William Good. Air John Fovcroit o/Goth:im. />ir. John 
Ward. y)/r. Richard B;Held. y>/r Francis Woodcock. A/r. J. Jackfon. 
The Commiffioners for Scotland Wfr?, the Lord Maitland. Air. Alexander 
Hcnderlbn. A/r. George Gillefpie. A^r. Samuel Rutherford. AndMr.Ko^ 
Lcrt Biylic. UJ)e Scribes were Air. Henry Robrough. Mr. Adoniram Byfield. 
And Mr. ]o]m VVallis. 

7 here tpas aFrormfe or Vovf taken by eyery Member., vho vfds admitted to 
/'tin thlf AjfcwL/y, of this Tenour : I A. B. do ferioufly Promife and 
Vow in the Prcitjicc of Almighty God, that in this Alfeinbly whereof I- 
am a Member, I will maintain nothing in Point of Dortrine, but what 
3 believe tg be niofl agreeable to the Woid of God : Nor in Point of 
pifcipline, but what may make moft tor God's Gloryj and the Peace and 
Good of his Chuj cl). 


Chap. VL Mr. Pvichard Baxter. 85 


Government, they engagd them in long Debates, and This Af- 
kept the Matter as long as they coujd undeterniin'd : Tembly /5r/2 
And after that, they kept it fo long unexecuted in al- ^^^^ '» Ju- 
raoft all Parts of the Land, except London and Lanca- ^y '^43* 
[hire, that their Party had Time to ftrengthen them- ^!^"'^ ■^'"'^" 

bet teas de- 
fi^nd to be 
no. The Eplfcopal Uhines refuflng to appear among them^ and fame others 
that were nominated^ abfenting themfehes, on th? Account of Age and In- 
difpofitlon^ many others were joined to them, who were cali'd the Super-added 
Divines. Each Member had four Shillings a Day allow d him by the Parlia- 
ment toxffardshis Expences. They continud their Meetings in the Tears 1644. 
and 1 645 But after the taking 0/ Oxford, when the Country was ^niet^ 
they moft of them return d to their own Cures, and fo the Affembly was re- 
folvd into a Sort 0/ Committee /or the examining the Abilities and good Ajfe- 
flions of fuch as were prefented to Livings, but was never formally dijfoly'd 
by the Authority that call'-d it. 

The Minutes of this Aflfembly are yet refervd in private Hands. The 
mofi remarhahle Hints concerning their Debates that are pubUp^d to tbs 
World, are to be met with in the Life of Dr. Lightfoor, before his Works 
in Folio, and in the Preface to the fame Doflor's Kemains in Oii-avo ; for 
which we are indebted to the Ingenious Mr. Sti'vpc, frefent Incumbent o/LoV/ 
Ley ton. The Altembly met with many Difficulties. They were not gnlj 
ernbarrafs'd by the DilTenting Brethren, but by the Learned Mr. Selden, whg^ 
often employ d hi s IT ncommon Learning, rather to pcrplexthanclear the Matters 
that came before them. The Eraflims alfo that were in tJjc Ajfembly, of 
whom: Air. Coleman and Dr. Lightfoot were rechond the Principal Perfons^ 
created them a '^reat deal of Trouble. And yet after all, it mufe be acknorp" 
ledg'd, they went as far towards clearing the Matters rejerr'd to them, 4S 
could be expcfted from Men in their Circumjtances. 

One of their firft Puhlick Afts was the prefenting a Petition to the two 
Houfes for a Vaji, which was readily comply d with. After which they 
proceeded to draw up a Letter to tlie feveial Reformed Churches Abroad, 
with an Account of their Clrcumftances and Intentions. And being called 
together to give Advice concerning the fettling of DoClrine, Worjhip and 
church Government, they after fame Time prefented to the Parliament, A 
ConfeHion of Fait/h : A larger and lliorter Catechifm : A Directory 
for the Publick VVorftiip of God throughout the Tliree Kingdoms o^ 
England, Scotland, and Ireland : And their Humble Advice concerning 
Church Government. After the la/i had been prejl'nted, the two Houfes 
of Parliament agreed upon fundry Ordinances, Direilions, and Fotes for the 
fpeedy E/iablifiment of the Presbytcrial Coyernment. They were publifj'd 
fin4er thefe Titles. Dircdions for the Chooiing of Ruling Elders in aJI 
Congregations, Augufi 19. 1 64 5. Rales and Direaions concerning 
Sufpenlion from the Sacrament of the Lord's-Siipper, in Cales o^' Igno- 
rance and Scandal, oa. 20. 164$. An Ordinance for keeping <if Sc?n- 
dalous Perfons from fhe Lord's-Suppcr, March 14. 16 j6. An Oidi- 

G ^ felvcs 

86 The LIFE of Chap. VI. 

nance for felves in the Army and Parliament, and hinder the Exe- 
the prefent cution after all, and keep the Government determin'd 
fettling of^ jj Stranger to moft of the People of the Nation, 
(without ^^,[^Q knew it but by Hear fay, as it was reprefented 
Sfoftty Reporters. 

Presby re- 
rial Government in the Church of England, Jnn- 5- 1.6^6. Remedies 
for rcmovinp ibme Obfiruftions in Church Government, Afril 22. 
1647. An Ordinance for the Ordination of Minifters by :the Claffical 
Prcsbycprp, Au;^. 28. \6^6. An Ordinance for the fpeedy dividing and 
fettling the feveral Counties of tlie Kingdom, into diftinft ClalTical 
Presbyteries, and Congregational Eldcrniip?, '/^n. 29. 1^47. ——-4/* 
ter vfhich^ the Debates between the Diifenting Brethren and the reft of 
the Alfembly, about Church Government, voere ordered to be printed by the 
Tarli4>ncnt, and there was an End of the intended Settlement. 

There it one Work unjuflly Afcribed to this Affembly, and that is the 

Annofsrions on the Bible, which commonly bear their Name. It is true,» 

as is hin ted in the Freface before the faid Notes, the fame JParliament that 

cal I' d thp A(kmh\y, employ d the Authors of thofe Annotation^: Vor Let- 

ter< rvere dlrefhed to them by the Chairmen of the Committee for Keligion, 

wrinir thpir Undertahin'Z, of that Work : And they were by Order of that 

Cr.mmittee furr.ijJ)''d with whatfoerer Books were needful. It is alfo true, 

T^'at fev.ral of thofe that were concern d in it, were Members of the 

yT'^hly : And yet it was not undertaken by the Dire^ion or with the 

the Ajfembly :, nor were the major Part Members of the Ajfem' 

r did itiy deputed by the Ajfembly reriew the Work when it wai 

: So that it cannot, upon any Account, be faid to be theirs. How- 

was a good Work in its Seafon, and I fljall add the Names of the 

r Authors, as far as my bejl Encjuiry would help me to Intelligence. 

. '. \rv, Sub-Dean 0/ Chefter, did the Pentateuch. Dr. Gouge had the 

.:• ' Books of Kings, and Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah and Efther for his 

J -.'yince. Mr. Meric Cafaubon did the Vhlms, Mr. Francis Taylor the 

■ roverbs, And Dr. Reignolds,Ecclefiaftes. Mr. Swalwood who wasrecom- 

r-. .idcd by Archbijhop Uflier, did Solomon's Song. TJje Learned Gataker 

' ./ Ifaiah, Jeremiah, and Limeniations ; And is {in the Opinion of many 

Cn.petent Judges) exceeded by no Commentator, Anttent or Modern, on thofe 

f^ooks. Ezekiel, Daniel, and the fmall Prophets, were in the firji Edition 

done by Mr. Pemberton, and in the Second by Bifhop Richardfon. The Notes 

on the four Evangclifts, are Mr. LeyV, and thofe en S^PauI'i Epifiles Dr.Feat- 

l^.v's ', which latter are broken and i-.jpcrfec}, on the Account of tijc Author s 

dyin'T before he had rerls'd or fnifl/d them. There were alfo tr^o other Per- 

fens cn.Ktrn'd in this Work^ viz. Mr. Downame and Mr. lU'^ding, who 

mi<rht ^'robubly hure tht other Parts of Stripturc allotted tbem^ that are no( 

here mention d. 


Chap. VI. Mr. Richard Baxter. 87 

Among other Parts of their Truft, one was to ap- 
prove of all that fhouJcl be admitted into any Church 
Livings, They had no Power to put any out, but on- 
ly were to judge of the Fitnefs of fuch as were laken 
in. The Power of Cafting Que was in a Committee 
of Parliament Men at London, and partly alfo in the 
Committees of the feveral Counties. Th(fe that were 
Secjueftredy were generally by the Oaths of feveral Wit- 
neffes ^rov'd infujfficietit ov/candalous^ or both j" efpecal* 
ly guilty of Drunkonnefs and Swearing : And thofe that 
were Abie and Pious Preachers^ that were cait oil'- tor 
the War alone, as for Opinions fake, were compara- 
tively few : *Tis pity indeed there were any. Ai d tho'' 
now and then an imworthy Perfon by Sinif^er Mraus 
crept into their Places, yec commonly thofe that were 
put. in, were fuch as fet themfelves laborioufly 10 fcek 
the faving of Souls. But to return to Mr. Bnxter. 

After the Great Fight at Nafeby^ which was not ^„, i^Ai- 
far from Coventry^ he went into the Army, to vilit h? yifits 
fome few of his old intimate Friends. He ftay'd 2ithejir7ny. 
Night with them, and got fuch Intelligence as to the 
State of the Army, as amaz'd him ; he found Plotting 
Heads were hoc upon what intimated their Intention 
to Subvert both Church and State. Independency and 
Annhnpiftry extreamiy prevail'd among them ; and 
Antinomittnifm and Arminieinifm were equally diftri- 
buted : And Thomas More's Followers, had made a 
Shift to joyn thefe two Exireams together. Many 
Common Soldiers, and fome of the Officers, were ko- 
neft, fober and orthodox Men ; but a few proud, felf- 
conceited, hot-headed Sectaries, had got into the 
higheft Places, and v/ere CrormveCs chief Favourites, 
and by their very Heat and Activity bore down the 
reft, or carried them along with them, and were the 
Soul of the Army, tho' much fewer in Number than 
the reft. They tho't Providence would caft the Trufl: 
of Religion and the Kingdom upon them as Conque- 
rors^; they made nothing of all the moft Godly ancj 
Wife Men in the Armies and Garrifons, that were not 
of their Way : Per fas aut nefas. By Law pr without ir, 
they were refolv'd to take down not only Bi/hops^ 
Liturgies and Ceremonies^ but all that did withftand 
them. Separatifts and Sectaries were the Perfons moft 
HQnaur*4 I but Qromwel and bia Council joyn'd iq 

88 The LIFE of Chap, VI. 

with no Party, being for the Liberty of all. Upon 
this he lamented that the Minifters had forfakcn the 
Army, betaking themfelves to an ealier and quieter 
Way of Life, as they had moft of them done, after 
li:!ge-HUl Fight : For by their Staying and Diligence 
they might in all Probability have prevented the Infe- 
ction of the Army, and the Mifchief that followed up- 
on it. Neither could he forbear Reflediing with Re- 
gret upon his own Rcfufal to comply with an Invita- 
tion from Crcmvccl j who when he firft rais'd his Troop 
(which was to be a gathered Church) that was after- 
wards fo Famous, fenc to him from Cambridge to Coven- 
try^^fi Invitation to come and be their Paftor ; which was 
univerfally Sublcrib'd. He lent them a Denial, re- 
proving their Attempt, and telling thetn wherein 
his Judgment was againft the Lawfulnefs and Conve- 
nience of their Way, and fo he heard no more from 
them. But afterwards meeting Cromwel at Leicefier, he 
expoftulated with him for his Refufal. Thofe very 
M^nwho then invited him to be their.Paftor, were the 
Men that afterwards headed much of the Army, and 
feme of them were the forwardeft in all the Pub- 
lick Changes ; which made him wifh he had gone a- 
mong them, when all the Fire was in one Spark, 
Captain Evan/on told him, ^Twas not yet too Ute to* do 
Service ; that the ^^giment he xvas of, was one of the moji 
Religious, Valiant and Succefsful of the Army^ but in as 
much Danger tis any ; and therefore he prefs'd him to 
come among them. He was loath to leave his Studies, 
Friends and Quietnefs at Coventry, to go into an Army 
of fuch a Complexion ; bur he tho't the Publick Good 
commanded him, fo he gave him fome Encourage- 
ment : Whereupon he told his Colonel (fVhalley) who 
was an Orthodox Man, but engaged to Cromwel by 
Kindred and Intereft : He invited him to he Chaplain to 
his l^gimetit ; whichhe took a Day's Time to confider 
of before he gave his Anfwer. 

Coming Flome to Coventry^ he confulted the Mini- 
flers that were there about the "Matter: He acquainted 
thcui with the Intelligence he had gotten, and the In- 
vitation that was made him. He told them, That all 
was in Dang^. ; that the Fate of the Kjngdom vfas like to 
foUow the Di/pojition and Inter eft of the Conquerors ^ and 
that for his Part^ th^ he k/tew his H'eak^cfs to be fiich that 


Chap. VI. Mr, Richard Baxter. 89 

he fhould run the Hn:{nrd of hit Life ; and tho' he could 
7iot but exfeH the EjfeBs if their Fwj, end tho' he knew 
it was not much that one Man could do^ yet if they appre- 
he?ided it to be his Duty, he would venture his Life among 
thein ; and did not knovp but fome ether Mlnifters might 
he drawn in, andfo more of the Evil he prevented. Dr. Bryan^ 
Dr. Grew, and other Miniftersthen prefenr, finding his 
own Judgment for it, and being mov'd with the Caufe, 
unanimoufly gave their Judgment for his going. Up- 
on which he went diredily to the Committee, and told 
theoSy He had an Invitation to the Army, and defired their 
Confent to gc. After fome Confultation, they left it 
wholly to the Governour ; telling him, That if he con', 
fentedy they fhould not hinder him. His Confent he foon 
obtain'd 5 for Colonel Barker was juft then going out, 
and was therefore the more willing to yield to Mx. Bax- 
ters going, that he himfelf might be mifs'd the more. 
Whereupon, he fent Colonel Wu alley Word, That he 
vpcuid fpeedily be with him. The Committee afterwards was Becomei a 
much againft his going, but he pleaded their Confent, chaplain 
and told them, He had prcmifed, and therefore was fofitive, to a Regi- 
but he gave them his Reafons, taken from the State nient^ 
of the Army ; which Col. Purefoy ^who was one of them, 
and a Confident of CromweCs^ took Care to give him 
Intelligence about. Which was the Caufe that, when 
he came to the Army, Cromwel but coldly welcom'd 
him, and never fpake one Word more to him while he 
was there. And his Secretary gave out, That there was 
^ Reformer come to the Army to undeceive them and to fave 
Church and State • whereby he underftood that his Dif- 
courfe before the Coventry Committee ^vidiS got to the Ar- 
my before him. 

Here he fet himfelf from Day to Day, to find out rhe State 
the Corruptions of the Soldiers, and to Difcourfe and of the Ar- 
Difpute them out of their Miftakes, both Rehgious my and hit 
and Political. His Life amongft them was a daily Paim a- 
Contending againft Seducers. He found that many wowj <''ew- 
honeft Men of weak Judgments, and little Acquain- 
tance with fuch Matters, had been feduc'd into a dif- 
puting Vein, and made it too much of their Religion 
to talk for this or that Opinion : Sometimes they 
would vehemently contend for State Democracy, and at 
other Times for Church Democracy ; fometimes againft 
^orms of Prayer, and fometimes againft Infant Baptifm ; 


90 The LIFE of Chap. VI. 

fomecimes agaiiift Set-times of Prayer^ and againft the 
Tying of our Iclves to any Duty before the Spirit moves 
US; and fomedmes about Free-Grace and Free'J>yill i and 
alJ the Points of Antimmianifm and Arminianifm. So 
that he was almoft always Difputing with one or other 
of them, fometimes for Civil Government^ and fome- 
limes for Church Order and Government ; fometimes for 
Infant Baptifin ; and often againft Antinomianifm, 
and the contrary Extream. But their moft frequent 
and vehement Difputes were for Liberty of Confcience^ 
as they callM it ; rhat is. That the Civil Magiftrate 
had nothing to do in Matters of Religion, by Con- 
ftraint or Reftraint, but every Man might not only 
Hold and Believe, but Preach and do in Matters of Re- 
ligion what he pleas'd. He found that one half almoft 
of the Religious Party among them, were fuch as were 
eitht-r Orthodox, or but lightly touched with their Mi- 
ftakfs; and almoft another half were Honeft Men, 
that ftept further into the Contending Way, than they 
could again get out of, but with competent Help might 
be recover'd. But a few fiery felf-conceited Men a- 
niong tbem kindled the reft, and made all the Noife 
and Buflle, and carried about the Army as they pleas'd. 
With thefe he endeavour'd to be Acquainted, and he 
would be often Difputing with them in the hearing of 
the reft ; and he found that they were generally Men 
that had been harcht up in London among the Old Sepa- 
ratifts^ and made it all the Matter of their Study and 
Religion to rail againft Miniftcrs, Parifh Churches and 
Presbyterians, and had little Knowledge, but were 
fitrce with Pride and Self-conceit, having gotten a great 
Conqueft over their Charity to all other Parties but their 
own. Some of thefe Men became the Laughing Stock 
ot the Soldiers before he left them : And when they 
Preacird (for they were great Preachers) their Weak- 
nefs cxpos'd them to Contempr. A great Part of the 
Mifchief they did was by difperfing Pamphlets, which 
the Soldiers would eagerly read in their Quarters, 
when there was none to contrad'.(5t them. But there 
was a yet more Dangerous Party among them, ( only 
in Major Bethel's Troop, in UVi}alley''s Regiment ) who 
took the dircd jefuitical Way. They hrlt moft ve- 
hemently declaimed againft the Docliinc of Hledtion, 
gpd for the Power of Free* Will, (^c. Then they as 


Chap. VL Mr. Richard Baxter. ^i 

fiercely cry'd down the Prefent Tranflaiion of Scrip- 
tures, and debas'd their Authority, iho' they did not 
deny them to be Divine. They cry'd down the Mini- 
ftry of all forts, and all our Churches, they vilify'd al- 
moft all .our Ordinary Worfhip, efpecially Singing of 
Pfalms, and Conftant Family Worfhip ; they allowed 
of no 'Argument from Scripture but in exprefs Words j 
were vehement againft all Government but Popular j 
and utterly againft any Concern of Magiftrares in Re- 
ligious Matters. Whenever they Difputed, 'twas with 
as much Fiercenefs as if they had been ready to draw 
Swords. They trufted more to Policy, Scorn and 
Power, than to Argument. Thefe People avoided 
Mr, Baxter as much as poffible ; but if ever they en- 
gag'd, they drown'd all Reafon in Fiercenefs and Ve- 
hemence, and Multitudes of Words. They greatly 
ftrove for Places of Command ; and when any Place 
was due by Order to one that was not of their mind,, 
they would be fure to work him out, and be ready to 
Mutiny if they had not their Will. It look'd as if they 
were Ac^ed by the Jefuits, but the 

fecret Spring was out of fight*. ^^'^ *»^y '^''y ^eR fuf^pofe 
Thefe were the Men, who were af- /'"»' °f ^H^ EmifTaries menti- 
terwards call'd Levetters, and rofe "/^M?- 58, &c. ^o W ^ce« 

up againft Cromwel, and were fur- ^'''\''' ^ i\/ n hi' 1 

• » J T, r 1 T>i r ^L • Reziinents been as firtctk ob^ 

priz d at Murford. Thompfon their ^^^^,^ y ,,;,^^, ^ /^^^ ^^^^j. 

General, who was flam upon the j^y', ^^ ly mt. Baxter /« that 

Inlurre(aiOn in 1649, was no great- /,>f/g time he was among them^ 
er Man than one of the Corporals many of their Deeds of Varh- 

of this Troop ; the Cornet and O- mfs might have been bro^t to ii'Tht. 

thers being worfe than he. 

He march'd with the Army Weftward againft my His Motiom 
LordGor/«^,and was at the taking of Bridgwntey,2ind the ^ith th 
Siege o^Brifiol, and Sherbon-Ca^le; and as they march'd -^'''"J- 
along the Country, they were every where entertain d 
with ftrange ^Intions of the Horrid Impiety and Outrn^ 
ges of the Lord Goring s Soldiers. A t)ber Gentleman 
he quarter'd with at South-Pederton in Somer/etfhire, a- 
VerrM to him, That with him a Company of them prickt 
their Fingers^ letting the Blood run into a Cup, in which 
they dranli^ a Health to the Devil. He was with the Ar- 
my 3 Weeks at the Siege of Exater : And H'halley be- 
ing order'd thence with a Party of Horfe to keep in the 
Garrifon of O;cford, 'till the Army could come to Be- 

92 The LIFE of Chap. VI. 

(lege ir, he accompany'd him ; was with him 6 Weeks 
Wioxt Banbury^Ca^ls^ and ii Weeks at the Siege or 
An. 1616. ^orcefter. And Col. V/ionHey being fiifpedted by the 
Sedtarian Commanders ac the Head Qnarters for his 
Chaplain's fake, loft the Government of that City when 
he had taken it, which was given to Col. I{^ ins borough^ 
who was nif-re for their turn 5 under whom tho' the 
5^<3rtr/>j profper'd in the City, yet the Country round 
remained free from their Infedion. All this while he 
had full Employment in Preachings Cotiference and Dif- 
fillings againit the Sectarian Errours. The Soldiers of 
that Stamp much infedled the Countries by their Pam- 
phlets and Converfe, and the People admiring the Con- 
quering Army, were ready to receive whatever they 
commended to thenn. Qiiartering at Ag77iondrJham in 
^ttckjnghnmfhircy he found fome Sectaries of Cheflodm 
fiad fet up a Publick Meeting by way of Conference, 
to propagate their Opinions thro' all the Country, ana 
that in the Church, by the Encouragement of an Igno- 
rant Led^urer. There he had a Conference with them 
of a whole Day's Continuance, with good Succefs. 
Bit Tulf lick When the ufual time of their Meeting came, Bethel's 
Difpute Troopers (then Capt, Pitchfora^) with other Se(9:arian 
with the Soldiers, muft be there, to confirm the Che/ham Men, 
Seiiarics. ^^^\ make People believe that the Army was for them. 
Mr. Bax'er tho't it his Dnry to be there alfo, and rook 
divers fober Officers with him, to let them fee that 
more of the Army was againft them than for them. He 
took the Reading Pew, and Pitchford's Cornet and 
Troopers took the Gallery. There was a crowded 
Congregation of poor well-meaning People, who came 
in the Simplicity of their Hearts to be deceiv'd. The 
Leader of the Chefkam Men began ;'s Soldiers 
followed ; and he difputed with them 'till it was al- 
molt Night, determining not to leave them behind 
hitn; knowing very well that if he had gone firft, they 
would have Boafted extravagantly, and made People 
believe that they had Baffled him. Their Nonfenfi- 
Cal Uiicourfe, may be fecn in KdwarHs's (]nngra:na, in 
which a Narrative of the AlTair is pubhlh'd, without 
the mention of Mr. Baxte)\ Name, according to the 
Account which he gave to a Friend in a Letter. He 
had many Thanks for that Day's Work, and amongft 
the reft from Dr. Crooks and Mr. L{ichnrd[cn^ the Redor 


Chap. VI. Mr, Elichard Baxter. 02 

and Curate of the Place, who being Royalifts durft 
not open their Mouths for fear of Danger. The Sedla- 
ries were hereby fo difcourag'd, that they never met 
there any niore. 

His great; Imped iiments as to the Succefs of his En- 
deavours, lay in the Difcountenance of Crcmwcl and his 
Chief Officers, who kept him a Stranger to their Meet- 
ings and Councils; and the Incapacity he was under of 
fpeaking to many, the Quarters of the Soldiers being 
fo fcatter'd. So that the moft of the Service he did be- 
yond J^P^ha/Ie/s Regiment, was by the Help of Cape, 
Larvrence, with feme of the General's Regiment, and 
with Major Harrlfon, and fome few others. But by 
what Succefs he had, he found reafon to apprehend, 
that if there had been a competent number of Miniftcrs, 
each doing their Part, the whole Plot of the Furious 
tarty might have been broken, and King, Parliament: 
and RcHgion preferv'd. Sdltmarfh and De!i were the 
two great Preachers at the Head-Quarters ; only Honeft 
and Judicious Mr. Bdward Bovpjes kept ftill with the Ge- 
neral. At length Mr. Copk_ of I{cxhnl alfo came to the 
Army, to give AfCftance ; but he was foon weary. 
Major-General Berry^ tbo* his Old Friend, never once 
came to vifit him in the whole 2 Years he was in the Ar- 
my, nor gave him the leai^ Encouragement j but look'd 
always askew upon him. 

When PVprcehsr, Siege was over, he went and vifir 
ted his Flock at I\idermlv(ier, who expected that the 
Country being clear'd, he fhould return to them, and 
fettle in Peace among them: But going to Crvetury^ 
he again confulted the Minifters there about his Duty ; 
he told them what Succefs he had already had, and 
with what difficulty. He told them, That the grente^f 
Service with the grentefl Ha:{ard xvai yet behind. That the 
War being ended, the Army would certninly Jloortly fct up 
for themfelves 5 thnt tho he could not fay he could do nny 
great Matter to hinder it^ yet he having fome Jntcrcfl, Witi 
willing to improve it to tie utmoft for the Publick, Good, 
Upon the whole, the Minifters advis'd him to remain 
with the Army, and yet for fome time longer to abfcnt 
himfelf from his Flock. Accordingly he return d to the 
Array for a little while, but was foon feparated from 
tbem by his great Weaknefs, occafioned by the Lofs o^ He leayes 
a Gallon of Blood at the Nofe. Upon which retiring to the Army. 

_94 The LIFE of Cfaap. V t. 

Sir yho,{{oufe\ he was taken up with daily Medicines 
to prevent a Dropfy, and was in continual expediation 
Death. By this Providence, God unavoidably pre- 
venred the Efted of his Purpofes, in his laft and cbief- 
elt Oppotinon to the Army ; and took him off at the 
Very time when his main Attempt Ihould have bePun. 
His Purpofe was to have done his beft, firft to take off 
the Kegnnent which he was with, and then with Capt. 
l^nwYcnce to have try'd upon the General's Regiment, 
(in which 2 were Cromml\ chief Confidents) and then 
to have joyn d with others of the fame mind. But the 
determination of God againft it was very obfervabJe. 
(\l^ r'^^'y time chat he was Bleeding, the Council 
ot War fat at Nonhgbnm, where they firft began to 
open then Purpofes and aft their Part: And prefently 
atter they enterd into their Engagement at TriploL 
Heath, Tho had he had Scope for the Attempt he 
delignd in ail probability he had had but fmaJl Suc- 
cels ; and had been much more likely to liave loft his 
JLite ^inong them in their Fury, than to have reach'd 

A General And here the Account which Mr. Baxter hath given 

^IX/'^-lr^V^^Sf,^!?^ ^^^^---n General, comes in^Iry 
cune.. naturally. Thefe are the People whom he moft indu- 
ftnoLily m thefe Times fefhimfelf to oppofc, forc- 
lecmg the i 1 Tendency of their Principles and Pradi- 
ces. Take bis own Words. *' Thefe are they (fays he) 
Who have been moft addided to Chnrch-Divifions, 
and Separations, and Sidings, and Parties, and have 
refas d all Terms of Concord and Unity. Who tho' 
« *"^i?/,^^ ^^^F^ w<^3^ 2"^ raw, were yet prone to be 
^^ puff d up with hi^hTho'is of tbemfelves, and to o- 
vcr- value their little Degrees of Knowledge and 
Farts, which fet rhcm not above the Pity of undcr- 
ftanding Men. They have been fet upon thofe Cour- 
Ics which tend to advance them above the Common 
,, people, in the Obfervation of the World, and to fee 
^^ them at a farther dillance from others than God allow- 
^^ cth, and all this under the Pretence of the Purity of 
the Church. In Profecudon of their Ends, there are • 
tew ot the Anabapti^s that have not been the Oppo- 
ters and Troublers of the Faithful MiniHcrs of God 
in the Land, and t!ie Troublers of their People, and 
ttjndercrsof rheirSuccefsi ftrengthcningthe Handsof 

1 the 








Chap. VI. Mr. Richard Baxter. 95 

the Profane. The SeHarics (efpecially the Annb.iptifis, 
Seekers^ and Qual{ers) chofe out the moft able zealous 
Minifters, to make the Marks of their Reproach and 
Obloquy, and all becaufe they flood in the Way of 
their Defigns, and hindred them in the propagat- 
ing their Opinions. They fet againft the lame 
•Men as the Drunkards and Swearers fet againft, 
and much after the fame Manner ; reviling them, 
and raifing up falfe Reports of them, and doing all 
that they could to n>ake them odious, and at laft 
attempting to pull them all down : Only they did 
it more prophanely than the Prophane, in that they 
faid , Let the Lord be glorified ^ Let the Gofpel be pro- 
pagated ; and abns'd and profan'd Scripture, and the 
Name of God, by enticUng him to their Fadion 
and Mifcarriages. Yea, tho' they tho't themfelves 
the moft Underftanding and Confcientious People 
of the Land, yet did the Gang of them feldom ftick 
at anv Thing which feem'd to promote their Caufe ; 
but whatever their Fadtion in the Army did, they 
pleaded for it, and approv d it. If they pull'd down 
the Parliament, Imprifon d the Godly F jithfal Mem- 
bers, and kill'd the King; if they caft out the 
I{ump, if they chofea UrW^ Pariiament ot their own, 
if they fet up Cromwel, if they fet up his Son and 
pull'd him down again, if they fought to obtrude 
Agreements on the People, if they one Week fee 
up a Council of State, and if another Week the 
liump were reftor'd, if they fought to take down 
Tythesand Parilh Minifters, to the utter Conhirion 
of the State of Religion in the Land ; m all ihefe 
'the Anahaptifts and many of the Independents in the 
three Kingdoms followed theuj, and even their Pa- 
ftors were ready to lead them to confent. 
** And all this began but in imxvarrdntable SepAr/iti- 
ons and too much aggravating the Faults of -the Churches 
and Common People, and Common-Prayer Book, ^^nd 
Mlnifiry- which indeed were none of them with- 
out Faults to be lamented and amended. But they 
tho*c that what ever needed Amendment required 
their Ohfiinate Separation, and that they were allow d 
to make odious any Thing that was amifs: And 
becaufe it was faulty, if any Man had rebuked hem 
for belyisgit, ind making it f»r «iore faulty than ^t 

<jS The LIFE of Chap. VI. 

*' was, inftead of confelling their Sin, they call'd their 
" Reprover a Pleader for Antichrift or BaaL Every 
" Errovir in the Mode of the Common Worihip, they 
" had no titter Name for than Idolatry, Popery, Anti- 
" chriftianifm, Superftition, Will-worihip, (^c. When 
" in the mean Time, many of their own Prayers 
*' were fall ot" Carnal Paflion, Selfirtmefs, Fa(3:ion, 
*' Diforder, Vain Repetitions, unfound and loathfome 
*' Expreffions, and their Dodrine full of Errours and 
" Confufion : And thefe Beams in their own Eyes, 
'* were Matter of no Offence to them. They would' 
" not Communicate with that Church where ignorant 
*' Perfons or Swearers were tolerated, (iho* they thera- 
" felves never did their Part to have them caft our, 
" but look'd that the Minifters Ihould do all without 
** them ) but without any Scruple they would' Com- 
" municate with them that had broke their Vow and 
" Covenant with God and Man, and rebell'd againft 
*' all kind of Government that was fet up, (even by 
*' themfelves) and did all the fore-recited Evils, 

*' I know ( fays he) the fame Accufations are laid 
** by fome in Ignorance or Malice, againft many that 
'* are guilty of no fuch Things, and therefore fome 
" will be oflFended at me, and fay I imitate fuch Re- 
" proaches: But Ihall none be Reprov'd, becaufe 
" ibme are Slander'd ? Shall Hypocrites be free from' 
'" Convidlion and Condemnation, becaufe Wicked 
** Men call the Godly Hypocrites ? Woe to the Man 
** that hath not a faithful Reprover; but a Thoufand 
" Woes will be to him that hnteth Reproof: And Woe 
" to them that had rather Sin were credited and kept 
** in Honour, than their Party Diftionour'd ; And Woe 
** to the Land where the Reputation of Men doth keep 
" Sin in Reputation. The Scripture it felf will not fpare 
*' a Noah, a Lot^ a D ivid^ an He-{ekjAl\ a Jrfi(il.\ a Pe- 
*' ter^ but will open and Ihame their Sin to all Gener 
" rations : And yet alas ! the Hearts of many, rhat it is 
'* to be hop'd are truly Religious, will rife againft him 
" that fhall yet tell them of the Mifdoiiigs of thole of 
*' their Opinion, and call them to Repentance. The 
" poor Church of Chrift, the fober, found. Religious 
" Part, are like Chnft that was Crucify'd between two 
*' Malcfacfiors i tiie Profane and Formal Perfecutors 
" on pne Hand, and ihe Fsuuiick Dividing Sedtaries 

" on 

Chap. VL Mr, FLichard Baxter. 57 

on the other Hand, have in all Ages been grinding 
the Spiritual Seed, as the Corn is ground between 
the Milftones : And tho* their Sins have ruin d them- 
felves and us, and filenc d fo many hundred Mini- 
" fters^ and fcatter'd the Flocks, and made us the Ha- 
** tred and Scorn of the ungodly World, and a By- 
word, and Defolation in the Earth, yet there are 
few of ihem that lament their Sin, but juftify them- 
felves and their Mifdoings, and the Penitent Male- 
fadlor is unknown to us. And^ feeing Pofterity muft 
know what ihey have done, to the Shame of our 
Land, and of our facred Profeffion, let them know 
thus much more alfo, to their own Shame, that ail 
the Calamities which have befallen us by our Divifi- 
ons, were long forefeen by many; and they were 
'* told and warn'd of them Year after Year. They 
'* were told, that a Houfe divided againfi it felf could 
*' not flandy and that the Courfe they took^ xvottld bring 
'' them to Shame ^ and turn a hopeful I{eformation into a 
*' Scorn, and make the Land of their Nativity a Place of 
" Calamity and Woe ; but the Warning fignify'd nothing 
" to them ; but tbefe Dudtile Profeflbrs blindly fol- 
" low'd a few felf-conceited Teachers to this Mifery, 
** and no Warning or Means could ever ftop them. 

" A few Diffenting Members of the PVeftminfier Sy» 
" nod began all this, and carried it far on. That 
" good Man Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs joyn'd him felf 
" to them in Name ; but as he never pradtis'd their 
" Church-gathering Way, fo at laft he was contented 
" to have united, upon the Terms which were offer'd 
'* them, and wrote an excellent Book of Heart Divi- 
*' Jions. Afterwards they encreas'd, and others joyn'd 
*' themfelvesto them, who partly by StifFnefs and parc- 
** ly by Policy, encreas'd our Flames, and kept o- - 
*' pen our Wounds, as if there had been none but ihey 
*' Confiderable in the World : And having an Army 
" and City Agents, fit to fecond them, effediually hm* 
" dred all Remedy, 'till they had dafh'd all into Pieces 
" as a broken Glafs. O what may not Pride do, and 
*' what Mifcarriages will not falD Principles and Fa- 
^* aion hide ! One would have iho't that if their Op:. 
*' nions had been certainly Tme, and their Church Order 
'' good; yti the Interef^ of Cbrift, and the Souls ot 
rj* Men, and of greater Traths, Ihould have been lo 
*■ ^ H regarded 

98 The LIFE of Chap. VL 

'* regarded by the Dividors'm kngland, as that the Safe- 
*' ty of allthele lliould tiave been preferr'd, and notali 
** ruin'd, rather than tlieit- Way fhould want its Carnal 
*' Aim and Liberty : And that they (hould not tear the 
" Garment of Chrift all to Pieces, rather thart it fliould 
*' want their Lace. 

Many new SeHs alfo fprang op in thefe Times, whofe 
Doifirines Were almoft the fame, iho' ihcy put on diffe- 
rent Names and Shapes. 
^. u Sir Henry Vane had a fet of Difciples, who firft 
Va " d fp^^"g under him in Kexv-EngUnd, when he was Go- 
h^ToUow' vernour there. But their Notions were then raw and 
tfs, qndigefled, and their Party quickly confounded by 

God's Providence, as appears from hit. The, Weld's Ac- 
count. One Mrs. Dyer, a Chief Perfon of the Seff, did 
fiyfi bring forth n Monfier^ which had the Parts of almofi 
nil Sorts of Living Creatures ; fame Parts lil^e Marij hui 
moH ugly and miffUcd ; and fome like Beajis^ Birds, and 
Fijhes, having Horns, Fins and Claws : And at the Birth 
cf it the Bed fhocl{, and the iVotnen VQcre forced to leave the 
I{pdm. Mrs. Hutchinfon, the chief Woman among 
themj and their Teacher^ (to whofe Exercifes a Con- 
gregation of them us'd to affemble) brought forth about 
30 Mifhnfen Births at once; and being banifli'd into a- 
nother Plantation, tvas kiH'd there by the Indians, 
' Sir Henry K/j«c being Governour, and found to be the 
Life of their Caufe^ was fain to ftcal away by Night, 
and take Shiping for England, before his Year of Go* 
vernment was at an End. Coming over into England^ 
he provM an Inftrument of greater Calamity to a finful 
People. Being chofen a Parliament Man, he was very 
Adive at firft for bringing Delinquents to Punifhment. 
He was the Principal Man that drove on the Parliament 
with that Vehemence againft the King. Being of rea- 
dy Parts, great Subtilty, and unwearied Induftry,- 
he labour'd, and not without Succefs, to win others 
in Parliament, City, and Country to his Way. When 
the Earl of Strafford was accus'd, he got a Paper out of 
bis Father's Cabinet, ( who was Secretary of State ) 
which was the chief Means of his Condemnation. Ta 
molt cf the Changes that followed, he was that within 
the Houfe, that Cromwel was without. His great Zeal 
to inflame the War, and to cheiiih the Sedarics, and 


Chap. VL Mr. Richard Baxter. 

erpecially in the Army, madchim above all Men to be 
valu'd by that Parry. 

His Unhappinefs lay in this. That his Doarines 
were fo cloudily form'd and exprefs'd, that few couJd 
underftand them ; and therefore he had but few true 
Difciples. The Lord Brook was flain before he had 
broughr him to Maturity. Mr. Sterry is tho'c to have 
httn of his Mind, being his Intimate; but he was fa- 
mous for his Obfcuricy in Preaching. Sir Benj. f{udU 
Ard us'd to fay of him. That he vs>r,s too high for this 
fVorldy and too low for the next. Mr. Sprigs is the 
Chief of his open Difciples, and he is too Well kn>)wn 
by a Book of his Sermons. Sir Harry's O^fcurity 
was by fome imputed to his not Underftanding him- 
fclf, but by others to Defign ; becaufe he was able e- 
nough to fpeak plain, when he pleas'd. The two 
Things in which he had moft Succefs, and fpake moft 
plainly, were his E^meji Phd f6t UnivevlA Liberty 
of Confclsncc^ and againft the Magiftiates intermedling 
With Religion, and his Teaching his Followers to /c- 
vile the Minijiry^ calling them ordinarily B'nc^ Cocts^ 
Prieftsy and other Names which favour'd of Reproach^ 
"When Cr£>wwe/ had ferv'd himfelfby him as his furefl 
Friend as long as he could, and gone as far with hin| 
as their Way lay together, ( Fane being for a Fmatic^ 
Democracy^ and Cromwel for Mornrchy ) at lafl therd 
Was no Remedy, but they muft part ; and he caft 
him off with Difdain. Vnne thus laid by, wrote his 
Book call'd. The [{etir'd Man's Mfdittt'nons ; whereir)| 
the beft Part of his"Opinions are fo exprefs'd, as Will 
make but few Men his Difciples. His Healing Qj/^fti- 
on is written more plainly. When Croinvoel was aead^ 
he got Sir Arthur Hnfleriggc to be His clofe Adherent 
on Civil Accounts, and got the -'vomp fet up again^ 
and a Council of State, and got the Power much into 
nisown Hands. When in the height of his Power^ he 
fet upon the Forming a New Common-^Vjalth, and with 
feme of his Adherents dtew tip the Model, Which wii 
for Popular Government ; but fo that Men of his Con- 
fidence muft be the People. 

It griev'd fuch a Man as Mr. Baxter to the Heart, to 
(ee a poorKingdom fo tofs'd np and down in Unquict- 
nefs, and the Mii»ftei:s made odious, and ready to b« 
caftout, and stRcformation trodden underfoot^ and Par- 
ti ^ liamenta 


ICO The LIFE of Chap. VI- 

liaments and Piety made a Scorn, and all the while 
fcarce any one doubted but he was the Principal Spring 
of ail. Therefore writing againft the Papifts, and 
coming to Vindicate the ^e^orrnd Religion againft them, 
when they impute to the Proteftants the Blood of the 
King, he provM, That the Piotcftants, and particularly 
the Presbyterians^ abhor r'd it, and fulFer'd greatly for op- 
poling it ; and that it was the A61 of CromweCs Army 
and the Sectaries^ among which he nam'd the Vanijis as 
one Sort ; and he Ihew'd that the Fryars and Jefuites 
were their Deceivers, and under feveral Vizors were 
difpers'd amongft them. And Mr. 'Nye having told 
him, That he was long in Italy^ he faid, U was confide- 
Table kow much of his DoHrine he brot from thence Z 
Whereas it prov'd, That he was only in France and 
Sri^it:(erland, Upon the Borders of Italy, Upon this 
Sir fJarry being exceedingly provok*d, threatened him 
much, and fpoke againft him in the Houfe : And one 
Stubbs, (that had been whip'd in the Convocation Houfe i.t 
Oxford ) wrote a bitter Book in his Defence, and from 
a Fanift he afterwards turn d a Conformifi, and after- 
wards a Phyfician^ and was drown'd in a fmall Puddle 
Or Brook, as he was riding near the Bath, Mr. Baxter's 
Writing againft him was a Means to lefTen his Reputa- 
tion, and make Men take him for what Cromwel (who 
better knew him j call'd him, vi^^^, a Jugler, And he 
wifh'd therefore he had taken the fame Method much 
fooner. But the whole Land rang of his Anger, and 
Mr. Baxters Danger, and all expe&ed his prefent Ruin 
by him. Bur to fhew him that he was not about Re- 
canting, (as his Agents would have perfwaded him) he 
wrore alfo againft his Healing Qucftion, in a Preface be- 
fore his Holy Common-wealth, And the fpeedy turn of 
Affairs t/d up his Hands from executing his Wrath up- 
on him. 

When King Charles came in, he was queftion*d 
with others by the Patliament, but feem*d to have his 
Life fecur'd. But being bro*t to the Bar, he fpake fo 
boldly in juftifyingthe Parliament's Caufe, and what 
he had done, that it exafpcratcd the King, and made 
him refolve upon his Death. When he came to Tower' 
-Hill ro die, and would have fpoken to the People^ 
he b''gan fo rcfolutely, as caus'd the Officers to found 
the Trumpets and beat the Drums, .^^q. hinder him 


Chap. VL Mr. Richard Baxter. ,o 

from fpeaking. No Man could die with greater Ap- 
peatance of a Gallant Rcfolution, and Fearlefnefs than 
he did, tho' before fuppos'd a Timerous Man. Info- 
much, that the Manner of his Death procur'd him more 
Applaufe than all the Adtions of his Life. And when 
he was dead, his intended Speech was printed, and af- 
terwards his Opinions more plainly exprefs'd by his 
Friends than himfelf. 

Another Se(f^ that then rofe up were the Seekers, seeJ:crs. 
They taught, That the Serif tures were uncertain ; T/ jf 
frefent Miracles were necejfary to Faith ; That our Mini- 
ftry is nuUy and without Authority ; and our Worfhif and Or- 
dinances unnecejfary or vain. The true Church, Miniftry, 
Scripture, and Ordinances being loft, for which they 
were feeding. The ?apifis hatcht and a^uated rhis 
Sedl'. Some of them were real Papifis^ and others In- 
fidels. However, they i'clos'd with the Vanijis^ and 
fhelter'd themfelves under them, as if they had been 
the very fame. 

Another Sedl were calFd Ranters, They made it Ranters. 
their Bufinefs, as the former, to fet up the Light of Na- 
ture, under the Name of Chrift in Men, and to difho- 
nour and cry down the Church, Scriptures, Miniftry, 
■Worlhip and Ordinances ; and call'd Men to hearken 
to Chrift within them. But withal, they conjoyn 'd a 
curfed Dodtrine of Libertinifnj^ which bro't them to a- 
bominable Filthinefs of Life. They taught, as the 
Familijisy That God regardeth not the ABions of the out- 
ward Man, hut of the Heart : And to the Pure, all Fh vgs 
are Pure, even Things forbidden. And fo as allow'd by 
'God, they fpake moft hideous Words of Blalphemy, 
and many of them committed Whoredoms comnnnJy : 
Infomuch, That a Matron of great Note for Sobriety, 
being perverted by thefe People, turn'd fo iliame'ffs a 
Whore, that ftie was Carted in the Streets of London, 
There could never Sedt arife in the World, ^hat was a 
louder Warning to Profeflbrs of Religion, t jc hum-- 
hie, fearful and watchful. Never could the World be 
told more loudly. Whither the Spiritual Pride of un- 
grounded Novices in Religion tendeth, and whither 
they may be carried in the Stream of Sedls ard Fa- 
dions. Often would they vent the moft horrid Oaths, 
Curfes and Blafphemy, as the Effed of Knowledge, in 
a Fanatick Strain, which they would father upon the 

H 3 Spirit 

102 The L I F n of Chap. VI. 

Spirit of God. But the horrid Villanics of thij Sec^, 
did not onl fpeedily extinguiili it, but alfo did as much 
as any Thing ever did to difgiace all SiB/triej^ and to 
reftore the Credit of the Mimftrv, and of fober Chri- 
ftians. So that the Devil and the Jefuites quickly 
found that this Way ferv'd not iheir Turn, and there- 
fore they fuddenly took anoiher, and turn'd themfelves 
Pk4/5«w, Q^iakers, who were but the I{^nters revcisM : Turn'd 
frorn hprrid Prcfanevcjs and Blafphemy, to a Life of ex- 
tream Aufteriry. Their Dodlrines were moftly the fame 
with the I\f:nti<rs. They make the Light which every 
Man hath within him a fufiicient Ruie j and confe- 
quently the Scripture and Miniftry are fet light by. 
They fpeak much for the Dwelling and Working of 
the Spirit in us, but little of Juftification, Pardon of 
Sin, and Reconciliation with God thro' Jefus Chrift. 
They pretend their Dependanceon the Spirit's Conduci^ 
agamft fet Times of Prayer, and againft Sacraments, 
Scripture and Miniftry. They will not have the Scrip- 
tures cali'd the Word of God. Their Principal Zeal 
lieth in railing at Minifters as Hireiirjgs^ Deceive s and 
Fal/e Prophets, and in refufing to Swear before a Magi- 
ftrate, ^c At hrft they us'd to fail into Trembling ; 
and fometimcs Vomitings in their Meetings, and pre- 
tended to be violently aded by the Spirit : But now 
•that is ceafed, they onl meet, and he that pretendeth to 
be moved by the Spirit, Speaketh ; and fometimes they 
fay nothing ; but lit an Hour or more in Silence, and 
then depart. One while feveral of them went Naked 
thro* many chief Towns and Cities of the Land, as a 
Prophetical Adt. S,ome of them having familh'd and 
drown'd themfelves in Melancholiy, others have under- 
taken by the Power of the Spirit to raife them ; as Sw 
fan Picrjlyi did at Clninesv\tz.v iVorcefter, where they took 
a Man out of his Grave, who bad fo made himfelf a- 
way, and commanded him to Arife and Live; but to 
their Shame. Their chief Leader James Nay/er^ adled 
the Part of Chrift at BrifioJ, according to much of the 
Hiftory of the Gofpel, and was long laid in Bridewel 
for it, and liad his Tongue bar'd as a BJafphemer by the 
parliament. Many F- <?;/c//c4wFryars, and other Papifts 
have been provM iq he difguis'd Speakers in their Af- 
femblies, But IVtlUam ^em^ their Modern Leader, 

Chap. VL Mr. Richard Baxter. 103 

hath undertaken the Reforming the Scd, and fet up 
a kind of Miniftry among them. 

The Behmenifts are another Se6t, whofe Opinions Behmenips. 
were much like the former ; they being for the Suffi- 
ciency of the Light of Nature, and a Dependence on 
Revelations, &c. but they were fewer in Number, and 
of much greater Meeknefs than the reft. Their Do- 
^rine is to be feen in Jacob Behnens Books, by one that 
hath nothing elfe to do, but to beftow a great deal of 
Time to know, that his bombaft Words do fignify no- 
thing more, than before was eafily known by Commoii 
and Familiar Terms. Dr. Pordage and his Family were 
of this Se(St, who liv'd together in Community, and 
pretended to hold viiible and fenfible Communion with 
Angels, whom they fometimes faw and fomctimes 
fmelt. And they profefs'd to wait for fuch a Coming 
Down of the Holy Ghoft upon them, as ftiould fend 
rhem out as his MifTionaries, to unite and reconcile, 
and heal the Churches ; and do Wonders in the World. 

Another Sec^mafter was Dr. Gibhon, who had taken Gibbon. 
a great deal of Pains to beat out a Scheme of Theology, Cell, Par- 
with which he went about the Country to make Pro- Ker, 4/.4 
felytes. This Scheme of his he recommended as con- Biddie. 
raining the only Terms and Method to refolve all 
Doubts whatever in Divinity, and unite all Chri- 
ftians thro' the World. His Frame was the Contri- 
vance of a Strong Head Piece, and was Secretly, and 
Cunningly fitted to ulher in a Socinian Popery, or a 
Mixture of Popery, and half Socinianifm. There were 
many more Sedraakers: As Dr. Gcll, well known by 
a Printed Volume in Folio ; And one Mr. Parl^ir, 
who got an Intereft in the Earl of Pembroke, and wrote 
a Book agaioft the AjfembUes ConfcJJion, in which he 
takethupmoft of the Popilh Doarines, and rifeth up 
acainft them with Papal Pride and Contempt buc 
owneth not the Pope himfelf, but heaocth his Body 
of Doctrine with the Spirit, as the Papifts do with 
the Pope. Many of thefe tho* they ownd no^ thcm- 
felves to be Papifts, did yet with fubtle Diligence 
promote moft of the Papal Caufe, and get in with 
the Religious Sort, either upon Pretence of Aujieny 
Mortification, Angelical Communion «r d^f ';, .^'^p ' 
t hofe amongft the Cromwelians that he fufpeared for V^- 
pifts, were fome that began as Strangers a»o»|,^"^ 

I04 The LIFE of Chap. VI. 

Common Soldiers, and by degrees rofe up to fome In- 
feriour Offices, and were moft Converfant with the 
Common Soldiers ; but none of the Superiour Officers 
feem'd fuch, tbo' feduc'd by ihera. The Socinians alfo, 
in thefe Times, made fome Increafe by the means of 
oneMr. B/^^/f, fome time Schoolmafter in Gloucefter^ 
who wrote againft ih^Godhend of the Holy Ghoft^ and af- 
terwards of Cbrifi, His Followers inclind much to. 
to meer Deifm, and Infidelity, 
Mr. Bax- To return to Mt. B/txter. It was his Endeavour to 
ter'5 Con- keep his People in Kjdcrminfter as free from any Con-r 
diffi ai to cern in the Publick, Changes as was poffible. He kept. 
:Bublick them from taking the Covenant^ as fearing it might be. 
Oaths. a Snare to their Gonfciences : Nay, he prevented its 
being much taken in the County, by his keeping the 
Minifters from offering it to their People ; except in the 
City of i^^crcejier, where he had no great Incereft. And 
yet where Perfons took it, he could not fee hovp they 
could have a Difpe?ifation as to the Obligation of it. 
He could never judge it feemly for one Believing a 
God, to phyfafi urAloofe with a dreadful Oath, as if 
the Bonds of National and Perfonal Vovps were as eafily 
ihak'd off as Sa?}ipfon s Cords. 'When the Engagemenf 
came out, he Spake and Preach'd againft it, and dif- 
fwaded Men from taking it. When he firft heard of 
it, being in Company with fome Gentlemen of li^orce- 
' (ler-floire^ he prefently wrote down above 20 Queries 
againft it, intending as many more almofl againft the 
Obligation^ asthofe were about the Senfe and Circum- 
fiances. One that was prefent got the Copy of them, 
and fhortly after they were publifh'd in a Book of 
Mr. Henry Hall's as his own ; who was the fame Perfon 
that was long Imprif n'd for writing againft Croynvoel. 
Some Epifcopai Divines who wrote for ir, thus explain'd 
it. By the Commor..weahh, they would n>ean the fort 
of Common-weahh that then was in being. EfiabU/h'd, 
they would take as meant only de FaBo, and not de 
Jure^ and by mthout a Kjng, &c. they meant, altho* 
there were no King for a time : So that they thus ex- 
plain'd it ; / w/// be true to the Government of England, 
tho at the prefent the Kjng and the Houfe of Lords are pttt 
out of the Ex'rcife of their Power. Mr. Baxter cnde2L\'o\ud 
■to convince People, that this was meer Juggling and 
Jefting .with Mattcrs.too great to Lc jeOed with : Jind 


Chap. YI. Mr, Richard Baxter. 105 

thai as it ijiight be eafily known that the Impofers had 
another Senfe, fo ir was alfo evident, that the Words 
in their own obvious ufual Senfe among Men, were the 
Promife or Engagement of a Subjecit as fnchto a Form of 
Government, pretended to be eftablilh'd ; and that the 
Subjed's Allegiance or Fidelity to his Rulers, could 
not be acknowledg'd and given in plainer words : And 
that by fuch Interpretations and Stretchings of Confci^ 
ence^ any TrcafonabJe Oath or Promife might betaken; 
and that no Bonds of Society could fignify much with 
fuch Interpreters. 

He had not been long return'd to Kederminfter after JiU Vif- 
his leaving the Army, before there was a mighty Con- pute with 
teft between him and Mr. Tombs. He was his Neigh- ^/r. Tombs, 
hour at B^W/fj', which was not above iMilesdiftant; 
and denying Infant Baptifm, znd. having written a Book 
or two againft it, he was not a little defirous of propa- 
gating his Opinion, and promoting the Succefs of his 
Writings ; and he tho't Mr. Baxter his Chiefeft Hinder- 
er, tho' he never meddled with the Point. Whereup- 
on he conftantly attended on his weekly Lec5lure at 
I^derminfier, wailing for an Opportunity to fall upon 
that Controverfy in his Conference with him. But he 
fo ftudioufly avoided it, that he knew not how to be- 
gin. At length, he urg'd him to give him his Judg- 
ment of his Writings, which he really tho't unanfwera- 
ble. Mr. Baxter freely told him. That they did not fa- 
tisfy him to be of his mind; but went no farther with 
him. Upon this, he forbore attending any longer up- 
on his Lec3:ure, and unavoidably drew him into a Con- 
troverfy with him, tho' he did all he could to fhun it. 
There came to him 5 or 6 of his Chief Profelytes, as 
if they were yet unrefolv'd, and defired him to give 
them in Writing the Arguments which fatisfy'd him 
for Infant Baptifm. He ask'd them, iVoether they came 
not by M^, TombsV Direction ? Which they confefs'a. 
He askM them, l^hether they had read the Bo^k^s of 
Mr, Gobbet, Mr, Marlhal, Mr, Church, and Mr, Blake, 
for Infant-Baptifm ? And they told him No. He defi- 
led them to read the Books that were already written^ be- 
fore they called for more, and then to come to him again^ 
and tell him what they had to fay againfl them. This 
ihey would by no means do, but told him, They mujb 
have fome thing of his PJ^riting upon that SuhjcH : And 


io6 The L IFE of Chip, VI. 

I 1 "" - — 

that if he refrnd^ and thty tnrnd a^ainfi Infant-Ba^d/m, 
they xoeuld lay the hUme upon him. He ask'd them, ^^/;e- 
they would continue unrejolvd, \iU Mr, Tombs and he h/$d -l 
done the H^ritings^ which might be fame Tears ; as it hnd I 
been, fince Mr. Blake and he had been etigagd on that r 
Subjeci, without hdving bro't the Contrcverfy to an IJfti^. 
But no Reafoning would fen e their turn, they muft 
have bis written Arguments. At laft he bid them tell 
Mr. Tombs, That if they mufi needs contend^ ^twere heji ta 
do it in the (horteji and moji fatisfaSory way, which be 
tho't would be by Spending one whole Dny, in a Dijpute atl 
his own Churchy where ha would attend him^ that his Pco' 
pie might not remain unfatisfy^dy till they faw which had the 
iaflM'^ord: And that afterwards they might confidcr of 
Writing, Mr. Tombes accepting the Motion, Mr. Bax-- 
ter went to Bewdly, and held a Difpute in his Church 
there, upon a Day agreed on, from Nine a Clock in 
the Morning, 'till Five at Nighr, in a crowded Con- 
gregation. The whole time was fpenc in managing 
one Argument, From Infants BJght to Church-Member- 
fioip, to their I{ight to Baptifm. This Difpute fatisfy'd | 
all the People of Ksdermivfier^ and the Country round, j 
v/ho came in to hear it, and Mr. Tombt*s own Townf- | 
wen, except about 20 whom he had perverted, who 
gather *d into his Church, which never, as he could 
.Jearn, encreasM to above Two and Twenty. 
'An. 16 $1. When the Army was going againft K. Charles the Se- 
H» OppQ'Zondj and the Scots, he wrote Letters to feveral of the 
fuon to th Soldiers to tell them of their Sin, and defired 'em ac 
Eump. laft to begin to know themfelves. TelHng them, That 
yt'feemd ftrange that they who hadfo much bonjled of Love 
to all the Godly ^ and pleaded for tender dealing with them^ 
and condemned thofe who perfecuted them^ or reftraind their 
Liberty, fhould at laft be ready to imbrew their Hands in 
the Blood of thofe People^ the Piety of many of whom they 
could not deny. At the fame time the I{iimp made an 
Order, That all Minijiers fhould keep their Days of Humi^ 
liation, toFaJi and Pray for their Suoccfs in Scotland, and 
their Days of Thankfgiving for their Vi&orics there, upon 
pain of Sequejiration. Mr. Baxter and his Neighbours 
ibereupon expefted to be turn'd out. But tho' there was 
a general Noncompliance in thofe Pans, all except one 
efcap'd. For his Part, inftead of Praying and Preach- 
ing for them, when any of the Commitcee 01 Soldiers 


Chap. VI. Mr. Richtrd Baxter. 107 

were his Hearers, he labonr'd to help them to undcr- 
ftand, what a Crime it was to force Men to pray for 
the Succefs of thofe who were violating their Covenant, 
sind going in fuch a Caufe to kill their Brethren ; And 
what it was to force Men to give God Thanks for all 
theii Bloodihed, ard to make God's Minifters and Ordi- 
nances vile, and ferviceable to fuch Crimes, by forcing 
Men to run to God upon fuch Errands of Blood and 
Ruin : And whai it was to bt fuch Hypocrites as to 
perfecute and caft out thofe that Preach the GofpeJ, 
while they pretended the Advancement of the Golpcl, 
and the Liberty of tender Confciences. His own 
Hearers were fatisfy'd with hisDo(Strine, but the Com- 
mittee Men look'd fower, but let him alone. And the 
Soldiers laid he was lb like to Love^ that he would ne- 
ver be quifit 'rill he was fhorter by the Head. Yet 
none of them meddled with him farther than by the 
Tongue, nor was he by any of them in all thofe 
Times forbidden to Preach one Sermon, excepting 
only that when once the High- Sheriff had fpoken to 
him to Preach at the Affizes, he afterwards fent hint 
Wort\ as from the Committee, to forbear: Saying, 
that by Mr Mood's Means, (the Independent Preach- 
er at the Coll'-ge at Worcefier) the Committee told him. 
That they defired he might forbear Preaching before 
the Judges, becaufehe Preach'd againft the State. But 
afterward they excused it, as done meerly in Kindnefs 
to him, to prevent his running himfelf into Danger and 

When Cromwel had got the Afcendant, fober Pe(»- 
ple were divided about their CondudI: towards him- 
He had bro't Things to thai Pafs, that there was ncs 
Profpetft of any Thing but Deftrudion, if be was not 
taken for Governour. He made more Ufe of the wild- 
headed Sedtaries, than barely to Fight for him. They 
at laft ferv'd him as much by their Herefies, their En- 
mity to Learning and the Miniftry, and their Perni- 
cious Demands, which tended to Confufion, as they 
bad done before by their Valour in the Field. Herein 
lay much of his Art, that he could conjure up at Plea- 
fure fome terrible Apparition of Agitators, Levellers, 
or fuch like, who as they affrighted the King from 
Hampton-Ccurty fo were they afterwards as ufeful in 
^Blighting the People to fly to him for Refuge, that 


The LIFE of Chap. VI. 

the Hand that wounded them, might heal them.' Ac 
length he was as forward as any in exclaiming againft 
the Giddinefs of thefc unruly Men, and he pleaded 
carncftly for Order and Government, and would needs 
become the Patron of the Miniftry, yet fo as to fecure 
all others of their Liberty. Some that faw his De- 
figns cry'd out, We will rather all Perifh, and fee both 
Tytbes and IJniverfities overthrowriy than xve Vfill any way 
fubmit to fuch deceitful Vfurpations, Others faid, It is 
the Providence of God, who ever be the Injirument, which 
hro't us into this Necejfity^ which we are unable to pre- 
vertt : And being in it, we are not bound to cboofe our 
own Deftruciion* Neceffity therefore requires us to accept 
»f any one fo ^ule tiSy that is like to deliver m. But the 
Generality of the Minifters went the middle Way, and 
their Confcience. thus reprefented the State of their 
Duty at that Time. 

7he Con- 
du6l of the 

rvhen ^fo- 

We acknowledge, that God Almighty hath over- 
rul'd in all thefe great Mutations, and hath permitted 
the Perfidiou(he6 of Men, and their Succefs. And 
the Common Good being the End of all juft Govern- 
ment, we may not do any Thing againft it, much lefs 
to the Deftrudiion of it, under Pretence of refifting 
an Ufurper, or of reftoring the Rightful Governour : 
if the Univerfities be overthrown, the Fabrick demo- 
lifh'd, the Lands alienated, the Miniftry put down, 
the Tythes fold or given to the People, to engage them 
all to be againft any Means which tend to a Recovery, 
what ever we contribute to it, we do againft the King 
and Kingdom, and do but cut his Throat in Kindnefs. 
For we pull down the Houfe that he may be Mafter 
of it, and deftroy the Common-wealth that he may 
be Head of it : And we ftrengthen his Enemies by 
our imprudent Paffions. But yet we mnft neither do 
nor approve of Evil, for any Good End, nor forbear 
in our Places feafonably to reprehend it. Therefore, 
it is unlawful for us to Confent to any Governour but 
the King, or take an Engagement, or Oath of Alle- 
giance to them : But it is not unlawful to fubmit to 
them, by living quietly in our Places, and to make 
ufe of the Courts of Juftice eftablilh'd by Law, yea, 
and to demand Protection even from an Ufurper. For 
his ftepping into the Rulers Place, and ufurpingthe Go- 
vcmmentjobligethhimto do all the Parts of i;he Govec- 


Chap. VI. Afr. Richard Baxter. 109 

nour's Office, while he is there ; and warrantcth us 
to demand it, and accept of it from him : But it doth 
not at all oblige us to Obey him or Confent to bis U- 
furpatiod .- Even as we may demand Juftice of a Ge- 
neral of Rebels, or a Captain of Thieves ; or of Py- 
rates that fliall furprize the Ship that we are in, but we 
are not bound to cqnfent to his Governmenc, or for- 
mally Obey him ; but on the contrary, to difown his 
Villany, and do all that we can againft his Tyranny, 
which tendeth not to the Hurt of the Society : So here, 
it is our Duty to keep the State of Things as entire as 
we can, 'till God be pleas'd to reftore the King, that he 
may find it a Whole, and not a ruin'd irreparable 

Agreeable hereto was Mr. Baxter's Pradtife, who fea- ^r. Bax- 
fonably and moderately, by Preaching and Printing,con- f^^'i Cat- 
demn'd the Vfurpation, and the Deceit which was the *'"*s^ 'f" 
Means to bring it to pafs. He did in open Conference '^'*'"<^ ^^**^ 
declare Cromvpel, and his Adherents, to be Guilty of 
Treafon and B^bellion, aggravated with Perfidioufnefs 
and Hypocrify. But yet he did not think it his Duty to 
Rave againft them in the Pulpit, or to make his Inve- 
dlives fo unfeafonabiy or imprudently, as might irritate 
him to Mifchief. And the rather becaufe as be feem^d 
to keep up his Approbation of a Godly Life in the Ge- 
neral, and of all that was Good, except that which the 
Intereft of his Sinful Caufe engag'd him to be againft 5 
fo he perceiv'd it was his Defign to do good m the 
main, and to promote the Gofpel, and the Intereft of 
Godlinefs, more than any had done before him, except 
in thofe Particulars which his own Intereft was againft. 
And it was the Principal Means that after he was once 
got into the Saddle hd trufted to for his Eftablifnment, 
even by doing Good : That the People might love him, 
or at leaft be willing to have his Government for that 
Good, who were againft it as it was an Ufurpation. 

He once Preach'd before Cromml, after he was Pro- ^is Trea- 
tedor, by Means of my Lord Broghill, and the Earl o^ chin^bcfc 
I4'armcl{, when he was in Town,, upon the Occafion hirt, and 
which we ftiallhear of in the next Chapter. He knew not ConjercMce 
which Way to provoke him better to his Duty, than by Taith him. 
Preaching on i Cor; i. lo. againft the DivUions and 
Diftradions of the Church ; ftiewing how Mifchievous 
a Thing it was for Politicians to maintain fuch Divifions 
~ " for 


no The LIFE of Chap. Vi. 

for their own Ends, that they might fifti in Troubled 
Waters, and keep the Church by its Divilions in a State 
of Weaknefs, leaft it (hould be able to oflfend them. A 
while after, Ctomwel fenr to fpcak with him ; and when 
he came, he had only three ot his chief Men with him. 
He begun a Jong and tedious Speech to him, of God's 
Providence in the Change of the Government, and 
how God had own'd ir, and what great Things had been 
done at Home and Abroad, in the Peace with Spitin and 
flolland^8cc. When he had continu'd fpeaking thus about 
an Hour, tAv. Baxter toid him, It ivai too great Condefecri' 
tion to acquaint him fo fully tvith all theft Matters which 
were nbove him : But that the Honefi People ef the Lsnd 
tool^thcir Antient Monarchy to he a Blejfing^ and not an E" 
vil, and humbly cravdhis Patience that he might ai\hitn^ 
How they had forfeited that Bleffinv^ and unto whom the 
Forfeiture xvaj made ? Upon that Queftion he was awa- 
kened into feme Paffion, and told him, There v9as no For- 
feiture, but God had changdit^ as pleased him: And then 
he Jet fly at the Parliament which thwarted him, and 
efpecialiy by Name at four or five Members which were 
Mr. -B-*A:/fr*s Chief Acquaintance, whom he prefum'd to 
defend againft the Proteaor's PaHion. And thus were 
four or five Hours fpent, iho' to little Purpofe. 

A few Days after, he fent for him again, to hear his 
Judgment about Liberty ofCo7)feience, which he pretend- 
ed to be jnoft Zealous for; and almofl all the Privy- 
Council were prefenr. After he had made another flow 
and tedious Speech, be told him a little of his Judgment : 
And when two that were prefent had fpun out a great 
deal more Time in Speeching it, fo that four or five 
Hours were fpenr, he told him. That if he would be at the 
labour to read it^ he could tell Bim more of bis Mind in 
PVriting in two Sheet s^ tbati in that way of Speakjng in ma^ 
ny Days ; arid that he had d Faptr on that Subyefi by him, 
vpritten for a Friend ^ which if he would perufe^ and allew 
for the Change of the Perfon^ he would fully kyiow his Senfel 
He afterwards fent him the Paper, but qucftiOn'd whe- 
ther he ever read it. For this was manifeft to fuch a* 
had any Converfation with him, that what he learn'd 
muft be from himfelf ; he being more difpos'dto Speak 
many Hours than to Hear one ; and little heeding whae 
another faid, !^li^be hinafelf had once fpoken» 

G H A P. 

Chap. VIl. Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 1 1 


Hk General Vfefuhefj in the whole County ^ 
while he remain d in WorceOer-lhire : 
His Puhlkk. Service by his Pacificatory En^ 
deavoHrs^ and other ways, 

IN the time of the Civil War, and afterwards, the 
Controverfies about Church- Government were in 
moft Mens mouths, and maSe a great Noife ; being 
hotly agitated by Statefmen and Divines, by Word and 
Writings;, which made Mr. Baxter think it necefiary to 
fet himfelf to the raoft ferious Study of thofe Points j 
the refult of which was his Settlement in this Judg- 
ment: That of the four Contending Parties, the £r4- 
ftian, Epifcopal, Presbyterian, and Independent, each had 
fome peculiar Truths which the other overlook'd, or 
took little notice of, and each their proper Miftakes, 
;^hich gave Advantage to their Adverfaries; tho' all 
of them had fo much Truth in common among them, 
as would have made thefe Kingdoms happy, had it been 
unanlmoufly and foberly reduc'd to Pradice, by prudent 
and charitable Men. 

The Er avians he tho*t alTerted more fully than others 
the Magiftrates Power in Matters of Religion 5 that all 
Coercive Power is only in their hands ; and that no 
fuch Power belongetb to the Paftors or People of the 
Church. He could not but approve their Holding the 
Paftoral Power to be only Perfwafive, tho* Authorita- 
tive and by Divine Appointment : And that Paftors 
were Officers of God*s Inftitution, who were not only 
to perfwade by Sermons or General Speeches, but by 
Particular Overfight of their particular Flocks; and 
could as the Ground of their Perfwafions PJp^uce God $ 
Commiflion or Command for what they laid and did; 
But that as Paftors they had no fecular or forcmg 1 ow- 
ct; And that ualefs the Magiftrate authonzd themas 
his Officers, they could not touch Mens Bodies orb: 
Aates, but bad to do with the Conftience only. 


,12 The LIFE of Chap. VI I. 

The Epifcopnl Parcy feem'd to him thus far to have 
Reafon on their fide, that there was a Superiority in the 
Primitive Church over fix'd Bilhops or Paftors, main- 
tained by the Apoftles and Evangelilts, and other general 
undx'd Chnrch Officers: Tho' he tho*t it a Queftion, 
Pf^jether they were proper GovernourSy or only over^ruC d them 
hy the Eminence of their Gifts, and Priviledge of Infnttibi^ 
iity } And as to fixed BiHiops of particular Churches, 
Superiour in Degree to Preshyters, tho' there is nothing 
favouring them in Scripture, yet the Reception of them 
in all the Churches was fo early and io general, that he 
was free to admit them, and refolv'd never to oppofe. 

As for the Presbyterians, he could not but approve of 
their main Principle : For he found that the Office of 
Preaching Presbyters was allow'd by all : And that this 
Office did fubferviently to Chrift participate of the Pro- 
phetical, the Prieftiy, and the Governing Power, he 
tho't Self-evident. It appeared to him, both from Scrip- 
ture, Antiquity, and the Perfwafive Nature of Church- 
Government, that all Presbyters were Church -Gov ernours 
as well as Church Teachers ', and that the Alfociation of 
Paftors and Churches for Agreement, and their Synods 
in Cafes of Neceility are a plain Duty ; and ordinary 
ftated Synods very Convenient. And he found that 
they who were of this Denomination in the Land were 
Men of eminent Learning, Sobriety and Piety ; and the 
Minifters among them contributed much to the keeping 
up R^ll'rion in the Land. 

As for the Independents, he found moft of them ^^ea- 
/out, and many or them /^4r«f^, difcreet, ^nd pious; ca- 
pable of being very Serviceable in the Church. Search- 
ing Scripture and Antiquity, he found that in the begin- 
ning a Govern d Church, and a Stated Worlhipping 
Church, were all one : That Churches were at firft no 
bigger than our Parifhcs now ; That they were Societies 
of Chriftians united for Perfonal Communion, and not 
only for Communion by Meetings of Officers and De- 
legates in Synods, as many Churches in Allbciation be. 
Alfo he faw a Commendable Care of ferious Holinefs 
and Difcipline in moft of the Independent Churches. 
And found that fomc Epifcopal Men (Bp. ZJ/hcr for one, 
as he had it from himfelfj held. That every Bi(hop vpoi 
Independent m to Synods, and Synods notfo much for Govern^ 
mem m for Concord, 


Chap. VII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 112 

Other Controverfies alfo in B^eligion were very hotly 
Agitaced, and in all he was willing to keep himfelf 
and others fronn Extreams. As for the Anahapti^s, 
(tho' he had written much againft them) he found many 
of them fober, godly People, not differing but in the 
Voinioi Infant- Bnptifm* And as to that, confulting 
Antiquity, he obferv'd, That the' Infant-Baptifm was 
held Lawful by the Church, yet fome, with HertuHjcfjy 
jaiid N4:{ian:{ef2, tho^t it moft convenient to make no 
■ haft; and the reft left the time of Baptifm 'to every 
'•one's Liberty, and forc'd none to be Baptiz d. So that 
not only Conftantine^ Theodofim, and fuch as were Con- 
verted at Years of Difcretion, but Augufline alfo, and 
many Children of Chriftian Parents hid their Baptifm 
long deferr d. Nothing more free than fiaptifm in the 
Primitive Times?. T6 fome 'twas Adiriamitred in Infan- 
cy, to fome at ripe Age,' and' to fome d Jictle before 
their Death. All the Penalty of a Dela.y^ was the be- 
ing ftill numbred with Catechumens jor ExfeBams, 

In the Dirferences between the Armenians and Ayiti- 
Armininns, he foon perceiv'd it hard to fipd a Man that 
difcern'd the true State of the feveral Controverfies: 
And that when unreveal'd Points are laid aiide, and 
the Controverfies about Words juftly feparated from 
thofe about Things ; the Differences about Things which 
renaain'd, were fewer and fmaller than moft of the Con- 
tenders would believe. Nay, he found the Dodrinal 
Differences with the Papifts very much darkned, and 
feldom well ftated. In the Points of Merit ^ Jufiifica" 
tion^ Ajfureince of Salvation , Perfeverance, Grace, Free^ 
Will^ 8cc. Mifunderftanding was common, and juft 
Diftindtion and Explication very rare. Upon the whole, 
he fix'd in this Conclufion : That he that would procure 
the Welfare of rhe Church, muft do his beft to pro- 
mote all the Truth and Good which was held by every 
Party, and to leave out all their Errors and their Evili 
and not take up all that any Party bad efpous'd as 
their own. And indeed there was not a Party in which 
there was not fomething he diflik'd as Erroneous and 

Bvil. . ^^ . 

Three Things he diOikM in the Era!liavs. Their 
Making too light of the Power cf the Mimilry and 
Church, and of Excommunication : Their Making the 
Articla of the Holy C^hQlick, Church, and the Com?numan 

114 T^f^^ LIFE of Chap. Vir. 

{of Saints^ tco ittfignificant^ by making Church Communion 
"i 'wore common to the Impenitent than Christ would have it : 
t^And their Injuring their Brethren in charging them vpith 
claiming^ as from God, a Coercive Power over Mens Bodies 
or Pur/es, which ts what n di/claim'd by all Temperate 
ChriHians, who pretend not to any Power of Force, but only 
■ to apply GocCs fVord unfo Mens Cot/fciences» There were 
many Things which he utterly diflik'd in the Diocefan 
Party, Their extirpating the true Dilcipline of Cbrift, 
Tvhich iheir Principle's and Church State fecm to make 
unpradticable and impolTible; while one Bifhop, with 
his Contiftory, had the fole Government of a Thoufand 
or many Hundred Churches, even over many Thoa- 
fands whofe Faces they were never like to iec ; with- 
out fetting up any Parochial Government under them : 
Their turning Parochial Churches into Chriftian Ora- 
tories and Schools, while Paftors have only a Power of 
Teaching and Worlhipping, and not of Governing : 
Their Altering the Ancient Species of Presbyters and 
Bilhops : Their Exercife of Church Government in a 
" Secular way ; and their vexing honeft Chriftians, who 
efteem'd their Ceremonies unlawful, and filencing able 
godly Preachers, that durft not Subjcribe and Swear Obe- 
dience to them, &c. In the Presbyterian way, he diflik'd 
the Order of Lay-Elders, who had no Ordination, nor 

• Power to Preach, nor to Adminiflcr Sacraments. 
Some of them were for binding the Magiftrate to Con- 

• fifcate or Imprifon Men, meerly becaufe they were 
Excommunicate : and fo forcing People to keep in the 
Church againft their Wills, for fear of being undone 
in the World : Whereas he was fully fatisfy'd, That a 
Ji4a?t whoje Confcience cannot feel a juft Excommunication^ 
unlefs it be bacl(d with Confifcation and bnprifonment^ is no 
fitter to be a Member of a Chriftian Church in the Commu- 
nion of Saints y than a Corps is to be a Member of a Cor'- 
for at ion. 

Some of them he found as much too much againft 
Liberty as others were too much for it, and that they 
feem'd to think by Votes and Number to do that 
which Love and Realon (hould have done. And . 
when the Independents faid, /I l^h/hippi'^g Churchy and 
A Govern d Church, is and mult be all one, and the Prr/- 
bytcrians faid. They may be all one^ tho it be not ncceffary ; 
yet in their Pradifc they would have fo fettled it, that 


Chap. VII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 115 

'they fhould no where be all one, but i o or r 2 Worfhip- 
ping Churches fhould have made one Govern'd Church. 
Now tho' I o or 1 2 Churches may be better managed than 
a Thoufand or many Hundred ; and tho' it were better 
for thePaftor of each Church to have the Government 
of his own FJock, in Conjundion with the Presbytery 
or Synod, than not at all, and fo this were vaftly pre- 
ferable to the Diocefan Frame ; yet it feem'd to prepare 
the way for it. In the way of the Independents, he dif- 
lik'd their making too light of Ordination; their having 
alfo among them the Office of Lay-Elderlhip ; and 
their being ftrider about the Qualifications of Church 
Members, than Scripture, Reafon, or the Praftice of 
the Univerfal Church would allow. For if once you 
go beyond the Evidence of a feriom fober Profefjion^ as 
a credible and fufficient Sign of a Title, you will never 
know where to reft; but the Churches Opinion will 
be both Rule and Judge, and Men will be let in or 
kept out, according to the various Latitude of Opini- 
ons or Charity, in the feveral Ofikers or Members of 
Churches. He difcern'd a great Tendency in this way 
of theirs, to Divifions and Subdivilions, and the nou- 
rilhing of Herefies and Sedks: And could not at all ap- 
prove of their making the People, by majority of Votes, 
to be Church-Governours in Excommunicntions, Abfolw 
tions, 8cc. which Chrift hath made Ads of Office; and 
Jetting them govern their Governours, and themfelves. 
He alfo dillik'd their too much exploding Synods, their 
over-rigidnefs againft the Admiflion of Chriftians of 
other Churches, and their making a Minifter to be as 
no Minifter to any but his own Flock. In many of 
which Things, the Moderation of a Synod of Nevp- 
England found out a much better Temper than their 
Brethren here could light upon. And as for the Ann- 
bnftijisy he knew that they injurioufly excluded the 
Infants of the Faithful from folemn Entrance into the 
Covenant and Church of God ; and as finfully made 
their Opinion a Ground of their SeftirAtion from the 
Churches and Communion of their Brethren ; and that a- 
mong them grew up the Weeds of many Errours ; 
and that Divifions, Subdivifions, Reproach of Mini- 
fters Fadion, Pride, and Scandalous Pradifes were 
fomented in their way. 

I z Having 

11 6 The LIFE of Chap. VII. 

Having made thefc Remarks, he for fome Years 
flood ftill as a Looker-on, and contented himfelf to 
wifh and pray for Peace, dropping only now and then 
a Word towards it in his Pra6tical Writings : But at 
length the Senfc of his Duty engagM him to do his ut- 
moft, in a way of Endeavour, to bring all thefe con- 
tending Parties to a Concordant PracStice of fo much 
as they were all agreed in; ro fee all that together 
which was True and Good amongft thenn all, and to 
promote that as far as he was able, rejedting the reft; 
and to further the reviving Chriftian Charity, which Fa- 
ction and Difputes had lamentably cxtinguifhM. And 
tho' he had no Profpedt herein of any great Succefs, he 
yetref^lv'd to do hisbeft, and leave the Succefs to God. 
He wrote feveral Letters about thefe matters to Mr. //«- 
tbony BiirgeJSf Mr. B^chard Vines, and Mi. G^tal^er^ and 
motion'd the fetting up fome Regular Difcipline by A- 
greement among the London Minifters, which would 
make it more generally taking than coming from a pri- 
vate Corner, but was put off with various Excufes. 
But his own Circumftances forcM him to feek for fome 
certain Regular Method of Difcipline, (^c. among bis 
own People; and he withal apprehended, that if feve- 
ral Minifters could accord together in one way, the 
People would much more eafily fubmit, than to the way 
• of any Minifter that was Singular. As for his own Peo- 
ple, they were honeft, humble and traceable, engag'd 
in no Party, and haters of Schifm, which they per- 
ceived tended to the ruin of Religion. The Minifters 
in the Country round him were Pious, Serious, Hum- 
ble Men, that were alfo difengag'd ; which was a great 
Advantage in his Defign. He open'd his Mmd to them 
in a Meeting which he procured, after a Leciiure at fVor^ 
cefter. They all approv'd of his Motion, and it was 
their common de(irc, that he would draw up the Form 
of an Agreement, that fliould contain only So much 
Church Order and Dijcipline^ di the Epifcopal Presbyterian 
and Independant are agreed in^ as belon^iny^ to the Payors 
of each Particular Chwch. For it was intended thai no- 
Tl)e VV'or-^^^"P fhould be inferted that any one fhould need dif-. 
cefteifhire ^^^" • ^^ ^^^ being the aim to difputc each other into 
Agreement a nearer Agreement in Opinions, but lirtt to agree in 
for Church ^hc Pracfl'.cc of what was own'd by all. Accordingly he 
Order and drew up fome Articles for common Conftnt, in order 

CoMord. to 

Chap. VII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 117 

to the reduciug the Churches to fotne Order, the fa- 
tisfying Minifters in Adminiftring the Sacraments, and 
ftopping the more Religious from Separation, and that 
without contradicting the Judgment of either of the 
3 Parties mention d. After feveral Meetings to conli- 
der and examine them, and the altering fome particu- 
lar PaflTages, they were unanimoufly agreed to, by the 
Minifters of Worceflerpoifey and feveral in the Neigh- 
bourhood ; who aflbciated for mutual Help and Con- 
cord in their Work: Their Names were as follows. 
"Mr, Andrew Trifiram, Mini&iGT oi Bridgnorth, Mr.Tho, 
Baldwin of Chad/ley. Mr. Tho, Baldwin of Clenf, Mr. 
Jofeph Baker of J4^orcefier, Mr, Henry Oajlmid of Bswd' 
ley, Mr. VViliiam Spicer of Stone, Mr. J^ichard Sergeant, 
laft Miniftcr of Stone, Mr. PVilshy of PVomhorne, 
Mr. John ^eignolds oi iVolverhfimfton, Mr. Jofeph ^cel^e 
of I{pwley. Mr. Bjchard H'ollcy of Snilwarp, Mr. Gila 
WoUey. Mr. Humphrey Wnldern of Broome, Mr.Bd- 
xvtird Bowchier of Church-hill, Mr. Ambrofe Sparry of 
Martley, Mr. fVilliam I^mberley of I{jdmarhy, Mr. 
Benjamin Baxter of ZJpton upon Severn. Mr. Dowley of 
Stoy. Mr. Stephen Baxter, Mr. Thomas Bromwic^. of 
Kjnfey. Mr. J, Nott of Sherijf hales, Mr. George Hop- 
kins of Eve/ham, Mr. John Spilsbury of Brotnfgrove^ 
And Mr. Juice of PVorceJier. All of them Worthy Men, 
Eminent for Piety, and Moderation, and Minifterial 
Abilities. Having all agreed in this Aflbciation, they 
propos*d publickly to tbeir People fo much as requii'd 
their Confent and Pradice, and gave every Family a 
Copy in Print, and a fufficient time to confider and un- 
derftand it, and then put it in Execution. Mr. Baxter 
publilh'd the whole, with the Reafons and Explica- 
tion of the feveral Particulars, in a Book calKd C/jr/- 
ftian Concord.'-— 'In their Aflbciation they agreed upon 
a Monthly Meeting at certain Market-Towns, for 
Conference about fuch Cafes of Difcipline as rcquir'd 
Confultation and Confent : And they were conftant- 
ly kept up at Evefloam and Kjderminfter. At Ksder- 
minfter there was once a Month a Meeting of ^ Jufti- 
ces of the Peace, who livM with them, and 3 or 4 
Minifters, {for fo many they had in the Parifti)^ and 
3 or 4 Deacons, and 20 of the Antienc and Godly 
Men of the Congregation, who pretended to no Office 
as Lay-Elders, but only met as Trufteea of the whole 

i 3 Church, 

ii8 The LIFE of Chap.Vll. 

Church, and were chofen Annually for that Purpofe. 
At this Meeting they admoniili'd thofe who remain'd 
Impenitent in any Scandalous Sin, after more Private 
Admonition before two or three ; they with all poflible 
Tcnderncfs perfwaded them to repent, and labour d 
to convince them of iheir Sin and Danger ; and prayed 
with them if they confented. If they could not be 
be prevail'd with to repent, they requir'd them to meet 
before all the Minifters at the other Monthly Meeting, 
which was always the next Day after this Parochial 
Meeting. There the Admonitions and Exhortations 
were renew'd, and fome Minifters of other Parilhes la- 
boured to fet it Home, that the Offender might not 
think it was only the Opinion of the Minifter of the 
Place, and that he did it out of Ill-Will or Partiality. 
If the Offender yielded penitently to confefs his Sin, 
and promife Amendment, (more or lefs publickly ac- 
cording to the Nature of the Scandal ) they then joyn'd 
in Prayer for his true Repentance and Forgivenefs, and 
exhorted him farther to his Duty for the Future. But 
if he ihJl contiiiu'd obftinately Impenitent, by the Con- 
icnt of alJ, he was by the Paftor of the Place to be 
pubJickJy admonifh'd, and pray'd for by that Church, 
ufually three feveraJly Days together : And if flill he re- 
mained Impenitent, the Church was requir'd to avoid 
him, as a Perfon untit for their Commuiuon. And 
the like Method was follow'd by all the Aflbciated 
Minifters and Churches At the fame Time the Mi- 
nifters of Cumberland and li^ejimorland fell alfo upon 
I he fame Courfe, and took much the fame Method for 
the Exercife of Church Difcipline ; and correfponded 
with the Minifters of IVorcefierpoire about it : And fo 
alio did fome other Counties. 
The lonii- Jn thefe Meetings of the H^orcefierfhire Minifters, 
"Daj Le- they itudied how to have the Lcdbures they fet up a- 
Oure mthc mojig them extend to every Place in the County ihat 
County. }^aj need. For when the Parliament purg d the Mini- 
ftry, they caft out thole v/ho were moft Infafficicnt and 
Scandalous, as grofs Drunkards, andfuch like ; and alfo 
fome few Civil Men that had been againft them in the 
War, or fet up Bovfin^ to Altnrsj with clie like Innova- 
tions : But they had left in, near half the MJiufters 
that were not good cno* to do much Service, nor bad 
^no to be caft jDUt as mtcrly intoleiabk. There ^«- 

Chap. VIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 119 

main d a Company of weak Preachers, that had no 
great Skill in Divinity, nor Zeal for GodJinefs ; but 
preach'd weakly 'that which was true, and liv'd in no 
grofs notorious Sin. Thefe Men not being caft out, their 
People greatly needed Help ; for their dark fleepy 
Preaching did but little good. *Twas therefore refolv'd. 
That fame of the filler Mlnifters fhould often voluntarily 
help them. Mr. Baxter procur'd the 30 /. that was col- 
Jedted at the Yearly Feaft of the Londoners of that Coun- 
ty, for the Support of fuch a Ledure for one Year, and 
fo the Defign was covered under the Name of The Lon^ 
doners Lecture ; which took off" the Offence. They chofe 
four worthy Men, Mr. Andrew Triifram, Mr. Henry 
Oajland, Mr. Thomas Baldwin^ and Mr. J of. Treble; who 
undercook to go each Man his Day once a Month, 
which was every Lord's Day between the four, and to 
preach at thofe Places whjich had moft need, twice on 
the Lord's-Day ; but to avoid all IllConfequences and O/- 
fence^ they were fometimes to go to abler Men's Con- 
gregations, and where ever they came to fay fomevvhat 
to draw the People, to the Honour and fpecial Regard 
of their own Payors ; that how weak foever they were, 
they might fee the Defign was not to draw away the 
Hearts of the People from them, but to ftrengthen their 
Hands, and help them in their Work. This Lecture 
did a great deal of Good ; and tho' the Londoners gave 
their Afliflance but one Year, yet having once fet it on 
Foot, they continu'd it voluntarily, Mr. Baxter being 
as forward as any ; and they held on 'till they were fi- 
lencM, and had the Church Doors fhut upon thcra. 

But it was not eno' to fuch a Man as Mr. Baxter to The \Vor- 
be ufeful in the Particular County he liv d in ; he was ceiicrfhire 
earneft in feeking, and careful in improving, all 0;>- ■^"♦^'*"'' 
fortunities of General Service. In the Time of the 
B^mp .or Common-wealth, the Anahaptifts, Seekers^ &c. 
flew fo high againft Tithes and the Miniftry, that it 
was much fear'd they would have prevail'd at laft. Here- 
upon ;he drew up a Petition for the Miniftry, and got 
many Thoufand Hands to it in PVorcefier/hire., on which 
Account it was printed with the Title of that County's 
Petition, it was-prefented by Mr. Thomas Foley, and 
Col. John Bridges, and a kind promi^ng Anfwer was 
given to it, which feem'd to lead to foajc good Refo- 
iutions. The Seftaries greatly rag'd againft the Petition, 

I 4 ^ad 

MM «>«*^i.fc«^lfa*iai%#i 

1 20 The LIFE of Chap. VII. 

and one wrote a vehement Invedlive againft it, which 
Mr. Baxter anfwer^d in a Paper call'd, The De- 
fence of the Worcefterfhirc Petiticr?^ a Copy of which he 
gave to each Parliament Man at the Door : But within 
a Day or two after they were dilTolv'd. 
The Debate I" the Injlruifient whereby Oliver wa$ made Protcftor, 
tibout Tun- it was declared. That ail Jhould have Liberty for the free 
d^mintals. E^rcife cf their B^Ugion^ who profe/s'd Faith in God by 
Jejus Chrifl. This Inftrument being examined in Parlia- 
ment, when they came to thofe Words, fome honeft 
Members afiirm'd,. That if they f pake 6e. it, and not de no- 
mine, F'J'V^ in God by Jefus CfjrifiyCould contain no le/j than 
the Fundamentals of ^ligion. So that it was purpofed. 
That all (hould have a due Meafure of Liberty, who 
profefs'd the Fundamentals. Hereupon the Committee 
appointed to that Bufinefs, were requir'd to nominate 
certain Divines, to draw up in terminis the Fundamen- 
tals cf {{eligion^ to be as a Teft in this Toleration. The 
Ccmmitee being about fourteen, nam'd every one his Man. 
The Lord Broghill ( afterwards Earl of Orrery, and 
Lord-Prelident of Munfter, ) nam'd Arcb-Bifhop ZJfh- 
«r; who rerufing the Service, he nominated Mr. Bax^ 
ter in his Stead ; upon which, he was fent for up to 
London^ and drawn into a difficult Piece of Service, in 
which tho' he could eafily forefee he fhould be hampered 
by the Karrownefs of fome, and the Shynefs of others, he 
yet freely engag'd. The other Perions employed, were 
Mr. Mar/ha/^ Mr. B^yner, Dr. Cheynely Dr. Goodvoin^ 
Dr. Owfw, Mr. Nye, Mr. Sydrach Sympfon, Mr. Vims, 
Mr. Mtntcn^ and Mr. Jacomb, And he found they had 
begun, and drawn up fome few of the Propolitions, 
which they call'd Fand.^mmtf.UhQ^ort, hisArrivaJ. For 
his own Part, he apprehended, that in bating fo Nice 
a Que A ion as that, PPhnt are your Fundament/: Is ? Great 
Care ought to be taken to diftinguifh between the 
Scnfe or Matter, and the Words : That the Senfe 
only is primarily and properly Fundamental, and the 
Words no farther than as they are needful to cxprefs 
that Senfc. In Reality therefore he took no more to 
be Eflential or Fundamental in Religion, but what 
it contain'd in our Baptifmal Covenant, I believe in 
God the Father, Son, and Holy Cshoj}, and pive up my felf 
in Civenant to him, renouncing the Flejh, the l^orld, and 
cJrv'DiviL And as .to Words, he took no particular 
tr.:. Word$ 

Chap. VII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 


Words in the World to be ElTentials of our Religion • 
otherwife, no Man could be fav'd without the Lan- 
guage which thofe Words belong to. And as to Pub- 
lick Profefiions upon Admittance to Communion, he 
tho't thus much might very well fuffice: In general, I do 
believe all that is contain d in the Sacred Cammcal Scrip- 
tures, and particularly I believe all explicit/)/ contairid in 
the Antient Creeds, and I defire all that is contain d in the 
hordes Prayer, and I refolve upon Obedience to the Ten Com- 
mandments, and what ever elfe I can learn of the PVill of 
God, And for all other Points, he judg'd it eno' to 
preferve both Truth and Peace, that Men promife not 
to preach againft them, or contradict them, tho' they 
do not fubfcribe them. And therefore he propos'd the 
Offering to the Parliament, the Creed, Lord's Prayer^ 
and Ten Commandments, as the Eflcntials or the Fun- 
damentals of Chriftianity, containing all that is ne- 
cefTary to Salvation. When they objedted, That this 
might be fubfcrib'd by a Papifl or Socinian ; his Anfwer 
was, That it was fo much the better, and the fitter to be 
the Matter of Concord : But that if they were afraid of 
Communion with Papifts and Socinians, it fhould not be 
avoided by making a New B^le or Teji of Faith which they 
will not fubfcribe tOy or by forcing others to fubfcribe to more 
than they can do^ but by calling them to Account, when ever 
in Preaching or fi'^riting^ they contradiB or abvfe the Truth 
to which they have fubjcrib''d. They refolv'd however to 
hold on in the Way they had begun, and fo all that he 
had left to do, was to ufe his Endeavours to prevent 
their multiplying Fundamentals needlefly. At length 
this Propofition was bro't in among others under the 
Head of the Scriptures, That no Man could know God to 
Salvation by any other Means. This he aflerted was nei- 
ther Fundamental nor Truth, for that Faith may be 
wrought by the Teaching of another,without ever know- 
ing that there is a Scripture. He argu'd the Point, and 
afterwards gave them his Reafons in Writing : And if 
•he did no other Service among them, at leaft prevented 
the running many Things fo high as might otherwife 
have been expeded. When after many long Debates, 
they had printed Twenty of their Propofitions for the 
Parliament, ihax was diffolY'd^ and fo all came to 


I2X The LIFE of Chap. VII. 

Truth and Peace were the Matter of this Good 
Mans Purfuit all his Days. He ftu^-k at no Pains that 
might concnbute to either. He refolv'd to take fitting 
Opportunities of dealing with all the fevcral Parties in- 
to which the Nation was unhappily divided, hoping 
that at leaft he might help to pave the Way for the 
Succefs of others, when the happy Jundlure fhould 
arrive, tho' his iindeavours (hould prove fruitlefs and 
abortive. Mr. Vines extolling the Judgment and Learn- 
ing of Dr. B^alph Brovonriyg^ Bilhop of Excetcr, and ad- 
viftng him to choofc him as the fitteft Man to treat with 
for Concord with the Diccefnn Party, he wrote to him, 
and Tent hina fome Terms of Concord. He return'd 
him a very kind Letter, profefiing his WiUingnefs to 
profecute that Work, and fending a particular Anfwer 
to his Propofals, granted the main Matters which he de- 
Cred, and which would have united all Parties, if yield- 
ed to when the King came in. For he granted, with 
Bifhop Vjher^ that every Presbyter is and muft be a Go- 
vernour, as well as a Teacher of his own Flock ; and 
that fubordinare AfTemblies, like Rural Deanrics, might 
be fet up in every Market Town, or in certain limited 
Divisions. And fome good A^greement with theEpifcopal 
Party, might have been even then hop'd for, had not 
Olive) y when he had the Government in his Hands, put 
in among the Scandalous Minifters, who were there- 
upon to be ejected all thro' the Nation, all thofe who 
took Part with the King againft the Parliament : With 
which they were Co .exafperated, as to lay allde all 
Tho'cs of Agreement. 
A Vcoate Mr. Martin Johti/o?:, a Neighbouring Minifier at 
concernin'r iVoynbornc, (afterwards Minifter of Spalding in Lincoln- 
the NeccjJityJhireJ who tho* high in bis Principles, was yet a Lover 
of a clear of all honcft pcaceablc Men, and conftantly at the 
Succcjjionin Meetings, Ledturcs, and Difputations at KsdcnninftcTy 
the Mini' ^rote to Mr. Bnxtcr aboui: the Keccfjhy of Epifcfpal Or- 
'^' dinnticn. He in Anfwcr to himmaintain'd, That there 

was no abfolute Ncccifity, That a Man might be a 
true Miniftcr who was ordain'd by Presbyters ; and 
that in Cafes of Necelfity, it was a Duty to take Ordi- 
nation from them. This he oppos'd with Mndefty and 
J-udg^nent for a Time, 'till at laft being convinc'd, he 
yielded the Caufc. 


Chap. VII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 123 

rU here fubjoyn a fhorc Abftrad of the Arguments 
and Replies, 

Mr. Johnfon gave Four Reafons why he was for being 
earneft in pleading for an Uninterrupted Succeffion in 
the Miniftry, v^ich Reafons he urg d as Arguments to 
prove it. 

I. He urg*d the Serloufnefs of our Divines in their En- 
deavours to frovdtf That our Bijhops in the Days of Kjng 
Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth were Ordain d by Bi- 
fi>opSy againft the Calumnies 0/ Sanders, Kellifon, Chalm- 
ney, and others, who warmly ajferted an Interruption in the 
Succeffion, The Pains of our Divines in this Refpedl, 
he tho'c might have been fpar'd, if a clear Succeffion be 
not needful.—- 

Mr. Baxter in Anfwer told him, * That he tho't it 
much more fafe, in a Cafe of this Nature, firft to 
confider the Fad:, and prove that there hath been 
fuch a Succeflion, before the Necefllty of it is afTert-' 
ed. However, fince he took the other Way, he 
would follow. This Argument, he told him from 
the Reformers, when fcann d, would amount to this ; 
That what ever they tho'c neceflary to be prov'd a- 
gainft the Papifts, was really fo ; But befides that 
there is no Confequence in that, where there is an ac- 
knowledged Fallibility ; it is withal obfervable, that 
the EngUfh Bilhops might have other Ends in endea- 
vouring to clear the Succeflion, befides Compliance 
with a fuppos'd Neceflity : They might defign the 
confuting their Adverfary on his own Grounds ; or 
they might aim at ftiewing, that tho' the Neceflity of 
a clear Succeffion were granted, yet they need not 
grant the Nullity of their Calling. Nay , 'tis evident 
in Fad:, that tho' fuch high Men as Mouyitague and 
Laud^ did joyn with the Papifts in pleading for the 
Neceflity of a diftind Succefllon, yet this was not 
the Way of the True Primitive Fathers of the 
Church jof England^ who argu'd upon the Succeflion 
againft the Papifts only ad Hominem, as we fay, for 
their more efledual Convidion : And therefore took 
fo jnuch Pains to confute the Fable of the Naggs- 
* Head Ordination, that they might prove the Papifts 
ij Slanderers, And 'tis obfervable, that fuch high Men 



The LI FE of Chap. VH. 

as thole mention'd, were nigh upon the Matter as 

zealous againit Queen Eli:{nbeth'*s Epifcopai Proceftanis 
as againft the Papifts themfelves. 

2. Mr Johnfons Second Argument was to this Purpofe. 
Without a clear Succeflion, we that are now Minifters 
cannot be faid to have our Authority from Chrift, for 
we muft have it from him either medintcly or immedi- 
ately. To affert an immediate Derivaiion of Authority 
from Chrift, is extravagant. \i yNt\i2.\'t it mediately 
from Chrift, we muft have it by the Mediation of fome 
Perfon,who at length had it immediately from him.This 
cannot be, if the Succeflion be interrupted. If it be faid, 
the Authority is convcy'd from Chrift, by the Media- 
tion of the written Word, he nnfwers, 'tis no fit Me- 
dium for the conveying fuch Authority in our Days : 
And that for this Reafon, becaufe it meddles not with 
any Particular Perfons of our Times. For the written 
Word neither Names any Particular Perfons, nor lays 
down any incommunicable Adjundt that might diftin- 
guifh them, nor gives" any fuch general Defcription 
which may be perfonally and particularly afcrib'd toa- 
ny of them. Were there any fuch general Defcription, 
that could give Authority, it muft be in Words to this 
Purpofe; They th^t nrc thus and thus qualify d, may he 
Minijiersofthc Word : Whcrcas the Scripture only fays. 
They that Preach the fVjrd fhall he thu t and thus qualify' d ; 
but fuppofestbe Perfons fo qualify'd to come by their 
Authority fome other Way. For Authority he con- 
ceived to be far different, from either Abilities to un- 
dergo an Employment, or a willing Mind to undertake 
it, orConvenicncy of Habitation for the Difcharge of 
it, or the Deiire of any Perfons inviting a Man to it. A 
Man may have all thefe, and yet want Authority. Tho' 
all thefe fiiould concur in the Cafe of a Gentleman, 
yet is he nota Jnftice of Peace, 'till his Name be in the 
Commiflion from the Supream Magiftrate, and he 
hath taken his Oath as avStipulation to him on hisPart, 
for his faithful Dillhargein ic : So neither doth a Man, 
by the Concurrence of all thele Circumftances, be- 
come an Authoriz'd Minifter, 'till Jefiis Chrift, the Su- 
preme Govcrnour of his Church, rtiall by the Bifhops, 
as his Deputies, put his Name into the Gommiftion^ 
and take reciproc;;! Security from him for his faithful 
Difcharge of his Duty. T© 

Chap. VII. Mr, Richard Baxter. 125 

To this Mr. Baxter reply*d, * That a Conftitution 
may be from Chrift medintefy, either in refped to a 
mediating Perfon, or tO forae mediating Sign only : 
And the mediating Perfcn may be either the total fub- 
ordinate Caufe, having himfelf receiv'd the Power 
from God, and being as from himfelf to convey ic 
unto Man ; or be may be but the Accidental Caufc ; 
or his Adion may be only conditionally requifite. J«i?- 
mediateiy^ in the ablolute Senfe, with the Exclufion 
of all Mediating Perfons and Signs, no Man ever 
had any Right communicated, or Duty impos'd by 
God, unlefs perhaps the immediate Imprefs, or fu- 
pernatural Revelation of the Holy Ghoft to fome 
Prophet or Apoftle, might be faid to do it, God is 
fo abfolutely the Fountain of all Power, that no 
Man can either have or give any Power but deriva- 
tively from him, and by his Commiffion ; and the 
general Way of Man s giving it, muft be by the (ig- 
nification of God's Will ; and fo far as that can be 
fufiiciently difcover'd, there needs no more to the Con- 
.yeyance of Power. Men mediate three Ways in the 
Nomination of the Perfon. When they have a Go- 
verning Authority over others, they convey efficient- 
ly to inferior Officers the Power that belongs to their 
Places. This Way of mediating is not always, if at 
all, neceffary or poffible in the Church. The Papiffs 
own their Pope is authorized, without this Way of 
Efficiency ; for none have a Papal Power to convey 
to him. And it was the old Doc5lrine of the Church, 
(in St. Cyprian s Time) That all Biihops were equal, 
and had no Power one over another, but all had 
their Power dire(5tly from Chrift. A Second Way is, 
when Men that are of equal Authority have the No- 
mination of the Perfon. In fuch a Cafe there can be 
no proper Efficiency ; for they who are the Ordainers, 
have no particular Government over ihofe whom they 
ordain, or the Churches to whom they ordain them. 
Their Aciion is only a necelTary Pieiequifire. The 
Third Way of Mediating is by the meer Ele^iion of 
Infenours. As to the written Word, that, in Cafe of 
a failing of Ordairers is a fnfficient Mediate I/iJiru- 
meijt ; Abilities, Willingnefs , and Opportunity 
(which are necelfary to qualify ) concurring. The 


126 The LI FE of Chap. Vlf. 

Confticution of Magiftrarcs, in Cafe of a failure of 
Minif^ers, is a farther Medium, diftirid frofti Scrip- 
ture. When Miniftersfail, Magiftrates are the Judges ; 
if both fail, the People have the Judgment of Difcre- 
tion without any Governing Power : Their Judgment 
of Difcretion hath a fnfficient Difcovery of God's Ef- 
ficient Conftitution, in the Law of God, in the Per- 
fonsAbiJities, Willingnefs, and Opportunity, and the 
Willingnefs of the People. 

The Word of God hath not left us at fuch un- 
certainty in the Point, as this Sort of Arguing would 
feem to intimate. For we find God hath there de- 
termin'd that there fhall be Minifters : He hath alfo 
detcrmin'd the Nature of their Work and Power, 
the Obje<5k about which, and the End to which, it is 
to be eroploy'd. The Perfons are defcrib'd from their 
neceflary Qualifications, in the Books of Timothy and 
Titus. And all that is now left to be done, is but to 
judge and determine of the particular Perfon who 
is moft capable ,• and fo far to be the Medium of his 
receiving the Power. This Judging and Determina- 
tion muft be by Signs, from the Perfons Qualificatibns 
agreeing to the Rule. And God hath made Ecclefia- 
ftical Officers the Ordinary Author it ative Judges of this 
Queftion, ^jo is the Qunlifyd Perfon ^ So that 'tis 
not only the Scnfe of the Word of God in the Matter, 
That they thnt /hall he thus and thus qualify*d, 
but Men thus and thus {]ualifyd^ Ihall he appointed to 
Preach the Wcrd. And the Obligation in this Refpe£l 
remains in Force, tho' the Way of their Ordination 
may ccafe: And m fuch a Cafe the Magiftrate's Defjg- 
nation^ or People's llleclion, upon the difcerning the 
Qualifications, is a fufficient Nomination of the Per- 
fon ; upon which Nomination the Word of God con- 
veys the Power to him. 

' God hath no where oblig'd himfelf in Scripture to 
give all Churches the Opportunity of li^-gular Mi- 
nijferial Ordination : Nay in FaCt, in many Places 
there hath been a Moral or Natural Impoifibility 
of it; as in the f{om'/Jo Church, where there's no 
Ordination to be had, but upon finful Terms, by 
wicked Oaths or Profelllons r Or in fome remote 
Parrs of the World, where there arc no Minilters. 
But ruppofc fuch a Cafe had never been, 'tis ycc pof- 


Chap. VII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 127 

fible for there to be fuch a Cafe, where a Regular 
Ordination Ihould be impracticable; and therefore 
it cannot be an indifpenfible Duty. Again, the End 
why I am oblig'd to feek Ordination rather from an 
Ecclefiaftical Officer than from a Magittrate, (^c, is 
becaufe God hath appointed him for Order fake, as 
one that ought to be the fitteft to do it, and prevent 
Intrufions and Abufes. Now where the Regular Or- 
dainers prove infufficient or wicked ; this End fails. 
Thus it was in. the Time of the Arrian Defe(ftion ; 
and thus, 'tis ac this Day in the Church of B^me. God 
gives no Men Power to deftroy the Church, but to 
preferve and propagate it. And therefore when Men 
will not ordain to the Prefervation, but to the appa- 
rent Deftrudkion of the Church, we are not oblig'd 
to receive their Ordination. 

' That it was never the Will of God that there 
ftiould be no Miniftry at all, longer than Men 
might be regularly ordain'd, he prov'd by feveral 
Reafons. Becaufe the Office of the Miniftry is of 
ftanding Neceflicy to the very Being of a PoHtical 
Church, whereas Ecclefiaftical Authoritative Ordi- 
nation is but neceffary to the Well-being of it. And 
therefote the failing of the Latter, caufeth not a 
failing of the Former. God hath oft faffer'd his 
Church to fall into Diforders and Diftempers^ when 
yet he hath preferv'd its Being. Withal, God hath 
not infeparably ty'd a neceffary certain End, to one 
only mutable uncertain Mean. The Office of the 
Miniftry, is the necelfary certain End of Regular 
Ecclefiaftical Ordinntion 5 and that is a mutable un- 
certain Mean. Again, God hath not put ic into the 
Power of Biftiops, or other Ordainers, to deftroy 
his Church for ever, as they might do, if the Mini- 
ftry were infeparably annex'd to their Authoritative 
Ordination. Eafily might they do it upon that 
Suppofition ; for that it is in the Power of their 
Wills, whether they will ordain any other to luc- 
ceed them ; and if they (hould not, the SuccefTion 
is interrupted, and the Ofiice muft fail. It's vain 
to fay. This is not to be fuppos'd, when there is no 
Promife or Certainty of the contrary : And when 
'tis fo evident that Ordainers may turn Hcretica[, 
and refufe to ordain any but what will be io too ; 


128 The LIFE cf Chap. VII. 

* which was the Cafe in the Time of the Arrians, And 

* as for thofe few that do not lurn Hereticks, they 
' may clog their Ordinations with fuch Impofitions 
' and Engagements, as that Perfons fearing God may 
' juftly refcife to fubmit to them. They may fo ma- 
^ nage Matters, as that the Confcientious muft not be 

* ordained by them ; and confeqiiently they have 

* Power to deftroy the Church : Which if it were af- 

* firm'd but of the Churches in one Nation, is not 

* true. Again, God hath made it indifpenfibly ne- 

* ceffary to his People to the Worki's End, to af- 

* femble in foJemn Congregations for Pubiick Wor- 

* (hip : This cannot be without a Miniftry ; and there- 
' fore this muft be had, tho Authoritntive Ecclefisflicnl 

* Ordination fail. Such a Failure can never abfolve a 
' Country or People from God's Pubiick Worlhip ; 

* without which Chriftianity would foon dwindle away. 

* Again, the Law of Nature, and the exprefs unchan- 

* geable Written Word agreeing with it, require Men 

* to do the Office of Minifters, who have a Fitnefs for 

* it, where there is an undeniable NecelCcy of their 

* Help 5 and fuch a fuppos'd Failure can't give a Dif- 

* penfation. That there is a Duty in fuch a Cafe of 

* Necelllty, even on Perfons unordain d, appears hence, 
' in that the Office of the Miniftry comprehends the 
' greateft Works of Mercy to Men's Souls, and which 

* are moft for the Glory of God, of which when there 
' is Ability, Opportunity and Neceliicy, to be fuie 

* Obligation cannot be wanting. In a Place that is in- 

* f<;dled, where better Help is not at Hand, a Man of 

* tolerable Skill is bound to give Advice, tho he be 
' not a Phylician. In an unexpedted Aflault of an E- 

* nemy in the Camp, if the Commanders are afleep or 

* abfent, the moft experienc'd Soldiers may fupply their 

* Place : In fuch Cafes, Salus Populi Suprema LeXj the 
' Common Safety^ as the highefl Law, univerfally pre- 

* vails ; and there is the fame Reafon why Salus Eccle- 

* fi-e (hould be Suprema Lex ; why the S/ifct]f of the 

* Church lliould be the higheft Law, without fticking ac 

* Formalities, when the Ail is at Stake. Our Lord 

* hjth raught us, that Ceremonials and mccr Fifjttvesdo 

* give Way to Natural Morals and Suhfinntials ; and 

* that uhen two Duties come together, and cannot 

* boih be perform'd, the Greater muft be chofcn, 


Chap. VII. Air. Richard Baxter. 129 

Circuyncificn^ that tvas fo {^^(^tly crijoyn'd, was di- 
fpens'd with for forty Years logether in the Wild^r- 
nefs : How much more under the Gofpel Would God 
have Externals and Modals ftdop to the Sublhnce ? 
Again, there is a great Parity between Secular and 
Ecclefiaftical Power. Jf an Irirerruption of the Succef- ^r^ 
(ion in the ordinary Conveyance 6^ Civil Power ^ leave 
a Nation without any true Power or Authority, then 
moft Commoti'Vpe tilths^ this of England in particular^ 
(where the Line of Succeflion haih been fo oft Inter- 
rupted) had been long ago diffolv'd : But this is a 
Cohclufion evidently Deftru£live of all Civil Govern- 
ment. Now there is not a greater NecefUcy of an un- 
interrupted SuccefTion in the Conveyance of Ecclefia- 
fiical Power^ than there is as to that which is Secular: 
And therefore Mr. Baxter put Mr. John/on Mpoti apply- 
ing what he faid of a Minifter's receiving his EccJe- 
fiaftical Power mediately or immedldtely ; and if me^ 
diately^ how by Scripture Mediation, which riieddles 
not with particular Perfons ; to King Charles the 
Firlt's Receipt of his Civil Power or Authority in 
.'this Nation ; wbich he thnnght wciuld help him to 
difcover how Uncle Strength there Wis in his Argu-. 
ment. Again, want of Authoritarive EcclefiafticaJ 
OrdinatioHj in Cafe of Neceffity, will no more null 
-the A(5tions of Church Governonrs now, than un- 
deniable Ufurpation did null the Miniifetial Adiohs 
of the Priefls before Chriit's Death. And if their 
Adiions aie not null, their Ordinations are not null. 
That the Prief^s in our Saviour's Time came not In 
in God's Wayjis well known, and univerfaliy own'd : 
And that their Actions were not null, as to others, ap- 
pears by Chrifl's teaching Men to fubmic to them. 
Now 'tis hard to give a Reafon why there (hould aoc 
be as great a Neceflity of an Uninterrupted SuccelHon 
then, as now. Nay, the Neceflitylwas then on many 
Accounts greater, becaufe the Priefthood was fix'd in 
a Family, ^Ci Again, when God tyes his People to 
Duty^ he is ready to give them the Bleffing, which is 
its Endj if tliey obey. Now God obliges many to 
fubmit to the Minifterial Adtions of fome that arc ir- 
regularly Ordain'd, nay, even of Ufurpers: And 
hath not obliged the People narrowly to pry into a 
Miniftera CalJj to whom they belong, as to his juf! 

K Ordina- 

I50 The LIFE of Ghap. VII. 

Ordination, if they ftnJ him fit for, and faithful in, 
the Miniftcrial Woik. Nay, the People cannot 
know or judge of ihe Matter of a clear Succelfion* 
For if they know their Miiiifters wereOrdain'd, how 
can they tell how it was as to thofc that ordain'd 
them, or as to many other Links of that Chain that 
muft at lafl derive their Power from Chrift hinifelf 
by Perfona] SucceiTicn. Again, if the Admii]iiftra- 
tions even of Ufurpers were null, ( and fo the Ordi- 
nation of fuch ) then innocent Perfons and Churches 
would fuffer, nay be ruin'd, meerly thro' other Men's 
Faults. If the Lord-Uepucy of Ireland^ or the Vice- 
Roy of Naples were dead, and one ihould fo counter- 
feit the King*s Hand and Seal, as that the Nobles and 
People could not difcern it, and Ihould annex this to 
a Grant for the Place, and (hew it to the People, and 
claim the Power by it ; if this Man continue the 
Excrcife of this Power for a Year, before the King 
difplace him, or the Deceit be difcover'd, all his 
Actions muft be valid as to the Benefit of the Common- 
we^iltb^ tho* tht^y are Treafonablc to himfelf : And he 
conveys Power from the King to Inferiour Officers, 
who yet never receiv'd any himfclf. And fo 'tis in 
the Cafe of Minifters. Again the Ordination of the 
Magiftrates ferv'd the Turn in Cafe of a Failure in the 
Regular Way, before Chrift's Time, and therefore ic 
may do fo ftill- Thus Solomon put out Abiathar^ and 
put in "^ndok, into the High Priclthood : And the 
power of Magiftrares in Church Matters was no Ce- 
remony, or Tcmporjry 1 hing. Once more, when 
any OfHcrrs of che Temple were dilcovcr'd to have no 
jutt Title, and thereupon were put out, yet none of 
their Actions, while they were in Place, were cen- 
fur'd null. This appears from iJ^wi 2. 6z. \ehem, 
7. 64, 65. and 13. 29, 50. and iffo, their Ordina- ^ 
lion was not null : Nor can it b-, upon a like Sup- 
pbfifion, in our Times. 

' Further ; The Individual Perfon to be the Subject 
of the Miiiijierial Powc/-^ may be detcrminM of or- 
dinarily (or fcmctimes at ieaft) by the People's E- i 
lecflion, and then be prercnicd to the Minifters for *'' 
Ordination ; if fo, then may the very fame Perfon, 
being detcrniin'd of by the People, be prefented ta 
Cod immediatcjy fcr his Ordination, in Cafe thf jc 
'" • *bc 

Ghap. VII. Mr. Richard Baxter. j2i 

be no Ordainers to be had. We fee the People had 
a Vote at firft in the Choice of Church Officers, /ids 
6. 5. If tliey were to choofe Deacons fo and fo quali- 
fy'd, and then prefent them to the ApolUes, then were 
they competent Difcerners of the Qualifications. 
And iri the Cafe of Minifters, feveral Councils 
have decreed Ordinations invalid,without the People's 
Elediion; yea, if they were but affrighted, andover- 
aw'd, and did noc ac^ freely. The Scripture is fuffi- 
cient for the whole of the Affair of feeling Minifters, 
except the Nomination of the Individual : Now in 
Cafe tliere be no Ordainer, a right qualify 'd Man cho- 
fen only by the People, is jultly nominated as the 
Individual, and the Word of God gives Authority to 
that Individual Perfon, fo nominated or determined 
of. For vvhen ever two Parties are made Con-Caufes^ 
Cas here, Minifters as Ordainers^ and People as Choofers) 
or are to concur in Determinations, when one Party 
failech, the Power and Duty is folely in the other. 
Again, if the Woird lo far defer ibes the Perfons to 
receive the Power, as that a Bifhop -^an nominate the 
Perfons by the help of that Defcnption, then others 
alfo may nominate them by ihe Help cf that Defcrip- 
tion. For others may be able to fee what a Bilhop 
can fee, and in Cafe of Neceility at leaft may do it. 
The Word meddles with none of the Individuals-, 
V^hich the BiJtiops decermine of, and yet conveys the 
Power when ihe Biihop hath derermin'd of the Per- 
fon to receive it. And 'tis the like, when in Cafe of 
Necedity the Perfon to receive the Power is another 
Way determined of. The Law of God is to be con- 
ceived of in this Form: i do Author i:{e the ?erfont 
that fhall be jitftly deter mirid of^ r,ccording to thii Dc" 
fcription. And becaufe Minifterial Determinations 
are the ordinary regular Way with the Peopled Cort- 
fenr, it is ^. d. Ordinarily J do /iuthori:{e the Fer/ons^ 
whom Ecdejwftical Porver fhall determine cf^ according 
to this Defer ipt ion. So that it is God, by his Law^ 
that gives the Power. Again; If the People may^ 
by their Judgment of Difcretion, difcern whether 
a Biihop have ordain'd them one agreeable to rhe 
Scripture D'/cripticn, they may alfo difcern whether 
a Man be agreeable to it, tho' unordain d. If nor^ 
then muft they receive an Heretick or Infidel with- 

K % 'oof 

i-}^ The Lit B of Chap. VII. 

outTrya!, if Ordain'd their Bifhop ; which is not 

* true, for ihey are bovind to rejedi fuch a one. If they 
" are not to Kit with fuch a one, much lefs are they 

* to rakehitn for their Minifter or Bilhop. Again; the 

* Caf:: may be fo plain who the Perfon is that God 
' Wotild hive, as that there may be no room for Contro^ 

^ ' ' /v .ibjur it. As when a Perfon hath all the vifible 

salifications of Abilities, Phty, and a Righteous 

''' CorrvcrfAtion ; a PVill to the Work ; Opfortunity for 

1', by i ibcrty from Secular Power, and Vacancy 

from Other Engagements, ^c. When ihv'j People's 

Hearts are mov'd cowards him ; and there isnoCom- 

pcriror, or not fo many but allmay be chofen: When 

' nil th'^le concur, there is no Controverfy who Ihould 

' be the Man. But then where thefe Things do concur, 

* Perfons muft feek an orderly Admiflion where it is 
' poiFible and not be their own Judges of their Fit- 
^ nefs, where there are other Judges of God's Ap- 
' poinrmcnr. But if they are wanting, or fo difpos'd 
^* as that they'll approve of none, but upon Terms of 

* their own devifing, a Formality or Point of Order is 
' not to be preferr'd before the faving of Men's Souls, 

* and the Publiclc Good and Safety of the Church. 

* Again; If inCafe of thewantof a Lawful Magiftrate, 

* the People may determine of an Individual Perfon, 

* whom God (hall Authorize, tho* the Scripture name 

* no Individual of this Age, then they may do fo 
f alfo with regard to the Miniftry. If this ben't al- 

* low'd as to Secular Government, we Ihould fcarce 

* have any Magiftrates in the World but by violent i»- 

* trufwij which is far worfexthan Popular EletUon, 

* Now the Scripture meddles no more with Individuals 

* for Magifiracy than for Mi?jijiry, 

Mr. Jolmfon at firft View complaio'd, That he could 
rot fee that Mr. Baxter, by this R^fly^ had anfxper^d his 
Second Argument ^ wherein lay the Strength of his Caufe j 
but upon more mature ConCderation, he acknow- 
Icdg'd to him, That he had juggejted that which enabled 
him to anfvQcr it himfelf^ and given him full SatisfaElion, 
For that he had convinced him, that tho' the Succejfion of 
Ordination might be interrupted^ yet we may draw our 
jiuthorlty from Chriji by the Mediation of the written 
li\rd, or indeed by the very Law of Nature^ which obii- 


Chap. VIL Mr. flichard Baxter. 195 

ges nil Men to do voha Good they can when they hnve Op^ 
per t unity ^ and there is a NeceJJity of their Help, And 
that therefore he did not doubt but a Man ml^ht have a 
fufficient Dlfcovery of the iVill of ChriH calling him out 
to Dupy And by Cc^fequence giving him fufficient Autho- 
rity for that PVorl{f tho be might want the I{?guUr En- 
trance i/ito it, 

3. Mr. Johnfons Third Argument was taken from 
the Encouragement it would give to the Invaders and In- 
truders upon the Minijlerial Office^ to own that a clear Suc- 
cejTion was not necejfary. 

To this Mr. B/:xter reply'd : * That what ever En- 
couragement fuch Perfons might take, there was no 
juft Encouragement given them. The beft Things, - 

as God^j Mercjfulneji, Chrift*s SatisfaFiion^ the Preach- 
ing of Free Grace, &c. may be Occafions of encou- 
raging Men in Sin, but are not therefore to be dif- 
own'd. Becaufe a clear Succeffion is not necejfary^ it 
doih not prefently follow, that Intruders are to be 
erabrac'd ; for they defpife or negle£l God's Order. 
If God bid them go and work in his Vineyard, but 
for Order's fake go in at this Door, he that will not 
go ia at this Door is a Difobedient Servant, and not 
to be own'd 'till he reform. But if God himfelf do 
nail up this Door, there needs no exprefs Difpen ra- 
tion for noit going in at it. And it no Way follow?, 
that becaufe Neceflicy may be pleaded where 'lis 
not real, it may not be therefore pleaded where it is 
fo. Tho* many Men may be guided by Fancy, and 
run before they are fent, yet other Ways muft be 
found to ftop them, befides a Suppofition, the Con- 
fequences whereof are fo fatal. Bat -what ever Li- 
berty any take without aWa^-rant, that Man mnft 
have a very hard Heart that would leave fuch a 
Nation as this, much more all the World, to the ap- 
parent Danger of BverUfling Damnation, and God's 
publick Worfliip to be utterly caft out, if it fhould 

* be prov*d. That the Succeffion of Legitimate Ordination 

* is interrupted^ 

4. Mr. Johnfon's Fourch Argument was taken from 
the Necejfity of Impofition of Hands in Ordination^ which 

K 3 ImpO' 


The LI tE of Chap. VU. 

Jmpofirion of Hetnds could not he had by him theit fcould 
ome immediately into the Minifiry^ after a fuppos^d Inter- 
uption in the Succejfion, 

To this Mr. Baxter reply'd : ' That he did not take 
Impofition of Hinds to be ablblutely eflential to Ordi- 
nation. He mentions a Bilhop of H^^orcrfter in his 
Time, fo Lame of the Go^.t that he could not move 
his Hand to a Man's Head ; and yet never heard a 
Nulhty fufped^ed in his Ordination. He fays. That 
Impofition of Hands is required^ and a proper Means, ne- 
cejfaiy not to the Beings Out to the iVell-heing of Ordinal 
tion. He asks him. If becaufe the Holy Ghoft hath 
reveal'd it to be the Will of Chrift, that a Bifhop 
have Faithful Children, and keep them in Subje- 
ction with all Gravity, it therefore follows that it 
is Eflential to a Bifiiop to hav? Children ? How 
interrupted muft this make the Succeflion ! Or be- 
caufe 'tis the Will of ChrilV, a Chriftian (hould. 
not fpeak an Idle Word, doth it therefore follow, 
that he that fpeaks an Idle Word is not a Chriflian ? 
Things muft not be carried too far. There may be 
Nercii;ty of Ordination without fmp-'fjtinn of Haihis. 
A Man caft into, remote Parts of the World, and 
there plainly called to the Office of the Minifiry, if 
he muft Travel over Land and Sea for Ordination, 
his Life may be gone, or moft of it fpent, while he 
is fecking Autlvinty to ufc it for his Mafter. if a 
few only of tlie Ordainers were left in a Country, 
Or in many Nations, and thofe hnprifcn'd, or forced 
to hide rliemreives, they mif })r ordain by an Inftru- 
ment nnder their Hands, when they could not do it 
hy Imp^fi^icn of JUtids. But befidcs, it is Neryeafy 
to fuppofe how Ordination by Imp -fit ion of Hands may 
be kept up^ tho' an Epifccpal Succfjion fhould beintei' 
rupted. And withal, the Neccifity of Impofition of 
Hands in Ordination, is much iels clear than the Nc- 
celHty of Ordination it felf, canvafs'd under the Se- 
cond Argument. Upon the Whole he told him, his 
main Strengrh lay here ; T'ont Chrift or his /Ip^ftles 
have mention'd no ether H^ay of con^eyirg Miniflertal 
pox^er but by Ordination and Impofition of Hands , and 
therefore there is no other l^ay, and this m neccffary to the 

Being cf the Ojfice, Now we may as ftrongly argue 


Ghap. VIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 135 

for any Mode or Convenient Circumftance fo re- 
quir'd or us'd. j^s Chrift or his Apcftles mention no 
H^ay of Ordination^ hut X9ith Vrnyerconjimcl^ or hutvpith 
Impofitionef Hunds on the bare Head, or but in the Sy- 
riacl^j, Hebrew, Greeks or Latin Tongues, or but on a Man 
that: IS Vigilant^ Sober and of good Behaviour : And there- 
fore there is no other XVay ; hut this is of abfchite Necef- 
fity to the Being of the OJfce, But as this is no good 
Arguing, no more is the other. It is as bad as if one 
had thu^ srgu'd with the Tfraelites in the WiJder- 
nefs ; God hath mention'd no other Way of Cove- 
nant Engagement, or Church Entrance, but by Cir- 
cumcifion j and therefore there is no other, but this 
is neceflary to a Church State and an Interelt in the 
Covenant. No Divines but acknowledge foire Cafes 
muft be judg'd, and fome Laws interpreted, >'a'»="^e<- 
iuinvy which yet is but according to the True Senfe of 
the Law, as Chrift taught the Pharifees in the Cafe of 
David, the Priefts, and his DIfciples rubbing the Ears 
of Corn. 

* As it feems "Matthias and the other Apoftles were 
Ofdain'd without Impofition of Hands, fo Gregori^ 
Thaumaturgus was ordain'dby Ph.rdimus, both againft 
his Will, and when he was diftant three Days Jour- 
ney. Gregory Kyjfcn mentions it, in his Orat, de Vit, 
ThaUtnat j and tells us, Tija't vohcn Gregory avoided the 
Hands of the iBipdoP, he by Prayer andjolemn fpWds fets 
him apart ^ tho"^ ahfijit^ to the Priefthocd. Nyjfen fpeaks 
of it as true Ordination, and the Form us'd fhews 
that it was Cdnftinuing him in Office as Bilhop of 


* And it really was an Authoritative Confecration 
to God as a Bifliop, and a Confticnting him over 
that Church by Pra) er, and folemn Words of Con- 

Their Debate ran upon many other Particulars, lefs 
momentous than thefe, which are therefore omitted. 

At another 1 ime, he v/as dealing with the Anabap- His treat- 
tifts in order to Peace, and that upon this Occafion, »>^ w»/> 
Mr. Lamb and Mr. Allen, two very fober Men, were ^he jiwt- 
Paftors of an Anabaptift feparated Church in London, baptlfi. 
Mr. Lamb*s Wife, who was a good undcrftanding Wo- 
man, wroie Mr. Bixter Word, That her Husband was 

K 4 under 

1:^6 Ihe L i t^ c. of Chap. Vll. 

under [ome Dijlurhancc in his Mindy not vpith any I{efe- 
rence tolnfant-B^ftifm^ hut r.hcut Separation tipon the Ac- 
count of it • atid that a Lettn from him upon that Sub^ 
jecl r^oiild he very feafouaule. Hereupon Mr. Baxter 
wrote to him ; and prov'd by i'cveral Argomenrs, * That 

* tho' he Ihoiild continue in his Opinion about Infant- 

* Baptifm, yet he ought not to make it a Reafonof de- 

* ny ing Communion with his Brethren of another Mind :' 
His Arguments fo wi^bught upon him, as to faiisfy him. 
Afterwards, he propounded the fame Confideracions to 
Mr. Ailen^ v-ho was alfo fatisfy'd : And thereupon they 
with joynt Confent diflblv'd their Church, and werp 
very zealous for the Redudlion of their Brethren of the 
ytnahaptifis Wzy, and to thai End they had a Meet- 
ing with divers of the moft moderate Paftor§ of the 
Re baptiz'd Churches : Mr. Baxter fent them Terins 
on whic|i they might have Peace and Communion 
with their Brethren ; and they confulted about the«5^ 
and were in a likely Way of Agreement, had not the 
Broils of the Army, and the Confu(ion attending the 
pulling dqwn of Richard Cromvel prevented it. 

jfV'A ffje He treated alf^ with Mr. Philip Nye about an Agree- 
Jndepen- ment with the Independents : Two Things Mr. Nye de- 
denu. manded as NccelTary Concefl'ions in Cafe of an Union 

That they might have Liberty to take Church Mem- 
bers out of other Parilhes : And that they might have 
' all Church Power within themfelves in their feveral 
Congregations.' Both which were comply'd with in 
Mr. Baxter's Propofals in a Meafure. According t() 
which, they were to be Members of conftant Alfocia- 
tions, and meet in Synods, tho' not as fubie«5l to their 
Govcrnmeur, yet in order to Concord: And before 
they took Members from other Churches, it was to b^ 
debated in thefe AfTemblics, H^hether there vons fufficient 
Caufe for a ii^moval. But the grcatcft Difference was 
npon the Point of Ordination, For whereas 'twas of- 
fcr'd, * That in Cafe any of their Paflors removed or 
dy'd, if the fucceeding Paftor wercprdain'd, either by 
' any remaining PaHor of that Church, or by any Pa- 
' ftors of other Churches, their own or others, they 
* iliould be own'd as Paftors :' It was rcquir'd they 
Ih'^uld be arknowledg'd as Paftors, tho' never prdain'd 
fey any Paftor of their own Church, or any other. 
^Vfaich pup a Stop "to tjic Proceeding.' A little before 

Chap. Vll. Mr. Richard bixter. 127 

King Charles's Return, fome Papers pafs'd between him l^'ith tht 
and Dr. Hammond^ about an Agreement with the £;>//^£;j//coj74/ 
C0pal Party, which went thro' the Hands of Sir I(alph -Partj. 
Clare. He propos'd, in order to a Brotherly Agree- 
ment,, That private Chriftians might have Liberty to 
manage the Concerns of Religion as they pjeas'd, in 
their Family, without MoJeftation ; Profanenefs might 
be urtiyerfaj/ly Difcountenanc'd and Punifh'd ; That 
great Care might be taken as to the Abilities and Piety 
of the Paftorsof the Church ; That no Paftofs be forc'd 
on the Flocks without their Confent ; That the Mini- 
vers be urg'd to Perfonal Catechizations ; That there 
bean open ProfeiTion of Faith and Holinefs, upon the 
puffing out of the State of Infant into that of Adult 
Church Members ; That Symbolical Miftical Ceremo- 
nies be not forc'd upon Perfons againft their Con- 
fciences, or a Form of Prayer fo impos'd, as to reftrain 
a Freedom of Praying according to the Variety of Cir- 
cumftances and Occafions ; That the Paftors of each 
Parifli Church have Liberty to hear Accufations of He- 
refy or Scandal, publickly to admonilh Offenders upon 
Occafion, and call them to Repentance, to abfolve the 
Penitent and rejecf^ the Impenitent : That the Neigh- 
bouring Paftors aiTociating for Union and Communion, 
may hold Monthly Synods in every Market Town, ha- 
ving a ftated Prefident ; that all Paftors be here Re- 
fponfible for their Conduct:, and the more weighty Af- 
fairs of Particular Churches here decided : That eve- ^ 
ry Quarter there be a Synod of all the Paftors of each ^ 
County, with a ftated Prefident ; to receive Appeals, 
■wjthovit deftroyiog the Power of particular Paftors, or 
lelTer Synods, and that no Prefident ordain, deprive, 
fufpend, or excommunicate, without the Confent of 
the Synod : That National Councils confift of the 
Prefidencs of both the Diocefan and Inferjour Synods ; 
or elfe of the Diocefan, and two out of each County, 
freely chofen by the major Vote of all the Paftors : [ 
That no Subfcription be requir'd of the Paftors, but to 
the Holy Scripture, and the Ancient Creeds, and to 
the necelTary Articles of Faith and Pradfcice exprefs'd in 
Scripture Terms, and to the Renunciation of all He- 
refijss contrary thereto : That no Paftor be difplaced 
unlefs for Infufficiency, Negligence or Scandal, com- 
mitted within two Years before the Accufacion, And 


»?8 The LIFE of Chap.VIF. 

that Perfons Excommunicate might not be pwiiftrd 
upon rhat Acconnt with Corporal Punilhments, nn- 
kfs it be by Disfranchifing. -Dr. Hammond^ in Kisr 

Reply, caft nH the Alterations or Abatements npon 
King and Parliament, without any particular Promi- 
fes of Endeavours to accomplifti them : Tho* his Death, 
'A'hich was juft upon the King's coming in, was st 
Great and General Lofs ; it being highly probable that 
his Piety, and Wifdom, and Intereft, might have had a 
ronliderable Influence for the better, had it pleas*d God 
to fpare his Life. 
Ui< T>ir- Beiides all thefe, and a great many more Endea- 
futesrvith votirs of his for Peace among^ Proteftants, he was of- 
the Tafijis.'^^^ engag'd againft the Papifts. He firft wrote three • 
Difputations^ ngainft them : One to prove tbt Prote^' 
jinnt I{eligion J^afe * another tO (hew their B^iigihn urT'" 
fttfe I and a Third to prove, tb/ii they overthrexv the 
F^tl\ by the ill B^folution of their Faith, He rext wrote 
AH^inding-Sheet fcrr Popery^ containing a S^ummary of 
Moderai:e and Effedtual Rcafons againft ^ their Reli^'^ 
gion- And afterwards publidi'd his Kfy for Catholicl^^, 
to open the Jugling of the Jefuites^' and fatisfy ail that 
are but truly willing to underftand, whether the Caufe^ 
of die i^'?wr« or B^f armed Chvchcs be of God. Befidel 
which, lie managed fome particular Debates with • 
leveral Rbmanifts, as H^. Jhhn(ort^ alias Terrot^ and 
others. And let but all this be added to his Labori- 
ons Diligence among his own particular Flock : And 
''lis many Practical Writings that he publifli'd, ani 
it will amaze atiy Man to conceive, how one of ((^ 
iTUTcli Weaknefs, who wa's conHantly folIow*d with 
divers Intiimities, fhould be capable of To much Scr- 
vikre : But an Heart full of Love to God, afid flam- 
ing with Zeal for his Honour, carried him thro* all, 
and made Ir.m for Vigour and AcSlivity the Wonder 
of his Age. ^ 


Chap. VIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 159 


The Tratjfa&foffs in Order I0 the Healing 
pafj'd Breaches^ after King Charles his 
Reflauraiion : The Savoy Conftrence 5 
and its frnitlefs Iffne, 

WHEN the King was receiv'd with the ge- ^«. j66o. 
neral Acclamations of his People, the Ex- 
pe6tations of Men were various, according 
to their feveral Interefts and Inducements. Some plain 
and moderate Epifcopal Men tho't of Reconciliation and 
Vnion with the Preshyteriar.s, The more Politick Pare 
of them knew that all their Ancient Power, and Ho- 
nour, and Revenues would be reftor'd to them, and 
none fufferM to fliare with them, but fuch as were 
entirely of their Mind and Way. But many of the 
Presbyterinns were in great Hopes of Favour *. To 7^/^, ^-^^^^ , 
cherifh which Hopes, Mr. Calamy, Dr. Retinoids, Mr. mentnfthe 
Jifh, Dr. Spurftow^ Dr, iVdlis, Dr. Bntes^ Dr. hUnton, Fresbyte- 
Mr. C/ife, Mr. Biix.'er, &c. to the Number of Ten or W^w M«;'- 
Twelve of them were made the King's Chaplains in Or- y?er< at 
dinary : Tho' none of them ever Preach'd, except ^'oun, 
Mt.CaUwy^ Dr. lieignolds, Mr. Baxter, Dr. Spurftovpy 
and Mr. Woodbri.dge^ each once a piece. By this Means 
they had eafy accefs to hisMajefty, and intending to 
improve it to the Common Good, waited upon ivim 
with my Lord Mtnchefier^ recommending to his fe- 
rious ConFideration, the Union of his Subjeds in Re- 
ligious Matters, which if he would pleafe to inter- 
pofe, he had now a moft Happy Juncture for effeding ; - 
and begging that only Things neceffary might be the 

Terms « 

* BefidesTarticuUr Tnmifis from Men inTort^er, they had an Afurance 
fromKinr Charles hMlf, in his DecUrati art from Breda, to all IvsLo- 
yinr Subjeas, April 4. ^660^ in rahich ^ere thefe Words : We do declare 
a Liberty to tender Confdences, and tlut no Man Ihall be difquieted, or 
caird in Q^ueftion, for Differences of Opinion, whicli do not difturb the 
Peace of _ the Kingdom. 


The LIFE of Chap. Vni. 

An i6(5o. Terms of Union; that the true Exercife of Church 
Pifcipline might be allow'd ; and rh^t the faithful 
Minifters that would Exercife it might not be caft our, 
nor unworthy Men obtruded on the People. Tlie 
King declared hinnfelf highly pleasM with their Tncii- 
nations to Agreement, and refolv'd to do ins Pirt to- 
wards the promoting of it : But told them, * Thai this 
Agreement could not be expededro be ccmpals'd by 
bringing one Party over co the other, but by abating 
fomething on both Sides, and meeting in the Midway. 
That if it >vere not effedted it ftiou^d be long of 
themfelvcs, and not of hinj : N^^, That he was re- 
folv'd to compafs Union, and that he would draw 
thetwodiftant Parties together, himfelf, t3c. yiM 
thereupon he defird them^^o oflfer him fome Propofals 
in order to an Agreement about Church Govenment, 
which being the main Difference, if it could be ami- 
cably adjufted, there would be little Danger of dif- 
fering in other Things. And voithal, he defired th?m ^ 
to jet down the moft that they ct)uld yield to. They told 
him, They were but few, and had no Commiflion 
from their Brethren to exprefs their Minds ; and 
therefore beggM leave to acquaint their Brethren in 
the Country, that they might know their Scnfe. 
The Kjng faid. That would be too long, and make 
too much Noife, and therefore he had rather have 
the Propofals from ihem, who might take fuch as were 
in the City with them as they tbo't good. Hereupon 
they declared. That theycould not pretend tofpeak for, 
or oblige others ; and that therefore what they did, 
muft fignify but the Minds of fo many Mm as 
were prefenr. The fQing told them. It ihould be fo ta- 
ken ; and that he intended not to call an Aflembly 
of the other Party, but would bring a few, fuch as 
he tho't meet : And that if he tho't good to advife 
with a few on each Side, for his own Satisfa(flion, 
none had Caufe to be offended at it. They alfo be^^gd 
of the Kjn^, That at the fame Time that they offered 
their Conccifions to his Majefty, the Brethren on the 
other Side might ajfo bring in theirs, containing the 
utmoft that they could abate and yield on their Side, 
in order to Concord ; that fo when both were fecn 
* and compar'd together, a Judgment might be the 

t better 

Chap. Vlil. Mr. Richard Baxter. 141 

* better formed, as to the Probability of Succcefs. And 
*. the Kjng fromisd them it fhould be fo. 

After this, the Minifters met from Day to Day at 
Slcn CoUedge^ to Confuk Openly with any of their 
Brethren that would joyn with them ; that none might 
lay they were excluded. Many of the City Minifters 
came to them ; and many Country Minifters, who 
were then in Town, joyn'd alfo with them ; as Dr. 
iVorth^ ( afterwards a Bilhop in Ireland) Mr. Fulwood^ 
afterwards Arch-Deacon of Totnefs and others ; but 
Mr. Matthev Newcomen was the moft conftant. In about 
three Weeks Time, they agreed to a Paper of Propofals, 
( which was drawn up for the moft Part by Mr. Calnmy, 
Dr. F{e:gnolds and Dr. fVorth) in which, " after anHum- 
*' ble Addrefs to His Majefty, and four Preliminary 7-/,^,-,. p^,, 
** Requefts, viz. That ferious Gcdlinefs might be Counte- p^j-^i^ ^^ ^^ 
** nnnc'd ; a Learned and Pious Minifter in each Parifh King^about 
** encQUraged ; that a Perfonal Publicly owning the Bnptifmal Church Go- 
** Covenant might precede an admiffio?! to the Lord's Table irernment. 
** and that the Lord^s Day might be ftriBly fanHified : 
*^ they offer to allow of the True Ancient Primitive Pre- 
" fidency in the Church with a due Mixture of Presby 
** ters^ in order to the avoiding the Corrruptions, Par-- 
tiality. Tyranny and other Evils, which are incident 
to the Admiftration of a fmgle Perfon. The Things 
which they principally blam'd in the Englifh Frame^ 
*' were the great Extent of the Bi/hops Diocefs^ their de- 
*' puting Commijjaries^ Chancellors^ and Officials to Aft in 
" their flead; their ajjuming the fole Power cfO'dinavion 
" and JurifdiHion ; and aHing fo -arbitrarily in Vifita^ 
'* tion Articles- bringing in New Ceremonies, and 
" fufpending Minifters at Pleafure : And for reform- 
*' ing thefe Evils they propofed, that Bijhop^VjhersF^- 
** diitlion of Epifcopacy unto the Form of Synodical Go- 
** vernment received in the Ancient Churchy (hould be 
** the Ground- Work of an Accommodation; and that 
" Suffragans (hould be chofen by the refpedive Sy- 
" nods ; the Affociations be of a moderate Extent, the 
" Minifters be under no Oaths, or Promifes, of Obe- 
" dience to their Biihops, as being Refponfible for 
*' any Tranfgreflion of the Law j and that the Biihops 
'• Govern not by Will and Pleafure, but according 
" to Rules, Canons and Conftitutions that ihould be 
*Jl gAtify'd and EftabUfli'd by Ad of Parliament.^ — 




142 The LIFE of Chap. VI!I. 

Aa. I jdo. ** As to the Liturgy, they own'd the Lawfulnefs of a 
** prefcribcd Form of Publick Worfhip; but defjr'd ^ 
** that feme Learned and Pious, and Moderate Di- 
** vines ot both lores, tDight be employ'd either to 
" Compile a NewLj///r^, or to Reform the Old, ad- 
** ding fome other Varying Forms in Scripture Phrafe, 

** to be us'd at the Minifters Choice. As to the 

*' Ceremonies they Humbly Reprcrcnted, chat the 
*' Worlhip of God was perftid: wirhour them ; that 
" God hath DeclarM himfelf in Matters of Woithip 
*' a Jealous Godj that the Reform'd Churches Abroad, 
'' itloft of them reje<fted the Ceremonies that wei?e 
^^ rerain'd here; that here in England^ they had ever 
'' fince the Reformation been Matter of Contention 
" and Difpute; that they had occaiiond the filen- 
'* cing of marly Pious and Ufeful Minifters, and given 
rife to many Separations from the Church : That 
they were at bcft but indifferent, and in their oWn 
Nature Mutable; and therefore they begg'd, that 
Kneeling at the Saci*ament might not be impofed, and 
that the Surplice, and the Crofs in Baptifm, and the 
*' Bovving at the Name of Jefus rather than Chrijl or 
" Emanuel might be abolidiM ; and that Care might be 
** taken to prevent future Innovations contrary to Lavv; 
" that fo the Publick Worlhip might be free, not only 
" from Blame but Sufpicion. 

Quickly aftbr the King's Return, 
* M4ny of.thefe after their many Hundreds of worthy Minifters 
Betn^ turn'd out of the Se^efira- were difplac'd, and caft out of 
tions, were foon fetled again in their Charges, becaufe they were in 
•thcT yacant Places, xfhence they Sequeftrations where othcrshad been 
«;.re afteri^ards eje^ed hy the ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^e Parliament. The 
An of Un^formuy: And a. for j^^^^^..^ ^^^j^j j^-g y^^- 

fuch (IS were not Jo fnon proytdcd ,. • u l ■ rT r \ r r »j 

for, they had wJJt much ./#- ' >' . "^'f, '^''' Propofals, hgnify d 

cuhy cjick/y got Lirings or L ^-^^^'^ J"' , ^,"''^'^1^°" '^^' ^^^ 
aurcfljips.i'fthatAahadHnin- fiich fhonld be Caft out, as were 
capacitated them ; on which Ac- m any Benefice belonging former- 
count it it much tire fame Thing, ly to Onc that Was not grofly «n- 
04 if that A^i had frfidifplacd fiifficient or Debauch'd ; but hnm- 
them, biy Bcgg'd, that rdl who had fuc- 

ceeded fc.tndaloui Perfcnj, might 
hold their Places. They further dcfircd, that the 
Broad-Seal might be revok'd which had been granted 



Qiap. VlII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 145 

to ieveral, for thole Livings that had been formerly An. i66v. 
fequeftred, where the Old Incumbents were fince 
Dead ; by which Grants many worthy Pofleflbrs 
were ejedted, tho' there were none before that could 
pretend any Right ; And chat his Majefty would be 
pleas'd to Publiih his Pleafure tliat no Oath or Sub- 
fcriptiojis, nor no Renunciation of Orders might be re- 
quired of any, till it was feen what was the lifne of 
the defired Agreement. The King treated thera very 
Refpe.difully, and renewed his Profeilians of his earned 
deiires of an Accommodation of the Differences, told 
them he was well pleas'd that they were for a JLirurgy, 
and yielded to the Eflence of Epifcopacy, and promis'd 
them that the Places where the Old Uicumbents were 
Dead, fhould according to their Defire, be contirm'd 
to the Poffeflbrs. 

Whereas it had been promis'd them by his Majefty , 
that they fhould meet with fome Divines of the other 
fide, and fee their Propofals, it much difappointed 
them to find •none of them appear. Bur, they were 
fearful of giving Difguft, by Expoftulating or Com- The An- 
plaining. After fome time of waiting for the Conde-/Ver of th 
fceniions and Compliances of the Epifcopal Divines f/^y^^/''?' 
in Order to Peace, they at length receiv'd a biting 2?*>m:. 
Anfwer ; by way of Refledtion on the Propofals they 
had made to his Majefty. In this their Anfwcr, 
they Declare as to their Preliminary I{equsslj, "' That 
** they don*t perceive any farther Security can be 
" given, than is provided by the Laws of the Realm ' 
** already eftablilh'd. As for private Religious Liber- ' 
*' ty that they are free to it, fo a Gap be not opened 
** to Sed:arys for private Conventicles, for the Confe- 
'* quences of which none can be refponfibie to the 
*' State : That they are for a Godly Minifter in each 
" Pariih, but know not what is meant by his re- 
** fiding in his Cure, * nor how far that Word may be 
'* extended, nor what farther Provifion can be made 

" for 

^ Thefe Gentlemen it feems were of Arch-Blfhop WhitgiftV Mind, rsho in 
<t Letter to ^mn Elizabeth, teils her the Church must fall, if the Bill 
a^ninfi "Pluralities (then brought into the Houfe of Common<) (})Ould tale 
iUce. See Fullers Church Hhloiy, Book 9. Fa^. igt. 

144 ^/j^ L I Jr E of Ctiap. WIL 


An. j66c' '* for it. As for Confirmation^ and the keeping Scaft- 
*' dalous Perfons from Communion, rhey tho'c the 
" Church had fufflciently provided : And as for the 
** Obfervation of the Lord's Day^ they declare the Laws 
*' of the Land were ftri6ler than the Laws of any Fo- 
*' reign Reforoied Church whatfoever. As to Church 
*' Governmsnt, they declare for the former Hierarchy 
** without any Akeration ; and invidioufly infintH 
**" ate. That their Retleiiions on the Confequences of 
*' a fingJe Perfon's Adminiftration in the Church waa 
as applicable to the Civil State. The Extent of D/- 
ocejfes^ they declare fuitable eno' to the Bifhop's Of- 
fice: And the Adminijiration of EccleJiaJUcat Jurif- 
difiion by Chancellours, ^c. Regular in the main* 
" Bp. V/her's f^edutlion,- they rejeft as Inconfiftenc 
" with Two other of his Difcourfes, and as being at 
** beft but a Heap of private Conceptions. The Litur- 
** gy they applaud as unexceptionable, and think it 
** can't be faid to be too Rigoroufly impos'd, when 
*' Minifters are not deny'd the Exercife of their Gifts 
(^p^ '* in Praying before and after Sermon. Which fort 
" of Praying, they declare however, is but the conti- 
** nuance of a Cuftom of no great Authority, and 
grown into Common Ufe by Sufferance only, with- 
out any other Foundation in the Laws and Canons. 
The revifing the Liturgy neverthelefs they yield to^ 
if His Majefty thinks fit. As for the Ceremonies^ 
** they could not part with one ; not being able to 
think that the Satisfa(ftion of fome private Perfons, 
*' was to be laid in the Ballance againft the Publick 
** Peace, and Uniformity of the Church. Nay, were 
*' any Abatements made, they are fatisfy'd, unquiet 
** Spirits would but be thereby encouraged to make far- 
*J ther Demands. 

Bifhop Vfijer's Model of Government being the Scheme 
which the Presbyterian Minifters now prefented to the 
King, I ihall here annex a Copy of it, that every one 
may know what it was patticulariy chat the Biihops 




Chap. Vllf. Mr. Richard Baxter. 145 

The RedtiBion of Epijcopacy unto the Form of Syno- 
dical Government received in the Antient Churchy 
proposal in the Tear 16^1^ as an Expedient for the 
Prevention of thofe Troubles which afterwards did 
arife^ about the Matter of Church Qovsrnment. 

Epifcopal and Presbyterian Government covjoynd, 

BY the Order of the Church of England, all Prcs. 
byters are charged to {a) Minifter the Doctrine and (a) The 
Sacraments and the Difcipline of Chriil: as the Lord J^ortn of or^ 
hath commanded, and as this Reahn hath recelv'd ^er;«j^ 
the faaie. And that we might the better under/land Fne/is. 
what the Lord had commanded therein, che Exhor- 
tation of St. Pnulio the Elders (b) of the Church of £- {b) Ibid. 
f he/us, is appointed to be read unto them ar the time -^'^■^^i 0.17, 
of their Ordination : Take heed jinto yourfches, and to ^ ^• 
alt the Flocks among whom the Holy Gho[t hath made you 
Overfeers to * rule the Congregation of God, rvhich he hath 
purcha/ed with his Blood. 

Of the many Elders, who in common thus Rul'd 
the Church of EphefuSy there was one Prefident whom 
our Saviour in his Epiftle to the Church, in a pecu- 
liar manner, ftileth r^^e (c) Jmel of the CLitrch c/Kphe- (c) Eeve/., 
fus. And Ignatius, in another Epiftle written about z. i. 
twelve Years after to the fame Church, callcth the Bi- 
(hof thereof. Betwixt which HiJhop and the Presbytery 
of that Church, what an Harmonious Confent there 
was in the ordering the Church Governmenr, the 
fame Ignatius doth fully there declare. By the l^ re shy- 
tery (with St. Paul (d) ) underftanding the Company fd) i Tim, 
of the refl of the Presbytery or Elders, who then had a 4- M* 
Hand, not only in the Delivery of the Doctrine and 
Sacraments, but alio in the Adininiftration of the 
Difcipline rf Chrift. For farther Proof whereof, we 
have that known Teftimony of Tertullian in his gene- 

L ral 

* ^TQifJiMw, fo tahn Mat. 2. 6. and Rev. ij. 5. and i^. is- 

146 The LIFE of Chap. VIIL 

(c) Ibidem ral Apology for Chriftians. In (e) the Church are us'd 
etnm Ex- Exhortaticns, Chtrftifcments^ and Divine Cenfures; for 
hortitio- Judgment is given with great Advice, as among chofe 
nt?, CiCxi- ^jjQ ^j.g certain they are in the Si^ht of God, and it 
gauones, -. ^^^ Chieftfft forelhcwing of tlie Judgment which is to 
Divfn'L "" ^o^"^^ ^^ ^"y ^^" ^'^^^ ^^ offended that he be banifti'd 
n:j*m "& ju- ^^°'^ ^^^^ Communion of Prayer, and of the AlTembly, 
dicaciir an^ ^f 2ili ^o^y Fellowlhip. 

cum pondere, ut apud certos dc Dti confpe£lu, fumraumq^ futuri Ju- 
dicii Picjudicmm tit, fi quis in deliquerit, ut a Communione Orati- 
onis, & Convtntus, & omnis San£^i Commercii relegatur. Pisefidenc pro- 
bati quique Seniores. Honorem iflum non piecio, fed Teftimonio adepti. 
Tert. Apol. Cap. 39. 

The Prefidents that bear Rule therein, are certain 
approved Elders who have obtained this Honour, not 
by Reward, but by good Report. Who were no 
other (as he himfelf elfewhere intimateth) than thofe 
(f) Nee (/) from whofe Hands they us'd to receive the Sacra- 
dealiorum ment of the Eucharift. 
quam Pr.ielidentium fumiraus. Idem de Corona Militis, Cap. 3. 

For with the Bifiiop, who was the Chief Prefident 
Tand therefore ftifd by the fame TertuUian in another 
(g) Dandi pJace Summiis (g) Sacerdos for diftindiion fake) the reft 
quidera of the Difpenfers of the Word and Sacramenis were 
Biptifmi joyn'd in the common Government of the Church, 
habct jus And therefore, in Matters of Ecclefiaftical Judicature, 
Summus Cornelim Biftiop oi l{ome us'd the received Form of (JO 
Sacerdos gathering together the Fresbytery. 


de hinc Presbyteii & Dinconi. Idem de Baptifmo Cap. 17. (Ji) Omni 
A£^u ad me perhto placuit contiahi Presbyitrium. Cornel, apud Cypri- 
anura. Epif. 46. i. 

Of what Pcrfons that did confifl, Cyprian fufHcient- 
ly declareth, when he wifh'd him to read his Letters 
py riorcn- ro (•) the flourilhmg Clergy that there did rcfiJc, or 
tifllmo illi Rule with him. 
Clero, fe- 
ciiai Prafidenti, Cypiiin. Ep. $$. ad CoirneL 


Chap. VIIL Mr, Richard Baxter. 147 

Art. i66q. 
The Prefence of tbe Ckrgy being tho't to be fo rCf 
quifite in Matters of Epifcopal Audience, that in the 
4th Council of Carcha^^e it was concluded ft), that the ., .^ ^ .- 
Bilhop might hear no Mans Caufe without the Pre- ^ us I 
fence of the Clergy, which we find ajfo to be inferted [usCaufarn 
in the Canons of\K^i'er^ f/), who was Arch-bifhop of amiiatabrq- 
Tork^ in the Saxon Times, and afterwards into the Body PrrEfentU ' 
of the (w) Canon Law itfelf. . Ckrico- 

rum SiiQ- 
Tumj alioquin irrita eric fententia Epifcopi nifi Ciericorum PrtfentiAcon- 
iirmetur. Concil. Carthag. 4. cap. 23. (/) Excerptiones Hgberti. C3i). 43, 
Qn) 15. Qji. 7. cap. Ni^Uns. 

True it is, that in our Church this kind of Preshy-r 
?m4^ Government hath been long difus'd, yet fee- 
ing it ftiJl profefleth that every Paftor hath a Right to 
Rule the Church (from whence the name of ^^or3.U 
fo was given at firft to him) and to adminifter the 
Difciphne of Chriil, as well as to difpenfe the Do- 
(Strine and Sacraments, and the Reftrainc of the Ex- 
ercife of that Right proceedeth only from the Cuflom 
now receiv'd in this Realm :• No Man can doubt, but 
by another Law of the Land, this Hindrance may be 
well remov'd. And how eafily this Ancient Form of 
Government by the united Suffrages of the Clergy 
rnight be reviv'd again, and with what little fliew of 
Alteration the Synodical Conventions of the Pafiors of 
every Parifli might be accorded with the Prefidency of 
the Bifhops of each Diocefs and Province, the Indiffe- 
rent Reader may quickly perceive by theperufalof tha 
^nfuing Propofitions, 


In every Fari(h the Redlor, or the Incumbent Paftor, the Pare* 
together with the Church- Warden and Sides-men, may fhU! Co- 
every Week take notice of fuch as live Scandaloufly in-'*'^''"'"^"^ ^ 
that Congregation ; who are to receive fnch feveral Ad- ^njv?erabi9 
monitions and Reproofs, as the Quality of their Of- ^^ * "^ 
fer^ce (hall deferve ; and if by this means they cannot ^^^'^^ ' .^ 
be reclaimed, they may be prefented unro the "^^ct /'^'^j^j^ .^ 
Monthly Synod, and in the mean time be dej^rr'd by 
t{ie Paftor from accefs unto the Lord's Tabl^. 

1^8 The LIFE of Chap. VIII. 

ui)i» 1660. 


The Month- Whercas by a Statute in the 16, of Hen.S, (revived 
iy Synods in the iftof Q- Eli:(,) SutFragans are appointed to be 
anfwrerable erc£led in Twenty fix feveral Places of this Kingdom, 
to the Scot- iiiQ number of them might very well be conformed unto 
tifh Presby- ^jjg number of the feveral Rural Deanries, into which 
^7r "^n- ^/' c^^'y Diocefs is fubdivided ; which being *done, the 
eUfiafiic^l guffj-^gan (fupplying the place of thofe who in the An- 
meetin^. ^.^^^ Church were call'd Chorepifcopi) might every 
Month aflemble a Synod of all the Rectors, or Incum- 
bent Paftors, within the Prccindt, and according to 
the major part of their Voices conclude all Matters that 
ftiould be bro*c into»Debate before them. To this Synod 
the Redor and Church- Wardens might prefent fuch 
Impenitent Perfons, as by Admonition and Sufpenlion 
from the Sacrament would not be reform'd; who, if 
they would ftill remain Contumacious and Incorrigi- 
ble, the Sentence of Excommunication might be decreed 
againft them by the Synod, and accordingly be Execu- 
ted in the Parilh where they liv*d. Hitherto alfo all 
things that concerned the Parochial Minifters might be 
referred, whether they did touch their Dodtrine or their 
Converfation : As alfo the Cenfure of all New Opini- 
ons, Herefies and Schifms, which did arife within that 
Circuit, with Liberty of Appeal if need fo require unto 
the Diocefan Synod. 


Diocefan The Diocefan Synod might be held once or twice in 
Synods an- the Year, as it ihould be tho^t molt convenient ; there- 
fvferahle to yi all the Suffragans, and the reft of the Redtors or In- 
th Froytn- cCimbent Paftors, or a certnin Sele^ K umber out cf every 
\'^^Sy»<^^ Dennry mthin that Diocefi might meet; with whofe con- 
»»bcotiana. Cgj^j^ ^^ jjjg major part of them, all things might be con- 
cluded by the Biftiop or *■ Superintendent, (call him 
which you will) or in his Abfencc by one of the Suffra- 
gans, whom be fliould depute in his ftead to be Moderator 


* 'H^ffMWKVTif, I. e. SuperintendenteSj unde & nomcn Epifcopi traOum 
eft. HierQtu Bpifi,d^. aa Er atrium. 

Chap. VII L Mr. Richard Baxter. 149 

of that Aflembly. Here all Matters of greater Mo- A». 1662. 
ment rnighc be taken into Conlideration, and the Or- 
ders of the Monthly Synods levis'd, and (if need be) re- 
form'd. And if here alfo any Matter of Difficulty 
could not receive a full Determination, it might be re- 
ferr'd to the next Provincial or National Synod. 


The Provincial Synod might confift of all the Bi- The JPro- 
fhops and Suffragans, and fuch of the Clergy as fhould "V'^fW and 
be Elcded out of every Diocefs within the Province. ^'^^''"^'^^ 
The Primate"" of either Province, might be the Mode- p^^^ '*^' 
ratorof this Meeting, (or in his room fome one of the^f^'jf ^^ 
Bilhops appointed by him) and all Matters be order'd ^^^^"/7„ 
therein by common Confent, as in the former Aflem-Scod^nd." 
blies. This Synod might be held every third Year, 
and if the Parliament do then fit, both the Primates 
and Provincial Synods of the Land might joyn together, 
and make up a National Council ; wherein ail Appeals 
from Inferiour Synods might be received, ^Zf their Adts exa- 
min'd, and 4^ Ecclellaftical Conftitutions which concern 
the State of the Church of the whole Nation eftablifti'd. 

Shortly after, inftead of the Dlocefans Concejfions^ the The Kin^^s 
Minifters were told, chat the King would put all that Declaration 
he tho't meet to grant them into the Form of a De- concerning 
claration, and they (hould See it before it was Publifti'd, Ecdefaftt- 
and have Liberty to give Notice of what they dif- ^^^ Affairu 
lik'd, as not Confiftent with the defir'd Concord: And 
a Copy of the faid Declaration was accordingly fent 
them by the Lord Chancellor. Having perus'd ir, they 
drew up a Petition to the King, and join'd with it 
fome Remarks on the Declaration : But being deliver'd 
to the Lord Chancellor, he dropd it, and never call'd 
them to Prefent it to the King ; but defired the Particu- 
lars of what Alterations they would infift on. They de- 
livered him a Breviate of the Particulars as he dcfir'd, 
which he took time to Confider of. And after all, a 
Day was appointed for his Majefty to Perufe the De- 
claration as the Lord Chancellor had drawn it up, and 
to allow what he lik*d, and alter fhe reft, upon the 
hearing of both fides. At the time appointed, the King 
came to the Lord Chancellor's, with the Dukes of 

L 3 Al-: 

ISO The LIRE of Chap. VIIL 

»in. i66q. Albermarle and OrmonJ'^ the E.'of MancheHer, the E^ 
of Anglefea^ and Lord HoU, &c. and Dr. Sheldcn Bi- 
ihop of Lovdon, Dr. Morley Biihop of iVorceiler, Dr. 
Hinchnjan Bifhop of Snlttbury^ Dr. C^fms Biihop of Dur- 
ham^ Dr. GVr/</L72 Bifhop of Exeter^ Dr. Hackct, Dr. Bar- 
n»/c^', and Dr. Gunnings &c. on one fide: On the other 
Part flood Dr. I{rigmlds, Mr.C^/nw^, Mr. /ifk.Dt.lVal- 
/^, Dr. 'Mntitori^ Dr. Spinjiovp, Mr. Baxter, and fome 
others. The Bufincfs of rhe Day was nor ro Difpute, 
but as the Lord Chancellor tead dver the Declaration, 
feach Party was to fpeak to what they diiliked, and the 
King to Determine how it ihoM be as he liked himfelf. 
There were various altercations aboiitPrehcyand Rcor- 
dination, and the Particulars of the Declaration i and 
when the whole was Perus'd, the Lord Chancellor 
drew out another Paper, intimating that the King had 
alfo bsen Petitioned by the Independents and Annbr.ptirrs 
for Liberty, and therefore he Read an Additional Part 
of the Declaration, to this purpofe, chat others alfo he 
permitted to Meet for B^iigioui H^orjhip^ fo be ;>, thy do 
it not to the difiurbnnce cf the Peace; and thnt no Jujlice 
x>f Peace or Officer drfturb them. This being defign'd to 
feture Liberty to the Papisls, there was a general filcnce 
upon the Reading it. The Bifliops tho't it a nice Point, 
and therefore faid nothing : The Preslyterians were a- 
fraid to fpeak againft ir, Icalt all the Scd:s and Parties 
ihould look upon them as the Caufers of their Suffer- 
ings; and they fliould be reprefented as groily Partial, 
in de/iring Liberty themfelves, while they would have 
no others have it with them. At length, Mr. Baxter 
fearing their filencc might be milinterpreted, fpake to 
this purpofe. Th^t Dr. Gunning n little before jpenkjtig^ 
■AgainH ScBs^ i:ad nnm d the Papifis and Socinians : That 
for their Pnrts^ thiy did net defire Favour to thetnfeives n- 
ionei end rigorous ^averity ngainst none : But as they Hnm- 
l!ythanl(d his M^jcHy for his d^chir'd Indulgence to them- 
feheSj fo they diftinguifJo'd the tolerable Parly frcrn the in- 
iolernble : for the forvicr, they humbly crnv'd fdf Leni- 
fJ and Favour: But for the Liitjr^ fttch ,is the two forts 
tncntton'd^ for their Pa^ts, they could not rtiakc their Tole- 
rntict} their I^equeft. ,To which hJAMajefly faid, that 
there were Laves fufficifnt ttg<^injl the P/ipifis : And Mr. B/rJt- 
^er rcpjy'd, that they under jhad the Qufjlion to be^ whether 
^bofe Law; Ihould b(&xepmedor mt ^ ijppn which the Matter 


Chap. VIIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 5 j 

was drop'd. Bin before the brea:king np of the Meet- An. 1660. 
ing, the King, having Decermin d what he would have 
ftand indie Declaration as to the Senfe of it, nam'd four 
Divines to Determine of any Words in the Alterations^ 
if there were any Difference ; vi^. Bp. Morky, Bp. Hind:- 
man, Dr,I{eignolds and Mr. C^/<jwj : And if they difa- 
greed, the Earl of Anglefe/i^ and the Lord Hollis were to 
decide them. And at length it came out fo amended, 
with fuch a Paftoral perfwafive Power of Governing 
left to the Minifters with the Rural Deans, as that it 
"was fitted to be an Inftrument of Concord and Peace, 
•if fetled by a Law ; and fo the Divifion might have been 
heafd, upon the Alteration of the Liturgy, as the De- 
claration promised. Several of the Minifters were off^-t'd 
Preferments: Mr. Calamy had the Biftop of Coventiy 
and Litchfield ofFer'd him, Dr. B^igrwlds the Bifhoprick 
of Norrvicf^ and Mr. Baxter that of Hereford. Dr. Aiirj- 
ton was offer'd the Deanery of {(ocbeftsr, Dr. Bates tlie 
Deanry of Coventry and Li tchfie Id, 3,nd. Mr. Edward Bowles 
the Deanry oi.Tork^-^ bur all refus'd, on the Account 
of the uncertainty of the Continuance of the Terms in 
the Declaration, except Dr. I{eignolds, who declar'd 
when he accepted the Bifhoprick of , Norwich, that he did 
it upon the Terms laid down in the Declaration, and 
not as Epifcopacy ftood before in England • and that he 
would no longer hold or exercife it, than he could do 
it on thofe Terms. 

In the Declaration which was dated O^cberi'^^ 1660. 
The King thus Exprelfes himfelf, ' V/hcn we were in 

* H)lland, we were attended by many Grave andLearn- 

* ed Minifters from hence, who were look'd upon as the 

* moft Able and Principal AfTertors of Presbyterian Opi- 
' nions, with whom we had as much Conference, as the 

* multitude of Affairswhicb were then upon us, would 

* permit us to have .- And to our great Saiisfadion and 
' Comfort, found them Perfons full of Affedioji to us, of 

* Zeal for the Peace of the Church and State, and neither 

* Enemies (as they have been given out to be) of Epifcopa- 

* cy or Liturgy ; but modeftly to defire fuch Alterations in 

* either, as without fhaking Foundations, mighcbeft allay 

* the prefent Diftempers, which the indifpofition of times, 

* and the tendernefs of fome Mens Confciences had con- 

* traded. For the better doing whereof, we intended upon 
! ourfiift arrival in thefe Kingdoms to call a Synod of Di- 

E 4 ' vinaat 


The LIFE of Chap. Vin. 

An. i66^. 

vines : And in the mean Time publiOi'd in our Decla- 
raiion from Bredn a Liberty to tender Confciences. 
We need not profefs the high Efteem and Affedtion we 
have for the Church of EnglayiH, as it is eftablilh'd by 
Law. Nor do we think that Reverence in the leaft De- 
gree diminifhM by our Gondefcentions, not Perempto- 
rily to infift upon fome Particulars of Ceremony, which 
however introdacd by the Piety, Devotion, and Order 
of former Times, may not be fo agreeable to the pre- 
fent ; but may even ielTen that Piety and Devotion for 
the Improvement wliereof they might be firft intro- 
duc'd, and confequently may well be difpens'd with. 
And we have not the Jeaft doubt, but the prefent Bi- 
lliops will think the prefent Conceffions now made by 
us, to allay the prefent Diftempers, very juft and rea- 
fonabJe, and will very chearfully Conform themfelves 
thereunto.* Of thefe Concefllons, this was the Sub- 

ftance : ' The King declar'd his RefoKnion to pro- 
mote the Power of Godlinefs, to encourage theExer- 
cifes of Religion both in Publick and in rrivate, to 
take Care that the Lord's Day fhould be applied to 
Holy Exercifes, without unncceffary Divertifements; 
and that infufiicient, negligent, and (candalous Mini- 
fters, fhould not be permitted in the Church. That 
no Bidiops (hould ordain, or Exercife any Part of }u- 
rifdidion, which appertains to the Cenfures of the 
Church, without the Advice and Affiflance of tbePref- 
"byters, and neither do, nor impofe any Thing, but 
v^'hat was according to the known Laws of the land ; 
that Chancellors, CommiflTaries, and Officials lliould 
be excluded from Acfls of Jurifdi(5tion, the Power of 
the Paflorsin their feveral Congregations reftor'd, and 
a Liberty granted to all the Minifters to affcmble 
Monthly, for the Exercife of the Paftoral Perfwafive 
Power, to the promoting of Knowledge and Godlinefs 
in their Flocks. That the Minifters (hould be freed 
from the Subfcription requirM by the Canon, and the 
Oath of Canonical Obedience, andreceiveOrdination, 
Inditution and Induction, and exercife their Fun- 
(flion, and enjoy the Profits of their Livings, without 
being oblig'd to it: And that the Ufe of the Cere- 
monies (houJd be difpcns'd with, where they were 
fcrupled/ Thefe Conceflions were fo highly pleafing, 

that' an Addrefs of Thanks was drawn up, and fign'd 

Chap. VIIL Mr, Richard Baxter. 152 

by many of the Minifters in and about London ; which ^«. i66o. 
Addrefs was Gracioufly receiv'd. 

Biu after all, this Declaration had no EfFe(5t, fave 
only a Years fufpenfion of the Law ihac afterwards 
took Place. Ac a Diftance in the Country fome Men 
were fo violent, that they indidted Minifters at the 
Aflizes and Seflions, notwithftanding the Declaration, 
taking it for no Sufpenfion of the 

the King and the Lord Chancellor „f tins Kind, r»ay be reeni„ the 

on their Behalt, they were general- Conformift's Fourth Piea for 

ly delivered. But as to the Matter the Nonconformias. 

of Church Government, none of the 

Concefiions in vhe Declaration, were put in Execution. 

However it being promis'd in the Declaration, That rhe Confe- 
the Liturgy fhould he reviewed and reform d, and New rence at the 
Terms drawn up in Scripture Phrafe^ fuited to the feveral Savoy. 
Parts of TV^rfhip^ that Mm might ufe which of them they 
pleas'*d, a Commifllon was at length granted to cer- 
tain Pei-fons nominated, to meet for that Purpofe. The 
Commiflioners on one Side, were the Arch-bi(hop of 
Tork, the Biihops of London, Durham, I{ocheJier, Chi- 
chefler, Sarum, M^orcejier^ Lincoln^ Peterborough, Che- 
fter^ CarlJfie^ and Exceter; and on the other Side, 
Dr. I{eignolds now Bi(hop of Norwich^ Di,Tuckny, Dr. Co- 
nant^ Dr. Spurjiow, Dr. PVallis, Dr. Manton, Mr. Ca~ 
limy, Mr. Baxter, Mr. Jackfon, Mr. Cafe, Mr. Ciarl^^ 
Mr. Newcomen : The AfTiftants on one Side were 
Dr. Earles, Dr. Heylin, Dr. Hncket, Dr. Barwick, Dr. Gun- 
ning, Dr. Pierfon, Dr. Pierce^ Dr. Sparrow, and Mr. 
Thorndike ; and on the other Side, Dr. Horton, Dr. Ja- 
comb, Dr. Bates, Mr. Kjiwlinfon, Mr. Cooper, Dr. Light- 
foot^ Dr. Collins, Mr. PVoodbridge, and Dr. Drake^ 

The Savoy, and the Bilhop of London s Lodgings 
there was appointed as the Place of Meeting. When 
they were met there, the Bifhop of London told the 
Minifters, That they, and not the Bijhops, had been Seek^- 
ers of the Conference, being defirous of Alterations in the 
Liturgy : And that, therefore, there was nothing to he done 
*tiU they had hro't in all that they had to fay againji it in 
H^ritingy and all the Additional Forms and Alterations 
which they defir'^d. The Minifters moved for an Arnica- 
hie Conference, according to the Commiflion, as think- 
ing it more likely to contribute to Difpatch, and to 


154 The LIFE of Chap. Vllf. 

Ah. i55o.theanfwering the Great End: Whereas, Writing would 
be a tedious endlefs Bufinefs, and prevent that Fanri- 
liarity and Acquaintance with each others Minds, which 
might facilitate Concord. But the Bilhop of London 
abfolutely infifted upon it, That nothing jhould be dwQ 
'till rtll Exceptions, Alterations /:w<^ Additions, rv^re hro^t 
in at once. And after fonic Debate, it was agreed, 
That they fhould brhig ."'^^ their Exceptions^ at one Time, 
and all their Addiiions at anotherTime. Exceptions were 
accordingly drawn up by Dr. I{eignolds, Dr. iVallis, 
Mr. Calamy, Mr. Kewcomen, Dr. Bctcs^ Mr. Clarl^ 
Dr. Jacomh,8<c. and in fome Time ofier'd to the Biihops, 
Vropofah ^^^ ^^^^ Paper they propos'd, * That the Prayers and 
about the * 'Materials of the Liturgy might have nothing in them 
LituTTj, ' doubtful, or quTfliond annongft Pious, Learn d, and 

* Orthodox Perfons. \_ * That as the Reformers at firfi fo 

* compofed the Liturgy^ as might he mofi lil^ely to rvir^ 

* upon the Papifts, r.nd dravp them into their Church Com^ 
' tnunion hi varying as little as veell they could from the 
*' Romirh Forms before in ufe ; fo it mighty according to 

* the fame ^ule of Prudence^ be then fo compos* d, at to 

* gain upon the Judgments and AffcEiirn of nil thofe, voho 

* in the Subftantials of r/jf Proteftant Religion are of the 
*■ fame Perfvoafion.'] That the Repetitions and F^fponfals 
' of Clerk and People might be omitted. That the Pc- 

* titions of the Litany might be caft into One Solemn 

* Prayer, to be ofFer'd up by the Minifter, and not fo 

* as that the Precatory Part fiiould be uttered only by 
' the People. That there be nothing in the Liturgy 
' countenancing the Obfervation of Lent as a P^Hgious 
' Fafl. That the Religious Obfervation of 5/i/w^/D^;'j 

* and Vigils be omitted. That the Liturgyht not fo im- 

* pos'd, as totally to exclude the Gift of Prayer in any 
' Partof Publick Worfhip. That the New Tranflation 

* of the Scriptures be us'd inftcad of the old Verfion, 
' which in many Places is juf^ly exceptionable. That 

* Apo- 

* It is not wiKiorthy Obfcrvatio/i.^ that this Material Frnpofiiort is wholly 
emitted by our late Hiftorian^ in the Third Folume af the Complete Hiftoiy 
of EnglTid, in Vol. p.j^. 255. tho' it 4< niuch defery'^d to be taken Notice of as 
the othit;. I'll leave the Reader to guefs at the Beafon why that fjiould be 
faf,'d by, when what went before and followi, is particularlyrecited. ThUis 
more likely to hayc been a def^nad than an accidental Thing. 

Chap. Vill. Mr. Richard Baxter. i^- 

* Apocryphal Lcjfons might be omitted. That the Mini- An. 1660. 
^ fter be not required to Rehearfe the Liturgy at the 

^ Communion Table. That the Word Pricft and Curate 
' throughout the Book be turnd into that of Minifler^ 
' and Sunday into Lord's Day, That Oblolete Words 
^ be changed into Words generally receiv'd, and better 

* underftood. That no Portions of the Old Trjlamenf 
^ or of the Book of the AHs^ be ftil'd or read as Epi- 
^ ftles. That the Phrafe which fuppofes ali in Commu- 

* nion to be Regenerated (while due Care is not taken 

* about the Exercife of Difcipline) might be Reform- 
' ed ; And that the Petitions in the Prayers might have 

* a more orderly Connexion^ and the Forms be of a 

* more competent length, which would be more to E- 

* dification, and tend to gain the Reverence of the 
' People. That the Liturgy might be fo contriv'd, as 

* to comprehend the Sum of all fuch Sins as are or- 
^ dinarily to be confefs'd in Prayer by the Church', and 
^ of fuch Petitions and Thankfgivings as are ordinarily 

* to be put up to God; and the Catechifm annexed, 

* might fummarily comprehend ali fuch Dodirines as 

* are neceffary to be belie v'd, and thcfe exphcitejy fee 

* down. That Ceremonies not neceifary in them- 
' ioivts^ and that had for above an Hundred Years, 
' caus'd fad Divifions and been the Fountain of mani- 
' fold Evils, might not be impos'd by the Liturgy, but 

* left at Liberty.' After which General Propofals, a 
great many particular Exceptions were added as to the 
feveral Parts of the Liturgy, and Paflages in it j of 
which thcfe that follow are the Chief. — — * As to the 
' Morning and Evening Prayer, they excepted againft 

* that Part of the Rubrick, which fpeaking of Orna- 

* ments to be us'd in the Church, left room to bring back 
^ the Cope, Aibe, and other Veftments : Againft the 
' leaving out the Doxology at the End of the Lord's 

* Prayer, the frequent Repetition oi Glory be to the Fa- 
^ tber, S<.c, lihe finging of the Leffons, Epiftles, and Go- 

* fpels ; and againft the ufing of the Benedicite^ rather 

* than a Pfalm or Scripture Hymn. —In the Litany they 
' excepted againft the. Exprellion deadly S/w,and mov'd ic 

* rcii^t he c\i2in^ di into heinous 01 grievous : Againft the 
^ Exprellion fudden Death, which they mov'd to 
< be chang'd into dying Juddenly and unpreparedly : And 
« againft pr&ying for fill that travail by Land and 

' " ' ilVater^ 


The LI FE of Chap. VIII. 

A». 1660. 

Heater, &c. fo univerfally, which they defir'd to 
»:3ve put indefinitely, tho/e that Travel, &c. In the 
Collect for Chrijimns-Dajf, they excepted againft the 
Word this Day^ us'd two or three Days fucceiUvely ; 
and they excepted againft feveral Expreflions in 
divers other Colle(as for Feftival Times. In the 
Order for the Adminiftration of the Lord's-Supper, 
they excepted againft the Time adign'd for giving 
Notice to the Minifter, as too Ihort, when confin'd 
to over Night or in the Morning, as to Perfons who de- 
fign'd to Communicate. They excepted againft the 
Kubrick about the Minifters keeping unqualified Per- 
fons from the Lord's Table, as not fufticiently^ear 
and ftrong : As to the rehearfing the Ten Command- 
ments there, they excepted againft leaving out the 
Preface to them ; againft the Way of reading the 
Fourth Commandment ; againft Kneeling at the 
reading of this, more than other Parts of Scripture ; 
and againft the ihort intermix'd Prayers of the Peo- 
ple, when the Minifter's concluding with one fuita- 
bie Prayer would be much better. As to the Exhor- 
tations, they excepted againft fome of them, as un- 
feafonable to be read at the Communion. And 
whereas 'tis faid, 'tis requifite that no Mnn (loould come 
but with a full triij}^ they excepted againft it, as tend- 
ing to difcourage Perfons under Trouble of Mind. 
They excepted againft the Prayer at the Confecration, 
as not fufficiently explicite and diftinc^, the breaking 
the Bread not being fo much as mention d ; and a- 
gainft requiring the Minifter to deliver the Bread and 
Wine into every particular Communicant's Hand 
with diftindk Words to each ; and againft the oblig- 
ing all to Kneel ; and every Parilhioner to receive 
three Times in the Year. As to Baptifm ; they ob- 
jected againft being oblig'd to Baptize the Children 
of all Comers ; againft the (hortnefs of the Warning 
mention'd when a Child was to be baptiz* d ; againft 
covenanting Sureties, to the overlooking of Parents 
in whofe Right the Child is baptizd ; againft con- 
fining Baptilm to the Font; againft that Expredlon 
in the firft Prayer, of fanHifying Jordan and nil Wa- 
ters, by Cbrift's Baptifm : Againft the promifing and 
anfwcring of Sureties in the Name of the Infant ; 
againft the Exprelfipn in the fecond Prayer of receiving 


Chap. Vni. Mr. Richard Baxter. 157 

J^emiJJton of Sins by Spiritual Regeneration; againft -d>f. i66a 
that Expreflion in the Prayer afier Baptifm, \A/hich 
infmuates as if every Child that is baptiz'd, was re- 
generated by God's Holy Spirit ; and againft the 
Crofs. In the Catechifm, they excepted againft the 
mentioning God-fathers and God-mothers as giving 
the Name 5 againft the intimation of Regeneration as 
univerfally attending Baptifm ; againft rehearfing the 
Commandments any otherwife than according to the 
New Tranllation ; againft the mentioning two Sacra- 
ments only as generally ncceflary to Salvation, when 
there are Two only ; Againft Teeming to found Bap- 
tifm upon A(ftual Faith and Repentance, and that 
efpecially as perform'd by the Promife of the Sure- 
ties ; and againft the omitting a particular Explica- 
tion of Faith, Repentance, the two Covenants, Ju- 
ftification, San£lification, Adoption^ and Regenera- 
tion. Againft the Rubrick afferting the certain un- 
doubted Salvation of baptized Infants, without Ex- 
ception. Againft the flight Ufe of Confirmation. 
Againft the Suppofition in the Prayer, that all that 
come to be Confirm'd, have the Spirit of Chrift, 
and the Forgivenefs of all their Sins. Againft the 
founding Confirmation upon Apoftolical Pradice, in 
the Prayer after Impofition of Hands : and againft 
making the Receipt of Confirmation abfolutely necef- 
fary to the Holy Communion. In Matrimony , they 
excepted againft the necelTary Ufe of the Ring ; a- 
gainft that Expreflion, vpith my Body Ithee vporfhip^ Sec. 
In the Order for the Vifitation of the Sicl^j they ex- 
cepted againft the Form for Abfoiution, as not fufti- 
ciently Declarative and Conditional ; and againft in- 
joining the Minifter to give the Sacrament to every 
iick Perfon that defires it. In the Office of Burial^ 
they excepted againft the Minifters being oblig'd to 
meet the Corps ; againft the common tlfe of that 
ExprefTion of God's taking to himfelf the Souls of all 
that are offer'd to Burial, which is not true of Perfons 
living and dying in open and notorious Sins. Againft 
giving God hearty Thanks for delivering ail that are 
ofFer'd 1:0 Burial, out of the Miferies of this finfu! 
World, ^c. which may harden the Wicked, and is 
inconfiftent with the largeft Rational Charity : And 
agaijift hoping that thofe reft in God, who have not by 

' their 

158 The LIFE of Chap. Vjir. 

An. 1 66c.* their Adual Repenrance given any 
! Hope of their BleffedEftace, G^c. 

Ground for the 

The drawing up of the Additions or New Forms was 

undertaken by Mr. Baxter alone, who f^il'd it, The 

Reformed Liturp^ which when read by the Minifters 

was generally approved of. And that the World may 

judge what fort of Forms they were, which the Mi- 

■** The Com- nifters defir'd to have Liberty to ufe inftead of the 

filer of the Forms that were in Ufe before, or inftead of fome of 

Third Vo' them where they fcrupled any Fart of the Service-Book, 

lumer^frht this Reform d Liturgy is here added attheClofe of this 

Complete Volume at large, as it v^^as then drawn up. * 

Hifiory of TA • 

Enghnd, ^"^"g 

in Folio, p. 235. here pajfes th!s Cenfure. When the drawing up the Addi- 
tionsor New Supplements to be made to the Liturgy, was by his Brethren 
committed to him alonCjhe drew up an abfohite Form of his own,and ftil'd 
it the Reformed Li tr4r^y • as if he had the Modefty to think that the Old 
Liturgy compird by a JSIumberof very Learned Confeflbrs and Martyrs, muft 
now give Place to a New Form, compofed by a Tingle Man, and he by E-' 
ducation much inferior to many of his Brethren.' But had this Gentleman 
veen fojufi, as to have read the 'Reafons tphlch Mr. Baxter g;4-p(?, for his doing 
that -Kfhich he refrefms as fo ajfuminq;^ he'd hare feen little Occafion for 
his Fcfie^tion. Tor the Def^n of this Liturgy rffas not to juTlle out the Old one, 
vhere PerfonstPere fat i<fed with itf but to relieye fuch as durft not ufe the Old 
one as it vpas., by helping the?n to Forms taken out of the Word of Cod. Or fup' 
fofe xpe, that the Old Liturgy had in tlie Opinion of many fallen fhort of this 
1^'ew one ; others are at a L')fs to di foyer %phy this fhnuld appear fo prepo/ierotesy 
unlefs it be unaccountable fir Perfons to prefer a Liturgy iutirely Scriptural, to 
one that is made up of Humane finafes.^ and fome of ti)em 'jufily enou'^h 
exceptionable. It muft be cv?n^d that the Old Litur<:y was framed by 
Sundry ConfefTors and Martyr?, and upon that Account it deferves vefpeCir : 
And it vpos a great Step for them to caji fo many Corruptions out of the 
TublicK Service as tijey did., at that Time, vplien this Liturgy was drawn out 
of the fercral Forms that were in Ufe in this Kingdom before. But it was but 
ft Purfuit of their Dcftgn, to render the Public k Service yet more Scriptural.' 
And had they rifen frcm tife Dead, there's gr.od Keafon to bcUeye that they 
would generally have approved uf it -^ aitd been fo far from looking upon it as 
a detracting from them, that they would have applauded it 4s a good Super- 
firuClure uporl their Foundations. Suppofe then he that drew up this Ke formed 
Liturgy was by Education much inferior to many of liis Brethren, it ;tc/t/;er 
follows from thence, :hat he mufl really be fo far injerior to them in ufe- 
ful Knowledge and valuable Abillties^as this Author would ftem to intimate-^ 
nor can it jufily be ilimcp ar^u'd that i>is Performahce wa-- C'r.itejnpti'jle-^ nor 
that therewas any want of Mode/iy neither, when hii Bretlne:: put him upon 
the Undertaking. And bejides, they giving their Approbation when they pe- 
Tuftd itf and joyhing in the prefentingiity made it in FjfUt tinir own, as fuj- 


Chap. VIII. Mr, Richard Baxter. 159 

During this^ Interval, the Convocaticn was chofen,^^«. i6<5i. 
iivhich was PoUtickly defen'd 'till now*. Had it been 
caird when the King came in, the 

inferiour Clergy would have been ¥ rhe Author of the Confor. 
againft the Diocefans. But after- wifis Plea for the Nonconformifis^ 
wards many Hundreds were turned fays^ great Fains and Care K>ere 
out, that the old fequeftred Mini- ufed to frame this Conyocation to 

fters, how meanly foever qualify'd, the Mind oj the High Prelatical 
might come in. And the Opinion ^^^'> h ^^f/"«<C fo»^e out, ani 
of Reordination being fet on foot, S:''''»S ''hers in, by yety undue: 
all thofe Minifters, who for Twenty Proceedings. Part i . Pag. 57. 
Years together, while Biihops were 
laid afide, had been ordain'd without Diocefansi were 
in many Countries denied any Voices in the Election of 
Clerks for the Convocation. By which Means, and a 
great many Minifters Scruple, who tho't it unlawful to 
have any Thing to do in choofing fuch a kind of Af- 
fembly, the Diocefan Party wholly carry 'd it in the 
Choice. The Eledlion was in London^ May 2. 166 1. 
Mr. Calamy and Mr. Baxter were chofen by a Majority 
of three Voices. But the Biihop of London, having the 
Power of choofing two out of four, or four out of fix:, 
that are chofen by the Minifters in a certain Circuit, 
was fo kind as to excufe them by pitching on others : 
And fo the City of London had no Clerk in the Convo- 
cation t* Mrf^ the 4tb, the Paper of Exceptions was 
given in at a Meeting with the Biihops, M^y the 7th, 
there was a Meeting at Sion-CoUedge of the Minifters of 


fciently appears from the Preface prefixed : And fome of them (it is well 
known ) had Academical Education^ and great Applaufe in the World too^ 
and yet tho't not Mr. Baxter at all their Inferior, 'Nay fome Verfms that 
tffere not yery Uhely to be prejudic'd in Mr. Baxter'^ Favour, haye tho't this 
Performance of his, to be the bejj of the kind that they ever faw. 

t Dr. Allen of Huntingdonlhire, Clerk in this Convocation, eamefily la- 
boured tPith Dr. Sheldon then Bifhop of London, ( afterrsfards Arth-Biffy^p ) 
that they might fo Reform the Liturgy, a* that no fober Man might make Ex- 
ception : But was wi(l}ed to forbear-, for that what fijould be, was concluded 

on, orrefolvd. See Conformifts Plea for the Nonconforraifis, Part i. 

pag. gi. So very Nice and ExaCl were the high Party, that they would 
not yield fo much as to forbear the Lejfons of the Apocrypha : Infomuch, that 
after a long tugg. at the Convocation- Houfe about that Matter, a go-)d DoUor 
came out at lafi with great Joy^ that they had carried it for Bell and the 

i6o 7he LIFE of Chap. VIIT. 

An. 1 66 1. London ^ for the Ghoice of a Prefident and Afliftants 

for the next Year. Some of the Presbyterians upon a 

pettilli Scruple abfenting thcmfelvcs, the Diocefan 

Party carried it, and got the PofTciiion and Rule of 

4f ^ the Colledge. May the 8th, the New Parliament and 

time aftn Co«z;or/j^;o« fat down, being conftituted of Men fitted 

an AH: ^"'^ devoted to the Diocefan Intereft. May the iith, 

tafs'il for by Order of Parliament, the National Vow and Cove^ 

Confir/rJtto- nant was burnt in the Street, by the Hands of the Com- 

and Re- mon Hangman*. 

fiorin^ of 

Minifiers', by which it was €nafied<, That eyery Ecclefiajllcal }'Perfon or 
Minijier^ bein^ orda'tiid by any EcctefafiUaL Perjlns^ before the 2')th Day of 
December laji f receding^ being of the Age of i\ TearS) and having not re 
9tounc''d bis Ordination, vho had been formerly fine e the Tear of our Lord 1^42. 
nominated to, or placed in, and in aClual Poffeffon, and taking the Profits of 
any Ecclefiafiical Benefice, Rechry, Farfonage, Ficatidge, Church, Chappe/j 
Cure, or other Ecclefiafiical Promotion with Cure of Souls, within this Realm 
of England, &c. which hath been become void either by Death, voluntary Re- 
fignation, or Surrender, or other Avoidance to the Patron, or any other Pcrfon 
pretending to have Title to accept of Refignations, fince the faid \fi Day of 
January, and before the faid i^th of December lafi preceding, and was on 
the faid 2 Sth Day of December, in Pojfeffion, and received the Profits thereof j 
being in the Gift, Donation, Prefentation, Collation or T^omination of the 
King's Majcfiy, or of his Royal Father, in Right of the Crown, or by Reafon of 
Wardfijip or any other Title, or of any Archbifhop, Bifhop, Dean and Chapter^ 
prebendary, Archdeacon, Body-Politick or Corporate; fhould be, and was 
thereby declared, adjudged, and enaCied, to have been, be, continue, the real 
and lawful. Incumbent, Parfon, Re^or, Vicar, and Pojfejfor of the faid Ec- 
clefiasiical Benefices, Livings and Promotions refpeElively, to all Intentf and 
Purpofei whatfoever, as if he or they had been nominated, prefented, collated, 
admitted, infiituted and induced thereunto, or plac'd therein in due Form of 
Law, and read and fubfcrib'd the Articles according to the Statute in 
that Cafe made and provided ; and notwithfianding any other Matter or Thing 
by him or them done, or omitted to be done. 

Sometime after, the fame Tear an Afi alfo pafi, for the well Governing 
and Re"-ulating Corporations, in which among other Things it was enaSled^ 
That none P}ould be in Office in any Corp',ration, that fhould not within a Tear 
before hi s Ele(}ionjhave taken the Sacrament according to the Rites of the Church 
of England. 

A Petition was by the Common Confent of the Mi- 
niCters drawn up, to be prefented to the Bifhops at the 
fame Time with the Reformed Liturgy -, which were 
both prefented accordingly. In this Petition they, 
with great Humility and Earneftnefs, begg'd their A-- 


Chap. Vllf. Mr. R^ichard Baxter. i6i 

hating their Impofitions in Order to the Peace of the^»- i^^**! 
Church ; and very pathetically urg'd many moving Ar- 
y^uments to induce them to a Compliance ; and in the 
End "they addrefs themfelves to them in thefe Words. 
' Grant us but the Freedom which Chrift and his Apo- 

* ftles left unto the Churches : Ufe necefTary Things as 

* neceflary, and unnecefTary Things as unnecefTary ; 
' and" charitably bear with the Infirmities of the Weak, 

* and the Tolerable while they live peaceably, and then 

* you will know when you have done, and for the In- 
' tolerable, we beg not your Toleration, &c. 

The Bilhops after fome Delay, fent them a Paper of 
Reafonings againft their Exceptions, without anyA- 
batemencs or Alterations at all, that are worth the nam- 
ing. An Anfwerto which was alfo drawn up. 

AtJaft, the Commifflon being near upon expiring,and 
there being but ten Days left, the MiniAers fent to the 
Bifliops to deflre fomc Perfonal Conference upon the 
Subjecft Matter of the Papers ; which was yielded to : 
And at the Meeting the Anfwer to their laft Paper was 
deliver'd them. And the MiniAers earneftly prefs'd them 
to fpend the little Time that was remaining, infuch pa- 
cifying Conference as tended to the Ends mentioned in 
the King's Declaration and. Commiffion : And told 
them, That fuch Difputes as they by their Treatment 
had engag'd them in, were not the Thing defir'd, or 
what moft conduc'd to thofe Ends. There is fome Rea-* 
fon to think, that the Generality of the Bilhops and 
Dodtors who were prefent at thefe Meetings, did not 
read the ^•formsd L'twgy^ or, The [{eplyof the Mln'ifteri - 
to their R^nfons flgninji the Excoptions they had given in. 
For they were haftily put up, and carried away without 
particular PeruGl, unlefs in private ; which may be 
doubted of as to moft of them, (except their parti- 
cular Anfv/erers) becaufe that when in the laft Difpu- 
lation, Ml'- Baxter drew out the lliort Preface to their 
Reply, (which was written by Mr. CaUmy^ to enume- 
rate in the Beginning before their Eyes, many of the: 
grolTeft Corruptions which they ftifly defended, and 
refus'd to reform) the Company feem'd aihamVl and 
was (ilcnt, by which he perceived they had not read it; 
Nay, the Chief of them confefs'd, when they bid him 
read that Preface, that they knew of no fuch Thing. 
So that it feems, before they knew what was in them^ 

M they 

i62 The LIFE of Chap. VIII. 

-In. i.6i. tbey refolv'dto rcjed thcPapcrsof the Minifters, right 
or wrong, and to deliver them up to their Contradidtors. 
When they came to Debates, the Minifters dcfir'd the 
Bilhops to give their Animadverfions on the Additions 
and Alterations of the Liturgy. And that they would 
declare what they allow'd or difallow*d in them, that 
they might have the Ufe of thecn, according to the 
Words in the King's Declaration and Commiflion. But 
they would not by any Importunity be prevailM witfl 
to debate that Matter, or give their Opinions about 
thofe Papers. Being re je£^ed there, it was mov'd. That 
tbey would go over xhc Particulars excepted againft^ 
ani-declare hoxv much they could abate, and what Al- 
terations they could yield to. But they declar'd. They 
had nothing to fay upon that Head, Vill a NecefTity of 
an Alteration in the General was prov'd, which it had 
not as yet been: They would yield to all that was 
prov'd Neceflary, but look'd upon none as Neceffary. 
The Minifters urg'd them again and again with the 
Words of the King^s Declaration and Commiffion. 
They told them the Ends exprefs'd were, ' For the Re- 
- moval of all Exceptions, and Occafions of Excep- 
f tions, and Differences from among our good Sub jedls; 
*' and for giving SatisfacSlion to tender Gonfciences, and 

* the reftoring and continuance of Peace and Unity in 

* the Churches : y^nd that the Means xvere. To make fuch 
. * reafonable and neceftary Alterations and Amendments, 

* as (hall be agreed upon to be Needful and Expedient 

* for the giving Satitifad^ion to tender Gonfciences, 8cc.' 
Which fnppofeth that fome Alterations muft be made. 
The Bifhops infifted on two Words, Nccejfary Altera- 
//dwj,and fuch /is/houldhe agreed on. The Minifters told 
them,The Word Necejfary referred to the Ends exprefs'd; 
tbefntisfying tetiderConfcienccs, 8cc. and was join'd with 
Expedient : And that it was ftrange, that when the 
King had fo long and publickly detcrmin'd of the End, 
and call'd them to Confult of the Means they (hould at 
laft prcfume to Contradi(5l him, and determine the End 
it felt unneccffary, and confequently no Means necef^ 
fary ; And that therefore all their Meetings had been 
but trifling. And that when they were cail'd to Agree 
on fucli neccflary Means, if they would take Advan- 
tage of the Word, to agree on nothing, that fo all En- 
deavours might be fruftrated for want of their Agree- 

Chap. Vni. Mr. Richard Baxter. 16:5 

mem, God and the World woilld judge between them, ^. i65i» 
who it was thatfruftrated the King'$Cotnmi{rion,and the 
Hopes of a divided Bleeding Church. They reply 'd, 
they muft prove Alterations necpjfary : The Minifters an- 
fwered, they were necejfary to Peace Ind Unity, which 
without them would not be actain'd. Which they 
would by no Means yield. 

This was to draw on a Difpute, before the End of 
which, the Time of the Codimiflion was like to ex- 
pire ', they told the Biftiops, that that Method could 
hot poflibly tiEhd to any Accommodatioh ; and that to 
keep off from Perfonal Coriference, till within a fevv 
pays of the Expiration of the CommiiTion, and then 
to refolve to do nothing but wrangle but the Time in a 
Difpute, as if they were between Jeft and Earneft in 
the Schools, was too Vilibly in the Sight of all the 
World, to defeat the King's Commiflion, and the Ex- 
i)ed:atioiis of many Thoufands, v(^ho long'd for Unity . 
and Peace. But nothing elfe would be yielded to, and , ^/"^^ 
fo a Diifpute was agreed on, to arcue the Neceflitv, oi ^ ^j , 
no Necefiity of altering the Liturgy. ^j^^^ ^.^ 

After this was agreed on, many Hours were fpenr Sanderroa 
in fettling the Order of the Difputaiion. The Minifters ^/;o ^^s 
Offered to oppofe one half of the Time, if they would /rrcyiwt at 
do it the other half of the Time^ that fo the Difputa- tins Debate ^ 
tion might be on equal Terms : They refus'd it ; and an- y7^W^ not 
ifwer'd, that it belong'd to them only to Argue, who were ^^^^ ^^""^ 
the Accufers, and not at all to them who were on the Opportunit;;^ 
Defence. The Minifters reply'd, that they vverc i\\ef^'' ^learani 
Pefenders againft their Impofitions : For thus was the y»^^^^^^ 
Cafe ; They commanded them to do fuch arid fuch ^/^^ ^«f"^- 
Things, or elfe they (hould be excommunicated, filenc'd,^y^^^^ ^'^ 
imprifon'd and undone: Againft this they defended ,^^^J^^ ^ 
themfelves, by calling upon them to Ihew their Autho- f^j^^^y^^-, 
rity from God, for fuch Impofitions. They call'd up- cal. it 
on them therefore, to ptQve that God had authorized may he thi 
them to any fiich Thing ; and told them, Hh^t if they rather 
refuid they gave Up their Cnufe*, At laft, ( after two rvonderd 

caufein his warm Preface before his $ermons, which nvas written in i6^ji 
(hut five Tears before this Conference) he thus fums up the Controverfy^ between 
the Impofers and theRefufersof Ceremonies. This, fays he'y is the plain Cafe 
in fliorc. The Bifliops require Obedience to the Laws EaClefiaftical : Thefc 
M^ri refufe to give it, fo began the Qiiarrel at firft ^ ahd upon the lame 

M % (aftct 

1 64 The LIFE of Chap. VIII- 

Teims it Days Debate about the Matter) Dr. Pier/on alone un- 
continued. dertook that he would difpute on their Side, when the 
Ifth^tO- Minifters had difcharged the Opponents Province; 
bedicnce which was accepted. Three of a Party were chofen 
challenged, on each Side to manage the Difpute. The BiHiops 
were in- chofe. Dr. Pierfon, Dr. Gunnings and Dv,Sp.irroxv ; the 
deed due Minifters chofe. Dr. Bates, Dr. Jacomh, and Mr. Bax^ 
^L , 'er • And ihcy n:\et to difpute accordingly. But there 
aws, t en ^^j.^ (-^ ni^ny Speakers, and fo many Interruptions, and 
did our r I- I r 1 o » ^i • r^ 

Brethren ^^ "^^"7 htcje perfonal orangles, that it was to very ht- 

fays he, ' ^le Purpofe. 
both begin 

the Quarrel and hold it on ; if it were not, then mafb the whole Blame 
lie upon thofe that Ciaimed it unjiiftly, and not upon them : So that upon 
the winding up of the Bifinefs, the whole Con troverfy will devolve upon 
this Point, whethei- to the Laws Ecclefiaftical, Obedience is due or not ? 
Uhat ]?ity 'f i^as, that this fingle Toint was not no%9 cawvafs'd^ when there 
was fo faif »<« Opportunity ! Let any Man judge where the Blame lies^ when 
the Mini fie^^ t^ere fo forward^ and the Biffi^ps fo backward. 

At length Bi[hop Cofins produces a Paper as from a 
Confiderabie Perfon, containing a Method to end the 
t^infulTm- ControverTie. The main Thing in this Paper, was, 
po/ttifins in <* Motion to put the CompUiners upon Difiin!^ui[hing between 
the Church, thff Things they chargd as fjnful, and thofe which they op- 
posed as Inexpedient only. The three Difputants on the 
• Minifters Side, were defir'd to draw up an Anfwer to 
it againft the next Morning ; and they did fo, and de- 
liver'd it, but it was in their own Names only. Eight 
Things they in this their Reply charg'd as flatly Sinful, 
and contrary to the Word of God, That no Minifler 
be admitted to bapti:!^e without the prefcribed Vfe of the 
tranjji-nt Inmge cf the Crcfs : That no Minifler be permit^ 
ted to B^ad or Pray^ or Excrcife the other Parts of bis 
office, that dare not wear a Surplice. That none be ad' 
fnitted to Comrntmion in the Lord'^s Supper, that dare not 
receive it Kneeling ; and that all Minifters be enjoined to 
deny it to fuch. That Minifters be forcd to Pronounce all 
bctpti'^d Infants Regenerate by the Holy Ghoft, whether 
Children of Chrifiians or not. That Minifiers be forc'd ta 
deliver the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Chrift^ Uti^ . 
to the Vnfit both in Health and Sickjiefs, and that with 
Perfonal Application^ putting it into their Hands i And 
that fuch are forc'd to receive it^ tbo" againft their own 


Chap. VIIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 165 

Wills, in the Confcience of their Impenitency : That JMini* 
flers he forc'd to abfolve the 'Unfit, nnd that in r.hfolute 
ExpreJJicns: That they are forc'd to ^iveThnnkj for all 
vthom they Bury^ as Brethren whom God hath deliver'd 
and taken to himrelf : And thnt none m^ty he a Pre/jcher^ 
that dare not fubfcribe, therc^ is nothing in the Com- 
mon-Prayet Bool^, the Book of Ordination, and the Nine 
and Thirty Articles, that is contrary to the Word of God, * Our 
And they undertook to prove as much.* After a great ^f^^ Hifio. 
deal of wandering Difcourfe, they came at length to ^**'*» '" '^'^ 
the Difpute, which was manag'd in Writing : The fole pj??"^^^^^ 
Argument handled was, The Sinfulnefs of enjoyning Mi- n ^^^^ 
niflers to deny the Communion to aS that dire not l\neel i 11 p° : 
and it was drawn out to a coniiderable Length. . p. 22$ fays 

it feems 
very rtrange tliat thefc Men fhould undertake to mention Eight unlawful 
Things in the Liturgy, when they could not affirm any one of thofeThings 
tobf; in it felf unlawrul, but argu'd altogether upon the unlawful Impoli- 
tion of them, which they might as well have done by the fame Argu- 
ment in Eight Hundred of ather indifferent and moft innocent Matters : 
And he adds, it muft be confefs'd to be ftranger fljll, that of the Eight 
/jnful Things which they here enumerate, Two of them, the Fifth and the 
Sixth, are pofitiveiy falfe in the Suppofition of them ; For by the Li- 
turgy the Minifter was not forc'd eitiicr to adminifter the Sacrament, or 
the Abfolution to unfit Pcrfons. Had this Gentleman confderd that the 
unKv arrant ablenefs of kecking fuch Impoftiuns in the Church wai the 

Thing that Mr. B and his Brethren ofered to proye, in oppoftion to 

th'yfe vfho ja?ere zealous fur retaining them, and how little in this Cafe di- 
pends upon the fimp/e unlarvfulnef of the Things imposd ( abJlvaCling from 
ail Cir cum fiances in a Metaphy/ical Senfe) the Jirangenefs of their Troceed- 
inr v?ouid have difappeard. for tho tije fame Argument would haye done 
in Ei:ht Hundred indiferent Things (had there been fo many fo imposed,) 
yet it does not folLw but that it would he good and valid in tl}e Eight Things 
mentioned, in which they tho' t they p)ould be bound up by the LccUfaflical Con- 
fitution, (if they really muft have been fo conjindj while they could not dif- 
€orer their Compliance to be lawful. And thn this Author declares that the 
Ufth and Sixth Things mention d were pofitively falfe in the Suppofition 
of them, yet he muft allow it to appear flrangs to othcn, he fhould mtntion 
this with fo much Ajfurance, when he hirr. felf cannot be infenfible that there 
has ail along been a Party in the Church, that hare reprefented Minivers 
as under an Obligation to adtninifier the Sacrament, and Abfolution, to all 
that defire either, without ViftinClion, and that this Farty has not wanted 
Tower to run down thnfc^ whofe Afprehenfom haye herein been different 
from theirs. • 

Ma 'J'he 


The LIB t. of Chap. VII I. 

* See the Argument for Tor- 
hearance in "Rulers to intpofe 
Thinrs ujinecejfary, (irenuoujly 
ur^ed from tJyis I i\th to tlte Ro- 
mans, in the Proteftant Recon- 
ciler, JBart I . chap. 4. 

^H. i66i- The moft remarkable Things in this Difpute were 
thefe Two. 

The Difpw Firft, The warm Debate there was among them as rq 
tation at the Senfe of that noted Text, l^m. 14. i, 2, 3. Him 
the Savoy, that is weak, in the Paiib receive you, hut not to doubtful 
Difputntions, For One helieveth, that he may eat all 
Things: Another^ who is iVeak.^ eatethHerbs, Let not him 
that eateth^ dej^ife him that eateth not ; And let not him 
which eateth not^ jf^^g^ ^'^ ^^^^^ ^^f' 
eth^ for God hath receiv'd him*. The 
Debate about this Text was thu$ 
ocafion'd : The Presbyterian Difpu^ 
tants had argu'd againft the enjoyn- 
ing Minifters to deny the Commu- 
nion to all that dare not receive it 
Kneeling as a finful Irapofition, in 
that it was an cnjoyning them to deny the Com- 
munion to fuch as the Holy Ghcft had required them 
to receive to it : He having required rhem to re- 
ceive to it fuch as were weak, in the Faith, who are 
charg'd with no greater Fault than erronecujly refufir.g 
Things Lawful ds unlawful. And for this they urg'd this 
Text. The Bifhops Difputants replied, * There was 
a Difference between Things fo Lawful as that they 
may be done, and Things Lawful that are requir'd by 
a Lawful Power, for both may be call'd fuch. The 
others fiill urgd that Text ; pleading. That tho* the 
the ApoftJe fpake there of Things Lawful, and not 
commanded, yet being himfelf a Church Governour 
he commanded them not; nay, requir'd even Church 
Governours, as well as others, to receive the Diffen- 
ters and forbear ihem, and not make fuch Things 
the Matter of their Cenfure or Contempt. Thry an^ 
fwerd. That that Text was not to the Purpofe, both 
becaufe it fpeaks of Things Lawful and not Com- 
manded, whereas the Debate was about Things Law- 
ful and alfc Commanded; and, withal, becaufe the 
receiving them there mentioned, is not to be undcr- 
ftood of immediately receiving them to the Holy 
Communion. The Presbyterian Difputants anf«>er''d^ 
That tho' it was true the Text fpake about Things 
Lawful and not Commanded, yet when they were 
debating the Lawfulnefs of a particular Command, 

* viz. 


Chap. VIIL Mr. Richard Bixter. 167 

(viz. The enjoyning Minijiers to deny the Communion to An. \66i, 
fuch as durst ?iot receive it Kneeling) it was very pro- 
perly urg'd ; becaufe the Text forbids any fuch Com- 
mands of Things Lawful, as are not confiftent with 
receivi7tg and forbearing. And they added. That that 
Text muft necefiarily take in receiving Perfons to the 
Holy Communion, becaufe it requires the receiving 
Men to that Church Communion in the generaJ, and 
without exception,of which the Communion in theHo- 
ly Sacrament is a moft eminent Parr. Nay^ they farther 
ur^d the Point clofely thus. The Text fpeaks indeed of 
Things Lawful, as fuch, abftradting from Commands 
But of Things which materially were partly not Com- 
mandedy and partly Commanded, h was not Com- 
mnnded to Eat or not Eat the Meats in Queftion, to 
keep the Days or not keep them : In thefe they virent 
againft no Law. But to be Weak^ in the Faith^ and 
erroneoully to take Things Lawful to be VnUwful^ 
and Things Indifferent to be Neceffary, and to offend 
a Brother by the Ufe of Liberty on the other Side, 
were againft the Commands of God. But as for the 
Things about which there was to be a Forbearance, 
the Text intimates, that they ought not to be com- 
manded by any under a Penalty that is not confiftent 
with that Forbearance; for that no Governourshave any 
Warrant to rejedt fuch as are only weak in the Faith : 
they ought to receive them, and to farther their Re- 
ception ; and cannot do any Thing towards their Re- 
jcdlion upon the Account of any fuch Weaknefs with- 
out flat Sin, without breaking the Laws of God, 
who hath required that fuch Perfons, lliould not be 
rejetSted on the Account of Things in themfelves In- 
different. For the Things fpoken of by the Apoftle, 
were not only not Commanded, but forbidden to be 
Commanded, any farther than may ftand with the 
Reception and Indulgence mentioned.' And they 
bro't the Matter clofe to the Cafe before them thus. 
They of whom St. Paul fpeaks were to be receiv'd and 
forborn, altho' they finn'd in their Weaknefs, in refu- 
ting that as (infui which was not fo. So tho' it Ihould 
be own'd that it were unwarrantable to refufe Kneel- 
ing as flatly finful, yet were the Scrupulous to be re- 
ceived and forborn. And that the rather, becaufe they 
that refufe Kneeling, at worft, break but the Com- 
" M 4 mand 

i68 The LIFE of Chap. VIII. 

An. \66\' mand of Man ; whereas they of whom Sc. Paul fpeaks 
broke the Commands of God, and yet were to be 
forborn : And then, That the Text was to be under- 
Itood of Church Commit nion, they prov'd from the 
Circiimftances of the Words, from Parallel Texts, 
and from the Teitimony of the moil celebrated Expo- 
licors, Hammond and Grotius, 

Sccondlv, In the other Part of the Difpute, when 
the Epifcopal Divines were the Opponents, they bro'c 
an Argument of which this was the Major Propolition : 
"Jhiit CQinmnnd, which commit ndeth only an Act in it feif 
Lawful, is not Sinful. This Mr. Baxter denied. The 
Opponents back'd it wi;h another Syllogifm, of which 
this was the Major : That Command, w/Jch commandeth 
An Ac} in ic feif Lnveful^ and no other Ad or Cicumjlance 
Z'nlnvpful, is net Si>ful. This alfo Mr. jB^jcf^r denied ; 
giving this double Reafon : Both becaufe that may be 
accidentally a Sin which is not fo in it feif, and may be 
unlawfuHy commanded, the' that Accident be not 
in the Command: And alio becaufe it may be com- 
nianded under an unjuft Penalty, the Opponents there- 
fore urg'd farther thus : * That Command which com- 
' mandech an Adt in it felf Lawful, and no other Acl: 
^ whereby any unjLift Penalty's enjoyn'd, nor any Cir- 
' cumltance whence direcflly, or per Accidens^ any Sin is 
- Confequent, which the Commander ought to provide 
' againlt is not Sinful.* MT.Bitxrcr itiil pfrlilted in his 
Denial, and gave this Reafon : Beraufe the iirft Adi 
commanded may be accidentally Unlawful, and be 
commanded by an nnjuft Penaltv, tho' nooiherAdl 
or Circumitance be luch. The Oj>pnnents therefore 
pnce more advanc'd this Propofition: ' That Command 

* which commandeth an Adt in it felf Lawful, and no 

* other Adi: whereby any unjuft Peniky is enioin'd, 
' nor any Circumitancc whence djredtlv, or f^er Acci- 
*■ dens, any Sin is Cofifequenc, which the Commander 
f ouphr to provide againlt, haih in ic all things requi- 

- lire to the Lawfuinefs of, and particularly 

* cannot be guilty of commanding an Act per Acci' 

- ^.v/j unlawful, nor of C('mmini!ing an A£lunder an 
^ unini)" Penalty.' Which Proportion alio he denied 
for the foregoing Reafons : Litimating that fuc]! a Com- 
piajid hath not iiecelfariJy ail Things in it tequifite to 


Chap. VIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 6^ 

the Lawfulnefs of a Command j becaufe tho* no other j^B An. i^^f 
be commanded whereby an unjuft Penalty is enjoyn'd, 
yet ftill tjie firft AB may be commanded, under an unjuft 
Penalty : And the* no other Ad or Circumftance be . 
commanded, that is a Sin fer AccUens, yet the firft if 
felf commanded may be a Sin fer Accidens. h may be 
finful privativei'y, by omiflion of fomething neceffary, 
fome Mode or Circumftance. It may finfuJIy reftraitj, 
tho' it finfully command not. It may be finful in Mo-r 
dis ; commanding that univerfally^ or indefinitely, parti- 
cularly, or fingularly, that fhould be otherwife y tho' in 
the Circumftances (properly fo cali'd) of the A(ft, no- 
thing were commanded that is linful. It may thro* cul- 
pable Ignorance be apply 'd to undue Suhjetli^ who are 
not Circumftances. As if a People that have the Plague 
be commanded to keep Publick AlTembJies for Worihip, 
the Lawgiver being culpably ignorant that they had 
the Plague, ^c. This repeated Denial put them fo 
hard to it, that they could proceed no farther. And 
being ftop'd in Arguing, they have fince made it up 
in unhandfome Refle£tions. Biftiop Morley particularly 
in Print aiferted, That this Aflertion of Mr. Baxter's 
was not only Falfe, but Deftruftive of all Authority, 
Humane and Divine, as not only denying all Power 
to the Church of making Canons Eccleliaftical for the 
better Ordering and Governing the Church, but alfo 
taking away all Legillative Power from the King and 
parliament, and even from God himfelf. For that 
no A£l can be fo good of it felf, but it may prove by 
accident a Sin : And if to Command fuch an A(5l may 
be a Sin, then every Command muft b? a Sin. And if 
to Command be a Sin, then God can command no- 
thing, becaufe he cannot Sin : And Kings, Parliaments 
and Churches ought not to command any Thing, be- 
caufe they ought not to Sin. 

Upon this the whole Nation almoft was fiU'd with 
Tragical Exclamations againft the abominable Affertion 
of one of the Difputants at the Savoy*. As if, be- 

■^ He that vpould fee a dt^inCi Account of this Matter, may read Mr. Bax- 
Xtx's Letter to his Belored "People of Kederminfter, of the Caufes of his beinr 
forbidden by the Biffjop of WorcefJer to Preach within his Diocefs ; with the 
Bifhofs Letter in Anfvffer to it ; and fome fbort Animadverfons upon the 
Bifhop's letter. Printed in 1662. 

I70 The LIFE of Chap. VriL 

An. i65i.caufe 'twas aflerced that Things not evil of themfelves, 

may have Accidents fo evil as may make it a Sin to him 

that (ball command them, it (hould therefore follow 

that nothing may be commanded for fear of thofe evil 

Accidents, in Cafes where the Commander cannot be 

chargeable with any Hand in them. Whereas 'tis a 

* Owr/<rf« Truth eafily defenfible; That whenfoever the CommMnd" 

hi (tori an i^g or Forbidding of a Thing Indifferent is like to occafion 

(in the more hurt than good, and this may be forefeeny the Com" 

Complete manding or Forbidding it is a Sin*, 

Hiftory of 

England, FoL 3. p.l'i$) might if he had pleas d have conjider^d thiiy before 
he grac'd his Margin with the Dif-ingenuity of Mr. Baxter. He /hould 
have tryd to difprove this, leafi his Readers (hould be tempted to retort the 

He wants Eye-fight that cannot difcern that there 
may be feverai Accidents, that may make the Impofi- 
tion even of a Lawful Thing Sinful. For to take on- 
ly the Inftance that was under the Confideration of 
thefe Difputants : Suppofe it ever fo Lawful of it felf 
to Kneel in Receiving the Lord's Supper, if it be im- 
posed by a Penalty that is incomparably beyond the Pro- 
portion of the Offence, that Penalty is an Accident 
of the Command, and maketh it by Accident Sinful in 
the Commander. 

^ Our late' And thus ended the Difpute ztth^Savoy^, and all 
hiforian Endeavours for Reconciliation upon the Warrant of 
(See Com- the King's Commiflion. But it may not be amifs to 
plete Hi- ^^j^j (-Qj^g Remarks upon the Temper and Carriage of 

^'""'y «J theCommiflloners. 


p. 2^6.) when he mentions the F.nd of thin frwtlefs Conference, fays, That 
Che Presbyterian Divines depended too much on the Encouragement rhey 
had rcceiv'd from the King, and his Chief Miniflcrs ; and on the Af- 
furances given them by fome of the leading Members of Parliament ^ in 
which he is yery likely to be in the Right : But when he adds^ they were 
miftaken in the Merits of their Caufe, he triumphs before a yiflory ; un- 
iefs he had made a fuitahle Reply to their Petition for Peace, which was the 
inly Caufe they efpousd or pleaded for* 


Chap. Vlll. Mr. Richard Baxter. i^i 

_ ^ 1— 

Bifliop Sheldon* o£ London, (afterwards Arch-Biftiop -^. 1661, 
of Canterbury) did not appear often, and engagd not at 
all in the Difputation, and yet was well known to have ^'«^^ h 
a Principal Hand in difpofing of all fuch Affairs. He '^^y ^Z^'^'*- 

died .^«. 1677. ]feElif 

Avch'Biihop Frewen of Torl{ was a peaceable Man, ^,V ^T*^ 
came not often to the Meeting among them, *nd ^ •z;-^^^^^'^" 
fpake only at the firft opening of the Commiffion, and 
then declared openly his unacquaintednefs with what 
was defign'djand therefore referr'd himfelf to Bi[hopSheU 
ilcvy as fully inftrucfted by the King. He died /^w. 1664. 
Bi(hop Morley -f of P^orcefter^ afterwards of PVinche^ 


* Twa Tajfagei concerning him defene a Remark. The firfi is related By 
T)r. Bates in his Funeral Sermon for Mr. Baxter ; ^ti$ this : When the Lord 
Chamberlain Manchefter told the King, while the ACh of Uniformity was un- 
der debate. That he was afraid the Terms of it were fo rigid chat many 
of the Minifters would not comply with it 5 he ref>lyd, I am afraid they 
will. Nay, ^tis credibly reported he fijould fay, Now we know their Minds, 
we'll make them all Knaves if they Conform. Whether his Temper was af- 
terwards any Thing cooler, let others judge. Jt looks a little that Way, that 
when his Nephew, Sir Jofeph Sheldon, whowas Lord- Mayor of London in 1676, 
dejired his Advice about his ConduCl in the Tear of his Mayoralty-, he fl)oul<£ 
make him no other Anfwer than this : Confider, Coufin, that as I am 
Arch-Bifliop of Canterbury, fo you are Lord-Mayor of London. 

t The Spirit of this Prelate maybe eafily judg'^d of by any one that will Be 
at tl)e Pains to read his Warm and Faffionate InyeUiye again/l A/r.Baxter, and 
his Account to his People of Kedcrminfter, of the Caufe of his EjeHrment : 
In which Invefiive, among many other Things, he with the utmofi Warmth 
aferts, That Monarchy cannot confift without Epifcopacy : That he, at 
Blfhop of Worcefler, was file and immediate Pafior of all the People in his 
Diocefs : And that he who tho"* lawfully ordain d jhnuld preach to any Con- 
gregation without the Blff)ops Llcenfe, came not in by the Door, and 
therefore was a Thief and a Robber, ^c. But that he might afterwards^ 
upon feeing the fmall Succefs of the Eigours usd, grow fnmewhat more tem- 
perate, I have fome Reafon to believe, from a particular Pajfage convey d 
to me in fifch a Way, as that I have no doubt of the Truth of it • which was 
this : Being confulted by the Mayor of a Country Corporation, whofe Zeal was 
far beyond either his Wifdom or his Charity, what Method he ftiould take, ef- 
feftualiy to root out the Fanaticks in the Year of his Mayoralty -, the Bi- 
fhop now grswn old, firft preached Friendlinefs to liim, by ordering him a 
Glafs of Canary, as oft as he ftarced his Queftion in Company ; and next 
admoniflyd him when alone^ To let thofe People live quicciy, in many of 
whom he was fatisfy'd there was the true fear of God j and who wei'C 
not likely to be gain'd by Rigoui* and Severity, 

172 The LI F E of Chap.VIIL 

— ft 1 !L_ 

An. i66i.Jler^ was a frequent Attendant and the chief Speaker 
of all the Bilhops, always delivering bis Mind with 
great Earneftnefs and Zeal, and often interrupt- 
ing; thofe of the other Side in their Difcourfe. He was 
a Prime Manager of the whole Affair ; and unwilling 
to yield to any Thing that might Jook like Modera- 
tion. He was the longeft Liver of any. He died 
j4n. 16S4. 

Bilhop Cofmsof Durham metconftantly among them, 

and was for Two Things very remarkable. 

"^Dr.Bues ^^^^' ^°^ ^^^ being lb excellently vers'd in the C4* 

i'« hilvum- ^''"■'' Councils and Fathers, which he appear* d to re- 

ra/ Sermon rnemb?r Very readily, when there was Occafion for Ci- 

/or^/r.Bax- tations. And 

ter rrffrtf, Secondly for his Opennefs. For as he was of a Ru- 
7 hat in the ftick Wir and Carriage, fo he would endure more Free- 
Conference dom of Difconrfe, and was more Affable ajid familiar 
at Wovze. than the reft of (he feiO^opi.*. 
fter-Hoiife V 

^^'wM/lc Kinor's Declaration, when the Mimfters deftred that the Bijhops 
fhouUexerctie their ihunh Torrer with the Counfel and Confent of Fresby 
^^ MI yt" ^'-^^^'^ ^^^^"^ prefent/y rcply'd, If Youv Majefty grant this, You 
will Unbiniop Your Bi[l\op5,^But' remarkable is a Fafage in his Uft Hill 
and Teflamtnr, primed b'^^th tn Enjjlifh and Latin vfith his Funeral Sermon 
and Life. It defen-es tyuii/cribin<; from pa<r. I 26. I take it to be my Duty, 
and of all my Brechrtti, tfpecially the Bilhops and Miniftersof theCliurch 
of God, to da our iitmolt Endeavours, according to the Meaturc of 
Grace which. is given to every one of us, that at U\\ an End may be pu: 
ro the Differences of Religion, or ar leall ihey may be lelTen'd, &c. 

Bifir.)p Jiir.chman^ then of Salisbury, afterwards of 
LnNdon. had alfo a good Iniight into Fathers and Coun^ 
cils : Ht fpake calmly and flowly, and not very of- 
ten, but was as high in his Principles and Refolutious 
as any of them : And he with Bilhop Sheldon and Bilhop 
t Mr. Morley^ manag'd all Things. 
Pierce, in Bp Snndnfon f oiLincoln was there now and then, but 
hii frj} fpake not often.His great Learning andWorth aj e known 

-P/erf,/'. ^$. 

faysy That he was feyere, and troubled long with a ff)arp Difeafe, which 

might exafpcrate his Mind : And that he had a Roll of Minijiers under hii 

Jlngrj Eye, defignd for Difipline ^ but when he drew nigh to hii latter 

End, he commanded that Roll to be burnt, and faid he would die in 



Chap. VIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 7^ 

by hisLabours:K;^.His PreUHiones deOhligatione Confcieti- An. i66i 
'/^,and De 'Juramento ; and his Sermons. He was very 
Old at the Time of this Snvoy Conference,and partly thro' 
Age,and partly thro* the remainingExafperation on the ac- 
count of his Su{lerings,was a Jittle Peevilh. Afterwards ac 
hisDeath,he made it bis Requeft, That the Ejeded Mi- 
nifters might be us'd again : But his Requeft wasreje£led 
by them that had outwitted him, as being too late. Bi- 
Ihop Gauden was never abfent, and often fided with the 
Minifters, and tho' he had a bitter Pen, he was the only 
Moderator of all the Bilhops, except Bifiiop F{eignolds, 
He meddled not in any Difpute or Point of Learning, 
but had a calm, fluent, rhetorical Tongue, and if all had 
been of his Mind, there had been an Accommodation ef- 
fet^ed. But when by many Days Conference in the Be- 
ginning, the Minifters had got fome moderating Concef- 
fions from him, ( and from Bilhcp Cofms by his Means ) 
the reft came in the End, and broke them all. Bifliop 
Lucy of St. David's, fpake once or twice a few Words 
calmly, and fo did Bifliop Nicbolfon of Gloucefter^ and Bi- 
(hop Griffythsoi St. ^japh, tho* no Commiflioners. Bilhop 
King of Chichefter did not appear ; nor Bilhop I4^arner of 
J^chefier^ except once or twice, and that without fpeak- 
ing. Bilhop Laney* 0^ Pff^^^^o/o//^/^ was fometimes there, 
but did not fpeak much. Once, however, he fpake too 
much. For Mr. B^jcfcr charging the Epifcopal Impofitions 
as Sinful, was accus'd of uncharitabJenefs and BolJnefs, 
in that he thereby charg'd all theChurches of Chrift with 
Sin. Mr. Baxter aiferted, That there were many reform- 
ed Churches free from fuch Inipcfitions : but if there 
were not, he tho't it no Arrogance or UncharitabJe- 
nefs ro charge all the Church and World with Sin. 
For that in many Things we offend all : And Freedom 
from Sin, is the Priviledge of the Church Triumphant. 
Biiliop Laney hereupon cry'd cut, ThrJ jultify'd Perjons 


* Mr, Piei'ce, In his firfi F/ea^ par. ^ 5. fay<^ Tliat tins Blfhop Laney 
was very Moderate in his Government. In his Prime Fijitation before Bir- 
tholomew-Day, he in his Chamber told of fome hi^Cler^ what he came about 5 
and as thfp he could tPipe his Hands^ f'^'d, t^'x. iyvu.KXA\ijut.(^, Not I, but the 
Law. And he could ( to ufe his ov?n Thrafe to a Scrupulous Terfon) look 
thro' his Tinkers-, and f ufe r a worthy Nonconformill to Preach fublkkly -very 
jfeat htm, for Jo me Tear:; together, after his Remore to another Bifhoprick. 

174 The LIFE of Chap. VIII. 

— -_. I -^ - - 11 ■-■ ■ 1 I- — ■ - -- - -I .11 — 

An, l66i' haveno Sin^ nnd are no Sinners ^ hecaufejuftificationta- 
keth it avpay. The Arguing of which, left him in no 
fmall Confuflon. 

Bifhop irulton ofCheJier^ (the Publiflier of the Pol;^ 
glot Bible) was there now and then, but fpake but fel- 
dom. Bifhop Stern oiCarliJIe^ afterwaj-ds Arch-Bilhop 
of Torky was of a moft fober, honeft, mortify'd Afpe^k, 
but wanted Charity. For when Mr. Baxter was en- 
treating the Bifhops not to caft out fo many in the Na- 
tion^ as fcrupled a Ceremony which they confefs'd In- 
different, he turn'd to the reft, and noted him for fayr 
ing in the Nation: He will not fay in the Kingdom, faitli 
he, leFf be own a Kjng» Mr. Baher made him no other 
Reply but this: That half the Charity which became 
fo Grave a Bi(hop, might have fuffic d to have help'd 
him to a better Expofition of the word Kation^ fp 
commonly us'd by Monarchical "Writers. , And that 
their Cafe was fad, if after the taking the Oaths, and 
being Honour'd by the King with fuch Teftimonies 
as they had had, they muft when treating for Accom- 
modation ftand expos'd to fuch invidious Refiec^ionl 
as Traytors, without the leaft Ground. So that he 
declares he was never more deceiv'd by a Man's Face in 
his Life. 

Bp. ^ignolds * fpakc much the firft Day, for bring- 
: ing the reft to Abatements and Moderation; and af- 
jj^^^^^J^ terwards he fate with the reft of the Bifhops, and fpake 
Tl a par "^^ ^^^ ^^^" ^ qualifying and foftning Word. He 
__ 'y^f^' was a confiderable Man, and of great Integrity ; but 
That Bp! ^^^^^ Mildnefs, and excefs of timerous Reverence to 
jLeigwlds great Men, altogether unfit to contend with them. He 
carry 'd Dy'd An, l6y6. 
the woundf 

of the church in his Heart and Bowels to his Grave with him j as is well 
known to many that knew him. 

* Mr. Dri Earle *, who was afterwards Bifhop of Salis" 
Pierce l,ury, Mt> Baxter remembers not to have feed 
fbid.glyei there. 
him this 

Chara^er: That lie was a Man could do Good againft Evil, Forgive 
much, and of a Charitable Heart ; and who Dy'd to the no great Sorrow 
of them, who rcckon'd his Death was Juft, for Labouring With all his 
Wight againft the Oxfari 5 jMile Aft, quicldy after it^ 


Chap. VIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 75 

Mr. Thorndike fpake once a few Paflionate Words, -4«. 1661. 
confuting the Opinion which ihe Minlfters had received 
of him from his firft W'ritings, and con&iming that 
which his fecond and laft Writings had given them of 
him. Dr. HejHn and Dr. Barwkk^ did not appear. 
Dr. Hacket (afterwards Bilhop of Coventry and Lich- 
field) faid little. Neither did Dr, Sparrovp (afterwards 
Biftiop of Norwich) fay much •' But what he did fpeak 
was with Spirit enough for the Impofing and Dividing 

Dr. Pierfon f afterwards Bifhop of C^e^erJ difputcd 
accurately, foberly, and calmly, and procur d himfelf 
a great deal of Refpec^: from the Minifters; and a Per- 
fwafion, That if he had been Independent he would ' 

have been for Peace: And that if all had been in his 
Power, it would have gone well. He was the Strength 
and Honour of the Bifhops Caufe; but Mr. Baxter tho't 
it dubious, whether he heartily maintain d it. 

Dr, Gunning (afterwards Bi(bop of £/r) was their for- 
wardeft and greateft Speaker. He f^uck at nothing. 
When Dr. Bates urg'd it upon him, that on the fame 
Reafons as they imposM the Crofs and Surplice, they 
might bring in Holy Water, and Lights, and abun- 
dance of fuch Ceremonies of i^fl??;c, which we havecaft 
out : He anfwer'd Tes ; and fo I think we ought to have 
more and not fewer, if we do well. He feem'd a Man 
of greater Study and Induftry than any of them ; was 
well read in Fathers and Councils, and of a ready 
Tongue: But fo vehement for high impofing Principles, 
and Church Pomp, and fo very eager and fervent in 
his Difcourfe, that he often over-run himfelf. As for 
the Commiffioners on the other fide, their Charader 
may be feen in the other Volume. 

At the Clofe of the laft Day it was agreed between 
them, that nothing fhould be given in on either Side 
to the King, as charg'd on the other fide, but what 
fiiould be deliver'd in Writing : And that the Account 
they (hould on each fide give Ihould be this; that they 
were all agreed upon the Ends, the Churches Welfare, 
Unity and Peace, and his Majefty*s Happinefs and 
Contentment ; but after all their Debates were difa- 
ereed of the Means 5 and this was the End of the Aflem- 
&y and Commii^on, 



7he L IFE of Chap. VIII. 

An. 1 55 1. The Difpute being ended, all the Minifl-eys that were 

. . . CommifTioners met by themfclves, and rcfolv*d to draw 

/?'^ '"/> "P ^ri Account of their Endeavours, and Prefentit to 

on the Ktnr ^'^ Majefty, with a Petition for his promised help for 



thofe Alterations and Abatements, which they could 
not procure of the Biftiops. They 6rft applyM them- 
felves to the [Lord Chancellor, and crav'd his Favour 
to procure the King's Declaration yet to be pafs'd into 
an Adt, and his Advice how they fhould proceed. He 
confented to their giving his Majefty an Account of 
their Proceedings in an Addrefs, and when they had 
drawn it up, Perus'd it ; and after fome Alterations it 
was Prefented to his Majefty, by Bp. I{eignolds, Dr. 
Bares, Dr. Manton, and Mr. Baxter, Mr. Calamy being 
at this time indifpos d. In this Addrefs, after a Par- 
ticular Account of their Proceedings, they thus ex- 
prefs'd ihemfelves. — — • ' And tho* we feem to have la- 
bour'd in Vain, we fhall yet lay this "Work of Recon- 
ciliation and Peace at the Feet of your Majefty, Bc- 
feeching you to Profecute fuch a Blelfed Refolution 
till it attain Succefs. We muft needs Believe that 
when your Majefty took our Confent to a Liturgy, to 
be a Foundation that would infer our Concord, you 
meant not that we fhould have no Concord but by Con- 
fenting to this Liturgy, without any condderable Al- 
teration. And when you Comforted us with your 
Refolution to draw us together, by yielding on both 
' Sides what we could, you meant not that we fhould 
be the Boat, and they the Bank that muft not ftir. 
And when your Majefty Commanded us by Letters 
Patents to Treat about the needful Alterations, we reft 
alTured that it was not your Senfe, ihat tender Con- 
fcicnces were to be forc'd to Pradtice all which they 
judg'd Unlawful, aini not have fo much as a Cere- 
mony abated them : Or that our Treaty was only 
to Convert cither Part to the Opinion of the others; 
and that all our Hopes of Concord or Liberty conlifted 
only in Difputing the Bilhops into Nonconformity, 

or coming in every Ceremony to their Minds. As 

your Majefty under God, is the Protection whereto 
your People fly, and as the fame Neceflities ftill re- 
main, which drew forth your Gracious Declaration, 
we moft humbly and earneftly Befeech your Majefty, 
that the Benefits of the faid Declaration may be con- 


Chap. VIll. Mr. Richard Baxter. 177 

* tinu'd to your People, and in Particular, that the^«. i^^i^ 

* Additions may be made to the Liturgy, that are 

* therein Exprefled. We fha]l wait in Hope, that fo 

* great a Calamity of your People, as would follow the 

* lofs of fo many Able Faithful Minifters as rigorous 

* Impofitions would caft out, fliall never be Recorded 

* in the' Hiftory of your Reign : But that thefe Impedi- 

* menrs of Concord being forborn. Your Kingdoms 

* may F our ih in Piety and Peace, c^r. 

But ail their entreaties avaiPd nothing to ward off 
one of the grateft Calamities fom a (inful land and 
Pe' p e. The\ fou^ihr Peace with the utnioft Earneft- 
nefs, but were generally ente?tain'd with Reproach. 
They were all Branded as ^igid Prabyte iavs^ tho'they 
ne <r par up one Petition for Presbytery, but pl','aded 
for Prim tive Epifcopacv. Tbc\ wert' reprefented in 
the Comm n Talk of thofe who tho't it their Intereft 
to be their Adverfa^ies, as the moft: fe -itious People in 
the World, unworthy to be '-s'd like Men, or to enjoy 
any Liberty. They coald not eo Abroad, b t they 
met with daily Reproaches and falfcSt ries rais'd upon 
them. 'Twas the conftant Cr- rha^ they were Plot- 
ting, or fetrmg the People apainft the Governrrent. 
For there were a MuUirude of Students at that time 
who gap'd for Preferment, and many Gentlemen that 
aim'd at tifing in the World, who quickly found out 
what was moft pleafing to thole whofe Favonr they 
muft rife by, and fo fet themfelves Induftrioufly to Re- 
viling, Calummating, and Cruelty againft all thofe 
who n the perceived to be Odious. And he that can 
but Convince a World y Geherarion of any Thin^ that 
is the readv w^v to their Prefermer^t, fliall be fure to 
have it clofely follow'd, and thro'iy done with all their 
mipht ! 

Many Worthy Minifters, and fo!^er Gentlemen and Vhe)'. 
others, were imprifon'd in Divers Coanties throughout p^m P/ofi. 
the Land, under a pretence of Plotting, in the latter •'^ He that 
part of this Year *. In November^ one Mr. Ambrofe would pafs 

• a Right 

Judgment concerning the AlI of Uniformity^ ought fedately to conlider, 
both the Scandalous Arts that were iis'd for obtaining it, and the bitter 
Fruits and Confequences which i.producd. Of the latter, we fhall hear 
eno' in the fequel of this Hiftory : But the former are not commonly, 
known or minded. And therefore VI! add fome few Hints that are welt 

173 The LI tE of Chap. VllL 

ji». i66t' sparry (a Sober Learned Minifter that had never own'd 
J, . the Parliaments Caufe or Wars, and was in his Judg- 
C int:iin ^^^^ ^^^ Moderate Epifcopacy) had a wicked Neigh- 
TaninrtoH ^^^^ whom he reprov'd for Adultery, who bearing hita 
(a Man of ^ ^^rudge, tho'c he had now a time to be reveng'd. He 
an ef!a- (or his Confederates for him) framed a Letter, as from 
blilh'd Ke- a Namelefs Perlon, directed to Mr. Sparry^ Toat he and 
piitatianj Captain Y SLinngton floould he ready with Mo)icy and Arms 
did in 

i68r, publifh a full Difcovery of the firft Presbyterian Sham Plot: In 
which Difcovery he declares he related nothing but what he could prove 
by Lct:erR, and many living WitntlTes^ and his Account was never pub- 

lickiy contradiacd He lays, That many, both of the Cleigy and 

Laity, difliking the King's Declaration concsmtng Eqckfiaftical Affairs, 
rtfolv'd to run Thincrs to the utmoft hti^hc: And that ibmeof the Lead- 
ing Church-iVlen were heard to lay. They would have an AEh fo framda- 
vccuU reach every Furitan in the Kingdo?n: And that if they thot any o: 
them rvould fo stretch their Confciences tvi to be eomprcheKded by it^ they 
. ffftuld infert yH other Conditions and Subfcriptions^ Jo as that they fbould 
have no Benefit by it. To pave the way for it, they contrive a Presbyterian 
Flot^ which was laid in about 56 feveral Counties. As to Worcejierfhire^ 
he gives a like Account with Mr. Baxter, only with the Addition of ma- 
ny l^jrticulars. He fays, Several Letters were drawn up and delivcr'd by 

Sir yohn 2 10 one Rich. Ti his Neiglibour, to convey them to 

One Cole of Martley, who with one Churn^ brings them again to Sir John 

•P ■ from wliom they came, making Affidavit, That he found the Tackec 

left by a Scotch Pedlar under a Hedge. In this Packet, when itwasopcn'd, 
there were .found feveral Letters, difcovering a Confpiracy to raiiea Re- 
bellion. There were feveral Letters to the Captain; one from Mr. Baxter 
ot hidermin/hr^ iniimatjjig, That he had provid.d a confiderable Body of 
Men Well arm'd, wliich fhould be ready againft the time appointed And 
another from Mr. Sparry, indmating, He had order'd him 500/ lodg'd in 
a Fritnd's hand, &c. Upon this, the Miliiia of the County was rais'd 
immediately, and the City of Worccfier fill'd witJi them the very Night 
after tlie P.icket was open'd. The next Morning the Captain was feiz'd 
by a Troop of Hoife, and bro't Prifoncr to Worcefler; and fo alfo were 
Mr Sparry^ Mr OJland, Mr. Afoor, and Mr. Brian, Minifters, together with ibme 
Scoito of others They were allkept cloie Priionersfor 10 Days; by which 
time the Tiainfd Binds being weary, moft of them were diftharg'd paying 
their Fees But the Captain, Mr. Sparry, and the two OJlands, were ftill 
kept c'o e Prifoners in the Geor^e-lnn, tlie Dignitaries of the Cathedral 
taking care, when the Trained B-inds retired, to raife 60 Foot Soldiers 
(wlv» liad double Pay, and were cnlled the Clergy-Band) to fccure thefe 
Criminals. And belides the Sendnels upon each of die Prifoners, they 
had A Court of Guard at the Town-Hall of WorceTler. There tiiey ptr- 
form'd one remarkable Adt of Chivalry : A I'oor Man coming dut of the 


Chap. V[I[. Mr. Richard Baxitr. ^ 179 

at the Time appoint. ■:'d^ avd that they fhould acquaint Country 

iV/ . Olbnd and Air. Baxter with. it. This Letter fo enquire 

he pretended a Man lefc behind hin-i under a Hedge, s^^i' th- 

■vvho far down and puIFd out many Letters, and put ^"^^if-ie 

all up again except this, and went awiy. He carried ^^ ^'-^'■^<^^' 

the Letter to Sir Jnhi Prjc'-jngton (who was one p ^^f 

that hotly foilow'd luch Work) Wno fciit Mr. S/^^tn^ |||^^.^^'^''* 

Mr, OJIand. and Captain Tr.rnn^ton to Priion. Mr. Of- r,^'\ ^" 
* •» ■' JUcaKing 

CO one 

of the So'dier.s, hi told him tiiai Mr. Ofland v;z? a Trayror and a Re- 
bel, ^c. The Poor Man flood up for his Miniikr, and vindicated him ; 
whereupon he was with great Zeql carried to the Court of Guard. He 
that then pvefided there, ( who was no meanrr Man tlian an Appari- 
tor ) commanded the Old Man to be ty'd Neck and Heels, cliaig'd 
him with having a Hand in the Presbvterian Plot, and threatiied him 
with feveie Ufage if he would not confefs. The Old Man bore hi?, 
Wrath with great Patience, and gave liim not a Word in AniV/er : Upoa 
which the Man in Authority was fo enrag'd, that he put lighted Mitci^ts 
between his Fingers, and burnt them to the very Bone, to make V'lm 
confefs. The Man was alive .when the Captain wro.e his Narrative, hv 
Names him, and fays, T/j^f Multitudes rpere Witneffes nf the R^<f?, to 
ipphom he appsatd. At length Mrs. Tarrington dilcovering tiie Sham 
Intrigue, by the Acknowledgment which the Perfon employed by Sir jf.P. 
to carry the Packet to Ode of Martley^ made to his Brother, flie gives 
Notice of it ro her Husband in his Confinement, who immtdiattly tn tr3 
Aftions againll thofe that imprifon'd him. Being at iaft difcharg'd, lie 
comes up to London^ and prevaiPd wi-h the Lord of triftol fn acquaint 
the King, how his Minifters irapos'd upon him Uich S iam Plot-?, ^c. 
Upon this tlie Deputy-Lieutenants v/erc ordered to appear at the Councii- 
Board. They endeavoured to clear rhemfelves, and delir'd to confult ihofe 
in the Country. But afterwards Sir /. W. ( who was one of them ) 
Arrerts the Captain for High-Treafon, He was again releas'd upon the 
Earl of Bri/iol'^ procuring the King's Privy-Seal : And going dawn inro 
the Country lie profecutes his Profecutors. ^az within Six Months, Per- 
fons were fuborn'd to Swear againft lum, That he had ffohen Trenfona- 
hle Words aga'mfi the Kih^ and Gorefnment. For this he was try'd at the 
Allizes at WoTcejicr before Judge Trvifden^ and upon a full Heaing was 
prefendy Acquitted by the jury. And one of the WitnciTes (whom he 
names) afterwards cdnfefs'd he had 5/. given him for being an Evi- 

This feigned Plot was on foot in Oxfordp^lrc^ at the fame Time. A 
Stranger came one Evening to Mr. Matthevr Martin^ the Town-Clerk, 
with a Letter, and when he liad deliver'd it withdrevr. As foon as he 
had open'd and confider'd it, he prefently carried it to the Mayor. The 
ietLSr ran thus. Mf. Martin I pray you warn alt thcje Men to be in their 

K i land 

i8o The LIFE of Chap. VIII. 

Arms on Innd was fuppofed therefore to have been bro'c in, bc- 
Wednef- caufe he had offended Sir t{alph Clare, in being a- 
diy ntxt gainft his Eledion as Burgefs in Parliament for the 
tn the Town of Bexvdlci^ where, he liv'd. Many upon this 
^^|^'^.>'^Occafion, cfpecially Mv. Spnrry^ Jay long in Prifon: 
mj a ' ^j^^j when the Forgerv and Injury was detedled, 
J^*^^ -^^^^ !f ^ they had much Difficulty in obtaining a Releafe. 
mcH. There'^^^^ ^^* ^'^^^^^ "^vas nam' J there, yet he was then 

TOPI I I ome 

to Oxford Two Hundred Men all in their Arfns ; you hmvf who doth Cont' 
mand them. Dr. Greenwood hath fent to Mr. Combs the Barber^ to get his 
Tarty of Scholars nady that TiJijht. And I hare fent to Mr. Hickman t» 
get his Men ready at the fame Time, And Dr C:3win has fent to Mr. Cor- 
nifh to i^et hi< Men ready at the fame Time. And I have fent toDr. Cori- 
nanghi to <^et his Men ready. And all the Sch'ilars are to meet In Dr. Ro- 
gers'* Garden, 1 pray fend the B /under bujffs thither., for I intend to be there 
vnyfelf. And I pray ^ire the Bearer hereof $ 1, out of the Stock .• And I pray 
remomher me to the Six Men unnam'd. Fire Counties are to rife that Night 
vithout fail I need rprite no more to you. The Word is^ God is the 
Word, and pray teil them all fo. In this Letter there was a great Lift 
o'l Nimts includtd. The Mayor of Oxford prefently difpatch d a Mef- 
fcn^er with a Letter to the Lord Vaulkland liien Lord Lieutenant of the 
County : And fent another Letter with the like Accoimt to the Recorder 
of Oxford , one of their Members in Parliament, Crc. The next Day 
two of the Deputy-Lieutcnr-nts ftnt for Mr. Martin, and threatned at firft 
to commit him : But upvin ftcond Thoughts difmilTed him. And that 
very Night many of the Mili ia came into the Town, and kept Guard 
for two Days in the City. So that had not Mr. Martin taken fo prudent 
a Method, had he tarried a Nighr, the Letter might have been found a- 
boiit him, and Oxford had quickly been as full or fuller of Plotters and 
Piifoners than Uocefier. At the fame Time Mr. Andrerv Parfons 

wns us'd witii great Severity, and Try'd for preaching Treafon in Shrcp' 
/Z»«>f, and bro't in Guilty : But by lb violent a wrtfting of Words, that 
all the World crif d out Shame ; and the Lord NetPpvrt interpofing, pro- 
cured the King-s Pardon for him. See Conformifls Fourth Plea for the Nm- 
conf. pag. -^c. &c. There was fomething of a. like Sham Plot in Lei ce/let' 
[hire and Tori/hire, Ibid. pa^. 59, 40. The Great Defign aim'd at by all 
thcfc Me. hods, was to pofTefs the Parliament, that it was abiolutcly ne- 
celTary to make a ^evere A(fV againft fucb a reftlcfs Sort of Men, who nor 
contented with the King's Pardon, were always Plotting to difturb the 
Government. And they reached their End. Thcfe Plots and Stirs in fe- 
vf.ral Couniies of the Land, were in Ofhbcr and Korember i66t. And 
on the 20th of November the King appearing in the Houfe after an Ad- , 
journment, made a Speech wherein are thcfe Words. — — —I am forry 
fo find that_ the General Temper and Afeflion of tin: Nation are: not fo well 


Chap. IX. Mr. Richard Baxter. i8i 

in London, and had been fo for foir.e Time, by which cnmpDs\i as 
he efcap'd ; And yet where Men were taken up and ^ '•"'/' "^ ^^>9 
imprifon'd in diftant Counties, ic was fiid to be for ^^uUlbaye 

B.I ATf^/'s Plot. heenyt^ter 

jo ft nal 
BlejfiHgs of 
Cod Almighty upon m all, and after fo great Indulgence and Condcfcer.tiom 
from me forwards all Interefis ; there are many wicked Injlruments flill ns 
ulCliye' as e\er^ who labour Night and Day to aifturb tie Fubllck Teace, 
and to make People jealous of each other : It may be worthy your Care and 
Vigilance to provide proper Remedies for Dijeafes of that Kind : And if you 
find new Difeafes^ yf'U mufi find new Remedies, die When the Houie of 
Commons after this Speech came to their Debates, tip flands Sir /. P. 
one of the Knights for Wone/terfhire^ and with open Mou:h informs them 
of a Dangerous Presbyterian Plot on foot ; and that many of the Chief 
■ Confpirators were now in Prifon at W'orcejierjhire- 1 he like- Informaiioa 
was given by fome Members who ferv'd for Oxfordjhire, Herefordjhire^ 
Staford/hire^ and other Places. Nay this was the General Cry ; this all 
the Pamphlets printed at that Time ran upon. And 'twas in this very 
Seffions that this Bill of Uniformity pafs'd the Houfe. And that the Gene- 
ral Cry occafion'd by thefe Sham Plots much promoted ir, will eafily be 
be judg'd by any one, that will but be at the Pains to perufe Tarringtons 
Narrative, to which the Reader is referr'd for Satisfattion. 

C H A P. IX. 

The rM of Vniformiiy ^ and Re&Miouf tw- ."^[-^''^^ 

A if C- '-^- i 1/ . ^ .fpcakinr of 

. Ohf It : ^nf!cl the njccting dn;i :nkncj?7g oj this DecU- 
many won by P erf 0/2 s by It. *"'*^"'« ''» 

" hli Sermo^ 

^ "^ Ocwithftanding alkheirDifcouragements Mr. Cc- \^^^^'j: ^^" 
j^^ /^is-^jy and fooie other Minilters, ftiJl made ufe ^^Z Z*"^' 
^ of what Interelt they had 10 Men of Note and jl\t /j,' 

Figure, co get the Paiiiainenc to pafs the Kings DscU- ,^ranted 
r.^tlon into a Law; aiid lometimes the Lord C ha n- y^f /; 4 frcc- 
ceJloar and ethers ga' e them fome Hope : But when dom to Con- 
ic came to the Tryal chey were difappointed ; it was fdentious 
rejecfted *. And fo the Declaration did nbc only die Minifiers 

that were 
unfatisfyd with the Old Conformity^ that if it had been obfcry'd, ;> had pre- 
rented the doleful Vlvifon ihut fucceedccl afterward. But when there was a 
Motion made in the Houfe of Commons that it might pafsintoan Ail, it wa^ 
oppos'd by one of the Secretartes of S^tate^ which was reckon'd a fvffcimt Indi- 
Ciition of the Kjng''s Ay^rfenffs to ii, 

N 3 before 

i82 li,e Llbh of Chap. IX. 

before It came to Hxecution, but ail Attempts for U- 

nion and Peace "were at an End. Nay, a rigorous 

A(5l was bro't in for Uniformiiy, clogg'd on Dcfign 

to make the Weighi of Conif'rmicy heavier than e- 

ver. Reafoning, Petitions and Hntreaties back'd with 

ever {o many weighty Confidcrations, were dilVegard- 

ed as vain Things. It fecmM to be accounted the 

One Thing Neceflai^' by thofe who had gotten the 

Reins in their Hands ; a Thing fo necelfary that no 

Realon muft be heard againft it, that thofe call'd 

Piesbyrciir.ns *muft be forc'd to do 

^* A JXpthary of the Church that which they accounted pub- 

^j/^.n.^ud, a Man of Note and ji^-jj Perjury, or be caft out of 

^ure ^hen a jUcr Gcntlc:r.a.n Xrufl and Office, boib in Church 

fh.^dfo-^.'Re^^rn that the l>oor and Common-wealth. While this 

vai '^n ffratt-, tlMt many cber a o , j- ^\, xt- -n 

Af'iifjfforc ^. u ^.. ' .. a'!i t -^^l was depending, the Minifters 
/f-tni/ters eouia not pave Admih n li • r t i i y-v 

/"^ repUed, It was no Pity at ^'^^ mterpufing as they had Op- 
aH; if we had tho'c fo mnnv pommity, bad peremptory Pro- 
^''th<»ni uroald have ConfomVd "^^^^^ guen them by feme in great 
w? vyould have made ic ilia;ter. Piaccs, that the King would grant: 

that by Way of Indulgence, which 

had been denied them in the Way they moft delir'd it ; 

and that Care ihould be taken before the Acl: pafs'd, 

that the King Ih^uld have Power referv'd to him, to 

difpenfe with it as to fjch as deferv'd well of him at 

his Reftoration, or whom he pleas'd. But at length the 

AQi pafs'd the Houfe t> and ali 

i It's generally /aid it n^as car- their great Friends left them in the 

*ifd but byyery fevfFotes : And Lurch. And when afterwards 

t'nat fome yvhovPere a;:atnj} Itvere they, upon the Utmofl EncOUrage- 

ii'p^^from the Hoiifc by Stratagem, incnc from Men in Power, had 

drawn up a Petition to prefent to 
his Majefty for Indulgence, they were grievnufly 
thrcaten'd with incurring a Pra:mnnire by fo bold an 
Aftempr, tho' they had worked their Pcririon fo Caiire- 
louily that it extended not to the Papifts. This Rigo- 
rous Adl X^ when it paffed, gave 
.i Dr. Bates in his Sermon at ail the Minifteis, who could not 
^jr. B;ixcer'j FiA^era/, fpeakin'rof conform, no longer TitTie than 'till 
thi4 4^1 f:y<^ That theo/dc/er.'y J^^yti^oloymrv D/rr, Augufi the 24th 
jromHrahandK..en::e andthe j ^^ ^^en they Were all Caft 
ViUn'T Gentry rom their Jtrvi/e \i 1 u r\ « •> u •,er.iththeiounjre.ery ^"^- ^/^^^ V' ^ ' ' c''' ' 

^cliy.t'^i^rryon^ndcomt^U.uit. "^"^^ Gladnefs to fomc, and Sor- 
'^ ' row to others, and occauon d many, 


Chap. IX. Mr. Richard Baxter. i8^ 

and thofe very different Refledlions. Among the reft, ^«. i<55i. 
there was a Remark made by a Man of Note, which I 
cannot pafs by : Had nil the Miniftcrs (faid he) Con- 
form d^ People would have thot there was nothing in I{e^ 
ligion ; dnd that it was only a Thing to he tailed of in the 
Pulpit^ and fervs a State Defign ; while the Minifters 
turnd and Chang'd any H^ay with the State : But th»fe 
Js/len ghing up their Livings^ and expofing themfelvcs 
and Familiei' to outward Evils, rather than they would 
conform to Things imposed ^ not agreeable (as they apprehend- 
ed ) to the Go/pel "they preach"* dy have convinci Men^ 
there k a Ideality in I^ligion^ and given a Check, to Atheifm. 
This Acl of Vniforniity which made fuch an Altera- 
tion in all Parts of the Land, by ejedting fo many va- 
luable and afefulPerfons, (of whom a more particular 
and diftin(5l Account is now given in a feparate Vo- 
lume) was paft in an Heat, but its EffecSls have been 
lading. Perfonal Piques too mu h influenced feverai ^c ^],^ 
of the moft zealous Promoters of it: But ^o{\ti\iy,con:pilerof 
when Pafiion and Prejudice come once to be worn out, the -^dJol. 
will rue the Confequence. Some have applauded it as of the 
Heroical : But it was a Prologue to a Tragedy, that Complete 
has not yet reach'd its final Period. Others have a^- Hiftory of 
tempted to vindicate it*: But it would be hard to do England, 

^ 236. 

freaking of the Aft for Uniformity, fays^ it was found neceflavy for the 

Peace and Safety of the State, as well as for the Good and Glory of 

the Church. As for the Peace and Safety of the Stale, Hok? did thefe Mi- 

nijien indanger it ? Many of them had fujfer'd for the King^ and ontxibuicd 

all that in them lay to his Refauration : They <renerally received him vrnh 

great Joy-, and center d in him ^ and rcanted hut Lib' rty of Confcicnce, 

to make them^ and all that they could influence as chearful and dutiful Sub- 

\eth as any in the Land. Had it not been for fufb fhame Tlot>^ a^ tJ/ut of 

Captain Y2.rnngton. mentioned before.^ there had been no tho^t of Danger^ to 

the Pubiick Peace or Safety; fuch an Awe and Reftraint ai he fpenhs of, 

could not hare appeared upon any Account Expedient. J^ut its hard when 

Men fet their Wits on Work to make Necejjities^ that they may hare fomething 

of an Excufe to bear hard on others whom they bear lll-tvill unto, to anjrver 

thofe NeceJJities. And as for the Church »f t/^/i w^J for its Good,! knovf not 

what would have been to its Damage : if this were for its Glory, It would 

he hard to fay what would ha-ve been a Vi [grace to it. To his Judgment^ 

til oppofe that of Mr. Pierce (which is not the lefs to be rez^arded for his not 

hein'r a Dignitary) who fays, I think that common Chriftiani:y hath fuf- 

fer'd much",by their Silencing and Difparagemenc. Preface to theConformiJi's 

J^lea for the Nonconformi/is^ Part i, 

N 4 it 

184 The LI Ft of Chap. IX. 

it upon Scripcural Principles. Having Reafon ro reckon 
my lelf a Confiderablc SufFtre^ by it, tho* not ihen 
to'"n, I hope 1 may without Offence, drop a Tear, 
upon the Remembrance of the Funerals of fo many 
VVo:ihics in nur I/faei\ who were buried at once in a 
common Grave. 

Tbc'v wrrc not a poor inconfiderable Handful, a few 
Scores only of ac eprable and ufcful Minifters, who 
wcjc by this Adt caft ou: of the Church, but many 
Hundreds. They did not throw themfelvesout of Scr- 
^ vice, but were forcibly ejc^l-'d. They begg'd for Con- 
tiniiancc with all imaginable Earneftneis, and urg'd 
uranfwerable Ar^u;nents m their Petition for Peace, but 
were repuls'd. They were not caft out becaufe not 
needed ro carry on the Work of the Gofpel in the 
Land : For there were, and ftill are among us many 
defolaie Quartets, that are over-run with Ignorance 
and Pri fanenefs : And there was more to be done in 
Order to general Inftrudtion, Excitation and Reforma- 
tion, than all their joint Labours would have fully fuf- 
fic'd for ; and yet they were eje£led. This was an 
A6lion without a Precedent ; the like to which the Re- 
formed Church, nay the Chriftian World ne\er fa\y 

In the Ancient Adrian Perfccutions many Scores of 
faidifiii Orthodox Publifhers of the S^erlafting Gof- 
pel wer« Slain atid Baniflrd : In this Cafe Two Thou- 
ifand at once had their Mouths ftopp'd even whilft they 
were alive, and were doonvd to Silence in their own 
Na'i e Country, and thar by, their Brethren, tho' 
thrir Labours were call'd for, and earnelHy defir'd. 
*Twas heretofore rcckon'd a moft horrid Thing, and 
drew Tragical Exclarnations from fucceeding Hifto- 
rians, rhar between Three and Four Score Bilhops 
(h uld be fent at once into the Ifle of S^ndinia by the 
/ifiicnn V<^njnli : And fo it really was, becaufe they 
wne hereby banifli'd from their Flocks, which was an 
alTed:ing ^ hin^, notwithftan<ling thev had the Liberty 
of their Tongnts and Pens ftill hfr them : But in this 
CiCc Thirty Times as many were feparated from their 
JovinR and beloved Flocks, and that by thofe with 
whom ihpy join'd in Profellinej the fame Orthodo:^: 
Fi th ; and tho' they were fnffer'd to remain in the 
Land where they w^re born and bred, they were yet 


Chap. IX. Mr Richard Baxter. / 185 

turnM into fo many Mutes, and laid afide as ufeL-fs 
Perfons. I have read of Two Hundred Minifters who 
j^nm 1549, were ban Ih'd by Ferdinand King of Bo-.. 
hernia ; and of gnat Havock made am ng the Mini- 
fters of Germany a few Years afrer bv the Imperial In- 
terim: But both pur together fej- far fliort of this Cele- 
brated Ad:, not onl\ as to the Number of Perfons con- 
cern'd, but alf" as to the fucceeding Hard (hips which the 
Minilters fell under. For in both thefe Cafes they had 
Liberty to preach ihe G fpel elfewhere. But here was 
one Clog added to another, that the Embanafmenc 
might be rhe greater : So f hat rhe filencM Mini'^.ers had 
no room left for any Sort of Uf fulnefs any where, but 
were buried alive. There was a Gap made in this our 
Land, upon the Settlement of the Pr Jteftanr Religion, 
in the room of the Papal Superftition : But it was no- 
thing comparable to that which was made among us 
upon the refettling of Diocefan Epifcopacy. Formerly 
tnere were Eighty Rectors of Churches, Fift y Preben- 
daries, Fifteen Matters of Colledges, Twelve Arch- 
Deacons, Twelve Deans, and Six Abbots and Abbefles 
ejedted Bur how much better were they fpar'd, than 
Two Thoufand preaching Minifters, who were un- 
wearied in their Endeavours to fpread Knowledge, 
Faith and Holinefs? The Tendernefs us'd towards 
thofe of the former Sort, to remove all Grounds of Scru- 
ple or Difguft, that they might be tempted into the Na- 
tional Eflabliniment, is evident and obvious : But I 
need not ask whether the poor Nonconformifts met 
with the like Treatment. Upon the obftinate Refufal 
of the Former to comply, they were ejedied, and the 
Safety of the State required it, becaufe they own'd a 
Foreign Head. But the latter were cart out by Men of 
the fame Faith, meerly becaufe they differed in Things 
own d to be Extra-elTentiaJ, and deftitute of any In- 
trinfick Goodnefs. After all, the former were treated 
with great Lenity and Mildnefs, as long as they liv'd 
quietly, and aim*d no higher than the Private Liberty 
of their Sentiment and Way ; But were the Noncon- 
fornaifts worthy of any fuch Favour ? or rather were 
they not opprefs'd to the utmoft, on Purpofe that they 
might be driven to make an Intereft for fuch a Tolera- 
tion, as fcould open a Door to the common Enemy ? 

1 86 Ihe LILE of Chap. IX. 

I know it has been pleaded that the PuricanicaJ Party 
fet the Partem, by bearing fo hard on the Seqiieftrei 
MiniOers in the Parliament Times. But whatever that 
Patern was, we muft go father backward for the Ori- 
ginal ; and yet neither would I thence pretend to jufti- 
^ he any rigorous Methods, which Chriftianity does nei- 

^ ,'^. tlier require nor al'ow. But certainly they who fo 
' ^ he "^"^^ exclaimed againft them, llioujd better have knovon 
is taken ^^'^ Hat of a Stranger^ than to have imitated, much 
from the '^^^ ^^^ doDQ them, in Ej^ding a Number fo very 
Ordinance ^^^ Superiour ; without any Allowance towards their 
of Farlia- Support out of the Lfvings whence rhey were eje- 
jwcKto/Au-c!iled, when as the Pashamen: allotred a FifthPart to 
gaft 2g. rhofe who were fequeftred, whatever were the Caufe ; 
J645. /oj-Yea, tho' it were Infufficiency or Scandal. Many 
ffcewioreef-Xhings were done in the Parliament-Times, which 
/ft-?»4//'Mt-j.jjQjg ^Yio were Agents in them, liv'd afterwards long 
tin^ '"^^'^'eno' to fee Reafon to wifh undone : but yet when Mat- 
ly •'^ft '^ ^^^^ v^erc at the utrnoft Heigbth, many Epifcopai Pej- 
forPullick ^'^"^ ^^P^ ''^^^^'^ Places ; Things in their own Nature in- 
iitrfhip dirfcrent, and acknowledged to be fuch, were not 
&c the* Grounds of iilencing and driving into Corners ; nor 
Tuifortof were the ftifFeft of the high Church Party ^ ( Gunning 
j>tPrt5,tW and others of his ftamp) denied their Liberty, provided 
jW»/4«>they gave the Publick, Security of their good Beha- 
Terfon or viour * '. The fame Treatment as they had given to q- 


vhatjheyer^ fhould at any Time or Times aftpvwards^ iifc the Book of Com- 
jnon prayer, or caufc it to be usd^ in any Churchy Chappel^ or Fublick Tlace 
of a orffjtp^ or in any priratc jP/ace or Van:ily -^ that eyery Ferfon fo of endings 
fljould for the firf Of ence forfeit and pay the Sum of 5 1. of Lav^ful Englifh 
Money ^ for hU fecond Offence the Sum 0/ I o 1 ; and for the Third Offence fljou/d 
fifff'er me j^ho/eTcara Imprifonmcnt, without Bail or Mainprife. Er^fy Mini- 
fcr that did not ufc the Dir^rtoiy, n-a^ for erery Time that he did offend, to 
forfeit the Sum of 40 S. ^nd any that fljould Preach, Write, ox Print, or 
caufe to be Uritten or Printed, any Thing in the Derogation or Vepraying of the 
tU fuid Book, fhould forfeit for eyery fuch Offence, fuch a Sum of liloney, 
as p)ould at the Time of his Conyifli"n be t})Ou;rht fit to be imposed up- 
OP him, by thoje before whom he was tryd ;, Proyidcd it WM not lefs than J I. 
and mt excefdinr^ the Sum of «;o I. And all fuch Tines were ordered to go to 
the Ufc ^f the Poor. Ti/is Ordinance is 1 confefs an Eyidence, of what is too 
plain to be denied, that all Parties when they have been uppermojl, hayc been 
too apt to bear hard on thofe tUat haye been under them. But it deferyes a 
V'-marl^ that <■>•?>? by thii Qrdintnce as ferere as it was, no Encouragement 


Chap. IX. Mr. Richard Baxter. 187 

others, would by many who liv'd in thofe Times have was giyen 
been reckon'd highly favourable, if compared with ^^ werce- 
what they actually met with . And whereas fome have ^/^O ^"' 
urg d the Treatment of the Epifcopal Party in Scotland, ^'""^^" •* , 
after King ff^illiani's happy Afcent to the Throne, in a f^ ^'^^ 
Way of Vindication of their Carriage to thofe of the^-p^'^" 
oppofite Stamp after Kine C/;/:?7ej"s Reft an ration, it b j \.r! ^^'% 
Jett t(i any rerlons to judge, whether there be any accordinr 
Thing Parallel in the Two Cafes, if it be but confiderM to this Or- 
that notwithftanding Presbytery is thi^ Government efta- dinance 
blilh'd by Law in kotlnnd^ as much as Epijcnpncy is in were yery 
EngUnd, yet upon their late Settlement, the Epifcopal /^w' •• I 
Minifters there ( excepting fuch as were notorioufly wip) / 
Scandalous, or had Livings from which Presbyteriar. Mi ^^i^^d fay 
nifters who were then Living had been ejedted) were .^'^^^ 
allow'd the Enjoyment of their Places during Life, up *"^^'»'''y?'^ 
on no harder a Condition than that of taking the Oaths J ^f ."^ 
to the Civil Government. And many fuch are conti- ^-^ "^-[j^' 
nu'd in their Livings there without Moleltarion, to t^is Fiye\ni/e 
very Day; Aa,' and 

the ACl a- 
^aifift Coftvettticles, which were pafsd againfi the Nonconformijis after tlic 

But to Return; had thefe ejedled Minifters, who 
were fo hardly dealt with, been either univerfally or 
generally. Enemies of all Order and Regularity, it had 
been much more tolerable : "When as there was fo far 
from any juft Ground for fuch an Infinuation, that 
a Regular Difcipline was what they pleaded for, and 
moderate Epifcopacy was what moft of them would 
have freely fubmitted to. Whofoever have charged 
them as fond of Anarchy and Confufion, knew not the 
Men or their Communication, Arch-Bifhop V/her's 
Platform (befoi'e exhibited, Pag, 145.) they would have 
rejolc'd in ; with a due Indulgence to thofe of their Bre- 
thren, whofe Latitude was not fo great as theirs. Had 
they however been loofe in their Morals, or fcandalous 
in their Lives, their Treatment it mufl: be own'd might 
have been fairly juftify'd : But fo far were they from that, 
that they were as Exemplary for ftridnefs as any in the 
Land. Had they been meanly qualify'd for the Minifte- 
lial Work, the Church might have much the better 
fpaj:*d them : But inftead of that, we may fafely de- 


'i88 ' The L I F E of Chap. IX. 

iie their grcateft Enemies to produce in any Age or 
Country, Two Tbouiand Men barter quaiif .'d for 
Publick Minifterial Work, and more oiligent and 
laborious in it, more accepted anci n. re ufefuj, than 
thefe very Perfons who were Cloarh'd w h fo much 
Contempt. Few Ages has tr^iluc't^ moie Eminent, 
Ufefuj, Succefsful, Preachers, than Mr. 8^.xt:.r pf l^e* 
derminftcr^ lAv.Bjvohs oiToli, Mr. a.ivcjw? of Vfin- 
chffilsr^ tAr. I{syner of Lincoln, Mr. EtkandJj ll'nlcs^ Mr. 
Hleron of Brsadftl^ Mr. An^ier of Derttnr,^ Mr. H.ghtS 
of Plymouth^ Mr. Ben of Dn^cheslc^ Dr. Mtnton of 
London^yix. All?n o^Tnuntov^ with rtiany ^ ihcrs. Bvii; 
perhaps ihey were intolerably Humourfome. This 
i know hath been faid by fi me. But <vhy flioulu it be 
imagin'd, that for Humourfake they (hojld Sacrifice 
their all, part with their Livelvhood, and expofe 
themfelves and their Families to Wane and Beggary? 
Was not a comfortable I ife as de(ir;.abje to them 
as to others? Can it be fuppos'd, thcv were fo Blind 
as not to be able to fee where their own Intereft lay^ 
whi h is too powerful a Charm for th** moft to be able 
to make Reliftance? Were they no- as capable of Pre- 
ferments as their Neighbours ? AnJ why rhen (hould 
they baulk them, and rather embrace ' o-erty and Dif- 
grace, and expofe themfelves to Hardlhips and Severi- 
ties, Things that could not m themft-lves appear Eligi- 
ble ro any Man? Can any Account be given of this, if 
C^nfcience did n )t fway them? And lliojld they not 
then have been confider'd ? 

Or fuppofe, that fome in fo great a Number were 
weak, and of buc mean Endowments, there yet were 
others of conliderable Parts and Learning; Witnefs 
Dr. Bntes^ Dr. Qwew, Mr. Corbet^ Mr. PVoodbridge^ 
ls\v. Charmck^y Mr. FnifaXy lAx- Pool, Mr. CAjr/^pw, 
Mr. Trutmr:^ and many others. If fop:^e had been too 
rigorous and fevere in former Times, ihere were others 
who had all along managed themfelves with great Tem- 
per and lenity; as Dr. G/';?/w, Dr. Gr^ip, Mr. fa;?- 
clough. Father and Sons, Mr. lVa>ren, Mr. Ventrk of 
Canterbury, Mr. Philip Henry^ and many others. And 
tho' fome it muft be own*d, were againft the Royal 
Family, there yet were others who fuifcr'd for adhering 
to it ; as the Lancafhire Minifters who wetc many of 
them Ejedtd for refufing tnd writing agai^ift the En^ 


Chsp, IX. Mr. Richard Baxter. 189 

gagcwenty even when many of the Epifcopal Party 
took it; and Mr. CojA., Mr. Kjrbyy and Mr.Ha-.rifov^ 
8cc. who hazarded their Lives in Order to the bring- 
ing in King Charles II. And yet this Ad: made no 
Difference. It fpar'd neiiher Age nor Parts, nor con- 
(iderM any Service done, but levell'd all that lay in its 
way; and fpake no other Language than either bow 
or break. Had it ain\'d at hindring the doing Mif- 
chief only, it might have been Vindicated: But under 
pretence of that, ithindred the doing Good, and that 
to many ; to Hundreds and Thoufands of Souls; by 
Men whofe Hearts were earneftly bent that way, and 
defir'd not to live for any lower Purpofe. Mult we not 
think that Piety was little fet by, when grave and ex- 
pericnc'd Guides muft be forc'd to quit the Churches, 
to make way for Raw unfurniOi'd Novices ; when Men 
full of Love to God, and the Souls of their People, 
muft yield to fuch as minded Preferment more than 
real Religion ? God forbid, this (hould have been tht* 
Cafe generally : But that it was fo in many Particular 
Inftances is too notorious to be deny'd. Muft we nor 
fay, that Mercy forfook the Earth, when fo many of 
Liberal Education, were put to Dig, orBep, or Starve? 
Were cafl out of their Freeholds to Fence againft Fu- 
ture Crimes.^ Were turn'd inio the wide World with- 
out any Vifiblc Way of Subfiftcnce? Any Thing that 
might have tended to their Relief or Ea'fe was rejected 
as unfufferable. They were not only excluded Prefer- 
tnems, but cut off from all hope of a Lively-hood, as 
far as the InduOry and Craft of iheir Adverfaries could 
reach. Not fo much as a Poor Vicarid^e, not a Blind 
Chapel, not a Schod was left them : Nay, tho' they 
offer'd (as feme of them did) to Preach for nothing, 
it muft not be allowed them. They only beg'd I iberiy 
of Confcience, to Preach and Woifliip God, according 
to the Primitive Rule and Simplicity, and that they 
m.ight not be Ejeded and Excommunicared, and forced 
to beg their Bread, becaufe they could not confcnt to 
what they could not Believe, nor Vow againft their 
Duty. But they they were caft off with Difdain. 
And what was all this for, but to promote Vniformiry ^ 
A charming PVord! ^ For the Thing itfelf is yet to be 
fo'c for, even among themfelves, by any one that know? 
the Difference between Cathedrals and Parilh Churches) 


1 90 The Lift of Chap, i X. 

A iVord tliar muft necelTariJy ha' e a peculiar Force, 
when it coulJ have fo ftrange an Infiuence ! Bur ccr-- 
tainly, 'cis an odd Meihod to ^o about to make all of 
one Mina, and Mode, and Way, by rending, divi- 
ding, md tearing Mmiftefsand Peoplel Its but an Ov d 
foTX.0^ Vniform.ty^ that hinders 'L'/i;Vy, by turning the 
Church into a Party 1 , What was the Aim of all, bnc 
to fettle l'?ip(fitlons r Which in all Ages have been gree- 
dily fwallow'd by Mea of loofer Principles, while they 
have been fnares to the moft Confcicntioiis; wlio will 
look carefully about them, and arc not for wr ggling 
themfelves either in or out by Diftindlions and Evali- 
ons, (which yet they were as able to have fraoa'd as their 
Neighbours) but would do all in Siniplicity and Godly 
Sincerity, without Equivocations or Referves There- 
by endeavouring to maintain and fpread a Principle of' 
Honefty in the World. 

The Publick Settlement not being closed with, a 
general Clamour was rals'd againft thefe good Men, 
■whole Defire itwastoferve God faithfully, and Live 
quietly by their Neighbours, as if they were hoc to be 
fuffer'd to live upon the Earth. What was their Crime? 
Surely nothing that God had declared to be Sin ; no- 
thing but what was made a Crime by the Law of the 
State; and would therefore ceafe to be fuch at auy 
Time, when that Law was rcmo.M: Nothing but 
what might have been fafely tolerated, without Da- 
mage or Danger to Church or Commonwealth, as ap- 
pears by the Event lince a Legal Indulgence hath been 
granted them. But if refuting to Conform to ^jch Im- 
pofirions as d'd not appear to be within the Compafs of 
rhe Commilfion of the Impofers was really Criminal, 
it could not be fo in a very high Degree .- And where- 
fore then was the Punifhment lo great ? Would it be 
Wifdom in the Government to threaten all thole that 
would not eat Rye-bread, all that would not Ccnfonn 
lo any Common Falhion, with being Impiifond or Ba- 
nifhedJ Should Mens Brains be knock'd out to kill a 
Flie on their Fore- head ? Is this agreeable to the Rules 
of Proportion? h it equitable, that for fuch Th'ngs as 
however Faulty they may be, may yet leave a Man a 
good Chriftian, and one of the belt of Su^jedls, he 
fliO''ld be treated as if he had forfeited the Priviledges 
of his Birth, aqd his Imerefl in the Rights of Chriftiani-. 

Chap. [K. A/r. K chara Bixc r. 


ty, nay, and H manity too? But inftead of yielding 
their Practice to be at all Crimnal, it appear'd to rhem 
CO be their Duty. They thought witnelling againft Hu- 
mane Ufurpations in Divine Things was a piece of nc- 
ceirary Fidelity to God. They apprehended the Law 
of God obiig'd them to prcfervc the Purity of Cfariftian 
"Worfhip. Suppofe they were miftaken in the Particu- 
lar Application of this General Principle, did they there- 
upon deferve to be puniflVd, as if they had raz'd and 
deny'd the moft Fundamental Articles of Faith ? Was 
Poverty and Contempt, Confifcation and Impnfonment, 
Kipour and Severity, the fitteft, or likelieit Means for 
cheu- Conviction, or not rather a Snare to betray them 
to A (ft againft their Confcience? Did the Chriftian 
Doctrine obtain in the World by thofe Ways and Me- 
thods which were pitcht on for the fixing and feeling of 
Vniformity r* Was it agreeable to Chriftian Charity to 
make the Terms ftrait on Purpofe that they might be 
fcrupled, and then blame Men for their Non compliance? 
Or to cafl them out of the Church, and then Excom- 
municate them for their Abfence ? Was it good Policy 
in a New Settlement after Confuiion, to difoblige and 
exafperate a Body of as fober Perfons as any in the Land, 
who are really its Strength, in order to the gratifying 
the loofer Sort, whofe Principles and Practices weaken 
the Bands of Government, and open a gap for Confu- 
iion ? Or was it the moft likely Way to keep ov;t Po- 
peiy^ to weaken the Hands of a Number of its hearty 
confcientious Adverfaries, and Sacrifice them to the Kage 
of the Emiflaries of ^mc^ who therefore fet themfehes 
moft againft them, becaiife they had no hopes of ever 
inducing them to any Thing that Ihould look like an 
Advance towards the I{omnn See, or a Revolt to a Fo- 
reign Jurifdidion ; to which fome of their Brethren ap- 
pear'd much more inclineable ? Again; did the Adors 
in this Affair do as they would be done by ? Did they 
not bitterly complain in the Time of the Interregnum 
of the Severity of their Treatment; and that when 
they could not but be confcious to themfelves of much 
greater Severity on their Part towards their Brethren 
formerly, in the High Commiffion Court, C?c. when 
they bad the Power in their Hands ? h is but Uks for 
/%, was a Plea in the Mouth of all forward Peifons? 
But was not the Score paid before-hand by the Rigor of 

192 The LIFE of Chap. IX. 

King Charles the Firft's Reign (to look no farther back) 
in Ecclefiaftical Matters? And is it a becoming Thing, 
to have fo many ufeful Perfons avowedly facrific'd to 
Re enge r Is this Paflion fo riveted, as to be become He- 
red itary ? Does it run in the Blood, and defcend with 
the Patrimony, as a necelTary Attendant of that clear 
And uninterrupted Ecclefiafiical S uccjfion, thzt is, by feme fo 
much Celebrated ? It cannot indeed be deny'd, but that 
all Parties among us when they have had the Afcendanc^ 
have born too hard upon tbofe who lay at their Mer- 
cy : And it is much to be lamenteJ. But is fuch Here- 
ditary Revenge as H-'innibal's, who was fworn at the 
Altar never to be Reconcil'd. a Thing agreeable to Chri- 
ftian Principles, or becoming any Embafladors of the 
Prince of Ptace? 

But I cannot yet leave thefe Confejjors, I move it to 
the Reader to view the Lift of them, obferving what 
manner of Men they were, who were the Triumphs and 
Spoils cf Vniformity. They were Men that would have 
been highly efteem'd and honour'd in the Primitive 
Church, for which they who bore fo hard upon them 
profefs fo great a Veneration. They were Men of great 
Faith and Truft in God, and by their Integrity (ilenc'd 
many that apprehended Religion a Fancy. They re- 
joic'd in theUfefolnefs of their Brethren, while they 
themfelves were Difcountenanc'd. They Prayed hear- 
. tily for their Civil Governours, and all in Authori'^^y, 
while treated as Seditious Perfons, and unworthy of any 
Favour. They were own'd of God in all their Trou- 
ble*, carry'd rhrough a great many Difficulties, gained 
upon many of. heir Enemies by their Patience and Quiet- 
nefs, and at laft were taken under the Prote(^ion of the 

The Generality of them were Ejected in the moft 
nfefnl Part ( f their Lives, when they were fitteft for 
Service; betweenrhe Age of Thirty and Fifty. In their 
Private Mmirtration*; they did good to the Sonls of ma- 
ny ; this (Blrlfed be God) is too evident to be deny'd : 
How much good then might they have done, if they 
had but been kept within the Publick National Efta- 
blilhment? And to whom muft the Land afcnbethe Jofs . 
of their valuable Labours, but to the eager Efpoufers 
,of Rites and Ceremonies? What was the IlTue of the 
heat ot tliele Zealots? Did they gam their Point, and 

Chap. iK. Mr Kichard Baxter. 195 

fix Uniformity ? Or did they not rather run Things to 
that heighthj that Prophancnefs had at length over-run 
us, and All that was dear and val able to us was in 
Danger, when bare-fac'd l-'opery afc^-nded the Throne^ 
trampling at once on our Religion c^nd Liberties ?" And 
was ic not then freely own'd.. that Papifts in Difguifc 
harl all along blow'd the Gals, and done he hotteft 
Part of the Service? Can rhisever be forgot?' Who 
can bragg or boaft of their Gain in the Strife for Uni- 
formity ? Were the b'-^fie Informer shtlovdi and advanced? 
Or were they not generally infamous . And did not 
many of them come to a Tragical End ? Or will it be 
found that thev who were herceft when in Commiflion 
of the Peace, in profecuting the Poor Dijjeniers, have 
profper'd moft in their Families and Eftaces? Or is the 
Mf-mory of thofe Statefmen who wee moft Adtive in 
this Service, moft grateful to true hearted Bngh'/hmen? 
Doth the Providence of God in this RefpecSfc deferve no 
Remarks ? 

Did God difown thefe. Worthies, when the great 
Ones caft them off? Let any Perfons obferve and judge. 
They and their Families were fupply'd, by an invifible 
Hand. A noted Man among them, (who himfelf had 
a good Eftate) reckon'd up as many who were Ejected 
within a few Miles round him, as with their Wives 
and Children made up above a Hundred, who were 
all turn d out to the wide World, and Liv'd upon Pro- 
vidence : Concerning whom he oblerv'd, that though 
they were oft in ftraits, yet they were not forfaken* 
Nay the fame Perfon (when he had been Youn^, and 
then was Old) obferv'd, that tho* many of the Ejedted 
Minifters were brought very Low, had many Children^ 
were greatly harrafs'd by Perfecution, and their Friends 
generally Poor, and unable to Support them, yet in all 
his Acquaintance he never knew, nor could remember 
to have heard of any Nonconform} ft Minifter that was 
in Prifon for Debt. Providence was inftead of Livings 
to thofe, who left their Livings for the fake of their 
Confciences. They were driven firft out of their Free- 
holds, and afterwards from all Corporations, on Pur- 
pofe that they might befeparated from their kind Neigh- 
bours. Cautions were emred againft them, in all ways 
of Lively -hood they were capable off; and yet they 
Liv'd comfortably , and maintained iheirFamilics credibly 3 

O many 


1 94 The LI tB of Chap. IX . 

many of them bred up their Sons to the Miniftry, in 
which they arc now ufetul ; ami the , Dy'd at laft in 
Peace, and were laid in their Graves with Honour, 

Did Kjticonformity Die with them ? Would to God it 
had, provided the Caafes of it had been remov'd, by a 
Cordial Comprehertfiiyn: Would to God it had, if there 
Were nothing in it but Humour and Fancy, and Preju- 
dice, as lome will have it. But as lon^ as \z ts bottom 'd 
upon fuch Stable Principles, as the fucce<?ding Chapter 
will give an Account of; as long as fuch sl Model it' 
mains among us, as makes more necefTary to enter into' 
the Church, than is requifite to come within the Gates 
of Heaven, it muft be expedled that Nonconformity will 
continue. And if there be fome who through Diflatif- 
faction, cannot fall in with the National Eftabliihment^ 
and will continue Nonconform ifts, they muft have fome 
ro Minifter to them in Holy Things. And if they have 
not fonne to Officiate as Minifters among them that have 
a Learned Education, and take Pains to Acquire the 
Tieceflary Qualifications in order to ity they will be 
likely to choofe fome that arc not fo well qualified, 
from among themfelves for that Purpofe. And if thofe 
among the DiiTenters whom God bath inclin'd to tbte 
IVliniftry, and qualified for it, Ihould have turn'd to 
other Employments, the Diflenters wOuld have been 
worfe provided, and the Common Intereft of Religion 
would have fu&r'd in the I flue. And tho* We, who 
tome after thofe who were Ejected in the Miniltry, 
iiave our Call and Authority cali'd into Qucftion by 
fome, yet if we can approve ourfelves to God, we need 
not be uneafie. If we, who rife up in the Room of 
thofe who in fo noble a Manner adhered to that Old Pu- 
ritannicnl Principle ( which was indeed that of the firft 
Reformers) of the NeceJJity of a farther ^Reformation in 
the Churchy in order to the more General Mttd EffeHual 
reaching of the great Ends of Christianity j if we (I fay^ 
xvho rife up in the room of thofe who ventur'd All 
that was dear to thfem in bearing their Teftimony to 
this Principle, rather than they would do violence to 
their Confcicnces ; do but imitate their Faith and Pa- 
tience, Piety and Purity ; do but partake of the fame 
Divme Spirit whereby they were Aded; and have but 
the fume Prelcnrc "f G( d with us, to Guide and Ailift 
us; to Profper and Succeed us, and to Comfo« and Sup- 

Chap, X. Mr. Flichard Baxter. lo*- 

porcus^ wemay befearlefs of thelflTue; wenetdnpt 
envy any their Preferments, we may be fatisfied ,of 
the Goocfnefs of our Caufe ; we need nor fear ojr bc- 
ipg able to approve ourfelves to God, Our Sovereign, 
our , Parliament, the Chriftun World, and our own 
Confciencesj and to all Impartial Judges. 

C H A P. X. 

The Grounds of the NONCONFORMITY 

of the Minjjlers who were Ejeffed. Their 
Vindication of themfelves^ and fuch as 
adherd to them. 

IT is not to be fuppos'd that Two Tboufand Mcn^ 
pick tfiem where you will, fliould be all of a Mind. 
Aniong the excluded Minifters there was a diverlity 
of Sentiments. Sorpe, could have gone much farther 
than others in Compliance with Authority : But a*^ 
the Terms of Cow/orwji>7 were fettled, they durft not 
yield, fome upon one Account, others upon another, 
and feveral ^pon many fleafons at once, fearing they, 
ihould thereby have offended GocJ. Many Eyes were 
upon them; their Refufal was Publick ; the Gap made 
by their Ejection wide and great ; and the.Conlequen- 
ces very confider^bje. , The Cenfures which were after- 
wards pafs'd upon them were harJli and fevere; and at 
length it became Modilh to run them all down, as a 
Pack of unreafonable and humourfome Complainants, 
jfofterity muft an^, will Judge^ Cafe,, when Plain- 
tiffs aiid Defendants are all in their Graves. For their 
Help and Affiftance, I have here drawn up the Plea, 
pf thofe who were the Sufferers, which compar'd wiih 

gie Arguments and Replies of the Aggreffours, may 
elp in parting an impartial Judgment, 1 defire only it 
may be obferv'd, that the following Abftra£l, contains 
the Reafon^ p^ thpfe who were the moft Moderate, 
and leaft fond of Separation. . , 

I The Things impos'd upon them, if^ they would 
Aeeb theit livingis oi tedurefhips, or any Poft of Ser- 

2, Vied 

196 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

vice in the EftablifliM Church were thefe Five. They 
muft be I{e-ordaind^ if not Epifcopally Ordain'd before. 
They muft declare ihcir unfeignd /iffcnt and Confent to 
all, flnd every Thing contain d and prefcrib'd in /ind by the 
Boof^ of Common Prayer^ and Adminiftration of the Sacra-' 
mentSy and other I{ites and Ceremonies of the Church of 
England ; together xvitb the Pfaher^ and the Form or 
Manner of Makings Ordaining and Cofifecrating (f Bifhops, 
Priejis, and Deacons, &c. to which was fuperadded an 
equivalent Subfcription. They muft take the Oath of 
Canonical Obedience^ and fwear Subjedtion to their Ordi- 
nary^ according to the Canons of the Church. They muft 
Abjure the foiemn League and Covenant, And they muft 
alfo Abjure the takjng Arms upon tiny Pretence whatfoever^ 
a^ainlf th£ K}ng, or any Commiffionated by Him. Thefe 
Things were all flraitly enjoin'd, without any Thing to 
qualifie or foften them, or room for a Difpenfation. So 
that if any Man fcrupled but one Point, and could 
have complv'd in all the reft, he was as certainly Ejed- 
cd, as if he had fcrupled all. And all of them were indeed 
fcrupled by many, who weighing them maturely, could 
4c ifljouid ^^^ regard them (as Circumftances ftood) as Things in- 
haye that different, or barely inconvenient; but refus'd them as 
thai my flatly finful, according tothebeft Light they could gain 
hare r hear- by their utmoft Enquiries. I'll view them diftindly, in 
fing theRea- the Order in which 1 have roeniion'd them*. 

fons that 

had betn ghen by others^ had been no fign of my Approbation of all that IFc 
hearfe ^ notwithflanding that I am one of thofe who dare not Conform : But 
it feems it has been taken otherwlfe by thofe that haye Written againji this 
Chapter. And how jufily^ let the World Judge, 

I. They muft be ^e-ordaind^ if not Epifcopally On 
dain'd before. This was plain in the AFi of Vniformity^ 
by which it was Enadled ; * That from and after the 
Feaft of St. Bartholomew i66i, no Incumbent, in Pol- 
feflion of any Parfonage, Vicarage, or Benefice, that 
was not in Holy Orders by Epifcopal Ordination, 
Ihould enjoy the fame, but be tpfo faHo, depriv'd j his 
Ecclefiaftical Promotions being void as if he were na- 
turally Dead, G^c' Room indeed was lefc for re- 
ceiving Epifcopal Orders (if till then wanting) be- 
tween the Time in which the A<St pafs'd, and Bartho- 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 197 

lomevo Day, AuguH the 14th. But tho* there could 
have been a Compliance in all other Refpgds, if Epif- 
copal Ordination were then found wanting, they were 
by the A(^, iffo faSio Ejeded. This afFeded the fat 
greateft Part of thofe who came into the Miniftry, af- 
ter that Diocefam were put down ia England by the 
Power of the Parliament. For they 5yere Ordain'd by 
an Aflembly of Senior Paftors, who \yere then in Pof- 
feilion of that Power : And tho* after due Examination 
as t i their Qualifications, they were folemnly fet apart 
to the Sacred Miniftry by Fading, and Prayer, and Im^ 
pofition of Hands, and had the Blelling of Heaven for 
many Years attending their facred Miniftrations,5 they 
muft yet now be doom'd to Silence, unlefs B^-ordaind by 

This was what they could not fubmit to, becaufe 
it would in their Apprehenfion, be a nullifying theic 
pafs'd Ordination. This feem'd not to them alight 
Matter, but very Momentous: In as much asthePeacq 
of their own Confciences, the Credit of the Reform- 
ed Churches Abroad, and the good and welfare of 
the People among whom they had laboured, were all 
very nearly concern d in it. Their Confciences would 
not allow them to play with Holy Things ; in pretend- 
ing to be movd by the Holy Ghoit^ to take upon them the 
Office of a Deacon, when they knew themfelves already 
iix'd fufficientiy in the higher Office of Presbyters. It 
appeared to them a taking Gods Name in Vain, folemn- 
ly to Pray to him for what they were affur'd they had 
already ; and to feem to be firft invefted with a facred 
Authority, which they had receivM long before. 
Neither durft they pour fuch Conrempc upon the Re- 
form'd Churches Abroad, as their SubmiHion in this 
Particular would in their efl-ecm have carry'd in it: 
By difowning them and their Minifters, who had no 
other Ordination, than fuch as that which they had 
before receiv'd. And withal they durft not invalidate 
their own paft Miniftrations, to the raifing of endlefs 
Scruples in fuch as had been under their Miniftry. It 
was indeed urg'd by Heme for their Satisfadion, that 
the requir'd Epifcopal Ordination was not intended 
to invalidate their paft Miniftrations, but to qualifie 
them for Service in .the National, EftabliOi'd BngU/h 
Church s That the Ordinances they had before admi- 
. , - ^ ^ niftred 

198 -- The LIFE of Chap. X. 

fiiftrcd were allowed to ftand Good ; for that they 10 
whom they had apply'd the Seal of the Covenant in 
Baptifm, were not requir'd to be RebaptizM." And 
that the prefcribed Ceremony, by Irnpofuion of Epif- 
topal Hands, might be regatded rather as a Recogni- 
tion of their Minifteriai Authority, and Inveftiture in 
it under the National Ei^abhfhment, than a Re-ordi- 
nation. To which they ealily anfwer'd j that as for the 
forbearing to Rcbaptize fuch as they had Baptized be- 
fore, it was no more than they would have done, where 
Children had in Extremity been Baptiz'd by meer Lay- 
mep, nay, by any Dreaming Midwife, and there- 
fore this was far from any Security with Reference 
to the Validity of their foregoing A6lions as Mini- 
sters, which refeir'd to other Ordinances as well as 
that of Baptifm. And as to the other Infmuation, 
that their Subraiflion in this Particular might rather be 
regarded as a Recognition of their Minifterial Au- 
thority than a Re-ordination, they anfwer'd it look'd 
like double Dealing: Inafmuch as the iignifying f6 
nnuch in exprefs Words was fo perempcorily refus'd j 
the fame F^rm muft be us'd in their Cafe, as if they 
were then to be firft entred into the Miniftry, with- 
out the leaft Variation; and their being then Ordain'd 
in the fame Manner, as if to be firft entred into the 
Winlfterial Office, was requird by thofe, who upon 
all Occafions decJarM the being twice Ordain d flatly 
unwarrantable. Whereupon they pref^^d them with 
this Argument: Either they were tru6 Minifters be- 
fore in their Efteem or not. If not, how could they 
venture upon a Recognition ? And acknowledge their 
Antecedent Kight, by conftrqiing it with an additional 
Formalit-, ? If they did own them for Minifters be- 
fore, V hy fhould ihey be for Ordaining them in the 
fame Manner as they would have done if they had beea 
no Minifters, and fo contradidt their own profcfs'd 
Principle of the unwarrantablenefs of a double Ordi- 
nation Biit in forhe Cafes, to put the Matter beyond 
a'l Dilpure, an exprefs Renunciation of the forego- 
ing Ordirtarion by P'esbyters was requir'd, before 
Erilc!opal Ordination couJd be had. To make it ap- 
pear, this is no groundlefs Affertion, I have annexed 
A formal Renunciation, that was requir'd in the 
Diocefs of Chciier^ before Epifcopal Orders could be 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 199 

obtain'd''? And 'tis reafonable to 

believe that this one Bifliop had not * E^o A. B pretenfa-s weas Or- 

a different Senfe from the reft, tho* dinationU Literal a (ju'hufdam 

he adled more openly, while others Presbyteris dim obtentas, jam. 

were more upon the referve. Be- /'««'f«* renuncio, f^ dimlttn pro 

ine therefore Convinc'd that the '>'^»^'--> Hi*^'^'[erSupplicans^un- 

• ■ ^i„ ^ u t: T 11 tenus Rev. in Chrifio Pater rirDo' 

jequmne them to be Epilcopally . ^^ V • -n 

r\y .J ui_jr - rj minus, Dommw GeorPius Tcr- 

Ordain d who had been m a reg-a. ^^^^^ ^^^.^^ (^^,^,. ^ ,^^ ^^ 

lar way Ordain d by Presbyters be- ^^ 5^,,^^ vUconatus oUlnem 

fore, tended (and indeed was by j^xta Motem & rUu4 Ecdefis^ 

the generality DeflgnM) to nullifie Angllcanx^ dignaretur admiitersi. 

their pafs*ci Orders, and invalidate 

their Conf^q'^ent Miniftrations, and at the fame Time 

to re(ic& on Foreign Churches, who have no Epifcopal i ^^ qi 

Orders, as deftitute of vaLd Gofpel Miniftrations, the) lyffe, «,/,/ 

durft nor fabmit to it f. frj} ' wrote 

againfi this 
Tenth Chapter, vm at prft for laying ajtde the Con/tderation of thU Re-ordi- 
nation : Def. of Min. Conf p. 4. Bwf upon Second Thots added an Appen- 
dix to prore it Lawful, f/om Scripture PraBice, and the Reafonof the Thinr. 
Which Fojifcript lanfwef'd, Def. of Mod.Nonc. Tart i.f. 56. Mr. Hoadlv 
alfo declares for Re-ordination, Reafon of Conf. p. 6. &c. He gi-^es thlt 
Grand Keafon I becaufe Epifcopal Ordination is the Regular, Orderly Ordina- 
tion in the Church ofCbrifi-j and the departing from it tends to the Overthror^ 
of all Order. And he AJferts that Perfons dre wholly unqualified to Aff as 
Minifiers without it, &c. In return to him, I in Def. o/Mod. None. Part r. 
f. $4. &c. Plead that he takes that for granted in this Cafe which is the 
main Thin^ in Queflion: And declare that his Way of Reafoning the le/s af- 
feShsus, becaufe' tis Hike the Reafoning of thePapifts againfl the Proteftancsi it 
refleHs on many of the Suffering Witneffes of Chrifi, vho hare /food up in 
Defence of the Truth and Purity of the Gofpel, and on moft of the Reformed 
Churches now in being ; it lays more flrefs upon a Hicety than on the main Sub- 
fiance ', and is fuch that it woi^ld not be born with, if retorted^. After tphichy 
I from Scripture and Reafon, ju/lifie Presbyterian QrdinatloM, and f^jew the 
Infujficiency of what is ufuaUy alledg'd from the Fathers, to invalidate it, c»« 
wake Re-ordination needful. Mr. Hoadly on the other Side, in Ij/s Defence: 
«/ Epifcopal Ordination, argues thus. He fays that JBilhops liave the Solts 
Power: They have had it in PofTeflion for i $50 Years, tiiey iiavc all the 
Right that Prefcription can give. But it does not follow^ they hayc a Scrip- 
tural Right to any fuch Exclufiye Power: And meer Pajfeffton tho' rf never 
fo long a Continuance, gives noRight properly fo calld. He adds. That therc*s 
ho Inftance in the New Teflament of Ordination performed by Pref«bycers j or 
i^ithout fome Church Officers Superiour to. them : But though there K?«rc in 
the beginning -t wlien Ordination was managed by the JPresbytery, fome Church 
Oncers concernd who were Superiour to Presbyters^ yet is there m hint in the 

O 4 flVw 

200 The L I F t of Chap, X, 

J\^e%P Tefl anient of the rtecefftty of the Continuance of fttch Svperiour Officers in 
the church. He further adds. That all Sc. P^m/'s Raics for Ordination 
are dired>ed to Superiour Church Officers. But it no more follows from 
thence^ that in after A^es none hut Superiour Officers mi ht Lr.v^^uUy Ordain^ 
than it does, that none but fuch, migh! Lawfully Admini[t<r the Lords Sup' 
fer, or perform any other Part of the Minijicrial Off.ce, becau,e the Minifie' 
rial CotnmilJion was giyen to fuch direff-fy. He goes on, and fays. That the 
Apoftlis fueled Bifliops in the Churches of Chrift, and lett the Power of 
Oidiiniiig Pi tsbyters in their Hand's, which is proVd by the Teftimony 
of Writers in that and the following Ages, which Te{!imony is as Uni- 
verfal and Unanimous as can reafonably be expefted or defir'd. AH 
that can be clearly prov'd, is. That the Apojtles and their Affiftants fetled Con- 
^rcgational Bifhops. This is Okwix by the Learned Blondel at large: And 
tr.ore lately by the Ingenious Author of tiJe Con"il:itution and Difcipline of 
%ht Primitive Church ^ Chap. 2, iir ^. And if they did not fettle fuch as 
cur Modern Bijhops, they could not leave the Power of the Ordination in fuch 
Hands, txt the Exclufon of others. And the I aft Link in his Chain is this^ 
That this Evidence ought the rather to be accounted fufficient upon the 
Head of Epifcopacy, becaufe 'tis generally own d fuch, upon the Head of 
the Scriptures of the New Teftament, which cannot be prov'd to have 
been extant from the Days of the Apoftles, and to have been Written by 
the Apoftles, or by Perfons approved of by them, by any other Evidence. 
J "Reply., That the Teftimony giren by the Ancients with Reference to fuch 
Epifcpacy as our Debate runs upon, and with Reference to the \\ ritings of 
the New Teftament, is very different, as to Earlinefs, and Unanimity, and 
Uniyerfality, and Collateral Eyidence. The Teftimony they give to the Scrip- 
tures is a bare Matter of Tafh, the credibil ty of which depends upon their 
Integrity : But the Teftimony any of them gire to the Apoftolical Inftitut'ton of 
Epifcopacy, relates to a matter of Tafh with their Judgment, the Credibility 
cf which depends on the Proof they produce, ,7'hey generally refohe their 
Proof into Scripture i, but as lon<r ns we cant ftnd it there, we are rather to 
follow our '>wn fudgment than theirs, and that efpecinily when feme among 
them plainly rcprefeut it as a meer prudential Inftitution, defignd to prevent 
Divi ons and Schifms. Whereas, if we refufe to credit t))eir Report as to 
the Writits of the ]\'ew Teftament, we refufe the bcft Evidence of the Kind, 
that the -.'attcr will bear. . — Mr. Hoadly afterwads tales a great deal of 
fains to Stren':then and Support the Teftimony from the lathers upoi: this 
H(ad, in Oppofition to my ObjeCiions:, And I have a particular Reply by me^ 
Vfhich had long fince feen the Light, but that J was unwilling to divert 
him from his better Imphymcnt. Bw^ having wcigHd all that he ha< faid, 
J am fiill 10 feek for Proof, that Diocefan Epifcopacy, or the Cfjnpnement of 
Ordination to Superiour Biftxips, to the Jlxclufiun of Presbyters, was of Apo- 
ftolical Inflitution And if not, then PresbytciS may warrantably Qrdain, at 
well as Preach and Ad mini ft er Sacraments •, and qualified Perfons Ordain* d 
by fuch have no Occafion to be Re ■ ordain d. 

IL Tbcy 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 201 


II. ' They were re^uird to Declare their Unfeigned Af- ^Uutherii 

* fent and Confcnt to all,and every Thing contain d and ( »• e. 

* prefcrib'd in and by the Book, Inticled, The Book ^ickman- 

* of Common Prayer, and Adminiftration of the Sa- "* ) ^;"'- 

* craments, and other Rites and Ceremonies of the ^°^"* f ''^ 

* Church, together with the Pfalter or Pfalms of David -^f^'^^'': 

* and the Form or Manner of making, or ordaining, '^^^^^^^^ 

* and confecrating of Bifhops, Priefts and Deacons, f^jj^.^^^ 

* And they tnuft alfo (and ttjat ex Animo) ■ Suhfcribe Pa<re ia 

* thefe l^'ords : That the Book of Common Prayer, 1 jf gax- 

* and of ordaining Bilhops, Priefts and Deacons, con- terV vUa, 

* taineth in it nothing contrary to the Word of God ;for Peace, 

* and that it may lawfully be us'd : And that they Page 207. 

* themfei\ es would ; fe the Form in the faid Books pre- ^'^ Eng- 

* fciib'd in Publick Prayer, and Adminiftration of the^^Non- 

* Sacraments, and no other. conformi- 

ty Stated 
and At- 
gul Page 13. Ulnd Troughton's Apology for the Nonc»nfoimifts. 

The kiSt of Uniformity requir'd that this Decla- 
ration fho' Id be publxkly made by Word of Mouth 
by all that would keep their Places, on fome Lords 
Day before Auguji the 14th i66i. And by all that 
afterwards were prefented to any Eccl^^fiaftical Bene- 
fice, within Two Months after they were in Adlual 
PofTellion of it. And the Subfcription was as peremp- 
torily requir'd, as the Declaration. But they could not 
herein concur for Two Grand Reafons. 

I. Becaufe very few of them could fee the Book, 
to all Things in which they were to declare their At 
fent and Confent, before the Time limited by the 
A6t was expir'd. For the Common Prayer Book with 
the Alterations and Amendments, (forfo they arecall'd 
how defervcdly I inquire not) made by the Convoca- 
tion, did not come out of the Prefs till a few Days be- 
fore the 24th of Augvfi. So that of the Seven Thou- 
fand Minifters in England who kept their Livings, few 
except thofe who were in or near London, could 
poflibly have a (ight of the Book with its Alterations, 
till after they bad dsclar'd their AiTcnt and Confent to 

^ i£*v 

'202 The LIFE of Chan. X. 

*Afr.01-^^*' This was what honeft Mr. Steely and many orhet 
lifFe f« /jM of the Nonconfoitn fls warmly complained of in theit 
Def. of parting Sermons, when they took their Farewcl of theit 
Min. Conf. People at the T me of their Ejecfjion. And whatever 
f- 5i ^' it might fceni then, when Perfons were lo a manife(^ 
faji^ That Hear, at a Diftance it appears foch a Hardihip, a that 
he and his j^ jg rather to be wonHered, that fo many coulH Ac^ in 
brethren art^^ weighty a Ma ter, upon an implicite Faith, than that 
TUJT^ fuch a Number fljouid in fuch Gircumftancea ftand out. 

they are 

awr, *tfffM a Hard/hip ntofi certainly^ vhereyer thU was the Cafe. To take 
it cffyhe reports from an a^ed their Parts^ that he and hit Nei'^hboun 
fent to London, and had the Amendments and Alterations co ted out .* And 
4iddsy that it is to he hoped, thai the Chdrgehere brought is groundlefs acainjl 
fa many Thoufand Miniflers^ &c. To this^ my "Return Def of Mod. Non- 
conf.Ptfrt 2.f. loo, loi, is this, that perhaps that might Be a peculiar Va- 
your, becaufe I ha'pe it under the Hand of another worthy eje^ied Minifitr 
(vffho is fince dead) that this rvas true Vn Ta^ ; ana that fever at Minivers 
erven in London, r.eyer read it before they gave their affent and Confent -^ and 
that in Middlefex, few JParifhe: had ttx Book, till a Weeh^ Fortnight ^ Three 
ii'eehor a Month after. But as for wrfttin Copies of the Amendments, they 
vferefo liable toAhufe and Mi/iakes, that 'tis dubious how far they might' be 
fafely depended on. And being he is fo willing to fuppofe there might be a 
Alifahe, til give him him. one of his own Church for a Confirming Witnefs • 
viz. the wortlyy ALuthor of the Confoimifts Plea for the Nonconformifts, 
who, Plea 2. p- 55. fays, that a Divine of Tears and Learning in the Diocefs 
of Lincoln, 'gave this for one Reafon in his farewel Sermon^ that he was to 
le flenc'd by Law, for not fubfcribing and aJfentinT to, a Book which he had 
Tict feen : And he adds, that it was the Cafe of many more in that Diocefs :■ 
And that Mr. B. of W. in the County of L. wot e)elhd by Sir EdWardi 
Lake, altho he gave that Reafon, that the Booh was not brought him before 
the 2^th of Augufl, tm before he was d,ecUr'd depriy'd by the Lommtffaty^ 

4. When they had Opportunity to perufe the Book,' 
they met with feveral Things there, which after the 
ftri6lcft fearch they could make, appear'd to them not 
agreeable to the Word of God : For them under this 
Apprehenfion (which it was not in their Power to alter) 
to have gone to declare their Satisfadiion that there was 
nothing contrary to the Word of God, and nothing 
but what they could both Affent to (as true) and Con- 
fent to, Tas good and to be us'd) and to have fubfcrib'd 
this with their Hands, had been doing Violence to theic 
Confciences, and acLcmpting at once 10 impofe upoa 
God ind Man. They,' 

Chap. X* Mr. Richard Baxter. 203 

They could not but obferve the Comprehenlivenefs 

of the required Declaration : There muft be not only 

€cnfcnt h\M^]fent too ; and that not only to nU in General ; 

but to e'very Thing in l^ articular contain d in and prefer ib*d 

hy the Book of Common Prayer, Words could fcarce be 

devis*d by the Wit of Man, more full ; and more fig- 

nificantf, whereby they might teftifie their highcft ]u- i A Letter 

ftification and Commendation of every Point and SyUf^omaMi- 

lable, every Rite and Ceremony, every Matter and "'V^^'' ^^ <» 

Thing contain'd in the whole Book, and in every ^^'Z^'? <!f 

Page and Line of it. A Man might almoft be tempt- ■> . CTt 

fed to imagine that the Framersof this impos'd Decla-^^*^'^ 

ration and Subfcnption, had had this B^ok of ^^^^^J^fo^s^forV' 

Prayer dropping down among them immediately from Noncon- 

Heaven, and that they lookM upon it as nothing elfe formity. ^ 

but a continued Oracle from Firft to Laft : And that /oofe sheet. 

they were of the Mind of the famous Dr. Swadlin^]^2gQ i. 

who fpeaking of the Publick. Service' very roundly Af- 

ferts *, That there xvas not a Tittle of it, but it vpas by 

the Diaate of the Holy Ghoji ±. That Gentleman was ^ f " 5** 
' Anniverfa" 

9y Sermons on the ^oth of January ; Particularly that An. 16 $6' 

J Mr. OllyfTe Def. o/Min. Conf p. ig, 14, feems not a little difpleas'd 

at my here mentioning Dr. Swadlin, w/i*, he fays, it reprefented by Mr. Wood 

rf^ in a Manner diftraCled : And feems to vfonder that J fhould fpeak of Per- 

fons Idolizing the Common Prayer Book. Mr. Hoadly alfo exprejfes himfelf 

-itffith fome Heat, he owns it in fo many Words, Reafon.of Conf. p. ^^, that 

I (hould cite this PaJJage of the Common Prayer Book's being diliated by the 

Holy Ghoft : And both of them alfo touch upon it afterwards. If it may 

therefore be to their Satisfaihion^ I have found better Authority to the fame 

Purpofe. For when the liturgy was firfi framed in the Days of Edward Vf. 

it was by the King fent to the Lords and Commons ajfcmbled in Parliament^ 

who upon Perufal of the Book, declared in their Afh of Thanks, that it was 

donejhy Aid of the Holy Ghoft. An. 2. Edw. VI. i. And as much as thefe 

Gentlemen contemn poor Dr. Swadlin, ^et I hope they'll ownBi/hbp Sanderfon 

to have been a great Man. Now Biffjop Walton in the Account of his Life^ 

that is prefixed to his Sermons, with a great dealt of Gravity ajfures us, that 

he told him that the Holy Ghoft feenned to afBft the Compofers of the 

Common Prayisr. There was owe Abbot, who wrote of Church forfakers, who 

iryd up the Liturgy of the Church of Engfand to that heighth, as mt to be 

afham'd to fay that the Wit of Men and Angels could mt mend it, and that 

it is a fuffcient Difcharge of the Minjjiers Duty but to read it. And 

Afy.Pierce (Conformifts firft Plea for the Nonconformifts, p* 20.) fays. That 

he has known fome that tho*t no Worflnp Divine, without the Common Vrayer. 

Hr m^ San 2 famot help counfiif^ thii an idolizing o/f/» Cow wff» Prayer. 


2 04 rhe LIFE of Chap. X. 

not only plras'd to alTert this, but he tho't fit to prove 
it too. His argument is fo admirable for its Peculiari- 
ty, that I cannot forbear tranfcribing it. Of all Offices 
in that Book, he faftens on that of Matrimony , and par* 
ticularly on the tirlt Prayer in that Office ; which be- 
feeches Almighty God to blc-fs the Coapk co be mar- 
ried, as Jfaac and ^bxca. Whence he thi^a Argues, 

* This Prayer was diitated by the Holy Ghoft to the 
Compolers ot the Common Prayers, or maoe by 

* thole Coinpofers Wiiboiu the Uicitare of the Hv^ly 
' Ghcft : Bi.t not by them withov-t his Didlaie ; there- 

* fore by his Didaie ro them, if by^them, witho'it 

* him, rhen they would have made it according to Hu- 

* mane Reafon, and fo have faid, Blei's them^ O Lord, 

* as thou did it blefs Ahrahayn and Sarah^ or as chcc. didft 
' blefs Jtfct;/; and ^%ehel ; and they had humane Reafon 

* for it. For Abraham was God's firft Friend, "^jficoh was 
' God's great Favourite But fays rhe h-oly Ghoft, not 
' fo, nor fo : But let it be, b'.efs their* as Ifaac and B^bec- 

* c/T. And there is no Humane Reafon for this, but a 

* Divine Reafon there is, and that is thisj Abraham 
' had his Hngar in Sarab*s Time, and his I^eturahzket'- 
' wards. Jacob had his Leah^ his T^ilpah, and his Bil- 

* hah ; But Ifaac had none but his Hebecca. And ther^ 

* fore fays the Holy Ghoft, let it not be, blefs them as 

* Abraham and Sarah^ blefs them as Jacob and l{achel z 
' * For then People may be apt to think they may have 

' many Wives at once, if not fome Concubines: But 
' But let it be, blefs them as thou did blefs Tfa/ic and 

* Bi^ebeccn. Let them know, one Mao (hould have but 
' one Wife, efpecially at one Time. A little after, he 

* adds, certainly therefore, blelfed are they which die 

* in maintaining that Service- Book, which can without 
' Contradi61ion, Father the Ceremonies of it upon the 

* Holy Ghoft.' This it muft be own'd is plain Deahng, 
But the poor Nonconforynifts had not that Spirit of dif- 
cerning, which fach clear lighted Gentlemen were fa- 
voured with. If they muft have Forms of Prayer, they 
defir'd they might be according to Humane Reafon, and 
liOt fatber'd upon the Holy Ghoft without better Pre- 
tence to Infpiration. Their feeing fome make a plain 
Idol of the Common Prayer Book, rendrcd them the lefs 
fond of it. Such a Declaration as was required of them 

•, con- 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 205 

•concerning it, was in their Apprehenfion as much as could 
be defir'd or don , concerning the Book of God, the 
Bible it felf. Yea they qneltion d, Whether many a 
fober Man might not have fcrupled to declare fo nnuch 
concerning any Copy of the Bible now Extant in the 
World, there being hardly any one to be found, ^^'■;^^'' 
but what may have fch Faults and Slips, as "^aynlf'of 
make an unfeigned AiT^nt and Confent to every Tittle, ^^^ ^^^^-^ 
a Matter of rational Scruple*. But as for the Book of j, ^o. &c.* 

Jays, rh^t 
Affent and Confent are Law Terms, and may be tahn either ahfoluteiy nt 
comparatively ^ and intimates that it is enough, if being perfwaded of the 
Lawfulnefs of the Things enjoined^ they unfeigredly Ajfem and Confent 
thereunto, and judge it ttuch better and more eligible to ^fe it,, than by Re- 
fufal to lofethe Legal OpportunUy of exercifng their Minijiry. He fay>, the 
Aflent and Conient U only to be undevflood of all Things enjclnd to be i*>'d 
und fraClisd. Mr Hoadly alfo fays mmh the fame ^ Reafon. of Cont: 
|>. g6. &c. declaring that AflTtnt and Conient is to be cnnfind to the Ufe of 
what U contained and prefcrib'd in the Bool:, and f. 59, he fays, that it is ab' 
folutely determined by the very Farliament tJ^at made the Afl, that it iff as 
meant fo. And the Nature, Manner, and Torm of all Lav? Deeds and Fuh- 
lick Declarations, he fays, rehire this Way of Interpretation, and condemn 
the other : Whereas on the Contrary, I hare giycn as good Eridence as need to 
be defired in 2d Def. of Mod. None p. 119, that the legijlators have gi-ven 
their Senfe to the fame Fwpofe veith the ejcded Minifiers in this Cafe. The 
Lords and Commons agreed that to under/land the Declaration of AfTent ar.d 
Confent only as to the Ufe of vphat was prefcrib'd, was not enough to mh- 
fwer the Law. Tor from the -very Journal of the Lords, I hare gheif 4 
true Accout of the State cf the Cafe thus: 

On July the \^th, 166^. A Bill was fent up from the Commons to thi 
Lords, intituled. An Aft for Relief of fuch Perfons as by Sicknefs or 
other Irapedimenr, are difabled from fubfcvibing the Dechvation in th6 
Aft of Uniformity, and Explanation of Part ol the faid Ait. At the 
Second Reading in the Houieof Lords it was committed. Some Altera- 
tions and Amendments were made by the Committee, and a Ciaufeaddt-d 
of this Tenor : And be it enafted and declared by the Authority afoae- 
faid, That the Declaration and Subfcription of Aff:nt and Confent in the 
faid Aft mentioned, fliall be underftood only as to the Piaftice and Obe- 
dience to the faid Aft, and not otherwife, Tliis Additional ClaiUe \va3 
agreed to by a Majority : But Twelve Lords protcftcd againft it, as de- 
ftruftive to the Church of England as now eltablifli'd. When the Bill 
was fent back to the Commons, they defir'd a Conference, which ^vas 
yielded to by the Lords. The Commons vehemently declared againft the 
Amendments and Alterations of the Lords and t\^':^ Additional Caufe 5 
^nd it was openly dcclav'd by one of the Managers on tiie Part of tlie 


2o6 The LIFE of Chap, X. 

Commons, Common Prayer, ^e. They found fuch Marks of. 

that what Humane Infirmity, in the Frame and Contexture, andi 

was fent x\^^ particular Offices of it, that they durft not make 

down to jfjg Subfcriprion and Declaration requir'd, iiJl they, 

them^ could receive Satisfaction, with Reference to fundry, 

toucmng gx(-eptiQns they had to brine in, which appeared to them 

this Bill, c xiTr.- d^ J n r 

Jiad nfi- of gr^^t Weight and Conlequcnce. 

ther Ju- * . 

6ice nor Prudence in ft. W|ien the Conference was ovei:, the Lords 
voted an Agreement with the Commons, and dropp'd the Adiilional 
Claufp before recited. ; 

nothing treed he defifd more plainly and fully ^o gire the Senfe of t1}e Zf- 
t'ljlaton in the Cafe^ than this of which Mr. Baxter had giyen an Hint before. 
This I tho*t might hare been allots d to determine this "Bart of the Controverfy. 
iut Mr. Ollyffe id Def. of Win. Conf. p. io6. will fuppofe that I had it 
from fame Ancient Gentleman, And that it mdies not fo much to my Fut- 
fofe as I reprefent : And Mr. Hoadly in Def. 0/ f/^ Reafon. of Conf. p. j. 
faysy he has heard the Truth of my Aciount much conteffed. Itf the mean 
Time I quoted the journal of the Lords for my Vouchers, and referred theift 
4ind others thither for Satisfafilon : And it is no difficult Thing for any Gen: 
tleman to get a Sight of it. if any one will be at the Pains to take a Vieiif 
«if that^ and flill remdins dubious as to the Senfe and Intention of the Legi' 
haters, I P^all wonder at it, and defpair that drgulng will anfwer any En4» 
The Lords aim^d at declaring, that a bare Ufe was intended, that a Num.- 
her might be that V^ay easd ', and tlte Matter had been clear on that Side had 
the Commons concurr'd : But they refufing to allow of bare Ufe as fufficient^ 
and dratPing oyer a Majority of the Lords, in Eff'efh determined, that they 
jpho put that Senfe upon the Declaration of Aflent and Confent, that it was 
to the bare Ufe and no more, leading Perfons (iill room for difapproring any 
Thing contain d or prefcrib^d in the Common Prayer Book^ wretchedly mif-in- 
terfret it-, and ajjume to themfelres a Powet of interpreting contrary to the 
tegijlators themfehes, 

I. The Subfcription and Declaration requir'd, they 
found would take in the Do£lrine of F{eal Baptifmal [{e- 
generation, and certain Salvation^ Confequciit thereupon. 
And that whether the Perfons baptiz'd, were qua- 
lify'd Subjedls of Baptifm, yea or not. Ic would! 
be an Approbation ot the Rubrick at the End of the 
Publick Office for Baptifm, where 'tis faid^ It k certain 
hy Goefs UP^ordy that Children which are hnpti:(dy dying h" 
fore thry commit a^ual Sin, are undoubtedly fav*d, Ic 
would have been well if they had quoted the Place; 
for the Diffenting Minifters freely confefs'd their Jgnp- 
^a'nce^ that ibey knew of no fuch Word in Scripture^ 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 207 

h would alfo be an Agreement, to ufe conftantly iiftor 
E^aptifm that Tbankfgiung 5 I4^e yield thee hearty 
Thanks^ moft merciful Father^ that it hath fleaid thee 
to [Regenerate thit I.fant vfith thy Holy Spirit. Now 
when they fhould be obliged to baptize all Comers, 
without a Liberty of refufing the Children of InfideJs, 
or the moft Scandalous Sinners, (provided they had 
but Sponfours) to blcfs God prefently as foon as the 
Office was over, for Regenerating them by his Spirit; 
and lav it down as undoubtedly certain that they were 
fav'd iF thry died, this was what their Light would 
not fuflice for j and therefore till then 'twas their un- 
doubted Duty to avoid Concurrence. For who can fo 
much as queftion whether or no it would have been 2 
Sin in them, to blefs God with Confidence for what 
they did not believe was real ; and to lay that down as 
undoubtedly certain from Scripture, of which they faw 
not there the leaft Foundation* They found the Chil- 
dren of the wickedeft Parents (of Whores and Adul- 
terers living openly in all notorious Sin. and wholly 
withcnt God in the World) baptized without Scruple ; 
and many of them died foon after Baptifm : Now how 
Could tbev pretend to be Cure by the Word of God, and 
paft all doubt that all fuch went to Heaven, when God 
fo pofitively deckr'd in the Second Commandmcnc^ 
that he VQould punifh the Iniquities of the Fathers upon the 
Children, unto the Third and Fourth Generation *? This at 
leaft might make the Matter dubious to them. Sup- ^ 
^ofe a Chriftian King fhould conquer a Country of „ .^^ . 
Pagans, or Mahumetans, or Jews, or compel ^^^(;^^at^^^ 

if I pro- 
due' d thit Text fot the Damnation of Infants ', Reafon. ofConf. p. 46. and 
eften harps upon it afterwards : Whereas I really had it not in my Tho'tSy 
and I helieve the fame as to the ejefled Mtnljier from tphom I took it. For 
my Part Im Hot for pofitively damnin^^ without good warrant \ and leaft of 
all fhould I he for being fey ere towards Infants: But yet fending all Infants 
undoubtedly to Heaten that are bapti&'d ii certainly too lax. God's "vifitin^ 
ihe Sins of the Fathers upon the Children-, is not here produc'd as an Argument 
that he dooms Infants to Hell for the Sins of their Parents •, but as a Proofs 
that it becomei us to be more wary than to talk of undoubted Salvation, in 
the Cafe of all baptiikd 5 for that where God yifits for Sin, (tho he'll take 
Care to do it confiftently with his Juftice) there may not be that Eridence of 
^aly4tm^ as can in an^ tolerable Senfe be called undoubted^ 


2o8 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

their Infants forthwith to be Baptiz'd, and fome of 
them immediately expire, at leaft before the Commif- 
(ion of a(^uaj Sin, is the Salvation of all fuch fure, and 
paft all doubr, and this to be made out, and cleared by 
the Word of God ? Is it in the Power of Man to make 
Infants fure and certain of Salvation ? It is in the Pow- 
er of Man to kill t poor Infant, and to choofe his time 
for doing it. Many Whores murder their Babes before 
Baptifm, and they might as well do it immediately af- 
ter, and fo affuredly (upon this Hypothelis) fend thena 
to Heaven, whither they (hall never come themfejves, 
without bitter and forrowful Repentance. And fo might 
the aforefaid King and Conqueror, (after he by Baptifm 
had given them their fure and unqueftionaHle Paffport 
for raradifej even in Charity and Kindnefs immedi- 
ately cut the poor Infants off, and fo without any far- 
ther hazard, give them Poffeflion of eternal Blifs. But 
our Minifters could not tell how to apprehend that 
any Mortals had fuch Power over Souls, as this would 
amount to. , 
¥ 7/,e It hath been pleaded by fome in this Cafe to mollifie 
tl[!)op and the Objedfcion, that the aflcrting of a Baptifmal B^genc 
Vhineiwho ration, was what was mainly intended ; * and that 

met in the 

Jerufakm Chamber^ tn 164.1^ vpere for leaying out the Words undoubtedly 
fav'd, out of the lafi Kubrick of the Office for Confirmation^ from whence it 
tffas remrrv'd into the Office for Baptifm in the ISew Common Trayer Book. 
Jlnd Mr. Baxter tells w, (fee his Life in Vol. p. ^1%.) that when in the 
Tublick Debate with the Bifh9ps, he infiancd in one of hii Varijhoners that 
wai a Vrofefid Infdel^ and yet faid he would come and mahe the Common 
frnfejjion for his Child for Cuftom fake-^ even Dr. Sanderfoh Bipjop of Lin- 
coln, rtn/werf/ ^4«^ none of the Bifhops contradicted) that if there were 
Godfathers it had a fufficient Title, and Bi/hop Motley and others confirm'd 
it. Now thefe Godfathers (fays Mf. Baxtcrj being not Adopters, nor Owners, 
4re cannot fee it certain in Gods Word, that all thofe are fay^d whom they 
prefcnt to Ba\)tifm ^ no, nnr whom Ungodly and Hypocritical Chrijiians prefent. 
for how can the Covenant fave the Chiid^ as the Child of a Believer, which fa- 
veth not the Tarent as a Believer himfelf^ And fw era I Gentlemen even in 
th: Houfe of Commons., who were of the Church Tarty, declared that they could 
not have fubfcrib'd this Kubrick, as to the certain and undoubted Salvation of 
Baptized Infant^; and Sir 'Uincclox. LikG, Knight of thr Shire for Middle- 
fcx, Son to one of the Secretaries of King Charles the Vlrji-, wJ/o had bad Bi* 
fhop Andrews and Bijhop Lake for his Godfathers was one of them. But 
Mr. Oilyffc, fay^, ("Def. of Min. Conf. p. i5. drc.) that this Kubrick is no 
Part nf -nhat is prefcrib'd for Ufe j and yet thinks to molUfi the Matter by 


Chap. X. Mr, Richard Baxter. 209 

herein they bad the Concurrence of many of the moft r.jfeytin<^ a, 
celebrated, Refdrmed Divines, and of many even o^BapufmaL 
our owfi moft admired Writers; to which they had^f^e^ter^. 
this obvious reply: That the Thankfgiving afer Bap-^^""- Mr. 
tifm, mentions ^geveratingvoith the Holy Spirit ; which "oadly ^Z- 
carries the Matter farther than the Sign, and feems to^^^^^fon. 
dehote the Th'ng fignify'd, as adtually given to each^^ ^^h ^ 
baptized Perfon. Befides the Senfe of the Church in this v^.j'^'^^J" 
toint is fi^fiiciently clear'd by the Ofiice for Q^-'^fi''^^^- this ref^rl 
tion^ m which the Bifliop who officiates, in his firft Ad- ^^t to ths 
drefs to God, exprefies himfelf thus. Almighty and e- Uicnjfentcd. 
verliving God; who hafl vouchjafed to, Regenerate thefe thy andconfent* 
Servants by i^Vnter, n7id the Holy Ghofi^ and haji giv:riedto: But 
unto them Forgivenefs of all their Sins, ^C. This (diidpleads that 
with Reference to all Comers, (as to which 'tis well Baptlfm 
known there is very Hrtle Care) gives ground to all^^'*^''^ 
concerned to think themfelves fufficiently Regenerated ■^^''/^''^ ''*" 
ailready, and to apprehend that the Church doth not ^^.'1'^^'*^^ 
think their aiming at any farther Regeneration needful,^. .^^''"** 
when once they are baptiz'd and confirm'd. This was ^.J^^'^^ V 
a Thing that appeared to our Minifters of fuchdarge-^/ ^.^ *- 
rbus Confequence, that they durft not concur in it or ^/^/^gj^^;^^^ 
any Way approve it, for fear of Contributing to the ying done ' 

dny Thing 
to put them out of thisState^ they J?)aE he fayed. And to theObjeillon taken 
from the admitting all Comers^ he anftvers, that he kwivs n t thc.t Bdptifm 
may not be dented, to the Children of Athei/is, /(?«?<, and Infidels : For the Of- 
fice fuppofes a Chriftian Country^ and Chriftian Parents, 6Zc. My l^eium^ 
Dt(. of Mod. None. Part. 2. f>. 134, &c. is this: That take the Kubrick at 
the End of the Office for Baptifm, the Thankf'hin^ In the Office immediately 
after Baptifm, and the Office of Confirmation^ as referring, to Baptifm prcieed- 
in^, all together^ and they difcover that Laxnefs upon the Head oj Baptifm^ as 
a Regenerating Ordinance, as may prore a Temptation to many, to think that 
Ordinance a fuffic'.ent Pafport for Hearen ; and that the bare receiving it, is. 
an abundant Eyidence that Perfons are the Children of God, as much as 
they need defit.e to he fo. And for my Part I mufi confers, I think that the. 
eje^ied Minifter<i an to be commended rather than blam'd, for refufing to f«- 
courage fuch a That, as if Children are therefore undoubtedly fav'd, becaufe 
baptizd, and that the Cafe of all Children is alike, if but baptized : and for, 
being deftrous to make a Difference, between the Application of the outward, 
Si<in,and the reaching the Bleffings Jignified: And for being afraid of encourage 
ing this Notion, that real Regeneration is a needle fs Thing in the Cafe of bap- 
ttz^d Perfons. He that would fee more of this Matter, may confult^DtL of 
Mod. None. P.2. p. i^'y.ld Def. of Min. Conf p. 129. Def. of t/;e Reafon. 
ofConf. p. 34. and Def of Mod. None. P. 3. f. 517, 384, ^<r. 

f hardeMng 

2IO The LltE of Chap. X- 

hardening of a Multitude of vain, loofe, carelefs, fe- 
cure Creatures in a fatal Miftake about the Safety of 
their State ; neither could they fee how they could An-' 
t The Letter fwcr for it to God another Day t. 

from a 

Minifter to a Tirfon of Quality Jljeyping fame 'Reafnm far his Nonconformity^ 
fa<re ;, A. Corbsts Remains, />«i,;e 154. Short Suryei^h of the Grand Cafe r>f 
the Prefent Mm'ftry^ fage 15. Baxter'i nonconformity Stated and argued;- 
paire 4S. His Pica for Peace ^ fage 169. His Defence of the flea for Peace, 
fage 1 6 ar.d 1^7, &C. at Large. 

^ Mr.Ol' 1, This AfTent, Confent, and Subfcription, was a- 
lyffe, Def. mong other Things to the Ufe of Godfathers and God' 
of Min. mothers in Baptifn), to the Exclufion of Parents*. 

&c. denies that Parents are excluded or yuflled eut by thelJfe of Godfathers-, 
and fays. That their Ri^ht is fecured, and their Benefit (onfulted thro' the 
Uho/e. Artd tho he ovpns the too common Carelefnefs of Godfathers, yet wont 
allow that the Ajfent and Confent "couired, at ail encourages it. And he ap* 
f lands the Care taken hy fome to pre'vent Abufcs^ of. K>hich he declares his own 
Abhorrence. Afr.Hoadly,Reafon. ofConf. f, ^1, ^z. fays. That Parents are 
to pro-vide the Sponfors, and that the devoting their Children by them to God, is 
a^ much their o:z^n AO: and Deed, as if they had no Sponfors <? and hat tf?e 
^r^Jfe/l Abufe of an Inflitution, is not a fuff.cicnt Argument againfl that Jn^ 
(titution It felf. He cant fee how the Method of the Church tends to the pro- 
plfaning this Ordinance. And tho' he bewails the little Regard many (god- 
fathers have to the ferious Part of their Office, he yet hopes there are fome f» 
fenfible of their Obligations, that they omit no Opportunity of doing their Du'y^ 
6iQ. In rdturn, I fay, Def. of Mod. None Part 2. p. i 50, &c. That the 
Grievance here is, 7hat Godfathers and Godmothers according to the Meth'id of 
the church, are taken in as Parties in the T<ederal Stipulittion between God and 
the Baj'tizd, which Parents mufi not be admitted to, ihu it is their proper 
Uork. If Parents may not be allowed this (which U noioriotts) then they are 
excluded. And where the Right to devote or bind lies in the Parent, he cannot 
tran<fer it. And when Subfiitutes are pitched on to bind the Children of others 
to be the lords, tho' t])cy have no Rig})t to bind them, and they Covenant for 
them, and the- Children as they grow up are taugljt that they are bound by their 
Tromife ; and this Promife and Vow of theirs in their Jiame, is in the Office 
reprrjented, as that on which t};eir Intere/i in the Blefjings of the Covenant ii 
fufpendcd, I can't fee that this Affair /lands upon a right Bottom. A Divine 
In/it tutif>ni< not to be fet afide when abufed ; but its otherwife an to a purely 
Humane Infiitution, efpeci.illy when it is in it felf liable to jufi Obje^lions^ 
as this is, t^hich has been ju/ily complain d of by many (both in the Church and 
out of it) as a great Occ a/ton of the general Prophanation of this Ordi-^ 
nance. And therefore while thefc Gentlemen bewail the little Regard many' 
Godfathers lave to tlje ferioTts Part df their Office, (which as far as it goes is 
Well) I beg leave (in ConjunClion with the felled Minifiers) to bewail tJje 


Chip. X. Mr, Richard Baxfer. 2H 

This they eftt emM finful, not only becaufe it }\}{\]ed;;rofi Cor- 
out the Parents Right to devote iheir Children to God^'^P'ion 
in Paptifin, which is the Thing vpon which the Admini- ^^''<^ff *i 
ftracion of rhaiOrdinancetolMfar.cs was primarily Found-'''** ^^'^y 
edjbuc alfo becaufe it r.pen'd a wideDoor to thcProfaning'^!''^/'' '/* '" 
of one of the moft awful Solemnities of our Holy ^eii- Jj^'^£'^^^'^.. 
gion. In as much as G>^dfa'Hers and Godmothers are nei- n^^i^iT^*^ 
ther requir'dto be chofen with due Care and Caurion • ^lidac^ 
(and in the Cafe of many Perfons, *tis really impoffiblccor^.w t9 
to procure any ferious Undertakers :; nor are they tied the Ecclc 
CO bring the Children of Chriitians o:dy, nor only (uch /laflicalCott' 
as they take for their own, but without any Difference /?'>«'^"j», 
may bring the Children of any Atheifts or Seducers, '^^''«'/'?f>*^ 
Jews or Infidels, at Pleafure, without taking any fur- '^'^'^ ^^ ^'^'^^ 
therTho't or Care about them. Withal thefe God-'"*"^''"'*^ 
fathers and Godmothers pcrfonate the Child, as be-?'"^.'^*^ 
lieving in Chrift, and renouncing Sin ; and that with-'^/f/f'*^*^^' 
out any Authority for it, either from any Natural Right, "^^J^^^'^j^^ . 
or Pofitive Law. And the Ordinance of Baptifm wiiJ^/,^^*^,.^ 
feem to be put upon that inf'fficient Bottom, by 2Lny fomeGod' 
one who fedately cotiipares the Ofiice for that PuTpofe,/rff/,er5 bat 
with the Church Catechifm. For the Promife of the mind that 
Godfathers and Godmothers, in the Child'sName, is in rvhlch is 
both repiefentfd as the Foundation of Baptifmal Dedi- ^'^f'"'' P«fj» 
cation, and the Ground of the Claim of the Benefits ^^^c^o^^^^ 
and Bleffings thence arifing. Now our Minifters fenfi- ^""y ,^f, 
bly found that this would not bear Sc§nning. In the '*'*^^" ^^' 
Church Way this Ordinance is fo managM, as if thej!!^ '/y'*'^* 
Godfathers Faith were Beneficial to the Child, ^^^ (^f^/theve'i 
not the Parents: When as God requires no Faith or Re- //^^/^ ^^^^ 
pentance of Infants, but only that they be the Seed o^ ^^ ;)^^tters 
Penitent Believers, and devoted to him as Rch, thisal- fland^ that 
fo was an Offence to many. And then they found, that it vfiU he o- 
Godfathers and Godmothers were generally bro't to thn-wife ) 

that it 
won't be rery likely they (hould much credit the Inflitution. The Queftions al- 
fo in the Bapifmal Office are }i*ftly exceptionable. Murciilus/.i7.<, That the 
Cuflom of interrogating Infants is fo abfurd that it canmt be defended. And 
the Learned Spanheim fays^ that this mimical Vrofejjinn of the Sponfr.f^ 
Tfhich is afcribd to the Infant ^vpi II fear ce be found to haretahen Place before 
ihe^i^h and Ninth Age ^ when Superjiition prevailed. Thefe Interro<^atoriei 
(hould be referred for grown Perfons, who have no Need of Sp nfors, which the 
church officioujly provides for them. He that would fee more of this Matter^ 
may fonfult Mr. OilyfTe'i 2</ Def of Mm. ConLp. 141. Mr. Hoadly'5 Def. 
A/f/;e JR,eafon.o/ Conf.f. ^(^. And myDd.ofMod.Nonc. Part. ^.f. 3l8,&: 387, 

P 2 the 

XI 2 The L 1 Fh of Chap. X. 

the Font, 'O avo cb a great Untvuih, and makethem- 
felves oHnoxioMS to Lying and Perjury intheFaceof 
God and the Church. For Expertenre Iheweth, that 
what Appearance (never there is o^ Solemnity at the 
Ergaging in fuch a Promife, yet ihcy never (or very 
rarely) pviformir. Some of them never fee the Child 
more, after the Chrif^ning Day, n t ever enquire more 
after it. Yea, tho' they folemnly Engage on the Be- 
half of the Infant, yet they hold themfelves realty 
bound to nothing, but look up"n a:l as meet Ceremony 
and C(.mplement. Suppofe a Parent (hould afterwards 
Chalh nge his Goflips, and fay ; yoa promis'd when 
you ftood Sureties for my Child at the Fonr, to call up- 
on him to mind his Duty, to hear Sermons, &. and 
to fee him well inftru(5ted in the Rudiments and Prin- 
ciples (f Religion ; but you have not done it, and thro' 
your Negledt, he does not hear Sermons, he is not Ca- 
techized, he does not renounce the Works of the Devil, 
but is in the High-way to Ruin, notwithftanding your 
Engagement : What would be the Anfwer of thefe Per- 
fons to the Parents, of the Child, but this? Should we 
look after him or you? Whole Child is he, yours or 
ours ? He is your own proper Charge, notwithftand- 
ing our (landing at the Font ; be is committed to your 
Truft, and therefore if he do otherwife than well for 
lack of your Care, the blame will be yours, and his 
Blood will be «pon your Head as the only Criminals. 
And indeed hardly any Thing can be more Obvious to 
Obfervation than this, that the blame is not laid up- 
on Godfathers and Godmothers if Children be not 
well Difciplind and Educated, neither do they blame 
themfelves, or Ihew any Confcience in this Matter, al- 
tho' 'tis evident, that if they perform not their Cove- 
n.ints to the utmoft of their Power, they break their 
Faith. On which Accounts, they durft not by any 
* Bax- Means Confsnt to Encourage fo Corrupt a Cuftom*. 
tcr»i Tion- 

tonformlty Stated and Argued, pa^e 57. his Plea for Peace^ pa^ei^f. His 
Defence of the KonConf<ir miffs Plea for Peace, page i6. The Letter from 4 
Minijier to a Perfon of (^/tatity^ P)ewing fome Rcafons for his NoncoTt' 
formity. Corbets Remains^ pa^e 1 5^. Baxter'i 2d, True Defente of the meet 
ficnconf Ch. 12, pa^e 167. 

3. This 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. ii:j 

g. This AfTenr, Confent, and Sufcription, v/ould have ^ j^^ q^. 
obIig*d the Minifters to have denied the Ordinance of lyffe j^^f 
Bapcifm to fuch as had not Sponfors, altho'they had a of Min. ' 
real Right to that Ordinance, and to be rhertbySoletrn- Conf./)4o. 
iy recogniz'd as born Members of the vifible Church- &c. fayi^ 
Sonie have herein queftion'd the Reality of the Obliga- ^'^ »<?■>'<:»" 
tion ; but as far as appears,upon very weak Grounds* For /""ow/i d to 

exclude nil 
that have not Sjjonfon f, and that there is no fuch Word in the Book which he 
has fubjcriU'd to : And asks me^ if I do not know that there is a Vorm in the 
Book for Baptifm without Godfathers f. And adds, that this Form is to be us'dy 
•when there fhall he any ^reat Caufe and Necefjity-^ and the Minijler is left fole 
fudge of this Caufe and Necefjity ^ and that if PerfoMs immoveably fcruple 
Godfathers this is a great Caufe or Necejji.y -^ and that he and his JDJeighbours 
knew of no Obligation Dr. F. was by Lav? under , to be fo fliff as my Margin 
reprefents him. If this will hold, I /Jjould be glad-, but I doubt it won^t, and 
haye given my Eeafon^why, Def. of Mod. Nonconf. P. 2. p. rys, 6tf. What 
honeji Mr. Raftrick faid to Bifljop M-^hite of Peterborough in his Vijitation^ 
defences Mr. Ollyffe'i Confideration. 1 have obferved, faid /;^, That when 
fuch as your Lordfhip comes. to enquire into thePraftifeof fome of us, you 
examine it by the Letter of Conformity, underftood and expounded in the moft 
flriftand rigid Senfe that can be: You urge upon us our Promifes and, - 
Subfcriptions, and you aggravate the leaft Omiffion to the Heighth : So 
that we are infnar'd in this Cafe ; lirft courted in by plaufible Con- 
ftru£lions, and then rack'd and fcru'd, and fqueezd at no Rate, ^c. 
See his Letter 10 me, at the End of Def. of Mod. Nonconf Part 3. ^.28. 
Alay Mr. Ollylfe nerer have Reafon for a like Complaint fay I. 

Mr. Ho2dly takes this grf, and the ^th, and ^th Head together -^ and jointly 
(onfders the denying Bapiifmto fitch as had not Sponfors, and to fuch as would 
net fubmit to ufe the Si'^n oj the Crofs, and denying the Communion to fuch 
as would not receive it Kneeling, as Terms of Communion, and Impoftions^ 
Reafon of Coni p. $6. &c. And he ajjerts, \. That BiJJ)ops have Aut' ority 
to prefcribe thefe Things which are fo grieyoufly complain d of The^ ])avetlns 
Authority he fays, as they are oblig'd to provide for the Prefervation of Order^ 
and as it re fulls from the Nature of all Societies, that tJ)e Governors /f)ould 
have a Power r,f ordering what feems to them moft fir the Beauty and Ad- 
vantage of them. He intimates the cjeffed Miniflers would have join d with 
the Bijhops in impojinr and prefcribing fome Things, about Time Place and Li- 
turgy ; and fa'^s, that the Bifhops have Authority to prefcribe in the one Cafe 
as well as the other , and thence forms an Ar'^ument thathe feems to think un- 
,anfwerable. He adds, />• 785 that the Governors of the Clmrch in requiring 
fuch Things as thoj'e mentioned, have ordered nothing, but what if all would 
ferioufly comply with., is certainly for the good of the Church, and therefore hav( 
,done their Duty, and cannot be charged with Sin : And that the dijprop'.rtio' 
pablenefs of the Penalty does not make the Command unlawful ', for that then 
/the Governours of the Church could injoin nothing at all. And if any fufer 
in thefi Qafesy ^pis mp PQ be chared on the Commands which are defgnd 1 be 

P 3 ' the 

214 The LIB t. of Chap.X. 

a T^^cf ^, the Cnn:n fubfcrib'd, obliges in exprcfs Words to ufe 
^ainp d;/-^^^ Form prefcrib'd, and n ) other: And the [{i,hrick De- 
o>W?r, hut clarcs there lliall be tor e- ery Male Child to be Bapdz'd, 
vpon the twoG^dfathers and one Godmother • and for every Fe* 
\'^4i:n2Ci maie, one Godfather and two Godmothers. Confe- 

tf th')fe 

Vfly^ don't corrfly. He plead< alfo for the Yetalninz^ fuch Imp'fitions vhen once 
fix'd., becaufe the Fujudtcei and Scruples a^ainft them are unreafnnahle and 
^mitndlefs^ and f?rike at all EcclefafticaL Authority \ and bccaufe the parting 
wifly thefe Things^ if they did not fart alfo K?ith other Things^ v^ould fignify 
ytnthln^. 2. He ajferti St. Pnul fays nothing againf} this tn Rom. 14. 
pa*' 88, &c. ylnd-^. He alfo ajfcrt< that Mr.hiy:ic\ s praHife^ and thePra- 
ff I Ceo f the Independents ha-s been for, and not againft^ fuch Impojittons^ as are 
the ToundatloKS sf the hearie/} Char'i^e a^au'ji the Churchy p. 96, &C. But as 
for this Tic a cf his for the Epifcopal Power, and the' Iwpoftions proceedinr 
ftom itj^ Ihare dlfinttly anftrer'^d it in t/;elncroduftion to the id Part of my 
Defence, from V 30. to ij. 40. What he fays upon Rom. 14. is confider'd in 
the fame Iiifoduiftion, V 4c, 41, fire. And the FraHife of Mr. Bixtei* 
and the Independents, is alfo ccnftder'd, ^ 4^^. AndJntheClofe of that Intro- 
duction J make th's fair Ojfer : Let it but be clearly proved from Scripture, 
that ojtr Saviour has »^ive)-> a (.owmiffon to any to fx General Re^^^ulations 
in his Wor^hipt befdcs necejfary, or at mofl expedient Circumftances : Let the 
I>ounds of cf thisCommifJicn be plainly fx'd and limited, fo as that it may be 
known when "tis us' d regularly, and tvhen exceeded: Let the Perfns to rt>hotn thii 
Conrmifjior. is giren, be defer! b'd in their nccejfary Qualifications : And let it be 
fherrn diflinfUy, tvhat thnfe ¥,cclefiaftical Re^^ulaitons are that are to be obeyd, 
and vrhat Obfdier.ce is due to them ; a7td let it be proVd t bat fuch Obedience is 
a Duty ; and let the Proof of it be direfl rather than Confequential ; or if 
an Argument is drawn from the Confeqjienccs of the Refufal of Obedience on 
vne Side, let the oppnfte Argument frotn the Confequences of yielding fuch an 
Obediencp be weighed alfo on the other Side : And fnce this Obli'^ationifRea/^ 
ynufi arife from the Will of God :, let that br evidenced in a Degree of Plain- 
tiff ^ that may bear fome Proportion to the Dugree of Poftirenefs with which 
it if affnted ', Let but fuch Things as ihefe be{ cleared, it will be found we 
are open to Con^'iffion. But it could not be accepted: 1 am told, that were all 
the Th'n's I Mention capable of a jiriCl Vemonf ration as true ss any in the 
Mat hematic I: s, it would be a yery great Abfurdity to put fo important a 
Caufe upon this IJfue, bccaufe fo few of thofe whofe Corxern it is, are capa- 
bi>' <if underftandin^ fuch a DemonOration of many of thefe Points, Def. 
o/* Epilc. Oidinir. p. ^86. Hherea< it was 7tot Mathematical Vcmonjira' 
^'0/, thai wa dc fired, hut fuch Proof as tbe Nature of the Things will bear^ 
-nd fuch Proof a^ may be expcflcd in Matters of this Nature; and fuch as is 
>ncnmmod.ftrd to the Cataciiics of thofe concerned : And till this be ^iven, I 
for one, mufi be excufei, if my Notions of Ecclefaflical Power and Authori* 
tyt run but low. . 


Chap. X. Air. Richard Baxter. 2 1 5 

qnently all that wouldOflficiate in the EftabJilhM Church, 
muft by verbal Declaration and Subfcription, bind 
themfelves * to deny Baptifm to all Children of Godly * Some 
Parents, that have not Godfathers and Godmothers, it muft be 
even tho' the Parent be leady to do his own Part, Pro- owned 
fefling his Faith, Dedicating hiS Child to God, and ^^^^^ ^^'^e- 
proniiling a Religious Education. *« g'^^n 

^ , J _ , themfehes 

hut hovr far tltey could ju/^ifie it, would he 4 pfetty clofe Enquiry. J re- 
member in Mt- Henry's Life^ there is a Fajfai^ey which deftryes noting i^on 
this Oci.afion One of the Parifhiotters of Dr. F. of Whicchuich, de fired h^ 
to giyeWay that his Child might be baptized by another K^itJynuc ihe Croj)^ 
and Godfathers^ if he would not do it himfelf He refufed both ^ afid by d 
tettet returned this Anfwer For my Part (faith he) I freely profcfs niy 
Tho'ti that the ftri£t urging of Indifferent Ceremonic?, liath dane 
more Harm than Good ; And pofSbly had all Men been kfr to their Li- 
berty therein, there might have been much more Unity, and not much 
lefs Uniformity. But what Power have I to difpenfe with mv fe!f, bs;ing 
now under the Obligation of a Law and an Oath ? And he CoKc/udes, 
I am much grieved at the unhappy Condition of my felf and o:ht,r Mi- 
nifters who mud either loofe their Pariihioners Love if they do not com- 
ply with them, or elfe break their Solemn Obligations to pleafe them. 
This Freedom and O^ennefs upas certainly more honeft tho joined t^ith a fccm- 
in^ Stifnefs-i than Ferfom fretettdin^ to difpenfe with themfelres, vfiien under 
the moji Solemn Bonds. 

Such an Agrcenaent our Minifters apprehended fin- 
ful. They durft not caufelefly deprive Souls of vi- 
(iblc Chriftianity, much lefs Damn them for want 
of an Humane, unneceffary, if not Corrupt Invention. 
They durft not make a Covenant to Rob Chrifi: and 
the Church of Vifible Members for nothing ; and 
confign thofe over to the Un-covenanted Mercy of 
God, whom he (they well knew) vvas ready to ac- 
cept for his : And fo Concur in fetthig the Will and 
Advice of Man againft Chrift, who laid, Forbid thetn 
not ; and was angry with thofe, voho forbad them to 
come to him. And it feem'd to them very odd that 
the fame Perfons (hould be fo forward to deny Bap- 
tifm to poor Infants for want of a Formality, when, 
yet they apprehended it would give them a certain 
AlTurance of Salvation, as hath been hinted before. 
One of them thus expreffes himfelf upon this Matter. 

P 4 ! Shall 

2i6 The LIFE of Chap. X. 


Shall a Minifter dare to withhold fo mvich good from, 
' and enJeavour fo much evil to the Souls of poor In- 

* fanes indenting them their Chriftendom, meerly \ip- 

* on the Account of fome AccelTories, and f^:rii pled Ac- 

* cidents invented and imposed by Man, and not at all 
of the EfTence of Baptifm itfelf ? Bcfides the itupiety 

* BaxtcvV < and irrcligion of fuch aProcefs, the Minifter (accord- 
j;^r.crnjoY- < -^^g ^.Q j^J5 '^^^ Faith) would be moft Cruel and Un- 
^■l?J'-^'d "Merciful in fodoing^anddefervM if poifible, robeun- 
*^ 6q" * chnftenedhimfelf again, and turn d among Canibals, 
HisF/eafoy ' ^^ °"^ "^^^^ deeply dipt and Baptiz'd in their barba- 
^eace, par. * ^°"^ inhumanity than any of themfelves : And yet if 
jm. He- * jhe be a true Son of the Church, and puncflually obferve 
fence of the * his prefcribed Rule, he mull not Baptize any Infant 
JBJea for * without Godfathers and Godmothers, whether it be 
^^eace, * fav'd Of damad.' This was what our Fathers could 
fa^. 50. not Swallow or Digeft*. 

4. This AlTent, Confent, and Subfcription, would o- 

t The Bi- b^ig^ to fign the Infants in the Adminiftration of Bap» 
fhrfi and tilni with the Tranfient fign of rhe Crof, and to deny 
Dirmervho Baptifm to the Children of fuch as refufe itf. 

met in the 

Jcruf^lcm ih amber in \6^\.6hfeWi that in the Ancient Liturgies, no Crofs 
tifas frn'd upon the Party Baptiz,'d^ but where Oil atfo was u^'d: And there- 
fort cc.ncciv'd :haf Oil bein<^ now omitted, fo may alfo that which was Con- 
(onjit 'f'.t with it, the Sign of the Crofs. But Mr. Ollyffe, Def. of Min. 
Om*. p i\^.' f0s, that there is another Office of Baptifm in the Lititrgy^ 
%fhich the Minijier is authorl^'d for great and nccejfary Caufes to ufe, in 
which thi< Si'n is wt prrfcnb'd. And as for ihe ufe of the Sign of the Crofs'^ 
he fnys it is not in^ but af^ter Bap'ifm :, and he vindicates the ufe of it'^' And 
tin ong th-- Addendrj, he fays^ that grf'Wn Ferfons may be Baptii,'d withouP 
fr mijing to fubmrt to the iffe of it-^ and if when the BaHifm i< finiJJ/d^ the 
Bapt'zd Perfon (hall rcfufc th" S/';« of the Crof^ the Min fhr cannot help i(. 
A r Hoadi} alf.^ Keatbn of Conf. p. 57, 58. fays., they mufi be yery injudi- 
cious Perfor,$ indted, that can imagine that the Church fupfofs any Grace is 
wrou'iht fy the Si in rftheCrof nr the ufe of it^ and therefore there's no nee4 
of reg.irdin<! them. That Baptifm is fujfcicnt rrithout one Prayer ; and yet 
tha- ii no Objeflion a'^^in/i the Ufe of Prayers it} tjiat Solemnity, nor is i( 
frugcr a:\ainft the Ufe of the Sign of the Crrfs. And a< for the fgning the 
Infant wih it^ he fays, Uis net a Sign of any Spiritual Grace, nr pretended 
to be ordain d by ChriTl^ or us'd as a Means whereby we receive any Cracf, 
Qr a p edre to ajftre w of it. And he declares that he does not think it a 
fufficient Rtafcn fhr th: total fie'ilcfh of this Sign.^ that we may [Vitnefs our 
amikc and Detejiation of thtf f^anity of the Papifts herein. To this I hart 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 217 

As for the uling the fign of the Crofs in Bapcifm, anfwer'd, 
fome were much more againft it than others : But the Det. of 
generality of the Silenc d Minifters regarded it as a Sa- Mod. 
cramcnt fuperaddcd to that which our Blelled Lord had ^onc. Pan 
infticuted. For there is n)i outward vifible Sign ; A Tran- 2- /*• 185, 
fienr Image of a Crofs, made by one that a<^eih as a i°4» ^• 
Mihifter of Chrift, and receiv'd in the Forehead by the y^^^^ ^^^ 
Baptized. The Thing Signif/d is both the work of Re- ^jj^ Common 
demption purcbafing Grace, and the Grace given as the i^rayerBook 
fruit of that Purchafe. Can. 30. Thus ExprelTes i^'-Uayesfo 

* The Holy Ghoft by the mouth of the Apoftle did ho- much to the 

* nour the name of the Crofs fo far, that under it he com- Ministers 

* prehended not only Chrift CrucifyM, but the force, ef- difcretion 

' feds, and merits of his Death and Paflion, with all the ^s Mr.Oi- 

* Comforts, Fruits, and Promifes which we receive or ex- ^yffe*ro«/({ 

* pea thereby. The Churchof£»^/rt«^ hath retain dftill ^^^ ^'^^"S 
[ the fign of It in Baptifm, following therein the Primitive ^^^J 

^ and Apoftolical Churches, and accounting it a lawful J^^J^^^ 

* outward Ceremony, and honourable Badge, whereby ^^^^ ^.z-_ 

* the Infant is DEDIC ATED to the Service of J^^^^^ ,; 

* him that died on the Crofs, as by the Words j/,^ Matter, 

* of the Comipon Prayer Book may appear, ^^hether the 
\ Which iVords airfi,,:thefe: We receive this Child S.>» 0/ t/;e 
;. into the Congregation of Chrift's Flock, and do fign crofs be 

made in or 

after Baptifm.^ if it cscclu^es the Children of fuch as are difati>fied. The 

Crofs as usd in the Church of, England, /> a Sign of the Merits of ChriU^ a 

dedicating Sigtt, intended to incite, and therefore may be jujily fcrupled.^ It 

rpas fo by the Ele£led Miniflers, becaufe it encourages fo many to afcribe 

Vertiie meerly to the Sign of it attending upon Baptifm : And the more fo, 

becaufe they found fo many Men of Learning and Eminence run that Way, as 

well as tJK more Vulgar and JnjudicioHf. 'Tis an evident M ealnefs to lay 

flrefs upon this Sign, when Learned Men cannot to this 'Day agree in the true 

and proper Torm of tU Crofs. And to deny Baptiftn to Infants, becaufe their 

Parents fcruple it, is an unjpeakable hard/f)ip, and not to be jujiijied. He 

that would fee more about this, may confult Mr. Ollyffe'i Second Det. o/Min. 

Conf. /'. 172. Mr. Hoadly'^ Def, «/ the Reafon of Conf. p. 59. and my 

Def. of Mod. Cone. Tart. 3. p. 327, & 395- ^f^^^ '*^»/^'* ^y ^^^"^ ^'*^ 

of Eif/}op Taylor'5 Mind ^ that a fymbolical Kite of Humane Invention, to 

ftgnife what it does not effeU, and then introduced into the Solemn Worfhip of 

Cod, isfo like thofe\yain Imaginations and Keprefentments forbidden in the 

Se:onc[tommandmeni, that the yery Sufpicion is more againft Edification than 

their Ufe can pretend to. Duft. Dubit. B. 3. Ch. 4. p. 681. 

' him 

2i8 The LJi^E of Chap. X. 

* him with fign of the Crofs, in token that he (hali noc 

* be afham'd to confcfs the Faith of Chrift Crucify 'dj, 

* and manfully to fight under his Banner againft Sin, the 

* World and the Devil, and to continue Cbrift's faith- 

* ful Soldier and Servant to his Lives End, Amen.* So 
that the Thing fignify'd, is Chrift Crucify'd, with the 
Benefits of his Crofs. And tlie Image of the Qtok is 
appointed to work this Grace, by way of exciting Sig- 
nification : And it is Exprefly made Man's Covenant- 
ing Sign, by which he bindcth hinifelf to Fidelity ; en- 
gaging, That he win not he a/batn^ to confefi the Fnith cf 
ChrJft Crucified^ &c. AH Covenant Duty that is re- 
quir'd on Man's Part is hereby promis'd : And the Ca- 
non declares it is a Dedicating Sign. So that it fecmeth 
a Sacrament of Mans, added to that of Chrift. And 
tho' it be a Bond onfy on Man's part, and have nothing 
in it of an Aflurahce on Gods Part, which is what hath 
been often rep!y*d ; yet taken fo, it feems no fmall Re- 
fiedlion. For it looks as if Baptifm as Chrift had ap- 
pointed it, were efteem'd a Bond not fufficiently firm 
and ftrong» and therefore needed fome Addition where- 
by Men might be tied the f^ifter to him, and bound the 
iBore firmly to their Duty. Our Fathers who knew 
any Thing of this kind would be refented by an earth- 
ly Prince, could not underftand upon what juft 
Grounds we might prefume to make more bold with 
the great Law- giver in the Chriltian Church. And 
tho* in the Form of Words us'd, the Sign of the Crofs 
is (aid to be in lok^en he Ihail not be alham'd to confefs 
the Faith of Chrift Crucify'd, yet the Generality are 
apt to underi^and it, as if it had been faid, that in 
Vertue and Foxver of thu Sign, the Perfon Baptiz'd 
ihould not be afliam'd to Confefs the Faith of Chrift 
Crucify'd, but fliould fight manfully under Chrifts Ban- 
ner againft Sin, the World, and the Devil. Now 
they durft not concur in giving even an Occafion, 
(knowingly) of fuch a Mifunderftanding to the Vulgar 
and Injudicious. 

The' Chrifiians In the Primitive Times might make 
ufeof thtSign of the Crofy yet the very fime Reafon 
which might put them upon thatUfe with a Reference 
to the Heathens, (Tiould in the Judgment of the Silcnc'd 
Miniftcrs, havemov'd us now wholly todifufeit, with 
Reference to the Papilh, Profeflbra then Sign'd them- 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 210 

felves with the Sign of the Crojly to diftinguifh themfelvcs 
from the l^ngans, who fcorn* d the Crofs, with every 
Sign and Token of it: And with Parity of Reafon 
they thought we (hould now forbear fo doing, to di- 
ftinguilh our Selves from the Idolatrous P~ipi/is; who 
fuperfticioufly Adore the Crofs, foolifhly figDing them- 
felves wirh it upon every Occafion, thinking chemfelves 
no good CathoHcks without fo doing, and. putdng no 
little Hope and Confidence in it to Free and Prorecft 
them from all Evil, and to furni(h and invert them with ^ 
all Good. Now that they might Witnefs their Diflike Baxter*; 
and Deteftation of the Vanity of the Pnpiflj herein, ^°"/''^[°l'^j 
they could not unfeignedly Aflfent and Confent to the^^^ J^^^^ 
retaining of this Sign. ^^^ p^ _2 

But their Offence at it was much the more heighten'd, -jI hU 
in that the \J{c or Negle6l: of it was not icft to the Mi- Flea far 
niftcrs Difcretion, but wherefoever it was refus'd, Bap- ^eacey 
tifm was to be deny 'do For the Subfcription that was page 1 16, 
requir'd, exprefly obliged to uje no other Form (therefore ^'^ Defence 
to be fure not in the Office of Baptifm) than that in "/ '''^ ^^^^ 
the Book. And the Form of Baptifm there inferted,-^''*' ■P''»f^> 
could not be us'd by one who omitted the Crofs. They CS^ '9* 
could not herein agree, becaufe they found, that fuch a ^ '^ m'* 
Promife and Covenant as was reqair'd, always to ufe-^^^.'^^g '^ 
that Sign in Baptifm, was a confenting to the altering Perfon of 
the Terms of Chrifts Covenant, and Sacrament, and a^alhy 
to contradidt one of his Fundamental Laws. Baptize, y;;e«>/»^ 
faith Chrift, all that are made Difciples j all that Re- fome Rea- 
pent and Believe. No, faith the Convocation, Baptize/o«i for hit 
none that are proposed, tho' they have all that is necef- Nowonfor- 
fary to make them Difciples of Chrift, unlefsthey will "''O'* ^o^" 
take the Tranfient Image of a Crofs, for their farther ^^*f ^^" 
Obligation. Here was amanifeft Encroachment upon '"'"'*^» 
the Kingly Power of our Saviour, in making new ff ^^ '^"^^ 
Terms of Communion, which they durft not concur in : iq^^^I . 
A turning the Keys upon thofe whom they knew Chrift io<ryfortli€ 
was ready to receive : And a pofitive reje(5ting fuch as Noncon- 
he required them to* Baptize. And this (as Light aso- foamifts, 
thers made of it) was in their Efteem a Sm of an high^^^e 55. 
Nature, and fo would their Confenting to it alfo *. Alfop'i 

Mifchicf of 
Impojitions, page 26. Baxter'^ Second True Defence of the Meer Noncon- 
formifts, Chap. lo. p. 153. E/euthem ('». e. Hickmanni) Apologia pro E» 
ii^it in Anglia Mimftrif, page 102. 

5; They 

2 20 The LIFE of Chap.X. 

5. This AfTent, Confent and Subscription, would 
oblige them to rejedl all fuch from Communion, as 
would not receive it Kneeling. 
*7f reas a That it would have herein obligM them is plain, in 
Rule in the that the Canon forbids Minifters upon Pain of Sufpenfi- 
Cnrnmon on to give the Sacramenr to any that do not Kneel, 
FrayerBook which Canon explains the meaning of the Kubrick in 
fet forth lit f}jg Liturgy, and intimates that, Give it to them Kneel- 
A/n^ bi- Ij^^^ J5 equi> alent to, pve it only tn fuch. It was indeed 
T'^ ' k Aflerred by the Difpucants on the Church-fide at the Sa^ 
jr^l. - " '^9'f that the Liturgy only requird it (hould be given i^neel' 
tHahin<r- ^'"^ ^^^ ^''^ not forbid the giving it to others: But it was 
Kneclhvr generally Contradidled by the other CommifTioners, and 
nni other particularly thole who were upon the Secret. And in- 
GeftvA'ei^ ^^^(^ this would be to fet the Liturgy, and the Canons 
they may at Variance j whereas they are really all of a Piece ^, 

be us^d 

or /ef't^ tit every Mans Devotion fervcth. But no fuch Liberty could he a.1- 
hrffi by the New Common grayer Book. Mr Ollyffe in his Def ofMin.Conf. 
p. 54j here very ^ankly leaves the Impfers to (hi ft for themfehes: But de- 
fend} the To/iure of Kneeling. He fays, that the Toflure mdby our Saviour 
M- ^'^Hefally alter d-^ and demands T roof of hii ufing a Table Poflure : And 
intimites that he and hit Brethren never entred into the Secret ofthofe, who were 
for heefing away fuch as did not Kneel -^ and that the Canon about thU Mat' 
t'cr h nothin'^ to the Veclavati'm and Subfcrifxtion. My Reply, in Def, of Mod. 
Nonconf. Tart 2. p. 200. is this: Tltat if I fuhmitted to Impofitions out of 
rera'id [to the Authority of Impofers, I fl)ould think myftlf obligd to regard 
their Senfe of thofc Impcftions. I give htm Reafons why "'tis probable that 
our Lord might ufe a Table Bofure at the Luchariftical Supper ; And add, 
that ftncc he and his Brethren are not in the Secre s of High Church, 'tis pity 
they Jh^uld fupport them in their Methods, and be their DruJ<^es to defend their 
Ca'uf, and that upon Principles they rs>:ll not own. And if it be the Senfe 
of the Church that rctjuircs Kneeling, that all /hould Kneel -^ and this Kneeling as 
re<]urrd by the Church be one of the Cereinnnies Ajfented andConfcntedto,thenmitfi 
the Declaration ajid Subfcription made in compliance with the Afh for Uniformity, 
he an Agreement to exclude fuch as refufe Kneelm'^, whxhthe EjeCled Mini/lers 
durfi not concur in. He that would fee more of this Matter, may ccnfult 
Mr. 0!!yffe'5 2^.Dcf. o/Min. Conf Andmy Def of Mod. Nonc.Part r^.p. 329. 
* 7 fhallonly add, that Kneeling at the Communion wasordered by Pope Honorius, 
An: 1 1 r 4 Here the Sacrament was made an Idol, fays Bp. Jewel in hisfirfi Book 
againff hirdirg. SeeDnrctal L ^ Tit. 1 . Cap gc.Reg. p. 67, Andthti Ithink 
well defrvcs more Confideration in the cafe <f any that fcruple Kneeling, than 
Mr. Hoadly feems to atlotv for-., who co.npares a Mam fcrupling Kneeling at 
the Sacrament, for fear offymboHz.'nr with the Romanifts in their idolatry^ith 
his fcrupling to receive the S.acrament at one particular Time rather thcin ano' 
Hfer, which is a Thing that never was pretended, nor pleaded^ nor (.anit with, 
tic lean p)adow of Rcafon. See his R,.ifon of Conf, p.'Ji. 73 . Thus 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 221 _ 

Thus to exclude all that Ihould refufe Kneeling at 
the Communion, was what they could not Confenc to: 
Becaufc it was a making New Terms of Church Com- 
munion; a contradifting Chrifts appointed Terms, 
which require all Chriftians to receive each other in 
Lovt and Concord, and not to doub f 1 Difputations*: ^ Seethe 
A -depriving Chrift's Members of their Right; anUfur- -^^^^ument 
pation upon Mens Confciences; and a tearing the "^^" '^'■'" 
Charch by dividing Engines. Even thofe of them who f"^^^'^ ^' 
could not charge Kneeling as finful, and who could 7^'J^°' 
themfelves have comply'd wth i% were yet afraid of ]^- J"^ 
excluding others upon fuch an Account as that, by Rea- ratiye"^^^^' 
fon it was far from being a necelTary Matter. And 1^5. ' ' 
withal, Perfons might have very good Rea (on to be 
backward to yield to the altering of that Pofture that 
^as us'd by our Saviour in the Adminiftratioii; and to 
be (hy of feeming to fymbolize with Idolaters, in ifing 
that Pofture which is well known to be usd by the Pa- 
pilts with an Intention of Adoration,as to the fclcinentsj 
which tho' difclaim'd by the Church of England, is yet 
apt to be mifin'erpreted. Suppofe a Man (hould upon 
fearching Church-Hiftory, find that the Pofture of Ki eel- 
ing at the Communion was never requir'd in the Church, 
till the Dodtnne of Tmnfubflantiation was efta'^lifh'd 5 
this alone (tho* he (honld have nothing fa- ther to alledge) 
might be a valif^ Reafon for his being Ihy of that Po- 
fture But for Minifters to enter into an fuch Combi- 
nation, as to be oblig'd to tell fuch a Man when offer- 
ing himfelf to Communion ; truly Sir, while you are 
under this Scruple, tho' I may Pity you for your Weak- 
nefs, yet I can't own you for a Chriftian, this they tho't 
hard: And the more fo, in that equal Care was not ta- 
ken to keep off from the Communon, Piirfojis evidently 
unqualifi'd, and unworthy, either thro* Ignorance, or 
Immorality; unlefsbyfuch a Method as was hkely to 
do more H- rt than Good. 

This of being bound to rejed from the Communion 
fuch as durft not receive it Kneeling, was the only Point 
canvals'd in the Savq) Conference, The Minifters aflert- 
ed this to be finful : And they not only aflerted it, but 
advanced in Proof of it fuch Reafons as thcfe. Becaufc 
it would be an obliging them to deny People the Com- 
munion, on the Account of their not daring to go againft 
the Pradice of the Apoftles, and the Univerfal Church 


2Z2 The LI FE of Chap. X, 

for many Hundred Years after them; and the Canons 

of the moft venerable Councils. Bccaufe it would be 

an obliging th« m to deny the Communion, to fuch 

as the Holy Ghoft had requir'd them to receive to it. 

Becaule it was an impofing on the Church, Things an - 

tecedentJy unnecelTary, upon the higheft Penalty 5 vi-:^, 

excluding from Communion. Becaule it was a crofling 

ibat great Rule of Charity, .1 will have MerQy, and not 

Sacrifice. And ,a ufing that Power . to Deliruilion, 

t Baxter's ^^^^^ w^s given to be us'd to Edification |. [He thac 

Jionconfor- defires to fee thefe Reafons pirluM and drawn out, may 

mitj Stated Coniyili Mr. Baxters Life in Fclio^ Page 346, 347. and 

4tnd Ar- 360, 361.] 

77. His Tied for Teace^ pag. 182. Qorht\.\ 'Remains^ pag. 149. Trough- 
ton's Apology for the Nonconformifis, pag. ^7. Rleutheril [J. e. Hickmanni) 
Apologia pro ejeHis in Anglia. Minljirii^ pag. <^i^&c. 

6. This AfTent, Confent, and Subfcription, would 

* Mr. ^^ an Allowance and Approbation of that Aflertion^ 

Ollyffe, /«that Bijhops, Pn'esls, and Dcicons, are Three Diftin£l: 

his Def. of Orders in the Church by Divine Appointment *. For 

Min. Conf. 

t^ 5^7 5P) ^^' °'^'*^ '^'^f '^^^ ^iTfWfj Confent^ and Subfcription does allots 
this^ a^ to the Three ViftinCl Orders ^ But fays^ that the Objection againU it 
drvindles into a jirife about Wr^rds: Tor that BilTiop and Presbyter may be the 
fame Order in one reJ^eU^ ar.d difcreni Orders in another refpeCh, Mr, 
HoaJly in his Reafon 0/ Conf. p. 105. 3ec. fcems to thii^h^ That the AlTenr, 
Confent, and Subfcription, does not oblige to a'Z^vee to this-, or if It doesy he 
fays, the Objefiions againfl it are Ijard and unrcafonable. Tor that this Af 
fertion implies no more than that it is a plain Truth.^ that inhere haye been tiTC 
Three Orders in the Churchy from tl)e Time of the Apoftles, which has been 
generally acknowledged, and that by Mr. Baxter among others. My Replji 
Def o/Mod. None. Pan 2. p. 209. 6tc. is this, that »/ BiQiops and Pref- 
byrers A£l by the fame CommJJion in the federal Farts of Mini/iration and 
Jurifdi^ion, (of which I think there is good Evidence, and fuch as I neyer 
yet could fee difpror d) then they cannot be diftin^l Orders, by Divine Ap- 
fo niment, or from the Days of the Apoftles, which with me is all one. And 
if P; caching Deacons, (whrch are the Deacons of the Church ©/"England) 
were unknown in the Apofiles Vays^ (which admits of eafe Proof ) neither 
then can there be Three Vifiinll Orders from their Time And take it at 
be ft, lis hard, where the Thing depending is a Matter of Fa^l, to put d 
Man upon declarini^ or acknowledging thai that is Evident to all diligent 
KcaderSj which has been contefied by as diligent And impartial finrehen into 

Cha^. X. Mr. Kichird Baxter. 22:^ 

in t^e Book of Ordination, which was as much to be Antiquity ^ 
Affenred and ConlVnted to, as the Common Prayer'*^ '^"y ^''« 
Book itfelf , it is aflcrtcd, That h k evident to all Men P^^Ji^etonc 
4tl:gentl) B^adiuo the Holy Scriptures and ancient Author s,^!'^^ 
that fern the Apoftles Time, there have been thcfe OK- ^'''^''f' 
DERS, in Chrijfs Church, Bi/hopj, PrieJts.rMd Deacom^'^^ rf"^^ 
ai hjveral OFFICES. And indeed the whole Book of Baxto- t/70' 
Ordination is botioip'd upon that Suppolicion as its /^ ovrm £- 
Foundation, p'fcopacy to 

be jlncient^ 
yet I C4nwt find that he. ever, achnowledg'd .'Three DiftinCl Orders from the 
AfafiU'> Time But let it once be fairly frorp'dY that liifhops, Priefls, and 
Deacons, had from the Time of the Apofiies, thofe dr/l'tnB Pothers whith ate 
mw a^gn''d them by the dmrch of "Enghnd^ <ind if any aftertvardi Cavil 
about the Term that fhould beglxenthem^andvifhethertheyfhall be caWdT/^ree 
Orders, Offices or Degreed, they would be needlejlf Litigiow, See more of this 
Matter, in Mr OllyfFe's Second Dti. of Min. Conf. - p. 195. Mr. Hoadly's 
Dcf.ofthe Reafon of Conf. p. 66-, and my Def. o/Mod. None. P. 5. /». 532, 
& 795. 1 fljall only add a Parage out of Caffander, whofe Judgment and 
Sentimenti may in this Cafe deferve fame regard : 'Tis this'^ An Epifcopatua 
inter Ordinei ponendus fie, inter Theologos & CanpnlftaSi non convenit: 
Convenic autem liter omnes, olim Apodolicorura aetate, inter Epifcopoa 
& Presbyteros difcrimen nullum fuifle. Corolla c ;fu tern Sacros Ordines mo- 
pviedici diaconacum 5c Presbyteratuii, Sz; quosfolos Piimicivam Ecdeliain 
in ufu habuifle legatur. Georgii Cajfandri Confultatio^ Artie, i^. 

Now many of the Ejected Minifters were Confcious 
to themfelvesi that^ they had diligently read the Hojy 
Scriptures, and confulted Ancient .Au'^hbrs, and yet 
could not fee Evidence of Three ORDERS and 
OFFICES: And therefore to have .yiel4ed to that 
Declaration and Subfcription which would have im- 
ply'd the contrary, had been grofs Prevarication. They alfo 
tho't they had good Reafon to believe, that Calvin^ ^^K^y 
and many more of the firft Reformers j and thatfuch Men 
as Blonde! y SalmafiUi,I{obert Parker, Gerfom Bucer^ Calder" 
wood, Cartvoright, John B^ynolds, Ames,Ainfworth, and many 
more fiich eminent ProteHants^ who had quite different 
Apprehenlions of this Matter, had diligently read both the 
Scriptures and the Ancients, as well as their Neighbours. 
Neither could they fee any Reafon to be confident, that 
fuch Men oi Selden, StiQingfleet (at that time when he wrote 
his Irenicum) Bifhop Edward Reynolds, and many others, 
who iho'E the Scripture inftUuted no Particular Forms 


2 24 T^l^e LIFE of Chap. 5^* 

of Governmenr, had been altogether unconverfant ei* 
ther with Scriptures or Fathers. Nor did they think it 
neceflary to run down fuch a Man as Arch-BiOiop Vflyer 
as a Novice in either, tho' he often profefs'd it his 
Senfe, that Bifhops, are not a different Order^ but a dif* 
fcrent D^^ree in the fame Order. 

Nay, they found that even the Church of England 
was formerly of another Mind, as may be feen in the 
^< t Canons of uElfrick to Biihop I4^ulfinc*y which conclude 
nnnni ^^^^ there were but Seven Ecclefiaftical Orders, and 
CoKcU. Fol. fh^t the Bifoop and Presbyters 4re not Two, but One. 
I. nag. And Bifhop StiSingfleet pfov'd ds they tho't by fufficient 
575, 57^- Evidence, that Arch-Bifliop C^/v^w^r, and other Refor- 
Septem mers of the Church of England were of that Mind • 
Gradusy and held that there was no Difference in Ordo between 
confiltutl a Bijhop and Presbyter^ bat only in Degree. Wicfi 
funt^ in Ec- ^^^^ Confciencc then could they have yielded to fuch 
c/e/tci. ^ Subfcription and Declaration, as would reprefent 

'u'a'***' ^^ *^ ^^^^^ Senfe, that Bifhops, Priefis, and Deacons^ 
Ho laiius, ^^^^ Three Diftindt Orders all along in the 
leftor- Church, while they tho't they had good Reafon to 
Ten/^tfEx' apprehend the contrary, and good Company in that Ap- 
orcifta^ prehenfion. 

Acolychus; Quintus Subdiaconcus 5 SextU4 Diaconus; Septimut Pres- 
byter. Haud pluris Intereji inter Mijfalem Presbyterum 6r Epilcopum, 
quam quod Epifcopus conftituttn ft ad Ordinationes conferendas, ^ dayifi' 
tandum feu Hnfpiciendum curandumque ea qu£ ad Veum pertinent, quod m- 
mi<t crederetur Multitudini, ft omnis Presbyter hoc idem facerct. Arhbo fiqui- 
dcm UNU M tenent E UTJD E M J^E ORDINBM, quamris dtgnior fit 
iHupars Ep'ifcopi. Non eft alini ORDO conjiitutm in Ecclefiafticis Mini* 

fieri i<, &c. 

Baxter'5 Flea for Peace, page 194. 

Befidcs thefe, there were other Things, which tho* 
by foine poiribly lefs regarded than the former, were 
yet fuch as ihey could not Aflent and Confent to, 
without having Reafon and Confcience fly in theis 

I. They could not Confent to Pronounce all Sav'd, 
that are Bury'd except the Unbaptiz'd, Excommunicate^ 


Chap. X. Mr. Evjchard Baxter. 215 

and Self-Murtherers *. The Words in that Office for ^Dy. 
the Burial of the Oead are thefe ; For as much aiit /j^z/j Still ingfleec 
pleased Almighty God of >'K great Mercy^ to t4^ unto him- ''^ ''** ■?»'<?- 
y?//, the Sou! of our dear Brother here departed : and afcer-^'*^^ ^° ^''« 
wards ; IVe give thee hea) ty Thanks for that it hath pleas'd ^^^'^^^on- 
thee to deliver this our Brother out of the Miferies cf thts ^^^^^^^^ °f 
finfulJ4^orld. And again; That xve mny reft in H.m, aif^^^^'^^^' 
our Hope », thfs ow B other doth. This they could by no^/^ . yowm 
Means approve of. For rho' they own'd themfclves Expre/Bns 
bound to judge according to the utmoft Bounds ofinthisop. 
Charity concerning all. yea, even thffe with whem they ficc for the 
tvould not change Souls, not ^e in their Condition after Burial of 
Death for Ten Thoufand WorJds, yet pofitively and ^'^^ Dead, 
peremptorily without all Limitation or Difcrimination,/'^/'Cy^ tf>e 
to fay and avouch conierning every one whom they -^.^'<^f •^''■'»*- 
Bury'd, That God in gre^.t Me>cy has tal{en his Soul ; viz/i-^y^ ^'f' 
by Death out of the Body ; And t^ken it to hiwfelf; this ^/^J"f' ''"^ 
was beyond their Faith, and they found nothing Jike^^^/"^*" 
it in the Gofpel, which fpeaks altogether in another ^n/^gL ** - 
Language to and of in^penitent Sinners. It is p^^i^Mr.OUvff-' 
Contradi(5tion, that Thoufan-is are cut off by Death //, /./^ x)^^; 
in the midft of their Sins, of Drunkennefs, Whoring, of Min. 

Conf./7. 5g. 
&C. fays, that the fllenvd Mlytifien vfere not put to that which they tpere fo 
afraid of nor rvM he neither. He f leads that this Office may be fafely us'd 
at the Gratis offome ^ Out fays that confenting to ufe the Book^ does not 
oblige to ufe thit Office at the Graves of all. J^-nd tho' there w a Canon that 
threatens Sufpenjton to Mlnifiers who refufe to Bury any but the Excommuni- 
cate, yet he intimates, that ti?here a Minifter fcrufles ufing ihisOjjice, he need 
but take his Herfe and ride out of Town, and can be in no great danger up- 
on that Account : Or elfe he may leave out what is liable to be mifcoftftrued, 
die. Mr. Hoadly, Reaibn of Conf. p f 12, 6sc. fays, he wont trouble hi m- 
fc If or its with fearchin^ out fome pofjthle found- Senfc, in which fome of the 
Pajfages in this Burial Office that are excepted againfi mi^iht be under fi ood : 
He frankly owns that in fuch Cafes a6 thofe that are mention d, of Men cut off' 
in the midjl of Notoriotu Sins, as Drunkennefs, Adultery, Murder^ &c. this 
Office is wholly improper. Only />e pleads for God's taking to himfelf, the Sou/ 
of a departed Brother, in the Common Way: And ii fill for hoping beyond 
what «thers can fee ^eafon for: But afier all, does not think that a Mini- 
fier is obliged to ufe thefe Exprejjions excepted again/}, in fuch Cafes a.s thjfe 
mentioned'., or is likely to fuffer the leafi inconyenicnce for omitting them. 
Uind he afferts, that the omitting of thefe Sentences in fuch Cafes, is not con.' 
trary to the defign of the Church in prefcribing this Form, but more agree- 
abli to iti than the vfn^ them, 

Q Swear* 

X26 The L I FE of Chap. X. 

Mheti I Swearing, ^c, without any lign of Repentance from 
afterguards Firft to Laft, fo Living, and fo.' Dying : Now, how 
mentioned a can it be faid, T/M^ God took^ away fuch Perfons out of this 
remarkable lyorld by Deatb^ in Mercy^ in great Mercy? In as much 
FaHr, rvhich as at the fame Inftant, they were taken away from all 
n**Tn' Po^^bility of Future Repentance and Amendment of 
Ton & hi ^^^*^' '^^^^ ^^^'^ ^" ^^^^ Cafes it might rather be 
cfffmw^i ^ ^^3.1'd, That God took, them awny in Wrath ; provok'd by 
a Sermon ^^*^ ^°"g Abufe of his Patience, and rheir own Impeni- 
that the ' tency. Yet neverthelefs the Prieft mutt not only fay, 
Diffentcn tliat God took away ail fuch Perfons, in Mercy ^ in gretit 
hadfome Mercy ^ but aJfo pofitively affirm, that Good took^ them to 
pUufible himfelfy \. e. into Heaven. Whereasthe Scripture faith 
objections exprelly, that neither Adulterers, nor Fornicators, nor 
a^ainji the Drunkards fhall ever go to Heaven : Yet hereby muft 
Common j-jj^y j^j^^g oblig'd themfelves, in perfedt Oppofition, 
^^VJ\ when they Bury'd any known Adulterer, Fornicator, or 
San*^ 1 f ^^ Drunkard ; to declare and avouch that his Soul was ajfw 
fertdlno; for ''^^^^ <?^"^ thither. They could not fee how Charity 
hint to Ee- would excufe dangerous Eriors and Falftiood. By this 
primand Means they faw they (hould be necelTitated to Pronounce 
him, he many Savd at the Grave, whom in their Pulpits and 

fiood to 

Tvhat he had ajferted ; The Archbip)op ask'd him which Farts of the Common 
Prayer he meant 5 And he mention d this Burial 0_ffice •, upon which that Ardr- 
bi/hof> nwnd to }}im, that he was fo little fat is fed with that Office himfelf^ 
that for that yery Reafon he had never taken a Cure of Souls •, Mr. OllyfFQ 
pajfes it by 'as a Private Story ^ and Mr. Hoadly fays, that he finds the Truth 
of it much queft ion d-^ and therefore to give them SatisfaCiion, I Jj^all now 
tell them that I have it under the Hand of Mr. Stancliffe, who wrote that 
Pajfage (among many other Things of bis own Knowledge) in the Ikargin of 
p. 5 J 9. of my Abrid-i^ement, and afterwards was fo kind as to fend me his 
Book for my own Ufe. And I fuppofe none that knew him, and knew his 
Vrisedom with Dr. Tillotfon, wiE demur upon crediting the Relation. He 
that would fee more upon this Objection, may Confult, my Def. of Mod. 
None. Part. 2. p. 219. &c. Mr. Ollyife'i Second Dcf. o/Min. Conf. p. 203. 
Mr. Hoadly'i Def. of the Reafon of Conf. p. 80. And my Def, of Mod. 
None. Part 3 p. ^2^, & p. 40^- 

/ fhall only add., that the Bijhops and Divines raho met at the Bifljop of 
Lincola's in Weftminfter, in 1^41, about Alterations^ were for changing 
the Phrafe in this Office^ in fure and certain Hope of, the Refuneition to 
Erernil Life, and putting it thus 5 knowing alTurtdiy that ihc Dead IJiaU 
rife ng^in. 


Ghap. X. Mr, Flichard Baxter. 227 

Writings they tho't theinfelves oblig'd to Condemn. 
They (hould hereby be in danger of fpeaking falfly for 
God . mifreprefenting his Word, and hardningthe ungod- 
ly and prophane in their Hope of coming off Safe at 
Laft, altho' they perSfted in their diffblute and licenti- 
ous Courfe. Now they durft not Dannn a known A- 
dulterer, Fornicatour, and Drunkard, while he was 
Living, and yet fave him when he was Dead. Nor 
yet again could they commit his Body to the Ground^ in * 
fure nnd certain Hope of the I^efurreB ion unto Rternnl Life,. 
Which Words muft neceflariJy be fpoken with Refe- 
rence to the Ferfon then Interred, inafmuch as they are 
the Continuation of the foregoing Declaration : vi^^, 
Gods taking his Soul to him/elf, Befides it follows f which 
puts it out of Doubt) in the laft Colled or Prayer, Thaf 
when we Poall de-part this Life, voe may rcjl in him^ O'^'l* 
Chrift^ lii our Hope is this our Brother doth. Now chey 
tho't it were eafie to fore- fee fundry Cafes, in which 
they would be fo far from having any Jure nnd certain 
Hope of a Happy I^efwreHion, unto Eternal Life and SaU 
vation^ that there would rather be a ftirc and certain 
fear of a doleful I^JurreHion unto Eternal Death and 
Damnation, And withal, it feem'd to them to be 
but a wild and fanciful fort of Charity in thefe Men, 
that they fliould have fuch hopes as to perfons Dy- 
ing under fuch grofs Sins, as Murder or Adultery, Re- 
bellion or Blafphemy without Repentance, while yet 
many of their Confciences were too tender to allow *ji tetter 
the Office to Differ: ters^ becaufe they were hopelefs^ow a Mi* 
Schifm^ticks *. ni/ier to a 

Ferfon of 
Quality -i P}ewing fame Feafons for his Nonconformity. Baxter'^ iVo«fo«/or- 
mity Stated and Argu'd^ page 85. His Flea for Feace^ page 187. Cor- 
hst's Remains, page 161. 

2. They could not Confent to a falfe Rule for find- 
ing out Eafier Dayf. In the Common Prayer Book f Mr, 

Ollyffe in 
his Def. o/Min. Conf. p. 7c, 71. asks why they mayr.'t confent toufe a ^ood 
Rule that generally hnlds good^ becaufe in a Reyolut'.on of [cores of Tears 
it has been found to hare forne Exceptions? Mr. Ho^dly'f Realbn of Conf. 
p. I 2f. jQryj, that fuppofmg this Rule falfc, a Man might with a fafe Con- 
fcience^ both dec/are his j^jjent and Omfeni^ and SuLfcrihs: And add<^ that 
tlte fuppofed faljity of this Ru/e^ is wholly founded upon a miflake of out 

Q^ z there 

- 228 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

own. Tht- there is a Rule for finding out the moveable Feafts and 
B 14 J e neither Holidays. Eafter Day (on which the reft depend) is 
contraciich tii^nys the flrft Sunday after the firfi Full Moon, vehtch hap- 
the Table m ^.„j ^^^^ ^.yr^^y. ^/,^ Q„p ^nd Twentieth Day of March : And 
the Common -j: ^y^ p^j^ ^^^ happens vfon A Sunday, Eafter Day is 
llr]h^Com^^^'' Sunday after. The frequent falfity of this Rule, 

7»on Al- 

tnanacli xohuh agree with the Table. Only we (he fays) judge of the 
Mcon h the Common Almanacks^ which are there fet down according 
to the Keformation of the Kalendar^ and the Rule jpeals of the Moons m 
they are to be found in our own Kalendar, according to the Account in Ufe 
before that Keformaticn. Hereupon^ /, in my Def. of Mod. None. Conf. 
Tart 2. p. 241, added fame T articular 'Remarks of a Hori})y Friend, who is 
rtchon'd to hare a good Matljcmatical Head, by all that knorv him, to P)ew 
tijat our Brethren had no fuch great Caufe of Triumfh upon this Head. But 
Mr. Hoadly it fcems will hare nothing to do with him, till he learns more 
Manners (not to fay 'Religion) than to ridicule and infult the Common Trayer 
Book, and more Wit than to meddle \with what he under/lands nothit^ 

«/. * v 

Mr. '\r\o2d\y himfelf (nay eyen as Great a Man as Dr. Wailis,) has jtnce 

heen chargd with not rightly understanding this Matter, by one that prof effes 

with great Pains to hare fully clear d it. I defrd my Friend once more to 

coniidir the Matter, with the help of this new Light., and give me hisTho'ts, 

itphlch he hath accordingly done 5 and with his leayt I here offer them to the 

hot Id, 

'' Tliat-v'e may ilohtly judge whetlier the Rale in the Common Prayer 

" Book, ro find out Eafter for ever, is lit to be Ajfented and Confented to, 

** a.s what ^viII hold always (or indeed, at all) True, we muft firft know 

" what is tcv be underftood by EASTER-VAT. If a Tearly Memorial 

" of our Lord's Refurreftioh, which he would have the Chriftian Church 

" oblerve in all Ages and Places, we can't but veliemently fufpeft (if not 

'* firmly belitve) theie is no fuch Thing te be found by any Rule what- 

*' ever, ef^Tecially wlulft we have a li'eelcly Memorial of it by Scrip- 

** tural Au':hority, as we are well perfwaded. We do indeed find 

" the Word £4y?er, Afts 12. 4, put into the Text by our Tranflators, 

" who were too plainly willing to favour the Thing', but eveu tliey have 

" own'd in the Mirgin, that according to the Greek (yrdi;^, Pafcha) it 

" fiiould have been, the Tajfoyer, and means no doubt, the plain down- 

" rigl'.t Jewifl) PafTovcr, which Herod would have elos'd and crown d with' 

" the Martyrdom of Teter. We think 'tis but little in Favour of Eafter- 

" day and the other Moveable Fcafts depending on it, or the fixt Ones 

" which attend tlieni, that St. "Paul hatii faid to the Galatians, (Ch. 4. 9, 

" io,ii.) H9W turn ye again to the weak and beggarly Elements, where- 

* unto ye def re again to be in Bondage? Te obferve Vays^ and Mornhf^^and 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 229 

may be feen by confulting the Common Almanacks ; " 7/>/p^, 
and by comparing it with the Table that follows after- " '^^drears. 
wards in the Common Prayer Book, to find out Ea^er "^ "^^^ ^- 
Day for ever. So that here was a Book to be AfTemed "Z*'^'^ °f 

^ '\ypu, leji 

" / haye 
" hep6'a>''d upon you Labour in Fain. Nor can we, yet pofTibly come up 
'^ to the AflTurance exprels'd in a Synodal Epiflle of the Firfl: Council 
"' of Nice ( Lit. Conflant. Ecclef. &' Epifc. qui Concilio non inter fue- 
" runt ; ) that whatever is decreed in the Sacred Councils, of die Bi- 
*' fhops is all to be taken for the Mind of God : We want a furer 
«' Word for it, than any we have yet met with ; fince, as Protefiant!:., 
." we look on all Men to be fallible; andjwith the Church oi En^hnd hold, 
6* that even Councils may Err, and havede err. We yet can't lee that the 
f* Canons afcrib'd to the Apoftles are truly Canonical, or indeed Ge- 
<^' nuine •, fo that ('according to the Seventh or Eighrh of them) if any 
*« Bifhop, or Presbyter, or Deacon keep tlie Sacred Pafchal Day (^Sacr. 
«« Pafcba Diem) before the Vernal Equinox, with the j^eivs, ht is to be 
«« depos'd. It does not appear tliat the N^cene Council had any fach Ca- 
«« non lying before them. 

" If it befaid (as it feemsto be agreed by all who defend the Rule 
'' for finding out Eafter) diat Lajler-Dciy is, that which the Council of 
" Nice has directed; it might perhaps bear a Qj.ieftion, wiietherthe more 
" Ancient and Original Pafcha of tlie Chriftbns were not a well defign- 
•-• ed compliance with the Jcws^ who were ^o generally zealous of the Law 5 
« that is as far as Chriftianity could admit; it may be as to tlie ufe of 
<•' Unleavened Bread, or the like. 

" Evn the Apoftle Paul fays to tlie Difciples at Ephefut, (Atts j8. 21.) 
*" I mufi by all means keep this Veajl that cometh in Jerufaiem. It may be 
" other Chriftians who could reach it might do the like; and diat at leaft 
^^ the Chriftian Jews^ who were fcatter'd up and down amongft the Gen- 
" tilei would p'ay fome regard to the Time of the PafTaver, And it may 
'' be quefiion'd, whedier, if there were to be a Chriftian Pajcl)a (fo ic 
" was ever call'dj by die fame Greek Name with the Jervijh Pa (lover) ic 
" fliould not have been ftill guided by the Time of the /en?///; Paflbver, 
" as founded upon God's own Appointment, Exod. 12. Tiiey who would 
^ keep a Yearly Memorial of our Saviour's Refurreiition, could not do it 
«' more properly, than lliortly after diat Solemnity, which would nam- 
<« rally bring to remembrance his Crucifixion, WHEN CHRIST OUR 
« PASSOVER was Sacrificed for us, (i Cor. 5. 7.) It might not in- 
" deed be fo agreeable to keep the very Day of thePaffover for thatPur- 
" pole, as the Quarto decimani, who had die Nanie from obferving die 
" Fourteenth Day of die Firft Month as dieir Eafter; nor that diey fliould 
*' be Feafting, when die greater Part of Chriftians were folcmnly Faft- 
y^ ing, as is intimated in the forement\on'd Epiftle: Yet they are not 
« there cenfur'd for counting the Firft Month after the Manner of die 
«' 7eKT5, as it might be alter'd and made later by their Embolifms, or the 

Q. 3 and 

2^0 The LIFE of Chap, X. 

"incerca- and Confenced to, that was inconfiftcnt with itfelf. 

«'htingof How could they Ajfent and Confent to all, and every 

*' ^ Thir- Xcing contain d m this Book, when they found in it a- 

^^^f^^'] moiia other .Thines a Table and a Rule that clafti'd, 
"Mondi o .=» J 


" tliey call'd Vc-Adar, <j. d. another Adar) chiefly ro bring up their Lu- 
*' nar Ycir ro the Vernal vtquinox, of which it muft tall Oiorc about E- 
*' leven Days in the Srft Twelve Moons, and about Twenty-two in the 
" next, and therefore they added a Thirteenth Month co»the Tliird Year, 
** and after as occafion requir'd. 

" The Synodal Epiillc" does indeed infinuate (but darkly) as if the 
" Council rPckond it fcand i'ous, that the Jews had any Occifion to boaft, 
" that the Chrifllans co id not keep tJieir Moveable Fc-ail? without the 
*' help of the jefpijh DoOrine or Directions. It may be for fonie luch 
" Reafon, and for an eallcr way of reckoning the Nicene G>uncll might 
•' be for a Firft Month of their own, widiouc being ty d to that of the 
*' /(?wj; yec ftill were for guiding their Pafcha, or Eafter, by the Four- 
*« ttenth Day of the Firft Month, but not without-attending to the Vernal 
*' JEquir.oK. 

" It does not indeed appear that the Council did by their Canons or any 
*' way direft any Thing farther about Ea/ier-day, than that they 
" judg'd it right the whole Chriftian World fhould obferve one and the 
« fame Day : And reckond it very abfuvd that the Jewilh Cuftom fliould 
*' be followed in keeping that Feaft. They appear to have left the 
t' Fixing or Finding of it, to the Mcafures and Rules then ufed by tlie 
•' Roman Church, without intimating what they were. But it feems to 
** have been prefumed rather than proved, that the Council, or however 
•' the R(>man Ufage, fix'd Eaftet'day to be the next Sunday after the firfr 
♦* Tull Monn^ vphich happens on^ or next after the Kr«4/ yEquin,x ; but^ if 
•' that Tull Moon fall upon a Sunday^ then the Sunday next following to be 
•' Fafier-day. 

'* Now inftead of faying rhe Firft Full Moon that happens on, or next 
** after the Fcrnal Equinox, theR»)le in the Common Prater Book ro find 
«< Eafter for ever, fays, the firft Tull Moon that happens next after tite One 
*' and ttventicth Day of March. 'Tis -true that at the Time of the Flift 
** Council of Nice, it was all one to fay, the Vernal yE^ivtJOx, or the One 
*' and tv?entieth of March, on whidi it then fell. But if they either fiid, 
•' or intended the Vernal Equinox for all Time coming, our Ru.'e can- 
't not always fhow the Eifter-dsy by them deffgn'd : When as the Vernal 
" i^uinoxfalls now about the Ninth or Tenth of March : Nor can it be 
*' rc-afonably thouglit, hiitthat the Council of iV/Vf, defign'd tha"- Eaper-day 
V- fhonld attend the real Vernal yCquinox •, oiherwife tiiere fhould have 
** been no mention of that, but only of the One and twentieth of Marthy 
f' whir'? ' '^ ' r time only happen 'd to be the Vernal v^quinox, and would not 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 151 

one determining this to be Eafter Day, and another a- " t>e Co in 
nother Day. If the Rule be true, the Table is falfe. " Time to 
If the Table be true, the Rule is falfe. And they tho't "corae. If 
it a grievous Cafe, that they muft be turn d out of their " ^^^^^^^^^^ 

«' that the Rule in our Common Prayer Book were fa/rlycap^bleof thebenfe 
" lately put upon it, as if it had been faid, theF«// Moon {on^ or) next after the 
** One and ttffenthth of March, yet it would not (how the true Eafter^day, 
" or that whi'th the Church of England has profefs'd to take for true ; 
" fince the Council of Mce is what it has pretended to follow. 

*' But as to the Senfe, which has been fo lately put upon the Rule, 
'■' it appears altogether forc'd and taken up only to fcrve a Turn. For 
" let it be cbferv'd, That the Word [After] is three Times ufed in the 
*' fame Rule. Eafier-day (on which the refi depend) is always the firfi 5m«- 
«< day after the frji VullMoon, here 'tis intended after that Full Moon, toge- 
*' therjwith the Day on which it falls is over and ended : And fo again in 
** the laft Part of the Rule. And if the TuU Moon happens n^on a 
" Sunday^ Eafier-day is the Sunday after ; that is, after the former Sunday 
'* with its following Week-days are dVer and ended. Bat now where 'tis 
*' faid in the fame Rule, the frfi Vull Moon that happens next after the One 
" and twentieth Day of March. They would have the Scnfe to be After 
■" the Beginning of the One and twentieth Day 0/ March : A Conflru£tion 
*« very differing from, and indeed contrary to the foregoing and t'ollow- 
** ing Ufags of the fame Word, and to the EngUfh Idiom, or rather to 
*' the proper Way of fpeakingin whatever Language : Nor does it appear 
** that there is an Inflance parallel to what they would here make. The 
*< learned Dr.Wallis who has given a large Account of the iaclufive way of 
" reckoning in other Languages, does yet exprefly obferve, that it is not 
" fo much in Englifh, 'Tis true, that in our Verfion of the Bible, 
.*' there are fome literal Tranfiations which could not fo wellbs juftify'd or 
" excus'd, if there were not fometimes a Doubt about the Senfe, and that 
*' it is fo well known to be a Tranfiation. But neither does it appear, 
" that the Rule under Confideration is tranflated, nor is there any Notice 
'* given that the firft [After] is to be underftood otherwife than as is ufual 
" in Englifh. And let us put the Cafe, that the Moon comes to be Full the 
" firft Moment of March theTv/enty-firft, can it fitly be faid to be Full after 
*' iheTwcnty-firft, when'tisnotFullafteranyPartofit, for ' tis known to l>e 
'* immediately, though not vifibly decreafing after its Oppofition to the 
*' Sun : Or if we will have it called ftill a Full Moon to the End of 
*' Twenty-four Hours, let us then fuppofe that the laft Moment of its 
" Twenty-four Hours, falls in with the firft Moment of March the 
" Twenty-firft, Ihall it then be faid, that a Full Moon happens u^on March 
'« the Twenty-firft, and alfo upon the Day foregoing ? What Confufion 
»• would that make? 

«* Upon 

2^2 The Lift, of Chap. X. 

Livings, becaufe they could not 

t Baxter', Tlnnconformity Sta- p^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ . ^j^Q^^h in many 

ted nnd^^^ud^yngtSi. Hjs Years, they were diredlv cont, a- 
T/ea for Peace V^g, l6o H. ^ j^^. ^^^ 

Defence of the T/ea for Teace, .^r ^c i t- n r 

page 8 1. The-PeaceablcVekn: 1^^^^/ ^as bm a Trifle, yet for 

Being a Modeft Account of the Perfons to be obhg d CO Confent 

Ik'onconfnrmifli Meeting , with to that as true, whichin many Ca- 

fome Rcafons for tbei/ Nonconfor- fes they knew to be falfe, was no 

?w;>jr, Oil. 1675. page 26, 27. fmall hardfhip f. 

3. They mnft Confent to read Apocryphal LefTons 
in the Publick Chnrches, which they could not A- 
grce to, becaufe of fuch fabulous Legends of Tohit and 
hisD^^; Bff/Zand the Dragon; Judith SLnd Baruch, Sec, 
Thcfe they found were not only to be read wholly 
an J intirely, Morning and Evening for Two Months to- 
gether, but all of them alio under the Title and Notir 

*' LTpon the Whole, If I could fee that the Rule might he fairly fo un- 
*' dcn'tood, as to reconcile it to the Table in the Common Prayer-Book 
" for Forty Years and to the Common Almanacks, 1 would congratulate 
'' tlie Succefs of fo many fcveraj ElTays, and fo much Pains beftow- 
" ed. Nor have I the Leifure or Inclinatioii to lay out half the Time 
" or Labour' to condemn the Rule as perhaps four or five learned 
*' Men have feverally done, one after another to clear it. But if it 
" would well bear the Senfe put upon it at laft, I cannot yet think it 
*' would agree with the Council ot AVfe, as it is not only pretended 
*' but flrongly pleaded. It might be added, that the Nineteen Years Cycle 
*' of the Moon, depended on for fixing oiEaJier^ is tnown by the Learned 
•' not to bi exaQ, but would fenfibly fail in lengtii of Time. What has 
" been here faid mayferve 1 hope at Icafi to excul'e Non-conformifts in fuf- 
*' pe(^ting the Rule for finding outEafler : and if either they have not fuiTi- 
** cienc Skill, or u{c not the rtquifite Application to take i: right; let it 
*' be confidcrcdi chat this Point was always far frombcin^, or being by 
" them accounc'.d their only or main Objeftion to Conformity. 

" Whether I may lela dilpicafe in being lefs pleaiant now than before 
*' with the Eccleliafiical Moon, 1 kr.ow not: But as that was confefltdly 
'* no Creature of God's, fo neither did 1 then apprehend it to have been 
" fuci'i an Ordinance, or Creature of Man as I might not make free with, 
** but I now heanily b(g Ptrdon for anvThing that might be, or feem in 
** me unbexommg in my former P.^per. 1 am afraid Whether any 
" Thing will be ;)dmiticd to clear the poor Diflenters, till Providence 
'• ] ieud iheir Caiut ^ as I c-^n't but think it will fometime do, to the Con- 
" Vid'tiwn of iJiiir unkind Brethren. 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 239 

on of Holy Scripture. For fo in the whole Lump toge- 
ther they are filled in the Order, without any Note of 
Difcrimination to make a Diftindlion between one and 
the other. In the mean while in the fame Order (as ap- 
pears by theKalendar) fome Books of the Sacred Canon 
arewhoUy left out, and never to be read ; fome of them 
within a very little; fome of them but half to be read; 
and many of them Mutilated and Ciirtaird as to feveral * Mr. 
Chapters'^". OUyfle in 

his DeF. of 
Min. Conf. p. JU SZc. won't grant that Miniflers are ordered to read the 
jipocrypba/ Lejfons^ hut vpHI haye it left to their Difcretion : And fays, that 
when the M^nifler ben^im or ends an Apocryphal Lejfon, he may tell the 
Teople that it is Apocryphal, and fo prevent all Ahufe. Mr. Hoadly in Rea- 
fon of Conf. p. l 2^, i 24^ cannot fee that it is unlarrful to read Books in the- 
Church, in which there are many ufeful and excellent Things, as well as 
fom^ few Relations fufpe5led to be fabulous -, and fays, that if it may be 
done without Sin^ 'twere much better to read a great many ufeful Tilings, and 
amongft them a Fabulous Story once or tyoice in a Tear, than to divide the 
Church under this pretence. And adds, that the Church has fujficiently diflin" 
guipyd between Apocryphal Books andCanonical Scripture : That fome Canonical 
chapters may be improper, and unintelligible, and many Apocryphal Leffons are 
of more Ufe, and more to Edification: And affirms, that we cannot prove any 
one was ever led by the Order about reading the Leffons, to equal the Apocry- 
phal Books with the Canonical', and he never knew or heard of an Infiance, 
My Reply maybe fetn, Def. of Mod. Nonconf. Tart 2. p. 24.7. &c. in which 
among other Tlnngs, I give Mr. Hoadly an Infiance of one in the furprizin^ 
Storm of Wind in 1 70 3, who being affeCled, was for reading a Chapter, and 
fixd on one in the Apocrypha \ and being reprov'd by a Grave Minifier, (front 
whom I had the Pajfage) freely told him, that he took the Apocrypha to haye 
heen as truly the Holy Scripture, as any that was bound np in his Bible. And 
he that would fee more on this Head, may befdes that Reply of mine, confult 
Mr. OllyfTe'i Second Def. of Min. Conf. p. 219. Mr. Hoadly'i Def. of the 
Reafon o/Conf p. 94. and my Def. of Mod. None. Tart 3. />• ??5, C^ 408. 
All which put together, may I think, help any one to judge in this Matter. 

I P) all only add, that the Reading Apocryphal Leffons was contrary to the 
Ancient Council of Laodicea, Can. 59. which forbids their being read in the 
Church. Tl)e Words are thcfe : Non oportec Libros in Ecclefia Icgerc, qui 
funtextra Canonem ; fed folos Vac N. T. Canonicos Libros: And that the 
'Reading Lejfons of Canonical Scripture, infcad of the Apocrypha, was one of 
the Amendments agreed to, by the Archbijhop of Armagh, the Bl/ljop of Lin- 
coln, Dr. Prideaux, Vr. Ward, Dr. Bionwrigg, Dr. Featly, Dr. Hacker, 
f^c. when they met together by the Order of the Lords, at the Bijhop of Liu» 
coin's j» Weftiniiifier, in 1641. 


254 The LI F H of Chap. X^. 

This was what they could not by any Mea:ns approve 
of. For tho* they could freely own there were many 
valuable Things in the Apocryphal Books with all their 
Faults, yet could they not have foch a Degree of Re- 
fpc(fl for them as to think them fit to be read in Churches 
in the Room of the Holy Scriptures. They were here- 
in confirmM by finding even the moft celebrated Bilhops 
and Dodtors of the Church owning there were many 
Relations ii^ferted in them, that wereFalfe and Fictiti- 
ous. And they were afraid of contributing to the mif- 
leading o: a great many weak and ignorant People, 
(of which there are but too many in the Nation) to 
fancy them of equal Authority with the Holy Scrip- 
tures; of which there is therefore the more Danger; 
* Bixter'i becaufe in the Order of reading the Leffons, the Title 
jior.confor- of Holy Scripture, and Old Teftament is given to the 
7nity Stated Apocrypha *. 
and Ar- 

gu'd^ page B6. His Flea for Feace, page i66. Corbet'5 Bemains^ page 
J 59. The Letter jrom a Minifier to a Ferfon of Qj^^Hty^ pjewing fame ReO' 
fons for hli Nonconformity. Troughton'5 Afology for the Nonconformifts, 
page 31. Eleutherii Q. e. Hickmanni) Apologia fro ejeiiis in Anglia Mint" 
fihs^ page 50, c^f. 

. 4. They muft Confent to the Miftranflation of the 
t Mr. Pfa/ter t. 
Ollyflfe, /« 

his Def. o/Min. Conf p. 74, 5^c. fays it is only a Miflranjlated F falter they 
Confent to ufe at worf}^ without con fcnting to the Afijirarfation But he does 
Tiot know that he's ohligd to ufe it. A Minifier he "^hlnhs is at Liberty to 
eho'yfe which Ferjion he pleafes : And he does not fee why the Old J^erf.on may 
not he Lawfully ui^d. ^Mr. Hoadly, Reafon of Conf. />. 152- fayi-i that the 
Declaration of Jljfent and Confent touches this Tranjlation no farther^ than to 
oblige to the Ufe of it in Fublich W'oYJhip : And if a Tranjlation, tho" faulty^ 
Way not be usd in the Churchy 'twould he fays^ be hard to J7)ew a Tr an fatt- 
en that is Ferfcc}j or one thai has ^ot greater Tailings than what is here pro- 
duc'd. My Reply, Def. o/Mod. None. P^/r^ 2. f. 259, (?>tc. was this. That 
fchen a Man Affents and Confents to the Ufe (to go no farther) of the Com- 
won Frayer Bo'.k, he feems to Affcnt and Conf nt to the Ufe of the F falter in 
the Common Fraycr Book, which is alfitnention'din the Title Page of it-, and 
I cun''t fee how he is afterwards at Liberty to exchange it for an thcrF falter : 
Tfyat while the Miniflers who were Ejciied apprehended the lafl Tranflation of 
the F falter better, tJ)ey nv'ght well be backward to bifid thcmfehes to Ufe a 
worfe : That it was a great hardfhip for them to he put upon owning that 
there 79as nothing in the F falter that was a Fart of the Common Frayer Book, 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 235 

The Pjalter is particularly mendon'd in the Verbal contrary to 
Declaration required of every Incumbent. It rouft be *^^ ^ord of 
AiTented and Confented to, as having nothing in it con- ^'^^7 ^J^en 
trary to the Word of God. To this they could not a- ^^^ A> ^'^e 
gree, becaufe they found feveral Miftranilations in the J!^f^ ^''^ 
OidVerfion of the Pfalms^ which was indeed more ac- V T^ 
commodated to the Septua^mt than to the Orignal Ht^ thlnmn 
brew. In Pf. 105.18; Onr Pfalter reads the Words ^^ '^7w^* 
thus, ayid they were not obedient to his PVcrd: Our Bible would fee 
reads them, nnd they rebelled not againft his TVcrd. Thus more of this 
therefore they Argu'd. One Particular contained in the Matter^may 
Book of Common Prayer is the Tranflation of this Text, confuh Mr. 
But if the Tranflation be true in the Pfalter, it is falfe OllyffeV 
in the Bible : And if it be true in the Bible, it is falfe ^{(»»dDef. 
in the Pfalter. How could they give their j^ffent, that ^ ^'"^ 
they rebelled, and rebelled not? *Tis the like in fome other ^"^* ^* 
Cafes. Now they could not approve of that Pfalter as y^'n » 
entirely agreeable to the Word of God, in which they j)^^ V j^ 
found fundry plain Miftakes. Reafon of 

Conf. p. 
1 01. And my Def. o/Mod. None. Z'. 558. 

I /f)alL only add, that the Reading Pf alms according to the l(ei9 Tranflation^ 
was another Thing agreed to, by the Archbifhop 0/ Armagh, and other Bijhop 
and Doctors at the Dean of Weftminfter'i in 1641^ 

■■\ . , . \ . 

5. They muft AfTent and Confent to St. Athdnafim 
his Creed. In whicn Creed there is this Exprclhon, 
which Faith except every one do l^eep whole and undcfi/ed ^ 
without Doubt he fhnll perifh Everlafiingly. This to our 
Fathers feem'd very harfli. Tho' they approv'd of the 
Creed in general as heartily as their Brethren, and e- 
fteem'd it an excellent Explication of the Doctrine of 
the Trinicy, yet could they not look upon themfelves 
as fo far caU'd to Judge other Men, as to conclude, all 
certainly Damn'd for ever, that are not fo well skill'd 
in that Myftery, as not to believe every Word there 
written. One of the Articles of this Creed is this; 
The Holy Ghoft is of the Father, and the Son. In this 
Article the Greek Church hath differed from the Latin, 
and held that the Holy Ghoft proceeds from the Fa- 
ther only. And it is by Confequence imply *d, that 
the Greek Church muft be held undoubtedly Dam- 
ned, which was an uncharitable Cenfure, in which 


2^6 The L IFF- of r>. X.' 

* Mr. they durft not Cone ir* Withal, foinc of che Ejected 
Ollyffe /« Miniiters, ' as well :\s rnany of coofe who Conform'd) 
hU Def. of confiderinp rhe g.^odi)ef«; of God, c^c. were of *:0 iarge 
Min. Conf. and exccnlivea Cbariry, a<; ro apprehem^ rh-i!: whoTo- 
t' '$j ^6 ; ever vvalk'd (incerejy up en his Lighr^ wth a general 
r^l n /^^P^"^3"^^ f'^ his unfeen Errnur?, Was in k i^teof 
c-^"^ '^ Acceptance with God, by Vertne of the Covenant made 
Z^nJkL^ "^^^^ -^^'e" .'f^^>.-7, and hhah^ &c. * Novj foch, tho't k 
the Kin-hth unreaionable to before d to renounce fo miich Cindour 
.Artfcie of ^s fhis amounted to, r;]] they faw raort^ Reafon alledg'd 
th^ Church ^han they couid meet with, on the behalf of this Prirv- 
*f Eng- .ciple ; Thae whofoiver did not piiyiFiunlly believe the Athi- 
land, in nafian Creed muk undoubtedly Perijh f. 
Order to 

our being qualified for the Publick Exercife of our Miniftry^ according to the 
Toleration A6l^ v^hen I mention d thU phje^ion jrom the Alhanafian Creed : 
Jind l)€ pities iyje upon that Account^ p. So: But I confefs I cant fee why 
that Pjoiild hinder my tnc^iikuinq; this Exception which it is well hnown they 
Tery generally ryiade and la':.i ftref> upon. And Afr. Hoadly, Reafon of Conf. 
f \%^S fays., that tho" there is nothing in the Athanafian Creed but what may 
i>e faid with a good Confcience, yet he dont fee how the Publi(k Service would 
fuffer^ were there ?io damnatory Sentence erer read in it. Nay^he's: of Opinion^ 
that the DoClrine of the Trinity would be better fecur^d, and this -very Ac- 
count af it better receiyd^ without fuch Sentences than with them. In my Re- 
ply, Def. of Mod. None. Part i. p. 264, i6^ :, I teU Mr. Ollyffe (which he 
feems to ha^e, known nothing of) that the Dijfenting Minijlers about the City, 
in a Body gave in their Senfe of the Articles when they fuhfcrib'd them, and 
rnnonfr the reft of this Eighth Article:, in the Olofs upon which the damnatory 
Claufes of tins Creed, are exprefly excluded the Subfaiption, tho' ftis there ad- 
ded info many Words) they are part of the Liturgy, Ajfented and Confented 
to. This was Printed under the Title of, T\ icliard Baxter'5 Senfe of the 
Subfcribed Articles of Religion -, Printed for Benjamin Cox in Ludgate- 
Street, 1^89. in Quarto. And there was fame thing of the fame Tiature 
done in fever al Parts of the Country. We that have fubfcrib''d the Article.Sf 
have in this refpefl only made it known to the World, that we belieye thi^s 
Creed, but we hare by no means declared our Belief that all thofe ^jould ever- 
lartingly Ptrifli, or cannot be Sav'd, tJfat are of another Belief as to fome 
Claufes in it. And I know feveral, who did they difcover arty Reafon to think 
this would not hold, would Renounce their Subfcription to the Articles, as 
fublickly as ever they made it. He that defires to fee msre about this, may 
confult Mr. Ollvfrt'^ Second Def. of Min. Conf /'.a??. Mr. HoadIy'.$ Ut^. 
iff tife Rcqfon of Conf. p. 102. And my Def. of Mod. None. p. ^^.H.rir^it. 
t 7'l)c Peaceable Dejign, page 14, 15. Baxter'* li'onconjormity Stated 
and Argud, ^: I ^:^. His Plea for Peace, page 19 1. Corbet'i Kew^w, 
i>3ge 154. 

6. They 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 237 

6. They myft AlTent and Confenc to this Rubrick, 
at the End of the OSce for Confirm a f ion ^ that nonf 
Jhall be ndmit*ed unto the Holi Communion, until fuch 
Time as he be Confirmed^ or be ready and defnous to be ^ 
Confirmed^ i /n^^* 

of Min. 
Cofif. p. 83 ; fays^ That Terfom may be dejlrous to be confirmed, rvho yet by 
fome Things [erupted in the Office^ may be hindered from being acfua/fy Cr,n' 
jirmd /V/r. Ho^diy, Realbn of Conf. p. 1 34, fays^ This U^a great Grievance 
indeed^that all admitted to the Communion fhou/d be ohtig d folemnly before the 
Btfhop to own their Baptifmal Covenant, and have his Frayers ! &c. But it 
feems to have been the aim of the EcclefiajJical Settlement, to have Terfotts 
kept from the Communion for their Scruples in this Cafe, which the ejeShi 
Minifiers durft not concur in : j^nd whofoever made light of it, it tvas tu 
them a great Grievance for Perfons to be kept from the Communion, ''till a Bi- 
f)op laid Hands on them, and ceicit'y'd them by ihac Sign of God's F.ivour 
and Gracious Goodnefs towards them, which is the Exprefjton us''d in the 
Office, to fuch as are Confirm d. They could not fee how this could be iufii- 
fed. See more in my Det". of Mod. None P. 2. p. 264, &c. Mr. OUyffe'f 
2d Def. of Min. Conf. p. 257. Mr. Hoadlv'5 Def. of the Reafon. o/Conf. 
p. 102. Def. of Mod. None. Part 3. pag. 558, and^ii. 

. Now the' many of the Ejeifled Minifters were very 
defirous to have Confirmation reftored, and tho'c it 
would be exceeding ufeful, if manag'd with a becom- 
ing Gravity and Serioufnefs, . yet to deny Perfcns the 
Communion for refufing to be Confirm'd in the Epif- 
copal Way, was whac they knew not how to juftifie. 
They found it was a Thing fcrupled by many Perfons : 
And were their Scruples juft or unjuft, while the 
fame Perfons were willing to own their Daptifnial 
Covenant underftandingly and feriouily before the 
Church, and their own Pallors, and to know thofe that 
labour'd among them, and were over them in the Lord, 
and efteem them in Love for their Works Sake, and to 
be at Peace amongft thcmfelves, they duift not for 
their fcrupling this Diocefnn Ceremony, caft tbem from 
the Communion of the Church of Chrift. And there- 
fore they durft not declare their Approbation of the 
Order that required it, nor Affent and Confent to it, 
nor Subfcribe chat it is not contrary to the Word of ^ „ 
God*. ^Baxrer'i 

^>ty Stated ard argudj P^ge 97, &c, 


238 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

— — — • ^ 

Thefe were the Reafons which they alledg'd, and 
Printed, and Publifti'J, for their refufing that Ajfent, 
Confcnr, and Subfcription, to tlic Book of Common 
Prayer, and all, and every Thing therein contained, 
which was a Second Thing ftraitly required by the A^ 

of 'Uniformity. 

* Mr.Ol' 11^' They were alfo required to take the Oath of C/t- 

lyfle in his nonical Obedience^ and fvvear Subjedtion to their Ordi^ 
Def.o/Min. W'^ry, according to the Canons of the Church *. 

fays, That thif Notion of Smearing to the Canons^ was firfi (farted byMr-'BiX" 
ter in 89 : and is not conjijient with what he had advanced el fewhere : jind 
wou/d infnuate that the Canonical Oath no more obliges to fubmit to 
the Canons J than the Oath of allegiance does ^ and charges the Notion 
adyanc^d with many jibfurdities. Mr. Hoadly alfo^ Reafon. of Conf. p. I gd, 
&c; is dijpleasd with my inferting according to the Canons of the Church, 
which Words are not in the Oath : and intimates that a Man may he ordain d 
in the Church of E. without taking the Oath of Canonical Obedience : (fame 
would hay c ihank''d him, if he had told them wlnre, and by what Bipjop',) 
and fays, that the Meaning of the Oath is no mere than this : I fwear that 
I will yield fuch an Obedience as is due, according to the Laws of Chrift's 
Clmrch, from an inferiour Presbyter to his Bifhop, provided he enjoin 
nothing but what I apprehend in my Confcience to be lawful and honeft. 
hh'ch Oath (he fays) fuppofes, that every Thing he commands may be un- 
lawful ; andean have no Eefrence to the Canons, but as they are the Matter 
of a particular Eifhop's Injun^ions '.^ and then leaves a Liberty of demurring 
upon them; and can refer to none but future Commands : And therefore he 
gives it as his Opinion, that the Objections here drawn from the Canons, are 
no more ObjeCfions againfi taking this Oath, than a'^amfi taking the Oath of 
Allegiar.ce. Tt which I retly, Dcf of Mod. Conf. Fart. 2. p. 274: 7'hat 
the proper Meaning of the Word Canonical, is according to the Canons : And 
tl)erefore Canonical Obedience, mufi be Obedience according to the Canons. 
If hen we fwear Alle^i^ianre we bind ourfelvcs to the Laws that provide for 
the Defence and Support of the Fcrfon, Crown, and Dignity of our Prince, and 
the Succeffion a: fettled : Other Laws we are obUg''d to under our Con[fitU' 
tinn, by f^ertue nf the Confent given by our Keprefentatives in Parliament j 
which I cannot find tlte Canons of i6o^,havc, to make them binding : But 
they tl)at fwear to thtir Ordinary, are by that Swearing deftgnd to be bound 
to obey him Canonically ^ and the Canons are explain'' d and inforc'd by the Bi- 
P)ops in their fufitation Difcmrfes ; and they are the Standard by which they 
try fuch as ftpeav Obedience to them. Thefe Canons are the Liws according 
to which Obedience is due from an inferior Presbyter to I/is Bifliop, in 
that Tart of Cl.riil's Church winch is call'd the Church of England / And 
therefore I fjould tl-ink the Oath jfjould have fame rezard to them, hijhfps 
are not here at-Lii/irty to require what they plcafe, Thty a\e as much oblig'd 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 259 

In the Form of Making, Ordaining, and Confe- to the Ca- 

crating Biihops, Priefts, and Deacons, this Quettion nnns in 

is required to be put to Priefts and Deacons at the Time their higher 

of their Ordination, l^il^ you reverently Obey your Or- sphere, at 

dinary, and other chief Minifters^ to whom is committed ^^^^h^'^^^ 

the Charge and Government over you ; follovoing with a '" ^"^"' 

glad Mind and Will their Godly Admonition, and Jubmit- °^'^ ^'^P'^' 

tinz your felves to their Godly Judgments ? The Anfwer !,P' r'^. 
1 »j • T -11 r J J t t JL ■ ' TT I therefore I 

to be return d is ; I mil Jo do do, the Lord being my Help, „g^-^„i 

An Oath alfo is adminiftred to the Ordained of thisy-^^ ^^ ;j,^j. 
Tenour ; I A. B. Swear that I will yield True and Can't- Hoadly 
nical obedience to the Bifhop of N.— * and his Succef- That vvho- 
fors in all Lawful and Haneji Things, ever dc- 

figns CO ot- 
ficiace as a Minifter in any Churcli, aOs not fairly and honeftly it he do 
not firft fatisfy his Conlcience about the Lawfulnefs of Obedience to 
fuch Rules and Prefer iptions, as have been laid down and agreed upon by 
the Governors of this Church, for the Regulating the BJnviourcf ail tliac 
minifler in it, and refolve to obey them : But that as far as I can jud^e, 
he Ails neither fairly nor honeftly to frvcar hell obey his Ordinary^ when hit 
Confcience it againfi thofe Can^s by which this Obedience is to be re-rulated. 
Jlnd this I think, may receiye not a little Light from the Hijiory of Cano- 
nical Obedience, from its firfi Entrance i^ito the Church, down to the prefent 
Time, which I hare given, Def. of Mod. None. Fart 2. p. 29B, &c. /»■ 
fhort -y if Obedience to the Canons, when they become the Commands of a Vat' 
ticular Bifhop is promifed in this Oath (which is acknowledged) then the Oath 
muji be dejign^d to gire the Church AJfurance, that Perfons will obey the Ca- 
nons when they are call'd upon to do fo. And they that confider the Canons may 
dn this if they pleafe ^ hut for my Fart, I cannot wonder that the ejeficd Mi- 
ni fiers fhould be averfe to it. They that would fee more of this Matter, may 
eonfult, Mr. OllyfTe'i 2d Def o/Min. Conf />. 246. Mr. Hoadly'5 Def. of 
the Kt2^. of Conf. p. 105. Def. 0/ Mod. Conf. P^rt. 3. p. ^^Ojaud ^11. 

Herein they could not Comply, for the Reafons fol- 
lowing. • 

I. Becaufe as all Obedience hath an Eitential Rela- 
tion to the Laws and Mandates of thofe whom Per- 
fons are bound to obey, fo the Canons of the Church, 
fettled in its feveral refpe£live Convocations, arc the 
ftated Laws of the Ecclefiaftical Governntent: And 
therefore the Oath of Canonical Obedience, w»hich 
hath a^ Reference to thefe ftated Laws or Canons of 
the Church, appear'd to them, to carry in it a plain 
Obligation to comply with them, and fubmit to them, 
in their ftated Pradtife, where they had not a "Oirpen- 


240 The LIFE of Chap. X- 

. 1 — — — — — *' ' 

facion. And tho* the Obedience, that is in this Cafe 

fworn, be limited to Thifigs Lawful and Honefi, yet is 

it evidently fuppos'd and taken for granted, that the 

Canons which are in Force, do require no other than 

fuch Things, without leaving Perfons at Liberty which 

Canons they'll obey, and which they'll refufe : Which 

was a Latitude which they had not found any Bifh'op 

in the Land free to allow to any of their Clergy. So 

^ j,j . that tho' in the Oath there be a Limitation in Words, 

Fourth f '- y^^ ^^^y plainly faw it was only to be extended to Fu- 

Tion Mr i^ye Commands^ while an Obligation to comply with 

OllyfTe de-^^^ Things antecedently requir'd by the Canons as Law^ 

dares they fi^l ^'»d Honeft, was fuppos'd and taken for granted : For 

have no certainly the Church Reprefentative in its feveral Con- 

manner of vocations, could HOC by thofe who profefs fo great a 

Concern Reverence for all its Di£tates, be fupposM to require 

with^^ Def. Things of any other Stamp or Charadler. Now pera- 

cj Min. (|j-,g f jjg Canons^ they could not be fatisfied that many'.9(5. Qf jjjg Things therein required, deferved that Chara- 

conjefs I ^^^ . |sjjjy^ they ^ere not convinc d, but that many 

thl h "/ Things by thofe Cayions requif d to have been the Mat- 

tpife : Be-^^^ ^^ "^^^^^ conftant Pradtife, would to them have been 

raufeit Ly^'^^^'^'^f''^ ^"^ Dipoojieji ; and therefore they durft not 

the Vounda- come under any fuch enfnaring Obligation. 

tion of a Whether they had any Reafon or not for thus fcrup- 

CoTnnta?id Jing Conformity to the Canons^ according to the De- 

to publip) mand of this Oath of Canonical Obedience, let any im- 

an Exconi' partial Perfons Judge, when I have briefly fet before 

mutiicaiion them the Canons to which they fcrupled to yield Con* ■ 

"^ ^^l^ formity, with their Obje6lions againft them. 

Breakers of g^ ^^^ Yov^nh Canon, * Whofoever Charges the 

1 7e anon, « g j^ £ Qq^j^q^ Prayer, with containing any Thing 

Minifler *" ^^' '""V *^ repugnant to the Scriptures, he is to be 

Tnay b7re- * '^^^ ^'^^^^' Excommunicated, and not reftor'd but by 

5K/W by * the Bifhop of the Place, or Arch-Bifhop, after his 

his Ordina-* Repentance, and Publick Recantation of fuch his 

rytopub- * wicked-Error *. 

///?;, by Vet- 

tue of the Oath he has tahn. And therefore this feemi to We to be one of 
thofe Canons that concern an inferior Clefiymani own Behariour andConduCh 
in his Office^ tho' Mr. Hoadly declares himfelf of another Opinion. See more of 
this Matter-^ Def. of Mod. None. Tart 2. p. ^08. Mr. Ollyffe'i id Dei, of 
Mn. Qoni.p. 284, &c. Def. o/Mod. None. Fart 3. f- 5J5- 


■Chap. X. Mr. Fvichard Baxter.. 241 

They could not bind themfelves to conform to this 
Canon^ biecaufe tho' it (hould be ailow'J to be an Error, 
to bring fuch a Charge againft the Bo"k of Common 
Prayer, yet could they not fee that it muft therefore be 
at? Error of that Magnitude and Wickednefs, as to de- 
fdrve Excommunication. If all, that have worfe Errors 
than that can be fupposM to be, muH: be prefentiy ex- 
communicated, the Church would remain but thin. 
Befides, they could not but eftecm it a great Abiife of 
Excommunicatiov^ to have it thunder'd rut againft any 
Perfons before they were heard to fpeak for themfelves, 
ot told of their Siri and callM to Repentance. Excom' 
tnunications of this Kind they duril not publiHi when 
commanded, fot fear of offending Chri ft, and injuring 
his Servants : And therefore they durft not Promife or 
Swear thit they would do it. And as for thofe who >- o . , 
would throw the blame in fuch a Cafe rpon the Com- ,. "^^'f ^ 
mandot Superiors, they appear d to them to open ^ mit-^ stated 
Door to the Execution of any Tnjuftice or Viliany in ^^^ ^y. 
the Worlc-i, fuppoling Authority fhould interpofe with a ^^^^ ^aoe 
C^ommand . io5, &c. 

By the Fifth Canon, ' All rhofe are to be iffo ^n^%- 
'^ Excommunicated, (3c. who afiirm any of the Thirty 

Nine Articles agreed upon in Convocation in 1 562, to f rhis is 
* be erroneouSjOr fuch as he might not with a Cafe Con- another of 

' fcience tubfcribe to f. thofe Ca- 

nons with 
'(phith Mr . Oily ff^ fayi^- they have no manner of Concern-^ Def of Min. Conf. 
p' 96. I reply ^ Dbf. of iMod. None. JPan 2. p 910: That I cannot but 
reckon they have a great Concern in it, -xphen they may be called on to fubUfh 
Excommunications according to it : And 1 rccnmmend it to JW". Hoadly'^ 
Notice, That this Canon is fo far from beingifePeatd, that its rather confirm'd 
hy the Toleration Act. " ^ ; "^ 

They could not bind themfelves to conform to this 
Canortj for the fame Reafons as they fcrupled Confor- 
mity to that foregoing. And wirhal, they found the 
Words of feveral of the Articles liable to Exccpdon; 
and fome of them of fmall Moment and dubious. They 
could not fee the Warrant of that Authority afcrib'd to 
to the Church in the Twentieth Article.* They knew of 
no Charter Chriji had given to the Church to hind Men up 
to more than himfelf bath done. Neither could they e- 
fteem every Tblngthatis true, an Ariide of the Creed, ' 

R 0£ 

^42 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

or ncceffary to Church -Communion, fo that all that 

Diflcnt muftbe prcfently caft out. Befides, they found 

Billiop Jererfi; Taylour overthrowing the Ninth Article 

about Sin ; and Dr. HnmmGnd refining upon 

, the Fourteenth Article, and denying the Seventeenth ; 

t BiKter'i -^ ^vhich they had many Followers, who were all by 

Uortconfor- ^j^|^ Canon to be ipfo F^Bo Excommunicated. Which 

^T ^!i^' ^^^ ^ Thing in which they durft not concur, as eafily 

'L^/^f forefeeing, that this would make the Articles an En- 

palTioQ gi"e of endlefs Strife and Divifiont 

6.1 By the Sixth Canon, ' All tbofc are ipjo faHo to be 

* Excommunicated that Ihould affirm that the Rites and 

* Ceremonies of the Church of England are Superfti- 
' tious, or fuch as being commanded by Lawful Auiho- 
' rity, Men who are zealoufly and godly AffecSled, may 

^ Th.'.< a/- (, ^^^ ^jjjj J^ gQod Confcience approve and ufe them, or 
fo Mr. Oi- I ^g Occafion requires fubfcribe unto them *. 

lyffe fayiy 

They ha>e 

no Concernrffith, ibid. But he fhould haye added, vnlefs they are calld upon 

to publifh Juch Excommunications as it threatens, %phich I knot;; not reho can 

fecure them from, for all Times to come. Tor tho" fome are for letting thefe 

Camas He ajleep, yet others are earnejily defirous they fljould be awahen'd. 

Dtf. of Mud. None. :Ban. i, f. ^u^ 

In this Canon the Church feemed to them to affume 
to it felf a moft Exorbitant Power, by laying fo great 
a Strcfs upon every one of its Ceremonies, as prc- 
fently to Excommunicate Perfons, that Ihould but 
reprefent any one of them as unwarrantable. Much 
ginore, could not have been faid as to the Ten Com- 
mandments, or any Articles of the Creed. But be- 
fides, the ejeifted Minifters did efteem the Things a- 
bove mentioned to be unwarrantable, and therefore 
could not agree ro Excommunicate themfelves, and 
fuch as concurr'd in the faiTK Sentiments and Apprehen- 
} BixteiNfions with them 4^. 


fnity Stated and Argued, page ill. 

By the S^cnth Canon, * All thofe are ipfo faBo to 

' * be Excommunicated, that fhould affirm that the Go- 

' veinment of the Church of E>iglnnd^ by Arch-Bi- 

' ftiops, Bifliops, Deans, Arch-Deacons, andchc reft 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 243 

* that bear Office in the fame, is Repugnant to the ^ Th.sCa 

* Word of God *. non alfo 

declares they have no Coticern w'tth^ Def. o/Min. Contp. pd. But for my 
Fartf . I can't fee how its repealed by the A6t of Toleration^ Dc f of Mod. 
None. P^rf. 2. p-^i2. Or if it is repeal'd^ I can't think it vf.U o^ any 
Thing the worfe^ either for Minifiers or People in thi Churchy that it conti- 
nue repeal''d, without ever being in Force again, 

Tho* fome of the Silenc'd Minifters could have gone 
farther than others in fubmitting to Diocefan Epifcopacy^ 
yet take that Form of Government in the Compafs of 
it, according to this Canon, and they found it full of 
Corruption. The Paftoral Power, which was lodg'd 
by Chrift in the Minifters of their refpecftive Congre- 
gations, was overthrown ; and the Power of the Kjys 
put into improper Hands : And that Bifhops (hould go- 
vern the Church by others, in a fecular Manner, even 
by Lay-men, who do that in their Name which they 
know nothing of; could not in their Judgment be re- 
concil'd with the Word of God. And therefore they 
durft not bind themfelves to Excommunicate zll fuch, as 
fhould pafs but fuch Cenfures upon the Frame of the 
Ecclefiaftical Government, as it really deferv'd t f Idem r* 

By the Eighth Canon, ' All thofe are ipfo fa&o to be ^/Wpage 
' Excommunicated, who (hould affirm that the Form 112. 

* and Manner of Making, and Confecrating Bilhops, 

* Priefts, or Deacons, containeth any Thing in it re- ■fThifal" 

* pugnant to the Word of God ij:, fo is ano- 

ther Canon 
that Mr. Ollyffe declares he has no Concern with, Def. of Min. Conf. p. <^6, 
And I jhall be "very well pleafed^ if the Ecclejiaftical Courts let him always 
alone, without calling upon him to publifh any Excommunication that fhouldl 
convince him of his being concern d with it. 

Tho' it fhould be fuppos*d there were nothing amifs 
in this Book of Ordination, yet the Belief of its Inno- 
cency could not in the Efteem of the vSilenc'd Minifters 
be juftly deem'd a Matter of that Moment, as to be 
necelTary to Salvation, or that Perfons fhould be caftout 
of the Church for the want of ir. They could not 
therefore take an Oath, whereby they Ihould enter ir>- ^ j^ 
to a Combination of that Nature, as would make them 7^;^ p^„^ 
liable to be charg'd with the unhappy Confequences *. , j / ^ 

K % By ^ 

244 ^^^^ LIbE of Chap. X. 

Py the Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh Capons, * Such 

^ as feparaie themfelves from the Communion of the 

' Church of England, and fuch as own thofe feparate 

^ Thefe *. Societies to be true Churches, are all to be Excom- 

Thrceca- ' municatcd, and only reftot'd by the Arcb-Bilhop*. 

ftons alfo 

Mr. OllyfFe declares he has m Concern vithy ibid. But if he had had a Lirin^ 

in fome Bifhofs Viocefes^ in the ,/atfer Jind of h^ing Char],CS tl>e Second's 

"Rei'rn^ he'd hare found he had a Concern rvith them to his Sorrorv^ unlcfs he'd 

have pubHp) d Excommunications againft fome as honefl Men m afiy in his 


■, Canons of this Kind they durft not fwcar S-abje- 
>6tion to, becaure they tho'c them very unchariLalJe, 
Jf a weak miftaken Cbriitian may be a true Chriftian, 
tho" faulty ; they could not fee why a miilaken Congre- 
gation pf Piaus Perfons, might not be a true Church, 
tho* faulty. 5uppofing it granted, That they whofe- 
,'paiatied from the. Church of £r;^/^(;</, and fMchasad- 
'her'd to them, really were in an Error, yet coyld they 
not fee how their Errors could be look'd upon as com- 
.^arable to thofe of the P^pijis^ who yet are fo far fa- 
vour'd by many of the Prelatical Party, that the Rnman 
Church they belong to, is own'd to be ^ true Church. 
Neither can it with any Ground be ,affirro'd, that the 
ignorance, Erroi; or Corruption pf fuch Separatifts is 
haj Tip great, as is difcernable in the M/^w/V^/, Greeks^ 
AhajJiKeSy Coptics^ Jacobites^ Keflorians^ and. Armenians ; 

. who }et are commonly confefs'dtp be true Churches. 
The grcarnefsof the Errors of thofe that feparare from 
the Church of ErgUnd, cannot niake them ceafe to be 
tr.ue Churches, when Churches much more Erroneous, 
are own'd to be true. Neither can their being gathefd 
and maintained without the Confent of the RuJer, pre- 
sently incapacitate them from being true Churches : 
For he that would condemn them upon that Account 
meerly, muft with the fame Breath difown all the 
Churches of Chrift, which were in the World for fome 
Hundreds of Years ; who were all in Common in thac 
Condition. The Silenc'd Minifters tho't it very fit 
to leave thofe to themfcJves, who were fo confin'd in. 
their Charity ; as thinking it their Duty to embrace 
all thofe as Brethren who feared God, and wrought 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 245 

J^ightedtifnefs ; it\dxo efteem all thofe as true Parts of 
the Church of Chrift, aniong whom there was the true 
Chriftian Faith and Worlhip, how different foever their 
particular Sentiments or Modes might be, or wh:it ^ y-^-'j 
Failures foever might be amongft them, that were cort- bid'vip- " 
fiftent wich an honeft, upright Heart and Life^. jj,^^^ ^^ 

By the Twenty Seventh Canon, ' No Minifter is 

* wittingly to adminirter the Communion to any but to 

* fuch as Kneel, >C^vrj;. \ Mr.Ol- 

: V , ■ - •> •• - lyftt can't 

tellh ^ - - - -- - - -- 

Conf. p. 99. But wethinki, it vffere better for him to avoid binding hlmfelf 
to fttch infnarhig Canons ^ Def. of Mod. Nonconf. Tart 2. p. 315, gi5. 

To this they durft not fwear SubjedVlon, for the 
Reafons menti6h*d before, under the Head o^ Ajfent fid. ibid. 
and Confent ^. pa ae i j 7. 

By the Twenty Eighth Canon, * Minifters are re- 

* quir'd to refule Communicants coming from other 

* Farilhes*'^. ^'^ATrOI- 

if the Mjnifler find any Hardjhip in this^ he muft f/jew hh Suhmilfon to the 
Biftjop by Petitioning nr Suffering, Def. of Mm. Conf p. 100. Butt hope he'll 
gire others their Liberty to think it both wifer and faferto avoid coming under 
any Obligation., than to run the Hazard of being fo hamper d^ Def. of Mod. 
None. Tart 2. /». 3170 

To this ihey could not fubmit, becaufe in fome 
Cafes the receiving of Communicants from other Pari- 
ihes might be a Duty. As particularly, if the Incum- 
bent of a neighbouring Paridi were Vicious or Scan- 
dalous, or Divine Ordinances were fo manag'd, as is 
inconliftent with the Edification of the Parilhioners. 
For them in fuch Cafes to have refus'd to receive Perfons 
to Communion with them, would in their Apprehenlion 
have been grofly uncharitable \\, H 7^ j;^^^ 

By the Thirty Eighth Canon, * A Minifter repent- ' 

* ing of his Subfcription, or afterwards omitting ariy 
\ of the prefcribed Forms or Ceremonies, is firft to be 

R 3 * fufpended 

246 The LIFE of Chap, X. 

^ With ' fufpendcd, and then Excommunicate, and then de- 
ihiiMr.Ol' ' pQs'd from the Miniftry*. 
lyflfe de- ^ 

dares tley have no Concervy Def. of Min. Conf. />. g6. But thU was as like- 
ly to be inffled on^ as any in all the Body of the Canons^ in the Tear^ 1 662, 
gutd afternrards, which was the Time that this Chapter peculiarly referred to^ 
Def. of Mod. None, P. 2. f 518. 

This they apprehended might in many Cafes be 
ro Confent to caft a Man out of the Church, for be- 
ing Coiifciencious • To which they were afraid to 
fubmir, leaft they fhould contribute to the filencing 
, Tome of thofe who as much deferv'd Encouragement, as 

t Id. Ihd. ^^y perfons whatfoevcr \. 
jngc II ». ^ gy ^j^^ p^^^y Seventh Canon, ' All that go forBap- 
' tifm for their Children, or the Communion for them- 

* felves from their own Parilh, becaufe the Minifter is 

* no Preacher, to another Parifh that hath a Preaching 
' Minifter, are fufpended, and after a Month to be Ex- 

J Wiih * communicated t. 

thif all'" 

Mr. OITyfie th\nh they hare no, Def. nf Min. Conf p. g6. And 
I heartily vri/h he never may find l)imfelf cramped by any Thing of this 
Kind : But Jj^nu/d the A^ of Toleration ever be repeat'd^ perhaps fame that 
hi wifhes well to^ M'ni/iers and Feople^ may be in no fmall Danger by it. 

To this they could not fubmrt, becaufe they appre- 
hended there was much more need of driving the 
People to preaching Miniiters than from them. And 
tho' they did not efteem the Sacraments Null, when 
adminiflrcd by ill qnalif/d Mmifters, yet they could 
not but look upon it as Sinfal, either to harden an Ig- 
norant and Scanda'ous Pcrfon, tliat had intruded into 
the Office of the Miniftry in his Prophanenefs, or to 

Id. Ibid, encourage People that need better, in being contented 

P^S^IIP- withfucha Mniiftcr. 

By the Fifty Eighth Cinon, * Every Miniflcr faying 
' the PuMick Prayers, or ramiftring the Sacraments, or 

• other Rites of the Chnrch, was required to wear a 
' decent and comely Surplice with Sleeves, to be pro- 

* vide d at the Charge of the Parilh, and that under 
I Pain of SufpenfioY). 

Chap. X. Mr. Richird Baxter. 2.47 

The Surplice as a Symbolical Vcflment*, was what * M-r.Ol' 
they found many Learned and Excellent M'nifters had iyffe/;?rc 
in former Times been againft : And it was fo fTjalJ a kind/y .x- 
Mauer, of fo little real Necefliry or Ul'e, t:nd rbe /'^^''^^ ^/•'^ 
great Things to be Ey'd in the Bxerdfe of aGofpeJMi- [^«»;^Sym- 
niftry, depended fo little upon ir, that even thofe who ^°^'^^ ^° 
would rather have fubmittcd ro it, than have been de- ^/V^- ^ * 
priv'd of the Publick Exercife of their Miniftry, yet (^^j^f J 
durft not concur :n the Sufpenfion of others, who were iqi. n^ 
more Scrupulous of it than themfeives, upon that kc-Qantfee 
count; as they muft have done, if they hadfabjedted/^W the 
themfeives to this Canon f- Surplice h 

any more 
than a Dlfiinclhe Garmsitt., 2d Def. o/Min. Conf. />. 2p5. But BiJIjop 
Taylor fays, it fignifies Purity and Truth. Others have [aid it fignifies 
Light, and others Alacrity^ Integrity, and theExpeftation of Glory, Sic. How 
the Minifers that were ejeCied, knev? of no Authority any have to threaten 
Suffenjion upon a Fai/ure in fo frnali a Matter 5 and therefore could not here 
join in, Def. of Mod. None. P. 2. p. 320. 

t Idem Ihid. 121. 

By the Sixty Eighth Canon, * MiniiRers are required 
^ to Baptize all Children withoiu Exception, who arc -iMv.Oi- 
* offer'd to them for that Purpofe %. lyffe /4)<5, 

They are 
mt obliged to Bnptit,e all Comers, Def. 0/ Min. Conf. p. 26. and p. I02- 
H« fays. That there is no Difference betrveen the Traflice of Cnnformijis notv, 
and the T^oiiconformifts when they v?ere in thdr T laces ; and that if this be 
rigor oufy purfued, there mufl be a Submijjton ; and that 'tis not to he rt^on- 
dered at. That a good Man P)ould in fmie Cafes be under a Necefjity of fuf- 
feiing, &c 'Tis anfvperd, the Canon is ycry exprefs. And to go into the 
ihurcb, and fmear to the Ordinary, and yet not regard this Canon, is not 
fair, a hen the J^onconformifis heretofore Therein Publick Churches, they were 
at Liberty to refufe to Baptize ths Children of thofe Paren'^s, as were either 
knoxvn not to be Chrijlians, or to be grofly Scandalous ; which is 7tot left by 
this Canon, as was own'd at the Savoy Conference, &c. Def. of Mod. None. 
^ 322, 323. 

Tho' fome of the Silenc'd Minifters were much 
ftraiter in their Notions about the quallfy^d SubjeBs of 
Baptifm than others, yet they were generally againft 
SubmifTion to this Canon, becaute not convinced that 
the Children of all Comers, (as of Atheifts fuppofe. 
Infidels, Jews, Hereticks or Blafphemersi who might 
Upon Occafion, be offer'd as well as others) were fo far 

R 4 in 

248 27je LIFn of Chap. X. 

in the Covenant of Grace, as to have a right to a 
Solemn Inveftiturc in the BlelTings of it. And tijl 
they were convinced of this by clear Proof, they e- 
i^eemcd it too great a Domination over Men's Faith, 
to conuiiand Obedience in this Point npon Pain of> 
Sufpcnlion. And they Apprehended fwearing Obe- 
dience herein, to be a confenting in EiTe(5^, to the 
Profaning of one of the molt Sacred InAitutions of oui 
U. Ibid. Religion. 

By the Seventy Second Canon, ' Minifters were de- 

* barr'd the Liberty of keeping private Fafts upon any 

* Occalion, or fo much as being prefent at them, with- 
' outcxpoling themfelvesto Sufpeniion the Firft Time, 

* Mr.Ol-* Excommunication the Second Time, and Depofition 
lyffe, Def". ' the Third Time*. 
of Min. 

Conf. p. ic?, \ c^. fays, That the allowed Times of Faftittg by Law and 
"Public Jt Authority do fo frequently return, that there can be m poffible need, 
that a Mini fur P)r,uld af point any other : And that the' Canon forbids Vafts 
only for Seditious Ends and Purpofes. I anfwer Bifhop Or indil as well as 
the Old Puritans were of another Mind. The Meetings referrd to 
in the Canon were Giindari Prophcfy!n^s ; and fmh Sort of Meetings, none 
that Love ferious Religion pould concur tn difcouraging, Dcf. of Mod- None. 

The Silenc'd Minifters for their Part, could not but 
efteem thofe ro be unworthy of that Sacred and Ho- 
nourable Function, who were not to be trufted to Faft 
and Pray wirh their People, as Occalions might re- 
quire, while the Law was open, to punifh all Abufes. 
And taking this to be a Part of their Office, they 
could no more renounce it, than the Liberty of Preach- 
Id. Ibid, ing the Gofpel, when and where the NeceiTuies of 
l-age 122. Souls required it. 

By the 1 1 2th Canon, * The Miniftcr jointly with the 

* Pariih Officers, is requir'd every Year within Forty 
' Days after Eaftcr, to exhibit to ihc Bilhop or his 

Chancellour, the Names and Surnames of all his Pa- 
fhioners, which being of the Age of Sixteen Years, 
t Mr 01- ' did not receive the Communion at Eafter before. 


fays. That a MiHifer may ir/yc an Account of the St^te of his Pariflj to his 
liifhop, and yet he not profecute the A'on communicatits, i^c. a)td adds, that the 
Minifer is not bound to this by any Promifc j ftrr the Oath doL^ not oblige to ti 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 249 

With this Canon, agrees the Ru brick which is '^n-difhomfi 

ferted in the Common Prayer- Book, at the End of the Thin<r Defo 

Office for the Communion ; which requires every Pa- of Min. 

rijhicner to Ccmmimicate at the ieaji Three Times in the ^oni. p. 

Tear, of which Eafterto be one. And if they refufe after '05 •* But 

Prefenration, they are to be excommunicated, and are ^^^'^''^-^-j 

Jiable to be confind in Goal tiJl they die, by vertueof '^ ^"^ "'^^ 

the Writ, de Exccnmunicato Capiendo. ''^^^'^^ *^'7e 

• ' Men to 

a Vromife^ or tahe fuch an Oath^ as if kept would draw them into Sin 
when it may eajily be forefeen^ U^i.of Mod. None. Tart 2, p. 527, 328. 

In this the Silenc'd Minifters durft nor concur, for 
fear of the Confequences. If indeed they could have 
had any Hopes of forcing their Parilhioners by a Goal, 
out of Ignorance Unbelief, and Ungodlinefs, they'd 
have tbo*t it a very charitable Work : But while the 
due and neceflary Qualifications were wanting, they 
did not know but in the forcing them to the Sacrament, 
they might force them upon Sacriledge and Profane- 
nefs, to their Damnation and Ruin. Withal, they 
knew this to be a Courfe, whereby they (hould di- 
ftrad: thofe Perfons with Terror, who are Confcious 
of their Unfitnefs ; or thofe Melancholy Chriftians 
ivho under Temptations, Tremble for fear of taking 
their own Damnation. In a Word, they were, con- 
vinced this would fill the Church with fuch as ought 
rather to be kept away ; occafion the carting of Holy 
Things to Dogs ; prevent all poflibility of Difcipline, 
and be a Bar to that Purity, which is a great defign of 
Chrirtianiry* ^ Baxter'^ 

formity Jiated and argud.^ pag. i^"]. Coxhtt^s Kemalns^ page 150. 

Omitting the reft, the Three laft Canons, related 
to the Authority of Synods : And by them * all were to 

* be Excommunicated, who Ihould affirm that a Con- 
' vocation fummon'd by the King's Authority, was not 

* the true Church of England by Reprefentation : Or 
"^ that the Abfent as well as Prefent, were not to be fub- 

jedt to the Decrees of fuch an Affembly, in Caufcs Ec- 
, fleiiaftical, when raiify'd by the King's Authority : Or 

* that 

2^0 The LIFE of Chap.X. 

t Thefc ' chat their Canons and Conflitutions were defpicable, 

three '/afi « d^cf. 

Mr. OlIyfTe declares thcj . »iv ns \Li^?irf of Concern with^ Dff. of Min. 
CoirP. f. 95. But they may vohen cull J on by their Blfyf) And in fuch 
Things a: thefe^ 'tv a little hurU for JPerjwi to bind themfelres to lie at the 
Meicy of anothtr. 

Thefe Canons, they could not oblige themfelves to 

fnbmit ro, hecaufe of che Uncercainty, and dubious and 

difputabie Nature of the Matters coniain'd in them, 

wliich'ihey (upon that Account) could not apprehend to 

to be fit Grounds of (o high a Cenfure as Exccmmuni- 

cncioh-. That a Convocation was the true Church of Eng- 

• Thertfcr- j^^pd ly l\rprcJcTitation feemM to the filenc'd Minifters very 

thyBijht^ juftiy quefhonable, not onlybecaufc the Laity (whom 

of >y''Jm fhey tho'c a Parr of the Church) were altogether exclud- 

'p J'^^f'^ cd, but alfo bccaufe the Clergy were far from being 

P ,' therein fairly reprelented. * As to the Force of the Ca- 

^^n^-,n;nrT ^^^^ of fuch Convocitions upon abfent Perfons as well as 

the Riulus preient, they apprehended that it depended upon the rar- 

of sn En'r. lianienr, whof? Ratification they look'd upon as necefla- 

iifh Con- ry,in order tr their having any Force or Significance at all. 

vocation, But tho' rhey fnonld bemiftaken in Pointsof this Nature, 

page to. which they tho'c had not been fo ftri£lly cnquir'd into 


their Demur as to thefe Cnnonsinthii Refpe^l, wJ)CH fpenking of a Convocation^ 
he ^^nth this remarkable Conceffion : It cannot be calKd 3 true Reprefentative 
of . c Chnrcli, tho' it be now a Lf.gil one. In the Lovv-er Houfc, there- 
are v./ the Province of Canterbury, T wcnty Deans or more who pretend to fit 
there ; cher^' are as mnny Frodors from Chapters^ and Sixty Anh-Deacom, 
and about Thircy-eig'it Clcrls chofen by tlie Clergy. So that the Deansznd 
Chapters^ who hnd th'ir Authoriry at fird by Papal Bull?, and have now 
their Exemptions and JurirdiiTtion? continu'd to them only by a Provilb, 
in ^he bia'nte of 25 Htn. VIII. have more Intcreft in liic Convocation 
than tile wiiole Body of the Clergy. Thele are all made either by the 
King or bv the Birho}>!=?. The Sixty Arch-Deacons^ are all of the Bilhop's 
Nomination, and their Authority is of late Date, and bat a Humane Con- 
itiuuion. All this is bdides the Intcreff that the Bifhops have in making 
tiie He rum? of two only out of all thofc who are chofen in the I'cveral 
Aril)-Dcaconries of their Diocefs 5 {o that the Inferiour Clergy can in no 
Sort be u>id tobe equally reprefented there. Hhat Pleafurc foeycr fome angry 
Zealots tniz^ht take in any Thing that jnight bear hard upon fo great anOrna- 
went "f their Churchy there are no unprejudiced Perfons, but think his Lord' 
fl)ip deferycs much better Treatment ^ than Canon l 39, // executed, would 
afford him. 


Chap. X. Mr, Richard Baxter. 251 

but that they would very well bear Canvafing, f it t Either 
feeni'd to them ftrangely and needlefly fevere, that an ^^^9 ^^'''s 
Excommunication muft prefently be Thundred out a- ^'f ^'" '« 

the right, 
or it bath been to very little Turpofe^ thatv^e have had fo many Writings (and 
-many of them bulky too ) lately fuhUpid upon this Matter, and that with 
Warmth and Eagernefs. And really it fcemstodif-interefted Standers-by^ pret- 
ty remarkable, that after fuch Stifnefs in ajjerting the Churches Authority^ as 
to.Ecclefiaftical Matters, it p)ould at laji remain a Controrerfy vphcre this Au- 
thority is to be Indgd. ^Tis in the King, fays Dr. Wake, as it rras heretofore 
in the Chriflian Emperors, and indeed in all Chrifiian Frinces, till the Papal 
Vfurpation. The fame fays Dr. Kennet. / beg your Pardon Gentlemen, fays 
Dr. A. that is a Method that tvould fuhvert the Fundamental Rights and 
tiberties of the thurch and 'Clergy of England. It would bring in Slavery 
into the Church, vfhich will quickly fpread it felf into the State too. A Con- 
vocation hath an inherent Bight of framing Ecclejiafiical Canons, as it is an 
Etclejiaflical Synod. Each Party hath tonftderahle Abettors, and the latter 
Gentleman who undertook the Defence of the inherent Right of the Convocation, 
hath (tnce received conjtderahle Preferment^ as a Reward for his Service. Here- 
upon the Lord Bi/hop of Sarum in his Reflefiiom, page 7, 8 ^ makes this ob- 
fervable Remark. It has pafled (fays he ) gene;rally among the Clergy, 
chat Ecclefiaftical Matters could only be judg'd by Perfons deriving their 
Power immediately from God : And as the Clergy have their Commif- 
iion from him, fo it was a received Dof^rine, that the King likewife had 
ills Power from God ; and that therefore, the Church was to be govern'd 
by the King and the Convocation : And the Book of Canons being rati- 
fied only by the Regal Authority, feems to give fuch Authority to this, 
that a Man ought to be mildly corre^led, if it fliould prove to be a Miflake. 
It could never be tho't Parliaments were jfure Dlvino ■ fo it was a Con- 
fequence fuitable to their Principles, who put our whole Eccleliaftical 
Conftitution on the Bottom of a Divine Right, to fhut this within the 
Hands of rhofe who they believed afted by a Divine Commiffion. I 
(fays he ) was nfver of this Mind. I always tho't that the King was no 
brher Way Head of the Church, xhcn as he was the Head of- the State, with 
whom the Executive Power is lodged, and who is the Head of th.e Legi- 
flative, in Conjunft^ion with the great Body of his Parliament. But this 
Author knows how much tJie Doftrine he advances was condemned, 2nd 
by whom, not long ago : Therefore a little more Temper were but 
Decent, if he tho't fit to find Fault with it. And a little before, fwak- 
ing of Dr. A's Maxim, that the Supremacy is not fingly in the Kin or, 
but is lodged with the whole Legiflature, he thinks fit to make this 
Declaration ; I confefs I was always of this Mind ; but I remember a- 
rnong whom this pafled, not long ago, for little lefs than Herefy. jVo«? 
'tis left to any one to judge, whether it is not odd and unaccountable, that 
we fhould have had f fierce a Contefi here in England, ever fince the Re- 
formation about the Ecclejiafiical Authority, and that among them who 
hav^ been fcruing it up to the utmofi heighth and Rigour againfl their poor 


25i The LIFE of Chap. X. 

D'fentin^ gainft them. And as to the Credit and Reputatiorj^of 
Brethren^ the Canons of any fuch Ecclcfiaftical Synods or Convpr 
(k-/;i cs«/f/ cations, they coutd not help conceiving that that de- 
«c? fee pended more on their Agreeablenefs to the Word of 
Things m (rj^^j^ j.},^^^ ^^ ^1^^ Ccmmendations given them by the 
^ther nid^^^'^^^^ and their Admirers. But that the Church to 
^Jfter 171 ^^^^'^ *^'-^ Saviour had fo often recommended Mildnefs 
be ^a ftif ^"^ Gentlenefs, fhould be but a Word and a Blow, and 
Content .on '^^^""^^ ^'^^^ ^^^ higheft CenfuTes where perhaps there 
Khere it is might bc only a miltake but no Malignity, this the Si- 
tote lodgdi Icnc'd Minifters efteem'd not only adting without a "War- 
Voth it not rant, but unfuitable to a true Chriftian Spirit, and there- 
fare with fore could noc fwear Submiilion. 
thh Ecclc- 

iiaftical Authority here in England,' as with the pretended InfallibiHty in 
the Rom^n Church^ The Fapifis will have it that they have an Intallibiiity 
among them fame where, hut where to lodge it they cannot agree: $ome will 
ha-re it lie in the Fope, othrs in a Gt)icral Ccundl, and cthrsin both jointly. 
So tljefe Gentlemen will have it, that there is a mighty Ecc'Clialtical Au- 
thority, (to decree Rites and Ceremonies, and fctile and promote Uniformi- 
ty, <StC.) fomewhere or other amongj} them., hut whereto lodge it, they 
are not to this Day agreed. Some place it in t1>e King, others in a Conyocati- 
en, and others in the Three F.fiates' of the Realm, King, Lords and Commow^ 
with or withmt a Convocation. And have not Sentimenti in this refpeil 
as much vaiyd in cur Church, with Times, Seafons and Circumftances, as 
th^y have in the Roman Church, about their Darling Infallibility? And ts 
it not manififtly hard that: Canons Piould remain in force, whereby thofe are 
to be Excommunicated, who are not clear about the AutJpority of a Convocati' 
en, when 'tis'e pen at this Day aeknowledg'd by Contenders on buth fides, 
that the Rights and Powers of an Engiifh Convocation have been but little 
enqutr d i/tto? Doth not that enquiry which hat It been fo warmly purfu'd^ 
Tiaturally lead to a farther enquiry into the true Kature, and Extent of that 
Ecclefiafiical Authority.^ which our Blejfed Lord the great Lawgiver of his 
ihurch hith Ir-d^'d in any hands whatfoever bejides his own f For might it 
Tiot as eafily be fuf'^osd much fhould have been taken upon Trufi, and many 
9n'fiales committed, about the Kature and extent of fuch Fower, as about thg 
hands in which it is lodg'd? Could we but fee a^ mud) Fains taken up'.n thi^ 
head, as thtre ha^ been upon the other, we could not but hofe for a good Jjfue 
Till then we think both our fathers and we arc very ja'.rly iufiljiable in rejw' 
Jing Submijfion to Canons, in faming which It Is queftlonahlc whetl^er t})e Ac- 
tors did net over-fhott their Authority. Howeva, to ufe the Bifi)op of Saium'i 
Thrafr^ we cannot but think that a Man ouglK to be nii'dly ConefteJ, (not 
Excommunicated) /'or being Cautlotu and wary in Things of fo duliom a Na-^ 
ture, tht' it P^ould appear, upon a particular CanvajJIng of his ScntimctttSythaf 
he wa< under a miliake. 

Baxter 5 Koitconformity Stated and Argud. pag. 123. 

Chap. X. Mr. ELichardBaxttr. 253 

It hath been pleaded by many, thajt the Oath of 
Canonical Obedience^ doth not oblige to approve of all 
that is in the Camns. To which they AnCwei'd, that 
in their Judgment, the cafe of a Minifter, was much 
the fame as that of a Juftice of Peace. . ^ 

*Tho' ajoftice of Peace be not "^ Mr. OWy^t fays the Cafe of k 
bound by his Oath to approve of ^''^»M ^^ «°^ ^'^' ^^'^^ °1 ^ /»- 
every Law of the I and, yet he is fi'^^ofFeace Det.o/ Min.Conf. 

bound to Execute all of them by f^^oJ, MrMo2dlyf.ysthefan:c, 

his Place, when he is call'd to ict. f '^f" f L^' '^''' ' 

' €- %r \f -A.- 1- t r^ \. lAr It IS fo. andhotPjar not, may 

So alfo a Mmifter taking the Oath ^^ .,^;.^/^^^ ^^^^ ,^ ^^^ f^ 

of. Canonical Obedience, is bound , j^l^d. j^^p^^c. Fan 2. f.r6$i6iQ. 
to Execute the Canons^, and particu- -j- /^. ,7,/^^ ^^o-, 22. 
larly thofe Canons where Excom- 
irsunication isdenounc'd, when cali*d upon by bis Or///- 
iiary. It hath been farther Pleaded, that many of thefe 
Can' n^a^e difus'd, and fo Vacated; like many Laws of 
the Land that are grown otit of ufe. To which, the 
Reply tseafie: That many of the Canons before Men- 
tion'd and Objected againft, cannot be fo much as pre- 
tended to be difus'd ; and many of them were much 
lt£s difus'd at that time, when the Minifters were Ejedt- 
cd, than they have been at feme tim^s fince:, .But ftjU 
fo long as there is neither any Publick Declaration gi- 
ven that might help to diftinguifli among thofe Canons, 
(which were all enadted by the fame Authority) which 
were yet binding, and whvch Superannuated ; nor a 
liberty of judging in the Cafe left to private Miniikrs, 
fo long this Plea appears without any Force. For let 
any of them appear ever fo much difus'd, if the Ordi- 
nary thinks fit to interpofe with his Authority fur the re- 
viving them, the Oath obliges to Submillion. 

2. Another Capital Reafon why they Scrupled at ta- 
king the Oath of Canonical Obedience ^ was becaufe they 
found the Epifcopal Government managed by Chancel- 
Jors Courts, (which were kept in the Bi(hops name in- 
deed, while they in the mean time were not fufFer'd to 
adt in them) where Lay- men Exercife the Church Keyes^ 
by Decretive Excommunications and Abjolutions, They 
found the Word Ordinary roention'd in the Oath, would 
admit of divers Senfes. That it not only meant the 
Bifliop of the Diocefs, but the Judges in their Courts. 
This is the Senfe given by Couftns in his Tables, and 
by all Civilians, And as for the other chief Minifters 


The L IFE of Chap. X. 

added in the Oath, to whom Subjedlion was to be 
Sworn, ihey fa\3v not how lefs could be thereby meant, 
than all the Arch- Deacons^ Officials, Commijfarys and 
r Surrogates, with the reft of the Attendants upon thofe 


The Silenc'd Minifters durft not bind themfelves 

by Oath to a Submilfion of this Nature, for fear of 

* Mr. Concurring to overthrow the Pailoral Office * They 

OUyik fays could not think the Adminiftration of the Sacraments 

tbitt Mini- proper and peculiar to Paftours, if the Keys were not 

ficrs are not 

hound by Oath to thefe Courts. The Oath of Canonical Obedience has not the 
Word Ordinary in it. And he ajftrts that no fart of the Ta/ioral Power is 
taken from the Ministers that Chrisi has given them^ Deh of Min. Conf. 
p. 109. But if the Word Ordinary is not In the Oath, Uls in the Ordination 
Fromife-, which comes much to one. It leaves a great ambiguity ♦, and as 
Thin^^s stand is infnanng. For the King is Supream Ordinary. The Arch- 
hi/hop is the Oidinary of the whole Trovlnce that is under him. The Eljhop 
is Ordinary in his Dlocefs : And yet under this Word are comprizd all fuch 
to whom Ordinary JurifdiClion in Caufes Eccle/ia/iical doth of Right belongs 
whether by Privlledge or by Custom, See Godolph, Reperr, Canon, /». 23. — 
Mr. OUyffe adds, p. 115. That Minljlers are not bound blindly to follow the 
Determination of the Courts in any Thing, eJpeciaUy not in Excommunications 
and Abfolutlons: And no Conftitutlon can be fo perfect. In which Confclent'iotu 
Ferfons may not fame time or other be exposed to Sufferings. Mr. Hoadly 
fays, Reafon of Conf f. 152, that he can't fee how this touches the Matter 
before us. He does not think I can produce any In/iances of Mini/ters th.n 
have fufferd any Thing conjiderable for refufing Obedience. But after all, 
he declares It not fair, and that it looks not fincere, for Men fir ji to offer them- 
felves to the Mini/try in the Church, which is in cffeU to profefs that they are 
ready to Conform to fuch of the Canons as relate to their Behaviour, and art 
now In Force, and afterwards to aCl as they think ft, without regard to tkft 
Canons. To which let It be added, that the preventing any Thing of this kind, 
WM one end of the Oath, (which Is highly probable,) and 1 don't fee that we 
need defire much more, in favour of our Nonconformity in this Ke/^e<ff . Thefe 
Things I have dijiinllly confidefd, Def. of Mod. None Fart 2. p. 942, Scc. 
To which the Reader is referr'd: And he that would fee more of this Matter, 
may confult, Mr. OlIyfFe'5 Second Def. of Min. Conf. p. 297 / Mr. Hondly'i 
Def. 'f the Reafon 0/ Conf. p. 1^5. And my Def". of Mod. None. Fart 9. 

p. 355. &c- d?' />. 41 7, 418. Tor my own Furt, I fhould think it a great 

hardfhip to oblige myfelf. To follow with a glad Mind and Will the godly 
Admonlcions, and rubmic to the godly Jndgmcnts, of Courts managed by tlit 
Canon Law, whici) really have the Ecclejiajiical Fowcr in their Hands^ accord- 
inr to our Conftitutlon, while the Bl/f)opi have but tl/e Name. 

Chap. X. Mr, Rkhird Baxter. 255 

fo too*. For the nloft proper Ufe of the K ys is in a ^id ibid. 
way of Judging who is to be admitied to Sacramental/'^^' 34- 
Communion, and who debar'd u. If only delivering 
the Elements, and not judging to whom, be p oper to 
the Paftour, then is he to fee with other Mens Eyes. 
Now it was their fied Apprehenfion, that in a matter 
of fo great Morpent and Confequence, it was their Du- 
ty to fee with their own E>es, and not Adt blindfold : 
And that our Lord Jefas Chriit had inveftcd all that 
were '^aftours, with that meafure of Power which was 
Necelfi'-v in order to the fecuring the dired: ends of 
their Office. Such Power its true might be abus'd, and 
thereiorc they were not (as fome have charg'd them) 
agSiHlt being Accountable in cafe of fuch an Abufe: 
But then they at the fame time apprehended that aa 
Appeal in fuch a Cafe, would be much more properly 
Lodc'd with a Synod, (whofe having a fixed Prefidenc 
or Bifhop would not have difgufted the Generality of 
them, efpccially if he were chofen by the Synod itfelf) 
or with a Meeting conlifting partly of Minifters, and 
partly of Deputies from the Neighbouring Churches, 
than with a fet of wrangling Lawyers, whofe concern 
in fuch Matters they lookM upon as irrational as well 
as unfcriptural; and whofe Management of them was 
more likely to be Calculated for their own Profit, 
than the Credit of Religion, and the Purity of the 

As for the Provifion made by the B^brich, before 
the Office for the Communion in the Common-Prayer 
Book, vi:(. That when a Miniiler l^eeps any Perfons from 
the Sacrament, hejhould xvithin Forty Days give an Account 
to the Ordinary, that he might proceed again ft them accord* 
ing to the Canons fj they could not acquiefce in it, be- ^ y/,^ g;. 
caufe diffatisfy'd as to the Grounds upon which thefe Or- pj^^p and 
dinarys (whether they were meer Lay- men, fimple Pref- Vhines wh^ 

met in the 
Jerufalem Chamber in 1 641, reprefented this Kubrick (which the Gentlemen I *' 
hare had to do with fo much juftifie) as needing clearing. And it certainly 
does fo, if what is advanced in the Cafe of Reg.ile & Pontificate, p. 179. 
will hold, (as I don't fee but it will) viz. That an AShlon lies againfi the 
Minifiet who jhall refufe the Sacrament, to them who he knows, fees' and 
hears in their Conrerfation and Principles, to be neyerfo much unqualified, 


256 The LIFE of Chap. X- 

bycer<;, or Diocefans) appropriated the Cognizance of 
Matters of this Nacure ro ihemfelves, which in the 
Judgment of common Senfe was more proper for thofe 
that had rhe Opportunity of Perfonal Infpei^ion, than 
for meer Strangers. They were alto confirm'd in their 
diflike of this Method of Procedure, becaufe of the 
Difficulty, Tedioufnefs, Vexatioufnefs and Expeiifive- 
nefs of it ; becaule of the number that muft be accus'd 
if the Canons were foUow'd ; becaufe of the great hin- 
drance it woujd be to them in their Minifterial Work ; 
^ ^^^^ and in a Word, becaufe of the impoflibiliry of keeping 
Baxter ^e- vip 2Lny F^eal Difcipline, in fuch a way. In which they 
elares that Were much Confirmed by Obfervation and Experience *, t^^ 

in the 2$ 

Tears Time that he A'vV under Biffjops^ he never knerp one that wm kept ^bm 
the Sacrament except a Puritan, vho [erupted to take it Kneelin^^ 5 Diipu 
t3t. of Church CovtrnTnenr. Advert, p. 16. ' . • 

t The Church Party themfelves have not been infenfible of Corruptions tn thli 
Eefpef}. Ammg others., Bijhop Burnet at the dofe of hit excellent 
the Reformation., Koies d>at there was one Thing (we could heartily rotfh 
there were no wore) yec Wanting to complect' the Reformation of thre 
Churdi^ which w;is the reftoiing a Primkive Difci^)Iine agarnVl: 5cand^I«^Us 
Pcrfons, the Eftabfifliing the Governmtnt of the Chuich-'iri Eisilefiiftical 
Hand?, and taking it out of Lay-hands, who hays fo long pi^pHan'd ir, 
and liave expos'd tha Authority of the Chl^rcfh, ia.fid the Cenfut^s of it, 
ch'itily Excommunicationy to the contempt oij-tlT6) Ration,; by, which the 
Reverence due to Holy Thing?, is, in fo great, a Meifure loftjanddfed-read- 
fullcfl of sll Cenfure?^ i^now become the moit Scorned and Defpifed. 
A^^rid^cment., pag. \69- -. ■ '.> . 

Neither is this the only great DefcCh tvh'ch this Worthy Bifhop hae 9hfeTvd 
among «*. ' fr,r in hi* noble Difcourfe of the Partbral Care, p. 95"^ 96, he 
hath taken notice of Pluralities and Non-Refidence, as allowed by an ASi 
vfhich paft in the Reign of Henry Vlll. which he fays has been the oc'cajion 
of much Diforder and Scandal in this Church: Adding.^ that he had not been 
able to findf that apy fuch Ait ever faji^ in any kingdom or State in thri- 
fiendom. ' And that the Council of Trtnt, had in thefe refpefis made Provi- 
fons a'^alnfi Abufes, which art ftiU. fuppcrted by Lavs ar^ong tu. 

And as to the fubmitting to the Determinations and 
Injundlions of thefe Ordinaries, in which they had not 
by this Oath and Covenant fo much as a Judgment of 
Dilcrction left them, they durft not engage, or bind 
themfelves, for fear of approving Sacrilegious Pro- 
phanencfs. For if it be fo fi>r nicer Lay-men uncall'd 
and unqualify'd, lo ufurp the oiher Pans of the Pafto- 

Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 257 

ral Office, particularly the Adtiiiniftration of the Sa- 
crament, (as ic is generally efteem'd) then they con- 
ceiv'd it muft be fo too, for them to ufurp the Power 
of the Keys. And if the Bifliops took it for tJfurpati- 
on in Presbyters^ to take Upon them to exercife Power 
in this Cafe, as fuppofing ic Proper and Peculiar to tHem- 
felves, they could not fee, why they fliould not judge ic 
much more fo in Lay-men. 

As for Excommunications and Abfolutidns they 
look'd upon them as very weighty Matters, and durft 
not agree to trifle in them. If the Bifhops could truft 
their Confciences with their ChancelJours ^, and leave ^ Qg^j. 
them to pafs Sentence in their Names, without ever fvey Good- 
hearing or trying the Caufss depending; and fufferman, 
them to Excommunicate Perfons for them, tho' they Bi/hop 
knew not on whom they pafs'd that heavy Cenfure, of Glou- 
nor why they did it, it was to themfelves; as the Mi- cefter, 
nifters could not underftand it, fo neither could they ^*» '"'^ ^l^' 
help it ; and they were not refponfible for it: But whctif^" *° "^^ 
they brought thefe Matters home to their own Door, ^J^^ My/tc 
and requir'd of them, that they alfo (hou Id truft their ^'"» ^^',> 
Confciences in the fame Hands, they defir'd to be ex- ^^^ ^^^^ 
cus'd, till they were better fatisfy'd in the Point. They p^^^j^^e an 
could not yield to Receive and Publilh their Excommu: Order undet 
nications blindly, Icaft they (hould be chargeable with tfj^ jUngs 
their Irregularities and Abufes ; and be the Inftrumems own Hani 
of molefting, worrying, and ruining, as Religious and Seal^ 

vpherein he 
forbids that any Church Man or Prieft in Holy Orders^ fhould be a Chancellor. 
And this he reprefents a* the occdjlon of all manner of Corrupiitns. Some have 
been deUverd over to Satan for a Groat. This has made Excommurticatioti 
contemptible. Vor 'tis hard to perfvpade weak Under ft andinrs that that can be 
of God^ which has but one Puniff?ment for aU forts of Crimes : Or that treats 
ihofe 06 ill that fcruple a Ceremony^ as the Committers of Whoredom or any o- 
ther deadly Sin. Eift)op Taylor in his Du£ior Dubitantium tells »<, that 
for a trifling Caufeto cut a Man off from the Communion of the Churchy is to 
do as the Man in the Fable, who efpylng a Vly upon his Neighb'jurs Forehead^ 
9ire»t to beat it off with an Hatchet, and fo (irook out his Brains. And yet 
a grave Adyijer, who fint me a Packet of Hints lately, put together with 
great Warmth And Zedt^ here fo far forgets his Chara^er, as to tell me in fa 
many Words, That the Queen and Parliament may Pafs an A£t if they 
pleafe, that any Man that befliits himfelf (hall be Excommunicated. Which 
fnethinks difc'/vers little real refpeU either to Chursb vr Stdte^ in om that fU" 
iendi fi mu(h Zeal for bath-^ 

158 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

Perfons perhaps as any in their Parifties, Nor durft they 
Confent to Publilh the Abfolutions of notorious De- 
bauchees, who have given (it may be) no other Proof 
of Repentance of their Crimes, befides Paying the Fees 
of the Court. Thefe Things they well knew expos'dthe 
* Id Ibid. Cenfures of the Church to Scandal and Contempt, and 
page 105. therefore they were unwilling to give an helping Hand *. 
And to take fuch an Oath as this of Cancmcal Obedi- 
ence, and make fuch a Covenant, with a Referve to 
themfelves, afterwards to demur upon the Commands 
of the Ordinary, when agreeable to the ftanding Rules 
of the Ecclefiaftical Adminiftraiion; or make light of 
the Cnnons^ which where delign'd to be the ftanding Rulea 
of their Obedience, before they were repeal'd and fa- 
perfeded ; they could not look upon as any oiher than 
egregious Diifimulation : And therefore they thut it 
much fafer to wave this Oath altogether, and keep them- 
felves free from any fuch enfnaring Bond. 
t This IV. They were alfo requir'd to Abjure the Solemn 
Abjuring League and Covenant \, For the A<fl for Uniformity 
///g Cove- 
nant teas reckon d a yery great hardfnp by the generality of the Miniflers vpho 
rfeteLjeCied in 1662. This kept fereral from Conformity^ who comply d after 
1682, when they were no longer cb/igd to it : And yet Mr. Ollyffe when he 
wrote againji this Chapter^ would lay afidc all Confideration of it.^ Def. o/Min. 
Conf /». 4. Tfor does Mr. Hoadly think fit to fay any Thing concerning it. 
J fhall therefore add nothing farther concerning it-, except a remarkable Faf- 
fage which comes to me well Attejied, tffhich fhews how eajily Perfom may be 
drawn in to do as their Neighbours^ taking Tl}ings by the Greaty without due 
Confideration. A certain Kentijh Gentleman finding himfelf decline through 
Age, lookd over a conliderable Collection of Papers he had by him, 
which he had been making for many Years, and divided them into two 
Heaps ; intending the one for the Flames, and the other to be preferv'd 
for the ufe of Poilerity. Bf'-ing thus employ'd, he was vrilted by the Mi- 
rifter of the Parifh ; who inquir d the Reafon of his thus dividing his 
Papers, which the Gentleman freely told him. It fo fell our, that a Co- 
py of the Solemn Lea^^ue and Covenant before ic pafl the Two Houfes, pre- 
fentcd itfelf among tiie reft to the Clergyman's View. The Clergyman 
defir'd the perufal of it, faying that he had never yet read the Covenant. 
IhQ Gentleman told him that was very ftrange, fince he had in exprefs 
Terms rtno incd if, and dechr'd to all the World that it oblig'd none 
that took it. Which was a Thing he was fo little aware of, that the 
Gentleman was forc'd to fetch his Common Trayer Book, and turn him to 
the Deciaiacion in the A(l of Uniformity, for his Convit^ion. 


Ghap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 259 

obJig'd all Ecclefiafticks before the Feaft of St. B/ir^/jo- 
lomexv i66z, to Subfcri'oe a Declaration in thefe Words. 
I A. B. do Declare^ thnt I do hold there lies no Obligation 
upon me or any other Perfon from the Onth commonly called 
the Solemn League and Covenant^ to endeavour any Change 
or Alteration of Goverriment, either in Church or State I 
And that the fame was in it/elf an unlawful Oath ; and 
iynpos\{ upon the SubjeBs of this I(ealmy againft the l{nowh 
Laws and Liberties of this Kingdom, 

Tho' many of the Minifters who Were Ejedted had 
not taken this Covenant, and more of them were all along 
againft the impddug it, yet would not their Confciences 
allow them to yield to fuch a Renunciation as this, for 
which a Parallel can hardly be found in any Age. They 
were convinc'd, that although a Vow ihould be (infiilly 
impos'd and finfully taken, it yet binds in a Matter that 
is lawful and neceflfary ; and they found this was the 
Determination of the moft celebrated Cafuifts. Pare i 

of this Covenant they were convinc'd was both lawful 
and neceffary, and therefore they could not declare Per- 
fons free from all Obligation by it, without violating 
the Rights of Confcience. Every Mans endeavour- 
ing in his proper Place and Sphere to alter Church- 
Government, as far as he was convinced of its being 
faulty, appear'd to them a Matter of Duty; and a 
Thing to which that Covenant fo far obliged all that 
took it, as that all the Princes and Prelates in Chrijien^ 
dom, could not give a Difpenfation in the Cafe. Buc 
for every one in Holy Orders to determine for all in 
Three Kingdoms that took the Covenant, that they, 
were no way oblig'd by ir, they efteem'd an unpreli- 
dented Inftance of AlTuming. They remembred that 
King Charles himfelf had taken it in Scotland, With all 
pbflible Appearance of Serioufnefs 

and Solemnity"^; and durft not ^ King Ch2Aes took the Cove- 
therefore hazard that Kings Soul by nam Three feyeral Times: At 
concurring in fo Lax a Publick Ca- the Confummation of the Treaty 
fuiftical Determination, as Ihould on the other fide the Seas -^ at his 
Confirm him in the^belief, that he Landing in Scotland, and at the 
was oblig'd to nothing by the Cove- Time of his Coronation there, 
nant, as far as what it contain'd 
was Lawful : Nor could they fee how they (hould have 
been able to anfwer it to God if they had. It was 
pleaded, the Covenant was againft the Laws of England i 

S 2j Be 


26o The LIFE of Chap. X. 

Be it fo ; yet they could not find it fo much as pretend- 
ed, it was againit the Laws of Scotland: And therefore" 
tho' it had beenown'd, that it had not oblig'd Men 
here in Englnnd^ yet they could not fee what Warrant 
they had to determine, it (hould bind none in the King- 
dom of Scotland. But in Ihort, they durft not run the 
Hazard of tempting the King bimfelf, and Thoufands 
of his Subjects in the Three Kingdoms, to incur the 
Guilt of Perjury^ or of hardning them under that 
Guilt ; by declaring they were no way oblig'd by Co- 
venanting, what could not be made appear to be un- 
lawful. The Minifters would have been free, to have 
fubfcribM, that the Covenant bound no Man to be falfe 
to the Government they were under, or Rebellious a- 
gainft the King, or to endeavour to alter our Monarchy, 
or deprive the King of any of his juft Rights and Pre- 
rogatives ; they would have given their Hands, that 
ihey would never endeavour to change any Part of 
Church-Government which Chrift had inftituted for 
Continuance, or which bad a tendency to contribute to 
Purity, Peace or Order ; nay, they would have abjur'd 
all Atcempis to introduce any fort of Change in the Ec- 
cleliaftical Settlement in a Tumultuous and Illegal Way : 
* Baxtei'iBut further they durft not go, for fear of contributing 
Honcotifor- to a National Guilt*. 

mity Stated 

and Ari^udt p^^ge 12^. UU Tied for Teacc, page 2c8. Corhet^s Remains^ 
page 167. , Troughton'5 Apology for the fionconformifts^ page 58. The 
Short Surrey of the Grand Cafe of the Trefent Miniflry^ page 25, 

, V. Befidesthe Oath of Ahgiance and Supremacy^ all 

ohrer^'db ^" ^*^^y Orders were by the Aa of Uniformity oblig'd 
^//.T^ieice^^ Subfcribe another Political Declaration or Acknow- 
in ins Con- ^^'^8"^^"^ of thisTenour ; / A. B. do Declare, that it k 
formids ^°^ Lawful upon any Pretence wbatfoever, to take Arms a- 
Plea for g^^^ft ^^^ Kl^gl ^^^ ^'■'^^ I do abhor that Traiterotti Pcfiti^ 
the None on of talking Arms by his Authority flgninft his Perfon, or 4- 
P. I. p. ig.gain^ thofe that are Comjni[fionated by bim\. 
That that 

tt^h ch all the An^ and Wit^ and Interefi, of fame Men in great Place and 
Power in the Houfe of Lords^ could not make to pafs, but was cppoi'd with 
that cleiirnefy and cc^cncy of Reufon, and that Rifolution^ as if they were fa- 
ying a A'atwn^ By refifling the 7Vy?, {he refers to the Tear^ '^75j '*pbich ■ 
could not p<iji into a BUl-^ mufi ncedi bv hard to bt impoid on Minifters^ 


Chap. X. Mr. R^ichard Bixter. 261 

Tho' the Silenced Minifters were a$ Free as any for 
the Oath of Allegiance, and ready to give the Govern- 
ment any Aflbrance that could reafonabiy be defir'd of 
a peaceable Subje(9:ion, yet they were not for Making, 
and Sabfcribing this Declaration, for Fear of contribu- 
ting to the betraying the Liberties of their Country. 
For being fenfible, that it is was very poffible for the 
Lavv, and the Kings Comn^iffion to be contrary to each 
other, they efteem'd ic the Duty of EngUfomen as free 
People, to adhere rather ro the former than. the latter • 
but could not difcern how the fo doing could be recon- 
cil'd with this Declaration. They were told, that a 
iVrit being upon a Pubiick Occafion fued out, and 
coming to the Sheriffs Hands ; if any Perfons fhould 
oppofe the Execution by the King's Perfonal Conamand 
or Commiflion, and the Sheriff ihould raife the Poffe 
Comitatui upon them, he herein Aded by the Kings Au- 
thority. For, by the Kjngs Authority is aS one ai by the 
haWy or in the Name of the I\i*ig, according to Lnxv. See- 
ing therefore the Sheriff of a County might Adt a* 
gainft Oppofers in fuch a Cafe, notwithftanding their 
Commiflion, the Law bearing him out, they could 
not fee upon what Grounds the Poficion defign d to be 
renounced by this Declaration, could be reprefented as 
TraiterouSy and to be abhorrd. They could not fee 
why a Nation fhould be fo folicitous about Laxvs for 
its Security, if a Chancellor who keeps the Kings 
great Seal be above them all, and may by fealing 
Commijfions caft them off at Pleafare. Withal, to ex- 
clude all Exceptions, in fuch a Declaration as this, by 
a Claufe of that Nature, not on any pretence whatfoevery 
feem'd to them to be a Deftrudion of Property, a fa- 
crificing all that was dear and valuable to the Wiil of 
the Prince, and the Lufts of his Courtiers, by difabling 
Men to defend their Lives, Liberties, and Ellates, 
when Attack'd by fuch as pretended to be Commiifiona- 
ted. It feem'd to them very harlh, that upon Suppoli- 
tion the Papifis Ihould either by Power or Surprize have 
gotten the King at any Time into their Hands (as the 
Duke of Guife once dealt with the French King) and 
have prevail'd with him for fear of his Life, to grant 
Commiflions under his Hand and Seal deftrudlive to 
the Church and State, that the Nation hereupon muft 
be inevitably ruind, and King and Kingdom loft 

S 5 by 

.^62 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

by fuch 00^:1X11(1100$, which none fhould dare to cp- 
pcfe : This appear'd' to them fo grofs that they could 
110!: fwallow ir. They were fo weak as to efteem Self- 
Defence a Part of the Law of Nature 5 and to think 
that ihe Body of a Nation have by that Law a Self -de- 
fer:dir.g Pc;wcr againft their notorious afTauIting Foes: 
But it was their Comfort under this their Weaknefs, to 
have fo good Connpanions, as the Noble Old Greeks 
and Romans^ Philofophers, Oratours and Hiftorians; 
the Ancient Bifhops of the Church, and Chriftian Cler- 
gy in the Primitive Times ; the ?opi[h Cafuiftical Wri- 
ters, and ihe mod celebrated Writers of Politicks whe- 
ther Pnfifts or Protefiants; the moft celebrated Modern 
Hiftorians, Civilians, and Canonifts ; particularly fuch 
Men as Thuanui, Gothofred^ Barclay^ and Grotius ; toge- 
ther with fuch eminent Perfons even in the Church of 
England, as Bilnop Bilfcn^ Biftiop Jeremy Taylor, and 
Mr. Hocksr, herein concurring in the fame Opinion 
with them ; and they had more Modefty than at one 
* BaxteiM dafh to mn down all thefe as deceived and in the wrong*. 
mnconfoY' And in reality, after all the Clamours of their infulting 
tnity Stated Brethren, they were very well fatisfy'd Aiat they who 
andArgud. were moft forward for this Declaration, and moft fierce 
page 1^4. and eager in running down and expofing thofe who 
Short Sur- f^rupled it, would not keep to it, if at any Time they 
yey of the £q,j^^ Things were come to Extremity; as the Event 
^rand Cafe ^.^^-^c^^^^ pof ^fcer all the Noife that was made in all 
%n'^Jini'- ^^^^^ °^ ^^^ Nation, of the Traiteroufnefs of the Pofi- 
%' tion, of taking Arms by the Kings Authority, againft 
20. 7'he hisPerfon, *or thofe Commiirionated by him ; and of 
Tcacenble the unlawfulnefs of doing fo in any Cafe whatfoever, 
P<? w«^ or a Time at length came upon the Landing of a certain Pei-* 
Mldefi Ac- Ton callV the .Prince of Orange^ when in Order to the 
ff'UHt cf the ^ccunng Religion, Liberty, and Pr(jperty, all Ranks 
Noncon- and Qiialities both of Clergy and Laity, finding room 
formifts fQj. g particular Exception (where they would before 
Meetings^ allow o^ no Cnfe yehatfocver) ventur'd to join with a 
V^?>-^9' For 'gn Prince whom ihcy had call'd in to their Alli-r 
ftanco, againft the Perfon of their Sovereign King 
Jar?}es, and thofe who were CommifTionated by him. 
And as for the poor Ejc-dted Minifters, who endur'd 
fLich hardfhips for refuling this Declaration, they came 
off with this Honourable Teftimony from Impartial 
Spe<5latoiiis, which will be given them by Pofterity, 


Ch;ip. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 165 

though it fhouW be gmdg'd them by the Prefent Agc^ 
that by that Refufal of theirs, they in their feveral 
Places and Stations heJp'd as much as in them lay, to 
Pave the Way for that Late Glorious Revolution, to 
wiiich we owe all our Prefent Happinefs, and all our 
Future Hopes ; while the Promoters of this Declaration 
and all that adher*d to it, could contribute nothing in 
the Cafe, without bidding Defiance to their moft dar- 
ling Principle ; the Principle which for Twenty Years 
together had made the Pulpits Ring, and the Prefs Groan. 
It muft be own'd that thefe Two Laft Points, of 
Kenouncing the Covenant, and Subfcribing the Politi- 
cal Declaration againft taking Arms in any Cafe vQheitfo* 
ever, have not for fotne time been infifted on, with 
fuch as enter the Miniftry in the Eftabli(h'd Church. 
The former was fix'd by the Adl but till 1682, and 
then it drop'd of Courfe. The Latter continu'd till our 
Late Revolution, and then (as it was high Time) was 

For fuch Reafons as thefe, the Minifters who were 
Ejecfbed, durft not comply with the Ad: of Uniforojity, 
and fall in with the National Eftablilhment. Hereup- 
on they have been generally afpers'd, and blacken'd 
with all imaginable Freedom. But this muft be acknow- 
ledg'd after all ; that if they err*d in this Matter, it was 
ior fear of erring ; and therefore they deferv'd RelpecS: 
rather than Reproach, becaufe they adled like Men of 
Integrity, according to the Light they had. Some of 
them were more influenced by fome of thefe Conside- 
rations than oihers were; but all put together gave 
them abundant Satisfa£tion in quitting their Livings, 
when they found they could not keep them with the 
Peace and Safety of their Confciences. Tho' in reality 
it is own'd by the beft Cafuifts, that if but one Thing, 
which after Search and Enquiry they apprehended to be 
finful, had been made neceflary to their continuing iii 
their Places, they bad been bound to have left them. 
Here were a great many Things, which they faw 
not how they could yield to, without Sin: And 
therefore they forbore. There were none of them, 
but would have yielded to what would have been 
fufficient to have made them Minifters, in the Apo- 
files Days or after: But the Yoke now impos'd was 
(o heavy, that neither they nor their Fathers were 

S \ able 

264 The Lift of Chap. X. 

able to bear it ; and tho* their Fathers had been for ma- 
ny Years complaining, yet was it made heavier noW, 
than ever it was before. 
Jteafons of ^° ^^^^ hence- for ward the Church Doors were fhut 
the. ejecled "pon them With Contempt, and others fill'd their vacant 
Minifters^ Pujplts : AnJ they were left to fpcnd their Time iii 
for conti- Solitude and Retirement, preparing thcmfelves for ano-^ 
7JM/«;^j»r/;e ther World, as being of no farther Ufe in this. They 
Minifirf. were much perfwaded to lay down their Miniftry, when 
they were deny'd the Liberty of exercifing it publick- 
ly; but the Generality of them, could not be fatisfy'd 
upon many Accounts. They fearM the Guilt of perfi* 
(i ) Mr. dious breaking their Ordination-Vow^ (i.) by which they 
Hoadly in oblig'd thcmfelves to the diligent Performance of their 
hii Reafon Miniftry. They were afraid of the Sin of Sacriledge in 
of Conf. alienating Perfons who were Confecrated to God. It 
Tart 2. had to them a very ftrange Appearance, that their Bre- 
p- 10, &c. thren (hould fo much aggravate the Sacriledge of aliena- 
J^y^, he jjj^g confecrated Utenfils and Lands, when they at the 
y , - fame Time were fo forward to alienate confecrated Per- 
M'nifteri ^°"^' *"^ difcovcr'd fuch an Approbation of it: When 
expreflypro'^^'^^^ their Apprehenfton the Lands and Goods, were 
misd when t>^^ to ferve the Perfons, who were employ'd in the Di- 
theydeyoted vine Service. Many of their People claim'd the Con- 
themfehes tinuancc of their Relation and Miniftry, and having 
to the Ser- givcn Up themfelves to their Conduct in Divine 

yice of God^ 

but nothing ought to be implfd in fuch a Vow and Dedication^ that if con' 
trary to the Service of God, and inconfiflent with the good of the Chrt/iian 
Church And that therefore if their Ends might be better promoted, by for fa- 
hng the Mlniilry than continuing in it^ they would neither have been perfidi- 
oj^ nor facrilegious if they deferted it, but rather if they continued in it. My 
Pep/y^ in Def of Mod. None. Part 3. page <5, S'c is thU : That when Fer. 
fom duly qualified do derote ihemfelres to the Service of God in the Work of the 
Alnifiiy^ 7m ne(ejfarily imply d (whether it be expreft or no) that they engage 
to y,/ake that the Bujinef of their Lires. And when thry are thin en^agd, 
though a change of Circumfiances may occafion a -variation in the manner of 
their exercifing tJmr Miniftry.^ yet no change of Circumfiances can make their 
continuing in the Minifiry^ (oi far <w they hare a Natural and Moral Capa- 
city, and real Opportunity) ceafe to be their Duty. Tior can 1 fee how their 
aCling in this Sacred Ojfce, according to the "Rule of the Word, can ever be 
c mrary to the Seryice of God, or really imonji/ient with tie Good of the Chri- 
plan church. 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 265 

Things, beg*d they would not defert them. {2.) They (2.) Mr. 
profefs'd they could not truft their Souls to the Pafto-Hoadly'^ 
ral Guidance and Care, of a great many of thofe who Reafon. of 
were plac d in the Churches in their ftead ; and de-Conf. P. 2. 
clar'd, that if they Ihould forfake them, they would ^ »t', 52c. 
Charge them with negle6l of their Souls, whofe Care|^^j' y'"*^ 
they had undertaken. So that they feared the Sin or^Jll/'^ ^ 
Unfaithfulnefs, Cruelty, and Unmercifulnefs, and^^ ^r ^^^^ 
incurring the Guilt of ruining Souls by flopping their /^^^^^ ^^ 
own Mouths. The Magiftratcs Authority was indeed ^;,g ^^-^^^^ 
againft them ; but they found themfelves under a fo- Min'fiers^ 
lemn Obligation to an higher Authority to fulfil their 7«/V/;t b^ 
Miniftry as they were able, when fought to for help \induced by 
for negleding which, they could not difcern how ih^their own 
Command of the Magiftrate could furnilh them with-4f^<^'o»« 
a juft Excufe. Should they have been commanded to^o them^ 
forbear feeding their Children, or relieving the Poor ^^^ ^^»y 
and diftrefs'd, they (hould have fear'd bemg charg'd ^^ Z^'^'*! 
with Murdering them, if they dy'd thro' their Neg- ^V^^"^|^^^^ 
Jed ; And in like Manner they were apprehenfive of ^^ reoj^ 

them ftiil 
tn Mini fief to them ; but that he cannot fee that it follows from thence^ that 
therefore they ought. And. he ashs^ if they never remoVd from the People, 
who thftt intreated them ? He frames a long Speech for the Jilenc'd Mini" 
fiers to their People^ and fays^ they might have made fuch a Speech with a 
faft Confcience. But had he had the Care of the Souls of a Parijh and been 
ownd by God, and done much good : Had he then been filenc'd by Authority 
for not complying with fnme Things as to which his Confcienc« after his utmojl 
Enquiries remained dijfatisfed : Had his Place been for fame Time unfup' 
th'^ 5 y^ f'''*^ '/ ht continued not his Miniftry among them, they mufi have 
had nt Ordinances, no Puhlich [Vorfhip amongfi them ^ (which actually was 
tlje Cafe of Mr. Qujck, and fame others) and had the poor People whom he 
had been Paflor to, adjured him by all that was facred^ that if he had any 
yalue for their Souls, he would continue his Miniftry among them : I can 
hardly queftion, whether he would have comply'd with them ; or fhould 
he have refused, I know not how he could have anfwered for his fo doin<r. 
But it by no Means however follows, That a Minifter muft necejfarily think 
himftlf flah'^d down for Life in the Congregation to which he is once related 
as a Pafior, becaufe he tho^ prohibited by Authority, thinks himfelf oblig'd to 
continue his Labours among a People, that God has made him ufeful to, and 
to regard their Cries and Entreaties on that behalf.^ as long as they are either 
'.vholly deflitute of a Mini ft er, or have one fent to Officiate among them^ 
»ho is notorioujly unfit for that f acred Work^ &c. Def. of Mod- Nonconf. 


266 The L I F E of CI, ip. X. 

their beino; • ii / ^^able ."ith the Gojif'^'q'ience': f neg- 
lecting ro prom re the gou-l of So- !s in a A .i.itenal 
^ Way, n\.ulci any rcfifh an^ bo i^^O, w'lo w 'ie were 
able to h'AC a'.liiieii and infl'lUt.llcd. The Curfe and 
- . Donrr- of rhc u:)pjotira^*le St- r ant tb^t hid his Talent, 
HoVdh' ^ ^'^'^' ^5- "''ijch atfcded them j (3 ) and they co-dd not 
Reaion'fl/" ^'"^^ ^^^ Thot's of expoiint^, themfelses to a like Treat- 
ConF P. 2. "^^'1^- V/xcbal, they fo^nd rhe NccelTities of the Peo- 
T- 2 4i/'«>s P'^ ^" "^^^^ ^^^''P °^ ^^'^ Nation great, no' withftanding 
He de>ue> ^^^ ^cg^l ProvifioH fof them ; many Minifters in the 
w: ^«t r W Pubhck Churches having more Souls to look after, 
many (.f thar. feveral would be fufRcient for. (4.) And at the 

them mi^ht 

hnvtf $cen tci , p.^jxiahlc Stryanti in the Mini/try^ had they conttnu'd in tf^ 
F-jJah/ jhd Chur<h i but he denies that they reould have been condemned as utt' 
profitable Servants^ had they la'd down the Pub/ick Exercife of that Office^ 
^hcn they could mt join rvith the Ff}abliff)'d Church : Becaufe he thinks by 
ddinr pj they rvmld haye confulted the Peace of the Church, and the Honour 
of God^ 7i? ithout putin^ thernfches out of all Capacity of doing good to the 
$_ouls of Men. My Reply, Def. of Mod. Nonconf. p. 20, &c. is this, if 
they would hare been profitable in the Miniftry had they conform d, it mufl be 
oeca?*fe they were well qualified for Service, if then for Peace fake they had 
remain d unemployed, their Talent had remained unoccupied 5 and therefore^ 
they had been unprofitable Seryants in the truefi Scnfe : And that there'' s no 
Compart fon between the helping many Souls to Heayen that -would haye been 
confequent in one Cafe, and an Agreement in Forms and Cercnwnies under the 
potion of promoting the Peace of the Church ', which was the only Thing fel- 
low' d in the other Cafe. In the mean Time, the Minifiers that were ejefiedy 
begi'd for Peace, and refund nothing in order to it that they could do, without 
dijhonouring God, ^nd doing Violence to their Confidences: And as Things were 
managed, had they Comply d, and been alto<rether Jilent, they had been fo far 
fr-im confulting the true Peace of tjje Church, that they bad encouraged Cliurch 
Tyranny and Impofiiion, which when or.ce giyen Way to^ is hardly capable of 
any Bounds. 

(4) /.I anfwer to this, Mr. Ho:^dly, Reifon. of. Conf. P. 2. p. 1^- fays. 
That it is 7tot fimere to alledge in Vindication of their Puhlick Minifirations 
what tJyey thcmfehes knew was not the true Keafon of their continuing them, 
yind ihdt fuch a Practice as their' s could not pofjihly he founded upon fuch a 
Keafon as thi<. He by no Means owns any real I^ecejjity for their Publick Mi' 
nifirations : But fays, tins could not be the true Keafon of their Praflice-, and 
therefore ought not to be alledgdin Jufti^cation of it. My Keply, Dci. of 
Mod. None. p. 3. />. 27, <S.c. is this, That haying a Talent which they were 
bound to improye to the Honour of the Donor, and the Good of their Vellow 
Servants :, the Confidcration of the Necejfitief of the People in mofi Parts of the 
JNation, })elps to clear their Hay : In a4 much as it prefents them with an Opr 
portunity of fame Serrice, and room for being in fome Mcafure t*feful, not' 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 267 

fame Time without being at all. Cenforious, it was too rviihfiand' 
evident to them, that fandry of them were infufficient *"«? the hfs 
and unqualify'd. (5.) And making the beft of Things, ''Z '^^^ ^^'^' 
they found that populous Cities, and the ignorant Parts f/^^"^^" 
of the Country, needed more help, than the Parim Mi- ^""JJ^"^^^^^^ 
nifters did, or could afford them. They were withal af- Zmpllm'r 
feaed with many Paffages of facred Scripture ; fomeof ^/^^-^'^^J^, 
which intimate the Duranon of the Minifterial Office, cefary im- 
ivbere there is once a Conveyance (6.), Ai4^5.I3,1 4, (^c.pofitions. 
Mat. 28. 19, 20. Eph. 4. 10, &c. I T/w. 4. 15, 16. ^5.) Mr, 
Mat. 24. 45, 46, 48. And others of them plead for the Hoadly,t/e- 
Neceflity of Preaching, even when the Magiftrate for- nies not^ 
bids. (7.) As ABs 4. 19. 5. 28. I Cor,c^. 14, 16. AHs Reafon. of 
4. 29. 2 Tim. 4. I, 2. I Tim. 6. 15, 14, ^c. And they ^^^'f- ^- 2- 
found it was their Duty, to pray for the fending^ in of^' 3 Y^^' 
faithful Labourers, Mat ^9. 38. Luke 1 o. 2. And could ^"^ ^,. 

fuffkknt " 
Minifters in the Lftahli(f)'>d Churchy and yet wonH allow this a fujficient Eea- 
fon for the People to join with feparate Churches : Becaufe fiill the Church has 
Tnade fufficient Frovifion for them. And he adds^ That in the Places where 
this Plea might be urg'd with the hefi Grace, 'tis odds whether the People get 
any Thing by forfahng their Parifl) Minifier, &c. / anfwer, That let the 
/landing Frovifion of the Church for the ajjifiing Perfons in their Way to Hea- 
yen, be ever fo good of the Kind, it yet does not follow either that an hnnefi 
Chriflian in 1662, was bound to prefer an ignorant carelefs Minifier that wof 
fent as a Succcffor before his former Paflor, under whom he had found much of 
Gods Prefence ; or that the Minifier that had fuch a Succejfcr Was bound to 
he filent upon his coming, though the People earneftly prejfed for tJje Conti- 
nuance of }}is Labours, &c. Def. 0/ Mod. None. P.-^.p. gg, 

(6.) Mr. Hoadly, Reafon. of Conf. P. 2. j- 48, fays, That fuppofing 
there once was a Conveyance of the Minifterial Office^ yet there is nothing in a- 
ny of the fe Paffages winch intimates 'the Duration of it contended for : And 
he examines them particularly for feyeral Pages together. I reply ^ that it is 
eno" to anfwer the End for which thefe Paffages are produCd, if they prove^ 
that the Minifierial Office is for Life^ whefe the Ends of it are fecufd ^ which 
I endeavonr to manifeji and confirm by particular RefieCiions on the fey era/ 
Scriptures cited, Def. of Mod. None. P. g. ^.4?, &c. 

(7.) Air. Hoadly, Reafon. of Conf. P. 2. p. 6c, &c. fays, He knows 
none that mantains that the meer Command of the Magifirate, is fu^ient to 
oblige a Minifier to lay afide the Publick Exercife of ijis Office : But adds. 
That there may be Confiderations fufficient enough to induce a Minifier to c^m- 
fly with fuch a Command of the Magifirate ; and that thefe Texts Jjave 
nothing in them againfi this. My Anfwer may hefetn^ Def. ©/ Mod. None. 
P. 3. p. 49 


2 68 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

not but think the fending up of fuch a Requeft to God 

a mocking of him, wliile fuch as the7 were, ceas'd to 

labour, who had been call'd and qualify 'd, own'd and 

^?. ) Mr. fucceeded. ( S. ) In fliorr, maturely weighing the 

Koadiy, whole Matter, rhey afcer the narroweft fearch, appre- 

Reaion. of hended ir an indifpenGble Duty lying upon them as 

Conf. P. 2. Men and Miniiters, by the Obligation of God's Law of 

^,65, /ajs Charity, and by the binding Force of their own Vows 

TJtat fup- -J. ^.j^gjj. Self-Dedication to the Service of God in his 

^McS' ^°"^^' ^^ ^^ ^^^'^ ^^^ *" ^^'^ Exercife of all their Ta- 
lerltioT' ^^"^^' Humane, Chriftian, and Miniftcrial, to feek 
hemcittioKs ^^ ^^^'^ Peoples Souls ; and therefore to preach or 
taken from ^^^^^ ^"d exhort them, in the Manner that appeared 
the Tublick ^^ '^-ni moft conducible thereunto. ( 9.) They could 
Good, they '^c't fee whence either Civil Magiftrates or Bilhops had 
had ceafed any Power to Doom them to utter Silence, fo long as 
fom their they could not prove upon them, either Apoftacy, He- 
Laaours in refy, or Perfidioufnefs, or any Thing inconfiftent with 
JPublick, the PuMick Peace. And therefore perfifting in that 
^ '""*"'' Work which God- and the NecefTitics of Souls call'd 
^,-'^^^- them to, they iho't Patience their Duty, as to all Suf- 
ihisPeti- ^^^^^^^ ^^^V might meet with : In which Refpe£l they 
tion hut ^n^^avour'd to Aral themfelves as ftrongly as was 
the^ might Poflible*. 
hare faid 

vithout mocking God. / anfv^eY^ That nothing is a mpre proper mocking 
God, than a pretendinr^ earneftly to beg of him^ vrhat voe our [elves lotll not 
contribute to^ according to our jibilitj ^ than a feeming Earncf? for that which 
I ' yiegleCled by us, as far as he has put it in our Towtr ; vfhich would haye 
cV'« the Cafe of thefe M'mifters^ had they teas' d from their Labours. Def. of 
M'.'d. None IP art 5. p. 50. ^ 

, 9. ) Mr. Hoadly, Reaf. of Conf. P. 2. p. 6g. intimates^ TJ)at thefe Ar- 
gu<nents vp^nt hold for fuch as haye been ordain d to the Mini /try among «f, 
J(i7i:c the jiCl of Uniformity. I anfrver^ they were not produced for that 
lurp^fe ; and yet they have a Force in our Cafe too^ as fat t^ there 
is an Agreement of Circum/iances. See Dcf. of Mod. Noncont. P, 3. 
/. <;S, 59- 

^ Baxter's Nontonformity Stated and Argud^ pag. i 56. His Plea for 
l^eatr, pa;\. 2 2Q, His Apology for the Konconformifi Mini/fers, in Quarto^ 
where the whole Matter is di/iinfily canrafs'd. His Sacrilegious De- 
ferton of the Holy Minijiry rebuhd^ ohayo. Affd Alien's Cali to Archip- 
^)US, ^tarto* 


Chap. X. Mr, Richard Baxter. 2 6^ 

Thus determiiciing to continue in their Miniftry, Rc^/ow of 
with Satisfa<5lion they were in the Way of their f^?e i^ity 
Duty, they wanted not for Hearers and Adherents./^'" ^•^f'*' 
Many Arguments and Infinuations indeed were us'd^"'*^^''^* 
to divert the People frotn at ail regarding thefe re-'"'^^ 
jedled Minifters : But their Efteerii for them was too 
deeply riveted ; ajnd the Grounds of their Diflktisfadtion 
coo palpable, and the Care taken to remove the Grounds 
of their Objections too Superficial ; for them to be 
much mov'd with, their Aflauits. Many of the People 
had found Benefi'c by the Labours of thefe Minifters be- 
fore they were ejected , and thereupon iho't themfelves 
obiig'd to ftick ico them. ( i. ) Finding thenn caft off /j n ^^^ 
without having JUiy fuitable Crime alledg'd againftHoadly 
them, they tho't it Inhumane and Barbarous to defertReafon «/* 
them, (a.) Nay^ being (fome of them) convinced ofConf. P. z. 

That this Argument can be froduc'd t9 little Turpofe hut to make up the 
lHuTnlter, becaufe fevr of the ejected M'mijiers confin'd themfehes to the 'BLatei 
sphere tltey *9ere ejefhed ; and few of the Dijfenting Laity make any Scruple of 
forjaklng a Fafior^ on the Account of any little Difference or groundlefs Dif- 
fatlsfa^ilon^ how fuitable foever they have found hisGifts^ &c. If this Ar-^ 
gument were wholly wanting^ he thinks there would net be a Vi^enter the 
Ufs in England. Whereas, I on the contrary^ firmly believe that If this Ar- 
gument had been wanting, there had been but few Diffenters. for it was the 
Bene ft that the People apprehended (at leaft ) they had received by their At- 
tendance on the ejetied Minlfiers, that engaged them to adhere to them in 1 662. 
And the fame is the Reafon at this Day^ with thofe that aCh upon a Princi- 
ple, in adhering to their Succejfors : H blch is "very conjijient with their chanT'^T 
Pa/Iors, upon a change of their Circumfiances, Det. of Mod. Conf. P. g^ 
p. 72, &c. 

(2.) Mr. Hoadly, Reafon. of Conf. p. 8(5. fays^ That the EjeSied would 
haye had fome Eftablifhment, and fome Terms and Conditions imposd^ by 
'Which all that come into the Church p^ould hays been obliged^ in which Cafe 
fome would fill I haye been ejeCied. And he queries^ Whether they fhould 
haye been ejieem^d barbarous that had deferted them ? And intimates that 
there is not more Reafon for the Char<^e now^ than there would have been, had 
the Settlement been agreeable to the Ejefied. He adds, That this Argument 
can Jtgnify little to our prefent Times, wlth$ut laying a Foundation for con- 
flant Dlyifions from an Efiablljh'd Church, tho' eyer fa perfeli. I anfwer^ 
They were againji fuch an Eftabllff)ment^ as fhould hare excluded any well 
^uallfy'd, ufeful and laborious Minifters from all Capacity of Publlek Ser- 
yice. Had the Terms been fuch as few excepted againji^ but few would hare 
been flmt out by the Efiablifhment : And had there been a Toleration for 
thofe few, all had been eafy. Could they but haye had what they earne/lly 
beggd foTy vi2. Unity in Things neaifary, Liberty in Things indiiferenr, 


2 70 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

and Chari- the Juftice of the Caufe they were engagM in, vi:(, 
^y ^"/^^l' '^'^^ P^^JT'^S ^ f^^^f^sr B^formntion in Ecclefinjlical Matters^ 
T/*^ ^l ^^ ^^ce(/a>'y '"« Or/ler to the more general reaching of the 
nrhC^dBut^^^^^ ^^^^ ^f ^'^'K^^'* ' They thought it their Duty irt 
'}'t is yet to ^^^^^ ^hce to efpoufe the fame eaufe,and adhere to the 
6e provd, ^*^"^ Principle (3.) in Oppofuion to thofe who reckoned 
that any ^he Church fo Perfe(ft as to need no Amendments. And 
Iftahl'ip}' finding that i^ was the Duty oftheirMinifterstho'filenc'd 
went pf by the Magiftrates, to continue in the Exercife of their 
fo pcrfef}^ Miniftry, th^y were convinc'd they were oblig'd therein 
as that Se- ro fupport and encourage them. (4.) Neither could they 
yeriiy to- forbear preferring the Labours of thofe Minifters, the fui- 
vards fuch tablenefs of whofe Gifts, and whofe Readinefsto watch 
M cant fall £^^ ^j^^-j, ^quIs they had experienced, before others that 
'" '^y V' came in their PJaces, to whom they were Strangers, and 
Taufe'^thly ^^ ^^ whom they were at the beft in great Uncertainty. 

are dljfatif- 

fied, can be ju/iified : Or that it is reafonahle to condemn Perfoni without any 

Froof of Guilty &lc. Def. of Mod. None p. 85. 

(5.) Mr. Hoadly, Reafon. of Conf. P. 2. p. 9^, &c. fays. That Mini- 

fiers and People mtght hayecontinud in Communion with the Church of England, 

without thinking it fo perfeCh as to need no Amendments • and without forfak- 

ing the Caufe they wereingag'din : That they did not attain to 'BerfeCiion or a 

greater Degree of it, in the feparate Churches they erected : That to feparate 

from a Church in Order to obtain a farther Reformation, is not reafonahle or 

defenfible : That the Method taken by them and their Succejfors, is not likely 

to make the Church of England one Degree more perfect than it is already .- 

And that if this be a good Argument for a Separation, there will always be 

a Necejjity for one 5 and that their own Amendments would not make the 

church fo perfefl, but that this fame Pretence for Reformation would remain. 

Thefe Suggepions I have difiinBly conjiderd and anfwerd, Def. of Mod. 

Nonconformity, Fart, 5. p. p:?, Stc- 

(4.) Mr. Hoadly, Reafon. o/Conf. P. 2. p. 145, &c. fays, That this Ar- 
<fmnent is fallacious. For if the People were not on other Accounts obliged to at- 
tend on their Miniftrations, they could not be oblig'*d to it meerly to fupport and 
eticourage them., nor would they hare done it for that Reafon only. I anfxper, 
Dtf. o/'Mod. None. P. 5. p. 148, 149, &c. It u fuppofed they had Reafon to 
ya!t4e their Labours, haying profited by them, and that they were conyinc\i of 
the Jufiice of the Caufe they fuffer'd for ', and of- their own Obligation to engage 
in the fame Caufe : And having evidenc d this, in ConjunHion with the Obit- 
'Ration of the Minifiers to continue their Labours as Opportunity offers -, it necef 
fariiy follows that all thus perfwaded, were bound fo far to fupport and en- 
courai^e them, as to ^ive them an Opportunity of exercifing their Miniftry, by at- 
tending chearfully on their Labours ; and to maintain them too, as they were 
tihU : And that the rather, becaufe they and th(ir Families were fought to 
be be-'K ard and ftarv'd by thofe in Power. 


Chap. "X. Mr. B i hard Baxter. - ^7^ _ 

The* couM not fee how rhe Prefentacion of i P^jcron ^ r/j/* 
and the Inftitution of a Biihnp, could make it the abfo- Frlwiple 
lute Duty of all in a Parilh, prefently to a^quicfce in 2.only tend- 
Minifter's Condud in Holy Things. Thii irity indeed '^^'T ^'^ f^'^f^ 

Legally entitle him to the Tphe and Maimtmavce, but "^^^fary 
cannot make hitn a Paftor to any one without his own ^j'Jfj^^ 
Confent, Parifh Order they tho't had its Advantages, J^^^^^J^ 
and was to be preferr'd, when more weighty Reafons did ^^ natural 
not offer. But they could not fee any Thing in it of an jj;^/,^ ■ ';^, 
abfolute Neceflity. Neither could they reconcile the Sup- frffj^g] ^ot 
poll ion of f xh a Neceflity, (tho* fettled by the I aw of t/;e vjVk of 
the Land) with the inviolable Rights of Hun^ane Nature ^Patronage, 
which leave a Man as much at his Liberty to choofe * a which dw 
Paftor for his Soul, as a Phyfician for his Body, or a h houndd^ 
Lawyer for his Eftate. (5.) And therefore as they tho'c ^^ft ^^ 

owned f^ 
haye itsCmyenienciti too. For as Mir.iflers^ or Sijhops mayjui^e who is fit ts 
he by them ordain d and let into the Mini/try., fo may Magifirates and Patrom 
jud^e and choofe who of thefe Minijien flail have the Publick Places., Mainte- 
Ttance and i ount e nance j and yet Feop'e fill heep their right of choosing «?/;>* 
P)all be their * afiors. ' if the Patron ofers an unfit Man^ and the People refufc 
him, he may offer others. If they continue to difagree:, the Matter Is eaflly nc' 
commodated, by letting the Patron choofe who pmlL have the Place and Tythes^ 
and the Feople who fhall be their ^afor. If they go to another Parijb, the In- 
coHremence is not great- If a Number of them join together in choofing a Pafior, 
liying peaceably and quietly, there is no Harm in it. The Patron has his 
^IBilght in prefenting the Perfon that has the Publick Maintenance. The Farifh 
jyiinifier has his Right ^ for he hath what Publich Maintenance is legally fix'd to 
the Liyingj which is as mr^ch as the Biflop's In/iitution, and Patrons Prefenta- 
tion could entitle him to. And at the fame Time alfo the People haye their 
J^ight^ which is faying the Tythe Legally due to the Parifh .Miniver., to choofe 
whom they will for their PaUor, witJ)out injuring Bifijop, Patron^ Parifh 
Minifler, or any one elfe. 

(5.) Mr. Hoadly, Reafon. o/Conf P. 2. p. 148. fays, That this Right to 
choofe their own PaTior, doth not according to ourfelves fo belong to the People, 
as that they may not lawfully recede from it upon fome Cnnfiderations ^ nay, as 
that they ought not inDuty to doit : That in Farijhes where the People chufe 
their own MiniTiers, tloere are the greatest Diyifions and J^uarrels, as uncjua' 
lify''d jyiiniiien as in other Places, and perhaps the greateii Number of Dijfen- 
ters: Tl^t the ConVtitution can neyer be fo ordered or fo happily contriVd, as 
that eyery particular Chrisiian Jhould be under the Minislry of the Perfn whom 
he would choofe aboye all others : That Mr. Baxter had fuch a Senje of the 
Advantages ofVarochial Communion, that he advifed bis Veople o/ Kedermin- 
fter to attend upon their ]?arijh MiniUer : and that fuppofing an unqualified 
Minister fettled in a Parifl, his Varifhioners are not prefently in fo defperate a 
Condition as is reprefented : All which SuggeUions I have disiinftly confiderd 
md anfwefd, in Def. of Mod* Nonconf. P, 3. />• i $4, &c. 


272 The LIFE of Chap. X- 

t» * • — ' — — — __ 

it would be hard for the Magiftrate to fay, you (hall 
have this Phylician or none ; when perhaps another 
may better hit their particular Conftitution ; Or you 
(hall have this 1 awycr or none ; when it may be they 
know another who was much fitter to have the Ma- 
nagement of their Concerns : So 
* Cyprian, I/^. i. £/>. 4. /tfjyj, did they alfo reckon it a ftrain- 
ttifGod'sOrdi»a»cethatthePeop/e i^g the Point too high, for the Ci- 
fhculd eUa their o^n Taf]or. ^q Magistrate, (and much more 
See upon thsHead La Rocques ,i,e Bilhop) to fay, you fhall have 
o>.f.rrn.O of he EcUJiaftual ^^-^ Man Or none for your Paftor, 

Vifctpline of the Trote/iants of . r ^ rr-i i .- * 

France to the Vrimithe Church, ^hen It ^yas fo very pofTible for 

p i5, 17, &c. ^ particular ^^em, to know another Minifter, 

Church if a Society -pnluntarily who might be unexceptionable, 

€onjoind for the Furpofes of Di- and much more fuitable to them, 

yine Worfhip : And it is contrary in the feveral Refpedls in which a 

to the Nature of it ^ that they half e Minifter*s help was needful to 

Taslors or be Members without them. This appear'd to ihcm to 

their free Confent. M'mifterscan- bg a contending with them for at 

tu>t do file proper Work of VaUors Rjght which God * and Nature had 

npithoui this Confent -^^^^ ^ji^^^^ ^^^ therefore they 

t B^^^erjl^onconform.ty Stated ^^^^ ^^^ j-^^j ^^ r^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

*ndAro^ud,pag.,6^,&iz. before they woujd Part with it f. 

Many of them Apprehended that the Method of 
the National Eftablilhment broke in upon Oec<Jiio- 
mical Government. The Mafter of a Family is 2Xi 
Emblem of a Prince in the State. Some Branches of 
his Power and Auihority, are evidently Superiouro 
The Parental Authority, is the greateft that Na- 
ture gives. We may fuppofe it to reach a great Way 
when we confider that it is defign'd to fupply the 
Place of Reafon ; whereas in the Exercife of a Princes 
Authority, he is Apposed to have Subjects, that ufe 
their Reafon, and muft be dealt with accordingly. 
Kow in any Thing like an Impofition of a Paftor up- 
on them, the Diffentmg Laity Apprehended their 
Right as Parents, and Husbands, and Matters, ^c. 
was invaded either b) Prince or Bilhop, that pretend- 
ed to impofe a Paftor, upon thofe who by God and 
Nature were put under their Care. Whofe Intereft 
4nd Power in i:iy Farai'y, and with Reference to m^-. 
Wife and Children, can be fuppos'd earlier and grea- 
ter than mine ? And who more concern'd in the In~ 
ftiudion they receive than 1 ? Why tbert fhould I 

Chap. X. Mr. flichard Baxter. 273 

lef^another impofe a Paftor iipon them, which more 
belongs to me certainly than to any one elfe, if they 
are not competent Judges for themfelves : But if ic 
become not even me, ( and could not be juftified } for 
me to tell my Wife or Children that are come to Years 
of Difcretion, you (hall have this Man for your Mini- 
fter or none ; you fhall either Worfliip God here or no 
where ; how can the Magiftrate have fuch an Autho- 
rity"? How came the Bifliop by it ? If neither Prince 
nor Bifhop may choofe for my Children a Tutor, a 
Trade, a Phyfician, or Diet, or Cloathing, or impofe 
.Husbands or Wives on ihem without my Confent : 
How fhould either of them, come by a Right to im- 
pofe a Minifter upon them without my Will and 
Choice? Elpccially when his Management of Holy 
Things, is a Matter of fuch vaft Importance, and 
wherein their Salvation and my Imereft are lo nearly 
concern'd? The inlcfficient Anfwers ufually return'd 
to fuch Queries, contirm'd many of the Laity in their 
Inclination to Nonconformity*. * Mr, 

Reafon. of Conf. Fan. i. p. \6^'^ fays^ That a few Ohferyatjons which we 
■ wont deny to be true^ will fuffciently anfi^er thefe Queries :■ As for Infiance, 
That there Is fujfcient Proyifion for the Teople in the Eflahlijh^d Church 5 that 
the People hare no Eight to chufe whom they p/eafe for their Pa/Ior^ when 
their Nece^ties aire provided for in an Ejiahllpyd Way ;' that they may hare 
the fame Opinion about their Original Right to chufe their own Taflors^ and 
yet mofi heartily conform to the Church o/ England ^ and that the Queftion 
between «;, is Hot who has this Right ^ but in fuch a Conjiitution as ours-, in 
which pis genefally fettled in the Hands of a Patron^ are the People to ac' 
quiefce in the Eflahlijb\i Way, or feparate from it to ajfert a -Right, which 
Cctnnot bjeaffened in this Method, without the DeftruChlon of Charity, and the 
Subverfion of Peace and Order i Sec my R':p!y, in Dsif of Mod. ISonq. 
P. 3. p' 170, &C. 

The want of DifcipUne in the Church, was another (6.) Mr, 
confiderable Plea they urg'd. (6.) And in this they but Hoadly, 

Reai'on, of 
, Conf. p. 2. p. 1(58 ; declares, he cant fee the Confequence of this Ar<rument. 
He can't fee any need of a Separation, on the Account of the want of Difci- 
pline ; or that Difcipline c^w be promoted by it, &c. I anfwer^ That a Se- 
paration may contribute to Difcipline among thofe that feparate -, and it may 
alp) neceffitate thofe whom they feparate from, to give Way to it, if ever th-y 
Tpould effect Coalition, &c. Pci'. of Mod- Nonconf. P. 3. p. ij^, &g, 

T * foilow'4 

274 ^^^ LIFE of Chap. X- 

followM the Old Puritans, and their pious Progenitors, 
who have in this refpedt been calling for greater Care 
and (tridlnefs, ever (ince the Reformation of the 
the Church and Land from Popery. Upon fearch they 
found that God had defignM the Church to be as it 
were the Porch of Heaven ; A Society gather'd out 
of the World, fan6tify*d to him, and to be more fully 
prepared for Glory. And therefore he would have none 
in it, but fuch as profefs Faith and Love, and Holinefs, 
and renounce a FJefhIy and Senfual, Worldly and Pro- 
fane Life : that the Paftors were to judge who were 
to be taken in, and who caft out ; and all the Mem- 
bers in their Places bound to preferve their own Purity, 
and that of the Society which they belong to. The 
National Conftitutionappear'd to them to be calculated 
to another Defign. The Ignorant, Ungodly Multitude 
are forc'd into Communion while palpably unfit : Thefe 
become the Strength and major Part : And are oppofite 
to this Difcipline, becaufe it would reftrain and curb 
them, and tho' it could not better their Hearts, would 
yet oblige them in many Refpecfts to amend their Car- 
riage. The Minifters are incapable of doing any 
Thmg towards it, the Power being wrefted from them j 
which Power in its Execution is lodg'd in Hands that 
manage it Carelefly and Profanely ; to the Screening of 
fuch as fhould be cenfur'd, and the cenfuring of fuch 
* ^/rtte pious Perfons as ought to be encourag'd*. This was 
%ealous ' what the Old Puritans groan'd iinder ; and yet they 
liriter for were againft a Separation, as long as there was any 
Difcipline Hops of Amendment ; but finding the Stiffhefs of the 

in the Efia- 

hJiflyd church, is forc'd to Aclmwledrre, [ the Church of England's Wi/h 
for the Ee/toring of the Vrimitiye Difcipline confider'd, p. 27I, 272- ] That 
the fuhordlnate Officers and Minifters in our Ecc/ejtafiical Courts do at pre- 
fenty a.s all the \\orld fees, manage but yery ill the Vow er of the Church ; 
con-verting it chitjly to their ovpn jidyantage^ with little or no Regard to 
the Ends of Religion ^ infomuch, that the StriClnefs of Difcipline is wholly 
abated^ the Exercife of that which is^ corrupted ; the 'Proceedings againft 
Ojfenders Vartial and Dilatory : And if any Vennanccs are enjoined^ His 
with almofi no RefpcSl to true Repentance, nor is much Conjidcration 
of that had in the Relaxation of fuch Cenfures : So many Subterfuges 
and E.yafons are nlfo found almoji in cyery Cafe, that the good Rules of Dif- 
iipl'tne feldom take Vlace. 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 275 

Bi/hops and their Adherents after KingCW/e/sReftau- 
ration, in flicking to their Old Methods without any 
Alteration ; nay, finding the fame Difpofition at the 
Beginning of King William and Queen Mnry\ Reign, 
when they were fo urgently prefs'd to make good thcii: 
Promifes made under their foregoing Diltrefsard Fears j 
that they flill applauded their Conftitution as fo com- 
pJeat and perfedt, as that it needed no Amendrr;ents ; 
they faw no Ground of Hope remaining that ever any 
fuch Thing as a Regular Difcipline would willing- 
ly, and out of Choice be bro't in ; nay, not thd' the 
better Sort of Governors in the Church, were for ir. 
And therefore they ajpprehended themfel' es oblig'd 
publickly to bear their Teftimony againft that fatal 
Negle6t : And that the rather, becaufe they found 
that Negle6t acknowledged even in the Common 
Prayer Book, notwithftanding there has been no Pro- 
viiion made of a fuitable Remedy. For at the Be- 
ginning of the Commination, there is this Confellion : 
That in the Primitive Church there voas a Godly Difci^ 
pline ; Jhch Perfons as were notorious Sinners being put 
to open Penance^ and punifod in this fVorldy that their 
Souls might be fnvd in the Day of the Lord : And that 
ethers admonlfh''d by their Example, might be the moret 
afraid to olfend. And that in Jiend thereof , UNTIL 

M U C H T O B E W 1 S H'D*, its tho't good, the Ge- ^ ^Ute 
neral Sentences of God's Curfwg againji Impenitent Sin- Author 
rtersy fhculd be read, &c. They apprehended there- ( in aTrd^ 
fore, that even the Common Prayei- Book it felf,/?''^^ the 
{ tho' in this Refped it did but fet up the Shadow in- Church of 
ftead of the Subftance,) juflify'd their infifting upon'^'?^'*^'^^ 
the Reftauration of that Difcipline, which it own'd to '^ ^^\, 
be loft, and the Recovery 6f which it reprefented as a- _ ^-*^^" 
Thing highly defireable. And they tho't that the in-p^|^j°j^.g 

confider'd, &c. thus expreffes bimfelf pag. 5. Wifhes are indeed Marks, 
of a good Intention^ and an acceptable Zea^ where no more is pofjible to be 
done 5 but e^er to Wilh, and mahe no Attempt towardi theThing wifh'd/or, 
if it be Zeal, is fuchy as is a Reproach to it felf. 

t i infertifif 

276 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

fercing this Confclllon and Wilh, was a plain Evidence 
that the tirft CompUerii of the Common Prayer^ intended 
a farther ProgreG, and a fuller Reformation than thofe 
Avho come after them would give way to: and that the 
Yearly Repetition of this ConfelTion and VViih in the 
Pnblick Churches, was a Plain and Pablick Condem- 

Id. ih'.d. j^-j^g themlelves for flopping (hort, and crying up that as 
f*^e 116. pcifed, which they who were thehrft Managers of it, 

* Tho- were fo naodeft as to own to have been Defedtive*. 

mas Ro- 

gas on the Thhti TJine Arilcle<^ Intituled the Englifh Creed, Frinted l$S$y 
in a fmall Fclio^ in the Epiftle to the Reader, fays of the great Subfcript'tQn 
urgd tite lafi Tear, What the Event will be, God knows, ibmC are of O- 
rinion much. hurt thereby, hath ledoundcd to the Church of God: And 
they think riot amifs in divei-sConfidcraLions. Others think that it makes 
not a little to God's Glory. As for the Common Prayer Book, not one 
that I know hath (imply refus'd to Subfcribe to it. Some withhold from 
approving it in every Point by Subfcription, yet none Contemn it, bun ufe 
it in Publick Cliurche?, always and only : , And many have fee their 
Hands to it, and all 1 doubt not would, were that which isOffenfive Reform- 
ed, and iliat which is Crooked made Strait, and that which is doubtful 
made evident and plain; which Things are but few, and therefore may 
more eafily be remov'd, and remain for the raoft part in. the Direfiions 
and Rubrick, and tlierefore witli the lefs Offence may be taken away. 
- Wc all of us acknowledge the good Things we enjdy,and tliat iheCiuirch 
would Flourilh much better, if the good Laws already made, were faith- 
fully put in Execution, and the true Difcipline of Clirift, fo greatly and 
fo long vCilh'd for, weie firmly EftabliflVd. 

Many of the Laity, were alfo afraid of .Sinning, in 
Baptizing their Children with Godfathers and Godmo- 
) Mr ^'^''^^'^' (?•) They were ready to Devote their Infants to 
Hoadlv ^ ^^^ ^y BaptiCiD in the way that he had appointed -, and 
Rcafon V ^^ promise to train them up in his Fear: But this would 
Conf P. 2. not do. Now they durft not put others upon Covenant- 
^ 17^, ing for their Children, with whom they had no Concern ^ 

That Af to thit^ and the Two follevp'ing Impoftions of Godfathers and God- 
root])ers, the Crofs, ar.d Kneeling at the Communion, it is not advanced in 
the Name of Moderate Nonconfornufi^\ He claims it of ui Miivflcrsy ai a 
piece of Comm.jt Jufiice to the Lfiabhfh'd Church, that i»e ap<re ti^e Feop/e 
that it If our Opinion they may laxpfiAily be complied with. But if Perfuns- 
wiUnot he pcrfwaded that a compliance with thrfe Terms is Lawful, he owns 
it hi4 Opinion, t'tat it is as mi<ch their Duty to fcparute fow ti)e Church of 
England, asU i: ihe Duty of thofe of that Chwch to feparate fotn the Church 
of Rome. Set my Re^lj, Dcf. o/Mod. Nonconf. Tm 3. /». 184, 185, &c. 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter, Q^y 

or delire them f with an appearing Solemnity) to Pro- 
mife, what they knew they meant not to Perform ; or 
make Promifes which their Children when they grew 
up would not be bound or obliged by ; They tho't their 
Childrens Right to Baptifin, depended upon their Inte- 
reft in the Divijie Covenant, and property in their 
Children; and tho't the bringing in middle Perforis, 
who were to be fubftituted in their Room, was a fixing 
the Ordinance upon a falfe Bottom. And whereas icme 
("who were for putting on the appearance of Moderati- 
on) would tell them that they might if they infified up- 
on it, be allow'd to give up their own Children, they 
tho't it could not fairly be reconcil'd with the Confticu- 
tion, when they, found it fo poficively declared by the 
whole Convocation in 1603, in their 29th Canon, thai: 
no Parent Jhnll be urgd to be prefent^ nor be Jidmirted io 
Anf^er as Godfather for his own Child. And therefore 
finding their Children fo peremptorily excluded frooi 
Baptifm, without an Humane Addition which they ' 
could not underhand, and were nneafy under, they tho'c 
themfelves at Liberty to make their Application to fuch 
Minifters to Baptize their Children, as were free to do 
it, without any fuch needlefs or dilfatisfying Impoii- ^^ ^^^^* 
tion. p^g9iB6. 

Withal,, many of them had Baptifm refus'd their 
Children, unlefs they'd fubmit to the Sig72 of the CrojJ, 
This they efteem'd an unwarrantable Addition to Chrift's 
Inftitution. They were afraid of Encouraging Church 
Corruptions by yielding to ic. They knew no Right 
the Church had to make New Terms of Commr.nion, 
or require their SubmilHonto fuch an Humane Inventi- 
on. And therefore they left thofe v/ho would rather 
leave their Children without the Seal of the Covenant, 
than admit them to it, without fuch an unprofitable 
Ceremony : and adher'd to thofe who were ready to ad- 
mit their Infants into the Vilible Church of Chrift, up- j^ j^^j^ 
on his own Terms. pao-s 187. 

As for Kjieeling at the Communion^ fome of the Laity 
queftiond the Lawfulnefs of it; And while they did fo, 
durft not yield to it, for fear of injuring their Confci- 
ences. And yet knowing it to be a great Sin to live in 
the total Neglec9: of that Holy Ordinance, they appre- 
hended it their Duty to joyn in with thofe, of whom 
they might receive it in a Table Pofture. Others not 

T 3 ap- 

2 78 The LIFE of Chap, X. 

apprehending Kneeling at this Ordinance a Thing in 
itfelf Unlawful, could (to :eftifie as much, and lo Ihow 
their Chanty to the eftahliili'd Church under all its Cor- 
ruptions) fometi'nes yield to receive in that way, who 
yet could not be fatisfy'd to do it conftantly, leaft they 
fhould be chargeable with not bearing their Teftimony 
U. Ibid, againft Terms of Conimunion of Humane Invention, 
fngc 193. ^,}^i^;h they efteemM a great Duty. 

And it alfo much Prejudiced many Underftanding 

Perfons againft the Church Party, to find Oaths made 

fo light of, and to obferve a greater ftrefs focommon- 

Jy laid upon their Ceremonies, than upon Knowledge 

or Faith, or real Holinefs. They found themfelves 

wretchedly Hampered and Enfnar'd by Fetters of the 

/3>7/,^ Ciergics making. (S.) If they were intruded in any 

Mr. Ho^.d- Corporarions, they muft for a long time be forced to 

ly fayi is fwear that there was no Obligation at all, from the 

Ttothinr but 

inyeClhe : Reafon 0/ Conf. Tarti. p. y6. But as fight as be makes of it 
cne K?l)i/ej and as folcmn as he is in hit Appeal or Adjuration another tvhi/e^ 
f. 79^ This injluencd 771 any, and fame of them very cofijiderate and under* 
fiandin^ Temple too : And the OccafiojialBill, has not a little revived and heighten d 
the Imprrffon. And indeed the Spirit oF the Church ought to be confider'd 
i)l thii. Cafe. For K'hin they that had the Afcendant^ veuuld require all to 
comply with their Humours and Tandei f, to confoxm to fuel) Impofitions as were 
not vF.irr anted by Scr'pturc:, to comply Kriih fome Things that they judg'd un- 
iarvjul^ or elfc they muj} be cafl out of the Church : H hen fuch a Conjiitution 
as ours /< muf be fettled, in oppofttion to all ihe Perfw a/ions, Arguments, and 
f'ntreanc', us'd by the Managers of the Conference at the Savoy ^ when fuch 
irregular Ate hodi vere us d to fettle iJ)is Confiiiutifra-.^ and after it was once 
fettled, to ff-nglhen and confirm it; Afcthods altogether Vnfcriptural ; Methods 
Je/f rut live of dm (I i An Charity^ and highly prtjudiciul to the Souls of Men^ 
Akihxls direclly tending to vfea/:en the Prottfiaru Jntcrefi, and much to dif- 
ferve Heli'SJ^n in Gener:il awong «* ; when they that had the Management 
difcfivcfd fich a Spirit, I think they rrh") were for making the. Scripture 
their Stand.xrd., had the more Beafon to withf and their Encroachments, (which 
wrvc likely enough to improve in time) unlefs they would run the hazard of 
the intirc lofs of their Purity and Liberty too, and have a Hand in betray- 
ing both their Ciril and Riligintis Bj'^hts. Def. of Mod. Nonconformity, 
J'ar' ^. p. 192, 19;.* And I think I may yery fafely add, that this Argw has lofi nothing of its force, fince the Clergy in the General, have in this 
Kcign been fo unwearied in their P.ndcarours to get an Atl again/i Occa/i- 
onal Confgrmiiy -, in the compaffing which at laff, they fo much 


Cktp. X, Mr. Richard Baxter. 270 

Oath Ciird the Scletnn League and Covenant^ either on 
ihe.n or any other : This feem'd to them a Proclaiming 
Of Perjury Lawful, as to that part of the Covenant 
u'hich was unqueftionably Lawful; as the renouncing 
of Scaifm, Popery, Prophanenefs, ^c. They were 
fadly pefler'd with the Corporation A^^the Veftry U^, the 
Oxford AH, thj MiL'tia A8y C which were all Fram'd 
by the ruling Clergy and their Patrons) whereby an 
Oath was impos'd upon them not to endeavour any 
Alteration of Government in the Church, to bind them 
to left contented with what they could not but efteem 
C'^rrupt : And they muft alfo fwear an Abhorrence of 
taking Arms againft any Commiflionated by the King, 
which they knew not but in time they might be obHg'd 
to, by his breaking the Original Contract with his Peo- 
ple ; which was afterwards actually found to be our 
Cafe. Multiply 'd Burdens of this Nature, made the 
Clergy efteem'd rigid Taskmafters. And when there 
was any Effort made for Relief, to hear it become the 
common Cry, O the Church, the Church is in Danger; 
as if the whole Tabernacle totter'd upon the touching of 
the leaft Pin: And at the fame obferving that they who 
could not bate an Ace in the Ceremonial Part, were 
yet ready enough many times to make confiderable A- 
batements, in thofe Things in which lies the main of 
Real Religion ; and that they who were fo fond of 
their Conltitucion, had fo little Charity left for thofs 
whofe Sentiments differed from theirs; and were ready 
toqueftion the validity of their Miniftry and Ordinan» 
ces, nay and even the Poflibility of their Salvation too, 
if they queltion'd but the Jw Divinimi of Bilhops ; Such 
Obfervations as ihefe made many of the Laity think, 
that there was no fmali Danger of Encouraging them 
in their Rigours, and affuming Prctenfions, by an Ad- 
herence and SubmifTion to them. 

Things being in the Pofture, that hath been thus 
briefly reprefented; the National Conftitution being fo 
contriv'd as to keep out many both Minifters and Peo- 
ple, who were truly Confcientious upon fuch Accounts, 
as thofe menticn'd ; it was a very natural Queftion, 
what muft they do ? Without the Crofs, and Sponfors 
there was no Baptifin to be had; without Kneeling no 
Communion; without Submitting in many Pariflies to 
unqualified Guides, there was no room left by the Law, 

T ^ for 

28o The LIFE of Chap.X. 

for Miniflerial Inftruftion, and Paftoral help ; and were 
the Things required own'd to be in themfeJves LawfuJ, 
there was no falling wholly in with them, without Pra- 
ctical fiibmitting to a pretended Authority of making 
New Terms of Communion, which was more than 
See thts ic could* be made appear, our Bleired Lord had en- 
Branch of trufted any Mortals with : How then muit they Steer? 
the vlr-M- y^^^ ^jj^y ^^^ ^-jj^ without any Oi'dinamres at allP Or 
TT^ /'"f "^^^^ ^^^y ^^ againii th^ir Confciences that tliey might 
j-^ //^'^'^ enjoy them? Mnft they be contented to be depriv'o of 
How^iLet- ^^'-* n^ctlfary Means of Salvation ? Muft they live like 
tertoaFcr- Pagans fill they got rid of their Scruples? That certain- 
Tow?/^ ^4- -'y would be unbecoming Chriftians ; and unaccounta- 
iity, TPho b!e in fuch as know the worth of Souls, and the weight 
took ofence of Things Eternal. And if not, then they muft take 
atDeanSCii' fitting Opportunities of Worihipping God according 
lingHcets to their Confciences, in a freedom fiom infnaring Im- 
Sermon. pofiticns ; being careful in the mean rime to maintain 
Love and Charity, towards thofe from whom they 
diffcrM. And this was the Courfe they accordingly 
took; having fometimes the Smiles, and fometimes the 
Frowns of the Government ; being fometinies tolera- 
ted, and fometimes abridg'd ; till at laft the fruitlefnefs 
of Rigour and Severity beini^ generall) evident, they 
were taken under the Publick Protection, and had their 
Liberty allow'd them by the Three Eftates of the Realm, 
King, Lords, and Commons. 

in the m^ean while, among other Charges that were 
(\.) Mr ^^^"Sht againft them, none made more Noife than that 
Hoadly of 5c/3//??i. (i.) Both Minifters and People upon the 
Re^fonV ^^^^""'^ of their feparaie Affimblies, were cry'd out 
Conf. Part upon from Prefs and Pulpit as dangerous Schijm.^tid^s, 
2. p. 22$; ^nd under that Notion bro't under a Popv^lar Odium^ 
fays^ it im- and Jadcn with unfpeakable Reproarh. A great Duft 
forts little was lais'd, with which the Hyes of many were too 
to debate 

this Pof^n of Schifm. J nm jait^jyd : But K>l)cr:erer kc that arc Dijfeiiters 
are char^^d aa Schifmatick?, it mufi ticcejjart/y he a main Point how the \\ ord 
Schiim i^ w'd in Scripiurei, becauje if the Senfe of the Word which it 
there ufual^ be not af'p/icabJe to «j, we are not Schillnaticks in the Senfc of 
Scripture. And then fit Mtn pre m that Name ercr fo /on^r^ or ever Jo 
freely^ while we are not churn^eaUe wiih that UnchaiitahiCncfs whi(h is tite 
Scripture badge of S&M'mw.l^k^, v- ••'-'/" n f. T^'f. f/" Mod. None. 
/>. 2C4, 20$. - 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 28 

much aiFed^ed, for them to difcern diftindly the Me- 
rits of the Canfe in Debate. This hath been an ufual 
Method, and is no new Invention. A Member of thek 
own, the Ingenious Mr. H.iles of Eaton (who by 3 good 
Token has had a great many hard Words for his Pains) 
told them long ago, that Herejie and Schifm are Two Theo- 
logical Scare-CrowSy us'd by thcje that feel{ to uphold a Par- 
ty in R^eligion, to terrifie their Oppofues, However they 
weigh'd the Matter, conlider'd the Grounds of the Charge 
bro't againft them, found themfelves Innocent, and 
made their Appeal to the Unprejudic'd and Impartial, 
in divers Apologetick^ Writings. 

They pleaded that their Pra£lice was not what the Moderate 
Scripture calls Schi/m. As Schifm is there reprelented, Noncon- 
it lies not fo much in variety of Opinions, or different fbrmifts 
Pradices, Modes or Forms, or different Places of Wor- «» Schif- 
[hip, as in a want of true Love and Charity. For as w<«t/f^^. 
Hcrefii is oppos'd to the Faith^ fo is Schifm oppos'd to 
Love 5 and both Herejie and Schifm are diftinguilfi'd by 
thofe Things to which each of them is oppos'd. This 
they evidenc'd by a diftin6t Confiderationof the feve- 
ral Paffages of Scripture, where Schifm is mention'd ; 
which do all of them fo evidently Point a^tVncharita- 
blensjl as the difcriminating Badge of Schifmaticl{s, as 
gave them abundan*: Satisfadlion they were Free from 
guilt in this Refpedt, tho* feparating of Communion, 
fo long as they took Care not to violate that Love and 
Charity which ought to be among Chriftians. He that 
is Converfant with Scripture may eaiily obferve, thac 
there may be Schifm, or a Schifmatical Spirit working 
in a Church, v/here there is no Local Separation; and 
there may be a Separation and yet no Schi/m on the Part 
of them that Separate : Nay, that there can be no Schifm 
in Scripture- Account, where there is not an uncharita- 
ble Alienation of Cbriftian Hearts from each other, be- 
caufe of their differing Apprehenfions about leffer 
Things of Religion. This being the true Scripture 
Notion of Schifm, they tho'c it very evident, that fome 
on each iide in this Debate, may be under Guilt; but 
that all on neither fide were fairly chargeable: Particu- 
larly, that all thofe who feparatc from the Church of 
England are not juftly chargeable in this Refpedt, there 
being many among them, who tho* they'll freely give 
their Brethren of the Eftablifli'd Church the Preference in 
' many 

282 The LJ Ft, of Chip.X. 

many other Things, will yet vye with them, for a free, 
Jarge, and extenfive Chariry. 

Palling from the Scriptures to the Prim'tive Fathers, 
they found nuny of their Exclamitions agamK tlj.^ Sin 
of Schifm very warm and leverc ; and perhaps it aiay 
be made appear that feme of thetr, might Jay more 
ftrefs (in their RepreCentarion of che Thing rhey fo hea- 
vily Ccnfur'd,) on the bare Separation, and lefs on an 
uncharitable Spirit and Temper, than we can difcern in 
Scriptn'^e, which was their proper Standard, as well as 
ours : But be that as it will, the Poor Branded .J.Jfenters 
have not ftuck to own, that the heavy Cenfures of the 
primitive Fathers, were better grounded tnan our Mo- 
dern invedkives ; and they give this Reafon for it, which 
deferves to be conlider'd ; vl:(. Becaufe the Church in 
thofe Times made no other Terms of Communion, 
than Chrirt had made to her Hands- Whereas 'tis now 
quite oiherwife. And yet they found even as fevere a 
Perfon as St. Cyprian *, delating 
* CyprianiEpul. ^8. &Lib. I. that a Confcientioui People ought to 
^ Epift. 4. See alfo the Confiituth fepnrate themfelves from a fcandalom 
on and Difciplim of the Frimitive and xvicksd Pajior; whence they in- 
CtfjirW;, j>a-e 144. & pa^e2i$- ferrM, that there may be fome juft 

grounds of Separation, even in the 
Sjenfe of the Fathers : And that even where there may 
be the true Faith, and acceptable Worfliip ; where all 
Sacred Ordinances may be validly adminiftred, and no- 
thing that is necelfary to Salvation be wanting : And 
confequently Separation even from a true Church, where 
Ordinances are valid, and nothing neceflary is wanting, 
is not in their Efteeni, (if they are confiftent with them- 
felves) prefently d^wriAble Schifm. 

Tlit-y farther Pkadt d, that their Separation was not 
ChoJ'en and Vuluntary^ but Pored and Con^raitid. They 
were caft out of the Church by their Impofitions, and 
Excommunicated by their Canons : On which Account 
many of the Lnudehfinn Faction, even to this Day deny 
ihem Chrifti:^n Burial; (as the Charitable lAv, ^bert 
Burfcou^h of Totnefly and others.) They were free to 
hold conftant Communion with the Eftabliih'd Church, 
upon thofe Terms which Chrift had made necclTary ei- 
ther to vifible or realChrillianity, or to the Exercife of 
the MiniOry; but were rcj^c^ed with Scorn without 
farther Compliance, in Things which after the utmoft 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 283 

Search, they could not find the Word of God would 
Warrant. So that they did not throw out then:irelves, 
but were rejected : They did not voluntarily feparate, 
but were forc'd to it: They were Pafi[ive,and not A(^ive: 
And having Petitioned, and Expoftulated, Pray'd, and 
waited for a long Time to little Purpofe, they could 
not fee any remaining Duty lying upon them, but to pro- 
vide for the Necelfities of their Souls, and the Worlhip 
of God, in the beft Manner they could, with Safety to 
their Confciences ; maintaining Love and Charity to^ 
wards thofe who rejected them ; and waiting patiently 
till they Ihould become fenfible of their unbrotherly 
Treatment of them, and open a Door for their Reftau- 

They farther Pleaded, that if there were a Schifm 
amcng us, it moft properly lay at their Door, who laid 
the Foundation of it by their fcrupled Impofiiions, and 
might remove it, and prevent the Difmal Confequences 
they fo much complain of, by leaving the Things that 
are fo llraiily enjoin'd, in their proper Natural Indiffe- 
rence. They found that the main inlet of ^11 the Di- 
ftradlions, Confuiions, and Divilions of the Chriftian 
World, bath been the adding other Conditions of Church- 
Communion than Chrift hath done. They could meet 
with no Charter that he bad given to any Perfons, whe- 
ther they were cloth'd with a Civil or an Ecclefiaftical 
Authority, containing any Power of making fuch Im- 
policions. They durft not therefore encourage fuch Pre- 
cenfions. If they would drop them, the Schifm would 
vanifli. If they were fonder of them than of Peace and 
Unity they tho't it a Sign that they hardly believ'd them- 
felves, when they fp^ke fo warmly upon the Confe- 
quences of a Schifm, they could fo eafily put an end to. 
And whereas fome have Pleaded, it was not in the 
Power of the Church to make fuch an Alteration. 
The Anfwer is eafie; 'twas in their Power at King 
Charles's Reftauration ; The King and Parliament then 
did nothing in Ecclefiaftical Matters, without the Con- 
currence and Influence of the Bifhops, and the Convo- 
cation. *Twas alfo in their Power, when King H^iUi- 
am afcended the vacant Throne, who prepared Matters 
for them, propos'd the Alteration to them, and urg'd 
it upon them, but to little Purpofco The Carriage of 


284 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

the Clergy in thofe Two JunOures is a plain Indication 
of their not being encJin'd to that Alteration, which 
might put a Period 10 that Schifm, about which they 
make fach a Noife. We can t therefore have fo bad an 
Opinion of them, as tofuppofe they fpeak as they mean, 
when they rcprefent theTragicalConfequencesofafuppo- 
{ed-Schif/n^ which they tnigh: fo caiily have prevented and 
remedy'd, but would not. But however'tis as to that, 
the Poor DiJJ'enurs tho't that the Ingenious Mr. H<jVj*s 
Maxims, were fo clear and undoubted, as to be Self- 
evident; and they found thcmrelves thereby fully jufti- 
fied. They were thele : That vohere Cauje of Schlfm is 
ncccjjary, there not he thnt Jcpar/ites^ hut he thnt is the 
Ciiujc of the Separation is the Schifrnntich. And, when ei» 
ther fnlfe or uncertain Conclufions are obtruded for Truth ; 
and A^s either unlnvoful^ or miniHring ju!t ground of 
Scruple are retjuird of us y to be perform d ^ in thije Cnfes 
Confent were Conjpir^cy^ nnd open Conteitation, is not Facti- 
on or Schifm, but due Chriflian Animofny. For that it is 
alil{e unlawful to make Profejfion of i{nown or fufpcHed 
Falfhoody and to put in PraHice^ unlaw^'ul or fujpeHed 
Anions, And they were the more Confirmed in their 
Adherence to thefe Principles, by finding the molt emi- 
nent Divines of the Church, forc'd to make ufe of the 
fame Maxiins, upon like Grounds, in their nobje 
Defence of the Reformation, againft the B^omnnifis : 
And indeed it fecm'd to them remarkable that they 
which were reckon'd by the Clergy, the moft fuccefs- 
ful Weapons againft the poor Dijfentcrs, (hould be the 
fame that are us'd by the Papifs againft the Protectant 

Upon the whole, if there be a Real Schifm between 
the Church Parry and the Moderate Diffentersy they have 
all along tho't that any Impartial Perfon muft judge, 
that it muft be chargM upon the Impofition of Terms 
of Communion, without any Obligation io Confcience 
to make that Imnofition, fo much as pleaded or pre- 
tended from the Nature of the Things impos'd ; rather 
than on the refufing Compliance with fuch Impofitions, 
under a Profelfion that fuch a Compliance, would be 
againft the Light of their Confcicnces, and the bcft Un- 
derftanding they could attain of the Mind and Will of 
God in the Scriptures. They tho't that the Grounds of 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 285 

their Diflatisfadtion above-mention d, fully prov'd thai ^He that 
their Separation was not finful ; and therefore they ap- tpould fee 
prehended it (hould be their great Care and Endeavour to this Matter 
manage it fo peaceably and charitably, as that it might /«/(> can- 
not become Schifmatic/tl*, yafs'd, may 

s confult 

Corbet's Votnt of Church Unity and Schifm difeusd. Baxter's fcarch for the 
Engtilh Schlfmatick. Owen's brief Fmdication of the Nonconformifts from 
the Charge of Schifm, Alfop's Melius Inquirendum, Fart 2. Ch. 2. page 200. 
Wadfworth's Sefaration no Schifm. Henry's Brief. Enquiry into the J\'ature 
cf Schifm : And Tong's ingenious Defence of that Enquiry, 

A main Expedient which was pitch'd upon by the Their Occa- 
moft Moderate for this Purpofe, was the Communica- j^^wrf/ cofn- 
ting Occafionally with the Eftablifh'd Church, alrho' they »^f«'o» 
at the fame Time held more Stated Communion, wirh ^'^^^ /^'^ 
feparate WorOiipping Affembliest. Hereby they tho't^f'^yfi^'^ 
they Ihould fliow their Love and Charity untotbofe from /"j j ^^' 
whom they ordinarily leparated; and yetat the fame Time "x ^^j . 
Ihould (how their firm Adherence to their Fundamental p^rt of [be 
Principles, of keeping the Ordinances of Chrift, as he Debate a- 
had appointed them without Additional Terms of Com* bout Occa- 
munion ; and of purfuing in their refpediive Places and fionalCon' 
Spheres a farther Reformation than has as yet been reach'd formity, 
among us, in Order to an Happy Settlement. But taking ^^^ Hoadly 
this Method, they have had the common Lot of thofe who ^^^5^6* 
in any Cafe have been for keeping within a dueMedi- ^^"'^"^JPh 
ocrity^ they have been eagerly Affaulted by thofe, who p^^^^^ ^f 
have been addided to Extreams on either Hand of them, ^^^ ^* ^* 
and run down as utterly inexcufeable becaufs of thcir^^ ^'^ °' 
Moderation. They have let Things work, in hope, that ^,^ j i'^^ 
Time with Obfervation and Experience would open a /o^ /,/^ 
way for the Convidion of their warmeft Cenfurers; till diftinElly^ 
at length they have been trampled on, as if they had no- Fan 1 1 f . 
thing to fay in their own Defence. o/Def. of 

Mod. None. 
from p. 21J. to p. I'll. But cannot think it needful (ej}ecially as Things 
fiand) to repeat the Arguments on one fide or i other. 

They have been reprefentcd as Hypocrites and in- 
confiftent with themfelves, in pradtically owning the 
Lnvofulncfl of the Terms of the Eftablilh'd Church, 
by Communicating OccafwtiaUy with it; while they 
have pleaded the linfulnefs of thofe Terms, in Bar to 


286 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

conftant Communion*. But here" 

* It has been commonly pleaded^ in there will not appear the leaft 

that if Occaftonal Communion be InCOnfiftency, tO One that obferVCS 

Liwful, Conftant Communion is a that the Terms of Communion 

Duty. But it does not follow, with the Eftablifli'd Church are 

There's a Fallacy in the Terms, ^ot pretended tO be fmful abfi- 

By Lonflant Communion, they i^^^,^^ ^^^ ^^j^ refpctiivciy : It is nOt 

mean full Commumon, and ex- pleaded, that they are of the Num- 

tlufive of all other. Jsow our \ r V -tl- u r n- r i 

Occ.lional Communion is not ber of the Things that are foS.«M 

oft},at Kature. We do not fay f ^^at they can in no Cafe be 

either by Word or Fraclice that i-^^f"', but among Thmgs that are 

that is Lawful : He only commu- either Sinful or Lawful according 

yticate vith you Occafonally in to Cireumftances. And indeed 

th-ife Things in which vee are fa- moft ( not to fay all ) HumanC 

tisfyd that we may ; ought we A(ftions, depend more upon Cir- 
therefore to join with you inthofe comftances than we commonly 
Thinp in which we are difatis- Obferve. Tho' no A(5^ion can be 
fyd, which yet we muft do in ^^^^^ ^lut it muft have Agent, Ob- 
Or^er^o Full W Conftant Com- ^^^^ Manner, End, Time, Place, 
"^"^^^" • and other Cireumftances attending 

it ; yet it may be confider'd, with- 
out confidering at the fame Time any, or all of thefe : 
And if we attend carefully we fhall find, that the very 
fame Aftion as to the Matter of it, is made morally 
Good or Bad, according as the Agent is proper or im- 
proper, the Objedt fuitable or unfit ; and the like. 
Thus plentiful Eating and Drinking may be morally 
Good yr[ fome Cireumftances, as well as good upon st 
natural Confideration ; when yet to do fo every MeaJ, 
or very frequently, would be very bad ; 'twould be In- 
temperate and Dangerous in Point of Health. So alfo 
Fafting is laudable and praife-worthy, when fo ma- 
nag'd as that it furthers in the Divine Service ; but 
very prepofterous and pernicious, when fo oft repeated, 
as that the Body is macerated, and the Spirits depau- 
peratcd, and the Perfon concernd unfitted for the Ser- 
vice either of God or Man. 

Cireumftances give Adtions their Moral Goodnefs oi^ 
Badnefs. *Tis fo in this Cafe. The very fame Terms 
of Communion, which are unwarrantably impos'd by 
the Church of England, may he complied with upon Oc^ 
cafim lawfully, by thofe who would a6t irregularly and 
finfuUy, (hould they fall in with them for a Conftancy. 
The Adtion of communicating is the fame indeed in 


Chap X. Mr. Richard Baxter. 287 

Subftance at one Time as at another, and the Matter 
of that A<3:ion hath no Moral Evil in it ; fo that a fit 
and juft Occalion may therefore tender it fit and lau- 
dable; and yet the Conftancy of that Adlion may by 
fuperadded Circumftances be made apparently Evil. 
To thofe who take Things in grofs, fuch an Adion as 
Communicating, appears the fame Thing, done now 
and then, or for a Conftancy : But if the\ would give 
themfelves leave to think foberly, they'd • foon fee a 
great Difference. 

The Aftion is the fame^ and not the fame. *Tis the 
fame in one Refpedt, but not in others. *Tis the fame 
as to the Subftance or Matter : but not as to attending 
Circamftances. Communicating covjiantly under fuch 
Impofiiions as are in the Eftabliih'd Church, is an A- 
(Stion cloath'd with fuch Circumftances, as make it 
highly different from Communicating occtifionally. The 
one doth pradticallv pronounce the Adion confider'd 
materially to be (what indeed it is) Lawful: The ether 
does reprefent the fame A6lion as eligible^ nay, prefera^ 
ble ; which is contrary to the inward Senfe of the moft 
Moderate among the D^Jf enters. Neither will the pri- 
vate Expreflion of a different Senfe, be a fufficierit 
Guard againft fuch Publick, and more forcible Lan- 
guage of continu'd Pradice. The one does pradically 
aifert the Liberty with which Chrift hath hath made us 
Free, in Oppofit:on to rigid Separatifts : The other 
practically betrays our Liberty, in Compliance with ri- 
gorous Impofers. The one difcovers this to be our 
Senfe ; this Worftiip is in the main Sound, tho* Irre- 
gular and Defective : The other on the contrary, feems 
to intimate as if Divine Worfhip were nor acceptable 
without fuch fuperadded Formalities. Occafional Com- 
munion manifefts, that in our Apprehenfion the Addi- 
tions to Divine Worlhip that are bro't into the Church 
of England, are not deftrudtive of the Elfence of Wor- 
ftiip : Conftant Communion would reprefent Chrift's 
own Inftitution as defedlive, and not orderly or decent 
without them. The former condemns the uncharita- 
bly Cenforious, when the other would appear to acquit 
Ecclefiaftical Aflumers. The former fhows our Charity 
towards thofe whofe Sentiments and common Pracif ice 
differ from ours ; the Latter would be a confining our 
Charity t« a Party, and a Pradical difowning and 


288 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

condemning all other Worlhipping AiTemblies. This 
Latter Conlideration appears to be of great Weight ; 
in that conftant Coitimunion with the Eftablilh'd 
Church, is by its grcateft Advocates imended to be 
exclufive of Communion with all others: And there- 
fore that Church has provided ( by Canon xith) 
That if any one ipeak of feparate Congregations, as 
true Churches, they Ihall be Excommunicate, C^'c. Now 
thefe Moderate: Difftutcrs have all apprehended, that 
Ihould they thus confine their Communion within the 
Limitsof that Party, ( or indeed of any other Party of 
Chrirtians in the Land) and avoid all other Chriftian 
Aflemblcs and Places of Worfhip, as efteeming them no 
true Churches, they (hov^ld prove themfelves deftitute 
of a Chriftian Spirit, whatfoever Church they might 
pretend to belong to. Now where lies the Incon(ift:en- 
cy in the Cafe, when we don't aflert the Terms of Gom- 
miinion in the Eftablifh'd Church to be fimply finful, 
( i. e. that it is finful to do the Things themfelves that 
are requir'd) when yet we aflert it to be finful to bind 
up ourfelves by thofe Terms : Whereby we lliould be 
oblig'd to do continually, what we have only Liberty to 
to GO more rarely, and upon fit Occafion. 

They have been farther call'd upon to confider the 
Strefs laid in Scripture upon Pence and Vnion^ which is 
fo great, as feems to require the facrificing of any PJeas 
•to Things that are To valuable, fo Truth and Holinefs 
be but fccured ; and they have been over and over 
told that they appear not to have the due regard there- 
to, while they cannot Sacrifice to them fo much as their 
own greater particular Satisfaction. To which they 
have an cafie Reply. They have as great a Regard to 
Pctice and Vfu'cn as their Brethren ; and ihow it by their 
Readinefs to go as far in Order to them, as they 
can conceive they Lawfully may ; which they do by 
occafionally Communicating with them;, but as for 
conftant Comumunion they therefore only refufe it, be- 
caufe it is in their Apprehension unlawful to them, for 
the Reafons above fpecify'd, notwithftanding that the 
Occafional be lawful. We may lawfully for the Sake of 
Pcace and Quietnefs, put up Injuries and Affronts ; 
rjay, it is a certain Duty : And yet to do fo for aCon- 
ftancy and in all Cafes, were fo far ftom being lawful, 
that it wonld be a ruining ourfelves, and contributing 
to the ovcrdirow of Common Right and Juftice. Tho* 


Chap. X. Mr. Kichard Baxter. 289 

J may be allow'd, nay requir'd, to Sacrifice my own 
private Righrs in many Cafes, to the Common Peace, 
yet I muft not endanger a Publick Mifchief, or Ruin, 
for fear of a little prelent Difturbance. What were this, 
but as if for fear of difturbing a Peccant Humour in 
the Body, we Ihould fuflfer it to proceed uncontrourd, 
tiJl it prov'd Fatal? And certainly the Oftence taken by 
Bigots, at the afTerting againft them a truly Chriflian 
Liberty, is no better than a Peccant Humour; not in- 
deed to be needlefly enragM ; and yet much lefs to be 
quietly fuffer'd to become predominant. As for the 
more Moderate DilTenters, they are therefore againft a 
Pradtical abetting of Impofitions, as being the great 
Engine of Difturbance and Divifion. They are hearti- 
ly defirous, if it be poftible, and as much as in thenn 
lies to live peaceably with all Men: And for that very 
Reafon would not willingly be found Combating thofe 
whom they cannot convince. They are free to acknow- 
ledge, that to an offending Brother, gentle Methods 
and Time is due; and much more to a Church that 
needs Reformation : But the waiting time feems to bo 
now over, when the Practice of fuch Things as needed 
Reformation is heighten'd into declared Purpofes, of 
perpetual adherence. Have not thefe Things been en- 
deavour'd to be riveted by a Solemn Oath never to cn^ 
deavour (no not each Man in his place) any alteration 
in the Church ? Have not thofe who would have con- 
tinii'd in the Church, complying as far as they could 
without Guilt, been Ejed^td for that very Reafon, be- 
caufe they would do all they could to better it, and leaft 
they Ihould ? And was it not the declared Senfe of the 
Body of the Clergy after the late happy Revolution, 
that no Amendments were needful or delireable, or to 
be yielded to ? To what purpofe then is it to wait any 
longer ? Hath not that Method been try'd long enough 
without Succefs? 

Should any think that by going (if totally from the 
DifTenters, to a full and fole Communion with the 
Church of England, thty might Contribute lomething 
towards difpofing McnS minds, and paving the way, to 
the defir'd Alterations ; they would do well to confider, 
that they have very little Reafon to hope to J!ain that 
Characfter and Reputation with the High Church Party, 
as Ihould make them of any Significance, unlefs they 

U would 

1^0 The LIFE of Chap. X- 

would Counter-adi the very defign of their yielding 
fuch a Compliance. Before they could Infinuate them- 
felvfs into any good Efteem, they muft pretend their 
Preference of what they think but tolerable, and there- 
fore would go into the Church that they might Contri- 
bute to its Amendment in. Nay, ihey*l find it will be 
expedted they IhouJd lliew a Hatred and Contempt of 
what they think preferable, and would go inio the 
Church to make way for. In a Word, they would not 
be able to make their way to the doing the good they 
aim at, but by Speaking and Adting Contrary, both to 
iinceriry, an^^ to the very end they propofe to themfelves. 
For if they who have always adher'd to the Eftablifh'd 
CUurch, are fufpedied when moderate, and exploded 
vvhen appearing to deiire or endeavour any Reformati- 
on; it is but conlentaneous to Pveafon to expedt, thac 
they who come ot! to ic, muft be much more fo. 

Up"in the whole, the moderate Diflenters think they 
have fufliciencly acquitted themfelves as lovers of Peace 
and Vmon^ by fhowing their readinefs to do any Thing 
in order to it, which they can conceive they Lawfully 
may do. Nay, they think they have herein outdone, 
their Brethren of the Eftablilh'd Church, who might 
have e'er this remov'd the hindrances of Pf4ce and XJnion^ 
without any Danger of Sinning, but would not. 
Notwicbftanding their continu'd Refufal, they yet fliow 
. their Peaceable Difpofition, by Communicating occa- 
fionaliy wirh them ; and cannot conceive that even the 
God of Peace and Order does allow Chriftians to fol- 
low External Peace and Order, to the great and appa- 
rent Prejudice of inward Peace, and general Purity ; and 
tbe'f f >re they dare go no farther. 

Ti»ey have been further Charg'd as being herein want- 
ing in their Duty to the Civil Magiftrate; but in their 
Ap,"ehenfion very undefervedly, fince upon the ftri£left 
Fnqiiiry they cannot find themfelves in thisrefpedl juft- 
ly Blumeable. They are ready to Demonftraie their 
^^!ard to Ci' il Governours by Submiflion to what they 
/hould lefs choofe, nay to what would be to them a 
HariOiip: Bat in what is in their Judgment (after the 
utmoft Search) finful, they dare not comply ; as look- 
ng upon themfelves countermanded by a Superior Au- 
jho'ity. This Article of the Controverfie hath been 
manag'd very Wordily 5 but after all that has been faid, 


Chap. X. Mr. Richard Baxter. , 2^1 

they are fully facisfyM in this, that Obedience to the 
Magiftrares in conttant Communion with the E/ia- 
bh(h*d Church, cannot be made appear to be a Duty; 
any farther than the Thing itfelf is Evidenc'd to he 
Lawful. *Tis commonly aflerted, that we have more 
certainty that we are bound to obey Authority in, ail 
Lawful Things, than we have that wha,t is required of 
us is Unlawful. Be it fo: yet thq certainty of its be- 
ing our Duty to obey Authority in all Lawful Things 
can no farther affedi our Confciences, than as we have 
Evidence that what is required is in its attending Cir- 
cumftances Lawful. Be this Principle undoubted and 
confefsM ; yet that it is rightly apply'd, and cogent or 
binding in the prefent Cafe, can be no clearer or furet 
to us, than 'tis clear and fure that the Things requir'd 
are Lawful. Should Parents upon their own Judgment, 
or any Sinifter Confiderations, plead their Authority 
with a Child for his Marrying a Pap^'if, "''ging his 
Obligation to obey theiii in all Things Lawful; if he 
in the mean time but doubts the Lawfulnefs of comply- 
ing with them in this matter, he hath a f ifficient Coun* 
terplea, vi:^. that the Thing requir'd appears not a- 
mong tbofe Lawful Things.- And yet he may comply 
fo far, as Civil Occafional Converfe with PapiBs, may 
be manag'd without Dangerous Temptation. Tho' a 
Son in fuch a Cafe were not able to Demonftrate the 
^jnlawfulnefs of entire Compliance with his Parents 
Commands, yet it were fufficient that they could not 
clear to him the Lawfulnefs of fo doing ; fince 'tis up° 
on that Suppolition only, that the Argument hath any 
force ifi it. And it is the fame alfo in the prefent Cafe. 
They have been alfo charg'd as T^mfoyi:(eis^ in Com- 
municating Occafionally with the Eftabl Ih'd Church, 
becaufe it was Necelfary to Self-Prefcrvation when the 
Laws againft Dilfenters were rigoroi<lly Executed, and 
hath been >jece(Tary to the holding any Port in the Go- 
vernment, ever fince the Sacramentel Teft* To which 
they have this to fay, that let Meli make what Cla- 
mours they pleafe, whoever will fairly confider Things 
will find, that it is not a matter of Policy, but plain 
Duty, to do what we Lawfully may do in all its Cir- 
cumOances, in Order to Self-Prefervation, and the pre- 
venting ruin ; and alfo in order to the more general 
Ufefulnefs. What is indeed unlawful may not be done ; 

y % btii 

292 The LIFE of Chap. X. 

but what is in all its Circumftances Lawful, ought to 
be done in fuch a Cafe ; and that Occafional Commu- 
nion is of the number of fuch Lawful Things, hath 
been all along held by the more moderate Dilfenters. 
This Opinion of theirs was not taken up with the Sa- 
cramental Teft, but was own d long before, by many of 
their moft noted Minifters, and moft Intelligent Ad- 
herents ; And having declar'd that for their Opinion, 
and regulated their Pradice by it, from the beginning 
of their Nonconformity, they could fee no Reafon why 
the fuperinducing fuch a Teft, ihould make any Change 
or Alteration, either in their Principle, or Correfpon- 
dent Pradlife. And whereas they have upon this Ac- 
count been cenfur'd as guilty of Carnal Policy, it will 
appear to any impartial Obfervers, one of the falfeft and 
moft fenfelefs Charges in the World. For had the 
more moderate Diflenters any Self-Intereft to ferve and 
purfuc, feparate from the common Good, they muft 
have been wretchedly overfeen if they had not taken 
a q-jite different Method: For their particular Intereft 
hath been far from being fervM by this Means, nor 
was there any likelihood it fiiould. They might with 
much greater cafe make and hold faft their Party, by 
fuggefting an utter unlawfulnefs of Communicating at 
all with the Eftabli(h*d Church, than they can convey 
the Diftincftion to common Capacities, by which they 
. muft defend themfelves, and engage the Adherence of 
others in a conftant Communion, in their feparate 
Alfemblies, while they profefledly allow them an oc- 
cafional one elfe- where. For the minds of Men are 
generally for taking Things in Grofs, and accounting 
them altogether good, or altogether bad, and arc im- 
patient if not incapable of attending to thofe differen- 
cing Circumftances, which render an Ad:ion that is the 
fame for Sabftance, one while and in rhisrefpcdt Law- 
fal, and another while, and in another refpedt unlaw- 
ful. And in being willing for the fake of Truth and 
Charity to run this Apparent hazard, they have all a- 
long tho't they have been fufticiently cleared from this 

They have been alfo warmly AfTauIted upon the- 
Head of Sc/irhinl; and told by fome, that their occa- 
fional Communicating v^ith the Eftablifh'd Church 
which they thought Lawful, led othets in imitation of 


Chap. X. Mr, Richard Baxter. 295 

them, to fuch a compliance as they judg'd finfuJ. 
Their Reply was not to feek. Were occafional Com- 
munion abfolutely indifferent; had they not been o- 
blig*d to it, for the Teftification of their Charity, and 
other binding Reafons, they were not then to ufe their 
Liberty, for fear of mifguiding others by that Practice, 
which they might without Sin have altogether omitted : 
But when what they did as Duty, and with aJJ that 
Guard which the difcharge of fuch Duty would allow, 
is mifconftrued, 'tis not a Scandal given, but only ta- 
ken. They were alfo told by others, that this Liberty 
they took in Communicating Occafionally, was matter 
of Scandal to many in the Church of England^ who 
were hereby confirm'd in their way, and led to think 
that rheir Impolitions were juftify'd by their thus abet- 
ting them ; and they Self-Condemn'd, by not falling 
heartily in with them. In which cafe they had this to 
fay for themfelvesj that the largeft Charity is always 
liable to the moft Mifconftruc^ions : And that when 
they only difcover'd their Senfe of the bare Lawfuloefs 
of Communicating with them, while their Stated Separa- 
tion, with their ready Defence of it (when call'dupon) 
fhow'd they were far from apprehending it preferable ; 
if this Ihould be interpreted as an Encouraging them, 
it would be thro* a faulty want of Confideration, and 
the blame muft lie at their own Door. And when they 
were told by others that they ought to mind the Apo- 
ftles Charge, and mark thoje who c^ufe Divifionsj their 
Pradtice anfwerM for them, that it was their great en- 
deavour to keep from Extreams,and mark uncharitable 
Dividers on both hands of them; that fo by carrying 
it with as Difinterefted an Integrity as was Pofliblc, 
between the furious Biggots on both fides, they might 
both fnve themfelves from the untoward Generation where^ 
in they Hvd^ and do what they could to pave the way 
for that Coalition of the more moderate of all fortSy which 
was the Thing that from firft to laft appeared to them 
moji defireable, and which (they yet conceive) will at lafi 
h found Neccfftry to our common Security' y 

U 3 " pH A^ 

294 ^^^ LIFE of Chap, XT. 


Mr. ^h^TZi:s Settlcmerithz LONDON. 

The Occafion of his Separation fiom his 

: Beloved People at KEDeRMINSTER. 

Flif Carriage to them after he left them, 

-., HfS Labours in LONDON, till he was 

V'- Abilene' d. 

The St ate \ T IT Hlh^ }At. Baxter continued in a Private 
9f Ajfnir:\ \/ \/ Comer of the Country his Name grew Fa- 
vfben . r. ^ ^ moup all over the Nation: And when he 
Baxter was afcervV'ards more in general view, by being fix'd in 
came to ^ fhe City, which is the common Center of the Land; 
London. He kept his Reputation, and his ufefulnefs was the 
. piore Exienfive. He came to London at the time when 
'all Things tended to work a mighty Change. Prote(^or 
I{jchn;d was depus'd, and the Government that Suc- 
ceeded, Was very Precarious and Changeable. Some 
'tho't the Obligation to I\j char H was not diflulv'd^ iior 
" could be till ar other Parliament ; or till he had made a 
. fulicr Ren-inciation of the Government. Moft were 
"'•weary of the frequent Changes they had paft thro* ; Ail 
had great Expectations from the Approaching Parlia- 
riient. The King's Return was what was generally de- 
fir'd ; and that even by thoG% who had but a Melan- 
cholly Prorpedt of the Confequences of fuch an Alte- 
ration: For they could fee no h' pe of a Settlement 
any other way. The minds of People were in no fmall 
Commotion, thro' a variety of clandeftine Rumours. 
Politicians were b'lfily at Work to quiet and fatisfie 
ihe;n. They procnr'd fevcral Letters to be written 
from France^ full of high Eloginms of the King, and 
A ITli ranees' of his firmnels in the Proteftant Religion. 
Among thr relt one was written by Monfieur Gnches^ 
a famous Preacher at Chojenton to Mr. B^f't**, declaring, 
that the Kir)g was prefent at Divine Worlhip in the French 
. Church at lli^nr, and I^che/^ tho* not at Charenton,. The(e 
Letters were Printed, andfttisfy'd many. 


Chap. XL Mr. Richard Baxter. 295 

The New Parliament was no fconer met, than they His 
appointed a Solemn Day of Faiting and Prayer, in or- Preaching 
derto a general Humiliation for the Sins of the Land 'o-renfon 
and to invoke the Divine Bleirmg on their Confultati- ^«^/'f^Oc- 
ons, Mr. Baxter was one who Preach'd before them ^'*^'"^^? ^^' 
upon that Occafion. It was upon the laft of April 1 660. 
In chat Sermon, fpeaking of the Differences then on 
Foot, and the way to heal them, he toJd them that 
whether they fhouU be Loyal to the KJ^g ^oi no matter of 
Difference ; in that all agreed; it not being pojjible that a 
Man fhould be true to Proteftant Principles, and not be 
Loyal; as it xvof impojfible to be Loyal upon Pcpijfh Principles, 
And as for matters of Church Government, he told 
them it was eafie for moderate Men to ccme to a fair A- 
greement ; and that the late Arch-Bifhop 0/ A R M A G H 
and he, had agreed in half an Hours Difcourfe^ Sec. the 
Papifts were angry at his Charge, tho' he cited Canon 
the third of the Lateran Council under Pope Innocent 
the Third, which was a full Juftilication of his Alferti- 
on. The very next Morning afcer this Day of Failing, 
(May the ift.) the Parliament voted home the King, 
Nemine Contradicente. About the fame time, there 
was a Day of Solemn Thankfgiving in the City, for 
Monl(s Succels, &c. and Mr. Baxter Preach'd before 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen at St. Pauls ; and he en- 
deavour'd to fhew the value of that Mercy, fo as toihew 
alfo, how Sm and Mens Abufe might turn it into matter 
of Calamity : and what ftiould be the right Bounds and 
Qualifications of rhat Joy. Dr. Morley being often free 
in his Difcourfe for Peace and Union, Mr. Baxter ob- 
tain'd a Meeting with him, and had an Hours Difcourfe 
upon that Subjed:. The Dodror fpake much of Mo- 
deration in the General, but would not parly upon any 
particular Terms of Peace. He fpake much for Litur- 
gies, and againft Exremporary Church Prayers ; And at 
length declar'd that the Janfenijis were numerous among 
the Papifts, and many among the French inclined to Peace, 
and that to his Knowledge, if it were not for the Hin- 
derances which Calvin had laid in the way, moft on this 
fide the Alpss would come over to us; by which what 
he aim'd at was eafily Difcover'd. When the King was 
come home, Mr. Baxter PreachM once before him as 
his Chaplain ; and often waited upon him with the reft 
of the MinifterSj as has been before related ; ufmg his 

U 4 utmoft 

296 The L 1 F ti. of Chap. XI. 

utmoft endeavours to keep Things from coming to ex- 
tremity ; in which the' he Succeeded not to his Delire, 
he yet had the Satistacf^ion of the diiinierefted Sincerity 
of his Airr.s and Intencions. 
Hhe'uCH' King Chnrlcs had not been long in England, before 
0/1 at K<^.- the Old Sequeltred Vicar of K^dcrminftei\j (who was yet 
dcrminrttr, hving) was reftor'd to his Parfonage. He had before 
andcndca- remain'd unmolefted. And iho' the Parliament had 
your to hare in^dc an Order that no Sequeltred Minifter iliould have 
contmud |3J5|^fj}^ part unlefs hcremov'd out of the Parifli where 
he had been Minifter, yet did Mr. Baxter never remove 
hi'.n cu: of the Vicandge Houle, no, nor once came 
within the Doors of it ; fo far was he from feizing it 
ns his owPj or removing him out of the Town. But 
he liv'd in Peace and Quietncis, and without Scandal 
and OfFcnlivenefs. He never difcover'd any uneafinefs 
till the times chang'd, and then was as Alfuming, as 
before he was Submiilive. The Sequeftration continu'd 
in the hands of the Towns-Men. They gathered the 
Tythes and Profits, and thus difpos'd of rhcm. Mr. Bax^ 
tcr had 90/. per Annum, the Old Vicar 40. 61. Yearly 
went ro the Lord for Rents : There were alfo fome 
other Charges ; and the over-plus was given to Mr. Bax- 
ter's AfliRant. When the Vicar was reftor'd, Mr. Bax- 
ter would gladly have been his Curate,- for he was fo 
fenfible of his own infufficiency that he always kept one ; 
but even this could not be granted. Being often with 
my Lord Chancellor afrer the King's Return, he when 
he refus'd the offers of a Bdhoprick, begg'd his Lord- 
fhips Fa\our about a Settlement at f^edcrmivfter. Sir 
Ji-TlphCUre was the great Obftacle; v.'ho once freejy 
told him that if he would Conform, no Man in EtigUnd 
was fo fit to be there as he; but if he would nor, no 
Man fo unfit. Ojice meeting Sir ^iiph in Bifhop 
Morley's Chamber, he defir'd to know if he had any 
1 hingagainfl him, that (hould make him fo much oppofe 
him. His anfwer was, that it was becaufe ho would not 
j:ive the Sacrament to any Kncelinq; andthat.of iSoo 
Communicants, he had not above 600 for him, and the 
reft for the Vicar. Mr. Baxter reply 'd that he himfeJf 
knew that he invited him to the Sacrament, and offered 
it him Kneeling, and that under his hand in Writing: 
and that openly in his hearing in the Pulpit, he 
fcad promis d him and all the rcfl^ that he never had nor 


Chap. XL Mr. Richard Baxter. 297 

would put any Man from the Sacrament on the Account 
of Kneeling, but leave every one to the Pofture they 
jhould choofe. And that the Reafon why he never 
gave it to any Kneeling was, becaufe all that came 
would (it or ftand, and thofe who were for Kneeling 
would not come, unlefs he would adminifterit to them 
on a- Day by themfelves, when the reft were not pre- 
fent : And he had no Mind to be the Author of fuch a 
Divifion, and make as it were two Churches of one. 
And that the Confcioufnefs of notorious Scandal 
which they knew they muft be accountable for, made 
many Kneelers flay away. And as to the Second 
Charge, he begg'd Leave of the Bilhop to fend by the 
next Poft, to know the Minds of the People j for that 
if he f^und what was ailed g'd was true, he Ihould take 
it as a Favour to be kept from them. This being under- 
ftood by the People of Kjderminjier^ they in a Day s 
Time gathered the Hands of 1 600 of the 1800 Commu- 
nicants, and the reft were fuch as were from Home. 
This Subfcription he a few Days after (how'd Sir I{nlph 
before the Bifhop, and they were both of them there- 
upon To much the more againft his Return to then». 
However, my Lord Chancellor wrote to Sir E{alph a- 
bout the Matter, and told him that it would be a 
Thing grateful both to his Majefty and himfelf, for 
Mr. Baxter to be refettled among that People according 
to his Defire, and ofter'd that whatever Annual Allow- 
ance (houid be agreed upon for Mr. Dance the Old Vi- 
car, lliould be paid by his own Steward by Quarterly 
Payments, till he was otherwife provided for to his Sa- 
tistadtion. But it was a meet Compliment, and had 
no Effefl. Not long after, he went himfelf into ^or- 
ceflcrfhire^ to try whether it were pofTible to get any ho- 
neft Terms from the Vicar, that he might preach to 
his former Flock. But when he had preach'd Twice or 
Thrice, he denied him Liberty to preach any more. 
He ofFer'd him to take the Lecture only which he was 
bound to allow him under a Bond of 500/. but he 
refus'd it. He offer'd to be his Curate, which alfo was 
refus'd, He offer'd to preach for nothing, but could 
not be accepted. At length he only begg'd leave once 
to adminifter the Sacrament to the People, and preach 
his Farewel Sermon to them, but could not obtain it. 
The Vicar adted herein according to the Diredion of 


298 The LIFE of Chap. XI. 

his Superiors Going afcerwards to the Bilhop, he al- 
togecher denied him the Liberty of preaching in his 
Diocefs. He offered him to , Preach only on the 
Creed, the Lord's Praver and the Ten Commandments; 
and only to fuch as had no Preaching ; bur could not 
have Liberty. The Bifhop tola him that he would take 
Care th? People (hould be 110 Loofers, but ftiould be 
taught as well as they were by him : And for a while 
he procmM rhe rnoft ac»:eptable Perfons he could get to 
keep up the Led^ure, till the finalhiefs of the Auditory 
furnidi'd him with an Excufe for putting it down. 
One Day Biihop Morky took the Pains to preach to 
thcni hiuifelf ; and vehemently inveyM againft the Peo- 
ple as Presbyterians, and againft Mr. Baxter their Mi- 
nirter, but with little Acceptation or Succefs. A while 
after the Dean, Dr. H^aryneftry did the like, and fpent 
Three Hours upon the People to cure them of their 
Admirarion of Mr. Baxter^ and within a Month, be 
repeated his lnve£fivc, taking a great deal of Pains to 
perfwade them that they were Presbyterians and Schif- 
matical, and led to it by overvaluing Mr. Bnxter, Their 
Le£luf es ran much in the fame Strain generally, which 
inftead of winning upon the People drove them from 
the LeCiure, and then they accusM them as deferring it, 
and fo put it down. For their ftated Preacher, the Bi- 
fhop fet lip one of the beft Parts he could get, but he 
was quickly weary, and went away ; then he put in 
nne that had been a Schoolmafter in the Neighbour- 
hood, who died in a little Time. Then he put in a 
young Man, who fought to win upon the People by 
kind and gentle Ufage, and applauding Mr. Baxter, 
The People were glad of one that had fome Charity : 
And yet were not either by roughnefs or gentlenefs, to 
be won upon to the Love of Prelacy. 
Advice to When he parted from his dear Flock, which was not 
bii 'People without mutual Grief and Tears, he left Mr. Baldwin 
tphen he ' ^^ ^i^e pnvately among them, and over-fee them in 
left them '^ bis Stead, and vifit them from Houfe to Houfe; ad- 
and Car- vifing them notwithftanding all the Injuries they had 
Tiaire to- receiv'd, and all the Failings of the Minifters that 
rvards them preach'd to them, and the Defecfts of the Eftablilh'd Way 
ajtertvardi. of Worfhip, that yet they (hould keep to the Publick 
Alfemblics, and make Ufe of .fuch Helps as they might 
have there, together with what Help they had in Pri- 
vate : 

Chap. KI. Mr, Richard Baxter. 299 

vate : And only in three Cafes to abfent themfelves. 
When the Minifter was one that was utterly infuffi- 
cient, as not being able to teach them the Articles of 
the Faith, and ElTentials of true Religion ( fuch as 
Alas they had known to their Sorrow :) Or when the 
Minifter preach'd any Herefy, or Dodlrine which was 
contrary to any Article of the Faith, or neceffary Pare 
of Godlinefs : Or, when in the Application he fet bim- 
felf againft the Ends of his Office, to make a Holy 
Life feem odious, and to keep Men from it, and to pro- 
mote the Intereft of Satan. Yet not to take every 
bitter Refle£l:ion upon themfelves or others, occafion* d 

"^by Difference of Opinion or Intereft, to be a fuffi- 
cient Caufe to fay that the Minifter preachM againft 

, Godlinefs or to withdraw themfelves. He therefore 
V^mov'd his Dwelling from among them, becaufe they 
themfelves apprehended that his Stay with them, 
would have been much to their Damage, thro' the Bit- 

, ternefs of his Adverfaries. And when he was gone 
from them, he did not fo much as write a Letter to 
them, except once a Year, leaft it fliould be the Oc- 
cafion of their Suffering. For had they but received a 
Letter from him, any difplealing Thing they did, 
would have been imputed to that. For Inftance, when 
the AS: came out, requiring all that had any Place of 
Truft in Cities, Corporations or Counties, Ihould be 
put out, unlefs they declared that they held, That there 
is no Obligation lying upo7j them^ or nny other Per/on, from 
the Onth call'd the Solemn League and Covenant^ the Bailiff 
and Juftice, and thirteen Capital BurgefTes of Kjder- 
minjfer^ except one that had been an Officer in the 
King's Army, and moft of the Twenty five Inferior 
Burgefles alfo were turn'd out, tho' very few of them 
had taken the Covenant themfelves. It was faid, 
that Mr. Baxter had perfwaded them to refufe 
this Declaration, till it was manifeft that he had ne- 
ver fpoke a Word to them about if, nor then written 
a Line to them of a long Time. But fuch Things as 
thefe were what poor Mr. Baxter was us'd to. No- 
thing more common than for him to have fcandalous 
Reports fpread Abroad concerning him. Of which this 
Inftance among others was remarkable j that juft at the 
Time that the Bifhop was filencing him, 'twas reported 
at London^ that he was in the North in the Head of a 

Rebellion I 

300 The L I FE of Chap. XI. 

Rebellion 1 And at Ksdcrtyiivfier he was accus'd, becaufe 
there was a Meecing of fcveral Minifters at his Houfe, 
which had been Cuftomary for feveral Years. While 
they were at Dinner it fell cut, that by Publick Order 
the C'vcnttnt was to be burnt in the Market-PIace, 
and it was done under his Window. The Atten- 
dance was Co fmall, that they knew nor of it till after- 
wards. And ycc becaufe he had preach'd the Morning 
before, (which was his laft Sermon among them) upon 
Ch rift's Words upon the Crofs, Father forgive thenty for 
they knovp not what they do : He was accus*d of it as an 
heinous Crime, as having preach'd againft th€ burning 
of the Ccvcutint. Altho' he meddled not with it, nor in- 
deed knew of it till afterwards. 
f/o«7 thn ^^hcn Mr. Bfrxn^r afcerwards publifli'd hisBook call'd 
rv'tre ^iffcci- ^^^ ^^^'^ ^-^ Church DivJfioru, even his Old Kjderminfter 
€d, after Flock began to cenfure him. For it having long been 
their Suf- the Aim of chofc who preach'd among them, to make 
firings for them think him a Deceiver, they grew more and more 
ji'ciifonfor- alienated from the Prelates and their Adherents. Con- 
7»ity. tinuing to repeat Sermons together in their Houfes, 

many of them were laid long in Goals, among 
Thieves and common Malefadlors,which much encreas'd 
their Exalperation. They continu'd their Meetings 
whilft their Goods were feized on, and they wereFin'd 
andPunilh'd again and again. And they that fell out with 
the Biihops for cafting out Mr. Baxter^ and fpeaking ill 
«f him, were fomc of them very Angry with him, and 
forward to cenfure him, for ftrengthning the Hands of 
Perfccutors as rhey caji'd it, by perfwading them of the 
Lawfulnefs of Commnnicating in their Pari(h Church, 
wiih a Conformable Miniiter in the Liturgy. Notwith- 
ttanding which he continu'd the fame Care of them as 
before, and was as concerned for their Welfare as ever. 
At length their Old reading Vicar dy'd, about the Day 
of the Oaie of the Adl againft Conventicles. Sir I{alph 
CUre his thief Friend dy'd a little before him. And 
now Mr, PuTXtfy was in a Capacity of helping them to 
a valuable ufeful Marl, who fhould have made it his 
Bulinefs ro promote ferious Religion amongft them. 
For the Old Parron Colonel John Brid^/s^ had fold the 
Patronage of the Living to Mr. Thomas Foley ^ with this 
Condition, that he ihould prefent Mr. Br.xtcr next, if be 
\vcre capable of it 5 and if nor, that he fliould prefent 


Chap. XI. Mr, E\.ichard Baxter. 501 

no other but by his Coofent ; xo which Mr. Foley readily 
agreed. So that he now had a fair Opportunity of 
helping them to a Man to their Hearts Defire, which 
was his real Intention and Endeavour. Many tho't he 
would now have Conform'd himfelf ; there being a Va- 
cancy in that Place, where he had offered to preach as 
a Curare, whenherefus'd aBilhoprick : Many of theBi- 
Ihops beljev'd he would now have come into the 
Church ; Particularly Arch-Bi(hop Stem of Tork,, fpake 
thus to a Minifter : Take it on my Word, Mr. Bax- 
ter doth Conform, and is gone to his Beloved J\edder- 
minilrer : But he had no fuch Tho'ts, and aim'd only at 
helping into that Place, one who might be fincerely 
bent upon promoting the Good of Souls ; which he 
found a Matter of greater Difficulty than he could he- 
fore-hand have apprehended it. For the Religious Peo- 
ple (who were the main Body of the Town and Pa- 
rifh) refus'd to have any Hand in bringing in another 
Minifter into the Church, leaft they fhould feem to 
Confent to his Conformity, or be oblig'd to own him 
in his Office, They were not by all the Means tfaac 
could be us*d with therr, pievaiFd upon at all to con- 
cur in the Matter, Whereupon Mr. Baxter alfo refus'd 
to meddle in the Choice : The rather becaufe if he 
had, fome of his Enemies would in all Probability ha\ e 
been forward eno' to fay, that he contradled for fome 
Referve to himfelf. And withal, he knew that Mr. Fo- 
/o the Patron (who was a Smcere, Religious Man) 
would make the beft Choice for them he could. This 
Mr. Thomm Foieyj was indeed a great Bleiling to that 
Town and Country. He was rais'd from very fmall 
Matters, to an Eftate of above 5000/. per Annum by 
Iron- Works : And that with fo juft and blamelefs 
Dealing, that afl Men he had to do with, magnify 'd 
his great Integrity. Having the Patronage of feveral 
Livings belonging to the Lands he purchas'd, he made 
it his Bufmefs to fill them as they became vacant with 
Worthy, Ufeful Minif^ers. And in Thankfulnefs to 
God fur his Mercies to him, he built a well Founded 
Hofpital near StourbridgCy to teach poor Children to 
Read and Write, and then fet them Apprentices : And 
"endowed it with about 500 /. fer Annum. How hap- 
py would this Land be, were fo Good and Pious a Ufe 
of great Profperity. a Common Thing I This worthy 


502 The LIFE of Chap. XI. 

Gentleman was many Ways exceeding helpful to the 
Town oi Ksderminfter : And particularly upon the Va- 
cancy fore-mentionM, he put in a valuable Man to be 
their Minifter ; of whom they themfelves gave this 
Account, that he was an honeft Man, and a good 
Preacher, declaring they had rather have him than ano-- 
ther. When he wasfix'd among them, Mr.B j.s;rfr wrote 
Letter to them to join with him in Prayers and Sacra- 
ment. But their Sufferings had fo far alienated them 
from the Church Party, that they would not yield that 
this Letter (houid be fo much as read among them. 
Mr. Bix- As for Mr. Baxter^ when he had Preach'd up and 
ter'i Fub- down in Londm in feveral Places occafionally for about 
itch La- a Year, he at length fix'd with Dr. Bates at St. Dunftans 
hours tn the in the i>VeJi in Fleetjlreet ; and preachM once a Week, 
City^tillhe 2is Ledlurer, having an Allowance from the Parifh for 
Kfas St- jjis Pains. Seeing which Way Things were going, he 
/ for his better Security, applied himfelf to Biihop 5/be/- 
^ow, for his Licence to Preach in his Diocefs. Some 
were offended at his taking this Step : but he went to 
him as the King's Officer. The Bilhop received him 
with abundance of Refpedt : But offer'd him the Book 
to fubfcribe in . He pleaded the King*s Declaration, 
as exempting from a Nerellity of fubfcribing. The 
Bifhop bid him therefore write what he would. 
Whereupon he fubfcrib'd a Promife in Latin, not to 
preach againft the Dod:rine of the Church, or the Ce- 
remonies, in his Diocefs, as long as he us'd his Licence. 
Upon which he freely gave him his Licence, and would 
let his Secretary take no Money of him. And yet he 
could fcarce preach a Sermon, but he was inform'd 
from fome Quarter or other, that be preach'd Sedition, 
and refle(5led on the Government : When he had nei- 
ther a Tho't nor Word of any fuch Tendency. But he 
had a crowded Congregation, and that was one Thing 
that ftirr'd up Envy. And one Day the Crowd drave 
him from his Place of Preaching. For it fell out, that 
in the Midft of a Sermon of his at St. Dunftun$^ a 
little Lime and Duft (and perhaps a Piece of Brick or 
Two) fell down in the Steple or Belfry near the Boys, 
which put the whole Congregation into a fudden Me- 
lancholy It was tho't the Steeple and Church were fa I- 
ing, which put them all into fo confufed a Haf^e to get 
away, ihat indeed the Nolle of the Feet in the Galle- 

Chap. XI. Mr. Richard Baxter. 305 

ries, founded like the Fall of the Stones ; (o that 
the People crowded out of Doors turn ultuou fly. The 
Women left fome of ihem a Scarf, and fome a Shoe 
behind them , and fome in the Galleries raft them- 
felves down upon thofe below, becaufe they could 
not get down the Stairs. He fat ftili in the Pulpit 
all the while, feeing and pitying their vain Diftem- 
per, and as foon as he could.^bc heard, he intreat- 
ed their Silence, and went on*. 

The People were no fooner quieted * p,. B^^es in bis Funeral Ser- 
and got in again, and the Auditory man for Mr. Baxter, reprefenn 
COmpOS'd, than fome that ftood up- it as a fgnal Inftance of his firm 
on a Wainfcoat Bench near the l^aith In the Diyine Frovidencey 
Communion Table, brake the ^»d his Fortitude (as indeed it 
Bench with their Weigh r, fo that '^'^O ^^^^ 4^^^ *^c ^«''r)' »/'<'« 
the Noife renewed the Fear again, ''''" Occafion was oyer, he reaf- 
andthey were worfediforder'd than ^'^'^^ ^]'' Difcour/e, v>lth thU 
before. So that an old Woman was T'^L / r'^f ^'^ '.'/ '"'"C^f' 

, J , /-., , i-v , . the Minds of the Feople : Wq 

heard at the Church Door askmg ^^^ . ,,. L,.„:^^ J ^^a r^ 
^ . r c r^ i £ 1 • ^^^ ^^ ^"^ oei Vice 01 v.,'od, to 

Forgivenefs ot God, for not taking p .^ ^^^ felves, that we 

the firft Waromg ; and promifing niay be feailefs at the great 

if God would deliver her this once, Noife of the diflbiving World, 

ftie would take heed of coming when the Heavens fhall pafs 

thither again. When they were away, and the Elements melt 

again quieted, he went on. But »n fervent Heat 5 the Earth al- 

ihe Church being Old and Dange- ^o and the Works therein Ihall 

rous, the Church- wardens deter- ^^ burnt up, c^c. 

min'd to repair it ; and fo he was 

forc'd to preach out his Quarter at Sr. Brides Church, 

where the Common Prayer was us*d by the Curate 

before Sermon. On the Week-Days, Mr. Afhhurfi 

with about Twenty more Citizens defir'd him to preach 

a Ledlure in Milkrftreet^ for which they allow'd him 

4c /. fer Annum, which he continu'd near a Year. 

And at the fame Time he preach'd once every Lord s 

Day, at BUckrFrynrs, where he would take nothing 

for his Pains, for fear of rendring the Parilhioners 

lefs able or ready to help their worthy Minifter 

Mr. Gibbons. 

The Laft Sermon he preach'd in Publick was at 

Blacks-Fry ars^ on Mny the 25ih, 1662. For which he 

was accused, as telling the People, that the Gofpel 

was now departing from them. And he was told by 

the Lady Balcarret ^\thzx. the Old QuQen of Bohemia was 


304 The LIFE of Chap. Xir. 

much offended, that he (hould fay the Gofpel was going 
away, becaufe fome Minifters were filenc'd and others 
put in their Places. Whereas there was not the leaft 
Colour of Ground for fuch an Accufaticn, from any 
Thing he faid. Thus he ceafed from his PubHck Mini- 
ftry Three Months before Bartholomew Day, the Time 
when the reft of his Brethren were filenc'd ; which 
was a Thing for which many cenfur'd him. But he for- 
bore Preaching fo foon, partly becaufe the Lawyers did 
interpret a doubtful Claufe in the Ad of Uniformity, 
as putting an End to the Liberty of the Ledtarers at 
that Time ; and partly becaufe he would let all the 
Minifters in the Nation underftand in Time, what his 
Intentions were, leaft any might be influenc'd to a 
Compliance, upon a Suppofition that he intended to 


jln. 1662. Hk own and his Brethren! Treatment after 
^ The their Ejection^ till the Indulgence in l6j\. 

Cafe of 

the Non- /' B-AHE ejefled Minifters, continud for Ten Years 
^^^n^^'r I i" * St*te of Silence and Obfcurity*. It was 

mifts after, J^ jj^^-j. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Endeavour to be found in 

mew^D^" ^^^ ^^y ^^ ^^^^^ Duty to God and the King ; but they 

* There had been many Writings pubUpid Pro and Con, from the Time 
of the 'RefioratioHy and they vpere continued in 1661, and 1661. BiJf)o(> Gau- 
dcn r^^rote for the fiecefjity of a Liturgy. Another wrote a fober and tempo- 
rate Vifcourfe concerning the Interefi of Words in Frayer, the jujl Antiquity and 
Tedegree of Liturgies^ or Forms of Frayer in Churches^ with a Fietp of the 
State of the Church when they were jirfi compofed or impofed ^ together with 
n Difcovery of the Heaknefi of th^ Grounds upon which they firji brought in-^ 
or upon which Bifjop Gauden hath lately difcourfcd the JCectfjity of a Liturgy^ 
&c. Lend. 1 66 I. (^. There was alfo puhlifl/d a fhort^ fober and paciftk 
I X ami nation of fame Exuberances in, and Ceremonial Appurtenances to the 
Common Prayer, by William Prinne, Efcj-^. TJje Liturgical Confider-iror 
confidercd^ or :i brief View of Dr. Gauden s Coiifideraiions touching the 
Liturgy of the Cliurch of England, By G. F. Tl)ere was alfo a Controverfy 
warmly carried on, 1662, andl66^, between Mr. Zach- Crofton, and others^ 
cct\ccrnin^l Communion witJ) the Church under her prefent Corruptions ; ])0W jar it 
was latpfula'nd warrantable, and how far not fo. But thefe Debates affetied 
mt thofe 'bat had Power in their Hands^ mr did they afford the Sufferers any 

Ke/icf could 

Chap. XII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 


could not be fiifferU to live in. Peace. Such v^as the ^'^^ i^<^i' 
Policy of the Court, that they mul\ either be crnfli'd 
by their Fellow ?YoteJUnts, to the itrengthning of the 
^omifh Intereft ; Or if favour'd with any Connivance, 
they muft have the Fapifts Partners with them, that 
fo the Prorejiant Intereft might be chat Way weakenM. 
This 'was a great Hardlliip that attended their Cir- 
cumftances ; but it was altogether their Unhappinefs, 
and very remote from being their Choice j and there- 
fore no Matter of juft Refledrion. * The Adt of Uni- 
formity as has been faid cook Place, Aug. the 24th, 
1662. On the 26th of Decemher (ollo'wing, the King 
publifh'd a Declaration, exprefling his Purpofe to 
grant fome Indulgence or Liberty in 

Religion not excluding the Papifts f rhe Houfe of Commons oh 

many of whom (he laid; hnd dejerv d Feb. 25, |65J, Voted agalnji 
fo well of him. Some of the Nfl»cow- any /mc/> Indulgence, and Pur^ 
formijis were hereupon much en- fuunt to their Vott^ -waited en 
courag'dj and waiting privately on 
the King were fill'd with Hopes. 
They would have perfwaded their 
Brethren to have thanked the King 
for his Declaration j but they re- 
fused, leaft they Ihould make Way 
for the Toleration of the Pnpifls. 
The Declaration took not at all, 
either with Parliament t or Peo- 
ple • And (b the poor Nonconfor- 
mifis were expofed to great Severi- 
ties. They who at the King's 
coming in were fo much carefs'd, 

his Majefiy v?lih their Humble 
advice that no fucb Indulgerxe 
might be granted : And tn their 
Votes they gaye their Reafons ; 
but they were fuch,as that ye'ry 
Parliament ( a^ well as they 
who fucceeded it ) when they 
came to difcem the Growth of 
Pa£)ei'y, found to hare littU 
Strength or Subftance in them, 
and therefore they afterwards 
favs? good-Reafon to Vote the con- 

^ As foon as the Aft -of Uniformity took ^lace, more Plots were hatch'dy 
to keep up the fame Spirit^ as Yarrington'5 Plot firfl ftirrd up. Thomas 
Tongue, George Philips, Francis Stubb-, James Hind, John Sailers, and 
Nathaniel Gibbs, were tried for High Treafon, and rcere cnndemnd in De- 
cember, 1662, and an Account of it publifjyd^ entituled.^ A Brief Narra- 
tive of that Stupenduous Tragedy, late .intended to be a6^ed by the Sara- 
nical Saints of thefe Reforming Times. But whoever reads their Trial, 
will fee Reafon to conclude that the Court was very willing they fl^ould be 
thot Guilty, to enflame the Populace againfi fuch as d d n>t fall in with the 
Chuich of England, and ferye fome other Purpofes which were then on foot. 


-o5 The LIFE of Chap. XII. 

-ri«. 1 5:: 2. were now ireated with the utmoft Contempt. The 
iilenc'd Minifters were not only forbidden to preach 
* in Publick, but were fo carefully wacchM in Private, 
, xhat they could not meet to Pray togetherj but it was 

a Seditious ConventicJe. Mr. Baxter and Dr. Bates 
.were defird to be at Mr. Beales in Hatton Garden^ to 
pray for his fick Wife, who had a Feaver, and was at 
ihe laft Extremity. Thro' fome other ncceffary Occa- 
fions they fail'd of being there, and if they had not, 
they had been apprehended. For Two Jnftices of 
rhe Peace, Living far diftant from each other, the one 
at iVcfiminJier and the other ztClerkenweli, came thither 
with a Serjeant at Anns to feize ihem. They fearch'd 
the Hon fe, and even the fick Gentlewoman's Cham- 
ber, and were difappointed. But tho' they efcapd, 
many Holy and Excellent Minifters quickly after were 
laid in Goals in many Counties in the Land, for the hea- 
vy Crime of Preaching and Praying. As Mr. Cool{ of 
Chefter^ ( the Sufferer for joining with Sir George Booth, 
to make Way for the King's Reftauration) Mr. 'Nor- 
mati of Bridgewater, Mr. Allen of Taunton^ and 
Mr. Bn?npfieldy Mr. Ince, and Mr. Sachcverell^ and 
orhcrs in Dorfctfhlre^ &c. 
Ah. ]563. In June 1663, * The old Peaceable Arch-Bilhop of 
Canterbury, Dr. Juxon died, and Dr. Sheldon Biihop 
Ac 7;,/.< of London fucceeded him. And much about that 
Year \66i. Time there was a frefh Difcourfe rais'd of Liberty 
rv.t^ pxtb' d^ffign'd for the filenc'd Minifters. They were blamM 
Upj'd an by many, for not Petitioning the Parliament 5 tho' they 

Jiff ti dote 

to cure the Gihmitts of their Trembling for fear of the Ark, by Vr. Wo- 
inackj v;ho tJ^o't it worth his While to fend into the World n laboured jpcr- 
formance^ in Op^ofuion to an Occafional ILxtcmpornry Sermon of my gaod Old 
Grand father's. The World fmil d at it ^ but he hnd his End. His Dedica- 
tion is KemarJcabU. It rum thui : To the Strenuous Impugners af Schifm 
and Rebellion ; the ingenuous AfTertors of tlie King's Supremacy, Crown 
and Dignity i the zealous Patrons of tb-e Churches Hierarchy and Liturgy, 
the vigorous Cnam^jons of Decency and Uniformity in God's Publick Wor- 
fhip \ the Honourable Reprefcnrative of all the Commons of England now 
in Parliament .ifltmbled, under the mofl Excellent and AuQ)icious Majcfty 
of Chitrla the Second, Leiv?rcnce Womack. D. D. Arch-Deacon of Sujfoll', 
dcdicaceth thefe his Occalional Meditations, in Jultification of the prefent 
Settlement of God s Solemn Service in the Ciiurch of England, againft the 
ScJ UJjjiatical Fears and Jcaloufies, and the Seditious Hiati and lulinuations 


.Chap. Xn. Mr. ELichard Baxter. 507 

bad Reafon eno* againft it. Many Members encou- ^«- 166$. 

rag'd the Expectation of either an Indulgence , of Mr. Ed- 

or a Comprehenfion. And it was thereupon vjdsm- mundCaU- 

ly debate«d, which of the Two would be more de- wj. The 

fireable. Some were for Petitioning for a General -Author in 

Indulgence, thus arguing with their Brethren; TouJ'^'^^^^i 

are Blind, if you fee not that the Jid: of Vniformity was ^•'^ ^^^^rd, 

made fa rigorous, and the Weight of Conformity fo much ^ '^^^ 

encreafed, that jo the dumber of the Ejected- Minifters f,^^ 

might be fo great, as to force them to be glad of a ^J v 

General Toleration, which might takje in the Papifts. And ^j^^^^ ^^^^ 

if you thinks to ft and it out, they wilt yet bring you to it ^^^ ^ ^ook 

in Defpght of you. They will encreafe your Burthens, and of another 

lay you in Vrifons, till you are glad to petition for Juch a Nature c air- 

Toleration, And ft and it out as long as you can, you ft:all fed, Icha- 

le forcd to procure the Papifts Liberty ; and the Odium bod, or 

of it foall not lie on the Bifhops, but on you that are fo Five 

much againft it. The Bifhops fhall fppa!{^ ^g^i^ft if, ^'nd they Groans of 

will force you to beg for it, who are againft it. And if ycu^^^^^^^^^'^^^^ 

will not do it now, you do but ftay till the Market rife, Pj'udently^ 

and your Suffering's be made greater, and you foal I be gUd^'^^y'^^'^^'* 
1 • J ^' ,. ^T- L u r J and pafUo— 

to do It at dearer l\ates. 1 o whom others replied, ^ J ^^^ ^ 

that they would fufter any Thing rather than promote ^^^JyJ'^^ 
Popery, her Second 

Tall^ tJneat- 
Tted^ by thefe Five Dangerous, tho undifcernd Mifcarria^es that camd her 
Virft, viz. I. Undue Ordination. 2. Loofe Profanenefs. ^. Unconfcionable 
Symony. 4. Carelefi Non-Kef dene e. 5. Encroaching'^ Pluralities. Hum- 
bly prefcnted to her Suprcam Head and Governor, the Kings moft Excellent 
Majefiy, and his Great Council the Parliament,&lc. This Book tho' hi^^h eno^ 
for the Hierarchy, and the Ceremonies, and li)^ fever al Parts of Conformity, 
was yet written with a very grave and ferious Spirit^ and warmly complains 
of above Three Thoufand Minifters admitted into the Church, nrlio were unft 
to teach bee aufe of their Touth : And of One Thoufand Vive Hundred de- 
bauch d Men Ordain d : And of many Unlearned Men Ordain'd : And oj 
One Thoufand Three Hundred Vorty-two Tallious Minifers a little before Or- 
dain d : It complains alfo (among other Things) that of Twelve Thoufand 
Church Livings] or thereabouts, Three Thoufand and more being impropriate^ 
and Four Tlwufand One Hundred Sixty-five being Sine-Cures or Kon-Kefident s 
Livings, there was but a f-oor Remainder left for a Painful and an Honef 
Minijhy, for the Glory of God, and tl?e Salvation of Souls. Mr. Cawdrey 
alfo thii Tear wrote againf Conformity.^ 82c. 

X 2 hU.B.'iX^'er 

^g8 The life of Chap. XII. 

^^n. i6r;. Mr. Br.xrcr was about this Time confuked by a 
Perfon ot Honour concerning the Matter fo much 
taik'd oi : He preis'd him to give him his Judgment, 
whether the Way ot hidiilgencs or Ccmprchenfion wgis 
more dtlireablc. He freely gave him his Tho'ts lo 
this Purpofe ; That he was not for Comprehcnfion with- 
out Indulgence ; nor for Indulgence' without the En- 
largement of the A61 of Uniformity to a greater Com- 
pchenfioti ; but tor the ConjurK^tion of both. He was 
not for Comprehenjion alone, becaufe when they had 
goiiC the fartheff, many worthy Perfons, whofe Gifts 
in the Chgrc^h might be very ufeful, would be ftill 
left out ; and there would be much want when all 
were employed ^ and the Lofs by their being utterly 
Siienc'd would redound to the Souls of many. He 
was not for Indulgence alcne, uniefs the Law were 
Trade more Comprehenfive ; becaufe the Impofitions 
and Reftridlions of the Law were really unaccount- 
ble ; becaute nothing can be more defireable than 
the Strength and Unity of the Eftabhfti'd Body of 
the Clergy ,• and becaufe a bare Indulgence would be 
apt to Occafion fuch Jealoulies and Animofities^ as 
that it would not be long enjoy'd in Peace : And 
therefore he declar'd, he was for a Comfrehonfion of as 
n^any fit Perfons as might be taken in by Law, and then 
a Power referv'd to his Majefty, to indulge the Rem- 
•nant as far as might be conducibie to the Peace and Be- 
nefit of Church and State. 
ۥ the All But inftead o^ Indulgence or Comprehenfion^ on the 
ag^iinfl Laft Day of June, the A<^ againft Private Meetings for 
them, caird Religious Exercifes pafs'd the Houfeof Commons, and 
the Cotu'cn- Ihortly after was made a Law. The Sum of it was, 
tide Alt. srhat every Perfon above Sixteen Tears who ts frefejit nt any 
Meeting under Colour or Pretence of any Exercife of ^li- 
giony in other Manner than is allowed by the Litur"^^ or Pra- 
Bice of the Church of England, where there arc Five Per^ 
fens more than the Hou/hold, fhall for the Firjl Offence^ 
h '^ Juflice of Peace be I^cordedy and fent to Goal Three 
Months^ till he pay 5 1 ; and for the Second Offence Six 
Months till he pay I o 1 ; and the Third Time being Con- 
I'itied by a Jury^ fhall be B^nifl:>'d to fonie of the American 
Plantatio7:s^ excepting New-England or Virginia. It 
ivas a great Hardlhip that attended this A£f, that fo 
much Power was given by it to Jufticcs of the Peace, to 


Chap. XFL Mr. Richard Baxter. 509 

Record a Man an offender without a Jury*: And if ^«. 166^. 
.they did it cauflcfly there was no Remedy, feeing every 
Juilire was fnade a Judge. Before the Danger and 
oufFei ings lay on the Minifters only, but now the Peo- ^ ^ 
pie aJlo were forely try'd. t ^"'^^''^ 

Fol.^. /'.' 249. /rf^J, That this is a wrong Complaint, and a RefledHoa 
upon many Qther of our wholefome Law?, which could never be executed, 
it Evidencenpon Oath before a Juftice of Peace, could not make him To 
far a Judge, as to pronounce the Penalty exprefs'd in the Letter of the 
Law, without the Formality of a Court and a Jury. It is fufHcienc (fays 
he) that the greater Offences, and the greater Penalties aifeftino Life, or 
Liberty, or Eltate, fliall not be determined by any private Jullice.^, but ia 
the more folemn Manner of Court, and Judge, and Prifoner, and Jurj\ 
And fo it was by this very Acl accordingly provided, that no one fliould 
be convifted of the Third Offence, which incurred Banill-iment, without 
a, regular Trial by a Jury. And hereupon hU Margin is decently "-rac'd 
with the Miftakes of the Author of the Abridgment. But had this Author 
eyer had his Goods feiz''d and taken from him, fo as not to hare had fo 
Tnuch as a Bed left to lie on, (v?hlch was the Cafe of feveral of the ejeft- 
ed Mini(iers) purely for affing according to his Confcience ; and this upon 
the Evidence of a fcandaloiis Informer, and Villains hir'd by him to 
fwear what was for his coveted Gain, va^hich Mr. Viercc honeftiy ob- 
ferves v^as the Cafe of the Nonconformifis when this Afl k^^ execufed 
againft thsm. ( See his Third Plea for the Nonconformifis, p. 75/) I ctn 
hardly fuppofe he would have applauded the Law for its VV'hoiefomnefs, 
or have reckoned the charging this with being an Hardship, as any yery great; 

After this the Nonconformifis were nor a little, di- .4^. 166^. 
vided among themfelves, as to the Lawfulnefs and 
Expediency of Worlhipping God in the Publick 
Churches, ove» and above their Private Meetings ftill 
kept up with great Secrefie. Mr. Baxter and Dr. 
Bates^ and feveral others with them, were for fre- 
quenting the Publick Churches, when better Helps 
were not to be had ; And for reforting to them now 
and then, tho' they had their Choice, to (how their 
Charity. They were for having their moft ufual 
Communion with thofe AflembHes, which they tho'c 
were manag d moft agreeably to the Rule and End 
of Worlhip ; and yet for having Occafional Commu- 
nion with others, as Members of the Catholick 
Church, to (how their Catholick Communion with 

X 3 all 

3IO The LIFE of Ch^, XH. 

An 1 65$. all the Body of Chrift. But others were vehement for 
* ThU an entire Separation*. 

fublijb'd Mr. Alkiirs Call to Archippus .• Beim^ an Humble nnd Earnefi 
Motion to the Fjcfled Miniflcn by \\ nj of Utter, to take heed to their Mi- 
wjlry that they fulfil it. 

At length Mr. Baxter finding his Publick Service 
at an End, retires into the Country to Atlon in Middle- 
/e.v, that he might have the more Leifure for Writing. 
He fix'd there in the Month of July^ where he fol- 
lowed his Studies privately in Quietnefs, and went eve- 
ry Lord's-Day to the Pnblick Affembly, when there 
was any Preaching or Catechizing ; and fpcnt the reft 
of the Day with his Family, and a few poor Neigh- 
bours that came in. 
An. 1(565- ^" the Time of the Plague, Anno 1665, he went 
TheFlarue. ^^ ^^' Hampden's ill Buckinghamfhire ; and there was 
Mourning for that defolating Stroke, which carried off 
about an Hundred Thoufand Perfons in the City of 
London, befides a proportionable Number in other Parts 
of the Land. 

The lilenc'd Minifters had till this Time preach'J 
very privately, and but to a few, (not fo much ihro' 
their Timeroufnefs, as in Hope that their Forbearance 
might at Length procure them foine Liberty .) But when 
the Plague grew hct, and the Minifters in the City 
Churches fled, and left their Flocks in the Time of their 
Extremity, feveral of the Nonconformifts pitying the 
dying and diftreffed People, that had none to call the 
Impenitent to Repentance, nor to help them to prepare 
for another World ; nor to comfort th?m in their Ter- 
rors ; when about Ten Thoufand died in a Week ; 
were convinced that no Obedience to the I aws of any 
mortal Man whofoever, could juftifie their neglcc^ling 
Men's Souls and Bodies in fuch Hxtrcmitics, any more 
rhafi they can juftiiie Parents for famifliing their Children 
to Death. And thereupon they refolved to ftay with 
:he People, enter the forfaken Pulpits, tho' prohibited, 
and give tbc:n what Afliftance rhey could, umler fuch an 
awakening Providence, and alfo vifit the Sick, and get 
what Relief they couK! for the Poor, cfpecially fnch as 
were fhjt ip. The Perfom that fet upon this Work, 
were Mr. Thomas Vincent^ Mr, Chejlcr^ Mr. Janeway^ 

Ghap. XI/. Mr. Richard Baxter. 511 

Mr. Turner^ Mr. Grimes^ Mr. Frankjyn, and fome o- An, i66$. 
thers. Irhofe often heard them one Day, who were fick 
the next, and quickly died. The Face of Death did 
fo awaken Preachers and Hearers, chat the former ex- 
ceeded themfelves in lively fervent Preaching ; and the 
latter heard with a peculiar Ardour and Attention. 
And thro' the Blelling of God, many were converted 
from their Carelefnefs, Impenitence, and youthful Luds 
and Vanities ; and Religion took that hold on the Peo- 
ples Hearts, as could never afterward be loofed. 

And whilft God was confuming the People by this qp i q \ 
Judgment, and the Nonconforraifts were , labouring f^^.^^^^jj"^* 
to fave Men's Souls, the Parliament which fate at Ox- 
fcrdy was bufie in making an Ad: of Confinement, to 
make the Cafe of the filenc'd Minifters, incomparably 
harder than it was before, by putting upon them a cer- ^ 
tain Oath, which if they refused, they rauft not come, 
(unlefs upon the Road) within five Miles of any Ciry or 
CorporationjEny Place that fent BurgelTes to Parliament, 
any Place where they had beenMinifters,or had preach 'd 
after the kdi of Oblivion. The main Promoters of 
this Adt aaiong the Clergy, were Arch-Biihop Sheldon^ 
arid Bifhop H^ard of Salisbury : And tho' the Earl of 
Southampton Lord Treafurer (who was one that had 
ever adher'd to the King, but underftood the Intereft 
of his Country and of Humanity) vehemently oppos'd ity 
yet the Lord Chancellor and his Party carried it f- f In the 
When this Adt came out, thofe Minifters that had any Lettet frsim 

a Ferfon of 
Quality to his Friend in the Country, in the Second Folume of the St^ieTi-^CXs 
of King Charles'5 Reign, this Matter is thus exprefs'd. This was flrongly 
oppofed by the Lord Treafurer Southar/ipton, Lord H harton. Lord A^dey^ 
and others; not only in the Concern of rhofe poor Minifters that werefofe- 
verely handled, but as it was in ittelf a moft unlawful and unjuftifiable 
Oath ; however the Zeal ot that Time againft all Nonconformifts eafily 
paffed the Aft, pag. 42. See alfo Conformifls Second Plea for the Nqa. 
conformifts,^ii. That in a Time both of Wat and rf aTlague-i fuch an 
AB as the Fire Mile Act ff)ou/d have paj7, vpill amaze all that da not kyji>t9 
the Secret of that Time : Says Bijhop Burnet, in his Speech in the Hoitfe sf 
Lords, about the Occaiional Bill, in 1 703. And in another Speech of his, 
in the Houfe of Lords, on Marcli 1 6. I JOf'-. upon Occafion of tite Artislei 
rf^rt/«/2'D)*. Sacheverel, he has thefe Words : To the Word Commiffion' d by 
the King, fome moved that the Word Lawfully might be added, to make 
all plain. This was prefled in the Houfe of Commons by Vaughan^ afcer- 

X 4 Main- 

512 The L I f tL of Gbap. Xll. 

-4«. I <56$. Maintenance of their own, found out fome Dwellings 
ward Lord in o'jfcurc Villages, or in feme few MaTket-Towns 
CI]ief-Ja- j.^^^ were not Corporaiions: And fome that had no- 
mce ot the ^^^j^^^ left their Wiyes and Chikircn, and hid them- 
ommon- f^jvcs abroad, and foofietimes canoe kcretly to them by 
The An Night. Bat the moft, refolv'd hereupon to preach the 
tornev Ge- ^^^^ freely in Cities and Corporations till they went 
nerai after- ^o Prilbn. Partly becaufe they were then in the Way 
ward 'Lord c>f their Calling, in which they could futfer with the 
Chancellor greater Peace ; and partly becanfe they might do 
Kottm- fome gocid before they fuffered, and partly becaufe 
^ham, an- the People much dedred it, and alfo were readier to 
fwer'd, relieve fiich as laboured among them, than fuch as 
That was (jjd nothing but hide themfelves ; and partly becaufe 
not necef- ^^\^q^ j^ey lay in Prifon for Preaching the Gofpel, 
f^,^^y°\ both they and their Wives and Children, were like to 
Comm:ri.n ^"^ niore Pity and Relief, than if they Ihould forfake 
imporfcd ^^^^^ People, and their Work. Seeing therefore the 
ir i fincc 

if it was not lawfully iiTaed our, to lawful Perfons, and for a law- 
ful Reafon it was no CommifftoH ; and the whole Houfe affented to 
this : Yet in the Houfe of Lords the fame Word Lawfully was 
prefs'd to be added by the Earl of Southamptan^ who was ani'wered 
by the Earl of Anrlefey^ to the fame Purpoft with what had been faid 
in the Houfe of Commons. He indeed infifted to have the Word 
added, becaufe it would clear all Difficulties with many, who not hav-. 
ing heird of the Senfe givf.n in both Houfes, might fancy that any Sort 
oi Commijjtnnhting granted it would not be lawful to refift it. He did 
not prevail ; for it was faid, Tliat his Explanation being the Senfe of 
both Houfes, it would be foon fpread and known over the Nation. 
jind yi*t our Late Englifh Hi/? or i a ft, Tart g.- p. 259.* fays, J h:it the Mac- 
. tPrs of Fafl here delivered, arc very much to be qucllion'd. / real/y 
think r.ot, after this Elucldalion of my Lord of SariimV, tvhich fl^errs u*^ 
vchat Grounds my Lord Keeper Bridgman had to proceed upon. He add'^ 
That there hardly appears to beany Diftin£^ionin a private Perfon's Law- 
fully or Unlawfully Lndcavouring any Alteration of tlic Government in 
Churcli or State, fince whoever cndeavoursic, will befurc to think it Lriwfu] 
lo to endeavonr. Kotieithfi andin^ which there /till remains as peat a Diffe- 
rence between them, as between Right and Wrong, Good and E.vil, Juft 
and Unj'Mt. Afid he intimates, ti)at there ourht rather to have been a D/- 
flindion at the round ExpreJJton of not taking up Armsagainfl thofe Com- 
niiifionatefd by the King, in purfuance of luch Commlifion : And he 
fayi^ they mi^ht rather have dcfr'd to have it thus explain d or under- 
Jhnd -^ thofc^ tf^a: are Leg:illy ComnnTionated, in a Leg^l Purfuance of 
fuch CommifTiou. But 1 dont fee why both Explications were not yery 


Chap. XII. Mr. Richard Baxter. * 315 

Queftion came to this, whether Beggary, and Famine to An. 166$, 
themfelves and Families, with the deferting of their 
Calling, and the Peoples Souls, was to be chofen, or the 
faithful Performance of their Work, with a Prifon after, 
and the Peoples Companion? They tho't the latter far 
the more Eligible. And yet when they had fo chofen, 
theic Straits were great. For the Country was fo Im- ' 
poveriiliM, that thofe who were willing to relieve 
them, had generally no great Abiliry. And yet God 
did mcrcifnlly provide feme Supplies for them; fo that 
fcarce any of them perilh'd for want, or were Expos'd to 
fordid Beggary: But fomefew were Tempted againft their 
former Judgments to Conform. The Oath impos'd upon 
them, was this. ' I A.B. do fwear, that it is not Law*- 
' fal, upon any Pretence whatfoever, to take Arms againft 

* the King: And that I do abhor the Traiterous Poficion 
' of taking Arms by his Authority againft his Perfon, or 

* againft thofe that are Commiflionated by hira, in pur- 

* fuance of fuch Coramifiion : And that I will not at 

* any time endeavour any Alteration of the Govern- 
' ment, either in Church or State.' This Oath, fur- 
nilh'd with matter of endlefs Debates. But the Non- 
conformifts being in the Adt which impos'd it, charged 
with Seditious Dodtrines and Heinous Crimes, many 
were much concern d. And hereupon they endeavoured 
to find out a Senfe in which the Oath might be taken 
fafely, to prevent their Faffing under that Brand to Po- 
fterity. Dr. Bate; confulted the 

Lord Keeper Bridgeman who pro- tr» thU Tear i^6^, Orders 
fefsM a great Refped for him, a- ^'^''^ /««^ fi''^ ^^'^ Anhblf/jop of 
bout his taking it in a found Senfe. Canterbury to the feveral Bt/hops 

He to fatisfie him, promis'd to be "£ ]" ^/'"["^'^ l"!"^ Z^^^'"'*^ 

^^^1 ..c/r j*u ^ Heads, of which thu was one = 

at the next Seffions, and there on ,;,^^ .^ p,ould make a return of 

the Bench to declare openly that ,,,^ ^^^J^ ,f ^„ ^.^^^^ ^^^, J, 

by Endeavour in the Oath to change f^^^iji Minijiers, with their T lace 

Church Government, was meant of Abode, and manner of Life. It 

only Unlawful Endeavour, Upon bore date on July -jth^ this Tear, 

which Declaration, he and fundry And our late HlUorian, Vol. 3. 

other Nonconformifts, to the num- p- 259. tells «<, that the Returm 

ber of Twenty, took it at the Selll- «/ *^e feveral Bijhops hereupon, 
ons, to avoid the Imputaiion of ^^e fi'H prefery'd m the Umhsih 
Seditious Dodlrine f. "^'^''*'-^' 


314- The LI F E of Chap. XII. 

J — - — ■ 

An. 1666. After the ceafing of the PJague, Mr. Baxter return'd 
to AH on on Mnrch i,'l\ an J found the Church- Yard 
like a Plowed Field with Graves, and many of his 
Neighbours Dead, but his own Houfc uninfected, and 
his Family that he left there fafe. The number of Mi- 
nifters that were Imprifon'd, find, or othcrwife Afflict- 
ed for Preaching Chrift's Gofpel, all this time was very 
lite Fire of September 3, 1666, began that dreadful Fire, where- 
London. jfjy the bell and one of the faireft Cities in the World, 
was turn'd into Afhes and Ruins in three Days Space. 
The Seafon had been exceeding dry before, and the 
Wind in the Eait, where the Fire began. The People 
having none to conducft them aright, could do nothing 
to refill it, but ftood and faw their Houfes burnt with- 
out Remedy, the Engines being prefently out of order 
and ufelefs. The Streets were crowded with People and 
Carts, to carry away what Goods they could get, and 
they that were moft A£live and befriended, got Carts, 
and fav'd much: While the reft loft almoft all they had. 
The lofs in Houfes and Goods could fcarce be valu'd. 
Among the reft, the lofs of Books was a very 
great detriment to the Intereft of Piety and Learning. 
Moft of the Bookfellers in St. Pauls Church- Yard, car^ 
ried their Books into the Vaults under that Cathedral, 
where it was tho't almoft impoflible for the Fire to 
come. But the Church taking Fire, the weighty Stones 
falling down broke into the Vaults, and let in the Fire, 
and there was no coming near to fave the Books. The 
Library alfo of Sion Colled^e was burnt, aud moft of 
the Libraries of the MinLfters, both Conformifts and 
Nonconformifts. Ac laft fome Sea-men taught them 10 
blow up fome of the next Houfes with Gun- Powder, 
which ilopc the Fire, and in fome places it ftopt as won- 
derfully asii had proceeded, without any known Caufe. 
It ftopt at Holhorn ii>'/V»r, and near Sr. Dunjians Church 
in Fleet-Street^ and at Sepulchcr's Church when the 
Church was burnt, and at Christ-Church when the 
Church was burnt, and near Alde^fgate, and Cripplegate^ 
and other Places at the irnll^ and in Aufiti-Frynrs the 
Dutch Church ftopt it and efcapd : It ftopt in Bifhops- 
gntc-Strcet, and Leadenhall-Strcet, and Fcnchurch-Street^ 
\n the mid ft of the Streets, and ihort of the Tower : 
And all Southwarl{ cfcap d. This was a fight that might 
• have 

Chap. XII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 315 

have given any Man a lively Senfe of the Vanity of ^«. i666. 

this World, and all the Wealth and Glory of it, and 

of the future Conflagration of the World. To fee 

the Flames mount up towards Heaven, and proceed fo 

furioully without reftraint; To fee the Streets fill'd 

with People aflonifli'd, that had fcarce Senfe left them 

to" Lament their own Calamity. To fee the Fields 

fill'd with heaps of Goods, and Sumptuous Buildings, 

Curious Rooms, CoftJy Funiture and Houlhold-ftuff, 

yea, Ware-houfes and FnrnilhM Shops and Libraries, 

&c, all on a Flame, while none durft come near to 

receive any Thing. To fee the King and Nobles ride 

about the Streets, beholding all thefe Defolations, 

while none could afford the leaft relief. To fee the 

Air as far as could be beheld, fo fill'd with Smoak 

that the Sun ihin'd thro' it with a colour like Blood, 

&c. But the dolefulleft fight of all was afterwards, 

ta fee what a ruinous confus'd Place the City was, by 

Chimneys and Steeples, only {landing in the midft of 

Cellars and heaps of Rubbifh ; fo that it was hard to 

know where the Streets had been, and dangerous of a 

long time to pafs thro' the Ruins, becaufe of Vaults 

and Fire in them. 

This unhappy Fire, made the Way of the Nonconform 
mists yet the plainer to them. For the Churches being 
Burnt, and the Parifh Minifters gone, for want of Pla- 
ces and Maintenance, the Peoples Neceffity became un- 
queftionable; for they had no Places now to Worfliip 
God in, faving a few Churches that were left flanding, 
which would not hold any confiderable Part of them. 
Whereupon the Nonconformists opened Publick Meeting- rbe Puh- 
Houfes, and were very full. And as Circumftances lick Meet- 
then ftood, to have forbid the People to hear them, had inrrs of tire 
been in Effet^ to forbid them all Publick Worlhip of Noncoa- 
Godj and require them to live like Atheifts. formifts. 

But that they might difcover their Charity to thofe 
from whom they difFer'd, a confiderable Number of 
the Ejed:ed Minifters in the City, met together foon 
after the Fire, to confider whether they ought not to 
join fometimes with the Parifh Churches in the Sacrament j 
and whether their total forbearing it might not tempt 
thofe of che Eftablifht Church to believe that they took 
their Communion for Unlawful. It was generally a- 
greed that fuch Communion was Lawful and Meet, 
when it would not do more harm than good. Iq 

?i6 The LIFE of Chap.XH. 

-i«. I "^67. In the Year 1667, the Lord 

* The King in a Speech to both ChaiKellor HiVc was Jmpeach'd and 
Houfes of Parliament, on Teb. Difcardcd: And it fecm'd a remark- 
10, this Year, thus exprefs'd ab'e Providence of God, that he 
himfelf. One Thing more I hold who had been the Grand Jnftrumenc 
Tnyfelfohllid to recommend un- of Stare in the foregoing Tranfacii- 
tf>ym at thU prcfcnt, t=^lfchif, ^.^^^ and had dealt fo feverelv with 
That your.ou/d fcrnufy th.nh of ^^^ Noncmformifis, ihould at length 
fomc Courfe to be^^ct a (^^j^erL-^- bv his Own Friends be Caft out and 
on and Ccmpofure^ tn the Minds r>' -,,,1 , ., . ,- , ^ ^ ^ 

ef ,«y Proteftant St^Wh in mai^ ^^'^^ ^^ ^^lie thole whorn hc had 
ters 'of Religion, rcherehy they may Pcrfecutcd were the moft Moderate 
le induc'd not only to fub'mit quiet' "^ his Can fe, and many for him. 
h to the Gorernment^ but alfo The Dukeof B/.'c/;/wjr/j^w,fucC.eeded 
chcar fully give their Afft fiance to h\xn as Chief Favourite. He was a 
the Support of it. Man for Liberty ^. tender him, 

the Nonconformifis in Loyidcti were 

connived at, and People went openly to their Meetings 

^ j^ without Fear. This encourag'd the Country Minifters, 

1667, who did the like in moft parts o( England ^zni Crowdsof 

There were the moft Religioufly enclin'd People were their Auditorst- 

many In 


fublifJid about Toleration and Indulgence. As, Indulgence and Toleration 
confiderd in a Letter t$ a Perfon of Honour. Qji. A Peace Offering in an 
Apology and humbU Plea for Indulgence and Liberty of Confcicncc^ by fundry 
Protellanrs differing in fome Things from the Prefent Ejiabli^jmcnt about the 
horj7)ip of God. Mr. Corbet publijh^d a Difmurfe concerning the Religion of 
England, and the Settlement of Reformed Chriflianity in in due Latitude : 
Jn Ttpo Parts. To which an Anfrver was Publifhedj cal'Cd Dolus an Virtus. 
A Propofition for the Safety and Happlnef of the Kitig and Kingdom. The In- 
conrenip.ncici of Toleration : Or an Anftver to a lafe Book^ Intituled a PropO' 
ftion made to the King and Parliament^ for the Safety and Happinefs of thr 
King and Kingdom, (^u. AVefenceof the Proportion : Or fame Rcafons rendred 
vhyths Noncnnformi/l Mini fter who coma tohii Paripj Church and Common Prayer., 
cannot yet yield to other Things that are injoynd, without fome Moderation, &c. 
;{ Our Laie Hiforiany Part 3. p. 271, fays., it Qiouid be added to the 
Foot of tliis Account, that it could be no great Credit to the DifTenting 
Party, ro Invc had the Earl of Clarendon their Oppufcr, and the Duke of Buck- 
vfham their Promoter. Tiie firft oppofing them upon no worfe Principle 
than a Zeal to the Eftablifh'd Church, as the mad cflcvhial Bulwark againft 
Popery, and the other appearing in their Intereft upon no better Account 
than 1 ftrong Affef^ion to the Univerfai Liberty of Opinion and Praftice. 
But I (J}ould think if fuch Conjtderatiom as thefe are l>e)'e bro't in, t])e Church 
vill Jta^e no great Caufe to boafl, who was help'd to her ftron^^cfi Law< again/} 
the Poor Non^iyi^ozmifis., by thofe who (it appear d plainly afterwards) were 
carrying on a Popljh Inttreji : And yet wiren they fujj'trd unliv thofe Law^, 


Chap. XII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 5 1 7 

In January 1668, Mr. Bdxter received a Letter from An. 166S, 
Dr. Manton^ intimating that be was told by Sir John -^ Treaty 
Barber, that the Lord Keeper Bridgman defir'd'to Con- "^^^^^ ^^^ 
fer with them Two, about a Comprebenfion and Tokratl- ^^^ Keener 
on. Hereupon he came to London^ and chey Two waited S^" 
on the Lord Keeper; who told them that he had fent ^^\ j ^ 
for. them, to think of a way of, their Reftanration : To r^^^ 
which end he had fome Propofals to offer to them, . * 
which were for a Comprehenpon for the Presbyterians, and 
a,n Indulgence for the Independents^ and the reft. They 
ask'd him, whether it was his Pleafure, that they Ihould 
offer him their Opinion of the Means, or oiily receive 
what he offered to them. He Reply 'd, that he had 
fomething to offer, but they might alfo make their own 
Propofals. Mr. Baxter told him, he tho't they might 
be able to offer him fuch Terms (without injuring any- 
one) as might take in both Presbyterians zwi Indepen- 
dents, and all found Chriftians into the Pubiick Efta- 
blifh'd Miniftry. He AnfwerM, that that was a Thing 
that he would not have, and fo it was Agreed to go firft 
upon the Comprehevfion. A few Days after he fent his 
Propofals. After this they met with Dr. H^i!l{inr, and 
Mr. Burton, to Confer about the Matter.- 

The Lord Keepers^ or Dr. WilldnV Propofals 
were thefe : 

In Order to a Comprehenfion, it is humbly Offer'd. 

** I. C / HA T fuch Perfons as in the late Times of Diforder 
** have been Ordained by Presbyters, fhall be ad- 

mitted to the Exercife of the Mlniderinl FunFiion, by 
the Impofition of the Hattds cf the Bifhop, vpith this or 
the like Form of PVords : Take thou Authority to Preach 

they were willing to accept belief from any Hani \ as knowing that what' 
eyer Principle they might be of, that appear d for them, there wa* too much of 
an implacable Spirit in fuch as were againft them, l^or can I fee they can 
jufily be bUvn'd for rather cboofing Lenity and Mildnefs from a Man of m 
Trinciple^ thanVining, Imprifonment^Banijhment^ and Ruin j from one of ftrid 
High Church principles. , 

" the 

?i8 The LIFE of Chap. XII. 

An. i662. " the V/ord of God, and to Miniller the Sacraments in 
" any Congregation of the Church of England^ where 
" thou Ihalc be Lawfully appointed thereunto. An ex- 
'* fcdient much of this Nature rvai PracHcd and Allow d of^ 
*' in the Cr.fe of the Catharifts and Meletians, Vid. Sfib 
" Canon Cone. Nic : And Symdical Epiftle of the fame 
** to the Churches of Egypt, Gelafius Cyzicenus, H/if. 
" Co7j. iWc. Second Part. 

'* 2. Thr.t all Perfons to be admitted to any Ecclefjitfiical 
" FuncUon or Dignity, or the Employment of a Schoolmafter^ 
** (after the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy) {hall (in- 
" flead of all former Subfcriptions) be requird to Suufcribe 
" this^ or the like Form of H^ords. f A, B. Do hereby 

Profefs and Declare, that I do approve the Doctrines, 

Worlhip and Government Eftablifh'd in the Church 

of Englandy as containing all Things neceffary to Sal- 
** vation ; and that I will not endeavour by myfeH or 
'* any other, diredtjy or indiredily, to bring in any 
** Do£lrine contrary to that which is fo Eftabliflied; 
*^ And 1 do hereby Promife, that 1 will continue in 
" the Communion of the Church of England^ and 
" will not do any Thing to difturb the Peace thereof. 

'* 3. That the Gejlure of Kjieeling at the Sacrament^ 
*' and the ufe of the Crofl in Baptifm, and bowing at the 

Name of Jefuf, may be left indifferent^ or may be taken 

av^ay, as fhall be tho't tnost expedient, 

4. That in Cafe it be thought fit to review and alter 
" the Liturgy and Canons for the Sntisfaciionof Dijfcnters, 
*' that then every Perfon to be admitted to Preachy fhaJl^ 
*' upon his Inflitution, or Admiffion to Preachy upon fome 
" Lord's Day (within a Time to be limitted) publickjy 
*' and folemnly read the faid Liturgy^ and openly declare 
'* his Ajfent to the Lnwfulnefi of the ufe of it, and fhall 
" Protniffy that it fhall be conflantly ufed at the Time and 
'* Place accujlomcd. 

In Order to Indulgence of fuch Proteflayits as cannot be 
Comprehended under thePublick Eftabiifhmcnt, it is 
humbly Offered, 

" I . That fuch Proteftant.^; may have Liberty for the 
" Ex?rcife of I^cligion in Publick,, a7id at their own Char^ 
*' gB^s to build or procure Places for their Publick, iVorjhipy 
*^ either mthin oy near Tomis, asJhitH be tho't mofl expedient, 

** 2. That 


Chap. XIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 519 





'^ 2. That the Knmes of all fuch Perfons who are to An. 166^- 
^^ have this Liberty, be F{egi[iredy together with the Con- 
** gregations to which they belong, and the Names of their 
" Teachers. 

" 3i That every one admitted to this Liberty, be dlf- 
" ahled to bear any Publicly Office ^ but (hall Fine for Offices 
!' of Burden. 

" 4. And that upon (hewing a Certificate of their being 

Li^ed among thofe who are indulgd, they fhall be freed 

from fuch Legal Penalties^ as are to be infiicied on thofe 

who do not frecjuent their Parifh Churches. 

" 5 . And fuch Perfons fo indulged (hall not for their 

meeting in Conventicles, he funifhti by Confif cation of 


'* 6, Provided that they he obliged to pay all Publicly 

Duties to the Parifh where they inhabit under Penalty. 

" 7. Thn Indulgence to continue for Three Tears. 

That the Liturgy may be aker'd by omitting, &c. 
'* By ufjng the Reading Pralms in the New Tran/lationl 
By appointing fome other Leffons out of the Canonical 
Scripture instead of thofe taken out of the Apocrypha. 
By not enjoining Godfathers and Godmothers when 
either of the Parents are ready to anfwer for the Child. 
By omitting that Clatife in the Prayer at Baptifm, By 
Spiritual Regeneration. By changing that Queslion, 
*^ Wilt thou be Baptized, /wfo wilt thou have this Child 
" Baptized. By omitting thofe Words in the Thankjgi- 
" ving after Publick^ and Private Baptifm, to Regene- 
rate this Infant by thy Holy Spirit, and to receive 
him for thy Child by Adoption: And the first P^- 
brick, after Baptifm, it is certain by God's Word, Sc^ 
By changing thofe Words in the Exhortation after Bap- 
tifm, Regenerate and Grafted into the Body, into re- 
ceived into the Church of Cbrift. By not requiring 
reiteration of any part of the Service about Baptifm :n 
Publick,, when it is evident that the Child hath b:cYt 
lawfully Bnpti:(d in Private. By omitting that Claufe 
in the ColleFi after Impofition of Hands in Confirmation, 
after the Exan^ple of thy Holy Apoftles, and to cer- 
*' tify them by this Sign, of thy Favour, and gracious 
Goodnefs towards them. And by changing that other 
Pajfage in the Prayer before Confirtnation, who haft 
5* vouchfafed to Reecnerare, ^.'. into who haft vouch- 





320 The LIFE of Chap. XIL 

-^». i66'u- " fafed to receive thefe thy Servants into thy Church 
" by Baptifm. By omitting that Ci^u/i' in the Office of 
*' M.itritnonyj With my Body I thee Worfhip : /,nd thnt 
*' in the Colhti^ who haft Confecratedj &)c. By nllovsing 
*^ MiniUcrs J'ome Liberty in the VifltAtion of the Sicky to 
" life fuch other Prayers di they fo^Jl judge expedient. By 
changing that CUufe in the Prayer nt Burial^ Forafmuch 
as it hath pleafed Almighty God of his great Mercy 
to take unto himfelf, ^c. into^ Forafmuch as it hath 
pleafed Almighty God to take out of this World, 
the Soul, ^c : And that CUufe ^ in a fure and certain 
Hope, &c. into, in a full Affurance of the Refur- 
red:ion by our Lord ]efus Chrift, C^c B; omitting 
that CUufe ^ We give thee hearty Thanks for that 
it hath pleafed thee to deliver this our Brother out 
of the Miferies of this finful World : And thnt other ^ 
as our hope is this our Brother doth. By changing 
that CUufe in the Communion Service, our finful Bo- 
dies may be made clean by his Body, ^c into, our 
finful Souls and Bodies may be cleanfed by his Pre- 
cious Body and Blood. By not injoining the Binding 
of the Comminat.ion, That the Liturgy may be abbrevi- 
nted as to the length of it, efpecially as to Morning Ser- 
vice, by emitting all the ^ejponfal Prayers, from, 
Lord open thou our, ^c. to the Litany : And the Li- 
tany, and all the Prayers from^ Son of God we befeech 
'* thee, &c 'j to, We humbly befeech thee, O Father, 
* &c. By not enjoyning the tife of the Lord's Prayer 
above once, viz. immediately after the Abjolution, ex- 
cept after the Minifters Prayer before Sermon. By ufing 
the Gloria Patria only once, viz. after the reading 
Pfalms. By omitting the Venite Exidtcnnus, unlef it 
be tI^o*t fit to put any, or all of the firfl Seven among the 
Sentences at the beginning. By omitting the Commu- 
nion Service nt fuch times 06 are not Communion Days ; 
excepting the Ten Commandments, which may be rend 
after the Creed; And enjoyning the Prayer, Lord have 
Mercy upon us, and incline our Hearts to keep thefe 
Laws only once at the end. By omitting the Colle£ts, 
Epiftles and Gofpels, except only on particular Holi- 
days. By inferting the Prayers for the Parliament 
into the Litany, immediately ^ter the Prayer for the 
^oyal Family, in tlm or the like Form : That it may 
" t)leafe thee to direct and profper all the Confultations 

- '^ ^ - of 












Ghap. XlL Afr. Richard Baxter. ,521 

" of the High Court of Parliamenr, to the advantage ^««. i ^5^- 

" of thy Glory, the good of the Churcb,^ the Safety, 

*• Honour and Wdfare of our Sovereign and his King- 

*' doms. By omitting the Two Hymns in the Confccration 

" of Bifhops, and the Ordination of l^rieSts, That tifter 

*' the firft Qujftion in the Catechifm, What is youi: 

" Name ? This may follow^ When was this Name. given 

** you? And after that, what was proniisM for vou iri 

" Baptiftn ? AnfvQer ; Three Things were promis'd foe 

** me, ^c. In the Que !t ion before the Commandments 

f * it may be alter d^ you faid it was promis'd for yoiij," 

*' ^c. To the Fourteenth QueHion, How many Sacraments' 

" hath Chrift Ordained? The.^nfxvermay be. Two on- 

*' ly, Baptifm and the Lord's Supper. 

Mr. Baxter ind his Brethren mov'd for other Things 
to be added ; And Dr. Wilkjni profefs'd himfejf willing 
of more, but faid that more would not pafs. with the, 
Parliament. The Things delir'd to be added, were 
fucb as thefe. ■ . . i 

That fuch as had been Ordain'd by Presbyters, ^nd 
were in this Way Admitted into the Eftablifh'd Church , 
might have leave to give in their Profeffjons, that they 
renounced not their former Ordinations, <3c. That the 
Subfcription might be only to the Scriptures, and the 
Dodlrinal Articles of the Church, ,^c. That the Pow- 
er of Bilhops, Chancellors, and other Ecclcfiaftical Offi-' jj _'. \'> 
cers to fufpend or filence might be. more limited';;^. ;"''*''J^. 
That there might be an explicit owning the Baprifmal ^y'**^ 
Covenant infxfted on in the Cafe of all admitted to full y^^^^l'f^^^J'' 
Communion: That a Con^undtion of honeft Neigh- /^}^V^^- ' 
bours for private Religious Exercifes might np't be ta- wa^ coip- 
ken for Conventicles : And that fuch as deride or fcorn tMd, -^ 
at Chriftianity or the Holy Scriptures, might be num- There vaa^s 
bred with the fcandalousSinners mentioned in the C^z2o?ziW^K' /'«6- 
and I{ubricl{, and not admitted to the Communion, C^c *. ^ip>^d a - 

. ; Dipourfcof 
Toleration, in Anfwer to the Difcourfe of the Religion of England. A, 
Letter to 4 Member of tbit prefent Parliament^ for Liberty of Confcience, 
TAe Toleration Intolerable .• And in Anfrver to />, Liberty of Confcience tlie 
Klagiftrates Intereft. Findicite Cultils Eyangeiicf^ Or the Perfeftion of 
Chrift's Inftitutions and Ordinances about his Worfliip, AlTertedand Vin- 
dicated, from all Ecclefiaftical or Humane Inventions, &c. But after all. 
the Difcourfe and Debates upon thU SubjeCi^ there was a ProcUmation this Tear ^ 
publijh'd, for inforcing the Laws againfi Conyenticles-^ and a Fate fafs'd in the 
Uoiifi of Cmimm for remmng the aH again fl them for Three Tears. 

Y After 


The LIFE of Chap, XU. 


sfith the rchole Matter, hoping to 
have preraiTd for hii concurrence 
in it, he be/iirr'd hi mf elf and all 
hii Friends, and made fuch a Par- 
ty that nothing could be clone 
in it. 

i66^. Afrer a long Debate a Bill was drawn up by Judge 

Hale^ to be prefented to the Farliamcp.r. But they no 

Toon(?r fate, than the High Church Party made fuch an 

Intercft, as that upon putting it to 

* Sijljcp Wilkins v;ho vfos a the Vote, it was carry *d that no 

Candid, ln^^enuous,andoptn hearted ^^n fhould bring an A£l of thisNa- 

Man, acljuainiing Bijhop Ward ture into the Houle *; and fo they 

prevented all Talk or Motion of 
fuch a Thing. And the Lord 
Keeper who fet it on Foot, grew 
as ihdiiferent about it as any one, 
when he faw which way th^Stream 
was ftrongeft. 
In September, this Year Sir John Baber inform*d 
£)r. Mnnton, that the King v/as inclinM 'to favour the 
''Nonconformi^s, and that an Addrefs now would be 
accepted : And that it muft be a thankful Acknow- 
ledgement of the Clemency of his Maiefly's Govern- 
ment, and the Liberty enjoy'd 
under it, (^c. Such an Addrefs 
was agreed on, and prefented by 
Dr. Mnntorf, Dr. Bates, Dr. Jncomh, 
and Mr. Ennt). The King met them 
in my Lord Alinj^torh Lodgings, 
receiv'd them gracioufiy, and pro- 
mis'd to do his utmoil to get them 
comprehended within the Publick 
Eftablilhment. But after all, the 
Talk of Liberty, did but Occafion 
the Writing many bitter Pamphlets 
againft Toleration. \ And among 
other Things this Year Publifh'd, 
there came out a Br ok call'd, A Friendly Debate be^ 
tveeen n Conformilt and Nonconformift ||. The Au- 
thor of ir, having met with weak Patfages of fome 
Difl'cnting Miniftcrs, fcrapes them together, for mat- 
ter of Reproach: And having heard fonic crude 

t Thu Tear Articles were 
pent d'jvtn into the Country to 
tin Clerzj, with Frlvate Or- 
ders to pjme-i to male the Con- 
yentic/crs as feiv and inonf- 
7'he Ei'zhth 
La/i Article wa^ thtii 
worded; Uljether do you think, 
they Plight be eafily fup' 
prefs'd with the Afffiance of 
the Ci\il Magiftrate ? Conf. 
Plea for the Nonconf. Fart i. 
fage 40. 

durable rf> might Ae 
and Lad Article 

Hale in 
hii Jud'j^e 

ment con- 
cerning the Nature oj True Religion, &c. I\trf ^•, Haying a F articular 
f.yr to thii Boitky thuf cxfrejj'ei. himfclf .' I do remember vhcn Bui. Johnlbn 
madt hu Flay of the Alchvmift, wherein he brings in Anaitus in Vcri/ion of 
»/;- Pcr/'/m then call'd Piuic:in.s, with many of their Fhrafcs in life among 
thc'fi, taken .out oj the Scripturcfi with a Vcftgn to render that fort of 
•ftrfoMs r'uiiculoiHi and to gain Applaufe to hii \[it and Jrancy^ tbo' tU 


Chap. XI f. Mr, Richard Baxter. 525 

and unmeet Expreflions droppM by Private Perfons, he ^» i6'jo. 
brings them forth in a way of Dialogue, in which he P<'^M^ »'^- 
makes the Nonconformist {peak as foohlhly as he could -^^"^''^ °" 
defire, and only fjch lilly Things as he knew he could '^'^'"^ "°^ , 
eafily (hame. And thence he argues againft Nonccnfor-'^J^J^ ^°^ 
tnlty^ which is jaft as if a Man fhould go to prove the J^^^rr the 
Religion of Chriftians or Protefiants foolifh, becaufe' Ones 
there are weak Perfons to be found amongft them. ^W G^/- 
This Book was too much fuited to the Humours o^Unts , yst 
thofe who not only hated the NoncvriformiUs, but were h'u Tlay 
defpifers and deridefs of ferious Godlinefs; who were tvaidiflitdi 
thereby confirm'd in their Contempt and Scorn of ^-t^d indeed 
Religion in General. This Year, i^/:{. 1669, Sir ^7/- ',^^''^^^*"'^7 
lir^m Turner was Lord Mayor of London, who never di- ^'^'^^/^ ^*" 
ilurb*d ihe Nonconforming Mmifters; or troubled Men-^^^'",^ *^ T 
for Religion : And their Liberty ^in London, did hearten ^^'^^' ^ Vfr 
and encourage fo many Preachers thro' the Land, thacf/^°f ;^|^^^] 
in all Probability many Souls were the better for it. ^^ ^w/j to 

render ths 
Puritans tidiculotcs. That rehifh teas ^nfeemly in a Poet, tpho made it his 
hujinefs to make Plays, vein certainly more T-ulfume and Unfavoury, in one vffha 
isfai obligd byhii Profejjim, Profpicere honori Religionis Chriftianpe, and 
not to render it ridiculous and contemptibfeyby raillery, and fcurrilom Jefiing- 

The next Year came out a far more virulent Book, 
call'd Ecclefiaftical Policy, written by Sam. Parker, who 
was aftewards a Doctor and a Bilhop. A Man of ex- 
traordinary Parts, who was bred up among the more 
zealous Party of the Enemies of Prelacy, and feeing 
fome Weakneffes among them, and being one of an 
eager Spirit, was turn'd with the Times into the con- 
trary Extream. He wrote the moft fcornfuUy and 
ralhly, the moft prophanely and cruelly againft the 
Honconformifts, of any Man that ever Aflaulted them. 
In a fiuent, fervent, and ingenious Style of natural 
Rhecorick, he pour'd out Floods of odious Reproaches, 
He was firft anfwer'd by Dr. Ov^en, and afterwards fo 
handled by the ingenious Mr. Andrew Marvel^ that he 
grew much Tamer. 

Whilft Mr. Bixtcr liv'd at //^ow, as long as the A£i 
sigainft Gonventicles was in Force, tho' he Preach'd in' 
his Family, but few of the Town came to hear him : 
Partly, becaufe they tho't it would endanger him, and 
.partly f©r feat of Suffering themfelves. But when 

Y 2 thS 

-24 The LIth of Chap. XU. 

■f i67>.the A(5l was expired, there came fo many, that he 
wanted Room. For there came almoft all the Town 
and Fanih, befides a great many from Brainford, and 
the nc)ghbouring Farilheg. The Parlon of the Pariih 
was Dr. /^/<>f, Dean of l-i^'nuifcr and if^clveihampton^ 
^ Parlon cf HafeHy and of y^ffow, and the Kings Chaplain 

in Ordinary. His Curate was a weak, dull, >oung 
Man, th^t fpent moft of his Time in Ale-Houfes, and 
read a few dry Sentences to the People but cnce a Day: 
And yet becaufe he Preach'd found Do(^rine, and 
there was no better at Hand, Mr. Baxter con^antly 
heard him when he Preach'd. They who heard him 
before, ufually went with him to Church, there being 
Icafce Three that refus'd : And when he Preach'd after 
the Publick Exercife, they went out of the Church 
into his Houfe. This the Parfon could not bear the 
fight of: And he was the more Offended, becaufe he 
came not to the Sacrament with him, tho* he had fome- 
times done it elfewhere. 
Mr. Bix- At length the Parfon thus got an Advantage againft 
iviilnipn him. One Brnjginile an Apothecary at f^olvcrhnmpton 
jonment where he was Dean, wrote him Word that Mr. B^ignolds 
upon tht ^YiQ Si'enc'd Minifter of that Place had in Converfati- 
J^" on told him, that the NoyiconformOis were not fo con- 

tempLible cither for Number or Quality as they were 
.reprclented ; that moft of the People were of their 
Mind ; that Crcmvoel tho* an Ufurper had kept up Rng- 
land againft the Dutch, Sec. And that he marvelled 
at his rieac againft Private Meetings, when at A8on, 
the Dean futfcr'd them at the next Door. With this 
Inrellij^encc the Dean haftens to the King, as if he had 
fcmL' Treafon to difcover. The King upon his aggra- 
vating Matters, bid him go to the Bilhop of London^ as 
fom him, and confujt with him, about the Suppreffi- 
on of Mr. Bfixte)'s Meeting. Two Juftices were chofen 
for their Pcirpofe ; F{pjl^ and Phillips : The former a 
Sov, at Braiuford, and the latter a Steward of the Arch- 
Billi p of Ctntcrhury, They fent a Warrant to the 
Conltablc to apprehend him, and bring him to Brnin- 
ford. When he was bro't before them, and all Pcrfons 
but ihemfelves fhut out of the Room; they told him 
he was Convitft of keeping Conventicles contrary to the 
Law ; and fo they lendei'd him the Oxf.rd Oath. He 
it)ld (hem, that he took not his Meeting to be contrary 


Chap. XIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 525 

to Law; and that the Oxford Oath did not concern him ; An. 1670. 
nor could he apprehend they were impower'd by the 
Adfc to pucic upon him: But they declaring themfeivv's 
'fatisfy'd in what they did, and preffing the Oath, he 
ftarted fome Difficulties about it, and deiir'd their 
Explication, but in vain. At length they committed 
him to New-Pnfon Goal at Clerkenwcll for Six Months, 
without Bail or Mainprize. And thus he left AHcrij the 
Inhabitants whereof were greatly exafperated again ft 
their Parfon, for this Fa£l: of his: And really he could 
hardly have done any Thing more to hinder the Succefs 
ofhisfeldom Preaching there. For nothing certainly 
can have a worfe Afped:, in any one that bears the Cha- 
radfcer of an Ambaflador from the Prince of Peace, than 
his feeking to Moleft and Difturbhis Neighbours, whofe 
defire it is to live in Peace and Qjaietnefs, without noife 
or ftir ^. ^ In 

this Tear fiSyo) was the Trial of Air. William Penn, and Mr. VVini?.m 
Mead, at the Old Baily. The Court treated them roughly. The Charge rvas 
given to the furj/y after the Frifoners were out of Court.^ which was 
contrary to Law and Cufiom. Eight of the Jury at frfi agreed to bring them 
in Guilty.^ and Tour Diffented. At length they brought them In Guilty of 
fpeaking in Gracious Street. Upon which the Court threatened them., and 
they were confind all Nighty without Meat^ Drlttk, Fire.^ or any other Accom- 
tnodaticn. The Court being fat the next Morning., they gar e the fame Ver- 
diil. Hereupon they were threc^end to be Un'd^ Staric d, and Kuind. They 
were kkpt another Nighty without any Accommodation as before : And at 
length they unanimoujly brought them in Not Guilty. For thus Ferdi£l they 
•were find Fourty lAarki a Man^ and ordred to be Imprifond till 'twas paid. 

In this his Imprifoncnent, Mr. Baxter was manifeftly 
hardly dealt with ; for the AA againft Cof.vmticles was 
expired fome Time before. He was never Convic!Sl of 
a Conventicle while that Law was in force. The Oxford 
AB fuppos'd Perfons ConvicSt of a Conventicle-^ and did 
not enable any to Convidt him without another Law : 
And there was none but the Juftices Man, who at all 
witnefs'd concerning his Preaching: But fuch Things were 
common in thofe Times. As he was going to Prifon, he 
caird on Serjeant Fountain, to confult with him ; who 
perufing his Mittimm, advis*d him to feek htsin Habeas 
Corpus, Many at Court mov'd for him : The Earl of 
Orrery^ Earl of Manchester , Lord Arlington, and Duke 
pf Buckingham f intimated to the King that his Impri- 

Y 3 fonnient 

326 The LI FE of Chap. Xll- 

uin. 1670. fonment was nor for his Service. And Sir John Baber 
came to him in Prifon, to let him know that the King 
in Dircourfe bad figniTy'd to him, that be was not wii-^ 
ling ro be feen to relax the Law, but that he would not 
be offended if he fought his Remedy at Law. Accord- 
He obtains inglv he refolv'd upon doing fo. His Habeds Corpus was 
«t Habeas demanded at the Common l^leas^ and Granted. The 
Corpus. Judges declared the Mittimus InvzWd: Becaufe the Wit- 
nclfes were not Nam'd ; which is a Matter of great 
Moment. For if Perfons may be Imprifon'd by Jufti- 
ces upon fuch an A(fl as the Oxfo,d AH^ and the Wit- 
nefft s he unknown, any Innocent Perfon might be laid 
in Prifon, and have no Remedy. Upon this he was 
Difcharg'd. His Imprifonmeni was indeed no great 
Suffering to him : For he had an Honeft Goaler, who 
fiiew'd him all the kindnefs he could; He had a large 
Room, and the Liberty of a fair Garden ; and the fight 
of more Friends in a Day, than he had at home fome- 
timcs in half a Year: And when released, he was very 
much at a L ofs, for he was not acquitted as to the main 
Caufe ; the Mittimus might be eafily amended, and he 
Connn'd ag.iin. He knew not how to bring the main 
Point to a Tryal, whether they had Power to impofe 
upon hirh the Oxford Oath', and his Counfellors advis'd 
, him to forbear, and not go to Queftion the Juftices for 
falfe Imprifonmcnr, leaft he were Born down by Pow- 
er. Ic was Reported he was ennch'd by his Imprifon- 
menr, but without Ground. For all the Prefents that 
he receivM, were thefe : ic Broad Pieces from Sir 
Jchi Bcrvnrd: 10/. from the Countefs o^ Exeter : 
and 5 /. from Alderman Bcnrd. More was offer*d him, 
but he refus'd it, for this defray'd his Law and Prifon 
Charges. The fanne Jufticcs as foon as they heard of 
his Relcafe, made a New Mittimuf^ to fend him to 
Xcopgate ; but he kept out of their Reach. For his neact 
^ M.tny remove was to Tctteri^hc near B^rfict, where he was 
«Vi>/«;ri forc'd to take up with a few mean Rooms for a Year*. 

Were this 

Ten puhlijhd for nnd a^ninfl <f Toleration. Amon^ the rp/?, Mr. (after* 
vard^ Dr.) VVilli;im Afhton fix^aliz.'d himfelf by ahifcourfe., calld Tole- 
ration diOprovd and Condemn d : Invhich he alled^'d againflit^ tJ>e jiu- 
th'^rity of K'ng Jamcs and hi < Council^ the rotes of parliament ini662y The 
rrefbyteriayi Mini ft tn in 15^5, ^«</ Twenty of the Jiffembly of Diyines: &C. 


Chap. XII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 527 

At this Time, he was projeding an Agreement with An. 1670- 
the IndependehtSy for the ftrengthing of the Common ^^ -^^* 
Intereft. Dr. Ovoen in his Catechifm had made two ^^^pt^ ^» 
confiderable Conceflions, vIt^, That the People have not -^g^eem^nf 
the Povoer of the Ksjis, and that they give not the Power ^'^ ^/^ 
of the Kjys, or their Office Power to the Pajlors, Thefe j^j^.g 
Concellions he tho't very improveable, and therefore 
he proposM to him, that they Two Ihould fee how far 
they could go towards an Accomtnodation, before the 
Matter was Communicated to others. The Method he 
offer'd was this : That they fhould firftfix the Elfentials 
of Religion and Communion, which are the Terms 
that all Chriftians ought to agree in ; and then endeavour 
to find out the Means of bringing both fides 10 Confent 
to Communion upon thofe Terms. He tho't the moft 
likely Method would be the drawing up a Writing, 
containing all the Points of Difcipline, Great and SmaiJ, 
which the Two Patties were really Agreed in, which 
would make the few Things they differed in feem fo 
Small, as not to be fufficient to hinder Communion. 
He was for each of them to draw up a Draught, and 
then confider the Matter together j but the Dodlor 
highly approving the Motion, defir'd him to undertake 
it. Whereupon he drew up a great many Thefes, as 
the Matter of their Common Concord- He complain'd 
they were too many, and might be Abridg'd. Where- 
ppon he quickly carry'd him another Draught, of fo ma- 
ny of thofe Things which both Presbyterians and Inde-^ 
pendents are Agreed in, as are necelTary to their Pra£li- 
cal Concord and Communion, with RefpecSt to the 
Things wherein they are, or feem difagreed. The 
Doctors Objeflions were principally Four : That the 
Particulars iniifted on were too many for the firft At- 
tempt : That the Sccinians would Agree to make the 
Creed as Expounded in the firft Four Councils the Teft 
of Orthodoxy; that feme Expreffionsfuited to prevent 
Future Divifions and Separations, would feem to refiedl 
on former Ati^ings ; And that the infifting on the Pow- 
er of the Magiftrate, efpecially as under Civil Coercion 
and Punilhment, was not necefTary in the firft Attemptp 
Mr. Baxter endeavour'd to Anfwer his Objedlions, and 
defir'd his Amendments ; and fome Letters paft about 
it, but in Time it was dropt, and carii»e to nothing, 

X 4 In 

528 The LIFE of Chap. XII. 

uin. 1670. In the Year. 1670, the A61 againft Conventicles 
Jikr7 hard- was rciicwM, and made more ievere than ever. Se- 
pii]'i put veral New Claufes were piK in : As thr.c the Fault 
^^''m^' , of the M'laimus Jhould fict dijnbh it-, that all doubtful 
))'or Nbn-; c/^^/I-j in the aH, fliculd be interpreted cn would moif 

.^ ." favour th:: Sufprcffion of Conventicles; avd that they 
that fled or rcmovd their tjvpeliinjr into another County^ 

* The fl^ould be furjud ly Execution^ 8cc *. Dr. Manton, tho' 
Compiler nfhQ had great Fiieiids, and mighty Piomifes of Fa- 

the \d Vol. 

of the Compleat Hifiory of En^Undy here tells «*,/»• iSl, That tho' tlie 
Wifdom of the Naiion had very good Reafons 10 make a more Effectual 
Law againft Conventicle?, yet 'tis certain the DiiTenters had no great 
Reifon to compiain of the rigorous Execution of it. It was a needful 
Reftraint and Awe (he fays) rather than an Aftual Storm upon them. 
^ut he that vpill confult the Ingenuoat Mr. Pierce'i 2d Plea for the Hon- 
conformifi<^' f. 22, ^ 44, will be at a lofs for the ftrength of thofe Reafotti 
uphich this Author Jpeaki of and will fee good Reafon fo belieye that Mr. P. 
is in the right, when he fays. That this Aft was never intended for the 
Good or growth of the Church of England^ ox the Protefiant Caufc. 
uind th) the Author forcmentiond, fays that there was no Storm upon the 
'Vijfenrers by this All, yet if he had read the Accounts that were this Tear 
f 1670) pubUpj'd to the World fom Bedfordfllire, Suflex, and many other 
Parts, as I bare done ^ or would he yet exercife fa much Self denial as to 
obferve font County to County-, in the Memoirs I have Printed of the Ejefled, 
with what feycrity tins AB was Executed, (I'll refer him particularly for 
4n In/Unce, but to what I hay c publifl) d concerning Afr. Collins at Tallaton in 
Dtvon,) I can hardly conceive how he could pitch upon any EJfentialof ^ Storm 
that was wanting. Hut not dilattng upon this, I fball here add a Letter that 
was this fear fent by the Archbifjop of Canterbury, to the feveral Bijhops of 
his Province^ dated at Lambeth, May 7t/;. 1 670, which that Author had feen 
I fuppofe, which plainly portends a Storm approaching. It was in thcfe Words. 

" Right "Reverend, and my very good Lord, 
" T T hath picas d his Majcily and the Two Houfcs of Parliament, out 

Jl " of thtir Pious Care for tlie Welfare of this Church and King- 
" dom, by majfing and puljlilhing Oie laie Aft for the preventing and 
" hipprelTing.Conv^niicleg, to lay an hopeful way for the Peace and Se:- 
*' tlemtnc ot ilie Churcli, and ilie Uniformity of God s Service in the 
'' fame. If becomes us "the Bifhops, (as more particularly Jenf: Lie oi tliC 
<' good Prcvld'^nce of God) to endeavour as much as in us lies, the pro- 
" moling di fo Blejfed a Worh ; aifd therefore having well confider'd what 
" will be {-rr. itr mt?to do ifi my particular Diocefc, 1 tho't fit to recom- 
" mend tiie'f;<n\e 'Counlel and Method ("which 1 intend God willing to 
' purfue myfelfj to your Lord fliip, and the reft of my Brethren, the Bi- 

ihops oF my Province, being thereunto encourag'd by his Ma'xcjiys Apr 

probation, and exprefs VireClion in this Affair. 

Chap. XII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 319 

vour, was Cent Prifoner to the Gate-Houfe, for preach- An. \6-jo. 

ing the GofpeJ in his own Houfe, in the Parifti where " In the 

he bad formerly been Minifler ; and for not taking the " fir^Piace 

Oxford Oath, and yet coming within Five Miles of a " ^^^^^'^f'^^^ 

"I advife 

" and re- 
<* that you call before you not only your Chancellors, Archdeacons, Com- 
*' .miflfaries, Officials, Regifters, and other th£ Ecclefiaftical Officers, but 
" that alfo by fuch Means, and at fuch Places as you (hall judge moft con- 
■" venienr, you Alfemble before you, and fome grave and difcreet Perfon 
^' or Perfons, your CommiflFioner or Conimiffioners, the feveral Parfons, 
" Vicars, and Curates of your Diocefe and Jurifdittion, within their feve- 
" ral Deanries; and that you impart to them refpeftively, as theylhall 
" come before you or your Commiffioners, the Tenure of thefe my Let- 
<' ters, requiring them, and every of them, as well in mine, as in your 
•« own Name, That in their feveral Capacities and Stations, they ail per- 
*' form their Duty towards God, the King and the Church, by an Exem- 
" plary Conformity in their own Perlons and Praftice, to his Maje^'s 
*« Laws, and the Rules of the Church on this Behalf. 

" I advife that you admonilh and recommend to all and every of the 
»' Parfons, Vicars, Curates, within your Diocefe and Jurifdiftion, Striftnefs 
" and Sobriety of Life and Converfation, checking and punifhing fuch as 
•* franfgrefs, and encouraging fuch as live orderly, that fo they by their 
*' Vertuous and Religious Deportment, may fhew themfelves Patterns of 
«• good Living to the People under their Charge. And next, That you 
*' require of them, as they will anfwer the contrary, that in their own 
*' Perfons in their Churches, they do decently and folemnly perform the 
" Divine Service, by reading the Prayers of the Church, as they are ap- 
" pointed and ordered in the Book of Common Prayer, without addi- 
" tion too, or diminiQiing from the fame, or varying either in Subftance 
" or Ceremony, from the Order or Method which by the faid Book is 
" fet down ; wherein I hear and am 

t' afraid too many do offend^: And that * Ttjit deferves the Confideration */ 
« in the Time of fuch their Officiating, *^<' GentUmtn who went into the 
^' they ever make Ule of, and wear ^^^r' fP''^'"'^'"S ^.^'^^ - Judgment 

<. t- • -r, n/ }■ t 1 of Dfcrction vpas and would be left 

« their Iriefily Habit, the Surp/ice, and them, as to f articular Forrm and Cere. 
" Hood 5 that fo by their Due and Re- monies, 
" verend Performance of fo Holy a 

" Worfhip, they may give Honour to God, and by their Example in- 
« ftruft the People of their Pariflies, what they ought to teach them by 
*« their Doftrine. 

" Having thus counfelled the Ecclefiaftical Judges, and Officers, and 
** the Clergy of the Diocefe in their own particular Duties, your Lord- 
*' fliip is farther defir'd to recommend unto them, the Care of tlie People 
" under their refpeftive Jurifdidiions and Charges, that in their feveral 
f' Places they do their beft to perfwade and win all Nonconformifts and 
^' DilTenters to Obedience to his Majefty's Laws, and Unity with the 


330 ' The LIFE of Chap. XII. 

^fn. i6ji. Corporation. And he concinued there Six Months' 
•• Church ^ And alJ that Time the Meetings in London were df 
'' and luch fturbed by Bands of Soldiers, to the Terror of many 

•' be rcfia- 

^ O^ory, to endeavoiu- to reduce by the Cenfures of the Church, or fuci 
*' o.her good Meins as fhall bj molV conducing thereunto : To whici 
•' End I advife, Tliac all and every of the faid Hcclcfiaftical Judges and 
" Officers, and every of the Cieigy of your Diocelt, and the Church- 
^ waidms of tveiy Parifli, by their relptftive Minilltrs, be defir'd 
"' in their rtf^ieiflive Places and Stations, that they take Notice of al! 
'^ Nonconform uts, i-iolders, Fiequtncers, Maintainers, Abetters of Con- 
" venticies, and unlawful AlTembiies, uoder Pretence of Religious Wor- 
*■'- fhip, efpcciilly of the Preachers and Teachers in them, and of the 
*'^ Places wlierein the fame arc held ^ ever keeping a more watchful Eye 
*' over the Cities and greater Towns, from whence the Mifchief is for 
** the moft Part derived, unto the lelTer Villages and Hamlets i And 
*' wherefoever they tind fucb wilful Offenders, that then with an hearty 
*' Afeliion to the Worihip of God, the Honour of the King and his Laws, 
^' and tlie Peace of the Church and Kingdom, they do addrefs themfelves 
^ to the Civil Magifirate, Juftices, and others -concern 'd, imploring their 
" Help and Ailiftance for preventing and fuppreffing of the fame, accord- 
*' ing to the late faid A(Jr, in that Behalf made and fet forth. And be- 
** ciuie tlieie may be within the Limits of your Diocefs, fomc peculiar 
" and exempt Jurifdiition?, belonging cither to your Dean, Dean and 
•• Chapter, Arch-Deacons, or to Ibme Ecdefiirtical or other Perfons ^ 
** I do theicforc dtiiie that by fuch Ways and Means as your Lordfliip 
** do conceive moll proper, you do communicate this my Letter unto them, 
<' delivering unto every of them Copies of the fame, tor their better In- 
-' ftruition"; and that you require tnem in mv Name, that within their 
*' feveral jarifdiftions, they ;iJro purfue the Advices and Directions before 
** let down, as if tlie fame had been given, by a particular Letter unto 
*' them 'Under my own Hand. Lalily ^ Tiiat for the better Dire6lion to 
** all thofe who 11"ia)i be concern'd in the Advices given by this Letter, 
•' I advife you wilJ give out amongO the tcclefiallical Officers and your 
*' Clergy, as many Copies of the fame, as your LoidQiip ftiall think 
*' conducible to the ^nd tor which it is dcfign'd. 

*' And, now my Loid, what tlje Siicct-fs will be we rauft leave to God 
*' Aimigh»y ^ Yet (my Lord) I have this Confidence under God, that if 
t« wc do our Part? now az firft ferioufly, /;7 God's Help, and the jijfi/iance 
^ of the Ci'/it P'/wer, conlidering the abundant Care and Provilion the 

" A6^ contains for our Advantazet we 

• -r- ^ LI .L .. J .f.'f. " ^^'ill within a few Months* fee fo 

• Uc ^rcihjhop hire proved d fa! fr . • ,i Tx^n ix- 

ProphH ; for the hvent wjs far fum " gi-^t an Alteration lu the Diftraai- 
verifying hit Prtdidion, in th: d\»fe " ons of tiiL'fe Time.s,as«ihat the/e</MfP<^ 
;>jjt ht /ntinded. *' People returning from their Seditious 

*' and Sclf-fcekin^Teachcrs^ to the Uuity 



Chap. XII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 3 3 1 

and the Death of fome. * About this Time my Lord An. i6-ji. 

■L'nitderdale going into Scotlandy fignify'd to Mr. Baxter 

a ^urpofe there was of taking off the Oath of Cano- " ^ ^^^^ 

nical Obedience, and all Impoficions of Conform icy '| j^,':^'! 

there, fave only that it fliould be necelTary to fit in ^^ J"^ ." 

Presbyteries and Synods with the Bifhops and Modera- ^ oTgocTs 

tors : And told him he had the King's Confent to offer ct vvqj.- 

him what Place in Scotlnnd he would choofe ; either a cc n^jp i^ 

Church, or a Colledge in one of the Univerfities, or a c< will be 

Bifhoprick. From accepting which Motion he excufed <« to die 

himfelf, from his Weaknefs and Indifpofition, and the " Glory 

Circumftances of his Family. After that the Earl of" of God, 

L^.ude dale was in Scotland, Sir Robert Murrey a great " ^^^^ ^^^^~ 

Confident of his, fent Mr. Baxter the Frame of a Body " ^^'^^ ^^ 
■ ' "^ " the 

«' Church, 

*' the Praife of his Majefty and Government, and the Happinefs of i\\^ 

'^ whole Kingdom. And fol bid your Lordfliip heartily Farewail, and am,- 

My Lord, 
Lambeth- Houfe, Tour lord/hip's moji AffeCtlonate Vrkni 

May 7. 1670. and Brother. 


A^opy of a Letter from the Arch-Deacon of Lincoln, to the feyeral Fariffja 

vplthm his jfurijdiHion. 

S I K, 

<& r Have received a Command from my Lord Bifhop of Vnco/n, to dif- 
1 " perfe Copies of tlie preceding Letter, to the feveraiParilhes wiihin 
t' tliejurifdidtionof the Arch-Deaconry oi Lincoln. In Purfuance therefore 
" of his LordChip's Order, I fend this to you ^ fiarneftly deiiring you, 
*' to take efpecial Regard to perform whatfoever is therein requir'd of 
^' you, either in your own Perfon, or relating to yourPariQiioners. And 
" Iiow you (hall difcharge your Duty therein, 1 ihall expert an Account 2it 
^' the next Vifitation. lam, 

Tour yery Loying Vrlend and Brother^ 

J. CAWLEY, Archidiac. Lincoln. 

* Mr. Andrew Marvel mmtiom a HoUtlch Engine^ who about this Time 
'ypas emplofd by fome Oxonians, as a Mijjionary amottg the Nonconformifts 
of the adjacent Counties ^ and upon Ve/ign, either gathered a Congregation of 
his own, or Preach' d amongfi others, till haring got all their Names, hethrevr 
bf the Fizard, and appeared in hii Colours^ an Honeft Informer. Mearfal 
Tranfpros'dy pag. i/^. 


532 ' The LIFE of Chap. Xil. 

Am. 157/. of Church Difcipline for Scotlind, and deArd bis A- 
nimadverfions. The Scheme was haiidfomeJy contriv'd, 
and favour'd of nnch Moderation; but che Power ot 
Synods war contriv'd [O be in the King. Mr. Br.xter 
made bis Remarks as he was dcfir'd. 

In the Year i^yr.f the Dio- 
' ' t This Tear was fubli[J}d a cefe of SrAisburj was moft fiercely 
fad Karratiycofthe Opprejjion of driven On CO Conformity , by 
many Honcf People in Devon, Dr. Seth Hard their Bilhop. Ma- 
and other Farts, by inftrmen ny Hundreds did he profecute 
and Ju/iica, out of their pretend- vvith great Indultry ; and a- 
ed Zeal to put the Aa a^ainjl ^long the reft, that learned, hum- 
Conpenticles in Execution. ^j^^ holy Gentleman Mr. Thomus 

Grovc^ an ancient Parliament Man, 
of as great Sincerity and Integrity as moft in the 
Land. He ftood it out a while in a Law Suit, but 
was overthrown, and forc'd to forlake his Country, 
with Multitudes of others. During the Mayoral- 
ty of Sir Samuel Sterli'fi^, many Jury-men in Lcndon 
were Fin'd and Imprifon'd by the Judge, for not 
finding certain Q^ickers guihy of violating the Ad: 
againft Conventicles, They appeal'd and fought Reme- 
dy. Xhe Judges remained about a Year in Sufpence ; 
and then by the Lord Chief juftice Vaiighan delivered 
their Refolution againft the Judge, for the Subjedts 
Freedom from fuch Sort of Fines ; he dilated upon ic 
in a Speech of Two or Three Hours, which was re- 
ceived with great Joy and Applaufe by the People ; 
and the Judges thereupon were cried up as the Pillars of 
* fig Law and Liberty*. 

Compiler of 

the Third Column of the Compleat Hillory of England, p. 1S6, feems not 
^leafed that the Diflenters fhould complain of Perlecution ; and fays that 
the Lares had impofed but moderate Penalties upon them 5 and that they defied 
the Juftice of the Nation, ^c. And fo in EfeSl he ju/iifies all the Seyc- 
Titles agamfi them. And if this yields him Comfort upon a cool Eefleilion^ I 
am far from envying him his Satisfadion. 

The Parliament having made the Laws againft 
Konconformifti Preaching, and Private Religious Meet- 
ings fo fcvcre as hath been rcpiefcnted, the King altho' 
he confented to thofe Laws, became the Patron of 
their Liberty. Not by any Legal Abarcmen[s, but by 
his Connivance as to the? Execution 3 the Magiftrates 


Chap. X II. Mr. Richard Baxter. 3 35 

for the moft Part doing what they "^ The Earl of Briftol called to- 

perceived to be his Will * The g'^^^'-^ ^ Meethg of the chief of 

Minifters were encourag'd by ^^^^ fffi^. and tenired them an 

Sir John Baber and others, to make ^,^^^;''/ ^f''y^ andtoidthem that 

their Addreffes to the King, to pro- f ^''f\ ^^'^'^^ "'^ ^^"-^^ --^ 

^ ): , . T 1. J T , the Dijfenters K^as noK; £x d^ ar.d 

fefs their Loyalty, and agknow- ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^J^^^ '^^^ 

iedge his Clemency; and they did ^/^^, therefore It r<^ as their inter efl 
fo. The King told them, that tho to maheUfe of all the Provocatlm 
fuch Adts were made, he was a- theDifentersmip^htmcetwlth^and 

gainft Perfecution, and hop'd e're to offer their ui'ljift^,nce toihemm 

long to (tand on his own Legs, €rder to the engaging them to JBe- 
and then they fhould fee how much thion for a generalToleratinn : But 

he was againft it. By this Means ^hy '^^uld neyer be brought to k. 
they gaind Peace and Quiet in ^'/^"Z' Burner^ Speech in the 
their Meetings in the City: And f^fc of Lords, about the Ojz- 

m all oir i?»c/j4^dF<?rrfs Mayoralty ^ , j c a a . u i- 

, , ,, ^ r ^ r A L 1. • fays tny Lord StraiTord to/rf him 

( tho he was fuppoTed one ot their ^^,^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^^^^.^ ^^ ^,^^^ j^^ 

greateft, and moft knowing Ad- ^^yj, ^,,,,,„^ ,-, ^^ ,,,, ^, ^i- 
verfaries ) they remain d undi- ^/,g fj^^^p. 
fturb'd. -^ ■ 

About January this Year, the King Ihut up the Ex' 
chequer^ which caufed a general Murmur in the City. 
For many Merchants had put their Money' into the 
Hands of the Bankers, and they had Lent it to the King, 
who gave Orders there (hould be no farther Payments, 
and fo their Eftates were furprizM. Among others, 
Mr. Baxter had a 1000 /. there, which was the greateft 
Part of what he had of his own then left. Having 
no Child, he devoted it to a charitable Ufe, intending 
to ered: a Free-School, as foon as he could meet with 
a fuitable Purchafe, with a good Title. He had been 
Seven Years enquiring, and could not meet with a tole- 
rable Bargain ; and let the Money lie there, till fome- 
thing that was fuitable offer'd ; and lying there, it was 
loft : Which made him admonifh all that afterwards 
came near him, if they would' do any Good, to do ic 
fpeedily, and with all their Might. Prefently after, 
the Dutch War began, which made the Court think ic 
neceflary to grant an Indulgence to the Dijfenterj, that 
fo there might be Peace at Home, while there was 
War abroad. And upon this Occafion they had Liber- 
ty given them, tho* much to the Diflatisfaciiion of thofe, 
who had had a Hand in framing all the fevere Laws a- 
gainft them. 



The LI FE of Chap.XIIh 


An Account of their Cafe, from the Time of 
the Indulgence in \6j2^ till the Death of 
King Charles II. 

An. i6j2. A FTER that the No«cow/or;»(/?j had for feveral 
^'«5: r\ Years ftruggled with the greateft Difficulties, 

Chailes*^ -^ -^ and convinced the World, that they were neither 
Indulgence. ^^ [j^ influenc'd by Severity to renounce their Principles, 
nor provok'd by the utmoft Hardfliips to any Sedition, 
which was an Advantage their Enemies waited for^ 
and would have greatly rejoic'd in ; at length they 
had a little Time ailow'd them to take Breath, by the 
King's Indulgence . The Declaration bore Date Mcirch 
15. 1674, And to all that gave Way to Reflection, 
was a fuflficient Expofition of the Tranfadiions of the 
Twelve Years paft fince his Reftauration. It was now 
pubiickly own'd (^s well as was in it felf a great Truth) 
That there was very little Fruit of all thofe forci- 
ble Courfes, and many frequent Ways of Coercion 
that had been ufed, for the reducing of all Erring 
and DifTenting Perfons, ^c* His Majefty, * By Ver- 
tue of his Supream Power in Matters EccleQaftical, 
took^ upon him to fufpend all Penal Laws abouc them ; 
declaring that he would grant a convenient Number of 
Publick Meeting Places, to Men of all Sorts that did 
not Conform : Provided they took out Licences, fet 
open the Doors to all Comers, and preached not Se- 
ditioufly, nor againft the Difcipline or Government 
of the Church of England : Saving that the Papijls 
were to have no other Publick Places, but their 
Houfes, without Limit ition or Reftri(ftion, to any 
Number of Places or Perfons, or any Neceffity ot 
^ 'Ti'f * getting Approbation*/ This was applauded by fome 

from hence 

that Bifhop Stillingfleet dates the Presbyterian Separation, and freely refieSls 
upon their Condull at this Time^ in hi> Preface to tin Unieafonablcnefs of 
Sej>3rp.tion, p. 2g. Many Writings were fiibllfh'd u^on the Matter at that 
ycry Time. One vftote Toleration not to be abus'd ^ or a ferinus ^eflion 
foUrly dubated and refnhcd upon Presbytcrinn TrincipUs ; \iz. H^lnther it be 

Chap. Kill. Mr. flichard Baxter. 555 

among the Nonconformiflj, while others fear'd the Con--4«. i6j2, 
fequences. For they well knew, that the Toleration ^-^^^'^fab/cy 
was not chiefly for their Sakes, but for the P^.pifts -^efpeciaf/y 
and that they fliould hold it no longer than their Inte-^^"'* ^'^^ 
left would allow it them : And withaj, they fear'd it^.**"^^^5- 
would continue the Divifions, which were much hetttr^Y"\^'r 
heard by a Comprehe}iJion, However they concluded |-^- '/* *"' 
on a cautious and moderate Thankfgiving for the King's p^^^^^^^ 
Clemency and their own Liberty, and were introduc'd^o take Ad- 
by my Lord Arlijigton. Mr. Baxter was not very iov-rantare 
ward to take the Advantage of this Indulgence : He from his 
was defirous of Liberty in another Way, and was fear- ^>^'y*,^y>- 
ful what this Method would iflue in. But at length ^'«f<^ ^W<<- 
there being no Room to hope for any better Terms, *''^^'^'»> ^» 
when he faw the Minifters of London y generally fettled ^'^''■^ *''" *'';" 
in their Meeting Houfes, he had a Licence alfo pro- ^'^'^^^ ^''-'*" 
cur'd for him by Sir Thomns Player, with this P^culiari-^^^^'"''" 
ty, that it was without the Title of Independent, Pref- -p J T^ ^ 
byteriiin, or of any other Party, but only as a Noncon- conTrel-a- 
formift, ]'i,^^^ ^ ' 


to gather 

ihemfehes into difiinSf and feparate Cimrches. On the other Side ttfas pulj/tj/yd a 
TraSl with this Tit/e^ Indulgence not to be re/wi W, Comprehenfion immbiy de- 
fir'd^The Churches Peace earnefily endeayour'd.And jhort Reflexions on Tolera- 
tion not to be abus'd,€^c. /Z'ew/w^; t^'^t it is the Duty of Pres^yterians^to tnaks 
ufe of the Liberty granted 5 And that it is no finful Separation, nor contrary ta 
Presbyterian Frincip/es for th^fe who are call''d Presbyterians to preach to and 
meet in Congregations difiinfl- from the Parochial AJfemblies, under prefent 

The Merchants at this Time fetting up a Weekly Mr. Bax- 
Letiure on Tm^<J)' Morning 2Lt Pinners- Ha U, Mr, B^x- ^^^^'s La- 
ter was one. But fo ill a Spirit was now got among ^^"'"^ '^^^^^^ 
fome of them, who bat juft before were in a Suffering ^'P "^f^^^ 
Condition, that by chat Time he had preach'd Four ^''^ ^**^^^' 
Sermons there, the City was full of Rumours of his'^*'^^'^' 
preaching up Arminianifm : And many were much of- 
fended at bis preaching for Union, andagainftDivifion, 
or unneceffary withdrawing from each other, and un- 
warrantable narrowing of the Church of Chrift. This 
gave but a melancholy Profpe6t ; but did not however 
Difcourage him from what he apprehended to be his Du- 
ty. On Jan, 24. 1 67 1, He began a Friday Lecture at 
Mr. T«r«ey*s in Fetter-Lane^ with great Convenience, and 
a confiderable Bleffing j but he never cook any Thing 


336 The LIFE of Chap. Xlir 

An. 1573. for his Pains. He refu«;M any fercled Place on the 

^ Lords Days, and preached only occalionally. 

^%'i^ In F-h'-uaiT) rhe Parliament mer, and voted down the 

o jerva !e, Kj,-,gs D:claradon as illegal % and the Kin;? promifed 

-^ it Ihoiild not be bro't into Prelident, The Keafon which 

more zea- ^^^ Houfe of Comn:T)n3 gave for their Proceeding, was 

/oi4i in op- ^^^y remarkable. They faid, * That his Majefty's pre- 

fofin'T this ' tended Power of fufpending the Penal Laws in Mat- 

VecUrntion* cerS Ecclcfiftical, might tend to the Interruption of 

in the * the free Courfc of the Laws, and the altering of the 

Houfe^than * LegiQative Power,^ which hath been always acknow- 

jilderman ' ledg'd to tefide in bis Majefty, and his two Houfes 

Love, aCi- ' of Parliament/ And it (hould not be forgotten, that 

ty Member Cnkmnn in his ftrft Letter to Father Le Chaife fpeaking 

£\{rtn'^'^ of the King's Promife, that it fhould not be a Precedent, 

/ J"7' V ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ F4m/ ^enunciation of it. At length the Com- 

behadmrch^^^'^ COnfulted of a Bill for the Eafe O^ Protefinnt dif- 
rather ftUl 1^''^^^^^^ and many Members profefs'd their Refolution 
70 without ^° carry it on. f Bat when they had granted the Tait 
their deftred defir'd, they turn'd it otf, and left it undone : Taking 
Liberty^ away from the Poor Dijfenters the Shelter of the King's 
than have Declaration, and fo leaving thetn to the Storm of the 
it in a Way fevere Laws that were in Force againft theni, which by 

that vpould 

froye fo detrimental to the Nation B'fhop Burnet in a Speech in the Houfe of 
Lords about the Occ^lional Bill in 170:5, tooh particular Notice of this, and 
tells us^ 7 hat tlie Lord Clifford got fome to move in Favour of the DilTfn- 
ters, hopirfo that would have provok'd either the one Side or the other ; 
and that either the Church Party might be offended with the Motion, or 
the DifTenters with the refufing it : But it was ftopp'd by Alderman iovc, 
who defir'd, that nothing with Relation to them might intervene, to ftop 
the Security that tlie Nation and the Proteftant Religion might have by the 
Teft AO, and in this he was fcconded by moft of his Party ; So that the 
A<rt was obtainM in fome Meafure by their Affiftance ^ and therefore ( as 
he voell argues^ ) it would be hard to turn it againft them ^ for the King 
was tJien highly ofTendtd with them for giving up his Declaration. 

f 0/t February tije i^thy the t^owwo/is rc/b/v't/NemineContradicente, that 
a Bill be bro't in for the Eafe of his Maje/ly's Subjects mho are Diflenters, 
in Matters of Religion fromyhe Church of England. And a Bill pafs''d the 
Houfe accordingly^ but vfOA ftopfd in the Houfe of Lords. But the Motion 
0/ ti)e Lover Houfe in this Affair teas therefore the more remarkable^ be 
caufe it was the fame Houfe of Commons^ who Ten Tears before fo warmly 
Voted the contrary. A good Argument., they were now convinced of a greater 
Danger of Pjpery, than they could before be perfwaded to belieye. Our 
late Complete Hiftorian^ Vol, g. ^. 394 ; /««ji, T/;<jt whatever this Refle£Vion 
i*^, the Truth was only thus : The Commons in this Parliament were by 


Chap. Xllt Mr. Richard. Baxter. 537 

fome Country Juftices were rigoroufly put in Execution.^ -4«. i 6y^, 

tho* the moll forbore. " , „ 

long hxpe- 


more and more fenfib'le, that the Papifrs were for their own Pleafure and 

Advantage, playing and ftriking theCinirch-menand DifT^ntt^i-s one again ft 

another. VerywelL : And therefore they were for giyhi^r the Bijfeniers a Le- 

^al Toleration^ in Order to the prey enting any Thing of this Kind for the Fw 

tuYe : They t»ere now conyinc''d, That fuch a Toleration was. IHttdfuIy tho' 

Ten Tears before they would nit yield to it_ upon any^ which was all 

that was meant by the Refieflion pointed at. -But 1 think it. is not im" 

proper to add^ That BtJl}op Bdrnettn the Speech above mentioned, freely af~ 

crlbes the Mildnefs of the Houfe of Commons toiccdrds the Dijfcnters at this Ttme^ 

to their Pleafednefs with their' Carriage in giying up, the Kings Declaration. 

This fays he, wrought fo much on the Houfe that was fo zealousffor the 

Church, that they ordered a Bill to be brought in for the Eafe of Prote- 

ftant Diflenters, in which little Progiefs was indeed made.^ and yet to the 

End of that Parliament, Conventicles were held very Pablickly, and they 

never pafs'd a Vote or made an Addrcfs againllthem. 

The Parliament at length grew into great Jealoufies The Lon^ 
of the Prevalence of Pop2>y, An Army (prttended to -Parliament 
be defign'd for Service againft the Dutch) lay encamp'd '^^^^en'd. 
at Blijcl^-Heath, Many of the Commanders were l^a- 
..pifts., ,It was the general Apprehension, rhac having 
no Hope to get the Parliament to fet up their Religion 
by Law, it was cheir Intention to put down Parlia- 
ments, and reduce the Governmeiit to i\\e Bench Mode], 
and Religion to their Stare, by a ftandmg Army. All 
that Lov'd their Country had difmal Expecflations. The 
Parliament paffed an, A(ft for preventing Dangers 
which might happen from Pcpif):' RecufantSj by which ic 
was enacted, That no Man ftibuld bear any Offi:e or 
Place of Truft, who did not take the Oaths of Supre- 
macy and Allegiance ; and that all that fliouid be ad- 
mitted into any Office Civil or Military after the firft 
Day of Eafter-Term in 1673, fhould receive the Sacra- 
ment according to the Ufage of the Church of Eyiglnnd^ 
within three Months after their Admittance^ in ibme 
Publick Church, upon fome Lords-Day. Upon the 
palling of this Teft A£^, the Duke of TI^^/; who was Ge- 
neral of the Army, and the Lord Treafurer C/z/for^, laid 
down all their Places. The Parliament met again, OEio- 
her the 20th, and Voted againft the Duke's Marriage 
with an tcalian Pafift, a Kin to the Pope, They re- 

Z new'd 

338 The LIFE of Chap, XIII. 

An. 1673. new'd this Vote in their next Seflions, and upon a Mef- 
* Tbii Tear ^age fent to the King about it, received this Anfwer ; 


of true Re- 



on, and 
what beft 

mifts, and 

that it was too Jate to ftop it. On Friday, uct, 31, 

They pafs'd a Vote, that no irorc Money Ihould be gi- 
ven, till they were Tecur'd againft the Danger of Popery, 
and Po/^//^^ Counleilors, and their Grievances were re- 
el refs'd. And indeed the Warmth and Bojdnefs of both 
Honfes againft the Pafijis grew very high. 

* In thisSeflion, tbeEarlof Orm 7 defir'd Mr. Brfjff^r 
to draw up Terms of Union between the Conforrfjifls, 
and the Noncojiformifts, in Order to their joint vigorous 
Means may ^PP'^fi'^g Popery : And he told him that Sir Tbomai Osborn 
be us'd a- ^^^ New Lord Treafurer. Bi(hop Morley of J4^inchefter, 
gainft the and feveral other great Men were mightily for it : Up- 
Growth of on which he fent him Piopoials for that Purpofe, the 
Popery. Chief of which were ihefe : 
Fropofals " ^^^^ "^ Covenant, Promife, or Oath, (hould be 
raUnion " required to Ordination, Inltitution, or Indudlion, 
** but the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy ; the 
*' fubfcribing to the Dovftrine and Sacraments of the 
** Church ot England^ as exprefs'd in the 39 Articles, 
" and a general Declaration againft Rebellion and 
Sedition. That till the Nonconformifls could be bet- 
ter provided for by Vacancies, they fliould have Li- 
berty to be School-maftersj or Alllftams to Incum- 
bents, or to preach Ledlures in their Churches, ei- 
ther fuch Leisures as were already endow'd with 
Maintenance, or fuch as the People (hould be willing 
to maintain : and that in the mean Time their Meet- 
ing Places that were convenient (hould be continued 
in L^fc as Chappcls. That Liberty be allow'd for 
Neighbours joining together in Praying to God, and 
Praiiing him, and repeating Sermons, in their pri- 
vate Honfcs without MoJ:^ftation. Thar for the Li- 
turgy, <ic, none be oblig'd to read the Apocryphal 
LefTons : That it be eno*, if an Incumbent once in 
a Quarter or Half Year, read the greateft Part of 
the Service for that Time; and that it be at other 
Tmics done by his Curate or Afliftant. That Lectu- 
rers be not oblig'd to read the Service 5 or at moft that 
itbecnc/, if once in Half a Year, they read the great- 
eft Partof what is appointed for that Time. ThatPa- 
rents have Liberty to dedicate their own Children to 
(iod in baptifm. without being oblig'd to find God- 


Chap. Xflf. Mr. Richird Baxter. 359 

*' fathers and Godmothers. That the Ufe of the Sign An. 1673. 
*' of the Crofs be left to the Minifters Inclination and 
'* Difcretion. That Minifters be not forc*d to Baptize 
" a Child whofe Parents are denied the Communion of ^ 
" the Church, unlefsfome ferious Chriftian undertake 
*' for ics Education, according to the Chriftian Covenant, 
" That none be forc'd to receive the Sacrament, while 
** untit, or averfe. That Minifters be not forc'd to de- 
** liver the Sacrament to any unbaptizM Perfons ; or to 
*' fucfa- as wont own their Baptifmal Covenant, and 
" publickiy profefs their Adherence to it ; or to fuch 
" as are guilty of fcandalous Immoralities, till they 
" have profefs'd Repentance. That Minifters ben'c 
'* forc'd to publifti an Excommunication or Abfolution 
** againft their Confciences, upon the Decree of a Lay- 
'' Ghancellor,G5'<r. or harrals'd by attending their Courts, 
** to bring WitnefTes againft thofe, to whom they have 
*' refus'd the Sacrament upon the aforefaid Reafons. 
" That it be left to the Difcretion of Minifters, whom 
" they-will abfolve in Sicknefs, and to whom they will 
" give the Sacrament, and over whom they at their 
interment will afe chofe few Words, which import 
the Juftification, and Salvation of the Deceas d : And 
'* that the Sick and Dying have the Liberty of choofing 
" what Minifters they will, to attend ^nd aftift them 
" without Reftraint. That no Minifters be forc'd to 
" deny the Sacrament, to fuch as think it unlawful to 
'* take it Kneeling. That the tJfc of the Surplice be 
'* left indifferent. And that People who live under an 
" Ignorant or Scandalous Minifter, have Liberty 16 
'' join with thofe with whom they can better profit^ 
m any Neighbouring Church of the fame Diocefe, 
'* paying the Incumbent his Dues. That no Ordain- 
" ed Minifters be put upon renouncing their Ordina- 
'* tion, but upon Proof of their fitnefs for the Mini- 
" ftry, receive by Word, or a written Inftrument, ^ 
LegalfAuthority to exercife their Miniftry in any Con- 
gregation in his Majefty's Dominions, where they 
Ihall be lawfully call'd. That no Excommunicate 
Perfon as fuch, be imprifon'd or ruin'd. And that 
" after all, Chriftian Lenity be us*d toallcorifcientious 
*' DiJJsnters ; and that the Tolerable be tolerated, un- 
" der Laws of Peace and Safety. Upon the whole he 
*' added, that if the Sacraments were but left free to 

Z % ht 

540 The LIFE of Chap. XIH. 

^n. 1^7^" be adminiftred and received by none but Volunteers j 
" And Liberty granted ro Miniftcrs to preach in thcfe 
*' Churches, where the Common Prayer was read by o- 
*' thcrs; And the Sublcriptions conrain'd nothing that 
"" a Confcientiovis Man might need to Scruple j he 
** tho't it might take in all, even the Independents, as 
*' Weil as Prejbyterianj." Mr. Baxter gave the Earl of 
X Orreiy thefe PropofaJs, and he after fonce Time returned 
them with Bifliop Mor/efs Striciiurcs or Animadver- 
fions, which fully difcover'd, that all his Profeiiions for 
Abatement and Concord, were deceitful, and that he 
intended no iuch Thing, for he would not make the 
leaft Abatement^ in any Thing of Moment. 
Other Mo' ^ ^^^^^^ after, feme great Men of the Houfe of Com- 
tions that niotis, dtcw Up a Bill for Accommodation, to take off 
V,ay. Oaths, Subfcriptions, and Declarations, except the 

Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, and Subfcriptions 
to the Dodtrine of the Church of England, according 
to the i3ih of Eli:{: but fiiewirg it to the Bilhop of 
li'irichcfisr, he caus'd them to forbear, and broke the 
Defign. And in the mean Time, that it might not 
feem to be for nothing that he oft pretended to be of 
fo peaceable a Difpofition, he furthered an A(St only to 
take off yJjfent and Conjent^ and the l^enuncintion of the 
Covenant. But when other Biftiops were againft even 
this fhew of Abatement, he told them openly in the 
. Houfe ; Th/it had it been but to abate them a Ceremony, 
he x^ouid not hdve Jpoken in it : But he k/iexv that they 
were bound to the fame Things ftill^ by other Claufes, or 
Ohii^ations, if thefe voere repeai'd. On Feb. 24, Tho'ts 
of this Nature were ended by the unexpe(fied Pro- 
roguing of the Parliament to November, whereby both 
Houfes were much troubled, and Multitudes greatly 
exafpcrated, and alienated both from the Court, and 
the leading Bifhops, as the great Caufes of all the Di- 
flra£liorjs. All this While thofe of the Clergy that 
were Men of the Times, and gap'd for Preferment, 
gave tbeniftlves a Liberty to write and preach at Ran- 
dom y to fiir up King and Parliament, and all 
they came near, to Violence and Cruelty, againft the 
Liberty and Blood of the Nonconformifts, who liv'd 
quietly by them in I about and Poverty, and med- 
^\td not with them, bcfides their neccffary DifTcnt from 
them. Jult before the Dilfolution of the Parliament, 


Chap. XIIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 34 1 • 

one of this ftamp Preaching to them, fet himfelf to -4». 1 674 
perfwade them that the Dijfenters were obftinate, and ^ Norpwa^s 
not to be tolerated, nor cur'd by any Means but Ven- pub!i(l)d^ 
geance J urging them to fet Fire to the Faggot,and teach Cercain 
them by Scourges or Scorpions, and open their Eyes Coniid^ra- 
withGall^ tionstend- 

mg to pro- 
mote Peace and Good Will amongft Proteflants. And alfo the Noncon- 
formifls Plea for Uniformity : Being the Judgment of 84 Mhufiers of the 
County Taliptine o/Lancafter : Of a rphole Frovincial Affemhly of Minifiers ami 
Eiders in and aboutLondon: And of fever al other eminent Treacher}^ Eng'iOi, 
Scottifli, rf;j^New-Eng'ini, concerning Toleration, 4«(]JUmformicv in Ma ters 
of Religion 5 tor ether with a Refo/ution of this^tefiion^ Whether the Penalty of 
the Law ought to be infiilled on thofevffho petend and plead Confclenccin Op^oft- 
tiontovphatthe tatP commands f with feyeral others on the other Side. 

The Toleration however continuing, Mr. Baxter held 
on his Preaching, till Illnefs difabled him for any other 
Exercife, fave one Sermon a Week at St. James's Mar- 
ket-Houfe, where fome Perfons had hir'd an inconve- 
nient Place. And here it pleas'd God to give his La- 
bours, abundant Succefs. But as he was preaching 
thei:e, July the 5th, 1674, they had a marvelous Deli- 
verance ; for a main Beam, before weakned by the 
Weight of the People, fo crack'd, that Three Times 
rhey ran in Terror out of the Room, thinking it was 
falling : But remembring the like at Dunftans in the 
H^ifi^ he reprov'd their fear as caufelefs : The next Day 
taking up the Boards, they found that two Rends in the 
Beam were fo great, that it was a wonder of Provi- 
dence that the Floor had not fallen, and the Roof with 
it, to the Deftrudion of Multitudes. This Crack 
fighting away many of the Richer Sort, efpecially 
Women, the greateft Part of the Auditory were young 
Men, of the moft capable Age, who heard with gr ac 
Attention, and many of them manifefted fo great a 
Change, as made all his Charge and Trouble eafie to 
him. Nay a common Reformation was evident in the 
Neighbourhood, even among the Ruder Sort, and that 
in their Converfation as well as in their Judgment. But 
he was foon molelled. jr^^ j^-^ 

For his Majefty call'd the Bifliops up to London^ to ^^^^^ ^. 
give him Advice what was to be done for the (ecm'ingtainfi the 
of Religion, ^c ; And they after divers Confultacions poor Non- 
\vith the Minifters of State, advis'd him to recall his confor- 

Z 5 Licences, mills. 

^4^ The L 1 F n of Chap. XIIL 

uln. 1674. Licences, and pui the Laws againft \\\c Koncovformifls 
in Execution. And this was done by a Deciaracion, and 
Proclamation, declaring the Licences long fince void, 
and requiring the Execunon of the Laws againft P/i;?//?/, 
and Convent icU's. No founer was the Proclamation pub- 
lifli'd, but fpccial Informeis were fet on Work to pro- 
* Of^thi mote the Execution *. A little before the Licences were 
inf^amnis recali'd, Mr. Bnxtc openly declared in the Pulpit, that 
lives and it was not in Opprlicionto the Publick Churches that he 
Ictmcnt^ble kept Up a Meeting ; bur to help the People m their Ne- 
Df.7r/;.«, .of cefiity, who were many more than the Pariih Church 
7nuny nt coiild iiold. Hereupon it was confidently reported that 
thejelnfor' ^^q ^j^j. Conforming. And not long before, preaching 
wen. Sec fcr Love and Peace at P'Vi'vf'i-H/j//, 'iwas reported, that 
mi'fts i' ^^ declarVi for Juititication by our own Rigbteouf- 
Viti. tor "^^^> ^"^ ^^^^"^ *^^^ Papijls and frotejianrs differ but in 
Che Non- ^^"ords: Upon wliicli he was forced to vindicate himfelf 
confor- ill a Sheet, calTd an j^fpcal to the Light^ which ftopp'd 
inifls, \>a'^e. not tht Accufation : For fome had the Wifdom and Con- 
71, 6:c. fidt nee to fay, that that Appeal to the Light did more to 
ftrengthcn Fnpen^ than ever was done by any Papijis. 
Mr. Baxter was the firlt that was apprehended as a Co«- 
'vcnticler after this Alteration of Affairs. He was taken, 
preaching \\\^ Thurfday Leisure at Mr. Twners. He went 
with the Conftable, and W^-^^ the Informer, to Sit PVil- 
finm Pnitne/s, who demanding the Warrant found it 
.fign'd, by Hrmy Montague, Efq; BaylifFof H^cflminfler, 
Sir If'^iiiiam told them, that none but a City Juftice, 
could give a Warrant for apprehending a Man for 
preaching in the City : And fo the Informer was defeat- 
ed, and hiS Heart afterwards fmoie him ; and he came 
to Mr. B ^xtcr and begg'd Pardon, and profef^'d Repen- 
tance. He freely forgave him, and admonifh'd him fe- 
rioully to amend his Life. Endeavours were ufed tp 
furpr:ze Dr. Mr,:tnn : But one Mr. Bedford preaching in 
his Room was apprehended. He had taken the Oxford 
Oath before, and in that rerpe(ft was not obnoxious : 
But was fin'd 10 /. and the Place 40 /. which was paid 
by the Lord iVha tou^ the CountelTesof Bedford^ Man^ 
Ji frt(I)M- ^^^^f"^'''f a^^d CUre^ and other Hearers. 
: T^j/'f for Another Sclflon of Parliament approaching, Biihop 
an yiccom- ^^">';, and Biftiop fVard^ were in Appearance, very 
»?'^//«;'fln (i/fju'nfible of the Danger of Popery^ and therefore very 
ti'j' o ifi- forward for Abatements, and taking in the Nonconfor'* 

Chap. XIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 545 

tnifls, and mov'd ic to many. At length Dt, Tiliotfon,An. 167^. 
and Dr. StilUngflcet^ defir a a Meeting with Dr. Men- 
ton^ Dr. Bates, Mr. I'oo/y and Mr. Baxter, in Order to 
conh'der of an Accommodation, and Taid they had the 
Encouragement of feveral Lords both Spiritual and 
Temporal. Mr. Baxter at firft met the two Dodors 
alone : And they confider'd and canvafs'd various 
Draughts ; and at length fix'd on one in which they 
agreed. This being communicated to the Nonconfor- 
mifts, was fatisfadtory : But when they communicated 
it to the Bi(hop.% there was an End of the Treaty; a 
great many Things could not be obtain'd *; The Terms ^ Mr. 
agreed on, were much of the fame Nature with ihofeB^^^'ter 
above mentioned as proposM to my Lord^Orrcr;, with^'^''^ /^ 
very little Variation, ^^- TUlot- 

fon, to 
know wht' 
ther he might have leaye to ffenJ: of it, in Order to the promotiftg Concord^ 
and to flgnify how far they were agreed,^ that their Thames might be fome 
Advantage to the Work^ and he thereupon return d him the following Letter 
dated April If. l6jy 


5 /^, 

Took the firft Opportunity after you were wi^h us to fpeak to the 

Biihop of Sal — ■ , wlio promifed to keep the Matter private, 

and only to acquaint the BiQiop of Ch — with it in Order to a Meet- 
ing : But upon fome General Difcourfc, I plainly perceived feveral Things 
could not be obtained. However, he promifed to appoint a Time of 
Meeting, but I have not heard from him iince. I am unwilling my 
Name (hould be ufed in this Matter ; not bur that I do moft heartily de- 
fire an Accommodation, and fhail always endeavour it : But I am fure 
it will be a Prejudice to me, and Signify nothing to the effeding of 
the Thing, which as Circumflances are, cannot pafs in either Houfe, 
without the Concurrence of a confiderable Part of the Bifhops, and the 
Countenance of his Majefty, whicli at prefent I fee little Reafon to 

Tom AfeClionate Brother 

and Serv4fttf 


?4 The 

344 7/je LIFn of Chap.XIll. 

An. T6y$. The Informers in the City went on, but met with nria- 
rty Difcourageinents. The Aldermen were not fond 
, of them, but often fhifced out of the Way, when they 

kneiv tliey would cpme to them ; and fome denied them 
their Warrants; tho* by the A6t they thereby forfeited 
an loo /. Alderman Frr'h got an Informer bound to the 
Behaviour, for breaking in upon him in his Chamber a- 
gainft hi^ Will. Strowd and Mn-jha, becarrie General 
Informers : But were foon fallen upon by their Credi- 
tors, and generally hated. Some of them fwore a- 
gainft ]Mr. Bnxtyr before Sir Tijomns D/:vn ; and he 
went to him and vindicated himfelf, proving that he 
was not charreable with breaking the Law, but could 
not be regarded. One that fwore againft him, went 
a J i tele after to Rs^riff, and hearing Three Minifters 
Pray and Preach, his Heart was melted, he profefs'd 
his Soirow and Repentance, and left his wonted 
Companions. And another of them came to Mr. Bax- 
ter in the Street, and promised he would meddle no 

When tlie Parliament met, there was great Heat 
in the Houfe of Lords, upon the bringing in an A£f, 
to impofe fuch an Oath on Lords, Commons and Ma- 
giftrares, as was impofed by the Oxford Aci upon Mi- 
iiifters. The Sum of it was, * That none Commilfion'd 

* by the King, may be by Arms rcfifled, and that they 

* would never endeavour any Alteration of the Go- 

* vernment of Church or State.* The great Speakers 
for it, were the Lord Treafurer ajid ihe Lord Keeper, 
with Bifliop Morley and Bilhop I4'ard. The great 
Speakers againft it, were the Earl of Shaftsbury^ the 

Lord HoUis^ the Lord HaUifax^ 
t A Urge Account oftheDe- the Duke of Buckn'ghanf, and the 
kates on this Head in the Houfe Earl of Snlubury : Who jointly With 
of reer<, may be feen, in a Let- the Marquis ot Pf^ in :1c tier, and the 
ter from a Terfn of Qj^tality to Earls of B'/'/^o/, Bcrli^fhire and Aks- 
his I ricnd in the Country., that i^ hury^ enierd thcit Proteftations 3- 
fublijb'd in the Second Volume, gainft ic. t They pleaded that this 
of the State Trans of King Qath would be deHrudive to the 
Xharks'5 2?«;^>f, ^. 4i,&c. priviledge of their Houfe, which 

was to Vote freely, and not to 
be prc-obiigcd by an Oath to the Prelates. After a 
great many Debates, tho' the 7 eft was carry 'd by a 


Chap. XIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 345 

Majority, yet it was fo altered, as made it incapable of -4«. 1^75. 
ferving the Purpofes of thofe who a,c firft were moft 
Zealous for it; it was not to their Guft, for they re-^ 
lucd it to thefe Words of a Declaration, and an Oarh. 
I /I, B. do Declare, that it is not lawful on any Pre- 
tence whatfoever, to take Arms againft the King, 
and I do abhor the TraiterousPofition of taking Arms, 
by his Authority againft his Perfon, or agaiaft thofe 
that are Commiilion'd by hinni according to Law, in 
time of Rebellion and War, in Adting in Purfuance 
of fuch GommiHion.* ' I A.B. do Swear that I will 
not endeavour an Alteration of the Proteflant Re- 
ligion now Eftablifh'd by Law, in the Church 
of England, nor will I endeavour any Alteration 
in the Government of this Kingdom in Church 
or State, as it is by Law Eftablilh'd.' And when 
t Paft, the Lords got in this Provifo, that it fhould 
he no hindrance to their free Sfeahjng and Voting in the 
Parliament *. 


* / thifik it mt amifs here to ittfeft, 
A Utter ji-om Arcbbifhop Sheldon, to Vr. Compton Blflop of London, 
dated Jan. 17. 1675. 

IRigbt 'Reyerend^ and my -very good Lord, 

rHave tliought fit for ferae Reafons that nearly concei-n the Church, to 
pray and require your Lordfhip, and by you the reft of my Brethren 
tlie Bifhops of this Province, that forthwith upon the Receipt hereof, 
you fend Letters di)e£)-ed to the Archdeacons and Commiflaries of your 
refpeftive Dioctflfes, wililng and ftraidy charging thera, that as well by 
Conference wiiJi tlie Mioilters, as the Church-Wardens of each Parifli, or 
fuch others as may but give them the moft punftual Satisfaftion, they par- 
ticularly inform themfclves as to the feveral Enquiries hereafter mentioned: 
And tliat having gain'd the moft true and certain Information herein, 
that they are able, they prefently after tliis their next Vifitation of Eafier 
ended, tranfmic their Account thereupon in Writing unto their refpeftive 
Diocefans, and they to your Lordlhip, by you to be Communicated to 
nie, with your Lordlhips iirft conveniency. And to the end that they 
may be the more circumfpeft and fudden in the Execution of this Aifair, 
1 think it not unneceffary that there be fome Advertifement intimated unto 
them, how that even they themfelves and their Jurifdiftions are in fome 


946 The LIFE of Chap. XIH. 

4a. \6-}6. Ks^if^g the Informer, being in Prilbn for Debt, 
Wrote to Mr. Baxter to endeavour his Deliverance, 
which he did. He cold him in his Leccer, that he verily 
believ 'd that God had lent his Affli6J:ion upon him, as 
X Punilhmenc for giving him fo much trouble ; and ear- 
neftly deiir'd him to Pray to God to forgive him. A- 
nothcr Inroruicr M<ir;yfe,:/, dy'd in the Counter, where 
he was clapc up fur Debt: And ycc others went on. 
Sir Toom,:i D^.vis gave a Warrant toDiftreiji on Mr. Bax- 
ter for 50/. for Preaching bis Le<5turc at Ncw-^reet. 

meafuie herein alfo concern'd. So nor doubting of your Z,ordlhips Care 
in the Premifes, I bid your Lordlhip heartily Fare wel. And am, 
My Lord, 

Tour tcrdjhifi Afe^ionate friend and Brother, 


The Inquiries. 
i. What Number of P<.rion3 are there by common Account and 
tllimaiion inhabiting within each Parilli fubje£t to your Jurifdiftion. 

2. What Number of Popi;li Recufants, or Perions fufpeOed for fuch 
Reciifancy are there refident among the Inliabitants afoiUaid. 

^. What Number of other Diffenters ire tiiere in each Paridi, of what 
Soft foever, which either obftinatcly icfule, or wholly abfent themfelves 
from the Communion of the Church of Englt^nd^ ai (uch Times a3 by 
Law they are required. 

For the Right Feverer.d F/ttlur in 0'>dy 
Henry, Lord Bijhop of London. 

This Tear 1 67 5, tl>epe vas a Bosk Printed, Entituled, The 'Eeacea'bU 
Vejign^ or a» Atc^unt of the Nonconformifi> Mcetlnj^^, by fome Miniflen of 
London, tphich Dr. Stil^ingfieet, w/>t reflc^ed upon it in the Freface to 
his UnreafonabIeMcf> of Separation^ f- 25, J'ty^t ^^^ Trinted vith a Deji^n 
to prefent it lo the Farli ar/ietit . The fame Teat came uut, fume Eeafom 
vhich prevail d w'th the Diffenters in Brilrol, to continue their Meetingi^ 
hovervcr Profccuted or Dijiutb'd. fi'^vcr alfo tfas puhlifh d. Separation yet no 
Schtfm^ or Nonconflrmifis no Schifmaticks, in Anfwer to Mr. Sliarp'i Sermon 
before the Lord Mayir, by Mr. Thomas Wadfworth. uind Mr, Stockton's 
'Rebuke to Jnhrmers, with a Plea for the Miniflen of the Gofpel, inllcd Non- 
ctnfcrmijii, and their Meetings, and Adyice to thofc to vfhoni thefe Informers 
Addrcf themfelves, for Affijiance in tlteir Undrrtakinrs. Kow alfo was 
Trimed Naked Truth, jaid to be Written by the Bifhop of Hertford ; which 
contain d federal bold Truths, and had feyeral A^ftvers^ of which fome weu 
Smart^ and otlieti mort Mild. 


Chap. XIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 947 

However he ftill went on, and Built a New Meeting- ^n. i'j66 

Houfe in Oxenden-ilreet, the Old Place over St. Jnmess 

Market- Houfe, being not tho'c fafe; and when the New 

Chappel was finilhed, and he had Preached but once, 

a Refolation was taken to furprize him the next time, 

and fend him for fix Months to Goal upon the Oxford 

j^cf. He knowing nothing of it, had taken a Journey 

into the Gauntry, and Mr. Seddon a Dnrbyjhire Minifter 

was procur'd to Preach for him •• He was taken and fent 

to the Gate-Houfe, alcho* the Warrant fuited him not, 

He continu'd there near Three Months, and at laft was 

deliver'd by an Habeas Corpuf. About this time, 12 or 

I i of the Bilhops dining with that Eminent Citizen 

Sir Nnthnnael Hern then Sheriff of London^ and Dif- 

courfing with him about putting the Laws againft the 

Diffenters in Execution ; he told them, that they could 

not Trade vpith their Neighbours one Day, and fend them to 

Goal the next. In the next Seflion of Parliament, the 

Duke of Buckingham make a notable Speech againft 

Petfecution, and defired the Confent of the Lords, 

that fee might bring in a Bill for the Eafe of His Maje- 

fties Proteftant Subjedls in matters of Religion; but 

while he was preparing it, the Parliament was Pro- 


Mr. Baxter having been kept an whole Year from 
Preaching in his New Chappel, in /ipril 1676, be- 
gan in another, in Si. Martins 

Parilh *. A little before, the ^ In i6j6, were pubitfh^dmori 
King importunately Commanded Anlmadyerjlom on Naked Truth. 
and Urg'd the Judges, and Lcn- I-tx Talionis, or the Author of 
don Juflices, to put the Laws -^^^^^ "^^^ ^^ ft^'P^ TCahed, 410. 
againft the Nonconformifts in ^^1^- ^niodefi Surrey of the 
Execution: and Sir Jofeph Shel- ^f confderabe Thngj tn * 

don the Lord Mayor, the Arch- ^'yfjf'^^ /""^ft' -T 
i-n » i^- r J- I titled Naked Truth. Mr.bmirlL, 

bifliops near Kmiman accordingly ^^ ^^^ ^.^.^^ .^ ^^^^ . ^^.^^ 
did fo for fome time, and many ,,,^^;„ Anmtations, upon the 
Mmifters were clapt up m Goals. Anlmadyerftom on Naked Truth : 
Mr. Baxter was forcibly kept out Supposd to be Written by Andrew 
of his New Meeting-Houfe in Marvel. 
Svffallovp-Street , by a Guard of 
Conflables and Ofiicers, for many Lords Days together. 
Bat Mr. H^adfworth dying, he Preach'd to his Flock in 
Southwark many Months in Peace, no Juftice being wil- 
ling ro difturb them : And when Di, Loyd fucceeded 


348 The LI FE of Chap. XIH. 

An, 1578. Dr.}plugh in St. Martins Parifli, he offer'd him his 
Chappel in Oxenden-Street for Publick WorHiip, and he 
* rhc^ accepted ii *. 

wan that Com fled the Third Volume of the Compkat Hiilory of England, 
^uot'iM^ this Pajfage^ /»* 41 2, fays. That that pare of the Relation as to the 
OfJcr of a Chnppcl, is known to be taife. This appearing tc he a direci 
ContradiClion to Mr. Baxur j Relation of a matter of fa-!}, vpJj'ch he himfelf 
teas concern d in, troubled wanj. The rather, iecaufe it fcertid to firihe at 
the Credit of his vfhole Hifiofy, Mr. BaxiCT had not r^y ^Jferted in the Hi' 
fiary of his Life, P. 179, that he waf encoura^'d bjJ>r: Tillotfonto mike 
the offer of the Chappel, qnd that it was 'iccepc-d to his great Sirisfifti- 
on; but he had mentioned it in feveral of his Hnrh that rffere puhUpj'd in 
bii Life time : And particularly in Itis Brey}a<e of the Life of his Wife-, he 
f^y^i p- 57 •* That Dr. Lloyd and the PariuJoners accepted of it for their 
Publick VVorfljip, and that he and his Wife asked them no more Rent, 
tJian they were to pay for die Ground, and the Room over for a Veftry 
at $ /; asking no Advantage for all tlie Money laid out on the Building. 
U hit h was never knoisrn to be contradiclcdy till this Hifiory vfas puhlijhd. 
Application therefcre was made to the Compiler of that Third Folume in 4 
*efpc(lful way, and he was requeued to ftgwfe upon what Grounds thi^ was 
thar^'d a<i a Valfity. Hereupon, he hke a Gentleman, a Chriflian, and a 
Diyine, jrankly ofer'd to confuit rny Lord Bijhop of Worcefler upon the Mat- 
ter, who was pleas' d to 7 ire it under his Haytd, (and J have it now by me) 
That Mr. Baxter being diiiurb'd in his Meeiing-Houfe in OxeyJenftrcct, 
by the King's Drums, which Mr. Secretary Oivei-.try cau?"d ro bf beat un- 
der the NViniows, made an offer of letting it to the Parifn of St. Mav- 
^irn for a Tabernacle at the Rent of Forty Pounds a Year ; :md that his 
I-ordll ip liejiring it, faid he lik'd it well : And that thereupon Mr. Baxter 
rjme to him h.imfelf, and upon his propofing ihe f.ime Thing to him, he 
acqininted the Veflry, and they took it upon tliofe Terras. This Account 
T fuhUp/d in the Narrative prefixed to Mr. Baxter'.* Traclical Works, and here 
repeat, with due \ThanJcs to l)is Lordjhip for his franhmf<, and to tl>e Gentle- 
man who confulted him, for his mofi ohliginz^ readinefs to do JufiiiQ to Truth ^ 
t^o* not much to the Credit of the Compleat Hifiory. 

In 1678, The Popifh Plot broke out, which exceed- 
ingly alarum'd the whole Nation. The Houfcof Com- 
mons after many warm Debates, came to this Refoluti- 
on ; that there hath been, and is, r.n Execrable r,nd Hjliifh 
dejign, ccntrivd and carry d on by Fopifi^j {{ecujants for 
Ajfr.ffmating and Murdering the Kjngy for Jubverting the 
Government, nnd for dt'/rroyinj/ the Protejlant [{elision by 
Kavo EjUblifh'd, Moft of their time was fpent in 
fcarching into this Plot, and in endeavouring to pre- 
vent the Fatal Qjafequences oil it. Many futfet'd fpr 


Chap. XIII. Mr, Richard Baxtet. 349 

if, notwithftanding all the Endeavours of Great Men -4». 167^ 
about the Court to fave and fcreen them. The Parti- 
culars may be feen in the Hiftories of the time. At 
length on January the T4th, 167^.. this Parliament 
which fo long cdrtioly'd with the Criurt in all their 
Defires, which to Gratifie the Clergy, caft fo many 
Worthy Miniftersout of the Chr.rch by the Ad for 
Uniformity, and afterwards lard fuch) heavy Burdens 
on the Poor Nonednformifts; which improved by fetting, 
and grew more and more concerned for the Publick 
Welfare, as they were ??s,vakened by a Senfc of the 
Common Danger, was fuddenly Diiroived. This 
Diflblution occafion'd a General Ferment in all Parts of 
the Country. It was generally efteemM the Common 
Concern in the next Election to choofe firm Proteftants, 
who ftiould heartily apply themfelves to make Provi- 
(ion for the Common Security. The New Parliament 
had their firft Seifion March the 6th foil-owing, and ^«- 167^. 
they began where the laft Parliament left off. When 
they had Sate fome tirrie, they were Prorogu d to /iu- 
^^y? the 1 4th "^ : But before that time, they were Dif- ^T^/^/^^-^^y^ 
folv'd by Proclamation, and another cali'd to Sit at 1679, ^^^ 
iVeHminfler in OHoher following. When they allem- fuhUjh'd 
bledj they were Ad journd till the i6ih of '^Miuary: By Mr. Alfop'i 
which 'time, a New Plot was Difcover'd by Danger. Melius In- 
field^ which the Papifts had contrived to lay upon the quirendum. 
Diflenters. They were afterwards Adjoum'd feveral 
times till OFtober the 30th, when they Sate and pro- 
ceeded to Bufinefs. Finding no other way to keep 
Popery out of the Nation, than by Excluding the Duke 
of Tor l(^ from the Succeiiion to the Crown, they bro't in 
a Bill to Difable him. On November the 1 1 th, it palTed 
the Commons; on the 15 th it was carryM up to the 
Houfe of Lords by the Brave Lord '^jfe!^ and there 
at the Second Reading it was thrown out, by a Ma- 
jority of Thirty Voices, of which 1 4 were Bilhops f. f rhe¥e 
This Houfe of Commons had before them a Bill ^as now 
for a Comprehenfion^ and another for an Indulgence, pchUflyd 
Both of them were read twice, and were before the a fliorc and 

true Ac- 
count of the feveral Advances the Church of England hath made cowards 
'Rome :, Or a Model of the Grounds upon which the Papifis for thcfe Hundred 
Tears hay e built their Hspes and LxpeCiations^ that England would e'er lonr 
return to Foperj, Bj Dr. Du Moulin, fometime Hi/lory J^rofifor of Oxford. 


350 The LIFE of Chap. XIII, 

An. 1 58o. Committee. Having obtain'd a Copy of the Heads of 
a Bitt for Vniting hts Majfji/s Protejiant Subje^s^ that 
was agreed on at a Committee , Nov. 1 8, 1 680, I (hall 
here infert tbem. 

" I. All Perfons that (hall Subfcribe, and give their 
Affent and Confent, to Thirty fix of the Thirty nine Ar- 
ticles, vi:{. all that concern the Dodlrine of the Church 
of England only, (hall be capable of any EcdeJiafti- 
cal Living or Preferment, as if they had fubfcrib'd, 
and given their Aflcnt and Confent to all the Thirty 
" nine Articles. 
*' 1. No Perfon to be admitted to any Ecclefiaftica! 
Living or Preferment, that does not Erft take the 
Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, and take and 
lubfcribe the Declaration taken by the Parlia- 




3. The Ufe of the Surplice to be wholly taken 
away, except in the Kings Chappel and Cathedral 

'* 4. No Minifter to be oblig* d to declare their Af 
fent and Confent upon the Reading of the Common 
Prayer according to the Ad: of Uniformity. 
*' 5. NoMinilter to be obHgd to rtnounce the Co- 

*' 6. None to be compcU'd to ufe the Crofs in Bap- 
tifm, or fa^r for not doing it : But if any Parent 
defire to have his Child Chriften'd, according to the 
Form now ns'd, and the Minifter will not ufe the 
Sign, it (hall be Lawful for that Parent to procure 
another Minifter 10 do ir. And if the proper Mini- 
fter (hall refufe to omit the Ceremony of the Crofs, 
** ic (hall be I. awful for the Parent who would not 
" have his Child fo Baptii'd, to procure another Mi- 
** nifter who will do it without the Crofs, according to 
" his Defire. 

" 7. None fhall be denied the Sacrament of the 
" Lord's Sapper, tho* they do nor ufe the Geftures of 
" Kneeling in the Adi of Receiving. 

*' 8. If any Communicant Ihall not think fit toconle 
** lip to the Communion Table there to receive the 
** Sacrament, the Minifter of the Pari(h, or his Curate. 
** (hall not refufe to Adminifter the Sacrament to him, 
** but fhall go to the Place in the Church where fuch 
*' Perfou is, and there deliver him the fame. 

** A$ 

Chap. XIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 551 

*' As for fuch as notwithfianding thefe Alterations, -4«. idSo. 
** cannot Communicate with the Church of England; 
" neither the Statutes of the 23 or 28 of Eli;{ j 3 of 
" Jarn ; nor any other former Laws made againft Pc- 
" pifli Recufants , (hall be extended to Proteflant 
*' Diflenters ; vi7{. fuch as (hall make and fubfcribe the 
*' Declaration following. [Here inferi the Deciararion 
" when agreed upon.] 

'' That ail Perfonsrbat ihali take the faid Declaration 
'* fhall be exempted from all the Penalties and For- 
'* feitures already incurr'd, by Force of any cf the a- 
" foreiaid Laws againit Papifts, without any Fee Oi 
** further Charge whatfoever. 

'* Such Perfons as Oiall make and fubfcribe the De- 
'' claration aforefaid, (hail not be liable to any of the 
" Penalties in the K6i for fuppreiTing of Conventicles^ 
" nor the Ad: of the 35 th Eli:{^ nor be Piofecuted in 
*' any Ecciefiaftical Court, by reafon of their Noncon- 
" forming to the Church of England. 
" But nothing herein Jliall exempt the Perfons afore- 
faid from the payment of Tythes, or other Duties 
due and payable by other Proteftants of the Church 
of England^ oi from any Profecution for the fanoe. 
" So as fuch Perfons do not meet for Religious Wor- 
fhip armed with Fire Arms, nor in any Place with 
the Doors (hut, during all the Time of Prayers and 
Preaching, except during the Time of Adminiftring 
the Sacrament. 

*' If any fuch Perfons as aforefaid Ihall be chofen or 
appointed to bear the Office oi High Conftable, or 
Petty Conftable, Church- Warden, Overfeer for the 

Poor, or any other Parochial or Office, he ihali 

have Liberty to find a Deputy, fuch a One as ihall 
be approved by Two Juftices of the Peace. 
" Neither the Adt againft Conventicles, nor the 
Five Mile A(fl ihall be profecuted againft any Mini- 
fters, that (hall make and fubfcribe the Declaration 
aforefaid; and ihall not Preach in any Place, but on- 
ly with the Doors open as afoiefaid. 
" Any Jufticeof the Peace may require any Perfor? 
that goes to any Meeting for Religious Worlhip 10 
make and fubfcribe the Declaration as aforefaid; and 
every Perfon fo refufing ihall be committed to Pri- 
fon, and his Name certify'd by the Juftice cf Peace 

*' to 



352 The LIFE of Chap. Xlir 

Jin, i6So. *' to the Quarter Seffions : And if fucli Perfon fhall 
*' refufe to make and fublcribe the Declaration at die 
" Qiiarter Scfiions, he ilia 11 be taken for a Papift Qoh- 
*' vid-, and fuftcr accordingly ; and be liable to the 
** Penalties of all the fa id Laws. 

" No Perfon that will not take the Oaths of Alle- 
*^ giance and Supremacy, when tendred to him, lliall 
*' be admitted to take the faid Declaration that cannot 
*' within Twenty one Days, bring Two fufiicienc 
" Witnefles to Certify upon Oath, that they believe 
** him to be a Diflcnting Proteitnnt^ and alio bring a 
" Certificate from his Congregation, owning him as 
'* one of them. 

" Till that Certificate fhall be produced, and the 
** Two Witnefles come to Atteft his being a Vrotcflnnt 
** Diflentcr as aforefaid, the Juftice to take Recogni- 
** zance, with Two Sureties for his proving the fame ; 
'* and if he cannot give fuch Securities, to commit him 
*^ to Prifon. 

** The Laws againft Perfons not coming to Church, 
" fhall be ftill in Force againft all fuch as do not come 
'* to fome Church of the Church of En^Und^ or fome 
" other Congregation, or AlTembly for Religious Wor- 
** iliip, permitted and allowed by this Law. 

But finding this would not go, a Bill was prcpar'd 
purely for exempting his Majefty's Proteifant SubjeiSis, 
• Diflenting from the Church of EnglnnH, from the Pe- 
nalties impos'd upon the Papifts by the A^ of i^'EiP:;. 
It pafTed the Commons, and was agreed to by the 
Lords, but when the King came to the Houfe to pafs 
the Bills, this was taken from the Table, and never, 
heard of more : Which was not likely to be without the 
King's Order, or Connivance. Many Leading Men 
fpake in the Houfe of Commons, while thefe Matters 
were under Debate there: As Mr. Bujcowen, Sir Nicho- 
las CareWy Sir John Mnynard, Sir Francn IVinningtdri ^ 
Delates of ^^' ^^^^^'^^^y-> Mr. Titus, Mr. PovqcI, Sir I{jch/ird Tern- 
the Houfe of P^^y Mt. Hamhden, M.T. Finch, Sir Thomas C Urges, Col- 
(nmmons at lonel Birch, on One lide : &c. And feverai others alfo 
the Parlia- on the oppofite fide. One Gentleman when the Bill 
nent in of Comprehenfion was Read, was pleas d to fay, That . 
1680. he tho't it more Convenient to have n Law for forcing the 

page 207. Diffenters to the Church, than to force the Church to yield 
2iij 212. to them. But fays a Worthy Gentleman who Ipake if- 


Ghap. Xfli. Mr. Kfchard Baxter. 55:^ 

terwards; 0'foat Love, Friehdfhip or Obediev.ce can the An. i68o' 
Church expeH f<om fuch PerfonSj as by the Execution of 
Juch Laws may be fore d to come to Church ? Hoxk> can they be 
depefided on, or the Church be flrengtherid P Tju rnay pre- 
vent their Conventicles', and force them either to come to 
Church or pay Fines, or be imprifond ; hut you cannot ex- 
peB- that their Opinions or Affeliions fhmld be alter d by 
fuch Proceedings^ vpithoitt rohich the Church cnn never he 
the Jirongen Afterwards he adds^ if the OxioYdi Aci 
and other Laws againji Dijjenters^ were pro[ec}ed in fa^ 
^our of the Proteftahc Religion, it was Grange that they 
were Jo much promoted, (as 'tis well known they werej 
by Sir Tho. ClifFoid, Sir Sol. SwaJe and Sir Roget 
Strickland, who have fjnce all appear'^d tobe Papijrs, But; 
they had not time to bring Thingsto Maturity. For the 
King was diffatisfy'd with their Proceedings; his greac 
want was Money, and they were refolv'd to give none, 
unlefs he would pafs a Bill to Exclude the Duke oiTork^, 
Whereupon on the 14th of Jan. they were ProroguM : 
But before they rofe, they came to thefe Two Refoluti- 
bns : I{f/olv^d Nemine Contradicente, That it is theOpi' 
nion of this Uoufe, that the Acts of Parliament made ih 
the F(sign of Queen Elizabeth nrtd Kjng Jam'eS r.gainU 
Popifh i^ecufants, ought not to be extended ngain'd PrOte- 
ilant Dijfenters, /ind ^efoh'd, that it li the Opinion of 
thtf Houfe, that the Profecutibn 0/ Proteftant Diffsnters 
tipon the Penal Laws., is at this Time grievous to the Suh'» 
jsB, a weakning the Proteiftant Interefi, an Ryicourage^ 
went to Popery, and dangerous to the Peace of the Kjng- 
-dom. After which they were firft Prorogu'd and then 
Diflblv'd. Another Parliament met at Oxford \n March 
following, but had not time to do any Bufinefs. There 
was a complaint then made of the nnprecedtnted lofs 
of the forementiort'd Bill for.tbe {Repealing the AH of 
35 Eliz. but without any Satisfaction orRedreis. 

Notwithftandmg that the Fears of Popery were iii 
thefe Times fo great and general, and manifeRly but too 
well grounded, yet did Dr. Stillingfieet then Dean of 
St. Pauls chink fit (prevaifd on as is fdppos'd by fome 
great Perfons) to reprefent all the Nonconform if^s as 
Schifmatickj: And he did it to purpofe, Ctho* moft Peo- 
ple tho't very unfcafonably) in a Sermon before the 
Lord Mayor, on May the zd^ 1680; Intituled the Mif- 
chief of Separation. He there takes notice of it ss an 

h at Ae- 

354 'T*^ LIFE of Chap, XIU. 

jU. I 58o Acknowledgment of many of the Dilfenting Minifter?, 
That Commihiicn xv'uh the Publick^ Churches was Lawful, 

pare 1 2 12 ^^^ ^^ refers to their Two Mecdngs to confider the 
'^ ' ' lawfuinefs of Parifh Worfhipthat Mr. Baxter had tnen- 
tion'd in Piinc, (which have been before hinted in this 
Narracive) : And yet a few Pages after, hf complains 
' th^t the Liivpfulnefi of. jc^ff^^ vpith the Church in Publicl(^ 
Affemblies vom kpft as a mighty fecret in the Brenjls of the 
Teachers ; leait they floould feem to condemn themfehes, 
whilfl they preacFd agninfi Separation in n feparate Con" 
gregation. But it appeared to unprejudiced Standers by, 
a pleafant Fancy, that he fhould reprefent Men as having 
a defign to conceal, what he knew they had publilh'd 
to all the World in Print. In the fame Sermon, the 
Dr. lamented, That when the Diff enters fo genernUy con" 
jsntpd in this Cafe, there foould he fo few either of their 
Preachers or People that came ordinarily to the Publick, Con- 
gregations. And adds, That it is hard to under (Innd if 
'' ' ' occafional Communion he Lawful ^ thdt conjiant Communion 
fhould not he a Duty, Sec. 

An Anfwer was Written to this Sermon by Dr. Owen^ 
with great Gravity and Serioufnefs ; in which among 
other fuitable and feafonable Remarks, he upon occa- 
fion of the Doctors caution to the Nonconformifts, 

j,^2, <i. wo; to be always compUining of their Hard/hips and Perfe- 
cation^ makes this Reply: They that is the Nonconfor- 
mifts fay, after fo many of them have died in Common 
Goals J fo many have indur'^d long Imprifonments, not a few 
^ being at thts D.iy in the fame durance ; fo many driven 
from their Habitations into n wandring Condition, to pre- 
ferve for a while the Liberty of their Perfons ; fo many 
have been reduced unto fVant and 'Penury, by the takjng 
away cf their Goods ; and from fome the very Inftrwncnts 
of their Livelihood ; after the Projecutions which have been 
againil them in all Courts of Justice in tJm Nation, on In^ 
formations, Inditements, and Suits, to the great Charge 
of all of them who are fo Perfecuted, and the I{uin of fome ^ 
after fo many Ministers and their Families have been brot^ 
into the utmoft outward Str eights which Nature cnn fubfiSl 
under • after all their perpetual Fears and Dangers when- 
with they have been exercised and difquieted, they thinl(^ it 
bard they fhould be complain d of, for complainings by them 
wha are at Lafe, 8<c, 


Chap. XIIL Mr. Richard Baxter. 555 

Another Anfwer to the fame Sermon, that was very An. idSo 
Particular, Warm and Clofe, was publilh'd by Mr. Bax- 
ter, Among other remarkable Hints, he in one Place 
exprefTes himfelf thus : I voill never be a Member of n ^. ^y. 
Particular Churchy which will forbid me Communion with 
all others that differ from them ; yea, that doth not hold its 
Communion in Vnity with all the true Chri^ian Churches 
on Earth. He afterwards inftances in many Things /». 58. 
that are Lawful, but not matter of Duty. And con- 
cludes with thefe Words ; // you will rather let in Tole- f. 107. 
ration of Popery^ than you will To/?r4fe«Proteftants, that 
fear the Guilt of Lyings Perjury ^ and many other Evils, 
fhould they do that which you confejl indifferent^ let God. be 
Judge between you and m. 

A Third Anfwer was drawn up with great "Wit and 
Smartnefs by Mr. ^Ifop, who oppos'd the Mifchief of Im- 
f ofit ions to ihe Do(Sior's Mifchief of Separation. He briskly 
turns upon him his own Words and Phrafes, and re- 
torts his Charges and Accufations. He forces the 
Do(ffcors Text out of his Hands, and proves he mill-ook 
the Senfe of it. He Argues alfo ftrenuoully againft him 
from ^om. 14. He proves that occafional Communion p. 80. 
may be Lawful, and yec conftant Communion not a 
Duty." He retorts his Cautions upon him: And con- 
fronts his Advices, with counter Advice; and at length p. 102. 
^•concludes with thefe Words : I muft openly Profefi, after 
all I can hear or read againji the Caufe of Nonconformity^ 
I am more confirmed, that i^tll the Wtt of Man can never 
prove the Dijfenters in their way of H^orjhip Guilty of the 
Mifchief s of Separation, nor jultifie the exaBors of fuch 
Terms of Communion as are no way co-mmanded by the H^oid 
of God, no way necejfary to* the executing of thofe Com- 
mands ; but they muft remain If ill Guilty of the Mifchief 
of thefe Imprcfjtions. 

A Fourth Reply to the fame Sermon, was intituled, 
a Letter I4^ritten out of the Country to a Perfon of Quality 
in the City y who took. Offence at the late Sermon of Or.Stil- 
lingfleet Dean of St. Pauls, before the Lord Mayor ; and 
was drawn up by Mr. Howe with great clearnefs and 
ftrength of Reafoning. He (hews how unreafonably 
the Dr. endeavours to keep the Diflenters, who after 
the utmoft fcarch could not be faiisfied to Conform, in 
a State of Damnation for fcrupUng the Ceremonies; ac 
leaft in a neglcd of the neceltary Means gf Salvation. 

A a x He 

550 The LIFE of Chap. XIII. 

An. :58o. He Ihews his Arguments both ^^ ^cm 8c ad Hominem 
to be unconcluding. He refleds freely on the Dodior, 
for his too great Acrimony, and too little ferioufners 
in his way ot Management ; and yet cloies with a very 
gcrtecl and handfome Addiefs to iuch as were offended 
with the Do£lors Sermon, to abate their Indignation, 
and moderaie their Cenfures, and ftir them up to turn 
th'.ir Reiiedtions upon bim, into ferious Prayers for 
him, for which he fliews there is very juft Occallon. 

A Fifth Reply was written by Mr. harret of Notting- 
ham^ and intituled, T/jj H^Hor of Svitton committed with 
the Dean cf St, raul's ; Or a Defence if Dr, SiillingfleetV 
Irenicum, his Di/courfes of Excommunicatioti, Idolatry ^ 
ard other PV/itinys, agairji his late Sermon of ihe Mifchief 
of Separation. Wherein, he with great Modefty, and 
a becoming Chriftian Temper, reflects upon thofe 
Things in the Sermon which appear'd to him the moft 
liable to Cenfure. And he that would underfland the 
Bafinefs of Schifm, and Separation of the Church, and 
Church Power, and Church Order, of the Rule we 
are to Walk by, and the true Way of healing our 
Breaches, would do well to give the Sermon and thefe 
feveral Anfwers a ferious Perufal. And yet while the 
Do(5lor and his Oppofites were eagerly debating Matters, 
the Common Enemy took an Advantage by their Scuffle, 
to advance in his Progrefs towards their intended Ruin. 
The Pcor Diflenters were Profecu ted afrelh, in De- 

c4«. 1681. fiance of the Votes of the Parliament in their Favour. 
Nay, feveral zealous Proteftants, who had been moft 
Active againft the Papifts, were try'd by Mercenary 
Judges, with Pack'd Juries, upon hi/h Evidence. 
The Ccnfeqr.ence may be feen in the Common Narra- 
tives cf ih fe Times. Orders and Dieftions were fent 
from the King and Council Board to fupprefs all Con- 
venticle^, uhich were follow'd carefully enough by the 
Ji flices ' f fJickf's' H'-d/^ and in the Borough of South' 
* rhif rvrky an>; by feme of the City Juftices alio*. 

Tear rcM 

f)ul)i jL'd, An Appeal of all the Nonconformifts in England to God, and 

aU h? IM'iei nn - in EiiK'pt", in Order 10 miini',e[l their Sincerity in Point of 

C) fr , . and tlh King: iB^ Lewis Du Moulin. The Findi cation 

> pu 'Ujfj a by Dr Faikner, ffroy'd no Vindication of the 

, J ,ulnel\ and Anticjuity of Set fyrms cf Public k Minifierial 

■fgcncraliy Uid hy.^ or iwpoi'd on all Aiini/laru 8vo. 16B1. By 


Chap. XIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 557 

This Year alfo the Meetings of the DilTenters were An. |582. 
oft broken up, and the Laws againft them' vigoroufly 
executed. Many Minifters were imprifon'd, and they 
and their Hearers fin*d. Mr. Baxter was fuddenly fur- 
priz'd in his own Houfe by a Poor Violent Intornner, 
and many Conftables and Officers, who rufli'd in, and 
apprehended him, and ferv'd upon him a Warrant to . 
feize on his Perfon for coming within Five Miles of 
a Corporation, and Five more Warrants to diftrain for 
195/. for Five Sermons. Tho' he was mt^ch out of 
Order, being newly rifen from his Bed, where he had 
been in extremity of Pain, he was contentedly going 
with them to a Juftice, to be fent to Goal, and left 
his Houfe to their Will. But Dr. Thomas Cox, meet- 
ing him as he was going, forc'd him in again to his 
Bed, and went to Five Jufticesand took his Oath, that 
he could not go to Prifon without danger of Death, 
Upon this the Juftices delay'd till they had confulted the 
King, who confented that his Itnprifonment fliould 
be for that time forborn, that he might Die at home. 
But they executed their Warrants on the Books and 
Goods in the Houfe, tho* he made it appear they were 
none of his, and they Sold even the Bed which he 
lay Sick upon. Some Friends pay'd them as much 
Money as they were praisM at, and he repay 'd them. 
And all this was without Mr. Baxtei'^s having the leait 
Notice of any Accnfation, or receiving any Summons 
r.o Appear and Anfwer for himfelf, or ever feeing the 
Juftices or Accufers : And afterwards he was in coa- 
ftant danger of New Seifures, and thereupon he was 
forc'd to leave his Houfe, and retire into private Lod- 
gings. Dr. Annefly and feveral others alfo, had their 
Goods diftreined for Latent Convidlions, others were 
imprifon'd upon the Corporation hSt; while others 
were worry*d in the Spiritual Courts. Warrants were 
fign*d for Diftreffes in Hacl^ney to the Value of /400/. 
and one of them for 500/. And on January 9, 168K 
Mr. Vincent wastry'd at tht Surrey ^ti^xons upon the 35 th 
o'iEli^, and Caft. 

This Year Dr.Sti/Ungfleet Printed his Vnre^ronahle' 
nep of Separation : Or an Impartial Account of the Hi- 
ftory. Nature and Pleas of the prefent Separation from 
the Communion of the Church of England, to which 
feveral Letters are annexed, concerning the Natiire of 

A a 3 our 

558 The LIFE of Chap. XIIL 

An. i68:. our Differences, and the way to compofe them, from 
f v^ral Eminent Divines Abroad. Thefe Letters are Ap- 
plauded by our late Compleat Hi- 
*;'(/. 3. f. 593. ftorian*, and by Ceveral others. 

But he that confuks the Printed 
Fretich Letters of Monlieur CUude, who wrote one of 
ihofe Letters that are Printed at the end ot Dr. StilUng- 
fleets Book, will fee no great Caufc for boafting on 
the Church fide upon this Occafion. For whereas the 
Letter that the Dr. has Printed, is the 37th in Number 
among the French Letters of Monfieur Claude^ that 
which immediately follows, and isthe3Sth in Num- 
ber, and Written to a certain 
t See Oeuyres Fo/ihumes de Lady, and dated at Pfirisy A- 
Mcrtfieur Claude, Tome Cintjui- prill 6. 1 68 1, giveS no little Elu- 
«me, /». 264, &c. cidation to what went before f. I'll 

therefore add a part of the Letter: 

" UADAia, 
\[ TTAvingunderftood feveral Ways, that many Per- 
■*-^ *' fons have not taken my Senfe and Exprefli- 
** ons concerning the prefent State of the Church of 
** England well, I tho't it not amifs to exprefs myfelf 
" to you more particularly, that you may know the 
** Innocence of my Thoughts and Intentions. Firft of 
** all, I folemnly Proreft to you, that when I wrote 
. ** upon this Subjedt to my Lord Bifliop of L ndorij I 
*' had no profpedt that my Letter would be Printed, or 
*' made Pub'tck: Nay, I was fupriz'd and aftoniiVd 
to fee it both in French and EnglifJ: at the end of the 
Book you fent me : And bclides, you may if you 
pleafe, Madam, reft alTur'd, that in what I wrote I 
" aim'd but at Two Things ; To juftify us from a Ca- 
'* lumny which fome charge us with, as if we belicv'd 
'* there could be no Salvation under the Epifcopai Go- 
*' vernment; and ro affiftas far as my Weakncfs would 
^' allow me, in a gpod and holy Reunion of the Two 
** Parties. As for the firft, I think I have juftly enough 
*^ explain'd tiie Senrimenisof all the Praejhfus of thig 
" Kingdom, and in Particular, all thofc that are ho- 
" nour'd wiih our Charadler ; And I am alfur'd that 
'^ the Englijh Presbyterians would i^ot go fo far, as to 
•f qucftion ihe pollibility of Salvation under the Mi- 
r niflry of Bxfliops. They have too much Light, and 



Ghap. Xlir. Mr, Richard Baxter. 359 


*' Wifdom, and Chriftian Charity to be capable of this. ^«. i<582. 
** As to the fecond, 1 endeavour'd to keep to all the 
Rules that ought to be obferv'd in as grieat and im- 
portant an Affair as this. I exprefs'd my! -if only in 
a way of defire, and fignifying what I could wifti fhe 
Presbyterians would attentively ccnfider, I was not 
filent wirb regard lo the Epifcopalians. I condemned 
the ExC'lTes which fome run into oti one fide and 
t'other, and (hew'd as far as my little Light would 
" help me, the Reafons that ought to cbhge both f 

** the one and the other, to a juft and reafonable Ac- 
*' commodation, ^c. And afterwards: Would it not be 
" the befl: way, on one fide and t'other to think of a 
" good Peace and Concord, by quitting on each fide 
*' what can reafonably be quitted ? For I am affur'd that 
" the Presbyterians are not fuch Enemies of the Epifco- 
" pal Government, as not to yield to it if it were Mo- 
" derated,* and thofe Things were but rembv'd out of 
*' the Service and Difcipline which are moft Offenfive to 
** them ; And I am alfo perfwaded that the Bifhops are 
*' not fuch Enemies to their own Intereft, as not to yield 
*' much to the defire of a numerous People to Re-unite 
'' them intireJy under their Crook. Nor do I doubr, 
" but that the fear of God, the defire of bis Glory, and 
*' the Love of the Church of Jefus Chrift,- are firong 
enough both in ihe one and the other of them, to oblige 
them, to feek a Peace that is fo profitable, and fo defira- 
ble to all good People. Thefe^ Madam, are my true 
and fincereThoughts,and 'tis only upon thele Principles 
that 1 wrote to my Lord Bifhop of London, and not 
to irritate any Man : And I ati% obliged to you for gi- 
" ving me an Opportunity of making ray Sentiments 
" known to you. May God by his Providence and 
*' Grace fo over-rule the Confufions of the World, as to 
*' draw from thence Good to his Church, and Glory to 
V- his Name. I commit you to his Protection and Good- 
** ncfs, affuring you that I am with all my Heart, 

■■^ ^' Yours, &c.^c. 

But this and the other Letters which Dr. St Uling fleet 
added as an Appendix, are remedied on with great Mo- 
defty by Dr. Gilbert ^tle, in the clofe of his F{diionai 
Defence of Nonconformity , in which Book, the whole Dif- 
courfe of the Vnrfafonabhne/s of Separation is confide r'd 

A a 4 Pa- 





:^6o Ihe Llfb of Chap. XllK 

^iff. 1682. Paragraph by Paragraph. Mv.JoimTrou^hton^Ko ^uh- 
lilh'd-an Apology for the Nonconformifls, fiiewing 
rheir Reafons both for not Conforming, and for their 
Preaching Publickly iho* forbidden by Law. With an 
Anfwer to Dr. Stiltimjicet'*^ Sermon and the Defence of 
^ -VrtK^ic, as far as conccrneth the Nonconformifts Preaching^. 

other T fails 

Upon (he Controycrfy hctrpcen tl§p Church and the uijfenters were alfo thli Year, 
'(i<582.j pulf/if/yd: As the Harmony between die old -nwl j.;refent Non- 
con roimirts Principles, in Relation to the Terms of Conformity nvith re- 
fpeff to both the Clevgy and the Peop/cy ^to. A. fad and lamentable Cry of 
Opprtjjt'/n and Cruelty in the City ^f Briftol, relating to the Verfecntion of cer- 
tain Dijfcnting rroteihnts. Reafons htmb/y offcr'd^ prorin^r it inconfi/ient 
•xvith the IntereU of England, that the Ciyil Magiftrate 0)ould put the Penal 
Lnxps in Execution azainfi Proteft^nt Diffenters. -4m Account of the Princi- 
ples and Pracfices of feveral Nonconformifis, wherein it appears that their Rg- 
ligion ii no other than what is profefi in the Clmtch of England. By Mr. Cor- 
bee. The Samaritan : Shewing^ that many and unnecejfary Impofitiom are 
not the Oil that mufi heal tJje Church : Together with tlie jl aj or Means to do it. 

Jin. 1^85. The fame«Courfe was perfiflcd inthefurceeding Year. 
200 Warrants were iffuM out for Diih'efles upon Vx^ 
hrid^e and the Neighbourhood, for going to ConventicJes» 
Dr. Bates and feveral others were diftrem'd upon; and 
the Gentlemen of Do6tors Commons got Money apace. 
This Year a New Plot was trnmpM up, which coft the 
brave Lord F{ttjfel and Collonel Sydney, 8cc. their Lives. 
July the 24th, a Decree paft in the Univerfity of Oxon 
againft certain pernirious Books and (damnable Dodlrines. 
The 2d of the Dodrines Condemn'd was this : There n 
a mutual CompaH Tacit or ExpytJ^, between ti Prince And 
lis SuijeEls'y and that if he perfmrn not his Duty^ they are 
di/coaig'd fom theirs. The 4th this. The Sovereignty of 
England, is in the Three EJiates, Kjng Lords and Com^ 
ir.o.i, (S^c. The 7th this: Self-Prcfervation is the Fun- 
elemental Law of Kntutc, and fupcrjfdjs the Obligations 
t // yay (f. all others, whenjorver they Rand in Competition with it. 

-ircu de- t AikI fome time after, the Grand Jury of iVejlminJler 

fryci en- 

'■uiry., How tlr Cenfurcrs of thefe Pojttions, can reconcile the Denial of the 
I cond of tlittn with the Declaration of the Vacancy of tl>e Throne upon Kin^ 
J.mcsN yibdlcution^ upon wire!) Kin'r William wj4 .advanced to it. The 
Convention Declared in fo many li^v^lV That King J AMtS had endea- 
voLii d w iubvert tlie ( onflitiuion of llTib Kingdom, by breaking, THE 


Chap. XIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 361 

made a very Signal Prefentment, viz. f^:>at all thofs ^»- '684, 
that were for the Bill of Exclufjoriy might he appre- ^^ f^^ tj^^ 
hended and proceeded ngainft ; and all Conventicles^ &C. -jth of 
Several that were taken at the Meetings were Gon- them^ it 
vidted as Rioters, and fin'd 1 o 1. a piece ; and fome could mt 
Young Perfons ( of both Sexes j taken at the fame ^fH he de- 
Piaces, were fent to Bridevoell to beat Hemp. About ^^^^^ h w 
this Time, one Mr. B^bert HUyot of Oxon a pious ^J^hat 
Gonformift who had devoted his Eftate to charita- 7^ ^""^ 
ble Uf^s, gave by hisLaft Will 600/. to be diftri- ^^^^^'^^^^'^ 
buted by Mr. Baxter to Sixty poor ejedted Minifters, p^/JJ Jf 
adding, that he did it not becaufe they were Nonconfor- Orange 
mifi:s, hut becaufe many fuchxv ere poor and pious. But the K?bich cer- 
King*s Attorney Sir Robert Sawyer, fued for it in the tainly ^as 
Chancery, and the Lord Keeper Korth gave it all to the and is inex- 
King. It was paid into the Chancery by Order, and cufable, if 
as Providence ordered it, there kept fafe, till King »°^ upon 
PFilliam fo happily afcended the Throne, when xhz ^^^^ Score of 
Commiflioners of the Great Seal reftor'd it to the Ufe Self-^re- 
for which it was intended by the Deceafed ; and ^^^^^^»on- 
Mr. Baxter difpos*d of it accordingly. This Year alfo „ W'^^/* 
there was a moft cruel Order made by the Juftices of jyj^^^ '^ 
Peace at the Quarter Seffions at Exon againft all Non- -^ ^J^^ ' 
conforming Minifters, allowing a Reward of Forty u^j^rg ^c 
Shillings to any Perfon that apprehended one of them : urdsy on 
And the Bifliop required the Order to be read by all May 16. 
the Clergy, the next Sunday after itftould be tcndred 17-^. up- 
on Occajion 
of Dr. Sachevereir^ Impeachment, mentioning this Pompous Decree at Ox- 
ford, takes Notice how little a While they flood to it, in thefe Words. Three 
Days after we left Exeter, a Head of a CoUedge came to the Prince tu 
invite him to come to Oxford, afluring him that the Univerfity would de- 
clare for him. He went a*' near it as Abingdon, but then the fudden Tur» 
of Affairs at London obliging him to hafte up, the Aflbciation was fent 
thither, aud was fign'd by the Heads of the Colledges, and many others 
there -, fome doing it in a particular Warmth of Expreffion, and faying 
that their Hearts as well as their Hands went with it. Thus as he 
obferves, they contradiSled their fam'd Decree Five Tears after it was made. 
And yet in a little Time, they upon fome Dif appointments or other Fiews^ 
feemd to take another Turn back to it again, By embracing the Notion of a 
King de faflo, which is but a fofter Word for an Ufurper. But in the 
Tear 1709, thii Decree of theirs was burnt by the Hands of the Common 
Hangman, together with Dr. SacheverellV Sermons^ by the Order of the Houfe 
of Lords. 


362 The LIFE of Chap. XIII. 

An. 1584. to them. The Order may be Teen at large, in Mr. Bax- 
ter's Nonconformitj ftated and argued, to which it is 

prefix'd *. 


* There 
K^as noxff 

jmblifbd The Nonconformifls Plea for Lay Communion with the Church 
of England hy Mr. John Corbet, together with an Account fj the Judgment 
And FraCiice of fotnc Mini/iery vpho v>ere deprf-p'd. 

Mr. Howe alfo novf fnhlijh'd a Sermnn in the Continuation of the Morn- 
ing Exercife, upon this Quejrion ^ What may moft hopefully be attemp- 
ted to allay Animofuies among Proteflancs, that our Divifions may not 
be ouv Ruin } In vfhich fpeaklngof Love as one of the heft Means to unite, 
ej?abli/f)^ and preferre Chrifiians^ hcexpreffes himfdfthus: 
Among thofe that dilTent from the Church of England^ there are fome 
that think it not (imply unlawful to Conform ^ but find how 
f. 89. ever what is requir'd in the Church lefs edifying to them : And 
tho' they can therefore partake in it at fome Times, think them- 
fclves more ordinarily bound to attend fuch other Means as they find more 
conducing to their Spiritual Profit and Advantage , judging they have an 
undoubted Right from Chrift, anciently alloWd from Age to Age, in the 
beft Times of the Chriftian Church, and never ^uftly taken from them, of 
chooling thePaftors to whofe ordinary Care and Conduft they Ihall com- 
mit their Souls. Thele Pcrfons accounting the Pubiick Worihip 
f. 85- fubftantialiy agreeable to Divine Inftitution, tho* in fome Acci- 
dentals too ^iifigreeable, tliey think there is more to incline 
them at fome Times to attend it, than totally to difown it. Foi- what 
Worfliip is there on Earth, that is in all Things uncorrupt ? And they 
appprcliend ir fit to teftify their union with the fincere Quiftians that 
may be ftatcdiy unJer that Form, efpecially in a Time when the Con- 
teft is fo high in the World, between them tliat profefs the Subftance of 
Reformed Chriilinnity, and them that have much deform'd it : And 
conceive it becoming them at any Time to exprefs their own Unconfined- 
nefs to a Party, and to ufe that Liberty, which they think fhould not be 
judged by another Man's Confcitnce ^ which yet they would have regard 
to, where there are not greater Reafons to preponderate. They are in- 
deed under a Difadvantage ( with them that are apt to ufe a greater Li- 
berty in their Cenfures than they do in their Practice in thefe Matters ). 
when it falh out that their partial Compliance is the Means of their Se- 
curity from Penalties : And their Difadvantage is greater, whofe Judg- 
ment to this Purpofc has aot been formerly dedar'd and mnde known. 
"^ But they for bhame ought to be lllenr, whofe total Compliance gains 
*^hem nut only Immunity, but great Emoluments. And if it be faid a- 
gainf^ them, r^re thty not at all Times oblig'd to ufe the Means 
i-. 92. which arc mofi edifying.' They may fay, at all Times wheii 
thty Viave nothing to out weigh their own Edification. 
Thii Tear A 62^, Dr. Withy alfo puhlifh'd the Proteflant Reconciler, in 
Z190 Farts: Humbly fUadittg for iondefcention to Viffm'mg Brethren in 


Chap. XIII. Mr. Richard Baxter. 565 

This Year while Mr. Baxter lay in Pain and Languifli- An. 1684. 
ing, the Juftices of the Seflions fent Warrants to ap- 
prehend him, he being one in a Catalogue whi- h was 
(aid to contain the Names of aThoufano Perfons who 
were all to be bound to their good Behaviour. Know- 
ing that their Warrant was not to break open Doors, he 
refus'd to open to them, tho' they were gor into his 
Houfe. Whereupon they fet fix Officers ar his Study 
Door, who kept him from his Bed and Food by watch- 
ing all Night, and the next Day he yielded. They 
carried him to the Seflions, when he was fcarce able 
to ftand, and bound him in a Bond of 400 /. to his 
good Behaviour. He defired to know his Crimes and 
Accufers : But was told, 'twas only to fecure the Go- 
vernment againft fufpefted Perfons. 

He was fome Time after carried a- *" ^^'^ ^'M <'/ Samm in his 
gain to the Seflions Houfe in great %«^^' /« *''^ ^<'«^ '(^^'//^ » 703, 
Pain, and forc'd to continue Bound (f \^'?^^ ^^ '^'^ ^"i^^,^' '^?^'^" 

Herefus'd to ftand Bound, not ^f ^?4"\^^'"' f'^r "T f 
, - 1. 1 • u - ^ the Diiienters was fet on Foot- 

knowmg what they might interpret ^^^ ^^^^ ,^,„ ,j^,„ ^h,„ ^^^ Se! 

a Breach of the Peace : But his verities againft them were very 
Sureties would be Bound, leaft hard, they were folicited by the 
he (hould die inCa Goal. He was car- Agents of the Court to Petition 
ried thither a Third Time, and for a General Toleration, but 
{till bound, tho* for the moil Part they could not be prevail'd on. 
he kept his Bed * 

September the 23,d, Mr, Thomas I{o/weII^ who was Mi- Mr. Rof- 
nifterof a Diflenting Congregation in S^edriffy was im- weiriC^/V. 
prifon'd in the Gate'Houfe in H'^eflminfteYj by a Warrant 
from Sir George Jejferys for High-Treafon. A Bill was 
found againft him at the Quarter-Seffions at Kjngfton 
in Surrey ; upon which he was arraign'd on OHoher the 
2,5th, and tried November the i8th following, at the 


Things Indifferent and unnecejfary for the Sahe of Peace : And jhctping hoi» 
unnafonable it is to make fuch Things the nece/fary Conditions of Commu-' 
nion, part I, And earneftly peifn^ading the Vijfenting Laity to join in 
full Communion with the Church of England ; and anfiaering all the Ob- 
jeUions of the Nonconformifis againft the Laia>fulnefs of their Submijjion unt9 
the Rites and Conflitutions of that Churfh. Part IL 

This Tear alfo was fubUfb'i the Confoimifts Plea for the Nonconfor- 
niifts. In Four Parts. 

364 The LIFE of Chap.Xin. 

j^ 1634 KJ^}^'s-B.'nch Bar, by a Surrey Ju'-y, before the Lord 
Chief juftice Jcfferys, and three o'her Judj^es of that 
Court, I4'^ithins^ Halloway, and M^alcot. The H!gh- 
Treafon as laid in the Indidtment and fworn by the 
WitncfTes, was that in a Sermon which he preach'd on 
Sfptemher the I4ch, he faid tbcfe Words' That the Pco- 
fie ( meaning the Subjedts of our Sovereign Lord the 
King) mnk:'^ a flockifig to the faid Sovereign Lor-d the) 
Jf^nv ^pon Pretence of healing the Kjn^\'Rvii, which he 
(meaning our faid Sovereign Lord the King) could not 
iic ; hut thr.t we (meaning himfclf and other Traiierous 
PerfonsSubje6Vsof our faid Lord the Kmg) are they to 
whom they ( meaning the Subjedls of our faid Lord 
the King ) ought to fiock^^ bccauje we (meaning himfelf 
and the faid other Traiterous Perfons ) are Pri&fts And 
Prcfhets, thnt by our Prayers can heal the Dolours nnd 
Griefs of the People. iVe (meaning the Subjed:s of our 
faid Sovereign Lord the King) havehdd two wicked K^ings 
(meaning the raoft Serene Charles the Firft, late King of 
Etigland, and our faid Sovereign Lord the King 
that now is) whom we can refemble to no other Per/on^ 
But to the 77ioft wicked JEi{EBO AM ; And th/tt if they 
( meaning the faid evil difpofed Perfons then and there 
fo as aforefaid with him unlawfully affenibled and ga- 
ther 'd together) would Jiand to their Principles^ He 
( meaning himfelf) did not fedr hut they (meaning him- 
fpjf and the faid evil difpofed Perfons) would ov?rcoi?ie 
their Enemies^ (meaning our faid Sovereign Lord the 
King and his Subjedts) as in former Times with H/ims 
Horns ^ broken Platters, and a Stone in a Sling. The Wit- 
neffes were three Women. They fwore to the Words 
as they ftand, without the Jnnuendos ; the Trial lafted 
about feven Hours. Mr. B^ofwell made a moft full and 
clear Defence of himfelf i very modeftly and yet ftre- 
nuoufly vindicating his Innocence, to the Satisfadlion 
of thofe who were prefent ; and fo as to gain the Ap- 
plaufe of many Gentlemen of the Long Robe. The 
Jury however, after they had been out about half an 
Hour, bro't him in Guilty. The Women who were the 
Witneflcs were infamous Perfons, laden with the Guilt 
of many Perjuries ; which had cafily been prov'd upon 
them all, before the Trial, could Juftice have been 
had : But they were fcreen'd by the Recorder, who 
w-$ the Pcrfon that laid the whole Scheme of the Bull- 


Chap. XIII. Mr. R.ichard Baxter. 365 

nefs, and paich'd up the tndicftment, in Terms fuitcd An. 1^84, 
to his known Abiliries. But fuch of them as c ujd be 
met with, were afterwards oonvidied of Permiy^ and 
Smith the chief Witneis, was pilloried before the Ex- 
change, Sir John Tiiihot who was prefent, repreff ited ^ 
to King Charles the State of the Cafe as it appeared at y^^^ J"* 
the.Trial ; and he ordered Jcffc-s to nr.d nn ^'*^^^^on. j^^^^q^^.^' ^ 
Whereupon he Aflignd him Council afterwards, ^^c;^'puUi(k- 
plead to the Infufficiency of the Indictment in Arreft f/q n^^^I 
of Judgment; and the King gave him his Pardon, up- va rive c^ 
on which he was difcharg'd *. the Pro- 

cer-dings of 
the Court of Seffions in Bny^o/againfthim, tohh Convi^innonthe Statute -of 
the ^Sth Eliz. and his Abjuration of all the Kims Dominions-' This Yea/t^U" 
fo, Mr. Bi-Ktei- J>ubii fly d a TraCl intituled ^CztholickCommamcn defended^ 
in tpkicb he ^are his Reafons to the World for Communkattn^ with ihe Farl(B 
churches, and jujiifyd them againft Twelve Afgunienti of Dr. Owen's to the 

About this Time alfo was fuhliflid a ColieSliott of Cafes written f» 
recover the Vijf enters to the Communion of the Church of England, which w-ai 
afterwards Abridgd hy Mr Bennet of Cokhefter. Some haye windred tluit 
this Colle£lion has not been difiinBly anfwefd. As to which I hare this t9 
fay, that it ivas tnce intended to^haye return dan Anfwer tothem diftinlUyj^ 
and the Work was divided among feyeral Ferfons, but at length laid apde 5 not 
up$n the Account of any peculiar difficulty that was found in ii^ but ^- 
caufe it was tha^t partly needle fs, and partly unfeafonable. 

Tbefe Cafes are 25 in Number-^ of whifh there are two^ viz. the I ^th atU 
the I ythi the Cafe of Infant Baptifm, and the Perfwalive to frequent Com- 
munion, that do not concern the Body of the Dijfenters. The ^th, ahoja 
a Scrupulous Confcience, was anfwer'd long ago^ by Mr. Delaane, to his 
Coji and Smart-i as the World well knows. The id and 5^, about Church 
Communion, were anfwered by Mr. Nathaniel Taylor, in 1702 .* And the 
l6th, about the Crofs in Baptifm, by Afr. James Pierce. 

And he that needs an Anfwer to the refl, may find it In fome or other of 
thofe numerous Trafls that hare been publifh'd by the Dtjfenters^ upon the fc 
yeral Farts of the Controyerfy. 

Thus if any Man thinks he wants an Anfwer to Dr. Scot, and Br. Claget 
about Forms of Trayer, and about the Common Prayer, I recommend to him 
tir. Collins'^ two Books about the Reafons why fome pious Nonconforming Mi- 
ttiflen in England i?«4f^e it ftnful for them to perform their Minifierial A{is 
in Fublick Solemn Prayer, by the prefcribed Forms of others, &c. in Anfwer to 
2Pr. Falconer. If any Man wants an Anfwer to Cafe the lOth, <«Wf Scandal, 
llet him read Mr. Samuel Clark'i Treat! fe of Scandal. And there is hardly 
any one of the reft, but a fu^cient Anfwer to it may befoundj in Jome of the 
nurmrous Writirgs of Mr Baxter on thefe Matters. 

—1" January 

566 The LIFE of Chap. XIV. 

An. 1 584. January I (), Mr. Jcnl{ynsditdin Newgate, as did alfo 
Mr. Bamvfield and Mr. {{alfh/oriy and feveral others in 
other Prifons. And quickiy afcer dy*d King Charles 
himfelf ; vi:[. on Februa y 6, i68t. Tho* he continued 
the Profecution of the poor DiiTenters, yet they held 
on their Meetings j heartily praying for his Peace and 
Profperity : And at laft they were as much concern'd 
at his Death, as any People in the Kingdom. 


Thdr Cafe in the Reign of King James the 


Jin 48 ^ 1 "^ HAT the rigorous Ufage of the Dijfenters io 
* ' ^' I the foregoing Reign was owing to Pofijh 
-^ Counfels, they themfelves never doubted ; and 
tho' fome were a long Time before they would fee or 
at leaft own ir, yet it was a great Comfort to them af- 
ter all their Sufferings, to find fuch Men as Bifljop 
* See his StilUngfl^et at laft Openly acknowledging it. * They lit- 
charre to ^^^ expedled better Treatment in this Reign, when 
his deny, bare-fac'd Popery lifted up its Head among us ; but wife 
in his p'ri- is that Providence which governs the World, which 
ntary Fifi- ferves its own Ends, even by thofe very Things, where- 
Mf*o«,p?g. by poor Mortals are moft difappointed. It is indeed 
49* eno' to amaze any one, to obferve the Meafures of this 

Reign, with their Confequences, whereby all Man- 
kind were difappointed. The Church Party not only, ex- 
pected to have the Diffenters wholly under their Feet, 
but depended fo much upon their Merits in their 
Adherence to the Duke in his Diftrefs, and his pofitive 
Affurances, that they were very Secure, and tho*t the 
Day their own : Put on a fudden found their All in fuch 
Danger, that without new Methods their Religion and 
Liberty was gone. The Diffenters expe£tcd not only 
greater Rigours and Severities than before, butconclud- 
ed ihey ftiould if it were polfible, be extirpated : \VTien 
as, to their Altonilhment, they found themfelves eas'd 
of their foregoing Hardlhips, and Courted and Carcfs'd, 
by thofe who they knew would rejoice in their Ruin, 


Chap. XIV. Mr. Richard Baxter, 367 

and had left no Method unattempted in Order to it. w4». 1685, 
The P/ipiils thought by raifing thofe who had been fo 
long deprefs'd, to have inflam'd thena wish Revenge 
againft their Brethren : to have widened the Animofi- 
ties among Froteftants ; that they might all be thereby 
rend red the more fure and fpeedy Sacrifice to their Ma- 
lice and Cruelty 5 and hereby they did but drive the 
contending Parties the nearer to each other, and 
make them at laft the more vigorous in their united 
Effort, to avert that common Ruin, which hung over 
their Heads. So that all Parties were furpriz'd, and 
found themfelves Miftakenj but an infinitely Wife God 
over-ruFd all for Good *. * Th 

late Com- 
fitat Hi/iorian, Vol- 5. p. 445, repeating the whole foregoing Taragraph^ 
fays, That there is fome Difingenuity in this way of the Diflenters re- 
prefenting their own Cafe. But let the World. Judge between us. We are 
yery fenfthle^ 06 he fays, That the firft Defign of Popery was to have fee 
the Church upon a vigorous SuppreOTion of Conventicles , and a fierce 
Execution of the PjSnal Laws : But that when fo many of the Clergy feli 
in with this Vejignt^ ^^^^y fhould he dlfappointed, and at laft he conyinc'd 
that they were puUing down "Ruin on their own Heads, deferyes a Remark .' 
And when Proyidence did appear for the Vijfenters, whateyer the Vefigns of 
Agents were, I thinh they ought to take notice of it, and be Thankful, 

It has indeed been Common, fince, to refleft upon the Vijfenters for their Cat' 
riage in this Reign : But nothing can he more Unjuft. The worthy Author of 
the Advantages of the prefent Settlement, and die great Danger of a Re- 
lapfe, Printed in l6%g,,{To he feen in the Tirft Vol. of State Trafis in the 
Reign of King William, P^ol. I. p. 26y.'] Declares, That the greateft Pare 
of the Diflenters were fo fenfible of the mifchievous Defign on Foot, that 
tho* they had fraarted fomewhat hardly under the lafh of the Penal Laws 
but a little while before, yet they would rather venture the continuance 
of them, than run the hazard of ruining the Subftance and Being of the 
Froteftant Religion among us : Nor could all the Virulent Pamphlets 
thrown about to exafperate them, by a Tragical Commemoration of their 
former Suffering by the Penal Laws, ever perfwade them/o far out of 
their Senfes, as not to be fully aflured that the little Finger of the Popilh 
Inquifition, would be heavier upon them than the Loins of all the Penai 
Laws made iince the Reformation againfi tliem. And indeed, to the Fi- 
delity of that Party at that Critical Time, are we to afcribe a great 
ihare of the difappointment the Popilh Party met with, who were 
much chafed that the grand Cheat of the Tokiation had no be»:- 
ter Succefs. 


368 The LIFE of Chap. XIV. 

jht. 1685. In the Rtrign of King 9^^wej the Second, which 
Afr. Bax- began Februxry 6\\\. i68t, the fame Methods v<rere 
ter'i 2V)<t/. continu'd tc firft as had been us'd in his Brothers 

Time*. On the iS^h of Febru- 
"^ThU may be a Troof of It, ''^A Mr. Baxter was Committed 
that on May 27, the Common, Fo- ^O the Kjn^^-Bench Prifon, by my 
ted that an Humble Addiefs lord Chief Juftice Jefferiess 
fliould be prefented to his Ma- Warrant, for his Paraphrafe on 
jetty, to delire him to Iflue forth the New Teftament, Printed a. 
his Royal Proclamation, to caufo little before; which was call'd 
the Penal laws to be put in a Scandalous and Seditious Book 
Execution, againft all DilTenters againft the Government. On the 
from the Church ot England ^^^ ^f ^^^^ ^hich was the fir^ 
^^^^^^^^^^- Day of the Term, he appeared in 

Pf^effminjier Hall, and an Infor- 
mation was ordered to be drawn up againft him. M47 
the i4Th, He Pleaded not Guilty to the Information. 
May the i8th, he being much Iridifpos'd, niov'd that 
he might have farther Time given him for his Tryal, 
, but it was deny'd him. He mov'd for it by his Coun- 

cil ; but Jeffereys cries out in a Paifion, I mil not give 
him a Minutes Time more to fnve his Life, fVe have had 
(fays he) to do with other forts of Perfons, but now we 
have a Saint to deal with ; and I l{now how to deal with 
Saints ai well as Sinners. Tonder (fays he) itands 
OATS in the Pillory^ fas he acftually did at that very 
• Time in the New Palace- Yard ;) and he fays he fuffers 
for the Truthy and fo fays Baxter ; but if Baxter did but 
ft and on the other fide of the Pillory with him, I would fay 
Two of the greatest B^gues and ^ifcals in the Kjngdom Stood 
there. On M.'iy the 30th, in the Afternoon, He was 
brought to his Tryal, before the Lord Chief Juftice 
Jefferys at Guild-HalL Sir Henry Afhhurji, who could 
not forfake his own, and his Fathers Friend, ftood by 
bim all the while. Mr. Baxter came firft into Court, 
and with all the Marks of Serenity _apd Compofure, 
waited for the coming of the Lord GWlf Juftice, who 
appeared quickly ^fter with great Indignation in his 
Face. He, no fooner fate down, than a (horc Caufe 
was Galfd and Try'd : After which the Clerk began 
to read the Title of another Caufe. Tou Blockhead you 
(Uys Jejferys) the next Caufe is between RICHARD 
BAXTER and the Kfn^. Upon which Mr. Baxters 
Caufe was Gall'd. The PafTiges mencion'd in the Im- 


Chap. XIV. Mr, R^ichard Baxter. ^^9 

formation, were his Paraphrafe on M^^ 5. 19. Af/ir^ 9. -/f«. i6B$i 
39. Marii Mail^. ii. 38, 39, 40- Lt^k^e lo; 1. 
John 11. 57. and y^«.'?i 15. 2. Thcfe Paffages were 
pickc out by Sir ^oger LBjirange^ and fome of his Gom« 
panions. And a certain noted Clergy-man (who ihall 
be namelefs) put into the Hands of his Enemies foir.e 
Accufations out of B^m. i 3, ^c. as againft the King, 
to "touch his Life, but no Ufe was made of thern. 
The great Charge was, that in thefe feveral Paffages 
he reflecfted on the Prelates of the Cnurch of England^ 
and fo was guilty of Sedition, &c. The King's Coun- 
fel open'd the Information at large with its Aggrava- 
tions. Mr. PVnlbp^ Mr* PVilUams, Mr. ^otherham^ 
Mr. Atvoood^ and Mr. Phipps^ were Mr. Baxter's Coun- 
feJ, and had been feed by Sir Henry /Iflohurfl. Mr. Wal- 
lop faid, that he conceiv'd the Matter depending being 
a Point of Dotftrine, it ought to be referred to the Bi- 
(hop his Ordinary : But if notj he humbly conceiv'd I 
the Doctrine was innocent and juflifiabie, letting a fide: 
the Innuendo's, for which there was no Colour, there 
being no Antecedent to refer them to (i. e, no Bi- 
fliop or Clergy of the Church o^ Englr.nd nam'd.j 
He faid the Book accused, /. e. the Comment on th^ 
New Teftament, contained many Eternal Truths ; But 
*they who drew the Information were the Libellers, in 
applying to the Prelates of the Church of Englnnd^ thofe 
fevere Things which were written concerning fome Pre- 
lates, who deferv'd the Gharadters which he gave. My 
Lord (fays he) I humbly conceive the Bifliops Mr. Br.x^ 
ter Speaks of, as your Lordihip if you have read Church 
Hiftory muft confefs, were the Plagues of the Church, 
and of the World. Mr. WnlL.p^ fays the Lord Chief 
Juftice, ' I obferve you are in all thefe dirty Caufes : 

* And were it not for you Gentlemen of the Long Robe^ 

* who Ihould have more Wit and Honefty, that fupporc 
*-and hold up thefe Fadtious Knaves by the Chin^ we 

* fliould not be at the Pafs we are.' My Lord, fatys 
Mr. iVallop^ I humbly conceive, that the Paffages ac- 
cus'd are natural Dedu£lions froni the Text. ' Yoii 
' humbly conceive, ^^j JEFFEI^TS, and I humbly 

* conceive : Swear him. Swear him.' My Lord fays he,, 
lender Favour, I am Counfel for the Defendant, ind if 
I underftand either L<inw or EngUfh^ the Informatiori 
now bro't againft Mr, Baxter upon fuch a flight Grotind^ 

Bb i$ 


The LIFE of Chap, XIV. 

An. 163$. is a greater Reflection upon the Church of England^ 
than any Thing contain'd in the Book he's accus'd for. 
Says Jcjfrers to him, ' Sometimes you humbJy Con- 

* ceive, and fnmetimes you are very Pofirive: You 

* talk of your Skillin Church Hiftory, and of your Un- 

* deftMPding L^rm and Englifh : \ think I underftand 

* fomething of them as well as you ; but in fhort 

* muft tell you, that if you don't underftand your 

* Duty better, llliall teach it you.' Upon which Mr. ff^4/- 
!o^ fate down. 

Mr. Smother dm urg'd that if Mr. Baxter's Book had 
fharp Reflections upon the Church of f^ome by Name, 
but fpake well of the Prelates of the Church of England, 
it was to be prefnm'd that the iharp Refledlxons were 
intended only againft the Prelates of the Church of 
i^?wif. The Lord Chief fuftice faid, Baxter was an E- 
nemy to the Name and Things the Offce and Perfons of Bi- 
fhops. F(pt her am sidded, that B^AT^^r frequently attended 
Divine Service, went to the Sacrament, and perfwadcd 
others to do fo too, as was certainly and publickJy 
known ,• and had in the very Book fo charg'd, fpoken 
very moderately and honourably of the Bifliops of the 
Church of England. Mr. Baxter added, my Lord, I have 
been lo moderate withRefpedt to the; Church o( England, 
that I have incurr'd the Cenfure of many of the DiJ] enters 
upon that Account. ' B //XT£ i<^ for BiJliops, fays 
' y E F FI^EYS^ That's a merry Conceit indeed. Turn 
to it, turn to it.' Upon this B^theram turn'd to a 
Place, where 'tis faid, * That great Refped: is due to 
thofe truly call'd to be BiHiops among us : Or to that 
Purpcje : Ay, fahh Jeflreys, This is your Presbyterian 
Cant -^ truly calfd to be Bifhops; That is himfelf and 
fuch B^afcals, caWd to be Bifhops of Kidderminfter, and 
other fuch Places. Bifliops fet apart by fuch Fa- 
dlious. Sniveling Presbyterians as himfelf : A Kjdder- 
minfter Bifhop he means. According to the Saying of 
a late Learned Author; and every Parifli (hall main- 
tain, a Tithe Pig Metropolitan. Mr. Baxter hcgin- 
rtiti'jto fpeak^ again ; fays he to him^ ^ichard^ I^ichard, 
doft thou think we'll hear thcc Poifon the Court, Scc. 
'' Pilchard., thou art an Old Fellow, an Old Knave; 
■ thou haft written Books eno'to load a Cait, every one 
as ftdl of Sedition (I might lay Trcalbn) as an Egg is 
full of Meat. Hadft thou been whipp'd out of thy 

' Writing 

Chap. XIV, Mr. Richard Baxter. - 371 

Writing Trade Forty Years ago, ic had been happy. ^«. 1585. 

* Thou prerendcft to be a Preacher of the Gofpel of Peace, 

* and thou haft one Foot in the Grave; 'tis Time forthee 

* to begin to think what Account thou intendeft to give. 
' But leave thee to thy Self, and I fee thou'lt go on as 
'thou haft begun, but by the Grace of God, I'll look 

* after thee. 1 know thoa haft a mighty Par:y, and I 
' fee a great many of the Brotherhood in Corners, wait- 

* ing to fee what will become of their mighty Donne, 

* aiKi a Dodor of the Party {loc!{ing to Dr. Bates) at 

* your Elbow, bur by the Grace of Almighty God, Til 
' Crufhyou a!/.'' Mr.Hs^heram fizting down, Mr. Attwood 
began to fhew, that not one of the PalTages mention d 
in the Information, ought to be ftrain'd to that Senfe, 
which was put upon them by the Innuendo's ; they being 
more natural when taken in a milder Senfe ; Nor could 
any one of them be apply^d to the Prelates of the 
Church oi Engl end ^ without a very forc'd Conftradtion. 
To Evidence this he would have read fome of the Texc : 
But Jeffreys cried out, Ton fhaiit draw me into a Con- 
venticle with your Annotations^ nor your Sniveling Per- 
fan neither. My Lord fays Attwood^ I conceive this to 

be exprefly within ^ofvpell's Cafe, lately before youu. 
Lordfhip. Tou conceive^ fays Jeffreys^ you conceive amifs : 
It is not. My Lord, fays Mr. At t wood, that I may ufe 
the beft Authority, permit me to repeat your Lordfhips 
own Words in that Cafe. No, y^u fhnnt^ fays ije. 
You need not fpeak, for you are an Author already ; 
the' you Speak and Write impertinently. Says Attwood^ 
I can't help thzi niV Lord, if my Talent be no better ; 
but it is my Duty to do my beft for my Client. Jef- 
freys thereupon went on, inveighing againft what Att- 
wood had publilh'd : And Attwood jnftify'd it to be in 
Defence of tht Engl ifjo Conftitution 5 declaring that he 
never difown'd any Thing he had Written. Jeffreys 
feveral Times ordered him to fit down ; but he ftill 
went on. My Lord, fays he, 1 have Matter of Law 
to off'^r for my Client ; and he proceeded to Cite feve- 
ral Cafes wherein it had been adjudged that Words 
ought to be taken in the milder Jsenfe, and not to be 
ftrainM by Innuendo's. I4^ell, fays Jeffreys when he 
had donf^, Tou have had your Sny, Mr. H^illiams and 
Mr. Phipps faid nothing, for they faw 'twas to no 
Purpofe. At length fays Mr. B.^x/t?- himfelfj my Lord, 

B b ^ I 

572 The LIFE of Chap. XIV. 

An. J685. Irhink I can clearly A nfwer all that is laid co my 
Charge, and I Ihalldo itbrielly.- the Sum is contain'd 
in thcfe few Papers, to which 1 Ihail add a little by Te- 
fliiDony. Rut he wculd not hear a Word. At length 
the Chief Juftice fumin'd up the Matter in a long and 
tul!onie Haranpue. * 'Tis notorioufly known (fayshe) 

* there has been a Defign to ruin the King and the Na- 

* tion. The Old (xame has been renewed : And this 
*" has been the main Incendiary. He's as modeft now 
*■ as can be : But Time was, when no Man was fo 
*" ready at Bind your Kjvgs in Chains^ and your Nobles 

* ;"// Fetters of Iron : And to your Tenti O IfracL Gen- 

* tlemen, for God's fake don't let us be gull'd twice in 

* an Age, ^c* And when he concluded, He told the 
(uiy, that if they in their Confciences believed he 
meant the Bifhops and Clergy of the Church of Eng- 
landy in the Paflages which the Information referred to, 
they muft find him Guilty : And he could mean no 
Man t](e. If not, they muft find him not Guilty. 
When he had done, fays Mr. Baxter to him, Do's your 
Lordlhip think any Jury will pretend to pafs a Ver- 
dict upon me upon fuch a Trial ? ' Til Warrant you,,^ 

* Mr. Baxter fays he ; don't you Trouble your Self a- 
^ bout that.' The Jury immediately laid their Heads 
together at the Bar, and found him Guilty. As be was 

;oing from the Bar, Mr. Baxter told the Lord Chief 
uitice who had fo leaded him with Reproaches, and 
yet cominu'd them, That * a Predeceflbr of his, had 

* had other Tho'fS of Him : Vpcn which he replied^ 
' Th/it there was not an Honeft Man in England, but 

* what took him for a great Knave.' He had fub- 
paera'd fcveral Clergy-men, who appeared in Court, 
bit were of no Ufe to him, thro' the Violence of the 
Chief jurtice. The Trial being over, Sir Henry A/h- 
hurfi kd Mr. Baxter thro' the Crowd, ( I mention ic 
10 his Honour ) and convey'd him away in his Coach. 

On June the 29th following. He had Judgment given 
againft him. He was Fin'd 500 Marks; to lie in Pri- 
lon till he paid it : and be bound to his good Behaviour 
for Seven Years, 

The next Year the Diff enters were profccutcd in the 

wonted Manner. Their Meetings were frequently 

. diftuib'd boih in City and Country. Fines were levy'd 

upon ihcm. The Informers broke in upgp Mr. Fleets 


Chap. XIV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 57:5 

rvooiJ^ Sir John Hartop, and feme others at Stol^e-Nevo- An. i6Z^. 
ington, to levy DiftrefTesfor Conventicles^ ro Six or Seven 
Thoufand Pounds, and many were excornnfiunicated, 
and had Cnpiaffes ifTu d out againft them ; but parti- 
cular Perf->ns, upon their making Application to thofe 
above, were more favoured than had been ufuaJ. 
A noble Set of Concroverfial Writings was now pub- 
liflied by the Divines of the Church of England^ a- 
gainft the Errors of the Church of l^me : And it muft 
be owned, that they fignaHzed themfelves, and gained 
in-T ntal Honour by their Performances. And if the 
Diiienters did not appear fo generally, nor fo pubiickly 
upon this Occafion, it may without much DifficuJty 
be accounted for, by one that Confiders all Circum^ ^, 
fiances *» „- » - 'l 

Takes JCotice of it<, and freely infulti upon it^ That 

while the Church of England Vhines were to fo good + Apparat. ai D fcnC 
Turpofe ingag'd in this Controyerjy, the Nonconformifls Ecclef An„hc. p. 8s. 
kept Silence^ and fetp^ if any of them durji come in 

to their Affifiance^ againft the Common Enemy. jAnd fome others have us^d 
like Language. But it jhould be confidefd that they had written a/^ain/l ths 
Romanics yery freely before.^ and had the lefs Reafon to dq if at this Time : 
That they did not find their People fo much in Danger, as many that n-ere 
edutated in the Church of England / That they both in City and Country 
preach" d with great Freedom againji Popery, wh'ch jhewd that if they wrote 
lefs againji it than others, it did not arife from Tear : That many of them 
tho't it not fo proper to attempt to tahe this Work out of the Bands of the Di- 
\ines of the Church of England, 'who n:t only did it well, but who were 
in Duty bound to do the more in Oppoftion to the Common Danger^ becaufe 
they had done fo much to hajien and occafion it \ and wIjo fo rlfihly improy'd 
in Light, and in the lavgnefs of their Jv'otions, by being necejjstated to fupport 
fome Principles in thefe Debates, which they had flighted before, and feemed 
willing to difcard : And Finally, that feyeral of the Dijfentcrs did at this 
Time attempt to publi/h fome TraCls againji Popery, but met with Dif- 
couragement when they fent them to the Prefs, becaufe they came from 
fitch as vere not of the Church of England, who feem'd dejitom to ingrofs 
the Managment of this Controyerfy at this Time wholly to litem fchi-s. Thi^ 
aUuatly was tlie Cafe as to fome Treatifes then wri'.ten by Nonconformifts ,-. jind 
it need not feem firange, if this being generally known, jl^ould limder others 
from making like Attempts . But a full Anfwer to this ObjeClion againji tl)e 
Dijfenters^ may be feeninMr. Jong's Defence of Mr. Henry'j Notion of Schifm , 

The King's Difpenfing Power was at length the 
Subjedt of much Difcourfe and Debate. But at laft 
the Matter was thus determined by Eleven of the 

B b 3 Twelve 

574- The LIFE of Chap. XIV. 

jin. 1^85. Twelve Judges, i. * That the Kings of England are 
' Sovereign Princes. 2. That the Laws of England 
' are the Kings Laws. 3. That the Kings of En^- 
' land have the Sole Power of difpenfing with the 
' Penal Laws in Cafe of Ncreiricy. 4. That the 

* Kings of England are the Sole Judges of the Necef- 

* iky of difpeniing with Penal Laws. 5. That the 

* Kings of England do not derive this Power from 

* the People, nor can on any Account or Pretence be 
' lawfully deprived of it. 6. That the Kings of /i«^- 

* land can never depart from this Prerogative. 
Injunctions went out from feveral of the Bi(hops 

under the Seal of their Offices, to all Minifters in 
their Diocefles, ftridtiy to enjoin and require all 
Church- Wardens to prefent thofc that did not come 
to Church, or that receiv'd not the Sacrament at En- 
per, Thefe Injundtions were publickly read in 
Hertford/hire^ and Ejjex, and many other Places. 
And it feem'd to be a prevailing Opinion, that the Pro- 
tcfiant Dijfenters muft be profecuted, or l-'opery could 
not be fupprefs'd. And therefore the Juries in fome 
Places at the Aflizes this Year prefented it as their 
Opinion, that unlefs the Dijfcnters were effe£lually 
Profecuted, their Dangers could not be prevented 
or remedy'd : Bnt the iinfeafonablenefs of fuch Ri- 
gours, and the fcandalous Villanies and Perjuries of 
. many of the molt Noted! Informers both in Ci- 
ty and Country too, made fenfible Men foon 
weary. . 
71)6 Com- King James in Order to the carrying on his De- 
miffion for figns the more fuccefsfully, sjranted an Ecckfiaflicf.l . 
Ecclejiafti' Commiffion, which was dirciSed to the Arch-Bilhop 
■>iljiffiUfs.Q{ Canterbury^ the Lord Chancellor, the BiJhops of 
Durham and liochejhr^ the Earl of ^cheftsr Lord High 
Treafurer, the Earl of S under land^ and the Lord Chief 
Juftice Herbert ^ or any Three of them, whereof the 
Lord Chancellor was always to be one, devolving 
the whole Care of Fxcicfialtical Arfairs upon their, 
!h thelargelt Extent th;it ever had been known in £w^- 
hnd. They open'd their Commiflion on the Third of 
.-luguf}^ and fettled the Method of Prorecding .- Buc • 
the ComtnilTioners Names were feveral Times alccr'd.^ 
They began with fufpcndini; the Bilhi>p of Lc?uh)i, foe 


Chap. XIV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 575 

for not fufpending Dr^ Sharp upon the King's Com- An. 16^6 » 
mand. They afterwards deprived and fufpended 
Dr. Pencbel, Vice Chancellor of the Univerfity of C.i»a- 
hridge^ and Head of Magdalen Colledge, for refufing to 
admit one j^lhan Francis^ a Benedictine Monk, to the 
Degree of Matter of Arts, without taking the Oaths : 
And Dr. Hough the Prefidenr, and the Fellows of M^,g- 
dalen Colledge in Oxford ; for not complying with the 
Kings Mandate in the Elecilion of a Prefidenr. By 
which Methods ail the Clergy in the Kingdom were 
convinc'd, that the Papifts were coming to take Pof- 
feflion. They made hereupon fuch Exclamations, as 
plainly ftiew'd they were unable to bear a fmall Share 
of thofe Severities themfelves, which had for a long 
Time been fo liberally infli£ted upon others. 

A Difpenfation or Licence Office was fet up this 
Year, where all Comers might have Difpeniations, 
paying only Fifty Shillings for themfelves and their Fa- 
milies. Many of thofe who were profecuced as Cor- 
venticlers, took out Difpenfations, which not only 
flopp'd all ProcelTes that were commenced, but gave 
ihem Libqrty to keep Meetings for the Future. Ma- 
ny were released from their Imprifonment, and had 
their Fines remitted by the Kings Pardons. Among 
the reft, Mr. Baxter obtain'd his Pardon by the Me- 
diation of the Lord Powis' His Fine was remitted, 
and on Wednefday Kovember 24, Sir Samuel Aftrey 
fent his Warrant to the Keeper of the Kings Bench 
Prifon to difcharge him : But he gave Sureties for 
his good Behaviour ; his Majetty declaring, ( for his 
Satisfadion ) that it fhoald not in him be interpreted 
a Breach of the Good Behaviour, for him to refide 
in London^ which was not allowable according to 
the Oxford AH ; and this was enter'd upon his Bail- 
Piece ; 7. e. the Parchment in which his Bail was 
given. Notwithftanding this, he continu'd fome Time 
after in the Rules. And on February the 28th follow- 
ing, removed to a Houfe he took in Charter-Hmfs-Tard. 

March the i8th, the King acquainted the Council, 
that be had determin d to IlTue out a Declaration for 
a General Liberty of Confcience, to all Perfons of 
what Perfwafion foever j which he was mov'd to, by 
having obferv'd, * That altho* an Uniformity in Reli- 
* gious Worlhip had been endeavour'd to be eftabiilh'd 

B ,b 4 * within 

57^ ^/^« LIFE ef Chap. y IV. 

An. i585. ^ within this Kingdom, in the Succeffive Reigns of 

* Four of his Predecefibis, aflifted by their Refpedive 

* Parliaments, yet it had been ineffedtuaj ; that the 

* Reftraint upon the Confciences of Diflenters in order 

* thereunto, had been very prejudicial to ihis Nation, 

* as was fadly experienced in the horrid Rebellion in the 

* Time of his Royal Father ; that the many Penal Laws 

* made againft DilTcnters in all the foregoing Reigns, 

* and efpcci^lly in the Time of tbelate King, had rather 

* increas'd than lelTen'd the Number of them : And that 

* nothing could more conduce to the Peace and Quiet 
of the Kingdom, and an increafe of the Number as 

* well as the Trade of his Subjedts, than an intireLibcr- 

* ty of Confcience, ^c* And thereupon, heorder'dthe 
Attorney and Solicitor General, not to permit any Pro- 
cefs to IfTue in his Majefty's Name, againfl: any Diffen- 
ters vvhatfoever. The Declaration publilhed for this 
Purpofe, boreDate //;?ri7the I ith, 1687. 

An. i68y. The Difienters were not fo fond of hard Ufage, as to 
refufe a Liberty fo freely offered them; nor did they think 
it good Manners, to enquire too narrowly how that In- 
dnlgence came about, fo long as they were fhelter'd by it 
The Letter from Oppreflion. A Letter of Advice to them, was 
of ^dyUe hereupon publifli'd by that accomplilh'd Statefman the 
to a D'fen- Marquis of Ha/Iif^x, tho' without his Name. The Let- 
fn. ter was written with a great deal of Artifice, with defign 

to infinuate a twofold Caution ; That their new Friends 
were to be fufpecfted; and that it would neither beChri- 
ftianity nor Prudence to hazard the Publick Sa fety,either 
by defire of Eafe or of Revenge. His Cautions were 
regarded by the wifer Part of them, notwithftanding the 
U|icertainty with what defign this Application was made 
to them. As Thankful as they were for their Eafe and 
Liberty, they were yet fearful of thelffue ; neither can 
any Number of them of any Confideration, be charg'd 
with hazarding the Publick Safety, by falling in with the 
Meafurcs of the Court, of which they had as great a 
dread as their Neighbours. And as for Revenge, tho' 
they had a fair Opportunity for it, yet eould they not 
think it a Thing dcfircable, either as Men or as Cbri- 
ftian*;. If they over-did it in their Addreirt:s, ihey tho't 
the High Church Party, who had been fo us'd to top- 
ping Fiijrhts of Complcrrenr, when returning Thanks 
for the DiiToiving one of the beft of Patliaments, had 

Chap. XIV. Mr. Richard Baxter. 377 

little Reafon to Refledt on them *. But 'they were not -^»* 1687- 
many that could be Charg'd: Among the reft, Mr. 
Baxter had no concern in Addrefiing ; but fet himfelf f ^^ 
ztI{utUnd'Houfe in Charter-Houfe-Tard, where he exer- ^'^^'^^ ^*'* 
cis'd his Miniftry in ConjuncStion with Mr. ^y^^^^^W^^Jd'*^ - 
to make a peaceable Improvement of the Liberty afford- dertake to 
cd, fp as to do all the good he could without Offence vittdkatc 
to any. The like did his Brethren in other Places, and aE the Ad- 
therefore they waited in expedtation of feeing the dieifes that 
Effedls of the Marquelfes Declaration on behalf of the "^ere made 
Church Party ; That all their former Haughtinep (they h Diflen- 
are his own Words) towards the Dijfenters was for ever ^^^^ ^fi^*" 
extingulflodi and that the Spirit of Perfecution was turnd ^^'*' ^*^<?*'- 
into a Spirit of Peace, Charity and Condefcenfjo» ; that the ^* ^"* ^ 
Church 0/ ENGLAND TP^ convinced of its Error in J^^'^^f ^j . 
being fevere to them; and all thinl{ing Men were come to a ^ , ^'^ 
General Agreement, no more to cut ourfelves f>ff f^om the ^j^^ qi f 
Proteftants Abroad, hut rather inlarge the Foundations^ of Enghnd 
upon which vpe are to 'Build our Defences again§i the Com- fljouU 
mon Enemy, tread foftly 

when they 
lay them to their Charge 5 confidefing that fome of the Church Men cottcurr'd 
with King James to oyerturn the Legal Efiabli/hment : And fome dignify d 
Perfons were in his High Commijjion, and found it no eafy Thing to wipe off 
B.efleCiions upon that Account. Horverer, though there were high Plights in 
fome of the Vijfenting Addrejfes^ for which I could be loath to Apologize ; 
that which moji of them run upon, was Thanh to the King for the Liberty 
they had^ and a Fromife to beha-ve themfehes quietly in the Ufe of it. 

Among other Methods that were now taken for the ThefaUad- 
promoting of Popery, this was one. Mr. Obadiah^^f^^P °f 
iVall^er^ who was Maf^er of Univerfity Colledge 'm^^^^^^h Tro- 
Oxon , kept a Particular Prefs at Work in the "I'f" '' '^ 
Colledge, upon feverai Popifh Books, that were to be ^'-y^"^^*"- 
fprcad all through the Nation. Some Gentlemen of 
the Univerfity of Oxford , (whofe Names could be 
mentioned if there were Occafion) were earneftly de- 
firous to get the Sheets from the Prefs as faft as they 
were Printed, that they might have Anfwers ready to 
his Books as foon as ever they came out, and an An- 
tidote at Hand, to prevent the mifchievous Effeds of 
the Poifon that was vented. This was no eafie Matter 
to compafs; and various Methods were thought of that 
would not Anfwer. Ac length they fenc to one E.J^ 


978 The LIFE of Chap. XIV. 

An. 1685. who could not but approve the Defign in oppqfition to 
Popery, and did undertake to give what Alliftance he 
could ; And he adliially did help them to a great many 
.Sheets, which he got from a Boy that attended Mr. I4^al' 
i{e/s Prefs