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Full text of "Abstracts of Papers / Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical Society"

1 id Nuv. mz 

BRIGHTON AND HOVE 



Batural 1l3istor^<x Ipbilosopbtcal 
Society. 



^ 



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 

o\ READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, : '^ 



^! r«X;ETHEK WITH 'yT 

THE ANNUAL REPORT^ 



^ 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 11th, 1902. 



i> 



^ 






BRIGHTON AND HOVE 

Batural Ibistor^s pbilosopbical 
Society. 



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 

READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 



THE ANNUAL REPORT 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 11th, 1902. 



- ^■T~t<3>ip:< 




^rigljtott. 



INDEX 



PAGE. 

Officers of the Society... ... ... ... ••• ••• 3 

Excavating in Egypt and its Results — Professor Flinders 

Petrie, F.R.S., &c ••• 5 

Polar Problems : Arctic and Antarctic — Mr. Miller 

Christy, F.G.S 9 

British Vegetable Galls — Mr. Edward T. Connold, F.E.S. 12 

Insect Architects and Engineers — Mr. Fred Enoch, F.G.S., &c. 17 

The Zones of the Chalk near Brighton — Mr. Williaji 

McPherson, F.G.S 19 

Some Prehistoric Camping Grounds near Brighton — 

Mr. Herbert S. Toms 38 

Report of Council . . ... ••• ... ••• •-• 53 

Librarian's Report ... ... ..• ..• •"• ••• ^4 

Meteorology of Brighton ... ... ... ••• ... 55 

Treasurer's Account 56 

Botanical Report... ... ... ... ... .•• ••• 57 

Annual General Meeting 57 

Societies Associated ... ... ... ... ... ..• 58 

List of Members ... ... ... ... ... ..• ..• 60 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 



1901-180a. 



E. Alloway Pankhurst. 
^aat ^rcaiiJents : 



W. E. C. NOURSE. 

F. Merrifield, F.S.E. 
A. H. Cox, Aid., J.P. 
L. C. Badcock, M.U. 

W. AiNSLIE HOLLIS, M.D., 

F.R.C.P. 
J. EWART, Kt, M.D., J.P. 
J. E. Haselwood. 
W. Seymour Burrows, M.R.C.S. 



George de Paris. 

I). E. Caush, L.D.S, 

A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 

M.O.H. 
E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., 

F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsbv Roberts. 
W. J. Treutler, M.D. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 



THE COUNCIL. 

Wht ^reaiircnt. 
Wtci-^xtsibznts : 

(Rule 25.) 



D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
J. E. Haselwood. 

A. (j. Henriques, J.P. 

E. McKellar, Deputy-Surgeon- 
General, J.P. 



A. Newsholme. F.R.C.P., 

M.O.H. 
E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. J. Treutler, M.D. 



W. Clarkson Wallis. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



F. R. Richardson. 
W. W. Mitchell. 
R. J. Ryle, M.D. 



E. Payne, M.A. 

W. W. Harrison, D.M.D. 



^ottorarg ©renaurcr : 
E. A. T. Breed, 32, Grand Parade. 

■^ottorary ^xtbitora : 
J. W. Nias. a. F. Graves. 

honorary f ibrarian : W^fnorary Curatora : 

Henry Davey, Junr. H. S. Toms and T. Hilton. 

Honorary Secretary: 
Jno. Colbatch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place. 

^aaistatit honorary Secretary : 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 



SESSION 1901—1902. 



THURSDAY, OCTOBER 17th, 1901. 

^Kabatiitg in O^jgpt antr its K^sults, 

BY 

Professor FLINDERS PETRIE, F.R.S.. &c. 



THE Lecturer commenced by pointing out to his hearers the 
immense difference between the Egypt of the present, which 
consists of a great canyon, going down in parts 1,500 feet below 
the level of the dry, elevated plateau through which it cuts, and 
the Egypt of ancient times, in which the plateau was green and 
well-watered by rains and by numerous streams, running down 
into that Nile which to-day is a sluggish river of brown, muddy 
water, but which then was a lordly stream, with a level 30 feet 
above the point to which it has shrunk at present. The Egypt 
that the modern tourist sees is generally little but the banks of 
the Nile and the immediate vicinity. The Egypt where he 
carries on his persevering researches is the great dry plateau 
above, where, in the beds of now empty water-courses, and in 
the sides of the rocks, and buried under the accumulation of 
millenniums of sand and rubbish, lie the relics of the remotest 
human races of which we have any definite knowledge to-day. 
To this bare sun-baked plateau no one goes now but the excava- 
tor and the archieologist, with their trained bands of native 
workmen. There is no life, of men or of animals, imless it be a 
few birds who fly thither to prey upon the insects that the wind 
sweeps up from the Nile basin. Yet everything in this dried-up 
land testifies to the large amount of rainfall it once enjoyed, 
when men lived there long before historic time began. It is 
impossible to walk a quarter of a mile, said Professor Petrie, 
without coming across some flint that has been worked by man, 
washed down in the gravel of the long dry beds of streams. 

The archieologist in Egypt has to deal with continuous 
written history handed down from an antiquity as remote as 
5,000 B.C., while back over even that dim chasm of ages there is 
a further period of about 2,000 years, of which we have, indeed, 
no written relics, but which has left numerous traces, which 



6 

can be consecutively classified, in the shape of pottery, flints, 
and tombs, — a period as remote from the classical ages as the 
Ice Age and the Cave Men of Europe ai'e from our own time. 
Fragments of mummies of these far-oflf ages have come down to 
us, — not straightly laid and bound as in the dynasties of historic 
Egypt, but crouched up in their rude tombs in the sides of rocks. 
Such mummies had nothing but skins thrown over them, while 
in one case a little copper band was found, for fastening together 
the skins, and this is the earliest use of metal that is known. 
From these ancient sepulchres have been recovered flints, ivory 
rings and spoons, figures of hippopotami, and mace-heads for 
fighting, with sharp-edged disks that, as the Professor said, 
could not help hitting something, as there was no way for the 
edge to turn. The graves where these relics are found have 
nearly always been already plundered for valuables long ago, and 
it is very seldom they are found untouched. 

These pre-historic Egyptians were remarkably skilful in 
their handiwork and the use of their materials, and the 
samples of their craft that have been recovered show in many 
cases a delicacy of touch quite equal to, if not greater than, 
the skill of a Sheffield file cutter of to-day. The Professor 
threw upon the screen pictures of flint knives, beautifully 
rippled and flaked purely for ornament. These knives, he said, 
which were made entirely by hand, were often a foot long, 
and no more than an eighth of an inch in thickness. Such 
work is unequalled in any other country. Further evidence of 
a high state of technical efficiency and culture was provided by 
specimens of ornamented ivory spoons, with handles carved wit;h 
animals, by bracelets of flint, ground down to the thickness of a 
straw, carved ivory hairpins, and by some wonderfully-worked 
hardstone vases, entirely done by hand and eye, yet so perfect 
in form that the most careful examination can rarely detect a 
fault. " We have, altogether, opened four to five thousand 
graves of pre-historic times in the past five or six years," 
said the lecturer. " We have recorded everything that has 
been found, and catalogued each article, and we could put back 
into its exact position everything that has been discovered. We 
have an exact record of each object." One curious kind of object 
found is disks of various sizes, carved with the figure of 
serpents, and perforated at the top, evidently meant for hanging 
on the person or the wall of a house. The Professor reminded 
his audience that in historic Egyptian times we have the 
guardian serpent of the temples, while even at the present day 
an Egyptian native will not disturb a serpent beside his house. 
Another interesting find was made in the grave of a child. 
Here were found nine little stone knobs and four big stone 
marbles, and with them three small stone sticks of such a shape 
that a sort of little gateway could be made from them, — 



evidently a game of ninepins. In Norfolk to-day, said Professor 
Petrie, they still play skittles by bowling through an arch, so 
that the game can be traced back to the respectable antiquity of 
something like eight thousand years. 

The audience were much interested in the lecturer's explan- 
ation of the system by which the comparative dates, though 
not, of course, the actual dates, of these ancient relics could be 
approximately determined. Certain classes of pottery and other 
articles were always found together, and the problem resolved 
itself into dividing them in sections, and gradually sorting out 
by statistical methods. The last section was found to correspond 
very closely with the objects found belonging to the earliest 
historic times. The pre-historic Egyptians, said the lecturer, 
were evidently closely allied to the peoples living in Syria and 
Lybia. There was no practical difference between them, and the 
earliest pottery of the Egyptians is almost exactly like that of 
the Kabyles of the present day. 

About 4,800 to 5,000 b.c. the historic times begin, when an 
entirely new race of people came in and founded the First Egyptian 
Dynasty. The Professor showed pictures of various utensils of 
this time, whereon, easily recognizable, were carved such animals 
as the giraffe, lion, leopard, ibex, and others, which have for 
long ages been extinct in the land. Another instance of the 
wonderful handiwork of the old Egyptian craftsmen was a 
circular pot of syenite, two feet across, yet so thin (about a 
quarter of an inch) that it could easily be lifted with one hand. 
Continuous history begins at 4,800 b.c, with a record of ten 
kings before that, which brings us to about 5,000 b.c. From 
what we know, the probability is that the very earliest records 
have only undergone a few copyings. 

On the broken forearm of a Queen of the First Dynasty, 
who had been dust for millenniums, his men had found a 
beautiful group of four bracelets, of alternate beads of turquoise 
and gold, threaded with ball beads. Every piece was numbered 
in order, and the Professor said that these jewels showed the 
highest technical perfection in the art of soldering. Each 
bracelet was entirely separate in design, and every piece was 
made for the place it had to occupy. " A far better idea of what 
jewellery should be than any we have at the present day," 
commented the Professor. Gold wire and lapis lazuli are also 
found in the jewellery. In the course of his excavations, the 
Professor found examples of concentric brick arches dating back 
beyond the Pyramids to about 4,200 b.c, thus taking back the 
history of the arch many centuries earlier than anything found 
hitherto. He also found the oldest metal sculpture in the world, 
dating about 3,500 b.c, in some small statues of the Sixth 
Dynasty, all beaten out in copper, yet as free and life-like in 
portraiture as if worked in clay. 



8 

About 1,400 B.C., a wonderful King, son of a Mesopotamian 
Princess, ruled the land of the Pharaohs. He tried to " reform 
everything," which could not be done in a generation in any 
country, more particularly in the East. He temporarily wiped out 
the worship of the old Egyptian gods, and established the worship 
of the Energy of the Sun, — a magnificent conception, and one 
which, said the Professor, people could not even to-day, as 
Nature worshippers, exceed the justice of. He also tried to 
reform the art of the country, and encouraged Mycenean artists 
and realism and naturalness in art, and tried in every way to 
change the whole of the nation's ideas. Such a change could 
not last. He died young, and every monument of his was 
thrown down, and every inscription erased. Yet the fact that 
the man could arise with such different ideas was " one of the 
most astonishing phenomena in the whole history of thought." 
The Professor had been so foi'tunate as to find a plaster cast of 
the dead face of this remarkable King, left by the sculptors who 
made his funeral monuments. The face was noticeable for the 
thoughtful expression it conveyed. A number of interesting 
specimens of the art work of this reign were shown, all of them 
remarkable for their fidelity to Nature. Some, indeed, such as 
sketches on broken potsherds at the King's Art School, might 
have been done by young artists of to-day. A fresco of this 
reign showed the earliest specimen of shaded drawing. After 
this date the Egyptians again reverted to the conventional in art. 
Among the pictures thrown on the screen was one of a 
black granite slab, dating from about 1,400 b.c, in which occurs 
the first mention of the Israelites, — a mention four or five 
centuries older than any on the Assyrian monuments. It is not 
very lucid, and simply records the enigmatical statement that 
" the people of Israel's spoil was left without seed." 

Another thing the Professor showed was a group of the 
oldest iron tools of which we know. They were part of the 
stock-in-trade of an Assyrian armourer in Egypt about 670 b.c, 
and the chisels, saws, files, and rasp showed that the contents of 
our carpenters' shops have moved very little in 2,000 years. 

Finally, Professor Flinders Petrie told his audience .some 
interesting details about the 80 trained Egyptian excavators who 
were ready to follow him to any part of the country for his work. 
He remarked that he got the best work from lads between 14 and 
18, and that often these would do twice as much an ordinary 
English navvy. 

The lecture was illustrated throughout with a series of 
admirable lantern .slides. 



9 

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 14th. 

f 0lar frcbkms— Arctic antr ^ntarctit. 



BY 



Mr. miller CHRISTY, F.G.S., 
With Lantern Illustrations. 



FROM the old-time voyages of plucky Martin Frobisher, 
Columbus, and Magellan, through the long tale of daring 
captains such as Hudson, Ross, Franklin, Davis, who have 
dotted the realms of eternal ice with the record of their deeds, 
and have left, — many of them, — their frozen corpses to wait 
amid those awful solitudes until the crack of doom, the lecturer 
came to speak of our modern giant, Nansen, and his record 
voyage within 227 miles of the North Pole without the loss of a 
single man, and to the still later exploit of the Duke of the 
Abruzzi's sea-captain, who holds for the present the world's 
championship by his approach of yet another 20 miles nearer to 
the coveted spot. By the aid of a number of interesting old 
maps, Mr. Christy was able to show his audience very clearly 
how when men had as yet no notion of the existence of the 
American Continent, and thought the earth was smaller than we 
know it to be, minds of explorers were set on reaching the 
eastern shores of Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic, and 
how this idea prompted Columbus in undertaking his famous 
voyage. To the day of his death, he said, Columbus had 
probably no notion that the land he had come upon was other 
than the outlying coasts of Cepango (.Japan), Cathay, or India. 
From this idea, of course, sprang the name West Indies as 
applied to the great islands now called by that denomination. 
When the mistake was discovered, the enormous extent of the 
new territory was not yet known, and attempt after attempt 
was made to round the northern coasts of America in order 
to continue the journey. It was with the same view of 
getting round the obstructing land that Magellan sailed south, 
and, having brought his brave little vessel through the glacier- 
bordered straits that bear his name, emerged among the 
monstrous billows that make that part of the South Pacific a 
terror to navigators of to-day. At the other extremity of the 
American Continent the persistent attempts to find a North- 
West passage led to discoveries and deeds of heroism too 
numerous to mention. Among the discoveries was that of 



10 

the North Magnetic Pole. One valiant explorer was found, 
long after his death, sitting hard frozen in the cabin of his 
ice-bound ship, his fingers still grasping the pen with which he 
wrote his last message, — a dramatic figure for the imagination 
to fasten upon. Though the North-West passage has been dis- 
covered at last, " through peril, toil, and pain," their lives not 
the man who has ever passed by it from ocean to ocean, and 
the dream of the Passage as a roadway for the wealth of the 
East has long faded away. The race for the Poles has, of 
course, no material ends to gain, but Science wants to know 
many secrets, meteorological, geological, and biological, which 
mother earth still hides under her polar ice-caps. In the 
Antarctic, navigators have yet to discover the magnetic curves, 
without a knowledge of which safe navigation in those regions is 
impossible. Mr Christy spoke of the vast ice cliffs, 200 feet in 
height, which render landing on the supposed Antarctic Con- 
tinent a practical impossibility, and he complained of the 
slackness of the British Government in subsidising scientific 
expeditions for Polar discovery. Yet the story he had to tell 
was full of the names of bold British sailors of the past, who, 
more than those of any other nation, had brought honour to 
their country by their discoveries. The lecture was illustrated 
by lantern slides. 



11 

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 11th. 

f arasit^s— 1^0^tabb antr ^nimal, 

BY 

Mr. D. E. CAUSH, L.D.S., 
With Lantern Illustrations. 



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 15th, 1902. 

^n ffib^ntnj fnr QB^eljibition oi 



A Short Paper was also read by 

Mr. E. ALLOWAY PANKHURST 

ON 

^0m^ ©ptical missions, 

With Illustrations. 



12 



THUESDAY, FEBEUARY 20th, 1902. 

IBritisl) t^jdabb (Sails, 

BY 

Mr. EDWARD T. CONNOLD, F.E.S., 
With Lantern Illustrations. 



GALL is from the Latin galla, and is used to signify the 
excrescences or unnatural growths of vegetable substances 
which make their appearance in Spring, Summer, and Autunm as 
deformities on various parts of many trees, shrubs, and plants. 

Early writers on the subject of gall growths did not seem to 
have been able to determine how the gall fly contrived to produce 
the galls, each of which enclosed an egg. Some thought the 
grub itself caused the growth by eating, when nearly hatched 
through the cuticle of the leaf, and remained until the juices 
flowing from the wound hardened around it. Others supposed 
the eggs were deposited in the ground and being drawn up with 
the sap were carried throughout the tree until, having reached a 
certain point, its course was arrested and the formation of gall 
structure then began ; and until some few years ago it remained 
more or less a mystery. Rennie, writing in 1845, " was aware of 
the fundamental fact that the mother gall fly makes a hole in the 
plant for the purpose of depositing her eggs," but he does not 
appear to have penetrated the mystery of the development of 
their growth. 

It may now safely be said that a vegetable-gall growth is 
in general an abnormal growth of plant tissue, caused by the 
presence of one or more larvse which have emerged from an egg 
or eggs that have been deposited in a perforation made by the 
parent insect in the roots, bark, and leaves of various trees, 
shrubs, and plants, the vegetable cells which accumulate around 
the larvae providin<4 them with nourishment and slielter. 

The flowers, leaves, buds, shoots, branches, bark, stem, and 
even the roots of a large number of plants, shrubs, and trees are 
affected and attacked by various beetles, gall-wasps, saw-flies, 
gnats, moths, aphides, mites, and wormlets. The productions 
caused by this little army of invaders vary in size from very 
minute specks to swellings which attain to the size of an ordinary 
fist, the colours and shapes being equally as variable. 

The shapes are most fantastic. Some are rough and gnarled, 
while others are smooth and soft. Some are so hard that it is 



13 

with difficulty that a pocket knife can cut them, while in contrast 
to these others can be easily compressed within the hand. One 
kind, which grows at the end of an oak bough on the catkins and 
young leaves, resembles bunches of red currants, — a tempting 
morsel on a hot May day, — while another kind away up amongst 
the top branches of a birch tree resembles a rook's nest. One 
kind assumes the form of a hop-strobile or a miniature artichoke, 
and is named accordingly. Two others resemble fruit, one 
taking the shape and appearance of an apple, the other exactly 
like a cherry minus the strig ; another is like a small pea covered 
with downy hairs, while another kind reminds us of a number of 
percussion caps neatly arranged on the bark of a small oak 
bough. Further examples might be given, but these kinds arrest 
our attention most speedily. 

Two of the most beautiful as regards wealth of colouring are 
the cherry gall on the oak, and the bedeguar gall on the wild 
rose, both of which, where touched by the sun's rays, turn a 
bright red. 

The purdominant colour, however, is green, very delicate 
shades of which may be seen at various stages in the growth of 
the gulls ; in fact, as may be supposed from the positions they 
occupy, they are all more or less green in colour, changing only 
as they approach or attain maturity. The common oak marble 
may be used as an instance. When growing in June it is a 
golden yellow if it be in the shade, but green if more exposed to 
the action of light. By September, however, it has changed to 
brown, becoming darker as winter draws near. 

This is equally applicable to another species, i.e , green at 
first, brown at last. 

One of the most noticea')le, and certainly the prettiest of 
the galls on the sallow trees, is the 

Rosette Gall, 

This gall is caused by the larvje of a small two-winged fly 
called Cecidomyia rosaria. The fly, according to Theobald, is 
rather pretty, the general appearance being dusky black with 
silvery hairs, the wings grey and iridescent, and the antennze as 
long as the body. The cluster of withered leaves at the end of 
the boughs of the willow tree bear a very close resemblance to a 
rosette, and hence its name It is a very pretty form of gall, the 
appearance being most uncommon. No doubt it is frequently 
regarded as a mere cluster of withered leaves. Each larva 
inhabits a separate gall, and they undergo all the changes within 
the rosette. It is an example of the monothalamous group. 

They may be seen at best during the months of March or 
April, depending upon the climatic conditions of the spring in 



14 

causing the sallows to throw out foliage early or late, and before 
the new leaves are fully developed. 

These galls are of a woody nature, and appear near the end 
of the boughs and twigs of some four or five s^^ecies of salix, and 
are found during April or May. 

The Bulbous Gall. 

The swelling takes place very rapidly, and assumes a more 
or less bulbous shape, having a smooth surface, except where the 
outer skin of the twig has been unable to compete with the 
growth of the gall ; the outline is then very uneven and ragged. 

One noticeable feature of this gall is that although the 
growth is of such an enormous size in comparison with the twig 
on which it appears, the circumference of the twig is the same 
just beyond the gall swelling as it was before it reached the gall ; 
in fact, the deformity produced by this growth rises so abruptly 
from the surface of the twig and returns to it in a like manner, 
that it bears a striking resemblance to the kernel of a cracknut, 
with a httle brown stick passed through it from base to apex. 

If one of these gall be cut open, there will be found a 
considerable number of oblong cavities wherein lie the larvte. 
The cells are arranged in a very irregular manner, some near 
the centre, others close to the exterior walls of the gall, and in 
such close proximity that one grub often eats into the domain 
of its nearest neighbour. The larvte are rather pretty in 
colour. The body is more or less cylindrical in shape, divided 
into 13 or 14 segments, and, when fully grown, not quite an 
eighth of an inch long. The head is furnished with a pair of 
powerful black jaws. They do not appear to have any terminal 
outlet of the alimentary canal, therefore the cell is always quite 
clean. 

As many as fifteen to twenty larva; inhabit an average size 
gall growth, each one having a separate cell. They undergo 
their transformations in the gall, the flies issuing forth during the 
month of June, leaving a round hole on the surface of the gall, 
through which it has made its escape. This gall is one of the 
polylhalamous species. 

The common bramble furnishes us with the next example of 
gall growth. It is produced by the puncture of a little fly called 

Lasioptera Rubi. 

The larvae are much the same kind as those of the genus we 
have just considered, resembling them not only in colour but also 
in size and shape, and likewise in attacking plants in much the 
same way. 



16 

The several species of wild rose, whose beautiful blossoms 
adorn the hii^hways and hedges, are subject to the attack of three 
or four gall-producing wasps. 

The most familiar, perhaps, is that called 

The Bedegiiar Ga//, 

which is produced by the energies of a very tiny and most 
brilliantly coloured gall-wasp, named Rhodites Rosie. 'I'he word 
Bedeguar is from the French, the exact meaning of which I have 
yet to learn. This gall is more or less familiar to all who observe 
nature while walking in the country during the summer months. 
Occasionally, on a hedgerow, may be seen a long runner of a wild 
rose bush towering high above all the surrounding foliage, and 
upon it is the gall. This is not the only situation in which they 
are found, but it is a typical one. 

When viewed from a short distance it has some resemblance 
to a reddish brown tuft of moss, of a globular shape. Variation 
in size is considerable, but they seldom exceed six inches in 
circumference. Upon close inspection, we find it composed of a 
' mass of fibrous bristles, which are branched from their base to 
their point. One fibie of about an inch and a half long will 
throw off as many as 30 or 40 of these branchlets. 

In common with many other varieties, it is the abode of 
numerous larvas, and is a perfect illustration of the polythalamous 
division ; as many as fifty larvje may be found in one cluster. 
IDach larva inhabits a separate cell. The cells, or woody 
tubercles, as they are technically termed, are of various sizes, 
small ones being about the size of a little lead shot, others ten 
times larger. All the tubercles are fused together more or less 
strongly; some will fall apart with a mere touch, while others 
require the use of a knife to separate them. The walls of the 
cells are thicker in the small ones than in the larger ones, some 
of which may be crushed with pressure by the finger and thumb, 
whereas the smaller ones can only be opened with difficulty. 

Mingled with the other foliage of a hedgerow there may 
often be seen the leaves of the common maple. The attention is 
frequently arrested by the bright red appearance of the upper 
side of the leaves, rendered more conspicuous because of the 
sombre colour of the underside, as well as the greener colour of 
surrounding leaves. After a shower of rain, when the sun shines 
on them, they are very brilliant and attractive; some of the 
leaves are entirely coloured, others only partly. 

A careful examination of a leaf will show that the redness of 
the upper surface is due to a number of small swellings, which 
take the form of pimples, in size about that of the head of a small 
pin. 



16 

These tiny semi-globular elevations cause the leaf to appear 
as though it had been sprinkled with some kind of tiny dark red 
seed. When once these leaves have been examined they can be 
recognised again without difficulty. The underside of the leaf 
presents a striking contrast to the upperside ; it is of a very pale 
green, almost bordering on a yellowish colour. With the aid of 
a tolerably powerful magnifying glass it will be seen that there are 
numbers of minute pits, the mouths of which are slightly swollen 
above the plane of the leaf These depressions exactly 
correspond to the pimples on the other side. A few of the 
pimples develop on the underside, in which case the opening of 
the pit is on the upper side of the leaf 

The leaves do not appear to be diminished in area from their 
normal size, because of the growth of these galls, nor are they 
contorted in shape ; indeed, their appearance is enhanced rather 
than otherwise. These swellings are produced by a gall mite. 

The mischief which these insects do is very considerable 
when compared with their minute size. They are seldom 
observed moving about during the day, and it is still a matter of 
speculation as to how they spread themselves so easily all over 
the buds of a tree and along a hedge row, seeing they are 
destitute of wings, and do not jump. Being semi-transparent in 
colour and of a very restless nature, it is most difficult to study 
them micro-scopically when alive, and when dead they become 
flaccid, whereby increasing ihe difficulty of a correct delineation. 
They are very minute ; several hundreds may he found inhabiting 
one ordinary size bud of a currant bush, and considerable 
numbers in each swollen gall on the leaves. 

Time has not allowed a review of such interesting topics as 
the life history and delineations of the insects which cause all 
these growths, the methods these insects employ in depositing the 
eggs, and the way in which the various structures are built up 
until they form the perfect gall ; as also the phenomena of 
parthenogenesis, and the alternating generations of the species. 
On all these points they furnish unique illustrations. 

The object of this paper has been, firstly, by describing the 
shapes, appearance-', and the usual positions seme of the most 
common and familiar kinds of vegetable galls occupy, to enable 
you, when collecting, easily to recognise them ; and. secondly, in 
so doing to create such an interest in them as will lead to 
thoughtful and patient study, a study which would be materially 
helped by collecting, preserving, and mounting as many examples 
as possible, and I trust that within the past hour the first has 
been attained, and during the coming year the second will 
result in the acquirement of a new pleasure to many who have 
been most kind and patient hsteners this evening. 



17 

TUESDAY, MAKCH 4th. 

BY 

Mr. FRED KNOCK, F.G.S., &c., 

IN 

MUSIC ROOM, ROYAL PAVILION. 



FEW men could keep a roomful of Brighton people interested 
for two hours, listening to descriptions of just two varieties 
of insects. For a triumph like this Mr. Enock OAves much to 
his really wonderful illustrations. With loving care for the 
minutest detaiJ, he has drawn his subjects from life under the 
microscope, in their natural colours, and has perfected a series 
of lantern slides illustrative of insect life which must be almost, 
if not entirely, unique. In many cases, by most ingenious 
mechanical processes, he so manipulates the slides as to show 
the actual movements of the insect of which he is treating. It 
was of two insects, the leaf-cutter bee and the tiger beetle, that 
Mr. Enock set himself to talk, taking the former as a specimen 
of the insect architect, and the latter as an insect engineer. The 
leaf-cutter bee, whose Latin family name is Hymenoptera, 
receives its English name from its way of walking off with 
circular or oval slices of the leaves of various plants, — with a 
preference for Marshal Niel roses, — to make cells withal. He, 
or rather she, burrows a little tunnel in sand or any other 
suitable soft substance, and with the bits of pilfered leaves 
builds up in a wonderful way first one cell and then another, 
filling each cell with honey as it is completed, and laying one 
egg, so that the grub, when hatched, can feed upon the honey 
until it develops to the chrysalis stage, and thence to the bee. 
The whole history of the leaf-cutter bee's life Mr. Enock showed 
by his wonderful slides, from the act of cutting oft' the pieces 
of leaf, to the final exit of the young bee from its tunnel to the 
open air. Mr. Enock waxed enthusiastic over the bee's delicate 
antenniP, in which are situated its nerves of smell, hearing, and 
touch, and over its simple and compound eyes, while he grew fairly 
ecstatic on the subject of its hair. Showing a portrait of a male 
bee with its tongue out, he said it might be a satisfaction 
to some of his audience to know that the tongue of the male bee 
was longer than that of the female, but on the other hand the 



18 

female was compensated by possessing a far stronger jaw. 
Then, by one of his ingenious contrivances, he showed the bee's 
jaws working. In case any of his audience should be troubled 
by having their rose trees used too extensively as a quarry by 
the leaf-cutter bee, Mr. Enock gave the useful "tip" that all 
they had to do to protect the trees was to plant a border of six 
inches of " golden feather," which this bee will on no account 
cross. So intently has Mr. Enock studied the bee that he 
assured his audience he could tell the hum of one kind of bee 
from another, and he explained how, in one instance, he 
was successful in catching a rare kind of bee through having 
his attention arrested by the note of its hum, which he had not 
heard before. 

The life history of the tiger beetle (family Coleoptera), of 
which some more wonderful illustrations followed, took Mr. 
Enock fifteen years to find out. He explained it to his audience 
in about an hour. One of the cleverest of his mechanical 

adjustments of slides showed the tiger beetle springing at its 
prey, and dragging it down into its hole. 

Mr. Enock was careful to impress on his audience that 
anyone with perseverance and ordinary intelligence can watch 
for themselves the life-work of the wonderful little creatures he 
had been speaking of. Each year he felt himself more impressed 
with our " miserable ignorance " of insect life. In museums we 
bad thousands of specimens of insects stored, but naturalists 
knew the life history of very few indeed. 



19 

THURSDAY, APRIL 10th. 

%\jt Zam^ of tlj^ Cbalk mat %vx0m, 

WITH AN 

Introductory 5ketch of the Existing Zones of Life 
in Britain, 

BY 

Mr. WILLIAM McPHERSON, F.G.S. 



IN order to make perfectly clear what is meant by the terms I 
have used, " Zones of Life," I shall begin with an example 
of the application of the term to existing conditions of life, — 
Animal and Plants. This will enable you better to understand 
the significance of the zones in the chalk, to the determination 
of which I have devoted the last four winter and early spring 
months. 

The term Zone, as used in this Paper, is an arbitrary 
Horizon of Life. They more or less overlap each other, and the 
animal or plant chosen to represent the zone is one that has a 
small vertical range ; and where they are most prolific, they 
encroach upon the zones above and under, but in diminished 
numbers. 

I have selected the game birds and animals of Britain and 
their characteristic food plants, as they represent very distinct 
and well-defined zones, from the highest mountains down to the 
sea level. Latitude in Britain affects the zones ; for example, 
the red deer is found in Inverness-shire at an elevation of 1,200ft. ; 
in the Island of Lewis in the outer Hebrides it comes down to 
200ft. Everywhere we find an adaption to their surroundings, 
in regard to altitude, latitude, and temperature. Moisture and 
cold play important parts in the distribution of life. Moisture 
in temperate latitudes, with its increase of vegetable food, where 
the monthly rainfall is fairly equally distributed, produces a 
greater number and variety of genera and species of animal life 
than is found in warmer climates with an irregular rainfall. 
Beginning with the highest zone of life in Britain, that of white 
hare and ptarmigan. The white hare f Lcjuis albus) inhabits the 
upper parts of the mountains of central Scotland. It was formerly 
found in Cumberland and Westmoreland, but is now extinct in 



England ; it is not present in the islands of the outer Hebrides 
or in Orkney and Shetland ; the vegetation on these mountains 
is scanty, the surface is full of large grey boulders. This 
animal is a beautiful illustration of adaptation of its colour to 
the surroundings. The summer fur is of a dull grey colour, 
resembling the boulders ; when the winter snows are on the 
ground the fur changes to a pure white. The ptarmigan ( Tctran 
lapiii/iisj is now found only in a few mountains of central 
Scotland, and, like the white hare, is extinct in England. The 
summer plumage is dull grey, corresponding with the boulders 
in summer, becoming with the snows nearly pure white. When 
disturbed it has a low flight, bobbing about the boulders. 
I refer to the summer flight (this was observed on Mount 
Schiehallion in Perthshire, Anglice, " Mountain of storms "). 
The white hare has a wider vertical range than the ptarmigan, 
but the geographical range is more similar. Like the white 
hare it is not found in the ^Yestern Hebrides or Orkney and 
Shetland. It is difficult to account for this absence, for some 
of the mountains of the Islands of Skye and Shetland are 
similar to those which it frequents in Scotland, and they are 
much nearer their chief habitat, Norway and Iceland. It may 
have been caused by the islands remaining longer glaciated ; 
this is more probable by the absence of other forms of life — for 
example, frogs, &c. 

The ptarmigan is found in North America, slightly different 
from the Scandinavian variety. The latter is the species abun- 
dantly exhibited in the shop windows in Brighton, and is rather 
smaller than the Scottish variety. The food of the white hare 
is represented on the diagram by I'oa aljiina. They feed mainly 
on the tender shoots and seeds, — the flowering plants, Sa.iifia;fa 
)iiv(ili'i and Sihiw araiilia, — and all the representatives of this zone 
are entirely of an Arctic origin, survivals of the close of the 
Glacial Age in Britain. 

The next zone on the diagram, that of the red deer 
fCi'rnis elcphas ) and the red grouse (Tetrao svoticKs), is also of an 
Arctic character, though not exclusively so, as in the zone above. 
The red deer was formally abundant in England and Ireland in 
a wild state, it now only survives under the protection of man. 
It is the only survivor of a numerous species that inhabited the 
United Kingdom and Ireland (all destroyed, with this exception, 
by the approach of the Glacial Age). Their fossil remains, 
mainly teeth, are numerous, and have been found at the Black 
Rock, Brighton, along with the reindeer. They are protected in 
Scotland and in Exmoor, Devonshire, for sport. One forest in 
Scotland was leased for £8,000 per annum, but the sport is only 
for six weeks. The term deer forest is misleading; the word is 
used in the old Saxon meaning, as an enclosed place, for there is 
scarcely a tree in all their habitat. 



Land Zones Existing. 



4,000' to 1,000' 



2,200' to 
sea level. 



1,000' to 
sea level. 



800' to 
sea level. 



.SOO'to 
sea level. 



White Hare. 



Red Deer. 



Ptaiinifran Saxifraga nivalis, Poa alpina, and 



Red Grouse. Calluna vulgaris and Erica cinerea- 



Brown Hare. 



Black Grouse. Agronlis canina. 



Rabbit. Partridge. Partridge-Cereals and Insects. 

" Rabbit— Vegetables and Giusses. 



I Deer— Cultivated Grass. 
Fallow Deer. ! Pheasant. Pheasant— Cereals and Cultivated 

Roots. 



Marine Zones Existing. 



later-tidal. 



To 100' 



100' to 300' 



Inhabitants. 



Barnacle. 
Limpet. 
Mussel. 
Jiissoa. \ 
Cerithium. 3 



Star Fish. 
Crab, Lobster. 
Flounder, Haddock. 
Trochus. ■) 
Mactra, ) 



At maximum. 



^British Coasts. 



^British Coasts. 



Cod. 
Ling. 
Pleurolomaria. 



300' 



( [ Limit of marine I r> -j.. . r^ . 
I j vegetation. ! hB"tish Coasts. 



Skate. 
300' to 600' Turbot. 



Terebratulina caput 7 
serpentis. ) 



600' 

Limit of sun's 
rays. 



> British Coasts. 
Hebrides. 



0' to 700' 



0' to 800' 



Beryx spleivdens. 2,000' Japan. i600'to2,oC0' 

Hake. Ireland. ^ 0' to 2,400' 

600' to 70ft' Terebratula wyvilli. 7,000' to 17,000' South Australia. 

Terebratulina caput \ n/ «■« r :avi; i~wu -».t t. 

seriyentis. \ 0' to 6,o00' Oban, N.B. 

Bhyiichonellapsittacea. 60' to 2,000' Shetland. 



The red grouse (Tetran scnticns/ frequents the upper plateaus 
of the Scotch, English, and Irish mountains ; it is most abun- 
dant in Scotland, less so in England, and comparatively scarce 
in Ireland. It rarely descends to cultivation, and when it does 
and feeds on cereals, the change of food produces disease, a species 
of pneumonia. The proper food of the red grouse is the tender 
young shoots of the plants mentioned in the diagram, L'alluna 
nih/aris and Eiica cinerca. The red deer and red grouse have a 
much wider geographical distribution in the British Islands than 
the zone above, they are both found in the islands of the 
Hebrides ; while the red deer is distributed throughout the 
Continent of Europe, the red grouse is entirely confined to the 
British Islands. Their presence in the outer islands is in 
remarkable contrast with the higher zone. The nearest ally to 
the red grouse is the willow grouse of Scandinavia, all inhabi- 
tants of treeless regions. 

The food Calhma rithjariK and Krica cinerca, is very 
widely distributed in the British Islands and throughout the 
Continent of Europe. I have no satisfactory explanation to 
ofl'er for the restricted geographical area of the red grouse. It 
is a bird strong of flight, and perfectly capable of crossing the 
Channel or even to Norway. Glaciation may be the solution of 
the question, but it is confronted with many anomalies and 
difficulties. The red grouse is abundant in the Western district 
of the Island of Lewis, where the glaciation was relatively late, 
and clearly marked on every exposed rock ; also in Sutherland, 
two prolific habitats of the red grouse, thus very largely 
diminishing the value of the theory of glaciation for the 
restricted distribution of the upper zone, the white hare and 
ptarmigan. However applicable to the higher zone, it entirely 
fails in this to account for the distribution in the British Islands 
of the red deer and red grouse. 

The next zone is the brown hare {Ia'phs timidus) and the 
black grouse {Tctrao tctn'.r). The black grouse, usually known to 
sportsmen as black game, frequents the hills above the tree line 
and the upper part of the tree line, just bordering the limits of 
cultivation. It occupies a well defined zone of the grasses under 
the L'alluna nil(/aris and Knca cinerca, mainly feeding on the 
young shoots and seeds of Aijrostis. It is a larger and more 
powerful bird than the red grouse but inferior for sport. The 
brown hare has a wider range than the black grouse. The same 
difference in range is observed between the white hare and the 
ptarmigan. The narrower vertical range of the birds, with their 
superior power of locomotion, I think, can be explained by the 
quadruped's more omniverous vegetable food. 

The next zone, the rabbit {Lc]>iis cnnicidns) and the partridge 
{Perihi.r ci)icrca), do not go so high as the upper part of the 
zone above, but they overlap in the lower part. The partridge 



is rarely found far from cultivated fields. Its food is cereals and 
seeds of the grasses bordering the cultivated fields ; it has a 
more restricted geographical distribution in Britain than the red 
grouse, not being found in the Western Hebrides or Orkney and 
Shetland. The rabbit has a similar range as the partridge, from 
the lower part of the black grouse zone down to the sea level. 
It is not found native in the outer Hebrides, but has been 
introduced in the Island of Lewis quite recently. The lowest 
zone, the fallow deer and the pheasant, is not a natural one, it 
represents a fauna imported and protected by man ; they are 
aliens, and could not survive in this climate unless protected. 
There is at present an interesting illustration of protected 
animals becoming confined to their habitat : in Scotland the 
large sheep farms, when let, contain a clause in the lease, that 
the incoming tenant takes over the sheep stock at a valuation, 
the arbitrators usually value the stock at ten to fifteen shillings 
per head above the current market price, because the sheep have 
become acclimatised and do not go beyond their zone, or limits of 
the farm. There are seldom any boundary fences, and new 
stock would wander across the boundary or zone of the farm. 
This question is at present much discussed in the Scottish 
newspapers. 

Marine Zones Existing^. 

Having found the Terrestrial Zones of Life and Plants clearly 
defined and separated in their vertical range in Britain, we now 
come to the Inter-Tidal and Marine Zones. We here find the 
same adjustment to their surroundings as in the Terrestrial 
Zones. I have chosen depths to describe the zones, in prefer- 
ence to the seaweeds usually taken for this purpose. The 
seaweeds have distinct zones to a depth of 300ft., the limit of 
marine vegetation. 

For the Inter-Tidal Zone all the examples mentioned in the 
diagram are found on the Brighton shores east of the Black 
Rock. They are found in descending order. They are to a 
certain extent amphibious ; nearly one half of the twenty-four 
hours they are covered by sea water, and again exposed to strong 
light and frequent showers of rain water. With the exception 
of the edible limpet (Patella ctdijataj, they select the dai'kest 
corners of the rocks. There are two species of limpets, the first 
named and a very much smaller and more compressed species, 
beautifully coloured and striated on the outside of the shell, and 
richly coloured inside. The barnacle and limpet come close up 
to high tide. 

The mussel, Rissoa, and Cerithium do not come so near high 
tide mark. The latter adhere to seaweed and corallines. There 
is a very minute zooid adhering to the latter in great abundance. 
It forms the principal food of the larger moUusca. The 



24 

numerous round cells found in the inter-tidal chalk are made by 
a boring bivalve f Pholas dactijlunj. It is abundant near low 
tide, and is nearly white and richly sculptured on the outside. 
It is edible, and greatly esteemed on the Mediten'anean shores, 
where it commands a high price. The late Professor Leach 
highly praises it for fine flavour and delicacy when cooked. 

Among the rarer molluscs ai'e two species of Chit<»i. Rare 
on the chalk shores, they are more common on the northern 
coasts. All the above are inhabitants of temperate seas. The 
limpet is not found north of Scandinavia. The average winter 
temperature of the sea around the British coasts is from 40° to 
45°. The inter-tidal mollusca are incapable of resisting severe 
frosts. The great frost of the winter 1854-55 destroyed the 
greater part of them from the South-West of England to the 
Moray Firth in Scotland. The next zone, Oft. to 100ft., is 
inhabited by mollusca and fish that live only under sea water. 
There is only one species of star fish found in Brighton i Asti'iiax 
riibensj. It is fairly common in the late spring and summer at 
very low tide, or thrown on the beach by storms. The starfish, 
unlike the limpet and barnacle, is incapable of living out of its 
habitat, — sea water. Immersion in fresh water causes instan- 
taneous death. The brittle star fish, which has the power of break- 
ing its limbs, is preserved by putting it into fresh water. From 
the classic authors of Gi'eece and Rome the star fish has had a 
bad name for burning, stinging and poisonous qualities. Sir 
Thomas Browne, of Norwich, in his " Vulgar Errors," does not 
disprove the popular error. Our star fish is perfectly harmless. 
The bad reputation survives in the local names, as " The Devil's 
Hand," "The Devil's Fingers." Science is a plant of slow 
growth in the popular mind. 

The crab and lobster, flounder and haddock are well-known 
inhabitants of shallow water. 

The molluscs Trochus and Martra are found at a depth of 
from 50ft. to 100ft. After storms the shells are found on the 
beach. 

The next zone is 100ft. to 300ft., the latter the limit of 
marine vegetation. The cod f trar/».s mnrhiia j is sparingly found 
in the Brighton sea. The cod is a rather widely distributed fish 
around the British coasts, most prolific on the northern areas. 
The ling (Lota malvaj has a still more northern zone than the 
cod, and frequents deeper water. The cod and ling fishing is a 
large industry in the North of England and Scotland. The 
next zone, 300ft. to 600ft., is under the limit of marine vegeta- 
tion ; consequently, all the inhabitants are carnivorous. Light 
ceases to penetrate below this zone.* A decided change takes 
place in the size of the eyes of those fish that frequent the lower 

* Challenger, vol. i., p. 40. 



25 

part of this zone ; they are much larger. It has been suggested 
that the increased size is an adaptation to catch the faint rays 
of light that penetrate to that depth. 

The next zone. The turbot ( PlenronecU's inaxiiniiit) and the 
skate (Eaia Icitus), the representatives of this zone, are ground 
feeders, rarely coming to within 200ft. of the surface. The rays 
have a great geographical and vertical range. The Terebratulina 
caput fserpentis has been found in the Hebrides of Scotland at a 
depth of 600ft. It has an enormous geographical and vertical 
range in the existing seas. The Challencjer Expedition found it 
■ at a depth of 6,500ft. off the Japan Islands. The ranges 
con-espond closely with that of the Eays. We shall find, when 
we come to describe the fossils of the chalk, that it has an 
equally wide distribution as a fossil. 

The next zone, 600ft. to 1,700ft., is represented by Bery.v 
splcmfens. This species has some affinity to the Beryx found as 
a fossil in the chalk. It frequents the seas oft' Madeira at about 
600ft., and was found oft' the .Japanese Islands by the Challewjer 
Expedition at 6,500ft. This fish is a good illustration of the 
increase of the size of the eyes at 600ft., — the limit of light. I 
here quote from Professor Edward Forbes and Mr. Godwin 
Austin. Writing about the Madeira Fish Market, they say : — 

" The spring is characterised by the common appearance of the 
splendid coloured Beryx in the streets, attracting notice no less 
by its hues of silver, scarlet, rose, and purple than by the 
extraordinary and opalescent or rather brassy lustre of its 
enormous eyes." 

The Hake {Merluccius rulfjaris) is also a fish of very wide 
distribution, abundant in the deep waters of the British seas. It 
has been found at a depth of 2,500 feet. The family is very 
widely distributed. The Marine Zones are well defined and 
separated from each other ; the limit of vegetation is inhabited 
by its own species of vegetable-eating moUusca and the fish that 
feed upon them, thus limiting the fauna to a small vertical 
range. The geographical range is also limited by cold, as we 
found in the example of the limpet. The greater geographical 
and vertical range of the fish inhabiting the deeper waters of the 
sea is a result of the uniformity of the conditions of their habitat. 
The vast area of the Deep Sea has no violent changes of tempera- 
ture to act as a barrier to their distribution, and the abundance 
of their food and power of locomotion enables them to inhabit 
this great ocean area — both geographical and vertical. I extract 
from the Challentjef Reports the depth at which fish and 
mollusca have been found. The Deep Sea or abyssal fauna 
attains its most prolific development at a depth of from 3,600 
feet to 7,200 feet. There is a great abundance of He.vactinilid 
sponges, stalked crinoids, and sea urchins allied to Salenia. 



Cephalopoda are found to a depth of 12,000 feet ; Echinoidea to 
17,000 feet ; the Crinoida to a depth of 17,000 feet ; the Brachio- 
poda to 17,000 feet ; the Gasteropoda, in very diminishing 
numbers and variety, to 15,000 feet. Fish are found at depths 
of 17,000 feet at twenty observation stations. 

The lesson derived from the examination of the conditions 
of Life in the Marine Zones is the same as in the Terrestrial, 
adaptation to environment or extinction. 

The Fossil Zones of the Chalk in Brighton and 
Neighbourhood. 

From the consideration of the elementary and well- 
known zones of existing life, we now come to the less known 
zones of fossil life. The conditions are widely different in the 
fossil state. We now depart from the contemporaneous view, 
and have to examine the life history of genera and species, 
deposited in the chalk, at vast intervals of time, the greater part 
of them appeared for the first time, and became extinct with the 
close of the deposition of the chalk. I have endeavoured to show 
in the existing zones of contemporaneous life, an adjustment to 
their terrestrial and marine environments. The marine survey 
was over a wide area of the existing seas, and a smaller extent of 
land. The area of the cretaceous sea was very great. I shall be 
able later to exhibit a co-relation of fossils deposited in nearly 
similar conditions at a distance of 6,000 miles apart. The 
cretaceous sea was perhaps not inferior in area to the Atlantic or 
the Pacific Oceans, — certainly larger than the Mediterranean. 
The exact area is impossible to be ascertained ; denudation has 
removed the evidence of its deposition over many parts of 
England, and nearly aU of Scotland. Tertiary volcanoes have 
probably largely metam orphosed and destroyed the chalk in the 
Island of Mull and Scotland generally, where the remains of the 
cretaceous sea are isolated and scanty. The cretaceous sea, like 
the modern ocean, had its shores and depths, for it is a well- 
recognised opinion that, since the beginning of geological time, 
there has been a division of the globe into sea and land, and 
consequently there were various degrees of depths and currents, 
as we find in the present oceans. The chalk is largely composed 
of microscopic foraminifera and the more or less minute frag- 
ments of the shells of mollusca. The proportion varies greatly : 
generally, the deeper the water the more minute the fragments 
and the purer white the colour of the chalk. In interpreting the 
history of the Fossil Zones, we have not the same absolute proof 
of their position that we had in the Existing Zones ; we have to 
rely largely on the palreontological evidence, supported in a 
lesser degree by the lithological. The exposures of the chalk in 
Brighton and district are as complete as in any other County in 



27 

England, with the exception of Dorset. The only zone that is 
absent is the highest known in England, — Belcmnitella 
vnicromita ; it is only found in Norfolk and Dorset, Hampshire 
and Wilts. Dorset is the only County in England that has all 
the zones of the chalk represented from the highest to the 
Chloritic Marl on the coast. 

Zones of the Chalk. 

UPPER chalk- 
Zone 1. Belemnitella mucronata. 

„ 2. Actinocamax (Belemnitella) quadratus. 

,, 3. Marsupites. 

„ 4. Uintacrinits. 

,, 5. Micraster cor-anguinum. 

,, 6. Micraster cor-testitdinarium. 

MIDDLE chalk- 
Zone 7. Holaster planus. 
,, 8. Terehratulina r/racilis. 
,, 9. Pihynchonella cuvieri. 

LOWER chalk- 
Zone 10. Actinocamax (Belemnitella) plenus. 

,, 11. Ammonites rotomayensis or Holaster subglohosuB. 
,, 12. Ammonites varians or Rhynehonella martini. 

The zones of the chalk represented on the Brighton Coast 
and inland to the base of the escarpment to the south of the 
Lewes plain — which is my limit of Brighton and district — 
include all the zones of the chalk from Actinocamax (Belemni- 
tella) quadratus to the grey chalk, the lowest on the diagram. 
The zone represented on the diagram — Holaster sub-ylobosus — 
is the lowest zone found in the Brighton district. The upper 
and middle chalk, which we find to have been deposited in this 
neighbourhood, has been laid down in comparatively deep water. 
This is fairly well proved by the abundance of Ventriculites, 
sponges and the almost total absence of the Gasteropoda. This 
is characteristic of the deep waters of the existing seas and a 
good co-relation with the Cretaceous Sea. I may mention here 
that the Challenyer Expedition found moUusca closely allied to 
the cretaceous species at a depth of from 10,000 to 17,000 feet. 
In the upper chalk Univalves are the rarest of fossils ; with great 
depths in the existing seas they are equally rare. In the lower 
chalk they are more frequent, indicating a deposition in a shallower 
sea. The zones are represented by a fossil that has the most 
definitely restricted vertical range. As I explained in the existing 
zones of animal and plant life, the zones are the life histories of 
the species. 



28 

The zones on the diagram are those recommended by the 
Sub-Committee of the Geological Congress, 1888, for Zone 
No. 9 ( Rhiinchonella citvicri ) can be more readily recognised by 
Professor Barrois's zone of Inoceramita labiatns; it is much more 
abundant than the former, and, in small exposures, more readily 
found. The recognition of strata from their fossils was first 
announced in a small volume published by Mr. ^Yilliam Smith, 
Mineral Surveyor, Derby, entitled " Strata Identified by 
Organised Fossils." He gives the fossils of the upper chalk, 
and the illustrations occupy half a sheet. I have placed 
the volume on the table, and, alongside it, the solume of the 
PaliTeontographical Society, where a single genus (Sjionili/ltix) is 
illustrated by sixty-four figures. This exhibits a very large 
increase in our knowledge, but, for field work, the illustrations 
in Smith's book are much superior, — clear and clean cut lines 
are well drawn. 

Professor Barrois was the first to describe the zones of the 
chalk on the English and Irish coasts. His divisions and zones 
are generally accepted in this country. In England the latest 
and most exhaustive description of the zones of the white chalk 
of the English coasts is by Dr. Rowe, F.G.S., &c., — diagrams by 
Mr. Sherborn (1900). The first part, Kent and Sussex, 
describes the coast sections from Newhaven to Brighton. To the 
field worker it is an invaluable guide. The accuracy and 
precision of description, and the clearness with which the zones 
are separated and explained, is delightful, — a classic work for the 
coast sections of the white chalk. 

To Dr. Eowe I owe much. He directed me how to 
recognise the zones of the chalk by their fossils, and, for the last 
three years, by a large correspondence, notwithstanding the calls 
of a busy profession, has identified and described my specimens. 

Zone 1. — lUioiuiitiila vuirninata is altogether absent in 
Sussex. I exhibit a specimen from Trimingham, Norfolk. 
This zone has only been found in the Counties of Norfolk, 
Hampshire, Wilts, and Dorset. I have searched for it between 
Newhaven and Preston Railway Station, without success, the 
only localities where it is likely to be found. 

Zone 2, ActinocaDia.i- {Bdeuniitiila) t])iatlratux. — This zone 
is widely represented on the Brighton coast. It is found on the 
upper part of the cliffs from Newhaven to Saltdean Gap, where 
it comes down to the tide level, then running high in the cliffs 
to Rottingdean, where it again comes down to the shore, then 
runs high in the cliff's to the junction of the chalk with the 
Coombe Rock near Brighton. Inland it is found in road 
cuttings between Newhaven and Rottingdean, and in a small 
roadside quarry at East Hill, three-quarters of a mile north of 
Rottingdean. It is again exposed in Ovingdean quarry and rear 
the Golf House in chalk thrown up in digging drains for houses 



29 

now building. Coming westwards, there is a considerable gap. 
It is not found in Kemp Town Railway Station quarry ; it 
reappears in the cuttings of the Bi-ighton Railway Station, and 
runs along the Railway to Preston, and perhaps to Patcham, — - 
the evidence of its presence at the latter place is, so far, incon- 
clusive. The name-fossil is not common in any part of the 
zone ; it is found sparingly on the inter-tidal chalk from the 
Pumping Station to Newhaven, and in fallen blocks from 
Coombe Rock to Newhaven. There is a small urchin, Canliaah'r 
pilhda, restricted to the upper part of the zone ; it is a safe 
guide to the zone, and can be often found in small exposures 
when the Belemnite is absent. I have not found the Belemnite 
in any of the inland exposures. t'aidiaxtcr [lilliila is very 
abundant in East Hill quarry near Rottingdean. I found a 
block of flint that fell from the top of the clift' at the junction 
of the chalk and the Coombe Rock with fifty examples, many in 
fine condition. The half of the block is now in the Brighton 
Museum among the fossils illustrating the zones of this district. 
Another characteristic fossil of the zone is IJdcinnitella i/rajodatux. 
It is of a granular texture, and found in the inter-tidal chalk of 
the west end of the Manupites zone from Roedean Cottage to 
Rottingdean ; it is ia, rather rare fossil, as all the Belemnitella 
are on this coast. Fccten creUmm is found high up in the 
cliflfs west of Rottingdean ; it is not common, and one of the 
most beautifully ornamented of the chalk fossils. Spondiihis 
spmosKs is very common throughout this zone and of large size, 
both in the chalk and flints. It attains its maximum size near 
the junction of the zone with Marsujntes under Roedean Cottage. 
Spondylus iluti'inpleaiiiis is found rather sparingly throughout, 
is rare, in good condition, and more restricted to the upper 
part of the zone. Echinoconjx vidnaris, popularly known 
as the Shepherd's Cap, is the most abundant fossil on this 
coast. It is of a smaller size than those found in the 
zone under. Sponges are abundant throughout, especially 
calcified forms, and Ventriciditfs, Pharetrospoyu/ia strahani 
is fairly common in the lower part of the zone. A fine 
specimen is in the zonal illustrations. It can generally be 
found in the inter-tidal chalk between Rottingdean and the 
Pumping Station. There is another characteristic fossil, Ostrea 
lateralis, rat: striata, from the upper part of the zone. It is 
small and the striations are rather faint. Cardiaster pillida and 
Terebrattdina striata are found in Ovingdean quarry, — a fair 
exposure with few fossils. It has not been worked for many 
years. 

The next zones 3 and 4 are not usually separated. I 
have divided them from the very well defined division into 
upper and lower horizons in the Kemp Town Railway Station 
quarry, Marsiqntes the upper and Uintacrinus the lower part. 



Oi 

(D 

C 

o 
N 

o 

0) 

c 
o 

+J 
o 

(D 
05 

-M 
(0 

o 
O 




@) 




^ 



c 
o 
N 

£ 




32 

The coast sections exhibit the same division, but not so 
clearly marked as it is in the fine vertical exposure of 
UintaoiniiH in the quarry. MarsHjdteH teatmUnariuH was for- 
merly described in text books under several specific names, 
derived from the smoothness or roughness of the ornamenta- 
tion on the calyx plates. The smooth plates are generally 
found in the small specimens, and may be younger than the 
rougher ones. Marsiipites has been described by a great living 
authority* as like to " Mahomet's coffin suspended between 
heaven and the earth, for it has no ancestors or successors." 
This zone is very well represented on the low clift's and inter- 
tidal chalk near Roedean Cottage, and poorly, mainly in single 
plates, in Kemp Town Railway Quarry, as we there reach the 
base of the zone only. It has not yet been found in any other 
exposure in this district. I think it may yet be discovered in 
the railway cuttings between Brighton and the Dyke. This 
rare and beautiful fossil is formed of sixteen unjointed body 
plates, with five rows of unjointed arm ossicles. It was a free 
swimmer, and no perfect specimen has yet been found, a rare 
joy awaiting some future searcher. I have seen a few fair 
specimens in flint, and should not be surprised if it is found 
in that position. There is no better exposure for fine large 
examples than the low cliffs and inter-tidal chalk from Roedean 
Cottage, and four hundred yards eastward there I have found 
many beautiful specimens, but without the arm plates. I give 
the dimensions of two kindly made for me by Dr. F. A. Bather. 
They may be useful for the guidance of future collectors : — 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Mm. Mm. 



Height 


... 45-2 


Height 


... 45-8 


Greatest width... 


... 46-5 


Greatest width 


... 40 6 


Least width 


... 34-4 


l.ea.st width ... 


.. 37-3 


Average width .. 


... 40-4 


Average width 


... 390 



So far as is known at present, Ma)supites is better repre- 
sented in England than in any other part of the Cretaceous 
sea, and it is only found in a small vertical horizon in that 
sea. It has now a very small geographical range, being 
found only in fragments in France and in Algeria, and not 
in America, which is very surprising when we consider the 
large development in that country of the lower part of the 
zone Uintacrinm. There is little doubt it will yet be found 
in the United States, India, and Palestine. 

Among the characteristic fossils of the zone are found 
Echiitocori/s cuhiari^, of a helmet shape, hence the popular name 
of Shepherd's helmet. The zone can be fairly well recognised 



Dr. F. A. Bather. 



33 

by this fossil, and, equally so on the coast, by the presence of 
Krhuwconiis conicKs. Whenever you find it you may be 
certain you are near MarsKiiites, at least, on the coast. Lima 
hojicri is found of a large and fine form, but, owing to the 
delicacy of the shell, difficult to separate from the matrix. 
Sponili/lus sjibiosus here attains its maximum size. They are 
quite common, wi h the spines well preserved, but are very 
fragile, and great care is required in cleaning. If the chalk is 
allowed to dry, the spines are more easily saved. Ostira 
wcfliiianiiiana (D'Orbigny) was discovered, for the first time in 
England, in 1899, in this zone, by the writer. The original and 
finest block, for they are gregarious, is among the collection to 
illustrate this paper. It ranges from the Uintacrinux beds at the 
Black Rock to the base of the Actinocaniax {BeleinniteUa) 
quadratiiii zone, near Rottingdean. The most likely place to 
find specimens is in the inter-tidal chalk, one hundred yards east 
of the Pumping Station. They are well known in the chalk of 
France and were found many years ago by Mr. Griffith and 
Dr. Rowe, but not identified by the Geological Survey, Jermyn 
Street. This zone has only one Ammonite, and a very remark- 
able one it is {Aiuntonites It'ptoplti/llns), popularly known as 
Landscapes, a good description of their sutures, and sometimes 
Carpet Slippers, which is not so appropriate. It goes from 
Ulntacrinus to the middle of the Actin<Kanui,v zone beyond 
Rottingdean. There is a fair specimen at present exposed on 
the inter-tidal chalk near Roedean Cottage, 4 feet 3 inches in 
diameter, in circumference 12 feet 9 inches. They are quite 
common, but generally much worn. They are not found in 
France. This is an interesting fossil, the last species of the 
race, and it is curious how it should have become extinct on 
attaining this enormous size. There is no evidence from the 
chalk structure to exhibit any violent change in the condition of 
life to suddenly destroy this genus, which survived numerous 
and sudden changes throughout the Lias, passing above the 
Gault, in very different conditions to the chalk, in diminishing 
numbers, and finally disappears in the Actinoraina.c [Bel.) 
ijitaihatiis zone, long before the chalk deposits ceased to be laid 
down. There is a tine specimen in ihe British Museum, taken 
from the neighbourhood of Rottingdean. Cijjthdsuwa kicni;ii, 
one of the beautiful fossils of the zone, is fairly common in 
fragments, but specimens in good condition are rare. 

The lower part of the zone, marked No. 4 on the 
diagram, is the sub-zone of Uintacrintifi. This fossil was a 
free swimming ciinouL The first specimens were collected by 
Professor Marsh in 1870, from the Uintah Mountain, hence 
the name. A fine block from Kansas in the British Museum, 
with perfect specimens, led to a search in this country, with 
the curious result that plates and ossicles were found in Dr. 



34 

Rowe's collection,— undescribed for twenty years. They were 
also found in the Willett collection in the Brighton Museum, 
described as Maraupitex. In 1899, directed to search in the 
neighbourhood of the Black Rock, by Dr. Rowe and Mr 
Sherborn, I was successful in finding a few plates and 
ossicles on the inter-tidal chalk, the only exposure on the 
coast. They are not found beyond five hundred yards to the 
east of the steps at the Coombe Rock, where Marsupites begin 
to be sparingly found. Making an examination of the inland 
exposures this winter, I found an exposure of the zone of 
fifty feet in the Kemp Town Railway Station Quarry. It con- 
tains single plates and many ossicles, accompanied by many 
fragments of Boimjetkrhms. This is the only other exposure 
of Uintacrinm in the Brighton district and also the best. It 
can be traced from the base of the west side of the quarry, 
gradually rising until it joins the Marsupites beds at the 
top of the tunnel, a height of 85 feet. The base of the 
tunnel is the zone of Micraster cor-cnu/uinKm. This quarry is 
the only exposure of ]\[arsupites, Uintacrinits and Micraster cor- 
amjuinam that can be studied in situ in the inland exposures, 
as only a few connected plates of Uintacrinits have been found in 
Britain. I give some measurements and description from 
Professor Beecher* of perfect specimens found on a slab in 
Kansas. " Notwithstanding the considerable geographic range, 
the horizon appears to be nearly constant. The slab occupies 
27 square feet of surface. In the area are calyces of 220 
individuals. Occasionally a specimen measures 70"''" across 
the diameter. A flattened condition is about GO""™' 
minimum specimen. The arm branches can seldom be traced 
more than lOmm from the calyx, though separate ones 
extend quite five times that distance from the surface. The 
presence of several small Ostrea larva tends to show that the 
water was of a moderate depth. Nearly all the specimens of 
Vintacrinus, as well as the limestone layers containing them, 
are of a light buff colour." 

I have found Ostrea larra in the Uintacrinns beds at the 
Black Rock. It is now in the British Museum. This is the 
lowest zone that it has been yet found in England. This co- 
relation of Vintacrinus and Ostrea larva from Western Kansas 
in America to Brighton, a distance of six thousand miles, gives 
an enormous area to the nearly contemporaneous deposits in the 
cretaceous sea. The absence of Marsu}iite'< in America may 
possibly have been caused by the land rising in America and 
sinking in England. With Uintacrinus is associated, at the 
Black Rock and Kemp Town quarry, two fossils of an equally 
restricted vertical range. Actinocamax verus, which is not 



American Journal oj Science (1900). 



85 

found above the Uintacrinus beds, is small, without an alveolar 
cavity. It is a rather rare fossil. The other, Terehratulina 
rowei, goes up to the base of the Marsupites beds. It is very 
small, and, like Terehratulina (jracilis, rather gregarious. 
Kinyena lima is found, but is rather a rare fossil in this zone. 
Orcaster ocellata, a very rare Asteroid, I found at the eastern 
end of the zone in the inter-tidal chalk near Roedean Cottage. 
There is here a bed of much crushed crinoids, and should be 
carefully examined for good specimens. The Echinocorys 
vulgaris of this zone are very characteristic. They are of great 
size compared with the zones above, and the upper surface is 
nearly flat in many specimens. 

The discovery of Uintacrinus in Kemp Town Eailway 
quarry was quite unexpected. The distance from the Black 
Rock is about a mile, and the elevation at the base iiOO feet, and 
Uintacriniis rises in quarry to 250 feet ; so that we have in that 
distance the horizon above the sea level raised 250 feet. The 
denudation between the Golf House and Kemp Town was 
narrow near the coast, for we find at the Brighton and Preston 
Railway Stations the highest zones of the Sussex chalk 
Actinocainax (Bel.) qiiadratus. At the end of the Paper, an 
attempt will be made to explain this gap and the extensive 
inland denudations. The next zone 5, 21icraster cor-am/itinum, 
is found at the base of the clifi's east of the Pumping Station. 
It overlaps a considerable part of the Marsupites beds above, and 
Lintacrinns under. It is well exposed at the base of both sides 
of the Kemp Town quarry. Filn/nchonella jjlicatilis is common, 
but more abundant and of a larger size in the zone above. 
Good examples of Terehratulina striata are found here. This 
fossil is found in all the zones of the chalk and is found living 
at great depths in the present seas, — at 600 feet in the Hebrides 
and 7,000 feet off Japan. Micraster cor-anyuinum is also 
found in the Railway cutting at Dyke Station, — an elevation of 
500 feet. It is also found in a small hillside quarry at Norton 
Top, — elevation 600 feet. The zone in this district is every- 
where poorly exposed. 

Zone 6, Micraster cor-testuili)iariu)n. — This is a new dis- 
covery of the zone in this district. The only exposure, and it is 
a very slender one, is on the hill road, half a mile south of 
Balsdean Farm, towards Rottingdean. The exposure is so 
small that few examples have been found. One specimen has 
been described by Dr. Rowe as "an absolutely typical one." It 
will be found among the specimens illustrating the zone. A few 
associated fossils are Terehratula carnea, Terehratula semi- 
yluhvsa, llliynchonella plicatilis. Kpiaster yihhus may belong 
to this zone, but it was not found in situ. 

Zone 7. — Hulaster planus (middle Chalk) is found at the 
top of Bevendean Pit, a small exposure one-sixth of a mile 



36 

north-east from Bevendean Farm. Holaater placenta is also 
found, and Micraster jiraeciirsfyr. They may represent the 
junction with the next zone. 

Zone 8. — Terehratulina (jyacilis is much more satisfactorily 
exposed than the last three zones. Hitherto unknown in this 
district, and found within three miles of Brighton, and at an 
elevation of 400 feet above the highest zone on the coast, the 
two principal exposures are at Saddlescombe Quarry, 500 feet 
above sea level, and at a place named Falmer Bottom on the 
Gin. map. The exposure at Falmer Bottom begins at the 450 
level, on south side, and is found in chalk turned up by the 
plough, in an attempt to take in a few extra yards of the crest of 
the hill. I have proved the zone also by digging into the hill side, 
and found sixteen in an hour. At Saddlescombe the exposure is 
large, showing sixty feet of vertical chalk. The name-fossil is 
abundant with a few Bhi/nchonella cuvieri. It is found more 
sparingly in Bevendean, Iford, Balsdean, and Norton Pit, under 
Falmer Bottom, under the junction with the zone. 

Terehratulina ijracilis is one of the most delicate and 
beautiful fossils found in the chalk, or any other formation. 
It is very small, with one of the valves flat and fan-shaped. 
The other valve is slightly raised. It is difficult to find, unless 
the mealy weathering of the chalk has been washed off by 
heavy rains. The associated fossils of this zone are widely 
different from those of the zones above. One of the most 
striking changes is the absence of Echinocor>/s viilians 
{Ananchytes ovata), so predominant in the upper zones of the 
chalk. The presence of small Ammonites, altogether absent in 
the higher zones, the absence of Ventriculites, and the rather 
more frequent appearance of Univalves, all indicate a shallower 
sea. Discohlea dixoni is the only echinus, along with a form 
of Echbioconus coniciis, that are found in this zone. The 
former is not so common, perhaps, owing to the small exposure. 
Inoceramus labiatus is found abundantly. The other charac- 
teristic fossils are Cyphosoma corallare, two undetermined 
species of Inoceramus, Terehratula carnea, Terebratula semi- 
globosa, Tooth of Enchodus Lewesiensis, and many scales of 
Berijx, a fish of much interest, as it still survives in the deep 
waters of the present seas. 

Zone 9. — Ehi/ncJiomila curieri. A marked change in the 
character of the chalk is found in this zone. It is hard, of 
a darker colour, with dark nodules and streaks, indicating a 
still shallower water during the deposit. This zone is repre- 
sented in two small pits near Bevendean Farm and at 
Norton Farm, distant from the former two and three quarter 
miles in an easterly direction, and about the same elevation 
250 feet above the sea level ; also in the lower part of Saddlescombe 
Pit. The name-fossil is a small llhynchonella. It is common in 



37 

the pits named above, especially in Bevendean. It is not 
usually gi'egarions, but here it is more so than in Devonshire. 
There is another distinction, the zone is without flints in 
Devonshire ; in Bevendean they are quite common. The 
presence or absence of flints is not a safe guide throughout a 
zone. In the Marsnju'tes zone in Kent flints are almost 
absent, while in Brighton, near Eoedean Cottage, on the sea 
bed, flints form nearly one-third of the area. Small Ammo- 
nites are found at the middle of Falmer Bottom, their last 
appearance. They are more common in Norton pit, and still 
more so in Balsdean Pit, perhaps owing to the larger 
exposure. They are always in casts, and generally much 
crushed. The species of the specimens exhibited have not yet 
been determined. 

rinnotomaria pe7-spectiva is the only univalve found in 
Balsdean pit. Echinoconm mnicus occurs here in a form 
peculiar to the zone ; it is higher and more conical than the 
form in the Marsupitcx Zone. The absence of Echinoconns sub- 
rotitndiis indicates that the exposures are near to the top of the 
zone, coupled with the presence of Holaxter planus at the top of 
the small Bevendean pit. Spondi/lus spinosiis is present in 
Balsdean and Bevendean pits. It is much smaller than the 
form found in the Marsiqntes Zone. Two specimens from the 
same pit have not yet been identified ; they may be Spomb/lus 
(striata). Terebratulina striata appears in Norton pit. It is 
found everywhere in the chalk. Inoceramus labiatus is found 
in Falmer Bottom, Norton pit, Balsdean, and Bevendean. 
From its great abundance, mostly in casts, it is an excellent 
guide that you are either in the zone above or this. There are 
several species of Inocerami in Balsdean and Norton pits. 
Inoceramus cuvieri can be recognised, but the others, being 
mostly casts, are difficult to determine. Ostrea hippopodium is 
found in Balsdean ; it is more common in the upper zones. 
Terebratula carnea and Terebratula semi-globosa are very abundant 
in Bevendean and Balsdean pits. 

Zone 10, Grey Chalk. — A very small exposure on the 
Lewes Road, north of the Dyke near Fulking represents the 
upper part of the zone. The name- fossil Holaster sub-tjlobosus 
and Terebratulina carnea were found ; the original Holaster 
sub-ijlobosus was so damaged that I will have to place alongside 
a fine specimen from the grey chalk of Folkestone. 

Summary of Results. 

The discovery of a Zone of Uintacrinus and Micrasfer cor- 
antfitinunt in Kemp Town Quarry and the Dyke, of Micraster cor- 
testudinarium on the Balsdean Eoad, of Holaster planus at the 
top of Bevendean Pit, of Terebratulina ijracilis in Saddlescombe, 



88 

Falmer Bottom, Bevendean, Norton and Balsdean pits, of 
Ilhynclionella cnvieri in Bevendean, Norton and Balsdean pit, 
and of the Grey Chalk at Fulking, north of the Dyke Railway 
Station. 

The appearance and disappearance of forms of life is well 
defined, and the lesson is taught in all the Zones, — adaptation to 
altered conditions, or extinction, never to reappear in the same 
form. 



THURSDAY, MAY 8th. 

^omt f wbtstorrt Camping ®rounte 
tt^ar IBrijbton, 

BY 

Mr. HERBERT S. TOMS. 



BOTH previously to and during my six years' residence in 
Brighton, my favourite recreation has lain in scouring the 
country, at every available opportunity, in search of flint imple- 
ments and such other material as enables the archaeologist 
to construct, by synthetic and comparative methods, a fairly 
accurate account of what were the crafts, arts, and customs of the 
prehistoric inhabitants of Great Britain. Of my many rambles 
in the fair County of Sussex, which have been principally 
confined to the Downs, and of the success or disappointment 
attending them, I do not propose to give a detailed account. 
The object of the present paper is to lay before you, in the 
nature of a preliminary report, one result of my local "flint- 
hunting " expeditions during the last twelve months. 

Quite frequently the remark has been made to me that the 
flint tools of prehistoric men lie scattered broadcast over the 
surface of the Downs, and in such abundance as to be easily 
found if one takes the trouble to look for them. One of my 
friends even went so far as to inform me, in good humour, that he 
knew of a field where a waggonload might be obtained, and 
coupled it with the suggestion that my next tramp should be 
made to the site of this happy hunting-ground. This view of 
the subject may be a popular one ; but, judging from my own 



39 



experience, and that of other enthusiastic collectors J must 
emphatically state such a view to be erroneous and most m.s 

'"'B^efore coming to Brighton I had had sufficient training to 
enable me to detect any flint .mplement which lay u my path 
fliirinfr a walk across the fields or over the hills, and i/elt tuny 
q3ed to con'mence similar expeditions in the n-ghbourhood 
of BHRhton But, surprising as it now seems to me, my first two 
; a^s'Tearch in this diLict were very unproductive ones ; for no^ 
one flint axe rewarded my repeated -"ambles, and of the tew 

smaller flint implements I came ^"^''' '"''Z^.lZ'^ce \ntZ 
workmanship or presentable appearance as to mer t a place in the 
Museum coSectio'n. The resul*; of these disappomtmentsw^ 
extension of my field of explorations to more likely locahties Ut 
these Cissbury^comes first on the list. In the entrenchment itself 
discovered 'little of any value ^he best hm.t,nggound , I 
found, were the cultivated patches of Downland m j^^ ^.anity , 
and, in carefully and methodically working hese I ™et -^h 
much success. On my first visit I turned up no less than a 
dozen fliSaxes three only of which were perfect specimens. 
Durin/a" other V sit I waJ rewarded with an axe, a gouge, a 
Sr and a large boring instrument, the three latter being rare 
fypfs, hitherto unrepresented in our local collection of flint 

"^P^r"extended search in this district led to the observauon 
that the axes do fw( lie scattered broadcast over the hills, but that 
hey are confined to certain spots, and that where one finds a 
sinL specimen, several others may generally be revealed by a 
d iilent sea ch This fact also led me both to cultivate a minute 
Ob ervlnce of any evidence which would enable me to trace such 
^ductSve sites, Ld to the endeavour of fathoming the reason 
whv thev should occur in this manner. 

""^^ Such an observance was attended by the discovery that oth r 
prehistoric remains invariably and abundantly occur on thee 
sDots in close association with the flint axes, and, as these 
a?so iat^d emains have an important bearing on the subject^f 
mv paper I now propose to deal with them m detail. .For this 
Zpos^e i have selected typical examples from the various sie 
Sn the Downs As the initiated will observe, they consis of flint 
S^kesflrt cores' hammer-stones; the smaller flint implements 
suci? as crapers, needle-makers, arrow-shafters, rnd borers ; and 
tSe calcined Ss with which prehistoric man boiled water and 
cooked his food ^^^^^ ^j^^^^^^^^ ^^^ i„g^ ,3 

they do by tL thousand. 'These were either chips struck from a 
flint by prmitive man to serve for cutting or scraping purpose . 
othe'chip^ produced during the fabrication of some flint tool 
Lh as a^n ^axe. As the ordinary observer experiences the 



40 

utmost difficulty in distinguishing these artificial chips of flint 
from natural splinters, it is necessary for me to explain, at this 
point, how such artificial fractures differ from natural ones ; and, 
for this purpose, I shall have recourse to the most primitive 
method of producing a flint flake. 

" Let us suppose that the primitive savage required a 
cutting instrument, and that among the flints near at hand there 
were none with such naturally sharp edges as would fulfil his 
purpose. By experiment and research we know, in such a case, 
he selected from the flints near at hand one about the size of his 
fist, to serve as a hammer, and another of a convenient size from 
which to strike chips or flakes, which would also serve for cutting 
purposes. If the flint to be chipped was small, he held it in his 
hand to undergo the operation. If too large to be held comfort- 
ably in the hand, it was probably rested on the thigh : then, with 
a well-directed blow from his hammer-stone, he struck a chip 
from the other flint. Let us now examine such a chip or flake, as 
it is technically termed. We shall first observe that it has a flat 
top upon which the full force of the hanimer-stone was concen- 
trated. Directly underneath this flat top, and on the smooth side 
of the flake, which fits into the hollow from which it was struck, 
we observe a little rounded protuberence ; this is known as the 
bulb, or cone, of percussion. In a typical flake we then notice 
the existence of approximately concentric rays covering the flat 
surface of the flake on the same side as the bulb of percussion. 
In some instances these rays and the bulb of percussion are so 
pronounced as to give the flake the appearance of a fossil shell 
cast in flint ; the bulb of percussion simulating the umbo or top 
of the shell, and the concentric rays the divisions of its periodic 
growth. To this resemblance is due the coining of the term 
" conchoidal," or shelly fracture, now applied to the artificial to 
distinguish it from natural fractures which lack these character- 
istics. When we examine the hollow from which the flake was 
detached, we naturally observe the above characteristics in a 
reversed form. This hollow is known as a facet. 

" To proceed a stage further, let us assume our flint chipper 
has struck flake after flake from the same flint till none of its 
original surface remains, the whole being covered with the 
facets of the detached flakes. It is obvious that the next flake 
taken off will bear the imprint of one or more of the facets from 
which the previous flakes were removed. To produce a good 
symmetrical flake from such a core of flint, the blow should be 
delivered directly above the divisional line of two adjoining 
facets, the result will then be that this line will form a ridge 
running down the middle of the detached flake. 

" Flaking with the hammer-stone, as described above, is a 
knack not very readily acquired ; and, where the production of 
long, symmetrical flakes is concerned, it is extremely difficult. 



41 

necessitating, as it does, long, careful, and thoughtful practice. 
To obtain such a result as a flint flake, the flint to be chipped 
should be retained, by some means or other, in an elastic 
medium — an elastic medium, however, is not a sine qua non, 
although it is preferable — and the blow of the hammer-stone 
must be sharp and delivered with precision. 

" Lord Avebury has gone so far as to state that ' a flint flake 
is to the antiquary as sure a trace of man as the footprint in 
the sand ivas to Robinson Crusoe'* My observations, how- 
ever, enable me to say that this statement requires some 
modification. One would infer from such a remark that the 
production of a conchoidal fracture by any natural agency is a 
sheer impossibility. Such, though, is not the case. There are 
many ways in which flakes can be and are produced by natural 
causes where the underlying principle of flaking practically 
amounts to the same as the artificial process described above. 
One local instance will suffice in explanation : Maybe many of 
you have walked from Brighton to Rottingdean along the 
shore. If so you will have observed that wherever the rough 
seas had washed away the shingle between high and low water 
marks, it had laid bare the chalk floor. You will agree with me, 
too, that this uneven surface requires some circumspection to 
traverse in safety ; for the water left in the depressions seems 
to exert a great attraction over one's feet, and, in the endeavour 
to avoid these pools, the chances are manifold that one's ankles 
or shins become barked by the flint boulders projecting out of 
the chalk floor. Now it is to these boulders, held firmly in the 
chalky matrix, that I wish to draw your attention. Our first and 
lively impression is that they ate very abundant ; our second 
impression, on closer inspection, is that many of them dis- 
tinctly show conchoidal facets. Now, after I have emphatically 
stated that the knack of chipping flakes from a flint is not easily 
acquired, you will ask how the flaking on these rough boulders 
was produced. The answer is simple. It was effected by 
natural attrition with other loose boulders and pebbles, the 
motive power being supplied by the waves of the rough seas. 
By chance it happened that some few of the boulders and 
pebbles, swept to and fro by the waves, struck the projecting 
flint at the correct angle and with the proper force, and then 
off" flew a flake. Such chips, produced by the blind forces of 
nature, are irregular, unsymmetrical, and generally of small size, 
and a little practice enai)les one to distinguish with accuracy 
between this natural flaking and the comparatively beautiful and 
thoughtful workmanship of the hand of man. Whenever we come 
across a symmetrical or well-formed flake which exhibits the 
portions of at least two facets on its outer face, then, and then 

» Prehistoric Times, page 87. 



42 

ojily, I think we may dogmatically assert that such a flake is, in 
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, ' as sure a trace 0/ man as the 
footprint in the sand 7i>as to Robinson Critsoe.' "* 

As the majority of the flakes found in association with the 
axes on the productive spots are well-formed and show evidence 
of skilled workmanship, we may conclude they were produced by 
primitive man in fashioning his flint tools, or, as I have already 
mentioned, for use as cutting or scraping instruments. 

Before quitting these introductory remarks on artificial flint 
chips, there is yet another and an important characteristic 
exhibited by many of them to which I am tempted to draw 
your attention. In examining a collection of prehistoric flakes, 
one often observes specimens with a facet on the bulb of per- 
cussion (fig. 12) caused by the removal of a more or less minute 
flake. In scientific terminology, this little facet is known as an 
eraillure. It has recently been described as the secondary hall- 
mark of a man-made flakej, and has hitherto been maintained 
as a valuable criterion by the champions of the authenticity of the 
so-called Eolithic or Plateau implements and of the rude tools of 
early Palaeolithic times. 

Mr. W. J. Lewis Abbott, F.G.S., has explained the cause of 
an eraillure to himself in the following manner: — "In an 
ordinary blow one just brings the hammer upon the object, and 
is regardless of the rebound, which generally initiates the return 
motion, and thus is unrecognised ; but, when one wants to hit in 
a certain place, in a certain definite direction, there is an 
unconscious concentration of all muscular power to make the 
blow fall at that particular spot, and even keep the hammer there, 
and this voluntary muscular opposition offered to the uprise of the 
striker forces it back, occasioning a secondary but light blow. 
This can also be well seen and heard when one attempts to drive 
a nail in an awkward place by a series of slow, deliberate blows, 
each of which will be followed by a second involuntary tap. It is 
this tap which removes the small flake from the bulb of per- 
cussion, and produces the well-known eraillure. This, therefore, 
is characteristic of an intentionally directed blow. Upon sub- 
mitting a specimen to Mr. J. Allen Brown, F.G.S., he at once 
noticed this inestimable hall-mark. All experiments thus point 
to the eraillure as being altogether more important than a mere 
bulb of percussion, and, so far as we are aware, may be taken as 
a proof of man's work, as it can easily be seen among flakes inten- 
tionally removed from a block, but so far as is knoivn under no 
other circumstances."! 



Experiments in a Lost Art, by H. .S. Toms 

The Authenticity of the Plateau Implements, by W. J. Lewis 

Abbott, F.G..S., A'atural Science, vol. xii., page 114. 
IVorked Flints from the Cromer Forest Bed, by W. J. Lewis 
Abbott, F.G.S., A'atural Science, vol. x., pages 92-93. 



JImpUments from ^rrbistoric (Kamping CHrouiibs. 






Wf 










12 



Figs. 1-4, scrapers ; figf. s, combiaed needlemaker and scraper; figs. 6-8, needlemakers ; 
figs. 9-II, arrowshafters ; fig. 12, flake showing eraillure 



43 

Quite recently I have carried out a long series of flaking 
experiments in the endeavour to verify, if possible, Mr. Lewis 
Abbott's view with regard to the production of an iraillure, and 
as to its being such an inestimable hall-mark of man's handiwork ; 
but, so far, my efforts in this respect have led me to a very 
diflferent conclusion. 

In the first instance, my experiments have convinced me 
that, to produce a flake, the rebounding blow, which has been so 
harped upon, is not an absolute necessity. I have intentionally 
delivered blows at such angles as to render impossible a rebound 
or a re-striking of the flint with the hammer-stone, and, invari- 
ably, such a single blow has successfully detaclied a respectable 
flake ; and, what is of far more importance, many of the flakes 
so struck off" by single blows have exhibited the characteristic 
eraillure. This, therefore, entirely negatives Mr. Lewis Abbott's 
theoretical explanation as to its being due to the involuntary 
rebounding tap. Occasionally I have succeeded with a single 
blow in detaching a flake with two or more eraillures ; and, after 
careful consideration, to my mind, the most feasible explanation 
of their production lies in the uneven surface of the hammer- 
stone at the point of impact. At any rate, the existence of an 
eraillure on a flake cannot, in my opinion, be considered as 
characteristic of an intentionally delivered blow. I have instanced 
above the natural production of conch. -idal fractures, and, as my 
experiments have shown an eraillure can be and is often caused 
by a single blow, I see no reason why natural flakes should not 
bear the same characteristic. 

Reverting once more to the subject of my paper, I will now 
direct your attention to the flint cores 'Jhese are merely blocks 
of flint, generally of small size, covered with the facets of 
artificially detached flakes. They represent the residuum of large 
flint boulders from which prehistoric man chipped flakes of 
convenient sizes to make into cutting and scraping instruments. 
These also occur in abundance, and were evidently cast aside as 
useless when no flakes of the desired shape and size could be 
struck from them. It has been suggested that some of the 
smaller cores were used as sling-stones; but this is merely 
conjecture. As a rule they are not of any uniform size or shape, 
and the existence of shore pebbles with them points to the 
inference that the latter would by preference have been used as 
sling-stones if, indeed, the sling were in use in this part of the 
country in prehistoric times. 

The flints which prehistoric man used as hammer-stones in 
flaking next claim our attention. These, too, are by no means 
uncommon, and are invariably turned up wherever other evidence 
of primitive man abounds. They are, as you will observe in the 
examples exhibited, generally round flints— occasionally shore 
pebbles — which rarely exceed the size of one's fist, and are more 



44 

or less covered with comparatively minute indentations. These 
indentations, moreover, form the principal evidence which goes 
to prove they were used as hammer-stones ; for, by experiment, 
one ascertains not only that flints of this shape and size are the 
most convenient to handle and of the right weight to produce the 
force necessary to detach a flake, but that continuous chipping 
results in giving them similar indentations, and, in fact, the exact 
appearance of the hammer-stone of prehistoric times. Occasion- 
ally one comes across a flint core which has been used as a 
hammer-stone. 

Of the smaller flint implements awaiting description, the 
most common is the scraper (figs. 1-4). This tool is invariably 
a flint flake re-chipped to a round and bevelled edge. I'he 
opinion is that these scrapers were used by primitive man in 
dressing the skins of animals ; for, among the Eskimos, a 
similar instrument was, and — I believe I am correct in so 
stating — is still used for the same purpose. Several of these 
Eskimo scrapers are to be seen in the principal Museums of 
Europe and America, and, in his classic work on Stone Imple- 
ments, Sir John Evans figures one as a comparison with the 
scrapers of prehistoric times.* Many of the scrapers one finds 
on the Downs are beautifully formed, and, as they are of all 
shapes and sizes, the proljability is they were used for a variety of 
purposes in a variety of ways. Judging by my own experiments 
in flint chipping, I may say these little tools are easily and 
rapidly made, and to this may be due the fact of their occurrence 
in such numbers. 

I now ask you to closely examine the two scrapers which 
have little semicircular notches chipped out of their edges 
(fig. 5). With these are arranged a number of flakes which also 
exhibit similar notches of varying sizes. It is evident they 
were used as a spoke-shave for scraping or pointing some cylin- 
drical object. In Natural Science is figured a similarly notched 
flake of white quartz, which is described as having been used by 
the Red Indians of the Sacramento Valley, U.S.A., for pointing 
their bone needles, t The notches in many of the local flakes 
would seem to have been serviceable for a similar purpose. In 
others, though, the notches are much too large for this, and 
might have been employed for scraping or smoothing the shafts 
of arrows or other wooden articles. Such hollow or concave 
scrapers have therefore been provisionally termed, according to 
their respective sizes, bone needle makers(figs. 6-8) and arrow- 
shafters (figs. 9-11)- These needle-makers occur nowhere so 
abundantly as on the Sussex Downs, and it at first occurred to 

* Ancient Stone Implements, p. 268, fig. 203. 

t The Authenticity of ihe Plateau Implements, by W. J. Lewis 
Abbott, F.G.S., Natural Science, vol. xii., No. 72, plate vi., fig. 38. 



45 

me that the majority of the little notches might have been pro- 
duced naturally. In order to ascertain whether this might be the 
case, I devoted some time to the endeavour to reproduce them 
both on the old surface flakes and on flakes newly struck from a 
flint. My attempts to fashion such semi-circular notches by 
blows from a small hammer-stone, a pointed flint, or the edge of 
another flake ended in a complete failure. Further experiment 
convinced me that the majority of the smaller and well-formed 
notches could only have been \ roduced by quite a different and 
more refined mode of flaking; the flaking instrument used being 
a ])ointed piece of bone or horn, and the minute flakes being 
detached by pressure and not by blows. Not a little skill, too, 
is required for the operation ; although, once the knack of 
flaking by pressure is acquired, they are readily and quickly 
made. 

Having satisfied myself as to the very probable method 
emplo\ed in the intentional production of these needle-makers, 
another question arose, namely, could any of the notches 
have been produced unintentionally by prehistoric man during 
the operation of fashioning his bone spears, bone awls, or 
needles with the sharp edge of a flake ? The bone handle of 
an old tooth brush with angular sides came as a timely aid at this 
point in my investigations. With the edge of a flake I not only 
made its sides rapidly assume a convex form, but I found that 
the pressure against the edge of the flake had detached a number 
of minute chips, resulting in the formation of a concave notch of 
the same size and shape as the convex edge of the tooth brush. 
On comparing my handiwork with the prehistoric needle-makers, 
I saw, much to my gratification, that it was an exact replica of 
the smaller kinds. This simple experiment leads me to believe 
that many of the ancient specimens were unintentionally formed 
in a similar manner. Personally, I think we may take for granted 
that but few of the notches on these hollow scrapers were 
naturally produced. In the case of the larger specimens, it is 
probable that many of them were fashioned by blows from a 
pointed stone, as I have succeeded in reproducing several in this 
manner. 

In speaking of the arrow-shafters, Dr. Thomas Wilson, of 
the United States National Museum, says : "The scrapers with 
a concave edge, for scraping arrows, are rarely found in pre- 
historic collections. . . . The United States National 
Museum possesses some, but not many. They seem not to have 
been recognised or cared for, and were not gathered by 
collectors." * 

* Arroivpohits, Spearheads^ atid Knives of Prehistoric Times, 
by Thomas Wilson, LL. U., Annual Report Smithsonian Institute, 
1897, p. 885. 



46 

The small tools, termed borers, require little description. 
In the majority of instances they are flakes chipped to a sharp 
point to serve as boring or piercing instruments. In regarding 
these, the ordinary observer may feel rather sceptical as to their 
boring or piercing capabilities ; but experiment proves they 
admirably answer the purpose of boring holes in wood or bone. 
This I successfully demonstrated to some sceptical friends by 
boring a perfectly circular hole with one of these rude tools 
through the handle of a hat brush. The discovery of these 
borers in connection with the flint axes is a rare occurrence, 
and but few have hitherto rewarded my many rambles over the 
Downs. 

With the exception of the flint axes, the tools described above 
are not such as could have been well employed as weapons of 
offence or defence. They evidently served more pacific purposes 
in the doirestic phase of primitive man's life ; and, we may 
depend, they played an important part in the preparation of 
animal hides as clothing, the covering of their huts or tents, &c. 
Of the existence of habitations on these productive sites there is 
an entire lack of evidence ; but, that food was cooked or water 
boiled on these spots, there is a profusion of proof existing in the 
enormous quantities of what are known as "pot-boilers," or 
cooking stones. From the examples exhibited you wiU perceive 
they are approximately round flints, of varying sizes, and that they 
differ in colour from ordinary flints, as well as in the multitude of 
cracks which extend through them in every direction. This 
greyish tint and cracked appearance can only be reproduced in 
one way, namely, by heating flints to a high temperature, either 
directly or indirectly, by fire. In the fortified camps of pre- 
historic man these burnt flints occur in thousands; and it is now 
generally recognised among archaeologists that they were 
employed in the cooking operations of the prehistoric tribes, 
who, like many savages of recent years, had no pottery or other 
vessels which would stand the heat of the fire. 

The following quotation from Professor Tylor will give you 
a fair idea of this method of stone-boiling as it obtained among 
the savages of North .America : — 

" There is a North American tribe who received from their 
neighbours, the Ojibwas, the name of Assinaboins, or Stone- 
Boilers, from their mode of boiling their meat, of which Catlin 
gives a particular account. They dig a hole in the ground, take 
a piece of animal's raw hide, and press it down with their hands 
close to the sides of the hole, which thus becomes a sort of pot 
or basin. This they fill with water, and they make a number of 
stones red-hot in a fire close by. The meat is put into the water, 
and the stones dropped in till the meat is boiled. Catlin 
describes the process as awkward and tedious, and says that, 
since the Assinaboins had learnt from the Mandans to make 



47 



DOtterv and had been supplied with vessels by the traders, they 
had enth-ely done away wifh the custom, 'excepting at pubic 
festival where they seem, like all others of the human family 
o tike pleasure in cherishing and perpetuating their ancient 
customs '^Elsewhere, among the Sioux or Dacotas, to ^^•hom the 
STboins belong, the tradition has been F-rved that the. 
fathers used to cook game in its own skin, which they set up on 
four sticks panted in the ground, and put water, meat, and hot 
tones into I. The Sioux had the art of stone-boihng in common 
with tie mass of the northern tribes. Father Charlevoix 
wr tingabove a century ago, speaks of the Indians of the North 
Ts using wooden kettles and boiUng water in them by throwing m 
red hot stones, but, even then, iron pots were superseding both 
hese vessels and he pottery of other tribes. Jo specify more 
par icula ly, the Micmacs and the Souriquo s, the Blackfeet and 
fhe Crees, are known to have been stone-boilers; the bhoshonees 
or Snake Indians, like the far more northerly tribes of Slaves, 
DogRiS, &c.. still make, or lately --de, their pots of roots 
plaited, or rather twined, so closely that they will hold water 
boiling their food in them with hot stones; wh. e west o 
the Rocky Mountains, the Indians use smiilar baskets to bo 1 
salmon, acorn porridge, and other foods in, or wooden vessels 
such as Captain Cook found at Nootka Sound, and La Perouse 
at Port rSusais. Lastly, Sir Edward Belcher met with the 
practice of stone-boiling, in 1826, among the Esquimaux at Icy 

^^^^In* Australasia and many of the Polynesian Islands the 
practice of stone-boiling was in universal use until comparatively 
recent times. It is now, however, being rapidly superseded by 
the introduction of metal pots and pans of European ongm. 1 he 
large wooden bowl on the table is said to have been used by the 
inhabitants of Banks Island, New Hebrides, in conjunction with 
heated stones for cooking food. „ j , k^;i^„ 

It has been suggested that many of the so-called pot-boilers 
found on the cultivated patches of the Downs are merely flints 
which have been accidentally burnt in couch or other refuse 
heaps. This may be the case in a few instances ; but the genuine 
articles are readily recognised by their aged aud weathered appear- 
ance and also by their sinilarity with the undoubted specimens 
from' the prehistoric entrenchments and habitation sites. 

Having completed my brief and analytic description of the 
remains found in association on these productive spots, we will 
now turn to the Ordnance Survejs, and note the positions of a 
few of the most typical of such sites which I have discovered and 
paid repeated visits to during the past year or so. In the 
neighbourhood of Cissbury you will observe there are three. One 

* Early History of Mankind, pp. 263-264. 



48 

on the crest of Lychpole Hill, about half a mile south-east of the 
entrenchment ; another about 400 yards to the east ; and the 
other on the spur of the Downs, known as Mount Carvey, which 
slopes from Cissbury towards Broadwater. Flakes, cores, scrapers, 
cooking stones, refuse axes, i<zc., are to be found in spots 
throughout the length and breadth of this latter spur; but ths 
example marked on the map has proved the most typical and 
most productive. The areas of these and the other sites I have 
yet to mention are very varied, some being less than a quarter of 
an acre in extent, whilst, in others, the " finds " lay scattered in 
groups over several acres. 

The next ordnance sheet shows the positions of three com- 
paratively small but very productive sites bordering the summit 
of the eastern escarpment of the Downs in the neighbourhood of 
Beachy Head. For the purpose of reference I have indicated 
these respectively as A, B, and C. A is situated on the northern 
slope of Crapham Hill, C on Pea Down, and B about half a mile 
north on the same spur of the Downs known us the Peak. In 
this district I have failed to come across one perfect axe, my 
discoveries being confined to refuse portions of small but 
beautifully chipped axes, and to the usual well-formed flakes, 
showing evidence of expert workmanship, scrapers, needle makers, 
&c. On site B an acquaintance of mine recently discovered a 
perfect and delicately worked barbed arrowhead when walking 
over the ground with me. 

The marked scarcity of large and complete axes in this dis- 
trict is, in my opinion, obviously due to the depredations of the 
ubiquitous stone-picker. Last year, when working the Beachy 
Head district, I came across a dozen men, women, and boys who 
were engaged in picking flints for road material from the cuUivated 
land, and I found that, owing to their frequent conversations with 
collectors, every man, woman, and boy had become possessed of 
sufficient knowledge to recognise a " war-stone " — the name it has 
pleased them to give a flint axe — whose value might represent 
anything from sixpence to as many shillings, according to the 
excellence of the specimen and to the length of the collector's 
purse. But, in many instances, the stone-picker is not so 
acquainted with a rudimentary knowledge of these artificially 
chipped flmts, and consequently many (yes, very many) beautiful 
specimens are gathered and subsequently cracked up as road 
material. In this way the Downs are being rapidly denuded of 
the flint implements. Happily, however, the majority of the 
smaller tools are left behind, and thus afford sufficient evidence to 
enable one to still trace the spots where they most abound. 

Last year, when walking by the side of the cultivated field 
which adjoins the Dyke Road in front of the Booth Museum, — 
the site Mr Councillor Garden lately proposed as a new park for 
Brighton, — my eye was arrested by a beautiful little scraper which 



49 

lay within reach of my walking stick just over the wire fence. 
This led me to trespass and to the discovery that the surface of 
the field near the fence was covered with flakes and cooking 
stones. I then applied to Mr. J. J. Clark for permission to walk 
over the field, which he kindly granted me. Since then I have 
repeatedly worked the field, and have found that the cooking 
stones, flakes, scrapers, needle-makers, cores, &c., occur more or 
less in groups over its whole surface. Of the larger implements I 
have only discovered the halves of flint axes, both rough and 
polished, including a large roughly chipped axe, probably a waster, 
which has subsequently proved one of the most interesting surface 
implements I have yet found. Its special characteristic is a small 
patch of glaze on one of the facets, which Professor Boyd Dawkins 
says is identical with that hitherto only observed on a few of the 
older river-drift implements.* The question of the origin of this 
natural glaze is yet unsolved. It is, moreover, a question which 
cannot detain us on the present occasion. 

The next spot to be mentioned is the most typical I have to 
bring before your notice. This is situated in the open fields on 
each side of the Dyke Road just beyond the last reservoir and 
about half-way from the clock tower to the Dyke. Here I have 
discovered several fine and perfect axes, and some of the most 
beautiful scrapers I have ever seen. With these, too, were 
associated the usual quantities of flakes, cooking stones, and 
many of the other smaller flint tools. 

The finest axe it has ever been my lot to add to the 
Museum collection, I accidentally turned up about two years ago 
near the south-western summit of Newmarket Hill, known locally 
as Norton Top. This is now shown mounted in a wooden 
handle of very modern appearance to represent the probable 
style of hafting. Its discovery induced me to thoroughly work 
the brow of the hill and the cultivated land in its vicinity as far 
as the growth of the crops would allow. But, with the exception 
of one small but prolific spot near Wick Farm, a quarter of a 
mile to the south-west of the hill, this locality at first proved very 
barren. This particular spot, the last I have to bring before your 
notice, was absolutely littered with delicate flakes. Cooking 
stones, too, were in abundance, and, associated with them, were 
many finely worked scrapers, including several of exceptionally 
small size. Befoie leaving this part of the Downs, I may 
mention that Norton Top has recently been laid bare of its crops 
and so enabled me to give it a thorough overhaul. A few 
solitary pot-boilers lie strewn here and there over its surface 
unaccompanied by any of the smaller flint implements; but, not 
far from the spot where the flint axe was found, there are 

* PalcBolithic Implements from Savernake, by Edgar Willett, M.B., 
Journal of ihe Anthropological Institute, vol. xx.\i., page 310. 



50 

hundreds of well-formed flakes grouped together and confined to 
small spaces only a few square yards in extent. Such spots as the 
latter are commonly termed fabrication sites, or, in other words, 
places where primitive man made a halt or periodic visits in order to 
dig into the clayey mould capping the hillside for flints from which 
to make his flint tools. Whether either of these represents the spot 
where the axe exhibited was fabricated, it is of course impossible 
to say, although it is probable, owing to the axe exhibiting no 
sign of ever having been u.sed. 

This brings me to the conclusion of my brief description of 
these productive sites and of the implements found in association 
on them. There are many others scattered over the Downs in 
the three districts mentioned ; but, as yet, I have not had 
sufficient leisure to overhaul them thoroughly, and I have 
deferred marking their positions on the maps till this has been 
done. They are by no means conmion, and often, when I have 
set out on a prospecting tour over the Downs, 1 have walked 
miles without coming across a single flake, cooking-stone, or the 
least trace of a new site. Those I have already discovered are 
generally situated on or quite near some eminence which 
commands a wide view of the surrounding country. 

From the array of evidence we may deduce the obvious 
conclusion that these productive areas were frequented by the 
members of some primitive tribe, not only for the purpose of 
boiling water or cooking food, but for making their flint tools and 
for preparing animal hides as clothing, tent coverings, and other 
articles for domestic use. l^acking a better term, I have therefore 
given these sites the name of " Camping Grounds." 

The problem now inviting our solution is the question as to 
what period may we assign these camping grounds. Judging by 
the nature of the " finds," many of you may have no hesitation 
in saying we may at once relegate them to a position in the 
Neolithic phase of the Stone Age. Before venturing any opinion, 
however, it is necessary that we examine the evidence of the 
extent and duration both of flint chipping and of the practice of 
stone-boiling in the south of England. From the character of 
the exhibits I think we may safely emit any reference to the older 
stone periods, and confine our attention to the consideration of 
the later prehistoric and early historic times. 

In the Neolithic period, flint chipping in England had not 
only merged from a craft into a fine art, but it had attained its 
highest degree of perfection. As to the duration of this high 
standard of excellence we are unable to say, but recent research 
seems to point to the inference that the art exhibited little sign of 
decadence till the transitional peiiod of the substitution of bronze 
tools for those of stone was far advanced. Moreover, the 
abundance of flakes, scrapers, hammer-stones, &c., found in 
association with the remains of the Bronze, Early Iron, and 



51 

Roman Ages clearly shows that a modified form of flint chipping 
long survived the introduction of the use of metals. If we take 
into consideration the fabrication of flint flakes for use as strike- 
a-lights and gun-flints, we may trace its continuity through 
prehistoric and early historic times right down to the present day. 
Viewing the discoveries of burnt flints, or pot-boilers, in a 
similar light, we find there are authentic records of their invariable 
and abundant occurrence in association with the remains of the 
Neolithic, Bronze, Early Iron, and Roman Periods, thus showing 
the practice of stone-boiling and flint chipping survived together 
from the Neolithic period down into early historic times. A pot- 
boiler, flint flake, scraper, &c., found on the surface of the 
Downs, may consequently belong to any one of the above ages ; 
and the difficulty of assigning even an approximate period to 
such surface finds will now be very apparent. 

Before proceeding further, I would acquaint you with yet 
another interesting survival, namely, the hand-made pottery of 
prehistoric times. In a former paper read to this Society,* I 
pointed out the rare occurrence of pottery in any shape or form in 
association with the remains of the Neolithic people. From the 
few fragments hitherto discovered, we know it to be a coarse and 
badly-baked hand-made type of pottery. In the succeeding 
period — the Bronze Age— the pottery exhibits evidence of great 
improvement, though it was still of a coarse character and made 
solely by the hand. Moreover, judging by the complete 
specimens and the enormous number of fragments invariably 
found with the remains of this age, pottery seems to have been 
in universal use. Of the introduction of the potter's wheel during 
the Early Iron Age, we have ample proof in the number of 
" lathe-turned " specimens discovered, and the universal adoption 
of the potter's wheel in Roman times must have been so well 
shown in my former paper as to need no further comment here. 
At a recent meeting of this Society, there were exhibited five 
cinerary urns, presented to the Museum by Mr. W. Henry 
Campion, which were found in the sand pit at Hassock's Gate 
last year, associated with a number of Roman pots, the majority 
of the latter also containing cremations. In fact, judging by 
the nature of the various " finds," the place seems to have been 
the site of a Roman Cemetery. As you may have observed, the 
five urns are all hand-made, and similar, in every respect, to 
those of the Bronze Age Their occurrence, therefore, with 
Roman pottery in a Roman Cemetery, and not according to the 
stereotyped modes of burial which obtained in the Bronze Age, 
at first seems very problematical. But, in excavations made by 



* The Pottery of Prehistoric and Roman Britain, by H. S. Toms ; 
Proceedings ot Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philoso- 
phical Society, 1900-1901. 



52 

the late General Pitt Rivers, F.R.S., many fragments of hand- 
made pottery, identical with the two qualities of these coarse 
urns, were frequently found in connection with "lathe-turned" 
pottery and other Roman relics. These urns, though, are the 
first and only instance I know of complete specimens of this 
type of pottery occurring with Roman remains. The above facts 
point to the inference that the fabrication of the primitive, hand- 
made type of pottery long survived the introduction of the potter's 
wheel in the South of England ; and, hence, another difficulty 
arises, namely, that of assigning an exact period to any specimen 
of hand-made pottery one happens to find out on the Downs. 

I fear by this time the question as to the probable age of the 
camping grounds seems bristled with difficulties. But let us now 
take a retrospective view of the whole situation. We have seen 
it is not an infrequent occurrence to find handmade pottery, 
cooking stones, and the smaller flint implements with Roman and 
the so-called Late Celtic remains ; and, that where they are thus 
discovered, they are invariably accompanied by numerous 
fragments of the pottery of the periods in question. The latter 
remark equally applies to the Bronze Age, for, wherever the 
Bronze-using Briton went, he seems to have taken his pots and 
pans with him ; and, if we may judge by the multitude of the 
shards occurring with his remains, the ceremony of " washing up," 
in those days, must have often been attended with drastic results. 

Now I have been constantly on the look-out for the 
occurrence of pottery, in any shape or condition, on the camping 
grounds, in the hope it might afford some clue as to the period 
to which they belong. But, with one solitary exception, I have 
entirely failed in this respect. The exception was the discovery 
of a small fragment of Romano-British pottery on the camping 
ground near the Dyke Road Reservoir ; but the utter invalidity 
of such a piece of surface evidence was singularly demonstrated 
by the immediate discovery, on the same spot, of another 
fragment of pottery which bore the magic inscription that a 
certain brewery was located in such-and-such a place. This 
combined discovery gave rise to the remarkable query as to 
whether the camping ground in question belonged to the period 
of the Roman Occupation or to the flourishing period of 
Tamplin's Fine Ales ! 

After such a preamble of conflicting theories, I will, in 
conclusion, venture my opinion as to the age of the camping 
grounds. The fact that the flint axes found on these sites are 
purely Neolithic in character, and that they occur nowhere so 
abundantly as in association with the smaller implements and 
cooking stones, coupled with the strong negative evidence which 
exists in the marked absence of pottery of any shape or kind, 
seems, to me, to point to only one conclusion, namely, that these 
camping grounds are distinctly those of the Neolithic tribes. 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE iith, 1902. 



Annual ®^n^ral Meeting. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE iith, 1902. 



During the past year six Papers have been read, the full titles 
of which are appended, at the Ordinary Meetings of the Society. 
In addition to these two Lectures have been given by Prof. 
Flinders Petrie and Mr. Fred. Enock respectively, to which the 
public have been admitted on payment. Notwithstanding the 
attractive nature of their subjects and the eminence of the 
lecturers the Council regrets that the attendance was not so large 
as might have been expected. It will therefore be a matter for 
serious consideration whether this plan of providing popular 
Lectures shall be continued. 

Mr. Pankhurst, who had been for sixteen years Scientific 
Secretary of the Society, resigned that position last October. He 
has, however, in the absence of a successor, assisted the Secretary 
in the work wich which he was so familiar. The Council cannot 
part with Mr. Pankhurst after so many years' service as Honorary 
Secretary without expressing their deep sense of the obligation 
which the Society is under to him for his valuable assistance. 
The Council regrets that hitherto they have been unable to find a 
gentleman willing to undertake the duties of the office which he 
vacated. 

There were two Excursions, namely, on June 22nd, 1901, to 
Wiston, and May 24th, 1902, to Worth Forest, Balcombe. A 
third Excursion to Ashdown Forest was arranged, but postponed 
through inclement weather. 

Papers read at Ordinary Meetings : — 

1901. 
Nov. 14th. " Polar Problems, Arctic and Antarctic."^ — 

Mr. Miller Christy. 



5i 

Uec. nth. "Parasites, Vegetable and Animal." — 

Mr. D. E. Caush. 
1902. 
Jan. 15th. Evening for Exhibition of Specimens. Short Paper 
on "Some Optical Illusions." — 

Mr. E. A. Pankhurst. 

Feb. 20th. " British Vegetable Galls." — 

Mr. E. T. CoNXOi.D, F.E.S. 

April 10th. "The Zones of the Chalk near Brighton." — 

Mr. W. McPherson, F.G.?. 

May 8th. " Some Prehistoric Camping Grounds near Brighton." 

Mr. H. S. Toms. 

In addition to these two l^ectures have been given in the 
Pavilion, to which the pubhc were admitted on payment, viz. : — 
On October 17th, 1901, by Prof. Flinders PKXRiEon "Excavating 
in Egypt and its Results," and on March 4tii, 1902, by Mr. Fred. 
Enock on " Insect Architects and Engineers." 



LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 



The rebuilding of the Public Library has caused the closing 
of the Society's Library during the past three months, and a 
detailed report is accordingly postponed till next year. It is 
expected that by November, at latest, issues will be resumed ; and 
a new catalogue will then be prepared. The new conditions 
which the new buildings will necessitate will doubtless be favour- 
able to an increase in the utility of the Library. 

H. DAVEY, JUNR., 

J/on. Librarian. 



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57 



BOTANICAL. 



The following plants have 
Herbarium since igci : — 

Pea bulbosa. 
Eriophorum vaginatum. 
Vaterianella dentata, b. mixta. 
Potaniogeton obtusifolius. 
Crepis setosa. 
Silene dichotoma. 
Alopecurus fulvus. 
niplotaxis tenuifolia. 
Zanthium strumarium. 



been added to the Society's 

Brighton Racehill. 

Amberley Wildbrooks. 

Clayton. 

Barcombe. 

Newmarket Hill Road. 

Rottingdean. 

Ashdown forest. 

Newhaven. 

Kingston-by-Sea. 

T. HILTON, 

Curator. 



RESOLUTIONS, &c., PASSED AT THE 
49th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



After the Reports and Treasurer's Account had been read, 
it was resolved — 

"That the Report of the Council, the Treasurer's stitement 
(subject to its being audited and found correct), and the 
Librarian's Report be received, adopted, and printed lor 
circulation as usual." 

The Secretary reported that in pursuance of Rule 25 the 
Council had selected the following gentlemen to be Vice-Presi- 
dents of the Society for the ensuing year — 

" Mr. J. E. Hnselwood, Dr. A. Newsholme, Mr. D. E. Caush, 
Mr. E. J. retitfouit. B.A., F.C.P., Mr. J. P. Slingsby Roberts, 
Dr. E. McKellar, Deputy Surgeon (General, J.P , Mr. 
A. G. Henriques, J. P., Dr. W. J. Treutler, and Mr. \V. 
Clarkson Wallis." 



58 

And that in pursuance of Rule 42 the Council had appointed 
the following gentlemen to be Honorary Auditors — • 

" Mr. J. W. Nias and Mr. A. F. Graves." 

It was proposed by Mr. H. W. Ch.\rrington, seconded by 
Mr. H. Davev, and resolved — 

"That the following gentlemen be Officers of the Society for 
the ensuing year : — President : Mr. E. Alloway I'ankhurst ; 
Ordinary Members of Council : Mr W. W. .Mitcliell, Mr. 
E. Payne, M.A., Mr. F. R. Richardson, Mr. (;. Morgan, 
L.R.C.P.. Dr. R. J. Ryle, Mr. Waltet Harrison, D.M.D. ; 
Honoraiy Treasurer : Mr. E A. T. Breed; Honorary 
IJbra7-ian ; Mr H. Davey, Jun. ; Honorary Curators : Mr. 
H. S. Toms and Mr. T. Hilton ; Honorary Secretary : Mr. 
J. Colbatch f'lark, 9, Marlborough Place ; Assistant 
Honorary Secretary: Mr. H. Cane." 

It was proposed by Mr. D. E. Caush, seconded by Mr. 
J. E. Haselwood, and resolved — 

"'J'hat the best thanks of the Society be given 10 Mr. W 
Clarkson Wallis for iiis attention to the interests of the 
Society as its President during the past two years." 

It was proposed by Mr. J. H. Sussex Hall, .seconded by 
Mr. J. E. Haselwood, and resolved — 

" That the sincere thanks of the Society be given to the Vice- 
Presidents, the Council, the Honorary Librarian, the 
Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary Curator, the Honorarj' 
.'\udilors, and the Honorary .Secretaries, for their services 
during the past year." 



SOCIETIES ASSOCIATED 

WITH WHICH THE SOCIETY EXCHANGES PUBLICATIONS, 

And whose Presidents and Secretaries are ex-officio Members 
of the Society : — 

British Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, Cambridge Hall, Barrow-in- 
Furness. 

Belfast Naturalists' F'ield Club, c o G. Donaldson, 8, Mileriver 
Street, Belfast. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 

Boston Society of Natural Science (Mass., U.S.A.). 



59 

British and American Archaeological Society, Rome. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society. 

City of London Natural History Society. 

Chester Society of Natural Science. 

Chichester and West Sussex Natural History Society. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club, Public Hall, 

Ooydon. 
City of London College of Science Society, White Street, 

Moorfields, E.C. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, U.S.A. 

Eastbourne Natural History Society. 
Edinburgh Geological Society. 

Epping Forest and County of Essex Naturalist Field ("lub. West 
Ham Institute. 

Folkestone Natural History Society. 

Geologists' Association. 

Geological Society of Mexico. 

Glasgow Natural History Society and Society of Field Naturalists. 

Hampshire Field Club. 
Huddersfield NaturaHst Society, 

Leeds Naturalist Club. 

Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, Stone, Staffs. (Wells 

Bladen, Secretary). 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, Hazlemont, The Boulevard, 

Nottingham. 
Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., U.S.A. 
Quekett Microscopical Club. 

Royal Microscopical Society. 

Royal Society. 

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 

South Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Southport Society of Natural Science, Rockley House, Southport. 

Societe Beige de Microscopic, Bruxelles. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

Watford Natural History Society. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 



60 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



JSriobton ant> Ibove iRatural Ibtstorp an& 
IpbilosopFMcal Society, 

1902. 



N. B. — Members are particularly requested to notify any Change of 
Address at once to Mr. J. C. Clark, g, Marlborough 
Place, Brighton. When not othenvise stated in the 
following List the Address is in Brighton. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Abbey, Henry, Fair Lee Villa, Kemp Town. 
AsHER, Rev. F., 33, Clifton Terrace. 
AsHTON, C. S., lo, Powis Grove. 
Attree, G. F., 8, Hanover Crescent. 

Badcock., Lewis C, M.D., M.R.C.S., lo, Buckingham Place. 

Bevan, Bertrand. 

Bevan, a. S. B , Coolavin, Harrington Road. 

Billing, T., 80, King's Road. 

Booth, E., 53, Old Steine. 

Breed, E. A. T., 32, Grand Parade. 

Brown, J. H., 6, (Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Brown, George, Cottesmore, The Upper Drive. 

Bull, W., 75, St. Aubyns, Hove. 

Burrows, W. S., B.A., M.R.C.S., 62, Old Steine. 

Burchell, E., L.RC.P., 5, Waterloo Place. 

Carter, Y. W., 47, Buckingham Road. 
Cane, H., 173, Uitchling Road. 
Catt, Reginald J., 28, West Hill Street. 
C.\USH, D. E., 1>.D.S., 63, Grand Parade. 
Charrington, H. W., 23, Park Crescent. 



61 

Clark, J. Colbatch, 9, Marlborough Place. 

CoLMAN, Alderman J., T-P-, '4, King's Gardens, Hove. 

Cox, A. H., J.P., 35, VVellington Road. 

Davey, Henry, J. P., 82, Grand Parade. 

Davey, Henry, Junr., 82, Grand Parade. 

Denman, S., 26, Queen's Road. 

DoDD, A. H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 45, St. John's I'errace, Hove. 

Draper, Dr., Municipal School of Technology. 

Edmonds, H., B.Sc, Municipal School of Technology. 
Elgee, E., Mountjoy, Preston. 

Ewart, Sir J., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., Bewcastle, 
Dyke Road. 

Fletcher, W. H. B., J. P., Bersted Lodge, Bognor. 

Gilkes, J. H., 6, Hanover Crescent. 
Graves, A. F., 9A, North Street Quadrant. 
Griffith, A., 59, Montpelier Road. 
Grove, E., Norlington, Preston. 

Hall, Sussex J., Ship Street. 

Hannah, I. 

Hack, D., Fircroft, Withdean. 

Harrison, W., D.M.D., 6, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Haselwood, J. E., 3, Richmond Terrace. 

Haynes, J. L., 24, Park Crescent. 

Henriques, A. G., F.GS., J. P., 9, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

HiCKLEY, G. 92, Springfield Road. 

Hilton, T., 16, Kensington Place. 

HoBBS, J., 62, North Street. 

HOBHOUSK, E., M.D., 36, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Holder, J. J., 8, Lome Villas. 

Horton, W. T., 42, Stanford Road. 

Howi.ETT, J. VV., 4, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Infield, H. J., Sylvan Lodge, Upper Lewes Road. 

Jacomb, Wykeham, 72, Dyke Road. 

Jenner, J. H. A., Lewes. 

Jennings, A. O., LL.B., 11, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

Johnston, J., 12, Bond Street. 

Jones, J. J., 49, Cobden Road. 

Langton, H., M.R.C.S., II, Marlborough Place. 

Lav/, J., Crosthwaite, Lewes. 

Lewis, J., C.E., F.S.A., Fairholme, Maresfield. 

Loader, Kenneth, 5, Richmond Terrace. 



62 

McKellar, E., Deputy-Surgeon-General, M.I)., J. P., Woodleigh, 

Preston. 
Maguire, E. C, M.D., 9, Old Steine. 
May, F. T- C, 25, Compton Avenue. 
Merrifield, F., 24, Vernon 'I'errace. 
Mills, J., 24, North Road. 
Mitchell, W. W., 66, Preston Road. 
Morgan, G., L.R.C.P., M.R.CS., 6, Pavilion Parade. 
MusTON, S. H., 54, Western Road. 
McPherson, T., 4, Bloomsbury Place. 
Mansfield, H., i i, Grand Avenue, Hove. 

Neyi^march, Major-General, 6, Norfolk Terrace. 

Newsholme, a., M.D., M.R.C.P., 11, Gloucester Place. 

Nias, J. W., 65, Freshfield Road. 

Nicholson, W. E., F.E.S., Lewes. 

Norman, S. H., Burgess Hill. 

Norris, E. L., 8, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Pankhurst, E. a., 3, Clifton Road. 

Paris, G. De, Norfolk Road. 

Payne, W. H., 6, Springfield Road. 

Payne, E., Hatchiands, Cuckfield. 

Penney, S R., Larkbarrow, Dyke Road Drive. 

Petitfourt, E. J., B.A., F.C.P., 16, Cheshani Street. 

PuGH, Rev. C, 13, Eaton Place. 

PuTTiCK, \V., Brackenfell, Hassocks. 

PoPLEY, VV. H., 13, Pavilion Buildings. 

Read, S., 12, Old Steine. 

Richardson, F. R., 10, Vernon Terrace. 

Roberts, J. P. Slingsbv, 3, Powis Villas. 

Robinson, E., Saddlescombe. 

Rose, T., Clarence Hotel, North Street. 

Ross, D. M., M.B., M.R.C.S., 9, Pavilion Parade. 

Ryle, R. J., M.D., 15, German Place. 

Salmon, E. F., 30, Western Road, Hove. 
Savage, W. AV., 109, St. James's Street. 
Sloman, F., 18, Montpelier Road. 
Scott, E. Irwjn, M.D., 69, Church Road, Hove. 
Smith, C., 47, Old Steine. 
Smith, T., i, Powis Villas. 
Smith, W., 6, Powis Grove. 
Smith, W. J., J. P., 42 and 43, North Street. 
Smith, W. H., 191, Eastern Road. 

Stephens, W. J., L.R.C.P., 25 Clermont Terrace, Preston 
Park. 



63 

Stoner, Harold, L.D.S., M.R.CS., L.R.C.P., i8, Regency 
Square. 

Talbot, Hugo, 79, Montpelier Road. 

Thomas, J., Kingston-on-Sea. 

Treutlek, \V. J., M.D., F.L.S., 8, Goldstone Villas, Hove. 

Toms, H. S., The Museum. 

Wallis, E. a., Sunnyside, Upper Lewes Road. 

Wallis, W. Clarkson, 15, Market Street. 

Walter, J., 13A, Dyke Road. 

Wells, I., 4, North Street. 

Whytock, E., 36, Western Road. 

Wightman, G. J., Ailsa Craig, The Walknds, Lewes. 

Wilkinson, T., 170, North Street. 

Willett, H., F.G.S., Arnold House, Montpelier Terrace. 

Williams, A. S., 17, Middle Street. 

Williams, H. M., LL.B., 17, Middle Street. 

Wood, J , 2 i , Old Steine 

Woodruff, G. B., 24, Second Avenue, Hove. 



LADY MEMBERS. 

Baglev, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Cameron, Miss E., 25, Victoria Street. 
Caush, Mrs., 63, Grand Parade. 
Crafer, Mrs. M. H., 6, Dyke Road. 
Crane, Miss Agnes, ii, Wellington Road. 

Fargus, Mrs., 7, Park Crescent. 

Graham, Miss. 

Hare, Miss, 19, Goldsmid Road. 
Herring, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 
Hernaman, Miss L, 117, Ditchling Road. 
Hernaman, Miss V., 117, Ditchling Road. 
Lovelock, Mrs., Coolavin, Harrington Road. 
Langton, Miss, 38, Stanford Road. 
Morgan, Miss, 39, St. Aubyns, Hove. 

Nicholson, Mrs., 9, Park Crescent. 

Rich, Miss, Iken House, Roedean School. 
Ruge, Miss, 7, Park Crescent. 

Stoner, Mrs. H,, 18, Regency Square. 



64 

Tkeutler, Mrs., 8, Goldstone Villas. 

VisiCK, Miss B., St. John's, Withdean. 

Wallis, Mrs., Sunnyside, Upper Lewes Road. 
Wilkinson, Mrs., 30, Brunswick Place, Hove. 
Wood, Mrs. J., 21, Old Steine. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Arnold, Rev. F. H., The Hermitage, Emsworth. 

Bloomfield, Rev. E. N., Guestling Rectory, Hastings. 

CuRTEis, T., 244, High Holborn, Ivondon. 

Dawson, C, F.G.S., Uckfield. 

Farr, E. H., Uckfield. 

Hollis, W. Ainslie, Palmeira Avenue, Hove. 

Mitten, W., Hurstpierpoint. 

NoURSE, W. E. C, Norfolk l>odge, Thurlow Road, Torquay. 

Phillips, Bakci.ay, 7, Harpur Place, Bedford. 

Lomax, Benjamin, The Museum, Brighton. 



prese::ted 

19 NOV. 1902 




BRIGHTON AND HOVE 

jEtatural Hislnrg an& pijil0S0pl)kal 



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 



THE ANNUAL REPORT 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 10th, 1903. 



■^i..i^' 



•f^ ^• 



%. ^ 



K1. f'-^D^.' ^.^ Xi 



|Sri0btott. 



1903. 



m 



BRIGHTON AND HOVE 

Jiatural Historg an5 f Ijriosopbical 



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 



THE ANNUAL REPORT 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 10th, 1903. 




1903. 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Officers of the Society ... ... ... ... ••. 3 

Progress— AND Its Illusions— Mr. E. Alluw.w Pankhukst 5 

British Oak Trees and the Galls found upon them — 

Mr. Edwd. Conxold, ['".E.S. ... .. ••• ••- 15 

Progress — and its Illusions — Part II. ... ... 16 

A Naturalist's Ramble on the Sea Shore — Mr. F. 

Martin Duncan 19 

Travelling in Mid-Air— Mr. Eric Stuart Bruce, M.A. ... iq 

The Principles of Western Civilization : A Criticism 

AND a Review — The Rev. F. Asher 21 

Hollingburv Camp — Mr. H. S. Toms 25 

Natural Science .^t Rome .^t the Time of Christ — 

Mr. F. R. Hora, B.A., B.Sc, cVc 29 

Report of Council ... .- ... ••• ••• ••• 3° 

Meteorology of Brighton ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Treasurer's Account ... ... ... ... ... ••• 33 

Librarian's Report ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Annual General Meeting 34 

Societies Associated ... ... - ... .-. ... 35 

List of Members... ... ... ... •-• ... ... 37 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 



1802-1903. 



^rcaiticttt : 
E. Alloway Pankhurst. 

^aal f rcaibents : 



W. E. C. NOURSE. 
F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
A. H. Cox, Aid., J.P. 
L. C. Badcock, M.D. 

W. AiNSLIE HOLLIS, M.D., 

F.R.C.P. 
J. EWART, Kt., M.D., J.P. 
J. E. Haselwood. 
W. Seymour Burrows, M.R.C.S. 



George de Paris. 

1). E. Caush, L.D.S. 

A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 

M.O.H. 
E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., 

F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. J. Treutler, M.D. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 



THE COUNCIL. 

©be f rcsiiiettt. 



(Rule 25.) 



D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
J. E. Haselwood. 

F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 

E. McKellar, Deputy-Surgeon- 
General, J.P. 



A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 

M.O.H. 
E. J. Petitfourt, B. A., F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. J. Treutler, M.D, 



W. Clarkson Wallis 

ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



W W. Mitchell. 

G. Morgan, L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S 

E. Payne, M.A. 



W. W. Harrison, D.M.D. 
F. HoRA, B.Sc, B.A. 
J. Sussex Hall. 



^ottorar^ freaaurcv : 
E. A. T. Breed, 32, Grand Parade. 

^onoraru ^utiitora : 
J. W. Nias. a. F. Graves. 

^onorarg (Kuratora : 
H. S. Toms and T. Hilton. 

Honorary ^ecretarg : 
JNO. Colbatch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place. 

Jlaaistnnt l&onorarg ^wrctarg: 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 



SESSION 1902-3. 

^r00r^as-an& its illuai0ns. 

OCTOBER 8th, 1902, 

BY 

THE PRESIDENT, 

E. ALLOWAY PANKHURST. 



" J/ we carry our thoughts as far fonvard as pa/ceolithic 
implements carry them back, tve are introduced not to an absolute 
optimism but to a relative optimism. The cosmic process brings 
about retrogression as well as progression, where the conditions 
favour it. . . . Evolution does ?iot imply a latent tendency to 
improve — everywhere in operation. There is no uniform ascent 
from lower to higher, but only an occasional production of a form 
which in virtue of greater fitness for more complex conditions, 
becomes capable of a longer life of a more varied kind." — Herbert 
Spencer : " Principles of Sociology," Vol. III., p. 599. 

About forty years ago was published Buckle's *' History 
of Civilization." 

The author in a final survey of the vast field of his re- 
searches allows that the age, " which was in nearly all respects 
greater than any the world had yet seen," yet " had a certain 
material unimaginative and unheroical character, which has 
made several observers tremble for the future." " But," he adds, 
" I do not participate in these fears because I believe the good 
we have already gained is, beyond all comparison, greater than 
what we have lost." This I think fairly represents the view of 
the advocates of progress. 

Mr. Darwin again, at the conclusion of that great work, 
" The Origin of Species," as if to give us some relief from the 
sombre details of that long tragedy which he terms "the 
struggle for existence," consoles us with the reflection that, " as 



natural selection works solely by and for the good of each being, 
all corporeal and mental endowments would tend to progress 
towards perfection." 

That was so in harmony with men's desires, hopes, and 
aspirations, that it half justified his theory of evolution. 

If Progress be not a faith, a belief, — it must approve itself to 
the reason ; it must be an inference from undeniable facts ; it 
must command assent from all by virtue of incontestable proofs. 
It behoves us, therefore, to endeavour to obtain some exact 
definition of progress, to discover what conceptions are involved 
in it, what images it calls up, what ideas are implied. 

If a body be moving in an orbit, a circle, or an ellipse, in 
fact in any curve which is closed or returns into itself, we speak 
of it as ;jro-gressing or re-gressing according as we imagine that 
it moves from us or to us. I say imarjine, for in a closed curve 
the movement from us is just as much a movement to us. 
A friend sets out on a journey round the world. Every mile he 
travels from the starting point brings him a mile nearer home. 
Whether he may be described as " going from" us or " coming 
to" us may afford matter for discussion — as similar problems 
have so often done before. Progress and regress then merely 
express a manner of looking at the object we are contemplating. 
The terms have reference to our position, our point of view, 
perhaps, to our predilections or fancies. " A circular motion " 
says Lord Bacon, " hath much the appearance of a progressive 
one." 

And further, our language and the notions and ideas it 
expresses with regard to direction are also misleading and decep- 
tive. They are no more conformable to the truth of things than our 
ideas of motion. We speak of the sun and moon being above us. 
We think of the stars seen by our antipodes in New Zealand as 
being below us. But Nature knows nothing of high or low. 
These are illusions ; illusions which, such is the strange problem 
in which man's mental constitution is involved, that he is 
obliged continually to accept as truth and reality. 

But there is something more than mere motion involved in 
the word progress, as generally used. It implies not movement 
only, but movement from a lower plane to a higher one ; from a 
less good to a better condition ; from a simple to a more complex 
organization. Nay, more, in its general acceptation it implies a 
gain uncompensated by any loss. If equivalent payment is 
made for an advantage obtained, then progress is robbed of its 
meaning. The word has no longer any charm for us. 

But these expressions, — high, low, good, better, &c., — which 
we use to indicate progress, have a moral rather than a physical 
significance, and as such are incapable of exact definition. 
They vary with the ever- varying opinions of those who use them. 
Who is the judge of what is good ? Is there an absolute good 



by which we can measure these successive states, a standard on 
which all men are agreed, to which we can refer our estimates of 
value ? And with regard to " low " and " high." What is the 
base from which we start, the scale by which we are to 
measure ? 

But leaving now these abstract considerations, let us take 
some concrete examples of progress, trusting these will help us 
where philosophical definitions fail. 

The word is the common property of the politician, the 
sociologist, and the historian. And not only of the historian 
who chronicles the succession of events which make up the 
records of humanity, but of him, also, who depicts for us the 
great drama of unfolding life which preceded the advent of man 
on the globe. 

The geologist deciphering the records of that vast series of 
rocks which compose the crust of the earth becomes aware of a 
great multitude of forms of life which have passed away. He 
tells us that the deepest rocks contain only the remains of those 
animal and vegetable species which are lowest in the scale of 
being, and that as we approach the latest strata the dominant 
forms of any successive epoch are those which mark the steps in 
the biologists' ascending scale of Hfe. 

He speaks of the fierce and active Molluscs of the Silurian, 
of the armour-clad Fish of the early Devonian or the more 
perfect fish of the Permian; then of the Amphibians of the 
Carboniferous. This was a notable step in advance, for the 
land animal, whose conditions of existence are more varied than 
those of one confined to the sea, has corresponding difference of 
structure. Limbs more diverse in form, organs of nutrition 
adapted to the more complex nature of food, lungs with their 
myriad interstices replacing gills, the blood warmer, heart more 
complicated, senses more acute, nerves more intricate, brain 
more developed. 

Next he passes to the huge fish-lizards of the Lias, and then 
to the great Reptiles of the Oolite, to the gigantic land lizards of 
the Wealden, to the Birds of the Cretaceous, and finally to the 
Marsupials and Mammals of the Tertiaries, — the gigantic pre- 
decessors of the quadrupeds which exist to- day. 

Tracing thus the source of life from the first speck of 
protoplasm that was engendered in the muddy waters of primeval 
seas, — from that first combination of cells that gave a feeble 
response, in dull unconsciousness, to the stimulus of a ray of light, 
or wave of heat, up to man, sensible to all the subtle influences 
of space and time, — how vast the interval that has been bridged ! 
Progress is easily discerned if we do not take into account 
the compensation exacted for it, if we ignore the necessary 
conditions of its presence ; if we shut our eyes to the sacrifice 



8 

it entails, and the cost at which it is purchased. Nature gives 
us nothing. This, too, is bought at a price. 

The Palaeontologist, as he writes the history of the great 
dominant forms of life that at successive epochs have held sway 
on the earth, or stood as the representatives of the highest 
organization of their time, continually makes use of such terms as 
these: — "No sooner had this species attained its maximum of 
size and power than it was trampled out of existence by more 
virile races in the conflict of life." " It attained its highest point, 
became most specialized, just before it disappeared." Have we 
then at last arrived at a definition of Progress from a study of 
Palaeontology and shall we put it thus : " The acquisition by 
any organism of these properties and qualities which ensure its 
extinction." It is one at any rate which seems justified by the 
conclusions of Science, one in conformity with the lessons of 
Geology. It is the other side of the shield which is not so often 
presented to our view. 

Looking again at that brief sketch of the course of life on 
the globe, let us see if in any other respects it may be illusory. 
It is deceptive if it suggests that all forms of life took part in this 
advance, that none fell behind in the race, that none were 
stationary, that none were degenerating. It is illusory in so far 
as it fails to bring before us these facts : — 

1. That, co-existing with these higher forms of developing 
life, there were comparatively non-progressive forms. We may 
speak of some of these also as types of arrested developnietii. 

2. That, together with progressing forms, there were species 
which were degenerating and passing out of existence. 

3. That at any epoch its most highly developed forms of 
life were a small portion of the total life of the globe. 

4. The picture is misleading in so far as it represents that 
the higher forms of any epoch had their origin and genesis in the 
highest types of the preceding one. 

5. Lastly, and this is the most important of all, it is illusory 
if it implies that there is an absolute scale of life to which all forms 
of existence may be referred, and by which their place and rank 
may be determined. 

Regard the infinite multitude of existences which make 
up the world as we see it around us to-day, from the simple 
cellular structures of microscopic size, which constitute " the 
green mantle of the standing pool," up to the creature who 
might realize our ideal of being but "a little lower than the 
angels," — all forms of life that have ever existed are, in a 
manner, represented. Many species have undergone no appre- 
ciable modification since they first appeared in Cambrian or 
Pre-cambrian times. Untold millenniums have passed by and 



left them unchanged. The Foraminifer which has formed our 
chalk hills, and whose shells are found in the earliest stratified 
rocks, is still laying at the bottom of the Atlantic, the foundation 
of " continents to be." The Lingula of the Silurian is still to be 
discovered in the sea, not far from our own shores. And lower 
and more persistent forms than these may be found, which seem 
never to have entered on the fatal path of progress. Some have 
gone further on the road than others, and remained stationary 
there, incapable of further advance. Their development, we say, 
has been arrested. The Beryx of the South Atlantic differs 
little from the Beryx whose remains are so finely represented in 
the Willett Collection of Chalk-Fossils in the Museum. And 
there is at least one species of fish which, as far as the minutest 
observation can perceive, has remained unchanged through all the 
vast period that has intervened between the present time and the 
Devonian. 

It would not be too much to say that, in every epoch, the 
great mass of life is made up of non-progressive forms, and of 
those which only reach a comparatively Httle way on the road of 
development. 

More and more Palaeontologists are beginning to recognize 
that degenerate forms are to be found in every geological division, 
and more particularly are they noticeable in those later stages of 
the earth's history, which are distinguished by the presence of 
higher and ?nore complex forms of life. Dr. Smith Woodward, 
our highest authority on the subject, in his " Outlines of 
Vertebrate Paleontology, " speaks of "irreversible Hnes of pro- 
gression and irreversible lines of degeneration." 

And is there any evidence, it may be asked, in the existing 
fauna and flora of this degeneration ? 

The tiny Hyrax is but a poor representative of its great 
rhinoceros-like ancestor. The huge Python and the little Slow- 
worm show on dissection the aborted limbs which their lizard- 
like progenitors possessed. The Whale, with its mouth furnished 
with that curious " baleen " (known as whalebone), has the milk 
teeth, which connects it with a higher type. The Slugs of our garden 
carry beneath the skin the rudiments of a shell which they have no 
longer the power to produce. The list might be extended, and 
that to a far greater length than the text-books warrant. And it 
is illustrative of my argument that it is but a small fraction of the 
works on Zoology which devote any space to degeneration. 
Men's minds are set on /r^-gress and not on ;-<?-gress. But the 
evidence for the one must be as strong and ample as for the 
other. 

" Sufficient appearances," says Burke, " will never be wanting 
to those who have a mind to deceive themselves." And have we 
not all of us "a mind to deceive ourselves " when progress is in 
question ? 



4- The highest forms of one epoch have not had their origin 
in the highest forms of the preceding epoch, nor have they given rise 
directly to the highest fotms of the succeeding one. 

Nothing, then, could be further from the truth than that the 
dominant species that characterise successive epochs of the 
world's history are linked to one another in a continuous 
uninterrupted series. Nature knows nothing of such a serial 
progression. It exists only in idea. There is no linear arrange- 
ment of higher or lower forms. All forms are connected, un- 
doubtedly, but if it be possible to represent or picture to ourselves 
the method and manner in which they are linked together in space 
of two dimensions, it must be under the figure of a tree. 

Now this picture of a growing tree implies a principle and 
method of such great importance in the evolution of life in all its 
forms, and in all its manifestations, that it will be advisable per- 
haps to adduce some illustrations of it. It is useful in many 
respects ; but there is danger that, if its analogies are pressed 
too far, we may be led into error. 

The bird we may say is higher and comes later in time than 
the reptile. But if we may follow back their ancestral genealogies 
they will gradually approach one another as we recede, until we 
come to a point where the branches unite nearer the trunk, and 
bird and reptile are one. The lowest reptile and the lowest bird 
are nearly allied. 

Animals are divided, as you know, into two great kingdoms of 
Vertebrates and Invertebrates. But the highest Invertebrate 
has not given rise to the lowest Vertebrate. In going down the 
main branch of the Vertebrates we pass by as it were the highest 
point of the branch representing the Mollusc, and find a relation- 
ship between them far indeed towards the base of that tree from 
which they both seem to spring. 

It is one of the most interesting of researches, this of the 
genealogy of life. But the record is often broken, and we seek in 
vain for some evidence of the earlier course which a genus or 
species has followed. Palaeontology, like human history, has its 
" dark ages." The records of the past bear witness to the deep 
pulsations of the great heart of the world, to the ebb and flow of 
the tides of the great ocean of life. There are periods when the 
creative power is comparatively dormant, and again those when 
its energies gradually rise to their full scope, and attain their 
highest point. It is as the oscillation of the pendulum, the swing 
of the earth in its orbit, or the alternations of sunlight and 
shadow on its surface. The morning and evening of the world's 
first day, symbols of activity and rest, are repeated in larger periods 
of rhythmic change throughout the countless millenniums of its 
past. 



We have still been using these conventional terms, " high," 
" low," " nobler," " more perfect," &c., to indicate that progres- 
sive development of organic life, without deciding what principle 
shall guide us in their application. This is really the most 
important part of our subject. All conceptions of progress are 
based on it. We have said that there is no linear succession of 
advancing forms, that is to say, they cannot be truly depicted in 
a straight line. But even if we look at the plan of nature under 
the image of a tree that will not help us in our present quest. 
We cannot conceive of a tree without giving to it some altitude 
as a whole, and generally picture it with branches of varying 
height. 

The branches of our imaginary Tree of Life are made up of 
different families or genera each with numerous species. How is 
the place of each species that helps to make the branch decided ? 
Which is to be put above, which is below another ? What is the 
measure of value ? 

There are two lines of inquiry which commend themselves to 
the systematist, — function and structure. 

Seeing that estimation of function is beyond us, let us try 
how far classification by structure will help us in the solution of 
the problem. 

Let us take function first, and in doing so consider man as the 
head of creation, and to be such by virtue of his intelligence, or, 
more broadly, by his nervous and cerebral activity. If, therefore, we 
take this, as Lamarck did, as the basis of classification, and if we 
could arrange all animal life in a descending scale from man, then 
we should have a measure of general application to all its 
forms. But this is impossible. There is no measure of such 
manifestations of vitality. Besides, it totally excludes the 
vegetable kingdom. There is no nervous activity here to 
measure. Plants are accumulators of power, not expenders. 

Structure is, to a large extent, an index of function. 
Complex structure implies varied functions. Knowing the 
structure ot an organism which can, to a great extent, infer its 
functions. 

There is a large class of animals of infinite variety of colour, 
size, and outward form all possessing a backbone. Moreover, 
there are many structural details which are always associated with 
this backbone which terminates in a skull. The digestive system 
is on one side, the nervous on the other. The chain of vertebrae 
enclose a spinal cord, the muscles are attached to an osseous 
frame-work, the limbs are variously modified, &c. Thus the 
Vertebrates, we say, form a great natural class. 

Looking again at a vast number of other creatures, we find 
them built up on quite a different plan. There is no backbone, 
the so-called skeleton is simply a hardened skin, the limbs 
are hollow tubes leading from the cavity of the body. The 



nervous system is formed of a chain of separate rounded masses, 
connected together by thin cords, and the whole nervous system 
Hes in the part of the body nearest the ground. These are 
classed as Invertebrates. Now the Vertebrates, having more 
highly-developed organs, bringing them into more varied relations 
with the external world, having a more complete structure, more 
varied functions, are placed above the Invertebrates. Consider 
for a moment the difference between a bird singing in the 
branches of a tree and a snail crawling in the grass beneath. 
How vast the interval between them ! What an illustration, we 
say, of the great scheme of the world's development, and of the 
steps in its progressive life, for the Vertebrate is higher than 
the mollusc and comes later on the scene. This is too partial 
a view. Reckoned among the Vertebrates is a pale, ghost-like 
creature, with a mere apology for a backbone, without a brain, 
with scarcely any organs of sense, whose dull monotony of 
existence is only broken by faint variations of light and shade 
as it roams among the mud and weeds of the shallow estuary 
in which its existence is passed. Compare this with the bee, 
winging its way in the sunshine, sensitive to the odour and colour 
of flowers, with faculties seemingly more than human in their co- 
ordination to the unconscious ends and aims of existence. 
Teaching also in the subordination of individual liberty to the 
welfare of the community, " The act of order to a settled 
kingdom." Which shall we reckon the highest in the scale of 
life, the lancelet or the bee ? The celebrated Von Baer thought 
the bee more highly organized not only than this specimen of one 
of the lowest orders of fish, but than any member of the whole 
class of fishes. 

Yet the Vertebrate, we have said, is higher than the 
Invertebrate ! Does structure then measure life ? This is not a 
solitary instance ; it is but a type of the difficulty which meets 
the systematist on every side. Supposing we take only a branch 
of our Tree of Life, and endeavour to place the groups which 
compose it, or the individual of the groups, in serial rank, how is 
he to proceed ? " By noting," we are told, " the points of 
structure which are fundamental and essential." Yes, but what 
to one classifier is fundamental and essential, to another is not. 
Different observers place different values on the same structure. 

In that endless mutation of form which the kingdom of the In- 
vertebrates presents to us, there is a vast number of groups whose 
relationship to one another cannot even be represented in space 
of two dimensions. Only with length, breadth, and depth can we 
picture to ourselves these cycles within cycles in endless com 
plexity. If, then, this obtains in the Invertebrate kingdom, is it 
not a presumption that the orders, families, species, etc., of the 
Vertebrates should be regarded in the same manner ? We must 
give up our " Tree of Life." The picture is illusory. It implies 



13 

that there is a measure of its height, a serial gradation in the 
groups forming its branches. In a remarkable passage in " The 
Origin of Species," Mr. Darwin, himself investigating the subject 
we have been considering, expresses himself in the language of 
the astronomer, and recalls to us the suns and circling planets 
and systems of worlds which in bewildering multitudes stud the 
infinitude of space. These are his words : " The several 
subordinate groups in a class cannot be ranked in a single file, 
but seen clustered round points, and these round other points, 
and so on, in endless cycles." 

To sum up the argument, then, in a few words, Natural- 
ists of repute refuse to allow that there is any arrangement of 
forms of animal life based on claims to superiority, no serial 
progression from less to more perfect. 

If this be the case, what becomes of any Criterion of Progress 
as far as the animal and vegetable world is concerned? 

For in what sense can we say that the fish is more perfect 
than the insect, the reptile than the fish ? All that we can affirm 
is that each is admirably adapted to the conditions of its exist- 
ence. It is evident that the idea underlying such use of the words, 
" more perfect" when applied to the successive types which 
indicate the course of animal development, is their approach to 
man in their structure and their functions. 

But is not this the same anthromorphic idea which we are so 
often told vitiates so many of our conceptions of the world, its 
origin, and its government ? Is this principle only to be retained 
here and discarded otherwhere ? Is man in all respects the 
most perfect being of creation ? Are there no qualities in which 
the so-called lower organisms are his superiors ? Are there none 
with senses more acute, none with nerves transmitting more 
delicate waves of motion, none with instincts more marvellous 
even than his reason, — as attaining its ends without the laborious 
process of thought ? But it may be said that man is superior by 
his intellect. Is the most intellectual man always and everywhere 
the highest, the most perfect ? 

Yet there is one more test of rank, one principle which 
Biologists invoke to decide the place of any organism in the 
hierarchy of life. The higher organization, they say, is that in 
which the parts are more specialized. It is one of exceedingly 
wide, almost universal, application, and it behoves us, therefore, 
carefully to examine it. It is our last hope of obtaining that 
scale and measure we are in search of. 

They define Specialization to be the setting apart certain 
portions of an organism to perform certain particular functions. 
This has happily been termed, by Milne Edwards, ^'' the physiolo- 
gical division of labour" 

"Is not this progress, then?" It may be asked, Is there 
not here a measure of rank ? 



M 

But, supposing that interdependence of parts, this complexity 
of structure militates against the permanence of the whole ? 
Suppose it narrows the conditions, makes it less able to bear the 
shock of opposing circumstances under which the organism can 
exist, and so render it less able to compete advantageously with 
less specialized organisms in the struggle for life ? 

Did we not see that the palaeontologist declares that, as soon 
as a species attained its highest degree of specialization, it dis- 
appeared from the earth ? 

Specialization in itself is not indicative of perfection, or 
progressive development, or superiority. It only means that an 
organ has been modified, so as to adapt its possessor to particular 
conditions of existence. The ancestors of the horse had five 
toes as we have. In process of time, four toes atrophied, and the 
nail of one became developed into a hoof. But a hoof is not a 
higher type of structure than a foot, nor is it indicative of a 
nobler animal. Put a horse among bogs or swampy ground, and 
its one-toed foot would be a disadvantage, — might entail its 
destruction. The area on which it can exist is now limited to 
comparatively hard ground. 

Specialization cannot, then, always be taken as a criterion 
of progress, for it may be characteristic of degeneracy. 

Granted that the process of development is from the simple 
to the more complex, is the more complex ahvays the more perfect} 
Are there no categories in other departments of life in which the 
highest from one point of view is not the highest from another ? 
Are not the simple and the lowly nearer the great centre and 
origin of life and larger participators in its power ? In estimating 
the rank of the groups into which we divide the lower organisms, 
as we term them, one quality particularly seems to me to have been 
lost sight of, — that of duration. It is a problem connected with 
Time, and many problems are insoluble if Time be left out of 
account. There is given to each individual at birth a certain 
quantum of life. This may assume an active or passive form. 
It may maintain the vegetative unconscious life of the organism 
through long years practically unimpaired, or it may be expended 
in conscious activities in a decade. And so with those groups of 
organisms we have been considering with varying periods of 
existence. In dealing with individual human life we count 
length of days as implying some advantageous quality, and in 
families, long descent, or that principle of permanence in the 
blood is reckoned as giving them a claim to be among the 
aristocracy of the earth. What, then, are we to say of those 
structureless specks of protoplasm, such as the Foraminifera of the 
Chalk ? — a genus of animals which through unimaginable ages 
has existed practically unaltered, and has played, as we have 
said, no mean part in the economy of the globe. Imagine that 
family to have a memory, a consciousness of its past ! What 



15 

generations of nobler creatures it has seen age after age " come 
like shadows — so depart." It has outlived all the vicissitudes of 
existence which the earth has gone through. It has "read the 
book of fate," and seen " the revolution of the times " 

" Make mountains level, and the continent, 
Weary of solid firmness, melt itself 
Into the sea." 

And yet classification based on structure, to be logical, can find 
no place for such as these ! Imagine the world when only these 
Infusoria or perhaps even lower types existed ! Yet out of 
such structureless protoplasm the life of the earth has arisen. 
Out of this has sprung those kingdoms, classes, genera, orders, 
&c., which make up the complex world of vegetal and animal 
existences, group within group, cycle within cycle, recalling to us 
the clusters of stars and revolving systems which arose out of the 
diffuse nebula in which they were potentially contained. In that 
homogenous jelly-like protoplasm life also was potential. It has 
realised itself in the organisation and the resulting faculties and 
powers of all those countless forms in which th^t energy has 
embodied itself. 

But the great law of the Conservation of Energy teaches us 
that when potential energy becomes actual the total quantity 
remains the same. There is neither loss nor gain. 

Let us, then, like the great dramatist of Greece, strive " to 
see life steadily, and to see it whole" — not as circumscribed by 
our own limited experience, not as measured by our own narrow 
faculties, not stamped with our own petty ideals of perfection, — 
but to see it from a higher standpoint, embracing a wider horizon, 
and in the scope of a larger vision. 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 13th. 

Iritisb Oak tms an& i\\t (Sails 
fnttntr upon tlj^m. 

(With Lantern Illustrations.) 



EDWD. CONNOLD, F.E.S. 



i6 



THURSDAY, DECEMBER iith. 

^xoQXtss-anh its Jllusinns. 

Part II. 

THE ARGUMENT from the HISTORY OF HUMANITY. 



" Society never advances. It recedes as fast on one side as it 
gains on the other. It undergoes continual changes ; it is barbarous, 
it is civilized., it is christianized, it is rich, it is scientific; but this 
change is not amelioration. For everything that is given something 
is taken. Society acquires tieiv arts and loses old instincts. . . . 
If the traveller tell us truly, strike the savage ivith a broad axe, 
and in a day or tivo the flesh shall unite and heal as if you struck 
the blow into soft pitch, and the same blow shall send the ivhite to 
his grave. . . . Society is a wave. The zvave moves o?iward, but 
the water of which it is composed does ?wt. The same particle does 
not rise from the valley to the ridge. The persons ivho make up a 
nation to-day, next year die, and their experience dies ivith them." — 
Emerson. 

JUST as Geology informs us that those dominant types of 
animal life characteristic of an epoch have gradually arrived 
at maturity and then quickly, almost suddenly, disappeared, so 
the historian of humanity shows us how large groups or 
communities of individuals, having a special character of their 
own, emerge from the general mass of humanity, attain to pre- 
eminence, and then pass away. They are ousted in the conflict 
of life by lower and more virile races. These social organisms 
become exhausted in the effort to produce that civilization which 
is their claim to remembrance. What is there in a great social 
organization inimical to its continued existence ? What militates 
against the continuance of its life ? The social life is necessary 
for the development of humanity, necessary for the development 
of those finer feelings, for that larger knowledge which we take to 
be characteristic of progress. And yet the conditions, the 
NECESSARY conditions of this advance are fatal to the very 
organism which they have produced. Organization entails cost, 
says the physiologist, as he sees the wear and tear of the delicate 
machinery of life under the stress and strain of outward circum- 



»7 

stances, and the extra nutriment which must be provided in 
consequence of the ever-increasing demands of the part which 
expends on that which produces. The higher intellectual life is 
antagonistic to the lower. There is no strain so great, no tax so 
heavy on the human constitution as nervous activity, but progress 
implies nervous and cerebral activity. Society perishes rapidly at 
the top ; it is constantly being recruited from lower strata. But 
this fountain of supply is not perpetual, and these at last become 
exhausted. 

The distinguishing characteristic of a highly civilized society 
is the setting apart of certain of its groups of units to perform 
separate and particular functions. But " specialization implies 
loss of vitality." This is a great law of Biology, and Biology 
means the laws of life in general. It must apply to the social as 
well as to the bodily organism. The cell which in the lower 
organism performs all functions has then in the full exercise of all 
its powers what may be termed its absolute efficiency. But as it 
becomes a part of a higher animal it suffers limitations. It is 
modified to perform special functions. The settler in the back- 
woods ploughs the land, tends the cattle, reaps the corn, fells the 
tree, builds his house, &c. All his faculties are developed, but 
in the specialized labour of a civilized community twenty or thirty 
men of different occupations will be employed in building the 
house. The talents of each are limited to particular functions. 
Progress in the arts is thus bought at the price of curtailed 
faculties of those who are employed in them. The exaggerated 
development of some faculties involves the loss of others. There 
can be no Progress in one direction but implies Regress in another, 
or as Goethe expressed it: "In order to expend on one side 
Nature is forced to economize on the other; " or as two Belgian 
Savanis have put it : "Degeneration is not an accident in evolution, 
it is the correlative of progressive evolution and the Jiecessary 
complements of every transformation whether atiatotnical or social." 
Society demands the specialized individual, the one with some 
faculties atrophied, some organs which have more or less 
degenerated in order that others might serve it with greater 
effect. In the struggle for existence you have still the survival of 
the fittest, but the fittest is now no longer the rough burly 
backwoodsman but the individual with deft hands and narrow 
chest, with finer nerves, more delicate taste or abnormal brain. 
" Cells lose their vitality in proportion as they are specialized," 
says the Biologist. 

The struggle for existence, which in the free play of individual 
action resulted in the survival of the healthiest, the strongest and 
the bravest, now under the limitations of the social organism, by a 
curious inversion of results, gives greater advantages to the weakly 
and the abnormally developed, to the specially not the generally 
efficient. 



i8 

Society says : " I will take care of your life, no one shall hurt 
you. I will take care of your property, you need make no effort in 
its defence." The manlier virtues disappear. Society is for the weak, 
not for the strong. Men become more and more dependent. Towns 
and great cities arise. But great cities are the destruction of the 
race. The conditions of a healthy life are absent from the excited 
mart, the bustling street, the crowded tenement. No society can 
progress without a leisured class ; that is to say, without that 
wealth, that reserve of potential energy of which capital is the 
embodiment. But wealth that brings such aids to progress is 
also an agent of destruction. The forces which create are those 
which destroy. The wealth which at one time may be invigorat- 
ing in excess may corrupt. Comforts at first occasional become 
habitual. Luxuries become necessities. Pleasure becomes one of 
the main objects of existence. Education creates ideals which 
can never be realized, wants which can never be .'latisfied. Society 
creates in its midst a proletariat, not of labour and drudgery, but 
an intellectual proletariat, restless, dissatisfied, which chafes under 
any control, seeks to break all the bonds which hold society 
together, and rejects all commandments. 

Again, progress in civilization implies those finer feelings, that 
more delicate sympathy which regards the sufferings and the 
wants of others, that humanitarianism which sustains the falling, 
feeds the hungry, and provides for the maimed and wounded in 
the battle of life. But every imbecile, every improvident, every 
unthrifty thus maintained at the expense of the community, is a 
tax on the energies of the strong, the industrious, and the healthy. 
You have saved, by your rates, or your contributions, a life of 
little or no value to the community, but you have made life 
harder, you have brought death nearer, to the very individuals by 
which the best life of the community is maintained. 

"Owing to these general causes," says Mr. Francis Gelton, in 
reviewing certain questions bearing on heredity, " there is a steady 
check in an old civilization in the fertility of the abler classes — 
the improvident and the unambitious are those which chiefly keep 
up the breed, so the race gradually degenerates, becoming with 
each successive generation less fitted for a high civilization, 
although it retains the external appearance of one ; until the time 
comes when the whole political and social fabric caves in, and a 
greater or less relapse towards barbarism takes place. 



19 
THURSDAY, JANUARY 22nd, 1903. 

^ iJattttalist's Eambk on tht ^ta 

(With Lantern Illustrations.) 

F. MARTIN DUNCAN. 

(/n Ms case as iti others in which experiments or Lantern 
Illustrations form such an important part of the Lecture, it is 
impossible to give any adequate abstract of it without a repro- 
duction of them.) 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY i8th. 

®rab£U:ng in ititt-^ir, 

BY 

Mr. eric STUART BRUCE, M.A. 



AT the outset Mr. Bruce dwelt upon the great developments of 
aerial navigation of late years, and in particular alluded to 
the way in which the operations of the late war had silenced the 
criticisms of those who grudge national expenditure on aerial 
navigation. Referring to some of the tragedies with which recent 
advance in aeronautics has been marked, Mr. Bruce said that 
temporary failure, and even the martyrdom of brave men in the 
cause of science, could not stop the natural law of progress, and 
the first British airship had crossed the Metropolis from the 
Crystal Palace to Harrow, without hitch or accident of any kind. 
Then the lecturer came to some experiments. War balloons, 
he told his audience, were made of gold-beater's skin, which, 
however slight it might appear, was an admirable substance for the 



purpose, because of its lightness, and its capacity for holding gas. 
Strength could be obtained by combining layers of the substance 
by an ingenious arrangement devised by the Royal Engineers. 
One or two miniature balloons of. different sizes were quickly 
filled with gas from a compressed gas cylinder, and released by 
the lecturer, to sail up to the roof of the Banqueting Room at the 
end of a bit of string. To show how the perforation of a balloon 
by bullets would not necessarily mean disaster, if the perforations 
were in the lower part, Mr. Bruce pricked one of his bigger 
models with a lady's hat pin. Though with this weapon he 
repeatedly stabbed the balloon, it continued calmly to ascend. 
At Ladysmith, he said, a war-balloon was actually brought down 
by a shell, but it came down so gently that there was no incon- 
venience at all to the officers in it. 

From the balloons themselves Mr. Bruce went on to illustrate 
a system of signalling by means of illuminated balloons, a system 
of his own invention which, he said, had been adopted by the 
British, Belgian, and Italian Governments, and he pointed out 
how useful balloon signalling might be in the case of ships distant 
from each other at sea, for detachments of an Army separated on 
land, and for polar exploration. The next experiments shown to 
the audience showed the action of aerial screws, the means by 
which at present most aeronauts are seeking to solve the problem 
of really navigating the air independently of the direction of the 
wind. One of the most interesting of the experiments, and one 
which called forth the hearty applause of the audience, was the 
releasing of a model of the Sanlos-Dumont steerable balloon, 
which, propelled by a little screw, made a circle gracefully in the 
air, and a trip to the big central chandelier and back, a few feet 
over the heads of the spectators. 

In order to navigate the air, it was of the greatest importance 
to improve our knowledge of the numerous serial currents at 
different altitudes. The disastrous results that may attend 
aeroplanes from these currents were illustrated experimentally by 
the convolutions in the Banqueting Room of a little flying 
machine. Mr. Bruce announced that, with a view to solving if 
possible some of the difficult problems connected with air 
currents above 3,000ft., arrangements were in progress for holding 
at an early date a great international kite flying competition. The 
experiments, which would probably take place near Brighton, were 
likely to prove the most important of the kind in the history of 
aerial investigation. 

In conclusion, Mr. Bruce expressed his increasing conviction 
that the conquest of the air, when it was achieved, would be 
achieved along the lines of a natural simplicity. 



THURSDAY, MARCH 19TH. 

MR. BENJAMIN KIDD'S 

m)t f rinripks 0f mtsttvn aLtbtUjatinn, 

A Criticism and a Review, 

BY 

The Rev. F. ASHER. 



A 



S to the class of literature to which T/ie Frindp/es of Western 
xjL Civilization belongs, Mr. Asher remarked that we are 
familiar with the treatment of life which consists m lookmg at the 
facts, and using common sense, and working up through facts to 
the principles which, as far as we can see, indicate the order m 
which facts are given to us. We know the scientific habit of 
mind, and this book is certainly not scientific. We are familiar 
with the method which treats not so much of facts as of thoughts, 
the method of Kant, and men of his stamp, who teach us not so 
much what the facts actually are, but tell us the conditions under 
which knowledge is possible. We know the philosophic habit of 
mind and the class of literature which deals with facts, not by 
working up from them, but by working down to them in the hght 
of first principles. There is a gulf between these two habits of 
mind between which war has been and is still being waged. i3ut 
this book is not a philosophic book. It belongs to another class 
of literature, which deals not so much with facts and thoughts as 
with that difficult and mysterious factor which we call life, which 
no one yet has analysed, which no one pretends to understand, 
but which is for ever facing us, inviting us to ascertain it, and 
eluding us ; and which life can only be grasped by those men who 
are seers, and see into the Hfe of things, and express their fl/^r/« 
in the form which we may call apocalyptic. The characteristic of 
the apocalyptic type of literature, of which we have an exponent 
in Thomas Carlyle, is that it endeavours to grasp that which the 
man admits eludes him, the source of all facts— Z//^. J he 
scientific man deals with what he can observe ; the philosophical 
man seems to grasp a higher type of fact ; but the seer invariably 
feels himself invited, and almost oppressed by the sense ot a 



growing sentient life, and in his apocalypse gives us not so much 
the past, which the scientific man can talk about; not the present 
which the philosophical man sees ; but the future, which unrolls 
itself before his eyes. 

In considering the problem to be solved in the discussion of 
The Principles of Western Civilization, we must first gain some 
clear view of the drama of human action as it unrolls itself before 
our eyes on the page of history, and in order to do this we must 
be willing to seize the salient points and work from these, discover- 
ing as far as we can the principles which were at work when this 
particular salient point was flung out from the mountain range of 
human action, and trying as far as we can to relate the various 
peaks we see standing out before our eyes. 

Can there be any real doubt that in the civilization of the 
western world there have been two great agencies at work, which 
can be indicated by the terms " the Roman Empire," and 
" Christendom ? " Of course we may trace back the enormous 
range of life which died up into the Roman Empire. We may 
trace back from Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Persia, Greece, till we 
come to Rome, and we may find in Rome the elements drawn out 
of the long struggle of race against race ; but we come to this fact 
at last, which Gibbon makes clear to us : that at one period of 
the human race all the fairest tracts of the best part of the western 
world, and all the power which was being worked out in the lives 
of men, was concentrated in that organisation known as the 
Roman Empire ; and by a wonderful process the powers which 
had specialised themselves became united in the person of one 
single man, and at a particular date, — say 27 B.C., after the Battle 
of Actium, — we have the marvellous spectacle of the whole of the 
countries surrounding the Mediterranean being governed by 
principles which found as their exponent one single man, the 
Errperor of Rome. That surely represents to us one of the great 
agencies which has been at work in the civilization of mankind.. 

Now if we move on through the centuries, and pass from the 
striking figure of Augustus to a typical mediaeval figure, — say 
Dante, — what do we find ? Is there any essential difference 
between those principles working in the heart of a representative 
man like Dante, and those which we found culminating in the 
character of a man like Augustus? Take his Divina Comniedia 
and his other works, and we find we are in a different world. 
That solitary, exiled man carries within himself another principle, 
which seems to present a more potent and far-reaching influence 
than anything we can find in the time of Augustus. By about the 
year 1300 a.d. a new principle had found its way into those 
civilising principles which had hitherto been at work, and it could 
never thenceforth be rejected. Strong men cannot live without 
it ; it has come to form a part of the very fibre and tissue of their 
souls. 



23 

There are the two salient points — Augustus, summing up the 
tendencies of the Roman Empire ; and Dante, summing up, if not 
the tendencies, the best expression of the tendencies of 
Christendom. The problem is, how to relate those two salient 
peaks in the vast amount of human endeavour and achievement, 
so as to show that there is a connection which will indicate the 
principles which are working out in life. And the present book 
does suggest an explanation how the world came to take into its 
heart the principles represented in Dante, which make him and 
his writings the exponent of the Life of Christendom. 

Coming then to the third line of thought he had laid down 
for himself, Mr. Asher turned to Mr. Kidd's book itself, illustrat- 
ing what he had to say with a number of quotations. Mr. Kidd, 
in his chapter on "The close of an Era," shows that at the time 
at which he writes, there is a conception of a State which he feels 
belongs to a previous stage of existence, and must be lost in the 
newer conception which he offers to us towards the close of his 
book. All previous systems of social civilization have been con- 
sidered as revolving round this principle — -the interests of certain 
existing individuals, whom we call Society. But the point of view 
has been altered by a revolution without any parallel in the history 
of thoui^ht. It is not the interests of these existing individuals 
with which all our present systems of thought and science concern 
themselves, but the life and the interests of the future, which 
await the meaning of the evolutionary processes in history. In 
the scientific formula of the life of any existing type of social 
order, the interests of these existing individuals possess no mean- 
ing, except so far as they are included in, and subordinate to, the 
interests of a developing system of social order, the overwhelming 
proportion of whose members are still in the future. This makes 
us look at all the processes of our civilization entirely in a new 
light. Our relation to that which we can possess for ourselves 
and hold against the world, is opposed to the principle of sacrific- 
ing ourselves to something else which we shall never possess. We 
are interested in our possessions ; we sacrifice to a larger life ; and 
all the way through the book we find this antithesis. It is fair to 
say that the State exists at present for the protection of property. 
Mr. Kidd goes on to say that this conception of the State is due 
to the teaching of the Manchester School. Theirs are the prin- 
ciples which correspond with the era of the ascendancy of the 
present in the economic activities of the world. But another 
influence is at work m the world, which enables men to live for 
that which they will never enjoy, to live for a larger life which 
shall never be theirs, and it is in the bringing together of these 
two factors that Mr. Kidd's book deserves to be most closely 
examined. 

In Chapter II. we are shown that the theory of Natural 
Selection is not sufficient to account for the forms of life. He 



24 

shows that the survival of the individual is not explained by look- 
ing at the individual alone, but is in order that he may live for 
some larger issue. The organism is not only strugghng with its 
own past, but being subordinated to the future, which it is 
anticipating and bringing into view. The interests of the in- 
dividual and of the present are always overlaid by the interests 
of the majority, which is always in the future. 

Having concluded the first section of his book, dealing with 
the past view of a self-centred State, Mr. Kidd, in his second 
section, shows how the principle has been born in the minds of 
men, whereby men have projected the controlling centre of life 
beyond the interests of the existing individual. He does not find 
it in religion, but in the influence of the non-utilitarian conception 
of what he calls Western Liberalism in English thought in the 
Seventeenth Century. The principles of the democracy which our 
civilization is destined to realise, are incompatible with the 
materialistic conception of history. In another section he shows 
the dawning and the purification of the sense of the eternal. He 
tries to show that there have been a body of men living in the 
world, obeying the ordinary laws necessary for the survival of the 
race, but keeping within their heart of hearts a sense of the 
eternal, and of those principles which will, one day, make all men 
one. We follow the development of the " vision of universal 
justice " that filled the consciousness of the Jewish people, until it 
becomes greater than the race itself, till, at last, associated with 
an ideal of personal self-abnegation which has passed the bounds 
of the material, it goes forth to subdue the world in which the 
principle of the ascendency of the present had reached its 
culminating expression. How few students of history consider in 
this light the problem presented by the early Christian heresies ? 
Mr. Kidd sees in those heresies the tendency to make men hve in 
the present, and thinks that that is the reason why persecution of 
them was so rife, — because they were attempts to close up that 
profound antithesis which the human mind would not allow to be 
closed. He shows that as a result of this new ideal came a new 
value to the individual life, each individual life being declared to 
have relation to the eternal. He traces a gradual growth since 
the time of Charlemagne of the principle that spiritual interests 
are more important than temporal, while he characterises the 
Reformation as an attempt to point out afresh men's sense of the 
eternal, when the Papacy had gradually introduced something of 
the old military despotism of Rome, and was hindering the other 
ideal. After the Reformation, there arose a new sense of truth 
as the resultant of two opposing forces. 

Towards the end Mr. Kidd seeks to show us that we are in 
danger at the present moment of an Empire far more serious, far 
less grand and dignified than the Empire we have left behind. 
He shows that the principles which govern the distribution of 



25 

wealth are being lowered, by the principle of surviving in a world 
of free struggle to the lowest level of the persons engaged in 
competition. So he comes to the possibility of shaking off the 
awful power of this irresponsible struggle for gain. And in rather 
obscure phrases he hints that it is only those spaces, in which 
have been cleared round the ideals which involve the sacrifice of 
the life of the individual for some larger purpose than his own, 
that we can shake off the tendency to survive in a free struggle 
for personal gain, and he seems to suggest that it is in a new 
order of human society, founded on this desire to project beyond 
personal interest, that we should come to see the future that is 
beckoning to the world. He closes with a vision of the life 
which dies upwards into a larger hfe, and a new interpretation 
of the principles of sacrifice which have ever lived in the world, 
not as representing any connection with the past, but as reach- 
ing forward into the unborn future. 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29TH. 

HoUtngburj Camp. 

Mr. H. S. TOMS. 



HAVING, in a few introductory remarks, recalled to the minds 
of his hearers that Hollingbury Camp had lately become 
part and parcel of the municipal property of Brighton, Mr. Toms 
gave a brief description of the camp. It is situate about 400 
yards east of the Ditchling Road, and about a mile N.N.E. of the 
spot where the Corporation tramway brandies into the Drove. 
It consists of a comparatively shallow ditch with a rampart 
standing some three or four fett above the level of the surrounding 
hill crest, and enclosing an area of about six acres. Its shape 
roughly approximates a square with the corners rounded off, and 
the sides bulging outwards. There are four entrances, and near 
the centre of the gorse-covered interior are the remains of pits 
and a small mound, closely resembling the burial mounds of the 
Bronze Age. The period to which the camp belongs, Mr. Toms 
remarked, is still in the realm of conjecture, but all authorities 
who had grappled with the subject agreed in relegating the camp 
to an antiquity ranging from the Stone Age to the Roman 



26 

occupation of Britain, and in regarding it, together with similar 
entrenchments capping the South Dow ns, viz., Cissbury, Chancton- 
bury, and the Dyke Camp, as having been thrown up for the 
purposes of fortification. Mr. Toms went on to quote some views 
expressed by the late General Pitt-Rivers in a paper on the " Hill 
Forts of Sussex," contributed (under his former name of Col. A. 
H. Lane Fox), in 1869, to Vol. 42 of the " Archsologia," 
published by the Society of Antiquaries. 

General Pitt-Rivers strongly maintained that these Sussex 
earthworks, including Hollingbury, are not of Roman but 
prehistoric origin. He observed that the whole hill-top, or the 
whole available portion of it, appeared to have been fortified by a 
line of ramparts drawn along the brow, in the position best suited 
for defence, and with but little regard to the amount of space 
enclosed, whereas the Roman practice was to regulate the outline 
and arrangement of the camps in accordance with the strength of 
the force intended to occupy them, and with a chief regard to the 
considerations of discipline, and interior economy. Considera- 
tions of the supply of water and fuel were, in these camps, invari- 
ably sacrificed to the necessity the people appeared to have been 
under of occupying the strongest features of the country. He did 
not meet with a single example in Sussex of a fort having a supply 
of water within the enclosure, and the majority, like Cissbury, 
were at a considerable distance from a spring. Nor could fuel 
hfve been obtainable anywhere in the immediate vicinity. This, 
according to Vegetius, was a primary requisite in the selection of 
a Roman Camp, and among camps of undoubted Roman 
construction, no instance of a neglect of these principles had 
been found. The strength of the ramparts in the Sussex forts 
corresponded inversely to the natural strength of the position. 
In some places where a steep declivity presented itself, there was 
no rampart, implying that the defence of those places must have 
been confined to a stockade. The ditch, generally on the outside, 
was sometimes in the interior of the work. Outworks were 
thrown up upon commanding sites, within 200 or 300 yards of 
the main work. The ramparts at the gateways were increased in 
height and were sometimes thrown back upon the causeway over 
the ditch. 

This was not a characteristic of a Roman gateway. The 
occupants of these works frequently dwelt in pits, which was not 
the Roman practice. These entrenchments were, moreover, in 
an especial manner associated with evidence of the manufacture 
of flint implements, found scattered in great abundance upon the 
surface, whereas the Romans did not use flint for their tools and 
weapons. Mr. Toms went on to refer to General Pitt-Rivers' 
subsequent excavations at Cissbury, Highdown, Mount Caburn, 
and Seaford Cliff, indicating them to be of pre-Roman origin, 



27 



after which he compared Hollingbury with Bronze Age camps of 
Wilts and Dorset in order to disprove the belief that Hollingbury 
was of Roman origin. Like Hollingbury these Wilts and Dorset 
camps were thought to be Roman because of their rectangular 
shape, but the excavations which he (Mr. Toms) had the honour 
of personally conducting at those camps conclusively proved 
them to he the work of the Bronze Age. Passing on, Mr. Toms, 
with the aid of several diagrams, proceeded to show that Holhng- 
bury owed its present aspect to the action of the weather, which 
caused the sides of the trench and rampart to fall into the trench, 
the bottom of which would very soon be covered with chalk 
rubble, and the sides partly so. Then a finer mixture, washed 
and drifted into the trench, would accumulate, and over all turf 
would grow, and mould accumulate by vegetable decay, the 
tendency of all this being ever in the direction of softening and 
reducing the outlines of the earthwork, and eventually almost 
their obliteration. 

Coming to the question of how to determme the age of a 
camp, he showed that this could be done by careful excavation 
and analysis of the deposit with which the trench had become 
filled during the lapse of ages. Relics in the bottom of the trench 
or in the body of the rampart would obviously belong to thepe iod 
of the first construction of the entrenchment, and the objects 
found would naturally be of more and more recent date in the 
later and latest deposits. The relics in the trench would, in fact, 
be found to be arranged, so to speak, in chronological order. 
Dealing next with the best method of excavation by means of 
which to determine the age of Hollingbury, he shewed the import- 
ance of first preparing a carefully contoured plan, and then 
pointed out the right and wrong ways of excavating sections of 
the earthworks. The proper way was to take the turf off first, 
and then work down layer by layer, removing and recording the 
depth and position of the pottery, &c., found in the upper layers 
before digging into the lower layers. If necessary, the whole of 
the ditch^'and rampart should be explored in a similar manner, 
and after the earthworks had been explored, the interior area of 
the camp should be similarly trenched for traces of occupation. 
As the evidence bearing upon Hollingbury's age still lay hidden 
beneath the soil, they could only conjecture the nature of the 
objects forming the clue ; but from a comparison of the results of 
excavations made elsewhere, they might safely say that this ques- 
tion would be mainly solved by the shards of broken pottery 
invariably found in great numbers in earthworks of this kind. 

Pottery alone, however, was not a safe criterion by which to 
determine the age of an earthwork. Other evidence, however 
slight, of the metallic or non-metallic periods was required to 
confirm the conclusion to which the pottery pointed. Finishing 



28 

his paper with a consideration of the connection which it was 
supposed that the earthworks of the South Downs had with each 
other in the defence of the country, Mr. Toms inclined towards 
the views of General Pitt- Rivers, which were opposed to the 
hypothesis of older archeeologists that these entrenchments 
formed part of a triple series of forts. Confirmation of this view 
they imagined could be found in the position of the gateways of 
these forts ; but General Pitt-Rivers thought there was nothing in 
the position of the gateways or works themselves incompatible 
with the hypothesis of their having been isolated works, erected 
by several distinct tribes, as a protection against the incursions of 
their neighbours. The earthworks of the South of England, 
General Pitt-Rivers believed, led us rather to infer the existence 
of frequent intestine wars, in which each section of the com- 
munity fortified itself against its immediate neighbours, than of 
any extensive and c<imbined system of national defence. Another 
weak point in the evidence of connection supposed to be afforded 
by the position of the gateways, which had hitherto been over- 
looked, was that sometimes a footpath or road lead into, across, 
and out of the camp, the points of entrance and exit being 
through a depression in the rampart which looked so uncom- 
monly like one of the old gateways, as to raise a question whether 
these entrances formed part of the original design of the earth- 
work. The only way to settle the difficulty was by excavation at 
these points, but as none of the Sussex forts had been thoroughly 
and systematically investigated, the question of the original 
number of entrances and their hypothetical bearing upon the 
relation of the camps must remain in abeyance until such hnd 
been done. Mr. Toms answered several questions, and sug- 
gested, amid applause, that steps should be taken to preserve the 
camp. The hearty vote of thanks to him, moved by Mr. Clarkson 
Wallis, was carried with acclamation. 



29 

WEDNESDAY, MAY 20TH. 

Jlatural ^ciijna at Eom^ at tljt time 
0f ffiljrist. 

F. R. HORA, B.A., B.Sc. &c. 



MR. Hora pointed out, first, that in any country, schools of 
philosophical thought prevalent in any age, are the product 
mainly of the political and social condition of the people. 

Secondly, he gave a picture of the horrible condition of 
Rome about B.C. 40 as it emerged from its old republican soil to 
spread abroad as a vast military Empire. Roman Natural 
Philosophy was mainly built up from the debris of the fast 
decaying Greek philosophical schools. Hence we see flourishing 
at Rome three main schools : (i) Academic — modified (one might 
almost say degraded) from the pure Idealism of Plato to a 
Sceptical Materialism. (2) Stoic School, which did not concern 
itself much with Natural Philosophy, its ethical system appealing 
so strongly to those who cherised the rigid, almost brutal, traditions 
of Rome's earlier heroes. (3) The Epicurean School — of which 
we know most at the present time, since a complete exposition of 
its tenets by one of its most cultured adherents has come down to 
us, VIZ., Lucretius' magnificent poem, Z>e Keriim A^aturce. With 
all its glaring absurdities, its contempt for religion and its many 
contradictions, the outline of its philosophy resembles very much 
our modern notion of evolution. It was exceedingly popular at 
Rome and included in its folds such literary men as Virgil, 
Horace, Ovid and Lucretius. He pointed out how much and yet 
how little these schools did for modern thought. Want of 
instruments of precision, of a science of chemistry, of algebraical 
geometry, and of a systematic experimental study of Nature 
instead of mere speculation unaccompanied by experiment, account 
for its slow progress. 

Lastly, Mr. Hora pointed out that in a measure the same 
problems confront us now as they did the Romans at the time of 
Christ — the nature and origin of the Universe, God, and morality. 



30 
WEDNESDAY, JUNE ioth, 1903. 



Annual Ol^mral ^Ming. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE ioth, 1903. 



It may not perhaps be generally known to the Members that 
this year the Society is about to enter on the fiftieth year of its 
existence. The first Meeting of the Society was held on 
September ist, 1854. Among those who to<ik an active part in 
its formation, just half a century since, and whose names appear 
as Members of the First Committee of Management, are Mr. 
Barclay Phillips, who now lives at Bedford, and Mr. George de 
Paris, to whose energy and resource the Town and Corporation of 
Brighton are so much indebted as Chairman of the Fine Arts 
Committee. 

The First Annual Report is dated September 13th, 1855. 
This modest unpretending booklet, — somewhat of a curiosity now, 
— lies on the table for your inspection. 

For just on 50 years the Meetings of the Society, appointed 
to be held in the second week of each month between September 
and June, have gone on uninterruptedly. 

We cannot chronicle the admission of 74 new Members in 
this Report as in that of 1855, but it is satisfactory to be able to 
record that there are 1 70 names on the list, and that the Meetings 
during the past year have been more than ordinarily well attended. 

We have to mourn the loss by death of two old Members 
who once took an active part in the work of the Society, viz., Mr. 
Alderman Cox, who joined in 1871, and Mr. Alderman Davey, 
who became a Member in 1872 and was Hon. Auditor for some 
years. During the past year we have lost nine Members, three 
by death and six by resignation, and eleven new Members have 
been elected. 

The re-building of the Public Library has necessitated the 
purchase of new bookcases for the Society's books. These have 
been obtained at a cost of ^16 los. 6d. The Council regret the 



31 

delay which has occurred in the issue of books to Members, the 
causes of which are alluded to in the Librarian's Report. 

There were six excursions, namely : — 

May 24th. Balcombe. 

June 21st. Ashdown Forest — Wych Cross— Sheffield Park. 

July 5th. St. Leonards Forest — Beacon Hill — Holmbush Tower 

— Fease Pottage — High Beeches. 

July 19th. Henfield — Edburton — Woodmancote. 

Sept. 20th. Steyning- Chanctonbury Ring. 

Oct. 4th. Falmer — Newmarket Hill — Lewes. 

Papers read at Ordinary Meetings : — 

1902. 

Oct. " Progress and its Illusions." — 

Mr. E. A. Pankhurst. 

Nov. 5th. " British Oak Trees, and the Galls found upon them." 

Mr. E. CONNOLD. 

Dec. 3rd. " Progress and its Illusions, II." — 

Mr. E. A. Pankhurst. 
I .;o3. 
Jan. T5th. " A Naturalist's Ramble on the Seashore " — 

Mr. Martin Duncan. 

Feb. 1 8th. "Travelling in Mid-Air." — Mr. E. Stuart Bruce. 

Mar. 1 2th. " Mr. Benjamin Kidd's Principles of Western 

Civilisation." — Rev. Felix Asher. 

April 22nd. " HoUingbury Camp " — Mr. H. S. Toms. 

May 13th. " Natural Science at Rome in the time of Christ." — 

Mr. F. R. Hora. 



a 


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3 + 

HON. LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 



The rebuilding of the Public Library and Museum 
necessitated the closing of the Society's Library during the Spring 
of 1902, as was rec )rded in last year's Report. The Reference 
Library was not completed until February, 1903; and most of 
the Society's cases were brought there, and an extra one was 
made, the whole eastern wall of the room being given up to them. 
Other cases are deposited downstairs. It was h )ped and believed 
the new arrangement would be completed, a new catalogue would 
be in all the Members' hands, and duplicates valued for sale, 
before this Annual .Meeting; but just after the Hon Librarian 
began the work, his father, the late Alderman Davey, fell ill, and 
it has not yet been possible to continue the new arrangement and 
cataloguing. There is, however, nothing to prevent the completion 
before the next Session of the Society begins; and it is expected 
that the new position of the cases in the Reference Library, 
visible to the public, will cause a much more frequent consultation 
of the volumes than has previously been the case. 

H. DAVEY, 

Hon. Librarian. 



RESOLUTIONS, &c., PASSED AT THE 
50th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



After the Reports and Treasurer's Account had been read, 
it was resolved — 

" That the Report of the Council, the Treasurer's statement 
(subject to its being audited and found correct), and the 
Librarian's Report be received, adopted, and printed for 
circulation as usual." 

The Secretary reported that in pursuance of Rule 25 the 
Council had selected the following gentlemen to be Vice- 
Presidents of the Society for the ensuing year— 

"J. E. Haselwood, E. J. Petitfourt, B.A , F.C.P., F. Merri- 
field, F.E.S., D. E. Caush, L.D.S., A. Newsholme.F.R.C.P., 
W. J. Treutler, M.D., F.L.S., J. P. Slingsby Roberts, 
E. McKellar, J. P., Deputy Surgeon General, and VV. 
Clarkson Wallis." 



35 

And that in pursuance of Rule 42 the Council had appointed 
the following gentlemen to be Honorary Auditors — 

" Mr. J. W. Nias and Mr. A. F. Graves." 

It was proposed by Mr. H. W. C Harrington, seconded by 
Mr. J. J. Knight, and res )lved — 

"That the following g-entlemen be Officers of the Society for 
the ensuing Yea.\- : -President : E. Alloway Pankhurst ; 
Ordinary Members of Council : Walter Harrison, U.M.D., 
W. W. Mitchell, F. Hora, B..Sc., G. Morgan, L.R.C.P, 
F.R.CS. (E.), E. Payne, M.A., J. Sussex Hall ; Honorary 
Treasurer: E. A. T. Breed; Honorary Librarian: 
H. Davey, Jun. ; Honorary Curators: H. S Toms and 
T. Hilton; Honorary Secretary: J. Colbatch Clark, 
9, Marlborough Place; Assistant Honorary Secretary: 
H. Cane." 

It was proposed by Mr. Wallis, seconded by Mr. J. P. 
Slingsbv Roberts, and resolved — 

"That the best thanks of the Society be given to Mr. E. A, 
Pankhurst for his attention to the interests of the Society 
as its President during the past two years." 

It was proposed by Mr. F. R. Hora, seconded by Mr G G. 
Baily, and resolved — 

" That the sincere thanks of the Society be given to the Vice- 
Presidents, the Council, the Honorary Librarian, the 
Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary Curator, the Honorary 
Auditors, and the Honorary Secretaries, for their services 
during the past year." 



SOCIETIES ASSOCIATED. 

with which the society exchanges publications, 

And whose Presidents and Secretaries are ex-officio Members 
of the Society. 

British Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, Cambridge Hall, Barrow in- 

Furness. 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, c/o G. Donaldson, 8, Mileriver 

Street, Belfast. 
Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, The Museum, 

College Square, N. Belfast. 
Boston Society of Natural Science (Mass., U.S.A.). 



36 

British Museum, General Library, Cromwell Road, London, S.W, 
British and American Archgeological Society, Rome. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society, Frederick Street, Cardiff. 

City of London Natural History Society. 

Chester Society of Natural Science. 

Chic'iester and West Sussex Natural History Society. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club, Public Hall, 

Croydon. 
City of London College of Science Society, White Street, 

Moorfields, E.C., & " Hatfield," Tenham Avenue, Streatham 

Hill, S.W. 

Department of the Interior, AVashington, U.S.A. 

Eastbourne Natural History Society. 
Edinburgh Geological Society. 

Epping Forest and County of Essex Naturalist Field Club, West 
Ham Institute. 

Folkestone Natural History Society. 

Geologists' Association. 

Geological Society of Mexico. 

Glasgow Natural History Society and Society of Field Naturalists. 

Hampshire Field Club. 
Huddersfield Naturalist Society. 

Leeds Naturalist Club. 

Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 

Mexican Geological Institute, 2. Calle de Paso Nuevo, Mexico. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, Stone, Staffs. (Wells 

Bladen, Secretary). 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, Hazlemont, The Boulevard, 

Nottingham. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., U.S.A. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. 

Royal Microscopical Society. 
Royal Society. 

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 

South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Southport Society of Natural Science, Rockley House, Southport. 

Societe Beige de Microscopic, Bruxelles. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

Watford Natural History Society. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 



37 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

!8ri0ljton anb '§fo\3£ J^atural ^iatorg anb 
^Ijilosopljical ^ocutg, 

1903. 

JV.B. — Members are particularly requested to notify any Change of 
Address at once to Mr. J. C. Clark, g, Marll/orough 
Place, Brighton. When not otherivise stated in the 
following List the Address is in Brighton. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Abbey, Henry, Fair Lee Villa, Kemp Town. 
AsHER, Rev. F., 15, Buckingham Place. 
AsHToN, C. S., 10, Powis Grove. 
Attree, G. F., 8, Hanover Crescent. 

Badcdck, Lewis C, M.D., M.R.C.S., 10, Buckingham Place 

Bevan, Bertrand. 

Billing, T., 86, King's Road. 

Booth, E., 53, Old Steine. 

Breed, E. A. T., 17, Buckingham Place. 

Brown, J- H., 6, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Brown, George, Cottesmore, The Upper Drive. 

Bull, W. 75, St. Aubyns, Hove. 

Burrows, W., S., B.A., M.R.C.S., 62, Old Steine. 

BuRCHELL, E., L.R.C.P., 5, Waterloo Place. 

Baily, G. G., 86, Buckingham Road. 

Carter, F. W., 130, Church Road, Hove. 
Cane, H., 173, Ditchling Road. 
Catt, Reginald J., 31, Hampton Place. 
Caush, D. E., L.D.S., 63, Grand Parade. 
Charrington, H. W., 23, Park Crescent. 



38 

Clark, J. Colbatch, 9, Marlborouf^h Place. 
CoLMAN, Alderman J., J. P., Wick Hall, Furze Hill. 

Davey, Henry, jun., Victoria Road. 

Denman, S., 26, Queen's Road. 

DODD, A. H., M R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 49, Church Road, Hove. 

Draper, Dr., Municipal School of Technology. 

Dusart, C C, 13, Chatsworth Road. 

Edmonds, H., B.Sc, Municipal School of Technology. 
Ewart, Sir J., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S.. F.Z.S., Bewcastle, 
Dyke Road. 

Fletcher, W. H. B., J.P., Bersted Lodge, Bognor. 

GiLKES, J. H., 6, Hanover Crescent. 
Graves, A. F., 9A, North Street Quadrant. 
Griffith, A., 59, Montpelier Road, 
Grove, E., Norlington, Preston. 
Grinsted, J., 13, Powis Square. 

Hall, J. Sussex, Ship Street. 

Hack, D., Fircroft, Withdean. 

Harrison, W., D.M.D , 6, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Haselwood, J. E., 3, Richmond Terrace. 

Haynes, J. I>., 24, Park Crescent. 

Henriques, a. G., F.G.S., J. P., 9, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

HiCKLEY, G., 92, Springfield Road. 

Hilton, T., 16, Kensington Place. 

HoBBS, J., 62, North Street. 

HoBHOUSE, E., M.D., 36, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Holder, J. J., 8, Lome Villas. 

HowLETT, J. W., 4, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

HoRA, F. R., 32, Norton Road, Hove. 

Infield, H. J., Sylvan Lodge, Upper Lewes Road. 

Jacomb, Wykeham, 72, Dyke Road. 

Jenner, J. H. A., Lewes. 

Jennings, A. O., LL.B., 11, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

Johnston, J., 12, Bond Street. 

Knight, J. J., 33, Duke Street. 

Langton, H., M.R.C.S., n, Marlborough Place. 
Law, J., Crosthwaite, Lewes. 
Lewis, J., C.E., F.S.A., Fairholme, Maresfield. 
Loader, Kenneth, 5, Richmond Terrace. 
Lonsdale, L., 13, Powis Square. 



39 

McKellar, E., Deputy-Surgeon-General, M.D., J. P., Woodleigh, 

Preston. 
Maguire, E.g., M.D., 9, Old Steine. 
May, F. J. C, 25, Compton Avenue. 
Merrifield, F., 24, Vernon Terrace. 
Mills, J., 24, North Road. 
Mitchell, W. W., 66, Preston Road. 
Morgan, G., L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 6, Pavilion Parade. 
Muston, S. H., 54, Western Road. 
Mansfield, H., ii, Grand Avenue, Hove. 
Mathews, H. J., 43, Brunswick Road. 
MiNTO, J., Public Library. 

Newmarch, Major-General, 6, Norfolk Terrace. 

Newsholme, a., M.I)., M.R.C.P., 11, Gloucester Place. 

NiAS, J. \V., 81, Freshfield Road. 

Nicholson, W. E., F.E.S., Lewes. 

Norman, S. H., Burgess Hill. 

Norris, E. L., 8, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Oke, Alfred W., B.A., LL.M., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 32, 

Denmark Villas, Hove. 
Pank HURST, E. A., 3, Clifton Road. 
Paris, G. De, 14, Norfolk Road. 
Payne, W. H., 6, Springfield Road. 
Payne, E., Hatchlands, Cuckfield. 
Penney, S. R., Larkbarrow, Dyke Road Drive. 
Petitfourt, E. J , B.A., F.C.P., 16, Chesham Street. 
PuGH, Rev. C, 13, Eaton Place. 
PuTTiCK, W., Tipnoake, Albourne, Hassocks. 
POPLEY, W. H., 13, Pavilion Buildings. 

Read, S., 12, Old Steine. 

Richardson, F. R., 4, Adelaide Crescent. 

Roberts, J. }'. Slingsby, 3, Powis Villas. 

Robinson, E., Saddlescombe. 

Rose, T., Clarence Hotel, North Street. 

Ross, D. M., M.B., M.R.C.S., 9, Pavilion Parade. 

Ryle, R. J., M.D., 15, German Place. 

Salmon, E. F., 30, Western Road, Hove. 

Savage, W. W., 109, St James's Street. 

Sloman, F., 18, Montpelier Road. 

Scott, E. Irwin, M.D., 69, Church Road, Hove. 

Smith, C., 47, Old Steine. 

Smith, T., i, Powis Villas. 

Smith, W., 6, Powis Grove. 

Smith, W. J., J. P., 42 and 43, North Street. 

Smith, W. H., 1-91, Eastern Road. 



4° 

Stoner, Harold, L.D.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., i8, Regency 

Square. 
Smithers, E. a., Furze Hill. 

Talbot, Hugo, 79, Montpelier Road. 

Thomas, J., Kingston-on-Sea. 

Treutler, VV. J., M.D., F.L.S., 8, Goldstone Villas, Hove. 

Toms, H. S., The Museum. 

TuoHY, Dr., I, Hova Terrace, Hove. 

VVallis, E. a., Sunnyside, Upper Lewes Road. 

Wallis, W. Clarkson, 15, Market Street. 

Walter, J., 13A, Dyke Road. 

Wells, I., 4, North Street. 

Whytock, E., 36, Western Road. 

WiGHTMAN, G. J., Ailsa Craig, The Wallands, Lewes. 

Wilkinson, T., 170, North Street. 

WiLLF.TT, H., F.G.S., Arnold House, Montpelier Terrace. 

William's, A, S., 17, Middle Street. 

Williams, H. M., LLB., 17, Middle Street. 

Wood, [., 21, Old Steine. 

Woodruff, G. B., 24, Second Avenue, Hove. 

LADY MEMBERS. 

Baglev, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Baker, Miss Edith, Highclere, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Cameron, Miss E., 25, Victoria Street. 
Caush, Mrs., 63, Grand Parade. ^ 

Crafer, Mrs. M. H., 102, Beaconsheid Villas. 
Crane, Miss Agnes, 1 1, Wellington Road. 
CoLLETT, Miss C. H., 8, Marlborough Place. 

Fargus, Mrs., 7, Park Crescent. 

Hare, Miss, 19, Goldsmid Road. 

Herring, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Heunaman, Miss L, 117, Ditchling Road. 

Hernaman, Miss v., 117, Ditchhng Road. 

Holt, Miss, Diocesan Training College, Ditchling Road. 

Langton, Miss, 38, Stanford Road. 

Nicholson, Mrs., 9, Park Crescent. 

Rich, Miss, Iken House, Roedean School. 
Ruge, Miss, 7, Park Crescent. 

Stoner, Mrs. H., 18, Regency Square. 



41 



Thomas, Miss Mary, 119, Freshfield Road. 

Wallis, Mrs., Sunnyside, Upper Lewes Road. 
Wilkinson, Mrs., 30, Brunswick Place, Hove. 
Wood, Mrs. J., 21, Old Steine. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Arnold, Rev. F. H., The Hermitage, Ems worth. 

Bloomfield, Rev. E. N., Guestling Rectory, Hastings. 

CuRTEis, T., 244, High Holborn, London. 

Dawson, C, F.G.S., Uckfield. 

Farr, E. H., Uckfield. 

HoLLis, W. Ainslie, Palmeira Avenue, Hove. 

Mitten, W., Hurstpierpoint. 

NouRSE, W. E. C, Norfolk Lodge, Thurlow Road, Torquay. 

Phillips, Barclay, 7, Harpur Place, Bedford. 

LoMAX, Benjamin, The Museum, Brighton. 



14JANJ9D4 




BRIGHTON & HOVE 

jaatnrat 1|ist0r5 anir fljilnsopljital 



(3k)stm®ts ©f Papers 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 



THE flflflUflLi J^EPOt^T 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 8th, 1864;:.'^'!^% 



^> 



grigljtott : 
Brighton Hekald " Printing Works, Prince's Place. 



1905. 



BRIGHTON & HOVE 

jEatural Hiatorj an5 pijilnsopbical 



dbst^Qc^ts of Paper; 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 



THE flflflUflli f^EPO^T 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 8th, 1904. 






^ 






grigljton : 

" Brkjhton Herald" Printing Works, Prince's Place. 



1905. 



INDEX 



PACE. 

Officers of the Society ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Relationship BtTWEEN Poetry and Science — 

Rev. Felix Asher ... ... ... ... . . 5 

Fossil Hunting in the Libyan Desert — Dr. C. W. 

Andrews, F.G.S. ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Structure and Form of Shells — Mr. Edward 

Connold, F.E.S. ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Memory and its Diseases— Mr. A. M. Sydney- 
Turner, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S 10 

The Smaller Denizens of our Ponds, Lakes and 

Rivers — Mr. F. Martin Duncan, F.E.S., F.L.S. ... 13 

The Evolution of the Horse — Dr. A. Smith- 
Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. ... ... ... ... 15 

The Birds of Brighton and Neighbourhood — 

Mr. E. Robinson .. 17 

British Tkees — Mr. G. Claridge Druce, M.A., F.L.S. 19 

Report of Council ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Meteorology of Brighton .. ... 26 

Treasurer's Account 27 

Herbarium, 1902-1903 ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Annual General Meeting 29 

Societies Associated ... ... ... ... ... 30 

List of Members ... ... ... ... ... ... 32 



Officers of the Society, 1903-4. 



Henry Davey. 



W. E. C. NOURSE. 

F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
A. H. Cox, Aid., J. P. 
L. C. Badcock, M.D. 

W. AiNSLIE HOLLIS, M.D., 

F.R.C.P. 

J. EWART, Kt., M.D., J. P. 
J. E. Haselwood 



W. Seymour Burrows, M.R.C.S. 



George de Paris. 

D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 

M.O.H. 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsbv Roberts. 
W. J. Treutler, M.D. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 



E. Alloway Pankhurst. 



The Council. 



D. E Caush, L.D.S. 
J. E. Haselwood. 
F. Merrifield, F.E.S- 
A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 
M.O.H. 



Iffkc-IPrcaiirettts : 
(Rule 25.) 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 
J. P. Si.iNGSBY Roberts. 
W. J. Treutler, M.D. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 
E. A. Pankhurst. 



Ordinary Members. 



G. Morgan, L.R.CP., F.R.CS. 
W. W. Harrison, D.M.D. 
F. Hora, B.Sc, B.A. 

■^onorarg treasurer : 
E. A. T. Breed. 



J. Sussex Hall- 
S. R. Penney. 
H. J. Mathews. 



I^tinorarg |£ibrar:ait 
Robt. Morse. 



■^ottorarg ^aiiitora : 
J. W. Nias. A. F. Graves. 

Hottorarg Curators : 
H. S. Toms and T. Hilton. 

Itonorarp ^cicnttfii: Secretaries : 
D. E. Caush, L.D.S. W. Harrison, D.M.D. F. R. Hora, B.Sc. 

honorary Secretary: 
J no. Colbatch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place. 

Assistant honorary Secretary : 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 



Session 1903-4. 

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 15TH, 1903, 

BY 

The Rev. FELIX ASHER 

(Vicar of Holy Trinity, Ship Street, Brighton). 



SCIENCE is apparently truer and more permanent than poetry, 
for it deals with facts as they are ; the poet allows the facts 
to be transformed by a medium of feeling. Science again appears 
to see the present actual world, while poetry lives, often, by 
contemplating the beauty of an ever-receding past. Yet, if we 
turn to concrete poems like Tennyson's " Break, Break, Break," 
we find our assumption hardly holds good. The poem written 
between 1830- 1840 is much fresher to-day than the science of 
that period. A stanza of Gray's Elegy touches our emotions now, 
but who would learn of the science of the i8th century? The 
greatest poet of all — Shakespeare — lived when science was hardly 
born and his voice is as clear as ever, while we ignore the 
scientific glimmerings of his day. All this goes to show that 
poetry, once created, Hves on unchanged, while a phase of 
scientific thought, however accurate, lasts but a short time and is 
merged in the complete synthesis which follows it. 

Again, the poet "sees into the life of things." He is not 
content, like the scientist, to abstract certain features of living or 
dead phenomena, and formulate the connexions between such 
abstractions ; the poet penetrates to the essential nature, the deep 
mysterious throb of life which animates each separate thing and 
the whole universe in which it finds itself. The scientist describes 
things and maps the world out for us ; the poet explains their 
being and their end and gives us, in song, the joy which he feels 
at his discovery. The scientist brings his message of the external 



forms of things, the marvellous features of the world in which 
we live ; he purges our minds of harmful illusions and checks 
unwholesome sentiment. The poet, on the other hand, hrings us 
musically and with emotion his discovery of the expression of the 
face of the world. To him the world and every fact in it, is 
translucent and looks beyond itself. 

We need the message and the help of both poet and scientist 
for restraint and inspiration. 



AVEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 4th, 1903. 

JFnssil Hunting in tlje libyan ^tstxl 

BY 

Dr. CHARLES W. ANDREWS, F.G.S., 

Of the British Museum. 



THE Lecture was mainly descriptive of the topography and 
geology of the Libyan desert which lies to the west of 
Egypt. It is but sparsely inhabited, subject to violent alternations 
of heat and cold, and often swept by suffocating sand storms, 
whilst rain is almost unknown. This vast wilderness, by its 
natural dryness and inaccessibility, proved peculiarly suitable for 
the preservation of the fossil remains of those strange mammals 
who were the denizens of the place during the upper Eocene, 
Oligocene and Miocene epochs. 

Dr. Andrews conducted most of his researches in the bed of 
a mighty river which seems like the ancestor of the Nile as we 
know it now. Many lantern slides were shown illustrating the 
remarkable divesity of its surface, the fantastic escarpments, the 
strange isolated bluffs cropping up from level plains like the 
monuments of a Titanic race rather than the work of natural 
agencies. The famous Sphinx, by the way, was shown to be one 
of these natural monuments, carved into shape afterwards by 
human agencies. A rich harvest of fossil forms, some absolutely 
unique and unlike .iny animals now existing or extinct forms 
hitherto discovered, was the Lecturer's reward for many months' 
life (under by no means congenial conditions) in this lonely and 
vast desert. Some of these fossils formed links in the evolution 



7 



of the ekphant's tusks and trunk which, as the Lecturer 
remarked, was not quite in the same way as that described in 
Rudyard Kipling's "Just So" stories. One find was that of an 
absolutely new animal, probably related to the elephant, but 
which no one yet had been able to classify with certainty. A 
picture of the skull was shown— quite as fantastic as that of the 
New World Tinoceras, referred to in a later lecture by Dr. Smith 
Woodward. Reference was also made to the discovery of the 
remains of a huge snake, probably a water snake, comparable in 
size to the so-called Sea Serpent. 

Great amusement was caused by the Lecturer's caustic 
comments on the " Superciliousness " of the camel who seemed 
fully to realize that he was indispensable to a dweller in the 
wilderness, and gave himself airs accordingly, as well as the 
thievish ways of the Arab attendants who accompanied him. 



THURSDAY DECEMBER 3RD, 1903. 

Structure anb JFornt oi ^Mls, 

BY 

Mr. EDWARD CONNOLD, F.E.S. 

(Hon. Sec. of the Hastings and St. Leonards Natural History 
Society), 

With Lantern Illustrations. 



THE common garden snail and the common whelk were 
types of creatures, which were known to naturalists as 
molluscs. All molluscs began their existence in the egg form, 
and there was a great variety in the shape and size of the eggs. 
There was also a great difference in the manner in which they 
were deposited by the parent. Some little snails were hatched 
within the mother, and born alive, but the majority came forth 
from the eggs after they had been laid. Some molluscs laid their 
eggs singly, or in masses, others produced them in the form of a 
ribbon, and were either left free or were attached to some object. 
There was also a considerable diversity in their size, which ranged 
from a small speck to the size of a common snail shell. When 



they emerged from the egg they were known as the larvae, and if 
they had not a shell at the time of birth, they soon began to form 
one. In this condition they could swim about in water, and on 
their back they formed the shell, while the ventral surface became 
the foot or creeping disc. But changes soon and rapidly took 
place, and the visceral sac and the shell became coiled in a 
nautiloid form, and at this stage it depended in the case of 
univalve shells as to which form the shell would assume, whether 
a dextral or right hand, or sinistral or left hand. 

The visceral sac was covered with an integument known as the 
mantle, the epidermis of which was filled with secretive glands, 
and these produced the materials for the formation of the shell. 

The formation and deposition of the shelly material was then 
shown on the screen, as also were microscopic fragments of the 
materials by some five or six slides. 

The shell consisted of three distinct layers ; the inner layer 
having a nacreous or mother of pearl texture. Next to that was the 
portion known as the porcellanous or prismatic layer. It was 
composed of large pallisade-like prisms which were placed side by 
side. The texture was something like the enamel of teeth. It 
contained the colouring pigments which gave to most shells the 
charm they possessed to almost everybody. The outer surface of 
the shell was covered with a horny cuticle, known as the epidermis 
or periostracum. Both it and the prismatic layer were secreted 
by the free edge of the mantle. It was composed mainly of 
chitinous substance and served as a protection to the external 
surface of the shell, and in many instances acted as a varnish by 
throwing into relief the colouring beneath. The mantle, in the 
case of bivalve shells, Avas developed on two sides of the animal 
into a right and a left lobe. In the univalve shells it was continuous. 
The skin of the mantle consisted of three parts : a one layered 
epidermis of columnar cells, a highly vascular connective tissue 
containing abundant muscular fibres, and the ciliated layer of cells. 

The shell was composed of carbonate of lime and conchyolin. 
As a rule it was hard and calcareous, but some were dehcate in 
structure, horny, and flexible. The periostracum varied greatly in 
its different qualities. (A slide was shown in which it was seen 
on shells, as long course fibres growing, as it were, out of the 
shells, while other specimens showed it produced to a great length 
beyond the end of the valves and forming a strong leathery casing 
for the siphonal tubes of the mollusc). 

In some shells it was closely adherent and even connected to 
the valve, while in its coarser forms it would peel off after the 
death of the mollusc. 

The lecturer pointed out that it must not be confused with 
the epiphragm which was a kind of lid or covering made by many 
kinds of snails to the opening of the shell ; nor yet with the 
operculum, which was a horny formation in some, and of a shelly 



nature in other kind of sliells, the latter being a movable apparatus 
for partially or wholly closing the aperture, and fully under the 
control of the animal inhabiting the shell. A unique arrange- 
ment found in the shell of a small land snail consisted of a 
movable door fixed by a tiny hinge fastened to the interior of the 
shell. In shape it was somewhat like the bowl of a spoon. The 
name given to it was the clausilium, and from that the family of 
those shells was called Clausilia. (A further illustration of 
peculiar formations of the interior of some shells was shown in 
specimens of rock borers dug out of the rocks and wood of the 
submerged forest at Bulverhythe). This particular formation was 
shaped like a sickle, and it served as a point to which the foot and 
viscera of the animal were attached. No other shells than those 
of the Pholas family had this object. 

Very few bivalve shells were without teeth. These teeth 
varied considerably in number. Some shells had but one or two, 
while one shown on the screen was stated to have nearly 270. A 
photo-micrograph of several of these teeth assisted the explanation 
of their form and use. A tough leather-like arrangement for 
holding the valves together and retaining them so that they can 
open and close with ease and exactitude ; and the peculiar yet 
perfect arrangement of the muscles controlling the action of the 
valves as well as the movements of the animal within were then 
illustrated by written description thrown upon the screen in white 
letters. Having further dealt with several features of the internal 
economy of shells in general, the lecturer passed on to describe 
the external topography, pointing out the margins, the umbones, 
the spines, the ribs and ridges, the lines of growth, and the 
general plan of ornamentation of the shell, each and all of the 
features being illustrated by photographs of shells from the 
lecturer's cabinet of specimens in the Hastings Museum. 

But it appeared that some molluscs had a shell formed within 
the body, the common Squid has a horny substance in the 
form of a gladius or pen ; the Cuttle had, what was familiar to 
many people in the form of the well-known cuttle bone. (Of this 
object several interesting photo-micrographs showed the remark- 
able construction of different portions.) 

The common garden slugs also had either a small internal 
shelly plate or granules of calcareous substance, the formation of 
which was shown as seen under the microscope. 

At the present day about 25,000 different kinds of shells 
were known, and among them there was an enormous variety in 
size and shape as well as colouring. The Nautilus shell was 
shown as a type of one form ; the common whelk as another, and 
the scorpion shell as another. The beautiful cowries, beautiful 
in colouring and form, served as illustrations of the remarkable 
difference in the appearance of the shell of a young cowrie and 
that of the fully-grown or adult animal. The Haliotis or ear shell 



was shown to possess, in addition to its peculiar shape, a wealth 
of prismatic colouring of great delicacy. Shells consisting of 
eight pieces were given as examples of a family which live like 
limpets attached to rocks on the English coasts, some being found 
at Bulverhythe. They rejoiced in the name of seawoodlice, and, 
like those creatures, could roll themselves into a ball. The shells 
of the rock borers were white, adorned with prickly sculpture, 
and although thin, were strong. The valves of all the species 
did not meet, and when such was the case the spaces were filled 
in with other portions termed accessory plates. The animals 
forming these shells emitted a phosphorescent light. This was 
shown in some living specimens which the lecturer had procured 
from the rocks for the occasion. The opening and closing of 
oyster valves was also demonstrated with specimens. In a con- 
cluding view a cluster of beautiful barnacles was shown. These, 
it was stated, did not belong to shells proper, because the 
structure of the barnacle was widely different from that of a 
mollusc, nevertheless most people spoke of them as shell fish. 
The illustration was from a photograph taken by the lecturer's 
father some years ago when a log of wood about 30ft. long was 
washed ashore at St. Leonards, and was almost covered with 
living barnacles. 



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 20TH, 1904. 



Mr. a. M. SYDNEY-TURNER, 

M.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 



COMMENCING with a classification of the degrees of memory, 
the Lecturer enumerated four. First there was the conscious 
but unorganised degree, which was evanescent, and was illustrated 
in the greater number of incidents which pass under our daily 
observation, and which in many cases disappear for ever from the 
memory. Next came the conscious and semi-organised degree, 
shown in the grasping of a language or manual art which is being 
learnt, but in which the student is not proficient. The third 
degree was less conscious and nearly organised, the memory of 
the mother tongue being the case in point here. The fourth was 



almost unconscious and completely organised — a degree typified 
by the memory of the expert musician, the skilled artizan, 
accountant, or surgical operator. Dr. Sydney-Turner went on to 
point out how the views of Scotch and other psychologists are 
limited to a certain phase of memory. He emphasized the con- 
tention that memory can exist without locaHsation in time, this 
representing only the extent of consciousness in the act of 
memory and nothing more. He defined the anatomical 
mechanism of memory as the production of certain associations 
of impressions made upon the nerve cells. He found it necessary 
to add one more classification to the degrees of memory — con- 
sisting solely of reflex impressions which are fixed by long 
experience during the evolution of species. This he described as 
the bridge between individual and hereditary memory. They 
must remember that the impressions they received were not im- 
pressed on an inert substance, as in the case of a stamp on a pat 
of butter or a die on metal. They were recorded in living matter, 
and it was only reasonable to suppose that as nutrition supplied 
new material, so this new material occupied the same place and 
had the same functions as the old. So that memory direcily de- 
pended on nutrition. Turning to a novel theory, he asked was it 
going too far to say that there might be an atomic memory — that 
each portion of germplasm carried in itself a memory capable of 
entering into well-defined associations with any other portion 
when opportunity was given ? 

Coming to mental disease, the Lecturer said its onset was 
indicated not by intellectual disorder, but by changes in the 
character of the individual. An attack was rarely so sudden but 
that there had been some preliminary indication, often so slight 
as not to be recognised. Dealing with the many phases of mental 
disease, he said temporary amnesia generally made its appearance 
suddenly and ended abruptly. It embraced periods of time 
which might vary from a few minutes to several years. Epilepsy 
in its various forms gave the best examples of this ; and a dream 
gave a good illustration of the mental state of epileptics. Dreams 
of which all remembrance vanished on waking were very common ; 
others persisted in our waking moments, but were soon lost. All 
of them had at some time tried vainly to recall a dream — 
pleasant or otherwise — of which only an impression remained. 
The explanation was that the states of consciousness which form 
the dream were extremely weak. They seemed to be strong at the 
time, and were so, not of their own strength, but because no 
stronger state existed to force them into a secondary position. 
At the moment of waking the conditions changed, and 
images disappeared before perceptions, perceptions before 
a state of sustained attention, and this last before a fixed idea 
or full external consciousness. Periodic amnesia was more 
remarkable for the information it gave as to the existence of an 



ego or conscious personality, than for its effect on the mechanism 
of memory. These cases showed that personality or ego did 
not depend entirely on memory ; but it was so difficult to define 
personality that one could only conceive it as a bodily condition, 
or organic consciousness, that being constantly renewed, was 
nothing more than a habit. Another variety of periodic amnesia 
comprised somnambulism. Usually sleepwalkers after an attack 
had no recollection of what they had done in it, but in each crisis 
they recollected what took place in previous crises. 

Progressive amnesia was a condition of memory in which the 
impairment was slow, but continuous, resulting in the complete 
destruction of the memory. The development of the disease 
was so gradual as to conceal its gravity. It was a common 
symptom of general paralysis, and lunatic asylums were full of 
patients of this class, who, on the day after entry, insisted that 
they had been there for a year, or many years. Recollection, 
however, of what was done and acquired before the onset of the 
disease, was retained with great tenacity. Partial amnesia 
furnished them with almost miraculous cases, and were they not 
authenticated beyond doubt one would hesitate to beheve in 
them. That a person should be deprived of his recollection of 
certain words and retain the rest of his memory intact ; that he 
should forget entirely one language and remember others ; that 
there should be a loss of memory for music and nothing else, 
seemed hard to imagine. But if they remembered that they 
were accustomed to apply the word memory to an independent 
function, a faculty, or a personified abstraction, whereas it was 
really a compound expression, and that it might be resolved into 
memories, they would understand the seeming impossibilities. 
Aphasia and hyperamnesia were other forms of memory disease. 
Giving instances of varying forms of this latter, he said there were 
few of them who had not at some time had the impression that 
some state they found themselves in, or some object they were 
seeing presumably for the first time, had been experienced or seen 
on a prior occasion. He took it that these were awakenings of 
the memory due to a prior impression forgotten by ourselves 
until now excited by some external cause similar to the one which 
first impressed it. Again, there were many accounts of drowning 
persons saved from imminent death who agreed that at the 
moment of asphyxiation they seemed to see their whole lives 
unrolled before them in minute detail. These cases showed a 
hyperintensity of action on the part of the memory of which they 
could have no idea in the normal state. These cases would also 
seem to indicate that nothing is really lost in memory, however 
fleeting and trivial the primitive acquisition might have been, but 
that all were not preserved to the conscious memory except under 
the impulse of some supreme emotion such as would be 
experienced when in imminent danger of death. 



13 
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY ioth, 1904. 

%l)t ^ntalkr ^mi^zm of our fonirs, 

BY 

Mr. F. MARTIN-DUNCAN, F.E.S., F.L.S. 



MR. MARTIN-DUNCAN at the outset of the lecture observed 
that the gentle art of pond hunting had its attendant risks. 
On one occasion he himself when fishing for a small piece of 
weed, was suddenly and unexpectedly pushed into the pond by a 
billy goat, and came out of it (to quote his own words) " Like unto 
a river god." The amount of time and patience requisite for 
photographing successfully the appearance and habits of small 
organism was exemplified (i) in the preparation of lantern slides 
showing "Cell conjugation and fusion in Chara" which entailed 
six hours close watching ; (2) in photographing a Rotifer, which 
remained three hours in its glassy like castle before it would show 
itself. The results as displayed by the lantern were much 
appreciated. 

Specimens were then shown of desmids, infusoria and hydras, 
and the curious " somersault " method of locomotion adopted by 
the latter explained. Passing to the Rotifers, Mr. Martin-Duncan 
showed a highly magnified specimen whose constituent cells 
presented the appearance of a pyramid of tiny bricks, and delicate 
tints of different colours, he explained, could be conveyed to the 
ceils by merely colouring the creature's food. Other Rotifers 
with their coronae expanded, some like snowy plumes of delicate 
texture, and others like peacock's tails set in trellis work, were 
shown, and an explanation was given of the use of the corona in 
securing water fleas, etc., which made up the animal's food. On 
the subject of water fleas the lecturer explained how certain 
carnivorous plants living in ponds lured them into their bladder 
like body which is provided with a door opening from the outside 
only ; this successfully imprisons the too curious water flea who 
soon perishes and is digested by the juices secreted by the plant. 

Excellent slides were shown illustrating the life changes of 
the dragon fly. Always a voracious feeder, the larva has a heavy 



14 



under-lip provided with a formidable pair of jaws, carefully 
concealed when not in use, whilst the adult when flying about, 
seems to kill butterflies, etc., merely for the sake of killing. 

Male and female water beetles, the larvjE of gnats and 
mosquitoes were also shown, and with the last the lecturer drew 
attention to the breathing apparatus which necessitated their 
rising to the surface of the water, hence medical men strongly 
advocated pouring paraffin oil on stagnant pools in districts 
infected with malaria or yellow fever, since the poison giving rise 
to these terrible diseases is now known to be conveyed entirely 
by certain species of mosquitoes, and the layer of paraffin would 
prevent the larvae protruding their breathing apparatus above the 
water, and so they would perish. 

Attention was then directed to the water spider and his 
ingenious diving bell, first a globe of water-proof silk is spun at 
the bottom of the pond, and then, by periodic visits to the surface 
of the water, small air bubbles are collected around the spider's 
body and introduced into the silk bell so as to make it habitable. 

Finally, a slide was shown and a description given of the 
stickleback's little nest. The female is with difficulty enticed into 
the nest, and having laid her batch of eggs, she secretly departs 
and leaves the work of tending the nest to her hardworking, dutiful 
lord, who certainly does his work well. One nest the lecturer 
kept for some time was constantly attacked by caddis worms, and, 
despite the sentry-like and fighting qualities shown by the male 
stickleback, it got destroyed and the undeveloped eggs rolled out 
and were devoured by the other sticklebacks in the tank, including 
the fickle mother. 



IS 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH gru, 1904. 

®Ij^ ^bolntioit of tb^ Horse. 

BY 

Dr. a. SMITH-WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S. 

(Keeper of the Department of Geology, British Museum.) 



DR. SMITH-WOODWARD commenced by saying that the 
horse was a very satisfactory animal to deal with as regards 
tracing its evolution. In the early part of the Tertiary epoch, 
the ancestor, Phenacodus, was an animal about the size of a 
small collie dog, living mostly in water and in marshy districts, 
each of its feet five toed, widely spread to enable it to walk on 
soft ground, with a long tail to help it in swimming. The 
different stages were shown whereby the neck in the early animal, 
devoid of lateral movements, evolved into the flexible sinuous 
neck of the modern horse, capable of being turned quickly in 
every direction for self protection. The teeth, originally adapted 
for chewing succulent vegetable food only, had developed in 
course of time into the powerful grinders which the horse now 
possesses. The limbs, in early times able to execute a turning 
movement like the human arm, had settled down into ones 
adapted only for forward and backward movement, and were 
exquisitely contrived for rapid locomotion. With close detail 
and many diagrams, the Lecturer showed how the original five 
toes of the foot, adapted for soft ground, dwindled to three, and 
how the exterior tees of the three by disuse became less and less 
important and smaller in size, until they had shrunk into mere 
vestiges, leaving the central toe expanded and hardened into the 
hoof, so excellently adapted for galloping over hard ground. 
With regard to cloven-footed animals, two toes out of the five 
survived. No better example of adaptation of animals to 
changed conditions of life could be produced. 

Incidentally allusion was made to some of the monstrous 
ungainly forms that developed from the same ancestor 
Phenacodus, and pictures were cast on the screen of the probable 
appearance of the Tinoceras, Titanotherium, &zc. Referring to 
the fantastic horns that adorned Tinoceras, Dr. Smith-Woodward 



i6 

said that it was characteristic of certain animal families that 
when they grew anything in the nature of bony horns they came 
to an end ; horns were eccentricities which did not persist. As 
in modern times, so in the long history of evolution, it was 
mediocrity that governed the world ; mediocre animals of a 
species formed the basis of the next advance. 

Attention was next drawn to the tapir (a skeleton of which 
was shown), an animal found nowadays only in South America 
and the Malay Peninsula ; in former times tapirs existed all over 
the world and were survivors of one of the stages through which 
the primaeval quadruped went in the course of its development 
into the horse. 

The hipparion was also briefly alluded to ; in appearance not 
unlike our pony, it was extensively spread all over the world. In 
Spain there were miles of beds composed of its bones, and 
numerous whole skeletons of it had been dug up in Greece. 
Hipparions must have roamed over prehistoric Europe, Asia, and 
North America in countless numbers. In South America, which 
was isolated from the rest of the world during part of the Tertiary 
Epoch, whilst North America, Asia, and Europe were all 
connected, animals were found shaped like the horse which had 
been evolved quite independently from different animals. The 
most reasonable explanation was that such changes are mainly 
produced by environment, so that like outside conditions produce 
like results, so far as animal structure was concerned. 

In answer to a question from Mr. Pankhurst, the President, 
as to how these varying forms of animals came to be exterminated. 
Dr. Woodward said the question was a difficult one to solve. In 
South America whole herds of animals at the present day were 
killed by a dry season or an extreme winter, and the probability 
was that there were coincidences of unfavourable conditions over 
a considerable area, which caused the destruction of these now 
extinct animals. It had been noticed how in times of distress 
animals would congregate into one spot to die, and the piles of 
bones massed in particular places hinted that this had happened 
in long forgotten ages, long before man came on earth. 
Obnoxious insects had also a good deal to do with killing off 
animals in the regions they infested. 



n 



THURSDAY, APRIL 2ist, 1904. 

BY 

Mr. E. ROBINSON. 



AT the outset, Mr. Robinson remarked that the neighbourhood 
of Brighton, despite the enormous number of telegraph 
and telephone wires which always proved a fruitful source of 
destruction to bird life, was really a good place to pursue the 
study of ornithology. The town possessed an unique Bird 
Museum, bequeathed to it by the late Mr. E. T. Booth, and 
several rare species had been either seen or captured both in the 
precincts of the town and in the neighbouring districts; e.g., 
spoonbills, storks, little bitterns. White's thrush, woodcocks, 
landrails, &c. He then drew attention to the difficult question of 
the " Phases of colouration " in birds. In most feathered fowls 
the change is effected by a complete moult ; with the bunting 
family and some of the finches, a light edging grows on the 
plumes which hides the brighter colours beneath its fringe ; as 
spring approaches the tips are gradually shed so that the under- 
lying tints are revealed. 

Mr. J. G. Millais in a paper in the Idis of 1896 showed 
that as regards some birds, e.g., " Sclavonian Grebe," as the old 
feathers gradually "blush" the new ones assimilate themselves 
during their growth to the changing old ones. Again, among the 
waders is the " Sanderling " — a bird which adopts a complete 
recolouration of the feathers in new form, only a few being 
moulted and replaced by the summer ones— -the change is 
wrought not by the grey edges of the feathers wearing off but by 
the colouring matter moving down and obliterating the white; 
after this the edge wears off, causing its form to be completely 
altered. These changes the Lecturer illustrated by carefully 
drawn diagrams. 

The Lecturer then considered the much discussed question 
of " Migration," most of our present knowledge of which we 
owe to the labours of the Migration Committee of the Brirish 



i8 

Association. The supposed southward movement duvint; winter 
of most of our common birds is doul)tless much exaggerated. 
Many careful investigators, including the Lecturer, have watched 
minutely individual birds of various species possessing some 
distinguishing mark daily throughout the winter, and found ihey 
have clung closely to the locality during the whole time. 

Mr. Robinson then gave a short account of Mr. Eagle 
Clarke's researches on Migration which extended over a period of 
31 days at the Kentish Knock lightship (stationed 21 miles N.E. 
of Margate 'and the same distance S.E. of the Naze), the 
original paper appearing in the Ibis for January, 1904. Mr. 
Clarke's conclusions were that (i) most birds, especially small 
ones, fly very close to the waves, and hence are very difficult to 
observe ; (2) intersecting currents of the same species of birds 
could be detected ; (3) no Continental migration whatever takes 
place from points North of East ; (4) the power often attributed 
to birds of foretelling periods of fine weather suitable for the 
migration journey seems to be a myth ; on several occasions they 
set out on a falling barometer, and were overtaken by bad weather. 
In conclusion, Mr. Robinson, quoting Mr. Seehohm's remark that 
in Siberia the chief migration tracks lay on the great river 
valleys of the Lena, Yenesei, and Obi, put forward the suggestion 
that the cross Channel migration route of the present time 
coincided with the site of an ancient river valley, and as modern 
geologists agree that such a river valley did exist, and that, too, 
probably since the advent of man, it would, in a measure, explain 
why birds of the present time follow that particular route. 



^9 



WEDNESDAY, MAY hth, 1904. 

BY 

Mr. G. CLARIDGE DRUCE, M.A. (Oxon), 
F.L.S. 

(Author of "The Flora of Oxfordshire and Berkshire "), 
With Lantern Illustrations. 



THE Lecturer first described the four classes of the Vegetable 
Kingdom, — Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons, Gymnosperms, 
and Acotyledons, in order to explain that only two of these, the 
first and the third, were represented in Britain ; but he showed, 
in order to illustrate ihe growth of monocotyledonous trees, a 
photograph of the great Dragon Tree of Orotava, Teneriffe 
( Calamus Draco), which had been said was the oldest tree in the 
world, its age having been estimated at as much as 6,000 years, 
but the Lecturer was inclined to put it at not more than 2,000 
years. The tree is now destroyed ; from it was obtained a resin 
known as Dragon's Blood, much in use as a colouring agent. 

The other tree illustrated was the Seychelle Island Palm, the 
fruit of which, known as the double cocoa-nut or Coco de la Mer, 
was for a long time the theme of much controversy, as the origin 
was unknown, the fruit being cast up by the seas on the Indian 
coast, was supposed by some to be a fossil, by others as the fruit 
of some gigantic water plant, until the discovery of the Seychelle 
Islands off the African coast explained the problem. These 
photographs shewed the comparatively simple stem of this class 
as compared with the branching characters of our forest trees ; 
and this was true to a great extent also of the Tree Ferns, of 
which a photograph of Dicksonia antarctica was shewn. The 
height of a monocotyledonous tree, even of the Palms, was rarely 
over 250 feet, while Tree Ferns, even gigantic Tree Ferns, were 
rarely over 60 feet. 

The Lecturer said that it was not quite easy to define what 
was meant by a tree. Morrison, the first Oxford Professor of 
Botany, included in his unpublished work, written about 1680, 
all woody perennials in his " Arbores," but the Lecturer said he 
should take as his standard a tree which attained the height of not 



less than 30 feet. Of these the British Flora included nearly 40 
species, but several were only doubtful natives ; but the intro- 
duced species were so frequent that he should be obliged to 
make some reference to them. He, therefore, shewed photo- 
graphs of the Lime tree, which many authorities asserted was 
introduced into Britain during the Roman occupation, but which 
was now so common an object in our parks, promenades, and 
plantations. He referred to it as being the name of the great 
botanist, Charles Lind, better known in its latinised form as 
Linnceus, and said how excellent a tree it was for planting in 
towns ; the odour so well known was curious from the fact that 
it was more pronounced at a little distance from the tree, when 
one got closer it was less agreeable and less powerful. Specimens 
of the Limes by the Thames, at Windsor, and at Dorchester were 
shewn. In passing, the Lecturer remarked that two species of 
Lime, the small and the large-leaved Lime, were supposed to be 
native trees. 

The Oriental Plane was next described, and some botanists 
believed it was also introduced by the Romans, others that it was 
not brought to Britain until the 15th or i6th Century. This tree 
is also well adapted for planting in towns, since it bears the 
smoke better than most species. It is a native of the East, and 
was introduced into Sicily about 600 years before Christ, and was 
a favourite tree of both the Greeks and Romans. The photo- 
graph exhibited was from the large tree at Rycote, in Oxford- 
shire, where Elizabeth was kept for two years in practical 
imprisonment. The peculiar undulating growth of the branches 
was explained. 

The Sycamore was then described as probably an introduced 
tree, but the date of its introduction was lost in remote antiquity. 
The tree was frequently planted about castles and farmhouses to 
give shelter, and in Scotland they received the name of doul, or 
grief tree, from the custom which once obtained of hanging a 
refractory vassal or captured foe upon them. Fine photographs 
of some trees at Inverary and Inverlochy Castles were shewn, as 
also one at Burford, in Oxfordshire. 

Brief allusion was made to the native Acer — or Maple — 
which is such a plentiful shrub in the hedgerows in limestone 
districts, and which has the same character as its American 
relations, that is in showing such gorgeous colours in autumn. _ It 
was mentioned that there were trees 40 feet high in Oxfordshire. 
The wood was greatly prized, and the celebrated Maser bowls 
were made of it which now fetched such extremely high prices. 

The Horse Chestnut was next mentioned. This tree was 
probably introduced in the time of Queen Elizabeth, as Gerard in 
1597 alluded to it as a rare foreign tree. The flower and the 
manner of fertilization was described, and photographs of the 
avenue at Bushey Park, and of a tree at Dorchester, were shewn. 



Brief allusion was made to the Wild Plum and Pear, neither 
of which could be considered true natives ; and then the Common 
Elm was classed among the trees which were not indisputably 
indigenous. By many authorities it was considered to be one of 
the species we owe to the Romans. The fact of its rarely being 
produced from seeds was mentioned, and the Lecturer said he 
had seen a seedling of it on a wall in Buckinghamshire. The 
tree is so frequent in Central England, that he thought it worth 
while to show a series of photographs in order to evince what a 
factor it was in our rural scenery. Specimens were shewn of the 
Elms at Bensington, the Childswell Elm near Oxford, the Elms at 
Medmenham, at Bisham, at Mongewell (which were figured by 
Strutt), at Great Marlow, the Broad Walk at Oxford, as well as 
some covered with hoar frost, which excellently brought out the 
repeatedly branching character so typical of our British forest 
trees. 

The Sweet Chestnut I Castanea) was next described, and it 
was stated that this had the honour of being the largest tree 
known, the Great Chestnut of Mount Etna being no less than 66 
feet in diameter, the next largest being Taxodhtm Mexicanum, the 
Mexican Cedar, which has been found 52 feet across, and there- 
fore much larger than the tree of the Western States of America, 
the M'ei/ingtonen gigantea, which, however, is less than forty feet 
through, even in its finest examples. Incidentally the Lecturer 
mentioned that this Wellingtonea was moreover not the tallest 
tree, although specimens 462 feet had been measured; but these 
fell short of the Eucalyptus amygdalimis, the Peppermint tree of 
Australia, which had been known to attain the enormous height 
of 494 feet, therefore taller than anv stone building in the Old 
World. 

The Lecturer then proceeded to describe some trees which 
belonged to the class Gymnosperms, that is, in which the ovules 
were naked. Till recently they had been merged with the 
Dicotyledons but, as a matter of fact, they had more than two, 
sometimes, and not unusually six cotyledons. Moreover their 
alliance was rather with the Equisetums, and they belonged to 
that class of plants which was so largely represented in the 
Carboniferous era. 

Of the introduced species which are now so plentiful, he first 
shewed and described the Cedar of Lebanon, which was brought 
into Britain from Syria between 1650 and 1680. Photographs of 
this magnificent tree from Beil House were shewn, and allusion 
made to the fine specimens at Blenheim. 

The Larch next received attention. This deciduous conifer 
was introduced about 1620, and to Scotland in 1738, and a 
photograph of the original trees at Dunkeld was shewn — in a 
century one of them had attained a height of 100 feet — and it was 
stated that the Dukes of Atholl had planted on their estates 
upwards of 14,000,000 trees in a century. Photographs of the 



Larch trees at Kenlochewe, at the RoUright Stones, and at Great 
Marlow were then exhibited. 

The really native trees of Britain were next described. 
These number about 30, and include the two species of Lime 
already referred to, one species of Maple, two species of Prunus, 
the Cherry, or Gean, and the Bird Cherry, the Crab Tree, of 
which there is a fine avenue at Welford, in Berkshire, the 
Mountain Ash, with its beautiful clusters of scarlet berries, the 
Service tree, of which there are fine examples in Wychwood 
Forest and the White Beam tree, so frequent in the woods of the 
Chiltern Hills. 

The Hawthorn was next illustrated by a photograph of a 
group at the Thames head, and by others on the chalk down 
near Streatley, in Berkshire ; and reference was made to that early 
notice of the Hawthorn by Bishop Asser, of Salisbury, who 
described, towards the end of the ninth century, the great battle 
of ^scesdune, which took place on the Berkshire downs, near 
Unica spinosa arbor, which was a Hawthorn in the Hundred of 
Ilsley, — this Hundred being called the Hundred of the Naked 
Thorn in Domesday Book. Reference was also made to the 
Battle of Bosworth, when the crown of England was hidden in a 
Hawthorn bush, where it was found by a soldier, and taken to 
Lord Stanley, who crowned Henry VH. with it, and the 
Hawthorn thus became the badge of the House of Tudor, hence 
the proverb, " Cleave to the crown though it hangs in a bush.'' 

Reference was also made to the Glastonbury Thorn, which 
flowers about Christmas. 

Passing notice was made of the Elder { Sambucus nigra), 
with its large cymes of white flowers and purplish-black fruits. 

The Ash next received attention, and some fine examples of 
the Ash at Chatsworth, Haddon Hall, and Bulstrode were shewn. 
The wood was said to bear a greater strain before breaking than 
any other tree indigenous to Europe. The manner in which the 
fruits are fitted for dispersal by wind was also alluded to. That 
the Ash is native of Britain is shewn by the names, — Ashbourn, 
Ashbridge, Ashby, &c. 

The Box tree is very local, and is, perhaps, only native of 
Boxhill, and possibly on the northern escarpment of the Chilterns 
in Buckingham and Hertfordshire. 

The Elm, which is really native in Britain (the Wych Elm), 
is less common in the South than the one already mentioned ; 
but the Tubney Elm, mentioned by Matthew Arnold, in Berk- 
shire, belongs to this species which, probably, at one time was 
more frequent. The foundation of St. John's College, Oxford, 
was determined by the presence of a triple Elm. Sir Thomas 
White dreamed that he should build a college near a triple Elm, 
and repairing to Oxford he found one which seemed to answer to 
his idea, and he, therefore, built the college, and the tree existed 
to the end of the seventeenth century. 



23 

Brief reference was made to the Alder (Alnas glutinosa) 
frequenting stream sides in peaty districts ; to the Hornbeam 
( Carpinus Betuius ), which, although frequently planted in parks, 
appear to be really wild in the chalk districts of England. 

By some authorities the Beech was considered to be an 
introduced tree, because Ctesar says that he did not notice it : 
but the Lecturer considered it to be one of our native species, 
and showed photographs of some large pollard trees in Burnham 
Beeches, and also some from the escarpment of Edge Hill, as 
well as some distant views of Beech woods in the Thames valley. 

The Birch (Beta/a alba) was then described, and a photo- 
graph of a very lovely tree from Invernesshire, as well as others 
from Loch Katrine, Invercauld, and Killicrankie were shewn. 

The Oak tree, particularly emblematic of England, was 
described as being one of the oldest trees, being able to exist 
nearly 2,000 years. The Queen's Oak, still flourishing in 
Northamptonshire, was mentioned in Domesday Book. Photo- 
graphs of the Byron Oak at Newstead Abbey, of the Major Oak 
in Sherwood Forest, of the Radley Oak, and others were 
exhibited, and allusion made to the tree in Windsor Forest, 
which was a favourite of William the Conqueror, and of the 
celebrated one at Oxford, by which William of Waynflete founded 
Magdalen College. The Oak, although one of our largest trees 
in girth and in its spread of branches, rarely exceeded 70 feet in 
height. The use of the wood in shipbuilding, and it being the 
material of which the Round Table at Winchester was made, was 
alluded to, as well as its name being frequently represented in 
Britain as in Oakham, Wokingham, Woking, &:c., testified to its 
being one of our native trees. 

Several species of Willows were briefly alluded to ; the chief 
of these is the White Willow, so frequent by stream sides, and 
which, if unpoUard, will attain a height of 80 feet. The use of 
the wood for the manufacture of cricket bats was mentioned, as 
well as the process and effects of pollarding. Views of Post 
Meadow, Oxford, and of the Willows by the Thames, at Lechlade, 
and Wallingford were shewn. 

The Poplar, of which we had one native and three or four 
introduced species, was then described, and photographs were 
shewn of the Black Poplar (a frequently planted tree in the 
Midlands) from Sanford Lasher. The Lombardy Poplar was by 
some botanists considered to be a fastigiate variety of this species. 
The truly native species is the Aspen (Populus iremula). 

The native gymnospermous trees next received attention — 
they are all evergreen. The Yew {Taxus baccatd) is one of the 
oldest trees known in Britain, and is supposed to attain an age 
of over 2,000 years ; the one, of which a photograph was shewn, 
at Iffley is supposed to be coaval with the Church, and the one at 
Fountain's Abbey is supposed to be even older than the building 
itself 



«4 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 8th, 1904. 



QpiFi^Qr ©eFieroI fp.e:e:tipif . 



Report of the Council 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 8th, 1904. 



It is a source of no little gratification to your Council to be 
able to report that during this the 50th year of the Society's 
existence the Ordinary Meetings have been on the whole more 
largely attended perhaps than in any of the preceding years. 
The Library, which now numbers more than 2,500 volumes, and 
which on account of the rebuilding of the Public Library has 
been for some time practically closed to members, is now rein- 
stated in the Reference Library. The books have been thoroughly 
overhauled, and some 70 volumes of periodicals have been added 
to it, as well as many others. 

Owing to the retirement of Mr. Pankhurst from the 
Secretaryship, the duties of which he has performed for the last 
eighteen years, a small Committee is recommended to carry on 
the work. 

The Council is much indebted to Mr. Caush for going 
through several hundred microscopic slides and renovating them. 

The excursions which Mr. Davey so successfully conducted 
last year, but which circumstances obliged him to intermit, have 
already been resumed. 

Among the Members which the Society have lost by death 
during the past year it is fitting that mention be made of 
Mr. J. H. Browne, F.R.A.S., who was one of the oldest Members 
of the Society. 

The excursions have been as follows : — 

14th May. To Tilgate Forest and Balcombe. 
28th May. ,, Firle Park and Beacon. 

nth June. ,, Ashdown Forest — Coleman's Hatch — King's 
Standing — Crowborough. 



1 



25 

2Sth June. „ St. Leonards Forest — Hawkins Pond — Colgate 
Tower. 
9th July. ,, Steyning — Washington — Chanctonbury Ring. 

and the Meetings of the Society, with the titles of the papers 
read, as under : — 

15th Oct. " Relationship between Poetry and Science " — 

Rev. Felix Ashek. 
4th Nov. " Fossil Hunting in the Libyan Desert " — 

Dr. Chas. W. Andrews, F.G.S. 
3rd Dec. " Structure and Form of Shells " — 

Mr. Ed. Connold, F.E.S. 
20th Jan. " Memory and its Diseases " — 

Mr. Sydney Turner, M.R.C.S. 

loth Feb. "The Smaller Denizens of our Ponds, Lakes, 
and Rivers " — 

F. Mariin Duncan, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

9th Mar. "The Evolution of the Horse " — 

Dr. A. Sjiith Woodward, F.R.S. 

2ist April. "The Birds of Brighton and Neighbourhood" — 

Mr. E. Robinson. 

nth May. "British Trees" — Mr. G. Claridge Druce, M.A. 



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28 



HERBARIUM, 1902-1903. 



since the last Report, we have been able to add to the 
Society's Herbarium a number of interesting plants, as will be seen 
by the following list. Some are extremely rare ; e.g., Bupheurum 
aristatum is known to occur in only two English Counties, and 
^Volffia arrhiza has only lately been found in Sussex. An increased 
proportion are aliens, due to our having now most of the native 
plants and to the large importation of hay, «S:c., containing foreign 
seeds. 

List of New Plants. 



Alyssum calycinum. 
Arabis hirsuta, v. glabrata. 
Bupheurum aristatum. 
Sisymbrium Sophia. 
Krepimum perfoliatum. 
Bromus ariensis. 
Wolffia arrhiza. 
Potamogeton coloratus. 
Trifolium resupiiialum. 
MeHlotus sulcata. 
Plantago ceratophylla. 
Gastridium australe. 
Oxahs stricta. 
Juneus obtusiflorus. 
Lolium temulentum. 
Linaria repens. 
Brassica adpressa. 
Erucastrum Polichii. 
Vaccinum Oxycoccos. 
Calluna Erica v. incana. 
Campanula Rapunculus. 
Clerach officianum. 
Pimpinella magna. 



Downs, Patcham. 

Dyke Hill. 

Beachy Head. 

Eastbourne. 

Kemp Town. 

Lewes. 

North Stoke. 

Eastbourne. 

Found in many places in 1902. 

Aldrington. 

Aldrington. 

Cuckfield. 

Cuckfield. 

Eastbourne. 

Dyke Road. 

By Dyke Railway. 

Glynde. 

Glynde. 

West Chiltington. 

Washington. 

Pulburough. 

Pulborough. 

Near Polegate. 

T. HILTON, 

Curator. 



29 



RESOLUTIONS, &c., PASSED AT THE 
51st ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



After the Reports and Treasurer's Account had been read, 
it was resolved — 

"That the Report of the Council, the Treasurer's statement 
(subject to its being audited and found correct), and the 
Report as to the Library, and the Curator's Report, be 
received, adopted, and printed for circulation as usual." 

The Secretary reported that in pursuance of Rule 25 the 
Council had selected the following gentlemen to be Vice- 
Presidents of the Society for the ensuing year — 

"J. E. Haselwood, E. J. Petitfourt, H.A., F.C.P., F. Merri- 
tield, F.E.S.. D. E. Caush, L.D.S., A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 
VV. J. Treutler, M.D., F.L.S , J. P. Slingsby Roberts, 
W. Clarkson Wallis, and E. AUoway Pankhurst." 

And that in pursuance of Rule 42 the Council had appointed 
the following gentlemen to be Honorary Auditors — 

" Mr J. W. Nias and Mr. A. F. Graves." 

It was proposed by Mr. Isaac Wells, seconded by Mr. 
J. H. GiLKES, and resolved — 

" That the following gentlemen be Officers of the Society for 
the ensuing year: — President: Henry Davey ; Ordinary 
Members of Council : Walter Harrison, D.M.D., F. Hora, 
B.Sc, G. Morgan. L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S. (E.;, S. R. Penney, 
H. J. Mathews, J. Sussex Hall ; Honorary Treasurer; 
E. A. T. Bleed ; Honorary Librarian: W. W. Mitchell ; 
Honorary Curators : H. S. Toms and T. Hilton ; Honorat v 
Scientific Secretaries : D. E. Caush, L.D.S., W. Harrison, 
D.M.D., F. R. Hora, B.Sc; Honorary Secretary: J. 
Colbatch Cl.«rk, 9, Marlborough Place ; Assistant 
Honorary Secretary : H. Cane.'' 

It was proposed by Mr. Wallis, seconded by Mr. F. R. 
Hora, and resolved — 

"That the best thanks of the Society be given to Mr. E. A. 
Pankhurst for his assiduous attention to the interests of the 
Society as its President during the past two years, and for 
the many services he has rendered to the Society." 



30 



It was proposed by Mr. H. J. Mathews, seconded by Mr. 
MiNTo, and resolved — 

" That the sincere thanks of the Society be given to the Vice- 
President", the Council, the Honorary Librarian, the 
Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary Curators, the Honoraiy 
Auditors, and ihe Honorary Secretaries, for their services 
during the past year." 



SOCIETIES ASSOCIATED, 

WITH WHICH THE SOCIETY EXCHANGES PUBLICATIONS, 

And whose Presidents and Secretaries are ex-officio Members 
of the Society. 

British Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, Cambridge Hall, Barrow-in- 
Furness. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, c/o G. Donaldson, 8, Mileriver 
Street, Belfast. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, The Museum, 
College Square, N. Belfast. 

Boston Society of Natural Science (Mass, U.S.A.). 

British Museum, General Library, Cromwell Road, London, S.AV. 

British and American Archaeological Society, Rome. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society, Frederick Street, Cardiff. 

City of London Natural History Society. 

Chester Society of Natural Science. 

Chichester and West Sussex Natural History Society. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club, Public Hall, 
Croydon. 

City of London College of Science Society, White Street, 
Moorfields, E.G., & " Hatfield," Tenham Avenue, Streathani 
Hill, S.W. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, U.S.A. 

Eastbourne Natural History Society. 

Edinburgh Geological Society, India Buildings, George IV. 

Bridge. 
Epping Forest and County of Essex Naturalist Field Club, West 

Ham Institute. 
Folkestone Natural History Society. 
Geologists' Association. 
Geological Society of Mexico. 
Glasgow Natural History Society and Society of Field Naturalists. 



31 

Hampshire Field Club. 
Huddersfield Naturalist Society. 

Leeds Naturalist Club. 

Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 

Mexican Geological Institute, 2, Calle de Paso Nuevo, Mexico. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, Stone, Staffs. (Wells 

Bladen, Secretary). 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, Hazlemont, The Boulevard, 

Nottingham. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., U.S.A. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. 

Royal Microscopical Society. 
Royal Society. 

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 

South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Southport Society of Natural Science, Rockley House, Southport. 

Societe' Beige de Microscopic, Bruxelles. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

Watford Natural History Society. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 



32 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

16ti0ljton anb ^§a\3t J^atural History anb 
flljilosopbical ^ocwty. 



JV.B. — Members are particularly recjuesled to notify any Change of 
Address at once to Mr. /. C. Clark, g, Marlborough 
Place, Brighton. When not otherwise slated in (he 
folloiving List the Address is in Brighton. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Al'.DEY, Henky, Fair Lee Villa, Kemp Town. 
AsHER, Rev. F., 15, Buckingham Place. 
AsHTON, C. S., 10, Powis Grove. 
Attree, G. F., 8, Hanover Crescent. 

Badcock, Lewis C., M.D., M.R.C.S., 10, Buckingham Place. 

Billing, T., 86, King's Road. 

Booth, E., 53, Old Steine. 

Breed, E. A. T., 13, Buckingham Place. 

Brown, George, Cottesmore, The Upper Drive. 

Bull, W., 75, St. Aubyn's, Hove. 

Burrows, W. S., B.A , M.R.C.S., 62, Old Steine. 

BURCHELL. E., L.R.C.P., 5, Waterloo Place. 

B.^iLV, G. G., 86, Buckingham Road. 

Carter, F. W., 130, Church Road, Hove. 
Cank, H. 173, Ditchling Road. 
C.^tt, Reginald J., 9, Hampton Place. 
Caush, D. E., L.D.S., 63, Grand Parade. 
Charrington, H. W., 23, Park Crescent. 
Clark, J. Colb.vich, J. P., 9, Marlborough Place. 
CoLMAN, Alderman J., J. P., Wick Hall, Furze Hill. 



33 

Davey, Henry, 15, Victoria Road. 

Denman, S. 26, Queen's Road. 

DoDD, A. H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 49, Church Road, Hove. 

Draper, Dr., Municipal School of Technology. 

DusART, G. C., 13, Chatsworth Road. 

Edmonds, H., B.Sc, Municipal School of Technology. 

EwART, Sir T-, M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., Bewcastle, 

Dyke Road. 
Elliott, J. H., L.D.S., 45, Stanford Road. 

Fletcher, W. H. B., .T.P., Bersted Lodge, Bognor. 

GiLKES, J. H., 6, Hanover Crescent. 
Graves, A. F., 9A, North Street Quadrant. 
Griffith, A. F., M.A., 59, Montpelier Road. 
Grove, E., Norlington, Preston. 
Grinsted, J., 13, Powis Square. 

Hall, J. Sussex, 69, Ship Street. 

Hack, D., Fircroft, Withdean. 

Harrison, W., D.M.D., L.D.S., 6, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Haselwood, J. E., 3, Richmond Terrace. 

Havnes, J. L., 24. Park Crescent. 

Henriques, A. G., F.G.S., J. P., 9, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

HiCKLEY, G., 92, Springfield Road. 

Hilton, T., 16, Kensington Place. 

HoBBS, J., 62, North Street. 

HOBHOUSE, E., M.D., 12, Second Avenue, Hove. 

HowLETT, J. W., J. P., 4, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

HoRA, F. R., B.Sc, B.A., A.R.C.Sc, 32, Norton Road, Hove. 

Harrison, F., M.A., 30, Compton Avenue. 

Infield, H. J., Sylvan Lodge, Upper Lewes Road. 

Jacomb, Wykeham, 72, Dyke Road. 

Jenner, J. H. A., Lewes. 

Jennings, A. O., LL.B., 11, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

Johnston, J., 12, Bond Street. 

Knight, J. J., 33, Duke Street. 

Langton, H., M.R.C.S., i r, Marlborough Place. 
Law, J., Crosthwaite, Lewes. 
Lewis, J., C.E., F.S.A., Fairholme, Maresfield. 
Loader, Kenneth, 5, Richmond Terrace. 
Lonsdale, L., 13, Powis Square. 

McKellar, E., Deputy-Surgeon-General, M.D., J. P., Woodleigh, 

Preston. 
Maguire, E. C, M.D., 9, Old Steine. 



34 

May, F. J. C, 25, Conipton Avenue. 

Merrifield, F., 24, Vernon Terrace. 

Mills, J., 24, North Road. 

Morgan, G., L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., 6, Pavilion Parade. 

Mansfield, H., ii, Grand Avenue, Hove. 

Mathews, H. J., M.A., 43, Brunswick Road. 

Minto, J., M.A., Public Library. 

Morse, Rorert, 26, Stanford .A. venue. 

Maurice, — , L.D.S., 65, St. John's Terrace. 

Newmarch, Major-General, 6, Norfolk Terrace. 

Newsholme, a., M.I)., M R.C.P., 1 1, Gloucester Place. 

NiAS, J. W., 81, Freshfield Road. 

Nicholson, W. E., F.E.S., Lewes. 

Norman, S. H., Burgess Hill. 

NoRRis, E. L., L.D.S., 8, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Oke, Alfred W., B.A., LL M., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 32, 
Denmark Villas, Hove. 

Pankhurst, E. a., 3, Clifton Road. 

Paris, G. De, 14, Norfolk Road. 

Pavne, W. H., Playden House, Harrington Road. 

Payne, E., 6, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Penney. S. R., Larkbarrow, Dyke Road Drive. 

Petitfourt. E. J., B.A., FC.P., 16, Chesham Street. 

PuGH, Rev. C, 13, Eaton Place. 

PuiTiCK, W., Tipnoake, Albourne, Hassocks. 

PoPLEV, W. H., 13, Pavilion Buildings. 

Powell, W. A.. M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 5, Grand Parade. 

Read, S., L.D.S., 12, Old Steine. 

Richardson, F. R., 4, Adelaide Crescent. 

Roberts, J. P. Slingsbv, 3, Powis Villas. 

Robinson, E., Saddlescombe. 

Rose, T., Clarence Hotel, North Street. 

Ross, D. M., M.B., M.R.C.S., 9, Pavilion Parade. 

Ryle, R. J., M.D., 15, German Place. 

Read, T., B.A., B.Sc, Brighton Grammar School. 

RooTH, Dr., 31, Montpelier Crescent. 

Roberson, a., Sackville Road. 

Salmon, E. F., 30, Western Road, Hove. 
Savage, W. \V., 109, St. James's Street. 
Sloman, F., M.R.C.S., 18, Montpelier Road. 
Scott, E. Irwin, M.D., 69, Church Road, Hove. 
Smith, C, 47, Old Steine. 
Smith, T., i, Powis Villas. 



35 

Smith, W., 6, Powis Grove. 

Smith, W. J., J. P., 42 and 43. North Street. 

Smith, W. H., 191, Eastern Road. 

Stoner, Harold, L.D.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 18, Regency 

Square. 
Smith ERS, E. A., Furze Hill. 
Spitta, Dr. E., F.R.A.Sc. 

T^Li'.oT, Hugo, 79, Montpelier Road. 

Trkutlrk, W. J., M.l)., F.L.S., 8, Goklstone Villas, Hove. 

Toms, H. S., The Museum. 

TuoHY, l^r., I, Hova Terrace, Hove. 

Wallis, W. Clarkson, 15, Market Street. 

Walter, J., 13A, Dyke Road. 

Wells, I., 4, North Street. 

Whytock, E., 36, Western Road. 

WiGHTMAN, G. J., Ailsa Crag, The Wallands, Lewes. 

Wilkinson, '['., 170, North Street. 

WiLLETT, H., F.G.S., Arnold House, Montpelier Terrace. 

William's, A. S., 17, Middle Street. 

Williams, H. M., LL.B., 17, Middle Street. 

Wood, J., L.D.S., 28, Old Steine. 

Wood, Walter R., L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., I.D.S., 28, Old Steine. 

Woodruff, Ci. B., J. P., 24, Second Avenue, Hove. 

Wklsford, H. M., 68, Dyke Road. 



LADY MEMBERS. 

Baglev, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 
Bladon, Miss, 23, Sudeley Place. 

Cameron, Miss E., 25, Victoria Street. 
Caush, Mrs., 63, Grand Parade. 
Crafer, Mrs. M. H., 102, Beaconsfield Villas. 
Crane, Miss Agnes, ii, Wellington Road. 
CoLLETT, Miss C. H., 8, Marlborough Place. 

Hare, Miss, 19, Goldsmid Road. 

Herring, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Heknaman, Miss I., 117, Ditchling Road. 

Hernaman, Miss V., 117, Ditchling Road. 

Holt, Miss, i:)iocesan Training College, Ditchling Road. 

Harrison, Mrs., 10, Windlesham Road. 

Langton, Miss, 38, Stanford Road. 

Nicholson, Mrs., 9, Park Crescent. 



36 

Rich, Miss, No. 4, House, Roedean School. 
RuGE, Miss, 7, Park Crescent. 

Stoner, Mrs. H., 18, Regency Square. 

Treutler, Mrs., 8, Goldstone Villas. 
Thomas, Miss Mary, 150, Upper Lewes Road. 

VoBES, Miss, B,A., B.Sc, " Glenalna," Rugby Road. 

Wilkinson, Mrs., 36, Dyke Road. 
Wood, Mrs. J., 28, Old Steine. 
Watkins, Miss, Walcot, Walpole Road. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Arnold, Rev. F. H., The Hermitage, Emsworth. 

Bloomfield, Rev. E. N., Guestling Rectory, Hastings. 

CuRTEis, T., 244, High Holborn, London. 

Dawson, C, F.G S., Uckfield. 

Farr, E. H., Uckfield. 

HoLLis, W. AiNSLiE, Palmeira Avenue, Hove. 

LoMAX, Benjamin, The Museum, Brighton. 

Mitten, W., Hurstpierpoint. 

NouRSE, VV. E. C, Norfolk Lodge, Thurlow Road, Torquay. 

Phillips, Barclay, 7, Harpur Place, Bedford. 

ASSOCIATE. 

Harrison, W. Parker, 10, Windlesham Road. 




31MAK.19U5 




BRIGHTON & HOVE 



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READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, J^'^'^Z^' 



TOGETHER WITH 



^N 



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THE A]^fiUflIi I^EPOHT 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 14th, 1905. 



" Brighton Hekald " Printing Works, Prince's Place. 
1906. 



BRIGHTON & HOVE 

Jiaturfil History mh ^l)tl0sopi]inil 
^0ti^t||. 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, /^ %$^ki^ 

TOGETHER WITH X^/ry^, " 

THE AflflUflli I^EPOFJT 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 14th, 1905. 



grigljtott : 

" Brighton Hekald " Printing Works, Prince's Place. 
1906. 



INDEX 



PAGE. 

Officers of the Society ... ... ... ... -•• 3 

The Functions of Music— Presidential Address- 
Mr. Henry Davey ... ... ... ... ••• 5 

Half-a-Day on the Sea Shore — Mr. E. T. Connold, 

F.E.S 9 

An Evenin(; with the Microscope ... ... ... 9 

Social Evolution and Puklic Health — Dr. h. 

Newsholme, M.I)., F.R.C.P. lo 

Weather During January, 1905 — Dk. W. J. Treutler, 

M.D., F.L.S 20 

A Peep at Pre-Historic Man — Mr. Cornelius 

Robbins, L.D.S. 21 

The "Booth" and "Monk" Bird Collections — 

Mr. Arthur Griffith, M.A. 29 

The Evolution of Artillery — Col. E. Kensington 

(late), R.A •• 29 

A Tour in Spain — Mr. E. Payne, M.A. 33 

The Evolution of the Vertebrate Skull — Mr. J. 

Thornton Carter, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P 34 

History of the South Downs — Mr J. H. A. Jenner, 

F.E.S 34 

Report of Council ... ... ... ... ••. 42 

Librarian's Report ... ... ... ... ... 44 

Meteorology of Brighton ... ... ... ... 45 

Treasurer's Account . 46 

Herbarium, 1904 ... ... ... .. ... ... 47 

Annual General Meeting 48 

Societies Associated ... ... ... ... ... 49 

List of Members ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 



3 

Officers of the Society, 1905-6. 



Henry Davey. 

^aat ^resiircttta : 

F. Merrifield, F.E.S. j A. Newsholme, M.D., F.K.C.P. 

J. KwART, Kt., M.D., J.P. ! M.O.H. 

J. E. Haselwood. E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 

W. Seymour Burrows, M.R.C.S. J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
D. E. Caush, L.D.S. W. Clarkson Wallis. 

E. AlXOWAY Pankhurst. 

The Council. 

®lje iprcaiftent. 
^«e-Prea:5cttta : 



(Rule 25.) 



D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 

J. E. Haselwood. 

F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 

A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., M.O.H. 



E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 
E. A. Pankhurst. 



Ordinary Members 

J. H. A. Jenner, F.E.S. 
J. Sussex Hall. 
S. R. Penney. 
E. Payne, M.A. 



Alfred W. Oke, B.A., LL.M., 

F.G.S. 
F. R. Richardson. 



honorary ©reaaurcr: Ijonorarg librarian: 

E. A. T. Breed. Robt. Morse. 

'^onotafQ ^uiJitora : 
J. W. NiAS. A. F. Graves. 

^onov&tv Curatora : 
H. S. Toms and T. Hilton. 

Wottorarg Scientific Serretarica : 
D. E. C.\usH, L.D.S. W. Harrison, D.M.D. F. R. Hora, B.Sc, B.A. 

■^onorarg .^ccrctarg : 

JNO. Coi.batch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place. 

^aaiatattt llonDrarg Secrctarg: 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 



Session 1904-5. 

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 20TH, 1904. 

%ht JFunrttnns 0f 0lmit, 

By The President : 
Mr. henry DAVEY. 



MR. DAVEY began with an allusion to the fact that the Society 
was now entering upon its second half- century, and further 
remarked that the occasion was noteworthy as a change in the 
government of the Society had been made, and the Scientific 
Secretary (a post so long and ably filled by Mr. E. AUoway 
Pankhurst) had been replaced by a Secretarial Committee, 
consisting of Messrs. Caush, Harrison, and Hora. As it had 
fallen to himself, not deeply versed in any branch of natural 
history or abstract philosophy, to begin this exceptionally 
important session, he had chosen the subject with which he was 
best acquainted, and had decided to give an address on the 
Functions of Music. This he endeavoured to bring under the 
domain of science, by a suitable treatment ; but confessed himself 
not too well satisfied with the result of his endeavours. 

Herbert Spencer had written an essay on " The Origin and 
Function of Music," and, wishing to avoid all comparison with him, 
Mr. Davey viewed the subject from the standpoint of a practical 
musician, and dealt with the results which had been actually 
achieved rather than with speculations upon the abstract side of 
the subject. Herbert Spencer's essay was written nearly fifty 
years ago, and he was unacquainted with the latest developments 
even of that time. Consequently his essay, as regards materials, 
reads quite antiquated ; but his conclusion that the ultimate 
function of music will be to express ideas too subtle to be spoken 
— that we shall, as it were, converse by music instead of words 
when words fail us, — went into the future, and probably the very 
distant future. Mr. Davey took an altogether different course, 
warning his audience that he presupposed a certain knowledge of 
musical works and terms, just as a lecturer on science presupposes 
a similar knowledge. 



Each of the arts had its own kingdom, whose bounds are 
fairly, though not strictly, defined ; each art had its advantages, 
defects, and Hmitations. The pecuhar characteristic of music was 
that it was continuous, fluent ; while painting and sculpture were 
fixed, and portrayed one single moment's life. Contrast Leonardo 
da Vinci's picture of the Last Supper with Bach's setting of the 
words, " Lord, is it I ? " which are sung twelve times. " Both 
presentments of the subject are true, and exemplify the various 
functions of the arts," wrote Macfarren. Even rests, such as 
those just before the end of Handel's Hallelujah Chorus, are part 
of the music, part of the continuity. 

Before entering on the main subject of the functions of 

music, Mr. Davey made some allusion to its various resources, 

speaking rather of composition, not of performance, and mentioned 

the different wave-motions which produce a different tone-quality 

by the varying predominance of the partial tones which accompany 

every note. A succession of notes played on a violin would have 

quite a different effect from the same succession played on a 

wood or brass instrument ; with combinations of several notes this 

obviously varied still more with varying combinations. This 

difference of tone-quality produced in the main what is called 

colour in music. We were obliged to use words derived from the 

sister arts. With the advance of music since the invention of the 

opera and oratorio about 1600, colour had become ever a greater 

factor; and delicate gradations of /<?^« were now also employed. 

In the modern orchestra, with all its various stringed, wind, and 

percussion instruments, colour had attained an astonishing 

diversity. Speaking in generahties, harmony, melody, and 

rhythm were the internal resources of music, and contribute the 

materials for the for7n of a composition ; while the external 

resources of force and of tone-quality constitute its colour. 

" Music endeavours to display either structural or illustrative art ; 

that is, to attain artistic value either by the perfection of its 

composition or the accuracy by which it portrays something in 

external matters. In the latter case, music is apt to be sacrificed "; 

and Mr. Davey quoted instances, including Signor Caruso's 

sobbing, instead of singing at the end of Canio's air in Pagliacci. 

The functions of structural music were then considered, 

somewhat briefly, as the subject was highly technical. Mozart's 

explanation of the way he composed was a noteworthy point ; the 

great genius said that when he had finished a work he seemed to 

hear it, not from beginning to end, but all at once, and then 

anything unsuitable struck him, and he altered it accordingly. 

The cultivation of musical taste Mr. Davey considered to depend 

largely upon experience : a young musician was pleased by 

interesting details, a cultivated listener required the whole work 

to be completely balanced. But how did a mature musician 

know the difference between a commonplace idea which anybody 



i 



could have thought of, and an idea which was beautiful, and would 
remain beautiful, even when familiar? Mr. Davey confessed 
himself unable to say. 

Illustrarive music, as a topic more suited to an average 
audience, was dealt with at greater length. Only seldom could 
exact imitation of external matters be given. What was usually 
attempted is suggestion, by the use of sudden contrast. Often the 
suggestion required a great deal of make-believe on the part of 
the listener. Mr. Davey played passages from Bach's Passion- 
music supposed to be descriptive of scourging, and the servants 
warming themselves before the fire ; also from Handel's Thick 
Darkness Chorus, which an auditor might not recognise without 
the words, though he would be able to tell whether darkness or 
light was intended. Motion in itself was not a very suitable 
subject for musical suggestion, but there are exceptions, as mill- 
wheels, and Handel's "Their land brought forth frogs"; while 
Dr. Strauss in Don Quixote had attempted to describe windmills. 
The fight between David and Goliath, from a descriptive sonata 
by Kuhnau, was played as a specimen of a different class. 

Vocal music, using words, generally touched the dramatic 
side of the art, even if not entirely dramatic ; consequently it 
belonged usually to illustrative rather than structural music, solo 
music specially so. Composers of concert-music rarely succeeded 
with opera, and vice-versa. Mozart, the universal genius, alone 
perfectly succeeded in combining both species ; and even he only 
occasionally, his musical instinct generally leading him to repeat 
words and phrases against the dramatic sense of the passage. 
Wagner, who scarcely ever tried concert-music, had pointed out 
passages in his own works suitable to their place in the opera, but 
which might justly be blamed in abstract music. 

Real literal imitation of external sounds was sometimes 
successful. " Alkan, in a pianoforte piece, imitates the moaning 
of the sea marvellously ; Elgar, the youngest of English composers, 
in his oratortio. The Apostles, has exactly imitated the fall of 
Judas's pieces of silver on the pavement ; Wagner has made the 
violins imitate the sound of scissors. While cannon-firing, 
galloping horses, and the smacking of whips can be well imitated, a 
thunderstorm cannot, and though attempts are frequent, they never 
rise above suggestion. The rippling of a brook, or the course of 
a river, and moving water generally, are tempting subjects often 
used." Mr. Davey instanced works by Smetana and Schubert. 
The moaning of wind reminded one of chromatic passages. 

Turning to animated nature, specimens of bird imitations 
were quoted ; also Mendelssohn's of the donkey's bray, and 
Strauss's of the bleating sheep in Don Quixote. 

After a few words upon such rhythms as marches and dances, 
which might be recognised by their rhythms and suggested in 
other pieces, so that music, as it were, illustrated music, Mr. 



8 

Davey turned to what he called one of the most difficult problems 
of musical aesthetics, the use of the Leit-motif, or " guiding 
theme," the labelling of a succession of notes to represent some 
abstract idea, and using them with the convention that they really 
signify the idea. This invention was usually associated with 
Wagner's name, but there were earlier cases, notably Berlioz' idee 
fixee which he used throughout his Symphonie Fantastique to 
signify the lady he loves. Whether that style could give the same 
pleasure as finished structural art, was a question which depended 
on individual taste. Mr. Davey thought it inferior, because it 
was much easier to do. In Wagner's later works, the Leit-motif 
was worked up into a complex system, the Nibelung's Ring 
containing as many as ninety-two. Mr. Davey played some of 
these, and others from Lo/iengrin, Tristan, Die Meistersinger, and 
Parsifal. Such a theme should be heard in a recognisable form 
at any reference to it in the drama ; but in the Nibelungs Ring, 
which takes four evenings to perform, their number and 
complication made the task of both composer and audience very 
difficult. The Leit-motif mx^i give occasion for great develop- 
ments in the future ; but it undeniably gave terrible opportunities 
to the caricaturist and the sneerer ; and the symphonic poems of 
Strauss, who had depicted his own wife by a very trying and 
scratchy violin solo, had been much derided. If such matters 
were outside the real functions of music, they would speedily 
come to naught. At present they were very prominent. 

Some mention was made of false imitation, such as using the 
words high and low in a wrong sense, which had been perpetrated 
even by the greatest composers ; and Mr. Davey concluded with 
the assertion that "Illustrative music is the foundation ; though, 
compared with the highest flight of structural music, it be of the 
earth, earthy, yet to the earth again music has, Ant?eus-like, to 
return when weariedout, and requiring new vigour for a fresh 
enterprise. This is the state of the art at the present moment." 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 17TH, 1904. 

BY 

Mr. E. T. CONNOLD. F.E.S. 

(Illustrated by Lantern Slides.) 



THIS lecture comprised a description of the habitat, habits, and 
appearance of many objects and creatures met with on the 
beach, rocks and sands. 

1. On the Beach. — Attention was given to the flints and 
pebbles, and broken shells ; then the fleas, flies, spiders, and 
beetles. An oyster shell was shown much perforated by the 
boring sponge. Boring molluscs were then discussed ; the egg 
capsules of the whelk were shown. 

2. On the Rocks. — Sea weeds were next considered and 
many excellent slides were shown to illustrate their structure. 
Anemones, barnacles, starfish, and sponges were also referred to. 

3. On the Sands. — Razor shells, lug worms, the common 
squid, worms living in tubes, sea mice, &c., were discussed. 



THURSDAY. DECEMBER 15TH, 1904. 



ABOUT 60 slides were passed through the projective microscope 
lent by Mr. Caush ; they consisted mainly of botanical, 
entomological and histological sections. The rest of the evening 
was spent by the members examining for themselves a number of 
slides under different microscopes supplied for their use by the 
Society. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 13TH, 1905. 

^0rial ^balttticn anh f ubik B^altl). 

BY 

Dr. a. NEWSHOLME, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

(Medical Officer of Health for Brighton). 



THE lecturer commenced by saying that a review of the 
last fifty years afforded ample ground for congratulation on 
the prolongation of average life which had been secured, and on 
the great improvement in average comfort and well-being. The 
death-rate in urban districts (always higher than in rural dis- 
tricts), was now lower than it was 50 years ago in rural districts, 
and had declined from 22'5 per 1000 in 1854 to i6"2 in 1902. 
The wage-earning classes, who form the large majority of the 
population, had shared in the general improvement, whether we 
considered amount of wages, cheapness of food, or improvement in 
housing. The public health policy of the last 50 years had not 
only neutralised the rise in the death-rate which increasing 
urbanisation would have caused, but had secured an additional 
saving of 28 per cent. 

The lecturer, albeit he congratulated himself on being an 
optimist as regards the efficacy of preventive medicine in improving 
the national health, could not shut his eyes to the fact that a large 
proportion of our population were still insufficiently fed, badly 
housed, and suffered from conditions producing ill-health and a 
shortening of life. 

Consideration was then given to the natural laws by which 
the present position had been reached, and the future trend of 
those laws. The doctrine that life had been evolved through pain 
and struggle (" The whole creation groaneth and travaileth in 
pain together until now,"), stated very clearly by Malthus as 
regards man in 1798, in his "Essay on Population," and 
extended by Darwin to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms, 
was now accepted as supported by universal experience, as was 
likewise the necessary corollary that without such struggle strength 
could not be maintained and degeneration must set in. The 
struggle for existence was a struggle between the living organism 
and the environment— those best fitted to the environment 
tended to survive, others to perish. The ratio of the fitness of 
an organism to the strain imposed on it determined its survival, 
and the value of the ratio was constantly being changed in 



natural and social evolution by the variation of both factors. In 
plant life the ratio was affected mainly by alterations in the fitness 
of the organism, but instances were not wanting in which the 
organism likewise modified its environment. Such instances 
were mostly seen in co-operation between various organisms. 
Lichens are a mutual provident society of fungi and algae. The 
bacteria of the nodules of leguminous plants pay for their 
maintenance by fixing nitrogen from the soil and air, and 
supplying it to the plants. The beech thrives only when a 
mantle of the fungus mycorrhiza developes over its roots; the 
fungus, being fed by the beech, in return supplies it with certain 
salts, thereby dispensing with unnecessary expenditure of force 
on added rootlets. Again, between plants and animals there are 
many instances of useful partnership. Certain seaweeds are 
attached to the shells of marine crabs, the crab thereby simulating 
the appearance of a rock, whilst the seaweed secures multiplied 
opportunities of receiving food. Ants tenanting the " bull's horn " 
acacia tree obtain food and shelter from it while they defend it 
from enemies. Even beetles inhabiting manure heaps help each 
other in rolling up pellets of dung and burying them as larval 
food with eggs embedded in them. Still better known are the 
co-operative efforts to control their environment displayed by 
such animals as the bee, the ant, the beaver, &c. 

In the evolution of man, the intelligent power to alter 
environment played a supremely important part, because he alone 
appeared to be capable of improving on the experience of his 
forbears. Although certain orangs pelted passers-by with nuts, 
and the chimpanzee cracked his nuts with a stone, man was the 
only animal employing tools of increasing complexity for his 
wants. He alone clothed himself and cooked his food. He had 
learnt also to press into his service the forces of nature and the 
organic modifications of plants and animals, as in cultivated 
cereals and domesticated animals. Environment for one class of 
animal was the s »me for other classes ; hence the primitive method 
adopted by the strong in modifying this environment consisted 
largely in destroying the weak and appropriating their property. 
But that was not the only method employed, as instances already 
quoted clearly showed. In the various forms of co-operation seen 
in animals, there was a constant succession of acts which in man 
were counted as honesty, fidelity, justice, mercy, sympathy, and 
benevolence. In some cases, e.g., parental devotion, the act 
was done from an innate altruistic pleasure, thus showing " they 
follow the law, but know not the doctrine." There could be but 
little doubt but that the mitigation of the tendency to mutual 
destruction originated in a sense of the net advantage to be 
derived by the individual from mutual help. Upon this were 
based the foundations of society, and social evolution consisted 
substantially in its development. 



The increase of reason and experience tended at first to 
intensify the struggle for existence, and to make human develop- 
ment ethically worse as it became more rational ; but now an 
altruistic conscience had come to mitigate this process. The 
destruction of man by individual man was condemned by an 
universal sentiment. The public conscience no longer allowed, 
at least in its ethical theory, one set of men to support and enrich 
themselves by procuring the degradation and suffering of others ; 
or, as Huxley put it, " It repudiates the gladiatorial theory of 
existence," and is directed " not so much to the survival of the 
fittest as to the fitting of as many as possible to survive." Such 
views were based on the application of rules of conduct, for the 
operation of which there was still a wide sphere open. 

The adoption of altruistic principles had acted rather by 
creating a disposition to welcome measures on behalf of public 
health than by furnishing a practical basis for them. Support for 
such measures was given chiefly on economical grounds — a fact 
not to be regretted, since there was a limit to the resources of 
every community and a consequent duty to husband and apply 
them to the best advantage. Moreover, it was closely interwoven 
with the economic well-being of the community, and at times the 
ebb and flow of the public mind (and also one's own personal 
faith) seemed to throw doubt on this association. The lecturer 
regarded this as so important that considerations on which it was 
based were worth studying shortly, as also was the alternative 
view, viz., that influences, tending to improve the health of strong 
and weak indiscriminately, helped to preserve weaklings who would 
otherwise drop out, and, as a consequence, the average strength of 
the race was reduced and increasing unfitness laid up for future 
generations. 

As an example of this line of thought, the lecturer quoted 
Professor Karl Pearson as follows :— " We have two groups in the 
community — one parasitic to the other. The latter thinks of 
to-morrow and is childless, the former takes no thought and 
multiplies. It can only end as the case so often ends — the 
parasite kills its host and so ends the tale for both alike." And 
elsewhere " the birth rate of the better type of working men has 
been falling off more rapidly than the birth-rate of the nation as a 
whole." Mr. Balfour also argued at the British Association 
Meeting (September, 1904), that inasmuch as when men won 
their way from lower to middle rank their progeny diminished 
owing to later marriages, &c., "it seems that as the State 
contrives education so as to allow this rising from a lower to an 
upper class, so much does it do something to diminish the actual 
quahty of the breed. . . . There is, or seems to be, no 
escape from the melancholy conclusion that everything done 
towards opening careers to those of the lower class does something 
towards the deterioration of the race." 



i 



»3 

Both these views the lecturer regarded as based chiefly on 
insufficient data. The birth-rate was not governed at present 
chiefly by postponement of marriage, neither were there grounds 
for saying that the birth-rate of the better type of workman had 
relatively decreased. Both writers seemed to ignore the fact that 
infantile mortality was commonly twice as high amongst the 
so-called "inefficients " as amongst those other grades of society 
with fewer children. There was no sufficient ground for thinking 
that in these respects the nation was worse than formerly, though 
there was ample scope for the adoption of practical means to 
secure improvement. Mr. Balfour's statement justified the 
inference that some kind of inferiority (of what nature he did not 
specify) was necessarily transmitted, hut modern scientists 
inclined to the view that innate inferiority was the only form 
permanently transmissible, and so far from any innate inferiority 
being prevalent among the wage-earning classes, the lecturer 
stated that most medical men held that, given equally good 
education and physical conditions, there need be no fear of 
"deterioration " were the wage-earning to take the place of other 
classes. These two distinguished men, instead of taking a 
conspeclive view of the classes of whom they were speaking, had 
applied a microscope to relatively small and abnormal groups of 
society, and generalising therefrom. 

The lecturer thought that a sound view of public health 
policy lay in wider considerations than were involved in the 
passages above quoted. It was an economical fact that the 
average fit man contributed more to the aggregate resources of 
the community than he dissipated in his own person. Many men 
of less than average fitness also contributed a surplus, but at what 
degree of unfitness equilibrium occurred was impossible to say, 
but it could be taken as certain that the average man of to-day 
was a valuable economical asset, and that probably only a very 
small minority were incapable of becoming so under proper 
conditions. In practice it was impossible to prescribe public 
health measures which should operate only in favour of the fit. 
When the efficient cause of disease arrived, it attacked both 
classes in the same manner, and any circumstance which lowered 
the resistance of a fit man increased the chance of an efficient 
cause of disease catching him in a susceptible condition— each 
successful attack left the victim less capable of resistance to 
further attack. The omission of measures to improve the 
resistance to disease, e.g., general sanitation, abatement of over- 
crowding, &c., — and of measures to prevent access of infection 
and other causes of disease tended, therefore, not only to eliminate 
the chronically unfit, but to increase the number of transfers from 
the class of fit, or occasionally unfit, to that of chronically unfit, 
and therefore the chance of death of an attacked individual. 
Obviously the very strongest evidence of benefit would be required 



14 

before it could be regarded as economically advantageous to 
jeopardise the lives of individuals in the fit class, or to increase 
the chance of their transfer to the chronically unfit. In infectious 
disease the actual sickness of one person caused in itself greatly 
increased danger to his neighbour, fit or otherwise. To illustrate 
the effect of the erroneous view that influences for the 
improvement of public health might do more harm than good, 
the lecturer referred to "sunshine," and expressed the opinion 
that even the hardiest supporter of that view would hesitate before 
recommending measures for excluding the sun from dwellings in 
order to secure the elimination of the weaker individuals of a 
community. Hence the effect of public health measures could 
never give the chronically unfit the same chance of survival as 
the normally fit, and even if the survival of some of the unfit did 
reduce the rate of improvement of the whole community, it could 
not turn it into a deterioration. Hence the evolution of Society, 
stimulated and supported both by economical and ethical 
doctrine, had led communities to strive for the maintenance and 
improvement of public health, which was, as already stated, 
directed to increasing the fitness of the individuals who composed 
the community, and to the removal of any excessive strain on 
them due to their environment. As regards the extent to which 
the fitness of an individual could be modified, the lecturer 
summarised it by stating that (i) innate qualities of old standing 
in the race were largely permanent during the life of the 
individual, irrespective of environment, and were transmitted more 
or less permanently; (2) certain conditions due to post-natal 
environment of the future parents were probably capable of being 
transmitted by a parent to one, or perhaps two, generations, but 
under an altered environment were subject to modification in a 
more remote posterity ; (3) innate and post-natal qualities, 
acquired through influence of environment, to a slight extent 
might be modified. Professor D. J. Cunningham had pointed 
out that there was a certain physical standard which was the 
inheritance of the race, and that however far certain sections of 
the people might deviate from it, through poverty, ignorance, 
squalor, and bad feeding, such deviation was not transmissible 
from generation to generation. '' To restore, therefore, the 
classes in which this inferiority exists to the mean standard of 
national physique, all that is required is to improve the condition 
of living, and in one or two generations the lost ground will be 
recovered." 

The fitness of an individual, as far as it was capable of being 
modified otherwise than by modifications of environment, 
consisted in the capacity to utilise the environment to the best 
advantage — a capacity primarily dependent upon education — 
a word which demanded a wider connotation given to it in the 
future than which was signified by it now, including as it ought to, 



^5 

not only physical training, academic learning, and a theoretical 
knowledge of the facts bearing on fitness, but also a practical 
training in their application. In illustration of this, the lecturer 
mentioned the knowledge of food values, and their modification 
by judicious cooking and proper mastication, and maintained that 
although an exact estimate was impracticable of the extent to 
which assimilable food failed, after being eaten, to be assimilated, 
yet the percentage was protjably higher than generally imagined, 
and if added to the amount wasted by uneconomical choice of 
food, was fully as great as the deficiency in the food supply itself 
of the working classes. Food that, while capable of being 
digested and absorbed, was swallowed without undergoing those 
processes, was not only a source of dyspepsia and indirect 
impairment of nutrition, but was as much a direct economic loss 
as if not eaten at all. Rendering food more assimilable was 
as much an addition to food supply as the provision of additional 
food, and to teach effectively the necessary rules to secure 
competence in choosing food, and use skilfully cheap and simple 
means of savoury cooking, would doubtless on any national scale 
be a relatively costly matter, involving, for example, national 
training of girls for some lime after they had left school, but the 
cost on any conceivable estimate would be only small in com- 
pjrison with the thrift of food introduced into the national habits 
and the improvement in national fitness. 

The lecturer then pointed out that the main defect of our 
present day education was failure to teach habits. Life, without 
habits of self denial and determination to hve well within the 
limits of one's income, was not only miserable for the individual 
but also mischievous to the community. 

The second factor of the ratio determining public health was 
then considered, viz., environment, and as regards the "direct" 
means of modifying it. Dr. Newsholme stated that the present 
direction of public health legislation and administration had been 
reached by inquiry and study without stint, and that its results 
afforded ground for congratulation and encouragement to those 
who had helped to determine it ; but that as regards the factors 
contributing to the " indirect " modification of environment, their 
consideration could not be disposed of so readily. Of these, the 
two most important were (i) Conditions of National Employ- 
ment ; (2) The Problem of Poverty and Destitution. 

As regards the former of these, a great change had taken place 
during the last hundred years. The oiiginal relation of master and 
servant was one of unmitigated competition, and in quite modern 
times there was still a practically unrestricted liberty to the employer 
to exact from the artisan more than he could give without detriment 
to his health, and to give him less than was sufficient to nourish 
his family and him adequately. Children were employed at an 
age and to an extent quite inconsistent with their well-being and 



i6 

development. The conditions under which labour was thus 
exploited were most insanitary, and the workers had to accept 
them with the accompanying hardships because they had no 
alternative. In 1825, the abolition of the Combination Laws 
removed one of the disadvantages under which workmen had 
laboured. The iniquity of child labour was swept away, and 
during the last 50 years there had been a steady extension of 
State intervention in the regulation of factories, workshops, mines, 
&c., — an advantage not only to the workers themselves, but also 
to the economic gain of the industries concerned. At the present 
time, with freedom of combination, reduced hours of labour, and 
improved sanitary conditions, the two parties of Capital and 
Labour were arranged separately under conditions far more 
nearly approaching equality than they had ever before been. 
Collectively these parties have an interest beyond the arrangement 
of their mutual shares in the produce of their industries, their 
activities being directed to obtaining from their environment the 
means of livelihood, but the modern history of the relations of 
capital and labour seemed to show that first one side and then the 
other had lost sight of each other's well-being. Moreover, the 
means of existence of a community, outside a very short term of 
years, lie wholly in its future earnings, and since national energy 
at any time is a limited quantity, what was spent on internal 
struggle between those who ought to be co-operating reduced the 
quantity available for the struggle with nature and with competing 
earners, and even in millennial Utopia united humanity would have 
to continue its unending struggle with Nature, and would exist 
only by its success in turning her forces to its own service. To a 
dispassionate observer, the well-being of every unit in the 
community was a matter of importance to every other unit ; work, 
the master of all, demanded men contented and fit, not half- 
starved and anxious, and required from them, during their hours 
of labour, keen and whole-hearted energy. Hence, in the conflict 
with environment, a high value must be attached to the develop- 
ment of the sense of the mutual economic importance of masters 
and men, and of their common rather than their several interests, 
and finally to the provision for those who fall for the time being 
in the industrial struggle. 

The problems of poverty and destitution, the lecturer 
maintained, had the utmost importance to public health, which 
had a close connection with prosperity, since the later furnished 
direct means of improving sanitary conditions. In existing 
conditions it was probable that the connection was far more 
directly due to the fact that improved health permitted the means 
of prosperity to be earned, and that contrariwise failure in health 
brought a large proportion of the population below the " poverty 
line." If there be included in the definition of disease, moral and 
mental disorders, intemperance, vice, sloth and shiftlessness, the 



I? 

amount of poverty under any other heading was relatively small. 
The treatment of poverty had shown historically the same 
confusion between symptom and disease as appeared in earlier 
times in medicine, and illustrated the mischief and hindrance to 
real progress caused by the adoption of an empirical treatment of 
symptoms instead of a scientific treatment of disease. The 1601 
Act directed against vagrancy declared wisely that no one able to 
work should receive relief without the exaction of labour. The 
settlement laws stopped the migration of workers from place to 
place, and in later reigns led to relief being given to multitudes 
of able-bodied poor without the exaction of labour. As a 
protest against the intolerable consequences of this inconsiderate 
benevolence, parish workhouses were provided where a residential 
labour test was enforced as a condition of relief, but in 1782 an 
Act was passed which prohibited Guardians from insisting on the 
able-bodied entering the workhouse, and threw on them '* the 
duty of finding work near their homes for such applicants as 
profess to be able and willing to work, but are unable to find 
employment, and of making up any supposed deficiency out of 
the poor rates." 

By the operation of this Act the reduction of pauperism 
which had been secured was converted into a rapid and alarming 
increase ; an unofficial condition of misery was created and an 
impetus given to idleness and vice which resulted, by the Act of 
18 15, in the removal of the time limit for ordering relief and 
converted charitable help into an ordinary grant in aid of 
insufficient wages, and hence the wage standard fell. The 
commission of enquiry in 1832 found that in many places 
subsistence from poor rates was more easily obtained than by 
labour (Eastbourne poor rate was 13s. in the pound) ; that under 
such influences prudence and thrift were discarded ; sobriety and 
temperance were left without encouragement, and that the whole 
nation was becoming demoralised and impoverished. The Act 
of 1834, by reviving the test of admission for able-bodied paupers, 
at once rendered wages absolutely separate from charity, raised 
the status of the wage-earning classes, diminished the number of 
improvident marriages, and caused a rapid decline of pauperism. 
Dr. Newsholme thought that at the present time there was 
evidence of reaction, and exemplified it by commenting on the 
fact that inadequate out-door relief was being given in an 
increasing proportion of cases and was officially encouraged. 

Applying the principles of evolution to the cure of poverty, it 
must be conceded that the community, in the husbandry of its 
strictly limited energy, cannot afford to allow available energy to 
be wasted, whilst wisdom and the rules of right conduct equally 
direct that it should not adopt towards the poor (a class dissipating 
more than it possessed and earned) the attitude of extermination 
proper to a pre-social age. It has to turn them to account with 



the least net expense of communal resources, hence it must 
adequately nourish them, and convert the resultant energy into 
work to replace as far as possible that dissipated in their support. 
But if the community cannot afford to lose the work the poor 
man produces while communally supported, it can still 
less afford to lose his permanent capacity for doing work, 
and if that capacity be suffering through physical, mental 
or moral disease, the community is bound alike in wisdom 
and in mercy to administer relief in such forms as will tend to 
remove the disease and not the symptom, viz., poverty. 
Experience in all forms of evolution had shown that exercise was 
essential to avoid degradation of a function, and also conscious 
effort to secure the healthy maintenance of these functions, e.g., 
capacity for work and right living which involved mental and 
moral qualities ; and the withdrawal of the stimulus to such effort 
would degrade the population, or render some permanent cripples. 
The state, therefore, must encourage its churches, clubs, circles of 
friends, famihes (organs of the whole community and subject to 
the same laws as control all other life) to exercise all these 
functions, on the constant use of which depend their strength and 
growth. Such in general terms was the result of applying to 
poverty the principles regulating any successful evolution ; in 
other words, such were the laws which could be broken only at the 
expense of the communal well-being. It was a favourite form 
of self-deception to presume that laws of nature would be held in 
abeyance to favour some simple or seemingly cheap solution of 
an important question. The ignorant could only demonstrate the 
fallacy of perpetual motion machines by a process of trial, tedious, 
costly, and too often ruinous, whereas the scientific man by the 
application of the law of the conservation of energy would do so in a 
relatively short time. The error of sociological devices, conceived 
in defiance of natural laws, would possibly take longer to 
demonstrate, but the ultimate result was certain, and the longer 
the delay the higher the cost of the unsuccessful experiment. 
The lecturer, in applying the above principle to State help which 
if given at all must be sufficient in amount, stigmatised out-door 
relief as unsound and sentimental — unsound, because the com- 
munity had a supreme interest in preserving or creating the 
capacity which was thus abandoned, and because each case was 
infectious to the sound portion of the community ; sentimental, 
because it satisfied the sentiment of the giver rather than the 
needs of the receiver, and protracted the disease rather than 
remedied it. It kept the patient in his insanitary and overcrowded 
dwelling and encouraged him to endure prolonged misery through 
insufficiency of his total resources, when a satisfactory social 
arrangement would ensure him receiving support in exchange for 
a fair day's work, or help him to improved condition through his 
own efforts. 



19 



Dr. Newsholme strongly condemned ^^e proposals for ree 
breakfasts to underfed school c 'Wren and old^^g pe- 0-^^^ 
those who had not contributed to them WhU^t 

p^ who duriig life were incapable of providing for *e|r old "8^ 

leTlf e,:S rSe trS f-^' ^g 

small hence any gratuitous pension scheme would, by lessening 

''roducedtL disposition to pve unearned " P--,«„X';ag;s 

wo kinc. classes was about 6s i>^d. per week per family, the bil 
for otfe classes being rss. 3d., and stated that me^^^^^^^^^^ 

almost unanimous opmion that the b^^^ft^'^Jf f ' ° ^^ 'to, ^^^^^ 

^^r'::^:rz ^a^Xayf ?:sSsn,::l^^^s:vous 

dm. It wis not the function of the State to visit the sins o 
fheithers on the children, and the distress caused to an innocer^ 
chtld by Its parents' intemperance must be remedied as promptly 
nnd as certainly as if it arose from any other cause. 

:i^;^r^^^.^i.:«StSH 

rnmmensuratelv There could be no doubt, however, that tnere 
had been a Rrelt improvement and a further improvement must 
no' be expec'te'd by a'pplying the ber^evolent nostrums of -t^aind 
sentiment " It would be far more important to work at tne pre 
vent on of mise v than to multiply places of refuge for the miser- 
S '' (DidTrotT The sound treatment of poverty was assuredly 
J^venrve and it was only cruelty to substitute a palliative for a 



scientific treatment. The health of a nation was the crude supply 
of energy upon which the whole of its activities, its happiness, 
and its achievements must in the last resort depend, and this 
wealth had been increased by the attention which in the last fifty 
years had been given to public health, and all the encouragement 
derived from such results was needed when the work remaining to 
be done was contemplated. 

" Does the road wind up hill all the way ? 

Yes, to the veiy end. 
Will the day's journey take the whole long day ? 

From morn to night, my friend." 



FRIDAY, P^EBRUARY 17TH, 1905. 

W^atljer buriitg Januarg, 1905, 

BY 

Dr. W. J. TREUTLER, M.D., F.L.S. 



DR. TREUTLER gave a brief but interesting account of the 
abnormal weather conditions which prevailed during the 
latter portion of January, and showed, by projecting on the screen 
lantern slides of the weather charts during this period, how the 
British Isles and N.W. Europe became the region of an anti- 
cyclone, the formation and dispersion of which he traced, and 
drew attention to the phenomena which usually accompany an 
anticyclone. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 17TH, 1905. 

^ ^ttf at f r^-1|ist0ric ^an. 

BY 

Mr. CORNELIUS ROBBINS, L.D.S. 



IN detailing the history of the Harlyn Bay (Cornwall) discoveries, 
the lecturer stated that he was not an anthropologist, archaeo- 
logist or antiquarian, but he was subject to fits of enthusiasm, 
and it was the result of one of those attacks of enthusiasm that 
he desired to place before the Members. 

In August of 1902 a family holiday was spent in a most 
delightful corner of North Cornwall, a little place called Polzeath, 
on the coast line, half-way between Tintagel and Newquay. The 
place had been made famous in the writings of Baring Gould, for 
at this point on the sea coast was pitched the story entitled " In 
the Roar of the Sea," dealing with an age in which smuggling 
was a tine art, and Coppinger's name was a terror to the Custom 
officers. The place was interesting for its natural rugged beauty, 
its rock grandeur, its coves and caves so useful formerly for storing 
contraband, and its close proximity to St. Enodoc, the little 
church that for a long period was lost entirely under the blown 
sand, but which had since been dug out and restored, and in 
which services were held regularly during the summer months. 
In Baring Gould's story, the wedding of Coppinger and his 
unfortunate bride took place in the portion of the chancel from 
which the sand had been removed, and the entrance on that 
occasion was made through one of the windows. 

The passage ran as follows : " Mr. Peter Trevisa (Peter was 
a family Christian name) was for twenty-five years Rector of 
St. Enodoc, on the north coast of Cornwall, at the mouth of the 
Camel. The sand dunes had encroached on the church of 
St. Enodoc, and had enveloped the sacred structure. A hole was 
broken through a window, through which the interior could be 
reached, where divine service was performed occasionally in the 
presence of the churchwardens, so as to establish the right of the 
rector, and through this same hole bridal parties entered to be 
coupled, with their feet ankle-deep in the sand that filled the 
interior to above the pew-tops." 

Polzeath was seven miles from VVadebridge, and Mr. Robbins 
and his party frequently cycled over to friends who lived in that 



old-fashioned town. A day's excursion was proposed with these 
friends to Trevose Lighthouse, and it was suggested that a look 
might be given at Harlyn Bay, where some ancient skeletons had 
been recently discovered. Harlyn Bay, a lovely, restful spot, was 
about nine miles from Wadebridge. Here the visitors found 
Mr. Mallett, who owned a newly-built house at this place, as well 
as a small museum, and to whom the credit of these discoveries 
was due. 

In early life Mr. Mallett insisted on going to sea, but after a 
time, tired of a wandering life, he settled down to study in 
Germany, with the intention of entering the musical profession. 
Just as he was making his way his health broke down, and he 
decided on a tramping tour through Cornwall. He pitched his 
tent on the shores of the little bay, lived on the simplest diet, 
practically in the open air, and wore no hat, boots or stockings. 
His health was restored, and he left the place, but he returned 
later on with a charming wife to share the joys and sorrows of 
"Tamariska." In that year (1900) he bought a piece of land for 
the erection of a dwelling house, but while digging for the founda- 
tions at a depth of fifteen feet, a slate cist was reached, containing, 
in addition to a skeleton, characteristic implements of an early age. 
The cist proved to be one of many. Mr. Mallett had dropped 
upon a pre-historic Necropolis. 

The discovery was communicated to several scientific 
societies, and a committee was formed to personally direct further 
investigations The committee included such names as the Rev. 
S. Baring Gould, the Rev. W. lago, Mr. Buddicom, F.G.S., and 
others. About two thousand tons of blown sand were removed 
before any of the interments were laid bare. So far more than a 
hundred had been examined. Some of the relics were distributed 
to various museums, and Mr. Mallett kept the remainder in his 
own little collection. In his grounds he had carefully teased out 
the sand of one or more of the cists, roofed them over with a sort 
of cucumber frame, and was thus able to show the crouched-up 
skeleton in situ. 

Of one of these arrangements the lecturer showed a photo- 
graph, and mentioned that the crouched-up position of the 
skeleton, together with the many examples of polished stone and 
slate implements, seemed to point to the late Neolithic or early 
Celtic period. These slate implements were extremely interesting, 
and showed a considerable degree of skill in working ; they con- 
sisted of scrapers, borers, piercers, and even needles or small 
piercers. So beautifully finished were these latter that one could 
easily pierce one's skin with them even now. Prof. Bulien, to 
whom he was indebted for some of his facts, said " Neolithic 
flint flakes and scrapers occur in the neighbourhood as well as in 
the interments ; shell implements also occur, and are of a carved 
needle shape, they are made of limpet and mussel shells. The 



23 

local rock is Devonian slate, and by its abundance the inhabitants 
were probably determined in their use of it for their simple needs." 

He (the lecturer) found that the crouched-up position of 
burial was very prevalent in that period, and Joly, in his " Man 
before Metals," said that the Assyrians, the Gaunches of the 
Canary Islands, and the Peruvians practised the same form of 
interment. One peculiar feature of the Harlyn Bay interments 
was that most of the bodies were placed with the head pointing 
north, or to be more correct, according to the observations of 
Mr. Mallett, "the magnetic north." Considering that this was at 
a period prior to the invention of the mariner's compass, it was 
remarkable, but not very easy of explanation, except by reference 
to the Pole Star. 

Most of the skeletons were resting on the left side ; the right 
temporal bone was smashed in, presumably post mortem, in order 
that the spirit might have free exit on its way to the " happier 
hunting ground." For this journey certain provisions seemed to 
have been made. In some cists a stone weapon for protection 
was found, also materials that might be used for striking a light 
or making a fire, such as flint, felspar, and a sort of charcoal, 
placed usually on the abdomen or near the head. Often, and 
especially in a cist occupied by a lady, there was found a lump of 
crude oxide of iron for colouring and decorative purposes " when 
they got there." In case he should be doing the fair sex an 
injustice, the lecturer quoted from a German authority, the Ueber 
Land and Meer, published at Stuttgart, which, after describing a 
newly-discovered pre-historic burial field, near Worms, went on to 
say that " one find, near the top of the grave where there were 
no weapons, was most remarkable ; it was a highly polished 
reddish stone, which, on closer examination, proved to be a lump 
of oxide of iron. Can it be that the dwellers on the ' Adlerberge,' 
near Worms, had practiced the same custom as the ' Nadovessier,' 
to whom Schiller attributes, in their death lament, these words : 

' Colour, too, to paint the body. 
Lay ye in his hand, 
That with red he be resplendent 
In the spirit land.' " 

There were also evidences of a meal of food being left near 
the mouth. A slide, which the lecturer here showed, seemed to 
confirm this suggestion. A limpet shell was strongly adherent to 
the jaw of the skull, at about the angle of the lower lip. 
The specimen in question was obtained at a deep level, resting on 
the left side, and when Mr. Mallett teased the sand carefully out 
of it he considered that it pointed to the probability that after 
death a handful of limpets and cockles might have been placed 
near the mouth to ease the mind of the dead man's friends as to 
the need of refreshment, and that the limpet formed an 



24 

attachment and stayed there. Probably these people were 
fishermen as well as hunters. 

The lecturer was fully aware that his theory with regard to 
this unusual specimen might meet with some questioning, and he 
read a letter from one who did not agree with his suggestion. 
The contention of the writer was that the body when buried 
would be in the flesh, and the limpet could not have lived to 
make attachment until the flesh had perished, while the position 
of the skeletons precluded the idea that they were denuded of 
flesh before burial. The writer went on to suggest that the skull 
belonged to some drowned sailor, which, having been found on the 
beach by some pious aboriginal, had been given decent burial. 
If this were so, he thought, it would throw a very interesting light 
on the feehngs of these ancient people on the subject of burial. 

In defence, however, the lecturer, while saying that one must 
not dogmatise in such a case, suggested that when the flesh 
disintegrated, thus placing the shell a trifle apart from the jaw, 
the nature of the fine sand in which the interment was made 
would be such that it would filter in and fill it up, so that most 
probably a thin layer of sand did intervene betsveen the shell and 
the jaw. A future explanation might, however, make light of any 
of these theories, and the lecturer recalled how years ago it 
obtained in some of the text books that the ancient Egyptians 
were skilled in the art of filling teeth with gold. Many years 
after the theory had been accepted, the mummy on which the 
theory was based (owing to the evidence of gold on its front teeth) 
was further examined, and a pen-knife was tried on the gold 
surface, with the result that it proved to be a small portion of 
gold leaf with which the lips of certain mummies were decorated. 
The portion had adhered to the damp tooth, and as the lips had 
further shrivelled, the supposed gold filling was the more 
revealed. 

Taking up the thread of his subject the lecturer said that 
quaint water-bottles filled with water were placed in Peruvian 
graves. He passed one specimen round among the Members, 
and read an extract from The Connoisseur of October, 1901, 
describing these vessels : — " These were supposed to contain the 
fluid and solid refreshment that was to sustain on their journey 
those destined for the country ' from whose bourne no traveller 
returns,' and were buried with chiefs and other important 
personages. The artistic spirit of the artificers seems to have 
taken the direction of perverting the human form into all kinds of 
monstrosities but it is noteworthy that they preserved a facial 
type, which may, no doubt, be taken as to some extent 
representative of that which existed in their time and locality. 
It is worth noting that in several instances the maize discovered 
in the vases has continued in such good condition that it has 
germinated on being planted." The lecturer added that Mrs. 



25 

Tweedie, in her " Mexico as I saw it," stated that even to-day 
corn in the cob was placed near the mouth of the corpse. 

The Harlyn Bay graves were found in regular lines, and in 
some cases four cists had been super-imposed ; probably through 
the centuries, during which the place was used for interments, the 
sand encroached and covered up the lower tiers. There were a 
few circular cists made up of two compartments, and in these 
cases the skull and some of the limbs seemed to have been 
severed before death. Prof BuUen thought that possibly these 
might be connected with some sacrificial ceremonies. 

The lecturer said that the denial phase of the skulls in Mr. 
Mallett's little museum particularly interested him. As a result 
of a short examination of the collection, a paper was read before 
the Odontological Society in February of 1903, when it was hoped 
that he would go on with the investigations, especially in regard 
to the alterations that had taken place in the skulls, jaws, and 
teeth since those early times. He was able to enthuse a young 
Cornishman, living in London, to accompany a late President of 
the Odontological Society and himself for a week-end to Harlyn 
Bay. Before going down, however, a learned Member of the 
Camera Club, Dr. Leon Williams, lent them a splendid 
instrument, his own invention, for measuring skulls. In this he 
(the lecturer) thought that Dr. Williams showed a generous and 
truly scientific spirit. By means of slides, the lecturer showed 
the working of the ingenious " craniometer," which was suited to 
measuring skulls from fixed points either in the living or dead 
subject. 

The special trip down to Cornwall took place on March 20th, 
1903. After concluding their work in the museum, taking notes, 
measurements, and exposing plates, they went out and built up a 
screen of four or five blankets to keep off the wind and sharp, 
cutting sand, and then, working like any navvies on the line, they 
tried for all they were worth to find a cist. Many tons of sand 
they shifted, but to no purpose, their total find after six hours' 
hard work being one ox's molar, a knuckle bone of some sort, and 
a piece of slate that might possibly be called a pre-historic 
scraper. 

Now, as to the scientific results of their little trip. Up to 
the present they had not been startling, although it was true that 
a second paper had been read before the Odontological Society. 
Roughly speaking, one might say that modern life, with its much- 
cooked food and made-up dishes, the terrible knife and fork 
invention, the rapid rate of living, the saving of weakly ones by 
medical science (who saw fit to breed their own kind in another 
generation), all made up a total which, in matters relating to the 
dental structures, was a dear price to pay for modern civilization. 
The lecturer compared skulls found at fifteen feet level with a 
single skull found at but a spade's depth. He pointed out the 



26 

difference in structure, the non-eruted wisdom-tooth of the latter, 
as well as the crowding and over-lapping of the upper teeth, and 
the fine frontal development. It was scarcely necessary to and 
that a Roman coin was found near this skull, to conclude that it 
belonged to an individual who bore marks of civilization, probably 
a Roman. 

No very valuable deduction could be made from the small 
number of skulls they had to work from, but he firmly believed 
that some good would result from the application of Dr. Leon 
Williams' measuring instrument, when used, and the results 
tabulated on a large number of skulls of various types. It would 
be interesting to learn how through the ages the type of jaw had 
altered, and in what way or ways the environment of the creature 
was reflected in these structures. Dr. Charters White had 
indicated the character of food of these early people by his 
analysis of the tartar of some authentic specimens, and this 
induced him (the lecturer) to ask Dr. Charters White to 
experiment upon some tartar taken from a specimen sent to him 
by a friend who found a portion of jaw teeth near this spot, but 
the result of the examination added to their previous doubt as to 
that specimen being really very ancient. 

In considering the sidelights thrown upon the possible belief 
in a future state by these primitive people, the lecturer read a 
paragraph from the St. Jameses Gazette of March 4th, 1904 — a 
paragraph which was intensely interesting when viewed in the 
light of recent advances in the methods and ideas of the Japanese 
people : " It was a custom in old Japan to bury living retainers, 
servants, and even horses, upright in a circle round the grave of 
a member of any imperial or noble family. The heads of these 
poor wretches were left exposed, and their cries of agony during 
their lingering death could be heard night and day. This awful 
custom was changed by a tender-hearted ruler in the second year 
of our Christian era, rough clay images being substituted for the 
living beings ; but so late as a.d. 646 another Emperor had 
to legislate against the recurrence of such living burials." 

It was difficult to conceive that there were districts in India 
where the " suttee " or " good wife," was even now burnt on her 
husband's funeral pile. Tylor, in his " Anthropology," writes : In 
Europe, long after the wives and slaves ceased thus to follow 
their master, the warrior's horse was still solemnly killed at his 
grave and buried with him. This was done as lately as 1781, at 
Treves, when a General named Friedrick Kasimir was buried 
according to the rites of the Teutonic Order ; and in England, 
the pathetic ceremony of leading the horse in the soldier's funeral 
is the last remnant of this ancient sacrifice. Other quaint 
relics of the old funeral customs are to be met with. There are 
German villages where the peasants [)ut shoes on the feet of the 
corpse (the hell 'shoon,' with which the old Northmen were 



87 

provided for the dread journey to the next world), elsewhere a 
needle and thread are put in for them to mend their torn clothes, 
while all over Europe (at an Irish wake for instance), the dead 
has a piece of money put in his hand to pay his way with." 

It was interesting to note that at the grave level at Harlyn 
Bay, near the cists, were found remains of the ox, sheep, horse, 
and pig, which seemed to prove that these creatures were to some 
extent domesticated and used by the occupiers of the cists. 
They were also shown some grass seed that had been found in a 
sort of closed vessel, probably placed there many centuries ago. 
Mr. Mallett had experimented with this, and stated that it was 
still fertile, and he had produced a small crop of grass from it. 

The lecturer here read a letter he had just received from Mr. 
Mallett, in which he said that the two most recent finds were the 
strange cists uncovered in the autumn. Nobody could account 
for the strange arrangement of the skeletons, and no certain clue 
could be gathered as to what the survivors meant by so singular 
a method of interment. They remained a mystery. Prof. J. 
Beddoe, however, considered the remains to be more distinctly 
neolithic than anything yet found. Both cists were rounded in 
shape, and were constructed of lumps of spar and slate, the 
interstices filled up with soil, showing "construction" as distinct 
from the usual slate slab graves. The larger cist (6ft. 3in. by 
5ft. gin.) contained the remains of two mortals, so far as yet 
known, both of whom were decidedly dolico-cephalic 
(longheaded). The skeletons had been absolutely dismembered, 
a skull being at each end of the cist, and each smashed in on the 
right side ; the lower jaw was missing in each case, and the leg, 
arm, and other bones, fantastically deposited about the gravel, 
with intervening layers of slate rubble. Skull and crossbones 
were clearly discernable — magnificent teeth in each upper jaw, 
one tooth being more than an inch and a quarter in length. 

In the smaller cist, continued Mr. Mallett, the skull was also 
smashed in on the right side, and the lower jaw had been placed 
at the back of the skull. Only the skull, jaw, and shoulder-blade, 
humerus and finger bone, were observable, all resting on a large 
slab, which, he fancied, separated the rest of the skeleton. 

The seeds were found at about eight feet below the present- 
day surface, in a kind of chest made of slate, a fireplace being at 
the side, and midden remains all around ; this sort of slate chest 
was actually in the midden, as part of it. Convolvulus, too, from 
the graves had germinated. He took it that the seed was stored, 
and, the sand having accumulated over the existing surface, it 
retained its fertility in suspension until it was unearthed. It was 
sprouting freely around the chest soon after they broke into the 
spot. The sand seemed to hermetically seal any such deposit, 
preserve the bones, and play other strange pranks. 

Sufficient, continued the Lecturer, had been said to prove 



28 

that these were ancient burials, but it was difficult, or even 
impossible, to assign any exact date to these remains. Neither 
was it wise to presume that all the theories built up around these 
discoveries were correct. 

Samuel Laing, in his " Human Origins," said : " The 
preservation of human remains depends mainly on the practice of 
burying the dead. . . . Now it is not until the neolithic period 
that the custom of burying the dead became general, and even 
then it was not universal. In many nations, even in historical 
times, corpses were burnt, not buried. It was connected, doubt- 
less, with ideas of a future existence, which either required 
troublesome ghosts to be put securely out of the way, or to 
retain a shadowy existence by some mysterious connection with 
the body which had once served them for a habitation. Such 
ideas, however, only came with some advance of civilization, and 
it is questionable whether in paleolithic times the human animal 
had any more notion of preserving the body after death than the 
Other animals by which he was surrounded. ... A great many 
caves which had been inhabited by paleolithic man were selected 
as fitting spots for the grave of their neolithic successors, and 
thus sometimes the remains of the two periods became inter- 
mixed." 

Concluding, the Lecturer said that if such an authority dealt 
with the matter in such a careful way, he would not presume to 
be dogmatic in any of the statements he had made. There were 
difficulties in attempting to " lift the veil " from the shadowy 
past, but it was a fascinating occupation, and, as with the past, so 
with the future, the desire to "lift the veil " was almost universal. 
Imagination must have its rightful sway, and if we had been 
interested in trying to spell out the obscure writing of a letterless 
age, how much more would our successors in the distant future 
revel in the relics left behind by this ancient capital of a mighty 
Empire, when its "cloud-capped towers, its gorgeous palaces," 
had passed away ! 

Into Macaulay's picture of the New Zealander sitting on 
London Bridge, the Lecturer introduced a second figure — a 
companion who, looking over the New Zealander's shoulder, 
should exclaim, his face beaming with joy, " Eureka, I have 
found it ! " and, pointing to a bright red spot on the ground plan 
of London, near the ruins of St. Martin's Church, say with some 
authority, " That was once the happy home of the celebrated 
Camera Club." 

At the conclusion of the lecture a collection of paleolithic 
and neolithic implements was shown, some of the specimens 
being very interesting. 



29 

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 25TH, 1905. 

mjt * nooth' ^'MonW Wivh Calktttons, 

BY 

Mr. ARTHUR GRIFFITH, M.A. 

(At the Booth Museum). 



THE Members of the Society visited the Booth Museum, and 
during the afternoon Mr. Arthur Griffith, M.A., read a paper, 
in the course of which he alluded to the fact that the Booth 
collection of birds, now that it had been extended by the 
Corporation acquiring the " Monk " collection, was the finest 
collection of British birds in the kingdom ; whilst the mounting 
and casing of the specimens to illustrate as far as possible their 
natural condition were unique. 



THURSDAY, MARCH i6th, 1905. 

%hz (Bbalntian of ^rttlkrj, 

BY 

COL. EDGAR KENSINGTON, (late) R.A., 

Formerly Professor of Artillery, Royal Military Academy, 
Woolwich. 



THE Lecturer commenced by observing that the association of 
the word artillery (derived from French artiller — to work 
with art) with guns was not always correct, as in the Bible 
Jonathan signalled to David with bows and arrows : but it was 
now applied to those weapons used in the art of war for throwing 
missiles to a distance, as contrasted with the pike, battle-axe, or 
bayonet, used only for hand to hand fighting, the rifle being ex- 
ceptional as it accompanies the bayonet. In all fighting, from 
the remotest ages, victory has been obtained by hand to hand 



30 

fighting, hut it has been most materially aided or prepired by 
projectiles thrown from a distance. The object of thii prepara- 
tion was formerly to throw the enemy into confusion so as to 
render the task more easy for the hand to hand fight ; eff. (i) the 
British archers preparing for the pikemen ; {2) Frederick the 
Great preparing by artillery for his infantry to attack in line ; (3) 
Napoleon always using artillery before attacking with massive 
columns ; now there was another and more important object, 
viz., to keep down the enemy's fire so that the infantry may get 
within assaulting distance — and modern tactics demanded that 
the attacking artillery must be superior (i) in numbers, (2) in 
power — i.e., range and calibre, (3) in gunnery— accuracy and 
rapidity in fire. Until recently it was held that the "artillery 
preparation" must precede the infantry advance {e.^., the battles 
of Enslin and Magersfontein in the Boer war) ; but the latest 
developments of modern warfare demanded that the artillery 
must continue "the preparation," and when about to be masked 
by their own infantry, it must move to closer ranges and 
support the infantry advance, regardless of risks. Up to the 
time of the Crimean war, artillery could be classified as follows : — 
Guns, Howitzers, mortars, with projectiles consisting of solid 
round shot, hollow shot, shrapnel, grape, case (cannister), red hot 
shot, Martin's shell (containing molten iron), bar shot, chain 
shot (last two used against ships' rigging). Hollow shot was 
more effective against wooden ships, its velocity being more 
quickly checked so that jagged splintered holes resulted, whereas 
solid shot made a clean hole, readily plugged. 

In the battles of Napoleon's period the range of field guns 
was about half a mile, but they were often used at some 300 
yards. "Grape " was used at this range ; " Case" at 100 or 200 
yards, e.g., Major Mercer at Waterloo, when charged by cavalry, 
loaded his guns with case and quietly awaited the charge till 
within 40 yards, when he fired and successfully checked the 
advance. 

The earliest "rifled" gun was the "Lancaster," in use 
during the Crimean war. It had an oval bore with a cast iron 
projectile, oval in section, but the friction generated by giving 
rotation was so great that the shot often jammed and the gun 
burst. 

Colonel Kensington then briefly stated the advantages of 
"rifled guns " as follows :— 

(i) Accuracy owing to the shell having to issue concentric 
with the bore, instead of rebounding along it. 

(2) Accuracy owing to the shell being given a known 
rotation causing a known deviation to the right (in 
our service) instead of an unknown rotation due to 
the last rebound in the bore. 



3' 

(3) Accuracy owing to the concentric manufacture of the 

shell (now rendered possible). 

(4) Elongated projectiles could be used. These brought 

about increased range owing to the increased 
weight, greater capacity for powder or bullets, a 
simplification of the fuzes, and a reduction in the 
resistance of the air. 

Of the many designs submitted, Sir William (afterwards Lord) 
Armstrong's were accepted, and he became Superintendent of the 
Royal Gun Factories. His guns — -breech-loaders — were built up 
of cyhnders made by coiling bars of red hot wrought iron round 
mandrils and then reheating and welding them. The breech was 
closed by a vent piece dropped into a slot and secured by a 
breech screw. 'l"he method of construction caused these guns to 
be longitudinally weak owing to imperfect welding, and they 
tended to draw out like a corkscrew, but they were practically 
secure against such explosive bursts cast iron guns were liable to. 
The field guns were excellent and very accurate, and were used in 
the China war (i860), when the Peiho forts were captured; the 
heavier guns (7 inch), however, were failures. 

The Lecturer then alluded to the battle of guns v. armour 
plates which resulted from the "Merrimac" and "Monitor" 
warships proving themselves almost invulnerable during the 
American civil war of 1861-5, although the armour plates were 
merely iron rails. The French followed with " La Gloire," and 
the EngHsh with the "Warrior," which, the Lecturer stated, he 
saw launched at Blackwall. 

The old smooth-bore 68-pounder with a charge of i61bs. of 
powder at 1,000 yards with muzzle velocity of 1,700 feet per sec, 
was more destructive to armour plate than the new iio-pounder 
7 inch (which could only be trusted with i4lbs. of powder) with 
a muzzle velocity of 1,100 feet per sec. Hence it was calculated 
— rather rashly — that breech loading guns were a failure, the more 
so as the Royal Navy (owing to the fact that loading had to be 
more rapid so as to seize the right moment as the ship rolled) at 
first condemned them as dangerous, the vent piece flying out 
owing to imperfect fixing and killing men. As a result the 
"Woolwich" gun was devised for field, garrison, and naval 
purposes, constructed on Armstrong's coiling principle, but with 
more massive forgings and with a solid ended steel tube, but 
" muzzle loading." Krupp, taking advantage of the invention of 
the steam hammer by Nasmyth and the improvement in the 
manufacture of steel introduced by Bessemer, and the further 
toughening of steel by anneahng in oil, started making guns 
entirely of steel and breech loading, which were longer and had 
much greater muzzle velocities — 2,000 feet per sec. against our 
1,300 (later 1,500) feet per sec, and in the Belgium competition 



32 

the superiority of the Krupp breech-loading steel gun was 
definitely established. 

The advantaa;es of breech loading were then detailed thus : — 

(i) Larger charges of slow burning powder can be used, 
since the guns are longer. 

(2) These large charges can be packed in a more compact 

way in chambers of considerably larger diameter than 
the bore. It is well known that long charges produce 
a wave action which occasions irregularities of 
pressure. 

(3) Loading is more rapid. This culminated in the 
adoption of quick firing guns. 

And the Lecturer stated that our modern guns were breech 
loading, made of toughened steel, having a great comparative 
length, with a muzzle velocity of 3,000 feet per sec, which gave 
them a longer range, flatter trajectories, and much greater 
accuracy, and quoted instances exemplifying the importance of 
length of range : (i) At Elandslaagte, General French, with the 
Natal Artillery Volunteers and their 7-pounders, was powerless to 
dislodge a party of Boers who had cut the line between Lady- 
smith and Dundee, having been outranged by another party of 
Boers who opened fire on him and compelled him to retreat; (2) 
at siege of Ladysmith, the 6 inch Creusot guns of the Boers 
planted on the surrounding heights were made to keep their 
distance by a couple of 4.7 inch guns belonging to the Royal 
Navy; (3) in the Japanese war the Russian field guns appeared 
to have ranged further, while the Japanese guns were lighter and 
more mobile ; and although the Japanese captured several Russian 
field guns they were useless, as essential fittings had been 
removed ; but the Japanese secured patterns of these lost fittings, 
made them, and last February they used them against their 
former owners at Taling Pass, east of Mukden, and completely 
outranged them. To the Boers belong the credit of first bringing 
into the field far heavier pieces than had ever been dreamt of 
before in connection with a field army. We have followed their 
example in associating a Howitzer Brigade and three Garrison 
Companies having 4.7 inch guns with our Army Corps. More- 
over during Boer war quick firing guns and pompoms (quick 
firing I inch guns) were first used ; the latter are now attached to 
our Cavalry Brigade. 

As regards quick firing guns, the Lecturer emphasized the 
following points : — (t) The recoil must be nullified or absorbed 
so that the gun may be loaded while it is being fired; (2) breech 
action must be most rapid, one action being sufficient to open or 
close it, the empty cartridge case being also thrown out by the 
act of opening ; (3) ammunition must be enclosed in a brass 



33 



SmSy, caUbre 3-3 inches, ,„ ^^:f ^IZLllT;;':^.^ o'. 

tion to ihe question oi gu. p w^.i„hf of the ammunition 

that mobility was affected '"^''^^^y^'^^St \hat il ammunition 

J.H gave -SO rounds per gun and h^^^^ ^be ^_^^^ ^^ 

tS;°"TSe.etnAa^gefi£.e,escop.^^^^^^^ 

sights, and of the -f -V^„'=*°„t^„° oncjed h'is Address 
•• position finding, Colonel ^«ns "S™ „f ,l,e advantages 

'''■ ".""TodemTa" are by the fudid^us use of artillery, seleet- 
--ti'deirtr&anU^rOSa.^^ 

¥;*l^!;rrrth7reL\=t*lalTnd°.he Russo-Japanese war. 



FRIDAY, MARCH 24TH, igoS* 

^ four in ^pain* 

BY 

Mr. E. PAYNE, M.A. 

Illustrated by Lantern Slides. 



i^=rStn:^f?^:j|S^Fri;S 

Murcia, Granada, Malaga, Seville, Cordova, 1 oieao, ^^ , 

;„d Burgos. Some of the ^1'^- ^^ ^^'/"^^'d' the excelS 
Shepherd " process of colour photograptiy, anu 
results obtained were much appreciated. 



34 



FRIDAY, APRIL 28TH, 1905. 

BY 

JAMES THORNTON CARTER. 

M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 
Illustrated by Lantern Slides. 



THIS Lecture was devoted to a careful study of the anatomy 
and development of typical skulls, considered in their 
zoological order. Fishes were first considered, and slides of the 
skull of Amphioxus, and certain specimens of Elasmobranchs, 
Ganoids, Dipnoi, and Teleostei were shown and explained. 
In a similar manner, skulls of certain Amphibians, Reptiles, 
Birds, Mammals, and finally Man were considered, and their 
respective differences pointed out. 



THURSDAY, MAY iSth, 1905. 

History nf tljt ^outl] Boinns, 

BY 

Mr. J. H. A. JENNER, F.E.S. 



MR. JENNER began with a reminder of what Gilbert White 
said of the South Downs after travelling on them upwards 
of thirty years. " I still investigate that chain of majestic 
mountains with fresh admiration year by year ; and I think I 
see new beauties every time I traverse it." Varying in thickness 
from 800 to 1,000 feet, the Sussex Downs had their origin in a 
chalk formation at the bottom of a deep ocean, and must have 
taken many thousands of years in formation. The strata, pro- 
ceeding upwards, consisted of the lower greensand, gault, uppe 



35 

greensand, chalk marl or grey chalk, lower chalk or chalk without 
flints, and upper chalk or chalk with flints. The chalk rested 
upon various formations according to locality, but in Sussex it was 
on the Wealden. Once it was uniformly spread over this, but 
the Wealden formation had been elevated, together with the chalk 
above it. The chalk had been severed by the anticlinal ridge of 
the Weald and separated into the North and South Downs, this 
fracture being evident from the fact that the North Downs have a 
steep face to the south and the South Downs a steep face to the 
north. The South Downs had rifts through which rivers flowed 
— probably originally fissures caused by unequal raising — but 
now widened and modified by the flow of the rivers. 

On the chalk was originally a considerable quantity of 
tertiary deposits, but these had mostly been removed by denuda- 
tion. Their remains existed in many places as a re-deposit — 
— such as the elephant bed between Brighton and Rottingdean, 
and the coombe rock and other beds near Portslade and 
Chichester. A few layers of the lowest series— the so-called 
Woolwich beds — remain in situ at Newhaven Fort and Seaford 
Head. The chalk itself was mainly composed of small 
organisms which, dying, fell to the bottom of the sea — slowly 
forming a muddy deposit and enveloping the remains of fishes 
and other sea animals. There is, said Mr. Jenner, supposed to 
be a similar process going on in the Atlantic at the present time. 
The enormous amount of time necessary to form such an 
immense thickness of material as the chalk might be easily 
imagined, not only from the slowness of the accumulation of the 
material, but from the numerous changes in the forms of animal 
life which occurred from the base to the surface, changes 
which were remarkable and progressive. After an incidental 
reference to the presence of flints in the upper beds of chalk, to 
the large use of chalk for building purposes in mediaeval times 
and for lime in modern times, Mr. Jenner said the South Downs 
probably sloped gradually towards the south at the time the 
Channel did not exist and England joined France ; but the bases 
of the hills had now been cut off" by the sea, and the white cliffs 
of Albion provided in Beachy Head and the Seven Sisters some 
of the finest scenery in the South of England. 

What the condition of the Downs was when the chalk first 
emerged from the sea was not known, — probably the elevation 
was gradual, and may have been in progress thousands of years. 
Of course, at first it was an absolutely sterile surface, gradually 
rounded by the action of water, which had given us the beautiful 
rounded contour. Then, probably, followed the lower crypto- 
gams and other first occupants of bare soils, — until we arrived at 
the present botanical conditions. He thought they might safely 
say that plants arrived before animals or man, and evidently 
there was some division in the direction of arrival, as some plants 



36 

arrived on the northern range of downs which did not exist on 
the southern range, and vice versa. Remarking that every drop 
of rain that fell affected the shape of a chalk hill, though the 
change worked slowly, Mr. Jenner said it had been calculated 
that a drop of rain falling on a chalk hill to-day would not reach 
the usual depth of the springs for a hundred years. He did not, 
of course, refer to rain falling into a fissure, but to the slow 
percolation of rain drops, and he suggested that the people of 
Brighton might be now drinking water which fell a hundred years 
ago, — quite a " Vintage Water." 

After vegetation came animals and man, — man, probably, 
in the condition of the lowest savages of the present day; 
certainly with no ideas of machinery or motors, but with a 
perception of form and usefulness, as implements of the early 
stone age in the Brighton Museum would show. It was once 
thought there were no men of the Palaeolithic age in Sussex, 
but the discoveries of Mr. R. Garraway Rice had provided 
evidence of his existence both at Portslade and Chichester. 
Neolithic man was known by his weapons, and these, Mr. Jenner 
reminded his hearers, occurred in enormous numbers on the 
Downs, and were much more carefully and finely made than 
those of the Palseolithic age. He recalled the paper Mr. Toms 
had read on discoveries of flint instruments, observing that the 
great " Sheffield " flint knife and hammer factory of the South 
appeared to have been at Cissbury, from which site there were 
many specimens in the Museum. At Cissbury the chalk was 
tunnelled to obtain the fresh flint, which chips so much more 
easily than that which has been lying on the surface. Other 
centres he had found were one west of Newhaven, where the 
flints were evidently obtained from the sea cliffs as well as from 
some pits, and the well-known district near Eastbourne. These 
flints appeared to have been bartered with natives of other parts, 
but from the amount of remains and debris that could even now 
be found, the business must have spread over many thousands of 
years. Mr. Jenner also quoted from Professor Boyd Dawkins' 
" Early Man in Britain " a reference to the activity and fine 
workmanship at Cissbury. 

What language these people used, continued Mr. Jenner, 
we know not, but it is probable that they tilled the ground to 
some extent, and the Downs furnished suitable light soil for this. 
The Weald being covered with forest, they also hunted game and 
wild animals, as evidenced by their arrow-heads and spearheads, 
and as, occasionally, some of these have been found as far away 
from the chalk as Crawley, they must have had an off-day's 
hunting and shooting at times. The question how these early 
peoples lived on our Downs without a water supply had always 
been a puzzle, but, probably, said Mr. Jenner, — as is well-known 
of South-African tribes, such as the Zulus, — they were exceed- 



37 

ingly fleet of foot, and thought nothing of moving many miles in 
a day down to the nearest brook or river. Dealing next with a 
recently published book on " Neolithic Dewponds and Cattle- 
ways," in which there are references to the Cissbury and 
Chanctonbury encampments, the speaker said he did not doubt 
that dewponds may have existed in Neolithic times, but he did 
not think there was any evidence. Also it was practically 
accepted that the hill camps he would next refer to belonged to 
the Bronze age. The splendid ramparts at Cissbury had no 
reference whatever to the wonderful Neolithic pits which were 
scattered widely both inside and outside of the more modern 
entrenchments. Some of the galleries which were explored some 
time ago passed right under the southern rampart. 

There were many of these camps on various prominent parts 
of the Downs. They appeared to have been harbours of refuge 
for the civil population, as well as defences against enemies for 
the fighting population. They were in every case very cleverly 
constructed, with outworks covering the contours of the slopes. 
Cissbury, Chanctonbury, Ditchling Beacon, HoUingbury, Devil's 
Dyke, White Hawk Down, Seaford, Caburn, Birling, and others 
might be mentioned, and they seemed to have been placed in 
positions for easy communication by signalling — as was evidenced 
at the late Jubilee celebrations by the numerous beacon fires that 
could be seen from any given point. The ancient paths which 
lead up to these hill tops are often called borstalls, which is said 
to be derived from the British, meaning " hill path " ; but the 
hills are covered with ancient paths leading in all directions — 
mostly grown over with grass — many leading to what is now " no- 
where," but which may have been an important place in Neolithic 
times. " Cattle ways " they were termed in the book he had 
alluded to. Perhaps this was right ; but not always. There is a 
very ancient path leading from Brighton to Lewes, and passing 
over Kingston Hill. It is called the "jugs road" — jugs being 
the colloquial name for the Brighton fishermen, who travelled 
that way with their goods to Lewes, &c. There are also natural 
tracks caused by sheep, &c., which may be seen well on any steep 
hill side. 

There were other marks on the Downs with which he might 
briefly deal — cultivation marks. They were very evident in many 
places, especially on the Cliffe Hill, at Lewes, also near Alfriston, 
and at Littlington. There were also some between Lewes and 
Brighton. These are supposed to have been caused by the 
continual ploughing of a furrow literally beginning at the top of 
the holding and finishing at the bottom, and they also indicated 
the beginning of village communities, and what was now under- 
stood as allotments. He was inclined to think, however, that 
this was not a complete explanation. That these early traces, as 
well as the encampments, should be so evident after the enormous 



38 

lapse of time was astonishing, and shewed the very slow process 
of aerial denudation. At present Sussex did not seem to possess 
any early structure analagous to Stonehenge, or allied to the 
solitary one in Kent called Kit's Coty House. But on the 
Downs at one time were many of the sarsen stones, derived from 
the strata above the chalk, and stranded at various parts. Many 
of these sarsen stones might be seen at Stanmer and Falmer, 
collected from their original sites. He had often wondered if 
any archaic inscription could be found upon them, such as the 
well-known cup and ball markings. 

Having referred to ancient figures cut in the Downs, like the 
Wilmington Giant, which figures had always been a puzzle, he 
said there was, on the steep slope of the Cuckmere Valley, below 
Hineover, a very rough cutting resembling a horse, which is not 
recorded in books on the subject, but which was kept clean by 
youths of the past generation, shewing that there must have been 
some tradition carried down about these things. For himself, he 
attributed these things to a very early stage of religious culture, 
hut, as a fact, these hill carvings were mysteries, and they occurred 
nowhere else in Europe. There was a cross cut on the hill side 
above Plumpton, near Lewes. Some thought it was a record 
of the Battle of Lewes, but he saw no reason to think so. He 
must not omit to say that on the Downs we had remains of the 
burial places of the early peoples who lived in the neighbour- 
hood. Most persons who had walked the Downs had come 
across circular mounds (generally, unfortunately, with a de- 
pression in the centre). These tumuli, probably all of the 
Neolithic age, enclosing the remains of some chieftain, were 
opened with very little scientific accuracy early in the last 
century. Urns and other things were found in them, but if 
more care had been taken we should have learnt more of these 
early people. There were not many " long barrows " on the 
Southdowns, but there was one above the Coombe, at Lewes, and 
one above the Wilmington Giant. These were usually supposed 
to be of the Bronze age. He could not discover that anything 
allied to the dene holes of Kent had been found on the South- 
downs, unless the filled up pits at Cissbury are of the same 
character ; but, as the Society noticed a year or two ago, 
workings very similar were used for raising stone in the Weald 
of Sussex. 

Succeeding the Bronze age came the Iron age, and iron was 
in use when the Romans landed in Britain and captured the 
Downs. Boadicea, we were told, had a chariot with iron scythes 
on the wheels. When the Romans arrived,- those tactical 
Japanese-like adventurers, — they seized the camps and best 
vantage grounds of the Downs. They ate oysters on Cissbury. 
The eating of oysters was a peculiarly Roman trait, and from the 
size of the shells they were not inferior. Traces of their 



39 

sumptuous dwellings occur at Bignor, at Eastbourne, &c. Their 
burial grounds occur at Seaford and in other places. He 
emphasised the remarkable way in which certain positions had been 
successively occupied. To begin with, it is a suitable place for the 
rallying of the savage tribe ; after that of the semi-civilised and 
settled community with their religious ceremonies, or a parish 
meeting, and possibly a stockade ; then, perhaps, the Roman 
villa of the Commander, and after that first the Saxon and then 
the English church, or the mediaeval castle. In the time of the 
Saxons the Downs must have been much of a waste, except 
that their lonely valleys gradually accumulated a house and a 
barn or two. Before that time they were, probably, more 
covered with wood. The iron axe was more potent in clearing 
than the flint, or even the bronze. Within living memory there 
had been a decrease in trees, but some of the old hawthorns, 
such as those at the base of Cissbury, seemed hkely to hve for 
ever. When we got down to mediaeval times the Downs were 
still interesting, — the, perhaps, greatest event in English history 
took place on the Downs, the Battle of Lewes in 1264, and it 
was only about a week ago according to the day of the month ! 
The escape of Charles II. took place over the Downs. 

The exceedingly isolated valleys and parishes of the Downs 
led to an almost peculiar language and manner. Many persons 
never left the place where they were born the whole of their 
Hves, and most people in the parish were related to each other ; 
and they had many local superstitions. There were other marks 
on the Downs of green rings — called fairy rings. These were 
quite recently attributed to the night dancing of Fairies, but were 
now well-known to be caused by fungi. The Fairy, or Pharisee, 
as he was called, was quite a belief. There was a story that a 
certain farmer found every morning that some of his corn had 
been thrashed out, and going to the barn saw a lot of little fairies 
thrashmg it out, one saying to the other, " Do you twet — I 
twet ? " Not approving of this proceeding, he frightened them 
away, after which he withered and died for his ingratitude ! The 
belief in witchcraft was almost universal in these lonely villages. 
A story was told him once of a woman who was supposed to be 
a witch, and she was attacked and escaped from her house in the 
form of a hare. One of the men set his dog at her, it seized 
her, but she escaped, but when next seen at home she had a 
wound where the dog bit her. This was told him in all 
seriousness. 

The nomenclature of the Downs was all ancient ; the 
coombis, from the British cwm ; the Denes, Saxon ; the holts 
and copses, ancient forms of language. Near Lewes was Oxsettle 
Bottom, which a friend assured him was derived from early 
British — the "upper shooting valley " — pointing out the curious 
fact and coincidence that it was a rifle range. But he was afraid 



46 

he could not enforce this, as the " ox-settle," or " ox-shelter," 
or its remains, were found not long ago. A neighbouring valley 
was called Bible Bottom, from an ancient (?) cattle enclosure in 
the valley. It had been ploughed over within the last fifty years, 
and the farmer earned great obloquy for having ploughed up the 
bible. 

The closing passages of Mr. Jenner's paper were devoted to 
the Downs of modern times, and the speaker dwelt upon their 
beautiful contour, their never failing variety, and their health 
giving air. Very few artists had succeeded in representing them 
accurately. Their native animals were few— the fox, the hare, 
the rabbit, and a few small animals such as the stoat. Birds were 
numerous in the wooded portions. In no part could the 
nightingale be heard so well, while the cuckoo rejoiced in the 
wooded valleys. The wheatear, which was formerly considered a 
luxury, still occurred, though it was caught by thousands by the 
old-time shepherd ; and anyone reclining on the soft turf could 
not help exclaiming, " Hark, the lark at heaven's gate sings." 
The Great Bustard formerly occurred near Lewes, and he knew a 
man who had seen them ; and the stone curlew, he hoped, still 
occurred on Kingston Hill. There were still many lovely haunts 
of birds where, with a good field glass, one could watch the 
birds at leisure. Many of the rarest of migratory birds had 
chosen to alight on the Downs after their cross-sea passage. The 
neighbourhood of Black Rock used to be famous for arriving 
migrants, and the late Mr. Monk obtained many of his birds — 
the collection of which had just been secured by Brighton — from 
that locality. Among them was a " Richards pipit," and he well 
remembered Mr. Monk shewing him a telegram worded : " If 
you wish to see A Richards alive come at once," which caused 
him consternation and bewilderment. 

In the hangers and copses, especially on the northern slopes, 
many good snails might be taken. He named some of the 
varieties, as also shells to be found on the southern slopes of the 
Downs near Lewes. In the autumn, two species were in great 
profusion. As to butterfiies, they had on the South Downs the 
largest number that occurred in any British locality — clouded 
yellows, the painted lady, and an army of blues. A colony of 
the marbled white M. galathea resided near Firle Beacon. Many 
rare moths were also to be found, and other rare insects could be 
taken on the short turf at night by means of a lantern, though 
the experience of searching was a weird one. The loneliness 
and solitude of parts of the Downs was, indeed, quite striking, 
even in the daytime, but at night it was remarkable. There 
seemed to be some influence of late, he knew not what, that had 
lessened the number of good insects, though perhaps the farmer 
would tell them that it had not lessened the wiieworm or the 
aphis. 



41 

Passing on to the plants of the Downs, he felt that their 
friend, Mr. Hilton, could say more than he could on that 
subject. One could, at any time, count at least twenty species 
of plants in a square yard. Yet, though dwarfed, like Japanese 
trees, everyone was perfect. On the steep slopes, especially to 
the north, there was wood, less in East than in West Sussex, 
mainly composed of beech, — in places ash. Among these 
beechen groves, which at this time of the year afforded the most 
splendid greenery of which the country could boast, occurred 
some of our rarest orchids. In June the hills were yellow with 
furze bloom, and later they were purple with thyme. Near 
Seaford could be found Seseli lidanotis, in a small colony which 
must have entered England by a spur of Downs which formerly 
joined France. He had not time to say more on natural history. 
During the Napoleonic wars a great portion of the Downs was 
converted into arable land, but latterly a good deal had been 
allowed to go back, owing, he supposed, to the decreased price 
of wheat. But one still saw the staple industry of the Downs, 
the Southdown sheep, unequalled in the world, with sometimes 
the old-time sheep dog, and the old-time shepherd, who, if he 
had time to spare, — and usually he had plenty, — could tell many 
a yarn while his dog was investigating one's legs, and the "golfus 
vulgaris" was crying "fore." Among the disappearing features 
of the Downs were those famous landmarks the windmills, and 
another feature — not quite gone, but going slowly — the employ- 
ment of oxen for ploughing and carting. There was much more 
he could say if time permitted. He had attempted to be 
suggestive, not instructive. He could not instruct in all these 
matters, but he wanted to lead others to investigate them, and 
think them out for themselves. It not only added to the 
pleasure of a walk but added scientific knowledge, and, in spite 
of motors, there was no better way of studying Narure than 
walking. In conclusion, he trusted they would still be able to 
sing, " Oh who will o'er the Downs so free," in spite of bridle 
paths and barbed wire. He hoped he had not wearied them, 
but these studies had been the pleasure of his life. Also he felt 
with Rudyard Kipling : 

" Each to his choice, and I rejoice 
The lot has fallen lo me 
In a fair ground — in a fair ground — 
Yea, Sussex by the sea ! " 



42 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 14TH, 1905. 



QFiFiMaf (Semeretf IfleetiFiq. 



Report of the Council 
for the year ending june 14th, 1905. 



In entering on the 51st year of its existence, some change 
in the conduct of the Society's affairs had to be made. On the 
resignation of Mr. E. AUoway Pankhurst, who, besides having 
been President for the two previous years, had for many years 
discharged, in a most efificient manner, the duties of Scientific 
Secretary, the Society decided upon the appointment of a 
Sub - Committee, consisting of the President and Secretary 
(ex-qffja'o), Mr. Caush (past President), Dr. Harrison, and Mr. 
Hora, to carry on the detail work in connection with lectures, &c. 

Changes in the Membership of the Society have been 
numerous. We have to mourn the loss, by death, of four 
Members, all of whom were exceedingly well known to the older 
residents of Brighton and neighbourhood, viz. : Mr. Henry 
Willett, an original founder of the Society, who interested himself 
not only in this, but in all other Literary, Artistic, and Philan- 
thropic Societies of the town ; Dr. Badcock, a much respected 
medical practitioner ; Mr. Henry Mathews, a distinguished 
classical and Oriental scholar, and for sixteen years Chairman 
of the Brighton Library ; and Mr. W. Mitchell, a very old 
Member and regular attendant at the Society's lectures, who, at 
the time of his death, held the post of Honorary Librarian. 
Seven other Members have resigned, whilst ten new Members 
have been elected. 

During the winter months the President inaugurated a 
series of afternoon and evening visits to factories, Municipal 
works, and other places of local interest. These visits became 
exceedingly popular and were largely attended, and the Society is 
greatly indebted to its President, at whose initiative and by 
whose tireless energy almost the entire work in connection with 
them has been carried out. 



43 

All Members are cordially invited to co-operate in the 
work of the Society, and to extend its sphere of usefulness : 
(i) By regular attendance at its meetings; (2) By persuading 
any local friends interested in Natural History, Physical Science, 
&c., to become Members ; (3) By enlisting the services of 
experienced lecturers and science enthusiasts for papers and 
practical work. 

The following is a list of papers contributed at the Society's 
meetings during the Session : — 

20th Oct., 1904. "The Functions of Music" — 

The President, Mr. Henry Davey. 

17th Nov., 1904. " Haifa Day on the Seashore" 
(with lantern shdes) — 

Mr. Ed. Connold, F.E.S. 

15th Dec, 1904. "Evening with the Microscope" — 
Under the direction of 

Mr. D. Caush, L.D.S. 

13th Jan., 1905. "Social Evolution and Public Health" — 

Dr. A. Newsholme, F.R.CP. 

17th Feb., 1905. " A Peep at Prehistoric Man " 
(with lantern slides) — 

Mr. C. RoBBiNS, L.D.'S. 

17th Feb., 1905. "Weather during January, 1905 " — 

Dr. W. J. Treutler, M.D., F.L.S. 

25th Feb., 1905. " The ' Booth' and ' Monk ' Bird Collec- 
tions " (at the Booth Museum) — 

Mr. Arthur Griffith, M.A. 

1 6th Mar., 1905. " The Evolution of Artillery " — 

Colonel E. Kensington, (late) R.A. 

24th Mar., 1905. "A Tour in Spain" (with lantern slides) — 

Mr. E. Payne, M.A. 

28th April, 1905. " The History of the Skull " 
(with lantern slides) — 

Mr. J. Thornton Carter, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

i8th May, 1905. " History of the Southdowns " 
(with lantern slides) — 

Mr. J. H. A. Jenner, F.E.S. 



44 

The following is a list of Excursions and Visits to Works 
since the last Annual Meeting : — 

22nd June, 1904. St. Leonard's Forest. 

6th July, 1904. Chanctonbury Ring. 

17th Sept., 1904. "Long Man," Wilmington, and Alfriston. 

tst Oct., 1904. Gas Works and Electric Light Works, Port- 
slade. 

9th Nov., 1904. Hove Gasometer. 

10th Dec, 1904. Abattoir and Dust Destructor. 

27th Jan., 1905. Corporation Electricity Works. 

25th Feb., T905. Booth Museum. 

25th Mar., 1905. Borough Sanatorium. 

8th April, 1905. The Dyke and Bramber. 

29th April, 1905. Ditchling Beacon. 

13th May, 1905. Hassocks. 

27th May, 1905. Tilgate Forest. 

It is gratifying to state that the average attendance at the 
lectures has been considerably increased during the Session. 



LIBRARIAN'S REPORT, JUNE 14th, 1905. 



With the valuable help of the late Mr. H. J. Mathews, 
M.A., a new Catalogue has been prepared, and may be seen in a 
special drawer in the Reference Library. 

The purchase of the " Challenger " Reports has been 
resumed, and will be continued until completed. 

The alteration in the new Municipal building has enabled 
the Society's Library to be fully visible to the public, and it is 
now largely used for reference purposes. 

I regret to mention that not very many of these valuable 
Books and Periodicals have been lent out to the Members of the 
Society this last year. 

The Bookcases have been re-fitted with New Locks. 

ROBERT MORSE, 

Hon. Librarian. 



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47 



HERBARIUM, 1904. 



The following plants were added to the Herbarium this year, 
with others : — 

Stachys ambigua. Henfield. 

Sagina reuteri. Portslade. 

Quercus intermedia. Plumpton. 

Myosotis sylvatica. Frant. 

Festuca myuros. Barnham, 

Hieracium murorum, var. pellucidum. Withdean. 

Hieracium sciaphilum. Chalk-mounds, Pangdean. 

Bromus interruptus ( Druce). Rottingdean. 

The first report of it in Sussex. 

Bromus brachystachys. Rottingdean. 

The first report in Sussex. 

Eruca sativa. Racehill, Brighton. 

Vicia villosa. Henfield. 

Potentilla Norvegica. Hove. 

Salsola kali, var. tenuifolia. Kingston-by-Sea. 

I think native there, if so, a new plant in the British Flora. 

A Silene found wild on the Downs in several places not far 
from Brighton and in some other place in England, has, after much 
dispute among botanists, been determined by Mr. C. E. Salmon, 
F.L.S., to be Silene dubia, Nerbich — -S. Nutans, var. dubia. 
It is therefore new not only to Sussex, but to Britain. 
A specimen was added to the Society's collection some years 
since. 

T. HILTON, 

Curator. 



4? 



RESOLUTIONS, &c., PASSED AT THE 
51st ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



After the Reports and Treasurer's Account had been read, 
it was resolved — 

"That the Report of the Council, the Treasurer's statement 
(subject to its being audited and found correct), and the 
Report as to the Library, and the Curator's Report, be 
received, adopted, and printed for circulation, as usual." 

The Secretary reported that in pursuance of Rule 25 the 
Council had selected the following gentlemen to he Vice- 
Presidents of the Society for the ensuing year — 

"J. E. Haselwood, E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P, F. Merrifield, 
F.E.S., D. E. Causl), L.D.S., A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts, W. Clarkson Wallis, and E. 
Alloway Pankhurst." 

And that in pursuance of Rule 42 the Council had appointed 
the following gentlemen to be Honorary Auditors — 

"Mr. J. W. Nias and Mr. A. F. Graves." 

It was proposed by Mr. Slingsby Roberts, seconded by 
Mr. Clarkson Wallis, and resolved — 

"That the following gentlemen be Ofificers of the Society for 
the ensuing year : — President, Henry Davey ; Ordinary 
Members of Council : J. H. A. Jenner, S. R. Penney, 
J. Sussex Hall, F. R. Richardson, E. Payne, M.A., and 
Alfred W. Oke, B A., LL.M. ; Hotwrary Treasurer : 
E. A. T. Breed ; Honorary Librariati : Robert Morse ; 
Honotary Curators : H. S. Toms and T. Hilton ; Honorary 
Scientific Secretaries : D. E. Caush, L.D.S., W. Hanison, 
D.M.D., and F. R. Hora, B.Sc, B.A. ; Honorary 
Secretary : J. Colbatch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place ; 
Assistant Honorary Secretary : H. Cane." 

It was proposed by Mr. D. E. Caush, seconded by Mr. 
Colbatch Clark, and resolved — 

" That the best thanks of the Society be given to Mr. Henry 
Davey for his attention to the interests of the Society as 
President during the past year." 



49 

It was proposed by Mr H. W. Charrington, seconded by 
Mr. I. Wells, and resolved — 

"That the sincere thanks of the Society be given to the Vice- 
Presidents, the Council, the Honorary Librarian, the 
Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary Curators, the Honorary 
Auditors, and the Honorary Secretaries for their services 
during the past year." 

It was proposed by Dr. W. Harrison, seconded by Mr. 
T. Hilton, and carried — 

"That the following New Rule be substituted for Rule 12 of 
the Society, viz. :— ' 12. Every Gentleman elected an 
Ordinary Member shall pay an Entrance Fee of los , 
and both Ladies and Gentlemen elected as Ordinary 
Members shall each pay an Annual Subscription of los. 
Except that a Member Elected between the ist February 
and the ist />pril in any year ^ shall pay a subscription of 
jj. only for that year. Such subscription shall he. payable 
in advance, and the first payment shall date from the 
1st of October preceding the Election, except the Election 
take place from the ist of April to the 30th September, both 
inclusive, when it shall date as on ist of the October 
following. 

' The words in italics constitute the alteration from the then 
existing Rule.' " 



SOCIETIES ASSOCIATED, 

WITH WHICH THE SOCIETY EXCHANGES PUBLICATIONS, 

And whose Presidents and Secretaries are ex-officio Members 
of the Society. 

British Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, Cambridge Hall, Barrow-in- 
Furness. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, c/o G. Donaldson, 8, Mileriver 
Street, Belfast. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, The Museum, 
College Square, N. Belfast. 

Boston Society of Natural Science (Mass, U.S.A.). 

British Museum, General Library, Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 

British and American Archaeological Society, Rome. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society, Frederick Street, Cardiff. 

City of London Natural History Society. 

Chester Society of Natural Science. 



50 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club, Public Hall, 

Croydon. 
City of London College of Science Society, White Street, 

Moorfields, E.C., and "Hatfield," Tenham Avenue, 

Streatham Hill, S.W. 
Department of the Interior, Washington, U.S.A. 
Edinburgh Geological Society, India Buildings, George IV. 

Bridge. 
Eastbourne Natural History Society. 
Epping Forest and County of Esse.x Naturalist Field Club, West 

Ham Institute. 

Folkestone Natural History Society 

Geologists' Association. 

Geological Society of Mexico. 

Glasgow Natural History Society and Society of Field Naturalists. 

Hampshire Field Club. 

Huddersfield Naturalist Society. 

London County Council, Horniman Museum. 

Leeds Naturalist Club. 

Lloyd Library, 224, West Court Street, Cincinnatti, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 

Mexican Geological Institute, 5A, Del Cipres, No. 2,728 Mexico. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, Stone, Staffs. (Wells 

Bladen, Secretary). 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, University College, Nottingham. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., U.S.A. 
Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 
Royal Microscopical Society, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 
Royal Meteorological Society, Prince's Mansions, 73, Victoria 

Street, S.W. 
Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 

South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Southport Society of Natural Science, Rockley House, Southport. 

Societe Beige de Microscopic, Bruxelles. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

Watford Natural History Society. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 



51 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

ISrigljton anil ^obt jSatural Biatorg anh 



JV. B. — Metnbers are particularly requested to notify any Change of 
Address at once to Mr. J. C. Clark, p, Marlborough 
Place, Brighton. When not otherwise stated in the 
jollowing List the Address is in Brighton. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Abbey, Henry, Fair Lee Villa, Kemp Town. 
AsHTON, C. S., lo, Powis Grove. 
Attree, G. F., 8, Hanover Crescent. 

Billing, T., 6, St. Michael's Place. 

Booth, E., 53, Old Steine. 

Breed, E. A. '1'., 13, Buckingham Place. 

Bull, W., 75, St. Aubyn's, Hove. 

Burrows, W. S., B.A., M.R.C.S., 62, Old Steine. 

BURCHELL, E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 5, Waterloo Place. 

Bevis, F. J., 28, Florence Road. 

Cane, H., 173, Ditchling Road. 
Catt, Reginald J., 22, Wolstonbury Road, Hove. 
Caush, U. E., L.D S., 63, Grand Parade. 
Charrington, H. W., 23, Park Crescent. 
Clark. J. Colbatch, J. P., 9, Marlborough Place. 
Colman, Alderman J., J. P., Wick Hall, Furze Hill. 
Clifton, Harvey, 19, Buckingham Place. 



5« 

Davey, Henry, 15, Victoria Road. 

Denman, S., 26, Queen's Road. 

DODD, A. H., M.R.C S., L.RC P . 49, Church Road, Hove 

Draper, C. H., D.Sc, B A., Municipal School of Technology. 

EWART, Sir J, M.I)., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., F Z.S., Bewcaslle, 

Uyke Road. 
Elliott, J H., L D.S., 45, Stanford Road. 

Fletcher W. H. B., J. P., Bersted Lodge, Bognor. 
Fawsitt, Chater H. G., 14, Vernon Terrace- 

GiLKES, J. H., Wychcote, Dyke Road Avenue. 
Graves, A. F., 9A, North Street Quadrant. 
Griffith, A. F., MA., 59, Montpelier Road. 
Grove, E., Norlington, Harrington Road. 
Grinste.\d, J., 13, Powis Square. 

Hall, J. Sussex, 69, Ship Street. 

Hack, D., Fircroft, Withdean. 

Harrison, W., D.M.D., L.D.S., 6, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Haselwood, J. E., 3, Richmond Terrace. 

H.aynes, J. L., 24, Park Crescent. 

Henriques, a. G., F.G.S., J. P., 9, Adelaide Crescent, Hove 

HiCKLEV, G., 92, Springfield Road. 

Hilton, T, 16, Kensington Place. 

HOBBS, J., 62, North Street. 

HOBHOUSE, E., M.D., F.R.C.P., 12, Second Avenue, Hove. 

HowLETT, J. W., J.P., 4, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Hora, F. R., B.Sc, BA., A.RC.Sc, 32, Norton Road, Hove. 

Harrison, F., M.A., 30, Compton Avenue. 

Infield, H. J , Sylvan Lodge, Upper Lewes Road. 

J.\C0MB, Wykeham, 72, Dyke Road. 
Jenner, J. H. A., 209, School Hill, Lewes. 
Jennings, A. O., LL.B., 11, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 
Johnston, J., 12, Bond Street. 

Knight, J. J., 33, Duke Street. 

Langton, H., M.R.C S., II, Marlborough Place. 
L.AW, J., Crosthwaite, Lewes. 
Lewis, J-, C E., F.S.A., Fairholme, Maresfield. 
LOADEK, Kenneth, 5, Richmond Terrace. 
Lonsdale, L., 13, Powis Square. 

McKellar, E., Deputy-Surgeon- General, M.D., J. P., VVoodleigh, 

Preston. 
Maguire, E. C, M.D., 9, Old Steine. 
May, F. J. C, 25, Compton Avenue. 
Merrifield, F., 24, Vernon Terrace. 
Mills, J., 24, North Road. 
Morgan, G., L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., 6, Pavilion Parade. 



53 

Mansfield, H., ii, Grand Avenue, Hove. 
MiNTO, J., M.A., Public Library. 
Morse, Robert, 26, Stanford Avenue. 
Maurice, H., L.D.S., 65, St. John's Terrace. 

New.march, Major-General, 6, Norfolk Terrace. 

Newsholme, a., M D., F.R.CP., ii, Gloucester Place. 

NiAS, J. W., 81, Freshfield Road. 

Nicholson, W. E., F.E.S., Lewes. 

Norman, S. H , Burgess Hill 

NORRIS, E. L., L.D.S , 8, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Oke, Alfred W., B.A.., LL.M., F.G.S., F.L.S,, F.Z.S., 32, 
Denmark Villas, Hove. 

Pankhurst, E. a., 3, Clifton Road, . ^ , , 

Payne, W. H., Playden House, Harrmgton Road. 

Payne, E , MA., 6, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Penney, S. R., Larkbarrow, Dyke Road Drive. 

Petitfourt, E. J., B.A, F.C.P., 16, Chesham Street. 

PUGH, Rev. C, M.A., 13, Eaton Place. 

PUTTICK, W., Tipnoake, Albourne, Hassocks. 

POPLEY, W. H., 13. Pavilion Buildmgs 

Powell W. A., M.R.C S., L.R.C.P., 5, Grand Parade. 

Read, S., L.D.S, 12, Old S'eine- 

Richardson, F. R , 4, Adelaide Crescent. 

Roberts, J. P. Slingsby, 3, Powis Villas. 

Robinson, E., Saddlescombe. 

Rose, T., Clarence Hotel, North Street. 

Ross, D. M., M.B., M.R.C S., 9, Pavihon Parade. 

Read, T., B.A., B.Sc, Brighton Grammar School. 

ROOTH, Dr., 31, Montpelier descent. 

ROBERSON, A , Sackville Road, Hove. 

Salmon, E. F., 30, Western Road, Hove. 
Savage, W. W , 109, St. James's Street. 
Sloman, F., M R.C.S., 18, Montpelier Road. 
Scott, E. Irwin, M.D., 69, Church Road, Hove. 
Smith, C , 47, Old Steine. 
Smith, T., i, Powis Villas. 
Smith, W., 6, Powis Grove. 
Smith, W. J., J P., 42 and 43, North Street. 
Smith, W. H., 191, Eastern Road. 

Stoner, Harold, L.D.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 18, Regency Square. 
Smithers, E. a.. Furze HiU. iriue 

Spitta, E, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.R.A.Sc, 41, Ventnor Villas, 
Hove. 

Talbot, Hugo, 79, Montpelier Road. 

Toms, H. S , The Museum. 

TUOHY, J F., M.D., I, Hova Terrace, Hove. 

Tyssen, Rev. R. D., M.A., 19, Brunswick Place, Hove, 



• 54 

Wallis, W. Clarkson, 15, Market Street. 

Walter, J., 13A, Dyke Road. 

Wells, I., 4, North Street. 

Whytock, E , 36, Western Road. 

WiGHTMAN, G. J., Ailsa Crag, The Wallands, Lewes. 

Wilkinson, T., 170, North Street. 

Williams, A. S., 17, Middle Street. 

Williams, H. M., LL.B., 17, Middle Street. 

Wood, J., L.D S., 28, Old Steine. 

Wood, Walter R., L.R.C.P, M.R.C.S., L.D.S., 28, Old Steine. 

Woodruff, (".. B., J. P., 24, Second Avenue, Hove. 

Welsford, H. M., 68, Dyke Road. 

Williams, A. W., M.D., Belvedere Terrace. 



LADY MEMBERS. 



Baglev, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 
Bladon, Miss, 23, Sudeley Place. 

Caush, Mrs., 63, Grand Parade. 
Crafer, M. H., Mrs., 102, Beaconsfield Villas. 
Crane, A., Miss, 11, Wellington Road. 
Collett, C. H., Miss, 8, Marlborough Place. 
Corfe, a.. Miss, 7, Norfolk Terrace. 

Hare, Miss, 19, Goldsinid Road. 
Herring, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 
Hernaman, I., Miss, 117, Ditchling Road. 
Hernaman, v., Miss, 117, Ditchling Road. 
Harrison, Mrs., 10, Windlesham Road. 

Langton, Miss, 38, Stanford Road. 

Nicholson, Mrs., 9, Park Crescent. 

RUGE, Miss, 7, Park Crescent. 

Stoner, H., Mrs., 18, Regency Square. 

Thomas, M., Miss, 193, Queen's Park Road. 

VOBES, Miss, B.A., B.Sc, " Glenalna," Rugby Road. 

Wilkinson, Mrs., 36, Dyke Road. 
Wood, J., Mrs., 28, Old Steine. 
Watkins, Miss, Walcot, Walpole Road. 



55 



HONORARY ME/VIBERS. 

Arnold, Rev. F. H., The Hermitage, Emsworth. 

BloomfiI'XI), Rev. E. N., (juestling Rectory, Hastings. 

CURTEIS, T., 244, High Holborn, London. 

Dawson, C, F.G.S., Uckfield. 

Fark, E. H., Uckfield. 

HoLLis, W. AiNSLiE, Palmeira Avenue, Hove. 

LOMAX, Benjamin, The Museum, Brighton. 

Mitten, W., Hurstpierpoint. 

NOURSE, VV. E. C, Norfolk Lodge, Thurlow Road, Torquay. 

Phillips, Barclay, 7, Harpur Place, Bedford. 



ASSOCIATE. 

Harrison, W. Parker, 10, Windlesham Road. 




PRE3EHTED 
^1 F£B.i9G6 




* 

* 
* 

I 

* 



26 JUL 1907 

BRIGHTON and HOVE 

statural listarg ani f biloMpIjical 



-M-^ 



Qbgti'Qsts ©f Paper; 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 



i^m ^w^^^ ^i^f>oi^¥ 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 13th, 1906. 



■^H-^ 




' Brighton Hekald " Printing Works, Prince's Place. 



I*|l 
'*^ 



i »»»»»***»*»»**»*»»***»»************** 



BRIGHTON and HOVE 

Natural listorg antr f I}iIos0pbual 



--^^ 



dbsfpcaets ©f Papers 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 



¥Si^ ^j^j^U^l^ f(^f>0^¥ 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 13th, 1906. 




grtgljton : 

"Brightox Heuald" Printing Works, Prince's Place. 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Officers OF THE Society ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Sponges — Mr. E. T. Connold, F.E.S 5 

Philosophy of Dress — Dr. A. Williams, M.D 5 

Photo-Micrography — Dr. E. Spitta, M.D., F.R.M. Soc. 12 

Crabs and Lobsters — Rev. Theodore Wood, M.A., 

F.E.S 13 

Pigeons — Mr. Foxall 14 

Florence — Mr. Payne 15 

Sleep— Dr. A. Griffith, M.A., M.D., D.R.H 15 

Report OF Council 18 

Librarian's Report... 19 

Meteorology OF Brighton 20 

Treasurer's Account 21 

Annual General Meeting 22 

Societies Associated 23 

List of Members 25 



Officers of the Society, 1906-7. 

M-> 

Walter Harrison, D.M.D. 
Past-^rcsiiicnta : 



F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
J. E. Haselwood 
W.Seymour Burrows, M.R.C.S. 
D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
A. Newsholme, M.D., F.R.C.P., 
M.O.H. 



E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 
E. Allo\vay Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 



THE COUNCIL. 

©be ^rcsiiient. 



D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
J. E. Haselwood. 
F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 
M.O.H. 



^ice-presiiiEnts : 

(Rule 25.) 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 
E. A. Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



F. HORA, B.Sc. 

E. Spitta, F.R.A.Sc M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P. 

G. Morgan, L.R.C.P, M.R.C.S. 

l^ottorary ®rcaaurtr : 
D. E. C.\USH, L.D.S. 



E. Payne, M.A. 

Alfred W. Oke, B.A., LL.M., 
F.G.S. 

F. R. Richardson. 

■^onorary ^Eibrarian: 
RoBT. Morse. 



■^onofavji ^u&itor : 
A. F. Graves. 

Honorary Curators : 
H. S. Toms. T. Hilton. 

■Honorary ^r'tcntittc Secretary : 
F. Harrison, M.A. 

Honorary Secretary : 
JNO. Colbatch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place. 

Assistant Honorary Secretary : 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 



Session 1905-6. 

M--» 

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 26th, 1905. 



sponges. 

BY 

Mr. E. CONNOLD. 



AT the opening meeting, the difficult subject of " Sponges " 
was discussed in a masterly way by Mr. E. Connold, of 
Hastings. The question as to whether the flint nodules so 
commonly met with in chalk strata are or are not due to deposits 
of silicious sponges was among the points dealt with. The 
exceptionally fine collection of sponges in the Brighton .Museum 
makes the subject specially interesting to local scientists, as the 
J'resident remarked when introducing Mr. Connold. 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER i6th, 1905. 



f Ijtl0ja0plj5 ^f 5itess. 



BY 



Dr. a. WILLIAMS, M.D. 



" rrHE Philosophy of Dress " was the somewhat novel subject 

L discoursed upon by Dr. A. Williams, M.D. The lecturer 

opened with a brief physiological explanation of the heat regula- 



tion of the living body and of the evolution of dress. Then, 
illustrating his remarks by drawings on the blackboard and 
enlivening them with numerous anecdotes, Dr. Williams said: — 

Clothing serves man as a means of protection, and for aesthetic 
purposes. 

The following properties should be studied in clothing 
materials, from a health standpoint : — 

(i) Conduction of heat. 

(2) Power of stimulating or irritating skin. 

(3) Power of absorbing moisture, and porosity to air. 

(4) Power of absorbing light and heat rays. 

Heat Conduction. — Some substances, when brought in contact 
with a heated body, rapidly remove its heat and conduct it 
along their substance. They are called good conductors. 
Excepting under conditions of great external heat, good con- 
ductors when touched by our bodies feel cold : they remove 
body heat. Linen is a better conductor than wool ; and if on 
a cold winter's night one turns in between linen sheets the bed 
feels far colder than it would if the sheets were taken away and 
wool blankets brought in contact with the skin. Bad conductors 
of heat are therefore warm clothing materials. 

Gases are bad heat conductors ; yet, if the body were exposed 
unclothed to the atmosphere it would be rapidly chilled. This 
is the result of convection currents. The air in immediate con- 
tact 'with the body is warmed ; it expands and rises, and cold 
currents of air flow down and take its place. This process con- 
tinues, and large amounts of heat removed. If convection 
currents are stopped, air may be made a valuable clothing 
material. Thus the layers of air between bedclothes form a 
warm clothing : the bedclothes prevent convection currents. 
Two thin garments are warmer than a single thick one : there 
is a layer of imprisoned air between them. Loosely-woven 
fabrics are warmer than closely-woven ones : air fills the space 
between the fibres, and friction plus attraction stops the convec- 
tion currents. 

The power of heat conduction of a clothing material depends 
upon (i) the substance of which it is composed, and (2) the 
way it is woven ; loosely-woven materials being worse conductors 
of heat. 

Order of Heat-conducting Power of Different Fibres. 

Linen = Best conductor = Cold clothing. 

Cotton = Good conductor = Cool clothing. 

Silk = Fairly bad conductor = Warm clothing. 

Wool =; Worst conductor == Very warm clothing. 



Furs, and skins generally, feathers and down, are also bad 
conductors. 

Skin Stimulation. — The property is usually objectionable in 
underclothing. The degree of trouble depends upon the 
sensitiveness of the individual, and upon the clothing material. 
The same material may in one individual cause a pleasant 
stimulation, and in another maddening irritation. The sense 
of warmth produced by skin stimulation is deceptive. It is 
due to dilation of surface vessels. 

Wool is very stimulating, especially coarse wools ; silk is 
much less so, but much depends on its preparation. Cotton is 
very slightly stimulating, and flax even less so. Fabrics made 
with very loose projecting fibres are less stimulating than 
those with fluffy surfaces. Some poisonous dyes injuriously 
irritate skin. 

Water Absorption. — It is important that underclothing should 
readily absorb moisture, and pass it through its substance. In 
this way secretions of skin are not interfered with ; evaporation 
takes place from surface of clothing instead of skin, and too 
rapid chilling is prevented. Overclothing for protection is 
better for having less power of absorption. Rain, etc., does not 
soak and make the clothing wet and heavy ; and, moreover, air 
driven by wind will not so easily penetrate, and so such 
garments better protect body from external cold. Power of 
absorbing water is greater is loosely-woven fabrics. 

Diff"erent fibres vary in their individual power. 

Wool readily absorbs moisture. 

Silk is less freely absorbent. 

Linen absorbs moisture with difficulty. 

Cotton fibres absorb badly, and are easily wetted. 

Absorption of light and heat rays. — Dark-coloured materials 
absorb heat and light, and turn light rays into heat easily. So 
dark overclothing is hot in summer time. 

Dark clothing absorbs and retains smells more than light- 
coloured clothing. 

Clothing and garments should be arranged so as to avoid the 
following defects : — 

(i) Interference with free passing away of skin secretions. 

(2) Injurious action by friction or pressure. 

(3) Interference with natural movements of body. 

(4) Upset of heat-regulating power by excessive clothing. 

(5) Irregular clothing. 

These defects can be well appreciated by studying some 
common forms of clothing. 



8 

Underclothing. — Flannel forms the best material for under- 
clothing. In some cases flannel irritates the skin, and cannot 
be worn without great discomfort ; merino may be tolerated in 
such cases. If merino also is too irritating, then, as pure silk is 
too expensive a material for the majority of us to wear, we must 
choose between flax and cotton. Both cotton and flax, in the 
form of closely-woven materials, as calico and linen, are cold 
things to wear, and they do not allow the sweat to pass readily 
away through them, and so are unsuitable for underclothing. A 
very good material for this purpose can, however, be made from 
cotton. This is done by weaving the cotton in a loose cellular 
manner, so as to leave air spaces between the fibres, a good cheap 
example of such material is sold under the name of oatmeal cloth 
or canvas cloth. This conducts heat slowly from the skin, and 
absorbs moisture fairly well and does not irritate the skin. 

At night underclothing of healthy people should be made of 
smooth calico or linen. Woollen underclothing is in some cases 
a cause of restless nights. At night a healthy person does not, 
or ought not to sweat much. Night sweating indicates loo much 
clothing or disease. 

Patients troubled with chest complaints or rheumatism may 
require to wear flannel or oatmeal cloth night-dresses, especially 
if they sweat much at night. 

Overcoats and outside clothing for cold windy weather 
should be made of material through which the wind does not 
easily blow. Woollen goods, as a rule, are easily blown 
through; cotton is less porous to the wind. Wool cloth 
overcoat, lined with smooth stout cotton, is often worn, but as 
a warm covering against cold winds it should be worn with the 
cotton outside. Mackintosh is impervious to the wind, but is 
bad to wear when we are walking or doing much exercise, as it 
keeps the sweat moisture from passing out. For driving in 
cold winds mackintosh forms one of the best overclothing. 

It is a mistake to wear too much clothing. The over- 
loading, over-coddling of the body with a lot of clothing 
destroys the natural powers i)ossessed by the body of resisting 
cold, and the least exposure is followed by ill-results. Some 
parts of the body that are liable to be exposed to accidental 
chill and cold — for example, the feet — should be trained by a 
judicious hardening process to withstand such exposure. Many 
people, even with good sound organs of circulation, suffer from 
cold feet, and even slight exposure with wet feet results in a 
bad cold. The feet habitually swaddled up in wool and 
leather get tender, the natural protection against cold (partly a 
muscular mechanism) wastes away from disuse, and becomes 
useless in times of exposure. Healthy people need not catch 
cold from wet feet any more than from wet hands. The train- 



ing must be like all training, gradual and regular. The author 
has succeeded in curing himself and several other patients suffer- 
ing from cold feet by the following method : — Begin treatment 
in summer time. Summon up sufficient courage to overcome 
domestic opposition (especially necessary for married men), 
and habitually forget to put on shoes and socks until after break- 
fast. After a while extend the training to a good tramp on dry 
turf ; later on walk barefooted on the dewy grass in early 
morning. Continue this regularly, and when the winter comes 
complete the training by walking for a short .spell barefooted on 
the hoar frost or snow-covered grass. Then cold feet during 
railway journeys, chilblained feet, and coughs and colds from 
wet feet will be things of the past, providing that the training 
be kept up at intervals, and that tight foot clothing be always 
avoided. Of course, such a course of training is only suitable 
for those under middle age. 

Head CMhing. — Avoid heavy head-dress. If a hat with rigid 
brim is worn it ought to be made to measure. Hats should be 
ventilated— />. with proper inlet and outlets. The head should 
be kept uncovered as much as possible. 

Neck Clothing.— The neck should be either always exposed 
without any clothing, or else always wrapped up. The habit of 
occasionally wearing mufflers, etc., at one time and then going 
without at another, or of generally wearing a high-necked dress 
and then occasionally a low-necked one, often cause throat and 
chest troubles. Mufflers, boas, etc., if never worn, are never 
required. When clothing is worn round the neck it must always 
be loose. Tight neck clothing is especially dangerous for stout 
people after middle life : it may favour apoplectic fits. Tight 
night-dresses are especially dangerous. 

The clothing of the chest ought to be loose, especially during 
exercise, when amount of respiration is greater. 

Corsets and Stays. — Young girls should never wear stays, they 
are only injurious, and lead to a non-development of the natural 
support of the body, and render the wearing of artificial supports 
in after-life necessary. Old stout people sometimes require stays, 
and these should be of some firm material, such as stout jean 
without bones. All pressure round the waist is injurious to 
health. 

Garters tightly constricting the thigh above, or the leg below 
the knee, must not be worn. Anyone who suffers or has any 
relations suffering in any way with enlarged or varicose veins, must 
be most careful to avoid garters. Suspenders arc better than garters, 
but these may, with advantage, be done away with if our legs are 
well developed by exercise, so that the calf will keep the stocking 
in its place. 

Trousers are, as a rule, better than knickerbockers, as with 



garters anyone with a tendency in the family to the formation 
of varicose (swollen and knotted) veins, had better avoid 
altogether the wearing of knickerbockers. In such cases cyclists 
had better wear the cld-fashioned peg-top trousers. 

The bad effects of knickers are accentuated by the sitting 
posture with the legs bent at the knees. 

Socks are better than stockings for the above reasons. The 
socks ought not to be worn with pointed toes. The toe should 
be more square-shaped or slightly slanted off towards the outer 
side. 

Boots ought to be made to fit the foot. The measurement 
of the sole should be taken when standing up with the foot firmly 
implanted on the ground. This can be done by making 
a tracing of the outline of the foot on paper. Pointed-toed, 
high-heeled, and tight boots are the principal causes of corns, 
bunions, and disabling deformities of the foot. The sole ought 
to be as flexible as possible, the heel far back, and never more 
than %'\n. high. Lace-up boots are better than elastic sides, 
especially for those who have a family history of varicose veins. 

Beds and Bedding. — Metal bedsteads are better than wood. 
Curtain hangings round the bed are bad. Bedsteads should be 
easily moved, and so ought to have good castors. The entire 
floor of a bedroom should be cleaned thoroughly at least once 
a week ; this cleaning must include the space under the bed ; 
for this and other reasons the bed must not be made, as it often 
is, a cover for the lumber of the household. 

Spring mattresses of twisted uncovered wires, are by far the 
best kind for health. On this spring base a good thin horse- 
hair mattress should be placed, and, if preferred, there is no 
great objection to placing over this a feather bed. Patients 
liable to asthma cannot always stand feather beds and pillows. 
Feathers give out a little fine dust, not enough to do harm to 
healthy tissues, but enough to cause asthma is some susceptible 
persons, and to do harm sometimes to people who, in con- 
sequence of obstruction of the nose, sleep with their mouths 
open. Air pillows or good horsehair stuffed pillows are the best 
substitute for feathers in these cases. 

The covering bedclothes should not be heavier than is 
absolutely necessary for proper warmth. Bedclothes must be 
properly aired. When we get up in the morning the bedclothes 
should be taken off, one by one, and spread out, so that fresh 
air can circulatate through them, and they should be left spread 
out in this way in fine weather, with the window wide open, 
for at least two hours. The idea that airing the beds consists 
in sleeping in them is absurd. Sleeping in the bed merely 
uses up the good air in the bed, and passes into its place damp 
foul gases from the skins of those sleeping in them. Colds and 



it 

various lung, skin, and infectious diseases are frequently spread 
by bedclothes. 

Clothing for Babies. — A little dusting powder is required next 
the skin. A flannel binder round the abdomen should be worn. 
It must never be bound tightly, but ought to be merely wrapped 
gently round the waist. A shirt of fine lawn may be worn and 
then a good flannel gown over all. Should any further clothing 
be required, a good worsted or flannel shawl forms one of the 
best garments. An infant's clothing must not be tight any- 
where. Serious mistakes are continually made by having tight 
sleeves and tight strings round the neck and waist. 

Young children are more liable to damage from deficient 
clothing than adults. There are two great reasons for this, first, 
children have a relatively larger surface to be chilled ; second, 
inefficient clothing necessitates using up of food to produce 
warmth instead of promoting growth and development. The 
full growth and development of body and, to a less degree, of 
mind, are checked by deficient clothing. In after-life this check 
may never be made up. It is equally bad to put excess 
of clothing on a child. In this case development of heat- 
regulating power is weakened and child becomes liable to 
chills, etc. The over-swaddled child cannot take proper 
exercise, and this checks development. Contrary to many 
authorities the author believes in training young children to do 
without stockings and boots or shoes. Short trousers coming 
nearly down to the ankles and sandals are far better clothing for 
young children. 



THURSDAY, DECEMBER 7TH, 1905. 



BY 

Dr. E. SPITTA, M.D., F.R.M.Soc. 
Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 



" rrHE marvels of the infinitely small are as wonderful as the 
X marvels of the infinitely great." The statement was made 
to the members by Dr. E. Spitta when lecturing on the subject of 
" photo-micrography," and he easily proved his point. Dr. Spitta 
is a scientist who has won distinction in regions of which few of 
us are conscious by reason of the fact that we cannot see them. 

Dr. Spitta revels in things which are too small to be seen by 
the naked eye, so small that the point of a needle would make a 
fine platform for the concourse of an army of them, and now, with 
the aid of amazing photographs which he has taken by the process 
of photo-micrography, he was able to lead his audience with him 
to explore the wonders of the infinitely small. 

To magnify a thing by a thousand diameters was nothing to 
Dr. Spitta ; when he had done that he had only got his object 
ready to begin the real work of magnifiying it. He showed a 
photograph of a human hair. The hair was magnified enough to 
look like a ship's cable, and beside it was a minute object, 
shaped like a torpedo, which could just be seen. He magnified 
this further and further till he had it as big as the screen ; 
he magnified it until one could see that it was crossed with 
myriads of lines, perfectly parallel, perfectly regular, — over six 
hundred of them could be counted in a space equal to the thick- 
ness of a fine hair of the head. Even then he was not content, 
and he magnified it still further until these parallel lines were found 
to be composed of dots. In order to see these dots, they had to 
be magnified by 80,000 diameters, — at which rate an inch would 
be magnified into a mile and a quarter ! So minute is the process 
that an error in the focussing of one hundredth-thousandth part 
of an inch would spoil the picture; the vibration caused by a 
person sneezing in the next room would destroy it. 

Among dozens of exceedingly interesting slides that Dr. 
Spitta threw on the screen was a series showing the wonderful 
provision of nature for enabling the human body to recover from 



13 

disease. He actually had photographs of the germs of diphtheria 
being attacked by the wonderful protective germs that swarm in 
the blood The diphtheria germs are paralysed by one strange 
organism which bursts among the armies of disease just like a 
bombshell, and while the germs are thus paralysed the white 
corpuscles surround them, swallow them, and finally eject their 
flinty skeletons. It is a daily battle fought out in an arena which 
a pin's point would destroy. 

After showing pictures of the wonderful provisions on the 
tongues, the antennas, and other parts of insects, the intricate 
arrangements which can only be seen when magnified several 
thousand times, Dr. Spitta was led to exclaim : " How any human 
being can suppose that these wonderful provisions only ' growed,' 
like Topsy, without a divine designer to plan such delicate adjust- 
ment, is more than I can understand." 



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY ist, 1906. 



Crabs atti Hohsttxs. 

BY 

Rev. THEODORE WOOD, M.A., F.E.S., 

Illustrated with Drawings. 



THE subject which Mr Wood chose was "Crabs and Lobsters," 
and it was quite a new and delightful world of information 
that he opened out for those who know but little about these 
creatures of claws and pincers. To the average man, of course, 
crabs and lobsters are merely toothsome items in a menu, but Mr 
Wood made it clear that the study of their physical construction 
and of their habits and ways is fraught with the keenest of interest, 
even to the point of fascination. 

One of the strangest things the members learned was that 
crabs and lobsters do not grow as we do,- bit by bit every day, 
but that they grow by fits and starts. When they do grow, their 
growth is concentrated into a period of about thirty-six hours. 
It is at these periods that the crab sheds his shell. Mr Wood did 
not think that crabs and lobsters have any sense of pain as we 
know it. In illustration of this he told a delightful story about a 
number of various-sized crabs who were put together in a tank. 



14 

When they were first put in they all hid themselves behind the 
rockery. At length one young crab crept cautiously forth to 
explore his new surroundings, and no sooner had he done so than 
a bigger crab pounced upon him, tore him to bits and began to 
devour him. While the second crab was enjoying his cannibalistic 
meal, a larger crab still entered the fray and began to chew crab 
No. 2 with great gusto. And while the third crab was devouring 
the second, the latter went calmly on with his own dinner. 

The audience also learned with a great deal of interest that it 
is quite impossible for lobsters to suffer from dyspepsia, so finely 
do they grind their food. The lobster's mouth is placed in his 
chest, and his food is first ground to pulp by the greater jaws. 
Then the food is taken in hand by the lesser jaws, but as the 
lobster is still not satisfied, he turns the food over to a still 
smaller pair of jaws, known as the "jaw feet." Then the food is 
passed down to the teeth, which are situated in the lobster's 
throat and here it is ground to a finer pulp. But still the lobster 
is not quite happy, for below the teeth is a kind of sieve, and 
through this the creature strains his food as a last process before 
it reaches the organs of digestion. The lobster ought to be a 
highly intellectual animal, for he has no fewer than twenty brains. 

Mr, Wood's quaint sense of humour made his lecture all the 
more entertaining, and it was illustrated by some remarkably clever 
sketches in coloured chalks done by himself in view of the 
audience. 



THURSDAY, MARCH isx, 1906. 



BY 

Mr. FOXALL. 



LUCIDLY dealing with the subject, Mr. Foxall began with an 
historical outline of Pigeon culture, going so far back as the 
time of the Egyptians, 2700 B.C. Shewing pictures of the leading 
varieties, the Lecturer asserted that the present breeds had 
developed from the blue rock. He instanced the use of carrier 
pigeons in war, even in ancient times at the siege of Modena, and 
m 1870 at Paris. In graphic terms he described a year's work in 
an ordinary Pigeon Loft ; indicated how shows should be held 
and judging carried out ; and Closed by justifying the Pigeon 
Breeding hobby as being really a fine art. 



»5 
'I'HURSDAY, MARCH 15TH, 1906. 



BY 

Mr. PAYNE. 



MR. PAYNE was a perfect encyclopaedia of famous Florentine 
names — and among them are some of the greatest geniuses 
in the world's history — and his lucid exposition of the marvels of 
Florentine architecture, sculpture, frescoes, and paintings, illus- 
trated as they were by excellent photographic lantern slides, was 
most instructive. 



THURSDAY, MAY 17TH, 1906. 



>ktp. 



Dr. a. GRIFFITH, M.A., M.D., D.P.H. 



SOME illuminative glimpses into the phenomena of sleep were 
offered by Dr. A. Griffith, M.A. (Medical Officer of Health for 
Hove.) 1 he lecture covered a really remarkable range : it was ful' 
of thought, eminently suggestive, and had been prepared with such 
care and regard for detail that it seemed as if not a single aspect 
of the question had been left untouched. Incidentally the 
paper revealed Dr. Griffith as a diligent student of Shakespeare ; 
and he had evidently found much to inspire him in the late F. W. 
Myers' remarkable book, Persistence of Human Personality after 
Death. Some frequent flashes of dry humour, moreover, helped 
one to assimilate the purely scientific part of the lecture. 

Ordinary sleep, said the Doctor^ depends largely on two 
factors, namely, personal habits and surroundings. There is a 
wonderful difference in persons, both as to the depth of sleep 
and to the amount they need. Some persons could even sleep to 
order, — "their own order, that is," added the Doctor laconically. 
To people who suffer from insomnia this must be a very precious 
faculty. Dr. Griffith counselled, in fact, that the best thing to do 



i6 

is to learn to sleep whenever you wish to. You never know how 
useful it may be. The effect of meals upon sleep, he pointed 
out, is well known. This is aptly seen in animals, who have no 
business to keep them awake. Here the Doctor paused to pro- 
test against the bad habit of taking the heaviest meal of the day 
four hours before sleep, which comes at the time when the body 
is becoming energised by the food. Touching upon the patho- 
logical phenomena of sleep, Dr. Griffith dealt with the causes of 
sleeplessness. The sleep of the labouring man is sound, whether 
he eat much or little : often not all the abundance of the rich 
will suffer them to sleep. A moderate amount of work, bodily 
or mental, will produce good sleep, but excess of either will pre- 
vent it. Too much mental work, for instance, even if it has not 
reached the stage when black coffee or a wet towel round one's 
head is necessary, will cause a restless night. Anxiety, the 
stimulation of the blood caused by pain, and an excess of 
physical work, especially of a bustling nature, will act in the same 
way. The occupation of the mind with one fixed idea is a sure 
preventive of sleep,— a thing strikingly noticeable in the insane. 

Turning to the causes that induce sleep. Dr. Griffith said that 
these affect the circulation of the blood, or they diminish sensation. 
Most prominent are various drugs, such as opium, Indian hemp, 
chloral, bromides, etc., which act partly on the brain and partly 
on the nerves of sensation. After taking Indian hemp a person 
imagined himself propelled through eternity and in his flight he 
saw an elephant magnified to hundreds and thousands of times its 
natural size. Even beer, added the Doctor slyly, had been known 
to produce a very drowsy state in some people. A stuffy 
atmosphere would also induce sleep. The familiar effect of sleep 
in church is less the result of the sermon than the want 
of ventilation. Dr. Griffith thought it would be interest- 
ing to try the effect of more ventilation in some of our 
churches as a means of preventing sleep. There are three main 
ideas, said the Doctor, as to the explanation of the physiological 
condition of sleep. One idea is that sleep is simply an illustration 
of the great natural law of rhythm. All earthly things alternate, 
or are balanced. Thus there are two great forces, — one, gravita- 
tion, drawing the earth to the sun ; the other, centrifugal force, 
keeping it to its orbit. Fits and fidgets have their still moments ; 
whooping-cough has its periods of quiet; and even Conservative 
Governments cease at times. This humorous parallel was much 
relished by the audience, and helped them to appreciate the 
lecturer's point that, in accordance with the natural law of rhythm, 
sleep must come at some time or other. A second theory of the 
causes of sleep is that it depends on changes in the circulation of 
the blood, and the consequent effect on the brain, the actual 
condition during sleep being one of brain bloodlessness. There is 



17 



a great deal of evidence, said the Doctor, in favour of this theory, 
for the disease known as "sleeping sickness" is due to the 
obstruction of the blood-vessels in the brain, caused by the 
presence of a worm. A third theory is that sleep is due to 
simple exhaustion of the nervous system ; and it was to this that 
Dr. Griffith evidently inclined as being the true cause of sleep. 
It was an old saying, he observed, that in order to sleep well both 
brain and body must be tired, and in this he felt there is con- 
siderable truth. The brain is the managing director of the whole 
body. " How is it," he asked, '' that a few minutes' good sleep is 
worth more than hours of rest without sleep ? " This showed that 
it is the brain which wants rest, which can only be obtained by 
sleep, for when awake the brain never rests. 

The lecturer now somewhat startled his hearers by observing 
that there is a part of the brain which never sleeps, although, 
after his explanation, it appeared to be the most natural thing in 
the world. The brain consists of two parts— the superliminal, or 
the higher brain, and the subliminal, or the lower brain. When 
we sleep it is only our higher, conscious self that sleeps ; it is only 
this conscious self that needs rest. It is the subliminal, or lower 
brain that never sleeps. To prove this Dr. Griffith quoted the 
case of our going to bed at night, making up our minds that we 
will rise at five o'clock next morning. We get up at five o'clock, 
but how do we do it ? Have w e thought about it all night ? If so, 
our sleep has not done us much good. The truth is that our 
faithful other self, our subliminal brain that never sleeps, has 
come to our rescue and awakened us. It is this subliminal brain 
that is seen in such an active state in somnambulists. Sleep 
walkers rarely come to any harm, although they may walk in the 
most dangerous places ; their safety lies in the automatism of 
their moments. A particularly interesting part of the lecture 
dealt with dreams and trances, the power to see visions, and the 
faculty of holding spiritual communion with departed friends. 
Here, however, Dr. Griffith was rather stepping beyond the 
bounds of science, and invading the realm of psychical experience. 
It was doubtless new to many to learn that aniuials are dreamers. 
Dogs, storks, canaries, bullfinches, and eagles all dream, said the 
lecturer ; but crocodiles are doubtful, he added, amid the 
laughter of the audience. A great deal in our dreams may have 
some physical reason. Thus when we dream of a mountain on 
our chests, that means, the Doctor humourously observed, that 
we have had lobster for supper! Again, when our feet become 
uncovered and get cold we dream that we are walking on ice ! 
Dr. Griffith closed his lecture with some admirably suggestive 
thoughts with regard to the psychical aspect of the question, and 
commended this branch of the subject to the special considera- 
tion of the Society. 



iS 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13TH, 1906. 



QpiFiMeir ^emereil f|le:etipi< 



Report of the Council 
for the year ending june 13th, 1906. 



In presenting the Report for the 52nd year of the Society's 
existence, the Council have pleasure in recording that the 
attendance has been fairly good at every meeting, and some 
meetings were very well attended. 

There has been a slight decline in Membership, death or 
resignation having removed 15 Members whilst only 10 new 
Members have been elected. 

The Society has incurred a great loss by the death of two of 
its leading and most respected Member?, viz. : Sir Joseph Ewart, 
M.D., Past President, and Mr. E. A. T. Breed, for many years 
its Hon. Treasurer. The Council has filled this last vacancy by 
the appointment of Mr. Douglas Caush, L.D.S. 

Owing to the proposed election of Dr. Walter Harrison, 
L.D.S., as President, and the resignation of Mr. F. R. Hora as 
one of the Society's Hon. Secretaries, the Council have 
proposed the election of Mr. Frederick Harrison, M.A., to the 
post of Scientific Secretary, to fulfil the duties hitherto discharged 
by Messrs. Caush, Harrison, and Hora. 

During the ensuing Session the Council propose to hold 
some meetings at Hove. 

The following is a list of papers contributed at the Society's 
meetings during the Session : — 

26th Oct., 1905. "Sponges." Lecture by Mr. E. Connold. 

i6th Nov., 1905. "The Philosophy of Dress." 

Lecture by Dr. A. Williams. 

7th Dec, 1905. "Photo-Micrography." 

Lecture by Dr. E. Spitia, 



19 

T5th Feb., 1906. " Eclipses of the Sun." 

Lecture by Dr. R. J. Ryle. 

ist Mar., 1906, "Pigeons." Lecture by Mr. G. Foxall. 

15th Mar., 1906. "Florence." Lecture by Mr. E. Payne. 

19th April, 1906. " Some Curiosities of Plant Fertilization." 

Lecture by Mr. H. Edmonds. 

17th May, 1906. "Sleep." Lecture by Dr. Griffiths. 

The following is a list of Excursions and Visits to Works 
since the last Annual Meeting :— 

24th June, 1905. St. Leonard's Forest, Colgate Tower. 

1st July, 1905. Ashdown Forest, Wych Cross to Shefifield 
Park. 

5th July, 1905. Evening Visit : Fry and Co.'s Mineral Water 
Factory. 

8th July, 1905. Cuckmere Valley, Lullington and Alfriston. 
15th July, 1905. Worthing, Sompting and Lancing. 
22nd fuly, 1905. Buxted, Hadlow Down and Cross-in-Hand. 

2nd Sept., 1905. West Tarring: Fig Gardens. 
2ist April, 1906. Falnier, Ditchling Beacon and Hassocks. 
19th May, 1906. Tilgate Forest. 



LIBRARIAN'S REPORT, JUNE 12th, 1906. 



The following Serials have been purchased, bound, and 
added to the Library : — 

Nature Notes. Nature. 

Annals of Botany. Geological Magazine. 

Zoologist. Entomologist. 

Entomologist Monthly Magazine. Journal of Botany. 

I have much pleasure in stating that the number of books 
issued to Members of the Society is this year nearly double that 
issued last year. 

The Society's Library has been largely used for reference 
purposes by the general pubHc. 

ROBERT MORSE, 

Hon. Librarian. 





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RESOLUTIONS, &c., PASSED AT THE 
52nd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



After the Reports and Treasurer's Account had been read, 
it was resolved — 

"That the Report of the Council, the Treasurer's statement 
(subject to its being audited and found correct), and the 
Report as to the Library, and the Curator's Report, be 
received, adopted, and printed for circulation, as usual." 

The Secretary reported that in pursuance of Rule 25 the 
Council had selected the following gentlemen to be Vice- 
Presidents of the Society for the ensuing year — 

"J. E. Haselwood, E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P., F. Merrifield, 
F.K.S., D. E. Caush, L.D.S., A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts, W. Clarkson VVallis, E. Alloway 
Pankhurst, and Henry Davey." 

And that in pursuance of Rule 42 the Council had appointed 
the following gentlemen to be Honorary Auditors — 

" Mr. J. W. Nias and Mr. A. F. Graves." 

It was proposed by Mr. H. Cane, seconded by Mr. F. R. 
Richardson, and resolved— 

" That the following gentlemen be Officers of the Society for 
the ensuing year : — President : Walter Harrison, D.M.D. ; 
Ordinary Members of Council: F. R. Hora, B.Sc , E. 
Spitta, F.R.A.Sc, C Morgan, L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., F. R. 
Richardson, E. Payne, M.A., and Alfred W. Oke, B.A., 
LL.M. ; Honorary Treasurer : D. E. Caush ; Hono7-ary 
Librarian : Robert Morse ; Honorary Curators : H. S. 
Toms and T. Hilton ; Honorary Scientific Secretary: 
F. Harrison, M.A. ; Honorary Secretary: J. Colbatch 
Clark, 9, Marlborough Place ; Assistant Honorary Secre- 
tary : H. Cane." 

It was proposed by Dr. Harrison, seconded by Mr. F. R. 
Richardson, and resolved — 

" That the best thanks of the Society be given to Mr. Henry 
Davey for his attention to the interests of the Society as 
President during the past two years." 



23 

It was proposed by Mr. Henry Davey, seconded by Mr. 
F. Harrison, and resolved — 

" That the sincere thanks of the Society be given to the Vice- 
•Presidents, the Council, the Honorary Librarian, the 
Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary Curators, the Honorary 
Auditors, and the Honorary Secretaries for their services 
during the past year." 

It was proposed by Dr. W. Harrison, seconded by Mr. H. 
Cane, and carried — 

" That the words ' entrance fee or ' in Rule 9 be struck out, 
that Rule 12 be rescinded, and that the following New 
Rule be substituted for it :— ' 12. Ordinary Members shall 
each pay an Annual Subscription of los. Except that a 
Member elected between the ist February and the ist 
April in any year, shall pay a subscription of 5s. only for 
that year. Such subscriptions shall be payable in advance, 
and the first payment shall date from the ist of October 
preceding the election of such Member, except the election 
take place from the ist of April to the 30th September, 
both inclusive, when it shall date as on ist of the October 
following.' " 



SOCIETIES ASSOCIATED, 

WITH WHICH THE SOCIETY EXCHANGES PUBLICATIONS, 

And whose Presidents and Secretaries are ex-officio Members 
of the Society. 

British Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, Cambridge Hall, Barrow-in- 
Furness. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, c/o G. Donaldson, 8, Mileriver 
Street, Belfast. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, The Museum, 
College Square, N. Belfast. 

Boston Society of Natural Science (Mass, U.S.A.). 

British Museum, General Library, Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 

British and American Archseological Society, Rome. 

Cardiff Natuialists' Society, Frederick Street, Cardiff. 

City of London Natural History Society. 

Chester Society of Natural Science. 



24 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club, Public Hall, 

Croydon. 
City of London College of Science Society, White Street, 

Moorfields, E.C., and " Hatfield," Tenham Avenue, 

Streatham Hill, S.W. 
Department of the Interior, Washington, U.S.A. 
Edinburgh Geological Society, India Buildings, George IV. 

Bridge. 
Eastbourne Natural History Society. 
Epping Forest and County of Essex Naturalist Field Club, West 

Ham Institute. 

Folkestone Natural History Society. 

Geologists' Association. 

Geological Society of Mexico. 

Glasgow Natural History Society and Society of Field Naturalists. 

Hampshire Field Club. 

Huddersfield Naturalist Society. 

London County Council, Horniman Museum. 

Leeds Naturalist Club. 

Lloyd Library, 224, West Court Street, Cincinnatti, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 

Mexican Geological Institute, 5A, Del Cipres, No. 2,728 Mexico. 

Michigan University, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, Stone, Staffs. (Wells 

Bladen, Secretary). 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, University College, Nottingham. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., U.S.A. 

Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 

Royal Microscopical Society, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 
Royal Meteorological Society, Prince's Mansions, 73, Victoria 

Street, S.W. 
Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 

South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Southport Society of Natural Science, Rockley House, Southport. 

Societe Beige de Microscopic, Bruxelles. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

Watford Natural History Society. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 



25 

LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

Brigbton ant) Ibove H^atural Ibistor^ ant) 
pbU060pb(cal Society, 



-•->- 



N.B. — Members are particularly requested to notify any Change of 
Address at once to Mr. J. C, Clark, g, Marlborough 
Place, Brighton. When not otherwise stated in the 
following List the Address is in Brighton. Names 
printed in italics are Life Members. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



Abbey, Henry, Fair Lee Villa, Kemp Town. 
ASHTON, C. S., lo, Powis Grove. 

Billing, T., 6, St. Michael's Place. 

Booth, E., 53, Old Steine. 

Bull, W., 75, St Aubyn's, Hove 

Burrows, W. S., B.A., M.R.C.S., 62, Old Steine. 

BURCHELL, E., M.R.C.S., L.R C.P., 5, Waterloo Place. 

Black, Milner, 81, St. James's Street. 

Cane, H., 173, Ditchling Road. 
Caush, D. E., L.D.S., 63, Grand Parade. 
Charrington, H. W.. 23, Park Crescent. 
Clark, J. Colbatch, J P., 9, Marlborough Place. 
COLMAN, Alderman J., J. P., Wick Hall, Furze Hill. 
Clifton, Harvey, 19, Buckingham Place. 

Davey, Henry, 15, Victoria Road. 

Denman, S., 26, Queen's Road. 

DODU, A. H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 49, Church Road, Hove. 

Daldy, Mantell a.. Dr., 17, Palmeira Square. 

Duke, Dr. E., 30, New Church Road, Hove. 



26. 

Fletcher, W. H. B , J. P., Bersted Lodge, Bognor. 
Fawsitt, H. G. Chater, 14, Vernon Terrace. 
Forbes, George, 5, St. Peter's Place. 

GiLKES, J. H., Wychcote, Dyke Road Avenue. 
Graves, A. F., 9.^, North Street Quadrant. 
Griffith, A. F., M.A., 59, Montpelier Road. 
Grove, E., Norlington, Harrington Road. 
Grinstead, J., 13, Powis Square. 

Hall, J. Sussex, 69, Ship Street. 

Hack, D., Fircroft, Withdean. 

Harrison, W., D.M.D., L.D.S., 6, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Haselwood, J. E., 3, Richmond Terrace. 

Haynes, J. L., 24, Park Crescent. 

Henriques, a. G., F.G.S., J. P., 9, Adeliide Crescent, Hove. 

HiCKLEY, G., 92, Springfield Road 

Hilton, T., i, Clifton Street. 

HOBBS, J., 62, Nortli Street. 

Howlett, J. W.. J. P., 4, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

HORA, F. R., B.Sc, B.A., A.R.C.Sc, 69, St. Aubyn's, Hove. 

Harrison, F., MA., 30, Compton Avenue. 

Horne, J., 27, Hampstead Road. 

HA WKINS, IV. B., Shalimar, Withdean. 

Infield, H. ]., Sylvan Lodge, Upper Lewes Road. 

Jennings, A- O., LL.B., ir, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 
Johnston, J., 12, Bond Street. 

Jones, Ruthkrford, Dr. A., Forest Lodge, Maresfield. 
Jackson, J. M., 109, Stanford Avenue. 

Langton, H., M.R.C.S., II, Marlborough Place. 

Law, J., Crosthwaite, Lewes. 

Lewis, J , C E., F.S.A., Fairwarp, Uckfield. 

Lonsdale, L., 13, Powis Square. 

Livesey, G H., M.R.C.V.S., Osmond Road, Hove. 

McKellar, E., Deputy-Surgeon-General, M.D, J. P., Woodleigh, 

Preston. 
Maguire, E. C, M.D., 9, Old Steine. 
Merrifield, F., 24, Vernon Terrace. 
Mills, J., 24, North RoaH. 

Morgan, G., L.R.C.P., F.RC.S., 6, Pavilion Parade. 
Mansfield, H., ii, Grand Avenue, Hove. 
Morse, Robert, 26, Stanford Avenue. 
Maurice, H., L.D.S., 65, St. John's Terrace. 

Newsholme, a., M.D., F.R.C.P., 11, Gloucester Place. 

Nicholson, W. E., F.E.S., Lewes. 

Norman, S. H., Burgess Hill. 

NORRis. E. L., L.D.S.,8, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

OKE, ALFRED IV., B.A., LL.M., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 32, 
Denmark Villas, Hove. 



27 

Pankhurst, E. a., 3, Clifton Road. 

Payne, W. H., Playden House, Harrington Road. 

Payne, E., M.A., 6, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

Pknney, S. R , Larkbarrow, Dyke Road Drive. 

Petitfourt, E. J., B.A., F.C.P., i6, Chesham Street. 

PUGH, Rev. C, M.A., 13, Eaton Place. 

PUTTiCK, W., Tipnoake, Albourne, Hassocks. 

Popley, W. H., 13, Pavilion Buildings. 

Powell, W. A, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 5, Grand Parade. 

Peskett, Chalmers, A. W., M.A., M.B., B.C., Cantab., Simla, 

Clermont Road. 
Peskett, Guy, Simla, Clermont Road. 

Read, S., L.D.S., 12, Old Sieine. 

Richardson, F. R., 4, Adelaide Crescent. 

Roberts, J. P. Slingsby, 3, Powis Villas. 

Robinson, E., Saddlescombe. 

Rose, T., Clarence Hotel, North Street. 

Ross, U. M., M.B., M.R.C.S., 9, Pavilion Parade. 

Re.\d, T., B.A., B.SC, Brighton Grammar School. 

Robertson, A., 17, Sackville Road, Hove. 

Salmon, E. F., 30, Western Road, Hove. 

Savage, W. W., 109, St. James's Street. 

Sloman, F., M.R.C.S., 18, Montpelier Road. 

Smith, C, 47, Old Steine. 

Smith, T., i, Powis Villas. 

Smith, W., 6, Powis Grove. 

Smith, W. J., J. P., 42 and 43, North Street. 

Smith, VV. H., 191, Eastern Road. 

Stoner, Harold, L.D.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 18, Regency Square. 

Smithers, E. a.. Furze Hill. 

Spitta, E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.R.A.Sc, 41, Ventnor Villas, 

Hove. 
SoUTHCOMBE, H. W., i6, Stanford Avenue. 
Seamer, Arthur, M.A , 9, Chatham Place. 
Stanford, Thomas Chas., Preston Manor. 

Talbot, Hugo, 79, Montpelier Road. 

Toms, H. S., The Museum. 

TUOHY, J. F., M.D., I, Hova Terrace, Hove. 

Tyssen, Rev. R. D , M.A., 19, Brunswick Place, Hove. 
Wallis, W. Clarkson, 15, Market Street. 
Walter, J., 13A, Dyke Road. 
Wells, I., 4, North Street. 
Whytock, E., 36, Western Road. 
Wilkinson, T., 170, North Street. 
Williams, A. S., 17, Middle Street. 
Williams, H. M., LL.B., 17, Middle Street. 

Wood, J., L.D.S., 28, Old Sieine. 

Wood, W.\lter R, L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., L.D.S., 28, Old Sieine. 

Welsford, H. M., 68, Dyke Road. 

Williams, A. W., M.D., Belvedere Terrace. 



28 



LADY MEMBERS. 

Bagley, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 
Bladon, Miss, 23, Sudeley Place. 

Caush, Mrs., 63, Grand Parade. 
Crafer, M. H., Mrs., 102, Beaconsfield Villas. 
Crane, A , Miss, 11, Wellington Road. 
CORFE, A., Miss, 7, Norfolk Terrace. 

Daldy, Mantell, Mrs , 17, Palmeira Square. 

Hare, Miss, 19, Goldsmid Road. 

Herring, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Hernaman, I., Miss. 

Hernaman, v., Miss. 

Harri.son, Mrs., 10, Windlesham Road. 

Langton, Miss, 38, Stanford Road. 

Ruge, Miss, 7, Park Crescent. 

Stoner, H., Mrs , 18, Regency Square. 

Thomas, M., Miss, 193, Queen's Park Road. 

Vobes, Miss, B.A., B.Sc., "Glenalna," Rugby Road. 

Wilkinson, Mrs., 36, Dyke Road. 
Wood, J., Mrs., 28, Old Steine. 
Watkins, Miss, Walcot, Walpole Road. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Arnold, Rev. F. H., The Hermitage, Emsworth. 

Bloomfield, Rev. E. N., Guestling Rectory, Hastings. 

CURTEis, T., 244, High Holborn, London. 

Dawson, C, F.G.S., Uckfield. 

Farr, E. H., Uckfield. 

HoLLis, W. AiNSLiE, Palmeira Avenue, Hove. 

Jenner, J. H. A., 209, School Hill, Lewes. 

LoMAX, Benjamin, 47, Park Crescent. 

NOURSK, W. E. C, Norfolk Lodge, Thurlow Road, Torquay. 

Phillips, Barclay, 7, Harpur Place, Bedford. 



ASSOCIATE. 

Harrison, W. Parker, id, Windlesham Road. 

PEESEIITBD 

.. .. Pfi.llll ''907 




mm. 



30 0011908 



Brighton and Hove 






^(o 



I 






Hbstracte of Bbapere 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIET 



TOGETHER WITH 




^'■"^.^'a,*?^ 



THE ANNUAL REPORT 



Year ending June 6th, 1907. 




§rigliton : 

"Bbiqhton Herau) " Printing Works, Prince's Place. 



^0 






Brighton and Hove 



Hbstracts ot ||>aper6 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 




THE ANNUAL REPORT 



Year ending June 6th, 1907. 



CONTENTS. 



Alderman Colbatch Clark — 50 Years Secretary ... i.-viii. 

Officers of the Society for 1906-7 ... ... ... 3 

The Communication of Thought — Mr. Walter 

Harrison, D.M.D., L.D.S. (President) 5 

Forest Life — Mr. Martin Duncan ... ... ... 12 

Kalahari Desert and Wgamiland — Mr. H. W. Hodson 15 

The Making of Scenery — Mr. H. Edmonds, B.Sc. ... 17 

The Variation in Domestic Fowls — Mr. George Foxall i 7 



The Moon— Dr. Spitta, F.R.A.S., F.R.M.S. 

Common Parasites of Cat and Dog — 

Mr. G. H. Livesey, M.R.C.V.S 

Earthquakes — Mr. F. R. Hora, B.A., B.Sc. 

Pigmy Flint Implements Found near Brighton — 
Mr. H. S. Toms 

Report of Council 

Librarian's Report 

Society's Excursions 

Meteorology of Brighton 

Treasurer's Account 

Annual General Meeting 

Societies Associated 

List of Members ... 

Officers of the Society for 1907-8 



19 



25 





30 




38 




40 




.. 41 




51 




52 




53 




54 




56 


07-8 ... 


60 



PRESENTA TION 

. . TO . . 

flJdet?man Colbafch Clai^b. 



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Alderman J. COLBATCH CLARK, J. P. 



¥it\-% ^©eirs ei f seretcar^j. 



"^Af "^If '^Slr 

THE Society has the pleasure of announcing that Mr. 
Alderman J. Colbatch Clark, J.P., has attained his 50th 
year as Hon. Secretary. Mr. Clark (at that time J. C. Onions) 
took over the duties from Mr. T. B. Home during the Session 
1857-8, was then formally elected, and has continued in office to 
this day — a term of work as Secretary probably without pre- 
cedent in the annals of any Society. Mr. Clark has worked 
with no less than thirty-seven Presidents. It was universally 
felt that any possible recognition must be perfectly trifling in 
comparison with the value of Mr. Clark's services ; but the 
members, past and present, subscribed for a silver salver and 
an illuminated address, which were presented to Mr. Clark at 
the Annual Meeting on June 6th. Such an event naturally 
drew considerable attention, as the following selections from the 
Press notices will show : — 

[iSHsse.i' Daily News, June 7th.] 

When the members of the Brighton and Hove Natural 
History and Philosophical Society yesterday evening at the 
Royal Pavilion re-elected Alderman J. Colbatch Clark, J. P., as 
Hon. Secretary, they had the unique pleasure of launching him 
upon his fiftieth year of office. So remarkable an occasion was 
very properly treated in an exceptional way, and the Alderman 
found himself the recipient of two permanent souvenirs of his 
half-century association with the work of the Society. One was 
a handsome 18-inch silver salver, with ornate shell border, and 
elaborate engraving ; the other was a beautifully illuminated 
album containing an address, with the names of 79 subscribers. 
The salver, which bore a suitable inscription, was the artistic 
production of the Sussex Goldsmiths and Silversmiths' Com- 
pany, Castle-square, Brighton ; and the address was the no less 
skilful production of Miss Hudson, of the Brighton School of 
Art. The latter read : — 

Dear Sir,— This album contains the names of past and present 
members of the Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical 
Society, who desire to make some recognition of your services for the 
period of fifty years daring which you have acted as Honorary Secretary 
to the Society. So long a service in an honorary position is a very rare 
and probably unprecedented circumstance in the history of any Society. 
In addition we recall that in the general management of the Society and 
in all your relations with its members you have always shown the 



greatest tact, zeal, and courtesy, coupled with remarkable business 
capacity ; and we feel that the present prosperity of the Society is mainly 
due to you. Slight as any recognition we can make must be in comparison 
with your services, we venture to ask your acceptance of the accom- 
pan3ring silver salver and our warmest wishes for your present and future 
welfare. 

Signed, on behalf of the subscribers, 

Walter Haeeison, President. 

Mr. J. E. Haselwood, a Vice-President, was the mouthpiece 
of the members in presenting these gifts, and he enthusiastically 
recalled the fifty years of solid work done by Alderman Clark in 
looking after the finances and business details of the Society. 
Speaking with forty years' expei'ience, he declared unhesitatingly 
that but for the careful watch Mr. Clark had kept upon their 
funds, the Society would have been dead years ago. With it all 
Mr. Clark had been always courteous, and able to smooth over 
any difficulties that arose Mr. Clark had done this, realizing 
that the Society was an important element in the life of the 
town which had been an influence for good in many directions. 
He had also played a prominent part in fostering the social side 
of the Society, and was for many years the moving spirit in the 
soirees, and in the annual excursions. In handing him the salver, 
he said its modest weight carried with it a vast amount of 
sincere affection. 

Enthusiastic applause greeted Alderman Clark when he 
rose to thank the members. In a happy speech he said it was a 
matter for congratulation that the Society had been able to exist 
so long, and he hoped the end of the present century might find 
it still flourishing. Personally he felt it an honour to have been 
associated with the work for all these years, though his duties 
had been of a purely business character, thanks to the wise 
arrangement of having another Secretary to look after the 
scientific side. He had had a great reward in the instruction 
and enjoyment obtained from the Society's lectures, which had 
enabled him to understand the early developments of telegraphy, 
electricity, bacteriology, and the like, which were casting their 
shadows before them in the early days of his acquaintance with 
the Society. He recalled the interesting fact that at one of the 
first lectures he attended on telegraphy, the lecturer assured 
them that one day the messages would be sent without the 
medium of wires. Of the original members of the Society there 
were only now two living, Mr. Barclay Phillips and Mr. Geo. de 
Paris. He said, in conclusion, he would be proud to hand the 
presentation as heirlooms to his successors, together with the 
clock which they presented to him 35 years ago. 

The President, Mr. Walter Harrison, and four past Presi- 
dents, Mr. E. A. Pankhurst, Mr. Douglas E. Caush, Mr. Clarkson 
WalJis, and Mr. Henry Davey, supplemented the eulogies passed 



upon the Alderman, the last-named mentioning that Mr. Clark 
had seen six or seven Scientific Secretaries, six or seven Librarians, 
and as many as 33 Presidents.* Mention may also be made of 
a letter received from Councillor Booth, who wrote that he had 
known Mr. Clark from childhood, and that he deserved all good 
things from his fellow townsmen. 



\_Brightcn Society.^ 



LAST (Thursday) evening the celebration of a most remarkable 
event occurred, when Mr. Alderman Colbatch Clark attained 
his fiftieth year of office as Honorary Secretary of the Brighton 
Natural History Society. So long a continuance in any such 
post must be rare in the extreme, and is probably unprecedented, 
for the start must have been made unusually early in life. Mr. 
Clark was presented with a handsome silver salver and a 
beautiful album containing the names of the subscribers, and 
designed by Miss Hudson, of the School of Art. The presen- 
tation was made by Mr. J. E. Haselwood, an old member, in 
well-chosen terms, and Mr. Clark feelingly responded, detailing 
some early recollections on scientific matters. It was mentioned 
that two of the original founders in 1854, Mr Bai'clay Phillips 
(now of Bedford) and Mr. G. de Paris, ai'e still living ; and Mr. 
Merrifield, still active in his profession, was on the Committee 
in 1856. Mr. Clark, during his half -century of office, has known 
thirty-three Presidents of the Society. 



[Rrii/hton Herald,] 

A REMARKABLE record, probably a unique record, was 
celebrated on Thursday night by the members of the 
Brighton and Hove Natural History Society. This was the 
attainment by Alderman Colbatch Clark of his fiftieth year of 
office as Hoa. Secretary to the Society. The completion of so 
remarkable a period of office was fittingly honoured by the 
Society presenting Alderman Clark with a massive silver salver, 
of handsome design, and an illuminated album containing the 
names of the past and present members of the Society who had 
subscribed. This pre.sentation took placa at the fifty-third annual 
meeting of the Society at the King's Apartments. 

The importance that the members attached to the occasion 
was clearly indicated in the manner in which one of the oldest 

•Accurately 37. 



members of the Society, Mr. J. E. Haselwood, set himself to 
make the audience realize what was involved in a secretaryship 
which contained fifty years of solid work, — the amount of writing, 
of attendance at meetings, and all the other routine. All the 
time Alderman Clark had been unfailing in courtesy and good 
temper. But for the care he had bestowed on the finances, the 
Society would have been dead many years ago. He had had to 
look after excursions and soirees, and other incidents of the work. 
Alderman Clark had in fact been of inestimable service to a 
Society which Mr. Haselwood felt had an important bearing on 
the intellectual development and social enjoyment of so many 
people in the town, and thereby had been of material service to 
the town itself. In handing Alderman Clark the salver, Mr. 
Haselwood assured him that it carried with it a vast amount of 
sincere aftection. 

The salver bore an inscription, and with it came the vellum 
bound album containing the names of seventy-nine subscribers 
and the following address : 

Dear Sir,— This album contains the names of past and present 
members of the Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical 
Society, who desire to make some recognition of your services for the 
period of fifty years during which you have acted as Honorary Secretary 
to the Society. So long a service in an honorary position is a very rare 
and probably unprecedented circumstance in the history of any Society. 
In addition we recall that in the general management of the Society and 
in all your relations with its members you have alwajs shown the 
greatest tact, zeal, and courtesy, coupled with remarkable business 
capacity ; and we feel that the present prosperity of the Society is mainly 
due to you. Slight as auy recognition we can make must be in comparison 
with your services, we venture to ask your acceptance of the accom- 
panying silver salver and our warmest wishes for your present and future 
welfare. 

Signed, on behalf of the subscribers, 

Walter Harrison, President. 

Received with enthusiastic applause, Alderman Colbatch 
Clark made a happy response in a finished speech and with a 
sturdiness of manner that showed he is very far yet from feeling 
the wearing effects of so long a service. He made very modest 
allusion to his own work for the Society, but rather directed 
attention to the work of the Society, and to assuring his hearers 
that he had benefited immensely by his association with it. He 
supposed that the fifty years in which he had been connected 
with this scientific Society had been the most eventful half- 
century in the history of science ; in no other period had it made 
such great strides. Thanks to his association with the Society, 
he had been able to take an intei'est in the scientific progress and 
to realise what it meant in a way that, without the Society, would 
have been impossible. He could not, of course, attempt to 
outline the changes in science that he had known, but there were 



one or two things in which he had a direct personal interest, 
great discoveries whose shadows had been projected on his earlier 
days in a way that made the later substantial realization of great 
interest to him. He remembered how, when the electric tele- 
graph was a new thing of which all were talking, a gentleman 
assured him that in some future day people would send electric 
messages without wires. Sixty-one years ago he went to a 
lecture where the lecturer said he believed it would be quite 
possible to convert electricity into motive force, but that the 
force would be of little practical use because one could not make 
sufficient electricity. He thought of this when he saw the huge 
machinery thundering at the Corporation works. A third modern 
discovery projected across his early days was the theory of 
bacteria. Alderman Clark drew attention to the fact that two of 
the original members of the Society are still alive in Mr. G. de 
Paris and Mr. Barclay Phillips. This salver was not the first 
presentation the Society had made him. Thirty-five years ago 
they presented him with a clock ; " it is still going." Alderman 
Clark added that he could not have done the work so long had 
not the Society given him so valuable an assistant in Mr. Henry 
Cane, 

The Chairman (Dr. Harrison), in adding his tribute of 
praise, reminded the meeting of the work Alderman Clark did 
apart from the Society. His townspeople elected him to the 
Council ; the Council elected him an Alderman ; and the State 
recognized his value by making him a J.P. 

Other testimony of praise came from four previous Presi- 
dents of the Society, — Mr. E. AUoway Pankhurst, as representing 
physical science; Mr. D. E. Caush, as representing the micro- 
scopic side ; Mr. Clarkson Wallis, representing, in his own words, 
the amateur in Science ; and Mr. Henry Davey, from the 
philosophical side. Mr. Davey pointed out that Alderman Clark 
had seen six or seven Scientific Secretaries and thirty-three 
Presidents. 

A letter was read from Councillor Booth, who said that he 
had known Alderman Clark from childhood, and could testify 
that he deserved all good things from his fellow townsmen.^ 

The salver, it should be mentioned, was executed in eftective 
style by the Sussex Goldsmiths and Silversmiths' Company, 
Castle Square, Brighton, and the illuminated album was the 
artistic work of Miss Hudson, at the Brighton School of Art. 



The leading scientific Journal of England also deemed the 
occasion worthy a special recognition, as the following paragraph 
shows : — 

[Nature, June 13th.] 

THE Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical 
Society has for fifty years had Alderman C. Clark as its 
Honorary Secretary. So long a service in a position of this 
kind, involving much work and expenditure of time, is very 
remarkable. In recognition of the active part Alderman Clark 
has taken in bringing the Society to its present prosperous 
condition, a massive silver salver and an illuminated album 
containing the names of many past and present members was 
presented to him at the fifty-third annual meeting on June 6th. 




Officers of the Society, 1906-7. 

(For List of Officers, 1907-8, see page 60). 



Walter Harrison, D.M.D. 
^ast ^rcsiicnts : 



F. Merrifield, FES 
J. E. Haselwood. 
W. Seymour Burrows, M.R.CS. 
I) E. Caush, L.D.S. 
A. iNewsholme, M.D., F.R.C.P., 
M.O H. 



E. J. Petitfourt, H.A., F.CP. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 
E Alloway Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 



THE COUNCIL. 



(Rule 25), 



D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
J. E- Haselwood. 

F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 
M.O.H. 

ORDINARY 

F. HORA, B.Sc, B.A. 

E. Spitta, F.R.A.Sc, M.R.CS, 
L.R.C.P. 

G. Morgan, L.R.C.P., M.R.CS. 

^onorarii Crcasurer: 
D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 



E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.CP. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 
E. A. Pankhurst. 
Henry D.wey. 

MEMBERS. 

E. Payne, M.A. 

Alfred W. Oke, B.A., LL.M., 
F.G.S. 

F. R. Richardson. 

I^ottorar^ l^ibrariatt : 

RoBT. Morse. 



^onorarg ^uiritor : 
A. F. Graves. 

Honor arg Curators : 
H. S. Toms. T. Hilton. 

^onorarg Scientific Sccrctarn : 
F. Harrison, M.A. 

Honorarg Secretary: 
Jno. Colbatch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place. 

Assistant ^onorarg Secretary : 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 



Session 1906-7. 

-M"» 

Address given by the President, 

WALTER HARRISON, D.M.D., L.D.S., 

At the Conversazione held at the Royal Pavilion, Oct. i8t/i, igo6. 



%\}t ffnmmumcation nf Eljougljt. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, — 

In thanking you for the honour you have conferred on me 
by electing me to the position of President of this Society, 
founded more than half-a-century ago, I recognise how difficult 
it will be to follow in the steps of such a line of talented men as 
have pi'eceded me. My lot is especially hard as my immediate 
predecessor, Mr. Henry Davey, was such an able and genial 
gentleman — one of the best of those who have occupied the 
presidential chair — that by the unanimous choice of the members 
he was elected for a second year, the longest period that the rules 
of our Society allow. 

I have to express one regret when I look round the room, 
that is, how few young people join our Society. If daring my 
year I can persuade our younger folk to become associates at 
least, I shall feel that I have done something, not only for the 
Society but for the community at large, as I can confidently 
affirm that no one can attend our lectures and converse with the 
members without learning much about many things. 

I have re-introduced in a small way the Conversazione, 
which used to be an annual one ; I hope al-:o to re-establish the 
annual Banquet, and I shall ask your support in making a whole 
day excursion in the summer of next year. The syllabus of our 
lectures will, I am sure, commend itself to you as being of the 
same high standard as in past yeai-s ; and I may add we hope to 
supplement the monthly lectures by a monthly visit to some 
place of interest, on the lines started by Mr. Davey. 

With these prefatory remarks I will now direct your atten- 
tion for a few minutes to another subject — - 

"And the dove came unto him in the evening, and lo, in 
her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt ofi'. So Noah knew 
that the waters were abated. . . ." 



" Williams, the foreign missionary, had one day forgotten 

his square, and taking up a shaving he wrote a request 

to his wife to give it to the bearer. He gave this to a 

native chief, telling him to take it to Mrs. Williams 

and return quickly to him. On his delivering the 

written message to the missionary's wife, the native 

was much surprised at receiving the square, and on his 

return to Mr. Williams expressed his astonishment at a 

shaving producing the instrument. The missionary 

tried in vain to explain the simple way in which a 

thought could be communicated. So mystified was the 

chief that he wore the wonderful shaving round his 

neck and showed it to his followers as a marvellous 

charm " 

"Recently during a voyage across the Atlantic ocean, copies 

of a daily paper were circulated among the passengers 

containing the news communicated by the Marconi 

wireless telegraphy." 

These three statements so impressed me that I decided to 

make them the basis of the short address which falls to my lot 

as your President. I shall call it — " The Communication of 

Thought." 

To what extent the lower orders of creation are capable of 
communicating their desires we are unable to decide ; but that 
they do possess such power we know. Nor is it confined to their 
intercommunication, for dogs, at least, have been known to 
communicate their wishes to man when their masters have been 
in danger, &g Ants, too, and some other small creatures, have 
this power of communication, as those who study their habits 
know. 

It is possible to conceive of the communication of thought 
through any of the channels of the senses. Taste and smell 
might have become the means of conveying an idea, and to the 
lower orders of creation it is undoubtedly so ; but with man we 
must confine our attention to three of our senses— Touch, Sight, 
Hearing. 

Tactile language has be'^n observed in bees ; I may mention 
the well-known instance of their communicating to each other 
the death of a queen by a rafjid interlacing and striking of their 
antennae Mankind makes but a limited use of this sense for 
communicating his wishes but under circumstances when an 
appeal cannot be made to the ear or the eye it satisfies the 
condition. A nudge is at times quite significant of an intention. 
To what extent thought-readers take advantage of touch, I am 
not able to say ; but I do think that they can ascertain to some 
extent the thought in their companion, in such instances as 
searching for something hidden by the person, whose hand the 
reader of thought detains during his search. 



The chief use of tactile language in the service of man is 
that employed for the blind. The raised letters become a ready 
means of enabling those to read who are unhappily deprived of, 
perhaps, the greatest of the senses. One of the early and most 
useful systems was that invented by a Brighton man, Dr. Moon. 
It has been asserted that by touch the blind can distinguish 
colour, but in the course of conversation with a very intelligent 
blind friend, I was informed that there is no truth in the state- 
ment; but it is true that they associate colour with sound, of 
which I shall have more to say presently. 

But the two chief channels for Thought Communication are 
— the eye and the ear. The language for the eye is exhibited in 
the Arts and in gestures. Pictures, however rudely drawn, can 
reproduce in others the thought of the draughtsman, and this 
form of writing is known to all as Hieroglyphics. The name of 
each letter of the alphabet is the name of some object, and the 
form of the object is a rude representation of it. 

Pictures developed into letters on one hand, and into works 
of art on the other. I think that in painting and sculpture the 
test of the artist's genius is the power that he possesses of 
reproducing in the mind of the observer the thoughts he had in 
producing his work of art. A picture that requires copious 
explanation has, in my opinion, an acknowledgement of failure 
accompanying it. 

I need only refer to literature to show to what an extent we 
receive communication of thought by means of the eye. In 
poetry what thoughts are aroused in us by a few words ! And 
yet when we ponder over the matter we need not be surprised at 
the amazement of the native chief. What real connection is there 
between the printed letters D-O-G and the animal ? At first sight 
none ; but when the word is traced from its earliest form we can 
see how the letters convey the idea, and to this I shall again refer 
when saying a few words on sound as a means of conveying 
thought. 

The Language of Gesture, which accompanies emotion, is at 
all times significant, and this is par excellence the language of 
the tragedian. Whoever has seen the late great actor. Sir Henry 
Irving in The Belh, knows what an ocean of thought is com- 
municated by a few words, when accompanied by gesture. When 
Garrick first appeared, the orthodox critic complained very much 
of his not following the rules of elocution, as they knew them. 
One of these critics said that the great actor actually made a 
pause between the subject and the predicate in a sentence ! On 
being further questioned he admitted that Garrick at the pause 
introduced an effective gesture. 

To what an extent Gesture is employed to teach the deaf 
and dumb, and as a means of communicating thought to them, 
you all well know. The Oral System, as it is called, has now 



displaced the older system of finger alphabet, and it is simply 
wonderful how rapidly a long communication can be made. 

A few years ago I gave a lantern exhibition — I cannot call 
it a lecture — to a Deaf and Dumb Institution, and proceeded to 
throw a few slides on the sheet. The intense silence that reigned 
was at first a little disconcerting. One expects at least some 
slight show of appreciation from time to time under such circum- 
stances. But one thing I did notice, and that was a number of 
fingers made signs and then the Principal — who possessed the 
power of speech — requested me to say a few words on each 
picture. I did so, and then he communicated my remarks to the 
speechless audience with wonderful rapidity. At the conclusion, 
I was thanked in the name of the silent audience for the 
strangest experience it has fallen to my lot. 

We will next consider sound as a means of thought. Dean 
Farrar in his chapters on language shows the analogies of light 
and sound : — 

Sound corresponds to Sheen. 
Clear Sound ,, Brightness. 

Echo ,, Reflexion. 

Noise ,, Glimmer. 

Tone ,, Colour. 

I have just mentioned that blind people connect colour with 
sound and I would like to add a fact, told me by a friend. While 
he was a student at college he was talking to a fellow student, 
who was blind, and asked him what he thought of red colour. 
He replied that he thought it was like the sound of a cornet ! 
My friend remarked that he was not far from the truth as red 
was rather a loud colour ! 

In his Manual of Psychology, Dr. Stout says : — In all 
language there are traceable certain comparatively elementary 
phonetic components, called roots, expressing primary universals, 
or products of conceptual analysis, and these roots variously 
modified and entering into various combinations express con- 
ceptual synthesis or discursive thinking. They blend and com- 
bine in continuous speech, just as the corresponding concepts 
blend and combine in continuous thought. This is possible because 
of the ultimate unity of composition of the phonetic material, which 
is resolvable into elementary alphabetic sounds which do not 
occur in isolation but as parts of an articulate complex. 

Attempts have been made to explain the origin of language 
without emphasizing the importance of the visible gesture as a 
starting point. There are three main theories of this kind, which 
have been nicknamed by Max Miiller the Pooh-Pooh Theory, the 
Bow-Bow Theory, and the Ding-Dong Theory. Their more pre- 
tentious titles are the Interjectional, the Onmatopoeic, and the 
Pathognomic Theory. The principle involved in all these theories 



is essentially the same. They all attempt to trace back conven- 
tional signs to natural signs, but they exclude from consideration 
visible gestures and confine attention only to vocal signs. 

It is evident that to mimic the mewing of a cat, in order to 
convey the idea of that animal, is as much an imitative gesture 
as going on all fours and humping the back for the same 
purpose. It is mimicry of this kind on which the Bow-Bow 
Theory relies for explanation. The same holds goods of im- 
itating a cry of fear, in order either to convey the idea of the 
emotion or of the approach of a dangerous object. This is a 
sort of expressive sign which is most primitive according to the 
Pooh-Pooh Theory. 

The Ding-Dong Theory is more subtle, and it has the 
distinction of being advocated by Professor Steinthal. Accord- 
ing to it specific kinds of objects so affected primitive man as to 
elicit from him, or, to use Max Miiller's metaphor, to ring out of 
him, correspondingly specific utterances. The most primitive 
words would, therefore, be phonetic types rung out from the 
organism of the first man, or men, when struck with an idea. 
There is a harmony of sound and sense which does not depend on 
the imitation of one sound by another The charm of literary 
style, and especially of poetry, consists largely in the subtle 
affinity between vocal expression and the objects or activities 
expressed, which may exist apart from any resemblance of 
sounds to one another. The word zig-zag is a good illustration. 
The zig goes this way and the zag goes that way, thus describing 
a zig-zag course. 

In discussing the objections to the imitative theory. Dean 
Farrar said :— Is there no similarity between dog and barking 
and snarling? The Icelandic doggr looks very like a growl. . . 
and in other languages the word is distinctly initiative. . . A 
name bow-bow might have been invented, yet, strange to say, we 
hardly ever find a civilised language in which a dog is so called. 
. . . Now it is at least doubtful whether the bark is a dog & 
natural utterance, and whether in its original state the dog did 
bark. . . No wild dog knows how to bark ! Prichard mentions 
the conjecture that the dog's bark originated in an attempt to 
imitate the human voice ! . . . Dogs were left by Spaniards on 
Juan Fernandez, after thirty years the race had forgotten how to 
bark. 

Mechanical means for communicating thought. 

Let us briefly consider the employment of moving objects, 
commonly known as the " Optical Telegraph." Its origin cannot 
be easily determined. It is said to have been used during the 
erection of the tower of Babel. Watch towers are mentioned 
as having been used by Hannibal, which he employed as signal 
stations, and the Eomans had their telegraphic places. Modern 
employment of Optical Telegraphy is known under the names 



10 

of the Semaphore, Heliograph, and Flag-Signalling, and is of 
considerable use when electric telegraphic wires have been cut. 
The Heliograph was largely used in the late war in South Africa, 
as you well know. 

In 1684 (Philo. Trans.) Hooke's system is described as 
having iigures which moved in daylight and a screen with a 
light at night. In 1784, Edgeworth introduced posts and a 
cone, which was movable and indicated certain letters by the 
change of position. By combining posts with arms attached to 
a beam moving up and down, Chappe invented a system with a 
very elaborate code. Thus at the end of the Eighteenth Century 
practical telegraphy was an accomplished fact and remained in 
use until 1849. 

In England, Lord Murray's system was adopted, which was 
a series of shutters. Macdonald and Pasley extended the use of 
this invention under the name of a Universal Telegraph. 

The result of the Battle of Trafalgar was telegraphed from 
Portsmouth to London in about twenty minutes by means of the 
semaphore. The signal system was perfected to such an extent 
that messages could be sent from Calais to Paris in about three 
minutes. 

Early in Nineteenth Century the practical results obtained 
by the application of electricity were recognized and utilized. 
The names of Cooke and Wheatsone ought to be always 
associated with electric telegraphy. Although the method was 
an optical one, yet the operators who were skilled in their work 
could interpret the message by the click of the instrument alone. 
Morse's invention reduced the messa.ge to printing by means of 
the dot-and-dash system. But in the natural course of events, 
man ever desirous of reducing labour to the minimum, directed 
his attention to more rapid means which results from sounds, 
and returned to the earlier method of " Noises," and, applying 
the latest discovery of electrical science, produced the telephone. 
Bell and Edison have been the means of bringing this method 
of communication to our homes. 

I need only mention the name of Marconi to illustrate the 
latest development in telegraphy, and it will be in the memory 
of most present that we had a splendid lecture by Professor 
Fleming, who explained wireless telegraphy in such a manner 
that it ceased to be a mystery to those who had the privilege of 
hearing him. 

To enter into the consideration of communication with the 
spirit world would be to discuss a subject more suitable to form 
the matter of an ordinary meeting, in which discussion is invited ; 
but this much may be said, that after the elimination of all 
traces of charlatanism very remarkable coincidences — for the 
want of a better word — do occur. The correspondence in the 
Daily Teler/raph has been very interesting to me as I am a great 



11 



dreamer, but I have never had any striking warning communi- 
cated to me. I have carefully noted on waking certain dreams 
and watched for the results. I can very often associate my 
dream with some event that has preceded it— which coincides 
with the experience of Herodotus, who lived more than two 
thousand years ago, — the details being much altered. I have 
also noticed in case of many strange dreams of others that the 
dream has been remembered after the event has happened. I do 
not wish it to be understood that others may not possess what is 
lacking to me, but I have noted how many of these remarkable 
communications have been of trivial moment. 

Telepathy is the feeling or experiencing of sensations at a 
distance from another person. It occurs, it appears, when the 
mind of one human being affects the mind of another, but not 
through one of the recognized organs of sense. I have read and 
heard of many wonderful examples of this kind, but as I have 
never experienced such I will not pronounce an opinion on 
telepathic communications. 

^Yhen we glance around us at the marvellous progress in 
communication of thought, how that distance has been annihi- 
lated by the speed of the transmission, we may wtU ask ourselves 
what has been the influence upon mankind ? Has it increased 
our happiness? What are the benefits and what the dis- 
advantages '? Restlessoess— the yearning for something fresh- 
inability to concentrate thought upon a subject. Decadence in 
all branches of Art, because there is no time to cultivate taste. 
Scholars are displaced by half-educated men who can and will 
produce the article in demand— a something that will not tax 
the intellectual powers. Learning and literature become but 
pastimes for those of means. Thoughts expressed in books and 
in colour become a drug in the market. What is the proportion 
of light literature compared with real standard works issued 
from our lending library? In spite of the re-publication of 
so many volumes of classics at a shilhng by various firms, I fear 
that the number who read them is but small. What we desire 
to see is that the original thinker shall receive the reward to 
which he is so justly entitled. Increased facilities bring increased 
indifference ; indifference begets thoughtlessness ; and thought- 
lessness, idleness ; which too often marks mankind. 

With regard to the reception and transmission of thought 
it is not difficult to come to a conclusion— that man being 
"inquisitive," his desire to receive is greater than to transmit. 
A thoughtful man will always command a large following,— 
probably not during his life, perhaps centuries even may elapse 
before justice is done to him ; but posterity will recognise him 
though it be tardy. The explanation is simple— the majority 
do not think ; they are quite content to let others think for 
them. 



12 

Strange as it may seem in our daily reading of Marconigrams, 
telegrams, telephonic communications, that side by side with the 
latest developments primitive forms of inter-communication 
should be still employed. Signalling by mechanism, bird- 
messengers, and even beacon fires are yet with us — and this fact 
recalls to our minds the words of Tennyson : — 

" Men, my brothers, men the workers, ever reaping something new ; 
That which they have done but earnest of the things that they 

shall do — 
Yet I doubt not through the ages one increasing pxiqiose runs, 
A nd the thoughts of men are widened with the process of the suns." 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER Ioth, 1906. 

JFnmt life. 



BY 



Mr. martin DUNCAN, 

Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 



BY being a Member of the Brighton and Hove Natural History 
Society one gets to acquire a knowledge of the intimate 
details of animal life, like Sam Weller's knowledge of London, 
extensive and peculiar. Knowledge of this kind was freely 
imparted by the lantern lecture given by Mr. Martin Duncan. 
Mr. Duncan, who must be a naturalist of the first order, 
was trying to rear a young cuckoo. He found it as fractious 
and trying as the ordinary human baby, and it was always 
waking him in the night for food. He had a happy inspira- 
tion. He had observed that a mother thrush, wheu worn out, 
as all mothers do get worn out, with the exertion of feeding 
her infant, adopted a neat strategem to save herself the trouble 
of hunting for more worms and at the same time satisfying the 
cries of the baby. When the baby opened its beak to cry for 
more the mother inserted her own empty beak, and tickled the 
youngster's palate. Baby thrush, innocent of the world's ways, 
concluded the mother had put a nice fat worm in its mouth, 
gulped, and was quite happy, — till the next time. So Mr. 
Duncan, wheu the cuckoo cried for worms and there were none 



13 

handy, put bis hand out of bed, and touched the inside of the 
creature's mouth. Baby cuckoo gulped, and it and he sank down 
again to repose. Mr. Duncan seems to understand birds just as 
if he were Mr. Barrie's Peter Pan. Like Peter, all that he lacks 
is feathers. Incidentally he mentioned several instances where 
he has fulfilled the role of parent to fledglings, with excellent 
photographic results. 

In attempting to photograph the young of the meadow pippit 
Mr. Duncan had personally experienced the extraordinary intelli- 
gence and devotion of the mother bird in protection of her 
young. The male bird sought first to attract his attention away 
from the nest, but this failing, the mother, as a last extremity, 
went hopping, flying away just out of reach, with every appear- 
ance of a broken wing. Evidently the bird's idea was to make 
him think he was on the point of catching her, and so lead him 
further and further from the nest. The mother wry-neck, found 
at the bottom of a tree-trunk hatching, startled him with a sound 
as if she had smashed all the eggs and flew whirring straight at 
his face. She may have meant him to think that the eggs were 
broken ; but they were safe enough. And Mr. Duncan delighted 
his audience with photographs of the newly-hatched fledglings, 
as they peeped timorously from the hole in the tree looking out 
on the strange, big world. The lecturer had photographs of 
rabbits just emerging from their burrows. The old master buck 
always came out first, after the general stampede caused by an 
alarm. After satisfying himself that danger was gone, he would 
go round the other burrows stamping with his paw as a sign that 
the inhabitants could come out. Lying under a gorse bush, Mr. 
Duncan snapped them at interesting moments. 

An amusing comedy touch came with his pictures of owls. 
One showed the owl placedly indifferent. The next, its great 
solemn eyes wore an aspect of surprised inquiry, until by varying 
stages, it worked up into a state of protesting indignation at the 
whole nefarious proceedings. The attitudes of the creature would 
have made the fortune of a comedian. Mention of owls brought 
Mr. Duncan to a ghost story. Once, in a village in Cornwall, he 
heard affrighted villagers in the taproom telling of ghastly 
noises and a visible ghost proceeding at night from Squire Some- 
body's tomb. All agreed that the old Squire's ghost snored. He 
determined to investigate. From the tomb— an old-fashioned 
family-vault type — certainly the weirdest of noises were proceed- 
ing, — -muffled groans and cries, and a distinct loud snoring The 
mystery was explained when two barndoor owls came whirring 
out, protesting angrily at his disturbance. The owls had found 
a hole in the tomb, and were bringing up a family inside The 
groaning snoring sounds were their way of expressing anger 
when disturbed by nocturnal passers-by. So another ghost was 
laid. 



14 

His observations and his photographs were no less interesting 
among the insects. He had a series showing the evolution of a 
pupa into a peacock butterfly, — the emerging of the butterfly, its 
drying of its wings, its preliminary trials of those wings before 
launching out on the new aerial life. Astonished once to see a 
bee, gathering honey on the bee-orchis, recoil as if struck by a 
deadly wound, he examined the orchis, and found that what 
appeared new buds were really spiders, lying in wait for bees and 
relying on their resemblance to the flower. Later in the season, 
as the bees sought other plants, the spiders followed. Deprived 
now of the aid of mimicry, the spider used its arts dodging 
about the flower, playing at hide-and-seek with the bee, until it 
got into a favourable position to leap out from its hiding-place 
and strike. Mr. Duncan had even photographs of the ferocious 
larvfe of the dragon-fly and water-beetle fighting. Enlarged on 
the screen, these fantastic creatures looked like nothing so much 
as some of the scaly dragons painted on the walls of the Pavilion 
meeting in pitched battle. 

These photographs, it appeared, were all obtained in the New 
Forest, where Mr. Duncan had spent many months stalking his 
birds and insects. Among many adventures was one that landed 
him up to the armpits in a bog, from which he was an hour in 
extricating himself. Naturally Mr. Duncan had many interesting 
things to say about the people who live in the Forest and their 
customs, which include many survivals of Saxon times. 
Further, he had many photographs of purely pictorial interest, 
and these were of great artistic beauty. 

An important warning issued by Mr. Duncan deserves the 
widest publicity. What with professional collectors and the 
mania of the modern teacher for sending children into the 
country to collect flowers, eggs, and everything else, many of our 
species of wild birds and wild flowers are now within measurable 
distance of extinction. At the beginning of this year he noted 
twenty-four difterent nests for making observations upon. When 
the time came for those observations, he found that collectors 
had taken every egg from every nest. He pleaded for some law 
to stop these depredations. Mr. Duncan mentioned other facts 
which went to show what grave mistakes are made by men when 
they destroy the balance of nature by exterminating some species 
in fancied self-interest. The people in the New Forest 
complained that the deer did damage to their pasturage, and an 
order was issued to exterminate the deer. Now they have not 
half the pasturage they used to have, and the amount is growing 
less and less. Gorse is encroaching on every side from lack of 
the deer to eat the young growths and so keep it within bounds. 



IS 



TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20th, 1906. 



Malabari ^zstrt anh Wgamtlaittr, 

BY 

Mr. H. W. HODSON. 

lUustraterl with Lantern Slides. 



IT is a far cry from the " great thirsts " of the Kalahari desert, 
where one cuts open the paunch of an animal to see if there 
is anything drinkable inside, to a lantern lecture to the Natural 
History Society in civilized Hove. The gap has recently been 
traversed by Mr. H. W. Hodson, son of the Dr. Hodscn who 
has been a well known member of the Hove Town Council. Mr. 
Hodson is an official of the Colonial Office, and has been stationed 
in the Bechuanaland Protectorate. Out there he has had a close 
personal acquaintance with the various peoples and with the 
country, while he seems to have had a good time hunting 
game. He has even shot a lion. Mr. Hodson, now home 
on holiday, told the Natural History Society of some of his 
adventures and observations, adding greatly to the interest of 
what he had to say by excellent photographs shown by the 
lantern. Very modestly did he tell how he became possessed of 
the splendid lion skin he was able to show. He heard a rare 
commotion among the baboons in the forest, and learning that 
it meant a lion was on the warpath, he went in search. He saw 
the lion in a great rage. He had killed a baboon, and the other 
baboons were teasing him, in revenge, and making him very 
savage. But the first time he saw Mr. Hodson the lion, 
apparently rather over-wrought, bolted. The second time, Mr. 
Hodson came suddenly upon the great beast. He was fairly 
cornered ; impenetrable scrub behind, a lion in front, growling, 
and getting ready to spring. " I felt," said Mr. Hodson, " that 
it was no place for me. 1 fired, and, luckily, my first shot did 
all that was necessary." And he gave a vocal imitation of the 
noise the animal made as, checked in its spring, it rolled over and 
died. Mr. Hodson had another curious hunting adventure, 
which, he admitted, sounded like a traveller's tale. He shot 
a hartebee.st, putting two bullets into it. The animal fell, 
apparently dead. He went up to it, and started cutting its 
throat. He had just severed the wind pipe, when he was called 
away. On returning he was amazed to see the animal jump up 
and run off. Assuming that it could not go far, he and a 



16 

Bushman went in pursuit. They followed it, the animal 
apparently always about to be taken, until they discovered they 
were bushed and night was falling. They had to spend the 
night in the forest, and return without the animal. Next day 
he sent a man to try and find it, but the man never came back, 
nor had he heard of him since. Whether the hartebeest killed 
him, or whether he chose to desert, no one could say. 

A tragic incident was touched upon by Mr. Hodson. He 
was talking about the " great thirst," the suggestive name given 
to a track of the desert where one journeyed for five or six days 
without finding a drop of water. Crossing this terrible " thirst," 
he found the body of an Englishman. " The vultures and 
jackals had got there before me, so I will say no moi-e about 
that." Underneath the head was a letter. Mr Hodson read the 
letter to his audience. Terrible in its pathetic brevity, it told 
how the writer was dying of thirst, that he had no strength left, 
and it gave directions for the disposal of certain property. 
" I am dying ; . . . a little water would have saved me." But 
the most pathetic portion of all was the dying man's thought for 
his relatives. He did not wish to harrow them with the know- 
ledge of how he died ; " tell them I died of fever." 

Mr. Hodson was able to tell his audience much about the 
Kalahari desert and of that beneficent provision of nature, 
which, while depriving the land of water, allows for the growth 
of melons, from which the natives obtain both food and drink. 
He protested against the common idea that the Bushman was 
altogether a degraded person ; he might not have much intellect, 
but in knowledge of the conditions under which he lived and of 
his surroundings he was not to be excelled. He knew all the 
lore of nature around him. Another misconception to be 
dispersed was that the ostrich seeks safety by burying its head in 
the sand. He own experience was that as soon as you startled 
an ostrich it was oft' at the speed of a motor-car, and was soon 
out of sight. 

Besides the Kalahari desert, Mr. Hodson had spent some 
time in Wgamiland, which is as well watered as the desert is 
dry, and his observations on these two districts supplied his 
audience with much interesting matter. 

The President of the Natural History Society, Dr. Harrison, 
mentioned that Mr. Hodson has been elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society. 



17 



MONDAY, DECEMBER 10th, 1906. 



®b^ Jltaking of S>ttnzt^, 



BY 



Mr. H. EDMONDS, B.Sc. 
Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 



" mHE Making of Scenery " formed the subject of a lecture 
i delivered at the Royal Pavilion to the members of the 
Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical Society 
by Mr. ; H. Edmonds, B.Sc. Dr. Harrison presided. The 
lecture had little to do with the effect produced on hill and sea 
by light and atmosphere ; but it dealt in a very interesting 
fashion with the preparation by Nature of the raw material of 
beautiful effects. The awful powers of Nature in transforming 
the appearance of the world's surface was Mr. Edmonds' theme. 
In illustration of his points, he shewed a number of excellent 
pictures on the screen, many of which had been prepared for the 
meetings of the British Association. Some of the scenic effects 
portrayed were very remarkable. 



THURSDAY, JANUARY 17th, 1907. 



f 1)£ lariation in lomcsttc ^oinh. 

BY 

Mr. GEORGE FOXALL. 

Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 



WHICH came first, the hen or the egg? Addressing the 
members of the Natural History Society on " The 
Variation in Domestic Fowls," Mr. George Foxall confessed that 
he had nothing to add to the solution of a problem which has 
worried man ever since he could think, but he could say some- 
thing about the beginnings of new species of hens and eggs. 
At first sight one would as soon expect the learned members of 



18 

the Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical 
Society to listen to a lecture on the domestic mangle as upon the 
domestic fowl. The fowl is so very suburban and back-yardian, 
unhappily for those who live in the suburbs and next to those 
back yards. But it did not take Mr. Foxall long to convince 
his hearers that in the study of the domestic fowl there is an 
enormous amount of natural history and quite a considerable 
amount of philosophy. The fowl, so one gathered from Mr. 
Foxall, is one of those things that man has decided Nature could 
not create properly by herself, and man has set himself to assist 
Nature in making fowls as he considers fowls ought to be made. 
The fowl is wonderfully docile to this sort of treatment. A 
dozen years of judicious assistance to Nature will often evolve 
an entirely new species of fowl, not a mongrel, but a pure- 
blooded variety that will go on breeding its own kind. But, 
alas, Mr. Foxall had to confess that the breeder's successes in the 
eternal war with Nature which constitutes the fowl breeder's 
life are only temporary. Nature is too strong for man, and she 
wins in the end. He was convinced that all these new breeds 
were doomed to what was a comparatively quick extinction, and 
that Nature would pursue her undisturbed course, creating fowls, 
of the half-dozen elementary types that she bred in the Indian 
jungles when the natives of Great Britain demanded no other 
clothing but a coat of blue paint. 

At present, however, man finds it a highly interesting and 
lucrative operation inventing new breeds of fowls. He decides 
that one class of fowl would look much better if it resembled a 
swan, and he matches birds of long necks, until at length a bird 
is produced that seems trying to emulate a girati'e. Unhappily, 
if these elongated creatures are left to themselves, they speedily 
revert to their original short necked type Or else man, with an 
eye to his dinner, sets himself to enlarge the plump, meaty 
breast, or extend the length of the back. An artist will seek to 
develope feathers in some particular position, on the head, for 
instance, till he gets his fowl to resemble a chrysanthemum. 
He will provide special " moustache cups " for those curled 
darlings, so that, in drinking, they should not get their fine 
feathers or heavy beards put out of curl. If he is very fastidious, 
he will eschew all fowls that erect their tails above an angle of 
sixty degrees, and mate together only those birds who carry their 
tails at the more graceful angle of forty-five degrees. And so on 
and so on, through all kinds of variations, Mr. Foxall showed 
that he was familiar with all the intricate branches of the 
subject, and, what is more, he gave the Society some useful tips 
in breeding. But he advised the man who did not thoroughly 
understand the subject to shun fowl-farming like the plague. 

One point where man can improve on nature much to man's 
advantage was told by Mr. Foxall to a grateful audience. That 



19 



is, that to crow in the morning, the rooster must stand on tiptoe 
and stretch out his neck. Hence, if you do not wish your 
shimbers disturbed by the early bird, put hi.s perch under a shelf 
too low to let him stretch himself. Then he is silent. 



THUKSDAY, FEBKUARY 21st, 1907. 



Wljt ilonn. 



Dk. SPITTA, F.R.A.S., F.R.M.S. 

Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 



THE lecturer commenced by saying it was difficult to decide 
which was the more awe inspiring — the study of the 
marvellously minute or the causideration of the gigantically great ? 
On a previous occasion he had the pleasure of dwelling upon the 
microscope and its wonderful revelations of things that were 
small ; to-night he hoped to direct the attention of his' audience 
to things that were gigantically great. 

If the Moon were suddenly struck out of existence, what 
would happen ? There would be a wail of woe from all the 
tidal harbours in the world, for the vessels without could not get 
in and those within could not get out. Commerce in consequence 
would be at a standstill. So the Moon might be said to be of 
commercial interest as well as a great friend to the poet and 
painter. 

The lecturer then proceeded to illustrate by slides and 
verbal explanation the origin of the Moon, how it was " cast 
off" from the Earth in very early times owing to its terrific 
revolution on its axis — turning once in three hours instead of 
having a day and night in twenty-four. The Moon was flung 
off and for the same reasons that the drops fly from a mop that 
is rapidly spun round or a stone leaves the sling. 

How the Moon increased its distance till it arrived at its 
present one and how such is measured by the astronomer were 
then very carefully gone into, the lecturer saying he felt that 
after what he had said he felt quite certain all his audience 
would be able to go home and do it at once. 



20 

The phases of the Moon were shown by diagrams first, but 
afterwards by the use of a large white ball, which was illuminated 
by a stage lime-light, so as to enable those present to grasp 
thoroughly the causes that led up to the quarter Moon, full Moon 
and the waning Moon. 

The absence of air on the surface of the Moon, the force of 
gravity on the Moon — 61bs. on the Earth only weighing lib. on 
the Moon — how the Moon was weighed and the terrifia heat and 
the terrific cold experienced by the surface were all liberally 
touched upon, and the consequences of such fully discussed. 

The rate our luminary travelled in space, viz , three 
thousand feet a second, and its continued falling towards the 
earth of about a twentieth of an inch in the same unit of time, 
were then spoken about, and the reason afforded why, though it 
kept falling at this rate, still it never came upon us from above : 
an apparent paradox, though one capable of very easy expla- 
nation to those who gave a few minutes' attention to the subject. 

The structure of the surface and the superficial appearances 
of the Moon were then spoken about, and a series of photographs 
exhibited, some of which were taken by telescopes of quite 
recent manufacture, which showed what an improvement had 
been effected in modern times in comparison with the very first 
photograph ever taken of our luminary, which the lecturer was 
able to show them on the screen. Numerous details of mountain 
structure were also illustrated by the lantern, a large collection 
of slides being employed, and, what made the matter of great 
interest, the actual number of miles across was supplied in 
several instances, one in particular being exactly that of London 
to Brighton. How these mountains were supposed to have been 
formed in early ,days was not the least interesting part of the 
lecture, for it brought home to the audience what gigantically 
great eruptions must have taken place in those prehistoric times. 

After mentioning the part played by the Moon in Eclipses, 
and the explaining of the difference between an eclipse of the 
Sun and the Moon, the lecturer concluded by showing a 
mechanical slide invented by Professor Shackleton, which pro- 
vided his audience with the representation of a real eclipse of 
the Sun. which he said he was able to do at much less expense 
than going to remote parts of the Earth to witness, and with 
far less fatigue. 



21 

THURSDAY, MARCH 21st, 1907. 

Comm0tt parasites ot Cat antr Inj. 

BY 

Mr. G. H. LIVESEY, M.R.C.V.S., 

Illustrated by Specimen Lantern Slides. 



PARASITES. What is a parasite ? Not merely one animal 
living upon another. Because a fox lives upon rabbits and 
poultry he is not therefore a parasite ! One animal is only said 
to be a parasite upon another when the size of the consumer is 
small or even inconsiderable when compared with that of its victim. 
As a rule, animals of a lower order are more often parasitic upon 
those of a higher order, and not the higher upon the lower. 

But every small animal found upon a larger one is not 
necessarily a true parasite. Thus there is mutualism where two 
animals may live together and benefit result to both ; commensalism 
where only one finds benefit, but no injury results to the host 
which acts as a harbour of refuge or supplies most favourable 
conditions of existence ; true parasitism where again only one of 
the two benefits, but it benefits to the extent of shelter and 
sustenance at the c.vpense and to the detiinient of its host. 

Parasitism is very common throughout the natural world, 
and we see it on all sides, and the study of parasitology is 
elucidating many facts concerning disease. I Aeed only mention 
the comparatively new science of bacteriology to remind you 
how science has developed during the last few years, and proved 
that many conditions, which we call disease both in man and 
animals, do not arise, as had been believed for scores of years, 
from purely physical causes but from the presence of minute 
vegetable organisms, bacteria or more commonly called microbes. 
Also let me remind you how such diseases as malaria, supposed 
at one time to be due to bad climate, is now proved to be due to 
minute animal parasites in the blood, having been inoculated 
into the system by the bite of the mosquito. 

I am not going to speak of these minute parasites to-night, 
but will confine my attention to those which hold higher places 
in the natural orders, and of course I only want to draw your 
attention to a few of those parasites which are commonly to be 
found upon dogs and cats in this country. The number is very 
large for these animals, and the dog especially makes an excellent 
host and pays dearly for the privilege. By this statement I 



hope you will not think that I mean the dog is so full of parasites 
that he is not a fit companion to man. Such an idea is foolish. 

Anthropoda. Insecta. 

Piilex Serraticeps. Life History. Belongs to the order 
Insecta and the order Aphaniptera (no wings), which is properly 
a suborder of the Diptera or two-winged insects. They have two 
serrated mandibles used as prickers, two jaws or maxillfc and a 
single rigid tongue. Rudimentary wings in the form of plates, 
size 1-4 m.m. ; remarkable power of jumping. Live on mammals 
and birds and pass from one host to another, female lays about 
twenty eggs in dusty corners of houses, or on any dust heap. 
Eggs hatch in about a week to a thirteen segmented larva with 
no legs, but having bristles. In ten days to a fortnight the larva 
spins a cocoon. From this emerges the young flea, which in 
another fortnight after changing in colour from white to brown 
becomes a perfect insect and at once proceeds in quest of a new 
host to torment. 

Nourishment by sucking blood. Distinctive marks. Species. 

Lice. Pedicnli. Dog has two, cat one. 

Haematopinus pilifam, or true dog louse, 1-2 m.m. long, 
varies in colour from white to brown or purple. It buries head 
in the skin and sucks blood and causes a great deal of itching in 
most animals, but not so much so in dogs. Seen most on the 
shoulders, throat, lips and ears, especially in sporting dogs. 
Female lays a large number of eggs or nits, which are glued to 
the hair. Third generation from one female in two months may 
reach as many as 125,000 young lice ! 

Trichodectes latns, or broad-headed dog louse, does not suck 
blood but devours" the scurf and skin and causes only very little 
irritation. They are very small and often escape observation. 
They are very interesting in connection with the tapeworms. 

Class : Arachnida. 

Order : Acarnia. These give rise to a disease of the host 
named Acariasis. Some of the families of this order are merely 
casual visitors, some eat the skin debris and hair and some are 
blood suckers. Many only cause slight trouble and the disease 
does not extend beyond the point of attack, whilst others, by 
rapidly increasing in numbers, by biting many times and by the 
poison they carry into the skin, their burrows in the skin and 
the intense" irritation they set up cause a serious state of disease 
which is called scabies, or more commonly mange. One of the 
more simple (or non-psoric) Acariasis is that of the 

(a) Ixodidac or Ticks (wood mites). The common dog tick 
or Ixodesricinus. They have been recognised for many hundreds 
of years, and Aristotle speaks of them as Kunoraistes or dog 



•23 

tormentors. They frequent woody places and hang from plants 
ready to attach themselves to any animal that may chance to 
pass. Taking a firm hold with the legs the insect implants the 
rostrum into the skin, where it remains firmly held in place by 
the retrograde teeth. So firm is it that if one tries to pull the 
insect oft' the head will be broken off and remain in the wound. 
The female gorges herself with blood, often swelling to ten times 
her normal size (sometimes as big as an olive). When satiated 
she withdraws her rostrum and falls to the ground, where under 
a stone or bit of wood she lays a heap of eggs and then dies. 
Hatching lasts from 15 to 20 days. The male is brown, the 
female orange coloured, except when full of blood, when she 
becomes purplish. These insects have a special breathing plate 
behind the last two legs. 

(b) The next family, Trombidiidae, furnishes one parasite of 
special interest, Trombidium holosericeum, or red mite, or harvest 
bug. The mature insect lives on grass land and in woods. The 
female lays her eggs in July, and the larva which emerges will 
attach itself to any mammal. Moles and rabbits suffer most, 
but many dogs and many men suffer also, and cats are even 
attacked. The specimens shown were taken from my own dog 
after she had been playing in the garden. They set up a terrible 
itching by implanting the rostrum in the skin and sucking. The 
insect is a bright orange red, and when first seen is about the 
size of the eye of a small needle. The completion of its develop 
ment does not take place on its host, whom it leaves when 
satiated. 

(c) Sarcoptidae. This is one of the most important families 
and is the one which furnishes us with the cau^e of true mange. 
This was named by the Greeks psora or itch, and by the Eomans 
scabies (from scabere, to scratch), and is known in England by 
many names, such as itch, scald, yuek, and mange. Its history 
is common both to man and animals. In Leviticus we read that 
that most expert sanitarian and M.O.H., Moses, excluded mangy 
animals from sacrifice as unclean. In Hannibal's campaign 
against the Gauls both men and horses suft'ered from it. But its 
nature was first discovered by an Arab physician, Avenzoar, who 
lived in the 12th Century. The insect was only determined 
finally to be a sarcopt in 1834 by a Corsican, Kenneir. 

Some idea of the power the disease has of spreading is 
formed when it is seen that each female lays about fifteen eggs — ■ 
ten female and five male. These in fifteen days are mature and 
begin to reproduce their species, so that at this rate from one 
single female in 90 days (about three months) may be produced 
1,000,000 females and 500,000 males ! 

The Sarcoptidae are sub-divided into Sarcoptes, Peoroptes, 
and Symbiotes, and of each there are many varieties. 



24 

Only the Sarcoptes and the Symbiotes are commonly found 
on dogs and cats. 

(a) Sarcoptes. In man, in dogs, in cats (in the skin). 

(b) Symbiotes (Choriopties). In the ear only. 
{(1) Demodex. Follicular mange. 

Life history of each was described. 

Vermes. 

The worms of the dog may be divided into two classes — 
round and flat. 

Round worms or NEMATODES. 

Ascaris Marginata and Ascaris Mystac (of cat). In stomach 
and bowel. 

Anchylostomum Trigonocephalum. In the small intestine. 

Trichocephalus Depressinsculus. In the coecum. 

Spiroptera Sanguinolenta. In tumours of the stomach and 
liver. 

Eustrongylus Gigas. In the kidney. 

Strongylus Vasorum and Spusillus. In the heart and blood 
vessels. 

Filarice immitis. In the heart and blood vessels. 

Life history of each was shortly described. 
Vermes. Cestodes. 

Intermediate host and habitat. 

fT. Serrata, about 3ft., 34 to Cyst, pisiformis. Hares 
38 hooks in two rows. and wild rabbits. 

T. Marginata, 2 yards, 80 to Cyst. TennicoUis. Vari- 
44 hooks, segments short ous parts of oxen, 

and broad. 

T. Coenurus, 2-3ft., 22 to 32 Coenurus Cerebralis. 
£>o(j-\ hooks Brain of sheep. 

T. Echinococcus, 5 m.m., 28 Echinococcus Veterino- 
to 50, 3 segments. rum. Livers of ox 

and man. 

T. Canina (dipylidium canium), Crypto Trichodectis. Dog 
5-25in., 4 rows hooks, 2 louse and flea. 

I pores. 

Cat — T. Crassicollis, 20in., 34. Cyst, fasciolaris. Livers 

of rats and mice. 

A short life history of each was given. 



25 

These worms are peculiar in not being able to complete 
their existence in one host. The chance of an egg becoming a 
mature worm is almost infinitesimal, although one worm may 
produce considerably over a million eggs in less than a year. 

Each egg in order to develop must be taken into the system 
of an intermediate host of a definite species, there to develop 
partly and lie quiescent until its host becomes a prey to the 
dog, when its development may be completed. The fact that the 
intermediate, or cystic stage is passed in many animals used for 
human food should be sufficient warning to us to see that the 
meat mspection of our cities is rigidly carried out by really 
competent persons. 



THURSDAY, APRIL 18th, 1907. 



BY 

Mr. F. R. HORA, B.A., B.Sc. 



THE lecturer, in opening his address, stated candidly that he 
could not offer the Society any researches of his own on the 
important subject of earthquakes, but as he was addressing a 
distinctly cultured audience he proposed treating it from a 
scientific rather than a popular point of view. As regards the 
historical side, he stated that the earliest records of earthquakes 
were to be found in our Bible, and read passages wherein earth- 
quakes were mentioned, such as Moses receiving the law on 
Sinai, the story of Korah, Dathan and Abiram, the fall of 
Jericho, the terrible earthquake in the reign of Uzziah King of 
Judah, and also the scene during Christ's crucifixion. The old 
Greek and Latin writers often alluded to the phenomenon and 
even put forward probable theories to explain it, but the niodern 
and systematic study of the subject started about the beginning 
of the Nineteenth Century and is connected with the names of 
Professor Alexis Perrey, of Dijon, Mr. Robert Mallet and his son, 
and Professor Milne in England, and Major Dutton and Professor 
See in United States, and great results followed from the work 
of the Seismological Society of Japan, established in 1880. 

A slide was then projected on the screen giving Mallet and 
Milne's definition of an earthquake as follows : — An earthquake 
is the transit of a wave or waves of elastic compression or 
elastic contortion in any direction from vertically upwards to 



26 

horizontally, in any azimuth, through the crust and surface of 
the earth, from any centre of impulse, or from more than one, 
and which may be attended with sound and tidal waves, 
dependent upon the impulse and upon circumstances of position 
as to land and sea. This definition was illustrated by a diagram- 
matic representation of the path of a typical earthquake, and 
underneath was given a glossary of the more important terms 
connected with earthquake study, as follows : — (1) Selvn — an 
earthquake ; (2) Seiainoloiiy — the science of earthquakes ; (3) 
Seismometers — instruments to measure the extent of the horizontal 
and vertical components of an earthquake ; (4) Seismograph — 
record of an earthquake motion traced out by a style on a 
moving smoked plate or by a spot of light on a moving roll of 
sensitive paper ; (5) Seismolof/ueft — catalogues giving details of 
all recorded earthquakes ; (6) Centrum, Foral Cairtij or Oiijiin— 
positions in earth's crust from which the elastic waves started ; 
(7) Epicentrum. — point vertically above centrum ; (8) Seisviic 
Vertical — line joining origin and epicentrum ; (9) Wave Paths — 
lines radiating from focus ; (10) A^i/le of Emergence — angle 
made by wave path and the horizon ; (11) Isoseistinc or Coseismic 
lines — lines of equal mechanical effect, theoretically they would 
be circles in a homogeneous medium, in reality they are irregular 
curves; (12) Meizoseismic Area — area of maximum destruction; 
(13) Bradyseism — slow secular upheavals of earth. 

The next slide showed the earliest Seismometer, viz., 
Choko's, a Chinese invention of a.d. 136, — really a pendulum 
instrument, arranged so that the swinging of a pendulum would 
cause a ball to move in a definite direction through a dragon's 
mouth into that of an expectant frog's, who gratefully acknow- 
ledged the receipt of the ball by wagging his head up and down 
for some minutes. Another slide gave diagrammatic represen- 
tations of the pendulum types of Seismometers, — (1) the long 
simple pendulum ; (2) the duplex pendulum, as used by Mr. 
Gray and Professor Ewing ; (8) the horizontal component 
recorder; (4) the vertical component recorder; (5) Darwin's 
bifilar pendulum with moving spot of light ; and, lastly, Pro- 
fessor Milne's perpetual Seismometer and recorder. 

Mr. Hora then discussed the premonitory symptoms of 
earthquakes, such as physiological effects on birds and animals, 
effects on springs, and the sea, subterranean noise, &c., and 
stated that though such symptoms of coming seismic activity 
were exceedingly vague, yet well authenticated prognostications 
were recorded. The effects of a typical earthquake were then 
detailed — the minute vibrations of a period of l-5th to l-20th 
of a second, the shock itself with a period of one or two or more 
seconds, and the after shocks ; moreover, the lecturer remarked 
that the vibrations were generally performed in different azimuths, 
there being a twisting movement as well as a vertical and 



27 

horizontal one ; also, the number of shocks in one locality varied 
enormously, 1,000 shocks a day have been recorded, whilst 
Calabria was affected by shocks for ten years after the great 
earthquake of 1783. The amplitude of vibration in a horizontal 
direction varied from a fraction of a millimetre to about 70 mms. 
(three inches), the vertical amplitude being much less, never 
more than 10 mms. The velocity of the earthquake wave 
depended on the strata through which it travelled and the 
intensity of the shock and the distance from the origin, varying 
from a few hundreds to several thousand feet per second. The 
lecturer remarked that the characteristic sound which often 
accompanied an earthquake might be due to the folding and 
contortion of strata or by the rapid vibrations of the earth's 
surface being communicated to the air and air waves being formed. 

The effect of earthquakes on land and sea were then described 
at length, such as faulting (the nature of which was explained 
by diagram), cracking of the earth, the overturning of buildings, 
the ejection of liquids and gases from fissures thus formed, the 
damming of rivers, and the stopping and starting of water 
springs, and the remarkable but terrible effects of the so-called 
tidal waves. Details of numerous examples to illustrate these 
effects were given. 

Slides were then shown of earthquake effects, some illus- 
trating cracking and even contortion effects on buildings, whilst 
others served to illustrate the destructive effects of recent earth- 
quakes at San Francisco, Valparaiso, and Kingston (Jamaica). 
A short account was given of the numerous mythological and 
pseudo-scientific explanations of earthquake phenomena — such as 
motions of mythical monsters within the earth, also supposed 
chemical effects, such as sulphur being burnt, imprisoned air, &c. 
At the present day only two theories held the field, and of these 
one seemed more or less dependent on the other. Before 
discussing these, Mr. Hora asked the audience to carefully 
examine Professor Milne's map showing distribution of earth- 
quakes in space, and he projected the map on the screen, 
drawing special attention to the fact that, with the exception of 
the Alpine and South Himalayan regions, all areas of seismic 
activity corresponded with modern volcanic activity, and that the 
400 known volcanoes all lie within a distance of fifty miles from 
the sea coast, and lastly that the highest mountains as a rule 
faced correspondingly deep depressions in the ocean. He also 
drew attention to the varied nature of the ocean beds, the 
mountainous character of which seem to surpass that of the earth. 

Of these two theories, that of the explosion of steam within 
the crust of the earth, generally below the ocean bed near the 
shore, was hinted at by Aristotle, Lucretius, and Pliny, and 
definitely stated by Strabo ; it is alluded to by Shakespeare, but 
in modern times was put forward definitely by Mr. Robert Mallet 



28 

in the early part of the nineteenth century. As evidence of the 
porosity of the earth's crust, Mr. Hora drew attention to the 
celebrated Florentine experiment of the sixteenth century, in 
which the water contained in a thick hollow spherical gold shell 
was forced through the solid by decreasing the volume of the 
hollow interior by changing the sphere's shape. Moreover, the 
lecturer remarked, still more wonderful were the experiments of 
D'Aubigny, who 40 years ago showed that water by capillary 
attraction only could be made to penetrate almost anything. 
Thus it could be easily understood that a constant supply of 
water would be passing gradually through the ocean bottom into 
the solid crust below, where it would be converted into super- 
heated steam at an enormous pressure. 

The theory not only accounted satisfactorily for the remark- 
able coincidence of regions of volcanic activity with those of 
seismic activity, but it gave a very beautiful explanation of 
mountain formation. 

The lecturer drew attention here to the modern view of the 
earth's interior, viz., that it was probably a solid core and a thin 
solid crust, but that between the crust and the core might be a 
thin layer of molten lava, ready to flow out on to the earth 
wherever there was a deep fissure or volcanic break which 
permitted its egress. Elie de Beaumont, about 1830, sought to 
explain the formation of mountains by the contraction of the 
earth's crust due to secular cooling — the " dried apple skin " 
theory as it was sometimes termed — a theory which, though it 
had held the field for many years and was simple to understand 
and apparently supported by many mechanical experiments to 
illustrate it, yet seemed likely to be abandoned, after the destruc- 
tive criticism levelled against it by the Rev. 0. K. Fisher (in his 
book "Physics of the Earth's Crust"), Professor Suess, Sir 
Archibald Geikie, and others, in favour of the idea that mountain 
chains have arisen from subvolcanic explosions of steam, and 
that during seismic activity a tangential thrust towards the land 
from the sea causes the lava below the crust to be forced up near 
the seashore, and thus a chain of mountains results. Slides were 
shown to illustrate this idea, and also how table lands or elevated 
plateaux could be explained in the same manner. Mr. Hora 
stated that as a corollary all mountain ranges must be of volcanic 
origin, and to this statement the Alps and Himalayas seemed 
exceptions, but it was only right to state that these are quite 
recent upheavals and that the original volcanic axes may be 
concealed and buried beneath the thick masses of the nummulitic 
limestone which make up these mountains. 

The rival theory, originally stated about 1831 by Bous- 
singault, and now supported by a large band of seismologists, 
such as Professor Milne in England and Major Button in the 
United States, is known as the " Tectonic " theory and supposes 



29 

that seismic activity was due to faulting of strata chiefly in 
regions where recent secular upheavals have occurred and where 
the gradients are very steep (so-called " monoclinal folding"). 
The supporters of this theory state that steam explosions may 
cause some (but only a few) of the milder earthquakes, but that 
it is inconceivable that such tremendous effects and these spread 
over such large areas could be produced by the agency of sub- 
terranean steam only. Mr. Hora thought that the weakness of 
this latter theory consisted in the fact that faulting and disloca- 
tions of strata seemed symptoms only of some still more mighty 
forces at work within the earth's crust, and such forces its 
supporters maintained were due to secular contraction — a theory 
which, as stated above, was hardly tenable in the light of modern 
researches. 

The lecture was concluded by a few remarks on submarine 
volcanoes and bradyseismic movements. As regards the former 
a slide was shown of a typical submarine eruption as it appeared 
at sea, and the lecturer remarked that they were very common 
indeed, almost as common as terrestrial eruptions. He then 
showed a slide of the remarkable island which rose from the 
Mediterranean Sea in 1831 and remained in existence only three 
weeks, — it was known as "Graham's Island," and evidently 
resulted from a submarine eruption. To illustrate bradyseismic 
movements, Mr. Hora showed a woodcut of the celebrated 
remains of the temple of " Jupiter Serapis " on the coast of 
Italy, and explained that there must have been at least five 
alternate subsidences and elevations within the last 2,000 years. 

Darwin's coral reef theory afforded a splendid example of 
slow subsidence of the ocean bed, and a slide was shown to 
illustrate the three stages of a coral reef's evolution. Having 
explained that corals could only live in salt water at a tempera- 
ture never below 68° F., nor at a depth greater than 90ft. from 
the sea surface, the question arose — " How came it that numerous 
coral islands lie studded in groups in all the great oceans, 
especially the South Pacific ? " Darwin suggested that a 
" fringing " reef was first formed near some island and this by 
subsidence was converted into a "barrier" reef, and when the 
island disappeared altogether by further subsidence an "atoll " 
or ring of coral only remained, hence the atoll was the tomb- 
stone of a departed island. This theory, despite the attacks 
made upon it by Agassiz, Sir John Murray, and other naturalists, 
had been verified by borings made recently at Funafuti, and 
although there was evidence now that some coral reefs had arisen 
by deposition on submarine volcanoes or on shore platforms or 
submarine flats formed by the erosion of pre-existing land 
surfaces, and not by subsidence, still a large number of them 
certainly came into existence in the way that Darwin had 
suggested. 



30 



THURSDAY, MAY 16th, 1907. 



EXTRACT OF A PAPER ON 

f tjmn 3FIinl Impknt^nts JFounb n^ar 
Srtjliton. 



Mr. H. S. TOMS. 



FIVE years ago I had the pleasure of reading to this Society 
a paper on " Some Prehistoric Camping Grounds near 
Brighton," and, as that paper was stated to be but a preliminary 
report of my local investigations, it may be thought that I am 
about to occupy you with a further instalment of the same 
subject. Let me assure you that this is far from my intentions. 
I may say, though, that I and my friends have paid considerable 
attention to our local camping grounds since the reading of my 
paper, and, as we are being constantly rewarded with interesting 
discoveries and new material, the period for the presentation of 
anything like a final report to this Society gets more hazy every 
day. In many respects it seems fortunate that we are thus 
unable to trouble you with anything but preliminary or imperfect 
reports on our periodic discoveries. 

During the course of the evening brief allusion to the local 
camping grounds will be made ; but my present subject has to 
do with discoveries markedly different to those brought before 
you on the last occasion. " Pigmy Flint Implements found 
near Brighton " is the subject for this evening, and the first 
thing I have to say in connection with them is that the word 
"Pigmy " is applied, not to the prehistoric people who made and 
used them, but to the implements themselves. When you are 
told that some of these little tools are so small that 64 taken 
together weigh less than half an ounce, I think you will agree 
that they thoroughly deserve their name. 

In the foregoing slides we have seen the simple artificial 
chip and the various kinds of flake instruments commonly found 
with the larger stone tools and human remains of prehistoric 
man in many parts of the world, and their use has been made 
pretty clear owing to the same types having continued to be 
made by savage tribes down to the present day. 



From the Associated " Find " near Briehton. 




Typical Cores. 





TheSiFlint Axe or Adze.i! 








Typical Pigmies. 



Selected Flakes. 



(Scale shown. Three Inches.) 






'<?-0,»Al- ^\V 



31 

The remarkable pigmy implements which I am about to 
describe have not such a world-wide distribution. With possibly 
one exception they have not been found associated with human 
remains or with the ordinary large stone tools of prehistoric man. 
Again, no modern savage uses anything like them, so we are left 
to conjecture the purposes for which they were made. 

Having said this much, let us have a look at a comparative 
series of the pigmies. I repeat they are not found the world 
over. So far, they have only been recorded from the Vindhya 
Hills, India, and a few places in Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, 
Spain, France, and Belgium. In England also their localities 
are not numerous, the principal being in East Lancashire, 
Lincolnshire, and Sussex. Though the spots where they are 
found are few, it is encouraging to note that, wherever discovered, 
they exist in large numbers. 

Of the specimens before us, the first thing I have to draw 
attention to is their size. The smallest in the top row is 
^in. long, the largest, in the bottom row, does not exceed ^ of 
an inch. All are made from artificial flakes and each specimen 
has one of its edges covered - with secondary chipping, thus 
showing they were intended for some special purpose. The first 
row is from Scunthorpe in Lincolnshire, the middle Indian, and 
the bottom from Lakenheath in Suffolk. The remarkable point 
about them is that the implements from various places are so 
much alike in shape and size that, if a representative series were 
placed in a box and shaken up, it would be an impossible task to 
reclassify them according to locality. 

The Indian varieties were found in the caves and rock 
shelters among the Vindhya Hills in places difficult of access and 
unknown to the ordinary traveller. Some were found in the 
alluvium at the mouth of the caves, where they had been washed 
out and were caught in the ledges of the rock. Within the caves 
they were found in the uppermost strata, while, immediately 
beneath, but separated from them, were larger implements, 
different in size, kind and style. Crescent-shaped pigmy imple- 
ments were found in the grave mounds of the neighbourhood of 
the caves, leading one to suppose that the inhabitants of the 
caves, who made these implements, built the mounds and here 
buried their dead.* 

This shows us a typical series of the Vindhya Hills "find." 
In 1, 2, 3 rows are the various forms of the pigmy tools, in 4 the 
long symmetrical simple flakes, in 5 the rough flakes. Eows 
i and 5 ai'e examples of the waste flakes struck off" in obtaining 
forms suitable for conversion into pigmies, and in row 6 are the 
cores from which the chips were made. The latter are extremely 
small, and the next slide shows us six of these which are in the 
Brighton Museum. 

* Smithsonian Report, 1892, p. 456. 



32 

Here we see the same forms of minute tools found in Central 
and Southern France. 

With few exceptions the English pigmies have been found 
confined to patches of sandy ground from 30 acres in extent 
down to 100 square yards ; and, owing to their being discovered 
on the surface and unaccompanied by any of the larger tools 
typical either of Early or Late Stone Age man, it has been found 
impossible to determine with certainty the true position they 
occupy in the prehistoric periods of the countries to which they 
belong. It is true that a few large examples of the same type 
have been found in the French caverns with the remains of 
pahvolithic man, but recent discoveries seem to indicate that the 
true pigmies were made in the Later Stone Age or Neolithic 
period. 

As the question of the uses to which these small tools were 
put is still open, one cannot pass it by without taking a personal 
"pot-shot." Many probable suggestions have been brought 
forward in answer to this query. It is thought they may have 
been used for tattooing, as barbs for arrows or harpoons, as 
fishhooks, etc. Many of the larger specimens would have made 
most excellent arrowpoints, and that the same forms were so 
used in late pah^olithic times we have unmistakable evidence in 
this slide.* This shows us two lumbar vertebrse of a young 
reindeer found in the Grotto of Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. 
Both are pierced with one of these flint points, thus showing 
that the animal was shot in the back by the cave men, who 
kindly left the arrow points i)i sitit so that we might have some- 
thing to enlighten us in these studious days. 

The most interesting discovery of flint implements yet 
recorded from Sussex is that made by Mr. W. J. Lewis Abbott on 
the rock ledges in front of the cliff caves at Hastings. Our next 
slide shews the excavation of what is presumed to be an ancient 
refuse heap situated on the rock ledge just under the mouth of 
one of the Hastings caves. Here it was that Mr. Lewis Abbott 
found a large number of the various types of pigmy flint 
instruments. Associated with them were hundreds of flint 
flakes, cores, hollow scrapers, cooking-stones, pottery, and the 
bones of the shorthorn ox, pig, horse, sheep, goat, dog, wolf, fox, 
hare, rabbit, badger, birds, fishes and shells. 

Here are shown some of the Hastings finds. First we have 
the pigmies, some of which have been mounted by Mr. Abbott 
to show what they might have been used for ; drilled bones, 
probably used as ornaments ; and a flint core, showing us how 
prehistoric man failed in his attempt to get oft' a flake which 
would have made an admirable pigmy tool. 

* La Gaule avaiit les Gaulois, par. M. Alexandre Bertrand, 1891. 
p. 97, figs. 76 and 77. 



33 

Mr. Lewis Abbott says that " One or two fragments of bone 
showed signs of carving. One was a well-made stiletto, another 
a portion of a needle. The most interesting circumstance 
connected with the bones was that the flint wedges were found 
in sitH in the bones, as they were used for splitting them. (One 
of these is shown on the screen.) The whole of the marrow 
bones were thus split for marrow and the skulls for brains ; and 
even bones which contain no marrow were often similarly 
reduced, possibly for either boiling to extract grease or for use in 
making bone tools."* 

No large tools, such as the flint axe, were found with the 
pigmies at Hastings. 

Pigmy implements have also been found at Fairlight by Mr. 
Kuskin Buttertield, at Pulborough by Mr. Garraway Eice, F.S.A., 
and at four places near Horsham by Messrs. C. J. Attree and 
E. J. G. Piflard. Compared with the other finds in England, 
Sussex has therefore proved very rich in this interesting group 
of diminutive flint tools. 

Now let me give you the history of my discovery of pigmy 
flint instruments near Brighton. A year or two ago I was 
particularly interested in that class of neolithic tool known as 
hollow scrapers. These, which I fully explained in my last paper, 
are artificial chips of flint, with little notches chipped out of 
their sides, used for scraping objects of wood or bone, such as 
the shafts of arrows or bone needles. At the time of which I 
speak I had occasion to visit a sandpit near Brighton in connection 
with the discovery of antiquities other than stone tools. But, 
having let my mind run riot on hollow scrapers, even the 
discovery of more important remains did not prevent me from 
keeping a sharp look out for them whenever I happened to be in 
a likely locality. 

The sand pit alluded to has a capping of clayey mould on 
an average about 2ft. deep. In order that this mould shall not 
mix with the sand, it is removed in large patches by the work- 
man and the top of the deep bed of sand is thus exposed. I 
cannot show you a slide or give you a detailed descripion of the 
sand-pit, otherwise the secret which I am unfortunately compelled 
to keep will be mine no longer. Let me therefore say that, in 
walking over the top of the sand from which the surface mould 
had been removed. I picked up a very small hollow scraper and 
several unworked flint chips. These gave me the clue to a new 
site, and when visiting the spot again I found other minute flint 
chips, including one, very like a tiny knife blade, with beautiful 
secondary working all the way down the thick edge and on the 
two ends of the sharp edge as well. It was quite unlike anything 

• " Primeval Refuse Heaps at Hastings," by W. J. Lewis Abbott, 
F.G.S. ; Natural Science, August, 1897, p. 95. 



34 

I had found before. Shortly after, when sending some things to 
the British Museum, I enclosed this minute tool together with 
the hollow scraper, asking that they should be shown to Mr. Read 
for his opinion as to whether they were pigmy implements. The 
answer was that Mr. Read considers them true pigmies. There- 
fore, knowing that wherever pigmy implements occurred they 
were generally to be found in large numbers, you may imagine 
that my zeal for the ordinary hollow scraper was suddenly 
eclipsed and that it was not long before I was again in that sand 
pit assiduously hunting for this new kind of minute tools. 
Several were turned up at each visit, and I found they occurred 
over the whole area of the rising ground where the sand had 
been exposed, that is to say, in a space about 200 by 50 yards. 
But an enthusiastic member of our Archaeological Club has, 
quite independently of me, still further extended this area, and 
we now know that the pigmies occur along the rise of the land 
for a distance of nearly a 1,000 yards. In this respect the site 
agrees with the finds made in other parts of England, where the 
productive areas range from 30 acres in extent down to 
100 square yards. 

Such was the origin of my discovery of pigmies near 
Brighton. Ever since I and one or two friends have followed it 
up with the utmost enthusiasm. Not content with looking over 
the top of the sand and the heaps of refuse mould, I closely 
examined the sides of the sandpit to discover, if possible, some 
of the pigmies in situ. In this, too, I met with success, for 
several were pulled out about 18in. deep in the capping of the 
mould, whilst others were found protruding lower down at the 
point where the mould and sand meet. Flakes were also met 
with at the same levels. 

Having ascertained this much, the mode of procedure next 
introduced was the poking of the sandpit's sides with the end of 
one's walking stick. This, too, was surprisingly successful, for at 
one point in the side of the old roadway leading into the sandpit 
the walking stick exposed a layer of artificial flint chips about 
2ft. 6in. from the surface and a little below the level of the top 
of the sand. 

Investigation with hands and walking stick was ener- 
getically pursued, and the result of this prehistoric method of 
excavation was beyond one's most ardent hopes. Handful after 
handful of the flakes were pulled out, and it was observed that 
they were lying on the bottom of a small basin-shaped pit 
scooped out of the mould down into the sand beneath. This 
slide shews a typical selection of the best flakes. 

Soon after operations were commenced a " pigmy " was 
pulled out with a handful of these flakes ; then came the cores 
from which the flakes were struck ; burnt flints used in primitive 
cooking ; then more pigmies ; scrapers ; hollow scrapers ; now 



35 



something fairly large, namely, a flint axe of purely neolithic 
type, which, I think I am correct in stating, has never before 
been found in actual or indisputable association with pigmy flint 
implements. 

When the spoils were brought home and laid out it was 
found that as many as seventy pigmies had been turned out 
from the bottom of this shallow hole. A representative series is 
shown on the screen. These are the scrapers found. One is 
broken by fire. In form they are long or spatulate, and the 
same type occurred with the Hastings find. 

Nearly 2,000 flakes came out of the hole, and the interest 
of these was considerably enhanced by the discovery of about 
thirty flint nodules or cores from which the flakes were obtained. 
This slide shows us three examples of the cores, and the centre 
one tells the same tale as the Hastings core, namely, how the 
prehistoric workman sometimes failed in getting off the flake he 
desired for conversion into a pigmy instrument. 

From the hole or pit, which was about six feet in diameter, 
no trace of bones was turned out, neither was any pottery found, 
so, in these respects, the " find ' dift'ered from that of Hastings. 

What then is the story which the contents of this small pit 
have to tell ? This question opens up a wide field for the 
imagination, and, I must admit, that it cannot be fully answered 
in the present stage of our knowledge of early man ; for, instead 
of simplifying matters, these discoveries show how complex are 
the problems connected with the study of prehistoric remains. 

Briefly put, the fragmentary story revealed by the discovery 
near Brighton is as follows : — 

The existence of the minute implements, together with 
artificial chips and cores over such a wide area, which is situated 
some distance away from the Downs on the Weald, plainly 
indicates that this spot possessed certain features which were of 
advantage to prehistoric man. Here he brought flint nodules in 
order to produce chips from which to form these tiny implements. 
The fact that the latter occur in such numbers seems to prove 
they were used on the spot and then discarded. The discovery 
with the flakes and pigmies of flints showing traces of having 
been in or pretty close to a fire tells us another fragment of the 
story. These, as I explained in my last paper, were used in 
primitive cooking operations, and we may thus regard the whole 
area as having been, at some prehistoric time, a settlement or 
camping ground of the Britons of the Weald. 

The discoveries in the pit supply remarkable confirmation 
of this. Over this hole, which he dug down through the stiff 
mould into the sand, the Ancient Briton probably erected some 
sort of tent, in order to supply shelter from inclement weather 
or from the rays of the sun. Afterwards it served as his 



workshop, and the objects, which form the subject of our 
entertainment this evening, were the things he left behind. 
Many of the pigmies, flakes, cores, etc., so found show undoubted 
signs of proximity to fire ; so, if these marks were not produced 
by cooking operations within the pit, the alternative inference is 
that some prehistoric wag must have burnt the occupant out of 
house and home. 

The existence of this pit and its interesting remains very 
strongly suggests that the whole settlement was originally 
covered with similar holes dug down into the sand, and that the 
pigmies, flakes, etc., found over the disturbed area were 
originally in dtu in such pits. It seems a pity that their 
destruction by the extraction of sand should have been going on 
for nearly twenty years without any observations having been 
made. But, as the most likely spots are yet untouched, I am 
hoping that precautions will be taken to ensure the proper 
supervision necessary for the preservation and recording of 
" finds" similar to mine 

The importance of the find before us is of no small order. 
As an undoubted associated discovery it will be of the utmost 
value in the comparative study of the other Sussex pigmies. I 
have already stated that nearly all the English pigmies occur on 
the surface of settlements, and this fact renders the period to 
which they belong highly problematic. Although this period 
has been roughly fixed as not earlier than late neolithic times, 
none of the larger implements characteristic of this period has 
hitherto been found with the pigmies. Therefore the discovery 
of the purely neolithic axe or adze with the other objects in the 
pit is, probably, the most important piece of evidence with 
regard to the period of the pigmies yet brought to light. 

In conclusion brief reference has to be made to the style of 
workmanship displayed in the fabrication of the pigmies. The 
rough cores and the large number of unworked chips found in 
the pit supplies good evidence that, in obtaining a flake suitable 
for conversion into a pigmy, the ancient Briton had the same 
difficulties to contend with as the Australian savage has in the 
manufacture of his stone knives. If we divide the flakes found 
in the pit by the number of pigmies, we ascertain that 20 to 30 
flakes were struck from the cores before the desired result was 
arrived at. This is a rough estimate, but I think it is fairly 
accurate. Having secured the proper kind of flake, how did he 
convert it into a pigmy ? I presume to say " by pressure," 
either with a piece of bone or with another stone, for I have 
made exact copies of them with both objects by this method. 

The only object of the prehistoric chipper's paraphernalia 
which I did not find in the pit was his flint hammer which he 
used in chipping the cores ; but I think we have here (nodule) 
the instrument he used in pressing oflf the minute secondary 



37 

flakes when making the pigmies. Several of these nodules with 
worn edges were found by Mr. Lewis Abbott at Hastings, and he 
is in agreement with me as to the purpose for which they were 
used. 

The highest stage attained by prehistoric man in the art of 
flint chipping is exemplified in the inimitable examples of arrow- 
heads and knives, shewn in our first few slides, the workmanship 
of which was undoubtedly accomplished by the difficult method 
of punch and hammerstone flaking. So far, I believe, none of 
this beautiful work has been found actually associated with the 
pigmies,* and, as they were all shaped by the comparatively easy 
method of pressure flaking, we cannot regard them as evidence 
of a very high standard of flint chipping. This point deserves 
special attention, for, provided no traces of the highest class of 
flaking are found with future discoveries, it will afford additional 
grounds for believing that this class of minute tools was made 
by a race, or tribes, quite distinct from the prehistoric Britons 
with whose remains we find the beautifully worked arrowheads 
along the Downs of Sussex. 

May I hope that my remarks have served to demonstrate 
that which cannot be too earnestly impressed upon all who have 
the advance of knowledge at heart, namely, that the archaeo- 
logical harvest in these parts, at one time truly plenteous, has 
been scattered by the winds of ignorance and apathy. About 
this wonderful County of ours patches of the grain still lie 
concealed, but the gleaners are few. If further destruction is to 
be arrested, if this material is to be gathered so that we may 
piece together and read aright the marvellous story of our 
prehistoric forerunners, then more gleaners are necessary, more 
enthusiasm must be shewn ; and, what is all-important, the 
work of discovery and recording must be carried out, not by 
antiquated methods, but in a co-operative spirit and by rigid 
adherence to scientific rules. 

The Brighton and Hove Natural History Society has long 
played an important part in the intellectual development of the 
County, and it is with the knowledge that its Members are ever 
willing to exert their influence in the noble cause of local 
archaeology that I have ventured to trouble you again this 
evening. 



* Note. — A very small barbed arrowhead covered with beautiful 
secondary chipping has recently been found by Mrs. E. J. G. Pififard, 
on one of the pigmy sites, near Horsham. 



38 



THURSDAY, JUNE 6th, 1907. 



(Hmm^al Demerol [|}e:eti^(!r. 



Report of the Council 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 6th, 1907. 



The Council have pleasure in reporting that during the year 
now past, the 53rd year of the Society's existence, the Society 
has fully maintained its position and successfully carried out the 
objects with which on the 1st September, 1854, il was founded. 

Eight Lectures and Papers have been given and read during 
the Session, all having been illustrated with Lantern Slides. 
Two of the Meetings were held at Hove, the remainder in 
Brighton. The attendance at these Meetings on the whole has 
been good. 

The financial position of the Society is satisfactory, there 
being a balance in the hands of the Treasurer of £22 2s. 8d., in 
addition to which there is a sum of £100 Consols invested on 
behalf of the Society. 

There are now 140 Members of the Society, comprising two 
Life Members, 19 Lady Members, 108 other ordinary Members, 
and 11 Honorary Members. This number differs but little from 
the number of Members at the commencement of the Session, 
the losses by death and resignation being equalled by the 
accession of new Members. 

The Council regret to have to record a loss to the Society by 
the death during the year of Mr. J. W. Nias, who for many 
years rendered it service in the capacity of one of the Honorary 
Auditors ; and also by the death of Mr. W. Seymour Burrows, 
a Past President and Vice-President of the Society. The death 
of such distinguished authority on British mosses as Mr. 
W. Mitten, who was an Honorary Member of the Society for 
many years, must not pass without an expression of the Society's 
regret. 



Mr. Isaac Wells, an old ]\Iember of the Society, has con- 
sented to act with Mr. A. F. Graves, in future, as Honorary 
Auditor. 

The Council desire to record in this Report the fact that 
Alderman John Colbatch Clark, J. P., is now entering upon his 
fiftieth year of office as Honorary Secretary of the Society, a 
circumstance which is very rare, if not unprecedented in the 
history of any Society. Mr. Colbatch Clark became a Member of 
the Society on the 14th August, 1856, and commenced to officiate 
as Honorary Secretary during the Session 1857-1858, and the 
Council feel that the Society owes in a very large measure its 
present position to the assiduous attention he has always given 
to its interests, coupled with the business ability, tact and 
courtesy he has always shown in connection with the fulfilment 
of his duties as Honorary Secretary. 

The following are the titles of the papers contributed during 
the past Session : — 

15th Nov., 1906. " Forest Life." By Mr. Martin Duncan. 

20th Nov., 1906. "Kalahari Desert and Wgamiland." 

By Mr. H. Wienholdt Hodson. 

10th Dec, 1906. " The Making of Scenery." 

By Mr. H. Edmonds, B.Sc. 

17th Jan., 1907. " The Variation in Domestic Fowls." 

By Mr. George Foxall. 
21st Feb., 1907. " The Moon." 

By Dr. Spitt.^, F.R.A.S., F.R.M.S. 

2Ist Mar., 1907. " Common Parasites of Cat and Dog." 

By Mr G. H. Livesay, M.R.C.V.S. 

18th April, 1907. "Earthquakes." 

By Mr. F. R. Hor.^, B.A., B.Sc. 

16th May, 1907. "Pigmy Flint Implements Found Near 

Brighton." By Mr. H. S. Toms. 

The following is a list of the Excursions and Visits to places 
of interest during the past year, viz. : — 

•23rd June, 1906. Firle Park. 

2 1st July, 1906. Goring— Highdown Hill— Miller's Tomb. 

29th Aug., 1906. Angmeriag — Poling— Arundel. 

29th Sept., 1906. Southwick Electricity Works. 

22nd Nov., 1906. Lewes — Phoenix Iron Works. 

4th Dec, 1906. Preston Manor House. 

16th Jan., 1907. Electrical Exhibition at the Aquarium. 



40 

16th Feb. 1907. National Telephone Company's Exchange, 
Brighton. 

27th Mar., 1907. Sussex Coach and Motor Works, Brighton. 

15th April, 1907. Warren Farm Schools, Brighton. 

11th May, 1907. Devil's Dyke and Bramber. 

1st June, 1907. Tilgate Forest. 

Mr. Henry Davey has undertaken the arrangement of the 
Field Excursions during the ensuing year. 



HON. LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 

JUNE 6th, 1907. 



During the past year the following serials have been 
purchased and added to the Library : — 

Annals of Botany. Nature. 

Zoologist. Geological Magazine. 

Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. Entomologist. 
Journal of Botany. 

The publications of the Ray Society and Palaeontographical 
Society and the Reports and Proceedings of various other 
Societies with which the Society is associated have also been 
received. 

The number of books issued out of the Library to Members 
has been about 70, and the general public have as heretofore 
taken advantage of the opportunity afforded them of using the 
Society's library, which now consists of upwards of 2,500 
volumes, for the purposes of reference. 

ROBERT MORSE, 

Hon. Librarian. 




THE ENGINE ROOM, showing three TORBO-Geni in 




TORS. The Motor Generator is seen on the Left. 



41 



>0mtu'a fecursions. 



SATUEDAY, JULY 21st, 1906. 

The members of the Societj took train to Worthing and 
walked from there to the fine old Parish Church of Broadwater ; 
thence they went to the cemetery to see the tomb of Richard 
Jefferies. The walk along the shady road to Highdown Hill 
was extremely pleasant, and they found the Millet's Tomb being 
renovated ; the ironwork removed and the lettering being 
repainted. The Keltic Camp on the top of the hill was then 
visited and the splendid panorama of Sea and Downs much 
admired. Tea was taken at a cottage at the base of the hill, 
after which the party strolled to Goring Station, returning by 
train. 



SATUEDAY, SEPTEMBEE 1st, 1906. 

By the kind invitation of the President, Dr. Harrison, 
members were invited to visit Poling and take tea in the open 
air. After training to Angmering they strolled to Poling 
Church, thenee to a farm, The Peckhams, which retains in its 
building some of the old work of the stables of the Knights of 
St. John, whose Priory, now the residence of Sir Harry Johnston, 
the well-known African Hunter and Explorer, is situated at a 
short distance. By his courtesy a visit was made to the old 
house, which has been recently restored by the explorer's brother, 
the church architect. The work has been very cleverly done 
and the old chapel could be traced. The curios from Africa 
interested the members very much. After tea the great Decoy 
in the neighbourhood was made a halting place on the return to 
Angmering station. 



SATUEDAY, SEPTEMBEE 29tu, 1906. 

This visit was to the new Electric Light Works at South- 
wick. A large party assembled to see the great undertaking by 
Brighton, and were met by Mr. Christie, the engineer, who 
conducted them round, carefully and clearly explaining the 
machinery in detail. The turbines interested the Members, 
perhaps, more than anything else. In thanking Mr Christie, 
the President expressed the satisfaction he felt at the judicious 



42 

way in which the public money had been spent. At the con- 
clusion of the visit, Mr. Christie presented each member with a 
copy of the illustrated description of the works, issued in the first 
place for the opening ceremony by the Right Hon. .John Burns. 
In the engine room are three generators of 1,800 kilo-watts 
each, of the latest turbine-driven type. High-tension alternating 
three-phase current is generated by these machines at 8,000 
volts, and transmitted through five trunk mains to the North 
Road Works, 4f miles away, where a large sub-station has been 
erected as an annexe to the old generating station. Here the 
high-tension alternating current is transformed down to low- 
tension continuous current, and is distributed for lighting, 
power, and traction, through theold system of mains. 



SATURDAY, OCTOBER 20th, 190(5. 

FALMER WATERWORKS PUxMPING 
MACHINERY. 

Another very interesting and instructive little outing 
was enjoyed by the members, when, through the courtesy 
of the Waterworks Committee of the IBrighton Town Council 
and Mr. .J. Johnston, the Waterworks Engineer, they paid a 
visit to the new pumping station at Falmer. The party, 
numbering between 40 and 50, arrived at the works shortly after 
three o'clock, and were received by Mr A. Stone, the Engineer 
in charge of the station, who conducted them over the premises 
and explained the working of the machinery. The clean and 
neat appearance of the whole place, even the coal store and 
boiler house, was particularly noticeable, everything — floors, 
walls, engines, and boilers — Avere as spick and span as a man-o'- 
war, and the admirable order in which everything was kept was 
very favourably commented upon by the visitors. The party 
was first shewn the engine-house, with its two sets of inverted 
triple-expansion direct-acting steam engines (only one of which 
was at work), which drive the six deep well pumps which raise 
the water from the two wells and deliver it into the large 
reservoir outside, whence it is sent by the six force pumps into 
the mains to the various reservoirs in Brighton. 

A very ingenious little engine, called a " barring engine," 
for setting in motion the huge flywheel of each set of pumps 
was shewn at work and the Westinghouse air-charger for filling 
the great air vessels used to equalize the pressure in the mains, 
the auxiliary feed pump, which also works the travelling overhead 
crane, and the electric recorder shewing the depth, of water ia 



43 

the reservoir outsicle, were inspected, after which the party 
descended to the ground floor, where the huge pumps could be 
seen pounding away, forcing the water through the great suction 
and delivery pipes. The deep well, 212 feet deep, with a bore of 
14 feet by 10 feet, was also inspected, and then a move was 
made to the boiler-house, where the five huge Lancashire boilers, 
the ingenious economizers for utilizing the waste gases, the 
coal store, and the little tramway for the coal trolleys, were also 
viewed in turn, after which the party went outside and had a 
glimpse of the 553,000 gallon reservoir, into which a small river 
of water was pouring from the deep well pumps. Afterwards 
the party returned to the engine room, where a hearty vote of 
thanks was accorded to Mr. Stone for his kindness and courtesy 
in shewing the visitors round and explaining the working of the 
machinery. Then, after a brief glance round outside, the party 
returned to Falmer station, and caught the 4.43 train back to 
Brighton. 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 22nd, 1906. 



VISIT TO THE PHCENIX IRON WORKS. 

On the invitation of Alderman Every, J.P., a number of 
the members visited the Phoenix Iron Works at Lewes. The 
party were shown round by Mr. Broadbent, who explained the 
working of the large quantity of up-to-date labour-saving 
apparatus. The visitors were fortunate in selecting a day when 
a large number of castings were to be made. After seeing the 
huge furnace, and having the blasting machinery detailed to 
them, the "pouring" was ready. The sight of tons of molten 
iron running into the crucibles from furnaces furnished an 
impressive spectacle. Amongst the machinery that attracted 
special attention was the knife for cutting the iron girders, so 
familar in Brighton, — with "Every, Lewes," on them, — into 
required lengths. Iron seemed to be treated like wood by the 
various appliances, — punching holes in 2-iuch iron plates, 
straightening or bending enormous girders, and the hydraulic 
rivetter pressing the rivets like sealing wax. 

In the pattern shop some very ingenious machines were 
exhibited, — the most prominent being a circular saw that seemed 
capable of doing some remarkable work. Various specimens of 
iron were on view, and their value for the industry was 
explained. The social comfort of the employee has been studied 
in the magnificeut Institute which Mr. Every has built, coutainiog 



44 

baths and billiard table, and fine library. Tea was provided for 
the visitors in the Large Hall. The President thanked Alderman 
Every for his kindness and for the valuable and interesting 
remarks he had made in reference to this important branch of 
National Trade Mr. Every, in replying, said it gave him great 
pleasure in seeing the members present, and was sorry that time 
would not permit of those who had come to the works seeing 
more, as some of the departments had not been visited 



TUESDAY, DECEMBER 4th, 1906. 



A VISIT TO PRESTON MANOR. 

In response to the kind invitation of Mr. Charles Thomas- 
Stanford, M.A., F.S.A., about five-and-thirty members visited 
the historic Manor House at Preston. They were received in 
the magnificent and spacious hall by Mr. Thomas-Stanford, who 
gave a short history of the Manor, and subsequently conducted 
the party through the fine suite of apartments, comprising the 
Anne of Cleves Room, the gem of a drawing room, and the new 
dining room ; and thence to the library, yith the Chippendale 
bookcase of rare books of the fifteenth century. Had it not 
been known that Mr. Thomas-Stanford is both a scholar and a 
literary man, one glance at his valuable library would have 
decided the question. 

The picture of Anne of Cleves which hangs in the entrance 
hall Mr Thomas- Stanford said was not by Holbein, but was only 
a copy of the original, which he believed was in Windsor 
Castle. In the drawing room is an interesting picture of the 
park and Manor House, painted about 1820. 

Beneath the house and extending far vinder the grounds are 
cellars of unusual size, which the speaker hinted might have 
been of service when Brighton was not quite innocent of assisting 
in running cargoes under Free Trade principles, and was antici- 
pating legislation by a good century. 

The following is a summary of the history of the Manor :— 

Before the Reformation it was a religious house, and a 
halting place for pilgrims from Chichester to Canterbury. At 
the time of the spoliation of the monasteries the Manor passed 
to the Crown. It was for some time the residence of Anne of 
Cleves ; and the walls of one of the rooms are covered with old 
Spanish leather of the sixteenth century which, tradition says, 
she brought with her from the Low Countries, 



J 



45 

In 1568 the Manor belonged to Richard Elsington, who, 
dying in that year, bequeathed it to his wife Marie. She in 
turn left it to her son by a former marriage, Anthony Shirley. 
The Shirleys lived here for 150 years, and then became extinct in 
the male line. Their heiress married a Mr. Western. Their son 
was killed in 1771 in a carriage acoident at Goldstone Bottom, 
leaving an only child, afterwards the first and only Lord Western. 
Soon afterwards the whole property was sold to Mr. William 
Stanford. 

The walls of the house are of great antiquity, but the interior 
arrangements have been remodelled from time to time. In 1738 
the existing oak staircase was put in, and other alterations were 
effected. About 1810 the present lofty drawing room was made 
by throwing two storeys into one room. Since that date until 
the recent additions little has been changed. 

Mrs. Thomas- Stanford, the present Lady of the Manor, 
possesses the Court Rolls since the time of James I. The Manor 
is very extensive, including lands as far away as Bolney and 
Slaugham. The descent of lands within the Manor is by the 
custom of Borough English, to the youngest son, and there is a 
fine of a heriot on succession. 

At the conclusion of the visit, the President of the Society, 
Dr. Walter Harrison, thanked Mr. Thomas-Stanford for his 
kindness ; and added that the visit was one of great interest to 
Brightonians, the Manor House being one of the very few links 
with the past. The members expressed their appreciation by 
their applause. 



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 16th, 1907. 



VISIT TO ELECTRICITY EXHIBITION 
AT AQUARIUM. 



iG 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 16th, 1907. 



BRIGHTON EXCHANGE, NATIONAL 
TELEPHONE COxMPANY. 

" This is the quickest Exchange in England." That is the 
boast of Mr. F. W. Taylor, Manager of the Brighton District of 
the National Telephone Company, and the members of the 
Society have been given proof of the justice of the claim. 

The average time for connecting National subscribers at 
Brighton is 2^ seconds, said Mr. Taylor, and practical tests on 
the occasion of the Society's interesting tour of the offices in 
Ship Street fully substantiated the accuracy of the statement. 
Divided into small parties, the manager and his colleagues 
conducted the visitors over the departments from engine room to 
exchange room. The switch room is situate on the top floor, 
immediately under the derrick carrying the aerial cables serving 
Brighton. The switch board is of standard common battery 




The Switch Room. 
type, with a capacity at present of 1,500 lines, a further addition 
for 500 lines being in hand. The operator's attention is called 
when the subscriber takes his telephone from the hook, by the 
lighting of a small electric lamp, instead of by the old-fashioned 



47 

method of a falling indicator, and the lighting up or extinguishing 
of other little lampg tells the operator when the " called " sub- 
scriber has answered, and when each subscriber has finished his 
conversation. Thus, after a call is once " through," the operator 
has no necessity to again " go in " on the line. 

On the second floor is the test room. The outside cables, 
carrying at present some 5,700 wires, open out on to the test 
board, which is so arranged that any line from outside can be 
readily connected to any line up to the switch board, each wire 
being separately protected against lightning. Here also are fitted 
the "calling relays," one for each subscriber's line. When the 
subscriber takes his telephone off the hook, the relay is actuated, 
and lights up the calling lamp on the switch board, the " cut- 
off " relay adjoining being actuated when the operator answers, 
and by cutting off the current automatically extinguishing the 
calling lamp. Close by is the meter rack, in which are fitted 
the automatic meters which record the number of completed 
conversations against the telephone numbers of the subscribers 
originating the calls, the line lamp rack and test clerk's table 
completing the equipment. 

The battery room in the basement accommodates a battery 
of eleven accumulator cells of 23 plates each, for supplying 
current for working the board, both for " signalling " and 
" talking " purposes, with four smaller cells of seven plates each 
for working the automatic meters. These cells are charged from 
a motor generator, of which there are two in the power room 
adjoining, together with the necessary starting switches, measur- 
ing instruments, etc. In one corner are the two motor ringing 
machines for supplying current for ringing on subscribers' lines ; 
the repeater coil rack and fuse alarm board complete the equip- 
ment. The fuse alarm board is fitted with fuses to protect all 
the various circuits on the Exchange. 

In the Brighton telephone area some twelve million messages 
are carried annually over the National service, there being 5,555 
stations working at present. At the conclusion of the visit the 
President, Dr. Walter Harrison, thanked Mr. Taylor and his 
colleagues for their kindness in devoting an afternoon to con- 
ducting the visitors over the Exchange, and for their interesting 
explanations and demonstrations. 



48 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 27th, 1907. 

By the kind invitation of Messrs. Pack and Sons, the 
members paid a visit to the works of this old-established firm. 
The party was met by Mr. Pack and conducted by him through 
the whole of the extensive works. Every stage of the process of 
building the body of a carriage or a motor car was shown, from 
the wood, metal, &c , in the rough state to the highly varnished 
and upholstered finished article. A feature of interest was the 
comparatively large amount of aluminium used in the place of 
wood for panels in motor cars Mr. Pack informed the members 
that most of the wood was obtained from Sweden, this being 
found the most serviceable for their purpose. One of the many 
inventions of Mr. Pack was a device for easily raising the body 
of a car so as to get at any of the parts underneath ; this he 
thought out in bed during a sleepless night. An interesting 
operation was the fixing of an iron tyre on a wooden wheel ; the 
tyre, which was rather smaller than the wheel, was placed in a 
furnace, and being thus expanded was dropped over the wheel 
and the whole flooded with water, when the iron contracted and 
the tyre became firmly fixed. The various skins used in the 
upholstering department, although not much to look at, are of 
considerable value. In the absence of the President, the 
Honorary Scientific Secretary, Mr. F. Harrison, M.A., thanked 
Mr. Pack for his courtesy and giving up so much of his time m 
conducting the party through his works and explaining all the 
details of the business. 



SATURDAY, APRIL 20tii, 1907. 



VISIT TO WARREN FARM SCHOOLS. 

The Warren Farm Schools and the children in them were 
under scrutiny on the above date. The thirty-five ladies and 
gentlemen who indulged in the inspection were more appreciative 
than critical ; and in so well-ordered an institution it would be 
difficult to be otherwise even if one had the inclination. The 
members, with their President, Dr. Walter Harrison, believed 
that an afternoon could be profitably spent seeing how the 
children of the Poor Law were turned into useful citizens of the 
Empire. 

Mr. E. Rowland Cowley, who is Chairman of the Committee 
in charge of the Schools, had suggested the visit, and went an 



49 

important step further in providing a substantial tea for his 
guests. Yet another service he rendered was to justify the visit 
of a Natural History and Philosophical Society to such an 
institution. As he put it, in thanking the company for a vote of 
thanks which the President had warmly proposed, they could 
study no more interesting natural history than that of boys and 
girls, while there was philosophy in the work of the Poor Law. 
He added an assurance that it certainly required a philosopher to 
remain a member of the Board of Guardians. Everyone agreed 
with Dr. Harrison that the ratepayers ought to make more use 
of the privilege of seeing the institutions they helped to maintain. 
Point had been given to this remark by a most interesting 
demonstration of the Schools' methods. 

Mr. H. R. Spooner, the Superintendent, had shown 130 boys 
executing a dumb-bell drill with the precision of a machine, he 
had made the band boys play rattling marches, so that the 
visitors wanted no telling why regimental bandmasters were ever 
thirsting for Warren Farm instrumentalists ; and he had led 
them through the admirable singing of harmonized hymns and 
other sacred music. Tbe company had also seen where and how 
the boys washed, bathed, did their school work, and ate their 
nourishing food. By the way, no set of boys could do better 
credit to the table than these chubby little fellows. 

After tea the girls were seen performing a skipping drill 
under the keen bat kindly eye of Mrs. Spooner, and there were 
the well-kept garden, the farm, and the open-air swimming bath 
to inspect, before a delighted company took farewell of the 
Schools and all within them. Mr. W. D. Peskett, the Vice- 
Chairman of the Committee, and Mr. H. Burfield, the Assistant 
Clerk to the Board, were among those present. 



SATURDAY, MAY 11th, 1907. 



WALK FROM DYKE TO BRAMBER AND 
VISIT TO CASTLE AND CHURCH. 



50 



SATURDAY, JUNE 1st, 1907. 
[From Brif/Jiton Herald, June 8th.] 

TILGATE FOREST AND BALCOMBE. 

The members had a rather strange experience at this 
excursion. While everywhere else was steady rain and some- 
times heavy thunderstorms, the party escaped almost scot-free. 
There was one heavy shower, which set in just as the forest was 
entered at the corner near Worth ; but after a short wait under 
thick foliage the way was pursued, and after the sticky, clay 
patch about the brickfield had been crossed the perfectly dry 
ground of the iron-sand was reached. Just now the verdure of 
the forest is seen in all its glory. Mr. Henry Davey guided the 
party through the tracks, and down the descent to the brook (one 
of the sources of the Mole), which proved more troublesome 
than usual ; and the opposite slope was very boggy in places. 
The big double tree has been visited on previous occasions ; and 
this time it had been determined to take precise photographic 
records. This should have been done some years since, as the 
junction has much changpd and decayed. It is satisfactory to 
know that the photographs taken by Mr. Russell-Davies have 
proved perfectly successful. Leaving the forest through another 
disagreeable clayey patch, the party crossed the Forest Ridge ; 
and a hearty tea at Balcombe revived drooping energies. Only 
a few stayed to make the usual visit to the mineral spring and 
lake ; but they were well rewarded ; and another smart shower 
fell just when they were under the thickest shelter. Wonderfully 
beautiful is all this part of Sussex. 






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53 



RESOLUTIONS, &c., PASSED AT THE 
53rd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



After the Reports and Treasurer's Account had been read, 
it was proposed by Dr. Hahrison, seconded by Mr. Spitta, and 
resolved — 

"That the Eeport of the Council, the Treasurer's statement 
(subject to its being audited and found correct), and the 
Eeport as to the Library, and the Curator's Eeport, ba 
received, adopted, and printed for circulation, as usual." 

The Secretary reported that in pursuance of Rule 25 the 
Council had selected the following gentlemen to be Vice- 
Presidents of the Society for the ensuing year — 

" J. E. Haselwood, E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P., F. Merrifield, 
F.E.S., D. E. Caush, L.D.S., A. Newsholme, F.E.C.P., 
J. P. Slingsby Eoberts, W. Clarkson "Wallis, E. Alloway 
Pankhurst, Henry Davey, and Walter Harrison, D.M.D., 
L.D.S." 

And that in pursuance of Rule 42 the Council had appointed 
the following gentlemen to be Honorary Auditors — 

"Mr. A. F. Graves and Mr. I. Wells." 

It was proposed by Mr. H. Cane, seconded by Mr. F. R, 
Richardson, and resolved — 

" That the following gentlemen be Officers of the Society for 
the ensuing yeax :— President : Geo. Morgan, L.E.C.P., 
F.E.C.S. ; Ordinarij Members of Council : F. E. Hora, B.Sc, 
E. Spitta, F.E.A.S., F. E. Eichardson, Alfred W. Oke, 
B.A., LL.M., W. H. Payne, and W. A. Powell, M.E.C.S., 
L.E.C.P. ; Honorary Treasurer: D. E. Caush; Honorary 
Librarian : 'Roheit Movse ; Honoi-ary Curators : H. S. Toms 
and T.Hilton; Honorary Scientific Secretary: F. Harrison, 
M.A. ; Honorary Secretary: J. Colbatch Clark; Assistant 
Honorary Secretary : Henry Cane." 

It was proposed by Dr. Morgan, seconded by Mr. D. E. 
Caush, and resolved — 

" That the best thanks of the Society be given to Dr. W. Harrison 
for his attention to the interests of the Society as President 
daring the past year." 



54 

It was proposed by Mr. I. Wells, seconded by Mr. Hugo 
Talbot, and resolved — 

' ' That the sincere thanks of the Society be given to the Vice- 
Presidents, the Council, the Honorary Librarian, the 
Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary Curators, the Honorary 
Auditors, and the Honorary Secretaries for their services 
during the past year. ' ' 

It was proposed by Mr. F. Habrison, seconded by Mr. H. 
Cane, and carried — 

" That Rule 25 he altered by striking out the words ' nor more 
than nine.' " 



SOCIETIES ASSOCIATED, 

WITH WHICH THE SOCIETY EXCHANGES PUBLICATIONS, 

And whose Presidents and Secretaries are ex-officio Members 
of the Society. 

British Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, Cambridge Hall, Barrow-in- 
Furness. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, c/o G. Donaldson, 8, Mileriver 
Street, Belfast. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, The Museum, 
College Square, N. Belfast. 

Boston Society of Natural Science (Mass, U.S.A.). 

British Museum, General Library, Cromwell Eoad, London, S. W. 

Cardiff NaturaUsts' Society, Frederick Street, Cardiff. 

City of London Natural History Society. 

Chester Society of Natural Science. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club, Public Hall, 
Croydon. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, U.S.A. 

Edinburgh Geological Society, India Buildings, George IV. 

Bridge. 
Eastbourne Natural History Society. 
Epping Forest and County of Essex Naturalist Field Club, West 

Ham Institute. 



'55 

Folkestone Natural History Society. 

Geologists' Association. 

Glasgow Natural History Society and Society of Field Naturalists. 

Hampshire Field Club. 
Huddersfield Naturalist Society. 

London County Council, Horniman Museum. 

Leeds Naturalist Club. 

Lloyd Library, 224, West Court Street, Cincinnatti, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 

Mexican Geological Institute, 5a, Del Cipres, No. 2,728 Mexico. 

Michigan University, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, Stone, Staffs. (Wells 
Bladen, Secretary). 

Nottingham Naturalists' Society, University College, Nottingham. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., U.S.A. 

Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 

Royal Microscopical Society, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 

Royal Meteorological Society, Prince's Mansions, 73, Victoria 
Street, S.W. 

Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 

South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Southport Society of Natural Science, Rockley House, Southport. 

Societe Beige de Microscopie, Bruxelles. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

Watford Natural History Society. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 



56 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

Bdabton an^ Ibove Natural Ibistor^ ant) 
pbtloeopbical Society 



N.B. — Members are particularly requested to tiotify any Change of 
Address at once to Mr. J. C. Clark, g, Marlborough 
Place, Brighton. When ?iot otherwise stated in the 
folloiving List the Address is in Brighton. Names 
printed in italics are Life Members. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Abbey, Henry, Fair Lee Villa, Kemp Town. 
ASHTON, C. S., lo, Powis Grove. 

Billing, T., 6, St. Michael's Place. 

Black, Milner, 8i, St. James's Street. 

Booth, E., 53, Old Steine. 

Bull, W. 75, St. Aubyn's, Hove. 

BURCHELL, E., M.R.C.S., L.R C.P., 5, Waterloo Place. 

Cane, Henry, 173, Ditchling Road. 
Caush, D E., L.D.S , 63, Grand Parade. 
Charrimgton, H. W , 23, Park Crescent. 
Clark, J. Colbatch, J. P., 9, Marlborough Place. 
Clifton, Harvey, 19, Buckingham Place. 
Colman, Alderman J., J.P , Wick Hall, Furze Hill. 
COMBRIDGE, Saml., 5, Leopold Road. 

Daldy, Mantell a., Dr., 17, Palmeira Square. 

Davey, Henry, 15, Victoria Road. 

Denman, S , 26, Queen's Road. 

DODD, A. H., M.R.C.S , L.R.C.P., 49, Church Road, Hove. 

Duke, Dr. E., 30, New Church Road, Hove. 



57 

Fawsitt, H. G. Chater, 14, Vernon Terrace. 
Fletcher, W. H. B., J. P., Bersted Lodge, Bognor. 
Forbes, George, 5, St. Peter's Place. 

GiLKES, J. H.. Wychcote, Dyke Road Avenue. 
Graves, A. F., qa, North Street Quadrant. 
Griffith, A. F., M.A., 59, Montpelier Road. 
Grinstead, J., .13, Powis Square. 
Grove, E., Norlington, Harrington Road. 

Hack, D., Fircroft, Withdean. 

Hall, J. Sussex, 69, Ship Street. 

Harrison, F., M.A., 30, Compton Avenue. 

Harrison, VV., D.IVf.D., L D.S., 6, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Haselwood, J. E., 3, Richmond Terrace. 

HA WKINS, W. /?., Shalimar, Withdean. 

Havnes, J. L., 24, Park Crescent. 

Henriques, a. G., F.G.S., J. P., 9, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

Hicklev, G., 92, Springfield Road. 

Hilton, T., i, Clifion Street. 

HOBBS, J., 62, North Street. 

Hora, F. R., B.Sc, B.A., A.R.C.SC., 69, St. Aubyn's, Hove. 

Horne, J., 27, Hampstead Road. 

Howlett, J. W., J. P., 4, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Infield, H. J., Sylvan Lodge, Upper Lewes Road. 

Jackson, J. M., 109, Stanford Avenue. 

Jennings, A. O., LL.B., u, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

Johnston, J., 12, Bond Street. 

Jones, Rutherford, Dr. A., Forest Lodge, Maresfield. 

Langton, H., M.R.C.S., II, Marlborough Place. 
Law, J., Crosthvvaite. Lewes. 
Lewis, J., C.E., F.S.A., Fairwarp, Uckfield. 
LiVESEY, G. H., M.R.C.V.S., 29, Osmond Road, Hove. 
Lonsdale, L., 13, Powis Square. 

Maguire, E. C, M.D., 9, Old Steine. 

Mansfield, H., ii. Grand Avenue, Hove. 

Maurice, H., L.D.S., 65, St. John's Terrace. 

McKellar, E, Deputy- Surgeon-General, M.D., J.P., Woodleigh, 

Preston. 
Merrifield, F., Clifton Terrace. 
Mills, J., 24, North Road. 

Morgan, G., L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., 6, Pavilion Parade. 
Morse, Robert, 26, Stanford Avenue. 

Newsholme, a., M.D., F.R.C.P., 11, Gloucester Place. 

Nicholson, W. E., F.E.S., Lewes. 

Norman, S. H., Burgess Hill. 

Norris, E. L., L.D.S., 8, Cambridge Road, Hove. 

OKE, ALFRED IV., B.A., LL.M., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 32, 
Denmark Villas, Hove. 



Payne, W. H., Playden House, Harrington Villas. 

Penney, S. R., Larkbarroiv, Dyke Road Drive. 

Peskett, Chalmers A. W., M.A., M.B.,. B.C., Cantab., Simla, 

Clermont Road. 
Peskett, Guy, Simla, Clermont Road. 
Petitfourt, E. J., B.A., F.C.P., i6, Chesham Street. 
Popley, W. H., I ?, Pavilion Buildings. 
Powell, W. A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 5, Grand Parade. 
PUGH, Rev. C, M.A., 13, Eaton Place. 
PUTTICK, W., Tipnoake, Albourne, Hassocks. 

Read, S., L.D.S , 12, Old Steine. . 

Read, T., B.A., B.Sc, Brighton Grammar School. 

Richardson, F. R., 4, Adelaide Crescent. 

ROBERSON, A., 17, Sackville Road, Hove. 

Roberts, j. P. Slingsby, 3, Powis Villas. 

Robinson, E., Saddlescombe. 

Rose, T., Clarence Hotel, North Street. 

Ross, D. M., M.B., M.R.C.S., 9, Pavilion Parade. 

Savage, W. W., 109, St. James's Street. 

Seamer, Arthur, M.A., 9, Chatham Place. 

Sloman, F., M.R.C.S., 18, Montpelier Road. 

Smithers, E. a.. The Gables, Furze Hill. 

Smith, C, 47, Old Steine. 

Smith, T., i, Powis Villas. 

Smith, W., 6, Powis Grove. 

Smith, W. J.. J. P., 42 and 43. North Street. 

Smith, W. H., 191, Eastern Road. 

Southcombe, H. W., 16, Stanford Avenue. 

Spitta, E., M.R.C.S.. L.R.C.P., F.RA.S., 41, Ventnor Villas, 

Hove. 
Stanford, Thomas Chas., Preston Manor. 
Stoner, Harold, L.D.S , M.R.C S., L.R.C.P., 18, Regency Square. 

Talbot, Hugo, 79, Montpelier Road. 

Toms, H. S., The Museum. 

Tuohy, J. F., M.D., I. Hova Terrace, Hove. 

Tyssen, Rev. R. D., M.A., 19, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Wallis, W. Clarkson, 15, Market Street. 

Walter, J., 13A, Dyke Road. 

Wells, I , 4, North Street. 

Welsford, H. M., 68, Dyke Road. 

Whytock, E., 36, Western Road. 

Wilkinson, T., 170, North Street. 

Williams, A. S., 17, Middle Street. 

Williams, H. M., LL.B., 17, Middle Street. 

Williams, A. W., M.D.. i. Belvedere Terrace. 

Wood, T., L.D.S., 28, Old Steine. 

Wood, Walter R., L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., L.D.S., 28, Old Steine. 



59 



LADY MEMBERS. 

Bagley, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 
Bladon, Miss, 23, Sudeley Place. 

Caush, Mrs., 63, Grand Parade. 
CORFE, A., Miss, 7, Norfolk Terrace. 
Crafer, M. H., Mrs., 102, Beaconsfield Villas. 
Crane, A., Miss, 1 1, Wellington Road. 

Daldy, Mantell, Mrs., 17, Palmeira Square. 

Hare, Miss, 19, Goldsmid Road. 
Harrison, Mrs, 10, Windlesham Road. 
Herring, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Langton, Miss, 38, Stanford Road, 

RUGE, Miss, 7, Park Crescent. 

Stoner, H., Mrs., 18, Regency Square. 

Thomas, M., Miss, 222, Queen's Park Road. 

VOBES, Miss, B.A., B.Sc., " Glenalna," Rugby Road. 

Watkins, Miss, Walcot, Walpole Road. 
Wilkinson, Mrs., 36, Dyke Road. 
White, Miss E. M,, 70, Ship Street. 
Wood, J., Mrs., 28, Old Steine. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Arnold, Rev. F. H., The Hermitage, Emsvvorth. 

Bloomfield, Rev. E. N., Guestling Rectory, Hastings. 

CaRTElS, T., 244, High Holborn, London. 

Dawson, C, F.G.S., Uckfield. 

Farr, E. H., Uckfield. 

Hollis, W. Ainslie, Palmeira Avenue, Hove. 

Jenner, J. H. A., 209, School Hill, Lewes. 

LOMAX, Benjamin, 47, Park Crescent. 

NOURSE, W. E. C, Norfolk Lodge, Thurlovv Road, Torquay. 

Pankhurst, E. a., 3, Clifton Road. 
Phillips, Barclay, 7, Harpur Place, Bedford. 

ASSOCIATE. 

Harrison, W. Parker, 10, Windlesham Road. 



60 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 1907-8. 



Iprcsi&cnt : 
Geo. Morgan, L.R.CP., F.R.C.S. 



F. Merrifield, F.E.S- 
J. E. Haselwood. 

D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 

A. Newsholme, M.D., F.R.C. P., 
M.O.H. 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 



J. p. Slingsp.y Roberts. 
W. Clarkson Wallis. 
E. Alloway Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 
Walter Harrison, D.M-D. 



THE COUNCIL. 

i;be Iprcst&Ent. 



D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
J. E. Haselwood. 
F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
A. Newsholme, F.R.C. P., 

M.O.H. 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.CP. 

ORDINARY 

F. HORA, B.SC.,B.A. 

E. Spitta, F.R.A.S., M.R.C.S-, 

L.R.CP. 
W. A. Powell, M.R.CS., 

L.R.C.P. 

■^onorarg i^reaaurer : 
D. E Caush, L.D.S. 



(Rule -25.) 

J. p. Slingsby Roberts. 



W. Clarkson Wallis. 

E. A. Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 

Walter Harrison, D.M.D. 

MEMBERS. 

W. H. Payne. 

Alfred W. Oke, B A., LL.M. 
F.G.S. 

F. R. Richardson. 

honorary librarian : 
RoBT. Morse. 



■^ottorar^ ^utiitors : 
A. F. Graves. I. Wells. 

^ottorarg Curators : 
H. S. Toms. T. Hilton. 

^onorarg Scientific Secretarg : 
F. Harrison, M A , 30, Compton Avenue. 

Igonorarg Secretary : 
Jno. Colbatch Clark, 9, Marlborough Place. 

Assistant ^onorarg Secretary : 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 

30 001190^'-^ 





i 






30 OCT -'^^3 






BRIGHTON AND HOVE 



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, 



TOGETHER WITH 




•^^AL .•*! 



^bc Hnnual IRcj^ort 



. . FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 10th, 1908. 



Briabton : 

'Brighton Herald" Printing Works, Prince's Place. 
1908. 



l :^^^^i:^^:>^fZ>¥Ji^<L>!i<i>^<ri^<l?^<^^ 



BRIGHTON AND HOVE 

|0(2kt2|. 



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 



READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY, ^-^5m1vw}J-v, 



TOGETHER WITH 



'^^'"»AL -AlS^ 



O. 



^be Hnnual IReport 



. . FOR THE . 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 10th, 1908. 



IBrigbroii : 

'Briohton Herald" Printing Works, Prince's Place. 
1908. 



CONTENTS. 



Officers OF THE Society FOR 1907-8 

Function and Fatigue — Dr. G. Morgan, L.R.C.P., 
F.R.C.S. (President) 

Weather Forecasting — Mr. W\ Marriott, F.R.M.S. ... 
A Year and a Half Among Savages — Mr. A. H. 

Dunning, F.R.G.S., F.R.P.S., Etc 

Restocking of Flora and Fauna — Mr. Henry Davey ... 

Autochrome Plates — Dr. W. A. Powell, M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P 

Colour Photography — Mr. Otto Pfenninger 

British Orchids — Mr. H. Edmond.s, B.Sc. 

Caird's Idea of Criticism — Rev. Dr. Jeffrey Johnstone, 
F.R.G.S 

Some British Echinoderms — Mr. Ed. Connold, F.Z.S. 
F.E.S 

English Gothic Architecture — Mr. T. A. Coysh, L.D.S 

Brighthelmstone — Brighton — Mr. W. Harrison, D.M.D 

Forty Years of Bee-Keeping — Mr. B. Lomax 

Report OF the Council 

Librarian's Report ... 

Society's Excursions and Visits to Factories 

Annual Excursion and Dinner 

Borough of Brighton Meteorological Station 

Meteorology of Brighton 

Treasurer's Account 

Herbarium 

Annual General Meeting 

Societies Associated... 

List of Members 

Officers of the Society for 1908-9 



page 
3 

5 
26 

27 
28 

31 
34 
38 

39 

42 
43 
44 
47 
49 
51 
52 
61 
64 

65 
66 

67 
69 
70 
72 
76 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 1907-8. 

(For List of Officers, 1908-9 see page 76.). 



F. Merrifield, F. E.S- 
J. E. Haselwood. 

D. E. Caush, LD S. 

A. NEWSHor.ME, M.D.,F.R.C.P. 
MO.H. 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 



;PresitrEnt : 
Geo. Morgan, L.R.CP., F.R.C.S. 



J. p. Slingshy Roberts- 

W. Cl.ARKSON WaLLIS, J. P. 

E. Alloway Pankhurst. 

Henry Davey. 

Walter Harrison, D.M.D. 



THE COUNCIL. 



D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
J. E. Haselwood. 
F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
A. Newsholme, F. R C.P., 

M.O.H. 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.clP. 



{Rule 25.) 

J- P. Slingsby Roberts. 
W. Clarkson Wallis, J p. 
E. A. Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 
Walter Harrison, D. M D. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



F. HoRA, B..SC., B A. 

E. J .SpiTTA, F.R A.S., MR.C.S 

L R.C P. 
W. A. Po\VELL, M.R.C.S., 

L.R.CP. 



W. H. Payne. 

Alfred W. Oke, B A., LL- M. 

F.G.S. 
F. R. Richardson. 



Honorarg |?ibrarian 
Robt. Morse. 



I^onorarg treasurer : 
D E Caush, L.D.S. 

Honorary ^uiritors : 
A F. Graves. I. Wells. 

■^onorarg Curators : 
H. S. Toms. T. Hilton. 

■Honorary .^ricntifir .^erretarg : 
F. Harrison, M A., 30, Compton Avenue. 

honorary ^crretarg : 
Jno. Colbatch Clark, J. P., 9, Marlborough Place. 

Assistant honorary .^crretary : 
Henry Cank, 9, Marlborough Place 



Session 1907-8. 



Address given by the President, 

Dr. G. morgan, L.R.C.P. (Lond.), F.R.C.S. (E.) 

Ai the Conversazione held at the Royal Pavilion^ October 4th, igoy. 



JFnnction anir JFatigue^ 



IN his Italian sketches, Heine opens one of his chapters by an 
imaginary conversation with an old lizard. " Nothing in this 
world goes backward," said the old lizard to Heine. " Every- 
thing struggles forward, and in the end a great progress will have 
taken place in Nature. Stones will have become plants ; plants, 
animals ; animals, men ; and men will have become gods." 
Heine's old lizard uttered but half a truth when it spoke thus 
to him. 

There is in the Universe a constant procession from the 
unicellular to the multicellular taking place, i.e., from the simple 
to the complex. The root hairs of the vegetable touch and raise 
the mineral into life, and so build up a store of energy for the 
animal to consume ; but plants and animals alike are but vivified 
rocks, governed and impelled forward by life itself, — the most 
mysterious of all forces. Check or destroy that mystic power, 
and tree or man, flora or fauna alike, fall back to their primitive 
inorganic atoms. And so the influx of life makes progress 
possible, and the withdrawal of that same force makes retro- 
gression compulsory. 

What is life ? The pithy epigram says : " Life is bottled 
sunshine, and death the silent-footed butler who draws the cork." 
That definition is as good and as bad as any other, but it has at 
any rate the virtue of attempting to state what life is, whereas 
most of the definitions, from Spencer's " Life is correspondence 
with environment," only tell us what life does, not what it is. The 
fact is, Science knows nothing of the origin and essence of life, 
and perhaps never will know anything ; but of the laws which 
govern life she knows much, and in the future will know far 
more. 



Assimilation, independent growth, power of movement, 
respiration, and reproduction are tiie five chief functions, the 
possession of which separates both plants and animals from 
lifeless bodies. 

It is of life manifesting itself by function, whether as 
exhibited in a monocellular plant, or in an organism of a million 
differentiated cells, that I wish to address you, and also of life 
disordered and destroyed by over-function, or fatigue. 

It is this force which governs waste and repair, and carries 
out its work with marvellous accuracy. It has been estimated 
that about one twenty-fourth part of our body perishes day by 
day, and to repair the loss we consume about a ton of material 
every year. No part of the present audience existed a year 
ago except, perhaps, the teeth (especially if false) ; and yet so 
accurately has the new replaced the old that, had this audience 
been photographed a year ago, and again to-night, it would look 
the same, and individually would feel the same. 

The life of all organisms, whether plant or animal, is made 
up of alternating periods of activity and repose ; of function and 
of rest to prevent, or to repair, the effects of fatigue. There is 
no exception to this rule. The busiest man has to rest some- 
times, or suffer for his folly. The laziest cell must do some work 
or become atrophied and useless. Yes ! and I venture to suggest 
that, to a certain extent, the same law holds good beyond the 
limits of the organic kingdom, and is found in the inorganic as 
well. The soil must lie fallow sometimes, or it becomes fatigued 
and less productive ; and the farmer must humour his fields by a 
rotation of crops, or the latid becomes sulky and unresponsive, 
and the coming rent day will find him with a meagre balance at 
his bankers. 

Fatigue in some plants is prevented in a way that may strike 
you as rather remarkable. Mr. Ward in his book on " The 
Growth of Plants in Closely Glazed Cases " says : " All plants 
require rest, and obtain it m some countries by the rigour of winter, 
in others by the scorching heat of summer. Collectors often fail 
in their attempts to grow certain plants from want of attention to 
this essential point. Thus most Alpine plants which enjoy an 
unbroken rest underneath the snow for several months are very 
difificult of culture in our own mild and variable winter. The 
winter of 1850-51 was ushered in by some heavy snows with 
which I filled my Alpine cases, giving the plants perfect rest for 
three or four months, and with a most satisfactory result, the 
Frimula Marginata, the Linnea Borealis, and other species flowering 
much finer than usual. Many of these plants would, I am con- 
vinced, succeed well if kept for five or six months in an ice house. 
Plants in hot countries have their periods of rest in the dry 
season. In Egypt the blue water lily obtains rest in a curious 



way. This plant abounds in several of the canals of Alexandria, 
which at certain seasons become dry, and the beds of these 
canals, which quickly become burnt as hard as bricks by the 
action of the sun, are used as carriage roads. When the water is 
re-admitted the plants again resume their growth with redoubled 
vigour. I was surprised to find that John Hunter had explored 
this field so fully, and knew so much about the methods plants 
adopted to secure rest and thus prevent fatigue. " Most plants," 
says he, " have their periods of growth, and periods of rest. 
Some plants close their leaves, others their flowers, at particular 
hours of the day or night ; and with such regularity does this 
period of rest take place that more than one vegetable physiologist 
has proposed to construct from them a floral clock. 

Before we proceed to speak of fatigue in Animal life it would 
be well, perhaps, to define, or further explain the term. Speaking 
of the muscular system, fatigue is not the same as strain. Strain 
may produce a dangerous lesion in a moment, fatigue may take 
hours, or days, or even longer before any serious change in the 
tissues takes place. A man may attempt to Hft a very heavy 
weight, or to do other very heavy work, and suddenly, in a 
moment, damage his heart irretrievably. On the other hand a 
man may walk for a long time at his usual pace, and may produce 
such a state of fatigue as may permanently affect his health, and 
for the rest of his life leave him with a somewhat weakened 
muscular and nervous system. Strain is sudden and physical, an 
altogether unnatural process in the organism. On the other 
hand fatigue is physiological ; it is the result of a normal process 
carried too far. You might call it over-function. It is of course 
impossible, in most cases, to state the exact point at which fatigue 
starts. Nor can we in all cases trust our senses for guidance. 
— IVeber's Law Explained. 

Probably most of the better known examples of fatigue of 
special nerves are known to you all. How quickly after some 
strong odours the olfactory nerve reaches its limit of sensation, 
and becomes temporarily paralysed by fatigue. Two or three 
short sharp sniffs of an ordinary musk plant will rapidly exhaust 
the nerve, and prevent its detecting the same perfume again until 
its fatigue is recovered from by resting a few minutes. If salt is 
held in the mouth for a short time the nerves of taste become 
fatigued and fail to respond. That the ears are similarly affected 
by the auditory nerves becoming fatigued is sufficiently obvious 
from our use of such terms as "deafening sounds." 

Sir Michael Foster says the auditory nerve is capable of rapid 
fatigue. If the sound be continued long, with almost any note, 
the sensation diminishes, and finally disappears, and the exhaustion 
comes on more rapidly with high notes than with low, especially 
with very high. If the tuning fork be held to one ear, and then, 



just as the sound becomes inaudilile, be changed to the other 
side, the sound will be distinctly heard — the fresh untired sense 
apparatus of the one side is sensitive to the vibration which the 
tired apparatus of the other side can no longer feel. 

Most of you will remember the soap advertisements of twenty 
years ago to demonstrate the limit of sensation of the retina for 
certain colours. You were told to look fixedly at the word 
" Pears " for some short time, until the retina was fatigued, and 
then to look away from the hoarding to the sky, and you saw 
the same word in the sky in their complimentary colour. Many 
a one has paid a big fee for learning that physiological fact, by the 
loss of a purse or other valuable ; for the pickpocket was near 
studying the student of fatigue, and his fingers had not reached 
the limit of sensation. 

The heart is only a hollow muscle, and is subject to the same 
laws of fatigue. As it is always on duty, Nature has done her best 
to guard against exhaustion, by forcing it to rest six elevenths of 
each second. The lungs too avoid over function by resting more 
than half their time. 

But even these wise provisions of Nature are not always 
sufficient to protect these organisms from irretrievable damage. 

Both the youth, and the city man past middle life, occasionally 
fall victims through a paper chase or a mountain climb. I am 
quite sure that in our best public and private schools greater 
attention is paid to this matter of overtaxing the heart and limbs 
by too long runs, or being too long in the water, than was the case 
at one time. Still, more will have to be done in separating the 
pupils into classes for physical exercise, as is done for mental 
exercise. In the near future this will probably, I may say almost 
certainly, be a much simpler matter than it has been up to the 
present time. 

As regards the city men, many of whom do a minimum of 
muscular work on a maximum of the heavier nitrogenous foods, 
and in this condition (or rather otit of condition) which this 
entails, if then they attempt a too sudden, or too prolonged active 
exertion their hearts and greater vessels are especially liable to 
suffer from the graver effects of fatigue. Many a one has caused 
a dilated heart, or aneurism, by a mountain climb, or tramping 
too far across the moors in pursuit of game. 

It must be remembered that in severe cases of fatigue certain 
poisons, which have a very deleterious effect on the whole system, 
are formed by the muscles. This has been demonstrated by 
injecting the muscle juice of a fatigued animal into a healthy one 
and thus causing convulsions and other symptoms of ptomaine 
poisoning. These fatigue products certainly predispose the joints, 
the pleura, peritoneum, and probably the membrane of the brain, 
to tubercular changes. 



i 



Until recent years little attention has been given . to the 
subject of fatigue. Function has always been a favourite study, 
but not over-function, or fatigue. Isolated facts were known, but 
the subject had not been opened up either from observation or 
experiment by any eminent worker. At the present time there 
are many toilers in this field, and I think the place of honour 
must be given to Italian Physiologists, both for their enthusiasm 
and for the originality of their methods. I shall this evening have 
to refer to their works, and especially to those of Professor Mosso. 

Mosso began by observing the effect of prolonged muscular 
work on quails. He left Turin, where he is Professor of 
Physiology, and went to the coast to Palo, that he might be 
present when these birds arrived after their journey from Africa. 
He found he was not alone in waiting for the quails. There were 
men present ready to pick up the birds that died from shock. 
The poor birds are in the habit of arriving almost blinded by 
fatigue, so that many, in the eagerness with which they seek the 
land, fail to see the trees, and dash themselves against the trunks, 
branches, or even telegraph posts, with such force that they kill 
themselves. It has since been proved that in great muscular 
effort, and extreme fatigue, cerebral anaemia is produced, and this 
want of blood in the brain diminishes the power of vision. 

Mosso says the poor creatures are so exhausted by their 
journey that their strength is just sufficient for their flight. When 
from a great distance they perceive the dark line of the land 
they are attracted by the white spots representing houses, and 
steer for them with such eagerness and impetuosity that they 
reach them., so to speak, before they have recognised them. On 
examining the bodies of many of these dead birds, they were 
found to be well nourished, with good muscular development of 
the pectorals ; but their muscles, especialjy the great pectorals, 
which had done the chief work of the journey, were very pale and, 
Hke the brain, were in a condition of anaemia. 

This relationship between intense fatigue and anaemia will 
explain to you why maids in large towns so often become anaemic. 
It is largely a question of fatigue of the heart from stair work. 

To return to the birds. A quail flies nearly nineteen yards 
a second, or thirty-eight miles an hour. The journey from Africa 
to Italy is much easier than at first appears, seeing that from 
Africa Sicily is visible with the naked eye. The distance from 
Cape Bon to Marsala is about eighty-four miles. A quail would 
do the journey in a little less than two-and-a-half hours. The 
distance from Cape Bon to Rome is about three hundred and 
forty-one miles, and this should take a quail, flying in a straight 
line, about nine hours. Another important observation made by 
Mosso was, that seeds found in the crop of the dead birds, when 
sowed in a garden, nearly always came up, and produced African 



flowers. The intense muscular effort and fatigue had stopped 
digestion. The seeds must have been in the crop at least twelve 
hours, and probably much longer, for no bird could, in a high 
wind, take a perfectly direct course. I have no doubt this fact is 
well known to most of you, that intense exertion, either muscular 
or mental, inhibits digestion and may for a time stop it entirely. 

A quail is by no means the strongest bird on the wing, and, 
compared with many birds, fatigue seems to come on rapidly ; 
but, let it be said for the credit of the quail family, if they possess 
less power for sustained effort, their sense of sympathy seems to 
be more highly developed than in some other birds. Travellers 
tell us that among the quails that are strongest on the wing, and 
which have previously gone the same journey, some have been 
observed at sea, bearing on their backs the tired ones, which have 
thus in a desperate situation found safety. Some very valuable 
observations have been recorded of fatigue in pigeons, especially 
carrier pigeons. Nine pigeons brought from the United States 
were set free in London ; only three succeeded in crossing the 
ocean, and returning to their homes. After a very long flight the 
brain and muscles of two fatigued birds were compared with the 
same organs of healthy birds. The contrast was most marked, 
and was at once noticed by the professor and students alike 
working in the laboratory. In the fatigued birds the brain was 
pale, almost bloodless, and so were the muscles. The rectal 
temperature was 43 C, one degree C. above normal. The speed 
of a pigeon is greater than that of a quail, and the former can 
travel longer journeys with less fatigue. That the strength of 
animals increases proportionately as their size decreases is a fact 
well known to old writers. Haller in his treatise on physiology 
compares the strength of a London porter with that of a horse, 
and concludes that the former is proportionately the stronger. 

Plateu notes that the common beetle can drag along a mass 
fourteen times as heavy as its own body ; other insects can drag 
as much as forty-two times their own weight. The horse can 
only pull twice or thrice its own weight. This same writer notes 
that of two species of insects belonging to the same family, which 
differ in weight, the smaller and Hghter is always proportionately 
the stronger. An ant can carry a burden twenty-three times as 
heavy as itself. In no animal is muscular contraction so rapid, or 
so frequent, as in insects. Lubbock tells us the note of the wings 
in flight of the common bee is La, that is 440 vibrations per 
second. In Bombus terristris the male buzzes in La, whilst the 
female, a larger insect, buzzes an octave higher. 

I have spoken of fatigue overtaking birds whilst travelling. 
Sad to relate, many human beings share a like fate every year. 
Every year thousands of Piedmontese workmen go to France or 
Switzerland, returning at the beginning of winter by the valley of 



the Rhone. Many die of fatigue in the Pass of the Great St. 
Bernard. A traveller gives an impressive picture of his visit to 
the Charnel house, where these victims are collected. He says 
no one who has once looked through the window of this mortuary 
chamber will ever forget what he has seen; here and there upon 
the flagstones are gathered together single bones, skulls, shreds of 
clothing half buried in the dust of ages, — the remains of hapless 
travellers collected and entombed under this spacious vault. 
Against the walls lean skeletons, which stand upright on their 
rigid joints. Some of the bodies have arms raised, lips drawn 
back, and whitening teeth ; with staff stick still in hand, they 
remain in the strange attitude in which they were first found. 
There were thirty corpses thus supported. Amongst these bodies 
was seen a woman holding her child in her arms in such a way 
that she seems to be offering him the breast. Fascinated, one's 
eye rests on the form of this mother who at the very moment of 
death hopes still to save her little one. Like a ray of heavenly 
light her mother love illumes the darkness, and relieves the horror 
of this charnel house. 

Whilst on the subject of fatigue caused by severe or pro- 
longed muscular effort I will give an illustration of the Myograph 
tracing, and the ergograph tracing. There are various instruments 
in use at different colleges. Perhaps the simplest is the one 
bearing the name of Helmholtz. A frog is killed ; the thigh bone 
and gastronemius muscle are dissected out with the Sciatic nerve 
attached. A moment's explanation with a lantern picture will 
give by far the best impression. 

(a) Forceps for holding frog's femur. 

(l>) Gastronemius muscle. 

(c) Sciatic nerve attached to muscle. 

(d) Scale pan. 

{e) Marker recording on cylinder. 

(g) Cylinder covered with smok^ paper and revolving by 
clockwork. 

(/) Counterpoise. 

When all these details have been arranged an electric shock 
is sent down the nerve which immediately causes the muscle to 
contract, raises the pan and moves the marker which leaves its 
record on the smoked paper. 

Muscle Curve. Explain. 

(m) Represents the curve traced by the end of the lever in 
connection with the muscle after stimulation by a single induction 
shock. 

(/) The middle line is that described by a lever which 
indicates by a sudden drop the exact instant at which the induction 



shock is given. The lower wavy line (f) is traced by a tuning 
fork vibrating 200 times a second, and serves to measure precisely 
the time occupied in each part of the contraction. It will be 
observed that after the stimulus has been applied, as indicated by 
the vertical line (s), there is an interval before the contraction 
commences as indicated by the line (c). This interval, termed 
latent period, when measured by the number of vibrations of the 
tuning fork between the lines S and C is found to be ij^, of a 
second. During the latent period there is no apparent change in 
the muscle. 

In the lower the whole curve lasted about 1^ of a second, 
and the upper ,oo- 

I will now show a tracing of muscular shocks written by the 
leg of a frog which is beginning to be fatigued. In the lower 
part of the tracing the muscle was acting before fatigue had shown 
itself, and the contraction is shorter and more sudden than in the 
upper part of the field, where the tracing shows a contraction and 
elongation more slow and prolonged. 

A description of the instrument and its curves may be seen 
in Michael Foster, Halliburton, or other good work on physiology. 

I turn now to an instrument which will, I feel sure, interest 
you much more, as by it you can test your own muscle for fatigue, 
and record it by a tracing. The instrunient has been named the 
Ergograph by Professor Mosso, its inventor. 

Explanation 

One finger is placed in a leathern loop, the wrist and forearm 
being fixed as seen in the figure, the loop is fixed to the first 
phalynx of the middle finger, and to the loop is fastened a cord 
of catgut, running over a metal pulley, and carrying a weight of 
three or four kilograms. 

Now examine two qf three tracings. The first two were 
taken by Professor Aducco and Dr. Maggiora, the third by Dr. 
Patrize. Notice the difference in the three. 

In the first there is a gradual diminution from the beginning, 
showing 46 contractions. 

In the second, fatigue came on much more rapidly, only the 
ten first contractions raising the weight to its required height, 
and the whole record extending to 37 contractions, or partial 
contractions. 

No. 3 shows an entirely different curve. In this there are 
4T contractions, all raising the weight nearly to the same height, 
and the fatigue came on quite suddenly, the finger refusing to 
respond any longer. These curves are quite natural, and true to 
experience. We find men and women who differ thus in the 
rapidity and manner in which fatigue comes on. There are some 



13 

in whom fatigue comes on very slowly, but commencing almost 
at the beginning of any severe muscular exertion. In others the 
exhaustion does not show itself for some time, but then it comes 
on so suddenly and emphatically that they feel quite done up, as 
they say, and can do no more. 

To show the value of a period of muscular training, before 
making the experimental tracing I will show a fourth tracing. It 
is from the finger of the same doctor as the first on the screen. It 
shews 78 contractions, as against 46, more than half of which 
were full ones. 

These curves exhibit the objective sign of muscular fatigue. 
There is a subjective sign also, viz., the sensation of fatigue. That 
is to say, we have a physical fact which can be estimated by one 
of the instruments I have alluded to, and a psychic fact which 
cannot be estimated. With regard to the feeling of fatigue, we 
only perceive it when it has attained a certain intensity. The 
sensation of fatigue may be delayed by agreeable company, or a 
pleasant train of thought. Two friends can do a fifteen mile 
walk, providing they do not push the pace, with less signs of tiredness 
than each one going alone. The workman who persists in his task, 
aftei he is already fatigued, not only produces less effective work, but 
damages his organism to a greater extent. An objective sign may 
show itself before the subjective feeling comes on. In healthy 
action the muscles shorten by about one-third, but when they are 
getting tired, and sometimes even before we are conscious of the 
fact, this shortening no longer takes place, and we drag our feet, 
that is, the usual shortening does not take place to the full extent, 
and so the heels are not raised. A sense of fatigue may be 
present even before any exercise has been taken. This may be 
due to feeble circulation through the muscles, or the blood con- 
taining some poisonous products, or to its not containing its 
normal amount of oxygen. In this case a sharp walk or other 
form of active exercise improves ths circulation through the 
muscle, and brings fresh supplies of oxygen, and so removes this 
pseudo fatigue. In cases of chronic fatigue there is nothing better 
than a course of massage to improve the circulation through the 
muscles, and so bring back their tone. 

Can we proceed a step farther and say what causes these 
symptoms of muscular exhaustion ? Partially, at any rate, I think 
we can ; but I question whether the final answer as to the cause 
can yet be given. One theory, held by a good many physiologists, 
including the Italians, is that the lack of energy in the movements 
of a weary man depends, as in the case of the frog, upon the fact 
that the muscles during work produce noxious substances which, 
little by little, interfere with contraction. Professor Mosso says 
that when the frog's leg has become fatigued by prolonged 
exertion, we can restore its contractibility, and render it capable of 



t4 

a new series of contractions, simply by washing it. Of course we 
do not wash the outer surface, but having found the artery which 
carries the blood to the muscle, we pass through it water, instead 
of blood. But not pure water, which acts most injuriously on all 
the cells of an organism, — a fact which it is well to remember 
when one has to wash deep wounds. The muscle would swell up 
and die if pure water were introduced into the circulation instead 
of blood ; hence a little table salt is added to the water (7 grams 
to a litre, or in English measure, 60 grains to a pint), and this 
solution closely resembles blood serum. Upon the passage of a 
current of this liquid through the muscle the fatigue disappears, 
and the contractibility returns and is as vigorous as at the 
beginning. A similtr result may be arrived at by massage. It is 
well known that a hot bath, followed by vigorous massage, will go 
far to remove the feelings of muscular exhaustion following any 
very arduous work. The chief products that are removed by 
washing the muscle separated from the body, or by massage of the 
muscle attached to the body are : — Carbonic Acid and Lactic 
Acid, and certain ptomaines which make the blood of a fatigued 
animal tonic to another animal. 

Other physiologists, especially Professor Herter of New York, 
and Professor Lee of Columbia University, have approached the 
subject from another standpoint. Their explanation of the 
symptoms of fatigue is : that it is caused, not so much by what is 
formed in the muscles, viz. Lactic Acid, Carbonic Acid and 
Ptomaines, as by that which is lost from the muscular fibres You 
will find the subject discussed in Professor Herter's " Chemical 
Pathology." His conclusion : Is that it is loss of sugar from the 
muscle which is the chief cause of fatigue. It seemed to Professor 
Lee that if this were so, then by depriving the muscles of their 
muscle sugar, or more correctly glycogen, or muscle starch, then 
fatigue ought to show itself. In Phlerhizin we have a drug which 
has the singular property of impairing the combustion of sugar, 
and of permitting its escape in the urine, thus depriving the cells 
of the muscle of their supply of sugar. It was found that animals 
subjected to the action of this drug for several days rapidly 
became fatigued, and their leg muscles only gave 200 to 400 
contractions per minute, instead of the normal 800 to 1,000, on 
electrical stimulation. This is the explanation of the rapid way 
fatigue comes on in Diabetes. I have given you the two chief 
theories. I have no doubt there is truth in both explanations, 
and the probability is that muscular fatigue is a much more 
complex state than we as yet suspect. However, much good has 
been done by the discovery that fatigue means diminution of 
muscle sugar, and it furnishes you with a scientific excuse for 
taking some chocolate, or other sweetmeat, with you when taking 
a long walk. In connection with muscular fatigue I ought lo 



IS 

mention eye strain, which is chiefly muscular in origin. The 
muscles which move the eyeballs, and the muscles which contract 
the pupils, and increase the convexity of the lens are all liable 
to the same exhaustion as other muscles. We have only to 
remember the Academy headache to realise how severe may be 
this form of fatigue. This fatigue is what is called Asthenopia. 
Rest temporarily relieves it. Many workmen who have to use 
their eyes for fine work see much better at the beginning of the 
week after the Sunday rest, but in the middle of the week the 
signs of Asthenopia recur, and cause obscurity of vision with 
frontal and occipital headaches. 

The question of training is too great to enter into to-night, 
but I would say in passing, it has a real power in delaying fatigue, 
and sparing the organism from its dangerous influence. The 
improvement of the digestion, of the circulation, and the action 
of the skin assists in rapidly eliminating fatigue products. I'he 
question of dress, too, is of no less importance. During cold 
weather, especially if in a cold east wind, there is a real danger of 
having too little clothing, permitting too rapid loss of heat, and so 
quickening the onset of fatigue. In very hot weather it goes 
without saying all clothing should be light and loose, and not in 
any way interfering with muscular contraction. 

Brain Fatigue. 

By this I mean exhaustion of the Intellectual faculties, and 
the other special functions of the Brain, and, considering the 
conditions of life at the present time, I am sure you will agree 
with me that no subject could be of greater importance to us. I 
am not going to speak as a pessimist and long for the good old 
times. Personally I feel no time in the world's history has been 
better than the present. The chances of the child developing 
into youth and manhood, and the man living on to middle life, 
and even old age, are much greater to-day than they have ever 
been before. But the twentieth century has its own special 
dangers, and probably the greatest of these is fatigue, and 
especially braifi and nerve exhaustion. The colon Bacillus and 
Cocci are hunted to the death by the Medical Officer and his 
Sanitary staff in Brighton ; and I am paying a deservedly high 
compliment to the efficiency of their work when I tell you that, 
as far as zymotic diseases are concerned, Brighton compares most 
favourably with any large town in the Universe. Our lungs and 
stomachs are guarded most vigilantly by Dr. Newsholme ; but I 
wish the law would empower him to look to the state of Brighton's 
brain and nerves. Many diseases have been all but banished, but 
I fear nerve diseases are on the increase I make this suggestion 
in no frivolous spirit. Something will have to be done soon, and 



i6 

as in a short time there will be very little diphtheria, and less 
consumption, for the Medical Officer to talk of by day and dream 
by night, I would suggest that his attention be directed to the 
cause and, when possible, to the prevention of strain and fatigue. 
A certain amount of strain will always be inevitable both in youth 
and manhood, but all unnecessary fatigue, or what I would 
venture to call unproductive strain, should be prevented. 

Street noises, especially night noises, are one fertile source of 
unproductive straiti. Think of the loss of nerve energy that may 
be caused by a dozen or more thoughtless youths shouting to each 
other at 4.30 on a Sunday morning. Probably by that noise in 
the early morning several people would be roused, and would 
lose an hour or more of sleep, and so energy would be dissipated 
with no work produced. That is only one illustration of 
unnecessary, unproductive loss of energy ; it would not be difficult 
to point out others. 

Brain. — Roughly, the brain is one-fortieth of the body 
weight ; but mass for mass it has by far the largest blood supply 
in the body. Besides several small arteries, it has four very large 
vessels : two Int Carotids and two Vertebrals. Its blood supply 
therefore is as great as that of the two legs and thighs. This will 
give you some clue as to the amount of work Nature expects of 
this organ, and her provision against fatigue. 

As I shall find it impossible to touch but a few points in this 
branch of my subject, I have classified the causes of mental 
fatigue, and, of course, the same classification will apply to 
physical fatigue. 

It may be caused by : — 

(i) An abnormal amount of work, in otherwise normal 

conditions. 
(2) A normal amount of work but carried out in 

abnormal conditions. 
(2) Worst of all, an abnormal amount of work in 
abnormal conditions. 

Of course the normal or abnormal amount of work are purely 
relative terms. What would be an easy task for one man or child 
would be hard work to another. 

The abnormal state or environment may be caused by 
certain well known physical states of health, or want of health, 
that are inimical to mental work, viz., by errors of diet, either in 
kind or in quantity ; by too little, or too much exercise ; by states 
of temperature, or ventilation. These are quite obvious causes 
of a vicious environment, and would occur to the minds of all. 
But that the keen edge of one's intellect can be blunted by the 
condition of the nose and throat is not quite so obvious, but it is 
just as true. This abnormal condition applies more to children 
than to adults, but may be found also in the latter. It has been 



'7 

named by specialists as Aprosexia, and has reference to the 
peculiar want of attention, and loss of memory, and the early 
onset of fatigue caused by the presence of adenoids in the nostrils 
and throat. It is thought to be due to the interference of the 
lymph current through the brain. In some schools the morning's 
work is too long. Studies from 9.30 to 1.30, with only fifteen 
minutes' break, will inevitably produce fatigue in both boys and 
girls who are not strong. Mothers have described to me the 
condition in which their girls have reached home after an 
especially fatiguing morning's work. Pale, irritable, passionate, 
or silent and morose, with hardly energy enough to take food, 
and with certainly not sufficient digestive power to assimilate it. 

A good master will adapt the time and subject of the lessons 
so as not to overtax and exhaust the brain. He will also see that 
the pupils have a proper period for relaxation and sleep. The 
boy or man who studies much, sleeps little, and plays less, is 
riding for a fall. When Cervantes wished to make Don Quixote 
mad he made him read much and sleep little , thus his brain be- 
came enfeebled, and then it was good-bye to sound judgment. 

A word about Examinations. Unless they have been greatly 
modified from what they were formerly I feel sure they tend to 
cause unnecessary fatigue. I remember three young men going 
up for a surgical examination. Part of the examination was a 
paper in Anatomy and Surgical Anatomy lasting four hours. 
They started to write at eleven, and continued as though the rest 
of their lives depended on it, until three o'clock' At that time 
you may be sure they were all thoroughly fatigued, for the time 
being, at any rate. They found it difficult to recall the names of 
drugs or diseases. As this work had to be followed by a viva voce 
at five they were somewhat exercised as to the best way of spending 
the intervening two hours. Two of their number decided for a 
good meal and an hour's reading ; the other took a sponge cake 
and a cup of coffee ; a short walk and a rest on the couch. The 
coffee, cakes and rest beat the square meal and the hard hour's 
reading. A short time ago I happened to be in the precincts of 
the London University as the would be matriculants were streaming 
out of the examination hall after the three hours' morning 
mathematical paper. This was at one o'clock. In many of them 
I noticed very evident signs of fatigue, and when I thought that 
in an hour these same students would be back at the same desks, 
with their brains concentrated on work very much like the 
morning work, I said to myself " Surely this is a very unfair, and 
a very unscientific way of testing knowledge and judgment." The 
morning paper was on Arithmetic and Algebra ; the afternoon 
three hours was spent at geometrical work. In an examination 
test of that kind physical endurance counts as well as mental 
ability. I would suggest that fatigue would be much less likely 



i8 

to come on, if the morning paper started at nine, and ended at 
twelve, and then an interval allowed of two or three hours before 
starting another three hours work ; or, if that change could not be 
made, why not substitute another subject for the afternoon, and 
save the subject of geometry for the next morning, when the brain 
would be fresher to deal with it. A change of work is sometimes 
as good as a rest. 

Physiologists can't say with certainty how much fatigue the 
brain can bear without damage, nor at what age it can endure 
fatigue without danger. 

It must be remembered that fatigue, either muscular or 
mental, probably bears the same relationship to acute diseases as 
chill does. It is relatively much more dangerous to come into 
contact with infectious diseases in the evening, when the vital 
forces are fatigued, than in the morning, when the same forces are 
fresh, and have greater resisting power. And as regards the more 
chronic illnesses, especially of nerve type, there is no more potent 
factor than fatigue. It is well known that a long spell of sick 
nursing, continued with loss of rest, in one unaccustomed to that 
work, will produce such a state of exhaustion of the nervous 
system as to permanently damage the general health. It is 
equally well known that that part of the body which is most 
fatigued is most prone to disease. I have always looked upon 
boils and carbuncles as evidence of fatigue, and have been able to 
collect some remarkable cases in support of that opinion. 

There is a concurrence of opinion that before the sixth year 
it is not well for children to work in school. On the other hand 
moderate mental exercise conduces to the development of the 
brain. It has been shown that school is one of the most effective 
means of ameliorating the condition of cretins in places where 
cretinism exists endemically. A brain must be made to work, 
just as a field must be cultivated, in order to prevent it from 
running wild, but the moment study becomes exhausting it ceases 
to be useful. One ought to exercise the brain constantly, but 
never to exhaust it. When one looks into it, the function of 
fatigue of the brain is an immense subject, and one which it is 
impossible to touch but the fringe of it in an hour's paper. There 
are certain well defined laws which should govern all head workers 
and are applicable to all of us ; but outside these every man must 
be a law unto himself. 

(i). Hard mental work should not be attenipted after a full 
meal ; nor when hungry ; nor when very cold ; nor when very 
tired ; nor in the convalescent stage of an illness, especially if 
that illness has been influenza. I have known cases of most 
severe headache coming on and lasting for months from this 
cause, and one has only to study the daily papers to know how 
frequently a mental collapse is attributable to this illness. 



19 

As regards the regulations which are not so binding, one will 
prefer doing his best work lying flat in bed or on a couch. I have 
heard it stated that those whose circulation is feeble get a better 
activity of brain, and a less degree of fatigue, if they work in this 
position. Others prefer a gentle walk whilst thinking out some 
problem. Some find the function of the mind most active in the 
morning, and work less fatiguing. The brain of others seems 
most active late at night, when the .majority of us are resting. 
Most workers find rest and stillness necessary for thought, but 
there are some whose minds become all aglow from the excite- 
ment of railway travelling. I must confess that when travelling 
I have sometimes got an answer to some problem ; some lost 
word has returned when my mind was stimulated by the rapid 
movement of a railway train. I have known men take a railway 
journey with the sole idea of stimulating the brain, and starting 
some fresh train of thought. Others again find it necessary to 
read a novel to soothe the brain when travelling. I have no 
doubt that mental work done under the influence of this stimulus 
must be very fatiguing. 

As regards the onset of fatigue, one very important sign of its 
approach is, when it is found difficult to fix the attention on the 
work in hand, and when every little sight and sound distracts the 
mind, and starts some other train of thought. An hour's rest, or 
some fresh work would be well then. I should take it to be a 
sign of a functionally active brain when its possessor can continue 
to work, and do good work, without exhaustion in an environment, 
which many would consider decidedly inimical to good work. 
Of the biographies of head workers which I have read not one so 
impressed me in this particular as that of Sir James Paget. His 
is one of the most inspiring and instructive lives any one could 
read. He possessed the power of concentration and attention 
until quite late at night, even after a very hard day's work, when all 
ordinary minds would have wandered from the subject in hand. 
Even in extreme old age he continued to work with scarcely any 
sign of fatigue, and to work on in rooms where music and 
conversation were going on. When in practice he was practically 
always overworked, but he possessed the power of going at once 
from each duty to the next without a break, as if it were by 
instinct. In the evening, after dinner, he wrote his letters and 
filled up his casebook in the drawing room, surrounded by his 
family, and rather preferred than otherwise to hear the piano and 
conversation during his work. He seemed to know when to 
retire, not from any sense of fatigue, but because he felt enough 
work had been done for the day. His biographer says of him : 
He worked without fuss in a quiet way that recalls Matthew 
Arnold's words : — 

One lesson, Nature, let me learn of thee, 
Of rest unsevered from tranquillity. 



It was the power of concentrated attention as the sign of an 
unfatigued mind and I might add, of a superior mind, which 
kept Sir James Paget's memory in activity. Charles Darwin 
considered attention the most important of all the faculties for the 
development of the mind. He tells of a certain man who used 
to purchase monkeys for the Zoological Society of London for £^ 
each. He wanted them for training to act in plays, and he offered 
^lo if he were allowed to keep three or four of them for a few 
days in order to select one. When he was asked how- he could 
tell in so short a time whether a monkey would prove an apt 
pupil or not, he replied, " that it all depended on the degree 
of attention which the animal gave to what was done in its 
presence." If when he was teaching it anything its attention was 
easily attracted, as by a fly or other trivial cause, all hope of 
instructing it had to be given up. An animal when fatigued has 
undergone a temporary involution, and become of the level of an 
inattentive monkey. If the brain is fatigued it is almost 
impossible to be attentive. Galton studied the movements which 
take place in a large audience, when a lecture has been prolonged 
so much as to fatigue the listeners. Says Galton, " The art of 
class teaching consists chiefly in knowing how long, and in what 
way, one can retain the attention of the students. The best 
masters are those who never fatigue too much any one region of 
the pupils' brains, so that their attention being directed, now here, 
now there, obtains some rest, and so is better able to grapple with 
the main subject of the lesson. 

Beard, an American author, writing of the increase of 
nervousness across the Atlantic, says, " That at the present time 
no lecturer can attract very large crowds unless he be a humourist 
and makes his hearers laugh, as well as cry ; and the lectures of 
the hument, now a class by themselves, are more frequented than 
those of philosophers, or men of science, or of fame in literature. 
Americans prefer nonsense to science for an evening's employ- 
ment. They are so exhausted by the hard toil of the day that 
they cannot concentrate their attention for anything scientific.'' 
Beard is convinced that in no other country is nervous fatigue so 
common as in the United States. All I have just said on the 
question of want of attention in fatigue has reference to cerebral 
fatigue, but it applies equally to severe muscular fatigue. Alpine 
climbers have noticed that it is well nigh impossible to fix the 
attention for intellectual work ; not only does the attention fail, 
but memory becomes impaired. 

Mosso found in his case, that after climbing Monte Viso and 
Monte Rosa he could not remember anything of what he had 
seen from the summit. He says, " My recollection became more 
and more dim in proportion to the height attained. It seems 
that the physical condition of thought and memory becomes less 



i 



favourable as the blood is poisoned by the products of fatigue, 
and the energy of the nervous system consumed." Several other 
Alpinists agreed that the last part of an ascent was the least 
distinctly remembered. 

Yawning, which is caused by temporary anaemia of the brain, 
is another sign of approaching fatigue. 

Aphasia. — The loss of memory for words is called Aphasia, 
and this certainly comes on quickly in fatigue. Especially have 
I noticed this sign of exhaustion in surgeons after an anxious 
operation. 

In this discursive paper on a fascinating subject, I have 
drawn illustrations from many sources. The names of two great 
British scientists have been mentioned, — Sir James Paget and 
Charles Darwin, men differing as widely in mental and physical 
type as in their methods of work ; the one able to persevere in his 
work well into the night, with little or no sign of exhaustion ; the 
other, almost at the commencement of his career, became a 
victim to early fatigue when working, and this followed him right 
through his life. But this weakness, though it severely handi- 
capped him, was not permitted to stop his work. The inquisitive- 
ness of Charles Darwin's mind was a passion which overcame all 
difficulties. He has set the scientific world a glorious example 
of a struggle carried on day after day to the very end. 

Before he was thirty, when he returned from his voyage 
round the world, his health failed so rapidly that he had to 
abandon London for the quietude of a tiny village, and here, at 
Down, though his progress was dogged at almost every step by 
his ever present enemy — fatigue, he plodded on most bravely. 
His son, Francis Darwin, has told us that he was so much of an 
invalid that he could scarcely even receive his friends in his quiet 
country house because, every time he made the attempt, the 
excitement or fatigue he experienced brought on chills or nausea. 
Yet this man, in the language of an admiring physiologist has, 
with his simple country life, his garden and his books as his only 
occupation, inspired philosophy with new life, and fertilized all 
the knowledge of our day. 

In the little village of Down, in the shade of the tall trees 
surrounding his house, he thought out and brought to a 
triumphant conclusion his self-imposed gigantic task. 

Shortly after his return from his voyage round the world, 
Darwin wrote thus to Lyall : " My father scarcely seems to expect 
that I shall become strong for some years. It has been a bitter 
disappointment to me to digest the conclusion that the race is for 
the strong, and that I stiall probably do little more but be 
content to admire the strides others make in science." Later on 
he wrote to Lyall, " I am coming into your way of only working 
about two hours at a spell. I then go out and do my business in 



the streets, return and set to work again, and thus make two 
separate days out of one." One of Darwin's favourite sayings was 
that, " Saving the minutes was the way to get work done." His 
son tells us that the pecuHarities of his indoor dress were : that he 
always wore a shawl over his shoulders, and that he had great 
loose cloth boots, lined with fur, which he could slip over his 
indoor shoes. Like most delicate people, he suffered from the 
heat as well as the cold. Often a mental cause would make him 
too hot, so that he would take off his coat if anything went out of 
the common in the course of his work. For those who experience 
anything of the paralysing feelings of fatigue, his method of work 
is worth considering. He rose early and took a short turn before 
breakfast. He considered the hour and a half between eight and 
nine thirty one of his best working times. At nine thirty he came 
into the drawing room with his letters. He would then hear any 
family letters read aloud as he lay on the sofa. The reading 
aloud, which also included part of a novel, lasted till about half- 
past ten, when he went back to work till twelve or a quarter past. 
By this time he considered his day's work over, and would often 
say in a satisfied voice, " I have done a good day's work." He 
then went out of doors whether wet or fine. He would often 
work up to the very limit of his strength, and would suddenly 
stop in dictating, with the words, " I believe I must do 
no more." Thus for forty years he worked bravely on resting 
frequently to escape fatigue, and, in this manner, he was able to 
complete his life's work. He died at the age of seventy-three. 
On the other hand. Sir James Paget was altogether a stronger 
man, and never experienced this fatigue, except when con- 
valescing from some illness. He passed Darwin's age by twelve 
years. After his death, his friend Sir T. Smith wrote of him : 
" During the period of his active life, and until strength failed 
him, his demon in the Socratic sense was work, and he had but 
little patience with or sympathy for those who pleaded that they 
had no time for work. If you have no time, I suppose you can 
make time, and the more you have to do the more you can do." 
These are hard sayings, but he applied them to himself in his 
own work. Paget showed a complete disregard of his health and 
personal comfort, and in his vacation his pleasure would have 
been rather hard work to most of us. Now I am not contrasting 
Paget with Darwin that I may hold hnn up as a model for our 
copying. In work, both as regards the manner and the amount, 
each man must be a law unto himself, within certain limits. 

Before you can follow Paget's method of work you must 
follow him in securing an ancestry remarkable for its longevity 
and its vigour. Before you can expect to escape fatigue, as he 
escaped it, you must have the great capacity for constant function, 
as he possessed it. For most brain workers Darwin is a safer 



23 

guide than Paget ; for the warnings of fatigue cannot safely be 
disregarded, and yet we may learn from that marvellously patient 
and noble life, that a courageous spirit may prevent feeble health 
from wrecking a useful life ; and that if regard is paid to the 
warnings of a tired mind, work certainly prolongs life, and is the 
surest means of insuring peace and happiness. 

I shall close these remarks, already drawn out at too great a 
length, by citing a most remarkable instance of the sense of 
fatigue, in its acutest form, being overcome by a brave, indomitable 
spirit, and, thus, a valuable life being preserved. 

All of you have heard of the mountains of South-West 
Shropshire, and you who are geologists have visited that region in 
search of the lowest fossil bearing deposits. Of this group of 
hills the highest, and most extensive in length and breadth, is the 
Long Mynd. Its summit is a wide expanse of table land, the 
highest part of which is nearly 1,700 feet above sea level. It is 
nearly lo miles long, varying in breadth from three to four miles. 
Church Stretton at the foot of the hills is rapidly growing in favour 
as a health resort, and I can personally testify to its invigorating 
breezes, and its charming scenery. Towards Shrewsbury on the 
North, the ascent is a gradual one, but on the Soulh-East, or 
Stretton side, it is wild in the extreme. Running through it are 
deep ravines, with precipitous sides, at the bottom of which runs 
a small stream of water, cold and pure. It is recorded that at 
different times many people have lost their lives amongst these 
hills, and the record is perpetuated by such names as " Dead 
Man's Beach," " Dead Man's Hollow," and the last fair held at 
Church Stretton before Christmas is known locally as Dead Man's 
Fair, because several men have perished whilst attempting to 
return home across the hills in the dark November night. 

The Rev. Donald Carr, the Rector of VVoUaston, a small 
parish near Church Stretton, used to conduct a service every 
Sunday afternoon at Rattlinghope, a small mountain church on 
the opposite side of the Long Mynd, and separated from WoUaston 
by four miles of wild country. Previous to this last terrible 
experience Mr. Carr had crossed the mountain over two thousand 
times, and knew every inch of the road so well, that fog, or mist, 
or snow, did not deter him from paying his regular visits to 
Rattlinghope. All the week preceding January 29th, 1875, snow 
fell heavily, and lay in deep rifts, completely obliterating all the 
footpaths across the hills. Mr. Carr must have been a man of 
extraordinary physique and indomitable spirit, for despite all 
warnings he started on his weekly visit to minister to this handful 
of people on the hills. His journey proved more difficult than he 
had expected. The snow, which was very soft, was up to his 
knees, and the drifts so deep that he could only cross them by 
crawling on his hands and knees. After the service, not waiting 



?4 

for any nourishment, he turned homewards for his evening service. 
By the time of his return journey, however, the weather had 
completely changed ; the sun had gone down and a fierce gale 
had sprung up from the E.S.E., driving clouds of snow and icy 
sleet before it. He had travelled but a few minutes when a fall 
made him lose his bearings, and strike out in a wrong direction. 
He left Rattlinghope at four, and then commenced one of the 
most thrilling experiences anyone had ever passed through and 
survived. He lost his way completely, and had to continue 
walking and often falling all through that evening and night, and 
late into the afternoon of the next day. Snow bhndness very soon 
came on ; he fell down several of the deep ravines, losing his 
gloves, his hat, and later on his boots, and still he had to go on 
and on, never daring to rest a moment, lest the sense of oncoming 
fatigue should cause him to fall asleep, and die. In his own 
words he says, " After travelling some distance, suddenly my feet 
flew from under me, and I found myself shooting at a fearful pace 
down the side of one of the steep ravines which I had imagined 
lay far away to my right. As I made my way upwards again I 
saw just in front of me what looked like a small shadow flitting 
about, for owing to the snow-white ground it was never completely 
dark. I put my hand upon the dark object and found it to be a 
hare. I saw many of these animals during the night. They 
made holes in the snow, and sat within well protected by their 
warm coats. By this time I was cold and numb, and my whiskers 
were frozen into a solid crystal beard, hanging half way to my 
waist. I had lost my hat, and tried to tie my handkerchief over 
my head, but it was impossible to make a knot, so I could only 
hold it on my head by keeping the corners between my teeth." 
Thus he spent the night, walking, crawling, falling, but never 
still. The day broke calm after the gale of the night had spent 
itself, and on he went in stocking feet, as it afterwards proved, 
injuring his feet in the gorse bushes, but never being conscious of 
it. The whole of Monday morning, as best he could, he tried to 
steer towards the Carding Mill Valley, and it was well he did, for 
it was here, when struggling in a drift up to his neck, that he first 
heard the sound of human voices. Children's voices talking and 
laughing, and apparently sliding not far oft* With what remaining 
strength he had he shouted to them, but the unearthly sight of a 
figure protruding from a deep snow drift, crowned and bearded 
with ice like a ghostly emblem of winter, caused a panic amongst 
the children, and they ran off and communicated the news that 
there was a bogie in the snow. Help was quickly at hand, and 
he was taken to the carding mill, and provided with nourishment 
and clothing. His friends were shocked to find he could neither 
see nor taste the food. He was soon driven towards his home, 
and arrived at VVollaston twenty-seven hours after he had left, just 



25 

as letters and telegrams were being despatched to many friends 
that he had been lost in the snow, and that all hope was 
abandoned. With care, that brave man quite recovered, and 
lived for many years to minister to these hill tribes, and walk across 
the same mountain where he had all but lost his life from fatigue, 
and where others that same night died from yielding to the 
prompting of their senses. 

It makes an impressive picture ; this lonely man on the 
Stretton hills, fleeing from death as best he knew, struggling on, 
as he hoped, towards life, straining his sightless eyes and numbed 
ears for some prospect, some sound of coming help. And how 
often during those terribly dreary twenty-two hours did he 
experience the hope deferred, and the sickness of heart which 
followed. I have cited, at some length, this remarkable instance 
of a brave spirit manfully fighting his way when almost over- 
whelmed by a raging storm of snow and sleet, and in greater 
danger still of being overcome by the suggestion, ever repeated 
and ever gaining in urgency, from his inward enemy, his increas- 
ing sense of fatigue, and yet never giving up hope, but ever 
pressing on, to remind you that there are elements in this 
question of fatigue which no Myograph or Ergograph can settle. 
Mind, after all, is greater than muscle. A man of less powerful 
build, but of more determined spirit will attempt more, and 
overcome more, than a mere muscular Hercules. And lastly, 
may I express the hope that whilst giving every attention to the 
perfecting of the human body, and so making it a better working 
machine, with less likelihood of its mechanism being clogged with 
exhaustion products, our young athletes may not forget that it is 
knowledge, courage and endurance which tell in the supreme 
crises of life ; and that these functions need to be developed with 
the same pride as is taken in the increasing biceps ; and that the 
mind must always maintain its rule over all the functions of the 
body. 



26 



FRIDAY, NOVEMBER isx, 1907. 



BY 

Mr. W. MARRIOTT, F.R.M.S. 

Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 



AN instructive insight into the methods by which the meteoro- 
logical experts arrive at their daily forecasts of the weather 
was afforded members of the Society by Mr. W. Marriott, 
F.R.M.S., who came down from London to lecture on the 
subject. Mr. G. Morgan, the President, introduced the lecturer, 
with the comment that as no part of a man's environment 
subjected him to so many surprises as the weather, few matters 
could be of more interest to them. The lecture followed very 
appropriately upon the recent visit paid to the meteorological 
station at the Brighton Town Hall, and Mr. Marriott now showed 
by lantern slides of charts how observations from such stations all 
over the world were collated daily and made to yield deductions 
from which it was possible to construct fairly reliable forecasts. 
It was necessarily a very technical lecture, but it was made 
surprisingly lucid, and one incidental feature that was greatly 
enjoyed was the exhibition of a series of beautiful photographic 
cloud studies. Mr. Marriott was able to tell the south coast-— 
and Brighton in particular — some flattering facts about its 
immunity from rain and fog, and its big proportion of sunshine as 
compared with other parts of the country. Brighton averages 
just over 1,700 hours' sunshine in the year, while London has 
only 1,260; and in the winter months the figures in Brighton 
were double those in London. It was probably news to most 
that there is an average of 22 calm days a year in England, and 
that on an average the wind comes from the south-west on 106 
days. Several members afterwards put questions to Mr. Marriott, 
who was heartily thanked for his interesting lecture, on the motion 
of the President, seconded by Mr. F. Harrison. 



27 

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER j8th, 1907. 



^ fear anb a Half among ^abages 

(BRITISH NEW GUINEA), 
BY 

Mr. a. H. dunning, F.R.G.S., F.R.P.S., &c. 

Illustrated with Lantern Views. 



MR. A. H. DUNNING at the commencement of his lecture 
asked his audience to imagine themselves in a portion of the 
globe as different as possible from any civilised country, in a land 
many parts of which have not been visited by the white man, but 
where all its native wildness, both of scenery and of inhabitants, 
is retained in its pristine state. It is a country where the " simple 
life " reigns supreme ; and where men live under the most 
primitive conditions conceivable. The lecturer remarked " there 
are tribes in the interior who have not yet advanced beyond the 
' Stone Age.' " 

Taking his audience in imagination, illustrated by a series of 
fine lantern slides, Mr. Dunning conducted them to the Benstack 
River, then westward, throughout the whole of the British 
Possessions as far as the Islands off the West Coast. 

First visiting the Roro and Moorhead Tribes, he thence 
proceeded to the Fly River, on the banks of which the natives 
were seen making sago pulp — a method which hardly commended 
itself to the educated tastes of occidentals. 

Some interesting negatives of the lake houses were shewn, 
taken under circumstances of considerable difficulty by reason of 
the panic that ensued when the necessary magnesium flash-light 
was applied. 

Passing on to the Aird River Delta, Mr. Dunning came 
across the actual murderer of Dr. Chamber, the eminent 
Missionary. 

Mareas and the natives of Waima, and the Nara tribes were 
visited, whose love-charms caused amusement when the lecturer 
stated that he required a bottle of strong smelling salts to over- 
come their potency. The Kabidi dancers and the native method 
of removing superfluous hairs also produced merriment. Mr. 
Dunning informed his audience that owing to the influence of 
civilisation a piece of broken glass is now preferred to the 
primeval razor — a sharp flint ! 



A series of pictures followed, showing a Motu girl undergoing 
the painful operation of tattooing ; the method of fishing with a 
torch and a hand-net from the Lakatoi canoes ; pottery making ; 
a spear fight at Hula ; and native pig-hunting. 

During the short interval some native music — a love song, a 
war song, and a duet — were reproduced from gramophone records. 

Resuming, Mr. Dunning explained the types of houses built 
out in the sea, also those in treetops. 

The ladies were next given some domestic hints on cooking 
pork, which were not so favourably received as might have been 
expected from the lecturer's glowing description. 

A series of original photos followed, of a boy making a fire 
with some wooden fire sticks ; of the native tobacco pipe and the 
ingenious dog ladders ; and string manufacturing and dressmaking. 
Some pictures of curious burial ceremonies, together with some very 
artistic and interesting views of Lakatoi canoes, brought the 
lecture to a conclusion. 



FRIDAY, DECEMBER 6th, 1907. 



Jl^starking of JFIora anh JFauna, 

BY 

Mr. henry DAVEY. 



THE problem, said Mr. Davey, of preserving fauna and flora 
which man's interference threatens with extinction, is Inuch 
less simple than appears on the surface. The largest and most 
highly developed mammalia, such as the elephant, the bison, and 
the lion, are the species most in danger, and nothing but strict 
preservation can save them. The more beautiful and local birds, 
the birds of paradise and the lyre-bird, require equally strict 
preservation. Whether preservation, however thorough and com- 
plete, will be altogether successful is just a little questionable ; 
and I shall give reasons for showing that other factors besides 
man's attacks may be involved. The examples will be taken 
from butterflies, the only department of natural history with which 
I can claim to have some real acquaintance, and which happens 
to be specially fertile in suggestive facts. These established, I 
shall show briefly how they affect the question of restocking. 



29 

All entomologists will tell you that butterflies have become 
very much rarer within living memory. The pride of English 
entomologists, the glorious Large Copper found only in the 
English Fens, disappeared sixty years ago quite suddenly. Several 
other species seem extinct ; and in general all kinds, excepting 
the mischievous Cabbage Whites, are far less abundant than 
formerly. The explanation seems obvious, that too many entomo- 
logists of all ages continually attack them ; while the modern 
facility of locomotion— a facility considerably enhanced during 
the past generation — continually narrows retreats of undisturbed 
retirement where nature is independent of man. Yet what I am 
about to tell you will throw a different light upon the subject, and 
you will see that other causes are in operation. 

The first consideration, though not the most important, is 
Dame Nature's trick of producing during one particular year a 
more or less rare species in countless profusion. The beautiful 
and swift Clouded Yellow butterfly thus appeared in 1865, 1877, 
1892, and 1900. In the preceding and following seasons it was a 
rarity. Still more prized is the Pale Clouded Yellow, swifter though 
less beautiful than its relative, and generally very rare. In 1868 it 
was extremely common, never subsequently. Why should this 
be ? That year was very hot and dry ; but the butterflies must 
originally have been eggs laid by females, and however favourable 
the weather, the problem remains. When and where did the 
females lay the eggs that inexplicably produced countless butter- 
flies of a species extremely rare in other years ? 

Why, too, did not the ordinary Clouded Yellow, whose life 
story is practically the same, also appear in its multitudes in 1 868, 
as it had done years earHer? These questions still remain for 
solution. Again, in 187;;, when I was the Society's youngest 
member, I announced the capture of a Camberwell Beauty ; and 
was informed they were fairly common that year. Ever since 
they have been extremely rare. 

More profound is the subject I next touch upon. Our South 
Downs are peculiarly suitable to blue butterflies, whose caterpillars 
feed on plants common here But the Large Blue (Lycsena 
Arion) is not found here, or in all this part of England. And 
its life history has been quite unknown till just lately. 

The Large Blue has always been a valued prize among 
English butterflies ; though usually very common where it occurs, 
it favours slippery and dangerous places, such as old quarries and 
rocky pastures, and in a few counties only. The localities 
formerly known were Barnwell Wold in Northamptonshire, and 
three places in the Cotswolds ; afterwards South Devon and 
Cornwall. From all parts of England entomologists used to visit 
Barnwell Wold ; and sure enough the Large Blue was killed off 
there. It also disappeared from the Cotswolds and Devonshirci 



30 

I believe, about thirty years ago; and a valuable work, published in 
1903, asserts the Large Blue is extinct everywhere except in North 
Cornwall. But now a number of facts, all of the highest interest, 
have been discovered by Mr. Frohawk. In 1896 he watched the 
females laying eggs on wild thyme, carried off the plants, and 
hoped to solve the problem of the life history. Caterpillars were 
duly hatched ; and all went well till the third moult, when they 
refused to feed, and appeared to wish to hide underground, till in 
despair Mr. Frohawk turned them loose. Again, in 1902, he 
went to Cornwall and watched the females laying. Then he 
noticed one fact which contains the key to the mystery. The 
females always chose wild thyme growing on ant-hills. Following 
up this suggestive clue, he succeeded in discovering full-grown 
caterpillars living underground ; and saw that the ants suck off a 
secretion produced by the caterpillars, just as they suck the sweet 
secretion of the aphides, or blight. Both ants and caterpillars 
are probably interdependent ; and if some external circumstance 
should affect the life of the one the other would also suffer. This 
leads me to a consideration of other phenomena also furnished 
by the same butterfly. 

As I mentioned, the Large Blue, formerly common in the 
Cotswolds, disappeared thence about thirty years ago. Last year 
it unexpectedly reappeared in one of its old haunts ; and though 
both last year and this have been most unfavourable to butterfly 
hfe, the Large Blue has unmistakably re-established itself in 
Gloucestershire. After thirty years' death it has revived to 
vigorous life. This fact, however inexplicable, is not surprising 
in view of the abundance of rare butterflies in particular years. 

But far more remarkable is a fact concerning the Large Blue 
announced about ten years ago. At a meeting of the Entomo- 
logical Society the President announced the absolute extinction 
of that butterfly in the favourite hunting-ground, Barnwell Wold ; 
but he added that it had also disappeared from a park in 
Northamptonshire to which the public were not admitted, and 
where it had been abundant. 

Related facts about the Swallow-Tail and Mountain Ringlet 
butterflies were also cited ; also the abundance of the Marbled 
White at Holmbush, near Poynings, in a space only about 80 
yards square. 

Therefore, continued Mr. Davey, the simple walling-round of 
a sacred enclosure where rarities can be safe is not all that Nature 
wants ; and if Nature chooses to produce an abundance she will 
do it. I have drawn my instances from butterflies, but the same 
holds good of plants ; they will be very common when and where 
Nature chooses. And I have come to the belief, though without 
full proof, that if Nature is left to itself the extinct species will 
reappear, but only up to a certain point of development : we may 



31 



be sure that the elephant and Hon when really extinct will not 
reappear even if all Africa be left a desert, nor, I think, any really 
extinct vertebrates, even fish or reptiles. 

What, then, should be done on the question of restocking ? 
Is it advisable to select places apparently suitable, especially 
places where species have been killed off, and judiciously leave 
individuals to establish themselves and multiply? I think it is 
advisable ; though the facts I have given show we must not be too 
hopeful. The problem is not the same as that of introducirig 
species into a new country, which has had such grevious results in 
Australia and elsewhere. The task should be undertaken in a 
scientific spirit and with practical management, whether by 
societies or by individual naturalists. Exact records should be 
kept and observations noted, for guidance in the future. Nature 
is immeasurably stronger than our schemes can be to produce : 
we are strong only to destroy. If Nature helps our restocking it 
will be successful, otherwise a failure ; and the lower forms of life 
multiply so prodigiously that the least encouragement from Nature 
makes them swarm in countless multitudes. You are all familiar 
with the Darwinian arguments on this subject. The one hundred 
eggs which a butterfly lays are not numerous in comparison with 
the eggs of a codfish or a herring ; yet if they multiplied without 
check there would in a few years be no food to supply the cater- 
pillars. Restocking should therefore be tried, but not with 
overmuch confidence, as the result depends on a stronger power 
than our own. 



FRIDAY, DECEMBER 6th, 1907. 



^utacljrnm^ flatus, 

BY 

Dr. W. a. POWELL, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

Illustrated with Lantern Shdes. 



POSSIBLY a few notes on the latest process in Colour Photo- 
graphy might be interesting to you, as with this new photo- 
graphic plate known as the autochrome plate, one is able to 
record almost all objects as they appear in nature and m their 
natural colours. As far back as 1869 M. Louis Ducos du Hauron 
originated a method of colour photography by means of a screen 



32 

plate filter, on the assumption of the theory that every colour may 
be produced by suitable combinations of the three primary Hghts 
(not pigments), red, green, and violet. White light, as you know, 
is made up of a compound of seven colours — red, orange, yellow, 
green, blue, indigo, violet — which is clearly demonstrated by 
dissecting a beam of sunlight through the spectrum, but it is 
known that it is not necessary to have all the seven colours to 
reform white light ; if we mix the red, green, and violet we shall get 
a very good white, which I will demonstrate to you by means of the 
triple lantern which we have here. In front of each lens is placed 
a piece of coloured glass, one red, one green, and one violet ; if 
they are focussed upon the screen the effect is white. I will also 
now show you the effect of mixing these colours. These three 
colours are known as the primary colours, and with these, by 
mixing in various proportions, we can make all the colours as 
seen in nature. I will focus the red and the green on I he screen, 
and the effect as you will see is yellow. The red and violet when 
mixed produce pink. The green and the violet produce a green- 
blue. Now, if with any of these compound colours produced by 
the mixture of any two of the primary colours we add the other 
primary colour we get white, as you will see by focussing the 
violet and yellow — we get white (quite different to the mixing of 
pigments, which would give green). The pink and green give 
white. The green-blue and red also give white. This also 
explains what a complementary colour means, viz., supplying a 
deficiency, the particular deficiency being in the case of colour 
that which is necessary in order to reform white. 

As my time is limited I am sorry that I cannot explain to 
you how the sensation of colour is produced to us, but colour is a 
physiological phenomenon produced by a physical difference in 
the wave length of light, a sensation formulated in the brain, 
depending entirely upon a difference in the wave length of light. 
Absorption of colour, too, is another phenomenon which would 
occupy too much of the time to go into this evening, but I may 
give you a short explanation of this by saying, that it is the pro- 
perty which a substance possesses of absorbing certain rays of 
light possessing a definite wave length. Grass is green because it 
possesses the faculty of absorbing all the rays of light except those 
v.'hich produce the sensation of green. 

Acting upon the idea of M. Ducos du Hauron, and the 
same theory, Messrs. Lumeire, of Lyons, have manufactured a 
photographic plate to record colour. A piece of glass is coated 
with a series of filters in the form of minute grains of starch dyed 
red, green, and violet. Upon this is spread a film of emulsion 
which is sensitive to all parts of the visible spectrum. The plate 
is placed in the dark slide with the glass side towards the lens, so 
that the light in order to reach it must pass through the coloured 



35 

starch grain filter. Exposure is made, the plate developed, and 
then, before the plate is fixed, the negative image is dissolved 
away and the remainder of the sensitive emulsion film re-developed, 
thereby producing a positive corresponding to the negative first 
developed. The plate is then fixed, washed and dried, and 
varnished. Let us trace what has happened in this process in 
the light of the three primary colours of white light," viz., red, 
green and violet. We will suppose that we are photographing an 
object that is pure red, i e, the colour of the red grain in the 
filter of the plate. The rays from this object being red only, 
would be obstructed by the green and violet grains in the filter 
and would produce no effect on the sensitive plate, but they 
would pass through the red grains and would affect the emulsion, 
producmg a deposit of silver when the plate was developed. 

On the plate at this stage being illuminated from behind by 
white light, this deposit (the first negative image) would obstruct 
the light coming from immediately behind it, that is to say, it 
would cut out the light coming through the red parts of the filter, 
but the other portions of the filter having no obstruction on them, 
due to the silver image, would pass their respective colours, viz., 
green and violet, with the result that we should have the red 
object represented in the colour which is the result of mixing 
lights of these two colours, that is to say greenish-blue. In other 
words, a colour complementary of the red is produced. But when 
the negative image has been converted into a positive one, the 
conditions are precisely opposite as regards the obstruction offered 
to the light by the silver deposit. Now the green and violet 
grains and the red is bared ; with the result that on the picture 
being examined by light passing through it, the light reaches the 
eye only through the red portions of the filter film and the object 
is seen in its actual colour. 

I am indebted to Mr. George Brown, Editor of the " British 
Journal of Photography," for many of the very fine specimens of 
landscape and flowers shown. Also to Mr. Stanley Read, 
Secretary of the Hove Camera Club, who has kindly lent me his 
collection. The microphotographs are prepared by Mr. Caush, 
and are the first I have seen of the kind ; I am sure no better 
ones could be produced. 



34 
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 6th, 1907. 



BY 

Mr. otto PFENNINGER. 



A THIRD lecture was given by Mr. Otto Pfenninger on Colour 
Photography in general ami the application of his invented 
One-Exposure-Camera for Colour Photography in particular. 

When opening his lecture he said that colour photography 
could easily be classified into four groups. 

Group I. — Heliography by prismatic interference. Zanker 
and Wiener gave the first ideas of this process, and Professor 
Lippmann in Paris brought the process to a practical issue, which 
is, however, not applicable to publication through the press or 
printing on paper, and can only be used in special viewing 
instruments. 

Group 2. — The additive method of colour photography is 
best known in one of its applications, the chromoscope. This 
instrument was first theoretically suggested by Ducos du Hauron 
(France), m 1869, and then 23 years after its first publication 
it was introduced in a practical form and commercially exploited 
by Ives, of Philadelphia. The chromoscope is a viewing instru- 
ment, and up to now it was impossible to use the instrument for 
the subtractive method, because three negatives of same size 
could not be produced. The ordinary chromoscope is defective, 
in so far that the refractions caused by the glass reflectors are not 
compensated. The defect is of no account however if the photo- 
graphs are taken as well as shown in the same instrument. 

Group 3. — We have colour photography by the coloured lines 
or screenlpate systems, which was also indicated by Ducos du 
Hauron as far back as 1869, but no results were shown. Professor 
Tolly, of Dublin, elaborated the system and showed some results, 
and he proved the correctness of the theoretical suggestions of 
Ducos du Hauron. Others followed on the same lines, and 
lately Warner-Powrie, of U.S., showed some wonderful results ; 
the colours are very bright and less heavy than in the Lumiere 
autochrome. The orange, green, and violet lines which form the 
screen in Warner-Powrie's photos are very fine, but not so fine 
that the eye does not detect them in the transparency. There 
are already a great number of new patents announced, which 
claim to do better, but the main idea of all of them is, to form a layer 
of three colours in line, or mosaic or irregular dots (like Lumiere's 
autochrome), side by side on a plate and then to cover the layer 



35 

with a photographic light sensitive film, which latter has to be 
colour sensitive to all colours, and when exposed through the 
layer of transparent colours will be exposed, or acted on, in 
just the proportions of the different lights passed. 

When such an exposed plate is developed it will be a 
negative, as in all such photographic processes, and to show the 
plate in its true colour effects a positive picture is required. It is 
therefore necessary to reverse the photographic light action on the 
plate, so that opacity is formed where transparency is shown in 
the negative, or where the light has not acted on, and vice versA. 
There is one great drawback to the processes belonging to this 
group, that is, duplicates will never show the same brilliancy as the 
first transparency made, if such duplicates can be made. A further 
drawback is, that colour printing from such transparency is for 
the present out of the question, and all advances in such directions 
have to be accepted with a fair amount of reserve for a good 
while to come. 

Group 4. — The subtractive method of photography in 
colours, also foreshadowed by Ducos du Hauron in 1869, is 
practically the only method allowing the colour printing to be 
done by the aid of three negative colour records, giving thereby 
facilities for multiplication in nearly any colour printing process. 

One Negative is required which gives all the yellow as trans- 
parent, all the greens and oranges, more or less transparent, that 
is just in such proportions as yellow is present ; such a negative 
colour record is obtained by any ordinary dry plate as sold in the 
market. Or a like negative colour-record can be obtained by a 
colour sensitive plate which receives all light through a blue violet 
colour filter, a filter filtering out, cutting-out, making non- 
acting all colours but blue. 

A second Negative is required which has to be printed in red, 
and for that purpose the red colour of any object to be photo- 
graphed has to be rendered by transparency in the negative-record 
and the blue must be shown by half-transparency. Such a 
negative we obtain with an ortho-chromatic, that is erythrosin 
bathed plate and an adjusted yellow filter, or with a plate 
sensitised to all colours when exposed to light, the latter has 
to pass or is filtered through a green filter, which latter cuts out 
or makes non-acting the light rays which are not required to act 
on the photographic plate. 

A third Negative, which represents the exact opposite as the 
first named negative and has to be printed in blue, shows there- 
fore this colour by transparency and is obtained through an 
orange red filter on a photographic plate which is sensitive to all 
colours. This filter, if properly adjusted, will not allow any blue 
active rays to pass. The absence of light action on the sensitive 
plate will here, as in the other negatives, indicate the colour in 
which to print. 



30 

When we have the three different negatives colour record as 
explained, the same are then printed in the colours indicated 
above, and each colour is printed in succession on the other, so 
that a complete print is only formed when holding a blue, a 
yellow and a red impression. The name applied to such a print is 
three-colour print. 

The ordinary way to produce the three necessary negative 
colour records is with a camera having a repeating back or by 
change of slides. That is by three different and distinct 
exposures, thereby limiting the subjects to be photographed in 
colours to absolute stationary objects. 

Different attempts have been made to take the ihree negatives 
with one exposure, and for that purpose the chromoscope has 
been tried, but found wanting, because three negatives of same 
size could not be obtained therewith. A chromoscope as generally 
known has not less than two reflecting surfaces ; but there is a 
reflecting system with only one mirror, known as Bennetto's 
system. I have tried to use this system, but found that the 
refracted image was shorter from top to bottom when compared 
with the reflected image. Now if one glass reflector, like in 
Bennetto's camera, interferes with the size of the picture, it should 
become obvious that double this interference will not improve a 
chromoscope camera with two glass reflectors. I have succeeded 
in correcting this interference, which is caused by the difference 
of a longer refraction at the top of the glass reflector to a shorter 
refraction at the bottom of the same glass reflector, which latter 
is inclined at an angle to a light cone coming from the optical 
centre of the lens. The correction consists of a plain glass plate 
of same substance as the reflector, and by inserting same at a like 
angle as the reflector, but in opposed direction ; that is, if the 
reflector acts from top to bottom, tne compensation acts from one 
side to the other side. By forcing each light ray to pass the two 
refractions as indicated the negative at the back is foreshortened 
in all directions alike if left in the old focussing plane, but by 
placing the plate a little further away in the proper, through 
refraction displaced, focussing distance, it will be found that this 
double refracted picture will be sharp, of equal and correct size, 
when superposed on the reflected image. The patent 25907, 
igodi embodies the necessary improvements to take the three 
negatives of same size, with one single exposure and with one lens. 

To take three negatives with this camera : One is taken at 
the back, the blue record through the red reflector. The second 
negative is taken by way of reflection from the red reflector 
through its own glass surface at the top, therefore being 
not reversed. The third negative is on a flexible plate and is 
obtained on a ortho -chromatic plate pressed film to film, 
with the second plate which acts as yellow filter. By printing 



37 



this flexible plate through the back the print will be reversed 
again, without losing the necessary sharpness. 

To illustrate the manifold usefulness of the invention the 
lecturer showed about two dozen lantern slides, including some 
remarkable snapshots of outdoor life, children on the Brighton 
Beach, etc., all printed by Dr. Jumeaux's process. He also 
showed from the same negatives three-colour prints by the carbon 
transfer process ; also some colour photos taken half-plate size 
in block printing and carbon printing, which show by the absence 
of colour fringes their superiority over three colour prints of which 
the negatives were taken in succession i)y a repeating back camera. 

In a conversation we had lately with the lecturer he said : 
" I had hoped to find such interest in Brighton (the birthplace of 
the invention), or in London, as to be able to launch out in a 
commercial enterprise, but I find the proverb is true : ' The 
prophet is not acknowledged at home.' However, the Imperial 
Austrian School of Photography has taken a great interest in my 
auto-didactic studies and advancements in colour photography." 

The diagrams given were explained on an actual camera by 
the lecturer. 



Fig. 1 represents a glass 
interposed at an angle to 
the light cone coming from 
a lens, and shows the re- 
flections and refractions. 




Fig. 2 is the skeleton 
of a camera. 



T = Orange red Reflector 
T 2 = Compensation. 
P = Place for Back Plate. 
P 1 = Place for Top Plates 



FRIDAY, JANUARY ioth, 1908. 



IBrittslj ©rtbi&s. 



BY 



Mr. H. EDMONDS, B.Sc. 



ORCHIDS, the Lecturer observed, were widely distributed, 
being foand everywhere except in the Polar regions, iiut 
they reached their greatest development in the hot, moist 
atmosphere of tropical forests. Here they were usually found as 
unbidden guests growing on branches or trunks of trees. But 
although flourishing in such a position they were not parasitic. 
They did not take their nourishment from their hosts as was the 
case with the dodder and the mistletoe ; they were provided with 
remarkable aerial roots which, hanging down in the atmosphere, 
took their nourishment from the gases present and the moisture, 
which they condensed. The family was a most extensive one, 
the latest trade list giving some 3,500 orchids as against 2,000 
chrysanthemums and 1,800 roses. Yet though so numerous no 
specimen appeared so prolific in individuals as to constitute a 
feature in the landscape. The British orchids numbered about 
40 species, distributed among some 16 or 17 genera. Of these 
species, according to the new edition of Arnold's " Flora of 
Sussex," 28 were found in this County. Some 15 of these species 
were described in great detail by Mr. Edmonds, his remarks 
being illustrated by many lantern slides. 

At the close of the lecture Mr. G. Morgan conveyed the 
thanks of the audience to Mr. Edmonds, and observing that in 
Shropshire, where he formerly lived, he had never found a third 
of the orchids that he had discovered in Sussex, asked what 
determined the growth of the flowers. Mr. Edmonds replied 
that many of the orchids seemed to grow upon chalk, while the 
bee orchids and others were to be found only on the northern 
side of hills — never on the sunny siide. There also seemed to be 
certain heights at which they flourished. 



39 
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY jth, 1908. 



ffiairtr s Mta d ffiriticism, 

EV 

Rev. Dr. JEFFREY JOHNSTONE, F.R.G.S. 



IT is perfectly clear from a study of Dr. Caird's works that 
although he was quite familiar with the " common sense School 
of Philosophy " of Scotland, founded by the famous son of King's 
College, Aberdeen, — Thomas Raid ; and the English Empirical 
School, founded by the illustrious Bacon of Verulum, yet he appears 
in no way to have been influenced by them ; while the fact that 
he has written a most significant essay on " Cartesianism," i.e., 
the Rationalistic School founded by de Cartes, and published an 
important book on the " Religion and Social Philosophy of 
Comte," shows, at least, his deep interest in that rationalistic 
philosophy which developed into the Pantheism of Spinoza, with 
its divine immanence on the one hand and that positive philosophy 
which developed into the synthetic philosophy of Herbert 
Spencer on the other. In the case of the great Greek School of 
Philosophy, we discover everywhere in Dr. Caird's writings his 
indebtedness to those early thinkers and devout and eager 
searchers after truth ; the influence of Heraclitus, Socrates, Plato, 
Aristotle — and in a lesser degree— the Stoics, is especially con- 
spicuous in all his books. The Alexandrian School of Philosophy, 
founded by I'hilo, has influenced him not a little ; it is here that 
he discovers the meeting and the mingling of Occidental and 
Oriental thought, the thought of Greece and the thought of 
Palestine, philosophy and Christianity expressed in the term — 
Logos, " thought made flesh " ; while Plotin, the greatest of the 
Neo-Platonists, is in no sense a negligible quantity with Dr. Caird. 
But it is not to Africa, Greece, France, England, or Scotland that 
we must look if we would discover the real source of our author's 
inspiration, and the influence which has operated so powerfully 
on his mind ; it is to Germany, — to the University town of 
Konigsberg, to the great modern School of Critical Philosophy, 
for ever associated with the renowned name of Emmanuel Kant, 
and his later distinguished follower Hegel ; it is to these wells we 
must turn if we would identify the fountains of Dr. Caird's 
largest inspirations, and the influences that have most powerfully 
affected the drift of his thought. 



40 

Dr. Caird has given continuity in the history of western 
philosophy to the body of ideahsm which assumed its primitive 
shape in the hands of Plato and Aristotle, and arrived at its 
critical ultimate in the systems of Kant and Hegel ; with him the 
real is the rational and the rational is the real. The direction and 
movement of Dr. Caird's thoughts, as we follow them through all 
his works, could not be better or more forcibly expressed than in 
his own words : " The movement of philosophy," he says, " is a 
movement towards a more complex and, at the same time, 
towards a more systematic view of the world ; philosophical 
thought is ever seeking on the one hand to distinguish and even 
to oppose to each other the different sides of truth which were at 
first confused together, and again, on the other hand, to show 
what were at first supposed to be contradictory are really compli- 
mentary aspects of things, (a) 

This then is the trend of his philosophy, and the postulate 
by the constant application of which he attempts to resolve all 
difificulties and reconcile all opposites. It is a unity which is at 
once self-differentiating and self-interpreting, which manifests 
itself in difference that through that difference it may return upon 
itself. What we are never permitted to forget, in all sections of 
Dr. Caird's works, is the fact that he is a critic, but a critic in no 
narrow and ambiguous sense ; he is a critic in the sense in which 
all true philosophers are and must be critics, as Socrates, Plato 
and Aristotle are critics, and as Kant himself, the renowned 
author of the Critical Philosophy, w^as a critic; for it must be 
borne in mind that philosophy, as it is represented in history, is 
not merely a continuous stream of human thought, but a series of 
progressions followed by critical regressions to the original fountain 
in view of farther progress. A great thinker may begin his career 
by simply absorbing the thought of others ; but afterwards he 
becomes the critic of what he has absorbed, and the very moment 
he becomes the critic of what he has absorbed he strikes fire as it 
were, he finds something he objects to in what he has absorbed, 
but he also finds that the thoughts of others which he has 
absorbed have a deeper meaning and a fuller content than the 
authors themselves perhaps ever dreamt of. This deeper meaning 
and this fuller content the critic, who is also the philosopher, unfolds 
with the result that he adds something new, something positive, and 
something permanent to the intellectual resources of mankind. 
Now this is exactly what Dr. Caird has done ; he has not gone 
outside the great stream of thought, but has painfully and 
laboriously wrought inside the current, and done original work of 
a permanent character, by detecting and discarding the errors in 
the systems of others, and making fresh discoveries himself, by a 

(a) Comte, p. 84. 



4T 

gradual process of evolution. In confirmation of what we have 
just said, Dr. Caird says : " The only valuable criticism is that 
which turns what is latent in the thought of a great writer against 
what is explicit, and thereby makes his works the stepping-stone 
to results to which he did not himself attain." (3) 

In our paper we have tried to do justice to our old Master, 
by placing well within the canvas as complete a picture of his 
philosophy and his chief thoughts as the circumstances will allow ; 
our aim has been throughout to separate all which is strictly his 
own from the thoughts and the systems of other writers with 
which, of necessity, he had to deal. The task has been by no 
means easy, as his thoughts are often most subtly interwoven 
with the thoughts of others ; this is equally true of all his works. 
Indeed, such fault as we have to find with Dr. Caird, is just this, 
that he fails often to do justice to himself; many of his finest and 
most original thoughts are not only scattered throughout his 
writings, but hid away in obscure corners and out-of-the-way 
places, like rare botanical specimens, hard to find ; but when 
found, are in their way priceless gems. This fault no doubt is 
largely the fault of his position, and must to some extent militate 
against all true philosophers ; for a true philosopher, if he is to 
help forward the march of mind, must himself be in the apostolic 
succession ; he must stand upon the shoulders of others and study 
their systems with the eyes of others. In short, the words of 
Green applied to Kant, that " he read Hume with the eyes of 
Leibniz, and Leibniz with the eyes of Hume," and was therefore 
"able to rid himself of the pre-suppositions of both and to start a 
new method of philosophy ; " is a conception, which Dr. Caird 
adapted, generalised, and applied all round. Indeed, he himself 
says of Plato " that he entered upon the whole inheritance of 
Greek thought, and his idealism was the result of a synthises of 
all the tendencies that show themselves in it," and, coming later, 
Dr. Caird has done for his own age what he maintains Plato did 
for his. Through all his writings he constantly insists that, so 
long as there is an unexpressed thought which is latent beneath 
the expressed thought, and which secretly governs it, so long we 
have the right to criticise the expressed thought by bringing into 
prominence its implicit pre-suppositions. He sees God in all 
things, " the good in evil and the hope in ill success ; " that is to 
say, the Higher Unity which transcends difference, in the Deeper 
Identity of the finite and the Infinite underlying the finite 
personality with its relatively independent and self-determined 
life, and thereby lends the warrant of philosophy to Tennyson's 
otherwise paradoxical " Infinite Personality " — which is neither 
more nor less than Dr. Caird's highest conception, " Absolute 

(b) Kritik, p. x. 



42 

Individuality." We are justified in saying that Dr. Caird has been 
the medium of gathering together the diffracted rays and made it 
possible once again to see the pure white light of truth. If it 
had not been given to him as it has been given to few to take a 
great step forward, he has at least held the ground, and prepared 
the way for further progress. And if the next great advance of 
philosophy be made by one of his disciples he would doubtless 
consider that he has had his reward. Be that as it may, his circle 
of readers who find in his books the reconciliation of philosophy 
and poetry, of the literature of science, and the literature of 
sentiment and reflexion, will grow, while his old students when 
they meet will not cease to allude to him in reverent under- 
tones as an instructor who, not less through the magnetism of his 
personality than by discipline in the art to think, profoundly 
influenced their lives. 



I 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 2tST, 1908. 



BY 

ED. CONNOLD., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 



THIS lecture was illustrated with 50 lantern slides especially 
photographed by the lecturer from natural and living 
echinoderms. 

Many of the views were photo-micrographs of the structure 
of these animals and of various organs attached to them. 

In his lecture Mr. Connold treated of the following : — 
The Ophiuroidea, or Snake tails— The Holothiiroidea, or Sea- 
Cucumbers — The Spatangoidea,ox Heart-Urchins — The Echinidce, 
or Sea-Urchins — The Asteroidea, or Starfishes — Elucidation of the 
term Echinodermaia — All British Echinoderms are marine — Slow 
in movement — Immense variety of interest in their structure and 
economy — The quinqueradial symmetry — Their habits and modes 
of life — The larval condition— Respiratory organs — Locomotion 
factors — The water-vascular system — The nervous system— The 
skeletal framework — The mandibulatory apparatus — The various 
foods— The test, and its growth — The Periproct— The Peristome 
— The ambulacral areas — The interambulacral areas— The Madre- 
porite, and its function — The Spines, their mode of attachment 
and rotatory power — The Pedicellariae : their forms, actions and 
functions— The Pseudopodia — The Ambulacrse— The Acetabulae. 



43 



FRIDAY, MARCH Giu, 1908. 



(Bnglisb ®0tbic ^xthiittinxz, 



BY 



Mr. T. a. COYSH, L.D.S. 

Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC illustrations of some of the most beautiful 
examples of ecclesiastical buildings were shown to the 
members by Mr. T. A. Coysh, L.D.S., who delivered a lecture on 
the four periods of English Gothic Architecture. While Mr. 
Coysh was by no means technical, he succeeded in very clear y 
defining the points of difference between the Norman, Early 
English, decorative English, and perpendicular periods. Roofs, 
pillars doors, and windows were all brought under comparative 
observation during Mr. Coysh's interesting survey, and the large 
audience carried away delightful memories of the exquisite views 
of cathedrals and churches which were projected by the lantern. 
They were artistically charming, as well as conveying their archi- 
tectural lesson, and afforded an intimate insight into the beauty 
which so abounds in often unheeded details of construction and 
ornament. Selby Abbey, Ely Cathedral, and St. Alban's Cathedral 
yielded some of the most notable of the evening's views. Mr. 
Coysh did not show any slides of Sussex churches, but was able, 
of course, to tell his audience of the opportunities of studying the 
Gothic styles, presented bv a wealth of material in the surround- 
ing churches. He was enthusiastically thanked on the motion ot 
the President (Mr. G. Morgan), seconded by Mr. Leeney. 



FRIDAY, MARCH 20TH, 1908. 

Mr. D. E. Caush, L.D.S., gave a very interesting and 
instructive demonstration of the Projecting Microscope. 

A paper, contributed by Dr. A. E. Edwards (U.S.A.), on 
the Geological Formation of the Land near Newport, was also 
read. 



44 



FRIDAY, APRIL lyxH, 1908. 



Srigbtljdmstan^ — IBrigljton, 

BY 

Mr. W. HARRISON, D.M.D. 

Lantern Lecture. 



I 



THE history of Brighton in pictures might well have been the 
sub-title of the interesting lecture which was given by Mr. 
Walter Harrison, D.M.D. There are not many men who know 
so much about the history of Brighton in its olden days as Mr 
Walter Harrison, following as he does close upon Mr. J. G. 
Bishop and one or two others who stand in the front rank of the 
chroniclers of Brighton, and probably only Mr. Harrison has the 
equipment for a lantern lecture on " Brighthelmstone — Brighton." 
For many years past it has been the hobby of Mr. Harrison, not 
only to compile information relating to the town, but to collect 
pictures that would illustrate its past history, and to turn them 
into lantern slides. The result is that he has now a unique 
collection of lantern slides relating to Brighton, and he was able 
to show upwards of 160. 

It might fairly be said that he gave an illustrated history of 
Brighton from prehistoric days, for one of the earliest pictures 
shown was of the amber cup now in the Museum, found in the 
grave of some Brighton potentate of the Bronze Age. Pictures 
of the ancient British camp at Hollingbury and of the Goldstone 
stone recalled evidences of days when the inhabitant of Brighton 
probably wore little else than a coat of blue paint and a bone in 
his ear, and on his walks abroad carried a business-like piece of 
chipped flint tied in a stick, to hammer fraternal greetings in the 
skull of his neighbour. From these times of legend and suppo- 
sition, it was a long leap to that quaint map which depicts the 
French attack on the town in the fifteenth century. Whether the 
date was 15 14 or 1545 (as was discussed recently in the Herald) 
Mr. Harrison did not seem to dogmatise. Then he came to a 
prized possession, a picture of Brighton dated 1720, showing a 
few houses clustered on white cliffs doing duty for the Front, with 
St. Nicholas on a hill away out in the country in the background. 
In those days Brighton had not realised its possibilities in 
the way of Metropole or Grand Hotels. Mr. Harrison quoted 
the Rector of Buxted who wrote in 1 736 : — "I fancy the architects 



45 

here surely take the altitude of the inhabitants, and lose not an 
inch between the head and the ceiling. . . But as lodgings are 
low, they are cheap." He could get practically a furnished house 
for 5s. a week. '' The coast," the Rector added, " is safe ; the 
cannons are all covered with rust and grass ; the ships moored ; 
and no enemy apprehended. Come and see." Here indeed was 
an early unsolicited testimonial to the future Queen of Watering 
Places. 

Another side of the question came later. Among the tit bits 
of information that Mr. Harrison gave of Brighthelmstone in these 
days was that the vane on the Church of St. Nicholas, always lone 
and solitary in the pictures of the period, was in the shape of a 
gilt fish, probably a dolphin. But some fifty years after the 
Rector of Buxted praised the cheapness of Brighton's lodgings, 
the town had grown less unsophisticated, and had realised what 
it could do in the way of profiting from visitors. And Mr. 
Harrison had found this apostrophe to the vane of St. Nicholas, 
conceived by a plundered visitor to be a " shark," the emblem of 
Brighton. 

" Say why, on Brighton's Church we see 
The golden shark display'd, 
But that 'twas aptly meant to be 

An emblem of its trade. 
Nor could the thing so well be told 

In any other way ; 
The town's a shark that lives on gold. 
The company its prey." 

Another interesting point made by Mr. Harrison was that in 
the eighteenth century Brighton seems to have practised a certain 
amount of socialism, — or co-operation, — for its hemp shares, fields 
for the growing of hemp between Ship-street and Black Lion- 
street, were owned in common, and the profits shared among the 
townsmen. This was that Arcadian time when the Lanes were 
really lanes between fields, and not between lines of stuffy 
tenements devoted to the second-hand trade. 

The main part of the lecture was concerned with the develop- 
ment of Brighton in the days when it began to realise its 
importance as a watering place and to cover its fields with the 
close-set houses that are the despair of landlords and property 
agents in these modern days of different ideas. Mr Harrison had 
a remarkably extensive collection of slides showing the older 
streets of Brighton in all stages of their development. He had views 
of the Steine when it was practically an open field, when, if you 
looked north, you saw the grass-clad downland of Round Hill, — 
now a prosaic aggregation of roofs and chimneys. North Street, 
East Street, West Street, were all shown, as by constant growth 
they evolved from scattered cottages to stately business thorough- 
fares, contracting to mere lanes in the improvidence of the first 



46 

half of the nineteenth century that cost so much in improvements 
and widenings to the latter half and to the twentieth century. A 
picture was shown of North Street when its rateable value was 
;^26 ! For every sovereign it produced then, it yields a thousand 
to-day. 

Dealing with the history of West Street, Mr. Harrison threw 
the weight of his authority in favour of the tradition that Charles II. 
did stop at the King's Arms, on the site of the existing building. 

In regard to the official history of Brighton, a picture was 
shown of the first " town house" mentioned in 1558, — the year 
of the acession of Queen Elizabeth. It was built adjoining the 
block house, and was a circular building with a " dungeon " 
underneath. " Dungeon," by the way, is possibly a picturesque 
term for a cell ; one can hardly imagine Brighton with mediaeval 
dungeons. A picture of the Town Hall of 1727, on the site a 
little to the north-west of the present building, revealed a gabled 
structure, unpretentious, but rather picturesque, with the poor 
house a little to the north. The poor house has had many 
migrations before it crystalised in the huge barracks " on the 
hill." Bartholomews seems in these early days to have been 
common land. One wonders how it got into private hands. 

Concerning the name of the town, Mr. Harrison found it as 
" Brithampton " in early Tudor days. It remained Brighthelm- 
stone to a comparatively late date. In the charter of incorporation 
of 1854, it is described as the " Parish of Brighton, otherwise 
Brighthelmstone." The older name, remarkable to relate, is still 
in official use. How many people know of the fact which Mr. 
Harrison learned from the Town Clerk, that to this day in the 
County Voters' Lists the parish is described as " Bright- 
helmstone " ? 

Among other subjects that Mr. Harrison dealt with was the 
coaching industry. He had a picture of the first " coach " that 
was used in Brighton. This was practically a sedan chair on 
wheels, being pushed and pulled along by men. This elementary 
equipage was contrasted with the present day electric tram. The 
first record of a coach between London and Brighton he had 
found was in 1780. In 1822 there was no less than 68 coaches 
running between London and Brighton, and 1,200 horses were 
employed. The "Item " four-horse coach did the journey in the 
respectable time of three hours forty minutes. 

Among the numerous items of curious information was this : 
that the present Church of St. Stephen was at one time the ball 
room of the Castle Hotel. Before being a ball room it was used 
for the Royal Chapel. The Wagner family rescued it from its 
secular use and had it transferred to its present site and re- 
consecrated. 

The lecture also included pictures of the various schemes for 



47 

gardens, winter and others, from the Chalybeate to the Casino. 
What he thought of this last scheme Mr. Harrison would not 
venture to say. 

The lecture was under the auspices of the Society, but, 
having realized its exceptional interest to the public, the Director 
of the Library, Mr. H. D. Roberts, secured it as one of the 
lectures a.ssociated with that institution, and thus gave it the 
wider public audience, which it deserved. 



FRIDAY, MAY ist, k 



JF0rtg ^tavs of l^^-IR^^ping, 

BY 

Mr. B. LOMAX. 

Illustrated by Living Specimens and Appliances. 



THE experiences that Mr. Benjamin Lomax has gained in forty 
years of bee-keeping were made the subject of a highly 
interesting lecture to the Society. Any subject that Mr. Lomax 
touches he makes interesting, and he compressed a remarkable 
amount of entertaining and instructive information in the course 
of his pleasantly delivered, chatty address. So far was the lecture 
removed from the conventional that Mr. Lomax brought with 
him a hive full of live bees, and passed it round among the 
audience, just to show them what a harmless creature the bee is 
when properly treated. In the old days you armed yourself with 
gloves and a veil when you went honey gathering, and you suffo- 
cated your bees. Now Mr. Lomax takes off his coat and rolls up 
his sleeves, and would no more think of suffocating the bees than 
he would of cutting down an apple tree to get at the apples. 
They used to suffocate the bees, though, in the days when he 
firit saw the inside of a hive, and that was 62 years ago in 
Tasmania. Then honey-collecting was a tragedy. The 40 years 
ago, when Mr. Lomax first started bee keeping, was when he was 
surveying in the bush in Victoria. They found a large swarm of 
bees there and hived them in a tea chest. If they wanted honey 
they blew in a puff of smoke, and took what they could before the 
bees recovered from their fright. As Mr. Lomax showed, it is 



48 

still by frightening the bees that one nowadays gets honey without 
danger. You blow smoke into the hive, and you shake it. The 
bees, with the instinct of their primitive forest life, get terribly 
frightened ; and fright leads them to cluster together and try to 
get upwards. So if you frighten them into an inverted hive, they 
cluster despairingly inside the top. And Mr. Loniax sent round 
the inverted hive with the frightened bees inside. 

Among the more interesting things Mr. Lomax had to say 
about bees was to point out that they have women's suffrage and 
nothing for the men. The female bee does all the work and has 
all the power, and, — a point to be noted in these days of 
suffragettes, — the rule of the females is peculiarly ruthless. As 
soon as the queen bee begins to lose her power of laying the full 
number of eggs, as soon as the poor males are found to be eating 
more than they seem worth, out the females turn them to perish 
of exposure. Thus ruthlessly are the principles of social economics 
carried out under feminine rule. 

The superstitions that gather round bees were also told 
entertainingly by Mr. Lomax. The bee must be treated as one 
of the family. If a death occurs in the family the hive must be 
decorated with black ; if a wedding, with white. Should the 
mother of the family be dead, someone must go after dark, knock 
at the hive, and tell them. Bees greatly object to being boug ht 
and sold, and the buyers and sellers must be c.ireful never to let 
them see the money. The money, too, must be gold. If these 
and other rules are broken the bees will be insulted, and will fly 
away. As a scientist, of course, Mr. Lomax had his explanation 
for these beliefs, and he showed how the natural habits of tlie 
bees would give rise to these fanciful ideas. Wherever the Celtic 
race is, one finds these ideas. They are strong in Brittany. 

In Sussex, if a swarm of bees comes to a hive, they have to 
be propitated with an offering of beer and sugar, with leaves of 
scarlet runners. It is undoubtedly an expression of thankfulness 
at the arrival of a piece of uncommon good fortune. 

As the fruits of a long and discerning experience, Mr. Lomax 
had many other things of interest to say about bees, and he kept 
his audience thoroughly entertained. 



49 

WEDNESDAY, JUNE ioth, 1908. 



QmmMal ^enerad ^e.a(m§. 



Report of the Council 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE ioth, 1908. 



The Council made mention of the fact that this was the 54th 
year of the Society, and had pleasure in stating that the meetings 
during the year had been well attended. In addition to the 
inaugural address delivered by Mr. Morgan as President, twelve 
lectures and papers, most of which were illustrated with lantern 
slides, were given during the session. 

The thanks of the Council were due to the Corporation for 
the permission given to the Society to hold its meetings in future 
in the Public Library, Museum, and Art Galleries. In the 
Curator's room of that building, prior to the alterations, the 
Society formerly held its meetings, and the Society's library had 
for many years been housed there. 

The thanks of the Society were also due to the Establishment 
Sub-Committee and to the Chief Librarian, Mr. Roberts, for the 
arrangements made in reference to this change of meeting place. 
Mr. Robert Morse, the Society's Hon. Librarian, had intimated 
his desire not to seek re-election The best thanks of the Society 
were due to him for his work as Hon. Librarian for several years 
past, and the valuable services he had rendered to the Society in 
that capacity. 

The practice of the Society in having an annual excursion 
and dinner, which for some years previously had been in abeyance, 
was revived and proved very enjoyable. The thanks of the 
Society were due to Mr. Henry Davey for the excellent arrange- 
ments he had made in reference to this and many other of the 
Society's excursions, as well as to all who had in any way aided 
the Society in its excursion arrangements. It was gratifying to 
record that the excursions generally had been numerously 
attended. 



5° 

The Treasurer's financial statement for the year shewed a 
balance in hand of ^2 3s. 6d. There were a few outstanding 
liabilities, but on the other hand some subscriptions had not yet 
been paid. There had been an increase in the Society's receipts 
during the year, but the expenditure also had largely increased. 
There had been a slight increase in the membership of the 
Society, which now stood at 145 members and four associates, 
instead of 140 members and one associate at the beginning of the 
session. 

The Council regretted to have to record the fact that one of 
the founders and original members of the Society, Mr. Barclay 
Phillips, had died. The only other surviving founder was Mr. 
George de Paris, who was to be proposed as an hon. member of 
the Society. 

The Hon. Librarian's report showed that the number of 
books issued to members during the year had been 59, and the 
library had, as heretofore, been available to the general public for 
purposes of reference. 

The following are the titles of the papers contributed during 
the past Session : — 

4th Oct., 1907. " Function and Fatigue." 

By Dr. George Morgan, L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S.(E). 

ist Nov., 1907. " Weather Forecasting." 

By Mr. W. Marriott, F.R.M.S. 

i^th Nov 1907. " A Year and a Half with Savages." 

By Mr. A. H. Dunning, F.R.G.S. 

6th Dec, 1907. " Restocking of Flora and Fauna." 

By Mr. H. Davev. 
, ,, „ " Autochrome Plates." 

' By Dr. W. A. Powell, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

,, „ ,, " Colour Photography." 

By Mr. Otto Pfenninger. 

loth Jan., 1908. " British Orchids." 

By Mr. H. Edmonds, B.Sc. 

7th Feb., 1908. " Caird's Idea of Criticism." 

By Rev. Dr. Jeffrey Johnstone. 

2ist Feb., 1908. " Some British Echinoderms." 

By Mr. Ed. Connold, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

6th Mar., 1908. " English Gothic Architecture." 

By Mr. T. A. CovsH, L.D.S. 

20th Mar., 1908. " Projecting Microscope." 

By Mr. D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 



( 



J 



51 

2cth Mar., 1908 "Kettle-Holes." 

By Dr. A. E. Edwards (U.S.A.). 

17th April, 1908. " Brighthelmstone — Brighton." 

By Mr. W. Harrison, D.M.D. 

ist May, 1908. " Forty Years of Bee-Keeping." 

By Mr. B. Lomax. 

The following is a list of the Excursions and Visits to places 
of interest during the past year, viz. : — 

29th June, 1907. Chanctonbury Ring. 

6th July, 1907. Lewes over the Downs to Mount Caburn. 

20th July, 1907. Annual Excursion and Dinner. 

21st Sept., 1907. Ditchling Common. 

26th Oct., 1907. Corporation Meteorological Station. 

24th Jan., 1908. Brighton Herald. 

19th Feb., 1908. Reason's Manufacturing Works. 

14th Mar., 1908. Hanningtons, Ltd. 

26th Mar., 1908. Goldstone Bakeries, 

nth April, 1908. Lewes — Priory — Newmarket Hill. 

30th May, 1908. Glynde. 



HON. LIBRARIAN'S REPORT, JUNE 10th, 1908. 



The number of Books issued out of the Library to Members 
during the year has been 59, and the Library has, as heretofore, 
been available to the general public for the purposes of reference. 
Reports and proceedings of various other Societies with 
which the Society exchanges publications have also been received. 
The following Books have been purchased during the 
year, viz. : — " Microscopy " and " Photo Micrography," by Dr. 
E. Spitta, F.R.A.S. 

The following Serials have been purchased, bound and 
added to the Library, viz. : — 

Annals of Botany. Journal of Botany. 

Zoologist. Nature. 

Entomologists' Monthly Geological Magazine. 

Magazine. Entomologist. 

ROBERT MORSE, 

Hon. Librarian. 



52 



The Field Exeupsions and Visits to faetoFies/ 



SATURDAY, JUNE 29TH, 1907. 



TO CHANCTONBURY RING. 

A remarkably successful outing, the Downs showing at their 
greatest beauty. Yet just at that time darkness and a very heavy 
storm fell upon London and nearly all the rest of the country. 
Steyning Church was first visited ; then, while some ladies 
remained in the valley to botanise, the rest of the party took the 
path by the White Horse Hotel to the Downs and on to 
Chanctonbury Ring. So delicious was the air on the hills that 
the Simple Life was longingly talked of; and on the return there 
was a discussion as to whether Sussex is not after all the most 
beautiful county in England. 



SATURDAY, JULY 6th, 1907. 

From Lewes over the Downs to Mount Caburn, in con- 
junction with the Archaeological Club. Afterwards to Glynde. 



SATURDAY, JULY 20TH, 1907. 
Revival of the Annual Outing and Dinner. See page 61. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21ST, 1907. 



TO DITCHLING COMMON. 

The rare orchid " lady's tresses" ( Neottia spiralis) was dis- 
covered. Some of the party walked back over Ditchling Beacon 
in the harvest moonlight. 



\ 



* Founded on the reports in the local Press. 



53 
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 26TH, 1907. 



A VISIT TO THE CORPORATION 
METEOROLOGICAL STATION. 

At the Town Hall the members were received by the Medical 
Ofificer of Health, Dr. Newsholme. He gave a detailed and most 
interesting account of the daily work accomplished, which requires 
the entire time o* one clerk, furnishing full particulars to the 
Meteorological office, as well as to the local and the London 
Press. Accounts of abnormal rainfalls were stated ; and some 
members recalled the reports furnished during many years to the 
Brighton Herald by " Revilo " (Oliver) and to the Sussex Daily 
News by the late F. E. Sawyer, before the Corporation register 
was begun in 1877. More than two inches fell in one day during 
1902 ; but a member present could recall the flooding of Pool- 
valley in 1850. Dr. Newsholme gave a highly lucid and interest- 
ing description of the apparatus employed for the various objects ; 
and then led the way to the Old Steine, where the rain-gauge 
is kept. By an ingenious artifice, when one-hundreth of an inch 
has accumulated the bulb tilts and makes a mark on the prepared 
paper. The new wind-gauge is now fixed. 

Dr. Morgan, the Society's President, in appreciative language, 
proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Dr. Newsholme for his enter- 
taining and instructive address and exhibition. Dr. Harrison 
seconded, and the vote was carried with enthusiasm. Finally, 
some of the party, — the ladies naturally refraining,— returned to 
the Town Hall and made the ticklish climb up the ladder which 
leads on to the roof. Here they inspected the sunshine recorder. 
This is a solid ball of glass which concentrates the sun's rays on a 
long bow-shaped card ; and as the sun moves on the rays burn a 
mark glong the card, which is graduated in accordance with the 
hours of the day, varying for the seasons. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 24TH, 1908. 



A VISIT TO THE PRINTING WORKS OF 
THE "BRIGHTON HERALD." 

The newspaper was being printed at the time, and the 
actions of the linotype and of the folding machines were examined 
and explained. In thanking Mr. Attwick, the proprietor, for his 
kindness in giving the Society this opportunity, the President said 
that the members had had a most interesting experience, and that 



54 

the knowledge they had derived as to how the paper is produced 
would add to the gratification with which they would receive their 
Herald week by week. Dr. Morgan's remarks were enthusiastic- 
ally applauded by the party. 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 19TH. 



VISIT TO REASON'S MANUFACTURING 
WORKS, LEWES ROAD. 

A large party enjoyed an instructive insight into the making 
of electricity indicators, meters and arc lamps The manufacture 
of these and kindred articles involves a big mechanical equip- 
ment, and the visitors had the advantage of seeing something of 
all the processes of casting, drilling, turning, planing, fitting 
together, and testing which contribute to the production of 
these electrical accessories. The construction of the ingenious 
mechanism which automatically switches on electric current at 
the required moment was another interesting detail, but most 
absorbing of all was the blowing of the complicated glass tubes 
used in the indicators and meters. The contrivance for drawing 
glass tubes out to the required gauge, in lengths that made one 
tremble for the fate of the tube, was a centre of fascination that 
the visitors are not likely to forget. The battery room in which 
the current is received from the Corporation mains in accumulators 
for distribution over the factory ; the carpenters' shop — an 
important department ; and the big saw mill were other features 
included in the tour of inspection. Subsequently, Mr. Henry 
Davey conveyed the thanks of the members to Mr. H. F. Reason, 
who briefly acknowledged the compliment. 



SATURDAY, MARCH 14TH. 



A TOUR THROUGH THE PREMISES OF 
HANNINGTONS, LTD. 

A tour through the extensive premises of Hanningtons, Ltd., 
by kind permission of Mr. S. Hannington, J. P. The tour lasted 
some two and a half hours, and even that length of time proved 
barely sufficient for a thorough inspection of the vast range of 
shops, offices and show-rooms in North Street and East Street. 
The furnishing department was made the starting point of the 



55 

expedition, and here the party was received by Mr. Isaac Wells, 
at whose invitation the visit was made, and who took upon his 
shoulders the arduous duties of conductor. Mr. Weils extended 
a very hearty welcome to the visitors on behalf of Mr. Hannington, 
and also conveyed to them the latter's regret that he was unable 
to be present. He went on to mention the interesting fact that 
this is the centenary year of the foundation of the firm. The 
actual business, he said, was established in 1806 by two brothers 
named Constable, who walked all the way from Horley to 
Brighton to do so. In 1808 the grandfather of Mr. S. Hannmg- 
ton, the present managing director, purchased it, and the 
Constables went back to Horley in the same way that they came, 
namely, by walking. Such was the beginning of the undertaking 
whose name is now a household word throughout such a wide 
district The brothers Constable subsequently crossed to America 
and established what is now one of the largest drapery businesses 
in New York City, Arnold, Constable and Co. 
" An Alpine Expedition." 
The party then set out upon their tour which, considering 
the amount of chmbing that had to be accomplished, was not 
inaptly compared with an Alpine expedition. After a glance at 
the complete and up-to-date stock of ironmongery, some tinle 
was spent in inspecting the rooms in which the furniture is 
housed. The show-room on the first floor was found to be 
occupied by arm-chairs and couches of every imaginable shape, 
and upholstered in the latest and most artistic designs. Ihe 
ladies of the party were unable to resist the temptation to test 
personally some of the more inviting looking specimens. In 
other rooms, drawing and dining room furniture of many periods 
and styles were passed in review, and in the upper regions the 
visitors were shown how carpets are planned to fit the rooms ot 
the purchaser and the sections then sewn together by rneans of a 
special sewing machine. When the rear of the North-street 
premises was reached Mr. Wells reminded the party that they 
were standing upon the site of the old Brighton Athen^um where 
the Rev. F W. Robertson, Sir John Cordy Burrows, and other 
by-gone worthies delivered addresses in the early half of the last 
century. Passing through the carpet department, what are known 
as the Pavilion dormitories were reached. These were the 
sleeping apartments of the Royal servants in the days when 
Georse IV held his Court at the Royal Pavilion, and they still 
remain very much as they were then. At the present moment 
their use is not very far removed from their original purpose, for 
they are occupied by ranks upon ranks of brass bedsteads, 
dressing tables, wardrobes, and other e.xamples of bedroom 
furniture. 



56 
A Bewildering Tour. 

Having exhausted the attractions of the premises on the 
northern side of North Street, the party crossed the road and 
examined the premises in which the estate agency and undertaking 
branches of the business are carried on. Then, passing through the 
extensive auction rooms, they found themselves in Brighton Place, 
where their attention was drawn to the premises in which the fur- 
niture repository branch of the business was started. The contrast 
between these and the fine buildings in D'Avigdor Road, Hove, 
furnishes a striking proof of the enormous extent to which this 
development of the undertaking has grown. Near by, overlook- 
ing a pleasant enclosed garden, are the quarters of the male 
employees of the firm, for whose recreation a well-appointed 
billiard room, a comfortable reading room and a library are 
provided. Passing through Market Street, the premises assigned 
to the ladies engaged in the business were reached, and the large, 
well-lighted and brightly furnished dining room and drawing 
room, overlooking Castle Square, were much admired. Then 
followed a bewildering tour through suites of magnificent show 
rooms, labyrinths of corridors and innumerable staircases, till all 
sense of locality was lost, and the visitors hazarded wild guesses 
as to their whereabouts. The ladies and gentlemen's outfitting 
department, the trunk department, the household linen depart- 
ment, the cloth department, and the mantle and costume show 
rooms, were passed in review, and a peep was also afforded at the 
offices and counting house. Most of the party also ascended to 
the famous clock which overlooks Castle Square, and whose 
familiar chimes have kept a great part of Brighton informed of the 
time of day for over forty years. The end of their pilgrimage left 
the party amazed, and to some extent bewildered, by the great- 
ness of the interests which centre in the North Street and East 
Street premises. Tea had been thoughtfully provided, and after- 
wards Mr. Henry Davey proposed a hearty vote of thanks to the 
Directors of Hanningtons, Limited, for their kind permission to 
view the premises, to Mr. Isaac Wells for his kind invitation and 
for personally conducting the party over the establishment, and 
to Mr. and Mrs. Clewer (Mr. Wells' son-in-law and daughter), 
who superintended the refreshments. Mr. Davey said the 
members of the Society had already visited several establish- 
ments, but he did not know that they had ever been more 
interested than on the present occasion. The motion was carried 
with acclamation, and, in reply, Mr. Wells said there might be 
very little natural history in shop-keeping, but there was the 
philosophical side, and the Society owed a good deal to the shop- 
keeper. 



57 
THURSDAY, MARCH 26TH. 



A VISIT TO GOLDSTONE BAKERIES. 

By the kind invitation of Mr. J. J. Clark, Alderman and 
J.P. of Hove, the Goldstone Bakeries, Fonthill-road, Hove, 
were visited to examine the new system of automatic bread- 
making, by which the whole of the operations from start to 
finish are carried out by machinery. Alderman Clark conducted 
the party, and explained the successive stages in the process, as 
follows: — (i) The sifting of the flour and the kneading of the 
dough by machinery ; (2) the cutting of the dough by an 
ingeniously designed "dough divider" into equal pieces of the 
exact size for making two-pound loaves, the pieces being then 
passed on to a shaping and moulding machine ; (3) the automatic 
conveyance of the shaped pieces to the " proving cupboard " 
which contains trays travelling slowly through it, the temperature 
encouraging the function of the yeast in producing a hght loaf; 
(4) the automatic passage of the " proved " dough from the 
" proving cupboard " to the second moulding machine where the 
dough is finally shaped and moulded ready for baking ; and 
finally (5) the cooking of the bread in the steam-pipe ovens fired 
by fuel gas. The "handing up" and moulding plant is an 
ingenious machine effecting a result which is the equivalent of 
hand moulding. The dough is introduced between a trough and 
a revolving table at a point on its outer periphery. The table is 
sharply " coned " and imparts just as much or as little " working " 
as may be required by the dough to be treated. The automatic 
"proving" apparatus is equally ingenious, and consists of an 
inclosed structure containing swinging trays carried on continuous 
chains. The chains move intermittently, the speed being regulated 
in such a manner as to cause the loaves to remain in the 
" prover" just so long as is necessary to obtain the exact amount 
of "proof" required. The result is to secure a complete 
uniformity of treatment and a uniformly standard product. 
Finally, the ovens are fired by means of gaseous fuel. The gas 
is taken directly from the furnace to the ovens, where its 
combustion is very simply regulated beneath a row of tubes. 
There is thus neither a boiler nor gas holder employed. The 
entire installation was designed by Messrs. Werner, Pfleiderer and 
Perkins, Limited, bakery engineers, of Peterborough. Not only 
is the bread preserved, as far as it is possible to preserve it, from 
human contamination, but the surroundings in which it is 
produced keep clean, wholesome and sanitary. 

Light refreshments were hospitably served during the evening. 



58 



Dr. Harrison's Hope. 

At the close of the demonstration Ur. Harrison voiced the 
thanks of the party to Alderman Clark for his kindness. " We 
have carefully inspected the bakeries, and the clean and sanitary 
manner in which everything is conducted must have appealed to 
all of us. (Applause.) More especially I noticed the fine physique 
of the men who are employed in this trying work. We thank 
you also for allowing us to sample the ' specimens,' which we 
thoroughly enjoyed. (Applause.) On behalf of the members of 
this Society I record our sincere thanks for your kindness in 
permitting us to come here, and also for taking us round and 
showing us this up-to-date, scientific, sanitary bakery." (Applause.) 

Expressions of appreciation and thanks also came from 
Mr. Isaac Wells. It had been said, he observed, that "the man 
is a benefactor to his race who makes two blades of grass grow 
where only one grew before." They had seen something of the 
efforts of Alderman Clark in connection with the ground round 
there ; what he had been able to get out of the ground was most 
astonishing. (Hear, hear, and applause.) He joined heartily in 
thanking Alderman Clark for affording them the opportunity of 
seeing this latest development in hygienic bread-making. His 
(Alderman Clark's) reputation had evidently gone far and wide. 
He incidentally mentioned that some friends who recently visited 
the Goldstone Bakeries were talking about it in Scotland and 
advising some of their friends, when they retired, to come to 
reside in this neighbourhood, where they could see bread baked 
in the most scientific and cleanly manner. (Applause.) 

In acknowledgment, Alderman Clark said it gave him very 
great pleasure to see people going round and taking such an 
interest in all the various kinds of machinery. It was a source 
of gratification to him to find his efforts to produce " the staff of 
life " under ihe very best hygienic conditions were so much 
appreciated. "And," he added, " I think now we have got to such 
a pitch we may almost say we have arrived at the very perfection 
of hygiene so far as bread-making is concerned." (Applause). 

This concluded what was voted one of the most interesting 
and enjoyable excursions in the annals of the Society. 



59 



SATURDAY, APRIL iith, 1908. 



EXCURSION TO LEWES. 

Visiting The Priory and Newmarket Hill. 

By kind permission of Mr. F. G. Courthope, J. P., the ruins 
of the once great Priory were thrown open to the members. .An 
account of the ancient building was given by Mr. Frederick 
Harrison. Taking his stand near the spot where the envoys from 
De Montfort and the Barons at Fletching offered terms to Henry 
in , Mr. Harrison told his hearers that so effective had been the 
destruction of the Church in the time of the dissolution of 
monasteries by Henry VIII., that the only vestige which remained 
was a few stones, and not until the railway was cut in 1845 was 
even the site known. The present ruins were chiefly the remains 
of the domestic offices. 

The Gundrada Chapel. 

The original building, dedicated to St. Pancras, and begun 
in 1077 and added to up to 1500, must have been in extent and 
beauty equal to any of our modern cathedrals. It must have 
been similar to the present monastery of Cluny, in France. The 
grounds covered 40 acres. The party, having inspected the 
ruins, adjourned to the Church, and at the invitation of the 
Rector, the Rev. Harcourt S. Anson, inspected the Gundrada 
Chapel and tomb. Here Mr. Harrison explained that the Chapel 
was a good specimen of modern Norman work. The slab in the 
centre had been taken to Isfield at the dissolution of the monas- 
tery, and kept there for about two centuries. When, however, 
the remains of William de Warrenne and Gundrada were unearthed 
during the railway excavation in 1845 ^^^V ^'^''^ deposited in the 
Chapel built for the purpose, and the slab was returned by Sir 
Walter Burrell. The party having expressed thanks to Mr. 
Courthope and the Rector's son, Mr. Wilfrid Anson, who con- 
ducted them to the chapel, returned to Brighton, the majority 
walking to Falmer over Newmarket Hill. 



6o 
SATURDAY, MAY 30TH, igo8. 



A TRIP TO GLYNDE. 

About fifty members and friends visited Glynde by the kind 
invitation of the Hon. Frances ^V^olseley, who met them at the 
Church. The Rev. \V. E. Dalton, M.A., conducted them round 
the edifice, which was built by Bishop Trevor in 1765, and 
possesses the characteristic features of the period, which, though 
said to have been admired when finished, are not so at the 
present day. Glynde Place was thrown open to the visitors by 

the kindness of Beckwith-Smith, Esq., and some time 

was passed here in admiring the splendid suite of rooms with 
their fine pictures, carving, and metal work. Thence the members 
passed to the Dairy, and finally visited the School for Lady 
Gardeners, of which the Hon. Frances Wolseley is the Principal. 

The School was founded in 190 1-2, and is supervised by the 
Hon. Frances Wolseley. The number of Students is Hmited and 
great care is taken as to their selection. A personal interview 
and the highest references are required before admission. The 
following arrangements for the course of work are a development 
upon specialised lines of the scheme which has up to now existed. 
The chief object of the course is to give a thorough foundation in 
the management of all the more hardy garden plants and to 
improve taste in the laying out and arrangement of gardens. 

Attention is given to the every-day work of a garden, com- 
prising : — The care of grass, paths and beds ; mowing, sweeping, 
and general tidiness ; digging, trenching, and other ground 
operations, raising plants from seeds and cuttings, their subsequent 
treatment ; culture of herbaceous, alpine plants and roses ; forcing 
violets, Dutch bulbs, richardias, etc. ; watering, ventilation, and 
other points of glass house management. Gathering and packing 
flowers and general varieties of vegetal)les for market is carried 
out. P"ruit is grown, including bush, standards, espaliers, and 
strawberries. 

Arrangements are made by which students can visit local 
gardens. They are required to keep notes of these visits and to 
answer in (writing) questions upon them. The advantages thus 
gained to students, in comparing their own work with that of those 
having life-long experience, will be a special feature of the school. 

Students are encouraged to stay two years if it is found that 
their special needs can be provided for. In any case they should 
not stay less than one year. Advice is given as to their future. 

At the conclusion of the visit, on the motion of Dr. Walter 
Harrison, a hearty vote of thanks was given to the Hon. Frances 
Wolseley and Miss Campion. Some members, after tea at 
Glynde, walked by the road to Lewes ; others mounted the hills 
and enjoyed a glorious walk in the evening light. 



6i 



Eebibal nf il]z Annual ©ntinj $c Winntx. 



TUESDAY, JULY 23RD, 1907. 



" I have never had a happier, pleasanter, or more instructive 
day." In thus testifying to his appreciation of the proceedings. 
Dr. G. Morgan (President) voiced the unanimous opinion of those 
members who participated in the Annual Outing of the Society, 
which was revived — after a lapse of 15 years— with the happiest 
results. Leaving Brighton at 10.13, the party proceeded to 
Uckfield, where they boarded chars-a-banc for a long drive 
through the beautiful scenery for which Ashdown Forest is justly 
famous Passing first through Maresfield, they turned off the 
high road at Lampool Gate, and traversed the hamlet of Fairwarp ; 
and then the road begins to rise sharply, as the ironsand of the 
elevated moorland is entered. Nature has distinctly separated 
this tract from the surrounding country. Oldlands was seen on 
the right, and at Duddleswell the top of the ridge was attained, 
Crowborough coming into view to the north-east. The views 
here are magnificent, but the day was too misty. Camp Hill is 
over 700 feet above the sea, and it only needed the sunshine to 
make the prospect a vision of perfect beauty, but the mist, in 
perpetual obstinacy, still enshrouded the far-away hills. A little 
farther and the country was like a lofty Scottish moor. The land 
was bare of trees for some distance, but the heather was just 
bursting into its purple blossom, and the bracken gave promise of 
luxuriant growth. Once a beautiful valley burst into view, waking 
in one's mind visions of a happy idleness that might be spent 
there on a future holiday. And a little later there was a fascinating 
glimpse of the entrance to another valley, exactly like a Devon- 
shire coombe, and you involuntarily looked for the blue sea 
flowing at the end in brilliant contrast against the green of the 
trees, as you find it in the Shire of the Sea Kings ; but there was 
only that eternal gray mist hemming in the horizon with a spiteful 
persistence that would have made you savage — if you had not 
been a philosopher. 

Onward again, and a little way to the right as the road forked 
the party passed near a big clump of trees known by the curious 
name of King's Standing. King Edward IL often used to visit 
Ashdown Forest, where he had a hunting lodge ; and it is thought 
that the place derived its name from the fact that he used to 
stand there while the deer were driven by him. A more interest- 
ing explanation, as mentioned by Mr. Davey, is furnished by an 



62 

old legend, the belief in which was persisted in for a long time. 
This was that in 1264 King Henry ITI. stood and watched the 
Battle of Lewes from that point, where, being fifteen miles away 
from the scene of the conflict, he thought he would be in perfect 
safety ! At Kidd's Hill the road drops suddenly in a series of 
steep descents suggestive of a switchback ; and here the party 
alighted and plodded cheerfully on foot till level ground was 
reached once more. At the bottom of the hill Mr. Davey called 
a halt and gave an instructive little roadside talk on Ashdown 
Forest and its historic associations. Vast expanses of the Forest 
are quite bare of trees ; and Mr. Davey called attention to the 
fact, which is not always understood, that a forest is not necessarily 
a wood, but a tract enclosed for the chase, and often is mainly 
moorland. Such are Ashdown Forest, Woolmer Forest in 
Hampshire, and Dartmoor Forest ; and in political life we speak 
of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests. Mr. Davey was 
doubtful whether the Forest is in the same condition as it was in 
Roman times, although he believed there was more wood a 
hundred years ago than there is to-day. Some people have 
thought that a great number of the trees have been used as fuel 
for the iron-furnaces of the district. 

After briefly touching upon the geographical and geological 
characteristics of the Forest, and mentioning that the Romans 
appeared to have carried on the ironworks at Oldlands, Mr. Davey 
proceeded to state that it was known that Edward H. frequently 
visited it, and that he built the old Palace which formerly stood in 
Vetchery Wood. The Forest, or, as it was called, the Free 
Chase, or Lancaster Great Park, was granted to John of Gaunt 
in 1372, and it was of great value by reason of the wood, the 
deer, and the iron mines. The diary of Henslow (the contem- 
porary of Shakespeare) whose father was a Forest keeper, was 
written on the flyleaves of a book used for keeping accounts 
relating to the timber. During the Civil War, however, the pale 
by which it was enclosed appeared to have been broken down, 
and the deer were killed. A survey made by the Earl of 
Pembroke in 1658 showed that there were almost exactly 14,000 
acres. At the Restoration the Forest was granted to the Earl 
of Bristol ; but then trouble with the foresters arose, and, added 
Mr. Davey, that had continued until the present day. The 
foresters claimed estover, the right of taking wood for any abso- 
lutely necessary purpose. In conclusion, he remarked that the 
last deer was supposed to have been killed in 1808, but he had 
been informed that there were still some left on the Forest, 
perhaps even a hundred. 

The journey was then resumed, a feeder of the Medway 
being crossed, and another ascent began on the way to Coleman's 
Hatch ; and here a turn was taken to the west, skirting Ashdown 



63 

Park, and through a vast avenue of splendid fir-trees, hfting their 
proud heads as tali aiid straight as a regiment of telegraph poles. 
At Wych Cross, which is 658 fr;et above sea-level, another turn 
was made, this lime to the south along a glorious descent which 
goes straight as an arrow to Chehvood Gate and beyond, — a road 
which must be an irresistible temptation to all mad motorists and 
cyclists who suffer from the speed fever. At Chelwood Gate 
there was a welcome halt for the horses, and a stroll among 
the heather was delightful. Mr. Davey showed how suddenly 
the ground rises as the forest land begins. The drive was 
resumed to Nutley, where there was a halt for tea ; and as plenty 
of time remained before dinner, it was decided to drive to 
Buxtcd, and walk through the Park. There a splendid avenue 
of lime-trees diffused a delicious perfume sweeter than jasmine ; 
and the beautiful deer and the fine black cattle watched in 
lazy contemplation. But there are laws as rigorous and un- 
changing as those of the Medes and Persians against loitering 
in Buxted Park ; and so this scene of sylvan beauty, worthy of 
the best traditions of a county rich in noble demesnes, had to be 
left behind all too soon. 

And now the philosophers remembered that they get hungry, 
like other folk ; and hied them to the Maiden's Head Hotel, 
Uckfield, for dinner. The dinner was like the hotel itself — old- 
fashioned, and British, and good ; and it was a very cheerful 
company that sat down to the tables under the Chairmanship of 
the new President, Dr. Morgan. Alderman Colbatch Clark, Hon. 
Secretary of the Society, was in the vice-chair. No toast list had 
been arranged ; but the President very properly felt that the 
company could not separate without passing a cordial vote of 
thanks to Mr. Henry Davey for the excellent arrangements he 
had made for a very pleasant excursion, and for the instructive 
lecturette which he gave en route. 

Mr. Davey's health was drunk with much cordiality ; and in 
reply he said how glad he was to find that the excursion had been 
so much aiipreciated. He was very pleased to know that the 
revival of the excursion had been so successful. Mr. Davey 
mentioned that since the last annual excursion was held, fifteen 
years ago, the Society had been considerably changed by the 
admission of lady members ; and he was glad to find that this 
departure had been to the advantage of the Society in every way. 
(Applause.) 

The health of the ladies was therefore drunk, and the Rev. 
W. T. Mackintosh replied on their behalf ; after which a similar 
compliment was paid to the President, on the invitation of 
Alderman Clark. 

The journey to Brighton concluded a thoroughly successful 
outing. 



64 



COUNTY BOROUGH OF BRIGHTON. 

METEOROLOGICAL STATION. 

Latitude 50° 49' 15" N. Longitude o 8' 10" W. 



The Barometer, a Fortin pattern, is fixed near the 
doorway of the front entrance to the Town Hall. The height of 
the cistern of the Barometer above the Mean Sea Level is 
48ft. 

The following Thermometers are in a Stevenson 
Screen on the Old Steine, one Maximum, one Minimum, one 
Dry Bull) and one Wet Bulb. There are also a Minimum 
Thermometer on the Grass, and a 4ft. Earth Thermometer. 

The Rain Guage is a sin. Snowdon Pattern, and is 
situated near the Stevenson Screen. The height of the Rain 
Guage above the Mean Sea Level is 32ft. There is also an 
Automatic Rain Guage, this records the amount and duration 
of rain. 

The Anemometer is a Dine's Pressure Anemometer 
and is kept at the Tower, of Tower House, Sussex Street, which 
is situated on the crest of the hill. 

The Sunshine Recorder, a Campbell Stokes Instrument, 

is situated on the roof of the Town Hall. This instrument 
records only the bright sunshine. 




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HERBARIUM. 



The following plants have been added to the Herbarium 
since the last report, in 1904. They were all collected in 
Sussex : — 



Lonicera xylosteum. 
Valeriana dioica. 
Botrychium Lunaria. 
Rapistrum perenne. 
Festuca ciliata. 

'> )) 

Acer campestre, b. leiocarpon 
Festuca ambigua. 
Atropa Belladonna 
Alopecurus bulbosus. 
Glyceria Borreri. 
Parietaria fallax. 
Coroniiia varia. 
Prunella laciniata. 
Arenaria tenuifolia. 
Salvia verticiliata. 
Carex Boenninghausiana. 
Erisymum perfoliatum. 
Sisymbrium pannonicum. 
Sisymbrium Austriacum. 
Verbascum Blattaria. 
Apera Spica-venti. 
Delphinium consolida. 
Erigeron canadense. 
Filago spathulata. 

Ajugo chamsepitys. New to Sussex ? 
Scutellaria galericulata, x. minor. 
Chenopodium glaucum. New to 

Sussex ? 
Reseda gracilis ? 
Dipsacus laciniata. 
Atriplex Babingtonii, var. virescens. 
Viola hirta, f. lactiflora 

Draba muralis. 

Erophila stenocarpa. 

Viola Riviniana, b. nemorosa. 

Medicago tribuloides. 

Lepidium virginicum. 

Arenaria serpyllifolia, b. glutinosa. 

Anthemis tinctoria, v. discoidea. 

Potamogeton interruptus, b. scoparius. 

Brassica elongata. 



Wilmington, East Sussex. 

Poynings. 

Newtimber Hill. 

Black Rock, Brighton. 

Brighton. 

Newhaven. 

Wolstonbury Hill. 

Canal Bank, Southwick. 

Newtimber. 

Lancing. 

Lancing. 

Kingston-by-Lewes. 

Black Rock. 

Roedean, Rottingdean. 

Ladies' Mile, Patcham. 

Warren Farm. 

Henfield. 

Kemp Town Slopes. 

Newhaven. 

Newhaven. 

Newhaven. 

Newhaven. 

Newhaven. 

Newhaven. 

Telscombe. 

Downs East of Newhaven. 

Ditchling Common. 

Fulking. 

Goldstone Bottom. 
Old Shoreham Road. 
Kingston-by-Sea. 
Newmarket Hill, Rotting- 
dean. 
Arundel. 

Greatham, West Sussex. 
Newtimber. 
Shoreham Beach. 
By the Basin, Aldrington. 
Shoreham Beach. 
Hodshrove Farm, Falmer. 
Litlington, East Sussex. 
Racehill, Brighton. 



68 



Vicia gemella, var. tenuissima. 

Polypogon littoralis. 

Statice rariflora, x. limonium. 

Fumaria pallidiflora. 

Rumex multifidus. 

Colchicum autumnalis. 

Nasturtium officinale, e. microphyllum. 

Symphytum officinale, b. patens. 

Caiduus acanthoides. 

Pisum arvense. 

Vicia narbonesis. 

Vicia peregrina. 

Ranunculus fluitans. 

Thalictrum flavum. 

Papaver somniferum. 

Sinapis dissecta. 

Lepidium perfoliatum. 

Dianthus prolifer. 

Silene Anglica. 

Hypericum montanum. 

Vicia gracilis. 

Lathyrus sphericus. 

Rubus carpinifolius. 

Rubus erythrinus, b. glandulosa. 

Rubus rhombifolius. 

Rubus robustus. 

Rubus leptopetalus. 

Rubus horridicaulis. 

Rubus adornatus. 

Rubus divexiramus. 

Rubus minutiflorus. 

Atriplex deltoidea, b. salina bab. 

Populus tremula. 

Arctium Newboldeii. 

Salvia pratensis. 

Plantago-arenaria. 

Matricaria inodora, b. salina. 

Juncus tenuis. First found in Sussex 

in 1906, by Mr. Druce. 
Anthoxanthum Puelii. 
Carex Ch^tophylla. 



March, igoj. 



Near Ringmer. 

Thorney Road. 

Bosham. 

Henfield. 

Newhaven. 

Chailey. 

Barcombe. 

Near Pulborough. 

Patcham. 

Aldrington. 

Aldrington. 

Aldrington. 

Western Rot her. 

Amberley. 

Standean. 

Saddlescombe. 

Roedean, Rottingdean. 

Newhaven. 

Uckfield. 

Stedham, West Sussex. 

Cuckfield. 

Aldrington. 

Small Dole, West Sussex. 

Patcham. 

Street. 

Street. 

Henfield. 

Small Dole. 

Chailey. 

Ambersham, West Sussex. 

Cowdrey Park. 

Aldrington. 

Piumpton. 

Nevvtimber. 

Poynings. 

Southwick. 

Kingston Beach. 

Wood near East Hoathly. 

Near Midhurst. 

Seaford. The only place 
known for it in the 
British Isles. Found by 
Mr. Thompson in 1906 ; 
apparently native. 

T. HILTON, 

Curator. 



69 



RESOLUTIONS, &c., PASSED AT THE 
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 

Held June loth, igo8. 



The Reports and Treasurer's Account having been read, it 
was proposed by Mr. E. A. Pankhurst, seconded by Mr. A. VV. 
Chalmers Peskett, and resolved — 

" That the Report of the Council, the Treasurer's statement 
(subject to its being audited and found correct), and the 
Librarian's Report, be received, adopted, and printed for 
circulation, as usual." 

The Secretary reported that in pursuance of Rule 25 the 
Council had selected the following gentlemen to be Vice- 
Presidents of the Society for the ensuing year, viz. : — 

"J. E. Haselwood, E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P., F. Merrifield, 
F.E.S., D. E. Caush, L.D.S., A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P., 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts, W. Clarkson Wallis, J.P., E, 
Alio way Pankhurst, Henry Davey, Walter Harrison, D.M.D., 
George Morgan, L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S." 

And that in pursuance of Rule 42 the Council had appointed 
the following gentlemen to be Honorary Auditors, viz. : — 
"Mr. A. F. Graves and Mr. Isaac Wells." 

It was proposed by Mr. Isaac Wells, seconded, and 
resolved — ■ 

" That the following gentlemen be Officers of the Society for the 
ensuing year, viz.: — President: E. J. Spitta, M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P., F.R.A.S. ; Ordiiianj Memhers of Council: F. 
Hora, B.Sc, W. H. Payne, W. A. Powell, M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P., Edgar Duke, M.D., Robert Morse, A. W. 
Chalmers Peskett, M.A., M.B., B.C., Cantab; Honorary 
Treasurer ; Douglas E. Caush, L.D.S. ; Honorary Librarian: 
Henry D. Roberts ; Honorary Curators : H. S. Toms and T. 
Hilton ; Honorary Scientific Secretary : F. Harrison, M.A. ; 
Honorary Secretary: Jno. Colbatch Clark; Assistant Hon. 
Secretary : Henry Cane." 

It was proposed by Mr. Henry Davey, seconded by Mr. 
W. H. Payne, and resolved — - 

" That the best thanks of the Society be given to Mr. George 
Morgan, F.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., for his assiduous attention to 
the interests of the Society as President during the past 
year." 



70 

It was proposed by Mr. A. AV. Chalmers Peskett, seconded 
by Mr. George Forbes — 

" That the sincere thanks of the Society be given to the Vice- 
Presidents, the Council, the Honorary Librarian, the Hon. 
Treasurer, the Honorary Curators, the Hon. Auditors, and 
the Honorary Secretaries for their services during the 
past year." 

It was proposed by Mr. F. Harrison, seconded by Mr. 
E. A. Pankhurst, and resolved — 

" That Eule 11 (as to Associates) be rescinded." 

A resolution moved by Dr. Walter Harrison affecting the 
Rules for Election of Members, and an amendment thereto 
moved by Mr. A. W. Chalmers Peskett, were both withdrawn, 
the question being left over for consideration by the Council. 



SOCIETIES ASSOCIATED, 

WITH WHICH THE SOCIETY EXCHANGES PUBLICATIONS, 

And whose Presidents and Secretaries are ex-officio Members 
of the Society. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

British Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, Cambridge Hall, Barrow-in- 
Furness. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, c/o G. Donaldson, 8, Mileriver 
Street, Belfast. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, The Museum, 
College Square, N. Belfast. 

Boston Society of Natural Science (Mass, US. A.). 

British Museum, General Library, Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society, Frederick Street, Cardiff. 
City of London Natural History Society. 
Chester Society of Natural Science. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club, Public Hill, 
Croydon. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, U.S.A. 

Edinburgh Geological Society, India Buildings, George IV 

Bridge. 
Eastbourne Natural History Society. 



71 

Epping Forest and County of Essex Naturalist Field Club, West 
Ham Institute. 

Folkestone Natural History Society. 

Geologists' Association. 

Glasgow Natural History Society and Society of Field Naturalists. 

Hampshire Field Club. 
Huddersfield Naturalist Society. 

London County Council, Horniman Museum. 
Leeds Naturalist Club. 

Lloyd Library, 224, West Court Street, Cincinnatti, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 
Liverpool University Institute of Commercial Research in the 
Tropics. 

Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 

Mexican Geological Institute, sa, Del Cipres, No. 2,728 Mexico. 

Michigan University, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, Stone, Staffs. (Wells 

Bladen, Secretary). 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, University College, Nottingham. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass, U.S.A. 

Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 

Royal Microscopical Society, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. 
Royal Meteorological Society, Prince's Mansions, 73, Victoria 

Street, S.W. 
Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly. 

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 

South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Southport Society of Natural Science, Rockley House, Southport. 

Societe Beige de Microscopie, Bruxelles. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

Watford Natural History Society. 
Woolwich District Antiquarian Society. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 



72 

LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

Briabton ant) Ibove IRatural Ibistorip ant) 
IPblloeopbical Society, 



-M^ 



N.B. — Members are particularly requested to notify any Change of 
Address at once to Mr. J. C. Clark, g, Marlborough 
Place., Brighton. When not otherwise stated in t/ie 
following List the Address is in Brighton. Names 
printed in italics are Life Members. 



■-.-M- 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Abbey, Henry, Fair Lee Villa, Kemp Town. 
AsHTON, C. S., Dyke Road. 

Blackburn, H. R., Woodlands, Surrenden Road. 

Blackburn, E. C. W., Woodlands, Surrenden Road. 

Black, H. Milner, 8i, St. James's Street. 

Booth, E., 53, Old Steine. 

Brigden, G., Cumberland Lodge, Preston, Brighton. 

Bull, W., 75, St. Aubyn's, Hove. 

Burchell, E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 5, Waterloo Place. 

Cane, Henry, 173, Ditchling Road. 
Caush, D. E., L.U.S., 63, Grand Parade. 
Charrington, H. W., 23, Park Crescent. 
Clark, J. Colbatch, J. P., 9, Marlborough Place. 
Clifton, Harvey, 19, Buckingham Place. 
Colman, Alderman J., J. P., \Vick Hall, Furze Hill 
Combridge, Same , 5, Leopold Road. 

Daldy, a. Mantell, M.D., 17, Palmeira Square, Hove. 
Davey, Henry, 15, Victoria Road. 



73 

Denman, S., 26, Queen's Road. 

DODD, A. H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 4, Ventnor Villas, Hove. 

Duke, E., M.D., 30, New Church Road, Hove. 

Fawsitt, H. G. Chater, 14, Vernon Terrace. 
Fletcher, W. H. B., J. P., Aldwick Manor, Bognor. 
Forbes, George, 5, St. Peier's Place. 

Graves, A. F., 9A, North Street Quadrant. 
Griffith, A. F., M.A., 59, Montpelier Road. 
Grinstead, J., 13, Powis Square. 
Grinstead, W. F. H , 13, Powis Square. 
Grove, E., Norlington, Harrington Road. 
Gudgeon, A. J., M.A., 52, Norfolk Square. 

Hack, D., Fircroft, Withdean. 

Hall, J. Susskx, 69, Ship Street. 

Harrison, F., M.A., 30, Compton Avenue. 

Harrison, W., D.M U„ L.D.S., 6, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Haselwood, J. E , 3, Richmond Terrace. 

HA WKINS, W. /?., Shalimar, Withdean. 

Haynes, J. L., 24, Park Crescent. 

HiCKLEV, G., 92, Springfield Road. 

Hilbery, Reginald, 23, Hartington Villas, Hove. 

Hilton, T., i, Clifton Street. 

HoBBS, J., 62, North Street. 

HoRA, F. R., B.Sc, B.A., A.R.C.SC, 69, St. Aubyn's, Hove. 

Horne, J., 27, Hampstead Road. 

HowLETT, J. W., J. P., 4, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Infield, H. J., J. P., Sylvan Lodge, Upper Lewes Road. 

Jackson, J. M., 109, Stanford Avenue. 

Jennings, A. O., LL.B , 11, Adelaide Crescent, Hove. 

Johnston, J., 12, Bond Street. 

Johnstone, Rev. Jeffrey, Ph.D., F.R.G.S., 35, Cromwell Road, Hove 

Langton, H., M.R.C.S., II, Marlborough Place. 

Law, J., Crosthwaite, Lewes. 

Lewis, J., C.E., F.S.A., Fairwarp, Uckfield. 

LiVESEY, G. H., M.R.C.V.S., 29, Osmond Road, Hove. 

Lonsdale, L., 13, Powis Square. 

Maguire, E. C, M.D., 9, Old Steine. 

Mansfield, H., ii. Grand Avenue, Hove. 

Maurice, H., L.D.S., 65, St. Johns Terrace. 

McKellar, E., Deputy-Surgeon-General, M.D., J. P., Woodleigh, 

Preston. 
Merrifield, F., 14, Clifton Terrace. 
Mills, J., 24, North Road. 

Morg.\n, G., L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., 12, Pavilion Parade. 
Morse, Robert, 26, Stanford Avenue."* 

Newsholme, A., M.D., F.R.C.P., 57, North Gate, Regent's Park, N.W. 
Nicholson, VV. E., F.E.S., Lewes. 
Norman, S. H., Latchetts, Burgess Hill. 
NORRis, E. L., L.D.S., 8, Cambridge Road, Hove. 



I 



74 

OKE, ALFRED IV., B.A , LL M., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S , 32, 
Denmark Villas, Hove. 

Payne, W. H., Playden House, Harrington Villas. 

Penney, S. R., Larkbarrow, Dyke Road Drive. 

Peskett, a. W. Chalmers, M.A., M.B, B.C., Cantab., Simla, 

Clermont Road. 
Peskett, Guy, Simla, Clermont Road. 
Petitfourt, E J., B A., F.C.P., 7, Chesham Terrace. 
Popley, W. H., 13, Pavilion Buildings. 
Powell, W. A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 5, Grand Parade. 
PUGH, Rev. C, M.A., 13, Eaton Place. 
Puttick, W., Bracken Fell, Hassocks. 

Read, S., L.D S., 12, Old Steine. 

Read, T., B.A., B Sc, Brighton Grammar School. 

Reason, H. F-, Lewes Road. 

Richardson, F. R., 4, Adelaide Crescent. 

Roberson, a., 17, Sackville Road, Hove. 

Roberts, J. P. Slingsby, 3, Powis Villas. 

Roberts, H. D., Public Library. 

Robinson, E-, Saddlescombe. 

Ross, D. M., M.B., M.R.C.S., 9, Pavilion Parade. 

Savage, W. W., 109, St. James's Street. 

Seamer, Arthur, M.A, Compton Road, Preston. 

Sloman, F., M R.C.S., 18, Monlpelier Road. 

Smithers, E. a., The Gables, Furze Hill. 

Smith, C., 47, Old Steine. 

Smith, T., i, Powis Villas. 

Smith, W., 6, Powis Grove. 

Smith, W. J., J. P., 42 and 43, North Street. 

Smith, W. H., 191, Eastern Road. 

Southcombe, H. W., 16, Stanford Avenue. 

Spickernell, S. E., 3, Clermont Road. 

Spitta, E. J., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P , F.R.A.S., 41, Ventnor Villas, Hove. 

Stoner, Harold, L.D.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 18, Regency Square. 

Talbot, Hugo, 79, Montpelier Road-. 
Toms, H. S., The Museum. 
Tho.mas-Stanford, Chas., Preston Manor. 
Tuohy, J. F., M.D., I, Hova Terrace, Hove. 
Tyssen, Rev. R. D., M.A., 19, Brunswick Place, Hove. 

Wallis, W. Clarkson, J. p., 15, Market Street. 

Walter, J., 88, North Road. 

Wells, L, 4, North Street. 

Welsford, H. M., 68, Dyke Road. 

Whytock, E., 36, Western Road. 

Wilkinson, T., 170, North Street. 

Williams, A. S., 17, Middle Street. 

Wood, J., L.D.S., 28, Old Steine. 

Wood, Walter R., L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., L.D.S, 28, Old Steine. 



75 



LADY MEMBERS. 

Bagley, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Bladon, Miss, 23, Sudeley Place. 

Brigden, Mrs., Cumberland Lodge, Preston, Brighton. 

Caush, Mrs., 63, Grand Parade. 

Crafer, Mrs. M. H., 102, Beaconsfield Villas. 

Crane, Miss A., 11, Wellington Road. 

Daldy, Mantell, Mrs., 17, Palmeira Square, Hove. 

Grayson, Miss M. O., Strathallan, St. Michael's Place. 

Hare, Miss, 19, Goldsmid Road. 
Harrison, Mrs 10, Windlesham Road. 
Herring, Miss, 38, Medina Villas, Hove. 

Langton, Miss, 38, Stanford Road. 

Morgan, Mrs., 12, Pavilion Parade. 

Nation, Miss, Hereford House, Eaton Road, Hove. 

Ruge, Miss, 7, Park Crescent. 

Thomas, Miss M., i8r, Freshfield Road. 

VOBES, Miss, B.A., B.SC, Glenalna, Rugby Road. 

Walton, Miss, Hereford House, Eaton Road, Hove. 
Watkins, Miss, Walcot, Walpole Road. 
Wilkinson, Mrs.. 36, Dyke Road. 
White, Miss E. M., West Croft, West Street. 
Wood, Mrs. J., 28, Old Steine. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Arnold, Rev. F. H., The Hermitage, Emsworth. 

Bloomfield, Rev. E. N., Guestling Rectory, Hastings. 

CURTEIS, T., 244, High Holborn, London. 

Dawson, C, F.G.S., Uckfield 

Farr, E. H., Uckfield. 

HoLLis, W. AiNSLiE, Palmeira Avenue, Hove. 

Jenner, J. H. A., 209, School Hill, Lewes. 

Lomax, Benjamin, 10, Park Crescent. 

NouRSE, W. E. C, Norfolk Lodge, Thurlow Road, Torquay. 

Pankhurst, E. a., 3, Clifton Road. 



76 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 1908-9. 



E. J, Spitta, M.R.C.S , L.R.C p., F.R.A.S. 



^ast-^resiirettts : 
J. E. Haselwood. 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 

F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 
A. Newsholme, F.R.C.P. 
J. P. SuNGSBY Roberts. 



VV. Clarkson Wallis, J. p. 
E. Alloway Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 
Walter Harrison, D.M.D. 
George Morgan, L.R.C.P., 
F.R.C.S. 



THE COUNCIL. 

3Jirc-^reai5Ents : 



(Rule 25.) 



J. E. Haselwood. 

E. J. Petitfourt, B.A., F.C.P. 

F. Merrifield, F.E.S. 
D. E. Caush, L.D.S. 

A. Newsholme, F.R C.P. 
J. P. Slingsby Roberts 

ORDINARY 

F. Hora, B Sc , B.A. 
W. H. Payne. 

W. A. Powell, M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P. 

Ijonorary Sreasurer: 
Douglas E. Caush, L.D.S. 



W. Clarkson Wallis, J. P. 
E. Alloway Pankhurst. 
Henry Davey. 
Walter Harrison, D.M.D. 
George Morgan, L.R.C.P., 
F.R.C.S. 

MEMBERS. 

Edgar Duke, M.D. 
Robert Morse. 
A. W. Chalmers Peskett, 
M.A., M.B., BC, Cantab. 

^onorarg ftibrariatt: 
Henry D. Roberts. 



Honorary Curators : 
H. S. Toms. T. Hilton. 

'^onorarp ^utJitors : 
A. F. Graves. L Wells. 

Honorary Scientific .^ccretar^: 
F. Harrison, M.A., 30, Compton Avenue. 

l^onorar^ ^ccretarg : 
JNO. COLBATCH Clark, J.P., 9, Mailborough Place. 

Assistant honorary Sccrclarp : 
Henry Cane, 9, Marlborough Place. 



«^^^^^^ 




30OGIB08 



^