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Full text of "Academic and industrial efficiency; a report to the Carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching"

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THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION 
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING 



ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL 
EFFICIENCY 



BULLETIN NUMBER FIVE 




1910 



THE LIBRARY 



The Ontario Institute 



for Studies in Education 



Toronto, Canada 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/academicindustri05cookuoft 



ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL 
EFFICIENCY 

A REPORT TO 

THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING 

BY 
MORRIS LLEWELLYN COOKE, M.E. 

MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 



LIBRARY 

MAY 31 197J 

THE ONTARIO INSTITUTE 
FOR STUDIES IN EDUCATION j 



BULLETIN NUMBER FIVE 



576 FIFTH AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



D. B. UPDIKE, THE MERRYMOUNT PRESS, BOSTON 



PREFACE 

THE reason for such a study as is set forth in the present bulletin is found 
partly in the existence in the college of new and large problems and partly in 
the criticisms of American colleges and universities made during the past few years 
by business men, I believe that American men of education have faith in the future 
of the American college, and that they welcome any effort on the part of the busi- 
ness community or other intelligent men interested in education to better either the 
educational organization or the educational curriculum. This study is offered from 
the viewpoint of one outside college work who has to do in the main with the study 
of the efficiency of industrial establishments. 

The administrative organization of American institutions of higher learning more 
nearly resembles business organizations than do those of most countries. The ma- 
chinery of organization, with a president, a board of trustees, and a staff of deans and 
assistants, resembles closely the business organization of a corporation, with its presi- 
dent, its board of directors, and its heads of departments. One of the questions most 
frequently asked by foreigners concerning American institutions is, whether this or- 
ganization, business-like at least in appearance, is consistent with academic freedom 
and elasticity, and whether it furnishes results comparable in efficiency with the 
large measure of authority vested in it. 

One may distinguish roughly three different aspects of American university ac- 
tivity, in reference to each of which it will naturally be asked how far criticism from 
the standpoint of the present bulletin is pertinent. First, in so far as the Ameri- 
can university handles money and deals with questions of effective organization and 
administration, any experience derived from the industrial world is distinctly 
applicable. 

Second, there is apparently a realm to which the industrial point of view is obvi- 
ously inapplicable. The manufacturer must know in terms of dollars and cents the 
actual cost of every step he takes and of every product he turns out; and even when 
he carries on some particular form of activity at a loss, it is on the basis of a calcu- 
lation that he will create ultimately a market sufficiently large to convert the loss 
into final gain. In the upper regions of academic activity, namely, in the field of 
research, no such close or consistent correlation between work and expense is feasible. 
A certain degree of iiresponsibility must be conceded to the investigator. He must 
be allowed to take large chances, if his judgment approve. The ultimate outcome 
of an expensive research may be slight, just as the ultimate outcome of an inexpen- 
sive research may be extremely precious or profitable. In general the extent to 
which a university may engage in investigation is undoubtedly to be determined 



iv PREFACE 

in large measure by its business judgment, but given any particular sum which may 
without prejudice to prior duties be devoted to intensive investigation, it would be 
thenceforth unwise to attempt step by step to follow the industrial analogy closely. 
It would appear that once an institution is clear as to the sums it can devote to 
research, the business analogy may have very little application beyond that point. 
There is, then, one area within which the industrial organizer may have much to tell 
our college administrators. There is at the far end another within which he may 
achieve nothing. 

The third aspect of education to which I referred lies between the two extremes. 
Here is an expansive territory to which conceptions of the nature of this bulletin 
have seldom been applied and within which it is open to discussion as to how far they 
are suggestive or helpful. The study which follows has been made by Mr. Morris 
, Llewellyn Cooke, under the direction of the Carnegie Foundation. Mr. Cooke is one 
of a group of engineers who specialize in the organization and management of in- 
dustrial establishments and the installation in them of improved methods based on 
a scientific study of the results desired and the processes involved. The value of th'c 
report, therefore, lies not only in the care with which it has been made, but also in 
the standpoint from which the investigator has considered college work. That stand- 
point is the same which Mr. Cooke takes when he examines a manufacturing concern. 

It is not the purpose of the Foundation to present any criticism of this report or 
discussion of it. Its value to education lies in the presentation of the study from the 
standpoint which its author occupied. 

However strongly one may insist that the college, as an intellectual, moral and 
social organism, must be viewed from a different standpoint than that of factory 
efficiency, it is still true that all large and continuing causes rest upon formal or- 
ganization and upon some assumed machinery of administration. There are two sides 
to all administration, whether it be the administration of an army, of an indus- 
trial establishment, or of a college: the mechanical side and the human side. 

The first concerns itself with the preparation of the machinery suitable to the 
work to be carried out. That machinery will vary according to the size and the na- 
ture of the enterprise. The organizations appropriate to an army, a bank, a factory, 
and a college differ, but each alike demands machinery suited to the work which it 
undertakes to do. 

The human side of administration consists in getting out of the men who com- 
pose the machinery the most devoted service and cooperation of which they are 
capable. 

Both of these ideas enter into every form of military, business and social organiza- 
tion. That organization is the most successful and most efficient which, having 



PREFACE V 

planned clearly and wisely the machinery of its operations, develops also such 
leadership as to make the machine a living organization, each man in it contribut- 
ing the best there is in him and cooperating with every other man. 

1 apprehend that these fundamental principles of organization and of administra- 
tion are accepted by all. Furthermore, it will be generally admitted that in a few 
decades our colleges and universities have expanded enormously, and that they have 
undertaken, under new and hitherto unknown conditions, operations of far greater 
complexity than they dealt with during the previous quarter century. It may therefore 
well happen that the mechanical side of their organizations has not kept up with the 
demands and the complexities of their problems, and that they may gain from the 
intelligent study of college forms of organization a real help from those who con- 
duct industrial enterprises, without at the same time in any measure losing sight 
of the fact that scholarly and spiritual leadership is the highest quality of college 
efficiency and the one most necessary to attain. It may be well also to remember 
that sincere and helpful leadership in intellectual and spiritual matters will in no 
wise be injured by a frank and open examination of the material factors which enter 
into college problems. 

There is a still more practical side which has as yet received but scant attention, 
but which must in the next decade be met squarely by those who direct educational 
institutions. The cost of university education has risen throughout the world, but 
nowhere so rapidly as in the United States. Single univereities in America are now 
spending larger incomes than any educational institution has ever spent in the 
world's history. Not only is this true, but the whole demand of the American uni- 
versity to-day is for more money. No doubt this demand is urgent; nevertheless it 
is clear that this process cannot be indefinitely extended unless we greatly restrict 
the number of universities. It may well be that a thoroughgoing administrative 
study of the income and expenditure of one of our large and newly grow n univer- 
sities may be more helpful to it at this moment than more money. We have gone 
through a period of great expansion. Just now a critical examination and apprecia- 
tion of what we are getting out of the expansion is probably more to be desired 
than farther expansion. 

In any event, only good can come to an organization — whether it be commer- 
cial, educational, or religious — when a friendly hand turns the light of public 
scrutiny upon its methods, resources and aims. This study is therefore commended, 
without discussion as to its merits, to the thoughtful examination of college officers, 
trustees and teachers, as a friendly attempt to contribute to the solution of college 
problems from the standpoint of one who has to do with industrial efficiency, and 
without any preconceived opinion as to how far the analogy which its title suggests 



vi PREFACE 

maj be pushed. The college is partly a business, and partly something very different 
from a business. Mr. Cooke is concerned only with the former aspect. It will be in- 
teresting for those to whom the latter viewpoint is more natural to consider how 
far his observations have suggestive significance. 

Heney S, Pbitchett. 



October 7, 1910. 



CONTENTS 
PART 1 

PAGE 

Introduction 3 

General Observations 6 

General Type of Organization 9 

No Present Gauge to ELfficiencv 19 

The College Teacher as a Producer 21 

Research 30 

The Economical Use of Buildings 35 

Functional Activities 42 

Financial Administration 54 

Physics Departmental Administration 65 

Student Administration 68 

PART 2 

Introduction 73 
Tables 

1 Valuations, Expenditures, etc. 74 

2 Data concerning Inbreeding of Teachers of Physics 77 

3 Data concerning Salaries of Teachers of Physics 79 

3 a Percentage of Salary paid to Each Grade of Teacher 82 

4 Disposition of Time of Individual Teachers of Physics 84 

5 Analysis of Disposition of Time of Teachers of Physics 90 

5 a Money Value of the Time of Teachers of Physics 94 

6 Data concerning Buildings, Cost of Maintenance, etc. 96 

7 Whole Cost of Teaching Physics 98 

8 Cost of Teaching Physics per Student-Hour 102 

9 An Analysis of Teaching by Departments 106 

10 1. Summary of Teaching 112 

2. Summary of Expenses 113 

3. Teaching and Expense contrasted 114 

1 1 Size of Laboratory, Lecture and Recitation Sections 115 
Appendix 117 
Index 133 



PART 1 



INTRODUCTION 

IN the instructions calling for this report it was stated that the object was to 
obtain an estimate of the cost and of the output both in teaching and in research 
in the departments of physics in the following institutions; 

Columbia University, 
Harvard Univer.sitij, 
Md.ssachiisetls In.stitute of Technology^ 
University of Toronto, 
University of Wisconsin and 
Haverford College. 
Two institutions were added later to the list: 
Princeton University and 
Williams College. 

It was suggested that, in visiting these institutions with the main object of securing 
the data upon which this study could be based, the writer avail himself of the op- 
portunity for noting any features of the life at these institutions or their practices 
which would throw light on the general problem of their work and administration. 

In his verbal instructions to the writer, Dr. Pritchett stated that an educator 
could not be utilized for the purpose of making this report, because the Foundation 
wanted especially to see the institutions to be visited through the eyes of a business 
man, and of one generally familiar with modern practice in management. So that 
if in this report terms are used which are more frequently encountered in the in- 
dustrial world than in our colleges and universities, it is because it has seemed best 
for present purposes to minimize the differences which exist between the two classes 
of institutions, rather than to point out the places where they are essentially dif- 
ferent. In studying the various operating mechanisms used by the colleges the wTiter 
has had constantly before him for purposes of comparison the equivalent mechanism 
used in the industrial world. 

It may be interesting to state why the department of physics was chosen. This was 
for three reasons: first, because it was believed that physics, considered as an integral 
branch of collegiate and university education, is taught as efficiently as any other; 
second, it includes lecture hall, laboratory and recitation room work; and third, 
because owing to the fact that it is a comparatively modern subject, it has accumu- 
lated less "moss" than perhaps attaches to some of the subjects which have been 
a regular part of the curriculum for centuries. 

These explanatory remarks are given so that it may be understood that the pur- 
pose of this inquiry did not include any special interest in physics which was not 
felt for other subjects of teaching. The interest in physics is, therefore, more or less 
accidental, and the study of it must be looked upon as a specimen, which might 



4 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

have been duplicated, to a considerable extent at least, in any one of the other de- 
partments. It will be admitted that, if a system of management can be developed 
under which the efficiency of any one department can be measured, the same scheme, 
more or less modified, can probably be applied to other departments, and that the 
result of applying it to all departments will in large measure gauge the ultimate 
efficiency of the entire university or college organization. 

In this report, while the writer has had quality constantly before him, he has been 
forced to confine his observations very largely to questions of quantity. But the effort 
has been to make quality a background for everything that may appear to have 
only a quantitative value. 

It will not be amiss to call attention at the outset to the fact that it is com- 
paratively easy to make a formidable criticism of the best organized industrial under- 
taking. The more conversant with matters of management one becomes, the more 
one will realize how far from ideal, judged by any of the best standards, are the 
conditions which obtain in any part of our industrial world. In fact, the beginning 
of the study of management as a science dates only a few years back, and there are 
even now relatively few in the industrial world who look upon it as a subject in 
which the problems are capable of a scientific solution. 

There is a great difference in the matter of management between different lines 
of industrialism. One industry may have been forced to a high degree of effi- 
ciency through intense competition, or through some more or less accidental cause; 
while another, managed by men as able, may be using the methods of a genera- 
tion past, simply because it has never felt the spur of necessity. In making a study, 
therefore, of the colleges and universities, one would expect to find much that could 
be improved. And it also follows that in attempting to reach a conclusion on the 
value of the work done to date by the men responsible for the organization of our 
institutions for higher education, one must in fairness to them have in mind the 
average efficiency of management outside of the colleges as well as the more con- 
spicuous examples of administrative efficiency. 

As a result of a relatively large number of interviews with persons connected with 
the institutions visited, I am convinced that many are expecting marked changes in 
method to be brought about within a short time, and that in most places these 
changes will be welcomed. In the writer's opinion, the greatest progress will be made 
in effecting needed changes in collegiate and university methods, if it can be done 
without the accompaniment of extreme criticism and the ordinary methods of attack. 
The colleges and universities are not dreading change, but they do dread the strife 
by which some seek to bring it about. 

There is undoubtedly, too, some feeling on the part of most college professors that 
changes brought about at the hands of business men may be made without suffi- 
cient respect or regard for the verdict of time. Undoubtedly business men as a class 
do think in short cycles. If a certain modification in business methods will bring 



INTRODUCTION 5 

better results in the next ten years, it will be made without much regard to what follows. 
On the other hand, it is one of the functions of a university to stand for what has 
proven to be good practice over longer periods of time, or for that wliich gives pro- 
mise of such proof. 

In going about, the effort was made to get at the viewpoint of all the different 
grades of teachers. In some institutions I talked with nearly all the members of the 
teaching staff of the department of physics. But of course for the most part the 
interviews were with those in charge of the institutions and those in charge of the 
physics departments. This word of caution is introduced here because I know that in 
many matters of collegiate administration the policy of the so-called "heads" is op- 
posed more or less by their assistants. 

There are of course many phases of the problem of the colleges which purposely 
are not touched in any way in this study, such as, for instance, the relative merits 
of the different methods of teaching. The effort has been to confine the observations 
to those features of college and university work which are affected by business con- 
siderations. A large part of the field is therefore not treated in any way. 

It is usual in the industrial world to find manufacturers and business men who 
look upon their own undertakings as being essentially different from every other 
seemingly like undertaking. This could not be otherwise, because every one knows 
the difficulties of his own work better than those of his neighbor. So I was not sur- 
prised to learn that every college feels that it has problems unlike, and of greater 
difficulty of solution than, those to be encountered at other colleges. As a matter of 
fact, from the standpoint of organization, uniformity in collegiate management is 
a much easier problem than it is in most industries, because in any industry which 
I know about, the individual plants vary considerably more than do the colleges. 

Every effort has been made to present accurately conditions as they are. The 
character and breadth of the study are such as frequently to have prevented my 
going into a given situation as minutely as under other circumstances might have 
been desirable. If at any point I have not reflected what it was sought to convev to 
me, I regret it sincerely. It would probably be impossible to find a group of men 
more willing to let one know the full measure of their ideals and of their work than 
are the men of the universities. 

Without exception, everyone seemed anxious to answer my questions fully and 
fairly, and everywhere the liveliest interest was shown in the possible finiits of the 
inquiry. There was not even the suggestion anywhere of a desire to have me secure 
less than the full measure of what I sought. This enthusiastic cooperation received 
at the hands of everyone made of work a pleasure and is largely responsible for such 
value as may attach to the result. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 

It is impossible to avoid the conclusion, after even a casual survey of this field, that 
the men connected with the colleges and universities have looked upon their func- 
tions as having very little in common with those which engage the attention of 
people in other walks of life ; and any one making such a study as this is first of 
all impressed with the price that is being paid to maintain this position of isolation. 
This one element of the problem would be enough to account for the growth of 
most of the things which, in my opinion, may profitably be changed. 

The impression gathered was that if, in the past, the teachers at the colleges 
may have fought the coming in of the outside world, they have now either changed 
their position as a class or are about to change it. It is certainly true that a great 
majority of individuals interviewed seemed anxious to gain any assistance that could 
be given them. 

Perhaps the most notable feature of collegiate administration is the entire ab- 
sence of uniformity or accepted standardization. As the question of standards and 
standardization necessarily has an important place in management, opportunity must 
be taken to point out what the terms mean when used in this report. A standard 
under modern scientific management is simply a carefully thought out method of per- 
forming a function, or carefully drawn specifications covering an implement or some 
article of stores or of product. The idea of perfection is not involved in standardiza- 
tion. The standard method of doing anything is simply the best method that can 
be devised at the time the standard is drawn. Standard specifications for materials 
simply cover all the points of possible variation which it is possible to cover at the time 
the specifications are drawn. Improvements in standards are wanted and adopted when- 
ever and wherever they are found. There is absolutely nothing in standardization 
to preclude innovation. But to protect standards from changes which are not in 
the direction of improvement, certain safeguards are ei'ected. These safeguards pro- 
tect standards from change for the sake of change. All that is demanded under 
modern scientific management is that a proposed change in a standard must be 
scrutinized as carefully as the standard was scrutinized prior to its adoption; and 
further that this work be done by experts as competent to do it as were those who 
originally framed the standard. Standards adopted and protected in this way pro- 
duce the best that is known at any one time. Standardization practiced in this way 
is a constant invitation to experimentation and improvement. 

It is practically impossible to find any one broad problem of university govern- 
ment solved in the same way by two institutions. This lack of standard methods 
is particularly marked in the financial administration of colleges. Thus, in the matter 
of inventorying lands and buildings Dr. Eliot, then President of Harvard University, 
said; "We try to come as near forgetting the value of our lands and buildings 
as possible. This makes the simplest bookkeeping." At the University of Toronto 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 7 

all lands and buildings were held at values recognized as having no real signifi- 
cance; and the board of trustees was to meet in the near future to decide as to 
whether the whole plant would be "inventoried at a dollar, or present values as- 
signed to each item." At the University of \N'isconsin the most recent methods of 
inventorying and of valuing everything going to make up the plant were in use. 

As further on in this report instances of the same absence of uniformitv will be 
given to ilhistrate other points, nothing will be gained bv multiplying examples 
here. It must be considered remarkable that, in any line of endeavor which has 
been continuously followed by educated and specially trained men for several hun- 
dred years, almost nothing has l:)een so systematized and staked down that it has 
ceased to be now almost a day-to-day matter for discussion. In most lines of business, 
for instance, there are certain printed forms used by practically every concern in the 
same line. Business practices have so crystallized that the methods of two concerns at 
remote points will be in many cases almost identical. 

As a result of this inquiry, the writer is convinced that there are very few, if any, 
of the broader principles of management which obtain generally in the industrial 
and commercial world which are not, more or less, applicable in the college field, 
and as far as was discovered, no one of them is now generally observed. At nearly 
every institution progress has been made along certain lines, but generally it has been 
a "lone fight;" one institution doing one thing and another doing another, without 
any of the mutual help and cotiperation which is given in the business world. Indeed, 
it is not going beyond the facts to say that in the college world there is less real co- 
operation than one finds in those industries where competition is the most intense. 
The colleges are not only not organized for the exchange of help and information 
and data, but as a rule it appears that they do not care to afford it. The broad 
reason for this difficulty seems to be that the records of the colleges as a whole, and 
of the individual departments, are inadequate, and are so lacking in uniformity that 
any effort on the part of one college to help another is made with too much difficulty. 

Lack of Iktensiveness 
As accounting to a great degree for the absence of gauges, there may be noted 
the general lack of intensiveness which one finds everywhere pervading the univer- 
sities and colleges. Without expressing an opinion as to how much of this lack of in- 
tensity is a necessary or desirable part of life at these institutions, no adequate relief 
can be obtained for many generally acknowledged faults without taking it into con- 
sideration. Let it be admitted that a certain amount of tranquillity is an absolute 
essential in one or more departments of academic life. It will be admitted that with 
such tranquillity a factor in even one department it must necessarily more or less 
affect all the others. But because it is recognized as a vital element in one part of the 
work, it is not necessarily of advantage everywhere. It may be an absolute hindrance 
in some departments. The more necessary to efficiency this deliberative method be- 



8 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

comes in any one department, the more necessary it becomes to study it and recognize 
it as an essential factor in university life. A concrete example of this is found in the 
length of the working day. It is almost invariably the case that the hours observed 
bv the accounting departments and by the janitors and gardeners bear a direct re- 
lation to the hours of the teaching staff or of the student body. This may be an in- 
heritance from the old days when everyone associated with a university had some 
organic connection with it; when even the farrier and the cook wore clothing be- 
tokening their scholastic affiliations, attended church services, and performed other 
duties after a manner which made it necessary that one schedule should be observed 
by all. Is it good practice to close practically all lines of activity at Princeton Uni- 
versity on a Wednesday afternoon because there is to be an athletic contest attended 
by a considerable part of the college community ? It hardly seems advisable to have 
the gardeners begin their day at nine simply because recitations begin at that hour, 
and especially when it is probable that the gardeners would be more efficient if they 
began work earlier. 

At only two or three of the institutions visited did it seem to me that the work 
of the accounting departments was done under conditions at all comparable with 
what goes on in the every-day business world. And only at Columbia was there any- 
thing to impress me with the snap and vigor of the business administration. I could 
not see that in the case of Columbia the excellent organization indicated by the 
capable manner in which I was passed about from department to department, for 
instance, could have had any bad effect upon the educational efficiency of the place. 
Everywhere I went I seemed to be expected and the general tenor of my mission 
understood. I was promptly told what part of the data I sought would be immedi- 
ately forthcoming, and on what date I would receive the balance. In the various 
clerical positions I found competent people fully engaged doing work along the best 
modern lines and splendidly enthusiastic about their institution. 

In bringing these general observations to a close, it may be suggested that the 
first university which will try conscientiously to obtain all the help which it is pos- 
sible for it to obtain from the commercial and industrial world in a broad effort to 
increase its effectiveness will make a very strong plea to men of means who have money 
which they are willing to devote to educational purposes. Every one likes to feel 
that the money which he devotes to educational and charitable and philanthropic 
purposes is well expended; and other things being equal, that university or that 
department within a university, which has an organization making possible the high- 
est efficiency will in the long run receive the greatest consideration from such public 
benefactors. 



GENERAL TYPE OF ORGANIZATION 

As may be imagined, many different types of organization were found. On the one 
hand, several notable examples of the military or so-called one-man management were 
encountered; but committee management, sometimes in an extreme form, was more 
prevalent. Connnittee management seems to be the typical scheme under which our 
colleges are administered. Curiously enough — but nevertheless quite in harmony 
with the general lack of uniformity — at some institutions the military system and 
the committee system exist side by side. At some places, one man was virtually in 
control of the institution as a whole, while the departments were administered by 
committees. At other places, committees of the faculty or the trustees actually oper- 
ated the school as a whole, while they turned over the affairs of at least some of the 
departments to designated heads. Taken in a very broad sense, I should say that an 
effort was noticeable everywhere to make the administration of the individual depart- 
ments harmonize with the administration obtaining for the whole institution. At 
Princeton University the attempt to make committee management the type of both 
departmental and university control is eminently successful. 

The opportunities for observing the methods of government were necessarily 
largely confined to the departmental organization as it obtained in the several de- 
partments of physics. There is reason to believe, however, that each form of depart- 
mental organization finds its prototype in university organization. 

Of the military type, one instance was found of what might be called the "old 
school," where the department was administered almost entirely by one man having 
the title of director of the laboratory. While he was undoubtedly a distinguished 
physicist, his absolute — and as far as I could see unquestioned — control of his de- 
partment seemed to result from the fact that he was both in point of age and in 
years of service the senior of all his associates. While there were evidences of the 
opportunity for day-to-day conferences between different members of the department, 
the larger questions of policy appeared to be decided absolutely by the head of the 
department. The latter undoubtedly sought the views of the other teachers, but 
I am of the opinion that he did not feel that their views should necessarily find 
expression when they did not coincide with his own. This man in large measure 
controls the advances in salary of his associates. Many evidences were to be found 
that this policy was giving results. I am not either praising or condemning it, but 
simply trying to describe a distinct type which I believe was formerly prevalent in 
the colleges and which is now becoming rare. 

At the University of Toronto the head of the department had been assigned to 
his duties, with the title of director of the laboratory, by the head of the university; 
this, as I was informed, after consultation with the board of trustees and other mem- 
bers of the faculty. He had been selected for this place chiefly on account of his admin- 
istrative ability, although his pedagogical and scientific attainments were also of a 



10 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

high order. He decided every question that came up in the department, sometimes 
after conference with those members of his staff whom he considered most competent 
to give advice. He stated definitely that he never "deferred" to his associates. What 
are generally supposed to be the dangers and drawbacks of one-man management 
having been pointed out to him, he said that he thought there was nothing in 
them, that when he had lost his efficiency as an administrator he expected the 
president of tlie university to supplant him, and that he would take his position 
in the ranks of the teaching force, or even leave the service of the university, with- 
out resentment or without feeling that his days of usefulness were necessarily over. 
The results which this man showed in his work certainly afforded the strongest pos- 
sible argument that can be made for the extreme of military control in an educa- 
tional department. 

Two notable instances of committee management were found at Harvard and 
Princeton. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of each of them was the solidarity 
of the staff. In the case of Harvard it was almost impossible to discover any differ- 
ence of opinion in the matters of management between the various members of the 
staff; and in the case of Princeton such differences of opinion as were entertained 
were held in such respectful deference to the opinions of the others that good rather 
than harm seemed to come from this condition. This good feeling in connection 
with committee management at these two institutions is pointed out for the reason 
that in the industrial world such harmony would hardly be expected, and in fact it 
is not always desired. It is held by some that the strong point of so-called committee 
management is that there will be a division on almost any question that comes up, 
and that therefore while both sides will get a hearing, each position will at the same 
time be subject to attack. 

At Harvard there was rotation in the performance of the various functions con- 
nected with the work of the department. This rotation was controlled by the de- 
partmental staff. It was in a measure theoretical because the post of director of 
the laboratory did not seem to be one subject to rotation. Everybody said that the 
present director was so efficient that the committee managing the department never 
considered any change in his duties. As a matter of fact this is simply one place in 
the management where it seems to be military and not by committee. 

The men of the universities are apt to feel that, their training and ideals being 
what they are, it is possible for them to "get along" with each other with less fric- 
tion, and even less liability thereto, than one would expect to find outside university 
walls. I think they will discover that there is little in this. When university life and 
university organization become as closely interwoven and as intensive as there is now 
every promise of their becoming, university men will have to erect the same safeguards 
against certain phases of individualism as are found necessary in the outside world. 

But if we can study the effect of committee management at two institutions where 
such harmony prevails, it might seem that we are studying it at its best. At 



GENERAL TYPE OF ORGANIZATION 11 

Princeton, one of the places where this ideal condition of committee management 
obtained, the principal argument for it seemed to be that it was democratic, and the 
writer was asked how it would be possible to get high-class professors if they had to 
work under some one else. The general committee in charge of the department worked 
largely through sub-conmiittees on shop, general expenses, laboratory, lecture ap- 
propriations, laboratory appropriations, research appropriations, etc. It was stated 
by some members of the staff that they could see no possible fault with the way the 
scheme worked. Others had their doubts as to whether the scheme would not work 
better if certain conunittees were supplanted by a single individual. Thus, it was 
suggested to the writer that the shop committee would probably get more work out 
of the shop if it was reduced to one man. Here was an extreme example of this kind 
of democracy because the sub-committee on shop consisted of three men, who di- 
rected one mechanician and his assistant. It wiis admitted that none of the profes- 
sors who constituted this committee on shop, and in fact none of the men on the 
staff, was in any way specially qualified to run a shop. The work of these sub-com- 
mittees, with the possible exception of that on shop, consisted largely in appor- 
tioning appropriations. The department, acting as committee of the whole, decided 
the assignments to work in the class-rooms and laboratories. As far as the writer 
could discover, most of this work was done on the outside by more or less informal 
conferences on the part of the ranking members of the staff. Certain members of 
the staff would get together, with a certain other member not included, and decide 
that he was to do research work. Other members of the staff would get together 
and decide that a certain other member, not being a good disciplinarian, should be 
given no lecturing, but should be given the smaller sections to teach, and so forth. 
Everyone of course was fully cognizant of this arrangement. As to the wisdom of this 
line of procedure there seemed to be the utmost harmony and unanimity of opinion. 
I think it will be admitted that such an arrangement as this finds no parallel in the 
business world. Where committee management is used, it is generally only advisory 
in its character, and where it is in force, the questions that are discussed ai'e such as 
can be thrashed out in open meeting. 

At the University of A\'^isconsin, where committee management was supposed to 
be in force, the writer found that as a matter of fact the department was being oper- 
ated virtually by two heads: one in charge of the elementary work, and the other in 
charge of the advanced and research work. The informal conferences between the dif- 
ferent members of the staff on matters affecting the department cannot be considered 
the equivalent of committee management. The university authorities were surprised 
to find out that no departmental meetings devoted to administrative matters were 
being held. 

An extreme case of committee management in the genera] administration of a 
university was found at Princeton, where about one hundred and twenty men sit in 
the faculty. The faculty sitting as a whole and through its committees decides large 



12 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

and small questions. The writer found that, as a rule, only fifty per cent of the 
members attend faculty meetings, but that when certain questions of general in- 
terest are scheduled to come up nearly everybody is apt to be present. At this same 
institution the trustees and especially the various committees of the trustees take 
an active hand in the details of administration. While I was visiting this univer- 
sity, the question was being debated as to whether the prices at which the out- 
going class was disposing of its furniture to the incoming class were exorbitant or 
not. Action was suspended for two weeks pending a meeting of the trustees' com- 
mittee on buildings and grounds. One of the higher officials of the university told 
me that the question in one phase or another had been a burning one since he had 
been an officer, which, if I remember rightly, had been for nearly twenty-five years. 
There did not seem to be any more to the matter than there is to any one of a 
dozen questions such as are decided by a good executive in a few moments after all 
the facts have been carefully gathered and codified. I am confident that either Presi- 
dent Wilson or Dean Fine could have decided the matter in a way that would not 
have allowed it to come up again, but the custom of the place probably restrained 
them from doing so. 

At the University of Wisconsin, the executive committee of the Board of Regents 
(as well as the head of the department, the dean, the president and the secretary) 
approve every requisition for the purchase of supplies. In some cases these requisi- 
tions amount to a few dollars, and in only few cases do they amount to more than one 
thousand dollarr. It has been some time since the board of directors of any properly 
organized induatrial establishment has done detail work of this kind. The thought 
was expressed that the approval of requisitions was synonymous with passing a 
budget. The two things are obviously distinct. 

To the extent that the industrial analogy is valid, committee management seems 
to be, broadly speaking, very largely responsible for what appear to me to be the 
two fundamental weaknesses of the government of these institutions: first, that 
the departments have too much autonomy ; and, second, that the heads of the in- 
stitutions and of the various departments lack the essentials of real authority. I 
shall discuss these points briefly from my point of view, leaving it to educators to 
decide how far criticism of this nature is pertinent. 

In the matter of the departments having too much autonomy, it can be said in 
a general way that, given the money to support it, a department is usually prac- 
tically self-governing. In other words, the typical department very largely controls 
its own affairs, operates and maintains its own building, disciplines its students, 
arranges for the work of its teaching staff, and provides the courses of instruction. 
At some places one or more of these functions may be performed by the univer- 
sity as a whole for each of its departments. An example of this is the more or less 
recent development of the department of the superintendent of grounds and build- 
ings. At Columbia for instance, this department practically controls the heating, venti- 



GENERAL TYPE OF ORGANIZATION 18 

lating, repairing, lighting and cleaning of buildings. Elsewhere other functions may 
be performed for each and all of the departments by the university itself, but 
these are, at the present time, exceptions, and the typical department is as above 
described. In industrial and commercial undertakings this degree of independence 
in general matters on the part of the department would be unthinkable. On the 
other hand, in matters which are peculiarly its own, the independence of an indus- 
trial department transcends anything which the universities know. 

This departmental autonomy is, in my opinion, at the bottom of several con- 
ditions at the universities which call for some modification. There is no doubt, for 
instance, that the departmental organizations have forced viewpoints and lines of 
action on the part of the president and board of trustees which are essentially wrong, 
but which have been assumed in good faith in order to cope with conditions as 
they exist. The great bulk of the recommendations in this report cannot be put into 
efficient effect until departmental lines as they are generally in operation to-day are 
abandoned. 

The autonomy of the departments has led to the absence of much real solidarity 
in our colleges and universities. One gets the idea from the solidarity which is ap- 
parent when it comes to athletics that this same spirit pervades all phases of 
the work. Unfortunately this is not true. Departmental solidarity there is, but it 
is being maintained very largely at the expense of the solidarity of the institution 
as a whole. One does not begin to find the cooperation between departments of a 
university which is expected of the departments of an industrial enterprise, and 
even in industrial concerns it is rarely as effective as it should be. 

The lack in these institutions of effective authority on the part of the head men 
— the head of the institution as a whole and the heads of the various departments 
— is shown by the fact that the writer had his attention called to a number of abuses, 
pretty generally recognized as such, but which, having gone on for years, were still 
continuing without any sign of abatement. 

In discussing the best form of organization for an institution of higher education, 
full weight must be given to the fact that most of the teachers are men of rare 
ability who have devoted years to training themselves in a special branch of know- 
ledge. It then becomes, with most of them, a matter of the greatest importance that 
they should be able to devote every possible minute of their valuable time to the 
use of this knowledge and training. 

The first great object of organization in the art of management is to make each 
individual in the whole body count for his maximum. A small amount of thought 
will show that this can be done only when each man does those things for which 
he is best suited. This leads directly to the reference of most questions up for 
settlement to the best single expert, or perhaps to the best two experts, obtainable 
for decision. In a committee this can never be done. Almost invariably under com- 
mittee management there is the spectacle of three or more men, experts in their 



14 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

own specialties, all simultaneously wasting precious time in deciding questions 
outside of their own field, which could be better and far more quickly decided by 
a single expert whose time may be worth less than that of any one of the three or 
six men on the committee. Modern industrial management seeks to relieve the head 
men of all possible routine such as is the great bulk of committee work, and so 
enables them to give their entire time to progress. At the same time these heads are 
kept constantly informed, through carefully prepared and summarized reports, as 
to all matters affecting the institution or its departments. 

This attitude toward experts and expert opinions in the management of colleges 
and universities, one would expect to find heartily indorsed by college men. Dr. 
Eliot has expressed the same idea in another connection when he said: "To produce 
such experts and to instil respect for expert judgment is one of the most urgent 
duties of the American university. For insufficient appreciation of the value of ex- 
pert labor is one of the worst afflictions of American life." 

Management by experts suffers from the fact that too often in the past experts have 
not only held themselves aloof, but held their opinions to be above lay criticism or com- 
ment. Functional management seems to guard against this by providing that all 
standards shall be written out and thus clearly understood by everyone; that they shall 
be capable of scientific demonstration rather than the result of personal opinion; 
and that they shall be at all times subject to scientific re-examination and analysis. 
In this way only can expert judgments be given the benefit of the corrective influ- 
ence of lay minds. 

The writer believes that genuine committee management invariably involves lack 
of initiative, division of responsibility, and log-rolling. One group who stand for a 
certain idea will gather to their support individuals who are perhaps only indirectly 
interested in the matter under debate, but whose advocacy can be secured in return 
for support for some other idea in which they happen to be interested. There are 
any number of questions which are being constantly debated at the colleges that 
are kept alive only by this ability to line up the entire institution on either one 
side or the other of the question, through committee management. Only a small per- 
centage of such questions would appear to have any real educational significance. 

Committee management generally means compromises reached by discussions, and 
compromises frequently leave something to be thrashed over at a later date. In man- 
agement what is wanted is decisive action and the ground covered in such a way 
that as little as possible will have to be covered again. In how far this procedure, 
indispensable in business, is applicable to college administration I am not prepared 
to say. 

Perhaps it is because of the fact that our colleges and universities have from time 
immemorial been organized more on the committee basis than on the military basis, 
that they have as a class adapted themselves less promptly to changing conditions 
than have most other human institutions. The fact that any given number of indi- 



GENERAL TYPE OF ORGANIZATION 15 

viduals connected with a university teach advanced ideas does not mean that acting 
collectively they will take advanced ground in matters of management. In fact, it 
seems to work the other way. At those schools where there were the largest number 
of "big men" I found what seemed to me to be least desirable systems of management. 

After having seen both the military type of management and committee manage- 
ment, apparently each at its best, the writer is convinced that, in the educational 
world as in the industrial world, neither of them will give the best results. The way 
out lies through functional management, where the effort is made constantly to have 
each man perform those functions which he is best fitted to perform, and to pro- 
hibit him from interfering in the performance of those functions about which he is 
not specially qualified to give an opinion. 

Perhaps the chief object in functional management is to safeguard a man in 
the performance of the highest kind of work he is competent to perform. This is in 
large measure brought about by relieving him of those duties which can be per- 
formed as well, or almost as well, by some one whose time is not so valuable. The col- 
lege professor is specially qualified to do some things which nobody else can do as 
well. Functional management will seek to protect him in the performance of these 
duties and relieve him of the things which can be performed by other agencies. 

Under functional management the individual at the head of an institution will 
have more power, and less power, than at present. He will be more hemmed in by 
standards, but in those matters not covered by standards he will have more latitude 
and real authority. In fact, it would seem that the head of a great university should 
remain at his post only so long as his methods inspire confidence in his board of 
trustees. It is impossible to conceive of the president of a steel works, for instance, mak- 
ing any progress if he were to be constantly thwarted and kept from deciding things by 
his board of directors. Yet this is the rule in the college world. In mattei"s of sim- 
plest routine, such as in many industrial establishments are decided by clerks, the 
board of trustees expects the president to wait until he has ascertained its wishes — 
usually as expressed by one of its committees. Dr. Frederick W. Tavlor, in lecturing 
on this relation before the Harvard School of Business Administration recently, said : 

"The proper functions of the lx)ard of directors would be, for instance, to select, 
after having proper evidence presented to it, the broad and general type of manage- 
ment to be introduced in the establishment After having done this, and after hav- 
ing broadly stated the policy of the company, as to payment of wages and salaries, 
they should not mess into the detail of the personnel — by ordering the president to 
employ this man, or discharge that man, or promote another man. Nor should they 
vote a reduction of wages or an increase of wages contrary to the leadership of their 
president. 

"Other functions of the board of directors should be, for example, dictating the 
broad policy to be followed in the sales department; namelv, whether the sales are 
to be mainly conducted through agencies or travelling salesmen, and the extent and 



IC ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

kind of advertising to be used. Again, however, the details of the executive work 
should be left under the direction of the president. The general financial policy of 
the company should also be one of the functions of the board of directors, as well 
as the broad lines along which progress is to be made. That is, the decision as to the 
type of new product to be manufactured and sold, and the volume of business which 
is to be prepared for. 

"The president should lead his board of directors rather than be a tool to be 
guided by them in detail; and when it becomes impossible for the president to lead 
in the carrying out of the general policy of the board, another man should be se- 
lected for the head of the business who is in harmony with the board's wishes and 
competent to lead them, 

"The world's experience in all directions has demonstrated the utter impractica- 
bility of doing successfully executive work under the management of a body of men 
either large or small. An executive committee of 07ie is the best committee to have 
in charge of executive work. The president should be free to have as many advisers 
around him as he wants and these men can be called an executive committee as well as 
by any other name; but their duties should be those of advisers. In all executive acts 
they should be under the orders of the president and they should not be allowed to 
control his acts by a majority vote. He should in principle occupy the same position 
as the President of the United States. He should be free, practically, to select his own 
cabinet, and then should be in complete command of these men. The men under him 
should be free to advise him in the most emphatic manner, but the final decision in 
all matters should rest with him, and the board of directors should not entertain nor 
act upon appeals made to them from the cabinet officers beneath the president." 

Functional management takes the position that even in a partnership of two men 
the best results will be brought about by assigning to the one partner the final au- 
thority in one class of questions, say manufacturing, and to the other the final au- 
thority in another class, say selling. In this way the final authority in every branch 
of the business will be left to one man, and the effort of course will be to have the 
division so made that such questions as come up will be decided by the partner who 
is best qualified to render the decision. There is nothing in this functional arrange- 
ment to make mistakes impossible, but it can be demonstrated that, in the long run, 
more progress will be made than when it is necessary to get everything passed on and 
approved by two men, and furthermore the general average of the work will be better. 

Or, put another way, functional management says that with A and B launched 
on an enterprise three arrangements are possible: (1) A can work altogether under 
B's directions; or (2) B can work altogether under A's directions; or (3) the work 
can be so divided that A will work under B's directions in some things and B will 
work under A's directions in the balance. But under modern scientific management 
they cannot work together in anything and do it efficiently. 

Applied to the work of the colleges, this functional method then will mean that 



GENERAL TYPE OF ORGANIZATION 17 

the work of any given institution will be divided into ten or one hundred functions, 
and that in each of these functions some one person must be supreme. Such a func- 
tional foreman or manager may have any number of advisers, but he may or may 
not act on such advice as is given him, exactly as he sees fit. 

Attention must here be called to the difference between (1) dividing all the work 
of a given undertaking up between a certain number of positions, the occupant of 
each such position having many functions to perform, and (2) dividing all the work 
up into a certain number of functions with some one person supreme in each such 
function. Under this last arrangement it is possible to have experts pass on every 
question that comes up for settlement. Under such a system of functional manage- 
ment one cannot afford to sacrifice expert advice by allowing it to be upset by in- 
expert individuals or committees higher up or lower down. 

The difference between this functional system and the familiar military or "one- 
man" system will be apparent. Under the military plan, a man can work for only 
one master, all his orders come from one man, and, theoretically at least, they all 
come from the top. The top man has the right to pass on everything and to issue 
orders about anything to anybody. He simply sees to it — if a general, for instance 
— that he passes such orders down through his colonels, majors, captains, et al., until 
they reach the particular individual affected. Therefore, while any one man receives 
orders through only one man, he is subject to the orders of everybody who ranks him. 
Under functional management any one individual may receive his instructions from 
as many different people as there are functions which he performs. But, theoreti- 
cally, he never gets any instructions from those who are not experts. Under this 
system one's work is not constantly being upset by those who in reality know little 
or nothing about it. 

Functional management is based on the belief that there is one best way to do 
any one thing, and that usually this best way can be determined by scientific methods 
if people will use them. Under functional management every effort is made to dis- 
courage the practice of deciding matters — big or little — on anyone's personal 
opinion. The attempt is made to limit the field wherein arbitrary decisions control 
action. This means for everyone connected with the universities a more sharply de- 
fined function, and I do not think from the talks I had that any change will be 
more welcome. In the last field where you would expect to find it, one encounters 
perhaps the extreme of unwarranted interference. A professor will frecjuently have 
to conduct a long fight — and in the end an unsuccessful fight — to maintain an 
obviously correct position because a committee of the trustees which has but a mo- 
dicum of information upon a given situation, and no special aptitude for discussing 
it, has the power to interfere and docs interfere. 

The dean of one college, who had recently attended a gathering of the "adminis- 
trative" officers of the colleges in his immediate vicinity, told me that on compar- 
ing notes with those he met, he found that he was the only dean who had any real 



18 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

authority, and that most of those with whom he talked did not know how much they 
were supposed to have. As will be pointed out more in detail later, most discipline 
is meted out with the full understanding that it may be upset by some one higher 
in authority. In almost every case discipline, even of a minor order, is subject to revision. 
At Princeton, while as a matter of practice the departments were allowed to at- 
tend to the details — and only occasionally were they upset — the most unintelligent 
counsel prevailed at times on matters of real moment. In other words, there were no 
bounds to the authority of those "higher up" when they cared to use it. One or two 
committees of the board of trustees had the power to enter almost every nook and 
corner of the educational structure. This inspection of course would be all right — 
excellent — if it were made for the purpose of seeing that the general policies were 
being carried out; but too frequently there is no permanent general policy and 
these acts are the promptings of personal whims or prejudices. Everyone from the 
president down told me that committee management was adopted because it was 
a democratic form of government. The result struck me as being a far cry from real 
democracy. 



NO PRESENT GAUGE TO EFFICIENCY 

One is struck in any such study of collegiate conditions with the absence of any 
gauge of efficiency which even remotely resembles, for instance, profits in an in- 
dustrial undertaking. Anyone investing money in a business may with some reason 
be rather care-free as to the manner in which that business is administered, because 
at the end of any given period he has an opportunity of judging the management 
by the profits earned on his investment. In the same way, a man who is at the head 
of a business can devote much or little time to the supervision of any one depart- 
ment with the thought that at a given date the books will be closed and the 
management of that department will be fairly accurately reflected in the excess 
of receipts over costs. One looks in vain for anything analogous to this in edu- 
cation, and after the larger question of the type of management has been deter- 
mined, perhaps next in importance is to get some gauge or measure which can be 
used as a means of comparing the work of one department with another inside of 
the same institution; and the work of similar departments in two institutions, and 
in fact of one institution as a whole with the work of another. Any such basis of com- 
parison that might be adopted now would probably have to be, at least in a mea- 
sure, modified, as college administration develops, but before any progress is possible 
some selection must be made, and the writer wishes to suggest as perhaps the most 
immediately available unit the student-hour. 

By a student-hour is meant one hour of lectures, of laboratory work, or recitation- 
room work, for a single pupil. Thus, a section of thirty students on a three hours' 
laboratory period would mean ninety student-hours. A section often pupils in a one- 
hour recitation would mean ten student-hours. This seems to afford a unit which 
can be used for a great many different purposes. With this as a basis, we can get 
some tally on the efficiency with which the buildings are operated, the cost of under- 
graduate teaching, and each of several other items which go to make up the expenses 
of a university. Little or no value will attach to the student-hour as a means of 
gauging the cost of research teaching. It is believed that the student-hour will be 
found to be a valuable gauge for collegiate effort even where cost is not involved. 
The use of the student-hour will be further developed under the head of financial 
administration. 

. Without question, after the student-hour has been used for a period, various 
methods will suggest themselves whereby it can l^e made more serviceable as a unit, 
or other units better adapted to the purpose will be proposed. 

The student-hour can be used in some places by weighting it, where otherwise it 
would have little value. Thus, in discussions of what should constitute a term's work 
for a teacher, one lecture hour would probably count as the equivalent of two or 
three laboratory hours. The adoption of some unit, even though it is not any more 
generally satisfactory than the student-hour, will cjuickly lead to many standards 



20 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

now much needed. I was able to discover, for instance, no very generally accepted 
relation between the arduousness of laboratory, lecture-room and recitation-room 
work, either for pupil or instructor. It would seem that some working rule in this 
matter would be almost necessary in apportioning work between the various teachers 
in a department. 

In judging costs especially, it will be necessary to take into consideration the dif- 
ferent grades of student-hours. Thus, elementary work will always cost less than the 
more advanced principally because of the relatively larger sections. A school having 
a large number of graduate students would, other things being equal, of course show 
higher student-hour costs. 

It was suggested above that in judging the value of research by its cost the utmost 
caution should be used. The same kind of caution and the nicest judgment will be 
required in noting the relative costs of student-hours in different branches. There will 
be some branches doubtless in which the cost per student-hour will be practically 
the same. But there will also be some branches in which the cost per student-hour 
will be high as compared with the average. It should be borne in mind that the 
cost per student-hour has absolutely no value in distinguishing relative educational 
values. It is only to show what the cost is in each branch. With this cost known, it 
will be much easier to decide whether or not a given school is warranted in continu- 
ing a given branch. 

The great advantage of the student-hour is that it is small enough to get inside 
of all the various combinations of courses, schools, departments, etc. The student- 
hour will be as full of meaning when it is used for keeping costs of a college of engi- 
neering including any number of departments or courses, as it will be in keeping 
the cost of a single lecture course. 



THE COLLEGE TEACHER AS A PRODUCER 

In all professions experience shows that important changes come from within. Col- 
lege professors particuhirly have felt that their profession constituted them a class 
separate and distinct from other occupations and that improvements must be home- 
bred. But to-day, teachers, doctors and lawyers are all showing an increasing ten- 
dency to go afield in the search for implements and methods, and while such changes 
as are made in the college world will in the main have to be made by or through the 
professors themselves, it will be a gain if the professors will more willingly seek to 
profit by suggestions derived from the world outside. 

An alert manufacturer is constantly engaged in trying to find out not only what 
his competitors in his own line are doing, but he is constantly sending into other 
industries to see what may be found in them that is applicable to his own business. 
The industrial world is coming more and more to feel that all work is done under 
certain broad principles, and that the application of these principles to one industry 
is little different from the application to any other. The professor has felt, however, 
that his work is so radically different that he cannot apply the same standards of 
criticism to his work as obtain generally throughout other departments of life. In 
my opinion, a change is coming. If an educator is to possess his future in as full 
measure as is possible, he must invite criticism and help from wherever he can get 
it. The college professor must take the position that he is not an individual set 
apart, and that in the long run he must be governed and measured by the same 
general standards that generally obtain in the other occupations. 

In discussions of the work of these institutions, the question of the pay of the 
teacher has played a large part. Everybody who has the best interests of higher 
education at heart is anxious that an honored profession such as that of the teacher 
should get better compensation. As one result of the writer's inspection of these 
eight colleges, he is convinced that the greatest progress in the matter of the in- 
crease in the compensation of college teachers will be obtained if the discussion 
can be made to culminate in a study looking toward an increase in their efficiency, 
which will result in larger work accomplished and hence in larger remuneration with- 
out relatively larger cost to the institutions. 

In common with all other American institutions, our colleges have grown tremen- 
dously within the last two or three decades. With no assistance practically, except 
what they are able to develop for themselves, the teachers now find themselves fairly 
swamped. The educational side alone of the problem which confronts the professor 
has grown tremendously. The industrial development has brought further complica- 
tions in the demands for specially trained men, and in addition to this there are the 
developments in pedagogy itself to keep up with, a task sufficient for any teacher. 
Thus it will be seen that, from the educational side, the teacher has had his problem 
unusually complicated. When one adds to this the fact that he has secured little 



22 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

outside help on the administrative side, it is easy to see that there is excuse for his 
being literally swamped. 

The impression that I gathered in the department of physics was that the profes- 
sors were not thoroughly satisfied with the present pedagogical situation in their 
department. The necessity for research work, more fully treated elsewhere, increases 
the complication. The constant discoveries in physics are, from an educational stand- 
point, a disturbing factor. The growing importance attaching to science as an ele- 
ment in a liberal education and the rise of the elective system are other causes which 
have tended to make the problem of teaching physics a difficult one. In fact, the 
problem is one that requires for its solution an extremely high type of man. Granted 
that the problems are not being met to-day in an entirely satisfactory way, which 
of course can be said without any disparagement of the profession, progress must 
come about by giving the professors more time for their solution and by giving them 
all the assistance possible. Everything must be done to safeguard the time of the 
teacher. The higher his position, the larger will be the incentive for this. Now one 
of the principal ways of doing this will be in having much of his routine work done 
for him. It may even pay to have this work done in a manner not so efficient as the 
professor himself would do it, if thereby the time of the latter can be conserved for 
more important duties. This means the kind of efficiency that comes only through 
true cooperation, and until efficiency is used as the sole standard for the teaching 
profession, as it is coming to be used practically in all other walks of life, any goal 
satisfactory alike to the community and to the teacher will be difficult of attainment. 

At the present time, after a comparatively small number of years passed in sub- 
ordinate positions, the college teacher is made a professor at a tenure which is gen- 
erally understood to be during good behavior, that is for life. Most educators con- 
sider this fixity of tenure highly desirable, and comparing it to the similar tenure 
of judges and officers of the military and naval services, endeavor to render it more 
generally applicable. To a business man, who feels that the essential principles un- 
derlying all employments are the same, the conviction grows that some day this life 
tenure may not be considered by the college professor as of real value to his pro- 
fession. 

It is certainly for the benefit of the community that all classes of teachers, and 
college teachers especially, be held up to as high a standard of efficiency as possible. 
What is for the benefit of the community will, in the long run, be ^or the benefit of 
the class. The question is whether the community secures more efficiency from col- 
lege professors by guaranteeing to them as a class a life tenure in their offices as long 
as the service of any one of them remains above the level of an inefficiency that 
is notorious, or whether more general efficiency would be secured by fixing their 
tenure at that which obtains in the outside world, that is, guaranteeing to the pro- 
fessor the possession of his chair only so long as he remains the best man obtainable. 
It is evident that the correct answer to this question, like the determination of 



THE COLLEGE TEACHER AS A PRODUCER 23 

tenure in civil government offices, involves social and other problems in addition to 
the problem of efficiency alone. Yet the decision that it would be dangerous to relax 
the life tenure of the professorial position because of the other elements involved 
might still render such a decision disadvantageous to the best men among the pro- 
fessors. 

If the same standards of efficiency are to be applied to college teachers as are 
applied elsewhere, it will mean that when a man has ceased to be efficient he must 
be retired as he would in any other line of work; or if he no longer performs a given 
function in an efficient manner, that he be relieved of this function. Even if there 
were no such thing as life tenure in the college world, the conse(|uences of insisting 
on the efficiency standard should not operate to the disadvantage of the college 
teacher. If A renders B good service through a long term of years, it is recognized 
that B has an obligation to A after his best years have gone by. Unfortunately, 
this obligation is difficult of standardization, but in most lines it is coming to be 
recognized as good business to accept the obligation in a large measure. 

With all privileges cut out one would expect the same rule to apply which applies 
generally in the industrial world, i.e., the more efficient the professor, the larger 
salary he will command, and this without undue regard for the salaries of others 
immediately about him, or for his own length of service. In other words, a man will 
not have to wait until he has advanced in years to get a satisfactory income. This 
will mean eliminating from the teaching profession those unfitted for the work, — 
a process which will have a good effect on the teachers who remain, because the 
whole standard of efficiency, and therefore the earning power, of the balance will be 
increased. A higher class will, in the long run, be attracted to the profession. 

A further increase in the efficiency of the teaching staff will be obtained through 
such specializing as will come as the result of functional management. Without a 
more careful analysis, it is impossible to predict the extent to which this can be 
carried. There are some things, however, that are clear. During the interviews which 
the writer had with college professors, he found them spending time in taking in- 
ventories, keeping track of appropriations, mimeographing examination papei^s and 
handling routine correspondence. These things are clerical work, and should be 
handled outside of the teaching field, and not as a part of the teacher's duties. In 
addition, there are many other things, including management of the buildings and 
departments, which might easily be centralized and done better bv officials who can 
devote their time exclusively to them. Such changes would leave the professor more 
time for the work for which he is especially fitted. 

The effort should be made to segregate the important functions now being per- 
formed by the teacher, and then to arrange the scheme of management so that he 
will have the fullest opportunity to perform these well. The situation of the college 
professor, with his many and varied duties, is not unlike what would be the case in 
the profession of architecture, if the architect not only designed, but built his build- 



24 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

ino-s. In that profession, the more distinguished the architect, the more strenuously 
he avoids being burdened with the details of erecting the buildings he creates. He 
calls in the contractor and the builder to handle this part, and in so doing he reserves 
for himself time and opportunity to pursue design. In the same way, I believe that 
the teacher will demand that through functional assistance he be relieved of those 
parts of his work which take him away from teaching and research. 

A study of Table 5, giving a summarized analysis of the way in which the time 
of the different grades of college and university physics teachers is employed, will 
show that as a profession they probably spend less than three hours a day with stu- 
dents. This is the equivalent of what is generally called the "productive" time of 
other workers. The term "productive'" is an unhappy one because it is undoubtedly 
true that even in the industrial world the so-called non-producers (those who do the 
planning) are among the most valuable factors in any concern. Still, in any study of 
the college teacher as a producer, his productive time, i.e., the time he spends with 
his students, must first be determined. There are then open two ways of raising his 
productiveness: (1) by increasing the amount of productive time and (2) by raising 
his efficiency during this time. In other words, in studying the efficiency of any 
worker one must determine, first, what the worker is employed to do; second, it 
must be ascertained how much time he puts in on this work; and, third, it must be 
determined how relatively efficient he is while so engaged. 

When a study is made of the teachers in other departments, it may be found that 
the teachers in physics teach a fewer number of hours per day than other teachers. 
This would certainly seem to be one of the effects which might be produced by the 
large amount of research. Then, again, in the languages there has been a larger 
effort at standardizing the teaching methods and mechanisms, and this undoubtedly 
permits of more teaching and less preparation. Judged by its monotony and arduous- 
ness, it would seem to the layman that a physics day, hour for hour, would be less 
tiring than one in language teaching, and therefore one would expect the average 
physics teacher to teach more hours per day than the average language teacher. 

One change in the attitude of the teacher which may have to take place before his 
full efficiency can be realized involves his personal relation to his work. Nearly 
every college professor considers that the lectures that he gives and his pedagogical 
mechanisms are his own property. In the industrial world, a good workman is con- 
sidered entirely apart from the appliances and tools which may be necessary for the 
pursuit of his occupation. In the same way, it is conceivable that the college professor 
will look at his work apart from his lecture notes and class-room methods and other 
mechanisms which help to make his work effective. At one institution I found the 
beginnings of this system. In the main administrative office of the physics depart- 
ment at Toronto there was a file of drawers in which were placed the lecture notes 
for all the different courses, written in rather a uniform style and all on standard sized 
cards. These lecture notes were the property of the professor in charge of the depart- 



THE COLLEGE TEACHER AS A PRODUCER 25 

ment. But, as he explained, "they are available for all the members of my staff, who 
are encouraged to use them and who do use them and make them the basis of their 
lectures. You see by following such a procedure as this you make your men avail- 
able for class work earlier. I have already spent many years of work putting these 
lecture notes into pedagogical sequence, and their being available for my instructors 
leaves their time free to develop other and new lecture cour.<;es or to caiTv on re- 
search work. It thus saves energy in the management of a large laboratory like my 
own." 

It was not onlv considered proper for any member of the staff to consult, with- 
out giving any reason, any of these lecture notes, but the head of the department 
encouraged each member of the staff to make suggestions as to how they might be 
improved. Such improvements were continually being made, so that the value of this 
part of the departmental ecjuipment was constantly appreciating. 

What applies to lectures should apply with equal force to the various mechanisms 
used for examinations and in "setting up" lectures, etc. There are numbers of courses 
that remain practically unchanged from year to year, and which, especially in the 
sciences, involve considerable mechanical preparation. At the present time most of 
this is done either by the man who delivers the lecture, or by a laboratory assistant 
who has been trained to the work through years of practice. At every hour of the 
day in ordinary industrial establishments, work more complicated than this is 
done by ordinary workmen under written instructions. There is no reason why, for 
every such set of lectures, there should not be instructions, lists of apparatus, etc., 
which would practically relieve the professor of much subordinate w'ork that now 
occupies his attention. The amount of time devoted to this general class of work will 
be shown by an examination of Tables 4 and 5, Part 2. 

It is apparent that if a university is to follow even in a measure the industrial 
practice of furnishing the tools to its cultured and highly educated workmen, it 
must own tools to furnish. There appear to be only two honorable ways of secur- 
ing title to such tools, i.e., either by purchase outright or by employing men under 
the mutually and clearly understood agreement that a stipulated part of their time 
is to be devoted to working up standard lecture, laboratory and recitation-room 
exercises. Probably the better w;ay will be to have it understood that this is an integral 
part of the pedagogical policy of the college, and that on account of this it is possi- 
ble to pay higher salaries than would otherwise obtain. It will certainly be incum- 
bent on any institution trying this plan to be liberal. It will be possible for the 
beginnings to be made in the standard courses like elementary physics and chem- 
istry, without attempting it in the more advanced courses where it will be more 
difficult of application — especially in advance of getting experience on the simpler 
problems. 

There are obvious hindrances to an immediate adoption of this idea in its broader 
phases, and other objections will doubtless be developed should any concerted effort 



26 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

be made to put the policy into effect. This being granted, it seems to me that pro- 
gress in the lower grades of teaching lies largely in this direction. I proposed this 
plan to a number of college professors, and, as may be imagined, I received replies 
all the way from a hearty acquiescence to refusal to believe that the scheme was in 
any respect worth a trial. 

Undoubtedly, there is a good deal of the feeling that lectures to be good must 
in a way bear the marks of the inspiration of the moment. If it is right education- 
ally, standardization will be well-nigh impossible. But a good many men who have 
the reputation of being high authorities assured me that the carefully thought out 
plan for a series of lectures would win out every time over the "inspiration of the 
moment" idea. 

There is no desire to minimize the value of the personal element in lecturing. One 
man certainly does hold the attention of a class-room and inspire his students, while 
another may fail in both respects. The question is rather whether in most elemen- 
tary and medium branches a true teacher will be handicapped by having to use text- 
books or "standardized" (see page 6) lecture notes. 

This question of standardizing laboratory and class-room exercises and lecture 
notes brings up the related one of the attitude toward assistants. Under modern 
scientific management the effort is made to select men for the lower grades who will 
in time develop into the higher positions. The larger number of men employed for 
the lower grades allows many to fall by the wayside for one reason or another. Even 
with this policy in general use, most business managers experience the frequent ne- 
cessity for going outside the ranks of their own employees for men to fill the more 
desirable positions. I found the widest differences in the colleges in this matter. At 
Toronto the assistants were engaged largely in setting up lectures and in prepar- 
ing the laboratories for section work. In preparing for lectures, they were supposed 
to perform all the experiments in order to make sure that the time of the lecturer 
would not be wasted when he went over them preparatory to the lecture. The head 
of the department told me that he believed in taking every possible precaution in 
order to insure that the lecture should go without a hitch. Sometimes four men 
were engaged in setting up a lecture, and if having an equal number present at the 
lecture raised its efficiency, he had them there. In order to make sure that the as- 
sistants who prepared for a lecture should do their work thoroughly, he frequently 
turned the lecture over to them at a point where an experiment ,was to be made. 
At Columbia, on the other hand, I was told that the assistants were made to under- 
stand that they were only "tolerated" on condition they did good research work. 
They practically held research fellowships, although they were called assistants. 
This policy of not training the new men into the teaching methods and ideals of the 
department does not seem advisable, because if they do not get this training early 
in their careers, it probably means that they will never get it. 

It is obvious that the college professor does not realize how catholic his duties 



THE COLLEGE TEACHER AS A PRODUCER 27 

are. To one who is familiar with the difficulties of management, the manifold duties 
caiTied on by the college professor seem overwhelming. I saw a single individual per- 
sonally assume the direction of a large building including laboratories, machine 
shops, power plants, etc.; maintain order and discipline among seven hundred at 
times boisterous spirits; direct and inspire a teaching force of a score of rather un- 
usually able men; lecture on the most attenuated physical theories; keep in touch 
with a large body of graduates; carry on research work, etc. We can lie unsparing 
in our praise of the success which attended the work and yet realize how badly 
much of it must have been done, judged by any absolute standard. The college pro- 
fessor does not realize how many distinct functions he performs. The high-priced 
presidents of our railways, banks and steel companies would not dream of perform- 
ing this variety of functions. They would refuse to do so because they know that 
they could not do them well. 

This part of raising the efficiency of the college professor will have to be done by 
building up central agencies for doing much of the work he does now, and fordoing 
it so much better than he possibly can, that he will be glad to relinquish his re- 
sponsibilities in these respects. 

If the colleges would maintain the proper kind of records, it would soon be possible 
for an instructor weak in any department of his work to call on some other college, 
or perhaps on some other instructor in his college, to help him with his work. The 
result would be that those who are specially proficient in their work would get credit 
for it. At the present time there is the tendency that one finds in the labor unions, 
to put men into a few classes, each class being maintained at a dead level which is 
usually lower than it need be. 

Although I am unable to verify this conjecture, I believe that one reason for the 
demand for research workers is just a demand for established efficiencv. I think if 
methods can be developed by which the success which a professor may be achiev- 
ing, either in teaching or in administering his department, may be measured and 
recorded, that he will be in demand as the research workers are in demand. There is 
now, at best, only an indirect method of telling who are the competent men. If a 
man's competence in any line is once established, he need not worry to-day about 
getting adequate compensation, — if one man will not give him what he is worth, 
another will. 

Another point which operates against efficiency of the teaching staff is their long 
hours. There is little effort made on the part of the teachers (and the responsibility 
for this does not alone rest with them) to determine what constitutes a day's work, 
and then to accomplish this within certain fixed hours. The college professor probably 
gets less help out of recreation, taken in its broadest sense, than almost any other 
class of worker. I met men who literally spent their lives in their laboratories, and it 
is impossible to believe that men with so little relaxation do not suffer from this 
excessive concentration. Thus one professor wrote: "You will perceive that my entire 



28 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

time through the day is spent either in giving the courses which I present or in 
making preparation for them in one way or another. Besides this time I have spent 
the hours between 7.30 and 11.30 p.m. seven evenings in the week regularly in my 
office in the preparation of lecture notes for my students, and also the hours between 
10 a.m and 1 p.m. and between 3 and 6 p.m. on Sunday in the same way." It is 
hardly possible that such hours would be permitted in an industrial establishment. 
The tendency is towards moderate but clearly determined hours of labor and an 
insistence on close application during the established hours. 

With specialization, especially in administrative matters, will go a cutting down 
of the committee meetings, which have increased rapidly in the last few years. Al- 
most every man interviewed complained of the amount of time spent in committee 
work. The schedules of the individual teachers summarized on Table 4 show com- 
paratively little time spent on committee work; but as a source of interruption to 
the regular work of the teacher, committee meetings are undoubtedly a great, and 
in a large measure an unnecessary annoyance. 

A further improvement in the lot of the college teacher, and especially those of 
the lower grades, would be a bureau through which men could be moved from one 
place to another with less difficulty than now obtains. In the long run, it is to the 
benefit of the colleges and of the teachers themselves that they should each be engaged 
at that place where they can work at their highest efficiency, and anything that tends 
to make it impossible for a man both to keep growing in his ability to perform and 
in the opportunity for having his abilities utilized is against progress. Everywhere 
I went I was told it was hard to get people, and hard to dispose of those who, for 
one reason or another, desired other engagements. To employ an assistant at six 
hundred dollars a year seemed to require an inordinate amount of correspondence, 
as much as for a man who was to get five thousand a year. At the same time I was 
introduced to a number of promising younger men who had just obtained the de- 
gree of Ph.D., and who were having considerable difficulty in securing employment 
as assistants. 

In the Appendix, Exhibit A, I have given a sample of an employment bulletin 
issued once a month by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The same 
thing could be done by some collegiate agency. Standard blanks could be provided, 
calling for the precise information which experience shows the employer must have 
before reaching a decision. The correspondence in this matter showp me at the col- 
leges was as unsatisfactory, from a business standpoint, as anything I saw. No one 
professor has occasion to employ men at frequent enough intervals to execute the 
work with much facility. I was told by several people that the commercial agencies 
do not give good results on teachers of collegiate grade. The charges were said to 
be high. 

If the ease with which these men, especially those in higher positions, are moved 
about could be increased, it would have a marked effect in forcing on the colleges 



THE COLLEGE TEACHER AS A PRODUCER 29 

a type of departmental organization that could be passed on from one set of men 
to another without imposing undue burdens on those assuming new duties. In the 
industrial era just back of us, a man taking a new position was expected to take 
at least six months or a year to get comfortable enough in his new environment to 
make it possible for him to perform his duties. Under present conditions, in the 
better organized companies a change in officers involves no such delay. 

The whole question of salaries has been covered by the Carnegie Foundation in 
Bulletin Number 2, so tiiat it hardly seems wise to more than touch upon the subject. 
In Table 3, Part 2, I have given the individual salaries paid the one hundred and 
one teachers included in tliis study and then summarized them in various ways. 

In conclusion, I want to repeat that I believe very little profit to the college 
teacher can come of an abstract discussion of the wages paid men of this class, while 
I believe a great deal can be quickly accomplished in the matter of raising their 
compensation if coupled with it goes a broad study of efficiency and of methods of 
increasing that efficiency. 



RESEARCH 

At six of the eight institutions visited, research was considered an integral if not 
the most important part of the work of the physics department. At the other two 
institutions (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Williams), while some re- 
search work was being done, it was not felt by those in charge that the oppoi-tunity 
for it was such as to warrant much emphasis being laid on research. At every one of 
these institutions I think it is hoped to make more of research in the near future 
rather than less. The fact that apparently there is to be a great increase in the energy 
with which research is to be pursued at the colleges makes research a vital matter 
in a study of the efficiency with which it is conducted. 

Those teachers of physics who have done notable research work are undoubtedly 
those who are in the greatest demand. To have done research work is almost as 
essential for one holding a high place in a department of physics as it is for an 
instructor in any department to have a doctor's degree. This is a little difficult to 
understand in view of the obvious differences between research work in physics and 
the ordinary teaching of physics. It is certainly having a marked influence on the 
teachers of physics. Broadly speaking, I think that more than one half of the physics 
teachers I met are included in one of these two classes: first, those who would like to 
be relieved of undergraduate research work so as to give their efforts to developing 
the teaching side and, second, those who feel that their teaching hours are so much 
time taken away from research. The greater number of the workers in the various 
departments of physics are in this latter class. The feeling is so strong, the amount 
of effort and money going into research is so large as compared with what goes into 
teaching, that some of the places visited are research laboratories first, and after that, 
schools for teaching physics as a branch of general education. 

One man high in the councils of his department told me that he felt that his 
abilities lay in the direction of teaching, and that the efforts that were being made 
to drive him into research work were against efficiency. He said that he had to 
accept it because of the feeling at his institution that they wanted as teachers only 
those who could do research. Another prominent physicist told me that the pre- 
sident of his institution kept the question, "What have you discovered to-day.?" 
constantly on his lips as a spur to the members of the physics staff. Another asserted 
that because in the applied sciences it was so much easier to make notable dis- 
coveries than it was in physics and the other pure sciences, the latter suffered in 
the matter of appropriations. I gathered that research is one of the master words 
which open the coffers of the prosperous. It is not without interest to note, in this 
connection, that the American Physical Society, made up largely, if not exclusively, 
of the men of the universities, some time since decided that it will not receive papers 
devoted to the pedagogical or educational side of a physicisfs work. 

It would probably serve no good end to repeat here some of the extreme state- 



RESEARCH 31 

ments made by the two sides to this controversy. It can be said, however, without 
fear of responsible contradiction, that in most of the subjects taught in the col- 
leges to-day a man can become an acknowledged efficient teacher without adding 
materially to his professional reputation or his earning value. To accomplish the latter 
he must, generally speaking, do research work and publish the results of it in at least 
fairly technical language and in fairly technical publications. 

Perhaps the estabUshment of highly paid chairs in various subjects, the occupants 
of which are to be specially distinguished for their ability to teach rather than for 
their research work, would have the tendency to remind the college world that there 
is still virtue in general instruction and professional teaching. 

From an industrial viewpoint, the teaching of undergraduate physics and research 
in physics have little in common. At the present time both are handled by the same 
organization within the department of physics. No effort is made to separate them 
in any way. Research seems to require a quiet, dispassionate, more or less contempla- 
tive line of approach, whereas lecture-room work and recitation-room work must 
necessarily be more immediate. 

I am not recommending that the universities as a class do less work in the matter 
of research, but it is my feeling that both the research and the teaching would be 
more efficiently done under a somewhat different organization than now obtains. It 
is true that some of the research work that is now being done is carried on under 
such conditions as to make it exceedingly expensive. For instance, owing to its loca- 
tion in a great city, Columbia University, though well equipped with both apparatus 
and eminent physicists, is barred out from research in many lines except during the 
three hours from two to five in the morning when the street cars are not running and 
other conditions are favorable. It would appear that unless this university can afford 
to maintain at some moi'e advantageous point special research laboratories, it should 
abandon research in physics. It is certainly not in the interests of efficiency that men 
who everyone admits are specially qualified to do notable research work should have 
their hours of labor so restricted. These same unfavorable conditions for research 
were found in greater or less degree at most of the laboratories. 

As far as I could discover, research had not made any notable progress in the 
undergraduate courses. At one institution they require an original piece of research 
work in the fourth year as a condition of graduation for those who take physics. 
This feature in the course was elsewhere generally condemned, and it seemed to be 
the consensus of opinion that standard laboratory exercises in all departments of 
physics were best designed to give results in teaching undergraduates. In certain in- 
stances, no doubt, individual teachers have been lured from this path, but it did not 
seem to represent any fixed or growing educational policv. 

Another weak point, in my opinion, in the research work as it is carried on now 
at the colleges is that it is being done with the minimum of inspection and control. 
I believe that few workers can be at their maximum of efficiency unless their work is 



32 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

subject to a fairly constant, intimate and impartial review of some kind. At pre- 
sent, the character of review which any piece of research work enjoys depends 
largely on the personal relations which may happen to exist between the research 
worker and his associates in his own department. Some work is done with practically 
no review, either because no one is interested in it, or if interested, no one feels 
wari'anted in offering suggestions or criticisms. I was shown one piece of work which 
had been in progress for over two years which, in the opinion of several who had had an 
opportunity to study it, was a sheer waste of time. And yet no one protested because 
no one felt he had the authority. Even when research work is done by a physicist who 
is not only intimate with his associates, but who seeks their opinions, it is not as apt 
to be checked where it is wrong and encouraged where it is right as efficiently as it 
would be by equally able scientists not brought into such intimate day-to-day con- 
tact with the department. Of course, like everything else, such a system of inspection 
would admit of exceptions in notable cases. 

For this reason it seems to me that in every institution doing research work there 
should be a "general research board,"" whose duty it would be to organize the gen- 
eral policy of the institution in the matter of research, to bring about as much co- 
operation as possible between the departments, to correlate as much as possible research 
work going on in different sciences, to procure assistance for those needing it, to pass on 
the expediency of undertaking any given project, and to keep constant track of the 
progress of work and of its cost. Such a board would probably find it advisable to 
keep as far away as possible from the details of the work of research and to assume 
toward it the same broad viewpoint as has been recommended for the board of trus- 
tees to take in relation to the general work of the institution. In fact such a board 
would act as the board of directors of a research laboratory, made up of all the re- 
search laboratories of the institution. I am sure that the existence of such a board 
would make for efficiency. This might easily lead to a "director of research," and 
for such a functional officer there would appear to be plenty of work to do. 

In the introduction, there was suggested the necessity for caution in applying in- 
dustrial standards in the matter of the cost of research. There is in all research work, 
of course, an element of chance. Many brilliantly conceived investigations fail for 
reasons unforeseeable at the time that they are undertaken. Time is not a controlling 
consideration in research work. And yet it will hardly be denied that over a term of 
years, and viewed broadly, there should be some relation between cost and product. 
To discover such a relation is likely to become increasingly important because every 
authority interviewed assured me that it was becoming increasingly difficult to dis- 
cover profitable lines of research. 

Of course every professional man is supposed to be something of a research worker 
— it is hardly possible for him to keep out of it. In this report, however, I have not 
had this kind of research in mind. I have had in mind rather that done during 
"working hours," and done, therefore, with the full approval of the institution at 



RESEARCH 33 

which it is performed, and largely at its expense. For some of these institutions, the 
value of research to teaching must be its test. I believe there is a distinct disad- 
vantage to undergraduate students to be near research work. There is a certain in- 
spirational value in the presence of men who have "done things" in a science one 
happens to be studying. Is there not danger of exaggerating this value? I think in 
the case of physics research workers, this influence is more than offset by the intro- 
duction into the undergraduate laboratories of the necessarily deliberative and ex- 
perimental methods of the research laboratory. 

At none of the institutions visited was there any means of controlling the amount 
of research work done in the various departments except through the general de- 
partmental appropriations. Given an appropriation of S3000 or 810,000, in every 
case the considerations which ordained how much of this money should go into re- 
search and how much into teaching lay within the department. These considerations 
for the most part had to do with the idiosyncrasies of individuals connected with the 
department rather than with conclusions reached by the department officially. In 
other words, the proportion of any departmental appropriation which goes into 
teaching must necessarily be largely a haphazard matter. It cannot be otherwise be- 
cause there is no machinery for regulating it elsewhere. In fact no one connected with 
any of the departments studied knows, even in the broadest way, the relative cost of 
teaching and of research. 

On Table 7, Part 2, an effort has been made to separate the cost of research from 
the cost of teaching. The same has been done for the direct expenses connected 
with teaching and research. Cost here includes such items as interest on plant and 
equipment, and it includes phvsics' share in the administrative expenses of the in- 
stitution. The direct expense includes only items involving a cash outlay and those 
which under proper management would be under the control of the departmental 
authorities. 

The total cost of physics and the direct expense of physics at eight institutions 
may be divided as follows between research and teaching: 







Cost 


Direct 


Expense 




Research 


Teaching 


Research 


Teaching 


Columbia 


$27,520.88 


$62,917.23 


$14,203.78 


$31,923.09 


Harvard 


36,925.49 


33,958.35 


25,749.90 


21,506.76 


Haverford 


840.79 


4,582.16 


401.79 


2,054.06 


Mass. Inst. Tech. 


8,930.50 


58,122.73 


6,049.57 


28,481.43 


Princeton 


27,229.65 


57,312.93 


16,672.00 


28,638.00 


Toronto 


12,399.18 


50,126.72 


6,614.76 


22,309.37 


Williams 


465.83 


12,007.35 


273.07 


5,470.43 


Wisconsin 


15,578.85 
$129,891.17 


33,297.99 
$312,325.46 


11,059.45 


22,.397.39 


Totals 


$81,024.32 


$162,780.53 


Average 


29.4 per cent 


70.6 per cent 


33. 2 per cent 


66.8 per cent 



34 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

An auditor sent in to audit the accounts of these institutions would inquire as to 
the warrant for the expenditure of such large sums on research. At five of these in- 
stitutions the money devoted to research represents not only a considerable propor- 
tion of the income of the department, but a considerable amount of money. At no 
one of these five institutions are there funds available for research which anywhere 
near equal what is spent. At Harvard, for instance, the endowment for research in 
physics is in the neighborhood of $90,000, which at five per cent would yield less 
than $5000 per annum. The expenditures for research appear to be five times this 
amount, or in excess of $25,000. There are certain annually made gifts and annually 
renewed guarantees for research which may amount to $1000 or $2000 more in any 
one year. It is impossible under the present system of accounting to be more definite. 
But allowing the outside figure ($2000), it still leaves over $18,000 spent on research 
out of the general educational funds of the institution. As is pointed out elsewhere, 
considerable expenditures are also made for research at Harvard which do not pass 
through the books of the treasurer. 

By research work, as used here and elsewhere in this report, is meant research work 
done by the teaching staff, and in which the student body have no part. For this 
reason every effort has been made to exclude from the charges against research the 
expense connected with student research work and its supervision. It is difficult then 
to see how, under these conditions, "research" can be considered as being in any 
sense tuition. It can have only an indirect bearing on the teaching proper, in so far 
as it develops the teachers themselves. 

It would be good policy to separate departmental expenses between teaching and 
research. While this would involve a considerable departure from the present book- 
keeping methods in use at the universities, it would be a simple matter from an 
accounting standpoint. If there were to be established a general research board, it 
would pay to keep the research expense of each department divided further between 
the various undertakings. This would involve little additional expense. But without 
a central board to use it, it would not be worth anything. The departmental or- 
ganizations as now constituted would not make enough use of it to warrant a slight 
expense. 

It is fair to call attention to the fact that physics is one of the principal research 
branches. Perhaps the large interest in research which I found everywhere in physics 
is considerably in excess of the average which obtains in other branches .of university 
teaching. But in physics it is true that even on the teaching side the individual stu- 
dent who gives promise of becoming a research worker, or who is going into physics 
as a life work, receives the lion's share of attention. At some places the large under- 
graduate classes of students who were studying physics simply as a culture study 
were looked upon as the least important part of the work of the department. 



THE ECONOMICAL USE OF BUILDINGS 

If there is one thinir that stands out as an example of inefficiency, it is the degree of 
use to which college buildings are put. Dr. \'an Hise, president of the University of 
Wisconsin, told the writer that he had recently conducted an investigation of one 
of the main buildings of his university, and had found that the rooms in it devoted 
to teaching were used only, on an average, three hours a day. He had Ijeen very 
much surprised by this, and had notified the professoi-s occupying the building that 
he would not ask the state legislature for any more money for their departments until 
they increased the average use of the rooms under their control. Dr. Van Hise thought 
that this was a very bad record, but as far as I was able to determine, there are no reci- 
tation rooms or lecture halls in which physics is taught at any institution, that are oc- 
cupied more than four hours a day, and the average use of such rooms is less than three 
hours a day. Laboratories may possibly be used more efficiently. I found one magni- 
ficent lecture hall on the second floor of a building, standing on land that is worth 
approximately twenty-five dollars a square foot, in use six hours a week — and this an 
institution (Mass. Inst, of Tech.) whicii is undoubtedly handicapped for lack of room. 
It is possible that, owing to special conditions found only in the department of 
physics, the rooms devoted to physics are not used as continuously or as efficiently 
as they are in some other departments. So I present some figures secured at Williams 
College, where this matter of the efficient use of buildings had already had some 
thought and was still receiving their attention. I give the use per week of twenty- 
three rooms, located in three different buildings, in which modem and ancient lan- 
guages, economics, mathematics, etc., are taught. 





Room number 


Hou 


rs per week 


Hopkins Hall 


4 




24 




5 




3 




6 




21 




7 




18 




8 




24 




10 




22 




11 




24 




19 




3 




13 




3 




15 




19 




16 




3 

164 -^ 11 X 6 is 2.5 hours a day for the huildin^ 


Griffin Hall 


1 




19 




2 




19 




4 




22 




5 




29 




6 




27 




7 




17 

133-r6 X 6 is 3.7 hours a day for the huihling 



36 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

Goodrich Haix 



Room number 


Hours per week 


1 


15 


2 


9 


3 


14 


4 


18 


6 


21 


T 


32 




109-^6x6is3 hours a day for the building 



The average use for the entire twenty-five rooms is 2.83 hours a day. 

Since writing the foregoing, I have secured the record of occupancy for seven 
rooms used principally for physics and mathematics in Fayerweather Hall at Colum- 
bia University, where space of course is at a premium. The numbers across the top 
are room numbers: 

301 304 506 604 609 613 615 Totals 



Men. 


2 


2 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


27 


Tues. 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


5 


3 


21 


Wed. 


2 


5 


5 


6 


7 


6 


4 


35 


Thurs. 


3 


4 


2 


2 


4 


5 


3 


23 


Fri. 


2 


4 


4 


5 


5 


1 


3 


24 


Sat. 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


15 




14 


21 


20 


23 


24 


24 


19 


145 



Adding the total hours in use per week for each room and dividing by seven (the 
number of rooms) times six (the number of week days), we get 3.45 hours as the average 
use per day per room. It will be noticed from the totals on the right that on some 
days the rooms are used much more efficiently than on others. On Wednesday, for 
instance, the average use is five hours, while on Tuesday it is only three, and Satur- 
day a little above two. That there is no insuperable reason why rooms cannot be 
used more economically is shown by the fact that instances of six and seven hours' 
use are shown. The poorest record here is Room No. 301, a room reserved for the 
exclusive use of the physics department. With the exception of No. 304, the other 
rooms are used by more than one department. The authorities at Columbia had evi- 
dently given this matter thought and had subjected it to some control. I doubt if 
any better showing can be made by any other building anywhere. 

In the first place, the management of all buildings should be in the hands of some 
central authority and operated under as complete rules as can be established; the 
same rules, of course, applying to all buildings, no matter what the .purposes for 
which they are used. These rules should be public. It is impossible for the various 
rooms to be used economically if they are administered by the departments nominally 
in control of the buildings in which they are located. A professor in one department 
has not the information about the conditions in another department that would 
make it possible for him either to lend the rooms or borrow them to advantage. 
This is what they are supposed to do now, and there is little of it done. 

In this proposed interchange of rooms between departments, there is not included 



THE ECONOMICAL USE OF BUILDINGS 87 

any suggestion that a room not entirely suited to a given purpose shall be used for 
that purpose. It might be disconcerting, for instance, to a section in Greek to have 
to hold a recitation in a room that, on account of the necessities of the biological 
department, was filled with the latter's c(iuipment. My impression is that this is 
what is going on now more or less and will become more the rule, unless some cen- 
tral agency is given the means of studying the common good and also given authority 
to enforce its conclusions. 

There should be greater publicity in regard to the buildings themselves. The 
cloistered idea as applied to the university as a whole has nearly disappeared, but 
the departmental cloister in some instances is still intact. There should lie printed 
floor plans in miniature for every building, and these should be generally available. 
On these plans should be given the phvsical features of each room, the number of 
seats and size of blackboards, the character of the ventilation, etc. It should be 
possible to tell from the plan, and without seeing the room, how useful for a given 
purpose it would be. There should also be given on these plans the charge for the 
use of the rooms figured on the basis of the cost of maintaining and operating the 
building in which the room is located. In this way rooms in the more undesirable 
buildings could be given a preferential rate. And even in the same building, the 
fewer facilities a room possessed, the lower might be the rate. 

Rooms will then be reserved by a department under one of two plans: (1) reserved 
for its exclusive use at all times, and (2) reserved for its use only at certain stated 
times. This will mean that buildings and quarters in these buildings will belong to de- 
partments only when they reserve them and pay for them. This will put a premium 
on a department's getting on with as little room as possible. It will also mean that, 
other things being equal, a teacher will not want a room that is twice too large for 
the section he is to teach. If a uniform system of numbering is provided, whereby the 
same number will indicate the same room in any building, and periodical lists are 
prepared showing the use to which the various rooms are put, and giving the lists 
of those rooms which are available for various kinds of assignments, the publicity 
alone involved in this will immediately result, I am tempted to say, in a twenty -five 
per cent inci'ease in the efficiency with which rooms are used. 

This interchange in the matter of the use of rooms between different educational 
departments may be difficult to introduce, but it can be assisted in various ways. In 
the first place, each university should have set standards covering size and design of 
rooms used for certain purposes. At the present time, a lecture room for physics is 
apt to be different from a lecture room in chemistry; i.e.^ the points in which they 
must necessarily differ are accentuated rather than the points in which they may be 
alike. The same thing applies to all other rooms. There is no reason why a recitation 
room providing twenty seats for students in physics should not as to dimensions be 
exactly like a recitation room with twenty seats for students in mathematics or any 
other subject. If there is any inherent difference in construction on account of the 



38 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

use to which they would be put, this difference should be so made that, if at some 
future time the disposition of the room is different, a change can be made at little 
cost and without spoiling the efficiency of the room for its new purpose. 

This point of using, or not using, the same room for different purposes can be 
well illustrated in the cases of two large lecture rooms which the writer visited. One 
of them at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was reserved for a lecture in 
elementary physics which took place six mornings in the week at eleven o'clock. 
Owing to the fact that the room was made more or less a storehouse for physics ap- 
paratus, it was rarely allowed to be used for any other purpose. On the other hand, 
at the University of Toronto, the far-sighted professor in charge of the department 
had seen to it tliat in the construction of his lecture table every wire and pipe had 
a connection both above and below the floor, so that on an hour's notice it could be 
removed and a piece of flooring already provided be put in place and the room turned 
over to the Cercle Franc^^aise. Instead of having a fixed blackboard back of the lecture 
table, he had both the board and the partition back of it so suspended that when 
the room was to be used for theatrical purposes they could be raised entirely out of 
view, thus providing both stage and flies for a neat little theater. This professor also 
insisted that all apparatus be removed from this and the other lecture halls at the 
conclusion of the exercise at which the apparatus was used. I have recently been told 
that at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in certain courses (not in physics) 
the lecture tables are set up entirely outside of the lecture room and rolled in and out 
on tracks provided for this purpose. This allows the room to be used for lecturing 
at the same time that preparations for the next lecture are going on in another room. 

A great deal of money could be saved and mistakes and annoyances prevented if 
experience gained by one institution in building could be exchanged with others. 
My attention was called to what seemed to me serious mistakes in most of the physics 
buildings visited. Many of them were such as could not have been foreseen, but as 
far as I can see the next university erecting a physics building is as apt to make the 
same mistakes. If all plans for buildings were filed in such a way as to be easy of 
access, I am sure that those about to build would be glad to profit by what others 
had done. This does not pay now, because it is only the exception when plans are 
readily available. 

With standard designs for lecture halls, laboratories and recitation rooms, and a 
certain procedure required in the way of adequate authorization before changes from 
these designs could be made, our university buildings would in a short time be put 
on a standard basis that would permit of a much larger daily use. 

The architects of university buildings do not always seem to have in mind the 
same ideas as to economy of space which they would observe in other classes of 
buildings. In nearly every physics building I found many rooms designated as a "sort 
of storeroom." There is relatively no more occasion for an excess of storerooms in 
a physical laboratory than there is in a hotel or a manufacturing establishment. But 



THE ECONOMICAL USE OF BUILDINGS 39 

their architecture usually includes rooms that on account of light or size cannot be 
used for anything else. 

At least three buildings of those visited have towers running from the basement 
to the ceiling to be used for experiments requiring dropping weights, suspending 
pendulums, etc. This is at best an intermittent use; sometimes such a tower is not 
used during a term of years. By putting removable floors in a series of closets, one 
over the other, such a tower would be afforded, should occasion arise for its use; or 
the main stairway could be utilized for this purpose as was done at the University 
of Wisconsin. In the meantime, valuable space would not be put out of commission, 
and would not have to be kept heated. It was suggested to me that this tower was 
looked upon by a good many physicists as of largely traditional value. 

The architect of the University of Wisconsin had two large scales laid off in feet 
and inches, beginning at the same corner and running as a frieze around two sides 
of his consultation room. He said that he tried to arrange it so that, when he was 
being given instructions covering the size of rooms, the person giving the directions 
could sit where he could see the scales. He said that otherwise the size of every room 
would be larger than required for the purpose. He also had placed in the room 
samples of such standard articles of furniture as roll top desks, revolving bookcases, 
etc., as a further guide. 

My attention was directed to the fact that in the Princeton building the archi- 
tect had placed the instructor's desk in each recitation room in the center of the 
space immediately in front of the students' desks. In each room the instructor's desk 
had been moved to a position in the corner so as to provide a space where the in- 
structor could walk as he taught; the end of the pipe which had carried the electric 
light wires protruding through the floor in the middle of the promenade must afford 
a constant diversion. The desks are, of course, without means of artificial light in their 
present position. The original lay-out of each room is that used in country school- 
houses from time immemorial. It is certainly possible to do some profitable standardi- 
zation here. 

It appeared to me that there is a very considerable disadvantage in small build- 
ings, such as I found at Williams College. When the existing departmental lines are 
largely broken down, it is going to be possible to handle departmental work much 
more efficiently if the janitors, laboratory attendants, storerooms, etc., can be shared. 
When the buildings are relatively small, this will be more difficult. 

One measure that will make possible a larger use of rooms is the shifting of the 
hours at which certain lectures and recitations occur. It used to be accepted that all 
recitations must occur in the morning and laboratory practice in the afternoon. 
Gradually, this old order has been more or less modified, but if a central authority, 
such as a registrar, had to pass on all schedules and would study each with regard 
to its relations to all the others and to the buildings that were available, much 
further progress could be made. 



40 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

I found everywhere evidences that among both the students and the teachers there 
were strong likes and dislikes for exercises occurring at certain hours in the day. At 
Williams College exercises began at 7.45 in order that there might be none after 
four in the afternoon. Students generally avoid those electives which call for a single 
hour in the middle of the afternoon. 

Another factor which militates against the more economical use of the rooms is the 
order in which the rooms are left and their ventilation. At the University of Toronto 
I found the physics building a model from the standpoint of ventilation, while in 
the main building, which happened to be an older one, the atmosphere was almost 
unbearable. I could see that any professor would prefer to use a room for a recita- 
tion or a lecture which had not been in use the hour before. So that, before any 
large improvement can come about, standards both for order and ventilation must 
be established. 

At the University of Toronto, after every laboratory exercise the apparatus which 
has been in use by the students is put away. If it is bulky and the table large, 
the apparatus is placed at the far end of the table and lined up with it. A neat un- 
bleached muslin covering is then placed over it. In other words, each section leaves 
the laboratory free for the use of any section that comes after it, and the remarkable 
part of this is that in this particular laboratory there is so much space that there is 
no necessity for its conservation. It is done, I was informed, largely out of considera- 
tion for the development of the characters of the students and to teach them habits 
of neatness. I have never seen such a well-ordered building anywhere. Any industrial 
establishment with which I am familiar can learn from the Physics Department of 
the University of Toronto in the matter of housekeeping. Every other laboratory I 
visited had more or less to criticise in this respect. 

There are many questions of general application which would be developed as 
a result of a detailed study of this matter of the use of rooms. For instance, it 
almost invariably happens that recitation rooms are put on the top floors; while 
museums, apparatus rooms and studies are on the lower floors. To the layman it 
would appear that a room which is to house anywhere from twenty to a hundred 
students for, say, four or five hours every day, should be nearer the ground floor 
than a museum which is visited only occasionally. 

The more thought one gives to this matter of the ownership and exclusive occu- 
pation of a building by a department, the more wasteful it appears to be. Under 
this plan there must be either a feast or a famine. If a building is constructed with 
an eye to the future, it must necessarily be too large for the present. There is a 
question of policy here which must be threshed out. At the University of Toronto 
the physics building was so constructed that it looked forward to only a few years' 
growth, but could easily be enlarged in accordance with a predetermined plan. At 
Princeton they told me that they had had at least twenty-five years' and probably 
fifty years' growth in mind at the time the building was constructed; yet out of the 



THE ECONOMICAL USE OF BUILDINGS 41 

one hundred rooms in the building none was used by interests foreign to physics. The 
physics staff did some work in the department of electrical engineering, which occu- 
pied approximately one fifteenth of the floor space in the building. In other words, 
the physics and electrical engineering departments were spreading out in the space 
that it was believed would be large enough to handle the requirements of these and 
other departments twenty-five years from date. Unless Princeton has too many build- 
ings one would expect that there might be some department — at least part of a 
department — which might enjoy, say for the next ten years, some of this space 
provided for a twenty-five years' growth. 

Again it may happen that a particular building is a gift earning with it restric- 
tions as to its use. Could not a method be arranged by which other departments 
could occupy unused parts of such a building subject to the payment of a satisfactory 
rental? This would afford one way for a department temporarily in possession of too 
much room to increase its "earnings." Such an arrangement, of course, would be pos- 
sible only under an accounting system, such as is elsewhere recommended. 

On Table 6, Part 2, 1 have given data about each of the buildings visited, includ- 
ing the amount of space devoted to lecture rooms, laboratories, etc., the cost of 
maintenance per square foot, etc. 



FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES 

Before it will be possible for those in charge of the various departments to relin- 
quish any of the manifold duties which they now perform, it will be necessary to 
build up the agencies by which these functions can be more advantageously per- 
formed. Every effort should be made in building up these agencies to put them in 
competent hands. It will be found that duties will be willingly relinquished to those 
who will discharge them more efficiently. On the other hand, it will be impossible 
to convince a college professor that it will make for efficiency to take a duty away 
from him and give it to some one who is going to perform it in an indifferent 
manner. The best progress will be made in organizing these functional activities 
to do them only as they can be well done. It will probably be best not to require 
that everybody use a given functional agency when it is first started. A purchasing 
agent, on assuming his duties, will probably find his time fully occupied doing the 
buying for those parts of the institution which are anxious to utilize his services. It 
is of importance that those who first come in contact with the work of these func- 
tional agencies shall be impressed with their efficiency and genuine helpfulness. It 
will be better, therefore, for the purchasing agent to give an excess of time to making 
a few purchases, and have them made right, than to force his services on those who 
have not been convinced that they require them. If this policy is followed, practi- 
cally every one will be using the purchasing agent within a year or two, and this 
without the necessity for forcing his services on any one. In this and other matters 
there will always be people who are glad to be relieved of trouble. 

With so little of the work of our universities now being done on a functional 
basis, it is hard to predict the field it may ultimately cover. I have given brief out- 
lines of those functions the development of which seem the most obvious, from which 
the greatest amount of help can be expected, and which in my opinion can be insti- 
tuted with the least trouble. 

Superintendent of Grounds and Buildings 
This office can be made more valuable, even at those institutions where the position 
is now of considerable importance. If, for instance, the superintendent of grounds 
and buildings operates the power plant, it would appear that he should also have 
charge of all shops. To the layman in educational matters, there does not seem to be 
any good reason why, as is the case at the University of Toronto, three machine 
shops should be operated inside the college grounds,^ and each of these be directed 
by one or more college professors, weighted down as they are with other functions 
foreign to this one. Each of these shops requires the same sort of supplies, the same 
character of employees, is doing the same kind of work, — work more closely allied to 

' These three shops were connected with the work in physics. There may have been others connected with other 
departments. 



FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES 4,3 

power-plant work than to class-room work. The professors now in charge would soon 
find out that, instead of getting poorer service under a centralized management, they 
would get better service than is possible under existing conditions. The industrial 
world has now freed itself from the slavery of the idea that to get a thing well done you 
must do it yourself. Specialization has made almost the opposite of this true. I am 
confident, for instance, that every one of the professors who has duties in connection 
with the management of shops, and with whom I talked, is firmly convinced that, if 
his particular shop were under the control of any one outside his department, (1) he 
would have to wait longer for things, (2) the work would not be so well done, and 
(3) would not cost less. Most managers in the industrial world will be willing to ad- 
mit that, if all work done by mechanics throughout a university plant should be 
done under the control of some central authority, it will be done better both from 
the standpoint of the university as a whole and also from the standpoint of the 
individual department. 

At the University of Wisconsin I found that the professor in charge of the depart- 
ment had spent considerable time (and over a period of years) in getting the pen- 
dulum required in the Foucault experiment so suspended from the roof of the 
building as to give good results. This professor, a man of some years, had himself 
personally climbed into the rafters of a high building and attempted to make the ad- 
justments in large measure with his own hands. At Princeton a shaft in the new 
building has been reserved in which a Foucault pendulum is to be suspended, but 
owing to the professors being engaged with other matters the pendulum has not 
been put in place, much to the disappointment of those who take a special interest 
in the new building. As long as each department is self-contained and is supposed to 
do largely for itself, such conditions must continue. Under what would appear to 
be reasonable management, such work as this would be done on the more or less 
detailed requisition of the departments by the superintendent of grounds and build- 
ings, who would have at his command competent mechanics. If the amount of work 
to be done increased, he would know how to add to his staff until the work was got 
out of the way. This is not usually possible in the case of individual depai-tments. 

Interdepartmental Janitor Service 
The typical college building has its own janitor, and there is no connection be- 
tween the janitor service of one building and that of another. At one university 
there is a corps of janitors who have entire charge of the buildings in the university, 
and naturally the work can be done much more efficiently and at less cost. Janitor 
service generally among colleges can be much improved. There is no reason why the 
same standard of cleanliness should not obtain throughout all departments. Will not 
the professors be much more comfortable if their buildings are maintained in proper 
order without their giving it any thought, than if they have to be constantly bother- 
ing with such detail.'' 



44 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

A sharp line should be drawn, probably, between the cleaning of the buildings 
and the care of apparatus, etc., such as is used in lecture halls and laboratories. It 
might later on be found advisable to build up a department of laboratory attendance, 
or to handle this work as a part of the janitor's department. It usually happens that 
in any one laboratory the services of an attendant are required only at certain given 
hours, and it might tend to efficiency to have a central organization that could send 
the same man to one laboratory at one hour, and to another laboratory at a different 
hour. Such cooperation under the present arrangement is out of the question. 

Purchasing Department 

In the matter of the purchasing department, perhaps, the college world is further 
away from the industrial world than in any other respect. At the University of 
Toronto they had had the question of the advisability of a purchasing department 
before them for several years, and it had just been decided that it was impossible 
for anybody to make purchases as well as a professor could make them ; in other 
words, that the question of the advisability of a central purchasing bureau, which 
has long since been an element in the organization of all industrial establishments, 
could have no place in the collegiate organization. The reasons for this decision do 
not seem to me valid ones.^ 

At the University of Wisconsin they had definitely made up their minds that they 
would have a purchasing department, and had instituted a line of procedure lead- 
ing to its installation which would take about two years to put in full operation. 
They had wisely decided to approach the problem slowly in order to demonstrate to 
the teachers and others concerned that the department could help them, before they 
made it necessary for any one to accept its good offices. In the writer's opinion, a 
ten per cent saving on all purchases is assured, and a larger one on a good many 
lines would probably be secured, as a result of the central purchasing authority. 
After all, the chief value of the purchasing department is not in the money saving, 
but in the matter of being able to secure the articles best adapted to the purposes 
to which they are to be put, an increase in the speed of delivery, and a greater con- 
venience in making the purchases. 

The influence of a satisfactory adjustment of the purchasing problem will spread 
further than might be supposed. I think that a good deal of the teacher's distrust 
of modern business methods may be accounted for by what he has seen of the al- 
most ludicrous makeshifts for a genuinely efficient purchasing system. The account- 
ing authorities have been forced to do something toward controlling expenditures 
or at least toward collating them. And the minimum of what they have been al- 
lowed or able to do has not been always such as would command confidence in what 
might result from a further development of "business methods." No one is to blame 
for this, but it would appear to be a condition easily remedied. 

' Since writing the report the author has been advised that " the board of governors desires that there should be 
a central purchasing bureau. The experiment is in process." 



FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES 45 

College professors are undoubtedly experts when it comes to purchasing many 
articles pertaining to their specialties. They have not always realized that almost 
any large concern, like a railroad system or a steel plant, buys things every day 
which require the services of not one but in some cases of several experts. They have 
not always realized that any proper system of making purchases for a university 
will include the making use of every bit of expert assistance available where such 
assistance is required. Largely on account of this misunderstanding, the professor 
has burdened himself with the purchase of ninety-nine articles like pencils and paj)er 
so as to be able to pass on one article like a crystal or a piece of wire for a Foucault 
pendulum. 

Stores Department 
Nothing approaching a stores department was found, although the L^niversitv of 
Wisconsin looked forward to a time when they would have a central storeroom where 
everything used in the departments could be obtained. They pointed out the fact 
that many of the things used in any laboratory were usually in demand in the others, 
and that there was no good reason why time and money and convenience would not 
be saved with a central depository. There are many articles which it is not wise for 
a departmental storeroom to carry which might profitably be can'ied by a storeroom 
used by all departments. 

Mail Handling 

The amount of mail that comes to a university which could not under proper 
organization be handled at a central office is small. Yet everywhere I went I found 
teachers engaged in writing notes, sometimes by long hand, on matter many of which 
could have been more authoritatively answered by a central office. 

The layman would be surprised to know how frequently those connected with the 
scientific departments of our universities are called on for technical help which is 
to be given without compensation. It would seem to me that in every case such help 
should go out from the university rather than fi'om the department, and under some 
single policy rather than under the different policies of separate departments as at 
present. Practically all mail should be answered at a central office, this office com- 
municating by written memoranda with the departments when necessary. As far as 
I could discover, there was no evidence of any department's having enough mail 
legitimately its own to warrant building up the mechanism within the department 
with which to handle it properly. 

Bursar's Dkpartment 
The treasurer, as a rule, is not in close enough touch with the university to keep 
any proper track of details. This is recognized in the Report of the Treasurer and 
Business Manager of the Northxvestern University, 1907-1908, in which the trea- 
surer's report takes one page and the business manager's the balance of the one hun- 



46 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

died and sixty page book. The treasurer will, at most institutions, have to be a man 
drawn from the ranks of the laity and one not a member of the immediate univer- 
sity family. There should be, therefore, another officer in authority in matters of 
finance, giving up his whole time to the work, who will make it his business to study 
the details of expenditures and receipts so that he may be able to bear his share in 
making those improvements in methods which are considered essential in every com- 
mercial or industrial undertaking. It makes little difference what this man is called, 
— a bursar, comptroller, or business manager, — although the latter title seems to 
describe what I believe should be his general functions better than any other. The 
work of this kind now done is being done by those whose position in the whole scheme 
of university management does not seem to warrant their making suggestions as to 
the improvements which in many cases must be obvious to them. 

If the student-hour were adopted and an effort made to keep track, not only of the 
details of the cost per student-hour in each of the departments, but of the receipts 
as well, this officer would have a large field of usefulness open to him. 

Disciplinarian 

In many industrial establishments, the matter of discipline comes up so rarely that 
one is apt to forget that there is any provision made for it. In the most developed 
establishments, the value of having all such matters managed by one person is well 
understood. At some of the universities these matters are attended to largely by one 
person, but this person is usually so overloaded with other duties that there can be 
little method in the handling of matters of discipline. 

In this particular the lack of definite standards seems particularly noticeable when 
one considers how long the college men have been facing its problems. There are 
some published rules. At Williams a book of "Laws" and a book of "Administrative 
Rules" seemed to afford a good basis for what might, in my opinion, be profitably 
expanded. Similar publications were found at most of the institutions visited. 

But there is reluctance everywhere noticeable in the college world to put things 
into writing. I mention it here because in matters of discipline it was especially no- 
ticeable. The reason for this seems to be that even in minor affairs the personal ele- 
ment is considered of much importance. The students, professors and everybody con- 
nected with the institutions are educated to feel that a given sequence of events does 
not always lead to the same result in matters disciplinary. I feel that this not only 
wastes time in disposing of such matters, but must have a bad effect on all con- 
cerned. If offences are committed, the punishments depend too largely on who com- 
mitted the offences, their past records, circumstances surrounding the act, etc. In the 
large affairs of life this might pay, but in such minor matters as student escapades, 
absences, etc., it leaves too much leeway. A dean at one institution told me that the 
rules to turn back a student on failure to pass freshman final examinations were 
clear, but that until recently they never were put in operation without a hearing on 



FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES 47 

each individual case, and tliat even then they were rarely enforced. Then, owing 
largely to committee management, those dealing with such cases are in constant dread 
of being reversed, and as a matter of fact a large number of cases are constantly being 
opened up and revised. 

I want to offer another reason for this condition, and that is that our universities 
and colleges are more afraid of publicity than is supposed. President Garfield told 
me that he believed that the remedy for most of the troubles of the colleges was 
more publicity. Tliere is very little of it at present. High officers at several univer- 
sities said that the fear of taxation made them backward about stating the value of 
their property. The treasurer of one university told me that he had purposely re- 
frained from acquiring the information necessary properly to inventory the value of 
the plant. He wanted to be able to say that he did not know. I was told at one 
place that they would regret extremely to reduce to writing their rules on the use of 
intoxicants by students. The rules seemed to me to be fairly rigorous, but because they 
were not prohibitory it was feared that their publication would cause trouble. With 
no written regulations it becomes necessary, as might be expected, for pi-ofessors of 
distinction constantly to give time to such cases. Complete standards rigorously en- 
forced covering matters of discipline will reduce the occasions for their use in a large 
degree. 

Bureau of Publicity 

All printed matter intended for the public should be prepared in one place and 
under the direction of some one who understands this sort of thing. When assistance 
is rendered by the departments, it should be subject to the editing of this central 
bureau. Nearly all college catalogues, and in fact college literature of all kinds, too 
clearly bear the mark of their process of evolution. To the layman, they are unin- 
telligible in large part, full of repetitions, giving a great deal of information in which 
it is hardly possible tliat any large number of people are interested, and withholding 
much that would be of interest. Nearly every college stands for something distinct 
in education. They all claim to do so when you ask the question. Nearly every de- 
partment in the college has a policy it is working on, or some field peculiar to itself 
that it is trying to cover. And yet, in studying their literature, it is very difficult 
oftentimes to discover this. A parent or a student, engaged in looking into the rela- 
tive merits of different colleges, should be able to find out what each one is trying 
to do in its own field. In this way possibly a good many of the misfits which we see 
all about us would be prevented. The editors of college catalogues must learn that 
it is not enough to state a thing correctly, but it must be stated so that the average 
person who reads it can understand it. 

At no two of the colleges visited was the same system for designating courses in 
use. Several of these systems were almost impossible for an outsider to understand. 
One would think that some system could be arranged for this purpose which all 



48 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

could use. The matter of designating courses is not the only place where it will be neces- 
sary to have a uniform system of nomenclature before it will be possible to get very 
far in the scientific study of the problems involved. No science, such as geology or 
botany for instance, would be considered to have developed very far if it did not 
possess a generally recognized terminology. It was suggested to me that in some of 
these matters it will be better to design an entirely new system than to attempt 
to build even on the best of those now in use. Wherever possible such a system 
should be made mnemonic. 

There does not seem to be any special advantage in the extreme variety of typog- 
raphy and format found in college catalogues. The editors of many of the techni- 
cal publications issued by learned societies are trying to bring their publications to 
standard size and to use for them a standard face and size of type. This change in 
college catalogues would mean a reduced cost, and in the case of many such pub- 
lications — if not in all — an improved book. 

The whole class of work included in advertising, circulars, the sending out of invi- 
tations, and the maintenance of the alumni lists should be done in this same depart- 
ment. For reasons of economy a large part of the student body may come from the 
territory immediately adjacent to the college. But in order to give a college a cos- 
mopolitan atmosphere, it is desirable to have other sections of the country and 
foreign countries represented. By means of the checking and encouraging through 
advertising, this could be closely regulated. This same publicity department could 
be used indirectly for securing positions both for students during the summer months 
and for graduates after they have finished their college work. Many colleges have 
the beginnings of such a department, but it will never amount to what it should 
until each department refers all work of this kind to a special central department, 
and assists in strengthening this organization. I found some departments maintain- 
ing separate alumni lists of their own departments. 

This whole matter, including the use of the word "advertising," is one that may be 
very differently received in different places. It seems safe to say that whatever work 
of this kind is done should be done by the authority of the university or college as 
a whole, and under the direction of the best specially qualified person whose services 
can be commanded. 

There is a marked tendency on the part of the universities to make their litera- 
ture more attractive. The pamphlets of the Harvard Graduate School are the first 
instances I have seen of color work in college advertising matter. 

It is a question whether commercial advertising should be imitated by educational 
institutions; if so, how far and under what restrictions. If a manufacturer finds that 
he has a plant capable of a substantial increase in product with a comparatively 
small increase in wages, he makes this increase feeling that he is reducing his cost of 
production. To market this product usually involves advertising. When a university 
finds that it has a department with the material equipment capable of handling, say, 



FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES 49 

three times the number of students, good administration would suggest the advisa- 
bility of advertising that particular department, and perhaps of cutting down the 
advertising of the departments already overtaxed. I found exactly the opposite con- 
dition at one place where they had an excellent ccjuipment for handling at least 
three times their present student body in one department, yet the ranking professor 
rather apologized for a modest piece of advertising matter which he placed in my 
hands, and which he was glad to say had not been sent out by his instmctions. He 
said that he would welcome more students, but he felt that the function of the uni- 
versity had been entirely fulfilled when it provided good courses, and that it was 
not a function of a university to "hawk its wares about." 

Registrar 

Apparently the duties of the registrar can be broadened with far-reaching results. 
In the first place registration of all kinds should be centralized in the registrar's 
office. This is now done in many universities. But even where the registrar registers, 
he does not follow up in any way. His records show the maximum registration, which 
is usually far beyond the actual at any one time. If fuller information about the in- 
dividual student is desired, it will probably come about primarily through greater 
care in keeping the registrar's records. 

It is rather unusual to find a college teacher whose administrative experience and 
opinions extend measurably beyond the limits of his own immediate courses and spe- 
cialty. This is as true inside the various departments of physics as it is in the institu- 
tions generally. If there is this absence of accurate knowledge in regard to courses 
inside of a single department, it is obvious that under present conditions it is prac- 
tically impossible for any one person, or any group of persons, to have the knowledge 
necessary to plan the work of any one department so as to complement the work of 
other departments, in the matter of hours, rooms, teachers, etc. As long as this is 
the case, the methods used in laying out college courses must in large measure be 
unsatisfactory. 

The difficulty, in some cases, with room schedules and course schedules, and the 
apparent conflicts which were found in them, together with the obvious difficulty 
of arranging classes, sections and courses with the machinery at present avail- 
able, led me to make some inquiries among recent graduates. I was told that for 
the first month after college opens mistakes in rooms, assignments of teachei's, 
sizes of sections, etc., are constantly cropping up. I do not see how it could be other- 
wise. 

Williams College has a recorder, who keeps a record of the number of students 
taking the various courses, the number of "student-hours" ^ (based on the scholastic 
weight which obtains there, i.e., two laboratory hours equal to one recitation hour, 
etc.) in each course, and once a year, as a part of the dean's report, he makes an in- 

*This term as used here has not the same meaning as the student-hour explained on pase 19. 



50 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

teresting statement showing the relative amount of work taken in each department. 
This report is framed in such a way as to make the figures easily comparable with 
those of previous years. This work might be made a part of the duties of the registrar. 

In the hands of the registrar might be placed the question of the economical use 
of buildings. And if he is to use the buildings to advantage, in his hands will prob- 
ably be left the greater part of the planning as to the hours of the day when courses 
are to be given. Here is certainly large room for improvement. I found at Williams 
an instructor putting in three hours a week extra in the laboratory on account of 
one student who otherwise would have been unable to take the course. The conditions 
seemed to indicate that a minimum of interdepartmental planning and cooperation 
would have avoided this. 

Under the elective system the necessity for a scientific and detailed study of this 
whole matter of hours is becoming every day more noticeable. Apparently much may 
be done to minimize the more or less foolish considerations on which electives are 
chosen. Everywhere, with one exception, it was admitted that courses are so chosen. 
A course in which the exercises occur in the middle of the afternoon or the first 
hour on Monday morning is very unpopular with the students. Many courses are 
popular because it is the custom to take them, or because they are considered easy 
— called "snap courses;" still others, because they have just the number of hours to 
fill out a required schedule. There are other reasons of the same general character. 
I am sure that without changing human nature these various considerations could 
be largely eliminated in the choosing of courses. One plan suggested is to have a re- 
quired course of lectures to the second term freshmen, in which the various possible 
careers would be outlined. The strong and weak points of a doctor's or lawyer''s career, 
of an engineering or business vocation, etc., could be discussed in these lectures, and 
the application of the various courses offered to each of these lines of activity pointed 
out. As a result of this and other measures, and without in any way curtailing the 
elective principle, the students would be led to map out their courses more con- 
sistently, and if so mapped out, the courses could be more easily handled. 

Bureau of Inspection 
In most lines of human endeavor there has been experienced the necessity for a 
branch of the service which shall have to do with passing on the quality of the work. 
And I believe that in the colleges we must have a similar inspecting agency. At 
one place I found a departmental inspection service in force. It was crude, and I do 
not think it was recognized exactly as an inspection service. But it was the policy of 
the professor in charge to arrange to visit the various sections in his department and 
to remain throughout the hour period. He used this means of keeping himself informed 
concerning the class-room methods of the men in the department and to be in a 
position intelligently to suggest improvements. There are few men, however, who 
are endowed with the force and energy necessary to maintain a system of this kind 



FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES 51 

in the face of the natural obstacles. This is not one of the things expected of a pro- 
fessor in charge of a department, and naturally it will be one of tlie first to be sacri- 
ficed under pressure of other and seemingly more important duties. 

To be done well, the inspection .service should be a specially designed agency. I 
think it would be comparatively easy to train one or more men to be specially 
helpful to their associates in teaching methods. 1 am sure that if such asvstem were 
in force, it would bring to tiie attention of those in authority — before they had a 
chance to do much harm — conditions which ordinarily run throughout the school 
year and thus do large damage. Such a bureau as this would quickly develop special 
means of scenting sources of trouble and inefficiency. If the records as to absences 
and class-room discipline were to be filed with the bureau of inspection, one good 
danger signal would be afforded. 

It is not impossible that the work of a bureau of inspection may suggest the neces- 
sity of an agency — especially in the larger institutions — for training teachers. At the 
present time most assistants are recent graduates without either the teaching, train- 
ing or experience with the world which might help them in their relations with 
students. One would think that if in the industrial world it is considered essential 
to give a man some drill before he is allowed to sell books or a cash register, con- 
siderable good might be anticipated from a little coaching in class-room methods. 
Every one who has attended college knows some of the things not to do. Perhaps, 
if these could be grouped and a few affirmations added, it would make the basis of 
a profitable course for those beginning collegiate teaching. 

In the same way, it might be a part of the duty of this bureau to keep correlated 
the record — scholastic and otherwise — of each individual scholar for the purpose of 
providing special treatment for those who require it. Under existing conditions there 
does not appear to be enough effort to group all the available information about 
the progress of any student. Teachers in any one department may know what a given 
student is doing for them, but to find out what he is doing elsewhere is attended by 
so many difficulties that the effort is made only in extreme cases, and then only after 
the student has been long in trouble. 

It seems to me that every institution visited was holding off from establishing 
this kind of individual relations with the students for fear of the expense involved. 
The argument seemed to be that to do this work effectively would at the beginning 
require a large corps of preceptors. I believe that, with some scheme of getting quick 
returns on the character of work being done by each individual student in the va- 
rious departments, even a few preceptors, representing the bureau of inspection, and 
following up intelligently the students furthest in arrears, would bring up the char- 
acter of work done by the whole student body. In the industrial world it is being 
found out that rewards and disciplinary measures must follow quickly the act for 
which they are meted out if they are to have the maximum effect. Therefore I believe 
that it will pay in the college world not to permit all the pressure on students to 



62 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

be piled up at the end of the term, when it is frequently too late to be of any avail. 

In an industrial enterprise the inspector has little to do when things are going 
smoothly, but he is indispensable nevertheless. And when things are going wrong 
everybody is delighted to have a specialist around. And it usually happens that the 
amount of spoiled work is at a minimum in those establishments which have the best 
ordered inspection corps. 

It may turn out that ultimately the matter of examinations will be handled by 
an agency outside of the department. Should the college world work around to the 
idea that a high percentage of failures is as apt to be the fault of the teachers (and 
those employed to look after the students outside of lectures, recitations and labora- 
tories) as of the student body, it may be well to divorce the teaching and examining 
functions. It is axiomatic in the industrial world that inspection, to amount to any- 
thing, must be performed by some one else than the person who did the work. The 
college men are awake to the advantages of such a system, but they feel that the dis- 
advantages would far outweigh them. They believe that teaching would develop into 
a system of coaching to pass examinations, if one arm of the service examined and 
another taught. It is not clear to the layman why sufficient safeguards could not be 
thrown around both teaching and examining methods to invalidate this argument. 
Nevertheless it is held by most of those with whom I talked about it that this is 
the relation now existing between preparatory school teaching and college entrance 
examinations. 

Other functions than those suggested may well be developed for such a bureau of 
inspection. For instance, such a bureau might make a specialty of studying the fail- 
ures and classifying the causes. It is hardly possible that any systematic study of 
such data would not lead to material changes in our scholastic methods. In the 
records and lists of our highly organized alumni associations there is afforded a 
mass of valuable data which should be studied by some one with care. If a given 
school is seeking to turn out well-trained mechanical engineers and has hundreds of 
her sons already in the field, every efibrt should be made to use them as an agency 
by which the future product can be constantly improved. The manufacturers of one 
of the best known typesetting machines follow every individual machine from the 
time it is sold until it is "scrapped." A running record of its break -downs and its 
performance is kept. This is not done for the sake of the machine, but because only 
in this way can the future machines be made so that they will not be subject to the 
same faults. 

In an industrial establishment the inspectors are just as much interested in the 
raw material as they are in the finished product. It is largely on the suggestion 
of the inspectors that the purchasing department keeps changing its specifications so 
that the materials purchased more and more fully meet the uses for which they are 
required. In the same way it will be the function of our collegiate bureau of inspec- 
tion to study the raw material — the students coming in from the secondary schools 



FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES 53 

— and to suggest the lines along which it might be improved. The president of a 
western university recently told me that there was no difficulty in getting his stu- 
dents to work — if anything, they worked too hard. He pointed out other weak- 
nesses, which, considering them as raw material, they certainly possessed. He had 
instituted far-reaching and far-sighted steps in order to correct these faults. At 
another institution visited, it was reported to me that necessary increase in the 
amount of work demanded of the students had been instituted with the utmost dif- 
ficulty. Each slight raise in standard had been attended by a large increase in the 
number of students dropping out. The preparation of this raw material evidently had 
not left a sufficient margin of safety. So it would appear that there is room for in- 
telligently and properly organized inspection both of the college's finished product 
and of its raw material. 

As standards are adopted among the colleges, it is going to be more and more 
necessary to have in each college an agency whose special function it will be to see 
that such standards are in force thereo This is another duty which might be assigned 
to the bureau of inspection. 



FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 

The position that I have taken in going over these institutions is that they exist 
primarily for their teaching departments, such as the department of astronomy, the 
department of Greek, the department of economics, etc. I use this term department 
as it would be used in an industrial sense and without regard to its personnel or the 
quarters it occupies. Here the word teaching comprehends all the work done by the 
departmental staff, whether in direct instruction or in research. Broadly speaking, 
the teaching departments in a college or university are the equivalent of the manu- 
facturing departments in an industrial enterprise. To each one should be charged up 
its own direct expense and its proportionate share of all the overhead expenses. On 
this plan the total annual expense of the institution should be divided eventually 
among the teaching departments. Only in this way can there be secured the total 
cost of teaching in any department and this cost in turn compared with the product. 

There are a number of different items which together constitute the total expense 
of teaching in any one department. For instance, in nearly every institution the salary 
item for each department is considered by itself even if it does not so appear on the 
books. Whenever additional salary is wanted in a department, it is the routine pro- 
cedure to inquire first what is the present salary list. Expenditure for equipment 
and supplies is another item of the total expense that is usually isolated for each 
department and watched pretty closely. In most institutions, before expenditures 
under this head are made, there must have been an appropriation to cover the 
amount of it. At Wisconsin I found a complete budget system. The expenditures for 
salaries, equipment and supplies, etc., for each department, were determined in ad- 
vance by means of a budget, and efficient safeguards were erected to prevent the ex- 
penditures going beyond these predetermined figures. But even at this institution 
only a part of the items of expense were so segregated, department by department. 
No substantial progress will be made in controlling the expense of university work 
until the whole expense is definitely known, and this expense is divided with fair 
accuracy among the several departments. The educator can then adopt some measure 
for the output of each department — crude, though, at the start such measure will 
doubtless be — and he will know the approximate amount the product is costing, and 
why. As soon as a system of this kind is adopted, the beginnings will have been made 
of installing efficiency as the test in college management. 

Included in the idea that a university is operated for its teaching departments is 
the corollary that such features of the general collegiate life as the library, the chapel 
and the gymnasium are operated only because they assist in the teaching work. Every 
item of expense involved in maintaining each one should be charged up against it, 
and against this charge should be set off the current revenue which it brings in, in 
order to secure the net expense of operation. It is suggested that all overhead ex- 
penses be pro-rated to the various teaching departments in the proportion of their 



FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 55 

teaching salaries. This will be following the industrial practice of charging overhead 
expenses to the various manufacturing departments in proportion to the wages paid 
in those departments. 

The dormitories under usual conditions will be in a different class from the library 
and gymnasium, because as ordinarily operated they are considered as investments, 
and therefore revenue producers. There may be conditions under which this viewpoint 
will have to be modified somewhat, but generally speaking, a universitv or college 
owning dormitories should operate them so as to be able to determine at the end 
of the year the net income from them. There will then be only in very rare cases 
anv charge against teaching on account of the dormitories; even when thev may 
not be run so as to earn a high — or in fact any — rate of interest on the investment, 
they will at least pay operating expenses. When there is any excess of expense over 
revenue on their account, however, it should be a charge against the teaching depart- 
ments. Such a charge is more likely to occur in the case of the college commons, 
which seems to be much more difficult to operate at a sufficiently high level in point 
of service and yet yield a profit. The amount of earnings will be, for both dormi- 
tories and commons, one important measure of their efficiency. When they are made 
to pay their own way in the matter of expense and income, other definite measures 
of efficiency covering the quality of service given will doubtless be available. 

In the same way, each of the other incidental features of university life, such as the 
library, gymnasium, etc., should be treated as an entity, the net expense of which 
should ultimately be pro-rated among the teaching departments. For each such 
feature some means should be provided for measuring its product. In the case of a 
library, for instance, arrangements could be made for securing a tally on the num- 
ber of persons using the library, the number of books called for, the number of 
books bought, etc. Some index should be provided to measure every line of the library's 
activity. The time seems to have gone by when we can afford to maintain features 
which are not definitely useful and in which their usefulness does not bear the proper 
relation to their expense. If we know the total cost of each, and then make some 
effort to measure the product, it will be possible to decide whether the product 
seems to warrant the expense. If every university would do this, each could decide, 
by a comparison with the experience of the others, how efficiently its own depart- 
ments are being operated. It is desirable to have a library, but we want to be sure 
that a library which is costing ten times what another costs is doing "work" in 
proportion. 

It may be well to repeat here something I said earlier in this report; otherwise, 
the cry of Philistinism may be raised. The old idea was that a universitv was made 
up of so many departments, i.e., a library, a chapel, a Greek department, and one 
covering natural science, for instance. The existence of any one of these departments 
was in no way contingent on its measure of usefulness. The thought of abandoning 
such a department or curtailing its expenditures beyond a certain point was unthink- 



56 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

able. In our American colleges this is apparently no longer true. Everywhere I went 
I found the question of functional efficiency being raised among the responsible 
heads of the institutions and the departments. Men are anxiously seeking the ways 
and means of measuring the "usefulness" of this and that line of endeavor or ex- 
pense. But coupled with this, in most cases, there is a desire to interpret "useful- 
ness" in that broad sense which puts a true value on those more or less intangible 
elements in college life which tend toward the development of the things of the 
spirit. I cannot impress sufficiently upon those who may be tempted to raise the cry 
of Philistinism, that while a practical attitude has to be taken in reviewing each 
activity herein studied, it is not at all with the idea of attaining simply a commer- 
cial type of economy that suggestions as to changes are made. In the last analysis 
the "usefulness" of a university is the measure of its mental, moral and spiritual 
product — and product interpreted as broadly as you please. But it is only logical 
to analyze carefully all the different activities which are supposed to work individu- 
ally and collectively toward this end, if we are to judge intelligently of how ade- 
quately the mission is being fulfilled in comparison with the time, effiart and money 
expended thereon. And the ultimate object of such study is not to condemn or even 
to criticise, but to build up such an array of facts and figures, and such deductions 
therefrom, as may help not only toward maintaining, but toward increasing that 
very atmosphere and spirit which are admittedly so essential to the true college 
and university life. Surely ardent idealists will not contend that the fullest influence 
of a university is made impossible by a thorough understanding of each of the prac- 
tical problems involved. 

Under this interpretation a library may "pay" if only half a dozen students enter 
each day. Its principal function may be to house books which for the most part are 
not in frequent demand. It may have no reading-room function to perform. But 
whatever its function, there certainly can be no harm in defining it as closely as 
possible and then attempting to say how well it fulfils this function. In the same 
way, it may be held that a given university must be prepared to teach a certain 
dead language even if there are no students who wish to study it. This would be 
consistent with our idea of university efficiency and usefulness. In other words, a 
policy which would maintain a Sanskrit department over a given period of time, in 
the absence of students, might "pay" in a university sense. One would expect the 
cost per student-hour in such departments to be very high, but surely we ought to 
know how high it is. It will "pay" the university and the world to protect some 
branches of learning in the face of extreme indifference on the part of the student body. 

The policy of charging to each department its share of the expenses of the non- 
teaching features will make everybody connected with the institution interested in 
its management. If, in a certain sense, they are helping to pay the bills, the depart- 
ments through their representatives will be more watchful of the methods under 
which the money is spent. 



FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 57 

It would seem best to charge all the expenses of a building up to the building, 
and then twice a year (i.e., once a term) pro-rate this expense against the depart- 
ments using the building in the proportion in which they use it. The adoption of 
this policy will result in there being many rooms not claimed by or occupied by any 
department. The expense of this space should be pro-rated against all the depart- 
ments. This in turn will have the effect of getting the cooperation of everybody in 
keeping this amount of unused space as low as possible. The keeping of the expense 
of maintaining and operating a building separate will mean that such items as gas, 
water, electricity, etc., will generally have to be metered for each building. This is done 
now at some of the universities. Where there is a central heating plant, the charges 
will be on the basis of so much a square foot for those parts of the building in use. 

Administrative expenses, such as the salary of a president who does no teaching, 
will also be pro-rated among the departments. But many so-called administrative 
expenses can be immediately charged direct to a department. For instance, at Harvard 
University the expense of printing the catalogue is now largely charged direct to the 
departments in proportion to the number of pages occupied. This has the effect of 
making the departments take more interest in the matter which goes into the catalogue. 

In my opinion^ nothing can be done which will have a greater or more immediate 
effect in minimizing departmental autonomy than keeping a close watch on departmental 
expenses. It will quickly establish the fact that everywhere there must be some relation 
between expense and the amount of work done. It will xoeaken the hold of the departments 
on their buildings, and will make everyone interested as they never have been before 
in the overhead expenses of the plant. And at most institutions this can be done by the 
present accounting staff at no increase in cost. 

It would appear that if expenses are to be segregated in this way, department by 
department, earnings should be handled in the same way. In other words, tuition 
fees should be pro-rated to the various departments in proportion to the amount of 
tuition furnished. In the same way, if special fees are charged, as is sometimes the 
case in laboratory work, the department receiving them should be given credit for 
this amount of "earnings." In this way the gross and net expenses of each depart- 
ment can be figured out. If this is done, it will probably result in a material read- 
justment of the scale of charges now in force. At the present time no effort is made 
to show from time to time the amount of fees " earned" in the different departments. 
In some cases, the fact that a department does earn fees is given as the excuse for 
being more liberal with it in the matter of appropriations. But as a general thing 
the fees in bulk are considered as one form of revenue. It would seem as if they 
should be made to stand clear of interest on endowment funds or gifts. 

A statement of receipts and expenses, department by department, based on the 
foregoing, would be, as far as the writer was able to ascertain, a new departure. 
That it would be of large value in interdepartmental and intercollegiate compari- 
sons seems certain. 



58 



ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 



The statement of gross expenses, department by department, would be of much 
greater use if the registrar's records could be kept in such a way as to show the num- 
ber of student-hours per year in each department. If all registration for courses were 
made at the registrar's office (as is now done at some institutions), and his records 
were designed for the purpose, these data could be obtained with little extra labor. 

Given the number of student-hours in every department and the total cost of 
operating every department, the cost per student-hour in each department can be 
ascertained. These costs will be in such shape that they can be analyzed. The total 
cost per student-hour can be subdivided into as many parts as necessary in order to 
discover the reasons for interesting variations. (See Table 10, Part 2.) In the best of 
the cost analysis tables now being furnished at the colleges it is impossible to find 
out, except in the broadest way, the reasons for the variations in cost. 

Observe, for instance, this table from the Report of the Treasurer of Yale Uni- 
versity for the year ending June 30, 1908, as given in Science for May 14, 1909: 

Expenditure and Receipts per Student in Various Departments of 
Yale University, for the Year 1907-8 

„ . Receipts 
Katio „ 

hxpense 

'25.2 per cent 

44.8 per cent 
57.3 per cent 
00.0 per cent 
69.3 per cent 

32.9 per cent 
21.9 per cent 
52.1 per cent 
25.3 per cent 
44.9 per cent 

The units used here are all too large. They include too many variables to give 
helpful data. An expense analysis on the basis of student-hours removes the large 
cause of variation brought about by the different numbers of hours in different 
courses, and makes it possible to separate those items of expense which should be 
the same for all departments from those which would necessarily vary in the differ- 
ent departments. 

Among the hospitals the unit in figuring costs in general use is the patient-day. 
This cost of keeping one patient one day is in turn divided up into such items 
as food, nursing, medicines, etc. This makes it possible to compare profitably the 
expense of keeping a patient in one of the free wards with the expense of keeping 
another patient in a pay ward. Some of the items of such expense are exactly the 
same in each case, while others, such as nursing and food, may be quite different in 
the two cases. 



Department 


No. of 
students 


Expense 
per student 


Receipts 
per student 


Graduate 


357 


$159.45 


$ 40.17 


Academic 


1315 


339.56 


152.27 


SheflBeld Scientific 


948 


279.66 


160.25 


Theology 


80 


641.03 




Law 


339 


177.14 


122.86 


Medicine 


137 


396.90 


130.22 


Art 


39 


315.02 


69.25 


Music 


83 


268.99 


140.12 


Forestry 


61 


469.39 


119.17 


All Departments 


3359 


296.85 


113.25 



FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 59 

It is probable that after such a method of keepin<r costs has been in effect for a 
time, there will be established for each of the great departments, such as languages, 
law, music, engineering, etc., an average expense per student-hour. It will then be 
possible for each institution to decide how much above this average expense it mav, 
on account of peculiar local conditions, be warranted in going. It will undoubtedly 
follow that certain institutions will drop certain lines of work which are done at too 
high a relative expense. It might easily result that two or more institutions close 
together, and each offering, sparsely attended, special courses with high student-hour 
expenses, would agree to distribute the work in such a way that any one institution 
would do only a part of it. 

After an adequate classification of accounts has been prepared, the actual book- 
keeping involved will be simple. Many of the charges will have to be made only 
twice a year. In fact, it will be easy to keep for each department separate expenses 
on each of the courses given. Hardly anyone will deny that data of this kind would 
be of great assistance. On Tables 9 and 10, Part 2, I have given specimens of re- 
ports on teaching and expenses in the form in which I think it will pay to publish 
them in the annual reports. 

After these records have been kept for some time, it will probably be possible for 
each university to appoint any departmental staff on the basis of the number of 
student-hours. As has been pointed out by the Foundation, with $15,000 or 820,000 
to put into salaries in a given department, it is hard to decide how many teachers 
of each salary grade it is best to employ. It may be possible, with student-hours as 
a basis, to say, for instance, that in a department giving annually 85,000 student- 
hours in physics, the department is entitled to one professor at $5000, two assistant 
professors at $3000 each, four instructors at $1500 to $1800 each, and six assistants 
at $500 to $800 each. 

It may also be suggested that the student-hour might be used as the basis on which 
to differentiate institutions calling themselves universities and colleges. It will be pos- 
sible, after each department and each course in each department is put on the basis 
of student-hours, to classify institutions according to the number of student-hours 
given to subjects respectively of college and of high school grade. By this method, 
a so-called college with thousands of students studying bookkeeping and arithmetic 
would not be placed in the college class. 

Under this plan there would be afforded a special incentive for preserving a rea- 
sonable relation between the number of courses offered in the catalogue and the 
number of students registered for each course. A wide offering of courses would not 
in itself entitle an institution to college or to university standing. 

This matter of costs has been largely confused in collegiate accounting with the en- 
tirely different matter of the analysis of revenue. There is plenty of reason for believ- 
ing that the desire to be over-careful in the matter of accounting for funds of all kinds 
has led our collegiate financiers to overlook the question of cost. 



60 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

In the Appendix, Exhibit B, will be found certain extracts from the Report of the 
Treasui'er of Harvard University. These extracts constitute the only references in his 
report to the department of physics or to the physical laboratory. A casual reading of 
the table of receipts and payments (page 121) would indicate that the total expense 
of the physics department amounted to $8,999.93. Further study would probably 
suggest that salaries for teachers could not be included in this, especially if one hap- 
pens to know that there are thirteen teachers, and of these, four at least receive sal- 
aries of $5000 a year or more. No amount of study would show, however, that this 
department received and expended over $5000 in fees which do not appear except in 
a grand total on the treasurer's books. In fact, the more closely these "detailed" re- 
ports of the Harvard treasurer are studied, the less one would expect to find that 
the total direct expense of the department of physics amounts to over $47,000. I was 
able to locate payments amounting to this figure. But this does not include all. As 
a responsible and competent accounting authority of the institution wrote me, "There 
are very considerable expenses of research which are not reported to the treasurer, 
because they are paid from trust funds held outside of the university and also from 
private sources." 

It is undoubtedly bad practice for a university to allow moneys to be spent in any 
department when such moneys do not pass through the treasurer's books. I can find 
no analogy for this in industrial or other undertakings. I am sure, that even if such 
a thing were possible, it would be considered a menace to permit it. Could a hospital, 
for instance, long maintain its organization, with money regularly being spent in its 
various departments and not subject in any way to the general hospital control.'' 
Such moneys can be turned over to the university authorities under any desired de- 
gree of anonymity and under any number of restrictions as to their use, but in the 
long run it will be found to make for efficiency to have all such moneys follow the 
usual course and pass through the treasurer's books. 

Too much weight is everywhere given to the origin of the money used for any 
given purpose. In collegiate finance, one dollar does not seem to be quite as good 
as another dollar. In the Report of the Treasurer of Harvard University (Appendix, 
Exhibit B) is given a list of the various items of income for the physical laboratory. 
No reference is made to the matter of students' fees, which are turned over to the lab- 
oratory. This omission is not excused, but accounted for by the fact that all strictly 
departmental fees have been considered as subject to disbursement by the department 
earning them and virtually without an accounting. 

On the expenditure side of the same report, one item of nearly $3000, and two 
others of approximately $500 each, are given as the income of certain funds. There is 
no word as to what was done with these moneys; while below occurs the entry, "Sup- 
plies, sundries, $5.81." The interpretation of this appears to be that moneys which 
are left for a given purpose are not spent under the same degree of supervision as 
are moneys which can be used for one of several purposes. When moneys are voted 



FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 61 

for a given purpose out of general funds, there seems to l^e a greater desire on the 
partof those expending them to justify the appropriation by saying just what was done 
with it. Further appropriations may depend on this being done. On the other hand, 
when the moneys can be spent only for one thing, the niiiiinium of an accounting 
is forthcoming. The item of §5.81 above was spent out of moneys provided for the 
use of the laboratory out of the general funds of the university. Hence, the list of 
disbursements of which it was one was printed in detail. 

The total revenue at the disposal of this laboratory was made up (1) of interest 
on funds which had been left for its specific and exclusive use ; (2) of fees from stu- 
dents in the department; and (3) of moneys voted from the general funds of the 
institution. The fees were ignored in all the printed reports of the financial ojiera- 
tions of the laboratory ; the amount, but not the disposition, of the income of trust 
funds was given; and of the moneys voted out of the general funds, only a relatively 
small part is mentioned in the tables, but the disposition of this part is given in 
great detail. Considering the omissions, this is only misleading. 

This report is picked out for illustrative purposes, not because it is unique among 
collegiate financial reports, but because it illustrates some of the weak, points in 
most of them. 

It would appear to be bad practice to allow the departments to make any differ- 
ence as between moneys. The origin of money may have a place in the budget, but 
from that point on it would appear that one dollar should be disbursed under the 
same amount of supervision as any other. Surely, if any difference is to be made, it 
would be to throw every safeguard around that which has been made available by 
the generosity of some friend of the institution perhaps long since passed away. The 
present system does not do this. Under this system, the more careful a benefactor 
may have been to specify the use to which his money was to be devoted, the greater 
the opportunity for a portion of it to be spent without results. 

The departments should be made to develop the probable profitableness of a given 
appropriation, where there is a specific fund to be used for a specific purpose, in just 
the same way as they now have to do when there is no such fund. It might easily 
occur that in any given year it might not be wise to make any expenditure from 
such an income. The feeling seems too prevalent that the interest on money left for 
a given purpose must be spent as it accrues, rather than that it should be spent 
along the lines stipulated by the donor but reserved to a time when it can be done 
with efficiency. 

The expense statements should not be mixed up with the income reports. The analy- 
sis of revenue can be better accomplished by publishing in the reports and tables 
many of the details which are now omitted. The importance of an income statement, 
with the fullest possible analysis of the sources of revenue, to those operating these 
institutions, is recognized, but it should not be confused with other things. This 
combining of income and expense statements is done in such a w ay at times as to 



62 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

be positively misleading, without, of course, any desire to produce this effect being 
present. 

As a general rule, I believe it will be found inexpedient to have any financial 
transactions between departments, or between individuals in a department, or between 
a department and an interest outside the institution, without having such trans- 
actions conducted under the instructions of the treasurer or other financial authority. 
I believe such a rule is not now generally observed. For instance, I found one man 
carried on the roll of Columbia University as a teacher, and reported to the Founda- 
tion as having duties, but as receiving no salary. He is taking "half the duties" of one 
of the other members of the staff, because the latter is devoting much of his time to 
commercial experimentations. For this he is paid directly by the man he is relieving 
one-half the salary the latter receives. The authorities are fully aware of the arrange- 
ment, of course. But it is of a class of "understandings" which are considered dan- 
gerous in business. 

Everybody interviewed claimed that the frequent publication of the names of 
donors was profitable. The special value of large type, in printing these names, used by 
Harvard was pointed out. If this is true, there would appear to be many improve- 
ments that might be brought about in presenting the matters in connection with 
these funds in a way more intelligible to the ordinary reader of college reports, and 
therefore in a way better designed to encourage further donations. 

There is the greatest difference in the matter of computing the income on trust 
funds. At Harvard, for instance, broadly speaking, all moneys given the institution 
for any purpose are invested according to the best light at the time the investment 
is made. No effort is made to keep this particular investment separate from the 
others. The amount of it, of course, is recorded, and at the end of each year the in- 
come on it is figured at the average interest on all invested funds. If this income is 
not all used, the amount of the principal is increased by the amount of the surplus. 
This would appear to be one good method of handlinga large number of separate funds. 

At Princeton University every effort is made to keep every gift and bequest ab- 
solutely separate from every other. Thus, if A gives $1000, the interest on which is 
to be used for botanical research, a bond may be bought for $995. The interest on 
this bond will each year be used for the purpose mentioned. The remaining five dol- 
lars will be deposited in a separate account in bank, and twice a year interest will 
be computed on it, not at any general rate for all similar funds, bul at the partic- 
ular rate obtaining on the account where deposited. This interest thus being added 
to the five dollars twice a year will be allowed to accumulate until the amount in 
hand is enough to buy a share of stock or some other separate asset. Under no cir- 
cumstances are two or more funds pooled and their joint interest divided in propor- 
tion to their respective interests. Between these two extremes in method there are 
doubtless many others. Surely this is a matter where there should be some standard 
practice which all could follow to advantage. 



FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 63 

Any plan adopted must necessarily start in with the assumption that the wishes 
of a testator will in every case be absolutely respected. But it seems likely, if a com- 
mon sense plan were adopted and generally known, that those giving money would as 
a rule prefer to give it so that it could be handled as other funds are handled rather 
than on some exceptional basis. 

Nearly all college financial reports give too many details and too little informa- 
tion. For instance, the reports of all the state institutions practically list the indi- 
vidual vouchers. This may have a value in preventing suspicion of corruption, but 
unless amplified by further statements showing the operations of the university in 
larger amounts, it has little accounting value. Perhaps the weakest point in these 
financial publications is that the makers of them seem to think that the publication 
of a large number of details taken off the books makes up for the lack of those larger 
statements such as one finds, for instance, in the reports of railroad companies. 
There are many classes of entries which must have a place in bookkeeping, but which 
have no proper place in financial statements. They not only do not elucidate the 
tables and reports ; they have positively a bad effect in that they make it, as in the 
Treasurer's Report of Harvard University, almost impossible to understand any- 
thing w^ithout a more intimate knowledge of local conditions, which it should not 
be necessary to have in order to interpret annual reports. 

There are a number of matters connected with accounting which could be stand- 
ardized by some association of educational institutions better than by the individual 
colleges themselves. The viewpoint and conditions at any one college as to some 
matters are necessarily too limited to make it possible to frame a procedure under 
which all can act. In the matter of the valuation of lands for the purposes of the 
balance sheet, Princeton might adopt what would seem to be an excellent plan for her, 
but it would have no significance for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Yet 
if one is to be able to compare their balance sheets intelligently, the rule under 
which each should work should be broad enough to include both. I think that the 
absence of such a standardized practice is one of the reasons why these institutions 
have avoided balance sheets. 

Again, each school defines " repairs" and " construction " according to its own light, 
and the definition is largely an accident. This is a vital matter because on this defi- 
nition depends whether a given expenditure shall be considered as adding to the 
current expenses of a given year, or whether it shall increase the monetary value of 
the plant. A good rule seems to be : " Money paid out should not be reckoned as 
an asset. If paid for property that is on hand, the property is an asset. If expended 
in a way that has enhanced the value of the general assets, it is included in the gen- 
eral valuation. If so expended as to have brought no property and no enhancement 
of that on hand, then it is a loss, and should not be counted as an asset" (79 Iowa 
Reports, 678). 

Partly on account of collateral considerations, I think it will pay the universities to 



64 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

carry their buildings and grounds on balance sheets at their "true values" as nearly 
as these can be determined. It is necessary to set this value on most buildings for 
insurance purposes. It will probably not be found necessary to change these valua- 
tions more often than, say, once every five years. In the meantime, only specific charges 
for new constructions would be made. If the grounds and buildings are so carried, the 
methods of valuation and the periods for revaluation should be definitely determined 
and not left to chance. 

In the early days of accounting its function was largely " that of keeping account 
of claims and property in order to secure the concern against the loss which might 
arise from forgetfulness, carelessness or dishonesty. This phase of accounting attains 
its acme in governmental accounting, where the essential thing is to insure the proper 
handling of vast sums."^ And this is the function of accounting which up to the pres- 
ent has almost exclusively interested our college accountants. But in the industrial 
world this has long since become the least important function of accounting. The 
real essence of accounting is found in its ability to give a correct and complete ex- 
hibit of the financial status of the concern at any given moment of time by means 
of a proper balance sheet; and secondly, a showing of results obtained during any 
given period of time by means of (1) income, (2) receipts and expenditures, and (3) cost 
statements. The colleges are only beginning to develop this function of accounting. 



^Modern Accounting, by H. R. Harfleld, Appleton, 1909. 



PHYSICS DEPARTMENTAL ADMINISTRATION 

In the physics department, as I suppose in all other departments, there are ques- 
tions of administration which are peculiar to it. In the handlinf; of apparatus, for 
instance, there is the largest opportunity for waste. Some universities seem, more or 
less unconsciously perhaps, to hold apparatus long after it has ceased to have any 
pedagogical or research value. It is a constant source of expense, both in taking up 
room and in requiring a certain amount of care. The proper policy here would seem 
to be so different from the current practice as to be out of the question until the va- 
rious laboratories have passed through a period in which they will have at least 
made the attempt to have proper storerooms and house their apparatus in such a way 
that it lends itself to easy inventory and proper maintenance. 

As some of the functions now exercised by individual departments are taken over 
by the university management, it is possible that the museums and the maintenance 
of apparatus will come under one head. If, as seems likely, more attention is going 
to be paid to the care of such apparatus, some central management is going to be 
necessary; and I should think that the professors would welcome it. The idea that 
nobody but a professor of physics can inventory a piece of physical apparatus, or that 
nobody but a specially trained physics laboratory attendant can dust a microscope or 
oil a tuning-fork will then be dispelled. In some places a great deal of time seems to 
be lost in the matter of mixing apparatus used for lecture pui'poses and for labora- 
tory work. I think this is more apt to occur in those institutions where undergradu- 
ates are put on research work of their own, i.e., where individual students require 
apparatus not used by other men. It would seem to be a good practice to have one 
set of apparatus for lectures and another for undergraduate laboratory work, and 
that it all should be kept in a high state of repair, and be disposed of as soon as it 
becomes obsolete. There is a theory that no apparatus should ever be thrown away, 
that it always has a "junk value" for rigging up new machines, etc. I believe there 
is nothing in industrial practice that would warrant this assumption. 

In some places it seems to be considered necessary to have an apparatus room 
immediately adjacent to the lecture room where the apparatus is generally used. I 
would question this practice, because the apparatus is as a rule used only once a 
year, and the number of pieces required for any one lecture is small. It would seem 
better to carry this up a couple of flights, in the absence of an elevator, rather than 
to make thousands of students during the course of a year walk these extra flights 
in order to get to a recitation room. 

In almost every place I visited there was more or less expensive apparatus bought for 
research work without prospect of further use at the university where it was located. 
If some such organization as the Carnegie Institution or the American Physical So- 
ciety could keep an inventory of the larger items of physics apparatus at the dif- 
ferent universities, it might result in some borrowing, and in students of one uni- 



66 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

versity going to another to carry on some particular piece of research. I saw one 
machine tool, for instance, that cost $2000, which I was informed would not be 
used again at the university where it was stored because the particular piece of 
research for which it had been bought was concluded. 

It has already been suggested that a further development may be expected in the 
matter of laboratory attendance. Along just what lines this development will take 
place it is impossible to say, but there is no doubt that many expensive, highly com- 
petent men are now spending too much of their time doing things that might be 
done for them (perhaps even better than by themselves) by low-priced laboratory 
assistants. 

Too much importance cannot be given, I think, to the order which obtained 
throughout the laboratory at the University of Toronto. I never have seen an indus- 
trial or commercial plant of any kind maintained in as good style. The floors were 
clear, and in every instance the tables showed that the man who had last worked at 
them had made the condition in which he left them a matter of some thought. The 
apparatus, as it was placed in the cabinets, was put away in such a manner in the 
assigned places that any one familiar with the system could locate it. Especially I 
want to call attention to the condition of the research rooms in this laboratory. At 
every other place they were not conducted in such a way as to give the largest mea- 
sure of efficiency, judged from an industrial standpoint. There is a tradition that 
Rayleigh, Kelvin, and some other distinguished physicists do good work under con- 
ditions of the utmost disorder; and without, of course, attempting to imitate them, 
there seemed to be a feeling that good work was not inconsistent with disorder. The 
research rooms at the University of Toronto could not have been kept in better 
order, and an inquiry made at every place I went indicated that the scientific results 
of the work done in this laboratory were of a superior character. 

The matter of operating the library in the physics building again shows the wid- 
est difference in practice. At two places the library of the physics department had 
no connection with the library of the university. At another there was a separate 
physics library maintained, which was supplemented from time to time by borrow- 
ings from the central library; and at another the physics library was made up alto- 
gether of books sent over from the central library. These were replaced from time to 
time as other books were obtained, or as the courses being taught seemed to make 
other books desirable. 

In the matter of so-called inbreeding, again, there was the widest divergence. 
Most of the colleges visited, however, seemed not only to desire to have men from 
other schools, but actually had them. Among eight institutions perhaps only one, 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, might be subjected to criticism for the 
fact that of seventeen teachers in the department of physics all had been undergradu- 
ates at the institution at which they taught. Statistics in regard to this matter will 
be found on Table 2, lower section. 



PHYSICS DEPARTMENTAL ADMINISTRATION 67 

It was interesting to note the ideas of the different schools as to what they thought 
physics did for the students. Of course in this incjuiry we had in mind only those stu- 
dents who took physics simply as a part of their general education, without any idea 
either of teaching physics or of doing research work. No two colleges gave the same 
reason. There is hardly any doubt that the value of physics as a cultural study is 
not generally appreciated by the men who are teaching physics. In other words, 
they are teaching physics for physics' sake and not because of any broad application 
which physics may have to the life of the student. Perhaps the best reason that I 
obtained was that it was valuable in any broad scheme of education to have one science 
taught as an illustration of the inductive method of modern science, and that as physics 
was less dependent upon the gathei'ing of data, it afforded the best example of this. 
Another able teacher said that he considered for the average student the chief im- 
portance of physics lay in the value which attached to the precision required in mak- 
ing measurements. Another thought that it taught pupils to observe all the phe- 
nomena connected with a given event. Another thought that it absolutely failed in 
producing this result. Still another frankly admitted that he had never given the 
matter any special thought. 

Physics is undoubtedly a specialty, and I was interested to see what effort was being 
made to give it a broadening value. Here, too, I found all the extremes, from one 
institution where the professor felt that unless a person was interested in physics he did 
not care to make him so, to another where constant efforts w^ere being made not only 
to emphasize the broad cultural value of physics to the student taking the course, but 
to make the entire university feel that the department of physics was one of the 
most interesting places on the campus, and one that must be safeguarded at all haz- 
ards. In carrying out this policy at the University of Toronto, there were lectures 
given during the year on such broad questions as measurements, energy, the theory 
of matter, etc., the entire university being invited to attend. The subjects were so 
treated, of course, that one not especially familiar with physics could comprehend 
them. It might give an erroneous idea of this work if I failed to add that there was 
not an excess of this kind of lecturing. It was not done with any idea of making 
physics easy, but to give physics a standing as a cultural study which it would 
not otherwise have possessed. It would seem that if in other branches this same 
effort were made to combine with the highly specialized treatment the expression 
of a broad application, learning as such would be much better understood in the 
community. 



STUDENT ADMINISTRATION 

On a recent visit to Columbia University, not connected with this investigation, the 
writer saw the students gathering for a mid-day class, and was impressed with the 
fact that almost without exception they walked leisurely toward the building in which 
the class was to be held, seemed to have time for campus talks with those they met, 
and in nearly every case were smoking cigarettes. Having occasion, a few moments 
later, to enter this building, he discovered this class holding a debate under almost 
riotous conditions. The debate was one I had frequently participated in fifteen years 
before when at college, and it was over the question as to whether it was etiquette 
to wait five or fifteen minutes for a tardy professor. This class finally waited about 
fifteen minutes and then dismissed themselves without hearing from the professor. 
To show that this is generally a mooted question, the dean of another university 
excused himself for terminating an interview rather hastily, because, he said, his stu- 
dents felt that a college professor should be allowed only a short margin in meeting 
his classes. The point is that there should be a definite rule, understood both by the 
teaching staff and the students, as to the grace to be allowed. It is difficult to see 
why even this should be necessary. The moral effect on the student would be better 
if a professor who has a class at ten o'clock should dismiss his previous class a few 
moments before the close of the period, in order to permit him to be punctually at 
his post. It seems to the writer that a great deal will have to be done in bringing 
college boys to a realization of the necessity for a more intensive application to their 
work during that part of the college day when they are supposed to be engaged in 
serious pursuits. 

In this connection may be cited the question of absences. At one institution vis- 
ited, the students are allowed thirty so-called "cuts" a term, i.e., absences for which 
they are not required to give any excuse. This is the preparation afforded for a life 
which begins the moment college closes, where one "cut" brings a serious reprimand, 
and two will probably lose a position. At thirty cuts a term, the student would be 
entitled to two hundred and forty in a four-year course. The fact is that in many 
instances the cuts allowed are unnecessary. The dean of one college told me that 
students did not settle down to their best work until their cuts were all used up. As 
long as they had these cuts ahead of them, they seemed disconcerted. In almost every 
instance every cut allowed was used. The writer had a companionable classmate who, 
simply for the interest of making the experiment, went through a college course with- 
out absences of any kind. In any study of efficiency this question of absences certainly 
will have a place. 

Just as I have recommended that a special study must be made of increasing the 
individual efficiency of the teachers, I feel that more effort must be put into the study 
of the efficiency of the undergraduate. At the University of Toronto the professor 
in charge of the physics course told me that he was making a special effort to have 



STUDENT ADMINISTRATION 69 

the student realize that an hour of his (the student's) time was a valuable thing. He 
made it possible for the student to begin his exercises the minute that the hour struck ; 
he had everything done for liini in the way of laboratory attendance to expedite his 
work; he had provided an adding machine to perform computations not possible on 
the slide-rule, and encouraged every student to use both these mechanisms whenever 
possible. He looked upon the admirable ventilation of his building as part of a gen- 
eral plan for promoting the efficiency of the student. He told me tiiat if at a lecture 
the students began to get drowsy, he gave them a little more air than the rules called 
for and in this way kept them up to their best efficiency. With the idea of making 
the students' time as profitable as possible, this professor makes a point of the most 
extensive preparations for lectures. If by more laboratory attendants he can get the 
apparatus that is used for one experiment more quickly out of the way and another 
in its place, or if by having four or five people work on the preparation for the lec- 
ture he can accomplish a similar result, he considers it money well spent. Considering 
the great expense to which the universities are put in maintaining especially the 
undergraduate physics lecture courses, and the large number of students who attend 
them, it would appear to be good economy to make any outlay for attendance whereby 
a ten or twenty-five per cent gain can be accomplished in the efficiency with which 
the lecture hour is used. At some places visited, I am sure that the importance of 
the fullest preparation for lectures is not appreciated. The tendency, however, is un- 
doubtedly in the right direction. More time is constantly being given to the proper 
preparation for lectures. 

At Columbia University they have adopted the plan of trying to emphasize the 
importance of dealing with each student individually as to his progress, both mental 
and moral, rather than of dealing with the students in masses. On two occasions when 
I was interviewing full professors, students apparently in one of the earlier under- 
graduate years entered the room. In each case the professor rose from his seat and 
greeted the student in such a manner as to indicate the heartiest interest in his visit. 
The effect on the student was marked. I was afterward told that this procedure was 
a part of a definite policy in this institution, although I did not know this at the 
time the interviews took place. 

At the last college which I visited, almost the opposite of this policy was in opera- 
tion. Every time the students were mentioned there were evidences that the teachers 
had in mind the students' scholarly inferiority and waywardness. The difference in 
these two attitudes was as concrete as anything I encountered. 

At Harvard the commons was unofficially reported to me as running at a net loss of 
$100 a day. And at this rate of loss the service was not considei'ed satisfactory nor 
was it popular with the students. Steps were being taken to effect an improvement. 
At Haverford the authorities were purposely spending more for board than they 
charged and they expected to continue to do so. They felt that the similarity to a 
well-ordered home which was their endeavor at the commons was one of the most power- 



70 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

ful influences for good in the college. They had found after trial that the students 
would not pay a higher rate. Under a higher rate they gradually drifted to private 
boarding-houses where neither the service, food nor social influences were as good. At 
one of the large institutions visited they told me that the next money which was 
received would be spent on building up a college commons where the service and sur- 
rounding conditions would be made what a college dining-hall should be without 
any effort at covering cost in the charges. 

These questions of student administration are among the large and practical prob- 
lems which face college educators. While it is true that the demand for college-bred 
men is widening, — and at a rate which in the writer's opinion is underestimated by 
the college world, — it is also true that there is a general feeling among employers 
that it is wiser to employ a college graduate who has been at work for some one else 
for some time. It seems to take the average college graduate about two years to adapt 
himself to business conditions, and most employers seem willing to let some one else 
pay his wages during this period. Some of the colleges are already trying to surround 
the student with conditions more like those he will encounter when he starts on his 
life's work. 



No one can be more conscious than the writer of the magnitude of the difficulties and 
problems confronting the college world, nor more appreciative of the great measure 
of success with which they have been met. The task of pointing out in detail the 
many strong points of present conditions would have been far more grateful to one 
who is entirely in sympathy with the spiritual significance of university life than the 
study which as an engineer he has been asked to undertake. 

Unless my suggestions shall tend to assist those conducting these institutions and 
their students towards the attainment of their own highest ideals in scholarship, 
character development and culture, this study will fall short of the purpose for which 
it was undertaken, for as Dr. Eliot has said : 

"Education for efficiency must not be materialistic, prosaic or utilitarian; it must 
be idealistic, humane and passionate, or it will not win its goal." 



PART 2 



INTRODUCTION TO TABLES 

ALL the important figures used in the following tables have either the printed 
. authority or verbal approval of the respective institutions. In the smaller de- 
tails, however, I have not hesitated to make approximations and to pro-rate in ac- 
cordance with what seemed to me to be the facts. Such assumptions at times have 
been made only after the most painstaking inquiries. In order to reach the result we 
are seeking it was necessary, however, to make frequently such approximations and 
pro-ratings. Where, because of the accounting methods used at any one institution, 
the number of such approximations and pro-ratings seemed to threaten the accuracy 
of the conclusions, such conclusions were submitted to the institution concerned and 
approved by them. Throughout Part 2 I have had in mind first of all to suggest 
a method by which the colleges could introduce a cost factor into their system of 
accounting. Simply to have suggested such a method would not have been sufficient. 
So I have tried to develop out of the figures gathered a model set of reports which 
will illustrate completely the application of the method. The whole argument of 
Part 2 leads up to the dummy reports given on Tables 9 and 10. These tables indi- 
cate the general character of the returns which will be obtained should the system 
here advocated be adopted. 

This statement is made to call attention to the difference between the tables here 
printed and those which ordinarily would be the result of the audit of the books of 
eight industrial concerns. In many cases the accounting authorities of the univer- 
sities answered my questions in regard to financial administration with a good deal 
of reluctance. This latter was not because they objected to giving the information, 
but because they hesitated to send any information for possible publication which 
did not come "off the books." In every such case my informant was assured that I 
intended personally to accept the responsibility for statements made in this report. 

The effort has been to make the method of arriving at any given figure as clear 
as is consistent with the necessary limitations of the report. If all the preliminary 
figuring had been included in the report itself, or its appendices, it would not only 
have made it too bulky, but would have required a much longer time for its prepa- 
ration. The informal data sheets have been retained, and it will be possible at any 
time to give any one interested further information as to the development of any 
figure shown in the tables. To get even approximately the broad figures desired, it 
was necessary to resort to a good many expedients not recognized by accountants. 
Thus, the class-room records {i.e., the statements as to the quantity of teaching done) 
are those for the year 1908-09, while the expenses are those for 1907-08, except 
in the matter of salaries, which are taken for 1908—09. 

There is nothing in these tables which indicates the qualitative value of the teaching 
at the various institutions. The tables are almost entirely quantitative in their signi- 
ficance. On pages 4 and 5 of the introduction a method of gauging quality is suggested. 



74 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 1 

This table includes the various valuations upon which plant interest charges are 
worked out. The difficulties of ascertaining some of these valuations were explained 
in Part 1 ; and in some cases the valuations, especially the larger figures, must be 
considered as the roughest approximations. Here, as elsewhere, the figures may have 
little value as applied to individual institutions; whereas they may have considerable 
value for purposes of comparison. Thus, $12,000,000 put down as the whole value 
of the Harvard plant is only an "intelligent guess." The $6,000,000 assigned to 
Princeton has probably a larger accounting value. As used here, these figures only 
indicate that the Princeton plant is worth nearly fifty per cent of the Harvard plant; 
and this probably is not far from the facts. The same figures on the value of the other 
plants will give those who have not seen them some sort of an idea of their size. 
On lines eight and nine are given the valuations of lands and buildings held for 
joint use, and on lines ten and eleven the value of the building in which physics is 
chiefly taught and the land on which this building stands. These values are broken 
up in such a way as to indicate what a large part the land item plays. For instance, 
the land held for joint use at Haverford is worth four times the value of the build- 
ings, and for the most part is land that is so located as to be quickly marketable. I 
imagine it is held in large measure for investment purposes. It will be noted that 
the half million dollar physics building at Princeton stands on land that would be 
worth about seventy-five hundred dollars if located off* the campus, but within a 
stone-throw of where it is, while the less up-to-date building of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology stands on land assessed at nearly a million dollars.^ 

On lines fourteen, fifteen, sixteen and seventeen, I have given an idea of the way in 
which Harvard's one hundred thousand dollar physics equipment (apparatus, etc.) is 
divided up according to its use. These figures were furnished by Professor Trowbridge. 
The other institutions were unable to give these data without an unwarranted amount 
of trouble. I have inserted Harvard's figures because they will furnish a general idea 
on this important point. 

While the figures given on line nineteen are all taken from printed reports, they are 
practically valueless on account of the difference in accounting methods and a dif- 
ference in interpreting "administration expenses" at the different schools. Thus Har- 
vard's administration expenses appear lower than they really are. Harvard has a crude 
method of charging off a part of such expenses against the departments. This would 
be all right of course if it were done in such a way as to make it possible to know 
what the total administration expenses are. On the other hand Columbia does not 
appear to charge enough to its departments. This makes its administration expenses 

*The conditions under which this land is held are quite unusual. An act of the Massachusetts legislature allows 
the Institute to build on only one-third of this property. Therefore the minimum value of the land chargeable to 
this building is three times its ground area multiplied by the value per square foot. From figures furnished by the 
Institute authorities, this becomes 14,040 square feet (area of building) x 3 x $23 (value per square foot listed on 
city books) = $968,760. In the table following, this is called $900,000. 



TABLES 76 

appear heavier than they really are. The Wisconsin and Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology attitude seems more nearly right. 

The factor given on line twenty-one is the relation between physics- teaching sal- 
aries and the total teaching salaries at the institution. This is the figure that I have 
used in pro-rating overliead expenses in order to arrive at the share which should be 
assigned to physics. The amount given on line twenty as the total of instructional 
salaries at Harvard has been questioned, but the figure is one furnished me by the 
accounting authorities at Harvard. If any change should be made, it would un- 
doubtedly be in the direction of increasing it. This factor in a way illustrates the re- 
lative degree of importance assigned to physics at the various institutions; and these 
figures, with one or two exceptions, reflect the attitude towards physics which I found 
at the various institutions. Both at Toronto and Princeton, physics was apparently 
a large factor in the life of the institution. At Haverford I was informed that physics, 
in common with all sciences, had only recently been encouraged; and at Wisconsin 
physics was overshadowed by many other branches. I believe this factor, applied to 
the different departments of instruction, will be very useful in maintaining the rela- 
tive importance of each such department which the board of trustees desires it to 
maintain. It should be noted that the " absolute "" size of the department of physics 
at two institutions might be the same, while the size of each as compared with the 
whole institution could be widely different. 



Table 1 



VALUATIONS, EXPENDITURES, ETC. 







INSTITUTION 




Columbia 


Harvard 


Haverford 


Mass. 
Institute of 
Technology 


Princeton 


Toronto 


Williams 


Wisconsin 


1 


Founded 


1754 


1636 


1830 


1865 


1746 


1843 


1785 


1848 


2 


Number of terms in year 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


Number of weeks between 
opening' and closing 


37 


39 


38 


36 


38 


36 


40 




4 


Number of weeks of teaching 


30 


30 


31 


30 




27 


33 


33 


5 


Value of whole plant 


11,250,000.00 


12,000,000.00 


1,500,000.00 


3,500,000.00 


6,000,000.00 


4,500,000.00 


2,000,000.00 


5,000,000.00 


6 


Total number students in all 
departments 


3057 


3881 


160 


1462 


1314 




487 


3903 


7 


Value of those parts of plant 
held for joint use of all the de- 
partments ^ 


4,500,000.00 


2,500,000.00 


750,000.00 


300,000.00 


1,600,000.00 


750,000.00 


1,000,000.00 


1,500,000.00 


8 


Value of lands held for joint 
use 


2,000,000.00 


1,000,000.00 


600,000.00 


200,000.00 


100,000.00 


250,000.00 


80,000.00 


500,000.00 


9 


Value of buildings and equip- 
ment held for joint use 


2,500,000.00 


1,500,000.00 


150,000.00 


100,000.00 


1,500,000.00 


500,000.00 


920,000.00 


1,000,000.00 


10 


Value of building in which 
physics is chiefly taught 


274,113.67 


120,000.00 


15.000.00 


190,000.00 


540,000.00 


355,000.00 


60,000.00 


250,000.00 


11 


Value of land on which phys- 
ics building stands 


170,000.00 


75,000.00 


3,000.00 


900,000.00 


7,500.00 


53,120.00 


1,000.00 


115,776.00 


12 


Value of land and building ac- 
tually used for physics 


355,290.00 


195,000.00 


9,000.00 


671,160.00 


511,000.00 


408,120.00 


57,706.00 


146,310.00 


13 


Value of physics equipment 


40,000.00 


100,000.00 


1.100.00 


110,000.00 


45,000.00 


120,000.00 


15,000.00 


45,000.00 


14 


Value of part used for lectures 




10,000.00 














15 


Value of part used for labora- 
tory 




90,000.00 














16 


Value of part used in under- 
graduate laboratories 




15,000.00 














17 


Value of part used in research 




75,000.00 














18 


Total annual expenditures in 
all departments 


1,330,156.36 


1,880,525.27 


106,203.49 


517,762.89 


588,572.85 


613,344.55 


213,000.00 


1,091,135.37 


19 


Administrative expenses for 
institution as a whole 


258,456.12 


123,154.39 


28,252.33 


67,936.85 


172,008.99 


143,294.00 


66.151.02 


146,516.93 


20 


Total instructional salaries 


541,702.00 


577,760.00 


45,800.00 


313,077.47 


339,150.00 


262,380.04 


96.000.00 


554,119.08 


21 


Physics instructional snlnries 


.065 


.053 


.044 


.066 


.072 


.072 


.036 


.037 


Total instructional salaries 


22 




















23 




















24 




















25 





















This does not include dormitories and other productive property. 



TABLES 77 



TABLE 2 



The upper section of this table shows the number of teachers at each of the insti- 
tutions visited and how they are divided between the different grades. 

The lower section gives figures in regard to the much debated cjuestion of inbreed- 
ing. It affords a splendid illustration of the value of figures as an index to actual 
conditions. At several places Harvard was held up to me as a "horrible example"" 
of what was generally conceded to be high-class inbreeding. The figures show that 
Harvard stands about midway, and probably occupies the safest position of all in 
this matter. 

The table also shows that of the seventeen physics teachers at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology all are its own graduates. The University of Toronto almost 
equals this record, with 91 per cent of its teachers alumni of the institution. 

It would seem that either an extremely high percentage or an extremely low per- 
centage of teachers drawn from the school at which they teach is bad practice. 
There was one marked instance (perhaps two) where the department of physics 
seemed to lack solidarity on account of the large number of teachers drawn from 
other institutions. There was enthusiasm for physics, but little for the institution 
or the physics department. 

Of course this matter is one very difficult to reduce to figures, but it certainly 
would seem to be advisable to have some percentage of inbreeding which, other 
things being equal, would be considered about right. Any additions to a staff which 
caused the percentage to rise above this danger line would be more apt to be made 
advisedly. 



Table 2 



DATA CONCERNING INBREEDING OF TEACHERS OF PHYSICS 







INSTITUTION 






Columbia 


Harvard 


Haverford 


Mass. 

Institute 

Tech. 


Princeton 


Toronto 


Williams 


Wisconsin 


26 


Total Number of Teachers in Physics Staff 
These are divided by grade as follows: 


17 


12 


1 


17 


15 


11 


2 


22 


97 


27 


Professors 


4 


4 




2 


5 


2 


1 


2 


20 


28 


Associate Professors 








2 








1 


3 


29 


Assistant Professors 




2 




2 


3 






3 


10 


30 


Adjunct Professors 


3 
















3 


31 


Instructors 


3 


2 


1 


5 


2 




1 


5 


19 


32 


Demonstrators 












3 






3 


33 


Tutors 


1 
















1 


34 


Assistants 


6 


3 




6 








9 


24 


35 


Assistant Demonstrators 












3 






3 


36 


Class Assistants 












2 






2 


37 


Fellows 




1 






4 


1 




1 


7 


38 


Scholars 










1 






1 


2 


39 


Inbreeding 




















40 


Number of Members of Physics Staff without 
Training elsewhere 


1 


5 




12 


2 


9 




5 




41 


Number of Members of Physics Staff without 
Undergraduate Training elsewhere 


4 


7 


1 


17 


4 


10 




5 




42 


Number of Members of Physics Staff without 
Graduate Training elsewhere 


6 


8 




12 


9 


7 




16 




43 


Number of Members of Physics Staff with both 
Graduate and Undergraduate Training else- 
where 


7 


3 






4 




2 


4 




44 
















. 






45 


Number of Different Schools represented by 
Degrees 


19 


10 


1 


4 


15 


4 


4 


19 




46 






















47 


Percentage Entirely Home Bred 


6 


39 




70 


13 


64 




23 




48 


Without Undergraduate Training elsewhere 


23 


58 




100 


27 


91 




23 




49 


Without Graduate Training elsewhere 


35 


67 


100 


70 


60 


33 




73 




50 


With Graduate and Undergraduate Training 
elsewhere 


41 


23 






27 




100 


18 





TABLES 79 



TABLE 3 



The salary question has been so thoroughly covered by the Carnegie Foundation 
that further figures are really unnecessary. It occurred to me, however, that the synop- 
sis given on this table would be interesting in connection with other parts of the 
report. Special attention is called to the totals, by institution and by grade, given 
at the bottom of the right-hand page. In order to reduce the number of grades, I have 
taken the liberty of combining the adjunct professors found at Columbia with the 
assistant professors; the demonstrators at Toronto with instructors; and the assistant 
demonstrators with the assistants. So far as I could discern there were no differences 
in salary or duties. 



DATA CONCERNING SALARIES 



Grade 


Institution 


Name 


Salary * 


Averages 


Totals 


By 
Schools 


By 
Grade 


By 

Schools 


By 
Grade 


Professors [20] 


Columbia 


No. 1 












2 












3 












4 




4,250 




17,000 




Harvard 


5 












6 












7 












8 




5,250 




21,000 




Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 


9 












10 




3,500 




7,000 




Toronto 


11 












12 




3,150 




6,300 




Wisconsin 


13 












14 




2,850 




5,700 




Princeton 


15 












16 












17 












18 












19 




3,300 




16,500 




Williams 


20 




2,500 


3,800 


2,500 


76,000 


Associate 
Professors [3] 


Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 


21 












22 




1,900 




3,800 




Wisconsin 


23 




2,500 


2,100 


2,500 


6,300 


Assistant 
Professors 113] 
(Called Adjunct Pro- 
fessors at Columbia) 


Harvard 


24 












25 




2,500 




5,000 




Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 


26 












27 




1,600 




3,200 




Wisconsin 


28 












29 












30 




1,400 




4,200 




Princeton 


31 












32 












33 




2,000 




6,000 




Columbia 


34 












35 












36 




2,333 


1,954 


7,000 


25,400 


Instructors [22] 

(Called 

Demonstrators at 

Toronto) 


Columbia 


37 












38 












39 




1,833 




5,500 




Harvard 


40 












41 




1,400 




2,800 




Haverford 


42 




1,800 




1,800 




Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 


43 






' 






44 












45 












46 












47 




920 




4,600 




Wisconsin 


48 












49 












50 












51 












52 




960 




4,800 




William,s 


53 




1,000 




1,000 




Princeton 


54 












55 




1,000 




2,000 




Toronto 


56 












57 












58 




1,566 


1.236 


4,700 


27,200 



* Individual salaries given in the original text of the Report are omitted. 



Table 3 



OF TEACHERS OF PHYSICS 



Grade 


Institution 


Name 


Salary * 


Avei 


ages 


TotUs 


By 

fk-hdolx 


By 
frrnde 


By By 
Schools Grade 


Tutor ||| 


Cnllunhin 


No. r.!> 




1.100 


1,100 


1,100 


1,100 


Assistants [27] 

(.Called Assistant 

Demonstrators at 

Toronto) 


Columbia 


60 












01 












02 












(53 












04 












05 




500 




3.000 




Harvard 


66 












67 












08 




475 




1.425 




Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 


(i!) 












70 












71 












72 












73 












74 




500 




2,750 




Wisconsin 


75 












76 












77 












78 












79 












80 












81 












82 












83 




411 




3.700 




Toronto 


84 












85 












86 




633 


473 


1,900 


12,775 


Class Assistants [2] 


Toronto 


87 












88 




225 


225 


450 


450 


Fellows [7] 


Harvard 


89 




700 




700 




Princeton 


90 












91 












92 












93 




600 




2,400 




Toronto 


94 




500 




500 




Wisconsin 


95 




400 


571 


400 


4.000 


Scholars [i] 


Wisconsin 


96 




225 




225 




Princeton 


97 




300 


202 


300 


525 



TOTALS 


By Institution 




By Grade 


Columbia 


33.600.00 


Professors 


76,000.00 


Harvard 


30.925.00 


Associate Professors 


6.300.00 


Haver ford 


1.800.00 


Assistant Professors 


25.400.00 


Massachusetts Technology 


21,350.00 


Instructors 


27.200.00 


Princeton 


27,200.00 


Assistants 


12.775.00 


Toronto 


13.850.00 


Fellows 


4.000.00 


Williams 


3,500.00 


Scholars 


525.00 


Wisconsin 


21,525.00 


Tutors. Lecturers and Class 
Assistants 


1.500.00 


Total 


153,750.00 


Total 


153,750.00 



* Individual salaries given in the original text of the Kcport are omitted. 



82 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 3a 

This is a table of percentages, showing the relative amounts of money which are 
paid to the different teaching grades. Elsewhere in the report I have shown that in 
these eight departments of physics forty-five per cent of the whole expense connected 
with teaching physics goes into instructional salaries, hence it is an item which should 
receive considerable attention. This table shows that there is the greatest variety of 
practice in the matter of the relative amounts of money which go to different grades. 
For instance, at Harvard, eighty-four per cent of all instructional salaries in physics 
goes to teachers above the instructor's grade; whereas at Toronto, less than thirty- 
eight per cent only is paid to those above the instructor's grade. I cannot help but 
feel that this low figure at Toronto is in large measure made possible by the begin- 
nings which have been made in a functional system of management. The Harvard fig- 
ure certainly bears out the oft-repeated statement that at this institution the lion's 
share of the salaries goes to those who have been a long time in the service of the 
institution. 



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84 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 4 

These figures are summaries of the individual reports made by the teachers falling 
in the four principal grades of professor, assistant professor, insti-uctor, and assistant. 
In the Appendix, Exhibit C, is given a sample of the report form and the instructions 
under which it was filled out by these teachers. The reports themselves, as filled out by 
the various teachers, have been filed with the Carnegie Foundation. In many instances, 
these summaries are the joint product of the report as made out by the teacher and 
information secured by the writer from other sources. It was absolutely necessary to 
edit these reports on account of the different interpretation put on the instructions 
by different men and the varying degree of care with which the reports were made 
out. For the most part they have been checked up with the schedule of exercises 
furnished by each department, and in this way many obvious errors corrected. In the 
same way, many minor entries which do not materially affect the problem have been 
omitted, in order to simplify it. 

Relatively little importance should be attached to the total number of hours per 
week reported, because in some instances the reports were apparently made out on 
the theory that the teacher was continuously engaged between certain hours and that, 
therefore, some data must necessarily be put down. The total number of hours re- 
ported does mean something, especially where the figures for such a large number 
of teachers can be averaged ; but the total number of hours reported has not, in my 
opinion, nearly as much significance as have the figures which show how this time 
so reported is divided up. It should be noted that the time reported refers only to the 
time between eight a. m and six p. m. Many of the professors desired to make a report 
on what they did with their time after six p. m., and others desired an opportunity to 
show what they did with their time in the summer months — on research and in 
preparation for the next school year. I did not feel that it would be profitable to con- 
duct such an investigation. It did not seem to me to be desirable to go outside of 
the hours between eight and six, which for the business and professional man is con- 
sidered a " working day." For if we could not make such an investigation apply to 
everybody, to have data of this kind about a few would not have added materially 
to our information. It must be remembered, of course, that at most institutions the 
teachers put in more or less time outside of the thirty teaching weeks; but if in- 
struction is the main object of these institutions, the study of conditions during 
the teaching weeks will always be of paramount importance. 

The number in the brackets following the grade is the number of individuals of 
that grade included in the returns. In interpreting these individual reports every ef- 
fort was made to "favor" the record. This was only fair in view of the conscientious 
manner in which the reports had been filled in. 



A SUMMARY OF THE INDIVIDUAL REPORTS 
OF THE TEACHERS OF PHYSICS 



A SUMMARY OF THE INDIVIDUAL REPORTS 

8 A.M. 


MADE BY 
AND 6 P.M., 


THE TEACHERS 
FROM MONDAY 






Grade 




Professors [20] 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 




Total Hours per Week reported 


29 


34 


35 


36 


42 


35 


48 


36 


30 


33 


30 


38 


33 


48 


26 


32 


29 




This Time is divided in three parts as follows: 
Time spent with Students 


11 


11 


17 


9 


11 


6 


15 


11 


10 


23 


12 


16 


12 


14 


10 


16 


20 




Time spent on Research 




15 


5 


15 


18 


10 


10 


10 






4 


4 


13 




2 


10 




— 


Miscellaneous 


18 


8 


13 


12 


13 


19 


21 


15 


20 


10 


14 


18 


8 


34 


14 


6 


9 


The Time spent with Students is divided in four parts as follows: 
Laboratory Exercises 










6 


2 


9 






9 




8 


5 




4 


8 


4 




_ 

- 

_ 

1 


Lectures 


8 


7 


4 


8 




4 


6 


4 


6 


4 


10 


8 


6 


5 


2 


4 


4 


Recitations 






1 




5 










1 






1 


6 


4 


4 


9 


Consultations 


3 


4 


12 


1 








7 


4 


9 


2 






3 






3 


The Miscellaneous Ttme is divided as follows: 
Preparation 


4 


7 


5 


9 




17 


20 


1 


9 


1 


14 


9 


6 


30 


4 


5 


2 


Meetings 


6 


1 


3 




1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 




1 


1 




1 


1 


4 


Colloquium 






1 






1 












2 


1 










Administrative 


8 




4 


3 


12 






12 


6 


5 




6 




4 


4 




3 


Correcting Papers, etc. 
























It 












Attending Lectures as Student 




































Study 


















3 


2 
















Tutoring 




































Bookwriting 


















' 












5 






Assisting at Lectures 




































The Preparation Time is divided as follows: 
For Lectures 


4 


7 


5 


9 




17 


20 


1 


9 


1 


14 


9 


6 


30 


4 


6 


2 


For Recitations 




































For Laboratory 











































































Table A 
OF PHYSICS AS TO THE DISPOSITION OF THEIR TIME BETWEEN (continued on pages 

TO SATURDAY INCLUSIVE '^'"^ '^^) 



Grade 



I'nn 


KssoRs (continued) 


Assistant Professors (13 ] 


Instructors [22] 


IS 


19 


20 


.J 
•< 

h 

H 


0) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


< 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




:;.; 29 


33 


692 


34.60 


46 


44 


28 


38 


39 


27 


39 


33 


29 


33 


35 


37 


35 


463 


35.61 


37 


30 


33 


45 


48 


35 


30 


32 




1-' 


7 


19 


262 


13.10 


17 


19 


20 


14 


13 


10 


17 


8 


11 


21 


11 


21 


8 


190 


14.61 


27 


11 


13 


18 


11 


20 


17 


29 




21 


14 




151 


7.55 


26 


19 




20 




12 


16 


25 




12 


14 




7 


151 


11.61 


5 


15 


12 


25 


20 


6 








3 


8 


14 


277 


13.85 


3 


6 


8 


4 


26 


5 


6 




18 




10 


16 


20 


122 


9.38 


5 


4 


8 


2 


17 


10 


13 


3 








6 


61 


3.05 


8 


16 


16 


13 


11 




10 




7 


12 


9 


12 




114 


8.77 


27 






10 


4 


8 


5 


20 




6 


5 


10 


111 


5.55 


6 


3 


H 


^ 




6 


3 


5 


2 


3 


2 


4 


5 


40 


3.08 




2 


6 


8 


3 


6 










1 


2 


34 


1.70 


3 




M 


M 




4 




3 


2 


4 






1 


18 


1.38 




9 


4 




4 


2 


8 


6 




6 


1 


1 


56 


2.80 






3 




2 




4 






2 




5 


2 


18 


1.38 






3 






4 


4 


3 




3 


7 


10 


163 


8.15 


1 




3 


3 


22 


5 


1 




16 




6 




5 


62 


4.77 


4 


3 


4 


2 


7 


5 










1 


1 


29 


1.45 


1 


2 


2 


1 


4 




2 




2 




1 






15 


1.15 










2 


2 














5 


.25 


1 


1 










1 










1 




4 


.30 


1 


1 


1 




1 
















67 


3.35 




3 


3 


















15 




21 


1.60 






2 






3 












3 


3 


.15 






















3 






3 








1 





1 





6 


3 


























2 














2 


















5 


.25 








































6 




7 






































































5 


.25 


























15 


15 


1.15 














































































3 


7 


10 


163 


8.15 


1 




3 


3 


22 


5 


1 




3 




6 




5 


49 


3.77 


4 


1 


3 


2 


3 


5 


















































































13 










13 


1.00 




2 


1 




4 











A SUMMARY OF THE INDIVIDUAL 


REPORTS MADE 

8 A.M. AND 6 


BY 

P.M. 


THE TEACHERS 
, FROM MONDAY 


Grade 




Instructors (continued) 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


2 
< 


H 


V 

6 c 

2? >- 3 

^ 0) o 


Total Hours per Week reported 


35 


24 


32 


41 


36 


23 


47 


23 


36 


28 


39 


33 


32 


35 


754 


34.27 


This Time is divided in three parts as follows: 
Time spent with Students 


16 


11 


18 


20 


13 


17 


8 


15 


21 


17 


21 


21 


22 


23 


389 


17.68 


Time spent on Research 


7 


12 


14 


21 


20 




17 




3 


8 


12 




4 




200 


9.09 


Miscellaneous 


12 


1 






3 


6 


22 


8 


12 


3 


6 


12 


6 


12 


165 


7.50 


T/ie Time spent with Students is divided in four parts as follows: 
Laboratory Exercises 


13 




6 


6 








14 


20 


16 


17 


16 


13 


19 


214 


9.73 


Lectures 




2 










5 


1 








5 


7 


4 


49 


2.22 i 


Recitations 


3 


6 


8 


14 


13 


13 








1 


4 




2 




97 


4.41 


Consultations 




3 


4 






4 


3 




1 












29 


1.32 


The Miscellaneous Time is dirnded as follows: 
Preparation 


12 


1 










10 




5 




2 


8 


4 


6 


73 


3.32 


Meetings 














2 




1 












7 


.32 


Colloquium 










1 














2 


2 


1 


10 


.45 


Administrative 










2 




















7 


.32 


Correcting Papers, etc. 


















6 










3 


13 


.59 


Attending Lectures as Student 
















8 




3 


4 


2 




2 


26 


1.18 


Study 












6 


10 
















29 


1.32 


Tutoring 


































Bookwriting 


















" 
















Assisting at Lectures 


































The Preparation Time is divided as follows: 
For Lectures 


6 


1 










10 












4 


4 


43 


1.95 


For Recitations 






















1 








1 


.05 


For Laboratory 


6 
















5 




1 


8 




2 


29 


1.32 





































OF 

TO 


PHYSICS AS TO THE DISPOSITION 
SATURDAY INCLUSIVE 


OF 


THEIR 


TIME 


BETWEEN 








Table 4 

{concluded) 


Gkauk 


Assistants [i"!] 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


2 




32 


41 


35 


31 


29 


3G 


45 


42 


50 


38 


17 


30 


39 


29 


37 


37 


32 


22 


28 


31 


33 


35 


32 


23 


34 


40 


34 


111 2 


3377 


6 


8 




13 


11 




13 


13 


12 


20 


17 


18 


3 


7 


26 


15 


15 


16 


12 


15 


14 


14 


15 


16 




10 


14 


323 


11,96 


14 


23 


10 


18 


10 


35 


23 


21 


31 


10 






26 




9 


11 


5 




14 


5 


5 


9 


9 




5 


5 


4 


302 


11.19 


12 


10 


25 




8 


1 


9 


8 


7 


8 




12 


10 


22 


2 


11 


12 


6 


2 


11 


14 


12 


8 


7 


29 


25 


16 


287 


10.62 








12 


9 




13 


12 


12 


20 


17 


18 


3 


7 


18 


15 


15 


16 


12 


15 


14 


14 


15 


16 




10 


14 


297 


11.00 


5 


4 


























































1 


2 






1 














8 


























21 


.77 


1 


4 




















































5 


.19 


8 


6 






4 






2 


2 


5 




6 




18 


2 


5 


5 


2 


2 


4 


6 


6 


3 


3 


20 


19 


7 


135 


6.00 


2 











1 






















2 


2 






2 


2 


2 


2 


2 








14 


.52 










































1 


1 


5 


.19 


















































5 






5 


.19 


2 




15 




3 














6 










5 


4 




5 


6 


4 


3 


2 






4 


59 


2.19 










1 


9 


6 


2 










4 






















4 


3 


3 


32 


1.19 


























4 






4 
























8 


.29 


















3 






































3 


.11 




















2 




































2 


.07 




4 


10 














1 






6 


























2 


1 


24 


.89 




6 






4 






2 


2 


3 




6 




9 


2 


5 


















20 


13 


6 


78 


2.88 


2 






















































2 


.07 


6 


















2 








9 






5 


2 


2 


4 


6 


6 


3 


3 




6 


1 


55 


2.05 





























































90 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 5 

Especial attention should be called to the time devoted to regular exercises. This 
shows that the average professor of physics at the institutions visited spends less 
than two hours a day on regular class-room, laboratory and lecture-hall exercises. 
The same figure for the assistant professor is 2.40 ; instructor, 2.97; assistant, 2.14. 
If the theory is correct that these institutions are operated for the purpose of teach- 
ing, then an increase of an hour's work a day in the professorial grade would repre- 
sent a great increase in efficiency. An analysis of the way in which the average pro- 
fessor spends his time, as shown on this table and the preceding one, would seem to 
indicate that such an increase is not only possible, but highly desirable. 

It seems to me that a fifty per cent increase in the teaching time in the higher 
grades can be brought about and still leave the teacher more time than he has now 
for preparation. One of the things from which the teaching profession suffers most 
is the small amount of time available for what is vital in preparation, i. f ., for close 
study and reflection. Hour after hour is wasted on interruptions necessitated by lack 
of functional management and to the carrying on of a great load of detail work of 
which the teacher should be relieved. A teacher will continue to hold the attention 
of students only as he is given time to grow himself in the knowledge of his subject 
and of its application to life. 



ANALYSIS OF THE DISPOSITION OF THE TIME 
OF THE TEACHERS OF PHYSICS 



AN ANALYSIS OF THE 


DISPOSITION 


OF 


THE TIME 






Grades* 




Professors [20] '^ 






2 
6 


2 
1 

1 


1 

to 

1 


in 

S 

o 
v 

1 


o 

1 


•1 
1 


o 


cs 
u 

> 

< 4) 

4)0 

h 




Total Time per Day reported* in Hours and Decimals of Hours averaged 

BY Institution and by Grade. Thus 6.09 i.s the average number of hours per 

day reported by four full professors at Columbia. The general average 6.29 

at end of line is for 20 full professors distributed among seven institutions 


6.09 


7.32 


5.73 


5.50 


6.18 


6.00 


7.36 


6.29 




This total time is divided in four parts as follows : 
Time spent with Students 


2.18 


2.04 


3.00 


2.33 


2.55 


3.46 


2.33 


2.40 


- 


Time spent on Research 


1.59 


2.18 




1.71 


.73 




1.18 


1.37 


Time preparing for Lectures, Laboratory and Recitations 


1.14 


1.73 


.91 


.76 


2.09 


1.82 


3.27 


1.48 


, 


Miscellaneous 


1.18 


1.37 


1.82 


.70 


.81 


.72 


.58 


1.04 




The Time spent with Students is divided in two parts as follows ; 

Time devoted to Regular Exercises Class Room, Laboratory and 
Lecture Hall coming at Stated Times* 


1.28 


1.63 


1.82 


1.99 


2.37 


3.27 


2.09 


1.87 




Time devoted to Consultations with Students 


.90 


.41 


1.18 


.34 


.18 


.19 


.24 


.52 




The Time devoted to Regular Exercises is divided in three parts as follows : 
Laboratory Exercises* 




.77 


.82 


.58 


.73 


1.09 


.45 


.55 




Lectures 


1.23 


.64 


.91 


.76 


1.64 


1.82 


1.00 


1.01 


- 


Recitations* 


.05 


.22 


.09 


.65 




.36 


.64 


.31 


^The grades of Associate Professor [3], Tutor [l]. Class Assistants [2], Fellow 
small numbers, all these grades together making about 14 per cent only of 
salary these grades represent about 8 per cent. 

^The numbers in brackets indicate the number of individuals included in tl 


sm, 

the te 
leave 


indS( 
acher 

rages 


:holar 
s inc 

given 


[2]ar 
uded 


e omi 
in th 


tted b 
s stu 


ecaus 
ly. In 


eof tl 
poin 


leii 

to! 



Table 5 



OF THE TEACHERS OF PHYSICS, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. 



Grades' 


Assistant Professors [13] 


Instructors [22] 


Assistants [27] 


i 


1 

1 


1 




•i 

1 


> 

S 2 

go 


s 
.s 

i 


1 


1 


1 

00 

1 


o 

1 

s 

i; 


9i 
O 

1 


1 




2 

> 

— -o 
£2 
go 

5.2 


e 

io 
c 
s 

5 


1 

1 




o 

S 


Ob 

1 


2 

u 

> 

21 

00 


6.49 


8.18 


6.00 


5.76 


6.36 


6.47 


6.06 


8.45 


6.36 


5.56 


6.09 


6.06 


6.55 


6.18 


6.23 


6.18 


8.30 


7.68 


6.54 


5.52 


6.56 


2.42 


3.27 


3.09 


2.42 


2.42 


2.66 


3.09 


2.64 


3.62 


3.31 


3.45 


4.00 


3.82 


2.65 


3.21 


1.15 


2.30 


3.68 


1.45 


2.67 


2.38 


1.27 


4.09 


1.82 


2.24 


1.70 


2.11 


1.94 


4.09 


.90 


1.20 


1.82 


.24 


.55 


2.11 


1.65 


3.33 


4.54 


1.82 


.85 


1.17 


2.13 


.66 


.10 


.54 


.97 


1.70 


.87 


.66 


.82 


.91 


.48 


.18 


.97 


.91 


.36 


.59 


.55 


.24 


1.25 


2.79 


.73 


.98 


2.14 


.72 


.55 


.13 


.54 


.84 


.37 


.90 


.93 


.57 


.64 


.85 


1.27 


1.06 


.77 


1.15 


1.22 


.93 


1.45 


.95 


1.07 


i.y;i 


3.27 


2.82 


2.30 


2.05 


2.40 


2.90 


2.64 


2.91 


2.84 


3.45 


4.00 


3.64 


2.40 


2.97 


1.00 


2.30 


3.68 


1.45 


2.67 


2.34 


.43 




.27 


.12 


.37 


.26 


.19 




.71 


.47 






.18 


.25 


.23 


.15 










.03 


1.27 


2.18 


2.64 


1.15 


1.27 


1.59 


1.63 


1.27 


1.45 


1.64 


3.00 


2.91 


3.64 


.73 


1.77 


.64 


2.24 


3.35 


1.45 


2.67 


2.18 


.66 


.82 


.09 


.61 


.54 


.56 


.48 


1.00 


1.09 


.07 




.97 




.22 


.40 














.06 

d 


.27 


.09 


.54 


.24 


.25 


.79 


.37 


.37 


1.13 


.45 


.12 




1.45 


.80 


.36 


.06 


.33 






.16 



>r .sample report form and instructions, see Appendix, Exhibit C. 

!(<;.■ rtpurcs cannot vary much from week to week. For the most part they have been checked with the schedule of exer- 
s. 1 hey are subject to proof. They are practically independent of the personal equation. 



94 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 5a 

To get the figures in the first table, I have taken the average salary for a year for 
each grade and divided by thirty teaching weeks. This gives the average salary per 
teaching week for each grade. I have then divided up this weekly compensation in 
proportion to the time spent on (1) teaching proper, (2) research, and (3) miscella- 
neous, in accordance with the summary of the individual reports of the teachers. 
This shows that, on the average, fifty dollars a week is paid to every professor for 
doing miscellaneous things. A large part of this, but not half of it, goes into prepa- 
ration for lectures. It would certainly seem that large improvement can be brought 
about here through employing more assistants, who will relieve the higher grades 
of much of the detail work which now consumes so large a part of their time. It is 
absolutely necessary for those planning the work of a department to know exactly 
what an hour of each worker's time is worth. There is no other way of utilizing all 
the labor — high and low — to the best advantage. 

It has been suggested that since, in many cases, these assistants are secured at 
low salaries because of the opportunity to do research work, their salaries should 
be considered as being paid exclusively for teaching and therefore charged to the 
teaching account. This contention does not seem sound from an accounting stand- 
point. These men receive no regular compensation from any other source for the 
time they spend on research. They occupy quarters and use supplies owned by the 
university, and in case apparatus is damaged the university makes good the loss. 

In the second table, I have tried to give an idea of the value of a "productive" 
hour for each grade. If a professor, engaged at an average salary of $3800 a year, 
teaches thirty weeks in the year, and for every hour spent with students spends over 
one and one-half hours on research and miscellaneous duties, it makes the cost of 
an hour actually spent in the lecture room over ten dollars. 



Table 5a 
MONEY VALUE OF THE TIME OF TEACHERS OF PHYSICS 



On the basis of the plu/sic.s departments visited, 
teaching salaries represent 45 per cent of all ex- 
penses. An understanding of the relations between 
salanes paid different grades becomes imperative 
in any study oj' ejficiency 


Grade 


Professor 


Assist-int 
Profes.sor 


Instructor 


Assistant 


Money Value Weeks Time [Salary] averaged for Grade 


126.66 


65.13 


41.20 


15.77 


TTiis is divided in three parts as follows: ' 
Money Value Time spent with Students 


48.31 


26.75 


21.22 


5.65 


Money Value Time spent on Research 


27.63 


21.24 


10.91 


5.29 


Money Value Time spent other than on Teaching or Re- 
search 


50.72 


17.14 


9.00 


4.83 



* The weekly compensation is divided up in accordance with the reports made by individual teachers. The large 
amount of miscellaneous time in the professorial grade is especially noticeable. 



Some such table as this would be useful in estimat- 
ing the probable cost of a proposed course in the 
matter of teaching salaries 


Grade 


Professor 


Assistant 
Professor 


Instructor 


Assistant 


Average Salary per Annum 


3800 


1954 


1236 


473 


Average Salary per Teaching Week 


126.66 


65.13 


41.20 


15.77 


Average Salary per Hour as reported engaged 


3.66 


1.83 


1.20 


.47 


Average Salary per Hour spent with Students 


9.59 


4.4G 


233 


1.32 



96 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 6 

Floor plans were made of the various rooms in which physics is taught at each of 
the eight institutions visited. The floor space devoted to different kinds of depart- 
mental work was then added together and the totals given in this table secured. In 
the matter of rooms that were used by the physics department in common with other 
departments, I assigned to physics that part of the floor space which was represented 
by its use. It was not always possible to find out how many hours a week a given 
room was used, but if physics used it ten hours I charged physics with half the ex- 
pense of the room, if I found the physics department used rooms which it controlled 
exclusively, of the same character, on an average of twenty hours a week. 

Just as I have assumed that the colleges were operated for their teaching depart- 
ments, I have assumed that a physical laboratory is operated for those parts where 
teaching is actually done; that is, in the undergraduate and research laboratories, reci- 
tation rooms and lecture halls. I have considered the expense of operating storerooms, 
studies, appai'atus rooms, etc., as an overhead charge to be pro-rated over the net floor 
space available for teaching purposes. A study of this table will show the greatest dif- 
ference in the amount of the net floor space available for teaching purposes as com- 
pared with the total floor space. Thus, at Princeton, the total floor space is 48,000 
square feet, of which 28,000 are available for teaching purposes; while at Harvard the 
total floor space is 29,000 square feet, of which 26,000 are available for teaching pur- 
poses. Considering its cost this building at Harvard seems wonderfully efficient. 

It is interesting to compare the relative standing of the several institutions in the 
matter of the expense of operating and maintaining their buildings. Judged both 
by the expense per student-hour and expense per square foot available for teaching 
purposes, Princeton's building is the most expensively operated and Harvard's is the 
most economically. There seems to be a general relation all the way through between 
the results obtained by using these two methods; but it is difficult to say which is 
going to be ultimately the best gauge of efficiency. 

It seems only fair to say that the accounting methods at Harvard are such that 
the figures which I have gathered in regard to the expense of any one part of their 
work do not appear to be as trustworthy as are those gathered from the other institu- 
tions. The totals are, without much doubt, correct; but there has been at times a 
deal of uncertainty as to the proper disbursement for certain detail charges of which 
the totals are made up. I was not in every case able to get satisfactory answers with- 
out putting the accounting authorities to more trouble than was warranted. The 
books are not designed to answer these questions. So long as the central accounting 
authorities at Harvard know as little as they do about the details of the financial 
operations of the individual departments, it will be well-nigh impossible to get costs 
which are fully comparable with those secured at other institutions. These same gen- 
eral conditions are present in greater or less degree at all colleges. 



Table 6 



DATA CONCERNING BUILDINGS, COST OF MAINTENANCE, ETC. 







INSTITUTION 




Columbia 


Harvard 


Haverford 


Mass. 

Institute 

Tkcil 


Princeton 


Toronto 


Williams 


Wisconsin 


51 
52 
53 
54 


Total Klooh .Spack i'.sed for Physics' 
Tliis space Li divided asfollcnvs : 


24,424 


29.293 


2,310 


23.742 


48.391 


48.138 


9.883 


20,540 


Part used for Undergraduate Laboratories 


6,908 


12,093 


1.284 


13.312 


12.793 


24,807 


6,207 


8.792 


Part used for Recitation Rooms 


4,189 


2,136 


Lecture room 

used for 
recti al ions 


1.692 


2,464 


2.552 


200 


1.300 


Part used for Lecture Rooms 


1,782 


3,502 


576 


3.198 


6,920 


5,616 


1,320 


2,000 


55 


Part used for Research Laboratories 


6.396 


8,636 


225 


1,056 


6,214 


6,175 


270 


4.341 


56 


Part used for Studies 


1,292 


667 




1,458 


2,082 


3,042 


345 


842 


57 


Part used for Reading Rooms, Libraries, etc. 


368 


340 




1.521 


1.056 


1.542 


299 


665 


58 


Part used for Shop 


1,122 


1.409 


225 


725 


3,856 


1.512 


570 


1,000 


59 


Part used for Apparatus Rooms 


2,367 


510 




780 


2,512 


2,992 


462 


1,600 


60 


Part used for Bed Room 














210 




61 


Part Vacant 










10,494 








62 


Net Floor Space Available for Teaching Pur- 
poses ^ 


19,275 


26,367 


2.085 


19.258 


28,391 


39,050 


7,997 


16.433 


63 


Total Cost Maintaining and Operating Build- 
ing 
This cost is divided in two parts : 


20,415.29 


11,135.58 


711.85 


28.641.58 


30.140.00 


23.135.70 


3,301.74 


10.437.02 


64 


Interest [estimate] on Investment 


14,211.60 


7,800.00 


360.00 


22.846.40 


20.440.00 


16.324.60 


2.308.24 


5.800.00 


65 


Expense Maintaining and Operating Build- 
ing 


6,203.69 


3,335.58 


405.85 


5.795.18 


9.700.00 


6.811.10 


993.50 


4.637.02 


66 


Average Cost per square foot of Floor Space 
per year 
This cost is divided in three parts : 


1.05 


.42 


.37 


1.49 


1.06 


.59 


.41 


.63 


67 


Average Cost per square foot Interest on 
Land 


.28 


.11 


.03 


.94 


.01 


.05 


.01 


.11 


68 


Average Cost per square foot Interest on 
Building 


.45 


.18 


.14 


.25 


.71 


.36 


.28 


.24 


69 


Average Cost per square foot Operating 
Expenses 


.32 


.13 


.20 


.30 


.34 


.18 


.12 


.28 


70 


Maintenance and Operation of Bcilding Ex- 
pense PER Student-Hour 


.07 


.05 


.08 


.07 


.12 


.08 


.08 


.06 


71 




















72 




















73 




















74 




















75 





















* Based on exclusive use. 



' Net floor space = sura of floor space shown opposite 5i-5ii-51-,'55 above. This is floor space used in computing expense. 



98 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 7 

In examining this table the main point to be considered is to bear in mind the dif- 
ference between cost and expense as defined on the table itself. As it never had been 
done, it occurred to me that it would be interesting to estimate the whole cost of 
teaching physics. By "whole cost," I mean what would be considered cost in a manu- 
facturing establishment, where dividends must be paid on the invested capital as well 
as interest on borrowed money. The cost, therefore, as here used includes a nominal 
interest at four per cent, not only on the buildings and equipment used for physics, 
but on those buildings and that equipment which are used by physics students in 
common with the students of the other departments. 

Expense, as here used, includes the overhead charge for administration of the insti- 
tution as a whole, as well as the various direct expenses which are connected with the 
physics department. As a matter of fact, it is hardly possible that, for some time at 
least, cost as here used will form a part of the accounting system of American schools 
and colleges, but it is just as well to have cost in mind in any accounting system 
that is devised. Efficient management is out of the question unless the administrator 
has just as much respect for cost items as for expense items as here defined. In the 
long run both must be met. 

It will be interesting to have in mind the methods by which the various items were 
apportioned as between research and teaching. The " Maintenance and Operation of 
Building Expense'Vas pro-rated in the proportion of the amount of floor space avail- 
able to that used for research. The " Equipment and Supplies Expense "" was appor- 
tioned largely as the result of discussions with the heads of the various departments, 
i. e., by finding out what part of the appropriation was used for research. The " Other 
Salaries Expense" (paid to mechanicians and laboratory attendants) is pro-rated ac- 
cording to the duties of those to whom the salaries are paid. The " Teaching Salary 
Expense" is pro-rated by individual salaries and in accordance with the reports made 
by the teachers, personally, as to the percentage of time devoted to research. The 
interest on physical equipment is divided in proportion to the amount of equip- 
ment used for research and that used for teaching purposes. This was also obtained 
through personal interviews. The interest on land, building and fixtures is divided 
between research and teaching in the proportion of the amount of physics-teaching 
salaries assigned to research and that assigned to teaching proper. Administration 
expense and the interest on the buildings and equipment used by the students of the 
physics department in common with those of other departments are both pro-rated 
in accordance with the relation which the physics-teaching salaries bear to the total 
instructional salaries. 

The totals on the extreme right of Table 7 show that approximately thirty per 
cent of the cost of operating a physics department goes into research. 

In figuring out the Toronto costs, no charge was made for the use of the rooms 



TABLES 99 

occupied by Professor Loudon and his assistant in University Hall. This would be 
small at best; it would have been difficult to obtain, and the main physics building 
is sufficiently large to house these sections if it were called on to do so. The costs as 
figured out for Toronto are too low by just this amount. All the other expenses con- 
nected with Professor Loudon's department of physical mathematics are, of course, 
included. 

The physics at the Univei*sity of Toronto presented in this report is that given 
by the faculty of arts. A small amount of physics teaching is given by the faculty 
of applied science and engineering. Neither this teaching nor its expense is included 
as a part of this report. This implies that the total number of student-hours in 
physics as given for the University of Toronto is too low by just the amount given 
in the engineering building. The cost per student-hour, however, is right, because 
while the physics teaching in the engineering building has not been added, neither 
has its cost. 

It was not possible in every case to make the bounds of what we considered the 
physics department the same at each of the institutions. This will not affect the gen- 
eral validity of the results, however, because where we excluded any branch we ex- 
cluded the costs which accompanied it, and when we added a branch we added the 
costs. In general the departments cover approximately the same field. 

In preparing this statement of costs, I had some difficulty in deciding what to do 
with the annual expenditures for equipment. Usually the appropriation is for "Equip- 
ment and Supplies," and no difference is made as between purchases of supplies proper 
and those things which add to the permanent value of the plant. At some institu- 
tions the purchase of even expensive items of apparatus is handled as an expense. 
As it was impossible for the institutions to give me even an approximate idea as to 
how this "Equipment and Supplies" item was divided, I have considered this year's 
purchases of equipment as supplies, and therefore as an expense, and figured interest 
on the present value of apparatus purchased prior to this year and on hand. There 
is of course no precedent for handling equipment purchases in this way, but it seemed 
as good a compromise as could be an*ived at. It will have a tendency to make ex- 
penses a little higher than they really are. But as this whole equipment item is one 
that is very small, it makes no material difference in the general result. 



AN ANALYSIS OF THE WHOLE COST OF TEACHING PHYSICS SHOWING 





INSTITUTION 






Columbia 


Harvard 


H 


averford 






Total 


Re- 
search 


Teach- 
ing 


Total 


Re- 
search 


Teach- 
ing 


ToUil 


Re- 
search 


Teach- 
ing 




HE TOTAL COST OF PHYSICS. This cost includes not only all items of cur- 
rent expense, but also nominal interest on the plant and equipment used. It 
is " cost " in the manufacturing sense 


90,438.11 


27,520.88 


62,917.23 


70,883.84 


36,925.49 


33,958.35 


5,422.95 


840.79 


4,582.16 




he Total Cost is divided in two parts as follows : 

Indirect Cost. This indirect cost is the physics department's share of those 
overhead cost items which, being incurred by the institution as a whole, 
must be apportioned to the teaching departments in proportion to the amount 
of their teaching salaries 


28,499.64 


7,979.90 


20,519.74 


11,827.18 


5,913.59 


5,913.59 


2,563.10 


367.58 


2,195.52 




Direct Cost. This direct cost includes all those items of cost which can be 
directly charged to the physics department without any apportioning 


61,938.47 


19,540.98 


42,397.49 


59,056.66 


31,011.90 


28,044.76 


2,869.85 


473.21 


2,386.64 




he Indirect Cost is divided in two parts as follows : 

Interest. This is a nominal interest at 4 per cent estimated on the value of 
the "unproductive" parts of the whole institution used by physics students 
in common with those of other departments 


11,700.00 


3,276.00 


8,424.00 


5,300.00 


2,650.00 


2,650.00 


1,320.00 


188.57 


1,131.43 




Administration Expense. Physics share overhead expenses of the whole in- 
stitution apportioned in proportion to the physics teaching salaries 


16,799.64 


4,703.90 


12,095.74 


6,527.18 


3,263.59 


3,263.59 


1,243.10 


179.01 


1,064.09 




he Direct Cost is divided in two parts as follows : 

Interest. This is a nominal interest at 4 per cent on the estimated value of 
the land, building and equipment used by physics exclusively 


15,811.60 


5,337.20 


10,474.40 


11,800.00 


5,262.00 


6,538.00 


404.00 


71.42 


332.58 




Direct Expense. Being all expense items directly chargeable to the physics 
department 


46,126.87 


14,203.78 


31,923.09 


47,256.66 


26,749.90 


21,506.76 


2,455.85 


401.79 


2,054.06 




he Direct Interest is divided in two parts as follows : 
On Land, Building and Fixtures 


14,211.60 


4,737.20 


9,474.40 


7,800.00 


2,262.00 


5,538.00 


360.00 


51.42 


308.68 




On Physical Equipment 


1,600.00 


600.00 


1,000.00 


4,000.00 


3,000.00 


1,000.00 


44.00 


20.00 


24.00 


- 


he Direct Expense is divided in four parts as follows: 
Physics Teaching Salary Expense 


33,600.00 


9,290.00 


24,310.00 


30,925.00 


16,535.<)0 


15,390.00 


1,800.00 


257.14 


1,642.86 


Other Salaries Expense such as mechanicians, laboratory attendants, 
etc., but not including janitors and power plant employed 


2,100.00 


1,100.00 


1,000.00 


5,789.50 


4,449.50 


1,340.00 


50.00 




50.00 


Equipment and Supplies Expense 


4,223.18 


1,723.18 


2,500.00 


7,206.58 


4,706.58 


2,500.00 


200.00 


100.00 


100.00 


Maintenance and Operation of Building Expense 


6,203,69 


2,090.60 


4,113.09 


3,335.68 


1,068.82 


2,276.76 


405.85 


44.65 


361.20 




I 


Percentages of Whole Cost chargeable to research and to teaching proper 




.304 


.696 




.521 


.479 




.155 


.845 


- 


Percentages or Direct Expense chargeable to research and to teaching proper 




.301 


.699 




.545 


.455 




.163 


.837 



Table 



PORTIONS CHARGEABLE RESPECTIVELY TO RESEARCH AND TO TEACHING PROPER 



INSTITUTION 



Massachcsktts 
Institute ok 
Technolo(;v 


Princeton 


Toronto 


Williams 


Wisconsin 


Totals 


Total 


Re- 
search 


Teach- 
ins 


Total 


Re- 
search 


Teach- 
ing 


Totjil 


Re- 
search 


Teacli- 
ilif? 


ToUil 


Re- 
search 


Te-ich- 
ing 


Total 


Re- 
search 


Teach- 
ing 


Grand 
Total 


Re- 
search 
Total 


Teach 

ing 
Total 


67,053.23 


8,930.50 


58,122.73 


84,542.68 


27,229.66 


57,312.93 


62,626.90 


12,399.18 


50,126.72 


12,473.18 


465.83 


12,007.36 


48,876.84 


16,678.85 


33,297.99 


442,216.63 


129,891.17 


312,326. 


5,275.83 


738.61 


4,537.22 


16,992.68 


6,287.25 


10,706.33 


12,477.17 


1.372.49 


11,104.68 


3,821.44 


76.43 


3,745.01 


7,820.00 


2,111.40 


6.708.60 


89,276.94 


24.847.25 


64,429. 


01,777.40 


8,191.89 


63,585.51 


67,550.00 


20,942.40 


46,607.60 


50,048.73 


11,026.69 


39,022.04 


8,651.74 


389.40 


8.262.»t 


41,056.84 


13,467.46 


27.689.39 


352.939.69 


105,043.92 


247,895. 


792.00 


110.88 


681.12 


4,608.00 


1,704.96 


2,903.04 


2,160.00 


237.60 


1.922.40 


1,440.00 


28.80 


1,411.20 


2,220.00 


699.40 


1.620.60 


■29,&40.00 


8,796.21 


20,744. 


4,488.83 


627.73 


3,856.10 


12,384.58 


4,582.29 


7,802.29 


10,317.17 


1,134.89 


9,182.28 


2,381.44 


47.63 


2,333.81 


6,600.00 


1,512.00 


4,088.00 


69.736.94 


16,061.04 


43.686. 


27.246.40 


2,142.32 


25,104.08 


22,240.00 


4,270.40 


17,969.60 


21,124.60 


4,411.93 


16,712.67 


2,908.24 


116.33 


2,791.91 


7,600.00 


2,408.00 


5,192.00 


109,134.24 


24,019.60 


86,116. 


34,531.00 


6,049.57 


28,481.43 


46,310.00 


16,672.00 


28,638.00 


28,924.13 


6,614.76 


22,309.37 


5,743.50 


273.07 


6,470.43 


33,466.84 


11,069.45 


22,397.39 


243,804.85 


81,024.32 


162,780. 


22,846.40 


1,142.32 


21.704.08 


20,440.00 


3.270.40 


17,169.60 


16.324.60 


2,611.93 


13,712.67 


2,308.24 


92.33 


2,215.91 


6,800.00 


1,608.00 


4,292.00 


90,090.84 


16,676.60 


74.416. 


4,400.00 


1,000.00 


3,400.00 


1,800.00 


1,000.00 


800.00 


4,800.00 


1,800.00 


3,000.00 


600.00 


24.00 


676.00 


1,800.00 


900.00 


900.00 


19,044.00 


8.344.00 


10.700. 


21,350.00 


2,690.00 


18,660.00 


27,200.00 


10,110.00 


17,090.00 


13,860.00 


1,625.00 


12,326.00 


3,500.00 


83.33 


3.416.67 


21,625.00 


5,821.00 


16,704.00 


163,760.00 


45,311.47 


108.438. 


2,066.00 


750.00 


1,316.00 


3,860.00 


2,960.00 


900.00 


2,380.00 


1,500.00 


880.00 


260.00 


50.00 


200.00 


2.294.82 


1,428.44 


866.38 


18,790.32 


12.237.94 


6.562 


5,319.82 


2,319.82 


3,000.00 


4,650.00 


2,050.00 


2,500.00 


5,883.03 


2,500.00 


3,383.03 


1,000.00 


100.00 


900.00 


5,000.00 


2,500.00 


2,500.00 


33,382.61 


15,999.68 


17,383. 


5,795.18 


289.75 


6,506.43 


9.700.00 


1,552.00 


8,148.00 


6,811.10 


1,089.76 


5.721.34 


993.60 


39.74 


963.76 


4.637.02 


1,310.01 


3,327.01 


37.881.92 


7,476.33 


30,406. 







.133 


.807 




.367 


.633 




.198 


.802 




.036 


.964 




.318 


.682 




.293 


.707 






.175 


.826 




.322 


.67« 




.229 


.771 




.048 


.962 




.330 


.070 




.3.32 


.668 



102 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLE 8 

These costs per student-hour at the different institutions are obtained by dividing 
the total number of student-hours into the total cost of operating the department. 
This total cost per student-hour is in turn divided into three parts, two of which are 
further subdivided. Administration expense and direct expense taken together con- 
stitute the total expense of teaching physics. After this matter of costs has been 
studied for some time and the causes for the obvious discrepancies removed, it will 
pay to add another decimal place. It seemed to me that to have done this at the present 
time would have indicated a degree of precision in these results which is not claimed 
for them. The two decimal places, however, present very distinctly many apparently 
unwarranted differences in the conditions at the several institutions. 



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104 ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY 

TABLES 9 AND 10 

By means of these two tables, I have suggested a system of reports which can be 
published either in the treasurer's annual report or in the catalogue, and which I 
believe will give those who are responsible for the administration of an institution 
of higher education the data by means of which they can compare the work done 
in the various teaching departments as well as the cost of maintaining these depart- 
ments. Inasmuch as these data can be obtained without any increase in the account- 
ing force, and practically without any additional expense, it seems likely that at one 
or more institutions it may be found possible to institute immediately such a system 
of reports. In order to help in such an undertaking, I have arranged these reports 
so as to make it easy to reproduce them in a printed page. The amount of matter, 
in each case, is that which will conveniently go on the ordinary six by nine page. In 
order to make it possible to get up such a set of reports in the exact form in which 
they might be published by a college or university, I have originated a fictitious 
institution of higher education, called the Smith Technological Institute; and I have 
considered as the several departments of this institution the departments of physics 
at the eight institutions visited, as follows : 

Columbia Physics Department 

Harvard Chemistry Department 

Haverford Biology Depay-tment 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Astronomy Department 

Princeton Mathematics Department 

Toronto Geology Department 

Williams Botany Departm£nt 

Wisconsin Economics Departinent 

The eight pages constituting Tables 9 and 10 must then be considered as sample 
pages taken from the catalogue or the annual report of the treasurer of the Smith 
Technological Institute. 

Table 9 is an analysis of the teaching in each of the eight departments of this 
institute. On this table are shown all the courses given, with the data covering each. 
On Table 10 are given a summary of the teaching of each of the departments; a sum- 
mary of the teaching of the institution ; a summary of the expenses of each depart- 
ment; and a summary of the expenses of the institution as a whole. The teaching 
in the various departments is contrasted with the expenses on the third page of 
Table 10, and the expense per student-hour shown, and these expenses per student- 
hour analyzed. 

Dr. Eliot recently gave the number of courses offered at Harvard as about four 
hundred. It would require not more than ten or twelve pages in the Treasurer's Re- 
port of Harvard University to give the same kind of data about each of these four 



TABLES 106 

hundred courses, and the expenses of operating each of the departments, as we have 
given for the fictitious Smith Technological Institute. Most other institutions, of 
course, could give this information in much less space. 

There are always certain basic statistics and other data which it is necessary to 
have about an industry or other line of effort before one can even begin to speculate 
intelligently as to the character and efficiency of its organization and the work it is 
doing. With such statistics and data given, it is often easier for an outsider to sug- 
gest points of strength and of weakness than it is for those more intimately associ- 
ated. This is one of the large elements of strength in publicity. 

In preparing the reports which appear on Tables 9 and 10, I have tried to in- 
clude the statistics and data which seem to me most essential to a study of any given 
institution of this class and of the class itself. It is practically impossible now 
to obtain this from college catalogues or treasurers' reports. To get this informa- 
tion by the methods which we have been forced to use in making this study involves 
unwarranted demands upon the time of men otherwise fully engaged. If information 
of this kind is to be secured at such large effort, it is not likely to be secured with 
enough regularity to make it of any great use. The records and books of the schools 
themselves should be so maintained as to give it as regularly as they now give the 
total number of students, courses of instruction, or the cash balance. 



Annual Report of the 



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Table 9 

{Continued on pages 108, 109 and 110) 
Smith Technological Institute 



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" 






























1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |S|§I 1^1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |S|S|8|S 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1*1^1 \\a\ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l^l'~lsl'~ 


ej 


o 












Q 
























o 


o 


















S 


in 




















£j 


s^ 








s 




Si 
























CO 


g 


















s 
























^ 










































8 






1 s g 

o '^j' "<r 








in 






^ 






































s 


3; 


















































































































'-' 


















•V 


•* 
















m 






"^ 


^" 


















'^ 


















lO 




























<r> 


o o 














































J$£ 
















































































w o » 














































03 




















lO 








1 1 






















^ ^c;^ 
















































Q 




















o 










?S 


o 








in 


in 


in 




g 


s 









s 


8 
















0^ 






















f»^ 


J7i 








f5s 














































































































































































s 






t- 














s 


^ 


s 


^ 








o 


SIS 


r5 


o 


S 


S 


lO 


lO 


lO 




S 


? 


g 


S 


s 








































r-l 










4i 




t- 


uu 




o 


Tt" 
































Q, 


lO 






o 




ifS 










o 


o 












r> 


fN 






o 






o 


lO 











iC 




in 


















































^ 






































































































































































































































































































in 






o 


o 
















(3 


^ 






o 






lO 











■n 


in 




in 










































































































































^ 






































































































































































































lO 










^ 


o 




















« 


CD 


























































t;^ 




































































































2 












































lO 
































S 


:£ 






































1 1 


1 




























1 


1 1"" 












r-l 




03 


y^ 




1 1 


1 




















IM 


iQ 


cm 






1 


1 






















is;if2 


lO 1 05 


on 


r-< 




1 "* 


1 <o 1 


■* 




'i' 




l^) 1 o 






1 I 




^ 


1 






i< 




to 




































































1 


























1 1 






1 




















t- 


oai 1 


1 








"* 1 


i ir 




Tj< 




e^ 




§ ?2 

It- 




1 1 




o 1 


Ni 


» 


^ 




t- 


















lOI 




















1 P 


•^ 


^ 




1 




























,_4 






,_) 


,^ 


,_) 
















y^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 1 


,_) 


rH 1 rH 


T^ 1 f-H 


,^ 


T-4 


f-t 


^ 


r-4 
















"r 




























































^1 








l-Hl T^ 


^1 r-l 1 rH 


"^ 


'"' 


"^ 


^ 


'"'1 1 '^ 


e^ 


■^ 


sq 


05 1 m 


















'^ 


"^ 


"^ 


■^ 




























1 I'-K* 


,_, 


,_, 
























































1 1 05 


































Cq 


n 


171 1 00 


C^ 1 (M 


"^ 


IN 


« 














1 CO 


"^ 


"^ 


IN 


(N| i-c 


« 


CO 1 m 


tH 1 00 


OS 


ec 


00 


CO 


03 
















-«l 1 




















1 1— «' 








-«• 1 
































c^ 








CC CC 


cc cc w 


« 


05 


03 


s 


lO «3 


IM 


rf 


to 


CC ■* 


















-r 


n- 




^ 


lO 1 4CJ 


lO 1 lO 1 U^ 1 iO 


s 


»CllC|lO|lO[iO|iO|lO|»CjtC|tO|lO|lOIO| 


SiSlg 


g 1 g 1 i 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 g§ 1 2 1 2 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 8 


gl§| 


1 
















































































r^ 
















































































i-i 
















































































ti 
































































































































































fcl 








« 






- 










^ 

K 


^ 


j: 










&. 










































e 
1 

s 


■2 

1 


i 




i 


•2 
1 


6 


o 






ft 

63 


ft 

C 


►~1 


►1; 










^ 
3 

1 




's 
1 








































T-t 

o 


CI 


o 




< 




d 


o 

IN 


CO 




N 

■* 




^ 


r-l 
CO 


CO 


lO 


r-( 


rH IN 

(N N 


CC 

o 




03 


O 


C4 


m 


■* 


lO 


e 

CO 


CO 


t- 


a 


iH 


C4 


■* 


iC 


t- 





J3 









cu 


Oh 


s 


lA 


CL, 


c« 


^ 




Sn 


cu 


Oh 


Oh 


CL, 


Oi 


0^ 


Oh 


CU Oh 


tt- 






























M 




N 


N 


. 


g s>i^-j. a C 


1^ 


1 lIllllJ 


sg iit 


5 ■-:= at vSr-s 

5 II =?|| s ^ 


Si (J =■ $;, 


^" Ss 


^'t 


^SS cSfi^:; 



Table 9 

(Continued) 



Annual Report of the 



fl 




I 


o 


.? 




1 


CO 


1 


I 


o 


1 


"^ 
§ 






53 


I 


i 


"g 
O 


CO 


"g 


i " " i 


¥ 


1 i 


So 


-r 


"I 




¥ 


lO 


1 


I 






1 




§ 




" 
















































s 


i 


















§ 

s 








i 


§ 

•* 




2 






























































1 


1 










s 








g § 


CO 


g 


o 


o 


o 


i 


O 
5 


1 




i 


o 


g 

o 


g 

CO 


g 


o 

g 


g 


g 




g 


1 




1 

00 


o 


rH 


5 


g 
? 


3 


g 












i 


g g 




o 


o 

5 




1 
















1 














g 


g 






1 




lO 








1 


g 














1 


i 


§ 


§ 


o 


g 


§ 
s 


CM 






g 










o 
53 


i 


s 








i 




lO 
lO 


g 




o 

s 


o 


g 
o 


O 




o o 


i 


1 




i 




§ 

53 


1 


g 

(N 


8 


?5 


i 








t- t- 




'J' 


s 


o 


lO 








o 

1 


o 

CO 


o 

CO 
















s 




g 










1 


g 


g 

CM 


o 

b* 


53 


1 1 1 






s 
















































































o 






?? 


i 




§ 

« 


i 


3 


1 


§ 




i 




i 


53 


i 


o 


g 

o 


i 


g 


g 


g 


g 


1 


g 1 


o 
o 

lO 


1 














i 


1 


i 






•"J" 


O 


g 

05 




i 


i 




o 


CO 










i 






























1 


o 
53 


i 

05 


g 
5 


5 


o 

i 


g 










1 


s 


















































































i 




i 


s 
















i 

OS 


O 


i 


53 


g? 


IN 


o 

§ 


g 


g 


1 


O 
CO 






g 


as 


s 


1 
























i 














CO 


i 


1 




"»• 




















o 

g 






2 








i 


















o 
8 


lO 

1 




w 


§ 


i 




i 


i 
































g 




g 










o 






1 


lO 

5 


i 


t- 


1 


CM 








t- 


I 






g 


















































IN 


OS 


















CO o 


to 


IM 


CO 


53 




O 1 o 
t- 03 






i^r 




1 




1 








1 


CO 


1 » 














IS 














1 






1 1 


g 


1^ 


Ol 


rH| 30 


'^ g 






1 ^ 




i 


OS 

s 




Sl 


05 
05 


s 




CO 1 1 CO 
rH (N 


IS 








00 


1 




CO 


1 




tr- 1 




1 




<N 


'^ 


81 






i 


s 


lg 




s 


CD 


1^1 




sp 




1^ 


CO 




c^ 1 












" 


'^ 












CO 


^ 


^ 




r-< 




i^ 




1 "^ 


lO 


00 1 








^ 1 rH 


"^ 


rH j m 


IM 


"^ 


''I 




"^ 








^ 












■^ 








^ 




"^ 


05 


CM 


CM 1 rH 


'^ 


CMI CM 


■^ 


rHj^Irt 


"^ 


-r 




.jco 






1 "* 


o 




t- 


CM 1 T-l 


o> 








IN 


"^ 


^ 
















CO 


o 


05 1 




1 


CM 


N 1 CO 1 CO 




^r 


'" 


r 


^ 




"1 












'^ 














'^ 


^ 






'-' 




s 




1 ^ 


'-' 


^1 




1 1 




^p 


CM 


T-<| lO 


051 CO 


(M 1 




CO 








IN 


IN 


"^ 








^ 






^ 


« 




"^ 


i^ 


CM 


Cp 


CM 


^r 


'-' 


rHIrHlrH 


•* 


0> l-K. 




?^-|r,- 


1 


r 


'Jl 




" 


IM 1 'M 


IN 








to 


CO 


-r 
















S? 


•<»< 


■^ 1 




1 


CM 


CMI CO 1 CD 


g 


1^ 


g 


g| |gi*i 1 isi'^is 


CO 1 CO 1 ^ 1 rH 


to 1 iC 1 ca 


SIS 


U5 


2 


SIS 


Slgl^l 


rH 1 rH 1 rH 


10|10|10|10|10|IC|10| 






1 




1 


o 
















































o 


1 

s 
<il 


1 

i 


i 


1 




1 

i 

s 


s 
1 


1 

s 




Si 

g 

i 


ti 

V 

Q 
d 




< 


- 


= 




O 










00 


05 


00 


00 


00 


rH 
05 


o 

05 


05 


05 

05 


o 

o 

00 


O 
00 


CO 
rH 
00 


05 
rH 
00 


00 


•>* 

00 


o 

CO 
05 
CI 

00 


00 
CO 
00 


05 
CO 

00 




rH 




rH 


iM 


CO 
IM 


IM 




CO 


rH 
CO 


IM 

CO 











Table 9 

Smith Technological Institute (Cuntbiucd on page 110) 



2 -M » 
S t- lO 



3 2 















2|5| oi 3 



l^'i^K-l I 



t- t- R * 35 ^ 



8 g 

O 11 



S S 



5 S 



S S f2 g 



o o 





lO 


!g 


? 


o 

3 


s 


s 


? 


1 
















s 






? 




s 


















c 








? 


o 












>o 






















S3 






'^ 






















s 
















g 






















o 


o 


s 






f^ 












s 


s 


s 








o 










R 






? 


^ 










































































s^ 


























'^ 


'^ 
















































'^ 



































o 


^ 






o 






















^ 


^ 








^ 


<^ 


































































^ 














































































^ 




















































































































































































o 




s^ 














O 


Q 


o 


o 
















































































































































s 

















































































































































































SI?? 



oo 1 ec I rt I ^ 



iC|ia|ioiiO[iO|iC|ioiiotio 



ii2i; 



iisujitis 



SiSigi: 



;SISIglSI^I!Slilgl3ISISi g ! §5 1 S I S I i 













fi 
















:^ 










:^ 




s 


:§ 










s 










s 
















►^ 

^ 

^ 






1 


1 


6 


6 


s 

1 


g 

Vi 

IS. 

1 


o 

1 

s 

? 


o 


a 




d 


•4^ 


e 




;■ 


7^ 


(J 


o 


u 


o 


i) 


« 


* 








a, 












'^ 


























H 


Hj 


t^ 


1*) 


N 


iU 


1^ 


t^ 


1^ 


1*5 


l»q 


^ 


>-^ 


00 


iH 


N 


CO 


^ 


r^ 


on 


05 


O 


Oi 

c 


» 


01 


o 


CO 


-* 


-* 


^ 


^ 


■* 


-* 


lO 


tH 


CO 


-* 









-E-. 



Table 9 

(Concluded) 



Annual Report 



IT 


¥ 


-w 


lis 


I 


i 






I 


¥ 


g 


g 


2 

CC 


1 


"SI 

g 


g § 


IM 


I 


i 


li 


i 




g" 


CO 


O 


1 


1 

00 
































§ 


1 


o 


IM 


8 


o o 
o c 

CO CO 


O 


i 


- 


g 


g 


1 


i 


s 


g 


2 


O 


g 


1 


o 


o 
o 
cr. 






n 
















































1 
































1 






















O 
tH 












8 

cc 














o 

IM 


























00 
CO 


1 




g 
1 


































i 














i 










lO o 

?! g 






1 




g 






1 




















i 




§ 


S 


1 


s 


•* 


53 


00 
g 




o 

lO 


g 


1 


i 


i 








i 








§ 


o 




g 


i 




40 

O 


1 


































g 


g 






o 

lO 


g 


CO 
IM 


<M 




g 












1 










i 


g 


1 


1 




















1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 












o 

3 


1 


o 


























i 


1 




1 


g 


1 


O 








i 




















i 




g 


s 1 






g 






i 


i 




s 




11 


g 


i 

IM 


i 






i 












g 




t- 






















1 












o 
So 


o 










i 


O 
Ci 


























g 

g 






t- 




























o 

00 


o 

S 


1 


•* 






















to 


a 




g 


i 


g 


o 

<M 


§ 
•* 


g 








s 


























§ 








§ 

o 


g 


1 


i 


§ 


g 


O 


<M 


§ 


g 


g 




!§ 


cq 






g 








8 


1 


o 


OS 

1 






















g 
















i 


i 






1 


1 


s 

1-1 


g 






















1 


i 




-1* 






















r-l 












o 


CO 


i 


§ 






1 


§ 

S 


s 


8 




g 


















CO 


g 




<v3 

5 


































o 




1 


g 






iO 
(M 


O 


g 


i 






















i 






g 
S 




















(C| 












CO 






CO O) 

7-( lO 






1 '^ 




1 ° 




,-1 1 CO 




lO 




1 o 
1 ^ 






1 




1 


IS 




w 


IM 


1 


i 


g 






lO CO 




05 


lO 


"* 1 


lO 






1 








1 '^ 


g 






1 






1 




CO 






1 ff^ 


00 


00 
00 






lO 




§ 










ta 1 


to 




^ 






O 1 


SI 




[ 
















1 


^ 








1- 










IQ 1 








'^ 




IM 




s 




















»-l j l-H 


l-H 


tH 


1H 


rt j rH 


■*| cq 








1 r 


^ 




1 


^ 


,-i| rt 




r-l 


■^ 




r-l 


ft 




00 






























t- 1 <o 








1 1- 




'^ 


11 1 <M 
















IM 


CO 1 r-l 


g 






























1 








1 1- 






1 




co|^ 








CO 




^ 


1 


o 




















eq i-H 


93 


^ 


^ 


'*' 1 


ir 


ffq 


(N 


eq 


Nlrt 1 ■<»< 


CO 






CO 


1 




m 


CO 




CO 


M 




IM 
IM 






























g|^ 


:o 


■^ 


(M 


^|§|^ 




■* 


00 1 t- 






Ir- 










. 


•* 1 •* 


§§ 




















§112 


SISISIgIS 


l2IS|glSISI Igl2l2 


;2igi^ 


2lg 


S 


g 


gl2lg|glSIS 




1 1 


1 


1 1 




1 

5 


1 

o 


6 


8 
8 




6 
g 


1 
a 














1 


































1 




















CO 


to 


o 


05 










- 


= 


s 


> 


> 




rH 




OT 


■«ji 


lO 


00 


C2 


O 
i-l 


rH 


no 

r-l 




r-l 


O 


r^ 

o 

rH 


o 
1-i 


o 

T-l 






















a, 

SI" 


1 .Hi 

03 ^ cs;-2 

lift 


.« ^^ SJ.-2: S?^ ^ S 





TABLES 111 



TABLE 10 



Remarks covering Table 10 were given in the note preceding Table 9. The source of 
money used in the departments is of such vital importance that it is suggested that 
another report uniform with that given on this table be prepared covering it. On 
such a report, opposite the total expenditures for each department, should be given 
the amounts which are derived, respectively, (1) from specific endowments, (2) from 
the general endowments of the institution, and (3) from fees, etc. In the report of 
the treasurer of Princeton University a very satisfactory model for this statement 
will be found. 



Part 1 



Annual Report of the 



O 

o 

< 

H 

O 

>^ 
<! 



< 







SS 




^ 


? 






^ 




io 






















S1VXOJL 


S 


i 


5 


§ 




g 


2 


00 


i 


. m 












ip 


Q 




,-, 


8 


























ii-a 


aoioqo aajj 


a 


s 


^ 


lO 


g 


g 


« 


w 


z 


























1UJ3 
























ss 


osja auimauios 


8 




O 




1 






^ 


lO 




£2 


opo^pajinbaH 


lO 








S 








s 


K 


O 1- > 

o ;; 

(U a; o 






















pajinbaa 


1 




% 


1 


1 


1 




i 


§ 


O 


Xiaiiqosqv 


s 






00 


§ 


2 




1> 


S 


S5 




















CO 


^•i 




8 


§ 


1 


lO 


la 


S 




o 


g 


Q 




noi^Bjpa^ 


cq 


CO 




s 


CO 




00 


s 




"" - s 

X (S o 




















■^ 




o 






lO 


lO 


(P 


(^ 


o 


t* 


b 
O 

u 
H 


4> oj = 

o ^y 


ajmoaq 


Tf 




s 




i 


2 


i 


cq 






o 


o 








CO 




?2 
























iUo^'BJoq'Bq 


1 


1 


^ 


s 


1 




<N 




53 


!5 






























^ 


o 






o 


^ 






S 

t-i 


"S'l^; 


qDjBasa-a 


£ 


s 






s 


s 






























Pi 


ca w fe 
■".So 






















D 

o 
O 


•p^JO 


S 

40 


s 






% 


•»< 






1 






^ 


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Part 2 






Smitm Tfchnological Institute 


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Table 10 

(Concluded) 



PART 3. TEACHING AND EXPENSE CONTRASTED 
Annual Report 





Total 


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1) 
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3 

W 
1-1 
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These various subdivisions of the total expense 
per student-hour will correspond to the division 
of accounts on preceding page 


Department 


Student- 
Hours 


Expense 


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Physics [Columbia] 


83235 


62926.51 


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.40 


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Chemistry [Harvard] 


65730 


53783.84 


■82 


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.47 


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Biologry [Haverford] 


4950 


3698.95 


.74 


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39014.83 


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85320 


57694.58 


68 


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90270 


39241.30 


43 


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.06 


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13040 


8124.94 


■62 


.18 




.27 


.02 




.08 


.07 




Economics [Wisconsin] 


81150 


39056.84 


47 


.06 




.26 


.03 




.06 


.06 






506435 


303541.79 


■60 



















TABLES 115 

TABLE 11 

This shows the average number of students in the different kinds of exercises (lab- 
oratory, lectures, and recitations) in elementary and medium grade work. The tabu- 
lation is restricted to these grades, because at all the institutions the size of sections 
in graduate and research work is small and largely the result of chance. 

There seems to be the widest difference of opinion as to what constitutes a proper 
size for a class. If we had weighted these sections in proportion to the number of times 
a week they meet, this difference would probably have been even more marked. I was 
informed at one place that it was practically impossible to lecture to more than one 
hundred and twenty-five students in physics, yet our table shows that at four insti- 
tutions there are classes of more than one hundred and fifty students. This question 
of size of sections is so largely pedagogical that the figures are submitted without 
further comment and for what they may be worth. 





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APPENDIX 



EXHIBIT A 

SAMPLE OF EMPLOYMENT BULLETIN 

The following employment bulletin is issued monthly by The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers and is referred to in the body of the report, page 28 : 

EMPLOYMENT BULLETIN 

The Society has always considered it a special obligation and pleasant duty to be the medium of se- 
curing better positions for its members. The Secretary gives this his personal attention and is most 
anxious to receive requests both for positions and for men available. Notices are not repeated except 
upon special request. Copy for notices in this Bulletin should be received before the 15th of the month. 
The list of men available is made up of members of the Society, and these are on file, with the names 
of other good men, not members of the Society, who are capable of filling responsible positions. In- 
formation will be sent upon application. 

POSITIONS AVAILABLE 

067 Manager for factory located at Newark-on-Trentj England. 

068 Instructor in mechanical and architectural drawing, for Tuesday and Thursday 
evenings, October to May, Location, Queens Borough, City of New York. Experience in 
teaching and tact required. Familiarity with manufacturing, drafting-room methods es- 
sential. 

069 Selling engineer wanted for steam condensers. Location, Philadelphia. 

070 Wanted, ambitious young man, with selling experience, to represent in Chicago 
a company manufacturing transmission machinery. 

071 Wanted, a young technical graduate, with good scholastic record and at least two 
years' practical experience, for position of assistant in laboratory of engineering school; 
salary $1000 for academic year. Location, Massachusetts. 

072 Man experienced in general machinery; to work on board and handle six men 
under general instruction of chief engineer; experience absolutely essential on jig-work 
and general design. Further, experience in transmission, conveying, gears, etc., pre- 
ferred; good opportunity for live, capable man; give full details of experience, salary 
expected, and positions previously held, naming employers in first letter; all information 
held strictly confidential; immediate opening; location, Ohio. 

MEN AVAILABLE 

254 Member, with fifteen years' experience, an expert on gas engines, gas producers, 
gas furnaces, gasoline and oil engines, pumping machinery of every description, air 
compressors, blowing engines, rolling mills, etc., both designer and superintendent, 
desires change. Now chief engineer of medium-size shop; would prefer larger concern 
or one willing to take up these branches anew. University graduate, best of references. 



120 APPENDIX 

255 Manual training and university technical graduate ; age 33, thirteen years' prac- 
tical experience in machine shop, drafting, designing, testing, estimating, etc.; has 
employed and had charge of men ; desires position, preferably in Philadelphia or vicinity. 
Would consider an opportunity in the commercial line of engineering or manufacturing. 

256 Representative of gas power company, desirous of entering into correspondence 
with a few firms in the machine line in the United States interested in the development 
of trade in Europe, Asia and Africa, with view to forming arrangements to represent 
them. 

257 Chief draftsman and designer of special machinery for manufacturing firm. Five 
years' experience power plant construction, irrigation and general engineering. At 
present, gas and mechanical engineer for corporation. Executive ability. Position as 
superintendent of maintenance or construction or as mechanical engineer with contract- 
ing or consulting firm. 

258 Associate, age 29, technical graduate, two years' experience general drafting, 
four years of teaching and research in the field of the gas producer, gas engine and 
steam boiler, capable of directing and handling both mechanical and chemical sides of 
this line of work, desires position as professor or assistant professor of experimental en- 
gineering or as testing engineer in charge of experimental work for a manufacturing 
plant. 

259 Member, long experience in pumping machinery, air compressors, Corliss engines, 
condensing apparatus ; desires position as chief engineer or chief draftsman near New 
York. 

260 Assistant engineer, age 29, Cornell University, M. E., executive and designing 
ability and good business judgment, ability as investigator and organizer. Broad general 
experience in mechanical and civil engineering on railroad and car work, steam boil- 
ers, gas engines, industrial plant equipment, power house, hydro-electric work, special 
designs; seeks position as works manager or engineer in moderate-sized progressive 
concern. 

261 Affiliate and associate member Am. Soc. C. E., eight years' experience on design 
and construction in steel and reinforced concrete, especially familiar with power-houses 
and structures for street railway and lighting companies; open for engagement, June 
first. 

262 Junior member, graduate mechanical engineer, seeks position which will offer a 
future. Three and a half years' general experience as draftsman, steam engineering and 
special work. Present salary $125 per month. 

263 Assisting manager at present engaged with company operating blast furnaces, 
mines, etc.; technical education, familiar with manufacture of merchant pig iron, includ- 
ing Gayley Dry Blast, and all details entering into plant operation ; can handle men and 
produce results. 



EXHIBIT B 

EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER OF 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY FOR YEAR 1907-08 

The matter on this page and the two which follow it is quoted from the Report of 
the Treasurer of Harvard University for the year 1907-08. These quotations consti- 
tute the only references in the Treasurer's Report to either the Jefferson Physical 
Laboratory, the department of physics or physics itself. The interest of these 
excerpts for the purposes of this study is explained on pages 60 to 62 in the body 
of this report. From this point the matter is quoted : 



INCOME AND CURRENT EXPENSES FOR DEPARTMENTS 
General Items Only 

These tables show for each department the receipts available for salaries, retiring al- 
lowances and general expenses, the amount of such expenses, and the resulting surplus, 
or deficit. They are summaries of only these general items in the more comprehensive 
and detailed tables beginning on page 89- 



JEFFERSON PHYSICAL LABORATORY 

(See Table No. XVIII, page 151) 

Available for Expenses 
Income of funds and balance 
Sale 

Amount available for expenses 



[From p. 12 



Payments 

General expenses 
University charge 

Less the amount which was paid from College income (see Table II, 
page 117) 

Surplus 
In 190G-7 there was a deficit of 
The JeflFerson Physical Laboratory credit balance on July 31, 1908, was 

[From Table Income and Expense] 
Jefferson Physical Laboratory, as per Table XVIII (page 152) 
Expenses of research, paid from Funds and gift 
Other expenses 

University charge 

Less amount paid from College income (see Table II, page 117) 



$3,881.78 
87.00 



$3,687.58 

238.99 

§3,9-26.57 



S 67.77 
$2,675.20 



$3,155.98 

3,687.58 

$6,843.56 

238.99 
$7,082.55 

766.23 



[From p. 20 



$3,968.78 
§3,968.78 



{From p. 21 



766.23 3,160.34 



.S808.44 



[From p. Jfi 



§6,316.32 



122 



APPENDIX 



[From p. 89 



RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS FOR DEPARTMENTS 

The following tables are intended to show in detail the resources and expenditures of 
each department of the university. The receipts include every gift and the income of 
every fund. The payments include every payment for the specific object of every gift 
and fund. The items are stated separately except in the case of payments for a general 
object such as salaries, in which case the payments are merged under the general head- 
ing. These tables are not found in the treasurer's books, but are a transcript from the 
books and form a balanced statement, as shown on page l62. 



[From p. 151 



TABLE NO. XVIII 
JEFFERSON PHYSICAL LABORATORY 

Receipts 
Income of Funds 
Jefferson Physical Laboratory balance (interest on) 
Physical Laboratory Endowment 
Joseph Lovering 

T. Jefferson Coolidge, for Research in Physics 
Loans to be used in place of income 

Loan $2,500.00 

Interest 37.01 

Anonymous Gift for Physical Research, interest 



[From p. 152 Gifts for the salary of a Fellow for Research in Physics 
Gifts 
Interest 



\ 94.28 

3,787.30 

421.62 



2,537.01 

28.79 



2,000.00 
23.73 



$6,889.20 

$6,889.20 



2,023.73 



Sale of old steam engine 



87.00 
^,999.93 



Payments 



Research in Physics, from 
T. Jefferson Coolidge Fund 
Joseph Lovering Fund 
Anonymous Gift for Physical Research 

Printing 

Repairs 

Care and cleaning 

Fuel 

Water 

Lighting 

Telephone 

Insurance 

Services and wages 

Electric power 

Supplies and sundries 



$2,403.26 

326.51 

426.21 

$ 212.16 

166.23 

1,078.00 

477.94 

53,64 

259.50 

72.89 

132.43 

848.00 

380.96 

5.81 

$3,687.58 



$3,155.98 



EXHIBIT B 



123 



Less the following, paid from College income (see Table II, page 117) 
Repairs ?1(J0.23 

Fuel, services, etc. 600.00 

University charge (see p. 89) 
Treasurer's Office, care of investments 
Bursar's Office, collections and payments 
Watchmen 
Pubhcation Office, salary and expenses 



BALANCED SUMMARY OF THE TABLES 



$766.23 $2,921.35 
$6,077.33 



$83.60 
19.72 
85.50 
50.17 



238.99 



$6,316.32 



Table 

I. University 
II. College 

III. Library 

IV. Divinity School 
V. Law School 

VI. Medical School 
VII. Dental School 
VIII. BussEY Institution 
IX. Arnold Arboretum 
X. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum 
XI. Gray Herbarium 
XII. Observatory 

XIII. Museum of Comparative Zoology 

XIV. Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology 
XV. Semitic Museum 

XVI. Germanic Museum 
XVII. William Hayes Fogg Art Museum 
XVIII. Jefferson Physical Laboratory 
XIX. Appleton Chapel 
XX. Phillips Brooks House 
XXI. Hemenway Gymnasium 
XXII. Stillman Infirmary 

XXIII. Sundry Funds for Special Purposes 

XXIV. Construction Accounts 
XXV. Sundry Accounts 



Receipts 

$ 85,726.58 

1,412,149.85 

67,339.19 

44,334.26 

142,140.88 

273,339.28 

52,775.71 

27,895.56 

31,424.43 

9,924.52 

153,610.32 

59,230.93 

42,446.12 

19,860.08 

1,439.23 

1,885.62 

6,322.02 

8,999.93 

2,577.22 

1,784.52 

2,218.00 

23,884.05 

46,646.66 

36,340.12 

632,656.00 



Payments 

$ 61,552.60 

1,059,717.38 

82,865.53 

44,304.73 

120,174.83 

230,527.46 

21,645.65 

20,128.78 

34,718.18 

9,285.25 

12,660.57 

63.461.38 

40,860.20 

18,364.01 

13,289.71 

1,428.15 

5,875.08 

6,316.32 

2,577.22 

1,705.04 

2,218.00 

24,014.67 

22,808.60 

215,859.61 

691,995.63 



L^ rom p 



162 



3,186,951.08 $2,808,354.58 



Total amount of payments 
Total amount of receipts 

Less gifts for capital account 
Balance, which is the net decrease of funds and balances, 

excluding gifts for capital, as is shown also on page 11 



$2,808,354.58 
$3,186,951.08 

449,822.53 2,737.128.55 

$71,226.03 



EXHIBIT C 

SCHEDULE AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING OUT 

The data in regard to the disposition of the time of the teaching staff were secured 
largely by requesting each teacher of physics to fill out the schedule shown on 
page 126. The instructions for filling these out read as follows: 

INSTRUCTION ON FILLING OUT SCHEDULE 

At least one schedule is sought from every person who has any teaching to do in the 
field covered by the department of physics. Those who make out schedules are requested 
to make them out in full, i.e., to cover the entire week, even if the time devoted to physics 
is only a small proportion of the whole time given to the university. When the schedule 
is the same for each of the terms in the college year 1908-09 only one schedule is de- 
sired. Where the schedule is different during two, three or four terms there should be 
two, three or four schedules. Kindly mark the schedule in place provided showing term 
to which it belongs. If more than two schedules are required, it will be necessary to use 
two sheets. Each person making out a schedule will kindly place at the top (a) his name, 
(6) title of chair or other post he fills, and (c) a memorandum of any special duties he may 
have not suggested by his title, which may be useful in interpreting the schedule. 

Kindly first fill in in black ink all absolute appointments under the following heads. 
(Where the period used does not run full hours please note it.) 

A. LECTURE 

B. PREPARATION (for lectures). Put down under this head only such time as may be ^ven reg- 
ularly to this purpose at the same hour and same place each week. 

C. RECITATION (quiz, section, conferences, etc.). Put under this head those hours usually devoted 
to recitation purposes, but which may be from time to time varied with some lecturing. 

D. LABORATORY 

E. CONSULTATION. This is to cover advertised office hours regularly kept for the purpose of private 
consultations, principally with students. 

F. MEETINGS (faculty meetings, etc.). 

G. RESEARCH (personal). Only put entries under this head when the schedule is followed with 
approximately the same regularity as under the other heads. 

In every case where any of the above entries are made the number or other designation 
of the lecture room, study, etc., should be given, also the course. Entries under the fore- 
going head will only be made where the same hour each week is regularly devoted to 
the same purpose. The cooperation of those making out schedules is specially requested 
in the care with which the foregoing entries are made. Unless a high degree of accuracy 
is aimed at, the comparison will lose much of its value. 

The foregoing is intended to include that part of the productive time which is disposed 
of in virtually the same way each week. Of what remains there is a certain amount which 
in a way follows some schedule. For instance, on Friday between two and four, Mr. Roe 
usually gets time for personal research or study; or between nine and ten on Tuesday 



EXHIBIT C 125 

Mr. Doe runs over a lecture which he is to deliver that morning at eleven. Please write 
such entries in a different way from the others, preferably in red ink (pencil will answer, 
or if in black ink put a ring around them). 

In general, kindly make entries as full as possible. In case it is desired to explain any- 
thing, use an asterisk and put on back of schedule sheet. 



Schedule of. 
Title 







Monday 


Tuesday 


Wednesday 


Thursday 


Friday 


Saturday 




8.00 














9.00 














10.00 














11.00 














U 

H 




12.00 


















1.00 














2.00 
















3.00 














4.00 














5.00 
















8.00 














9.00 














10.00 














11.00 














S 

a 

E- 




12.00 


















1.00 










* 




2.00 
















3.00 














4.00 


















5.00 















EXHIBIT D 
SECTION SCHEDULE AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING OUT 

The data in regard to the size of sections, number of student-hours, etc., were secured 
largely by requesting those in charge of the various departments of physics to fill 
out the following section schedule. The instructions covering this work read as fol- 
lows: 

INSTRUCTIONS ON MAKING OUT SECTION SCHEDULE 

Use one line on the section schedule for every different section. A section will be con- 
sidered to be those students who are taught or quizzed on the same subject, during the 
same period, by the same teacher with or without assistants. Thus a class studying the 
same subject, but divided into three parts and taught at perhaps the same hour in differ- 
ent rooms by different teachers, will be considered three sections. Thus wherever there 
is a change in (a) the students who are taught, (6) the hour, (c) the place, ((/) the teacher, 
or (e) the subject, a new section is created. 

The letters used below in giving directions for filling in the section schedule are those 
at the heads of the various columns of the schedule. 

Please begin with the first period Monday morning and give all the sections taught in 
this period, one line to each section. Then give those sections taught in the second period. 
Thus go consecutively through Monday. Then begin with the first period on Tuesday 
and go consecutively through Tuesday. Thus go consecutively through the week. Where 
the section schedule changes with the term, make it out complete for each term. 

A. Under this column simply give a serial number so that the last serial number will 
represent the number of sections for the term, or for the year if the terms are alike. 

B. Fill in the initial of the day of the week in which the section is taught. As the 
sections are grouped by days, this letter need not be repeated. 

C. Under the subject give the descriptive title such as "Physics," "Sound," "Light," 
and follow this with the designating letters, figures, or other symbol so that the course 
can be identified in the printed or other lists of courses offered. In the column headed 
"Grade" put a letter to indicate the degree of difficulty of the course as follows: 

E Elementary 
M Medium 
G Graduate 
R Research 

The elementary grade will cover branches taught ordinarily in the freshman or sopho- 
more year, or which are taught during the first year or two of study of a subject. Medium 
will include branches taught in the junior or senior year and which it is ordinarily assumed 
have already been taken by a graduate continuing in physics. Graduate branches will be 
those that are rarely taught except to graduate students. Research courses will be those 
in which after the subject has been chosen the student is not required to follow any 
set series of exercises. 



128 APPENDIX 

D. Give the hours at which the section convenes. 

E. Give the number or other designation of the room, hall or laboratory where the 
section meets. 

F. Under the period give the name of the person in charge of the section as well as 
the names of his assistants. The names of assistants would include helpers outside the 
teaching staff. The effort will be made through this information to figure the cost of reci- 
tations, laboratory work and lectures. 

G. Divide the students in any section into first, second, third and fourth year men and 
graduates. Then total them. 

H. State how long the period is in hours. 

J. There will be an entry in only one of the three columns under J, in any one line. 
Thus, if it is a laboratory section with twenty students, and lasting three hours, the entry 
will be sixti/, i.e., sixty student-laboratory-hours. 

K. Under this column put only the time regularly spent in preparation, only the time 
taken every week at the same hour. When this time is regularly devoted to the work, of 
course it becomes a part of the expense of giving the lectures to which it belongs. Give 
not only the name of the lecturer, but his assistants. 

L. An effort will be made to determine the proportion of student-hours undertaken by 
the students from free choice and those which are undertaken because of prescription, 
more or less binding. 

M. Please do not write under this column. 

N. Use the remarks column to make clear any of the entries. Please add any exercise 
in physics left over after all the sections have been listed if there are any such. 





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INDEX 



INDEX 



Absences of students, 68. 
Accounting departments, 8, 60, 61, 63, 64. 
Advertising, college, 48, 49. 
Apparatus, care of, 25, 65, 66. 
Attendants, laboratory, 66. 

Buildings, use of, 33-41, 50, 96, 97. 

Valuation of, 74, 76. 
Bursar's department, 45, 46. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, The, 65. 
Catalogues, college, 47, 48. 
Classes, size of, 116, 127-129, 
Columbia University: 

Business efficiency, 8. 

Cost of physics, 33, 100, 103. 

Physics experiments difficult, 31. 

Rooms at Fayerweather Hall, 36. 

Salaries, 79-81, 83. 

Status of assistants, 26. 

Superintendent of buildings and grounds, 
12. 

Teaching staff in physics, 78. 

Time of staff, 92, 93. 

Use of buildings, 97. 

Value of property, 76. [116. 

See also 3, 62, 68, 69, 74, 104, 106, 112-114, 
Committee management, 9-14, 18, 28, 47. 
Commons, college, 55, 69, 70. 
Cost of teaching, 54-59, 104, 106-110, 113. 
Cost of teaching physics, 98-103, 121-123. 
Courses, designation of college, 47, 48. 

Day, length of working, 8, 27, 28, 84, 86-90, 
92, 93. 
Productiveness of, 24. 
Department autonomy, 12, 13. 
Discipline, college, 18, 46, 47, 51, 68. 
Dormitories, 55. 

-ililective system, 50. 
Eliot, Dr. Charles William, 6, 14, 70, 104. 
Employment, bureau of, 28. 
Employment bulletin, copy of, 119, 120. 
Examinations, college, 52. 
Expenditures, total college, 76. 

Faculty, 11, 12. 

Financial administration, 54-64. 

Fine, Dean Henry B., 12. 

Functional management, 14-17, 23, 24, 42. 

Crarfield, President Harry A., 4T. 
Gauge of efficiency, 19, 20. 
Grounds and buildings, superintendent of, 12, 
13, 42, 43. 



-Harvard Untversity: 

Commons, 69. 

Cost of physics, 33, 100, 103. 
Cost of physics research, 60. 
Inventorying buildings, 6. 
Manner of investment, 62. 
Pamphlets, 48. 
Salaries, 80-83. 
Solidarity of staff, 10. 
Teaching staff in physics, 77, 78. 
Time of staff, 92, 93. 
Treasurer's report, 63, 121-123. 
Use of buildings, 96, 97. 
Value of property, 74-76. 
See also 3, 15, 104, 107, 112-114, 116. 
Haverford College: 
Commons, 69. 

Cost of physics, 33, 100, 103. 
Salaries, 80-83. 

Teaching staff in physics, 78. 
Time of staff, 93. 
Use of buildings, 97. 
Value of property, 74-76. 
See also 3, 112-114, 116. 

"Inbreeding" of teachers, 66, 77, 78. 
Inspection, bureau of, 50-53. 
Intensiveness, lack of, 7. 
Inventories of lands and buildings, 6, 7. 
Investment of funds, 62, 63. 

Janitor service, interdepartmental, 43, 44. 
Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard Uni- 
versity, 121-123. 

i-/ecture notes, standardized, 24-26. 
Library, college, 55, 56, 66. 

JMail handling, 45. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology: 

Cost of physics, 33, 101, 103. 

Salaries, 80-83. 

Teaching staff in physics, 77, 78, 

Time of staff, 92, 93. 

Use of buildings, 97. 

Value of property, 74-76. 

See also 3, 30, 38, 66, 104, lOS, 112-114. 116. 
Mechanical Engineers, The American Society 

of, 28, 119. 
Military type of organization, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17. 

iNoRTIIWESTERN UNIVERSITY, 45. 

Organization, tj-pes of university, 9-17. 
Physical Society, The American, 30, 65. 



134 



INDEX 



Physics, cost of teaching, 98-101, 121-123. 
Presidents, college, 15, 16. 
Princeton University : 

Committee management, 9, 11, 18. 

Cost of physics, 33, 101, 103. 

Department autonomy, 43. 

Manner of investment, 62. 

Salaries, 80-83. 

Size of buildings, 41. 

Teaching staff in physics, 78. 

Time of staff, 92, 93. 

Use of buildings, 96, 97. 

Value of property, 74-76. 

See also 3, 8, 10, 39, 63, 104, 108, 111-114, 
116. 
Publicity, bureau of, 47-49. 
Purchasing department, 44, 45. 

xvecords of teaching efficiency, 27. 
Registrar, college, 49, 50. 
Registrar's report, suggested college, 112. 
Research : 

Cost of, 32-34. 

Demand for research workers, 27, 30. 

Inspection of, 31, 32. 

Student-hours in, 19, 20. 

Undergraduate research, 31. 
Rooms, use of college, 35-41, 96, 97. 

Salaries, college: 

Average, 94, 95. 

Based on student-hours, 59. 

Individual at institutions, 79-83. 

Methods of increasing, 21, 23. 

See also 29, 73, 75, 76. 
Shops, 11, 42. 

"Smith Technological Institute," 104-114. 
Standards, modern business, 6. 
Stores department, 45. 
Student-hours, 19, 20, 46, 59, 97, 102, 103, 106, 

112-114, 127-129. 
Supplies, requisitions for, 12. 

laylor. Dr. Frederick W., 15. 
Teaching, amount of, 84, 86-90, 92, 93, 124-126. 
Teaching force, college, 77, 78. 



Tenure, professorial, 22, 23. 
Toronto, Univeiisity of: 

Cost of physics, 33, 101, 103. 

Department autonomy, 42, 44. 

Inventorying buildings, 6. 

Military government, 9. 

Salaries, 79-83. 

Teaching staff in physics, 77, 78. 

Time of staff, 92, 93. 

Use of buildings, 38, 40, 97. 

Value of property, 74-76. 

See also 3, 66-68, 104, 109, 112-114, 116. 
Treasurer's ireport, suggested college, 104-110, 

113, 114. 
Trowbridge, Professor John, 74. 
Trustees, 12, 15, 16, 18. 

V aluation of college property, 74, 76. 
Van Hise, President Charles R., 35. 

W iLLiAMS College : 

Cost of physics, 33, 101, 103. 

Salaries, 80-83. 

Student-hours, 49, 50. 

Teaching staff in physics, 78. 

Time of staff, 92, 93. 

Use of buildings, 35, 36, 39, 97. 

Value of property, 76. 

See also 3, 30, 40, 46, 104, 110, 112-114,116. 
Wilson, Dr. Woodrow, 12. 
Wisconsin, University of : 

Budget, 54. 

Cost of physics, 33, 101, 103. 

Department government, 11. 

Inventorying property, 7. 

Purchasing department, 44. 

Salaries, 80-83. 

Stores department, 45. 

Teaching staff in physics, 78. 

Time of staff, 92, 93. 

University government, 12. 

Use of buildings, 35, 39, 43, 97. 

Value of property, 75, 76. 

See also 3, 104, 110, 112-114, 116. 

y ALE University, 58. 



370.6273 C2894Bno.5c.1 

Cooke # Academic and 
industrial efficiency. - 




3 0005 02010025 4 




376.6^75 
(12894 



no .5 

Carnegie Foundation for the 
Advancement of Teaching. 
Bulletin - Cooke, Morris 
Llewellyn. Academic and 
J industrial efficiencv 

370.6273 
C2894 

no .5 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement 
of Teaching. 

Bulletin - Cooke, Morris Llewellyn. 

Academic and industrial efficiency