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Full text of "A brief memoir of Henry Clark Barlow"

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BRIEF MEMOIR 



OP 



HENRY CLARK RARLOW, M.D.,F.G.S, 

AX7TH0R OP " COHTRIBUTIOH8 TO THE STUDY OP THE DIVINA GOMMEDIA "; 

PRANGESCA DA RIMIKI, HER LAMENT AND VINDICATIOR; 

THE TOmrO KINO AND BERTRAND DE BORN; 

XL CONTE UOOLINO ; IL ORAN RIPIUTO ; 

ESSAYS ON SYMBOLISM; 

ETC. ETC. ETC. 



PRIVATEIiY PRINTED. 



LONDON 

1868. 




, /^^rt^. A . //^' '^ 



LBIPZIO : PRIHTBD BY B. O. TEUBKBR. 



A BRIEF MEMOIR 



OF 



H. C. BAELOW, M. D. F. G. S. 



Henry Clark Barlow, M. D., F. G. S., Cavalier of 
the Italian Order of the Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and 
Accademico Corrispondenie deir Accademia de' Quiriti of 
Eome, was born May 12**^, 1806, at Newington Butts, 
Surrey, where his family had held a property for three 
generations*. He was not originally intended for the 
Medical Profession, nor did he ever practise it. After 
the usual course of schooling begun at Grravesend in Kent 
and finished at Hall Place, Bexley, he was placed in 1822 
with Mr. George Smith, Architect and Surveyor, of ]\|er- 
cer's Hall, as an articled pupil, and soon became a stu- 
dent of the Royal Academy; but in 1827, in consequence 
of an accidental wound by a pair of dividers in a nerve 
of the right thumb, he relinquished the Profession. The 
two following years were passed in private study to supply 
the deficiencies of a neglected education. In 1829 he 
went to Paris to attend the public lectures in the Jardin 
des Plantes, and at the College de France. Here a Scotch 
Doctor, fresh from Alma Mater, suggested regular courses 
of study in the University of Edinburgh as preferable to 
the desultory attendance on Professors at Paris. The 
idea was approved of, and in 1830, during a tour in Scot- 
land, arrangements were made with a friend at Dollar for 
a course of classical reading in the following spring; and 
in November, 1831, Henry Clark Barlow matriculated in 

• The house was No. 6, in Church Yard Row. In 1808 the family 
removed to Gravesend in Kent, and, on their return to Newington in 
1822, occupied No. 11, in the same Row, where the Doctor's Father 
and Mother hoth died , the former on January 12^^, 1858, the latter on 
January 14*'», 1«64. 

1* 



the University of Edinburgh as a Medical Student, thougli 
with no intention of coming out a graduate. That he ever 
did so was also owing to the suggestion of a friend, who 
thought that he ought to crown his diligence as a student 
with the diploma of a Doctor, and so he did, and was 
very near gaining a gold medal as well as his degree, 
for the Thesis written on the occasion — "The causes 

AND EFFECTS OF DISEASE CONSIDERED IN REFERENCE TO 

THE Moral constitution of Man'' was declared, bv the 
Dean of Faculty, to be the first of those deserving ofone. 
(See The Edinburgh Evening Courant, Aug. 3, 1837.)* It 
was not, however, strictly a Medical Thesis, nor did it 
contain any original matter beyond the application of the 
argument, being founded on the works of Butler, Paley, 
Combe, the Boyle Lectures, and the Bridgewater Trea- 
tises. The author sought to show that diseases are, in 
most cases, traceable to the neglect of moral and physical 
laws, and are therefore not to be considered as evils in 
themselves, but as appointed remedies for what really are 
so, that is for states of things at variance with those laws. 
It was published, and favourably noticed in reviews, and 
the author received many gratifying letters approving of 
the manner in which he had treated the subject. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Howley) remarked 
"the views which it opens respecting the final causes of 
diseases and their connexion with morals are very in- 
structive". The Bishop of London (Dr. Blomfield) said 
— "I have read it with great satisfaction, and think it 
a valuable addition to the arguments which have been 
urged by the writers of the Bridgewater Treatises, in 
proof of the Wisdom and Benevolence of the Deity." 
But the fullest communication received on the subject was 
from the Bishop of Llandaff (Dr. Coplestone), who ob- 
served' — "I QO not think the topic you have chosen 
could have been better handled. I was particularly struck 
with the force and beauty of the concluding pages. When 
we demonstrate how much good arises out of what the 
world calls evil, we make a salutary impression on the 
mind. But the subject, according to my judgement, is 

♦ The gold medal was lost through a babble of air. A fellow Stu- 
dent (Dr. John Rose Cormack) had written a Thesis on the effects of a 
bubble of air in the blood , and the Faculty haying a difficulty in de- 
ciding among themselves to whom the medal ought to be given, set 
up, as the standard of merit, the amount of original experiments de- 
scribed, which at once excluded Dr. Barlow's Thesis, and several 
others, from any chance of success. 



never lustly handled^ unless we admit that there is a 
principle of evil, physical as well as moral; in the uni- 
verse. My conviction of the truth of revealed religion — 
and of its mysterious doctrine, the Atonement — is greatly 
confirmed by this consideration. The existence of evil 
is mysterious and unaccountable, but it is a fact. Should 
we wonder then that deliverance from this curse should 
be effected, not in the ordinary course of nature (for that 
includes evil) but by a preternatural agency, and further 
that the deliverer should himself endure evil to save us 
from it — in other words — that we should have not 
only a triumphant but a suffering Redeemer. Butler (ad- 
mirable as his work is) has not placed this argument in 
the strongest form of which it is susceptible. I have 
more than once attempted it in Sermons, and I may per- 
haps attempt it in another form of composition.'' 

The Author did not presume to open a polemic with 
the Bishop on this question, but submitted it to his friends 
the Rev. Dr. Chalmers, and the Rev. Dr. Terrot of Edin- 
burgh, neither of whom was disposed to admit the principle 
of physical evil. Thirty years progress in scientific truth 
has swept away this unworthy notion of the divine econ- 
omy, and established in the mind of the age the devout 
conviction of a perfect and immutable order of created 
things. But this great truth, which it has taken so long 
to work out, was distinctly conceived, and fully expres- 
sed, nearly six hundred years ago, by the great Italian 
Poet, Dante AUighieri, who, at the commencement of his 
Paradise (Canto I., v. 103 — 5), says — 

Le cose tutte quanta 
Hann^ ordine tra loro; e questo h forma 
Che r universo a Dio fa simigliante*. 

During the time Dr. Barlow resided at Edinburgh, which 
pleased him well in all seasons excepting the spring, he 
did not confine his studies to Medical science. He was 
partial to Mathematics, was fond of Metaphysics, was 
charmed with the Philosophy of Mind, and then found 
attractions in the thorny processes of dogmatic Theology. 
The natural sciences also were great favourites, especially 
Geology. Nor had he entirely cast off Architecture and 
her sister arts, so that when he paid his addresses to Me- 
dicine, it was with a somewhat divided affection. In 1833 
he became a member of the British Association, through 

* *'All things have order among themselves; and this it is which 
makes the universe resemble God". 



6 

his friend Professor Jameson; and in 1834 attended the 
meeting in Dublin; attaching himself to the geological 
section. On the 3*^** of August, 1837, he was capped in 
company with his friend and fellow student John Hughes 
Bennett, since become the eminent Professor, the two B's 
being called up together. He passed another winter in 
Edinburgh, and then removed to Paris, where he became 
a member of the Parisian Medical Society, founded by his 
friend Dr. Bennett, and on the 6*'* of February, 1840, 
read a paper before the Society ^'On the distinction be- 
tween Typhus Fever and Dothi^nterie", a lengthy report 
of which appeared in 'the Lancet, No. 23, Feb. 29^**. This 
was Dr. Barlow's last purely medical production; his first 
was A Practice of Physic, containing the results of four 
years' attendance in the Edinburgh Hospital, and the com- 
bined wisdom, for that time, of as many Clinical Profes- 
sors ; it was never printed. During the summer he made 
a collection of the rocks and fossils of the Paris Basin — 
measured and drew the Triumphal Arches — and in the 
winter, with some attendance on Hospitals and Lectures, 
laid, in the gallery of the Louvre, the foundation of that 
critical knowledge of the various schools of Painting which 
he was afterwards to continue in the countries of their 
birth. From Paris, in the spring of 1840, he proceeded 
to Belgium, spent the summer on the Rhine, and made 
the tour of Holland towards the close of the autumn. 

Dr. Barlow had always been fond of country rambles, 
and of exploring new localities, thus he first familiarized 
himself with home scenes before he entered upon foreign 
ones. When in an architect's office, he had every year 
taken a turn in the country for three weeks or a month, 
had walked round the Isle of Wight, had perambulated 
South Wales, and visited many picturesque and historical 
places, filling his sketch books with wayside gleanings, 
and his journals with descriptive notes. When he was 
master of his own time he took longer excursions. On 
his first visit to Scotland he explored the Western High- 
lands, made a journey through Ireland, went carefully 
over North Wales, doing every thing expected of a pe- 
destrian except climbing the crest of Snowdon, and wound 
up a six months' holiday with a walk from Caernarvon 
to Cambridge. 

Sketching and scribbling were, in fact, two never fail- 
ing hobbies, and had been so ever since he was a boy. 
Sir Charles Bell once said of him, publicly, that he had 
been born to go through the world with a pen in his 



hand; had Sir Charles said a pencil, it would have been 
literally true. Dr. Barlow returned from Germany and 
Holland' with heaps of sketches, drawings, descriptions, 
and geological specimens ; he had taken all the castles on 
the Rhine by the way, and had transferred to his port- 
folio all the Romanesque churches. 

Once on the Rhine we are in Nature's great highway 
to Switzerland and Italy. Travelling only needs a be- 
ginning, and with time and means at our disposal it is as 
easy to go forward as to return back, and much more 
agreeable. This was Dr. Barlow's theory. But he had 
another theory also which was, that we have no business 
to betake ourselves to foreign- lands before it is in our 
power to put ourselves on a friendly footing with the na- 
tives by speaking their language, "for'', he would say, 
"we ought to travel abroad in the same spirit in which 
we visit our friends at home, resolved to be pleased with 
them and with ourselves, and freely to exchange our 
thoughts with each other. By acting in a friendly spirit 
we make foreigners our friends, for human sympathies 
are the same everywhere, and people are pleased and 
displeased from the same causes all the worla over.'' A 
traveller ignorant of the language of the country in which 
he travels, is like a man in want of ready money to pay 
his way, he cannot coin for himself, and is glad to Dor- 
row where he can. Instead, therefore, of going on to 
Italy, Dr. Barlow returned home to study Italian. By 
the spring of 1841 he was prepared to resume his rambles, 
spent the summer in Switzerland, lived a month on the 
Righi, walked over the Oberland, and when the green 
leaves of summer were changing to autumnal brown, he 
crossed the St. Gothard to Milan. Once in beloved Italy, 
which had been his dream by night, his desire by day, 
he seemed disposed never to leave it, and remained 
abroad nearly five years. Now his pen and pencil were 
more active than ever, and when he did return, just be- 
fore Christmas in 1845, he came home laden with the 
spolia opima, his many note books telling the tales of his 
adventures, and the multitude of sketches and drawings 
recording the scenes through which he had passed. His 
life during this period was that of an artist. Architecture, 
Sculpture and Painting alike employed his pencil and his 
pen — he measured buildings — made drawings of Roman 
and Sicilian Antiquities — spent two months studying at 
Pompei-— lived a year at Naples and in its neighbourhood,* 
where, at the suggestion of his friend the Canonico Jorio, 



8 

he took a series of sketches to illustrate the voyaee of 
JEneas. He also made a collection of drawings to illus- 
trate the History of Sculpture, especially of Christian 
sculpture from the 10^^ century to the time of Nicola Pi- 
sano. He made drawings of the frescoes in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa, and carefully studied and sketched other 
early works of the Italian schools. He wrote a History 
of Italian Sculpture, and a History of Italian Painting. 
During the winters , he resided in Florence, Rome, Naples, 
and Pisa; in spring, summer, and autumn, he was ramb- 
ling about everywhere. It was during the winter of 
1844—5, when, owing to the unusual severity of the sea- 
son, he returned from Genoa to Pisa instead of going on 
to Nice, that, as by Providence directed, he became ac- 
quainted with the great Poet of Italy and Europe — Dante 
AllighikRI. He had resided at Pisa before as an artist, 
now he became a literary student. Professor Centofanti 
was lecturing upon the Philosophy of History, and had 
taken as his text book the Vita Nuova of the poet. From 
that time Dante became the Doctor's Idol, and he never 
went about without a copy of the DiviNA Commedia in 
his pocket. Italy was now doubly dear to him— it had 
before been the land of highest art — ^now it became the 
land of the noblest poetry hlso — the Good, the Beautiful, 
and the True — Taste, and Imagination, and Reason cul- 
minated in Dante as their most perfect expression. The 
study and illustration of the Poet's Works now took pre- 
cedence of every thing else. In 1846 he returned to 
Italy, spent two winters in Florence, took part in the po- 
litical movement of that period, walked in the public pro- 
cession at Florence, on Sunday, September 12'*^, 1847 ; vi- 
sited, at Sinigalia, the family of Pius IX, then still at 
the height of his popularity, and whom he saluted as the 
Veltro of Daiite in a brief •notice printed at Perugia, 
Sept. 28*^, and freely distributed, the correspondence of 
character seeming to warrant the application (See La Bi- 
vista di Firenze, October 5*^) ; and, later in the year, made 
a pilgrimage to Ravenna, the Mecca of all Dantophilists. 
Here he learnt by a letter written from Paris by Gio- 
berti, October 28*^ to his friend the Abate Mauro Fer- 
ranti, then engaged in printing a new edition of the Di- 
vina Commedia for the especial use of the Italians regen- 
erated by the Pope, that the third person in the popular 
trinity (Pio None, Carlo Alberto, and Gioberti) had con- 
ceived, or adopted, the same notion. In 1848 Dr. Barlow 
went to Athens and Constantinople, returning by way of 



the Danube through Hungary, where he caught fever and 
was very ill with it at Vienna. In 1849 he resided for 
some time in Berlin, Dresden, and Prague. On his re- 
turn to England he took up the question of the National 
Gallery, and under the signature of X. Y. Z., and sub- 
sequently in his own name, contributed to the Morning 
Post a long series of letters on this subject, from Dec. 4% 
1849, to August 10**^, 1854, some of wmch were sent from 
abroad. He also wrote on Public Libraries, and attended 
the Committee of the House of Commons at the invitation 
of the chairman, Mr. Ewart*. The British Museum like- 
wise came in for a short series of letters**. Dr. Barlow, 
who was familiar with most of the public Libraries and 
Galleries of Art throughout Europe, sought in this way 
to turn his acquisitions to the benefit of his country. 

In 1850 he printed his first paper in reference to the 
Works of Dante — ^^ Remarks on the reading of the 59*'^ 
verse of the 5**^ canto of the lnferno^\ It had long been 
a disputed point, whether, instead of the ordinary reading 
^^ succedette^^ this verse ought not to be 

Che sugger detie a Nino, e fu sua sposa. 

Dr. Barlow showed from the examination of Codici in 
the British Museum Library, coupled with an argument 
on the subject, that sugger dette was to be preferred. This 
reading was in consequence followed and defended by the 
Rev. Canonico Brunone Bianchi in his fourth Edition of 
the Div. Commedia, Firenze 1854, and two years later, 
the Revue des Deux Mondes (December 1®*, 1856) observed— 
"L' importante discussion soulev6e en 1836, k propos de 
ce vers, par M. rabb6 Federici k Milan, et qui a tant 
oecup6 les critiques dTtalie et d'AUemagne, a 6t6 resum^e 
et close par M. Barlow'\ This year the doctor was again 
at Vienna, and at Venice, and wintered in Florence, living 
within a door or two of Dante's house. Examining Co- 
dici of the Divina Commedia had now become a sort of 
business in which he was indefatigable. Returning from 
Italy by the Via Emilia, he was recommended by the 
Cav. Pezzana, Grand ducal Librarian at Parma, to the 
Marquis Landi of Piacenza, as one who had no superior, 
so far as he knew, in Dante lore Q^nella Dantesca erudi- 
zione^'). The Great Exhibition of 1851 brought him to Lon- 
don; on this occasion he published a little work entitled, 

* See Morning Post, Jan. 26, Feb. 4, Feb. 13, and March 14, 1850.' 
** See Morning Post, March 18, 1862; April 18, 1854 j April 21, 
May 4, and May 19, ^854. 



10 

"Industry on Christian Principles". In 1852 he spent 
some time in examining Codici at Paris. In 1853 he 
again visited Germany, studying, by the way, eariy West- 
phalian Art, as it existed from the 12**» to the le*** cen- 
tury. Of lie collection of Heir Krii^er at Minden he 
sent a notice to the Prince Consort: the following year 
it was purchased for the National Gallery. 

At Berlin Dr. Barlow rendered his travelling compa- 
triots some service, in demanding satisfaction of the Prus- 
sian Government for having been detained on his arrival 
by the police, who pretended that his foreign-office pass- 
port should have had a Prussian visa. After six weeks, 
the authorities were forced to admit that une faute grave 
had been committed, for which some employ^ (who had 
sinned by order of his superiors) was declared to have 
been severement repris, (See Morning Post, July 26^**, and 
Sept. 8^) 

Desirous of paying his respects to the most illustrious 
man in Europe, for whom he had long cherished a pro- 
found veneration, Alexander von Humboldt — Philoso- 
phorum facile Princeps — and learning that he was out 
of town. Dr. Barlow sent him a complimentary letter and 
with it a small literary present. 

The next day, to his agreeable surprise, he received the 
following courteous and characteristic reply. 

^^Bien que je tache de me petrifier le plus leutement possible, 
il me parait cependant assez hasardeuz, Monsieur, de Yous inviter 
a venir voir des mines. Je ne puis resister au vif d^sir de Vous 
ofiEnr de bouche Thomage de ma viye recomiaissance, non seulment 
a cause de la lettre aimable et spirituelle que Vous avez bien youIu 
m^adresser, mais aussi par renyoi des *' Christiaa Principles of In- 
dustry" et des vers mysterieux du "Mighty Florentine". Pour- 
rais je avoir Thonneur de recevoir Mr. le Dr. Barlow, lundi a lh%: 
je ne serais malheureusment pas en ville le dernier jour de la 
semaine. 

Veuillez bien agr^er, mon cher Monsieur, T expression de mes 
sentimens les plus afFectueux". 

A. V. HUMBOLDT, 
ce Vendredi. 

The interview came off much to the satisfaction of the 
Doctor, who found the Savant of eighty-four summers 
still in a green old age, and scarcely knew which to ad- 
mire most, his vigorous grasp of thought, his marvellous 
memory, or that charming urbanity which showed that 
the Prmce of Philosophers was also the most perfect of 



11 

Gentlemen. From Berlin Dr. Barlow proceeded to Dresden; 
and thence to Prague; that fine ola city which always 
greatly pleased him. 

Though spending much of his time in continental Gal- 
leries and Museums; the Doctor did not neglect his liter- 
ary studies. At the close of this year he completed his 
Theological Burnett Treatise, which, if bulk be indicative 
of merit; ought to have gained a prize; for it was in four 
volumes folio — it came out marked 13 in the struggle of 
more than two hundred, and was the most learned work 
the Author ever wrote; it had taken four years to pro- 
duce; and contained the result of his meditations for a 
quarter of a century— the title of it was "The Harmony 
OF Creation and Kedemption^'; with the mottO; ^^Homo 
sum; humani nihil a me alienum puio^^ — it still remains in 
manuscript. At this time Dr. Barlow commenced the study 
of Symbolism in Art; especially in Christian Art. He 
took a lively interest in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham; 
became a Shareholder, and wrote in the Morning Post 
rJuly 20^** to Sept. 13^**) a series of six letters on the Art- 
Courts. He also printed in the same paper (Aug. 31*') an 
article of five columns on " Beatrice '\ The autumn of 
this year was spent in the South of France, the winter 
at Rome, where he was made an Accademico Corrispon- 
dente delV Accademia de' Quiriti. The Exposition Univer- 
selle of 1855 brought him, reluctantly, from Italy to Paris. 
In 1856 the Doctor made a tour of five months in Den- 
mark and Sweden. It was towards the close of this year, 
that the Bevue des Deux Mohdes, (Decem. 1**), said of the 
Author^s Dante Studies "M. Barlow a etudi6 le texte de 
Dante avec la finesse d'un Italien et la conscience d'un 
Allemand'\ 

This eulogiura he then felt was too flattering, but he re- 
solved, with hope, henceforth to merit it. In the follow- 
ing year Dr. Barlow revisited Edinburgh, which he was 
glad to find, after twenty years' absence, looking more 
charming than ever, and inserted his congratulations in 
the Scotsman, (August 29'^, 1857). The Art-Treasures' 
Exhibition took him to Manchester, then a veritable feast 
for the lovers of Art. (See Morning Post, Sept. 24*^.^ This 
year he printed ^^ Remarks on the reading of the 114*^ verse 
of the VI I . canto of the Paradise'' — he also commenced oc- 
casional contributions to the Athenseum. In the beginning 
of 1858, the Doctor lost his exemplarv and excellent Father, 
Henry Barlow, born March 12^'^, 1783, and who died of an 
attack of bronchitis, after an illness of only seven days, 



12 

on Tuesday morning; January 12^**, deeply mourned by his 
afflicted family, and sincerely lamented by all who Knew 
him. He was interred at Norwood Cemetery on the suc- 
ceeding Tuesday, Jan. 19***. The following lines were 
inscribed on his tomb. 

He rests in peace who peace in life had prov'd, 
Where known respected, where more known belovM. 

In the course of the year Dr. Barlow printed a brief 
biographical memoir ot his revered Parent for private 
distribution. 

Occasionally, when the Doctor's sentiments rose to suf- 
ficient intensity, and Divus Apollo encouraged his efforts 
with a benevolent smile, he soared to the region of verse, 
but chiefly in descriptive flights. The Muses are all sisters 
of the same harmonious family, and differ from each other 
merely in their manner of expressing themselves ; he who 
takes any one of them to his bosom, must be prepared 
te receive the others also*. 

* The earliest of Dr. Barlow's printed poetry occurs in the Morn- 
ing Herald of 1838. In 1846 he printed an Ode on the W^ of June, 
entitled To all who won at Waterloo : in 1854 an Italian Sonnet at Rome 
in commemoration of his third visit: in the following year the lines 
entitled " Go^s Temple Throne*^: in 1867, Lines on a Portrait, in cele- 
hration of the 76'** anniversary of the hirth day of a beloved Mo- 
ther: in 1868, Reason and Faiths in memory of a beloved Father: 
and in 1860, Rome from Monte Mario, with other way side sketches. 
In the same year he printed an Ode to Garibaldi, and in 1863, an 
Ode of Welcome to the Princess Alexandra. The following lines 
on the death of the Dnke of Wellington, Sept. 14''*, 1852, were print- 
ed in the Clifton Chronicle, Sept. 22°*. 

The Death of the Dnke of Wellington. 

From the Castle of Walmer a wailing* went forth, 

The air with a sig-h the intellig'ence bore, 
To the East and the West, to the South and the North, 

In words full of. woe, "The Great Duke is no more". 

The Hero is g'one! He has sunk to his rest. 
Full of years, full of honours, of g-lory and fanie, 

Britannia now mourns o'er the Son she Iov*d best,' 
And weeps as she mentions her Welling-ton's name. 

He is g^onel that g-reat Chieftain in war and in peace, 
That Soldier, that Statesman, that Friend to the Throne; 

Britannia his counsels to hear will now cease, 
But his wisdom remains still combin'd with her own. 

And long- may that wisdom continue to g'uide 
"With judg-mcnt, and foresig^ht, and prudence, and care, 

And Great Britain a-Unowlcdg-e with feeling's of pride, 
Ever livings the Spirit of WuUing-ton there. 



13 

In 1859, Dr. Bariow paUkhed ^'Fbaxcesca da Ri- 
mini , HES LAMENT AND V1XDICATION: WITH A BKI£F 

NOTICE OF THE Malatesti*'. This prodaction was re- 
ceived with much fayoar at Rimini , and procured the 
Author many egressions of sympathy and regard from 
foreign Dantophilists. It was translated into Italian by 
the Cav. Giambattista Ferrari, and published at Venicet 
by the Cay. Filippo Scolari, 1865. In this work Dn Bar- 
low showed, botn from manuscripts and early commenta- 
tors, that the reading of Inf. V., 102, should be 

Che mi fu tolta, e il mondo ancor m^offiende. 

and not modo as now printed. 

At this period the Doctor formed the project of pub- 
lishing, should his life be spared for a few years, A 
Band Book of the Divina Commedia, analytical and histo- 
rical; A Word Book of the Divina Commedia; An English 
Index in extenso of all the subjects in the Poem, and a Com- 
mentary ujpon it, these still exist only in manuscript. The 
latter work was begun at Pisa in 1845, and was continued 
at Florence in 1847 — 8. He had made considerable pre- 
parations for an Album of the Diyina Commedia, contain- 
ing a yast number of original yiews of localities in Italy 
taken by himself. He had also an idea of printing a new 
text of the Poem from the Codice Brittanico in the British 
Museum, and of making a prose translation, together with 
a translation of the Convito. 

On May 11***, of this year, Dr. Barlow read, before 
the Royal Society of Literature, a paper on "The Art 
History of the Tree of Life''* On March 19*, 1860, he 
gaye a Lecture on Symbolism at the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, in which he endeayoured to impart a 
scientific character to the subject by tracing it up to first 
principles in the theologies of ancient nations**. 

Dr. Barlow took a deep interest in the emancipation of 
Italy from the yoke of Austria, and in the advancement 
of Italian unity***. 

In 1858, when the machinations of a party unfriendly to 

* It was printed in the October number of The Journal of Sacred 
Literature 1862. An Essay on *^ Sacred Trees^^ had been printed in 
the previous namber. 

** The lecture was printed in extenso in The Builder (March 24» 81, 
and April 14, 1860) and in The Building News; A compendium of it 
appeared in the Transactions of the Institute. 

*** See Letters in The Morning Post, Jan. 24; Feb. 16; March 21; 
and Nov. 21, 1860. Jan. 8; March 11; August 28, 1861; and 
March 21, 1863. 



^MMMMH 



14 

France tried to involve England in a war with her neigh- 
bour — when Leviathan sounded the key-note, and "our 
correspondents'', with one accord, loined their small voices 
to swell the alarm, he was one of tnose who nought to stem 
the current of this wicked clamour, and to expose its evil 
origin. Knowing the sentiments of the French nation, 
and having confidence in the common sense of his own 
countrymen, he was convinced there would be, could be 
no war, so long as each country remained true to itself; 
and though friends might profess to be astonished at his 
*' delusion'', he only wondered at their credulitv. 

When Austria broke into the Sardinian territory, and 
the Emperor of the French, true to his Italian instincts, 
hastened to thrust her out, he stigmatized as ^'an asser- 
tion as false as it was unfair, and as wicked as it was 
unwise" the base insinuation that France only intended 
to take the place of Austria. (Morning Post, May IS^*^, 
1859.) Happily for the peace of Europe, soon after this 
the British Ministry was changed; the patrons of Austria 
were put out, and the friends of Italy took their places. 
Then, also, did the time-serving Times turn round, ceased 
its trumpet-tongue of war, and permitted its readers to 
put on their nignt-caps in peace. The arm of God seemed 
visibly outstretched to succour Italy. The elements fought 
against the Austrians and held them in check, until the 
gallant legions of France were ready to pour down upon 
them— then victory followed victory — Commanders were 
confounded — and a brilliant campaign of five weeks was 
crowned, June 24***, 1859, by the triumph at Solferino. 

With man^ other friends of Italy, Dr. Barlow at first 
felt sadly disappointed at the Imperial programme not 
having been fully carried out, but a thoughtful review of 
the difficulties of the position, occasioned chiefly by Ger- 
man excitement, soon convinced him, that in concluding 
Seace with Austria, the Emperor showed as much pru- 
ence in council, as he had previously exhibited of prow- 
ess in war. Italy was thus rendered free to help her- 
self, and she has done so. In the following year, the neroic 
success of Garibaldi in Sicily and in the kingdom of Naples 
excited universal admiration throughout England and Ame- 
rica. On the 9*** of September the Liberator proclaimed 
Victor Emanuele king of Italy. Dr. Barlow was in Paris 
when the^e glad tidings became known, and taking them 
in connection with the selfdenying character of the Hero, 
conceived that the Veltro of Dante, so long expected and 
so long desired, had indeed come at last, and was truly 



15 

verified in the person of Qiuseppe Garibaldi. Gaiignanfs 
Messenger of Sept. 14**» had a letter of his on this subject^ 
which he resumed in the Morning Post of Nov. 29*^ and 
treated at greater length in the Athencevm of Feb. 16^**; 
1861. Dr. Barlow's Ode to Garibaldi was printed on the 
occasion of his presenting the king of Italy to his new 
subjects, November 7% lo60. Subsequently he dedicated 
to the General a collection of poems printed for private 
circulation ; saluting him as "// Veltro, il Messo di Dio e 
Duce, del Divino Poeta Dante Allighieri profetizzato^\ 
quoting; from The Times of Nov. 19^, the memorable 
words — "To the enterprize of one man, blamed, decried, 
and ridiculed in the highest places, Italy owes her ex- 
istence as a Nation"., 

From 1861 to 1864, the Doctor was occupied in pre- 
paring for the Press his long contemplated work entitled 
"Critical, Historical,, and Philosophical Contri- 
butions TO THE Study op the Divina Commedia^'; 
but he did not confine his literary labours to this work 
only, besides various contributions to the Athenseum, he 
published in 1862, "Il gran Rifiuto'', in which he 
showed (Inf. III., 60) that the individual 

Che fece, per viltate, il gran rifiuto, 

was Messer Vieri de' Cerchi, the head, in Florence, of 
the Bianchi, and whose refusal to defend his party was 
the ruin of the Poet. An Italian version of it by Sig. 
Guiscardi was printed at Naples in 1864. 

Dr. Barlow published, in the same year, a sketch 
from the Pisan Annals, "Il Conte Ugolino E l'Arci- 
vescovo Ruggieri", also a fragment of English history 
entitled "The young king and Bertrand de Born", 
in which he showed, from Codici, and well known histor- 
ical facts, that the reading of Inf. XXVIII., 135 ought 
to be, as Prof. Parenti had previously stated, 

Che al re giovane died! i mal conforto. 

He also wrote for the Ifome and Foreign JReview, Octo- 
ber 1863, an article, "Dante and his Commentators". 

The time was now drawing on apace when the Doctor 
was doomed to sustain the most severe blow of his life, 
in the irreparable loss of his much-loving Mother. Sophia 
Barlow survived her Husband six years and two days. 
She was bom April 16% 1782, and, in her eigthy-second 
year, on Thursday, January 14% 1864, at a quarter past 
three in the afternoon, having suffered with saintly re- 
signation an illness of thirteen days, her loving spirit left 



16 

its earthly for a heavenly home. The extreme cold at the 
beginning of this month had produced a serious increase 
of her usual bronchitic symptoms in winter, but it was 
only four days before her decease that these became alarm* 
ing, when Dr. Snow Beck was immediately fetched to at- 
tend her. The medicines administered relieved the bron- 
chitis , but their effects proved fatal to the debilitated 
frame. On Wednesday Jan. 13^*', the Rev. Mr. Cay, the 
incumbent, administered the last sacrament of the Angli- 
can Church. Standing at the foot of the bed, he said to 
her in a consolatory tone — "you are looking to Jesus" — 
to which, with earnestness, she replied — ^'/ have always 
looked to Jesus '% and then, conscious that her end was fast 
approaching, added — '^i/es, from first to last'\ Her delight 
had been ever with the Lord, and •now, like her pious 
spouse who had gone before, she waited with Christian 
confidence the hour of her rejease. There was a much 
used Testament in which, as a school girl, she had first 
learnt to read of Jesus, and it remained her favourite 
hand-book to the last. Her son often solicited her to let 
him get the volume handsomely bound, but her answer 
always was, "no my dear, I prefer it as it is''— Life at 
the longest seems but a brief span when its last hour 
approaches, and this well worn book brought to mind her 
youthful days and linked the present to the past. She pos- 
sessed other Bibles and Testaments, each having an espe- 
cial interest in her eyes, but this one was her favourite, 
and the day never closed without her reading some por- 
tion of it. On Thursday, January 21**, the funeral so- 
lemnity took place, when the plumed hearse, slowly and 
moumMly, bore her mortal bodv along that hill of tombs, 
up which with feeble steps she had lately toiled alone, to 
visit, on a dreary day, her husband's grave. These sacred 
pilgrimages were frequent throughout the year, and were 
a source to the dear old Lady of much satisfaction. She 
seemed thus to anticipate a speedy reunion with her life's 

Eartner in the grave, at the time of whose decease they 
ad lived together, man and wife, fifty-three years, from 
August 17^**. 1805. The following lines were inscribed 
to her memory, but they give but a poor picture of the 
admirable original. 

A Daughter, Sister, Wife, and Mother, 
Like her ^twere hard to find another; 
Through ev'ry Christian sphere her life had past, 
A ministry of love from first to last, 



17 

And now , arriv'd at her eternal rest, 

She joins, with praise, the trimnph of the blessM. 

The death of his beloved and self-denying Mother was 
felt to be as the extinction of light and joy in the Doc- 
tor's now lonely dwelling; a privation which nothing could 
fill; a loss which nothing could replace. He sought relief 
in his literary labours; and in the exhilarating influence 
of geological rambles; these only helped to mitigate what 
nothing could remove. His great work on the Divina 
Commedia was now far advanced in printing; but the sol- 
ace this afforded was without consolation; since She was 
no more who would have rejoiced with him in its success. 

Towards the end of the volume, at page 581; as Dante 
draws near to the close of his glorious vision, occurs a 
passage which may be understood of Beatrice, but from 
certain expressions used; appears to be connected with 
the mental vision of her whose love ever filled his heart; 
it is as follows — "Thus the Poet approaches the allotted 
term of his labours; and the consummation of his career. 
Thus also the devout Christian soul; queif anima beata, 
whose life has been a ministry of love from first to last, 
spiritualizing and rendering beautiful in the sight of God 
and of his saints , the duties of this present sphere; rises 
to participate in the glories that shall be revealed; and 
approaches with meekness to receive a crown of life.'' 

Three months had not elapsed since the death of his 
Mother, when the Doctor had to give up the family pro- 
perty which had descended from Father to SoU; through 
three generations; for ninety-nine years. This event, how- 
ever, had been duly provided for by the providence of 
one Parent aided by the prudent management of the other. 

As a relief to his mind, in the course of the summer 
and autumn, the Doctor set forth with his hammer on 
various excursions to knock at the doors of all the rocks 
throughout England; the last knock he gave opened to 
him the door of the Geological Society, of whicn he be- 
came a Fellow in the following year. 

In October, 1864, his laborious work on the Divina 
Commedia, the result of many years study and research 
in the public libraries of Italy, France, Germany, Den- 
mark and England, was published by Mess'^^. Williams 
and Norgate. It was dedicated to the approaching festi- 
val of Dante AUighieri, and bore the following inscrip- 
tion. 



18 

ALLA 

COMMEMORAZIONE 

DEL SESTO CENTENARIO DELLA NASCITA 

DI 

DANTE ALLIGHIERI, 

POETA, TEOLOGO, E FILOSOFO 

SEMPRE SOMMO, 

QUESTA OPERA t) DEDICATA 

L^ANNO DELL' ERA SUA 

D. XC. IX. 

A copy was sent to all the principal libraries of Europe. 
In Italy it was hailed with applause, and, at the subse- 
quent Mostra Dantesca^ a silver medal of honour was award- 
ed to the Author by the Municipality of Florence. A 
short supplement to it was printed early in the following 
year. An important event was now nearly arrived to 
which Dr. Barlow had for years looked forward, and in 
the suggestions for which he had taken a leading part. 
The Festival of Dante Allighieri was to be celebrated at 
Florence, at the time, and in the manner which, nearly 
seven years previously, he had been the first to propose. 
(See Athen^um Dec. 25% 1858.) 

On Monday April 10% 1865, the Doctor set out for the 
Capital of Italy to take part in this great National De- 
monstration, rassing through France, he slept the first 
night at Paris, the second at Tonnerre, then rested two 
days at M4con-sur-Saone, was at Lyons on Good-Friday, 
at Avignon on Saturday, and at Marseilles on Easter 
Sunday. He thence proceeded to Nice, by Toulon and 
the picturesque scenery between Frejus and Canne. At 
Nice he remained several days, much pleased with the 
environs, especially those about Villa Franca, and the in- 
teresting raised beaches of St. Laurent on the Var. He 
then continued his journey by the magnificent Riviere di 
Ponente to Men tone, San Remo, Oneglia, Savona, Voltri, 
and Genova. This was the first time he had passed that 
way, and he was charmed with every thing and every 
body except the locandieri. The finest part of it was he 
thought between Nice and Mentone*. After a few days 

* The general character of this route is briefly described in his 
diary as follows — "The road traverses the outlying spurs of lofty 
limestone mountains, crossing ravines, skirting dizzy precipices, as- 
cending and descending. Hill succeeds to hill, and valley to valley. 
Small towns are seen crouching along tbe beach, others aire discov- 
ered perched high up on the steep slopes among the pale-green 
olive trees which here often attain to a most venerable growth, 



19 

at Genova to refresh his memory, and renew agreeable 
reminiscences ; he went by sea to La Spezia, a pleasant 
excursion, and thence by rail to his favourite Pisa, where 
he lingered for a week, arriving at Florence on Monday 
May 8"*; one month less two days from his leaving London. 

The Festival of Dante at Florence will ever be me- 
morable among the fasti of Italy. It began on the 14^** 
of May, which was Sunday, the festival day. of Christian 
Europe, and lasted till the 16^^. Dr. Barlow had the 
privilege on the 14*** of taking part in the august cere- 
mony of unveiling the Statue of JDante in the riazza di 
Santa Croce, 'and, from the Palace of the Comune, walked 
in the procession along with the Committee for the Mo- 
nument. 

Arrived in the Piazza he was permitted to occupy a 
place in the inner circle near the Tnrone, and, on the fall- 
ing of the veil, was the first to raise the universal shout — 
Onorate Valiissimo Poeta. On the 17% at the Banquet given 
by the Florentines to the Illustrious Strangers, the Doc- 
tor had the honour of supporting the noble chairman, 
the Count Terenzio Mamiani, and of returning thanks 
on the part of the foreign guests for the toast of the 
evening drunk to them by the Gonfaloniere, the Count 
Cambray Digny. On this occasion a remarkable circum- 
stance occurred. Some Germans present expressed the 
wish to see Italy free from the Alps to the Adriatic. The 
Count Mamiani, in his concluding speech, stated, on the 

Sart of the Italian hosts, the joy it had given them to 
ear from the strangers seated at the banquet, words full 
of a profound love for Italy, and of avowed wishes for 
the completion of her unity. These sentiments coming 
from their friends, the French and English, were not new 
to them, and did not excite surprize, their surprize began 
on hearing several illustrious Germans utter the same 
aspirations. Mamiani thanked the German nation for 
those generous vows, adding that nothing was so much 
desired and looked forward to by the peoples of the Pen- 
insula, as to be able to grasp with affection the hand of 
the descendants of Arminius. These were prophetic words. 
In little more than a year Italy had indeed grasped the 
hand of her German Sister, and they together declared war 
against the Austrian foe (June 20"*, 1866). It would almost 

while, near Bordighera, groups of stately palms cluster together 
like juvenile forests, but after passing Oneglia they become scarce, 
and cease entirely at Savona, where the mountains recede from the 
sea, and leave a broad fine sandy shore. 

2* 



20 

seem as if Coant Bismarck had secretly sent emissaries to 
this banquet^ to sound the hearts of the Italians, and 
prompt them to act the part he desired they should take. 

We all know what followed, and how Italy gained at 
Sadowa (July 3^), much more than she had lost; ten days 
before, at Custozza (June 24^). Venice was her reward 
for assisting German friends — so, only, Rome will follow. 

Ten days .after the festival of Dante, all Florence was 
astonished at the news from Ravenna, that the dry bones 
of the Poet had miraculously come to light. This strange 
event happened on the morning of May 27% in demol- 
ishing an old wall near the Convent of the Franciscans, 
where they had lain concealed for two hundred years. 
The workman's pick broke the box containing them, and 
the bones tumbled out. The discovery gave rise to a Dante 
Festival of three days at Ravenna, from June 24*** to the 
2G*''. But before proceeding thither, the Doctor occupied 
himself for more than a month, in examining Codici at 
Florence especially those at the Mostra Dantesca^ which 
were transformed into a consulting library for the studious 
of fifteen days duration. (See Athenaeum No. 1998.) In 
this interval Dr. Barlow received from the Minister of 
Public Instruction the following letter, requesting his ac- 
ceptance of the title of Cavalier as a public testimony of 
the high esteem in which the Italian Government held his 
Dantesque labours. 

Regno dItalia. Ministro della Istruzione Pubblica 

etc. etc. etc. 

Firenze addi 10 Giugno 1865. 
La Maest^ del Re, accogliendo la proposta da me fattagliene, 
ha nominata la S. V. Cavaliere dell' Ordine dei SS': Maurizio e 
Lazzaro, con Decreto de' 5 and®:. 

lo Bono ben lieto di darle partecipazione di questa onorificenza, 
La prego a volerla accettare come pubblico attestato della molta 
Btima che fa de* meriti di Lei il nostro Governo, soUecito di ono- 
rarc y da qualunque paese vengano , le degne opere fatte in pro 
degli studii danteschi. 

Come prima mi sar^ mandato dal Gran Magistero dell' Ordine 
MaurizianOy io trasmetterb alia S. Y. chiarissima il suo Diploma 
di Cavaliere , col quale Ella ricevera pure la decorazione. Le ras- 
BOgno intanto la mia plena osservauza. 

per II Ministro. 
Al ChiarisBimo BianchL 

Sig: Dott: Enrico Barlow. 



21 

• 

This reward coming in the name of Dante Allighieri 
was very gratefully received. The Diploma , by which 
Dr. Barl(5w became No. 2269 in the roll of the foreign 
Cavaliers of the Italian Order of the Saints Maurice and 
Lazarus ; was subsequently sent to him through the Ita- 
lian Minister in London^ along with the Decoration. He 
also received from the Gonfaloniere of Florence; in the 
name of the Comune, the following complimentary com- 
munication along with the silver medal. 

MUNICIPIO DI FiRENZE. 

Firenze, li 21 Giugno 1865. 
Illustre Signore, 

Del Suo grande amore a Dante, e delle 
egregie doti che adomano ranimo di V. S. niuma:, Ella diede 
generosa prova col Suo lavoro suUa Divina Commedia, che voile, 
in omaggio al Divino Poeta, ofi&ire a questo Municipio. Questa 
gara dei piu nobili ingegni Italian! e Stranieri nel coucorrere agli 
onori del Sommo Cittadino, se era una potente confermazione dei 
nostri propositi, e lieto augurio di compiere nel nome di Lui i 
nostri destini, era ancora argomento di grande consolazione per 
questa Citta, che risalutata dalla Nazione qual Madre di Dante, 
pot^ alfine accettare quel nome coUa maggiore effusione di affetto. 
Per queste ragioni doppiamente gradito fu a questo Municipio il 
dono gentile della S. V. Elluma:, e sono ben lieto di trasmetter- 
gliene le piu vive grazie accompagnandole un esemplare della 
medaglia Commeiiiorativa del VI°. Centenario a maggior con- 
ferma di questo Sentimento di gratitudine verso colore, che ono- 
rando nella Sua Citta natale il Poeta Sovrano, onorarono la Na- 
zione della quale egli fu e sara la'piu splendida gloria. 

Al Sig: Dottore II Gonfaloniere 

Enrico Barlow Cambray Digny. 

Dr. Barlow was not ready fo leave Florence before 
Saturday, June 24*^, the first day of the Festival at Ra- 
venna, and did not reach that city till the illuminations 
in the evening rendered it conspicuous for miles around. 
The next day he paid his devotions at the remains of 
Dante, took a sketch of the crystal urn in which they 
were deposited, copied the inscriptions, and in the after- 
noon, somewhat precipitately, left for Bologna, much to 
the subsequent regret of the Syndic and others, whose 
good intentions came rather too late. 

The Doctor now set his face towards England, staying 



22 

a few days at Bologna; Milan; and Arena; from whence 
lie crossea the Simplon to Sion; and then on by rail to Lau- 
sanne; Basle; and Frankfort. At Mainz he took the Rhine 
to Cologne, spent two days in his old quarters overlook- 
ing the noble river; and tneu; passing through Brussels to 
Ostend; embarked on board a steamer for London, and 
arrived at Newington Butts early on Saturday Morning, 
July 15% after an absence of three months and five days. 
In the Autumn he went down as usual to his favourite 
Devon. A very complete narrative of the Festivals of 
Dante was printed by him in the following year, but 
without his name on the title page*. He had already 
given an account of Dante's mortal remains in the Athe- 
naeum for Sept. 9*^ 1865, and in that for Feb. W\ 1866, 
printed a notice of the Codici at the Mostra Dantesca, 

Towards the close of 1866, Dr. Barlow's previous pa- 
pers on Symbolism were, with some additions, printed and 
published by Mess". Williams and Norgate, under the 
title of ^^ Essays on Symbolism'^ In this work we may 
perceive an advance in his religious opinions towards the 
conception of an all-embracing Christianity without its 
disputed dogmas. His convictions with advancing years 
had outgrown the limits of stereotyped formulse. The 
study of Dante had raised his mind to a region of reflec- 
tion where religious differences and dogmas have no place. 
These he had come to regard as the babblings of children 
on the merits of their own toys. Pious wranglings ex- 
cited his pity, religious animosities his regret. 

Early in life he had a strong desire to enter the Church 
as a profession, had it been so ordained, he would not 
have been able, and probably would not have had the 
inclination, to work out for himself those universal prin- 
ciples of humanity and the convictions of the enlightened 
conscience that are the very life and soul of Christianity, 
and on the developement of which its existence and pro- 
gress depend. 

Much of Dr. Barlow's time was spent within the walls 
of his well-stored library in literary occupation, but for 
three months out of the twelve he rejoiced like a bird in 
its liberty; courting the beauties of nature and the trea- 
sures of art both at home and abroad. 

Familiar with foreign capitals, he delighted to pay them 

• Of this work Prof. Giudici, in a letter to the Author, remarked — 
^'Se il mio parere ha qualche peso, le posso dire che non poteva 
farsi una piA fedele ed elegante descrizione di quella memorabile 
solennitii". 



23 

periodical visits ^ to converse again with old friends, to 
witness the changes that had taken place, and the general 
advancement made in the interests of society. In 1867 
he thus spent three months in renewing his acauaintance 
with the Picture Galleries and Museums througnout Ger- 
many; making those of Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, and Mu- 
nich especial objects of study, and passing more rapidly 
over those \)f Antwerp, Cologne, Brunswick, Prague, Augs- 
burg, Stuttgart, and Carlsruhe. He also spent several 
pleasant days, as before, on the Elbe at Pillnitz, Schandau, 
and the Bastei ; at Linz on the Danube ; and at Salzburg. 
Between Prague and Vienna he visited the scenes of the 
late German war, Pardubitz and Koniggratz, and passed 
a few days at that industrious and charming little capital 
of Moravia, Briinn. 

At Dresden he had a conference with King John of 
Saxoxiy 5 at Vienna he made the acquaintance of the emi- 
nent Dantophilist Prof. Mussafia; and at Stuttgart exam- 
ined, for the first time, the Codice of the Divina Com- 
moedia, which at Pard. XVI., v. 69, has the reading 

come del ventre il cibo che sapone. 

In the autuum of this year. Dr. Barlow was made an 
Honorary Member of the Deuischen Dante-Gesellschaft that 
dates its existence from 1865, and of which the King of 
Saxony is the Protector, and Prof. Karl Witte, of Halle, 
the President. He is the only Englishman on whom this 
honour has been conferred. 

By travelling express from Strassburg \o Paris, the 
Doctor had the satisfaction of being present during the 
last day at the International Exhibition. Though art was 
the primary object of this tour, yet Science was not ne- 
glected. Geology came in for a share of his attentions, 
and the continually increasing weight of his luggage testi- 
fied that his attachment had not cooled. 

Like his Fathers before him, Dr. Barlow was a mem- 
ber of the Anglican Communion, and fully agreed in her 
fundamental truths. He had one efficient test for the 
Christian character, this was—- a loving conformity to the 
Divine rule of Christ. Of Scriptural statements he took 
an enlarged and philosophic vi^w according to the cir- 
cumstances of the time when they were written — he 
deemed the doctrine of oiir Lord to be the best evidence 
to us of His Divinity (John VII., 16, 17; 46) — and re- 
garded Christianity as a system to be developed with the 
advancement of knowledge. Desirous that its humaniz- 



24 

ing influences should penetrate to the lowest class, he was 
an advocate for providing rational recreation for the people 
on the Lord's-day, by the opening of public galleries and 
museumS; and for this object supported the Sunday Lea- 
gue ; he had also, under the signature ^' Anglicanus '' con- 
tributed to its periodical ^^The Becwd^K The principles 
he advocated were these. The experience of individuals^ 
and the progressive history of nations , show that the di- 
vine rule of Christian Love lies at the root of all personal 
happiness and public prosperity. The light of science 
and the light oi the Gospel converge to the same focus, 
and mutually support ana strengthen each other. Neither 
persons nor nations can love themselves and hate one 
another, for the same law applies to both; the welfare of 
states and the welfare of individuals are under the same 
rule. In the human soul the image of Divine Love is 
never entirely destroyed, it is only disfigured and needs 
restoring; nor is there any one so fallen or depraved, but 
that if the souVs faculties be rightly directed he may, by 
God's grace, rise again and be renewed. This, he would 
say, is the Christian resurrection which most concerns us, a 
rising to newness of life in the likeness of Christ. Dr. Bar- 
low received the truth of the Gospel as it flowed pure 
from the lips of our Lord, not as it afterwards became 
adulterated with the puerile conceptions of men. He re- 

i' acted supematuralism J in religion, as an element not in 
larmony with historical truth, and unsuited to the require- 
ments of an advanced intellectual culture. The neces- 
sity of looking to Jesus, and to Jesus only, became more 
and more the serious conviction of his soul, and he held 
the love of God, as taught by Jesus, to be the sole in- 
ward fountain of eternal life. An Atonement by vicarious 
suffering {See Essays on Symbolism, p. 126.) was, he thought, 
the supreme expression of the religious consciousness. 

The pleasures of this life vary in proportion to our ca- 
pacities for enjoyment, a rule which Divines extend to 
the life to come. Those of the world die out with de- 
clining days, not so those of the heart. The youthful 
delights of parents are revived in their offspring, and in 
children's children recreate once more. Nature is ever 
true to herself. The subject of this memoir was a stranger 
to these affections, but his heart turned with endearing 
fondness to little children, he delighted to make their ac- 
quaintance, and to share in their juvenile joy. 



APPENDIX. 

The following is a list of Dr. Barlow's contribu- 
tions to the Athenaeum and other Periodicals, as 
far as can be ascertained. 

• 
Subjects in reference to Dante and Italy. 

. Athen-sjum. Dante* s Door at Florence, No. 1639. Dante's 
Portrait at Florence, 1649. The Period of Dante*s Vision, 
1570. Fofite Branda, 1601. Francesca da Rimini, 1622. The 
Dante Festival 1626; also 1729, 1894. The Slovino di Marco, 
1636. The Casato of Dante, 1639. Eeview of Lord Ver- 
non's reprint of the first four Editions of the Diviiia Corn- 
media, 1643. Eeview of Thomas' Trilogy, Inferno, 1654. The 
Veltro of Dante, 1674. Dante the Sailor, 1704. The Southern 
Cross, 1716. Garibaldi the Veltro of Dante, 1738. Review 
of FraticeWs Edition of the Divina Commedia, 1746. The 
Murder of Prince Henry at Viterbo, 1749. Proposed Temple 
at Florence in honour of Dante, 1760. Fraticelli's Life of 
Dante, Eeview, 1758. Codid of the Divina Commedia, 1766. 
Pope Clement P^ 1780. The Vita Nuova, Eeview, 1789. 
The Early Italian Poets, Eeview, 1791. A new page in the 
history of Dante Allighieri, 1798. Thomas' Trilogy, Purga- 
tory, Eeview, 1821: for the Paradise see No. 2017. The 
Geographical accuracy of Dante Allighieri, 1835. M""* Bam- 
say's translation of the Inferno and Purgatorio, Eeview, 1849 ; 
of the Paradise, 1897. Dante at Verona, 1899. The In- 
fluence of Beatrice, 1939. Rosettts translation of the In- 
ferno, Eeview, 1953; see also on the word forte, 1954. 
Dante's Remains at Eavenna, 1967. Ihid, 1976. Dante as 
a Philosopher, Patriot, and Poet, Eeview, and the Inferno trans- 
lated by W Ford, 1983. Dayman's Dante, a Eeview, 1997. 
The Feast of Codici at Florence in honour of Dante, 1998. 
The Prophet, a Drama, Eeview, 2042. Codici of the Divina 
Commedia at Uolkham, 2056. Longfellow's translation of the 



26 

Inferno^ Review, 2064. Italian Conversational course, a Re- 
view, 2068. Longfellow's Purgatory, a Review, 2070. Le 
Cinque Spade, 2073. Longfellow's Paradise, a Review, 2076. 

Parthenon. Witte's new text of the Divina Commedia, Re- 
view, No. 4, Dante and his works at Oxford, 13. Codici 
of the Divina Commedia at Cambridge, 29. 

Morning Post. Letter atura Dantesca, August 31, 1854. 

Italy for the Italians, May 13, 1859, signed Justitia as 
also the two following letters. 

The Pope and the Poet, January 24, 1860. 

The Wolf of Rome, February 16, 1860. 

Dante's Prophecy of Piedmont, March 21, 1860. 

Fulfilment of the Prophecy of Dante^ November 29, 1860. 

Proposed Festival at Florence in honour of Dante, dated 
Jan. 8 1861. 

The, King and the Pope, March 11, 1861. 

The last days of the Papacy, August 28, 1861. 

Rome and the King of Italy, May 21, 1863. 

Letters on the National Gallery. 

Morning Post. Dec. 4, 19, 27, 1849. January 5, 11, 
19, 29, 1850. The Royal Academy v. Raphael^ March 12, 
1850. The Revilers of Raphael and their reward, March 28, 
1850. The National Gallery resumed, March 28, April 2, 20, 
1850. May 20, 1850. Sept. 4, 1850 (from Vienna). Sept. 8, 
12, 15, 1851. Dec. 1, 11, 1851. February 6, 1852. May 19, 
1852. December 8, 23, 1852. Feb. 5, 1853. The National 
Gallery its past, present, and future, March 9, 1853; March 
28, 1853. The National Gallery and M' Morris Moore, April 
7, 1853. The National Gallery resumed, March 10, 24, 1854. 
April 13, 1854. May 8, 24, 26, 31, 1854. July 13, 14, 
22, 24, 1854. August 10, 1854. July 24, 1862. June 21, 
1864. January 27, 1867. The earlier of these letters re- 
lated to the Gallery generally and to the preservation of 
the pictures; the later ones opposed its removal elsewhere, 
and advocated the adaptation of the present building. 

Letters on the British Museum. 

Morning Post. Library of the British Museum, Jan. 26, 1850; 
Feb. 4, 13, 1850. Freedom of Access to Foreign Libraries, 
March 14, 1850. Gallery of Sculpture in the British Museum, 
March 18, 1852. The British Museum, and Letter to Sir 
William Molesworth, April 18, 1854. British Museum resu- 
med, April 21, May 4, 19, 1854. 



27 

Letters on the Crystal Palaoe at Sydenham. 

MoRNiNa Post. May 31; July 20; August 16, 23, 24; 
September 9, 13, 1854. Aug. 1, and December 17, 1867. 

Various other Letters in the Morning. Post. 

The Marble Arch, December 22, 1849. National Museum 
of Naval Architecture, Oct. 17, 1851. The Crystal Palace 
(the first) April 8, 1852. Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, June 30, 
1853. Warning to those who visit Berlin with a' Foreign office 
Passport, July 26, 1853. Foreign office Passports in Prussia^ 
Sept. 8, 1853. The Crusader and the Bouse of Commons, 
Feb. 24, 1854. The Drawing of Apollo and Marsyas at Ve- 
nice^ June 29, 1854. Caution to Travellers in Tuscany, Sept. 
28, 1855. Black Mail in Tuscany, Dec. 8, 1855. The Art 
Treasures at Manchester, Sept. 24, 1857. 

Letters in the Builder. 

Symbolical Signification of the Peacock, Sept. 18, 1858. 
Symbolical Signification of the Palm- Tree, the Phosnioc, and the 
Pine Cone, Oct. 30, 1858. Letter preparatory to the Lec- 
ture on Symbolism^ at the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, March 17, 1860. The proposed Monument at Florence 
in honour of Dante, May 18, 1861. Colour no sham, June 14, 
1862. The Cromwell Statue and Fountain at the Crystal Pa- 
lace, April 25, 1863. The National Gallery and the Boyal 
Academy, August 1, 1860. The National Gallery, Jan. 19, 
1867. 

Other printed Letters. 

The Moore Baphael, Atlas No. 267. and Literary Gazette, 
March 10, 1860. Bevival of the Bailway Mania, Times, Nov. 
19, 1853. Monument to Sir Walter Scott at Edinburgh, Scots- 
man, Aug. 29, 1857. The Science of Symbolism in Art (in 
reference to J. W. Papworth), Building News, March 30, 1860. 
Proposed Temple at Florence in honour of Dante, Crijtic, May 
18, 1861. Dr. Barlow also printed two private letters, one — 
To the Committee of the Asylum for Female Orphans, Jan. 2, 
1862, in consequence of the pulpit not having been put in 
mourning on the death of the Prince Consort — the other 
To the Directors of the Crystal Palace, April 14, 1863, for 
having stuck up a cast iron figure of Oliver Cromwell on 
the Terrace of the Garden front. The former of these let- 
ters caused the pulpit to appear in Mack drapery the 
following Sunday, on which the Doctor sent a five-pound 



S8 

note to the Secretary for the benefit of the charity, and the 
latter brought Cromwell down, this he used facetiously to 
say was his great historical achievement, as, single handed, 
by a stroke of his pen, he effected more than Charles 11"*^ 
with all the CaValiers at his back, for he overthrew the 
iron-hearted Protector. 



Drawings to illustrate the Divina Commedia. 

Inferno. 

BoME. Palace of the Caesars^ Inf. I., 71. Eimini, Porta 
d' Augusto, v., 73. Eimini from the sea, with a flight of birds, 
v., 47. Eavenna, with the Tomb of Dante, V., 97 ; XXVII., 
40; etc. Aklbs, Aliscamps^ IX., 112. Lo Slovino di Marco^ 
near Eoveredo, XII., 4 — 9. // Bulicame at VHerbo. XIV., 
79. EoME, il Foro Romano, XIV., 105. Palazzo del Podesta 
at Poppi^ in reference to the Buona Gualdrada^ XVI., 37. 
Bagni di Lucca, il Ponte della Maddelena, XXI., 49. Forli, 
S. Mercuriale, XXVII., 43 — 4, Pesaro, looking towards Cat- 
iolica, XXVIII., 80. The Casenlino, two views of, one look- 
ing towards Poppi, the other towards Romena, XXX., 64 — 9. 
Poppi^ a near view of, ibid; II Castello di Romena, XXX., 
73—5. Fonte Branda, XXX., 78. Fonte Branda at Borgo 
alia CoUina, ibid. La Pina di San Pielro, as placed- on the 
Vatican Terrace, XXXI., 59. La Torre delta fame at Pisa, 
XXXIII., 23. Pisa, general view of, XXXIII., 79. 

Furgatorio. 

L'Archiano, Purg. V., 95; 125. Camaldoli, V., 96. Cam- 
paldino^ with Eomena beyond, V., 92 — 129. The Castle 
of Porciano with the Valley of the Arno, looking towards 
Praia Magno, V., 113. Siena, V., 134. La Diana, a Spring 
at Siena, XIII., 153. Athens, XV., 95. // Grifone, from 
the Ivony Tablet in the Cathedral of Sens, XXXII., 26. 

Paradise. 

Perugia from the Arezzo Eoad. Pard. VI., 75. La bella 
Trinacria, VIII., 67—70. Arco d' Augusta at Perugia, XI., 
46 — 7. La Porta Sole, a,t Perugia, ibid, II Cor so at, ibid, 
Assisi from Perugia, XI., 43 — 5. Chiesa di San Francesco 
at Assisi, XI., 52 — 4. La Verna, general view of, XI., 106. 
La Verna, entrance to, ibid» Trevigi, junction of the Silc 
and Cagnano at, XI., 49. 



29 



GOD'S TEMPLE-THRONE.* 

Nescilis quia templam Doi estis? 

Great God! Thy glory fills the sky 
Refulgent with ethereal light , 

Thy skill is visible on high, 

Kesplendent through the starry night; 



But where art Thou? Thyself unseen 
By mortal eye — the world around 

Declares Thy being; but between 

Thee and Thy works a veil is found. 



They were not once, yet ever Thou 
The Lord of all ere time began; 

To Xheo doth reason deeply bow, 
Who art the light of truth in man. 



The changing winds, the moving deep. 
And streams where gathering waters flow 

From rising springs and glaciers steep, 
And vapour surging to and fro; 



Mountains and valleys, forests, fields. 
And things in which is living breath, 

Whatever the earth with labour yields, 
And love that ceaseth not with death: 



These show Thy wisdom; these Thy ways; 

While far around as sight may roam, 
Revolving planets hymn Thy praise, 

Within the vast aerial dome. 



* These lines were written for an American Clerical Friend during 
Dr. Barlow*s residence at Kome in 1855. 



30 



But where art Thou? Lord of all pow'r, 
Is there a place where Thou art found? 

Thou art not in the passing hour, 
Thou art not where there is a bound 



In time or space — the human mind 
Alone can reach Thy temple-throne, 

Alone within itself can find 

Where Thou art seen, and felt, and known. 

H. C, B. 

Roma. M.DCCC.LV. 



A ROMA. 

Fellegrino del mondo, or fiacco e stanco, 
Anziche sia dalla machina sciolta 
Qiiesta auima, e la terra a me fia tolta, 
Non col bordone n^ la sacca al fianco. 



Ma con quel cuore che fa V uomo franco, 
In buona compagnia devota e folta, 
A Roma io torno ancor' un' altra volta. 
Or quando TApennin si mostra bianco. 



Di Roma antica, alle genti lucerna. 
La sovran potenza mai non s^oblia, 
E in Te ch'or splendi chi pensi discema 



Una vera Regina bella e pia, 
Che nata in tempo, di gloria s'eterna, 
U' siede in ciel senza-macchia MARIA. 

H. C. B. 

Qucsto Sonetto fa stampato a Roma nel Mese di Dicembre 1854. 



31 



Diploma di Cavaliere. 

SUA MAESTA VITTOMO EMANUELE H 

PER GRAZIA DI DIO E PER VOLONTA DELLA NAZIONE 

RE D' ITALIA 

E DELL' ORDINE DEI SANTI MAURIZIO E LAZZARO 
GENERALE GRAN MASTRO 

Ha firmato il seguente decreto: 

Sulla proposta del Nostro Ministro Segretario di Stato 

{>er Plstruzione pubblica; ed in considerazione di partico- 
ari benemerenze; — 

Abbiamo nominato e nominiamo il Dottore Barlow En- 
rico a Cavaliere dell' Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e LazzarO; 
con facoltk di fregiarsi delle insegne per tale Equestre 
grado stabilite — 

II Ministro di Stato Nostro Primo Segretario del Gran 
Magistero h incaricato delP esecuzione del presente De- 
creto, che sark registrato al Controllo Generale delP Or- 
dine Mauriziano. 

Dat. Firenze addi 5. Giugno 1865. 

Finnato Tittorio Emanuele = Controssegnato 

Visto Cibrario. Natoli. 

Il Primo Segretario di S. M. Pel gran Magistero 
DELL' Ordine DEI S. S. Maurizio e Lazzaro dichiara 
che in esecuzione delle soprascritte venerate Regie dispo- 
sizioni il Signer Dottore Enrico Barlow — venne inscritto 
nel Ruolo dei Cavalteri, Esteri, al No. 2269, e ne spedisce 
il presente documento al Decorate. 

Firenze il 24. Giugno 1865. 

II Ministro di Stato 

Primo Segretario de S. M. 

Primo Presidente 

Cibrario. 

II Capo del Gabinetto e Personale 

Biestro, 



32 



Estratto dall' Epilogo delle disposizioni dell' Ordine. 

Anticamente POrdine dei Sb. Maurizio e Lazzaro si com- 

fioneva di due sole classi; la prima dei Cavalieri di Gran 
>roce; la seconda de' semplici Cavalieri. I Commendatori, 
cosi chiamati perch6 provveduti di Commenda; diflferivano 
dei semplici Uavalieri in questo, che la Croce era eredi- 
taria nel primogenito fra i chiamati. 

II Re Carlo Alberto ; nelP anno 1831; form6 ire classi 
di Cavalieri; 

La prima dei Cavalieri di Gran Cordone. 

La seconda dei Commendatori. 

La terza dei Cavalieri. 

II Re Vittorio Emanuele II., con Decreti del 28 novem- 
bre. 14 dicembre 1855, e 11 febbrajo 1857, aggiunse alP 
Ordine due altre classi, cioe quella dei Grandi Uffiziali, 
intermedia fra i Gran Cordoni e i Commendatori, e quella 
dogli Uffiziali, fra i Commendatori e i Cavalieri. 

I Cavalieri di Gran Cordone portano una sciarpa verde 
a tracolla, da cui pende una grossa Croce coronata, ed 
una Stella al lato sinistro del petto ^ a cui e accollata la 
Croce deir Ordine. 

I Grandi Uffloiali portano una Croce di mezzana di- 
mensione sormontata da corona, appesa al coUo con un 
nastro verde, accompagnata da una stella d' argento in 
forma di losanga, a cui e accollata la Croce delP Ordine, 
che si porta sul lato manco. 

I Conimendatori portano una Croce di mezzana dimen- 
siono senza corona, appesa al coUo con un nastro verde. 
Qunndo non sono in abito di gala possono portare la pic- 
cola Croce coi*onata al lato sinistro del petto. 

Gli Uffisiali portano una Croce ugnale a quella dei Ca- 
valieri, ma cimata da una ghirlanda formata di due rami 
di (luoroia o di alloro, appesa per un nastro verde ad una 
fibbia d' oro da portarsi al lato sinistro del petto. 

I Cavalieri portano la Croce piccoU semplice appesa ad 
nn nastro verae al lato sinistro del petto. 

I Grand! Uffiuali fanno uso delP oniforme stabilito pei 
i\nnuu>ndatori, o gU Uffiziali di quelle stabilito pei Caval- 
ieri, (IVilf a Voiume iMie Provvidanze che si ri/eriscono 
aii^ Ori^e MtwrizHmo pubhiicato in Torino dal Tipografo 
dH (;#wi Ma§tisitiH> G, Marxorati.) 



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