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Full text of "A Brief Sketch of George Peabody"

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A BRIEF SKETCH 



GEORGE PEABODY. 



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en 



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A BRIEF SKETCH 



GEORGE PEABODY. 



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A BRIEF SKETCH 



GEORGE PEABODY. 



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]$eaboD( Ctucatton fatta. 



A BRIEF SKETCH 

OP 

GEORGE PEABODY, 

AND A HISTORY OF 

THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND 

THROUGH THIRTY YEARS. 



J^LyMrcURRY. 



CAMBRIDGE: 
UNIVERSITY PRESS : JOHN WILSON AND SON. 



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TO THE TRUSTEES 



El)e l^ea&otig Sliucattan Juntr, 



ERAL AGENTS StI 

CONFIDENCE, 

THIS Volume 

OBATEFULLY INS 



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TRUSTEES 



PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 



THE BOARD AS ORIGINALLY APPOINTED 
BY MR, PEABODY. 

■Hon. Robert C- Winthrop .... Massachusetts, 

■Hon. Hamilton Fbh New York. 

•Right Rev. Charles P. McIltaine . . Okio. 

•General U. S. Grant Umted States Army. 

•Admiral D. G. Farracut United States Navy. 

•Hon. William C. Rives Virginia. 

•Hon. John H. Clifford Massachusetts. 

"Hon. William Aiken South Carolina, 

Hon. WitxiAM M. EvAR-re New York. 

•Hon. William A. Graham North Caro&na, 

•Charles Macalesffji, Esq Pennsyhiania. 

■George W. Bjgcs, Esq Wasking^n. 

•Samuel Wetmore, Esq Nem York. 

'Edward A. Bradford, Esq. (resigned) . Louisiana. 

■George N. Eaton, Esq Maryland, 

George Peabody Russell, Esq. (resigned) Massachusetts, 



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TRUSTEES OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 
(Continued.') 

The vacancies created by death or resignation have been filled 
by the election of: — 

'Hon. Samuel Watson Tennessee, 

'Hon. A. H. H. Stuart (resigned) . . Virginia. 

■General Richard Taylor Louisiana. 

•Surgeon-General Joseph K. Barnes, U.S.A. Washington. 

•Chief- Justice Morrison R, Watte . . , Washington, 

Right Rev. Henry B. WHn>PLE .... Minnesota. 

Hon. Henry R. Jackson (resigned) . . Georgia. 

•Colonel Theodore Lvuan (resigned) . . Massachusetts. 

•Ex-President RutherK)rd B. Hayes . . Ohio. 

•Hon. Thomas C. Manning Louisiana. 

•Anthony J. Drexel, Esq Pennsyhania. 

Hou. Samuel A. Green Massachusetts. 

Hon. James D. Porter Tennessee, 

J. PiERPONT Morgan, Esq New York. 

Ex-President Grover Cleveland . . . New Jersey. 

Hon. WiLUAM A. CouRTENAY Soulh CaroUna. 

•Hon. Charl£s Devens Massachusett. 

•Hon. Randall L Gibson Louisiana. 

Chief-Justice Melville W. Fuller . . . Washington. 

Hon. William Wirt Henry Virginia. 

Hon. Henderson M. Somerville . . . Alabama. 

Hon. William C. Endicott (rcMgned) . Massachusetts. 

Hon. Joseph H. Choate New York. 

•George W. Childs, Esq Pennsylvania. 

Hon. Charles E. Fenner Louisiana. 

Daniel C. Oilman, LL.D Maryland. 

Hon. George Peabody Wetmore . . . Rhode Island. 

•Hon. John Lowell Massachusetts. 

Hon. George F. Hoar Massachusetts. 

Hon. Richard Olnev Massachusetts. 

Hon. J. L. M. CURRV, Honorary Mtmier and Gmerat Ascnt, 
Nb. 1736 M Slnit, Waihinstan, D. C. 

is may be addnssed.) 



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PREFACE. 



IT seemed to the writer that a History of the Peabody 
Education Fund would be very incomplete without 
a brief mention of the career and characteristics of the 
remarkable man by whose generosity it was founded. 
His life, both in this country and in England, although that 
of a successful man of business, had in it much to stimulate 
youth and excite patriotism. Scattered through many 
books may be found pleasant notices of what he did to 
benefit and please his countrymen. In President Felton's 
" Familiar Letters from Europe," I have juit read an 
account of his being a guest " at a splendid and costly 
entertainment," given in 1853, at which Van Buren and 
" many very distinguished persons " were present. " It 
was really a most superb and recherche dinner, wtth 
every luxury of earth, sea, and air; and, to crown the 
whole, a concert, in which the best musicians of the 
Italian opera — Grisi, Mario, etc. — performed." Several 
persons of each sex have kindly furnished some incidents, 
which are now, for the first time, put in print 

The full History of the Fund is contained in the four 
published volumes of the Board, and in the subsequent an- 
nual Reports. Much misapprehension as to the plans and 
purposes of the Trustees, and no little ignorance of the 
Foundation, exist, as is apparent from numerous inquiries 



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and misstatements. It seemed therefore appropriate to link 
together scattered details and give in the brief compass of 
a single volume what has been accomplished by this most 
remarkable of modern benefactions. 

For the use of the engraved portrait of Mr. Peabody, 
which serves as a frontispiece to this volume, the Trustees 
are indebted to the Massachusetts Historical Society, for 
one of whose volumes it was originally prepared. 

Aprils iSfiS. 



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HISTORY 



PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 



■ CHAPTER I. 

ON the i8th of February, 1795, in the south parish of 
old Danvers, five miles northwest of Salem, in 
Massachusetts, was born George Peabody. His parents, 
humble but respectable, were of English origin, Lieutenant 
Francis Peabody of St. Albans, England, who came to 
New England, in the ^hip "Planter," in 1635, being an 
ancestor.' He attended, for a short time, the common 
village school, such as schools were from 1803 to 1807. 
At eleven, he was apprenticed as a shop-boy in a grocer's 
store, and received, as he said himself, " parental kindness 
and such instructions and precepts, by endeavoring to 
practise which in after life I attribute much of my suc- 
cess." . Wishing a wider field, he left the store and spent a 
year at Post Mills Village, Vermont. On his return he paid 
for 3 night's entertainment in Concord, N. H., by sawing 
wood the next morning. His attachment to Post Mills 
Village was shown by a visit late in life and the gift of a 
library. In i8ii, he went as clerk with his brother David, 
who kept a dry-goods store in Newburyport. Here he 
earned the first money he ever made, outside of his busi- 
> Proceeding* of Mats. Hutorical Sodet;, vol. xL p, z^ 



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2 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

iiess, by writing ballots for the Federal party, printed bal- 
lots not being tlien in use. A fire destroyed the store 
and caused the failure in business of the brother; and 
so, at the age of sixteen, George was an orphan without 
money, employment, or influence. In May, l8l3, he 
sailed for Georgetown, District of Columbia, with his 
uncle, and the two soon established themselves in busi- 
ness. He showed such industry and capacity that in 
iSt4, at nineteen, he became a partner with Mr. Elisha 
Kiggs,the latter furnishing the capital and young Feabody 
supplying what was better, practical and astute manage- 
ment of affairs. Beginning life very poor, he toiled as^ 
siduously for what he gained, and learned that economy 
and thrift which became a habit of his life, ingrained into 
his very nature, and made him, when he had amassed a 
fortune, refuse to yield to the exactions of those who pre- 
sumed upon his wealth, " Free-handed generosity lay side 
by side with much tenacity of insistence on any right, 
small or great." When he was dispensing millions he in- 
sisted, one day, on walking in London, because the cab- 
man he called wanted more than his lawful fare. While 
engaged in his store, his active mind foresaw what was 
afterwards to be developed into the wonderful express- 
system, which reticulates our entire country. He offered 
to forward packages to Baltimore, and made an appeal 
to merchants and shippers for their patronage, and thus 
began a successful enterprise of parcel delivery. Of in- 
dustrious nature, he had a contempt for the idle and the 
profligate, was systematic in his work, and with " thrifty 
shrewdness and world-wisdom" combined a talent for 
detail, which is of the essence' of administration. The 
simple and- frugal manner of living, necessitated by lim- 
ited means, grew into fixed habits, confirmed tastes, even 
into some petty economies, which changed not when he 
was able to live luxuriously and indulge extravagant 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 3 

fancies. To the end of a long life he preserved unblem- 
ished the modest simplicity of life and manners formed in 
his youth. In i8i5,the house of Riggs & Peabody was 
removed to Baltimore, and other houses were established 
in Philadelphia and New York. From change of partners, 
the name of the firm was changed to Peabody, Riggs & 
Company. He became deeply attached to Baltimore and 
Maryland, and was fond of recalling "the home of his 
early business and the scene of his youthful exertions." 
There, he gained the first $5,000 of the fortune with which 
Providence rewarded him, and in 1866, when welcomed 
to the city, he said with unconcealed emotion, " I never 
experienced from the citizens of Baltimore anything but 
kindness, hospitality, and confidence." 

Mr. Peabody first visited England in 1827 and made 
several voyages in the next ten years, to make pur- 
chases of English goods for the firm; and, in 1829, Mr. 
Riggs withdrew, leaving him the head of the house. 
In 1837, he established himself permanently in London as 
a merchant and money-broker. Here, among strangers, 
without advantages of birth or inheritance or education 
or public position, he rose to respect and distinction and 
established a credit and a character for business shrewd- 
ness and integrity surpassed by none in the world's 
metropolis. 

In 1852 the town of Danvers held its bi-centennial 
celebration. Mr. Peabody was invited to be present In 
reply, regretting his inability to participate in the festival, 
he alluded to his school-boy days and the affection he 
retained for his native town. He expressed a strong hope 
for the growth of the countrj-, " if we plant the New Eng- 
land institution of the common schools liberally among 
the immigrants who are filling up the great valley of the 
Mississippi." On the envelope of a sealed letter he wrote 
a request that it might not be opened until the day of the 



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4 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

celebration. At the dinner it was opened, and in it was 
found the sentiment, 

"■ Educatiott. A debt due from present to future generatitms.^* 
This memorable expression is inscribed upon the seal 
of the "Peabody Education Fund." It accompanied his 
earliest large public benefaction, which for some years 
had occupied his mind. From this gift, subsequently in- 
creased, there sprang a lyceum, a public library, and the 
Peabody Institute, in the last of which have been deposited 
various memorials of its founder and other tributes which 
had been most prized by him in life. 

Mr. Peabody was a thorough American, and sought 
every proper opportunity for showing his love of country 
and people. Speaking of the house established in London, 
which sustained a world-wide credit, he said at Danvers, 
" I have endeavored in the constitution of its members and 
the character of its business to make it an American 
house and to give it an American atmosphere, to furnish 
it with American journals, to make it a centre for Ameri- 
can news and an agreeable place for my American friends 
visiting London." He rendered good offices to his fellow- 
countrymen, negotiated, without profit to himself, loans for 
cities, promoted the convenience and enjoyment of trav- 
ellers, and brought together at the social board hundreds 
of his own countrymen and his English friends. In 1852- 
1858 inclusive, he gave to Americans in London and to 
prominent Englishmen " Fourth of July " dinners which 
drew to the host a large popularity. In 1851, there 
occurred near London the first of the long series of most 
useful International Exhibitions. Other countries made 
the representation of products a government affair, and 
voted money to defray the expenses of exhibitors. Our 
Congress did nothing. Our exhibitors found the space 
assigned them unprepared for the specimens of art and 



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HISTORV OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 5 

industry which they had brought, and they had not the 
means to make it ready. Mr. Peabody stepped forward, 
and put in proper order the American Department, which 
subsequently contributed so much to the utilities of the 
Crystal Palace Exhibition that a leading London journal 
admitted that England derived more real benefit from the 
contributions of the United States than from those of any 
other country. In a most generous international banquet, 
he brought together the most prominent of his country- 
men tlien in London, the chairman of the Royal Com- 
mission, and other persons of consideration in England, 
and in a loving-cup, made of old Danvers oak, pledged 
them, on both sides, to warmer feelings of mutual good- 
will than they had before entertained. (See Proceedings 
at Danvers, p. 63.) 

His residence, wide acquaintance, and large interests in 
England created a strong attachment for the country, and 
he was active in removing causes of unpleasantness and 
cementing the bonds of friendship between the Old Land 
and the New. He took the liveliest interest in the inter- 
oceanic telegraphic communication; and in April, 185S, 
writes to a friend, " We' are making rapid preparations to 
lay the Atlantic cable in June, and before the first of 
September, I think the electric spark will pass from Eng- 
land to America," and with some humor and an eye to 
business, he added, "What say you, and kow much?" 

Mr, Peabody never married. Writing from London in 
1855, he denied a reported engagement with a young lady, 
and said, " I never had any idea of matrimony but once, 
and that was full fifteen years ago." In the same year he - 
wrote jocularly to Mr. Corcoran, "I am quite prepared 
to like him" — Mr. Buchanan, just appointed Minister 
to England — " partknlarly as he is unmarried" Lord 
Bacon said, " Surely a man shall see the noblest works 
and foundations have proceeded from childless men. 



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6 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

which have sought to express the images of their minds, 
where those of their bodies have failed," " Certainly the 
best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have pro- 
ceeded from the unmarried or childless men, which both in 
afiection and means have married and endowed the public." 

After a twenty years' absence, in 1856, he revisited his 
native land. Friends in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, and other cities tendered cheerful hospitalities. 
As his desire was to visit every section of the Union, and 
see with his own eyes the evidences of prosperity, he 
declined all invitations except that from his native town. 
There, on 9th October, a reception was given him, with 
procession, banners, banquet, addresses — an ovation such 
as royalty never received, for it was the spontaneous, 
affectionate, universal tribute of a grateful and admiring 
people. Municipal and State authorities united in the 
greeting, and Edward Everett, the most famous of our 
orators,^in what may be styled an American type of ora- 
tory, delivered the chief address. Peabody had left Dan- 
vers a poor boy, with no capital but a good character and 
his inherent energy. Prayers and best wishes had followed 
him, and he constantly showed his love for place and peo- 
ple. The weighty concerns of a great business in the 
world's capital did not make him forget, nor did it chill 
the warmth of his boyish love. Every worthy enterprise 
had received his ready aid. When the house of worship 
which he attended in childhood was burned, his liberality in 
the rebuilding was prominent. His bounty helped largely 
in erecting the granite pile in memory of the Revolution- 
ary fathers. Besides what he had previously done, he 
instituted a system of prize medals for the High Schools, 

Mr. Peabody's commercial credit never suffered any 
serious reverse. His sound judgment kept him from un- 
safe ventures, although he dealt largely in various kinds of 
securities. During the fearful financial panic of '1S57, 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. J 

large manufacturing firms in England suspended ; private 
bankers refused to discount the best paper; drafts of the 
best houses were dishonored ; remittances from America 
ceased, and he asked a loan of 1,000,000 pounds from the 
banks in England. This request for accommodation arose 
under peculiar circumstances, and illustrates his pride and 
the principles on which he did his large business. Having 
reluctantly yielded to persistent requests of American 
friends to grant commercial and other credits, on the 
pledge of sacrificing all their property and applying the 
proceeds to carrying their bills rather than bring him 
under cash advances, Mr. Peabody found that they failed 
him in the crash ; and he was called on to provide immense 
sums of money to meet the maturing acceptances, which 
he had not anticipated, and at a time when money could 
only be had through the Bank of England. He offered 
securities intrinsically good, but unavailable at the moment; 
and the Directors of the Bank, some of whom were rivals 
in business, thought they had found an opportunity of 
getting rid of a formidable competitor. After some nego- 
tiation, it was proposed to J. S. Morgan, then a partner, 
that the accommodation sought might be granted, pro- 
vided George Peabody & Co. would agree to cease doing 
business in London at the close of 1858. When Mr. 
Morgan brought this message to Mr, Peabody, he was in a 
rage, like a wounded lion, and told Mr. Morgan to reply 
that he dared them to cause his failure. In the mean time, 
the Governors had decided that the bank must suspend 
specie payment, which would make money easy again. As 
the endeavor to blufi" had not succeeded, the accommoda- 
tion was granted without conditions, especially as the secur- 
ities were so satisfactory ; and afterwards George Peabody & 
Co. had no further difficulty. To this triumph of commer^ 
cial integrity he refers with proper pride in a letter to his 
niece, written from London, 13th November, 1857: — 



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8 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

" My promised letter has been postponed ia consequence of my 
coDstaot engagemenls and the unparalleled difficulties and gloom 
which prevail among coinmercial men and bankers both here and 
in the United States. What is to be the result, Heaven only 
knows, for want of confidence and distrust appear almost universaL 
I trust that my house will be able to weather the storm and sustain 
itself, and I think — although a large number of our correspondents 
and friends are failing very largely in our debt — that it will do so ; 
but if not, I will bear it hke a man, for my conscience tells me that 
I have never deceived or injured a humau being. It is not yet three 
months since I parted from you, and left the country prosperous 
and people happy. Now is all gloom and affliction. Nearly all 
ihe American houses in Europe have already suspended, and noth- 
ing but great strength can save any. You will understand that it 
is the loss of the credit of my house that I fear. Under any cir- 
cumstances I cannot lose but a small part of my large property, and 
shall have enough left for all required purposes." ' 

Later, he continues, on another sheet, the unfinished 
letter : — 

My very dear Niece, — The three pages enclosed, as you will 
see from the date, were written three weeks ago when I felt (from 
the inability of our principal correspondents in the United States 
to remit, and who had then brought us under a cash advance of 
nearly two millions of dollars) that the credit of my house was 
in danger. When about adding a few more lines and sending 
away, I thought to myself, Why should I make my good niece un- 
happy, however so my miserable self? and consequently declined 
to send the letter, and I am glad that I did not. 

A few days after I felt it to be my duty to apply to the banks for 
a loan of money sufficient to carry my house through the crisis, 

" Haywwd, in a letter to Gladstone, vol. i, p. 317, says, a? Not., 1857, "The 
coiDinerdal panic in London has abated; but Kitkman Hodgson told me 
that the Americans owed ns £yifioc>fioo on the balance, much of which 
would never be paid. Feabodjr waa very bard mn, having £Zoofxa to pay 
on one day." " The crisis was chiefly due to the orer-trading of the Ameri- 
cans, and became s« severe that the Government suspended for a time the 
' Bank Charter of i&^" 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 9 

proposiog security for the full amount required, which was foui mil- 
lions of dollars. It was a severe test to my pride, but after a week 
spent with the Committees and Directors of the Banks I finally 
succeeded, and I doubt not that my house is now free from all 
danger, and although here the name of my house has not appeared 
in the public papers, it has been referred to in a way which does 
not admit of any mistake, and high honor has been awarded to it 
for the coui^e pursued and for the great resources which the security 
given so fully displayed. Don't you hold your head less high or 
your heart worth less than you did before, for your Uncle George 
has done nothing but what among sensible persons will raise him 
higher than before. It was the breaking down of the roost wealthy 
houses in the United Slates, who could not remit to my firm as 
they promised to do, that obliged him to resort to this course for 
relief to sustain his credit. 

Mr. Peabody's habits of business were methodical and 
his punctuality proverbial. During any day in London, it 
was well known where he could be found — at his count- 
ing-room punctually every morning at ten, over his desk 
until twelve, in conference with his confidential clerk, or 
in conversation with visitors until past one, in the bank 
between one and two, then on 'Change until three, and 
back at his desk until four. 

In a letter of 12th March, 1862, Mr. Peabody, after allud- 
ing to what he had previously bestowed in America — at 
Danvers, the place of his birth, and at Baltimore, the first 
scene of his active life — for institutions adapted to pro- 
mote the intellectual, moral, and social welfare of his fel- 
low-countrymen, proceeds to say that, in pursuance of a 
long-cherished determination to attest, by a similar gift, 
his gratitude and attachment to the people of Xx>ndon, 
among whom he had spent the last twenty-five years of 
his life, he would devote ;^I50,CXX) " to ameliorate the con- 
dition of the poor and needy " of the great metropolis. 
In 1866, he added jCioo,ooo, in 1868, ;^ioo,ooo, and, in 
1873,^150,000, making a total of if 500,000. The total 



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10 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

fund, including rent and interest, on 31st December, 1896, 
was £1,198,126. Mr. Peabody imposed on the Trustees, 
whom he selected, three unchangeable conditions: Jirst, 
limiting the uses, absolutely and exclusively, to such pur- 
poses as might be fitted directly to ameliorate the con- 
dition and augment the comforts of the poor; secondly, 
excluding rigidly from the management any influences cal- 
culated I0 impart to it a character either sectarian, as re- 
gards religion, or exclusive in relation to local or party 
poUtics; and, thirdly, making as the sole qualification for 
participation in the benefits of the fund an ascertained and 
continued condition of life, bringing the person within the 
description of the poor in London, combined with moral 
character and good conduct as a member of society. Al- 
lowing to the Trustees utmost latitude and discretion in giv- 
ing effect to his purposes, Mr. Peabody suggested whether 
it might not be conducive to the realization of the stated 
conditions to apply the fund, or a portion of it, " in the 
construction of such improved dwellings for the poor as 
may combine, in the utmost possible degree, the essentials 
of healthfulness, comfort, social enjoyment, and econ- 
omy." This mode of employment was adopted by the 
Trustees, as the low rents, at which this healthful accom- 
modation could be given, would annually supplement the 
original fund, and thus create a source whence similar 
advantages might continue to be derived for an indefinite 
period. Nothing, perhaps, is better suited to raise the 
dignity of the workman, to create and preserve his sense 
of independence and self-respect, than to remove his fam- 
ily from the squalor and discomfort of a dilapidated and 
unwholesome home to a dwelling cheerful with light 
and air, and replete with facilities for cleanliness, health, 
and every domestic operation, and all at a cost less than he 
had been accustomed to pay for the filth and malaria he 
had left. At the end of 1895, the Trustees had provided 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 1 1 

for the artisan and laboring poor of London, 1 1,367 rooms, 
besides bath-rooms, laundries, and lavatories, occupied by 
19,914 persons. These rooms comprise S,i2l separate 
dwellings. Drainage and ventilation have been insured 
with the utmost care. The passages are all kept clean 
and lighted with gas without any cost to the tenants, and 
what gratifies the tenants as much as any other part cf 
the arrangements are the ample and airy spaces which 
serve as play-grounds for their children. What has been 
called Peabody Town has for one of its boundaries the 
famous Bunhill Fields Burial-ground. Upon the land for- 
merly occupied by property of a very low order have been 
erected these dwellings, and in place of narrow lanes and 
dirty courts there are several wide, well-paved, and well- 
scavenged streets. The average rent of each dwelling 
is 4s. fi%d. per week, and of each room 2s. 2d., the rent 
in all cases including the free use of water, laundries, 
sculleries, and bath-rooms. Improving the housing of 
the poor of London has proved a needed benefaction ; and 
the demand for rooms and the health of the tenants show 
how well the want has been met 

In recognition of this princely benefaction, the British 
Government offered him a baronetcy, which, although 
highly appreciated, he felt bound, as an American citizen, 
to decline. The Queen gave him a portrait of herself, 
and, in 1869, when he left England unexpectedly, his 
departure being communicated only to a few friends, 
she paid him the delicate compliment of an autograph 
letter. 

Windsor Castlx, June 20, 1869. 

The Queen is veiy sorry that Mr. Peabody's sudden departure 
has made it impossible for her to see him before he lef^ England) 
and she is concerned to hear that he is gone in bad health. She 
now writes him a line to express her hope that he may return 
to this country, quite recovered, and that she may then have 
the opportunity, of which she has now been deprived, of seeing 



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12 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

him 2nd offcriog him her personal thanks for all be has done for 
her people.' 

This note, coming from the Queen's heart, as well as 
her hand, was transmitted by the Clerk of the Privy 

1 A l»d]r of rare iDtelligence and TcfinemGoE, in a. recent letler, kindly 
furnishes me ftome interesting contemporaiy reminiscetices : " Mr, Feabody 
was a weltxinie gueat at my father's house, near Liverpool. I believe they 
bad had business relations in Baltimore beiore my father's marriage. To 
me Mr. Feabody was a benevolent fairy in a high b!ack-satin atnclc I did 
not understand why I, a child of eight years, should be endowed with a 
valuable sable muff, nor why, on a liter holiday visit to London, the same 
little girl waa taken to see the notabilities in Hyde Park by Mr. Feabody, 
in his cabriolet, with tiger in top boots standing behind. 

" Hia visit to the United Slates, after the successful inauguration of hii 
London charities {acknowledged by a gift from Queen Victoria of her por- 
trait), was an ovation. My father called to se« bis old friend immediately 
on arrival, congratulating him on the carrying out of hia benevolent plana 
and on their gratifying acknowledgment by the British Government. In all 
the confusion of open irunLcs in a small room [Mr. Feabody never conde- 
scended to a Tatet, dot allowed himself personal luxuries), the old man 
replied quietly, ' Humphreys, after my disappointment long ago, I deter- 
mined to devote myself to my fellow-beings, and am carrying out that de- 
dsion to my best ability.' These expressions made to my &ther, and, as far 
at I am aware, lo him alone, referred to an incident which had had, in it* 
day and among the circle of Mr. Feabody's friends, its certain halo of ro- 
mance. Mr. Peabody's own touching reference to it can, after the lapse of 
so many years, be recorded without indiscretion, as showing his own reading 
of an important page in his life's history. 

" We were all invited to be present at the opening of the case containing 
her Majesty's likeness, at the house of Mr. Samuel Wetmore. The British 
consul was among the favored few, and edified the company.by kneeling 
before the jncture, as if in actual presence of his royal mistress. 

" The precision of business habits and a long old bachelorhood, combined 
with constitutional shyness, caused Mr. Feabody, at times, lo appear to dis- 
advantage, but geniality prevailed over awkwardness, and years imparled 
dignity. Later, the old gentleman became autocratic, one might say. He 
had himself acccmiplished so much, could already see such niagniGcent 
results, derived from his far-sighted philanthropy, that he felt expressed 
wishes on bit part should become instantaneous facta — bis small due front 
those around him. Nevertheless, the ruthless serenity with which their 
guest countermanded luncheon and advanced the dinner hour to meet busi- 
ness exigencies, carried dismay to the hearti of the most devoted hostesses. 
I do not suppose Mr. Feabody ever thought of giving trouble, and cer- 
tainly no one ever thougbl of remonatrating." 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 13 

Council, who was commanded "to be sure and charge 
Mr. feabody to report himself on his return to England." 
While he lived, the people of London erected a statue, 
which, in front of Merchants' Exchange, was publicly 
unveiled, " with words of reverence and honor," by the 
Prince of Wales, who, while surrounded by the best and 
noblest of the Empire, designated Mr. Peabody as " a 
great American citizen and philanthropist — that citizen 
of the world." This " spontaneous expression, the free- 
will gift of a generous and grateful people, and the testi- 
mony of homage to a good and philanthropic citizen," 
stands in the metropolis of the world, in the centre of 
finance and commerce ; and the inspiration awakened by 
it, must have a potent and wholesome influence in favor 
of economy, integrity, fidelity to engagements, broad- 
souled philanthropy and doing good while living, upon 
those who give tone and law to the financial, mercantile, 
and commercial world. In a letter to Mr. Corcoran, Mr. 
Peabody thus refers to the statue : " I shall leave for Rome 
about the isth of January, where I have promised three 
or four weeks' sitting to Story for the statue which the 
city of London and the Nobility and Bankers and Mer- 
chants have so liberally subscribed for." 

Simple and frugal as was his habitual life, he had a vein 
of occasional display, amounting almost to ostentation. 
Sometimes the routine of assiduous attention to business 
was diversified by sumptuous banquets, bringing together 
illustrious and congenial guests, whose companionship 
and intelligent conversation served to enliven the hours 
and neutralize the earthward gravitation of more secular 
pursuits. His charities were not Pharisaic, nor were they 
always so secret as to forbid their light shining so that 
others could see his good works. In some instances, to have 
remained unknown as the giver would have been impos- 
sible. His was not posthumous philanthropy, nor did he 



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14 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

clutch his treasures until Death should release the grasp. 
What he gave, he gave from principle. His generosity 
was not a sudden impulse, the gush of a momentary sensi- 
bility, but the outcome of thoughtful inquiry and premedi- 
tation as to the best method of accomplishing a superior 
good. To leave a vast sum for distribution after his deatli, 
provoking expensive and hostile litigation, was alien to 
his wishes and purpose. He was no believer in casual 
eleemosynary relief, no inconsiderate almoner of bounty, 
scattering his money profusely among mendicants, the 
persistent and the unworthy. He founded libraries, in- 
stitutes, museums, boards of trust, to stimulate self-help, 
to cultivate and refine tastes, to promote the study and 
love of literature and art and science, and to secure higher 
scholarship. In his attempt to benefit humanity, he 
sought to prevent rather than to cure ; instead of trying 
to lop off corrupt or unfruitful boughs, he struck at the 
root of the evil. He believed in the reformatory and 
elevating power of a clean and pure home, of a cultivated 
mind, of habits of thrift and industry. While not con- 
demning hospitals, and almshouses, and homes for ine- 
briates and incurables, he preferred other channels of 
beneficence. The homes in London were not for vagrants 
and paupers, but to offer comfortable and healthy sur- 
roundings to those willing to work. He was not made 
mean or miserly by great riches; he regarded the distri- 
bution of his earnings as a pleasure and privilege, and 
" furnished an example, never known in the world before, 
of a man who united all the love of money which makes 
jnen richest and most men meanest, with all the scorn 
of its dominion which burns in the noblest soul." For 
his kindred, generous provision was made, but his aims 
were wider than bestowing his wealth on individuals or a 
narrow circle of relatives. Besides his larger gifts, spe- 
cifically mentioned, his contributions were numerous and 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 1 5 

liberal to many other objects. It is known that he gave 
$25,OCX) to Kenyon College, Ohio, $20,ocx} to Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, large sums to Yale, Har- 
vard, Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Washington and Lee University, and smaller 
gifts for libraries and churches. His reputation for wealth 
and liberal giving caused him to be overwhelmed with 
applications for money, from Europe and America and 
from every conceivable class of applicants. When a 
friend in Boston referred to his various gifts, he said, " I 
have not sought to relieve pauperism, but to prevent 
it " — a principle which, perhaps, is the explanation why 
he turned a deaf ear to many appeals to his feelings and 
fortune. 

Sometimes it has been said that Mr. Peabody possessed 
no element of heroic greatness, nor, in an exceptional 
degree, any of those shining qualities which the world is 
quick to recognize and admire. On the other hand, it 
might be suggested that in the whole range of philan- 
thropies there is no better example of largeness of purpose 
or trueness of manhood. When Dr. Kane, amid mis- 
givings and forebodings of evil on the part of many, 
started, in 1852, on his perilous journey of science and 
humanity, Peabody came to his aid with " a liberality and 
in a spirit of which there is reason to believe the whole 
story has never been told." Dr. Kane remembered grate- 
fully the timely help to his enterprise, and gave the name 
of " Peabody Land " to a portion of the Arctic shores. 
In 1837, in the days of her financial weakness, Maryland 
sought a loan of $8,000,000 in the London market. 
Mr. Peabody remembered, with tenderness, the attach- 
ment he felt for " the home of his early business and the 
scene of his youthful exertions," and Slaving a pride in 
the honor and good fortune of his adopted State, he 
threw his fortune and soul into labors for the restoration 



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l6 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

of her credit, successfully negotiated the loans, led the 
way to their being accepted in other financial quar- 
ters by taking a large amount of them on his own 
account, and refused any compensation but the pride and 
the pleasure of the great good he had assisted in con- 
summating. For this signal service in the days of her 
financial necessities, the State expressed, in grateful words, 
on imperishable legislative records, her sense of its value. 
Mr. Peabody's gifts enlarged his desire and purpose to 
do more largely and beneficently, and, on the 12th of 
February, 1857, he committed to the hands of his selected 
agents $300,000, which "under his accumulating bounty 
has swollen " to over one million. This gift, in pursuance 
of a purpose long entertained, was for the preparation of a 
building and appliances for an institution for the improve- 
ment of moral and intellectual culture, and the enlarge- 
ment and diffusion of a taste for the hne arts, so as to 
place the means of higher culture within the reach of all. 
The corner-stone of the Peabody Institute was laid in 
Baltimore on the l6th of April, 1859, and, on the 25th of 
October, 1866, was dedicated in the presence of the 
founder and a great concourse of people, including 
18,000 school-children. The Institute, including Library, 
Lecture and Music Departments, and a Gallery of Art, 
has been of incalculable benefit to Baltimore and other 
portions of the country. 

The life of Mr. Peabody would be useless as an example 
and stimulus if the impression made by this narrative was 
that he was free from the weaknesses and errors to which 
frail humanity is liable. He was far from being faultless. 
What he attained to of wisdom and generosity and love 
for his fellows came to him as the hard-won victories after 
much struggle. He loved to accumulate, and was not free 
from pride at his gains and financial standing. His fru- 
gality and desire to have a qtiid pro quo for the money 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 1 7 

which passed from his hands, tended to penuriousness and 
parsimony. He used his strong will and integrity of char- 
acter to resist the temptation to avarice, and he vanquished 
the constantly recurring enemy. It was a masterful strug- 
gle, and therefore a more glorious victory. It would be 
untrue and unwise to rob him of whatever merit belongs 
to his having overcome so successfully innate tendencies, 
made stronger by his early poverty and the trials which 
accompany extraordinary gains. To set his last days over 
against his earlier days, to contrast straitened means and 
close saving of young manhood with acquired habits of 
premeditated benevolence, is to bring into conspicuous and 
honored prominence the heroism and the virtues of Mr. 
Feabody. A life of saving was transmuted, sublimed, into 
a life of giving. Acquisitiveness was satisfied and trans- 
formed into bounteous munificence. The system, the 
prudent methods, which had caused the growing enrich- 
ment, were continued and found illustration in the effort to 
leave himself, when he should die, without a great fortune. 
" He made benevolence his business, and dealt with it as 
such," and discrowned himself of that which had more than 
kingly power and dominion.' Mr. Moody, the Evangelist, 
relates this incident. 

" I was a guest of John Garrett once, and he told me that his 
father used to entertain Peabody and Johns Hopkins. Peabody 
went to England, and Hopkins stayed in Baltimore. They both 
became immensely wealthy. Garrett tried to get Hopkins to make 
a will, but he would n't Finally, Garrett invited them both to 
dinner, and afterward asked Peabody which lie enjoyed -most, the 
making of money or giving it away. Hopkins cocked up his 
ears, and then Peabody told him that he had had a struggle at first, 
and it lasted until he went into his remodelled London houses and 
saw the little children so happy, 'Then,' said Peabody, 'I began 
to find out it was pleasanter to give money away than it was to 

' See the admirable address of S. Teacble Wallii, Esq., on Mr. Peabodjr. 



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l8 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

make it' Forty<ight hours later H<^kins was making out bis will 
founding the university and the hospital" 

The great gift of Mr. Peabody was that which originated 
the Peabody Education Fund. As stated, his benefactions 
were not spasmodic, nor sudden ebullitions of charitable 
impulse, excited by some object of pity. Nor had he any 
gorgeous schemes, enthralling the imagination and pro- 
voking the applause of the multitude. In his calmest 
moments, with his best thoughts, after mature investigation, 
he devised and planned and executed. In 185 1, in a let- 
ter to " dear Corcoran," he said, " However liberal I may 
be here, I cannot keep pace with your noble acts of charity 
4it home; but one of these days I mean to come out, and 
then if my feelings regarding money don't change, and I 
have plenty, I may become a strong competitor of yours 
in benevolence." In one of his confidential conversa- 
tions with Mr, Winthrop, after unfolding his plans and 
telling substantially all he designed to do, filling his 
interlocutor with admiration and amazement at the magni- 
tude and sublimity of his purposes, he continued with that 
guileless simplicity which characterized so much of his 
social intercourse and conversation, " Why, Mr. Winthrop, 
this is no new idea to me. From the earliest years of my 
manhood I have contemplated some such disposition of 
my property ; and I have prayed my Heavenly Father, day 
by day, that I might be enabled, before I died, to show 
my gratitude for the blessings which He has bestowed 
upon me, by doing some great good to my fellow-men." 
In May, 1866, he again consulted Mr. Winthrop, and in 
October of the same year, the third day, at Mr. Winthrop's 
summer residence in Brookline, he communicated confi- 
dentially, and only for consultation, the benefactions he 
was proposing to bestow, and advised with him in regard 
to their arrangement and organization. Seated in the hall, 
under the portrait of Benjamin Franklin, as Mr. Winthrop 



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HISTORV OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. I9 

graphically relates, " taking from his capacious nallet a 
budget big enough for a Chancellor of the Exchequer, or 
a Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means, he read 
to me privately that long schedule of appropriations for 
Education, Science, and Charity which soon aftenvards 
dehghted and thrilled the whole community. 'And now 
I come to the last,' said he, as he drew forth yet another 
roll with a trembhng hand. ' You may be surprised when 
you learn precisely what it is; but it is the one nearest 
my heart, and the one for which I shall do the most, now 
and hereafter,' and he then proceeded to .read the rude 
sketch of the endowment for Southern Education, of which 
the formal instrument bears date, February 7^ 1867," and 
is here inserted in full : — 

To Hon. Robert C. Winthhop, of Massachusetts ; Hon. Hamiitow 
F[SH, of New York ; Right Rev. CHARLE3 P. McIlvaine, of Ohio; 
General U. S. Gkaht, of the United Stales Army ; Hon. Williau C. 
R[VEs, of Vitgiiiiaj'ilon. John H. Clifford, of Massachusetts,' Hon. 
William Aiken, of South Carolina; William M. Evahts, Esq., of 
New York ; Hon. William A. Graham, of North Carolina ; Charles 
MacalSsTEk, Esq., of Pennsylvania ; GeORGE W. RiCGS, Esq., ot 
Washington ; Sauukl Wetmore, Esq., of New York ; Edward A. 
Bradford, Esq., of Louisians ; George N. £ato», Esq., of Maryland ; 
and George Peabodv Russell, Esq., of Massachuselts. 

Gentlemen: I beg to address you on a subject which oc- 
cupied my mind long before I left England, and in regard to 
which one at least of yoo (ihe Hon. Mr. Winthrop, the distin- 
guished and valued friend to whom I am so much indebted for 
cordial sympathy, careful consideration, and wise counsel in this 
mailer) will remember that I consulted him immediately upon ray 
arrival in May last 

I refer to the educational needs of those portions of onr beloved 
and common country which liave suffered from the destructive 
ravages, and the not less disastrous consequences, of civil war. 

With my advancing years, my attachment to my native land has 
but become more devoted. My hope and faith in its successful 
and glorious future have grown brighter and stronger ; and now, 
looking forward beyond my slay on earth, as may be permitted to 



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20 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

one who has passed the limit of threescore and ten years, I see 
our country, united and prosperous, emerging from ihe clouds 
which still surround her, taking a higher rank amoDg the nations, 
and becoming richer and more powerful than ever before. 

Biit to make her prosperity more than superficial, her moral and 
intellectual development should keep -pace with her material 
growth, and, in those portions of our nation to which I have 
referred, the urgent ' and pressing physical needs of an almost 
impoverished people must for some years preclude them from 
making, by unaided effort, such advances in education, and such 
progress i:i the diffusion of knowledge, among all classes, as every 
lover of his country must eanieslly desire. 

I feel most deeply, therefore, that it is the duty and privilege of 
the more favored and wealthy portions of our nation to assist those 
who are less fortunate ; and, with the wish to discharge so far as I 
may be able my own responsibility in this matter, as well as to 
gratify my desire to aid those to whom I am bound by so many 
ties of attachment and regard, 1 give to you, genderaen, most of 
. whom have been my personal and especial friends, the sum of one 
million of dollars, to be by you and your successors held in trust, 
and the income thereof used and applied in your discretion for 
the promotion and encouragement of intellectual, moral, or indus- 
trial education among the young of the more destitute portions of 
the Southern and Southwestern Slates of our Union ; my purpose 
being that the benefits intended shall be distributed among the 
entire population, without other distinction than their needs and 
the opportunities of usefulness to them. 

Besides the income thus derived, I give to you permission to 
use from the principal sum, within the next two years, an amount 
not exceeding forty per cent. 

In addition to this gifV, I place in your hands bonds of the State 
of Mississippi, issued to the Planters' Bank, and commonly known 
as Planters' Bank bonds, amounting, with interest, to about eleven 
hundred thousand doUare, the amount realized by you from which 
is to be added to and used for the piirposes of this Trust. 

These bonds were originally issued in payment for stock in that 
Bank held by the State, and amounted in all to only two millions 
of dollars. For many years, the State received large dividends 
from that Bank over and above the interest on these bonds. The 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 21 

State paid the interest without iDteiruptton till 1S40, since which 
no interest has been paid, except a payment of about one hundred 
thousand dollars, which was found in the treasury applicable to the 
payment of the coupons, and paid by a mandamus of the Supreme 
Court The validity of these bonds has never been questioned, 
and they must not be confounded with another issue of bonds 
made by the State to the Union Bank, the recognition of which 
has been a subject of controversy with a. portion of the population 
of Mississippi 

Various acts of the Legislature — viz., of February aS, 1842; 
February 23, 1844; February 16, 1846; February 28, 1846; 
March 4, 1848— and the highest judicial tribunal of the State 
have confirmed their validity ; and I have no doubt that at an early 
day such legislation will be had as to make these bonds available 
in increasing the usefulness of the pieseut Trust. 

Mississippi, though now depressed, is rich in agricultural re- 
sources, and cannot long disregard the moral obligation resting 
upon her to make provision for their payment. In confirmation 
of what I have said, in regard to the legislative and judicial action 
concerning the State bonds issued to the Planters' £ank, I here- 
with place in your bands the documents marked A. ) 

The details and organization of the Trust I leave with you, only 
requesting that Mr, Winthrop may be chairman, and Governor 
Fish and Bishop McIlvaine Vice-Chairmen, of your body : and I 
give to you power to make all necessary by-laws and regulations ; to 
obtain an Act of Incorporation, if any shall be found expedient ; 
to provide for the expenses of the Trustees and of any agents 
appointed by them ; and, generally, to do all such acts as may be 
necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Trust. 

All vacancies occurring in your number by death, resignation, or 
Otherwise, shall be filled by your election as soon as conveniently 
may be, and having in view an equality of representation so far as 
regards the Northern and Southern States. 

I furthennore give to you the power, in case two-thirds the 
Trustees shall at any time, after the lapse of thirty years, deem it 
expedient, to close this Trust, and, of the funds which at that 
time shall be in the hands of yourselves and your successors, to 
distribute not less than two-thirds among such educational or 
literary institutions, or for such educational purposes, as they may 



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23 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

determine, in the States for whose benefit the income is noir 
appointed to be Used, The Temaindcr may be distributed by the 
Tn^tees for educational or literary purposes, wherever they may 
deem it expedient. 

In making tliis gift, I am aware that the fund derived from it 
can but aid the States which I wish to benefit in their own exer- 
tions to diffuse the blessings of education and morality. But if 
this endowment shall encourage those now anxious for the light of 
knowledge, and stimulate to new efforts the many good and noble 
men who cherish the high purpose of placing our great country 
foremost, not only iq power, but in the intelligence and virtue of 
her citizens, it will have accomplished all that I can hope. 

With reverent recognition of the need of the blessing of Almighty 
God upon this gift, and with the fervent prayer that under His 
guidance your counsels may be directed for the highest good of 
present and future generations in our beloved country, I am, 
gentlemen, with great respect, 

Your humble servant, 

George Peabody. 
Washinoton, Feb. 7, 1S67. 

Never was gift more timely. It came, white-winged 
messenger of peace and fraternity, in the hour of gloom, 
poverty, and despondency. The National InteUigencer, a 
staid and conservative Union journal, on the day of the 
first meeting of the Board, denounced the military satrapy 
over the South, as subordinating all civic power, legislative 
executive, and judicial, under military domination.^ 

1 On Id March, 1S67, it vas enacted that the States should be divided 
into military districta and placed under military rule. On Z3d March, a 
supplemental act was passed completing the plan of reccmstniction. These 
laws annulled ihe State Governments then in operation ; enfranchised the 
negrn ; disfranchised a targe number of the most capable citizens, and pro- 
vided all Ihe machinery necessary for commencing new governments on the 
ruins of the old. Until the several States should be admitted under these 
n«w governments into the Union, the military officers in command were 
to have absolute power over life, liberty, and property; except that death 
sentences were to have the approval of the President. These acts were 
passed over the President's veto, and Mr. Garfield, then in the House of 
Representatives, interpreted them as putting the bayonet at the breast of 
every Southern man to force the adoption of negro su&rage. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 23 

Mr. Peabody had lived at the South, transacted there 
a large business, laid the foundatioas of his fortune, con- 
tracted friendships, and was esteemed and honored. In 
1857, he made an extensive tour through the Southern 
States, visiting Richmond, Charleston, Mobile, New Orleans, 
Natchez, and St. Louis, whose people gave bim gratifying 
receptions, and he wrote : " I have received the most kind 
and flattering attentions from every city I have visited." 
When he returned to England, the country was united, but 
with audible mutterings of sectional discord. Coming 
events were casting their dark shadows upon our national 
pathway. While he was in Europe, war began and con- 
tinued fiercely for four years. When he returned, in 1866, 
the noise of drum and life and cannon, in hostile demon- 
stration, was no longer heard, but the great chasm was 
unclosed, and the animosities of the strife were active in 
press and in legislation, in minds and in hearts. Pacifica- 
tion and reconciliation were slow of birth and growth. So 
sensitive were men and women on both sides that words 
kindly spoken and acts kindly performed were misunder- 
stood and served the contrary end, of kindling afresh ill 
feeling and making slowly-cicatrizing wounds to bleed 
again. Mr. Peabody longed for the restoration of har- 
mony, and with a big and patriotic heart coveted the 
opportunity of doing something to consolidate the Union 
and make it one, not of coercion and hatred, but of aflfec- 
tion and helpfulness. He seized the occasion, coming but 
once in a lifetime, and interposed most eflfectually. His 
loyalty to the Union was undisguised, his desire for the 
success of her armies was openly, not offensively, pro- 
claimed, his condemnation of the error of the seceding 
States was frank — writing thus to George Eustis in 1862, 
" mad as I think my countrymen have acted in bringing 
about the dreadful war that now exists; " — but he entered 
a manly protest against confounding error with crime, 



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24 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

difTerence in construction of the oi^anic law with treason, 
and asserted in no equivocal phrase his respect for the 
integrity and manhood of the vanquished and subjugated. 
In Baltimore he used words that find a parallel only in the 
farewell address of the Father of his Country: "Never 
during the war or since have I permitted the contest, or 
any passions engendered by it, to interfere with the social 
relations and warm friendships which I had formed for a 
very large number of the people of the South. . . . And 
now, after the lapse of these eventful years, I am more 
deeply, more earnestly, more painfully convinced than 
ever, of our need of mutual forbearance and conciliation, 
of Christian charity and forgiveness, of united effort to 
bind up the fresh and broken wounds of the nation." 

While seeking to meet the educational needs of the 
people to whom he was "bound by so many ties of attach- 
ment and regard," there was running through the Letter 
of Gift the clear conviction, repeatedly iterated, that " the 
promotion and encouragement of intellectual, moral, or 
industrial education among the young of the more desti- 
tute portions of the Southern States" was a necessary 
means for securing the highest good of the whole of his 
beloved country, ^^hen he added his second gift from 
exuberant patriotism, the hope was again expressed that 
the sphere of usefulness of the Trust would be enlarged 
" and prove a lasting boon, not only to the Southern States, 
but to the whole of our dear countr)', which I have ever 
loved so well but never so much as in my declining years." 
"This I give to the suffering South for the good of the 
whole country " were the memorable words which he 
spoke with much emotion as, in 1869, he placed his second 
great donation in the hands of the Trustees. " Here was 
the key-note to all his words and acts relating to the 
Southern Education Fund." / 

He would realize the idea of Whittier: — 



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mSTORV OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 25 

" A school-house plant on every hill. 
Stretching in radiant nerve-lines thence 
The quick wires of- intelligence ; ■ 
Till North and South, together brought. 
Shall own the same electric thought ; 
In peace a common flag salute, 
And side by side, in labor free, 
And UD resentful rivalry, 
Harvest the fields wherein they fought" 

The Fund has been a most potent agency in creating 
and preserving a bond of peace and unity and fraternity 
between the North and the South. It initiated an era of 
good feeling; for the gift, as said Mr. Winthrop, " was the 
earliest manifestation of a spirit of reconciliation toward 
those from whom we had been so unhappily alienated and 
against whom we of the North had been so recently ar- 
rayed in arms." No instrumentality has been so effective 
in the South in promoting concord, in restoring fellowship, 
in cultivating a broad and generous patriotism, and apart 
from its direct connection with schools it has been an un- 
speakable blessing in cementing the bonds of a lately dis- 
severed Union. 

Our country has been distinguished by princely benefac- 
tions for colleges, universities, and science. These liberal 
gifts, of incalculable advantage, have not been primarily 
for the many but for the few. Mr. Peabody, with rare 
insight into educational needs, gave to the destitute and 
neglected, to the masses. His philanthropy was practical, 
helpful, for the greatest good of the greatest number of his 
countrymen, and stands out unique, uncompanioned, in 
the annals of charity. He planned his benevolence as he 
would have done any commercial enterprise. It is on 
record that his endowments in Danvers, Baltimore, and 
elsewhere were in pursuance of purposes long entertained, 
and conferred upon with friends. He gave from principle, 
to accomplish a large good. His thoughts and intents 



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26 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

took a wide sweep. He had broader aims than to promote 
the welfare of a single family, or town, or institution. His 
sympathies were not hemmed in by a single generation, or 
a narrow religion. He was the benefactor of communities. 
States, posterity. He sought the elevation of the people. 
In 1869, as to another plan attributed to him, he said 
with feeling and emphasis : " Nothing was more preposter- 
ous, nothing could be farther from his design, than giving 
a college education to the sons of gentlemen. What I 
desire is to aid in giving elementary education to the chil* 
. dren of the common people." Akin to this lai^e-hearted- 
ness was the repose of confidence in those chosen to 
administer the Trust. In matters of administration he 
committed to them, in their wisdom, equity, and fidelity, 
an absolute discretion. Some rich persons entail their 
estates, or encumber with distrustful conditions. Some 
seem to try to continue to succeeding generations their 
sagacity and skill, and would control from the grave what 
they could not carry with them. Mr. Peabody honored 
his Trustees by their selection and the more by placing 
the Fund without reserve in their hands. He abdicated 
both the possession and the government of his immense 
riches. 

Mr. Peabody addressed his Letter of Gift to sixteen 
gentlemen — the name of Admiral Farragut was uninten- 
tionally omitted in the first publication — nearly all of 
whom had been his personal and especial friends, and on the 
8th of February, 1867, ten of them, having been previously 
notified, assembled in a little upper chamber of Willard's ' 
Hotel at Washington.' Mr. Winthrop communicated the 
letter constituting them and their associates' Trustees for 
the direction and management of the gift. Deeply sensi- 
ble of the honor conferred, and of the responsibility and 

1 It it mach to be regretted that repeated efforts on m; part have (ailed 
to identify this historic chamber. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 27 

magnitude of the Trust, and realizing their dependence on 
the guidance and blessing of God, whose favor had been 
invoked by Bishop Mcllvaine, they received their creden- 
tials and the securities from the hands of Mr, Peabody 
himself, accepted the obligations prescribed, and inaugu- 
rated the work committed to them. Mr. Winthrop, with 
deep emotion, accepted the chairmanship, to which he had 
been designated by his friend, and entered upon that long 
career of fidelity and devotion, commanding every useful 
energy of his being, and linking his name indissolubly 
with that of the Great Founder of the Education Fund. 
The distinguished men from North and South, selected as 
almoners of this munificent beneficence, with names " al- 
ready historic as shining lights of patriotic endeavor, pub- 
lic usefulness, and private excellence," coming together 
under the magic of this munificence, to " interchange those 
assurances of mutual regard and respect which are the 
best and only pledges of permanent and perpetual union, 
and to devise means for building up again the waste places 
which the war had left behind it, and to institute measures 
for the moral reconstruction of the desolated States," put 
on record their grateful appreciation of the unprecedented 
generosity which had been exhibited. 

" Whereas, Our countryman and friend George Peabody has, 
in a letter to the undersigned, made known his detenuination, out 
of a grateful sense of the manifold goodness with which God has 
prospered his life, and of an earnest desire to promote the best 
interests of his fellow-citizeas, to devote a munificent donation of 
property for certain most wise and beneficent uses indicated in 
said letter, and has requested us to take in trust the charge and 
management of the same ; therefore 

" Resolved, That the undersigned, being the Trustees assembled 
in Washington, deeply sensible of the honor conferred on them by 
a trust of such eminent importance and responsibility, and realiz- 
ing their dependence on the guidance and blessing of God, to be 
tjiabled to discharge its duties with such wisdom and faithfulness 



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28 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

as may best secure the benevolent design of the giver, do hereby 
accept the office of Trastees of the same, and promise our best 
exertions in its behalf. 

" Resolved, That we hereby express to Mr. Peabody our grate- 
ful appreciation of the enlarged and unprecedented generosity, 
which, after having bestowed upon the pooT of the City of London 
a bounty that drew forth the admiration of Europe, and after hav- 
ing exceeded the same, in his recent return to his native land, in 
benefactions to institutions of learning and education, in the Mid- 
dle and Eastern States of the Union, has now crowned the whole 
with this last deed of patriotism and loving-kindness, so eminently 
calculated to bind together the several parts of oui beloved coun- 
try in the bonds of mutual well-doing and regard. 

" Resolved, That we express to Mr. Peabody our respectful and 
affectionate prayer, that, in the gracious providence of our Heav- 
enly Father, his valuable life may be long spared to witness the 
success of his benevolent contributions to the happiness of his fel- 
low-citizens in all parts of his native and beloved land, and that 
many of those whom God has blessed with large possessions may 
be induced to follow his example of wise and noble employment of 
wealth for the good of man and the glory of God." 

Afier appointing Committees on Finance, and for In- 
quiry and Investigation, the Board adjourned to meet in 
New York. The announcement of the enormous benefac- 
tion filled the country with amazed delight, and thrilled the 
despairing South with hope and joy. The public press was 
emphatic in declaring that his name would be held perpet- 
ually in most grateful remembrance by the children of the 
Republic who -are to enjoy " the fruits of his benefactions 
on the banks of the Ohio and the head waters of the 
Chesapeake, amid the busy haunts of New England, and 
from the homes of the Sunny South." The President of 
the United States made him a special visit, and in an inter- 
view, impressive and affecting, expressed his deep grati- 
tude for the large-hearted benevolence that had laid the 
foundations of a permanent blessing to an extensive and 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 29 

needy portion of our common country ; and Mr. Peabody 
afterwards referred to President Johnson's visit as one of 
the proudest incidents of his life, and to his course as the 
Chief Executive as " light coming at the eventide." On - 
the 15th of March, Congress voiced the universal gladness 
by the adoption of these Resolutions : — 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Represenlalives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled. That ihe thanks 
of Congress be, and they hereby are, presented to George \ 
Peabody, of Massachusetts, for his great and peculiar beneficence 
in giving a large sum of money, amounting to Two Million Dol- \ 
lars, for the promotion of Education in the more destitute portions J 
of the Southern and Southwestern States ; the benefits of which, 
according to his direction, are to be distributed among the entire 
population without any distinction, except what may be found in- 
needs or opportunities of usefulness. 

Sec. 2. And he it further resolved. That it shall be the duty of 
the President to cause a Gold Medal to be struck, with suitable 
devices and inscriptions, which, together with a copy of this reso- 
lution, shall be presented to Mr. Peabody, in the name of the 
People of the United Sutes. 

Approved, March 16, 1867. 

In execution of the second resolution, the Congress 
prepared and presented an elaborate and costly gold 
medal, on one side of which was a portrait, on the other, 
an inscription, " The people of the United States to 
George Peabody, in acknowledgment of his beneficent 
promotion of universal Education." 

On the 19th of March, the Trustees reassembled in New 
York, at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, thirteen being present 
What form should be given to the practical workings of 
the Trust excited most anxious discussion and the frankest 
interchange of variant views. Mr. Peabody expressed his 
desire that, at the outset, as much as possible should be 
done for common-school or rudimentary education, and 



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30 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

that such measures might be adopted as would give such 
an education to the greatest number of young children. 
His purpose explicitly declared was that the benefits of 
his gift should be " distributed among the entire popula- 
tion of the more destitute portion of the Southern and 
Southwestern States of our Union." By formal resolution 
the promotion of such education was declared to be the 
leading object of the Board in the use of the fund placed 
at their disposal. As was obviously, a necessity, it was 
further resolved to appoint a general agent, " of the 
highest qualifications," to whom should be entrusted, 
under the Executive Committee, the whole charge of 
carrying out the design of Mr. Feabody in his great gift, 
under such resolutions and instructions as the Board 
might, from time to time, adopt. Mr. Winthrop has stated, 
that while weighted with anxiety as to the primary action 
of the Board, he casually met Dr. Sears, the President of 
Brown University, at the old Wednesday Evening Club in 
Boston. Entering into private conversation, and giving 
his own views, and listening to what was said, he begged 
Dr. Scars to furnish in writing the results of his best re- 
flection and judgment on the whole matter. Early the 
next morning. Dr. Sears, before he left Boston, called and 
said he had passed a sleepless night in pondering over 
what had been told him, and that he would soon comply 
with the request which had been made. The next mail 
brought from Providence the following letter: — 

Providence, Much 14, 1S67. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop; 

My dear Sir, — At your request, I give you such thoughts as 

have occurred to my mind, in the brief time that has intervened 

since I saw you, on the subject of the use that it is expedient to 

make of the Fund which Mr. Peabody has placed at your disposal. 

I. Too much importance cannot he attached to the policy and 

i that shall be adopted. Besides the care that can be 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 3 1 

bestowed on the subject bjr the Trustees, who, it is supposed, can 
gire but a limited amount of time to it, I think, with you, that it 
is desirable to have an executive officer, a. superintendent, who 
can comprehend the whole subject, and work whatever machinery 
ia necessary with unity of design and with efTectiveness. 

2. As to plans and methods, much is to be created. We have 
Dothing exactly like what is to be undertaken. There are no 
examples before you. There has been no experience directly in 
this line of action. Much must come by time and by actual trial. 
Principles may be laid down, but there must be room for variation 
in details. 

3. There are two general methods to be considered : The one 
is that of originating and carrying on a system of schools. The 
other is that of disbursing funds in aid of others who shall have 
the schools in charge, llie former method would require an 
extensive system of agencies. fVork will not go on well without 
an ever-present and active superintendence and vigilance to pre- 
vent and correct abuses arising from negligence or selfishness. 
The latter is simpler, easier, and is attended with fewer risks. 

Now, if time shall show that the two methods must be, to some 
extent, combined, it would seem to be safer and more convenient 
to begin with the second, as the transition to the first could be 
made, without trouble and to any extent, whenever it should 
appear expedient. Any change in the other direction would be 
more difficult, as the first method commits one largely for the 
future. 

4. I should think it might be as well to begin with a single 
agent, whose first business it should be to furnish aid where it is 
most needed, in strengthening and resuscitating schools, and, per- 
haps, aiding others to open new ones. For a time, he might find 
judicious and active friends of education, who, in different localities, 
would gladly render him the aid he shall need. Thus he would 
soon, as he proceeds, learn not only what kind and amount of 
help is needed, but he would come to know the men who could 
best render it If it be necessary to have local agenU, this would 
perhaps be the best way of introducing them. 

J. Of course, effective schools, that shall be permanent, is the 
great desideratum. This is not only the best thing for the young, 
but they furnish, to the people at large the strongest argument in 



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32 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

favor of popular education. Let good schools, springing up on 
the soil, growing out of the wants of the people, and meeting 
those wants, be sprinkled all over the South, as examples, and be 
made the nuclei for others, and let them be established and con- 
trolled, as far as possible, by the people themselves, and they will 
in time grow into State systems. 

Beside direct aid in the support of such schools, which would, 
no doubt, be the first work to be done, there are various indirect 
ways of reaching the same end. Normal Schools, especially for 
training female teacheis for the primary schools ; higher education 
given in the form of Scholarships to a limited number of young 
men, who should obligate themselves to teach for as long a period, 
at least, as that during which they received aid, or to refund the 
money; encouragement to Teachers' Associations (County or 
State Associations) by giving them tifty or a hundred dollars to 
pay for the lecturers at their meetings ; aid to the Editors or Pub- 
lishers of Journals of Education for the benefit of Teachers, — 
these might be some of the indirect methods to be used. 

6. I will state a. little more particularly here some of the objec- 
tions to the first plan mentioned in No. 3. There will not only 
be a great amount of supervision and direction of the work on 
the hands of the Trustees and their agents ; but many official 
reports from all the schools, whose forms must be prescribed, 
which must be examined, collated, and possibly printed, as is now 
done by Boards of Education. All this formidable official pro- 
cedure, by a body of men in some sense foreign to the different 
States, will only serve as a barrier, keeping the schools from the 
public sympathies. The ownership of lots and buiWings by the 
Trustees will tend to make the people indifferent or jealous. The 
ultimate transfer of such property to the towns and cities will be 
an awkward business to transact. The permanent care of a large 
number of houses, their securi^, proper occupancy, and repairs, 
will be troublesome. Property jointly held by the towns and the 
Tmstees would occasion still more trouble. At the utmost, I 
should think, one or two or three Normal School buildings might 
be owned by the Trustees. Even these it might be better to 
induce ihe people to build, and then cany on the schools for them 
for a longer or shorter time, either wholly or in part. Places for 
other schools, especially primary schools, could be obtained with- 



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Hl?rORy OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 33 

ont building or purch^ng them, ceitaiiily for the present But on 
tiiese and other simiUr points, experience would soon be the best 
teacher. These are first thoaghts, which, for that reason, may 
bave bnt little valne. 

Very respectfiilly and sincerely, 

Your ob't serv't, 

B. SSABS. 

This letter, in clearness of statement, in breadth of view, 
in comprehensiveness of plan of work, in fulness of detail 
and suggestion of methods, in grasp of the whole subject, 
was so complete and admirable that "it has proved a 
perfect chart of the course" of the Tnist " as the writer of 
it proved to be a perfect pilot" When the Trustees, five 
days after the letter was written, heard it, by a common 
impulse it was thought, who is so proper a person to carry 
out the plan as he who devised it?' Dr. Sears, in 
response to a telegram, met with the Trustees, united 
freely in their deliberations, took charge of the volumi- 
nous mass of letters and papers which had been sent from 
all parts of the country, but gave no intimation that he 
would accept the trust to which he had been unanimously 
chosen. Governor Fish and Mr. Evarts were appointed 
to procure from the State of New York an Act of Incor- 
poration; Samuel Wetmore was elected Treasurer; an 
Executive Committee and a Committee on Finance were 
appointed; and the promotion of Common School Educa- 
tion was declared to be the leading object of the Board 
in the use of the fund. Mr. Peabody sent a second letter, 
explanatory of his wishes and intentions. 

1 It is a singular coincidence tliat In 1846 the Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institute, tticn about to be organixed, requested Professor Henry to give bis 
views as to tbe best method of realizing the intentions of the founder. 
He gave an exposition nf tbe will, and of the method by ithich it might 
noit efHdently he accomplished. On account of this satisfactory exposi- 
tion and his sdenti&c reputation, he was invited to accept the office of 
Secretary. 



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34 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

Gentlemen, — Understanding that a doubt has been expressed 
in regard to my intentions and instructicms on the subject of the 
distribution of the fund entrusted to your care for the puipose of 
education in the Southern and Southwestern States, I desire dis- 
tinctly to say to you, that my design was to leave an absolute dis- 
cretion to the Board of Trustees, as .to the localities in which the 
funds should from time to time be expended. 

I hope that all the Suies included in that part of. our country 
which is suffering from the results of the recent war may, sooner 
or later, according to their needs, receive more or less of the 
benefit of the fund. 

But it was not my design to bind my Trustees to distribute the 
benefits of the fund upon any measure or proportion among the 
States, or to create any claim on the part of any State to any 
distributive share. 

Still less did I design to submit the Trustees, collectively or 
individually, to any responsibility to those intended to be bene- 
fited, or to any individual responsibility of any sort, for the man- 
agement of the fund committed to them. 

I have entire confidence that they will discharge the Trust with 
wisdom, equity, and fidelity ; and I leave all the details of man- 
agement to their own discretion. 

With great respect, your humble servant, 

George Peabody. 
New York, March to, 1867. 

After the adjournment, in compliment to General Grant 
and the other Trustees, Mr. Peabody gave a magnificent 
banquet in the large dining-room of the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel, which was fully described in the papers of the next 
day. In the presence of a lai^e number of ladies and 
gentlemen, invited to partake of the hospitalities of the 
occasion, the Chairman, at the request of the Board, com- 
municated these Resolutions, which had been unanimously 
adopted : — 

Resolved, That we tender to our distinguished and noble friend, 
Mr. Peabody, our sincere thanks for his munificent hospitality to 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 35 

US during our sittings, while organizing the Board, both in Wash- 
ington and New Yoric, 

JRtiolved, That we consider our appointments as Trustees of 
this grand charity as a very high honor, and one which we 
acknowledge most cordially. 

Resolved, That oui friend, being about to leave his native land 
for England, we hope that a kind Providence will take him under 
its guidance and protection, and letum him once more to us. 
We trast he will then be able to see the fruits of the good work of 
his great charity and remarkable wisdom. 

Dr. Sears, pondering profouidly the proposition 
submitted to him, wrote, on the 14th of March, to Mr. 
Winthrop : " The College [Brown University] has never 
been in a more prosperous condition. There has never 
been a time when I could labor here with so much advan- 
tage, . . , My duties are a perfect luxury, and my as5so- 
ciates all that I could desire. The Corporation does 
everything for me and supports me in everything I propose. 
I have therefore no cause to seek, a place, and none save 
one [alluding to apprehensions as to health from confine- 
ment], to think of a change." It was not until the 9th of 
April that, " with great diffidence as to his ability to meet 
expectations," he signified his decision and sent his letter 
of acceptance, dated on the 30th of March, but held back 
on account of misgivings. At a third meeting in New 
York, on the 28th of May, Mr. Evarts submitted the Act 
of Incorporation, which " with promptness, courtesy, and 
liberality" had been granted by the Legislature of New 
York. An organization under the Charter having been 
perfected, and a Common Seal for the Corporation having 
been authorized, the Board adjourned to meet in Rich- 
mond, Virginia. 

With great energy and tact Dr. Sears entered upon his 
delicate, difficult, and onerous duties. Having studied in 
Germany after his graduation from Brown, and having had 



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36 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

varied educational and professional experience as Professor 
in Newton Theological Seminary, as Secretary of the 
Board of Education of Massachusetts, and as President of 
Brown University, he brought to the discharge of his work 
accurate scholarship, unusual fulness of historical and peda- 
gogical information, a minute practical and intelligent 
acquaintance with the principles and details of State school 
systems, imperturbable temper, patient and laborious 
inquiry, a ready and thankful willingness to learn and to 
modify opinions and judgments formed from partial knowl- 
edge, a broad and tolecant patriotism, impressive courtesy 
and dignity of manner, firmness of action, tenderest sym- 
pathy for the unfortunate, and a steadfast, inextinguishable 
faith in the feasibility and indispensablencss of universal 
education. It may well be doubted whether any other 
person could have been found who had such adaptedness 
to the work, because of his rare combination of personal, 
intellectual and moral qualities. Reference has been made 
to the bankruptcy of the South and the timeliness of the 
benefaction. The truth of history requires the cumulative 
statement that while many resolutely accepted the situation* 
and with courage and subdued hope turned their faces to 
the future, a majority dwelt in the mournful past, grieved 
with unutterable sadness over " the lost cause," adjusted 
themselves slowly and with ill-temper to the new environ- 
ments, and were not rcstraintful in the bitter and almost 
savage expression of their discontent To conciliate oppo- 
sition, to quiet otfensive hostility, to avoid irritation, to put 
a charitable construction upon hasty speech and rude 
action, to help in dissipating despair, to be listened to in 
suggesting and urging a permanent policy of free schools, 
offering equal advantages to the late masters and the 
emancipated slaves, and in direct opposition to the tradi- 
tions and practices of the whole past, required what few 
mea possessed ; and this history would have been very 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 37 

different but for the wonderful skill and ability with which 
Dr. Sears, transferring his home and citizenship to Virginia, 
surmounted obstacles, changed adverse opinions and con* 
victions of the peo[ile, made the Peabody Education Fund 
a most popular trust, and became himself imbedded in the 

\ confidence and affections of the South. 
*■ A meeting of the Trustees was held in Richmond on 
the 2ist of January, 1868, Governor Fish presiding in the 
absence of Mr. Winthrop, who was in Europe. Dr. Sears 
made his first report, which recited rather the beginning of 
operations than the completion of any of its parts, " The 
field was wide and varied ; the enterprise, in many of its 
features, was entirely new; the most perplexing questions 
to be disentangled and settled were encountered at the 
very beginning." For about three months he gave almost 
his entire time to the study of proposed plans of action 
which were of the most diverse character, to consultation 
with intelligent men, and to a wide and varied correspond- 
ence. It became necessary to correct a widely- prevalent 
notion that the Fund was a mere charity to the poor, for 
equal distribution, and to be used as a temporary relief. 
It was soon settled in his own mind that what was needed 
was the adoption of a comprehensive plan for the estab- 
I lishment and maintenance of systems of public schools — 
as the provision for primary and general education was 
very defective, and in many places could be hardly said to 
V-exist at all. Instead of aiding a large number of inferior 
schools, it seemed advisable to concentrate effort on a few 
good ones, centrally located, and sustained by an intelli- 
gent public sentiment. He gave it as his best judgment, 
which subsequent history has amply confirmed, that the 
best policy of the Board was to act in conjunction with 

_i^ State authorities, rather than with individuals, or religious 
denominations, or private corporations. A great point 
to be gained was to stimulate a governmental interest, as 



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3? HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

well as a popular one, in the cause of general education. 
Great firmness was required in resisting appeals, sometimes 
deceptive, often founded on real necessity, and backed by 
strong political, oRicial, social, denominational, and per- 
sonal influence, and here the wisdom and courage of the 
General Agent had opportunity for conspicuous and per- 
sistent exercise. The Trustees sustained their Agent, and 
it soon was recognized that the fixed purpose was so to 
administer the Trust as to make it a helpful and instructive 
agency in securing systems of free schools in all the 
Southern States, adapted to their peculiar condition of 
inhabitancy by two races, distinct in origin, color, history, 
separated by an impassable chasm, and yet predestined to 
continuous joint occupancy of the same territory. In 
order to a right understanding of the aim and the work of 
the Fund, it needs to be iterated and kept constantly in 
view that when Mr. Peabody made his gift there were not, 
and there had never been, any State systems of compulsory 
v^ and tax-sustained public schools. Convinced that the 
welfare of the people was inseparably connected with free 
schools, and knowing that mistakes would not be easy of 
reparation, time was taken to obtain exhaustive information 
and to mature plans which would stand the test of expe- 
rience. Dr. Sears made extensive journeys, visited and 
addressed schools, colleges. Teachers' Associations and 
Legislatures. The greatest immediate want, as disclosed 
by this personal inspection, was a proper supply of com- 
petent teachers, and, to meet this want, it was recom- 
mended that aid should be given to Normal Schools. 
Strictly speaking, there was not a Normal School in the 
whole area covered by the Fund ; but they sprang up with 
facility, and applications were numerous and urgent for 
adoption and support of Colleges and Academies as 
Normal Schools. The Normal departments were mere 
annexes, and the teachers were not experts. At the close 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND, 39 

of his first Report, Dr. Sears embodied his opinions in 
distinct recommendations. 



" I. That in promoting ' Primary or Common School Educa- 
tion,' we confine ourselves, as far as possible, to Public Schools. 

" 2. Instead of supporting small schools ia the couniry, or help- 
ing to support them by paying the tuition for poor children, we 
limit ourselves to rendering aid to schools where large numbers 
can be gathered, and where a model system of schoob can be 
organized. 

" 3. That, other things being equal, we give the preference to 
places which will, by their example, exert the widest influence 
upon the surrounding country. 

" 4. That we aim at the power and efficacy of a limited number 
of such schools in a given locality rather than at the multiplication 
of schools languishing for want of sufficient support. 

" 5. That we make efforts in all suitable ways to improve State 
systems of education, to act through their organs, and to make use 
of their machinery wherever they are proffered us. 

" 6. That we use our influence in favor of State Normal Schools, 
on account of their superior excellence over Normal Departments 
in Colleges and Academies, which will be overshadowed by the 
literary and scientific departments, and fail to win the regards and 
excite the enthusiasm of students or the interest of the genera] 
public. 

" 7. That we give special attention to the training of female 
teachers for Primary Schools, rather than to the general culture of 
young men in Colleges, who will he likely to teach in the higher 
schools for the benefit of the few. 

"8. That, in the preparation of colored teachers, we encourage 
their attendance at regular Normal Schoob, and, only in excep- 
tional cases, at other schools which attempt to give normal 
instruction, 

" 9. That we favor the appointment and support of State Super- 
intendents, the formation of State Associations of teachers, and the 
publication of periodicals for the improvement of teachers, and, 
where it shall be necessary, contribute moderate amounts in aid of 
these objects." 



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40 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

It will be observed that Dr. Sears was confirmed in his 
judgment, that the aided schoob, whether normal or for 
primary education, should be under State auspices. No 
other policy would be safe, nor promise thoroughness, 
eiBciency, and permanency. 

These propositions, accepted by the Board, stereotyped 
the policy of the Fund. The conditions precedent to aid 
brought the States into willing co-operation and gave 
stability to the plan. Fixed principles, rather than tem- 
porary and illusory expedients, were to govern, "Free 
Schools for the whole people " was the aim of the Trust, 
and everything was to be subordinated to this inflexible 
object The free education of the children of the South 
— " without other distinction than their needs and the 
opportunities of usefulness to them" — was the design of 
Mr. Peabody in establishing the Trust, " and he did not 
fail to enforce that design in his latest conversations, as 
well as in his earlier public letters." A purpose, however 
wise and far reaching, is not self-executing. Rules and 
methods must be prescribed and administered. After 
mature deliberation, and with the approbation of the 
Founder, the Trustees determined to confine the benefits 
of the Fund to public free schools, and in no 'case to meet 
the entire cost of maintaining them. A small part of the 
current expenses, rarely more than one fourth, was placed 
in the hands of proper school officers, by way of aid and en- 
couragement. On the 2ist of September, 1869, Dr. Sears 
writes to Mr. Winthrop, " Our maximum for white schools 
has been $300 for one hundred pupils; $450 for one hun- 
dred and fifty; $600 for two hundred; and we have paid in 
Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia $4,000 in each State 
for a little more than two thousand pupils. I am inclined to 
adopt that rule, namely, $300 for one hundred white pupils, 
and $200 for one hundred colored. It costs less to maintain 
schools for the colored children than for the white. Some 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 4I 

will fiod fault with our making any disUtuHon between the 
two races. What do you think of my plan, and of this 
objection to it?" No Procrustean rule was workable, and 
later, instead of a proportionate distribution according to 
population or pover^, as was demanded by many unwise 
' persons, a limited number of the larger towns, such as 
would exert the widest influence npon the surrounding 
country, was selected, and for any locality the maximum 
appropriation was $2,000, and the minimum 'number of 
pupils was one hundred, that being the smallest num- 
ber that would admit of a graded system. In the larger 
towns there is, also, generally more enterprise, or more 
ambition to carry the schools to a high degree of excel- 
lence. These models of well-organized and well-conducted 
schools, showing the people what a good graded school 
was, did more to enlighten the people, disarm opposition, 
and create a sound public educational sentiment, than all 
/verbal arguments that could have been used. The chief 
\ benefit did not arise from what the Fund gave, but from 
what it induced others to give and to do. The homely 
rule of helping those who help themselves, of requiring 
a larger sum than was furnished to be raised by local tax 
or contribution has marked the entire administration of the 
Fund, and has had a most salutary influence in increasing 
fourfold what has been given for education, and in indoc- 
trinating tax-payers with the sound economic principle 
that there is no more legitimate tax on property than that 
which is levied for the education of the masses. In many 
instances, the towns soon assumed all the expense, the 
schools became selT-sup porting, and thus the timely and 
judicious aid gave permanence to schools which continued 
to flourish afier the fostering external help was withdrawn. 
Attention was then given elsewhere, and soon the feebler 
rural districts were reached. This experiment of partial suo 
cor, conditioned on larger self-help, had a wide and happy 



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42 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUKD. 

influence in bringing about an organized, corporate State 
system, which included both urban and rural schools. 

Perhaps this session of the Trustees was the most crucial 
of any in the life of the Fund. The General Agent, in 
his report, had outlined a comprehejisive and systematic 
plan, which would eventually secure the establishment of a 
general system of free schools' by all the States. To this 
cautious and progressive method, some of the Southern 
Trustees, notably, two of great influence who had held 
high positions, offered earnest objection, and urged, with 
pathetic appeal, because of the destitution prevailing in the 
South, an immediate distribution, not simply of the income, 
but of a large {)ortion of the then capital, at least as much 
as $400,000, in aid of schools in poor neighborhoods. 
After a discussion, participated in by eight of the Trustees 
and by Dr. Sears, the scheme of doling out charitable aid 
to all in want of the means of education was fortunately 
defeated, and the principle of distribution, which has since 
so wisely obtained in the administration of the Fund, was 
definitively settled. Nothing regarding this debate is 
given in the official account of the proceedings, not so 
much, in fact, as an indication that there was a debate. 

During this meeting, the Constitutional Convention of 
Virginia, which was in session, invited the Board to visit 
the body. There was not time for them to accept ; but, on 
the day after their adjournment, Dr. Sears made an address 
to the Convention, arguing, with unanswerable logic and 
wealth of illustration, in favor of a thorough and well-sus- 
tained system of Free schools. Mr. Stuart pronounced it 
one of the ablest and most effective ever delivered on that 
subject, and said that it aided materially in giving shape 
and impulse to the admirable system of public schools 
which was soon thereafter put upon the statutes of 
Virginia. 

In July of the same year, the Board met in New York; 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION TUND. 43 

and death had already begun to thin the ranks of those 
personally selected by Mr. Peabody. William C. Rives 
had died since the last meeting. Born id Nelson County, 
Virginia, on the 4th of May, 1793, he was educated liber- 
ally at Hampden-Sidney, and William and Mary colleges. 
Entering public life at an early age, he was soon, distin- 
guished for his faultless courtesy, for refinement and grace 
of manner, for a happy blending of conservatism and 
progress in his opinions and actions, for studious and 
scholarly tastes and habits, for eloquence and ability in 
debate, and was honored by being chosen Representative 
in Congress, Senator, Minister to France, discharging 
these high functions with credit to himself and benefit to 
his country. In the selection of those to carry out the 
provisions of his Trust, Mr. Peabody sought to constitute 
an able and congenial company of accomplished gentle- 
men, and his choice of Mr. Rives, a typical Virginian of 
the old school, introduced into the body a prudent coun- 
sellor, and a model of courtly propriety and personal 
integrity. Dr. Sears, in his first Report, describing his first 
visit to the South, said that Mr. Rives generously rendered 
all the aid he needed, and introduced him, under the most 
favorable circumstances, to the public men. " It is but a 
simple act of justice to say that my reception in Virginia, 
through his agency, not only rendered my visit agreeable 
and successful in a high degree, but gave a tone to public 
sentiment in respect to the value of our enterprise at the 
very beginning which has been of great service to us in 
the other States which I subsequently visited." 

The General Agent diligently employed the months 
intervening between meetings of the Board in visiting the 
Atlantic and Gulf States, and studying the educational 
problem. In his first acquaintance with some of these 
States he encountered "a political struggle," in no sense 
"antagonistic to his aims and plans," but awakening the 



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44 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

most anxious apprehensions in regard to the iuture. It 
was " to the credit of the people of those States that men 
of all parties, who rarely co-operated in other things, met 
and consulted and acted together" on the school subject 
" with singular unanimity." In the transition period after 
the war, in the chaotic condition of society, many persons 
holding office were incompetent, or unfaithful and corrupt 
Money raised for schools was diverted to other purposes. 
School funds once existing were " among the things of 
the past." In one State, $420,000 of stock belo^igiug to the 
Educational Fund was disposed of for less than half its 
value, and squandered upon favorites. In another State, 
the entire permanent school fund of the parishes disap- 
peared, and a Trust Fund of $1,300,500 was diverted from 
its legitimate use and passed, at a heavy discount, into 
the hands of jobbers and brokers. Time and Ubor were 
needed " to bring the people to a clear apprehension of 
what was needed in the practical work of setting public 
schools in operation ; " and those most interested were frank 
to say that, " without any experience in such matters, they 
could not devise a plan of action unless they had the 
assistance of some one who had knowledge and experience 
in such things." It was just in such a crisis that Dr. Sears 
stood pre-eminent among the men of his day as " a leader 
of public opinion, as an oi^anizer of schools, and as an 
exponent of the best methods of instruction." 

History cannot furnish a parallel to the state of affairs 
which existed at the South from 1865 to 1874. It required 
no superior foresight or sagacity to see that the inevitable 
result of causes in action, moral, social, and political, would 
require almost superhuman prudence and wisdom to pre- 
vent disorder, anarchy, terrible excesses, race conflicts, 
and semi-rebellion and warfare. Instead of anticipating 
and guarding against what was most likely to occur, it is 
Dot, at this day, improper to say that the measures adopted 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 45 

for restoring the loyalty of the States, for extinguishing the 
embers of secession, for giving full citizenship and suf- 
frage to the emancipated negroes, were not always the 
outcome of calm reason, or large information, or broad 
patriotism, but were predestined failures. The indebted- 
ness of the States, under the reorganized governments, was 
increased enormously and without adequate consideration; 
State bonds were issued recklessly, and sold at heavy dis- 
count; State expenditures were swelled a hundred-fold by 
sinecure offices, extravagant salaries, and wildly lavish 
appropriations; ilhterate men, many of whom could not 
read their commissions, were appointed constables, sheriffs, 
and justices of the peace. Incompetency and fraud ran 
riot, debauching public morals and degrading public 
honor. There was a saturnalia of misgovernment and 
ignorance, of passion and crime, of wrong and robbery. 
The outrages of those in authority were of such a character 
that Senator Hale of Maine was constrained to declare that 
" the infamy and disgrace of certain Southern State gov* 
ernnients have been constantly on the increase. . , . There 
have been bad men in those States who have bought power 
by wholesale bribery, and have enriched themselves at the 
expense of the people by peculation or open-handed 
robbery. Corruption and anarchy have occupied and 
possessed these unfortunate States." 

This sombre recital of the condition of affairs at the 
South is necessary to make plain what nicety and delicacy 
were required in adjusting the action of the Board to that 
of all the States concerned. Civil government was in an 
anomalous condition, and never were patience and pru- 
dence and wisdom more needed. Old systems had to be 
laid aside. Into the administrations of civil government 
were incorporated strange and inharmonious elements. 
Common schools may have worked well elsewhere, but 
they had not been tried at the South. It was a difficult 



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46 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

task to secure approval for them, when State treasuries 
were empty, the shrinkage in property values was enor- 
mous, and every day might bring forth a collision between 
angry elements. 

In 1868, Mr. Peabody informed Mr. Winthrop, in Lon^ 
don, that he purposed to visit bis native country again, and 
make a considerable addition to the Fund. Having, the 
next spring, serious apprehensions as to his health, which 
were confirmed by his medical advisers, he resolved to 
come earlier and complete his designs. Mr. Winthrop, 
Governor Clifford, and Dr. Sears met him at the station, 
on his arrival in Boston ; and he informed them that the first 
desire of his heart, that which he bad crossed the Atlantic 
especially to gratify, was to meet the Board once more, 
and increase their means for carrying on the great work 
in which they were engaged. He conferred long and 
anxiously with Dr. Sears, who had an opportunity of giv- 
ing him full and minute information as to the policy and 
plans which had thus far been adopted and pursued. In 
the conference about the condition and wants of the 
South in regard to education, there necessarily came up 
the fact that two years from the date of the instrument of 
Trust there expired the power of expending any portion 
of the principal. Aid rendered to schools had multiplied 
their number. The advantages which had accrued from 
judicious help increased the popular sentiment in favor of 
good schools and the need for a larger use of means. 
The embarrassment growing out of adjusting the scale of 
expenditure to the income simply, and the depression 
produced upon the friends of popular education by this 
reduction of appropriation, so operated upon the mind 
and heart of Mr. Peabody, that he was induced to make 
his second donation without further delay. The Board, at 
his immediate request, held a special meeting at Newport, 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 47 

Rhode Island, on July i, 1869, and the Chairman presented 
the following letter: — 

Gentleuen, — When I established the Trust of which you 
have chaise, it was my intentioD, if its results and progress should 
prove satisfactory, to retuni in three years to my native land, and 
to make further provision for carrying out the plans which experi- 
ence stiould have shown to be productive of encouragement and 
benefit to the people of the South. 

My precarious state of health has rendered It imprudent for 
me to wait for the full period of my intended absence; and I 
have now come among you in order to proceed at once to the 
fulfilment of my purpose. 

I have constantly watched with great interest and careful 
attention the proceedings of your Board, and it is most gratifying 
to me now to be able to express my warmest thanks for the inter- 
est and zeal you have manifested in maturing and carrying out the 
designs of my letter of Trust, and to assure you of my cordial 
concurrence in all the steps you have taken. 

At the same time I must not omit to congratulate you, and all 
who have at heart the best interests of this educational enterprise, 
upon your obtaining the highly valuable services of Dr. Sears as 
your General Agent, — services valuable not merely in the organ- 
ization of schools and of a system of public education, but in the 
good effect which his conciliatory and sympathizing course has 
had wherever he has met or become associated with the commu- 
nities of the South, in social or business relations. 

And I beg to take this opportunity of thanking, wilh all my 
heart, the people of the South themselves for the cordial spirit 
with which they have received the Trust, and for the energetic 
efforts which they have made, in co-operation with yourselves and 
Dr. Sears, for carrying out the plans which have been proposed 
and matured for the diffusion of the blessings of education in their 
respective States. 

Hitherto, under the sj-stem adopted by your General Agent, 
and sanctioned by you, four of the Southern States have not been 
assisted from the Fund placed in your charge, and I concur with 
you in the policy thus pursued ; as I am sure will the citizens of 
those four States, and all who have at heart the highest permanent 



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48 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

good of our beloved country. For it was most necessaiy that, at 
the outset, those States and portions of States which had suffered 
most from the ravages of war, and were most destitute of educa- 
tional means and privileges, should be first and specially aided. 

I believe the good sense and kind feeling of the people of 
these States will continue to acquiesce, for the present, in your 
conrse of devoting, under the care of Dr. Sears, the greater part 
of thfe Fund to the same States which have received its benefits for 
the past two years, with perliaps the addition of Texas, which 
State I am advised the General Agent will visit during the coming 
autumn or winKr, to ascertain its educational requirements, and to 
give such aid as shall be requisite and can be afforded, where it 
shall be most needed. 

I have the same sympathy with every one of the States ; and, 
were all alike needing assistance, I should wish each alike to share 
in the benefits of the Trust. 

As the portions aided shall respectively grow in prosperity and 
become self-sustaining in their systems of education, their respective 
allotments of the Fund will be applied to other destitute communis 
ties ; and thus its benefits will, I earnestly hope and trust, ultimately 
reach every section of the vast field committed to your care.' 

It is my hope and belief, and this opinion is fully confirmed 
by my interviews with Dr. Sears, that, with the additional amount 
which I now place in your hands, the annual income of the Fund 
alone may be found sufficient to sustain and extend the work you 
have so well begun ; and it is my desire that when the Trust is 
closed, and the final distribution made by yourselves or your suc- 
cessors, all the fourteen Southern States, including Maryland, Ken- 
tucky, Missouri, and Texas, shall share in that distribution accord- 
ing to their needs. 

In accordance with what I have already said of my intention, 
at the time I established this Trtist, to add thereto, if its success 
were such as I am now well assured has attended it, I now give 
to you and your successors the following securities ; viz. : — 

$190,000 Belvidere and Delaware Railroad Company's 6 per 
cent bonds, first mortgage ; dividends rsth June and rsth Decem- 
ber, due 1877 ; principal and interest guaranteed by the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad Company and New Jersey Transportation 
Company. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND, 49 

{301,025 Syracuse and Binghampton Railroad Compuiy 7 per 
cent bonds (^198,500 due in 1876, dividends October ist and 
April ist; {4,325 payable October 1st, 1870; {98,000 dividends 
from i5t June, due in 1887). This is an excellent road, and the 
stock at par, but the security is rendered perfect by the guarantee 
of both principal and interest by the Lackawana Coal Company 
of Pennsylvania. 

{79,200 Alabama State 5 per cent bonds. ({16,200 due 1886 ; 
{21,000 due 1872; {42,000 due in 1883. Dividends from 
November ist) 

{35,300 Mobile city 5 per cent bonds ; dividends from July ist 
Principal to be gradually paid off. 

{79,000 city of Louisville 6 per cent bonds ; dividends April 
and October; due 1883. 

{69,600 Louisiana Consolidated Bank 5's, fully guaranteed by 
Stale of Louisiana, and payable in 1870, 1873, 1S74, and 1876. 

{88,000 Ohio and Mississippi Railroad first mortgage 7 per 
cent bonds ; dividends ist July and ist January, all payable July i, 
187a. 

{90,000 Columbus, Chicago, and Indiana Central Railroad 
first mortgage bonds, 7 per centj dividends ist April and 1st 
October. Due in 1908. Guaranteed by Pennsylvania Central 
Railroad Company. 

{30,000 Pittsburg city 4 per cent bonds ; dividends January and 
July. Due in 1913. 

{8,000 Pittsburg city 5 per cent bonds ; dividends January and 
July. Due in 1913. 

{19,000 Louisiana State 6's; dividends January and July. 

{10,000 New Orleans city 6's; dividends January and July. 

{875 cash. 

Amounting in all to one million of dollars. These stocks are all 
of the very highest character for security, and the dividends are 
certain to be promptly paid. 

The principal sum of one million dollars, given by my first letter 
of trust, is still intact ; the interest on which being added to ^at of 

Cmy present gifi makes the annual revenue of the Trust upwards 
of one hundred and thirty thousand dollars; a sum which, in the 
opinion of your honorable Chairman and your General Agent, is 
amply sufiicient to meet all the requirements of the Trust, without 



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50 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

iofringing upon the capital, until the dme arrives for the final dis- 
tribution, as before stated. 

In addition to the foregoing, I give to you Florida 6 per cent 
bonds, which, with overdue coupons, amount to about l3S4.,ooo. 

These bonds, Uke the Mississippi bonds in my first gift, must 
before many years be paid. 

The territory of Florida obtained the money on these bonds in 
Europe at about par, and loaned it to the Union Bank as capitaL 

The territory received for some time a high rate of interest, but, 
after the bank suspended, paid the bondholders nothing, but re- 
ferred them to the Union Bank, saying, " Obtain what you can 
from the Union Bank, and it will then be time enough to come to 
us."' Large amounts of these bonds were purchased by planters 
at about fifty per cent, and used to pay mortgages held by the 
Union Bank, until there was nothing more left to be paid ; and the 
small amount of tliese bonds now outstanding (not exceeding, I ' 
believe, two millions of the original bonds) must, I think, before 
long induce Florida, as an act of justice long delayed, to make 
provision for their payment. 

All the stocks I have given as above are to be held in trust by 
yourselves and your successors, for the same purposes, and under 
the same conditions as the funds given you by my original letter 
creating your trust. 

I do this with the earnest hope, and in the sincere trust, that," 
with God's blessing upon the gift and upon the deliberations and 
future action of yourselves and your General Agent, it may enlarge 
the sphere of usefulness already entered upon and prove a perma- 
nent and lasting boon, not only to the Southern States, but to the 
whole of our dear country, which I have ever loved so well, but 
never so much as now in my declining years, and at this time 
(probably the last occasion I shall ever have to address you) as I 
look back over the changes and the progress of nearly three-quar- 
ters of a century. And I pray that Ahnighty God will grant to it 
a future as happy and noble in the intelligence and virtues of its 
citizens, as it will be glorious in unexampled power and prosperity. 
I am, with great respect, 

Your humble servant, 

George Feabodv. 
Salem, June 29, 1869. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. $1 

On motion of Bishop McIIvaine, the letter was referred 
to Governor Graham, Governor Aiken, and Mr. Watson, 
who reported the following Resolutions, which were unani- 
mously adopted by rising : — 

" Retobied, By the Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund, 
that we receive with the highest gratification the letter of our mu- 
nificent friend, Mr. Peabodv, announcing so large an addition to 
our means for carrjring on his noble designs for education in the 
Southern States ; that we thankfully recognize in this act, as well 
as in the express language of his letter, his approbation of the 
policy we have thus far pursued, ahd his appreciation of the success 
thus far achieved ; and that we hasten to assure him of our deep 
sense of the great liberality and wisdom of his endowment, and of 
our warm personal gratitude for the confidence he has reposed 
in us. 

"Resolved, That in accepting this second princely gift, we 
pledge ourselves to proceed in the execution of the trust com- 
mitted to us, with renewed resolution that nothing on our part 
shall be wanting to secure the entire success of an enterprise so 
full of interest and importance in itself, and which cannot fail to 
produce the most valuable and lasting influences upon the harmony 
and welfare of our whole country. 

" Resolved, That we heartily and affectionately congratulate Mr. 
Peabody on being permitted to return in safety to his native land 
to fulfil this cherished puipose of his heart ; and that we implore 
our Heavenly Father that his strength may be restored and his 
life spared until he shall have witnessed still more of the fruits of 
his beneficent plans, and shall have enjoyed still longer the respect 
and gratitude of his country and of the world." 

This additional bounty gave a second million of dollars 
to the cash capital of the Fund, besides adding largely 
to the deferred securities which had been included in the 
original donation, all of which be bad the fullest faith 
would at no very distant day become productive. This 
second gift was so well-timed, evinced a patriotism and 
humanity so comprehensive, a munificence so surpassing, 



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52 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

that the Trustees hastened to assure him of their deep 
sense of the great liberality and wisdom of the endowment, 
of warm personal gratitude for the confidence reposed in 
them, and of their renewed purpose to labor for " the entire 
success of an enterprise so full of interest and importance 
in itself, and which cannot fail to produce the most val- 
uable and lasting influence upon the harmony and welfare 
of the whole country." It is fairly within bounds to say 
that this second grand act of philanthropy produced an 
effect upon the sentiments of the Southern people even 
greater than the first. 

In consequence of continued feebleness, Mr. Peabody 
and Dr. Sears passed the hot summer months at the White 
Sulphur Springs in West Virginia, arriving there on the 
i8th of July, 1869; and here Mr. Peabody was brought into 
direct communication with many Southern men. Being 
the guests of the proprietor, the best cottage was placed at 
their disposal. From Dr. Sears' letters a few extracts are 
taken: "Mr. P. is delighted with the establishment and 
with the gentlemen he has met. More attention and 
respect he could not wish, and yet (as he just said to me), 
they are very delicate in their attentions and do not weary 
him. Everything is as you desire. The people have re- 
ceived him as their benefactor. I regret to say he has not 
improved in health. Many persons have called on him 
just to take his hand. General Lee and General Beaure- 
gard, who are very attentive to him, and familiar with us all, 
are but secondary characters to him just now. He, both 
on account of his unparalleled goodness, and of his illness 
among a loving and hospitable people, receives tokens of 
love and respect from all, such as I have never before seen 
shown to any one. This visit among the best families 
from all the Southern States will, in my judgment, do more 
for us than a long tour in a state of good health. This 
warm sympathy, added to the love and respect, will make 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 53 

coldness and jealousy, from any quarter, hereafter impos- 
sible. A whisper of dissatisfaction would wound the sensi- 
bilities of the whole people. . . . Yesterday he went to the 
public dinner-table with us (about 1500 persons are here 
and dine in a long hall), and then sat an hour in the parlor, 
giving the ladies an opportunity to take him by the hand, 
and he is the better for it to-day." The writer of this 
memorial here saw Mr. Feabody for the first and the last 
time, and, like all others brought into personal contact 
with the great philanthropist, was deeply impressed by his 
benignant countenance, his cordial manner, his tender 
sympathy, his broad intelligence, his wide patriotism, and 
his profound interest in the Southern people. 

The generous action was none too timely. Mr. Peabody 
sailed in the " Scotia " for Liverpool on the 29th of Sep- 
tember, and died at Eaton Square, London, on the 4th of 
November, 1869. No uncrowned man ever had such 
funeral honors. His remains found a temporary resting 
place in Westminster Abbey. Eloquent tributes were 
paid by high prelates and the highest Minister of the 
Crown. The Press, the surest chronicler and reflector of 
public joy, or public grief, gave utterance to the universal 
sorrow. By order of the Queen, the body was conveyed 
in Her Britannic Majesty's iron-clad steamer, "Monarch," 
which was accompanied by the United States ship-of-war 
" Plymouth " as an escort. The President assigned to Ad- 
miral Farragut the honorable service of receiving the 
remains when they should arrive on our shores, and sumpt- 
uous ceremonies, naval and civil, were paid at Portland. 
Agreeably to his own desire, the Benefactor was buried, 
near to the graves of his father and mother, in his native 
town of Danvers, which now bears the name of Peabody. 
On the 8th of February, 1870, Mr. Winthrop delivered an 
oration on the character and general services of Mr. Pea- 
body, by invitation of the Committee of Arrangements, 



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54 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

a number of the Trustees being present to unite in the last 
tribute to their venerated and beloved friend. This oration, 
published separately, is included in the first volume of the 
Peabody Proceedings. Mr. Charles Francis Adams, one of 
the pall-bearers, declared it to be the most eloquent dis- 
course he had ever heard. His Royal Highness, Prince 
Arthur, was full of compliments, and asked for a copy 
for his mother, and the newspapers were specially laud- 
atory of an address, delivered under peculiarly adverse 
circumstances.' 

The death was most sincerely lamented tn all the South- 
ern States, and called forth from the Press, from public 
authorities, from schools, from individuals, the tenderest 
expressions of gratitude and love. 

On the 1 8th of February, the Hon. S. Teackle WalHs de- 
livered a kindred discourse in the Hall of the Peabody 
Institute in Baltimore, which was repeated before the Legis- 
lature of Maryland, it being the feeling of the members 
that the State ought to emphasize its sense of obligation 
by giving an official sanction to the tribute of the Peabody 
Institute.' The Trustees, at their meeting in February, 
which had been postponed from January until after the 
funeral should have taken place, claiming the privilege of 
those who knew him in the* confidential relations of the 
great Trust to speak with special testimony, recorded 
their profound veneration for his character, and his em- 
inent philanthropy and their painful sense of the bereave- 
ment occasioned by his death. 

" I. Rtsolved, That this Board, having been honored by our 
lamented and beloved friend, the late George Peabody, with the 
trast of the greatest of his great gifts in America, do hereby record 
our profound veneration for his character and his eminent philan- 

1 The addiess may be Tound in i Proceedings of Peabody Education 
Fund, pp. 151-167, and 3 WEnthrop's Speeches and Addresses, pp. 36-50. 
* Selected Addresses, Lectures, and Reviews. By S. T. Wallis, p. 47. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. SS 

throp]', with our painful sense of the bereavement to his friends, 
and the loss to his country, occasioned by his death. Participat- 
ing to the utmost in that appreciation of his worth and works which 
has united two great countries of kindred blood in such tributes to 
his memory as were never paid before to individual merit,'it is the 
privilege of those who knew him in the confidential relations of 
this great Trust, to speak with special testimony of that shining 
purity of motive, and of that careful consideration of duty to God 
and man, which gave birlh, form, and direction to all his bountiful 
gifts. We take a mournful pleasure in recording our loving hom- 
age to a beneficence as admirable in heart as in deed ; so wise 
and comprehensive in the choice of its objects ; too thoughtful to 
be profuse, too maturely planned to be impulsive. Enlarged 
beyond all sectional and national boundaries, it has created a bond 
of peace between the North and South of his own land, and be- 
tween them both, as one nation, and their venerated mother-land, 
which we pray may never be broken. His native country, which 
he so dearly loved, will fondly remember the son that so adomed 
her history ; whose institutions of learning and of general education 
he so enriched, and, after having given hex children an example 
how inflexible integrity and unselfish enterprise may accumulate 
wealth, added the more-needed lesson, how, in their own lifetime, 
and by their own hands, it may be wisely and nobly dispensed ; 
who, by riches so obtained and used became the benefactor of 
nations in both hemispheres, and taught the poor in each to call 
him blessed ; whose most enduring monuments will be found in 
countless schools for the poor and ignorant, and in cheerful, com- 
fortable homes for the destitute and wretched ; who, amidst all the 
flattering homage of the great and the applause of the multitude, 
preserved unblemished, to the end of a long career, the modest 
simplicity of life and manners inherited in his youth. It was fit 
that the mortal remains of such a man, having been attended by 
dignitaries of the Church, and ministers of the Crown of England, 
to a temporary resting-place assigned them among the sepulchres 
of the wise and great, should be carried by the joined hands of 
Great Britain and America, and with their united honors, to the 
burial he desired, in his own native village and near the graves of 
his &ther and mother. 
" 2. Resolved, That for his well-ordered philanthropy and 



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S6 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND^ 

princely munificence he deserves to be ranked among heroes and 
sages, the inventors of useful arts, and the founders of States, the 
admitted beoeiactors of preceding ages, whose labors or contribu- 
tions have marked eras in the amelioration and progress of man- . 
kind ; and that his name and memory should be cherished among 
those of the great Americans who have given j-enowD to their 
country and done good for its people. 

"3. Rtsolved, That, in the unexampled tributes which have 
been paid to the life and character of George Peabodv, we rejoice 
to recognize an einpliatic testimony of nations and governments to 
tbe greatness of simple virtue and beneficent philandiropy — 
especially in the faithful stewardship of riches — which eminently 
redounds to their hiHior, and gives additional weight to a lesson of 
wisdom and duty for all generations. 

" 4. Resolved, That this Board, dejMived, by the afHicting dis- 
pensation of Divine Providence, of the advice and countenance of 
OUT departed friend and Founder, will ever remember our gratifica- 
tion on the last occasion of his presence with us, and especially in 
his satisfaction then expressed with our administration of his trust, 
not only in assuring words, but by the large addition then made 
thereto ; teaching us to feel more than ever our responsibility to 
God for the talents committed to our care, while we look for guid- 
ance and blessing to Him from whom all good counsels and just 
works proceed." 

It was at this meeting, the full term of three years hav- 
ing expired since the Board was originally organized, that 
the Chairman presented an Introductory Address, the first 
of that remarkable series of papers which have constituted 
a marked feature of the Annual Proceedings. These ad- 
dresses, models of English composition, were a risum/ of 
the year's work, and forecasted, with delicate suggest! veness, 
the action of the session. They contain a full and most 
authentic account of the original institution of the Trust, 
and, from time to time, as the occasion required, gave 
appreciative sketches of the Trustees who had died during 
the vacation. Mr. Winthrop said playfully, in 1890, that 
" Our annual pamphlet of Proceedings would hardly know 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 57 

itself, after a habit of so many years, witliout a prefatory 
page or two from the Cliairman," and that the omission 
might almost seem like the opening of a session of Con- 
gress without any Executive message. The death of the 
donQr made no change in the administration of the gift. 
- The report of the agent furnished gratifying evidence of a 
growing sentiment in favor of Free Public Schools. Still, 
the condition of affairs was unfavorable to systematic, vig- 
orous, or liberal action on the part of the States. The 
Superintendent of North Carolina said : " The State Fund 
will not exceed $300,000. There are about 750,000 chil- 
dren to be provided for." The schools in South Caro- 
lina were not unlike those in the sister State. No schools 
were in operation under the new law. With the exception 
of Charleston, which levied taxes in its municipal capac- 
ity, no town was found which could support schools other 
than by voluntary contribution. In Georgia, no law estab- 
lishing Public Schools had as yet been passed. Some of 
the larger towns were struggling manfully with the prob- 
lem, but most of them were deterred by the reluctance 
or the inability of the people to submit to the taxation 
necessary for the purpose. Florida had on statute book a 
good system, but the revenue was inadequate. Alabama 
reported a school fund of $525,000 and about 4,000 
schools in operation for four months in the year, with 
160,000 of the 336,000 children in attendance. The peo- 
ple were beginning to understand and to see good results. 
Several towns under special school laws were doing excel- 
lent work, and the schools of the State were " perfectly 
free for all to attend, the whites in their schools and the 
colored in theirs." Owing to the unsettled condition of 
affairs in the Southwestern States, less was accomplished 
than otherwise would have been done. The policy and 
status of the States remained generally unsettled until 
1875, and even after laws had been enacted it was impos- 



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58 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

sible to mature the right measures, or raise sufficient funds, 
for the maintenance of the schools. Months and years 
were required for enlightening public opinion, for making 
complete and uniform organization of schools, for habit- 
uating officers and people to an unfamiliar, untried system. 
In 1870, Dr. Sears visited Texas, but found the school 
laws and the sentiment unsatisfactory. In 1871, public 
free schools were opened for the first time in the history 
of that State. The opposition was so strong that they 
had but a short life " during a period of fierce party 
strife." At the meeting in 1876 the Trustees manifested 
an earnest desire that measures should be taken for stimu- 
lating stronger interest in education in that " great and 
prosperous commonwealth." During the succeeding win- 
ter and spring, in company with Dr. Burleson, " a pioneer 
in education," thoroughly familiar with the geography and 
the people of the State, Dr, Sears made a canvass of the 
State, and spoke in all the principal cities and towns. In 
a letter to Mr. Winthrop, he thus writes : — 

" My work in Texas was finished more than a week ago, and 
I trust all reasonable expectations have been realized. The ap- 
pointments and other arrangements made by our agent, Rev. Dr. 
Burleson, turned Out to be excellent. He published the list of 
appointments, corresponded with the local authorities, and then 
accompanied me, and followed my addresses with excellent remarks 
and suggestions of his own. Being an old, well known, popular, ' 
and eloquent citizen, he has an influence which no stranger, and 
few Texans could have. I am cordially received by the people, 
and am welcomed by the city governments. My friends here say 
great good has been done by this effort in behalf of education." 

Dr. Burleson published an address in which he said : 

" Dr. Sears has made this tour to Texas in compliance with (he 
special request of Mr. Feabody, expressed shortly before his 
death. There never was such a canvass made in the great cause 
oi education in Texas before, and never was there such enthu- 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. S9 

siasm awakened to commence a new and grand educational era in 
Texas. Dr. Sean has been heard with profound attention by our 
governor and supreme judges, our greatest educators, our mayoi^ 
OUT editors, our merchants, and leading miads in all oui profes- 
sions and occupations. One sentiment universally prevails — and 
that is, that it will be a burning shame on Texas not to provide 
better educational facilities." 

It is thus seen that the burdens upon Dr. Sears were 
very heavy and trying. It was necessary to visit towns 
and make personal examination of the condition and the 
wants of schools; to originate plans; to direct and super- 
intend the work of others ; to keep up an extensive and 
sometimes an annoying correspondence ; to deal with all 
sorts of people, from cranks and imbeciles to governors, 
legislators, and congressmen ; to negotiate with municipal 
and school officers ; to obtain from trustworthy sources 
the evidence that the conditions made had been accepted 
and faithfully fulfilled ; to make payments and keep ac- 
counts of moneys received and disbursed ; and to prepare 
all necessary papers and reports. This was a transition 
period. Experiments were tentative, sometimes requiring 
abandonment, generally modification. To clear away 
doubts, overcome opposition, instruct as to principles and 
details, awaken faith in free schools, place new systems 
beyond failure, was a task, incessant and Herculean. 
After the people and governments had adopted State- 
established, State-controlled, State-supported systems of 
education, the adjustment of plans of operation to a thou- 
sand varying conditions of territory, population, wealth, 
opinion, demanded almost superhuman tact and wisdom. 
With best intentions, legislation was undertaken by those 
who had no experience to guide them. Officers were 
sometimes not provided, sometimes needlessly multiplied ; 
success was prevented by divided responsibility, and not 
unfrequently the organization was ignorant, indifferent, or 



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60 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

hostile. What helped to save from disastrous f^lure was 
rigid adherence to a fixed, clearly-defined policy, and 
keeping in view permanent results, rather than temporary 
relief. Helping those who help themselves was practical 
wisdom, derived from highest human philosophy, but en- 
forcing it, conditioning a gift on the raising of a much 
larger sum, was almost like requiring an increased tale of 
brick without furnishing the needed straw. Over and 
over, in reiterated phrase, with saddened heart. Dr. Sears 
recounts "the impoverished condition of the people," 
State, municipal, and individual bankruptcy, the debts 
which hung with crushing weight over the States, and the 
cruelty of increasing the taxes. In the midst of these 
embarrassments and heroic strugglings to put civilization 
in alignment with the new order of things, there arose an 
agitation and a demand which threatened, not simply to 
reverse the growing sentiment in favor of universal edu- 
cation, but to undo and make odious what had been 
accomplished, and to plunge society into bitterest race- 
antagonism and maddening chaos. One or two States 
undertook to make laws and enforce them for mixed 
schools. Some persons, not to " the manner bom," took 
the lead in organizing a crusade for the co-education of 
the races. One man, imperious and dictatorial, a late 
immigrant, sought to inflame sectional prejudice and polit- 
ical hostility against Dr. Sears, declaring that he had im- 
bibed the Southern prejudice against the negro, and was 
" one of the veriest dough-faces in the whole Southern 
region." William Lloyd Garrison made an assault, in this 
connection, on Mr. Peabody, as " conservative by struc- 
ture, taste, affinity, and association." As the writer may 
not view this question impartially, he prefers to let his 
predecessor describe the contention and the certain results 
if it succeeded. The question of "mixed schools" was 
repeatedly presented and pressed in Congress, and Mr. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 6l 

Sumner, on the 2Sth of February, 1865, moved a resolu- 
tion in the Senate, oSering both political and civil rights 
in Louisiana, regardless of color or race. In 1869, Dr. 
Sears wrote, in reply to a New Orleans paper : — 

"I will now stote our position, which is perfectly well known to 
you. We assume no control whatever over the arrangement of Ihe 
schools to which assistance is accorded. We have nothing to do 
with any party questions, or with the policy pursued by Municipal 
or State authorities. fVit only wish to aid in the work of universal 
education. If separate schools are provided for the two races, and 
both of them are pleased with the arrangement, we can have no 
enibairassment in co-operating with the State authorities. If the law 
requires mixed schools, and the children, whether white or black, 
generally attend them, we shall have no difficulty in our work. 
But if the State supports only mixed schools, and the white 
children do not attend them, we should naturally aid, not the colored 
children who enjoy, exclusively, the benefit of the public school 
money, but the white children who are left to grow up in ignorance. 
If it be said that the white children ought to attend the mixed 
schools, and that it is their own fault, or that of their parents, if 
they do not, we reply that we are not called on to pronounce 
judgment on that subject Let the people themselves settle that 
quesdon. 

" If a State government ventures upon an experiment which works 
badly, we cannot help it. We leave the responsibility where it 
belongs. We must go our way, and do our duty, helping the 
needy and uneducated 'among the entire population, without 
other distinction than [heir needs, and the opportunities of useful- 
ness to them.' Our proper business is to encourage tmiveraal 
education ; not to meddle with any party question, nor to encoui^ 
age or discourage any political body. While we disclaim, there- 
fore, all interference with State legislation, or the administration of 
laws regarding schools, we think it reasonable, on our part, to 
desire the liberty to perform the duties of our trust, according to 
the known will and express language of the donor, who has not 
only defined, clearly, the powers and the duties of the Trustees, 
but has read all that I have written upon this subject, and approves 
of every word, " 



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62 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

In 1870, he wrote to Mr. Winthrop, "South Carolina, 
like Louisiana, is afflicted with the curse of trying to 
have mixed schools." In his Annual Report in 1874, he 
thus placed the subject before the Trustees ; — 

" Seven yean' personal intercourse with all classes of men in the 
South, and an opportunity which few have enjoyed of knowing the 
opinions and feelings of the people in regard to schools, have led 
to the conviction, clear, strong, and unwavering, that any authori- 
tative interference with the schools of these States would be disas- 
trous to the dearest interests of education, and would be by far the 
most unfortunate for thai class of citizens in whose behalf such 
measures have been proposed. Foreseeing the dangers which 
threatened the destruction of the State systems of free schoob in 
the South, in all of which provision is made for the education of 
one race as much as the other, and standing, in some sense, as the 
guardian of the interests committed to your care, I could not 
remain a passive spectator, while men in power were unwittingly, 
as we are bound to believe, urging on a measure which, if carried 
out, would undo nearly all that you have done at the expenditure 
of so much treasure and assiduous labor. On the contrary, I felt 
constrained to go twice before committees and leading members 
of Congress, and utter a voice of earnest warning against a futile 
attempt to enforce ' mixed schools,' and to show, as best I might, 
what would be the necessary operation of such a law, — a law that 
would prove a nullity if not followed by another requiring each 
State to maintain public schools of a given character, and still 
another requiring the attendance of white children. 

" At no time since the war has the party of progress been in SO 
critical a condition as it has been since the citation of the question 
of ' mixed schools ' in Congress. Even the shadow of coming events 
has had a disastrous influence. In one or two States, contracts with 
mechanics for school-houses, and with teachers for opening schools, 
were immediately suspended ; and the highest and best school . 
officers of the State, seeing that their fondest expectations were 
likely to be blasted, were looking around for other more hopeful 
spheres of labor. Already an amount of mischief has been done 
which it will take years to repair. Confidence has been shaken; 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 63 

and men who stood iinn before have become despondent, and are 
retiring irom the field. 

" Upon no part of the community would the threatened calamity 
M so heavily as upon the colored people. Others can, without 
any personal sacrifice, return to the old system of private schools. 
Having none but their own children to provide for, they would be 
relieved of the great expense of maintaining schools for the blacks. 
These, on the other band, would in most places be left completely 
destitute of schools. Southern charity will be dried up, if the 
negro is made the instrument of breaking up the existing systems 
of public instruction. Religious societies which have founded 
theological schools will have enough to do to educate ministers, 
without undertaking to educate the immense body of the colored 
people. The latter have neither the funds nor the intelligence 
necessary to carry on the work successfully. Nothing but public 
schools, maintained, organized, and controlled by the State, can 
meet their wants. 

" Let us look at this question in the light of their interest simply. 
What advantages of education have they now in fact or in law? 
The same that the white people have. If there is, in certain 
localities, any difference, it is purely accidental and temporary ; 
and is quite as oflen to the prejudice of the white children as of 
the colored. The laws in all the States require the same provision 
to be made for both. Nor can any distinction be safely made in 
administering them. The colored people are of sufficient impor- 
tance in every State to make it unsafe for men in authority to 
abuse their power. From the very nature of the case, the State 
governments must, in the end, adopt and carry out the same rule 
for both races. This grand provision for the education of the 
whole colored population, chiefly at the expense of others, is secure 
as long as the present school systems shall be preserved. But let 
them be disturbed by any unhappy excitement, and the disafTected 
will seize upon the oppoitimity to abolish the public schools and 
to return to their favorite plan of private schools, each man paying 
what he pleases for the education of his children. The colored 
children will, of course, be left to grow up as ignorant as the brutes. 
We will not speak of the political bearings of the subject, except 
to say that any measure, no matter how plausible in theory, which 
shall in fact take the light of knowledge from the negroes of the 



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64 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

South, will come with an ill grace from those who have gjvcd them 
the boon of liberty. " 

A report from Messrs. Evarts, Clifford, and Wetraore, 
adopted unanimously by the Trustees, sustained the views 
of the General Agent, and pronounced emphatically, as 
the result of their responsible consideration of the whole 
subject, that compulsory legislation by Congress in favor 
of " mixed schools " would be most pernicious to the in- 
terests of education in the communities to be affected by 
it, and that the colored population would suffer the greater 
share of this disastrous influence. ( t Proceedings, 437-439.) 
To Mr. Winthrop, who was in Europe, Dr. Sears expressed 
without reserve his deep anxiety concerning the mad 
project, and wrote an interesting account of his own laborS) 
and of the action of others, in giving a quietus to Con- 
gressional interference. On the 8th of January, 1874, he 
writes from Staunton, Virginia: — 

Hon. RoBBBT C. Wi.vthrop: 

Dear Sir, — I have just returned from Washington, where I 
felt obliged to go to secure the omission or modificalion of that 
clause in General Butler's Civil Rights Bill which relates to 
schools. I am satisfied with the result My fint aim was to see 
its friends (Butler, Hoar, Dawes, and others), and induce them to 
omit the clause altogether, or to require only equal privileges of 
education without mixing the two races in the schools. I think I 
convinced them all that the Bill would overthrow the Slate systems 
of free schools, and leave both the blacks and the poor whites, 
who are now provided for by the rich chiefly, destitute of schools 
altogether, as private schools would be substituted for public 
schools, and that if Congress itself should for a shadowy abstrac- 
tion entail popular ignorance upon the South, after giving universal 
suffrage, and after all the States had established a free school law, 
somebody would have a terrible responsibility, which the Southern 
people of all parties would be slow to forget Eveiy man admitted 
the force of the argument Butler himself said the Bill should 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 65 

be re-commtCted, and that he was willing to make a reasonable 
compromise. 

In the next place I saw leading Senatgra — not Sumner nor his 
trained negroes, but Morton, Buckingham, and others, who will 
see that the objectionable clause is left out or changed, or that the 
Bill is defeated in the Senate. Lastly, I saw the President, who 
viewed the subject as you and I do, and told General Butler, while 
I was at the White House, that it was unwise to attempt to force 
mixed schools upon the South. 

I was able to say that the negroes themselves think it best to 
have separate schools ; that a delegation of colored preachers and 
a colored lawyer had just called on me in Memphis, expressing 
this view strongly, and that the mixed schools of Louisiana are 
now separating of their own account. I further said that, for no 
valuable consideration, they were wounding people of the South in 
their most sensitive parts, as they cared much more about their 
schools than about hotels, theatres, steamboats, etc. 

Of courae I did not fail to say that the Bill would not only undo 
our work for the last six years, but leave .us without a promising 
field of action, by taking away public schools and leaving nothing 
in their place. The people would, of course, resort to private 
schools, and all the friends of general education would be dis- 
couraged, and their enemies would triumph. 

Excuse this apparent egotism, as I was anxious that you, who are 
■ so deeply interested in the matter, should know the facts. 

Very sincerely yours, B. Sears. 

The " Civil Rights Bill" was passed without the clause 
covering co-education of the races, and the States moved 
on with greater confidence and courage. They put their 
school systems in better condition, removed incongruities 
and defects, increased the appropriations from public reve- 
nues, authorized and encouraged towns, school districts, 
and counties to levy local taxes, and began to realize the 
need for improved teaching, and to adopt Normal Schools 
and Teachers' Institutes as indispensable agencies for 
perfecting the schools, now under the exclusive control of 
the civil authorities. It was fortunately reserved for the 



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66 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUKD. 

devoted agent to see the work of the Fund in a most 
prosperous condition, apd systems of State schools, steadily 
kept in view as the end to be attained, irrevocably estab- 
lished. On the 6th of July, 1880, at Saratoga Springs, 
the Scholar, the Educator, the Patriot, the Christian, fell 
asleep. The funeral services occurred at the Baptist 
Church in Brookline, Massachusetts, and his remains were 
deposited in Walnut Street Cemetery. The Trustees 
adopted resolutions as " a testimonial of the value of his 
services as their chief executive officer, and of their appre- 
ciation of his many virtues and estimable qualities as a 
private citizen." They spoke of him as " a gentleman of 
rare intellectual endowments, improved by laborious cul- 
ture, and pohshed by intercourse with most refined so- 
ciety," and as pre-eminently qualified for the duties of 
the responsible position he had held in connection with 
the Trust. They d^'ared that they had " lost a personal 
friend who, by his spotless integrity, cultivated intellect, 
genial temper, uniform courtesy, and numerous social and 
Christian graces, exhibited throughout their long inter- 
course with him, had attached them to him by strong ties 
of respect and affection ; and they will never cease to 
cherish a kind remembrance of the virtues and accom- 
plishments which were so conspicuously displayed in his 
life and character." 

Mr. Stuart, his neighbor, and as Trustee brought into 
closest relations, in a felicitous speech, quoted from Dr. 
Sears a sentence which, unconsciously, but with a master's 
hand, sketched what must be recognized as a portraiture 
of his own noble character: "Among the best gifts of 
Providence to a nation are great and good men who act 
as its leaders and guides; who leave their mark upon 
their age ; who give a new direction to affairs ; who intro- 
duce a course of events which go down from generation 
to generation pouring their blessings on mankind." 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 6/ 

The death called forth many tributes in all parts of the 
Union. By a happy allotment, the last words he wrote 
and the last paper he prepared bad to do with educational 
progress in this country, and that paper — Fifty Years of 
Educational Progress — was read the day after his death 
before the American Institute of Instruction, the associa- 
tion for which it was prepared. That was typical of his 
whole life ; and shortly before he died he said his life had 
been very much as he would have chosen, and the latter 
part had been pre-eminently the best. It was therefore 
most fitting that the most touching expressions of respect 
and sorrow should come from schools and institutes and 
public officers. The highest commendation of his work 
is to be found in the pervasive, potential influence he ex- 
erted in behalf of popular education. School superinten- 
dents bore their strong and cheerful testimony to his rare 
insight into the educational needs of the South, and to his 
influence in stimulating to proper and wise action. " The 
constitutional provision for common-school instruction 
in Virginia was framed according to his opinions. Dr. 
Ruffner, inseparably identified with the free school system 
in Virginia, says he aided efficiently in the establishment ot 
free schools in Richmond and Petersburg, before the crea- 
tion of the school system, and that when he submitted the 
first draft of the school law to Dr. Sears valuable sugges- 
tions were given. 

President Battle, of the University of North Carolina, 
with the concurrence of Governor Vance, wrote in 1877: 
"The Normal School is a great success. Without your 
co-operation and advice we might have blundered and 
failed. The wisdom of the plan you recommended is now 
universally admitted." An extract from a Mississippi let- 
ter must serve as a sample of what hundreds wrote. " I 
cannot impress you with the lethargy that prevailed here 
before your visit, nor can I convey to you the spirit that 



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68 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

is abroad at this time," To him, more than to any other 
man, it would not be extravagant to say, every State in 
the South is indebted for general and efficient government 
school systems in place of the inefficient, expensive, and 
partial provision for education in private schools, 

Barnas Sears was born in Sandisfield, Massachusetts, 
November 19, 1802, and was reared under the wholesome 
influence of a New England home. Like most remark- 
able men, his character was disciplined by early struggles, 
and he was not ashamed to tell how in his young days he 
laid stone and taught school to defray the expense of his 
education. When a student in Brown University, from 
which he was graduated to 1825, he went to Boston to 
secure some help, but, being too poor to pay his fare 
by stage-coach, he walked all the way, forty-one miles, 
and afler getting the help returned in the same manner. 
He was prepared at Newton Theological Seminary for 
the ministry, and then became pastor of the First Baptist 
Church in Hartford. In 1S29, he was elected a professor 
in Madison University. In 1833, he went to Germany to 
pursue his literary and theological studies, and while 
abroad acquired that familiarity with the German lan- 
guage, literature, and philosophy which was so pleasant 
and useful in afler life. He baptized Oncken one night, as 
the civil authorities forbade his peculiar denominational 
views, and afterwards constituted the first Baptist Church at 
Hamburg. On his return, he became a professor and sub- 
sequently the President in Newton Theological Seminary, 

Dr. Hovey, the distinguished President of that Institu- 
tion, says he was an attractive teacher, and brought all 
his varied attainments to bear upon the students' minds 
with remarkable skill, and succeeded wonderfully in stimu- 
lating thought and research. He made his pupils feel the 
richness of the treasure to be found in the domain of in- 
spired truth. The great charm of his teaching was due in 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 69 

part to bis enthusiasm, in part to his confidence in the 
ability of his pupils to judge for themselves, and in part to 
the amplitude of his knowledge and the interesting man- 
ner in which he directed them to his sources of knowledge. 
He gave instruction in history, and few could marshal facts, 
arrange them, generalize theoi, and breathe life into them 
as could he. Chronology, topography, events and the 
philosophy of events, responded to his touch as the keys 
to the pianist. 

In 1848, Dr. Sears was made Secretary of the Board of 
Education and its Executive Agent, succeeding Horace ) 
Mann. Those familiar with the work of both have pro- 
nounced that of Sears in no respect inferior to that of 
Mann. Less aggressive, less iconoclastic, less obtrusive 
and imperious, he was more patient in waiting for results, 
and not less enthusiastic or intelligent in the duties of his 
office. He was particularly successful in stimulating teach- 
ers to aim at higher attainments in knowledge, and at 
greater enthusiasm and thoroughness in their work. Under 
his supervision Teachers' Institutes were made frequent 
and useful. It was through his influence that agents were 
appointed to visit towns, inspect schools, instruct school 
officers, and hold Institutes; and after forty years of satis- 
factory experience this kind of service is continued. It 
would be difficult to point out any serious defect in his 
service from 1848 to 1855, and his Annual Reports bear a 
strong resemblance to his Reports as General Agent for 
clearness of statement, accuracy of knowledge, practical- 
ness and wisdom of suggestions, and use of pure, undefiled 
English. 

In 1855, he was elected President of his Alma MaUr, 
Brown University, a position he filled with eminent success 
until he was persuaded to take the ofRce of General Agent 
of the Peabody Education Fund. It was a bold under- 
taking to follow Dr. Wayland, who for twenty-five years 



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70 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

had filled that high place with such transcendent ability 
that the Hon. Andrew D. White, late President of Cornell, 
and a distinguished author and Diplomatist, pronounced 
him the ablest college president this country has produced. 
Dr. Sears' administration enlarged the usefulness of the his- 
toric institution, brought it into harmonious relations with 
city and State, founded a system of scholarships for needy 
and meritorious students, and extinguished a burdensome 
debt. In his intercourse with the students, he impressed 
himself as a teacher and a sympathizing friend. One of 
them says he was a " loved President" The young men 
were led, not driven. They were made to feel the immense 
worth of true scholarship and culture, embracing both mind 
and heart, were taught that learning should be sought for 
its own sake ; and they can never forget, says a surviving 
student, " the general tenor of his instruction, which sought 
to imbue them with a love of truth and goodness, and to 
make the good life appear the only true life." It is a 
singular proof of his power as a teacher, that the distin- 
guished men who succeeded him at Madison, at Newton, 
and at Brown had all been his pupils. It was this man, 
always and everywhere a Christian gentleman, so provi- 
dentially fitted for.the duties, by hia varied experience and 
rare combination of nobility, humility, and delicate con- 
siderateness, that justified Mr, Winthrop in saying of him 
that he did not believe there "was another man in the 
country who could have conducted our Trust with so 
much ability, devotion, and success." Mr. Peabody highly 
appreciated the very able labors of Dr. Sears and his devo- 
tion to the work which he loved so well. More than once, 
tempting inducements were offered to leave for recreation 
temporarily, or entirely for more lucrative positions. A 
committee once asked him to accept an appointment with 
a salary of $10,000, and he replied that he would not leave 
a work such as his, or " sever a connection formed under 



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mSTORV OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 7I 

such peculiar and almost sacred circumstances." To the 
author of this sketch he wrote, 2d February, 1880, with his 
characteristic modesty and self-depreciation, " I shall be 
happy, indeed, if after I shall have done some of the 
rougher worlc, in sailing near the rocks and quicksands of 
the coast, my successor shall be sailing in an open sea. I 
am sure a grand work is before him. I do not regret 
being a pioneer. I only hope the pioneer work will be 
well done. I want no higher honor ; I could have had no 
greater joy. I think our outlook was never so bright, and 
I wished to tell you so." 

During the extreme illness of Dr. Sears, and after his 
death, until the meeting of the Trustees, Mrs. Fultz, his 
daughter, acted as General Agent, under the direction of 
Mr. Winthrop and Mr. Stuart. Her familiarity with the 
principles and details of administration, having often acted 
as her father's assistant, enabled her to continue the work. 
When the Board met in Washington, at the Riggs House, 
2d February, t88i, she submitted a clear statement of 
operations since the last meeting, and thanked the Trustees 
for the unvarying confidence and kindness extended to her 
father. The salary of Dr. Sears was continued uj> to the 
meeting, and a sum of $1,000 was voted to Mrs. Fultz for 
the extra services admirably rendered in managing the 
work, and in preparing a Report for the year. 

The death of Dr. Sears, and the transfer of the manage- 
ment to other hands, may be considered as closing the first 
chapter of the History of the Fund, as, said the Chairman, 
" a recognized turning-point in our policy and proceed- 
ings." The inauguration of the work, the gradual change 
to a fixed policy, the success, under gravest complica- 
tions and difficulties, in securing the establishment, in the 
States receiving the benefaction, of State free school sys- 
tems, the creation of a public opinion* in favor of sustain- 
ing general education from State and local revenues, the 



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^2 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

Stimulation of the people to increase their own exertions 
in the cause of popular education, the extraordinary efforts 
and influence of Dr. Sears in enlarging the sphere of the 
Trust, have been narrated imperfectly but sufficiently, 
perhaps, to give a clear idea of the inestimable value of 
Mr. Peabody's gift. Obviously, the burden of the work 
devolved on the General Agent, demanding his utmost 
physical and mental energies, the consecration of his fully 
developed powers ; but no one more readily, or more fre- 
quently and earnestly, than himself, acknowledged his 
great indebtedness to the confidence, the counsel, the 
sagacious suggestions, the indispensable support, of the 
Chairman and his colleagues. 

It seems fitting that mention should be made of the 
changes which occurred in the Board during the first 
period of its history. In the narrative reference has 
already been made to the fact that to the name of Rives 
was attached the first star in the annual publication of the 
Proceedings. The Hon. Samuel Watson, of Tennessee, 
was elected as his successor. 

On the 14th of August, 1871, occurred the death of our 
great naval commander. Admiral FarraguL He had been 
present at the organization, and entered heartily into the 
plans for executing the Trust with which Mr. Peabody had 
honored him. It has been already mentioned that he was 
assigned by the President to the command of the fleet for 
receiving the remains of Mr. Peabody on their arrival in this 
country. The zeal he exhibited, and the exposures he 
encountered, standing bareheaded on the Portland pier on 
that wintry day, were remarked upon as of a piece with his 
self-forgetfulness and the gallantry of the many heroic acts 
which won for him the title of the Nelson of our Navy. The 
Trustees, in recording their sense of loss sustained in the 
death of David Glasgow Farragut, speak of his scrupulous 
attendance upon the meetings, of the fidelity in the dis- 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND, 73 

charge of his duties as Trustee, of his sincere and saga- 
cious counsel, of the frank avowal of intelligent and 
well-considered convictions, of his modest and simple 
manners, and of the personal qualities which endeared him 
to his friends. The Hon. A. H. H. Stuart, of Virginia, was 
put in his place. 

The failing health of Edward A. Bradford, of Louisiana, 
induced him to tender his resignation, which was regretfully- 
accepted. His colleagues gratefully acknowledged the 
intelligent interest and aid which, under the disadvantages 
of remote residence and feeble health, he contributed to 
the work. Mr. Bradford was a citizen of exemplary worth, 
and a lawyer of conspicuous learning and ability ; and he 
said of the Fund that " its creation was well-timed, and was 
the expression of a patriotism so comprehensive, and a mu- 
nificence so surpassing as, to overpower all prejudice and 
silence all cavil." General Richard Taylor succeeded him. 

At the eleventh meeting, in 1873, was announced the 
death of one of the most marked personalities of the cor- 
poration, which had occurred at Florence, Italy, on the 
1 3th of March. In the original letter of endowment, Rt. Rev. 
Charles P. Mcllvaine was named as the second Vice-Chair- 
man of the Board, and from the session of the organization 
until his death he was the active head of the Executive 
Committee. No Trustee ever realized more fully the re- 
sponsibility of a personal connection with the Trust, or 
discharged his obligations with more diligence, intelligence, 
and efficiency. The good Bishop had the confidence and 
affection of Mr. Peabody to such a degree that to him, in 
1859, then in England, was communicated, among the 
very first, the purpose of making the gift for the poor of 
London; and he had an important part in the original 
arrangement of that London endowment. At Mr, Pea- 
body's request, he entered into confidential correspond- 
ence with Lord Shaftesbury, in regard to the particular 



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74 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

form the Gift should assume when the scheme was con- 
summated. He was taken in counsel when the letter to 
the Lord Mayor was prepared. " No presence at the 
Board was more welcome ; no counsel was more judicious ; 
no speech more conciliatory; no social intercourse was 
more winning and inspiring than his." Surgeon-General 
Joseph K. Barnes was chosen for the vacancy. 

Charles Macalester died in Philadelphia, the city of his 
birth, on the gth of December, 1873, in his seventy-sixth 
year. An old and valued friend of Mr. Feabody, he was 
included in the original nomination. The good sense and 
practical experience in business affairs which secured the 
confidence of Mr. Peabody, commended him to the Board 
as a member of the Finance Committee, where he ren- 
dered most valuable service. To a cheerful spirit' and a 
strong constitution, he added sound judgment, scrupulous 
integrity, and Christian principle. Chief'Justice Waite 
became his successor. 

Geoi^e N. Eaton, of Maryland, died in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, in 1874, after much feebleness and suffering, 
which interfered, in his later years, with his attendance 
upon the meetings. Of sterling integrity and tried busi- 
ness capacity, he gave, during the earlier years of the 
organization, much zeal and energy to his duties, and ren- 
dered valuable assistance. Rt. Rev, H, B. Whipple was 
chosen in his place. 

William A. Graham, of North Carolina, of honored Revo- 
lutionary ancestry, died on the nth of August, 1875. He 
had held distinguished positions in the service of his State 
and of the United States. As member of both branches 
of the Legislature and Speaker of the House, as Governor, 
as Senator, as Secretary of the Navy, as a candidate of the 
old Whig party for the Vice-Presidency, he had won a 
wide-spread reputation and regard. Mr. Winthrop, on 
whose recommendatioa he was appointed a Trustee, spoke 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATIOK FUND. 75 

feelingly of his sterling qualities as a friend and a gentle- 
man, and of their friendship as one of the privileges of his 
Washington life. Governor Graham, having the highest 
appreciation of the value of the Fund to bis own needy 
section, labored, with conscientious zeal and decided 
opinions, to make it all that the generous donor desired. 
His public character, and his hold upon the confidence of 
all sections, was of the greatest importance in securing for 
the Board the sympathy and co-operation of men of credit 
and influence in the country, and in furthering the adop- 
tion of systems of public education. Dr. Sears bore testi- 
mony to his pure character, uniform courtesy, and fidelity 
to duty ; Governor CltfTord to his thorough fidelity, manly 
frankness, and great usefulness; and Mr. Stuart, who had 
known him in private and official life for more than thir^ 
years, to his high moral and intellectual endowments, say- 
ing: " I have rarely met a wiser, and never a better man." 
Hon. Henry R. Jackson, of Georgia, was chosen in his place. 
At the recurring meetings there were constant remind- 
ers that the number of the original Trustees was constantly 
lessening; and, tn 1S76, the Chairman, in tenderest words, 
called attention to the death of a beloved associate. John 
H. ChfTord, of Massachusetts, successively a Representa- 
tive, a member of her Senate and President of the body, 
District-Attorney, Attorney-General, and Governor, ac- 
quitted himself in all these relations with*such wisdom, 
patriotism, and legal and administrative ability as to win 
universal respect and confidence. In the deliberations 
and doings of the Board, he took an active, earnest^ intel- 
ligent, and efficient part. No one contributed more to the 
harmony of the councils, or added more to the social satis- 
factions and enjoyments. The Trustees felt they had lost 
the services and co-operation of one of their most useful 
members, and been deprived of the society of a gen- 
tleman of dignified and affable manners, genial temper, 



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76 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

liberal attainments, and eminent talents. Theodore Lyman 
was elected to fill the vacancy, 

Samuel Watson, of Tennessee, the first addition to the 
list as presented by the Founder, died io 1876. As a 
classmate and warm personal friend and judicious coad- 
jutor of Dr. Sears, his selection was most fortunate and 
kept up the personnel of the body. He was a cultivated 
Christian gentleman, honest and true, and universally 
respected and esteemed. He had been prominent in 
business, and particularly active in his efforts to secure the 
adoption of a free school system. As President of the 
State Teachers' Association, Trustee of the University of 
Nashville, member of the State Board of Education, he 
labored to establish free popular education in his State. 
In bringing the Normal College into existence, and in the 
troubles which attended and imperilled its early life, he 
was particularly active and useful; and Dr. Sears, in his 
private letters, makes frequent and grateful mention of 
his helpful friendship and " invaluable assistance." The 
Trustees put on record a formal expression of their 
respect for his character and of gratitude for his services. 
Ex-President Hayes was chosen as the successor. 

On the I2th of April, 1877, General Richard Taylor, of 
Louisiana, died. He had had a varied history. Educated 
at home and abroad, an aide-de-camp of his father in 
Mexico, his private secretary when he was President, a 
State Senator, a Colonel, a Brigadier-General, a Lieutenant- 
General in the Confederate Army, a large sugar- planter, 
much-traveled, widely-read, a brilliant conversationalist, 
a favorite in courtly and royal circles, few of our country- 
men possessed such brilliant accomplishments. He en- 
tered readily and heartily into the work of the Trust, and 
by his wise counsel and varied capacity became a most 
valued and popular Trustee. Judge Thomas C. Manning 
was chosen to succeed him. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON the 2d of February, i88i, the Trustees met at the 
Riggs House in Washington City. After the an- 
nouncement of the death of Dr. Sears, an event known for 
many months and yet coming home to them, under the 
circumstances, " with the force of a fresh sorrow," and the 
transaction of the usual routine of business, the Trustees 
thought it proper to inquire into the whole matter of 
administration, and to define more particularly the salary, 
the term of service, and the duties of the office of General 
Agent. The committee appointed on the subject reported 
resolutions which were approved, making the tenure of 
the office "during the pleasure of the Trustees," and 
providing for salary and contingent expenses. And as 
" under the wise labors of the lamented Dr. Sears such a 
general interest had been awakened in the cause of edu- 
cation as to guarantee the perpetuity of public schools 
in the Southern States," and as the benevolent designs of 
the Founder of the Trust would be best secured by the 
education of teachers for the public schools, it was deter- 
mined, as the future policy, to apply the income to the 
education of teachers in such Normal Schools as might 
be selected ; but the Executive Committee was authorized 
to continue to use a sum not exceeding two-fifths of the 
annual expenditure in assisting such public schools as 
might in their judgment require the aid. There is the 
recorded opinion of the Trust, that in thirteen years one 
of the most marvellous revolutions of the century had 
been quietly accomplished, namely, the incorporation. 



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78 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

into organic and statute laws, of systems of free public 
schools, backed by a sustaining public sentiment. Those 
most familiar with the antecedent educational history of 
these States and the work of the Fund will be the readiest 
to concede that the Feabody Education Fund had been the 
most potent agency in bringing about such a salutary 
change, so essential to the well being of the Republic 
and the prosperity of the inhabitants. While setting up 
a memorial of this gigantic progress, there was the further 
declaration of an intent to accomplish what had been re- 
solved upon on the day 6f the organization of the Trust 
As promotive of primary or common-school education, it 
was from the 6rst declared, with the assent of Mr. Feabody 
and Dr. Sears, that the Board would have in view th^ 
furtherance of Normal School Education. Public schools 
having been established, the advanced step was to make 
ijiem a success by the professional training and better 
preparation of teachers, and this seemed feasible only by 
liberal co-operative support of the Normal College in Nash- 
ville, and of efficient Normal Schools in ail the other States. 
The Chairman then invited action upon the most im- 
portant object of thar assembling, and laid before the 
Trustees testimonials of those who had asked, or been 
suggested for, appointment as General Agent. The vote 
was taken by ballot, and J. L. M. Curry was unanimously 
chosen, and a telegram, informing him of his election, was 
immediately forwarded to Richmond, Virginia. The next 
morning he appeared before the Board, thanked them for 
his appointment, declared his approval of the general plan 
of the Trust, with which he was familiar from intimate 
counsel with the late General Agent, and his intention of 
carrying it out to the best of his ability. It may not be 
indelicate to state that students, faculty, and trustees of 
Richmond College, in which the new agent had been 
a professor, passed most complimentary resolutions as to 



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. HISTORY OF THE raABODY EDUCATION FUND. 79 

his past services, and regrets at the severance of the cor- 
dial relations which had subsisted between them. 

In entering upon such responsible duties, obviously 
the first thing to be done was to get both a general and 
a minute accquaintance with the previous administration. 
In this necessary attempt, one could not fail, as his knowl- 
edge became more perfect, to be impressed with admira- 
tion at the wisdom and ability of Dr. Sears, his marvellous 
adaptedness to his difficult and delicate work, and the 
extent of his achievements. In rightly estimating his ser- 
vices, it should be borne in mind that a plan, brQad in its 
scope and wise in its details, had to be originated and 
matured. The plan must receive .the adoption of States 
throwing off effete customs and institutions, and in the 
midst of a stru^le to take on a new civilization, and to 
adapt governments and laws and modes of thought to a 
revolution suddenly wrought. To adjust these plans into 
harmony with the new life of the Southern States was the 
special and laborious work of the General Agent. Aided 
by wise and good men, he accomplished it. Frequent 
visits were made ; conferences were held with public func- 
tionaries and influential citizens; the Press was used, and 
addresses were delivered. He identified himself with the 
interests of the section where he labored, helped to create 
a sounder public sentiment, broke down the prejudices 
against free schools, demonstrated their indispensableness, 
and awakened an enlightened approval of teacher-training. 

It would be a hasty judgment to conclude that the 
work was finished during the period of his agency, or that 
free schools had been established beyond the possibility 
of destruction. There were many considerations which 
would have made it foolish to relax vigorous efforts for 
keeping alive and strengthening the favoring educational 
sentinnent; and making irrepealable what had been put 
upon the statute books. Much as had been done, much 



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8o HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

remained to be done, in order to put free schools, adequate 
for universal education, upon a permanent basis. Some 
excellent men had deep-seated convictions, arising from 
political, social, or religious reasons, adverse to gratuitous 
State education. The experiment of free schools was not, 
in all localities, so successful as to clear away doubts 
and prejudices, and reverse those traditional habits of 
thought and atftion which the experience of all peoples 
has shown it to be dimcult for the mind to free itself 
from. Time was also needed to pass from private to pub- 
lic schools, to quiet or overcome the selfish opposition of 
those engaged in private teaching, and to transfer edu- 
cation to the control of cities and States. Prejudice, 
interest of teachers, sparseness of population, impatience 
of taxation, financial depression, were serious hinderances. 
School-houses had to be built and furnished, teachers to 
be trained, schools to be graded, friction to be overcome, 
and an unfamiliar system to be accommodated to environ- 
ments. The whole work of introducing a new system and 
improved methods of teaching was beset with many diffi- 
culties, one of the chiefest of which was insufficiency of 
means to pay competent teachers and continue the schools 
in session for longer periods. 

Something besides mere office-work was needed to aid 
in averting possible evils, and to carry out far-reaching 
plans. The mere distribution of the annual income among 
selected schools was a very narrow duty, and a very super- 
ficial view of the enlightened aim of the Gifl. To be 
simply a channel for conveying benefactions would have 
been dishonoring to the Agent, and a degradation of the 
beneficent and humane purpose of the Philanthropist. 
His vision and aim were not limited to the bestowment of 
alms upon the destitute. Few men saw more clearly the 
needs of the South, and what was necessary to supply 
them. " A permanent and self-sustaining system of pop- 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 8 1 

ular education " was not the work of a day, nor to be 
accomplished by the expenditure of any sum of money, 
however large or helpful. It would require time, perse- 
verance, sagacity, the mastery of prejudices, the education 
of public opinion, wise and constantly improving legis- 
lation, patriotic and liberal levy and collection of taxes, the 
establishment of model schools with the most improved 
methods, the elevation of the profession of teaching and 
the training of men and women in that art and science. 

The Fund, viewed in all its aspects, has wide ramifica- 
tions, numerous correlations. It is interested in the devel- 
opment of Southern industries, increased wealth being 
both cause and consequence of general education. With 
enlarged and diffused facilities for education follow, as 
light the coming of the sun, better citizenship, invention, 
discovery, skilled labor, and profitable industries. With 
advancing prosperity come corresponding ability and incli- 
nation to foster general education and endow colleges and 
universities and departments of science. With increased 
taxable property, school revenues increase. 

Next after his desire for the improvement of the masses, 
perhaps the strongest and most characteristic impulse of 
Mr. Peabody was his intense and catholic patriotism. He 
loved his country,' the whole country, with a patriotic 
earnestness and devotion that expressed itself in strong 
words and stronger deeds. He often gave judicious and 
timely counsels in favor of peace and conciliation. The 
General Agent has therefore conceived it to be an official, 
as well as a personal, obligation — duty and sentiment 
combining — to utilize all educational agencies, and all his 
privileges as an almoner, to restore fellowship and frater- 
nity between alienated sections and classes, and to cultivate 
a reverent and unquenchable love for the Constitution 
and the Union. A Southwestern journal, some years 
ago, declared that the Trustees and the General Agent of 



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82 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

the Feabody Education Fund had done more to pronlote the 
actual welfare of the Southern States, and to cement tlie 
bonds of the American Unioo, than all that statesmen and 
politicians have been able to effect As the Gift was the 
first olive-branch of peace and love held out to the sub- 
jugated South after the surrender at Appomattox, every 
agency connected with it, every thought it inspired, every 
aspiration it evoked, should harmonize with and be pro- 
motive of concord and patriotism. There can be no 
union of concurring hearts, of sympathizing co-laboring 
States, no assurance of perpetuity of representative insti- 
tutions, unless the citizenship is restrained and disciplined 
and elevated by intelligence and morality. Universal edu- 
cation is an impossible dream, unless it be furnished by 
revenues drawn from taxation, and be controlled by civil 
authority. "Free governments," said Mr.Winthrop, in 1887, 
" must stand or fall with free schools. Republican institu- 
tions can rest safely on no other foundation than education 
for all. . . . The security for a second century of prosper- 
ous constitutional existence must be sought in the Ameri- 
can common-schoolroom. It can be found nowhere else." 
Property and intelligence have responsibilities as well 
as rights and privileges. No educated person should live 
for himself exclusively. Every college is a light set upon 
a hill. Science, scholarship, intelligence, opportunity, has 
an imperative call to leadership. So the Fund has striven 
to be an educatory force, a beneficent factor, a great broad- 
minded leader, keeping up a constant pressure in the 
direction of instructed opinion, and helping in the solution 
of all educational problems. Nowhere has the Fund been 
more decided and consistent than in seeking to create and 
preserve an advanced sentiment as to the obligation and 
benefit of universal education. It has diligently sought 
to be a pioneer in calling for and working out beneficent 
reforms, especially in the South. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 83 

The General Agent has had the singular honor and sat- 
isfaction of addressing more legislatures than any other 
American ever did. Repeatedly has he been invited to 
speak before Southern legislatures in session, and many of 
these speeches were reported and published by the bodies 
for gratuitous distribution. His purpose has been, along 
the lines indicated, to infuse a hopeful, healthful, pro- 
gressive spirit, and to mould broad and beneficent legis- 
lation. Everywhere has he pleaded for the free education 
of all the children, for reconstruction on the basis of free 
schools, free for both races. Mr. Peabody required that 
the benefits of his Gift should " be distributed among the 
entire population, without other distinction than their 
needs and the opportunities of usefulness to them." 
Requiring the inclusion of the entire population, he would 
not interfere with State laws, nor break down social . 
barriers. Everywhere the negroes have shared in the a 
apportionment of the income, according to numbers or 
the prospects of usefulness. Not the'least memorable or 
honorable chapter in the history of this Fund is that 
which makes mention of what Founder and Trustees and 
General Agents have done in building up a healthy senti- 
ment and encouraging or securing a legislation favorable 
to the negroes. In an address before the North Carolina 
Legislature in January, 1891, the General Agent said: 
"No part of the history of the Southern States is more 
honorable than what they have done in the face of legisla- 
tion whose obvious result was to place three of them in 
the control of the lately servile race. In the seventeen 
States in which slavery existed, statistics show an attend- 
ance of 1,140,405 negroes in the public schools; 5,349 in 
normal schools, and 5,066 in colleges. Who can say what 
would have been the condition of the negroes if this effort 
for their uplifting had not been made? Nearly the entire 
burden of public schools in its terrible heaviness falls 



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84 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

upon the white tax-payers. The whole subject of negro 
education needs to be treated on broad and far-reaching 
principles, which shall aim to regenerate personal life, 
home life, social life, industrial life, political life, and relig- 
ious life. Is the negro a man capable of moral distinc- 
tions, responsible for conduct, able to make contracts, 
criminally liable for violations of rights of person and 
property, with legal capacity to bear arms, hold office, 
serve on juries, and vote? Has he will-power? Can he 
compare, analyze, abstract, generalize, classify, form con- 
cepts? As to his capability of mental development, we 
should stultify ourselves by questioning." 

The principal work of the Board is necessarily delegated 
to the General Agent, who, by visits to the various States, 
observation of school-work, conference with executive 
and school officers, by advice and counsel, enforced the 
importance of extending and improving the school sys- 
tems, and afforded such practical information and expla- 
nation as were necessary. With a field of operations 
stretching from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, untiring 
diligence was needed to meet all the demands upon heart 
and brain and body. In laboring to stimulate and exalt 
the free school idea, "the wisdom of the serpent and the 
harmlessness of the dove" were called into requisition to 
repel attacks and defeat legislation, sometimes plausible 
on its face, and yet containing the elements of destruc- 
tion. Public men and newspapers have, in several States, 
advocated the throwing upon each race the burden of 
educating the children of that race. • Confining the school 
revenues pro rata to the race paying the taxes, as punitive 
of certain alleged political offences, was a discrimination, 
originating in vulgar prejudice, or weak demagogism, and 
wholly unworthy of Christian statesmen or wise patriots. 
The scheme, if successful, would have consigned the negroes 
to hopeless ignorance and would have reacted with in- 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 85 

cal<;ulable injury upon 'the white race. Fortunately, in 
the resistance to a policy narrow, unwise, suicidal, the 
Supreme Court of North Carolina came to the rescue, and 
decided that "a law which directs the tax raised from 
the polls and property of white persons to be devoted to 
sustaining schools for >vhite persons, and that raised from 
the polls and property of negroes to be used for the 
support of their schools, is unconstitutional and void." 
(Riggsbee vs. the Town of Durham, 94 No. Ca. Reports, 
p. 800.) In addition to this watchful oversight of the 
whole field, and guarding against what was destructive of 
everything involved in the effort to make property edu- 
cate the masses, every school aided was under constant 
superintendence, and reports from principals secured the 
proper appropriation of the funds, and brought the schools 
and the Fund into helpful sympathy and co-operation. 

One of the principal means used in the improvement 
of teacher-training has been the Teachers' Institutes. 
This modern device has been described as a locomotive 
Normal School. At a given place, in smaller or larger 
geographical areas, the teachers of the district are as- 
sembled in periods, varying from one week to two months, 
to get the advantage of the experience and the methods 
of more successful co-laborers. This is not a substitute, 
but rather a temporary expedient, for Normal Schools; 
and teachers who have not had the benefit of longer and 
more scientific instruction find great profit from the 
instruction of men and women who are " apt to teach," 
and who have tested theories in the school-rooms, or 
made improvements in methods. The Institutes have 
been gradually introduced into all the States, until they 
have become a recognized part of the educational 
machinery, and under trained experts as conductors or 
teachers are doing a most valuable work in dignifying the 
office and lifting up the standard of teaching. Nearly all 



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86 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

the States make annual appropriations for Institutes, 
which are not only aids in practical teaching, but very 
helpful in stimulating ambition and the acquisition of 
knowledge, and in imparting capacity for oversight and 
direction, for organizing and supervising graded schools, 
and for dealing with new questions, as they constantly 
arise, " in a spirit of judicial and philosophic fairness." 
Aid given by Trustees to these Institutes, under restric- 
tions increasingly exacting, has brought about a visible 
improvement in organization, management, and instruc- 
tion. The General Agent has given unusual attention to 
this instrumentality, and, despite many obstacles, has suc- 
ceeded in bringing it up to higli excellence. Imperfect 
notions of the true ends and aims of Institutes, incompe- 
tence of conductors and instructors, shortness of sessions, 
want of continuity in the courses, partial and uncertain 
attendance of teachers, and other causes, have interfered 
with success; but with the zealous and intelligent co-oper- 
ation of superintendents, and the lectures and teaching 
of some distinguished educators, the Institutes have been 
incorporated into school systems, and the States, by con- 
tinuing the compensation of teachers while attending, or 
by gentle compulsion, have increased the efficiency and 
enlarged the benefits of these tried agencies. 

In the earlier administration of the Fund, aid was given 
to schools, located centrally or at radiating points, on 
condition of a larger sum being given by individuals or 
by municipalities. Model schools had a pervasive mis- 
sionary effect in enlightening as to what could be done, 
how it could be done, and the advantages of doing. 
From these small beginnings, the next step taken was to 
give help partially to schools, which were a part of the 
Public School System, on the condition of local support 
from the generosity of citizens or by local taxation. In 
course of years, the condition of Peabody assistance was 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 87 

that the free schools, in addition to the State revenues, 
should be sustained by local taxation. This progressive 
scheme had in view the demonstration of the capability 
to sustain a school, and of the superiority of good schools ; 
then of the need and duty of free public schools organ- 
ized and controlled by the civil authorities; and, lastly, 
of the value of sustaining universal education by both 
general and local taxation. The next and final step was 
to withdraw aid altogether from public schools, and con- 
fine appropriations to the work of teacher-training, as 
accomplished by Teachers' Institutes and the different 
Normal Schools. 

Encouraging Normal Schools has had the favor of the 
Fund from the beginning, but until the States had com- 
mitted themselves thoroughly to the duty of organizing 
and perpetuating public free schools, this was held in 
comparative abeyance. It was, however, regarded as the 
ultimate goaL The establishment of the Peabody Normal 
College is related elsewhere. To make certain, adequate, 
and permanent provision for teachers, it was indispen- 
sable to have Normal Schools established, and this is the 
proper function of the State. Mr, Winthrop, in 1879, 
said that the Board, having accomplished its primary pur- 
pose in awakening the attention of the Southern States to 
the subject of common-school education, should now make 
provision for raising the standard by the professional 
training of teachers, and by planting Normal Schools and 
Colleges for this purpose wherever they are wanted. In 
l88o, Dr. Sears, in his last Report, his legacy to the Board, 
said : " Our new policy of concentrating our efforts mainly 
on Normal Schools is received with great favor." Reca- 
pitulating many things that were needed to be done, he 
stated that, at that time, every State, except one or two, 
needed better Normal Schools. The Fund, therefore, 
promised in advance to the legislatures co-operative aid. 



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88 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

and as soon as the schools were instituted, they were 
recognized and aided. Texas was the first State to 
rtspond to the proffer of substantial assistance; and, in 
1878, the Sara Houston Normal was established at Hunts- 
ville, and at the end of 1897 it had 422 students and sixteen 
teachers. The total enrolment during eighteen sessions has 
been 5.264, and the number of alumni since 1884, a three 
years' course being required, reaches i,iS9- The Legisla- 
ture makes cheerfully an annual appropriation of $25,003. 
At the same session a colored Normal School was estab- 
lished at Prairie View, and it has been useful in elevating 
the colored teachers in the State. Virginia has now three 
Normal Schools; but the first, at Farmville, authorized in 
1884, had its origin in the personal labors of the Agent 
with the Education Committee and other members of the 
Legislature, and in the promise of a liberal sum from the 
Peabody Fund. Besides a useful Practice School, it has 
an industrial department. The school has graduated 284; 
its faculty includes a president and thirteen teachers, and 
its enrolment for 1897 was 25a The State Normal and 
Industrial School at Greensboro', North Carolina, estab- 
lished in 1891, has had a marvellous success, and now 
numbers thirty-one teachers and officers, and 434 en- 
rolled pupils. The General Agent addressed school com- 
mittees and the legislatures, pleading earnestly for the 
School, and promised .substantial aid to the Institution. For 
a number of years the State has made appropriations for 
colored Normal Schools, In South Carolina, the Winthrop 
Normal and Industrial College bears eloquent testimony, 
in its name, and in its growth and usefulness, to the in- 
debtedness of the State to the Peabody Fund. The Report 
for December, 1 896, shows twenty-five teachers, 403 stu- 
dents in the College classes and 86 in the Practice School. 
The birthday of Mr. Winthrop is observed every year. 
Georgia and Alabama and Louisiana every year receive 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 89 

assistance which is regarded as of essential importance to 
the well being of their schoob for teachers. West 
Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Texas, ' and Arkansas have Normal 
Schools for the preparation of negro teachers, and these 
have had practical and appreciated contributions from the 
Fund. In South Carolina and Tennessee, by arrange- 
ment between the States and several Institutions under the 
control of denominational organizations, aid has beea 
given for the training of colored teachers. 

At the meeting of the Board in 1885, the Chairman re- 
ferred to " the impending retirement from our work of one 
who has conducted it for more than four years past so 
ably and successfully," and that the loss would be a great 
one for the Trust, and for himself, officially and person- 
ally. This had reference to the acceptance, by the Gen- 
eral Agent, of an appointment from the Government as 
Minister to Spain. He expressed the satisfaction he had 
had in the performance of duties, not easy as he inter- 
preted them, but which had been a labor of love, and his 
most grateful appreciation of the confidence, and the per- 
sonal regard, and the kindness and generous support with 
which he had been honored by every Trustee. Less re- 
luctance was felt in the resignation, because the policy of 
the Board was so well established, and the method of ad- 
ministration had been so simplified, that the withdrawal 
would involve no serious inconvenience. The Trustees 
entered on their records the ," deep sense which they 
entertained of the fidelity and devotion with which the 
Agent had discharged his duties, and of the great success 
which had attended his labors." The Executive Com- 
mittee was authorized to make temporary arrangements 
during the ensuing year, and Samuel A. Green was as* 
signed to, and kindly undertook, that service. At the 
next meeting, the Chairman and Dr. Green again referred 



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go HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND, 

to " the invaluable services " of the former Agents, and 
the latter said of his immediate predecessor, " Until I 
assumed these temporary duties, I was not aware how 
much his educational labors had accomplished at the 
South, through speeches and writings, not only by stimu- 
lating thought in the direction of public instruction, but 
by raising the standard of methods and setting forth the 
oeed of trained teachers." 

For three years, Dr. Green carried on the work of the 
Fund in the most acceptable manner. By visits to the 
South and active correspondence, he endeared himself to 
superintendents and principals of schools, and so' im- 
pressed his personality, his sound views, his liberal cul- 
ture, his unsectional patriotism, upon communities, that to 
this day he is spoken of with respect and affection. The 
years of his administration were full of usefulness, and 
compare most favorably with any equal period in the his- 
tory of the Fund. His gratuitous services showed his 
unselfishness, and fidelity to his engagements marked him, 
with his versatility of gifts, as having ready adaptedness to 
most difficult and varied spheres of labor. In 1887, the 
Chairman mentioned the desire of Dr. Green to be re- 
lieved of the duties, and both concurred in the opinion 
that an effort should be made to induce the former Agent 
to resume his relations to the Board. Under these circum- 
stances. Dr. Green accepted a re-election and continued, 
with the thanks of the Board, his most valuable labors. 

At the session of 1888, the Chairman, in his Introduc- 
tory said : " Dr. Green has come to the conclusion with 
me that for the entire success of our work there is now a 
positive need of committing our General Agency anew to 
an accomplished Southern man of large personal expe- 
rience in educational matters in the Southern States, and 
of special gifte for communicating the results of that expe- 
rience to his fellow-workers in the same field." " With 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 9I 

the full understanding of what was hoped and expected, 
authority was given to me at our last meeting to appoint 
a General Agent, under the advice of the Executive Com- 
mittee, whenever I should think it best to do so. Under 
that authority. Dr. Curry has been appointed, and has 
accepted the appointment With him once more at the 
helm, I feel assured that we shall hold on our track suc- 
cessfully to the end." The former Agent, being re-elected, 
entered upon duties, not wholly laid aside, even during 
his diplomatic engagements, and was greeted with the gen- 
erous welcome of State superintendents, school officers, 
teachers, executives, and the Press, and he gladly and 
gratefully acknowledged his indebtedness to their cordial 
co-operation, and the kindly assistance of the leading rail- 
ways. At the session of 1891, the Chairman stated that 
the General Agent had been made one of the Slater 
Trustees, with a full share of the responsibility of the 
management of that Trust. He therefore proposed, in 
view of the new relations of the Pcabody and Slater 
Trusts, that as long as the incumbent should remain as 
General Agent, he should be an Honorary Member of the 
Board, with all the privileges and dignities of member- 
ship, and subject to be appointed as a Member, or as 
Chairman, of the Executive or other Committees. "Such 
a position will be a great convenience to him and to our- 
selves, in the execution of our respective duties, and will 
give him substantially the same standing in relation to the 
Peabody Trust, as has been wisely assigned him in rela- 
tion to the Slater Trust." On motion of ex-President 
Hayes it was unanimously resolved: "That the Hon. 
J. L. M. Curry be henceforth, as long as he remains Gen- 
eral Agent of the Peabody Trust, an Honorary Member 
of our Board," 

Occasion has been frequent for ascribing to the Fund 
direct influence in official and general instruction as to the 



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92 HlSroRY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

superior economy of public schools, the best methods of 
organizing and conducting them, and the obligation of 
States to furnish free education; and it has been claimed 
as due, in no inconsiderable degree, to this potent and 
persistent influence that free education has been incor* 
porated into mental habitudes and civil organisms as 
thoroughly and indestructibly as popular elections and 
trial by jury. It was natural that the great example of 
munificence should be productive of fruit and following. 
Frequent letters to General Agent and Trustees from 
persons contemplating gifts have furnished proof of how 
minds have been turned to initiation of beneficent plans, 
and have given opportunity of suggestions as to the man- 
agement of such gifts. Mr, Peabody was not without an 
earnest hope that his example might call forth some 
public-spirited man who would make supplementary pro- 
vision for Southern Education. In 1882, Mr. John F, 
Slater made a great gift: of a million of dollars, in trust 
for " the uplifting of the lately emancipated people of the 
Southern States" so as "to make them good men and 
good citizens." Two of the Peabody Trustees were ap- 
pointed among the administrators of his Trust, and in 
his letter he said : " I am encouraged to the execution in 
this charitable foundation of a long cherished purpose by 
the eminent wisdom and success that has marked the 
conduct of the Peabody Education Fund in a field of 
operation not remote from that contemplated by this 
Trust." Another illustration ' of honorable munificence, 
more local in its benefits, was the gift of Paul Tulane " for 
the promotion and encouragement of intellectual, moral, 
and industriar education among the white young persons 
in the city of New Orleans, and for the advancement of 
letters, the arts and sciences therein," from which has 
sprung the Tulane University. The letter of Mr. Tulane 
furnishes internal evidence, corroborated by the statement 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 93 

of counsel who drew the papers, that the gift of Mr. 
Peabody, and the administration of the Fund, aRbrded 
wise suggestion in shaping the terms of the gift. General 
Gibson, the friend and attorney, consulted with Mr. 
Winthrop, and received " highly prized information and 
advice," and afterwards frankly wrote : " I have now the 
pleasure to inform you that the plan suggested, and your 
own course with regard to the munificent donation of the 
late Mr. Peabody, were adopted." A surmise, not without 
some evidence to support it, may be stated that Anthony 
J. Drexel, a late honored Peabody Trustee, was much 
influenced by admiration of the Peabody benefaction, and 
its management, in the execution of his noble charity in 
the endowment of the " Drexel Institute of Art, Science, 
and Industry" in Philadelphia. 

In order to stimulate the efficiency of the' Normal 
Schools, in 1876 the Chairman was requested to devise a 
testimonial medal to be distributed as an incentive to pro- 
ficiency in qualifications for teaching among the pupils of 
these schools. A medal, in bronze and in silver, was 
struck at the United States Mint from dies executed by 
an experienced artist. The profile head was copied from 
the bust by Hiram Powers, now in the possession of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. The legend, on the 
reverse side, was from Mr. Peabody's own pen, on the 
occasion of his first large public donation. "Education: 
a debt due from present to future generations." These 
medals were to be awarded by the General Agent, under 
the direction of the Executive Committee. The senti- 
ment of the Board was soon in favor of a wider distribu- 
tion of these medals, even among the common schools, as 
incentives and rewards, and as perpetuating the memory 
of the Founder in a most agreeable and careful way. In 
.1881, a distribution was authorized of fifty silver medals 
annually to graduates of Normal Schools, and five hun- 



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94 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

dred bronze to pupils of the common schools. Beaa- 
tiful as are these tesdmonials, the distribution has been 
partial and unsattsfactoty. The weight and size of them, 
engraving of names, opposition of some teachers to such 
incentives and rewards, trouble imposed on hard-worked 
and poorly paid superintendents, and other causes, have 
prevented anything like uniformity of action or evidence 
of much utility. Some schools value highly and are 
eager for them. The majority seem indifferent 

In 1877, at the first great Paris Exposition, a gold medal 
was awarded to the Board for what had been accomplished 
for education in the South- It and the accompanying 
diploma were deposited in the fire-proof cabinet at 
Peabody, where the unique enamelled portrait of Queen 
Victoria, presented by herself, the exquisite gold medal 
presented by his grateful country, the gold box which 
accompanied the admission to the freedom of the city of 
London, an autograph note from the Empress Euginie, a 
photograph of Pope Leo, inscribed by his own hand, 
together with other precious memorials, were arranged 
during Mr. Peabody*s lifetime, and at his own request. 

George W. Riggs died on the 24th August, l88t. He 
was born in Georgetown, 4th July, 1813, when Mr.Peabody 
was bookkeeper for his father. In 1840, he formed a 
partnership with W. W. Corcoran as bankers, under the 
firm name of Corcoran & Riggs. The house, at an early 
period of its career, did an extensive business, and became 
particularly prominent through connection with the first 
Mexican War Loan. During many years a close busi- 
ness connection, cemented by former ties of intimate 
friendship, existed between Corcoran and Riggs and Mr. 
Peabody in London, and the former gentlemen were nat- 
urally consulted and identified with the generous munifi- 
cence of the latter in this country. Having well earned 
and preserved the respect of the community in which 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 95 

he lived, and the confidence and warm regard of Mr, 
Feabody, Mr. Riggs was chosen as one of the original 
"personal and especial friends" in the administration of 
the Southern Educational Fund. He was a most useful 
membeF, and his peculiar acquirements, his experience 
and skill as a banker, were of the highest value, and es- 
pecially in connection with the Finance and the Auditing 
Committees. He was a man of singularly unostentatious 
nature, of kind and charitable impulse, possessing a fond- 
ness for literature, keeping up early habits of studious 
research, and profiting by his liberal and classical edu- 
cation. Anthony J. Drexel fittingly succeeded him. 

General Joseph K. Barnes died on April 5, 1883. He 
belonged to the Medical Department in the army, having 
been commissioned as a surgeon in 1840. His careerwas 
long, active, and varied, and for meritorious services he 
was successively promoted until he became Sui^eon-Gen- 
eral with the rank of Brigadier. He had much adminis- 
trative ability, and his professional services were recog- 
nized by diplomas from distinguished foreign societies. 
The Trustees recorded their tribute to his deep interest 
and hearty coK>peration in their work. James D. Porter 
was chosen for the vacancy. 

At the same session, George Feabody Russell, who had 
been the Secretary, withdrew from further connection with 
the Board, because of his protracted absence from the 
country; and the Board assured him of grateful remem- 
brance for his valuable services for many successive years. 
Samuel A. Green was made his successor and the Secretary. 

Samuel Wetmore died on the 27th of March, 1884. Mr. 
Feabody selected him for the responsible office of Treas- 
urer. A long and intimate personal and business acquaint- 
ance discovered in him those methodical habits, that care 
and caution, that strict integrity, which fitted him for taking 
care of the capital and income, and rendering a fair and 



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g6 HISTORV OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

intelligible statement of his operations. Giving no bond 
and receiving no salary nor commissions, it was his pride 
to watch with vigilance and fidelity over the endowment. 

Mr, J. Pierpont Morgan was chosen to fill the vacancy ; 
and, in 1890, the Chairman made a handsome reference to 
the financial skill and ability he had displayed in placing 
at the disposal of the Board for immediate use a consid- 
erably larger income than had been at their command for 
many previous years. 

Gen. Ulysses Grant died on the 23d of July, 1885. In 
this place, it would be a work of supererogation to recall 
his distinguished military and civil services, with which the 
whole world is familiar. They have been recorded imper- 
ishably on the pages of American history. In his rela- 
tions to the Fund, it may be proper to say that he accepted 
the appointment as Trustee, although Commander-in-Chief 
at the time/ with undisguised pleasure. He promptly 
attended the first meeting without a moment's hesitation, 
and the next morning found him at the formal organ- 
ization, in his undress uniform, with nothing but the 
stars on his shoulder straps to indicate his exalted rank 
and station. While President, he gave a banquet to the 
Trustees assembled at Washington. He set a "special 
value on the endowment, as the first practical manifesta- 
tion, on a grand scale, of that spirit of conciliation and 
magnanimity which he himself had displayed so signally 
in the very flush of victory." Earnestly and cordially he 
labored with his associates. He gave a watchful attention 
to all the proceedings, often made motions, served cheer- 
fully on committees, and took much delight in the annual 
meetings. He gave great influence to the action of the 
Board, and, by the esteem, and reverence, and gratitude 
in which he was held by his countrymen, enhanced the 
respect which the Trust enjoyed. 

Grover Cleveland was elected to supply the vacancy. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 97 

At the meeting in October, 1887, the Trustees were 
called upon to deplore the loss of William Aiken, of South 
Carolina. The regard in which Governor Aiken was held 
was of peculiar tenderness. Mr. Winthrop, in one of 
those graceful tributes which no one could pay more ap- 
propriately, and Governor Fish in the Resolutions pre- 
pared for the Board, have left little to be added. 

" The Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund have listened 
with profound regret to the sad notice in their President's Address 
of the death of their much-beloved associate, the late William 
Aiken. 

" Named by Mr. Peabody as one of the Trustees on the original 
foundation of the TVust, Governor Aiken's interest in its objects has 
from the beginning been zealous and efficient. The history of the 
Trust records his untiring devotion to its aims ; no one was in ad- 
vance of him in the advocacy of its high purposes, and no one was 
ready to give more of personal attention, or to sacrifice more of 
personal convenience, in their advancement. 

"Tender and warm in iiis affections, kind and genial in his inter- 
x:ourse, scrupulous in truthfulness and integrity, free from vanity or 
pretension, generous in his judgments as in his life, he was beloved 
because the kind gentleness of his intercourse was an inseparable 
part of his nature, and because the happiness of others was with 
him an object of life, and formed a large part of his own happiness. 
The pleasure of others was his enjoyment. 

" Governor Aiken's was a moral and highly religious character : 
exemplary and beautiful in the varied walks of life, a devoted hus- 
band, a kind and affectionate father, a loyal and generous friend. 
Called to many high positions in public life, he fiilfilled all their 
trusts with dignity, integrity, and ability; and when the disasters 
of a civil war surrounded him, its attendants — advereity, mis- 
fortune, and loss of property — diminished neither his calm cheer- 
fulness, his hospitality, nor his warmth of heart. 

" His associates in this Board, who well know his virtues and 
his high qualities, deeply deplore his loss, and record this feeble 
but sincere tribute to the worth of a dear friend." 



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98 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUNDl 

William Aflcen was born at Charleston, South Carolina, 
on the 29th day of January, 1806, and died at Flat Rock, 
North Carolina, on September 6, 1887. He was educated 
at schools in Charleston, and at the South Carolina College 
at Columbia, Where hewas graduated in 1825. Soon after 
his graduation he made a tour of Europe in company with 
Mr. Gouverneur Wilkins, of New York. 

On his return to Charleston, the nullification controversy 
was at its height, and he joined the Union party. He 
married, not long after his return, Harriet Lowndes, daugh- 
ter of the Honorable Thomas Lowndes. About 1836, on 
the death of his father, he came into the possession of a 
lai^e fortune, — for that day one of the largest in the 
South, and perhaps in the United States. In the summer 
of 1837, just after the panic and great fire in New York, 
he visited that city, and was there advised by his friend, 
Mr. De Pau, who had been a merchant in Charleston, to 
buy the square of land In New York on which stands the 
lower Stewart building on Broadway, and which could 
then have been bought at a very low price. Mr. Aiken 
for a long time hesitated between the purchase of that 
piece of property, and the purchase of Jehossee Island, an 
extensive rice and cotton plantation on the Edisto River 
in South Carolina. He decided in favor of the latter, 
influenced chiefly by the opportunity for entering into 
politics, which was then offered by the ownership of an 
estate in South Carolina, but also by financial reasons. 
Nothing can illustrate more forcibly the fallibility of judg- 
ment in such matters, and the uncertainty of investments, 
than the contrast between the present values of the two 
pieces of land. In order to render his purchase of land 
available, Mr. Aiken became the owner of about one thou- 
sand slaves, and was the second largest slave-owner in 
South Carolina. As a master, his conduct satisfied the 
most exacting rules that the most benevolent moralist can 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 99 

frame for a person in that position. His relations to liia 
slaves were those of a patriarch and not of a despot The 
assertion may be ventured that never once in his life did 
he exercise his power with injustice or unkindntss. In- 
deed, it has always been difficult to make clear to those 
who have not had practical acquaintance with slavery at 
the South, how generally the possession of power over 
slaves was veiled by kindliness of manner, and its exercise 
tempered by humanity and religion. One winter, while 
Mr. Aiken was in Washington, in attendance on Congress, 
cholera broke out at Jehossee, and he immediately went 
there, at great risk to his life, and devoted himself to the 
sick and the dying. 

In 1838, 1840, and 1842, Mr. Aiken was elected to the 
General Assembly of South Carolina; but as he had none 
of the gifts of oratory, his career in that body was not 
conspicuous. That he became popular with his colleagues 
is shown by the fact that in 1844 he was elected, by the 
General Assembly, Governor of South Carolina, and served 
in that office for two years. Those were years of political 
quiet, and almost the only duties of the Governor were to 
review the militia and to exercise the pardoning power. 

From 1851 to 1857, Mr. Aiken was a member of Con- 
gress from Charleston. His home in Washington became 
an important social centre. He was the intimate friend of 
such men as Mr. Fish and Mr. Robert C. Winthrop; and 
although he was silent in Congress, his influence there be- 
came very considerable on account of his high character, 
good sense, and charming manners. His friendship ex- 
tended to many who differed widely from him in political 
opinion, and he often spoke with pleasure of his friendly 
personal relations with Gerritt Smith. In 1855, he was the 
democratic candidate for the speakership, and after a con- 
test of several weeks was defeated by three votes by Gen- 
eral Banks. The cordial personal relations betu'een the 



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■ lOO HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 

two candidates were not disturbed by their rivalry. After 
Mr. Aiken's retirement from Congress in 1857, he never 
again took part in politics. He was devoted to the Union, 
and was out of sympathy with the dominant party in his 
State.. In the excitement of those days he was one of 
the few Southerners who formed a correct judgment of the 
political forces in play ; and it is a remarkable circumstance 
that, prior to 1851, he expressed to a friend the opinion 
that slavery would be extinguished in twenty years. He 
was opposed to secession by South Carolina, but submitted 
to its action. He was one of the few men in South Caro- 
lina who did not believe that the measure would succeed. 
After the capture of Charleston in 1865, he was prominent 
at a meeting of citizens which expressed reprobation of 
the assassination of Mr. Lincoln. During the summer of 
that year he was arrested by the military authorities and 
was sent to Columbia, but was soon after released. 
As an original Trustee of the Fund, he was greatly 
interested in the work and *a faithful attendant at the 
meetings. 

His last years were spent in Charleston, striving to save 
fragments from the wreck of his fortune. Perhaps no one 
in the South suffered such heavy losses as he — his reverse 
of fortune was dramatic — and certainly no one bore losses 
more bravely. He was a life-long member of St Paul's 

■ Church in Charleston. 

The character of Mr. Aiken was a striking one, and de- 
serves to be cemembercd for its value as an example. He 
combined courtesy and marked cheerfulness of manner 
with great dignity; charitable feeUng towards all men, 
with keen insight into character; good sense and firmness 
in his opinions, with modesty in asserting them, and in- 
variable respect for the opinions of others. His long life 
was irreproachable in its every act and word, and won him 
a. great rewiird in the respect and honor shown him in his 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. lOI 

life-time, and in the afTectionate and reverent regard of all 
who having known him have survived him. 

Gen. Henry R. Jackson, of Georgia, on his appoint- 
ment as Minister to Mexico, in 1885, tendered his resigna- 
tion. He was requested to witlidraw it, and it lingered 
without final action until 1 888, when, at his urgent request, 
itwas accepted, but reluctantly. General Jackson is prom- 
inent in his State as a lawyer, enriched by literary taste 
and culture (he was early a votary of the muse of poetry), 
and has served his country well in military and diplomatic 
positions. For twelve years, with zeal and fidelity, he 
acted as Trustee, and the Board would not sever so pleas- 
ant an association "without reciprocating his assurances 
of regard and regret." Judge Somerville supplied the 
vacancy. 

Theodore Lyman, at the session of 1888, offered his 
resignation, because bodily infirmities left him no other 
course. The affection of his physical powers originated 
from exposures to which he was subjected while perform- 
ing assiduous and gallant service on the staff of General - 
Meade, during the war. Colonel Lyman, a graduate of 
Harvard, one of the overseers. Representative in Congress, 
with scientific tastes and pursuits, had eminent qualifica- 
tions for service and distinction in varied positions. He 
was a man of independent convictions, of great decision of 
character, hospitable, public-spirited, liberal, a manager 
of public trusts, a Commissioner of Inland Fisheries, a 
member of many scientific associations, and the author 
of scientific publications. He served the Fund as Secre- 
tary pro tempore, and as a member of the Auditing and 
Finance Committees, and all its interests had his watchful 
care and best powers. His genial nature, sparkling con- 
versation, and broad culture made him a charming col- 
league. He died on the 9th of September, 1897. General 
Devens became his successor. 



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102 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

Thomas C. Manning, while our Minister to Mexico, re- 
turned on leave, attended the session in i8S8, and died a 
few days afterwards in the {ifty-sixth year of his age. 
After graduating at Chapel Hill, he removed from North 
Carolina and practised law with such eminent success in 
Louisiana that he became the Chief-Justice of the Supreme 
Court He was Trustee for seven years, and performed so 
ably special service in connection with the defaulted bonds 
of Florida and Mississippi that he received therefor the , 
formal thanks of bis associates. He was a gentleman of 
fine physique, of courtly address, of large reading, of high 
sense of honor, and took a deep interest in the Trust 
Senator Gibson succeeded him. 

Morrison R. Waite was an efficient Trustee for nearly 
fourteen years. His high positions, as President of the 
Constitutional Convention of Ohio, as one of the counsel 
of the United States in the Geneva Tribunal of Arbitration, 
and as Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, have made him 
one of our historic characters, and tribute to his worth and 
.attainments is superfluous. He had the integrity and the 
judicial virtues which have made our courts of justice 
bulwarks of personal rights and liberties. His services in 
the administration of the Fund it would be criminal to for- 
get. " The constant service which his presence in the 
Board, his counsels, his wisdom, his zeal, his watchful 
attentions, rendered to the great charitable enterprise, can- 
not be exaggerated," and the Trustees felt deep grief that 
the important interests in their charge were to miss the 
participation of his active energies and his solicitous care. 
Chief-Justice Fuller succeeded him. 

Charles Devcns was associated with the Trust only two 
years, and died on January 7, 1891 ; but he had already 
excited the liveliest hopes of prominent activity and use- 
fulness. He was a gallant soldier, an able lawyer and 
judge, an eloquent speaker, a genial companion, a pure 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 103 

patriot, and his death dashed fondest hopes of what lie was 
to become in connection with the Peabody Corporation. 

Mr. Winthrop, in mentioning his death, spoke of it as a 
vacancy from Massachusetts, for Mr. Peabody, to him per- 
sonalty, had claimed, almost enjoined, three Trustees from 
his native State. In that view be mentioned Judge Endicott 
to fill the place, and his wish was readily enacted into law. 
At the last meeting. Judge Endicott's resignation was 
approved and accepted, his failing health disabling him 
from public duties. The Judge represents one of the 
families of earliest days in the Colony, and by his learning, 
integrity, and varied ability, has enhanced the reputation of, 
and the public indebtedness to, his distinguished ancestry. 
The Hon. Richard OIney was chosen to succeed him. 

Rutherford B. Hayes' election was peculiar and specially 
complimentary; and be subsequently said that nothing 
since he had entered upon the duties of the Presidency had 
so gratified htm. When it became necessary to fill the 
vacancy of Mr. Watson, of Tennessee, Mr. Stuart said that 
the nomination of a member from the South would, under 
ordinary circumstances, have been proper; but there was 
a man of Northern birth, so eminent at that moment for 
patriotism and for wise statesmanship, and so honored in 
the South for his well-directed endeavor to restore peace 
and prosperity in the nation, that his name seemed natu- 
rally suggested. Therefore, with the consent of his South- 
ern colleagues, he nominated President Hayes, of Ohio, 
who, by ballot, was unanimously chosen. Thrde times a 
Representative in Congress, three times Governor of Ohio, 
a Brigadier-Gieneral in the Union Army, and President of 
the United States, in all these offices he was the pure 
patriot, the courteous gentleman, the wise public servant 
As Trustee of the Peabody Education Fund for fifteen 
years, as President of the Slater Fund from its origin, and 
in other positions related to public charities and philan- 



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104 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

thropy, he was deeply interested in all that pertained to 
the social, moral, and intellectual welfare of the country, 
and his counsels and inHuence were of the highest value. 
The Jowly, the destitute, the ignorant, the oppressed, the 
outcast, awakened his sympathies and commanded his time 
and energies. In this life of sacred duty, he worked in the 
spirit of the maxim " that no man becomes great or really 
good who does not give his heart and mind to perform 
what his hand finds to do." After retiring from the 
highest station in the land, with conscientious devotion he 
gave himself to philanthropy and education. His direct- 
ness, simplicity, kindliness of disposition, fidelity to every 
engagement, freedom from self-seeking, his punctuality, 
patience, careful attention to details, discharging wisely 
ever>' duty which devolved upon him, his unsectional patri- 
otism, make him most worthy of remembrance as a model 
American. President Daniel C. Gilman, of Johns Hopkins 
University, was chosen to fill the vacancy. 

Randall Lee Gibson died on the 14th of December, 1892. 
His grandfather was a Revolutionary soldier, and his father 
a sugar-planter in Louisiana. Graduating from Yale with 
high honors, by the study of law, and foreign travel, and 
diligent reading, and connection with the Legation at 
Madrid, he became a full man with unusual accomphsh- 
ments. He was a Brigadier-General in the Confederate 
Army, and afterwards a Representative and a Senator in 
Congress, where he made himself very useful as a practical 
and sagacious legislator, and was highly esteemed and 
admired by his associates. As a Trustee, he was watchful, 
faithful, and intelligent. Through such men, chivalrous, 
cultivated, patriotic, fond of letters, advocating high and 
universal education, the Board has sustained the character 
and preserved the unique prominence stamped upon its 
original composition. Charles E. Fenner, of New Orleans, 
was chosen to fill the vacancy. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 105 

Anthony J. Drexel died in June, 1893, at Carlsbad, 
where he went every year to repair his wasted energies, and 
recuperate for the work which his large financial enter- 
prises involved. He was among our leading bankers, and 
established houses, at home and abroad, which gave him 
the highest financial standing. He founded the Drexel In- 
stitute of Art, Science, and Industry in Philadelphia, which 
nobly commemorates his munificence and love of learning, 
and watched over its growing usefulness with paternal con- 
cern that it might long diffuse, in his native land, the bless- 
ings of knowledge. As a Trustee, he was always ready to 
give to the Board the benefit of his presence and valuable 
experience. His services on Committees were always 
cheerfully rendered. Modest, courteous, prudent, liberal, 
intelligent, he made close friends, and his benefactions were 
for the general good. Mr. George W. Childs, of Phila- 
delphia, widely known and respected for his generous hos- 
pitality and beneficence, and his public spirit, was chosen 
to fill the vacancy; but he died, on the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1394, without taking his seat; and the Hon. George 
Peabody Wetmore, of Rhode Island, was appointed in his 
place. 

Alexander H. H. Stuart was born in Staunton, in 1807, 
was educated at William and Mary College, and took the 
law course at the University of Virginia. He soon 
acquired distinction as an advocate, being fluent, clear, and 
persuasive. His taste being rather for politics than law, 
he was for several years a member of the House of Dele- 
gates. In 1841, he was elected, as a Whig, a Representa- 
tive to Congress, by a decisive majority, and took his seat 
in the famous extra session of that year. In September, 
1850, he was nominated as Secretary of the Interior, and 
the duty of organizing a new department devolved mainly 
on him. He was elected as a Union man, in 1S61, to the 
State Convention ; but when the ordinance of secession was 



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I06 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

passed, he acquiesced in the decision. The war ended, he 
sought by every proper means to relieve the pressure upon 
the people ; and when the spirit of repudiation was rife in 
the State, he exerted himself to the utmost to maintain the 
honor of the Commonwealth, and do justice to her cred- 
itors. He was efficient in promoting internal improve- 
ments, was a Director of State Charitable Institutions, 
Sector of the University, and President of the Virginia 
Historical Society. He was a devoted friend to the cause 
of free school education. Dr. Sears, soon afler his appoint- 
ment, located in Staunton, and Mr. Stuart gave him a cor- 
dial reception and valuable assistance. In February, iS/i, 
he was elected a Trustee, and continued to serve until 
J889, when he resigned on account of advancing age and 
increasing infirmities, and his friend, William Wirt Henry, 
was chosen as his successor. Mr. Stuart was surpassed by 
none in the efficiency of his services ; but his most impor> 
tant contribution to the Proceedings was his elaborate and 
admirable report on " Education for the Colored Popula- 
tion of the United States," which bore the signatures of 
Mr. Evarts and of Chief-Justice Waite. This unanswer^ 
able argument in favor of National Aid for the removal 
and prevention of illiteracy had the unanimous sanction of 
the Board, and, being printed in pamphlet form, was widely 
circulated, every member of Congress being supplied with 
a copy. Mr, Stuart died in the house in which he was 
born, the 13th of February, 1891, having lived a long and 
honorable and useful life. 

On the 7th of September, 1 893, Hamilton Fish died. Of a 
Revolutionary ancestry, he was conspicuous, through a long 
life, for his patriotism and his broad and true Americanism* 
He was Representative and Senator in Congress, Governor 
of New York, and, for eight years. Secretary of State. In 
the last position, he was especially distinguished for most 
valuable services. He negotiated with Spain a trea^ 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. IO7 

which settled the Virginias case, which had disturbed most 
seriously our relations with Spain, and came near involving 
the country in an unnecessary war. The most important 
service performed by him in the State Department was the 
treaty of Washington, which resulted in the arbitration at 
Geneva and the settlement of the Alabama Claims. In 
less conspicuous matters he showed equal firmness, sense 
of justice, adherence to principle, and true Americanism- 
His treatment of questions involving the rights of our 
citizens in foreign countries, brought out in clear light his 
best qualities. While supporting vigorously all proper 
demands, he rebuked and discouraged the exorbitant 
claims and the discreditable pretensions which have so 
often reflected injuriously upon our country. Governor 
Fish was the President-General of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, and was one of the original Trustees appointed by 
Mr. Peabody. In 1891, he resigned because of the infirmi- 
ties of years ; but the Board postponed its consideration 
with the hope that he might consent to remain as adviser 
and counsellor. He filled all positions with ability, with 
dignity, with the hearty approval of the people. Joseph H. 
Choate, of New York, was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

And now came the greatest calamity which has befallen 
the Trust Hitherto, the useful members had been lopped 
off, but now fell the active, directive, vitalizing head. Robert 
Charles Winthrop was born in Boston, May I2, 1809, bear- 
ing one of the most illustrious names in the annals of New 
England, with which were blended those of Temple and 
Bowdoin. Biographer and historian, from full material, 
will depict and portray him in various positions of public 
distinction and public usefulness ; and few men had such 
exalted ideas of public duty as he had, or dischai^;;ed the 
obligations with more conscientiousness and ability. Of 
him, as presiding officer in State and Federal House of 
Representatives, as Representative and Senator in Congress 



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ro8 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

meeting courageously the great questions of his period 
in the spirit of Washington — whom he most admired 
and revered of all our public men — as effective political 
speaker, attracting and charming the most intelligent audi- 
ences, as the rival and equal of Webster and Everett in 
what may be called a national product — the American 
Oration — as meeting the duties of hospitable host, as 
President of Historical Society, as member of many Boards 
of Trust, as private citii^en, nothing needs to be written 
here. In this memoir, a self-imposed restriction considers 
him simply as the great educational statesman, and as 
giving the best thoughts of the best years of his useful life 
to the most solicitous concern for the success of the Pea- 
body endowment. 

It was a sagacious act in Mr. Peabody to spread before 
Mr. Winthrop his far-reaching scheme of beneficence, and 
to consult him as to the preparation of the immortal Letter 
of Gift of the 7th of February, 1867. It was no less wise to 
place the administration of the Trust under his watchful eye 
as Chairman, thereby securing his unfaltering, loving devo- 
tion, his consummate wisdom, his unfailing tact and cour- 
tesy, and that complete confidence which the Trustees and 
the public have reposed without a moment's withdrawal. 
Mr. Peabody perpetuated in Mr. Winthrop his own spirit 
in the foundation, and added thereto the inspiration and 
power which came from Mr. Winthrop's large intelligence, 
broad catholic patriotism, national popularity, his absorb- 
ing desire for the upbuilding of the South and for the 
restoration of perfect fraternity between lately alienated 
sections. He was not satisfied with the perfunctory per- 
formance of his duties as Chairman. The office for him 
was no idle ceremony. For twenty-seven years he threw 
his whole being into the work, and was familiar with the 
minute details of every aided school. He watched with 
careful consideration the giving of every dollar, and, while 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 109 

liberal in a large degree in the execution of the purposes 
of the Trust, he was unwilling to assent to the slightest 
departure from the terms of the Letter of Gift, or the well- 
established rules and principles which have marked the 
history of the Fund. No Southerner, to the manner born, 
could have felt deeper concern for the welfare of the South- 
ern people, and for such a use of the splendid charity of the 
Founder, as would make it accomplish the highest good, 
according to the well-defined intent of the Giver. What- 
ever may be said of the utility of the Trust, of the unpar- 
alleled good it has wrought, of its direct and collateral 
influences for the promotion of education, or even of grati- 
tude due to Mr. Peabody, it is impossible to dissociate the 
name and work of Peabody from the co-operation and 
equally beneficial work of Winthrop. He was an ar- 
dent advocate of the elevation of the lately emancipated 
race ; and all the efforts of the General Agent to have the 
negroes made, proportionately with the white people, the 
beneficiaries of school privileges called forth his encourage- 
ment and praise. When the Trustees, in 1879, presented 
to Congress that State paper of unequalled excellence in 
behalf of government aid for the education of the negroes, 
he was in fullest sympathy with the wise recommendation 
and the unanswerable argument. " Slavery," he said, " is 
but half abolished, emancipation is but half completed, 
while millions of freemen with votes in their hands are left 
without education." When national aid for the prevention 
and removal of illiteracy broadened into a more general 
scheme, while he disapproved of some of the features, he 
gave his adherence to the object and the means, and dep- 
recated the hostility of Congress, and the apparent indif- 
ference of men and of parties to a most perilous menace to 
our free institutions. When his death occurred, schools 
and colleges and Press paid generous and grateful tribute 
to his memory. One of these colleges fitly bears his name 



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no HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FOND. 

— the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College, at Rock 
Hill, South Carolina. Massachusetts was the first State in 
the Union to establish a Normal School. On the 14th of 
January, 1837, in the House of Representatives, it was 
ordered that the Committee on Education consider the 
expediency of providing by law for the better education 
of teachers. In April, Mr. Winthrop, for the Committee, 
reported a Bill which became a law ; and thus the State, 
nearly sixty years ago, by the modest beginning at Lex- 
ington, was the pioneer in establishing Normal Schools. 

One of the most remarkable phases of educational 
thought and action of modern times is the fixed conviction 
that manual training, because of its educational and eco- 
nomic value, should be established and sustained as an 
inseparable part of our public schools. It has been long 
felt that instruction in school and college has been too 
much restricted to literature, or to purely mental develop- 
ment and culture. Pupils are educated away from produc- 
tive industry and the ranks of labor; and, as a necessary 
and deplorable consequence, trained skill and high com- 
pensation are monopolized largely by the foreign-born, 
who owe their success to the practical and better-rounded 
education obtained abroad. Many of our most thoughtful 
educators have considered a reorganization of education as 
especially needed in the peculiar condition of the South, 
so as to be adapted thoroughly to industrial and economic 
needs. Schools for teaching particular industries, trade 
schools, are most useful, and have been largely encouraged 
in Europe and certain portions of our own country, but to 
give special training in mechanic arts is not what is usually 
understood by manual training. As the term is limited, it 
is not a teaching of a specific occupation, a specializing the 
work of elementary schools in the direction of economic 
productions ; nor is it a substitute for mental training, nor 
simply to enable the students to make a living, — although 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND, tit 

this is a result not to be despised. It is to give a general 
training, a dexterity, to the hands, instruction in the 
nature and use of the fundamental tools, and in their appli- 
cation to the chief materials used in the common indus- 
tries. Skill will thereby'be more readily acquired in any 
of the mechanic arts. Hand, eye, and brain are brought 
into effective co-operation, honest toil is dignified, and pro- 
ductive capacity is greatly increased. This auxiliary in 
education has had such a demonstrated value that the 
Fund has encouraged and insisted upon its incorporation 
into the course of instruction of our aided colored schools ; 
and it has been gradually extended into white Normal 
Schools, such as Greensboro', Rock Hill, and Farmville. 
The concurrent experience is that this manual training has 
helped scholarship, discipline, accuracy, and the building 
up of a self-reliant manhood and womanhood. The effi- 
cient President of Hampton says : " The effect of the man- 
ual training has shown itself in improved work in the 
school-room ; and in the shops and on the farm many a 
young man, to whom fractions as taught in the class-room 
were an insoluble mystery, has mastered them with slight 
difficulty with the help of the manual training." 

In his Annual Report in 1S91, the General Agent .<«aid: 
" As 1892 will be a quarter of a century since the founda- 
tion of the Trust, would it not be a most fit and graceful 
recognition of Mr. Peabody's unparalleled bounty, if the 
States which have been the beneficiaries of the Fund 
should, by combined action, contribute a bronze or marble 
statue to be placed, by consent of Congress, in the old 
Hall of the House of Representatives, where are collected 
the images of so many renowned Americans." A few 
years afterwards this suggestion received favorable consid- 
eration ; and South Carolina took the initiative and made an 
appropriation, inviting the co-operation of the other South- 
ern States. Virginia promptly responded. Other States, 



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112 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

delayed by biennial sessions, are considering favorably the 
proposition, and it is hoped that such a grateful recogni- 
tion cannot be long delayed. The Trustees, on the matter 
being informally brought to their attention in 1895, ex- 
pressed their deep satisfaction at the movement It is sad 
irony in human history that men are seized with a strange 
fascination, converting atrocious guilt into objects of ad- 
miration, and lavishing the honors due to the benefactors 
of the human race most profusely upon their destroyers. 
The madness of mankind has surrounded with false glory 
the exploits of men whose ambition has led them to 
schemes of conquest, inflicting untold miseries on the 
human race. It would reflect imperishable honor on the 
people, if they shall spontaneously embody in durable form 
their gratitude to one who gave the Southern people, 
" richly to enjoy," in their poverty, the continuing benefits 
of his unselfish and unexampled bounty. At the banquet 
given by Mr. Peabody to the Trustees of the Fund and to 
General Grant, in 1867, Mr. Winthrop accompanied reso- 
lutions with some remarks in which he said : " It was ones 
said by Daniel Webster that if an inquiry was made as to 
what America had ever contributed to the world, it was 
enough to say that she had contributed the character of 
George Washington. And we, of this day and generation, 
may now answer for that inquiry, that she has not only 
contributed the character of George Washington, but ako 
the example of George Peabody." 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND, II3 



CHAPTER m. 

IN his Letter of Gift, Mr, Peabody entrusted his chosen 
Trustees with " the power, in case two-thirds shall, at 
any time, after the lapse of thirty years, deem it expedient, 
to close this Trust/' At the session of 1S95, it was re- 
solved: "That in view of the authority given by the 
Founder to liquidate the Peabody Trust, and to distribute 
the principal at the discretion of the Trustees on or after 
the expiration of thirty years, a committee of three, to- 
gether with the Chairman, First Vice-Chairman, and the 
General Agent, be appointed to consider the whole ques- 
tion and report its conclusion at the next meeting." The 
Committee, at the time appointed, reported that they had 
considered the whole matter, and they recommended that 
the distribution be deferred. When the action of the 
Board, appointing a committee to consider the expediency 
of closing the Trust, transpired, there were two rather sin- 
gular results, which were most complimentary to the 
Trustees. From every superintendent of education in 
the South, from many educators familiar with the adminis- 
tration of the Trust and deeply interested in the great 
work of Southern education, and from every Southern 
Normal School and College, with one exception, came 
earnest and emphatic protests against the liquidation, or 
cordial expressions of gratification at the action of the 
Trustees in postponing the consideration of the subject 
Another very decided expression was, that while the dis- 
bursement of the income, in co-operation with the public 
authorities of the States, so broad and judicious and salu- 
tary, had been of incalculable value to the South, yet that 



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114 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

the beneficial influence of the Fund had been greater, al- 
though indirectly and not madp prominent, as a constant 
educator in public policy, always adapting itself to the con- 
ditions of the South and the environments of the schools. 
The influence exerted in awakening the people from their 
apathy, in making them feel the full weight of their 
responsibility for the support of schools, in arousing the 
South to grapple with its own great problem of illiteracy, 
in moulding school legislation, in helping the despairing, 
in suggesting other kindred benefactions, in its varied and 
practical utility, cannot be measured nor described. The 
work committed to the Trustees was unique. The amount 
given and the purpose of the gift were unexampled ; and 
no Board of Trust ever represented so much of character, 
ability, varied experience, honored station. The majority 
have been in exalted public stations. Among the Trustees 
have been at different times : three Presidents of the United 
States; two Chief -Justices of the Supreme Court, and sev- 
eral distinguished members of State judiciaries; famous 
military men, both of the Union and the Confederate 
armies ; two Bishops ; and several members of Congress, 
Cabinet Ministers, Foreign Ministers, Mayors of Cities, 
Governors of States, distinguished financiers, authors and 
men of letters, and a generous representation of men of 
substance and character. Such an array of worth, identi- 
fied with common-school education, administering a sacred 
trust, never failing of a quorum in thirty-five meetings, 
guarding with jealous vigilance the Fund committed to 
their hands, inspire a confidence and give assurance of 
fidelity and wisdom that could not possibly attach to any 
other agency into whose hands and guidance the money 
and objects might be confided. 

The Fund, from its beginning laboring for universal 
education through the only possible means of reaching 
that end, namely, public schools organized, controlled, 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND, I15 

supervised by the States, placed itself in close sympathy 
and co-operation with Sta^ school officers. The Geaeral 
Agents, having practically the administration of the Fund, 
had necessarily to keep themselves thoroughly informed 
as to school legislation and revenues, local and State 
needs, and the best means of accomplishing the end had 
in view. Under the conditions for aid such as have been 
described, the Agents decided what amounts could be 
wisely and efficaciously used. These sums were included 
in requisitions, carefully made up and submitted for the 
approval of the Executive and the Finance Committees. 
The latter instructed the Treasurer to place the amount in 
bank to the credit of the General Agent for the purposes 
mentioned. The sums were drawn out in favor of the 
State superintendents for the colleges or schools within 
their States, receipts being given by them and used in the 
annual audit of the Agent's accounts. As the superintend- 
ents received no compensation for this service, and were 
burdened with heavy labors, they deserve recognition and 
thanks for the readiness and cheerfulness with which they 
disbursed the funds. All money sent out by the Peabody 
Education Fund, except what is paid directly to the Nor* 
mal College at Nashville; passed through the hands of the 
superintendents. Justice demands an acknowledgment of 
the patience, willingness, self-sacrificing energy, cheerful 
co-operation, zeal for the cause, with which these men 
have aided the Peabody Board. Mischievous as is the 
policy of rotation, and criminal as is the appointment 
of school ofHcers as a reward for party services, the mis- 
chiefs have been in a large degree averted by the ability 
and devotedness of these officers. The writer of this re- 
gards it as a privilege to make mention of the efficient 
services of his co-laborers, and to record that official in- 
tercourse has in every instance ripened into permanent 
friendship. 



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Il6 HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION rUND. 

It is but scant justice to the very accomplished and 
scholarly head of the Departn^fint of Public Instruction, 
the Hon. William T. Harris, to acknowledge indebtedness 
for his aid and counsel, always promptly and usefully ren- 
dered, on the slightest intimation of a wish from the Gen- 
eral Agent It is proper, also, in this day of popular 
prejudice against railways, to make mention of the readi- 
ness with which the Managers of these Corporations have 
recognized the close connection betwixt education and 
material development, and given cheerful and generous aid 
to the work of the General Agent 

Perhaps the most significant fact in connection with the 
aims and purposes of the Trust was, that at its origin, not 
a single Southern State within the field of its operations 
had a system of free public schools, and only in a few 
cities were any such schools to be found. No State 
organizations existed through which the funds could reach 
the people. The illiteracy of the inhabitants was appall- 
ing, and by no means confined to the " freedmen," but 
embraced a large per cent of the white population. The 
Trustees decided, and most wisely, to make a vigorous 
and persistent effort to induce these States to include free 
and universal education among their permanent obliga- 
tions ; and the effort was rewarded by early success. One 
of the best evidences of progress, and of the influence of 
the Fund, is found in the fact that every one of the South- 
em States has now a public system of schools more or less 
complete, and Normal Schools for both races, sustained 
by general and local taxation. More than one hundred and 
fifly millions of dollars, subtracted since the war from hard 
earnings, and devoted to the education of black and white 
children, is a proof that cannot be questioned nor belittled 
as to the conviction of Southern people in reference to 
free education. These educational improvements have not 
been merely nominal, existing only on the statute books, 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. II7 

for local and State revenues have been more and more 
liberally appropriated, and, what is better, there has been 
every year a sounder and more generous public opinion. 
The statistics on the following pages, obtained from the 
Bureau of Education, which has been a willing and efficient 
coadjutor of the Fund throughout its history, present in 
tabular form the marvellous progress which has been made* 
in the States which have been grateful recipients of the 
beneficence of Mr. Peabody. In making comparisons of 
statistics of education in the South, it has been necessary 
to take 1870 as a starting-point, the previous returns 
being so meagre and unsatisfactory. 

Judge John Lowell, who was made Trustee in the place 
of Mr. Winthrop, had but a short period of service, attend- 
ing only one session. He impressed his colleagues most 
favorably, and gave promise of being a most useful member 
of the Trust. He was born in 1824, graduated from Har- 
vard, and he served with great eminence as Federal Judge, 
and died universally regretted. Senator George F. Hoar 
was elected in his stead. 



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Il8 HISTORY OF THB PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. II9 



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120 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 131 



CHAPTER IV. 
PEABODV NORMAL COLLEGE. 

IT 13 the concurrent experience of all countries which 
have established systems of public instruction, that they 
are very incomplete and defective, if they do not embrace 
professional schools, where the science of education and 
the art of education are regularly and thoroughly taught. 
Acting on this conviction, the Trustees, in the first year of 
the Trust, made provision for training teachers, and assist- 
ance was given to private schools in Louisiana and Virginia 
for that purpose. Before the first year of the service of 
Dr. Sears had expired, he urged that the influence of the 
Trust should be used in favor of State Normal Schools, 
on account of their superiority over Normal Departments 
in colleges and academies, which were likely to be over- 
shadowed by the literary and scientific departments. The 
only safe policy, the one which alone promised thorough- 
ness, efficiency, and permanency in the training of teachers, 
was that of inducing the several States to establish their 
own Normal Schools. A complete theoretical and practi- 
cal course, illustrated in all the branches to be taught, with 
their environments, was found nowhere out of the Normal 
Schools. Early and adequate provision for the systematic 
training of teachers, male and female, black and white, was 
urged upon the States composing the sphere of the action 
of the Fund, as indispensable to the accomplishment of 
their wishes. In the persevering effort to procure the 
establishment of State systems of public schools, the lack 
of capable teachers was one of the chief obstacles to be 
surmounted. In the whole South there was not a single 



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122 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

Normal School. Many annexes and departments with the 
name were hastily originated; but these were in denomi- 
national or private institutions, and rivalries and jealousies 
soon compelled a resort to the principle of confining aid, 
on the part of the Peabody Trustees, to such schools as 
were under State control. In the course of a few years 
they resolved to devote a considerable portion of the 
annual income to stimulate the establishment and aid in 
the support of Normal Schools, in which young men and 
women were to be qualified to carry forward the work of 
free education. The only way to prevent disastrous re- 
sults from the mere teaching of the words and formulas 
of books, and to make the schools the pride of the peo- 
ple, was for a State to make provision for thoroughly 
training a large body of teachers. Tn a letter to the 
writer, 27th September, 1876, Dr. Sears said: "We 
had a good meeting, and an uncommonly full and satis- 
factory discussion about our general policy. While the 
course thus far pursued was heartily approved, there was a 
feeling that it was about time to diminish our contributions 
to the larger cities and the Northern tier Af States, espe- 
cially Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee, and do more 
for Normal Schools and for awakening a general interest 
in education in the more southerly States." In another 
letter, in 1877, he wrote, "North Carolina has appropri- 
ated $2,000 a year for two years for a white Normal School 
to be connected with the State University, and I was called 
on to suggest a plan. I wrote to the Governor, and also 
to President Rattle, that a single lectureship, with a small 
attendance, furnishing no graduates during the two years, 
would prove so little inspiring to the public that the 
appropriation would not be likely to be renewed. I 
recommended a temporary Normal School, of six or seven 
weeks, during the summer vacation, when two or three 
experienced Normal instructors could be brought in from 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 123 

abroad, and when all the teachers in the State could be 
invited to attend." While intent on this scheme for train- 
ing teachers, Dr. Sears, in 1875, visited Nashville, and had 
consultations with Judge Watson, a Trustee, and the Hon. 
James D. Porter, who, fortunately, was then the Governor 
of the State, and Drs. Lindsey and Jones, and other liberal 
'. and sagacious friends of Education. On invitation, Dr. 
Sears addressed the Legislature, and subsequently sent a 
note to the Governor, to be communicated to the Legisla- 
ture, containing a proposition for the establishment of a 
Normal School Through the energetic efforts of Gov- 
ernor Porter and others, the Legislature, on March 3d, 
adopted the plan with some modifications. A Board of 
Education was appointed to organize the school, and carry 
the law into effect Although the Trustees offered to give 
the sum of $6,000 annually, provided the State would do 
as much, the Legislature was not willing to appropriate 
anything, either to gpve life to the school or to aid in its 
support. The enterprise would have failed if the Trustees^ 
of the University of Nashville had not generously come to / 
the rescue and offered to substitute the Normal School for 
their literary department, and to grant the use of grounds 
and buildings, together with the income from its fund thus 
tendered. The University included a large number of well- 
constructed stone and brick buildings, and a campus of six- 
teen acres, to which have since been added a residence and 
offices for the Chancellor, a janitor's dwelling, and a gymna- 
sium. This disposition of the property has since been made 
perpetual by the University Board, with the single condition 
that it shall be used for Normal College purposes. The 
State Board formally accepted the proposition of the Univer- 
sity, and Invited the Trustees of the University, in co-opera- 
tion with the Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund, to 
take the necessary steps for organizing and opening the 
School These gentlemen conferred immediately with Dr. 



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124 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

Sears, and requested him to nominate a President Dr. 
Sears selected Dr. Eben S. Steams, a teacher of great ac- 
complishments, and succeeded in getting his acceptance. 
Dr. Steams entered upoR his difficult task with much expe- 
rience, and an enviable reputation as an educator which he 
had achieved in Massachusetts, The prospect which con- 
fronted him on his arrival was far from cheering. Igno- 
rance of the objects of the School, indifference, and 
hostility were as pronounced and patent as the friendship 
he met. Grounds, buildings, furniture, appliances, were 
all uninviting and uninspiring. The School was opened on 
the 1st of December, 1875, with thirteen female pupils, one 
little room sufficing for chapel, class-room, and all class- 
work. Nothing daunted, the courageous President had 
the inauguration exercises in the Representative Hall at 
the Capitol. The ever-faithful Porter and Watson and 
Jones, with other prominent persons, were present to 
cheer and bid God-speed. During the first year the 
School grew in favor, and the President, to whose energy 
and taste the College owes so much for its present attrac- 
tions, kept the first anniversary by a memorial tree, — 
planting which, it is said, was the first occasion of the 
kind in this country. At their meeting in 1876, the 
Trustees of the Feabody Fund established a limited 
number of scholarships for the benefit of all the bene- 
ficiary States, worth $200 a year for two successive years. 
The liberal conditions were at first reluctantly accepted ; 
but the scholarships are now eagerly sought after, and are 
distributed as follows: Alabama and Arkansas each, 17; 
Florida, 8; Georgia, 22; Louisiana, West Virginia, and 
South Carolina each, 12; Texas and North Carolina each, 
20; Mississippi, 13; Virginia, 18; Tennessee, 33; total, 
204. In 1850, there were 137 students in the College ; in 
1885, 165; in 1890, 359; in 1894, 508, and in 1897, 544; 
1436 persons have been graduated. The College receives 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 



I2S 



at nominal tuition all who desire to prepare themselves for 
teaching. The total scholarship payments from October 
I, 1877, to October i, 1897, have been; 
For Alabama 




tlorida . 
Georgia . 
Louisiana 
Mississippi 
North Carolina 
South Carolina 
Tennessee . . 

Virginia . , . 
West Virginia . 



The Peabody Trustees, notwithstanding the demon- 
strated need of the College, and its growing popularity 
and usefulness without any State aid, had not purposed to 
charge the Fund with its entire support. The contract- 
ing parties to the agreement previously entered into did 
not feel authorized to promise any hope of relief to the 
increasing need for more teachers and better facilities for 
instruction. The Legislature persisted in declining to 
render aid. The Trustees of the University felt they were 
doing more than could be required of them. Affairs were 
rapidly coming to a crisis. The Peabody Trustees did not 
feel warranted in continuing large appropriations without 
a corresponding amount from the State, and they therefore 
determined upon removing their interest to another State, 
in order to secure permanent support for the future. 

In 1879, they continued their appropriation, but instructed 
their General Agent to report to an adjourned meeting 
whether it would be desirable to continue the appropria- 
tion longer, or whether some institution elsewhere should 



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126 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

be adopted as the receiver of the contributions of the 
Board. In i8So, as the Legislature and the people of 
Tennessee had shown so little interest in the success of the 
College, the Executive Committee and the General Agent 
were entrusted with the consideration and settlement of 
the Normal School question. Dr. Sears was instructed 
to proceed to the settlement at once. The State of 
Georgia, keenly alive to the opportunity, had invited the 
Board to transfer the appropriation to her, and offered a 
large sum annually to aid the School, with other liberal 
inducements in grounds, buildings, etc. Dr. Sears, upon 
a careful survey of the whole matter, after consultation 
with the Governor and the educational authorities, would 
probably have concluded a satisfactory negotiation if 
Georgia had not been hampered by a provision in the 
Constitution which subordinated in some form all appro- 
priations of money for 'educational purposes to the Uni- 
versity, and necessitated a kind of supervision by the 
Chancellor. The possibility of the removal of the College 
deeply excited the citizens of Nashville, who protested 
against it as a lasting injury to the State School System, 
and offered, by a prompt and liberal subscription of money, 
to guarantee the payment of the running expenses until 
the Legislature should make an appropriation for its sup- 
port. The Trustees of the University at the same time 
proposed to remove the Montgomery Bell Academy to 
another building, and to raise $10,000 to erect and repair 
buildings. A committee, headed by Governor Porter, sub- 
mitted a strong memorial to the Legislature, praying en- 
lightened legislation of the State so as to act generously 
and promptly in this undertaking. These offers, looking 
to a satisfactory adjustment of the difticulties, were ac- 
cepted by Doctor Sears, who unfortunately died before 
they were matured by the State. It was a cheering 
thought to him, who had been oppressed by so much 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 12/ 

anxiety, that the College was settled permanently in 
Nashville on a firm foundation. The agreement seemed 
the harbinger of peace and prosperity. His final answer 
to the propositions was probably his last official act 

The new General Agent, immediately on entrance upon 
his duties, had committed to him the perfecting of the 
negotiations respecting the permanent location of the 
College. The problem was embarrassed by the want of 
a proper adjustment of the somewhat undetermined re- 
lations to the College of three distinct Boards of Trust, — 
of Education, of the University, and of the Peabody Edu- 
cation Fund. The Trustees of the University began at 
once to fulfil their stipulations. The Agent visited Nash- 
ville, made an address to the Le^slature, and, on a second 
visit, by conference with the Trustees of the University 
and the Board of Education, reached an understanding 
which has worked with harmony and enabled the College 
to attain its great eminence. In the spring of 1881, the 
Legislature made an appropriation of $10,000, but coupled 
it with such conditions that only $5,000 were secured for 
College purposes. The first instalment was drawn in 
November of that year, — the College having been in 
operation and supported by the University and the Pea- 
body Fund for six years. In 1882, on the recommenda- 
tion of the General Agent, the Peabody Trustees allowed 
a proportionate number of scholarships to Tennessee so 
long as the State would give annually to the College 
$10,000 free from all incumbrances. He had reported 
that the University Trustees had removed the Bell Acad- 
emy to a new house erected for its occupancy, and had 
built a commodious residence for the President On 39th 
March, 1883, the Legislature accepted without any draw- 
back the offer which had been made by the Peabody 
Trustees, and thus manifested a willingness to continue 
friendly aid to an Institution which, while a blessing to the 



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128 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

public schools, was steadily growing into an imperishable 
monument totheSouth's greatest benefactor. Since 1891, 
the State appropriation has been $15,000. Gymnasium, 
repair of buildings, library, laboratories, teachers, orna- 
mentation of the campus, increased the usefulness of the 
College, and State superintendents gave intelligent and 
generous co-operation. 

In 1885, in his annual address, Mr. Winthrop designated 
the School as our " great Normal College." By gradual 
evolution it had developed in strength and usefulness and 
fame. Few imagined that from the humble beginning of 
1875, amid so many embarrassments, it would grow into 
such a stately institution. It has proved its ability to sur- 
vive neglect and opposition. It has pursued its success- 
ful career, even when Death had removed such friends as 
Sears and Watson, and now came an additional blow. On 
the iith of April, 1887, Eben Sperry Stearns, the President 
of the College, and the Chancellor of the University, died 
in Nashville. He was, in 1841, graduated from Harvard 
University, father, grandfather, and great-grandfather hav- 
ing had diplomas from the same venerable institution. Dr. 
Sears, as Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Educa- 
tion, had placed him, in [849, at the head of a State Normal 
School in that State. Familiar with his unusual qualifica- 
tions and excellent services, he selected Dr. Stearns as the 
most desirable person for organizing and making successful 
the Normal School at Nashville, For eleven years and 
more Dr. Stearns gave untiringly his energies and ability 
to the infant enterprise; and what it became was largely 
due to his zeal, his paternal watchfulness, his brave hope- 
fulness, and his administrative and scholarly capacity. 

Institutions are often but the embodiment of the brain 
and heart of men. The College being under the substan- 
tial supervision of the Peabody Trustees, drawing much of 
its vital force from them, it became a question, worthy of 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 1 29 

the most thoughtful consideration, who should be chosen 
as President to carry on to ideal consummation the work 
of the " Peabody College for all the Southern States." 
The advice and counsel of the late Agent, " fortunately at 
hand," said Mr. Winthrop, on a leave of absence from 
Madrid, were asked. He visited Boston, conferred with 
Mr. Winthrop and Dr. Green, and proceeded at once, 
practically giving up his vacation, in search of a suitable 
person for the Presidency. It should be said that as soon 
as Dr. Steartts died, Mr. Winthrop had written to Mr. 
Curry in Spain, and urged him to " look out " for a proper 
man. This journey, therefore, was undertaken in order to 
see and have conferences with several men. Going to Ann 
Arbor, he ascertained that William H, Payne, Professor of 
the Art and Science of Teaching in the University of 
Michigan, was absent, holding Teachers' Institutes in In- 
diana. Following to the town where the Institute was in 
session, he had a long, frank, and earnest interview with Dr. 
Payne, and finally offered him, as far as he was authorized 
conditionally to do, the Presidency of the College, fore- 
warning him not to disclose his denominational or political 
tenets, as he preferred when he should be asked as to the 
views of the President-elect on these points, to answer 
truthfully that he did not know. This selection, which 
both parties understood to be merely tentative, was con- 
firmed on the 2gth of August, 1887, by the Chairman and 
Secretary, they having acted on the suggestion of Gov- 
ernor Porter and several of the members of the Tennessee 
Boards. After visiting Nashville, and thoroughly consider- 
ing the whole subject. Dr. Payne accepted, — a conclusion 
' he has repeatedly said that he never regretted. The Trus- 
tees of the University and the Board of Education had 
looked to the Peabody Trustees to select and nominate a 
suitable successor for Dr. Stearns, and they therefore, hav- 
ing had Dr. Payne nominated to them, promptly and 



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130 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

unanimously expressed their assent to his selection. The 
Peabody Trustees, at their annual meeting in October, con- 
firmed what had been done by their executive officers. 
On the 5th of October, 18S7, Dr. Payne was inaugurated as 
President of the College and Chancellor of the University, 
many prominent educators and citizens and the two local 
Boards witnessing and taking part in the ceremony, and 
cordially welcoming the Christian gentleman and scholar. 
In his inaugural address, the President outlined his views of 
what the College should be, and what he should strive to 
attain unto. 

Among other things, he said : " The primary and funda- 
mental qualification for teaching is generous scholarship, 
a confirmed love for the scholarly vocation, a high degree 
of intellectual training. . . . But academic work of a high 
grade does not of itself constitute a Normal College. This 
is a distinctively professional school in its constitution and 
purpose, and so the instruction it oiTers must be in part pro- 
fessional. The teacher must be a scholar and something 
more — more by that special kind of knowledge which 
fits him for his specific duties. This special knowledge 
is the theory, the history, and the art of education. Pupils 
must learn the theory and history from lectures and books ; 
but for the purposes which this school must keep in view, 
the practice of education will be best learned from good 
models. I trust the time is not far distant when upon this 
campus there shall be a model school building, accommo- 
dating the several grades of a model school, which the , 
pupils of this College may reproduce, wholly or in part, 
when they undertake the actual work of teaching." 

Bringing to his position high culture, a philosophical 
mind, and an honorable ambition, regulated by an enlight- 
ened conscience. Dr. Payne began at once to stamp his 
impress upon the College, which, by action of the Gov- 
ernor and the State Board of Education, was christened 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 131 

anew with the distinctive name of " The Peabody Normal 
College." The intent of this change was to connect indis- 
solubly the name of the Founder of the Trust with the 
Institution, and to relieve it from the local character im- 
plied by the term " State." Courses of study in the 
theory, history, and art of education were organized, and 
the preparation of teachers for Hie higher positions In the 
school service became the characteristic aim. Steadily 
the end has been pursued of giving to teachers a profes- 
sional education of the collegiate type, the education of 
teachers of teachers having a manifest superiority over the 
education of merely teachers of children. As State Nor- 
mal Schools, constantly increasing, undertake the work of 
primary instruction, it seemed well to educate a body of 
professional teachers, having a clear insight into the com- 
plex educational problem, capable of dealing with vexed 
questions in a spirit of judicial and philosophic fairness, 
and of moulding public opinion over wider areas than an 
isolated school-room. 

In accordance with these views, as fast as a sound man- 
agement would permit, the School has been raised to a 
College grade, resulting in a marked growth in professional 
spirit and in breadth of culture. The course of study has 
been revised and recast so as to introduce new subjects 
and to secure a wholesome expansion and growth. The 
revised course, by a wise elasticity, adjusts itself to a predi- 
lection of the students, and introduces three degrees: (a) 
Bachelor of Arts, giving prominence to ancient languages 
•and mathematics; (b) Bachelor of Science, in which pre- 
cedence is given to physical sciences ; and (c) Bachelor of 
Letters, which omits the ancient languages, but makes 
prominent the study of modern languages and literature 
and history. There has been induced a growing tendency 
on the part of students to prolong their connection with 
the College until in addition to the ordinary degree of 



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132 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

Licentiate of Instruction they shall have taken some Uni- 
versity degree. The fact that in one year fifty-nine out of 
the one hundred and thirty-four graduates received such 
degrees is full of significance, as showing that the School 
has developed into a real College, and that the graduates 
are entitled to the fellowship of scholarly men. 

In his opening address, Dr. Payne expressed the hope 
for the early addition of a Model School. Continually, 
he re-affirmed his conviction of the urgent need of such a 
school, as being of the same importance as a clinic to a 
medical school. A Committee of the Board visited the 
Normal School, and, having power to act, appropriated 
$[2,ooo to erect on the College grounds a building for a 
Model School, and $l,ooo to pay the salary of a teacher 
to be appointed by the President and the General Agent 
The action was approved at the regular meeting in 1890, 
although a departure " for the first time since our oi^an* 
ization from the policy of buying nothing and building 
nothing." The Committee and the Board were careful to 
exclude a conclusion, and therefore in distinct terms said 
that the appropriation for a Model School building and 
Library was exceptional, to meet a present exigency, and 
was not to be regarded as a departure from the uniform 
policy, adverse to the purchase of, or investments in, prop- 
erty for schools. The new building served the important 
purposes of a faculty room. President's office, class-room, 
and studio, and furnished facilities for some training in draw- 
ing and art study. This Winthrop Model School, under 
the strong views of the President, has been used as a school 
of observation, where pupils may observe in actual use the 
most approved modern methods of instruction, rather than 
as a school where students may practise. He has extended 
the course of instruction so as to cover the first eight years 
of public school life. Other educators preferto combine ob- 
servation and practice; but Dr. Payne expresses himself as 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. I33 

pleased with the results obtained. The scholarship plan has 
been a great success, and has furnished to the States many 
of their best teachers and school officers. The liberal aid 
furnished by the Fund soon made these scholarships very 
attractive, and, as early as 1885, the feasibility of diminish- 
ing the sum was suggested. Dr. Stearns was rather decided 
in his fears that a reduction would cut off "the great ma- 
jority of the beneficiaries." To Dr. Payne and the General 
Agent it became increasingly apparent that a reduction of 
the individual allowance would not be attended with such 
evil consequences, and both concurred in recommending the 
change. It was their opinion that there would be the same 
competition for the privileged places, and that a successive 
reduction might be gradually made, so that the funds ex- 
pended on scholarships might be used in raising the quality 
of the School. The attracting motive, drawing the student, 
should not be so much the pecuniary compensation, as the 
excellence of the instruction. In 1890, the sum given to 
scholarship students was reduced to $100 and travelling ex- 
penses ; and the amount saved was used in increasing the 
number of scholarships. Afier no inconsiderable labor, a 
new apportionment to the States was adopted, and the ap- 
plications were so numerous as to vindicate in the first year 
the wisdom of the Trustees. A reduction by one-half of 
the sum given, the selection of the students by State super- 
intendents afler rigid competitive examinations, enlarged 
courses of instruction and higher standards of graduation, 
have tended to elevate the character of the College and the 
value of the diplomas. Giving to all the Southern States 
the benefit of improved Normal instruction widened the 
College from a local State institution into a college for the 
South. An example of model teaching and school organ- 
ization by a master of the art, one trained as a leader, has 
had a more beneficial effect upon the public at large than 
the support of half-a-dozea ordinary schools. This en- 



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134 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND, 

largement proved to be a wise measure ; for while increas- 
ing the local dignity and importance, it has given national 
celebrity and influence to the College. Auxiliary to this 
modiflcation was a request to State superintendents to give 
preference to the students from their States who had 
maintained themselves for one year at the College at their 
own expense, and had there gained a creditable record for 
scholarship and deportment. The President thinks it of 
greater importance to have the College equipped with com- 
petent teachers and with necessary facilities for instructioiif 
than to have an addition to the number of students; and 
he suggests that appropriations should be in the order: 
I, Of salaries to secure competent teachers; 2, for the 
Library; 3, Lectureships; and, lastly, Scholarships. 

Any profession, any scientific pursuit, too exclusively 
followed, has a narrowing influence upon the mind. 
Teaching furnishes many illustrations of this cramping 
tendency, and there is need that a schoolmaster should be 
hiore than a schoolmaster. One of the best preventives 
of contractedness is healthy and wide reading. To create 
and cultivate a habit of reading should be the constant 
aim of the Normal teacher. The right use of a well 
selected library gives information, culture, expansion of 
view, a desirable intellectual tone, and a love of letters. 
Appropriations have been made for the library; librarians 
have been appointed ; the rooms have been made attrac- 
tive. Books and magazines and newspapers, carefully se- 
lected and arranged, are commended to the pupils, with 
suggestions as to the best mode of using them, and the 
place, with its surroundings, has added to the intellectual 
life of the students, and has quickened and cultivated a 
growing love and appreciation of good books. 

Afl:er the removal of the hindrances which prevented 
perfectly harmonious action between Tennessee and the 
College, the State has evinced the kindliest interest. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 135 

Appropriations have been made, sometimes increased 
cheerfully, and sometimes unanimously. This moral and 
material co-operation of the Legislature has enabled the 
State Board to elect additional teachers, raise meagre sal- 
aries, give money for books and apparatus, and go to the 
very limit of its resources. The University Board, from 
its first act, which made the existence of the School a pos- 
sibility, has evinced a paternal regard, a tender solicitude, 
a generous magnanimity, beyond all praise. The able 
President is now assisted by a corps of twenty-nine efficient 
instructors. 

The College has more than repaid all the kindness 
shown and sacrifices made in its behalf, and illustrated 
afresh the reactive benefits upon the giver. Tennessee 
has had a rich return of the more than two hundred and 
fifty youths, who confer upon their State the richest of all 
earthly blessings, — improved teaching of the children. 
Other States have shared in a similar benefit, for many 
who received the scholarships have conducted Institutes, 
become city superintendents, or principals and teachers in 
the best schools. Membership in the College with free 
tuition is not restricted to scholarship students, nor to 
States having these privileges. Any white youth, of either 
sex, with the prescribed qualifications, will be received 
and educated for the teacher's profession. In establishing 
the College there was no intent to favor Tennessee above 
other Southern States. The training of teachers for all 
the Southern States was the object. As the munificence 
of Mr. Peabody was the stimulus and the means for estab- 
lishing systems of public schools in the States, so the Nor- 
mal College has pointed the way and aroused the effort 
for the organizing of more local but indispensable Normal 
Schoob. 



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136 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 



National Aid. 

I have had frequent occasion to mention that in the 
effort to organize and put in successful operation a new 
■and untried system of Public Schools, adequate to the 
needs of the entire population, the Southern States were 
under the weight of a debt beyond their ability, in their 
impoverished condition, to pay. To add the expense of 
free education to this crushing weight was, in their finan- 
cial condition, a perplexing and almost impossible task. 
Free schools was a new question, untried, and to be ad- 
ministered by novices in this work. To recognize the 
freedom, the equality of citizenship, of a large class, lately 
the slaves of the white people, was not easy, because of con- 
flict with traditions, prejudices, social customs, legal rights, 
of a few years preceding. To impose voluntarily heavy 
burdens on the scant property which survived the desola- 
tions of the war, so as to educate gratuitously their own 
children and the children of their late African slaves, was 
a test of patriotism, of humanity, of civic duty, which no 
other people ever encountered. We are apt to forget that 
the negroes were first emancipated, next citizenized, then 
enfranchised, or invested with suffrage — three distinct 
steps, neither the legal nor logical consequence of the pre- 
ceding—and that these privileges or rights had. not been 
the voluntary action of the Southern States, but coerced 
conditions imposed by conquerors. Under these and other 
burdensome circumstances, it demanded the utmost forti- 
tude and magnanimity to grapple with and adopt, as a 
permanent policy, engrafted into organic law and daily 
practice, systems of public education. The States cour- 
ageously undertook the work, levied taxes on property, 
more than 90 per cent of which belonged to white citizens, 
for the establishment of a dual system of schools, giving 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. I37 

like and equal advantages to both races ; and there were, 
of consequence, a muttering of discontent, a complaint of 
over-taxation, a criticism upon the efficiency of inchoate 
schemes, and efTorts to overthrow the education, which 
was unfamiliar to teachers and people. History may here- 
after do justice to those who felt that free schools were of 
the very essence of free institutions, and that apart from 
what might be due to the negroes, the white people could 
not afTord to have the lowest stratum of society, to which 
they were indissolubly tethered, remain in ignorance and 
poverty and thriftlessness and semi-barbarism. 

Very naturally, those who regarded universal education 
as an imperative necessity thought that it would be wise 
for Congress to come to the aid of impoverished States, 
and make temporary provision for the removal and pre- 
vention of perilous illiteracy. This .was not simply a local 
duty, nor a sectional question, for the want of good schools 
anywhere was a direct and positive injury to the whole 
Union. It was a national necessity of the highest exigency, 
so wrote Dr. Sears, that something should be done without 
delay to quahfy, for its intelligent discharge, those on 
whom the elective franchise, for better or for worse, has 
been bestowed by one of the amendments to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. Again and again, he adverted 
to the same subject and to the growing necessity for action, 
as the chief obstacle to free schools, for both white and 
colored children, was found, not so much in the apathy of 
the people, as in their inability to provide means for their 
support. The appeals for National Aid so impressed Mr. 
Stuart that he asked for a committee to consider and 
report upon it deliberately. This was in 1879, and Mr. 
Stuart, Chief-Justice Waite, and Mr. Evarts were thus 
appointed. At the succeeding session, Mr. Stuart pre- 
sented an able and elaborate report, which came from Hts 
pen, but had undergone the revision of his colleagues oa 



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138 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

the Committee, and was therefore entitled to the consider- 
ation of all patriots, lawyers, and statesmen. As a State 
paper, it ranks among those for which our country is so 
distinguished. It presented the alarming fact that half a 
million of voters, eligible to all positions of honor, trust, 
and emolument, and yet, from Illiteracy, notoriously incom- 
petent to the intelligent discharge of the public duties 
entrusted to them, were scattered over half the Union. 
The infusion of so large an element of ignorance into the 
constituent body was a source of weakness to our system 
of government. Such a multitude of illiterate voters con- 
stituted an important factor in national politics. Carefully 
collected statistics showed two millions of children in the 
Southern States without the means of instruction. Neither 
individual charity nor the resources of impoverished States 
were sufficient to tneetthe emergency. During the decade 
from i860 to 1870, the aggregate of values In these States 
had decreased $1,872,284,724. As the colored race was 
an exceptional class of the population, the Board memo- 
rialized Congress to grant a portion of the public lands, for 
purposes of education, using the officers of the school 
systems of the respective States as the agencies in the 
application of the funds. As free, universal, common- 
school education was the daily bread of any system of self- 
government, the Trustees were unanimous and urgent in 
their appeals to the Government Writing to me, 2d Feb- 
ruary, 1880, Dr. Sears said: " We meet in Washington on 
the 18th, and hope to exert an influence on Congress in 
favor of helping the Southern States educate their colored 
population." Mr. Winthrop and ex-Presidents Grant and 
Hayes gave frequent expressions to their strong convic- 
tions. Others were not less emphatic and earnest. The 
subject assumed larger proportions in the public mind. 
The General Agent presented an additional Memorial, 
declaring the inability of the Southern States to sustain the 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 139 

heavy burden of universal education, and asking for aid in 
co-operation with the existing school systems. From 
manumission and enfranchisement there was a resulting 
obligation to secure to those suddenly exalted to citizen* 
ship and suflfrage that amount of education which was 
necessary to enable them to discharge intelligentiy the 
new duties devolved. Mr. Winthrop had condensed the 
argument into a statement which has been popularized 
into an educational apothegm. " Slavery is but half 
abolished, emancipation is but half completed, while mil- 
lions of freemen with votes in their hands are lefl without 
education." In his Yorktown Centennial Address, he fur- 
ther said : " We cannot fail to recognize within those 
States a peculiar class of population, upon whom the full 
rights and responsibilities of free and equal citizens have 
been cast by our National Government without the slightest 
provision for educating tbem to an understanding of those 
rights, and for the discharge of their responsibilities. . . . 
To remove illiteracy and qualify a large class for the 
prerogatives of American citizenship is a paramount 
national question. No argument is needed to prove that 
ignorance is the parent of poverty, waste, and crime, and 
that an ignorant people can never work out a noble 
civilization." The Board, in 1883, renewed their petition, 
and requested the General Agent to present it to the two 
Houses of Congress. He furnished every member a copy, 
and, by invitation of the House Committee on Education, 
appeared twice before them and enforced the petition. 
The Congress did not see fit to aid in the education of the 
illiterate masses on whom the elective franchise was ao 
suddenly precipitated ; and the States have had to struggle 
unaided, and, of course, inefficiently in the attempt to pro- 
vide for the needs of the children. This education is 
sadly incommensurate with what should be given, as is 
evidenced by short sessions, incommodious school-houses, 



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140 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

and an insufficient supply of trained teachers. It would 
not be difficult to show how from ignorant votes and uned- 
ucated citizens proceed, logically and almost unavoidably, 
vice, improvidence, corruption, violence, and the many 
evils which have been connected with Southern elections. 

Following the Memorial of the Trustees came a persist- 
ent and able effort in Congress to appropriate from the 
public lands, or from the public Treasury, what would have 
been most needed and valuable aid to the States in their 
effiarts to educate their entire population. For ten years 
this measure was discussed with remarkable ability and the 
broadest patriotism. Senator Blair, of New Hampshire, 
was most conspicuous in his advocacy of this great scheme. 
Seventeen of the twenty-two Senators from the States most 
in need of this aid gave him their zealous co-operation. 
For tlie first time in tlie history of our Government, did 
our public men boldly grapple with the education of the 
whole people in public schools, by the co-operation of the 
Federal and the State Governments ; and this gave a new 
impulse to the whole subject of popular education. The 
scheme proposed was in connection with the State systems, 
and was a temporary grant of national aid, chiefly for ele- 
mentary instruction, according to the relative illiteracy of 
the people over ten years of age. The bounty was to be 
conditioned upon, and proportioned to, local effort; and 
this created a sentiment which had not previously existed 
in favor of local taxation for education. Unfortunately, 
the Congress would not rise to the height of the great 
argument, nor appreciate the unremoved national peril, and 
the refusal seems a little short of national folly and wicked- 
ness, when our policy toward a few Indians and Alaskans 
is contrasted with our cruel neglect of millions of negroes. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 141 



Mississippi and Florida Bonds. 

In his first Letter of Gift, Mr. Peabody said ; " In addi- 
tion to this gift, I place in your hands bonds of the State 
of Mississippi, issued to the Planters' Bank, and commonly 
known as Planters' Bank bonds, amounting, with interest, to 
about eleven hundred thousand dollars, the amount real- 
ized by you from which is to be added to and used for 
the purposes of this Trust. 

" These bonds were originally issued in payment for stock 
in that Bank held by the State, and amounted in all to 
only two millions of dollars. For many years, the State 
received large dividends from the Bank over and above 
the interest on these bonds. The State paid the interest 
without interruption till 1840, since which no interest 
has been paid, except a payment of about one hundred 
thousand dollars, which was found in the treasury appli- 
cable to the payment of the coupons, and paid by a man- 
damus of the Supreme Court The validity of these 
bonds has never been questioned, and they must not be 
confounded with another issue of bonds made by the 
State to the Union Bank, the recognition of which has 
been a subject of controversy with a portion of the popu- 
lation of Mississippi. 

"Various acts of the Legislature — viz.: of February 
28, 1842; February 23, 1844; February 16, 1846; Feb- 
ruary 28, 1S461 March 4, 1848 — and the highest judi- 
cial tribunal of the State, have confirmed their validity; 
and I have no doubt that at an early day such legislation 
will be had as to make these bonds available in increasing 
the usefulness of the present Trust 

" Mississippi, though now depressed, is rich in agricul- 
tural resources, and cannot long disregard the moral 
obligation resting upon her to make provision for their 



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142 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

payment. In confirmation of what I have said, in regard 
to the legislative and judicial action concerning the State 
bonds issued to the Planters' Bank, I herewith place in 
your hands the documents marked A," * 

In his second Letter of Gift, Mr- Peabody said ; " In 
addition to the foregoing, I give to you Florida 6 per cent 
bonds, which, with overdue coupons, amount to about 
$384,000. 

" These bonds, like the Mississippi bonds in my first gift, 
must before many years be paid. 

" The territory of Florida obtained the money on these 
bonds in Europe at about par, and loaned it to the Union 
Bank as capital 

" The territory received for some time a high rate of 
interest, but, after the bank suspended, paid the bond- 
holders nothing, but referred them to the Union Bank, 
saying, ' Obtain what you can from the Union Bank, and 
it will then be time enough to come to us.' Large amounts 
of these bonds were purchased by planters at about fifty 
per cent, and used to pay mortgages held by the Union 
Bank, until there was nothing more left to be paid; and 
the small amount of these bonds now outstanding (not ex- 
ceeding, I believe, two millions of the original bonds) must, 
I think, before long induce Florida, as an act of justice 
long delayed, to make provision for their payment." 

The failure of Mississippi to meet her obligations caused 
the Trustees to give unusual consideration to the conse- 
quent loss which the Fund was sustaining; and the Finance 
Committee was early entiusted with full powers over the 
whole subject In 1871, a Memorial to the LegislatuK 
was authorized, and, in the hope of some response to a 

1 Mr. Peabodj, wriling to Mr. Corcoran in May, 1851, said r " There hawe 
been no Missiisippi Planters' Bank bond* on the market for the last six 
months. I have a large tunonnt, and during the lail ;ear I have occalioi^ 
ally told them at Natchez at 70 to Ji en prinafal anJ iiaereit." 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 143 

respectful petition, the Finance Committee was charged 
anew with power over the collection, adjustment, and settle- 
ment of the bonds. Mr. Winthrop prepared the Memo- 
rial, appealing to the State, in justice to the interests of 
the living and the memory of the dead, to take proper 
action for the redemption of the claims. No response 
was made by Governor or Legislature, and three Southern 
members of the Board were appointed to ascertain what 
steps could properly be taken to secure the long-deferred 
settlement. In 1881, the renewal of the Memorial to the 
Government authorities of Mississippi was committed to 
Judge Manning, who had with the Governor a correspond- 
ence, which he submitted at the next annual meeting. 
From this it appeared that, in 1875 and 1876, the State 
Constitution had been so amended as to exclude from 
legislative consideration the question of the payment of 
these bonds. The only method of reaching the matter 
was by a proposition to amend the Constitution. It thus 
appears, said Judge Manning, that the repudiation was 
made nearly ten years after Mr. Peabody's donation, and 
at a time when the children of Mississippi were receiving 
their full proportion of the Fund, derived from bonds and 
other investments upon which interest has been paid. The 
Treasurer, in his statement of securities held by the Fund 
for the edutation of Southern children, was compelled, in 
conspicuous notice, to report the Mississippi and Florida 
bonds as inactive. Con6ding in the intelligence and 
patriotism of the people of Mississippi, Judge Manning 
visited Jackson during the session of the Legislature, and 
made a calm and argumentative address to that body, re- 
minding them that eleven years had passed, while the 
Trustees were waiting for some answer to their former 
respectful Memotial. He reminded them that their State 
had received near $70,000 from the Peabody Fund, while 
that Fund had not received any portion of income from 



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144 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

interest on bonds which Mr, Feabody, with trustful confi- 
dence, declared would soon be " available in increasing the 
usefulness " of his gift " Up to the time he wrote these 
words, their validity had not been questioned ; but notwith- 
standing these various acts of the Legislature, and that 
the highest judicial tribunal of your State have confirnied 
their validity, an amendment to your Constitution has 
been adopted, prohibiting their redemption or payment" 
Judge Manning concluded that there was no probability 
that Mississippi would ever voluntarily revoke a repudi- 
ation, confirmed by both political parties, notwithstanding 
the illustrious patriot, " prompted alone by a benevolence 
as capacious as the needs of those he sought to help were 
ui^ent, crowned a life full of noble benefactions by this, 
the noblest of them all" — his gift to the South — and as 
" a part of that benefaction made Mississippi, which was 
debtor to him, debtor to her own children, and to other 
children whose fathers had passed through the same 
ordeal as her citizens, and had shared the same fate." 
Unwilling to act hastily, another year was given for re- 
flection and revocation. The Board, in 1884, felt con- 
strained, not as a punitory measure, butsimply as a matter 
of justice to the children of other States, not to allow 
Mississippi to profit by her own wrong. Up to 1871, 
when the Trustees presented their first Memorial, the 
validity of the bonds had never been questioned, but sub- 
sequently they were repudiated. Deliberately withhold- 
ing the income she owed, there was no unwillingness to * 
receive a portion of what accrued from other sources. 
It was therefore determined to eliminate the State from 
the field of operations of the Board, and the General 
Agent was instructed to omit Mississippi in the distribu- 
tion of the income until she pays the amnual interest on 
the bonds, or makes some settlement or adjustment of her 
debt to the Board. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODV EDUCATION FUND. 1 45 

The payment of the Florida bonds was nearly as vexa- 
tious a question as grew out of Mississippi's persistent 
refusal. Various committees were appointed to consider 
and adjust; and finally Gen. Henry R. Jackson was re- 
quested to visit the State, and confer with the proper 
authorities in order to facilitate a settlement- No session 
of the Legislature being held, he could not present for- 
mally the Memorial which had been prepared, as in the 
case of Mississippi; but he sought the views of distin- 
guished Floridians upon the subject-matter. These gen- 
tlemen protested against the assimilation of the Florida 
default to Mississippi repudiation. No acts of the Legis- 
lature, no decisions of courts, or of any tribunal, had 
affirmed the validity of the bonds ; but the Territorial 
Council, the people, and the State had always denied their 
obligatoriness. The Feabody Board did not recognize 
the force of the arguments adverse to the payment, as the 
Territory obtained the money on the bonds in Europe, and 
loaned it to the Union Bank as capital. The General 
Agent was instructed, in 1885, in view of the obligations 
to the children of other Southern States and of their 
needs, to place Florida on the same footing with Missis- 
sippi. In historical accuracy, it should be stated that the 
act of withdrawal of aid from these States never had unani- 
mous approval, one of the Trustees saying that the children 
should not be punished for their fathers' sins, and another 
contending that the infidel!^ of the State to solemn obliga- 
tions only increased the duty of educating the children. 
The Chairman, with his loyalty to Mr. Peabody's Trust, 
and his unwillingness to allow any discredit to be cast on 
his scrupulous integrity, could not refrain from expression 
of feelings of sincere regret at missing Florida and Mis- 
sissippi from the list of Mr. Peabody's beneficiaries. While 
they deprived themselves of their share of Peabody aid, he 
uttered the earnest wish that some arrangement could be 



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146 HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. 

made which would leave the schools of no one of the 
States impoverished by the civil war out of the continued 
reach of annual assistance, and more especially out of the 
final distribution of the principal of the Fund. 

This exclusion of the two States as beneficiaries of the 
Fund remaine(l until 1890, when, in answer to an applica- 
tion from the Board of Education of Florida that the 
schools of that State should be placed in harmonious 
relations with the work of the Trust, a Committee was 
appointed to which was referred the whole question con- 
nected with the bonds issued by the States of Florida and 
Mississippi. The Committee, in 1892, through Mr. Evarts, 
reported in favor of admitting to a participation in the 
scholarships, and leaving to the General Agent to make 
such a general distribution as he should find useful. On 
motion of ex-President Hayes, it was unanimously voted 
that the two States be reinstated as beneficiaries. 

The following tabular statement is not a cold array of 
figures, but is full of life and suggestiveness, and shows, in 
clearest manner, the results of the administration of the 
Trust for nearly the third of a century. It was prepared 
by Mr. J. L, Thompson, who, in helpful intelligence and 
painstaking carefulness, has been, from the beginning, 
associated with Mr. Wetmore and Mr. Morgan in the 
charge of the financial accounts of the Fund. 



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HISTORY OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND. I47 






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INDEX. 



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INDEX. 



Adams, Charles Francis, ■ pall-bearer 
at the funeral of Mr. Peabody, — his 
opioioa of Mr. Winthrop's oration on 
thai occasion, 54. 

Aik«n, William, a lraste*.of the Pea- 
body Education Fund, 19, ;i ; death 
of, and resolotiona of the Board in 
his memory, 97 ; biographical sketch 
of, 9S-101. 

Arthur, H. R. H., PrinM, aiks for a 
copy of Mr. Winthrop's funeral ora- 
tion on Mr. Peabody, in the name of 
his mother the Queen, 54. 

Atlantic Cable, Mr. Peabody's interest 
in promoting the, 5. 



Bacon, Lord, qnoted, 5, 6. 

Baltimore (Md.). Riggs & Peabody 
move their business to, from George- 
town, D. C, 3 ; Mr. Pealwdy becomes 
deeply attached to, 3 ; Peabody Insti- 
tute in, esublisbed by Mr. Peabody, 
16. 

Bank of England, grants a loan, irilh- 
oot conditions, to George Peabody 
& Co., 7 

Barnes, Joseph K,, elected a Peabody 
Fund trustee, to succeed Bishop Mc- 
Ilvaine deceased, 74; his death, 95. 

Bailie, William H., President of the 
University of North Carolina, — bis 
opinion of Dr. Sears's services as 
General Agent of the Peabody Educa- 
tion Fund, 67. 



Blair, Henry W., an earnest advo- 
cate, in Congress, of national aid to 
educaliou in the Southern States, 

Bradford, Edward A., a trustee of the 
Peabody Education Fund, I9;resigns 
hi* trusteeship on account of failing 
health, 73. 

Buchanan, James, Mr. Peabody's joke 
concerning, on the fact of tachelor- 
hood, 5. 

Burleson, Dr., Bu1>agent, in co-opera- 
tion with Dr. Sears, in Texas, of the 
Peabody Education Fund, — extract 
from his public address, jS, 59. 

Butler, Benjamin F., hk Civil Rights 
Bill in Congress, 64, 65. 

C. 
Childs. George W., elected a Peabody 

Fund trustee, to succeed Anthony J. 

Drexel, but died before taking his 

seat on the Board, 105. 
Choate, Joseph H., elected a Peabody 

Fund trustee, to succeed Hamilton 

Fish deceased, 107. 
Cleveland, Grover, elected a Peabody 

Fund trustee, to succeed General 

Grant deceased, 9& 
Clifford. John H., a trustee of the Pea- 
body Education Fund, 19, 46, 64; his 

death, his public functions, his service 

as trustee, 75. 
Concord, N. H., Mr. Peabody saws 

wood here for a nig' 



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152 ran 

Congress, resolutions passed by, thank- 
ing Mr. Peabody for his Southern 
education fund, and presenting gold 
medal, 39; has to far refused to ex- 
tend national aid to the cause of 
education in the South, 139, 140. 

Corcoran, William W., quotations from 
Mr. Peabody's letters to, 5, 13, iS, 

Cutry, J. 1_ M., elected General Agent 
of the Board of Trustees of the Pea- 
body Education Fund, to succeed Dr. 
Sears deceased, 78; pursues .the 
policy outlined by his predecessor, 
79: difficult nature of his work, 79, 
So; addresses more State legisla- 
tures than any other American 
ever did, 8j; extract from his ad- 
dress to the North Carolina legisla- 
ture, S3. 84; iride field of bis 
operations, and the wisdom required 
therein, S41 gives special attention 
to establishing the instrumentality of 
Teachers' Institutes. 85-^7; resigns 
as General Agent to accept govern- 
ment appointment as Minister to 
Spain, 89; is re-appointed as General 
Agent, and made an Honorary Mem- 
ber of the Board, 91; proposes 
brooM or ^rble bust of Mr. Pea- 
body, to be contributed to by Soath- 
ern States, and to be placed in the 
old Hall of (he National House of 
Representatives, 111,112; his strenu- 
ous but futile efforts to secure 
national aid to the cause of cduca- 
tioo m the South, 138-140. 



Danvers, South Parish (now Pcabody), 
Mass., the birthplace of George Pea- 
body, 1 ; celebrates its bi-centenniai, 
and invites Mr. Peabody to be pres- 
eitt, 3; recaivas substantial tokens 
from Mr. Peabody of hia lively 
terest in its welfare, & 

Devens, Charles, elected a Peabody 
Fund ttnstee, to succeed Theodore 
Lyman resigned, loi; hia death, aftei 
a trustee service of two yeait, 10%, 



Drezet, Anthony J., fonnder of &t 
Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and 
Industry, in Philadelphia, 93 ; elected 
as a Peabody Fund trustee, to suc- 
ceed George W. Kiggs deceased, 95 ; 
his death, his life of generosity mid 
usefulness, 105. 



Eaton, George N.,a trustee of the Pea- 
body Education Fund, 19; his death, 
74- 

Endicott, William C, elected a Pea- 
body Fund trustee, to succeed Judge 
Devens deceased, — his resignation 
on account of failing health, 103. 

Eugenie, Empress, autograph note 
from, M> Mr. Paabody. 94. 

Eustis, George, letter to, from Mr. Pea- 
body, quoted, 23. 

Evarts, William H., a trustee of the 
Peabody Education Fund, 19, 33, 3;, 
64, 106; was one of a committee to 
secure national aid for education in 
the South, 137. 

Everett, Edward, delivers an address 
at the reception given to Mr. Pea- 
body by tbe town of Danvers, Oct, 3, 
1856,6. 

F. 

Farragut, Admiral, his name uninten- 
tionally omitted from Mr. Peabod/s 
first Letter tA Gift as Trustee, 16; 
assigned t>y the President to xh» 
honorable service of receiving Mr. 
Peabody's remains on their arrival 
In the United States, 53; his death, 
71; bis services as trustee held in 
high esteem by the Board, 71, 73. 

Feoner, Charles E., elected a Peabody 
Fvnd tnssteei to sncceed General 
Gibson deceased, 104. 

Fbh, Hamilloi^ a trustee of the Pea- 
body EdocatioD Fund, and Vicv- 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees, 
19, at, 33, 37; his death, and Uo> 
graphical sketch of, 106, 107 ; offered 
hia resignation as trustee before his 
death, but was retained as adviser 
and counsetloT, 107. 



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Florida Bond*, a part of the Fcabody 
Fund, hiuorj al tha repudiatio 
141, us- 

Fuller, Melvin W., elected 1 P«abody 
Fund Irustee, to MicMcd Chief-Jus- 
tice Waite, I03. 

Fulti, Mrs^ acting General Agent ol 
tbe Boaid of Trustees of Ibe Pea- 
bod]> EducatioD Fund duriog the 
sickness of her father. Dr. S«ars, 
and tmtil the appoiutment of Dr. 
Curry, 71. 

G. 

Garfield, Jame* A., his interpretation of 
the Reconstruction Acts of Congress 

Garrison, William Lloyd, his denuncia- 
tion of Mr. Peabody as a conserva' 

Georgetown, D. C, Hr. Peabody es- 
tablishes himself m business here, 
with his uncle, and afterwards with 
Elisha Riggs; opens parcel-delivery 
route between (his place and Baiti- 

Gibson, Ruidalt Lee, friend and attor- 
ney of Paul Tulane, — eilract from 
his letter to Mr. Winthrop, 93; hja 
death while a member of the Board 
of Trustees of the Peabody Educa- 
tion Fund, [04. 

Gilman. Daniel C., elected a Peabody 
Fund trustee, to succeed ei-Presidcnt 
Hayes deceased, 104. 

Gladstone, W. E., letter to, quoted, by 
Mr. Hayward (AWf), S. 

Graham, William A., a trustee of the 
Peabody Education Fund, 19, 51 ; 
hisdeath, his public services, his pure 
character, 74, 75. 

Grant, General, a trustee of the Pea- 
body Education Fund, ig; receives 
complimentary dinner fi-om Mr. Pea- 
body, 34 ; death of, and Ihe activity 
and seal of his services as trustee, 
96. He was an earnest advocate of 
nalional aid to education in the 
Southern Slates, 13S. 

Green, Samuel A., appointed by the 
EsecnUve ComBiittee of tb* Board 



EX. 153 

of Trustees of the Peabody Educa- 
tion Fund as temporary General 
Agent, (o succeed Dr. Curry resigned, 
89 ; his opinion of the services of his 
immediate predecessor, 90; carries 
on the worit of the Agency for three 
years in the most acceptable manner, 
his services being gratuitous, 90; 
elected a trustee, and Secretary of 
the Board, to succeed George Pfea- 
body Russell resigned, 95. 
Greensboro' [N. C), State Normal and 
Indostrio] Sdiool at, 83. 



Hale, Eugene, his characterisation of 
Southern Stales governments after 
the civil war, 45. 

Harris, William T., ackoowledginent 
of assistance rendered by, to the 
General Agent of the Peabody Edu- 
cation Fond, 116. 

Hayes, Rutherford B., elected a trustee 
in place of Samuel Watson deceased, 
76; moves (hat Dr. Curry, while 
General Agent, be an Honorary 
Member of the Board of Trustees, 
91 ; served as Trustee for fifteen 
yeara, and was President of the' 
Slater Fund, loj ; devoted to philan- 
thropic and educational work, 104. 
He earnestly advocated nalional aid 
for education in the Southern States, 
'38- 

Henry, William Wirt, elected a Pea- 
body Fund trustee, to succeed A. H. 
H. Stuart resigned, 10& 

Hoar, George Frisbie, elected a Pea- 
body Fund trustee, to succeed Judge 
Lowell deceased, 117. 

Hovey, Alvah. President of the Newton 
Theological Seminary, his opinion of 
Dr. Sears as a teacher in that insti- 
tution, 68, 69. 

I. 
International Exhibition, En^ish, Mr. 
Peabody's generous contribution to 
ita American department, 4, 5. 



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J- 

Jackson, Henry R., elected a Peabody 
Fund trustee to succeed William A. 
Graham deceased, 75; resign* as 
trustee, lo accept government ap- 
pointment as Minister to Mexico, loii 
his action in regard to the repudiated 
Florida bonds, 145. 

Johnson. Andrew, in his official capacity 
as President, visits Mr. Peabody to 
thank him for his gift of the South- 
ern Education Fund, 33, 29. 



Kane, Dr., aided in his Arctic explora- 
tions by the generosity of Hr. Pea- 
body. 15. 

Kenyon Collie (Ohio), gift to, of 
twenty-five thousand dollars, by Mr. 
Peabod]', 15. 



Leo, Pope, photograph of, inscribed by 
his own hand, presented to Mr. Pea- 
body, 94. 

Lexington, Mass., first Normal School 
in the Union established in, 110. 

London, model dwelling-houses in, for 
the poor of. erected by Mr. Peabody, 
9-1 r i people of, erect » statue of Mr. 
Pea.body in front of the Merchants' 
Exchange, ij, 

Lowell, John, elected a Peabody Fund 
trustee, to succeed R. C. Winthrop 
deceased, but bis service cut short 1^ 

Lyman, Theodore, elected a Peabody 
Fund trustee in place of John H. 
Clifford deceased, 76; reigns as 
trustee, his death, 101. 



Macalester, Charles, a trustee of the 
Peabody Education Fund, 19; his 
death, 74, 

Mann, Horace, his services as Secre- 
tary of the Mass. State Board of 
EdacalLon compared with those of 
Dr. Sears in the tame position, 69. 



Manning, Thomas C, elected a Pea- 
body Fund trustee to succeed Richard 
Taylor deceased, 76; Minister to 
Mexico, his death, loz. His action 
the Mistissippi bonds. 



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lanua] training in Public Schools, 
one of the most remarkable phases 
of modern educational thought and 



Maryland, aided by Mr. Peabody 
place a loan of (8,000,000 ii 
London market, 15, 16. 

Massachusetts, the first State in the 
Union to establish a Normal School, 



the 



Massachusetts Historical Society, gift 
of (20,000 to, by Mr. Peabody, 15; 
possessor of a bust of Mr. Peabody, 
by Hiram Powers, 93. 

McIIvaine, Bishop, a trustee, and Vice- 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees, 
of the Peabody Education Fund, 19, 
zl, 27, 51; his death, his efficiency as 
a trustee, and his confidential rela- 
tions with Mr. Peabody, 73, 74, 

Mississippi Bonds, a part of the Pea- 
body Fund, history of the repudiation 
of. 141-144- 

Model dwelling-houses, Mr. Peabody's 
gift for the erection of, for the poor 
in London, 9-1 1, 

Moody, Dwight, relates an incident 
concerning Mr. Peabody and Johns 

Morgan, J, Pierpont, elected a Peabody 
Fund trustee, to succeed Samuel 
Wetmore deceased, 96. 

Morgan, Junius S., member of the firm 
of George Peabody & Co., in Lon- 

N. 

National Aid, efforts to secure, for 
education in the Southern States, 
136-140. 

"National Intelligencer," the, de- 
nounces the military satrapy Over 
the Southern States, ii. 

Newburyport, Mass., Mr. Peabody 



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keeps a dry-gooda alBnt IB| with his 
brother David, i. 

Normal Schoob, esUblishraent o& in 
the South, 87-S9; the Sam Hoiotns 
Normal School, 88 ; the GieenRboio' 
(N. C.) Normal and Industrial 
School. 88; the Winlhrop Normal 
and Industrial College (S. C), SS; 
important instrumeniaUty of public 
instruction, rzi; one of the chief 
•ima of the Pcabody Trustees to 
ettablish, 121-123; Peabody Normal 
College {Nashiille, Tenc.), history 
of, 123-135. 

North Carolina, Supreme Court of, its 
important decision in regard to taxa- 
tion for schools, Sj. 



OIney, Richard, elected a Peabody 
Fund trustee, tosucceed Judge Endi- 
cott resigned, 103. 



134. 

Peabody, Fronds, ancestor o( George 
Peabody, i. 

Peabody, George: date and place of 
birth-, social condition and English 
origin of his parents ; brief period of 
hb school attendance ; at eleven 
years of age, apprenticed as a shop- 
boy in a grocer's store ; seeks a 
wider field of action; saws wood to 
pay for a night's entenainmenc ; be- 
comes clerk for his brother in a dry- 
goods store, — 1; earns his first 
money, outside of business, by writ- 
ing ballots for the Federal party ; 
loses regular employment by the 
business failure of his brother; at 
the age of sixteen isan orphan, with- 
out money, employment, or in- 
fluence; enters into business with 
bis uncle in Georgetown, D. 
evinces great industry and capacity; 
at the age of nineteen forms partner- 
ship with Elisha Riggs ; begins bosi- 



X. 15s 

ness without capital, but has Its 
equivalent in practical knowledge 
and sterling moral quality; his fore- 
sight anticipates the present express- 
astern, leading hiia to engage «in 
p«Kal-4eIiveiy between Georgetown 
and BaUiutore; forms habits of in- 
dustry, thrift, systematic expenditure, 
and simplicity of life at this period, 
which continued tfesmfter 10 charac- 
letiie him, — 2, 3; is 1815 his firm 
removes to Baltimore, hsudes estab- 
lishing branch-houses in Philadelphia 
and New York : change of partners, 
from Riggs & Peabody to Peabody, 
Riggs, & Co. i becomes deeply 
attached to Baltimore and Maryland ; 
accumulates his first five thousand 
dollars; in 1827 makes his first visit 
to England ; in 1S37 establishes him- 
self permanently in London as a 
merchant and money broker ; in l8j2, 
his native town of Danvers invites 
him to its bicentennial celebration, 
and be wKles a letter and sends a 
" sentiment," — 3, 4 ; his earliest 
large public benefaction, founding a 
lyceum, a public library, and the 
Peabody Institute ; his thorough 
Americanism and loveof native land ; 
character of his business house estab- 
lished in London: his good offices to 
his fellow-countrymen in London ; in 
1852-1858, inclusive, gives Fourth of 
July dinners to Americans in Lon- 
don ; his generous action for Ameri- 
can exhibitors in the first English 
International Exliibition, — 4, 5; 
gives an international banquet to his 
countrymen and the Royal Com- 
mission; is able to remove causes of 
unpleasantness and to cement bonds 
of friendship between the Old Land 
and the New ; takes liveliest interest 
in inter-oceanic telegraphic communi- 
catiMli always remains unmarried; 
his joke about Mr. Buchanan's 
bachelorship in connection with Mr. 
B.'s appointment as Minister to Eng- 
land, — 5 ; in 1S56 revisits his native 



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156 I 

land; hospitalitie* tendered bim 
BoatoD, Ne« York, Philadelphu, 
BaltimtM^ and otber Auectcaa 
cities; declines all invitadons except 
from Duivers; municipal and State 
ftutbarities uuite in hia greeting at 
D. ; his boantiful beoevolence Co his 
native town; bis coamierdal credit 
never suffered impairmeat, — 6; ow- 
ing to heavy losses from American 
(riends whom he had aided in the 
financial panic of 1857, ift farced to 
ask a loan from the Banic trf Eng- 
land; refuses indignantly the tenas 
■tipulated by the governors of the 
Bank ; afterwards receives the ac- 
commodation without conditions ; 
his letter to hi* niece giving account 
of his embairaSfimenls and of his 
final complete success, — 7-9; busi- 
ness babits melhudical, andhispunc- 
.tuality proverbial ; his princely 
benefaction (o the poor tA London 
begun in l362, amount andconditions 
of same, — 9-11; the British govern- 
Bienl offers him a baronetcy, which 
he decliues; the queeu presents him 
her portrait, and writes him an auto- 
graph letter, — 11,12; reminiscences 
of him by a lady {■Vole), 11; statue 
erected to him in LondtHt, unveiled 
by the Prince of Wales; goes to 
Rome for ^ttings to the sculptor 
Story; gives occa^ooal sumptuous 
banquets to illustrious and congenial 
guests; bis benefactions not Fhan- 
saic, but not secret nor posthumous, 
— 13; his philaalhropy based on prin- 
ciple, not on sentiment; his genei* 
osity aimed to prevent poverty rather 
than to relieve it; was not tnade 
mean or miserly by his great riches, 
but delighted in distiibuiing them ; 
while he made generous {Kxjvision 
for his kindred, he had larger 
thonghts for humanity, — 14; some 
of bis comparatively smaller gifts 
mentioned; his reputation fiir wealth 
and liberality brought him many ap- 
plications for money; the eleinents 



of heroic greabiess sometimes denied 
to him, but his range of philanthro- 
pies proves his largeneas of purpose ; 
his liberality to Dr. Kane's Arctic 
enterprise in iSji; his auistanca in 
placing a loan for Maryland in the 
London market, — t^ 16; be founds 
the Peabody Institute in Baltimore 
with a large donation ; his wise gener- 
osity and bountiful philanthropy were 
haj-d-Hon victories over himself, — 16, 
17 ; anecdote of bim related by Mr. 
Moody, 17. HisgieatesI benefaction 
that of the Peabody Educadtm FumI, 
which, like all his charities, was long 
and carefully considered ; consults 
Mr. Winthropin regard to it, — 18; 
his Letter of Gift and formal instru- 
ment of eiidowmeat, 19-zi; his in- 
terest in the South, and knowledge 
of itft needs, based on residence a»d 
travel there; after the civil war, be 
longs for restoration of harmony be~ 
tween the two sections; strongly 
desires to do something signal to> 
promote mutual good feeling between 
North and South ; while loyal to the 
Union, he has charitable considera- 
tion tor the error of secession, — a3, 
24: his belief that intellectual, mond, 
and industriat edncation was the 
special need of the South; denrad 
that his great benefaction should 
innre to the welfare of the entire 
country, — 24, 25 ; largeness of the 
plan and scope of his benevolence, 
25, 36; c<Hifidence he reposed in tbe 
Trustees selected by him to adminis- 
ter the Fund, 16; reaolutioDS adopted 
by the Trustees, at their first meeting, 
in appreciation of his gift, 27, 38; 
response of the nation to his large- 
hearted benevolence, aS; resolutions 
of Congress in his honor, and its 
presentation to him of a gold medal, 
39; his second letter to the trustee 
explanatory of his wishes and inten- 
tions in his gift ; gives a nugniScent 
banquet, in New York, in honor of 
the TriMtees and of Geiterol Grant ; 



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retolutioiu adopted by his gMstt on 
this occasion, — 34, 35; in 186S, he 
contemplates a second gift to increue 
the Fund, 46 ; his letter Mcompanjr- 
iag his second gift to the Tnistees, 
47-50; resolutiooB adopted by the 
Trustees on receiving this addition to 
lAeFund, 51. His tiealth is seriously 
impaired; visits the White Sulphur 
Springs, Virginia, in 1869 ; his recep- 
tion by the Soathem people on this 
occsuion, — 5>, J3; retnrns to Eng- 
land, and dies in London, Nov. 4, 
1869; funeral honors to him sorpass- 
ing those of any uncrowned man ; his 
remains temporarily deposited in 
Westminster Abbey; Ministry and 
Press of England eulogize his life 
and deeds ; honors bestowed by the 
Queen, and by the President of the 
United States ; hurled in his native 
town of Danvers (Peabody}, agree- 
atdy to his request, 53. His charac- 
ter and general services commemo- 
rated b; Mr. Winlhrop in an oration ; 
his death lamented in all the Southern 
Stales, by the people and the Press ; 
discourse upon his life and services, 
in Baltimore, by S. Teacfcle Wailis; 
resolutions passed by the Trustees of 
the Fund in memory of its donor, — 
53-56; bronze or marble statue of, 
proposed, to be placed in the old 
Han of thenalional House of Repre- 
sentatives, by those States which 
have benefited by his Fund, iii, 
llj; extracts from his letter* in 
r^ard to Mississippi and Florida 
bonds, 141, 141. 
Peabody Education Fund: how it orig- 
inated 1 it was the result of long 
dellberstion on the part of Mr. 
Peabody; the subject of several in- 
terviews betivecn the donor and Mr, 
Winthri^ — 18, 19; formal instru- 
ment of, 19^2; notably efBcient in 
creating and preserving unity and 
fraternity between Nortti and South, 
15 ; augmented by second donation 
from Mr. Peabody, 46-jo ; close of 



EX. 157 

the first chapter of its history, 71 ; 
the most potent agency in establish- 
ing a system of Free Public Schools 
in the Southern States, 78; wide 
ramifications and numerous correla- 
tions of, 81; first olive-branch of 
peace and love held out to the South 
after the surrender at Appomattox, 
8z; effect of the earlier administra- 
tion of, 86, 87 ; its ultimate goal the 
establishment of Normal Scbools.S?- 
89; it* example of munificence pro- 
ductive of fruit and imitation, 91, 93; 
the policy of closing it considered by 
the Trustees, rij a leq. ; distin- 
guished personal and official charac- 
ter of its Trustees, 114; practically 
administCMd by the General Agents, 
— their acknowledgments to all co- 
operators, 115, 116; one of the best 
evidences of its good influence found 
in the general establhthment in the 
Southern States of a system of Pub- 
lic and Normal Schools, 116, 117; 
Tabular Statement of the distribu- 
tion of the income of (from t868 to 
1897), 147. 

Peabody Institute, in Baltimore, estab- 
lished by Mr. Peabody, 16. 

Peabody Medals: (1) that devised by 
Mr. Winthrc^, to be distributed 
among (he pupils of Southern Nor- 
mal Schools, 93, 94; (z) that given 
to the Board of Trustees of the Pea- 
body Education Fund by the Paris 
Exposition (1877), 94. 

Peabody Normal College, at Nashville, 
Tennessee, history of its establish- 
ment, 1 21-135. 

Porter, James D., elected a Peabody 
Fond trustee, to succeed Geo^e W. 
Riggs deceased, 95 ; co-operates with 
Dr. Sears in establishing the Pea- 
body Normal College in Nashville, 
Tennessee, 113, 126. 

Post Mills Village, Vermont, receives 
gift d a library from Mr, Peabody, 1, 

Powers, Hiram, makes bust of Mr. 
Peabody, in possession of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, 93. 



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■58 



Recoiutnictlon Acts of Congress, 
alluded to {/fell), ii. 

Riggs, Elishi, partner of Mr. Pea.body 
ill Georgetown, D. C, 2; withdraws 
from Che firm of Riggs Si Peabody, 3. 

Ri^s, George W,, h trustee of the 
Peabody Education Fund, 19 ; his 
death, and short biographical sketch 
of, 94, 95- 

Rives, William C, a trustee of the Pea- 
body Education Fund. 19; his death, 
and some account of his life, 43. 

Ruffner, W. H., his opinion of Dr. 
Sears's services as General Agent of 
Che Peabody Education Fund, 67. 

Russell, George Peabody, a trustee of 
the Peabody Education Fund, 19; 
resigns as Secretary of the Board, 
and as trustee, 95. 



Sam Houston Normal School, thi 
Teias, SS. 

Scholarships, for the benefit of the 
Southern States, established by the 
Peabody Trustees in the Peabody 
Normal College, 124, 125; great su( 
cess of, 133. 

Sears, Bamas : is consulted by Mi 
Winthrop as to the administration of 
the Peabody Education Fund, 30; 
his letter to Mr. Winthrop concern- 
ing the satne, 30-33 ; is unanimously 
chosen by the Trustees of the Fund 
as their General Agent, 33 ; 
accepts the appointment, 35 ; his 
eminent qualification for tlie work hi 
undertakes, 36, 37 ; bis first report to 
the Board, in which be forecasts iht 
plan <A work, 37, 38; makes eiten 
aire journeys through the Southern 
States, visiting and addressing 
schools, colleges, etc., 38 ; his first 
distinct recommendations to I 
Board, 39 ; extract from his letter 
Mr. Winthrop as to grade of appro- 



priations, 40; tiro Soothem Trustees 
object to some features of his pro- 
jected policy, 42 ; his argument be- 
fore the Constitutional Convention 
of Virginia in favor of the free-school 
system, 42 ; consulted by Mr. Pea- 
body in regard to the policy and 
plans of applying the Southern Edu- 
cation Fund, 46; spends the summer 
months of 1869, with Mr. Peabody, 
at the White Sulphur Springs, W. 
Va., S2 ; extract from his letter de- 
scribing Mr. Peabody's condition and 
experiences at this place, 52, 53; his 
visit to and work in Texas, 58; the 
burdens of his work as General 
Agent very trying, 59; some severe 
criticisms on his course, 60; his let- 
ter, on mixed schools, to a New 
Orleans paper, 61 ; extract from his 
Annual Report (1S74) on same sub- 
ject, 62-64; his views on this subject 
sustained by the Trustees, 64 ; his 
letter to Mr. Winthrop explaining 
his action in this loatter in consulta- 
tion with Congressmen and the Pres- 
ident. 64, 65. Death of Dr. Sears, — 
his funeral, resolutions of the Trus- 
tees commemorative of his life and 
services, tributes to his memory and 
to his rare and distinguished labors 
in various capacities, with some ac- 
count of his life and of the differ- 
ent positions he had filled, 66-71. 
Breadth of his work as General 
Agent, 791 his opinion of the impor- 
tance of Normal Schools for the 
South, 87 ; his agency in establish- 
ing the Peabody Normal College, at 
Nashville, Tennessee, 121-126 1 his 
interest in securing national aid for 
education in the South, 137. 

Slater, John F., his gift of a million 
dollais. in trust, for " the uplifting of 
the lately emancipated people of the 
Southern States," 92, 

Slater Trust, the, 91 ; motive and ob- 
ject of, 92. 

Smithsonian Institute, a coincidence 
regarding {l^fati), 33. 



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SomervUte, Henderson M., elected a 
Feabody Fund trustee, to succeed 
Henry R. Jackson resigned, lOl. 

Southern Stales, the, their condition 
after the civil war, 36, 44-46 ; their 
attitude and aclion in regard to the 
establishment of Free Schools, 57, 58 ; 
serious mistakes made by, on account 
of their prejudice and poverty, 59, 
60 ; the subject of mixed schools 
their vexed question, 61-65 • '"" 
provcment in their legislation as to 
school systems, 65 ; appalling illiter- 
acy of, when the Peahody Fund was 
given, 116; Table oE their Public 
School sutistics, 1 1S-120. 

Stearns, Ebcn S., selected by Dr. Sears 
as the President of the Peabody Nor- 
mal College, 114; his death, his 
eminent services as an educator, 123 

Story, William W., makes statue of 
Mr. Peabody for the Cily of London, 
'3- 

Stuart, Alexander H. H., his opinion 
of Dr. Sears's address before the 
Constilutionat Convention of Vir- 
ginia, 42; his speech on Che death of 
Dr. Sears, quoted, 66 ; eleaed a 
Pealiody Fund trustee in the place oE 
Admiral Farragut, 73 ; a biographi- 
cal sketch of, 105, 106; resigned as 
Trustee of the Peabody Education 
Fund on account of advancing age, 
— his death, 106. His report upon 
the subject of National Aid to educa- 
tion in the Southern Slates, 137, 13S. 

Sumner. Charles, his resolution, offered 
in the Senate, on civil and political 
rights, regardless of race or color, in 
Louisiana, 61. 



Taylor, Richard, elected a trustee of the 
Peabody Education Fund on the 
resignation of E. A. Bradford, 73 ; 
bis death, his varied and conspicuous 
history, 76. 

Teachers' Institutes, a principal means 
of improving training of teachers in 
the South, 85, 86, 



1 59 

Thompson, J. L., prepares tabular 
ml of the disliibution of the 
of the Peabody Fund (from 
1897). '47- 

Trustees of the Peabody Education 
Fund : those first mentioned in the 
Letter of Gift, 19 ; their first meet- 
ing, in Washington, at Willard's 
Hotel, z6-lS ; resolutions passed by 
them, expressive of their apprecia- 
tion of Mr. Peabody's generosity, 27, 
18 i adjourned to meet in New Vork, 
28; second meeting of, 29; their 
deliberations and action at this meet- 
ing, 30; their leading object in the 
use of the Fund, 33 ; receife second 
letter from Mr. Peabody, defining 
his wishes as to their use of the Fund, 
34; receive complimentary dinner 
frum Mr. Peabody, 34; resolutions 
presented by them, on this occasion, 
to Mr. Peabody, 34, 35 ; Dr. Sears 
becomes their General Agent, 35; 
receivefirst report from their General 
Agent, outlining plan of work, 37, 
38: the fixed policy finally adopted 
bylbem,4a; their maximum appro- 
priation in any one case,'(2,ooa,4i ^ a 
crncial session of, and discussion by, 
Ihe (Richmond, Va., Jan. 21, 1S68), 
42; receive their second Letter of 
Gift from Mr. Peabody, 47-50; reso- 
lutions adopted by them on receipt 
of this letter, 51 ; resolutions adopted 
by them at their first meeting after 
the death of Mr. Peabody, 54-56; 
approve the action of Dr. Sears, their 
General Agent, in regard to the sub- 
ject of mixed schools in the South, 
64; their resolutions adopted on the 
death of Dr. ScaiB, 66; important 
meeting of (Feb. 2, 18S1], at which 
the functions and salary of Ihe Gen- 
eral Agent, and the future policy of 
the Board, were defined, 77, 78; 
unanimously elected J. L. M. Curry 
as General Agent to succeed Dr. 
Sears deceased, 78 1 their records re- 
ferring to the retirement of Dr. Curry 
as General Agent, 89; their resola 



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tlon adopted (1895) in regard to clos- 
ing the Fund, and the tepon al the 
Committee appointed to consider the 
subject, 113 tl seq.; their persistent 
cfEorts to establish Norntal Schools 
in the Soutti, 121-123; eatablish 
•chotarships in the Peabody Normal 
College tor the benefit of the Sonth- 
em Slates, 124, 125, 127; obstacles 
overcome by Iheni in Kcuting the 
permanent foundation of the Peabody 
Normal College, 1 25-1 1& ; their 
efforts 10 stcure payment of the 
Mississippi and Florida bonds, as 
part of the Feabody Fund, 142-146. 

Tulane, Paul, founder of the Tulane 
University in New Orleans, for the 
advancement of letters, artn, and 
sciences, 92 ; his enterprise sag- 
gesied and inspired by tbc Peabody 
Gift. 93. 

U. 

Univenity of Nashville, Tennessee, its 
generous cooperation with the Pea- 
body Trustees in their efforts to estab- 
lish the Peabody Nonaal College in 
Nashville, 123. 



Victoria, Qoeen, presents tier portrait 
to Mr. Peabody, and writes him an 
autograph letter. In gr^iiiude for his 
benefactions to the poor in London, 
II, 12; assigns her steamer the 
" Monarch " to convey the remains 
of Mr. Peabody to the United States, 



S3- 



W. 



Walte, Morrison R., elected ■ Peabody 
Fund trustee in place of Charles 
Macalester deceased, 74; serves 
fourteen years as Trustee, his death, 
I02; was one of a committee to 
memotialize Congress for national 
aid to education in the South, 137. 

Wales. Prince of, unveils the statue of 

Mr. Peabody in London, with words 

« Slid honor, 13. 



Wall is, S. Teacble, his memorial 
address on Mt. Peabody referred to 

Watson, Samuel, a trustee of the Pea- 
body Education Fund, ji, 72; his 
death, and tribute to his memory, 76. 

Wayland, Franda, the aU«st colleijc 
president, aayi A. D. White, this 
country hu produced, 69, 70. 

Wetmore, George Feabody, elected a 
Peabody F«nd trustee, to succeed 
George W. Childs deceased, 105. 

Wetmore, Samuel, a trustee of the 
Peabody Kducation ' Fund, 19; 
elected Treasurer of the Board of 
Trustees, 33, 64; his death, 9^. 

Whi]>ple, Henry B., elected a Peabody 
Fund trustee m place of George N. 
Eaton deceased, 74. 

White, Andre* C, his opinion of Dr. 
Wayland as college president, 7a 

Wintbrop, Robert C: the first to be 
consulted cuiifidentially by Mr. Pea- 
body in regard to the establishment 
of the Peabody Education Fund, t 3, 
19; chosen Chairman of the Board eH 
Trustees at their fiist meeting, 27 j 
eonsnlts Dr. Batnas Srars as to the 
sdmintslration of the Fund, 30; re- 
ceives letter from Dr. Sears concem- 
bg the same, 30-33; consulted by 
Mr. Peabody in regard to bis second 
gift lo the Peabody Education Fund, 
46 ; delivers an oration ( Feb. S, 1870) 
on the character and general service* 
of Mr. Peabody, 53, 54 ; his lirst In- 
troductory Address, as Chairman, lo 
the Boani of Trustees, 56 ; his high 
opinion irf the services of Dr. Seais 
as General Agent, 70; his opinion 
that free governmems rest on free 
schools, 82 ; his opinion of the im- 
portance of establishing Normal 
Schools in the Sooth, 87 ; his birth- 
day annually observed at the Win- 
tbrop Normal and Industrial College 
in South Camlina, S8; bis reference, 
at the meeting of the Trustees in 
1SS5. to the impending retirement of 
Dr. Curry from the General Agency, 



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89; hU remarks on the re-appoint- 
ment ot Dr. Curry as General Agent, 
90, gi 1 devisM a Peabudy medal, for 
distribution among the pupils of 
Southern Normal Schools, 93. Aa 
the active, directing, and vitaliling 
bead of the Peabody Education Fund, 
his death was its greatest calamity ; 
biographer and historian ; bad an ex- 
alted sense of public duty ; presiding 
officer of State and Federal House of 
Representatives, — 107 j ranked with 
Webster and Everett as an American 
oratori hospitable host. President of 
the Mass. Historical Society, member 
of man; Boards of Trust ; wise and 
confidential counsellor of Mr. Pea- 
body; for twenty-seven years devoted 
to hb duties as Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees, — 108 ; liberal in 
his policy as Trustee, but scrupu- 
lously economical in administration of 
the Fund; deeply concerned, as any 
Southerner could be, in the welfare 
of the Southern people; bis name 



impossible to dissociate from that of 
George Feabody; an ardent advocate 
for the elevation of the emancipated 
negroes ; in favor of national aid for 
the removal of illiteracy; his death 
commemorated by schoob, colleges, 
and Press in warm tributes,— tog. 
Reported in Congress (1837) the first 
law to establish Normal Schools, 
no; his felidtooa expression of what 
America has contributed to the 
world, — "the character of George 
Washington and the example of 
George Peabody," 1 1 z ; earnestly 
advocated national aid for education 
in the Southern States, 138^ 139; 
prepared the memorial to the Missis- 
sippi legislature in regard to the 
repudiated bonds, 143. 

Winthrop Model School, the, in con- 
nection with the Peabody Normal 
College, 132. 

Winthrop Normal and Industrial Col- 
lege, the, in Sooth Carolina, 88. 



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