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T R I N I T T: 



Accommodated to the capacity and ufe of fuch a3 may be in dangtr 
to be fcduced; and the eftabliftiment of the truth. 

John V. 39. Search the Scriptures* 

By the Rev. JOHN OWEN, D. IX 





, . ' ; , ^^ >/ / 




X HIS fmalf treatife hath ilo other defign but 
thy good, and eftablifhment in the truth: and 
therefore, as faying afide that consideration 
alone, I could defiroufly have been excUfed 
from the labour of thofe hours which were 
fpent in its compofure: fo in the work itfelf, I 
admitted of no one thought,but how the things 
treated of in it* jnight, art J ought to be manag- 
ed unto thy fpiritual benefit and advantage. 
Other defigns mod men have in writing what 
is to be expofed to public view, and lawfully 
may have fo; in this I have nothing but mere- 
ly thy good. I have neither been particularly 
prpvoked, nor oppofed by the adverfaries of 
the truth here pleaded for; nor have any need, 
from any felf-refpeft, to publifli fuch a fmall 
plain difcourfe as this is: love alone to the 

A 2 * truth, 


truth, and the welfare of thy foul, have given 
efficacy to their importunity , who preffed me to 

this fmall fervice. 

• «. 

The matters here treated of are on all hands 
confeffed to be of the greateft moment; fuch 
as the eternal welfare of the fouls of men is 
immediately and dire&ly concerned in. This 
all thofe who believe the facf ed truths here 
propofed and explained, do unanimoufly pro- 
fefs and contend for\ nor is it denied by thofe 
by whom they are oppofed. There ifc no need 
therefore to give thee any fpfecial reafons to 
evince tljy 'concernment in thefe things, nor 
the greatnefs of that concernment, thereby to 
induce thee unto their ferious consideration. 
It were well indeed that thefe great, facred, 
•and rayfterious truths, might, without con- 
tention or controverlies about them,, be left 
tintb the faith of believers, *s propofed in the 
fcripture, with that explanation of them, 
which, in the ordinary miniflry and difpen- 
fation ofthegofpei, is necefiary and required. 

Certainly thefe tremendous myfteries are 
not by us willingly to be expofed, or proftt- 
tuted to the cavils of every perverfe . queriffc 




and difputerj thofe <™£/fT??ra/ rS, diwoc ririy 
whofe pretended wifdom, indeed ignorance, 
darknefs, and folly, God hath dcfigned to de- 
ftroy in them and by them. For my part, I 
can affure thee, reader, I have no mind to 
contend and difpute about thefe things, which 
I humbly adore and believe as they are re- 
vealed. It is the importunity of adverfaries, 
in their attempts to draw and feduce the fouls 
of men from the truth and fimplicity of the 
gofpel, in thefe great fundamentals of it, that 
alone canjuftify any to debate upon, or erafti- 
cally to handle thefe awful nfyfteries. This 
renders it our duty, and tljat indifpenfably, 
inafmuch as we are required to ' contend ear- 
■ c neftly for the faith once delivered unto the 
* faints/ But yet alf6 when this neceffity is 
impofed on us, we are by no means difcharg- 
ed from that humble reverence of mind, 
wherewith we ought always to be converfant 
about them; nor from that regard unto the 
way and manner of their revelation in the 
{Scripture, which may preferve us from all un- 
neceflary intermixture of litigious or exotick 
phrafes and expreffions, in their affertion and 
declaration. I know our adverfaries would, 
upon the matter, decry any thing peculiarly 

A3 myfterious 


myfterious in thefe things; although ihey arc 
frequently and emphatically in the fcriptures 
affirmed fo to be* But whilft they deny the 
myfteries of the things thenxfelves, which are 
fuch as every way become the glorious being 
and wifdom of God, they are forced to affign 
fuch an enigmatical fenfe unto the words, ex- 
preffions, and propofitions wherein they are 
revealed and declared in the fcripture, as to 
turn almoftrthe whole gofpel into an allegory, 
^wherein nothing is properly expreffed, but ia 
fome kind of allufion unto what is fo elfe* 
where;* which, irrational way of proceeding, 
leaving nothing certain in what is or may be 
expreffed by word or writing, ig covered over 
iWth a pretence of right req/m, whkh utterly 
refiifeth to be fo employed. Theie things 
the reader will find afterwards made raanifeft* 
(o far as the nature of this brief difcourfe wiH 
bear. And I ihall only defire thefe few things 
of him that intends its peritM Rrft, That 
he wouldnot look on the fuhje& here treated 
of, a$- the matter of aft ordinary controverfy 
in religion. 

. * 

Ititqtte enm hic4e%ia nut Iwdicra petttntur 
Promt*} k&Mt & vttd anim&futfahtt? Gcrtatur. 
* * They 



* * 

They axe things which, immediately and di- 
rectly, in therafcWes, concern the eternal fat 
vation af the fouls of men; and their confi- 
deration ought always to be attended with a 
due fenfe of their weight and importance. 
Secondly, Let him bring with him a due reve- 
rence of the majefty, and infinite, incompre* 
henfihle nature of God; as thpt which is not 
to be proflituted to the captions and (bphifti- 
c^l Scanning of men of corrupt minds* but to 
be humbly adored, according to the revela* 
tioatljat he hath made of himfelf. Thirdly 
That he be willing to fubmit his foul and. con* 
•Science to the plain and obvious fenfe of fcrip- 
tare 'proportions and teftimonies, without 
ieekmg out evafons and pretences for unbe- 
lief. Tfaefc requefta I cannot but judge equal* 
and fear net the: fuccefs, where they are fin* 


<erety complied witbaL 

• % « 

- i have only to add; that in handling the 
<do£fcrine of the fatrtffiflton of Chryty 1 have 
|*oc£ed*do&th^. principle^ which, as it if 
ftiUy confirmed in the foripttire, fa i| hath 
constantly been maintained and adhered unto 
by the moil of tbofe, who with judgment and 
$ti£GG& have managed thoic ccfrtxwerfieji 



againft the Socinians. And this is, that the 
effential holinefs of God, with his juftice or 
righteoufnefs, as the fupreme governor of all, 
did indifperifibly require that fin fhould not 
abfolutely go unpunifhed; and that it fhould 
do fo, ftands in a repugnancy to thofe holy 
properties of his nature. This, I fay, hath 
been always constantly maintained by far the 
greateft number ©f them, who have thorough- 
ly underftood the controverfy in this matter, 
and have fuccefsfully engaged in it. And as 
their arguments for their affertion are plainly 
iinanfwerable; fo the negfcft of abiding by it, 
is caufelefsly to forego one of the mod funda- 
mental and invincible principles in our caufe* 
He who iirft laboured in the defence of the. 
doctrine of the fatisfaflion of Chriji^ after So- 
cinus had formed his imaginations about the 
falvation that he wrought, and began to dif- 
pute about it, was Covetus, a learned man, 
who laid the foundation of his whole difputa- 
tion in the juftice of' God, neceffarily requir- 
ing, and indifpenfibly, the punifliment of fin. 
And indeed, the ft ate of the controverfy, as 
it is laid down by Socinus in his book, dejefu. 
Cbrj/io fervatore, which is ah anfwer to this 
Covetu*, is genuine, and that which ought 



not to be receded from, as having the direft 
ground of ail the controyerfial writings on 
that fubje&, which have fince been publi&ed 
in Europe. • And it is in thefe words laid 
down by Socinus himfeif. " Communis et 
" orthodoxa (ut afferis) fententia eft, Jefura 
" Chriftum ideo fervatorem noftrum effe^ 
" quia divinaq juftici& per quam peccatores 
•" damnari merebamur, pro peccatis . noitrfs 
" plene farisfecerit; quae fatisfa&io per fidem 
5* imputatur nobis ex dono Dei credentibus/' 
3 his he afcrihes to Covet. The common and 
orthodox judgment is*, that Jefus Chrift if 
therefore our Saviour, becaufe he hath fatisfied 
the juftice of God, by which we, being fin- 
ners, deferved to be condemned fofr all 6ur 
iins. In oppofition wbereunto, he thus es> 
preffeth his own opinion. " Ego verb cet*~ 
" feo 9 et orthodoxam fententiam efle arbitror, 
" Iefum Chriftum ideo fervatorem noft rum 
* Q effe, quia ialutis. aetems vfcm nobis annuo* 
" ciaverit, confirmaverit, et in fua ipfius per- 
"»fona, cum vita exemplo, turn ex m or tuts 
« c refurgeado, manifefte oftenderit, vitamqufe 
4< seteraam nobis ei fidem habentibus ipfe da- 
" turus fit. Divinss autem juftitise, per quam 
*' peccatores damnari meremur, pro peccatis 

*• noftris 


<c nbftris neque ilium fatisfeciffe, neque ut fa- 
" tisfaceret, opus fuiffe arbitror." I judge 
and fuppofe it to be the orthodox opinion, 
that Jefus Chrift is therefore our Saviour, 
becanfe he hath declared unto us the way of 
eternal falvation, and confirmed it in his own 
perfon; manifeftly fhewing it, both by the 
example of his life, and by rifing from the 
dead; and in that he will give eternal Kfe un- 
to us believing in him. And I affirm, that he 
neither made fatisfa&ion to the juftice of God, 
whereby we deferved to be damned for our 
fins; nor was there any need that he fhould 
fo do, 

* ■ * 

* i * * 

' This is tfie true ftate of the queftion; and 
the principal fubtilty of Crellius, the great 
•defender of this part of the do&rine of Soci- 
nus, in his book, of the cnufes of the death tf 
Chri/tj and the defence of this book, de Jefu 
Chrifh fervatore, confifts in fpeaking almoft 
the fame words with thofe whom -he doth op- 
pofe, but ftill intending the fame things with 
Socinus hirofelf. This opinion, as was faid 
of Socinus, Covetus oppofed, and everted, 
on the principle before-mentioned. 



The fame truth was confirmed alfo by Zar- 
novitius, who firft wrote againft Sbcinus, his 
book; as alfo by Otto Cafmanaus, who en- 
gaged in the farms work; and by Abraham 
Salinarias* Upon the fame foundation do 
proceed Parseus, Pifcator, Lubbertus, Lu- 
cius, Camero* Voetius, Amiraldus, Placaeu*, 
Rivetus, Walaeus, Thyfius, Altingius, Ma- 
refius, Effenius, Arnoldus, Turretinus, Bax- 
ter, with many others. The Lutherans who 
have managed thefe contra verfies, as Tarno- 
vius, Meifiierus, Calovius, Stegmannus, Mar- 
tinius, Franzius, with all others of their way, 
have conftantly maintained the lame great 
fundamental principle of this do&rine of the 
fatisfaStion ofChri/i- y and it hath well and fo- 
lidly been of late aflerted among ourfelves, 
on the fame foundation. And as many of 
thefe authors do exprefsly blame fome of the 
fchoolmen, as Aquinas, Durandus, Biel,, 
Tataretus, for granting a poffibility of pardon 
without fatisfaction, as opening a way to the 
Socinian error in this matter; fo alfo they 
fear not to affirm, that the foregoing of this 
principle of God's vindictive juftice indifpen- 
fibly requiring the punilhment of fin, doth 



only weaken the caufe of (he truth, but indeed 
leave it indefenfible. However, I fuppofe 
men ought to be wary how they cenfure" the 
authors mentioned,* as fuch who expofe the 
caufe they undertook to defend to contempt; 
for greater, more able, and learned defen- 
ders, this truth hath not as yet found, nor 
doth ftand in need of. 

J, Owen 



HE sfifciples of our Lord Jefus Chrift, 
Iiaving made that jjreat confeffion of him* 
an diuinction and opposition unto them 
who accounted him only as a prophet, 

* thou art Chrift the Son of the living 
4 God,* Matth. xvi. 14, 15, 16, he doth on 
$Tie occaiion thereof, give out unto them 
the great <ibara&er of the church's liability 
and continuance, 4 Upon* this rock I will 
x build my church, and the gates of hell 

* fhall not prevail againft it/ ver. 1 8. He 
is himfelf the Tock upon which his church 
.is built; a$ God is called the Rock of hi$ 
people, on the account oif hi* ctcrnti power 
.and immutability, Deut. xpewi. 4, i&, 31, 
Pfah jcviiu z> 46. and himfelf the fpiritual 
Rocfk, which gave out Jfopplies of mercy 

.and ailiftance to the people i$ the wikjeiy 
Tiefe,. i Cor- x. 4. 

B The 


The relation of the profeffing church, 
unto this Rock, confifls in the faith of this 
confeffion, ' that he is Chrift the Son of the 
* living God.' This our Lord Jefus Chrift 
hath promifed to fecure againft all at- 
tempts; yet fo as plainly to declare, that 
there ihouJd be great and fevere oppofition 
made thereunto. For whereas the pre- 
valency of the gates of hell in an enmity 
unto this ponfeflion is denied",* a great and 
vigorous attempt to prevail therein is no 
lefs certainly foretold; neither hath it 
otherwife fallen out. In all ages, from the 
firft folemn foundation of the church of 
the New Teftament, it hath one way or 
pther been fiercely attempted by the gates 
pi -hell. For fome time after the refurrec* 
tion of Chrift from the dead, the principal 
endeavours of Satan, and men a&ing under 
him, or a&ed by him, were pointed againft 
the very foundation of the church, as laid 
in the expreffion before-mentioned. Al- 
moft all the errors and herefies, wherewith 
for three or four centuries of years it was 
perplexed, were principally againft the 
perfon of Chrift himfelf, and confequentl v 
the nature and being of the holy and blei- 
fed Trinity. But being difappointed in his 
defigji herein, through the watfchful care 
ef the Lord Chrift over his promife ; in the 


followiiig ages Satan tiirfied his craft and 
violence againft fundfy parts of the fuper* 
ftru&ure, aftd by the affiftanee of the Pa- 
pacy caft them into confufionj nothing as 
it were remaining firtri, liable, and in or- 
der, but only this one confeffiort, which in 
a particular manner the Lord Chrift hath 
taken Upon himfelf to fecure. 

In *hefe latter ages of the world, the 
poWet and care of Jefus Chrift revivini 
towards his church in the refortnatioa oi 
it, even the ruined heaps of its building 
have been again reduced into fopie tolera- 
ble order and beauty. The old eneipy of 
its peace and welfare falling hereby under, 
a difappointmeni, and finding his travail 
and labour for mariy generations in a grea^ 
part fhiftrate, he is returned again to his 
old work of attacking the foundation itfelf; 
as he is unweary and reftlefs, and can be 
qfuiet neither conqueror nor conquered; 
nor will be fo, until he is bound and caft 
4 into the lake that burneth with fire. 1 
For tlo fooner had the reformation of re- 
ligion formed itfelf in fome of the European 
provinces, but immediately, in t propor- 
tion of diftance not unanfwerable untd 
what fell out from the firft foundation of 
the church, fundry perfons by the iilftiga* 
tiofc of Satan attempted the difiurbaricd 


and ruin of it, by the very fame errors atiJ 
herefies about the Trinity, the perfon of 
Chrift and his offices, the perfon of the 
Holy Ghoft and his grace, wherewith it* 
firft trouble and ruin was endeavoured. - 
And hereof we have of late an inftanct 
given among ourfelves, and that fo noto* 
rioufly known, through a mixture of inu 
prudence and impudence in the managers 
of it, that a very brief reflection upon it 
Will fuffice unto our prefent defign. 

It was always iuppofed, and known to 
fome, that there are fundry perfons in thii 
nation, who having been themfetve* fedu* 
ced into Socinianifm, did make it their 
bufinefs, under various pretences, to draw 
others into a compliance with them in the 
fame way and perfuafioa. Neither hath 
this for fundry years been fo fecretly car*- 
ried, but that the defign of it hath vari* 
oufly discovered itfelf by overt ads of con-» 
fcrences, difputations," axui pubKfhLig of 
books ; which laft way of late hath been 
fedutouAy purfued Unto thefe three U 
9ow a vifible acceffion made, by that fort of 
people whom men will call Quakers, from 
their deportment at the firit ere&ion of 
their way, long fince deferted by them, 
until by fome new revolutions of opinions, 
they caft themfelves under a more proper* 
jj. ... denominatioa 

1 . 


-» » 

denomination. That there is a conjun&ion 
iffued between both thefe forts of men, -in 
an oppofition . to the Holy Trinity, with 
the perfon and grace of Chnft, the 
pamphlets of late publHhed by the one 
and the other da fafficientfy evince. For 
however they may feem in fundry things 
as yet to look divers ways, yet like 
Samfon's foxes, they are kirit together 
by the tail of confent in thefe fire-brand 
opinions, and jointly endeavour to con- 
fame the ftanding corn of the church of 
God, And their joint management of 
their bufinefs of late hath been, as though 
it were their defign to give as great a 
vogue and report to their opinions, as by 
any ways they arer able. Hence befides 
their attempts tQ be . .proclaiming their 
opinions under various pretences; m all 
affemblies whereunto they may intrude 
themfelves, as they know without trouble, 
they are exceedingly fedtflous vx fcattering 
and giving away, yea, i mpoling r gratis and 
as ta fome ingratiisy their fmatt books, 
"which they publifh, upon all forts of per- 
ions promifcuoufly ; as they have advan- 
tage fa to do. By this means their opinions- 
being of late become- the talk and dxfcourfe 
of the common fort of Chriftians,. and the 
c&ercifeof manyj amongft whom are not 

H 3. a few 


a few, that on fundry accounts, which I 
ihall not mention, may poffibiy be expofed 
unto difadvantage and prejudice thereby* 
it hath been thought meet by fome r that 
the facred truths which thefe men oppofc, 
{hould be plainly and briefly afferted and 
confirmed from the fcripture; that thofe 
of the meaneft fort of profeffors, who are 
fincere and upright^ exercifing themfelvea 
to keep a good conscience in matters of 
faith and obedience to God* may have, 
foinewhat in a readinefs, Doth to guide 
them in their further enquiry into the 
truth, and alfo to confirm their faith in 
what they have already received, when at 
any time it is ihaken or oppofed by the, 
cunning Heights ol men that lie in wait to 

And this comprifeth the defign of the 
enfuing difcourfe. It may poffibiy be 
judged needlefs by fome, as it was in its 
firft propofal by hiia by whom it is writ* . 
ten j and that becaufe this matter at prefent 
is by an efpecial providence call on other 
hands, who both have, and doubt left, as 
occafion fhall require, will well acquit 
. themfelves in the defence of the truths . 
oppofed. Not to give any other account 
of the reafons of this final! undertaking 
it, may fuffice that in publico difcrimm vmnis:. 


THE FREtfACE, *<^ 

bcm& miles efl. Evigry man* s concernment' 
lying in a common danger, it is firee for 
every one tp manage it as h£ thinks belt, 
and is able, fo it be without prejudice to 
the whole, or the particular concerns of 
others. , If a. city be on fire, whofe bucket, 
that brings water to quench it, ought to be 
refufed? The attempt to caft fire into the 
city of God, by the opinions mentioned, is 
open and plaia, and a timely (lop being to 
be put unto it, the more hands are order* 
ly employed in its quenching, the more 
fpeedy and fecure is the effed like to be* 

Now, becaufe' the affertors of the opi- 
nions mentioned do feem to fet out them- 
felves to be forae great oj*es* above the or- 
dinary rate of men,/ as having found out, 
and being able publicly to maintain fuch 
things, as never would have entered into 
the minds of others to have thought on, 
or conceived ; and alfo that they feeirt with 
many to be thought wot thy of their confi- 
deration, becaufe they' now are new, and 
inch as they have not been acquainted, 
withal} I fhall in this prefatory entrance, 
briefly manifest that thofe who have a- 
raongft us undertaken the management of 
thefe opinions, have brought nothing new 
unto them, but either a little contemptible 
fophiftry and caption of wofd* On the one. 



hand, or fitfilous, affe&ed, iminteHigibte 
expreflions on the other; the opinion* 
themfelves being no other, but fueh as the 
church of God having been oppofed by, 
and troubled with from the beginning, 
hath prevailed againft, and triumphed over 
in all generations* And were it not that 
confidence is the only relief which engaged 
impotency adheres unto, and expefts fup- 
plies from, I fhould greatly admire that 
thofe amongft us who have undertaken an 
inforcement of thefe old exploded errors,* 
whofe weaknefs doth fo openly difcover 
and proclaim itfelf in all their endeavours, 
fhould judge themfelves competent to give 
a new fpint of life to the dead carcafs of 
thefe rotten herefies, which the faith of 
the faints in all ages hath triumphed over ; 
and which truth and learning have, under 
the care and watchfuteefs of Chrift, fo' 
often baftted out of the world. 

The Jews in the time of our Saviour** 
converfe on the earth, being fallen greatly 
from the faith and worfiiiip of their fore- 
fathers, a*id ready to fink inta their laffc 
and utmoft apoftacy from God, feem a-* 
raongft many other truths, to have muck 
loft that of the do&rine of the Holy Tri- 
nity, and of the perfbii of the Meffiahii It 
was indeed fuited ia the\difpenfation q£ 


God, uftto the work that the Lord Jefus 
had to fulfil in the world* that before hi* 
paffion ;and rdurre&ion, the knowledge of 
his divine nature as unto his individual 
perfon, ihould be concealed from th^ raoi^ 
of men* For this caufe, although he was 
in the. * form, of God, and thought it no 

* robbery to be equal with God; yet he 

* made himfeJf of no reputation, by taking 

* on him the form of a fervant, and was 
' made in thfe likenefs of men; that being 

* found, in the Miion of a man, he might 
4 be obedient unto death/ Phil. ii. 6, 7, fc 
whereby his divine glory was vailed for a • 
feafon, until be was declared * to be thg 

4 Son of God with power, according onto 

* the fpirit of holinefs by the refurreftioii 
« from the dead/ Rom. i. 4* and then 4 w*sf 

* glorified with that glory, which he had 
€ with the Father before the worid was,* 
John xvii. 3. And as this difpenfation' 
was needful unto the accompliihment of 
the whole work, which as our Mediator 
he had undertaken; fo in particular he, 
who was in. himfelf the « Lord of Hofts/ 

* a fan&uary to them that feared him,* 
became hereby * a ftone of Humbling, and 

* a rock of offence to both the houfes of 

* Ifrael, for a gin and for a fnare to the* 

* inhabitants of Jerufalem/ l&u yuk 13, 14* 



See Luke ii. 34. Rom, ix. 33, 1 Pet. it 8. 
Ifa. xxviii. 26. But yet notwithftanding, 
as occafions required, fuitably trnto his own 
holy ends and defigns, he forbare not to 
give plain and open teftimony to his owii 
divine nature, and eternal . pre-ertiftence 
unto bis incarnation. And this was it, 
which of all other things moft provoked 
the carnal Jews with whom he had to do. 
For having, as was faid, loft the do&rine 
of the Trinity and perfon of the Mefliah irt 
a great meafure; whenever he aflerted his 
deity, they were immediately enraged and 
endeavoured to deftroy him. So was if 
plainly, John viii. $6, 57, 58, 59. Sakh he, 

* Your father Abraham rejoiced to fee my^ 
' day, and he faw it and was glad. Then' 

* faid the Jews unto him, fchotiart not ye£ 

* fifty years old, and haft thou feen Abra- 

* ham ? Jefus faid unto them, verily 1 fay 
€ unto you* before Abraham was, I am. 

* Then took they up (tones to caft at him/ 
So alfo, John x. 30, 31, 32, 33. * I and 

* my Father are one. Then the Jews took 

* up (tones again to (tone him. Jefus an- 

* fwered them, many good works have I 

* (hewed you from my Father, for which 
c of thofe works do you (lone me? The 

* Jews anfwered him faying, for a good 

* work we ftone thee not, but for blaf- 



* phemy, and becaufe that thou being a 

* manmakeft thyfelf God/ They under- 
flood well enough the meaning of thole 
words, ' I arid my Father are one;' namely, 
that they were a plain affertion of his being 
God. This earned their rage. And this 
the Jews all abide by to this day ; namely, 
that he declared himfelf to be God, and 
therefore they flew him. Whereas there, 
fore the firft difcovery of a plurality of 
perfons, in the divine offence, <xonfifts in 
the revelation of the divine nature and 
perfonalityof the Son, this being oppofed, 
perfecuted, and blafphemed by thefe Jews, 
they may be juftly looked upon and 
efteemed as the firft afferters of that mif- 
belief, which now fome feek again fo ear- 
neftly to promote. The Jews perfecuted 
the Lord Chrift, becaufe he being a man, 
declared himfelf alfo to be God; and o- 
thers are ready to revile and reproach 
them who believe and teach what he de- 
clared. * 

After the refurreSiori and afcenfion of 
the Lord Jefus, all things being filled vrith 
tokens, evidences and effe&s of his divine 
nature and power, Rom. i. 4. the church 
that began to be gathered in his name, 
and ^tcording to his do&rine, being by his 
efpecial ii^ftitutipii to be initiated into the 



cxprefs profeffion of the do&rine *of the 
Holy Trinity, as being to be baptized in 
the name of c the Father, and the Son, 
4 and the Holy Ghoft/ which confeffion 
eomprifeth the whole of the truth con- 
tended for ; and by the indifpenfible plao 
ing of it at the firft entrance into all 6be- 
dience unto him, is made the do&rinal 
foundation of the church; it continued for 
a feafon in the quiet and undifturbed po£- 
fefiion of this iacred treafure. 

The firft who gave difijuietment unto 
the difciples of Chrift by perverting the 
doftrine of the Trinity was Simon Magus* 
with his followers; an account of whofe 
monftrous figments, and * unintelligible 
imaginations, with their coincidence with 
>yhat fome men dream in thefe latter days, 
fjiali elfewhere be given. Nor (hall I need 
here to mention the Colluvies of Gnoftics, 
Yalentinians, Marcionites and Manichees, 
the foundation of all whofe abominations 
lay in their mif-apprehenfions of the being 
of God, their, unbelief of the Trinity, and 
the perfcn of Chrift, as do thofe of fome 
others alfo. 

In efpecial there was one Cerinthus, 
\vho was more a&ive than others in his 
oppafifion to the do&rine of the perfon o£ 
thrift, .and therein of tbe Holy Trinity* 4 



To put a flop unto his abominations, all 
authors agree, that John, writing his gof- 
pel, prefixed unto it that plain d&laration 
of the eternal deity of Chrift, which it is 
prefaced withal. And the ftory is well 
attefted by Irenaeus, Rufebius, and others, 
from Poly carpus, who was his difciple: That 
this Cerinthus coming into the place where 
the apoftle was, he left it, adding, as a 
reafon of his departure, left the building, 
through.the juft judgment of God, fhould 
fall upon them. And it was of the holy, 
wife providence of God, to futfer fome 
impious perfons to oppofe this! do&rine 
before the death of that apcftle, that he 
might by infallible infpiration farther re- 
veal, manifeft, and declare it to the efta- 
blifliment of the church in future ages. 
For what can farther be defired to fatisfy 
the minds of men, who in any fenfe own 
the Lord Jefus Chrift, and the fcriptures; 
than that this controverfy about the Trinity 
and perfoft of Chrift (for they ftand and 
fall together) fhould be fo eminently and 
exprefly determined, as it were immediately 
from heaven? 

But. he, with whom we have to deal in 
this matter, neither ever did, nor ever will, 
nor can acquiefce or reft in the divine de- 
termination of any thjng, which he hath 

C ftirred 


flirred up ftrife and controverfy about. 
Vor as Cerinthus and Ebionites perfifted 
in the herefy of the Jews, who would have 
ilaifl our Saviour for bearing witnefs to his 
own deity, notwithftanding the evidence of 
that teftimpny, and the right apprehenfion 
which the Jews had of his mind therein; 
to he excited others to engage and perfifl 
in their oppofition to the truth, notwith- 
ftanding this fecond particular determina- 
tion of it from heaven, for their confuta- 
tion or confufion. For after the more 
weak apd confufed oppofitions made unto 
it by Theodotus-coriarius, Artemo?i, and 
ibme others, at length a (tout champion 
appears vifibly* and exprefly engages a? 
gainft theft fundamentals of our faith. 
This was Paulus Samofatenus, bifhop of 
the church of Antioch, abojjt the year 272, 
A man of mod intolerable pride, paffion, 
and folly; the greateft that hath left a 
name upon ecclefiaftical records. This 
man openly and avowedly denied the doc? 
trine of the Trinity, and the deity of Chrift 
in an efpecial manner. For although he 
endeavoured, for a while, to cloud his im- 
pious fentiments in ambiguous expreffions, 
as others alfo have done [Eufeb. lib. 7. 
cap. 27.] y et - being preffed by the profef- 
Jqxs of the truth, and fuppofing his party 


fos fontewhat confirmed, he plainly de* 
fended his herefy, and was caft out of the 
church wherein he prefided* Some fixty 
years after, Photinus Bifliop of Syrmium, 
with a pretence of more fobriety in life 
and conversation, undertook the manage- 
ment of the fame defign, with the fame 

What enfued afterwards among the 
churches of God in this matter, is of too 
large and diffufed a nature to be here re- 
portedi Thefe inftances I have fixed on, 
only io intimate unto perfons, whofe con-* 
dition or occafions afford them not ability, 
or leifure of themfelves, to enquire into 
the memorials of times paft amongft the 
profeflbrs of the gofpel of Chrift, that thefe 
oppofitions which are made at prefent a- 
monglt us unto thefe fundamental truths, 
and derived immediately from the late 
renewed inforcement of them made by 
Fauftus Socinus. and his followers, are no* 
thing but old baffled attempts of Satan, 
againft the rock of the church and the. 
building thereon, in the confeffion of the 
Son of the living God. 

Now, as all men who have ought of a 
due reverence of God, or his truth, re- 
maining with them, cannot be but wary 
how they give the leaft admittance to fuch 

C 2 opinions, 


opinions, as have from the beginning been 
vitrieffed againft, and condemned by Chriil 
himfelf, his apoftles, and all that followed 
{hem in their faith and ways in all genera- 
tions; fo others, whofe hearts may tremble 
for the danger they apprehend that thefe 
iacred truths may be in, of being corrupted 
or defamed, by the prefent oppofition a- 
gainft them, may know that it is no other, 
but what the church, and faith of profef- 
fors hath already been exercifed with, and 
through the power of him that enable* 
them have conftantly triumphed 'over* 
^\nd for my part, I look upon it as a bleffed 
effect of the holy, wife providence of God* 
that thofe who have long harboured thefe 
gbominatipns of denying the holy Trinity, 
the perfon and fatisfadion of Chrift in their 
piinds; but yet have Iheltered themfelves 
from coftimon obfervation under the fhadet 
<pf dark, obfeure, and uncouth expreffions, 
xvith many other fpecious pretences; fiiould 
\>q given up to join themfelves with fuch 
perfons, and to profefs a community of 
perfuafion with them in thofe opinions, as 
have rendered themfelves infamous from 
jhe firft foundation of Chriftianity, and 
.wherein they will affuredly meet with the 
fame fuccefs, as thofe have done, who have 
gone before them. 



For the other head of opposition, made 
by thefe perfons unto the truth, in refe- 
rence unto the fatisfa&ion of Chrifl^ and 
the imputation of his righteoufnefs thereon 
unto our j unification, I have not much to 
lay, as to the time part. In general, the 
do&rine wherein they boaft, being firft 
brought forth in a rude mifhapen manner 
by the Pelagian heretics, was afterwards 
improved by one Abailardus, a fophiftical 
fcholar in France; but owes its principal 
form and poifon unto the endeavours of 
Fauftus Socinus, and thofe who have fol- 
lowed him, in his fubtle attempt to corrupt 
the whole do&rine of the gofpel. Of thefe 
men are thofe amongft us, who at this day 
fo bufily difpute and write about the 
Trinity, the deity of Chrift, and his fatis- 
fa&ion, the followers and difciples. And 
it is much more from their mafters, who 
were fome of them men learned, diligent, 
and, fubtle, than from themfel ves, that they 
are judged to be of .any great confideration. 
For I can truly fay, that upon the fedate 
examination of all that I could ever yet 
hear, or get a light of, either fpoken or 
written by them, that is, any amongft us, 
I never yet obferved an undertaking of fo 
great importance, managed with a greater 
evidence of incompetency and inability, to 

C 3 give 


give any tolerable countenance unto it. If 
any of them fhall, for the future, attempt 
to give any new countenance or props to 
their tottering errors; it will doubtiefs be 
attended unto by fome of thofe many, who 
cannot but know, that it is incumbent on 
them to * contend earneftly for the faith 
* once delivered unto the faints.* This pre- 
sent brief endeavour is only to affift and 
direft thofe, who are lefs exercifed in the 
ways of managing controverfies in religion ; 
that they may have a brief comptehenfion 
©f the truths oppofed, with the firm foun- 
dations whereon they are built; and have 
in a x readinefs to ihield their faith, both 
againft the fiery darts of Satan, and fecure 
their minds againft the cunning Heights of 
men who lie in wait to deceive. And 
Wherein this difcourfe feems in any thing 
to be too brief, or cbncife, the author is 
not to be blamed; who was confined untu 
thefe ftrait bounds, by thofe wfeofe requfefts 

enjoined him this ferrice* 


T m T^^Sfm9^fS m ^am^SfSSSSXS9tSSS9BSSS9fSt^ 



of The 



1 HE do&rine of the blefled Trinity 
ifiay be confidered two ways: Fir/l, in re- 
fpeft unto the revelation and propofal of 
it in the fcripture, to direft us unto the 
author, objeft, and end of our faith, in 
bur worlhip and obedience: Secondly, as 
it is farther declared and explained, in 
terms, expreffions, and proportions, edu- 
ced from the original revelation of it, Ant- 
ed thereunto, and meet to direct and keep 
the mind from undue apprehenfions of the 
things it believes; and to declare them 
unto farther edification. 

In the firft way, it confifts meerly in th$ 
proportions wherein the revelation of God 



is expreffed in the fcripture. And in thii 
regard two things are required of us: Fir/i, 
To underftand the terms of the propofi* 
tions, as they are enunciations of truth: 
And Secondly, To believe the things taught, 
revealed, and declared in them. 

In the firft inftance, no more, I fay, is 
required of us, but that we affent unto the 
affeitions and teftimonies of God concern- 
ing himfelf, according to their natural and 
genuine fenfe, as he will be known, believed 
in, feared, and worlhipped by us, as he is 
our Creator, Lord, and re warder; and that 
becaufe he himfelf hath by his revelation 
not only warranted us fo to do, but alio 
made it our duty neceffary and indifpenfr 
able. Now the fum of this revelation in 
this matter is : That God is one ; that this 
one God is Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft; 
that the Father is the Father of the Son, 
t and the Son the Son of the Father, and 
i the Holy Ghoft the Spirit of the Father 
.' and the Son; and that in refpefl: of this 
j their mutual relation, they are diftinft from 
I each other. 

This is the fubftance of the do&rine of 
the Trinity, as to the firft dire& concern- 
ment of faith therein. The firft intentioii 
of the fcripture, in the revelation of God 
towards us is, as was faid, That we might 



fear him, believe, worfhip, obey him, and 
live unto him, as God. That we may do 
this in a due manner, and worfhip the only 
true God, and not adore the falfe imagina- 
tions of our own minds; it declares, as 
was faid, that this God is one, the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghoft: that the Father is 
this one God, and therefore is to be be- 
lieved in, worfhipped, obeyed, lived unto, 
and in all things confidered by us -as the 
firft caufe, Sovereign Lord, and laft end 
of all: that the Son is the one true God, 
and therefore is to be believed in r worship- 
ped, obeyed, lived unto, and in all things 
confidered by us as the firft caufe, fove- 
reign Lord, and laft end of all : and fo alfo 
of the Holy Ghoft. This is the whole of 
faith's concernment in this matter, as it 
refpe&s the dire& revelation of God, made 
by hhnfeif in the fcripture, and the firft 
proper general end thereof. Let this be 
clearly confirmed by dire& and pofitive 
divine teftimonies, containing the declara- 
tion and revelation of God concerning 
himfelf, and faith is fecured as to all its 
concerns. For it hath both its'proper for- 
mal pbje6t, and is fufficiently enabled to be 
dirl&ive of divine worfhip and obedience. 

The explication of this do&rine unto 
edification, fuitable unto the revelation 




mentioned, is of another confideratiofl* 
And two things are incumbent on us to 
take care of therein: Firji y That what is 
affirmed and taught, fo dire&ly tend unto 
the ends ot the revelation itfelf, by inform- 
ing and enlightening of the mind in the 
knowledge of the myftery of it, fo far as 
in this life we are, by divine affiftance, ca- 
pable to comprehend it: that is, that faith 
may be increafed, ftrengthened, and con* 
firmed againft temptations and oppositions 
of Satan, and men of corrupt minds j and 
that we may be diftin&ly direfted unto> 
and encouraged in the obedience unto, and 
worfhip of God that are required of us 2 
Secondly^ That nothing be affirmed or 
taught herein, that may beget, or occafion 
any undue apprehenfions concerning God, 
or our obedience unto him, with refpeS 
unto the beft, higheft, fecureft revelations, 
that we have of him and our duty. Thefe 
things being done and fecured, the end of 
the declaration of this do&rine concerning 
God is attained. 

In the declaration then of this do&rine 
unto the edification of the church, there 
is contained a farther explanation of the 
things before afTerted, as propofed direftly, 
and in themfelves, as the objeft of our 
faith; namely, how God is one, in refpedt 



of his nature, fubftance, effence, Godhead, 
or divine Being. How being Father, Son, 
and Holy .Ghoft, he fubfifteth in thefe 
three diftinft perfons, or hypoftafis; and 
what are their mutual refpe&s to each 
other, by which, as their peculiar proper- 
ties, giving them the manner of their fub- 
fiftence, they are diftinguiflied one from 
another; with fundry other things of the 
like neceflary confequence unto the revela- 
: tion mentioned. And herein, as in the 
application of all other divine truths and 
\ myfteries whatever, yea of all moral com- 
; manded duties, ufe is to be made of fuch 
1 Words and expreflions, as, it may be, are 
; not literally and formally contained in the 
\ fcripture; but only are unto our concep- 
tions and apprehenlions expofitory of what 
i is fo contained^ And to deny the liberty, 
yea the neceffity hereof, is to deny all inter- 
1 pretation of the fcripture, all endeavours 
to exprefs the fenfe of the words of it, 
unto the underftandings of one another; 
1 which is, in a word, to render the fcripture 
itfelf altogether ufelefs. For if it be un- 
lawful for me to fpeak, or write, what I 
conceive to be the fenfe of the words of 
I the fcripture, and the nature of the thing 
• fignified and expreffed by them; it is un- 
i }awful for me alfo to think or conceive in 
! • my 



[ my irtlnd, what is the fenfe of the words 

J, or nature of the things; which to fay, is 

, to make brutes of ourfelves, and to fruf- 

* trate the whole defign of God in giving 

unto us the great privilege of his word. 

Wherefore, in the declaration of the 
doftrine of the Trinity, we may lawfully,- 
nay we muft neceffarily, make ufe of other 
words, phrafes and expreflions, than what 
are literally and fyilabically contained in 
the fcriptures, but teach no other things. 

Moreover, Whatever is fo revealed in the* 
fcripture, is no lefs true and divine, as to 
whatever neceffarily followeth thereon, 
than it is, as unto that which is principally 
revealed and diredly expreffed. For how 
far foever the lines be drawn and extended, 
from truth nothing can follow and enfue 
but what is true alio; and that in the fame 
kind of truth, with that which it is derived 
and deduced from- For if the principal' 
affertion be a truth of divide revelation, fo 
is alfo whatever is included therein, and 
which 'may be rightly from thence collefted. 
Hence it follows, that when the fcripture" 
revealeth the Father, Son and Holy Ghbft,; 
to be one God, feeing it neceffarily and 
unavoidably follows thtreon, that they are. 
one in effence, wherein alone it is poffible 
they can be one; And three in their diftinft 



fobfiftences, wherein alone it is poffible 
they can be three ; this is no lefs of divide 
revelation, than the firft principle from 
whence thefe things follow. 

Thefe being the refpe&s which the doc- 
trine of the Trinity falls under, the necef- 
fary method of faith and reafon, . m the 
believing and declaring of it, is plain and 

I. The revelation of it is to be aflerted 
and vindicated, as it is propofed to be be- 
lieved for the ends mentioned. Now this 
is, as was declared, that there is one God : 
that this God, is Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghoft; and fo, that the Father is God, i'o 
is the St>ri, fo h the Holy Ghoft. 

IL This being received, and admitted by' 
faith, the explication of it is to be infifted 
on, a!nd not taken into confideration until 
the other be admitted. And herein lies 
the preposterous courfe of thofe, who falla- 
cioufly and captioufly go about 'to oppofe 
this facred truth. They will always begin, 
their oppofitibn, not unto the revelation 
6i it, but unto the explanation of it, which 
js ufed only for farther edification. Their 
jdifputes and cavils Oiali be againft the 
Trinity/ eflenfe, fubftance, perfons, per- 
il) foflality, 


fonality, refpe&s, properties of the divine 
perfons, with the njodes of expreffing rhefe 
things, whilft the plain fcripture revelatiou 
£>f the things themfelves., from whence they 
;are but explauatory deductions, is not fpo^ 
k(& to, nor admitted unto confirmation,. 
By this means have they entangled many 
lyeak, utiftable fouls, who when they have 
met with things too high, hard, and dif- 
ficult for them, (which in divine myfteries • 
they may quickly do) in the explication of 
this dofbine* have buffered themfelves to 
be taken off from a due consideration of 
the full and plain revelation of th£ thing 
itfelf in fcripture; their temptations 
being made (Irong, and their darknefs in- 
created, it was foo late for them to retiirQ 
unto it; as bringing along with them the 
cavils wherewith they were prepoifefled, 
.rather than that faitji and obedience which 
is required. But yet ^11 this while thefe 
explanations, fo excepted againft* are in*, 
deed not of any original confideration in 
ihis matter* Let the direft, exprefe revela- 
tions of the daftrine be confiriBed 5 they, 
will follow; of themfelycsj nor will they be\ 
excepted againft by thof<g who believe and 
receive it. Let that be rejected, and they. 
v wiil fall of themfelves, guid ne^er be con/ 
tended for by thofe who did make ufe of • 


them. But of thefe things we fliall treat 
again afterwards. 

I. This therefore is the way, the only 
way that we rationally can, and that which 
in duty we ought to proceed in, and by, 
for the afferting and confirming of the 
doftrine of the holy Trinity under con- 
federation; namely, that we produce divine 
revelations, ox teftimonies, wherein faith' 
may fafely reft and acquiefce, that God is 
one: that this one God, is Father, Son an* 
Holy Ghoft: fo that the Father is God, fo 

alfo is the Son*, and the Holy Ghoft like* 

* wife, and as fuch are to be believed in, 1 
obeyed, worfhipped, acknowledged as the 
firil caufe, and laft end of att, our Lor* 
and>reward. If this be not admitted, iP 
fomefrhat of it be not particularly denied^ 
We need not, we have no warrant, or 
ground, to proceed any further, or at all 
to difcourfe about the unity of the effence, 
or the divine diftin&ion of the perfons. 

We have not therefore any original con- 
tefti in this matter with any, but fuch as 
deny either God. to be one, or the Father 
to be God, or the Son to be God, or the 
Holy Ghoft fo to be, . If any deny either' 
of thefe in particular, we are ready to con- 
firm it by fufficient teftimonie^ of fcripture, 
or clear and undeniable divine revelation*, 

D 2 When 


When this is evidenced and vindicate^ 
we (hall willingly proceed to manifeft, that 
the explications ufed of this doctrine unto 
the. edification' of the church, are accord- 
mg to truth, and fuch as neceffarily are re* 
quired by the nature of the things them* 
felves. And this gives us the method of 
the fmall enfuing difcourfe, with the rea- 
sons of it. 

i . The fir ft thing which we affirm to be 
delivered unto us by divine revelation, as 
{he obje£t of our faith is, that God is one? 
\ Know tfcat this may be uncontrollably 

evidenced by the light of reafon itfelf, uft-~ 
to as good and" quiet an affurance as, the 
mind of man is capable of in any of it* 
apprehenfions whatever. But I fpeak of it 
now, as it is confirmed unto us by divine 
revelation. How this aflertion, of 6ne God, 
? efpe&s the nature, effence, or divine being 
of God (hall be declared afterwards. At 
prefent it is enough to reprefeni the tefti* 
monies that he is one, ojily one. And 
becaufe ws have no difference with our 
adverfaries diftin&ly about this matter, I 
fliall only name fome*few of them. Deut^ 
vi. 4. * Hear, O Ifrael, the Lord our God 
# is one Lord :* A moft pregnant teftimony ; 
and yet notwithftanding, as I (hall elfe- 
where manifeft* the Trinity itfelf in that 



me divine eTence is here aflerted. Ifa. xliv. 
6, 8. * Thus faith the Lord, the king of 
' Ifrael, and his Redeemer, the Lord of 

* Hciits, I am the firft, and I am the lad, 
' and befides me there is ru> GocL Is there 
'.a God befides me? Yea there is no God, 

* I know not any:* In which alfo we may 
manifeft, that a plurality of perfons is . 
included and expreffed. And although 
there be no mare abfoluteand facred truth 
than this* that God is onej yet it may be 
evinced, that k is no where mentioned* in. 
the fcripture, but that either in the words 
themfelves, or the context of the place, a 
plurality of perfons in that one fenfe is 

£. It is propofed as the object of our 
faith, that the Father is GocL And here- 
in, as is pretended, there is alfo an agree- 
ment between us and thofe who oppofe the 
do&rine of the Trinity. But there is a 
miftake in this matter. Theur hy po the fis, 
as they call it* or indeed prefumptuou3 
error, eafts alt the conceptions that are . 
given us concerning God in the fcripture 
into diforder and confufion* For the Fa* 
Iher, as he whom, we worfliip, is often cal- 
led fo, only with reference unto his Son; 
$s the Sonjs fo, with reference to* the Fa-" 
ther* He is ihe * only begotten of the Fa- 

D 3/ *ther,' 


nal Son of God ; that is, He is propofed, 
declared , and revealed unto us n\ the 
fcripture, to be God \ that is, to be ferved, 
worihipped, believed in, obeyed as God, 
upon the account of his own divine ex- 
cellencies. And whereas we believe an4 
know that he was roan, that he was born, 
lived and died as a man; it is declared that 
he is God alfo; and that as God, he did 
pre-exift in the form of God before his in- 
carnation, which was effe&ed by voluntary, 
actings of -his own ; . which could not be 
without a pre-exiftence in another nature* 
This is propofed unto us to be believed 
upon divine teftimony, and by divine reve- 
lation. And the fole enquiry in this mat- 
ter is, whether this be propofed in the 
fcripture as an objeft of faith, and that 
which is iadifpenfibly neceflary for us ta 
believe. Let us then nakedly attend unto 
what the fcripture afferts hi this matter,, 
and that in the order of the books of it 
in fome particular in fiances,, which at 
prefent occur to mind; as thefe that fol- 

: Pfalro xbv 6. c Thy throne, O God, is 
t for ever and ever:' applied unto Ghrift> 
Heb* i. 8. c But unto the Son he iaith r thy 
*. throne, O God, is foxi ever and ever. 

Pfalm lxviii* 17, .18* 19. * The cforJk** 
L\ 'of 



4 of God are twenty thoufand, even thou* 

* fands of angels : the Lord is among them 

* as in Sinai, in thg holy "place. Thou 
4 had a&ended on high, thou halt led 
t captivity captive, ttjou haft received gifts 

* for men^ ye$, for the rebellious ajfp, 
4 that the Lord fiod mjiy d^eil amoag 

* them:' applied wtfq the §qn, gfch. }v. g, 
4 Wherefore he faith, when, be afcended 
f up on high, he led captivity captiye, ?»d 
< gave gifts unto men* ftfew %h$t he ^f- 
t c elided, wh^t is it but thaf h$ ^Jfo ^ 

* fcended, firft into the lo\per parts of the 

* carim Y*Z r£& ^fcended, is tlje fa®e ^L 
4 fo that afcended-upiar above aii hm*&$ 

* that he might fill all things, 5 

Pfalm ex. i. • 4 The Lord faid unto mf 
4 Lord, Sit thou at my right hand:' applied 
unto Chrift by himfelf, Mat. xxii. 44. 

Pfalm. c2. fc$, i6 % 27. 4 Of old their 
4 haft laid the foundation of the earth, and 
4 the heavens are ths work of thy hands; 
4 They fliall perfth, but thou fhalt endure: 
4 yea, all of them fliall wax old like a gar* 
4 ment, as., a vefture fhalt thou change 
4 them, and they fliall be changed: But? 
4 thou art the fame, and thy. year* (halt 

* have no enci : 4 declared by the apoftle tar 
be meant of the Son, Heb. u 1 o. 

Prov. viii. 22. to the. 31. 4 The Lord 



* poffeft me tn the beginning of his ways> 
4 before his works of old. I was fet up 

* from .everlafting, ia the beginning, or 

* ever the earth was. When there were 

* no depths, I was brought forth, wheA 
' there were no fountains abounding with 
f waters. Before the mountain were fet- 

* tied, before the hills was I brought forth j 

* While as yet he had not made the earth; 

* nor the fields, nor the higheft part of the 

* duft of the world. When he prepared 

* the heavens I was there : when he fet a 

* compafs upon the face of the depth ; 

* when he eftablifhed the. sJoyds above ? 

* and the fountain^ of the deep; when he 

* gave to the fea his decree that the waters 
4 Jhould not pafs his commandment; when 

* he appointed (he foundations of the earth: 

* Then J was by him, as one brought up 

* with him; and. I was daily his delight, 

* rejoicing always before him ; rejoicing i» 

* the habitable parts q( his earth, and my 

* delights were with the fons of men/ 

* If a. yL i, 2, j. . 4 1 faw alfo the Lord 

* fitting upon a throne, high and lifted up,* 
*and, his train filled the temple: Above it 

* flood the feraphims, each one had fix 

* wings, with twain he covered his face, 
4 with twain he covered his feet, and with 
« twain he did. fly. Aad one cried unto 

■: * 4 another 


* another and faid, holy, holy, holy is th« 

* Lord of Hofts, the whole earth is full of 

* his glory :* applied unto the Soji, John 
.xii. 41, 42* 

Ha. viiL. 13, 14- * Sanftlfy the Lord of 

* Hofts himfelf, and let him be your fear, 

' .and let hka be your dread. And -he ' 

* fliali be for a fantluary ; but for a ilone 

* of Humbling, and for a rock of offence 

* Jo both the houfes of Ifrael; for a gin 
•' and for a fnare to the inhabitants of Jeru- 
salem ;*• applied unto the Son, Luke ii. 
34.. Roiiu ix. 33- c Pet. iL 8- 

Ifa. ix. 6,7. ' For unto us a Child is horn, 

* unto us a Son is given, and the govern- 
1 ment ftiallbe upon his flioulders; and his 
4 oiame (hall be called Wonderful, Coun- 
•* fellor, the mighty God, the everlafting 
' Father, the Prince of peace. Of the in- 

* creafe of his government, and peace, there 

* fiisdl be jxo end.' 

Jen xxiii, ^ 6. c Behold the day is 

* come, faith the Lord, that I will raife im-. 
\.to David r a righteous Ua^ch. And this 

* is his name, whereby he fhaJl be called, - 
*• Jehovah oijr $ighteoufnefs.* 

Hof. xii. 3, 4, 5. * He took his; brother 

* by the heel in the womb, and by his 

* ftrength he had power with God. - Yea,- 
file hajl power pyer the angel and pre* 

* vailed: 


r vailed; he wept and made fupplication 
4 unto him: he found him in Bethel, and 
4 there he fpake with us. Even the Lord 

* God of Hoftsj the L&rd is his memorial/ 

Zach. ii. 8, 9. For thus faith the Lord 

* of Hofts, after the glory hath he lent me 

* unto the nations which fpoiled you. And 

* ye (hall know that the Lord of Hofts 

* hath feiit me/ 

Mat. xvi. 1 6. 4 Thou art Ghrift, the 

* Son of the living God. 1 

Luke i. 35. 4 The Holy Ghofl fliall 
4 come upon thee, the power of the moffi 
4 High (hall overfhadow thee, therefore alfo 
4 fhall that holy thing, which ftiall be born 

* of thee be called the Son of God/ 

John i. 1,2, 3. 4 In the beginning was 
4 the Word, and the Word was with God* 
4 and the Word was God. The fame was 
4 in the beginning with God. All things 
/were made by him; and without him" 
4 was Hot any thing made, that was made/ 
Verfe 14* 4 And we beheld his glory, 
4 the glory as of the only begotten of the" 
4 Father/ 

John iii. 3. 4 Arid no man Kath afcended'* 
4 up to' heaven, but he* tjiat came down 
4 frbrii heaven* even the Son of man which 
* is in heaven/ 
John vi& tf'i $Si * Then faid the Jews* 

4 uato 


€ - unfo him, thou art not fifty years old, and 
€ haft thou feen Abraham? Jefus faith un- 
' to them, verily, I fay unto you, before 

* Abraham was, I am.' 

John x. 30. * I and my Father are one.' • 
John xvii. 3. c And now, O Father, 
' glorify thou me with thine own felf, with 
c the glory which I had with thee before 
c the world was.* 

^ John xx. 28. c And Thomas anfwered, 
c and faid unto him* My Lord, and my 
< God/ 

Afts xx. 28. * Feed the church of God, 

* which he hath purchafed with his own 

* blood/ m . 

Rom. i. 3, 4. c Concerning his Son 

* Jefus our 'Lord, which was made of the 

* feed of David according to the flefli, and 

* declared to be the Son of God with 
c power, according to the Spirit of holinefs,- 

* -by the refurre&ion from the dead/ 

Rom. ix. 5. * Of whom, as concerning 

* the flefli, Chrift came; who is over all, 

* God bleffed fox ever. Aroen/ 

Roxn. xiv. 10., 1 1 9 12. * We fhall all Hand 
c before the judgment feat of Chrift. For 
1 It is written, as I live, faith the Lord, 

* every knee (hall bow to me, and every 

* tongue (hall confefs to God. So then 
c every one of us lhall give an account of 
^himfelf to God/ 

E 1 Cor. 


i Cor. viii, 6. ' And one Lord JefW 
' Chrift, by whom are all things, and we. 

* by him/ 

i Cor* x. 9. * Neither let us alfo tempt 

* Chrift, as fome of them alfb tempted, and 
-* were dsftroyed by ferpents;' compared 
with Numb. xxi. 6. 

Phil. ii. 5, 6. > Let this mind be in you 

* which was alfo in Chrift Jefusj who, be- 

* ing in the form of God, thought it not 

* robbery to be equal with God.' 

Cpl. i. 15, 16, 17. 4 Who is the image 

* of the invifible vJod, the firft-born of 
' eyery creature; for by him were all things 

* created, that are in heaven, and that are' 

* in garth, vifible and invifible; whether 

* they be thrones, or dominions, or prin- 

* cipaiities, pr powers; all things were crea- 

* ted by him and for him, and he is before 
f all things, and by him all things confift/ 

1 Tim, iji. 16. c Without controverfy, 

* great is the inyftery of godlinefs; God 

* was majiifeft in the fle(h/ 

Tit. ii, ij.-* Loojriflg for that bleffed 
1 hope, ajid the glorious appearance of the 
' great God and our Saviour, Jefus Chrift, 
f who gave himfeif for us.' 

Heb. i. throughout. 

Chap. £ii. 4. * For every houfe is builded 
< by fome man. but he that built all things 

' it P°4V 


i Pet. u ii. Searching what, or what 
c manner of time the Spirit of Chrift, 
4 which was in them, did fignify/ 

Chap. iii. 18, 19. 4 But Chrift alfo hath 
' once fufFered for finners, being put to 
4 death in the flefh, but quickened by the 
4 Spirit; by which alfo he went and preach- 

* ed unto, the fpirits in prifon, which fome- 
4 times were difobedient, when once the 
4 long fuffering of God waited in the days 
4 of Noah/ 

x John iii 1 6. 4 Hereby we perceive the 
4 love of God, becaufe he laid down his life 
4 for us/ 

Chap. v. lo. 4 And we are in him that is 
4 true, even in his Son Jefus Chrift, this is 

* the true God, and eternal life/ 

Rev. i. 8. 4 1 am Alpha, and Omega, the 

* beginning and the ending, faith the Lord, 
4 which is, and which was, and which is to 
^come, the Almighty. 

Ver. i r. 4 1 am Alpha, and Omega, the 

* firft and the laft, and what thou feeft write 
4 in a book. And I turned to fee the voice 

* that fpake with me; and being turned, I 
4 law fcven golden candlefticks, and in the 
4 midil of the feven candlefticks one like 

* unto the Son of man/ 

Ver. 17. 4 And when I faw him, I fell at 

* his feet as dead j and he laid his right hand 

E 2 4 upon 


x upon me, faying unto me, 'fear not, I am 

* the firft and the laft. 

Chap.ii. 23. c I am he which fearch- 
4 eth the reins and hearts, and will give 

* unto every one of you according to your 
4 works. * * 

. Thefe are fome of the places wherein the 
truth under confideration is revealed and 
declared, fome of the divine teftimonies 
whereby it is confirmed, and eftabliflied; 
which 1 have not at prefent enquired after', 
but fuddenly repeated as they came to 
mind. Many more of the like nature and 
importance may be added unto them, and 
fliall be To as occafion doth require. 

Let now any one who owns the fcripture 
to be the word of God, to contain an in- 
fallible revelation of the things propofed ii\ 
it to be believed, and who haih any confcx- 
cnce exercifed towards God for the receiv- 
ing and fubmitting unto what he declares 
and reveals, take a view of thefe teftimonies, 
and confider, whether they do not fufficient- 
ly propofe this objeft of our faith. Shall 
a few poor trifling fophifms, whofe terms 
are fcarcely underftood by the mod that 
amongft us make ufe of them, accordingly 
as they have found them framed by others?, 
be thought 'meet to be fet up in oppofition 
unto thefe multiplied teftimonies of the 

.Holy Ghoft,andtocaft the truth confirmed 




by them down from its credit and repu-» 
tation in the eonfciences of men? For my 
part, I do not fee in any thing, but that the 
teftimonies given to the godhead of Chrift, 
the eternal Son of God, are every way as 
clear and unqueftionable, as thofe are, 
which teftify to the being of God, or that 
there is any God at all. Were men ac- 
quainted with the fcriptures as they ought 
to be, and as the mod, confidering the 
means and advantages they have had, might 
have been; dicHhey ponder and believe on 
What they read, or had any tendernefs ia 
their eonfciences, as to that reverence, obe- 
dience, and fubjeftioii of foul, which God* 
lequires unto his word; it were utterly im- 
poffible that their faith in this matter fhould 
*fever in the leaft be lhaken, by a few lewd 
fbphifms, or loud clamours of men deftitute 
Of the trtfth, and of , the fpirit of it. 

That we may now improve thefe tefti- 
monies unto the end under defign, as the 
feature of this brief difcourfe will bear, I fhall 
firft remove the general anfwers which th£ 
Socinians give unto them; and then manr- 
feft ferther, how ineontrolable they are, by 
giving an inftance in the frivolous excep- 
tions of the fame perftms, i6 two of then* 
in particular. And ^e are ready, God 
affifting, to maintain, that there is not any 
exit <>f tltemj which dath ite* giv4 a fufSci- 

E3 cut 


ent ground for faith to reft on, in this 
matter concerning the deity of Chrift; and 
that againft all the Socinians in the" world. 

They fay therefore, commonly, that We 
prove not by thefe teftimonies what is by 
them denied. For they acknowledge Chrift; 
to bf God, and that becaufe he is exalted 
unto that glory and authority, that all crea- 
tures are put into fubjeftion unto him; and 
all both men and angels are commanded to 
worfhip and adore him. So that he is God 
by office, though he be not God by nature. 
He is God, but he is not the moft high 
God, And this lad expreffion they have 
*almoft continually in their mouths: He is 
not the moft high God. And commonly 
with great contempt and fcorn they are 
ready to reproach them, who have folidly 
confirmed the do&rine of the deity of 
Chrift, as ignorant of the ftate of contro- 
verfy, in that they have not proved him to 
be the moft high God, in fubordination 
unto whom they acknowledge Chrift to be 
God, and that he ought to be worfhipped 
with divine and religious worfhip. 

But there cannot be any thing more 
jempty and vain than thefe pretence^. And 
befides, they accumulate in them their for- 
mer errors, with the addition of new ones. 

. Fir/t, the name of the moft high God, 




is fir ft afcfibed unto God in Gen. xlix. 18, 
1 9, 22. denoting his fovereignty and domi- 
nion. Now, as other attributes of God, it 
is not diftin&ive of the fubje&, but only 
defcriptive of it. So are all other excel- 
lencies of the nature of God. It doth not 
intimate that there are other gods, only he 
is the moil high, or one over them all; but 
only that the true God is mod high, that 
is, indued with fovereign power, dominion, 
and authority over all. To fay then, that 
Chrift indeed is God,, but not the moft 
high God, is all one as to fay ; he is God, 
but not the moft holy God, or not the true 
God. And fo they have brought their , 
Chrift into the nuniber of falfe gods, whilft 
they deny the true Chrift, who in his divine 
nature is c over all God bleffed for ever,' 
Rom. ix. 5. A phrafe of fpeech, perfeftly 
expreffing this attribute of the moft high 

Secondly, This anfwer is fuited only unto 
thofe teftimonies which exprefs the name 
of God, with a correfponding power and 
authority unto that name. For in refe- 
rence unto thefe alone, can it be pleaded 
with any pretence of reafon, that he is a 
God by office; though that alfo be done 
very futiloufly and impertinently. But 
moft of the teftimonies produced fpeak di- 
re&ly unto his divine excellencies, and 
■ 1 , properties, 


properties, which belong unto his nature 
neceffarily and absolutely ; that he is eter- 
nal* omnipotent, imnienfe, dmnifcient, in* 
finitely wife: and that he is, and worketh 
and produceth effe&s fuitable unto all thefe 
properties, and fuch as nothing but they 
can enable him lor, is abundantly proved 
by the foregoing teftimonies. Now all 
thefe concern a divine nature, a natural 
efience, a godhead, and not fuch power or 
authority as a man may be exalted unto* 
Yea, the afcribing any of them to fuch a 
one, implies the ftigheft contradiction ex* 

Thirdly, This God in authority and of- 
fice, and not by nature, that fhould be the 
object pf divine worfhip, is a new abomi- 
nation. For they are divine, effential ex- 
cellencies, that £g& the formal reafon and 
^bjett of worffep, religious and divine. 
And to afcribe it unto any one, that is not 
God by nature, is idolatry. By making 
therefore their Ghrift fuch a God as they 
-defcribe, they bring him under the fevere 
eommination of the true God Jer. x. if. 
!< The gods that have not made the heavens 

* and the earth, even they fliall periih from 

* the earth, and from under^ thefe heavens/ 
That Ghrift they worfhip, they % is a God ; 
tut they deny that fie is that God that made 
tfte hmens atftf thfc earth} aft* fo leave 



him expofed to the threatning of him^ who 
will accoitiplifh it to the uttermoft. 

Some other general exceptions fometimes 
they make ufe of, which the reader may 
free himfelf from the entanglement of, if 
he do but heed thefe enfuing rules. 

Firft, Diftin&ion of perfons (of which 
afterwards) it being in an infinite fubftance, 
doth no way prove a difference of efience 
between the Father and the Son. Where 
therefore Chrift as the Son, is faid to be 
another from the Father, or God, fpoken 
perfonally of the Father, it argues' not in 
the leaft that he is not partaker of the fame 
nature with him. That in one efience 
there can be but one perfon, may be true 
where the fubftance is finite and limited, 
but hath no place in that which is. infinite. 

Secondly, Diftin&ion and inequality in 
refpect of office in Chrift, doth not in the 
leaft take away his equality and famenefs 
with the Father, in refpeft of nature and 
effence, Phil. ii. 7, 8. A fon of the fame 
nature with his Father, and therein equal 
to him, may in office be his inferior, hi* 

Thirdly, The advancement and exalta> 
tion of Chrift, as Mediator, to any dignity 
whatever, upon, or in reference to the 
work of our redemption, and falvation* is 
not at all inconfiftent with the effential 



honour, dignity, and worth which he hath 
in himfelf, as God bleffed for ever. Though 
he humbled himfelf and was exalted in 
office, yet in nature he was one and the 
jiame, he changed not. 

Fourthly, The fcriptufes afferting the 
humanity of Chrift with the concernments 
thereof, as his birth, life, and death, do no ' 
more thereby deny his deity, than by af- 
ferting his deity with the eflential proper- 
ties thereof, they deny his humanity. 

Fifthly , God working in and by Chrift, 
as he was Mediator, denotes the Father's 
fovereign appointment of the things men- 
tioned to be done, not his immediate effici- 
ency in the doing of the things themfefre& 

Thefe rules are propoftd a little before 
their due place hr^the method which we 
purfue. But I thought meet to interpofe 
them here, as containing a fufficient ground 
for the refolution and anfwering of all the 
fophifmsandobje&ions which the adverfaries 
ufe in this cauie. 

From the cloud of witnefles before pro- 
duced,, every one whereof is fingly fuffici- 
ent to evert the Socinian infidelity, I (hall 
in one of them give an inftance both of the 
clear nefs of the evidence, and the weaknefs 
of the exceptions, which are wont to be 
put in againft them, as was promifed. And 
this is, John i. i, 2, 3. c In the begining 

* was 


' was the Word, and the Word was with 

* God, and the Word was God, The fame 

* was in the beginning with God, All 

* things were made by him, and without 

* him was not any thing made that was 
4 made/ 

By the Word here, on what account fo- 
ever he be fo called, either as being thg 
eternal Word and wifdom of the Father, or 
as the great reveaier of the will of God 
unto us Jefus Chrift the Son of God is in- 
tended. This is on all hands acknowledged, 
and the context will admit of no hefitation 
about it. For of this word it is faid, that 
he came into like world, verfe 10* * was, 

* reje&ed by his own, verfe 1 1 ♦ * was made 
4 flefli and dwelt amonglt us, whofe glory 

* was the glory of the only begotten Son 

* of the Father/ verfe 14. called exprefly 
Jefus Chrift, verfe 17. * the only begotten 

* Son of the Father,* verfe 1 8. The fut£ 
je& then treated of is here agreed upon, 
and it is no lefs evident that it is the defign 
of the apoftle to declare both who, and 
what he was, of whom he treateth. Here 
then, if any where, we may learn what we 
are to believe concerning the perfon of 
Chrift; which alfo we may certainly do, 
if our minds are not perverted through 
prejudice, 4 whereby the God of this world 

* doth blind the minds pf them which he* 


* lieve not, left the light of the glorious 
4 gofpel of Chrift, who is the image of God,' 

* fhouldihine unto them/ 2 Cor. iv. 4. Of 
this Word then, this Son of God, it is af-' 
firmed, * that he was in the beginning.' 
And this Word, if it doth not absolutely 
and formally exprefs eternity, yet it doth 
a pre-exiftence unto the whole creation,' 
which amounts to the fame. For nothing 
can pre-exift unto all creatures, but in the 
nature of God which is eternal ; unlefs we 
fhall fuppofe a creature before the creation 
of any. But what is meant by this expref- 
fion, the fcripture doth elfewhere declare. 
Prov. viii. 23. 4 I was fet \*p from everlaft- 
4 ing before the beginning, or ever the 
4 earth was,' John xvii. 5. * Glorify thou 
\ me with thine own felf, with the glory 
4 which I had with thee before the world 
4 was.' Both which places as they explain 
this phrafe, £0 alfo do they undeniably tef- 
tify unto the eternal pre-exiftence of Chrift 
the Son of God. And in this cafe we pre- 
vail againft our adverfcriea, if we prove any 
pre-exiftence of Chrift unto his incarnation* 
which as they abfolutely deny, fo to grant 
it would overthrow their whole herefy in 
this matter. And therefore they know that 
the teftimony of our Saviour concerning 

„ bimfelf, if ujiderftood in a proper intelli- 
gible fenfe, is perfectly deftru&ive of their 



pretentions, John viii. 58, c Before Abraham 
6 was, I am.' For although there be no pro- 
per fenfe in the words^ but a grofs equivo* 
cation, if the exifterice of Chrilt before A* 
braham was born be not afferted in them; 
feeing he fpake in anfwer to that obje&ion 
of the jews, that he was € not yet fifty years 
* old, and fo could not have feen Abraham, 1 
nor Abraham him; and the Jews that were 
prefent underftood well enough tint he af- 
ferted a divine pfe-exiftence unto his bein$ 
born fo long ago, as that hereon after their 
manner, c they took up ftones to itone him,* 
as fuppofing him to have blafphemed, in 
aflerting his Deity, as others now do iu the 
denying of it: yet they feeing how fatal this 
pre-exiftence, though* not here abfolutely 
afferted to be eternal, would i>e to their caufe; 
they contend, that the meaning of the words 
is, that * Ghrift was to be the light of the 
c world, before Abraham was made the fa- 
4 ther of many nations/ An interpretation 
fo abfurd and fotifh, as never any man, not 
infatuated by the god of this world, could 
once admit and give countenance unto. 

But in the beginning, as abfolutely ufed, 
is the fame with from everlafting, as it is 
expounded, Prov. viii. 23. and denoteth an 
eternal exiftence, which is here affirmed of 
the Word, the Soil of God. But let the word 
beginning be reft rained j unto the fubjefl? 

F matter 


matter treated of, which is the creation of all 
things, and the pre-exiftence of Chrift, in his 
divine nature unto the creation of all things, 
is plainly revealed and inevitably afferted. 
And indeed, not only the word, but the dif- 
jcourfe of thefe verfes, doth plainly relate un- 
it o, and is expofitory of the firft verfe in the 
Bible, Gen. i. i. < In the beginning, God ere* 
f ated the heaven and the earth.' There it 
is al&rted, that in the beginning God created 
all things; here, that the Word was in the 
beginning and made all things. This then is 
the leaft that we have obtained from this firft 
word of our teftimony; namely, that the 
Word, or Son of God, had a perfonal pre- 
■exiftence unto the whole creation. In what 
nature this mud be, let thefe men of reafon 
fatisfy themfelves,' who know that Creator 
and creatures take up ihe whole nature of 
beings; one of them he mufl be, and it may 
be well fuppofed that he was not a creature 
before the creation of any. 

Again, where, or with whom, was this 
Word in the beginning ? It was, faith the 
Holy Ghoft, with God. There beingno crea- 
ture then exifting, he could be no where but 
with God, that is, the Father, as it is expref- 
fed in one of the teflimonies beforegoing, 
Prov.viii. 22. 6 The Lord poflfeft me in the be- 
f ginning of his ways, before his works of 
/ old.' Veffe 30. 4 Then was I by him as one 

c brought' 

tfcmrrv vindicated; 6j 

* brought up \vith him, arid I wa$ daily his 

* delight, rejoicing always before him :' that 
is, in the beginning this Word, or wifddrix 
of God, was with God. 

And this is the fame which out Lord Jefusf 
affierts concerning himfelf, John Si. 13=. * And 
« no inian, faith he, hath afcended up to hea- 
4 ven, but he that came down frtfm heaven; 

* even the Son of man which is in heaven/ 
And fo in other places, he affirms his being 
in heaven, that is, with God, at the fame 
time when he was on the earth ; whereby he 
declares the immenfity of his nature, and the 
diftinftion of his perfon; and his coming 
down from heaven before he was incarnate 
on the earth, declaring his pre-exiftence ; by 
both manifesting the meaning of this expref- 
fion, that in the beginning he was with God. 
JJut hereunto they have invented a notable 
evafion: For although they know not well 
what to make of the laft claufe of the wwds* 
that fay, then he was in heaven when he fpake 
on earth; ' the Son of man which is in hea- 
4 ven;' anfwerable to the description of God's 
immenfity: * Do not I fill heaven and earth, 

* faith the Lord V Jer. xxiii. 24. But fay, 
that he was there by heavenly meditation, as 
another man may be ; yet they give % very 
clear *anfwer to what muft of neceffity be in- 
cluded in his defcending from heaven, name- 
ly, his pre-exiftence to his incarnation. For 

F 2 they 

04 the Doctrine of the 

they tell us, that before his public miniftry, 
he was in his human nature, (which is all 
they allow uuto him) taken up into heaven, 
and there taught the gofpel; as the great im- 
poftor Mahomet pretended he was taught his 
Alcoran. If you aik them, who told them? 
fo, they cannot tell ; but they can tell when 
Jt was, namely, when he was led by the fpirit 
into the wildernefs for forty days after his 
baptifm. But yet this inftance is fubjedl to 
another mifedventure ; in that one of the 
evangelifts plainly affirms, that he was * thofe 

* forty days in the wildernefs with the wild 

* beafts/ Mark xvii. 13. And fo furely not 
in heaven, in the fame nature, by his bodily 
prefence with God and his holy angels. 

And let me add this by the way, that the 
interpretation of this place, John i. 1 . to be 
mentioned afterwards; and thofe of the two 
places before mentioned, John viii. 58. chap, 
iii, 31. Fauftus Socinus learned out of his 
uncle Lselius* papers, as he confeffeth; and 
doth more than intimate, that he believed he 
had them, as it were, by revelation ; and it 
may be fo; they are indeed fo forced, abfurd, 
<jnd irrational, that no man could ever fix 
upon them by any reafonable inveftigation. 
But the author of this revelation, if we may 
judge of the parent by the child, could be no 
other but the fpirit of error and darknefs. I 
fuppofe therefore, that notwithftanding theft? 



exceptions, Chriftians will believe, c that in 
• c the beginning the Word was with God:' 
that is, that the Son was with the Father, as 
is frequently elfewhere declared. 

But who was this Word ? faith the apoftle, 
He was God* He was fo with God, that 
is, the Father, as that he himfelf was God 
alfo. God, in that notion of God, which both 
nature and the fcripture doth reprefent. Not 
a God by office, one exalted to that dignity 
(which cannot well be pretended before the 
creation of the world) but as Thomas confeff- 
ed him, c our Lord and our God,' John xx. 
28. or as Paul expreffes it, * over all, God 
€ blefled for ever/ or the c molt high God / 
which thefe men love to deny. Let not the 
infidelity of men, excited by the craft and ma- 
liceof Satan, feek for blind occafions, and this 
matter is determined ; if the word and tefti- 
mony of God be able to umpire a difference 
amongft the children of men. Here is the 
fum of our Creed in this matter: c In the be* 
* ginning the Word was God/ and fo con- 
tinues unto eternity; being Alpha and Ome- 
ga, the Firf^ and the Laft, the Lord God 

And to (hew that he was fo God in the 
beginning, as that he was one diftinft in 
fomething from God the Father, by whom 
afterwards he was fent into the world, he 
adds, ver. 2. ' The fame was in the begin- 

F 3 « ning 


* ning with God.* Farther alio, to evince v 
what he hath aflerted, and revealed for us to 
believe, the Holy Ghoft adds, both as a firm 
declaration of his eternal Deity, and alfo his 
immediate care of the world (which how he 
varioufly exercifed both in a way of provi- 
dence, and grace, he afterwards declares) 
verfe 3, * all things were made by him.' He 
was fo in the beginning, before all things, as 
that he made them all. And that it may not 
be fuppofed, that the all that he is faid to 
make or create, was to be limited unto any 
certain fort of things, he adds, * that with* 

* out him nothing was made, that was made;* 
which gives the firft aflertion an abfolute 
univerfality, as to its fubjeft. 

And this he farther describes, ver. 10'. * He 
4 was in the world, and the world was made 
4 by him/ The world that wa* made hath 
an ufuat diftribution in the fcripture, into 
the 4 heavens and the earth, and all things 
4 contained in them ;* as Ads iv. 24. 4 Lord 
4 thou art God which haft made heaven, and 
4 earth, and the fea, and all that in them is*/ 
that is, the world, the making whereof is 
exprefsly afligned unto the Son, Heb* i. 1 ©• ] 
4 Thou Lord in the beginning haft laid the 

. * foundation of the earth, and the heavens , 
4 are the works of thine hands/ And the 

^apoftle Paul to fecure our underftandings in 
this matter, inftanceth in the moft noble parts 


•*• * 


of the creation, and which, if any, might 
feem to be excepted from being made by 
him, Col. i. 16* c For by him were all things 
f created that are in heaven, and that are in 

* earth, vifible and invifible, whether they be 

* thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or 

* powers, all things were created by him and 
' for him/ The Socinians fay, indeed, that 
he made angels to be thrones and principalis 
ties; that is, he gave them their order, but 
not their being; which is exprefsLy contrary 
to the words of the text : fo that a man knows 
not well what to fay to thefe perfons, who at 
their pleafure caft ojff the authority of God 
ia his word : 4 By him were all things creat- 

* ed, that are in heaven, and that are in earth/ 

What now can be required to fecure our 
faith in this matter ? In what words poffiblc 
could a divine revelation of the eternal power 
arid Godhead of the Son of God be made 
more plain, and clear unto the fons of men ? 
.Or how could the truth of any thing more 
evidently be reprefented unto their minds ? 
If we under ft and not the mind of God, and 
intention of the Holy Ghoft in this matter, 
we may utterly defpair ever to come to a& 
acquaintance with any thing that God reveals 
unto us ; or indeed with any thing elfe that 
ris expreffed, pr is to be expreffed, by words, 
Jt is dire&ly laid, that the Word, that is 
Chrift, as is acknowledged by all, was Jwith 



God; diftinft .from Rim, and was God 
one with him ; that he was fo in the begin- 
ning, before the creation; that he c made 
* all things, the world, all things, in heaven 
c and in earth.' And if he be not God, who 
is ? The fum is : Ail the ways whereby we 
may know God, are his name, his properties, 
and his works : but they are all here afcrib- 
ed, by the Holy Ghoft, to the Son, to the 
Wo*d : and he therefore is God, or we know 
neither who, nor what God is* 

But fay the Socinians, thefe things are 
quite otherwife, and the words have another 
fenfe in them than you imagine. 

What is it, I pray? We bring none to them, 
we impofe no fenfe upon them; we drain not 
any word in them, from, befides, or beyond 
its native, genuine fignification, its conftant 
application in the fcripture, and common ufe 
among men. What then is this latent fenie 
that is intended, and is difcoverable only by 
themfelves ? Let us hear them coining and 
damping this fenfe .of theirs. 

They fay then, that by, in the beginning, 
is not meant of the beginning of all things, 
or the creation of them; but the beginning 
of the preaching of the gofpel. 

But why fo, 1 pray? Wherever thefe words 
are elfe ufed in the fcripture, they denote 
die beginning of all things, or eternity abfo- 
lutely, or an exiftence preceding their crear 



tion. c In the beginning, God created heaven 

* and earth/ Gen. i. i . * I was fet up from 
\ everlafting, from the beginning, ere ever 
c the earth was/ Prov. viii. 23. * Thou Lord, 

* in the beginning haft laid the foundations 

* of the earth/ Heb. i. 10. And befides, thefe 
words are never ufed abfolutely any where 
for the beginning of the gofpel. There \% 
mention made, indeed, of the * beginning of 

* the gofpel of Jefus Chrift/ Mark i. i. which 
is referred to the preaching of John Baptift. 
Bttt * in the beginning abfolutely,' is never 
& ufed or applied. And they muft meet with 
men of no fmall inclination unto them, who 
will, upon their defire, in a matter of fo great 
importance, forego the fenfe of words, which 
is natural and proper, fixed by its eonfianff 
ufe in the feripture, when applied in the fame 
kind} for that which is forced, and ftrained* 
and not once exemplified in the whole book 
of God, 

But the words, they fay, are to be reftrain* 
ed to the fubjed matter treated of. Well, 
what is that fubjeft matter ? The new crea- 
tion by the preaching of the gofpel. 

But this is plainly falfe, nor will the words 
allow any fuch fenfe, nor the context \ nor 
is any thing offered to give evidence unto this 
corrupt perverting of the words, unlefs it be 
a farther perverting of other teftimonies, no 
lefs clear than this. For what is, according 



to this interpretation, the meaning of thofe 
Words, c In the beginning was the Word ?' 
that is, when John Baptift preached, and faid, 

* this is the Lamb of God/ which was fig- 
nally the beginning of the gofpel, then he was. 
That is, he was when he was, no doubt of it. 
And is not this a notable way of interpreting 
of fcripture, which thefe great pretenders to 
a didatorfhip in reafon, indeed hucksters in 
fophiftry, do make life of? 

. But to go on with them in this fuppofition: 
how was he then with God ? * The Word 

* was with God.' That is, fay they, he was 
then known only to God, before John Bap- 
tift preached him in the beginning. 

But what (hall compel us to admit of this 
uncouth fenfeand expofition ? He was with 
God, that is, he was known to God alone. 
What is there lingular herein, concerning 
how many things may the fame be affirmed ? 
Befides, it is absolutely falfe. He was known 
to the angel Gabriel, who came to his mother 
with the meffage of his incarnation, Luke i. 
35. He was known to the two angels which 
appeared to the fhepherds upon his birth, 
Luke ii. To all the heavenly hoft affembled 
to give praife and glory to God on the ac- 
count of his nativity, as thofe who came to 
worfhip him, and to pay him the homage due 
unto him, Luke ii. 10, 13, 14. *He toras 
known to is mother, the bleffed Virgin ; and 



to Jofeph and Zachariah; and to Elizabeth, 
to Simeon and Anna; to John Baptift; and 
probably to many more, to whom Simeon 
and Anna fpake of him, Luke ii. 38. So that 
the fenfe pretended to be wrung out and ex- 
torted from thefe words, againft their proper 
meaning and intendment, is indeed falfe and 
frivolous, and belongs not at all unto them. 

But let this pafs. What (hall we^fay to 
the next words ? * And the Word was God/ 
Give us leave, without difturbance from you, 
but to believe this expreffion, which com- 
prifeth a revelation of God, propofed to us 
on purpofe that we fhould believe it, and 
there will be, as was faid, an end of this dif- 
ference and debate. Yea, but fay they, thefe 
words have another fenfe alfo. Strange! 
they feem to be fo plain and pofitive, that it 
is impoffible any other fenfe mould be fixed 
on them, but only this, That the Word was 
in the beginning, and was God, and there* 
fore is fo ftill, unlefs he who is once God can 
ceafe fo to be. But the meaning is; that af- 
terwards, God exaked him, and made him 
God, as to rule, authority, and power. 

This making of him God, is an expreffion 
very offenfive to the ears of all fober Chrifti- 
ans, and was therefore before exploded. And 
thefe things here, as all other figments, hang 
together like a rope of fands. In the begin- 
ning of the gofpel he was God, before any 



knew him but only God, That is, after he 
had preached the gofpel, and died, and rofe 
again, and was exalted at the right hand of 
God, he was made God; and that not pro- 
perly, which is absolutely impoffible, but in 
an improper fenfe. How prove they then 
this perverfe nonfenfe to be the fenfe of thefe 
plain words. They fay, it mud need be fo* 
Let them believe them, who are willing to 
perifh with them. 

Thus far then we have their fenfe: In the 
beginning, that is, about fixteen, or feven- 
teen hundred years ago, the Word, that is, 
the human nature of Chrift, before it was 
made flefli, which it was in its beginning, 
was with God ; that is, known to God 
alone ; and in the beginning, that is, after- 
wards, not in the beginning, was made God; 
which is the fum of their expofition of this 

But what (hall we fay to what is affirmed 
concerning his making of all things, fo as 
that without him, that is, without his mak- 
ing of it, nothing was made that was made? 
efpecially feeing that thefe all things are ex- 
preilly faid to be the world, verfe. 10. and 
all things therein contained, even in heavea 
and and earth, Col. i. i6. An ordinary 
man would think, that they fhould now be 
taken hold of, and that there is no way of 
efcape left unto them. But they have it in 



E readinefs. By the all things here, are in- 
tended all things of the gofpel, the preach- 
ing of it, the fending of the apoftles to preach 
it, and to declare the will of God; and by 
the world, is intended the world to come, or 
the new ftate of things under the gofpel. 
This is the fubftance of what is pleaded by the 
greateft matters amongfi them in this matter, 
and they are not afhamed thus to plead. 

And the reader, in this inftance, may eafily 
difcern what a defperate caufe they are en- 
gaged in, and how bold and defperate they 
are in the management of it. For, 

Firft, The words are a plain illuflration of 
the divine nature of the Word, by his divine 
power and works, as the very feries of them 
declares. He was God, and he made all 
things; * for he that made all things is God/ 
Heb. iii. 4. 

Secondly, There is no one word fpoken 
concerning the gofpel, nor the preaching of 
it, nor any effects of that preaching, which 
the apoftle exprefsly infifts upon and declares 
afterwards, ver. 14. and fo onwards. 

Thirdly, The making of all things, here 
afcribed unto the Word, was done in the be- 
ginning. But that making of all things which 
they intend, in eredting the church by the 
preaching of the word, was not done in the 
beginning, but afterwards; molt of it, as 
themfelves confefs, after the afcenfion of 
Chrift into heaven. 

G Fourthly., 


Fourthly y In this glofs, what is the mean- 
ing of all things ? only fome things, fay the 
Socinians. What is the meaning' of were 
jnade? That is, were mended. By him? that 
is, the apoftles principally preaching the gof* 
pel. And this in the beginning, after it was 
paft : for fo they fay exprefsly, that the prin- 
pal things here intended, were effe&ed by 
the apoIHes afterwards. 

I think fince the beginning, place it where 
you will, the beginning of the world, or the 
beginning x>f the gofpel, there was never fuch 
jan expofitloji of the wordsx>f God, or man, 
contended for. 

Fifthly, It is faid, be made the world, and 
he canxe into it, namely, the world which he 
made; ajid the world, or the inhabitants of 
k, knew him nojL But the world the* in- 
tend did know him; or the church knew him, 
and acknowledged him to be the Son of God. 
For that was the foundation that it was built 

I have inftanced direftly in this only tefti- 
mony, to give the reader a pledge of the full 
confirmation which may be given unto this 
great fundamental truth, by a due improve- 
ment of thofe other teftimonies, or diftinft 
revelations, which fpeak no iefs exprefsly to 
the fame purpofe. And of them, there is 
not anyone but we are ready to vindicate it, 
if called thereunto, from the exceptions of 
Jhefe men; which how bold and fophiftical 



they are, we may, in thefe now confidered, 
alfo learn and know. 

It appeareth then, that there fc a full fufr 
ficient revelation made in the fcripture of the 
eternal IJeity of the Son of God ; and that he 
is fo, as is the Father alfo. More particular 
teftAmonies I fliall not at prefent infift upon, 
referring the full difcuffion and vindication 
of thefe truths to another feafon. 

4. We are therefore in the next place to 
manifeft, that the fame, or the like tefti*nony, 
is given unto the Deity of the Holy Spirit j 
that is, that he is revealed and declared irt 
the fcripture, as the objeft of our faith, wor- 
Ihip, and obedience on the account, and for 
the reafon of thofe divine excellencies, which 
are the fole reafon of our yielding religious 
1 worfhip unto any, or expecting from any the 
reward that is promifed unto us, or to be 
brought by them to the end for which we 
are. And herein lies, as was (hewed the 
concernment^ of faith. When that knows 
what it is to believe, as on divine revelation, 
and is enabled thereby to regulate the foul 
in its prefent obedience and future expecta- 
tion, feeing it is its nature to wdrk by love 
and hope, there it refts.. Now this is - done 
to the utmoft fatisfa&ion, in the revelation 
that is made of the divine exiftence, divine 
excellencies, and divine operations of the 
Spirit, as fhall be briefly manifefted, 

G % But 


But before we proceed, we may, m our 
way, obferve a great congruency of fucceis 
m thofe who have denied the Deity of the Son, 
and thofe who have denied that of the Holy 
Spirit, For as to the Son, after fome men 
began once to difbelieve the revelation con* 
cerning him, and would not acknowledge 
him to be God and man in one perfon, they 
could never fettle nor agree, either what, or 
who he was, or who was his Father, or why 
he was the Son. Some faid he was a phan- 
tafm, or appearance, and that he had no real 
fubfiftence in this world; and that all that 
was done by him was an appearance, he him- 
felf being they know not what elfewhere. 
That proud bealt Paulus Samofatenus, whofe 
flagitious life contended for a pre-ertiinenee 
in wickednefs with his prodigious herefies, * 
was one of the firft, after the Jews, that po- 
fitively contended for his being a man, and 
no more, who w*s followed by Photinus, and' 
fome others. The Arians perceiving the 
folly of this opinion, with the odium of it a- 
mong all that bare the name of Chriftians, 
and that they had as good deny the whole 
fcripture as not grant unto him a pre-exift- 
ence, in a divine nature, antecedent to his 
incarnation; they framed a new Deity, which 
God fhould make before the world, in all 
things like to himfelf, but not the fame with 
him in effence and fubftance; but to be fo 
like him, that by the writings of fome of 



them, ye can fcarce know one from the other; 
and that this was the Son of God alfo, who 
was afterwards incarnate. Others in the / 
meaa time had more monftrous imaginations; 
ibme that he was an Angel, fome that he was 
the Sun, fome that he was the Soul of the 
world, fome the light within men. Depart^ 
ing from their propel reft, fo have they ho- 
vered about, and fo they have continued to 
do until this day. 

In the fame manner it is come to pafs with 
them who have denied the Deity of the Holy 
Ghoft. They could never find where to 
ftand or abide ; but one hath cried up one 
thing, another another. At firft they obferv- 
ed, that fuch things were every where afcrib- 
ed unto him in the fcripture, as uncontroul- 
ably evidenced him to be an intelligent, vo- 
luntary agent. This they found fo plain and 
evident, that they could not deny, but that 
he was a perfon, or an intelligent fubfiftence. 
Wherefore, feeing they were refolved not to 
affent unto the revelation of his being God, 
they made him a created Spirit, chief, and 
above all others* But (till whatever elfe he 
was, he was only a creature* And this courfe 
fome of late alfo have fleered. 

The Socinians, on the other hand, obferv- 
ing that fuch things are afligned and afcribed 
unto him, as that if they acknowledged him 
to be a perfon, or a fubftance, they mufl up- 

G 3 on 


on neceffity admit him to be God; though 
they feemed not at firft at all agreed what to 
think, or fay concerning him pofitively, yet 
they all concurred peremptorily in defying 
his perfonality. Hereon, fome of them faid 
he was the Gofpel, which others of them 
have confuted; fome that he was Chrift. 
Neither could they agree, whether there was 
one Holy Ghoft, or more, whether the Spi- 
rit of God, and the good Spirit of God, and 
the Holy Spirit, be the fame or not. In ge- 
neral now they conclude, that he is vis Dei y 
or virtus Dei y or efficacia Dei ; no fubftance, 
but a quality that may be confidered either 
as being in God, and then they fay it is the 
Spirit of God ; or as fan&ifying, and con- 
forming men unto God, and then they fay 
it is the Holy Ghoft. Whether thefe things 
do anfwer the revelation made in the fcrip- 
ture concerning the eternal Spirit of God, 
will be immediately manifefted. Our Quakers, 
"who have Tor a long feafon hovered up and 
down, like a fwarm of flies, with a confufed 
noife and humming, begin now to fettle in 
the opinions lately by them declared for. But 
what their thoughts will fall into concerning 
the Holy Ghoft, when they fhall be content- 
ed to fpeak intelligibly, and according to the 
ufage of other men, or the pattern of fcrip- 
ttire, the great rule of fpeaking or treating 
about fpiritual things, I know not, and am 



Trinity vihi>icatei>. 79 

uncertain whether tlhey do fo themfelves, or • 
not. Whether he may be the light withiii 
them, or an infallible afflatus ^ is uncertain- 
In the mean time, what is revealed unto us in 
the fcripture to be believed concerning the 
Holy Ghoft, his Deity and Perfonality, may* 
be feen in the enfuing teftimonies. The funt 
of this revelation is, that the Holy Spirit is 
an eternally divine exifting fubftance, the 
author of divine operations, and -the obje& 
of divine and religious worfhip ; that is over 
all God bleffed for ever; as the enfuing tef- 
timonies evince. 

Gen, 1. 2. * The Spirit of God moved upon 

* the face of the waters.* 

Pfalrn xxxiii. 6. 4 By the word of the Lord 
-* were the heavens made, and all the hoft of 

* them by the Spirit of his mouth.' 

- Job xxvi. 13. * By his Spirit he hath gar* 

* nifhed the heavens/ 

Job xxxiii. 4. * The Spirit of God hath 

* made me/ 

Pfalrn civ. 30* * Thou fendeft forth thy 
•Spirit; they are created/ 

Mat. xxviit. 19. * Baptizing them in the 

* name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
« the Holy Ghoft/ 

A&s L 1 6. c That fcripture muft needs have 
€ been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghoft by the 

* mouth of David fpake/ 

A&$ V. 3.' 4 Feter faid «© Ananias, why 




4 hath Satan filled thy heart to lie to the 
4 Holy Ghoft V 

Ver. 4. * Thou haft not lied unto men, 

* but unto God.' 

A£ts xxviii. 25, 26. * Well fpake the Holy 

* Ghoft by Efaias the prophet unto our Fa- 

* thers, faying, go unto this people and fay— 

1 Cor. iii. 16. ' Know ye not that ye are 
4 the temple of God, and that the Spirit of 

* God dwelleth in you/ 

1 Cor. xii. 11. < All thefe worketh that 

* one and felf-fame fpirit, dividing to every 
4 man as he will/ 

Ver. 6. * And there are diverfities of ope- 

* rations, but it is the fame God which work- 
4 eth all in all/ 

2 Cor. xiii. 1 4. * The grace of the Lord 

* Jefus Chrift, and the love of God, and the 

* communion of the Holy Ghoft be with 

* you all/ 

* Ads xx. 28. c Take heed to the flock over 
4 which the Holy Ghoft hath made you over- 
4 feers/ 

Matth. xii. 31. 4 All manner of fin and 
4 blafphemy fliall be forgiven j*nto men, but 
4 the blafphemy againft the Holy Ghoft fliall 
4 not be forgiven unto men.* 

Pfal. cxxxix. 7. 4 Whither fliall I go from 
4 thy Spirit ?' 

John xiv. 7. 4 But the Comforter, which 
4 is the Holy Ghoft, whom the Father will 

4 fend 


' fend in my name, he (hall teach you alt 

* things.* 

Luke arii. 12. « The Holy Ghoft fhalt 

* teach you in the fame hour what you ought * 

* to fay.' ^ . 

. A&s xiii. 3, c And as they miniftred to 

4 the Lord and fafted, The Holy Ghoft faid, 

c feparate me Barnabas and Saul for the work 

' whereiinto I have called them/ 

Verfe 4. * So they being fent forth by 

* the Holy Ghoft, departed into/ &c. 

2 Pet. i. 2 1 . * For the prophefy came not 
€ in old time by the will of men, but holy y 

* men of God fpake as they were moved bt '% 

* the Holy Ghoft/ 

It is evident, upon the firft confideration, 
that there is not any thing which we believe 
concerning the Holy Ghoft; but that it 
is plainly revealed and declared in thefe tef- 
timonies. He is directly affirmed to be^ and 
is called God, Atts v. 3, 4. Which the" 
Socinians will not fay is by virtue of an ex- 
altation unto an office or authority, as they 
fey of the Son. That he is an intelligent, 
voluntary, divine agent: he knoweth, he 
worketh as he : will. Which things if, in 
their frequent repetition, they are not fuf- 
fident to evince ah intelligent agent, a per- 
ibnal fubfiftence, that hath being, life and 
will; we muft confefs, that the fcripture was 
written on purpofe to lead us into miftakes 



as to an intereft in personality; who hath 
the names proper to a divine perfon only, 
and is frequently and dire&ly called by them ; 
who alfo hath perfonal properties, and is the 
voluntary author of perfoQal divine opera- 
tions, and the proper objeft of divine worfhip, 
he is a diftinft, divine perfon. And if thefe 
things be not fufficient evidence and demon- 
stration of a divine, intelligent fubftance, I 
fhall, as was faid before, defpair to under- 
fland any thing that is expreffed and declar- 
ed by words. . But now, thus it is with the 
Holy Ghoft, according to the revelation 
made concerning him in the fcripture. For, 
Firjiy He is placed in the fame rank and 
order, without any note of difference or di- 
ftin&iori, as to a diftinft intereft in the di- 
vine nature, that is, as we fhall fee, perfo* 
nality, with other divine perfons. Matth. 
xxvhi. 19. c Baptizing them in the name 
of the Father, and the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghoft,' 1 John v. 7. c There be three 
that bear witnefs in Heaven, the Father, 
the Son, and the Spirit, and thefe three are 
one/ 1 Cor. xii. 3, 4, 5, 6r~ >r "No man can 
fay the Lord Jefus Chrift is the Lord, but 
by the Holy Ghoft; now there are diverfi. 
ties of gifts, but the fame Spirit; and there 
are differences of adminift rations, but the 
-ord; and there are diverlities of 
►ns, but it is the fame God which 

* worketh 


* worketh all in all/ Neither doth a denial 
of his divine being, and diftinft exiftence, 
leave any tolerable fenfe unto thefe expref* 
fions. For read the words of the ififft place 
from the mind of the Socinians, and fee 
what is it can be gathered from them. Bap- 
tizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son; and of the virtue or efficacy of 
the Father. Can any thing be more abfo- 
nant from faith and reafon, than this abfurd 
expreffion? And yet it is the dire& fenfe, if 
it be any, that thefe men put upon the words. 
To join a quality with acknowledged perfons, 
and that in fuch things and cafes, as wherein 
they are propofed under a perfonal confider- 
ation, is a ftrange kind of myftery. And 
the like may be manifefted concerning the 
other places. 

Secondly, He alfo hath the names proper 
to a divine perfon only. For he is exprefsly 
called God, A&s. v. He who is termed the 
Holy Ghoft, ver. 3. and the Spirit of the 
J.ord, ver. 9. is called alfo God, ver. 4. 
Now this is the name of a divine perfon on 
one account or other. The Socinians would 
liot allow Chrift to be called God, were ha 
not a divine perfon, though not by nature, 
yet by office and authority. And I fuppofe, 
they will not find out an office for the Holy 
Ghoft, whereunto he might be exalted, oil 
the account whereof he might become God - 9 



feeing this would acknowledge him to be a 
perfon, which they deny. So he is called the 
Comforter, Johnxvi. 7. A perfonal appella- 
tion this is alfo; and becaufe he is the com- 
forter of all God's people, it can be the name 
of none but a divine perfon. In the fame 
place alfo it is frequently affirmed, that he 
fliall come, 'that he {hall, and will do fuch and 
fuch things, all of them declaring him to be 
a perfon. 

Thirdly •, He hath perfonal properties af- 
figned unto him; as a will, 1 Cor. xii. 11. 
4 He divideth to every man feverally as he 

* will.' And underftanding, 1 Cor. ii. 10. 

* The Spirit fearcheth all things, yea, the 
« deep things of God/ As alio all the ac- 
tings that are afcribed unto him, are all of 
them fuch, as undeniably affirm perfonal pro- 
perties in their principal and agent. For, 

Fourthly, He is the voluntary author of 
divine operations. He of old cherifhed the 
creation, Gen. i. 3. * The Spirit of God 

* moved upon the face of the waters/ He 
-formed^ and garnifhed the Heavens. He in- 
fpired, a&ed and fpake, in and by the pro- 
phets, Afts xxviii. 25, 26. ' Well fpake the 
4 Holy Ghoft by IfaLah the prophet unto bur 

* Fathers*' 2 Pet. i. 21. c The prophecy 
4 came not in old time by the will of man, but 

* ttoly men of God fpake as they were moved 

* by the Holy Ghoft/ He regenerated, eri- 
lighteneth, fan&ifieth, comforteth, inftruc- 

' H teth, 


teth, Jeadeth, guideth, all the difciples of 
Chrift, as the fcriptures every where teftify. 
Now all thefe are perfonal operations, and 
cannot with any pretence of fobriety, or con- 
fiflency with reafon, be conflantly and uni- 
formly afligned unto a quality or virtue. He 
is, as the Father and Son, God, with the 
properties of omnifcience and omnipotency, 
of life, underftanding, and will; and by 
thefe properties works, a&s, and produceth 
effe&s according to wifdom, choice, and 

Fifthly, The fame regard is had to him in 
faith, worfhip, and obedience, as unto the 
other perfons of the Father, and Son. For 
our being baptized into his name, is our fo- 
lemn engagement to believe in him, to yield 
obedience to him, and to worfhip him, as it 
puts the fame obligation upon us to the Fa* 
ther and the Son. So alfo in reference unto 
the worfhip of the cliurch, he commands 
that the roinifters of it be feparated unto hiro- 
felf, A&8 xiii. 2. ' The Holy Ghoft faid fe- 
c parate rne Barnabas and Saul, for the work 
* whereunto I have called them/ 

Ver. 4. 4 So they being fent forth by the 
c Holy Ghoft departed;' which is compre^ 
henfive of all the religious worfhip of the 

And on the fame account is he finned 
againft, as Afts v. 3, 4, 9. For there is the 
jfrme reafon of fin and obedience. Againfl 



whom a man may fin formally and ultimately, 
him he is bound to obey, worihip, and believe 
in. And this can be no quality, but God 
himfelf. For what may be the fenfe of this 
expreffion? Thou haft lied to the efficacy of 
God in his operations. Or how can we for-* 
mally be obliged unto obedience to a quality. 
There mu ft then an antecedant obligation 
unto faith, truft, and religious obedience be 
fuppofed as the ground of rendering a perfon 
capable of being guilty of fin towards any. 
For fin is but a failure in faith, obedience, ot 
worihip. 'Thefe therefore are due unto the 
Holy Ghoft \ or a man could not fin againffc 
him fo fignally and fatally, as fome are faid 
to do in the foregoing teftimonies. 

I fay therefore unto this part of our caufe, 
as unto the other, that urilefs we call off alF 
reverence of God, and in a kind of atheifin, 
which as I fuppofe the prevailing wickednefs 
of this age hath not yet arrived unto, fay that 
the fcriptures were written on purpofe to de- 
ceive us, and lead unto miftakes about, and 
mifapprehenfions of what it propofeth unto 
us ; we mult acknowledge the Holy Ghoft to 
be a fubftance, a perfon, God; yet diftintt 
from the Father and the Son. For to tell us, 
that he will come unto us, that he will be our 
comforter that he will teach us, lead us, 
guide us, that he fpake of old, in and by the 
prophets, that they were moved by him, adted 
by him, that he fearcheth the deep things of 

H 2 God, 


God, works as he will, that he appointeth to 
hitnfelf minifters in the church; in a word, 
to- declare in places innumerable, what he 
hath done, what he doth, what he will do, 
what he fays, and 1 peaks, how he a&s, and 
proceeds, what his will is; and to warn us* 
that we grieve him not, fin not againft him, 
with things innumerable of the like nature} 
and all this while to oblige us to believe that 
he is not a perfon, an helper, a comforter, a 
fearcher, a wilier, but a quality in fome ef- 
pecial operations of God, or his power and 
virtue in them, were to diftrafl: men, not to 
inftrud them, and leave them no certain con- 
clufion but this, that there is nothing certain 
in. the whole Book of God. And of no other 
tendency are thefe, and the like imaginations 
of our adverfaries in this matter. 

But let us briefly confider what is obje&ed 
in general unto the truth we have confirmed 

They fay then, that the Holy Spirit is faid 
to be given, to be fent, to be bellowed ©ft 
men, and to be promifed unto them; and 
therefore it cannot be, that he fhould be God. 
For how can any of thefe things be fpokea 
of God? 

I anfwer, Fir/}, As thefe expreffions do not 
prove him to be God, nor did ever any pro- 
. duce them to that purpofe, yet they tindeni- 
bly prove him to be a perfon ; or an intelligent 
voluntary agent, concerning whom they are 
fpoken and affirmed. For how can the power 



of God, or a quality as they fpeak, be faid to 
be fent, to be given, to be beftowed on men ? 
So that thefe very expreffions are deftru&ive 
to their imaginations. 

Secondly, He who is God, equal in nature 
and being with the Father, may be promifed, 
fent, and given, with refpeft unto the holy 
difpenfation and condefcenfion, wherein he 
hath undertaken the office of being our com- 
forter and fan&ifier. 

Thirdly, The communications, diftributions, 
impartings, divifions of the Spirit, which they 
mention as they refpeft the object of them; 
or thofe on whom they were, pr are beftowed, 
denote only works, gifts, operations, and ef* 
fefts of the Spirit, the rule whereof is exprefled 
j Cor. xii. 7. 4 He worketh them in whom 
* he will, and as he will/ And whether thefe, 
and the like exceptions, taking from aftings 
and operations, which are plainly interpreted 
and explained in fundry places of fcripture, 
and evidently enough in the particular places 
where they are ufed, are fufficient to impeach 
the truth of the revelation before declared, 
all who have a due reverence of God, his 
word and truths, will eafily understand and 

Thefe things being declared in the fcripture 
concerning the Father, the Son and the Holy 
Ghoft, it is moreover revealed, and thefe 
three are one; that is, one God, Jointly to be 
worfhipped, feared, adored, believed in and 

H 3 obeyed 


obeyed in order unto eternal life. For al- 
though this doth abfolutely and neceffarily 
follow, from what is declared, and hath been 
fpoken concerning the one God, or onenefa 
of the Deity; yet for the confirmation of our 
faith, and that we may not, by the diftin£t 
confideration of the three, be taken off from 
the one, it is particularly declared, that thefe 
three are one, that one, the one and fame 
God, But whereas, as was faid before, this 
can no otherwife be* the teftimonies given 
thereunto are not fo frequently multiplied, as 
they are unto thofe other heads of this truth, 
which through the craft of Satan and the 
pride of men, might be more liable to ex- 
ceptions. But yet they are clear, full, and 
diftin&ly fuffident for faith to acquiefce in 
immediately, without any other expofitions, 
interpretations, or arguments, beyond our 
underftanding of the naked importance of the 
words. Such are they of the Father and the 
Son, John x. 30. 'I and my Father are one.* 
Father, Son, and Spirit, 1 John v. 7. * Three 
' that bare witnefs in heaven, Father, Son, 
* and Spirit j and thefe three are one,' Mat. 
jxxviii. 1 9. ' Baptizing them in the name of 
4 the Father, Son, and Spirit.' For if thofe 
into whofe name we are baptized be not one 
in nature, we are by our baptifm engaged in- 
to the fervice and worfhip of more God's 
than one. For as being baptized, or facredly 
initiated into, or in the name of any one, doth 



fecramentally bind as unto a holy and religi- 
ous obedience unto him, and in all thing* to 
the avowing of him as the God whofe we are, 
and whom we ferve, as here we are in the 
name of the Father, Son, and Spirit ; fo if 
they are not one God, the blafphemous con- 
fequence beforementioned muft unavoidably 
be admitted; which it alfo doth upon the 
Socinian principle, who while of all others 
they feem to contend moft for one God, are 
indeed direft Polytheifts, by owning otheri 
with religious refped, due to God alone, 
tf hich are not fo. 

Once more: It is revealed alfo, that thefe 
three are diftinck among themfelves by certain 
peculiar Relative properties, if I may yet ufe 
thefe terms. So that they are diftind, living, 
divine, intelligent voluntary principles of ope- 
ration or working, and that in, and by eternal 
a&s one towards another,' and in ads that 
outwardly refpeft the creation and the feverai 
parts of it. Now this diftinftion originally 
jieth in this: that the Father begetteth the 
Son, and the Son is begotten of the Father j 
and the Holy Spirit proceedeth from both of 
them. The manner of thefe things, fo far as' 
ihey may be expreffed unto our edification, 
lhall afterwards be fpoken to. At prefent it 
fufficeth, for the fatisfa&ion and confirmation 
©f our faith, that the diftin&ions named are 
clearly revealed in the fcripture, and are pro- 
moted to be its proper objeft in this matter: 



Pfalin ii. 7. « Thou art my Son, this day 

* have I begotten thee/ Matth. xvi. 1 6. 

* Thou art Chrift, the Son of the living God/ 
John. i. 14. * We faw his glory of the only 
« begotten of the Father/ Ver. 18. 'No 

* man hath feen God at any time, the only 

* begotten Son, which is in the bofom of the 
€ Father, he hath revealed him/ John v. 26. 
' For as the Father hath life in himfelf, fo hath 
c he given to the Son to have life in himfelf,* 
1 John v. 20. * The Son of God is come, 
c and hath given us an underflanding/ John 
xiv. 26. 4 But when the Comforter is com£, 

* whom I will fend unto you from the Father, 
4 even the fpirit of truth, which proceedeth 

* from the Father, he (hall teftify of me/ 

.Now as the nature of this diftinftion lies in 
their mutual relation one to another, fo it is 
the foundation of thofe diftinfk a&ings and 
operations, whereby the diftindtion itfelf is 
clearly manifefled and confirmed. And thefe 
aftings, as was faid, are either fuch, as where 
pne of them is the objeft of another's aftings, 
pr fuch as have the creature for their objefts. 
The firft fort are teftified unto, Pfalm ex. 1. 
John i. 18. chap. v. 20. chap. xvii. 5. 1 Cor. 
ii. 10, 11. Prov. viii. 21,22. Moft of which 
places have been before recited. They which 
thus know each other, love each other, delight 
in each other, muft ne^ds be diftinft; and fo 
are they represented unto our faith. And for 
the other fort of a&ings the fcripture is full 



of the expreflions of them. See Gen. xix, 
24. Zacbariah ii. 8. John v. 17. 1 Cor xii. 
7, 8, 9. 1 Cor viii. 9. 

Our conclufion from the whole is: That 
there is nothing more fully expreffed in the 
fcripture than this facred truth is: that there 
is one God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft ; 
which are divine, diftinft, intelligent, volun- 
tary, pmnipotent principles of operation* and 
working: which whofoever thinks himfeh? 
obliged to believe the fcripture. muft believe; 
and concerning others, in this difcourfe, we 
are not folicitous. 

This is that which was firft proposed* 
namely: To manifeft what is exprefsly re-* 
vealed in the fcripture concerning God, the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft ; fo as that w* 
may duly believe in him, yield obedience un- 
to him, enjoy communion with him, walk in 
his love and fear, and fo come at length to be 
bieffed with him for evermore. Nor doth faith 
faritsfecurity, eftablifhment, anddire&ion,ab*- 
folutely ftand in need of any farther expofitioa 
or explanation of thefe things, or the ufe of 
any terms not confecrated to the prefent fer- 
vice by the Holy Ghoft. But,- 

Whereas this do&rine may be variouily af- 
faulted by the temptations of Satan, a&d op- 
pofed by the fubtile fophifms of men of corrupt 
minds; and whereas it is the duty of the dif- 
ciples of Chrift to grow in the knowledge of 
God, and our Lord and Saviour Jefus Chrift, 

• by 


by an explicit apprehenlion of the things they 
do believe, fo far as they are capable of them ; 
this doctrine hath in all ages of the church 
been explained and taught, in and by fuch 
expreffions, terms, and propofitions; as far- 
ther declare what is neceffarily included in it, 
or confequent unto it$ with an exclufion of 
fuch things, notions and apprehenfions, as are 
neither the one, nor the other. This I (hall 
briefly manifeft, and then vindicate the whole 
from fome exceptions, and fo clofe this dif- 

i. That God is one, was declared and prov- 
ed, now this onenefs can refpeft nothing but 
the nature, being, fubftance or effence of God. 
God is one in this refpeft. Some of thefe 
words indeed are not ufed in the fcripture. But 
whereas they are of the fame importance and 
fignification, and none of them include any 
thing of imperfe&ion, they are properly ufed 
in the declaration of the unity of the Godhead. 
There is mention in the fcripture of the God- 
head of God, Rom. i. 20. * His eternal power 
< and Godhead.' And of his nature, by ex- 
cluding them from being obje&s of our wor- 
(hip, who are ' not God by nature,' Gal. iv* 
$. Now this natural Godhead of God is his 
fubitance or effence, with all the holy divine 
excellencies which naturally and neceffarily 
appertain thereunto. Such are eternity, itn- 
menfity, omnipotency, life, infinite holinefs, 
goodnefs, and the like. This one nature, 



fubftance or effence, being the nature, fub- 
ftance or effence of God, as God ; is the na- 
ture, effence, and fubftance of the Father, 
Son, and Spirit; one and the fame absolutely 
in and unto each of them. For none can be 
God as they are revealed to be, but by virtue 
of this divine nature, or beings Herein con- 
fifts the unity of the Godhead. 

2. The diftin&ion which the fcripture re- 
veals between Father, Son, and Spirit, is that, 
whereby they are three hypoftafies, or per- 
fons, diftinttly fubfifting in the fame divine 
effence or being. Now a divine perfon is no- 
thing, but the divine effence, upon the ac- 
count of an efpecial property, fubfifting in an 
efpecial manner. As in the perfon of the 
Father, there is the divine effence, and being, 
.with its property of begetting the Son, fub- 
fifting in an efpecial manner as the Father: 
and becaufe this perfon hath the whole divine 
.nature, all the effential properties of that 
.nature are in that perfon. The wifdom, the 
underftanding of God, the will of God, the 
immenfity of God, is in that perfon ; not as 
that perfon, but as the perfon is God. The 
like is to be faid of the perfons of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghoft. Hereby each perfon 
having the underftanding, the will, and power 
of God, becomes a diftinft principle of ope- 
ration; and yet all their actings, ad extra, be- 
ing the aftings of God, they are undivided, 
#nd are all the works of one, of the felf fame 



God. And thefe things do not only fiecek 
farily follow, but are dire&ly included in the 
revelation made concerning God, and his 
fubfiftence in the fcriptures. 

3. There aTe indeed very many other things 
that are taught, and difputed, about this doc- 
trine of the Trinity, as the manner of the 
eternal generation of the Son, of the effence 
of the Father; of the proceflion of the Holy 
Cf hoft, and the difference of it from the gene- 
ration of the Son ; of the mutual in-being of 
the perfons, by reafon of their unity in the 
-fame fubftance, or effence; the nature of the 
perfonal fubfiftence, with refpefl: unto their 
properties whereby they are mutually diftin- 
guifhed; all which are true and defenfible a- 
gainft all the fophifms of the adverfaries of 
this truth. Yet becaufe the diftinft appre- 
henfion of them, and their accurate exprek 
fion, is not neceflary unto faith, as it is our 
^guide and principle in and unto religious wqr- 
fhip and obedience, they need not here be in- 
filled on. Nor are thofe brief explications 
themfelves before mentioned fo propofed, as 
to be placed immediately in the fame rank or 
order with the original revelations before in- 
filled on; but only are preffed as proper ex- 
preflions of what is revealed, to increafe our 
light and further our edification. And al- 
though they cannot rationally be oppofed or 
denied, nor ever were by any, but fugh as 
deny and oppofe the things themfelves as re* 



vealed; yet they that do fo deny or oppofe 
them, aTe to be required pofitively, in the 
firft place to deny or difapprove the onenefs of 
the Deity; or to prove, that the Father, or 
Son, or Holy Ghoft in particular, are not 
God, before they be allowed to fpeak one 
Word againft the manner of explication of 
the truth concerning them. For either they 
grant the revelation declared and contended 
for, or they do not. If they do, let that con- 
ceffion be firft laid down, namely, that the 
Father, Son, and Spirit are one God; and 
then let it be debated, whether they are one 
in fubftance and three in perfons, or how elfe 
the matter is to be ftated; If they deny it; it 
is a plain madnefs to difpute of the manner of 
any thing, and the way of expreffing it, whilft 
the thing itfelf is denied to have a being. For 
of that which is not, there is neither manner, 
property, adjunft, nor effe£t. Let then fuch 
perfons, as this fort of men are ready to at- 
tempt with their fophiftry, and to amufe with 
cavils about perfons, fubftances, fubfiftences, 
and the like, defire to know of them, what 
it is that they would be at? What would they 
deny, what w r ould, they difapprove? Is it that 
God is one; or that the Father is God, or the 
Son, or the Holy Ghoft is fo? If they deny,. 
or oppofe either of thefe, they have teftimo- 
nies and inftances of divine revelation, or 
may have in a readinefs, to confound the 
devil and all his emiflaries. If they will not 

I do 


do fo, if they refufe it, then let them know, 
that .it is moft foolifh and unreasonable to 
contend about expreffions and explanations of 
any thing, or do&rine; about the manner, 
,refpects, or relations of any thing; until the 
thing itfelf, or doftrine, be plainly confeffed 
or denied. If this they refufe, as generally 
.they do and will, which I fpeak upon fufficient 
experience, and will not be induced to deal 
openly, properly, and rationally; but will 
.keep to their cavils and fophifms, about terms 
and expreffions, all farther debate, or con- 
ference with them may juftly, and ought both 
confcientioufly and rationally to be refufed, 
: and reje&ed. For thefe facred myiteries of 
God, and the gofpel, are not lightly to be 
made the fubject of mens conteits and dif- 

J[$yit as we dealt before in particular, fo here 
I fhall give inftances of the fophiflical excep- 
tions that are ufed againft the whole of this 
dodtrine; and that with jefpefl: unto fome 
late colle&ions, and representations x>f them : 
from whence >they are taken jup and ufed by 
many who feem not to underftand the words, 
phrafes and expreffions themfelves which they 
make ufe of. 

The fum of what they fay in general: is, 
How can thefe things be? How can three be 
one, and one be three ? Every perfon hath its 
pwn fubftance, and therefore if there be three 
<£erfo*is, there muft be three fubftances, and 
ip three Gods. 


Anjhv. Every perfon hath diftin&ly its own? 
fubftance^ for the one fubftance of the Deity, 
is the fubftance of each perfon;:- fa it is ftilF 
but one. But each perfon hath not its own* 
diftinft fubftance, becaufe the fubftance of 
them all is the fame, as hath been proved. 

They fay again: That if each perfon be 
God, then each perfon is infinite, and there 
being three perfons, there mull be three in- 

Anfw. This follows not fn the leaft: For 
each perfon is infinite as he is God. All di- 
vine properties, fuch as to be infinite is, be- 
long not to the perfons on the account of their 
personality, but on the account of their na* 
ture, which is one, for they are all natural 

But they lay: If each perfon be God, and 
that God fubfift in three perfons ; then iit 
each perfon there are three perfons, or Gods^ 

Anfw. The collation of this fophifm con* 
fifts in that expreffion, be God, and that God* 
In the firft place, the nature of God is in- 
tended j in the latter, a lingular perfon. Place 
the words intelligibly and they are thus : If 
each perfon be God, and the nature of God 
fublifts in three perfons ; then in each perfon' 
there are three perfons; and then the folly of 
it will be evident. 

But they farther infer : That if we deny 
the perfons to be infinite, then an infinite be- 
ing hath a finite mode of fubfifting: and fo I 

1 z know 



know not what fuppofition they make hence; 

that feeing there are not three infinites, then 
the Father, Son, and Spirit are three finites 
that make up an infinite. 

Anfw* The pitiful weaknefs of this cavil is 
open to all: For finite and infinite are pro-. 
perties and adjun&s of beings, and not of the 
manner of the fubfiftence of any thing. The 
nature of each perfon is infinite, and fo is 
each perfon, becaufe of that nature. Of the 
manner of their fubfiftence, finite and infinite 
cannot be. predicated or fpoken, no farther 
than to fay, an infinite being doth fo fubfift. 

But you grant, fay they, that the only true' 
God is the Father, and then if Chrift be the 
only true God, he is the Father. 

Anfw. We fay, the only true Gad is Fa- 
ther, Son, and Holy Ghoft, We never fay, 
the fcripture never fays, that the Father only 1 
is the true God; whence it would follow, that 
he that is the true God, i$ the Father. But 
we grant the Father to be the only true God: 
And fo we fay, is the Son alfo. And it doth 
not at all thence follow, that the Son is the 
Father. Becaufe in faying the Father is the 
true God, we refpeft not his paternity, or his* 
paternal relation to his Son; but his nature,. 
eiTencft and being. And the fame we affirm 
concerning the other perfons. And to fay, 
that becaufe each perfon is God, one perfon 
jnuft be anpther, is to crave leave to difbe- 
lieve what God hath revealed, without giving 1 
any reafon at all for their fo doing. 


But this fophifm being borrowed from 
another, namely Crellius, who infifted much 
upon it, I fhall upon his account, and not on 
theirs, who, as far as I can apprehend, under- 
ftaftd little of the intendment of it* remove it 
more fully out of the way. It is propofed by 
him in way of fyllogifm, thus : The only true 
God is the Father ; Chrift is the only true 
God; therefore he is the Father. Now this 
fyllogrfm is ridiculoufly fophiftical. For in a 
categorical fyllogifm the major propofition i& 
not to be particular, nor equipollent to a par- 
ticular. For from fuch a propofition, when 
any thing communicable to more is the Tub* 
jeft of it, and is reftrained unto one particu- 
lar, nothing can be inferred in the conclu- 
Hon* But fuch is this propofition here, the 
only true God is the Father: It is a particu- 
lar propofition j wherein the fubjeft is re- 
trained unto a Angular, or individual predi- 
cate, though ki kfelf communicable to more* 
Now the propofition being fo* made particu*. 
kuythe terms of the fubjedfc and predicate are 
fuppofed reciprocal: Namely, that one Gody 
and the Father, are the fame; which i^falfe: 
unlefs it be firft proved, that the name Godv 
n communicable to no mere, or no other, 
than is the other term of Father y which to 
fuppofe, is to beg^ the whole quefiion* For 
the only true God, hath a larger fignification 
than the term of Father or Son. Sx> that 
though the only true God be the Father; yet 

I 3 every 


every one who is true God, is not the Father. 
Seeing then that the name of God here fup- 
plies the place of a fpecies, though it beifin* 
gular absolutely, as it refpe&s the divine na- 
ture which is abfolutely lingular, and one, 
and cannot be multiplied; yet in refpe£t of 
communication it is other wife; it is com- 
municated unto more, namely, to the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghoft. And therefore, if any 
thing be intended to be included from hence, 
the propofition mud be expreffed according 
to what the fubjeQ; requires, as capable of 
communication, or attribution to more than 
one: As thus* Whoever is the only true 
God, is the Father: which propofition thefe 
perfons, and their matters, lhall never be able 
to prove* 

I have given in particular thefe ftriftures 
thus briefly upon thefe empty fophifms; partly, 
becaufe they are well removed already; and 
partly, becaufe they are mere exfcriptions out 
of an author not long fince tranflated into 
Englifh, unto whom an entire anfwer may 
ere long be returned. 

That which at prefent {hall fuffice, is to 
give a general anfwer unto all thefe cavils, 
with all of the fame kind* which the men of 
thefe principles do ufually infift upon. 

The things, they fay, which we teach con- 
cerning the Trinity, are contrary to reafoB* 
And thereof they endeavour to give fundry 
inftances, wherein the fum of the oppofition 



which they make unto this truth doth .coniift. 
But, Fityi, I aflc what reafon is it that they 
intend? It is their own, the carnal reafon of 
men: by that they will judge of thefe divine 
myiterie&. The fcripture tells us indeed, that 
the fpirit of a man which is in him knows the 
things of a man, A man's fpirit, by natural 
reafon, may judge of natural things. But 
c the things of God knoweth no man, but the 
c Spirit of God,' i Cor. ii. 1 1. So that what 
we know of thefe things,* we muft receive 
upon the revelation of the Spirit of God 
meerly, if the apoftle may be believed. And 
it is given unto tnen to know the myfteries 
of the kingdom of God. To fome, and not 
to others; and unlefs it be fo given them, 
they cannot know them. In particular, none 
can kaow the Father, unlefs the Son reveal 
him. Nor will, or doth, or can flefli and 
blood reveal, or underftand Jefus Chrift to 
be the Soft of. the living God, unlefs the Fa- 
ther reveal him, and inftruQ: us in the truth 
of it, Matth. xvi. 18. The way to come to 
the acknowledgement of thefe things, is that 
deferibed by the apoftle, Eph. iii. 14, 15, i6 y 
- j 7, 1 8, 1 9. 4 For this caufe I bow my knee$ 

* unto the Father of our Lord Jefus Chrift, 
4 of whom the whole family in heaven and 

* earth is named, that he would grant you, 

* according to thq riehes of Jris glory, to be 
■ c ftrengthened with might by his Spirit in the 
f inner man, that Chrift may dwell in your 

4 hearts 


hearts by faith ; that ye being rooted and 
grounded in love may be able to compre- 
hend with att faints, &c/ As alfo, Col. ii. 2. 
That ye might come unto all riches of the 
full affurance of underftanding, to the ac- 
knowledgement of the myftery of God, and 
of the Father, and of Chrift. In whom are 
hid all the treafures of wifdom and know- 
ledge/ It is by faith and prayer, and 
through the revelation of God, that we may 
come to the acknoVledgement of thefe things; 
and not by the carnal reafonings of men of 
corrupt minds. 

Secondly ', What reafon do they intend?- If 
reafon abfolutely, the reafon of things; we 
grant that nothing contrary unto it is to be 
admitted. But reafon, as it in this or that 
man, particularly in themfetves, we know to 
be weak, maimed, and imperfeft; and that 
they are, and all other men, extremely re- 
mote from a juft and full comprehension of 
the whole reafon of things. Are they in fuch 
an eftate, as that their apprehenfion fhall pafs 
for the meafure of the nature of all things? 
we know they are far from it. So that 
though we will not admit of any thing, that 
is contrary to reafon ; yet the leaft intimation 
of a truth, by divine revfelation, will make me 
embrace it, although it fhould be contrary to 
the reafon of all the Socinians in the wortd. 
Reafon in the abftraft, or the juft meafure of 
the anfwering of one thing unto another, i$ 




of great moment; but reafon, that is what i& 
pretended to he fo, .-or appears to be fo unto 
this or that man, efpecially in and about things 
of divine revelation, is of very fmall import- 
ance; of none at all, -where it rifeth up againil 
the exprefs teftimonies of fcripture, and thefe 
multiplied to their mutual confirmation and 

Thirdly^ Many things are above reafon, 
that is, as confidered in this, or that fubjed, 
as men, which are not at all agaiuft it. It is 
an eafy thing to compel the moil curious 
enquirers of thefe days to a ready confeflioa 
hereof, by multitudes of initances in thinga 
finite and temporary. And ftall any dare to 
deny, but it may be fo in things heavenly, 
- divine and fpiritual ? Nay, there is no coa* 
cernment of the being of God, or his proper- 
ties, but is abfolutely above the coraprehenfiox* 
of our reafon. We cannot by fearching find 
out God, we cannot find out the Almighty 
to perfe£fcion. 

Fourthly * The very foundation of all their 
objections and cavils againft this truth, is de- 
structive of as fundamental principles of rea- 
fon as are in the world. They are all at beft 
reduced to this : It cannot be thus in things 
finite ;. the fame Beitf g cannot in one refpcft 
be one, in another three, and the like ; and 
therefore it k fo in things infinite. All thefe 
reafonings are built upon this fuppofition, 

That that which is finite can perfectly com- 


prebend that tfhichis infinite. An affertion* 
abfurd, foolifli, and contradi&ory unto kfelf ! 
Again, it is the higheft reafon in things of 
pure revelation to captivate our underftand- 
ings to the authority of the revealer, which 
here is* rejefted. So that by a loud fpecious 
pretence of reafon, thefe mea, by a little cap- 
tious fophiftry, endeavour not only to coun- 
tenance their unbelief, but to evert the 
greateft principles of reafon itfelf. 

Fifthly j The objeftions thefe men principally 
infifi upon, are merely againft the explana- 
tions we ufe of this do&rine, not againft the 
primitive revelation of it, which is the princi- 
pal objeft of our faith : which how prepofter. 
ous and irrational a courfe of proceeding it 
is, hath been declared* 
• Sixthly r , It is a rule among philofophers, 
that if a man,, on juft grounds and reafons, 
has embraced any opinion, or perfuafion, he 
is not to defert it, meerly becaufe he cannot 
anfwer every objection againft it. For if the 
objeftions wherewith we may be entangled, 
be not of the fame weight and importance 
with the reafon on which we embraced the 
opinion, it is a madnefs to forego it on the 
account thereof. And much more muft this 
hold amongft the common fort of Chriftians, 
in things fpiritual and divine. If they will let 
go, and part with their faith in any truth, be- 
caufe they are not able to anfwer diftin&ly 
fome objections that may be made againft it, 



they may quickly find themfelves difputed 
into atheifm. 

Seventhly , There is fo great an intimation 
made of fuch an expreffion, and refemblance 
of a Trinity in unity, in the very works of the 
creation, as learned men have manifefted by 
various inftances; that it is moil unreafonable 
to fuppofe that to be contrary to reafon, which 
many obje&s of rational confideration do 
more or lefs prefent unto our minds. 

Eighth, To add no more confideration of 
this nature, let any of the adverfaries produce 
any one argument, or grounds of r,eafon, or 
thofe pretended to be fuch againft that that 
hath been afferted, that hath not already been 
baffled a thoufand times, and it fhall receive 
an anfwer, or a public acknowledgement that 
it is indifToluble. 

Of the Per/on of CHRIST. 

1 HE next head of opposition made by the 
men of this conspiracy, againft this facred 
truth* is againft the head of all truth, the 
perfon of our Lord Jefus Chrift. The So- 
cinians indeed would willingly put a better 
face, or colour upon their error about the 
perfon of Chrift, than it will bear, or endure 
to lie on it. For in their catechifm unto this 
queflion : Is the Lord Jefus Chrift purus home, 
a meer man? they anfwer; By no means. 



How then? .Hath he a divine nature alio? 
which is their next queftion. To this they^ 
fay : By no means, for this is contrary to right 
reafon. How then will thefe pretended mat- 
ters of reafon reconcile thefe things? For to 
us it feems, that if Chrift have no other na- 
ture but that of a man, he is, as to his nature, 
purus homo, a mere man, and no more. Why 
they anfwer: That he is not a mere man, be- . 
caufe he was born of a Virgin. Strange! that 
that fliould be an argument to prove him 
more than a man, which the fcripture and 
all men in their right wits grant to be an in* 
vincible reafon, to prove him to be a man, 
and as he was born of her, no more, Rom. i. 
3. ' Concerning his Son Jefus Chrift our 
4 Lord, which was made of the feed of David 
€ according to the flefh,' Rom. ix. 5. 4 Whofe 
' are the Fathers, and of whom, as concerning 
c the flefli, Chrift came/ Gal. iv. 4. * God 
c fent forth his Son, made of a woman, made 
c under the law/ But fay they, he was en* 
dowed with the Spirit, wrought miracles, was. 
faifed from the dead, had all power given 
him in heaven and earth; for by thefe de- 
grees he became to be God. But all men fee 
that the inquiry is about the nature of Chrift; 
and this anfwer is about his ftate and condi- 
tion. Now this changeth not his nature on 
the one hand; no more than his being hum- 
Wed, poor, and dying did on the other. This 
is the right reafqp we have to deal withal in 

' fame 

trinity Vindicated. 109 

thefe men. If a man fhould have enquired 
of fome of them of old, whether Melchifedec 
were purus bomo 9 a mere man? Some of them 
would have faid, no, becaufe he was the Ho- 
ly *Ghoft; fome, no, becaufe he was the Son 
of God himfelf ; and fome, no, becaufe he was 
an angel ; for fuch foolifh opinions have men 
fallen into. But how fottifh foever their con- 
ceptions were, their anfwer to that enquiry 
would have been regular, becaufe the queilion 
and anfwer refpeft the fame fubje<U, in the 
fame refpeft. But never any was fo ftupid, 
as to anfwer, he was not a mere man, that is 
by nature, becaufe he was a prieft of the mod 
high God, which refpefts his office, and con- 
dition. Yet fuch is the pretence of thefe men 
about the perfon, of Chrift to incruftrate and 
givt fome colour unto their foul mifbelief ; as 
fuppofing that it would be much to their dis- 
advantage to own Chrift, only as a mere man, 
though the moft part of their difputes that 
they have troubled the Ghriftian world with- 
all, have had no other defign nor aim, but to 
prove him fo to be, and nothing elfe. I fhali 
briefly, according to the method infifted on, 
firft lay down what is the dire& revelation, 
which is the obfeft of our faith in this matter; 
then exprefs the revelation itfelf in the fcrip- 
ture teftimonies wherein it is recorded; and 
having vindicated fome one or other of them 
from their exceptions, manifeft how the doc- 
trine hereof is farther explained, unto the 
edification of them that believe* 

K That 


no t;:z rocTRixE cf tiie 

That there h a feccni pert": n, the Son of 
God, :n the hc!v Trin-uc::v el :he Gcdhead. 
v>c have proved beiore. ;hi> perion did 
cf hl» ir.ntite love and sr^ace tike uocn him 
cur nature, human nature, to as that the di- 
tiseaTid human nature lhc::Id teccme one 
perfco, one Chrht, Gcd and man in one r fo 
; hut whatever he doth in and about our falva- 
t!on, it is done by that one perfcn, God and 
man, is revealed unto us in the fcriprure, as 
the object of our faith. And this is that which 
Me believe concerning the perfon of Chrift. 
Y\ hat ever acts are afcribed unto him, however 
immediately performed, in or by the human 
;:ature, or in and by his divine nature, they 
are all the acts of that one perfon, in whom 
are both thefe natures. That this Chrift, 
God and man, is, hecaufe he is God, and oa 
the account of what he hath done for us as 
man, to be believed in, worfhipped w r ith 
worfhip religious and divine, to be intrufted 
and obeyed; this alfo is infcrted in the fcrip* 
ture. And ihefe things are as it were the 
common notions of the .Ghriftian religion, the 
common principles of our profeflion, which 
the fcriptures alfo abundantly teftify unto. 

Jfa. .yii. 14, * Behold a v!rgin {ball con* 
c ceive and bear .a Son, and fhall call his name 
.' Immanuel^ that is^ he fhall be Gad with 
us, or God in oyr own nature. Not that 
*hat fhonld he his name, whereby he ihould be 
called in this world; but that this Ihould be 
the condition of his perfon, he ihould be God 



tvith us, God in our nature. So are the 
words expounded, Mat. i. 21, 22 j 23. c That 
4 which is conceived in her is of the Holy 

* Ghoft; and (he fliall bring forth a Son, and \ 

* thou lhalt call his name Jefus; for he fhall 1 

* fave his people from their fins. Now all 
c this was done that it might be fulfilled which 

* was fpoken of the Lord by the prophet, fay* 

* ing, Behold a virgin fhall be with child, and 

* {hall bring forth a Son, and they (hall call 

* his name Immanuel, which being inter* 
' preted, is God with us.* His name, where- 
by he was to be called, was Jefus, that is a 
Saviour. And thereby was accomptifhed the 
prediction of the prophet, which being inter- 
preted is God with* us. Now a child born to 
be God with us, is God in that child taking 
our nature upon him, and no otherwife can 
the words be underflood. 

Ifa. ix. 6. c Unto us a child is born, unto 
6 us a Son is given, and his name fhall b<* 
« called the mighty God/ The child that i* 
born, the Son that is given, is the mighty 
God; and as the mighty God, and a child 
born, or Son given, lie is the prince of peace^ 
as he is there called, or our Saviour. 

John i. 14. c The word was made fteffr. 
That the word was God, who made all things, 
he had before declared. Now he affirms that 
this word was made fleffi. How J converted 
into flefh, into a man; fo that he who was 
God ceafed fo to be, and was turned or 

K 2 changed 


changed into flefh, that is a man? Befides that 
this is utterly impofEble, it is not affirmed. 
For the word continued the word ftill, aU 
though "he was made flefh, or made of a wo- 
man, as it is elfewhere expreffed, or made of 
the feed of David, or took our flefh or nature 
to be his own. Himfelf continuing God, as 
he was, became man alfo, which before he 
was not. The word was made flefli ; this is 
that which we believe, and aflert in this mat- 

See John Hi. 13. and verfe 31. John vi. 62* 
Chap. xvi. 28. AH which places affert the 
perfon of Chrift to have defcended from hea* 
ven in the affumption of human nature, and 
afcended into heaven therein being affirmed } 
and to have been in heaven as to his divine 
nature, when he was on the earth, in the flefh 
that he had affumed. 

A&s xx. 28. ' Feed the church of God> 
4 which he hath putchafed with his own 

* blood/ The perfon fpoken of is faid to be 
God abfolutely; the church of God* And 
this God is faid to have blood of hisfown; the 
blood of Jefus Chrift being the blood of him 
that was God, though not the blood of him 
as God; for God is a fpirit. And this un- 
deniably teftifies to the unity of his perfon as 
God and man. 

Rom. i. 3, 4. .* Concerning his Son Jefus 

* Chrift our Lord, who was made of the feed 

* of David according to the flefh, and declared 

4 to 

trinity vindicated* 113 

* to be tlie Son of God with power, accord- 

* ing to the Spirit of holinefs, by the refur- 
6 red ion from the dead-' Rom. ix. 5. 'Whofc 

* are th.e Fathers, and of whom concerning 

* the~ fiefli, Chrilt came, who is over all, God 

* bleffed for ever, Amen.' This is all w r e de- 
fire that we may believe, without difturbance 
from the clamours of thefe men: Namely,, 
that the fame Chrilt, as concerning the flefb,, 
came of the Fathers, of David; and in him- 
felf is over all, God bleffed for ever. This 
the fcripture afferts plainly, and why we 
fhould not believe it firmly, let thefe men. give 
a'reafon when they are able. 

Gal. vi. 4. * God fcr^L forth his Son made 

* of a woman. He was his Sony and was 
made of a woman, according a# he expreffes 
it, Heb. x. 5. * A body haft thou, prepared 
4 me;' as alio, Rom. viii. 3. 

Phil. ii. 5, 6, 7. * Let this mind be in you,. 

* which was alfo in Chrift Je&s, who being in 

* the form of God, thought k not robbery to 
4 be equal with God; but made himfelf of no 

* reputation, and took upon hkn the form of 
' a fervant, and was made in the- likenefs of 
< men/ It is the fame Cforifl that is fpoken 
of: and it is here affirmed of hira y * that he 
' was in the form of God r thought it not rob- 

* bery to be equal with God.* But is- this all? 
is this Jefus Chrift God only? Doth he fub- 
fift only in the form,, or nature of God? No y 
faith the apoftle, he * took upon him the fornr 

K 3, 'of 


* of a fervant, was made in the Hkenefs of 
c men, and was found in fafliion as a man/ 
That his being truly a man is expreffed in 
thefe words, our adverfaries deny not^ and 
we therefore believe that the fame Jefus Chrift 
is God alfo, becaufe that is no kfs plainly 

i Tim. iii. 16. f And without controversy 

* great is the myftery of godlineb) God was 

* manifeft in the flem, justified in the Spirit, 

* feen of angels/ It is a myftery indeed, un- 
der which name it is defpifed now and re-r 
proached: nor are we allowed fo to call k, 
but are refleAed on, as flying to myfteries for 
our defence. But we mufi take leave to fpeak 
in this matter according to his dire&ions, 
without whom we cannot fpeak at all* A 
myftery it is, and that a great myftery * and 
that confeffedly fc, by. all that do believe* 
And this is, that God was manifefted in the 
flefh. That it is the Lord Chrift who is fpo- 
ken of, every one of the enfuing expreffions 
do evince : ' juftified in the Spirit, feen of an* 
4 gels, preached unto the Gentile*, believed 

* on in the world, received up into glory/* 
And this alfo is the fubftance of what we be- 
lieve in this matter: namely, That Chrift is 
God manifeft in the flefh, which we acknow- 
ledge, own, and believe to be true, but a great 
and facred truth notwithftanding. 

Heb. ii. 14. 4 For as much then as the 
4 children were partakers of flefh and blood 

. * he 


* he alfo himfelf likewife took part of the 
c fame/ 

Ver. 36. * For verily he took not on him 

* the nature of angels, but he took, on him 

* the feed of Abraham/ 

And this plainly affirms his pre-exiftence 
unto that affumption of our nature, and the 
unity of his perfon in it being fo affumed. 

1 John iiL 16. ' Hereby perceive we the 

* love of God, becaufe he laid down his life 
4 for us. 

He who was God laid down for a feafon, 
and parted with that life, which was his own, 
in that nature of ours which he had affumed. 
And that taking of our nature is called his 
coming in the flefli; which whofo denies, is 
not of God,, but is the Spirit of Antichrift, 
x John iv. 3. 

There are fome of the places, wherein the 
perfon of Chrift is revealed unto our faith, 
that ye may believe on the Son of God, and 
have eternal life. 

The method formerly propofed would re* 
quire, that I fhould take off the, general ob- 
jections of the adverfaries againft this divine 
revelation; as alfo vindicate fome peculiar 
teftimonies from their exceptions. But be- 
caufe a particular oppofition unto this truth, 
hath not as yet publicly and dire&ly been 
maintained, and managed by any, that I know 
of among ourfelves, though the denial of it 
be exprefsly included in what they do affirm; 


I fhall leave the further confirmation thereof 
unto fome other cccafion, if it be offered, and 
it fhall be judged neceffary. 
* And this is that which the faith of believers 
reft in, as that which is plainly revealed unto 
them: Namely, that Jefus Chrift is pod and 
man in one perfon ; and that all his actings in 
their behalf are the aftihgs of him, who is 
God and man; and that this Son of God, 
God and man, is to be believed in by them, 
and obeyed that they have eternal life, 
, What is farther added urito thefe exprefe 
teftimonies, and the full revelation of the 
truth contained in them in this matter, in way 
of explication educed from them, and fuitable 
unto them, to the edification of the church, 
or information of the minds of believers, in 
the right apprehenfion of this great myftery 
of God manifefted in the flefli, may be redu- 
ced to thefe heads. 

i. That the perfon of the Son of God did, 
in his afiuming human nature to be his own, 
not take an individual perfon of any one into* 
a near conjun&ion with himfelf ; but prevent* 
ing theipeffonal fubfiftence of human nature 
in that #efh which he affumed, he gave it its 
fubfiftence in his. own perfon, hath 
its individuation and diftin&ion from all o- 
ther perfons whatever. This* is the perfonal 
union, in Chrift have but one perfonal fub- 
fiftence, and fo are but one Chrift, one dif- 
tind perianal principle of all operations of all 


trinity vindicated; 117 

that he did, or doth, as mediator. And this 
tmdeniably follows from what is declared in 
the teftimonies mentioned. For the word 
could not be made flefh, nor could he take 
on him the feed of Abraham, nor could the 
mighty God be a child born and given unto 
us, nor could God (bed his blood for his 
church ; but that the two natures, the divine 
and human nature fo dire&ly expreffed, muft 
be united in one perfon: for other wife, as 
they are two natures ftill* they would be two 
perfons alfo. 

2. Each nature thus united in Chrift is en- 
tire, and preferves unto itfelf its own natural 
properties. For he is no lefs a true perfeft 
man confiding of foul and body, with all their 
effential parts, by that nature's being taken 
into fubfiftence with the Son of God. His 
divine nature ftill continues immenfe, omnik 
cient, omnipotent, infinite in holinefs, &c. his 
human nature, finite, limited, and before its 
glorification, fubjedt to all infirmities of life and 
death, that the fame nature in others abfo- 
lutely confidered is obnoxious unto. 

3. In each of thefe natures he a&s fuitably 
unto the effential properties and principles of 
that nature. As God, he made all things, 
upholds all things, by the word of his power 
upholds heaven and earth, &c. As man, he 
lived, hungered, fuffered, died y rofe, afcended 
into heaven.. Yet by reafon of the union of 
both thefe natures in the lame perfon, not 


^ 1 


only his own perfon is faid to do all thefe 
things, but the perfon expreffed by the name 
which he hath on the account of one nature* 
is faid to do that which he did only in the 
other. So, God is faid to redeem his church 
with his own blood, and to lay down his life 
for us v and the Son of man to be in heaven 
when he was on earth. All becaufe of the 
unity of his perfon, as was declared. And 
thefe things do all of them dire&ly and \m~ 
deniably flow from what is revealed concern- 
ing his perfon, as before is declared. L 

Of the fatisfaftipn of Chrift. 

HE laft thing to be enquired into, upon 
occafion of the late oppofition to the great 
fundamental truths of the gofpel, is the fatif- 
frd'ion of Chrift. And the do&rine hereof is 
fuch* as I conceive needs rather to be ex- 
plained than vindicated. -For it being the 
center, wherein moft, if not all the lines of 
gofpel promifes and precepts do meet, and 
the great medium of all our communion with 
God in faith and obedience, the great diftinc- 
fion between the religion of Chriftians, and 
that of all others in the world ; it will, eafily, 
on a due.propofal, be affented unto by all, 
who would be efteemed difciples of Jefus. 
Chrift. And whether a parcel of infipid 
cavils may be thought fufficieitt to obliterate 



the revelation of it, men of fober minds will 
judge and difc^rn. 

For the term of fatisfa&ion, we contend 
not about it. It doth indeed properly exprefs 
and connote, that great effect of the death of 
Chrift, which, in the caufe before us, we plead 
for. But yet, becaufe it belongs rather to the 
explanation of the truth contended for, than 
is ufed exprefly in the revelation of it, and 
becaufe the right under/landing of the word 
itfelf depends on fome notions of law, that as 
yet we need not take into confideration; I 
lhall not, in this entrance of our difcourfe, 
infift upon it, but leave it as the natural con- 
clufion of what we (hall find exprefly declared 
in the fcripture. Neither do I fay this, as 
tho* I did decline the word, or the right ufe 
-of it, or what is properly fignified by it; but 
do only caft it into its proper place, anfwer* 
jable unto our method and defign in the whole 
of this brief difcourfe. 

I know fome have taken a new way of ex- 
prefiing and declaring the doftrine concerning 
the mediation of Chrift, with the caufes and 
€nds of his death, which they think more ra- 
tional, than that ufually infifted on. But as 
what I have yet heard of, or feen in that kind 
Jiath been not only unfcriptural, but alfo very 
irrational, and moft remote from that accu- 
racy whereunto they pretend, who make ufe 
<>{ it; fo if they fhall publifli their conceptions, 
it is iK)t improbable but that they may meit 



with a fchotaftical examination by fome hand 

or other. ' • 

Our prefent work, as hath been often de- 
clared, is for the eftablifhment of the faith of 
them, who may be attempted, if not brought 
into danger to be feduced,by the flight of fome 
who lie in wait to deceive, and the clamour* 
of others who openly drive the fame defign. 
What therefore the fcripture plainly and clear- 
ly reveals in this matter, is the fubjeft of our 
prefent enquiry. And either in fo doing, as 
occafion (hall be offered, we fhall obviate, or 
in the clofe of it remove thofe fophifms, that 
the facred truth now propofed to confidera- 
tion had been attempted withal. 

The fum of what the fcripture reveals about 
this great truth, commonly called the fatisfac- 
tion of Chrift, may be reduced unto thefe 
enfuing heads. 

i. That Adam being made upright finned 
againft God and all mankind, all his pofterity, 
in him. Gen. i. 27. * So God created man 
4 in his own image, in the image of God creat- 
c ed he him, male and female created he them/. 
.Gen. iii, 1 1 . And he faid, 4 Who told thee that 

* thou waft naked? Haft thou eaten of the 

* tree whereof i commanded thee, that thou 
c fhouldft not eat?' Ecclef. vii. "29. * Lo, 

.« this only have I found, that God made man 
c upright, but he hath fought out many inven- 

* tions.* Rom. v. 12. * Wherefore as by one 

* maQ fin entered into the world, and death 



e iy fin, ^ndfo ^leath paflfed upon all men, 

* for that .all have finned.' Vox. i8. ' There- 
c fare- by .the offence of one, judgment came 

* aipon 3II men to condemnation/ Vpr. 1 9. 
c :By one man's dafobedignce many were 
c .made tenners.' 

2. That by this (in of our firft parents all 
men sre brought -into an eftate of fin and apo- 
ftacy from God, and of jm enmity unto him. 
Qen. vi. 5. 4 God faw that -the wickednefs of 

* man w,a$ great in the earth, and that every 
c imagination .of the. thoughts of his heart was 
c only evil continually. ' Pfal. Ii. 5. * Behold j 

* I was fhapen in iniquity, and in fin did my 
4 mother conceive me.' Rom. iii. 23. c For 
c all.jiave finned, and comeihort of the glory 
4 of God.' Rom. vUi. 7. < The carnal mind 
c is enmity againflr God; foj* it is not fubjeft 

* to the law of God, neither indeed can be.* 
Ephef. iv. 18. * Having the understanding 

* darkened, being alienated from -the life of 

* God through the ignorance that. is in them, 

* becaufe of the.blindnefc of their heart/ chap. 
ii. 1.. f Gol. ii. 13. 

3. That in this ftate all men continuein 
fm againft God, nor can do o- 
therwife. Rom. iii. 10, n, 12. * There is 

* inone righteous, no not one; there is none 

* that under ftandeth, there is none that feek- 
4 *eth .after God. They are all gone out of the 

* way, they are together become unprofitable, 
4 there. is none that doth good, no not one/ 

L 4. That 



4. That the juftice and hoHnefs of God, as 
he is the fupreine governor and judge of all 
the world, require that fin fee pumfhed, Exod^ 
xxxiv. 7. 4 That will by no means clear the 

* guilty/ Jofh. xxiv. 19. * He is an holy 
4 God, he k a jealous God* he will not fon- 

1 give your tranfgreffions, nor your fins/ Pf, 
v. 4, 5, 6. * For thou art not a God that hath 

* pleafure in wickednefs, neither ftall evil 

* dwell with thee; the foolifli (hall not ftand 
f in thy fight: thou hateft all workers of inL- 

* quity, thou fliak deftroy them that fpeak 
' leafing/ Hab. i. 13.' Thou art of purer eye* 

* than to behold evil, and can ft n<?t look up- 

* on iniquity/ Ifa. xxxiii. 14. c Who among 
' us fiiall dwell with the devouring fire ? Who 
-* among us (hall dwjell with everlafting burn- 
4 ings ?' Rom. i. 32. ' Who knowing the 
c judgment of God, that thev which commit 

* fuck things are worthy or death/ Rom, 
iii, 5, 6. c Is God unrighteous who taketh 
.* vengeance? I fpeak as a man, God forbid! 
' for then how (hall God judge the world V 

2 Theff. i. 6. * It is a righteous thing with 
.* God to recompence tribulation to them that 

* trouble you/ Heb. xii. 29. « For our God 

* is a consuming fire/ From Deut. iv. 24. : 

5. That God hath alfo engaged his veracity 
and faithfulnefe, in the fan&ion of the law, 
aiot to leave fiji unpunifted. Gen. ii. 17. 
f In the day thou eateft thereof, thou (halt 

f Purely die/ Deut. xxviL 26. ' Curfed be he j 

* that . i 


* that confirmeth not all the words of this law 
' to do them/ In this ftate and condition all 
mankind, had they been kft without divine 
aid and help, mud have periihed eternally. 

6. That God out of his infinite goodhefs* 
grace, and love to mankind, fent his only 
Son to fave and deliver them out of this con- 
dition. Matth. i. 21. * Thou (halt call his 

* name Jefus, for he fhall fave his people from 

* their fins.' John iii. 16, 17. • God fo loved 
c the world, that he gave his only begotten 

* Son, that whofoever believeth in him (hould 

* not perifh, but have everlafting life." For 

* God fent not his Son into the world to con* 

* demn the world, but that the ^orld through 

* him might be faved.' Rom. v. 8. 'God 

* commendeth hia love towards us, in that 
.• while we were yet finners Chrift died for 

* us.' 1 John iv. 9. ' In this was manifefled 
f the love of God towards us, becaufe God 

* fent his only begotten Son into the world * 

* that we, might live through him.* Verfe 10- 

* Herein is love, not that we loved God* but 
1 that he loved us, and fent his Son to be a 
•propitiation for our fins. 5 1 Thef. i. 10. 

* Even Jefus, which delivereth us from the 

* wrath to come/ 

. 7. That this love was the fame in the Fa- 
ther and Son, a&ed diftin&ly in the manner 
that (hall be afterwards declared. So vain are 
the pretences of men, who from the love of the 

La Father 

124 '^HE fcOCTRlNE OF tfHE 

Father Jn thfe matter, would argae againft fftd 
love of the Son: or, on the contrary. 

8'. That the way in* general, whereby tbi 
Sort of God being incarnate was to fave loft 
ftnner&, was by a fubfikution of himfelf, ac- 
cording to the defigna-nd appointment of God, 
m the room of thofe whom' he was t& fave: 
2 Cor. v. a t. • He hath made 1 him to be fill 
€ for us, who knew no fin, thar we might be- 
f come the righfeoufhefs of Gad in hint.'— ^ 
Gal. ith i 3. • Chrift bath redeeiwed us ft&ra 
c tfheeurfe o# the few, befog made a curfe fof 
9 m.' Rom. v. ?, 8. c For fearceFy for a 
c frghteons m$n a^HI 1 one die, yet pet adtrcn- 
r tore* for a? g©od tntitt fotfte #iTF evett dire to 
€ die: bat God commendetfc His Iwe to*aff ds 

* «$, in that while We \fere yet fmnters> Chriff 

* died for us/ Rom. vm. 3. • For what the 

* law could am do, m that if was weak t&ro* 
f the lfdfc», God : fending his* ow» Soir ivt the 
' likertefe of fmfat #efo, and for fm comfemn- 

* ed fin in the fldfc, ritat fhe rigkteoufneft of 
•• the tew might be ftflfillet! in us/ * Fet. ii^ 
24. * Who his ownfelf barecwiT fins in his owii 
4 body on the tree/ Chap. m. 8. 'For Cbrif! 
9 a4fo hath* once fufferal for us, the juft for 
4 the unjuft,that he might bring us- unto God.* 
AH fhefc exprefifoas undemaWy evince a fub- 
ftltuttan of Chrift, as ta fiaflfering in the* {Bead 
©f them whom he was to fa*e. Which in ge- 
neral is all that we intend by his feriafa€fcfc>n r 
namely, that he was made « fin for us, a curfe 

' for 


c for ua, died for us/ that? is, in our (lead, 
that we might be » faved from the wrath to 
come. And all thefe expreffions, as to their 
true genuine importance (hall be vindicated > 
us occafion lhall require. 

9. This way of his faving finn<!rs, is, in par- 
ticular, feveral ways expreffed in the fcripture. 

Firft, That he offered himfelf a facrifice to 
God, to make atonement for our fins, and 
that in his death and fufterings. Ifa. liii. i o. 
' When thou (halt make his foul an offering 
4 for fin/ Johni. 29. ' Behold the Lamb of 

* God, who taketh away the fins of the world.' 
Eph. v. 1 . * Chrift hath loved us, and hath 
*jgiven himfelf for us, an offering and a facri- 
4 fice to God for a fweet fmelling favour/ 
Heb. ii. 1 7. 4 Was a merciful high-prieft in 
4 thing9 pertaining to God, to make recon- 

* ciliation for the fins of the people/ Heb. 
Jx. 11, 12, 13, 14. 4 But Chrift being come 

4 an high-prieft of good things to come, by a 
V greater and more perfed tabernacle not made 
4 with hands, that is to fay, not of this build- 
4 ing; neither by the blood of goats and calves, 
4 but by his own blood, he entered in once 
4 into the holy place, having obtained eternal 
4 redemption for us. For if the blood of bulls^ 
4 &c, how much more ihall the blood of Chrift, 
4; who through the eternal Spirit offered him- 
4 felf without fpot to God, purge, your con- 

* fciences from dead works ? 

L 3 Secondly y 



* Secondly, That he redeemed us bf paying a 
price, a ranfom for our redemption. Mark 
x. 45. * The Son of man came to give hi* life 
4 a ranfom for many/ 1 Cor. vi. 20- * For 
• ye are bought with a price/ vii. 23. 1 Tim, 
ii. 6. € Who gave himfetf a ranfom for all to 
'•be teftifted in due time.* Tir. T ». 14. 4 Who 
4 gave himfelf for us, that he might redeem 
c us from all iniquity/ * JPfet. i. 18. 4 For we 
4 were not redeemed with fitver and gold and 
4 corruptible things.* Ver. 1 1 . c But with tha 
4 precious blood of Chrift, as of a Lamb with- 
4 out blemifh, and without fpot/ 

- Thirdly, That he bate our fins, or the pu- 
nilhment due unto them. Ifa. Hik 5. 4 He- 
4 was wounded for our tranfgreffion*, he was 
4 bruifed for our iniquities, the chaftifement 
4 of our peace was upon him, and with his 
4 ftripes are we heated** All we like fheepfeave 
4 gone aftray, we have turned every ooeto 
4 his own way, and the Lord hath laid on him 
4 the iniquity of us all/ Ver. 11. 4 Fo* he 
4 fliall bear their iniquities/ 1 Pet. ii. 24/ 
4 Who his own felf bare our fins in his awn 
4 body on the tree/ 

Fourthly That heanfweredthe law, and the 
penalty of it. Rom. viii % 3, c God feat forth 
4 his Son in the likenefe of finfui flefh, and for 
4 fin condemned fin in the fie ft; that the righ- 
4 *teoufnefs of the law might be fulfilled in us/ 
Gal. iiu 13. 4 Chrift hath redeemed us from 
4 the curfe of the law, being made a curie for 

* 4 us/^ 


* u$/ Chap* iv. 4, 5. * God fent forth his Son 
/ made of a woman, made under the law, to 

* sedeem them that we?e lender the law/ 

Fifthly*, That he died for fin, and finners, 
to expiate the one, and in the fteadof the other, 
Rom. iv. 25. * He was delivered for our of- 
*-• Fences/- Rom. v. 10. * When we wereene- 
'-mies, we were reconciled unto God by the 

* death of his Son. 1 Con, xv. %. * Chrift died 
4 for our fins according to the fcriptures/ a 
Cor. v. ^4. • For the love of Chrift conftrain* 
4 eth u«, becaufe we thus judgc,that if one died- 
•• for all, then were all dead/ 1 Thef. v. 9, jo. 

' Sixt&fy* Hence, on the part of God, it is af- 
firmed, that 6 he fpared him not, but delivered 
''him up for us all,* Rom. viii. 33. And 
caufed all our iniquities to meet upon him, 
Ifaiah Hii, 6. 

Seventh/fr TheeffeQt hereof was, (1.) That 
the righteoufnefs of God was glorified. Rom. 
iii. 25, a& * Whom God hath fet forth to be 
c a propitiation through faith in hk blood, to 

* declare his righteoufnefs for the remiflion of 
< fins/ (v.} The law fulfilled and fetfefied, as 
in the places before quoted, Rom.viii.3. Gal. 
iii. 13, 14. Gal. iv. 5. (3".} God reconciled/ 
2-Cof. v. 1*8, ijk ^Go-cfrwas in Chrift recon- 

* ciling the world unto himfelf, not imputing 
*■ their trefpaffes unto them/ Heb. n. ^7. f He 
c made reconciliation far thefins of the people/ 
(4.) Atonement was made for fin. Rom. v« 
iir • By whom we hare now recerred the a* 



* tenement.' And peace was made with God. • 
Eph ii- 14. * For he is our peace, who hath 

* made both one, that he might reconcile both 
4 unto God in one body by the crofs, having 
4 flam the enmity thereby.' (5.) Made an end 
of fin, Dan. xi. 24- * To finifh tpanfgreiSoit, to 
'. make an end of fins, to make reconciliation 

* for iniquity, and to bring in everlafting righ- 

* teoufnefs.' The glory of God in alt thefe- 
things being exalted, himfelf was well pleafed^ 
and righteoufnefs and everlafting redemption, 
or falvation, purchafed for finners- For in 
that the chaftifement of our peace was upon 
him, and that by his ftripes we are healed, he 
being punifhed that we might go free, himfelf 
became a Captain of falvation unto all that do 
obey him 

I have fixed on thefe particulars to give eve* 
ry ordinary reader an inftance, how fully and 
plainly what he is to believe in this matter is 
revealed in faripture. And fhould I produce 
all the teftimonies, which exprefsly give wit- 
nefs unto thefe pofitions, it is known how 
great a part of the Bible mult be tranferibed* 
And thefe are the things that are indifpenfibly 
required of us to believe, that we may be able 
to direS and regulate our obedience accord- 
ing to the mind and will of God. 

In the explanation of this do&rine unto fur- 
ther edification, fun dry things are ufually in* 
Med on, which neceflarily and infallibly enfue 
upon the propofitioas of icripture before laid 

% " downj 


#owS$ and ferve* to beget iti- the minds of be- 
lievers a due appreheriiion and right under- 
ftandibg of then*. As-, 

i. That God hi t?fci* matter is to be confi- 
deredaa the. chief, fupTem l c,abfohitere£tor and 
governor of all'; as the lord 1 of the law, and of 
femers; but yet ft* As< an offended ruler. Not 
asaavoffended perfon, but afranoffended ruler, 
who hath right* to^xaiSpimifiiment upon tranf- 
greffors, &A& whofe righteetrfoefs of ruie re* 
quires that he fliould! fo da 

•** Tha* becaafe he iff righteous and hofyv a* 
he falbe fapreaie Judge of ail the world, ft is 
fceceflary that he da right in the purriffiittg of 
fi», wkfcout w*rieh f fee order of tfie ereatiort 
caarao<? be pyeferved. Fo* .fid being-die crea- 
tures deduction of itfelf from the order of its 
dependence iipoi* and obedience unto the Cre- 
ator, and ftipreme Lord of al?; without a re- 
cte&iba? of rt by pwnMhmem, confufion would? 
tie brought into* the whole creation*. 

3. That whereas the law and the fan&iois 
«f k-is the moral, or declarative eaufeof thfc 
pttmfhment of fin, and it direSty obfrgeth the 
fmner himfelf unto pumfemem:? God, as* the 
fiipreme ruter, difpenfeth not with the aft of 
the law, but the immediate objeft; and fubfti- 
tetes another Sufferer in the room of them 
who are principally liable unto the fentence of 
it, and are n^w to be acquitted or freed; that 
fo the tew may be fatisfied, requiring the pu- 
aMbmentfoffia,juftice exalted, whereof the law 
** an efEed, and yet the finner faved. 


4. That the perfon thus fubftituted was the 
Son of God incarnate, who had power fo todif- 
pofe of himfelf, with will and readinefs for it;, 
and was upon the account of the dignity of 
his perfon, able to anfwer the penalty, which 
all others had incurred and deferved. 

5. That God upon his voluntary fufception 
of this office, and condefcention to this work, 
did fo lay our fins in and by the fentence of 
the law upon him, that he made therein full 
fatisfaftion for whatever legally could be char- 
ged on them, for whom he died or fufFered. 

6. That the fpecial way, terms, and condi- 
tions whereby and whereon finners may be 
interefted in this fatisfa&ion made by Chrift, 
ate determined by the will of God, and de- 
clared in the Scripture. 

. Thefe and the like things are ufually infilled 
pn in the explication or declaration of this 
head of our confeffion. And there is not any 
of them but may be fufficiently confirmed by 
divine teftimonies. It may be alfo farther e- 
vinced, that there is nothing aflerted in them, 
but what is excellently fuited unto the com- 
mon notions which mankind hath of God and 
his righteoufnefs; and that in their pra&ice 
they anfwer the light of nature, and coramoa 
reafon, exemplified in fundry inftances among 
the nations of the world. 

I fhall therefore take one argument from 
fome of the teftimonies before produced in 
confirmation of this facred truth, and proQeed 


Trinity vindicated. 131 


to retoove the obje&ions that are commonly 
banded againft it. 

If the Lord Chrift, according tQ the will of 
the Father, and by his own counfel and choice, 
-was fubftituted, and did fubftitute hiipfelf as a 
Mediator of the covenant, in the room and in 
the Head of finners, that they might be faved, t 
and therein bear their fins, or the puniftnnent 
due unto their fins, by undergoing the curfe 
and penalty of the law; and therein alfo ac- 
cording to the will of God offered up himfelf 
for a propitiatory, expiatory facrifice* to make 
atonement for fin, and reconciliation for fin- 
ners, that the juftice of God being appeafed, 
and the law fulfilled, they might go free, or be 
delivered from thewrath to come; and if there- 
in alfo "he paid a real fatisfaftory price for their 
redemption: then he made fatisfa&ion to God 
for fin. For thefe are the things that we in- 
tend by that expreffion of fatisfaction. But now 
all thofe things are openly and fully witneffed 
unto in the teftimonies before produced, as 
may be obferved by fuiting fome of them unto 
the feveral particulars here afferted. As, 

i. What was done in this matter, was from 
the will, purpofe, and love of God the Father. 
Pfalm xl. 6, 7, 8. Heb. x. 5, 6, 7. Ads iv. 
28, John iii. \6. Rom. viii. 3. 

1. It was alfo done by his own voluntary 
confent, Phil. ii. 6, 7. 

3, He was fubftituted and did fubftitute 
hijnfelf asahe Mediator of the covenant, in the 


room aod itead .of faners, that they i«fry fee 
laved, Heb. x. 5, 6, 7, Chap* vii. 22. Rom f 
-iii. .25., .2.6. v. 7, 8. 

4. And Jie did therein bear their fin$, orthe 
punifliment due to thqir ftns, Ifa. liii. 6~-i ju 
1 Pet. ji. 23. And this, 

5. 3y undergoing the cwfe and>penalty of 
the law, Gal. iii. 13. Or the punifliment of 
jfin required by the^w,2-Cor.v.pi. Rom.vii.3,. 

6. Herein alfo, according to the will of God* 
lie offered up himfelfa propitiatofcy.ajid £xpiar 
tory faerifi.ce, to make an atoneme&t -for fin,, 
and a reconciliation for tinners., JEph. v. 2* 
Tvom. ii. 1 7. Heb. ix. .11 ,1 2, 1 3* ;i&» Which 
fce.did that the juftice of 'God beiiig fatisfiect, 
and the law fulfilled, dinners might be freed 
from the w*ath,to come^Rom.iii.25. iThef.;x;. 

7. And hereby alfo j*aid a real price of re- 
demption for fm and finners, .1 Pet. i. 17, 18. 
1 Cor. vi. 20. Thefe ,are the tilings which we 
are to believe concerning the fatisfaftioa of 
Chrift, and our explication of this do&rine w.e 
are ready to defend, when called there.unto. 

The confideration of the objections, which 
are raifed agalnft this great fundamental truth, 
fliall olofe ttiis difcourfe. And they are of two 
Torts. -Firft, in general, ?to the whole dp&nnq* 
as declared; or fome of the .more fignal heads* Secondly, particular infta»ces 
in this or that fuppofal, .as copfequpnces q{ 
the doSrk)te : aflerted. And in gsneraj, • 

1. They fay, this is cojnr<ary to^nd iacoa- 






fiftent with the love, grace, mercy, and good- 
nefs of God, which are fo celebrated in the 
fcriptures as the principal properties of his 
nature, and a&s of his will, whesein he' will 
be glorified, efpecially contrary to the free- 
dom of forgivenefs, which we are encouraged 
to expe£, and commanded to believe. And 
this exceptiQn they endeavour to firm by tefti- 
monies, that the Lord is good and gracious, 
and that he doth freely forgive us our fins 
and trefpaffes. 

- Anfwer: Firft, I readily grant that whatever 
is really contrary to the grace, goodnefs, and 
mercy of God, whatever is inconfiftent with 
the free forgivenefs of fin is not to be admitted. 
For thefe things are fully revealed in the fcrip- 
ture, and muft have a coilfiftency with what- 
ever elfe is therein revealed of God or his will. 
' Secondly i As God is good, and gracious, and 
merciful; fo alfo he is holy, righteous, true, 
and faithful- And thefe things are no lefs re- 
vealed concerning him than the other; and are 
no lefs effential properties of his nature than 
his goodnefs and grace. And as they are all 
effentially the fameinhim,andconfidered only 
under a different habitude or refped, as they 
are exerted by a&S of his will; fo it belongs to 
his infinite wifdom, that the effe&s of them, 
tho* divers, and produced by divers ways and 
means, may no way be contrary one to the o- 
tter: but that mercy may be exercifed, with- 
out' the prejudice of juftice or holinefs; and 

M juftice 


juftice be preferred intire, without any o!> 
ttru&ion to the exercife of mercy, : 

Thirdly j The grace and love of God, that in 
this matier^ie fcripture fevealstobeeKercifed, ' 
in order untothe fofgivenefeof tinners, coftfifts 
principally in two things: (t ♦) In h* 8 k°ty ****- 
nal purpofeof providinga relief for loftfinners. 
He hath done it, to the praife of the glory of 
his grace, Eph. i. 6. . (2,) In the fending his 
Son in the purfuit,and for the accomphfluneat 
of the holy purpofe of his will and grace* 
Herein mon -eminently doth the fcripture cele- 
brate the love, g-oodnefe and kindnds of God; 
as that whereby in infinite and for ever to be 
adored wifiiom and grace, he made way for 
the forgivenefs of our fins* John iii. x6. * God 

* fo loved the world, as he gave his only be- 

* gotten Son.' Rqip> iiu 24, 25. * Whom he 

* hath fet forth to be a propitiation thro* faith 

* in his Wood/ Rom. v. 7, 8. ' God com* 
■* mendeth his love towards us, in that while 

* we were yet finoers, Chrift died for us,' Tit*" 
iii. 4. 1 John-iv. 8, 9, Herein confiils that 
ever to be adored love, goodnefs, grace, coercy* 
and condefcenfion of God. Add hereunto* 
that in that ad ,of calling our iniquities to. 
meet on Chrift, wherein he immediately in- 
tended the declaration , of his juftice, Rom. iii* 
25. (not fparing him, in delivering him up to 
death for us' all, Rom. viii. 32.) here was a 
blefied harmony in the higheft juftic^ aiufr 
jnoit excellent gra^ce, and jnercy. This grase* 



this, goodnefo, this love of God toward man- 
kind, toward finners, aur adverfaries in this 
matter neither know, nor underfland; and fa 
indeed, what lies in them,, remove the founda- 
tion of the whole gofpet, and of all that faith, 
aad obedience which Godrequires at our hands. 
Faurtbly, Forgivenefs, or the a£hial condo* 
nation of finners, the. pardon and Ibrgivenefs 
offing is free; but yet fo, as it is every where 
retrained unto a refpeft unto Chrift, unto hi* 
death aad bloodrfbedding* Eph. i. 7. 4 We 
4 have redemption in his blood, even the for* 

* givenels of fins/ chap* iv. 32. 4 God for 
4 ChriftV fake hath forgiven you/ Rom. iife 
25* 26. c God hatfttfitt hint forth to ht a pro. 

* pitiation through faith in his blood, to de*. 
4 clare his righteoufkiefs for the forgivenefs of 
4 fins/ It is abfolujtely free, in refpeflt of all im« 
mediate tranfaftions between God and finaers. 

* It is free 011 the part of God. ( 1 •) In the 
eternal purpofe of it, whea he might juftly 
have fuffered ail men to have perHhed under 
the guilt of their fins. (2.) Free in the means 
that he ufed to effeft it to his glory, - 1 . In the 
fending of his. Son.- 2. In laying the puniih* 
ment of our fin upon him. 3. In his covenant 
with him, that it fhould be accepted on our be- 
half. 4. In his tender and propofal of it by 
the gofpel unto finners, to be received without 
money, or without price. 5* In the adtual con- 
donation and pardon of them that do believe. 

It is free aUGo on. the part of the paribus that 

M 2 are 


are forgiven. ( 1.) In that it is given and grant- 
ed to them, without any fatisfa&ion made by 
them for their former franfgreffionj. £2.) 
Without any merit to purchafe or procure it. 
(3.) Without any penal fatisfa&ory fuffering 
here, or in a purgatory hereafter. (4.) With- 
out any expe&ation of a future recompence, 
or that being pardoned, they fhould then make 
or give ^ any fatisfa&ion for what they had 
done before. And as any of thefe things would, 
fo nothing elfe can impeach the freedom of 
pardon and forgivenefs. 

Whether then we refpecfc the pardoner, or 
the pardoned, pardon is every where freei 
namely, on the part of Gk>d who forgives, and 
on the part of finners that are forgiven. If 
God now hath, befides all this, provided him* 
felf a lamb for a facrifice; if he hath in infi- 
nite wifdom and grace found a way, thus freely 
fo forgive us our fins, to the praife and glory 
of his own holinefs, righteoufnefs, and feve- 
rity againft un; as well as unto the unfpeak- 
able advancement of that grace, goodnefs and 
bounty which he immediately exercifeth in 
the pardon of fin; are thefe men's eyes evil, 
becaufe he is good? will they not be content- 
ed to be pardoned, unlefs they may have it 
at the rate of difpoiling God of his holinefs, 
truth, righteoufnefs and faithfulnefs? and as 
this is certainly done by that way of pardon 
.which thefe men pro pole, no referve in the 
lead being made for the glory of God in thofe 



holy properties' of his nature y which' are im- 
mediately injured and oppofed by fin;- fo that 
pardon itfelf, which they pretend fo to mag- 
nify, having nothing to influence it, but a. mere 
s^rbitrary a£fe of God's will, is utterly debafed 
from its own proper worth and excellency. 
And I ihall willingly undertake to manife(t y 
that they derogate no lek from grace and mer- 
Gy in pardoa, than they do from the righte- 
oufnefs and holinefs of God, by the forgive- 
nefs which they have feigned; and that in it 
both of theov are perverted, and defpoiled of 
ail their glory. But they yet fay: 

•Firji^ If God. can feely pardon fin, why 
doth he not do it without farisfadaon? if he 
cannot, he is weaker and more imperfect than 
man> who can do fo. 

Anfw. i. God cannot do j many things that 
men can da** not thai: he is more imperfect • 
than they, but he cannot do them on the ac- 
count of his perfe&ion. He cannot lie, he can- 
not deny, himfelf, he canpot change; which; 
joen can do, and do every day. . 

2.. To pardon fix* without fa&k>£a£tionin hinx y 
who* is- abfolutety holy, righteous, true and 
faithful^ the abfoluteneceffajry Aipreme gover- 
nor of all finners* the author of the law, and 
fen&ioa of it* wherein puniibment is threat- 
e#ed and declared, is to deny hiiufelf, and to 
do what one infinitely perfect cannot dov 

3, I afk of fchefe. nxen, why God doth not 
paardoa fins freely, without requiring faith* re~ 

Mj , pentance,. 


pentance, and obedience in them that are par-* 
donedj yea, as the conditions on which they 
may be pardoned? For feeing he is fo infinite- 
ly good and gracious-, cannot he pardon men 
without prefcribing fuch terms and conditions 
unto them, as he knoweth that men, and that 
incomparably the greateft number t>f them,, 
will never come up unto, and fo rauft of ne- 
Ceflity perife for ever. Yea, but they fiiy this 
cannot be, neither doth this impeach the free- 
dom of pardon. For k is certain God doth 
prefcribe thefe things, and yet he pardoneth- 
freely: and it would altogether unbecome the* 
holy God to pardon finners, that continue fo 
to live and die in their fms. But do not thefe 
men r fee, that they have hereby given away 
their caufe which they contend for ? For if a 
prefcription of fundry things to the finner 
ftimfelf, without which he frail not be pardon* 
ed, do not at all impeach, as they fay, the free- 
dom of pardon, but God may be faid freely to* 
pardon fin notwithstanding it; how frail the re- 
ceiving of fatisfa&ion by another, nothmgat alf 
being required of the finner, have the feaft ap- 
pearance of any fuch thing? If the freedom of 
forgivenefe conftfts th fuch a boundlefs notion' 
as thefe men imagine, it fe certain that the pre- 
fcribing of faith and repentance in and unto* 
finners, antecedently tothei* anticipation of it, 
is much more evidently contrary tmto it, than 
the receiving of fat is fad ion from another who 
is not to be pardoned, can to any appear to be^ 

And i 


And if it be contrary to the hoiinefs of God, 
to pardon any without requiring faith, repen- 
tance^ and obedience in them, as it h indeed ? 
Jet riot thefeperfonsbeofiended, if we believe 
him, when he fo frequently declares it, that it 
was fo to remit fin, without the fulfilling of hia 
law, and fatkfadtion of his juftiee. They fay, 
- Secondly, There is no fuch thing as juitice in 
God requiring the punHhraent of fin, but that 
that, which in him requireth andcalleth for the 
punifhment of fin, is his anger and wrath r 
which exprefiions denote free afts of his will % 
and not any effential properties of his natures 
fo that God may punilh fin, or not punifhit, at 
his pleafure. Therefore there is no reafon that 
he fhould require any fatisfaftion for fin, fee- 
ing he may pafs k by abfolutely as he pleafetlu 

Anfw. t. Is it not ftrange, that the great 
governor > the Judge of all the world, which on 
the fuppofition of the creation of it, God is 
naturally and jieceffarily, Jhould not alfo na- 
turally be fo righteous, as to do right, in ren- 
dering unto every one according to his works? 

2* The fanttion and penalty of the law, 
which is theVule of punHhment, was, as I fup- 
pofe> an effe& of juftiee, of God's natural and 
effential juftiee, and not of his anger or wrath* 
Certainly never did any man make a law for 
the government of a people in anger: Draco's 
laws were not made in wrath, but according to 
the beft apprehenfion of right and jiiftice that 
he had, thef faid tobe written in blood* Andf 
fealLwe think otherwife of the law of God* 


3. Anger and wrath in God exprefs the e£- 
fefts of juftice; and fo are not merely free 
ads of his will- This therefore is a tottering 
caufe, that is built on the denial of God's ef~ 
fential righteoufnefs. Bat it was proved be- 
fore, and it is fa elfewhere. 

Thirdly, They fay that the facrifice of Chrift 
was metaphorical ly only fo* That he was a. 
metaphorical prieft,not one properly fo called:, 
and therefore, that his facrifice did not confift 
in his death and blood-lhedding, but in his ap- 
pearing in heaven, upon his afcenfion, pre* 
fenting himfelf unto God in the mod holy 
place, not made with hands, as the Mediator 
of the new covenant. 

Anfw* i. When once thefe men come to this 
evafion, they think therafelves fafe, and that 
they may go whither they will without controuL 
For they fay it is true, Chrift was a prieft, but 
he was only a metaphorical one: he offered fa- 
criiice, but it was a metaphorical one: he re- 
djeen*ed us , bu t withametaphoxkal redemption^ 
And £d we are juilified. thereon, but with a me- 
taphorical juftifrcation; and fo, for ought I 
know, they are Eke to be laved \* ith a meta- 
phorical falvation. This is the fubftance of 
their plea in this matter. Ctuaft was not really 
a prieft, but did fomewh^t like a pried: he of- 
fered not facrifice really* but did fonrewha* 
that was like a facrifice: ha redeemed us not 
leally, but did fopae wha£ that looked, like re- 
demptiQiu And what thefe things axe, wherein* 




their analogy confifteth, what proportion the 
things that Chrift hath done have to the things 
that are really fo, from whence they receive 
their denomination, that it is meet it mould be 
* in the power of thefe perfon& to declare. But, 
2. What fhould hinder the death of Chrift 
to be a facrifice, a proper facrifice, and accord- 
ing to the nature, end, and ufeof facrifices, to 
have made atonement and fatisfaQion for fin* 
1. It is exprefsly called fo in the feripture; 
wherein he is faid to offer himfelf, to c make 

* his foul an offering, to offer himfelf a facri- 

* fice,* Eph. v. 2. Heb. i. 3. Heb. ix. 14, 25, 
26. Chap. vii. 27. And he is himfelf dire&ly 
faid to be a Prieft, or a facrifice, Heb. ii. iS» 
And it is no where intimated,' much lefs ex- 
preffed, that thefe things are not fpoken pro* 
perly, but metaphorically only* 2. The legal 
facrifices of the old law were inftituted on pur- 
pofe, to reprefent and prepare the way for the., 
bringing in of the facrifice of the Lamb of God % 
fo to take away the fin of the world. And is it 
not ftrange, that true and real facrifices fhould 
be types and representations of that which was 
not to? On this fuppofition all thofe facrifices 
are but fo many feduftions from the right un- 
derftanding of things between God and (inner s. 

. (3.) Nothing is wanting to render it a pro- 
per propitiatory facrifice: For, i« There was 
.the perfon offering, and that was Chrift him* 
felf, Heb. ix. 14. * He offered himfelf unto 
4 God/ He, that is, the facrificer^ denotes the 



3* This fets pot the exceeding greatnefs of 
the grace of God inforgivenefs, that when fin 
couid not be forgiven without fatisfa&ion, 
^nd the finner himielf could no way make any 
fuch fatisfa&ion; that he provided himfelf a ' 
facrifice or atonement, that the finner might 
be difcharged and pardoned. 

4. Sin is not properly a debt; for then it 
might be paid in kind, by fin itfelf; but is 
called fc, only becaufe it binds over the finner 
to punifhment, which is the fatisfa&ion to be 
made for that which is properly atranfgreffion, 
2nd improperly only a debt* It is added^ 

Secondly, Hence it follows, that the finite 
and impotent creature is more capable of ex- 
tending mercy and forgivenefc, than the infi- 
nite and omnipotent Creator, 

Anfw. 1. God being effentially holy and 
righteous, having engaged his faithfulnefs in 
the fan£tton of the law, and being naturally 
and neceflarily the governor and ruler of the 
world; the forgiving of fin without fatisfac- 
tion, would be no perfection in him, but an 
efFe£t of impotency, and imperfe&ion; a thing 
which God cannot do, as ihe canndt lie, nor 
deny himfelf. * 

2. The dire& contrary of what is infinuated, 
is aflerted by this do&rine; , for on the fuppo- % 
iition of the fatisfa&ion and atonement infift- 
ed on, not only doth God freely forgive, but 
that in fuch: a way of righteoufnefs and good- 
nefs, as no creature is able to conceive, or ex- 

! P re * 8 


prefs the glory and excellency of it. And to 
ipeak of the poor having pardons of private 
men, upon particular offences againft them- 
felves, who are commanded fo to do, and have 
*n» right nor authority to require or exaft pu- 
aa&ment, nor is any due upon the mere account 
of their own concernment, in comparifon with 
the forgivenefs of God, arifeth out of a deep 
ignorance of the whole matter under confi* 

Thirdly^ It is added by them, that hence it 
follows, that God fo loved the world, that he 
gave his only Son to fave it; and yet that God 
flood off in high difpleafure, and Ghrift gave 
himfelf as a complete fatisfa&ion to offended 

. Anfw- 1. Something thefe men would fay, 
if they knew what, or how. For, c That 
* God fo loved the world, as to give his only 
c Son to fave it,' is the expreffion of the fcrip- 
ture, and the foundation of the do&rine whofe 
truth we contend for, 

3. That Chrift offered himfelf to make atone- 
ment for finners, and therein made fatisfadion 
iothe jufticepfGod, i* the do&rineitfelf which 
thefe men oppofe, and not any confequentof it. 

3. That God flood off in high difpleafure, k 
an expreffion which neither the fcripture ufetft, 
fcor thofe who declare this doctrine from 
ih^nce; nor is fuited unto the divine perfec- 
tions, or the manner of divine operations. 
That intended feems to be, that the righteouf- 
pefs and law of God required thepunifhment 

N ' ' due 



due to fin to be undergone, and thereby fatis- 
faction to be made unto God; which is no 
confequent of the do&rin^, but the doSrine 

' Fourthly, It is yet farther dbje&ed, that if 
.'Chrift made fatisfadion for fin, then he did it 
either as God, or as man, or as God and man. 
Anfw. 1. As God and man. A&s xx. 28. 
,*God redeemed his church with hisownblood/ 
1 John iii. 1 6. 4 Herein was manifeft the love of 

2. This dilemma is prapofed as that which 
proceeds on a foppofition of ourown princi- 
ples, that Chrift is God and man in one per*. 
fon; which indeed raiakes the pretended diffi- 
culty .to be vain, and a mere ejfeft of igno* 
ranee: for all the mediatory aSs of Chrift be- 
ing the a&s of his perfon, muft of necefifcy be 
the afts of Mm as God and man. 

3. There is yet another miftake in this in- 
quiry; for fatisfa&k>n is in it looked on as a 
real a&, .or operation of one, or the other 
.nature in Chrift; when it is the apoteleftna, 
or effect of the a&ings, the doing and fu.ffering 
of ..Chrift; the dignity of what he did in refer- 
ence unto the end for which he did it. For 
the two natures are fo united in Chrift, as not 
to have a third compound principle of phyfical 
adts and operations thence ariiing; but each 
nature afts diftin&ly, according to its own be- 
ing and properties; yet fo, as what is the im* 
mediate a# of either nature, is the a& of him 
who is one in both, from whence it hath its 
dignity, 4. The 


4. The fum is: that in all the mediatory 
a£kions of Chrift, we are to cbnfider: ( 1 .) The 
3gent y and that is the perfon of Chrift. (2.) Th£ 
immediate principle, by which, and from which 
the agent worketh; and that is the natures in 
the perfon. (3.) The a&ions, which are the ef- 
fectual operations of either nature. (4.) The 
e£Fe&, or work, with refp5& to God and us; 
and this relates unto the perfon of the agent, 
the Lord Chrift, God and man. A blending of 
the natures into one comraoa principle of o* 
peration,as thecompounding of mediums unto 
one end, is ridiculoufly fuppofed in this matter. 

But yet again, it is pretended, that fundry 
confequences irreligious and irrational do en- 
fue, upon a fuppofitioriof the fatisfattion plead- 
ed for. What then are they? 

Firjiy That it is unlawful and impoffible fof 
God Almighty to be gracious and merciful, 
or to pardon tranfgreffors. 

jinjkv. 1. The miferable confufed mifappre- 
henfion of things, which thepropolal of this* 
and the like confequences doth evidence, man- 
ifefts fufficiently,how unfit themaker's of them 
.are to manage controverfies of this nature. 
,Eor it is fuppofed, that for God to be gracious 
and merciful, or topar don finners,arethe fame; 
which is to confound the eflential properties of 
his nature with the free a&s of his will. 

2. Lawful or unlawful are terms that can 

with no tolerable fenfe be ufed concerning 

any properties of God; alLwhich are natural 

■4 N 2 and 


ranfom for them, and making his foul an of- 
fering for their fin. 

4. That nothing is due to the juftice of God 
for fin, that is, that fin doth not in the juftice 
of God deferve punilhment, is a good comfort- 
able do&rine, for men that are refolved to con- 
tinue in their fins whilft they live in this world. 
The fcripture tells us, that Chrift paid what 
he took not; that * all our iniquities were 
' caafed to meet upon him;' that * he bare 

* them in his own body on the tree;' that * his 
« foul was made an offering for fin,' and there- 
by he'made reconciliation or atonement for 
the fins of the people. If thefe perfons be 
otherwife minded, we cannot help it. 

• Fourthly, It is added, that this do&rine doth 
not only difadvantage the true virtue and real 
intent of Chrift's lite and death, but entirely 
deprives God of that praife, which is owing 
td his greateft love and goodnefs. 

Anfw. 1 . 1 fuppofe that this is the firft time, 
that this do&rine fell under this imputation ; 
nor could it poffibly be liable unto this charge 
from any, who did either underftand it, or the 
grounds on which it is commonly oppofed* 
For there is no end of this life or death of 
Chrift, which the Socinians themfelves admit 
of, but it is alfo allowed, and affefted in the 
do&rine now called in queftion. Do they fay^ 
that he taught the truth, or revealed the whole 
mind and will of God concerning his worlhip 
and our obedience? We fay the fame. Do 
they fay, that by his death he bare.teftimony 


fniwiTY Vindicated* 151 


iinto, and confirmed the truth which he had 
taught? It is alfo owned by us. Do they fay, 
that in what he did, and fu tiered, he fet us an 
example, that we (hould labour after conform- 
ity unto? It is what we aknowledge and teach. 
Only we fay that all thefe things belong prin- 
cipally to his prophetical office. But we more- 
over affirm and believe, that as a prieft, or in 
the difcharge of his facerdotal office, he did in 
his death and fufferinga, offer himfelf a facri- 
fice to God, to make atonement for our fins j 
which they deny: and that he died for us, or 
in our ftead, that we might go free; without 
the faith and acknowledgment whereof no 
part of the gofpel can be rightly underftood. 
All the ends then which themfelves affign of 
the life and death of Chrift, are by us granted j 
and the principle one, which gives life and 
efficacy to the reft, is by them denied. 

2. Neither doth it fall under any poflible 
imagination, that the praife due untoGod (hould 
be eclipfed hereby. The love and kindnefs of 
God towards us is in the fcripture fixed prin- 
cipally and fundamentally, on his * fending of 
* his only begotten Son to die for tis:' and cer- 
tainly the greater the work was that he had to 
do, the greater ought our acknowledgment 
of his love and kindnefs to be. But it is faid, 

Fifthly, That it reprefents the Son more 

• kind and companionate than the Father; 

whereas if both be the fame God, then either 

the Father is as loving as the Son, or the Son 

as angry as the Father. 

' Anfw. it 


Anftv. i. The fcripture refereth the love 
of the Father unto two heads. ( i .) The fend- 
ing of his Son to die for us, John iii. 1 6. Rorcu 
y. 8. i John iv. 8. (2.) In choofmg fmners 
unto a participation of the fruits of his love, 
Eph. i. 3, 4, j, 6. The love of the Son is fixed 
fignally on his aftual giving himfelf to die for 
us, Gal. ii. 20. Eph. v. 25. Rev. i. 5. What 
ballances thefe perfons have got, to weigh 
thefe loves, in, and. to conclude which is the 
greateft, or mod weighty, I know not. 
. 2. Although only the aftual difcharge of 
his office be direftly affigned to the love of 
Chrift; yet his condefcenfion in taking our 
nature upon him, expreffed by his mind, Eph. 
vi. 7. and the readinefs of his will, Pfalm. 
xl. 8. doth eminently comprife love in it alfo. 
3. The love of the Father, in fending of the 
Son, was an aft of his will, which being a 
natural and effential property of God, it was 
fo far the aft of the Son alfo, as he is partaker 
of the fame nature; though eminently and in 
refpeft of order it was peculiarly the aft of 
the Father. 

The anger of God againft fin is an effeft of 
Ijis effential righteoufnefs and holinefs, which 
belong to him as God; which yet hinders not, 
but that both Father, and Son, and Spirit afted 
love towards finners. They. fay again. 

Sixthly, It robs God of the gift of his Son 
for our redemption,, which the fcriptures at-, 
tribute to the unmerited love he had for the 
world; in affirming the Son purchafed that 



redemption from the Father, t>y the gift of 
himfelf to God as our complete fatisfa&ion. 

Anjhv. 1. It were endfefs to confider the 
improper and abfurd expreffions which are 
made ufe of in thefe exceptions; as here the 
faft words havA no tolerable fenfe in them ac- 
cording to any principles whatever. 

2. if the Son's purchafing redemption for 
it, procuring, obtaining it, do rob God of the 
gift of his Son for onr redemption; the Holy 
Ghoft mufl anfwer for it: for having obtained 
for us, or procured * or purchafed eternal re- 
demption, is the word ufed by himfelf, Heb. ix. 
1 4. And to deny that he hath laid down hit 
life a ranfom for us, and to have bought us 
with a price, is openly to deny the gofpel. In 
a word, th<* great gift of God confifted in 
giving his Son to obtain redemption for us. ' 

3. Herein he offered himfelf Unto God, and 
gave himfelf for us; and if thefe perfons arfe 
offended herewithal; what are w*e? that we 
fhould withftand God. They fay, 

Seventhly , Since Ohrift could not pay what 
was not his own, it follows that in the pay- 
ment of his own, the cafe remains equally 
grievous. Since the debt is not hereby absol- 
ved or forgiven, but transferred; and by 6oir- 
fequence we are no better provided for falva- 
tion than before, owing that now to the Son, 
which was once owing to the Father. 

Anfw. The loofenefs and dubioufhefs of the 
expreffions here ufed, make an appearance 
that there is Something in them,, when indeed 
• " ■ V there 


there is not. There i$ an allufion in* them* to 
a debt and a payment, which is the mod im- 
proper expreffion that is ufed in this matter, 
and the interpretation thereof is to be regulated 
by other proper expreffions of the fame thing. 
But to keep to the allufion, (i») Chrift paid 
his own, but not for himfelf, Dan. ix, 26. 
(2.) Paying it for us, the debt is difcharged, 
and our a&ual difcharge is to be given out, 
according to the ways and means, and upon 
the conditions appointed and conftituted by the 
Father arid Son. (3*) When a debt is fo tranfr 
ferred as that one is accepted in the room, and 
obliged to payment in the (lead of another, 
and that payment is made and accepted accor- 
dingly, all law and reafon require that the 
original debtor be difcharged. (4.) What on 
this, account we owe to the' Son, is praife, 
thankfulnefs, and obedience, and not the debt 
which he took upon himfelf, and difcharged 
for us, when we were nonfolvent, by his love. 
So that this matter is plain enough, and not 
to be involved in fuch cloudy expreffions and 
incoherent difcourfe, following the metaphor 
of a debt. For if God be confidered as the 
creditor, we all as debtors, and being infolvent, 
Chrift undertook out of his love to pay the 
debt for us, and did fo accordingly, which 
was accepted with God; it follows, that we 
are to be difcharged upon God's terms, and 
under a new obligation unto his love, who 
hath made this fatisfa&ion for us, which we 
(hall eternally acknowledge. It is laid, 

£ightbly 9 


one hand, and of punching them who refufe fo 
to obey, believe, or repent on the other, Thue 
reaibn of this inference infinuated, feems to b§ 
this: that fin being fatisfied for, cannot becalU 
ed again to an account. For the former part 
of the pretended confequence, namely, that on 
this fuppofition there is no foundation left for 
the prescription of godlinefs, I cannot difcern 
any thing in the lea ft looking towards the 
confirmation of it, in the words of the obliga* 
tion laid down. But thefe things are quite 
otherwife, as is manifeft unto them that read 
and obey the gofpel. For, 

1. ChrifTsfatisfa&ion for fitas acquits not the 
creature of that dependance on God, and duty 
which he owes to God, which, notwithstanding 
that, God may juftly, and doth prescribe unto 
him, fuitable to his own nature, hoiinefs, an4 
will. The whole of our regard unto God doth 
not lie in an acquitment from fin. It is more- 
over required of us as a neceflary and indif- 
penfible confequence of the relation wherein 
we ftand unto him, that we live to him and 
obey him, whether fin be fatisfied for, or not* 
The manner and meafure hereof are to be re- 
gulated jby his prefcriptions, which are fuited 
to his own wildom and our condition. And 
they are now refer ed to the heads mentione4 
of faith? and repentance, and new ob.ediense. 
— «2. The fatisfa&ion made for fin being not 
' made by the finner himfelf , there m uft of ne- 
.ceflity be a rule, order, and J^w-Gonftitution 
how the Tinner may come to be iiiterefted ijol 
• , . ' it, 


&> and made partaker of it. For the confe* 
quent of the freedom of one by the fuffering 
of another* is not natural or necefiary, but 
muft proceed and arife from a law-<!onftitu- 
tion, compaft, and agreement. Now the way 
conftituted and appointed is that of faith, or 
believing, as explained in the fcripture. If men 
believe not, they are no lefs liable to the pu-- 
nifhment due to their fins, than if no fatisfao 
tion at all were made for finners. And where- 
as it is added: * Forgetting that every one 
' muft appear before the judgment-feat of 
4 Chrift, to receive according to the things 
' done in the body: yea, and every one muft 
* give an account of himfelfto God:' doling 
all with this: But many more are the grofs 
abfurdities and blafphemies, that are the ge- 
nuine fruits of this fo confidently believed 
doftrine of fatisfacdon: I fay, 

3. It is certain, that we muft all appear 
before the judgment-feat of Chrift, to receive 
according to the things done in the body; and 
therefore wo will be unto them at the great 
day, who are not able to plead the atonement 
made for their fins by the blood of Chrift, and 
an evidence of their intereft therein by their 
faith and obedience, or the things done and 
wrought in them, and by them, whilft they 
were in the body here in this world. And 
this it would better become perfons to betake 
themfelves unto the confideration of, than t* 
exercife themfelves unto an unparallelled 
confidence in reproaching thofe with abfurdi- 

O tie* 


ties and blafphemies, who believe die deity 
#nd fatisfa&ion of Jefus Chrift, the Son of the 
living God, who died for as, which is the 
grouncT and bottom of all our expe&ation of 
Vl bleffed life and immortality to come. 

The Temoval of thefe obje&ions againft the 
*ruth, fcattered of late up and down in the 
hands of all forts of men, may fuffice for our 
p relent purpofe- If any amongft thefe men, 
who judge that they have an ability to manage 
the oppufition againft the truth, as declared 
by us,-' with I\ich pleas, arguments, and ex- 
ceptions, as may pretend an intereft in ap.- 
.pearing reafon, they lhall, God srfMing, be 
attended unto. With men given up to a fpirit 
of railing .or reviling, though it be no fmall 
honour to be reproached by them, who rejeft 
.with fcora the eternal Deity of the Son of 
God, and the fctisfa&ory atonement that he 
made for the iinsof men, no perfon of fo- 
•briety will contends And I (hall further only 
.defire the reader rto -take notice, that though 
thefe few fheets were written in few hours, 
xipon the defire, and for the fatisfa&ion of 
.fame private friends, and therefore contain 
merely an expreffiqn of prefent thoughts, 
.without the leaft defign or diverfion of mind 
towards accuracy or ornament; yet the author 
is fo far confident that the truth, and nothing 
elfe, is propofed and confirmed in them, that 
he fears not but that an oppofition to what is 
here declared will be removed, and the truth 
reinforced in fuch a way and manner, as maiy 
-not be to its disadvantage. 



X HE preceding difcourfe,* as hath been declare 
ed, was written for the ufe of ordinary Chriftians; 
ot foch as might be in danger to be feduced, or 
any way entangled in their minds, by the late at-» 
tempts againft the truths pleaded for. For thofe 
to whom 1 the difpenfation of the gofpel is- com- 1 
mitted, are ' debtors both to the Greeks, and to-* 
* the Barbarians; both to the wife; and to th<$ 
c imwife/ Rom : . i. 14-. It wias therefore thought- 
meet to infill only on things neceflary, and fuchr 
as their faith is immediately concerned in; and 
not to immix therewithal any fuch arguments or 
confiderations, as might not by reaftm of -th4 
terms wherein they are exprefled, be obvious to 
their capacity andunderftanding. Unto" plain- 
nefs and perfpicuity, brevity was alfo required; 
by fuch as judged this work neceffary. That de- 
fign we hope is anfwered, and now difeharged i» 
fome ufeful meafure. But yet becaufe many of 
our arguments, on the head of the fatisfaftron of 
Chrift, depend upon the genuine fignificatioi* 
and notion of the words and terms, wherein the 
doftrine of it is delivered, which for the reafons- 
before-mentioned could not conveniently be dif- 
cuffed in the foregoing difcouffe; I (hall here, in 
fome few inftances, give an account of what far- 
ther confirmation the truth might receive, by a 
due explanation of them. And I (hall mentionr 
here but few of them, becaufe a large diflfertauoa 
concerning them all is intended in another way* 
Firji 9 For the term fatisfa&ion itfetf, it is 

O 2 


granted, that in this matter it is not found in the 
fcripture. That is, it is not fo }rrr^ y or fyllabhally< i 

but 1S Hdrot ri zrpxypoi iyavTiff>nrQ(: the thing itfetf 

intended is afferted in it, beyond all modeft con* 
tradiction. Neither indeed is there in the He- 
brew language any word that doth adequately 
anfwer unto it; no, nor yet in the Greek. As it 
is ufed in this caufe, iyyw, properly fponfts, jide- 
fuj/io, in its adual difcharge, maketh the neareft 
. approach unto it: **w voi&v is ufed to the fame 
purpofe. But there are words and phrafes both 
in the Old Teftament, and in the New, that arc 
equipollent unto it, and exprefs the matter or 
thing intended by it: as in the Old are, ms ]viq 
and 193 -uo. This laft word we render fatisfac- 
tion, Num. xxxv. £2> 33. Where God denies 
that any compenfation, facred or civil, (hall be 
received to free a murderer from the punifhment 
1 due unto him: whkh properly expreffeth what 
we intend. * Thou (halt admit of no fatisfa&ion 
* for the life of a murderer.* In the New Tefta- 
ment, KVTfGK, MTlMTpor, a7tCKVTf^7l^ > TIJJLYI, tKCUT/ULOC^ 

and the verbs, *vrpw, iwiKurfiu, k^oLyapa^eiv, iMxVxe* 

«&*/, are of the fame importance* and fome of them 
accommodated to exprefs the thing intended, be- 
yond that which hath obtained in vulgar ufe* For 
that which we intended hereby is, the voluntary 
obedience unto death, and the paflion or fuffering 
of our Lord Jefus Chrift, God and man, whereby 
-and wherein he offered himfelf through the eter- 
nal Spirit, for a propitiatory facrifice that he 
might fulfil the law, or anfwer all its univerfal 
poftulata; and as our fponfor, undertaking our 
caufe, when we were under the fentence ot con- 


dcmnation, underwent the punifhment due to us 
from the juftice of God, being transferred on 
him; whereby having made a perfect and abfolute 
propitiation or atonement for our fins, he pro- 
cured for us a deliverance from death, and the 
* curfe,. and a right unto life everlafting. Now 
this is more properly exprefled by fome of the 
- words before-mentioned, than by that of fatis- 
"fa&ion; which yet neverthelefs as ufually ex- 
- ^plained* is comprehenfive, and no way unfuited 
* Jb the matter intended by it. 
.. '-* In general, men by this word underftand ei- 
.^--tker reparationem offenfse^ or folutione?n debit ir ei- 
filler reparation made far offence given unto any, 
,;--0r the payment of a debt. Debit wn is either 
, \triminale, or pecunlariwnr. that is, either the ob- 
^ poxioufnefs of a man to punifhment for crimes, 
>fr the guilt of them, in anfwer to that juftice and 
^r:%w which he is neceffarily liable and fubjeft to; 
--r&r uitta a payment or compenfation by, or of 
. z money, or what is valued by it: which lafl con* 
".; . ^deration, neither in itfelf, nor in any reafonings 
'*. . from an analogy unto it, can in this matter have 
iny proper place- Satisfa&ion is the effed of 
' ^ : ,4?ing or fufi^ring what is required for the an- 
: ~-.iwering of his charge againft faults or fins, who 
^ fiath right, authority, and power to require, ex- 
"7 i&y and inflict punifhment for them. Some of 
*/. the fchoolmen define if, by voluntaria reddith 
- ' GQuivakntis indebiti: of which more elfewhere. 
-/"" Tne true meaning of to fatisfy, or make fatisiac- 
^ don, is tanium facere aut pati y quantum fails fit 
" . i u ft* iraio- ad <mndi£lam> This fatisfa&ioa is im- 


pleaded, as inconfiftent with free remiffion of 
fins: how caufelefly we have feen. It is fo far 
from it, that it is neceffary to make way for it, 
in cafe of a righteous law tranfgreffed, and the 
public order of the univerfal governor, and go- 
vernment of all difturbed. And this God directs 
unto, Lev. iv. 31. ' The prieft (hall make an 

* atonement for him, and it (hall be forgiven him.* 
This atonement was a legal fatisfa&ion; and it is 
by God himfeif premifed to remiffion or pardon* 
And Paul prays Philemon to forgive Onefimus* 
though he took upon him to make fatisfaftion 
for all the wrong or damage he had fuftained* 
Phil. ver. 18,19. And when God was difpleafed 
with the friends of Job, he prefcribes a way to 
them, or what they (hall do, and what they mail 
get done for them, that they might be accepted 
and pardoned, Job xlii. 7, 8. * The Lord faid 

* unto Eliphaz, my wrath is kindled againft thee,. 
c and againft thy two friends; therefore take un~ 
€ to you now feven bullocks and feven rams, and 

* go to my fervant Job, and offer up for your- 

* felves a burnt offering, and my fervant Job fhall 

* pray for you, for him will I accept j left I deal 

* with you after your folly.' He plainly enjoin* 
eth an atonement, that he might freely pardon 
them. And both thefe, namely, fatisfa&ion and 
pardon, with their order and confiftency, were 
folemnly reprefented by the great inftitution of 
the iacrifice of the fcape goat. For after all the: 
fins of the people were put upon him, or the 
punifiiment of them transferred unto him in a 
type and reprefentation, with quod in ejus caput Jit % 
th& formal reafon of all (Sacrifices propitiatory, he 


was fent away with them, denoting the oblation 
or forgivenefs of fin, after a tranflation made of 
its punifhment, Lev. xvi. 21, 22. And whereas- 
it is not exprefsly faid, that that goat fuffered, or 
was flain, but was either Vm fa Hircus surovopwaZcci 
a goat fent away, or was fent to a rock called 
Azaael in the wildernefs, as Vatablus and de- 
ader, with fame others, think, (which is not pro- 
bable, feeing though it might then be done while 
the people were in the wildernefs of Sinai; yet 
could not by reafon of its diftance, when the peo- 
ple were fettled in Canaan, be annually obferved^ 
it was from the poverty of the types, whereof no 
one could fully reprefent that grace, which it had! 
particular Tefpeft unto. What therefore was: 
wanting in that goat, was fupplied in the other,, 
which was ftain as a fin offering, v. n, 16. 

Neither doth it follow, that on the fuppofitioi* 
of the fatisfa&iori pleaded for, the freedom, par- 
don, or acquitment of the perfon originally guilty 
and liable to punifhment, muft immediately and 
ipfofa€to enfue. It i& not of rixe nature of every 
fclution or fatisfa&ion, that deliverance mutt 
tpjb f#£to follow. And the reafon of it is, be- 
caufe this fatisfa&ion by a fuccedaneous fubftitu* 
tion of one to undergo punifhment for another,, 
muft be founded in a voluntary compaQ: and 
agreement. For there is required unto it a re* 
laxation of the law, though not as to the punifh- 
ment to be infli&ed, yet as unto the perfon to be 
punifhed. And it is otherwife in perfonai guilt* 
thin in pecuniary debts* In thefe the debt itfelf 
is folely intended, the perfon only obliged with; 
reference thereunto* la the other * the perfon i$; 


firft and principally under the obligation. And 
therefore when a pecuniary debt 13 paid, by 
whomfoever it be paid, the* obligation of the 
perfon himfelf unto payment ceafeth ipfo fa£lo+ 
But in things criminal, th£ guilty perfori himfelf 
being firft, and immediately, and intentionally 
under the obligation v unto punifliment, when 
there is introduced by compact a vicarious folu- 
tion in th^fuhftitution of another to fuffer; tho' 
he fufter the fame abfolutely, which thofe fhould 
have done for whom he fuffers; yet becaufe oF 
the acceptation of his perfon to fuffer, which 
might have been refufed, and could not be ad- 
mitted, without fome relaxation of the law; de-^ 
liverance of the guihy perfons cannot ^nfue ipfo. 
fatloj but by the intervention of the terms fixed 
on in the covenant or agreement, for an admit- 
tance of the fubftitution. 

It appears from what hath been fpoken, that 
in this matter of fatisfattion God is not confider- 
ed as a creditor, and fin as a debt, and the law 
as an obligation to the payment of that debt, 
and the Lord Chri(l as paying it; tho* thefe no- 
tions may have been ufed by fome for the illuf- 

. tratibn of the whole matter, and that not with- 
out countenance from fundry expreffions in the - 
fcripture to the fame purpofe* but God is con- 
fidered as the infinitely holy and righteous author 
of the law, and fupreme governor of all manu- 
kind, according to the tenor and fan&ion of it: 
Man is confidered 91s a finner, a tranfgreflbr of 
that law, and thereby obnoxious and liable to 
the punifhment conftituted in it, and by it ? an- 

■ ' fiv erable unto the juflice and holinefs of its au- 


tfior: the fubftitution of Chrift was merely vo- 
luntary on the part of God, and of himfelf, un- 
dertaking to be a fponfor to anfwer for the fins 
of men, by undergoing the punifhment due unto 
them. To this end there was a relaxation of the 
law, as to the perfons that were to fuffer, tho* 
not as to what was to be fuffered: without the 
former, the fubftitution mentioned could not have 
been admitted; and on fuppofition of the latter, 
the fuffering of Chrift could not have had the 
nature of punifhment properly fo called. For 
jmnifhmeftt relates to the juftice and rig1iteotf£ 
nefs in government of him that exa&s it, and 
kifli&s it: and this the juftice of God doth not, 
but by the law. Nor could the law be any way 
fatisfied, or fulfilled by the fuffering of Chrift, 
if antecedently thereunto its obligation or power 
of obliging unto the penalty conftituted in it» 
fan&ion unto fin was relaxed, diflblved, or dif- 
penfed withal. Nor was it agreeable to juftice, 
feor would the nature of the things themfelves* 
admit of it, that another punifliment fhould be 
infli&ed on Chrift, than what we had deferved; 
nor could our fin be the impulfive caufe of hi* 
death; nor could we have had any benefit there-, 
by. And this may fuffice to be added unto what 
was fpoken before, as to the nature of fatisfadion* 
fo far as the brevity of the difcourfe whereunta 
we are confined will bear, or the ufe whereunta 
it is defigned doth require. 

Secondly, The nature of the doftrine contend- 
ed for being declared and cleared, we may in 
one or two inftances manifeft how evidently it 
is revealed, and how fully it may be vindicated* 


It is then. in the fcripture declared, that Chrift 
died for us, that he died for our fins, and that 
we are thereby delivered. This is the founda- 
tion of the Chriftian religion as fuch. Without 
the faith and acknowledgement of it we are not 
Chriftians. Neither is it in thefe general terms 
at all denied by the Socinians: It remains there- 
fore that we confuier, 

r. .How this is revealed and affirmed in the. 
fcripture: And, 

2. What is the true meaning of the expref- 
fions and propofitions, wherein it is revealed and 
affirmed; for in them, as in fundry others, we af- 
firm, that the fatisfa&ion pleaded for iscontained- 

i. Chrift is faid to die, to give himfelf, to be 
delivered vzorip ^Zr 9 &c. for us, for his fheep, for 
the life of the world, for finners, John vi. 51. 
Chap. x. 15. Rom. v. 6. 2. Cor. v. 14, 15. Gal. 
ii. 20. Heb. ii. g. Moreover he is (aid to die 
vw\f ifjLOLftiw, for fins, 1 Cor. xv. 3. Gal. L 4. 
The end whereof eve* y where expreffed in the 
gofpel is, that we might be freed, delivered, and 
faved. Thefe things, as was faid, are agreed un* 
to and acknowledged. 

2. The meaning^and importance, we fay, of 
thefe expreffions is^ that Chrift died in our room, 
place, or ftead, undergoing the death or punifh- 
ment which we fhould have undergone, in the 
way and manner before declared. And this is 
the fatisfa&ion we plead for. 

It remains therefore, that both from the fcrip- 
ture, and the proper fignification, and conftant 
ufe of the expreffions mentioned in other writers; 
from the mature of the things treated of, and 


from the exemplification of them in the cuftoms 
and ufages of the nations of the world; we do 
evince and manifeft, that what we have laid down 
is the true and proper fenfe of the words, wherein 
the .revelation of Chrift's dying for us, is expref- 
fed: fo that they who deny Chrift to have died 
for us in this fenfe, do indeed deny that he pro- 
perly died for us at all; whatever benefits they 
grant, that by. his death we may obtain. 

Firjiy We may confider the ufe of this ex- 
preffion in the fcripture, either indefinitely, or 
in particular inftances. 

Only we muft take this along with us, that 
dying for fins and tranfgreflions, being added 
unto dying for finners or perfons, maketh the 
fubftitution of one in the room and (lead of ano- 
ther more evident, than when the dying of one 
for another only is mentioned. For whereas all 
predicates are regulated by their fubje&s, and it 
is ridiculous to fay, that one died in the ftead of 
fins; the meaning can be no other, but the bear-' 
nig or anfwering of the fins of the finner, in 
whofe Head any one dieth. And this is in the 
fcripture declared. to be the fenfe of that ex- 
preffion, as we (hall fee afterwards. Let us 
therefore confider fome inftances. 

John xi. 50. The words of Caiaphas's coun- 

fel are, vvjjLjpifei iipm "vol etc aL*fyv7TQC a7ro§oLY)i V7r%{ tw 

Km, % pv\ okor ro eflfoc duroxYiTOLf* It is expedient for 
us that one man Jhould die for the people^ and 
that the whole nation peri/lj not. Which is 
expreffed again, Chap, xviii. 14. aVojJdS-aj J«re/» 7« 
xolv, perifh for the people. Caiaphas feared that 
if Chrift were fpared,. the people would be de» 


ftroyed by the Romans. The way to free them; 
he thought, was by the deftruOion of Chrift; 
him therefore he devoted to death in lieu of the 
people. As he: Unwn pro multis dabitur Caput, 
c One head (hall be given for many/ Not unlike 
the fpeech of Otho the emperor in Xiphilin, 
when he flew himfelf to preferve his army. For 
when they would have perfuaded him to renew 
the war, after the defeat of fome of his forces, 
and they offered to lay down their lives to fecure 
him; he replied, that he would not, adding this 

teafon: ?rcxu yctf 7m £ yLfenlot, £ liKOLioTtpoY tnv, tKx.C7rlp 

Tronw, yi TToxxvc vvrip hoQ a-aro^iSa/. It is far better, 
and more juft that one fhould perifh, or die for 
all; than that many fhould perifli for one: that 
is, one in the ftead of many, that they may go 
free. Or as another fpeaks: 

Let one be given up to die in thejicad of all. John 
xiii. 38. T*j -\vxr\v jm »7Tif (rv bwo. They are the 
words of St. Peter uitfo Chrift: / iviil lay down 
my life for thee: to free thee I will expofe my 
own head to danger, my life to death, that thou 
mayeft live, and I die. It js plain that he in- 
tended the fame thing with the celebrated dvrU 
•\vX ot > of old, who expofed their own lives ^v^w 
anl ^vx*** f° r OIle another. Such were Damon 
and Pythias, Oreftes and Pylades, Nifus and 
Eurialis. Whence is that faying of Seneca: 
Swcurram perituro,, fed ut ipfe non peream\ nififi 
futurus ero magni honunis y aut magnarei merces, 

* 1 will relieve or fuccour one that is ready to 

* perifh, yet fo as I perifh not myfelf; pnlefs 

* thereby I be taken m lieu of fcme great man, 


* or great matter.' For aigreat max>, a man of 
great worth and ufefulnefs, I could perilh, or die 
in his (lead, that he might live and go free. 

We have a great example alfo of the import 
of this expreffion in thofe words of David con- 
cerning Abfalom, 2 Sam. xviii. 33. vnn ]w to 
•pnnn ^k Who will grant me to die, I for tbee 9 or 
in thy ftead, My Son, Abfalom. It was never 
doubted, but that David wifhed that he had died 
in the ftead of his fon; and to have undergone 
the death which he did, to have preferved him 
alive. As to the fame purpofe, though in ano- 
ther fenfe, Mezentius in Virgil expreffeth him- 
jfelf, when his fon Laufus interpofing between 
him and danger in battle, was flain by iEneas. 
Tantane me tenult vivendi, nate, voluptas, 
Ut pro me hofiili pather fuccedere dextra, 
Quemgenui? tuane hac genitor per vulnerafervcr? 
Morte tua vivum? 
€ Haft thou, O fon, fallen under the enemy's. 

* hand in my ftead; am I fayed by thy wounds; 

* do, I live by thy death? 1 

* And the word nnn ufed by David doth fig- 
nify, when applied unto perfons, either a fuccef* 
fipn, or a fubftitution; ftill the coming of one in- 
to the place and room of another. •, When on£ 
Succeeded to another in government, it is ex- 
preffed by that word, 2 Sam. x. 1. 1 Kings vii. 7.. 
Chap. xix. 16. In other cafes it denotes a fub- 
ftitution. So Jehu tells his guard, that if any 
one of them let any of Baal's priefts efcape, wad 
nrrnt&n sv 2 Kings x. 24. His life . floould go in 
the fie ad efthe life he had fufferedjo efcape. 

Ajid this anlwereth unto irr) in the Greek, 



which is alfo ufed in this matter, and ever de- 
notes either equality, contrariety, or fubftitution. 
The two former fenfes can here have no place, 
the latter alone hath. So it is laid, that Arche- 
laus reigned «W# "H^y tS **ti>oc inri % Mat, ii. i,» 
2. In the room or Jiead of Herod his father. So 

MaKjJLQC ivTl 0<p$(X.Kp*, oJ*( &FTI oJZtTOC, Mat. V. 38* 

If an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth* This 
word alfo is ufed in ex pr effing the death of Chrift 

for US. He came, Smvai rw -^b^yr olutZ Kvrpor ivn 

iroKhw, Mat. xx. 28. To give his life a ranfom 
for many, that is, in their (lead to die. So the 
words are ufed again, Mark x. 45. And both 
thefe notes of a fuccedaneous fubftitution arc 
joined together, 1 Tim. ii. 6. I «/*<• iotvrou i*ri%vifo* 
V7rif tFwiTvr. And this the Greeks call t«c ^v%ric 
irfta<rQ<xf, to buy any thing, to purchafe or procure 
any thing, with the price of one? s life. So Tigra- 
nes in Xenophon, when Cyrus alked him what 
he would give, or do, for the liberty of his wife, 
whom he had taken, prifoner; anfwered, x*V ™ 

■^uj^wr <Gr$ia.ifjLW, «re jjlwoti kctrfcveou tolvthv, . / Will 

fur chafe her liberty with my life, or the price of my 
JbuL Whereon the woman being freed, affirmed 
afterwards, that fhe confidered none in the com-. 
pany, but him who faid, ac mc ^%n «V *rfi*tr*c <&& 
put pi'lvhouetv, that he would purchafe my liberty with' 
his own life. 

And thefe things are added on the occafion of 
the instances. mentioned in the fcripture: whence 
it appears, that this expreifipn of dying for ano- 
ther, hath no cfther fenfe or meaning, but only 
dying iftftead of another, undergoing the death 
that he fhould undergo, that he might go free. 


Jind i& this matter of Cbrift's dying for us, add 
that he fo died for us, as that he alfo died for our 
iins; that is, either to bear their punifhment,or to 
expiate their guilt (for other fenfe the words can- 
not admit) and he that pretends to give any other 
* lenfe of them,, than that contended for, which 
-implies the whole of what lies in the doftrine of 
fatisfaftion, erit mhi magnus Apollo, even he who 
was the author of all ambiguous oracles of aid. 

And this is the common fenfe of mori pro alio >> 
•imd pati pro alio % or pro alio dif crimen capitis fubire. 
A fubftitution is ftili denoted by that expreffion, 
which fufficeth us in this whole caufe; for we 
know both into whole room he came, and what 
they tfere to fuffer. Thus Entellus killing and 
iacrifkiag an Ox to Eryx in the ftead of Dares, 
whom he wast ready to hare flam, when he was 
taken from him, exprefleth bimfelf: 

Hone tibk> EryXy rmtiorem animam pro* morte 

■* He offered the ox, a better facrifice, in the ftead 
•* of Dares/ taken from him. So, 

-—Fratrem Pollux alterna morte redemit. 

And they fpeak fo not only with refpeft unto 
death, but where ever any thing of durance or 
fuffering is intended. So the angry matter in 
the comedian: 

Verberibus cafum te 9 Dave> inpijirinwh dedam> 
ufijue ad necem*. 

Ea lege atque omine> ut ft inde te exemerim, ego 
prote molam. ' 
- Hethreatened his fervant to caft him into prifon, 
to be macerated to death with labour} and that 


with this engagement, that if he ever let hifti 
out he would grind for him; that is, in his (lead. 
Wherefore without offering violence to the com- 
mon means of underftanding, things among men, 
another fenfe cannot be affixed to thefe words. 

Secondly^ The nature of the thing itfelf will 
admit of no other expofition, than that given un- 
to it; and it hath been manifoldly exemplified 
among the nations of the world. For fuppofe 
a man guilty of any crime, and on the account 
thereof to be expofed unto danger from God or j 
man, in a way of juftice, wrath, or vengeance, j 
and when he is ready to be given up unto fuffer- j 
ing according unto his demerit, another fhould 
tender himfdf to die for him, that he might be 
freed: let an appeal be made to the common reg- 
ion and underftandings of all men, whither the 
intention of this his dying for another be nor, 
that he fubftitutes himfelf in his (lead, to under- 
go what he fhould have done, however the tranf- 
lation of punifliment from one to another may 
be brought about and afferted. For at prefent 
we treat not of the right, but of the fad, or the 
thing itfelf. And to deny this to be the cafe* as 
to the fufferings of Chrift, is as far as I can un- 
derftand, to fubvert the whole gofpel. 

Thirdly y Moreover, as was faid, this hath been 
varicmily exemplified among the nations of thfe 
wotld: whofe a&ings in fuch cafes, becaufe they 
excellently (hadow out the general notion of the 
death of Chrift for others, for finners; and-are ap- 
pealed unto direftlyby the apoftle to thispurpofe, 
Rom.v.7^8. Ifhall in a few inftances reflect upon. 

Not to infift on the voluntary furrogations of 


private perfons, one into the room of another, 
mutually to undergo dangers and death for one 
another, as before mentioned; 1 (hall only re- 
member fome public tranfa&ions in reference 
unto communities, in nations, cities, or armies* 
Nothing i6 more celebrated amongft the ancients 
than this, that when they fuppofed themfelves 
in danger, from the anger and difpleafure of 
their gods, by reafon of any guilt or crimes a- 
mong them, fome one perfon fhould either de- 
vote himfelf, or be devoted by the people, to die 
for them, and therein to be made as it were an 
expiatory facrifice. For where fin is the caufe, 
and God is the objeft, refpe&ed, the making of 
fatisfa&ion by undergoing punifhment, and ex- 
piating of fin by a propitiatory facrifice, are but 
various expreffionsof the fame thing. Now thofe 
who fo devoted themfelves, as was faid, to die in 
the ftead of others, or to expiate their fins, and 
turn away the anger of the god they feared by the 
death, del igned two things in what they did: Fir ft, 
That the evils which wereimpencknton the people, 
* and feared, might fall on themfelves, fo that the 
people might go free: Secondly, That all good 
things which themfelves defired, might be con- 
ferred on the people. Which things nave a nota«* ' 
ble (badow in them of the great expiatory facri-> 
fice, concerning winch we treat, and expound* 
. the expreflions wherein it is declared. The ia 
v ftance of the Decii Is known, of whom the poet: „ 
Pie beta deciorum aninw^ plebeia fuerunt 
Nomina , pro toils legwnibus hijamen, et pro 
Omnibus auxiliis, atque; bmni plcbe Ldtina, 
Sufficimt Dm infernis. 




. * 


The two Decii, Father and Son, in imminent 
dangers of the people, devoted themfelves, at 
feveral times, unto death and deflru&ion. And 
faith he, fiifficiunt Diis infernis: c they fatisfied 

* for the whole people:' adding the reafon whence 
fo it might be: 

Pluris enim Decii 9 quam qui fervantur ab Mis. 
4 They were more to be valued, than all that 
< were faved by them/ And the great hiftorian 
doth excellently defcribe both the a&ions, and 
expe&ations, of the one and the other, in what 
they did. The Father, when the Roman army 
commanded by himfelf and Titus Manlius, was 
near a total ruin by the Latines, called for the 
'public prieft, and caufed him with the ufual fo- 
lemn ceremonies to devote him to death, for the 
deliverance and fafety of the army: after which 
making his requefts to his gods, dii quorum eft 
pote/ias nqflrorum hojtiumque; c the gods that had 

* power over them and their adverfaries,' as he 
fuppofed, he caft himfelf into death by the fwords 
of the enemy. ' Confpetlus ab utraque acie ali- 
quanto augttjiior humano vifu^ftcut c&lo mi ffits , pia- 
culwn omnis Deorum ira 9 qui pe/lem, ab fuis aver* 

fam, in hoftes ferret. * He was looked upon by 
' both armies, as one more auguft than a man, 
c as one fent from heaven, to be a piacular facri* 
c fice, to appeafe the anger of the gods, and 
c transfer deftru&ion from their own army to the 
c enemies/ Liv. lib. 8. His fon in like manner,* 
in a great and dangerous battle againft the Galls 
and Samnites, wherein he commanded in chief, 
devoting himfelf as his father had done, added 
unto the former folemn deprecations,/r#/£ agere 

fefe formidinem ac fugam, cademque ac cruorem 


codeftiunh et infernorumtras, Lib* 1 1. c That he 
* carried away before him* (from thofe for whom 
he devoted himfelf) « Fear and flight, flaughter 
4 and blood, the anger of the celeftial and infer- 
c nal gods. And as they did, in this devoting 
themfelves, defign averruncare malum? deorum 
iras, lujlrare populum, out exercitum^piaculum fieri 
or irtfi^npoL, wo&yiijl*, dTTOKifafp*, expiare crimina 9 
foelus, reatum, or to remove all evil from others, 
by taking if on themfelves in their ftead; fo alf<* 
they thought they might, and intended in what 
did to covenant and contraft for the good things 
they defired. So did thefe Decii, and fo is 
Menoeceus reported to have done, when he de- 
voted himfelf for the city of Thebes, in danger 
to be deftroyed by the, Ar gives. So Papinius 
introduceth him treating his gods: N 

Armor -urn fuperi, tuque qui funere tanto 
Indulge mihi, Phoebe, mori> date gautfia Tbebis, 
l$ua pepegi, et toto qua /anguine prodigus emi. 
He 'reckoned that he had not only repelled 
all death and danger from Thebes, by his own; 
but that he had purchafed joy, in peace and li- 
berty for the people. 

And where there were none in public cala- 
mities, that did voluntarily devote themfelves, : 
the people were wont to take fome obnoxious 
perfon, to make him execrable, ^and to lay on 
him, according to their fuperftition, all the wrath 
of their gods, and fo give him up to deftru&ion. 
Such the apoftle alludes unto, Rom. v. 3. i Con 
iv. 9, 13. .So the Maffilians were wont to ex- 
piate their city by taking; a perfon devoted, 
mprecating on his head all the evilgthat the city 
vas obnoxious unto, and calling him into the 


fea, with thefe words, mfifa/x* ri<uvr ytw: be thou, 
our expiatory facrijke. To which purpofe were 1 
the folemn wprds that many ufed in their ex- 
piatory facrifices; as Herodotus teftifieth of the 
Egyptians, bringing their offerings: faith he, 

HOLTotfievTou ra Jl hiyornt rnn xtpaxwttr em jueKhet $ 

&e xvf&xw roLvrn* Tfw&k8ufi They laid thefe impre- 
cations m their beads: That if any evil were hap- 
pening towards the facrificerj or all EgypU k* it && 
all turned and laid on this devoted head. 

And the perfons whom they thus dealt withal,, 
and made execrate, were commonly the vileft 
of the people or fuch as had rendered themfelves. 
deteftafcle by their own crimes; whence was the 
complaint of the mother of Menceceus upon her 
fon's devoting himfelf: 

Lujlrakmne feris ego te 9 puer inclyte, TheUs y 

Devotumque caput, vilisfeu mater, alebam? . 

I have recounted thefe inftances to evince the 
Common intention, fenfe, and under Handing of 
that expreffion, of one dying for another; and to 
manifeft by examples, what is the fenfe of man- 
kind, about any one being devoted and fubfti- 
tuted in the Toom of others, to deliver them 
from death and danger: the confidering where- 
of, added to the constant ufe of the words men- 
tioned in the (Scripture, is fufficient to found and 
confirm this conclufion: 

That whereas it is frequently affirmed in the 
fpripture, '-that Chrift diedfor us,and for ourfins, 
V &c* to. deny that he died and fuffered in our 
ftead, undergoing the death whereuntb we wera 
obnoxious, and the punilhment due to our fins; 
if we refped in what we fay, or believe, the can?* 


ftant ufe of thbfe words in the fcripture, and the 
uncontrolled fenfe of that expreffion in ail forts 
of writers, in expreffing the fame thing; the na- 
ture of the thing itfelf, concerning which they 
are ufed; with the inftances and examples of its 
meaning and intention among the nations of the 
world; is to deny that he died for us at all. 

Neither will his dying for our good or advan- 
tage only, in what way or fenfe foever, anfwer 
or make good, or true, the affertion of his dying 
for us, or our fins. And this is evident in the 
death of the apoftles and martyrs; they all died 
for our good; our advantage and benefit was 
one end of their fufferings, in, th£ will and ap- 
pointment of God; and yet it cannot be faid, 
that they died for us, or our fins. And if Chrifl 
died only for our. good, tho* in a more effe&ual 
manner than they did; yet this altereth not the 
kind of dying for us; nor can he thence be faid 
properly, according to the only due fenfe of that 
expreffion, fo to do. 

I fhall in this brief and hafty difcourfe, add 
only one confideration more about the death of 
ChrifF, to confirm the truth pleaded for. And 
that is, that he is faid in dying for finners, 4 to 
4 bear their fins,' Ifa. 53. 11. * He fhall bear 
4 their iniquities,' ver. 1 2*. * He bare the fins 

* of many;' explained, ver. 5. 4 He was'wound* 
4 ed for our tranfgreflions, he was bruifed 'for 

* our iniquities, the chaftifement of our peace was 
4 upon him,* 1 Pet ii. 24. 4 Who his own felf 
4 bare our fins in his jown body on the tree, &c! 

This expreffion is purely facred. It occurreth 
not diredtly in other authors, though the fenfe 


of it in other words, do frequently. They caH 
it /ii^r^ peceata* deHttorum fttppticium ftrre: to 
bear the puniftuneut of mis. The meaning 
therefore of this phrafe of fpeech, is to be taken 
' from the fcripture alone, and principally from 
the Old Teftament, where it is originally ufed; . 
and from whence h is transferred uato the New i 
Teftatncnt, in the fame fenfe, and no other* Let 
us. Gonfider fbme of the places. 

Ifsu liii. i iu ten* Min brao* The fame word* 
too is ufed, *er. 4. otaa Kin mitro *<»</ o&r 
|rif/} A? brtb born them The word fign&es pro- 
perly to bear a.weigf* or a burthen, as a man bean 
it on his Juvulders: bafuit, porta. And it i* nerer 
ttfed with refpeft unto fun, but openly and plainly 
it figEriSei the under going of the puni&ment due 
unto it* So. it. occurs dlre&ly to over purpofe^ 
Lam. v. 7*. Ttetwrr twin** iDboo omncw widw arm 
Our Fathers bavejimted, and are not;. ondu& have 
borne their inixptkks ; the poniihment due to their 
fins. And why a new fenfe.fhottfcL be forged for 
thfife wards, when, they arc fpokea concerning 
Ghjrift, who can give a juft reafon ? 

Again uw is ufed to the lame purpoCe. mtv 
mm am-aton ver. 1 2 . And he bare the Jin of many* 
jtra is often ufed with refpeft unto fin, fometimes 
with reference unto God's a&ings about it, and 
fometimes with reference unto mens concerns ift 
it. In the firft way, or when it denotes an aft of 
God, it fignifies to lift up, to take away or par- 
don fin; and leaves the word py wherewith it is 
joined under its firft fignification of iniquity, or 
the guilt of fin, with refpeft unto punifhment en- 
fuing as its confequent. For God pardoning the 







guilt of fin, the removal of the ptmifliment doth 
aeceflarily enfue, guilt containing an obligation \ 

unto punifliment. In the latter way, as it refpe&s v 
men or finners, it conftantly denotes the bearing: 
of the punifliment of fin, and gives that fenfe un- 
to ju> with refped unto the guilt of fin, as its 
caufe. And hence arifeth the ambiguity of thofe 
words of Cain, Gen. iv. '13. uw-Vrtt Hofin: if atco 
denotes an ad of God, if the words be fpoken 
with reference, in the firft place, to any afting 
of his towards Cain, py retains the fenfe of ini- 
quity, and the words are rightly rendered, v\y Jm 
it greater that* to beforgtvennfix refpeft Cain him-* 
felf firft, pi/affumes thefignification oipumjhment ; 
and the words are to be rendered, my punishment 
is greater than I can bear*, or is to be born by me* 

This, I fay, is the confbant fenfe of this expref* 
fion, nor can any inftance to the contrary be pro- 
duced. Some may be mentioned in the confirma- 
tion of it. Numb. xiv. 33* * Your children fitall 
f wander in die wildemefs forty years,' carnn 
nr&h and /hall bear your whoredom, n«p a'ffnie 
eovw ymtrs Tefkaltbear your iniquities forty yean ■'.• 
that is, the punifliment due to your whoredoms 
and iniquities; according to God's providential 
dealing with them at that time. Lev. xix. 8. 
Me that eateth it 9 nw my /hall bear his iniquities: 
How? ram httWT vsan that foul '/hall be cut off. 
To be cu t off for fm, by the punifliment -of it, and 
for its guilt, is to bear iniquity. So chap. xx. i&, 
17, 18. For a man to bear his iniquity, and to be 
lulled, flain, or put to death for it, are the fame. 

Ezek.xviii.20. *r*i rwenn worn W» nb p rvran 
3*tn jua. The foul that Jinneth it jhall die? the 





fonjhall not bear the fin of the father. To bear fin, 
and to die for fin, are the fame. More inftances 
might be added, all uniformly fpeaking* the fame 
fenfe'of the words. 

And as this fenfe is fufficiently, indeed invin- 
cible, eftabliihed by the invariable ufe of that 
expreflioh in the fcripture; fo the manner where- 
by it is affirmed that the Lord Chrift bare our 
iniquities, fets it abfolutely free from all danger 
t>v oppofition. For he bare our iniquities, when 
wa py nH ta r»n mm* she Lord made to meet 
on him, or laid on him the iniquity of us all, Ifa. liii. 
6. which words the LXX. render 5 *vfm «ra/>s'<£yxeK 
olvtgv tquc duoLpTKw yi(jlm The Lord gave him up, or 
delivered him unto our fins; that is to be puniflied 
for them; for other fenfe the words can have 
none. He made him fin for us, 2 Cor. v. 2 1. fo be 
bare our fins, Ifa. liii. 11. How? In his body on the 
tree, 1 Pet.ii. 24. that wh$nhe.was,and in his being 
Jlricken, f mitten, afflifted, wounded, brutfed,Jlain 9 
fo was the chaftifement of our peace upon him. 

Wherefore to deny that the Lord Chrift in his 
death, and fufFering for us* underwent the punifh- 
ment due to our fins, what we had deferved, that 
we might be delivered, as it averts the great foun- 
dation of the gofpel; fo by an^open perverting of 
the plain words of the fcripture, beciufe not fuited 
in their fenfe and importance to the vain imaging 
tions of. men, it gives rio fmall countenance to 
infidelity and atheifm. ' . 


ftbe Shaking and *±ranjlating of Heaven and Earth 4 







,-JJeb. xii- %i* And this -word, Yet once more, fignifieth the re* 
moving, of thefe things that are ftiaken, as of things that afrc 
made, that thole things which cannot be ftiaken may remain. 





Asb THE 

Decline of the Papal Power in the World, 






Die Veneris, April 20. 1649. 

ORDEREDby the Commons affembled in Par- 
liament, that Sir Wjixiam Marshal do give 
"hearty % Thanks from this Houfe to Mr Owen, for 
his great pains in hi? fermon preached before the 
Houfe yefterday, aj: Margaret's, Westminster.; 
and that he be defired to print his fermon at large, 
. as he intended to have delivered it.. if time had not 
prevented him ; v/herein he is to have the like li- 
berty of printing thereof, as others in like kind 
usually have had. 

HEN. SCdBELL, Ckr. Par/. 


j ■ m t mmmm 

TO T a E 


T ■ t 





ALL that I -fliall preface to the enfuing 
Difcourfe is, That feeing the Natiotfs 
welfare and your own a&ings are therein 
concerned ; tjje welfare of the nation, and 
your own £rofperity in your prefent agings, 
being fo nearly related ar they are to the 
things of the enfuing Difcourfe, 1 (hould 
be bold to prefs you to a ferious confidera- 
tion of them as now prefented unto you* 
were 1 not allured, by your ready attention 
unto, and favourable acceptation of their 
delivery, that being uow publifhed by your 
command, ftich a requcft would be altoge- 
ther needlefs. The fubje<5t matter of this 
Sermon being of fo great weight and im- 
portance as it is, it had been very defirable 
that it had fallen' upon an abler hand; as al- 

( iv ) 

fo that more fpace and leifufe had been al* 
lotled to the preparing of it, firft for fo great, 
judicious, and honourable an audience; and 
fecondly, for public view, than pofiibly I 
could beg from my daily troubles, preffures, 
and temptations, in the midft of a poor, nu- 
merous, provoking people. As the Lord 
hatb brought it forth, that it may be ufeful 
to your Honourable Aflembly, and the refi- . 
due of men that wait for the appearance of 
the Lord Jefus, lhall be the fincere endesu~ 
von* at the throne of grace, of 

Tour moft unworthy Servant, 

In the work of the Lord, 


May ift, 1649 



> •• . 

S E R M Q N 




THURSDAY, t^i 9 th of APRIL, 164^. 

He?, xii. 47. viW fiw wr*? t 2>| Qnce more,Jtgnu> 
jfietb the removing efthqfe thing* th&t arejhaien % 
~&s of things thai are made, that tttofe things whieh 
cannot Bejbahen may remain* 

TJjBL main defign of the Apdftle in this fc na- 
ture qftbe Hebrews, is, to prevail with bis 
countrymen who had undertaken the pr^feffioa of 
the gofpel, to abide ^onftant aad faithful therein, 
without any ipojlafy unto, or mixture with judo* 
jfm, which God aad thetnfehres had forfaken*; faW 
ly nianifeiHng, that ia fuch hnckfiiders ihefouiqf 
the Lord ba$h m pleqfure, chap. x* 38. 
. A tafc, which whofo undertaketh in any age^ 
fball find exceeding weighty and difficult, eyen t& 
perfuade profeffors to hold out, *nd continue in 
-the gU*y pf thdir profeiHon, unto the end, chap* *. 
3& Pacfy. xacii. 13. and x^tvi. 13. that with patience 
doing the will f of God, they might receive the pro- 
419&; *fpec-ially if there he tions in the way? if ojk 

4 A poiition 


prifition or pcrfecution attend them in 'their pro- 
fefTed fubje&ion to the Lord Jefus. 

Of all that deformity iand diflimilitude to the 
Divine nature, which is come upon us by the faU, 
there is no one part . more eminent, or 
one defeEl more evident, than inconflancy and ,un- 
itablenefs of mind, in embracing that which is fpiri- 
tually good. Man, being turned frpm his unchange- 
able nefiy feeks to quiet and fatiate his foul with 
reftlefs movings towards changeable things, Pfalm. 
cxvi. 7. 

" Now, he who nxorketh atl our works for us, and 
in us, Ifa. xxvi. 12. worfceth them alfo * by us: and 
therefore that which he will give, he perfuades us 
to have, .that at once his bounty and our duty may 
wreccive a manifeflation in the fame thing. Of this 
tiatnreSs perfeverapcein-tbe faith of Chrift; which 
as by him it is promifed, and therefore is a grace 9 
fo to u& it is prefer ibed, and thereby is a duty 9 
JPetamus ut det, quod ut bateamusyubet : Auguft. 
'Let uj ajk him to beftow, what he requires us to bn- 
joy* Yea, Da Dominequodjubes, etjube quod vis : 
Give what thou commanded, anct command what 
thou pleafeft* , 

As a duty, it is by ike Apoftle here confidered, 
and therefore preffed on them> who by naure 
vere capable, and by grace enabled for the per- 
• fcrmance thereof. Pathetical exhortations then 
Tisto perfeverance in the profeffion of the gofpel, 
bottomed on prevalent fcriptnral arguments, and 
holy ireafonmgs^ are the fum ofjthis epiftle. . 

The arguments, the Apoftle han41eth unto the 
jend propofed^ are of two forts : 
I. PtinpipaL 

,. 2. Dedutiiw, or emergencies fcom tbe€rft. 

• . • 1. His 

* 1 Their, i .3. aThtf. i. 11- Deut. sr. ikcfctp. 
6* Ezckr xviii. 31. ciup. xxxvj. 26. A€ki xi. 18.* 



r. His principal arguments are drawn from two* 
ehief fountains : « 

1. The Author ;, 

2 . The nature and end of the gofbel. 
The Author of the gofpel is either, 

1. Principal and immediate, which is God the** 
Father, who having r at fundry times ,- and in diver i 
manners, formerly fpoken by the prophets , herein 

fpeakeih by his Son, chap. i. I. 

2. Concurrent and immediate ; Jef,is Chrift, this 
great falvation r being begun to be fpoken to us by the 
£ord„ chap, ii. 3. x 

This latter he chiefly confidereth, as in and by 
whom the gofpel is differenced from all other dif-; 
enfaticms of the mind -of God. * 

Gehcerning^him to the end C x> Wib perfon. 
intended, l^e 'propofeth, £ a» His employment* 

For his perfon, that thence he may argue to the 
thing aimed at, he hbldeth out, 

1. The infinite glory, of: his deity, being the 
Jirigbfnefs of his Father's: glory, and the expnefs 1- • 
piage of bis perfon, chap. f. 3. 

%> The infinite condefcenfion of his low, in afTum- 
ii»g humanity : For becaufe the children were par~ 
takers of-flefh and blood \ he alfo himfelf took part of 
the fame, chap. ii. 14. 

And" from the confide ration of both thefe, hie 
preffeth the main exhortation which he hath ii* 
hand, as you may fee, chap. ii. 1, 2. chap. iii. ii r 
13, &<v 

The employment of Chrift he defcribeth in his - 
offices, which he handleth^ 

1. Pqfitively, and very briefly, chap* i. 2, 3. 

3* Comparatively, infiiling chiefly on his prieft- 

hood, exalting it, in fundry weighty particulars, a- 

bove that of Aaron, which yet was- the glofry of the 

Jewifh ' worflnp, and this at large, vii. 

viii. ix. x* 

' A % And 




And this, being varioufly advanced and affected; 
he layeth as the main foundation upon which he 
placeth the weight and ftrefs of t&e main end pur- 
fued, as in the whole epiftle is. every where ob- 

• II. The feoond head oi principal arguments he 
taketh from the gofpel itfelf, which, considering as 
a covenant, he holdeth out two ways : 

i. Abfolutely, in its efficacy, ia,refpe& of* 
\ i . yuftification ? In it Gad is merciful to isnrigh* • 

1 teoufnejbj and fins and. iniquities be remembers 

j no snore, chap. viii.. 12. Bringing i* perfect 

, remifflon, that there JhallmeaV no more yffeting 

I for Jin, chap, ac 17. 

a. Sctn&ification : He. puts his laws* in mtr hearts^ 
and writes them in our tnikds f chap* x. 16. in 
it purging our- conferences by tht blood of Of iff 9 . 
ehap. ix. * 4* 
3. Perfeverance : I will he to thejn* Goi^ and 
theyjhall be to tneape0p& % (Mw£*vv& 4 to. All 
three are alfe held out in fttndry ether pla-. 

2. Refpe&ively to the c&Vea&fit of works* aftd 

in this regard aftgns unto it principal <jua- 

• lificatio*^. with ia&ariy peculiar emiftengtes. 

them attetfdmg, too m*njr *»w i& be named :. 

Now thefe are, 

j* That his newt ffa faith o Mf«j covenant, 

»nd hath ihadt the fbrjl *ld 9 ch apw viii .13. 

2. Better :■ it is a £rf**r covenant ^ and buUt upon 
Better promifes, chap. viii. 6, 7,. 22. ' - 
.JL"3» Surer: The ptieft thereof befog otdained, 
not aftes the law of a ctfrn&l commandment, but. 
after the power of an endiefe life, chap* vii. 16. 
- 4. Unalterable : So in all the jdfeees before na*. 
a&ed, and fundry others. " 

AU M^hiqh ^te made eminent in its peculiar Mev 



Ot HfiAVEN'AND : £ARTfi. ; $ 

cffa&r, Jefus Chrjft: which is the fum of chap. 

And ftill in the holding out of thefe things, that 
they might not forget the end -for which they 
were now drawn forth, and fo exa&ly handled, he 
interweaves many pathetical intreaties, and pref- 
fing arguments, by way of application, for the 
confirming and eftablUhing his countrymen in the 
faith of this glorious gofpel; as you may fee al- 
mouVin every chapter- . i • ' 

1 2; His 'arguments /{/i principal, deduced fronv 
the former, being very many, may be referred to ' 
thefe three heads, 

r. The benefits by them enjoyed under the goC- 
pel, ' 

2. The example of others, who* by faith and pa> - 
tienee obtained the promifes, chap, xk 

3 • From the dangerous and pernicious confiquence 
pf backflkling^of whfch only I fball fpeak. Now 
this he fetteth out three ways, 
* i; From the- nature of thaHGn: It is a crucifying 
to themfehes the San of God afre/h, and putting him ' 
td openjhame, chap. vi. 6. a treading underfoot the ' 
Son of Gody counting the blood of the covenant an 
unholy things and doing defpite to- the Spirit of 
grace, chap. x» 29. 

2. The irremedilefs punifhtnen* which attends ' 
that fin : *There remains no -mare facrifice for it,- 
hut a certain fearful homing for pf judgment, and 
fi*ry indignation^ thett fball confume the adverfq/ies ¥ . 
chap, x. i6 r 7*j^ 

3* The perfon againft whotti peculiarly it is • 
committed/and that is he- who is the Author, - 
Vfubjed, and Mediator of the gofpel, the Lord Je~ 
fas Ghrift; concerning whom^for the aggravation 
of this fin, he propofeth two things :' 

I. His goodnefs and lov4, and that in his great ' 
•Badettaking to be a Saviour, being made like untfr 

Aj * bis* 


his brethren in all things, that he might be a mercf* 
fkl and faithful high-priejh in things pertaining *• 
God, to make reconciliation for the fins of the peo* 
ph, chap. ii. 17. And of this there is «. fwectand 
choice line* running through the whole difcoutie, 
making the {in of backfliding,. againft fo muck -, 
love and condefcenfion, appear exceeding finf til. 

2. His greatnefs or power, which he fees ofct 
two ways : 

1 . Ahfolutely,. as- he is- God to be bloffed. f&t e» 
ver^ chap* i. and --it is a fearful thing to^f all into ^ 
the hands of the living God, chap. X. 31* 

2. Comparatively, as he is the Mediator of the - 
new covenant, in reference to Mojfee* And this, 
he fetteth forth, as by many and fandry reaibn* 

' xngs in other places of the epiftle, fo by a double 
teffimony in thi& 12th chapter, shaking that in- 
ference from them both which you have, ver. 1$* 
.See that you refufe not ~kim ihatfpeakett : for -if 
they efcaped not who refufed him who fpake on. 
earth, hew much mone fhati not we, efcape,ifwe- 
htrn away from him who fpeaketh from heaven* 

Now the firft teftknony of his power is taken 
from a record of what he did heretofore ; the o~ 
ther from 9, prediction of what he wittrdo hereafter. 
The firft you have, ver. 26.. in the firft part of 
IX. His voice ItHEN /hook the earths 72m»,,that/ 
i$, when the law was. delivered by him,, sb it is- 
defcribed, ver. 18, 19, 20. foregoing. When the 
mountain,, upon which it was delivered, Exod. xix. 
1$, 19* the mediator, Mofes, s into whofe 1 band it* 

,was delivered, and the ptople, for whofe ufe it was 
delivered, did all ifliake and tremble, ch^p^xx. -18. 
at the voice, power, and prefence of Chrift; wbo^ 

\as it hence appears, is that Jehovah who gave thfc- 
law, Exod. xx. a. • 

The other, in the fame verfe, i& taken from a 

frediSiiort out of Mnggai ii. X& 4)t what he will do 


Ber^afifcr, even demonft rate -and make evident Si« 
power beyond whatever he before eife&ed : Ha 
hutb % pron&fe*\ Jo?fag> X** once more, I Jboike not* 
the earth only* hut alfo the heavens* 

And if any one {hall afc, wherein this eflfeft of 
the mighty powerof the Lord Je&ts confifteth, and 
how from thence profeflbr* may be prevailed up- 
on to keep clofe to the obedience of him in his kingw 
-dora ? the apoftle anfwers, ver. 27. And ihk 
nvord, Tel em* m0re,jfignifies the rttnomng of thofe 
things that are Jhaken+. as- of things that are make, 
that thofe things which cannot hejbaken may remain. 
And thus am I ftep$ed.idown upon the- words of, 
my text y finding them in the dofe trf the A arguments 
drawn from the .power of Chxift, to perfuade pro* 
s fe&*rs to conftancy in die paths of the gofpel £. 
afldhavin&.paffed through their coherence, and 
held out their, aim and tendance, their opening -and 
application comes now to be^ctfcnfidercd, and here- . { 

ia are theffc three-things, \ 

I. The apoftle*s ttflkntion : The things that ar& j 

Jhaitnjhall be removed* as tlmgs that art made* 
"' IT.,The:praofof this affertion : This word, one* 
- ix4re 9 Jign$0thnQl<d8+ 
; IlL Hi&inferene* from this affertion, thus prow, 
ved ; Jfhe things that cannot hejhaken mufi remain. 
I. In the fir ft 1 ihalL confider, 

1. What are the things thzt^ixeJBa&en^ 
su . What is their ihaking. 
3. W hat their removal, being, flxaken. 
For the fii^£htxf*.i* great variety of judgment 
amoogft interpreters ; the^fioregoing verfc tells as, 
it is not only the ^earth, bnt the heaven alfo ; bat 
. now what h&avan and -earth this ihould be is <hu 
bieus,. is not. apparent* So maay different apprW 
tenfions of the mind of God in thefe words, ^s 
have any dikeaeis of truth, I muft needs recount 
and remov^ that no £uwjadi<&naay remain from 


+• . 



other conceptions, ag^inft that which from then* 
we fhall affert* - 

- (ii) Thfe eafth (fey fbme) i* the men of the 
earth, living thereon; and the heavans are the an* * 
gel's, their blefied inhabitants ; both fhaken 1 or 
ftricken,with amazement, upon the nativity of 
Chrift, and preaching of the gofpel-. The heaven* 
we,re fhaken, when fo great things were aecom^ 
plifiied, as that the angels themfilves defired tb •took 
inUkthem, i Pet. i.ia. And the earth wa» filled 
.with amazement whencthe Holy Ghoft being pour^ - 
ed cut upon the apoftfes -for the preaching of the 
gofpel, men of every nation under heaven were a* 
jnaied, and marvelled at k, A&S -ii, £, 6, 7. Thus" 
RoUocus y Pifcator^ and fundfy other famous di* 
vines.- But, 

1;. The making here intimated by the apoftJe, .... 
was then, when he wrote, under the promife, not 
actually accomplifhed* as were the things by them 
recounted ; for he holds it. forth las ah iffue of that 
great power of CBrift, which he would one day 
excrcife for the farther eftabliihment- of his kingC 

2. This that now is to be*dohe, muft excel that . 
which formerly was done at the giving <yf the law, 

. as is clearly intimated in- the inference^ then 3ft 
' Jbook the earth 9 but now the heaven* wife. It is a 
gradation to an higher demon ftration of the« pow- 
ef of Chrift, which that the things* of this inter- 
pretation are, is not apparent. 

3. It is marvellous thefe learned men obferved 
not, that the heavens and the earth Jhaken 9 vfcr. 2^ 
are tfie things to be removed, ver* 27. N6w, how 
are angels and men removed by Chrift ? are they 
not rather gathered up into one fpiritual body and 
communion ? - Hencfe, ver. 27. they interpret * the - 

jhahen things to be Judaical ceremonu, which, verv 
qJL they, ftdfaid to hzmtn andangelf* 

2 .-Others^* 




(z*) Others, b j heaocn and tarib, underfland the, 
material parts of the world's fabric, commonly fo. 
called f and by their fiiakrag, thofe portentous 
figns and prodigies, with earthquakes,; which ap* 
peared in them at the birth and death of the Lord: 
Jefus. A new .ftar,, preternatural darkne&, tak- 
ing of the earth, opening of graves, rending ofr 
rocks, and the like, are to them, this ihaking of 
heaven and earth, Matth. ii^a. and xxvii. 4$. 
Luke xxiii, 44, 45* Matth, xxvii. $i+ 53. So Ju» 
mu&i and after him moft of ours* 

But this interpretation is obnoxious to the 
fame exceptions with the former, and alfo others ► 
Sor; ' 

r. The& things beirig pefrbefore,,hoW'can they 
be held out under a promife i- 

a. How are -thefe^/taim things rtmoi#d 9 which ^ 
with their ihaking thtj muft certainly be, as in 
nay text?, 

3. This fhaking. of, heaven and earth isafcribed 
to the potter of Chrift as Mediator, whereunto t 
thefe figns .and prodigies cannot rationally be af- 
Ifigned ; bntjjather to the fevereignty of the Father, . 
bearing witaefe to the nativity and death of hia , 
Son;, So 'that neither can this conception be &£- . 
t - teneiiw the word?. 

* ( 3 .). The fabric of heaven and- earth, is by others * 

alfo intended*, not in r$fpe& of the figns and pro-, 
digies formerly wrought in them ^ but of that dif- 
folution, or,,a» they fuppofe^ alteration which they 
ihall receive at the laft day: So Parxu*, Ghxtiu^ % . 
and many more; Now^ though, thefe avoid the 
rock of holding, out as accompliihed, what is only 
promifedj.yet this glofc alfo is a drefs disfiguring 
the mind of God in the text; For ; . 

I. The things here faid to htjhafon, ft and i* . 
a plain oppofition to the things that cannot bt fha~ 
itnixpz rsmwieJi 3$d therefore they aare\to be re- 



moved, that thefe may be brought in. Now the* 
things to be brought in are the things of the king- 
dom of the Lord Jefus. What oppofition, I pray; 
do the material fabric of heaven and earth ftand 
in to the kingdom of the Lordjefus? doubtlefs 
none at all, being the proper feat' of that king-r 
dom. y 

2. There will,* on this ground, be no brrnging-iti 
of the kingdom- of the Lord Jefus? until indeed 
that kingdom^ in the fenfe here infifted on, is to 
ceafe $ that is, after the day of judgment^ when the 
kingdom of grace (hall have place no more; 

Thofe are the moft material and likely miftakes 
about the words- J. could eafily give out, and 
pluck in again, .threeft>r four other warping fenfesj 
but I hope few, in thefe days of ' accotnplijhitig, wirl 
once ftumble at them. The true mind of the Spi- 
rit, by the help of that Spirit oT truth; cotnes-next 
to be unfolded : and firft, what are the things that 
ire. flxakeh ? 

I. As the apoftle here applies a part of the pro* 
phecy of Haggaij fo that prophecy, even in the 
next words, gives light unto the meaning of the 
apoftle* Look what heaven and earth the pro- 
phet fpeaka of; of thofe, and no other, fpeaks the 
apoftle. The Spirit of God, in the fcripture, Is 
his own beft interpreter. See tnen the order of 
the words, as they lie in the prophet pHqggai ii* 
6,. 7. I will Jhake heaven and earth: L will Jhake 
ait nations* God then fhakes heaven* and earthy 
when he fliakes all nations ; that is, he lhakes the 
heaven and earth of the nations. • I 'will Jhake hea* 
vm and earth} and- 1 will Jhake all nations , iy a 
plednafme for / will Jhake- the heaven and earth 
of all nations. Thefe ar^e the things fliaken in my 

The heavens of the nations, what are they? even 
their political heights. a«d.. glory, thofe forms of 

* government. 


-government which they have framed for themfelves 
and their own intereft ; with the grandeur ami 
luftre of their dominions. 

The nations' earth js the. multitudes of\thek 
people, "their' -ft reijgth and power, whereby their* 
heavens,, or political heights, are fupported- 

It is then neither the material heavens, and earth, 
nor yet Mofaical ordinances, bat the political 
heights and fplendour, the popular multitudes and 
flrength of the naKons of the earth, that are thus 
to be (haken, as fiiall be proved. 

That the earth, in prophetical defcriptions, or 
predictions^ of .things, is frequently, yea, almoft al- 
ways taken for the people and multitudes of the 
earth, needs not much proving : One or two in-. 
, fiances fiiall fuffice :. Rev. xii. i6 4 "7 he earth help* 
ed the woman againfl the jtoofl of the dragon: which 
that it was the multitudes of earthly people none 
doubts. Hal. lxviii. 8. Hab.Ji. 10- Mat. xxiv. 7. 
i Sam. xiv. 25. That an earthquake, or fhaking 
of the earth, are popular commotions, is no lefa 
evident frpm Rev. xi. 1 3* where, by an earth- 
quake, great Babylon receives a fatal blow. 

And;fpr the £a?u#if,, whether they be the poli- 
tical heights of the nations, or the grandeur of {o*r> 
tentates, let Ac fcripture ,be judge!; I. mean when 
ufed in this fenfe of fliaking, or eftablifhment. 

Ifa: lu 15, if>. J am the Lord thy G^a%who du 
vided the Jea, \whofe waves roared: . Tftte^ Lord of 
bofts is his name. And Ihape,' put my words in 
thy mouthy and have covered thee in the Jhadojw .of 
mine hand, that I may plant the heavens, and lay the 
foundations of the *artb f and fay unto Sion, \Thou art 
my people. ' . 

By a repetition of what he hath done, he efta- 
blifheth his people in expectation of what he will 
do. And, 

I. He minds them of that wonderful deliver- 

v ance 


aace from aa army behind them, and an ocean be* 
fore them, by his miraculous preparing dry paths 
for them in the deep : I am the XfOrd who divided 
■the fea y mobofe waves roared. 
. 1~ Of his gracious acquainting them with hk 
mind, his law, and ordinances, at HortfV; I have 
(faith he) put my words in thy mouth* 

3 • Of that favourable and lingular prote&ion af- 
forded them in the wildernefs, wfien t&ey were 
encompafled with enemies round about: I covered 
thee in thejhadow of mine band*, 

Now, to what end was all this ? Why, faith hej 
that / might plant the heaven* and lay the founda-, 
tion of the earth* What ! of thefe afetewal viflble 
heavens and earth? 246? years before at leaftj were 
they pltated and eftablifbed? Jjt is all but making 
of Zion a people, which before was feattered in di£. 
tin& families. And how is this done ? Why the 
heavens are planted, or a glorious frame of govern^ 
jnent and .polity is ere&ed amongft them, and the 
multitudes of their people are 4ifpefed into an or* 
«<Serly commonwealth, to be a firm foundation and 
bottom for the government amongff them. Thig 
is the heavens and earth of the nations Which is to 
-fee ihaken in my text. 

Jfa. xrxiv* 4. AU the hefts -of heaven fiaUie d(fi> 
Jolved, and the heavens JhaU be rotted together as a 
Jhrolfp and all their hefis JhaU fall down, as the leaf 
Jalktb from the viae. Now, thefe diSblved, rolled 
beaverfs, are no <Kher but the power and heights of 
the oppofing nations, their, government and tyran- 
ny, efpeciaUy tiiat of Idumea, as both the forego- 
lag ana following <vejr&s do«declaFe. *fbe indigna** 
tion of the Lord (faith he) if upon the nations, anjH 
bis fury upon their armies, he hath delivered them to 
thejlaugbtert their Jlain, &oc. . 

* }cr. iv. 23, 24, 35. I beheld the earth, and Jo* it 

zvas without form and void; and the- heave**, and 

2 ■ they 


J 3 

9 they, had m fight. I beheld the mountains,, andlo, they 
trembled, and tilt the hills moved lightly. Here is 
^aven and earth Jhaken ; and all in the raifing the 
political ft ate and commonwealth of the Jews by . 
-the Babylonians, as is %at large defcribed in the 
verfes following : 

Ezek. xxxii. !j. I will cover the heaven, and make 
the flats thereof dark, : s I wMl cover the fun with a 
"cloud, and the moon fhdll not give her light: and all 
the bright lights of heaven will* I make dark over 
'thee, and fit darknefs upon thy land, faith the Lord 
Cod. Behold, heaven and earth, fun, moon % and ft or s f 
all fhaken and confounded in the deftruclrion vi 
Egypt; the % thing the prophet treats of, their king- 
dom and nation being to be ruined. . . * 

Not to hold you toa long upon w.hat is fo plain 
. and evidently on rhay take It for a rule, that in the 
denunciations of the judgments* of God, through. 
' all the pronhets, heavens, fun, moon,flafs, and the 
like appearing beauties and glories of the afpefta- 
«bie heavens, are taken for governments, governors, 
dominions in political ftates > as Ifa. xiV. 12, 13, 14, 
15. Jer. xv, 9^ chap. li. 25.- Ifa. xiii. 13. PfaU 
lxviii. 8. JOeLii. 10. Rev. viii. 12. Matth. xxiv. 
29. Luke xxh 25. Ifa. lx. 20. Obad. 4. Rey, 
vii. 13. chap. xi. 12. chap* xx. 11. ^ 

Furthermore, to confirm this expofition, St John, 
in the Revelation, holds conftantly to the fame man-* 
ner of expreffion: heaven and earth in that book, 
are commonly thofe which we have defcwbedl In 
/particular, this is eminently apparent, chap. yi. iz. 
1 3, 14, 1 5 verfes, And I beheld, and when he had 
opened the-fixih feal, there was a greut earthquake^ 
land the fun became black^xs fackcloth of hair, and the 
moon became as Hopd. And theflars of heaven fell 
unto the earth : And the heaven departed, as afcroll 
when it is * rolled together ; and every, mountain and 
iflarid were Moved out of their places , £tc» 

^* B The' 


.The deftru&ion and wafting of the Pagan R»- 

. mifh date/ the plagues and commotions of her peo* 

. pie, the dethroning her idol-worfhip; and deftruc- „ 

tion of perfecuting emperors and captains, with the 

tranfition of power and fo vera gnty,~ from one fort 

to another, is here held out under this grandeur 

of words*; being part of -the fhaking of heaven and 

. earth in my text. 

.Add laftly hereunto, that the promifes of the 
reft oration of God's people into a glorious condi- 
tion, after all their fufferings, is perpetually m 
the fcripture, held out under the fame terms ; and 
you have a plentiful demonftration of this point, 

Ifa. lxv. 17. Behold! I create new heavens , and 
a new earth : and the farther Jball not he remember- 
ed, nor come into mind, ver. 18. Be you glad and 
rejoice for ever in that which J create f &c. See Ifa, , 
lxvi. 22, 23, 24. 

2 Pet. iii. 13. Neventhelefs we, according to 
his promife, look for new heavens and a new earth, 
wherein dwelleth righteoufnefs. ' 

Rev* xxi. 1 . / Jaw a new heaven and a new. 
earth ;„for thefirft heaven andtbefirjl earth were ^ 
pafjed away, and there was no morefea* The hea- 
• ven and th« earth is^reftored; but -the fee, that 
fcall be no more. » 

-Thole gatherings together of many waters, Gen. 
i. 10. rivers from all places, or pretended clergy-, * 
men from all .nations, into general councils; which , 
were thefea or many waters, on which the whore 
fat, Rev. xvii. 1. fliall have no place at all in the 
Church's reftored condition. .1 

I hope it is now fully cleared, what is meant bjr 
the things that are ihaken ; even the political 
heights, the fplendor and ftrength of the nations o - 


* JEufeb. Mcclef B\ft 'tt» 9 c 8, ik Bk. 8. cap. 27. JOe vit ] 

GetrfUp lib* i. €#p* $0, 51, si. ' ~ 

or Heaven and EAftTif. if 

t&e'ca'rth. The foundation of the whole U laicf^ 
and our heap (or building, if your favour fo ac-* 
cept it) will go on apace; for to the analogy here- 
of fhall the reiidue of the words be interpreted. 

Part II.]. The fecond thing confiderable is, what 
is ihejhaking dfthefe things? To this _the anfwer 
is now made brief and facile. Such as are the 
things Jhaken, fuch mud their fhaking be ; fpirit- 
ual if fpiritual;. natural, if natural; civil, if civil. 
Now, they being declared and proved to be civil 
thmgs, fuch alfo is their fhaking-; Matt. xxiv. 6, 
7, Jer. iv. 19. Ifa. ix. 5-. Now, what is a civil 
. fliaking of civil conftitutions ? How are fuch things 
done in the world? What are thefe earthquakes? 
Truly the accouiplifluhent hereof is in all nations- 
fp under our eyes as- that I need not fpeak one > 
word thereunto. . v 

Part III.] Neither fhall I infift upon the third' 
enquiry, viz. when thUJbaking ihall be: The text- 
is plain, that it mult be previous to the bringing .* 
in of thofe things that cannot be moved ; that is, 
the profperous eftate of the kiogdom of Chrift. 
Only we may obferve, that b elides otherjha&ings; 
in particular nations*, of lefs general concernment 
and importance, this prophecy hath, and fliall re* 
ceiye a two-fold eminent accomplishment, with re- 
ference unto a two-fold eminent bppofitioh,, which : 
tht kingdom of Chrift hath met with in the wtfrld. 
Firft, from the Pagan Romanjlate, which, at the 
gofpel's firft entrance, held in fubje&ion pioft of 
the chief provinces of the then knowh world. 
What were the bloody endeavours of the heaven 
and earth of that /late for the fuppreffion thereof 
is known to our children. The iffue of the whole, 
in the aceomplifhment of this promife, fhaking thofe 
" heavens qnd earth to pieces, I' before pointed at) 
from Re v. vi. 12, 13, ij, 15. beginning in the 
plagues of the perfecuting emperors, and ending' 
in~tbe ruin t>f the empire itfelf. But, 

Bi 2. Tbe 



i. TJhe 'immovable things were not yet in' tbeir 
glory to be brought in ; more, feed of blood muft 
be fown> that the end of. the. gofpel's year may 
yield a plentiful harveft. That Jinking was only 
for vengeance upon an old, curfed, and not for the 
bringing in of a new, bleffed ftate. The vlds of 
God's wrath having crumbled the heavens and 
earth of Fogm Rome into feveral pieces* and that 
empire being remQVed, as to its old. form, xby the 
craft of Satan, it became moulded up again into a 
papil fovereignty, to exercife ell the power of the 
Jirji bs]/l 9 in perfecution of the faints, Rev. xiii. 1 2« 
This fecond prefliire, though long and fore, mud 
have an end ; the new moulded her.ven and earth. 
of p pil antichriftian Rome, running by a myfte- 
ricus thread through all the nations of the -wefr^ 
jrnuft be fliaken alfo,. Rev. xviii* 2+ I&* xl. 1,2*. 
Pfal. ii 6. which, when it is acconaplifhed, there* 
lhall be no more ilea. There is not another beaft 
fa a rife, nor another ftate to be formed; let en* 
deavours be what they will, the Lord Jefus (halt 
reign. And. this for the opening of tjie firft gene-, 
ral head. 

II. General heed."] idly* What -is the removal of 
heaven and e-irth, being foaien ? The word^here 
tran Hated removal, is /*•;**< 9«. Whence that is come 
to pafe I dare not pofitivejy fay. This, doubtlefs,, 
is a common fault amongft. tranflators, that they 
will accommodate the wtords of a text to their own 
apprehenfion of the fenfe and matter thereof. Un- 
derftanding, as I fuppofe^ that tte things here fatd: 
to be fliaken, were the. Jevvifh • ordinances, they 
translated their difpofition^a removal: Heb. xi. 5.. 
Jude 4. Gal v i- 6. Heb, vi. 18. Heb. vii. 12. as the 
truth is, they/ were removed ; But th^ word figni-* 
lies no. fuch thing. As its natural importance^ 
from its rife and compofition is other wife, fo nev 
ther in the fcripture, not any profane author,. 


cVliSJtVEN AltD ZAKTk'. If 

doth it ever fignify properly a removal: tranjla* 
tion 9 or changing, is the only native, genuine im- 
port of it; and why it mould, in this place, be 
baled out of its own fphere, and tor to red into a 
new fignification, I know not : removal is of the* 
matter, tranflation of the* form only. It is -not 
then a. deftruclion and total amotion of the great 
things of the nations, but a change, tranflation, 
and a new moulding of them; that is here intima- 
ted.. Tiheyjhbtt be fiuffled together almofl into their 
primitive confu/ion, and come out new moulded, for 
tie interejl of the Lord Jefus. All the prefent 
Hates of the world are cemented together by ant-f- 
.-chriftian lime, aa I mall mew afterwards . Unlefs 
they be fo fhaken as to have every cranny fearch- 
ed and bruflied, they will be no quiet habitation 
for the Lord Chrift and his people. This*; then is 
the fAtUQ$7tt of the heaven and earth of the* na-- 

Now this is evident, from that full prediction 
which you have of the accompliflraie&t hereof,** 
• Rev* xvii. 12, 1.3, and 16* 

Ver. 17. The kingdoms of the weft receive /wir- 
er+at one hour with the fyeq/f. 

Ver. 13. In' their constitution and governmentr 
ai'firft received, they give their power to the beajl^ 
and fight againfl the Lamb* 

Ver. 14. The Lamb, with his faithful iand chofen *'; 
one s f overcomes them* There their leaven and earth '- 

*Ver. 16, Their power is tranfiated, new mould*' 
ed* and becomes a power againft the* beafi f in the * 
band of Jefus Chryi^ - : 

This then is the Jhaking and removal in my text ; 
which is faid to be as of things thathre made ; fhac 
is, by men, through the concurrence of Divine^ 
Providence, for a feafon ; (which making you 
have, Rev. xvii. 1a. and 17.) not like the king-.* 
, B 3 dom 


dom of Chrift, which being of a purely divine cans* 
. ilitution, fliall by no human power receive an end» 

I. The other parts of the text follow briefly. 

II. The next thing is, the apoftle's jwroofofthis- 
aflertion. And he tells you, this word, once more, 
the* beginning of this fen tenet he urged from the - 
prophet, fignifies no lefs« The words in the prophet, 
are, nHH "US N VI ttttQ yet once, it it a little ; me- 
gat hi, it is a little, is left out by the apoftle, as.. 
not conducing to the hufiaefs in. hafnd: Evi4r«£, 
(as he rendereth hod achrtV) la a fuffictent de- 
roonftration of the aflertion. .. In themfelves thejr 

. hold out a commutation of things ; and, as 4 they 
ftand in conjun&ion in that place of the prophet,, 
declaring that that Jbaling and commutation mud 
be for the bringing in of the kingdom of the Lord 
Chrift.- In brief, being interpreted by the fame 
Spirit whereby they were indited, . we know the 
expofition is true. 

■ III. The laft head vemaineth under tv*> parti- 
culars : 

X. What are the things t fat cannot be Jbaken* 
* 2. What is their remaining. 

For the firfl, the things that cannot bejbaken^ 
ver. 24. are called a, kingdom that cahtoot be removed ' 
ver. 28. A kingdom fubjeel: to. none of thofe ma- 
kings and alterations, which other dominions have 
been tolled to and fro withal; Pfal. ii. 6«Pfel. • 
ex. 2. Afts ii. 36. Rev. u 18. 1 Cor. xv. 24, 25, 
0.6, 27. Daniel calls it, A not giving of the king* 
• dotn to another people, Dan. ii. 44. Not that crcu- 
menical kingdom which he hath with his Fatfeer, 
as King of nations, but that oeconomical kingdom 
which he hatji by difpenfation from his Father as> 
king of faints. Now tl^is may be eonfidered two - 
waj"s : 

i. As purely internal and fpirituad, which- is 
the rule of his Spirit in the hearts of all bis, faints, . 

> * Luke 

£uke vi. 20. Ma^k xii v £4v&c« This cometh n<?C 
with obfervation, it is withinms, Luke xvii. 20, * 
2ii confifting in righteoufnefs, peace, and joy in 
fhe Holy Ghoft, Rom. xiv; 17. > 

2. A3 external, and appearing. in gofpel admmi- 

ft rat ions. So is Ghrift described as a King in the 

midft of their kingd&nr* Relr. i. 14, x$, 16, 17, 

As alfo chap* iv. and chap. £1. 15. and both thefe* 

„raay be again confidered two ways : 

1. In refpeft of their effen0- and being ; anpl fa 
they have been,, are,, and '{Jiall be, continued in all 
ages : He hath bttiit bis' Church upon a Rocky and 
the gates of bell /ball not preixail againft it, Mat tin 
xvi. i8.- 

.7 2, In refereace to ibeir extent in refpecl: of fub- 
je&s, with their viftble glorious appearance, which 
is under innumerable promlfes, to be very great 
in the latter days. ' For it fball comeio pafs in the 
Injt days, that the rnouniain of the Lord 9 J boufe /hall 
'. be eftablijhed in the tap of the mountains , and fh all . 
be exalted above tie bills, and all'natjonsjbblljlow- 
untoit r l£sL. ri. 4. , ' • '. "• 

Tnefe then ase the things Which camiot%e flia*- 
ken, which we may reduce to th*ee heads,] 

1. The growth of righteoufoefs, peace, and joy,. 
in the faints being filled with fight and love, from 
the fpecial prefenoe pi Chrift,; with *a wonderful 
• increafe of the number of them,, multitudes of the 
eleft being, to be born in thofe bays ; the refidue of 
Wtt Jews and fulnefs of the Gentiles meeting in 
one fold, and there dwelleth righteoufiiefs, 2 ret. 

• • » W 

mi 13. ^ 

a. The admimtyration of gofpel ordinances, iiv 
power and purity, according to the' appointment, 
and unto the acceptation of the Lord JeTus. fbe 
temple of God and the altar being meafurect anew ; 
the outward court, defied with Gentile wor/bip, it 
left out, Rewxi* x 9 ' a« > 

. "*: • ; 3- The 


3. The glorious and vifible maaifcftarion of tbo* '$ 
adminiftrations, in the eyes ©f all the world, iir 
peace and quietnefs, None making afraid^ or hurt- 
ing in the whole mountain of the \Lord}I&. htv. 25 * 

J?br the perfonal reign of the Lord Jefui on 
e^rth, A&s iifc 21. I lfeaye it to them, with'whofe 
difcov tries I ant not, and ^uriofities I would not 
be acquainted. 

* But as for fuch, who from hence do (or for fini-* 
fter ends pretend to) fancy to themfelves a ter- 
rene* kingly ftate, unto each private particular* 
feint, fo making it a bottom, vivendi ut velis, for- 
every one to do that which is good in his own 
eyes, to the difturbance of all order and authority- 
civil and fpiritual, . as they e^tprefsly clafli againit 
innumerable promiies,. fo they dire&Ly introduce, 
fuch confufion and dif order, as the foul of the Lord- 
Jefus doth exceedingly abhor. • 

It is only the three things named, with theirs 
neceflary^dependancies, tfiat I do aflert. 

And laftly, of thefe it *is faid, they muft remain^ 
that is, continue, and be firmly eftabli&ed, as the* 
word is often ufed^Rjom. ix. 11. " 

The words. oLihe text being unfolded, and the- 
mind of th^ Holy Ghoft in them discovered, 1 {halt 
from them "commend to* your Chriflian confidera-^ 
tk>n this following pofition : v 

*Obf.} 7he lord Jefus Chrift, by bis mighty pqw~- 
en, iji thefe latter days, as antichrifiian tyranny draws • 
to tts period, will Jo, far SHAKE and TRANS! / 

late; ^politi c al heights, govern. 


asfhaUfervefor the full bringing in of his own peace- 
able kingdom ; the- nations fo Jhaken becoming there- 
by a quiet habitation for the people. ofthe> mojt High* - 
Though the do&rine be clear .from the text, yet 
it lhall receive farther fcriptuxal confirmation, be~ - 
ing of great weight and concernment. 

\ Daa 




Dariui. 44. Mdin the, days b/THESE' KINGS,. 
Jhall the God pf heaven fet up a kingdom, which • 
/hall, neve? "be deffroyedt and the kingdom Jhall not 
he left to other people y but it Jhall break in pieces, 
and con fume all thefe kingdoms, and it fhsdlfldndfor^ 

That this js affirmed of the. kingdom bf Chrift 
under the gofpel,, none ever doubted. 

Three things are here remarkably>intimated of 

it: • " , / '. 

1. The time wherein it. (ball ftioft eminently be 
eftablifhed ; and that is, in the days, of thefe kings 
of which, Daniel was fpcaking*. 

2. The efficacy of its being fet up'; itjhall'brtak 
in pieces all theft kingdoms \ , x 

* 3. Its own Jl*kitity 1 iljkf&nerjet be dtflrcyed^ 
TFor the firftj there ^s great .debate about the 
* principal feafon of the accomplifhing of this^re- 
difl:ion ; much hefitation who thofe kings are, in 
whofe days the kingdom of Chrift, is eminently to 
be eftabliflied. In the days when the two legs of 
the Roman empire (hall be divided into ten king- 
doms, and thofc kingdohis have oppofed themfelves 
to the power of Chrift ; that is, in rhe day& where- 
in we live, fay fpme. Yea, moft of the ancients 
took this for the Roman empire v and to thefe, the 
bringing jn of the kingdom of Chrift, is the efta-' 
blifhrnent of it in thefe days : Others underftand. 
the Syrian and Egyptian branches of the Grecian" 
monarchy, and the bringing in of ChrjLft's king-* 
dom, to be in his birth, death,, and preaching o£ ' 
the gofpel, wherein certainly the foundations *of it 
were laid ; I will not contend with any mortal, 
hereabouts: Only I fhall oppofe one or two things 
to this latter interpretation': As, 

1. The kingdom of. Syria was totally deftroyed, . 
and reduced into a Roman province fixty years be* 
fere, the nativity of Chrift,. and. the Egypi^n thir-r. . 



ty\ So that it is Impoffible that the kingdoni of" 
Chrift, by his birth, fliould be fet iip in t.heir days. 

2. It is afcribed to the efficacjr of this kingdom,- * 
that, /being eftabliuied/.it fh all break in pieces all 
thofe kingdoms. Which how can it be, when, at 
the firft fetting of it up, they had neither place 
nor name* nor fcauce remembrance. 

So that it mull needs- be the declining, divided * 
Roman empire , fnared amongft* fandry nations,, 
that is here intimated ; and fo confequently, the 
kingdom of Chrift to- be eftablifhed, is that glo- 
rious adminiftrafeon thereof which, in thefe days-. 
he wiU bring in. ** 

Be it fo or 4>therwife, this from hence cannot be 
denied, that the kingdom of Chrift will affuredljr" 
ihake and tganffatc i H a ll - oypuf m g dBfmiriitfris, . unttT * 
iifelf be eftablifiied in and over them all, jng Hu . 
S«c«f, which is all J intend to prove from this place, . 
The ten-partite empire of the weft, muft give* 
place to the done cut out of the mountain with- 
out hands, • •••-.-. 

Dan. .vii. 27. *Tbe kingdom; and dominion, and 
greatnefs of the kingdom under the whole heaven, 
Jball be given to the people* o) * the faints of the Moft; 
Sigh, whqfe kingdom is an everlqJHng kingdom, and 
all dominions Jhatl ferve and obey him* Hitherto is~ J 
the end of the matter. ,; 

Either antichrrft is deferred in the clofe of this 
chapter, or one v«ry like him, St John painting; 
him in the Revelation with all this man'sjulours ; *] 
plainly intimating, that though; in the, firft place, 
that mad raging tyrant An&ochm r'/the ilfuftrionr -\ 
was pointed at, yet that anotker was to rife in his 
likenefs, with his craft and cruelty, that with the a 
affiftance of tht ten horns, fliould plague the faint?'** \ 
of the, Chriftians, no lefs than the other had done ' 
thofe of the Jews'. Now,' what (hall be the iflue 
hereof?, yen. 2 6* ffiydotninion, with his adherents?* 



•fjhdll be taken away and confumed : And then fliall it 
-be given to the people of the Moft High, as be- 
fore; Or they fliall enjoy the kingdom of Chrift itt 
.. a peaceable manner; their officers being made 
peace, and their exa&ors righteoufnefs. 

* It is clearly evident, from thefe and other pla- 
ces in that prophecy, . that he who is the only Po- 
tentate, will, fiooner of later, fhake all the monarchies 
of the earth 9 where he will have his name known, 
that all nations, .may be fuited to the intereft of his 
kingdom, which alone is. to endure. 

Ifa. he* in many places, indeed throughout, holds 
.out the fame. 

Ver. 12* The nation and the kingdom which will 

..notferve thee,Jhall be broken to pieces : That is, all 

the nations of the earth ; not a known nation, but 

. the bloocLof the faints -of Chrift is found in the 

Hurts thereof. Now, what fliall be the iffue whea 

they are fo broken ? 

Ver. JL7. 1 8. I will tnaie thine officers peace, 

.and thine exaclors righteoufnefs : Violence Jbatt wo 

more be heard in thy Hand, wafting nor deftrucHon 

within thy borders: but thou Jbalt call thy walls 

falvation, and thy gates praife. . » 

See, at your leifure, to thirf purpofe, Amos ix. 

it, 12, ij, 14, i£. Jer./xxxi. 23, 2<, 23* Ifa, 

X3ptiU. 2X r 22, 23, 24. 

I fliall only add that punctual defer iption,«which 
you have of this whole matter, as Daniel calls it, in 
the Revelation, with refped unto its acconiplifh- 
ment, chap. xvii. The Roman harlot having pro- 
cured the ten kings, or kingdoms, into which the 
laft head of tbe Roman empire fprouted, about the 
year 450, by the inundation of the northern, na- 
tions to join with her, they together make war a- 
^gainft the Lamb, ver. is, 13, 14. 

; Ver. 1.2, "the ten horns which, thou fawe/l (upon 
the laft, head of the . great beaft, the Roman mo- 

- ,- • natchy) 


• ■ - . * 

^narctiy) are Un kings which have received no king* 
sdom us yet f (to wit, when John faw the vifion) but 
- receive p*wer as kings one hour with the beqfl, (A- 
.'bout 400 years after -this, the Pope afcended to 
his fovereignty, ,and thefe weftern nations grew , 
.into diftinft dominions about the fame time.) 

Ver. 13. ffbefebave one mind, (that is, as to the 

2>u£nefs *in hand, for otherwise they did and do vex 

' one another with perpetual broils and wars) and 

jhall give their power and Jlrength ia tpe leajl (or 

fwear to defend the rights of holy church, which 

is no other than BabyJop), and aft accordingly. 

Ver. 14. ^thefe make war ivith the Lamb, (having 
iworn and undertaken the defence of holy church, - 
or Babylon, they perfecuted the poor heretics 
, with fire and ; fword ; that i&, the witneflesof the 
Lamb, and in them thfe Lamb himfelf, «ftriving to 
; keep his Wngdom out of the world) and the Lamb 
Jhall overcome them, fhaking >and;tranilating them 
into a new mould and frames For 'he is Lord of 
lords, and King ' of kings, and they that are with 
him (whofe help and endeavours he will ufe) are 
^called, and chofen, and faithful. 

Ver. 16. The ten horns which thou faweft'upon 

the beajl, (being now ihaken* changed, and tranfla- 

rted i^ mirtd,s intereft, and perhaps government,) 

thefe hate the whore, and Jhall make her de/b/ate, (are 

instrumental, in the hand of Chrift, for the ruin of 

t *hat antkhriftian Hate, which before they ferved.) 

*uni naked) and Jhall eat herjlejh, and burn her with 


Hence, chap, xviii. 2. Babylon, and that whole - 

/ mntichrifUan ftatc which Was fupported upon their 

power and greatnefs, having loft its props, comes 

*topling down to {.the. ground : Babylon the great is 

N fallen, is fallen, ver. 2. and the faints take vehge- 

' ance on the whore, for all her former rage and 

. , -.*'•*•-• - cruelty* 

.•- •* 

of heaven And' earth. - 25 

cruelty. Double unto her double, according to her 
ivorfo, ver, 6. 

Ver. 9. " <And the kings of the earth , (being 
4t fome x)f them fhaken out of their dominion, for 
4 *-refufing to clofe with the. Lamb-) who have com* 
4t mitt ed fornication and lived delicioujly with her, 
*' (learning ajid pra&ifing falfe worfhip of her in- 
** ftitution) /hall bewail her , and latent for her, (as ♦ 
"** having received fuccour from her, her monafte- 
4< ries and flravelings, in their diftrefs, whereujito 
*' indeed they were brought for her fake) when / m 

4t they Jhdtt fee the fmoke of her burning, (beholding " | 

%i her dtrkitefs, flink, and Confuiion, in her final 
*' defolation.) ' ' * ' *' - ; 

" Now; all this ftallT>e tranfa&ed with fo much J 

" obfeurity and darknefs, Chrift not openly ap- 
'" pearing unto carnal eyes^ that though " many ;| 

€ * mall be purified and made white, yet the wicked * 
** (hall do wickedly, aud none of the wicked (hall j 

44 underftand, but the wife fhall underftand," Dan. 1 

xii. 10. *' There fhall be no fuch demonftratioii 
" of the prefence 6f Chrift, as to open the eyes of 
"hardened men-: but at length, having fuffered the 
*' poor deceived wretches to drink of the cup pre* 
" pared for them, he appears himfelf glorioufly, • 

" chap. xix'. 13. in a more eminent manner than 
u ever before, to the total deftruclipn of the re- 
* c fidue of oppofers. , And that this will be the uf- 
14 moft clofe of that difpenfation wherein now he 
*' walketh, I no way doubt." 

The afiertion being cleared and proved, the rea- 
fons of it come next to be confidered : and the firft 
is, that * 

Reaf 1.] * It mail be done by the way of re- 
• , C compence 

* Fiat; ii. 4, 5. Pfal exxxvii. 8, 9. • Ifa. xlvli. r, 2, 3. * 
I&. xllx.^ *6. Jcr, 1. 33, 34. chap. Ii. »4» »5» 3«> 25' Ztclw • . ^ 

xiu 2> 3> 4 chap. xiv. )%• Rev. xviii. 6, &V. 

*6 the Shaking and translating 


jcompence and vengeance. It is the great day of 
the wrath of the Lamb, Rev. vi. 17. "2 he fandjball 
be SOAKED WITH BLOOD, and the duftmade 
fat with fatnefs ; for it is th* duy~ofthe Lord's ven* 
geance, and the ytar of recompense jor the controvert 
JyofZion, Ifa. xxxiv* 7, 8, 7 he day of vengeance 
is in his heart, when the year of his redeemed is come, 
Ifa. lxiii. 4. . 

l( The kings of the earth have given their power 
«« to antichrift, endeavouring to the utmoit to keep 
<* the kingdom of Chrift out of the world. What, 
«' I pray, hath been ..their maju bufintii for 700 
«' years and upwards, even aUnpft ever.fince the 
f< man of fin was enthroned? How have they earned 
•' the titles, eidefi fon of the church; the Catholic 
i % and moft Chrifiian king; defender of the faith, 
€i and the like ? hath .it not been by the blood of 
H faints ? Is there not in every one of thefe king- 
u doms, the flain, and the banifked ones of Chrift 
•* to anfwer for ? In particular, 

«' Hath not the blood of the faints of Jefus,. 
f< (eclipfed by*antichrift afla his adherents) Wick- 
#< fiff's and Lollards, cried from the ground for 
*' .vengeance upon the Englifh heaven and earthiov 
*' a long feafon ? Did. not their bodies lie, in the 
i( ftreets of France under the names oiWaldenfes, 
f c ABigetfes, and' poor men of Lyons ? Hath not 
•' Germany, and the annexed territories, he,r Hvfje, 
** and Huffile, Hierom, and Subutraguians to an-. 
•/fwer for? Is not Spain's InqwJLtion enough to 
** ruin a world, much more a kingdom? Have not 
€i all thefe, and all the kingdoms roundabout, waih- 
u ed their hands and -garments in the Mood of 
41 thoufauds of proteftants ? And do not the kings 
* f of all thefe nations as yet ftand up in the room of 
" their progenitors, with the fame implacable en— 
•* mity to the pbwer of the gofpel ? Shew me feven 
*' kings that ever yet laboured fincerely to enhance 

■;--'* "the 





' t 


" the kingdom of the Lord JefuVanddare boldly 
" fay O&avus quisfuerit nondum cmjlat. And i* 
" there acft a cry for all this, How long, Lord, bb- 
41 ly a&d trite, Jojt thorn not avenge our blood on them 
*• tbat live on tie earth $ Rev. vi. icr. Doth. not 
«J Sion cry, ?£* violence dome to tne and teyfkfb be 
* ( «/>o« Babylon, and my blood uponthofe heavens of 
" the nations ? Arid will not the Lord avenge hit 
" elecl that cry unto him day and night? tvillbe not 
«< do it fpeedt/y, vjUI he not call the FOWLS OF 
«• HE AVEN7o eat theflefi o/KINGS and C AP- 
' *< TAINS and great men of the earth ? ReV. xix» 
<f 18. Will he not "make thefe heavens like the 
fC «u;oo<s? of the vine, not a^z« to be taken off them 
fi to hang a garment 0!*,,in his whole tabernacle?" 

"The time fhall : come wherein the earth ihall diC- 
clofe her flain, arid not the firnpleft heretic, as they 
were couuted; ihall have his blood unrevenged : 
neither ihall any atonement be made for this blood, 
or expiation be allowed, whilft a toe of the image, 
or a bone of the .beaft, is left unbroken, 

Reaf. <2.] That bj& his own Wifdom he may 
frame fuch a pc<Ver as may bed condnce to the 
carrying on of his own kingdoai among the fons 
.of men *. 

He hath promifed his. Church, that he will give 
unto it Holy Triejls and Levites^ I(a. lxvi. 20, 21. 
which fliali ferve at the great Jeq/l of tabernacles, 
Zech. xiv. 16. A fufficient demon ft ration that he 
will dwell ftill in his churches by his ordinances, 
whatfoever .fome conceive: So alfo, that he will 
make her civil officers peace, and her exaclors rigb- 
teoufnefs, Ifa. Ix. 17, £ 8* They ihall be foeftabhih- 
ed, that the nations, as nation*, may ferve it $ and 

G 2 thei 

* PfajUii.9> io> 11, it. Rt^r.xxvii. 14. 
1 Cor. xl. *6. Eph. tv« ir, iz, 13. 1 Yipi vi. zj, 14. frfaL 
xl v 6. Tfa. xHv. 7,^3, " 



the kingdoms of the world, /hall become the king* 
doms of our Lord, Rev. xi. 15. 

For the prefent, the government of the nations, 
(as many of them as are~ concerned therein) is 
purely framed for the intereft of antichrift. No^ 
kind of government in Europe, or line of gover- 
nors To ancient, but that the beaft is as old as 
they, and had a great influence into their CON- 
vide that it might ba for his own intereft, 

I believe it will be found a difficult tafk, to 
name any of the kingdoms of Europe, (excepting " 
only that remoteft northward) in the fetting up ' 
and eftabliftunent whereof, either as to perfons- or 
government, the Pope hath not exprefsly bargain- 
ed for his own intereft, and provided that that 
fhould have the chiefeft place in all the oaths and 
bonds that were between princes and people. 
• Bellarmine, to prove that'thePope hath a teitir 
poral- power indire&ly over all kings and nations, 
(if he mean by indireftly, gotten by indirect means, 
it is actually true, ap to too many of them) -gives 
fundry inftances in mod of the faoft eminent na- 
tions in Europe, how he hfith actually exercifed 
fuch a power for his own intereft. 

There have been two mod famous and remark- 
able changes of the government of thefe nations, 
and into both of them what an influence the Pope 
had is eafily difcemable. 

• The firft was between the years 4 and 500 after 
Chrift, 2 Theff ii. 6, 7. when the Roman empire 
of the weft, that which with-held the man of Jin 
from adihg his part to the life, was. fhivered to 
pieces by. many barbarous nations., Dan. ii. 41^ 
who fettling themfelves in the fruitful. foils of 
Europe, began to plant their heavens and lay the 
fpundations of their earth , growing up into civil 
llates j for the ihoft part appointing them to be 






1 . ■ -. * • - * i 

tfieir kings in peace, who had "been their leaders . , \ 

in war. ■■...'»•. • A 

This furious inundation fettleS the Franches in 
Gail, the Saxons in, England, the Weft Goths in 
Spain, the Eaft Goths and Loftgobards into Italy, 
and fet tip the Almaas in Germany \ from fom% 
whereof, though for diver* yestfa the papal world 
was exceedingly tormented, and Rfeffie frfelf fafck- 
€d ; yet in the clofe arid making up of their go- 
vernments, changing their manners and religion, 
they all fubmittedto the ufurpatioh of the man. of 
fin, Rev. xvii. 13.- So that in ail their windings 
up, their was a falve for him and his authority. 

The fecond great alteration took np a long fpace,- 
and was. in aftion about 300 years, reckoning it 
from the translation of the French crown, from . 
Childerec the IV. unto Pepin and his fon Charles, , 
by papal authority, unto the conqtceil of England 
by the Normans ; in which fpace, the line of Charles - 
in France was again, by the fame authority, and- 
the power of Hugh Capet cut off;- no ft ate in Eu- 
rope, the choice, patrimony of the beaft, that did 
not receive a fignal alteration in this fpace ; nor was - 
there any alteration, but that the Pope, had a hand 
in every one of them > and> either by pretended 
collations of right, to pacify the confciences of blood- - 
' thirfty\potentates, in the undertaking and pnr- 
fuirig their unjuft conquefts, or foolilh mitred con- 
formations qfjword purchases, he got them all fra- ; 
med to his own end ajid purpofe, which was to. 
. bring all thelfe nations into fubje&ion to Jiis Ba- 
bylonifh ufurpations $ which their kings, finding 
no way inconfiftent with their own defigns, did 
willingly promote, labouring to enforce all confci«r 
ences into (ubje&ibn to the Roman fee. 

Hence it is, as I obferved before, that fuch an 
int^rpofition was made of the- rights of holy 1 x 
church j that is, Babylon, the mother of fornica* 

C 3 tioos. 



tions, Rev. xiii. 15, 16. in all. the ties, oaths*, 
and bonds between - princes and people, and for , 
the advancement of. the righteous judgments of 
God, that the fons.of men may learn to fear. and 
tremble before him. It may be obferved, that that 
which doth and (hail flick upon potentates to their, 
iufrij is not fo much their own or any other in te- 
reft, as the very dregs of this papal antichridian. 
intered, thruft into their oaths and obligations, 
for no end in the world, but to keep the Lord Je- 
" fus out of his throne, a Theff. u. I*. 

. This is a fecond reafon, why the Lord Jefus, by. 
his mighty power, "at the bringing in of his im- 
moveable kingdom, mil Jbake the heavens and the 
earth of the nations; evenbecaufe, in their prefent 
conftitution, they are direftly framed to the inter- 
red of antichrid, which, by notable advantages at 
their fird moulding, and continued infinuations e- 
yer fince, hath fo ri vetted kfelf iato the' very 
fundamentals of them, that no digging or mining, 
without an earthquake, will cad up the foundation^ 
dones thereof. fThe Lord Jefus then having, pro- 
mifed the fervice of the nations to his church, 
will fo far t>pen their whole frame to the roots, as 
to pluck out all the curfed feeds of the myflery of 
iniquity, which, by the craft of Satan, and exigen- 
cies of date, or methods of advancing the pride * 
and power of fome fons of blood, have .been fowit 
among them. 

Reaf. 3.] Becaufe as is their , intered, fo is their 
a&i'ng. The prefent power of the nations dands 
in direft oppofition to the bringing in of the king- 
dom of Chrid. Two things there, are which con- 
fefledly are incumbent on him in this day of his 

v 1. The bringing 'home of his ancient people, to 
be one fold with the fulnefs of the Gentiles ; rai- 
ling up the tabernacle of David, and building it as 

- in 


in days df old, John x. i6. t Ifa. xxxvit. 31. Jer* 
xxx. 9. Ezek. xxxiv. 23. chap, xxxvii. 24, 25^ 
Hof. iii. 5. Amos ix. 11* in the accomplishment 
of innumerable promifes, ana airfwer to millions 
of prayers put up at the throne of grace, for this 

.very glory in all generations/ , Now there be two 
main hindrances of this work, that mr.ft be remo- 
ved: The ifirft whereof is, . / 

1. Real: The Great River Euphrates, the ftrength . 
and fullnefs of whofe flreams doth yet rage fo 
nigh that there is no paflage for tjie kings of the 
Eafl to come over ; Exod. xiv. 21, 22-^Jofli. iii. . 
15, 16. Hab. iii. 3. wherefore this nmft be dried, 
up as other, waters were for their forefathers in 
days of .old, Rev. xvi. i?~. D'oubtlefs.this is fpa- 

. ken in allufion to Abraham^ s coming over that ri-. 
ver into Canaan, when the church of God in his . 
family was there to be ereftedj whence he was cal- 
led the Jlebrew ; that is, the paflenger, to wit, over 
that river, Gen. xiv* 13. and then it may well e- 
npugh denote the ( Turki/b power, .which, proud as 

.it is at this day, pofleffing in peace all thofe re- 
gions of the Eaft, yet God can quickly make it wi- 
ther and be dried up: Or, to the deliverance of 
the Jews from Babylon, when it was taken and 
deftroyed by the drying up of the ftreams of that 
river, and fo the yoke of her tyranny broken from 
the church's neck, Jer. li. 31, 32. and fo it can be 
no other but the power, of the Romilh . Babylon, 
fupported by the kings of the nations, which muft 
therefore be fhaken and dried up. 

2. Moral: Or the idolatry of the Gentile wor- 
{nippers. The yews flick hard as yet at this, that 
God fhoiild abolifli any kind of worfhip which 
himfelf had once inflituted, Rev. ix. 2. But that he 
mould ever accept any falfe worihip, which he had 
ionce ftricUy prohibited* and no where Jo .this day 
appointed, to this they will nevej; be reconciled. 





No#, fuch Is all thetinveflted idolatrous worflif p 
which the kings of the earth have fucked in, ftom< 
the cup of fornication held out to then* in the- 
hand, and by the; authority of the Roman whore ^ 
this ftill they cleave dole unto, and will not hear- 
ken to the angel preaching the elserlajtitog gbfeel, that 
men Jhould worjhip *him who made tht heavens, and*' 
the earth, and the fea, and the fountains of waters,., 

. Rev. xiii. 6, 7. that is T the God of heaven in Jefus - 
Ghrift, in oppofition to all their lconolatry,.Ar}o- 
latry, Hagiolatry, Staurolatry, and Mafs- abomina- 
tions. TBiis then fiauft alfo be removed ; and be- 
oaufe, as you faw before, it is fo,rivetted and ce- 
mented into, «nd with all the orbs of the nations r 
heaven and earth, they mud be ihaken, and brought- 
uV /ut7«6c^iv before it can be effected. 

2. The fecond thing he ha'th to accomplifh is,. . 

. the tremendous total deftru&ion of Babylon, Pfal..- 
cxxxvii. 8, 9. Ifa. xlvii. 7, 8, 9. the man of fin 
ari4 all his adherents, that are not obedient to the/ 
heavenly call, Rev. xviii. 4. Jer. li. 25* 26. Revv- 
xvii. 1, 2. Zech. ii. 7. Jer»li. 6. Jud. xvi- 28, 29, 
Now, as Sampfon, intending the deft ruction of the 
princes, lords, and refidue of the Philiftines, who * 
were gathered together' in their idol temple, he 
efFe&ed it T>y pulling away the pillars whereby 
the building was-fupported, whereupon the whole 
fraihe topled to the ground : So the Lord, intend-' 
ing the x ruin of that mighty power, whofe top 
feems to teach to heaven, will do it by pulling a- 
way the pillars and (upporters of it ; after which, 
it cannot ft and one moment. Now, what are the 
pillars of that fatal building? Are they not the> 
powers of the world, as at prefent ftated and fra- 
med? pull them away, and, alas \ what is anti- . 
chrift ? It is the glory of the kings put upon her, ., 
that makes mens eyes fo dazzle on the Roman harm 

fou Other wife fhe is but like tlft Egyptian dei , * ." v 



ties, whofe filly worfhippers, through many glo- 
rious portals ano! frontifpieces, were led ta adore 
the image of an ugly ape* 

Add hereunto, that in thia mighty work, the- 
Lord Jefus Chriil will make ufe of the power of 
the nations,, the horns of them j that is, their. 
flrength,.Rev. xvii.;i6. they muft hate the whore 
and make her defolate and naked, and eat herflefli . 
and burn her .with fire. Now;, whether this can 
be aecomplifhed or no in their prefent pofture, is 
eafily difcernable. Doth not the papal intereft lie 
at the bottom of all, or the raoft ruling Jines of 
Chrijlendom ? Can that be. eje&ed, without un- 
bottoming their own dominion?, do they not ufe 
the efficacy of the Roman jurifdi8ion f to balance 
the powers of their adverfaries abroad, and to awe 
their fubjects at home ? Hath not the Pope a conli- 

_ derable firength in every one of their own bofoms ?. 
Are not the locufls of their religious orders,, all 
fworn flaves to him, fdf number fufljeient to 
make an army to fight the greateft emperor in the, 

' world ? Are not nioft potentates tied by bath^ qr 
other compact, to maintain either the whole, or 
fome part of the old tower, under the name jof 
rights of holy church, prelates, and the like? And 
can any expert that fuch as thefe ihould take up 
the defpifed quarrel of the faints, againft that ' 
ftdurifhing Queen ? doubtlefs, no fuch fruit will 
grow on thefe trees before they are thouroughly 

* fliaken.. 

Reqf. 4. J That his own people^, feeing all earths . 
ly things lhaken* and removing, may he raifed up 
to the laying Gold* of that durable kingdom that 

' Jhall not be removed, Heb. xii. 28. All carnal 
ihterefts will doubtlefs be fliaken with, that of 
Babylon, 2 Cor iv. 18. Many of God's people are 

% not yet weaned from the things that arefeen j no 
fooher is. one carnal forro lhaken out, but they are. 

. , ready 


34 ' the Shaking akd traks latinos 


rdady to cleave to another ; yea, to warm thera* 
ftlves in the feathered nefts of unclean birds. All* 
fleflily dominions within doors, and all civil do. 
minion that oppofeth Without doors, fliall be 
fhaken. Now, thefe thirigs are fo glued alfo to- * 
mens earthly poffefilons, the talonS of the birds. of 
prey having firmly feized on them, that they alfo^ 
muft be fhaken with them; and therefore, from, 
them alfo will he have us to be loofed, 2 Pet. iii. 
vef. 12, 13. , . . 

• And thefe are fome of thereafons of the pofi- 
tion laid down, which is fo bottomed, fo proved,, 
as you have heard. Of the fpeedy accomplifhment 
of all this, I no way doubti I believe and there- 
fore I have fpoken* Whether I fliall fee- any far- 
ther perfeftion of this work wbilft I am here be- 
low, I. am no way folicitoas y being aflured, that 
if I fail of it here, I fhall, through the grace of 
him who loved us and^fave v himfeif for us, meet 
N with the treafures of it etfewhere. Come we to 
the ufe*. 

'• Ufe 1.] The rife of our fir.. Vfe I ihall take 
from that of the prophet; Who is wife, and hejhall 
under /land thefe things f prudent, and he/hall know 
them ? for the ways of the Lord are right , and the\ 
jujl fhall vjalk inr them : hut the^tfanfgrefforsjhall 
fall therein, Hof. xiv. 9. ILabour for this heaven- 
ly wifdom aad prudence, that foe may know thefe ', 
things, and be* acquainted with fhe *mind and will, 
of God, in the feafon and generation wherein we. 
live. His way is not foJn the dark, nor his foot* 
fteps in the deep, but that we may perceive what 
he is about". 

Luke xii. 54, 55^56* pur Saviour gives it ia 
as afure? teftimony of the Phartfeeshypocrify f not— 
withflanding all tneir pretences and poffeflion of ^ 
Mofes^s chaif, that they wer^ wife in earthly, 
things and had. drawn out experiences by long ob- 



..." 4 . 

ifervttion of .what was like to jcome to pafe as to 
*he weather , by confidermg the ordinary figns of 
the alterations thereof j but notwitbftending that 
mighty effectual concurrence of .figns in heaven 
t and earth, with the accompii&ment of prophecies, 
all pointing to the inftant eftablifliment of' the 
kingdom of God in the coming of the MeJfaK r^ot 
<iifcerning them at all, they come and cry yij thou 
be the Chrift, give us afign ; when, without fatis- 
fying their finful curiofity, heaven and earth was 
full of figns round about them. 

, Men who /will not receive God's figns fuppofe 
they ihould Jbe wonderful proficients in credulity, 
might they have figns of their own fancying.i The 
rich glutton thought, that if his way of teaching 
might have been fet up, by, men rlfirig from the 
dead; there would Jiave been a world of converts, 
more than were made by the preaching" of the word 
of -God. Men fuppofe, that if God (hould now from 
heaven give in fome difcrjminating prodigy, Oh, 
how ' abundantly . ihould they be fatisfied ! The I 
truth is, the fame lull and corruption that makes 
them difbelieve God's figns,. moves them to look 
after figns- of their awn. 

Fo£ this, very thing then, were the Pharifees 
branded as hypocrites, that having wifdom in na* . 
rural things, to calculate and prognoilicate from 
neceflary figns ; yet in the works of the Lord, 
though the figns whkh in his wifdom he was plea- 
fed to give were plentiful round about them, yet 
they muft have fome of their own* chufing. I 
pray Go3 none fueh be found in our day. , 

1 Chron. xii. 3?. It is faid of the men of 7/1 
Jachar that they had under/landing of the times, to 
Jtnow what Ifrael ought to do. Ifrael is in the 
dark, and knows not what to do, if the times and 
feafong be not discovered to them; Either i. 13, ^ 
\i the mind and will of the Lord in their genera- 


— r 


tion, be not made out unto a people, it will be 
their ruin. 

Hence it is, that the Lord encourageth us to 
make enquiry after thefe things; to find out the 
feafons wherein he will do any great work for his 
people, knowing, that withput this, we fhall be. al- 
together ufelefs in the generation wherein we live, ^ 
If a. xlv. il. AJk me of things to come, concern- 
ing m y J ons > an d concerning the. works of my hands x 
command you me* 

And what is {his that the Lord will have his 
people to enquire of him about? even the great 
work of the ruin of Babylon, and ref\oration of his 
church, which yet 'was not to be accomplifhed for 
240 years. And this he tells you plainly in the 
; following verfes. • _ - 

I have raifed him vp (Cyrus) in righteoufriefs, I ^ 
will direcl his ways, hefhall huild^ my cities, and he 
Jhall let go my captives, not for price nor for reward^ 
faith the Lord ofhojls, ver* 13. ... • 

The Lord is earneft -with his people, to enquire 
into the feafon of the accompHflnnent of his* great - "* 
intendments for the^good of his Church, when *s 
yet they , are afar off; how much more when they 
are nigh at hand, even at the doors \'Whofo is 
wife, and will ponder thefe things, they /hall under*- 
fand the loving Jtindnefs of the Lord, Pfal. cvii. ult. 

Dan. ix. 2. The prophet tells you, that this was jf 

his great ftudy, and at length he underftoody by 
books, the approach of the time wherein God 
would deliver his church from Babylomfh capti- 
vity and pollution : Now, this difcovery hata two ! 
or three notable produces. 

'1. It put, him upon earneft fupplications for 
the accompliihment of their protniled deliverance 
,in the appointed feafon. Wide from that a$ieifH- •] 

cal frame of fpirir, which would have a predeter- ] 

joiinatioh of events and fuccefl'es, to eradicate all \ 

. I ■ c£r.e 


care, and endeavour to ferve that providence which 
will produce their accomplifliment. A difcoverj 
of the approach of any promifed and before-fixed 
work of God, fhould fettle ou reminds to the ut-» 
jnoft endeavour of helping the decree to bring 

2. He finds great acceptation in this his addrefo 
to the Lord, by fupplications, for the eftabliflring of 
that work which he had discovered was nigh at 
hand: For, * 

i. An anfwer is returned him fully to his whole 
„jdefire, in ,the midft of his {applications, ver. 21. 
wfloilft I was praying, the man Gabriel came, &c. 

i. The work which he had difcovered to be, ap- 
proaching, was inftantly haftened and gone in hand 
withal, ver. 23. At the beginning of thy fupplica- 
tions the commandment came forth. Oh, that God 
would ftir up his faints in the fpirit of Daniel, to 
cdnfider, and underftand by books, the time that 
he hath appointed for the deliverance of his peo- 
ple, that, fixing their fupplications for the fpeed* 
ing thereof, the commandment may come forth for 
its full accomplifhment ! 

3. Having attained this, the Lord gives him 
frefh discoveries, new light, of the time for. the 
birth of the Meffiah, which he thought sot of, 
prayed net for : Seventy weeks are determined, &e. 
ver. 24. So delighted is the Lord with his peo- 
ples diligent inquiry into his ways and walkings 
towards them, that thereupon he appears unto them 
in the revelation of his mind, beyond all they did 
exped or defire. 

Now all this have I fpoken, to ftir you up unto 

. that, whereunto at the entrance of this ufe you 

„ were exhorted ; that you would labour for that 

fpiritual wifdom and prudence, whicji may acquaint 

your hearts, at leaft in fome meafure,. with the 

mind and will of God, concerning his work in the 

' D generation 


generation wherein you live. And farther to 
provoke you hereunto, know, that you cannot but 
wander> as iii many other, fo especially in four fin- 
fill things : 

X . Sinful cares* 

2. Sinful fears. ^ 

g. Sinful follies* 

4. Sinful negligence. 
1. Sinful cares. Anxious and dubious thoughts 
about fuch things as perhaps the Lord iutends ut- 
terly to*deftroy, or at leaft render ufelefs. Had it 
not been the greateft folly in the world for Noah 
and his fons, when the flood was approaching to 
fweep away the creatures from the face of the earth, 
Gen. vi. 13, to have been folicitous about flocks 
and herds that were fpeedily to be deftroyed? Ma- - 
ny mens thoughts, at this day, do even devour 
them about (uch things, as, if they Anew thefeafon, 
wtmld be contemptible unto them. Wouldfl thou 
labour for honour, if thou kne weft that God, at 
this time, we re -labouring to lay all the honour of 
the earth in the dnjl? Ifa. xxiii. 9. Gouldft thou * 
fet thy heart upon the increafe of riches, wert thou 
acquainted that God intends inftantly to ma:kej£/- 
wr as Jloncs, and cedars as fycamores? x Kings x. 
27. though not for plenty, yet for value. Would 
men be lb exceedingly folicitous about this -or that 
form of religion, this or that power, to fupprefs 
fuch or fuch aperiuafibn,if they knew that the Lord 
tvottld fuddeniy fll the^ earth 'with his knowledge, as 
ih* waters cover the feat Hab. ii. 14. Should our 
fpirits fink for fear of this or that perfecutor or 
eppreflbr; Wre it difcovered unto us, that in a 
fcort time nothing fhall hurt or defiroy in the mrhotc 
"mountain of the Lord? Ifa. Ixv. 25. . Should we 
tremble at the 'force and power of this or that grow- 
ing monarchy giving its power to the beaft, had 
Gcd revested unto us, that he is going toihafce it 
■t v until 




until it be translated ? Certain it is, that the root 
ofaU the finful cares, ( which forn>times are ready - 
to devour the hearts of God's people, is this, ua- 
acquaintednefs wid« the work ^ind min^ of the 

2. Sinful fears; Luke xxi. 2'4. Our Saviour, ha- 
ving told his difciples of wars, tumults, fedifcions, 
famines, earthquakes, ifc. which were to come 
upon the earth, bids them, when they fee thefe 
things, to 'lift, up their heads for joy. Bu%how 
fliould this be? Rejoice, in the'midft of fo many 
evils and troubles, in the mod whereof they were 
to have a Benjamin *s mefs, a double portion ! Yea, 
faith our Saviour, rejoice, for I have told you be- 
fore, that then it is your deliverance and redemp- 
tion draweth nigh* It is for them to fhake and 
tremble who are in the dark, who know not what 
the Lord Is doing. They may be at their wits * 
end, who know ho other end of thefe things,: But ' 
for you, who know the jnind of the Lord, what he 
intendeth and will effect by thefe things/ caft off 
all finful fears, and rejoice in him who •cometh. 

Amongft us, in thefe days, new troubles arife, 
wars, and rumours of wars, appearances of famine, 
invafions, cohfpiracies, revolts, treacheries, fword, * 
blood. Oh, hpw do mens faces wax pale, and their 
hearts die within them! fometimes, with -David, 
they could fly to the Philiftines, and wind up their 
intereft with them whom God will dePtroy. Eve- 
xy new appearance of danger ihuffles them off from 
all their comfort*, ^all their confidence, Hence 
. poor fouls are put upon doubling and ftiifting in the 
ways of God, in fuch a frame as God exceedingly * 
•abhors : They know not why any mercy is given, 
nor to what $nd, and therefore are afraid .to own 
it, left fome fudden alteration ihou,ld follow, and 
make -it too hot for them to hold it ; and all this, 
becaufe they know not the mind o.f the £ord, nor 

Da the 


the judgment of -their God ; were they but ac- 
quainted with it, fo far as it is evidently revealed, 
they would quickly fee all things working toge- 
ther to the appointed end. 

3. Sinful follies. Toil and labour in vain, is of 
all follies the greateft folly ; like the Jews under 
Julian, building of their temple in the day, God 
cafting it to the ground in the night. When a man 
labours, toils?, wearies and fpentis himfelf, for the 
accompli ill in g of that which ihall never come to 
pafs, and that, which if he would but enquire, he 
might know lhall never come to pais, he cannot 
well want the livery of a brutifh man. How ma- 
ny poor creatures that think themfelves wifer than 
thole of Temon and Dedan, and all the children of 
the Eaft, do fpend and con fume their days and time 
in fuch ways as this, labouring night and day to fet 
up what God will pull down, and what he hath 
faid fh all fall. Come on, let us deal wifely, faith 
Pharaoh to his Egyptians, Exod. i. 10. to root 
out and deflroy thefe Ifraelites. Poor fool! is there 
any wifdom or counfel againft the Moil- High ? I 
could give inftances plenty in thefe days; of men 
labouring in the dark, not knowing what they are 
doing, endeavouring with all their ftrength to ac- 
complifh that whereof the Lord hath- faid, Itfhall 

t not pro/per ; and all, becaufe they difcern not the 

4 . Sinful negligence. You are no way able to do 
the work of God in your generation. It is the 
commendation of many faints of Godj that they 
were upright, andferved the 'will of God in their 
generation, Befides the general duties of the co- 
venant,, incumbent on all the faints at all feafons,* 
there are fp^cial works of providence, -which in 
fundry geneiations the Lord effecreth, concerning 
which he expects his people mould know his mind, 
and ferve him in them. Now, can a fervant do 




his mailer's work, if he know not his wilj ? The 
Lord requireth, that, in the great things which he 
hath toaccomplifh in this generation all his mould* 
clofe with him. What 'is the reafon that fome 
ftcini in the market-place idle all the day ? Some 
work for a feafon, and thep give over, they kaow 
n,ot how to go a ftep farther ; but after a day, a week, 
a month, or year, are at a ftand ? Worfe than all 
this, fome counter- work the Lord with all their 
flrength. The moft neglect the duty which of 
them is required. What is the reafon of all this? 
.They know in nomeafure what' the Lord is do- 
ing, and what he would have them apply them- 
felves unto. The belt alrnoft live from hand to 
mouth, following prefent appearaaces, to the great 
neglect of the work which the Lord would have 
* flattened amongfl us ; All this comes from the 
fiame root. 

§htejl. But now, if all thefe fad and finful confe- 
. efuences attend this nefcience of the mind of God^ 
a9 to the things which he is doing in the days 
wherein we live, fo far as he hath revealed himfelf, 
and requires us to obferve his walkings ; by what 
ways and means may we come to the knowledge 
thereof, that we be not finfully bewildered in our 
own cares, fears, and follies, but that we may foU 
low hard after Gbd, and be upright in our gene- 
ration ? 

Anf. There be four things whereby we may 
come to have an infight into the work which the 
Lord will do and aceomplifh in our days : 

1 . By the light which he gives. 

2. By the previous Ivor is which he doth. 

3. *Ihe expectation of his faints \ 

4. T'hefear of his adversaries . 

1 » By the light which he gives. God doth not 
ufe to fet his people to work in tfhe dark; they are 
the children of fight, and they are no deeds of dark* 

£3 SKfi' 


nefs which they have to do. However others arer '* 
blinded, they* fhall fee. Yea, he always fuhs their 
light to their labour, and gives them a clear dis- 
cerning of what he is about. The Lord God dotfo 
nothing hut he reveals hisjecrets to hirjervants. The 
light of every age, is the fote-runner of the work 
of every age. 

When Chrift was to come in the flefli, John Bap- 
tift comes a little before A new light, a new 
preacher.^ And what doth he di&over and reveal? 
Why, he calls them off from refling on legal cere- 
monies, to the dodtrine of faith, repentance, and 
gofpel ordinances ; teUs them the kingdom of God 
is at hand ; inflru&s them in the knowledge of him? 
who was coming; To what end was all this? only 
that the minds of men being enlightened by his 
preaching, who was a burning and a Aiming lamp, 
they might fee what the Lord wa9 doing. # f 

Every age hath its peculiar work, hath its pe* 
culiar light. Now, what is the light which God j 

manifeftly gives in Cur days? Surely not new doc- 
trines (as' fome pretend), indeed old errors, and 
long fince exploded fancies. Plainly, the peculiar, 
light of this generation is, that difeovery which 
the liOrd hath made to his people^ of the myftery 
of civil and ecclefiaftical tyranny : The openings 
unravelling and revealing the antichriftian inte- 
reft, interwoven, and coupled together in civil and 
, fpiritual things, into a ftate oppofiteto the king- 
dom of the Lord Jefas,, is the great difeovery o£ 
thefe days. Who almoft is there amangft us now > 
who doth not evidently fee, that for many genera- 
tions, the weftern nations have been juggled into 
fpiritual and civil flavery^ by the. legerdemain of 
the whore, and the. potentates of the earthy made 
drunk with the- cup of her abominations?* how 
the whole earth hath been rolled in confafion, and 
%%$ faints hurried out of the world^. to give way: to 



'their combined intereft? Hath not God un vailed, 
that harlot, made her naked, and difcovejred her 
abominable filthinefs ? Is it not evident to him that 
hath but half an eye, that the whole prefent con- 
stitution of the government of the nations, is fa 
cemented with antichriftian mortar from the very 
top to the bottom, that without a thorough Jhaking 
they cannot be cleanfed ? This then plainly difco- v ' 
vers, that the work which the Lord is doing, re- 
lates to the untwining of this clofe combination a- 
gainft himfelf, and the kingdorfi of his dear Son^ 
and he will not leave it, until he have done it. * 

To what degree in the feveral nations this Jla* - 
king fhall proceed, I have nothing to determine in* 
particular, the fcripture having irot-expreffed it; 
This only is certain, it fliall not Hop, nor receive 
its. period, before the. intereft of antichriflianity 
be wholly feparated from the power of thofe na* 
- tipns*. 

2. By the previous works he doth. How many 
of thefe doth our Saviour give, as figns of the de* 
ftruftion of yerufalem y and fo confequently of pro- 
pagating the gofpei more and more to the nations ?• 
JVlatth. xxiv. Luke xxk How fearful and dreadful 
they were in their ^ccomplifhrnent, yqfephjus y the 
Jewiih hiftorian, rclateth ; and how by thena the 
Chriftians wercfore warned, and did by them under- 
Hand what the Lord was doing, Eufehius and o- 
thers declate.. When (faith he) youjballfee the a- 
bomination of defolation (the Roman eagles and en-p 
SLfp,s)-Jianding in the holy place, Matth. xxiv. 15. 
or, Jerufalem eompqjfed with armies y as Luke^xi . 
20. then know by that,, that the end thereof is 
come, and your deliverance at hand. 

The works of God are to be fought out of them 

thafr have pleafure in them: They are v.ocal, fpeak* 

ing works, the mind of God is in them: they may 

, he heard, read, and. understood ; the road may he 

I heard) 


heard, and who hath appointed it. Now, generally 
he begins with, lefler works, to point out to the 
fons of men what he is about to accomplish. By 
thefe may his will be known, that he may be met 
in righteoufnefcs. ^ 

. Now what, I pray, are the works that the Lard 
is bringing forth upon the earth ? what is he do- 
ing in our own and the neighbour nations ? Shew 
m3 the potentate upon earth, that Kath a peaceable 
mole-hill, to build himfelf an habitation upon ? 
Are not all the controversies, or the moil of them,, 
that at this day are difputed in letters of blood a- 
raong the nations, fomewhat of a diftincl: constitu- 
tion from thofe formerly under debate? thofe 
tending merely to the power and fplendour of (ingle 
perfons, thefe to the in te reft of the many. Is not 
the hand of the Lord in all this? Are not thejha- 
king of thefe heavens of the nations from him ? Js 
not the voice of Chrift in the midft of all this tu» s 
mult^ and is not the genuine tender) ce of thefe 
things opeq and vifible unto all ? 

What fpeedy iffue ail this will be driven to, I 
know not 5 fo much is to be done as 'requites % 
long fpace. Though a tower may be pulled down 
falter than it was fet up, yet that which hath been, 
.building a~ thou) and years ,. is not like to go^downm 
a tboufand days, 

3. The expectation of the faints, is another thing^ 
from whence a difcovery of the will of God, • and- 
the work of our generation, may be concluded. 
The fecret ways of God's communicating his mind 
unto his faints, by a freih favour of accomplishing 
prophecies, and ftrong workings of the Spirit of 
Supplications, I cannot now infift upon. This I 
know, they fhali not be led into temptation, but 
kept from the hour thereof \ when it comes ivpon 
the whole earth. When God raifeth up the ex- 
pectation of his people to any thing, he is not unto 



them aj waUn that fail. Nay, he will aflaredlj 
fulfil the defires of the poor. . 

Juft about the time that our Saviour Chrift was 
to be born of a woman, Luke iii. 15. how were 
all that waited for falvation in Ifrael, raifed up to 
an high expectation of the kingdom of God ! fuch 
as that people never had before, and affuredly fhall 
never have again. Yea, famous was the waiting 
of that feafon throughout the whole Roman empire. 
And the Lord, whom they fought , came to his tern* 
pie. Eminent was tr^eir hope, and excellent was 
the accompliOiment.' 

Whether this will be made a rule to others, or 
no, I know not : This I am affix red, that, being 
bottomed on promifes, and built up "with fupplica-. 
tions> it is a ground for them to reit upon. And 
here i dare appeal to all, who with any diligence 
have enquired into the tilings of -the kingdom of 
Carifl, that have any favour upon their fpirits of 
the accomplifhment of prophecies and promifes in 
the latter days, who count themfelves concerned 
in the glory of the gofpel, .whether this thing, of 
confuming the myftiry of iniquity y and vindicating 
the Churches of Chrifl, into the liberties purcha- 
sed for them by the Lord Jefus,by xh.zJJjakingand 
tranflating all oppofing heights and heavens, be 
not fully in their expectations. Only the time is 
in the hand of God ; and the rule of our actings 
with him is. his revealed will. 

4 . Whether the fears of his adverfaries, have not 
their lines meeting in the fame point, themfelves 
can befl determine. The whole world was more 
or lefs dreaded at the coming of Chrift in the fieflu 
When alfo the ligns of his vengeance did firft ap r 
pear, to the Pagan world, in calling to an account- 
for the *blood of his faints, the kings and captains 
prefe'nt cry out, ^he great day of his ivrath is 
come, and who Jhjall be able tojland? Rev. vi. 17- 

1 am. 


I am not of counfel to any of the adherents to 
tlie man of fin, or any of thofe who have given 
their power unto the beaft ; I have not a key to > 
the bofoms of the enemies of Chrifl ; I am neither 
their interpreter, nof do they allow me to fpeak J 
in tjieir behalf *: yet truly, upon very many pro- i 
bable grounds,- I am fufty perfuaded, that tvere 
the thoughts of their hearts difclofed, notwithftand- 
ing all their glittering fliews, dreadful words, 
threatening expreffions,you fhouldfee them trem- 
ble and, dread this very thing : -" That the 

whole world, as. now eftablifhed^ will be wrapped 
up in darknefs, at leaf! until that curfed intereflv 
which k fet up againft the Lord Jefus, be fully 
and wholly Jhahen out from the heavens and earth 
of the nations. " 

And thus, without leading you about by chro- 
nologies and computations, which yet have their 
ufe, (well to count a number being wifdom indeed jf - 
1 have a little difcovered unto you- fome rules, 
whereby you may come to be acquainted with the^ 
worj^. of God in the days wherein Ave live, and al- 
fo what that work is, which is our firfl: Ufe. The 
next ihall be for direction, to guide you what you 
ought tp do, when you know what is the work of 
your generation. 

* Ufe 2.] Be exhorted to prepare to meet the Lord, 
to make his way flraight :. And this I would prefs 


1. As t a your perfons. 

2, As to your employments.. 
1. As to your perfons. Give the. Lord Jefus a 

throne in your hearts, or it will not be at all to 
your advantage, , that he hath a throne and king- 
dom in the world. Perhaps you will fee the plen- 
ty of it, but not tafte one morfel. Take fir Q. that 
whic^i comes not by obfervation, that which is ufith- 
in you A which is righteoufnefs and peace % and joy m 
1 "* the 


the Holy Ghoft. Take it in its power 9 and you 
-will be the better enabled to obferve it coming in 
its glory. Seek firfl the kihgdom of God, and the 
rtghteotiptejs thereof, and nil thefe things Jfaill be 
added nnto you. Oh, that it were the^will of God 
to put an end to all that pretended holinefs, hypo* 
criticjIhutmYiaxionfef-intereJFed religion that have 
been among us, whereby we have flattered God 
with our lips, wjiilft our hearts have been far 
from him, ! Oh that it might be the glory of this 
affembly, above all the aflemblies of the world, 
that every ruler m it might be a fincere lubjeft of 
the Lord Jefus ! Oh, that it might fuffice that we 
have had in our parliament, and among our mi»- 
nifters, fo much of the form , and fo little of the 
potvet* of godlinefs ; that we have called the world 
Chrift, and lufts Chrift, and felf Chrift, working 
indeed for them, when we pretended all for Chrift ! 
Oh, that I could nourifh this one contention in 
your honourable affembiy, that. you might ftrive 
who fhould excel in fetting up the Lord Jefus in 
your hearts I 

You may be apt to think, that if you can carry 
on and compafs your purpofes, then all ypur ene- 
mies will be affuredly difappointed : do but em- 
brace the Lord Jefus in his kingly power in your 
bofoms , znd^iffofafio, all your enemies are ever- 
laftingly difappointed: You are the grains, which, 
in the lifting of the- nation, have been kept front 
falling to the ground. Are you not the refidue of 
all the chariots of England ? Oh, that in you 
might appear the reality of the kingdom of the 
Lord Jefus, which 1iath been fo long pretended by 
r others ! that found righteoufnefs, not a Pharifai- 
cal, rigid ' fupef cilious affectation, nor a carelefs 
belief and comportment, the ifTue of novel fancies, 
might-be found upon your fpirits ; that you may 
be thought meet to rejoice with the Lord in his- 
-' • kingdom ! 

J ! 



kingdom ! otherwife, this day of the Lord, which 
we have defcribed, however defired and longed af- 
ter, will be darkncfs to you, and not light. 

i» In reference to your great employments,vrhere- 
unto the Lord hath called you ; and here I Qiair 
briefly hold out unto you one or two things* 

i. That you would ferioufly confider, why it is 
tfiat the Lord fliakes the heavens, and the earth of 
the nations, to what end this tendeth, and what is the 
caufe thereof. Is it not from hence, that he may 
revenge their oppofition to the kingdom of his 
dear Son ? That he m&jjhake out of the midft of 
them all that antichriftian mortar, wherewith, from 
their firft chaos, they have been cemented ? that 
fo the kingdoms of the earth, may ^become the 
kingdoms of the Lord Jefus. Is not the contro- 
versy of Sion pleaded with them ? Are not they 
called to an account for the tranfgreflion of that 
charge given to all potentates, Touch not mine An- 
nointed* And what is the aim of the Lord Jefus 
herein, whofe mighty voice fhakes them ? Is it 
not to frame and form them for the intereft of his 
own kingdom ? that he may. fulfil the word he 
hath fpoken to Slon, 1 will make, thine officers peace, 
and thine exnclors righteoufnefs .* 

Confider then (I pray) what you have in hand. 
Wait upon your king, the Lord Chrift, to know his 
mind. If you lay any ftone in the whole build- 
ing that advanceth itfelf againft his fceptre, he will 
/hake all again. Dig you never fo deep, build you 
never fo high, it ftiall be fliaken. Nay, that there 
be no oppofition will not fufiice t He hath given 
light enough to have all things framed for his own 
advantage. The time is come, yea the full time 
is come, that it fliould be .fo, and he expe&s it 
from you. Say not, in the firft place, this, or 
that fuits the intereft of England, but look what 




Of HSAVfiN AND EAfcfir* 49 

faits the intereft of ChrJft; and affure yourfelves, 
tfeat the true intereft of any nation is wrapped up 
therein. More of this in the treatife annexed to 
my fermen, Jan. 31. 

2. Be encouraged under all thofe perplexities 
and troubles, which you are, or may be Wrapped 
**r>in. Lift up the hands that hang down, and let 
the feeble knees be ftrengthened ; It is but yet a 
Uttie %&biU, and he thatjball come will come, and 
will not tqrry* The more you are for Chrifl, the 
mare enemies you mail be fure to have ; but the 
Lamb (hall overcome. He is to come to revenge 
the blood of his flam upon this generation, and to 
free the refidae from the jaws of the terrible. He 
is lour Rocky And his work ispkrfeft. What he hath 
began, fatter or flower, he will furely apsQSV-r 

It is a thing of the moft imaginably indifferencr, 
whether any of our particular peribas behold thefc 
things here below, or no : If otherwife, we ihtill 
,for the prefent ban* reft with him, vt&ftandinour 
lot at the end of the days: But for the work itfelf, 
the decree is gone forth, and it fljall not be recall 
led* receive ftrength and refrethment in the Lord. 

Ufe 3.] Wonder riet, when the heaven isjbaken, 
if you fee the ftars fail to the ground. We had 
fome who pretended to be cburclhjlars, thfct were' 
merely fixed, to all men's view, and by their own 
confeulon, in the political bewens. The fir (I Sla- 
cking of this nation fliook them utterly to the 
groundJ If others alfo tremble like an afpen»leaf, 
atrd know nor Which wind to yield unto, or fail 
backwards and forwards by the fame gale, won* 
der not at that neither: When men lay any other 
fbuiidationi than the immoveable Cornerstone, at 
on6 rime ot other, foc-ner or later, aflilredly they 
wiflbe'fhafaeti, ... ■ • 

- Ufe 4. J Let th6 profeffiog people that are *- 

E mongft 


mongft us look well to themfelves ; the day is co- 
ming that will burn like an qvsn. t Drofs will not en- 
dure that day ; we have many an hypocrite as yet 
to be'uncafed. Take heed, 'you that aft high, if a 
falfe heart, a defiled heart be amongft you ; there ' 
fhall be no place for it in the mountain of the- 
Lord's houfe. The inhabitants of Sionjhall be ail 
righteous, Ifa. lx.* 21. JVfany that make a great ^ 

ihew now upon the ftage, fhall be turned off with 4 

fliame enough : Try and fearch your hearts, force -1 

not the Lord to lay you open to all. The Spirit 
of judgment and burning will try you. Tremble! I 
pray, for you .are entering a moft purging, trying . i 
furnace as ever the Lord^e* up on the earth. 

Ufe 5.] Be loofe from all fliaken things; you 
fee the clouds return after the rain 5 t>ne ftorm in j 

the neck of another. Thus it mull be, until Chriil 
hath finifhed his whole work. Seeing that allthefe j •* 
things muft be diffbhed % what manner ofperfons 
ought we to be in all manner of converfation.$ Let 

. your eyes'be upwards, and your hearts be upwards,, 
and your hands upwards, that ye be uot moved at 
the paffing away of &ak\ng things. I could) here 
encourage you,, by the glorious iffue of all thefe 
makings, whofe fore-tafte might be as marrow to 
your, bones, though they ffyould be appointed to _" 
confumption before the accomplilhment of it: But 
Lmuft clofe. f 

Ufe 6.] See the vanity, folly,- and madnefs of 

* fuch as ogpofe the bringing in the kingdom of the * ; 
Lord Jefus. * Can'ft thou hinder the^rain from .de- f. 
fcending upon the earth when, it is falling? Can'fl jL 
thou flop the fun from riling at its appointed hour ? f] 
Will the conception for thee dwell quiejtly in the { 
womb beyond its month? Surely thou may'il wifh ( 
far more eafe turn and flop the current and cpurfe *.] 
of nature, than obftfticT; the bringing in pf the king- 
dom of Chrift in* righteoufnefs and peace; Whence 

cornea & 



comes it to pafa, that to many nations are waftedy 
deftroyed, and fpoiled, in the days wherein we live > 
that God hath taken quiethefs.and peace from the 
earth? doubtlefs from hence, that they 'will fmite 
themfelves againft thzjlone cut out.oftbe mountain 
without bands \ Shall not the decree bring forth? 
Is it not in vain to fight againft tfye Lord ? Some 
are angry, fome troubled, fome in the dark, fome 
full of revenge ; But the truth i$ K whether they 
will hear or forbear, Babylon mail fall, and all 
the glory of the earth be ftained, arid the king- 
doms become the kingdoms of our Lord Jefus 

And when ye fee this, your heart Jhall rejoice % ant 
your bones Jhall jlourifh like an herb : and the band 
of tb* Lord Jhall be known towards his f*rvants 9 
and his indignation towards bis enemies. 

For by jire, and by bisfword, wffl the Lord plead 
with alljtefh ; and the Jlain of the^ Lord Jhall be 
many, Ifaiah lxvi. 14, i6 v . 






GOODWIN, oh Iter, xi. 13. 

T>HE main queftion is, what is meant by the 
tenth part of the city ; and what by the names 

I. By the tenth part of the city 9 I underftand-— 
fome one tenth .part of Europe* which all once 
belonged to the jurifdi&ion of the city of Rome> 
and is in this book called ten kingdoms. 

2 .By the earthquake , which is faid to be a great 
one, is meant a great coricuffion or fliaking of ftates^ 
political or ecciefiaftical, for of either, or of both, 
it is ufed. - Thus, under the fixth feal, the great 
alteration wrought in the, Roman empire, when it 
turned from heathenifm to Chriftianity, brought 
about by the power of Couftantine, with the do* 
pofing tbofe heathenifb emperors, captains, Ifc* 
and altering the face of the empire's religion, is 
called an earthquake, chap. L 6, So that the like 
mighty commotion, with an alteration of the face 
«f things, either civiior ecclefiaftic, fhallfall out 
in'a tenth part of the city, and fhall accompany or t 
■ufher in this riling of the witneifes, * 

3. Now, by and through this earthquake's faU * 
ling thus out in a tenth part of the city, this tenth 
part of it is fo ihaken that it falls; that is, ceafeth 
to be a part of the city, or to belong to its jurif* 
di&ion any longer ; or, which is all one, falls o^J 
as we fay, from being of the number of- thofe that 
give their power to the beaft.— Andj ?as earths 
quakes are from inward motions in *he bowels of 

A the 


the earth, fo this here may feem to arife from 
within that kingdom itfelf. Whethef through the 
fuprema magiftrate's beginning to hate the whore, 
as the promife is; or the people's abominating the 
cruelty and contempt put upon the witneffes and 
their caufe ; •whether, I fay, through the working 
of either, or both of thefe, I cannot determine; but 
I think through both : For the ruin of the city, 
unto which this at leaft is a preparation, is to be 
effeaed through God's changing one of the king s 
hearts fo to bi'te the -whore as to eat her ftefo, and 
bur« her with fire, chap, xrii — »- 

a. The eflFeft of this earthquake, and fan of this 
tenth part of the city ib, the killing/ew* thoufiini 
oftbt nanus of m», fo U is in the original. A 
Ohrafe which, as thus joining names and men toge- 
ther is hot fo to be found > the whole book of 
God By thefe names of men »r«. certainly deno- 
ted t*ofe, be h interpreted of whomfoever, that 
had been the witnefies enemies, aad that hodtho 
areat agency and hand: in kitting them, and in fub- 
feaing thofe nations to the power of the **f- 

Mf Med* conceives it to be ***** >*•<><•'"• 
mmtt »/*** for men of names fj*^!"^ 

names in fctiptu" » «« ant men °f offioe ' **" ' ^Z 
Sty. So, Numb. svi. ^.thofe 250 men who 

tlW Jrinces of the congregation, and m Corah£ 
IL-piVa«y confamed, ar* called men 0/ ««« (* 
ST2* Hebrew) ; that is, men of t*le awl dignity 
-.Now, a« in the 5th verfe of this chapter, the 

Sy tathe witaefies, is noted out by that fire 
Xbthen d*vo»red them; b« he™*«« l P5 
Sbment ftlU upon thefe for fcwmg *f,, k,1 | e * 
ffwitneffesrthen.felvesaretpbe *«*&&> 
bTbeing beteft of their name, and utles^wh^h a« 
2.»e- rooted out for ever, and condemned to per- 
piluai forgss&teefsv ^ hw 




t&OFKETIGAl I* TRACT* ♦ . } 

. Th«i TMr Mtdt comes to etclefiafticaL dignity 
under th^ papacy. And for the number 7000, it 
is an indefinite number, and pat far many, as the 
ufual manner of the fcripture is. 

\ Nbw,.whicV of thefe ten kingdoms, or of the 
ten ftates id Eerope, and what tenth part of the 
oity fliall firft have this great privilege — is not hard 
to conje&ure, though it be ra&nefs pertjmptoail/ 
to determine. 

The faints and churches belonging to the king-* 
ddtn of France, God hath made- a wonder unto me 
in all his proceeding? towards them, firtt and laft« 
For it is certain, that the firft light of the gofpel^by 
that firft and fecend angel's preaching, chap* xiv. 
which laid the foundation of anticKriiVs ruin, was 
out from among them : nanael y, thofe of Lyons and 
other places in France. And they bore and un- 
derwenDthe great heat of that morning of persecu- 
tion, which was as great, if not greater, than any- 
fince. And befides, the churches of Fiance have 
ever fince had as great a flaare in perfections, yea 
greaier than 2piy other churches.^*—— May it not, 
therefore, hi? hoped and looked for, that their kings* 
in the end, mould be of the number* of thofe kings, 
who, as you have it, chip, ivii. are to be wrought 
on to hate, the whare, and it? burn her with fire r — 
And fo as that kingdom had the firft great itroke* 
fo now it (Uould have the lad grsat itrokc in the 
mining of Rome ! • 

PETER JURlEtT, x637.-Page &, voL ad. 

MARK that the earthquake, i. e. the great al- 
teration of affairs in the land of the papacy, muflfc for 
that time happen only in the tenth fart 9/ the city that 

A a ihall 


toiSLfaUs for this (hall be the effed of this earth- 

i Now, what is* this tenth part 9/ this city, which 
{kill fall? In my ©pinion, we cannot doubt that? 
it is France. This kingdom is the moil confidera- 
We part, or piece of the' tea horns j or Hates, which 
once made up the great Babylonian, city : it fell ? 
this does not fignifyy that the French Monarchy 
1 mall be ruined; it may be humbled ; but, in all ap- 
pearance, Providence does defign a great elevation' 
for her afterward. It is highly probable, that 
God will not let go unpunished the horrible out- 
rages which it adts at this day. Afterward, it muft 
build its greatnefs upon the ruins of the papal em- 
pire, and enrich itfelf with the fpoik of fchofe who 
flmll take part with the papaey. They who at 
this day perfeeute the Proteftants, know not whi- 
ther God is leading them : this is not the way by 
which he will lead France to the height of glory. 
If fhe comes thither, it is becaufe fhe ihall ihortly 
change her road.. Her greatning will be no da- 
mage to proteftant Gates-; on the* contrary, the pro* 
teftant ftates ihall be enriched with the fpoils of 
others ; and be ftrengthened by the fall of anti- 
chrift's empire; This tenth fart of the ckyfhall 
fall) with relpecl: to the papacy ; k fhall break with 
Rome, and the Roman religion. One thing is cer- 
tain, that the Babylonian empire ihall perilh thro' 
the refufal of obedieace by the ten kings , who had 
given their power to the beqft. The thing is al- 
ready come to pafs in part. The kingdoms of 
Sweden, Denmark, England, and feveral fovereign 
ftates in Germany, have withdrawn themfelves 
from the ju-rifdiftion of the Pope. ¥hey have 
fpoiled I the harht of her riches. *lhey have eaten 
herfe/h, h e. feized on her benefces and revenues, 
which ihe had in their countries. This muft go, 
on 4 and be finiflxed as it is begun. The kings, who 


jet remain under tha empirte of Rome, mail break 
trith her, leaye her foKtaf y and defbtate. - 

But who rduft begin this laftV revolt? It is moil 

. probable, that France fliall. : Not Spam, which as 
yet is plunged in faperftitioii, and is as much un- 

' der the tyranny of t«e clergy as ever. Not the 
emperor, who in temporalis fobjeft to the Pope; 
a#d permits that in hi* ftates the arcftbiftop of 
Strigonium mould teach, that the Pope can take a- 
way the imperial crown from him. It cannot Tbre 

• atoy country but France, which a' long time ago 
hath begun to Jba&e off the jroJh of Rome. * It is 
well known, how folemnly and openljr war hath 
been declared againft the Pope, by a declaration of , 
the king* (ratified in all the parliaments) by the 
cteciftons of the anembly of the French clergy, by 
a difputation againft the authority of the Pope % ma- 
naged in the Sorbon, folemrily, and by order of 
the coust. And to heighten the affront, the thefea 
were pofted up, even upon the gates, of his nuntiov 
Nothing of this kind had hitherto happened, at. 
leaftV in a time of peac*, . and unkfs the* Pope hact^ 
given occafioh by his infolences*. 

Befides this, fiiperftition and idolatry lofe their 
credit much in France. - There, is a fecret party, 
though well enough » known, which greatly defpi- 
feth' the popular devotions, images, worihip of 
faints, and is 'convinced that thefe are human in- 

• ■ "flitutions ;- God ,ia before hand preparing for this 

great work. . 

To this it may be obje&ed,' that fdr the laft 
hundred ^nd fifty years, the Pope's empire hath not 
Keen made up of ten kings, becaufe the kings of 
England, Sweden, Denmark; l£t. have thfbwn off. 
his jgovernment ; and, confequently, France is not 
at this day the tenth part of the Babylonian empire ; . 
for it is more than^a tenth part of it. * But this is 
no difficulty ; for we muft kuow, that things rA. 
'' A3. taia. 


tain the names which they bore, in their original — 

(without regarding the alterations which time doesv 
bring along/) Though at this day,, there ate not - 
ten. kingdoms under the Babylonian empire, it is,, 
jiotwithftanding, certain, that each kingdom was 
called, and ought to be called in this prophecyy 
the tenth part ; becauXe the prophet, having defcri- 
bed this empire in its beginning, by its ten borns A 
or ten kings, it is necefiary for our clear under*- N **> 
ftanding, that everyone of the/e ten kings ,.an<L f 

kingdoms^ ihould be called oiie of the ten kings, or, # \ 

of the ten kingdoms, with refpeft to the original, \ 

cpnltitution of the antichriftian empire. 

Seeing, the tenth part of the city,: which vault fatt^ 
is France,. thi* gives me fome hopes, that the death 
of the two, witnejfes hath a particular relation to* 
this kingdom. It i&.ih&Jireet, or place oitbiscity^ 
u e. the moft fair and eminent part of it. The 
witneffes muft remain dead upon this ftreet, and. I 

upon it they muft be raifed again., Ajidasth* 
death of the wirneffes and their refarrefltion have' 
a relation to the kingdom of France, it may well 
fall out, that we may not be far diftant from the: 
time of ' the refurre&ion of the ^itneffes, feeing 
.the three years and a half of their death, arc ei-. 
ther begun, or will begin fhortljv 

And in the earthquake were /lain /even thoufandj 
in the Greek it is, /even, thou/and names of men, 
and not feven thoufand men.. I cenfefs, that thia 
feems fomewhat myfterious : in other places we 
find not thk phrafe, names of men, put fimply for 
pirn. Perhaps there is here a figure of grammar 
called, Hypallag* ca/us, fo that, names, of men, are 
Jut for men of name, i. e. of raifed, and. eonfidera- 
ble quality, be it. on the account of riches, or of 
dignity, or of learning. But I am more inclined 
to fay, that heie thefe words, names of men, muft 
be taken in their natural fignification, and do in- 

. timate, 

raoraMicAi* EXTRACTS. £ 

timate that the tdtal reformtivn of France, 'fhsXt 
not be made with bloodshed, nothing iliall be de*- 
ftroyed but names, fitch as are the names -of Monks,. 
* of Carmelites, of Auguftioes r of Dominicans, of 
Jacobins,Francifcans, Capuchiues, Jeiuits, Minimes, 
and an infinite company of others^ whofc number 
it is not eafy to define, and which the Holy GhofiV. 
denotes by the xiVLmbenfeven, which is the .number 
of perfection, to fignify, that the orders of Monks* 
arid Nuns, fhall perMb for ever. This is an infti*. 
tution fo degenerated from its firft original, that/ 
it is become the arm of antichxifl: Thefer orders* 
cannot perifh one.. without another. . 

The kings, of France at this day, do -lift their 
authority fo high, that nothing can.refrft it. It is 
therefore probable,, that every thing will bend un- 
der the ; yoke "of their will, when they fhali refolve: 
to break with Rome : and it feems, as, if the pro-. * 
vidence of God. was" preparing, the way untothis 
thing, by the clergy's declaration^ confirmed by 
that of the king, *//*» that kings, depend on none in* 
any thing which concerns temporals ; and that it. is 
never lawful', to deny obedience to, them upon a pre*- 
text of religion. For if this be once fixed,, when*, 
ever, it.fliallpleafe the kings of France, to for fake, 
the communion of Rome, (by this principle of the 
orefent biihops) it cannot be allowed, thattfie peo* 
pie mould rebel againft them.. I look on that 
"* which is happened, in England,, as another prepay 
ration unto this event : A king of a religion con* 
trary to that of the ftate reigns peaceably ; the 
reafon is, that Providence, will aeeuftom the fub-. 
je&s to pay fnbje&ion to princes who are enemies 
of the ruling religion* » , . " .• 

And the remnanf were affrighted, and gave glory r 
to the God of heaven* This is the total conversion 
and -reformation of the tenth part of the city, i. e* 
of the kingdom oj 'France, that fcaUtjuickly : follow, 
A " - ^ "aftet 

8r PftOftfETKUX. XXTXACTs*. ' 

after the kings of Frame ihall have broken witM 
the Btfhep of Rome, ' 

Ver. 14. e The fetond we is pqfi, and behold the 
third we cometb quickly ; namely, the fecoad of the 
three woes, which had been denounced. after the < 
found of the fourth trumpet. And I beard am am* 
gel flying through the midjt of heaven, crying with 
a Iwa] voice,. Wo, wo 9 /wo ta the inhabitants of the 
earth, by reafon of the other voices of the trumpet, „ 
winch are yet to found. The frrft of thefe three 
woes was the graihoppers, who came up out of the 
fattomfefe pit with their head Apollyon,. and in 
Hebrew Abaddon. Thefe.grafihoppers are plainly, 
the Saracens* Arabians with their head Mahomet... 
The fecond* wo - is the domination of the Turks, 
who paned from the other fide of Euphrates at the. 
found of the fixth trumpet. And the third wo is 
the fell of the antichiriftian empire. 

. Thefe three great events; defer ve to be diftia- 
guiihed from all others; .for they have changed,, 
or foal! change the. whole face of the world. 

It is dear, that thefe kings, who, through igno* 
mice or weaknefs, fuffer*d.rtW>>oi**rto be ufur*~ 
f*d by the empire of the papacy, {hall take it again, . \ 

Jhatt eat herjkjh; u e. ibaU enrich themfelves with 
her benefices and revenues, and burn her with f re, . 
k r. {hall abolifh the memory of this Romi/h empire, , 
fe that nothing but afhee (hall remain of it. . 

-. The firft thing, which fhall be done in the third 
period of ihe fsventh vial, is the fall of the tenth 
part of the city $ i. e* citbe kingdom of France, . 
which Avail break wkh the court of Rome, and 
wholly change the face, of religion in that kingdom: 
this is the firft action of Utie^vintage* 

The bead and the faHe prophet, the Pope and 
his agents, fhall rally all their forces : but God ihall : 
Mufter all hfs together, and give the left blow to. 
pxvpery : thrn the beaft and the fatfe prophet ihall 




Ke thrown into the lake," and plunged *into "thef 
bottomlefe^it : Babylon fliall wholly fallj and ift 
fkall be faid, Ihe is fallen, fhe is "fallen. 

** THE greatefl Jlroke upon ihe reformed churches* 
** is jet to come;— and the time of the utter ruin of 
41 the Fee of Rbme^/fo// be when fhe think* herfelf 
** tnoft fecure" One prefumed to enquire of him/ 
"what his prefent apprehenfions were concerning a 
•very great perfecution. He anfwered, " that a fad 
perfect tion would fall upon a 11 the protefiant Ihurch- 
es in Europe :" Adding, I tell you> all you have yet 
feen hath been but the beginning of forrows, tp 
what is yet to come upon the Protefiant churches of 
Chrifi, who will ere long fall under a /harper perfe- 
ction iban ever ; therefore ' (fatd r he) look you be 
ttot found in the outward court, but a worjhippir m 
the temple before the altar ; for Chrifi will meafure 
all thofe that profefs his name, and call themfelves. 
his people ; and the outward worfliippers he will 
leave out to be trodden down by the Gentiles ; the 
outward court is the formal Chrifi tans, whofe re— 
- ligion lies, in performing the outward duties of 
ChrifHanity, without having an inwardrlife and 
power of faith uniting them to Chrifi, andthefe God , 
will leave to be trodden down, 1 and* fwept away by 
the Gentiles ;. but the worfliippers withinthe tern*- 
pie,' and before the altar, God will hide in the hoU 
low of his hand, and under thefhadow of his wings* 
And this fliall be one great difference between this 
lafi, and all the other preceding perfections : for 
ia the former the moil eminent and fpiritual mini- 
fters and Chriflians did generally fuffef moil, and. 
wete raoft violently fallen upon \ but- in this lafl 
perfecu tion thefs fliall be preferved by God, as a feed*' 
\o partake of that glory which fliall immediately 
follow, and come upon the church, as foon as ever 
this ftorm fliall be over* for as- it fliall. be the* 
. fliarpeft^ 


fharpefi, fo it fliall be the fiiorteft perftcutioa of " 
them all ; and Audi only take away the gro£» hy- 
pocrites and formal profeflbrs, but the true fpirit*. 
ual believers lhall, be ptefcTved, till the calamity: 
be over." * 

u GREAT earthquakes and^coromotions by fea* 
and land fliall come in the year of God 1779-*— 
Great wars in Germany and America in 1780.—-? 
The deftrnftion of popery, or Babylon's fall; in 
the year 1790.— -God will be known by msny in. 
the year i795» This will produce a great man.— 
The ftars will wander, and the moon turn as blood,. 
ill 1800.— Africa, Afia, and America will tremble 
in 1803. — A, great earthquake over all the world, 
in 1 80 9. r-f : od will be univerfally known by ail. 
Then a general reformation, and peacjs for ever,, . 
when the people fliall learn war no more." 

AR€HB1SH0P BROWN, 155*. 
c< THERE is a new fraternity of late fprung. ' 
up, who call themfelves %ejuits y which will de~ 
ceivt many, who are much, after the fcribe3 and, 
pharifees manner, amorigft the Jews.; .they fhalL •* 
ftrive to abolilh the trmh, and fliall . come very / 

near to do it ; for thefe forts will turn themfelves 
into feveral forms, with the heathen an heathenh%. I 
" with atheifts an atheift, with Jews a Jew, and with. *, 
the reformers a, reformad>', purpolely to know 
your intentions, your minds, your hearts, and your 
inclinations, and thereby bring you. at Jail to be. 
like the fool '-that /aid in hu heart, thtre God. 
Thefe (hall fpread over the whole world, fliall be 
admitted into the councils of princes, and they never 
tfee wifer; charming of them.; yea, making your 
princes reveal their hearts, and the fecrets therein. 
unto them* and yet they not perceive, it - 9 . which. \ 
will, hajxpei*. from falling, from the law of God ; ; 

• . > . . and; ' 




-and br winknig at their fins; jet, in the end, God, 
to j aft if j his law, (hall faddealy cot off this focie- 
ty, even by the hands of ihofs who have mq/ifuc- 
cmrtd the fa, and made uXe of them? fo that at the 
end tbey~flaall become odious to all nations, they 
&alt be worfe than Jews* having m retting place 
upon earth." 

Rkt. JOHN KNOX, 1573. 
44 SENTENCE 19 pronounced in Scotland *- 
'gainft that murder, the king of France, and Cod's 
vengeance fhall never depart from him, nor his 
•houfe, but his name Ihall remain an execration to 
pofterity;. and none that /ball come of his him 
mail enjoy that kingdom in peace and qoietnefs* 
unlef* repentance prevent God's judgment." The*" 
French ambaflador, being told the prediction, ap- 
plied to the regent and council for an interdiction, 
but was refufed* See his life* 

BEFORE antichrift's fell, one of the ten king*- 
hsUmxls which fupported the beau: ihall undergo a 
marvellous revolution, Rev. xu 13. "The fame hour 
the? e'wf a great earthquake? and the tenth part of 
the city fell. By which tenth party is to be under* 
flood one of the ten kingdoms* into which the great 
city Romifh Babylon was divided : this many take 
to be the kingdom of France, it being the tenth and 
lait of the kingdoms as to the time of its rife, and 
that which gave to Rome the denomination of a 
' bealt with ten horns, and alio it being the only one 
of the ten that was never conquered fince its rife* 
However unlikely this and other prophecied e- 
vents may appear at the time, yet the almighty 
hand of the only wife God can foon bring them a- 
bout when leaft expe&ed* 


t * 

Dr. H. MORE; i66 3 \ 

ON the Mtstrry qflxiQjjm contained in the 
kingdom ot AntichriiL 

An earthquake fignifies political commotions 
-and change of affairs, is obvious to any one to 
note j and that whore of Babylon is nothing but. 
the body of the idolatrous clergy in the empire, 
who appertain to the feventh or laft head of the 
beaft, which is an head ofblafphemy, as well as 
the fix firft ; that is to faj^ an idolatrous hcfad. 
Whence we may underftand what is. meant by 
thefe /even thou/and names of men ; for neither 
- feven nor thoufand fignify any determinate num- 
ber, but only the nature or property of thefe names 
of men that are faid to be (lain; namely, that they 
belonging to the flate of Chriftendom* 

Dr GILL, i74i.^.Rev. xi. 13. * ■ 
j$ND the fame hour was there a great earthquake] 
Or u the fame day," as the Complutenfian edition 
and fome copies read ; that is, at the time of the* 
refurre&ion andafcenfion of the witneffes; as there 
was at the refurreftion of Chrift, and is to be un* 
derftood of a very great commotion in the civil af- 
fairs of kingdoms aiid nations within the Roman 
jurifdi&ion, as there was when Rome pagan was 
near its ruin, chap. vi. 12* 

And the tenth part of the city felt\ Mr Daubuz 
interprets^* earthquake of the irruption of the 
Ottomans upon the Grecian empire, and the tenth 
part of the city, of the Creek church, and the fal» 
ling of it, of its lofs of liberty, and falling* into fla- 
yery ; but fomething yet to come is here intended. 
•By the city is meant the city of Rome, • the great 
city, mentioned in v. 8. and by the tenth part of 
it, may be defigned either Rome itfelf, which as it 
now is, according to the obfervation of fome, is but 
a tenth part of what it was once; fo that the fame 


• - . pROPHTTrcAx ErrfeActr. : - i$j 

thing is meant/as when it is faid, " Babylon is fal- 
len, is fallen ;" or it may defign the tithes and pro- 
fits which arife from the Several kingdoms belong- 
ing to the jurifdifiUon.and-iee of Rome, which now 
. wilifall off from thofe who ufed'to ihare them, 
upon thi*.new and fpirituai ftate of things ; the 
Gofpel daily gaining ground, and enlightening the • 
minds of men, arid freeing them from the flavery 
they were held in : or elfe the tenfold government 
of the Roman empire, or the ten jtings that gave 
their kingdoms to the whore' of Rome, and are the 
"ten horns^of the beafi, on which flie fits, whp will 
now hate her, and burn her fle(h with .fire ; or ra- • 
ther one of the ten kingdoms, into which the Ro- 
man weft<?rn empire was divided. 1 Dr Goodwin 
fcems inclined to think, that Great Britain is in- 
tended, which having been gained over to the 
popifti party, will now fall off again : but I rather 
* think the kingdom of France is meant, the lail of 
the ten kingdoms, which tofe up out of the rums 
of the Roman empire, .which will be conquered, 
and which will be the means, of its reformation 
from popery. - 

*4nd in the earthquake wcrejlainof-menjevai. 
thoufautt] ; The meaning is, that in the commo- 
tions,' mafTacres, tumults, and wars, which will be 
.throughout the empire, fuch a number of men wilF ! 
:\ , be flain ; which is either put for a greater number, 
a certain for an uncertain, as in Rom. -xi. 4. and 
perhaps in reference to the account there ; other- 
wife feven thiufand is but a fmall number to be 
flam in battle ; or as \t is^-in the original text, 
"the names of men feven thoufand» , * Now it is 
obferved by feme, that the fmalleft name of num- 
ber belonging to men, is a centurion, or? captain of 
an hundred men ; and fuppofiog that to be meant, 
then feven thoufand names of men will imply, 
that in an hour, or about a. fortnight's time, .may 
- be flain throughout all Europe, iu battles and maf- 

U f acres, 




facres, about feven hundred thoufand men, which 
is a very large number : or names of men may 
fignify men of name, of great renown/ as in Numb, 
xvi. a. ; and then, if feven thoufand men of name, 
officers in armies, fhouM bi> flain, how great muft 
be the number of the common foldiers ? Some 
have thought, that ecclefiaftical dignities, or men 
diftinguifhed by names and titles,- fuch as cardi- 
nals, archbifliops, bifliops, priefts, l$c. and the 
whole rabble of the antichriftian hierarchy, which 
will now fall, and be utterly demoliihed, are intended. 

And the remnant were affrighted] Who were 
not flain in this earthquake j thefe will be affecled 
with the judgments of God upon others, and be 
made fenfible of their danger, and of their deliver- 
ance, which will fo work tfpon them, as to reform 
them from popery. 

And gave glory to the God of heaven] Will ac- 
knowledge the juftice of God, and the righteouf- 
nefs .of 'his judgments upon thofe that were flain,. 
arid his goodnefs to them who are fpared ; will 
confefs their tranfgreffions and fins, they have been 
guilty of ; and give the glory of their deliverance, 
not to their idols and images, hut to the true God, 
whofe religion they now embrace; for this refpe&s 
the large converfions among the popifh party> to 
the true religion, under the influence of the grace 
of God, through the preaching of the gofpel, which 
will now be fpread throughout the world. _ 

Rev. xiii. 18. 
HERE is wifdomj Not only in the above de~ 
fcription of the two beafts, but in what follows as-ta 
the number of the beaft, thefe two now coalefcing / 

in one, and have one and the fame number ; and 
to wrap it up, and conceal it in fuch an obfcure 
manner, mows great wifdom in God, as it requires 
much in man, and ferves. greatly to exerctfe all his 
intelle&ual powers to find it out* ' 






Let him th&t h&th under/landing count the number 
of the beqft~\ Whoever has fkill in numbers, let 
him make ufe of £t, ;that he may know the name 
and nature of the antichriftian £eaft, and the nume- 
rical letters of his name, or the number of him, and 
of the time when he arofe, and when he will expire. 
For it is the number of a man] Either a num- 
ber that may be reckoned by man, or which is in 
common ufe among men ; fee chap. xxi. 17. or that 
which is contained in the name of a man. 

And his number is Jix hundred three /core andjix\ 
Which fome think refers to the time of the rife of 
antichrift, in the year G66; but that feems rather 
to be in the year 606, when the bilhop of Rome 
obtained the name of univerfal bifliop ; others have 
been of "opinion that it refers to the expiration of 
the beafi, which they thought would have been in 
the year 1666, the number of the thoufand being 
dropped, as it is in our common way of fpeaking j ,. 
as when we fay the Spanifli invafion was in 88,, 
meaning 1588, and the civil wars began in 4 1, that 
is, 1 641: But time has fhewn that this was a mif- 
taken fenfe. The more prevailing opinion is that • 
of Mr Potter, who has wrote a peculiar and learn- 
ed treatife upon this paffage, who makes the count- 
ing of this number to be no other than the extract- 
ing, of its root, which is the number 25, which 
when multiplied into itfelf, and the fra&ibain 
• working it 41 is added, makes up the fquare num- 
ber 666 ; and now 25 being added to A. D. 33, 
makes £8, which was the time of the beaft's con- 
!'• ception, to which if 666 is added, it brings us to 
f the year 724, when he arrived to his age of man- 
hood, and when the war about the worfliipping of 
images broke out : but others think that the nu* 
meral letters in fome man's name which amount to 
this date, and which agrees with antichrift, are in- 
tended ; and here various conjectures are rnade; 
fome have obferved, tjiat in genealogical arithme- 
tic the number of Adonikam's pofterity is 666, 

l Ezra 



Ezra in ij* whofe name fignifies " a lbrd rifen up,* 
**or rifen;" and fiiits very well with antichrift, 
who is rifen up, and affumes a lordly domination 
over the kings of the earth - 9 and it is further ob- 
served, that the- Hebrew word r.^Qn> which fig- 
nifies Roman, and fiaving the word beaft or king- 
dom joined to it r deligns the Roman beaft, or king- 
dom, confiits of numeral fetters,., which make 
tip this fain ; and fo the Hebrew word Sethur 9 . 
which is the name of a man,. Numb. xiii. 13-. and 
fignifies myftery, in its numeral letters comes jufk 
to this number, and one cf the names of the whore 
of Babylon is myjlery, Rev. xvii. £. but the name 
* Lattinos bids as fair as any, which is mentioned by 
fo ancient a writer. a£ Irenaeus, who was a hearer' 
of Polycarp, a difciple of John, the writer of this 
book. Now the numeral value of the. letters of 
this word makes up exn&ly 666, thus ; >.. 30. *. 1. 
r. 300. «. 5. '. 10. ». 50. *• 70. f. 2oo. in all 666^.. 
and it is well known that the church of Rome h 
called the Latin church, and the Pope of Rome the 
head of the* Latin church, and his feat is* in the La- 
tin empire, and the {Service of the beaft is in the 
Latin tongue; and the Bible is kept in that language 
from the reading of the common people: it has been 
obferved, that the numeral letters in Ludovicus, or • 
Lev/is, which is acommonname of the French kings, 
and is the name of the prefent French king, make up • 
this fame number ; and may denote the deftruclkm 
of antichrift, which will quickly follow the downfal 
of the kingdom of France, under a king of this 
name ; and the rather, fince this was the laft of the- 
ten kingdoms tbatrwa^ fct up, and in which the 
primitive beaft fubfifls, and the only one that has 
not yet been conquered, or in which a revolution 
has not been ; and fince this is the tenth parrof 
the city which Iball fall a little before the third' 
woe qomes on : and that it may fall under Ludo-*'- 
vicus, or Lewis, the prefent French king, may be 
toped for,; and is defirable. ...... 

4 /.F I'N'IS, ■ 









Meditations and Ejaculations fuited to the 
feveral Parts of the Ordinance, 

' ^ ' To which are prefixed 

Three Discourses delivered at the Lord's Table. 


Jim . . 

■x"i. r,r, i.u; ',j 



.Aii ja t ■ 



*' * . 


' P*WT«1> ?0* J/ OOL^ ?AjttIA^CEKT SQUARE, AND 

."■ i<i « ii " 'II 



> . ,' 


* t 






June 8. 1 673. 

FAITH is bounded in every ordinance by its obje£fcs~ 
and a&s. 

The general object of faving faith refpe&ing God is 
the truth of his word and promifes, Rom. xviii. 8. The 
fpecial object of our faith in this ordinance, is the death 
and fufferings of Chriit. Herein he is " evidently fet 
forth crucified before our eyes." And we mult act faith 
upon three things with refpect to his death. 

Firfl, The perfonal love of Chrift to our perfons j from 
whence it was that he died for us, fo faith the apoftle 
" who loved me an4 gave himfelf for me," Gal. ii. 20«- 
Were we helped to raife up our hearts by faith to ap- 
prehend Chrift's love to our perfons, it would greatly 
help us in this ordinance. The Lord lift us up above- 
our fears, and give us a view by faith, not only of the- 
love of Chrilt in general, but that he perfonally loved 
us, even this whole church. 

Secondly, The fufferings of Chriit; In this ordinance 
we are to a& faith upon his death, as therein undergoing 
the punifhment due to our fins. It is to mind us that 
** he made his foul an offering for fin, that he iuffered the 
juft for the unjuft, bearing our fins in his own body on> 
the tree," that they fhould not come into judgment. 

Thirdly, The eifedte of Chrift's death, which was the 
making an atonement for all our fins, the making peace 
between God and our fouls, bringing in everlafting righ- 
teoufnefs. Under the law we find, that " the blood of 
bulls and goats, and the afhes of a heifer fprinkling the- 
unclean, fan&ified to the purifying of the flefh," and the 
people were thereby legally cleanied j " How much more* 

A 2. 

[ 4 J 

fhall the blood of Chriil, who through the eternal Spi- 
rit offered himfelf to God, purge our conferences from 
dead works to ferve the living God/ 9 Heb. ix. 13, 14^ 

The ads of faith in this ordinance are, 

Tirfty Recognition. That faith which is exercifed on 
the death of Chriil that is paft, is to call it over, and 
make it prefent to the foul. It is to realize it, and bring 
it before us. It is not a bare remembrance of it, but 
fuch a one as makes it prefent. And where there is 
faith there is the fame advantage to a believing foul in 
the participation of this ordinance, as there could have 
been if we had flood by the crofs. 

Secondly, Faith works by reHe&ing to himuliatioiu 
" They (hall look on him whom they- pierced, and 
mourn" for all their unkihdnefs and unthank&ilnefs ta 
their Saviour. And* when we come to this work in this 
ordinance, felf- abatement, felf abhorrence, and broken- 
fiefs of heart wiH be a&ed, and flow forth in abundance 
of love to Jcfus Chrift. 

^thirdly ', Another aft of faith in this ordinance if* 
Thankfuinefs to God for his wifdom and grace* in, con- 
triving this way of our felvation, and thankfuhrefs to 
Chriit, in whom was tfcb mind, that " being in the for ni 
of God, and thinking it no robbery to be equal with 
God, he. took upon him the form of a fervant, and be- 
came obedient unto death, even the death of the crofs,'* 
that he might, lave us from our fins. If the Lord bm 
pleafed to lead us' to aft faith in any of thefe things, in 
lbme fignal and eminent manner, we fhaU find an ad van-* 
t age in this ordinance. 


>/p 6*1673. 

To helpyou in the exercife of faith in the adminiftra- 
tion of this ordinance, I, would briefly fhew what it is* 
to have a facramental participation of Jefus Chriil. 

When the world had loft the underflanding of this 
myftery, for want of fpirkual light, they, contrived a: 

X s 1 

ine'ans to fc make it up, very eafy on the part of them that 
did partake of it, and very prodigious on the part of the 
prieft. For be, in a few words, turns the bread into the 
body of Chrift, and the people had no more to do but to 
receive it, as iuch, into their mouths. It was the lofs 
of the under Handing of this my fiery that put them upon * 
that invention. 

There is indeed a figure or reprefentatioit in this or- 
* dinance, but that is not all •> when the bread is broken 
it is a figure, a reprefentation that the body of Chrift 
was broken for us. But there is alfo a real exhibition 
of Chriit unto every believing foul. This is diilincl 
from the tender of Chrift in the promifes of the gofpel. 
In the promifes, the perfon of the- Father is particularly , 
looked upon as propofing and tendering Chrift to us. 
In this ordinance, as God exhibits him, fo Chrift makes- 
an immediate tender of himfelf, and calls our faith to 
have refpeft to his grace, to his love and to his readinefs, . 
to unite and fpiritually incorporate with us. He tenders 
himfelf to Us not in- general but under a fpecial confi de- 
ration, viz. as having made an end of fin, and done.all 
that was to be done between God and finriers that tley - 
might be at peace. 

. Chrift made a double prfcfentation of himfelf. Firji, 
As the great mediator, when he offered himfelf a facri- 
fice on the crofs for the accompli (hing the work of man's 
redemption. Secondly, He prefented himfelf to God in 
heaven, there to do whatever remained to be done with • 
God on our behalf by his interceffion. The interceflion 
of Chrift is the prefentation of himfelf to God upon his 
oblation and faciifice. He prefents himfelf to God to » 
do with him what, remains to be done on our part to pro- • 
cure mercy and peace for us; and he prefents himfelf 
to us in this ordinance (which anfwers to that intercef- 
fion of Chrift above, and is a counterpart of it) to do 
what remains to be done on the part of God j to give * 
in peace, and mercy, and the fealed covenant to us. 

There is this fpecial exhibition or tender of Jefus 
Chrift 5 and this directs to a fpecial exercife of faith, 
that we may know how to receive him in this ordinance. , 
And Firjl % Let us receive him as one that hath actually 
accomplifhed. the great work of making peace with God 


t 6 i 

for us ; blotting out our fins, and bringing in everlafting 
jighteoufnefs. Secondly y As one that hath done this 
work by his death. It is a relief when we have an ap« 
prehcniion that Chriit can do all this for us : But ho 
does not tender hknfelf to us as one that can or will do- 
it upon fuch and fuch conditions as fhall be prescribed, 
but as one that hath done it, and fo we muft receive 
him, if we intend to glorify God in this ordinance, v/%. 
as having blotted out all our fins, and purchafed for us 
eternal redemption. 

Let us a& faith on Jefus Chrift, as one who brings 
along with him mercy and pardon, procured by his death : 
all mercy and grace that is in the heart of God and in? 
the covenant. To have fuch a view of him, and {<> to re- 
ceive him by faith is the way to give glory to God, and* 
to have peace, and red in our own bofoms,. 


Aug. ro. 1673. 

To a due attendance on this' ordinance it is requisite, 
not only that we be in a fpiritual frame, but that we en- 
deavour to bring and fix our hearts to fome fpecial thoughts* 
with refpe£t to this fpecial ordinance *, wherein the prin- 
cipal act on the part of God, and the principal aft on 
our part, with refpedt to Chrift, are glorioufly reprefent-' 

The great acl: of God, with reference to Chrift, is the 
exhibiting of him. God did two ways exhibit Chrift. 

Fir/ij There was, as i may call it, on the part of God, 
a legal exhibition of Chrift, mentioned by the apoftle, 
Rom. iii. 28. " Whom God hath fet forth to be «a pro- 
'* pitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his 
" righteoufnefs, for the remiflion of fins, that he might 
"'be juft and the juftifier of him which believeth in Je- 
" fos." This I call God's legal exhibition of Chrift, 
when he fet him forth to undergo the curfe of the law, 
that we might be bleffed. This fetting forth of Chrift 
inhere represented ia this ordinance wjien the bread is ' 




bfoteiK And this fs that which you may exereife your 
faith on in this ordinance, that as the bread is here let 
forth to be broken, fo God, to declare his own right e-* 
oufne&y hath fet forth Chrift to be bruited and broken* 
to undergo the fentence of the law. Thus we, have a 
gracious* light of God's holinefs in this ordinance. 

Secondly, He doth exhibit Jefus Chrift in the promi- 
fes of the gofpel. And it might be with fome refped to 
this ordinance, that the gofpel invitations, which have 
the nature of promifes, were in the Old Teftament fet 
forth by eating and drinking. I. " Ho, every 
" one that thirtieth, come ye to the waters, and he that 
" hath, no money, come ye, buy and eat, yea come, buy 
" wine and milk without money and without price." ~ 
*God having provided Jefus Chrift to be the food of our 
fouls, he doth propofe and exhibit -him in the gofpel a? 
fiich* And what a bleffed reprefentation is there here- 
of in this ordinance ? Here God makes a vifible tender 
of Chrift, as exhibited in the promifes of the gofpel for the 
life, food, and ftrength of our fouls. To anjwer the pro* 
mifes, he here makes this tender unto us. 

Thus you fee the principal ad of God in this ordinance* 
is the exhibiting of Jefus Chrift unto us. The great ad 
on our part, with refped to Chrift, which is alio repre* 
Rented in this ordinance, is the reception of him by faith* 
It is not enough that God hath fet forth Chrift to declare 
his righteoufnefs, and in the promifes of the gofpel. Un* 
lefs we receive Chrift, we mail come (hort of al) the de- 
fign of grace and mercy therein. " As many as receiv* 
f* ed him, to them gave he power to become the ions of 
" God * y eveu to them that believe on his name," John 
i. ia. 

If there be any thing that is brought and tends red to 
you, unlefs you receive it, there is nothing done. ' Things 
are but in the fame ftate wherein they were. Notwith^ 
{landing all the tenders that God makes of Jefus. Chrift 
in both the ways mentioned, if there be not an ad of 
faith in receiving him, we (hall, have no benefit by it* 
Now can any thing be more lively rep re fen ted to us with 
refped to Chrift, who is tendered to us, than our receiv- 
ing of the bread, iu this Sacrament. But if we ad not 
faith therein, it will be but a bare reprefentation. There'* 



r 8 r • 

fore, if' we believe that God is in good' earneft with u* 
in the tender that he makes of Chriit, let us not be back- 
ward on our part, that the facramental rites may not b©. 
empty figns to us. 





PLAIN ACCOUNT, y ft with the author of the plain account of the ■ 
facrament, in the following propositions, which he 
lays down as the foundation of his work. 

44 I. The partaking of the Lord's fupper is not a duty 
**■ of itfelfj or a duty apparent to us from the nature of 
things ; but a duty made fuch to Christians, -by the 
pofitive inltitution of Jefus Chriit. 

II. All polkive duties, or duties made fuch by in- 
44 ftitution alone, depend entirely upon the will and de- 
* 4 claration of the perfon who institutes or ordains them, 
*' with refpe£t to the real defign and end of them, and 
44 confequently to the due manner of performing them. 

III. It is plain, therefore, that the nature, ,tbe dei 
iign, and the due manner of partaking of the Lord's fup- 
per, mult of necefllty depend upon what Jefus Chriit; 

44 who inftituted it, hath declared about k. 

44 IV. It cannot be doubted that he himfelf fufficient-. 
44 ly declared'to his firft and immediate followers, the 
44 whole of what he deligned lhould be underitood by it^ 
44 or implied in it. 

V. It is of fmall importance, therefore, to Christi- 
ans, to know what the many writers upon this fubjedl,- 
44 fince the time of the evangelifts and apoftles, have af- 
44 firmed *, much lefs can it be the duty of Chriltians to 
44 be guided by what any perfons, by their own authority, 
44 or from their own imaginations, may teach concerning 
44 this duty. 
44 VI. The paffages in the New Teftament, which re- 



[ 9 J 
" late to this duty, ami they alone, sure the original ac> J 

" counts of the nature and end of this inftitution, and the 
** only authentic declarations, upon which we of Utter ) 

** ages can lately depend > being wriuen by the inuae- 
" diate followers of our Lord ; thofe who were witnefr ! 

•*' (es themielves to the inftitution, or were tnftru&ed in 
" itv ekher by thofe who were fo, or by Chrift hknielf t j 

" and- confent in delivering down one and the fame ac- 
* 4 count of this religious duty . 

- " VII. The writers of the New Teftarncnt give an ! 

*' account of the inftitution of the Lord's fuppe^r, in the 
following paffages ; which therefore are principally to 
be regarded : *>/*. St Matthew, chap. xxvi. ver. 26, 
" &c*.. St Ma*k, chap. kiv. ver. 22, &c. St Luke, 
£* chap. xxii. ver. 19, Sec. And St Paul, x Cor. chap. v* 

M xi. ver, 23, &c." 

And after this author's example, 1 have made it my 
care to explain thefe paffages that give us the account of 
this inftitution, that all who are concerned may be led 
into a right way of judging about it, and be directed 
to the whole of their duty in ; For 1 think 
with him, that this method of examining into the 'na- 
ture and end of this ordinance, mult needs recommend 


itfelf to every one who has " a iincere defire that the ^ 
M doctrine of Chrift alone (hould prevail in a matter, 
" wifkh muft depend upon his will, and can depend up- 
** on nothing elfe." Plain account, preface, p. 8. Octa- 
vo edition. 

I cannot therefore but fancy, that we are like Uvd 
friendly travellers, who being bound to the fame place; 
fet out together, and are taking the fame road ; but alas ! 
before we are got half way. to our journey's end, I ant 
forced to leave our author, and go on by myfelf, becaufe 
he fits down and will go no farther. 

This " the fitting down in the way," feems to me to 
be a juft representation of their cafe, who take up with 
the religion of the means as fufficient to anfwer all the 
purpotes of being religious^ and neglect the religion of 
the end f who think that reading and hearing of the word; 
praying to God, partaking of the facramfent, &c. are all 
to which they need attend, and are unconcerned about 
being truly pious. 

I do not fpeak this with the leaft defign to reflect up* 

r io } 

! mi the fuppofed author of the plain account ; a friend te 

| - the right and liberties of mankind ; a perfon of a fair re- 

I putation, and one whofe piety I have no reafon to caU 

in queftion : but were his char after the very reverfe o£ 

all this, I have nothing here to do with it ; for all my 

concern is with his book. , And when I coniider "him 

. purely as a writer of that, I cannot but think that he 

comes under this cenfure. For fuch is his manner of 

treating the Lord's fupper, that it may juftly be faid o£ 

him> that he leaves out the religion of the end of this in- 

ftitution, and takes up with the religion of the means, 

as anfwering all the good purpofes that are. to be fervecl 

by the ordinance. 

That which 1 call the religion of the means, is the ob- 
ferving the rites which our Lord has inftituted, and com- 
manded us to obferve in remembrance of him, and the 
being ferious in remembering him : and that which I fpeak 
of as the religion of the end, is the being found in thofe 
duties to which the Sacramental rites are dire&ing us 5; 
and for the fake of which Chrifl hath commanded us to 
obferve thefe rites in remembrance of him. 

It cannot be juftly faid of the plain account, that it 
takes no notice of the religion of the end j for it tells us 
" that the nature of the thing itfelf, (this holy inftitu- 
'* tion) confidered in all its circumftances, directs the 
' ** mind of a Chriftian to many thoughts, which are of" 

" the greateft importance to himfelf, and may thus prove r 
** by its own tendency and good effect upon a moral a~ 
*' gent, not only an aft of obedience to his Lord's com- 
** mand 5 but a mean leading to his own greater increafe- 
" in all that is worthy of a man and a Chriftian." p. 106* 
and feveral other paflages there are in this book, to the 
fame purpofe, particularly p. 156, 18 u 

But after all fo much is faid of the remembrance of 
Chrift, and fo little of the end of this remembrance, that 
it is not at all to be wondered at, that the admirers of 
the plain account fhould take up with the notion, " that 
" the ferious remembrance of Chrift is all that about 
44 which they need to concern themfelvcs, when they are 
" at his table." 

And indeed this is the very docliihe that the author 
is teaching us ; For he tells us, that the important 
thoughts to which the inftitution may direcl the mind of: 




[ " ] 

a Chriftian, " arc not abfolutely neceffary to the perfonn- 
u ance of the duty, p. 106. That the effence of this 
*' duty confifts in the remembrance of Chrift, p. 103. 
"^That to eat this bread, and drink this wine, as becomes 
" Chriftians, in a religious remembrance of Chrift 's death, 
" is truly and fufHciently to anfwer the end of the infti- 
** tution, p. 117. That at the time of your own par- 
4i taking of the bread and wine, the great point (and in- 
** deed the only point effential, or abfolutt^ neceffary,) 
u is the attendance of the mind upon that remembrance 
of Chrift, which difHnguifhe6 the eating this bread, and 
the drinking this/wine, from common eating and drink- 
ing, Page 118. /And that, the minifter's putting you 
in mind of your duty of eating and drinking in remem- 
" brance of Chrift's death, at the inftant of delivering 
the bread and cup, fecures you from all fuch deviation 
of thought or improper behaviour, as can affect the 
effence of this religious action ; and directing you to 
" the remembrance of what was defigned to be now reli- 
" gioufly remembered, makes it impracticable for you, 
" if you are truly ferious, and in earnefl, to eat ox drink 
" unworthily. Page 120." 

This doctrine having a natural tendency to make as 
many as receive it carelefs or rather wholly unconcerned, 
about the religion of the end, when they are at the 
Lord's table, is likely to havefo ill an effect upon commu- 
nicants, that I think it neceffary to examine it, and (hew 
that it has no good foundation to fupport it . 
. The author fuppofes that he finds this doctrine in the 
hiftory of the inftitution of the Lord's lupper ; For hav- 
ing given us this hiftory, in the words of three of the 
evangelifts, and St Paul, under his 7th propofition j he 
thus proceeds, 

" VIII. It appears from thefe paffages that the end 
" for which our Lord inftituted this duty, was the re- 
" membrance of himfelf. 

" IX. Whoever therefore in a ferious and religious 
" fenfe of his relation to Chrift, as his difciple, performs 
" thefe actions of eating bread, and drinking wine in re- 
" membrance of Chrift, as of a perfon corporally abfent 
from his difciples, moft certainly performs them a- 
greeably to the end of the inftitution declared by 
" Chrift himfelf, and his immediate difciples/ 9 



c ra I 

- But what is the point to he proved > Not that the re-, 
membrance of Chrift is one end of this innitution, for' 
that I readily grant ; but that this remembrance is the 
foie or chief wad uttvmati » end of it. And I deny that 
this appears from any of the paflages referred to. 

It is plain indeed that the remembrance of Chrift, is 
the only end of the inflkution, that is fpoken of in ex- 
prefs words. For he did not lay, " This do that you 
M may be fb imd in this or that duty, as that you may 
" love me, for inftance j" but only, ** This do in remem* 
" brance of me ;". But may not more be implied in his 
words than they expreft ? Is it not thus in feveral inftan- 
oes of the fame nature with this ? How frequently are 
hearing, knowing, conndering, &c. the only things men* 
turned y and with a defign to put us upon thofe duties,' 
and that carriage to which thefe atts fhould in reafon be. 
leading us ? Nay, thus it is as to the remembrance oF . 
God. For the words of Solomon, " Remember now 5 
** thy Creator in the days of thy youth," Eccl. xii, at* 
are readily underftod as meaning the fame as if he had 
faid, " Fear God, keep his commandments^ in the, days cf 
44 thy youth/ 1 ver. 13. For it cannot be thought that 4 
he reccommends this remembrance,, at what alone and 
by ttfelf, will be of any fervice : No, but 0$ a means- 
leading to fuch an end. And by a parity of- reafon we 
may fay, that Chrift did not inftitute fuch rites, and com- 
mand us to obferve them in remembrance of himfeif, and 
fo recommend this remembrance to us, as what alone, 
and* by itfelf will be of fervice. to us j no, but as proper 
fo lead us to fuch duties as are agreeable to the nature 
of this remembrance. 

It appears from the account that St. Paul gives us of 
the behaviour of the Corinthians, 1 Con xi. 20, &£cj 
that they did not go fo far a& this,' the ferious rimem*. 
hrance of Chrift at his table: For, not discerning the* 
Lord's body, that is, hot conndering the facram > ent!&l i 
bread and wine, as iignifying his body and bloody they 
did eat and drink as at a common meal, or as if this' were 
jpnly the continuation of$a foregoing entertainment, and* 
even without observing the ruifs of temperance ; *and, * 
eating and drinking thus unworthily, they were guilty of 
>the body and blood of the Lord, or, of an high offence 




• •-* . 

/ %* <*. 




[ *3 3 ' 

And indignity* againft his body and blood > and fo were 
mating and drinking damnation, or judgment to them- 
selves ) that is, profaning-this ordinance, they laid thcni- 
felves juitty open to the difpleafure of Almighty God, 

p. 64*— 67. 

And it mail be owned, that we ate' not to think, that 
they who eat this bread, and drink this wine in a ferious 
remembrance of Chrtft, do a& fo unworthily, and fo un- 
fuitably to thef inftitution, as thefe Corinthians. And', 
as they are not, like them, profaning this ordinance, they 
have not the leaft caufe to fear " any of thole threatening* 
" of St Paul, which belong only to tnofe who do fo*' pro- 
fane k, p. 122.' 

v But I cannot fee the force of our author's reafoning, 
W». " That h« who does truly difcern the Lord's body, 
44 by remembering it in the moil ferious manner; has there- 
u fore performed this one duty in a proper manner," 
p. 88. He has not indeed been eating andjdrinking unwor- 
thily, in the apoftle's fenfe of the phrafe \ but, as the not 
being as wicked as fome other men are, is no proof of 
•a perfon's being righteous, fo his not behaving at the 
Lord's table as the. Corinthian finners behaved them- 
felves, is no proof of his performing the duty in a 'pro- 
per manner, fo as to anfwer the end of it. 

There are degrees of unworthy receiving, and they 
may eat and drink unworthily, though not in St Paul's 
fenfe, who do not imitate the Corinthians in " the one 
particular inftance of their indecency. Whatever tem- 
per or behaviour, at the«time of eating and drinking, 
44 is utterly unsuitable to the delign of the duty, muft, 
** in its degree, come under the cenfureof this paflfage," 
p. 80. Suppofing therefore that there be a ferious, and 
in this fenfe, a religious remembrance of Chriit, that is# 
there is fome regard to his inftitution, yet if this re- 
membrance has no good effeft upon us, and does not lead 
us to thofe duties to which in reafon it mould- lead us, as 
we have a temper and behaviour unraitable to the defign 
of the duty, fo we are in fome meafiire, urrworthy r<- 
ceivers, though not in that degree, sis the Corinthians 
were. ' ' - l? 

Betides, " to perform the duty fo, as that it mfey be 

B . * 



[ 14.] 

of advantage to us, is, in other words, to perform 
" it worthily j or in a manner fuitable to the nature and 
44 end of it," p. 79. And from this it follows, by the 
rule of contraries, that to perform the duty fo, as that it 
cannot be of any advantage to us, is to perform it- un*- 
worthily, or in. a manner un fuitable to its nature and encL 
And from thefe things we may argue the neceffity of 
being found in other duties beiides a ferious remembrance 
of Chrift, when we are at his table : For a remembrance 
of him that is alone, and has no good effect upon us, like* 
a faith that is alone without works, is dead, -and oafl&ot 
profit us, James ii. 17, &c. 

It is true, as the author fpeaks upon another oocafiati, 
" We are not to confound duties ; and make 1 that pecu- 
" liar to the holy communion, which was never made pe- 
" culiar to it by Omit, or his apoftles \ which is proper 
." for every feafon of our time, and every part of our life, 
" and which would have been equally a duty, whether 
" it had pleafed our Lord to inititute the holy commu- 
*' nion or not,," p. 76. But what is peculiar to the ho- 
ly communion ? Nothing, as I fee, but the obeying the 
command of Chrift, in obferving the rites which he has 
inilituted, vtx 9 the breaking oftneconfecrated bread, and 
the taking and eating of it, as the fymbol of his body, 
given and broken for us, together with the receiving and 
drinking of the confecrated cup, as what he gives us as 
the fymbol of his blood, " the blood of the new covenant,^ 
** fhed for us and for many, for the remiffion of ftm 5" 
and as ; being the token and feal of this covenant, both on 
God's part, and on our's. For, as to even the remem- 
brance of Chrift, in which the effence of this duty is made 
to confiit, p. 103. it cannot juftly be laid to be peculiar 
to the holy communion : for fince whatever we do in 
word or deed, we are tp -do all in the name of the Lord 
Jefus, CoJ-kiii. 17. we are certainly to remember him in 
all we do. 

The very fame duties may be fuitable to different or- 
linances, which are not peculiar to any oae of them. 
Thus it, is as to the duty of preparation for the worihip 
»f God, which our author juitly fpeaks of as not pecu- 
tar to the holy communion. For though not peculiar 
it, jet, as he rightly obfirves, " it is and muft be % al- 


4< ways of great ufe to Chriftians," p. 76. And it fuits 
all other ordinances as -well as this. The fame may be 
faid of that faith in Chrift, and that covenanting with 
God, of whidh I tfpeak in the review. Thefe are duties, 
which 4< may be done every day, and every hour," p. tj6. 
when we are praying to God, or reading or hearing his' 

-word, ay well as when we partake the facrament-: But 
n ranft be owned, that they are fuitablc, though not pe- 
culiar to this ordinance, because its rites, as we fhall fee, 
direct and encourage us to thefe duties in particular j" 
iuitable, did ifay, nay, they are neceffary to render it" 
ii&ful and advantageous to us : for then, and then only, 
when the remembrance of the benefits of Chrifl's body 

' broken, and blood (bed, is the mean of leading us to thefe 
duties, it i* one meanof procuring thefe benefits, p. 159* 
"• 1 agree with our author, that there is a miftake in 

.Calling the * 4 Lord's fupper a renewal of the new cove-* 
** naat >an our part," p. 164, For we cannot infer, from 
=our partaking of thi* facrament, that we have been cove- * 
Ranting with God, and that he is our God, in covenant' 
with us. And the like we may fay of faith, or believ- 
ing in Chrift y wc cannot conclude, that we have been 
found in this' duty, from oar having been eating and drink- 
ing at his table. 

• But k may reafonably be thought, that as the facra- 
Bfiental cup is always to be confidered, as will be fhewn f 
as thefealof the new covenant, on God's part, fo r anfwer- 
ably to this,, we are always to receive k in token of our 
hearty and thankful* acceptance of this covenant, and of 
our giving up ourfelves in covenant unto God in return. 
It may li^ewife be thought, that a* Chrift is always fct 
before us, in the facrament, as having given his body to 
be broken for us, and as having fhed his blood forus, fo 

- it is always our duty to look to him by faith, for the be- 
nefits of ^is. body broken, and blood fiied, whenever we 
partake- of this bread and this wme. - 

And where we are found in thefe duties, when obferv- 
ing the facramental rites, we not only remember the be- 
nefits flowing from Chrift's fufferings and death, but ac- 
tually partake of them j not all, indeed, but fome o£ 
thefe benefits, and thofe fo confiderable, as that we may 
look upon them as the pledge and earneft of the reft. 


" To tiLj that this communion is the afiual partaking 
" of all the benefits of Chrift's bodv broken and blood 
" fhed \ or in other words, of his living and dying for 
" our good, is to put that upon one (ingle a& of -religi- 
" ous obedience, which is by our blcffcd Lord made to 
" depend upon the whole fyftem of all virtues united," 
p. 158. But this no ways affe&s me > for I do npr firy> 
that this communion is the a&ual partaking of thefe be- 
nefits ; And I do not put this partaking of them, upon this 
one fingle ad of obedience, the observing thefacramental 
rites, no \ but upon that which the gofpel puts it upon, 
vis. That faith in Jefus Chrift, which conftrains us to 
give up ourfelves in covenant unto God as his fervants 5, 
and where there is this faith, there is the whole fyftem 
of all virtues united. 

It is the fame, as to the remiflion of our paft fins 
through Jefus Chrift. " If it be alkcd, (fays our author 
page 144.) do we not partake of this benefit, by our 
partaking of the Lord's fupper worthily ? I mult an- 
fwer, no $ if the gofpel be true.' 1 This alio is no good 
objection to any thing that I affert. For 1 do not fay 
that we partake of the remiflion of fins, by partaking of 
s the Lord's fupper, no \ but that on fuppofition that we 
do believe in Chrift, and covenant with God, when we 
partake of the Lord's fupper, we then partake of this 
benefit : and thus it evidently is, if the gofpel be true ; for 
'' he that believeth on him is not condemned;" John iit. 
j 8. And the covenanting with God, being the fame with 
yielding ourfelves to him as his fervents, fuppofes, or in- 
cludes the " forfaking our wicked ways and unrighteous 
thoughts, ana 1 the returning to the Lord." And as to 
every one who does this, he may be fully affured, that 
God has " mercy on him, and abundantly pardons him,'* 
Ifa. Ir. 7. 

It follows, " For in that, (the gofpel^) no pardon of 
" paft fins is promifed, or given, unlefs to thofc juft con- 
" verted, renouncing their fins, and baptized into the 
" ChriiUan faith j or to thofe, who have finned after bap- 
"■ tifm, a&ually amend their lives," page 144. But it 
ought to be obferved, that wherever there is that faith 
in the Lord Jefus, which leads us to the covenanting 

' C 17 ] 

^ith God, there is a real conversion, and amendment j 
net only a foundation, laid for this amendment, and a dif- 
pofition towards it, but the beginning of it. 

I cannot, therefore, but think there is a miftake in this 
that is addled, " A difpofition* towards the amendment of 
" our lives, and a amend, are very good iteps j 
*' but neither this difpofition, nor this resolution, let them 
*' <ba never fo fincere,are themfelves actual amendment.'" 
Page. 145. This holds true, indeed, of our carriage 
to pur fellow, creatures, but not of our carriage to God. 

^ That which makes the difference in the two cafes, is the 
different nature of the law of men, and the law of God. 
For as the law of men refpe&s only the outward actions, 
fo it is not broken, but by fome ove.rt-acl: j but the law 
of God refpe&ing the heart, as well as outward a&ions, 
may he broken by a difpoiition, or refolution, that is con- 
trary, to it, as well as by an outward a&ion : and from 
this it evidently follows-, that fuch a difpoiition or refo* 
lution, as is agreeable to this law, may be juitly called 

' .an actual amendment. 
- , This, properly and ftri&ly fpeaking, is the amendment 
of the heart, which is often confidered as different from 
ihe amendment of life : but when it is faid, " that the for- 
" givenefs of fins is promifed to thofe who amend their 
/'.lives," to.fpeak according to the gofpel, we mull un- 
«Jerftand the proportion, as taking; in the amendment 
of the heart- And, indeed, this amendment is the firlt 
and great thing in religion; and as where there is this 
it will ihew itfelf in the amendment of the life 5 fo all 
amendment of.the|'ife better than hypocrily in 
the-fight of God, "where that of the heart is wanting. 
. Suppo&ng, therefore, That " actual amendment is fo 
u jaeceffary a qualification, that there is no for givenefs of 
" fins after jbaptifm promifed without it : and that no 
?'.' ail of religion, without this, can be a title to fuch for- 
." givenefs, and that it cannot be obtained without a prac- 
." tice, conformable to the lavys 6Ptfce"g;ofpeU! -^sfge 
145* . This is no ways inconfiilent with faying, " that 
".we partake of this benefit when at the Lord's table, 
.we believe iii,C&rjft', and covenant with God 5" becaufe 
when we are found in thefe duties, there is an actual a- 
mendment ; and as a good foundation is then laid for a 

*J ■ . r 

-J ;..'I^ .. 




I a 5 

practice conformable to the kws of the gsfper, forthere 
is the beginning of fuck a practice. * 

But our author thinks it evident; from what he has 
laid down, " that the proper and confident way o£ ex- 
" preflion upon this fubjoft, is this, 11 page 179. ** That 
44 partaking worthily of the Lord's tapper is one particu- 
*' far duty of a Chrrftian j that this partaking of k wor- 
** thily is no more than the performance <d one doty, 
* in a manner, and with difpofitions fukable. to the 
" defign and nature of it : and therefore ought not to 
44 be ae counted of any more importance towards the 

fecuring our acceptance with God, than the perfcr- 
44 mance of a fingle duty of this fort can be.*' To which 
I anfwer, That if by partaking worthily of the* Lord's 
fupper be meant this partaking of it with a ferrous, 
hut inefficacious remembrance of Chrift, it caofcarce 
be faid to be fo much, as the performance of one duty f 
for it is far from being the whole of it, and it is of 
no importance at all towards the fecuring pur accep- 
tance with God; but if by this 'partaking worthily 
he meant the partaking of the Lord's rapper, in a man- 
ner, and with difpontions instable to the defign and na- 
ture of it ; (which I think is the Tight notion of par- 
taking worthily,) if it may be faid to be but one duty ; 
yet it is a duty of £ich a fort, that like the fear and love 
of God, it gives us reafon to. conclude that they 4 are 
accepted of him, through Jefus Chrift, who are really 
found in it. As .therefore all they, who when partak- 
ing of the Lord's fupper, do believe in Chrift, and co- 
venant wtth God, pcforming the duty in a manner, and 
with difpontions fukable to its defign and nature, do par- 
take of it worthily * ? fo we may be allured that they all 
enjoy this bleffednefs. 

There is nothing contradictory to this in the author 3 fol- 
io wing words,** that every Chriftian is obliged not only to 
* 4 perform this duty worthily, but every other duty of his 
" religion, upon principles fukable to its nature ; and 
* 4 as to final acceptance with God through Chrift, ought 
* 4 to have his eye conftantly, and particularly, upon the 
*** whole fyftem of moral duties, upon which, through- 
•*■ out the New Teftament, his acceptance is conftantly 
* put ; and upon thofe catalogues of vices, which are 
** as conftantly there declared to exclude all who pra&ife 
44 them from the kingdom of heaven, let their religious 

? performances in other refpe&s be what they will," page 
180. And I (hall hot digrefs from the fubje& I am up* 
on, to- make any remarks on this paffage ; but join 
with the author in recommending to communicants 
the two things that are here mentioned* 

: The one is their being concerned about the worthy 
performance of every duty of our religion $ every or- 
finance of divine fcrvice, as well as the Lord's (upper, 
as prayer to God, the reading and hearing his word, &c; 
To be trifling and carelefs in thefe, is likely to have a 
bad effect upon us, and to make us the fame in this du- 
ty ; but to perform thefe upon principles, and in a man* 
ner fuitable to th* it nature, with fuch difpoftfions and 
affections of ibul, as they may call for, £b as that they 
may be really ufeful to us, is a proper mean to prepare 
vts for the worthy partaking of this ordinance, and to 
quicken us to our duty in all other inftances. 

The other thing above mentioned, is the having a re- 
gard to all moral duties, as well as pofitive institutions. 
This is the fame as to fay, that we mould do our duty 
at all other times, and in all other places, as well as when 
we are at the Lord's table, or attend on any ordinance 
of divine fervice* whether in the church, or in the clofct. 
And as to this, communicants ftand upon a level with all 
others. They can have no acceptance with .God, either 
here or hereafter, without a fincere and hearty concern 
about moral duties, or in other words, withoutj " a re* 
fpe& unto all God's commandments," Pfal. c"xix. 6. 
. Our btefled Saviour, the Judge of all the world, has 
•xpreisly affured us, That " not every one that faith un- 
to him, Lord, Lord, (hall enter into the kingdom of hea- 
ven -? but he alone that doeth the will of his Father which 
is in heaven," Mat. vii. 21. And that it will not at all 
avail us, to .plead at the lail day " we have eaten and 
drunk in thy prefence •;" for if found among the " wor- 
kers of iniquity, he will anfwer, and fay unto us, 1 know 
you not whence you are, depart from me," Luke xiii. 

Moral duties are conftantly recommended to us, as 
u the weightier matters of the law 5" as far beyond any 
pofitive inftitut&ons } as what we are in the firft place to 
be the^doers of,; though we arc " not to leave the other 
undone," Mat. xxiix. 23." The<e are duties of the ut 
moft importance $ and communicants, as well as oth 


C 2» I 

caimot eafily be too often put in mind -oft hem; Tfaefer 
duties, the mini Iters of the word ate to teach ; to the 
pra&ice of them, they* are to exhort thekpeople, i»Tim* 
vi. 2. " Thefe things they are to affirm constantly., that? 
they which have believed in* God, might be carefoLto* 
maintain good works: Thefe.. things are good and pro- 
fitable unto men," Tit. iiii 8* .' ; »•-••„ . 

But alas! hownismy pejfons-may we meet witk, wher- 
fpend a great deal of time and pains in this and the other? 
religious fervice, and' are ferious in what they do,- when- 
they are fo far from having a regard to the whole -fyfiem, 
of moral duties, that they pracWe one, or more of the* 
vices which Che New Tcftamenfc does evidently fpcdb 
of; as excluding men fronvthe kingdom of heaven* Theyt 
cfcrt have no peace- in* their minds, if they do not read fot 
many chapters, and fey fo many prayers every, .day , .and* 
hear fc many fermons every week,. and partake of the* 
facrament at all- opportunities ) but it gives them not the 
leaft uneafinefsr to neglect the duties of their places and 
relations } to be " lovers of pie aiure, more than lovers 
of God * ? ,v to be " covetous, unrighteous, fornicators, a-* 
dulterers,' drunkards,' 1 &c N r i Gar. vi; 9^ io.» ..'*.. 

Do not fpeak peace, or prophefy ftuooth things to 
Cich perfonSi <4 O my foul come not thou into, their ife- 
cret." * Such ajdocbine as this," that leads Chriitian* 
to think/that4f they have but a regard to this and the o« 
ther religious performance* they, may partake of all the? 
benefits of'Chrift's l}fe arid death, although they *iegk£fc 
moral duties, and live in the practice of vice, " would, 
41 in my opinion, be inconfiftent with- the plaineft de* 
^clarations of the gofpel, and not only Jncoanftent whir/. 
V but direclly -contrary and deftru&ive to the main de-f 
* 4 fign of it,^" p. I44>« 

• I have here made ufe 4 of our author's words, be-.; 
caufe none oan better expreis *my» fenfe, But whereas* 
he fpeaks of that paffcge of St. Paul, .1 .Cot?.^. i6, V iir 
4 , 4 which the partaking ©£ the cup and-of the. bread at the- 
"-Lord's tablet is feid to be the communion of the blood. 
44 'and of the body of Chrift •," and tells us, that he had V 
fhewn that the words do itotifigriify " an actual partake 
4 '/irig of all the benefits of his fuffermgs.and death for 
44 our fakes :'* andwhercas he aflerts," that this one 
** 4 ifiifgle iixftance of obedience to the will, of God, how- 





Cm 3 

**.eve* worthily performed and jttttably to its nature 
" and end, cannot be the partaking of thefe benefits, 
p 144 v It may be proper to obferve, that although there 
may >t>e this inftance of obedience to the will of God 
where ire do not partake of tl efe benefits, yet, if it be 
fo worthily performed, and fo fukably to its nature as to 
lead us to, and be attended with faith m Chrift, and the 
covenanting with God, we are certainly partakers ,of 

I hope the reader will not forget that which was be- 
fore obferved, W?t that faith in Chrift and the cove- 
nanting with God are of fuch a nature as. to lead us to 
all other duties ; fo that the faying, that where found in 
thefe, we are partakers of the benefits of Grift's death, j 
is not to put this partaking of thefe -benefits upon *one 
fingle inftance of obedience to the wULof God. And L 
Should not have mentioned it here, but* for the fake of 
this nieful inference that flows,, */«*. that he, and 
he only, may he juftly faid to be found kt thefe things at 
the Lord's table, and to be a partaker of this bleffedacis 
who is led to the fincere " practice of his whole duty, 
" and of that univerial holinefs, without which no man 
* (hall fee the Lord, p. J679. 

IT therefore a wicked or unrighteous perfon, at his 
coming from the Lord's table, fhould fpeak after this* 
manner, " Now it is well wkh me, my fins are . all par- 
doned $ my falvation is fecured $ for. by faith I have 
received Chrift as my Saviour, when receiving the 
fymbols of his body given and broken forme, and of 
his blood fticd for the remifTion of my fins. Now I 
" may look on all the blefiiags of the new covenant as 
w mine, for I have been drinking of the focramentil cup, 
" the token and feal of this covenant, both on Gcd*£ 
*-* part and on our's.* v If this, I fay, be the language of 
a -wicked and unrighteous communicant, we may thus an* 
fwer *, " But what is thy faith in Chrift ? If it be of the 
" right kind, that which is juftifying, and will be faving, 
** fhew it by thy works 1 " Wilt thou know, O vain man; 
44 that faith without works is dead," James ii. 20. 
Why fhould ft thou pleafe thyfelf with the thoughts 
that the bleffings of the new covenant are thine, when 
44 thou art not God's covenant fervant, devoted to his 
" fear ? the moil that can with rcafon bs faid of what 


[ « ] 

u thou haft been doing, is, thou haft paid Come outward re- 
44 fpeft unto God, but thy heart was far from Him* Why 
" ihouldft thou think that thou haft faid unto him with. 
41 thy foul, I am thy fervant, when thou art not for fcrv- 
44 ing him ? why ftiouldft thou fancy that thou haft any 
44 part or lot in his favour, when thy heart is not right 
44 in his fight, found in his ftatutes ? repent therefore of 
44 all thy wickednefs, and pray God that it may be fbr~ 
44 given thee. How rtafonable is this advice ! how 
44 Ratable to thy cafe ! for it is eafy to perceive that 
44 thou art in the gall of bitternefs, and in the bond of 
, 44 iniquity," A£b viiu 2i r &c. 

The author obfer ves, that we are not to " think it a* 
44 ny exaltation of Ch rift's Institution, to magnify it in*- 
44 to what he never, defigned it to be f " pr 1 8 r. But fince r 
as will appear from the review, the kcramental rites «fo 
in their nature proper to direct and encourage us to 
faith in him, and the covenanting, with God, how car*. 
we think any other than that they were inftituted with* 
a defign, not only to keep up the remembrance of Cbrift, 
but to lead us. alio to the doing of thefe duties. And to 
fay, that when found in them, at the Lord's table, we 
partake of the benefits of his fnfterings and death, is not 
to magnify this inftitution, becaufe, as we have? feen, it 1 
does not put the partaking of thefe benefits upon the? 
observing it ; but it is rather to magnify thefe- duties * f 
or to fpeak more properly, it is to maguify the riches 
of the grace of God, in his kindnefs towards us through. 
Jefus Chrift, in promifing thofe benefits to all fuch as 1 
are found in thefe duties. 

Thefe duties, indeed, as has been faid, 44 are not pe- 
14 culiar to the holy communion, but may be done every 
44 day and every hour," p. 176. when we pray to God, 
or read, or hear his "word, or meditate on what we haver . 
read or heard, as well as when we are at the Lord's ta- 
ble : and iince the benefits of his fuiferings and 1 death 
are promifed to all who are found in thefe duties, the 
attending on this ordinance cannot juftly be faid to be 
abfolutely neceflary to our enjoying thefe benefits ^butr 
we ought to coafider, that that may be of great fervice • 
to us that is not abfolutely necefTary to our bleffednefs. 

And, to reafon a little with my reader on this head^. 


: i ♦ 



e *3 y 

how canft thtfu anfwer it to G*o& and to thine own con-. 
icience> to live in the neglect: of any ordinance of divine 
appointment ? Has our bleffed Lord and Saviour faid. 
This do y and wilt thou not do it ? Has he commanded 
vts to obferve certain rites in remembrance of himfelf, he 
who has given us the ihoft amazing proof of his love, 
and wilt thou not readily, cheerfully obfeirve them ? Why 
fhouldit thou think, that thou art his difclple indeed, when, 
thou doll not walk in all his commandments and ordi- 
nances? - 

Beftdes, it ought to be considered, that fome. duties 
are of fuch importance and confequence, that a\ we 
fhould be fure not to fail of being found in them, fo it ^ 
will be good for us often to repeat them ; the oftener the ^fc 
better j the more holy we are like to be in all manner 
of conversation $ the greater and more continued com* 
fort and joy we may look for in this world $ and the 
more reafon we (hall have for the fulleft hopes, that an, 
" entranqe mall be mihiitred unto us abundantly into the ^ 
everlafting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jefus *%P 
' Chrift-." Of this nature is faith in God, faith in his pro- . 
mifes, the love and fear of him, &c. And the fame may 
be faid of faith in Chrilt, and the covenanting -with Go& 
that we will be his fervants. And as there are feveval 
ordinances of divine fervice, to each of which every one 
of thofe duties is fuitable and feafonable 5 fo they all agree 
in this, the being means proper to put us upon the repe- 
tition of them : And on this account it is our wifdom to 
attend on ea,ch of thefe ordinances as often as the ftafon 
for obferving them may return. 

To this 1 may add, that the attending on one ordi-. 
nance with difyofitions and in a manner fuitable to the 
defign and Mature of it, is the way to prepare us, as was 
before hinted, for other ordinances, and 'to render them 
the more ufeful to us. And from this it follows, by the 
jrule of contraries, that the negleft. of any one ordinance, 
or the being careLefs in obferving ft, is the way to unfit 
.us for others, and to 'hinder us of. that benefit we might 
otherwife have received from attending on them. 

But alas ! fo many are kept off from the Lord's table 
by their fears, left not exercifing that faith in Chriit, 
which conftrains the in to yield thtiftdelves to God, as his 


C »4 3 

Servants, they fhould eat and drink damnation to them* 
felves, that it will be neccflary to offer Something for 
their relief. 

And fince the fears of thefe perfons are occasioned by 
the threatnings of St Paul to the Corinthians, it may be 
proper to remind them of that, which was before observ- 
ed, viz. that as they do not, like thefe tinners, profane 
the inftitution, (b it cannot be juftly laid that thofe threat- 
nings belong to them. 

But why (hould they fear incurring the difpleafure of 
God, and drawing down his judgments upon themielves, 
by going to the Lord's table, who are really concerned 
to be found in the duties to which the inftitution directs 
and encourages them ? With how much more reafon may 
they hope that all the good ends of the ordinance wiU 
be anfwered - y and that their observing of it will be for 
their comfort, as well as quickening in the fervice of 


It muft be owned that it is very defireable indeed for 
every communicant to be aflured of this, that he has re- 
ceited Chrift Jefus the Lord by faith in him, and given 
up himfelf in covenant unto God, as his fervant. The 
r ore he is aflured of this, the more likely he is to have 
all fuch difpofitions and affe&ions of foul, when he is »t 
the Lord's table, as are fuitable to the nature of the in- 
stitution 4 : But we are not to look upon this aflurance as 
abiblutely neccflary t-o fit us for this ordinance ; fo that 
if 'the attending on it be not our fin, yet it is at beft, 
unprofitable and in vain, where this aflurance is want- 

Supppofing therefore that thou canfl not fay how it 
has been with thee, as to thefe duties, in time pail, yet 
if it be now thy heart's defiie and prayer to God, that 
thou mayft be found in them, it will be reafonabie for 
thee to conclude that he invites thee to • his table, who 
calleth on the fimple in this manner 7 " Come, eat of my 
bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled : fort- 
fake the foolith, and live, and go in the way of under* 
finding," Prov. ix. 5, 6. Surely it will be good for 
thee to accept of his kind invitation. 

" Fear not then, neither be difcouraged, but strife and 
be doing : May the 'Lord be with thee ! Blefled are 


C *5 3 

they which do hunger and third after righteoufnefs, for 
they fball be -filled," Mat. v. 6. " The meek mall eat, 
v and be fatisfied : They mail praife the Lord, that fcek 
him ' f your heart (hall live for ever,™ Pfalm xxii. 26. 





History of the Institution of the 
Lord's Supper. 


Of the Bread. 

THE account which the writers of the New Tefta- 
ment have given us of the inltitution of this fir ft part 
of the Lord's (upper, we h*pe in the following paflages : 

St. Mat. xx vi. 26. As tbey were eating, Jefus took bread 
and blejjed it, and brake it, and gave it to the difciples, 
and /aid, take, eat this is my bodys 

St. Markxiv. 22. As tbey did eat, Jejus took bread % 
and blejfed and brake it, and gave to them and f aid, take % 
eat, this is my body. 

St. Luke xxii. 19. He took bread, and gave thanks , 
and brake it, and gave unto them, facing, this is my bo- 
dy, 'which is given for you : This do in remembrance of 


St. Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24. The Lord Jefus, the fame 
night in which be was betrayed, took bread ; and when 
he bad given thanks, he brake it r and f aid, take, eat, this 
is my body, which is broken for you : this do in remem- 
brance of me. 

C *7 3 

Thefe paffages may be thus difpofed in the order of 
an harmony : 

The Lord Jefus, the fame night in which be was he* 
t rayed, as they were eating, took hread; and when he 
had hlejfed it, and given thanks, he brake it, and gave it 
to the difciples, and /aid, This is my body which is given 
and broken for you ; This do in remembrance of me. 

Section I. 

The Lord Jefus the fame night in which he was betray* 
ed, as they were eating, took bread. 

t. The Lord 1 s (upper was infthuted by our blefled 
Saviour, when he knew that the dreadful hour of his 
fufferings was at hand \ but a little before he went into 
the garden, where fuch terrors fet themfelves in array 
againft him, that " being in an agony, his fweat was as 
it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground,' * 
Luke xxii. 44. and not many hours before he was 
crucified, and " gave himfelf for us, an offering and a 
facrifice to God/' 

2. This circumftance of the inftitution of this ordi- 
nance may lead us to think that our Lord did not com- 
mand us to obferve it, merely to difplay his own autho- 
rity, and do honour to himfelf ; but from a concern for 
our good, and becaufe he knew that the right obfervanoe 
of it would be very much, for our advantage. 

3. Chrift had been eating the Pafchal fupper with his 
difciples, and it -may be, they had a piece of the Lamb 
in their mouths, which was to be their laft morfel *, and 
were Juft about to fwallow it, when he took the bread j 
and it fo, they had reafon to attend to what he was doing ; 
for they knew that he did not defign it for their ufe in 
that fupper, but for fome other purpofe. 

4. The bread which Jefus took, was unleavened ; It was 
neceffary that he mould make ufe of fuch bread, becaufe 

* See Ainfworth, on Exod. xii. 8. 

[ a8 J 

no other was to be found in the houies of the Jews at 
that time, Exod. xii. 19. But as we are not under the 
fame neceflity - y f<fe for all that appears in Scripture, we 
nay ufe that which we can moft conveniently come at,, 
whether it be/leavened or unleavened, and whether it 
he made of wheat or rye, or any other grain* 

5- We do not find that any thing was faid before the 
prayer of our Lord to let the difciples know the mean- 
ing of his taking the bread ; but it is reafonable to fup- 
pofe that he took it in fuch a manger, as to let them fee 
that he had fome extraordinary purpofe to fcrre by it. 
Probably, they were thinking that he deiigned to make 
ufe of it for the conveying to them fome divine in ft rue - 
tien, as he had done but a little before this, by the waft- 
ing of their feet *. 

6 But it may be thought that the pTayer of ChriJt, 
er however that which he did and faid immediately after 
he had ended his prayer, fully fatisfied all, who were 
prefent, that his taking of the bread was the feparating* 
of it from that which was common, and confecrating of 
if, or the fetting it apart to a facred ufe. 

7. And as this is the meaning of our taking bread for 
the Lord^ rapper, fo it may &V obferved that, as fbori 
as ever it is fet upon the table, we are to put a difference 
between that and common bread. The nature of it is 
not indeed altered, either by fetting it upon the* taWe,. 
or by the minifter's taking k into his hands, ox by any 
words he may pronounce over it, no ; it is as much 
bread, and the feme bread it was before j but we are 
then to look upon it as holy to the Lord, let apart for 
his worihip. s 

* See Doddridge's harmony on Jbhnxiii. 4..&C; > 

C 29 ] 

Sbction II. 


And when he had hlejfed it, and given thanks, he brake 

- » . ->« ■ 


1. St Luke and St. Paul tell us, that Jefus took bread, 
and gave thanks, St. Matthew and St. Mark fay that he 
bleffed it ; but they all mean, the fame a&ion, viz. the 
prayer that our Lord made upon, this occafion. And it is 
natural to think that as in this, he blefled the bread which 
he had taken ; fo in this alio, he gave thanks, that is, in 
other words,- be prayed to. God with thanksgiving for 
his bleffing upon it. 

2. Prayer to God with thankfgiving is our reafonable . 
fervice, and never more neceffary, and feafonable, than 
when we axe entering on this folema ordinance. No won- . 
der, therefore, that our Lord fhould here recommend 
it to us by his own example * 7> and from this it follows, 
that it rouft certainly be. very pxoper for us to confider 
what thofe things are, for which we are here to pray an<f 
give thanks j but this maybe learnt from the meditations 
and ejaculations in the laft part of this book. 

3. The breaking ok the bread, is taken notice of by, 
each of the facred writers,' who fpeaks of the inilitution of 
the Lord's fupper, and they^ all place it in the fame or- 
der, viz. juii after his praying to God, with thankfgiving, , 
for his blefling upon it. . 

4. Our Saviour took, as we may think, but one of 
the loaves or cakes which lay upon the table, and he*, jnot onfy that he might divide it amongft his 
difciples, who were to take and eat of it, and to teach " 
them to do the fame in after times, in the cele- 
bration of this ordinance 5 but that it might jthe better, 
ferve for that which, as wefhall fee, he defigned it for, 
vi%. to be the fymbol, or fign of his broken body. One 
of the loaves, while whole and unbroken, might have 
ferved for a fymbol of Chriit, " the bread of life. 1 ' Jornv 
vi. 35. that " bread which came down from heaven," 

c 3 

f 30 3 

ver. 32. But it mud be broken, to be the" proper fy 
bol of Bis body broken for u* on the crofs. 

It is next obferved, that our Lord gave bis- difciples 
the bread which he had broken, and commanded them 
to take and eat ; but that we may fee the reaibn of thefe 
things, it will be proper for us taconfider, firft, fbme of 
the words that he fpake as he was puting fo into their 

Section- III* 
This is my body. 

1. The Papifts rell us that theie words are to ))6ta&eav 
literally, and that as foon as ever they are pronounced by the 
prieft, if with a proper intention, a fubftantial change is 
made of the bread into the natural body of Chrift j that 
Very body which was born of the Virgin Mary, and 
which was nailed to the croft ; as the like change is 
alio made of the wine in the cup, upon the priefFs fay- 
ing over it, this cup is my s blotxl j this they call tran- 

2. But how is it poffible that I mould look on that 
as the body of Chrift, which I fee, and tafte, and feel 
to be bread, and which has the fmell, not of ftefh, hut 
of bread ! Is it faid, u That I muft not give credit to 
" my fenfes, but believe the words of our Lard Jenis," 
I may very well afk, ** why then mould the apoftles 
** have given credit to their hearing ? might not teat. 
*' fingle fenfemore eafilyhave deceived them thanall the 
P reft of their fenfes ? and if fo, how could they have 
' " been fatisfied that Chrift faid of the bread, this is my 
" body ? Befides, if I am not to believe my fenfes, how 
** can I be fatisfied that there is fuch a book as that we call 
**■ the New Teftament \ and that fuch words are to be 
** found in it ? or how can I be certain as to any faft 
" whatfoever, that is faid to have been done by ano- 
u ther ; as for inftance, the miracles faid to have been 
* 4 wrought by Jefus, and that grand fa&, in particular, 
" on which Chriftiaruty is founded, the refurre&ictr 

■'C-3* 3 

** of Chrift ? $ Cor. xv. 17 . For, if no credit is to be 
** given to the fenfes, they who have written of thefe 
** things, and who, as they tell us, were eye-witntfles of 
** them, 1 John i. 1. might have been derived, and have 
. *' only fancied that they law them done $ or X may be 
H miitaken, and only dream that I read of them io their 
** writings,' 1 

3. -But granting that our Lord faid of the bread, this 
is my body, and allowing the truth of the fcripture hit* 
tory in all other particulars \ yet we may be very fure 

' that he did not in the leaft defign to contradict the evi- 
dence of fe'nfe, and that he was far from defiring his dif- 
ciples to believe that to be his natural bddy, which, as 
far as they eould judge of it by their fenfes, was 1 ' no o- 
ther than bread \ becaufe within a fe w days " (hewing 
himfelf alive to them after his paflion, he appealed to 
their fenfes, and called on them to make ufe of their fen-* 
fes, in order, to their being farisned that his body was 

- raited from the dead, and that they were not deluded by 
a ghoft and apparition : For he fpake to them in this 
manner, " why. are ye troubled, and why do thoughts 
arife in your hearts ? beho&d my hands and my feet, that 
that it. is I myfelf \ handle me, and fee, .for a fpirit has 
notf rlefh and bones as ye fee me have." Luke xxiv* 38, 
39. And agreeably to this, " when he had thus fpoken, 
he. {hewed them- his hands, and his feet," ver. 4©, and. his 
fide alfo, John xx. 20. And a little after he took the 

. like methojd for the conviction of St Thomas, who was 
not then with the difciples, ver. 27. 

4. But is not this acting a very inconfiiUnt part, 
for, Chrift, at one time to tell his difciples that that was 
his natural body, which to judge of it by their fenfes they 
could look upon as no other than bread ; and a few days 
after, to defire them to make ufe of their fenfes to fatisfy 
themfelves that it was a real body, and not a mere ghoft % 
or phantom, that flood before them ? 

5. St Luke fpeaksof thefe proofs of the refujrrec"Hori 

• of Jefus, that the apofiles had from their fenfes, as infalV 
lible, A<5is i. a, 3 • And is it not evident to a demon- 

. ftration that oar Lard alfo had the fame notion of thefe 
proofs, fince he left it altogether to the fenfes of thofe, 
who doubted of it, to give them full fatisfaQiou concern- 

C,3*J '• 
ing it : here, therefore, we may reft the matter, . and fay, { 

'* That as the apoitles had infallible proofs from their , 
fenfes, that Chrift was really rifen from the dead, fo we 
have infallible proofs, from our fenfes, that that which' 
we take and eat at his table, is not his body,- but bread*" 
6 . is it faid, " But what account then can be given of 
his thus fpeaking of the bread, this is my. body * or 
what is the meaning of his words ?" It inay be anfwer- 
ed, " That the name of a thing is frequently given t* 
that which is the lign of it. Thus, the feven kine, and 
feven ears of corn, are faid to be feven years, Gen. xli. 
26, 27. And thus circumciiion, had the name of the 
covenant, and the fign was called what literally it was* 
not, bnt what it really and truly exhibited by divine ap- 
pointment *. And the like it is here ; our Lord fpeaks* 
of the bread as his body 5 not becaufe of its being t ran - 
fnbflantiated, or changed into his body 5 but becaufe he- 
had appointed it to be thefymbol or token of his body* 
and would have us to confider it under this notion, whea 
taking and eating of it." 

Section I V* 

• * * 

This is my body, which is given and broken for you.' 

1. St Matthew- and St Mark fay nothing of Chrift V 
body being given, and broken *, but as the former of 
theie things is taken notice of by St Luke, fo the latter- 
is mentioned by St Paul r and the filence of fome of the? 
facred, writers, as to any thing that is fpoken of- by ano^ 
ther, is no argument againft it. , 

3, The body of ourblefled Saxiour was firft taken, that it '• 
imight be given, and then given, that it might be broken $ 
' and the meaning is, that he freely cpnfented to the break-* 
ing of it. His body was broken by the nails, that were - 
driven through his hands and feet, to fail en it to the " 
crofs j. and by the fpear with which they pierced his iide* - 
Firft, " He took upon him the form of afervant, and was. * . 

* See Waterland's review of the Eucharift, Chap. viL 

r 33] 

made in? the Ukenefs of men, and* then being 1 found in fa* 
fhion as a man, be humbled himfelf, and became obedi*- 
ent ufcto death, the death of the crofs," Phil. ii. 5, 6. 
So that the bread broken, as fignifying his body broken, 
fets him before us as crucified. 

3. Do any object, a But Chrift had not been crucified, 

" and confequently his body had not been broken, whea 

" he thus fpake." It may be anfwered, "*That his 

** words are ta be under ftood, not in a literal, bat Hsu- v 

'* rative fenfc, and they are, as if he had faid, u That 

** which I do now put into your hands, is ltd other than 

" bread, but I call it my body ' y becaufe I have appoint* 

" ed it to fignify my body ; and becaufe I would have 

" you to, confider it under this notion; as often as you 

mall eat it at my table. And havirig-broken this bread, - 

to lead your thoughts to the breaking of my body, I. 

u now fpeak of it as my body, which is given and bro- 

" ken j becaufe I now appoint it to fignify my body, 

" confidered as given and broken* You now hear 

" me (peaking to you, and know that I am alive, and 

44 you cannot but be feniible that my body neither is, nor 

** has been given and broken 5 but thus I fpeak of it, 

** and thus I would have you to confider it both now, 

" and whenever in time to come, you: (hall obferve this 

" ordinance which I now inftitute." 

4. The giving of Chrift's body to be broken, may be 
{aid to be not only his own acl:, but the act likewife 0$ 
Cod and our father. For all that which our Saviour 
did in this, was according to his will. Gal. i. 4. " God 
rpared not his own Son, but dilivered him up" to fuJEgr 
and to die. Rom. viii. 32. And Chrift offered w> 
" facrifice to God, 1 ' that very body which he had pre- 
pared him,Heb. x. 5. And becaufe " he humbled him* 
felf, and became obedient to the death of the crois ) 
God hath highly exalted him, and given him a name, 
which is above every name j that at that name of Jefus 
•very knee (Hall bow, Phil. ii. 9, 10. 

5. The body of our Lord is all that which he' here 
Speaks of as given 5 but as God '* gave his Son, M John iii. 
16. fo Chrift gave himfelf, his whole man, "for our fins,7* 
Gal. i. 4. And although the breaking of his body, $st 
all that is here taken notice of, yet this was far from be> 

£ 34 3 

ing the whole of his fufferings ; and it is not fit that we 
mould pafs over thofe of his foul. . * *- 

' 6. The death of the crofs, was not only a lingering 
and painful, but a moll; ignominious death. It was rare- 
ly feen that any othej than flaVes, and the bafeft male- 
factors, were punilhed in this manner : 'Betides it was 
looked upon, in common, as a token of a perfon's being 
under the curfe of God for his fins. Deut. xxi. 23. 
Gal. iii. 13. Well therefore, may it be faid^that ** God 
cpmmendeth his love towards us, in that while we were 
yet tinners, Chrift thus died for us." Rom. v. 8. And 
well may we look on this as an amazing in (lance of the 
grace of our Lord Jefus Chrift, that Ke mould be wil- 
ling for our fakes to fuffer fuch a death as this. * And 
yet we may fay that there were other parts of hi$ fuffer- 
ings, whicn were far beyond the pain and (hame of the* 
crofs. v . . 

m 7. Thus we may fpeak of what he fu'ffered in the gar- 
den, the night m which he' was. betrayed, when he him- 
felf complained to his difciples, " My foul is exceeding 
f forrowful even unto death," Mat. xxvi. 38. when he 

prayed again and again, u Father, be poffible, let 
this cup pafs from me, " ver. 39, &c. and when, although 
an angel appeared to him from heaven to ftrengthen him, 
he was in fuch an agony, that "his fweat was as it were" 
great drops of blood falling down to the' ground, Luke 
xxii. 44 •, an agony that, had it continued but a little 
longer, muft needs have diflblved the earthly houfe of 
his tabernade j "and if he had felt fuch a violent per- 
turbation and diftrefs of foul as that occationed, after 
his enemies had apprehended him, we cannot conceive 
it poflible for him to have behaved with a proper calm- 
nefs and compofure of mind under all their infults. 
* 8. But " when he had offered up prayers and Ampli- 
cations, with ftrong crying and tears unto him that was a- 
ble to fave him from death," which this agony had well- 
nigh brought, upon him, " he was heard in that he fear- 
ed," Heb v. 7. and his heavenly Father did again fpeak 
peace and comfort to him. However, there is fome 
reafon to think, that our bleffed Saviour was not wholly 
free from all fufFerings of this nature, when he was upon 
the crofs, but that his forrow and diftrefs of foul had re- 

- t3S 3 

" * f f 

turned upon him, though not, it may be, to fo nigh i 7 
degree. Thus it feems to have been, when he cried 
with a loud voice, faying, My God, my God why haft 
thou forfaken n>e I Mat. xxvii. 46. 

9. They who were crucified with Chrift, like him,' 
were " made a fpedlacle to the world, to angels and to 
men," 1 Cor. iv. 9. and might feel as much pain in their 
bodies as he differed- But what was all this to the u Fa- 
ther^, bruifing him ?" Ifa.liii. 10. and to the diftreffes 
and terrors 01 his foul ? With an eye to thefe,, he might 
with reafon be faying, " Is it nothing unto you; all ye 
that pafs by \ behold and fee, if there ' be any for row 
like unto my forrow, which is done unto me j, where- 
with the Lord hath afflicted me, in the day of his fierce 
anger?" Lam* i* 12. Thefe forrows and fufferings of 
our Saviour are indeed of fuch a natute as' that they can- 
not in any manner be reprefented by the breaking of 
the bread : But, as they were the principal 'part of his 
fufferings, it rauft be owned to be highly reafonable to 
give them even the chief place in our meditations, while 
obferving that rite which feems appointed to lead our 
thoughts to this fubjeft. 

10. We muft not fail to take notice of the concern or 
intereft that we have in the giving and breaking of Chrift 's 
body, and by a$arity>of jreafon in all his fufferings* It 
was " given and broken for us. As he gave himtelf for 
our fins, that he might deliver us from this prefent evil 
world," Gal i. 4. fo God " fpared not his own Son f 
but delivered him up to fuffer and die for us all, Rom. 
viii. 32. " He was wounded for our tranfgreffions $ he 
was bruifed for our iniquities. The chaftifemeiit of our 
peace was upon him \ and with his flripes we are heal- 
ed. All we like fheep have gone aftray : we have turn- 
ed every one to his own way ; and the Lord hath laid 
on him the iniquities of us all," Ifa. liii. 5, 6. 

11. " As God fo loved the world that he gave his 
only begotten Son, that whofoever believeth in him 
fhould not perifh but have everlafting life ; and fent not 
his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that 
the world through him, might be faved,"Johniii. i5. iy # 
So we may fay, that Chrift fo loved us, as to give his 
body to be brdken for us, that whofoever believeth in 

I 36 1 

him (hould aot perilh, but kave evcrhHiag life : and be 
fu£ered and died, not to condemn us ;. but that we 
through him might be feved : and it is necefiary for e- 
very communicant to be .fenfible of this j this he mould 
confider, and with application to htmfelf, that he may be 
encouraged to look to 'htm by faith .for all the bkfled 
fruits of his fufferings and death *. 

Section V. 
And gavt it to the difciples, and /aid, tafo,*at. 

1. That which our blefled Saviour had taken, he 
brake ; that which be -had broken he gave to his difctples; 
and that which he 'gave, they did take, and eat : and 
this as we Wve fepn r ^Sf8 3,) was no other than bread. 
But forafoUBb ** ha has, appointed the broken bread to 
iignify his bo^y giVen and broken for us, we may rea- 
sonably ccwfider his giving us this bread as the giving us 
-his body j and agreeably to this, our taking and eating 
it is to Iignify our taking and eating his body. So that 
while taking the broken bread with our hands, and eat- 
ing it with our mouths, we ate bv fbme act of our minds 
to receive and est Chrift 's body as-given and broken for 

US. ,« *j V 

2. We may therefore fay of iacramental eating' as is 
(aid ef oircumoifion, Rom. ii. 29. " It is that of the heart $ 
in the fpirit, and not of the letter ; whofe praiic is not 
of men, but of God." There ought to be a decent and 
Teverend behaviour in all who do obferve this rite : and 
where there is this, we may gain the good opinion of 
our fellow communicants. JBut we have not the leaft 

* ** "f he fpecial object of our faitlyn this ordinance is the death 
" and iufForings of Jfcfus Chrift ; and the firft thing that we are to 
" act faith upon, with refpecT: to his death, is the perfonal love of 
** Chrift unto our perfons. So faith the apoftle, " Who loved me, and 
'* gave himfelf for me," Gal. ii. 20. The Lord lift us up above our 
•«* fears, and give us to view by faith, not only the love of Chrift in 
" general, but that heperfonally loved us, even this whole church." 
T>r QrwetCs difcoitrfes at the Lord*s table, x 


[ 37 ] 

reafon to think that God will approve and accept of 
what we do, and that it will be to the advantage of 
our fouls, unlets we are found in that which this taking 
and eating the broken bread is to fignify $ that is, unleis 
we take and -eat the body. of Corili, as given and bro- 
ken for us : And this is to be done no other way than 
by faith in him, as having been crucified for us. 

3. This language of our Lord, " This is my body, 
take, eat j f1 with that which follows in the inititution, 
44 This cup is my blood, drink ye all of it," is of the i 
fame kind with that which we have in St John, chap. 

vi, " Verily, verily, I lay unto you, except ye eat the 
flefh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood ye have no 
life in you. Whofo eateth my flefti, and drinketh my 
blood, hath eternal life, and I will railc him up at the 
laft day : For my flefh is meat indeed, and my blood is 
drink indeed," ver. .53, 54, 55. And the on)y diffe- 
rence between his do&rine in tHat chapter, and this, 
which is reprefented and. inculcated. in the, facrament, is 
this *, that whereas this ordinance fets the fufferings and 
death of Chrift before us, as pail, he there fpeaketh of 
them, as to come ; telling his hearers, not that he had* 
given, but " would give his ile(h for the life of the 
world," ver. 51. 

4. The Lord's fupper not having n^W been inftituted 
when he fpake in this manner, we cannot fuppcie that 
he had any reference to itj but when at the inilkution 
ef this ordinance he mane ufe of the like language, we 
may reafonably put the fame conftruclion upon it. As 
therefore the words that he then fpake were " fpirit and 
and life," ver. 63. and are to be fpiritually, and not li- 
terally underftood ; fo the fame we are to think of his 
words in the facrament : For, although it may be (aid 
that here, as well as there, he fpeaketh of his natural 
body, that very body which was in the womb of his vir- 
gin mother, and of his natural blood, that very blood 
which circulated in that body, yet eating his body, and 
drinking his blood, are figurative expreHions, 

- 5. There is, indeed, in the literal fenfe of the words, 

an eating and drinking in the facrament ; but as that 

which we put into, our mouths is bread and wine, md 

• not the very body and blood of our Lord, fo bread and 


t 38 3 

1 wine are all that, literally fpeaking, we can be laid to 

cat and drink. 

But the broken bread which we eat at his table, being 

( made the figure or fign of his body, considered as given 

and broken for us, and the wine in the cup, which we 

• there drink being alfo made the figure of his blood, which 

' he (hed for us, our eating this bread is llkewife the fi- 

gure of our eating his body, and our drinking the wine 
the figure of drinking his blood. But how can we eat 
* the flefh, or body of the Son of Man, and drink his blood ? 
not furely by putting them into our mouths $ no, but on- 
ly by fome ad of our minds, that is, as was obferved, 
by faith in him, as haying offered up himfelf on the crofs, 
as a facrifice to God for us. 

7. The body or flefli of our bleffed Saviour, as given 
and broken for us, and his blood, as (hed for us, may 
with rcafon be presented to us, under the metaphors of 
meat and drink, becaufe no meat and no drink can be of 
fuch fervice to us, in refpc& of this temporal life, as 
thofe may be, in refpeft of the fpiritual and eternal life. 
And the receiving his body and blood by faith in him 
crucified, may well be fpoken of as the eating and drink- 
ing them, becaufe it is by this faith that they are made 
ufeful and ferviceable to us, juft as our common food is 
by our eating and drinking it ; for then, and then only, v 
when we truly believe in Chrift, his. paffion is our re- 
demption j by his death we live, and (hall live for ever. 
8* The great defign of our Lord, in John, Chap. vi. 
ver. 17, if-c. is to (hew us the neceflity of faith in hira- 
'felf. There is no reafon to think that he faid, " Ex- 
cept ye eat the fle(h of the Son of man/ and drink his 
blood,; ye have no life in you," ver. 53. meaning by this, 
that all muft unavoidably perifli, who do not receive the 
facrament, becaufe many of his hearers might have been 
in their graves before his inftitution of this ordinance. 
Befides, it is not true of all who partake of the faGra- 
rnent, that, as he fpeaks, ver. 54. " They have eternal 
life." But we may reasonably fay to all who have the 
gofpel, and can underftand it, and to communicants, as 
well as others, " Except ye believe in Chriit, ye have 
no life in you, n ver. 53. And that whpfo belie veth i n 

C 39 J 

bttti,. " hath eternal life ; and he will raife him up at 
the laft day," ver. 54. 

9. This then, the believing in Chrift, is the great 
work to which we are to* attend, when taking and eat- 
ing the facr amenta! bread* He who hath a light faith 
in the Lord Jefus, and fo eateth him, " evea he (hall 
live by him, ver. 37. But we may as reafanably expect 
that the natural bread fhould nourifh and ftrengthen our 
bodies without taking and eating it, as that the crucified ^*~ 
body q£ our Lord, this fpiutual bread, this food for our II 
fouls, fliould give us eternal life, without receiving and 11 
eating it by faiith in him, crucified for us. What is ™ 
bread to us, if we do not eat of it ? No more- is the 
^pviour of the world to us ; no more are his fufferings 
and death, if we do not believe on him* But what 19 
this faith or believing in Chriii ? This is fo important a 
queflion, and it is fo very necefiary to give a full and 
ciear anfwer to it, that 1 {hall make it the fubje& of a- 
aother feclioii. 

Section VI. 

Qf tb At faith by which we are to eat Cbrtfl^s body and 
- drink bis blood in tbefacratnent. 

K 1. There is no plainer notion of faith or believing on 
Chrift than that which St. John gives us $ who fpeaks 
of it as being the fame with receiving him, as in ch. i. 
ver. 12. " As many as received him, to them gave he 
power to become the fons of God, even to them that 
believe on his name. 

2. Faith in Chrift fuppofes fome knowledge of the 
gofpel of God concerning his Son ; for we may well be 
hid to " believe in him of whom we have not / heard," 
Rom. x. 14. as to believe in him of whom we are wholly 

3. It alfo fuppofes an aflent to the truth of the gofpel : 
for the cleared and fulleft notions of it will not at all 
profit us, utilefs we look upon it as true, Heb. iv. 2. 

4. This knowledge of the gofpel, and. affent to the 

D 2 


[ 4 40%] 

truth of it, muft lead us to the receiving of Chrift : for 
what- reafon can we have to think that he is ours, and to 
lay claim to the blcflings that come by him, unleis we 
receive him ? 

5. When we fpeak of faith in Chrift, as the receiving 
of him, we muft confider him as fet before us, and offer- 
ed to us in the gofpel. 

6. The principal, if not the only ^notion of Chrift, 
which is given us in the facrament, is that of a Saviour. 
And we need not view him under any other notion, pro- 
vided we obferve that he came into the world not only to 
deliver us from the guilt of nil, but alfo to blefs us, "in 
turning away every one of us from, his iniquities," Acts 
iii. 16. And that he " gave himfelf for us, to puri% 
unto himfelf a peculiar people, zealous of good works," 
Titus ii. 14. But, forafmucfi as there are many who 
truft in Chrift as a Saviour, while they have no concern 
about being his people, and " obeying his gofpel," 
2 Theft*, i. 8. the fcripture fpeaks of him as a prince or 
Lord, as well as a Saviour, Acts v. 31. 2 Peter i. 11. 
and plainly teaches us, that we mult receive and owa 
him as our Lord, or we can have neither part nor lot in 
him as a Saviour. 

7. That which is meant by the receiving of Chrift, is 
an hearty and unfeigned consenting to this, that he {halt 
be ours, that is, agreeably to what has been faid, our 
Saviour, in the fulleft fenfe of the word, or, if you will, 
our Lord, as well as Saviour. 

8. Then it may be faid that we confent to this, that 
Chrift (hall be our Saviour, when we look to him, and 
truft in him for falvation in all its parts and branches. 
To this we are led by the fear of the wrath of God, due 
to us for our fins ; by .the high thoughts that we have 
of that falvation that comes by the Lord Jefus, and by 
the fenfe of this, that in him alone is our help found, and 
that, as he is able to fave to the uttermoft all them that 
come unto God by him, fo he calls on us to look to 
him, that we may be faved. 

9. And then it may be laid that we confent to this, 
that Chrift (hall be our Lord as well as Saviour, when 
we own and fubmit to his authority, or yield ourfelves 
to him as his fubje&s and fervants, at the fame time that 

r 41 J 

*re look unto him for falvatiom This fuppoies that 
we chuie his ft rvice above all other fervice \, and tha£ 
we are 111 y deter owned toferfake all that fierviee which 
is contrary to, Or inconfitieiit with his.- > 

10. But it mould be carefully obferved, that this re-* 
eeiving of Chrili, or consenting that he fliall be ours, is 
eot a Hidden flam of pafuon, which,, how violent ibever 
i* may be for thai preterit, i» foon over and gone, but 3 
fixed and abiding principle in the foul-, that biings forth 
fruit to perfc&km, Luke viii. 14* 

C r. Some will have it that faith is an habit begun) 
and others contend that i* an *& beginning an habit** 
But, not to difpute about words,, it may be ftftcient ta 
fty, that we can have no certain evidence of our receiv- 
ing Cbrift Jefus the Lord, or believing on him, to the 
juftifyingand faving of our/oak* where our fakh does not 
work in us as the principle of our actions. 

1 2. The fcripture exprefsly tells us* that not the bear- 
ers of the law are juft before Old* but that. tl?e doers, of 
the Jaw Jha/l be jufiijied^ Rom. it. 13, And hence it fol* 
lows,, that no faith in Chf ifb can juftify us, but what makes 
us«doers, the fincere doers of the law of God. And 
whereas we read, that the wicked " fliall go. into ever- 
laftiog putiifhment, but the righteous into life eternal," 
Mat* xxv. 46. we may be very fure that there is no 
fakh that can fave us, but what makes us righteous* 

13. Agreeably to thefe things, we find that faith is 
ufed in fcripture, as being to the fame fenfe with the new 
creature 5 Gal.yi, 15. chap. v. 6. and that it is faid to 
** work by love," chap. v. 6. to " to purify the heart," 
A&s xv. 9. to " overcome the world, 1 ' 1 John v. 4. And 
becaufe it makes fuch a wonderful change in our fouls, . 
and produces fuch effe&s, the power which God has 
employed upon thofe who believe, is fpoken of as ex- 
ceeding great, and as correfponding to that mighty 
power,- which he exerted in the railing of Chrift from 
the deadf . 

44. It may be faid indeed, that a man is juftified, and 

* Dices fidem primo injianti eft habitus inch oat vs ; refpondeo 
nequaquam fed eft a£ivs habit urn inchoans. . Limborch Theologia, 
Lib. V. Cap. XL. Se£. 6\ 

f Locke's paraphrafe on Eph. i. 10. 20. 

C 4* ] 

in a ftate of falvation, as foon as ever he heartily confent* . 
i that Chriit (hall be his Lord and Saviour j but then it 

i ought to be obferved, that as he is juftified, fo he is alfo 

j fanclified by th« faith that is in Jefus, A&sxxvi. 18. 

j The fpiritual life, a life of holinefs, and a life of happi- 

I nefs, is begun in him, the very moment of his receiving 

Chrift Jefus the Lord ; and as he is every day and in every 
ordinance, to be repeating his faith in him, or to be anew 
receiving of him ; fo the life begun in his foul is to be 
maintained by frefh acls of. faith. Every true believer 
therefore may fay, with the apoftle, " The life which I 
now live in flefh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, 
who loved me, and gave himfelf for me, 9 ' Gal. ii. 20. 

Thus I have given you a brief and plain account of 
faith in Chrift, that faith which juftifieth and faveth, and 
that faith by which alone we can be faid to eat his body 
and drink his blood at his table. If any look on this a* 
a digreflion from my fubjelt, the only apology I (hall 
make for it is this, " that nothing is more neceflary than 
" to have right notions of faith in Chrift/ 9 

And now I have confidered every thing that we meet 
with in the hiftoryof the inftitution of the Lord's Supper, 
relating to the bread, excepting his words, This do in re- 
membrance of me . But as the fame words 'were, alfo 
fpoken on his giving of the cup to his difciples, I fhall 
conftder them in their proper place, in the next chap- 

V J 


[ 43 3 


Of the Cuf. 

THE hitfory of the inftitution of this part of the 
Lord's fupper is as follows : 
St Mat. xxvi*. 27, 28. And he took the cup, and gave 
thanks, and gave it to them, faying. Drink ye ail of it ; 
for this is my blood of the New Tefiament f which isjhed 
for many, for the remiffton ofjins. 

St Markxiv. 23, 24. And he took the cup, and when 
he bad given thanks, he gave it to them, and they alt 
drank of it / and he Paid unto them, This is my blood of 
the new teftament, which is Jhedfor many; 

St Luke xxii. 20. Likewife alfo the cup after fupper, 
faying, This cup is the new tefiament in my blood, which 
is Jhedfor you. 

St Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 25. After the fame manner alfo he 
took the cup, when be had fupped, faying^ This cup is tb* 
new teji anient in my blood \ this do ye, as oft as ye drink 
it, in remembrance of me, 

Thefe four accounts may be thus digefted into one ; 

And after the fame manner be alfo took the cup, after 

fupper, andgave thanks, and gave it to themjaying, Drink 

ye all of it ; for this is my blood of the new covenant * % 

and this cup is the new covenant * in my blood, which is 

Jhedfor you, and for many, for the remijfion ofjins. And 

they all drank of it. This do ye, as oft as ye drink it 9 

in remembrance of me. 

* I have here put covenant iriftead of tefiament, which feems 
the proper meaning of the original word in this place, becaufe the 
old difpenfation, to which the new is oppofed, had nothing in 
it of the nature of a teftament, but was purely a covenant, or fti- 
pulation between God and his people the Jews promifing mercies 
to them, and requiring duties of them. See Hammond on the New 
Teftament, p. 1, %• Peirce on Heb.ix. io", 17. 

t 44 1 



Sectiok L 

-^W a/kr the fame manner he a/fo took the cuft, aft erf up* 

per % and gave thanks* 

1. The cup, as well as the bread, was taken in fuch z 
manner as to lead the difciple* to think that fome fpeci? 
al and extraordinary puf pofe was to be ferved by it- 
And 9 confide ring that which our Lord had done and faid r 
with refpeft to the bread, they might well look upon his* 
taking of the cup as the confecrating of it, or the fetting 
it apart to a facred ufe. And the pafchal fupper being 
then fully ended, they muft heeds be fendble that the* 
cup was not taken with a view to that ordinance. 

2. But we may fay of the cup as was faid of the breads 
(Chap, i* Seel. i. 7.) that it is>to be coniidered as holy 
to the Lord, fet apart for his worfliip, as foon as ever it 
is fet upon the table \ fo that the mintfter's taking it in- 
to his hands, or laying his hands over it, is to be looked* 
upon as no more than a recognition of its confecration. 

3. The wine, we may fiippofe, was in the cup when 
our Lord took it ; and as that fignifies his blood,, as we 
(hall fee prefently, fo it fets it before us Ihed. But for- 
afmuch as nothing is faid of his pouring the wine into 
the cup from another veffel, 1 fee no reafon tb confider 
this as a rite fignifying the fhedding of Chrift's blood v 
and defigned to teach us, that while this is doing, we 
mould view him as bleeding on the crofs* And indeed, 
when by the bread broken, he had, reprefented his body- 
as given and broken, or in other words, had fet himfelf 
before us as crucified j and vhen, in facl, his blood was 
fhed at the fame time that his body Was broken j why 
mould we think that he hath inftituted another rite, the 
pouring the wine into the cup, to direct our thoughts 
anew to him, as yet alive on the crofs, fhedding his blood 
and fuffering for us ? 

4. It muft be owned indeed, that it is very fitting for 
every communicant Jto make the fuflerings of our bleffed 
Saviour, in part, the fubjecl: of his meditation, when he 

C 45 3 

is at the table : but the bread fignifying Us body, the 
breaking of the bread mull flgnify the breaking of his 
body, and fo it naturally directs our thoughts to his Of- 
ferings. Whiletherefore the bread is breaking, we may 
with great propriety meditate on Chrift's fufferings for 
us. But when we come to this part of the facrament, 
the taking of the cup, we are not to coniider our Savi- 
our on the crofs, but as having been crucified 5 we ar*e 
no longer to view him as fuffering, but as having fuirer- 
ed j not as fhedding, but as having ftied his blood for us j 
and then our bufinefs is to attend to the bleffed and glo- 
rious fruits of his fufferings and death. 

5. When our Lord had taken the bread, he bleffed and 
gave thanks, that is, he prayed to God with thankfgiv- 
ing for his blefling. And as we cannot but fuppofe that 
he did the fame upon his taking of the cup, fo it is high- 
ly reafonable, that in this alfo, we mould follow his ex- 
ample. For now another and a glorious fcene opens to 
our view ; new wonders of grace are fet before us ; and 
as this demands our thankfgivings and praifes, To it 
likewife calls for our prayers to God, that we may, be 
aright affe&ed with a fenfe thereof, and make anfwerable 
returns of love and gratitude for fuch a favour. But 
this will more fully appear from considering the words 
which our Lord fpake upon this occaikm, when his 
prayer and thankfgiving was ended. 


This is fny blood* 

1. Can it be thought, that on the pronouncing of thefe 
words, the cup was tranfubftantiated ot changed into 
blood \ " No, fay the papifts, not the cup but the wine, 
" The cup is the fame as it was before the words were 
" fpoken, but the wine is no longer wine, but the very 
" blood of Chrift." And, according to the doctrine 
that they teach us, as in the former part of the facrament, 
the duciples had been eating Cbriit's body, that very 
body which they might have feen ftanding, .fitting, or 
lying before them, aU the while they were eating it y f« 

when- he had fpoken tbefe words* they were like wife drink* 
log hit blood, that very blood whick was then running 
ia ku reins. 

a« When the proteftants do objeft, " But 19 it poflible 
to bring any (hew of reaion for things fo abfurd as thefe V 
The papiils anifwcr, 4 * Yes, the words of the Lord Jefua- 
44 are plain, this is my body, and this cup is my blood - 
" We do not a£fc like Chriitians, if we deoy the truth 
44 of all that he has faid *." Bat to this it may be 
replied, * 4 That we a*e indeed to believe the words of 
44 our Lord ', but they are not to be understood in a 
44 literal, but a figurative fenfe. Andy as when he (aid 
44 of the bread, This is my body, he defignedno more than 
44 to lead his difciples to confider it as fignifying his bo^ 
44 dy \ fo we are alfo to think, that in faying of the cup* 
44 This is my blood, he meant no more than if he had 
44 laid, Look on this as fignifying my blood* 

3. The papiils admit of one metonomy in the words, 
that of the cup, for the wine contained in it ; and we plead 
for another, that of the fign for the thing fignified \ 
and it is hard to fay which of thefe figures of fpeech is 
the moft common. The plain abfurdity that there is in 
the literal fenfe, that is, the abfurdity of fuppofing that 
the cup becomes blood, and that we are to* drink the 
cup, forces them to give up that, and fly to the figura- 
tive fenfe. And in like manner, the plain abfurdity of 
fuppofing that a \?afer or a piece of bread may be the 
body of a man, and a little wine his blood ; and the plain 
abfurdity alfo of fa p polling that we may eat his body 
and drink his blood,, while we fee him alive, whole and 
unbroken before us, and while, as I may add, agreeably 
to what has been faid, our fenfes affure us that that which 
we eat and drink is no other than bread and wine v 
Thefe plain abfurdkies, I fay, force us to give up the 
literal ienfe of Chriit's words, This bread is my body, 
and this cup, or this wine is my blood, and to fly to> 
their figurative fenfe, and underftand them as meaning 

* M It is not meet for any Chriftian to appeal from Chrift*s words- 
" to his own fenfes or reafon for the examining the truth of what he 
" has faid, but rather to fubmit his fenfes and reaton to Chrift's 
u words in Obfequioufoefc of faiths* A Papift mifreprefinted and 
reprefented. . 

t 4f 3 

no more than that the bread and the win* are to be con- 
sidered as fymbols or tokens of his body and blood. 

Section III. 
The Blood of the New Covenant. 

i. Fir (I, our blefled Saviour teaches ns by th« bread 
broken, that he fuffered and died for us ; then he repeat- 
eth and confirraeth the fame by the wine in the cup, the 
fymbol of his bipod, which he (hed for us : and here he 
leadeth our thoughts to the new covenant J as the grand 
fruit of his fuffe rings and death. And we are now to 
obferve that God fo loved the world, as to give his Son 
to offer up himfelf a propitiatory facrifice " to declare 
his righteoufuefs, that he might be juit," Rom. iii. 25. 
and yet make a covenant of peace and friend (hip with 
fuch finful creatures as we are, even every one that' be- 
lieve^h in Jefus. 

" 2. Chriit's blood being (hed for this purpofe, " accor- 
ding to the will of God and our Father, Gal. i. 4. and 
agreeably to his compact with him, Heb. x. 5, &C. we 
may reasonably look upon it as the baiis or foundation 
of God's covenant with us. And fince that which our 
Saviour has done is fufficient to anfwer this end. (as ap- 
pears from his railing of him from the dead, and receiv- 
ing him up into glory) we may juftly fay, that the foun- 
' dation of this covenant is fure. And for this reafon we 
may alfo fpeak of his blood as the feal of this covenant. 
And it is certain that no figning and lea ling of a deed 
can dd more to ratify and confirm it, or to fatisfy thofe 
to whom it is given, that every article in it fliall be per- 
formed, than the blood of Jefus does to allure us that 
God will aft in every refpect agreeably to his covenant. 
For this our blefled Saviour may claim as a debt due to 
him on the account of his fufferings and death. This 
therefore the faithfulnefs and juftice of God may encou- 
rage us to look for.' See 1 John i. 9. 

3. Many are the blefllngs fpoken of in this covenant j 
but I fiiall only obferve, in the general, that the exceed- 

Sect. IV. 

And this Cup is the New Covenant in my blood. 

i. If fomc of the facred writers had told us that our 
Lord had (aid, " This cup is my blood of the new co- 
venant," and others, that he took the cup, fayfng, " This 
cup is the new covenant," and, if they had added no 
more, there would not have been the leaft colour of rea- 
fon for thinking any other than that he delivered both 
thefe propofitions. But " this is my blood of «the new 
covenant, and this is the new covenant in my blood," be- 
ing much the fame words, in a different pofition, feveral 
confiderable authors* have taken it for granted that but 
one of thefe was ufed, " fince they both tend to the fame 
" end, and defign the fame thing," But 1 cannot be of 
their mind, becaufe thefe two propofitions feem to me 
to give us different notions of the cup, and to arifwer ve- 
ry different purpofes : For in the former our Saviour di- 
rects us to confider the cup as his blood, <4 This cup is 
my blood j" and in the latter he fpeaks of it as the new 

* Hammond's works, Vol I. p. T76. Patrick's Menfa Myftfca. 
p. 75. Plain account, p. 16. Doddridge's harmony, Vol. I. p. 445. 


f 48 ] 

Sag great and precious promifes, which God has given 
us in his word, are as fo many articles in his covenant, 
to the performance of which he is binding himfelf ; and 
that from confidering their nature and extent, we may 
fee the bleflednefs of thofe 1 who have him in covenant j 
with them. And well may - it be faid, " Happy is / 
that people that is in fuch a cafe •, yea happy is that ^ 
people whofe God is the Lord," Pfalm cxliv. 15. " For ' 
what (hall we fay to thefe things,. if God be for us, if 
the Almighty hath made a covenant of peace and friead- 
(hip with us, who can be againft us ?" Rom. viii. 314 
What need they fear who have " Him for their fun and 
fhieldj and are affured that he will give them grace and V 
glory, and with-hold no good thing from them ?" Pfalm 
Jxxxiv. ii. 


C 49 3 

c*veca*t, " This cup is the new covenant :" and in that 
his blood is represented as the foundation of the new co- 
venant : but in this he leads us, as we (hall iee, to look 
upon the cup as the token and feal of this covenant. 

2. The cup is here declared to be the new covenant 
as exprefsly as the bread is declared to be Chrilt *s body, 
or the wine his4>load*. And yet it is allowed by all 
not to be in ttfelf the new covenant, nor to be ttanfub- 
ftantiated or changed into the new covenant. In this 
cafe we have free liberty given us to underftand the 
yitards of our Lord in a figurative fenfe, to avoid the ab- 
surdity of their literal fenfe. And for the fame reafon i 
we feouM take the like liberty as to other expreflions : I 
for it is not more abiurd to fappofe that the cup is chang- * 
ed into the new covenant, tlrau to fay that the bread is 
changed into the very body of Chriii, or that the wine, 
literally {peaking, is his blood. 

3. When God inflituted circumcifion, he fpake of 
that ordinance in this manner, ** This is my covenant," 
meaning that it was the token and feal of his covenant, 
as is plain from Gen. xvii. 10, 1 r. Rom. iv. 11. And 
when our Lord laid of the facramental cup, " This is 
the -new covenant," why fhould we not put the like con* 
ftruction upon his words, and fuppofe that they are as 
much as to fay, " This is the appointed token and feal 
of -the new covenant* And as God firii fpake of erla- 
bliming his covenant with Abraham and his feed, and 
then took notice of the feal of his covenant, fo our Saviour 

' does the like, for he firft diredh his difciples to couiider 
the new covenant as the fruit of his blood, and then lets 
them know that lie had appointed the cap to be the to- 
ken and feal of it. 
! 4. Th« cup may well be called the token of the new 

!• covenant, becaufe it is fet before our eyes to prefeatthe 
t* new covenant to our minds. Andthis being, as we have, 

feen, no other than the promifes of God or the gracious ' 
1 declarations of his word, the cup, as the token of the 
\ new covenant, is to lead our thoughts to thefe things. 
"When therefore it is about to be ■ptefented to as, k'will 
be proper for us to make fuch of the promrfes the fubyeft 


* Plain Account, p. 17. 


[ 5° 3 

cf our meditation as are mod fuitable to our eircun*- 

5. And as thefacramental cap (hould lead our thoughts 
to the promifes and gracious declarations of the word* 
which fet before us the bleflings of the new covenant, 
fo we fhould alfo confider it as lerving like a feal to allure 

* j us that every article of this covenant (hall certainly be 

\ ' i made good. For although the new covenant is in 

*" Chrill's blood, and his blood as (hed for us (or in 

^s; other words, his fufferings and death) is the feal, as well 

as the foundation of this covenant, yet as the cup is here 

^^ called the new covenant, becaufe it is appointed to be 

^ the token of the new covenant, fo it may alfo be called 

the feal of this covenant, becaufe it is alfo appointed to 

be the token of that blood which is the feal of it. 

6. Is it faid, but what occafion was there for inftitnt- 
ing a rite to fatisfy us that God will make good all the 
promifes of his word, when we may depend upon his 
veracity? a faithful is he that promifed, Heb. x. 23. 
who alfo will do , it, 1 Thef. v. 24. He cannot deny 
himfelf," 2 Tim. ii 13. It may be fufHcient to an- 
fwer, that knowing and pitying our weaknefs, and be- 
ing willing more abundantly to (hew us the immutabili- 
ty of his counfel, that they might have a flrong confolation 
whofe chief concern it is to enjoy the bleflings of the 
new covenant, He makes ufe of this as a means to help 
our unbelief and encourage our faith and hope in his 
word. See Heb. vi. 18. 

i 7. As every communicant is to look upon the blood 

I of Jems as the feal of the new covenant, and to think 

that his blood being (hed, " all the promifes of God in 

him are yea, and in him Amen, 19 2 Cor. i. 20. and as 

I he is to confider the cup, the token of this blood, as the 

appointed feal of this covenant, that is, as confirming 

thefe promifes, or as deiigned to give us full fatisfa&ion 

that every one of them (hall certainly be performed, fo it 

ought to be obferved, that there is no other fenfe'in 

which any of the communicants are, to think that the cup 

the feal of the new covenant. 

8. Some may fuppofe that the fpeaking of the cup as 
the feal of the new covenant to all the communicants, 
gives encouragement to the vain hopes of thofe among 
them, who are wicked, and who conclude with them- 



( whi< 
' is tli 

f 51] 

fclves that they are in a ftate of grace and falvation, be-' 
caufe in receiving the facrament they receive the feal 
of the new covenant. But, I think, I have fufhciently 
guarded againft this» by obferving, that the promifes of 
the word are all that God feals in the facrament. For 
unlefs you fuppofe that thefe promifes have a tendency 
to, encourage fuch hopes in the wicked communicants* 
the fealing of them, or affuring us that God will aft a- 
greeably to them, cannot jtfflly be faid ta have any foch 
tendency* And indeed it had' efFe&ually prevented 
their falling fnto this dangerous and~often fatal miftake, 
if they had but feriou{|y confide red, that as the plaia 
language of God in his word, " There is no peace to 
the wicked," Ifa. lviii. 21* is no ways contradicted by 
his promifes j fo there is no colour of reafon for fancy- 
ing that the cup in the facrament fpeaks any thing con- 
trary to this language, becaufe it only ferves to confirm: 
the prontiifes*. 

9. And as this notion of the cup gives no encourage*- 
nent to the vain hopes of the wicked communicants, fo 
it is certainly very proper to give the truly pious all the 
comfort they can reafonably defire. For as the promi- 
fes of the word do affure them that the Lord is their 
God, and that all the. bleflings of the new covenant are 
theirs j fo. the cup, as the leal' of this covenant, does 
aptly ferve to encourage their faith and hope in thefe 
promifes, and may well be coniidered as giving them the 
fame aflurance.. 

10. Let every communicant therefore take to himfelf 
that portion of the word and promife that belongs to 
him, arid, no ill confequence will follow from his looking 
on the facrament al cup as the feal of it. So far from 
this, that the confidering it under this notion may be of 
great fervice-unto all: for kiftance, it may invite and 
encourage a wicked perfon to forfake his evil H way and 
unrighteous thoughts^ and return unto the Lord ;" and 
it may alfo (hew him the neceflity of this, to obferve, 
that as God calls on him to a£t in this manner, fo he 
allures him, not only in his word, but by the facramen* 
tal cup, that thus doing " he will have mercy upon him, 
and abundantly pardon:" Ifa. lv. 7. And what can do 
more to. fill the foul of a pious communicant with love 

t 5*1 

to God and zeal for his fervice, than to think, as he &e> 
clares ia his word that he has made with him an " ever- 
lading covenant," Ifa. lv. 3. fo he alio Gets the cup be* 
fore him, and prefents it to him as the feal of his bleffed- 
nefs ? and furely the amazing love and grace of God that 
is herein difplayed, (hould in reafbn conftrain. us all to 
enter into, or renew a covenant with him, that we will 
be his people and fervants. 

1 1. But this leads me to obfenre, that a covenant be- 
ing a mutual engagement between the parties concerned ^ 
who enter into bonds or come under an obligation to 
each other, the ugning and fealing of the covenant is ta 
be confidered as the acl of thefe parties. As therefore 
the giving of the cup is to be looked upon as the token. , 
and feal of God's covenanting with us, fo our receiving 
of it is to be confidered as the token and feal of our cove- 
nanting with God, that is, as the token and feal of our 
folemnly. engaging, that we will be his, and will live sit 
his fervice. 

21. 1 only add, that it is with great propriety that 
the giving of the wine as the fymbol of the blood of 
J-efus, is made the feal of GcxTs covenanting with us y 
and that our receiving of k under this notion-, i* to b* 
the ftal of our covenanting with God. For as this 
tends to raife in us a fr.ll perfuafion of his acling, agree- 
ably to his covenant with us to make good our engage- 
ments unto him, "can any thing be conceived more. 
awful and binding than a covenant fo tranfa&ed *?** 

Section V. 

My bhody which is Jhed for you and for many*. 

x. As the wine in the cup, the fymbol of the blood 
of jefus, prefents it to our minds as fhed, fo it ought to 
be obfierved that the fhedding of his blood was fo remark- 
able a circumftance of his fuflferings and death, that, like- 
the breaking of his body, it may very well be put for 

* Groitei on the. Sacrament* 


C S3 ] 

titer whole. We rday therefore fey that this, as well as 
that, fets Chrift before us as crucified. 

2. And as when out Lord gave the bread to his difci- 
ples^he took notice of the intereft or concern that they 
had in his broken body, of which it was the appointed 
fign, obferving, that it was broken for them ; fo he does 
the like on his giving them the cup, the fymbol of the 
blood which he med ; for he tells them, that it was fhed 
for them *, and not for them alone, bnt for many others ; 
for Gentiles as well as Jews, even to all that (hall believe 
on him, John xvii. 20. " that wholbever believeth in 
Urn fhould not peri ft, but have everlafting life/' John 
iii. 16. 

3. As therefore Jofeph fpake of the kine and ears of 
coin in Pharaoh's dream as being one,.Gen.xli. 26. fa- 
vre may fpeak of the bread and the wine in the facrament ; 
thus far they are. both one \ both tend to the fame end, 
and anfwer the fame purpofe. Both are the fymbols of 
a- crucified Jefus, Both fet hinv before us as crucified 
for us ; and both are given u£ to invite and encourage 
us to look to him, and depend upon him for all the blef- 
fed fruits of his fufferings and death. 

4. And if it be faid,"But why (houldthe fymbol of one 
and the fame thing be doubled ? why mould our Lord 
ftt it again before us ? why mould he fpeak of it a fe- . 
cond time ?" it may be faid in anfwer, " That this may, 
be done to lead us to confide r it as a matter of the ut- 
mofl importance to us, and to (hew us that he would by 
all means engage ou f attention to it." And indeed, * 
whM is there of greater concern to us than this, that 
Chrift gave himfelf to fuffer and die for us, that believ- 
ing in nun, we4nay have life through his name ? Well «' 
may he, once and again, call and invite us to faith in 
himfelf, when, as was .obferved, this faith is abfolutely 
necenary, as to the right receiving of the facrament, fo* * 
likewife to our eternal bleflednefs. 

5. Befides, there is no method more proper than this, 
which our blefled Saviour has taken to remove all our 
doubts and fears as to his love t6.u& and our intereft in- 
his fufferings and death, and to lead us to look on this 
as a faithful faying, and worthy of all acceptation, that, 
became into the world, and was crucified for us that 

E 3 

S e c<r i o n VI. 

For the remiffion o/Jtns. 

When our Lord gave l.«v difciplcs the bread, the tok- 
en of his body, he only told them, in the general, that 
* it was given and broken for them j that is, for their be- 
nefit ; but now he comes to give them the cup, the tok- 
en of his blood, as he tells them that it was (hed for them, 
fo he like wife takes notice of its being (hed for this end 
in particular, that he might procure for them the remif- 
fion of fins. 

2. The blefiing here fpoken of, the remitfion of fins, 
♦he fruit of Chrift's (bedding o£ his blood, or the effecl: 
of hi* fuft'e rings and death, need not be taken in its raoft 
ftri£t and proper fenfe, as meaning no more than the 
bare pardoning of a criminal, or delivering him from the 

C 54 D 

we might be (aved. How can we call this in queftien^ 
when we obferve that in the faerament he gives us w>t- 
bnly one, but another token and pledge of iu 

6. Some of the communicants', it may be, when tak- 
ing and eating of the bread, fay in their hearts, " Alas ! 
we fear that we have' no part nor lot in this Saviour y 
it is not for us to trail in him for falvation ;" but as if 
compadionating their cafe t and willing to comfort them, 
he repeats the aflurance of this, that he was crucified fop * 
them, and fetting the cup before them, and presenting 1 
them with it, as the fymbol of his blood (hed for them- 

7. And as to others who may fay, Lord we believe, 
we believe that thou haft loved us, an J haft given thy- 
felf for us, and we receive this bread as what thou giv- 
eft us to encourage us to receive thee by faith as our f 
Lord and Saviour, they may fee reafon to add, help 
thou our unbelief ; Lord increafe our faith. And what j 
more proper to anfwer this end and to ftrengthen their . 
hope and their truft in Chrift than this, his affuring them » 
that he hath appointed the cup to be a freih token of his I 
fufferings for them, and his commanding them to receive 

it as fuch. 

t 51 T 
#oodfcnmittg fentenceof the law, but rather as befog the; 
* feme with that u redemption which we have through 
the blood o( Jefus, according to the riches of his grace," 
Eph. i* 7. or, a* taking in all the. bleiftngs for which he 
iuiered and died. 

3. And yet it is not without reafon that he mention* 
this in particular, and would fix the eyes of the cooamu-* 
nicants upon it ; for he fpcaks of his- blood, as the blood 
of the new covenant ; and he prefents the- cup to us, 
not only as the token of his blood,, but alfo as the- token 
and feal of this covenant, and nothing can do more to 
encourage us to receive it under this notion, than to> 
eonfider that ft is fhed for us, for the renniuon of fins* 

4. Sins in the general are here fpoken of, and con- 
fequently all fins rauft be intended. Have out fins 
therefore been ever fo many, and ever fo heinous,. 
we fhould not fay, Alas for us i there is no hope ! but 
think with ourfelves that we are invited to the table of. 
our Lord, and that as he there offers us his body, as gi- 
ven and broken for us, and calls us to eat bread in token 
of our receiving him by faith as our Lord and Saviour}. 
£0 he there affures us, that out of a regard to his blood, 
God is willing to make a new covenant with us ; nay, 
and that the wine, the reprefentative of this blood, is 
given us as the feal of this covenant on the part of God * 
and from this it follows, as we (hall fee under the next 
fe&ion, that our receiving of it is to be the token of 
our thankful acceptance of this covenant, and of our 
bringing ourfelves under the moft foleran engagements 
to God that we will be his fervants. 

5. Whereas therefore, fome of the communicants 
. aiay thus fpeak within themfelves j " But alas ! we have 

finned and rebelled againft the Lord, and is it for us 
to look for fuch a favour as this, the having him for 
our God in covenant ?" this may do fome thing to 
.give them relief and comfort, " the blood of Jefus ChrLft 
his Son was (lied for the remiffion of (ins, to wa(h (Rev, 
t. 5.) and cleanfe us from all fin," 1 John i* 7. and remove 
that, which is the only thing that can be fuppofed -to 
hinder the favour of God from flowing to us in a full 
irream. But this may lead me to obferve, 

6. This, the fheddtng of Chrift's blood, or his fuffer* 


C S6 J 

rag and dying for us, for the remiffion of finr, as*it ww 
[ the laft and the mpfl difficult part of his undertakings 

| fo it was the crowning and. completing of -the whole, 

j Agreeably we find, that* when? upon the crofs; he was 

| juit about to expire or give up his fpirit r bowing his head*, 

I he faid it is finished. John six* zo.~ And as in token 

of his full hope and confidence-of acceptance with Godj 
M He cried with aloud voice, and faid, .Father, into thine- 
hands I commit my fpirit," Luke xxiii. 46. j . fo there 
is abundant reafon to conclude that God was weUpleafed 
fhily'fatisfied with what our bleffed Saviour had done, oc- 
eanic he hath highly, exalted hinv and given him a name- 
which is above every name, that at the name of Jefus 
every knee fhould bow,V Phil. ii. 9, 10. And becaufe 
he is entered into the holy place, Heaven itfelf, witb 
his blood there to appear in the prefence>of God for us^ 
Heb. ix. 1 4, 24. "and ever lives to make interceffioa 
for us, 1 ' Heb. vii. 1 5. - Let thefe things be confidereoV 
and it will b^feen that a foltd foundation is laid for our. 
hope and truft in Cbrid \ and that .we may be fully af- 
fured, that " he is able to fave to the uttermofl,.,alltheia^ 
that come unto God Jby^hinV Heb.xiLij. . 

Section: VIIJ. 
Add gave it 'unto them^ faying. Drink yexaii nfi(\ * 

1. As that, which our Lord had before- given to hisf 
difciples was no other than bread broken, fo this, which > 
he is now putting into their hands, is no other than wine- 
poured into the cup. But that we may know what- act 
or a&s of our minds fhould attend the receiving of ity 
we are not to conuder what it-is in its own nature, but 
what it is made to Signify, by virtue <o£ his ordinance or 

Had this therefore been all that he had faid of the cup, , 
" This is my blood which is fhed for you jV as it would 
only have ferved, like the bread, to have fet Chriil be- 
fore us, as crucified for us ; fo like tHat, it would only 
have called for our faith in him, and then the giving of 


C 37 3 

the cup would have tended to no other end titan the 
giving of the bread. « 

3. But we find that our Lard has alfo fpoken of the 
cup as ** the new covenant in his blood > 11 and this no* 
tion being peculiar to the cup, we may reasonably fayi 
that this is that which we are principally to hart in our 
eye in receiving it. 

4. When therefore the cup is about to be put into 
our hands, it will be proper for us to confide r our bleffed 
S * viour, as the mediator of the new covenant, and a* 
afifuring us that ^ having (bed his blood, he has done all 
that which was neceffary to reconcile God to us, his fin- 
r\il and rebellious creatures ; fo that now he may be juft, 
Rom. iii. 2f5. and yet enter into the new covenant with 
us ; and that all the articles of this- covenant are drawn, 
and figned and fealed as it were in this blood* fo that 
nothing elfe is wanting to complete the bleffed work, but 
our accepting, flgning, and felling of the fame} and to thi* 
he calls and invites us. 

5. This is fo amazing, that we may well be crying 
out, " But is it fo in very deed ?*! 2 Chron. vi. 18. Is 
there any ground for the raviflimg thought, that the 
great God, the Creator of heaven and earth, will make 
a covenant of peace and friendfhip with us \ with us, 
who by our fins have brought ourfelves under the curfe 
of his righteous law ? is it for condemned criminals to 
look for fueh an high privilege as this* * when we con- 
fider what we are, and how ill we have carried it to- 
wards our maker, what reafon have we to fear that he 
he will deal wkb us a» with the angels that finned, "wbomi 
he caft down to hell, and delivered into chains of dark- 
nefs, to be referved unto judgment,** 2 Pet. ii. 4. Well 
might there remain*** no facrifice for our fins,. but a cer- 
tain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indigca- 
tlon, which (hall devour the adversaries, 1 ' Heb. x. 26, 27*. 
" Well might (hame and confufion for ever cover us. ,% 
But now, as if it were to obviate, or filence our fears, 
and give us to hope for this bleffednefs, as our compaf- 
ffrmate Redeemer here fpeaks of his blood as the foun- 
dation and foil a* well' as token of the new covenant, fo> 
He alfo tells us that it was ** died for us for. the remif* 

r js 3 

6. Being filled therefore with afenie of our obliga- 
tions to God for the unfpeakable gift of his love, the 
gift of his Son : and building all our hopes on his fuf- 
ierihgs and death, we (hould cheerfully and thankfully 
receive the cup in token of our hearty acceptance of 
God's offered grace, and of our folemnly engaging that 
we will be his, and will fpend all our days in his fervlce, 

7. To this the riches of the grace of God in fciskind- 
nefs towards us through Jefus Chrift, fhould in reafoa 1 
conftrain us. And what more evident than that this is \ 
abfolutely neeeflary to our happineis ? for a covenant )\ 
being, as was obferved, (Se&. iv. 2.) a mutual engage- . 
ment between the parties concerned, who enter into 
bonds, or come under an^obligation to each other, it can- 
not be fuppofed that the Lord (hould be a God in cove- 
nant with thofe who do not covenant with him. Be* j 
fides, we fee that the bleflings of the new covenant axe . 
all along fpoken of' in fcripture, as the portion -not o£ j 
thofe who are enemies unto God, but of wch only as ax* ;* 
his people and fervants. 1 


This do in remembrance of me : This do ye, ai oft as 
ye drink it, in remembrance of me. 

i* If this do meant no more than the bare eating the 
bread and drinking of the wine, the latter of the fen- 
tences at the head of this fe&ion* which relates to the 
enp, would have been a tautology, and the fame as ta 
fey, " This do as oft as ye do it." But our Lord does, 
here evidently command his difciples not onfy to eat 
bread and drink wine, but to do it in s# manner agreea* 
ble to all that which he had faid and done in their pre- 
fence, that is, to break the bread, and to take and eat it 
when broken, as fignifying his body given. and broken 
for them \ and to drink of the wine in the cup, as figni- 
fying his blood, the blood of the new covenant \ and a$> 
fignifying' alio the new. covenant in his blood fhed fat , 

C 59 3 

them, and for many, for the remiffion of fins ; and, after 
Iris example, to pray to God with thankfriving, as on 
the folemn taking of the bread, fo likewife on taking 
of the cup. 

2. Many writers have confidered thefe two paflages 
as a directionrto the communicants to remember Chrift, 
But although 1 freely own that it is their duty to re- 
member him, and that it is to no purpofe to eat bread 
and drink wine at his table without aferious remembrance 
of him ; yet I fee no reason to think that he here directs 
hisdifciples to this duty : becaufe after all that had pafled, 
inch a direction would have been altogether needlcfs. 
For perfons of knowledge and underflanding cannot ca- 
fily hear that which is faid of the bread, and of the cup, 
and attend to the prayers made upon this occafion, with- 
out remembering Chrift. 

3. But as he might very properly give orders to his 
difciples to ouferve . the ordinance he had juft initio 
tuted, fo it was likewife very proper for him to let them 
know at the fame time for what reafon-he gave them that 
order ; and both thefe things are done in the fentence* 
we now conilder. For, firit, our Lord commands his 
difciples not only to eat bread and drink wine, but to 
do it as was faid in a manner agreeable to his inftitution ; 
and then he acquaints them with the reafon of his ap- 
points* thefe rites, viz. " the keeping up the remem- 
brance of him in the world :'* A reafon that obliges Chri- 
fliuns in all ages to obferve them. 

4. As therefore the pafTover was to the children of 
'" Iirael for a memorial of the* Lord's pairing over their 

boufes," Exod. xii. 14, 27* u when he fmote Egypt in 
their firft- born, and brought out his people from among 
them with a ftrong hand, and a ftretched-out arm ;" fo 
the Lord's (upper is appointed to be to us a memorial of 
our Saviour and his fufferitig and dying for us on the crofs, 
that he might deliver us from fin, from death and hell, 
and make us bleiTed for ever. It is as a pillar, or mo- \ 
nument, which he himfelf hath fet up in his church, and * 
which he would have to continue therein till the time ? 
of his coming to judge the world, that his name may en- j 
dure for ever, and the remembrance of him and of his 
love to all generations. 





C 60 ] 

5. And as the very fight of a monument, if we are be- 
fore acquainted with the occafioa of its being erected, is 
fumcient to lead our thoughts to thofe things, the me- 
mory of wMch it is defigned to prefer ve, and as it can- 
not well be bat that we muft thank on them, when we 

"* read or hear that, which is inscribed upon it $ fo the 
\ very fight of the bread and the cup at the Lord's tabled 
^ if we are before acquainted with the occafioa of their J 
being >fet upon it, is fufficient to lead fftr thoughts to Bin; tj 
and it cannot well be, but that we muft think on him, ]1 
when we read or hear that which it as it were in&rib- \\ 
T ed on the bread and on the cup, or written ccmceruiag 
them 4 And when theAe words have been juft pcosoon- 
ced, " This bread u ChriiVs body, which is gcren* m& 
Waken for you $ and. this -cup h ChriJl's blood of tae 
new covenant, and the new covenant an his blood &ed 
for you, and for many for the remiffion of (ins ;" finely 
there is not the ieaft ncceflity, or ft mult he in vain, to 
call on the communicants to remember him. 

6. I only add here, that fome think that the original 
words may be thus rendered, This do for my memorial ; 
and that, as the rainbow was appointed to put God in 
remembrance, fo the Lord's flipper was militated, and 
we are commanded to obferve it to put Chrift in remem- 
brance*. But there is this difference in the two cafes. 
We are told that tbe rainbow is to put God in &mett« 
brance of the covenant he was pleafed to make with ail 
fledi, that he would not " any more deflroy the earth 1 
with a flood," Gen. ix. 16- But no intimation is given 1 
us of any thing that the facrament is to put Chrift in re- 
membrance oh But be this as it will, the notion of this j 
ordinance, that it is as a monument to preferve remem- 1 
brance of him, is no ways aftt&ed by it : for as the bow 1 
in the cloud not only fervesto put Gpd in remembrance J 
pf his covenant, but to keep up the remembrance of it ^ 
among men, fo whatever that be which this inftitution is , j 
to put Chrift in remembrance of, it is not the lefs pro- 
per to preferve the remembrance of him, and his fuffer- 
ings and dying for us. 

* Hollcw»y*s commemorative &crifice, p 15. 


[ 6i 3 

SjbctiOn IX. 
A*d4b*y alt drank of*it. 

i . Had our Lord : fatd mo • more as to the oup, themhe 
•fpake with refpe& to the bread, This do in remembrance 
of rae •, we might reasonably have underwood him as 
commanding his difciples to drink of the eup, as well as 
to ^cat the bread, in a manner agreeable -to 4)is-ordinaacc. 
But knowing that, in time to come, many of .the com- 
tmunicatits would fatisfy themfelves with the u bare -eat- 
ing and drinking in his prcfence," Luke xi«. 26*. as a means 
•proper- to prevent -this *vil, which 4K*f. prove of* fatal 
xonfequenee to fueh «s are guilty of «it $ he adds, as oft 
-as ye drink -k, words thakovidently teach us, as -we have 
'fcen Sect. VIII. I. that when drinking of the cup we 
%re to have an eye to the inititution, and to fee that we 
exactly obferve it 5 and this may lead us to conclude 
that we are to do the fame when eating the bread. 

2. And thus it is as to this, which we are now to 
coniider, the exprefs notiee that is taken of the d}fcipl*$ 
drinking of the cup. It is not faid that they did ail 
•eat of the bread,* and yet wo -cannot but-th ink that they 
did all eat of it. And we might reafonably have thought 
'that they all drank of the cup, had this alfo been pail over 
in filence. But known unto <*od are all his works, from 
^the beginning of the world. And things that to us are 
-future and to come in far diftant ages, are all prefeut 
onto him \ and as he forefaw that fome -would arife 
who would interpret the words, this do ye, when fpok- 
-en with reference to the cup, as not being a. com ro and 
"to -drink of it*, and who agreeably to this woald rfefufe 
giving it to the greateft part of the communicants ; fi> 
-ms if it were to (hew that all have a right to it, and to 
-embolden them to inM on their right, one of the in- 

* Hac igitur parte non continetur praeceptum faciendi, id eft, 
*d* Calice bioendi. Eftius in t Cor. xi. 25. ht Communion? cor. 
pons et (aaguinis Cbriftt fob, utraque fpecie nullum, extat omnia© 
N pr*ceptum. Ritus Ecclefiae.LauduaeDfis, p. 641. 

,t F 


j * 


fpired writers of the inftitution of the Lord's flipper 
was moved, as we fee, to leave this upon record, that 
they all drank of it. Mark xiv. 23. *« 

3. We may therefore oppofe, not only the precept of 
Chrift, but the example' of his di(ctples,'tot^e general 
practice of the Papifts* in withholding the iup . from - 
the laity, and all others, but the prieit who conrecrates 
it. As our Lord faid of the bread, take, cat, fo he faid 
of the cup, drink ye all of it j and fince it is evident from 
the carriage of his apoftles that they looked "Upon his 
precept to he as binding in one cafe, as it was in the o- 
ther, why fliould not we alfo do the feme ? 

4. Bendes^ if we confider the meaning of thefe rites, 
it will appear that the drinking of the cup is more ne- 
ceflaty than the eating of the bread. For the cup fets 
Chrift before us as crucified for us, as well as the bread, 
and like that calls for our faith in him* B«jt it cannot 
be faid of the bread, as it may of the cup, 1 that it fets 
the new covenant alfo before us $ and calls for 
our* faith in Chrift to difpofe us with the greater rea- 

f ' , dinefs and cheerfulnefs o£ mind to accept of God's 

1 * gracious offer of being our God, in covenant with , 

%nd to conftrain us to bind ourfelves in a folemn cr - - 
nant unto him; and to lead us to r do it in fuch a man- 
ner as that we may be lure of finding favour in ivs 

5. Ha£ our blened Saviour appointed the cup with 
no other view then to ftir us up to a repetition of that < 
faith in hfm as crucified for u&, which we axe to exer- 
cife when taking and eating of the bread, it would have 
been our duty to have complied with his inftitution^ 
but when he* hath appointed it not only for that pur- 
pose, but alfo to encourage and engage us to covenant 
with the Lord, that he (hall be our God, and we will be 
his people and fervants, we ihouldbe fo far from think- 
ing it needlefs to receive the cup,, that we mould rather 
look upon the receiving it as a matter of even greater 
importance to us^thsrit tWeating of the bread. 

* The King of France may receive the cup at his coronation, 
and Come others have this privilege. Ritut Ecclefiae Lauduuenfis, 
p. 641. etc. * 

6. I (hall therefore put an end to the review of this 
infiitution, with obferving, that the reafons for giving 
the cup to every communicant arefe plain and convincing, 
that it is really amazing any ftiould entertain a thought 
that thejuielt alone is to receive it. So that we may 
fay of this notion of the papifts, as is (aid by an ingenious 
author* of their. abuird doctrine of tranfubftantiation, 
^ ** that; as it is, one is almoft tempted to fufpe& it to be 
"* the effect of arrogance, rather thin error ? and to confi- 
der it as a meer infoient attempt to {hew the world, in 
the N itrongelt inftaoce they Could invent, what raon- 
ftrons things the clergy ftiould dare to fay, which the 
wretched laity fhould not dare to contradict $ nay, which ( 
they fliould be forced to pretend they believed. In this 
view the thought is admirable, and worthy the moll ma- 
Uciourwtt, that ever lorded it over the heritage of God. _ 
But it may cMerve fome ferious reflection, whether it 
be not an inftance of infatuation, to which God has gi- 
ven them up, that it may J>e a plain mark to all, that e 
Will ufe common fenfe, of the grofleit error in a church, 
which claims infallibility y and may not be intended by 
t p\ evidence, as a kind of antidote againft the reft, of its 


.♦. ' 

.Directions /o the Communicants, in their M e d i- , 

tatio-ns W Ejaculations. 

It fhoufd be our concern, to let non! of that time ruri 
.wade, which we fpend in the houfe of our God, but to . 
improve every minute of it to fome good pur pole. And 
as to the fpaces, or intervals, that there may be between 
one ordinance and another,' it will be proper to fill them 
up with pious thoughts and ejaculations. . This may be 
a means to render thole ordinances, that are over, the 
more ufeful to us, and to prepare us for fuch as we are 
to be found in. As foon therefore, as- the reit of the 
public worfKip is ended, you may yourfelves in 
fome fuch language as this. 

*- Dp Doddridge on the New Teftament, vol. ii. p#444> 


C 64 J 

" Now the Lord furnifheth a table foi as in his houfe, 
" and fetteth thereon the choice!! dainties. There will 
" be bread, which ftrengtheneth man's heart, and wine, 
u that maketh it glad j bread which came down from 
44 Heaven, that a man may eat thereof and not die \ 
" wine, which whofoever drinketh, hath eternal life. 

44 There the crucified Jefus, and all the bleffed fruits 
44 of his fufferings and death, will be fet before us. And 
" behold I though vile, and finful, and utterly unworthy 
4 * of fuch a favour, I am invited to be a gueft ! The 
u Spirit and the bride fay come, and let him that heareth 
44 fay come, and let him that is athirit come ; and whofo- 
* r ever wrll let him freely take of this fpiritual pro vilioa. 
u With what fatisfa&ion, delight and joy $ with 'what 
44 admiration of the love of God in Cfcrift 5 and with 
" what thankfulnefs and praife fhouldft thou, O my foul; 
**" accept of the invitation ! 

■7 " Oh ! may I be t aright prepared" for this feafU 
if When the king (hall come in to fee the gueils, let tne 
44f not be found without a wedding.garment. Forbid it, 
44 O Lord; that I fhould eat and" drink at thy table, in 
44 token of friendfhip with thee, and fecretly purppfe 
44 to go on in fin and rebellion againit thee. Give me 
44 to be found in all the duties now incumbent on me > 
and to- hunger and* thirft\arter all the-gped things-thou 
hail prepared for meg ^r*L£) ble£ vqc with all fpi- 
ritual bleflings in heaveri1y"pfces-ift'Qnrift, On his. 
grace I depend fbr afiiitance.j I truffto his merits for 
4 * acceptance." 

And now being come to the table,, and looking on the 
bread', and on the cup, let them lead your thoughts to 
the Lord' Jefus, "and* fix them on hhn as dne, who came 1 
ffom htaverr that he might give his fleffr, and fhed- hi* 
blood} for the life of the world, and fay upon it, 

441 Although thou hanV 'finned, & my foul T and by fin 
deftroyed tbyfelf, yet there i$ hope. In God^is thine 
help. He has laid help- on one that is mighty $ mighty 
to lave. In this was manifefted the love of God to- 
wards us, becaufe he fent his only begotten Son into- the 
world, that we might live through him. Behold \vhat 
manner of lave the Father hath beftowed upon us. 1 



t « 5 3 

\ ' **"He (pared not tne angels that finned j but caflthem 
down to hell \ and delivered them into chains of dark- 
nefs to be referved unto judgment. The Son of God 
did not come from heaven with a defign to take hold on 
them, or help and fave them, no, but with a view to our^ 
ialvatiou 5 and took part of our flefti and blood, that he 
might deliver us from all the evils., which our fins had 
brought upon us, and raife us up to endlefs Tblifs and 
- . * 4 Hofannah to the Son of David ; Bleffed is* he that 
cometh in the name of the Lord, Hofannah ift the 
highcft. God is the Lord which hath fliewed us 
light. Thou art my God^ and I willpraife thee. 
Thou art my Qod I will exalt thee. O give thanks 
xmto the Lord*} for he is goodj for his mercy en- 
dureth for ever. Gome, and let us offer the facrifice of 
praife unto God, the fruit of our lips, and call upon his 
name. Let the heart of them rejoice that feek him, 
feek the Lord and his ftrength ; feek his face for ever- 
more ; remember his marvellous works that he hath 
done.*' - 

Who^ know*' but that while engaged in fuch efcercifes 
a* thefe, your hearts may grow hot- within you 5 while 
you are thusmufing, thefacred fire of devotion may be 
kindled in your breafts.- This is certainly a very proper 
means ta> prepare our minds for thofe public prayers' 
and thanksgivings in which every 1 communicant is* to 
jpin ; and aswTien thefe are over, the next thing to be. 
attended to, is the breaking of the bread j fo this rite 
fctting Chriit before- us as fuffering and dying for us, we 
may>fpefcd the^time it takes up In thus fpeaking witbiri • 
ourfclves* ■ 

"*Thou art now," O my foul, 5J^ fix thine eye on the 
biefled Jefus, the Lord of life and glory, fujfering and 
•lying for thee. This he did now more than feventeen 
hundred years ago, and he has »inftituted this rite, the 
breaking of this bread, to preferve the memory of :t J 
and it now prefents it to thy* thoughts. Lord help me 
to turn afide and fee this great fight ; may I view it on 
all fides 5 ; view it thoroughly, and with a becoming 
temper. What more amazing ! what more affecting ! . 

" See here a righteous and innocent perfon, given up 


into the power of his biood-thirfty enemies*, to be cruci- 
fied aad itoin by their wicked hands, as* if he had been 
the vileif of malefactors ; nay, fee here, the only begot* 
ten' Sou of Godbruifed, and put to grief by his betoved 

" Who can fay how great his fufferings were I what 
an agony was he in when he prayed again and again ur** 
to God), with ftrong crying .and tears, w O my Father, it 
k be poflible, let this cup pals from me y neverthelel* 
not as 1 will, but as- thou wik i" and when he .was 
preffed with forroW and amazement ; whenluch was 
the dtftrefs and aqguifh of his foul, that his fweat ran from 
him like great drops of bluod ! 

*' How (hall we account for thefe fufietrog* of the 
Holy Jefus, the Son of God, his" beloved Sort, in whom 
he was well pleafed ! Where were the bowels of his Far- 
ther ! nay, where his juftice f The fcripture anfwers, God 
commencjeth his love towards us, in that while we were 
yet tinners, Chriii died for us, Rom. v. f. He fparcd 
not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, chap- 
viii. 32. And this he might do without "any injuftiee, 
or want of affeftion to him r> for Chrift alfo hath loved 
us, and hath given himfelf for us, an offering, and a fa- 
crifice to God, for a fweet fmelling favour, £ph, v. 2. .'- 

" See then, O my foul, this love of God* this grace 
of our Saviour Jefus Chrift. Lord, give me to know 
more of this grace \ raife ift me the high eft thoughts of 
this love. Oh ! may I feel that it conftraineth me hence- 
forth to live, not unto myfelf, but unto him that died- 
for me, and rofe agairu" „ 

And now the bread being broken, it is next £refented 
to the coxnmuuicants, -and the word* of our Lord Jefus 
are repeated, Take, eat, this is my body, which is given 
and broken for you. This may lead us to add as fol- 

" What words do I hear ! with -what pleafure and 
joy fliould I receive them ! Is not this the fame as if 
the bleffed Jefus were faying unto thee, O my foul ! 
Let all thy fears and doubts, as to thy concern in xaf 
fufferings and death, immediately vaiiifh ; and know, af- 
furedly, that as my body was given and broken upon the 
Crofs, fo it was for thee that this was done) for thee I 

t«7 -3 • 

ftffeted; for thee I wasr crucified : for thy good; fcrf 1 

thy&lvatioiK And I am willing, heartily willing, to be ^ 

thy Saviour'. '* To this end 1 was born^ and for thi* 

eaufe came I info the world, and made my foul an of- 

fering for fin." And 1 now give thee this bread, thefym- 

bol of my body given and broken for thee, in token of 

my calHng on thee to look to* me, with hope and joy t 

for ait the blefied fruits of my Offerings and death :. ** be 

not faithlefr, but believing. 11 

** And Turdy it wiH become thee to fay, in return,^ ' 
M Lord, I believe, help thou mine unbelief. Mine mi* 
* quities teftify agamft me, and my ttanfgrefltons, which 
•* have been multiplied. Ah, how have 1 defpHed the 
" ^commandments* of God, and done evil in his fight. It 
" fe-df his 4 mercies, that I am not consumed. But why 
** fhould the fenfe of my fins caufe my heart to deipair, 
** wh^n tboir, O bleffed Jefos, the hope of Ifrael, and % 
44 the Saviour thereof, calleft to all the ends of the 
€< earth, to look onto thee, that they may be faved, Ifa. 
*' xlv. 22 y to come unto tkee, that they may have reft, 
" Matt*xL a6. ' 

*♦ Encouraged therefore, not 1 only by thy word, but 
*• by this fenfible pledge of thy favotrt, which thou here 
" giveft me, I now 'fly to thee as my Saviour. In the* 
*' alone 1 truft i Lord, lave me, or I perifh. To thee 
" I now look for repentance, and the forgivenefa of all 
4t my fins j for a righteouihefs to juftify me $ for thy 
" Spirit to fan&ify me; for reconciliation and peace with 
* x God, and all the bleffings thou hail purcWed. 

" To thee I now folemnly and heartily devote myjrtf, 
" Lord, I -anr thine 5 fully reiblved, in an human depen* 
** dence on thy gtace, to fpend all my days in thy fer- 
" vice : and I new take, and eat this bread, in token of 
<c my ackuowledging thee as my Lord, and of my trufti 
** ing and hoping in thee as my Saviour." 

If there be any time between the receiving of the 
bread, and the other part of this 01 durance; it may be 
employed in feme fuch thoughts as thefe : 

** Thou haft now-named the name of Chrift, let it be 
** thy care, O my foul ! to depart from all iniquity. 
" Like one of his familiar friends, thou haft be,en 
'*' eating of his bread, give proof of thy loving him* , 

C « J 

*by keepmg his commandments, Bec6noerne\Fto~*j*V* 
: ' * prQvc thytelf to him, as his difcipte indeed, by conti- | 

14 mtiug in his wp^ living in bis &*vice; Let thy con- 
44 verfation be as it becemeth bis gofpel; fo as to adorn 
" this dodttkie «f God, our Saviour in all things. As 
M thou baft received Chrift Jefus the Lord, fo walk in 
" him, rooted, and bult up in him, and fttibHfheduv 
t H die faith, abooadiag therein with thaBk%*ving. O 

> ** mayeft thou never forget that he fr thy Lord, but dai- 

1 u ly worftiip and ferve him. A4 way 4 remember that he: 

J u is thy Saviour :. the life whioh I now live in the fle&y 

; ** I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, 

\ "and gave himferf for me. 

I 44 O Lord ! do thou enable me to maintain a cotafymt 

[ 44 > dependence orv-iky grace, and grant that. I may find it 

** fufficient fo* me in all difficulties and trials: • p ' thou 

" bleffed Jefus ! v thou almighty Saviour I keep ' that 

44 which I have committed unto thee agminft that day. 

I u Pray for me, that my feith may never fail ! Lord, in- 

f ** create and ftrengthen it j perfed that whidi is lack- 

i " ing in it. Fulfil all the good pleafure* of thy^goodnets, 

< <4 and the work of faith with power* May its a&ings 

I u \k more vigorous and lively, in the remaining part of 

44 this duty, than they have been in that which is now : 

44 over. Mine eyes are unto thee, O Lord, . have mtiv- 

^ ** cy upon me," t 

f Our meditations and ejaculations, relating to the cup, - 

fhould be fuitable to the feveral things that our Lord '■■ 
■ obferved, as he preferited it to his difciples \ as that it is 

the fymbol of his blood, which he fhed for us, for 
the ramifiton of fins 5 that this blood, of which the clip 
is the appointed fymbol, is the blood of the new cove- 
nant \ and that agreeably to this, the cup is alio td $>e 
£onfidercd as the token andfeal of this covenant, in-Chrift's 
blood, both on God's part and on ours. 

The confidering the cun, as reprefenting the blood of 
Jtfus (hed for us, and for many, for the remifTion of fins^ • 
44 that whosoever believeth, through him might be fay- 
ed,™ may lead us "to exprefs our thoughts m fuch words 
as thefe : 

# 44 Thou art now again, O my foul ! to view the cru- 
44 cified- jefus ) for he is again evidently fet forth before 








'* thine eyes, a* crucified among ,us. Behold, the" price 
"*of thy redemption, the forgiveneft of tHy fins $ not 

cdrraptible things,, as fi}ve*r and" gold,. l>ut the preci-, 
" ous blood of Chriflr, asofa kffib without blewifll, and. 

without fpor. How great is that falvation, which was 

purchafed by the Sen' of Gdd at fo dear a rate t how /^ 

M (hall I efcap^ if I Aeglfea it !' . , 

But be not\caft down, O. my foal I why ffloul'dft 

thou fear, and not hope in the Saviour of all' men,, e- t 

" ven eveiy one who bedieveth, when he affbreth thee,. 
"that be fufFered and* died' far thee, and again calleth 
" on thee to look to him for all' the blef&d' fruits of his 
" fufferings and death 5 nay, again prefenteth them un- 
" to* thee'! 

Do riot forget that he who was delivered for thine 

offences, was raifed again for thy juitifieation ;, and 
"that, as by bu blood, that blood which he ftted for 
"' the remiffion of thy fins, he entered into the Holy place,. 
*' heaven itfelf; now to appear: in tlieprefenee of God for 
'• thee 5 fo he is able fo lave them to the uttermoir, that * 

"I come unto. God by him,feeing her ever Hveth to make 
"interceffion for them." 

When considering the cup, as fetting before us the 
blood* of the new covenant,, you may proceed! as ioU 

" O'may the God of our Lord JefusChrift, t&e Fa* 
'* ther of glory, enlighten the eyes of my und'erftandihg,, % < 

'* that I may know what is the hope of his paling j, 
" what the exceeding riches of his grace, in his kindnefs 
* r towards me through Jefus Cbriflr 5 how very defl'raBle, 
" that bleffednefs is, which is now fet before me. 

" Had no mote beenfaid of the blood q Jefus, than 
4# that it was ihed for the remiffion of fins, it might have 
" been thought, that the being faved from wrath through 
" him, is all I am to look for. But how fhouldft thou 
** W'onder, O my foul ! at the gracious words which pro- 
"ceeded out of his month! This is my blood qf the. 
" new covenant ; words evidently dfefignedto encourage 
** thy hopes of the fura of all bleffednefs, the having the* 
**" Lord for thy God, in covenant with thee. 

" And now fliou art not merely to view, but receive 
44 Chrift by faith; a* having once fufFered for .fins, the 


1 10 ] 

" juft for tke unjuft, that he might bring thee to God ; 
" that G9d, of an enemy, might be thy friend ; that his 
" covenant, q£ life and peace might be with thee - y that 
" -all the exceeding great and precious promifes in his 
" word, promifes of the life that now is, and of that 
u which is to come, might be thy portion- In Chrift 
" they are yea, and in him, amen > ratified *ad confirm? 
** ed by his blood. "* % 

" Now thou art to look up to God in the heavens, as 
14 fitting on the throne of his .grace, holding out the 
"*' golden fceptre, inviting thee to draw near, and in how 
{' condefceriding, how kind, and movidg a manner i in- 
44 cline thine ear ; come unto me ; hear ? and thou (halt t 
44 live» and I will make an everlafting covenant with, 
"thee, even the fure mercies of David, Ifa; Iv. 5. 

" Be aftonjfhed, O ye heavens, at this ! let angels, as 
44 well as faints, ftand amazed at the love of God, in giv- 
" ing his Son 5 and the love of Chrift, in giving himfelf 
" to funYcr and die that we might partake of this oleffed- 
11 nefs. 6h how rich is God in mercy ! How great is 
44 the love wherewith he hath loved us ! How exceed* 
44 ing abundant is the grace of our Lord Jefus Chrift ! 
44 Shouldft thou not love, him who firft loved thee ! 

44 What is there, O my foul ! of greater importance 
44 than this, the having God's covenant with thee.* Thy 
44 life j # thy all ; thy peace and comfort, in this world, 
44 and eternal bleffedneis in the other depend upon it* 
44 Happy is he that hath the God of Jacob for his help; 
44 whofe hope is in the Lord his God, who made hea- 
" ven, earth, and fea, and all that is therein ; who keep- 
44 eth truth and (hall reign for ever, even thy God, O 
44 Zion, unto all generations !" "* ' / ' ^ 

That each of thefe notions, which our Lord has givea 
us of his blood, may be further improved for your 1 com- 
fort, it may be proper to add. 

" And what can do more to filence all thy fears, nay, 
*' to fill thee with all joy r and peace in believing $ and. 
41 even give thee to abound in hope of this unfpeakable 
44 privilege, through the power of the holy Ghoft, than. 
"** that, which thy bleffed Saviour has obferved concern** 
44 ing his blood r 

** Thy fins, O my foul, have been many,, thyjguilt has, 
"been great j but be of good comfort j th#blood of 
*' Jefus was fhed for thee, tor the remiffioh of thy fins ; 
*? \{ therefore thou confeffeft and ^oriake'ft ' them, e- 
** yen the faithfulnefs, as 'well as'me*cy, of God, may 
"encourage thy hopes of forgivenefs r 1 John i. 9. 
. Prov. xxvii. 13. " > 
" Thou hall rebelled agaJntt die moft high God, th« 
*'pon"effor and 'Lord of heaven and earth} and there 
" is nothing thou canft do to merit his favour 5 but dbft 
" thou repent of thy wickednefs arid*chufe the thing* 
" that pleafe him, it is no prefumption in thee to take 
hold of his covenant, and look for all the bleffings it 
fpeaks of •, for this blood, ' which was Khed for the re- 
u million of thy fins, is alfo the blood of the covenant, 
'** tne price of theft bleflings." 

I • The viewing the cup as the new covenant in Chriftjs 
blood, may Jead you to fpeak to y ourfelves in fome fuci 
manner as this, 

* ' And mould it not remove every difcouragjng thought* 
** to behold the Lord Jefus ptefenting thee with this cup f . 
'** the fymbol of his blood, and commanding thee to re- 
*' ceive it, as the new covenant in his blood. It is* a. 
fenfible pledge of God's favour to thee ^ the feal, as 
well as token of his covenant 5, and defigned, not meer- 
ly to lead' thy thoughts to the gracious declarations 
and jpromifes of the word 5 but to excite and fhength- 
en thy faith and thy hope in them, and to fervc as a 
** witnefs fbr GodL that there (hall not fail one word of 
44 all his good prbmifes. 

** Make ufe then, O my foul, of that liberty that is 
M granted thee, to enter into the holieft by the blood of 
" Jefus $ that blood by which he himfelf is entered j and 
" go boldly, though with reverence and* godly fear, to 
** the throne of grace, that thou mayeil obtain mercy f 
" and find grace to help in time of need. 

" And now, O Lord, I draw near to thee. O may 

_-** 1 do it with a* true and upright heart ! In thy favour 

" is Ufe. Thy loving kindnete is better than life. My 

**<d*(h and my heart faileth ; and all things here will * 

-•* fail ; but if I have thee for my God, in covenant with 

"*' me, my happinefc will bfitecure and Iafling \ for-thou 





I 7* !l 

" milt be tbeittength of my beartjfifi.aty-fttfljoafer 
44 ever. This as all my klvatipn, and «U «*y jde£ip, ♦ 

44 1 acknowledge my fin untothee-t aad>roio;e iniquity 
u will I not hide } to jme bdortgeth confufieQ pf fact, 
44 becftuie I have .finned againft thee, 1 *n*&ftt werthy 
44 of the leaft of all thy metcics $ ,if £hyjcoiRpa&ej&>h*d 
44 failed, iiow very miferable had I now been ! who, am 
" I, O Xord God i whence is this to me* ,tht$ thou 
44 /houldft fpeak of making with me arneverjailing cova* 
44 a*nt, ordered in all things and Jure - y but Tuck- jure the 
44 riches of thy grace* that as in thy word thou fettaft 
" this bleifednefs beibxe me, b this cup is prefented to 
44 me to encourage my hopes jaf enjoying it. .« . 

44 And now having foil aifuraace of Taith^bein£fira*» 
44 ly perfuaded id the efficacy of the blood of Jefos ; %ta£ 
u blood which he fhed fox the. remiffion of my fins* $h* 
44 blood pf the new. covenant, I receive, and drink of this 
44 cup as the fymbol of this blood, and as the token and 
44 feal of this covenant, and this I do 9 for a teftimony of 
44 my taking thee. for my God .and dedicating myielf 
* 4 to thy fervice. * 

44 O Lord, thou art my Lord, my lot, my ..portion, 
the life of my foul ; the father of mercies j the God 
of all comfort. .All my fprings are in thee. In thee 
will I .put my truft. In thee will I boaft all the day 
long. I will praife thy name for ever. In this alone, 
will I glory, the understanding and knowing thee* Thy 
mercy, O Lord, is in the heavens $ thy faithfulnefe 
rcacheth unto the clouds. Thou exercifeil loving iuadr 
nefs, judgment and righteoufnefs in the earth. Thou wilt 
abundantly fatisfy thy people^ thou wilt make them 
to drink of thy pleafures. For with thee is* the founr 
tain of life. In thy light {hall we fee light. . x 

** I now yield myfelf unto thee as> thy fervant ; all 
the powers and faculties of my (but, and all the member* 
of my body, as inftruments of righteoufnefs unto God* 
I now enter into thy covenant and into thine oath, that 
I will be thine ; and will walk inthy 'ways, will live in 
thy fervice. ~I now folemnly engage to make thy word 
the rule of my lite, and thy glory the end of my living. 

44 . D take away. all iniquity, and receive me graciduf- 
ly ; turn not away from me, but rejoice over me to do. 
me good, and put thy fear in my heart, that I may \q 

t n 1 

A ever depart from thee. Thou who art the God of peace, 
that haft brought again from the dead our Lord Jefus, 
through the blood of thfc everiaftiug covenant, make me 
per fed in every good work to do thy will, working in 
me that which is weii plggfing ifl'thjr light, through |e» 
(its Chrtft, td whom be gtory fo* ever andreverJ A*- 

Theft devotional, exertifes rthukig to the cu^ may 
prepare your hearts for the praifes as well as prayers 
which are to be offered up to Cod in publiey after the" ' 
receiving it. 

I fpeak of praifes as weir afc prayers, beeamfe it ap- 
pears from the hiftory of the iaftitutiofi of the ford's 
ftrpper, as might have been obfcrred in the review, that 
Chrift and his apoftiesrftng an? hymn before they' left the? 
houfe in which he had inn^luteti it. Mat*, xxvi. 30-. l&toxk 
xiv. 26. We cannot fey, whether this was the hallel of 
the Jews, which began, at Pfak caiti. and ended with 
Pfal. cxviii. 5 or a part of it only ; or (bme other hymn 
snore fuited to his new inftitution* Bat,: bethis as it 
will, as the reafon of things led the Jews to fing praifes 
to God, when they had eaten the pafioVer,-ii>it fhotlld 
touch more lead Chriftaaas to do the feme, on their hav- 
ing received the Lord's fupper ; for no io fiance of the 
'love and grace of God is equal to that, which this ordi- 
nance fets before us. 

But the laudable cuftom that prevails amongfl us, 
makes it needlefs to infift on theprotff of -this point : for, 
as the Church of England, in her communion fer vice, 
directs us to. fay, or iing, " Gioiy : be to God on high, 
and on earth peace, good~t?tU towards men ; we praife 
thee, we blefs thec> we worfhip thee, we* glorify thee*- 
we give thanks to thee for thy great glory, O Lord God, 
heavenly King, God the Father Almighty ; fo the dif- 
(enters have various eolle&iotts of hyttitw for their ufe« 
at the Lord's table. I mall transcribe- a few Ikes from 
Dr. Watts, becaufe of their ftritablenefs to that which- 
I have obfcrved concerning the iacroinental cup* 


I 74 J 

Hope in the covenant. 

HOW oft have fin and Satan ftrove 
To rend my foul from thee, my God I 
But everlafting is thy We, 
And Jefus fcals it with his blood. 

The oath and promife of the Lord 
Join to confirm the wondrous grace $ 

Eternal power performs the word, * 

And nils all heaven with endlefs praifc. 

Amidft temptations fharp and long 
My foul to this dear refuge flies : 

Hope is my anchor firm and ftiong, 
While tempeits blow and billows rife. 

The gofpel bears my fpirits up ; 

A faithful and unchanging God 
Lays the foundation for my hope 

In oaths, and promifes, and blood. 


Hymns, B> I. cxxxlxT 

Ibe Nnv Covenant fealed* 

HPHE promife of my Father's love 
■*■ Shall ftand for ever good j 
He faid, and gave his foul to death 
And fcal'd the grace with blood* 

To this dear cov'nant of thy wprd 

I fet my worthlefs name ; 
I feal the engagement to my Lord, 

And make my humble claim. 

Thy light and ftrengthj and pard'ning grace 
And glory (hall be mine j 

t 75 3 
My life and foul, my heart and flefh, 
And all my povv'rs are thine. 

B. III. ir. 

Here in thy courts I leave my vow, 

And thy rich grace record j 
Witnefs, ye faints, who hear me now, 

If I forfake the Lord. 

PfaL cxvL 

Unlefs John xvii.isone of CLrift's Sacramental pray- 
ers, we cannot plead his example for praying after re- 
ceiving of the cup. But fince there is no colour of rea- 
ibn for thinking that this duty is then improper, or un- 
feafonable, why mould any be for breaking in upon the 
cuftom of concluding this feaft with prayer, which fo 
generally prevails* ? 4 

And now the public worfhip being over, all that re* 

mains is for every communicant to mak<e the moft ferious 

reflection on what he has done, and to be found in fuch 

. exercifes of the heart in his retirements as are fuitable 

to his cafe. 

If Deifts as well as Chrtftiahs, they who deny, as weir 
' as they who believe the gofpel of God concerning his 
Son Jefus Chrift our Lord, are among the communicants, 
tiic y may ptrfftich queftions as thefe to themfelves. 

• A Is this that I have done to be juftified ? have I a&- 
cd honeftly, and with a regard to truth ? were I in Tur- 
key, or in China, might I not join with the Mahometans, 
or Pagans in their fuperftitions, as well as join with the 
Chrifhans in this, which they look upon as the moft fo- 
leinn institution of what they call their Religion ? may 
not Shadrach, Mefhach and Abednego be .juftly applaud- 
ed for their bravery and noblenefs of their fpirits in ha- 
zarding their lives rather than fall down and worfhip the 
golden image that Nebucliadnezzer had fet up ? and 
may not I as juftly be condemned for being governed by 
the bafeft principle in receiving the facrament with no 
other view than that I may have a legal qualification for an 
office ? Is it fit upon any confideration whatever to be 
found in anj aft of falfe worfhip, and to do honour to 
an impoftot. 

* Oratio convivium dirimit. Tqftul. ApoU 

I 7« 3 

" But why (houjd I thus {peak of JeJGw of Na**teth, 
wfro, if the hiitories of ium in the Nejr Teftamcjft bt 
Uue, was-a man without guile $ and approved of God, 
a* a teacher come from Him, by many miracles, and W0Q ? 
ders and %ns, which wete openly done by him, and at 
length declared to be the Son of God by his refurac- 
tion from' the dead ? 

" This inititution, indeed, fets him before as as cru« 
cified *j but is this the only notion under which I ought, 
in reafon,* to confider him ? had he been a deceiver of 
the people, mud there not have been a foil end of all 
faith in him, and regard to him, upon tu$ having been 
put to,and ink* infamous a manner.? bttf is it not 
certain t&at Qhrift^apity very jnu$V preyaUed, and that 
the number of his #fciples mighty iq£Mga/e4,£Qr many 
years after his crucifixion ? and is it npt^)foceit#in that 
men in thofe times, cpuld not reafonably hope £or any 
worldly jad vantages from profeflingthemftlvesCJllJ j#i|uis > 
fp far frpra it;, ,tr^at this the way to endanger the lofioj; 
t^heir eftate?, jthcir friends, tljeir liberties, aijid *even thejr, 
fives ? what then fhould lead fuch multitudes to this, bu£ 
the full evidence they had of jhe truth pf ChvUVs rofiuv 
region j ^pjl that he #a$ . jltffeji ejtfdted by j&e jjght 
nine: or «*C, to be a prince cand a Saviour, to ,gi*e je- 
penttos* to.i&**\, **<Lfax&*?r.z% cf fr»*^. - * r -••— * 

4 * When this was the cafe, have I no caufe to.fufpedt 
that these is &me paflaoa, £xne prejudice or other, that 
has hitherto blinded my mind, and hindered the l^ght o£ 
his gofpel from nSining upon me ; will it not be prudent #1 
is it not necefiary, to examine my heart with aU po&ble/' 
care, that I may discover the fecret fprk*gs -of my car*, 
riage ? t 

"** Was -not the author and fi ni&er of the ChriftianV. 
faith Jar this purpoie manifested, that he might deftrey 
the woiks of the devil ? and iia and miquky being the 
devil's work, did he not come into the world to &ve his 
people from their fins, and to >bk& them in tuning away 
everyone of them from his iniquities } k not this,' the 
leading .us to boHaei* in heart «and in life, the end of the . 
do£taia»he taught, and is it not proper to *tfwer this" 
end ? (hould not this recommend it to us as a doclwne-, 
worthy of God, and profitable to men ? and yet is not. 

.tli&tfatt Which maker me unwillkig to receive it, an4' 
*ac kitowlerrge the divine authority of its teacher i? but if 
tills be To, <Jocs not iny reafon, my conference condemn 
me? and muft 1 not conclude that the God of truth does 
ajfo condemn me? and that I may efcape his righteous 
judgment ought I not immediataly to fall down on my, and pray, Lord pardon the fins of which I have 
been guilty, and give meto do thy will, that I may know 
of the doctrine of Jefus, whether it -be of thee or whether 

Let the Deifts make the experiment, and I am apt td 
think they will find that l&eir giving a fatisfa&ory an- 
fwer to thefe queftibns will {hew that it is highly rea- 
fonable for them, to refolve either to go to the Lord's 
table no more, or to obferve his inftitution for the fu- 
ture with other affections and to a different purpofe 
than they have ever done it before. 

And that it may be the fame with another fort of com- 
municants, tfcofe I mean who profefs to believe the gof- 
pel of Ghrift, but do not obey it, fuch as call him, Lord, 
Lord, but know in their conferences that they do not 
the tilings that he faith ; let them, as is meet, reafon 
Villa llirafelves after fotiic fuch m&fwier as this. ' 

iW Wherein is it better with me than with a Deift ? 
Trhat benent may I expert from partaking of the facra- 
nsent, which he may not look for ? we are acted by the 
fame principles and aim at the like ends in that which 
we have done. - I may fay as well as he, that it was not 
inclination to this duty, affection to Chrift, a defire to 
(hew refpect to him, a concern for my fpiritual advan- 
tage, or any thing of this-nature, that carried me to tfoe 
Lord's table, no ; but the love of this world, and a re- 
gard to its profits, its pleafures, or its honours. Had it 
not been to pleafe my friends, or to gain the reputation 
of a pious man, or to qualify me for fuch an office, or 
for fome end like thefe, I had thought nothing of eatiBg 
this bread and drinking this wine. 

** But what hypocrify and folly have I been guilty 
of r I may have impofed on my fellow communicants j 
but be not deceived, O my foul, God is not mocked. 
He who fearcheth all hearts, and underftandeth all the 
imaginations of the thoughts, cannot -but know all the 

1 78 ] 

fprings of my adions ; even my moft fecret fins are not 
hid frost his eyes* and whatfoevcr i fow that ftiall L ak 


44 What an evil fervant bare I been ! I have tredeu 
under foot the Son of God, I have counted the blood of 
the covenant, an unholy thing, and done dcfpite to the fpi- 
rit of grace * and I nasty juftly be thought worthy of 
the foreft punifhsnent. What a wonder of mcbcics i& it 
that my Lprd did not come and cut mcf afcnder, and ap- 
point me my portion with hypocrites, where (hall be 
weeping and gna&ing of teeth ! 

u But hitherto, O Lord, thou hail kept filence, and 
waited to be gracious unto me.. Should I 90 011 
faife the riches of thy goodoefs, forbearance, and kmg- 
Uiffering, and not be led thereby to repentance, what 
can X think but tbat I (ball treaCure up unto myfelf wrath 
againft the day of thywrath, and revelation of thy righ- 
teous judgment, who wilt xtadtr to ev.ery man acoocd- 
ding to ins deeds ? 

44 Bleficd be thy name that I am yet the living before 
thee and have Come fight of the danger I am in : ianprefs 
my heart witlv a more -affecting. feme of k. May my 
iltQx tremble far. fear of thee*. May I be & afraid of 
thy judgments, as not to dare to take one ftep more In 
the way of fin. ••* • -*. 

" But why, O Lord, fhould I give up all hopes of 
being faved when I yet hear of a Saviour 5 and when 
his blood which cleanfeth from all fin, is yet fet before 
me : and when I yet enjoy the miniitry, of reconciliation 
by which I am affured that thou art in Chrift reconcil- 
ing the world unto thyfelf, not imputing their trefpaffes 
unto them, and befeecheH me to be reconciled unto 

" What amazing love and grace "is this ! Lord ! give 
me to feel that it conftraineth me to throw down my arms 
immediately, and yield myfelf unto thee : and O have 
mercy according to thy loving kindnefs, accord* 
ing to the multitude of thy tender mercies, in Chrift, 
blot out my tranfgrcfiions. Warn me thoroughly from 
mine iniquities, .and cleanfe merfrom my fin. Create in. 
me a clean heart, O God I and nenew a right fpirit within 
me. Let no iniquity any longer have dominion over 


■ ■ ■ - E 79 1 ,, • • • , • 

trie \ but break all the cords of my fins, wherewith I haVfc 
been holden : fet my foul at liberty, by the power of Ihy 
grace , soake me thy fervant, and help me to fpend the 
Remainder of my djrys in thy fervice." 

: It-may be feme who fear that they are among* this fort 
6i communicants maybe fecretly moved, while thus gray- 
ing, to add with pleafiire and joy. * 

"And now, O Lord, thou giveft me my heart's deiSre, 
and hall not withholden the requefts of my li|>sl For 
now I feel the holy fire kindling in my breed, and am 
made willing to be thine. Thou art my portion, faith 
my foul, therefore will I hope in thee. Thou* art my 
rightful Sovereign, and I now (ubmit myfelf unto thee. 
Other lords, in time paft, have had dominion over me ; 
but by the afli&ance of thy grace, 'thee only will I fefve 
for th^ future- O that my heart may be right wftM 
thee, ftedfait in thy covenant > and that having my fruit 
unto holinefs, my end may be everlafting life, thro' Je- 
f*s Chrift our Lord." 

But this leaxis our thoughts to the truly pious ; for it 
cannot juftly be faid of any other perfons, that their heart? 
fpeak fuch language : and the proper workings of their 
rmnffo when retired, after ^tfcey had btfen at the Lord's 
table, may be thus expreffed. 

u I have lifted up my Hand unto the molt-high God, 
and' I cannot go back. I have fworn, and I will per- 
form it, that I will keep his righteous commandments* 
I love my mailer^ and I will not go out free. Lord to 
whom ihall I go ?.. Thou haft the words of eternal life *, I 
^love thy fervice, and am fully refblved never to leave it. 
It is profitable unto all thihgs, having ptomife of the life 
which now is, and of that which is to come. 

*' But knowing that* I am in an evil world, in which 
I mall meet with many temptations to forget God, and 
deal fatfely in his covenant, and being fenfible that the flem 
is weak, and ready to comply with them, 1 da*-e not 
truft in my. own heart, nor place any confidence in my 
own ftrengthj but I fly to thee, my bkfled and almigh- 
ty Saviour. Thou* art the mediator of the new eove- 
nant, and a witnefs of my oath ; be thou a fiirety for 
mc r and help me by thy Spirit to a& agreeably to all my 
folemn engagements. Lord/ confirm me unto the end. 


Perform the good work begun in my foul. Keep me 
by thy power through faith unto falvation. 

" How great is that blefTednefs which has been pre- 
fented to me at the Lord's table ! all the fruits of his 
fufierings and death, all the bleffings of the new covenant. 
Look diligently, O my foul, left thou fail of this grace 
of God. Fear left thou fhouldft fo much as item to 
come Abort of it. Seek after a bright and continued evi- 
dence of thine intereft in this bleflednefs'; that Chrift is 
thy Saviour, and that the Lord is thy God in covenant 
with thee. This will be the way to have that cheerful 
heart which doth good like a medicine, and to be rejoi- 
cing in all thy tribulations with joy unspeakable and full 
of glory. 

" Prefe tnen, O my foul, toward the mark for this 
prize of the high calling of God in Chrift Jefus. Be not 
llothful in bufinefs, but fervent in fpirit,ferving the Lord. 
Give all diligence to add to. thy faith virtue } and to 
virtue knowledge ; and to knowledge temperance j aad 
to temperance patience, and to patience godlmefs, and 

. to godlinefs brotherly-kindnefs, and to brotherly-kind- 
new, charity* , 

" O taat thefe things may be in me abound, that I 
may be neither barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge 
of our Lord Jefus Chrift. Thus my calling and eJe£ion 
being made fure, I (hall go on my way rejoicing, and an 
entrance fhall be mini ft red unto me abundantly into the 
everlafting kingdom, of «ur Lard and Saviour Jefus 

* Chrift. To him be glory both now and for ever. Amen*" 





THE EN 3. 

- - THE 



THE preceding dedication is fufficient 
to acquaint the public, that thefe fa- ' 
cramental difcourfes are the genuine pro- * 
du&ions of that great man of God, Dfldtor 
John Owen, who was forfome time in the 
laft age vice-chancellor of Oxford. They 
enter the world through the fame channel,* 
as his thirteen fermtfns ori various occ&fions, 
puhlilhed four years fiace, viz. They ic^ere 
at firft tak,en in fhort-hand from the Dolor's 
mouth, and by the late Sir John Hartopp, 
Baronet, Mrs Cook's pious grandfather* 
were tranfcribed into long-hand. 

Mr Matthew Henry has this note in. hi| 
annotations on 2 Kings ii. " There are re- 
mains of great and good men, which like 

-Elijah's mantle, ought to be gathered up," 
and preferred by the furvivors ; their fay- 
ings, their writings, their examples ; that 
as their works follow them in the reward of 
them, they may ftay behind in the benefit 
of them." Not that our faith is to ftand in 
the wlfdom of men : the bible alone is the 

, ftandard of truth : and there we are'bid to 
go by the footfteps of the flock ; ajid to 
keep the paths of the righteous. There is 
a ftrange itch in the minds of men after no- 
velties ; and it is too common a cafe, that ' 


[ vi ] 

they who are for linking out fomething new 
in divinity are ready to pour contempt on 
the valuable writings of thofe who are gone 
before them ; and even the moil learned, 
peaceable and pious men fliall not efcape 
their unrighteous cenfures. This is n«tori- 
* ous in the conduft of thofe who embrace 
the new fcheme. 

If we inquire of the former age, we fliall 
find there flourifhed in it fome of the great- 
eft and bed of men, for whofe printed works 
many acknowledge they have abundant 
caufe to blefs God to eternity. Among thefe 
the writings of Do&or. Owen fhine with a 
peculiar luftre, in the judgment of judicious 
Chriftians ; and I am perfuaded, they who 
perufe them with the fpirit of love and of a 
found mind will be as far from aflerting, that 
m his manner of maintaining the .do&rine 
of faith, his " right arm appeared to be 
weakened," as from faying, that his right 
eye was darkened, and unable to difcern 
the objedl of it. 

As to the following difcourfes, which th* 
t)o6lor calls familiar exercifes, they, are now 
printed in hopes they will be made ufeful, 
through the divine bleffing, to affift the me-r 
ditations of Chriftians of all denominations 
in their approaches to the Lord's table, fee- 
ing they are fo well adapted to anfwer that 
facred purpofe. 


October 10. 1669. 

2 Cor* v. 21. 

JFor he hath made him to he Jin for us, who knew no Jin?, 
that we might be made the righieoufriefs of God in kirn. 

I Shall not enter into the opening of this fcripture, but 
only propofe fome few things, thai may be a fuita- 
J>le,fubjec"fc for your prcfent meditation. 

- There are three things concerning God the Father y 
three things concerning the Son; and three things, 
concerning ourfelves $ all in thefe words that I have 
mentioned, and all fuitable for us to be acting faith 

I. I would confider^f the Lord help me, the fover- 
tignty of God the Father, hhjujlice and hi$ grace. His 
{Sovereignty \ He made him $ God the Father made him. 
His jullice y He made him to be fin j a facrifice and an 
offering for fin* Arid his grace j ** that we might be 
made the righteoufnefs of God in ChrinV* 

i. The fovereignty of God. I could mention, that 
this fovereignty, of God extends itfelf to all perfons chof-, 
en, and (hew for whom Chriit fhould be made fin ; for 
he was not made fin for all, but for them who became the 
righteoufnefs of God in him* — Alio the fovereignty of 
God over things, difpenfing with the law fo far, that he 
fuffered fof fin, who knew no fin : and we, who had fin- 
" lied, were let go free. The fovereignty of God in ap- 
pointing the Son to this work ; he made him ; for none 
elfe could : he was the fervant of the Father. So 
that the whole foundation of this great tranfa&ion lies 
in the fovereignty of God over perfons and things, in re- 
ference unto Chriit. Let us then remember to bow 


I . C8 ] - 

! down to the fovereignty of God in this ordinance of the 

! Lord's fupper. 

i 2. There is the Jufiice of God. He made him to be 

fin, imputed fin unto him, reckoned unto him all the fins 

| of the ele&, caufed all our fins to meet upon him, ma3e 

him a fin-offering, a facrifice for fin, laid all the puni fo- 
ment of our fins upon him. To this end he fent him forth 
to be a propitiation for fin, to declare his rigbteoufnefs. 
The Lord help us to remember, that his rigbteoufnefs is 
in a fpecial manner exalted by the death of JChrift. 
He would not fave us any other way but by making him 
fin. * 

3. There is the grace of God manifefts itfelf in the 
aim and defign of God in all this matter. What did 
God aim at ? It wes ".that we might become the righ- 
teoufnefs of God in him ;" that wc might be made righ- 
teous and free from fin. 

II. There are three things that lie clear in thefe words,. 
that we may call to remembrance, concerning |be So*. 
.There is his innocency\ his purity \ " he knew no fin." 
.- * There is his fufferings 5 he was made ** to be fin." And 
there is his merit \ it was " that we might be made the 
righteouihefs of God in him." Here is another objed 
for faith to meditate upon. 

1 . There are many things in fcripture that direct us 
to the fpotlefs purity, righteoufhefs, and holinefs of Chrift,. 
when we think of his fufferings. A Lamb of God with- 
out fpot. He did no fin, nor had any guile in his mouth* 
He was " holy, harmlefs, undefiled, and feparate from 
Jinners." Faith mould call this to mind in the fufferings 
©f Chrift, that he knew no fin. That exprefiion fets fin 
at the greateft diitance from "J ems Chrift. 

2. The fuffering s of Chiift j " he was made fin j" a 
comprehenfive word, that fets out his whole fufferings* 
Look, whatever the juftice of God, the law of God, 
whatever the threatening* of God did require to be ir*- 
fii&ed as a punifhment for fin *, Chrift underwent it aU. 
They are dreadful apprehenfions we ourfelves have, or 
ean take in concerning the iffue and effect of fin, from 
the wsath of God, when under convictions, and not re- 
lieved by the promifes of the gofpeL But we fee not 


I 91 

the thoufandth part of the^-evil of fin, that follows infe- 
parably from the righteoufnefs and holinefs of God. The 
effects of God's juftice for fin will no more enter into 
eur hearts fully to apprehend, than the efFecls of his 
gr*ace and glory will : yet whatever it was, Chrifl under- 
went it all. 

3* Then there is the me fit of Chrift \ which is ano- 
ther object of faith that we (hould call over in the cele- 
bration of this ordinance. Why was he made fin? It 
was, " that we might become the righteoufnefs of God 
in him. 9 ' It is anfwerable to that other ex predion in 
Gal. iii.' 13, 14. He hath borne the curfe, was made a 
euffe for 'us. To what end ? " That the blefling of 
faithful Abraham might, come upon us -jV • or that we 
might be completely, made righteous. The defign of 
our aflembling together, is to remember, how we come 
to be made righteous y it is, by Chrift's being made fin. 

III. We may fee three things concerning eurfelves. 

1. Our ovfnjtfi and £•!«'// : he was " made fin for us." 
If Chrift was made fin for us, then we were finners. 

2. We may remember our deliverance ; how we were 
delivered from fin, and all the evils of it. It was not by 
a word of command,. or power, or by the interpofition 
of faints or. angels, or by our own endeavours; but by 
the fufFerings of the Son of God, And, 

3. God would have us remember and call to mind the 
Jlate whereunto we are brought, which is a ftate of 

righteoufnefs \ that we may blefs him for that which in 
this world will iffue in our righteoufnefs, and in the world 
to come, eternal glory. 

Thefe things we may call over for our faith to medi- 
tate upon. Our minds are apt to be diflracled \ the or- 
dinance is to fix them : and if we a£t faith in an efpeci-- 
al manner in this ordinance, God will be glorified. . 


t »"J 

November 26. 1659.- 

1 Con. x. 16. 

The cup ofblejjtng which nve b/efs 9 is it nat the commu- 
nion of the blood of Chrijl? The bread which we break f 
is it not the communion of the body of Chrijl .* 

THkrje is, in the ordinance of the Lord's (upper, am 
efpecial and peculiar communion with Chrift in 
his body and blood to be obtained. One reafon why we 
fo little value the ordinance, and profit fo little by it, 
may be becaufe we underftand fo little of the nature d 
that fpeciai communion with Chrift, which we have 

We have this fpeciai communion upon the account of 
the fpeciai object that faith isxxercifcd upon in this or- 
dinance, and the fpeciai ads that it puts forth in refer- 
ence to that, or thofc objects. For the acts follow the 
fpeciai nature of their objects. Now, 

1. The fpeciai object of faith, as acted in this ordi- 
nance, is not the object of faith, as faith ; that is, the moft 
general object of it, which is the divine veracity. " He 
that hath received his teftimony, hath fet to his feal, 
that God is true," John iii. 33. The divine veracity, or 

_ the truth of God, that is the formal object of faith, as 
faith ; and makes our faith to be divine faith. But now 
this is not the fpeciai object of faith in this ordinance, 
but fometbing that doth fuppofe that. 

2. The fpeciai object of faith, as jollifying, is not the 
fpeciai objedVof faith in this ordinance. The fpeciai ob- 
ject of foith, as justifying, is the promife, and Chrift in 
the promife, in general as the Saviour of finners : fo when 
the apoftle called men to repent and believe, he tells 
them, " The promife is to you," Acts ii. 38. And, I fup- 
*pofe, I need not infift npon the proof of this, that the 
promife, and Chrift in the promife, as Saviour and Re- 
deemer, is the object of faith, as it is ^uftify ing. But 

his affb is fuppofed in the a&irigs of faith in this ordn- 
ance 5 which is peculiar, and gives us peculiar commu- 
tion with Chriftr Therefore, 

3^ The fpecial and peculiar obje£fc of faith, the imme- 
diate object of if, in this ordinance, in its krgeft extent, 

is, , ' 

( 1 The humanjiature of Chrift, as the fubject. where* 

(n mediation and redemption was wrought. ' Chrift is 

co nfi d ere d to come as* a facrifice $ that \% laid dawn 

as the foundation of it, P&l. xl. 6. Heb. x. 5. "A 

body haift * thou prepared me j" which is fynecdo- 

ehically taken for the whole human nature. Faith, when 

it would lead itfelf unto the facrifice of Chrift, which is 

here reprefented, doth in an efpecial manner consider the 

human nature of Chrift \ that God prepared him a body 

for that end. This we are to have peculiar regard unto, 

whenever we come to the administration or participation 

of this ordinance $ for that end' we, now celebrate it. 


(2.) Faith goes Further, and doth not confider merely 
the human nature of ChriJI, but confiders it as diftinguifb- 
ed into its integral parts, into body and blood ; both 
-which have a price, value, and virtue given unto them, 
by their union with his human foul \ for both the body 
of Chrift and the blood of Chrift, upon which the work 
of our redemption is put in fcripture, have their value 
and worth from their relation unto his foul ; as foul and 
body, making the human nature, had its value and "worth 
from its relation unto the Son of God : otherwtfe he forth 
of his body, " Handle it, it is but rleih and bones.'* But 
where the body of Chrift is mentioned, and the blood of 
Chrift is mentioned, there is a distribution of the human 
nature into its integral parts, each part retaining its re- 
lation to his foul, and from thence is its value and excel- 
lency. This is the fecond peculiar in the object of faith 
in this ordinance. 

(3.) There is more than this : they are not only con- 
sidered as diftinguifhed but feparate alfo \ the blood fe- 
parate from the body, the. bocry left without the blood. 
This truth our apoftle, in this chapter and the next, doth 
moil: finally infift upon, w». the diftm& parts of this or- 
(Knafice, one to represent the body, and the other to re- 

C " 3 

prefent the blood j that faith may confider them as fe*- 

The Papifts, we know do facrilegioufly take away the 
cop from the people : they will give them the bread, but 
they will not give them the cup : and as it always falls 
out, that one error muft'be covered with another, or elfe 
it will keep no man dry under it, they have invented 
the do&rine of concomitance j 'that there is a concomi- 
tance, that is, whole Chrift is in every kind, in the bread, 
and in the>wine ; the one doth accompany the other y 
which is' directly to Overthrow the ordinance upon ano- 
ther account, as it is to represent Chrift 's body and blood 
as feparated one from the other : our Lord Jefus bleJTed 
the bread and the cup, and faid, " This is my body ^ 
which cannot be fpokeq, diftinclly, unlefs fuppofed to be 

Here then .is . a threefold limitation of the aft of faith, 
even in this ordinance,- in a. peculiar manner retraining 
it to 4 a fpecial communion with God in Chrift ; that it 
hath a fpecial regard to the human nature of Chrift j to 
his human nature, as confiding of body and blood ; and 
as it refpe&s them as feparated body and blood. 

Yea, (4.) It refpe&s them as iepaxate in that manner. 
You all along know, .that I do not intend thefe objecls 
of faith as the ultimate object 5 for it is the perfon of 
Chrift that faith refts in*, but thofe immediate objecls that 
faith is exercifed about, to. bring it to reit in God : it is 
exercifed about the manner of this reparation ** that is, the 
blood of Chrift comes to be. diftinft, by being fhed \ and 
the body of Chrift comes to befeparateby being bruit- 
ed and broken. All the inftituted facrifkes of old did 
fignify,this,a violent feparation of body and blood \ the 
blood was let out with the hand of violence, and fo fe- 
parated, and then fprinkled upon the altar, and then to- 
wards the holy place ; and then the bady was burned 
diftind by itffclf : fo the apoftle tells us, " It is the cup 
which we blefs, and the bread which we break ;" the 
cup is poured out, as well as the bread broken, to remind " 
faith of the violent feparation of the body and blood of 
Chrift. From this lalt con (1 deration of faith acting h- 
felf .upon the feparation of the body and blood of Chrift, 
by way of violence, it is led to a peculiar a&ing of it- 

t «s 3 

felf upon all the caufes of it $ whence it was, that, this 
body and this blood of Chrift was reprefented thus fepa* 
rate j and by inquiring into the caufes of it, it finds a 
moving caufe,— a procuring caufe,— an efficient caufe,— 
and a final caufe ; which it ought to exercife itfelf pe- 
culiarly upon always in this ordinance. 

f i.] A moving caufe ; and that is, the eternal love of 
God in giving Chrift in this manner, to have his body 
-bruifed, and his blood (hed. The apoftle, going to ex- 
prefs the love of God towards us, tells youit^vas in this, 
that " he fpared not his own Son." Rom, viii. 32. One 
would have thought, that the love of God might have 
wrought in fending his Son into the. world, but it alio 
wrought in not fparing of him. Thus faith is called in ; 
this ordinance, to exercife itfelf upon that love which 
gives out Chrift not to be fpared. 

[2.] It reflects upon the procuring caufe j whence it 
is, or what it is, that hath procured it, that there fhould 
be this representation of the feparated body and blood of 
Chrift ; and this is even our own fin : He was delivered 
for our iniquities, given for our tranfgreftions, died to 
make reconciliation and atonement for our fins ; they 
were the procuring caufe of it, upon fuch confiderations 
of union and covenant, which I (hall not now infift- up- 
on. It leads faith, I fay, upon afpecial refpeft to fin, as 
the procuring caufe of the deSth of Chrift. A natural 
confeience on the breach of the law leads the foul to 
the confideration of fin, as that which expofes itfelf alone 
to the wrath of God and eternal damnation : but in this 
ordinance we confide r fin as that which expofeth Chrift 
to death 5 which is a peculiar confideration of the nature 
of fin. 

[3.3 There is the efficient caufe; whence it was 
that the body and blood of Chrift was thus feparated ; 
and that is threefold, principal, inftrumcntal, and adju- 
vant. « 

What is the principal efficient caufe of the fufferrng 
of Chrift'* Why, the juftice ae4* righteoufnefs of God. 
" God fet him forth tovbe a propitiation, to declare his 
owff right eoufnefs,*? Rom. iii. ^5. Whence it is faid, 
" He fpared him not 5" he caufed all our fins to meet 
upon him £ the chaftiferaent of our peace was upon him. 

i 14 ] 

Again, There is the inftrumental caufc •, and that is 
the law of God. Whence did that reparation, which is 
here reprefentld unto us, enfue and flow ? it came from 
the fentence of the law, whereby he was hanged upon the 

Moreover, the adjuvant caufe, was thofe outward in- 
.ftruments, the wrath and malice of men : " For of a 
truth againft thy holy child J cms, whom thou halt anoint- 
ed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles; 
and the people of lfrael, were gathered together," Ads 
iv. 27. 

Faith confiders the caufe whence it was that Chrift 
was thus given up, the eternal love of God 5 the procur- 
ing caufe was our own tins •, and if once faith doth take I 
a view of fin, as that which hath nailed Chrilt to the 
crofs, it will have a blefltd effect upon the foul ; and it 
confiders the efficient caufe, which is the juiiice and righ- 
teoufnefs of. God. The law of God was the inltrument 
in the hand of righteoufnefs, which was holpen on by 
•thofe outward internments who had a hand in his fuffer- 
ing \ but none in his facrifice. 

[4.] Faith confiders in this matter the end of this fe- 
psftation of the body and blood of Chrift, which is thus 
reprefented y- and that is ultimately and abfolutely the 
glory of God. He fet him forth for the declaration of 
his righteoufnefs, Rom. Hi. 25. Eph. i. 6. >God aimed 
at the glorifying of himfelf. 1 could eafily manifeft un- 
to you, how all the glorious properties of his nature are 
advanced, exalted, and will be lo to eternity, in this fuf- 
fering of Chrift; — The fubordinate ends are two ; I 
mean, the fubordinate ends of this very peculiar aft of 
this feparation of the body and blood. 

( t.) It was to confirm the covenant. Every cove- 
nant of old was to be ratified and confirmed by facrifice } 
and in confirming the covenant by facrifice, they divid- 
ed the facrifice into two parts and paued between them 
I - before they were offered \ and then took it upon them- 

1 felves; that they woulcUftand to the covenant, which was 

J fo confirmed* Jefus Chrift being to confirm the cove- 

nant, (Heb. ix. \6 .) the body and bfood of Chrift, this, 
facrifice, was to be parted, that this covenant might be 
confirmed. And,, 



C is 3 

(2.) A fpecial end of it was for* tlie confirming .and 
ftrengthening of our faith. God gives out unto us 
the object of our faith in parcels : we are not able to 
take this great myfterious fruit of God's love in grofs, 
in the lump j and therefore he gives it out, I fay in par- 
cels. We (hall have the body broken to be confidered ; 
and the blood fhed is like wife to be confidered. This 
is the peculiar communion which we have with Chrift in 
this ordinance ; becaufe there are peculiar objects for 
faith to a& itfelf upon in this ordinance above others. 

The very nature of the ordinance itfelf gives us a pe- 
culiar communion ; and there are four things that attend 
the nature of this ordinance* that are peculiar. It is com- 
memorative, profoffional, euchariftical, and federal. 

1. The ordinance is commemorative ; " Do this in 
remembrance of me." And there is no greater j#y to 
the heart of tinners, and a man knows not how to give 
greater glory to God, than to call the atonement of fin 
into remembrance. It is obferved in the offering for 
jeatoufy, Numb. v. 15. if a man was jealous, and caufed 
an offering to be brought to God, God allowed neither 
oil nor frankincenfe ; and the reafon is, " Becaufe it was. 
to bring fin to remembrance." But how fweet is that 
offering that brings to our remembrance the atonement 
made for all our fins ? That is pleafing and acceptable 
unto God and fweet unto the fouls of tinners. 

2. It has a peculiar profeflion attending it 5 faith the 
apoftle, " Doing this, ye (hew forth the Lord's death 
till he come :" you make a profeffion and manifeftation 
of it. And, give me leave to fay it, they that look to- 
wards Chrift, and do. not put themfelves into a way of 
partaking of this ordinance, they refufe the principal 
part of that profeflion which God calls them unto In 
this world. The truth is, we have been apt to content 
ourfelves with a profeflion of moral obedience 5 but it 
is a profeflion of Chrift's inftitution by which alone we 
glorify him in this world. I will have my death (hewn 
forth, 'faith Chrift, and not only remembered. The 
ufe of this ordinance is to (hew forth the death of Chrift. 
As Chrift requires of us to (hew forth his death, fo fure- 
ly he hath deferved it by his death. 

C i6 3 

g. It is peculiarly euchariftical : there is a peculiar 
thaokfgiving that ought to attend this ordinance. It is 
called the cup of blefling, or the cup of thankfgiving : 
the original word is ufed promifcuoufly for bleffing and 
thankfgiving. It is called the cup of bleuing, becaufe 
of the infthution, and prayer for the bleflingof God up- 
on it y and it is called the cup of thankfgiving, becaufe 
we do in a peculiar manner give thanks to .God for 
Chrift, and for his love in him. 

4. It is a federal ordinance, wherein God confirms the. 
covenant unto us, and wherein he calk us to make a re- 
cognition of the covenant onto God. The. covenant is 
once made, but we know that we fkand in need that it 
fhould be often tranfa&ed in our fouls* that- God fhould 
often teftify his covenant unto us, and that we fhould of- 
ten actually renew our covenant- engagements unto him* 
God never fails, nor breaks his promifes : Co that he hath 
no need to renew them, but teftify them anew : we break 
and fail in ours, {o that we have need actually to renew 
them. And that is it which we are called unto in this 
ordinance, which is the ordinance of the great feal of the 
covenant in the blood of Chrift. 

Upon all thefe accounts have we fpecial communion 
with Chrift in this ordinance. There is none of them 
but I might eafily enlarge unon j but I name thefe heads ; 
and my defign is to help my own faith and your*s from 
roving, in the adminift ration of ordinance, or from a ge- 
neral acting of itfelf, to fix it to that which is its parti- 
cular duty ; that we may find no wearinefs nor heaviriefs 
in the adminiftration : here in thefe things is there e- 
noUgh to entertain us forever, and to make them new 
and frefh to us. But while we come with uncertain' 
thoughts, and know not what to direct our faith to act 
particularly upon, we lofe the benefit of the ordinance. 

For the ufe, it is, 

1 . To blefs God for his institution of his church, which 
is the feat of the adminiftration of this ordinance, where- 
in we have fuch peculiar and intimate communion with 
Chrift. There is not one inftance of thofe which I have 
named, but, if God would help us to act faith upon Chrift 
in a peculiar manner through it, would give new ftrength 
and life to our fouls. Now in the church we have all 


[17 3 

• » 

tliis treafure. We lofc it, I confefs, by our unbelief 
and difefteem of it $ but it will be found to be an inefti- 
mable treafure to thofe that ufe it, and improve it in a 
due manner. • 

2. Doth God give us this favour and privilege, that 
we fliould be . invited to this fpecial communion with 
Chrift in this ordinance > Let us prepare our hearts for 
it in the authority of its inftitution. Let us lay our 
fouls and confciences, in fubje&ion -to the authority of 
Chrift, who hath commanded thefe things, and who did 
it in a fignal manner the fame night wherein he was be- 
trayed. So there is a fpecial command of Chrift lies 
upon us ; and if we will yield obedience to any of the 

commands of Chrift, then let us yield obedience to 
this. Prepare your fouls for fpecial communion with 
him then, by fubjugating them thoroughly to the autho- 
rity of Chrift in this ordinance. 

3. It will be good for us all to be in a gradual exer- 
cifing of our faith unto thefe fpecial things, wherein we 
have communion with Chrift. You have heard fundry 
particulars : here is an objecVof your faith that is given 
to be reprefented unto you in this ordinance, that God 
hath prepared. Chrift a body, that he might be afacrifice 
for you ; and that this body was afterwards diftinguifh- 
ed into his body ftri&ly fo taken, and his blood feparat- 
ed from it ; and this in a defign of love "from God as 
procuring the pardon of our fins, as tending to. the glory 
of God, and the eftabliihing of the covenant. — Train up 
a young faith " in the way it mould go, <and it will not 
depart from it when it is old. And new things will be 
found herein every day to ftrengthen your faith, and you 
will find much fweetnefs in the ordinance itfclf. 

. * 







C i* 3 

December io. 1669. 

1 Cor. x. 16. 

The cup ofblejfing ivbicb 'we b/efs 9 is it not tbe commu- 
nion of the blood of Cbriftt Tbe bread wbicb\vebreni % 
is it not tbe communion of tbe body of Cbxijl .* 

I HAVE been treating fomewhat about tbe fpecial 
communion which believers bave with Chrift in the 
ordinance of the Lord's (upper. There remains yet 
fomething farther to be fpoken unto for our direction in 
this great work and duty ; and this is taken from the 
immediate ends of this ordinance. I (pake, as I remem- 
ber, the laft day to the fpecialty of our communion, from 
the confideration of the immediate ends of the death of 
Chrift : now I fhall fpeak to it in reference unto the im- 
mediate ends of this ordinance \ and they are* two, one 
whereof refpe&s our faith and our love, and the other 
refpe&s our profefliou j which two make up the whole 
of what is required of us. For, as the apoftle fpeaks, 
Rom. x. ie» " With the heart man believeth unto righ- 
teoufneft, and with the mouth coafeflion is made unto 
falvation." Both thefe ends, that which refpe&s our faith 
and love, and that which refpe&s our profcflion are men- 
tioned by our apoftle in the next chapter, ver. 24. There 
x is mention of that end of this ordinanance which refpe&s 
our faith \ now. that is recognition. Recognition is a 
calling over, or a commemoration of the death of Chrift; 
" Do this, fays he, in remembrance of me." That which 
refpe£b our profefllon, is a reprefentation and declaration 
of the Lord's death, ver. 26. " When you eat this bread, 
«n4 drink this cup, ye (hew forth, ye declare, ye manifeft 
the Lord's death till he come. Thefe are the two im- 
jnedlate great ends of this ordinance, a recognition of 
tbe death of Chrift, which refpe&s our faith and love j 

C *9 3 

and a representation of it, wfajph refpecls our profeflkm>: 
both are required of us. 

There is. that which refpects our faith. The great work 
of faith is to make things that are abfcnt, prefent to a foul, 
in regard to tncirfweetnefs, power and, efficacy $ whence 
it is feid to. be the evidence of thing? no* feea ; and it 
looks backward intp the caufes of things ^ and it looks 
forward unto the effects of things \ to what hath wrought 
out grace, and to what grace is wrought out $ and 
makes them in their efficacy, comfort, and power, to meet 
and centre in the believing foul. 

Now there are. three things, in reference unto the 
death of Chrift, that faith in this ordinance doth recog- 
nize, call over, and commemorate. Therirft is, the 
faith of Chrift in. and for his work. The fecond is, the 
obedience of Chrift. And the third is. the work itfelf.* 

u Faith calls over the faith, of Chrift. Chrift had a 
double faith in reference to his death $ one with refpect 
onto hinifelf, and his own intereft in. God ; and the q-» 
ther in refpeft to the cajufe whofe management he had o- 
vertaken, and the fuccefs of it. He had faith for both 
- thefeu 

ift r The Lord Chrift had faith in. reference} to his 
ewn perfon, and to his own intereft in God. The apof- 
tle, declaring, Heb.ii. 14. u that becaufe the children 
were partakers, of rlefh and blood, Chrift alfo did partake 
of the fame," that fo he might die to deliver us from 
death, brings that text of fcrlpture, ver. 13. in con- 
firmation of it, which is taken out of Pfel. xviii. 2. " And 
again, faith he, I will put my truft in him. How doth 
this confirm what the apoitte produces, it for ? Why from 
hence, That in that great and difficult work that Chrift 
did undertake, to deliver and redeem the children, he 
was all along carried through it by faith and truft in God. 
" He trufted in God," faith he, and that made him un- 
dertake it : and he gives a great inftance of his faith 
when he was departing out of the World. There, are 
three things that flick very clofe %o a departing foul j— 
.the giving up of itfelf j— the ftate wherein it fhall be 
when it is given up j— and the final iffuc of that eftate. 
Our Lord Jefus Chrift expreffed his faith as to all three 
•f them* As to his departure, Luke x*iii. 46. " He. 

cried with a loud voice, Father, into thy hands I corn* 
mend my fpirit : and having (aid thus, he gave up the 
ghoft."— What was his faith as to what would become of 
him afterwards ? That alfo he expreffes, Pfal. xvi. 10. 
" For thou wilt not leave my foul in hell, neither wilt 
thou fuffer thine holy One to fee corruption. My foul 
(hall not be left under the date ol the dead, whereunto 
it is going ;* nor my body fee corruption— What was his 
faith as to the future iffue of things ? That he expreffes, 
ver. 1 1 . "Thou wilt fhew me the path of life - y (which 
is his faith for his rifiag again) ; In thy prefence is 
fulnefs of joy, and at tby right hand are pleasures for e- 
vermore j" where he was to be exalted : and thefe words, 
" Father into thy hand I commend my fpirit," were the 
fir it breaking forth of the faith of Chrift towards a con- 
queft. He looked through all the clouds of darkneft 
round about him towards the riling fun •, through all 
ftorms to the harbour, when he cried thofe words with a 
loud voice, and gave up the ghoft. And by the way it 
is the higheft a 61 of faith upon a liable bottom and foun- 
dation, fuch as will jrot fail, . to give up a departing foul 
into the. hands of God,, which Jefus Chrift here did for 
our example. Some die upon preemptions, fome in the 
dark; but faith can go no higher than, upon a fure and 
liable ground, to give up a departing foul intp the hands 
of God y and that for thefe reafons, to fhew the faith of 
Chrift in this matter. 

( i .) Bscaufe the foul is then entering into a new date, 
whereof there are thefe two properties that will try it 
to the utmoft , that it is invifible, and that it is unchange- 
able. I fay, there are two properties that make this 
a great ad of faith. 

[i.] The ftate is invifible. The foul is going into a 
•condition of things that " eye hath not feen, nor ear 
heard ;" that nothing can take any profeft into but faith 
alone. However men may talk of the invifible ftate of 
things, which our fouls are departing into, it is aH but 
talk, and conjecture, befides what we have by faith. 
So that to give up a foul cheerfully and comfortably in- 
to that ftate, is a pure aft of faith* 1 

[2.] It is unchangeable. It is a ftate wherein there 
is no alteration* And thaugh all alterations, fhould prove 


.c * r . _, 

for the worfe, yet it is in the nature of man to hope' good ' 
from them* But herein no more alteration left: t&e 
foul enters into an unchangeable ftate. And, 

(2.) The 2dreafon is, becaufe thetotal fum of plan's life 
k now caft up, and he fees what it will come to. While 
men are trading in this world, though they meet with 
fome (traits and difficulties, yet t)iey have that going pn 
which will bring in fomething this way, or that way. 
But when it comes to this, that they can go no farther, 
then tbey fee how things ft and with a departing foul j r 
the whole fum is caft up, there is no mpre venture to be 
jnade, no more advantage to be gained, he muft Hand as 
he is. And when a map takes a view of what he is tp 
come tp, he needs faith to obtain a comfortable paffage • 
out of it. And, 

(3.) Even death- itfelf brings a terror with it, that no- 
thing can conquer but faith \ 1 mean, conquer duly. He 
is not clowned that 4oth not pvercome by faith. It is 
only to be done through the death of Chrift; " He de- 
livered them that by reafon of death were in bondage ajl * 
their day?." There if no deliverance that is true and 
real, from a bondage frame of fpirit to death, but by faith 
in Chrift. 

I touch on this by the way, to manifeft the glorious 
fuccefs the faith of Chrift had, who in his dying mo- 
ment, cried out, " Father, jntp thy hands I commend my 
fpirit j" and this is that we are tp call over- in the re- 
membrance of his death, it js a very great argument 
the apoftle ufes to confirm our faith, when fpeaking of 
the patriarchs of old 5 he fays, " All thefe died in faith.? 
Butj that all is nothing to this argument, that Jefus Chrift, 
our head and leprefentative, who went before us, he died 
in faith. And this is the principal inlet into life, 
immortality, and glory, the confederation of the death of 
Chrift y dying in that faith,Atti he gave up h> foul into - 
the hands 01 God, and was^wruiaded God " would not 
leave his fpul in hell, nor fuffer his holy One to fee cor- - 
ruption*, but that he would (hew him the path of life, 
and bring him to his right hand, where there are plea- 
fures for evermore. M 
j 2<//y, Chrift had a faith for the caufe wherein he wa* 
engaged. He was engaged in a glorious caufe, a great 

C3 ** 

[ 22 J . 

undertaking, to deliver the ele& of God from death, bell, 
Satan, and fin \ to anftoer the law, to undergo the curfc, 
and to bring his many/children unto glory. And dread- 
ful oppositions lay againfl him in this undertaking. See 
I what faith he had for his caufe, If. 1. 7, 8, 9. " The Lord 

1 God will help me, therefore (hall I not be confounded : 

, therefore' have I fet my face like a flint, and I knojw that 

j I (hall not be amamed.- He is near that jujftineth mc r 

who will contend with me ? let us Hand together: who 
\ is mine adver&ry ? let him come near to me. Behold, 

the Lord God will Lelp me, who is he that (hall con- 
demn me ? Who is my adverfary ?" or, as in the He- 
brew, u Who is the mailer of my caufe ?" I have a caufe 
to plead $ who is the mailer of it ? I am engaged in a 
great caufe, faith he, and'i am greatly oppofed ; they feek 
to make me afhamed, to confound me, to condemn me : 
but here is faith for his caufe ; " The Lord God will 
juilify me/ 9 faith he. It was with Chrift as it would 
have been with us under the covenant of works ? man 
ought to have believed he mould be justified of God, 
though not by Jefus Chrift; fo here he had faith that he 
mould be juilified. God will juilify me j I fhall not be 
condemned in this caufe that I have undertaken. 

It is matter of great comfort and fupport to confider, 
that when the Lord Jefus Chrift had in his eye all the 
fins of all the ele& upon the. one hand, and the whole 
curfe of the law and the wrath of God on the other, yet 
he cried, " I fhall not be confounded, I fhall go through 
it, I fhall fee an end of this bulinefs, and make an end 
k of fin, and bring in everlafling righteoufnefs $ and God 

will juilify me in it." We are in an efpecial manner to 
call to remembrance the faith that Chrift had for his 
caufe, and we ought to have the fame faith for it now, 
for this great conquefl of overcoming the devil, fin, 
death, hell, and the favingjhf our fouls : he hath given 
us an example for it. 

There is one objection lies againfl all this, ami that is 

this : But did not Chrift defpond in his great agony in 

the garden, when he cried three 'times, " Father, if it be 

poflible lett his cup pafs from me ?" and in that dreadful 

'outcry on the crofs, which he took from the xxiid. pfalm % 

. j a prophecy of him, " My God, my God, why hail thou 

[ *3 1 

forfeken me .?" Doth not Chrift feem to repent here, and 

I anfwer, In this difficult inquiry two things are to be 
ftated j ir In reference to his perfon, that it was impof- 
fible Chrift mould have the indiffolubility of his perfon- 
al union utterly hid from him. He knew the union of 
his human nature unto the Son of God could not be ut- 
terly diffolved, that could not be utterly hid from him y 
fo that there could not be defpair properly fo called in 
Chrift. And, 2. This is certain alio, that the contract 
he had with the Fathe'r, and the promifes he had ^iven 
him of being fuccefsful, could never utterly be hid from 
him. So that his faith, either as to his perfon or caufe, 
could not poffibly be utterly ruined. But there was a 
fevere and terrible conflict in the human nature, ariiiiig 
from thefe four things. 

(i.) From the view which he was exalted to take of 
the nature of the curfe that was then upon him. For 
the curfe was upon him* Gal. iii. 13. " He was made a 
curfe for us, as it is written, Curfed is every one that 
hangeth on a tree," Give me leave to fay, Jefus Chrift 
faw more into the nature of the curfe of God for fin, 
than all the damned in hell are able to fee •> which cauf- 
ed a dreadful conflict in his human foul upon that prof- 

(2.) It arofe from hence, that the comforting influen- 
ces of the union with the divine nature were reftraihed. 
Jefus Chrift was in himfelf, " a man of forrows, and ac- 
quainted with grief.' 1 But yet all the while there were 
the influences of light and glory from the divine nature 
to the human by virtue of their union $ and now they are 
retrained, and inftead of that, was horrible darknefs, and 
trembling, and the curfe, and fin, and Satan, round about 
him ; all prefenting themfelves unto him \ which gave 
©ccaiion to that part of his "prayer, Pfal. xxii. 20, 21. 
" Deliver my foul from the fword \ my darling from the 
power of the dog. Save me from the lion's mouth," 
&c. There was the fword in the curfe of the law, and 
the dog and the lion, or Satan, as it were, gaping upon 
him, as if ready to devour him ; for it was the hour and 
power of darknefs, dread and terror : belides there were 
cruel men, which he compares to the bulls of Bafhan } 
which rent him. Thi* cauicd that terrible conflict. 

(3.} If was from the penal defertion of God* That 

be was under a penal defertion from God, is plain y 

" My God, my God, why hail thou forfaken me ? And 

i when I fay fo, I know little of what I fay, 1 mean, what 

) it is to be under fuch penal defertion. For the great 

punifhment of hell, is an everlafting penal- defertion from* 

' God. 

' (4.) It was from the unfpcakable extremity of the things 

1 that be fiuTered. Not merely as to the things themfelvcs* 

which outwardly fell upon his body \ but as unto that 
fword of God, which was awakened againit him, and" 
which had pierced him to the very foul.- The advantage- 
which he had in his fufferingsi>y his divine union, was 
that which fupported and bore him up under that weight, 
which would have funk any mere creature to nothing. 
His heart was enlarged to receive in thofe pains, that 
* v dread and terror, that otherwife he could not have re- 
ceived : and notwithstanding all this, as I fhewed before,. 
Chrift kept up his faith in reference to his perfon, and 
kept up his faith in reference to his caufe 5 and a great 
example he hath given unto us, that though the dog and 
the lion fbould encompafs us, though we mould have de- 
fertion from God, and preflures more than nature is a- 
ble to bear, yet here is a way of keeping up faith,. 
truft, and confidence through all, and not to let go our 
hold of God. . 

Now this is the fifft thing we are to call over in re- 
membrance of Chrift, in reference to his death > that: 
faith he had,, both for his perfon and his caufe, in* his 
death* For if yoa remember any of the martyrs that- 
died, you will ftick upon thefe two things, more than up- 
on the flames that conmmed them ) they expreffed great' 
feith of their in t ere ft in Chrift, and in reference to the 
caufe they died for. They are things you will lenrem- 
ber. And this you are to remember of him, who was 
the head of martyrs, our Lord Jefus Chrift's faith. 

2. We ape to call over his obedience in his death. The 
apoftle doth propofe it unto us * 7 Phil. ii. c, 6, 7, 8. u 'L4t 
this mind be in you, which was alfo in Chrift Jefus: who 
being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be c- 
qual with God 5 but made himfelf of no reputation, and 
took upon him the form of a fervant, and became obedient 

unto death, even the death of thejcrofs." We are to call 

.over the mind of Chrift in fuffering. Aud the follow- 
ing things the fcripture doth peculiarly direct us to con- 
fider in the obedience of Chrift unto death : the princi- 
• pie of it, which was love,— rtadinefs to and for it,— 
fubmifiion under it, — bis patience during it. They are 
things the fcripture minds us concerning the obedience 
of Chrift ill his death. 

i. Confider his love, which is one of the principal 
things to be regarded in this obedience of Chrift. The 
love wherewith h was principled : T&al. ii. 20. " He lov- 
ed me, (faith the apoftle,) and gavehimfelf for me. i John 
iii. 16. Hereby perceive we the love of God, becaufe 
he kid down his life for us. 19 It was his love did 
it; Rev. i. 5. Who loved us, and warned us from our 
fins in his own blood. This gives life to the whole 
fufferings of Chrift, and to our faith too. It was an 
high a& of obedience to God, that he laid down his 
life ; but that obedience was principled with love to 

And now, I pray Ged, to enable me to confider this 
with my own, foul, what that love would ftick at, that 

, did not flick at this kind of death we have been fpeak- 
ing of. If Jefus Chrift had referved the greateft thing 
he was to doibr us unto the laft, we had hot known but 

. his love might have ftuck when it came to that $ I mean, 
when it came to the curfe of the law, though he had 
done other things. But having done this, he that would 
not withdraw nor take off from that, becaufe he loved v 
us, what will he ftick at for the future ?. Our hearts are 
apt to be full of unkind and unthankful thoughts to- 
wards, him, as though. upon every dark and black temp- 
tation and trial he would defert us, whofe love was fucb, 
as he would not do it when himfelf was to be_deferted and 

.made a curfe. Call over then the love of Chrift in 
this obedience. Yes \ but love prevails fome times, you 
will fay, with many, to do fome things, that they have 
no great mind to : we come very difficultly to do fome 

.things, when yet out of love we will not deny them. 
But it was not fo with Chrift $ his love was fuch, thai 
he had, ' 

t * 3 

(a.) An eternal readineft unto Us work* There arc 
two texts of fcripture informs us of it $ Prov. viiL 30* 
where the Holy Ghoft defcribes the profpe& that the 
wifdom of God, that is, the Son of God, took of the 
world, .and the children of men, in reference to the time 
he was to come among them j I was, fakh he, daily his de- 
light, rejoicing always before him} rejoicing in the habita- 
ble parts of his earth, and my delights were with the ions 
of men. He confidered what work he had to do. fox the 
fons of men, and delighted in it. The 40th pialm expounds 
this, ver.6, 7, 8. " Sacrifice and offering thou didft not de- 
fire, mine ears hail thou opened : burnt-offeiing and fin-of- 
fering hafi thou not required. Then (aid I, £0, 1 come : in 
the volume of the book it is written of me, &.c. Sacrifice 
and burnt-offering will not take away fin, faith he $ Then, 
ho 9 I come. But doth he come willingly ? Yet, I de- 
light, (faith he), to do thy will, O my God $ yea, thy 
law is within my heart* What part of .the will of God 
was it ? the apofile tells you, Heb. x. 10. " Offering the 
body of Jefus Chrift once for all $ by which will we ace 
fan&ified. He came not only willingly, but with delight. 
' The baptifin he was to be baptifed with, he was ftraiten- 
ed till it was accomplifhed. The love he had unto the 
fouls of men, that great delign and project he had for 
t the glory of God, gave. him delight in hi9 undertaking, 
notwithstanding all the difficulties he was to meet witfL 

(3.) We are to remember his iubmifuon to the great 
work he was called unto. This he expreffes, If. L 5. 6. 
44 The Lord God," faith he, '< hath opened mine ear* 
and I was not rebellious, neither turned away back. I 
gave my back to the finitexs, and my cheeks to them 
that plucked off the hair : I hid not my face from (hame 
and {pitting.' 9 The Lord God called him to it, and he 
was not rebellious, but fubxnitted unto it. 

There* is one objection arifes againft this fubmiflion, 
and that is the prayer of Chrift ia the garden, u Father, 
if it be poflible, let this cup pafs from me." 

I anfwer, That was an expreffion of the horror which 
was upon the human nature, which we mentioned before. 
But there were two things that Chrifi immediately clof- 
ed upon, which gave evidence to this fubmiflion} that he 
did not draw back,, nor rebel, nor hide bimfelf, nor turn; 

c *7 r 

away his face from fhame and {pitting. One mtt this, 
" Father, thy will be done, 1 ' faith he ; and the other 
was this, that he refufed that aid to deliver him, which 
lie might have had : " Know ye not that I could pray 
the Father, and he would give me more than twelve le- 
gions of angels ?" He then fuffered under the Roman 
power, and their power was reduced to twelve legions. 
Saith he, I could have more than thefe 5 which argues 
his full fubmiffion unto the will of God. 

(4.) We are to call over his patience under his fuffe- 
*ings, in his obedience, If. liii. 7. " He was oppreffed, 
and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth $ he 
is brought as a 'Lamb Jto the (laughter, and as a fheep 
before her fhearers is dumb, fo he openeth not. his mouth ; 
The higheft expreffions of an abfolute, complete, and 
per fed patience. Though he was afHi&ed, and though 
he had all manner of provocations, " though he was re* 
VHed, he reviled not again." The apofle tells us, Heb. 
xii. 2. " he endured the crofs." (that is he^ patiently en» 
dured it, as the word fignifies), " and defpifed the fhame, 
that he might fit down at the right hand of God." 

You fee then the end of this ordinance of the Lord's 
fupper, is to ftir us up to call over the obedience of 
Chrift, both as to his love irt it, as to his readinefs for it, 
iubmiflion to the will of God in it, and patience under it. 
3. Faith is to call over the work itfelf, and that was 
the death of Chrift. J fhall not now be able to mani. 
left under what confederation in this ordinance faith calls 
over the death of Chrift ; but thefe are the heads I 
fhall fpeak unto. It calls it over as a facrifice, in that 
it was bloody ^ — it calls it over as fhameful, in that it was 
under the curie 5— -it calls it. over as bitter and dreadful, 
in that it was penal. It was a bloody, fhameful; and pe- 
nal death ; as bloody, a facrifice j as curfed, fhamefu^ 
and as it was penal, it was bitter. In the work of faith's 
calling over thefe things, there is a peculiar work of 
love alto. Saith our Saviour, " Do this in remembrance 
• of me." Thefe are the words we would ufe unto a 
friend, when we give him a token or pledge, " Re* 
member me." What is the meaning of it ? Remember 
my love to you ; my kinknefs for you, remember my 
' perfon. There is a remembrance of love towards Chrift 

[ 28 J . 

to be afted in this ordinance, as well as a remembrance 
of faith ; and as the next objeft of faith is, the benefits 
of Chrift, and thereby to his, perfon ; fo the next objeft 
of love, is the perfon of Chrift, and thereby to his bene- 
fits *, I mean as reprefented in this ordinance. Remem- 
ber me, faith he, that is, with an heart full of love to- 
wards me. And there are three things wherein this re- 
membrance X>£ Chrift by love, in the celebration of this 
ordinance, hoth confift ; delight in him,— thankfulnefs 
unto him,— and the keeping of his word. He that re- 
members Chrift with love, hath thefe three afFe&ions in 
his heart. 

(i.) He delights in him. Thoughts of Chrift are 
fweet unto him, as of an abfent friend ; but only in £pi- 
•ritual things we have this great advantage, we can make 
an abfent Chrift prefent to us. This we cannot in na- 
tural things. We can conveffe with friends only by 
imagination ; but by faith we can make Chrift prefent 
with us, and delight in him. 

(2.) There is thankfgiving towards him. That love * 
which is fixed upon the perfon of Chrift will break forth 
in great thankfulnefs, which is one peculiar a& of this 
ordinance. The cup which we blefs,' or give thanks for. 

(3.) It will greatly incline the heart to keep his word. 
If ye are my difciples, " If ye love me, keep my com- 
mandments." Every a& of love fixed upon the perfon 
of Chrift, gives a new fpring of obedience to all the or- 
dinances of Chrift : and the truth is, there is no keeping 
up our hearts unto obedience to ordinances, but by re- N 
newed a&s of obedience upon the perfon of Chrift. 
^This will make the foul cry. When (hall I be in an actual 
observation of Chrift's ordinance,! who hath thus loved me 
and warned me with his own blood, that hath done fuch 1 
gteat things for me ? 1 

This is the end of the death of Chrift, which concerns 
our faith and love 5 the end of commemoration, or calling 
to remembrance. 

. There is an end of profeffion alfo j which is to (hew 
forth the Lord's death till he come. ' But this muft be f 
fpoken to at fonie other time. If we come to the prac- j 

tice of thefe things, we (hall find them great things to 
call over : vfe. the whole frame of the heart of .Chrift v 

C 29 ] 

in his death, and his death itfelf, and our owi\ concern 
therein, and the great example he hath fet unto us. 
Some of them I hope may abide upon our hearts and 
fpirits for ufe. 


December 24. . 1669. 


1 Cor. xi. 26. 

j£s often as ye eaj! this bread, and drink this cup, ye dq 
Jbew the Lora^s death until be come. 

ONE end, youfee, of this great ordinance, is to (hew 
the Lord's death, to declare it, to reprefent it, % 
to (hew it forth, hold it forth) the word is thus van- 
oufly rendered. And in the efpecial ends of this ordi- 
nance it is, that we have fpecial communion with our 
Lord Jefus Chrift. 

Now there are two ways whereby we (hew forth the 
Lord's death ; the one is, the way of reprefent at ion to 
ourfelves $ and the other is, a way of- profeftion unto 

I, The way of reprefentation to ourfelves. The 
work of reprefenting Chrift aright to the foul, is a great 
work. God and men are agreed in it ; and therefore 
God, when he reprefents Chrift, his defign is to repre- 
fent him to the faith of men. Men that have not faith 
have a great defire to have Chrift reprefented to their 
fancy and imagination j and therefore when the way of 
reprefenting Chrift to the faith of men was loft among 
them, the great eft part of their religion was taken up in 
reprefenting ^Chrift to their fancy. They would make. ' 
pictures and images of his crofs, refurrection, afcenfion, 
and every thing he did. 

There are thtfee ways, whereby God reprefents Chrift 
to the faith of believers \ the one is, by the word of 
the gofpel itfelf, as written ; the fecond is, by the mu 
niflry of the gofpel, and preaching of the word $ and 

C 3° ] 

tbe third in particular is, by this fadrament, wherein we 
reprefent the Lord's death to the faith of our own 


' 1. God doth it by the word itfelf. Hence are thole 
defcriptions that are given of Chrift in' Scripture, to re- 
prefent him defireable to the fouls of men. The great 
defign of the book of Canticle?, confifts for the mod 
part in this, in a myftical, allegorical defoliation of tbe 
graces and excellencies of the perfon of Chriil, to ren- 
der him defireable to the fouls of believers $ as in tbe I 
fifth chapter, from the ninth verfe to the end, there is 
nothing but that one fubje&« And it was a great pro- 
. mife made to them of old, Ifa. xxxiii. 17. 'Thine eyes 
fballfee tbe King in bis beauty. The* promifes of the 
Old Teftament are much fpent- in rep referring the per- 
fon of Chrift beautiful, deftrous, and lovely to the faith 
of believers. And you will fee in 2 Cor. Hi* iS. what 
is the end of the gofpel : We all with open face, behold- 
ing as in a glafs, the glory of the Lord, are changed in* 
to tbe fame image, from glory to glory, even as by the 
Spirit of tbe Lord. The gofpel is the glafs here intend- 
ed y and looking into the glafs, • there is an image ap- 
pears in it, not our own, bnt the reprefentation the gof- 
pel makes of Jefus Chriil, is the image that appears in 
the glafs. Tbe work and defign of the gofpel, is to 
make a reprefentation of Chrift unto' us. As Chrift 
makes a reprefentation of the Father, and therefore he 
is called his image, the image of tbe invifible God : why 
fb ? becaufe all the glorious properties of the invifible 
God are reprefented to us in Chrift, and we looking up- 
on the image of Chrift in this glafs, that is the reprefen- 
tation made of him in the gofpel > it is the effe&udl * 
means whereby the Spirit of God transforms us into his * 

This is the firft way whereby God ddth this great i 
work of reprefenting Chrift unto the faith of men, 
which men having loft, have made it their whole reli- 
jnon to reprefent Chrift unto their fancy. 

2. The fecond way is, by the minijlry of the word* 
The great work of the miniftry of the word, is to re- 
prefent Jefus Chrift. The apoftle Paul tells us, Gal. 
in. !• Ofiolifb Galajians, who bath bevjitc bed you, thai 

C 3* I 

you Jhwld ml obey the truth, before wbofe eyes Je/ut 
Chrift bath been evidently fet forth, crucified among you f 
He is depiBus crucifixuJ i crucified before their eyes. 
How was tb\s ? not before their bodily eyes j but the 
appftle had in his preaching made fuch a lively reprefeh- 
tation unto their faith of the death of Chrift, that he was 
as one. painted before them. One faid well on this text r 
44 Qf old the apoftles did not preach Chrift by paint- 
ing, but they p ain't ed him by preaching $" they did in fo 
lively a manner reprefent him. 

Abraham's fervant, in the 24th chapter of Genefls, that 
was font to take a wife for his fon Ifaac, is by all grant- 
ed to be, if not a type, yet a refemblance of the rninl- 
fters. of the gofpel, that go forth t6 prepare a bride for 
Chrift : and what does he dp ? truly he is a great ex- 
ample. ;. when he came to the opportunity, though he 
rjatd many things to divert him, yet he would not be di« 
verted. There was fet meat before him to eat, but he 
faid* " T wiU not eat. till I have told my errand." No- 
thing flwwfcfr divert the ministers of the gofpel, no not 
th^ir, neceffary meat, when they have an opportunity of 
dealing with fouls on behalf of Chrift. What courfe 
does Abraham's fervant take ? He faith, <4 1 am Abra- 
ham's fervant j and the Lord hath bleffed my matter great- 
ly 1 and he has become great *, and he hath given him flocks, 
and herds, and iil ver, and gold, and men fervants, and 
maid -fervants, and camels, and afles." What is all this 
to Ifaac > Ke was to take a wife for Ifaac, rtot for Abra- 
ham. - He goes on ; u And Sarah, my mailer's wife, 
bare a fon to my matter when (he was old; and un- 
to him hath he given all that he hath." The way to 
procure this wife for Ifaac, was to let them know, that 
this great man, had given all that he had to Ifaac. And 
it is the .work of minitters of the gofpel, to let the peo- 
ple know, that Grod the Father hath given all things in- 
to the hands of his Son *, they are to reprefent Chrift, 
as Abraham's fervant does here his matter Ifaac, as one 
who inherited all the goods of Abraham \ fo Chrift i& 
the appointed heir of all things, of tne kingdom of hea- 

# vea, the whole houfehold of God. They are to repre- 
sent him thus to the fouls of men, to make him defin- 
able to them. This is a* great work of minitters who* 

C 3* J 

are ambafiadors of - God ; they are fent from God to 
take a wife for Chrift ; or to make ready a bride for 
him from among the children of men. 

3. The fpecial way whereby we reprefent Chrift un- 
to our fouls through faith, is in the adminiftration of this 
ordinance, which I will fpeak to upon the great end of 
(hewing forth the death of the Lord. 

Now the former reprefentations were general, this is 
particular ; and I cannot at this time go over particu- 
lars. I blefs the Lord my foul hath many times admir- 
ed the wifdom and goodnefs of God in the inftitution of 
this one ordinance, that he took bread and wine for that 
end and purpofe, merely arbitrary, of his own choice, 
and might have taken any thing elfc, what he had pleaf- 
ed -j that He (hould fix on. the cream of the creation, 
which is an endlefs ftore-houfe, if purfued, of reprefent- 
ing the myfteries of Chrift... When the folly of men 
goes about to invent ceremonies that they would have 
fignificant j when they have found^hem out, they can* 
not well tell what they fignify. But though I do ac- 
knowledge, that all the fignificancy of this ordinance de- 
pends upon the inftitution, yet there is great wrifdom in 
the fittting of it \ the thing was fitted and fuittd to be 
made ufe of to that end and purpofe. 

One end of the ordinance itfelf is to reprefent the 
death of Chrift unto us ; and it reprefents Chrift with 
reference to thefe five things. 

1. It reprefents him with reference to God's Jet- 
ting him forth. 2. In reference to his ovrnpafflon. 3. 
In reference to his exhibition in the promije. 4. To our . 
participation oi him by believing. And, 5. To his /«- 
corporation with us in union. 

1 . The great end of God in reference to Chrift as to 
his death, was, his Jetting of him forth. Rom. iii. 25. 
" Whom God hath fet forth to be a propitiation." And 
in the very fetting forth of the elements in this ordi- 
nance, there is a reprefentation of God's fetting forth his 
Son, of giving him out for this work, of giving him up 
unto it to be a propitiation. 

2. There is a plain reprefentation of hi$ pq//ion y of his 
fuffering and death, and the manner of it. This, vith 
all the concerns of it, I treated of the laft Lord's day, 

C 33 1" 

onder the Jiead of recognition, or calling over the death of * 
thrift, ** Do this in remembrance of me j" and fo I mail 
not again infill upon it. 

3. There is a reprefentatibn of Chrift in it, as to the 
exhibition and tender of him in the promife. Many pro- 
mifes are cxpreffed in invitations, " Ho \ every one, that 
thirds, come," take eat : there is a promife in* it. And 
in the tender that is made even of the facramental ele- 
ments, there is the exhibition of Chrift in the promife 
reprefented to the foul. I told you before God hath 
carefully provided to reprefent Chrift unto our faith, and 
not to our fancy j and therefore there is no outward fi- 
railitude and figure. We can fay concerning this ordi- 
nance with all its representations, as God faid concern- 
ing his appearing to Mofes upon mount Horeb, '* Thou: 
fa weft no- fimilitude." God' hath taken care there (hall 
be no natural figure, that all reprefentations made may 
Hand upon inftitution. Now there is this tender with 
an invitation. The very elements, of the ordinance arc 
a great repatfentattoiroi; the propofal of Chrift to a be- 
Ueving'ibul. God holds out Chrift a§ willing to be re- 
ceived,* With an invitation** So we (hew forth the Lord?! 

deat£ .; .../.... 

. 4. There is in this ordinance a representation of Chrift 
as to our reception of hira ; for hereon depends the 
whole of the master.- God might make a feaft of 
fat things^ and s prbpoTe. it to men \ but if they do not 
come to eat, they will not be nourifhed by it. If you>' 
make a tender of payment to a man, if he doth not re- 
ceive it, the thing remains at a diftance as before, Chrift, 
being tendered to afoul, if that foul doth not receive him, 
he hath no benefit by it .*— All thefe fteps you may go. 
There may be. God's exhibition of Chrift, and fetting of:* 
him forth) there may be his own oblation and fuffeiing, lay- 
ing the foundation of all that is to come 5 there may be 
an exhibition of him in the promife, tender and invita- 
tion, and yet, if not recjttjpd, we have no profit by all 
thefe things. What a {peat reprefentation of this re- 
ceiving is there in the adminiftration of this ordinance, . 
when every one takes the reprefentation of it to himfelt, , 
cur doth receive it ! 

I C34] 

5. Lq/lfy, It gives us a representation of our incorpo- 
ratipn iu Chrift; the allufion whereof from* the nature 
of the elements incorporation with us, and being the 
ftrcngth of our lives, might eafily be purfued. — This is 
the firft way of (hewing forth the Lord's death. 

II. I (hall now fpeak a*few words to the profeffion of 
it among ourfelves, and to others. 

Let me. take one or two obfervations to make way for* 

1 i. That vifiblc profeffion is a matter of more impor- 

. tance than mod men make of it. As the apoflle faith, 

f Rom. x. jo. " With the heart man believeth unto righ- 

teoufhefs, and with the mouth confeflion is made unto 
falvation." Look how indifpeniibly neceflary believing 
is unto rjghteoufnefs, to juflification ; no lefs indifpenii- 
bly necefiary is confeflion or profeffion unto falvation* 
There is no man that doth believe with his heart unto 
righteoufnefs, but he will with his mouth (which is there 
taken by a fynecdoche for the whole of our profeffion) 
make- confeflion unto falvation. This is that which 
brings glory to God* The apoftle tells us, 2 Cor. ix. 
13. that men " by the experiment of this miniftrationr, 
glorify God for your profeffed fubjeftion to the gofpei 
of Chrift." Glory doth not arife out of obedience, (b 
much as by your profeffion of it ; by the giving them ex- 
periment, both of your faith and the reality of it, and 
that by this fruit of your profeffion. 

Now profeffion confifts in thefe two things j (1.) In 
an abftience from all things with reference to God ^and 
his worfhip, which Chrift has not appointed. (2.) In 
the obfervation and performance of all things that Chrift 
has appointed. 

Men are apt to think, that abfltnence from the pollu- 
tions that are in the world through luft, the keeping 
. themfelves from the fins and defilements of the world, 
and inclining to that party tflR is not of the world, is 
profeffion. Thefe things are good : but our profeffion 
confifts in the obfervation of Chrift 's commands, what 
• ' he requires of us. *' Go teach them \" What to do ! 
" Whatfoever I have commanded them ; and lo, I am 
■with you always to the end of the world." There is 

C 55 3 

an expreflion, John xiv. 24. wherein our Saviour puts a 
trial of our love to him upon the keeping of his fayings. 
" He that loveth me" not, keepeth not my fayings " To 
keep the fayings of Chrift is to obferve the commands- 
of Chrift,' which is the perfect trial of our love to him. 

2. There is in this ordinance a fpecial profeflion of 
Chrift. There h a profeflion of him againft the fhame 
of the world 5 a profeflion x>f him againft the curfe of 
'the law \ and a profeflion of him ^againft the power of 
the devil. n All our profeflion doth much centre, or is 
mightily acted in this ordinance. 

(1.) The death of our Lord Jefus Chrift was in the 
world a fhamefur death, and that with which Chrift ians 
were conftantly reproached, and which hardly went 
down. with the world. It is* a known ftory, that when 
the Jeiuits preached the gofpel, as they call it, in China, 
they never let them know of the death of Chrift, till 
the congregation de propaganda fide commanded it ; for 
the world is mightily fcandalized at the (hameful death 
of the crofs. 

; Now in tbis ordinance we profefs the death of Chrift 
wherein he was crucified, as a malefactor, againft all 
the contempt of the world. It was a great part of the 
confeflion of the Chriftians of old, and there is fome- 
thing ink ftill : here we come folemnly before God, and. 
all the world, and profefs that we expect all our life and 
falvation from the death of this crucified Saviour. 

(2-) In our profeflion we fhew forth the death of the 
Lord, in the celebration of this ordinance, in oppoiition 
to the curfe of the law : that whereas the curfe of the 
law doth ky claim to us becaufe we are finners, here we 
profefs that God hath transferred the curfe of the law' 
to another who underwent it. So they did with the fa- 
erifices of old, when they had confeffed all the fins and 
iniquities of the people over the head of the goat, then 
they fent him away into deft ruction So it is in this or- 
dinance *. here we confefs ill our (ins and iniquities over 
the head of this great facrifice, and profefs to the law 
and all its accufatinns, that there our fins are charged. 
*' Who (hall lay any thing to our charge ? and who (hall 
condemn ( It is Chrift that died* We confront the claim 

I C 36 J 

of die law, (hake off its authority as to its curfc, smS 
profefs to it that its charge is fatisfied. 

(3.) We make a profeffion againU the power of Sa- 
tan. Foi the great trial of the power and intereft of the 
devil in, unto, and over the fouls of. men, was in the 
erofs of Jems ChrifL He put his kingdom to a trial,, 
ftaked his ait upon it, muttered up all the ftrength he. 
had got, all the aids that the guilt of fin and the rage of 
the world could furnish him with. Now,, faith Chr ift, T 
is your hour and power of darkneis. He comes to try 
what he can do ; and what was the iffue of the death of 
Chrlft ? Why, faith the apoftlc, he fpoiled principalities 
and powers, and triumphed over them in his erofs. So 
that, in our celebration: of the- death pf Chrift,. we do 
profefs againft Satan,, that his power is broken, that he- 
is conquered, tied to the chariot wheels of Chriit, who 
has difarroed him. 

This is the profeflioa we make when we (hew forta 
the Lord's death, againft the (hame of the world, again ft 
the curfe of the law, and the power of hell.— This is the 
fecond general end of this ordinance, and another means- 
it is whereby we have efpeciai communion with Chrift 
in it > which was the thing I aimed at from the words- 1- 
had ehofeot And now L ha,ve gone through all I intend^ 
upon this fubjec> 

A word ov two of ufe, and I have done* 

1. It is a very great honour and privilege to be calk- 
ed of God unto this great work of (hewing forth the 
death of Chrift. I think it is as great and glorious a 
work as any of the children of men can be engaged in,. 
m this, world. I have mewed you formerly, how all the * 
ads of the glorious properties of GodV nature centre - 
them&lves- in this infinite, wife, holy product of them,, 
the death of Chrift : and that God mould call us to re- 
prefent and (hew forth this death; The Lord forgive 
us, where we have not longed to perform this work as- 
we ought:; for we have differed carnal fears and affec- 
tions,, and any thing elfe, to keep us off from, employ- 
ing our/elves in this great and glorious, work. The 
grace and mercy of God in this matter is ever to be ac- 
knowledged* in that he has called us to this great and- 
glorious work. 

E 37J 

a. Then furely it is our duty to anfwer the mind of 
God in this, work $ and not to attend to it in a cold, 
carelefs, and transient manner. But methinks we might 
rejoice in our hearts when we have thoughts of it, and 
fey within ourfclves, Come we will go and jhew forth the 
Lords death. The world, the law, i and Satan, are con-* 
querecL by it : bleffcd be God that has given us an 
opportunity to profefs this. O that our hearts may long 
after the feafon for it, and fay, When (hall the time* 
come ? 

3. We may do well to remember what was fpokeit 
before concerning the great duty of reprefenting God to 
our ibuls, that we may know how to attend to it. I 
would fpeak unto the meanefl of the flock, to guide our 
hearts and thoughts,, which are too ready to wander, and 
are fo unprofitable for want of fpiritual fixation. We 
would fain truft to.our affeBions rather than to our faith, 
and would rather have them moved, than faith graciouf- 
ly t to a& itfclf. And when we fail therein, we are apt ^/ 
to think we fail in our end of the ordinance, becaufe our 
afFedions were not moved. Set faith genuinely at work, 
and we have the end of the ordinance. Let it reprefent 
Chrift to our fouls, as exhibited of God and given out 
unto us, as fuffering, as tendered to us, and as received 
and incorporated with us. 



January 7. i6y§^ . 

1 Co*, xi. a8. 

But let a man examine himfelf andfo let him eat of that 
bread, and drink of that cup. 

I HAVE been treating of that fyecial communion 
which believers have with Chrift in the adminift ra- 
tion of the ordinance of the fupper of the Lord ; and 
. thought I mould have treated po more of that fubjeft ; 
having gone through all the particulars of it, which were 

tradical, fcch as might be reduced to prefect practice. 
But I remember 1 faid nothing concerning preparation 
for it, which yet is a needful duty : and therefore I ihall» 
a little fpeak to that alfo $ not what may do&rirtaJly'hc 
delivered upon it, but thofe things, or (ome of them at 
leait, in which every foul will find a praEtical contern x 
that intends to be a partaker of that ordinance to be- 
nefit and advantage : and I have taken thefe words of 
^he apoftle for my ground- work. But let a man examine 
hhafelfy and fo let aim eat of that bread y and drink of 
tjbat cup. 

There were many difordcrs fallen in this church at 
Qorinth j and that various way*, in (cbifms and divisions* 
ia negled of difcipline, in falfe opinions, and particular- 
ly in a great abufe of the administration of this great or- 
dinance of the fupper of the Lord. And though I dor 
not, I dare not, I ought not to blefs God for their fin j 
yet I blefs God for his . providence. Had it not beer* 
fax their diforders, we had all of ut been in much, dark* 
nef? as to all church* way. The correction of their difor> 
ders contains the principal rule for churchrconomunion^ 
and the adminiftratiou of this facrament, that we have in) 
tjhe whole fcripture j which wight have been, hid from 
us, but that God differed them to fall into them on gvu*- 
pofe, that through their fall in t^hem and by. them, he 
_™?b? *nftru§_his_cjhuj:cjii^ all-^gsi U>iWendof the- 


The apoftle is here rectifying abufes about the admi* 
ni tration of the Lord's fupper, which were many \ and 
he applies particular directions to aH their particular 
mi (carriages, not now to be infilled on $ and he gathers 
up all directions into this one general rule that I have 
read, Let a man examine bimfelf and fo let him eat 9 &c. 
Now this felf- examination extends itfelf unto the whole 
due preparation of the fouls o£ men for the a&ual parti- 
cipation of this ordinance. And I (hall endeavour, by 
plain inftances out of the fcripture, (which* is my way in 
thefe familiar excrcifes), to manifeft that there is a pre- 
paration neceffary for the celebration, or obfervance 
of all folemn ordinances. — And I {hall {hew you what 
that preparation is, and wherein it doth confift. — And 
then I (hall deduce frorn thence, what is that particular 
preparation which is incumbent upon us, in reference 

r 39 r 

unto this fpecial ordinance, that is fuperadded unto the 
general preparation that is required unto all ordinances. 

Firfty I (hall manifeft, that there is a preparation ne- 
ceflary for the celebration of folemn worftiip. We have 
aa early ihftance of it -in Gen. xxxv. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, In 
the firft verfe, " God faid urito Jacob, Arife go up -to 
Bethel, and make there an altar unto God/ 1 It was a" 
folemn ordinance Jacob was called unto, to build an al* 
tat unto God, and to offer facrifice. What courfe did 
he take ? you may fee, ver. 2, 3. " And Jacob faid un- 
to his houfehold, and to all that were" with him, Put a- 
ivay the flrange gods that are among you, and be clean, 
and change your garments •, and let us arife, and go up 
to Bethel •> and I will make there an altar unto God/ 9 
I Will not engage, faith he,, in this great duty without 4 
preparation for it ; and, faith he, the preparation (hall 
be fuitable. Peculiar, fpecial preparation (to obferve 
that by the way) for any ordinance, conflils in the re- 
moval of that from Us which Hands in peculiar op por- 
tion to that ordinance, whatever it be. I -am to build 
an altar unto God j put away the flrange gods $ and 
accordingly he did fb. 

When God came to' treat with the people in that 
great ordinance of giving the law, which was the foun^ 
datiou of all following ordinances, Exod. xix* 10. " The 
Lord faid Unto Moles, Go unto the people and fandify 
them to-da'y and to-morrow, 'and let them waft their 
clothes, and be ready againlt the third day , for the 
third day the Lord will come down upon mount Sinai.'* 
I will not infill on thefe typical' preparations, but only 
fty, it fufficiently proves the general thefis, that there 
ought to be fuch a preparation for any meeting withf 
God in any of his ordinances. Saith he, " Sanctify* 
yourfelves, &c. and on the third day I will come."' 
God is a great God with whom we have to do. It is 
rtot good to hsve carnal boldnefs in our acceffes and ap- 
proaches to him \ and therefore he teaches us, that therer 
is a preparation due. And what weight God lays' up- 
on this, you may fee, 2 Chron. xxx. 18, 19, 20. A mul- 
titude ot people came to the facrifice of the paffover ; 
tot, faith he, they had not cieanfed themielvcs, there 
was not due preparation) but " Hezekiah prayed for* 

C.40 3 

ihem faying. The good Lord pardon everyone that pre- 
pareth his heart to feek God, the Lord God of his fa- 
thers, though he be not cleanfed according to the purifica- 
tion of the fan&uary. And the Lord hearkened to Heze- 
kiah, and healed the people." Perhaps the people might 
have thought it enough, that they had their pcrfonal qua- 
lification, that they were believers, that they had pre- 
pared their hearts to fcelcthe Lord God of their fathers j 
a thing moll perfons truft unto in this matter* No, faith 
the king, in praying for them ; they did prepare their 
hearts for the Lord God of their fathers, but they were 
not prepared according to the preparation of the fan&uary. 
There is an inftituted preparation, as well as a peribnal 
difpofition, which if not obferved, God will fmite them. 
God had fmote the people ; given them fotne token of his 
difpleafure : they come with great willingnefs and jdc- 
fire to be partakers of this holy ordinance • yet be- 
caufe they were not prepared according to the purifica- 
tion of the fan&uary, God unites them. 

It was an ordinance of God that Paul had to perform, 
and we would have thought it a thing that he might ea- 
fily have done, without any great fore-thought, but it 
had that weight upon his fpirit, (Rom. xv. 30. 31.) that 
with all eameftnefs he begs the prayef s of others that he 
might be carried through the performance of it ; " Now,. 
I befeechyou, brethren, for the Lord Jeius Chriit's fake, 
and for the love of the Spirit, that ye ftrive together 
-with me in your prayers to God for me j that my fer- 
vice which I have for j erufalem, may be accepted of the 
faints." He had a fervice to do at Jerufalem. He was 
gathering the contributions of the faints, (an ordinance, 
of God), to carry it up to. the poor at Jerufalem j and 
it was Upon his heart, that his fervice might find accep- 
tance with them j therefore he begs with all his foul, " I 
befeech you brethren," &c. So great weight did he lay 
upon the performance of an ordinance, that one would 
think might be eaiily palled over, without any- great re* 

The caution we hav*, EccLv. 1. is to the fame pur- 
pofe : Keep thy foot when thoii goeit into the houfe of 
God, and be more ready to hear, than to give the facri- 
fice of fools y for they confider not that they do evil. I 

; C 41 ] 


I (hall not ftand upon the particular expofition of any of 
tbefe exprcflions, but it is a plain caution of diligent con- 
fideration of ourfelves in all things we have to do in the 
houfe of God. . A bold venturing upon an ordinance is 
but the facrifice of fools : keep thy foot, look to thy af- 
fections \ be more ready to hear, faith he 5 that is, to 
attend unto the command, what God requires from thee, 
and the way and manner of it, than merely to run up- 
on a facrifice, or the performance of the duty itfelf. 

I will name One place more : Mai. xxvi. 6. " 1 will 
warn my hands in innocency j fo will I compafs thine 
altar, O Lord." 

I have' a little confirmed this general propofition, tnat 
all take for granted \ and I fear we content purfelves, 
for the moil part, with the (late and condition of thofe 
mentioned, who prepared their hearts to meet the Lord 
God of their fathers, not confidering h<?w they may be 
prepared according to the preparation of the fandtuary. 
You will aik, what is that pre paction ? 

This queftion brings me to the 

Second general head I propounded to fpeak unto. I 
aufwer, loat the general preparation that refpects all or- 
dinances, hath reference* unto God, to ourfelves, to the 
ordinance itfelf. 

1. It hath refpeel: unto God. This is the firfl thing 
to be confidered •, for this he kys down as the great law 
of all his ordinances . ** I will'be fandhfied in them that 
draw nigh unto me," Lev. x- 3. God is, in the firft 
place, to be confidered in all our drawings nigh untt> 
him ; as that is the general name of all ordinances, a 
drawing nigh, an accefs unto G,ed, " I will be fan£lifi- 
ed," &c. Now God is to be confidered three ways, 
that he may be fan£lified in any ordinance j as tlie au- 
thor, as the okjeft, as the end of it. I fhall fpeak only 
to thofe things that lie practically before us. and are in- 
difpenfably required of Us in waiting upon God, in any 
and every ordinance. 

(1.) Our preparation in reference unto God, confifls 
in due confideration of God as the author of any ordi- 
nance wherein we draw nigh unto him. For this is the 
foundation of all ordinances ; Rom. xiv. 11. " As I 
live, faith the Lord^ every knee fhall bow to me, and e- 

• t . ,« 

t 42 J 

very tongue fhall confefs to me. A practical fenfe- of 
the authority of God in every ordinance, is that which 
is required in the very firft place for our preparation. I 
know full well, how that the mind of man is to be in- 
fluenced by general convictions and particular cuftoms. 
Particular ufages built upon general convictions, carry 
moll people through their duties : but that is no prepa- 
ration of heart. There is to be an immediate fenfe of the 
authority and command of God. 

(2.) We are to conlider God in Chrift, as the imme- 
diate object of that worfhip which in every ordinance 
we do perform. You will afk, what fpecial apprehen- 
lions concerning God are particularly neceffary to this 
duty of preparation for communion with God in an or- 
dinance ? I anfwer, Two are particularly neceffary, 
that Ihould be practically upon our thoughts in every 
ordinance, the prefence of God, and the holinefs of God. 
As God is the object of our worfhip, thefe two proper- 
ties <5f God are principally to be cpnOdered in all our 

(1.) The prefence of God. -When Elijah. (» Kings 
xviii. 27). derided the worfliippers of Baal, -the chief 
part of his derilion was, he is on a journey 5 you have a 
God that is abfent, faith Elijah : and the-endof all ido- 
latry in the world, is to feign the prefence of an abfent 
deity. All images and idols are fet up for no other end, 
but to feign the prefence of what really is" abfent. Our 
God is prefent and in all his ordinances. I beg of God, 
I may have a double fenfe of his preience, r.) A fge- 
rial fenfe of his omniprefence. God requires, that we 
fhould put in all ordinances a fpecialty of faith upon his 
general attributes. Gen. xxviii 16 Jacob when God 
appeared unto him, though but in a dream, awaked out 
of Ilcep, and faid, " Surely the Lord is in this place, 
and I knew it not." 1 would fay fo concerning every 
ordinance whereunto I go ; the Lord is in that place. 
I i'peak how only concerning his real prefence : for if i- 
dolaters adorn all their places of worlhip with piclures, 
imuges, andidols, that they might fei^n the prefence of 
a God j I ought to act faith particularly upon the real 
pretence of the immenfe and omnip-efent God. He 
bids us conlider it in the bulinefs of his worlhip ; Jr. 

C 43 3 

xxiii. 23. " Am I a God at hand, faith the Lord, and' 
not a God afar off ?" Confider my glorious prefence is e- 
vcry where. As we ought always, wherever we* are, 
and whatever we do, to carry a fenfe with us of the pre- 
fence of God, to fay, God is here, that we may not be 
farprized in our journies, or in any thing that may befal 
us, fuppofe a broken leg or a broken arm j then we may 
fay, God is in this place, and I knew it not ; fo-particiU x 
larly where we have to do in his ordinances, let there 
be an antecedent remembrance that God is in that 

2.) We are to remember the gracious prefence of 
God. There was a twofold prefence of God of old, 
the one temporary, by an extraordinary appearance •, the 
other Handing, by a continued inftitution. Wherever 
God made an extraordinary appearance, there he requir- 
ed of his people to look upon him to have a fpecial pre* 
fence. It was but temporary, when God appeared to 
Mofes in the burn : " Draw not nigh, faith God, put off 
the (hoes from off thy feet ; for the ground whereon thou 
ftandeit is holy j becaufcof God's fpecial appearance." 
But the next day, as far as I know, iheep fed upon that 
holy ground. It was no longer hoty than God's appear- 
ance made it fo. So he faid to Jofhua, when he was by 
Jericho, ** Loofe thy (hoe from off thy foot, for the place 
whereon thou (landed is holy," Jofh. v. 15. It was a 
temporary appearance of God j there was his fpeciaL 
prefence. It was fo on the inftitution of the taberna- 
cle and temple j God inftituted them, and gave his fpe- 
cial prefence to them by virtue of his inftitution. Our 
Saviour tells us, all this is departed under the gof- 
pel, John iv. 21. " You (hall no longer worfhip God, 
faith he, neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerufalem j 
but he that worfhippeth God, muft worfhip him in fpi- 
rit and in truth— Is there no fpecial ptefeiice of God 
remains then ? yea, there is a fpecial prefence of God 
in all his ordinances and inffitutions. * " Wherever I 
record my name, (as the name of God is upon all his in- 
ilitutions), there will I come unto you, and I will blefs 
you, faith God," Exod. xx.^4. Let us exercife our 
- thoughts then to this fpecial proraifed prefence of God 
in every ordinance and inftitution ; it belongs greatly to 

[ 44 ] 

our due preparation for an ordinance. It was no hard 
thing for them, you may think, of old, where God had 
put his prefence in a place, to go thither, and expect the 
prefence of God $ things that are a b lent are hard, things 
that are prefent are not fo. But it is no harder matter 
for us to go and expect God's prefence in his inftituted 
ordinances now, than for them to go to the temple - 9 con- 
fideriog God, as the object of our worfhip, is no lefs 
prefent with us. 

(2.) The fecond property, which is principally to be 
confidered in God, in his ordinances, as he is the object 
of them, is his holinefs. This is the general rule that 
God gives in all ordinances : " Be ye holy, for I the 
Lord your God am holy." And Joihua, chap. xxiv. 19. 
te}ls the people what they were principally to confider 
in ferving the Lord. " We will fervc the Lord, fay 
the people : faith Joihua, You cannot ferve him, for the 
Lord is an holy God ;" intimating, that they were to 
have due apprehenfions of his holinefs ; and without it 
there is no approaching unto him in his feivice. The 
apoflle gives a great and plain rule to this purpofe, 
Heb. xii. 29. " Let us have grace, faith he, whereby 
we may ferve God acceptably, with reverence and god- 
ly fear." What doth he propofe now as the principal 
reafon why he requires this preparation ? For, faith he, 
our God is a confuming fire. What property of God 
is exprefTed by this word £onfuming fire ? It is the ho- 
linefs of God, the purity of God's nature, that can bear 
no corrupt nor defiled thing. It is fet forth by that 
metaphorical expreffion, a confuming fire. As fire is 
the moil pure and unmixed element, and fo powerful of 
itfelf as that it will confume and deilroy every thing 
that is not perfectly of its own nature ; fo is God, faitlf 
he, a confuming fire.; and in all your ferving of him, 
and approaches unto him, labour to obtain a frame of fpi- 
rit that becomes .them who have to do with that God 
who is fo pure and holy. 

I do but chufe out thefe things, which in the way of" 
ordinances, I would fay, are, I may fay, defire, fhould 
be moil upon my heart and fpirit : I might eafily en- 
large it to other considerations. But let thefe two con* 
^derations dwell upon our minds, as our preparation for 

C 45 X 

•ur accefs unto God $ thoughts of his glorious and gra- 
cious prefence, and of hiaholintfs, Pfal. xciii 5. " Ho- 
linefs become tli thine houfe, O Lord, for ever.?' That 
is the fecond thing with refpeel: to God, as the object 
of all the ordinances of our worfhip. 

(3.) Our preparation refpeds God as he is the end 
of ordinances 5 and that to .thefe three purpofes, if 1 
could infill upon them. He is the end of them, as we 
aim in them to give glory unto him : he is the end of 
them,, as we aim in them to be accepted with him : he is^ 
the end of them, as we aim in them to be bleffed by him. 
Thefe are three things that are our end in all ordinances , 
tjiat we celebrate. 

(1.) The.firft i$ t the general end of all that we do ia 
this world 5 we are to do all to the glory of God : it is 
the v immediate end -of all our woruSip. " If 1 am a Fa- 
ther, faith he, whexe is my honour > where is my glo- 
ry I 5 " Mai. i/6- Do you come to'worfhip'me^ you are 
to give me honour as to a Father, glory as to a Matter, - 
as to a Lord. We come to own him as our Father, ac* 
knowledge our dependence upon him as a Fatjier, our 
fubmifTion to him as our Lord and Matter, and thus give 
glory to him. He hath never taken one ftep to the 
preparing his heart according to the preparation of the 
Jkncluary, in the celebration of ordinances, who hath 
not defigned in them to give glory unto God. 

(2.) Another end is, to be accepted with him ; ac- 
cording to that great promife, which you have, Ezekiel 
xliii. 27. " YoauSall make your burnt offerings uponthe 
altar 5. asd I will accept you, faith the Lord God." It 
19 a promife of gofpel-times ; for it is in the defcription 
of the new, glorious temple. We come to God to have 
our perfons and offerings accepted by Jefus Chrift. 

(3.) To be bleffed according to his promife. That 
God will blefs us out of Zion.. What the particular 
bleflings are we look for in particular ordinances, indue 
time, God afliiting, I (hall acquaint you with, when we 
come to the fpecial and particular preparation for that 
ordinance we aim at. But this is neceffary to all, and 
& to that. 

2... This preparation refpeel s ourfelves. There are 

. c 3 

', r 

c 4* y 

three things which I deure my heart may be prepared 
» by in reference to the ordinances of God. 

(i.) The tirft is indifpenfably necefTary, bid dowa in 
that great rule, PfaLlxvi. 18. 4fr If I regard iniquity 
in my heart, the Lord will ndt hear me ^" that I bring a 
heart to ordinances without regard to any particular ini- 
quity. We have the dreadful inftance- of Judas, who 
came to that great ordinance of the pafibver with regard 
to iniquity in his heart, which particular iniquity was 
covetoufnefs, and went away with the devil in his whole 
mind and foul. ./ 

Ezek. xiv. 4. is another place to this purpofe : 
'* Therefore fpeak unto them, and fay unto them, thus 1 
faith the Lord God, Every man of the houfe of Ifrael 
that fetteth up his idols in his heart, and putteth the ihim- 
bling-blbck of his iniquity before his face, and cometh 
to the prophet, I the Lord will anfwer him that cometh; 
according to the multitude of his idols." There is no* 
more effectual courfe in the world to make poor fouls in* 
corrigible, than to come to ordinances, and be able to di* 
jeft under them a regard to iniquity in our hearts. If 
we have idols, God will anfwer us according to our i- 
idols. What is the anfwering of men according to, 
their idols ? Why plainly, it is this, allotting them peace 
while they have their* idols' j you (hall have peace with 
regard to Iniquity j you come for peace, .take peace jr 
which is the faddeit condition any foul can be left un- 
der : you mull have peace and your idols together. 4 
Whenever we prepare ourfelves, if this part of our pre- 
paration be wanting, if we do not all of us caft out the 
idols of our hearts, and ceafe regarding of iniquity, all 
is lolL * - 

(2.) The fecond head of preparation on Our own part, 
is felf-abafement, out of a deep fenfe of the infinite dis- 
tance that is between God and us, whom we- 'go to meet. 
I have taken upon myfelf to fpeak to the great PoffefTor 
of heaven and earth, who am but duft and allies. Nothing 
brings God and man fo near together, as a due fenfe of 
our infinite diftance : If. lvii. lj. " Thus faith the 
high and lofty One who inhabiteth eternity, wfoofe name 
is holy, I dxvell in the high and holy place \ with him 
alfo that is of a contrite and humble fpirit. . 


C 47 3 

(3.) A heaxt filled with love to ordinances is a great? 
preparation for an ordinance. How doth David in the 
eighty- fourth pfalro, pant and long, and breathe after 
the ordinances o£ God ! To love prayer, to- love ' the 
word, is a great preparation for both. To love the pre* 
ience of Chrift in the fupper, is a great preparation for 
k. To keep an iiabkual frame of love in the heart for - 

I would not load your memories with particulars. I 
mention plain practical things unto thofe, for whofe fpi- 
ritual welfare I am more particularly concerned j that 
. we may retain them for oar ufe, and know them for our* 
felves ; and they are fuch as 1 know moie or lefs (though 
perhaps not fo diftincliy) all our hearts work after, and 
in thele things our fouls do live. 

3. Our preparation in reference unto any ordinance * 
kfelf ; which confifts in two things* 

(1.) A fatisfa£ory perfuafion of the inititution of the 
-ordinance itfelfj-- that* it is that which God hath appoint- 
ed. If God mould meet us, and fay, "Who hath re- 
quired thefe things at' your hands ?" _and Chrift mould 
come and fay, " Every planf that my heavenly Father 
hath not planted (hall be plucked up ; or, In vain do you. 
wor(hip me, teaching for do&rines the commandments 
of mtn i M How would fuch words fill the hearts of poor 
erea«ure> with eonfufion, if engaged in fuch ways that 
God hath not required > We mull be careful then, that 
for the fubftance of the duty, it be appointed by God. 

(2.) That it be performed in a due manner. One fail- 
1 ure herein what a difturbance did it bring upon poor Da* 
v,id ; It is obferved by many, that fearch the "whole 
courie of David's life, that what he was moft eminent 
in, which God did fo chiefs him for, and own him in, was 
&s love to the ordinances of God. And I cannot but 
think with what a full heart David w T ent to bring homo 
the ark y with what longings after God 5 with w,hat re- 
joicings in him ; with what promiies to.himfelf, what glo- 
rious things here Would be, after he had the ark of God to 
be with him j and yet, when he went to do this, you know 
what a breach God made upon him, daihed all his hopes 
and all the good frame in-him : God made a breach up- 
on Uzzah y and it Is laid, the thing God did difpleafed 

C 4* ] 

David, it quite unframed him, and threw a damp on Ins joy 
And delight for the prefent. But he afterwards gathers- 
it up, i Chron. xv. 12, 13. " He fpake to the Levites, 
Sanclify yourfelves both ye and your brethren, that ye 
may bring up the ark of the Lord God of lfrael, unto 
the place that I have prepared for it. For becaufe ye 
did it uot at the firft, the Lord our God made a breach 
upon us, for that we fought him not after the due order. ,v 
We fought him, faith he, but not after the due order. 
And what that due order rfas he fhews in the next ver- 
fes, where he declares that the Levites carried the ark. 
upon their own moulders, with the itaves thereon, as 
Moles commanded, according to the word of the Lord j 
whereas before they carried it in a cart, which was not 
for that fervice. It is a great thing to have the admi- 
nistration of an ordinance in the due order. God lays 
great weight upon it, and we ought to take care that the 
order be obferved. 

This is what we have to offer to you concern- 
ing the two general proportions, That there is a prepa- 
ration required of us for the obfervance of all folemn or- 
dinances 5 and, That this preparation confifts~in a due re- 
gard to God, to ourielves, and to the ordinance, What- 
ever it be. To God as the author, as the object, andaf 
theend of ordinances - 9 to ©urfelves, to remove that which 
would hinder, not to regard iniquity, to -be felf-abafed in 
our hearts with refpect to the infinite diffance that there 
is between God and us, and with a love unto ordinances j 
with refpe& unto the ordinance ttfelf, that it be of God's 
appointment for the matter and manner. Thefe things* 
may. help -us to a due coniideration, whether we have 1 
failed in anv of them or not. 

I have mentioned nothing but what is plain and evi* 
dent from the feripture, and what is praclicable j nothing, 
but what is really required of us 5 fuch things* as we 
ought not to eiteem a burden, but au advantage 5 and 
whereinlbever we have been wanting, wefhould do well 
to labour to have our hearts affe&ed with it > for it hath 
been one caufe why fo many of us have laboured in the 
fire under ordinances, and have had no profit nor benefit 
by them. As I faid before, conviction is the founda- 
tion, c&ftom is the building of moft in their obferyatiea< 

T 49 3 

of ordinauces. Some grow weary of them \ fome wear 
them on their necks as a burcien j fome feek relief from 
them, and do not find it ; and is it any wonder if this 

v ' great duty be wanting ' having neither confidered God, 
rior ourfelves, in what'we go about ! and above all things 

" take heed of that deceit 1 mentioned, which is certainly 
very apt to impofe itfelf upon us, That where there 
is a difpofition in the perfon there needs no prepa- 
ration for the duty. There was a preparation in thofe 
whom God broke out upon, becaufe they were not pre- 
pared acording to the preparation of the fandu&ry : that ' 
is, hi that way and manner of preparation j they had not 
gone through thofe cleanlings which were militated un- - 
der the law. ..... 

» ♦ • 


January 21. i6t§. 

1 Cor. xi. 28. 

But let a man examine^ himfelf and Jo let him eat of that 
breads and drink of that cup. t 

I Have been treating in fundry of thefe familiar exer- 
cifes about communion with Jefus Chrift in that 
great ordipance of the Lord's (upper, intending prin- 
cipally, if not folely, the induction of thofe who have, 
it may be, been leaft exercifed in fuch duties. I have 
fpoke fomething of preparation for it, and on the lad 
opportunity of this kind I did infift upon thefe two 
things, That there is preparation required unto the due 
obfervance of every folemn ordinance } and I did mani- 
feit, what in general was required to that preparation. 
I have nothing tc\ do at prefent, but to confide* the ap* 
plication of thofe general rules to tile fpecial ordinance 
of the fupper of the Lord. For the fpecial preparation . 
for an ordinance confifts in the fpecial refpe& which we, 
have to that ordinance in our general preparation *, and, 
I ihall 1'peaJc to it plainly, fo as that the weakeit, who 
are concerned may fee their intereft in it, and have fome 
guidance to tbeir practice. 

And there are two things whkk may be confidtered. 


C jo 3- ' 

to this purpofe. The time wherein this duty is to be per- 
formed > and, The duty of preparation itfelf. 

Firfiy The time of the performance of the duty •, for 
that indeed regards as well what hath been faid concern- 
ing preparation in general, as what {hall now be farther 
added concerning preparation in particular, with iefpecl 
to this ordinance. 

Time hath double refpeft unto the worfhip of God, 
as a part of it , fo it is when it is fe pa rated by the ap- 
. pointment of God himfelf 3 and, as a neceuary adjunct 
of thofe actions whereby the worfhip of God is perrorra- 
ed *, for there is nothing can be done, but it rouft be 
done in time, the infeparable adjunct of all actions. 

And therefore having proved that a preparation is 
neceflary, I (hall prove that there is a time neceffary -, for 
there can be no duty performed, but it mull be perform- 
ed, as I faid, in fome time. <• 

For the right dating of that therefore I fhall give you 
thefe rules* 

1. That there is a time antecedent to the celebration 
of this ordinance to be fet apart for preparation unto it. 
The very nature of the duty, which we call preparation t 
doth inevitably include this, that the time for it muft be 
antecedent to the great duty of obferving the ordinance 
itfelf. - 80 Mat. xxvii-62. the evening before the paf- 
ibver is called the preparation of the paffover, lime fet 
apart for the preparation of it. 

2. The fecond rule is this, That there is no particular- 
fet time neither as to the day, or feafon of the day, as to- 
the beginning or ending of it, that is determined for. this- 
duty in the icripture \ but the duty itfelf being com- 
manded, the time is left to our own prudence, to be re- 
gulated according to what duty doth require \ fo that 
you are not to expecl that I mould precifely determine 

* this or that time, this or that day, this or that hour, fo 
, long or fo fhort ; for God hath left thefe things to our 
liberty, to be regulated by our own duty and necefiity. 

3. There are three things that will greatly guide a> 
man in the determination of the time, which is thus left 
unto nis own judgment according to the apprehend on of 
his duty. 

( 1*.) That he chufe a time wherein the preparation of 
it may probably influence his mind and fpirit in ajad unto 
the ordinance itfelf. Perfons may chufe a time for pre- 
-pa rat ion, when there may be fuch an interpofition of 
worldly thoughts and bufinefs, between the preparation 
and the ordinance, that their minds may be no way in- 
fluenced by it in the performance and obfeivation of the 
duty. The time ought to be fo fixed, that the duty 
may leave a favour„upon the foul unto the time of the 
celebration of the ordinance itfelf, whether it be the pre- 
ceding day, or whether it be the fame day. The work 
is loft unlefs a man endeavours to keep up a feme of thofe 
impreflions which he received in that work. 

(2.) Providential occurrences and intimations are great 
rules for the chufing of time and feafon for duties. Paul 
comes to Athens, A£ts xvii. and, in all probability, he 
intended not to preach immediately upon his journey. 
He intended to take fome time for his refreshment. But 
obferving the wickednefs of the place, ver. 16. " that 
they were wholly given to idolatry," and obferving an 
altar to the uftknowTi God, ver. 32. he laid hold of that 
hint of providerice, that intimation given him by God's 
providence. fiom thefe things, apd immediately fell up- 
on his work 5 which God blefted with great fuccefs. 
There be a thoufand ways, if I may fo fay, wherein an 
obferving Chriftian may find God hinting and intimat- 
ing duties unta him. The fins of other men, their graces, 
mercies, dangers, may be all unto us intimations of a fea- 
fon for duty. Were none of us ever fent to God by the 
outrageous wickednefs of others ? by the very obferva- 
tion of it ? And it is a fign of a good fpirit to turn pro- 
vidential intimations into duties. The Pfalmift fpeaks 
to that purpofe, Pfal. xxxii. 8, 9. " 1 will guide thee by 
mine eye," faith he. The next words are, " Be not as 
.the horfe, or as the mule which ha:h no under Handing; 
whofe mouth mult be held in with bit and bridle/ 1 God 
loves a pliable fpirit, that upon every look of his eye 
will be guided to a duty: But thofe who- are like horfes 
and mules, that muit be held with a ftrong rein, that will 
.not be turned, till God puts great ftrength to it, are pof- 
feffed with fuch a frame of fpirit which Go,d approves 
not. You are left at liberty to chufe a time, but obferve 

I / 

C J2 ] . 

any intimation of providence that may diced to that 
time. * 

(3.) Be fure to improve furprifals with gracious difpo- 
fitions, I mean in the approach of folemn ordinances. 
Sometimes the foul is furprifed with a gracious difpoii- 
tion, asjn Canticles vi. 12. '* Or ever I was aware, my 
foul made me like the chariots of Amminadib." I knew 
it not, faith the church, I was not aware of . it, but I 
found my foul in a fpecial willing mariner drawn forth 
to communion with Chrift. Is God*J>leafed at any time 
to give us fuch gracious furprifals, with an holy dif- 
pofition to be dealing with him, it will be the belt Tea- 
fon y let it not be omitted. 

Thcfe' things will a little direct us in the determina- 
tion of the time for preparation, which is left unto our 
own* liberty. 

4, Take care that the time deligned and allotted, does 
neither too much intrench upon the occafions of the out- 
ward man, nor upon the weaknefs of the inward man. 
If it doth they will be too hard for us. I confefs in this 
general obfervation which profeffors^are fallen into, and 
that cuilom which is in the obfervation of duties, there 
is little need to give this rule. But we are" not to ac- 
commodate our rule unto our corruptions, but unto our 
duties •, and fo there is a double rule in fcripture that 
fortifies this rule ; the one is that great rule of our Sa- 
viour, " That God will have mercy, and not facrifice." 
Where thefe duties of obferving facrifices do fenhbly in- 
trench upon duties of mercy, God dcth not require it j 
which hath a great regard even unto our outwaid occa- 
iions. And the other rule is this, ".That bodily exer- 
cife profits' little," When we aflign fo long a time as 
wearies out our fpirits, and obferve the time, becaufe of 
the time, it is bodily exercife 5 when the vigour of our 
fpirits is gone, which is a facriflce God delights not in. 
As Jacob told Efau, if the cattle were driven beyond 
their pace they would die - 9 fo we- find by experience, 
that though with ftrdng reiolutions w T e may engage unto 
duties in fuch a manner as may intrench upon thefe out- 
ward occafions, or thofe weaknenes, they will return, and 
be too hard for us, and inftead of getting ground, they 
'rive us off ours j fo that there is prudence to be j:e- 

[ 53 3 

j. Let not the time allotted be fo fhort, as to be un- 
meet for tbe going through with the duty effe&ually. 
Men may be ready to turn their private prayers into a 
few ejaculations, and going in or out of a room may ferve 
them for preparation for the mod folemn ordinance. 
This hath loft us the power, the glory, and the beauty 
of our profeflion* Never was profeflion held up to more 
glory and beauty, than when perfons. were moil exa& in 
their preparation for the duties of their profeflion j no- 
thing will ferve their turn, but their fouls having real 
and fuitable converfe with God, as unto the duty that 
lies before them. 

6. The time of preparation k to be exercifed and 
made more* folemn upon extraordinary occaiions. The ' 
inter vention of extraordinary occafions muft add a folem- 
nity to the time of preparation, if we intend to walk 
with God in a due manner. Thefe extraordinary oc- 
casions may be referred to three heads, particular fins, ' JJ 
particular mercies, particular duties. 

(i.) Is there an inter veniency upon the confcience of 
any fpecial fin, that either the foul hath been really over-?, 
taken with, or that God is p leafed to fet home afrcfh up- 
on the fpirit, there is then an addition to be made jihto 
the time of our preparation, to bring things to that iflue 
between God and our fouls, that we may attend upon 
the ordinance, to hearken what God the Lord will now 
fpeak, and then he will fpeak peace. This is the fir ft 
principal extraordinary inter veniency, that muft make ' 
an addition to the' time of preparation for this ordinance, 

(2.) The intervemences of mercies. The. ordinance 
hath the nature of a thank-offering, and is the great me- 
dium, or means, of our returning praife unto God, that 
we can make ufe of in this .world. And then are we 
truly thankful for a temporal mercy, when it engages 
our hearts to thank God for Chrift* by whom all mer- 
cies are bleffed to us. Hath God caft in any fpecial 
mercy ? add unto the fpecial preparation, that the heart 
may be fit to blefs God for him, who is the fountain 
and caufe of all mercies. • 

(3.) Special duties require the like. For it being the 
folemn time of our renewing covenant with God, we 
(land in need of a renewal of ftrength from God, if we 
^ 1 • 

C 54 1 

intend to perform fpecial duties ; ami inf our renewing 
covenant with God, we receive that fpecial ftrength for 
thefe fpeoial duties* 

* Tkefe rules I have offered you concerning the time of 
this great duty of preparation, which 1 am fpeaking un* 
to ; and I (hall add one more, without which you' wift 
cuftly grant that all the reft will fall to the ground, and 
with which God will teach yon attune reft } arid that w f 
Be fare you fet apmttfome time* I am greatly afraid of 
^u'ftomarinefs in this matter. Perfons complain, that hi 
"waiting upon God in that ordinance, they do not receive 
that entertainment at the hand of God, that refreshment 
which they looked for. They have more reafo» fa won- 
der, that they were notcaft out, as thofe who came withu 
eat a wedding garment. That is not only required of 
0s, that we come with our wedding garment, which i very 
believer hath, but that we come decked with this gar* 
ttcnt. A man may have a garment that may fit very ift, 
very unhandfomely f about him. The bride' detks her- 
felf with her garment* for the bridegroom. We are to 
do fo for the meeting with Chrrit In this ordinance, to ftif 
up ail the graces God bath beftowed upon us^ that wd 
amy be decked* for Chrift. The*e lies the unprofitsble- 
aefs under that ordinance, that, though God has given- us 
the wedding-garment that we are not c*ft out, yet we 
take hot care to deck our (elves, that God and Chtfift may 
give ua refreshing entertainment when we come into his 
prefence* Our failing herein evidently arid apparently 
witneffes to the feces of moil profe^Tors, that this is the 
ground of their unpTontablenefs under that ordinance* 
So much for the time. 

Secondly, I (hall now fpeak a little to the cjpty itfietf 
©f preparation for that ordinance $ remembering what I 
fpake before of preparation in general, unto all fohanft 
ordinances, which muft (till be fuppofed* 

Now the duty may be reduced to thcfe four he«ds, 
meditation, examination, fupplication,. expectation. 'And 
if I mifta^e not, they are all given us in One yeife y and 
though not directly applied to this ordfnawce, yet to tirit 
among other ways of our intimate- communion .with 
€hriir i l£ecfc. xit. io; '• I will pour u'poft the houft 
ef David, and upon the itd&abitants of JerofclcmV the 

f 55 3 

■Spirit of grace and of fiippkcations, and they (hall look 
upon me whom they have pierced, -and they mall mourn 
for him, as pne mourneth for his only fon, and (hall' he 
jn bitternef? for him, as one that is in bitterness for his 
firft born." These is (i.) Meditation: tbey JholI look 
uhon him ; this is no otherwise to be performed but by 
'the meditation of faith. Our looking upon Chrift is by 
believing meditation. Looking argues the fixing of the 

• fight ; and meditation is the fixing of faith in its actings. 
(Looking is a fixing of the eye ; faith is the eye of the 
foul j and to look is to fix faith in meditation. And 

.there is (2.) Examination, which produceth the mourn- 
ing here mentioned. For though it is (aid, Tbeyjba/I 

mourn for bim ; it was oat to mourn for his- fiific rings,; 
for fo he faid, " Weep not for me ;" hut to mourn up- 
on the account of thofe things wherein they were con- 
cerned in his fufferings. It brings to repentance $ which 

. is the principal defign of this examination. (3.) There 
is Supplication ; for there-mall be poured out a fpirit of 
grace and Supplication. And (4.) there is Expe&ation ; 
which is included alio in that of looking unto Chrift. 
. I* The firft pajt~of thk daty^ftMparation confifts try 
meditation : and meditation is a duty; that, by reafon of 
the vanity of our own minds, and the variety of objects 
which they ace apt to &x upon, even believers them- 
felves do find as great a difficulty therein as any, 

l 4hall only mention thofe fpecial objects which our 
thoughts are to be fixed upon in this preparatory duty ; 

• and you may reduce them to the following heads. 

(1.) The principal object of meditation in our prepa^ 
ration for this ordinance, is the horrible guilt and pro- 
vocation that is in fin. There is a representation of the 

• guilt of fin made in the crofe of Chrift. There was a 
great reprefentation of it in the ptuaiflunent of angels } a 
great repxefentation of it is made in the deftruclion of 
Sodom and Gomorrah \ and both thefc are propoied un- 
to us in a fpecial manner, (2 Pet. ii. 4, j, 6.) to let forth 
the heinous nature of the guilt of fin j Jbut they come 
very (hort, nay, give me leave to fay, that hell itfelf 
comes ftiort x>f reprefenting the guilt of- fin, in compari- 
fon of the ciofs of Chrift.' And the Holy Ghoft would 
Imve us mind it, whe*re he lakh, M He waft made fin for 

[ S6 3 

us," 2 Cor. v. ii. See what comes of fin, faith he, what 
demerit, what provocation there is in it ; to iee the Son 
of God praying, crying, trembling, bleeding, dyings God 
hiding his face from him $ the earth trembling under him $ 
darknets round about him ; how can the foul but cry out, 
O Lord is this the effect of fin ! is all this in fin ! Here 
then take a view of tin. Others look on it in its plea- 
fures and the advantages of it ; and cry, Is it not a little 
one ? as Lot of Zoar. But look on it in the Crofs of 
Chrift, and there it appears in another hue. All this is 
from my tin, faith the contrite foul. 
- (2) The purity, the holinefs, and the feverity of God, 
that would not pafs by fin, when it was charged upon 
his Son. " He fet him forth (Rom. Ill, 25.) to declare 
his righteoufnefs." As there was a reprefentation of the 
guilt of fin, fo there was an everlafting reprefentation of 
the holinefs and righteoufiiefs of God in the crofs of Je- 
fus Chriii. He fpared him not. And may the foul fay, 
Is, God thus holy in his nature, thus fcvere in the exe- 
cution of his wrath, fo to punifh, and fo to revenge fin, 
when bis Son undertook to anfwer for it ? How dread- 
ful is this God ! how glorious ! what a confuting fire ! 
It is that which* will make finners in Zion cry, " Who 
among us fhall dwell with the devouring fire ? who a- 
mong <us (hall dwell with everlafting burnings ?" Ifa. 
xxxiii. 14. Confider the holinefs and the feverity of God 
in the crofs of Chrift, and it will make the foul look a- 
bout him, how to appear in the prefence of that God. 

(3.) Would you have another objedfc of. your medita- 
tion in this matter \ let it be the infinite wifdom and the 
infinite love of God that found out this way of glorify- 
ing his holinefs and juftice, and dealing with fin accord- 
ing to its demerit. " God fo loved the world, (John iiL 
16.) as to fend his only begotten Son. And herein is 
love, love indeed ! (1 Johniv. 10,), that God fent his 
Son to die for us." And the apoitle, Eph. iii. 10. lay* 
it upon the manifold wifdom of God. Bring forth your 
faith - y be your faith never fo weak, never fo little a rea- 
lity, do but realize it, and do not let common thoughts and 
notions take up and poffefs your fpirits : here is a glo- 
rious object for it to work upon, to confider the infinite 
wiidom and love that found out this way* It was out 


C 57 3 


*f love unfearchsble. And now what may not my poor 
Juifkl foul expe& from this love ?* what difficulties can I 
(be entangled in, but this- wiftcai can difentangle me ? 
and what diftemf trs can I be under, but this love may 
lieal and recover ? There is hope then, faith the foul, in 
preparation for thefe things. 

(4.) Let the infinite love of JefuS Chrift himfelf be al- 
io at filch a feafon had in remembrance. Gal, iii. 10. 
** Who loved me and gave iumfelf for me." Rev. i. 5, 
41 Who loved us,' and waited us in his own blood." Phil. 
it, 6, 7,8. " Who, when he was in the formed God, and . 
thought it no robbery to be equal with God, humbled 
bimfelfjfead became obedient unto de*th, even the death 
of the croft.** 2 Cor. viir. 9. 4i This was the grace of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift, that though he was rtoh, yet for your 
fakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might 
be rich." The all-conquering and all endearing love 
jq£ Chrift, is a bleffed preparative . medkation foe this » 
.great ordinance. . * 

(5.) There is the » emd^ what ^U th>& came to } this , 
guilt of firT, 'this, hoiiheft of 'God, "this wifdbm of grace, . 
this love of Chrift 5 .'what did all this come to > Why 
the apoftle tells us, Co]Li. 20. " He hath made peace, 
through the blood of his croft." The end of it all was 
to make peace between' God and us $ and this under- 
taking ifiued in his blood, that was able to do it, and no- 
thing elfe " 9 yea, that hath done' it. It is a very hard . 
thing, for < a foul to believe, that there is peace made 
with God for him, and for his. fin j but, really trace it , 
through, thefe Heps, and it will .give a great deal of ' faith. . Derive it from the lo weft, the deep- 
eft pit of. the guik of (in ', scarry it into the prefence of 
the ieverily-of »God, and fo bring it to the love of Chrift, 
and :the«ittuevw&ich the-fcriptures teftify of^all thefe. 
things -was* to make -peace and reconciliation. 

Sonde may fay, that they would willingly meditate up- 
on thefe things, but they cannot remember them, they 
cannot retain them, and it would be long work to go • 
through and think of them all j and fuch as they have* 
not ftrength and feafon for, ' * 

I anfwer ' 1. 1 My intention is not to burden your me- 
mory, or your practice, but to help your faith* . I do 


[ 3« 3 

not prefcribe theft things as all of them necefiary to be 
gone through in every duty of preparation ; but you all 
know, they are fuch as may be ufed, every one of themv 
iingly in the duty ; though they that would go through 
them all again and again, would be no lofers by it, but 
will find fomething that will be food and refrcfhment 
for their fouls, .But, - 

[2. J Let your peculiar meditation be regulated by 
your peculiar prefent condition. Suppofe, for in (lance, 
the foul is preffcd withjt fenfe of the guilt of any fin, or 
of many fins j let the preparative meditation be fixed 
upon the grace of God, and upon the love of Jefus Chrilt^ 
that are fuited to give relief unto the foul in fuch a con- 
dition.— Is the foul burdened with ienfeleflhefs offing 
doth it not find itfelf (0 fenfible of fin as it would be-, 
but rather that it can entertain flight thoughts of -fini 
let meditation be principally directed unto the great 
guilt of fin as represented in the death and crofs of 
Chrift, and to the fe verity of God* as there reprefented. 
Other things may lay. hold on our carnal affections $ but 
if this lay not hold upon faith, nothing will 

I have one rule more in thefe meditations y Doth any 
thing fall in that doth peculiarly affect your fpirits, as 
to that regard which you have to God ? Set it down-. 
Moft Chriltians are poor in experience j they have no 
icock ; they have not t laid up any thing for a dear year or 
.a hard time : though they may have had many tokens for 
good, yet they have forgot them. When your hearts are 
raifed by intercom fe between God and youifelves in the 
performance of this duty, beat pains to fet them down for 
your own ufe •, if any thing do immediately affect your 
ipirits you will be ho lofer by it •, it is as eafy a way to grow 
lich in fpiritual experiences as any I know.— This is the 
part of this duty of preparation, which, with the rules 
given, may be conftantly fo obferved, as to be no way 
burdenfome nor wearifome to you j but very much to 
your advantage. The other duties I fhall but name, and . 
fo have done. 

2. There is examination. Examination is the word 
in my text, and tKat duty which moft have commonly 
ipake unto, that have treated any thing about prepara- 

t S9 1 J 

-tisn for this ordinance; It refpe&s principally two 
things, vias. Repentance and faith. 

(i.) Our examination as to repentance, as far as it: 
concerns preparation unto this* duty, may be referred to 
three heads. 

1 1.] To call ourfelves to account, whether indeed we 
have habitually that mourning frame of fpirit* upon us,* 
which is required in them who converfe with God in 
the crofs of Jefus Chrift^ "" They (hall look upon him. 
whom they have pierced > and mourn.?' There is- an ha- 
bitual mourning frame of fpirit required in us •, and we 
may do well to fearch ourfelves about it, whether it is 
.maintained, and kept up, or no? whether worldly fecurity 
and carnal joys do not devour it* For fpirit ual joys will 
not do it. Spirituarjoys will take off nothing from fpi- 
ratual mourning - ? but worldly fecurity, and carnal joy. 
and pleafures will devour that frame of fpirit. 

£2.] Our examination as to repentance re fp eels actual. 
. fins, efpeciaily as for tjaofe who have the privilege and 
advantage of frequent and ordinary participation of this 
ordinance./ It refpeft* the furprifals that have befallen 
us, (as there is no man that doth good and finrieth not), 
fince we received the lad pledge of the love of God in 
the adminiftration of that ordinance. Friends, let us not 
be afraid of calling ourfelves to a ftrict account. We 
have to do with him that is greater than we, and know- 
eth all things* Let us not be afraid to look into the 
book of confeience and converfation, to look over our 
**fcrprifals, our neglects, our iinful failings and mifcarriages* 
Thefe. things belong to this preparation, to look over 
them, and mourn over them alfo. I would not be thought 
to myfelf or you to prefcribe an hard burden in this du- 
ty of preparation. It is nothing but what God expects 
from us, and what we rauft do if we intend any commu- 
nion with him in this ordinance. I may add, 

[3.I Whether we have kept alive our laft received 
pledges of the love of God ? It may be at an ordinance 
we have received fomefpecial intimations of the goodwill 
of God. It is our duty to keep them alive in our fpirits $ 
and let us never be afraid we (hall have no room for 
more. The keeping of them makes way for what far- 

£ 6o 3 

,tWr is to come. Have we loft fticfr&nfible impreSicms ?* 
there is then matter for repentance and humiliation. 

{.2.) Examination alio concerns fftkh $ and that in gew 
neral and in particular. la general : 1 1 not my heart hy- 
pocritical ? or do I really do what in this ordinance 1 pno- 
iefs? which is placing all my faith and hope in Jefus 
Chrift for £ie, mercy, fctWctkm, and lor >eace*w*ttt Gock 
And in particular, Do I ftir up and' a& fakh to meet 
Gbrift in thi* ordinance? 1 mall not enlarge upon theiex 
things that are commonly fpoken vuafco. 

3. The third part of our preparation-, ib ffyfrfuzmo**? 
that t* adding prayer to this meditation and, examina- 
tion* Add prayer, which may inlay and digeft aM tins - 
reft in the foul. Pray, over what we have thought on y , 
what we have conceived, what we have apprehended, 
what wedefire, and what we tear.; gather all, up into 
fupplications to God; • 

4. There neloags unto this duty, expe&athn aifb-; that * 
is, to that God -will anfwer his piQmik r &ad meet; 
u* according to. the- de&te of - our ' hear fcsv We Jhoukl • 
look to meet God, becaole he hath pronxifed to meet us 
there ; .-, and we ^0 upon iiis promiie of grac e * expecting 
he will axtfwer his word and meet us. . Not -going ** *& '■ 
Adventures* as not knowing; whether* we. fhaM find him . 
or not ; .God may indeed then furprhe us, as he did Ja- 
cob whenhe appeared unto him, and made -him lay, 4t God \ 
is in this -place* and li knew it not.- But we go where 
we know God i$< . He hath placed his name upon his- 
ordinances^ and there he is -5 go to them w'kh expectation^ 
and rife from the reft of the duties with this e&pe&a-T 

This is the fubftance of what might be of ufe tofome 
in reference unto this duty of preparation for this great*: 
and folemn ordinance, which God hath gracioufly gi- 
ven unto any of you the privilege to be made. partakers . 

Have we failed m thefe things, orJin things -of a like 

nature <* Let us admire the infinite patience of God,. 

that hath borne with us all this while, that he hath not 

call us oat of hio houfe, that he hath not deprived usof - 

hefe enjoyments; which he might juflly. have done, v 

hen we*, have 16 undervalued them, .as far. as lay. 

-* i, 

X 6i 3 

in us, and defpifed them \ when we have had fo 
little car.e to make entertainment for the receiving of 
the great God and our Lord Jefus Chrift, who comes to 
yifit us in this .ordinance. . We may be ready to com- 
plain of what outward concerns, in and about the wor- 
ship of God fome have been deprived of. We have in- 
finite more reafon to admire, that there js any thing left 
unto us, any name, any place, any nail, any remembrance 
in the houfe of God j considering the regardleffnefs which 
hath been upon our fpirits inour communion with him. 
14 Go away, and fin no more, left a worfe thing befalus*" 
If there be in any, that, have not rifen up in a due man- 
ner in this duty, any conviction of the neceflity and ufe- 
fulnefs of it, God forbid we would be found finning a- 
gaiaft this conviction., • . 



, July 7. 1673. ' . . ' ' 

I SHALL (hew briefly what it is to- obtain a (acrt* 
mental part of Jefus Chrift in this ordinance of the 
Lord's fupper. 

It is a great myftery,,and great wifdom and exercife of 
faith lie in it, how to obtain a participation of Chrift. 
When the world had loft an understanding of this 
myftery, for want of fpiritual fight, they contrived a 
means to make it up, that fhould be eafy on the part of 
them that did partake, and very prodigious on the part 
of them that adminiftered. The prieft, with a few words, 
turned the bread into the body of Chuft j and the peo- 
ple have no more to do but to put it into their mouths, 
and fo Chrift is partaken of. It was the lofs of the myf- , 
tery of faith in the real participation of Chrift, that put 
them on that indention. 

Neither is there in this ordinance, a naked figure, 
a naked reprefentation ; there is fomething in the figure, 
fomething in the reprefentation, but there is not all in it.* 
When the bread is broken, it is a figure, a reprefen- 
tation that the body of Chrift wis broken for us ; and 



tie pouring out of the wine is, a figure and reprcfea- 
1 tntion of the pouring of the blood of Chr»ft,*or thfi pour- 
ing forth of hjs foul unto' death. And there are ufe&l 
meditations that may arife |romthenc#% Ru* *» tfeis or- 
dinance the** is a real **bibiJtion of Cbrift, nqto; eyetry 
believing foul. 

I fhaU a Uttle es^jakc injto it, *o itad your faith fop 
# due efeereife io jt, under (he adginiftratton of this **- 

F/^ 9 The exhibition and tender of Cfctift m thi* .or- 
dinance, is difttn& from the tender of Cbnft in the pro- 
mife of the gofpel, as in amy other things, fc it is in 
this : In the prosoffe <rf the gospel, the fterfcja of the 
Father is principally looked «pon, ** IM^afiflg and ten- 
dering Chrift onto us : io this ordinance, Chftft. tenders 
himfelf. <c This is my body," faith he, " do this in rc- 
. membrance of me." Hnnaa&es an immediate tender of 
himfelf unto a believing foul ; and calls our faith unto 
a refpe&to his grace, to h& Jove, to 'his readinefs to 
unite, and fpiritually to incorporate with us. Again, 

Secondly^ It is a tender of Chrift, and an exhibition 
of Chrift under an efpecial confederation £ not in gene.- 
**\ ha> o**4^tltorcOn£aeratio«, as he it, as it were, new- 
ly (4b the word is) faemftoed > as he is a new and itmQx 
facrifice in the great work of reconciling, making peace 
: with God, staking an end of fin, doing, nil that was to 
be done between God end finaec*, that they might he 
at peace. 

Chrrft snakes a doable ceprefentation of hka&lf, sis 
the great Mediator upon his death, and the ablation and 
Tacrine which he accomplished thereby. 

He represents himfelf unto God in heaven, there to da 
whatever remains to be done with God on our behalf, 
by his interceihon. The tntecceffion of Chrift is nothing 
but the pre(entation of himfelf unto God, upon his ob- 
lation and facrifice. 

He preTents himfelf unto God, to do with hint what 
remains to be done on our part, to procure mercy and 
/"grace for us. 

He presents himfelf unto us, in this ordinance, to ;d° 
with us what remains to be done on the part of God y 
and this anfwers to his interceffion above, which- is the 
counterpart of hisprefent mediation,, to da With us what 

C «3 J . 

remains cm the part of God, to give out peace. and user* 
cy in the feal oS the covenant unto our fouls., 

There is this fpecial exhkutiwt of Jefus Chrift, and )t 
iy given directly for this ipccial exercife of faith, that 
we may know how to receive him in this ordinance. 

f . We receive him as one that hath actually, accom- 
plifhed the great work (fo^ he tender* himfelf) of mak- 
ing peace with Goct ietr us y for the blotting out of fins, 
•and for the bringing in everlafting righteoufnefs^ He 
doth not tender himfelf xfrikj as one that can do thefe 
things. It iff a relief when we have an appxehenfiton that 
Chrift can do 1 all this for us. Nor doth he tender him- 
felf as one that will do thefe things upon any fiicb.or fach 
conditions, as fltaft foe prefer ifemd unto us, . But he. len- 
ders himfelf unto our faith, as one that hath done thefe 
things ; and as fach ate we* to receive him, if we intend 
to glorify him in this ordinance $ as one that hath act**- 
ally done this, actually made peace for us, actually blot* , 
ted out oat. ana, and purchased eternal redemption for 

Brethren, can we receive Chrift thus ?*are we willing 
to receive him thus ? If fo, We may go away and be no 
more ibrrowful. If we conieftiprt hei^,. we conic fhpjfc 
of that faith, which it required of us in this ordinance* 
Fray let us endeavour to confide r how jefus Chrift doth 
hereby make a tender of himfelf unto us, as one that hath 
actually taken away ail our fins, and all jour iniquities* 
that none of .them (hall eve* be laid unto our charge ; 
and to receive ham as fuck; is to give glory unto him. 

2, He tenders himfelf as one that hath done this work ' 
fey his death j for it is the remembrance of his death in 
a peculiar manner that .we celebrate. , What there is of 
love, what there is of efficacy, of power and comfort in 
that, what there is of fecUfity, I may have occafion a- 
nother time to fpeak unto you,— At prefent this is all I 
would offer ; that for the doing of thefe great things, 
for the doing the great eft, the hardeft things that our 
forth is exercifed about* which ace the pardon of our fins, 
and. the acceptation of our perfons with. God, for the 
accompli foment hereof, he died an accurfed death j and 
that death had no power over him, but the bands of it 
Were loofed > he rife from under it and was acquitted* 

r 64 3 

Let us aft faith on Jefus Chrift, as one that brings witlt 
him mercy and pardon, as that which was procured by 
his death, againft which lies no exception. I could (hew 
you that nothing was too hard for it, that nothing was 
left to be done by it, which we are to receive. 
- 3. To be made partakers of him in this facramental 
tender, by fubmitting unto his authority in his inftitu* 
tlons, by affenting unto the truth of his word in the pro- 
mife,.that he will be prefent with us* and give himlelf 
unto us, and by approving of that glorious way of mak- 
ing peace for us, which he hath troden and gone in, in 
his fufferings, and in our Head. To get a view of 
Chrilt, as tendering himfelf unto every one of our fouls 
in this ordinance of his own institution, as he who hath i 
perfectly made an end of all differences between God - 4 
and us, and who brings along with him all the mercy 
and grace that is in the heart of God, and in his cove- < 
nant : to have fuch a view of him, and fo to receive him i 
by faith, that it (hall be life unto our fouls, is the way to i 
give glory unto God, and to have peace and reft in our \\ 
own bofoms. 

4, and laftly, In one word, faith is fo to receive him, \ 
as to enable us to lit down at God's table, as thofe that ' 

are God's friends; as thofe that are invited to feaft up* 
on the facrifice. The facrifice is offered, Chrift is the 
fecrifice, the Lord's paffover ; % God makes a feaft upon it^ 
and invites his. friends to fit down at his table, there 
being now no difference between him and us. Let 
us pray that he would help us to exercife faith to this 

November 2. 1673. 

YOU know I ufually fpcak a few words to prepare 
us for this ordinance : you know it is an ordinance 
of calling to remembrance, "Do this in remempiance 
of me." There was under the Old Teftament but one 
facrifice to call any. thing to remembrance j and God 


r *i 3 

God puts at h«rk upon that fad rifle*, ft* tfrftf wliteh' W*» 
not, as k were, well pleating «m€6 fcimy baft only" whwt H#- 
ceflky did require, and that Was tfoe fax:rif}c*of jealcXiffy, 
Nrtmb. v. X5. Saith God, " There fltell be a* oil in fe f (ft 
token of peace) j there (hall be? no fr*nkinc€n&, (*bat 
fltould yield a fweet favour), for it k * facrifce to bring 
iniquity to remembrance. This greaf ordinance of trie 
Lord's tapper, is not to call iniquity to remembrance 
but it is to call to remembrance the putting an* end t6 
' iniquity •, God will make an end of tin j atfd *b** e%dl- 
nance is our fclemn remcifcbrarice 6f h# 1 

Now there arc fundry thfegs that we atfeto 6*1! & 
remembrance. I have dtfne my endeavour t6 help yofc 
to call the love of Chrift to #eitf embranc*. The Lord, 
1 truft, hath guided ray thoughts i*>W to dir*cl Jou fo 
call the fofferings of Chrift urft6 remembrance*. I k*rt>Nr 
k may be a ftiitabte medrtatldti tc> take up your mirtdfe 
and. mine, m and under this ordinance. 1ft te 06* duty 
in this holy ordinance fdltfmnly tO' call to renVernbrancte 
the fufferings of Chriil. s 

It is faid of the preaching of Che go^el, that '* Jefes 
Chrift is therein evidently crucified before on* eyes',' 
Gal. Hi. And if Chrift be evidently crucified before 
our eyes in the preaching of tlie gofpcl* Chrift fe niuch 
mote evidently crucified before ou* eyes frv the- *dra&?~ 
rrrafioB of 1 this ordinance, whiGfe is itrfKtuted for that 
very end* And certainly, when Chrift h crucified be- 
fore our eyes, we ought* deeply to* confider nis fullering*. 
It would be a great fign of an hat d and 1 fefftfelefs- heart 
iti us, if we were not willing in (buie meafore to' jgerifidfcfc 
hh fufleringsupon meh an pecafion. We a*e, therefore*, 
foiemnly to remember them. 

Well, mall I a little mind myfeif and! you, BbW We 
v may, and how we ought to caH \o temenftfrance the 
fuffeiings of Chrift ? 

Let us remember that weourierves were-oBnoxidiiS tint 
to thefe fuffeiings. The curffe lay doubty upon ufr. The 
original curie (in the day that thou eateft fheredf, t/ibtt 
lhalt furely die) ky upon ui all. Tne edrifequent curfe; 
* Curfed h every that con tinueth riot i**a»t?hihgrWhicH 
are written in the book of the law- to do them f* th«T 
alfo lay upon us aiL We were under bo#b,*toe orl^^rf 
and the confequent curie. We know what is kr the curfe 

t g 

t 66 ] 

even all the anger and wrath that a difpieafed holy Ood 
«an and will inflict upon finful creatures to all eternity. 
In this (late and condition then, all lay upon us, and all 
jnuft lie upon us $ unlefs we come to have an intereft in 
-♦he fufferings of Chiift, there is no relief for us. I 
will not infill upon calling to your mind, that heaven arid 
earth, and all God's creation combining together, could 
not have procured relief for one of our fouls. Chriit, 
.the Son of God, offered himfelf, and faid, Lo, I come. 
.Indeed it was a good faying of David, it was nobly laid* 
when he faw the angel of the Lord deflroying the peo- 
ple with a peftilence, " Lord, (faith he), it is I, and my 
^father's houfe that have finned ; but as for thefe fheep, 
(thefe poor people) what have they done ?" It was other- 
.wife with Chrrft $ he came in the place of finners, and 
laid, a Let not thefe poor (heep die." If God would 
by faith give your fouls and mine a view of the volunta- 
. xy fubflitution of Jefus Chrifl in his perfon in Qur room 
«md on our behalf, it would comfort and refrefti us. When 
the curfe of God was ready to break forth upon us, God 
accepted of this tender, of this offer of Chrifh k 'Lo I come 
todothy will,"tobeafacrifice. And what did he do ? Why, 
faith he, this God did ; then if he will come, if he will 
do it, let him plainly know how the cafe ftands ; the 
curfe is upon them, wrath is upon them, puniftSment 
mud be undergone $ my holinefs, faitbfulnefe, *igbteou£- 
jiefs, and truth, are all engaged. Yet, faith Chrift, " Lc*, 
I come." Well., what doth God do ? He tells you, Ifa* 
liii, 6* All we like fheep have gone aftray, w;e have turn- 
ed every one to his own way, and the Lord hath caufed 
all our iniquities to meet upon hira." &od fo far relax- 
ed his own law that the fentence .{hall not fall upon their 
perfons, but upon their fkibftitute, one that hath put 
himfelf in their place and Head. J3e it fo *, all their in- 
iquities be upon thee \ all the iniquities of this congre- 
gation, faith God, be upon my Son Jefus Chriit. 
, Well, what then did he fuffer > He fuffered that whick 
anfwered the juftice of X?od. He fuffered that which 
anfwered the law of God. He fuffered that which fully 
repaired the glory of God. Brethren, let us encour- 
age ourfelves in the Lord. If there be any de- 
mands to be made of .you or me, it muii be upon the ac- 

count of the righteoufnefs and juftice of God j or upon* 
the account of the law of God •, or upon the ac- 
count of the lofs that God fuffered" in his glory by us. 
H the Lord Jeius hath come in, and anfwered all thefe,; 
we have- a good pfca to make in the piefcnce of. the ho* 
ly God. 

i. He fuffered all that the juftice of God did require* 
Hence it is laid, that *' God fet him forth to be a pro* 
puiation, through faith in his blood, to declare his righ- 
teoufnefs for the forgivenefs of fins^ Rom. hi. 25. And? 
you may obferve,. that the apoftle ufes the very 
fame words- ia refpect. of Chrift's fufferings, that he ufes 
in refpect. of the fufferings of the damned angels. Rom» 
viii. 32. '*" God fpared them not." And when he 
would fpeak of th« righteoufnefs of God in inflict- 
ing, punilhment upon the finning angels he doth it by that 
very word, ""God fpared them not." So that whatever^ 
the righteoufnefs of God did require againft finners, Chrift 
therein was not fpared at all. What God required a- 
gainft your fins and mine, and all his elect, God fpared 
him in nothing, but he paid the utmoft farthing. 

2. The fufferings of Choir did anfwer the taw of God. 
That makes the next demand of us. . The law is that 
which requires our poor guilty fouls to punimment in 
the name of the juftice of God. Why, faith the apoftle, 
" He hath redeemed us from the curie of the law, by 
being made a curfe for us," Gal. iii. 13. 5 by undergo* 
iflg and fuffering the curfe of the law, he redeemed us 

3 . He fuffered every thing that was required to repair 
and make up the glory of God. Better you and I and 
all the world fhould perifh than God fhould be enda- 
maged in his glory. It is a truth, and I hope God will 
bring all our hearts' to fay, Chrift, hath fuffered to make 
up that. The obedience that was in the fufferings of 
Chrift, brought more glory unto God than the difobedi- 
ence of Adam, who was the original of the apoftacy of 
the whole creation from God, brought dHhonour iinto> 
him. That which feemed to reflect, great diihonour up- 

* on God was, that all his creatures fhould as one man fall 
off J>y apoftacy from him. God will have his honour re- 
faired, and it is done by the obedience of Chrift mucb 


mere, There coipe^, 1 fay, more glory to God by the 
obedience of Chrift and his fufferings, than there did di£- 
honour by the difobedience of Ada\mj apd fo there 
comes more glory by Chrift's fuffierings and obedience 
upon the crofs, than by the fufferings of the damned for 
ever. God lofes no glory by fetting believers free from Suf- 
fering, becaufe of the fufferings of the Son of God. This 
was a fruit of eternal wifdom. 

Now having thus touched a little upon the fufferings 
of Chrift, what (hall we do in a way of duty ? 

(i.) Let us by faith cpnfider truly and really this 
great Ajbftitution of Jefus Chrift y " the juft fuffering 
for the unjuft j" in our ftead, in our room, undergoing 
what we fhpuJ4 have undergone. The Lord- help us to 
admire the infinite holinefs, righteoufnefs, and truth that 
h in it. We are not able to comprehend thefe things in 
it $ hut if Qod enables us to exercife faith upon it, we fhall 
adrnire it. Whence is it that the Son of God thould be 
fubHkuted }n our place ? Pray remember, that we arc 
*)Qt¥ ?*pfeicptitig this:- infinite efjeft pf divine wifdom ia 
fubftituting Jefus Chrift in our room, to- undergo tfa* 
wr^th an4 curie O/f God for u$, 

($.) Let us learn from the crofs of Chrift, what in* 
4eed is in our fia$ ; that when Chrift, the Son of God* 
in whora he was always well pleafed, that he did the whole. 
will of Qo4t was in. his bofom from a}} eternity, Cftnie and ' 
fuftituted himfelf i» our room, God fparcd him not* 
Let not any /inner under heaven that is eftranged from 
Chrift, ever think to be fpared. If God would have 
fpared **iy, he would hav* fpa^ed hi* only Son. But if 
he will be a Mediator of the covenant, God will not 
fpare him, though his own Son. We niay acquaint ypu,. 
hereafter, what it coft Chrjft^tQ ftand in the rppn^ of fin- 
ners. The Lord from thence jpve our hearts fpgae fei\fe 
o£ thad great provpeation that 3? in fin, that* we may 
mown, before bim, when we look on him whom our fins 
rjave pierced. 

(3 ) Will God help us to take a view of the iflke of 
all this, of (he. fubftitution of Jefus Chrift, placing him 
in, our ftead, putting his foul in the place of par fouls $ 
his perfpnin the vJace of our perfpns J of the commuta- 
tion pi puftiihnieut, in which the righteoufnefs,, boUnefs^ 

t <$9 J 

*nd wifdom of God laid that on him which was due tifti 
to u> What is the iffue of /all this ? It is to bring us 
unto God j to peace with God, and acquitment from all 
our fins ; and to make us acceptable with the righte- 
ous, holy, and faithful God ; to give us boldnefs before 
him : this is the iffue. Let us confider this iffue of tht 
fufXerings of Chrift, and be thankful. 

February 22. 167^. 

IT is the table of the Lord that we are invited to draw 
nigh unto. Our Lord hath a large heart and boun- 
tiful hand ; hath made plentiful provifion for our foul* 
at this table ; and he faith unto us by his Spirit in 
his word, ** Eat, O my friends, yea drink abundantly." 
It is that feaft that God hath provided for tinners. And 
there are three forts of finners that-£ would fpeak a word 
unto to ftir them up unto a due exercife of faith in this* 
ordinance, according as their condition doth require* 
There are fuch as are not fenfible of their fins, fo as they 
ought to be i they know they are- dot \ they are not a« 
ble to get their hearts afFe&ed with their fins, as they de- 
fire. There are fome that are fa burdened, and over- 
preffed with the fenfe of their fins, that they are fcarce 
able to hold up under the w eight of them \ under the 
doubts and fears wherewith they are diftreffed. And 
there are finners, who are in enjoyment of a fenie of the 
pardon of fin \ and do defire to have hearts to improve 
it in thankfulnefs arid fruitfulnefs.*. 

Something of thefe feveral frames riay be in us all •,, yet 
if may be, one is predominant, ohe is chief 5 one intone, 
another in another ; and therefore I will fpeak a few 
words diftinctly to them all. 

1. There are finners, who-are believers, who cannot get 
their hearts and fpirits afFe&ed with fin fo as they ought 
and fo as they defire. There is not a fadder complaint 
of the church, as I know in the whole book of God r 
than that Ii. txiii. 17. " Why haft thou hardened our 


t 7t 1 
fefftrts from thy fear ?" Poor creatures m*y coaae unfa 
that perplexity through an appreheaiion of the wajtf ol 
vt 4"* feofe of the guilt of fin, as to be ready thus to osy 
out, Why is it thus with me ? Why am 1 fe fen(cle& ua-> 
der the guilt of all the fins t^at X have co&rra&ed ? I 
have a word of direction unto fuch perfojis.. Are there 
fuch among us ? It is a direftlqn unto faith to he acting 
in this ordinance. It is that which weJbave, Zech. xiL 
10. " They (hall look unto him whom theyiraye pierc- 
ed and mourn." Why, brethren, Chrift is reprefented un- 
to us in this ordinance, as he was pierced, as his preci- 
ous blood was poured out for us. * Let us aft faith, if 
God help us, in two things*. 

(i.) Upon the dolorous fufFerings of Chrift which are 
reprefented here unto us. Let us take a view of the So* 
of God under the curfe of God.' 

( z.) Remember that aU thefe fufFerings were for us £ 
" They (hall look upon him whom they have pierced* 
and then mourn." The acting of faith upon the fui- 
ferings of Chrift, as one that fuffered for us, is the great 
means in this ordinance to bring our hearts to mourn for. 
iin indeed. Therefore pray, let us beg of God, who* 
ever of us^ are in any meafure .under this frame, that our 
inlenftblenefs of the guilt and burden of iin may be our 
great burden. Let us try the power jof faith in this or* 
dinance, by getting our hearts. affected with the fufFer- 
ings of Chrift in our behalf. ' Let us bind it to our hearts 
and conferences \ and may the Lord give, a blefliflg. 

2. There are others who, it may be, are preffed under 
the weight of their fins j walk mournfully, walk difcon- 
folately. I know there are fome fo, m the condition ex* 
. preffed by the Pfalmifl,, Pfal. xl. 12. " Innumerable 
evils have compafled me about, mine iniquities have taken 
hold upon roe. fo that I am not able to look up : they 
are more than the hairs of my head, therefore my- heart 
faileth me." Some may be in that condition, that their 
hearts are ready to fail them, through the multitude of 
their ipiquities taking hold upon them. What would 
ypu direel fuch unto in this ordinance ? Truly, that which 
is given John iii. 14. 15. * 4 As Mofes Jiftect up the fer- 
pent in the wildernefs, even fo muft the Son of man be 
lifted up ; that vvhofoever believeth in. him, fhould not; 



r 7«-j 

perifli, bat hove eternal life." The Lord Jefiu Chiii » 
lifted up, as Moles lifted op the ferpent in the wiklemefs, 
and here he is lifted up, as hearing all out fins on hi* 
own body upon the tree. Here is a reprefentation made 
Unto poor Aimers i?thofe hearts are maft burdened > here 
if. Jefua Chrift lifted up with all our fins upon the tree* , 
Let fuch a foul labour to have a view of Chrift as bearing 
ail our iniquities, that bdiving on him we mould not per- 
il]*, but have life everla&ing* God hath appointed him to 
be crucified evidently before our eyes, that every poor 
foul thstf is ftung with, fin, ready to die by .fin, mould 
look up unto him, and be healed } and virtue wUl go 
forth, if we look upon him, for " by his ftripes we are 


3. There may he fame that live in full fatisfa&ion of 
the pardon of their fins, and are (olicitous how their hearts 
may be drawn forth unto thankfulnefs and fruitnilnefe* 
Remember that place, Rev. L 5. 6, u To him that lov- 
ed us and walked us from our fins in his own blood, io> 
him be glory anddominton. for ever and even" Remem- 
ber this, that whatever £our (Utc and condition be, .you 
have hose a proper object for fakh to exercife itfelf 
upon \ only be not wanting unto your own comfort and 


May 17. 1674* 

/^tA^l^il o^M^ 

%eaehmg them ta obfirvt all things wbat/bever I have 
commanded you ; and I** /am with you a /w ay r even *»• 
to the end of the world. 

BY the end of the world, we are to understand the 
coofummation of all things.-, when- all church-work is 
done, and all church-duties are over y when the time 
comes that we mall pray no more, hear no. more, no more 
admiwftcr ordinances ; but till then, faith Chrift, take 
this, for your life and for your comfort, Do what I com- 

1 72 1 

maud you, and* 70a (hall have my prefence with you; 

There are three things whereby Chrift makes good- 
this promife, and is with his- church to the end of the 

Firfl, By his Spirit. " Wherc-ever, (faith he), two 
or three are gathered together in my name, there am I 
in the mkift of them," (Mat. xviii. 20.) by his quicken- 
ing, guiding, directing Spirit, as a Spirit of grace and 
{application, as a Spirit of light and holinefs, and as a Spi- 
rit of comfort. 

Secondly », Chrift is j>refent with us by his word. Saith 
the apoftle, Col. iii. 16. " Let the word of Chrift dwell 
ia you richly," er plentifully. And how then ? Then r 
faith he, Eph. iii. 17. "Chrift dwelleth in us by faith."- 
The word dwelleth in us plentifully, if mixed with 
faith ', and Chrift dwelleth in us ; he is prefent with us 
by his word* • 

Thirdly, Chrift is prefent with us in an efpecial man- 
ner in this ordinance. One of the greateft engines that 
ever the devil made ufe of to overthrow the faith of ther 
church, was by forging fuch a prefence of Chrift as is not 
truly in this ordinance, to drive us off from looking after 
that prefence which is true, I look upon it as one of 
the greateft engines that ever hell fet on work. It is 
not a corporal prefence 5 there are innumerable argu- 
ments agaift that ; every thing that is in fenfe, reafon, 
and the faith of a man, overthrows that corporal prefence- 
But 1 will remind you of one or two texts wherewith it is 
inconfiftent. The firft is that in John xvi. 7. " Never- 
thelefe, (faith our Saviour), it is expedient for you that 
I go away s for if I go not away, the Comforter will not 
come unto- you." The corporal prefence of Chrift, and 
the evangelical prefence of the Holy Ghoft, as the Com>- 
forter, inrthe New Tcftament, are inconfiftent. I muft 
" go away, or the comforter will not come" But he 
fo went away as to his prefence, as to come again with 
his bodily prefence, as often as the priefts call. No r 
faith Peter, Ads iii. 21. 4i Th*heavens muft receive him y. 
(for how long) > till the time of reftitution of all things." 
1 go away as to. my bodily prefence, or' the Comforter 
will not come ; and when he is gone away, the heavens- 
mull receive him until the time of the reiUtutiojT of all 

f M, ] 

1 i 

tilings. ^Ve muft not therefore look after fuch a pre* 
fence. . 

I will give you a word or two, what is the prefenct 
of Chrift with us in this ordinance} what is our duty $ 
and how we may meet with Chrift when he is thus pre* 
fent with us $ which is the work I have in hand. Chrift 
is prefeot in this ordinance in ah efpecial manner three 
ways, by reprefentation, by exhibition, by obsignation, 
or fealing. 

J. He is pre&nt here by reprefentation. So in a low, 
Jhadowy way God was pre fent in the tabernacle, in the 
temple, in the ark, and mercy-feat \ they had a repre- 
fentation of his glory. But Chrift here hath given us a 
more eminent and clear reprefentation of himfelf* I will 
same but two things. 

t . A reprefentation of himfelf , as he is the food of our 
fculs. , 

a. A reprefentation of himfelf, as he fuffered for out 

. Thefe are two great ways whereby Chrift is represent- 
ed as the food ofour fouls, in the matter of the ordi- 
nance j and Chrift as fuffering for our fins is reptefented 
in the manner of the ordinance ; both by his own ap- 
pointraent* The apoftlc faith, Gal. iii. i. " Jefns Chrift 
was evidently crucified before their eyes." Evidently 
crucified, doth not intend particularly this ordinance, 
bat the preaching of the gofpel, which gave a delinea- 
' ticn, a picture and image of the cruci&xon of Chrift un- 
to the faith of believers. But of all things that be- 
long unto the gofpel, he is moft evidently crucified be- 
fore our. eyes in this ordinance ; and it is agreed on all 
hands that Chrift is reprefented unto the foul in this or- 
dinance. ' How (hall we do this ? fhaU we do it by cru- 
cifixes,' pictures and images ? No $ they are all curfed of 
that God who faid, u Thou ihalt not make unto thyfelf 
* any graven image." But that way by which God himfelf, 
and Chrift himfelf hath appointed to represent thefe things 
unto us, that he bleffcs, and makes effectual. This way, 
as I have often (hewed, is the way that was chofen by 
the wifdom and goodnefs of Jefus Chrift \ the name of 
God is upon it ; it is bkfled unto us, and w^U be «rTec- 
iual, if we are not wanting to ourfeives. 


t 74 1 

- II. Chrift is prefeht with us, by way of exhibition -f 
that is, he doth really tender and exhibit himfelf unto- 
the fouls of believers in this ordinance, which the world 
hath loir, and knows not what to make of it. They ex- 
hibit that which they do not contain* This bread doth not 
contain the body of Chrift, or the flefh of Ghritl j .the? 
eup- doth not contain the blood of Chrift 3 but they ex- 
hibit them ; both do as really exhibit them to believers,, 
as they partake of the outward figns. Certainly we be- 
lieve that our Lord Jefus Chrift doth hot Invite us un- 
to this table for the bread that periihes, tor outward 
food *, it is to feed our fouls, What do we think then ? 
doth he invite us unto an empty, painted ieaft,? do we 
deal fo with our friends ? Here* is fornething really ex* 
hibited by Jefus Chrift unto us, to receive, befides the 
outward pledges of bread and wine. We mud not think 
the Lord Jems Chriil deludes our fouls with empty* 
ihews and appearances. That which is-exhibited is him* 
felf, it is his rlefh as meet indeed, and his blood as drink- 
Indeed > it is himfelf as broken and crucified* that he ex* 
hibits unto us. And it is the fault and fin of every one 
of us, if we do not receive him this day, when an exhi- 
bition and tender is made unto us, as here, by way o£ 
food* To what end do we receive it ? Truly we re* 
cetve it for thefe two ends, fox incorporation, for nou- 

1. We receive our food, that it may incorporate and 
turn into blood and fpirits, that it may become one with 
us ; and when we have fo done, 

2. Our end and defign is, that we may be nourifhed r 
nature ftrengthened, comforted, and fupported, and we 
enabled for the duties of life*. 

Chrift doth exhibit himfelf unto our fouls, if we are* 
not wanting unto ourfelves, for thefe two things, incor- 
poration and nourilhment j to be received into union, and 
to give ftrength unto our fouls. 

III. Chriil is prefent in this ordinance by way of ob- 
signation: he comes here to leal the covenant} and 
therefore the cup is called, " the new teftament in the 
blood of Chrift." How in the blood of Chrift ? It is 
the new covenant that was fealed, ratified, confirmed, 
and made fo liable, as you have heard, by the blood o£ 

C 75 3 . 

'Jefus Chrift. For, from the foundation of the world, n# 
covenant was ever intended to Be eftablifhed, but it was 
confirmed by blood ; and this covenant is confirmed by 
the blood of Chrift -, and he comes and feals the cove- 
nant with his own blood in the adminiftratiqn of this or- 

Well, if Jefus Chrift be -thus prefent by way of repre- 
fentation, exhibition, and obsignation, what is required 
of us that we may meet him, and be prefent with him ? For 
jt is not our mere coming hither that is a meeting with 
Chrift ; it is a work of faith : and there are three ads 
of fdith whereby we may be prefent with Chrift, who is 
thus prefent' with us. 

i. The fir ft is by recognition, anfwering his represen- 
tation. As Chrift in this ordinance doth reprefent his 
death unto,us, fo we are to remember it, and call it over. 
Pray confider how things were done formerly in refer- 
ence unto it. The pafchal lamb -was an ordinance for 
remembrance ; " it is a night to be had in remem- 
brance ;" and this they (hould do for a remembrance : and 
it was to be eaten with bitter herbs : there was once a 
year afeaft wherein all the fi«s, iniquities, and tranfgref- 
fi ons of the children of Ifrael were called to remem- 
brance ; and it was to be done by greatly afflicting of 
their fouls. If we intend to call to remembrance the 
.death of Chrift, we may do well to do it with fome bit- 
ter herbs j there (hould be fome remembrancs of fin with 
it, fome brokennefe of heart for fin, with refpe& to him 
.who was pierced and broken for us. Oilr work is to call 
over and (lie w forth the death of Chrift, Pray, brethren, 
let us a little confider, whether our hearts be fuitably 
affe&ed with refpecl: to our fins which were upon Jefus 
Chrift when he died for us, or no j left we draw nigh un- 
to him with the outward bodily pr^efence, when our 
hearts are for from him. 

2/ If Chrift be prefent with us by way of exhibition, 
we ought to be prefent by way of admifllon. It will rot 
advantage you or me, that Chrift tenders himfelf unto 
us, unlefs we receive him. • This is the great work ; here- 
Jn lies the main work upon all the members of .the 
-church. When w* are to difperrfe the word, the firft 
work lies upon the miuiilers $ and when the work is fuf- 



t 16\ 

ftciently <fifch»ged, they will be a good favour vrAo Gol 
in them that believe, and in them that peri(h : but in 
this ordiaance, the main work lies upon yourfelvcs. If 
ia the name of Chrift we make a tender of him unto you, 
and be be not actually received, there is bat half the work 
done ; fo that you are in a peculiar manner to ftir ystf 
yoarfeives, as having a more faecial mterefl in this du- 
ty, than in other doty of the church whatsoever $ and 
yoa may take a better roeafvtfe of yeurfelves by your 
a&mg in this daty, than of us by our a&tng in the mi- 
niftry. Let Chrift be received into your hearts by 
ftkh aad love, upon this particular tender that he aft 
furedly makes in this ordinance of hhnfeif unto 4 yoti y 
for, as I faid,. be bath aot mvrted you unto an empty 
painted feaft at table. 

3. Know what you come to- meet him for, which is-, to 
fcal the covenant, folemnry to take upon yourfelves 
again- the performance of 'your part of the- cove- 
nant. I hope I fptnk in a deep fenfe of the thing ' 
kfelf, and that which I have much thought of. This 
ia that which ruins the world, the hearing that 
God hath made a covenant of grace and mercy j, it h 
preached to them, and declared unto them, and they 
think to be faved by this covenant, though they thera- 
felVes do hot perform what the covenant requires on 
their part* What great and- glorious wordsdo wefpeak in 
the covenant, that God gives himielf ovemntoas^o be our 
God ! Brethren, there is our giving ourfelves unto God 
(to anfwer this) univerfally and abfbjutely. If we give 
ourfejves unto the world, and to our lufts, and to lelf^ 
we are not to expeft any benefit by God^s covenant o€ 
grace. If it be not made up by our fealing of the cove- 
nant of grace, or by an univerfai refignation of ourfelves 
in ill that wt are and do unto him, we do not meet Je- s 
fus Chrift j we difappoint him when he comes to fea} the 
covenant. Where is this people, faith Chrift, that would 
enter into covenant with me ? Let it be in our hearts 
to fee him feal the covenant of grace as reprefented in 
this ordinance 5 and to take upon ourfelves the perfor- 
mance of what is required' of us> by an universal giving 
up ourfelves unto God, 

t7* J 


I SHALL *>pw produce fome few places si Scripture, 
one cfpecially, tbat may adnumfter occafion vmto 
you for the e^zerafe of faith, the great duty required of 
W at this time. You may da well to think of theft 
words of the prophet concerning Jefiw Chrift, concern* 
jng his fufferbgs and death, which we are here gathered 
together in his name to remember. They ace, 

* -' Is*, liii. If* 

HeJh&Ufet of the trsvai^of bis f<nsl y and Jhatt be fatis* 

% fed. 

» . 

There are two things that the Holy Ghoft minds up 
of in thefe. words. 

i. That Jefus Chrift was in a great travail of foul to 
bring forth the redemption and falvation of the church. 

2. He minds us that Jefus Chrift was fatisfied, and 
/much rejoiced in the confederation, the effects and fruits 
of the travail of his foul. 

I mall fpeak a word to both, and a word to (how you 
flow both thefe things are called over in this ordinance, 
both the travail of the foul of Chrift, and Hs fatisfao 
tion in the fruit of that travail. N 

Firft, Chrift was in a great travail of foul tp bring' 
forth the redemption and falvation of the church. It 
was a great work that Chrift had to do. It kufiially 
faid, we are not iaved as the world was made, by a 
word ; but there was travail in it ; -it is the word 
whereby the bringing forth of children into the world 
4s expreffed j the travail of a woman. And there ace 
three things in that travail $ an agony of mind j outcry » 
ing for help y and fenfe of pain. All thefe things were 

C 78 3 

i* the travail of the foul of Chrift. I will name the 
^Scriptures, to call them to your remembrance. 

1. He was in an agony, Luke xxii. 44, An agony is 
an inexpreffible conflict of mind about things dreadful 
and terrible. • So it was with Chrift. Ne heart can 
conceive, much lefe can tongue exprefs, the conflict that 
was in the foul of Jefus Chrift, with the wrath of God, 
the curfe of the law, the pains of hell and death, that 
ftood before him in this work of our redemption* 
There was an agony. ~ 

3. There was an- outcrying for help, Heb. v. 7. 
f( Who in the days of his flefh offered up prayers and 
fupplications, with ftrong crying and tears, unto him 
that was able to fave him. 1 ' Such is the outcry of a 
perfon in travail, crying out unto them that are able to 
lave them. So it was with Jefus Chrift when he was in 
the travail of his foul about our falvation. Me made 
thefe ftrong cries unto God, to him that was able to 
lave him. 

3. There was pain in it. which is -the laft thing in 
travail ; fo that he complained that ** the pains of hell 
had taken hold upon him." Whatever pain there was 
in the curfe of the law, in the wrath of God 5 whate- 
ver the juftice of God did ever deftgn to inflict upon tin- 
ners, was then upon the foul' of Jefus Chrift ; fo that he 
was in travail- This is the fir ft thing I would mind you 
of $ that, in the bringing forth the work of our redemp- 
tion and falvation, the Lord Jefus was in travail. 

Secondly, It was a fatisfa&ion, a rejoicing unto the 
Lord Jefus Chrift, to confider the fruits and effects of 
this travail of his foul, which God had promifed he 
ihould fee. He was fatisfied in the profped he had of 
the fruit of the travail of his foul. So the apoftle tells 
us, Heb. xii. 2. " that, for the joy that was fet before 
him," which was the joy of bringing us unto God, of 
being the Captain of falvation unto them that (hould o- 
bey him, " he endured the crofs, and defpifed the 
fliame ;" he went through all with a profped he had of 
the fruit of his travail j there would joy come out of it} 
the joy that was fet before him j as he fpeaks, Pfal. xvu 
6. where God prefents unto him what he (hall have by 
this travail, what he (hall get by it \ faith he, " The 

C 79 3 * 

lines are fallen unto me in a pleafant place, yea I have a 
goodly heritage.". It is the fatisfadion that Jefus Chrift 
(who is there fpoken of only*in that pfalm). takes- in the 
fruit of the travail of his foul ; he is contented with it. 
He doth not do as Hiram, who . when Solomon gave 
him the twenty cities in the land of Galilee, calls them,. 
•* Cabul, they were dirty, and they difpleafed him/l 
I Kings ix. 1 1. 4*fc. No : but " the lines are fallen unto 
me in a pleafant place m f " he rejoiced in his travail. It : 
is expreffed, in my apprehenJion, to the height, in Jer« 
xxxi. 25, 26. ** I have fatiated the weary foul, and I 
have replenished every forrowful foul." What follows ? 

* Upon this I awaked, and beheld ; and my fleep was :- 
weet unto me." They are the words of Jeius Chriil j « 
and he fpeaks concerning his death, wherein he was as 
alleep in the grave. Now coniider what was the e£fe& 
and fruit of it ? It was fweet unto Jefus Chrift after all 
the travail of his foul, that he had " fatiated the weary 
foul, and replenifhed every forrowful foul." 

In one word,, both tr)efe things^ the travail of the 
foul of Chrift, and the fatisfa&ion he took in the fruit 
of his travail, are reprefented unto us in this ordinance* 

* There is the travail of the foul of Chrift to us in the 
manner of the participation of this ordinance, in the 
breaking of the bread, and in the pouring out of the 
wine, reprefenting unto us the breaking of the body of 
Chriil, ^the ihedding of his blood and the fe par at ion of 
the one from the other, which was the caufe of his 
death. Now, though thefe were outward things in 
Chrift, (becaufe the travail of his loul cannot be repre- 
fented by any outward things, wherein the great j^ork of 
our redemption lay), we are in this ordinance to be led 
through thefe outward things to the travail of the foul. 
of Chriil : we are not to fell in the mere outward act 
or ads of the breaking of the body of Chriil, and pour- 
ing out of his blood, the feparation of the one from the 
other, and of his death thereby, but through all them 
we are to enquire, what is under them ; There was 
Chrift 's making his foul an offering for fin ; there was 
Chrift's b#ing made a curfe under them, Chrift 's travail 
of foul in an agony to bring forth the redemption an£ 
falvation of the church. 

I *> 1 

Brethren, WtMbc able, by &khv net eriy to look 
'.:" . sjnrough thefe outward figns to that which makes the re* 
**~ :f presentation itfelf unto us, ?he body and blood of Chrift } 
; < * but even with them and through them i» the travail of 
> < the £n»l of Chrift l the work that he was doing between 
1 — - > Jpod and himfelf for the redemption of the church, 
* ^ • ■ And here is alfo a reprefentation made unto us of that 
< iati&fa&ioa the Jbul of Chrift: received in the fruit of his 
travail, having appointed it in a particular manner to be 
" done in remembrance of him* No man. will appoint a 
ffemembraace of that which he doth not delight in* 
c When Job had no more delight in his life, he defired 
that the time of his birth might never be remembered; 
When God brought the children of Ifrael out of Egypt, 
whereby he exalted his glory, he appointed a paffover, 
and faid, " It was a day greatly to be remembered }" 
becaufe the people had a great deliverance, and God re- 
ceived great glory and great ktisfa&ion, therefore it was 
greatly to be remembered* We are to celebrate this 
ordinance in remembrance of Chrift, and therefore, 
there is a representation of that (atisfaclTon which Jefii* 
Chrift did receive in the travail of his foul, ib that he 
never repented him of one groan, of one fight of one 
tear, of one prayer, of one wreftliag with the wrath of 
God. It is matter of rejoicing, and to be remembered } 
and do- you rejoice in the remembrance of it ? 

Again, It is apparent from hence, becaufe this ordi* 
nance is in an efpecial manner an ordinance of thankfgi* 
ving $ the bread that is blefied, or which we give thanks 
for j the cup which is bleflcd : Chrift gave thanks. 
Now," if hereby we give thanks, it is to call to rerncm* 
fcrancc, not merely the travail of Cbrift's foul, but the 
fuccefs of that travail; hereby all 'differences were made 
, up between God and us *, hereby grace and glory were 
purchafed £ot us, and he became the Captain of falvation 
unto us. 

. To (hut up all, here .is by Chrift's inftitution, bread 
and wine provided for us $ but it is bread broken,, and 
wine poured out. There are two things in it, there is 
the weak part that is Chrift's, there is the nourifhing 
$art that is given unto us : the Lord Chrift hath chofea 
by this ordinance to reprefent himfelf by thefe things that 

C 8* 3 

t#e the ftaff of our lives ; they comprife tlie whole nou> 
rifhment and fuftenance of our bodies.' He hath fo cho- 
ien to repreicnt them by breaking and pouring out, that 
{hall fignify his fuffexings - 9 here are both, as the bread 
is broken, and as, the wine is poured out, there is the re* 
prefentation of the travail of the foul of Chrift to us ; as 
bread is received, and the cup, which is the means of the 
' nou rifhment of man's life, here is the fruit of Chrift's 
death exhibited. unto us, and his fufferings. The Lord 
Jielp us to look into the fatisfadion that Chrift received 
from this, that we may be partakers of the one and the 
other.. * • . 


February 21. 167^- 

E are met here to remember, to celebrate and 
fet forth the death of Chrift, to profefs and' 
plead our intereft therein. And there are two things 
that we fhould principally confider ill reference to our- 
felves, and our duty, and the death of Chrift. The tirffc 
36, the benefits of it, and our participation of them 5 and 
the fecond is our conformity unto it ; both are meation* 
cd together by the apoftle in? 

Phil. iii. ict. 

■»■_ . 

That I may know him % and the power of bit refurreBiom- 
• and the fetlowjhip of his J offerings, being made confor- 
mable unto+his death* 

I ihall fpeak a word or two (upon this occafion of re* 
ipembering the death of Chrift) unto the latter claufe, 
el our being made conformable unto his death, wherein 
a very great part of our due-preparation unto this ordi^ 
nance doth confift 5 and for 'the furtherance whereof we do ! 
in an especial manner wait upon God in this part of his 
.worihip, Therefoie I (ball in a few words, mind you 1 

b 3 

I 8* 1 

wbexein we Ought to be conformable onto the de*tb of 
Chrift, and bow we are advantaged therein by this or<&- 

We are to be conformable unto the death of Chrift, 
in the internal, moral caufe of it, and in the external 
means of it. 

The caufe of the death of Chrift, was 6 a. The meant 
©f the death of Chrift, was fuflfering. Our being coo* 
forma blc unto the death of Chriit, muft refpeel fin and 

The procuring caufe of the death of Chrift was fin* 
He died for fin \ he died for our fin $ our iniquities, were* 
upon him, and were the caufe of all the puniftimeat 
that befel him. 

Wherein can we be conformable unto the death of 
Chrift with refped unto fin r We cannot die for fin.. 
Our hope and faith is, in and through him, that we (hall ne- 
ver die for fin. No mortal man can be made like unto> 
Chrift in faffering for fin* Thofe that undergo what br 
underwent, becaule they were unlike him, mutt go to* 
hell, and be made more unlike him, to eteinitjv 
Therefore the apoftle tells us, that our conformity unto 
the death of Chrift with refpeft unto fin lies in this, that 
as he died for fin, fo we ftiould die unto fin * f and that &k 
which he died for, fhould die in us. He tells us fo, 
Rom. vi. 5. u We are planted together in the likenefs of . 
his death ;" we are made conformable unto the death of 
Chrift,' planted into him, fo as to have a likenefs to him* 
in his death. Wherein ? " Knowing that our. old man> 
is crucified with him," fakh he, ver. 6- It is the cru- 
cifixion of the old man, the crucifying of the body of fin, 
the mortifying of iin. that makes us conformable untct 
the death of Chrift as to the internal moral caufe' of it r 
that procures it. So another apoftle tells us, 1 Pet. iv. 
1, 2. 4t Forafmuch then as Chrift hath fufferedfor us in 
the flefh, arm yoUrfelves likewife with the fame mind : 
for he that hath fuiFered in the fiefh, hath ceafed[ from fin, 
that he no longer ftiould live the reft of his time in the 
flelh, to the lufts of men, but to the will of God." Jrlere 
is our conformity. to Chrift as he fullered in the ikfh, 
that we ihould no longer live to our lufts,, nor untythe 
will of roan,, but unto the will of Gad* And, brethren, 

• t *3 1 

lit toe tell yea, lie who approacheth Wnto this remem- 
brance of the death of Chrift, that hath not laboured, 
that doth not labour fot> conformity to his death in the 
utiiverial mortification of ail fin, runs a hazard to hi* 
IbuL, and puts an affront opori'Jcfui Chrift* O let none 
of us come in a way of thankfulnefs to remember the 
death of Jefus Chrift, and bring along with us the mur- 
derer wheretJy he wis (lain. To harbour with us, and 
bring along with us to the death of Chrift, ttomortified 
lufts and corruptions, fuch as we do not continually and 
fincercly endeavour .to kill and mortify, is to come and 
Upbraid Chrift with his murderer, inftead of obtaining 
any spiritual advantage y what can fuch poor fouls ex- 

To be conformable unto the death of Chrift as, to the 
outward means, is to be conformable unto him in fuffer- 
ing. We here remember Chrift's Suffering*. And 1 
am perfuaded. and hope I have considered it, that he 
who is unready to be comformable unto Chrift in Suffer- 
ing, was' never upright and fincere in endeavouring to> 
be conformable unto Chrift in the killing of fin ; for we 
are called as much to the one as to the other Chrift; 
hath fufferecl for us, leaving us an example, that we (hould 
alfo iuffer when we are called thereunto. And our unwil- 
lingnefe to fuffer like unto Chrift, arifes from fome un* 
mortified corruptions in our hearts, which we have not 
v endeavoured to fubdue, that we may be like unto Chrift 
in the mortification and death of fin. 

There are four things required that we may be con* 
v formable unto the death of Chrift in Suffering > for we 
may fuffer, and yet not be Hke unto Chrift in it nor by 

i. The firft is, that we fuffer for Chrift. _ I Pet iv. 
I ?, i6. 4k Let none fuffer as a murderer, or as a thief, 
or -is an evil doer, iyc. But if any man fuffer as a Chris- 
tian, tec him not be afhamed."/ To fuffer as a Chriftian, 
. is to fuffer for Chrift •, for the name of Chrift ; for the 
truths of Chrift •> for the ways of Chrift ; for the wor- 
fhi> of Chrift. 

2. It is required that we fuffer in the ftrength of Chrift ; 
that w*. do not fuffer in the ihengt-i of out own tyill, ' 
our own reaibn, our own resolutions $ but that we luffer, 

1 1 84 1 

I I fay, lathe ftrength of Chrift. When we fuffer arigbr^ 

I " it is given unto us irt the behalf of Chrift, not only to 

believe 00 him, but to fuffcr for him. n As all other gra- 
ces are to be derived from Chrift, as our head and root, 
flock and foundation ) fo tn particular that grace, which* 
enables us to fuffcr tor Chrift, mud be from him* And 
we do well to confider whether it be fo or no j for if it 
be not, all our fuffe rings are, loft, and not acceptable to> 
bim. It is a facrifice without fait, yea without an heart,, 
that will not be accepted. 

3. It is required, that we fuffer in imitation of Chrift r 
as making him our example* We are not to take up 
the crofs, but with defignto fellow Chrift. Take up 
the crofs, is but half the command : " Take up the 
crofs, and follow me," is the whole command ; and we 
are to fuffer willingly and cheerfully, or we are the monV 
unlike Jefus Chrift in our fufferings of any perfonrin the 
world. Chrift was willing and cheerful, " Lo. I come 
to do thy will: 1 have a baptifm to be baptized .with*, 
and how am i ftraitened till it be accomplifhed r" faith 
be.» And, 

4. We are to fuffer to the glory of 'Chrift. Thefe 
are things, wherein we ought -to endeavour conformity 
to the death of Chrift, that we now remember. 1 ptay y 
let none of us truft to the outward ordinance, the perfor- 
mance of the outward du£y. If thefe things be not in 
us, we do not remember the Lord's death in a right nian- 
tier. ' * ' • 

How may we obtain ftrength and ability from this or- 
dinance,. to be, made conformable to his death, that we 
may not come and remember the death of. Chrift, and* 
go away and be more* unlike him than formerly > 

There is power to this end communicated to us doc- 
trinal iy, morally, and fpiritually. 

There is oofuch fermon to teach mortification of fin,, 
N as the commemoration of tne death of Chrift. It is 
the greateft outward inftruction unto this duty that God. 
hath left unto his church ; and I am peifuaded- which 
he doth moi) blefs to them who ^ are fincere. Do we. 
• fee Chrift eminently crucified before our eyes y his bd- 
dy broken, his blood fhed ^or fin j and is it not of pow- 
erful iniiru&ion to us, to go on to mortify fin ? He that 


hath not learned this, never learned any thing aright 
from this ordinance, nor did he ever receive any benefit 
from it* There is a conftraining power in this induc- 
tion to put us upon the mortification of fin } God grant 
we may fee the fruit of it. It hath a teaching efficacy j 
it teaches, as it is peculiarly blefled of God to thb end 
and purpofe. And I hope many a foul can fay, that 
they have received that encouragement, and that, 
ftrength by it, a* that they have been enabled to more 
^teadinefs and conftancy in fighting againft fin, and have 
received more fuccefs afterwards. 
• There is a moral way wheieby it communicates 
ftrength to us 9 becaufe h is our duty now to engage our* 
felves unto this very work, meeting at the death of 
Chtift, it is our duty to engage ourfelvts unto God, 
and that gives ftrength. And I would beg of you 
all, brethren, that no one of us would pais through or go 
over this ordinance, this reprefentatkm of the death of 
Chrift, without a*frc(h obligation to God to abide more 
conftsmt and .vigorous in the mortification of fin \ we aU 
need it, 

- And laftly, A fpiritual beholding of Chrift by faith, 
is the means to change us into the image. and likenefe of 
Chrift. Beholding the death of Chrift by faith as re- 
prefented to us in this ordinance, is the means to change 
us into his image and likenefs, and make us conformable 
unto his death, in the death of fin in us. 

(1.) Take this infttu&ion from the ordinance, as you 
believe in Chrift, as you love him, as you defire to re* 
member him, fin ought to be mortified, that we may be 
conformed unto him in his death, 

(2.) That we do every one of us brjng our fouls un* 
der an engagement fo to do, which is required of us in 
the very nature of the duty* 

(3*) That we labour by faith fo to behold a dying 
Chrift, that ftrength may thence iffue forth for the death 
of fin in our fouls, ~ * 


I 86 ] 

jfyril 18. 1675* 

I HAVE generally on this occafion -fixed oh (bme- 
thing particular that may draw forth and guide pre- 
fent meditation ; but 1 (hall at prefent enter on what 
may be farther carried on, and fpeak a little to you a* 
bout the nature and ufe of the ordinance it.* If, in which, 
it may be f fome of us (for there are of all degrees and 
fixes of knowledge in the church) may not be fo well 
inftrudted. God has taught us, that the ufing of an or- 
dinance will not be of advantage to us, unlefs we under- 
stand the inftitution, and the nature and the ends of rU 
It was fo under the Old Teftament, when their worfhipt 
yn* more carnal, yet God would have them to know the 
nature and the reafon of that great ordinance of the pat 
fover, as you may fee in Exod. xii. 24*— 27. u And ye 
(hall obferve this thing for an ordinance to thee, and to>. 
thy fons for ever. And it (hall come to pafs when ye 
be come to the land, which the Lord will give you, ac- 
cording as he hath promifed, that ye fhall keep this fer- 
vice. And it (hall come to pafs, when your children* 
(hall fay unto you, What mean you by this fervice ? that 
ye (hall fay, It is the facrifice of the Lord's paffover, 1 * 
&c. Carry; along with you the inftitution y it is the or* 
dinance of God, you (hall keep this fervice ; then yon 
mud have the meaning of it, which is this, it is theXord's 
paffover j and the occafion of the inftitution was thisy 
the Lord paffed over our houfes when he ftnete the E» 
gyptians, and delivered us out of Egypt. 'There is a 
great my fiery in that word, it is the facrifice 'of the Lord** 
ppffover : their deliverance was by the bipod of a facri- 
fice ; it was a facrifice which made them look to the 
great facrifice, Chrift our paffover, who was facrificed 
for us. ~ And there is a myftical inftrultlont it i# the" 
Lord's paffover, fays be \ it is a pledge and fign of the 
Lord's paffing over and fparing the Israelites, for it wa^ 

C 8 7 3 

cot itfelf the Lord's paflbver. Chrift fays, " this is my 
body," that is, a pledge and token of it. Under the 
Old Teftament God would not have his people to ob- 
ferve this great, fervice and ordinance, but they mould ' 
know the reafon of it, and the £nd and rife of it, that it 
might be a fervice of faith. 

All thefe things are clearly <:omprifed, in reference 
unto this ordinance of the Lord's fupper, in thofc words 

i Cor. xi. 2j, 24, 25, 26. 

For I have received of the Lord, that which alfo Ide/i? 
vered unto you, That the Lord Jefus, the fame night in 
which he was betrayed, look bread : and when be bad 
given thanks, be brake it, and J aid, Take, eat ; this is 
my body, which is broken for you : this do in remem- 
brance of me. After the fame manner alfo he took the 
cup, when be had fupped, faying. This cup is the New 
Teftament in my blood : this do ye, asjft as ye drink 
it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this 
bread \ and drink this cup, ye dofhew the Lord*s death 
till he come. 

* You have both the inftitution and the nature, the ufe 
and ends of this ordinance in thefe words; and I (hall 
fpeak fo briefly to them, and under fuch (hort heads, as 
thofe who are young and lefs experienced may do well 
to retain* 

Firft, There is the inftitutipn of it j I received it, 
{aid he, from the Lord $ and he received it on this ac- 
count, that the Lord appointed it j and if you would 
• come in faith unto this ordinance, you are to confi der 
two things in this inftitution. 

i. The authority of Chrift. ' It was the Lord : the 
Lord, the Head and King of the church *, our Lord, 
<jur Lawgiver, our Ruler,, he has appointed this fervice ; 
and M you would have your performance of it an a& of 
obedience, acceptable to God, you muft get your con- 
science influenced with the authority of CHrift, that we 
can give this reafon in the prefence of God, why we 

tome together to perform this fervke, it is fcecatrfe f e« 
fits Chrift our Lord his appointed it , he hath required 
it of us : and what* is done in obedience to his command, 
that is a part of our reasonable fervice, and therein we 
are accepted with God.. 

2. In the inftitution of it there is alfo his love, which 
13 manifiefted in the time of its appointment ; the X«ord 
Jefus, u in that lame night in which he was betrayed.' 9 
One would think, that our Lord Jefus Chrift,. who 
knew all the troubles, the diftrefies, the anguifh, the 
fufferings, the dereli&ions of God, which were coming 
Upon him, and into which he was jaft now entering, 
would have hail fomething elfe to think of befides this 
proviiion for his church. But ids heart was filled wit% 
love to his people ; and that love which carried him to 
all that darknefs and difficulty that he was to go through, 
that love at the lame time did move him to inftitnie this 
ordinance for the benefit and advantage of his church. 
And this I {hall only fay, that that heart which is made « 
| fpiritually fenfible of the love of Jefus Chrift. in the in- 
ftitution of this ordinance, and in what this ordinance 
doth reprefent, is truly prepared for communion with 
Chrift in thjs ordinance. O let us all labour for this in 
particular, if poflible, that, through the power of (he 
Spirit of God, we may have fome impreffions of the 
Jove of Chrift on our hearts ! Brethren, if we have not 
brought it with us, if we. do not yet find it in us, 1 pray 
let us be careful to endeavour, that we do not go away 
without it. Thus you have what is to be obferved in 
( the inftkution itfelf, the authority and the love of 
f Chrift. 

Secondly, I fliall (peak to Ihe ufe and ends of this on* 
dinance, and they are three, I. Recognition; a. Exhi- 
bition ^ and 3. Profeflion. 

1 . Recognition, that is, the folemn calling over, and 
remembrance of what is intended in this ordinance. 

There is an habitual remembrance ot Chrift, what afi 
foelievers ought continually to carry about thea : and 
here lies the difference between thofe that are fpiritacftV 
and thofe that are carnal $ they all agree that Chilians 
ought to have a continual remembrance of Chrijf \ but 
what way fliall we obtain it ? Why, fet up images a*4 

£ »9 3 • 

pictures of fejnr in every corner of the boufir and chape\ 
that is to bring Chrift to remembrance \ that way- car- 
nal men take Sir this purpofe. But the way believers 
have to bring Chrift to remembrance* b by the Spirit of 
Chrift working through the word. We have no image* 
of Chrift but the wordj. and the Spirit sefte&nt* 
Chrift to us thereby, wherein he is evidently crucified 
before our eyes* But this recognition I fpeak of, 4s * 
folemn remembrance in the way of an ordinance, where-* 
Jn unto the internal actings- of our. minds, there is addc£> 
the external reprefentation of the figns that God has ap- 
pointed, " Do this in remembrance of me/ 1 It is twice 
mentioned, in ver. 24* 25. 

Concerning this remembrance, we may coniider Cwe 
things* (u) What is the object, of this remembrance, 
or recognition j and, (2.) What is the aft* What 
we are to remember, and what is that act of remem- 
brance that is acceptable to God in this ordinance 

(1.) What is the object of this remembrance ? The 
object of this remembrance principally is Chrift : but it 
is not Chrift absolutely confidered 5 it is Chrift in thole 
circumftances wherein he then was: *' Do it in semem*- 
brance of me," faith he, as I am lent of God, deiigned 
to be a facrifice for the fins of the elect, and as 1 am 
now going to die for that end and purpofe $ t* do it fo 
in remembrance of me. Wherefore, there are these 
lour things that we are to remember of Chrift, as pro* 
pofed in thole circumftances wherein he will be rernem- 
bered. And I will be careful not to mention any thing; 
but what the meaner! of us may bring into prefent exer- 
cile at the ordinance. 

[1.] Remember the grace and love of God. even the 
Father, in fending Chrift, in fetting him forth 
pofing him t6 us* This it every where mentioned in, 
Scripture, We are minded of this in Scripture, when* 
ever we are called to thoughts of the death of Chrift* 
John iii. 16. " God (b loved the world, as to give his 
only begotten Son* 99 Rom. iii. 2<. " God let him fottls 
te be a propitiation, through faith in his blood* 19 Rom* 
v. 8: ," God commendeth his love to us, in that while 
we wcjcyet (inner*, Chrift died for us. Remember, I 
pray, you, the uajjgeakable grace and love of God ie 

f 1 

£ 9° J 

fending, giving, and fetting forth Jefus Chtift to be the 

propitiation. - . ^ . 

Now, how docs this ordinance guide us in calling this 
love and grace of God to remembrance ? Why in this > 
m that it is in the way of a furnifhed table providcdfor us. 
So God has expreffed his tove in this matter, Ifa. xxw 
6 " In this mountain mall the Lord of Hofts make on- 
to all people a fcaft bf fat things, a feaft of wines on the 
lees of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees 
well refined." The preparation of the table here is to 
mind us to call to remembrance the love and grace of 
Go<L in fending and exhibiting his, S^m Jefus Chrift to 
be a rasfom aud propitiation for us. That is the firft 

* Vail Remember in particular, the love of Jefus 
Chrift, as God-man, in giving himfelf for u*. This 
love is frequently propofed to us with what he did for 
us; and it is reprcfented peculwrly in this ordinance ; 
M Who loved me, and gave himfelf for, me," fays the a- 
Doftlc. Faith will never be able to live iraon the Xaft 
ixpreffion, " Gave himfelf for me," unlefs^t can rife 
up to the firft, " Who loved me." Rev. i. 5 ,4. " Who 
loved us, and warned us from our fins m his own blood," 

I think' we are all fatisfied in this, that, im calling 
Chrift to remembrance, we (hduld in an efpecial manner 
call the love of Chrift to remembrance. And that .foul 
in wfibm God mall work a fenfe of the love of Chrift m 
nr meafure, ( is pad comprchenfion, and our 
minds and fouls are apt to lofe themfelves in it, when we 
attempt to fix our thoughts upon it), that he who is 
God-man mould do this for us, it is too great for any 
thing but faith, which can reft in that which * can i no 
^comprehend, if it go to try the depth, and breadth, 
™d length of it, to fathom its dimensions, and confider 
kwith reafon j for it is paft all undemanding , h* &■& 
ca^reft in what it cannot comprehend. Soihouldwe 
remember the love of Chrift, of him who "Gorman, 
who^ive himfelf for us, and will be remembered in this 

"Vs rWe mail not manage onr fpifits aright a* to this 
firft part of the duty, the end of the ordinance in rccog-* 


t 9* J 

nitron, onlefs we call over and remember what was the 
ground upon which the profit and benefit of the fuffer- 
ings of Chrift doth redound to us. , 

Let us remember, that this is no other but that eter- 
nal covenant and compact that was between the Father 
and the Son, that Chrift (bould undertake for tinners, and 
that what he did in that undertaking fhould be done on 
their behalf, fhould be reckoned to them, and accounted 
as theirs. So our Saviour fpeaks, Pfal. xl.6,7. "Sa- 
crifice and offering thou didft not defire* mine ears haft 
thou opened : burnt offering and fin offering hail thou 
not required. Then faid I, Lo, I come : in the volume 
•f the book it is written of me, 19 &c. 

Chrift does that- in our behalf, which facrifice and 
burnt- offerings could not perform. We have this cove- 
Bant delared at large, Ifa. liii. 10, 11. " Yet it pleafed 
the Lord to>bruife him, he hath put him to grief : when 
thou (halt make his foul an offering for fin, he (hall fee 
bis feed," &c. . Pray, brethren, be wife and underftand- 
>ng in this matter, and not children in calling over and 
remembering Chrift in this ordinance. Rtmember the 
counfel of peace that was between them both, when it 
was agreed on the part of Chrift, to undertake and an- 
swer for what we had done ; and upon the part of God 
the Father, that, upon his fo doing, rigbteouwefs, life, 
and falvation fhould be given to tinners.* 

£4.] Remember the fufferings of Chrift. This is a 
main thing. Now, the fufferings of Chrift may be con* 
fidered three ways. 1.) The fufferings in his foul. 2.) 
The fufferings in his body. 3.) The fufferings of his 
perfon, in the diffblution of his human nature, foul and 
iody, by death itfelf. , 

I.) Remember the fufferings in his foul: and they 
were of two forts, (i. Privative 5 his fufferings in the 
defertion and dereliction of God his Father $ and, (2. 
pofitive $ in the e million of the fenfe of God's wrath, 
and the curf'e of the law upon his foul. 

(1, The head of Chrift 's fufferings was in the divine 
defertion, whence he cried out, " My God, my*'God, 
why haft thou forfaken me ?" It is certain, Chrift was 
forfeken of God - 7 he had* not elfe fo complained j fbr- 
fake^n of God iniiis foul \ how ? the divine nature ia 

C 9* I 

Ac fceond pferlbn tfd not forfake the human 5 ner did 
the divine nature tn the third pcrfon for fake the human, 
as to the whole work of (an&ffication and holincfs, but 
kept alive in Chrift all grace whatfeever, ail grace tm 
that fulnefs whereof he had ever been partaker. But 
the defertion was as to all influence of comfort, and aH 
evidence of love from God the Father, who is the fetm- 
t tin of love and comfort adminiftered by the Holy Ghoft. 
Hence ibme of our divines have not /pared to fay, that 
Chrift did defpair in that great cry, ** My God, my 
-God,* &V. Now defpair Signifies two things j a total 
want of the evidence of faith, as to acceptance with God j 
gnd, a refolution in the foul to feek no farther after it, 

. and not to wait for it from that fountain. In the fir ft 
Way Chrift did defpair ; that u, penal only 5 in the\ lat- 
ter, he did not, that is finful alfo. There was a total in- 
terception of all evidence of love from God, but not a 
ceafing in hkn to watt upon God for the manafeftatioft 
pf that love in hf s appointed -tinve. Renumber Cfcri$ 
was thus iorfaken, that his people might never be fiar- 

i^L. There were bufferings pofitive in his fcul, when he 
Was made fin a*d a curfc -for t», and had a fcnfe -of the 
wrath and anger of God on his foul. This brotfeht . 
(fhofe exprettions concerning hrai, and from htm ; * tie 
began fore amazed, and laid, My foul ts exceeding 
fcrrowful even unto death* He was in an agony." 1 de- 
fire no more for my foul everlaftingf y to confute that 
blafphemy, That Chrift died only as a martyr to con- 
firm the truth he had preached, but the conlideration of 
ibis one thing. For. courage, refolutkm, and cheerful* 
nefs are the principal virtues and graces in him who dies 
only a* a martyr ; jbut for him who had the weight of 
the wrath of God, and the curie of the law upon hfs 
foul, it became him to be ** in an agony, to-fweat great 
drops^of blood," to cry out, " My God , my God, why 

' hail thou forfaken me ?" which had he been called to 
for nothing effe but barely to confirm the truth he had 
♦preached, ne would have done without much trouble or 
fhaking of mind. 

I mall not now fpeak of the fufferings in hk body,, 
which I am afraid we do not confider enough. Some- 

\ poor fouls are apt to confider nothing but the fuftewng* 

C 93 3 
of his body, and fome do not enough confider them. We f r 
may call this over fome other time, as alio the fufferings 
of his perfqn in the diflblution of his human nature, by 
a feparation of the foul from the body, which Was alio 
Comprized in the curfe. 

, " Do this in remembrance of me." What are we 
to remember ? Thefe are things of no great refeaxch $ 
they are not hard and difficult, but fuch as we all may 
come up to the practice of in the adminiftratioa of this 
very ordinance. Remember the unfpeakable grace and 
love of God in fetting forth Chrift to be a propitiation* 
Remember the love of Chrift who gave himfelf for us, 
notwithstanding he knew all that would befal him on 
our account : remember the compact and agreement be- 
tween the Father and the Son, that what was due to us* 
he fhould undergo, and the benefit of what he did (hould 
redound to us : remember the greatnefs of the work he 
undertook for thefe ends ; in the fufferings of his whole 
perfon, when he would redeem his church with his own 

(2.) One word for the a& of remembrance, and I have 
done. How {hall we remember ? Remembrance in it-* 
felf is 'a folemn calling over of what is true and pari \ anil - 
there are twg things required in our remembrance > 
the firft is* faith; and the fecond is thankfulnefs. . 

( 1.) Faith ; fo to call it over as to believe it. But who 
does not believe it ? Why, truly, brethren, many be- 
lieve the ftory of it, or the taa, who do not believe it; 
to that advantage for therafelves, as they ought to do. 
In a word, we are fo to believe It, as to put our truft for' '* 
life and falvation in thofe things that we call to remem- 
brance, Truft and confidence belong to the effence of 
laving faith. So remember thefe things as to place your" 
fruli in them. Shall 1 gather up your 'workings of faith 
into one ex predion ? the apoftle calls it, Rom. v.. iw / 
u the receiving the ajonement." If God help us afrefti 
to receive the atonement- at this time, we, have dilcharg- 
ed our duty in this ordinance j for here is the atonement, 
propofed from the love of God and the love of Chrift'j. 
by virtue of the compact between the Father and the Son r 
through the fufferings and facrifice of Chrift in his whole 
perfon, foul and body. Here is, an atonement with Go$ 

i3 . 

propofed unto us j the working of our faith, is to receive) 
it, or to believe it fi> as to approve of it as aa excellent 
way, full of wifdom, goodneft, holinefi j. to embrace it 
and truit in it. 

(2.) Rjenjtcmber that among the offerings of old, which 
were appelated to-ihadow oat the death of Chjdii, there 
was a thank- offering, for there was a burning of the fat 
upon the altar of thank-offering, to figrdfy there was 
thankfulneCs to God always as part of the remembrance 
of the (acrifice that Cbrift made for us* Receive the a- 
tone meat, and be thankful* 

The Lord lead us into-the pra&ice of thefc things. 


THE lad time I fpake to you on this oecation, I toll 
you that the grace of God, and our duty in this or* 
diaance, might be drawn under the three heads of recog- 
nition, or calling over, of exhibition, and of profeffion* 
The firft of thele I then fpake unto, and (hewed you; 
what we are to recognize or call over therein. 

The fecond thing is, exhibition and reception *, exhibi- 
tion en the part of Chrift, reception on our part, wherein 
the effence of this ordinance doth confift. I (hall brief- 
ly explain it to you, rathor now to ft it up faith unto ex- 
ercife, than to inftru& in the do&rine. And that we 
may exercife our faith aright, we may consider, 

I. who it is tliat makes an exhibition,~that offers, pro* 
.pofes, and gives fomething to us at this time in this or- 
dinance. . 

II. What it is that is exhibited, propofed, and com- 
municated in this ordinance. And, 

III. How or in what manner we receive it*. 

I. Who* is it that makes this exhibition ; It is Chrift. 
Ilimfelf. W hen Chrift was given for us, God the Father 
gave him, and fet him forth to be a propitiation j but in this 
exhibition it is Chrift himfelf, I fay, that is the immedi- 
ate exhibiter. The tender that is made of, whatever it 
he, it is made by Chrift, And, as our faith jftandft in 
need of directions and boundaries .to be given to fe i* 
this holy duty, it will direct our faith to cbnfider Jefus 

t 9$ I 

Ctmft ff efentamattg us by his Spirit, and by hi* tomb* 
naming this tender, or this exhibition onto us* It i* 
Chi ill that docs h, which calls out our faith unto an iuv» 
mediate exercife on his pecfoiw 

II. What is it Chrift does exhibit end prepofe t*> 
us ? i. Not empty and outward figra* . God never in* 
ftituted foch thing! in his church* From the foundation 
<pf the world, he never defigned to feed his people with 
foch outward fymbols, Thofe under the Old ¥eftament 
jwere not empty, though they had not a fulnefs, like 
thofe under the New y they had not a fulnefs, becaufe 
4hey had reiped to what was yet to come, and could not 
be filled with that light, that grace, that evidence of the 
things themiclves, as the prefent ngns are, which are: 
accompliihed. Chrift doth -not give us empty ugps- 

Nor, 2. does Chrift give us his flc(h aud blood, taken* 
in a carnal (cnfe. If men would believe him, he ha* 
told us a long time ago, when that doubt arofe upon that: 
declaration of his eating his flefh and drinking his blood, 
John vi. 52. (though he, did not then fpeak of the facra- 
ment, bat of that which was the eflence and life of it), 
** How can this man give ua his flefh to eat ?" He told 
tts, that eating his nein profited nothing in that way they 
thought of eating it $ for they apprehended, as-the Pa- 
pifts do now, that they were to eat ne(h, body, bones 
and all. Why, lays he, " the flefh profits nothing ',' it is 
the Spkit that quickens j M that power that is to be com- 
municated to you Is by the Spirit. So that Chrift does 
not give u* his flefh and blood in a carnal manner, as the 
men, at taper naum thought and others look for. This 
would not feed our fouls. 

But then what is k that Chrift does exhibit, that 
we may exercife our faith upon ? I fay, k is hirafelf as 
immediately discharging his great oftice of a Prieft, be- 
ing facrinced for us. It is bimfelf as accompanied with 
all the benefits of that great part of his mediation in 
dying for us. May the Lord ftir 'up our hearts to be- 
lieve, that the tender Chrift makes unto us is •originally 
and principally of hirnfelf, becaufe all the benefits of his 
mediation arife from that fountain and fpring, when God 
purchafed the church with his own blood. A way this 
i^wbieb the Lord Jefus Chrift, who is the wifdom of 
Cod! has found out and appointed to make a fpecial<ten- 

der of his perfon to our fouls, to be received by tw. Ant 
he tenders himfelf in the discharge of his, mediation, in 
the moil amiable and moil glorious reprefentatioo of him- 
felf to the foul of a finncr, Chrift is glorious in himfelf, 
in all his offices, and in all the reprefentations that are 
made of him in the fcripture unto our faith $ but Chrift 
ismoft amiable, moft beautiful, mod glorious to the foul 
of a believing (inner, when he is reprefented as dyings 
making atonement for fin, making peace for finners, as 
bearing our iniquities, fatisfying the wrath of God, and 
curfe of the law, to draw out our hearts unto faith and 
love, Chrift in this ordinance makes fuch a reprefen* 
tation of himfelf as bleeding for us, making atonement, 
for our fins, and fealing the everlafting covenant : «nd he 
propofes himfelf unto us with all the benefits of his death, 
of that redemption he wrought out for us, peace with 
God, making an end of fin, bringing in everlafting rigfe- 
teoufnefs, and the like. I intend, only to remind you 
of thefe things, for we are at a lofs fometimes as to the 
cxercife of faith in and under this duty. 

III. There remains to be confidered, reception ; for' 
unlefs it be received, there is nothing done to any faving 
purpofe. Notwithstanding all this tender that is made, 
the iffue of all the benefit and confolation lies upon re- 

There are two ways whereby we do receive Chrift. 

j. We receive him facramentally, by obedience in 
church' order. And, 2. We receive him fpiritually , and 
really by faith ox believing in-Jbim. 

i . We receive him facramentally. This confifts in the 
due and orderly performance of what he has appointed: 
in his word for this end and purpofe, that therein < nd 
thereby he may exhibit himfelf to our fouls. It doth 
not confifl (as fome have thought) in partaking of the 
elements; that is but one part of it, and but one {m&U 
part. Our facramental reception confifts in the due ob- 
feivation of the whole order of the inftitutjon according 
tp the mind of Chrift. 

2 Spiritually, we receive him by faith : and if we 
could rightly underftand that fpecial aft of faith which. 
we are to exercife in the reception of Chrift, when he 
does thus exhibit himfelf to us, then fljcruld we glorjU 

I 99 1 

fy God, then fliould we bring in advantage to our own 

1 have but a word to fay, and that is this, It Is that 
ading of faith which is now required of us, which draw? 
neareft unto fpiritual, fenfible experience. Faith hap 
many degrees and many acts, fome at a kind of diflance 
from the object, in mere reliance and recumbency *, and 
many other a£b of faith make very near approaches' to 
the objeci, and rife up to fenfible experience. It'fhould 
be (if God would help us) fuch an ad of faith as rifes 
up neareft to a fenfible experience.. It is that which 
the Holy Ghoft would teach us by this ordinance, when 
%e receive it by eating and drinking, which are things 
of fenfe } and things of fenle aje cholen to exprefs faith 
wrought up to an experience. And they who had fome 
-a^prebenfiofi hereof, that it muft be a peculiar acting of 
faith and riling up to s fpiritual experience, but Ending 
ttdtbnig «xf the light and power of it in their ©w* ftsads, 
fp*e bitfk Jo traeiubftantiation, tint they might do that 
with their mouths and teetfe, which thiy. could not to 
with their fouls, 

_ Faith (hduld rife up to an experience in two things* 
(f.) In reprefentation. (2.) 1« incorporation. 

(iv) The thing we are to aim at, to be carried unto 
by faith in this ordinance, is, that there may be a near 
and evident representation of Chriit in his tender unto 
our fouls ; faith being fatisfied in it 3 faith being in this 
-matter the evidence of things not km, making it exift 
in the foul, making Cbrift more prefent to the fail tha* 
%e would be to our bodily eyes, if be was among us $ 
more affuredfy 6k Faith fhould rife up to evidence ib 
<hat near and clofe reprefentation it makes of Chrift m 
this exhibition of himfelf. 

And, (2.) Faith is to anfwer the end of eating and 
drinking, which is incorporation. We are fo to receive 
Chrift, as to receive him into a fpiritual incorporation, 
*h?t the ftcfh and blood of Chriit, as communicated in 
this* ordinance through faith, maybe turned and chan- 
ged in our hearts into fpiritual vital principles, and unto 
growth and fatisfadtion, Thefe are the three things we 
receive by hourifhment, and wherein incorporation doe*- 
toniift j there is an inereafe and quickening- of vtfat 

principles, there is growth, and there is fitisxacttoa m 
receiving fuitable food and nourifhment. Faith, I faj % 
Ihould rue up to thefe three things in its a&s. I men- 
tion thefe things to dired the actings of our faith in ^ * 
holy adminlftration. 


September 5. 1675. 

I SHALL offer a few words to diteet you in the pre* 
feat exercife of faith in this ordinance. I defign ns> 
more but to give occafion to that particular exerctfe of 
faith which is now required of us, whereby we may fanc- 
tify the name of God in a due manner,* give glory to 
him by believing, and receive eftablUhment unto our 
•wn foub : and I would do it by minding you of that 
word of our Lord Jefus Cbrift in 

JoHNxii. 32. 

And I f if lb* lifted upfront the earth, will 
draw all men unto me* 

What he means by " his lilting up,* 1 the evangelift 
.expounds in the next words, which are thefe, " This he 
fpake, fignifying what death he (hould die." So that 
the lifting up of Cbrift on the croft, is that which he 
Jays as the foundation of his drawing finners unto him* 
No (inner will come near to Chrift, unlefs he be drawn; 
.and to be drawn, is to be made willing to come unto 
him, and to follow him in chains of love. 'Chrift draws 
none to him, whether they will or no j but he cafts ou 
their minds, hearts and wills, the cords of his grace and 
love, working in them powerfully, working on them 
■kindly, to caufe them to chufe him, to. come tp him and 
to follow him. " Draw me, we will run after thee**? 
The great principle and fountain from whence the draw- 
ing efficacy and power of grace doth proceed, is; from 

the -lifting up of Chrift. Ehrawing grace is manifefted. 
in, and drawing love proceeds from, the fufferings of 
jefus Chrift on the crols. 

But that which I would juft mind you of at prefent, 
is this, that the look of faith unto Chrift a* lifted up, is 
the only means of bringing our fouls near to him. Our 

• faith is often expref&d by " looking unto Chrift," llau 
xlv. 22. " Look unto me, (fays he), and be ye fared, all 
the ends of the earth." The concluiion is, that thofe 
who fo look unto him, (hail be juftified and laved, Ifiu 
Ixv. i. " Behold me, behold me. 9 ' And it is the great 
promife of the efficacy of the Spirit -poured out upon us, 
that we " (hall look unto him whom we have pierced," 
Zech. x. 12. God. calls us to look off from all other 
things, look off from the law, look-off from felf, look 
off from fin, look only unto Chrift, Is Chrift. faid to 
be lifted up in his death > and to die that manner of 
death wherein he was lifted up on the crofs ? fo it was 
exprefled in the type y the brazen ferpent was lifted up 
on a pole, that thofe who were fmote with the fiery fer- 
pents might look to it. If the foul can but turn an eye 
•of faith unto Jeius Chrift as thus Hfted up, it will re- 
ceive healing ; though the fight of one be not fo clear 

. as the fight of another. All had not a like (harpnefs of 
fight that looked to the brazen ferpent $ nor have all 
the like vigour of faith to look to Chrift ; but one fin- 
cere look to Chrift is pleafing to him, fo as he fay?, 
Cant. iv. 9. " Thou haft raviflied my heart, my &fcr % 
my fpoufe, thou haft r&viihed my heart with one of thine 
eyes." A foul feniible of guilt and fin, that cafts but 
one look of faith to Chrift as lifted up, it evenraifes the 
heart of Chrift himfelf, and fuch a foul (hall not go a- 
way imrefreftied, unrelieved. 

Now, brethren, the end of this ordinance is to lift up 
Chrift in reprefentation ; as he was lifted up x reaHy on 
the crofs, and as in. the whole preaching of the gofpel, 
Chrift is evidently crucified before our eyes, fo more es- 
pecially in the admin i ft ration of this ordinance. Do we 
fee then wherein the ipecial acting of faith in this ordi- 
nance doe's confift ? God forbid we mould negled the 
ftirring up dux hearts unto the particular a&ingpf faith 
k Jefes Chrift, who herein is lifted up before us. That 

Watch we sue to endeavour fc» thn> ordinance, iar 9 to* get; 
• s view by fatth r faith working by thongtoa, by messfcnw 
tioa, a&uig by love j a view of Gbwft as lifted up, lira* 
it, at bearing our iniquities id bm owa body on- the rate* 
What did Cbrift do on the tree ? what wit be lifcd up 
for, if it was not to bear our fas* Out of hi* lev* and; 
seal to Hie glory of God, and out o# eottpeffion to tfaav 
fords of men, Cbrift bore tke guilt and ponifllsrient afc 
fin, and made expiation for it* O tint God in this or- 
dinance would give our folds a viewed bka I I (hall gi*e> 
it to aryfelf, and to yon m charge at tht* tune : If we 
hare a view of Cbrift' by faith* as lifted up, ovr besots? 
wiH be drawn nearer to 1dm* If we find not our hearts- 
ia any manner- drawn nearer to htm, it is much to be 
feared we have not bad a view of lam a* btsrissg our i~ 
niquities. Take, therefore^ his one re membr ance, as to 
the acting of faith in theadininrftration of this oroSoaoce,' 
labour to. have ifefixed noon Cbrift a» bearing fin, mafcsngf 
atonement Wit, with his heart fall or love to accent 
pfisl 1 caufe in righteon&eft and truth. 

» *«■**, 


TO whet our minds, and lead us to a particular cx~. 
erctte 'of faith and love-in this duty, 1 {hall add. a 
few, words from that Scripture which I have already 
ipoken.&mething to, upon thi» occa£on, «a*. 

John xii. 32. 

A*il % if I be lifted up from $be earthy wilt 
.draw ail men. unta me* 

Tats lifting up, as I bid before, was the lifting up of' 
Chrift on the crofs, when, as the apoflle Peter telk us, 
"heboid" or as the word is, " he earned up our fine 

id iis own body on the tree." .Chrift died for three 
ends, I. To anfwer an institution. 2. To fulfil a type. 
And, 3. To be a moral reprefentation of the work of 
God in his death. 

1. It was to anfwer the inftitution, that " he who 
was hanged on a tree was accurfed of God," Deut. xxi. 
23. There were, many other ways appointed of God to 
put malefactors to death among the Jews ; fome were 
Honed, in fome cafes they were burned with fire $ but 
it is only by God appointed, that " he that was hanged 
on a tree was accurfed of God:" and Chrift died that 
death, to (hew, that it was he who underwent the curfe 
of God, as' the apoftle (hews, Gal. iii. 13. " He was 
made a -curfe for* us, as it is written, Gurfed is every one* 
that kangeth on a tree." - 

2. Chrift died that death to fulfil a type. For it was, 
a bloody and' moil painful death, yet it was a death, 
wherein a bone of him was not broken, lypirled of hiiu 
in the pafchal lamb, of which not a bone%ytol>c bro- 
ken. Chi ill was lifted up on tue crofs to fulnljriat 
type, that though his, death was bitter, lingejjj^fpqin- 
ful, (hameful, yet not a bone was broke ; that every one 
might have an whole Chrift, an entire Saviour, notwkh- 
Handing all his fuffering and rending on our behalf. 

3 . He was fo lifted up, that it might be a moral re- 
presentation unto all, to anfwer that other type alfo of 
the ferpent lifted, up in the wildernefs ; fe that he was 
the perfon that might fay, " Behold me, behold me." 
He was lifted up between heaven and ejuth, that alt 
creatures might fee God had fet him forth to be a pro- 
pitiation. . 

*' And 1/ when I an lifted up ^*? what will he then 
do ? when, I have aitfiyered the curfe, when I .have ful- 
filled the types, when I Wve complied with the will of 
God in, being a propitiation, " I will draw all men to 
mp." It is placed upon^ChrilVs " lifting up 5". now 
that is' actually pail], nor was k done,* me rely while 
Chrift was hanging on tfopxrofs, Xke^e ^are two ways 
whereby there is a representation made «f Chrift being 
lifted ujj, to draw men unip him. , 

1. By t}ie preaching o£-toe« word. §o^ti}e apoftl* 
tells us, Ga^, iii. 1. that ** Jftfus Chrift was evidently 

t k 

[ 1*1 ] 

crucified before tketr eyes.** The great end of J>T«fcV 
iag the word, is to represent evidently Chrift crucified J 
it it to lift up Chrift that he may draw tinners unto him. 
And, 2, It i* represented hi this ordinance of the .Lord** 
ibpper, wherein we (hew forth his death. Chrift is pe- 
culiarly and eminently lifted up in this ordinance, be- 
caufe it is a peculiar and eminent reprefentation of his 

Now there are two ways of Chrift*g drawing perfons 
to himfelf. 

* i. His way of drawing finners to him, by faith and 

2. His way of drawing believers to him, as to adual 
•communion with him. 

Chrift draws finners to him by faith and repentance; 
as he is lifted up in the preaching of the word ; and he 
4raws believers to him as unto acWal communion, as by 
the word, fo in an ofpeciat manner by this ordinance* 
I (hall only fpeak a, word on the latter, how Chrift is 
lifted up in this ordinance that reprefeots his death unto 
us, or, how he draws us unto a&ttal communion with 

(i.) He does it by his love. The principal thing 
that is always to' be cooiidered in the lifting up of Cbriit 
is, his love. " Who loved me, ((ays the aj>offle), and 
gave himfelf for me : n and, " Who loved ud, and wa(h- 
cd us from our fins in his own 'blood. * J could (hew 
you, that love is attractive, that it is encouraging a n3 
conftramkig. I will only leave this with you, whatever 
appr ehenfions God in this ordinance (hall give you of the 
love of Chrift, you have therein an experience of Chrift** 
drawing you, a* he is lifted up, unto a&ual communion 
wkh him. It is of great concernment to you.' Chrift: 
19 never (o lovely unto the foul of a firmer, as when he 
is confidered as lifted up, that' is, as undergoing the 
curie of God, that a bleffing might come upon us. O 
that he who haS loved us, ami beeaufe he has loved us, 
would draw us writhe cords 0p his loving- kjndnefs, as 
God fays he does, Jer. x*xl: j £ ** Yea, I have loved 
thee with an everlafting lovfc^ 'therefore with loving 
kimteefs have I drawn thee.^ 


(2 J The fufferkiga of Chrift m foil an* body are at* 
Jrxm&ive of, and da draw the iouls of believer* to him*. 
** They {hall look, on me whom the/ have pierced, and 
spout*. " It is a look to' Chrift as. pierced for fin under 
his fufienngs, that is attractive to the fouls of believer*, 
in this ordinance, becaufe thefe fufferi&gs were for us* 
Call to mind* brethren, (bine of thefe texts of Scripture y 
fee what God will give you out of thorn, " He was 
made fin for us, who knew no fin \. that we might be 
made the righteoufnefs of God in him. He was made 
a curfe for us-, and, he bore our fins in his own body on 
the tree j. and died, the Jufi for the unjufl, that ha 
might bring us. unto Gad." If Jicfus Chrift be pleaied 
to let in a lenfe of his fuifer-ings for us by tbefe Scrips 
tures upow our fouls, then we have another experience - 
of his drawing us, as he k lifted up* 

. ( V) Chrift draws u> as he is lifted up, by the effect* 
•f '. uV What was he lifted up foj? > It was to make 
peace with. God through his bjootfc, " God was in 
Chrift, reconciling the world unto himfelfy" When.?. 
When " he made him to be da for us,, who knew no 
fin/ 9 It is the facrifice of atonement j. it is the facrificev 1 
wherewith the covenant between God and us Was foaled* v 
This is one notion of the fupper of out Lord. Cove- 
- nants were confirmed with facrifiqe. Ifaac made a co* / , 
venant with Abimeleeh, and confirmed it with fccrifice* ' Is' 
So it was. Jacob and Labgn ; and in both places, when, 
ihey had confirmed the covenant with a fitcrifice, they 
had a feaft upon the facrifice. Chrift by his facrifice ' 
has ratified the covenant, between God and us*, and in* f 
viles us ut this ordinance to a. participation of it* He * 
draws us by it to faith in htm, as he has made an atone* 
ment by his facrifice* 

Tbefe are fome of the ways whereby Chrift draws the 
fouls of believers unto communion with him in this or« 
dinance, that represents- him as lifted up, by exf>refiing 
his love, by reprefenting his fuffeiings, and tendering 
the fealing of the covenant as confirmed with a facrifice, 
inviting us to feed on the remainder of the facrifice thaC 
- is left to us for the flrjuriflimeat of our fouls. O that" 
he would call fome of thefe cords of love upon ouiS 
feu]* ! for if he (hould be lifted up, > and we fhauld net. 

come, if we mould find no cords .of love cad upon, us to 
draw uf unto actual communion, we (hould have no 
advantage by this ordinance. 

How. (hall we come in actual communion unto Chrift 
in this ordinance upon his drawing ? What is required 
of us ? Why, [l.] We are to come by faith to " re- 
ceive the atonement," Rom. v. u. , We come to a due 
communion with Chrift in this ordinance, if we come to 
receive the atonement made by his death, as full of di- 
vine wiGdom, grace and love, and as the truth and faith- 
fulncfs of God is confirmed in it, to receive and lay hold 
on this atonement, that we may have peace with God^ 
lfa, xxvii, £. " Let him take hold of my ftrength, and 
he (hall be at peace with me." Brethren, here is the 
arm* of God, Chrift the power of God, Chrift lifted up.- 
We ouifelves have finned and provoked God ; what 
mall we do ? (hall we fet briers and thorns in battle-ar- 
ray againft God ? No, fays he, I will pafs through and 
devour fuch pe'rfona : what then ? " Let him take hold 
of my flrengtb, of my arm and be at peace." God 
fpeaks this to every foul of us in this lifting up of 
Cbrift. Now receive the atonement as full of .infinite 
wifdom, ho line fs and truth. 

f 2.] Faith comes and brings the foul to Chrift as he 
is thus lifted up, but it is always accompanied with love, 
whereby the foul adheres to Chrift when it is come. 

Doth faith bring us to Chrift on his drawing, to re- 
ceive the atonement ?' fet love at work to cleave unto 
him, to take him into our hearts and fouls, and' to abide 
with hirrk 

£5.3 It is to come with mourning and godly forrow, 
becaufe of our own fins. " Look unto nrm whom we 
have pierced, and mourn." Thefe things are very con- 
fiiient. Do not think we fpeak things at random : they 
are confident in experience, that we (hould receive 
Chrift as making an atonement, and have peace with 
God in the pardon of our fins, and neve rthelefs to mourn 
for our own iniquities, The Lord give experience of 
them in your hearts. 

Let us *iow pray that fome of thefe cords wherewith 
he- draws the fouls of believers, may be on our fouls in? 
this ordinance. 

£ jp$'3! 

discourse' xvm . " 

' i 

TXT HEN we hare opportunity of fpeakjng tr>* 
f f you. cm tbefe oceaftons, it is. for the direction of 
the exercifeof your faith in this ordinance in a due man- 
ner. Here is a reprefentation of the- death of Chrift}> 
aud there is in the word a reprefentation of that which. 
we fhould principally confider, and a& faith with refpe& 
unto, ift the reprefentation that is made in this ordinance,, 
audthat is of ablefled change and commutation that is 
Made, between Chrift and believers, in the imputation of 
their fins unto him, and in the .imputation of his righte* 
oufnefs unto them: and the. principal part of the life 
sptd exercife. of faith,, confifh in a due consideration and 
i^nprjovenient thjcieof. God taught this to the church 
of the Old Te&amejrt,!wihe(.ty$e of the offering of the»: 

••••'• .'i ; * • • 

» ■ ... - 

Lev. xvii 2 x~. 

4$jut. A&rcm.JhaU lay bath his, hands upon the head of && 
live goat r and cOnfafs over him all the iniquities of the 
. children, of Ijrael, and all their tranfgrejjmns in all 
their Jtns y putting \them u#an the head of the goat , &c. 

. Aarsw was not only to, confefs all the fins and iniqui- 
ties. o£ the people, over the head of the goat,, but he wa».< 
to put all their §ns upon him. Here is a double a&, . 
the eonfeflkm of fin, which is, as it were, the gathering, 
of air their fins together y and the putting of them on 
the goat^tttgiye a lively repi eientation of it unto faith. 
So God did iaftrucl Aaron to the putting of the guilt 
$f our iniquities typically upon the Sacrifice, really upon 
Jdks Chrift. 

He ,4flt^ not fay, he (hall bear the puniwment, but h# 
fltajl take th>- ftn itfelf, that is, as to the guilt of it, and 
carry H quite away : and therefore in the facrifice ap- 

[ to6 : J. 

pointed in Dent, xxi. for expiation of an uu te f tt a i i 
der, when a <mau w»s killed, and none- knew who killed 
him, fo noae was liable, to, puniibment, but these -if as 
guilt upon the land *, then the t elders of the city that 
was neareft the place .where |he nmrder was oonxmitted, 
v to take away the guilt, were- to cut off the neck of aa 
heiier by God's ^ointment, andtbat took a*itey the guHt. . 
Thus did God raftruft the church under the- Old Tefta- 
,rnent hi this great fovereign a& of his wifdoaaa andjjigh- 
'tcouftiefs, intrans£erriug (he guilt of fin from the ehucch 
unto GbriiV. Therefore the prophet feys, lfa. liti. 5, 6. 
44 1 he Lord hath la id on him the iniquities of us all." What 
then ? 4i By his ftripes, we are healed*" The ftripes were- 
all due to us *, but they were due $0 usfor our iniquities and 
for no othej: caufe. Now our iniquities being transferred 
to Chrii), aU the tfrtpes-cameto be his, and the healing 
came to be ours* To .the fame purpefe the apoftle fays,' 
46 He was made fin for us, who knew no fin$ that we might 
be made the righteoufnefs of God in him." As we are 
made the rightfoufnefs of Qod in him, fa be is made finr 
fo< us. We are made the right eouihefc of God is him, 
by the imputation o£ hi^rig^teQwfii<ifsk tgtflo us > foe our 
apoiile is v tQ be belie ve^vtha^.r-ight^oufnefs it by imputa- 
tion j God imputes* righjeouuidt*, fey a. he.,; We have no 
x^ghtepufnefs .before Gpi;b»t by imputation j and when* 
We are toad* righteous, the jightoeu&efr of God j which 
God ordains, approves and accepts, it is the, itgbteoftfc 
nefs of Chriil imputed to us. And how is he made fin 
for us ? becaufe our fin is imputed to him.. : Some will/ 
fay, he was made fin for us, that is, a {aerifies for fin j 
be it fo $ but nothing could be made an expiatory facri- 
flee, but it had. fir If the fin imputed to it. Aaron (hall 
"put his hands on the goat, confefling all their fins oftcr 
his head f be their fins on the head of the goat, or the 
expiatory fncrifice was. nothing. 

The fame txchangcyou have again'in Gal. iii* 13, 14* 
14 He was made a curfe for us." The cuife was due to 
us, and this Chrift was made for us : and to confirm our 
faith, God did inftitute a vifible pledge long beforehand^ 
.to let us know he was made a curfe for u* ; he badlftade 
it a fign of the curfe for one to be hanged on a tree, as • 
. h is written, " Curfed is every one that hangeth on a 
tree." What then comes to us ? Why, the blefling of 

t *07 J 
-faithful Abraham. What is that > " Abraham believed 
God, and it was accounted to him for rightcoufnefs." 

. Judication and acceptance with God is the' blcfling of 
faithful Abraham. Here is the great exchange re pre - 
fented to us in the Scripture in thefe things, that all our 
fins are transferred upon Chrift b% imputation, and the 

'lighteouiheis of Chrift transfered to us by imputation.* 
Both thefe are acts of God, and not our ads. It is God 

< who imputes our fin to Chrift ; He hath made him to- 
be fin for us y and it is God who imputes the rightcoufnefs 
of Chrift to us 5 it is God that justifies : he who made 
Chrift to be -fin, healfo makes us to be righteoufnefs. Thefe 
acts of God we ought to go over within our minds by 
faith, which' is that I now, call you to. 

The way to apply the benefits and advantage of this 
great commutation to our fouls, is in our minds by faith 
to leal to thefe acts of God. Chrift in the gofpel, and ef- 
pecially in this ordinance, " is evidently crucified before 
•ur eyes," Gal. iii. i. " God hath fet him forth to be a 
propitiation :" fo he is declared in this ordinance, and 

, Chrift at the fame time calls us to him, " Come unto me ; 
Look unto me all the ends of the earth. Come with 
jour burdens ; come you that' are heavy laden with 
the guih of fin. What God has done in a way 
of righteous imputation, that we are to do in this ordi- 
nance in a way of believing. We are, by the divine 
help, to lay our fins by faith on Jefus Chrift, by ctoiing" 
with that act of God which is Teprefented to Us in the 
word, that God has imputed all our fins to Jefus Chrift* 

. Let you and I, and all of us, fay Amen by faith, So be 
it, O Lord. Let the guilt of all our fins be on the 
head of Jefus Chrift ; and therein admire the goodneis, 
the grace, the love, the holmefs, the infinite wifiiom of 
God in this* matter. If we were able to fay Amen to 
this great truth, we (hould have the comfort of it in our 
own fouls, to acquiefce in it, to find power and reality 
in it. 

Then the other- act of God is the imputation of the 
righteoufnefs of Chrift to us It is not enough to us; 
that our fins are all carried away into a land not inhabit- 
ed : we ft and in need of a rightcoufnefs whereby we 
may be accepted before God. He makes us to be the 
righteoulhefs of God; we do not make ourfelves fo, 


•a* are taade iV by th^rig}*cqufoe6 gg 

Cbrift. # 

. Our faaood ad o£ faith that Goa* maj f& us up 
Hato in thia ordinance, is- to i eceiaa the atonement . So* 
the apaftle eapreffes iu &onx. v. u %v We negaise tage~ 
the* with it all the fiatits o£ the atonements 

Now if the* Lord wiU be pleafed to ftir up oi» hearts* 
from under their deadneia, to. gather- t^envia fcoti* tbeis 
vtandeiingv* nuke us^fenfible of on* conce*** to* give. 
us the; a&ing o£ fakh ia this, matter, that truly and s«ai- 
hy tbe holy God. has laid att oar iniquities upon Chart* 
and tenders to us li£e > righteotsiheiy jjaiUficatLsm^ an<k 
*crcy, by him, wc lhaU*theaJaave^e>£rait o£ this aaV 

DISCO UR.S £ xnsi 

•f y 

XSHitLl* oifoa W wo?d**Rth awwto pre^as^ 
ou* : mndar t» tba ejeercifeaf faUh>aaeY*Qasfaneiaa> 
with God* in *tosja»di»ao*e*, aardbec*ulh weougJittQL 
he in. the higbeft easewfa e£ ^bifttJaia ordawac^ £ 
featt taka occafion &Qm,thofe words*, wbick expc e& aa> 
Ugh' an a&iag of faith, i thinks aa any? iathe*faaf$urc» 
1 nean<thofewdnfea£aba apoftk^iov 

I^tniefHpeifieiygM £hriflui*u*rtfe/efo I live ; yil *ot I± 
Ana £ftr&jff /cur/«* «a *ar £ *aW ftfc ///^ f«Aar& A mew &»#. 
sVi. thzjU/kfLliut kjfitk*Jbil& of the. &**$f 6*»V twfo 
&ceo/ «ae, a W gat* AwtfeJfjpr js**, 

t - 

0u* *Baa»y now is*. I£ow w<r JOftay a& Jhgb? Xt ads 

* - t. By way- of adherent*, cleaffitag ta, *ra£ittg and ae* 
quiefcingi* God in Chri&, as declaring hia loire^ grace% 
and good will ia his* piomiicK This is>£b» faith w&accfr 

t *°9 ] 

6y we lire, wllereb? we ate jtrfHfied y the firftfc without 
which this ordinance will not profit, but difadvaritage 
us $ for without this faith we cannot difcern fhe Lord's 
body, we cannot difcern him as crucified for us : this in 
that We are in an efpecial manner to examine ourfelves 
about, in reference to a participation df this ordinance, 
for felf-examination is a gofpel inftitution proper for 
this ordinance. And this is the faith whereby we are in 
Chrift, without which a participation of the outward figrts 
and pledges of Chrift will not avail us. So then with 
faith thus acting we are to be qualified and prepared \u&- 
> to a participation of this ordinance. 

2. Another wag by which faith ou£ht to aft in this 
ordinance, is that of fpecial application. Who' loved 
me, and gave himfelf for me ; this is faith afting by par- 
ticular application. I hope the Lord has given us that 
faith whereby we prepared for this ordinance : 
and now I am to enquire and direft you a little in that 
faith which you may a 61 in this ordinance ; I fay, it ifr 
this faith of fpecial application to our own fouls, that 
God now requires we mould aft $ and I prove it thus, 
it is becaufe in this ordinance there is a propofitibn, ten- a • 
~ . der, 'and communication of Chrift to every one in par- \ 
ticular." ih the pfomife of the gofpel, Chrift is pro po fed J 
indefinitely- to* all that believe $ and fo the fatth I men- a * 
. tioned before, of acquiescence ih him, anfwers what is re- r 
quired of us by virtue of* the promife in the gofpel : but ^ i 
in this ordinance, by God's inftitution, Chrift is tendered 
and given to me and to thee, to every one in particular j^ 
for it is by his inftitution that the elements in this ordi- 
nance are diftributed to every particular perfon, to (hew, 
that there is a tender and communication of Chrift to £ 
particular perfons. Now, fuch a particular communi- 
cation is to be received by this particular faith, the faith 
of application, to receive htm to our own fouls. 

And then, moreover, one great end of the ordinance 
is manifeftly, that it requires the afting of faith in a par- 
ticular way of application to every one of us * % it is for 
a farther incorporation of Chrift in our fouls ; it is for 
receiving Chrift as nouri foment, as the bread that came 
down from heaven, as giving his body and blood for fpi* 
ritual food. Now every one knows, that whatever feafts 
be. prepared in the world, unlefs every one in particular 


f »*> J 

tekes his owopoi^raQtaa^^ats and dlg^s*!^ it will no* 
turn to noariihment onto mm. This particular aft of ag- 
plication atuwers that eating,, (kinking, and digeftingk 
which the nature of the 'ordinances does- require. So^ 
brethren, this is. that I aim. at, that it is our duty in this* 
ordinance to ail a particular faith as to the. application, 
of Chrift and all his benefits* each one to his owjn fouL. 

You will fay then, what t$ the- fpecial object of thi^ 
Special faith ? Truly that which tfye apoftle. tells us here* 
It is fpecial love, in the fix ft place; and it is the; fpecial. 
defign of the death' of Chrift, in- the next place *-* Who\ 
| loved me and gave himfelf for me.'*'. The. object you, 
' ought to fix upon in the exercife of this faith of applica- 
tion to. your own fouls, is* the fpecial We of Chri(t$> 
that Chrift had a fpecial love, not only to the church in. 
I general j but the truth is, Chrift had a fpecial lave foe 
I me in particular. It will be a very hard thing for you* 
or me to rife up to an ail of faith, that Chrift hath a. 
love for us in particular, unlefs they can anfwer this<cuie£* 
t£oA 9 Why mould Chrift love you or me in particular > 
What anfwer can I give hereto, when. I know he does* 
not love all the world ? I can give but this anfwex fee-it,, 
£ven beeaufe he would, 1 know, nothing in-, me^, or ia> 
any of you* that can deferve his love. Was there eves 
fuck a thing heard of„ that Chrift mould have- a particu- 
lar love for inch as we are ? Would ever, any perfen go. 
and fix his love on a creature who was all over, leprous. I 
II this the manner of man: ? Truly Chrift would never 
have fixed his love upon any of out poor., defiled, leprouss 
fouls, but upon this one confide nation, "I know I can; 
cleanfe thqnr, and I. wiiL" He loved us. 

Bnt what will he do* with fuch deformed, polluted 
creature* as we are ? Why, " He loved thie church, and> 
gave himfelf for it, that he might wafti and purify it,«nd 
prefent it to him a glorious church, not having fpot or 
wrinkle^ or any fuch thing*" Though we are altogether 
deformed and defiled, though, na example, no in fiance 
can be given in things below, or among the creatures, of 
any fixing love on fuch as we are j yet Chrift has done it. 
out of fovereign grace, with this refelution, that he would 
cjeanfe us with his own blood, to make us fit for himfelf, f 
Qthat. God* would helg *you and mr* to feme firmv 

t «« J 

^nfftaketi aire of faith, that Jefcs Chrift Sd out of fove- | 
reign grsce love us in particular, and that in purfuh of * |/ 
chrs love be has walhed us in his blood, to make us love- ' 
ly and meet for himfelf ! This is Jove to be adored and I 
celebnttedf in time and to eternity. . ■ - 

This facial love of Chrift ts not only to be confider- 
<d by us in this fpecial acting of faith, as free and Ufl- 
deferved, bat it is to be considered as invincible, that 
would break through ail oppositions, or whatever flood, 
in the way, that nothing mould hinder or turn him a(id$ 
in his defign of doing good to our fouls* It is a glori- 
ous pitch that rbe ^uiefrfes to in Cant. viii. 7. ** Ma- 
rry waters cannot quench love, neither can t^e floods 
drown it : if a man would give all the lubftance of his 
houfe for love, it would utterly be contemned -j" fpeak- 
ing of her ©w*i love to Chrrft j nothing could quench* 
nothing could drown it, nothing could make a puxchafe 
-of it from -her, but her love was invincible and would 
carry her through all difficulties, O how much more 
was the love of Chrift ! fox our loVe, being once fixed 
on Chrift, meets with no difficulties of that nature, that 
the love of Chrift met withal when it was fixed o» us* 
What did the love of Chrift meet with w%eja it was fix- - 
ed on us ? that we mud take along with us, vm. the* 
** curfe of tlie law" was the firft thing that prefented it- 
felf to him : u The foul that firmeth {hall die-, Curfed 
is every one that continueth not in all things which are 
written ta the book of the law to ( do them." That he 
was to " make ht& foul an offering for £n," was prefent- 
ed to him. We are to look on this love of Chrift as fo- 
vereign and free, and with a de£gn of making our fouls 
lovely ; lo invincible alfo, that it broke up the eternal 
•obftaclcs^that nothing could ltand before^ it. until it had 
accompliuVedl his whole work and defign; *' Who loved 
«ne, and gave hknfelf for me," ** . . 

I fpeak on this manner, and of thefe things, to en- |* 
■courage and direct the weakeft and moft unskilful j*i the ' ^S" 
myfteries of the gotpel^ to inftru£t them 49 the ex^rcife ^ 
vf faith in this ordinance \ and therefore, I fay, that as 
this fpecial faith (which I proved to you to be eur^d*ty 
in this ordinance), is to refpeft the love of Chrift, fo it 
Is to refpeft more efpecially the peculiar acting of the 


[ 112 ] 

love of Chrift, whereby he *' give himfelf for us. n 
Gave himfelf ! how is that ? Truly tbus f brethren ; the 
Lord help me to believe it, that I flood before the judg- 
ment- feat of God, charged with my origninal apoftacy 
from him, and with all the (ins of my lite multiplied a- 
boye the hairs of my head, and being ready to perifh, to 
have the fentence pronounced againft me j then Chrift 
came and ftood in my place, putting the tinner afide, and 
undertaking to anfwer this matter } " Let the poor fin- 
•' ner ftaa<Tafide a while $ come enter into reft, abide 
* here in the cltft of the rock $ I will undertake thy 
" cauie, and plead it out at God's judgment. feat." In 
this undertaking, God " fpared him not ;" . as if God 
ihould fay, If you will Hand ia the place of the (inner, 
and undertake his caufe, then it rauft go with you as with 
him ; I will not fpare, " Lo, I come, (fays Chrift, not- 
withstanding this), to do thy will; O God:" whatever 
thou doft require to make good this caufe I/have efpou- 
fed, lo, I come to do it. v 

So Chrift loved me, and gaice himfelf for me. Ever- 
lafting reft and peace will dwell upon our fouls, if the 
Lord will be pleafcd, to help us to exercife faith on 
Chrift's love in this ordinance, wherein all thefe things 
are reprefented to us. 

, ; 


*june i£. 1676. 

Gal. ii. 20. 

/ am crucified witb.CbriJi : Neverthelefs I live ; yet not 
/, but Cbrifl liveth in me : and the life which I now 
five in theflejh^ I live by the faith of the Son of God f 
who loved Ike, and gave himfelf for me. 

THE apoftle in this place is exprefling the vigour, 
and indeed the triumph of the life of faith, " Nc- 


C »3 ] 
verthclefs I Eve.'* To (hew the excellency of that {life, 
fays be, u Yet not I, but Chrift lireth in mc, 1 ' &c. That 
which I would' to our purpofe obferve from thefe words 
is this, That the cxercife of faith on the death of Chriit 
(" who loved me, ar*l gave hinfelf for toe,'*) is the re* 
ry-Kfe of faitb. This is what we ace now called to* to 
the exercife of faith on the death of Chriit y and I can- 
Rot more recommend it to you than by this ob&rration, 
to (hew that the life of faith does greatly con&ft in this 
peculiar exercifexrf it upon the death of Chriit. . And 

1. Becaufe Chriit in hb death, as the ordinance of 
God for the falvation of believing &nners, is <he proper 
and peculiar object of faith, as it juftifies and £aves^' 
Now when faith is in its exercife upon its direct imme- 
diate proper object, it is like a perfon that is feeding on 

. his proper food, which gives refreshment, fpirits and 
ftrttagth 5 for faith and its object are in Scripture fet oat 
as an appetite and foqd ; and efpecially it is £b rcprefen* 
ted to us in this ordinance, where the fpiritual food of 
our fouls is conveyed to our faith under the fyxnbol aodL 
reprefentation of food to our bodies, which we eat and 
drink. Therefore, brethren, ' our faith is in its proper 
place, it is about its proper work, it is directing the foul, 
to its fpecial food, when it is exercifed about the death 
of Cbriit, as the ordinance of God for the falvation of 

2. As the death of Chrift is thus the immediate and 
direct object of our faith, for God has " fet him forth 

' as a propitiation for fin, through faith in his blood," 
which is-tbc proper object of faith as it j u (tides $. fo the 
ultimate and fupreme object of our faith is, the proper- 
ties of God as manifefted and glorified in the death of 
Chriit ; that you (hall fee how faith has its plain and full 
work in* coming to this, " who loved roe and gave bim- 
felf for rat." .The properties of God are God bi«»felf j 
the properties of God as manifested and gloirfied, are 
God's name ', and God himfelf and his name axe the fo- 
preme and ultimate object of our faith aad trust. AU 
the Inquiry then is, What fpecial pr^rpaert&eft of the na- 
ture of God, God di4 defign to maurfeft and glorify w 
the death of Chrift, fo as we mould make them the fpe- 

i t 

C «4 ] 

cial ultimate objed of our faith, that which faith will 
find reft and fatisfaction in, and w herein it will give glo- 
ry to God ? For the reafon why God has made faith 
the alone inftrument, and no other grace, of juftification, 
and fo of falvation, is not becaufe iuis fo fitted and fuited 
to receive in us, as that it is the only grace whereby we 
give glory to God, and can do fo. 

Now let us fee, that we may know how to exercife faith 
therein, what are thofe properties of the divine nature 
which God defigns to manifeft and glorify in the death 
of Chrift, that our faith may (land in, and be fixed up- 
on them. I find feveral things that God di(tioc~ily pro- 
pofes of his divine excellency, for our faith to fix .upon 
in the death of Chrift. 

(i.) His righteoufnefs. Rom. iii. 25. " Whom God 
hath fet forth to be a propitiation, through faith in his 
blood, to declare his righteoufnefs. 1 ' I (hall not (hew 
how, or wherein ; but to me, this it is that manifttis 
his righteoufnefs in granting forgivenefs of (in in the 
death of Chrift, in that he caufed all our iniquities to 
meet upon him. Remember, brethren, we are here to 
give God the glory he defigned to himfelf in fending 
Chrift to die for us ; and he tells us plainly what it was, 
and therefore it is expected of us, that we (hould give 
glory to him. Let us labour to be in the actual exerv 
cife of faith, whereby we may declare the right eoulhets 
of God in this thing. 

(2.) God defigned to glorify his love. This is more 
particularly infilled on than any property of God in this 
matter. " God £0 loved the world, as to fend his only 
begotten Son. God commended his love unto us, in 
that, when we were yet (inners, Chrift died for us. 
Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he lov- 
ed us, and fent his Son to be*the propitiation for our fins." 
There is no property, of the nature of God which he • 
doth fo eminently defign to glorify in the death, of Chrift * • 
as his love. That we may know that " God is love j 
that the Father himfelf loves ro >" he has fent Jefus Chrift 
out of his eternal love to lave (inners j and if we have 
not due apprehenfions of thefe things, it is not our ap- 
pearing in this place that will give glory to God. 

C "J 3 

(3.) God docs defign to gloiify his grace or par- 
doning mercy, Eph. i. 6. " He hath made us accept- 
ed in the beloved, to the praife of the glory of his 
grace." This Qod purpoied, to make his grace in par- 
doning finners very glorious by giving Chriit to die for 

us. ' v 

(4.) God flefigned to glorify his wifdom. Eph, i.. 
8. " He has abounded towards us in all wifdom and pru- 
dence." Eph. iii. 10* there appeared the manifold wif- 
dom of God* 1 Cor. i. 24. " Chriit the power of God, 
and the wifdom of God." 

Now let us gather up thefe things. The fpecial ul- 
timate act of faith whereby we are justified, are thofe 
divine properties of God's nature which he defigned to 
manifeit in the death of Chriit, his righteoufnefs, his 
love, his grace, his wifdom. 

The reafon therefore why the life of faith does con- 
fift in its exercife on the death of Chriit, is, becaufe the 
death of Chriit is the immediate proper object of faith, 
as the ordinance of God for the falvation of finners j and 
becaufe the glorious properties of the nature of God, 
which are manifeited in the death of Cbrift, are the ul- 
timate object of our faith, wherein we give glory to 
him, and find reft to our own fouls. 

Let us then be called on and be itirred up to this ex- 
ercife of faith upon this prefent occafion. And to that 

1. We might confider the deplorable condition, of all 
our fouls without this hleffed provision, and ordinance 
of God for our deliverance by the death of Chrift. We 
had been in a deplorable condition, the wrath of God a- 
biding on us, had not God made this a blefled way for 
our deliverance. 

2. If you would be found acting faith in this matter, 
labour to come up to a firm, vigorous affent of your minds, 
not only that thefe things aie true, buf that this is the 
way wherein God will be glorified to eternity. The 
truth of it is, that perfon who is firmly fatisfied, and 
heartily pleafed, that this way of the death of Chriit for 
the falvation of finners by the forgivenefs of fii\, is the 
way whereby God is, and will be glorified, I fay, that 
perfon isa true believer. Now let not your affent be 

•nly to this thing, that it is true, that Chrift came into 
the world to fave tinners \ but to this, that this is the 
way whereby God is and will bo glorified. He will be 
glorified in pardoning fuch guilty creatures as we are* 
in imputing righteoufnefs to fuch miners as we are. He 
is glorified in laying all our iniquities on Chrift. By 
this way, his righteoufnefs, his love, his grace, and wif- 
dom are all manifefted $ this is God's being glorified. 
If our fouls come up to a free clofe with thefe things, 
th&t all thefe properties are manifeiled in this way, that 
is' an alt of faith, and may the Lord help us unto it. 

3. Let us gather up our minds to this injtitution, where- 
by thefe things are reprefented to us. Here is reprefent- 
cd the death of Chrift, the immediate object of our faith, 
as God's ordinance. If the Lord Jielp us to fee it fo re- 
prefented to us, as that divine righteoufnefs and wifiiom, 
love and grace, do all centre therein and appear eminent- 
ly to our fouls, we (hall have communion with Cod ia 
this ordinance. 


September 3. 1676. 


YOU have been minded of, and intruded in the ns± 
ture and benefit of our love to God ,and I (hall take 
occa&m thence a little to mind you of the love of Chrift 
unto us, the love in an cfpecial manner which he (hewed 
in dying for us, which is that we are here gathered to- 
gether to remember and celebrate, not barely the death 
of Chrift, but that which is the life of that death,, the 
love of Chrift fn his death. And I would ground it cat 
that which the apoftle fpeaks i& 

[ »7 3 

Rom. y. 5, 6. 

le love of God is Jhed abroad in our hearts ' r by the Ho* 
ly Gho/i which is givtn unto us. 

This is that which I know you all leng for, and prize 

>ve life ; " the loving kindnefs of God is better than 

Why fo ? " Fqr, (fays he), when we were yet 

:hout ftrength, in due time Chrift; died for the un- 


„n apprehenfion of the love of Chrift as dying for us 
[godly creatures, is that which is ihed abroad in our 
(arts by. the Holy Ghoft. Do not lee your minds go 
>on uncertainties : when the Holy Ghoit gives you a 
te apprehenfion of Chrifl's love in dying for ungodly 
mers, as we are, then is this love {bed abroad in our 
:arts. The apoftle there proceeds to {hew how great 
lis love was, in that Chrift died : he died, not for good 
ten, and righteous men, and for friends, but he died for 
ic ungodly, for finners, and for enemies. This was 
•eat love indeed. ~ We are here to remember that love 
>f Chriit wherewith he gave himfelf to death for us, 
vhen we were enemies, and would have continued 
To to eternity, had he not loved us, and given himfelf 
[far us. 

Brethren, if we barely remember the love of Chrift 
in the way of an ordinance, and our hearts be not pow- 
erfully afTe&ed with it, we are in danger of being difad- 
vantaged by eur attendance* Pray remember it 5 you 
know how plainly I ufe to fpeak on thefe occaiions 5 I 
|fay, we have frequent opportunities of remembering 
[the love of Chrift in dying for u$, in this ordinance re- 
>refenting of it j but if .out hearts be not not powerful- 
influenced and affe&ed by it, We ftiall be lofers by the 
[equency of* ordinances. 

J will add one word more ; according as our hearts 

affected with the love of Chrift, fo will be our love 

thrift, and no otherwife. And trulv, even that faith 

discovers top much felfiftinefs is Very dangerous. 

come here to a& faith, to look for no other effect 

t 118 J 

of it, but what evidence and fenfe we have of the par^ 
don of onr tins, how our coniciences may be quieted and 
cleared, faith ends vafelf; it is dangerous led it fhould 
be only a branch from, and commenfurate with convic- ] 

tions. True faith acting itfelf on Chrift in this ordinance, 
will work by love unto Chrift : I would not fay, prin- 
cipally, or in the fir it place ; I know poor creatures are 
apt to look after themfelve^, and their own relief \ but 
it will fo work alfo : and truly, brethren, this it wilt 
not do, wc fhall not have faith working by love toward* 
him, unlefs we have fome fenfe of the lore of Chrift on ' 

our hearts. 

How (hall we know, whether our beam are under the 
powerful influence of the love of Chrift in dying for us ? 
Why, the love of Chrift in tiying for us has* three pro- 
perties with it, which will have an influence on our fouls, 
if we are affected with it. 

I. It has a transforming power, property, and efficacy* 
with it. They are plain truths 1 am fpeaking, but of 
great concern to our ioult, to know whether we are af- 
fected with the love of Chri{t or not. If we are right- 
ly affeftcd with it, 1 fay, it will transform and change 
our whole fouls in fome mcafufe into the likenels of Chrift* 
How fo ? I will tell you in the moft familiar manner I 
am able : If you are affe&ed with the love of Chrift, it 
lays hold upon, and poffeflfes your affe&ions $ the affec- 
tions being poffeffed, ftir up many thoughts ; thoughts 
are the very image of the foul, reprefent it, to fhew 
you what the foul is : and thofe things concerning which 
your thoughts do moft abound, that carries the frame of 
the foul. Let a man profefs what he will, if his thoughts 
are generally corrverfant about worldly things, he has 
an earthly and worldly mind ; and if his thoughts are 
converfant about fenfu-al things, he has a fenfual and car- 
nal mind j for whatever 1 he may outwardly fay, as he 
thinks fo is he 5 there is the image and likenefs of the 

Now, if w r e are affe<5ted with the love of Chrift, it 
will beget in our fouls many thoughts of Chrift, in our 
lying down and in our riling up, in our bed*, in our ways, 
on our occafions, as well as in ordinances. If indeed 
our hearts are affected with the love of Chrift, our 

C "9 J 

thoughts of Chrift will abound, and thofe thoughts will 
work again on our affections, and conform Our fouls more 
*nd more unto the image of Jefus Chrift. That man * 
who thinks much of the earth, becaufe affected with 
it, his foul is like the earth y and that man who thinks 
much -on the love of Chrift, becaAfe he is affected with 
it, his foul is like Chrifh 

If it has not been thus with us, brethren, in our pre- 
paration, fox this ordinance, or at any time, that thoughts 
of Chriit have not abounded, verily there has been a 
failing in us. Let us ftrive for the future to amend it, 
that we may find the love of Chriit begetting in us ma* 
ny thoughts of him, working upon our affections, and 
with a transforming power changing the frame of oui>fouls 
into his own likeneft. 

Again, 2. The love of Chrift, if we are affected with 
it, has ari attractive power. 1 * John xii. 23. u And I, if I 
be lifted up, will draw all men unto me." 1 cannot flay 
to mew you the drawing power and efficacy there is ia 
the love of Chrift when dying on the ciols y but this I 
will fay, it is that which, con verted the world of all that 
did believe* It was the love of Chrift, fet forth in his> 
death m one crucified for them, that drew all men unto 
hktu " When 1 am lifted up, when 1 have accomplish- 
ed, manifefted and evidenced the unfpeakable love which 
I have for the finful, ions of men, in being lifted up 
for them, I will draw them unto me/ 9 If you have 
a true fenfe, brethren, of the love of Chrift in dying 
for you, it will draw your fouls unto him. Cant. i„ 4 . 
** Draw me, we will run after thee." 1 do not now 
fpeak to you 'about the firft drawing of Chrift, which is 
as unto believing j I hope Chrift has fo drawn all our 
fouls j but the following efficacy of the love of Chrift, 
to draw fouls that do believe nearer uuto him. Who- 
ever is (enfible of this attractive power of the death of 
Chrift, it will have this efficacy upon him, it will have 
adherence and delight; it will caule him mote to cleave 
to Chrift. The foul will cleave to Chriit with delight. 
that ia affected with the attractive drawing power of \\h 
loving kindrrefs in his death. There is 3 great deal in 
that word, " Cleave unto Chrift with love and dtlight," 
with the beft of our affections and deareil of our valua* 

[ X20 J 

tions, to cleave to him with ttuft, and to him alorle. I . 
do but remind you of what you know, that you may re- 
duce it into practice. Pray, in this ordinance, labour 
to have fuch a fenfe of the drawing power of the love 
of Chrifl in his death, that you may reiblve to cleave un- 
to hirti with full purpofe of heart, to cleave unto this 
Chi i ft who has thus loved us. 

3. Whenever we are affe&ed with the love <jf Chrift, 
it is accompanied with a conftraining power, 2 Cor. v* 
14. " The love of Chrift conftraineth us," and that, 
conftraint is unto obedience 5 it conftrains us- to judge, 
that we ought to live to him who died for us*, it is a 
biclTed thing, brethren, to walk in our obedience un- 
der a fenfe of the conftraining efficacy of the love of 
Chrift. Take but this one word to difcover to you, 
whether you walk in your obedience under a fenfe of 
the conftraining power of Chrift, it comprehends all o- 
thers, 1 John v. 3. " His commandments are not griev- 
ous." When a foul works out of love, what it doth i» 
not grievous. And the inward and outward commands 
of Chrift will be grievous to all that are not under the 
conftraining power and efncscy oF his love. 

I have no more to lay, but only to tell you, that we 
Should labour to have our hearts affecled with the love 
of Chrift in this ordinance* I v have (hewed you the 
danger, if it be otherwife 7 and given you fome ways to 
examine your hearts,, whether they are fo afFedcd or not- 
The Lord grant, that where they are, it may be increas- 
ed T and where they are not, that God would renew i& 
by his Spirit in us. 


G&ober 29. 3676*. 

WE have had, through the providence of God, fo- 
good and feafonable a word unto the: prefent 
occafion, that there is no need, as well as but .little time 
to offer any thing farther unto you. Yet a few words*, 

[ «' ] 

ill compliance with what we have heard, may not he al- 
together unleafonable or unufefal. 

Our bufinefe and duty is to fet forth the fufferings and 
death of our Lord Jefus Chrift, and therein principally 
to call to mind his love What you have heard may ve> 
ry well occalion us to think of that paffage of the apof- 
tle, wherein he earneftly prays for them. 

\ Eph. iii. 29. 
And to know the Jove *f Chrift y nvbitfh pqffieth know/edge*. 

This is a peculiar kind of expreflion j the meaning is, 
that we may know that experimentally, which we can- 
not know cfrmpreheniively ; that we know that in its 
power and effe&s, which we cannot comprehend in its 
nature and depths. A weary perfon may receive 
refreshment from a fpring, who cannot fathom the 
depths of ihe ocean from whence it doth proceed. And 
if we would have our hearts in this ordinance, and at 
other times, affected with the love of Chrift, which is 
the thing we are to * aim at, (to know his love, and to 
experience the power of it), it is of great advantage to 
us to confider, what it is fuch a love as pafles knowledge, 
that our faith concerning it mult iffue in admiration, not 

I {hall name two or three things, that may give a little 
ienfe of this love as it panes knowledge. 

1. The love of Chriit" is the fountain and fpring of 
all the glory that is in heaven, or {hall be there unto all 
eternity. God's eternal glory is eternally the fame \ 
** from everlaftingto ever&fting thou art God •* but all 
the created glory that is in heaven, or ever (hail be 
there, fprings out of the love of Chrift. It is true,. 
the angels were not vedeemed by him, but they 
were confirmed by him. They were not recovered"' 
out of a loft -cftate by htm, but they were continued 
in their firft ©ftate by him* Hence it is, that God; " ga- 
thered all things in heaven and earth Unto an head in 
him, "Eph. i. 10. And there is a great deal to the fame 
purpofe in that expreffioa of the apoftle, when he badi 


C 122 ] 

mentioned " principalities and powers," Col. i. 7. *' In 
him all things confift," they have their confidence in 
him. All would diffolve and fall to nothing, if they had 
not their confidence in Jefus ChrifL Certainly this is a 
love that pafles knowledge, that is the fountain and 
fpring of all the glory that is in heaven. If God help 
us by faith to look within the vail, and to take a view 
of all thofe glories wherewith the Holy God is encom- 
pafled, we (hall fee that this love is the fountain and 
fpring of them *, the interpofition of Chrift faved the 
creation, and brought in that everlafting glory that (hall 
dwell in heaven. God knows this love, God under- 
ftands the way of it j but as to us it pafles -knowledge. 

Again, 2. This love of Chrift pafles the comprchen- 
fion and knowledge of angels 5 and therefore Peter tells 
us, 1 Pet i. 1 2. fpeaking of the fufferings of Chrift, and 
the glory that followed, u Which things, (fays he), the 
angels delirc to bow down, and look into. 1 * The an- 
gels in heaven live in an admiration of the love of 
Chrift unto finners, that is, that love he exprefled in 
fiifTering, and in the glory that did enfue. And O ! 
what thoughts ought we to have of this love, who have 
all the benefits of it ? The angels had no benefit by the 
fufferings of Chrift, but their benefit and advantage cn- 
fued on the aflumption of the human nature to bring the 
creation into a confidence, and his interpofition between 
God, and all his creatures. They admire and adore it. 
What ought fuch poor creatuf es as we are to do ? It 
may well be faid to pafs our knowledge, for it pafles the 
knowledge of all the angels in heaven. 

3. It pafles knowledge, in that the effects of it in 
Chrift hixnfelf pafs all our knowledge and comprehen- 
fion; To give but two inftances. 

(1.) His condefcenfion to affurae our human nature 
pfcffes all our comprehenfion. No man can fully under- 
ftand the myftery of the aflumption of our nature into 
the perfonal fubfiftence of the Son of God. Some dif- 
pute, whether we (hall underftarid the myftery of the in- 
carnation in heaven 5 here we believe it. It is love 
which pafles knowledge, that the eternal Son of God 
(hould take our nature into perfonal union with himfelf ~ y 
it is that we may admire and ought to admire j and God 

[ i*3 3 

belp us, we are fuch poor earthly creatures, that we 
cannot admire it as we ought ; though it be much ia 
our nature to admire what we cannot comprehend. 

(2.) We cannot fully undexftand his paftion and fuf- 
ferings. God alone knows what is in the curfe of the 
law ; we do not know it. God alone knows what is the 
true defert of fin j it cannot be fully underftood by any 
fcut himfelf. They who undergo it, mult fufFer to eter- 
nity 5 there is no end ; they never fee, never know what 
iin deferved. How do we . know then what Chrift buf- 
fered, when the punifhment due to our fin, when all our 
iniquities met upon htm, with the curfe of the law ? 
God only knows what is in thefe things ; the fruits and 
effects of this love in himfelf, in his incarnation and paf- 
fion, are paft our knowledge, therefore the love itfelf 
iurpaffes our knowledge. 

4. Give me leave to fay, the very fruits of it in our- 
felves do pais knowledge. No man that lives knows 
what there is in thefe three general heads of the fruits 
of Chrift's love, in jollification and pardon of fin, in the 
renovation and fa notification of our natures, and in the 
inhabitation and confolations of the. Holy Spirit. No 
man living can find out thefe things to perfection. 
None of us fully underftands and comprehends what it 
is to be juftified in the fight of God, to have fin pardon- 
ed, to have our natures renewed, and transformed into 
the likenefs of God, and to have the Holy Gboft dwell 
in us. The love of Chrift therefore paffes all know- 
ledge, for the very fruits of it in ourfelves are beyond 
what we can comprehend j there is a greatnefs in them 
we cannot reach unto. Why then, my brethren, let us 
labour to have our hearts affected with this love. If 
God would be pleafed to give unto every one of us fome 
fenfe and impreflion of the greatnefs of this love of 
Chrift, glance itrinto our hearts, beam it upon us in this 
ordinance, we (hould have caufe to blefs him all the days 
of our lives. The faith and light of it iffue in admira- 
tion y the light of glory will bring us to comprehenfion; 
Let us have fuch a fenfe as may caufe us to admire what 
we cannot now comprehend. v 

. (;.) I could, fpeak fometbing, but I will 00 1 now, to 
the actings of faith in admiration 7 it being the proper 

[ 124 ] 

nature of faith to iffue itfelf in the admiration of that 
which is infinite. If we can get our fouls up to an ho- 
ly admiration of this love, we hare fome gracious feafe 
of it upon our hearts, if we can go no farther. 

(2.) Let us learn to run up all the mercies we are. 
partakers of, what foe ver it be we value, to the proper 
i'pring, " Who loved me, and gave himfelf for me." 
If we have any relief, or fupply, or refreshment of foul, 
in a fenfe of pardon of fin, in fpiritual light or confoja- 
tion, pray let us exercife ouriejves to, ran up all thefe 
things to the fountain : it is all from the love of Chrift, 
that unfpeakable love which paffcs knowledge. 

(3.) In this let us be aftiamed, feeing the love of 
Chrift to us is iuch as paffcs our knowledge, our love to 
him is fo weak, that fometimes we know not whether 
we have any or not. For this let us be greatly hum- 
bled. This is not the way to anfwer that love which 
pafles knowledge, to know not whether we love Chrift _ 
again or not. Let us be a (named for our want of love, * 

And iaftfy, Let us abound in praife and thankfgivingv 
for his love, and all the fruits of it. 

For my part I do not know, whether that vilion ia 
Rev. v. 9.. does exprefs the rejoicing of the church a- 
bove, or the duty of the church below j but both, I am 
fure, arc of fo near affinity, that apply it to which you 
will, you* do not mife it. And what do they therq > 
why, it is find, ** They fung a. new fong, faying, Thou 
art worthy to take the book, and to open the feals of it : 
for thou waft flaio, and has redeemed us to God by thy 
Wood, out of every kindred and tongue, and people, and 
nation \ and hail made us unto our God kings and 
priefts," <&"<?. And it h faid again, " Worthy is the 
Lamb that was flain, to receive power, and riches, and 
wifdom, and ftrengtfe, and honour, and glory, and blfef. 
fitig-," and again he repeats it in ver, 13. 1 fay, t, 
know not whether this be a reprefentation 1 of the rejoi- 
cing of the church above, or a representation of the du- 
ty of the church below j* but I can conclude from if , 
that the enjoyment of the one and the duty of the othefr, 
confifts greatly in continual giving praife and thankfgi- 
ving to Chrift, for his unfpeakable fcve in our redemp- 
tion. - . . 

t "5 ] 




February 1 8. 1676. 

WE are met here to remember the death of Cfcrtft 
in the way and by the means that he himfelf hath 
appointed ; and in remembering the death of Chrift, we 
are principally to remember the love of Chrift, u who 
loved us, and warned us from our fins in his own blood }" 
and that which on our part is required herein, is faith in 
Chiift who died for us, and love to Chrift, who loved us * 
fo, as to give himfelf an offering and a facrifice to God 
for us. 

1. That which I would npw obferve is this, (to make 
way for the ftitring up of our love) that the perfon of 
Chrift is the adequate complete obje& of the love of 
'God, and of the whole creation that bears the image of 
God, 1 mean, the church of God above, the angels and 
faints y and the church of God below in believer Sy which 
• are the creation that has the image of God upon it. 

The perfon of Chrift is the firft complete objeci of 
the love of God the Father. A great part (if 1 may fo 
fpeak, and I rouft fo fpeak) x>f the eflential bieffednefs of 
the holy Trinity, confifts in' the mutual love of the Fa- 
ther and the Son, by the Holy Ghoft, which is the love 
of them both. * 

That which I would now take notice of, I iky, as the 
foundation of all, is this, that the divine nature in the 
perfon of the Son, is the -only full, retting complete ob- 
ject of the love of pod the Father. I will give you 
a place or two of fcripture for it, and fo go on to another 
inftance. Pro v. viii. 30. " Then (faith' he, that is, from 
everlaftrng,) I was by him, as one brought up with him $ 
and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him," 
that is, as the fpecial object of his love j as among you 
men one that is brought up with you, as your child is. 
The delight df the Father from all eternity was in the Son. 
The ineffable love and mutual delight of the Father nod 

{ i*S j 

4hc Son by the Spiift, is^that which is the lead notion 
we have of the bleffednefs of the eternal God. John i. iS. 
** The only begotten Son, wiio is in the bofdm of the 
Father." Pray obferve it, that I yet fpeak only of the di- 
vine perfon of Chrifl antecedent unto his incarnation, 
and the ineffable mutual love of the bleffed perfons in 
the holy Trinity, which Jefus Chrift wonderfully fets out 
in John xvii. There is his relation unto God, he is the 
dnly begotten Son, by eternal generation ; what follows ? 
he is in the bbfom of the Father, is in the Father V eter- 
nal infinite love. Herein is God's love ', and every thing 
elfe of love is but a free ad of the will of God, a free 
emanation from this eternal love between the Fa- 
ther and the Son. God never did any thing with- 
out himfelf, but the end of it was to manifeft what is in 
himfelf. The old and new creation thatGod hath wrought, 
was to manifeft what was in himfelf. God made this 
world to manifeft his power and wifdonr; God made 
the new world by Jefus Chrift, to manifeft his grace, 
his love, goodnefs, &c. 

The fole reafon why there is focji a thing" as love _fti 
the world, among the creatures, angels or men, that God 
ever implanted it in the nature of rational creature's, wbs, 
that it "might (hadow and reprefent the ineffable eterrftl 
love that the Father had unto the Son, and the Son. on- 
to the Father 'by the Spirit. 

Contemplative men of old did always admire love, 
wherein they would have the life, luftre, and glory -of 
all things to conlift ; but they could never fee the nfe of 
^t : and they traced fome tilings to this, that God necef- 
farily loved himfelf; and it is true, it carmot other wife 
be j but Erodes loving ♦f himfelf, abfolutely as God, is 
nothing but his eternal bkffed acquiefcence in the holy, 
felf-fufficing properties of his nature. This they had 
fome reach after ; but of this eternal ineffable love of 
the Fathet to the Son, and of the Son to the Fa- 
ther by the Spirit, that they -had no* conjecture of. 
But this is the fountain and fpring head * y and all foch 
things, as love in the old and new creation, as I laid, is 
but to tefemble and (hadow out this great prototype of 
divine love. I acknowledge there is little 1 difcerned of 
thefe things, by reaibn of the weaknefs of our under- 

C "7 J 

Handings ; but tlie fcripture' having & dire&ly declared 
to us the mutual love o£ the Father and the Son, (which 
truly is of fuch lingular ufe 9 that I would fix perfons up- 
on it in conceiving of the do&rine of the Trinity), that 
it is matter of admiration and thankfulnefs to us. Here 
lies the foundation ot all love, whereunto we hope to 
reduce our love unto Chjriit, viz. in the unchangeable 
love of the Father to the Son* 

2, The perfon of Chrirt as veiled with our nature, 
and ftndei taking the work of mediation, is the firft ob- 
ject of the Father's love, wherein there is any mixture 
of any thing without himfelf. 

The firit love of God the Father to the Son is that 
we call ad intra? where the divine perfons are objeds of 
one another's actings ; the Father knows the Son, and. 
the Son knows the Father^ the. Father loves the Son, 
and the Son loves the Father \ and fo consequently of 
the Holy Gboft, the medium of all thefe actings. 

But now, I fay, the fir ft a& of the bve of God the 
Father, wherein there is any thing ad extra, or without 
the divine eflence, is the perfon of Chrift, confidered 
as inveftcd with our. nature. And had not the love of 
God been fixed in- the full place, in all things upon the 
perfon ofjChrift, there would have been no redundancy, 
to us, nor communication of love unto us. From the 
firfl eternal love of God proceeds .all love that was in 
the firft creation ; and from this feeond love of God to 
the perforv of Chrift, as incarnate, proceeds all the love 
in the feeond creation. See how God expreffes it in a 
profpeft of what he mould be, Ifa. xlii. u " Behold my 
iervant whom I uphold, mine ejedt In whom my foul de- 
lighteth." And this is Angular in the whole fcripture, 
that God (pake the fame words twice from heaven im- 
mediately, and they were thefe, " This is my beloved 
v Son, in whom I am well pleafed j" at his baptifm, Mat. 
iii. 17. and at his entrance, on his fuffe rings, Mat. xvii. 
5. which was the voice which came from the excellent 
glory. I would obferve this unto you, becaufe I think 
it is what God would have us take notice of, the empha- 
fis in the words, " Behold my. feryant, mine eled, my 
Son, my beloved Son ! (what of him) I in whom I reft, 
ia whom I am. well pleafed and delighted." All of them 

[128 ] 

emphatical words. Saith God, Let the fons of men (f 
fpeak it from heaven again and again) take notice of this 
that the infinite loVe of my wjiole foul is fixed on the per- 
ion of Jefus Chrift, as incarnate. ' Aad you will find the 
Lord Jefus Chrift pleading this as the ground of that 
truft committed unto him, and all that he received, John 
iti. 35. ** The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all 
thing* into his hand." John v. 20. " The Father loveth 
the Son, and (heweth him all things that himfelf doth y 
and will (hew him greater works than thefe." H€ lay! 
the foundation of all the truft that God the Father com- 
mitted unto him, in the peculiar love of the Father to 
him as the Son incarnate. 

Truly I mall not go beyond this foundation, to ma* 
nifeft to you, that the per ion of Chrift is the complete- 
adequate object of the love of the Father. The great 
fatisfa&ion of the foul ot God, wherein he refts and de- 
lights, coniifts in love to Chrift as incarnate. 

I will make but this one inference from it y propor- 
tionable to the renovation of the image and lrkenew of 
God upon, any of our fouls, is our love to Jefus Chrift i 
He that knows Jefus Chrift molt, is mo ft like Unto God^ 
for there the foul of God refts, there h the complaceti<- 
cy of God 5, and if we would be like to God, fcave pled- 
ges in ourfelves of the renovation of this image upon us, 
it muft be in the gracious exercifis of <mr love to th* 
jperfon of Jefus Chrift. And pray let .me. obferve it to. 
you, the world, that is full of enmity to God, doth not. 
exercife its enmity againft God immediately under the. 
firft notion of God, but exereifeth its enmity againft God 
in Chrift : aad if we return to God by the renovation o£ ^ 
his image, we do not exercife our love to God immedi- 
ately as God, but our love to God by and tn Chrift 5 that 
ye througti him might believe in God. Here is a trial, 
brethren, of our return to God, and of the renovatiorv 
of his image in us, viz. in our love to Jems Chrift. There 
God and man do meet, there God and his church above 
and below centre* The Lord grant that this ordinance 
may be the means to ftir up our hearts more to the ex- 
ercife of this grace ! . _ 

C J}9 J 

July 8. 1677. 

I Shall fpeak to them who have a mind to be fount! 
performing their duty j but it may be, it doth not 
occur to them what is particularly required of them. 
They are filch as are reaft acquainted with this myftery 
that I wouid have mo ft re^pec^ unto, that nothing of 
God's provifion in his houfe may be loft to his children* 
for want of underftanding aright to come to his table, 
where he makes this provifion. 

I pray you, brethren, exereife your Noughts unto the 
irtftitation of this ordinance, wherein you exercife your 
obedience^ unto the proportion of Chrift in this ordi- 
nance, wherein coniiftathe peculiar acting of your faith ^ 
and bnto the exhibition -of Chrift in this ordinance, wliich 
istW ground 'of iyoeriii^iile&ilnefl. ' ■ ■ L 

•' Wbatrfhali I do- that I may pieafe Go4 now, pleafe 
Jefus Chrift, and benefit my own foul in the adminiftra- 
tion of this ordinance ? 

Why, r. Confidcr the inftitution of it, wherein we 
have the authority of Jefus Chrift put forth, and acting 
towards our fouls. ** Do this in remembrance of me.'*' 
Labour therefore to bring your hearts into an a&ual o- 
bedience to the authority of Jefus Chrift in. what we are 
about. This the Lord Jefus doth require' at our hands. 
We do not come here in a cuftomary manner to fatisfy 
our convi&ions, becaufe we ought to come *, we do not 
jcorae here merely to make ufe of our privilege, but oux 
hearts are to. bow to the authority of Jefus Chrift. Con* 
fider, J pray you, the institution of this ordinance, and 
labour to bring your fouls into a dual obedience to Jefus 
Chrift. We do it becaufe Chrift has. required it of usv 
If our hearts are in that frame, that we are here upon 
the command of Chrift, to do what he has appointed, 
and we can recommend our confeiences unto him, that it 


C ml 

is in obedience to his command that we are here, tbear 
our obedience is in exercife. 

2. Confider thejpropofition that is made of Jefus ChriiV 
in this ordinance to us, that our faith may be in i{s pro- 
per exerciie. 

The Lord take off our hearts- from the eonfideration* 
of the outward figns merely, Chrift in his love, Chrift 
in his bloodfhed, agony and prayer, Chrift in his deaths 
ia here piopofed before us. " Ye (hew forth the Lord's- 
death. 19 Who propofes it > He that hath appointed 
thefe things propofes it. And there is the en- 
gagement of the fakhfulnefs of God and Chrift irr 
this proportion and tender that is made of Jefas 
Chrift *, and it is a. peculiar way, and as I -could prove,, 
full of love, that God hath found out a way to propound 
v Chrift as dying, and crucified, to all our fouls*. 
Therefore ftir up your hearts to this. To every one of 
you there is, by the grate and faith fulnefs of God,, 
a propofal of Jefus Oirift in his death, and all the be- 
nefits of it, unto your fouls. The whole que ft ion is, 
Whether you will ftir up your hearts to a new andfreih 
receiving of Jefus Chrift, who is thus propofed and tea* 
dered unto you, evidently crucified before your eyes, of- 
fered to you by the love and faithfulneis of God ? 
But if we do not endeavour every one of us, in the .par- 
ticipation of this ordinance, a freih acceptance of Jeiiis 
Chrift, we do what we canto make God a liar, as though 
he was not tendered unto us. The efpecial exercife of 
your frith in this ordinance, is upon the love, grace and 
f iithfulnefs of God, propofit^g and tendcringof Chrift unto 
you, the death of Chrift, a£d the benefits of Chrift in 
this way which he has chofen y fubmit unto it, and em* 
brace it. 

3. As your obedience is required with refpedt to the 
inftitution *, (we give this account before God, angels 
4K)4 me"? that we are here in obedience to the command 
of our Lord Jefus Chrift) ) and as faith is required with 
refpeft to the propoiition of Chrift, whereby he is evi- 
dently propofed and tendered by God unto us 5 fo in this 
ordinance, to them thai believe, there is an exhibition 
of Chrift : Chrift is really exhibited and communicated 
to the fouls of men, who exercife fakh upon him in this' 

•sdinance y really exhibited with ail the benefits of hit . 
death. And want of receiving, by faith in > particulars 
Chrift as exhibited and communicated in this*ordinancev 
is the great ground o£ oar want of profiting by h, and 
thriving under it y of our want of receiving itrengtby « 

joy, and life by it y becaufe we do not exercueourielves . 
to the receiving of Chrift as he is exhibited, as God J 

doth really give him oat r and comevunic^te him to them 
that do believe* 

That there is fuch an exhibition of Chrift, appears^ 
(i.) By the facramental relation there is between the' 
outward elements and the thing fignified. " This is my 
body, (fays Chrift $ this bread is fo y and) this is my 
blood." It is the body of Chrift and the blood of Chrift,. 
that we are 'invited, to the participation of. If there. s 

was no more in this ordinance exhibited, but only tho. 
outward elements, and not by virtue of facramental re-* 
lation upon God's institution, the body and blood of 
Chrift, his life,- and death, and merits exhibited unto Us, 
we (houldcome to the Lord's table like men in a dream 
eating and drinking, and be quite empty when we have 
done, for this bread and wine will not fatisfy our fouls* 

(2.) As it is plairl from the fign and the thing figni- 
fied, that there is a grant, or a real communication of 
Jefus Chrift unto the fouls of them that do believe ; fo 
it is evident from the nature of the exercife of faith, in 
this ordinance ; it is by eating and drinking. Can you 
eat and drink urriefs fomething be really communicated ? 
You are called to eat the fle(h, and drink the blood of 
the Son of man j unlefs really communicated, we can- 
not eat it nor drink it. We mey have other apprehen- 
fions of thefe things, but our faith cannot be exercifed 
in eating and drinking, which is a receiving of what is 
really exhibited and communicated. As truly, my bre- 
thren, as we do eat of this bread, and drink of this cup, 
which is really communicated to us, fo every true belie- 
ver doth receive Chrift, his body and blood, in all the 
benefits of it, that are really exhibited by God unto the 
foul in this ordinance : and it is a means of communica- 
ting to faith. 

We come to receive a crucified Chrift, come to be 
made partakers of the body and blood of the Lord, to 

E 13* ) 

have the* Lord Jefus really united to our hearts more and 
more. The Lord open our hearts to embrace the ten- 
der, receive the exhibition, take in Jefus Chrift as food, 
that he may be incorporated in our beaits by- faith, that 
he may dwell in- us plentifully, more and more; that we 
may go away refreshed by this heavenly food, this glo- 
rious feaft of fat things which the Lord has made in his* 
mount for bis peopl.% The whole of our comfort de- 
pends on our particular receiving x>f Chrift by faith, aadt 
carrying him away by believing. 

September 30. 1677. 

WE aTc met together again, i>y the patience anrf 
kindnefs of God, for the celebration of thii* 
great ordinance, and therein to (hew forth the death of 
the Lord. * .•'■"** 

A have often fpokeWtb you off this o'aeafidti cdncern- 
ing the nature of this ordinance, the expreflion of the 
love of* God and Chrift that is in it, and the efpecial acl a- 
of faith and love that are required of us in this ordi- 

I have one word now fomewhat of another nature, 
but yet fuch as I judge not unfeafonable j and it is to this 
purpofe, that we, who fo frequently enjoy the privilege 
of the reprefentation of the death "of Chrift unto us, 
ought to be very diligent in enquiring after an experw 
ence of the power of the death of Chrift in usv 
Without this, our privilege will not be to our advan- 
tage. * 

The power and efficacy of the death of Chrift, which 
we now remerdber in a peculiar manner, is two- fold, 

- 1 . Towards God, as the confummation of the facri- 
fice of atonement. This we have often' fpoke to. 

2. Towards our own foul$, towards the church 5 and 
that is to be an example, a precept, a pattern of what 
is to be wrought in us. In- this fenfc the power of tlfe 

£ m I 

death of Chrift bits efficacy to conformity y#foh Clwift 
in his death. It is to be * crucified with Chrift-,*' as I he 
apoftle fpeaks, Gal. ii. 20, Power comes forth from th* 
death of Chrift, if received by faith in a due manner, t<* 
render us^ conformable \o him in the death of fin in us* 
The apoftle has a great and glorious word concerning 
hintfetf, 2 Cor. iv. 10. ** Always beating about in tfc£ 
body, the dying of the Lord Jefus." I acknowledge, 
the words are ufually applied to the representation of 
the fujFerings of Chrift, in the fufterings of the minHtaft 
of the gofpel, concerning which the apoftle there di£- 
courfes j but the antithefls in the following words, 
* u that the life of Jcfus might be manifeft in our body," 
does certainly lead to a larger fenfe. Then, brethren," 
we may have an experience of the power of Chrift in, 
us, when we can fay, we always carry about with us the- 
dying of the Lord J-efus, to carry k in our meditation, 
to carry it m our converfation, to carry it in our con- 
stant universal endeavours for conformity to it ; tind. 
without this we have not experience of the power e£ 
his death in us, and it will not avail us to have the na- 
ture of his death reprefcntcd to us. ,, 

f . We axe always to " carry about the dying of Je- 
fus Chrift, 1 ' ia our thoughts and meditations. . O that 
our thoughts were much fixed upon it ! I verily believe 
that the Ufe of faith doth anfwer in proportion to oar 
thoughts about the dying of Jefas\ The dying of JefuSv 
comprifeth the love from whence he died, the death it- 
fclf he died, and the end for which he died: Let us 
carry about us always thoughts hereof, for his, fake who. 
loved us, and who died for us. Meditate more on thefe 

2. In our converfation. It is not a time to* reflect up* 
on any, unlefs I did it upon myfelf.. But truly, bre- 
thren, I am afraid we do not carry about and manife/l 
to all the dying of the Lord Jefus in our converfation ;.. 
to perform all things, fo as it may appear and be made 
manifeft to ourielves and others, that our hearts are fet 
upon his dying love, that we have not fuch quick, fuch 
a&ive, and vigorous affections to the world, and the 
things of the world, nor that fury of diligence aftei> 
them fend in them, as other men have, and we have had ^ 
we cannot do it} the dying of the Lord Jefiis crucifies. 

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our hearts. Thcfe a?e. hard words I know ; hew; far 
from our practice ! But if we live not in an endeavour 
after it, in all things to manifeit that our hearts are full 
pf the dying of the Lord Jems, we have not experience 
of the power of it in our /ouk* Thefe things depend 
on one another. If we dwelt more upon this fubjetl in 
our meditations, we (hould manifeil it, and carry it a~ 
bout, and reprefent it more in our converfation. 

3. Carry it about in a conitant endeavour for confor- 
mity to Jefus Chrift in all things in his death. % Did 
Chriil die, and ihaH fin live ? Was he crucified in the 
world, and Hi all we have quick and lively affections <to 
the world ? O where is the temper and fpirit of that a* 
poille, who, by ** the crols of Chrift was crucified to the 
world, and the world crucified to him ?" If there be.a- 
ay among us that mould be indulgent to the life of any 
one luft or conuption, that foul can havcjno experience 
of the power of the death of Chriil in himfelf, cannot 
carry about him the dying of Chrift. Endeavour to de- 
ftroy fin, that we may be like unto Chriil. 
. 1 will not make particular application of thefe things 
to all the concerns of our walk, but leave it with you, 
mth t,his word, begging of you, and my own heart, and 
of God for us all, that having thefe bleffed reprefenta- 
tioos of th& death'of Chriil to us, we may have no reft 
\n our {pints, but when we have experience of the powe* 
of the death of Chriil in us* < . 


September 20. 1682. 

IT is a common received notion among Chrinians, and 
it is true, that there is a peculiar communion with 
Chriil in this ordinance, which we have in no other or- 
dinance : that there is a peculiar acting of faith in this 
ordinance, which is in no other ordinance. This fe the 


C 135 I 

faith of the whole church of Chrift, and has been fo ia 
all ages. This is tbe greateft myftery of ail the pra&i- 
cals of our Chriftian religion, a way of receiving Chrift 
by eating and drinking, fomething peculiar that is not 
in prayer, tbat is not in* the Ii earing of the word, nor in 
any other part of divine worfhip whatfoever 5 a peculiar 
participation of Chrift, a peculiar acting of faith towards ( 

Chrift. This participation of Chrift is not carnal, but • 

fpiritual. In the beginning of the miniftry of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift, when he began to inftruft them- in the com- 
munication of himfelf, and the benefit of his mediation 
to believers, becaufe it was a new thing, he exprefies it 
by " eating his flefti, and drinking his blood," John vi. 
53. " Unlefs ye eat the flefh, and drink the blood of the 
Son of man, ye have no life in you." This offended - 
and amazed them. They thought he taught them to 
eat his natural flefh and blood. " How can this man 
give us his fle(h to eat >" They thought he instructed 
them to be canibals. Whereupon he gives that ever- 
lafting rule for the guidance of the church, which the 
church forfook, and thereby ruined itfelf $ faith he, 
4 * It is the Spirit" that quickeneth, the flefh profiteth no- 
thing ; the words that I fpeak, they are fpirit, and they 
are life." It is a fpiritual communication, faith he, of 
myfelf unto you } but it is as intimnte, and gives as real 
an incorporation, as if you did eat my flefh and drink 
my blood. The church forfaking this rule of a fpirit- 
ual interpretation, ruined itfelf, and fet up a monfter, in- 
ftead of this bleffed myfterious ordinance. # 

We may enquire, therefore, how faith doth peculiar- 
ly acVitfe it* towards Chrift in this ordinance, whereby 
we have a diftincl: participation of Chrift, otherwife than 
we have by and in any other ordinance 'Wvhatfoever. 
And I would mention four things unto you, which you 
may make ufe of. 

1 . That faith hath a peculiar refpecl: to the fole au- 
thority of Chrift in the.inftitution of this ordinance. 

All other ordinances draw upon the light of nature, 
and upon the moral law, as prayer, preaching the word, 
and ringing of pfalms to the praife of God y but this, 
that we fhould receive Jefus by eating of bread,- and 
dsinking of wine, has no refpecl: to the light of rm- 

tore, or the moral law at , all •, and we mould as foot* 
chufe to honour God by facxi£ces, and eating the flefli 
of them, if it were not for thc^ Authority of Jefus Chrift » 
Herein doth faith give honour/ to Chrift in his kingly- 
office. This is the moft dirdS^profeflion of the fubjec- 
tion of our fouls and confidences to the authority of 
Chrift, in all our religion. We can give no other rea- 
fon, we can take no allufioa from things, but merely this, 
Chrift would have it fo. 

2. Faith bath a peculiar refped to the love of Chrift 
in dying for us, rpaking the atonement for us by bis 
blood, and therein the glorifying of the wifdom, love,, 
and grace of God the Father. Faith is lee) into fpecial 
communion with Chrift as dying for us to make the a- 
tonement $ and therein we give glory to Chrift in his 
prieftly office in a peculiar manner in this ordinance, it, 
refpecling the facrifice of Chrift, whereby he made a- 
tonement for us. 

3. Faith hath refpe& to this fpecial manner of the 
exhibition of Chrift to the fouls of believers, under the 
outward figns and fymbols of bread and wine by his in- 
ftitution, making fuch a ficramental union between the 
thing fignified and the lign, that the figns remaining to 
be what they are in themfelves, they are unto us. the 
thing that is fignified, by virtue of the facramental union 
that Chrift hath appointed between his body and blood, 
and the benefits of it ♦, and this bread and wine, though 

tot c'hanged at all in themfelves, yet they become to us 
y faith, not What they are in themfelves, but what is 
Rifled by tlieta, " the body and blood of Chrift." 
derein we give glory to Chrift in his prophetical office. 
t is he who has revealed, taught, and inftrucled his 
lurch 'in this truth, which depends on the facramental 
don which follows by his inftitution. That is the 
ird thing wherein faith peculiarly ads itfelf in. this or- 

1. The fourth thing is, the- rayfterioufnefs, which I 

re to your experience, for it is beyond expreflion, the 

ieriuus reception of Chrift in this peculiar way of 

bition. There is a reception of Chrift as tendered 

e promife of the gofpel ; but here is a peculiar way 

is exhibition under outward figns, and a znyfteriotrt 



reception of him in them- really, lb as to come ta a real. 
fubftantial incorporation in^our fouls* This is that which, 
believers ought to labour after an experience of in them-* 
felves $ to, find that indeed under thefe four confidera- 

) ^ tions, they fiibmit to the authority of Jefus Chrift in st 
peculiar manner, giving him jhe glory of his kingly of- 
fice , mixing faith with him. as dying and making atone- 
ment by his blood y fo giving him the glory and honour 
of his prieftly office $ much confidering the facramentaL 
union that is, by his inftitution, between the outward 

k fcgns and the thing signified, thus glorifying him in his 
prophetical office > and railing up their fouls to a my* 
ftenous reception and incorporation of him, receiving 
him to dwell m them^'warning, cheriihing, cqmforting,and: 
ftrengthening their hearts* 

\ r I have mentioned: thefe things as thofe which lie in- 

your practice, and to obviate that (if I may mention it) 
which you may be tried with. There is but one plaufi- 
ble pretence that our adverfaries, who defign to opprefs 
us, hare in this bufinefe : If, fay they, there be not a 

h real prefence and a real fubftantial tranfmutation of the 

elements into the fubftanct of the body, and blood of 
Chrift, (hew you a way whereby you may have a peculiar 
. communion with Chrift, any more than in the won! 
preached. We fay, we have in thefe things experience 
of a peculiar communion with Chrift, in a way* male 
proper to this ordinance, which is not to be found inaiy 
other ordinance* 






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