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SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACADEMY,! 
July 13, 1895. J 



P 

UE 

A 




9^0 



THE ACADEMY. 



A WEEKLY REVIEW OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, 

AND ART. 



JANUARY — JUNE, 
18 95. 



VCLUMK XLVIL 






PUBLISHING OFFICE: 27, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, W.O. 



18 9 5. 



CBTTPPUOfKNT TO TRB AOAOEICT, 
July IS, 1896. 



PKINTED BY ALEXANDER AND BHEPHIAKD, 
LONSDALK BUILDINGS, CHANOEBV LAMK, W.O. 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACADEMY,'! 
July 13, 1895. J 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XLVII. 



«-~-a»ee**o^a'-» 



LITERATURE. 



RETXKWS. 

PAex 
Adye's (Sir John) SecoUeetiom of a 

Militam Life 393 

Allen's (Grant) The Woman who Did... 188 
Archer's (William) tranelation of Haupt- 

la&nn' & Ilannete 30 

Archer (T. A.) 4 Kingsford's (C. L.) The 

Crusades 76 

Bain's (R. Nisbet) Cossack Fairy Tales 

and Folk-Tales 121 

Baines's ( F. E.) Forty Tears at the Post 

Office 281 

Baker's (James) A Forgotten Great 

Engli'hman 282 

Balfour's (Right Hon. A. J.) The Foun- 
dations of Belie/ 207 

Bandello's (Macteo) Novellieri Ttaliani 143 
Beazley's (C. R.) Prince Henry the 

Nacigator 2» 

Beesly's (A. H.) Ballads, and Other 

rerte 309 

Benson's (Arthur Christopher) Lyrics .. 499 
Bishop's (Maria C.) Memoir of Mrs. 

Augustus Craven 141 

" Bjomson, Bjumstjeme, The Novels of " 262 
Bonner's (Mrs.) Charles Bradlaugh ... 187 
Bosanquel's (Bernard) Aspects of the 

Social Problem 420 

Boyle, Very Rev. G. D., Dean of Salis- 
bury, Recollections of 230 

Bnunwell * Hughes's Training of 

Teachers in the United States 08 

Brown's (Horatio F.) John Addington 

Symonds 96 

Brace's (Alexander Balmain) St. Paul's 

Conception of Christianity 272 

Burke's (Ulick B,.) History of Spain ... 332 
Buratall's (Sara A.) The Education of 

Girts in the United Slates 98 

Butler's (A.J.) Dante: his Times and 

his Work 438 

" Calendar of State Papers " 118 

Cecil's (Evelyn) Primogeniture 310 

Cheetham's (Dr. S.) History of the 

Christian Church during the First 

Six Centuries 61 

Chester's (Norley) Dante Vignettes ... 373 
Cheyne'a (Rev. T. K.) Introduction to 

the Book of Isaiah 487 

Church's (Mary C.) Life and Letters 

of Dean Church 27 

Colvin'g (Sir Auckland) John Russell 

Colvin 163 

Conway's (W. M.) Climbing in the 

Himalayas 30 

Corbin's (John) The^iiabethan Hamlet 4S9 
Craik's (Henry) English Prose Selec- 
tion* 74 

Davidson's (John) Balladt am Songs . 6 
Daviea's (William) The Pilgrim of the 

Infinite 260 

Davis's (Mrs. J. W.) translation of 

Memoirs of the Duchesse de Gontaut 29 
Z>« Gontaut, Duchesse, Memoirs of ... 29 
Delbrel's (Le P. J.) Les Jisuiles el la 

Peilngogie au XVl'- Slide 421 

De lU))ai!'9 (Fernando) Ceiertino 79 

De Tabley's (Lord) Poems Dramatic 

and Li/rirnl ... 291 

Dillon'^ (E. J.) The Sceptics of the Old 

Testament 396 

Douglas's (Charlea) John Stuart Mill . 620 



REVIEWS— coM/inufid. 

PAGE 

Elliot's (Frances) Soman Gossip ... 121 
Elworthy's (Frederick Thomas) The 

Evil Eye 459 

Emerson's (P. H.) Tales from Welsh 

Wales 211 

Fitzgerald's (Ptrcy) Memoirs of an 

Author 293 

Flint's (Robert) Socialism 161 

Praser's (Marie) In Stevenson's Samoa 272 
Fronde's (J. A.) English Seamen in the 

Sixteenth Century 537 

Gardiner's (8. R.) History of the Com- 
monwealth and Protectorate 6 

(Rev. R. B.) The Registers 

of Wadham College ... 439 

Qeorgeakis & Pineau's Le Folk-lore de 

Lesiios 396 

Gordon's (Mrs.) Life and Corre- 
spondence of Dean Buckland 62 

Gosse's (Edmund) edition of Bjomson's 

Synnove Sotbakken 262 

Graves's (A. P.) Ihe Irish Song-Book 349 
Greenwood's (Frederick) Imagination 

in Dreams, and their Study 119 

Gunkel's (Hermann) Schopfung und 

Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit 361 

Hamilton's (William Douglas) Charles I. 118 
Hauptmann's (Gerhart) Hannete . ... 30 
Herbert's (William V.) The Defence of 

Plevna 292 

" Heroes of the Nations " 249 

Hinkson's (H. A.) Dublin Verses 349 

Hole's (Dean) More Memories . ... 145 
Hyde's (Douglas) Tlie Story of Early 

Gaelic Literature 349 

Tlte Three Sorrows 

of Story-telling 477 

Image's (Selwyn) Poems and Carols ... 271 

" In Memoriam," The, of Italy 143 

Jacobs's (Joseph) An Inquiry into the 

Sources of the History of the Jews in 

Spain 210 

Jones's (Henry) Critical Account of 

the Philosophy of Lotze 620 

Johnson's (Lionel) Poems 394 

Jowett & Campbell's Plato's Republic 260 
Jusscrand's (J. J.) Literary History of 

the English People 497 

Kennedy's (Rev. John) History of the 

Parish of Leyton 374 

Eitchin's (Dean) Bishop Harold 

Browne 331 

Knight's (William) edition of Minto's 

Literature of the Georgian Era ... 49 

(E. F.) Rhodesia of To-day ... 77 

Kroeker's (Kate Freiligrath) .4 Century 

of German Lyrics 641 

Landor's (A. Henry Savage) Corea or 

Chosen 231 

Le Gallienne's (Richard) Robert Louis 

Stevenson 519 

Ijeland's (C. G.) Songs of the Sea and 

Lays of /he Land 419 

Lermontqff, Tlie Demon of 353 

Linton's (Vv. J.) Memories 307 

Louis XIV., Secret Memoirs of the 

Court of 374 

Lnffmann's (C. Boguc) A Vagabond in 

Spain 540 

Mabbe's (James) translation of De 

Rojas's Celestina 76 



REVIEWS— coBiJnuerf. 

PiGE 

Mflc«wen'8 (Alexander R.) Life and 

Letters of John Cairns, D.D., LL.D. 539 
Maeterlinck's (Maurice) L'Ornemeni 

des Noces spirituelles 232 

Martineau's (John) Life and Corre- 
spondence of Sir Bartle Frere 270 

Martinon's Elegies ile Tibulle 460 

Meyer's(PauI) L'llistoire de Guillaume 

le Marechal 289 

Minto's (William) The Lite'ature of 

the Georgian Era 40 

Morris's (William O'Connor) Memories 

and Thoughts tf a Life 371 

(Edward E.) Memoir of George 

Higinl}otham 440 

Murray &, While's Sir Samuel Baker ... 349 

Nordau's (Max) Degeneration 476 

Norman's (Henry) The Peoples and 

Politics of the Far East 437 

Oelsner's (U.) The Influence of Dante 

on Modern Thought 438 

Oliphant's (Mrs.) Historical Sketches 

of the Reign of Queen Anne 185 

Oman's (Charles) History of England 352 
Owen's (Rev. Richard) it/e of Richard 

Owen 73 

Page's (Mary H.) Graded Schools in 

the United S ates 98 

Passerini's (G. L. ) Giornale Dantesco 189 

Pater's (Walter) Greek Studies 229 

Pike's (Luke Owen) Constitutional 

History of the House of Lords 143 

Pinkerton's (Percy) translation of 

Bandello's Novellieri Italiani 143 

Pleyte's (C. M.) Bataksche VertelUngen 308 
Pole's (Dr.) The Evolution of Whist ... 353 
Bae's (John) Life of Adam Smith ... 280 
Raleigh's (Walter) The English Novel 162 
Repplier's (Agnes) In the Dozy Hours, 

and Other Papers 8 

Ritchie's (Annie Thackeray) Chapters 

from Some Memoirs 117 

(U. G.) Natural Rights 600 

Robertson's (John M.) Charles Brad- 
laugh 187 

Robinson's (Commander C. M.) The 

British Fleet 96 

Eodway's (James) In the Guiana 

Forest 164 

Ropes's (John Codman) The Story of 

the Civil War 330 

"Rulers of India" 163 

Safah Nameh 7 

Saintsbury's (George) Corrected Ii 

pressions 

Scudder's (Vida D.) The Life of the 

Spirit in the Modern English Poets 476 
Shoppard's (Edgar) Memorials of St. 

James's Palace 498 

Simpkinson's (C. H.) Life and Times 

of Archbishop Laud 417 

Sladen's (Douglas) On the Cars and 

Off 375 

Smiles's (Samuel) .losiah Wedgwood ... 209 
Speight's (Harry) Nidderdale and the 

Garden of tlie Nidd 

Spinoza's Tractatus de Intellectus 

Emendatione 620 

St. Andrews and Elsewhere. By the 

Author of " Twenty-five Years of St. 

Andrews " 19« 



459 



63 



REVIEWS— continued. 

FXGT. 

Stephens's (W. Walker) Life and 

Writings of Turgot 458 

(Dean W. R. W.) Life and 

Letters of Edward A. Freeman ... 51 7 
Stoddart's (Jane T.) translation of 

Buysbroeck and the Mystics 232 

Storr's (Francis) translation of T^r- 

monto&'B Demon 353 

'* Story of the Nations, The ** 76 

Stratheden's (Lord) The Eastern 

Question 07 

Sutter's (Julie) translation of Bjomson's 

Synnov4 Solhakken 253 

Symonds, John Addington, Biography 

of ... 93 

Thomson's (Basil) The Diversions of a 

Prime Minister 188 

Tomlinson's (Charles) Dante, Beatrice, 

and the Divine Comedy ..438 

Tsagarelli's (A. A.) Sviedienia o 

pamiatnikakh gruzinskoi pismen- 

nosti 470 

Tyrrell's (R. Y.) Latin Poetry 638 

Veitch's (John) Dualism and Moni.tm 620 
Verrall's (A. W.) Euripides the 

Rationalist 418 

Vincent's (Frank) Actual Africa 618 

Voyn'ch's (E. L.) The tlumour of 

Russia... 411 

Wace's (Dr. Henry) Christianity and 

Agnosticism 329 

Waliszewski's (K.) The Story of a 

Throne .. 51 

Watson's (William) Odes, and Other 

Poems 28 

Welsh Fairy Tales, and Other Stories 211 
White's (W. Hale) translation of 

Spinoza's Tractatus de Intellectus 

Emendatione 620 

Williams's (Hamilton) Britain's Naval 

Power 01 

Wills's (C. J.) Beh nrf an Eastern Veil 7 
Yeats's (W. B.) A Book of Irish Verse 349 
Zimmem's (Alice) Methods of Educa- 
tion in the United States 93 



HOVBLB. 

Alexander's (Mi8.) What Gold cannot 

Buy 234 

"Alien's" The Majesty of Man 294 

Allen'aiF.M.) Ballybeg Junction ... 78 
^—^— (Grant) Under Sealed Orders 293 

(M.) On the Cards; or, The 

Return of the Princess 354 

An Episode at Schmeks By the Author 

of " A Plight to Florida " 4S0 

Appleton's (G. W.) The Co-Respondent 53 
Australia Revenged. By "Boom- 
erang " 160 

BachelTor's (Irving) The Still House of 

O'Darrow .... ... ... 51 

Barlow's (Jane) Kerrigan's Quality ... 9 
Battershall's (Fletcher) A Daughter of 
this. World...... » 



IV 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVII. 



C SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACADEMY, 
Jaly 18, 1886. 



NOTELS-foaNmM^ 

rial 

Baanuui'i (A. Hnlme) truuUtion o( 

•KUM't MatUr and Mmm <01 

BtU't (Mwla) Th4 Countrt MtmiHeV* 

loHatam 461 

(Mn. Hncta) The Start <\f 

Vmht SSS 

BaDkin'i (C. S.) ^m V»iHotcn Power 411 
Beaiknt'a (W«ller) Beyond the Dreamt 

of Avarice ... ,« 363 

Beiham-Edwiurdi'* (M.) A Xnmanee qf 

Dijim 123 

Blnundellft-Borton's (John) The Hif 

paniola Plate »74 

Boldrawood'a (Rolf) Tlie SphiHje of 

Moflett^wk 174 

Bmdbnry'i (Joseph) Pirtt Davenport 

of Bramhalt 78 

Brnnrlnn'H iHoatrix) Lad0 Maud 443 

Brykni'a (UarKuerite) A Oreat Reepon- 

eihiUtjf 376 

Bailer's (H«di7 F.) A Bachelor' $ 

familf 461 

Bninn's (G. B.) The Dauee at the 

PoHr I'limert 4H0 

Cunbridse'i (Ada) Fidelie 397 

Campion t (Ivon Hamilton) A Dawnleti 

TaU 79 

Oarr's (Mrs. Comyns) A Model Wife, 

and Other Storiee 123 

Calor** (Mnrray) Station Storiee 334 

Chmle^t (J. Mllcbell) The Minor 

Chord 273 

Cbcaaon'a (W. H.) Name thi* Child ... 64 
Oobban'a (J. M.) The Avenger of Blood 622 
Compton'a (Herbert) A Free Lance in a 

Far Land 264 

CXairad'a (Joeeph) Alma$er't FoOf ... 603 
Oopmr'a (James) A Tale of Two 

Omratee 146 

Ootas't (Mrs. Everard) The Storg qf 

Sonnf Sahib 10 

Ciawford'a (Marion 7.) The RaUtone... 211 
Creeawell'a (Henry) Cancelled Bond:.. 363 
(JrocketfK (8. R.) The Pla^-Actreee ... 99 

Crokor'a (B. M.) Mr. Jercie 77 

Cromarty's (Oeax) Under God's Sky ... 642 
Cmsa's (MarKaret) A'eiclf Faehioned ... 442 
OnlUp'a (Mm. Pender) A Girl's Folly 166 
^— — — ^— ^— False Pre- 

lencee 364 

Cunningham's (Sir H. S.) Sibylla 122 

Curse of Intellect, The 396 

Culhell a (Kdith E.V TAo Wte Widow's 

Cntiee in Quiet Waters 312 

Dale'a (Alice M.) With Feet of Clay ... 412 
DaTidson's (John) Barl Lavender ... 364 
Dean's (Mrs. Andreir) The Grass- 

hoppers 331 

De Balzac's (Honor^) The Mfsttry of 

iheSueSoly 123 

Dee's (R, K.) Mortgaged Years 422 

Deland's (Margaret) Philip and hit 

W\fe 122 

De la Pasture's (Mrs. Henry) A Toy 

Traoedy 10 

Delle'? (Valentine) Sheep or Ooatt ... 166 

Desart'K (Karl of) Grandborough 31 

De Villien' (J. A. J.) translation of 

Leiielletier's Madame Sans-Gine ... 233 

Dies Irae 146 

Dongall's (L.) The Mermaid ,W4 

The Zeit-Geist 601 

Dowley's (Ricliard) A Dirk Intruder 146 

Egerton'a (George) Discords 188 

—^-^—^^^ translation of Hans- 
son's Young Ofeg't Ditties 281 

Esler's (E. EentonI) A Maid of the 

Mante 378 

Family Arrangement, A. By the 

antbor of " Dr. Edith Bomney " ... 122 
Vairars' (John) The Maid of Havod- 

wen 190 

FrancUlon's (R. E.) Jack Doyle's 

Daughter 31 

Francis's (C. E.) Everyday's Xeas ... 642 
Fraser's (Julia Agnes) Shilrick, the 

Drummer 78 

Gerard's (Dorothea) An Arranged 

Marriage 601 

Gerrare's (Wirt) Phantasms 100 

Gift's (Theo.) Wrecked at the Outset 10 
Giaainff's ((Seoige) In the Year of 

Jubilee ... 189 

-^—^—^^—^— Bve't Rantom ... m 
Godfrey's (Elizalieth) Cornith 

Diamondt 190 

Goldsmith's (Henry) fluincoiufit 334 

Gyp's Ohiffun'i Marriage ... 480 



^ 



asRgard's (Lt.Ool. Andrew) Tempeit 

'lorn 32 

Hansaon's (Ola) Young Ofea's Ditties 294 
Hargreares' (C. Y.) Puste Rtntante ... 9 
Harris's (W. B.) Dannvitch, and Other 

Talei 334 

Harrison's (Mrs. Bnrton) A Bachelor 

Maid 264 

Haita'a (Bret) The BeU-Ringer of 

„Jlntels 190 

Hatton's (Joeeph) The Banishment of 

Jacob BIythe 442 

Heawood's (A. 8.) Brenda 462 

Hocking's (Silas K.) Doctor Dick, and 

Other Tales « J. ... 461 



VOTKLS-eontinued. 

not 
Hodgaon'a (W. Karl) Haunted by Pot- ' 

terity 480 

Bolmea'a (M. Ciordnn) Sylvia Craven . 313 
Holnnt'a (H. 8.) Olympia't Journal ... 442 
Hopc'a ( Andrpc) The Secret of Wardale 

Court, and other Storiet 361 

Home's (Fergus) The Gates of Dawn . 100 
Ilnngerfonl's (Mr».) The Three Oracet 470 
Hant'a (Mrs. Alfred) A Black Squire ... 100 
Jamea'a (I'. T. C.) On Tumham Green 308 
Jooelvn'a (Mra. Robert) Run to Ground 8 
John's (Lanrenoe) A Blind Man's 

Love 79 

Keane'a (Henry) 7%« Faded Poppy ... 234 
Kenealy'n (AralwUa) Some ilen are 

Such Gfntlemen 166 

Kennard's (Mrx, Edward) 7^« Play- 
thing of nn Hour 480 

" Kernotcs Soriea " 190 

KingV (Mm. Piiul) Li}rd Ooltho 422 

KnuUfnrd's (Lady) tmTmlation of Do 

BnHac's Mysteriiofthe Rue Soly ... 123 

Lady Jean's Vagaries 146 

Laird, The, and hit Friends 376 

Le Kann's (J. Sheridan) The Eml 

Quest 396 

Leigh's (Garrett) The Burning Mist ... 64 

Leone's (M. L.) Dead Leaves 274 

Lepelleticr'a (Edmond) Madame Sans- 

O/ne 233 

Le Volenr'a By Order of the Brother- 
hood 482 

Lie'a (Jonas) On« n/X^s't ^Mre* 100 

Linton'a (Mrs. Lynn) In Haste and at 

Leisure 273 

Lobenhoffer'a (Lillias) The Wrong of 

Fate 273 

Lowry's (H. D.) Women's Tragedies ... 602 
Lucas's (Reginald) A Clear Case of the 

Supernatural 146 

Lyall's (Edna) Doreen 100 

Lyon'a (Gilberta M. F.) Absent yet 

Present 31 

Machar's (Agnes Maule) The Heir of 

Fairiiiount Grange 376 

Machen'e (Arthur) The Great God Pan 

fmi The Inmost Light 166 

Mackie's (John) The Devil's Play- 

grouiul 99 

Sinners Twain 



462 
622 
274 



Magee'a (Violet) Scholar's Mate 

Mahatma, The 

Marmaduke, Emperor of Germany. 

By"X." 622 

Marryat's (Florence) The Beautiful 

Soul ... 64 

McCarthy's (Justin Huntly) A London 

Legend 254 

Meade & Halifax's Stories from the 

Diary of a Doctor 160 

Meadows's (Alice Maud) When the 

Heart is Young 602 

Medley's (Julius) The Tree of Life, and 

Other Stories 2»1 

Meredith's (George) The Tale of Chloe, 

and other Stories 263 

Middleton's (Colin) Without Respect of 

Persons 9 

Miller's (8. B.) A Malicious Threat ... 274 
Mole's (Marion) For the Sake of a Slan- 
dered Woman 642 

Monopole's His Last Amour lOJ 

Montrdsor's (F. F.) Into the Highways 

and Hedges 233 

Moore's (Frankfort) The Secret of the 

Court 311 

Ttco in the Bush, 

and Others EUnohere 354 

They call it Love... 442 

Morris's (E. O'Connor) Killeen 78 

Morrison's (Arthur) Martin Hewitt, 

Investigator 100 

Muir's (Jessie) translation of Lie's One 

of Life' s Slaves 100 

Murray's (Henry) A Man of Genius ... 145 
(Davi(l Christie) Tlie Investi- 
gations of John Pym 234 

^-—— — Mount De- 
spair, and Other Stories 422 

Needell's (Mrs. J. H.) The Vengeance 

of James Vansittart 622 

Nevison'a (Henry W.) Neighbours of 

Ours 312 

Oliphant's (Mrs.) Who teas Lost and is 

Pound 31 

Omond's (G. W. T.) Miserrima 623 

Papillon's (E. T_) .4(/«>Me 166 

Passion's Puppets 396 

Pa8ton's(Georee) A Study in Pri^udicet 480 
Pcnilerwl's (Mary L.) A Pastoral 

Played Out 398 

Pendcrel's (Richard) Dick Wylder ... 9 
Perks's (Lily) A Late Springtime ... 422 
Philips'a (F. C.) The Worst Woman in 

London, and Other Stories 213 

—^■^——^— A Question qf Colour 423 
Phillips's (J. Gordon) James Macpher- 

son, the Highland Freebooter 100 

Phill|K)tla'8 (Eden) A Deal with the 

Devil 376 

Price's (Eleanor J.) In the Lion's Path 166 

Prior's (James) Rente 462 

Prowso's (R, O.) A Fatal Reservalion 642 



NOVELS-«onf<MiM<l. 

rial 
Pme's (Richard) The Burden qf a 

Womm 396 

Pngh's (Edwin W.) A Street in 

Suliurhia ... 334 

Raymond's (Walter) Tryphena in Love 364 

Rea's (Alice) Da/<!A»/t 233 

Redden's (Helen P.) M'Clellan of 

M'Clellan 312 

Reynolds's (Mrs. Fred.) Uanartro ... 413 
Bhoscomyl's (Owen) The Jewel qf 

Ynys Galon 423 

Ridilell's (Mrs. J. H.) The Banshee's 

Warning 64 

^iXA'i Peg the Rake 63 

Rivera's (George) A Fancy Sketch ... ItS 
Roberts's (Morley) The Degradation of 

Geoffrey Alwith 312 

Robinson's (F. Mabel) Chimaera Ml 

Rooter's (Roof) The Fencing Girl 264 

Roaogarth's (Brian) CTJjr JM.v» 100 

Rosemary's Under the Chillerns 398 

Rnssell's (W. Clark) The Good Ship 

Mohock 90 

The Phantom 

Death, and Other Stories 212 

(Dora) The Other Bond ... 123 

The Drift of Fate ... 801 

Sergeant's (Adeline) Kitty Holdcn ... 146 

abiel'Bm.V.) Prince Zaiesk-i 312 

Smart's (Hawley) A Racing Rublter ... 99 
Smith's (H. Greenhough) Castle 

Sombras 204 

(John) Old Brown's Cottages 204 

Speight's (T. W.) The Grey Monk ... 204 
Spender's (Mi-s. J. K.) Thirteen 

Doctors 334 

Spinner's (Alice) Lucilla : an Er/ieri- 

ment 376 

St. Aubyn's (Alan) A Tragic Honey- 
moon 64 

The Tremlett Dia- 
monds 621 

St. Clair's (Emily) A Ruined Life ... 190 
Steuart's (John A.) In the Day of Battle 311 
Stewart's (Andrew) A Fair Norwegian 10 
Stoker's (Bram) The Watler's Mou' .. 146 

Street's (G. S.) Episodes 212 

Studies in Miniature. By a Titular 

Vicar 212 

Sturge's IM. G ) Unwoven Threads ... 190 
Sntcliffe's (Halliwell) A Tragedy in 

Grey 461 

Thirsk's (James) How He became a 

Peer 63 

Thomas's (Annie) A Girl's Folly 166 

False Pretences ... 364 

Tivoli's Une Culotte 166 

Toddle Island 480 

Tolstoi's (Count Leo) Master and Man 501 
Transitions. By the author of "A 

Superfluous Woman " 441 

Trehcrno's (Mark) Paths that Cross ... 146 
Vachell's (Horace Annesley) The Model 

of Christian Gay 376 

Valentine's (Oswald) Helen 77 

Vallings's (Harold) A Parson at Bay... 294 
Vicars's (G. Rayleigh and Edith) A 

Torquay Marriage 602 

Warden's (Florence) A Perfect Fool ... 31 
Kitty's Engage- 
ment 264 

Warner's ((Jharles Dudley) A Little 

Journey in the World 211 

Wassermann's (Lillias) Tlie Goddess qjf 

the Dandelions 522 

Watson's (Marriott) At the First 

Corner 642 

White's (Percy) ^X^ino'jtDiartf 294 

Wicks's (Frederick) TAe /n/a»< 622 

Wilkins k Thatcher's The Holy Estate 642 
Winter's (John Strange) The Stringer 

Woman 32 

■ — A Blameless 

Woman 333 

The Major's 

Favourite 462 

Woodgate's (W. B.) Tandem 333 

Woodroffe's (Daniel) Her Celestial 

Husband 480 

Woollam's (Wilfrid) The Friends of 

Innisheen 78 

Yonge'8 (Charlotte M.) The Rubies of 

St.Lo 100 

Zangwill'B(I.) TA«Jfas<«r 611 



MINOR HOTICES. 

Addy's (Sidney Oldall) Household 
Tales, with other Traditional Re- 
tnains ... 274 

Anderson's (Jessie Annie) Lewis Morri- 
son Grant 11 

Anden's (H. W.) translation of Moiss- 
ner's Latin Phrase-Book 101 

Bax's (E. Belfort) German Society at 
the Close of the Middle Ages 167 

Bell's (Rot. Charles D.) ifome of our 
English Poets ,. ... 3M 



MXNOB NOTICES— con<f»l««f. 

rAOi 
" Boll's Handbooks of English Litera- 
ture" 123 

B^rard's (V.) De VOrigine des Cultes 

Arcadient 213 

Bjomson's ./Irns 823 

Brodhcad's (J. M. N.) Slav and Moslem 603 
Bum's (R.) Ancient Rome and its 

Neighbourhood 213 

Campbell's (Col.) Letters from Sebas- 

topol 78 

Corson's (Hiram) The Aims of Literary 

Study 294 

Oonsins's (Bev. W. B.) Madagascar of 

To-day WM 

Crockett's (8. H.) Bog-Myrtle and Peat 389 
Chithbertson's (David) The Autd Kirk 

Minister 11 

Deazeley's (J. Howard) translation of 

The Odes of Horace, Books I. and II. 101 
De Malortie's (Baron) Here, There, and 

Everywhere 79 

Dennis s (John) The Age of Pope 123 

Doveton's (F, B. ) A Fisherman's 

Fancies 423 

Earle's (Mortimer Lnmson) Euripides* 

Alcettit 101 

Flamborough Village and Headland ... 276 
Forties's (W. H.) Thucydides, Book I... 491 
(Sambier-Parry's (Major) Day Dreams . 623 
Gun, Rifle, and Hound, in East and 

West. By"8nalBe" 60S 

Hammond's (B. E.) The Political Insti- 
tutions of the Ancient Greeks 213 

Hapgood's (Isabel F.) Russian Rambles 603 
Harte's (Walter Blackburn) Medita- 
tions in Motley 377 

Hayward's (Jane Mary) Bird Notes ... 423 

Helpfiil Hints for Hard Times 423 

Henderson's (E. F.) History qf Ger- 
many in the Middle Ages 167 

Hodder's (Edwin) John Mac Gregor ... 364 
Holden's (H. A.) Plutarch's Life of 

Pericles 100 

Holm's (Adolf) Hi><or»o/ Greece 213 

Hr.bbard's (Emma) edition of Miss 

Ha.Tward'8 .Bi'rrf -Voice 423 

Hyde's (Mr.) The Post in Grant and 

Farm 79 

"Italy, Public Libraries of, Facts re- 
lating to" 147 

Jones's (H. Stuart) Select Passages 

.from Ancient Writers illustrative of 

the History of Greek Sculpture ...480 
Kovalevsky's (Sophia) Vera Barant- 

zova 33 

Latto's (W. D.) rainmoe.Bod*!!! 10 

Lowe's (Charles) Alexander III. of 

Russia 32 

^— — — Prince Bismarck ...866 

" Lyric Poets " (Dent & Co.'s) ... 123, 623 
Macdonell's (Annie) Thomas Hardy ... 123 
Marsh 4 Steele's Flares Historiarum 101 
Mason's (James) Tlie Art of Chess ... 236 
Maxwell's (Sir Herbert) A Duke qf 

Britain 399 

Meissner's (C.) Latin Phrase-Book ... lOl 
Menzies' (John) Our Town, and Some 

of its People 10 

Meyer's (E.) Vnlertuchungen eur 

Geschichte der Gracchen 213 

Muir's (J.) TIte Mountains qf Cali- 
fornia 60S 

Nevinson's (Heniy) Neighbours of 

Ours 236 

Nicholson's (L. J.) The Songs qf Thule 11 
Parkin's (George R.) The threat 

Dominion 602 

Pease's (A. E.) Horse-Breeding for 

Farmers 423 

Potts's (William) From a New England 

Hillside 377 

Prelude to Poetry, The 123 

Pridik's (E.) De Alexandri Magni 

Epistulartim Commercio 213 

Qnaritch's (Mr. Bernard) "Rongh 

Lists" J47 

Reid's (Sir Hugh 6.) 'Tween Oloamin' 

and the Mirk 10 

(Robert) Poems, Songs, and 

Sonnets n 

Rolwrtson's (J. Logie) Farth in Field 10 
^—^— (Andrew Smith) The 

Provost of Glendookie 10 

Rowbotham's (J. F.) The Troubadours 

and Courts of Love 234 

Ruskin's (Jolm) The Buskin Reader ... 6'23 
Salt's (Henry S.) Selections from 

Thoreau 377 

Setoun's (Gabriel) Sunshine and Haar 399 
Slater's (J. L.) Book-Prices Current ... 147 
Smith's (Arthur H.) Chinese Charac- 
teristics 277 

Sowerby's (W.) Tliorough Cultivation 423 
Spenser, Edmund, The Lyrical Poems 

"f 123 

Stedman & Woodberry's Works qf 

Edgar Allen Poe 23-1 

Step's (E.) By Vocal Woods and 

Wafers 423 

Stepniak's Nihilism as it it 33 

Stopniak 4 Westall's translation of 

Kovalevsky's Vera Barantzova ... S3 
Stevenson's (W. Grant) " Puddm'" ... 11 



StrpPLEMENT TO THE AOADI!MT,T 
July 13, 1895. J 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVII. 



MINOR NOTICyES-continued. 

Thomson's (Basil) Snuth Sea Yarns ... 313 

Thjnne's (R.) The Story of Australian 
£.vploratwn 312 

Von Iheriug's (R.) Enticickliings- 
geschictite cics romiscften Rechts 212 

Von Wenckstem's (Fr.) Bibliographic 
Japoiiaise 146 

Voynich's (E. L.) translation of Step- 
Td&k^B Nihilism as it is 32 

Whyte's (Dr. Alexander) Samuel 
RutherforUt and Some of his Corre- 
spondents 11 

Williams's (Alfred II.) Studies in Folk- 
song and Popular Poetry 294 

' Wilmot's (Hon. A.) The Story of the 
Expansion of Sottiherti Africa ... 312 

Wolff's (Heniy W.) Odd Bits of 



History 
Wonderful Wapentake, 
^ Son of the Soil " 



The. By " A 



79 
274 



THEOLOGICAL LITERATTTRE. 

As Others saw Him 542 

Bacon's (Dr. B. W.) translation of 
Wildeboer's Origin of the Canon of 
the Old Testament 313 

Burton's (Ernest De Witt) Syntax of 
the Moods and Tenses in Xew Testa- 
ment Greek 543 

Confession of Faith, A, By an Un- 
orthodox Believer 372 

Cooper's (Rev. Th. J.) Love*s Unveil- 
ing, and Other Sermons 543 

Fawkes's (Rev. Alfred) The Sacred 
Heart, and Other Serowns 372 

Gospels, The Four, as Historical 
Records 372 

Jacobs's (Joseph) Studies in Biblical 
Archaeology 313 

Kennedy's (Rev. H. A. A.) Sources of 
Kew Testament Greek 543 

Kidd'8 (Rev. James) Morality and 
Religion 372 

Kirkpatrick's (A. F.) The Book of 
Psalms 443 

Romanes's (G. J.) Thoughts on Beligion 372 

Skinner's (Prof. John) The Book of 
Ezekiel 443 

Skipwith's 7A« First Chapter of 
St. Matthew 543 

Vollmer's (Hans) Diealttestamentlichen 
Citaie bei Paulus 64:3 

Wildeboer's (Dr. G.) The Origin of the 
Canon of the Old Testament 313 

Worley's (George) The Catholic Revival 643 



XINOR FOETBY. 

Anderson's (G. P. Reynolds) The White 

Book of the Mnses 334 

Anstin's (Alfred) Madonna's Child ... 335 
Beeching's (H. C.) In a Garden, and 

Other Poems 334 

Brotherton's (Mary) Rosemary for 

Remembrance 483 

Coupland's (John Arthur) Pipings ... 190 
Crosland's (J. W. H.) The Pink Book .. 190 
Fuller's {Frederic Walter) Evadne, and 

Other Poems 265 

Gilder's (Richard Watson) Five Books 

of Song 462 

Gray's (Maxwell) Lays of the Dragon 

Slayer 65 

Hayes's (Alfred) The Vale of Arden, 

and Other Poems 254 

Lang's (Andrew) Robert F. Murray, 

his Poems 64 

LoiigrigK's (George H.) The Tongue of 

the Bells 266 

May's (Julia H.) Songs from the Woods 

of Maine 191 

Nesmith's (J. E.) Philoctetes, and 

Other Poems 335 

Probyn'B (May) Pansies 335 

Quex's My Friend 56 

Rickards's (Marcus S. 8.) Poems of Life 

and Death 190 



MINOR POETRY— co»«»«e(i. 

?A.O£ 

Rogers's (Robert Cameron) The Wind 

in the Clearing 463 

Scott's (Frederick George) My Lattice, 

and Other Poems 55 

Stanton's (Frank L.) Songs of the Soil 255 
Stringer's (Arthur J.) Watchers of 

Twilight 191 

Wratislaw's (Theodore) The Pity of 

Love 462 



OBIOINAL VERSE. 

As One whom his Mother comforteth ... 445 
Autumn Sonnets from my Garden ... 34 

"Beata Beatrix" 169 

Desert Sick 125 

Dido, The Cantata of 57 

Easter-Tide 314 

Gifts 277 

Herkomer, Anton, Portrait of, by 

Hubert Herkomer 102 

HumiUtas 379 

In Memoriam— R. S. P 148 

Lorenzo Dead 237 

Lost Song, The 401 

Mediterranean, The 192 

Nature 504 

Nevica! 81 

Poet, The, to his Heart 337 

Prayer 483 

Rest 357 

Spring, The First oE 296 

Summer 466 

Sympathy 486 

Winter's Eviction 214 

With the Tide 644 



OKIOINAL AKTICLE8. 

Academic Franfaise, The 148, 484, 621 

Blackie, Professor, the late 465 

Bodleian Library, The 337 

Cambridge, Advanced Study and Re- 
search at 238 

Carlyle's House at Chelsea 12 

Chinese Characteristics 277 

Dante Lectureship at Oxford 426 

Frisian and Dutch Jottings 646 

Gennadius Library, The 256 

Hungary, The Millennial History of ... 125 

In Memoriam ; Eugene Plon 337 

Kisfalndy Society, The 171 

Kutho-Daw, The ... 606 

Martineau, Dr., Ninetieth Birthday of... 357 

Milton and Vondel 379 

Ogilby 4 Morgan's Map of London, 1677, 

Reprint of 425 

Powell's (ITot. York) Inaugural Lecture 401 

" Scientist," with a Preamble 169 

University Jottings 34, 66, 80, 102, 121, 

148, 168, 192, 236, 266, 278, 296, 314, 

336, 356, 378, 4U0, 424, 444, 164, 482, 

604, 624, 544 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

"A," The Use of, equal to certain Pro- 
nouns of the Third Person 126 

Adour, Upper, Patois of the 428 

Appeal: Mme. de Lacouperie 426 

Allen's (Grant) The Woman Who Did 215, 

240 

Americanisms 169,193,278,317 

Archaisms and Americanisms 317 

"Arsenic" 358,381,427 

Bacon and Sfaakspere 278 

Bacon's Twickenham Scrivenery, A 

Survival of 316 

Baginbun, Inscriptions at 35 

" Bannuenta," Etymology of 446, 486, 

484,485 
Beacons&eld, Lord, at Oxford, and Mr. 

Froude 128 

Borgias, Genealogy of the 428, 446, 466 

Bnmetto Latino or Brunette Latini ? ... 127 
Byron, Lord, and "The Vampire" ... 172 

194, 218 



CORRESPONDENCE— co«ft»«ed. 

Fi.OE 

Carew, Inscriptions at 35 

Uhaucer and Froissart 126 

Codex Boornerianus, Irish Verses in the 172 
" Cormorant," Etymology of ...339, 380, 404 

Cotterell's Poems : Old and New 16 

" Daventry," Etymology of 466, 484, 486,507 
De Malortie's (Baron) Here, There, 

and Everywhere 128 

" Dirk," Etymology of 16 

Dominic, Saint, and Napoleon 368 

Erasmus, The Quarterly Review on ... 316 

Ethics, Greek 16 

Fethard, Inscriptions at 35 

Franciscan Friars, Syriac Name for the 525 
Froude, Mr., and Lord Beaconsfleld at 

Oxford 128 

"Gay's Chair" 426 

Gower, The Lost French Work of 315 

Grimard, Nicholas 126 

" Hamlet," The German 526 

" Hoy Nonny No ! " 60 

" Hole in the Ballet " 173,194 

Job, The Book of, and the Nicomacheau 



Ethics 
Kalendar in Galba A XVIII., The.. 

Kilbeg Stone, The 

Kilgi-ovane III 

JjG^anii's The Evil Guest 

Lever^Loover 

Ltither, a Personal Re4c of 

Luther's Translation of the Bible 



127 
... 516 
... 83 
... 239 
... 446 
... 280 
... 103 
1!7, 151 
217, 238 
427 



380 



467 

... 128 

... 268 

... 267 

', 82, 106 

358 



" Maids' Petition, The " ... , 

Marvell's Poems and Satires 

Massinger, Philip, and St. Saviour's, 

Sonthwark 

" Matchavil " and Machiavel 

Mirror, The, and Shintoism 

Monmouthiana 

Mulling, The Book of 

Napoleon and Saint Dominic 

Nicomachean Ethics and the Book of 

Job 127 

Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland 16, 36, 83, 216 
Owen, John, Who was the Spanish 

Translator of? 317 

Peter, The Gospel of 106 

Popular Tales, Present State of the 

Question of ... 60 

Rotherham, Archbishop, the Arms of... 404, 

428, 507 

"Sslet" and "Salad" 218 

Septuagint versus Hebrew Text of the 

Bible 216, 279 

Sbakspere and Bacon 278 

Allusion, A (1653) 359 

" Shepheard's Calender," Dialect and 

Archaism in the 506 

Shintoism and the Mirror 258 

*• Shottery," Etymology of 625,546 

Sinai Library, The, and the Syriac 

Gospels ... 315 

Skeats (Prof.) edition ot "Troilus and 

Crifeyde" 297, 338 

Smiles's (Dr.) Life of Josiah Wedgwood 

149, 257 

St. Patrick's Birthplace ... 402 

Syllables, The Division of, in Latin and 

Irish 193 

Syriac Gospels, The New... 13, 34, 58, 82, 

103, 149, 172, 315, 369, 428 

" Tarquinii, U Tro " (Convito, iv. 5) ... 173 

Tennyson's Youth, Links with 238 

Trinculo's " Monster," Calaban 208 

Winchester, A Bishop of, at Perpignan 

in September 1116 646 

Wordsworth and Martial 238 

" Yorker," Suggested Derivation for 218, 240 



OBITTTARY. 

Bentley, George 

Boase, Rev. C. W 

Campbell, James Dykes ... 

Carrifere, Prof. Moritz 

Chesney, Gen. Sir George... 

Goodhart, Prof. H. C 

Hake, Thomas Gordon, M.D. 
Macdouell, George Paul ... 
Maclean, Sir John, F.S.A.... 

O'Neill, John 

Paraschos, Achilles 

Plon. Eugene 

Robinson, Alfred 

Rossetti, Christina 

Seeley, Sir John, K.O.M.G. 



483 
237 
482 
125 
297 
367 
57 
604 
237 
102 
189 
337 
192 
12 
67 



PA.OE 

... 57 

... 298 

... 401 

... 237 

... 644 



OBITUARY— co»«Mi«d. 

Sime, William 

Smith, Dean Payne 

Spender, Mrs. J. K 

Weil, Dr. Gottlieb 

Wheat ley, Leonard Abercrombie .„ 



NOTES. 

Birmingham Free Library 366 

Cambridge University Accounts 298 

Chicago University, Department of 

Comparative Religion in 125 

Clark's (Rev. Andrew) edition of The 

Life and Times of Anthony Wood ... 482 

Copyright Association of Canada 314 

Dante Society, American 278 

Edinburgh University, Matriculated 

Students at 81 

FitzwilUam Museum Syndicate at Cam- 
bridge 270 

German Universities, Matriculated 

Students at 168 

Harvard, Early Records of 338 

London Library, The 604 

Manchester College, Oxford, Report of 

Committee of 314 

Oxford Colleges, Effect of Agricultural 

Depression nipon 68, 445 

University Common Fund 124 



Portraits at Oxford and Cambridge 
Colleges 378 

Pseudonymous Authors, Identity of ... 424 

Quaritch's (Bernard) Dictionary of 
English Book-Collectors 168 

Selden Society's Publications. 624 



MSS. in the 



Sidney Sussex College, 

Library of 504 

Smith's Prizes at Cambridge 482 

Snell, John, and the Snell Exhibitions... 102 

St. Frideswide's, Cartulary of 169 

St. Martin-in-the-Fields, MS. Books in 

possession of the Parish of 492 

St. Symeon Metaphrastes, new MSB. of 

the Work ot 256 

" Tudor Translations " 168 



CONTENTS or THE JOURNALS. 

Altpreussische Monitsschrift 314 

Antiquary ... 57, 148, 237, 446, 605, 624 

Archaeologia Osoniensis 464 

Archives Historiques de la Gascogne ... 103 

Asiatic Quarterly Review 534 

Bibliographical Contributions 336 

Blackwood's Magazine 444 

Boletin of the Real Academia de la 

Historia 103,193,357,379,466 

Cassell's Magazine 80,336 

Saturday Journal 424 

Century Magazine 80, 624 



Chambers's Journal ... 
Chapman's Magazine... 

Churchman 

Eagle 

Economic Journal 
Educational Review ... 
English Historical Review... 



336 
. 80 
66 
277 
524 
367 



Expositor 34,126,215,297,646 

Fortnightly Review 424 

Humanitarian 356, 524 

Jewish Quarterly Review 81,425 

Leisure Hour 80, 276 

Looking-Glass Magazine of Fiction ... 366 



Mind . 

Minster 

National Review 
New Quarterly 
New Review 



. 169, 483 
.366, 543 
. ... 524 
. ... 424 
356 



Proceedings of the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society 400 

Psychological Review 169 

Quiver 80, 338 

Revista Critica de Historia y Literatura 

Espauolas 367 

Romania.. 624 

Scribner's 368 

Senate 624 

Sunday at Home 80 

Theologisch Tijdschrift 34,268 

Twentieth Century 424 

Windsor Magazine 624 

Zeitscbrift riir Vergleichende Littera- 
turgeschichte 124 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVH; 



rBtrPTOKiniNT to TItK AGADKVT. 
L July 1.1, 1TO5. 



SCIENCE. 



RKVIKWB. 

rxet 
Bndffo's (K. K. WkUia) St. MiehatI tlu 

ArrhoHget 173 

r»« Book qf tlu 

Dtad MI 

" Oumlms, Biblioth^iue do " 37 

dodd's (Edward) A Primtr of Srnlu- 

/too 428 

D* 0»ni'« (Caura) Oli Hetlui-Ptlatffi . 4M 
D* Qnatrefage't (A.) T>u Pjigmia ... 340 
Dixon** (ObsriM) Tiu Migratiott of 

BritiABird* U« 

KDii'i (A. O.) Catalogue of Arabic 

Booktintht Britith Muuum 607 

Imaraon's (P. H.) BinU, BeatU, and 

PMu of tht SorfiAk Broadland ... 3S9 
F(«ter-ll<aiiar'8 (Ber. A.) The B<x,t of 

Ou Bot 2rtO 

Fnaar'a (A.t'.) edition of Locke's Kutat 

concerning Bnman Understanding . 61 
Oeikie's (Sir Archibald) Memoir of Sir 

Andrew Cri'mhie Bam*a$ 467 

HUpnH-ht'8 (U. V.) ^uyruwa 196 

Haltuch'B (K.) Epigraphia Indira ... 240 
KkMtArnwnn'B (Or. Erich) Analerta zur 

Septuaguta, Ilexnpla, uml Palrisl k 106 
KMk's (Prof. r. K.) HiatnrUch-Krit- 

itchee Lehrgebdude der Uebraiachen 

Bpracke 826 

Lindmy'B (W. H.) The Latin Language 129 
Looke'B (John) Kstaj/ concerning 

Human Understanding 61 

"PahlsTllext Series" . ...MB 

Postgate'a (J. F.) Certain MSB. uf Pro- 

pertiue 83 

Sujana's Strangietdn 299 

Starr's (Fre<ler1ck) iranglaLion of De 

Quatrefa^'« /vv?* Pv/7»irftf« 340 

8w«t«'a(Dr. H. B.) The Old Tettament 

in Greek ... ™ 106 

^•on's (Dr. Edward) Philological 

Seeat Concerning the Ptgmiee of 

theAneientt ~. ... 87 



■DIOR KOTIGES. 

American Journal of Mathematics ... 219 
()ohn'B Beitriige eur Biologic der 

PJIamen 38J 

Darwin A Aoton'B Practical Phyei- 

ologw of Plant* 383 

Dizoo'a (A. 0.) Blementary Properties 

of the EUipiie Functions 219 

Bdwarda'* (Joaeph) Integral Calculus 

Jbr Beginners 2t9 

BirUg'a (Prof. R.) Text-Book of the 

Mteates qf Trees 382 

Kemer k Oltver'B Natural Histort of 

Plants 383 



IflKOB NOTKTES— coaMniMil. 

not 
Ladd'a (G. T.) Primer of Pstcholog$... 404 
UarshairB (Arthur Uilnea) Lectures on 

the Darunnian Theory 318 

Morgan's (0. Lloyd) Introduction to 

Comparative Psychttlogj/ -101 

Psychology for 

Teachers 404 

Newth's (G. 8.) Text-Book of Inorganic 

Chemistry 17 

Orr's (Dr. Henry B.) A Theory of De- 
velopment and Heredity 318 

Osbcm'B (Dr. H. F.) From the Greeks 

to Vartcin 317 

OBtwslil's (W.) Manual of Physico- 

Chemical Measurements ... ... 16 

Paul's (J. D.) On the Use of D'tached 

Co.efficients in Elementary Algebra . 219 
Potter's (U. C.) edition of Warming'a 

Handbook of Systematic Botany 486 
Schorlemmer's ((^arl) Rise and Dewop. 

ment of Organic Chemistry 17 

Smithelb^'s (A.) edition of Schorlemmer'a 

Organic Chemistry 17 

Sorauer's (Dr. Paul) Treatise on the 

Physiology of Plants 485 

Vines's (S. U.) Student's Text-book of 

Botany 485 

Walker's (James) translation of Ost- 

wald'B Physico-Chemical Measure- 
ments 16 

Warming'a (Dr. K.) Handbook of 

Systematic Btttany 485 

Weiss'B (F. E.) translation of Sorauer's 

Treatise on the Physiology of Plants 485 



ORIOIHAL AKTICLES 

ArKon, The Newly-discovered (Tongtitn- 

entof theAtmoephero ISO 

Basque Books, Old and Now 162 

Hall, Dr. Filzedward 299 

Haunt's (Prof.) *■ Sacred Boolra of the 

Old Testament " 269 

Indian Jottings 81 

North-west Frontier, A New 

Writinit from 130 

I-Tsing's Record of India in the Seventh 

Conttuy 62 



00RKB8F0NOSN0E. 

rioc 

Andaman Islanders, The 174 

Asoka Pillar in the Terai 360 

Babism 220 

Basque Books Old and New 318 

Jotting^s 417 

Emeraon'a Birds, Beasts, and Fishes 

of the Norfolk Broadland 381 

"FortnnaMaior" 39 

Harclensian Syriac Yeraion of the 

Gospels 131 

Haupt's (Prof.) The Sacred Books of 

the Old Testament 281 

Hebrew Points, Third System of 383 

Lunar Zodiac, Archaic 268 

Nimrod, a Kassite Kinf; 219,405 

Thnnderlwlt of the Assyrians, The ... 406 
" Virgo Concipict " 486,608,647 



OBirUAKY. 

Ball. Dr. Valentine, C.B., F.E.S 627 

Cayley, Prof. Arthur 107 



SCIENCE NOTES. 

Argon, Chemical Properties of .260, 281, 800 

Chemical Society's Grants 63 

(Geometrical Teaching, Ajisociation for 

the Improvement of 103 

Megallthic Village, near Tcl>cssa, 

Algeria 487 

Ramsay, Prof., on a New Gas 319 

Royal Geographical Socie^a Awivds... 429 



PHILOLOGY VOTZB— continued. 

max 
Tanaar, Letter of, French Translation 

of Uio 108 

TrObner's (Karl) Orundriss der Indo- 
arischen Philologie und Altertums- 

kunde 627 

Wattenbach's Anleitung zur grieeh- 
ischen Palaeographie 447 



I REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 

' Anglo-Russian Literary Society ...108, 242, 

320, 406, 628 
Aristotelian Society ... 132, 176, 220, 384, 

468,547 

Asiatic Society 176,260,341,429 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society 178 

Philological Society 175, 241 

319, 468, 627 
Clifton Shakspere Society 18, 176, 221, 

32n. 406, 527 

Elizabethan Society 108,106,281 

English Goethe Society 86 

Entomological Society 100 

Folk-Lore .Society 131, 38t 

Geographical Society 469 

Geological Society 220, 508 

Hellenic Society 488, 6t7 

Historical Society ... 18, 109, 197, 384, 449 

Irish Literary Society 547 

Manchester Goethe Society 341 

Meteorolopcal Society 131, 221, 301, 384, 440 

Microscopical Society 85 

Modem Language Association 18 

Philological Society 85, 311, 628 

Royal Institution 406 

Victoria Institute 320,429 

Vikii g Club 63, 153, 195, 300, 361, 

418, 487, 647 
Zoological Society 242, 384, 447 



PEILOLOOY NOTES. 

Basque, The revival of interest in 

Brelion Laws, The 

Cordicr, M. Henri, on recent studies in 

Chinese 

'8 Eloge of Sir Henry Rawlinson 

De Lacouperie's (Prof.) Library, Sa^e of 

English Dialect Dictionary 

Hall's (Dr. J. B. Clark) Anglo-Saxen 

Dictionary 

Indian A Iphaliot, Origin of the 

Korea, Antiquities and Literature of ... 
Miiller's (Prof. Max) Academical Jubilee 
SewcU's (Robert) The Indian Calendar 
" Sludia Sinaitica " Series 



CONTENTS OF THE JOURNALS. 

Annales de Geographic 175 

63 Archives of Surgery 39 

260 Asiatic (Quarterly Review 39 

Babylonian and Oriental Record ... 17, 381 

Classical Review 163,241,3111,447 

429 I Gottingische Gclehrte Anzeigen 196 

429 Indian Antiquary 84, 468 

361 I Journal of the Buddhist Text Society 

I of India 84 

241 of Philology 162 

406 1 of the Chemical Society 647 

17 Nature 405 

39 ! Oriental Studies 384 

220 ] Science Progress 383 

39 > Zoological Record 39 



SUPPUaiENT TO THE ACADBMY.T 

July 13, 1803. j 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLVII. 



vu 



FINE ART. 



BJSVIISWB. 

PASI 

Farrar'9 (Dr. F. W.) The Life of Christ, 
at represented in Art 18 

Fnrtwsngler's (Adolf) Masterpieces of 
Greek Sculpture 221 

Letbaby 4 Swainson's The Church of 
Sancia Srtphia, Constantinople 177 

Maclore'a (M. L.) translation of Mas- 
pero'a Dawn of Civilisation 488 

Maspero's (G.) The Daum of Civilisa- 
tion 488 

Kane's (Dr. Julias) Die Bromezeit in 
Oberbayem 362 

Sayoe's (A. H.) edition of Maspero's 
Dawn of Civilisation 488 

Wroth's (Warwick) Aeolis, Troas, and 
Ltshos 320 



KDCOR NOTICES. 

Ashbee's (C. R.) Chapters in Workshop 
Construction and Citizenship 609 

Blackburn's (Henry) The Art of Illus- 
tration 509 

Church's (Prof. A. H.) Guide to the 
Museum of Roman Remains at Ciren- 
cester 64 

Gonino's (I.) translation of Mayeux's 
Manual of Decorative Composition 609 

Goyau's (G.) Lerique des Antiquity 
Romai'nes 64 



MINOB NOTICES— con«»MflA 

PA.QX 

Harrison's (John) The Decoration of 
Metals 609 

Hooper & Phillips's Pottery and Por- 
celain Marks 509 

Jackson's (Frank G.) Theory and 
Practice of Design 609 

Mayenx's (Henri) Manual of Decora- 
tive Composition 509 

Sittl's (Dr. Carl) Die Oremiezeichnung 
der Bomer 64 



OBIOmAL ABTICLES. 

Alexandria, Archaeological Exploration 

in 430 

Art Sales 629 

Ashmolean Museum, The 301 

Champs Elys^s Salon, The 408 

Crete, Archaeological Explorations in... 66, 

198 
Der el Bahari, Exploration of.. .133, 242, 321 
Egypt Exploration Fund ...133, %iZ, 321, 430 

Letters from 154,261,386 

Egyptian Research Account 341 

English Coloured Prints at Colnaghi's 132 
^^-^^ Pictures and Water-Colours, 

Sale of 460 

Goldsmith's Work and Gem Engraving 

at the Royal Academy 132 

Helleu, M., Dry-Points and Pastels of... 177 

Mitchell Collection of Woodcuts 282 

Mycenaean Military Road in Crete ... 469 



ORIGINAL ARTICLES— co»«»««d. 

PAQl 

Old Masters at the Royal Academy... 40, 86| 

109 

Painter-Etchers, Royal Society of 222 

Repertorium fur Kunst-Wissenschaft .. 384 
Royal Academy, The ... 407, 419, 628, 648 

Salon, Champs de Mara 385 

Silcheater, Discoveries at 649 



OOKKEBFONSENCE. 

Altar, Roman, discovered at South 

Shields 342 

Carausins, a Milestone of 41 

o&Sels iSivaTos, Epitaphs with the 

Formula of 06 

Poole, Prof. B. Stoart, in America ... 262 

Senmut, The Tomb of 342 

Yakub, TheGod 133 



OBITUABY. 

Bell, Robert 283 

Fripp, Alfred D 262 

Hine, H. G 262, 283 

Mantz, Paul 110 

Moore, Henry, R.A 648 

Poole, Reginald Stuart, LL.D 154 

Scharf, Sir George 363 

Swainson, Harold 19 



HOTEB. 

pisi 

Aesica, Excavation of 322 

American School of Classical Studies at 

Athens 461 

Art for Schools Association 530 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts 470 

Chedanne's (M.) Drawings of the Pan- 
theon at Rome 41 

Coins, English, Mr. A. B. Richardson's 

Cabinet of 430 

Dashour, Princesses' Graves discovered 

at 243 

Dyer's (Mr. Gifford) Pastels 198 

Heraion of ArgoB, Excavations at the 343, 

409 
Heuzey, M., on some ancient Chaldean 

Mounments 431 

India, Western, Archaeological Survey 

of 178 

Jeffery's (Mr. G.) Plans and Sketches 

of Buildings on the Site of the Holy 

Sepulchre 

Moab, Journey to the Land of... 
Nudity, Female, in Greek and Eastern 

Art 

Portraits, Engraved, of the Sixteenth 

Century 

Sutton, Thomas, Portrait of 



649 



610 
166 



CONTENTS OF THE JOUSNALS. 

American Journal of Archaeology... 41, 283 

Antiquary 460 

Archaeologia Aeliana 322 

Artist 322 

Art Journal 243 

Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist 386, 

610 



THE STAGE AND MUSIC. 



THE S-r-Z^O-E . 

ORIOINAL ABTIOLES. 

" Alceatis," The, at Bradfield 610 

" Antigone," The, at Edinburgh 343 

Copii^e's (M. Francois) " Pour la 

Couronne" 110 

** Don Quixote," at the Lyceum 409 

"Bbbsmith, Mrs., The Notorious" ... 282 

" King Arlhiu*," at the Lyceum 66 

" Story of Waterloo, The,'' at tha Lyceum 409 



OBITTIAXT. 



Grain, Comey... 
Pigott, E. 8. ... 
Seed, AUred ... 



263 
199 
263 



NOTES. 

"An Ideal Husband," at the Hay- 
market 68 

" Fedora," at the Haymarket 470 

Irving, Henry, Knighthood of 471 

"Twelfth Night," by the Elizabethan 
Stage Society 649 



TSJIXTS-LG. 

EETIEW8. 

PAGE 

Daniel's (Rev. R. B.) Chapters on 
Church Music 19 

Hadow's (W. H.) StudtM in Modem 
Music 41 



MUSICAL PVBLIOATIONB. 

PAGI 

Chopin's (P.) Posthumous Nocturne 

in C sharp Minor 42 

Garcia's (Manuel) Hints on Singing ... 363 
Rubinstein's Souvenir de Dresde 363 



OBIOINAL ARTICLES. 

Bach Festival 302, 322 

Lower Rhine Festival 490 

Manns, Mr. August 387 

Opera at Drury Lane and Covent 

Garden 530,549 

Rosenthal and Padereweki 650 

Royal Italian Opera ... 431, 451, 471, 611 
Rubinstein's " Christus," at Bremen ... 610 



NOTES. 



OBITTTABY, 

Solomon, Edward 



PAGE 

. 178 



87 



Beethoven's Choral Symphony 

COWCEHTS : — 

Monday Popular ... 66, 87, 111, 134, 178, 
199, 243, 263, 283, 323 

Saturday Popular 243, 343 

Dolmetsch's 66, 111, 156 

London Symphony ... 87, 134, 178, 223, 263 

Schubert 223 

Philharmonic 243,451,530 

Wagner 387, 451, 560 

Brahms' 410 

Nikisoh 631 

Richter 461,471,611,631 

Sarasate 531,550 

Ennis's (Dr.) Exercise 199 

'* Hiinsel und Gretel," Sir A, C. Mac- 
kenzie's Lecture on 155 

Mackenzie's (Sir A. C.) Lectures at the 

Royal Institution Ill, 199 

Organ, Electric, of Mr. Hope Jones ... 471 
Parry's (Dr.) "King Saul," at the 

• Albert Hall 16S 

Rosenthal, Herr Moritz 611 

" Traviata," at Covent Garden 611 



"8UPPLEKBNT TO THE ACADEMY, 
July 13, 1896. 



THE ACADEMY. 



A WEEKLY REVIEW OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ANTf ART 



"No. 1183. 
[A'cty Isme."] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1896. 



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Gabdixeb's History of the Pbotkctobatb, by R. 

Dvxr.op ....••... 
Davidsoh'h Ballads and Soifes, by Lionel Johnson 
Two Books on Pebsia, by Abtbl'b Arnold , , 7 
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Long . . . , ,.".,.. 8 

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Notes and News 11 

Obitckby : Chbistina Rossetti 12 

Cabltle's HoujE AT Chelssa. . .... 12 

Selected FoBEiGN Books 13 

Corbespondenck^ 
Th". yew Si/ritc Gospels^ by Prof. Sanday, the Rev. 
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Appointments fob Next Week 16 

SoHi Books on Gbeuistrx 16 

Science Notes . . ■ , 17 

Philology Noteh , , 17 

Reporth op Societies »..•... IS 
Fabkab*^ Life of Christ in Art, by Gbavt Allen . 18 

Notes on Abt and Abchaeology 19 

Musical Publications 19 

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THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 5, 1895.— No. 1183. 



THEATRES. 



ADELFHI THEATRE. 

Sole Propriotoni and Mnoagon, A. & 8. Gstll. 
THIS EVKXINO, >t 7.4S, TUB FATAL CARD. Mr. 
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AVENUE THEATBE. 

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COMEDY THEATBE. 
Leasee and Manai^er, Mr. J. Corny ns Carr. 
THIS EVKNI.SG. at n.15, THE NEW WOMAN. Mr. 
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COUBT THEATBE. 

Sole Lessee, Mr. Arthur Cbudlcigh. 
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Lessee and ManaRer, Mr. Charles Wyndham. 
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THIS EVENING, at 9.0, Humperdinck's HANSEL AND 
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DBUBY LANE THEATBE BOYAL. 

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GLOBE THEATBE. 

Lessee, W. S. Penloy. 
THIS EVENING, at 9.0, CHARLEY'S AUNT. W. S. 
Peulejf J Messrs. W. Everard, S. Pa.xton, Seymour, C. 
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HAYMARKET THEATBE. 

Managers, Mr. Waller and Mr. Morrell. 
THIS EVENING, at 8, AN IDEAL HUSBAND. Messrs. 
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LYCEUM THEATBE. 
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TO-DAV, at 1.30, Mr. Oscar Barrett's Fairy Pantomime, 
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MR. ARTHUR ROBERTS' SEASON. 
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SAVOY THEATBE. 

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VAUDEVILLE THEATBE. 

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SATUMDAT, JANUARY 5, 1895. 

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LITERATURE. 

History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 
i 649- i 660. By S. E. Gardiner. Vol.1., 
1649-1651. (Longmans.) 

With this volume Mr. Gardiner enters on 
the laat stage of Kis self-imposed task, and 
we hope that before long we shall be able 
to congratulate him on the completion of a 
work which shall be worthy of the best 
traditions of English scholarship and entitle 
him to an honourable place on the roll of 
our greatest historians. After so many 
years of patient, steady toil, it is only 
natural that the anxiety to bring his life- 
work to a conclusion should eclipse all other 
interests. Finis coronat opus will be to 
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the present volume shows no signs of lassi- 
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the beginning. The same patient research, 
the same accurate knowledge, the same 
carefully balanced judgments, the same 
kindly criticism that marked the former 
volumes, mark also the present ; and withal, 
as it seems to me, the style has g^own 
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of the new government, the conquest of 
Ireland, the battles of Dunbar and 
Worcester, are the principal topics of 
the volume. 

January 30, 1649, was a notable 
day in the annals of England. On 
that day Charles I. had paid for his 
errors and his misdeeds with his head. To 
one person, and not the least interested 
spectator of that day's tragedy, his death 
was one of stern necessity. Qii-.m dens vult 
perdere was never truer than it was in 
Charles's case. But his execution, " the 
work of military violence, cloaked in the 
merest tatters of legality," though an act 
of political retribution, was utterly abhorrent 
to the majority of Englishmen. The fact 
was ominous for the festoration of those 
political liberties for which the sword had 
been draym in the first instance. Far from 
reaping any benefit from the king's death, 
the leaders of the army found themselves 
involved in a vicious circle from which there 
was no escape. To surrender the sword was 
to sacrifice everything ; to retain it was to 
forfeit the right ever to have drawn it. 
The lesson, even if it was a wholesome one, 
that kings as well as subjects Inust suffer 
the consequences of their errors and mis- 
deeds was not to be taught with impunity ; 
and though the remembrance of the last 
campaign was sufficient to prevent any for- 
midable display of opposition to the new 



government in England itself, the prospects 
of the Eoyalists were never brighter, the 
spirits of the Republicans never more 
depressed than they were at this moment. 
Drogheda, Dunbar, and "Worcester were 
still in the future. 

It was on Ireland that all men's eyes 
were fixed. In Ireland Ormonde had at 
last succeeded in coming to terms with the 
confederate Catholics ; and though Owen 
Roe O'Neill, more intent on the welfare of 
his country than on the interests of the 
crown, still held aloof and Dublin still lay 
in the strong grasp of Col. Michael Jones, 
the Lord-lieutenant was sanguine that 
recent events would before long lead to a 
general coalition of all parties against the 
regicide government. An invitation to 
Charles to make Ireland a basis for the 
recovery of England on conditions that 
might be conveniently postponed, and per- 
haps ultimately ignored, was naturally more 
attractive than the cautious pourparlers 
that reached him about the same time from 
Scotland ; and by March 18 it was generally 
known that he had given the preference to 
Ormonde, and would go to Ireland if only 
he could find money for his journey. The 
determination of the Eoyalists to use Ireland 
as a basis of operation against England 
rendered the invasion of Ireland by the 
Parliament a simple measure of defence. 
But it did more than this. It fanned the 
flame of national hatred against Irishmen ; 
and by reviving the memory of a former 
attempt to submit a purely English question 
to the decision of an army of Irish Papists, 
it gave to Cromwell's campaign in Ireland 
the air of a religious crusade. Mr. Gardiner 
does right to insist strongly on this point : 
for it is at once the explanation and justifi- 
cation of all that followed. 

" ' I had rather,' said Cromwell, giving expres- 
sion to the general opinion, ' be overrun with a 
Cavalierish interest than a Scotch interest; I 
had rather be overrun with a Scotch interest 
than an Irish interest, and I think of all this is 
most dangerous ; and if they shall be able to 
carry on this work, they will make this the 
most miserable people in the earth ; for all the 
world knows their barbarism, not of any 
religion almost any of them, but, in a manner, 
as bad as Papists.' " 

Subsequent events proved conclusively that 
the army was competent to prevent the 
catastrophe. But I must dissent from Mr. 
Gardiner's proposition, that Cromwell's 
object " to found peace and order in Ireland 
by strengthening the English interest," &c., 
was a hopeless task ; and I do not think 
that " sacrificing the needs and the hopes of 
the ancient inhabitants to the greed and 
self-assertion of the English settlers " 
accurately describes either the means by 
which he hoped to attain his object or the 
actual result achieved. 

Before the army destined for Ireland could 
be set in motion, money had to be raised, 
mutinies to be suppressed, and Lilburne 
and his followers to be pacified or otherwise 
silenced. The summer was already drawing 
to a close when Cromwell landed at Dublin. 
Seven months had elapsed since the treaty 
of Kilkenny had apparently made Ormonde 
master of the situation in Ireland. Mr. 
Gardiner enters fully into a consideration of 



the causes that frustrated his hopes of 
a general coalition in favour of Charles. 
But I think he has not altogether dispelled 
the mystery that surrounds Owen Eoe 
O'Neill's treaty with Monk. Briefly stated, 
Mr. Gardiner's contention is that O'Neill, 
finding his overtures for a pacification 
scouted by] Jones, and being unable to 
come to terms with Ormonde, turned to 
Monk, who consented to a three months' 
cessation of hostilities on conditions which 
"it is hardly likely O'Neill expected to be 
accepted at Westminster," and which, in- 
deed, were ultimately rejected. Monk's 
reasons for desiring a cessation, being based 
on military considerations, are perfectly in- 
telligible. But is it to be supposed that all 
that O'Neill hoped to gain by the arrange- 
ment was a few barrels of gunpowder to 
defend himself against Ormonde tiU the assist- 
ance promised by Einuccini arrived ? The 
whole transaction is so wrapped up in 
mystery as to have given rise to the most 
extraordinary theories. On the one hand, 
it is alleged that CromweU himself suggested 
or authorised the treaty ; on the other, it 
is asserted that O'Neill was bribed to in- 
activity in the interests of the Commonwealth. 
Mr. Gardiner notices the first view at con- 
siderable length, but only to dismiss it. 
The other he does not allude to at all. It 
was first, if I am not mistaken, started by 
Charles O'Conor in his introduction to the 
Catalogue of the Stowe MSS. As stated 
by him, the theory appeared so plausible 
that I was tempted to investigate the facts 
on which it was said to be based ; only, 
however, to find that it was due to a con- 
fusion of Owen Eoe O'Neill with Colonel 
Owen Eowe the regicide. It was a ludicrous 
mare's nest. Still, it is inconceivable to my 
mind that O'Neill should have consented to 
any cessation of hostilities with Monk, unless 
he had received some assurances that the 
conditions of the treaty were likely to be 
accepted by the Parliament. And I 
candidly confess that I see nothing im- 
probable in this view of the situation. 
The belief in the massacre of 1641, 
however it may have weighed with 
Cromwell or the Parliament, was hardly 
likely, I think, to enter into O'NeiU's 
calculations, and it certainly had little in- 
fluence with Monk. But to quit this topic, 
upon which I have already unduly dilated, 
Mr. Gardiner's account of Cromwell's cam- 
paign in Ireland seems to me admirably 
judicious. For the slaughter at Drogheda 
he rightly holds Cromwell, and Cromwell 
alone, responsible. The quotation from 
Wellington's Despatches is singularly apt, 
and, from a military point of view, com- 
pletely exonerates Cromwell. But surely 
Mr. Gardiner's imagination is carrying him 
a little too far when he says, 

" In the heat of action there stood out in his 
mind, through the blood-red haze of war, 
thoughts cf vengeance to be taken for the 
Ulster massacre, confusedly mingled with 
visions of peace more easily secured by instant 
severity." 

If Cromwell had time to think of this, he 
might also have reflected that it was to a 
former heroic defence of Drogheda that 
England was indebted for the preservation 
of any interest in Ireland at all. And I am 



6 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 5, 1895.— No. 1183. 



afraid that Mr. Gardiner's insistence on the 
garrison being chiefly composed of Irishmen 
is a little too fine spun. Then, as formerly, 
it was garrisoned by Ormonde. It is true that 
"it is necessary to keep in mind the prevalence 
of a belief in the most exaggerated accounts 
of the Ulster massacre " ; out the idea that 
Drogheda was " a righteous judgment of 
God upon those barbarous wretches who 
have imbrued their hands in so much 
innocent blood," appears to me to savour 
very much of an after-thought on Crom- 
well's part, for which there was in point 
of fact litUe or no justification. However 
this may be when Cromwell quitted Ireland 
on May '26, KidO, the daneer which nine 
months before had menaced England from 
that quarter had ceased to exist. 

The inability of Ormonde to hold his 
own in Ireland was a grievous disappoint- 
ment to Charles. As the winter drew to a 
close, it became more and more apparent 
that he would be obliged to yield to the 
demands of the Scottish Commissioners. It 
is true that Montrose, with a devotion 
worthy of a better master, had consented 
to make a diversion in the hope of ensuring 
more reasonable conditions for him. But 
Charles could not afford to act straight- 
forwardly. The " too open crafts " against 
which Montrose warned him proved too 
strong for him, and on April 29 he con- 
sented to the demands of the Commissioners. 
It is evident that he yielded reluctantly, 
and with a degree of mental reservation 
that amounted to duplicity. But to the 
Boyalists his surrender was as wormwood 
and gall. Before signing the draft agree- 
ment, he had received assurances that, if 
Montrose would lay down his arms, not 
only he and his troops, but the Scottish 
Eoyalists in Holland, should receive com- 
plete indemnity. The fact that these assur- 
ances were given, as Mr. Gardiner shows 
reason for believing, not through the Com- 
missioners, but through an agent of the 
Marquis of Argyle, throws a lurid glare on 
the part played in the business by that 
nobleman. 

It is pleasant to turn from these sordid 
intrigues to Mr. Gardiner's breezy narrative 
of the last campaign of Montrose. There 
is something in the name of Montrose, as 
in that of Dundee, that makes the blood 
tingle. We know what the end must be, 
but we follow his course with feelings 
of mingled hope and fear. It may be 
merely fancy, or it may be due to the fact 
that Mr. Gardiner has made himself per- 
sonally familiar with the scenes of his 
exploits ; but something of Montrose's own 
enthusiasm seems to have imparted itself 
to the narrative. The last paragraph of 
the chapter seems to me particularly admir- 
able. Is it merely that one feels that a 
hero has indeed passed to his rest in a 
manner appropriate to his life, or is it that 
the style so exactly expresses the emotion ? 
But I confess that I have read the passage 
only to re-ijad it again and again with 
increased pli^asure. 

There was little doubt that the agreement 
between Charles and his Scottish subjects 
would be followed by a Scottish invasion, 
supported, in all probability, by a rising in 
England. As in the case of Ireland, to 



attack Scotland was a simple measure of 
defence. It was at this point that Fairfax 
thought proper to diBSOciate himself from 
his former comrades in arms. His refusal 
to lead an army of invasion into Scotland 
was, as Mr. Gardiner says, a moral repug- 
nance rather than an intellectual persuasion. 
Whether he drew the line rightly or 
wrongly, it is of little consequence to in- 
quire : " The line drawn by the most honest 
of men is always to a certain extent 
arbitrary, and its choice is determined by 
considerations many of which have nothing 
to do with logic." His retirement was not 
without its compensation. 

" Evident as might be the danger of super- 
seding a commander whose very presence was 
a syaibol of conciliation, it was still more 
evid.ent that, when an invasion was actually im- 
pending, the conduct of the national defence 
could only be entrusted to one who was eager 
with all bis heart and soul for a successful 
issue." 

Cromwell piously ascribed his victory at 
Dunbar to the direct intervention of Provi- 
dence against a hypocritical nation, though, 
as Mr. Gardiner clearly demonstrates, it was 
due to his own strategical skill, to the dis- 
ciplined valour of his soldiers, and, not 
least of all, to the command of the sea 
which enabled the government to pour in 
supplies by which alone the army was saved 
from starvation. That Cromwell did really 
believe that Dunbar was due to the inter- 
position of Providence, I do not doubt. But 
the question, as it seems to me, is, did 
beliefs of this sort possess any practical 
importance for him, or were they not merely 
quasi - philosophical reflections after the 
event ? The same thought suggested itself 
to me in connexion with the massacre at 
Drogheda. 

Whatever the ultimate results of Dun- 
bar, it was Charles who reaped imme- 
diate profit from Cromwell's victory. It 
is true that the extreme Covenanters 
declined to recognise their defeat; and it 
was even suggested that Charles would do 
weU to compound with Cromwell for the 
retention of Scotland north of the Forth 
by the abandonment of the rest of his 
dominions. But having submitted to the 
humiliationof publicly asking forgiveness for 
his own sins and those of his father and grand- 
father as well, it was not likely that Charles 
would stickle at any means to make himseU 
master of the situation. Whether he would 
succeed in subjugating not Scotland alone, 
but England also, was a question on which, 
as Mr. Gardiner says, Cromwell and his 
victorious army would have a word to say. 
It is generally supposed that the invasion 
of England by the Scottish army took 
Cromwell by surprise. But so far from 
this being the case, Mr. Gardiner's argu- 
ment goes to show that he not only foresaw 
it, but had deliberately planned it, and laid 
his calculations accordingly. It was a bold 
move on his part, and only to be justified 
by the result. But what that result would 
be, Cromwell had no doubt. The bait took, 
and Worcester was the result. The effect 
of the Scottish invasion was even greater 
than CromweU had anticipated. The 
military critic may have little to say about 
Worcester. But Mr. Gardiner does not miss 



the significance of the fact that " nearly, if 
not quite, a third of the victorious army 
consisted of local militia regiments." 

" It was the natural result of the system of 
war which Charles had elected to conduct. As 
long as the struggle lay between two English 
parties, it was left to the regular army on either 
side to carry on the contest. When it came 
to an invasion by a Scottish army, masses of 
Englishmen, who otherwise would have held 
back from exposing their own persons, eagerly 
threw themselves forward to defend their 
homes against those who were in that age 
regarded as foreigners." 

Worcester was indeed, as Cromwell said, 
"a crowning mercy." It remained to be 
seen what advantage the Parliament would 
take of the fresh access of popularity it 
gave. For Mr. Gardiner's solution of this 
question we must await his next volume. 

E. DuNLOP. 

V ■ 



Ballads and Songs. By John Davidson. 
(John Lane.) 

'' Lord ! what a pleasure it is to come across 
a man that can tcrite ! " said Dickens of 
Tennyson. Certainly it is, and a rare 
pleasure, too ; for the abhorrent amateur 
is always with us, but the true writers visit 
us like the angels. The most immediately 
felt charm of Mr. Davidson's verse is its 
goodly energy and force, its excellent 
vitality : there is life-blood in the strong 
and vehement lines. He has not a trace of 
waterish sentiment and prettiness : in the 
phrase of Coleridge, he does not seek to 
win us " with sonnets and with sympathy " 
of a miscellaneous sort. Each poem has 
lived in the poet's life, and issues from a 
living fire of passion, imagination, thought: 
there is no dever impersonality about it. 
And the defects of its qualities are not 
lacking : a certain feverishness at times, 
an unpruned wealth of words, a rapidity 
which makes the verse pant for want of 
breath. This poet's wine can be heady 
and rasping and crude. Even in his finest 
work there is just some lack of the ultima 
tnanus, with its perfecting and rounding 
touch: just that serenity and grace are 
sometimes absent, which mark the assured 
triumph of the masterpiece. " What verse 
he will be writing in ten years ! " is the 
reader's conviction, rather than a complete 
confidence in the virtue of the verse before 
him. In short, Sturm und Brang are not 
wholly over yet : the elements of a perfect 
art are still in fusion and fermentation. 

But these poems are rich in beauty and 
strength of a rare accomplishment. For 
one thing, it is impossible not to see what 
the poet is at and about : the themes, 
intellectual and emotional, are extraor- 
dinarily vivid : they appeal, and arrest, and 
detain, with a dramatic intensity. As in 
the greatest preaching, all the ornate and 
wheeling periods come home from their 
imaginative flights, and close upon the text 
that gave them wings, so these poems have 
each their initial, central, culminating, con- 
sistency and unity of design. The " Ballad 
of a Nun," the " Ballad of Heaven," the 
" Ballad in Blank Verse of the Making of a 
Poet," with their refrains and repetitions, 
their returns upon their openings, their 



Jan. 5, 1895.— JSIo. I18;3. ] 



THE ACADEMY. 



striking of the same notes frith an 
emphasis cunningly varied, have a singular 
lucidity and energy of imaginative thought. 
In each a situation, an emotion, has 
been faced and wrestled with and 
mastered : the solutions are triumphant 
and satisfying. Where Browning would 
have written psychological studies, with 
parry and fence, cut and thrust, of 
encountering emotions, Mr. Davidson 
chooses rather to throw his problem 
into a romantic ballad ; applying, to 
subtile and spiritual themes, the direct 
narrative vigour, and pictorial charm of 
the ancient ballad story. He is happiest 
when using stanza and rhyme, especially 
the four-line octosyllabic stanza. It con- 
denses and constrains his fervent rush of 
words, which in blank verse is not always 
under control. Thanks to the necessity of 
concentration, we have such splendours of 
phrase as these : 

" For still night's starry scroll unfurled, 
And still the day came like a flood : 
It was the greatness of the world 
That made her long to use her blood : " 

or, again, 

" I care not for my broken vow ; 
Though God should come in thunder soon, 
I am sister to the mountains now, 
And (later to the sun and moon : " 

or, once more, 

" She dared to make herself at home 
Amidst the wail, the uneasy stir. 
The blood-stained flime that flUed the dome, 
Eceitleea and silent, shrouded her." 

One feels that, in a less coercing metre, 
Mr. Davidson might have let his imagina- 
tion riot amid a wealth of imagery, far less 
impressive than the concise and chiselled 
beauty of these sudden phrases, left with- 
out amplification. All his lyrics have some- 
thing of this excellent brevity and com- 
pression, which seem to bring dignity with 
them : elsewhere, he falls into phrases 
unennobled and without strength. Com- 
pare Mr. Davidson's 

" with awe beheld 
A shaven pate mutter a Latin spell 
Over a biscuit ; " 

with Browning's 

" Hear the blessed mutter of the miss 
And see God made and eaten all day long." 

Both are painful : but Browning's phrase 
has an imaginative irony and audacity in 
its realism, which lift it above mere crudity. 
Mr. Davidson's phrase has no such justify- 
ing power. The "Ballad in Blank Verse," 
where it occurs, abounds in resonant 
passages of beautiful writing, memorable 
and fine ; but, as an whole, it has not the 
haunting and irresistible fascination of the 
lyrics. Yet, like all Mr. Davidson's poems, 
it betrays Mr. Davidson the novelist and 
essayist and dramatist, with a tenacious 
hold upon life, keenly sensitive and 
observant and imaginative, with humour 
at once human and fantastic. His " Thirty 
Bob a Week " and " To the Street Piano," 
like his earlier " Music Hall " poems, are 
written in a vein of curious intelligence, a 
comprehension of life in certain aspects, 
commonly treated by poets either with a 
lachrymose sentiment or a brutal bitterness. 



Mr. Davidson is content to interpret, with 
a moving sense of their tragi-comedy, 
human and divine, which stirs us strangel}'. 
His very rhythms and measures go with a 
sublime sort of " vulgarity," with a quaint 
pitifulness in the Cockney twang, half- 
jesting and half-despairing, yet defiant all 
the while. He renders with perfect pre- 
cision the feeling which street sights and 
sounds, the pleasure and pain of the 
struggling crowd, can rouse in us, 
touching us to a sense of helpless 
pity, and useless tenderness, and an 
impulse of love for things "common and 
unclean." Mr. Davidson imports no pathos 
into these themes, he is unsparing and 
exact in his presentation ; but the old Homo 
mm takes him to the heart of them. 
Indeed, there is a powerful humanity in all 
his work: the purely lonesome dream-world 
of many poets has not drawn him away 
from earth for long. His "Autumn" is 
full of the blessings of "mellow fruitful- 
ness," bread for the hungry, the mirth of 
harvest. 

" Let the wain roll home with laughter, 
The piper pipe, 
And let the giila come dancing after, 
For once again the earth is ripe." 

And when he sings the spring, with its old 
memories of "merry" England and of 
mirth under the greenwood tree, of sylvan 
dance and gaiety, it is with a deeper mean- 
ing than meets the eye at first. 

" Oh, foolish fancy, feebly strong ! 
To England thall we ever bring 
The old mirth back ? Yes, jes ; nor long 

It shall be tiU that greater Spring ; 
And some one yet may make a song 
The birds would like to sing," 

In his "Ballads" there is a curious kind 
of mystical folk-lore interwoven with the 
plain humanity of their motives. He re- 
minds us here a little of Novalis, there a 
little of Eichter ; for all the sturdy and 
straightforward strength befitting a country- 
man of Scott, he is yet a poet who has not 
lived without undergoing its various in- 
fluences in the age of Rossetti, of " aesthetic 
poetry," of a "romantic revival," of a 
"Celtic Eenaissance." And he does not 
shrink from passing out of phantasies into 
grotesques with a sudden and daring power : 
power is in all his work, a singular effective- 
ness, even a sort of sporting with his own 
power. The "Exodus from Ilounsditoh," 
like the " Making of a Poet," is not without 
its freakishness, a not quite satisfactory 
caprice. "Be bold I be bold !" is excellent 
good advice : so is " Be not too bold ! " Of 
most good youngpr poets just now we often 
wish that, in Mr. Saintsbury's phrase, " the 
sober blood in their decent veins" would 
" spurt in a splendid sally." They follow 
Eossetti or M. Verlaine, Arnold or Mr. 
Bridges, with a very chastened and un- 
ambitious pace. But Mr. Davidson is 
superbly ardent and alive, making adven- 
tures upon every side of literature : his 
perils come not from any over caution. But 
to compare this volume with its author's 
earlier In a Music Hall is to trace the 
"progress of poetry" from strength to 
strength. Few poems in that book, good 
as it was, had the assured perfection of 
some poems in this. There are staczag ! 



which haunt the memory as only great art 
can : 

" The adventurous sun took Heaven by storm ; 

Clouds scattered largesses of rain ; 
The sounding cities, rich and warm, 

Smouldered and glittered in the plain. 
Sometimes it was a wandering wind, 

Sometimes the fragrance of the pine, 
Sometimes the thought how others sinned, 

That turned her sweet blood intj wine." 

Indeed, only a poet of no mean order 
could have so felt and dramatised the 
" tragedy of the cloister," and the faith in 
Our Lady, both together, as in this " Ballad 
of a Nun," based upon a legend seven 
hundred years old, Mr. Davidson has done. 
And though in this volume, small as it is, 
there are two or three poems markedly 
beneath the rest, yet even the less excellent 
have distinction. Mr. Davidson's feeling 
for nature is strongly individual : each 
little lyric has its felicity of phrase and 
sentiment, no echo of Tennyson or of 
Arnold, but fresh from the imagination, 
deeply impressed, of one with eyes to see 
for himself, with ears to hear. And the 
prevailing "philosophy" is his own, with 
all its questionings, solutions, guesses, 
dreams, all valorous and fine, tiiough not 
acceptable to all. In short, Mr. Davidson 
has given his critics that most welcome of 
gifts, a book which gives them occasion to 
experience "the noble pleasure of prais- 
ing"; for, once more to quote Mr. Swin- 
burne, it is a book rich beyond a doubt in 
"the imperishable excellence of sincerity 
and strength " : rich also in graces, that do 
not always accompany and adorn those 
excellent virtues, 

Lionel Johnson, 



TWO BOOKS on PERSIA, 

Safdh Nameh: Persian Pictures. A Book 
of Travel. (Bentley.) 

Behind an F.adern Veil. By 0. J. Wills, 
(Blackwoods.) 

The former of these two volumes is not a 
"book of travel" in the ordinary sense. 
There is no very obvious personality or 
progress of the writer. The reader may be 
in doubt as to the sex of the author, and 
may only incline from internal evidence (o 
our opinion that the hand is feminine. The 
pictures are true, bright, and sometimes 
humorous. They are rather sketches, and 
are never finished with any minute detail. 
They will amuse rather than instruct in the 
varieties of Persian life and manners. 
Books of travel are too generally ponderous, 
and too rarely in a single volume. This 
work is literally and physically light. An 
excellent book for beguiling an hour or two 
upon the Indian Ocean ; a charming com- 
panion in a calm. Every writer on Persia 
has some word of praise for the practical 
usefulness of the American missionaries. 
Here we find them in a time of cholera 
trying 

"to put a stop to a fertile cause of fresh in- 
fection by persuailing the people to bum the 
clothes of the dead instead of selling them for 
a few pence to the first comer. . . . The 
system of burial among the Persians is beyond 
expression evil. They think nothing of washing 
the bodies of the dead in a stream which sub- 



8 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 5, 1895.— No. 1183. 



8(qu«ntly runs Uirougb the length of the 
village ; and in their selection of the graveyard 
they will not hesitate to choose the ground 
lying immediately above a kanat which is 
carrying water to many gardens and drinking 
fouB tains." 

The writer of the "picture," entitled 
" Three Noble Ladies," clearly is a woman, 
because no EDglishman would be received 
by a princess in Teheran ; and the other 
"pictures" are presumably by the same 
writer. The following is very true of the 
" icy " welcome so common in Persia : 

" We were taken into a large tent where the 
Princess was sitting on a rolled-up bed for 
sofa. We greeted her with chattering teeth. 
We remembered the steaming cups of tea of 
our former visit, and prayed that they might 
speedily make their appearance ; but, alas ! 
lemon ices alone were offered to wa. The 
Persian's one idea of hospitulity is to give you 
lemon ices — lemon ices in hailstorms, lemon 
ices when you are drenched with rain, lemon 
ices when a biting wind is blowing through 
the tent door — it was more than the best regu- 
lated constitution could stand. We politely 
refused them." 

The writing of these " pictures " is very 
pleasant. We remember no book on 
Persia which is, in regard to style, such 
easy and pleasant reading. Much observa- 
tion leads us to believe that it is most 
frequently a feminine rather than a mascu- 
line fault to use "whose" in connexion 
with nouns neither masculine nor feminine. 
(3a the same page we fiud " from whoso 
steps," referring to a palace, and " on whose 
lock," with regard to a door. It is not the 
more agreeable because it is a very common 
disfigurement in the work of writers even 
of much distinction. We must add that 
this is the only book we have ever met with 
which refers to "Providence" as "she." 
This novelty is given repeatedly in a picture, 
entitled " Kequiescat in Pace "; and if this 
were not sufHcient proof of originality on 
the part of the writer, we might throw in 
her description of the smoke of a narghileh 
— "a strong taste of charcoal flavoured 
with painted wood." 

The sub-title of our second book is " a 
plain tale of events occurring in the 
experience of a lady who had a unique 
opportunity of observing tho inner life 
of ladies of the upper class in Persia " ; 
and it purports to record the experi- 
ence of a young English girl who joined 
her father in iShiraz, he having married 
a princess, granddaughter of Futteh Ali 
8hah. We need not accept all the incidents 
in this volume as actual facts within the 
knowledge of Mr. AVills or of the lady 
whose experience he records. The book is 
highly interesting, full of graphic pictures 
of Persian life, with a very skilful addition 
of personal interest. The work is indeed a 
one-volume novel of a most romantic sort, 
with the additional attraction of accessories 
of time and place true to the actual circum- 
stances of life in and about Shiraz and 
Teheran. Mr. Wills is a well-known and 
accomplished writer concerning the country 
in which he has lived and seen so mucb, 
and he has produced a most entertaining 
book. The lady is "behind the Eastern 
Veil," and Mr. Wills is behind the lady, so 
that we cannot tell precisely how much 



there is of the lady and how much of 
Mr. Wills in these pages. But the ex- 
periences are not those which could happen 
to any Christian Englishman in Persia, and 
they are very well told. We must leave to 
the intelligent reader the not very difficult 
task of distinguishing the real from the 
romantic and fanciful in this volume, from 
which anyone unacquainted with Eistern 
life may learn much, and in which no one 
can fail to be interested and amused. 

AnxnuE Aejjold. 



In th« Dozy Moura, and Other Papers. By 
Agnes Eepplier. (Gay & Bird.) 

This is a very readable little volume of 
essays by an American lady whose previous 
eilorts in the same direction have met with 
a favourable reception. The book is not 
merely interesting and amusing, but con- 
tains many shrewd and sensible remarks on 
certain features of modern society. 

Miss Eepplier is not inclined to claim a 
monopoly of all the talents and virtues for 
her own sex. In a paper, entitled " A 
Curious Contention," she bestows a little 
genial satire on some of the extravagances 
of the advanced upholders of female rights. 
She remarks of the sect with great truth : 

"Since the beginning of the world men have 
fought and wrangled with one another; and 
now women seem to find their keenest pleasure 
and exhilaration in fighting and wrangling 
with men. In literature, in journalism, in lec- 
tures, in discussions of every kind, they are 
lifting up their voices with an angry cry which 
eounds a little like Mdme. de Sovignu's 
' respectful protestation against Providence.' 
They are tired apparently of being women, 
and are disposed to lay all the blame of their 
limitations upon men." 

Miss Eepplier asks where the proofs are to 
be found of woman's immense superiority 
to man, and does not regard as satisfactory 
the answer of the new school " that never 
in the past, or, at least, never since those 
pleasant primitive days of which unhappily 
no distinct record has been preserved, have 
women been permitted free scope for their 
abilities." She does not believe that we are 
on the eve of a complete change in the 
relations of the sexes ; so that it may be 
said with a recent female lecturer, " The 
woman of the past is dead." To this and 
similar assertions it is well replied that 

" Humanity is a large factor, and must be 
taken into serious account before we assure 
ourselves too confidently that the old order is 
passing away. For good or for evil women 
have lived their lives with S}me approach to 
entirety during the slow progress of the ages. 
. . . Even if a radical change is imminent, 
there is no reason to be so fiercely contentious 
about it. Let us remember Dr. Watts, and be 
pacified. Our little hands were never made to 
tear each other's eyes. It is possible surely to 
plead for female suffrage without saying spiteful 
and sarcastic things about men, especially as it 
is not their opposition but the listless indiffer- 
ence of our own sex which stands between the 
eager advocate and her vote." 

In a very sensible essay, headed " In Behalf 
of Parents," the author deals in a similar 
manner with the preposterous theories of 
juvenile management, which are perhaps 
more rife on her side of the Atlantic than 
on ours, though they are by no means un- 



known here at the present time. "It is a 
thankless task," she says, "to be a parent 
in these exacting days " ; and certainly it 
would appear to be so in a country where 
such doctrines are current as are cited from 
" these little manuals of advice which prove 
to us now 80 conclusively that even a young 
child is deeply wronged by subjection." 
The old-fashioned view of parental righta 
may have been in many respects harsh and 
severe, but still it never led to suoh per- 
nicious absurdities being gravely promul- 
gated as those of which Miss Eepplier gives 
a few specimens. 

In an otherwise very interesting and sug- 
gestive essay on " Sympathy," Miss Eep- 
plier appears a little too much inclined to 
contend that greatness of any kind ought 
to win admiration, even whon accompanied 
by moral obliquity. It is true that she dis- 
claims any idea of being supposed to main- 
tain that " genius repeals the decalogue " ; 
but still she seems, in one or two instances, 
to be too indulgent towards brilliant wicked- 
ness. She agrees with Carlyle " that 
eminence of any kind is a most wholesome 
thing to contemplate and revere," a doctrine 
which, thus broadly stated, would lead us 
to reverence in a certain measure any great 
criminal who was ingenious and successful 
in forming and executing his plans, as cer- 
tainly many have been. It actually causes 
the author to feel some sympathy with one 
who can only be pronounced to be a criminal 
on a great scale. She expresses an admira- 
tion for Napoleon, and confesses that she 
dislikes to be reminded of the personal 
meanness which he displayed in many cases. 

Among the lighter essays in this volume, 
one of the most entertaining is "At the 
Novelists' Table," a lively sketch of the 
descriptions of eating and drinking to be 
found in the leading writers of fiction, and 
a comparison of the fare they severally 
provide for their characters. The first place 
among these accounts is with good reason 
given to the inn breakfast in Quentin Bur- 
ward. We may pardon the author for never 
being able since reading it to cherish for 
Louis XI. the aversion which is his due. 

Miss Eepplier is one of those who can 
do j ustice to the good qualities of a much- 
maligned and often cruelly persecuted 
animal. She has " a discriminating en- 
thusiasm for cats," and has given a delight- 
ful biography of a kitten in the early pages 
of her book. The demeanour of the Utile 
creature seems to have led to his being 
baptized with the name of one of tho worst 
characters in history, wh'ch was rather 
hard on the poor thing. 
" Affable, debonair, and democratic to tho core, 
the caresses and commendations of a chance 
visitor or of a housemaid were as valuable to 
him as were my own. I never looked at him 
' showing off,' as children said, jumping from 
chair to chair, balancing himself on the bed- 
post, or scrambling rapturously up the for- 
bidden curtains, without thinking of the young 
emperor who contended in the amphitheatre 
for the worthless plaudits of the crowd. He 
was impulsive and affectionate— so I believe 
was the emperor for a time — and as masterful 
as if born to the purple. His mother struggled 
hard to maintain her rightful authority, but in 
vaiu. He woke her from her sweetest naps ; 
he darted at her tail, and leaped down on her 
from sofas and tables with the grace of a 



Jan. 5, 1895.— No, 1183.1 



THE ACADEMY. 



diminutive panther. Every time she attempted 
to punish him for these misdemeanoura he 
cried piteously for help, and was promptly and 
unwisely rescued by some kind-hearted member 
of the family." 

II the kitten was Nero, the parent cat must 
of course be the ■wicked mother of the 
wicked emperor. She also is graphically 
sketched. 

" Agrippina had always been a cat of 
manifest reserves. She was only six weeks 
old when she came to me, and had 
already acquired that gravity of demeanour, 
that air of gentle disdain, that dignified and 
somewhat supercilious composure which won 
the respectful admiration of those whom she 
permitted to enjoy her acquaintance. Even in 
moments of self-forgetfulness and mirth her 
recreations resembled those of the little Spanish 
Infanta, who, not being permitted to play with 
her inferiors, and having no equals, diverted 
herself as best she could with sedate and 
solitary sport. Always chary of her favours, 
Agrippina cired little for the admiration of 
her chosen circle, and, with a single exception, 
made no friends beyond it." 

The mutual attachment of the two cats was 
charming to witness. All readers who have 
any sympathy will regret to learn that the 
history had a tragic close, which the feelings 
of the author will not allow her to do more 
than allude to : 

"It is a rude world, even for little cats; and 
evil chances lie in wait for the petted creatures 
we strive to shield from harm. Eemembering 
the pangs of separation, the possibilities of 
unkindness or neglect, the troubles that hide 
in a-nbush, I am sometimes glad that the same 
cruel ar d selfish blow struck both mother and 
son, and that they lie together safe from hurt 
or hazard, sleeping tranquilly, and a'ways 
under the shadow of the friendly pines." 

E. Seymouii Loxo. 



NEW" NOVELS. 



Poite Restante. By C. Y. Hargreaves. In 
3 vols. (A. & C. Black.) 

Eun to Ground. A Sporting Novel. By 
Mrs. Eobert Jocelyn. In 3 vols. 
(Hutchinson.) 

Liclc Wylder. A Eomantic Story. By 
Eichard Penderel. In 2 vols. (Eeming- 
ton.) 

Kerrigan's Qualily. By Jane Barlow. 
(Hodder & Stoughton.) 

Without Respe.t of Persons. By Colin 
Middleton. (Lawrence & Bullen.) 

A Baugltter of this World. By Fletcher 
Battershall. (Heinemann.) 

A Fair Norwegian. By Andrew Stewari. 
(Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier.) 

Wrecked at the Outset, By Theo Gift. 
(Jarrold.) 

The Story of Sonny Sahib. By Mrs. Everard 
Cotes (Sara Jeanette Duncan). (Mac- 
millans.) 

A Toy Tragedy. By Mrs. Henry de la 
Pasture. (Cassells.) 

To writers of a certain kind of fiction any 
person whose heart is in the right place 
will be disposed to allow a certain number 
of coincidences ; but really Mr. Hargreaves 
imposes on the good nature of the novel- 



reading public. That there should be in 
Venice at one time two Englishmen both 
bearing the name of G. Connisterre, both 
having their letters addressed to the Post 
Office, and each — though they are entirely 
unrelated — bearing a strong resemblance to 
the other would-be curious, but perhaps not 
quite incredible. When, however, we learn 
that each G. Connisterre has had for his 
friend a certain E. Deane, from whom he 
has been alienated, and that one of the 
Connifcterres opens a letter addressed to 
the other, believing it to be intended for 
himself and to have been written by Deane 
No. 1, when as a matter of fact it has been 
addressed by Deane No. 2 to his own 
particular friend, then we rebel and rise in 
defiance of Mr. Hargreaves and his coinci- 
dences. He, however, who is not daunted, 
may learn how one G. Connisterre became 
saddled with the wife of the other, and how 
from this remarkably prepared complication 
arose other complications involving a good 
deal of general discomfort. Of course, the 
story is in itself wildly absurd, but one is 
bound to admit that it is told in a way that 
is by no means unreadable. More than 
this can hardly be said even by the most 
amiable critic. 

Mrs. Eobert Jocelyn describes Run to 
Ground as " a sporting novel "; but all her 
books are sporting novels, and — unless the 
reviewer's memory fails him — there is rather 
less about horses, hounds, and the like in 
the new book than is to be found in 
several of its predecessors. The story has 
apparently been written, not for the sake of 
its hunting, but for the sake of its melo- 
drama, and the narrative climax has evi- 
dently been suggested by the last act of 
" The Bells." Lord George Goring has 
been accused and convicted on apparently 
unimpeachable evidence of cheating at cards, 
and has not long survived his disgrace. He 
has been loved by the Princess Dagmar 
Saravaski, who comes to England under an 
assumed name and settles in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lord George's principal accuser, 
with the object of exposing the plot which 
has sent him to a dishonoured grave. By 
the exercise of her mesmeric powers this 
object is accomplished, and the wicked 
Captain Jack Alexander (it is a novelty, by 
the way, to have a villain named Jack) is 
run to ground with due effectiveness. As 
usual, Mrs. Jocelyn's style is sprightly, but 
careless. Her nominatives and accusatives 
are sometimes shaky, and a remarkable 
combination of metaphors is enshrined in a 
sentence about "other pegs upon which 
she could hang a weak point." 

The trail of the serpent — that is, of the 
amateur — is clearly to be seen on every 
page of BicJc Wylder. It is a novel in 
which a susceptible young man is described 
as "capable of becoming a true votary of 
the son of Venus " ; Pope is referred to as 
" England's verseful pontiff " ; and when 
Mr. Penderil wants to tell us that a lady 
dyed her hair, we read that it " glowed 
with all the tints of auricomous fluid." As 
for the story, it is one of those affairs which 
have a vendetta (of Channel Island origin) 
and abductions and mysterious disappear- 
ances, and a costermonger who blossoms 



into a baronet, and so on. Bick Wylder is 
a very silly book, but it has one quantita- 
tive merit — there might have been three 
volumes, and there are only two. 

There is no doubt about the fact— at 
least, such is the feeling of one reader who 
would snatch at a doubt if he could see the 
mere hem of it — that Kerrigan's (Quality is 
disappointing. What Miss Barlow can do 
upon a small canvas, in line, in chiaroscuro, 
and in expression, is known to everyone 
who is likely to read this column ; but in 
forsaking the sketch for the more elaborate 
consecutive story she dissipates her powers. 
She can see, and she can most perfectly and 
delightfully render her vision ; but, on the 
evidence provided by Kerrigan's Quality, it 
is difficult to believe that the construction 
of a vital narrative organism is among the 
number of her fine capabilities. If we 
could consider the book simply as a series 
of little vignettes of Irish life we might be 
satisfied, but the author's obvious narrative 
intention forbids such consideration. Some of 
the parts are perfect : nothing, for example, 
could be better in its way than the refusal of 
the Irish postman to deliver a black-edged 
letter to the young lady who has charmed 
him. 

" ' Mails or no mails,' he said, ' I've no call to 
be annoyin' her wid misfortins and deaths, and 
divil a bit of me will for man or stick. Long 
sorry I'd be to have the bringin' her of -^uy 
such hijis - looking thing' — he glared vin- 
dictively at the letter which Kerrigan had 
flung down on the table before him—' b?gorra 
I would so. Take it or lave it, aocordin' as you 
may considher, but you needn't go fer to say 
it's any doin' of mine.' " 

Unfortunately, one has to regard the whole ; 
and the whole misses the mark. 

Mr. Colin Middleton's Without Respect of 
Persons can hardly be said to miss the mark, 
because there is no mark at which it per- 
ceptibly aims. What story there is is so 
slight and formless that it is difficult to see 
why it has been written, unless its object 
be a defence of the beneficent homicide 
which, under the name of euthanasia, found 
various enthusiastic advocates a few years 
ago. Nothing in the book is of any account 
save its climax, which is the self-sought death 
of a hopelessly invalided wife at the hands 
of her devoted husband, who immediately 
afterwards commits suicide. It is a grue- 
some conception, and in some hands might 
be made disquietingly powerful ; but Mr. 
Middleton's treatment leaves the reader's 
nerves perfectly steady. 

A Baughter of this World is a bewildering 
mixture of mysticism and melodrama. It 
is plainly of American birth, and is much 
the kind of thing that Edgar Poe might 
have written if, after losing his constructive 
power and his fine lucidity of narration, he 
had joined the Boston transcendentalists, 
attended the conversation parties of Margaret 
Fuller, and taken to writing fiction for the 
Dial. Mr. Battershall appears to be an 
able and a cultivated man, but in directing 
his artistic steps to some goal or other he 
has missed his way. Perhaps a second 
reading might do something to elucidate 
the substance and aim of the book — but life 
is short. 



10 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 5, 1895.— No. 1183. 



Though A Fair Notuegian is at times 
stilted in style, and though its substance 
is occasionally improbable and frequently 
sentimental, it is a pleasant, readable story. 
Eeaders must be getting rather tired of the 
able young man who is inveigled into marry- 
ing a driimken woman, and who, in the 
character of a bachelor, subsequently meets 
with his affinity ; but by this time they ought 
to know that the older a narrative scheme is 
ihe more it is beloved by the ordinary 
British novelist. Still, though this and 
other materials are rather conventional, the 
author makes tolerably good use of them ; 
and in the good old maid, who gives 
Bohemian receptions to her young journal- 
istic and literary friends, we have a very 
pleasant creation. The name on the title- 
page suggests doubts. It may be admitted 
that " Andrew Stewart " does not look like 
a pseudonym, but one has a suspicion that 
"Anne" or "Amelia" would come nearer 
the truth than " Andrew." 

The stories, the nature of which is 
accurately indicated by the general title 
Wrecked at the Outset, can hardly bo ex- 
pected to provide very cheerful reading; 
and people with a taste for literary dis- 
malness will find ample gratification in 
Miss Theo Gift's gloomy pages. One 
of her three lives is wrecked by the 
want of thought which we have good 
authority for saying works as much ill as 
want of heart ; but in the other two stories 
the feminine vessel is wrecked through the 
deliberate vice or callous selfishness of the 
monster man. This theme is surely becom- 
ing a little threadbare. If masculine villany 
is really as obvious as it seems to be, why 
do not our lady novelists take it for granted 
and abandon the very unprofitable task of 
thrashing the dead horse ? 

And oh, what a relief to turn from this 
dismalness to Mrs. Everard Ootes's charm- 
ing, winsome, and every way delightful 
Story of Sonny Sahib ! True, it begins 
sombrely in the darkest days of the great 
Mutiny, but after the first sad chapter 
there is nothing but brightness and grace 
and beauty. It is very slight, filling little 
more than a hundred small pages, and per- 
haps the restoration of the brave little Sonny 
Sahib to the father who had believed him- 
self childless as well as widowed reads more 
like a fairy-tale than like a transcript from 
the life of every day ; but, then, in the India 
of a generation ago fairy-tales sometimes 
came true, and whether true or not they are 
very welcome after even a short course of 
contemporary realism. The Story of Sonny 
Sahib can be read easily between, say, 
London and Brighton in the fastest train, 
and it will make that or any other hour 
brief with pleasantness. 

The best things in tho bundle are certainly 
the unpretending little paper-covered books 
which come last to hand. Sonny Sahib is 
one of them ; A Toy Tragedy is the other ; 
and both have the charm which belongs to 
any capable, sympathetic, and artistic treat- 
ment of child-life. There are four children 
in Mrs. de la Pasture's pretty little story, 
each portrait being most skilfully and 
delicately individualised, and every one of 
them a little masterpiece. It is difficult to 



represent a child consistently carrying out 
a great scheme of self-sacrifice without 
making him or her just a little bit of a prig, 
but the sweet Joan in her great renuncia- 
tion is as simple and as free from self- 
consciousness as ever. A Toy Tragedy is, 
indeed, admirable throughout, and despite 
its title it adds to positive merits the nega- 
tive virtue of not being harrowing. 

James AsucaoFr Noble. 



SCOTCH BOOKS. 



Farth in Field. By J. Logie Kobertaon. 
(Fisher Unwin.) Mr. Eobcrtson, who need 
hardly disguise himself any longer as " Hugh 
Haliburton," is an open-eyed traveller along 
roads that are tolerably familiar, but 
whose beauties and other special features are 
often missed by the incurious, and is uncom- 
promisingly — one is inclined to say sometimeg, 
even drearily — realistic. Take, for example, his 
papers, in the first part of this book, on such 
essentially commonplace subjects as " Hog- 
manay," "Hansel Monday," "St. Valentine's 
Day" : in them, beyond all question, " wondprs 
from the familiar start." Take again " Gay 
Kinross " as an example of the manner in which 
he can kill romance. Mr. Robertson is equally 
successful as an explorer of the bypaths of 
history, sociology, and literature. Most Scots- 
men have an idea of poachers and poaching ; but 
how many, I wonder, can tell offhand what 
the North Sea Scheme was, or what is meant 
by a "lotman"? Mr. Bobertson is also a 
very competent critic, even though he is not 
disposed to drive very hard the Amoldian doc- 
trine, that literature means the application of 
ideas to life. The fourth and fifth parts of his 
volume are devoted to Thomson (of the 
" Seasons ") and Bums respectively. The 
latter, in particular, is admirable. Mr. 
Robertson shows more fully than any 
other critic has done before him — with the 
possible exception of the late Prof. Minto — 
how much Bums was indebted to, or in- 
fluenced by, his predecessors. Altogether this 
is a very g^eat advance upon anything its 
author has previously done in prose. Indeed, 
I should say, with the possible exception of 
Mr. Henderson's volume on Old Scotland, this 
is the best book dealing with the realities of 
Scotch life of the recent past that has been pub- 
lished for at least a decade. 

Mr. W. D. Latto has, in Tammas Bodkin 
(Hodder & Stoughton), given the Southron a 
tough nut to crack. The dialect is terrible; 
the Scotch renderings of Ecglish words are 
more terrible still. It may be complained, too, 
that, in these days, when the reading public 
can only, to all appearance, digest tit-bits in the 
shape of fiction no less than of character, Mr. 
Litto has given in his closely packed volume 
quite an intellectual surfeit. But Mr. Latto 
is a genuine humorist, and is thoroughly 
familiar with Scotch character to be found on 
the East Coast, say between the East Neuk of 
Fife and Aberdeen. He has, therefore, taken 
his own way — and his own time — to describe 
characters and relate experiences which have 
come within his own knowledge. His Tammas 
Bodkin — who, by the way, was well known in 
Scotland long before the appearance of Mr. 
Barrie, whom somecritics have accused Mr. Latto 
of imitating — is not an inspired tailor like Alton 
Locke. But he is obviously very human in his 
pride of ancestry, his self-consciousness, his 
iove-a£Fairs, and in the vicissitudes of his 
ordinary life ; and when ho pays a visit to 
London he conducts himself — well, precisely 
as Dickens would have made him conduct 
himself had he got hold of him. Tammas 
Bodkin is, as I have said, a hard nut to crack>; 



but when the kernel is reached, it will be found 
infinitely richer than that of most of the so- 
called Scotch humorists of the time. 

'Tween Oloamin' and the Mirk. By Sir Hugh 
Gilzeau Reid. (Alex. Gardner.) Sir Hugh Reid 
explains in connexion with this volume, and the 
somewhat belated look it bears, that most of its 
contents were written a quarter of a century 
ago, and that several of his sketuhes have 
already done duty as magazine articles, and 
otherwise. It must be allowed that this 
volume has a hotch-potch or haggis look — 
with its stories that recall Christopher North, 
and its sketches, like "Faithful Oscar," which 
recall John Brown, its descriptions of tho way 
in which life is spent by typical students at a 
northern university, and its allusions to the 
drinking and other customs of Scotland. This 
is, indeed, a book to be read lightly and in no 
specially critical spirit; for while Sir Hugh 
Reid writes sympathetically of times and folk 
he is familiar with, he does not pretend to be 
a stylist. On the whole, " Old Oscar, the Faith- 
ful Dog," which has already been published 
and has been well received, is, from the purely 
literary point of view, the best bit of writing 
in the book. Other sketches, however, such 
as " Fisher Folk " and " Unaccredited Heroes " 
— in which latter, by the way, justice is done 
to the too soon forgotten Bethunes — are intrin- 
sically quite as good ; and there is the ring of 
truth, as well as of homely Scotch romance, 
about such stories as " From Plough to Pulpit " 
and "A Romance of the Manse." There are 
many provoking things in 'Tween Oloamin' and 
the Mirk — not a few things that almost tempt 
the ordinary reader to be hypercritical. But 
the earnestness and heartiness of the whole are 
contagiotis. 

Our Town, and Some of its People, by John 
Menzies (Fisher Unwin), is another of the 
almost too numerous books produced by 
the present craze of Scotchmen generally, 
and of the men of Fife more par- 
ticularly, to look at themselves in the glass 
of literature. It is not without cither its 
humour or its sentiment : on the contrary, the 
chapter bearing the title " The Tamsons and 
Widow Kay " is full of that peculiarly Scotch 
pathos which is always associated with the 
backsliding of a promising son. But this 
collection of stories and sketches is not marked 
by that idealising touch which has given a 
special character to the books of Mr. Barrie, 
and has rendered pathos and poetry convertible 
terms. Mr. John Menzies is a kindly 
photographer, who Ukes the subjects of his art 
to be taken at their very best. They have 
their faults, of course, the good folk of " our 
town." Some of them have short tempers, 
and others diink more than is good for 
them. In particular, Mr. Menzies tells the 
pathetic story of a poor man who when in 
drink almost kills his ailing child — a story 
which is probably based on fact. He is 
more partial, however, to the amiable foibles 
of the characters in little towns. A typical 
chapter is " The Bell and the Band." In it is 
narrated the sad fate of the band of " our 
town," which goes to Glasgow to compete for 
prizes to be given to bands. Its admirers 
believe it will win the first; as a matter of 
fact, it has to be content with the eighth. The 
comic misery of the return of the band is 
delightfully set forth. Altogether, Oar Town 
is one of those books which collectors of Scotch 
sketches — especially of sketches of a Scotland 
that is rapidly disappearing— should not omit 
to possess. 

Of the numerous Scotch books that take Fife 
for their scenes. The Provost of Olendookic, by 
Andrew Smith Robertson (Oliphant, Anderson, 
& Ferrier), is certainly one of the simplest. 
You get to the heart of it in the introduction, 



Jan. 5, 1895.— No. 1183.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



which is rsther ambitiously termed "proem," 
and in which there figures Saunders, a weaver, 
who is "coortin"' one Kirsten with a ven- 
Reance. Misfortunes come upon Saunders ; and 
Kirsten, with his approval, marries Henry 
Scott. In the body of the story Saunders 
figures as the Provost of Glendookie, a good 
man in his way, no doubt, but rather prone 
to preachings. Some of the minor char- 
acters in the book are carefully sketched,'; 
and the home-coming of Bauldie, the son of 
Henry and Kirsten Scott, after the death of his 
parents, recalls the return of the son from 
London in A Window in Thrums, but is never- 
theless different in tone. 

"Puddin'," by W. Grant Stevenson (Oli- 
phant, Anderson, & Perrier), is perhaps the 
most delicate and delightful story of ' ' humble " 
Edinburgh Ufe that has been published since 
the death of John Brown. In a sense there 
" is nothing in " this biography of an Edin- 
burgh waif, who sits for a popular artist, and 
whose most notable physical characteristics 
secure for him the nickname of "Puddin'." 
Bat it is told with such perfect simplicity as to 
disarm criticism, or rather to make criticism 
take the form of following the fortunes of Joe 
Keddie tiU he gets a business for himself and a 
wife, and even brings back to his mother his 
father— once a drunkard, but now, thanks to 
an accident, a reformed character. This 
little book, which is not written with a pur- 
pose, deserves the very highest praise. 

The Auld Kirk Minister, by David Cuthbert- 
son (Paisley : J. & E. Parlane), contains 
some plain but readable sketches— graphic, 
pathetic, and humorous— of clericalised rural 
life. Norman Eraser is a good portrait of 
a hard-working, earnest minister, who is not 
without a. healthy element of " unregenerate " 
temper in him, while his son's love-affairs are 
admirable illustrations of the sort of difficulties 
an ambitious Scotch lad of education may 
stumble into. " The Only Son of his Mother " 
IS full of quiet pathos. The Auld Kirk 
Miniiter will probably not attract quite the 
amount of attention it deserves, owing to the 
market being overstocked with Scotch stories 
at present. 

Samuel Rutherford and Some of his Corre- 
spondents. By Alexander Whyte, D.D. (Oli- 
phant, Anderson, & Ferrier.) The purely 
devotional side of Scotch religious life is, per- 
haps, best represented by Samuel Eutherford, 
in some respects the first, though not intel- 
lectually the greatest, of the Covenanters. 
" As we say Bunyan and Bedford, Baxter and 
Kidderminster, Newton and Olney, Edwards 
and Northampton, Boston and Ettrick, Mc 
Cheyne and St. Peter's, so we say Rutherford 
and Anwoth." It is in this spirit that Dr. 
Alexander Whyte writes of the " saint," 
whom he adores almost as much as he 
adores Bunyan. As the title of h's book 
indicates, he deals with Eutherford chiefly 
in his character of religious letter- writer ; 
and his chapters have sueh headings as 
"Marion McNaught," "Lady Kenmure," 
"Lady Cardoness," "Jean Broon," and " James 
Ban tie. Student of Divinity." The volume 
consists of lectures, and there is a little of the 
lecturing tone in it. Readers who are not 
familiar with the characteristics of Scotch 
spirituality may find that it savours here and 
there of unction. But it is a careful and, in 
its way, thorough performance, and ought to 
be popular in those circles in which the only 
life worth living is a life of piety, if not of 
pietism. 

Lewis Morrison Orant : his Life, Letters, and 
Last Poems, edited by Jessie Annie Anderson 
(Alexander Gardner), is the pathetic story 
of a BaDfi"shire lad of some poetical perform- 
ance and of more promise, who died of lung i 



11 



disease while still a student at Aberdeen. 
Lewis Grant's life seems to have been little 
else than a struggle, and a not very protracted 
struggle, against misery and disease. His 
parents were poor, the cottage he chiefly lived 
in was unsanitary, his health was always 
doubtful, and his ambition was great. Under 
these circumstances what could there be 
for him but tragedy? The story in 
which the evolution of that tragedy is 
witnessed is rather long drawn out. Some of 
the detaUs— the petty and pitiful detaUs— of 
the poor lad's efforts to get his volume of 
poems published by subscription might have 
been omitted ; and although his letters, like the 
letters of every self-conscious lad, are invariably 
interesting, there is exhibited in them a 
tendency to repetition of thought or of emo- 
tion. Lewis Grant burned out before he had 
time to do mere than indicate the character 
of his powers ; and although regrets are par- 
ticularly vain in respect of precocious poets. 
It IS hardly possible not say, without a sigh, 
that it would have been better had circumstances 
allowed this Banffshire Chatterton to mature 
his powers before exercising them. Sometimes 
he recaUs Shelley, at other times he recalls 
Keats ; but mostly he is himself, an intensely 
reflective, religious lad, who m'ght have pro- 
jected himself with almost equal success into 
poetry or preaching. The author of his 
biography means well, and, on the whole, gives 
a very interesting account of her hero. 
There are some misprints, however, which she 
ought to have corrected when she was revising 
the proof-sheets. " Grothi seanton," as a 
reproduction of a most familiar Greek saying 
18 inexcusable. 



side of his countrymen, as when he describes 
such a man as Crichton of Sanquhar, 
" Fa gleg i" the uptak tae be. 

And a cout's beet price at a glisk could see." 
But both these poets are full of that kindliness 
which is quite as Scotch as is shrewdness, and 
their verses deserve the study of all who wish 
to make themselves acquainted with rural 
Scotland of the present day, 

William Wallace. 



NOTES AND NJSWS. 



ik v' -^^^^^i^der Gardner has just published 
the best work of two minor Scotch poets who 
are decidedly above the average— TAe Songs of 
Thule, by L. J. Nicholson, and Poems, Sonas, 
and Sonnets, by Robert Reid, otherwise known 
as Rob Danlock. Mr. Nicholson's verse, which 
invariably flows smoothly, is specially notable, 
because it brings readers into touch with the 
Shetlanders, with their Viking blood, and their 
sympathy with the melancholy and yet inspir- 
ing ocean. He gives a most vigorous battle- 
song, while in a different vein are " Barbara 
Pitcaim," "The Hylta Dance," and the 
ballad of " Laurence Moat." Mr. Nicholson 
has, further, considerable lyrical power, as in 
the piece which flows thus : 

" It was the time of roses, 
We met, my love and I ; 
And Beauty's hand had crowned the land, 
And music filled the sky." 

He is, however, strongest in "local" verse, 
even although it be occasionally Hans Breit- 
mannish, as in such a stanza as 

" Dat midnight sky— dat waveless voe 
Da heaven abune, da heaven below, 
An' noo — 'oh — luck an angel hymn 
Da laverock, in da simmer dim." 

Mr. Robert Reid hails from the south of Scot- 
land, from the lead-mining village of Wanlock- 
head, distant only a mile from the hamlet 
of Geadhills, in which Allan Ramsay was 
bom. Like Mr. Nicolson's verse, Mr. Reid's is 
steeped in love and locality. How they go 
togethermay be judged from such a poem as 
" May Morel," and such lines as 

" Wo kent that the warld wad triutle and turn 
Wi mickle o' pleasure and mair o' wae, 
Sae doon by the banks o' the wimplin' bum 
We strayed i' the dawin' o' love's sweet morn, 
And we nippet the blossom and jinkt the thorn 
As the lang saft eimmer raw'd away." 



Mr. Reid, like most Scotchmen — even most 
Scotch poets — is seen at his best when he deals 
with the shrewd rather than the sentimental 



The sixth and final volume of Prof. Skeat's 
' ' Library Edition " of Chaucer will be published 
in January. Meanwhile, in compliance with a 
wish which has been very generally expressed, 
a Supplementary Volume is in course of 
preparation by Prof. Skeat, to be issued during 
the present year, containing the Testament of 
Love (in prose), and the chief poems which 
have at various times been attributed to 
Chaucer and published with his genuine works 
in old editions. The volume will be complete 
in itself, with an introduction, notes, and 
glossary ; and will be uniform with the 
" Library Edition " of Chaucer's Complete 
Works. 

We understand that the History of Punch, 
on which Mr. M. H. Spielmann has been 
engaged for several years past, will be issued 
shortly by Messrs. Cassell & Co. The length 
of time consumed in the preparation of this 
work has been caused by the enormous amount 
of material and evidence which Mr. Spielmann 
has had to examine and sift in his desire to 
make the book worthy of its subject. He has 
had access to official documents and other 
exclusive sources of information which will 
render the work of permanent interest. 

Messrs. Macuillan & Co. hope to publish 
in the course of the present month the late 
Walter Pater's Greek Studies, consisting of 
papers on mythology and poetry, sculpture and 
architecture, which have already appeared in 
the magazines, prepared for the press by Mr. 
C. L. Shadwell ; and also Prof. Butcher's study 
of Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, 
which has been expanded out of certain chapters 
in the first edition of Some Aspects of the Greek 
Genius, and will now include a critical text and 
translation of the " Poetics." 

Mb. F. C. Conybeare's critical edition of 
Philo About the Contemplative Life will be 
published very shortly by the Clarendon Press. 
Mr. Conybeare strongly upholds the genuine- 
ness of the treatise, which is of paramount 
importance for the history of primitive Christi- 
anity. It is the first work bearing on Philo 
which the University Press has issued during 
the present century ; and this, to quote the 
editor's words, 

" although this most spiritual of authors is by the 
admission, tacit or express, of a long line of 
Catholic teachers, from Eusebius and Ambrose in 
the fourth century down to Bull and Eiillinger in 
modern times, the father not only of Chriatian 
exegens, but also, to a great extent, of Ohristian 
dogmatics." 

The new popular illustrated Life of Mr. 
Gladstone, which Messrs. Cassell & Co. have 
had in preparation for some months past, will 
be ready for publication in a few days. 

Prof. W. J. Ashley, of Harvard, has 
undertaken the editing of a series of little 
volumes, entitled " Economic Classics," which 
will be published in America by Messrs. 
MacmUIan & Co. The series will consist of 
three classes : (1) selected chapters from the 
classical economists, beginning with Adam 
Smith, Malthus, and Ricardo ; (2) reprints of 
older English works, such as those of Mun, 



Id 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 6, 1895.— No. 1183. 



Child, and Petty ; (3) translations of important 
foreign treatises. The text 'will be printed 
-without note or comment ; but a brief 
biographical and bibliographical note will be 

Erefixed, and divergences between editions will 
e indicated by means of typographical 
devices. 

Messks. O. & B. Johnson, of Douglas, 
propose to publish by subscription a collection 
of about sixty Manx ballads, with translations 
into English, edited by Mr. A. W. Moore aud 
Mr. "W. J. Cain. Nearly half of the ballads 
will be accompanied by the original Manx 
music, which has been harmonised in accord- 
ance with the correct Celtic modes by Miss 
Wood, under the superintendence of Mr. Colin 
Brown. The volume will also contain an essay 
on Manx ballad poetry, by the Rev. Tom 
Brown ; and an account of the sources from 
which the ballads have been taken. 

Messrs. Cassell & Co. will shortly issue a 
new story by Mr. Herbert Compton, author of 
" A King's Hussar," which will bo entitled 
A Free Lance in a Far Land. 

Mb. T. Fisher Unwin announces a novel, 
written by Mr. Daniel Woodrcffe, which is 
based upon the true story of a young English 
lady who married a Chinaman, and had reason 
to repent her folly. 

Ma. O'Flannaoile's volume For the Tonyue 
of the Oael, containing a dozen essays on Irish- 
Qaelio subjects, is now in the press. It will be 
published in a few weeks' time by Messrs. 
Cusack, City of London Book Depot, Moor- 
fields, E.C., and by Messrs. Gill & Son, of 
Dublin. 

The following new volumes of verse will 
be published shortly by Mr. Elliot Stock ; 
Sita, and Other I'oems, by Mrs. Aylmer Qowiog ; 
Scintillae Carmensu, by Percival Almy ; and 
Vignettes, by Aubrey St. John Mildmay. 

The Baptist Tract and Book Society will 
publish this month an English edition of The 
Ministry of the Hpirit, by the Eev. Dr. Gordon, 
of Boston, U.S., with an introduction by the 
Kev. F. B. Meyer. 

A NEW story by Major Arthur Griffiths, 
entitled " Forbidden by Law," will be com- 
menced in the number of CasseU's Saturday 
Journal issued on January 16 ; and in the same 
number will appear the first of a series of papers 
entitled "Through England in Rags," de- 
scribing the adventures encountered by an 
amateur vagrant in the course of a tramp 
through England. 

Mr. Paget Toynbee has made an interesting 
discovery of a hitherto unnoticed, and in some 
respects highly curious, biographical account 
of Dante, which occurs with other interpolated 
matter in the Venice editions of the Speculum 
Majus of Vincent de Beauvais. Mr. Toynbee 
has written an account of his discovery for the 
Enijlish IIiat(/rical lievicw. 

At the meeting of the Anglo-Russian Lite- 
rary Society, to be held at the Imperial Insti- 
tute, on Tuesday next, at 3 p.m., the Eev. 
Arthur S. Thompson, for many years British 
Chaplain in Russia, will read a paper entitled" 
" The British Embassy at St. Petersburgh in the 
last Half- Century — Notes Personal and Bio- 
graphical." 

The Book, News, Stationery and Fancy 
Trades Exhibition, which is being organised by 
the Book and Neios Trade Gazette, will be 
opened at St. Stephen's Hall, Westminster, on 
January 29 by Sir George Newnes. Among 
the features of the show will be bookbinding, 
engraving,^ linotyping, printing, novel devices 
for advertising, new things in stationery and 
fancy goods, &c. Periodical literature will be 
largely represented; and the following book 



publishers have promised to contribute — Mr. T. 
Fisher Unwin, Messrs. Cassell, Messrs. Ward, 
Lock, & Co., and Messrs. George Newnes. 



OBITUARY. 



CHRISTINA ROSSETTI. 

The death of Christina Rossetti closes the 
obituary calendar of 1894. It had long been 
known that she was suffering from a mortal 
ailment, which compelled her latterly to lead a 
life of extreme isolation. She passed away at 
her house in Torrington-square, on December 
29th, having just completed her sixty-fourth 
year. 

All the world knows that she wm the sister 
of Dante Gabriel, poet and painter ; and that 
their father was an Italian refugee, who him- 
self gained some name in literature. Of 
Christina, it maybe said that she "lisped in 
numbers." Before she was seventeen, a little 
volume of her verses was privately printed by 
her maternal grandfather. In 18o0, she con- 
tributed to the Pre-Raphaelite Oerm, under the 
pseudonym of " Ellen AUeyne." But it was 
not untu the appearance of Oohlin Market and 
Other Foam (1862), that her reputation was 
established. Though she published several 
more volumes, both of prose and of verse, this 
still represents the high-water mark of her 
achievement. The similarity to her brother's 
poetry, in weirdness of imagination and in 
pictorial minuteness, has often been pointed out. 
But the difference is greater than the resemblance. 
Christina possessed the gift of spontaneity, 
which Dante Gabriel lacked. In perfection 
of form and melody of words, her lyrics are 
comparable to those of Shelley : they set them- 
selves to mental music as they are being read. 
No poet of the time, not Tennyson or Swin- 
burne — though their range may be far wider — 
excels her in the mere matter of technique. 
None has such a pure note, such a bird-like 
sweetness. 

Dante Gabriel made several drawings of 
the angel-face of his sister ; and it is a matter 
of common knowledge that her whole life was 
devoted to ministering to others. Quite apart 
from her claims as a poet, her rank is with 
Jenny Land and Florence Nightingale. She 
went about doing good, and sang as she went. 



preserved. We all lemembei Oarlyle's descrip- 
tion of his own pilgrimage to Dr. Johnson's 
house in Gough-sqnare, where the dictionary 
was compofed. ' In this mad, whirling, all-for- 
getting London,' ho says, ' the " haunts of the 
mighty" are hard to discover. With Samuel 
Johnson may It prove otherwise ! ' We desire 
that it may prove otherwise with Thomas Carlyle. 
Ohelsea is a region full of literary associations, 
from the time of Sir Thomas Jlore, whose house, 
aa Fronde's EfoimM has just reminded us, was 
close to Carljle's. But Ohelsea is also a region in 
which modem changes have remorselessly swept 
away a very large part of the relics of the 
past. We hope ts rescue Oarlyle's house 
from this fate. It is proposed to buy 
the house, and to keep it open for the 
benefit of visitors from both sides of the Atlan- 
tic. It is also proi^oecd t3 collect in it various 
objects connected with his memory. Some 
of the old belongings, so well remembered 
by all his visitors, have been kindly offered by his 
niece. The committee has been able to secure the 
option of purchasing the freehold until the end of 
next February. They hope that, in the interTal, 
sufiicieut funds miy be raised to carry out their 
purpose effectually. The German Emperor has 
shown his interest in the undertaking by a liberal 
donation, and Lord Rosebery has given a similar 
practical proof of sympathy. Slany other sub- 
scriptions have come from England and America, 
which shall be duly acknowledged. Meanwhile, 
will you permit me to state that subscriptions 
may be paid to the honorary treasurer of the 
Carlyle Memorial Fund, Mr. B. F. Stephens, 4, 
Trafalgar-square, W.O. ; or to the account of the 
fund with Messrs. Ooutts' bank ? 

" LssLiB Stsphek." 

[The first list of subscriptions amounts to 
about £800.] 



OARLYLE'S HOUSE AT CHELSEA. 
We quote the following from the Times : 

"Your readers may be aware that a proposal 
was made some time ago for the purchase of 
Oarlyle's house in Oheyne-row, Chelsea. A com- 
mittee has been now formed in Loudon to raise 
the necessary funds ; and by their deeire I venture 
to ask you to give publicity to the scheme. Carlyle 
lived in Oheyne-row from June, 1834, until his 
death in 1881. He there wrote the French Revolu- 
tion andallhislaterworks, of which it may be safely 
said that they acted as an intellectual stimulant of 
almost unequalled power in his generation. There, 
too, he was visited by his disciples, Mr. Ruskluand 
Froude, and many others of the most eminent 
men of his time. I need not speak of the constant 
references to the house in the voluminous 
Carlyle literature, which, whatever else may be 
said of it, contains the most graphic portraiture of 
a man of genius that has ever appeared in our 
language. There is, I think, no house iu Loudon 
possessing such unique intciest to all who care for 
literary associations. 

" It now stands in a shabby condition in the 
neighbourhood of Boehm's characteristic statue, 
which shows the old prophet looking over the 
Thames in his habitual dress and attitude. A 
tablet on the wall marks the house, and it is 
frequently visited by our American cousins. 
There are few such memorials extant, and they 
are rapidly becoming scircer. The last house 
associated with Milton disappeared a few years 
ago, though his cottage at Ohalfont is, happily. 



SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Allebs, C. W. Capil. MuDchea : Hanfstaen;!. SO U. 
Babrau, Alb. Le Louvre et son hiatoire. F^ris ; Finnin- 

Bidot. 12 fr. 
DiDiLOT, C. La C(<teD8e deg Cotej d'Europe. Puis 

Berger-Levrault. 2S f r. 
Foi. E. Orandcs Chasies dans I'Afrique centrale. Faiia : 

Fmnin-Didot. 10 ft. 
GoTAu, G., V. Fabe* et A. PrBiTi':. Ls Vatican, les Fapes, 

la Civlliaatiou, et le Oonvernement actael de VE^v^. 

Faria : f irmin-Didot. 40 fr. 
Lkkke, F. Richard Wagner - Wfrk. Bin Bildercyolof. 

BegleitendcT Text T. F. MuDcker. Hiinchen: Haaf- 

fitaecgl. 4S M. 
TouciiKMOLis, A. Strasb.urs militalre. Faria: Hennu;er. 

60 fr. 
ViLHOBiK, Lacoin dp. Od Faria ii Bomba7, par la Petae. 

Fatia : Firmin-Didot. 16 f r. 

THEOLOGY, BTC. 

Qbaet;^, H. Emendaliones in pleroeque aacrae acripturae 
reteris testamenti libros. Ed. O. Bacliei. Fasc. III. 
Fentateuchi et priorum prophetaram libros cantin»8. 
Breslau. 7 M. 60 Ff . 

HISTORY, LAW, ETC. 

AcBEBT, F. LeFarlementdePaiia (1260— 16)6). I. Organisa- 
tion, comp<^tence et attributions. II. rroci^dure. Paris ; 
Ficard. 16 fr. 

Bbibfk der Herzogin Elisabeth Charlotte v. Orli'uiB an ihte 
fiuhere Hofmeisteria A. K. v. llarlini?, u. s. w. Hrrg 
V. B. Bodemann. Hannover : Haho. 6 M. 

Chbonikbn-, die, c!er deutscben Bt^ldte vom 14. bis ios 16. 
Jahrh. S3. Bd. Aujsburg. 4. Bl. Leipzig: Hirzel. 
16 M. 

Fazv, H. Les Suisses et la neuttalit>5 de la Bavoie 1703—4. 
Basel : Georg. 4 M. 80 Pf. 

GiBoi) DE l'Ain, Maurice. Grands artilleurs : Drouot— 
BenaiiBont— Bbltf Paris: Berger-Levrault. Bfr. 

KiNDLEB V. Kkoblogh, J. Oberbadisches Geschlechteibuch. 
1. Bd. 2. Lfg. Heidelberg : Winter. 6 M. 

Stuoiev, Dorpater jorisOsche. 8. Bd. Jurjtw: Karov. 
7M. 

ZnuEBMAMK, A. KolonlalgeaehiohUiohe Stndien. Olden- 
burg : Schulze. 6 U. 

PHYSICAL SCIENCE, ETC. 

BzBicnr i'lb. die vissenschaftliclien Leistongen in der Katur- 

geschichte der niederen T&iete. Neue Folge. 7. Bl. 

Berlia : NicoUi. \i U. 
Borav, E. de. Monographie des Scalidae vivanta et foaiilis. 

Fasc. I. S mvgenre Crisposcala. Paris : Comptoir 

Oi ilogique. 10 fr. 
DunrMS. B. Pithecanthropus erectus. Eine meuschenUhnl. 

Uebergangstorm aus Java. Haag:Nijh^ff. 6 M. 60 Pf. 
FiscnEB, E. Tran!)muta* ion der 8chnietterlioge infoltce 

TemperatuiUoderuiiKen. Berlin: FriedlUnder. lU. SOPf. 
KCbz, B. G. Qeorgius Pictiriua v. BiUingen, e. Arzt des 16. 

Jahrh. u. seise Wissenschaft. Freiburg-i.-Br. : Mohr. 

1 M. 80 Ff . 
Heyzb, v., u. F. Jacobsox. Lahrbueh der organischen 

Cbemie. 3. Bd. 1. Abth. Leipzig : Veit. 7 U. 30 Ff. 



Jan. 5, 1895.— No. 1183.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



13 



PHILOLOaY, ETC. 

BoLTZ. A. VaaanUsena a. die Hetliren im tndischen Drama. 
Das Vedar^lk in seinen GesamtTerhiiltnissen. Darm- 
stadt : Brill. 1 M. 20 Pf. 

CoDKx Vercellenaia. Die acgelbiicha. Handechrift zu Vet- 
celli in gctrener Abbilde. Bitg, v. E. Wiilker. Leipzig : 
Veit. 32 M. 

CuMONT, F. Textee et monuments flgurt^j relatifs aux 
mystCrtsdeU^tlica. Vnte. i, 3. Btuxellea : Lamertin. 

n ti. 60 c. 



I 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE NEW SYRIAC GOSPELS. 

Oxford : Dec. 29, 1894. 

Mr. Charles defends his case with great 
vigour and ability, but I cannot think that it is 
really tenable. It seems to me impossible to 
separate the readings of Cod. Sin. in Matt. i. 
19-25 from those in Matt. i. 16, and to reject 
the one while claiming originality for the other. 
I also agree with Mr. Badham, that the gene- 
alogy is connected with the rest of the chapter by 
too many links to be really anything but an 
integral part of the Gospel. 

I should, however, be prepared to go with 
Mr. Charles a certain part of the way. I 
should be ready to grant to him that, although 
the genealogy was from the first a part of the 
Gospel as we know it, it may nevertheless, 
before its incorporation in our Gospel, have had 
a separate existence. And I could also grant 
Ihat, at this earlier stage, it may have had 
some such ending m Mr. Charles, and, indeed, 
most of those who have written upon the 
subject, seem to think it had. 

To assume this would cause me no difficulty. 
Rather it would fall in well with what I 
conceive to have been the origin of the 
narratives of the Nativity. These narratives 
are on a rather different footing from the 
main body of the Gospels. There is reason to 
think that they were transmitted at first 
through private channels, and that it was some 
time before they were made public. Not only 
duringpur Lord's public ministry, but for some 
decades afterwards, the general attitude was 
that expressed in Mark vi. 3, "Is not this the 
carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of 
James, and Joses, and Jadas, and Simon ? 
And are not his sisters here with us ? " At 
this period any one who thought fit to write 
out the genealogy of Him whom he accepted 
as the Messiah would naturally make no dis- 
tinction between the last link in the chain and 
previous links. 

But it was another matter when this rough 
draft was taken as the preface to a Gospel 
which began with an account of the Super- 
natural Birth. It shows so many signs of 
having been carefully worked over and adapted 
to its place that it is not easy to believe that it 
would bs left with its original crude ending. 
What exactly was the form which the verse 
assumed under these circumstances is a compli- 
cated and difficult problem in textual criticism. 

I doubt very much whether this can have 
been the form which we find in Cod. Sin. 
And this for four main reasons : (1) Whatever 
we may tbiak of the most prominent reading, 
the clause ■? i)dPj)(rT<f9ri irafiSerui Map'iau. (I retrans- 
late into Grefk with the help of Codd. 13-G9- 
3-10) when compared with rhe Hflpa Maplat of 
the mass of Greek MSS., has every appearance 
tf being secondary, and secondary ia the same 
direction as that in which the Curetonian omits 
"her husband" in v. 19, and substitutes "thy 
espoused" for "thy wife" inv. 20. (2) Although 
it is perhaps possible, it is not either easy or 
satisfactory to account for the other early 
readings ia Greek, Latin, and Syriac, on the 
assumption that Cod. Siu. has the primitive 
reading. The difficulty is at its greatest 
wht-n Cod. Sin. is confronted with the 
great Greek Uncials. (3) If we take the 
characteristic readings of Cod. Sin. in Matt. 
i. lC-2.5, their attestation is found to be purely 



Syriac. By characteristic readings I mean the 
readings which have the same sort of character 
impressed upon them as the seemingly natural- 
istic reading in v. 16. For this reason I do 
not include the coincidence with the Latin Cod. 
Bobiensis (/.), the omission of oIik iyivaKXKiv ahr^v 
(US oE in V. 21. It is not clear what was 
the intention of this reading if it was inten- 
tional, and it is quite possible that it may 
have been in the first instance accidental. 
Apart from this coincidence, there is no trace 
of the distinctive readings of Cod. Sin. outside 
the Syriac tradition. (4) We can, in one 
instance, convict the scribe or editor to whom 
these readings were due of "tendency" — an 
innocent tendency it may be, but yet of a 
definite bent in the interpretation of his text. 
The Greek of itiKfcre in v. 25 is, of course, 
ambiguous ; but whereas the Curetonian inter- 
prets this as "she called," Cod. Sin. supplies 
a masculine subject — "he called." It is in the 
same spirit that the editor or scribe wrote 
"shall bear thee a son" inv. 21, and "bare 
Mm a son " in v. 25. As the first of these 
readings cannot possibly have been inherited 
from the Greek, the remainder were also 
probjbly not inherited. 

But if Cod. Sin. does not give the primitive 
text of Matt. i. 10, what was it? I have 
tried one or two experiments with a view to 
determine this, but I have not arrived at any 
result which I should regard as decisive. There 
are attractions in the hypothesis of a mixed 
reading, which should combine elements from 
the two main lines of text, 

iyfyvT]iT(V '\T]ffiivv rhv KtyiixtfJi/ Xpiarii^. 

The transition from this would bo easy, on 
the one hand, to the reading of the Greek 
Uncials, and, on the other hand, to that of the 
main body of the Western text. Even the 
reading of Cod. Sin. could be explained (in 
the Syriac more easily than in the underlying 
Greek, because of the ignoring of the particle 
Si) by a simple dittography of the name 'luiiiip, 
helped by the influence of the structure of the 
rest of the genealogy. 

But having got back so near to the text of 
the Greek MSS., it would be natural to ask 
whether we ought ever to have left them. As 
a rule, where there is paraphrase it is the 
Western text which paraphrases. So that at 
the present moment I lean to the opinion that 
the traditional text need not ba altered. At 
the same time, I do not profess to have com- 
pletely solved the difficulties, and I keep an 
open mind on the subject. 

I cannot close this letter without expressing 
my sense of the value of Mr. Allen's communi- 
cation in the Acade.my of December 15. As a 
step towards the solution of the problem, it 
seems to me to be the most helpful which has 
yet appeared ; and I do not think that it is 
open to all the strictures which have been 
passed upon it. I do not see that it can be 
rightly described as "Midrash " ; and I doubt 
if the phenomena of the text have been any- 
where set forth so clearly and well. In con- 
sidering these, it is important to bear in mind 
what wo really aim at proving. There are 
three questions : (1) What is the oldest Syriac 
reading? (2) What is the oldest Western 
reading? (3) What was the original text of 
the Gospel ? And, though I cannot go all the 
way with him, Mr. Allen seems to me to have 
made a substantial contribution to the answe.'s 
to the first and second, 

W. Sanday. 



Oxford: Dec 23,1601. 

In my last letter I criticised the first 
draft of Mr. Conybeare's theory; but as 
that theory has been further developed, and an 
attempt been made to supply some bond of 



connexion between Alexandrian and Pales- 
tinian Judaism, I propose in this letter to prove 
(1) that the connexion between Philonic specu- 
lation and Matt. i. which Mr. Conybearo has 
suggested — for he has wisely refrained from 
attempting to prove it — is devoid even of a 
shadow of probability ; (2) that, even if such a 
connexion had existed, Philonic ideas are 
quite foreign to Matt, i., and that, in fact, 
the Creed which Mr. Conybeare assigns to Philo 
misrepresents in the particulars most pertinent 
to the present controversy that writer's views. 

I. — The conL.exion which Mr. Conybeare 
suggests as having existed betv/een Philonic 
speculation and Matt. i. is to be found in the 
following words : 

" In the year of Rome 743 was born Jesus of 
Nazareth, a man in whom his followers, so far 
as they were Aramaic-speaking Jews, quiukly 
recognised their promised Messiah ; while such of 
them aa were Greek Jews or proselytes, acclaimed in 
him the Divine Word." 

Was ever such a lofty and pretentious super- 
structure built on such a slight and perilous 
foundation ? Let us to work, however. First, 
then, we should observe that Jesus' followers 
are described as Aramaic-speaking Jews and 
Greek Jews. Obviously it is through the latter 
that the Philonic ideas are to pass over into the 
infant Christian community. Greek Jews, 
then, who were the immediate disciples of Jesus, 
and acclaimed Him as the Divine Word, were 
the channels by which such ideas gained an 
entrance into primitive Christian thought. 
Now to this assertion hosts of unanswerable 
objections at once arise : (a) None of the 
Twelve Apostles were Greek Jews : they were 
not even natives of Judaea, with the exception 
of Judas ; but they were Galileans, men who 
were most Hebrew of the Hebrews, the strictest 
representatives of Jewish exclusiveness, the 
most opposed to all foreign influences, whether 
from Alexandria, Athens, or Rome, and whose 
province was notorious for its ignorance of 
culture, its bigotry and intolerance. (6) But 
even among the Galilean disciples and the 
Kvangelists some must have been more open to 
external influences than others. Does this help 
Mr. Conybeare ? Alas, for him, no ! It only 
aggravates the difficulties that before beset 
him ; for, if the Philonic ideas had been active 
in the formation of the Gospels, they would 
most naturally have been so in the case of 
Mark and Luke, which were written in Rome 
and Greece for Gentile readers, whereas in 
Matthew we have a Gospel written by a Gali- 
lean Jew in Palestine for Jews. It is further 
characteristic of Matthew, as opposed to Mark 
and Luke, that in the parts of his Gospel peculiar 
to himself he translates as a rule directly from 
the Hebrew when he quotes from the Old Testa- 
ment. But the difficulties of Mr. Conybeare's 
theory are brought into fuller relief if we con- 
sider that in the Fourth Gospel, which shows 
an acquaintance with Alexandrian thought, 
there is not a single reference to the miraculous 
conception. We shall see good reason for this 
below, {r) Pursuing partly the line of thought 
in the last objection, it is unreasonable to sup- 
pose that a Jew, a literalist in interpretation, 
learned in the Scriptures, and familiar with the 
primitive text of the Old Testament as Matthew 
was, would have followed such a teacher as 
Philo ; for Philo was the greatest allegoriser 
that has ever lived, and wrote in the most 
contemptuous terms of the literalists : he was 
all but ignorant of Hebrew, and believed the 
LXX. Version to be inspired. So fully indeed 
did he believe in its inspiration that he built 
theories on its particles where these have no 
equivalent in the Hebrew, and thought that 
any word might bo interpreted according to 
any shade of meaning it bore in the Greek. 
Such a man was impossible as a guide to the 
Hebrew Evangelist. ('/) To the Synoptic 



14 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 5, 1896,— No. 1183. 



Gospel* theallegoricalmethod is entirely foreini. 
Otring to my special studies in Jewish Psouae- 
pigriipha, I have come to recognise in the 
Synoptic Uospels the most naire and truthful 
reflection of the current views of the time — a 
thing that would have been impossible after 
80 A.D., whereas the substance of them may be 
as early as 40 a.u. Even the moet grotesque 
beliefs on angelology and demonolog^ current 
in Palestine from oO ii.c. to 50 a.d. are there 
reflected in all faithfulness, and yet in a manner 
unintelligible save to one acquainted through the 
non-canonical writings with tho contemporary 
baokg^und of opinion and belief. Suck facts, 
then, as these substantiate in the most unlooked- 
for manner at once the veracity and the 
annalistio charactt^r of the Synoptists. In 
Philo all these objectionable ideas would have 
been carefully allegorised. But the Synoptists 
are not allegorists. It is a gross blunder, 
critical and historical, to apply Philonio 
methods to Matt. i. (e) Finally, not a shred of 
evidence can be adduced from Jewish non- 
canonical writings of Palestine— 200 B.C. to 
100 A.D.— to show that the Philonio ideas 
which lir. Conybeare would foist into Matt. i. 
18-25 were anywhere known in Palestine. 

II. — ^The last objection which I have urged 
leads us to the threshold of the second main 
argument against Mr. Conybeare's theory. 
This is, the Creed which Mr. Conybeare 
assigns to Philo misrepresents that writer's 
views in the particulars most pertinent to the 
present controversy; and accordingly, even it 
there had been some channel of communication 
between Philo and the Evangelists, the idea of 
a luiraculous conception by a virgin of tho 
Logos was really foreign to Philo in any sense 
that could have influenced the writer of the 
First Gospel. 

It is to be observed that in the very first 
clause of this so-called Creed of Philo there is a 
misstatement of fact. It describes God as 
" the maker of all things visible and invisible." 
This, if it were true, vi-ould bring Philo into 
exact accord with Palestinian thought. But 
it is untrue. Philo was a thorough-going 
dualist, and formless matter (Caij) was not made 
by God. In fact, God and Uis agents did not 
create but merely fashioned this formless 
matter into tho Cosmos or organised world. 
This, however, is by tho way. The misstate- 
ments most nearly connected with our present 
subject follow immediately: "The Word of 
God, his only Son. . . . Born of the ever- 
Virgin immaculate Sophia." Now, in order to 
understand how misleading this is, we must 
bear in mind that there are at least two, if not 
three or more, dififorent conceptions of this 
Logos, and that what is true of one is not true 
of another. For the sake of clearness it is 
batter to take some account of these different 
conceptions. The Logos then, according to 
its highest conception, was identified by Philo 
with the immanent reason of God. In this 
rerpect it was said to bo the homo of the arche- 
typal tfficient causes, or to be identical with 
them. It was also, in many instances, per- 
sonalised and reftardfd as the instrument of 
creation (i. 47, 100, 1G2), and the Mediator and 
Iligh Priest between God and man (i. 601,. 
(ij3). As such the Logos in this higher sense 
was described as " the Firstborn " (i. iiHH, (>o3), 
" the eldest Son of God" (i. 414, 427, oG2), or 
even as "God" (ii. 052). But this conception 
must be carefully distinguished from the lower 
conception, iu which tbo Logos was identified 
with the Cosmos of Nature or tho material 
creation, and called in this aspect "the only 
beloved sensible Son (of God) " (i. 553). In 
this aspect ho might likewise be called " the 
younger Son of God"; for so the Cosmos is 
twice called in i. 277. For the sake of 
brevity, I will call the former concep- 
tion Logos I., and the latter Logos 



II, Now, the question arises, has Mr, 
Conybeare been careful to distinguish these, 
and not to assign to the one the predicates of 
the other ? We shall now address ourselves to 
this inquiry. But first let us recall the words 
of the so-called Philonio Creed— " The Word 
of God, his only Son. . . . Born of the 
ever-Virgin immaculate Sophia." Now, 
Logos I. is never described in Philo as " the 
only Son," but constantly as "the eldest Son," 
" the Firstborn," &o., all his titles implying 
that, in this sense, he was, to a certain extent, 
only ]iri7nua inter pares. For God had at His 
disposal, according to Philo, an indefinite 
number of Potencies, called likewise Logoi, 
and of these the Logos was the chief. But 
though Logos I. is never described as " tho 
only Son" in Philo, Logos II. is expressly so- 
named, and the designation is reasonable, for, 
as we have seen above, it is identical with the 
Cosmos of Nature or Creation ; and there is 
only one such Cosmos. Hence Logos IL is 
"the only and beloved sensible Son of God," 
and, likewise, "the younger Son of God" 
(i. 277). But in Mr. Conybeare's Creed this 
phrase, " the only Son," which is true only of 
Logos II., is used as a designation of Logos I. ; 
for, obviously, Mr. Conybeare designs us to 
think of Logos I. throughout this Creed. 
This is the first misstatement. 

But this is not all. As for the phrase " begot- 
ten of Him before all the ages, not made," 
I can find no authority for it in Philo, 
whereas in i. 50 there is a statement which 
conflicts with it — I'.e., that the Logos "was 
neither unbegotten as God nor begotten as we." * 
But let us pass on to the words, " Bom of the 
ever- Virgin immaculate Sophia." This state- 
ment is perhaps the most unjustifiable one in 
this Creed. In the first place, the relations of 
Sophia and the Logos are various, and this 
variely arises from the different conceptions 
attached to both. For if we take Logos I. 
as the source of the world of ideas, or as iden- 
tical with this world of ideas, then he 
cannot possi'oly be regarded as the child of 
Sophia, but, in some respects, as identical with 
Sophia ; and this identification is actually made 
by Philo iu unmistakable terms in Legis Alleg. 
1, 19, where we read ix t^s E!«/i toD 0€i-u So<pia,i- 
ri Si l(TTii> 6 @(ou \6-io!. But if we take the 
Logos as Logos II. — I'.e., in the lower sense 
which he has in i. 8GI, where he is identical 
with the Cosmos— then he might rightly be 
represented as the child of Sophia, and so we 
find it in that passage. But this is exactly the 
sense that does not suit Mr. Conybeare, and 
with it his whole attempt to father on Philo 
the idea of a miraculous conception by the 
Virgin of the Logos hopelessly breaks down. 
To guard against misconception let us translate 
this passage. " We shall justly allow that he 
who fashioned all things is at once the 
demiurge and father of all that has become, 
and that the wisdom {iimrT^uT)) of him who 
has made (it) is the mother, with whom, having 
intercourse, but not as a man, God sowed 
the creation. But she received the seed of God 
and brought forth with pangs when her time 
was accomplished the only and beloved sensible 
{ah0iiT6f) Son— i.e., this Cosmos. Wherefore 
Wisdom {ao(p'a) is introduced as saying regard- 
ing herself after this manner: God possessed 
me, the first of His works, and before the ages 
He established me." These words mean 
simply : God by His wisdom made the world ; 
but this statement, translated into the allegori- 
cal language of Philo, becomes : God had inter- 
course with His own Wisdom, and Wisdom 

* It will take the edge off sach a statement, tint 
the L"go8 is called God iu Philo, 1( we remember 
that tho two chief Potencies, Goodnesj and Power, 
are respectively called Qod (9t6s) and Lord 
{Kvpiot) by hiiq. 



bare the only and beloved sensible Son — i.e., 
Creation. Now, it is just this Wisdom, the 
mother of Creation, that is elsewhere described 
by Philo (i. 553), on the strength of a false 
etymology, as " the true daughter of God, 
ever-virgin, and partaker in an unsullied and 
immaculate nature." We are thus enabled to 
discover the last and most important error to 
which we now purpose calling attention ; for 
we see that whereas the words " bom of the 
ever- virgin immaculate Sophia " are in reality 
true only of Logos II., Mr. Conybeare has 
predicated them of Logos I. Thus, further, we 
see that the idea of a miraculoiis conception by 
a virgin of the Logos was really foreign to 
Philo in any sense that could have influenced 
the First Gospel. 

From the clear and unmistakable meaning of 
i. 361, which I have rendered above, we must 
interpret passages where the sense is obscure or 
misleading if taken by themselves. Thus, we must 
understand the statement in i. 502 as relating 
to Logos II., where, as it is said, " the Logos 
had as his father God, and as his mother 
Wisdom, through whom the univirse was created," 
The words in italics show that we are dealing 
with the same thought as in i. 361. Indeed, a 
few lines later we find " the eldest Logos puts 
on the Cosmos as a garment," and thus becomes 
Logos II. We must, in fact, identify Logos I. 
with Sophia, This holds good generally, and 
likewise in ii. 154, where the twofold character 
of the Logos is expounded at some length. In 
conclusion, the Logos as Mediator must be 
regarded as Logos I. (see i. 501), and likewise 
as Logos I. when described as High Priest 
(i. 653) ), 

R. H, Charles, 

P.8. — The Incarnation of the Logos was a 
thought impossible to Philo or his school. He 
could have conceived of a Bocetic Logos (i.e., 
a phantasmal Logos), but not of an Incarnate 
Logos, or Christ come in the flesh. 



London : Dec. 31, 199*. 

Philo's affinity to our protevangelists has still 
to be defined. Mr. Conybeare accentuates it 
unduly, and Mr. Charles sins in the other 
direction by impugning it altogether. Now it 
is quite true, as Mr. Charles observe.", that 
between Palestinian Judaism and Alexandrian 
the gulf was great. We know that Philo 
exercised no influence whatever on the Talmud. 
And considering the thoroughly Palestinian, un^ 
Alexandrian character of our protevangels, the 
notion of any direct debt to Philo is fairly 
precluded. But though Philo can have exercised 
no direct influence on our protevangelists, yet 
the fact established by Dr. B. Ritter, of Leipzig 
— my thanks are due to Dr. Adler for this 
reference — that Philo himself was deeply in- 
fluenced by the Rabbinical interpretation*, 
leaves room for a connexion very real. For 
while those mystical metaphysical letlections 
which the idea of partheno-genesis suggests to 
Philo are evidently Philo's own, tlure is prima 
facie probability that those four instances of 
parthenogenesis oa which he comments were 
supplied by the Palestinian interpreters. This 
probability is increased when we find the 
coincidence in Qalatians iv. 29 — St. P.aul speak- 
ing of Isaac as begotten not by flesh and blood, 
but by the power of the Holy Ghost ; springing 
from Abraham's loins, yet not begotten by 
Abraham. Thus, then, Mr. Charles digs the gulf 
between Philo and our protevangelists much too 
deep. The now familiar references to Sarah, 
Rebecca, Leah, and Zipporah, taken in con- 
junction with Galatians iv. 29, go far to show 
that partheno-genesis was in the air in the 
circles where our protevangels were composed, 
and that the form in which it presented itself 
was not exclusive of human fatherhood. 

It is in regarding Matt. L, ii., Luke i. 5-ii., as 



Jan. 5,^1895.— No. 1183.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



16 



a camal perversion of Philo's spiritual truth 
that Mr. Conyheare has gone astray. If, indeed, 
Philo's view of conception in the four cases cited 
were such as Mr. Conybeare imagines, then 
Philo's evidence would be greatly invalidated ; 
for the view of conception which Mr. Conybeare 
attributes to him is altogether foreign to the 
spirit of Palestinian Judaism, and it is only in so 
far as he reproduces the spirit of Palestinian 
Judaism that his evidence is valuable. But 
surely Mr. Conybeare has not represented Philo 
quite correctly. If, for example, in the case of 
Zipporah Philo had intended to imply a distinct 
physical impregnation following the spiritual, he 
would not have represented Moses as detecting 
and surprised at his wife's condition. And if his 
general denial that Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and 
Zipporah were known by their husbands is to be 
taken so as to mean that their husbands knew 
them after they had been spiritually known by 
the Divine power, then Philo's use of language 
must have been different from that of any other 
man who ever wrote. No, spirit is spirit, and 
flesh is flesh ; but when Mr. Conybeare dates the 
spiritual pregnancy of these four God-visited 
women from one epoch and the physical preg- 
nancy from another, he is reading an inference 
of his own between Philo's lines. Thus Philo's 
authority is no longer available for rejecting as 
secondary such portions of Matt, i., ii., Luke 
i. 5-ii., as involve coincidence of physical con- 
ception and spiritual. 

But what occasion is there to look outside 
orthodo.x Judaism for an explanation of the 
phenomenon of Matt, i., ii., Luke i. 5-ii. ? The 
genesis of those narratives — if we put all external 
considerations aside — is really very simple. 
Everyone admits that there was a time when 
our Lord was regarded even by His followers as 
son of Joseph. Philip's position and Nathaniel's 
(c/. John i. 45, 49) must have been that of all the 
early disciples. Jesus, the Christ, Son of Joseph, 
Son of David ! But a while after the Resurrection 
it must have been felt in certain quarters that 
the Christ's begetting could not have taken place 
in the ordinary manner ; for, though not to the 
same degree as Davidic descent, still to a degree 
that precluded disregard, the Christ's birth from 
a virgin was certainly a matter of anticipation. 
There are rabbinical passages (quoted by 
Pearson, Apostles' Creed, 4th ed., p. 304) which 
speak of the Messiah's birth as unusual, and of a 
virgin encompassing ; but it is needless to look 
wide afield when we have such clear evidence 
ready to hand as that of the LXX. The LXX., 
understanding Isaiah vii. 14 of the Messiah, and 
giving Jewish expression to an idea almost 
world-wide (see Hartland's Legend of Perseus) 
interpreted the Hebrew word almah (damsel) by 
xapSfvoi. The influence of this prophecy can be 
traced in Luke i. 31 no less clearly than in 
Matthew. Thus, then, by the very force of cir- 
cumstances, the idea of Christ having been 
virgin-born would gradually introduce itself, 
even without any evidence from the Virgin her- 
self. If events happened in the ordinary course 
of nature, it is unlikely in the extreme that she 
left record that they had not happened otherwise. 
And considering what the Virgin's age must have 
been at the time of the Crucifixion, and bearing 
in mind the singular silence of history and tradi- 
tion, it is most probable that she did not long 
survive. In any case, then, fact or not fact, the as- 
sertion of virgin-birth in Matt. i.,ii., Luke i. 5-ii., 
is readily accounted for. But whether resting on 
the evidence of the Virgin, or inferred from 
prophecy, there could have been no adequate 
motive for completely breaking away from the 
previous view of a relationship to .Joseph, and 
for sacrificing the genealogy on which our Lord's 
Davidic claim must hitherto have been based. 
For, from the nature of the case, even the Virgin 
herself could not have given evidence as to the 
full character of the miracle that bad taken 
place ; and the prophecy did not re(}uire the 



Messiah to have been conceived of His mother's 
substance alone, but only to have been conceived 
with no injury to her purity. The transition 
from the older view to the newer was easy, and 
the great hiatus between them which the ordinary 
orthodox commentator imagines is largely due to 
his complicating the matter by certain Incarna- 
tion doctrines of which our protevangelists say 
nothing. St. Paul is silent about the virgin- 
birth, St. Mark omits, and none of the Fathers 
before Aristides make any reference. It was 
simply an example of prophecy fulfilled ; and 
the dilemma, God's son or Joseph's? did not 
present itself at the time and in the circles from 
which our protevangels issued. 

In conclusion, may I underline Mr. Charles's 
statement that what is wanted for a proper 
understanding of Matt. i. ii., Luke i. 5-ii., is a 
careful consideration of the original "environ- 
ment " 1 If Mr. Charles had carefully considered, 
he would not have regarded Aristotle's works as 
" too early " to refer to in connexion with the 
New Testament, for they were still standard 
text-books when Pliny composed his Natural 
History, and are the source of nearly all the 
patristic examples of abnormal conception among 
animals. And as the Aristotelian views of 
conception and the old Jewish happen to be 
diametrically opposite, he would have been less 
ready to misquote as though I had connected 
any single portion of the New Testament with 
both. To repeat what I said before, the difference 
between the Jewish view and the Greek, the 
former making a child the product of two seeds 
different in character, the latter deriving a child 
from the mother's seed alone, cannot be dis- 
regarded as unimportant when we remember the 
refuctancB to dispense with Joseph among Jewish 
Christians, and the facility with which he was 
dispensed with by Greek. 

May I add that the consideration of environ- 
ment precludes Irish evidence from the present 
discussion ? Some late scribe, misunderstanding 
the full force of the opening sentence. Matt. i. 1, 
" The book of the generation of the Christ "— 
in the Old Testament, "book of generation" 
applies not merely to genealogies, but to bio- 
graphies — and finding his document entitled 
"gospel," endeavoured to improve matters by a 
transparent marginal note after verse 17 : " Here 
ends the book of generation. Here begins the 
gospel" F- P- Badham. 

Cambridge : Dec. 29, 189i. 

May I ask your kind permission to correct a 
misrepresentation which has, I am sure, inad- 
vertently crept into Archdeacon Farrar's able 
account of the Sinaitic palimpsest in this month's 
Expositor '? 

The Archdeacon says that "the sisters [i.e., 
Mrs. Gibson and I] took back to Cambridge their 
priceless photographs, though with no conception 
of their vahie, and developed tliem at leisure." 

There are few men for whom I have a greater 
veneration than Archdeacon Farrar ; but, never- 
theless, I am obliged to say that this statement 
of his is not in accordance with the facts. A 
hope that the Gospel text of my photographs 
might prove to be the Curetonian was distinctly 
present to my mind when I showed them to Mr. 
Burkitt, as it had also been when I had previously 
shown them to other Syriac scholars. Moreover, 
I had pressed them unsuccessfully on Prof. 
Bensly's attention nearly a month previously ; 
namely, on June 27, 1892. That I appre- 
ciated their value when at Sinai will be seen 
not only from my taking 400 photographs, but 
from the fact that I had the following state- 
ment already in print, and the corrected proof- 
sheet sealed up for the post, when Mr. Burkitt 
first saw the photographs : 

" The upper writing of this palimpsest bears its own 
(late, A.n. 698 ; it is all the Lives of women saints. 
The under writing must bo some centuries earlier ; 



it is Syriac Gospels, and something in Greek, not 

yet deciphered." 

These words, written at Sinai in February, 
1892, were posted to the Rev. Dr. Heron, of 
Belfast, in Apiil, before I had £een a single 
European scholar or developed a single photo- 
graph. They appeared in No. 4 of a series of 
papers in the Presbyterian Churchtnan for August, 
the first having been in May, but all sent as one 
paper. After Prof. Bensly's request to keep the 
matter secret, I felt inclined to countermand my 
newly posted proof-sheet by telegram. 

So far from developing our photographs al 
leisure, we developed the whole thousand in two 
months, the commencement of the process being 
delayed by my sister's dangerous illness (surgical 
erysipelas), which was an indirect result of the 
desert journey. Agnes S. Lewis. 



London : Jan. 2, 169S. 

I regret that Mrs. Lewis takes exception to 
a sentence in my paper in the Expositor for 
January. In saying that the sisters "had no 
conception of the value of their priceless 
photographs," I only meant that, while know- 
ing that they were valuable, they were unaware 
of their unique importance, until the photo- 
graphs had been studied by Prof. Bensly and 
Mr. F. C. Burkitt. Such was the impression 
left upon my mind by their narrative. 

Again, when I said that they "developed 
the photographs at leisure," nothing was 
farther from my mind than any reflection on 
their diligence. 

Mrs. Lewis may rest assured that no one can 
more highly estimate her labour and self- 
sacrifice than your obedient servant, 

F. W. Fakrar. 



THE ETYMOLOGY OF "DIRK." 

Cambridge: Dec. 31, 1891. 

The etymology of " dirk " has long troubled 
me, and for some time past I have given it up 
as hopeless. 

All I. could find to derive it from was the 
modern Irish duirc, a dirk, poniard. This is, 
undoubtedly, the same word; but it is quite 
clear that the Irish word was merely borrowed 
from English, not vice versa. 

But I think I have it at last. The word is 
comparatively modern. The earliest quotation 
known to me (at present) is that given by 
Richardson, dated 1661. 

Surely it is Dutch, or Low German, and 
merely borrowed from the common name 
Diederik, Dierryk, or Dirk. For we find, in 
Danish, the word DiriJc or Dirk used for a 
"pick-lock"; and the same, in Swedish, spelt 
Dyrk. That this is the Dutch name is easily 
proved by the fact that the German spelling 
for the same thing is Dietrich, which is also the 
German spelling of the same name. Weigand 
says that Dietrich, in the sense of "pick-lock," 
occurs in Luther, and in the dictionary by 
Alberus (1550). The Bremen Wiirterbuch 
(1767) gives: " Dierk, Diderich"; and 
"Dierker, ein Dieterich, Nachschliissel." The 
same work also has the following remarkable 
entry : " Peterken, ein Dieterich, Hakenschliissel. 
Wir sagen auoh Dierker. Woher mag es 
kommen, das diese Art Sohliissel Miinnernamen 
haben?" Yet these names are hardly more 
remarkable than " bottle- jack " or "boot- 

■"^In" the supplement to my larger Etymological 
Dictionary, I have shown that derrick has a 
similar origin. Before it meant a crane it 
meant a gallows, and before it meant a gallows 
it was the name of a famous hangman. More- 
over, Derrick is the very same name as Dirk, 
Dieterich, and Theoderic ; the Gothic form 
was Thiudareiks, and the Anglo-Saxon was 
Theodrlc, 



16 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 5, 1895.— No. 1183. 



Seeing that " derrick " meant both a gallows 
Mid a crane, there cannot be any difficulty in 
Buppoeing that " dirk " meant both a pick -lock 
and a poniard. If a well-made pick-lock is not 
at hand, and the lock is a poor one, a skewer 
will do almost as well. I have often opened a 
look, of which 1 have lost the key, with a pen- 
knife or a pair of scissors ; but I have had no 
professional experience with regard to a lock 
of any pretensions to security. 

Now that, as I believe, the clue to this very 
difficult word has been found, it may be com- 
paratively easy to obtain further evidence. 

W.u,TEU W. Skeat. 

P.S. — I have just found the very illustration 
required, connecting the sense of " pick-lock " 
with that of " weapon." The corresponding 
Italian word is grimaldello, which Florio 
explains thus : " Qrivialdelli, pick-lock irons, 
or hookes to picke any looke with. Also a 
kinde of darting weapon." 



OOHAM INSCBIPTI0N3 IN IRETAUD. 

Bathcormao : Dec. 31, 1894. 

In the Academy of December 29 Mr. 
Macalister's " Notes on some Ogham Inscrip- 
tions in Ireland " contain many acute remarks, 
but are founded on a much too hurried inspec- 
tion of the inscriptions. Many far away Ogham 
stones need to be examined leisurely and repeat- 
edly by one heedless of train hours or of dinner 
time — by, for instance, a bicyclist, who rests or 
lunches as he reads. 

Should Mr. Macalister study his Oghams in 
this latter fashion, I engage that he shall And 

not Ebra(*i \ maqi Eongi, but Irei maqi mocoi 

Dari, on the landward face of KilgrovaTie Stone 
No. 3; not Bivodon mucni Alar, but Beffi maqi 
miicoi Trennqiti on the Kilbeg Stone ; and not 
Savviqegi Itnddattac-, but Naffallo affi Genit- 
tac{ci) on Dunbell Stone No. 2. 

Of these interesting inscriptions the latter 
two are discussed at considerable length in a 
paper on all the Oghams seen by me in the 
00. Kilkenny, which paper was read at the 
October meeting of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries, Ireland, and now awaits its turn 
for publication. 

E. Barky. 



GREEK ETHICS. 



Florecca : Dec. 24, 1891. 

Prof. Seth seems to have misapprehended 
the point of my criticism. I objected to his 
statement that " for both Plato and Aristotle 
the ideal life was a life of speculation or in- 
tellectual contemplation, iu which no place was 
found for practical activity or the play of the 
ordinary sensibilities." 

In disproof of this I quoted a passage from 
Plato, in which the life of a philosopher who 
devotes himself to the improvement of his 
countrymen is emphatically set above the life 
of a philosopher who contents himself with 
speculation or intellectual contemplation. 

Prof. Seth replies by insisting on what 
nobody ever denied — namely, that Plato set 
the philosophic life above the ordinary oi- 
unphilosophic life. But the question, as first 
stated, was not between the lives of two 
di£ferent men, but between two different lives 
as led by the same man— between a life of 
speculation alone and a life of speculation com- 
bined with beneficent reforming activity. The 
latter was Plato's ideal, not indeed when he 
wrote the Theaeletut, to which Prof. Seth 
refers, but in his riper age, when he wrote the 
llepublic. 

That it was at any time Aristotle's ideal I 
should be the last to maintain. What I do 
maintain U, that although intellectual ener- 
gising forms the highest element iu hiB ideal 



character, there is nevertheless a plaoe left 
therein for " the play of the ordinary 
sensibilities," just as within the celestial spheres 
there was a place left for the sublunary world ; 
and no one can read Aristotle's will without 
observing that such sensibilities had their plaoe 
in his own life. The question is not whether 
the intellectual virtues are higher than the 
moral virtues, but whether the most perfect 
life does not include both. 

As regards Stoicism, I guarded myself by 
anticipation against the reply that it is post- 
classical. Prof. Seth's words were, " The 
classical world had no idea of a non-political 
society. . . . The distinction between Society 
and the State is a modern one " ; and my 
comment on them was that " classical is here 
opposed to modem, and so includes the 
Stoics." I can hardly suppose the Professor 
to mean that modern times began about 300 B.C. 
Moreover, I have yet to learn that Cicero's 
De OJficiis, in which the distinction referred to 
seems to be fully recognised, is not a work of 
the classical world. Personally, I believe that 
the idea of a non-political society can be 
traced back to the Sophists, but that is a matter 
of opinion. 

To the question, "Is not Stoicism largely a 
Semitic product P " I should answer most 
emphatically. No! That is an opinion of Sir 
Alexander Grant's which has not found favour 
with the majority of competent critics. What- 
ever may have been the personal pedigree of 
its founders. Stoicism flows from pure Greek 
sources, and may be traced back through the 
Cynics to Hippias and Prodicus, and from 
them toHeracleitus. What Zeno and Chrysippus 
did was to combine the old naturalistic tradition 
with the systematising method of Plato and 
Aristotle. 

Alfred W. Benn. 



MR. OEORQE COTTERELL'S " POEMS : OLD 
AKD NEW." 

London : Dec. 29, 1894. 

When I opened my Academy to-day, I 
noted with regret that there were misprints in 
the quotations from Mr. George Cotterell's 
poems, in the article above my signature. The 
blame is mine, and my sole excuse is that the 
proof had, perforce, to be read and passed during 
a hurried journey. In justice to Mr. Cotterell, 
I hope you will print this note, with these cor- 
rections. 

The first line of the sixth quatrain of the 
" Prelude " (the fifth in my quotation) should 
be, " I feel your east my west pervade" ; end 
in the first line of the next quatrain "like" 
should be substituted for " with" — "For, like 
a necromancer's spell " ; while the last word of 
the final line in the third quatrain should be 
" quest," and not " guest," which renders a 
felicitous line meaningless. Again, the beauti- 
ful stanza which comes third in the quotation 
from " In the Twilight " is spoilt by the sub- 
stitution of " dreaming " for " dreamily " ; 

" Soft are all the airs that blow, 

Breathing of love ; 
Dreamily soft the vales below, 

The skies above. 
And all the murmuring streams that flaw." 

William Sharp. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. 

SusnAT. Jan. 6, 4 p m. Sanity Lectnre : " Watet and its 

Wondeis," bynof. Vivian Lewet. 
Ho!ii>AT, Jan. 7, 4 p.m. OeographicU : " Holiday Qeo- 
graphy." IV., hy Dr. H. R. Mill. 

4 30 p.m. Victoria Institute: PbydcU Qeology of 
the 01 b?," by Prof. Lobley. 

6 p m. London iDBtitotion : " The Netherlands, a 
Qeogiaphictl Htady," by Mr. H. J. Uaohinder.; 

8 p.m. Royal Academy : " The Development of 
Italian Art," I., by Mr. J. S. Hodgson. 

8 p.m. Aristotelian : " Belative Suggestion," by 
Mr. Q. F. Stout. 

8.30 f.m, aeograph''cal. 



TcKSDAY, Jsn. 8, 8 p.m. Boyal lostitutlon : " The WoA 
of sn Eleetrio Camat,"VI., by Prof. J. A. Firming. 

Sp.m. Ang;lo-Ruitian : "The British Embassy at 
St. Petersburg in tke lajt Half Ceninry," by the Ber. 
A.S. Thompson 

8 pm. Biblical Archaeology : Anniversary Ueeting 
" The Ueaning of :the Divine Name Ya^veb," by the Ber 
O. HargoUouth. 

8 p.m. Colonial Institute: "Wlialss, and British 
and Colonial Wbala Fisheries," by Sir W. H. FiowM. 

8. p.m. Civil Engineers : " M<-uiitain Railvays." 

8.80 p.m. AnthropoloKicil : " The Samoyadi bslweea 
ths Peanora Biver and th<j Kara Sea, from the 
Journals of Hr. F. O. Jackson," by Hi. Arthur 
U'jitefloce; "The Bora, or Tni'iation Ceremonlei of tha 
Ktmilaiol Tribe." by Mr. R. U. Matthews ; " A highly 
ordnate Sword from the Ci>bnr,( Peninsula, North 
Australia," by Mr. B. Etheridge, Junr. 
Wbiimesday. Jan. V, 8 p.m. Qeoloaical : " The Formation of 
Oolite," by Mr. E. B. Wether«a ; " The Lias Ironatoas of 
the Midlands." I., Around Btnbnry, by Mr. E. A. 
Walford ; " The Geology and Mintral Resouroas ol 
AnatoUs," by Mr. W. F. Wttkinson. 

8 p.m. Irish Uteniy Society : " A Flea for the Irish 
Tongue," by Mr. T. J. nanneiy. 

8 p.m. BbzibethsB : " The Bobin H<rad Ballads and 
Plays," by Mr. Frank Payn^ 
TnuBSDAY, Jan 10, 6 pm. Ix)ndi)n Institution : " Waves of 
Water and Waves of Light," by Mr. A. H. Laurie. 

8p.m. Ko;al Af^ademv: "The Development of 
Italian Art," IL, by Mr. J. E. Hodgson. 

Sp.m. Electrical Eogine^is : Inaugural Addreai by 
the President, Mr. B. E. Ciimpt^n. 

8 p.m. Mathematical: 'Tbe Exoan»ion of 
Functions," by Mr. E. T. Dixon ; *' Some I'roperties of 
a Osntrallsed Biocird Circle," by Mr. J. GtifflUis. 

8 80p.m. Antiquari<s. 
Friday, Jan. 11.4.30 p.m. Physical: "The Fassige of an 
Oscillator Wave-Train through a Pjite of ConduotiBg 
Dielectric," by Mr. Q. U. Yol'f ; " The Heat of Vapoilsa- 
lion of certain Organic Liquidi'," by Prof. Bamsty and 
Mi^s Dorothy M«'f<hUI : "The Thermal Condnctivity 
and Emisaivity of Brass in Absolute Measure, and the 
Ir^iiuence of Curvature on Em'ssivity," by Mr. N, 
Humorfopoulos ; ''Observations on Emiisivity and Curva- 
ture," by Mr. A. W. Porter ; " E«p'rim»n'* on the Pro- 
duc'don of Combination Ton<'8," by Dr. C. V. Burton. 

8 p.m. Pbilologi'^al : Beport on the Progress of 
Vol. IV. of the Sew Koglish Dictionary, by Mr. Henry 
Bradley. 

8 pm. Civil Eaglneers : Btudents' Ueeting : "Tui- 
nels on the Midland Railway." 

8 3pm. Viiing Club : " The Myths of Tggdruil's 
Ash and Bleipnir pr»ented in a New Lii^ht," by Mr. 
Eikiikr MagnuF.ion. 
Baturdat, Jan. 12, 3.45 p.m. Qsneral Fortnightly Meeting. 



SCIENCE. 

SOME BOOKS ON CHEMISTRY. 

Manual of Physico-Chemical Measurements, By 
W. Ostwald. Translated by James Walker. 
(Macmillans.) Prof. Ostwald, of the University 
of Leipzig, tells us in his preface that he has 
written, not for the beginner, but for those 
chemists and physicists who desire to make 
themselves proficient in the most exact 
methods of measurement which belong to the 
borderland between chemistry and physics. 
The sixteen chapters of which the handbook 
consists vary much in fulness and merit. There 
are, indeed, several important topics which 
the author has not included in his treatise. 
The student vrill search in vain for crystallo- 
graphic methods ; while the two or three pages 
assigned to the polarimeter are wholly in- 
adequate to an intelligible treatment of the 
instrument, more particularly in the entire 
absence of illustrative figures. A fuller dis- 
cussion of the barometer would have 
been advisable, and something should have 
been said about the recent advances in viscosi- 
metric methods which have taken place in this 
country. The paragraphs on coloriraetry leave 
much to be desired ; the standard glasses pre- 
pared with Buch extraordinary care by 
Lovibond, of Salisbury, are infinitely prefer- 
able to the gelatin or collodion films, stained 
with coal-tar dyes, which Dr. Ostwald recom- 
mends. The spectroscopy described in chap, 
xi. is restricted within too narrow a limit. 
One would like to ask why the Sprengel-pump 
is not mentioned. And, in the chapter on 
specific gravity, might not a few words have 
been introduced as to determinations made by 
weighing in alcohol — a liquid which allows of 
the sensitiveness of the finest balance being 
brought to bear upon the accuracy of the 
determinations ? Solution of cadmium boro- 
tungstate should have been named in con- 



Jax. «, 1895.— No. 1183.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



17 



neuon with the method of floating as 
applied to the determination of the density 
of solids, while one or other of the ingenious 
pieces of apparatus for separating particles 
by this method should have been described and 
figured. We have enumerated some of the 
examples of defect or omission which have 
attracted our attention in reading Dr. Ostwald's 
manual. This has been done in the hope that 
the author may take an early opportunity of 
increasing the great and in many respects 
remarkable merit of his work by making it 
better balanced and more complete. For in the 
clearness of its 188 figures, in the ingenuity of 
many of its minute contrivances, in its 
judicious estimations of the relative accuracy 
of methods, and, above all, in its sound descrip- 
tions and discussions of the bases of calculation, 
this manual presents features of unusual excel- 
lence. A word, too, must be added in conclusion 
in praise of the easy style which the English 
translation exhibits and of the handsome get- 
up of the volume. 

A Text-Book of Inorganic Chemistry. By G. 
S. Newth. (Longmans.) In the first of the 
three parts into which this text-book is divided 
the general principles of chemistry and of 
chemical physics are discussed. The con- 
sideration of four typical elements — hydrogen, 
oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon — occupies Part 
II., while the remainder of the volume is 
devoted to the systematic study of the elements 
in accordance with the periodic classification. 
It must not, however, be assumed that Mr. 
Kewth takes the several elements in the regular 
sequence of their increasing atomic weights. 
In point of fact he begins with fluorine, 
chlorine, bromine, and iodine, the four 
members of family B in Group VII. ; then 
come oxygen, sulphur, selenium, and tellurium, 
which constitute family B in Group VI. 
Phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth 
follow in succession, afterwards the families 
of metals belonging to Groups I. to VII. 
ate discussed ; and, finally, the transi- 
tional elements of the first, second, and 
fourth long periods. In this way elements 
of similar chemical habits are arranged and 
studied together, very much in the usual 
manner. If there were a necessity for the 
appearance of another elementary text-book of 
inorganic chemistry, Mr. Newth must be com- 
mended for the care and thoroughness with 
which he has carried out his tai(k. His presen- 
tation of the scientific basis of the science is 
clear and accurate ; his selection of descriptive 
material is judicious. The illustrations, though 
perhaps adequate, are frequently ill-drawn : 
the numerical data are for the most part 
recent and exact. In a few places slight cor- 
rections are advisable. For example, rock 
crystal never, when pure, possesses so high a 
specific gravity as 2-69 (which, by-the-by, is 
nearly the density of beryl) ; pure carbon in the 
form of diamond can scarcely be said to have a 
variable specific gravity, as it oscillates only 
between 3-53 and 3-52. The statements on p. 
538 anent the native calcium phosphates need 
reconsideration ; a word as to graphitic acid 
should be introduced on p. 253. Serpentine 
is stated (p. 590) to be anhydrous, although it 
contains two molecules of water having different 
functions. All the above points (with a few 
more which it is needless to specify) are, of 
course, comparatively insignificant. That one 
can discover nothing more serious of which 
to make mention may be taken as indicative 
of the care with which this text-book has been 
prepared. 

The Rite and Development of Organic Chem- 
iitri/. By Carl Schorlemmer. Edited by A. 
Smithells. (Macmillans.) This interesting and 
valuable essay was originally published in the 
year 1879. It now appears in an enlarged and 



revised edition, and constitutes a worthy 
memorial of a distinguished chemical investi- 
gator and teacher, whose recent death science 
and his many pupils and friends deplore. 
Prof. Smithells has executed his task of editing 
and revision as a labour of love, and has 
enhanced the value of the volume by prefixing 
to it a brief biography and a list of Dr. 
Schorlemmer's original papers. We have to 
thank him also for two full and admirable 
indexes — one of author's names, one of 
subjects. The treatise itself affords abundant 
evidence of the author's merit as a laborious 
student and a clear-sighted philosopher. One 
may, perhaps, venture to express some regret 
that the work of authorship drew Dr. 
Schorlemmer so often away from the laboratory 
to the study during the later years of his life. 
He has, however, left enduring proofs of his 
geniiis for investigation, while his literary pre- 
sentment of the science of organic chemistry 
has been very helpful to students. It is 
satisfactory to know that his labours, which 
continued for a third of a century in connexion 
with Owens College, are bi!ing commemorated 
by that institution. Very shortly the 
" Schorlemmer Laboratory" will be in working 
order — a laboratory devoted to the study of 
that important and complex department of the 
science of which the author of the treatise 
before us was so admirable an expositor and so 
indefatigifkble an explorer. 



SCIENCE NOTES. 



Prof. G. J. Bbush, of Yale, has been elected 
a foreign member, and Dr. F. P. Moreno, of La 
Plata, and Dr. A. Eothpletz, of Munich, have 
been elected foreign correspondents, of the 
Geological Society. 

At the meeting of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers, to be held at 25, Great 
George-street, on Thursday next, the new 
president, Mr. R. E. Crompton, will deliver 
his inaugural address. 

An extra meeting of the Physical Society wil^ 
be held on Friday next, at 4.30 p.m., in the 
Physical Science Lsboratory of University 
College, Gower-street, when five papers are set 
down for reading, including one on " TheHeit 
of Vaporisation of certain Organic Liquids," by 
Prof. Bamsay and Miss Dorothy Marshall. 

January 2 was the seventy-seventh anni- 
versary of the establishment of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, which was founded for the 
general advancement of mechanical science. 
It now numbers 1846 members, 3647 associate 
members, 359 associates, 17 honorary members, 
and 791 students, making a total of 6,660 of 
all classes. 



PEILOLOar NOTES. 

Two recent numbers of the Bahylonian and 
Oriental Record (David Nutt), completing the 
seventh volume, contain the latest work of 
the lamented Terrien do Lacouperie, though 
we understand that he has left a great deal 
more in MS., which may yet be published, if 
sufficient financial support is promised. This 
latest work has a special interest, as dealing 
with the antiquities of Korea. The professor's 
sympathies were entirely with China, to whom 
he attributes all the civilisation that Korea has 
ever possessed ; while the Japanese have 
borrowed much from Korea, and only returned 
the obligation with invasions and atrocities. 
The present depressed condition of the country 
is assigned to the Japanese wars of 1592 and 
1597. Korea first appears in history circa 
1100 B.C., when a member of the 8hang-yu 
dynasty of China established himself there, and 
called the country Tchao-Sien = Morning 



Serenity, a name which it still preserves. His 
tomb is to this day pointed out to travellers 
near Ping-Tang. The name of "Korea" 
(Kao-Li = Kao's Elegance) was first used 
ofiioiaUy in 918 AD., though it can be traced 
back many centuries earlier. The reigning 
dynasty dates from 1392, and the present 
monarch is the twenty-fourth of his line. 
Buddhism is said to have been introduced in 
372 A.D., and to have spread rapidly, though 
it has been largely superseded by Taoism. 
Apart from numerous temples. Buddhism has 
left its mark in the colossal rock-hewn statues 
to be foimd in all parts of the peninsula. These 
statues are called miryek, which is only a 
Chinese transcription of the Sanskrit Maitreya 
= the Future Buddha. While Korea 
received the arts of civilisation from China, 
she improved upon her instructor in not a 
few particulars. She is the only nation in the 
Par East that can boast of an alphabetical 
system of writing, which is said to date from 
the end of the seventh century ad. The 
alphabet consists of twenty-five characters 
(fourteen consonants and eleven vowels), and is 
evidently of Indian origin. The art of printing 
by means of movable types was certainly practised 
as early as 1317. Sjme centuries earlier the 
Chinese had printed from porcelain types ; but 
the Koreans claim for themselves the invention 
of types cast in copper. Korea, again, was the 
halfway house between China and Japan in 
the development of those arts which we are 
accustomed to regard as peculiarly Japanese. 
The oldest bronze statues in Japan are known 
to be of Korean workmanship ; while the ivory 
glaze of Sitsuma ware is said to be derived 
from the same source. 

About the literature of Korea, Terrien de 
Lacouperie has little to say. He refers to an 
article entitled " Buddhism in Korean History 
and Language : Discovery of an Important 
Document," in the short-lived Korean Reposi- 
tory (Seoul, 1892), which he was not fortunate 
enough to see. We may, therefore, take this 
opportunity of mentioning a paper in part ii., 
vol. ii. of the Journal of the Buddhist Text 
Soc-ety of India, contributed by Dr. E. B. 
Landis. It is a translation from the Korean 
of a Sutra in praise of Amita Buddha, with 
several prefaces and a commentary. The book 
itself was published in 1753, by one Kim, an 
ex-prime minister, in order to lay up a store 
of merit, as well as to obtain a son, according 
to a practice formerly very prevalent in Korea. 
The author of the Sutra is said to be Kumara- 
jiva, tutor of Fahian, who brought a copy to 
China from the kingdom of Kharacar (north- 
east of Yarkand), in 400 A.d. The teaching is 
simply that of chanting the name of 
Amita Buddha, in order to be born in 
Sukhavati, the Lind of Bliss. It is the teach- 
ing of the Pure Land school, and is the chief 
belief of the Chinese, Korean, and Japanese 
Buddhists, Nirvana being forgotten or con- 
sidered too far removed from ordinary people. 
Who Amita was is not known. One of his 
most frequent appellations is Amitabha = 
Boundless Light. He is also called the 
diffuser of great light and great mercy atd 
sympathy. The commentary that precedes 
purports to be written by Ou ik Chi Ouk, the 
Western Sramana. It enumerates the many 
virtues that result from chanting the Sutra, 
and goes en to explain minutely every word 
of the text — sometimes in a very far-fetched 
manner. 

To return to the Bahylonian and Oriental 
Record. Apart from the continuation of " The 
Familiar Sayings of Confucius," by Prof C. 
de Harlez, we must mention two articles by 
Mr. W. St. Chad Bosoawen. One of these is 
an account of "The Oldest Bank in the World," 
based upon a selection of contract tablets from 



18 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. S, 1895.— No. 1183. 



BAbylonw, recently published by Dr. Brnno 
Meissner, of BerliD. They lepreaent the 
commercial dealings of the firm of Zini-Istar, 
at the cities of Ur, Larsa, and Sippara, during 
the period from 2300 to 2100 B c, when the 
Babylonian kingdom had just been founded by 
Khammurabi. They illustrate the equality of 
women, the law of inheritance, the custom of 
adoption, the position of slaves, and the 
antiquity of beer-houses. The other paper is 
a review of MasperoN " Dawn of Civilisation " 
and Prof. Petrie's " History of Egypt." 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 
CLinx)x SuAxsi-BBi Society.— {5a<Kn/ay, Kov 24 ) 
Mi.»8 M. OATHAUi<tB Smith in the chair. — Mr. 
L. M. Grifliths read a paper entitled " A Summary 
of Critical Upinion on the Authorship of ' Edward 
III.'" He referred to the views of Capell, 
Ulrici, Knight, Piof. Ward, Dr. Furnivall, Dr. 
Proescholdt, and Mr. Flesy. The play baa not 
been admitted into any edition of Shakspere except 
the " Leopold," associated with the name of 
Dr. Furnivall, who of all critics is most opposed 
to the theory of Shaksperian authorship. Most of 
the critics who have given the subject serious con- 
sideration think that the play, in whole or in 
part, cloeely reeemblcs in style and versification 
tsbakspere's undoubted work. Perhaps the most 
rational conclusion is that of Mr. Fleay, who 
says that the play, in its original form, was 
Marlowe's, first acted about 1589, and that 
it was altered and revised by Shakspere. 
He gives two very strong arguments deduced 
from quotations from the preface to Greene's 
Sleiiaphon and from Greene's Xetcr Tco late tc 
Mend. "Edward III." was published in 1596. 
Who by that time except Marlowe or Shakspere 
had shown himself capable of writing an historical 
drama of the excellence of " Edward III." ■• If 
the play was as much ttie work of Marlowe as of 
Shakspere, this would account for its absence from 
Mere's list and from the 1623 Folio. 

(Saturday, Dec. 22.) 

Miss LorisA Mary Davies in the chair.— Miss 
Katherine G. Blake read a p»per on " Constance." 
She shows us many moods. When we first see 
her in the play of " King John," she is as gentle, 
as reasonable, as peaceful as her son. But in her 
next appearance, having been stung by Elinor's 
scorpion tongue, she is a changed woman, and 
pours forth her avenging fury till her voice sinks 
into a hoarse, exhansttd mutter. In her 
interview with Salisbury, she is no longer 
the unadvised scold, but raises sympathy, 
pity, tenderness. The unerring reader of 
character lays bare before us the wonderful 
mother's heart, and we are face to face with a 
tender, loving woman. In this scene we have, 
perhaps, one of the finest pictures in literature of a 
mother's profound grief. Then when surrounded 
with the whole circle of her foes, we note the 
humour, the wit, the intellectual ability exhibited 
by this remarkable woman. She retorts on each 
speaker with that which fits his case. A little 
later, Arthur's delicate insight into his mother's 
nature assists our picture. Not ambition, not 
desire of power moves Constance, and her son 
knows it. The keynote of her character is love, 
the mighty passion of a mother's love. The last 
lime we see her, the curtain rises on a scene of 
terrible pathos. Her nerves have been strained 
almost beyond the endurance even of her strength 
and although not mad, she is near it. ' 

Historical.- (TAnrjAiy, Bee. 20.) 

Sir M. E. Grant Di ff, president, In the chair — 
The following were elected feUows : Thomas 
Preston, Louis H. Victory, George A. Smith.- A 
paper was read by Mr. 0. Raymond Beazley, on 
"Exploration under Elizabeth," in which the pro- 
gress of geographicil discovery and the growth of 
commercial entcrptisa were carefully tiaced in the 
history tf Englund and other European nations 
since the fifteenth century. — Messrs. Ooote. 
Maiden, and Montefiore took part in the discussion 



Tua MoDUN Lakouaob Association. 
The flrdt general meeting of this Association was 
held at University College, Gower-street, on 
Friday, December 21, with the president, Mr. 
H. W. Eve, hciid master of University College 
School, in the chair. — After the formal business 
had been concluded, Mr. W. Stuart Maogowan, of 
Cheltenham College, the secretary, read a report 
of the Association since its foundation, some two 
years ago, pointing out what the Association had 
done to fulfil its mission in raising the standard of 
modern language teaching throughout the country. 
The Aesociation had collected sundry statistics, 
and memorialised certain authorities in favour of 
changes more in accord with the new develop- 
ment of modem language teaching. — Mr. Eve then 
gave his presidential address, a long and careful 
statement of the position of French and German 
in contrast with Latin and Greek. While fully 
insisting upon the value of the mental training and 
culture to be gained from the classics, he stated 
that for biys leaving school at sixteen or seventeen 
modern languages were far more practical, and 
could be made to serve the same end of mental 
discipline. He mildly ridiculed the process of 
assimilating a language by means of " smaJl talk," 
and urged that careful translation of books of 
literary value into accurate and good English was 
the best mears of giving a boy a valuable training 
in the scholarly attitude of mind which he con- 
sidered to be the main object of intellectual 
education. He opposed the teaching of a subject 
merely from the utilitarian view of the knowledge 
gained.— Mr. Henry Bradley, joint editor of the 
New English Dictionary, followed with a speech, in 
which he pointed out the necoseity of haring a 
sjmpathctic knowledge of the actual life of a 
country and its people in order fully to underetand 
and appreciate its language and literature. — Dr. 
Otto Jespersen, Professor of English at the 
University of Copenhagen, then spoke in favour of 
the new continental method of teaching modem 
languages. He showed how the new school really 
owed its oiigin to English scholars, the phone- 
ticians Bell, Ellis, Sweet, and others ; but that the 
practical side of their studies had been chiefly 
developed on the continent. He differed from the 
president, who advocated the reading-book as the 
centre of teaching, and urged thattheliring language 
should be leamt by ear and mouth. — Mr. J. J. Beuze- 
maker then made a short speech, pointirg out that 
difference between the English and the continental 
schools of teaching was not really very great. 
They were as two streams running in the same 
direction and would soon meet, and each gain 
strength by amalgamation with the other. — After 
the meeting the members and their guests 
adjourned to the Holborn Eestaurant, where a 
thoroughly intcmational and friendly dinner took 
place. Speeches were made in various languages, 
and the healths of several European sovereigns 
were drunk. 



FINE ART. 

The Life of Christ, as represen'ed in AH, 
By Frederic W. Farrar, D.D. (London : 
A. & C. Black.) 

Tins is not a scholarly book. It is vague, 
diffuse, rambling, unsystematic, inflated, 
unsatisfactory. Archdeacon Farrar knows 
a good deal about the iconography of the 
earlier centuries of the Christian era ; and 
he has been tempted unwisely to follow up 
the subject into the culminating period of 
Italian art, where his knowledge seems 
scarcely suiiScient to justify him in speaking 
with authority. The result is a loose and 
popular book, which stands to the history 
of Christian art in Eoraewhat the same 
relation as the Archdeacon's own turgid 
Life of Christ stands to New Testament 
criticism. It is a treatise for people who 
don't want to know much, but who are 
satisfied with a sandwich of information 
and piety. 



The earlier part of the work, which gives 
an easy summary of primitive Christian 
art, is the best portion of the volume. 
From it beginners may gain a fair general 
idea, not indeed of the Life of Christ in art, 
but of early symbolism and Christian paint- 
ing, in the Catacombs, the older Eoman 
churches, the Eavenna mosaics, and other 
monuments of the first or semi-classical 
period. Even here, however. Dr. Farrar 
often omits to note the most interesting 
points, such as the evolution of the cruciform 
nimbus of Christ (afterwards extended to 
other persons of the Christian Trinity), 
from the XP (the first two letters of the 
word X/jt'oTos) inscribed within a circle — 
a usage of which a good example is given 
in his own woodcut from the Catacombs 
on page 51. Similarly, in dealing with 
the medallion of the Baptism of Christ 
in the Baptistery at Eavenna, he fails 
to call attention to the curious Chris- 
tianising development by which the 
heathenish river-god of the Jordan, who 
stands by with a towel, becomes gradually 
mediaevalised and modernised into the 
towel-bearing angels on the bank at the 
side, so familiar to us all in the well-known 
pictures of the same scene by Piero della 
Francesca and Verocchio. Indeed, the 
sense of evolution and of historical growth 
is singularly wanting in Dr. Farrar's 
intellect. He treats almost all art as if it 
occupied one plane like a contemporaneous 
product, jumping straight in this instance 
from the Catacomb of St. Pontianus to Veroo- 
chio's masterpiece, without any apparent 
consciousness of the abrupt transition or the 
long, slow growth of intermediate instances. 
The fact is, that Christian art exhibits a 
singularly continuous line of treatment for 
each main theme, every artist drawing 
mostly on previous convention for his main 
motives, which he slowly alters or supple- 
ments in accordance with the spirit of his 
time, his school, or his personal idiosyn- 
crasy. Dr. Farrar has almost entirely 
neglected to impress this central fact in the 
history of art, in order to find room for 
religious discussions, scraps of cheap bio- 
graphy, and an impracticable comprehen- 
siveness which drags in Eossetti, Holman 
Hunt, Edwin Long, and Burne-Jones, side 
by side with the nameless handicraftsmen 
of the Eoman cemeteries and the technical 
triumphs of the Italian Eenaissance. 

The early part of the book is also dis- 
figured by a foregone determination to gloss 
over the strength of the heathen element in 
primitive Christianity, and to explain away 
as " types " (whatever that may mean) such 
awkward facts as the figures of Orpheus 
and other pagan emblems with which the 
emerging Christians of the early centuries, 
while Christianity was still in course of 
evolution, saw fit to adorn their final resting- 
places. The extreme of this doubtless 
honestly meant intellectual disingenuous- 
ness is to be found in the naif story of how 
Mabillon and Ferretti once unearthed in 
the Catacombs an Egyptian idol. Ferretti 
very naturally inclined to conclude that 
it was a sign of partial paganism ; but 
" Mabillon saw that its close resemblance 
to the swathed mummy of Lazarus was 
sufficient to constitute it a type of the 



JAK. 5, 1895.— No. 1183.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



19 



Eesurrection." More ingenious than in- 
genuous surely of Mabillon ! To such 
straits are men driven in order to avoid 
the plain conclusion, clearly enough set 
forth even in St. Paul's Epistles, that Christi- 
anity itself grew but by elow and tentative 
degrees out of a magma of heathenism. 

When Dr. Farrar comes to deal with 
Giottesque and later art, his failure is 
evident. In one word, he does not know 
enough about the subject. He has not 
thoroughly read himself into the schools, 
the succession of motives, the gradual 
transition, the step by step development 
of the Eenaissance. He talks of Michael 
Angelo's mastery over " the laws of per- 
spective, to which so much attention had 
been directed by Paolo TJccello " — as though 
Michael Angelo had taken the subject up 
where Paolo left it! He dances about 
from age to age and place to place in the 
most bewildering and unscientific fashion. 
Thus, not only does he make the pictures 
of the Enthroned Madonna with Saints a 
department of the Life of Christ in art, but 
ho actually identifies with that familiar 
theme the Coronation of the Virgin, which 
is, of course, the subject of a totally 
different cycle of pictures. Nor does he 
seem to be aware of the way in which the 
groups of saints, at first combined in action, 
as in the earlier mosaics, grew discrete and 
unconnected with the decay of art, as in 
the later mosaics and the Byzantine and 
Giottesque Madonnas con vari wnti, but 
were once more brought together into a 
correlated group or " Santa Conversazione " 
as the Benaissance proceeded. The reader 
wUl get few such really instructive hints 
from Dr. Farrar's pages : he will be regaled 
instead with fanciful observations upon the 
attendant saints, of a pretty poetical and 
religious character, all based on the implied 
belief that the painter placed them there 
for some spiritual pxirpose of edification, 
as if to represent the Holy Catholic 
Church, or as " types of holiness in 
contemplative seclusion and in active 
service " ; the fact being, of course, that 
the choice of saints was almost always 
dictated by the donor who commissioned 
the picture, and that they usually repre- 
sent no abstract idea at all, being simply 
the donor's own patron saint, and those of 
his town, his wife, his children, or his 
family. Positive errors abound : as where 
the infant St. John Baptist of the round 
Botticelli in the National Gallery is de- 
scribed as an angel, or as when a quotation 
which refers to one of Fra Angelico's 
Annunciations is innocently applied to 
another whicli does not answer to it. 
Indeed, the whole treatment of this sub- 
ject of the Annunciation is an excellent 
example of " how not to do it." Mrs. 
Jameson, writing nearly fifty years ago, 
tells the student a great deal that it behoves 
him to know about the convention and even 
the development of Annunciations ; Dr. 
Farrar, with the further gains of half a 
century at his back, tells him little or 
nothing, and even mistakes the significance 
of the general principle, which he notices 
in a single instance only, of the division 
always carefully maintained by a wall 
or pillar between the Gabriel and the 



Madonna. A perusal of Mr. Sydney 
Hartland's Perseus might here be of use 
to him, especially if he compared it with 
the charge of heresy brought against 
Timoteo Yiti's Annunciation for not having 
sufficiently safeguarded the immaculate 
conception. 

On the whole, Dr. Farrar attempts too 
much, and performs too little. We want 
a good book, up to the level of modern 
knowledge, on the historical development 
of the various set scenes of Christian art — 
a book which should trace the origin of 
each motive to its true source, and show 
the gradual accretion of episodes and acces- 
sories, the gradual influence of dogma, 
myth, and legend. Such a book Archdeacon 
Farrar might have produced for us, had he 
taken the pains to work up the subject 
cirefully by collating in detail many suc- 
cissive stages of each main theme in 
historical order. Instead of that, he has 
been content to give us a showy, ill- 
assorted, and rhetorical treatise, half 
homily, half handbook, which may serve 
as a pretty Christmas present for the 
deserving young, but will never be con- 
sulted or quoted by the scholar, the critic, 
or even the intelligent tourist. 

Gkant Allen. 



NOTES ON ART AND AROHAEOLOOF. 

Tub Queen lias been pleased to appoint Mr. 
Edward de Martino to be Marine Painter in 
Ordinary to Her Majesty, in the room of Sir 
Oswald Walters Brierly, deceased. Mr. de 
Martino's name does not occur in the 
" directory of artists " published in The Year's 
Art for 1895. We have seen it stated that the 
Chevalier Eduardo de Martino is a Neapolitan 
by birth, who served for fifteen years in the 
Italian Navy. He is said to have painted many 
pictures for the late Emperor of Brazil, and 
also for the German Emperor and the King of 
Italy. 

The annual winter exhibition of Old Masters 
at Burlington House will open to the public 
next week. The private view is fixed for 
to-day. 

On Monday next, Mr. J. E. Hodgson will 
begin a course of six lectures, as professor of 
painting at the Eoyal Academy, upon "The 
Development of Italian Art from the Fifteenth 
Century to the Death of Raphael." 

The lato Sir Charles Newton has bequeathed 
his collection of archaeological drawings, 
diagrams, and photographs to tbe University of 
Oxford, for the use of the Lincoln professor of 
archaeology for the time being in his lec- 
tures. 

The annual general meeting of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries of Ireland will be held 
at Dublin on Tuesday next. The council pro- 
pose a series of changes in the rules, in accord- 
ance with which Lord Ardilaun will be proposed 
as honorary president for the coming year, and 
two presidents will be elected for a term of 
three years. Among the papers to be read 
are : " Notes of an Ogham Hunt in the North 
of Ireland," by Prof. Rhys; and "Prehistoric 
Stone Forts of Northern Clare," by Mr. T. J. 
Westropp. 

We hear with regret of the sudden death of 
Mr. Haio'.il .SwHinson, joiut-author, with Mr. 
W. E. Lethaby, of The Ohnrch of Sancla Sophia, 
Comtantinoph : a Study of Byzantine Building, 
recently published by Messrs. Maomillau & Co. 
He died abroad, on the last day of 1 89 1, at the 



early age of twenty -six. Mr. Swainson had 
gone with a friend to Egypt, full of life and 
hope, and all who knew him looked forward 
with interest to the results of his studies there. 
One of his friends writes : 

" With great natural ability and quick iunght, 
together with the simplest honesty ot purpose, and 
the advantages of a university training, he teemed 
singularly fitted to help forward the art of modern 
building to better issues. His letters show that 
his great delight in his travel had been to observe 
how the Copts and Arabs still meet structural 
requirements in a traditional manner both 
' rational and national.' " 



MUSIC. 

MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Chapters on Church Music. By the Rev. 
R. B. Daniel. (Elliot Stock.) The author, 
formerly himself an organist, discusses a sub- 
ject upon which, as he admits in his preface, 
opinions widely differ. Whether these " Chap- 
ters " will bring about more agreement may be 
open to question ; they contain, however, many 
practical hints, and are written in a pleasant, 
chatty style. Complaint is made that preference 
is given nowadays to " mournful and senti- 
mental" hymns; and, by way of contrast, the 
joyful character of the psalmody in the Old 
Testament is mentioned. Sentimental hymns 
are certainly displeasing ; but is it not natural 
that the mournful element should prevail, 
seeing that the Pounder of Christianity was " a 
man of sorrows " '! The practice of adapting 
melodies and making hymn-tunes from them 
is said to be "not free from objection"; the 
author might safely have said " highly objec- 
tionable." He is of opinion that such tunes 
may be used ' ' when the sources are certainly 
unknown to the congregation." But unless 
the latter consist cnly of persons with 
whose musical ignorance the clergyman or 
organist is acquainted, how is that fact to 
be ascertained ? Our author prefers 
congregational to choral services, but chari- 
tably admits that men may hold different views 
on the subject. Much can be said on either 
side; but, whether from an artistic or from a 
devotional point of view, more, we imagine, in 
support of the choral. But our author, though 
of musical taste, seems never to have felt the 
full power of music. He mentions the refresh- 
ing sounds of David's harp before which Saul's 
dark malady yielded as an instance of its 
power, but immediitoly afterwards reminds 
us that, at times, music drove Israel's 
unhappy monarch " absolutely mad." It 
is surely too much to say that musio drove 
the king mad : it merely, on the occasion 
ot the javelin scene, intensified pre-existing 
madness. Our author's remark as to the 
different effects of the music at different times 
is, however, interesting : one is apt to remem- 
ber only the verse which tells us that " Saul 
was refreshed, and was well." One more point 
will we notice in this book, which, indeed, 
invites criticism— in the wide souse of the word 
— at almost every page. Our 'author prefers 
women to boys in church choirs. He meets the 
objection sometimes made that "women 
occasionally behave with levity " in church, by 
pointing to the "seldom reverent and some- 
times truly disgraceful " behaviour of boys. 
The objection is, it is true, a very weak one : 
on the same ground one might object to men, 
for in this matter they are not always what 
they ought to be. The writer is very hard on 
boys, whom he declares to bo not only "trou- 
blesome but untrustworthy." It must be 
remembered, however, that he is speaking not 
of cathedral and collegiate choirs, but of the 
chorister boy as he is to hi foimd in small 
towns and villages throughout the country. 



so 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jas. 5, 1895.— No. 1183. 



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22 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



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24 



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THE ACADEMY. 



25 



MR. MUR RAY'S LIST OF SCHOOL BOOKS. 



SIR WILLIAM SMITHES 

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28 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



RICHARD BENTIEY & SON'S 

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NOTICE.-THE JANUARY ISSUE 

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Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



27 



SATUEBAY, JANUARY i2, 1895. 

No. i 184, New Serm. 

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LITERATURE. 

Life ani Letters of Bean Church. Edited by 
his Daughter, Mary C. Church. With a 
Preface by the Dean of Chriat Church. 
(Macmillans ) 
Apparently Dr. Church is to be a mystery 
to the end. His daughter "aimed at a book 
of letters rather than a complete biography" ; 
his son-in-law, in his sketch of " the mind 
that is to bo found' in them," deliberately 
passes ov€r "his place and work in the 
field of theology." " The consideration of 
his thought and teaching in theology would, 
by reason of those demands and oppor- 
tunities which make the difference between 
theology and every other science, carry this 
essay deep into the full consideration of 
traits purely moral and spiritual." The 
sketch by Canon Scott Holland, which tells 
us most, leaves us uncertain as to the 
character of his woik at St. Paul's. He 
was an ideal dean, for his canons looked up 
to him, and he knew how to be strict with 
vergers and choristers, and got on very 
well with both his bishops ; but he had 
"no formal initiative," everything had to 
be done in the very best way to satisfy him. 
" His dissatisfaction was a final objection, 
the matter must be dropped. All this would 
happen almost in silence ; certainly without 
much argument." Later on, we hear that, 
when his health compelled him to with- 
draw from the pulpit to his study, he still 
continued to act as a second conscience to 
men in high station. Apparently there are 
no unprinted letters which would throw 
light on this side of his life, or enable us 
to test the impression that as a conscience 
for other men he rather resembled the 
sign which was given to Socrates, that never 
bade and often forbade. There is a very 
impressive page in the preface on some- 
thing 

" which lay fuither back in his character than 
cither his patience or his power of anger, and 
which, Canon Scott Holland tells us, reminded 
some of ' the wrath of the Lamb.' He seemed 
to bear about with him a certain bidden, 
isolating, constraining, and ennobling fear, 
which quenched the dazzling light of many 
things that attract most men — a fear which 
would have to be clean got rid of before time- 
serving or unreality could have a chance with 
him." 

The letters hardly illustrate this side 
of Dr. Church at all : they illustrate 
abundantly his saving sense of humour. 
It would have been interesting if there had 
been materials to trace the movements of so 
rare a mind during the time between the 
publication of Tract XC. and his settlement 
at Whatley. All we have are two most 
entertaining letters to tho future lord 



Blachford — one dealing with the ingenuity 
and activity of Golightly in fanning the 
agitation against Tract XC. and bringing 
the Four Tutors together; the other, which, 
if possible, is racier, describes how Lewis 
and Morris raced round Oxford without their 
breakfasts (it was a Yigil) to stir up opposi- 
tion against granting an honorary degree 
to a distinguished American, who happened 
to be an Unitarian, and how the degree was 
smuggled through by the Vice-Chancellor 
while the undergraduates were storming at 
Jelf through the memorable Commemora- 
tion of 1843, when the prize poems could 
not be recited. At the time Church and 
his friends thought that it was the Vice- 
Chancellor who was discredited by the 
affair, and expected to have the surrep- 
titious degree annulled. We are not told 
how the matter ended. There is a graver 
note of disapproval in an extract about 
Morris and Lewis (afterwards the translator 
of St. John of the Cross), who used to meet 
Ward and Bowyer, the defenders of every- 
thing which wise men gave up, and "talk 
strong." Another confirms Pusey's estimate 
of the deterioration of most "'verts," though, 
according to Church, the deterioration was 
only temporary. " No letters of 1816 
havo been preserved," which is a pity, 
for it was the year of the foundation 
of the Guardian, when Church reviewed the 
Vestiges of Creation to the admiration of 
Owen. A reference to tho date of the 
review would have been acceptable, and we 
might have been told whether the reviewer 
as well as his biographer ascribed that once 
famous book to Lyell. 

In 1847 Church went to Greece to stay 
with his uncle. Sir Eichard Church, and 
then to Constantinople, returning by Corfu 
and Italy. His letters during this period 
are given very fully, and they aro the best 
kind of letters of travel : those which 
describe the motley Greek political life of 
the day in the Chamber and the coffee house 
will furnish more than one footnote to future 
histories of modern Greece. Throughout 
the writer is preoccupied, willingly, with the 
picturesque outside of things : there are few 
reflections, nothing of the solemnity of temper 
of Newman's momentous tour with Hurrell 
Froude. Once or twice Church notices 
points like the contrast between English and 
Kussian behaviour in church, and, without 
giving an opinion of his own, observes that 
during the first flush of enthusiasm for 
Pius IX, everybody thought it too good to 
last. 

Tho later letters on public affairs are 
rather like Spectator articles in undress. Of 
course, they are scrupulously fair. At the 
outset of the American War he was inclined, 
as many Northerners had been, to hail the 
prospect of separation which would end the 
responsibility of New England for slavery; 
he was very much impressed by the Northern 
victory. There is nothing to tell us what 
he thought of the attempt to admit the 
emancipated slaves to political and even 
social equality. In the same way we have 
some very shrewd and characteristic remarks 
d uring the Vatican Council about the poor 
French bishops who were helpless when 
confronted with their own fine language, 
and also about the sudden " precipitation " 



of dislike to the ways of the Eoman Curia 
which gave the real meaning to the opposi- 
tion. There is nothing to show that he took 
any interest in the " Old Catholics." It is 
true that, when that body of distinguished 
ecclesiastics, with their equally distinguished 
sympathisers, were cackling most busily over 
their addled egg. Church was fully occupied 
and much oppressed by the task of settling 
into his new deanery. 

But, upon the whole, the letters do give 
the impression that the writer took only 
a transient interest in transitory things. 
Arnold's letters, for instance, come much 
nearer to a continuous commentary on the 
life of the time. Another impression is a 
sort of aloofness, of irony, of reserve. Tho 
letter in which he announces his first article 
on St. Anselm to his mother is really re- 
markable in this way. Of course he had to 
allow for her Protestantism ; but, viewed from 
inside, St. Anselm is not without attractions 
for Protestants. It was Church's own choice 
to present his subject from the outside as 
a picture of the cat-and dog life an arch- 
bishop had to live in the eleventh century. 
He wrote in the same detached way about 
his children, almost as a neutral observer 
might. He found his son odd and his 
daughters interesting : when the former was 
djing he appears to have discovered, for 
the first time, that he had been an affec- 
tionate son. There can be no doubt ho 
himself was an affectionate friend, but he 
writes of Newman almost drily. When the 
time came for tho Apologia, what struck 
him most was the pain of the performance 
and the risk of failure ; he also wished from 
the first to have the history of Newman's 
religious opinions detached from the con- 
troversy with Kingsley. Again, he felt 
more strongly than most on his side that, 
after the Bulgarian atrocities, it would be 
a crime to support the Turks ; but in the 
extracts from his letters he keeps entirely to 
the tone of unimpassioned curiosity : he 
seems to care more for the impression that 
Disraeli's role at Berlin made upon Newman 
than for its political results. 

The letters to Newman and to Asa Gray, 
when he yielded to pressure and accepted 
the Deanery of St. Paul's, are among the 
few in which he lets himself go. That to 
the American botanist is decidedly tho 
fuller and more expansive. The whole 
correspondence is very interesting and cha- 
racteristic. Church entered so intelligently 
and affectionately into studies which lay 
quite out of his own line, and had such a 
keen sympathy with the labours which he 
could never undertake of a work de tongue 
haleine, like Dr. Gray's on the Compositae : 
he so evidently valued the friendship, which 
had to be kept up under conditions he felt to 
be burdensome — almost every letter begins 
with an apology for not having written 
before. Another correspondence with the 
present Vicar of Leeds has several note- 
worthy traits. There is an estimate of 
Stanley (pp. 293-4) scrupulously impartial, 
with one shrewd remark that if he had 
lived earlier he would have counted, like 
Scott and Wordsworth, among the precursors 
of the Oxford Movement. It may be com- 
pared with a note to Mozley in 18C5 : 
"Ho seems to mo in the position of prophet 



28 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12. 1895.— No. 1184. 



•nd lekder, fall of eagerness and enlhiisiMin 
and brilUaut talent, all heightened by success— 
but without a creed to preach." 

A letter to Lird Blachford tells us that it 
-nras one of the defects of Mozley, like 
Stanley, to be "Bomewhat of a deepiser." 
To judge by a letter to Gray on Bacon, 
Church Bcoms to have been a little of a 
despiser himself. lie was irritated by 
Spedding's laborious apologies for the 
shabby side of JJacon's career, tiU he could 
not realise how public-spirited and even 
large-hearted a statesman fell in him : 
considering, too, how often and how 
diligently he went over tiie parts of the 
Jrutauralh, with which it was possible for 
such a man to make progress at such a time, 
it is rather severe of his biographer to 
complain that " ho did no real work." Uo 
was not exactly either a man of science or 
even a philosopher: he drew up a magni- 
licent prospectus for a joint stock company 
of researchers, which he did not live to see 
founded. The company has done a very 
good business, not (juite on the lines of the 
prospectus which helped to float it. One 
alwajs feels that with Church severity was 
an instinct and j ustice a conquest. It was 
a costly conquest too. Here is a character- 
istic utterance to Mozley : 

" I should like to have other talks with you 
also, e.(/., this Final Court of Appeal business, 
about which I cannot satisfy myself at all. I 
do not like clerical judges; and if there is to 
be a creed at all, this legal way of dealing 
with theology reduces it to an absurdity." 

Uow unanswerable that is and how in- 
ellective. When Essayt and Jieviews ap- 
peared, ho was apparently satisfied to state 
in a private letter the questions which in 
his opinion it raised, and would have to be 
dealt with. lie did not attempt to give any 
immediate guidance to the swarm of puzzled, 
angry orthodox who buzzed about tho 
bishops ; he left them to find a standard- 
bearer in Pusey and a trumpeter in Burgon. 
Many years after, when a lady asked whether 
the clergy had been doing their duty in 
allowing Jiuhert Ehmere to take the religious 
world by surprise, he replied in substance 
that the clergy as a body were quite in- 
competent to deal with Biblical criticism 
and its spiritual results, if any, and did well 
to leave both alone : he refrained from 
adding that they set an excellent example 
to lady novelists. When he was reading 
for a fellowship, it was a great wish of his 
" to lay the foundations of his mind amid 
the works of Bishop Butler"; he also found 
something " in Maurice and his master 
Coleridge, which wakened thought more 
than any other writings almost." There 
are several letters on theological subjects 
to Mr. Mules and the Principal of Hertford 
College, which give us glimpses of what 
ho thought of matters on which he did not 
preach. He laid quite as much stress on 
our ignorance as Butler, and probably had 
a keener eye for the ever-widening range of 
questions which ho thought unanswerable. 
He entered fully into one (ide of Coleridge, 
the side in which he traced out thesis and 
antithesis, and was a solvent of traditional 
dogmatism : he never entertained Cole- 
ridge's ambition to complete a speculative 
reconstruction of theology. He had such a 



strong conviction that theology was not a 
subject to argue about that one is surprised 
at his unfeigned respect for the body of 
doctrine which the Fathers who argued so 
confidently bequeathed to the Church. The 
reason for thii inconsistency, it it was one, 
may have been that, though his keen ejes 
ranged widely, he seldom took systematic 
views. Thus, in 1857, he imparts a dis- 
covery made in reading Perthes' Life and 
Letters, that the " wild German thinkers" 
of tho first quarter of the century were not 
without "much real goodness and often 
strong religious feeling." In 1879 he re- 
flects that the Council of Constancj " is a 
turning-point worth knowing about," and 
resolves to look it up in Milman. Shirley, 
who was appointed to the chair of Stanley, 
tho only preferment Church ever coveted, 
was not a man of genius, but ho had more 
of the temper of a student. 

Two or three more points deserve to be 
noticed. He disapproved of the Ritualists, 
though his indigaation at the one-sided way 
in which they were treated from the 
Knjghtsbridge to the Lincoln judgment 
never cooled. He lived just long enough 
to commend that achievement of the prelate 
whose chair he might have filled. The 
happiest part of his life was spent at 
Whatley, especially after he could afford to 
travel, where he got on well with the poor, 
though, or because, ho was alwa)'8 shy of 
them. Tho greater part of the letters of this 
period relate to his travels in Switzerland. 

O. A. SiMCOX, 



Ode», and Other Poems. By William Watson. 
(John Lane.) 

Mil. AVatson's new collection is varied in 
subject, but contains no innovation on his 
regular manner. His poetical principles 
are by now probably matured, and are not 
likely to change. He is a warier Words- 
worth, ever on his guard against twaddle 
and prolixity, his master's besetting sins. 
Sometimes, perhaps, in liis zea), ho now 
goes too far, and might fairly allow himself 
more words for his thought. However, he 
is never obscure on purpose, like some who 
think thus to louk Shaksperian ; and his 
sense is usually too sensible to need a veil. 
Usually, not always ; for sometimes he in- 
dulges in conceits which look all the queerer 
expressed in his statuesque language. Take 
the close of his first Ode : 

" And not uncrowned with honours raw 
My diys, and not without a boast shall end ! 
For I was Shakspure's countryman ; 
And wort not thou my friend f " 

Now here, possibly, 11. 3 and 4 are both 
meant for the "boast," but the "For" 
seems more elegantly to refer 1. 3 to 1 and 
4 to 2. The compliment to Mr. Hutton may 
pass ; hyperbole is the soul of compliment. 
But can any man, any poet even, feel that 
being a compatriot of the Bard is any special 
personal boast or any crowning honour 'i 
That blessing is shared by so many millions. 
It reminds me of the amateur apostles 
whom I hear under my windows urging 
the public to subscribe pence to keep them 
in idleness by promising that in Heaven 
one and all shall " wear a golden crown." 
Obviously, were cro?nis all of one pattern 



the universal headdress, we should fondly 
regret, Eome our comfortable smoking- capp, 
others their superlative chimney-pots, or 
killing bonnets. " Shakspere's country- 
man " is therefore too much of a flourish, 
unless meant as a grown-up variant on the 
familiar, " But I was born a Christian 
child," in which case it is rather flat. 

The four Odes are Horatian in character — 
indeed, the last is a version of the favourite. 
Rectim vives, Licini, somewhat too much 
amplified here and there perhaps, but as a 
whole, what translations rarely are, poetry 
which at first hand would still be fine poetry. 
For instance the third stanza, where we will 
mark the pure interpolations in italics : 

" Most rocks the pine that soars afar 
When liates arc tempest-wliirUd. 

Direst the crash when turrets are 
In dusly ruins hurled. 

The thunder loveth best to scar 
Tho bright broies of the world." 

In tho last stanza : 

" When life's straits roar and hem thee sore, 
Be bold ; naught else avails, 
But when thy canvas swells before 

Tco proudly prospering gales. 
For once ba proud with coward's lore. 
And timely reef thy sails." 

the nautical metaphor imported into the 
relui angm'is of the first line is a distinct 
improvement, both as balancing the succeed- 
ing metaphor and at onco recurring to the 
motif of the first stanzx. Mr. Watson's last 
four linos are admirable. 

"Tho First Skylark in Spring" is a fine 
poem indeed, dignified, sweet, and highly 
finished. Wordsworthian in feeling and 
character, it has many inspired phrases 
which are worthy of "In Memoriam." 
" Lakeland Once More " is an experiment 
in elegiac metre, of course unrhymed, and of 
course a failure. The English pentameter 
always seems to end with a contemptuous 
jerk or gibe — a sort of yah! Nowhere is 
the want of rhyme so distressing to our 
pampered ears. "Domine quo Vadis" is 
an important piece in heroic couplets, 
based on a legend of St. Peter in the 
First Persecution. The theme is worked 
out with much sustained force, and many 
of the lines have extraordinary power. 
Thus the Church is " the panting huddled 
flock whose crime was Christ," . . . 
"flung to the lions to make mirth For 
dames that ruled the lords that ruled 
tho earth." I will cite just two more 
couplets—" ' More light, more cheap,' they 
cried, 'we hold our lives Than chaff the 
flail, than dust the whirlwind drives,' " and 
" Let us, His vines, be in the winepress 
trod. And poured a beverage for the lips of 
God." 

The remaining poems are shorter, mostly 
lyrics. None are equal to the two or three 
masterpieces which Mr. Watson has already 
achieved, and which he is never likely to 
better. The title, "Song in Imitation of 
the Elizabethans," might, I think, have 
been transferred from the not very satis- 
factory poem it adorns to that beginning 
" Bid me no more to other eyes," which has 
a far truer ring. " A Study in Contrasts " 
is excessively clever, and the blank verse 
good, save that it perhaps leans too much 
to Tennyson's trick of three-word lines. It 
is a profoundly discriminating description 



Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184.^ 



THE ACADEMY. 



29 



of cat-and-dog nature and all they sym- 
bolise, in which we are glad, but not sur- 
prised, to see the cat has the best of it. The 
Is'ew National Anthem, "God Save our 
Ancient Land," will never do : it reads like 
a parody on the old one, which itseU reads 
like a burlesque on some still older one now 
extinct. " Tell me not now " is one of Mr. 
"Watson's prettiest songs ; and in " A Eiddle 
of the Thames," a mere graceful trifle, we 
find his descriptive povrers at their best. 
Of the sonnets, we need only say that they 
do not fall below his usual standard. 

That Mr. Watson is a poet no one now 
doubts : a thoughtful, accomplished, and 
judicious poet — in fact, a warier Words- 
worth. My only doubt is whether he is 
sympathetic enough : whether his beautiful 
lines charm as they ought to charm. It is 
a pure question of fact, of fact which hardly 
allows of explanation. For myself the only 
lines of Mr. Watson's that have stuck in 
my memory are some from his sweet little 
lyric, " Strange the world around me lies." 
I remember the gist of most of his poems, 
but none of the words. Is this the case 
•with other readers? Do people mumble 
scraps of Mr. Watson to themselves as they 
do their favourite morsels of Byron, Camp- 
bell, and Tennyson? I do not know; but 
I want to know. Because if they do, then 
he possesses the crowning attribute of a 
poet ; and his work — that is, a tithe of it, 
which for any poet is a large proportion — 
will live. 

E. PUKCELL. 



Memoirs of the DucJiesse de Gontaut, Gou- 
vernante to the Children of France during 
the Restoration, 1773-1836. Translated 
from the French by Mrs. J. W. Davis. 
(Chatto & Windus.) 

Tjie Duchesse de Gontaut was born in 1773. 
She wrote these Memoirs eighty years 
afterwards. In that long interval of time 
she had experienced many vicissitudes of 
fortune : had known exile and poverty, had 
occupied an important and envied place at 
court, had followed the elder branch of the 
Bourbons into a second and more hopeless 
exile. Sunshine and shadow, such had 
been her life ; but ia the service of the ill- 
starred Bourbons the sunshine was brief 
and checkered, and the shadow long-lasting 
and deep. 

That her Memoirs have contributed any 
important new facts in the history of her 
time, or thrown unexpected light upon the 
facts already known, can scarcely perhaps 
be said. Such interest as they possess — and 
they are very interesting — is not political. 
No doubt once and again, when the ruin of 
the monarchy was imminent, Charles X. 
heard from her lijjs words of sobriety and 
wisdom. But generally she disclaims all 
pretensions to statecraft, all special know- 
ledge of state sefrets, and is not prone to 
pass judgment upon the world's affairs. 
How then is her work interesting? It is 
interesting, as I conceive, in the first place, 
aa a piece of self-portraiture : because it 
gives us the picture of a lady of the 
old regime, brave in adversity, not unduly 
elated in prosperous days, and always 
gracious, tactful, kindly, and self-devoted. 



It is interesting, in the second place, because 
the accidents of life, and particularly her 
position at court, brought her into close 
contact with the royal family of France, so 
that she takes us, as it were, into daily 
familiar intercourse with them. And she 
witnessed, a not unmoved spectator, several 
scenes that will be for ever memorable in 
history. 

Her father had superintended the edu- 
cation of Louis XVI. She herself was 
educated, with the Orleans princes, by 
Mme. de Genlis, and took part, quite as 
a child, in the gaieties of the French 
court — where Marie Antoinette used to call 
her " Little Mouse." When the Revolution 
broke out, her mother and she followed 
the stream of the emigrant nobles — hoped 
for a moment to re-enter France with 
the invading Brunswick, were involved in 
the flight of the defeated coalition, and 
finally found a refuge in England. Here, 
in spite of her poverty — or, perhaps, rather, 
as one is entitled to believe, because of it — 
she experienced a " kindly and cordial " 
hospitality, and " formed that strong attach- 
ment to England " for which, as would 
appear, she was sometimes reproached by 
her compatriots. The young woman, with 
her French vivacity, her tact, her kindli- 
ness, made many friends, was received, and 
evidently on terms of equality, by the best 
English society. George III. spoke kindly 
words to her, and did not limit his good 
ofiices to words alone. She read TeUmaque 
to Pitt. She was on familiar terms with 
Arthur Wellesley. She listened to Sheridan's 
glittering talk. The Prince Regent, whose 
claim to be considered the first gentleman 
in Europe has been so savagely disputed, 
treated her with grace and courtesy. 

"One evening I wa3 at Lady Salisbury's 
with Lady Clarendon, who wished to go for a 
moment to the house of her sister, Lady Mary- 
borough. She said she would come back for me 
in a few minutes. Not wishing to keep her 
waiting, I went down into the hall. The 
Prince Regent came down, saw me, 
and asked if he could serve me in any 
way. I made a bow, and excused myself. 
' If your carriage has not come yet, pray take 
mine,' he said, offering his hand. I drew back, 
and said, very respectfully, but with a gesture 
of refusal, ' I will wait, Monseigneur, if you 
please.' ' Ob, Madame,' he said with a gracious 
smile, ' if I venture to offer you my carriage, 
bo assured that I proposed to get up bahind.' 
At this moment a footman announced that 
Lady Clarendon's carriage was waiting for me ; 
the Prince made his own carriage draw back, 
and gave me his hand to assist me into mine, 
opening the door for me himself. Very few 
sovereigns would have done this at all, and I 
know of none who would have done it so 
gracefully." 

At last, after long years, there came to 
these French exiles a day of days — a day 
never to be forgotten — " a great day," says 
the loyal Mme. de Gontaut, " which filled 
my" heart with joy, such as comes to us 
but rarely in a lifetime." The Corsican 
usurper had abdicated. Louis XVIII. had 
consented to return to Paris as king. All 
was joy and jubilation. Among the persons 
who accompanied the restored monarch back 
to France — and by his special order — was 
Mme. de Gontaut. It was a changed France 
to which she returned, after an exile, with 



one short break, of some twenty years. 
She herself presented an outlandish appear- 
ance to her Parisian friends : 

" They inquired gaily what could ba the 
reason of the great quantity of gold pendants 
which were the only ornaments of my black 
spencer, and the cuffs on my sleeves. I 
explained that they were all the fashion in 
London, and that the Duke of Wellington had 
brought them to me from Spain. ' She is 
very proud of them,' said Mme. de Valence, 
laughing ; ' the Duke of "Wellington is her hero , 
and I c»n quite understand it.' " 

Again, she says : "I had thought my dress 
very elegant in London, and wore it again 
at the Tuileries, only without feathers, and 
every one took me for a foreigner." 

It was in the spring of 1817 that Mme. 
de Gontaut was appointed gouvernante to the 
child about to be born to the Due and 
Duchesse de Berry. The place of governess 
to the Children of France was one of great 
honour, but also of great responsibility, and 
involving constant attendance on her royal 
charges — an attendance so constant, indeed, 
that when Mme. de Gontaut's husband 
was dying she could not obtain leave to 
visit him. She probably owed her appoint- 
ment to the personal regard and respect of 
Louis XVIIL, and of the Duke and 
Duchess, and to the credit with which she 
had brought up her own two daughters. 
It was an appointment, as already said, 
that naturally brought her into daily, almost 
hourly contact with the royal family, and 
made her a close partaker in their few joj's 
and many sorrows. Thus, on the fatal ISth 
of February, 1820, when the Due de Berry 
was struck down by the assassin's dagger, 
it fell to her to carry his infant child to the 
dying man. 

" Madame came forward, took her child, and 
carried it to Monseigneur. Ho tried to em- 
brace her. 'Poor child!' he said, 'may you 
bo less unhappy than your father I ' He held 
out his arms as if in blessing. Madame gave 
the child back to me. She was still asleep, 
and I laid her down behind the pillow on 
Monseigneur's bed." 

Again, she was present — was, indeed, one 
of the chief witnesses — at that strange birth- 
scene, when the Comte de Chambord, " the 
miraculous child," came into the world. 
And in 1830, during the July days, when the 
monarchy of the Elder Branch fell crumbling 
to pieces, she was, as one may say, in the 
thick of the ruins. Sainte-Beuve, reviewing 
Marmont's Memoirs in 1852, contrasted 
Louis Napoleon's then recent successful 
cottp cFclat with the inept and abortive coup 
d'etat attempted by Polignac twenty years 
before. Even in this book, by a non- 
political woman, the imbecility of the 
rulers, the total inadequacy of the measures 
taken for attack or defence, the hopeless 
moral and material disorganisation, are 
but too apparent. Her description of the 
court during those days of disaster is of 
the highest interest. " How miserable it is 
to be a woman," cried the young Duchesse 
de Berry, as the bells rang and the guns 
roared, and she entreated the King to allow 
her to ride into Paris and show herself to 
the people. " She received no reply, save 
a stern command to stay where she was, 
and wait" — a reply which "only exasper- 



so 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



ated Ler the more." She, with all her faults, 
was the man of the party, as she afterwards 
showed when trying to raise the standard 
of revolt in the West. One smiles, perhaps, 
at the figure she presents as she stands, in 
the grey dawn, after the flight from Saint- 
Cloud, " in riding habit, with little pistols 
at her belt "—answering the King, who 
asked why she was thus accoutred : "To 
defend my children in casetheyare attacked." 
But though one smiles — theKing at thetime, 
we are told, smiled too — the smile is not a 
smile of pity, still less of contempt. If 
Louis XVI. and Charles X. had possessed 
more of her kind of courage, the history 
of France might hare had to be written 
differently. 

FaAinc T. Marziais. 



CJimhing in the Himalayas. By W. M. 
Oonway. Maps and Scientific Beports. 
(Fisher Unwin.) 

In this volume Mr. Conway completes the 
story of his journey, and lays out for us his 
scientific gleanings, which greatly enhance 
its value. Foremost among these en- 
hancements are the maps, the want of 
which was felt by every reader who tried 
to follow, in detail, his glacier exploration. 
They have been reduced from the sketch 
map made by him during his journey, and 
are now issued on the scale of half an inch 
to a mile. This is something less than half 
that of the Swiss Siegfried, but certainly 
these Indian maps are not overcharged with 
minutiae. As Mr. Conway has himself 
pointed out, they have their shortcomings ; 
but in view of the immense area surveyed, 
and the extremely short time at the sur- 
veyor's disposal, they strike ua as a remark- 
able achievement. These are the first maps 
to give anything like a complete picture of 
even a fragment of the snowy region of the 
Karakoram Himalayas ; for on the Indian 
Atlas the glaciers are merely little tails of ice 
ending in the valley, without indications of 
their natural sources in the nevo. But even 
now the work is only half done. The great 
nevt'i basins have not been really surveyed, 
which can only be done by actually climb- 
ing up to them ; and for this in most eases 
there was no time. If one looks at these 
pictures of the Baltoro Glacier, and the two 
great ic9 streams that lead to and from the 
Hispar Pass, one sees scores of steep ribs 
holding up ice torrents right and left, each 
fed by great snowfields, the upper levels of 
which had to remain unvisited. Valuable 
as this map is in its way of showing how 
much the party saw, it is perhaps still more 
valuable in suggesting now much more 
remains unseen. 

The volume contains, besides, the experts' 
reports on the specimens of rocks, on the 
plants, and on the butterflies and moths 
obtained by the expedition. There is also 
the list of altitudes measured by barometer, 
and the observations of Qolden Throne 
and K. ; this last being put at 27,250 feet, 
which is 500 feet lower than the finding 
in the Great Trigonometrical Survey. As the 
Government surveyors determined the point 
from nine difFeront stations, and with com- 



as Mr. Conway has elsewhere admitted, that 
this beautiful giant really tops 28,000 feet. 

Lieut. -Colonel Durand, lately British 
Agent at Gilgit, contributes a most interest- 
ing excursus on the country traversed by 
Mr. Oonway. He draws a fascinating 
picture, not only of the glory of the 
mountains, but of the charm of the people, 
and speaks with something like enthusiasm 
of their cheery and manly character. There 
are Shiahs and Sunnis, and the worshippers 
of the mad Khalif, who werd known 
of old as the Assassins ; but there is hardly 
a trace of fanaticism among any of them. 
They fight well, particularly behind in- 
trenchments ; but the inclination to murder, 
congenital in the Fathan, is in them con- 
spicuously absent. And the rulers are no 
less picturesque than the people. Here is 
a portrait of the Mehtar of Chitral, a type of 
the warrior prince, in a land where it is 
ever "the reddest sword that wins ": 

"The old Mehtar was a typical mountain chief, 
tall, handsome, distinguished-looking, with a 
princely bearing and a dignified courtesy to his 
guests ; he was relentless, cruel as death, a 
past-master in dissimulation, and steeped to 
the lips in the blood of his brothers and rela- 
tions. But he ruled his country. I remember, 
when there was a delay in some posts reaching 
me, his tracing out the culprit, and what 
difficulty I had to prevent his selling the 
wretched man and all his family into slavery. 
There was no such thing as robbing the king's 
guest with impunity. I and others repeatedly 
travelled through the country without escort 
and generally unarmed." 

The folk-lorist, too, will some day have 
a golden harvest in the Hunza and Nagyr, 
Chitral and Gilgit countries. The banshee 
wails round the towers of Chitral fort when 
a king is about to die. Horses are hag- 
ridden there, and sacred fires are lit, just as 
in these fortunate islands. Fairy drums 
sound on the roof of every castle. Fairies 
inspire witches who dream dreams and fore- 
tell the fate of princes. In Gilgit, the 
Dainyal, or inspired woman, is believed in 
as fully as is the Italian Strega in the 
Eomagna Toscana, and is openly admitted 
to membership by prescribed rites. Colonel 
Durand, Warden of the Marches as he was, 
was saluted by one of these ladies, who, 
after inhaling the smoke of the sacred cedar, 
danced a mystic dance and prophesied 
smooth things of the British rule. Eelics 
of dead faiths abound. Queer mysteries 
usher in seedtime and harvest. There are 
traces of tree worship. You are incensed 
with burning twigs on entering remote 
villages, and the women still cist boughs 
on the deserted altars of discrowned gods. 
Here is, indeed, a land of promise. 

Eeqinald Hdohes. 



HAUPTMANN S " HANNETE. ' 

Hannete. Traumdichtung in zwei Teilen. 
Von Gerhart Hauptmann. (Berlin : 
Fischer.) 

Hannete. A Dream Poem. Translated by 
William Archer. (Heinemann ) 

I GATHER from Mr. Archer's Introduction 



Paris, it has been produced at the Thciitre 
Libre, where M. Jules Lsmaitre praised it — 
for the magic-lantern ; while M. Francisque 
Sarcey thought it "puerile," and turned with 
relief to the frank melodrama of " Le Trc'sor 
des Eadjahs." In New York, on the other 
hand, owing to the very proper protest of 
Mr. EUeridge T. Gerry against the principal 
part being played by a nervous child of 
fifteen, it had "only a brief run." Wears 
further told that the Emperor of Germany 
— no loss a critic than a poet — has "hailed 
in Hannete the beginning of a school of 
Christian drama" ; and that M. CatuUe 
Mendcs "wept hot tears" — would Mr. 
Archer have had them cold? — at the 
affecting spectacle. 

When one turns from these varied adver- 
tisements to the play itself, it is difficult to 
understand exactly why it should have been 
thought desirable to translate it. It may be 
that the public to which Mr. Archer appeals 
has been brought by a severe course of 
Norwegian pessimism into a proper condi- 
tion to appreciate a little German sentimen- 
tality. But I can hardly think that even 
he considers the thing to have serious claims 
to consideration as a work of tragic art. 
Let me briefly, for it is not worth more, 
analyse it. 

The scene is laid in a kind of casual 
ward, with a group of more or less bruta- 
lised paupers for background. To them 
enter Gottwald, the village schoolmaster, 
carrying in his arms Hannete Mattern, a 
girl of fourteen, who has been ill-treated by 
her step-father, and has attempted to drown 
herself. A Sister of Mercy is sent for, and 
the girl appears to be dying. This is by 
way of prologue. The main substance of 
the play is an essay to represent dramatically 
the stages of Hannete's delirium. It is, as 
Mr. Archer somewhat portentously puts it, 
"a study in child-psychology expressed in 
terms of dream-psychology." A series of 
visions appear at the foot of Hannete's 
bed: her drunken step-father, Mattern the 
mason ; her dead mother, who presents her 
with a phosphorescent cowslip, by way of 
Himnehschlimchen ; black angels and white ; 
the Lord Jesus Himself, whom she confuses 
with the schoolmaster, she has secretly adored , 
for his hair "like flowering clover." Finally 
comes, still in her dream, a sort of trans- 
formation scene, when she is clothed by the 
village tailor in a white silk gown and glass 
slippers, placed in a crystal coffin, raised by 
the Eedeemer, and borne to heaven by 
angelic forms, with harps and singing. At 
this moment the visions vanish, and Hannete 
dies. 

I am not concerned with the acting 
capabilities of such a scheme. Possibly, 
on a Teutonic stage, it would not awaken 
associations of Pepper's Ghost. But as a 
work of imagination, how does it stand the 
test, by which what so aspires to be called 
tragedy must be tried '? In me I confess it 
moves neither pity nor fear, I can weep 
for Mamillius, but Hannete leaves me 
irresponsive. I am not quite sure what 
was the author's design, but I can see that 
he has failed to accomplish it. If he wished 
to convey some intimation of ultramundane 



that Hannete has already convulsed two 

, continents. In the Fatherland, it has "set [things, some whisper of the peace of those 

paratively uniform results, it is probable, I all playgoing Germany by the ears " ; in 1 who walk upon the mountains of God, then 



Jan. 12, 1893.— No. 1184.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



31 



he has attempted to soar to a pitch heyond 
the strenpjth of his poetic wings. If, as is 
more probable, his object was the more 
human one, to render such a conception of 
the unseen world as might naturally be 
formed by a child of the temper and train- 
ing and under the conditions which he 
indicates, then he has raised a superstructure 
too elaborate for the theme to bear. The 
simple pathos of a child's death-bed is 
matter that only an elect spirit here and 
there may dare to handle — so easily does it 
become tinged with the sentimental, the 
real ; nor, as handled in Hannete, can it 
fail to remind us of Dickens in his tawdriest 
moods. 

" So innocent, humane, and reverent a 
work of art," comments Mr. Archer. I am 
not sufficiently acquainted wi'h the modern 
developments of religious thought to know 
whether the production of a magic-lantern 
Christ upon the stage is generally accepted 
as " reverent." I dare say it is so. But in 
any case it is not essential for a tragedy to 
be either ' ' reverent " or ' ' innocent." ' ' Lear " 
is not the one, nor " The Cenci " the other. 
" Humane " certainly one would have it, 
but with the humanity of Terence, rather 
than that of the Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Children. 

Edmund K, CnAiiBEKS. 



NEW NOVELS. 



Who was Lod and is Found. By Mrs.Oliphant. 

(Blackwoods.) 
Jack Boyle's Daughter. By R. E. Francillon. 

In 3 vols. (Chatto & Windu.s.) 

Grandborough. By the Earl of Desart. In 
2 vols. (Chapman & Hall.) 

A Perfect Fool. By Florence Warden. In 
2 vols. (White.) 

Absent yet Present. By Gilberta M. F. Lyon. 
In 3 vols. (Digby, Long «& Co.) 

The Stranger Woman. By John Strange 
Winter. (White.) 

Tempest Torn. By Lt.-Col. Andrew Haggard. 

(Hutchinson.) 
There is always something sweet and 
womanly about Mrs. Oliphant's novels ; 
and her latest work has all the delicate 
charm and grace which characterise this 
accomplished writer's stories. Eobert 
Ogilvy has run away from home and con- 
sorted with lawless men, road agents and 
their like, in the Far West. Though not 
actually guilty himself, he becomes involved 
in a violent assault on the constabulary 
which ends in murder. Then he comes 
home to the mother who had watched and 
waited for him throughout the years. 
Presently the leader of the gang, in whose 
hands Eobert is as potter's clay, makes his 
appearance and forces himself upon Mrs. 
Ogilvy's hospitality. The poor lady's 
feelings are lacerated by the brutality and 
intemperance of her son and his friend, 
but she endures all with scarcely a murmur. 
The torture of seeing a dearly loved son the 
creature of a desperado is not enough : the 
latter uses violence. Then it is that Robert's 
manhood re-asserts itself. The value of the 
story lies in its marvellously keen and 
accurate portrayal of maternal love and 



self-abnegation. It is a long time since 
fiction has produced a more delightful 
character-sketch than that of Mrs. Ogilvy. 

Mr. R. E. Francillon writes of Bohemia, 
that world of art and freedom of which he 
knows so much ; and he writes with know- 
ledge, and picturesquely. His latest story 
has not only cleverness, but it keeps, 
despite all its intricacies and complications, 
well within the boundaries of the possible. 
It was no light achievement to steer through 
these mazes of incident without coming to 
grief. Of course, a story of this description 
demands the reader's constant attention. 
Still, from the moment we are introduced to 
the quintet of young men, typical Bohemians 
all of them, each with his peculiar and well- 
marked differences, until we arrive at the 
last chapter, there is scarcely one serious 
break in the interest. Charley Bassett is, 
for a Bohemian, rich. He has £400 a 
year, and is cousin to a well-known baronet. 
He has no particular right to call himself a 
Bohemian, save the claim of common tastes 
with the artists, writers, and players with 
whom he foregathers. Dick Esdaile is an 
artist, poor, but with the halo of potential 
greatness around him ; Ulick Ronaine is an 
honest Irish doctor with more heart than 
brains ; Robert Urquhart, a philosopher and 
student ; and Jack Doyle, a drunkard and 
outwardly a scamp. At the commence- 
ment of the story Charley Bassett is enter- 
taining the other men ia his chambers at 
Gray's Inn. From the window the friends 
watch a nurse in charge of a baby. A 
good deal of somewhat rough chaff is 
indulged in at the expense of this girl, 
both in her hearing and behind her back. 
At last she is persuaded to hand the 
infant to her tormentors. Their joking, 
however, ends seriously— in brief, the baby 
is left on their hands. It is a novel situa- 
tion ; and the author, having got his idea, 
proceeds to work it out. It will be sufficient 
to say that he does this in a manner which, 
if it sometimes produces a sensation of 
exhaustion, rarely fails to interest. To 
attempt to follow the plot would be to court 
failure. One may not be particularly drawn 
to this class of novel ; but it would be idle 
to dispute its ability, judging it for what it 
purports to be. 

Lord Desart uses the good old devices of 
melodrama with more skill and assurance 
than many contemporary practitioners 
of the art. The curtain of his prologue 
makes an effective picture. A weak 
woman. Lady Sybil Doulaix, has deserted 
her husband because she thinks the 
gold he has gone to seek in America has 
evaded him. Lord Charles Gomshall, 
her paramour, has fallen in an encounter of 
honour with Gerald Doulaix. The decree 
of divorce is pronounced, and the woman is 
to receive an annuity of £1000 on condi- 
tion that she never molests her husband or 
his child, whom she has forgotten. It is 
with this child that we have to do as the 
story unfolds itself. Doulaix has become a 
recluse, morbid and introspective. There is 
an old Hanoverian governess for the child ; 
but the child rules the governess and her 
father as well. In course of time the 
governess gets tired of her charge and 



takes her leave. Then it happens that 
Doulaix rescues a woman, who turns out to 
be the daughter of an old neighbour, who 
has become submerged. She had incurred 
the anger of some Socialist doctrinaires lec- 
turing in Hyde Park by openly challenging 
their conclusions. This woman becomes 
the child's governess, and ultimately her 
stepmother. A boy is born and the 
daughter loses the inheritance upon which 
she had counted, to her own discomfiture 
and to that of others. Now the first wife 
re-appears. She is full of malice and 
hatred, and instigates her daughter to 
poison the heir. The crime is averted by 
Gerald Doulaix ; but he himself becomes a 
criminal. He strangles his deeply sinning 
wife. The book ends in the gloom which 
pervades it from first to last. It is interest- 
ing in a way, but against a certain rugged 
strength must be set its tawdriness and 
unreality. 

Christine Abercarne and her mother are 
in a sorry plight : they have lost their all. 
They must make a living somehow, and 
presently an advertisement in the Times 
asking for a lady with a daughter to under- 
take housekeeping suggests a way. Stifling 
their pride, they answer this advertisement, 
and soon they are installed at Wyngham. 
On the first night of their arrival, they are 
startled by hearing extraordinary noises 
proceeding from the east wing. Bradfield, 
the master of the house, explains that 
he has in keeping a poor maniac. 
This supposed maniac is the son of an old 
bush friend of Bradfield, who, dying, left 
him heir to great riches, of which Bradfield 
is trustee. Everything really belongs to 
this unhappy youth. He is not mad, but 
he is deaf and dumb, the result of scarlet 
fever. His servant, Stelfox, helps him to 
regain the use of his faculties, and forthwith 
he falls in love with Chris, to whom Brad- 
field has lost his heart. The villainy is 
discovered, and Bradfield decamps to Aus- 
tralia. A Perfect Fool is far too diffuse ; 
still, it is not lacking in interest, and is at 
least wholesome. 

The art of watering down'a story so as to 
present in three volumes that which does 
not contain nearly enough for one is an art 
in itself, and I never remember to have 
encountered so skilful an artist in this kind 
of performance as Miss Gilberta M. F. 
Lyon, The theme dealt with, and the method 
of its presentation, scarcely reconcile us to 
the poverty of the substance. Lara Mark- 
ham deliberately throws over the man to 
whom she is engaged, and whom, so far as 
such a creature is capable of loving, she 
loves, to mairy his uncle, for no other 
reason than that she may enjoy immediate 
possession of his house and income. Then 
when the younger man, Ivan Marsac, loses 
his sight, it is calmly assumed by the 
father of the girl to whom he has become 
engaged that she must forthwith desert 
him, notwithstanding the fact that he has 
acted as a hero, if a Quixotic one, in 
allowing himself to be suspected of 
cherishing a liaison with a woman of no 
importance, rather than betray the fact that 
this woman is the wife of his uncle's son : a 
son who has been suppressed, so to speak, in 



82 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



order to preserve the secret of thia wicked old 
man's early indiscretions. Exception, of 
coarse, need not be taken to the baseness of 
seven in ten of the men and women who 
meander about in this tiood of words : no 
doubt such a crew could be got together, 
recruited from any street in Kensington, or 
Kennington for that matter. But somehow 
the author appears to identify herself with the 
lowaimsand gross worldliuess of the children 
of her creation. It is a strange tliiog to 
say of so poor a book : but really muoi of 
it leaves as unpleasant a taste in the mouth 
as do the worst inventions of the French 
decadents, in that the miserable weaknesses 
of these pitiable creatures is set down 
almost as a thing of course. 

Vera Blount is heiress to an uncle who 
had lived and died in an out of the- way 
fishing village. On the day she actually 
enters into possession of her inheritance, a 
letter is given to her which contains most 
distressing information, thongh as yet we 
are kept in the dark as to its purport. In 
time she takes up her abode in her uncle's 
cottage. She is beautiful and attractive. 
She is kind to all her neighbours, but will 
not associate with them, until Boger Yalliant 
takes forcible possession of her heart. But 
although she loves him, there is an insuper- 
able barrier between them. The information 
conveyed to her in that fateful letter has 
condemned her to celibacy. We ask our- 
selves what the barrier can be. Is it that 
(he is illegitimate: that her father was a 
murderer or a forger, that her mother was 
a wanton ? Is there a hopeless strain o! 
madness in the family ? Is she marked down 
for vengeance if she dares to harbour a 
human love, and must her husband share 
her fate ? Is some Nihilistic devilry at the 
root of it ? In brief, what is it ? It is none 
of these things, but something more terrible 
still. Those who despise happy endings 
will blame Mrs. Stannard for not giving us 
a tragic denouement. If occasionally we 
detect padding in this novel, there are some 
extremely clever and even dramatic scenes 
in it. Wholesome stories like this are to 
be distinctly welcomed. 

What can be said for Colonel Haggard's 
Tempett Torn ? We have a set of detached 
and semi-detached men and women, huddled 
together on a P. and O. steamer outward 
bound. Captain Wentworth, who has 
married (and lost) an Italian opera singer, 
falls in love with Ethel Farquhar, the wife 
of his friend. At Malta he encounters his 
lost spouse at the opera, where she is 
playing the leading part in " La Favorita." 
She recognises her husband, and obtrudes 
herself upon him at his hotel. Ethel, to 
simplify matters, takes a certain poison, 
which produces suspended animation, and 
ultimately death, if it were not for the 
intervention of an antidote. Meanwhile 
the peccant opera-singer pairs off with 
Judson, a chivalrous young lieutenant. 
Then we get pages upon pages of garrison 
life in India. 

James Stanley Little. 



I SOME BOOKS ON RUSSIA. 

Nihili$m as il it. (Fisher Uuwin.) This 
volume consists of Stepniak's pamphlets 
translated by E. L. Voyiiich, and Felix 
Volkhovsky's '' Claiinsof the Itussian Liberals," 
with an introdaction by Br. It. Spence 
Watson. It also contains translations of the 
letter sent by the Eevolutionary Executive 
Committee to Alexander III. on his accession 
to the Throne (March 10, 1881), and cf the 
momoraadum presented to Loris Melikoff by 
twenty-five of ttie leading Liberals of Moscow 
in March, 1880. If Stepniak bo not the recog- 
nised leadtrr of the Opposition, ho is unques- 
tionably their foremost man — " the head and 
front of their oiTdnding." In the space at our 
disposal we must deal briefly with Stepniak's 
pamphlots. Even the mere tourist on the 
NeTeki Prospect must guess the truth, that the 
real Cionservatives of Kussia are not the fashion- 
ably dressed people he sees around him, but 
the peasants clad in sheepskins. Now as 
Bussia is a lind of peasants, if they wish to 
conserve autocracy, the will of the majority 
will prevail in Eassia as elsewhere. Writing 
(as we infer from a footnote to p. 42) in the 
summer of 1890, Stepniak tells us that " there 
is not at this moment a single section among 
the Eussian revolutionists which seriously 
looks to the peasantry for support." The 
revolutionary movement " is exclusively 
an urban one, depending upon certain 
elements of the town population — partly on 
the working classes, but chiefly upon the 
educated class in general." In his supplement 
to this pamphlet — which he entitles "The 
Beginning of the End " — his views as to the 
unreadiness of the rural population for a re- 
velation are considerably modified. He regards 
the terrible famine which fell on almost the 
whole of corn-growing Eussia as the lever for 
the revolutionary party. " Already twenty- 
five (by some calculations thirty-four) millions 
of peasants — that is to say, over a third of the 
taxpayers— are hopelessly ruined; possessing 
no longer either cattle, seed corn, or any other 
means upon which to exist and to pay taxes." 
Whether the ruined peasantry make the 
Government (as Stepniak does) responsible for 
their calamity or not, they have now nothing 
to lose, and will therefore no longer be Con- 
servative. According to Stepniak, the only way 
out of the desperate condition of the country 
is to convoke a General Assembly with full 
powers. Pending its election, the Eevolu- 
tionary Executive demand complete freedom of 
the press, of speech, of public meeting, and 
of election programmes. No Englishman — be 
he Conservative or Liberal — can deny the 
moderation of these demands. To Anarchists, 
representative government is only less hateful 
than autocratic government, and there- 
fore " there are no Anarchists in Eussia." 
But Stepniak's position towards Anarchism is 
something more than negative. He points 
out that the world has invented no other form 
of free state except constitutional monarchy or 
republic, "and so far no voices have been 
raised for a republic in Eussia." He is, there- 
fore, a constitutionalist, though an opponent 
-of the present government. The goal of his 
efiforts is the winning of a constitution for his 
native land. In his love of political liberty he 
is as fervid as even John Hampden and 
Algernon Sydney, but he sees that there are 
social questions demanding solution which did 
not exist two hundred years ago. The differ- 
ence between Stepniak and an enlightened 
supporter of autocracy is that the Nihilist 
recognises freedom of speech, freedom of the 
press, and universal suffrage as all-sufiicient 
weapons for the nation to work out its own 
salvation ; while the benevolent official believes, 
or professes to believe, in making people pros- 
perous by decrees and edicts from above. The 



question will be asked, how does the Eevolu- 
tionist work to realise his aims ? Are his 
means as moderate as his ends ? We are so 
accustomed in England to the legal exercise of 
our rights as citizens, that we regard the appeal 
to bombs and dynamite as the mere work of 
criminals and cowards — wild beasts who stand 
hors de lot, A little reflection will, however, 
teach us that it is the height of injustice to 
contrast for a moment a Eussian Nihilist with 
a French Anarchist. The dynamiter is fighting 
against freedom of speech, freedom of the 
press, and universal suffrage : the Nihilist is 
fighting for them. But in his fight against " a 
gang of official brigands," the Eevolutionist 
does appeal to force, and, therefore, to means 
that would receive and deserve condign 
punishment in a free country. But on this 
subject let Stepniak speak for himself : 

" But we regard all such acts {i.e , of the 
terrorists) as morally justifiable, and we are ready 
to defend them and acknowledge our moral 
solidarity with them, once people have hieu driven 
to commit them. In view of the cynical, bound- 
less despotism now rampant in Eussia, every form 
of protest is lawful, and there are outrages upon 
human nature so intolerable that violence becomes 
the moral duty of the citizens." 

For an Englishman or American enjoying all 
the blessings of liberty to condemn the Eussian 
Nihilist, would be like a man in perfect health 
exhorting a sick man on a bed of pain not to 
groan and not to toss, but to walk about with 
the same quiet dignity as he does. Possibly 
the tossing and the groaning will not hasten 
the restoration of the sick man to life and 
strength ; but it is not for us, the favoured 
heirs of Western freedom, to criticise, much 
less to condemn, those less fortunately placed. 
Of one thing we may be sure, that Nihilists 
of the stamp of Stepniak prize liberty as God's 
best gift to man. Stepniak has learnt the 
difficult lesson of toleration. He recognises the 
truth that "it is only by guaranteeing liberty 
to our opponents that we can secure our 
own." 

Alexander HI. of Russia. By Charles Lowe. 
(Heinemann.) This biography is written with 
great care and strict impartiality. The facts 
are stated with accuracy and conciseness ; the 
narrative is interesting, and the style to be 
commended. The author cannot, however, lay 
claim to the credit of any original research. 
He has compiled a useful and well- written book 
of reference on European history during the 
past thirteen years ; but there is little, if any- 
thing, here, with which a reader of our daily 
and monthly papers will not be familiar. He 
has put together what others have written 
about the late Czar and Eussia. But if the 
groundwork of the book be a mosaic, it is very 
cleverlydone. Thegreatmerit of Mr. Lowe is his 
calm and temperate tone. He adopts a happy 
mean between the ludicrous flatteries of Mr. 
Stead and the severe censures of Stepniak. He 
writes of the deceased monarch—" that lonely, 
incarcerated life" — in the broad and charitable 
spirit which characterised Canon Wilberforce's 
recent sermon in Westminster Abbey. Except 
on the principle of de mortais nil nisi 
honum, it is impossible to praise unre- 
servedly the late Czar. Not to dwell on 
his ungenerous treatment of Prince Alexander 
of Bulgaria, the persecution of the Stundists 
is an indelible blot on his memory. The perse- 
cution of the Jews, financially the most 
powerful race in the world, brought with it 
its own punishment. No one who has read 
Mr. Harold Frederic's New Exodus is likely to 
forget the dramatic tale he there unfolds. The 
Stundists, the flower of the Eussian peasantry, 
have had no such powerful allies, either in the 
press or on the bourses of Europe, as their 
Hebrew brethren in persecution. No Lord 
Mayors have penned appeals, no Guildhall 



Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



aa 



meetiiiga have been held on their behalf. Dr. 
Pobedonostseff and the higher Orthodox clergy- 
have worked their will on the helpless Stundists, 
unchecked and unscathed even by criticism. 
It is pleasanter to turn from the " Czar per- 
secutor" to the " Czar peacemaker." Never 
did the Czar render a greater service to the 
cause of European peace than when he snubbed 
General Skobeleff. The conqueror of Geok- 
Tepe launched some very silly diatribes against 
Germany. He addressed a French audience 
in Paris. Great was the uneasiness ; but this 
was dispelled when the official Oazetle of St. 
Petersburg not only published a disclaimer, 
but also an order forbidding the future 
delivery of all political speeches by oiHcers. 
Mr. Lowe devotes his concluding chapter to 
Nicholas II., whose reign there is ground for 
hoping will combine the best features in his 
father's and his grandfather's rule. 

y Vera Barantzova. From the Bussian of 
Sophia Kovalevsky. (Ward, Look & Co.) 
This is a translation by Sergius Stepniak and 
Mr. William Westall, with a brief memoir of 
the author. Marie Bashkirtseff is a familiar 
figure to English readers ; yet there can be 
little doubt that Sophia Kovalevsky was her 
intellectual superior. It happened that the 
stock of paper ordered for papering her father's 
house proved insufficient ; and to get over the 
difficulty the walls of her nursery were covered 
with the detached sheets of a treatise on 
mathematics. The little girl would stand for 
hours gazing at the figures and formulae. The 
seed thus strangely sown bore a rich harvest, 
for Sophia became a renowned mathematician. 
The history of mathematics shows only one 
woman who can be compared with her — 
Signorina Maria Agnesi, an Italian girl, who 
preceded the Russian by two centuries. It was 
not until her thirty-fifth year that Sophia 
Kovalevsky indulged in literary work, and she 
published her first fmillelon in the Swedish 
language. Unfortunately her first success in 
fiction proved her last, for she died soon after 
its publication. She left behind her, however, 
gome MS.S, one at least of which was complete, 
and that was the story now translated for the 
English reader. This gives us an insight into 
some episodes in modem Russian history, be- 
ginning with the emancipation of the serfs 
and ending with the revolutionary movement. 
We agree with Stepniak in preferring the 
homely earlier chapters to the more dramatic 
incidents at the close. We find the love-story 
of Vera and Vazilitzeff more attractive than 
the martyrdom of poor Vera, who marries 
Pavlenkoff, the Jew Nihilist, to save him from 
the dungeon of St. Peter and St. Paul. The 
chapters relating to Vera's life in the country 
contain some charming descriptions of nature. 
Vera had gone to the house of her lover, 
Vazilitzev, who had been exiled to Siberia on 
acconnt of his Liberal opinions. He stepped 
into the carriage with the gendarme, and thus 
began the journey to the land from which he 
was never to return : 

"The tinkling of the bells grew fdinter and 
fainter, and at last was heard no more ; and then 
followed a mournful silence, broken only by the 
intermitttnt harmonies of a fine spring morning. 
With bent head Vera wended slowly hem"; ward. 
The blackberry buthes, which were now in flower, 
covered her with the ir petals. Big drops of per- 
fumed dew fell on h(r from the branches of the 
pine trees. A leveret eprang out of the field, and, 
sitting up on an anthill, drummed with his fore- 
paws a call to hie kinsfolk, but as the young girl 
drew near he darted into a thicket." 

The translators are to be congratulated on 
giving the English public an opportunity of 
reading a work which must take high rank 
even in the brilliant fiction of Russia. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

A NEW novel by Mr. Marion Crawford, 
entitled The RaUions, will be published next 
week by Messrs. Maemillan & Co., who will 
also issue Miss Edgeworth's Castle Rachrent 
and The Absentee, forming together the first 
volume of the new series of "Illustrated 
Standard Novels." 

Among the other books to be issued by 
Messrs. Maemillan next week are The Politics 
of Aristotle, a revised text, with introduc- 
tion, analysis, and commentary, by Prof. Franz 
Susemihl, of Greifswald, and Mr. E. D. 
nicks, of Trinity College, Cambridge; and a 
new book by Mr. W. Warde Fowler, entitled 
Summer Studies of Birds and Books. Mr. 
Fowler deals, among other subject?, with birds 
in Wales, the marsh warbler, wagtails, and 
birds' songs. The volume is akin to the same 
writers' "Tales of the Birds" and "A Year 
with the Birds." 

Mr. p. Madan has been long engaged in 
the compilation of a "Summary Catalogue of 
Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford which have not hitherto been cata- 
logued in the Quarto Series." Vols. i. and ii. 
will consist of a new edition of the Old 
Catalogue of Bodleian MSS., by Dr. E. Bernard 
and others, published in 1G97 ; vol. iii. 
(collections received during the eighteenth 
century) will be issued immediately; and the 
work will extend to six volumes in all. Among 
collections and correspondence summarised in 
the forthcoming volume are those of Graba, 
Hody, Richard Rawlinson, Cherry, Bernard, 
Hearne, Thomas Smith, Thomas Carte, John 
Walker, Ballard, Browne Willis, and other 
eighteenth century scholars. Many of them 
are of considerable interest for the general 
history of Great Britain, and for colonial and 
foreign topography, as well as for the history of 
many branches of learning. 

Messrs. Methuen will publish immediately 
a biography of Archbishop Laud, by the Rev. 
W. II. Hutton, of St. John's College, Oxford, 
the official guardian of the Laudian relics there. 
He has been able to give much interesting 
matter which has never been published before. 

Me. Page, of Charterhouse, is completing his 
edition of Horace's Odes in Messrs. Maemillan & 
Go's " Classical Series " by adding those of the 
Epodcs which are suitable for school reading. 
These will be ready in the course of a few 
weeks. Mr. Pago has also undertaken to pre- 
pare for Messrs. Maemillan a complete edition 
of Horace for school use in one volume. The 
commentary will be abridged from his own 
edition of " The Odes and Epodes," from Prof. 
Wilkins' edition of the " Epistles and Ars 
Poetica," and Prof. Palmer's edition of the 
" Satires," which also belong to the " Classical 
Series." 

Mr. Henry Johnston, author of " The 
Chronicles of Glenbuckie " and " Kilmallie," 
has just given the finishing touches to anew 
work, to be entitled Dr. Congalton's Will. 
While this book, like its predecessors, will 
depict the humour and pathos characteristic of 
Scottish country life, it will be diversified by 
several interesting incidents of a romantic 
nature, while the plot is ingenious and com- 
plicated. 

Mr. Bloundelle-Burton's adventure story, 
" The Hispaniola Plate," which is appearing in 
the St. Jam's' s Budget, will be published shortly 
in volume form by Messrs. Cassell & Company. 

A STORY by Mr. Robert Watson, entitled 
Louise Reignier, dealing with criminal life in 
London and Paris, will bo published this month 
by Messrs. Smith, Ainslie & Co. The volume 
will be illustrated with original drawings by 
Mr. Justus Hill. 



Mb. Elliot Stock announces for early 
publication the eighth section of the History of 
the Deanerxj of Bicester, containing an account 
of the parishes of Ardly, Buuknell, Cavers- 
field, and Stoke Lyne. The samo publisher 
will also issue next week The Great Problem : 
Man's Place and Future Work in the 
Universe. 

Dr. Conan Doyle has undertaken to write 
a new series of short stories for the Strand 
Magazine, to be entitled "The Adventures of 
Brigadier Gerard," the hero of which is a 
cavalry officer in Napoleon's Grand Army. 

A NEW serial story, by Mr. Henry Frith, 
entitled " Tracked by Thugs : a Treasure Hunt 
in the Himalaya," will be commenced in next 
week's number of Ghuma. 

Messrs. Brentano, of New York, have just 
issued an edition of Mr. Eric Mackay's Love- 
Letters of a Violinist, and Other Poems, with 
thirty-five full-page illustrations by Mr. James 
Fagan. The work is now in its eleventh 
edition in this country, completing the thirty- 
fifth thousand. Several cheap editions have also 
been published in America by Messrs. Lovell 
and the United States Book Company. 

TuE tendency of the literary borrower is 
amusingly illustrated in the matter of titles. 
There does not seem anything particularly 
likely to attract imitation in the title of 
Raymond's Folly, Yet within thirteen months 
after the appearance of a work under this title 
by Mr. B. Paul Newman, Mr. E. St. John Leigh 
follows his example. Moreover, within a 
year of the publication of Miss Geraldine 
Hodgson's volume of short stories, entitled 
Vignettes, Mr. Aubrey St. John Mildmay makes 
the conceit his own. Bach of the books whose 
titles are. thus " conveyed " was published by 
Mr. T. Fisher Unwin. 

On Tuesday next Prof. C. Stewart will deliver 
the first of a course of twelve lectures at the 
Royal Institution on "The Internal Frame- 
work of Plants and Animals " ; on Thursday 
next Mr. William S. Lilly will begin a course 
of lectures on " Four English Humorists of the 
Nineteenth Century"; and on Saturday Mr. 
Lewis F. Day will deliver the first of three 
lectures on " Stained Glass Windows and Painted 
Glass, from the point of view of Art and 
Craftmanship." 

The annual meeting of the Folk-Lore Society 
will be held in the rooms of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, Albemarle-street, on Wednesday next, 
at 8 p.m., when an address will be delivered 
by the president, Mr. Edward Clodd. Any 
persons interested in folk-lore are invited to 
attend. 

The next meeting of the Library Association 
will be held on Monday next at the St. George's, 
Hanover-square Public Library, Buckingham 
Palace-road, when the library will be described 
and its methods explained by Mr. Prank Pacy ; 
and a paper will also be read on " Delivery 
Stations versus Branches," by Mr. Samuel 
Smith, of Sheffield. 

Next week, Messrs. Sotheby will be selling 
two interesting collections of books. On 
Thursday, the library of Mr. J. 0. Holding, of 
Kingsalere, Hants, which seems to have been 
very carefully formed. The principal subjects 
represented are— the history of the British 
navy ; the relations between Nelson and Lady 
Hamilton; Napoleon; Arctic exploration; and 
the colonisation of South Africa. In belles 
lettres, there are some of the rarest pieces of 
Sbelley ; many first editions of Byron ; Paradise 
Lost, with what is known as the fourth title- 
page ; and Vanity Fair, with the suppressed 
woodcut of the Marquis of Steyne. On Friday 
is to be sold the collection formed by Edmund 
Waterton— the son, we believe, of the naturalist. 



34 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



All sorts of Catholic works are represented, 
both BnglUhand foreign, ancient an<l modern. 
Among the MSS. are an Anliphonalo of the 
fifUenth century, written for the church of 
Choex{.iV) in Switzerland; and a number of 
extraots made by Waterton himself for a 
history of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John 
of Jerusalem. But the great feature of the 
Ubrary is the collection relating to Thomas a 
KemiMS and the De Imilalione. In one lot, there 
are no less than 7G2 printed ediUons and 
translaUons into various languages, besides Ave 
old MSS. and Ruelens' facsimile of the original ; 
in another lot, there are 437 editions. 



UNIVERSITY JOTTINOS. 

Du. J. 8. BuKnoN Sanderson has been ap- 
pointed regius professor of medicine at Oxford, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Sir Henry Acland. Dr. Burdon Sanderson— 
who is a graduate of Edinburgh, and was at 
one time medical officer of health for Padding- 
ton— has held the Waynflete chair of physiology 
at Oxford since 1SS2. 

The Rev. Dr. Magrath, as Vice-Chancellor 
of Oxford, will give a dinner on January 20, to 
celebrate the completion of the "Rulers of 
India," published by the Clarendon Press, 
under the editorship of Sir W. W. Hunter. The 
final volume of the series, which will appear 
immetiiately, is IliisseU Calvin : the Last Lieu- 
tenant of the North-Western Provinces under 
the Company— written by Sir Auckland Colvin, 
who succeeded him in that office under the 
Crown. 

Messrs. Bicuabd Bentley & Son have 
issued this week the first three volumes of their 
new edition of Mommsen's History of Rome, 
based upon the author's latest revisions, which 
will bo completed in two more monthly volumes. 
Prof. Mommsen celebrated his seventy-seventh 
birthday last November. 

At the meeting of the Statistical Society, 
to be held on Tuesday next, at -1.45 p.m., at 
the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn- 
street, Mr. L. L. Price will read a paper— in 
continuation of a former one— on ' ' The Colleges 
of Oxford and Agricultural Depression." 

The Rev. W. D. Macray, of the Bodleian 
Library — who is in years, though not as a 
fellow, one of the oldest members of Magdalen 
—has undertaken the pious task of completing 
the Register of the College, which was begun 
by Dr. Bloxam so long ago as 1853. Dr. 
Bloxam commenced with the choristers, and 
then proceeded to the clerks, chaplains, 
organists, schoolmasters, and ushers. After 
them followed the demies ; but he left the 
presidents and fellows, as such, untouched, nor 
did he include in his scheme the comparatively 
small number of commoners. Therefore, quite 
apart from the circumstance that the list stops 
at 1857, his Register remains incomplete. He 
had, however, made copious collections for the 
biographies of the fellows and others not 
included, and it is on these materials that Mr. 
Macray's work is based. The present volume 
(London : Henry Frowde) covers the period 
from the foundation of the college in 1458 
down to the year 1520. For these early days, 
thfre is no continuous list of admissions in 
existence, so that the names of the fellows 
have, to a great extent, to be gleaned from 
bursars' rolls, batell-books, and other contem- 
porary sources. By far the majority of 
them have not already appeared in Bloxam's 
Register ; for, under Waynfl^te's statutes, 
the demies bad no claim to succoed to 
fellowships. The modem practice to the con- 
trary, which was discontinued in 1851, dates 
only from the time of Elizabeth. Of all the 
fellows here recorded, Mr. Macray gives brief 



biographies, bo far as Bloxam'* collections and 
his own wide knowledge of academical history 
permit But he has not confined himself to a 
mere ca talogue of names. Following Bloxam's 
precedent, he has compiled a series of extracts 
from the early registers and rolls, whioh throw 
a flood of light upon the internal constitution 
of a mediaeval college. We have here printed 
for the first time the deUils of an episcopal 
visitation. The charges made— of immorahty, 
laziness, and quarrelling— are much the same 
as those we are familiar with in the case of 
monasteries; and the offences admitted or 
proved receive equally slight punishment. The 
most curious item is the accusation- brought 
against a priest-fellow, who afterwards became 
Bishop of London— of baptizing the college cat. 
Another entry which will interest Oxford men 
of to-day is that of marmalade as early as 1518. 
Here is a piteous plea of a pupil to his tutor : 

" Master Mullysworth, I wold pray and besytt yow 
that yow wold ba my good mister. For syche 
sere as I lerne, that yow wold sew ytt to me by 
feer mense, and ponys me resnably. Noi» yow 
ponys me hover much, master, and plese yow y 
cannot byd this ponyament. Her at fryst tyme 
yow dyd nottponyae me nott hauffi so much ; then 
I dyd leme more by yowr feyer mense then I doo 
now.'' 

Finally, we may mention that Mr. Macray is 
careful to draw attention to all references to 
books bequeathed to the college library. 



ORIGINAL VERSE. 

AUTUMN SONNETS FROM MY GARDEN. 

A Harvest Prayer. 

A PERFECT August day ! From azure sky 
Pour golden floods of light on hill and dale, 
And where but yesterday the corn gleamed pale, 
To-day 'tis tawny, far as scans the eye ; 
Lo, where rich stretches with dark foliage vie, 
Cresting the slopes or running down the vale. 
While joyful bees riBC, specks of burnished mail, 
And over all the noonday sun stands high. 
Oh, day of Autumn ; th^tdost ripen grain, 
Oh, luscious day ! that colourest the vine, 
Be thou an omen kind and not a vain ; 
Be of a golden harvest thou the sign : 
So long hath toiled and laboured weary man, 
At length incline thee graciously, oh, Pan ! 

The Orchard. 

Pomona reigns ! From russet bough aud tree 
She greeteth us with lipe and ruddy smile. 
Strewing the grass with red and yellow pile : 
Brown pears and streaky apples good to sec. 
Now ladders poise and tremble giddily 
And baskets fill up rapidly, the while 
Close by, you hear the clear and rasping file 
Of some small titmouse, flittmg eagerly. 
Now lend your aid and help each willing hand, 
Until this harvest rich be garnered in, 
Then bare shall be and desolate the land, 
But rich and odorous shelves and rooms within ! 
So shall lush autumn's gonerosity 
Defraud grim winter of his poverty. 

Ml/ Bon/ire. 

A week and over have I tried in vain 

To fire this garden refu'e piled up high, 

But never would it catch nor would it dry, 

Hodden and dank with mist and dews and rain ; 

At last by frost and wind to burn 'tis fain, 

And dense smoke columns twist and shoot awry, 

Suddenly forcing me to turn and fly, 

And then ascending solemnly again. 

And as I watch the eddying swirls of white 

That thickly ooze through haulm and withered 

fctd, 
My thoughts rise idly with the vapaur light, 
Unstable as Is water or is reed. 
Till routing, I bethink me, sad and lone : 
I burn sweet summer that is dead and gone ! 

Kate Fbkilioratu Kuoeker. 



MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS. 
The Expositor for January opens, as was 
fitting, with an article on the subject which 
has already occupied not a few columns of the 
Academy, the Sinaitic palimpsest of the Syriao 
Gospels. Archdeacon Farrar, the writer of 
the article, gives first a most useful summary 
of the facts relative to the codex and to its 
discovery, and next a consideration of the 
question whether the codex contains anything 
which need shake orthodox belief. Dr. Farrar 
only refers to Mr. Charles's first article in the 
Academy in a postscript. A strictly critical 
treatment of the subject in all its bearings 
will have to be sought for elsewhere. Prof. 
E»msay gives a very slight but interesting 
notice of Dr. G. A. Smith's "Historical 
Geography of the Holy Land." To set an 
apologist of tradition to review even a 
" moderate " adherent of what professes to be 
the only true, because the only catholic, critical 
method was hazardous. Dr. Reynolds, of 
Cheshunt, makes a charming contribution, 
called " Ideals and Grace," to the literature of 
edification, which some will prefer to the 
eloquent but less "quiet" sermon- articles of 
Mr. John Watson on the Divine Fatherhood ; 
Prof. G. A. Smith on Pa. xxiii. ; Mr. Selby on 
"Self-possession." Dr. Stalker's short article 
on the " Call of Jeremiah " is almost too slight 
for this fine subject. 

The Theolor/isch Tijdschrift for January returns 
to the question— "Is a dogmatic theology 
possible in our day ? " The writer is I. J. de 
Buney, who adopts the significant heading, 
"Mortuos plango." Dr. Klap begins a bio- 
graphical sketch of Agobard of Lyons. The 
meaning of "Son of Man" in the Gospels is 
once more discussed by Dr. Eerdmans. C. O. 
Chavannea makes valuable critical suggestions 
on Matt. vii. 7-11. Dr. Gort reviews Nowack's 
"Hebrew Archaeology," and expresses a favour- 
able opinion of Roster's revolutioaary work on 
the history of the post-Exilic period ; the same 
work is reviewed at length by Dr. H. Z. 
Elhorst. Dr. L. Knappert notices a popular 
work by Devantier on the myth of Siegfried. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
the new syriac codex. 

Belfast : Jan. 1, 1S95. 

The fact that eight out of twenty-four MSS. 
(of the Latin New Testament) begin v. 18 Uteris 
capitalibits vel ruhriratis has not the significance 
which Prof. Nestle supposes. In the first place, 
they are all MSS. of Jerome's Latin translation, 
and prima facie merely evidence of what was in 
that translation. Now it would be something to 
prove that Jerome rejected the genealogy in 
Matthew ; but, unfortunately for Prof. Nestle 
and Mr.Charles, Jerome in his prologue expressly 
states that Matthew began his Gospel with the 
pedigree; and, from his very positive utterances 
on this point, we may almost infer that the 
Hebrew Matthew, which he had read and 
translated, and regarded as in some way the 
original of the Greek Matthew, also began with 
the pedigree. Secondly, all these eight MSS., 
except one, contain, according to Mr. White, 
their learned editor, an inferior tradition of the 
Vulgate text ; and at least four of them belong 
to a single family, and so constitute but one 
witness. , , ,„ i 

The two MSS. which at v. 18 have 
the Scholium " incipit Evangelium secundum 
Mattheum " are also of the Vulgate only, and 
not of the older Italian Versions, whose evidence 
alone is worth considering on such a point. 
" In this phenomenon we find a survival mainly 
unconscious of the primitive form of the 
First Gospel," writes Mr. Charles. Not at 
all ; and Mr. Charles's own previous letter ex- 



I 



Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



35 



plained the phenomenon. For he proved that 
the earliest Latin Version, like the earliest 
Syriac, gave v. 16 in the form: "Joseph . . . 
begat Jesus." Now, some early Latin scribe, 
conscious of the awkwardness of such a 
reading, tried to discount it by prefixing to 
V. 18 the Scholium in question ; though he did 
not venture, like the later Latin and Greek 
scribes, to/ 'deliberately correct " V. 16. Thus, 
if anything at all survives in these Vulgate 
MSS., it is the memory of this primitive 
attempt to evade a difficulty, which once more 
after so many centuries of acquiescence in and 
defence of the " deliberately corrected " text is 
beginning to press upon our orthodox con- 
temporaries. 

I judge from Mr. Charles's letter that I was 
not explicit enough in regard to Justin 
Martyr's use of the genealogy of Joseph as 
given in Matthew. My argument was this : 
that this very genealogy is attributed by Justin 
not to Joseph, but to Mary ; and that the only 
explanation of this fact is, that some believers 
in the interests of the doctrine of the virginity 
of Mary had already constructed before 
Justin's day an apocryphal Gospel or harmony 
of the Gjspels in which, by a pious fraud, 
Joseph's pedigree was transferred to Mary. 
This apocryphal document I supposed Justin 
to have used. Mr. Charles calls this argument 
a volte-face, and asks (p. 556): "Was Mr. 
Conybeare conscious that he here conceded all 
that I originally maintained P" If Mr. Charles's 
original position was that which he re-affirms, 
in the Acadeji y of December 29, in these words : 
" I have shown above that Justin Martyr had no 
such genealogy as i. 1-17 before him," then I 
certainly did not concede it, nor can I concede 
it now. For the accident of the pedigree 
being assigned by Justin to Mary does not — 
as Mr. Charles imagines — make it "essentially 
different" from the same pedigree as we find 
it in Matthew. Such difference of attribution 
is a mere accident— an accident, moreover, 
which clinches my argument that it is much 
older than Justin. For it proves that, when 
he wrote his Dialogue with Tryphon, time 
enough had elapsed for the partisans of the 
dogma of the miraculous conception to produce 
apocryphs in which the pedigree was removed 
from its proper context to one which better 
suited the later development of opinion. The 
question at issue between Mr. Charles and 
myself was whether it was as old as Justin and 
whether he had it or not. If he had it, but 
had it as Mary's, then the value of his 
testimony, though indirect, to Matt. i. 1-1" 
is enormously increased, and his version of 
the story presupposes the Canonical beginning 
of Matthew, just as the Protevangelium 
presupposes it. Unless Mr. Charles is pre- 
pared to argue that the original form of the 
Gospel was orthodox, and gave the pedigp-ee to 
Mary, and that heretics after Justin's age cut 
in and assigned it to Joseph, I do not see how 
he can escape such a conclusion. The only 
other reply is one which he does not attempt — 
namely, that Mary's pedigree, as Justin knew 
it, was an entirely different list of names to 
that which we have in Matt. i. 1-17. If so, 
it Js almost a miracle that, so far as Justin 
quotes it, it should closely agree with the list 
in Matthew. 

I am away from my books, and do not know 
which edition of Otto's Justin Martyr I possess. 
However, if his third edition lacks so pertinent 
a note as that which I cited in my letter of 
Dfcember 8, then I am glad that I possess an 
earlier or later edition, whichever mine may be. 

Mr. Charles flatters me by saying that "in 
exegesis I exactly recall the great Alexandrian " 
(Philo). I'hilo, however, nowhere attempts to 
explain philosophically any Jewish belief as a 
metaphor or spiritual truth materialised, and 
80 degraded, by liiii countrymen into a pseudo- 



historical narrative. My method has therefore 
nothing in common with his. I hope that, in 
the future criticism of my position which Mr. 
Charles kindly promises, he will see this, and 
see also that my letter in your issue of 
Saturday, December 22, was a mere supplement 
to my two former ones — was in no way a with- 
drawal of my theory, as stated in them, but 
merely a fuller exposition of it. 

I am afraid that the statement of Mr. Charles 
that " Christianity came forth . . . from 
Palestinian Pharisaism" may require some 
qualification, in view of such texts as " Woe 
unto you. Scribes and Pharisees," and of many 
other denunciations of the Pharisees familiar to 
every reader of the Gospels. However, I have 
no doubt that, if we had reliable contemporary 
writings of the Palestinian Pharisees, as we 
have of the Alexandrine Jews, we could fill up 
many gaps in our knowledge of early Christi- 
anity, and add to the many resemblances which 
Eitter {Philo und die Halaclia) has indicated 
between Philo's writings and parts of the 
Talmud. 

One word more about the genealogy in con- 
nexion with Tatian. Mr. Charles argues that 
because Tatian retains the anti-Encratite 
statement in Luke ii. 48, " Thy father and 
I have sought thee sorrowing," it is idle to 
urge that his omission of the genealogies is due 
to his Encratite views, Irenaeus, Jhowever, 
declares that Tatian was set against marriage 
as no better than fornication ; and even if we 
do not accept this as an explanation of his 
omission of the pedigrees, we are still very rash 
if we argue that they were wanting in his copyof 
the Gospels. Prof. Zahn does not accept the 
Encratite explanation, yet he entertains no 
dotibt whatever but that the genealogies were 
in Tatian's copy. I believe scholars are 
beginning to recognise that Tatian, in com- 
piling his Harmony, used the Curetonian 
version of the Gospels, which in turn rested on 
the New Syriac. Now both the Curetonian and 
the New Syriac contain these genealogies. 
How then could Tatian's copy lack them ? 
Nothing is more improbable. 

Mr. Charles thinks that an early third cen- 
tury attempt to get rid of the genealogies as 
fictitious "was squashed by the orthodox 
literalist Africanus." But Eusebius' narrative 
hardly warrants such a statement. Origen 
informs us that, long before Celsus made fun 
of the inconsistent genealogies (in A.d. 170-180, 
at latest, and probably 150-160), several 
orthodox Christians had written books to 
reconcile them with one another ; and ho blames 
Celsus for not taking account of these 
reconciliations. I think that Africanus' work 
was merely of a class with those here indicated 
by Origen ; whose statement is important as 
proving that, already before Celsus wrote, 
these genealogies were so firmly established in 
the Gospels that orthodox Christians, so far 
from seeking to dislodge them, wrote treatises 
to harmonise them. What better proof of their 
antiquity can one desire ? 

I agree with Mr. Charles's concluding 
remarks as to the worthlessness as history of 
these pedigrees. That does not, however, 
diminish thtir value as evidences of an early 
stage of Christian opinion in which Jesus was 
regarded as the natural son of Joseph. "The 
genealogy can only have originated in a mind 
steeped in rabbinical conceits," says Mr. 
Charles. So I think; and for that reason I 
attribute its incorporation in the First Gospel, 
not to the late second century, when the 
Church had lost its taste for "rabbinical 
conceits," especially for heretical ones; but 
to an earlier phase of the religion, when it 
was still mainly Jewish, and when the first 
condition of Jesus' being recognised as the 
Christ was that He should be shown to be by 
descent a son of David. The leading aim of 



the writer of the First Gospel is to exhibit this 
Messianic aspect of Jesus, who is therefore 
apostrophised in it, even by the evil spirits, as 
"Thou Son of David." Hence it is that critics 
and commentators of every school have hitherto 
recognised the peculiar fittingness of Matthew's 
pedigree as preface of his Gospel. Nor did 
Prof. Nestle or anyone else question its 
authenticity, until Mrs. Lewis's fortunate dis- 
covery suddenly revealed beyond question its 
heretical character. And Prof. Nestle is not 
out of the wood even when he has out down 
the family tree ; for the other awkward 
readings of the New Syriac in Matt. i. 18-25 
remain behind. These other readings can 
hardly be the work of an enemy, as Prof. R. 
Harris hastily supposes; for in Luke ii. 36, 
and elsewhere, perhaps even in Matt. i. 25, 
the New Syriac bears unmistakable traces of 
having passed through Encratite hands. If 
this be so, it is incredible that the readings 
in vv. 18-25 should be anti-Encratite addi- 
tions ; for if they survived the Encratite ordeal, 
it can only have been because they were in the 
text from the first. 

In a future issue I hope to be allowed to 
answer some of the strictures made on my 
views in the current number of the Expositor 
by Archdeacon Farrar. 

Fbed. C. Cokybeare. 



BAOINBtJN, FETHARD, AND CAREW. 

BrooUands : Jan. 1, 1895. 

Having made a careful study of various 
rubbings, drawings, and photographs of the 
inscriptions at Baginbun and Pethard in 
Ireland, and Carew in Pembrokeshire, with 
which I have been favoured through the kind- 
ness of Col. Vigors, I am convinced that my 
doubts regarding the first of the three — founded 
on imperfect information, and too hastily ex- 
pressed in a former letter (Academy, Oct. 13, 
1894) — were altogether groundless ; and in repa- 
ration of a regretted mistake I now ask leave to 
offer some remarks on the whole subject, tend- 
ing, I hope, towards a decipherment of those 
remarkable legends. 

Mr. Maoalister (Academy, Nov. 10, 1891) has 
given it as his opinion that the Carew and 
Pethard inscriptions are "practically identical," 
and that the " Baginbun and Castle inscrip- 
tions have more than a superficial identity." 
This I entirely accept. But it seems to me that 
we may venture a step further ; and my present 
object is to show reason for thinking that all 
three of the inscriptions are identical, or, at 
least, are intended to convey an identical mean- 
ing. In the absence of diagrams from the 
originals, I have tried to make my remarks 
intelligible by tentatively transliterating the 
three inscriptions and tabulating them together 
in that form, each letter with its own number 
beneath. For present purposes, I have divided 
the words by using initial capitals, though no 
such distinctions are to be found in the original 
legends. As a working hypothesis, I assume 
(what I will endeavour to show) that the in- 
scriptions aro practically identical, and may be 
used to interpret one another ; that the Bagin- 
bun inscription, which is the fullest, is the 
earliest ; that the Fethard inscription, once 
nearly identical with the former, comes next ; 
that the Carew inscription is the latest ; and 
that subsequently to its appearance the Fethard 
inscription was altered, so as to assimilate it tD 
that at Carew. 



Baginbun : L— M 



a 


q 


a 


1 


t 


3 


A 


5 


11 


7 


u 


t 


Q. 





n 


10 


11 


12 


13 


It 



a t h 



gh 



36 



THE ACADEMY 



[Jah. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



wtCTumoKi— (nwHuw**). 



Frt^aH : 



M 

1 



O 

li 



Came 



e 

7 

e 

14 

M 

1 

e 

r 



13 



n 

6 

t 

19 



e 



t 

» 

. t 
P • 

t 
» 

t 

u 



O 

4 
P 



gh 



O 

4 



P 

10 



e 

16 



y 

17 



Analysis of tub Lettees. — Baginhm 
Imcrijiion. — No. 1, L. Compare sirailsrly 
formed L beginutug early Irish iiijcriptton 
" Lie Coltira s . .," at Oallarus. Z would 
Mem to be meaningless. No. 2, M. Preceded 
by an oblique stroke, to mark abbreviation 
and division. No. 3, A. No. 4, Q. Mr. 
Nicholson thus reads the letter, and in the 
present inscription it seems to be so. No. 5, O. 
Nos. U, 7, I, T. Similar combinations of I and 
T are found in numerous examples. The letters 
corresponding to Nos. o, G, 7 are undoubtedly 
Q I T in the Fethard and Carew inscriptions. 
No. 8, I. Damaged, but apparently I. If not, 
perhaps II ? Peculiar to this inscription. 
No. 9, E. Occurs in Pictish (?), Welsh, and 
Irish inscriptions {e.g., Fercus, Guergoret, 
Fintan), and must be E, or a modification of 
it. No. 10, U. No. 11, T. Could hardly be 
anything else. No. 1 2, Q. Same letter as No. 2. 
If not U, it must be F, Ph, or P. It is said to 
appear as F in early Anglo-Saxon M8S. (Astle, 
Or. of Wr., J). 97). Not known to me in any 
ancient Irish or British lapidary inscription. 
No. \:i, B. No. 14, N. Unrepresented in the 
other inscriptions. Slightly differs from No. 1, 
and might be L, but could hardly be 7, ; seems 
to be N set on end. No. lo, Q. Corresponds 
with C in Carew inscription. No. 16, E. The 
bir does not quite cross the circle, but this 
seems unimportant— c/. similar position of bars 
in round E's in the other inscriptions, and see 
examples at St. Vigeans, &c. No. 17, T. Per- 
haps D, but T corresponds with Carew and 
Fethard, and seems more likely. No. 18, H. 
A peculiar form. It resembles A reversed, but 
can hardly be so here, nor can it be the Kunic 
K. Is the point beneath it significant ? No. 
19, T. The tail is curled up into a circle, which 
teems a tendency in this inscription (see Nos. 
J, 17, 22). Nos. 20, 21, I, E. Mr. Nicholson 
thus reads the compound letter. It corresponds 
with E in the Carew inscription, and with what 
Beems to be E in the Fethard inscription. No. 
22, OH. Hard to determine, but Mr. Nichol- 
son's rendering seems most probable. Fethard 
is here f q aally difaoult, and Carew gives an 
apparent Y. 

Carew Inhcription.' — Most of the letters are 
unmistakable, only Nos. 3, 10, 17 leaving room 
f..r doubt. Nos. 3, 10, P. The import of the 
angled form at the back of No. .3 is uncertain ; 
might it mark an aspiration approximating P 
to Ph? This projection is absent in No. 10. 
Both have been read as E ; No. 10 might per- 
haps be 80, but not probably, to judge by 
situation and analogy ; this equally applies to 
No. 3, which moreover shows too long a tail, 
besides having an inappropriate back angle. 
Toe corresponding letteri at Baginbun and 
Fethard could not represent R. No. 17, Y. 
Beneath a well-defined Y appears an npourvcd 
form, which must have some significance. If 

* I take the Carew iosotiplloa from a drawing 
and rubbing by Mr. Romilly Allen. Scni? of the 
letters— notably Nos. .i, 10, 15, Ki, 17— diftcr from 
those in Hubncr's fni. Chr. and Wcstwood's Lnp. 



the last letters of the other inscriptions are 
rightly read GH, it seems possible that this 
curve denotes an aspiration, modifying the 
pronunciation of Y into some such sound as 
Yeh, which would resemble the Baginbun and 
Fethard legh. 

FHlurd Inecriplion. — As previously stated, I 
assume that this inscription was at first nearly 
identical with the Baginbun inscription, but 
was afterwards altered in order to assimilate it 
to that at Carew. My reasons for thinking s } 
will appear in course of the analysis. This 
inscription, it may be noted, is less symmetri- 
cally arranged than the others, two of its 
letters (Nos. 13, 18) projecting on either side 
beyond the rough parallelogram occupied by 
the rest of the legend. Nos. 1 , 2, M, A. Cor- 
respond with forms at Carew. No. 3, P (Ph ?). 
Resembles No. 4, Q at Baginbun, but the top 
is slightly fiattened and slightly projected at 
right, approximating it to the subsequent No. 
10. Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, G I TBUT, closely 
resemble the corresponding letters at Carew. 
In Baginbun there is an additional letter here, 
viz., I (or H ?) preceding the E. No. 10, P. 
At the back of the head there are uncertain 
traces, which may be the remains of a form 
matching that behind the head of No. 3 at 
Carew. No. 12(?). Two firm horizjntal strokes, 
answering in place to No. 14, N, at B.iginbun, 
but having no counterpart at Carew. Faint 
markings appear above these well- defined 
strokes (though no trace of a third parallel 
score) ; but these hardly seem significant, and 
I incline to think that the strokes represent an 
abbreviation, caused by the erasure of a letter 
once correspondent to No. 14, N, at Baginbun. 
No. 13, C. This outstanding letter is much 
damaged, and thero are slight indications of a 
vertical line between the horns of the C, sug- 
gesting a minuscule Q; bat Mr. Du Noyer's 
drawing, of some thirty years ago, shows the 
letter as C. Nos. 14, lo, E, T, as at Carew. 
No. 10, T. Preceding this letter there is a space, 
occupied by a point, which exactly leaves room 
for a form equivalent to No. 18 (H ?) at Bagin- 
bun. No. 17, E. This letter, which matches 
No. IC, E, at Carew, resembles the right-hand 
part of the compound form Nos. 20, 21, I, E, 
at Baginbun, with the end of the loop re- 
moved. A space, occupied by a point (or two 
points ?) appears where the left-hand part of 
the Baginbun compound form should be. 
Neither here, however (as I am informed by 
Col. Vigors), nor between Nos. l.J and 16, are 
any clear traces of erased letters visible on the 
stone ; but this eignifies little, for the erasures 
may have been originally complete, or time 
may have removed the slight vestiges of an 
imperfect deletion. No. 18, GH. Like No. 13, 
this curious letter stands outside the rest. 
Moderate changes on its forms would assimilate 
it to the final letters at Baginbun and Carew : 
additions in the former case, subtractions in 
the latter. 

Analysis of the Words. — Bag. : L. Abbre- 
viation for Lie stone. Comparelrishinscriptions, 
" Lie Colum . . ." and " Lie Lugnaedon . . ." 
(M. Stokes, Chr. Ins. ii., pi, v., vi). This 
letter does not appear at Carew and Fethard. 
The oblique line that follows approaches the 
next letter, but forms no part of it, and pro- 
bably marks contraction and division. Dag. : 
M A Q ; Cur., Felh. : M A P (M A P H ?) = son. 
Jkig. .■ G I T I E U T ; Cur., Feth. ; G I T E U T; 
a proper name. Compare " Gideo " (Ware- 
haiu, Dorset) in " Catgug ic fius Gideo[ni3 ?] " 
— (Hiibnor, Int. Ur. Chr., No. 32). Bag. : 
Q E N =^ Ceann, Cenn, &c. (/r.), Quien [Arm.) ; 
head, chief. Oar. ; P E ; Feih. : P E =- ; for 
Pen, Penn (I1W.) = head, chief. At Cirew 
the final N— once perhaps represented by a 
now effaced contraction mark — is entirely 
absent. I admit the difficulty, and would ask 
whether there is any precedent for such an omis- 



sion, or if possibly the spelling indicates some 
local pronunciation :- In analogy with Bagin- 
bun, N (or at least some letter) ought to be 
there ; and at Fethard we find in its place a sig- 
nificant gap, marked with two arbitrary scores. 
Dag.: QETHTIEGH; Car.: CETTEY(H?); 
Ftth. .• C ET . T . E Y ( H ?). A tribal, family, or 
official designation. A similar name occurs in 
an Ogam inscription at Bullinrannig, Kerry — 
" Maqqi Qettia," regarding which Mr. Brash 
wrote as follows: "The name probably reads 
Cetti, as Q is frequently used for C. We find 
Ccat ... in the prehistoric period as Cat . . . 
Caette and Caetti in Mart. Don., pp. 284, 375, 
The Catti were a tribe of North Britain " (Og, 
Mon., p. 209). A tribe in Somersetshire were 
also designated Catti or Cassi. The tribal 
names in question, and many proper names 
beginning with Cad or Cat, are no doubt con- 
nected with Cad(rri?Z.), Cath (ffaeZ.) = battle, 
fight ; Cathach {(Jael.) — a warrior. The two 
final words in each of the present inscriptions 
may perhaps be linked together — Qen-Q^th- 
tiegh, Pe(n)-C>ittey — and held to signify either 
(I) Chief of the Cetti or Cdtti tribe or family ; 
or (2) Chief of the warriors, analogously with 
such words as Ceann-cinnidb, Pen-cenedi 
{Gael., Wei.). Chief of a family; or as Gaelic 
Ceann-cheud, Chief of a hundred (centurion), 
and Welsh Pen-cun, Chief leader, Pcn-obyngor, 
Chief counsellor. 

The whole legend would thus translate: — 
[Stone] of Mac-Giteut, Chief of the Catti— or. 
Chief of the Warriors. 

SOUTHESK. 



OGHAM INSCaiPTIONS IN IRELAND. 

CamlirlJge : .Tan. 7, issri. 
I am sorry to find that so eminent an authority 
as Cinon Barry has so much fault ti find with 
ray reading?. I am also sorry that he detects in 
them signs of hurry ; for thousfh I should have 
been glad of more time in the Kilkenny Museum, 
I certainly thought I gave adequate time to the 
Kilgrovane Stones. The method of locomotion 
which I employed was the same as the CanonV, 
and the kind hospitality of the farmer on whose 
lands the stones are to be seen relieved me 
of anxiety concerning the dinner-hour. The 
weather, light, and shadows were all that could 
be desired ; and, moreover, as I was uuaware that 
anyone had made an intelligible reading of this 
difficult text before my own attempt, I gave 
especial cire to it ia the belief that I was 
breaking new ground. 

It is evident thit Canon Barry has read the 
inscription in the usual manner, starting from 
the let'c-hand angle. I should certainly have 
followed the same course, had I not noticed the 
word nuiqi near the top of the left-hand angle, 
running downwards. The points of divergency 
between Canou Barry's reading aud mine can be 
best shown by setting my transcript under his, 
placing corresponding letters together. I have 
written myown reading inverselyand retroversely, 
in order to fiicilitate comparison : — 



i>jao/ 



EI 



/maqiI / OCOID 
\ NA / \[lCOrIQ] 



}-(.U 



Here are four points in which our readings 
differ more or less widely. I should like to 
make a few remarks on each. (I.) I came to 
the stone expecting (on Mr. Brash's authority) 
to find r here. I cannot remember now 
what the exact appearance of the group 
is; bat I must have seen something which 
induced me to alter this preconceived notion, 
and instead of a group of five stem-crossing 
digits to find three such scores followed by two 
vowel-poiuts. (II.) Here (i.) I cannot under- 
stand how I came to overlook an m umid such a 
forest of vowel-points ; (ii.) I do not know how 



I 



Jan. 12, 1895.— Wo. 1184. | 



THE ACADEMY. 



87 



Canon Barry gets the i of his Afaqi ; (lii.) the q 
of that word does not, I think, depend on this 
angle at all, but is really part of the illegible 
insciiption on the third augle. The two angles 
being close together, there is a little ambiguity 
about the angle to vthich these scores actually 
belong. Mr. Brash has fallen into the same 
trap, but his transcript agrees wilh mine in 
making only four scores here, not five ; and (iv.) 
Canon Barry and all other decipherers seem to 
have missed an obscure group of scores which 
depend at this point from the angle at present 
under discussion. This group consists of five long, 
broad, and very shallow scores on the left-hand 
tide of the angle. 1 was referring particularly 
to this character, when 1 said that the inscription 
could be distinctly read by standing at some 
little distance from the stone. These scores then 
become very clear, especially if the light be 
propitious : they are almost indistinguishable if 
e.xamined too closely. The influence of the 
weather has practically reduced them to mere 
scalings of the surface, slightly deeper than the 
rest. 

(III.) This is in the fractured part of the 
stone, and Canon Barry's reading is, I presume, 
a restoration — at least. 1 could not detect any 
markings in the original stone. I found m, then 
one vowel-point, then nine inches blank, then 
four scores on the left-hand side of the angle : 
Canon Barry apparently reads these latter as two 
vowel-points and two scores, and fills in the 
lacuna with ten digits — one to complete the o, 
then four for c, then two for o, then three to 
complete the i. My own restoration only re- 
quires four or five digits, according as Ebrosi or 
Kbrani is preferred ; and, considering the coarse- 
ness of the scores and their wideness apart 
throughout the insciiption, I do not think many 
more digits could be fitted into the space. 

Lastly, at (IV.) a trifling circumstance, which 
I well remember, confirms me in reading Ehr — . 
My first attempt at reading the inscription 
resulted in Era-i, &c. ; but, on revising it, 1 saw 
that the r had apparently six scores. This made 
Jne'examine the letter in question more closely ; 
and it then became clear that the first of these 
scores was really a h, crowded up closely to the 
initial digit of the r. 

The variations between Canon Barry's reading 
of the Kilbeg inscription and mine are more 
serious, and to me inexplicable. Notwithstand- 
ing the darknef s of the corner in which the stone 
lies, I felt pretty safe at least about Bivodon 
vinroi, 

I suppose Canon Barry does not accuse me of 
copying the Dunbell inscription over-hastily, as 
his reading and mine only differ by a single 
score. The more I think over his most in- 
genious treatment of this inscription, the more I 
like it ; the only objections to which it could 
possibly be open are that, in the present state of 
the stone, it appears to read from the top down- 
wards, and that the points of the vowel which he 
resolves into oa are too nearly equidistant for 
such treatment. With regard to the additional 
.score at (what I considered) the extreme end, if 
I have missed it I err in good company, as Mr. 
Brash and Sir Samuel Ferguson both give c here 
—the latter so little contemplated the possibility 
of the final letter containing five scores that he 
trimmed his paper mould (which is now in my 
possession) close up to thefomth digit : it there- 
fore, unfortunatelv, gives us no assistance. On 
the other hand, if there be only four scores, it 
would suit Canon Barry's reading equally well : 
the Bilhntaggart Suvallm would then probably 
have something to say. 

K. A. S. Macalister. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. 

SusBAY. Jan. 13, 4 pm. Sunday Lecture : "Life in Aoe- 
tralia," by Mr. Oswald Brown. 

7.80 p m. El Ii-:cal ; •• The EToIution of Biligion," by 
Mr. B. Bosarqntt. 
KosDAV, Jan. ]4, 6 p.m. Lnndon Ins'itntion : " The Use of 
the BupernatuiBl in Ait." by Mr. Wjke Btyliss. 

8 pm. Hojal Aeaaemy : •'Ihe DeTelojm^nt of 
Italiin A»t," III., b/ Mr. J. K. Holgson. 

8 pm. Library Asarciation : 'The Et. Q^o^fh't, 
Hanovtr-fquare, libiar, ," by Mr. Frank Paey; ■' De- 
li veiySta' ions vnniis Branches," by Mr. Fasiuel Smilh. 

H p m. Socitty of Arts : Cantor Lecture, "The Arc 
Light," I., by Prof. Silvanus Thompson. 
Tuesday. Jtn. 15, 3 pm. Hoyal loatitution : "The In- 
ternal Fiaicewjik of Plants and Anima's," I., by Prjf. 
C. Stewart. 

4 p.m. Asiatic: " A Cilleotion of MoJels of Imple- 
ments, Utenti's. Weapons, &c., from Chutia Nagiur," by 
Mr. Hugh Baynhird. 

4.45 p m. Statistical ; "The Colleges of Oifo:d and 
igricultural Depresf ion," ' by Mr. L. L. Pjice. 

8 p.m. Civil EoginEcrs: Discussion, "M-untain 
Hailvays." 

8 30 p.m. Ziolrgical: "Some Foraminifera ob- 
tained by th-i Rojal Indian Marine Surrey's es. Investi- 
gator, from th-s Arabian Saa neir ihe Laccadive Islands," 
by Mr. Frederick Chapmsn ; "Enumeration of the 
Hemiptera-Homoptera of the Island of St. Vincent, 
W.I.," by Mr. V. E. Uhler; "A New Species of the 
Family Ccccidne bslonginj; to a Gems ne» to; the Fauna 
of the Nearotio E "gion," by Mr. T. D. A. Ccckerell. 
Wedsesdav, Jan. 16, 7.30 p m. Meteorological: Aimnal 
General Meeting: Report of Council, Election of 
OtBoers, Address by the Prrsident. Mr. E. Inirards ; 
"The Gale cf D^-cembar 21— 2J, l£9t, over the British 
Isles," by Mr. C. Harding. 

8p.m. Entomolcgicsl : Annual Meeting: Ejection 
of OlKwrs, A'dress by the President, " Recant Contribu- 
tions to our Knowledge of the Geographical Dietiibntion 
of Lepidoptera." 

8 pm. Microscopical: A nnual Matting : Addressby 
the President. Mr. A. D. Michael. 

8 p.m. Folk-L?re: Addieis by the President. Mr. 
Edward Clodd. 

8pm. Society of Arts: "C mmerdal Synthesis of 
Illuminating Hydrocarbons," by Prc^f. Vivian L-.wes. 
TuiRSDAY, Jan. 17, 3 p m. Rajai Institution : "FourEog- 
li'h Humorists of the Nineteenth Century," I., by Mr. 
W.S. Lilly. 

4.30 p.m. Scdety of Arts: "The Lushaia and the 
Land they live in." by Capt. John Shakcspear. 

6 pm. L-ndon Institution: " Ntrvea anl Nerve 
Centres in Action." by Mr. H. Power. 

8 p.m. Roral Academy : "The Development of 
Italian Ait,' IV., by Mr. J. E. Hodgson. 

8 p.m. Linnean ; " Vatialion in the Floral Symme- 
try of /'o('rn(,I(a tiBi Tormeniilla (Neoker),I.— theModesof 
Variation," by Mr. A. G. Tateley ; " Some Variations in 
the Number of Stamens and Carpels," by Mr. J. H. 
Burlill. 

8 pm. Chemical: "Acid Sulphate of Hydrnxyla- 
mine." by Dr. Divers; "Mercury and BismnUi Hypo- 
phosfhites," by Mr. 8. Hada ; " Kamala," III , by Mr. 
A. O. Periin. 

8.30 p m. Historical . 
8 30 p.m. Antiquaries. 
Friday, Jan. 18, 9 p.m. Boyal Instilution : "Phosphor- 
escence and Phot >gTaT)hio Action at the Temperature 
of Boiling Liquid Air," by Prof. Dewar. 
?ATi'BDAY, Jan. 19. 11 a m. Asscciaticnfor the Improvement 
of GeometticU Ti'aching : General Meeting. 

8 pm. Royal Institution : 'Stained Glass Windows 
a&d Painted Glass," I., by Mr. Lewis F. Day. 



SCIENCE. 

" BiBLiOTUKQUE BE Cab-VBAS." — A Philo- 
logical Unsay Concerning the Ptgmies of the 
Ancients. By Edward Tyeon, M.D., 
F.ES,, 1G99. With an Introduction 
by Prof. B. C. A. Windle. (David 
Nutt.) 

Tni.?, the latest volume of the " Bibliotheque 
de Carabas," forms a very important con- 
tribution to the Bciences of ethnology and 
folklore. The book is almost equally 
divided between the reprint of Tyson's 
pamphlet and the editor's Introduction, 
of which the latter is vastly the more 
interesting:, although the former contains 
much that is deserving of consideration. 
Who Dr. Tyson was is explained in the 
Introduction ; wherein it is stated that the 
essay now reprinted formed a supplement to 
his Anatomy of a Pygmie, which " pygmie," 
it appears, was no other than a certain 
chimpanzee whose skeleton may yet be seen 
in the Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington. And the argument advanced 



by Tyson is that " the pygmies, the cyno- 
cephali, the satyrs and sphinges of the 
ancients, were either apes or monkeys, and 
not men, as formerly pretended." This, 
however, says Prof. Windle, is a theory 
which has been demolished by the dis- 
coveries of the present century. ' ' We now 
know not merely that there are pigmy 
races in existence, but that the area which 
they occupy is an extensive one, and in the 
remote past has without doubt been more 
extensive still." 

The firot two sections of the Introduction 
contain a comprehensive survey of the 
various dwarfish races known to science, 
and the editor endeavours, with much skill 
and success, to indicate the tribes that may 
reasonably be regarded as the descendants 
of the pigmies spoken of by classical 
writers. He shows, moreover, that Tyson, 
in his eagerness to prove that all such 
references denoted apes or monkeys, actually 
shut his eyis to the plain meaning of many 
passages which cannot- possibly be held to 
sustain his argument. Yet, on the other 
hand, it is by no means certain that Tyson 
was wholly wrong. 

As the greater part of tho Introduction 
deals with " the little people of story and 
legend," with the view of considering how 
far such stories and legends owe their 
origin to veritable dwarf races, and as this 
necessitates several references to the writings 
of ^ the present reviewer, it is not inappro- 
priate to discuss this aspect of the question 
in some detail. 

In speaking of dwarfs and pigmies there 
is the initial difficulty of not knowing 
exactly what is meant by these terms, 
especially with regard to stature. But 
Prof. Windle's upward limit of 4 ft. 9 in. 
is a liberal allowance, which cannot justly 
be called in question. With this definition 
in view, then, he proceeds to make various 
observations tending, on the whole, to the 
conclusion that, however applicable to races 
in Africa and Asia, " pigmy " could never 
have been suitably applied to any European 
race. But it will be seen that this general 
argument was found to require modification 
after the text had been in type. At 
p. xxxvii. Prof. Windle observes : 

"Leaving aside for the moment the Lapps 
[whose average male stature he states to be 
five feet], there does not appear to have been 
at any time a really pigmy race in Europe, so 
far as any discoveries which have been made up 
to the present time show." 

On the next page, however, the following 
footnote is added : 

"Since these pages were printed. Prof. Kall- 
mann, of Basle, has described a group of 
Neolithic pigmies as having existed at Schaff- 
hausen. I'he adult interments consisted of the 
remains of full-grown European types and of 
small-sized people. These two races were 
found interred side by side under precisely 
similar conditions, from which he concludes 
that they lived peaceably together, notwith- 
standing racial differences. Their stature 
(abont three feet six inches) may be compared 
with that of the Veddahs in Ceylon. Prof. 
Kollmann believes that they were a distinct 
species of mankind." 

Now, had Prof, Windle been aware of this 
fact before he wrote his Introduction, he 



38 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



would not only have refrained from writing 
the sentence in the text juat quoted, but 
he would also have been inevitably led 
to regard with greater favour than he 
has done the view which identities such 
•' little people " as those of Schaffhausen 
with the dwarfs of tradition. He is 
not, I think, so exacting as to require 
the discovery of dwarf skeletons m every 
district in wliich there are traditions of 
dwarfs before he can admit that the two are 
connected. Granted the former existence of 
pigmies in Switzerland, it is both permis- 
sible and reasonable to assume that they 
had kinsmen in other parts of Europe. 
However, at p. Ixxxix. he observes that " it 
seems clear, so far as our present knowledge 
teaches us, that there never was a really 
pigmy race inhabiting the northern parts of 
Scotland." This, of course, means that 
there is no positive evidence in that direc- 
tion in the shape of skeletons; for Prof. 
Windle is aware of several reasons, founded 
on traditional and semi-historical allusions 
and on induction, which might be held to 
imply the existence of such people in that 
locality. But is it really quite clear that no 
osseous remains have ever been found in 
northern Scotland in corroboration of such 
traditions ? The traveller Martin, who 
wrote about 1703, states that, in a stone 
vault " lately discovered " in the Hebridean 
island of Benbecula, there were found 
•' abundance of small Bones which have 
occasioned many uncertain Conjectures, some 
said they were the Bones of Birds, others 
judge them rather to be the Bones of 
Pigmies." Uean Monro also, who travelled 
through the Hebrides in 1549, asserts that 
he and others had dug up from under 
the floor of "a little kirk" in "the 
Pigmies' Isle" (placed by him near the 
Butt of Lewis) " certain bones and round 
heads of very little quantity [size], alleged 
to be the bones of the said pigmies." I 
have myself examined pretty minutely the 
evidence regarding the bones seen by 
Monro, and undoubtedly it is conflicting. 
That the bones were found is clear ; but 
what they were is wrapped up in a mist of 
contradiction. Still, the fact that in two 
separate parts of the Hebrides, and at two 
different periods, bones assumed in each 
case to be those of pigmies were discovered, 
seems to me a fact that tends considerably 
to qualify Prof. Windle's assertion. Had 
there been a. Kollmann at the Butt of Lewis 
in 1549, or at Benbecula in 1700, it is con- 
ceivable that his decision might have been 
in agreement with that given at Schaff- 
hausen in 1894. 

Still with reference to this detail of 
stature, mention may be made of the state- 
ment (p. xli.) that although the Eskimoes 
are " a people of less than middle stature, 
yet they can in no sense be described as 
Pigmies," in proof whereof is cited Dr. 
Nansen's assertion, based on his brief expe- 
rience in Greenland, that "it is a common 
error amongst us in Europe to think of the 
Eskimo as a diminutive race." But one 
has only to read Dr. Robert Brown's authori- 
tative review of Etkimo Life (Acauemy, 
November A, 1893) to realise that Dr. 
Nanaen'a " Eskimoes " were three-fourths 
European. The great infusion of modern 



Danish blood among the Ghreenlanders has 
been repeatedly referred to by another 
Danish traveller, Mr. Eiis Oarstensen, 
who describes the people of Ritenbank, 
near Disco Island, as "a population of 
predominant Danish extraction " ; although 
they only knew the language and the 
ways of Eskimoes. Of the existence of 
a small type of Eskimo there can be no 
doubt; and, if I mistake not, many of 
these were seen by the Peary Expedition, 
as well as by earlier travellers. Foxe, in 
1631, discovered an island-cemetery in the 
north-western corner of Hudson's Bay, in 
which " the longest corpses were not above 
four foot long " ; whereupon he remarks : 
" They seem to be people of small stature. 
God send me better for my adventures than 
these." And it may be observed in passing 
that this instance alone is not only a con- 
tradiction of Dr. Nansen's statement, but 
it shows that Dr. Brinton (cited at 
p. xxxvii.) is in error in assuming that 
" there is no evidence of any pigmy race in 
America." . 

But although Dr. Nansen's tall "Eski- 
moes " probably owed their height to their 
Danish ancestors, there is nevertheless 
plenty of evidence of the existence of tall 
races in the Arctic regions. For example, 
in the Hakluyt Society's publication for the 
year 1894 there are several interesting 
references to Arctic people of good stature, 
able to throw the best wrestlers among the 
English sailors: the period in question 
being the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies. And a trading-vessel from Flushing, 
visiting Davis Straits in 1C.50, fell in with 
two very distinct types, living together 
in amity — the one a caste of hunters, 
almost quite white, and "very" tall— the 
other a race of fishers, "much smaller," 
short-legged, and of olive complexion. 
Whatever the exact height of these two 
races, the latter were dwarfs to the former ; 
and their existence together, on a friendly 
footing, suggests another point in the 
Introduction. The probability is great— it 
is almost a certainty— that two such races 
would eventually become one. "In many 
places," observes M. de Qaatrefages, " the 
true Pigmies have exercised a certain 
ethnological influence by inter- breeding 
with the superior races, and in thus creating 
half-bred populations." One result of this 
would be that such mixed populations 
would inherit traditions of an intercourse 
between their forefathers and a race of 
dwarfs— really their forefathers also. " The 
stunted races whom Mr. MacEitchie 
considers to have formed the subjects of the 
fairy legend, have themselves tales of little 
people,'" observes Prof. "Windle (p. xcvi.). 
The observation is made as an objection to 
the belief in question; whereas it really 
supports it. 

Turning to another part of the Introduc- 
tion, we find reference made to those 
mounds in the British Isles which are 
traditionally assigned to "the little people." 
Some of these have really proved to be 
mound-dwellings ; others have not. One of 
the places specially referred to (pp. lix., Ix.). 
is the well-known mound at New Grange, 
CO. Meath. This, an undoubted j" hollow 
hill," may be regarded as a tomb or as a 



dwelling, according to individual bias, and 
Prof. Windle favours the former hypo- 
thesis. One of the reasons that lead him 
to this conclusion is that Mr. George 
Coffey, a distinguished archaeologist, 
remarks of certain stone basins found 
within the chamber : " There can be hardly 
any doubt but that they serve! the purpose 
of some rude form of sarcophagus or of a 
receptacle for urns." On the other hand, 
Col. Forbes L°slie observes : " The position 
and appearance of all of them are very 
unlike anything intended for tho reception 
of sepulchral deposits." And Mr. George 
Petrie has remarked of a similar specimen, 
found ii an unmistakable underground 
dwelling at Skaill, in Orkney, that it was 
"probably used as a mortar for rubbing or 
pounding corn." Obviously, the question 
has two sides. The same thing may be 
said with regard to the early references to 
this mound, or to the " Brugh " with which 
it is sometimes associated, sometimes identi- 
fied. To give these references due con- 
sideration is, however, impossible in this 
place ; but it may be said that these are 
complicated and sometimes contradictory, 
and that, as the mound itself has not been 
half investigated, it is perhaps prenaature 
to arrive at a conclusion as to its original 
use. 

The general question of fairy residences, 
very fully discussed by Prof. Windle, is of 
much interest. While a large number of 
places ascribed to " the little people '| are 
veritable souterrains and mound-dwellings, 
yet tradition is often at fault. For example, 
it is said in some places that molehills 
are dwellings of "the little people"— a 
palpable absurdity. Tho explanation of this 
inconsistency, from the euhemeristic point of 
view, is (as rightly stated on p_. xc), " that 
the story having once arisen in connexion 
with one kind of mound, it may, by a pro- 
cess easy to understand, have been trans- 
ferred to other hillocks similar in appearance 
though diverse in nature." If tradition 
were absolutely reliable in this respect, 
archaeologists would have a delightful task 
before them. As it is, something might be 
done with due discretion. When a certain 
"Fairy Knowe," at Coldoch, Perthshire, 
was investigated, it was found to have been 
really a " hollow hill," with its entrance 
way, its central court, and the little rooms 
round the sides where the occupants slept — 
all as it is in the story-books. There is, 
I am told, a similar hillock, also called 
"The Fairy Knowe," on the estate of 
Ochtertyre, a few miles distant. It is not 
unreasonable to assume that, were it opened, 
it would tell a similar tale. So also with 
the " Elf Hillock " at Towie, Aberdeenshire, 
or the "Fairy Knowe," of Pubil, in 
Glenlyon, Perthshire, and its adjacent 
" Sithean Mor," or with many other such 
mounds. 

These are only some of the points sug- 
gested by a perusal of this interesting and 
valuable preface ; and if the reviewer has 
devoted an undue proportion of his space to 
demonstrating that some of Prof. Windle's 
arguments rest upon an unstable foundation, 
it is not that he does not recognise all the 
merit and comprehensiveness of the work. 
David MacKitchie, 



J^. 12, 1895.— No. 1184.1 



THE ACADEMY. 



39 



CORRESPONDENCE, 

" rORTUNA MAIOH." 

B»tton-on-Humb jr. 

Prof. Skeat's interesting letter (Academy, 
Kovember 3, 1894, p. 352) naturally suggests 
the question : How did such a comparatively 
inconspicuous asterism as a, y, tj, C, lid ir 
Aquarii with e Pegasi, come to bear such a 
lofty name ? To understand this we must 
go back to archaic times. 

The Babylonian ' ' Tablet of the Thirty S tars ' ' 
(IF. A. I. V. ilvi., No. 1), which, I think, is 
clearly a lunar zodiac, and (with similar lists) 
the source of all other Asiatic lunar zodiacs, 
begins with the Kakkab Apin ("Star of the 
Foundation " or " Channel "), which, after very 
careful consideration, I have identified with 
Skat (" the Leg," 5 Aquarii), alsD called Sakib 
("the Pourer"). The tablet appears to con- 
template a year beginning at or about the 
winter solstice, like the Boeotian, Delphic, 
Bithynian, and Bravidian (S. India) years. I 
need not refer to the well-known connexion 
between the Babylonian Flood- legend and the 
Aquarius-month ; and I bare shown (Academy, 
July 15, 1893, p. 56) that th§ flood- hero 
Adraxasis is equated with Skat. Aquarius, the 
lucky constellation in which Xisouthros escaped 
destruction and renewed the world, in medieval 
and modern astrology "is deemed a fortunate 
sign." The Euphratean Kakkab Nam-max 
("the Star of Mighty Destiny") is iS Aquarii 
[Sadahund ^ Sa'' d as Suiid, "the Luck-of- 
Lucks," the Arabic name being a translation, 
or, at all events, an echo of the original Akka- 
dian appellation), while o Aquarii is named 
Sadalmelix (" the Lucky-Star-of-the-King "). 
This King is the heiven-god Sar (= An-sar = 
Assur), the patron- divinity of the " Star of the 
Foundation"; and, similarly, Varuna (= Sar, 
by analogy) is the patron-divinity of the corre- 
sponding Indian lunar mansion. 

Such being the character attributed to the 
constellation Aquarius and its prominent stars, 
we may next notice how these Euphratean 
ideas reappear in some of the lunar mansions. 

Lunar Mansion, No. xxiv. (3, i Aquarii) : 
Persian Biinda ("The Foundation"); Arab 
Sa'd as Siii}d{cidemp.); Chinese A'o(" Empty," 
i.e., The Beginning of Things), later Hii, Ilii' ; 
Indian Shraviahtha ("The Most-Glorious"), 
afterwards applied to o, /3, y, and 8 Delphini, 
which are not properly a lunar mansion at all. 

Lunar Mansion, No. xxv. : Persian KahUar, 
a corrupt and abbreviated form of the Avestic 
Shatavafra ("the Hundred-Dwellings'in Aryan, 
= \ Aquarii to 6 Pegasi) ; Sogdian Shawshat 
(i.e., /iaA<-snr reversed. Cf. Adra-xasis, Xasia- 
adra, &c.) ; Khorasmian Ma$htawand (" Pos- 
Bes8ing-Greatness,"Ave8ticmaf<t," greatness"); 
Indian Shatabhishaj = Shatavae/^a ; Chinese (o 
Aquarii and 9 Pegasi) Gut {cf. Akkadian r/i, 
"foundation"), afterwards Wei ("Dangerous- 
Place," because dark ; cf. Akkadian mi, vi, 
Chinese mi, met, "black") Arab (o, y, f, 17 
Aquarii) Sa'd al Akhbiyah (" Luck-with-the- 
Tfnts ") ; and the Foriuna Maior of Dante and 
Chancer. 

Shatavai-'-a in the Avesta is " the powerful . . . 
who pushes waters forward" {Slri'izah, i. 13), 
and " makes waters How down to the 7 Karsh- 
vares [regions] of the earth" {Tir Yast, 9). 
In the Dundahit he is also called Shatavrs, " the 
chieftain of the south," not the west {cf. Bnn- 
dahis, ii. 7 with xiii. 12, and vide Darmcsteter 
in "Sacred Books of the East," vol. xxiii., 
p. 90, note 2). The Euphratean Aquarius was 
connected with local wet weather, as "Baby- 
lonia is still reduced to an impassable marsh by 
the rains of January " (Prof. Sayco, in Trans. 
Soc. Bib. Archaeol. iii. 104) ; but, in the case of 
the derived lunar zodiacs, the mansions do not 
primarily reflect tho weather of the countries 
to which they belong, but original Euphratean 



charactepistics. Hence, Shatavac(;a (not the 
Pleiades, as Prof, de Harlez suggests, Manuel 
de la Langue de V Avesta, p. 206) is watery 
because Aquarius (= Euphratean Ou, a drip- 
ping vase) is watery, both actually every year 
and in the uranographic map. This illustrates 
the curious Avestic phrase, "All the stars that 
have in them the seed of the waters " {Struzah, 
ii. 13, &e.). Shafaivs naturally protects " the 
seas of the southern quarter, just as those on 
the northern side are in the protection of 
Haptokring" {Bundahis, xiii. 12), i.e., the 7 
Wain-stars. The Indian lunar mansion Shata- 
bhishag is also called Shata-tara (" having-a- 
hundred-stars"), which is incorrect in actual 
fact ; but the name may be understood as of 
dignity, i.e., " possessing-mighty-stars " or 
" dwellings "= Fortuna Maior. 

Robert Brown, Jun. 



SCIENCE NOTES. 



The general meeting of the Association for 
the Improvement of Geometrical Teaching will 
be held at University College, Gower-street, on 
Saturday next, at 11 a.m., when the report of 
the council will be read, new officers and 
members will be proposed for election, and Mr. 
G. Heppel will read a paper on " Algebra in 
Schools." At 2 p.m. papers will be read by Dr. 

C. Tayloron " The A.I.G.T. Syllabus of Geo- 
metrical Conies"; by the Rev. J. J. Milne on 
"The Conies of Apollonius"; and by Prof. A. 
Lodge on " Notes on Mensuration." All inter- 
ested in the objects of the association are 
invited to attend. 

The Friday evening meetings at the Royal 
Institution will commence on January 18, 
when a discourse will be delivered by Prof. 
Dewar, on "Phosphorescence and Photo- 
graphic Action at the Temperature of Boiling 
Liquid Air." 

Three scientific societies will hold their 
annual meetings on Wednesday next. At the 
Entomological, the president will deliver an 
address on "Recent Contributions to our 
Knowledge of the Geographical Distribution 
of Lepidoptera," and will exhibit specimens in 
illustration ; at the Royal Microscopical, the 
presidential address will be given by Mr. A. D. 
Michael ; and at the Royal Meteorological, by 
Mr. R. Inwards. 

In accordance with a new regulation of the 
council, the library of the Royal Geographical 
Society will be open to fellows on Saturdays 
until 5 p.m. during the first six months of the 
present year. An assistant will be in attend - 
ance to supply books. 

The publication of Mr. Hutchinson's 
Archii-ea of Surgery, which has lapsed for six 
months, is now being resumed. No. 21, 
which commences vol. vi., will appear in 
a few days, with additional letterpress as well 
as nine plates, and will contain a Chronology 
of Medicine from the fifteenth to the nine- 
teenth century. The publishers will in future 
be Messrs. West, Newman & Co., 54, Hatton- 
garden. 

The Zoological Society of London has just 
issued, through Messrs. Gurney & Jackson, the 
Zoological Record for 1893, being the thirtieth 
volume of that publication. Like the two 
preceding volumes, it has been edited by Dr. 

D. Sharp, of Cambridge, with the help of the 
same staff of recorders. These include, we may 
add, one lady. Miss Florence Buchanan, B.Sc, 
who is responsible for tho department of Vermes. 
A new feature is the list of abbreviations used 
for the titles of Journals, Transactions, &c., 
with indications of the principal libraries in 
which they are to be found. 



PHILOLOar NOTES. 
Prof. Max Muller has recently received 
an address from India, the result of a desire 
among the Pandits, or native Sanskrit scholars, 
to join in the congratulations to him on his 
academical jubilee last August. But during 
the time that has since elapsed, the movement 
has taken a wider form. It now represents 
the gratitude of all tho educated classes in 
India — Mahommedans and Parsis as well as 
Hindus, Rajas and reformers, civil servants and 
European professors — for his lifelong labours 
in editing the Rig- Veda and in bringing out 
the series of " Sacred Books of the East." By 
tnese works they say 

' ' a conviction has been generated and strengthened 
that God's ennobling and elevating truth is not 
the monopoly of any particular race ; and a etrong 
impetus has been given to a unifying movement 
among the religions of the world." 
The address is on parchment, beautifully illu- 
minated. It came enclosed in a silver casket 
of repousso work, in the form of an Indian 
manuscript, having on one side a representation 
of the sun rising above the Himalayas, with the 
Ganges flowing down the mountain, and on the 
top the mystic syllable Om ; and on the other 
side the picture of a sacred bird. 

Darab Dastur Peshotan Sanjana, Pro- 
fessor of Zend and Pahlavi at Bombay, has 
sent to Oxford advance sheets of an excellent 
edition of the Pahlavi translation of the 
Vendidad, prepared with the collation of many 
MSS. which were not at the disposition of the 
former editor. This edition will also possess 
the advantage of copioas notes at the foot of 
the pages, instead of sparse ones at the end of 
the book. Considering tho length of time since 
the first edition was issued, we expect an ad- 
vance upon that production; and this is, in 
fact, presented. 

The next numbers of the " Studia Sinaitica " 
series, published by the Cambridge University 
Press, will be : — V. The Anaphora Pilati in 
Syriac and Arabic ; the Syriac transcribed by 
J. Rendel Harris, and the Arabic by Margaret 
Dunlop Gibson, with translations ; also a short 
and early form of the "Recognitions" of 
Clement in Arabic, transcribed and translated 
by Margaret Dunlop Gibson. VI. Select 
Narratives of Holy Women, as written over the 
Syriac Gospels by John the Recluse of Beth- 
Mari Kaddisha in a.d. 778. No. 1 will contain 
the stories of Eugenia, of Mary who was sur- 
named Marinus, of Onesima, and of Euphro- 
syne, transcribed and translated by Agnes 
Smith Lewis. These throw a vivid light on 
the character of monastic life in its prim", and 
have apparently been the favourite reading of 
the Syriac monks who once formed part of the 
community on Mount Sinai. 

The current number of the Asiatic Quarterly 
Review includes two papers that should attract 
the attention of Orientalists. The one is a 
rythmical and metric version of three Zoroas- 
trian hymns by Dr. L, A. Mills, which opens 
out new possibilities of rendering those ancient 
religious compositions in a style more closely 
approaching the original than the prose trans- 
lations hitherto published. The other is an 
instalment of a new translation of the Yih-king, 
by Prof. C. de Harliez, of Louvain, which pre- 
sents this enigmatical Chinese classic, for the 
first time, in a consecutive, rational form, 
varying considerably from Dr. Legge's transla- 
tion in tho "Sacred Books of the East," and 
also from the late Prof, de Lacouperie's some- 
what rash suggestions. This work will be con- 
tinued in the April and July numbers. 

At the meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
to be held on Tuesday next at 4 p.m., Mr. 
Hugh Rayubird, jun., will show and describe 
his collection of implements, utensils, weapons, 
&c., from Chutia Nagpur. 



40 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 12, 1895.— No. tlU. 



FINE ART. 

OLD MASTERS AT THE ROYAL 
ACADEMY. 
I. 
AoAix we have at Burlington House an exhibi- 
tion of the mcst varied interest, yielding, indeed, 
in attract! *-cne83 to but few of its forerunners, 
although by this time absolute novelties — 
the exhibition being the twenty-sixth of those 
which, in unbroken succession, have been brought 
together in the same place— are few and far 
between. 

Italian art is again this year seen at a certain 
disadvantage, as compared with that of the 
Northern schools, especially the Flemish and 
Dutch, which are represented, as a rule, by 
examples of the liighest class, while the panels 
and canvases ol Italian origin are, with some few 
exceptions, neither in the best condition nor of 
the finest quality. Indeed, the only Italian 
work here to which sapreme rank can be accorded 
is the famous '• Ariosto," by Titian, from Cobham 
— an injured but still an incomparable picture. It 
has here such formidable rivals as the magnificent 
series of portraits by Rembrandt from Grosvenor 
House, and the luminous " Don Bilthasar Carlos," 
a Velasquez of the first water, from the collec- 
tion of the Marquis of Bristol. The English pic- 
tures in the Great Gallery (No. III.) make up an 
uaosnally fascinating display, even when opposed 
to neighbours su dangerous. It must gladden the 
admirer of our great school of portraiture of the 
eighteenth century, to see that the English 
masters, with all their obvious shortcomings as 
regards thoroughness of execution, remain masters 
Btill, though, on the one side of them are Titian 
and Velasquez, and on the other Kerabrandt and 
Rubens. Indeed, for sheer jjower and unity of tone, 
at a certain distance from the beholder, nothing 
maintains itself so well against the sober but 
resistless strength of the Velasquez already men- 
tioned as Gainsborough's blue and silver full- 
length "Lidy Eardley." 

The Crewe Reynoldses, which the present 
generation has not previously had an opportunity 
of seeing in public, form a unique group. Among 
them are the famous double portraif, "Mrs. 
Crewe and Mrs. Bouverie " ; the mannered, yet 
charming, "Mrs. Crewe as St. Genevieve"; the 
delightfully fresh and humorous " Master Crewe 
as Henry VIII. ' ; and the still more exquisite 
" Miss Frances Crewe," one of the most perfect 
of all Sir Joshua's portraits of children. Johann 
ZofTany's " Interior of the Florence Gallery " 
and "The Life School in the Royal Academy, 
1772" do not take high rank as pictures ; but in 
the naive sincerity of their realism they are in- 
finitely curious, and constitute pictorial docu- 
ments of the highest value. Nothing more 
instructively shows how supreme excellence can 
be attained in styles absolutely divergent than 
the juxtaposition in GiUery No. I. of Tamer's 
"Mortlake" and Constable's " Didham Vale." 
The one is an exquisite vision containing the 
very essence, if not the outside husk of truth ; 
the other one of the finest pages of noble, virile 
prose — if the expression be permissible — to be 
found in English landscape. 

In Gallery No. IV. we find first a curious 
" Virgin and Child " (Sir Frederic Leighton, 
P.R.A.), by Michele Oiambono, the elder of that 
name, by whom there is in the Accaderaia of 
Venice an elaborate altar-piece, dated 1466, in 
which the tints have the brilliancy of enamel, 
and resemble those in a piece of fine champlevf 
work. This example, which, like the one just 
mentioned, reveals the influence of Gentile da 
Fabriano, has lost its brilliancy. It bears the 
full signature, " Michael Johannes Bono Venctus 
pinxit.'' Before it, in order of date, should have 
been mentioned the little diptych (Mr. Charles 
Butler) ascribed in the Catalogue, possibly 
through some printer's error, to a "Bernardo 



Gaddi,'' nnknown to Italian art. Perhaps the 
owner wishes to designate Bernardo Daddi, a 
Giottesque painter who frescoed one of the choir- 
chapels iu Sta. Croce, Florence, and to whom an 
attempt was recently made to give the wonderful 
" Trionfo djlla Morte " of the Campo Santo, Pisa : 
the latter, however, a most unconvincing ascrip- 
tion. The faces of the sacred personages, as here 
depicted, show certain curious disproportions, 
such as we are accustomed to associate with the 
art of Taddeo Gaddi. A genuine and character- 
istic example of the Ferrarcaa pupil of 
Squarcione, Marco Zoppo, is the little panel " A 
Saint " (Mr. A. de Pas') ; it was not included in 
the recent Ferrarese collection of the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club. 

A puzzling and fascinating poitrait is the 
"Alberto Pio di Carpi" (Mr. Ludwig Mond), 
ascribed to Baldassare Peruzzi. The intrinsic 
evidence furnished by the piclura itself would 
not in itself suflicieatly support the attribution ; 
for the portrait of this" olive-skinned, fair-haired 
(or fair-wigged '.) young patrician suggests rather 
the Milanese school under a Northern influence. 
The background, with its architectural features 
and its animated little figures, is, however, much 
more in Peruzzi's own earlier style. Dr. J. P. 
llichter has traced an intimate personal con- 
nexion between Peruzzi and the personage here 
represented, and he furnishes what may be 
accepted as sufiicient proof from without that the 
attribution is correct. He has stated to the 
writer that, in 1505 — the date which the portrait 
bears — Peruzzi was, moreover, painting in the 
company of the Milanese artist, Cesare da Sesto. 

The early Florentine school has never been 
so feebly represented as on the present occasion. 
The only panel requiring notice is the "Virgin 
and Child" (Mr. Chas. Butler), belonging to the 
group of pictures conveniently summed up as 
" School of Verrocchio," which comprises such 
works as the " Virgin and Child witn Angels '' 
and the " Tobias with the Archangel," in the 
National Galley, and the "Tobias with the Three 
Archangels" iu the Accaderaia of Florence. 
This is a good, sound example of its class ; but 
there is even less justification for giving it to 
Verrocchio himself, than there was for ascribing 
to the master of the celebrated " Baptism ■' iu 
the Accademia — as did no less an authority than 
Dr. Bode, of Berlin — our own school-piece 
" Tobias with the Archangel." 

The life-size "St. Paul" (Mr. Ludwig Mond) 
is interesting, as probably the only specimen in 
England from the hand of the Pavian painter. 
Pier Francesco Sacchi : it is hard in treatment, 
and unpleasantly self-assertive in colour, yet 
marked by a certain bigness and sincerity of con- 
ception. Sacchi's best-known work are the im- 
Eortant " Four Fathers of the Church," in the 
ouvre (1516), and an altar-piece in Sta. Maria 
di Castello at Rome (1526). 

The "Virgin and Child" (Mr. T. Humphry 
Ward), ascribed to Andrea Solario, is an un- 
usually fine repetition of the famous " Vierge au 
coussin vert " in the Salon Carre of the Louvre, 
with an entirely different background. Here 
St. Joseph is seen busily at work, while in the 
Louvre original the background is a character- 
istic landscape. Were it not for a certain lack 
of subtlety and charm in the faces of the Virgin 
and Child, one might almost hold the picture to 
be an original replica from the hand of the 
master ; but these, together with certain other 
minute differences of manner, prevent us from 
accepting it as such. The Louvre exaanple bears, 
on the marble plinth which supports the cushion, 
the signature " Andreas de Solario fa." Asother 
puzzle most difficult of solution is provided by 
the curious " St. Francis and St. Catharine" (Mr. 
H, Reginald Corbet), a painting ascribed by its 
owner to Albert Diirer (! !). The oddest thing 
is, that the panel in question has been provided 
with an entirely new gold ground, upon which 
has been painted, with an amusing naivete on 



the pait of the forger, a huge Durer monogram. 
An Albert Durer with a gold ground, and a 
manogram on that ground, is, indeed, a trouvailk ! 
Many opinions exist as to the school to which 
this interesting panel really belongs. Some 
connoisseurs have deemed it Italian, others 
Spanish, others again South German. To the 
writer it seemed, at first sight, to be a Muranese 
product'on of the earlier school, under Northern 
influence ; then to belong rather to some Italian 
painter of the Adriatic Coast ; but he must own 
regretfully to having as yet no very definite 
opinion on the subject. 

The capital " Virgin and Child with St. John" 
(Mr. R. II. Benson), by Marco d'Ogionno, is ona 
of the best extant examples of that unequal 
L-jonardesque painter : it was in the New 
Gallery last winter. The most important pic- 
ture in Gallery No. IV. is "The Resurrec- 
tion" (Eirl of Ashburnham), by Bartolommeo 
Montagna. This is painted on tine canvas, like 
two of the Vicentine master's altir-pieces in the 
Vicc.nzi Gallery : it is a coraparitively early 
work, though evidently a good deal later than two 
"Madonnas" in the New Gallerv, and the one 
(No. 1098) in the National Gallery. The first 
impression made by the picture is the reverse of 
agreeable, the central figure of the Saviour risen 
from the tomb being unfortunately grotesque 
in both type and movement. The two saints in 
niches at the sides— St. John the Baptist and St. 
Jerome — make, however, ample amendj. They 
are noble examples of an austere realism, rising, 
in virtue of its absolute, unquestioning sincerity, 
into true grandeur. Tliere is little or nothing to 
be seen of the too-mach-talked-of influence of 
Cirpaccio on Montagna. The Vicentine painter's 
mood is here more in sympathy with that of 
B=llini's earlier and more severe style ; but he is, 
after all, chiefly himself — one of the most in- 
teresting and characteristic figures of North 
Italian art. 

Of the most exquisite quality is the miniature 
" Holy Family," by Fra Bartolommeo (Miss Hen- 
riette Hertz), a work small only in dimensions, 
but large and noble in style. Those who cry 
out at seeing a miniature oil-painting like this 
ascribed to the Frate, forget the quite similar 
panels in the Uffizi. They forget also the 
wonderful little triptych in the Poldi-Pczzoli 
Museum of Milan, painted by Fra Bartolommeo'a 
friend and partner, Albertinelli. The large 
"Virgin and Child, with Saints and Donor" 
(Earl of Ashburnham), attributed to Giovanni 
Bellini, and bearing a signature, with the date 
1505, is by a Bellinesque who is unable to 
merge his identity, even if he would, so peculiar 
are his mannerisms. Yet he is apparently not 
one of the group of painters really very near to 
Bellini - belonging to the inner circle of his 
satellites. The cjlour is brilliant, yet harsh, 
and not, in the best sense of the word, Venetian. 
The draperies are jagged in fold, and the dis- 
proportions between certain figures manifest. 
Beyond question of the school of IBellini, but not 
by Giorgione, to whom it is ascribed, is the beauti- 
ful sunny " Landscape " (Earl of Ashburnham), 
with curious little figures of two men fencing 
and another playing on pipes, in the middle 
distance. 'The type of the landscape, although 
essentially Venetian, is not akin to any of 
those successive phases which we find in the 
well-authenticated Giorgiones, such as the eirly 
pictures in the Uffiz', the great Castelfranco 
" Madonna with Saints," or the so-called "Philo- 
sophers" of the Vienna Gallery (renamed by 
Herr Wickhoff " Aeneas and Evander "). 

The magnificent " Ariosto " by Titian, lent by 
Lord Darnley, from Cobham, has at some period 
suffered great injury to the head from restoration 
or over-cleaning ; yet it remains, for all that, one 
of the noblest and most sympathetic of Venetian 
portraits. The picture shows already the early 
maturity of Titian's art, although the conception 
is still wholly in the Giorgionesque style of 



;rAN. la, 1895.— No. 1184.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



41 



portraiture, as shown in the pictures in the Pesth 
GtJlery and the Berlin Museum respectively, and 
in Sebastiano LucianiV Giorgionesque "Violin- 
player" (formerly in the Sciarra Palace at Rome), 
celebrated, all the world over, as a Raphael. 
The " Ariosto " here has just that soft, pleasing 
melancholy, lighting up and refining Italian 
sensuousness, which we find in Titian's " Jeune 
Homme au gant " in the Louvre, as well as in the 
beautiful " Concert " of the Pitti Palace, so lf>ng 
deemed to be the typical Giorgione. It is im- 
possible to accept as Titian's the great landscape 
with figures, " Jupiter and Antiope " (Duke of 
Westminster). This confused and uninviting 
production is, at the most, by a late, perhaps a 
seventeenth century imitator. The " Salvator 
Slundi" (Earl of Darnley) is gorgeous in colour, 
but too weak and characterless to be by the great 
master of Cadore himself. It bears a family 
likeness to a " Christ," with a landscape back- 
ground, which, in the Pitti Palace collection, is 
ascribed to Titian. 

Brilliant in colour and unusually well pre- 
served is a large "Adoration of the Shepherds" 
(Eudoxie, Countess of Lindsay), ascribed to Tin- 
toretto. It is certainly not by that master, but 
probably by one of the Bassano group. The 
Bassano touch is clearly seen in the homely 
accessories, and especially in the crisply touched 
white draperies, with transparent bluish shadows. 
A genuine Tintoretto, on the other hand, is Sir 
Frederic Leigh ton's " Portrait of Paolo Paruta." 
We have, too, a genuine Moroni — brilliant in its 
contrast of steel-grey with crimson, but reddish 
in the flesh-tones — in the " Portrait of Vittorio 
Michiel" (Marche«e Bentivoglio di Aragona). 
The bright, showy piece, " Mars and Venus " 
(Mr. Val. C. Prinsep, R.A.), ascribed to Palma 
Vecchio, pleasing though it is, lacks the subtlety 
of execution and the poetic glamour of a true 
Palma. If it be necessary to find a name for it, 
we should prefer that of Cariani in his Palmesque 
mood — the juicy green landscape and the massive, 
unrefined blonde who presents Venus being 
much in his style. 

We may pass over without much comment 
the " Virgin and Child " (Eudoxie, Countess of 
Lindsay), here, with more courage than discre- 
tion, ascribed to Raphael. It is one of the many 
versions of the lost " Madonna di Loreto," and, 
with its harsh, opaque colouring, by no means 
cne of the most attractive. The necessity for 
exhibiting such a work as this is not obvious, 
especially with the condition presumably at- 
tached : that it is to bear, without a word of 
warning to the uninstructed, the august name of 
Sanzio himself. 

Claude Phillips. 



which seoms to be the lettering at the end of 
the second line : I think it may be a blundering 
anticipation of AUAVS in the third line, as the 
way in which the letters are formed is not so 
dissimilar as in modern print. Carausius is 
generally credited with the names M. Aurelius 
Valerius. The praenomen is testified to by 
several coins, the other names only by one of 
Stukely's coins (Carausius i., p., 112) accepted 
by Eckhel (viii. 47), but omitted by Cohen. It is 
said to read imp m avr v caeavsius p av ; 
but Stukely's notorious inaccuracy and the 
oddity of the legend make the statement rather 
doubtful. 

This milestone is, so far as I know, the only 
certain lapidary relic of Carausius. The in- 
scription appears on the squeeze to be com- 
plete ; but Chancellor Ferguson, who has seen 
the stone, thinks something may have been lost 
below line 4. 

2. FL YAj 

CONS 
TANT 
tllO NOB 

CAES 

Fl{avio) Val{erio) Consiant[in]o noh. Oaes, It 
is possible that a line may have been lost at 
the beginning. In line 4 I think to see no on 
the squeezes, and hence I have supplied Oon- 
stantino; but Conatantio is not wholly 
impossible. The road from Carlisle south- 
wards has yielded two inscriptions of Con- 
stantino the Great (C. vii. 1176, 1177), both 
later than the one here described and giving 
him the title of Augustus, not Caesar. 

P. Haveefield. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

A MILESTONE OF CAKAUSItTS. 

Cb.Cb., Ozfoid : Jan. 6, 1803. 

A Koman milestone has lately been found 
about a mile south of Carlisle, in the bed of the 
river Petferill, close to the Roman road which 
led from Luguvallium southwards. It has been 
acquired for the Tullie House Museum by Mr. 
B. S. Ferguson, to whom I am indebted for 
information and squeezes. 

The stone, which is six feet long, has two 
inscriptions, one at each end : that is to say, it 
was first erected under one emperor, then, 
according to a common practice, it was turned 
topsy-turvy, and inscribed with the name of a 
later ruler. The emperors are Carausius and 
either Constantius Chlorus or Constantine I. 

The two inscriptions are : — 

1. IMP CM 

AVRMA'S 

f'AJlAVSI"PF 

INVICTO Ava 
Imp. C{aee) M. Aur{elio) mavs Caramio p{io) 
/[elid) invieio A luj. The only puzzle is MAV3, 



NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOOy. 

What claims to be the most complete 
history of modern art which has ever been 
attempted will shortly bo published by Messrs. 
Henry & Co. It is from the pen of Dr. 
Richard Muther, keeper of the Royal collection 
of prints and engravings at Munich, and will 
be entitled The Hktory of Modern Painting. 
The book begins with the English art of the 
eighteenth century, and treats at length of the 
English painters and illustrators of the present 
century. France, Germany, Belgium, 

Denmark, Holland, Italy, Norway, Sweden 
and Spain occupy a share of the author's 
space, America and American painters living 
abroad come in for duo notice, and the 
influence of Japan on European art has not 
been overlooked. The work will be profusely 
illustrated with portraits of many of the artists, 
and with reproductions of their most im- 
portant pictures or drawings. It will be issued 
both in parts and in volumes, and will consist 
altogether of more than 2000 pages. 

There will open next week, at the Fine Art 
Society's, New Bond-street, an exhibition of 
drawings by Thomas Rowlandson, including 
his Tour in a Post Chaise, 1782, from his Studio 
in London to the Wreck of the Royal George. 

The following have been elected Associates 
of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers : 
Messrs. F. Vangs Burridge, W. K. HinchclifF, 
and W. Thompson. 

There is now on view, in the galleries of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, Conduit- 
street — in addition to the annual exhibition of 
drawings submitted for the prizes and student- 
6hii)s — a collection of drawings of the Pantheon 
at Rome, by M. Chedanne. One of these gives 
a conjectural restoration of the original Portico 
of Agrippa, showing ten columns in front; 
others give conjectural restorations of the build- 
ing as it stood in Hadrian's time, showing the 
bronze plating which was taken away in 1G32 
by Pope Urban VIII,, and melted down to 
make the existing canopy over the Apostles' 



Tomb in the Vatican. At the meeting of the 
Institute on Monday next the prizes will be 
distributed by the president, Mr. F. C. Penrose, 
who will also deliver an address to the students. 

Mr. W. Wtke Bayliss, president of the 
Royal Society of British Artists, will deliver a 
lecture on Monday next, at 5 p.m., at the 
London Institution, on " The Use of the Super- 
natural in Art." 

The last number of the American Journal of 
Archaeology — printed at the Princeton Univer- 
ity Press, and to be had in London from 
Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co.— opens with three 
papers of the American School at Athens. Dr. 
Charles Waldstein describes a marble head of an 
Ephebus, apparently from a metope, which 
was found this spring during the excavation of 
the Heraeum at Argos. From a comparison 
with the Doryphoros at Naples, and also on 
other grounds, ho has no hesitation in assigning 
it to the school of Polycletus. Mr. Rufus B. 
Richardson writes of the tiles stamped with 
inscriptions that were discovered at the 
Heraeum, in the light of sunilar tiles and 
inscriptions found elsewhere. The most clear 
is that bearing (in whole or in part) the name 
of the architect Sokles. Mr. J. R. Wheeler 
deals with the remaining inscriptions, which 
are mostly fragmentary and none of very 
ancient date, though interesting from the point 
of view of Argive palaeography. Next comes 
a paper by Mr. W. Hayes Ward on someHittite 
seals, which he has presented to the Metro- 
politan Museum of New York. Two of them are 
cylinders, which he affirms to be the first ever 
found with Hittite characters. From one of 
them he infers that the winged disk of later 
Assyrian art was conceivably derived, through 
the intervention of the Hittites in Syria, from 
Egypt. There are two obituaries: of Prof. 
Heinrich von Brunn, by Mr. A. Emerson ; and 
of Dr. H. G. Lolling, the author of Baedeker's 
Greece, and curator of the Museum of Inscrip- 
tions at Athens, by Mr. R, B. Richardson. 
Finally, we have the usual summary of Recent 
Archaeological Discoveries, filling more than 
100 pages, where we notice that more room has 
been made for Egypt and Asia Minor, Greece, 
and Italy, by omitting altogether the occasional 
notes from India and the Far East. 



MUSIC. 

MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Studies in Modern Music. Second Series. By 
W. H. Hadow. (Seeley.) 

Cue author opens this new series with an 
essay entitled " Outlines of Musical Form," 
and, as wo expected, he has much to say that 
is of interest. While reading it, however, we 
could not but call to mind Wagner's objection 
to discussing form without contents. Mr. 
Hadow sometimes uses the term "sonata 
form," for what is technically known as " first 
movement form," and sometimes for a Sonata, 
i.e., a work consisting of various movements. 
A trained mueician can certainly follow him, 
but for all that he should hava avoided the 
confusion. 

The essay on Chopin is, to our thinking, the 
most attractive portion of the book. We are 
told, by the way, that Fetis and Liszt both 
erroneously give 1810 as the year of the com- 
poser's birth ; our author might have added 
that the tombstone at Pore la Chaise also 
repeats this error. Chopin was born in 1809. 
Mr. Hadow regrets the " unjustifiable license 
of language " of Chopin's biographers with 
regard to the George Sand episode. Amid 
many conflicting reports it is now difficult to 
ascertain the exact truth. The matter is not 
of historic importance, neither is a full 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Ja». 12, 1895.— No. 118^-_ 



undenUndingof the exact relationship between 

the novelist and the composer necessary to a 

fuU appreciation of Chopin s music. »"* *e 

agree with Mr. Hadow that more measured 

Kage on the part of some t»?g«Pl'«" 

;3l lave been judicious, and certamly more 

ohwitable.- Very interesting is Mr. Hadow s 

TOMeslion, that Chopin's early acquaintance 

^^TPoIish folk-songs, written not in our 

Todem «!.le but in one or other of the 

eocle««itical modes, -"^y . ""^^ J w^ 

indifTerence to the ^'"V'^f"'''''^' °L,^Zr 

relationship. But we are not so sure whether 

^ is right in complaining of the key of the 

Funeral March in the Sonata in B «»* -«°o^ ^ 

the Finale is not long enough to create key 

monotony. Again, we doubt whether Mr. 

Hadow ever feard that Finale interpreted by 

Rubinstein ; if he had, he "urely would not have 

described it as having " somewhat the a^r of an 

impromptu." Rubinstein, by dexterous use of 

l^ h iK.dals. made it sound sad and mysterious 

as the wailing harmonics °f t^v"^*" •*> ^AT^ 
Mr. Hadow, in accordance with thespint of the 
age, is fond of making strong statements ; but 
not everyone wiU agree with him that the 
second half of the Sonata is ' ' a disappointment 
and a failure." He declares that Chopm s 
•' virtuoso passages " differ from those of Herz 
and Huntin, and even Thalberg, as a piano- 
forte differs from a barrel-organ. He might 
have made a stronger comparison, and compared 
"virtuoso passages" with those of greater 
pianists, Moscheles, Henselt, and even Liszt, 
and asserted the Polish composer s superiority. 
Excepting in one or two pieces of minor 
importance, Chopin always used technique 
as a means, not as an end. Let us quote 
Mr. Hadow's last sentence referring to 
Chopin's music: "There have been nobler 
messages, but none delivered with a sweeter 
or m?re persuasive eloquence." Just before 
he has remarked that "Chopin can claim no 
place among the few greatest masters of the 
world." This sounds cold, but Mr. Hadow 
admires Chopin to the full; he will not allow 
him to be ranked with Bach and Beethoven, 
but acknowledges him as cne of the 

immortals. tx ■ i. a 

The next essay is on Dvonib, aia » 
very graphic account is given of the 
Bohemian composer's youth, his early struggles 
and failures. Well may it be said of 
him now, in the day of success, that he has 
deserred it. The mention, too, of Smetana, 
" the first Bohemian composer," is opportune. 
Mr. Hadow's description of his "Prodana 
neve&ta " makes one hope that it will be given 
some day in London. Bohemian music leads 
our author to a brief digression on nationality 
ill art. The resemblance between the national 
songs of various countries make one somewhat 
sceptical as to the marked distinctions which 
Bpme would have us recognise. 

The last etsay concerns Brahms. Lately, in 
noticing Mr. Fuller Maitland's Matters of 
Utrman Music, we alluded to the too frequent 
uto of laudatory terms. Mr. Hadow, however, 
goes to greater excess. No one now disputes 
the greatness of Brahms, and it is on that very 
account that a " study " should not become a 
mere panegyric. Brahms was considered guilty 
of a dangerous and radical innovation when, 
in his 'cello Sonata in F, he chose for his 
second movement a key one semitone higher 
than the principal key. Mr. Hadow tells us 
that the same thing had already been done by 
Haydn ; he might also have given his hero the 
substantial support of Beethoven and Schubert. 
It is pleasant to read of Sir George Macfarren s 
early essay on the German Requiem, for he was 
not very much in sympathy with modern 

Mr. Hadow has a few words about Wagner. 
He tells us that " the drama otthe future will 



accept him as one of it« greatest potentates. 
Does not the drama of the present already do 
this'" Our author's remarks respecting the 
'•complete organisation of a Sonata or 
Svmphony " invito comment and even criticism, 
but in a general notice of the book the latter 
cannot be attempted. He makes statements 
about Beethoven which are certainly open to 
question. But whatever qualifications we may 
deem necessary in noticing this volume, we 
would fully acknowledge Mr. Hadow s earnest- 
ness, and his desire to understand and explain 
the course of music smce the death of 
Beethoven : it is perhaps this very earnestness 
which occasionally leads him into exaggeration. 



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THE ACADEMY. 



43 



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Pretiulent— SIR RICHARD E. WEBSTER, G.C.M.G., Q C, M.P. 
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[Jaw. 12, 1895.— No. 1184. 



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[J'an. 19, 1896.— No. 1185. 



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49 



SATURDAY, JANUARY iO, 1895. 

No. i JS5, New Series, 

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I 



LITERATURE. 

The Li'erature of the Georgian Era. By the 
late William Minto. Edited, with a 
Biographical Introduction, by William 
Knight. (Blackwooda.) 
Like the Shalespearian Studies of the late 
Thomas Spencer Bayncs, which we noticed 
some six months ago in the Academy, The 
Literature tf the Georgian Era may be 
described as, in motive and design, mainly 
a memorial volume. The contents include 
a series of nineteen lectures given by Prof. 
Minto on the poets and novelists of a period 
of one hundred and sixteen years (1714- 
1830), together with two short papers from 
his pen, " Mr. Courthope's Biography of 
Pope " and " The Supposed Tyranny of 
Pope," reprinted from Macmillan's Magazine, 
and one (hitherto unpublished) on " The 
Historical Belationships of Burns." Prof. 
Knight, of St. Andrews, who edits the 
volume, adds a brief preface and a genially 
written biographical introduction, to which 
he has appended a series of eulogistic ap- 
preciations of the late Prof. Minto, con- 
tributed by Dr. W. Eobertson Nicoll, Mr. 
P. W. Clayden, Mr. John H. Lobban (Prof. 
Minto's late Assistant), Mr. H. Grierson 
(his successor in the chair of English 
literature at Aberdeen), Messrs. A. T. 
Cluiller-Oouch and Hichard Le Gallienne, 
and one or two others — friends, colleagues, 
or old pupils. With all this accumulation 
of praise criticism has, of course, no direct 
concern. The view-point of the critic 
differs so widely from that of the pane- 
gyrist — that it would be as absurd as 
it would be manifestly ungracious to 
apply to these large encomiums the 
ordinary tests of historical accuracy. 
The biographical introduction, therefore, 
witli its pendent appreciations, shall pass 
unchallenged by us. But touching the 
main body of the book. Prof. Minto's 
lectures on the Georgian literature — which, 
by the way, were originally delivered to 
a mixed audience assembled, under the 
auspices of a local examination committee, 
in the Music Hall of Aberdeen — touching 
the lectures we have a word or two to say ; 
and inasmuch as they are declared by the 
editor to contain many of Prof. Minto's 
deliberate and settled literary judgments, 
though unfortunately they lack the benefit 
of his final revision, it is but right to say it 
here and now. 

Had Prof. Minto lived he would, we are 
told, have embodied the three papers which 
form the Supplement of this volume in a 
large work, which was to have been entitled 
" Beconsiderations of some Current Con- 
ceptions about Eminent Poets." As it is. 



this title might not unaptly have been 
chosen for the lectures under review, for in 
them — though no doubt they are prima facie 
historical rather than controversial — Prof. 
Minto again and again sets himself to 
combat certain widespread impressions 
regarding the causes of the poetic decadence 
of the eighteenth century, the true character 
of the naturalistic movement traceable in 
the poetry of Cowper, and the nature of 
that notable revival of which Wordsworth 
was at once the chief agent, and, in his 
famous Prefaces, the recognised exponent. 
On each and all of these three questions the 
most erroneous notions, if we may believe 
Prof. Minto, still prevail ; and this, " in 
spite of the labours of such accurate his- 
torians of literature as the late Mark 
Pattison and Mr. Stopford Brooke." But 
it is necessary to observe that the alternative 
views propounded by Prof. Minto by no 
means invariably coincide with those of Mr. 
Stopford Brooke's model Frimer of English 
Literature ; while of Prof. Minto's objections 
as a whole we can only say that in our 
judgment he has altogether failed to sub- 
stantiate them as against the prevailing 
opinions he so assiduously decries. 

That the eighteenth century was at 
least comparatively barren of the higher 
poetry Prof. Minto and the ordinary 
reader are agreed : where they diverge is 
iu their several modes of accounting for 
this phenomenon. " The disciples of 
Wordsworth and Coleridge," writes Prof. 
Minto, " in their wholesale condemnation 
of the poetry of the eighteenth century, 
have fixed in the public mind a great many 
erroneous conceptions." Of these he pro- 
ceeds to particularise the three following : 
(1) That the admitted poetic sterility was 
due to the predominance of false, arbitrary 
and exclusive critical theories ; (2) that it 
was in some measure due to the monotony 
of the heroic couplet, " the one normal and 
habitual form in which the poetry of the 
century moved in its serious moments " 
(Gosse) ; (.j) that it followed necessarily 
from the fact that the eighteenth was pre- 
eminently the century of prose. These 
widely prevailing notions as to the source 
of the Georgian decadence Prof. Minto 
summarily rejects in favour of a theory of 
his own, which he sets forth as follows : 

" The main defects of the poets of this period 
cau be tracod to one source— the character of 
the audience for whose judgment they had 
respect, by whose ideals they were controlled, 
who were to them the arbiters of taste. The 
standard of taste in the time of Uueen Aune, 
and till near the end of the century, was a 
self-consciously aristocratio and refined society, 
self-conscious of their superior manners and 
superior culture, and disposed to treat the ways 
of the vulgar with amused contempt. This, 
I think, can be shown to be at the root of 
the striving after wit and the respect for 
established models, and the false theory of 
poetic diction in serious poetry. Fear of being 
vulgar, fear of being singular, these were the 
real nightmares that sat upon the eighteenth 
century poetry." 

Now into the causes of this poetic sterility 
or, as Prof. Minto prefers to say, this 
" temporary arrest of poetic expansion," 
this is not the place, nor is the present the 
fitting occasion, to enter. We must, there- 



fore, be content simply to quote Prof. 
Minto's hypothesis on the subject, with- 
out attempting to discuss its merits. But 
when Prof. Minto, not satisfied with re- 
jecting the three popular explanations 
above given, proceeds to deny that either 
Pope himself, or any of his successors of 
the pseudo-classic school of poetry, was 
in any degree subject to or hamx)ered by 
false or exclusive critical theories, it be- 
comes our duty, in the interest of truth, 
emphatically to protest. Prof. Minto 
quotes Pope's remark, recorded by Spence, 
about a tree being a nobler object than a 
prince in his coronation robes, to show that 
the poet had a genuine and reverential love 
for nature ; and he points to the Preface of 
Pope's edition of Stiakspere as evidence of 
his just and discriminate estimate of the 
great dramatist. He asserts that ' ' neither 
Shakspere nor Nature was undervalued by 
the poets of the generation after Pope " ; 
that " their adoration of Shakspere is not 
exceeded by the most reverential and least 
critical member of the New Shakspere 
Society"; and that "if their poetry was 
limited in amount and narrow in quality, 
it was not for want of a taste for better 
things." And by way of establishing these 
somewhat startling theses, he quotes a 
single passage from Akenside, and some 
forty couplets from Hayley [!]. Of Pope, 
again, he says that 

"though the poet often heard his own age 
described as the Augustan age of English 
verse, in which the art had been carried to a 
perfection unattained before, he was by no 
means insensible to the greatness of his great 
predecessors, Chaucer, Spenser, and Milton " ; 
and that " his conversations with Spence 
afford abundant evidence of his catholicity as 
well as of his delicacy of judgment." 

Though Pope often heard his own age described 
as the Augustan age of poetry ! Does Prof. 
Minto mean to suggest that Pope himself 
did not habitually so describe it, and with 
all his heart, mind, soul, and strength, 
believe it soj_to be ? If we may credit Prof. 
Minto, Pope and the other poets of the 
Franco-classic or " reasonable " school, 
while gracefully submitting to be cramped 
and fettered by the narrow ideals imposed 
upon them by their " superciliously aristo- 
cratic audience," still cherished in their 
hearts poetic ideals of a nobler, purer, loftier 
type — ideals akin to those of the Eliza- 
bethan age, and differing in no essential 
point from those of the Wordsworthian 
Eevival. Now, had Prof. Minto asserted 
this of Dryden, it had not been so much 
amiss ; for of Dryden it is unquestionably 
true that from first to last his native genius 
frequently collided with the critical prin- 
ciples he had accepted from Waller and the 
town, and to the brilliant illustration and 
triumphant establishment of which he 
devoted the puissant energies of a life- 
time. 

" Dryden," writes Mr. J. R. Lowell, " did 
more than all others combined to bring about 
the triumphs of French standards in taste and 
French principles in criticism. But he was 
always like a deserter who cannot feel happy in 
the victories of the alien arms, and who would 
go back if he could to the camp where he 
naturally belonged." 



00 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185. 



But where shall we find any hint 
that what wa« thus true of Dryden was true 
also of Pope and his followers V Is there, 
in all the writings either of Tope or of his 
contemporaries, one word to indicate the 
existence of a secret conflict between the 
native preferences of the poet's own un- 
shackled judgment, and the narrow and 
arbitraiy ideals of the society in which he 
moved, and for which he wrote? Or, 
rather, does not all the evidence point the 
other way : namely, to the conclusion that, 
in everything pertaining to poetic criticism, 
Pope was the genuine child of his age? 
To which of our poets is it, for example, 
that Pope ascribes the earliest achievement 
of a classic refinement, smoothness, and 
grace, or of a stately and harmonious pro- 
cession of the verse? To Spenser? To 
Shakspere ? To Milton ? No ; neither to 
these, nor to any before them or contem- 
porary with them, does he attribute those 
distinctions. WalUr, he writes {Imit. iZir. 
Ep. II. i. 267) : 

" Waller was smooth : but Dryikn faught to join 
The varjlog verse, the fuU-resoundiiig line. 
The long majestic March, and Eneigy divine." 

Waller and Dryden, the first to aim at a 
chaste and harmonious style ! Well might 
Joseph Warton exclaim : 

"What I AiA. Milton contribute nothing to the 
harmony and extent of our language ? . . . . 
Surely his verses vary and resound as much, 
and display as much mujesty and eneryu as any 
that can be foimd in Dryden. . . . His name 
siurely was not to bo omitted on this occasion ! " 

And so Pope was alive to the greatness of 
Milton, was he ? Why, Pope believed, as 
did Dryden, that the reason why the Paradise 
Lost was not written in the rhymed heroic 
couplet was simply and solely because its 
author, poor man, could not, for all his 
pains and practice, attain the requisite 
mastery of that metrical form ! So Pope 
himself told Voltaire. 

" Milton's own particular reason for choosing 
blank verse," writes Dryden, " is plainly this, 
that rhyme was not his talent ; ho had neither 
the case of doing it nor the graces of it ; his 
rhyme is always constrained and forced, and 
comes hardly from him." 

This of the poet to whom we owe the subtly 
linked sweetness of "Lycidas" and the 
stately, elaborate harmonies of the Sonnets ! 
And on this question of metre, be it remem- 
bered. Pope's little finger was thicker than 
his master's loins. As to Pope's opinion of 
Milton's diction — " so passionately fitted to 
his subject," as Mr. Stopford Brooke admir- 
ably observes — read what he says to Spence : 
"I doubt whether a poem can support itself 
without rhyme in our lang^ge, unless it 
be stiffened with such strange words as are 
liMy to destroy our langmge itself." Pope 
clearly shares Dryden's opinion, recorded in 
the Essay on Translation : "I cannot defend 
Milton's antiquated words, and the perpetual 
harshness of their sound." 

Prof. Minto denies that Pope was imbued 
with any false, narrow, or artificial prin- 
ciples of poetic criticism. Well, one prin- 
ciple which he did indisputably hold, and 
which is at once false and narrow, is that 
relating to " correctnees." That Pope's 
test and standard of correctness was utterly 
false is proved beyond possibility of cavU 



by the fact that his standard excludes 
Milton, the first, and probably the most, 
absolutely correct poet England ever pro- 
duced. " Late, very late," writes Pope : 

" Late, very late correctness grew our care. 
When Iho tir'd nation brcath'd from civil war." 

That is, correctness was first cultivated by 
Waller and Dryden. Yet in their hands it 
did not reach perfection, for 
" Ev'n copious Dryden wanted, or forgot, 
The last and greatest art, the art to blot." 

The inference is obvious : "In me, 
Alexander Pope, correctness has, for the 
first time, attained its full and fioal con- 
summation." When Spence asked Pope: 
" Which, sir, do you look upon as our best 
age in poetry ? " Pope replied, ' ' Why, the 
last, I think," meaning the age of Dryden. 
Decency forbade him to say, what from the 
above-quoted lines it is clear that he moant, 
that his own age was the most illustrious, 
and he himself the brightest luminary of it. 
Again, it would be an easy matter to 
show that, in his canon of poetic diction — 
" True wit is Nature to advantage drest " 
— Pope was hampered by a critical prin- 
ciple which not only was "false, narrow, 
and artificial" in itself, but also tended, by 
over-emphasising the necessity of ornament, 
to obscure, it not absolutely to conceal, the 
paramount importance attaching to logical 
propriety of diction in poetry. This was 
the principle which Pope received from 
his master, Dryden, which he embodied, 
illuminated, and carried to perfection in his 
Translation of Homer, and which, according 
to the impression generally prevailing 
among Englishmen, he bequeathed as a 
sacred and binding tradition to future 
generations. But Prof. MInto denies the 
existence of this tradition. "It is the 
merest fiction," he writes, "the most un- 
substantial shadow of a metaphor, to describe 
Pope as tyrannising over English poetry at 
the close of the eighteenth century." He 
assumes quite a superior tone when speak- 
ing of those who see in Cowper's poetry a 
spirit of revolt against the authority of Pope. 
" Their view," he says, " is so easy and 
simple and thought-saving." Of its incorrect- 
ness, its utter baselessness, he has not even 
the shadow of a doubt. 

" We can hardly speak of revolting against a 
tyrant when there is no tyrant to revolt against. 
Poetry had ceased to dominate the affections of 
the English people, and Pope's deposition had, 
in fact, been accomplished by the coming to 
power of prose fiction. There was now [i.e., 
in Cowper's day] a period of anarchy in poetry ; 
every poet was doing that which was right in 
his own eyes." 

Such, in substance, is Prof. Minto's account 
.of the period. How utterly untrue to 
history it is may be seen by glancing for a 
moment at Johnson's Life of Pope. The 
"Lives" were published in 1779-1781; 
Cowper's "Task" in 1785. Now, what 
does Johnson say of Pope's Translation of 
Homer, that "poetical wonder," as he calls 
it, " that performance which no age or 
nation can pretend to equal " ? Johnson 
says : 

" Popo has left in his Homer a treasure of 

poetical elegances to posterity. His version 

. . . tuned the English tongue; for since 

I its appearance no writer, however deficient in 



other powers, has wanted melody. Saoh a 
series of lines, so elaborately corrected and so 
sweetly modulated, took possession of the 
publio ear ; the vulgar was enamoured of the 
poem. . . . New sentiments and new 
imagos others may produce ; but to attempt 
any further improvement of versification will 
bo dangerous. Art and diligence have now 
dono their best, and what shall be added will 
ba the effort of tedious toil and needless 
curiosity." 

Johnson probably knew more than Prof. 
Minto about the predilections of his Eoglish 
contemporaries ; and does this, which he 
gave to the world in or about 1780, suggest 
that Pope and his poetry had ceased to 
interest, or rather, to enthral, the readers 
of his day ? Does it not, on the contrary, 
place beyond question tho fact of Pope's 
paramount iofiuence (call it tyranny, if you 
will) over the poets and poetry of the 
waning century ? But, indeed. Prof. 
MInto can hardly have meant his audience 
to take his words on this point too seriously : 
for when, in a subsequent lecture, he comes 
to deal with Campbell, he explains that 
poet's strange uncertainty as to the merits 
of his own lyrics by saying that his taste 
had been formed on eighteenth-century 
models, and that, consequently, "the incubus 
of literary tradition lay heavy upon him." 
A tradition which survived to produce so 
extraordinary an effect early in tho nine- 
teenth century can hardly have been 
moribund, much less dead and done with, 
in the latter half of the eighteenth. 

Tho truth is, that the tone of these 
lectures is throughout disputatious rather 
than calmly -and candidly judicial. The 
arguments are very much what we might 
expect to hear at an academic debating 
society from a clever young speaker, well 
accustomed to wield the quarterstaff of 
logic. As we turn the pages we are re- 
minded again and again of the epigram : 
" C'est du bon, c'est du neuf, qu'on trouve 
en votre Jivre ; mais le bon n'est pas neuf, 
et le neuf n'est pas bon." More than once 
the exigencies of his position force Prof. 
Minto to hazard the most unguarded, ex- 
travagant statements : as, for example, where 
he says that " of Joseph Warton's Essay 
on Pope Johnson repeatedly wrote and 
spoke in terms of the highest praise." 
Johnson knew intimately, and was under 
some obligations to, Joseph Warton, and he 
was glad to be able to commend the genial, 
courteous spirit of his book ; but of the 
main conclusions sought to be established 
therein, he never spoke or thought other- 
wise than with smiling contempt. Again, 
Prof. Minto has the audacity to say — to be 
sure it was to an Aberdeen audience that 
the amazing paradox was addressed — that 
Thomas Campbell was more profoundly 
stirred by the influences of the French 
Eevolutlon than "either the hard, self- 
contained Wordsworth or the dreamy and 
speculative Coleridge " ! But into the 
number and extent of Prof. Minto's mis- 
judgments respecting Wordsworth, and the 
poetic movement associated with him, we 
must not venture even to glance. Suffice it 
to say that the lectures devoted to the 
Wordaworthlan Revival, albeit the most 
interesting in tho volume, are also the most 
unsound in doctrine and argument. 



I 



J.w. 19, 1895.— No. 1185.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



61 



It is with reluctance that we have pointed 
out the shortcomings of this book. Let us 
add a word, pleasanter to say, in praise of 
the admirably clear, transpicuous quality 
of the style. Prof. Minto always writes in 
a way that catches and retains the attention ; 
and at times, as when he speaks of Burns, 
a flush of feeling warms his alert, it some- 
what colourless, vigour into real eloquence. 
His Lectures, with all their faults, form 
thoroughly pleasant reading, for they betray 
at every turn their author's sincere and 
hearty delight in his vast subject. 

T. Hutchinson, 



A Hhtory of tlie Chrislian Church during the 
First Six Cetituries. By S. Cheetham, 
D.D. (Macmillans.) 

Tuis volume very admirably fills up a gap 
in our literature. It is a sketch of the 
history of the early Christian Church, in 
which the fresh material so rapidly accumu- 
lated of late years is carefully incorporated 
and summarised. Discoveries of fresh 
material cannot at present be expected to 
diminish either in importance or frequency, 
and there is, therefore, no likelihood that 
Dr. Cheetham's book will be final ; but our 
gratitude to him for being at the pains to 
define for us the state of our knowledge as 
it is at present is all the greater on that 
account. 

The Archdeacon's history is intended 
primarily for the general reader. It is a 
convenient and not too condensed summary 
of the first six centuries of Christianity. 
For the student also it will be valuable, as 
giving him in handy form the judgment of 
an acknowledged authority upon the period, 
and as affording him, in its copious refer- 
ences to original documents and to all 
works of importance, a thorough and 
reliable guide to the whole literature of the 
subject. Our account of the book will 
have made it clear that its chief value 
lies in the fact that Archdeacon Cheetham 
is its author. It is not often that an 
erudite scholar, who has distinguished 
himself by original research, will con- 
descend to write for the general reader. 
When he does so condescend, he may very 
easily fail, unless he is wise enough to see 
clearly what is expected of him. He must 
forget that ho is a specialist with a detailed 
knowledge of certain periods and certain 
men, and he must forget that he has been 
accustomed to discover fresh facta and to 
develop new theories. 

He must, moreover, add to his faculty 
for research the organising instinct, which 
estimates the relative importance of men 
and epochs, and arranges in accurate per- 
spective the history of six hundred years. 
I)r. Cheetham's book is satisfactory, because 
he has fulfilled these requirements with 
unusual ability and success. 

The book is divided into two parts : 
Part i. brings us down to the Edict of 
Milan, A.T). <313 ; part ii. finishes at the 
accession of Gregory the Great, a.d. 590, 
This division protests against the unnatural 
arrangement which attempts to treat the 
first Oecumenical Council, a d. 325, as the 
final event of primitive Christianity rather 



than as the beginning of a new epoch. 
Part i. Dr. Cheetham divides into eight 
chapters, which are only partially chrono- 
logical. Chaps, i. and ii. describe the 
Apostolic Church : its field of labour, its 
leaders, its organisation, its sects. Chap. iii. 
carries on the history under the title of 
"The Early Struggles of the Church" : it 
deals with the persecutions seriatim, adding 
most judiciously a sketch of the intellectual 
warfare of the Church, of the books written 
for and against Christianity during the same 
period. Chap. iv. goes back again to the 
end of chap, ii., and describes the " Growth 
and Characteristics " of the Church. It 
begins with a glance round the world in the 
direction in which the faith may be sup- 
posed to have travelled, and then passes in 
review the growth of the Syrian Church, 
the Galilean Church, and the Alexandrian 
Church, with sketches of the work of 
Ignatius and Polycarp, Irenaeus, Justin 
Martyr, Clement, and Origen, Chap. v. 
again recurs to chap, ii., summarising " the 
Great Divisions." It describes the early 
heresies under five sections, ending with a 
page on " the Catholic Church," which by 
the end of the chapter has emerged into 
definite creed and organisation. Chap. vi. 
is an appendix to chap. v. It is an account 
of " the Theology of the Church," as con- 
trasted with that of her opponents described 
in chap. vi. 

"We have said enough to indicate Dr. 
Cheetham's method and the merit of it. 
Every chapter is singularly complete in 
itself. He has selected his topics so wisely 
that his facts group themselves easily in 
the place assigned them ; and everywhere 
he has regulated with skill the order of 
his facts and the space given to important 
incidents or men. The treatment of the 
apologetic literature in connexion with the 
story of the persecutions is perhaps an 
obvious felicity ; but there is not a chapter 
in which insight of this kind is not dis- 
played, and continually the wary reader will 
learn something from the mere juxtaposition 
of names and incidents in the narrative. 
We were inclined to complain that there 
was no mention of the City of God in the 
outline of St. Augustin's career at p. 246 ; 
but we found what we wanted at the end 
of the chapter on "the Church and the 
Empire," followed by a notice of Orosius 
and Salvian, and we were more than satis- 
fied. The book cannot be judged by ex- 
tracts. If we turn to the sketches of Origen, 
or Cyprian, or Athanasius, or to the excellent 
account of Jerome, and read them out of 
their context, we shall be struck by the 
conciseness and the pregnancy of the style, 
but we shall find the accounts meagre ; but 
read in their place with the rest of the 
narrative they are not meagre — they are 
most carefully calculated to convey by their 
mere length and relative elaboration a 
sense of the importance of the life described. 
We have mentioned so far points which 
all readers will appreciate. We have 
said nothing of the theological merits of 
the book. The soberness, the thoroughness, 
and the accuracy of such chapters as v., on 
the early heresies, and vi., on " Contro- 
versies of the Faith," need not be insisted 
upon. In chap, vi, particularly an enormous 



and intricate mass of material is treated 
with masterly patience and lucidity. 

To criticise the stylo of a summary may 
seem captious. There is a sense in which 
a summary should have no style. Pictur- 
esque description, eloquent appeal, dramatic 
realisation of character, are the media in 
which style works ; and these Dr. Cheetham 
must eschew. But we cannot read many 
pages of his book without detecting that 
his style has character. He does not give 
us a mere precis, but writes in weighty and 
forcible phrases a narrative which at every 
step demands thought and insight for its 
mere arrangement and order. Wo find Dr. 
Cheetham's book good, but we are not 
satisfied with it : it makes us ask for a 
more copious, a more leisurely and dignified 
narrative from the same hand. If Dr. 
Cheetham would expand this volume into 
five or six, we should have a history of the 
Christian Church not altogether unworthy 
of the importance and greatness of the 
subject. EoNALD Bayne. 



The Story of a Throne : Catherine II. of 
Russia. From the French of K. Walis- 
zewski. (Heinemanu.) 

M. Waliszewski, in these volumes, con- 
tinues his studies of the Empress Catherine 
and her court. His book is, as usual, fuU 
of amusing gossip, and will, no doubt, be 
read by many persons under the idea that 
they are occupying themselves with history ; 
but, in reality, very little history can be 
got out of this miscellaneous collection, 
consisting of extracts from French memoirs, 
persiflage, and the every-day chatter of court 
life. As the author gives few, if any, refer- 
ences, it is impossible for his readers to 
know how far they may rely upon the 
veracity of the retailer of the anecdote. 
Many of the most amusing and spiteful 
stories are to be found in the repertoires of 
the adventurers who flocked to Bussia in tho 
time of Catherine. Some of these returned 
to their native country without having made 
a career, and did not fail to say all the 
malicious things that their imaginations 
could devise. 

On the whole, these volumes do not seem 
to be animated by quite such a hostile spirit 
to the Eussians as the preceding work of 
M. Waliszewski, nor can we see that they 
furnish us with very much that is new. 
The stories about Patiomkin — to adopt our 
author's phonetic spelling — and the OrlofEs 
are, indeed, very old. Many of the good 
things about Count Eazumovski, the 
favourite of the Empress Elizabeth, seem to 
be taken bodily from M. Shubinski's Sketches 
and Tales (St. Petersburg, 1869). The 
great Catherine does not appear so belittled 
in these volumes as in the earlier ones. 
Credit is given to her kindliness and 
liberality. The object of the author seems 
to be to parade before us, as far as pos- 
sible, everything which makes her court 
appear corrupt. But a great deal of this 
is a very old story, and in no way peculiar 
to Eussia. Let us remember what the court 
of Louis XV. was at the same time, and the 
social life at Vienna a little earlier, as 
described by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 
in her Letters. 



52 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185. 



On the whole, M. "WalUzewski is pretty 
fair to SuTorov ; and in bis treatment of 
liazamoTski we can see the partiality of a 
Malo-Russian, for this our author must 
ceitainly be. He is a fiaftol, as be trans- 
literates the Kuesiaa nickname for the 
Malo-liu8siaD«, which is applied to them 
from the tuft of hair which, more Polonico, 
they used to wear. This is why we get 
such forms as Illio'jof , Bulhakof , and others, 
namely, from the habit of pronouncing, </ like 
h, which can be detected at once in the 
South of Eussia. Even Patiomkin does 
not fare quite so badly at the hands of 
M. Waliezewski as we might have expected, 
lie gives us a handful of anecdotes about 
him, but they are so abundant in Russia 
that volumes have been devoted to them, 
The minor favourites, naturally, cannot in- 
terest us so much. 

The relations between the Empress and 
Voltaire are told in the most amusing 
manner. Our author is probably right, 
when he says that this unnatural friendship 
would not have lasted had the two corre- 
spondents ever met. Extracts are given 
from the celebrated letters of the Russian 
dramatist Von Visine, who, although having 
a German name, was a thorough Muscovite : 
bis family had been naturalised since the 
days of Ivan the Terrible. Von Visine has 
left a very interesting account of Erance 
just before the Revolution; among other 
stirring events ho has narrated to us 
the triumphal progress of Voltaire, when 
his bust was crowned on the stage. The 
story of Radistshef is told anew. The 
fctartling book which he wrote on his own 
country, and which caused his exile to 
ISiberia, was long forbidden in Russia. In 
our own days it has been reprinted in all 
the glories of an cditioit de luxe. It is cer- 
tainly a remarkable book, and it is pleasing 
to think that his exile did not last long ; for 
Paul, on coming to the throne, ordered 
his release. 

The earlier chapters of the second volume 
are devoted to the foreign adventurers who 
hurried to Russia to make their fortunes 
there with more or less success. Many 
of these were very small fry indeed, and 
their names are now forgotten. They 
may possibly interest Frenchmen, as the 
majority of them belonged to that nation- 
ality, but one does not see what significance 
they can have for Englishmen. In a sub- 
sequent chapter the relations between Gus- 
tavus III. and Catheriae are discussed. 
M. Waliszewski has but a poor opinion of 
the Swedish king, with which we cordially 
agree. It is diflicult to see much statesman- 
ship in one who so little understood the 
position in Europe and the resources of his " 
own country, that he nearly reduced it to 
bankruptcy. There must have been some- 
thing weak in the head of the man who in 
such a poor country thought he could create 
a Versailles and a luxurious court a lu fran- 
(;aite. The story of the projected marriage 
between the younger Gustavus and the 
Princess Alexandra is told anew. Of course, 
it always makes good reading ; but no one 
will improve upon tho way in which it has 
been narrated by Masson. A whole cliapter 
is devoted to Grimm, the unwearied German, 
who resided at Paris and kept up such a 



long correspondence with the Empress. 
Even now fresh letters seem continually 
turning up, to judge by those which appear 
in the Russian historical magazines. And, 
finally, the tragic scene of the death of the 
Emproes is told for the hundredth time, and 
certainly lacks nothing in the picturesque 
language of our author. 

On the whole, this book, whether dealing 
with Catherine herself or with her immediate 
surroundings, does not strike us as being 
bitter in tone. Perhaps tho Princess 
Dashkof is treated as unfairly as anybody. 
But we must not forget that she did a great 
deal for education in Russia, and she is 
interesting to us Englishmen as having had 
something of the Anylonuine in her character. 
She had many Eoglish friends; indeed, it 
is to one of these that wo are indebted for 
her interesting memoirs, published thirty 
years after her decease. Her son, who was 
a kind of youthful prodigy, was educated 
at Edinburgh ; and during the stay of the 
Princess in that city she was the intimate 
friend of all that brilliant circle of which 
such men as Dagald Stewart and Robertson 
were members. The glories of the northern 
Athens were at that time culminating. At 
this time also many young Russians were 
studying at Oxford. Eaglish literature 
began to make itself felt in Russia. We 
have translations of Fielding, Johnson, 
Young, Goldsmith, and many others, and 
this propensity for our writers has lasted 
in Russia till the present day. No doubt 
Princess Ddshkof, as the head of the 
Academy, did a great deal to foster it. 

M. Waliszewski thus winds up his two 
interesting volumes : 

"Bronzo aud marble have alike done in- 
justice to the memory of Catherine; printing 
ink has done her better service ; the sole 
monument worthy of her up to the present is 
that which the publications of the Imperial 
Historical Society of Russia have raised to her. 
But this is but a collection of materials. 
' Happy the writer of the future who shall 
write the life of Catherine II.,' said Voltaire, 
I do not pretend to this good fortune. I 
have but endeavoured to open up a path in 
which I am certain that others will come after 
me." 

These are brave words : we only wish 
that M. Waliszewski had sifted his anec- 
dotes a little more and given us his authori- 
ties for many of his statements. Amusing 
he certainly always is, but is it history 
that he writes ? As regards the trans- 
lation, it is fairly done. Here and there, 
however, we come upon a Gallicism that 
sounds awkward. Thus, it is hardly English 
to say that Catherine "agonised for thirty- 
seven hours without recovering conscious- 
ness." 

W. R. MOUFILL. 



The Life and Correnpondetice of William 
BucUand, B.D., F.R.S. By his Daughter, 
Mrs. Gordon. (John Murray.) 
At the first blush the reader is surprised to 
find a Life of Dean Buckland written for a 
generation that never knew him, seeing 
nearly forty years have passed away since 
his death. Undoubtedly this impression 
prejudices the book. Few original letters 
of tho Dean have been recovered, and it 



has been dilEcult to resuscitate much of the 
freshness aud graco of his conversation. 
An enor(U)us gulf, too, yawns between the 
Oxford of Bucklanil's days, when he lectured 
on horseback t) men in cap and gown 
at Shotover, and the present time, when 
athlotos in marvuUoudly light costume dock 
ever}' afternoon to tlie river or to football ; 
much more between the science and theology 
of 18-20 and those of 1890. The thoughts 
of men have considerably widened on ttiese 
and otht^r subjects; and now from under 
lighter strata in Mudio's box, among the 
biography, the fossil figure of Dean Buckland 
emerges, wrapped in numerous heavy 
cloaks and thick fur b30ts, with bags of 
bones sluog round him, bearing the never- 
forgotten blue bag, as if he were just 
extracted from some palaooz lic rock. Small 
wonder that eyes open widely and anti- 
quaries are gladdened as with a specimen 
of Homo primiginim. 

And yet tho world generally may be 
grateful to Mrs. Gordon for this bright and 
interesiing Life of her father. A striking 
personality lias been rescued from a past 
ever receding farther from its ken. One little 
fact will show this. It was Buckland who, 
in tho face of strong opposition, succeeded 
in lighting Oxford with gas. In 1818 oil 
lamps illuminated the High : now tho 
colleges aro being lit by electricity. The 
progress of natural science at Oxford can 
be reviowed, too, in conjunction with the 
life of ono who literally formed great 
part of it. la an excellent Introduction 
Prof. Boyd Ddwkins speaks of this Life 
" as throwing light upon social and scientific 
conditions which have long passed away. 
It illustrates the position of science at 
Oxford during the first fifty years of the 
century." It introduces much of the valu- 
able work of William Smith (who alone 
preceded Buckland in geological research), 
of Sedgwick, Da la Bcche, Murchison, 
Phillips, and Lyell ; and something of the 
men themselves. For lovers of Oxford it 
preserves many curious caricatures which 
are here reproduced, both verse and illus- 
trations. 

Buckland adds another to the numerous 
worthies of Devon, having been born at 
Axminster in 1781. His life is sufficiently 
void of incidents, but is a stirring record of 
hard work. In whatever position he was 
placed, he always found abuses to rectify 
and improvements to make. Never idle 
himself, he had no sympathy with laziness 
and waste of time in his chiMren ; and his 
teachings bore fruit in the varied accom- 
plishments and useful work of his son 
Frank, When Christ Church was being 
restored, Bucklaud's watchful eye detected 
any deficiency in the stone employed, using an 
opera-glass from his window for the purpose. 
At Westminster he was diligent in exhorting' 
to cleanliness when cholera was impending, 
even preaching on the prophet's words to 
Naaman, " Wash and be clean," Turning to 
the school ho at once attacked the dormitory 
and lavatories, and was met by the boys 
armed with tho brute force of unreasoning 
conservatism. Mr. Marshall, one of the 
masters of the school, doubts whether 
anyone with a lees commanding sciontifio 
reputation than Dean Buckland could have 



Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



53 



vanquished the resistance which the pro- 
posed alterations called forth. Then he 
proceeded to add a matron's house and 
sick-room, provided breakfast in hall for 
the Queen's scholars, and even penetrated 
into the kitchen department. In all this his 
energy and perseverance effected admirable 
reforms. 

Buckland's fame, however, will always 
depend on what he called his " noble sub- 
terranean science." It is not too much to 
say that he was the creator of systematic 
geology. The Oxford Chair of Geology 
was called into existence for him in 1819. 
Thenceforth field-work and lectures de- 
manded all his energies : the Kirkdale 
Cavern, the mammoth, the lias beds at 
Lyme Regis, glacial theories, the " phasco- 
lotherium " of the Stonesfield quarries, and 
above all his Bridgewater Treatise, succes- 
sively claimed his attention. Numerous 
secondary experiments and by-works were 
being carried on at the same time. Buck- 
land was indefatigable in all the details of 
his favourite science, and gathered round 
him, first at Christ Church, then at the 
Deanery, a multitude of friends, both 
British and continental, who were interested 
in his multifarious pursuits. These are 
succinctly described by Mrs. Gordon, and 
are set off by many anecdotes and good 
stories which naturally crystallised round 
the Dean. The antipathy of the old resi- 
dents to the new Oxford learning is 
amusingly touched upon, and is almost in- 
conceivable in the present fervour for 
biology. When, in the early stages of his 
career, he left, one long vacation, for Italy, 
an elder don brought up on the classics is 
said to have exclaimed : " Well, Buckland 
is gone to Italy ; thank God we shall hear 
no more of this geology ! " Even so late as 
1833, the British Association was attacked 
as mischievous and absurd in the Bampton 
Lectures of the year. 

Of infinite observation, most retentive 
memory, and great sagacity, an indomitable 
worker, quick to see the relation of things, 
genial, blessed with troops of friends, apt to 
take a humorous view of everything, and 
pious with an old-fashioned piety, Buckland 
ended his active and blameless life at his 
rectory of Islip, August 11, 1856. For 
some years before death his intellect had 
been clouded, owing, as Frank Buckland 
here explains, to a carriage accident. 

Mrs. Gordon writes in a sensible, lucid 
manner, incorporating much that is interest- 
ing elsewhere on the geological discoveries 
of Buckland's time. Her book possesses 
special value for the history of Oxford 
studies during the first half of this century, 
while the long and varied list of Buck- 
land's published works in the Appendix 
may well rebuke even the most diligent 
student. 

M. G. Watkins. 



Nidderdale and the Garden oj the Nidd, By 
Harry Speight. (ElUot Htock.) 

This is a really excellent history of a 
beautiful and interesting district of York- 
■hire, about which comparatively little has 
been written. In its compilation Mr. 



Speight has exhibited his characteristic 
industry and intelligence, together with an 
amount of enthusiasm and local pride which 
may sometimes excite a smile. He tells us 
that the lower portions of the valley de- 
scribed are the Torkshire Rhineland and 
the upper are its Switzerland. To our eyes 
the resemblance between the Rhine and the 
Nidd is about as close as that between 
Monmouth and Macedon, while Alpine 
scenery is not likely to be recalled by 
the distinctive beauties which belong to 
Bewerley and its neighbourhood. 

But we readily acknowledge that this 
little fault in the historian — if fault it be — 
brings with it ample compensation. Mr. 
Speight does not hurry us over the ground 
like a showman weary of his oft-repeated 
tale. He dwells upon every detail with 
careful fondness, and succeeds in finding 
something to interest us at each step we 
take. For, though he may have his hobbies, 
he does not ride them too hard. He can 
give us in a pleasant way an account of the 
geological or botanical features of the 
district, and then pass, by easy transition, 
to the historical incidents with which it is 
connected. Castles, abbeys, and granges 
are made to tell their tales with a degree 
of fulness and accuracy which no mere 
guide-book would display, while local stories 
and traditions about persons and places are 
not thought too trivial to be excluded. 
Mr. Speight is especially strong in family 
history ; and the genealogies of the present 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Eugene Aram, 
and Rudyard Kipling are of more than 
ordinary interest. The Primate descends from 
Thomas Benson, who, in 1480, was keeper of 
one of the forest lodges belonging to Foun- 
tains Abbey, and his father was a man of 
no small reputation in the scientific world. 
The Anglo-Indian novelist — whose grand- 
father was a Wesleyan minister at Pateley 
— is, we learn, the author of a local story, 
entitled On Greenhow Ilill. Eugene Aram 
was born at Ramsgill, and there is certainly 
nothing in his parentage or early training 
which favour the theory of his having been 
a murderer. On the evidence adduced, a 
nineteenth century jury would probably 
have acquitted him. 

Mr. Speight claims another illustrious 
inhabitant for Nidderdale. In spite of the 
accepted belief that the nightingale is never 
found north of the Trent, he asserts that 
the songster may be heard in Birkham 
Wood, near Knaresborough, and is by no 
means a stranger to the coppices on the 
banks of the Nidd. Of the kingfisher one 
is glad to learn that, after having been 
almost exterminated, it is "now fairly 
plentiful, and has greatly increased in 
numbers during the last two years." Un- 
fortunately the protection extended to birds 
takes no account of other forms of life ; and 
of many ferns, once common enough, it has 
to be recorded that they have become 
"extinct" through the rapacity of the 
collector. 

Charles J. Robinson. 



NEW NOVELS. 

Peg the Rake. By "Rita." In 3 vols. 
(Hutchinson.) 

The Co-Respond>nt. By G. W. Appleton. In 
2 vols. (Downey.) 

A Tragic Honeymoon, By Alan St. Aubyn. 
In 2 vols. (White.) 

How He became a Peer. -By James Thirsk. 
In 2 vols. (Ward & Downey.) 

Name this Child. By W. H. Chesson. In 
2 vols. (Fisher Unwin.) 

The Bexuliftd Soul. By Florence Marryat. 
(Digby, Long & Co.) 

The Still House of G'Barrow. By Irving 
Bacheller. (Cassells.) 

The Burning Mist. By Garrett Leigh. 

(Jarrold.) 
The Banshee's Warning. By Mrs. J. H. 

Riddell. (Remington.) 

One excellent feature of Peg the Rake is, that 
the author has contrived to tell an Irish 
story in a perfectly natural way, without 
taxing the reader's patience with an undue 
proportion of Hibernian dialogue. The 
central figure is Miss Em, or, to give her 
name in full, Miss Emilia O'Hara, an un- 
married woman of forty, full, even now, of 
hot blood and outrageous pranks, and with 
a certain history behind her which is care- 
fully concealed till the last moment, and 
constitutes the mystery on which the whole 
interest of the plot depends. Possibly the 
solution, when it does come, may seem a 
little unsatisfactory. Miss Em is a thorough 
woman of the world. She is clever and 
well-educated, has moved in the best society, 
and held her own among it all her life ; and 
she proves more than a match for the pen- 
urious and tyrannical stepmother whom her 
father has placed late in life at the head 
of his household, in the hope of putting 
some check on the extravagant whims 
and escapades of his daughter. Yet when 
at last, in order to escape the annoy- 
ances of her home, she marries the aged 
widower, Sir Jasper Lustrell — an unhappy 
union, from which, in accordance with all 
proper laws of noveldom, she ought to be 
set free — it is disappointing to find that 
the only way provided by the author for 
her extrication is the discovery that twenty 
years previously she had been legally 
married to one Denis Morrison, and — did 
not know it ! Apart from this, the narra- 
tive is well worthy of its author : the 
incidents are at once dramatic and natural, 
and the dialogues full of vivacity. 

For the benefit of such as are likely to 
be shocked by the title of Mr. Appleton's 
book, we may say at once that The Co- 
Respondent contains none of that naughti- 
ness and impropriety which readers might 
have feared, or hoped, to find. Certain im- 
proprieties are, indeed, essential to the plot ; 
but, being the outcome of a preconcerted 
plan, and partaking of the nature of stage 
performances, they can fairly claim exemp- 
tion from reproach. AVhen Mr. John 
Cracklethorpe dies, and leaves £50,000 to 
his nephew. Jack Cracklethorpe, and a like 
sum to his niece, Kate Forester, to be paid 
to the two legatees on the day of their 



54 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185. 



marriage to one another, or in default of 
such marriage to be made over to an 
asylum for idiots, the only difficulty 
about accepting the legacy lies in the fact 
that Jack and Kate are each of them en- 
gaged to be married to somebody else. The 
repudiation of so large a sum of money is, 
however, a matter of serious consideration ; 
and ultimately it is resolved that the 
marriage shall take place, to be followed 
as soon as possible afterwards by a divorce. 
There is no need to follow the writer 
through all the perplexities and entangle- 
ments that crowd upon one another in the 
carrying out of this plan. Mr. Apple- 
ton's aim has been to amuse, and he 
has completely succeeded. Not a particle 
of the story can, of course, be taken 
seriously ; but, given the possibility of the 
leading idea, the details are worked in with 
wonderful skill. It is, in fact, a roaring 
farce throughout, and might well prove 
successful if adapted for the stage. 

Macaulay, in a well-known essay, quotes, 
as a peculiar exemplification of Jane 
Austen's genius, the fact that within the 
compass of a very limited number of novels 
she has given us portraits of four country 
clergymen differing from one another in 
almost every essential particular, except the 
necessary conditions of their calling, yet 
each a truthful representative of certain 
clerical types. We are afraid the same 
praise can hardly be bestowed upon Alan 
St. Aubyn, who, about every six months, 
treats us to a tale of a curate, pious and 
well-intentioned always, but painfully in- 
vertebrate, and, as a rule, painfully like his 
predecessor. The Eeverend Douglas Oraik, 
who figures prominently in A Tragic Roney- 
moon, differs but slightly from the curates 
whom this writer has so often described, 
and his total omission from the story 
might be desirable if only for the avoid- 
ance of monotony. The other characters 
deserve more notice. Nancy Coulcher, the 
soulless and frivolous beauty of Stoke Edith, 
if not an original conception, is capitally 
portrayed throughout, and her plain sisters, 
Lucy and Augusta, are appropriate foils; 
while Mr. Asquith, the rich man of the 
village, and Gilbert Earle, the boarding, 
house master at the grammar school, 
deserve, as an examiner would say, honour- 
able mention. Some of the old blunders 
and absurdities crop up here and there — 
e.g., after describing how the rice " lay thick 
and white upon the road," after the depar- 
ture of a newly married couple, the author 
pro< eeds to say that " it did not lay {sic) 
there long, a flock of rooks swooped down 
upon it." When sparrows were so handy 
for her purpose, the writer might have 
avoided introducing a bird which so rarely 
touchesvegetable food. Anditwas singularly 
injudicious to remark that the will by which 
Nancy Asquith — bride and widow within 
twenty- four hours — became possessed of a 
large property, was made hefore the wedding. 
Errors such as these excepted, the novel is 
a good one. 

How He became a Peer is the story of a 
New York street arab, bom of English 
parents, and sent back to England on the 
death of his mother. After serving as a 



page in an earl's family, he is apprenticed 
to a widow woman keeping a grocer's shop, 
and eventually succeeds to the business 
and to the widow's fortune. Among the 
property bequeathed to him is a bundle of 
papers supposed to be rubbish, but which 
prove to be mining shares of enormous 
value. From a child Jem Walsh has been 
gifted with extraordinary intelligence, and 
the possession of so great wealth enables 
him to enter Parliament ; and after some 
years he receives a peerage from Mr. 
Gladstone — unnecessarily called Mr. Harden 
throughout the book — as a reward for his 
consistent advocacy of democratic reform. 
The story has no pretensions to literary 
merit, but is not devoid of interest. 

It is to be feared that Mr. Ghesson has 
expended much genius and considerable 
pains upon a tale which is little likely to 
become popular. Few will deny that W^ame 
this Child is cleverly written ; but mere 
cleverness is not invariably entertaining, 
and is at times an abomination. The writer 
is well equipped with the weapons of irony 
and satire, ho has a rare epigrammatic 
vein, both cynical and otherwise, consider- 
able imagination, and a powerful faculty of 
introspective analysis. Unfortunately, he 
is not content to limit his exhibition of these 
qualities to the descriptive and explanatory 
parts of his book, but projects them upon 
his puppets. It would be quite enough to 
introduce one character into the book ready 
with metaphysical subtleties and esoteric 
maxims at every turn : when we find that 
nearly all the people of the story are 
abnormally endowed with powers of argu- 
ment and illustration, we know that we are 
not reading their views or their language, 
but merely those of the author himself. To 
thoughtful and poetically fanciful readers 
this tale of a child's development, mental 
and moral, from infancy to manhood may 
perhaps prove interesting, 

A very pretty story. The Beautiful Soul, 
appears from the pen of Florence Marryat. 
The chief character is Felicia Hetherington, 
a wealthy spinster of thirty-five, whose 
plainness of personal appearance is more 
than compensated for by the sweetness and 
charm of her nature. Public opinion will 
pronounce her to be a great deal too good 
for Mr. Archibald Nasmyth, a penniless 
and lazy young journalist of four and 
twenty, who, having succeeded in winning 
her affections and been accepted as her 
engaged lover, proceeds to make violent 
love to Miss Mab Selwyn, aged nineteen. 
The backslider, however, subsequently re- 
pents, and matters are arranged to the 
satisfaction of both parties. 

The SHU House of O' Barrow is a character 
study, depending upon a sort of psycho- 
logical postulate, that a man may conceive 
himself to be constituted of two distinct 
personalities, the one shaped in conformity 
with conscience or moral intuition, the other 
an antagonistic being evolved from certain 
mental characteristics developed by habits 
of life. Sir George O'Darrow, an English- 
man of reckless and dissipated character, 
has for ten years avoided society and lived 
solitary in a large New York mansion. A 
stranger, who is admitted to the house and 



allowed to occupy a bedroom, is astonished 
night after night to hear sounds as of a 
conversation loudly carried on between 
O'Darrow and another man in the libraiy 
on the flat below. After his death it is 
suggested that these conversations were 
carried on by himself in two distinct tones 
of voice, corresponding to his supposed two 
personalities. Apart from the curious 
problem involved, there is no absorbing 
interest in the story. 

In Tlie Burning Mist the Rev. William 
Oourthope, rector of Ballyshee, discloses a 
story of his inner life, in that, having 
married one woman for her money, he had 
wholly given his heart to another. The 
narrative is of a pathetic turn and involves 
several episodes of country life, all con- 
nected with the village of Ballyshee. This 
book belongs to the " Unknown Authors " 
series. Mr. Leigh writes with considerable 
freedom and power, and should be heard of 
again. 

Half a dozen magazine stories now pub- 
lished in book form display Mrs. J. H. 
Riddell's well-known versatility. " The 
Banshee's Warning," which gives its name 
to the volume, deals, of course, with the 
supernatural ; " A Vagrant Digestion " is a 
humorous ; and " So Near ; or, the Pity 
of it," a touchingly pathetic little tale. The 
rest of the book is all well worth reading. 
John B arrow Allen, 



SOMK YOLTJMES OF YERSK. 

Robert F. Murray, his Poems, With a 
Memoir by Andrew Lang. (Longmans.) 

Egbert F. Murray, who stayed among us 
too short a time, was far from finding that 
life was " roses, roses all the way ": indeed, 
he was given more thorns than his share. 
If, however, he was not greatly fortunate 
when he lived and sang, the same ugly Fates 
have not followed him to his quiet ; for he 
has been happy in obtaining as a friend to 
advance his book of serious verse no less 
potent a helper than Mr. Andrew Lang, 
who has written some seventy pages by 
way of introduction. It cannot be dis- 
puted that the author of Tlie Scarlet 
Oown was equipped with enough of mental 
merit to earn money for his wants, and 
place some in a deposit account ; but for 
various reasons, some of which are re- 
vealed by Mr. Lang, he failed to do more 
than " scrape along." How much is meant 
by this expression is known only to those 
who have found that the road of life leads 
uphill. The few chances that came to 
Murray only resulted in the turning up of 
his nose. This was disenchanting, that was 
revolting, the other distasteful ; and so on. 
We cannot refrain from quoting a few lines 
from the Introduction : 

"Again, he had to compile a column of Literary 
News, from the Athtnaeum, the Academy, and 
so on, ' with comments and enlargements where 
possible.' This might have been made ex- 
tremely amusing ! it sounds like a delightful 

task — the making of comments on ' Mr. 

has finished a sonnet ' : ' Mr. -'s poems 

are in their fiftieth thousand ' : ' Miss 

has gone on a tour of health to the banks 
of the Yang-tse-kiang ' : ' Mrs. -- — is 
engaged on a novel about the i'ilchard 



Jan. 19, 1895.— Wo. 1185. j 



THE ACADEMY. 



55 



Fishery.' One could make comments (if per- 
mitted) on these topics for love, and they might 
not be unpopular. But perhaps Murray was 
shackled a little by human respect or the 
prejudices of his editor. At all events, he calls 
it ' not very inspiring employment.' The bare 
idea, I confess, inspirits me extremely." 
Wo have now to say a few words about 
Murray's serious verses ; and it rejoices us 
to be able to praisejfrankly, without feeling 
tied by the excellent sentiment of " De mor- 
tiiis nil nisi bonum." Humorous writersin 
poetry are so rare that we cling with 
affection to the examples of high spirits 
in The Scarlet Gown, but in this book of 
graver themes there are plenty of excuses 
for being off with the old love. Murray 
died at thirty years of age, when, in our 
opinion, he was on the edge of a larger 
success ; for surely the man who was capable 
of writing such a volume as we have before 
us was a man of promise. Though he 
would never have been a poet in excehis, it 
is quite safe to say that his position among 
less exalted singers would have been one of 
prominence ; for he had strongly developed 
those gifts which have made other men 
pleasing to the public ear. There are very 
few lapses from musical utterance in these 
pages. Sometimes a poem •oatains a 
particularly fine line; for instance, the 
seventh in " The Caged Thrush " : 

" Alas for the bird who was bom to sing ! 
They have made him a cage ; they have clipped 
bis wing ; 
I They have shut him up in a dingy street, 
^ And they praise his (iuging and call it sweet. 
But his heart and his song are 3*ddened and 

filled 
With the woods, and the nest he never will 

build. 
And the wild joung dawn coming into the tree. 
And the mate that never his mate will be, 
And day by day, when his notes are heard, 
They freshen the street -but alas for the bird ! " 

"Where's the Use," "Love's Phantom," 
" Welcome Home," have beauties enough 
to make them remembered. But if we are 
to offer one more inducement to purchasers 
who may be halting between two opinions, 
we cannot do better than quote in full this 
perfect little " Song of Truce ": 

" Till the tread of marching feet 
Through the quiet grass -grown street 
Of the little town shall come. 
Soldier, rest awhile at home. 

" While the banners idly hang, 
While the bugles do not clang. 
While is hushed the clamorous drum. 
Soldier, rest awhile at home. 

" In the breathing-time of Death, 
While the tword is in its sheath, 
While the cannon's mouth is dumb, 
Soldier, rest awhile at home. 

" Not too long the rest shall be. 
Soon enough, to Death and thee, 
"The assembly call shall come. 
Soldier, rest awhile at home." 

Laiji of the Brayon Slayer. By Maxwell 
Gray. (Bliss, Sands & Poster.) 

To the author it seems that these poems 
aru, " in spite of defects and crudities, 
touched with the subtle magic that dis- 
tinguishes poetry, however faulty, from 
verse, however perfect." At last Maxwell 
Gray began to think that, in allowing the 
lays to yellow unbeheld in a drawer, a 
cumulative sin was being committed as 



enormity, for the lays are now fifteen years 
of age, became too heavy : so publishers 
have come to the salvation of the sinner, 
and the crime is very prettily expiated by 
the appearance of a volume with a most 
tasteful exterior. Maxwell Gray's book 
tells us in clever verse (never mind the 
subtle magic) of the Nibelungen Lied. 
Here we have Siegfried, Chriemhild, and 
Brunhild, to mention only a few of the 
characters, treated of in these capable 
pages. The last of the seven lays, as we 
learn from the preface, still remains along- 
side of the unwritten cantos of the " Fairy 
Queen," the untold "Canterbury Tales," 
the end of " Christabel," and the remainder 
of Keats' " Hyperion." This being so, it 
only remains for us to compliment it upon 
the company it keeps. Maxwell Gray has 
every reason to be pleased with his work ; 
for, indeed, it is vigorous stuff, proving 
an ear for music, a power for selecting 
the fit epithet, and a command over 
the metres employed. We do not detect 
that august magic which appears to the 
author to be resident in the quality of the 
verse, but there is plenty that is up to the 
level of our quotations from the prelude to 
" The Winning of Brunhild." 

" Know ye the land, not set in any sea 

Of mariner sailed with sail of mortal loom, 
Where glows not fruit of any earth-grown tree. 
Whore, stealing soul and sense, pale ilowers 
bloom? 
" Enow ye that land, so strange, so dim, so far. 
Not found on any chart by mortal limned, 
Not shone upon by sun or dewy star. 

But lit ■with lustre night hath never dimmed ? 

" There spread waste tracts by mortal foot untrod, 
Where fitful lightnings dart in arrowy gleams. 
Where vague, weird figures brush the dewless sod. 
And voices pass unbodied as in dreams. 
" There jewelled palaces, by hands unwrought. 
Lift airy pinnacles from craggy heights, 
Bocki cleave and lighted halls appear unsought, 
FuU of sweet song and perfume and delights." 

Close upon the end of the book there occurs 
the line, 

" ' Not yet awhile, not yet awhile,' she cried." 
This smacks somewhat of slang, and might 
be altered if a subsequent edition gives the 
chance of a revising. 

My Friend. By Quex. (Fisher Unwin.) 

We frankly confess that five-score sonnets 
are not the best literary oysters for stimu- 
lating a critic of our kind ; for when the 
sonnet is debased from its prime importance 
into a mere poem of fourteen lines, retain- 
ing the form but discarding the soul, we 
are compelled by our taste to regard the 
performance with something of apathy. It 
is very curious to note, with regard to an 
author's poetical output, two of the super- 
stitions which, after invasion, stoutly beset 
the popular mind. He must bore his 
readers with a sustained effort, a play, or 
an epic, whether or no he may have a talent 
for longitude ; and he must muse in sonnets. 
We may rank these unbecoming notions 
with that folly which would drive a 
householder to church in a top-hat. We 
are obliged to think that Quex has chosen 
a form which cramps him. But, on the 
whole, his poems are deserving of notice ; 
and they incidentally prove wide reading. 



a trait for which it is possible to be abun- 
dantly thankful. We quote poem the sixth : 

" Surrendered in her sleep to one who stept 

First in a dream, that day might not disclaim, 
The maiden saw her soul, with sense of shame, 

Exposed to raid and ravage while she slept. 

And though the tender hour of twilight kept 
Her blush unnoted as her lover's name 
Fell from a lip indifferent when he came. 

Her pulse, as he were in the secret, leapt. 

And while her heart, like captured lledgling, beat 

Once in the palms that met, the man allured 
By witness unsuborned to welcome sweet 

And of his hopes that sprang to life assured, 
Swore in his soul that throb for throb is meet. 

Since love ere mutual is not love matured." 

A great many of these brevities are not 
so good as the one we have used for a . 
specimen of the work of Quex. 

My Lattice, and Other Poems, By Frederick 
George Scott. (Toronto : William 
Briggs.) 

This is not our first meeting with Frederick 
George Scott ; and we shall hope to spend 
pleasant hours with him in the future, if he 
can only give us fresh work equal to the 
six best poems in My Lattice. His muse — 
a very unpretentious lady — for the most 
part treats him prettily, but occasionally 
she plays him a shabby trick, as any 
reader of this slim volume of verse may 
discover by considering the poems that 
stand on pp. 75, 5. Whatever is Mr. 
Scott doing with such a drawing-room 
ballad form as he employs for " Andante " ? 
Among wise men it is dead ; and it sur- 
prises us that an author who is gifted 
enough to write "Van Elxen" or " Calvary," 
or some of the fine stanzas contained in 
" Samson " and " My Lattice," could waste 
himself in a triviality without detecting the 
ineiHciency of his effort. This book is 
rugged in merit, as most books must be ; 
but when Mr. Scott is at his best, he knows 
how to turn out verses that charm. 

NoEMAN Gale. 



cumulative sin was being committed as and they incidentally prove wiae reaaing, 
years rolled away. Finally, the j)ile of [ together with a quite classic use of words, I 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

We are glad to hear that Mr. Leslie Stephen 
is engaged upon a biography of his brother, 
the late Sir James Pitzjames Stephen. 

Me. G. a. Sala's Autobiography will be 
published by Messrs. Cassell & Company on 
January 22. It will also be issued simul- 
taneously in America. 

Messes. Smith, Eldee & Co. announce 
Recollections of a Military Life, by General Sir 
John Adye, late Governor of Gibraltar, with 
illustrations by the author. 

Messes. Longmans have nearly ready for 
publication a History of Spain, by Mr. Ulick 
Balph Burke, in two volumes, from the earliest 
times to the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. 

Messes. Chapman & Hall will publish 
immediately a volume entitled A Year of Sport 
and Natural History, written by various 
writers, under the editorship of Mr. Oswald 
Crawford. It deals with shooting, hunting, 
fishing, and courstag in all their branches, and 
also has chapters on birds of prey, the nesting 
of wild birds, and the ways and habits of 
poachers. It will be abundantly illustrated from 
drawings by Mr. G. E. Lodge and others. 

The second volume of the third edition of 
Mr. Bryce's American Commonwealth will be 
issued in the course of a 'few days by Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co. To the part containing 



56 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185. 



" IlluslrftUoM and ReflecUoni " the author has 
added four new chapters. In one of these he 
records the history of the Tammany Ring in 
New York City ; under the title of " The Home 
of the Nation," he sketches the ouUines of 
North American geography, and notes some of 
the effects on the growth of the United States 
attributable to them ; the other two deal with 
•' The South since the War," and " The Present 
and the Future of the Negro." Substantial 
alterations have also been made in most of the 
remaining chapters, and the work has been 
completely revised throughout. 

0th KK works which will bo issued next week 
by Messrs. Macmillan arc .1 Confession of Faith, 
by an Unorthodox Believer, who seeks to show 
that the religious spirit, in what seems to him 
the true sense, is independent of belief in the 
miraculous ; a new novel, The Sphinx of Eagle- 
hawk, by Rolf Boldrewood ; and vols, xxxiii. 
and xxxiv. (" King Lear" and " Othello") of 
the edition de lute of the Cambridge Shakspere. 

Messrs. Bliss, Sands & Posteh announce 
a collection of biographies of living statesmen 
and rulers, entitled " Public Men of To-day: 
an International Series," under the editorship of 
Mr. 8. H. Jeyes. The first volume will appear 
early in this year, and the five following are 
arranged for and in course of preparation : — 
Li Hung Chang, by Prof. R. K. Douglas ; 
The lU. Hon. Cecil Rhodes, by Mr. Edward 
Dicey ; The Ameer, by Mr. Stephen Wheeler ; 
The Oerman Emperor, by Mr. Charles Lowe ; 
and Sehor Castelar, by Mr. David Hannay. 
Volumes on President Cleveland, Signer Crispi, 
Lord Cromer, and M. Stambuloff will shortly 
be announced. Each volume will contain one 
or more portraits (and maps where they are 
considered advisable). The series is intended 
to furnish both a biographical account and a 
critical appreciation of the more famous 
makers of contemporary history, 

Mr. Elkin Mathews announces the follow- 
ing for early pnblication : a volume of poetry, 
by Mr. Lionel Johnson, whose verse has hitherto 
appeared only in the two issues of " The 
Rhymers' Club"; a drama by Mr. "W. B. 
Yeats, author of "The Land of Heart's 
Desire "; a new vclume of poems, entitled 
Pansiet, by Miss May Probyn, who has not 
published anything for about ten years ; and a 
second edition of Miss Elizabeth Rachel 
Chapman's sonnet-sequence, A Little Child's 
Wreaih, the first edition of which has been very 
rapidly exhausted. 

Mn. Horace Cox announces an historical 
poem, by Mr. Charles R. Low, illustrative of 
the history of the British Navy, from the 
battle of Sluys to the present day. The metre 
is that of Scott's " Marmion." The work is 
divided into two books, consisting of ten 
cantos, and contains, besides the history proper, 
a record of the services of distinguished seamen 
and of historic ships-of-war. 

The Kelmscott Press has now almost ready 
for issue to subscribers the new version of 
Beowulf, made by Mr. William Morris and Mr. 
A. J. Wyatt. It is printed in black and red, 
in what is known as the Troy type, with hand- 
some initial letters, and bound in limp vellum, 
with silk ties. 

Mb. Elliot Stock announces the following 
new volumes of verse : Thoughts in a Qardtn, 
by A. L. Stevenson ; The Mummer, and other 
Poems, by Henry Oitelen. 

Messrs. Wiluam Andrews & Co., Hull, will 
issue at an early date Curious Church Customs, 
edited by Mr. \V. Andrews. Among the more 
important contributions will be : " Sports in 
Churches " and " Armour in Churches," by the 
Rev. Dr. Cox ; " Church Bells, and why they 
were rung," by Miss Florence Peacock; 
"Holy Day Customs," by the Rev. Q. S 



Tyack ; and " Customs and Superstitions of 
Baptism," by Canon Benham. There will also 
be chapters on " Marriage and Burial 
Customs," "Bishops in Battle," the "Cloister 
and its Story," the " Rood Loft," "Beating the 
Bounds," &c. 

Mr. Qeorqe N. Corzon's Problems of the 
Far East has already passed into a third 
edition. 

Dr. Earl Blind will contribute a paper to 
the forthcoming number of the Scottish 
Review, entitled " Ale Drinking : Old Eg^pt 
and the Thrako-Qermanic Race." He deals 
with the beverages of antiquity, and attempts 
to prove that the art of brewing was, in all 
probability, introduced into the Nile country by 
a race akin to the Teutonic stock. 

A serial by Mrs. R. S. De Courcy Laffan 
(Mrs. Lgith - Adams), entitled "The Old 
Pastures : a Story of the Woods and Fields," 
will commence in Uonsehold Words for 
January 2G. 

On Monday and Tuesday next Messrs. 
Sotheby will be engaged in selling the library 
of the late Edmund Yates, to which we have 
already referred. When looked at in the cold 
pages of a catalogue, the collection does not 
appear so interesting as we had thought. If 
there are many presentation copies, there are 
also many "stamped with the publisher's 
mark." The truth is, that Mr. Yates was not 
really a collector, though he does seem to have 
had his presentation copies decently bound. 
Of course, the chief attraction is the association 
with Dickens — the desk which Dickens used, a 
portfolio containing thirty- four of his letters to 
Mr. Yates, and several of his first editions. 
Not wholly unconnected with Dickens is the 
privately printed pamphlet recording the 
circumstances of Mr. Yates's retirement from 
the Garrick Club, which Mr. Yates had bound 
in morocco. We may further mention, for the 
benefit of another class of book-buyers, a copy 
of Prince L.-L. Bonaparte's " Parable of the 
Sower " in seventy-two languages or dialects 
of Europe. 

UNIVERSITY JOTTINGS. 

Full term began at Cambridge in the early 
part of the current week ; at Oxford, in the 
latter part. 

The University of Cambridge has conferred 
the degree of Doctor in Law, honoris causa, 
upon Mr. J. Westlake, Whewell professor of 
international law. Prof. Westlake's lectures 
this term, we may add, will present a summary 
of the principles of international law, specially 
intended for students of history. 

Mr. a. HuTcniNSON, of Pembroke, h»s been 
appointed demonstrator of mineralogy at 
Cambridge for a term of five years. 

The Slade professorship of fine art at 
Cambridge will shortly become vacant, on the 
expiration of Mr. J. II. Middleton's third term 
of ofiice. The election is fixed for February 25. 

■ An extraordinary meeting of Convocation of 
the University of London will be held on 
Tuesday next, to consider the report of the 
annual committee upon the proposed teaching 
university for London. The report is generally 
favourable to the scheme of the Royal Com- 
mission — that there should be only one univer- 
sity in London — subject to variation in details, 
to be accomplished by means of a Statutory 
Commission. 

In connexion with the London University 
Extension Society, Mr. H. J. Mackinder will 
commence next Monday, at (i p.m., at Qres- 
ham College, a second course of lectures on 
" Geographical Discovery," dealing with the 
Renaissance and the modern period. 



Prof. H. Allemand will deliver a course of 
five public lectures on " Modem French 
Literature," at University College, on Fridays 
at S.30 p.m., beginning on January 20. He 
will deal with such subjects as : the great 
French historians of the nineteenth century, 
contemporary French poetry, Alexandre Dumas 
pire, and Theuphile Gautier. 

In a paper read before the Statistical Society 
last Tuesday, Mr. L. L. Price, treasurer of 
Oriel, discussed the effect of agricultural 
depression upon the colleges at Oxford. He 
compared the income of lH9'i with that of 1883, 
as taken from the printed accounts of all the 
colleges. During those ten years, the gross 
external receipts have fallen from £301,193 to 
£289,527, while the external expenditure has 
risen from £109,170 to £124,2()l, so that the 
net decrease in income is no less than £20,877. 
But, of course, the whole external receipts are 
not derived from land. As a matter of fact, 
the receipts from houses show an increase of 
more than £20,000, while the receipts from 
land only show a decrease of £10,500, and the 
receipts from tithes a decrease of £'7500. 
Nor is this all. During the period under 
review, the old system of beneficial leases has 
been steadily running out, which ought to 
have produced a distinct augmentation of 
rental. Taking this into consideration, Mr. 
Price estimates that agricultural depression has 
caused to the Oxford colleges a loss of nearly 
30 per cent, of their incomes. And this loss 
has to be borne entirely by the fellows, or, 
rather, by the fellows of the old foundation, 
who are dependent upon dividends ; for the 
amount devoted to scholarships and exhibitions 
has actually increased. It need hardly be 
added that some colleges have suffered very 
much more than others. 

A nisfiNUTioN in academical incomes may 
arise from other causes than agricultural depres- 
sion. We observe that, through the recent 
conversion of Indian Rupee Paper, the salary of 
the Tagore law professor at Calcutta has been 
reduced from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 9,000. 

The current number of the Eagle — a magazine 
supported by members of St. John's College 
(Cambridge : Johnson) — prints two documents 
relating to the tomb of the Lady Margaret, in 
Westminster Abbey. One is the contract by 
her executors with Torrigifino, described as 
" Peter Thoryson of Florence graver," for the 
sculpturing of the tomb at a cost of £100; 
the other is a contract made by the college 
with a certain Cornelius Symondson, of St. 
Clement Danes, smith, for the making of a 
grate or cage of gilt iron-work, to enclose the 
tomb, at a cost of £25. This grate has long 
disappeared, and all tradition of it has been 
lost. Another article gives an account of the 
old library of Hawkshead grammar school in 
the time of Wordsworth. It happens that the 
admission register of scholars has been lost ; 
but the headmaster of the time made entries of 
the books presented to the library by the boys 
on leaving. Prom this can be reconstructed a 
list of Wordsworth's Hawkshead contem- 
poraries. The future poet himself presented 
(together with three other schoolfellows) 
Gillies's History of Greece and Hoole's trans- 
lation of Tasso. Whether these books still 
exist we are not told. But Wordsworthians 
will be interested to learn that the lines in the 
Prelude — 
" This Boy was taken from his Mates and died 

In childhood, ere he was full twelve years old " — 
cannot refer to William Raincock, as has been 
supposed ; for he duly proceeded to Cambridge 
in 1780. 

The committee of the alumni and officers of 
Columbia College, New York, have recently 
issued a Centennial Catalogue, containing not 
only the names but also the addresses, classified 



Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185."! 



THE ACADEMY. 



57 



under State, country, and place, of more than 
8000 living graduates. Wo have often regretted 
that the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge 
have never taken similar stops to preserve a 
record of those whose names, for various 
reasons, may be no longer on the books. 



TRANSLATION. 

THE CANTATA OF DIDO. 

{From the Portuguese of Correa Oarfuo.) 
Now, in the purple East, the swelling sails 
That sped the Trojan fleet were gleaming white. 
Now, borne upon the breeze, they seemed to sink 
Amid the blue waves of the sun-gilt sea. 

The miserable Lido, 
Loud wailing, wanders through her regal halls, 
And vainly seeks with ejne bedimmed by tears 

The fugitive Eneas. 
Nothing save empty streets and silent squares 
The new-built Carthage offers to her gaze. 
While with a horiidroar upon the strand 
The EoUtary waves break through the night, 
And on the gUded vanes 
That top the stately domes 
Some birds of night screech evil auguries. 
She fancies, struck with fear, 
That from the ashes cold 
Of dead Sicheus in his marble tomb 
A voice keeps calling out, in accents weak, 
Elissa ! my Elissa ! with a tigh. 

To the dread Gods of Hell 
A fitting sacrifice 
Begins she ; but, dismayed. 
Beholds the incense-smoking altars round, 
A black fcum bubbling iathe ritual bowls. 

And the libation wine 
Transformed into an ugly sea of blood. 
Delirious she raves ; 
Pale is her beauteous face 
And all dishevelled her fine silken hair ; 
Scarce conscious, and with trembling step, she 
seeks 

The happy chamber where 
She heard, in melting mood, 
Her faithless lover breathe 
His tighs of sorrow joined to soft complaints. 
There the remorselesss Fates showed to her gane 
The Trojan garb that, pendent from the head 
Of the fair-gilded nuptial-couch, diecloscd 
The glittcriug shield and eke the Teiicrian sword. 
With hand convulsive, all at once, she tnatched 
The brightly shimmering blade from out its 

sheath. 
And on the hard and penetrating steel 
Her tender bosom clear as crystal cast. 
With a fell rueh of foam and raurmuiing swell 
The blood comes spouting forth from out the 

woimd, 
And, splashed by jets of that ensanguined stream. 
Tremble the Doric pillars of the hall. 
Three times she strove to rise. 
And three times fainting fell upon the conch, 
And, as she lay there, raised to heaven above 

Her troubled, failing ejne. 
And, with her look fixed on thelusbrous mall 

Of the fond fugitive 
From Ilium-town, she uttered these last words 
Whose mournful, pity-moving accents, borne 
Aloft, did hover 'neath the gilded roofs 
Which long time aft resounded with their moan : 
" Ye relics dear, 

WhoEe sight rejoiced 

Mine eyes full oft. 

The while the Fates 

And Gods above 

So willed it be : 

Of tristful Dido 

The soul receive. 

And from all troubles 

Her relieve. 

Dido unhappy 

Has lived out her time ; 

She raised up the walls 

Of Carthage sublime; 

Now, bare her f prite. 

In that foul bark 

By Charon plied. 

Goes ploughing through 

The inky tide 

Of Phlegethon." 

EPOAR PbEBTAOE. 



OBITUARY. 

SIE JOHN SEELEY, K.CM.G. 

Thottgh it was known that Sir John 8eeley had 
long been suffering from a painful illness, the 
news of his death on Sunday comes as a 
shock. Last term at Cambridge, he not only 
took his usual conversational class at his 
private residence, but also lectured on ' ' The 
Wars of England with Louis XIV." ; and this 
very week the University Reporter announced 
that this course of lectures would be continued. 
His death, following so close on that of Mr. 
Fronde's, reminds us how sadly reduced is the 
number of professors at either University who 
can be said to enjoy a public reputation as men 
of letters. 

John Kobert Seeley was born in 1831, being 
the son of a London publisher, other members 
of whose family have achieved distinction. He 
was educated at the City of London School, in 
the early days of its revival under Dr. Mortimer. 
After being elected to a scholarship at Christ's 
College, he graduated in 1837 as one of three 
(bracketed), senior classics, and also won the 
senior Chancellor's medal. He returned to his 
old school as assistant-master, and for a few 
years held the chair of Latin at University 
College. In 1809— at the comparatively early 
age of thirty-five — he was appointed by Mr. 
Gladstone regius professor of modern history 
at Cambridge, in succession to Canon Kingsley. 

At that time he was chiefly known as the 
author of Ecce Homo, though we believe that 
he never acknowledged the paternity. But he 
had also written two or three other books, one 
of which — vindicating the claim of Edward I. 
to be called the greatest of the Plantagenets — 
has won high praise from Bishop Stubbs. The 
first-fruits of his professorial work at Cam- 
bridge appeared in 1879, in a history of Ger- 
many during the Napoleonic age, which he 
called The Life and Times of Stein. This was 
followed by The Expansion of England (1883), 
which curiously recalls the Oceana of Mr. 
Froude. He also reprinted from the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica a memoir of Napoleon ; and 
also last year a series of old papers from 
the Contemporary Rivieiu, entitled " Goethe 
reviewed after Sixty Years." 

As an historian, Seeley belonged to the 
modem school, which tends to sacrifice literary 
presentment to accuracy of research. Notably 
in his book on Stein, he seems to have deliber- 
ately resolved not to be popular. And this is 
the more remarkable when we remember that 
he took a keen interest in modern affairs, both 
religious and political, while his other books 
prove that he possessed the saving grace of 
imagination. Ecce Ifomo&nd The Expansion of 
England, indeed, are, in their different ways, 
two of the remarkable productions of the later 
Victorian epoch. The first represents, more 
clearly than elsewhere, the humanitarian change 
that has come over Christianity in the eyes of 
all enlightened laymen ; while the second 
embodies, in sober historical retrospect, the 
views of statesmen of both parties with regard 
to the colonial empire of England. It is given 
to few men thus to discern the currents of 
contemporary thought, and to associate their 
own names with great popular movements. 



THOMAS GORDON HAKE, M.D. 

The death of Dr. Hake, on January 11, 
removes one of the last survivors of those 
active minds who were stimulated by the 
stirring events of the beginning of the present 
century. He had lived a long and a full life. 
Born in 1809, the same year as Tennyson, he 
was educated at Christ's Hospital, where the 
traditions of Coleridge and Lamb were still 
fresh. As a medical student in the London 
hospitals, he early came under the influence of 



great physicians and surgeons ; and interest in 
the obscurer problems of natural science always 
remained with him. As a young man, he 
travelled a good deal on the continent. On 
returning to England he settled down to 
practice in East Anglia, and there became 
intimate with George Borrow. Later on, he 
was the physician and personal friend of 
Eossetti, who expressed, in the Academy and 
elsewhere, the highest opinion of his poetry. 
At heart, indeed, he was a very genuine poet, 
whose strain of thought was absolutely original, 
and, therefore, appealed to but a limited audi- 
ence. In these matters it is idle to fight against 
fate ; and Dr. Hake himself was too much of 
a philosopher to complain that he never received 
wider recognition. It pleased him to write, 
and to know that what he wrote was appre- 
ciated by some of the best judges of the time. 
His name, we think, will not be omitted from 
any catholic anthology of the Victorian age. 



We have also to record the death of William 
Sime, which took place on December 20, at 
Calcutta, where he had been settled for some 
time on the staff of the Statesman. He was 
born at Wick in 18jl, being the younger 
brother of James Sime, author of the Life of 
Lessing. At one time he was well known in 
London as a journalist; and he also wrote a 
number of novels, which have been highly 
praised for their freshness and vitality. His 
wide travels through America and Australia 
are described in a volume entitled To and Fro, 



MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS. 

The Antiquary begins the new year well. 
It contains little or nothing which we would 
desire to have been left out, but more than one 
of the articles are too short. We hope that for 
the future the editor will not sacrifice thorough- 
ness for the sake of variety. The best paper is 
unsigned. It relates to the church of St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-East, one of the London 
churches which we have understood had been 
doomed to destruction. This danger has for 
the present been averted. We entirely agree 
with the writer who says "whatever ecclesias- 
tical union of parishes may be found desirable, 
it is earnestly to be hoped that no more of the 
London City churches will be pulled down." 
A long inventory of the goods of this church as 
they existed in the sixth year of Edward VI. i» 
given. It is an important document, which 
will give the reader some idea of the number 
of beautiful and precious things which our 
churches contained before the Tudor spolia- 
tions. It should be noticed that several of the 
vestments were blue in colour. Antiquaries 
know that blue was one of the liturgical colours 
in this country, but such knowledge is not 
widely spread. Those who have not studied 
the history of church vestments in original 
documents, seem to be for the most part of 
opinion that in unreformed England the colours 
of the Latin Rite were used. Mr. A. W. 
Moore's " Further Notes on Manx Folk-lore " 
are interesting. Man is but a small place. It 
has been successively occupied by Celts of two 
kinds, and then was, for a time, a Norse king- 
dom. The skilful investigator would, we 
imagine, find folk-lore of very various peoples. 
It is a spot concerning which it would be well to 
have an exhaustive treatise. We are glad to find 
that this is not the last paper we shall have from 
Mr. Moore on the subject. Mr. Wilfrid Cripps 
gives an account of a very graceful medieval 
chalice which has recently been found in 
private hands ; and an anonymous corre- 
spondent writes regarding a late sixteenth 
century knife in the Louvre, on which is 
engraved a short Latin grace with music. 



58 



THE ACADEMY 



[Jan. 19, 1896.— tto. 1185. 



8BLECTED FOREIGN BOOKS. 

QEKERAL LITERATURE. 

OOLAXI, T. ImUi da etiUqn*, histotiqae, phUoMphiqne «t 

HttAnin. riuto: ChaUier- Str.We. 
DvoAl. L. VAiMit antiqiM d'apn^i 1« Bi(uan populaira 

SfaitMoiiMdMpUloa^ia. P»ito: Alcan. T ttJKt. 
Vraax^urrxiio, Th. L'Honmt et w de»Uc<^. Pui« : 

noa. T fr. CO c. 
QiBADDiiv, Fmuad. N»i>ol<''on in. intime. Faiij : OU«n. 

dorff. 7 1». 60 c. . , „ , 

OmBsr, Q. de. Le Tmuforminne loeul: Euu ma le 

nociv^i et 1« regiOi de* •ociiHri. Puii : Aleui. 7 fr. 

fiOc. 
LicuitK, Adht'-mu. Conta< et l^gende* di Cuabodge. 

Futa : BouiUon. 6 fr. , , 

LoTi, Pierre. LeE.'iert. Pule: C«lm inn LCry. Sfr. 60o. 
MCnoiHKs du chuUtaa Sidonie HC'tiador, p.p. L. Alotte. 

P*iu : Bouillon. 3 fr. 50 c 
PiscAi, Luden. Li e<'';ulture .^ ttavera tea Sii^dea. F*ria: 

Mar Si Motttroz. 1 f r. 60 c 
PniTBis, Li:. ..HAsns. Jeui-Paul Lanreot. Paris: Tal- 

landier. 7 ft. 
PraxAi', Lrin, et GaoBuiiKis. Le Folk-Lore de Leeboe. 

Paria : Jiaiaonneuve. 6 fr. 
TAtrrniis, Maiuioe. LeOouTemement local del'Angleterre. 

Fuia: Bonaaeau. Sfr. 



HISTORY, ETC. 
La Oaerie lSTO-71. Paria: 



ChaiUey. 7 fr. 



CBugmn, A. 

60 e. 
OaazBTiOf N. Ueb. aufgefondend chinirgiache Instrumente 

dea AltMrthuma io Viminacium (Kostolac ia Saibien). 

Varanaebea : Diosesan-Buchdruckerei. 4 M. 90 Ff. 
Gt'^:aY, G. MouvemenU et dimiaution de \\ popalation 

agrioole en France. Paria : Ronaaeau. 6 fr. 
LABBTiLLii.aK'LKi-iArx. Mcmbre da directoire ex^utif de 

la ri'publiqoe fraS'-^iae, Mi'moirea de. Paris: Pion. 

Mfr. 
Lboravd, Anile. Becueil de docnmenta grecs c }noeniant tea 

rtlttlftni da patriarcAt de J.'/usalem aves la Roamanie 

(1668-1718). Paria : Welter. 30 fr. 
Mauij)! la ClIaviLBE, U. de. Louise de Savoie et Fran(;3is 

ler : txvmte ans de jeuneaae. Paris : Perrin. 8 fr. 
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Ganla joaqn'.^ I'avi'-aement des France. Paris : Haiaon- 

neure. IS fr. 
Boooi'Aix, F.'Ux. La Coot de Rsme et I'eaprit de r^forme 

avant Luther. T. II. Lea abua : dt'K^adenoe de la 

papaati^. Paria : Tboiia. 13 fr. 

PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. 

Oautibb, L. Les thampignona. Paria : Baillii'ce. 18 fr, 
Kalpa. loTolution et rrolution d'apri's la pblloaophie des 

eyeles. Ire Partie. L'UntverB. Paria : Oart^'. 9 fr. 
FBTTOnBBAU, A. Contribution u I'i'tule de la morphologie 

de I'armnre gt^oitale des inaectei. Paris : Soc. dYslliiang 

adentiflqots. 30 f. 

PHILOLOGY, 

Lbobb, L., et O. Bauduxs'ait. Lea Bacinea de la langne 

maae. Paria : Maisonneuve. 5 fr. 
Tabdil, H. UntersuchuDgen zurmittelhochdeutschen Spiel- 

maonspoeiie. Leipzig : Fock. 1 H. 20 Pf , 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



THE HEW SYRIAO GOSPELS. 

BeUaat : Jan. 9, 1895. 

Idr, Charles somewhat underestimates, in the 
Academy of January 5, the evidence favourable 
tp my statement, that " such of the followers of 
Jesus as were Qreek Jews and proselytes ac- 
claimed in him the Divine Word," " None of 
the twelve Apostles were Greek Je ws, " he urges ; 
and this is the first of his " unanswerable 
objections." 

I would answer that John, the only Apostle 
whom we can with certainty rank among our 
Evangelists, both wrote and thought in Greek, 
and was therefore a Greek Jew as much as 
Pbilo, So was Matthew, if he was the real 
author of our First Gospel. " In Matthew we 
have a Gospel written by a Galilean Jew in 
Palestine for Jews," says Mr. Charles. If so, 
a Galilean Jew wrote in Greek for Jews in 
Palestine who read Greek — i.e., a Greek Jew 
for Qreek Jews, Philip (John xii, 21) was of 
Bethsaida in Galilee, yet he must have known 
Greek, or else the " Greeks among those who 
went up to worship at the feast " and desired 
"to see Jesus" would not have applied to 
him. If James, Peter, and Jude all wrote their 
epistles in Greek, they also were Greek Jews, no 
less than Pbilo, So was Apollos, Paul, Barnabas, 
and probably all the sevan Greek-named 
Deacons, beginning with Stephen and ending 
with Nicholas, the proselyte of Antioch, These 
Deacons, moreover, were ordained to protect 
the interests of the Greek Jews, who from the 
first formed ^ important section of the earliest 



Church at Jerusalem (Acts vi, 1), Going 
beyond the faithful, we find that Nicodemus 
had a Greek name, and perhaps knew Greek. 
The same is true of Alexander (Acts iv. 7). 
And of the presence in force in Jerusalem of 
Alexandrian Jews we have also evidence. For 
this Alexander was probably a near relative of 
Philo, and the Alexandrian, Libyan, and 
Cyrenaic Jews all had synagogues in 
Jerusalem ; and their peculiar antagonism 
to Stephen is explicable only if we suppose 
that the reformed Judaism was recruiting 
itself chiefly from their ranks — a supposition 
favoured by Philo's later writings, and by the 
very fact that it is the Christian Church alone 
which has kept and handed down to us all his 
voluminous works. Nor is Mr. Charles's 
assertion, that allegorical or Philonean methods 
of interpretation were unknown in Judaea from 
200 B.c, to 100 A,u., correct. For Philo assures 
us that the Palestinian Essenes allegorised the 
law ipx"''"'' P^'V f-^^v" with antique enthusiasm," 
just as did the Alexandrian Therapeutae, who 
with their mystical ideas of parthenogenesis 
were, he tell us, scattered all over the inhabited 
world, numbering in their ranks Jews and 
Greeks alike. 

Such are some of the " slight and perilous 
foundations," as Mr. Charles calls them, on 
which is built my "lofty and pretentious 
superstructure " of assertion : namely, that " it 
was the Greek Jews or proselytes among the 
followers of Jesus that acclaimed in Him the 
Divine Word." 

In the second part of his letter Mr. Charles 
blames me for ascribing to Philo the belief that 
God is "the maker of all things visible and 
invisible"; because, he says, Philo was "a 
thorough-going dualist." Philo was, in fact, 
as much or as little of a dualist as Origen, 
Clement, or any other Greek Father. Mr. 
Charles will find the phrase to which he takes 
exception in Philo i. 644. 

He objects that the Logos bom of the virgin 
Sophia in Philo's Creed is the Logos made 
sensible in the Cosmos, and not the Logos 
which is " the Firstborn of God," and even God 
Himself: the naiura naturala and not the 
natura naturans. This he calls my " first mis- 
statement," and objects that I confuse and 
assign the attributes of Logos II. to Logos I. 

Far from confusing these two aspects of the 
one Logos, I made their distinctness a main step 
in my argument. The orthodox Church believes 
that the Word made sensible as flesh and born 
of the human Virgin Mary was the same Word 
which " was in the beginning with God," and 
through whom were made all things. This 
Word, incarnate of Christian belief, is of one 
substance with God. The old Creeds assert it. 
Why, then, should not my Philonean Creed 
assert a similar identity of Logos II. and 
Logos I., as Mr. Charles calls the twin aspects 
of Uie one notion ? Mr. Charles should really find 
fault with the Nicene Fathers, " who assigned 
to Logos II. the predicates of Logos I.," and 
not with myself. I am only a humble imitator 
of them, as were they of Philo— at least, if we 
may trust Bishop Bull. 

in this second part of his letter Mr. Charles 
speaks of my ' ' whole attempt to father on Philo 
the idea of a miraculous conception." I fear he 
has mistaken the drift of my argument. I did 
not attribute to Philo any such idea ; but only 
endeavoured to show that the Christian dogma 
is a materialisation of a philosophical myth 
found in Philo, and that it bears throughout 
its development the stamp of such an origin. 
I also pointed out in a former letter that the 
story in the Gospels of the descent of the Holy 
Spirit in bodily shape like a dove httd a similar 
origin : namely, in the pre-Christian Philonean 
and Talmudic symbolisation of the Divine 
Spirit as a dove. Many cases of such a mis- 
understanding of allegorical or symbolic 



parlance are reported in the Gospels them- 
selves. And a tendency to mistake the 
true import of spiritual terms, and hence 
to literalise them, was the great intellectual 
vice of the early Christians, and even of later 
Christians also ; for we have a notorious case 
of it in the Latin doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion. 

Mr. Badham is wrong if he supposes that to 
go to Philo for the antecedents of a Christian 
belief is to look outside orthodox Judaism. 
For Philo was a thoroughly orthodox Jew, and 
was regarded and trusted as such by his 
countrymen both in Palestine and in Egypt. 
For the rest, however, Mr. Badham may be 
right in explaining Matt. i. 18-23 as a bit of 
"prophetic gnosis" — to use Prof. Rendell 
Harris's phrase — which grew up out of the 
Messianic application of the text, " A virgin 
shall conceive and bear a son."* The legend 
would easily arise in an atmosphere charged 
with the idea of parthenogenesis ; and that the 
minds of flrst century Jews were very 
familiar with that idea, is proved by the many 
allusions which Philo makes thereto. Whether 
these allusions were intended literally or only 
allegorically, or sometimes one and sometimes 
the other, makes no difference. They almost 
certainly presuppose a literal belief in Philo's 
contemporaries, if not in himself, that virgins 
could conceive by divine agency, and that 
Isaac and other leaders of the race had been so 
conceived. So far Mr. Badham and myself are 
agreed. Mr. Charles says he has "come to 
recognise in the Synoptic Gospels the most 
naive and truthful reflection of the current 
views of the time." I venture to think that his 
recognition is still incomplete — so long as he 
cannot see the obvious connexion between 
Matt i. 18 and the identical "current beliefs" 
of both Jews and Gentiles. 

The reasons given for his belief by Arch- 
deacon Parrar are not very convincing. He 
declares that the miraculous conception " was 
the unquestioned belief of the Apostles (through 
the Epistles, and Apocalypse passim) " ; and 
that the Gospel of John also implies it. This 
is not so. The belief is conspicuously absent 
from the writings of Paul ; and not even so 
ardent an apologist as Prof. Swete pretends 
that it is to be found in the writings of St. 
John or in the Catholic Epistles ; while Mr. 
Charles casts it in my teeth " that in the 
Fourth Gospel there is not a single reference to 
the miraculous conception " — so well do apolo- 
gists agree. By way of accounting for Paul's 

• This explanation is favoured by the similarity 
of phrase in verses 19 and 23, if ya(rri>\ fxov(ra and 
4y 7oTTpl ?{ti. "To the same action of prophetic 
gnosis should perhaps be attributed the addition 
in V. 10 of ^ i/ivtia-Tfieri irnpffeVos Mapio/ii in Cod. 
Sin. These words may well be a primitive and 
half-hearted device for discounting the force of the 
words" Joseph . . . begat Jesus." In explaining 
as I did in flie Acadbmy for November 17 tho 
title of napBfvos, I was only anxious to be as 
tolerant as I could of an orthodox touch. That 
the explanation in question never _ occurred to 
anyone before myself Is not so decisive against it 
as Archdeacon Farrar supposes. Nor U he correct 
in Eaying that " there is no proof whatever that 
any such custom [as euUtUng a widow a virgin] 
prevailed in the days of the Apostles." For I 
adduced evidence from Philo, who was a contem- 
porary of the Apostles, and from Ignatius, who 
was just after them. The latter's phrase, ris 
xapSfpovs ris \iyoii4vas x^P""! '^ understood in 
the light of the similar passages in Philo and 
Clement, would mean that these women were 
virgins in the eye of God, though called widows in 
the world. And it stands to reason that a widow 
might be called honoris causa a virgin, but not a 
virgin a widow. But the title "widow" was 
higher than the title " virgin," objects Archdeacon 
Farrar, alluding toTertuUiau. This Is true, but 
it does not affect my argument. 



Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



59 



silence, Prof. Swete has to suppose that the 
story of the virgin-birth was kept secret until 
after Paul's death. He is doubtful whether it 
was even contained in the first edition or draft 
of Matthew's Gospel. As to Luke's Gospel, I 
cannot agree with Mr. Badham and others, that 
the writer of it knew of or intended to convey 
any such story in his early chapters. He 
nowhere says that Mary was still a virgin 
when she bore Jesus. The angel's words 
(Luke i. 31), "Thon shalt conceive," imply no 
such thing, seeing that they are spoken to a 
virgin who, as the narrative says (v. 27), is 
about to become the wife of Joseph, of the 
house of David. It was an age in which every 
betrothed maiden aspired to be mother of the 
Messiah; and the angel's words in the very 
next verse (32), " The Lord God shall give unto 
him the throne of his father David," imply 
that Joseph was to be the father of the child. 
At Luke's Gospel, however, as at Matthew's, 
the orthodox and " deliberate corrector " has 
been at work. For in Luke ii. 5, the revisers 
of our version have as usual chosen the least 
ancient but most orthodox reading, and render : 
" to enrol himself with Mary, who was betrothed 
to him." But the Old Latin and the New 
Syriac, along with other very old sources, read : 
" with Mary, his wife." The Christians of the 
third and fourth century prated much of the 
sacredness of their Scriptures ; but truly they 
were always ready to ''deliberately correct" 
the text in order to edge in a belief which, 
like this of the miraculous conception, had 
invaded their Church. 

Archdeacon Farrar's other argument is that 
we may as well retain the belief in the 
miraculous conception ; for, if not, we are left 
with another miracle. Considering the fact 
that every birth is a practically insoluble 
miracle ; considering the ancient question, 
" Canst thou tell how the bones grow in the 
womb of ' her that is with child !' ' " — well, I 
think that even so exacting a critic as Prof. 
Huxley would be content to accept Archdeacon 
Farrar's "other miracle," seeing that it is 
one which happens every day. 

With Prof. Sanday's commendation of Mr. 
Allen's masterly letter I fully concur ; for I 
have no doubt that the New Syriac text of 
Matt. i. 18-25 comes nearer to the ultimate 
form of it than any other text we have. But 
Mr. Allen seems to think that, the more plain 
indications we have in our text of the natural 
fatherhood of Jesus, the better it is for the 
belief in the virgin-birth. Such an attitude 
•eems to me to require an infallible Pope, armed 
with authority to dictate to us the belief in 
spite of the text. But I cannot think that Prof. 
Sanday is right in refusing to go all the way with 
Mr. Allen, and in propovmding as the original 
text of Matt. i. 10 a mixed reading, which, in 
this context,* could only mean in English the 
following: "But Jacob begat Joseph, the 
husband of Mary, who beyat Jesus, the so-called 
Christ." Nor is it necessary to suppose, as 
does Prof. Sanday, a dittography of the name 
Joseph in the passage: "Jacob begat Joseph, 
Josephhegit Jesus " ; or an accidental omission, 
when the Old Latin and Old Syriac concur in 



• It ia Inconceivable that, in verses 1-16, 
ilhntutv ehould be used forty times in the eenee 
of "begat," and then, iu its forty-first use, mean 
" bore " or " brought forth," especially as, in the 
same chapter, the verb tiktu ia used three times to 
convey the Eense of " bringing forth " as a mother. 
It is true that yimiw is used in the active twice in 
Luke in this sense ; but Luke more generally uses 

ItIktu, and the writer of Matthcnr, 1 believe, never 
n»es ytuviu in the active of the mother. The Old 
Latin Version In the same way uses "genuit" 
forty-one times in Matt, i., and " pario " three 
times ; and its author, as Mr. Charles has pointed 
out, understood iyivrqirtv of the father alone, and 



omitting from verse 25 the words " knew her 
not till." Why frame hypotheses in order to 
introduce miracles into a straightforward text 
where there are none ? What we need in 
Biblical criticism is to get rid of these " cycles 
and epicycles." If the miraculous in events 
were the first and most probable, and the 
natural and ordinary only secondary and least 
probable, then there would be much to say for 
such hypotheses, and also for Mr. Charles's 
attempt to get rid of Matt. i. 1-16. But things 
are otherwise arranged in our world. 

Nor is Prof. Sanday quite fair to the New 
Syriac when he says that, in verse 25, it 
supplies a masculine subject in its rendering, 
" he called." Syriac idiom only admits of 
saying either " he-called " or " she-called," 
not of " called " simply; for the gender of the 
agent is part and parcel of the Syriac verb, 
third person singular. If, then, the translator 
rendered fKiK^Ttv by " he-called " rather than 
by "she-called," he can only have done so 
because that was the sense which best suited 
the general drift of the whole passage, as he 
understood it. But why did he so understand 
it, unless he inherited from the Greek the other 
naturalistic readings. Therefore, the rendering 
" he called " in verse 25 is far from implying, 
as Prof. Sanday thinks, that those other readings 
are inventions of a non-orthodox Syriac trans- 
lator or scribe. And if the words ' ' he knew her 
not till" were omitted in verse 25, in order to 
safeguard the attrapStyla of Mary — as Mr. White 
suggests, and Prof. Sanday thinks may have 
been the case — then the new text is one which 
has already suffered by Encratite revision, and 
the supposition that the naturalistic readings 
in it are secondary and not primary becomes 
absurd. 

In conclusion, let me speak of the use of the 
terms orthodox and unorthodox in this discus- 
sion. I have used them in a conventional 
sense, merely in order to be clear, and not 
because they mean anything more to me than 
conformable or the reverse to the decisions of 
the Nicene and subsequent Councils. Let no 
one, however, suppose that these terms had 
such a sense within the Apostolic age itself, or 
for many generations afterwards. Justin 
Martyr was conscious that many Christians 
repudiated the belief in the virgin birth ; but he 
never denied to them the name of Christian nor 
dreamed of excluding them from the Church. 
He only blamed them for not accepting the 
prophecy of Isaiah : " A virgin shall conceive," 
&c. ; on which alone, it would seem, and not 
on any historical evidence, he based his own 
belief. In the Apostolic age no convert was 
asked to believe this dogma, any more than that 
of the Trinity. It is, therefore, a projection 
into the first century of ideas peculiar to the 
fourth, to say, as Prof. Harris says, and Arch- 
deacon Parrar repeats— that " there wasunor- 
thodoxy near the source." The truth about 
Cerinthus and the Adoptionists is this : that 
beliefs which afterwards invaded the whole 
Church had in their day been scarcely heard of, 
or were only sectionally held. There can be 
no doubt that this particular dogma of the 
miraculous conception was against the prevail- 
ing belief of the earliest Church as reflected in 
the New Testament at large : the true analogue 
in the Apostolic age of those who to-day stickle 
for so-called orthodoxy, and (like Lord Halifax) 
deny the name of Christian to Unitarians, was 
the Judaising believer who insisted on circum- 
cision, and was particular about meats and 
drinks. 

F. C. CONYBEABE. 



Nottingham : Jan. 12, 1895. 

None of your contributors, so far as I have 

observed, while touching on the ambiguous 

ixiKtatv (Cur. " a/ie called," Sin. "Recalled") in 

Matt. i. 25, has mentioned Dr. Nestle's instruc- 



tive article on the subject in the Expositor for 
February, 1894. 

Mrs. Lewis alone has pointed out — and per- 
haps she did not sufiiciently develop — the fact 
that Matt. i. 18a, when compared with v. 1 
{^i0\oy 7ei'e(r€fttj *l7j(ro0 XptffTou. . . . ToS 5e ' Itjitou 

XpiffToD T) yhe<ris ollras ^y), not only presupposes 
but limits and qualifies the statements of the 
preceding genealogy, as if explaining in what 
sense a document already current could be 
accepted. If we might adopt the reading 
yhvttais, which Dean Burgon, I think, pre- 
ferred on grounds of patristic interpretation, 
we should have an antithesis to what may have 
been the original text of v. IG, 'loxr/j^ . . . iyh- 

VTl^iV 'Itjctovj/. 

Probably a good many readers besides myself 
have wondered whether New Testament critics 
are not too ready to assume the integrity of the 
" purest transmitted text," and to apply the 
conception of a standard text, embodied in a 
hypothetical autograph, to sundry books of 
composite origin and gradual growth, which 
incorporate documents and traditions that had 
once an independent circulation, and were at 
least in part derived, perhaps by several con- 
fluent or divergent channels, from Aramaic and 
even Hebrew originals. 

May not the word tuSon/m, in Luke ii. 14, be 
a gloss added to the angelic hymn ? which would 
run better as follows : 

Ka) €ir\ yrii ftprjvrj if aidputirois. 

A motive for the supposed addition may be 
found in Luke xii. 51. Cf, Origen's Homily 
translated by Jerome : 

' ' Si scriptum esset super terram pax et hucusque 
asset flnita eententia, recte quaestio nasceretur : 
nunc vero in eo quod additum est, hoc eat quod 
post pacem dicitur, in hominibm bonae voluntatis, 
solvit quaestionem," &c. (Wcstcott and Hort, Ap. 
in loe,). 

The reading iv anSpdnroi^ fvSoitla.^ may be illus- 
trated from a note on a diff'erent subject in 
Deutsch (Literary Remains, art. " Islam," 
p. 91): 

"'Thy will be done in Heaven; grant peace to 
them that fear Thee on earth ; and whatever pleaseth 
Thee, do. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who hearest 
Prayer ' — is the formula suggested by the Talmud 
for the hours of mental dictraction or peril.'' 
[The italics are my own.] 

Compare also "The men of thy peace" in 
Jer. xxxviii. 22; i.e., those who enjoyed the 
especial favour and protection (the Anglo- 
Saxon mund or grith) of the earthly, as here of 
the heavenly, sovereign ; and were bound to 
him by reciprocal obligations. 

The hymn has a curious parallel in the words 
of the Chinese classic, quoted by Mr. A. J. 
Little {Through the Yanrj-tse Gorges, 1888, p. 41): 
" Above is fulfilled the decree of heaven, 
and below the laws of earth, and in the midst 
the harmony of man joins in." 

Grey Hubert Skip with. 



THE BOOK OF MULLING. 

Edinburgh : Jan. 3, 1896. 

It may interest some of your readers to learn 
that I have succeeded, after considerable 
labour, in deciphering the greater part of the 
two "inscriptions" on the verso of the last 
leaf of the Book of Mulling, imperfectly 
described by Westwood {Pal. Sac. Irish Biblical 
MSS., pi. ii., p. 4). A paper on the subject 
which 1 communicated a few weeks ago to the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland will appear 
in due course in the Proceedings of that society ; 
but a few of the results at which I have arrived 
may be briefly indicated. 

The page contains (I.) a liturgical fragment, 
and underneath it (II.) a circular device. I 
shaU take these in order. 



60 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jam. 19, 1895.— No. 1185. 



I. In giving my restoration of tho former, 
I italicise letters which are not distinct enongh 
to be read with entire confidence, and enclose 
in square brackets those which I have supplied 
conjeoturally. It has iilso been necessary to 
expand one or two of the abbreviations. 

STline or so is iUegible, and then we have— 

a/ 

',',','. - Magnificat. 

/k».".r»'..in.' BenedictUB usq; iob[annem baptizu] 
[pcursoie dnl] Uidens autem ihs turbas asoendit t 
mo... m *..e..o Xiy ilium conrici _ 
dead I] iMinorii leiiii Patricius epii oral 
pro nobis omnlbos] ut deloautur protinus peccata 
quiP comlsimut] INultiata quoi feramus pen 
'ton Ilxandi oonr]icis peccata plorlra*. — 
■liale6ta]([em]q; imensam coricl dead et cowg/a 

rla] Wsq; i flnem. Credo i dm pat 

noster Libera].. ~ 

This, for reasons which cannot be stated very 
shortly, I believe to be an outline of a daily 
office used night and morning in the monastery 
of St. Moiling of Ferns at the beginning of the 
ninth century. The parts of which it is com- 
posed (after some illegible matter at the begin- 
ing) appear to have been as follows : 

1. The Song of the B.V.M. (" Magnificat"). 

2. ? 

3. StanzM 4, 5, G, of the Hymn of St. 

Columba ("Noli Pater," Libtr Hymn- 
orum, p. 262). 

4. A lection from the beginning of St. 

Matt, v., followed possibly by a formula 
not yet identified. 

5. The last three stanzis of the Hymn of 

St SecundinusC'Auditeomnes," /y. //., 
p. 21). 

6. 7. Two stanzM supplementary to this 

hymn (" In memoria" and " Patricius 
episcopus," L. II., p. 23). 

8. The last three stanzas of the Hymn of 

Cummain Fota (" Celebra Juda," L. H., 
p. 80). 

9. The antiphon " Exaudi nos " (£. /y.,p. 80). 
10. The last three stanzas of the Hymn of 

St. Hilary of Poictiers (" Ymnum 
dicat," L. 11., p. 151), the doxology at 
the end being reckoned as a stanza. 

11. A stanza supplementary to this hymn. 

12. The Apostles' Creed. 

13. Tho Lord's Prayer. 

14. The Embolismus. 

The curious custom of repeating three (usually 
the last three) stanzis as a kind of equivalent 
for an entire poem, which we find exemplified 
in this office, is illustrated by the preface to the 
Hymn of Secundinus, preserved in the L3abhar 
Breac and in the Franciscan copy of the Book 
of Hymns (i. //., p. 33; Stokes's Tripartite 
Life, p. 382) ; by the preface to the Hymn of 
Ultan {L. If., p. 00); and by the use of this 
hymn in the office preserved in the ancient 
Psalter at Basle (A. vii. 3), where it is referred 
to by what the scholiast tells us was originally 
the first line of its third last stanza. 

II. The Circular Device. — Of this a diagram 
will be pven in the Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland. It consists of two 
concentric circles, whose diameters measure 4 '2 
and 3 '6 centimetres respectively, and which are 
divided into quadrants by pairs of crosses 
placed outside the outer circle. These crosses 
come in the linos of writing of two inscriptions 
by which the outer circle is surrounded, by the 
inner of which their position is defined (as will 
be seen below, 1. 2) as N.E., N.W., &c. In tho 
outer inscription (1. 1 below) the cardinal points 
are marked midway between the crosses. Inside 
the inner circle are sis horizontal lines of 
writing (numbered 3-8 below). The cross at 
the beginning of the first of these is between 
the circles, and (whether by accident or design 
I know not) nearly due east of their common 



centre. The followin|; is a transcript, with 
translation, of the writing : 

1. +oros mairc [ande]3 +matt aniar 

+ cro8 [io]han [h]itaith +cro8lu[c..] 
[anoi]r. 

2. [anojirdes -l-oros heremiie et aniardes 

+ daniel et aniar<aaid +[oro8 a]- 

n[o]ir_7<«aid +oros [ ]. 

3. +[o]ro8 1 spirtu [n]oib. 
4 danaib-t- 

5 oniglulamtcis. 

6. U... 

7. + [o]ri'8t oonaapstalaib. 

8. .../j..s. 

Translation. 

1. + cross of Mark South + Matthew 

West + Cross of John North + cross 
of Luke East. 

2. On the South East + cross of Jeremiah 

and on the South West + Daniel and 
on the North West + [cross of ...] on 
the North East + cross of [....] . 

3. + cross of the Holy Spirit. 
4 with gift8 + . 

5, 6, 8 ? 

7. + Christ with his apostles. 

The marking of the positions of the outer pairs 
of crosses as N.W., &c., and the indication of 
the cardinal points, seem to show that the 
device is a map or plan. Of what it is not so 
easy to say. A conjecture of Mr. Olden, that 
it represents the civitaa of St. Moiling, the 
crosses marking the sites of the monastic build- 
ings, has a good deal to recommend it ; but I 
should be thankful to receive suggestions on 
this point. 

The parallelism suggested in the drawing 
between the four Evangelists and certain Old 
Testament worthies, apparently the four Greater 
Prophets, is worthy of remark. It is quite in 
keeping with tho well-known practice of 
pairing together saints of the Universal Church 
and prominent Irish eocleaiastics, who were 
considered to be " of one manner of life." 

The interest of this device is sufficiently 
obvious. The importance of the fragment 
preserved on the upper part of the page is 
scarcely less. Daily monastic offices of the 
Celtic Church (if I am right in supposing it to 
be such) are, to say the least, rare. These few 
lines give us some conception of the character 
of such offices ; they reveal to us the practice 
of the partial recitation of loricas, to which 
allusion has been made ; and, finally, they 
testify to the use made of the Liber Ilymnorum, 
probably a century or two before either of the 
MSS of this collection now extant was written. 

H. J. Lawlor. 



THE PEE3ENT STATE OF TUB QUESTION OF 
POPCLAB TALES. 

Bt. Andrew : Jan, G, 189S. 

M. Cosquin has kindly sent me his essay Les 
Conies Populaires : Dernier Etat de la Question, 
(Paris ; BouUion). As this pamphlet contains 
some remarks on my own notions, perhaps I 
may be allowed to make a brief reply on a 
subject of interest to folk-lorists, so far as 
the general question goes. M. Oosquin says 
that the anthropological interpreters deal with 
" men more or less degenerate . . . savages,' 
whom I (A. L.) treat as " primitifs." I have 
often said that of primiti/s I know nothing. 
Savages may descend from apes or from 
angels : I offer no opinion. I only say that we 
all come either from " savages " or from men 
who adopted many savage ideas and manners. 
Granting (for the sake of argument) the 
presence of savage ideas, how did they corae to 
group themselves spontaneously into tho same 
cadres as of "Puss and Boots," or "Cinder- 



ella" ? Distingtio. The cadre is not always 
"identical," as anyone may see in Miss 
Cox's Ciii'hrdla. We have male as well 
as female Cinderellas. We have different 
openings, different events, different conclusions. 
What remains fixed is the idea of a friendly 
animal (as a rule) who protects and aids a boy 
or girl. Many savages believe in such animals, 
like the Manitous of the .Red Indians. Thus 
many tales of such animals would arise (story- 
telling being natural to man). Where the cadre, 
the sequence and character of incidents, is ' ' iden- 
tical," then I suppose that the story has been 
" transmitted." At one time, as M. Cosquin 
says, I thought " wits might jump " to an 
identical tale; now, thanks to critics and 
reflection I prefer the vera causa of trans- 
mission to the hypothesis of coincidence : that 
is, when the tales are identical, or nearly so. 
Whether the Kaffir and Sonthal Cinderellas 
wore borrowed or not, I do not pretend to 
know. I now say "much is due to trans- 
mission, something to identity of fancy," 
instead of vice versa. M. Cosquin describes 
this as a " elegant purouette " ; I am glad it is 
"elegant," and thankful that criticism and 
reflection can make me pirouette at all. 
Would that some elderly mythologists were 
equally agile! But I cannot gratify M. 
Cosquin by attributing " nothing to the 
imagination of primitive men": that is, of men 
in the savage and barbaric condition. All the 
wild incidents— talking beasts, cannibalism, 
magic — come (in my opinion) from no other 
source, except in cases of later imitation. On 
this point I am with Fontenelle and Sainte 
Beuve. 

As to place of origin, I still do not expect to 
find it. M. Cosquin asks me whether the older 
tales, which existed in Europe before the 
ascertained mediaeval and Islamite importation 
of Indian tales, were like or unlike the new 
comers ? I can only refer him to the Miirchen 
themselves— in the Odyssey, the' Cyclic frag- 
ments, the Homeric and Pindaric Scholiasts, 
and other Greek remains. These Miirchen 
were in Europe at a date not lower than 800 
B.C. for many of them. M. Cosquin, of course, 
can prove no connexion with India for these, 
or for the Egyptian tales in M. Maspero's 
collection, about which he here says nothing. 
Are these stories like, or not like, tho Indo- 
European stories of comparatively recent im- 
portation ? He can read the Greek, and may 
judge for himself. I note with pleasure that 
M. Cosquin, since 1888, has found two grateful 
beasts in Indian "Puss and .Boots " tales. 
In the one form previously known the jackal 
was not a grateful beast. The "moral" is 
still to seek in all three Indian cases; but, 
even if it is found, as all men have attributed 
all human qualities to beasts, I sea nothing 
specially Indian. And, if a speciaUy 
Buddhistic moral is found in India, how does 
that bear on the question ? If it is not 
found there, it ought to be. The idea, that 
" beasts are more grateful than men," might 
occur to a moralist with a dog, anywhere m the 
wide world : to any moralist, Lord Byron, for 
example. Yet, so far, in the case of " Puss in 
Boots," the "Buddhistic" moral la found 
elsewhere, and not in India ! 

A. Lang. 



" HEY NOXNY NO ! " 

Faveiaham : Deo. 89, 189 i. 
The burden of the pleasant song in " As You 
Like It," v., iii. : 

' ' It was a lover and his lass _ ^^ 
(With a hey ! and a ho ! and a hey-nonino !), 

seems to have thrown back to some noel or 
carol of Central France. Lucas le Moigne, a 



Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



61 



sixteenth century bard of Poitou, had this 
refrain to one of his noels : 

" Me3 oil s'en est alle ? 
(N'au, nau, et noUet nan !) 
Viendrait-il point ceste annee ? 
(Nau, nau !) " 

Nail and nii are forms of nocl in the Berry 
patois. Lalanne's glossary of the patois of 
Poitou says nau belongs to the departments of 
Vienne, Deux-Sevres, and Vendee ; and that 
r,auht ia the name for a little cake iu the form 
of a child which is made at Noel in Vendee, 
Deux-Sevres, and the canton of Bressuire. He 
also cites the term " le naulet de Noel " from a 
manuscript of Poitou dated in 1 500. 

Thus, if Lucas le Moigue's burden of noUtt 
nau may be equated with Shakspere's burden 
of "nonino," this last might be considered as 
trace! home. Roquefort gave from some 
manuscript " Anciens Noels " (printed, Ithink, 
since his date of 18C8) : 

"... allons chanter Nau ! 



Am Saiuct Nau chautcray. 



Nau, nau, nau! " 

The universality of the burden, chorus, or 
refrain would explain its use in three of Shaks- 
])ere'8 songs — that above quoted, that in " Much 
Ado," II., iii. : 

" And be you blithe and bonny, 
Converting all your Bounda of W08 
Into hey nonny ncnny ! " 

and that of Ophelia's melancholia in " Ham- 
let," IV., V. : 

" Hey no[u] nonny, nonny hey nonny." 
Edgar's gibberish in " Lear " III., iv. : " Mun 
ha [must have ?] no nonny," can scarcely be 
worked with. 

Of course, none of the three Shaksperean 
songs has any connexion with Christmas carol- 
ling ; but it is well-known that " Noiil ! Noel ! " 
was the cry at all important feasts, and there 
were notably four great Noels or nataiix : 
Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, and AUhallows. 

John O'Neill. 



[Since this letter was in type, we regret to 
learn that our correspondent has died. He 
was a very learned man, and had, we believe, 
spent great part of his life in France. In 1893, 
he published a work on cosmic mythology and 
symbolism, entitled Night efthe Oods (Quaritch), 
which he hoped to continue in subsequent 
volumes. — Ed. Academy.] 



APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. 

BoxDAY, Jan. 20, 4 pm. Saoday liScture : "The Great 
!'■-) Age from a Meteorological Faint of View," by Mr. 
Arthur W. CUjdeo. 

7.30 p m. Btliical : •' Eight and Wrong In Fropa- 
gandijt Work," hy Miaa Dendy. 
MoxiiAi, Jan. 21, 4.30 p m. Vietoiij Institute : " Atutralian 
Flora." 

S p.m. London In«!itution : " Comets," by Sir 
Fob :rt Ball. 

8 p.m Royal Academy: **The Development of 
Italian Art," V., by Mr. J. B. HoJgeon. 

8 p rn Society of Arte : Cantor Lecture, "Ths Arc 
Light," 11., by Prof. Silvanus Thompson. 

8 p.m. Aristotelian: " Bac:n'8 Doctrine of Forma," 
br Mr. R. J. Ryle. 
Tor.soAv. J.n. 22, 3 pm. Boyal Inatitntion : "The In- 
ternal Framework of Plants and Animals," II., by Prof. 
C. Stewart. 

4 p.m. Oeigrapbieal : " Tetreatrial Magnetiim," by 
Piof. A. W. Backer. 

4 JO p.m. Society of Arts ; "Bnstian Armenia and 
ihe Proepti t« for Briticii Trade," by Dr. A. Markolf. 

8 p.m. Civil Eogioeers : Discus, ion. " Mountain 
Biilwaya " ; " Boiler Explosions," by Mr. W. H. Fowler. 
WaMifDAV, Jan. 2.'?. 6 p.m. lT<;Uenic : "The Mjthology 
of the Jlacrhar," by Mr. C. O. liithw. 

8 pm. Oeological: "Carrock Fell : a Study ia the 
Viiriation of Igneous Rock-masses— II., the Carrock Fell 
Oraniphyre." III., the Orainsgill OreLnen," by Mr. 
Alfred Ilarker: "The Oeolouy of the Country around 
Fishguard (IVu.brokcihire)," by Mr. F. U. Cowper Beed ; 
"The Mean Badial Variation of the Olobe," by Mr. J. 
Logan Lcbley. 

8 pm. Society of Arts : " Tea," by Mr. A. O. SUknton. 



Tqubsdav, Jan. 24. 3 p.m. Boyal Institution : " Font Eng ' 
li>h Humorists of the Nineteenth Century," II., by Mr. 
W. S. UUy. 

6 p.m. L'^ndon Institution : " Utopias, Ancient and 
Modern," by Prof. Shuttleworth. 

8p.m. Boyal Academy: "The Development of 
Italian Art,' VI., by Mr. J. E. Hodgson. 

8 p.m. Electrical Ecgioeers : "THe Oiiftin and 
Develooment of the Te'cphone Switch Bands," by Mr. 
J. E. Kingabury. 

8 30 p.m. Antiquaries 
FaiDAY. Jan. 25, B p.m. PhyMcal : " Teite of Glow Lamps," 
by Prof. Aj rton and Mr. Medley ; " The Temperature of 
Water at i's Maximum Density," by Prof. Anderson and 
Mr. McCleUand. 

8 pm. Civil Engineers : Students' Me><ins ; " The 
Strength of Lurge (iraviog-Dgcks," by Mr. F. E. Wtnt- 
worth-Shitlds. 

9 p.m. Bnval Institution : " The Kile," by Sir Colin 
Bcott-Moncrit ff . 

Satl'sday, Jan. 26. 3 pm. Boyal Inslitutinn : "Stained 
Glass Windows ana Painted Qlats," II., by Mr. Lewis 
F. Day. 

S.45 p.m. Bctanio : General Fortnightly Meeting. 



SCIENCE. 

An Essay concerning Human Undtrstanding. 
By John Locke. Collated and Annotated, 
witli Prolegomena, Biographical, Critical, 
and Historical, hy Archibald Campbell 
Eraser. (Oxford : Clarendon Press.) 

In this edition of Locke's famous Essay, the 
delegates of the Clarendon Press have made 
a very useful addition to their set of English 
philosophical classics, critically edited by the 
most competent authors. Locke's name was 
the most serious omission iu a list which 
already included the chief writings of Bacon 
and Hume, and the complete works of 
Butler and Berkeley. Prof. Eraser, to whom 
we owe the first collected edition of the 
works of the Bishop of Cloyne, has already 
proved his unrivalled acquaintance with the 
life and works of Berkeley's great prede- 
cessor, in the excellent Life of Locke 
which appeared in 1890, two centuries 
exactly after the publication of the Essay, 
as one of Blackwood's " Philosopliical 
Classics." We had hoped, in spite of the 
warning then expressed, that he would 
find it possible to assemble and correct 
the scattered and disfigured writings of 
Locke. He has not done this ; but he has 
produced the best, nay, the only good 
edition of the great work of which the 
whole English empirical philosophy is the 
outgrowth. 

At last we can read Locke's Essay in an 
accurate text, prefaced by Prolegomena of 
reasonable length and lucid order, anno- 
tated with discretion and reserve, and com- 
pleted by a twofold index — to text and notes. 
The labour bestowed will ba appreciated at 
its full worth by those who have suffered 
from the innumerable misprints whicli dis- 
figure most of the old editions, and add to 
the difficulty of interpreting, by the unaided 
study of his text, an author careless to a 
fault of verbal consistency and literary 
finish. Locke, like the majority of his 
countrymen who have attempted philosophy, 
was not a philosopher by profession, but 
a man of affairs, mainly concerned, even 
when he theorised, with practical issues. 
But, unlike most of the bishops, lawyers, 
politicians, men of science, and men of 
fashion, who have occupied themselves with 
speculation, Locke was not even a practised 
man of letters. He commenced author in 
his fifty-iitth year : 

" It is a very odd thing," he wrote, four years 
before the publication of the Essay, " that 
I did get the reputation of no small writer 



without having done anything for it ; for I thinV 
two or three verses of mine, published without 
my name to them, have not gained me my 
reputation. Bating these, I do solemnly protest 
in the presence of God that I am not the author, 
not only of any libel, but not any pamphlet or 
treatise whatsoever, good, bad, or indifferent." 

It is true that the main subject of the 
Essay, the limits of human knowledge, had 
engaged his thoughts and been the matter 
of discussion between Locke and his friends 
for a long period, as is proved by the 
commonplace books, which date from the 
time of his residence in London, after he 
had quitted Christ Church, and before his 
continental travels. The E-say even exists 
in germ in an interesting fragment, quoted 
in the Prolegomena, commencing " Sic 
cogitavit, de Intellectu Humano, Johannes 
Locke, anno 1671." But, giving due praise 
to Locke for the caution and patience with 
which he kept his meditations so long to 
ripen, we must regret that he did not 
expend more pains on planning the whole, 
and carrying out the parts. He is fully 
aware of the bad results of this " dis- 
continued way of writing." He speaks of 
the Essay as 

" begun by chance ; continued by intreaty ; 
written by incoherent parcels ; and after long 
intervals of neglect, resumed again as my 
humour or occasions permitted. ... I will not 
deny, but possibly it might be reduced 
to a narrower compass than it is, and that 
some parts of it might be contracted, the 
way it has been writ in, by catches, and many 
long intervals of interruption, being apt to 
cause some repetitions. But, to confess the 
truth, I am now too lazy, or too busy, to make 
it shorter." 

With this ingenuous avowal every reader 
of the Essay must agree. Every section 
of it abounds in repetitions, digressions, 
contradictions, which could have been avoided 
by taking pains. Its defects preclude it 
from any claim to literary excellence. 
Whether they are equally fatal to its 
philosophical value, is a question to which 
widely different answers have been given. 
For every careful student of the Essay must 
do for himself what Locke was " too lazy, 
or too busy " to do. He must endeavour to 
piece together incoherent chapters into a 
continuous and, if possible, coasistent whole. 
The result will depend partly on the student's 
temper and partly on his philosophical con- 
victions. 

The Essay has, in fact, from the time of its 
first appearance been subjected to the most 
diverse interpretations. Locke himself 
spent much of his remaining life, in his 
quiet homo at Gates, the residence of 
Cudworth's daughter. Lady Masham, in 
controversies with the Bishop of Worcester, 
Dr. Norris of Bemerton, and others, on 
disputed passages of the Essay, chiefly as 
regards their religious orthodoxy. Erom 
Leibnitz, the most distinguished of its early 
critics, through the encyclopaedists, the 
Scotch "common-sense" philosophers, the 
" association " school, the French spiritual- 
ists, the German rationalists, the pendulum 
has gone on swinging. It reached the one 
extreme in Green's hostile and unsparing 
criticism, contained in his Introduction to 
Hume. It has not yet reached the opposite 
limit, though it seems in the present 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 19, 1896.— No. 1185. 



oritidBm to have already passed bj a little, 
a very little, the mean of exact impartiality. 

Prof. Eraser has endeavoured to hilng 
into prominence the main design and 
structure of the Essay, without dwelling 
much on the tangles and ambiguities which 
obscure them. It is a fairer method of 
criticism thus to present the author at bis 
best, to save him from his own shortcomings, 
and then to estimate the permanent value of 
his most important teaching, than to 
begin by exposing his inconsistency in a 
multitude of details, and to go on finding 
fault with the parts, till an impression is 
created that the whole is worthless. It is 
but just to let us see the body before it 
is torn limb from limb. It may have been 
unshapely and ill- proportioned ; but, at 
least, the members which look so mean and 
ragged, when severed from the frame and 
laid bare to the gaze of the anatomist, had 
a certain dignity and meaning in their vital 
relation to an organic whole. Frof. Eraser 
has recognised this so fully that anyone 
who rested content with his reconstruction 
of Locke's doctrine, and did not proceed to 
read the Essay itself, might regard the 
charges of inconsistency and discursiveness 
as wanton and unfounded. Locke gains 
too much by condensation. Stripped of his 
agreeable speculations about the intelli- 
gence of angels, the nominal essences of 
drills and changelings, and the solubility 
of gold in aqua regia, he is a less entertain- 
ing, but a more plausible, philosopher. 

The main topics of the Essay are admir- 
ably presented in a summary, arranged 
under eight heads, in a logical order. First 
comes the definition of Knowledge, which 
Locke himself reserved for the Fourth Book 
of the Essay. Iluman knowledge being 
defined as ' ' perception of connexion or re- 
pugnancy, of agreement or disagreement, 
between ideas," it follows that there are 
three elements to be discussed: first, "ideas"; 
secondly, their connexion or repugnancy; 
thirdly, our perception of the same : to each 
of these accordingly a section is devoted. 
We then examine human knowledge of real 
existences: self, God, and outward things; 
and here the " plain, historical method " is 
sorely tried, and found wanting. We 
pass to the " knowledge of ideas, 
as co-existing attributes and powers of 
real existences " — a heading which 
might have been more felicitously worded. 
Here we think that Prof. Fraser has not 
sufficiently called attention to the inextric- 
able confusion between " ideas " of our 
minds and " qualities" of things, occasioned 
by Locke's careless use of terms, and the 
unintentional equivocations which cut away 
the very foundations of his argument. In 
the next division, "human knowledge of 
ideas in their abstract relations," illus- 
trated by pure mathematics and by abstract 
ethics, we find the small amount of human 
knowledge which on Locke's principles can 
be considered certain ; and in the final sec- 
tion we are led to the practical conclusion of 
the whole matter, that we must put up with 
" faith," and that, in the words of Butler, 
the theological exponent of Locke's phil- 
osophy, who added the episcopal sanction to 
its compromites and assumptions, "prob- 
ability 18 the guide of life." 



Prof. Fraser's Introduction claims, with 
justice, to be not only •' expository," but 
"critical" as well. He shows again and 
again how incompetent was Locke's "plain, 
historical method " to deal with the highest 
metaphysical abstractions — substance, for 
instance, or causality ; how apt he was, for 
want of anything like " criticism," in the 
Kantian, or even in the Socratic, sense, to 
make the largest assumptions in a light, 
irresponsible way ; he proves, to take a 
definite instance, how inadequate and how 
illogically sustained was Locke's appre- 
hension of the nature of God, and how 
irrelevant was his refutation of " innate 
ideas." Yet he dissents (without, in our 
opinion, sufficient justification) from the 
common view, which finds in Hume's 
avowed scepticism the legitimate reductio 
ad ahmrdum of Locke's empiricism. Green 
was wrong. Prof. Fraser contends, when 
he made Locke say that knowledge 
begins with simple ideas, or sensations 
taken in isolation. The deliberate defi- 
nition of knowledge, which we have quoted, 
is quite opposed, no doubt, to such an 
interpretation, even if single expressions 
may be found in the Essay which counten- 
ance it. But what Green was talking 
about, it is only fair to observe, was not 
knowledge, but the beginning of intelli- 
gence, a much more elementary matter. 

Prof. Fraser makes a more valuable 
observation on the fundamental difference 
between Jjocke and Hume on the subject 
of the association of ideas : 

" By Locke, ' association,' as illustrated in the 
' history ' of ideas, is introduced, not as the 
ultimate explanation of human uuderstauding, 
but as au explanation of many of its illusions 
and prejudices ; whereas Hume, and his English 
and French successors, bring in custom or 
association to explain all ' assurance of any 
real existence and matter of fact, beyond the 
present testimony of the senses, and the records 
of memory,' if not the very testimony of sense 
and memory itself." 

But these two points, though important, are 
less vital than the fundamental assumption, 
that a " mind," so little characterised by 
Locke that we scarcely miss it when it is 
annihilated by Hume, is capable of playing 
a double part, actively observing, and then 
reflecting on, its own passive states, and so 
discovering how " something, we know not 
what," mysteriously makes "impressions" 
on a receptacle so blank that it has not even 
the quality of receptivity. Scepticism was 
the inevitable outcome of a more penetrating 
examination than Locke chose to undertake 
of a " mind " so impossibly constituted. It 
is well to remember, if we are tempted to 
blame Locke for the labyrinth, where em- 
pirical psychology will leave us wandering 
without a clue, that he is very unpretending, 
and that most of his practical conclusions 
repose on a humble faith in the goodness 
of Providence, on which he does not presume 
too far. He is no metaphysician ; and to 
the majority of Englishmen, who do very 
well without metaphysic, that seems no 
drawback. But it is possible to think 
differently. 

Campbell Dodoson. 



I'TSmO'S RECORD OF INDIA IN THE 
SEVENTH CENTURY. 

Mil. J. Takakusu, a Japanese gentleman who 
recently took his degree at Oxford, is preparing 
a complete translation of I-tsing's Description 
of India and the Malay Isl.inds, written towards 
the end of the seventh century. 

I-tsing was a Chinese Buddhist priest and 
an able scholar. He started for India soon 
after the death of his famous predecessor, 
Hiuen Thsang, of whom we know so much 
through Lis invaluable Si-yn-ki, "The Keoord 
of the Western Kingdom," which was first 
translated by Stanislas Julien. I-tsing's book 
has never been translated in fu'l, though many 
notices of it have been published by various 
scholars. It is called Nan-hai-ki-kuei Nei-fa- 
chwan, "A Record of the Inner Law or Doctrine 
sent home from the Southern Sea." The author 
wrote it while staying in a town called Sribboja 
in Sumatra, the islauds lying off the Malay 
Peninsula being then known as the islands of 
the Southern Sea. Stanislas Julien used it in 
his MHhode pour d^chiffrer ei transcrire les 
Noma Sanskrits qui se rencontrent dans les Livrea 
Chinois (1861). But Prof. Max MuUer was the 
first to recognise its importance: his earliest 
notice appeared in the Academy for September 
25 and October 2, 1880 ; the next in the Indian 
Antiquary for December, 1880 ; and a portion 
of the translation prepared by the lata K. 
Easawara, a Japanese Buddhist and a pupil of 
Prof. Max Miiller, was published in India, 
Wliat can It Teach Us ? Two chapters, trans- 
lated into French by a Japanese Buddbist, 
B. Fujishima, appeared in the Journal Aaiatique 
for 1888. The Rev. 8. Beal gave a short 
abstract in his Life of Hiuen Taang (1888), 
p. XXXV., where he says : 

' ' So far arc given the headings of this most im- 
portant but obscure work. It is to ba hoped that 
the promised translation of the Japanese scholar 
[Mr. Kasawara] may soon appear. The contents 
of the various chapters, as I have summarised tbem 
for my own reference, show me that the book, 
when clearly translated, will shed an unexpected 
light on many dark passages of Indian history." 

Unfortunately, Mr. Kasawara died in July, 
1883. He had left the MS. of his trans- 
lation of some portion of I-tsing's Record with 
Prof. Max Midler, who later on handed it over 
to another Japanese pupU of his, Mr. Takakusu. 
Though the latter is not a Buddhist, nor even 
connected with any of the Buddhistic institu- 
tions of Japan, he has for many years studied 
Buddhist literature, particularly Sanskrit texts, 
and has devoted his leisure at Oxford to the 
translation of I-tsing's book. He has finished 
translating the text itself, and is now engaged 
in annotating difficult passages. 

The general subject of I-tsing's Record is a 
minute description of monastic life and dis- 
ciplinary rules, as he had himself observed in 
India. Mingled with this we have incidental 
information on geography, chronology, and 
sacred and secular literature. The author 
compares the Indian practices with those of the 
islands of the Southern Sea, where Buddhism 
seems to have reached its climax at this time, 
more than a century after the beginning of the 
Hindu emigration to Java in a.d. 500. He 
compares, sdso, many religious rites with those 
of China ; and these, though they may not be 
of general interest, will prove very useful for 
the history of the ancient Buddhism of India 
before the great persecution under Kumarila 
Bh»tta,circa a.d. 150. For students of Chinese 
Buddhism the work is indispensable ; while the 
chapters describing grammatical studies in 
India cannot fail to interest Sanskrit scholars 
and students of Indian history. 

Mr. Takakusu hopes to clear up many of the 
difficulties in the text, by adding notes on geo- 
graphical and chronological questions. He 



Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



63 



has been forlunate in securing four different 
editions, besides a text with a copious commen- 
tary in MS. written by Kasy apa Jiun, a Japanese 
Buddhist, in a.d. 1758. The discovery of this 
commentary has proved a great help, though 
it reached him too late to be utilised for the 
first three volumes. The work consists alto- 
gether of four volumes, subdivided into forty 
chapters, besides a long introduction. 

The Travels of Fa-Hien, the first of the 
Chinese pilgrims to India, extend from 399 to 
414 A.D. ; those of Hiuen Thsang from 629 to 
645 A.D. ; while I-tsing's Kecord covers a period 
of abont twenty-five years, from a.d. 671-695. 



SCIENCE NOTES. 



Miss Hester Penoelly has in preparation 
a memoir of her late father, William Pengelly, 
F.R.S., the well-known geologist and anti- 
quary, so many years resident at Torquay. 
She would feel greatly obliged to the immerous 
correspondents of her late father, or their 
representatives, who would entrust her with 
any of his letters. The originals will be 
promptly returned, as soon as they have been 
perused and the necessary extracts made. 
Prof. Bonney has kindly promised his valuable 
assistance, by supplying a summary of Mr. 
Pengelly's scientific work. All communica- 
tions should be addressed to Miss H. Pengelly, 
Lamoma, Torquay. 

Next week Messrs. Macmillau & Co. will 
issue a Memoir of Sir Andrew Crombie Bamsay, 
by Sir Archibald Geikie, Director-General of 
the Geological Survey of Great Britain and 
Ireland. The author explains that for many 
years Sir Andrew and he were bound together 
by the closest ties of scientific work and of un- 
broken friendship. "It has been, therefore," 
he says, " a true labour of love to put together 
this little memorial of him." Sir Andrew 
Ramsay's work as a geologist is fully discussed ; 
and an eflbrt has also been made "to show 
something of that bright sunny spirit which 
endeared him to all who came within his in- 
fluence." Portraits are given of the subject of 
the biography, and of a dozen of his geological 
associates. 

Messrs. W. H. Allen & Co. will publish 
next Monday a new volume of their "Natural- 
ists' Library," dealing with British Mammals, 
by Mr. R. Lydekker, with coloured plates of 
all the species except the very commonest. 

At a technical meeting of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, to be held in the map-room 
on Tuesday next, at 4 p.m.. Prof. A. W. Riioker 
will read a paper on "Terrestrial Magnetism." 

In connexion with the Sunday Lectxire 
Society, Mr. Arthur W. Clayden wiU deliver a 
lecture at St. George's Hall, Langham-plaoe, 
on Sunday next, at 4 p.m., on "The Great Ice 
Age from a Meteorological Point of View," 
illustrated by the oxy-hydrogen lantern. 

The following is the list of grants made by 
the Chemical Society from its research fund 
during the past year : — £20 to Mr. A. Hutchin- 
son, for experiments on the reduction of 
benzenoid amides ; £50 to Prof. Perkin, for 
continuation of his researches on closed carbon 
chains ; £5 to Messrs. Linder and Picton, for 
continuation of researches on grades of solution ; 
£5 to Dr. Laycock, for further examination of 
the products of distillation of bran with lime ; 
£10 to Dr. Matthews, for the continuation of 
his investigation of benzene hexachlorides and 
allied compounds ; £10 to Dr. Colman, for the 
study of «- and 8-amido-fatty acida. 

Mr. William Hunter Baillik has pre- 
santed to the Royal College of Surgeons 
portraits of John and William Hunter, John 
Hunter's clock, and two volumes of valuable 
autographs. 



pniLOLoar notes. 

The Rev. Wentworth Webster has reprinted 
from some local serial {Bayonne : Lamaignore) 
a paper entitled " De quelques Travaux sur le 
Basque faits par des Etrangers pendant les 
Annees 1892-4." He begins by calling atten- 
tion to the revival of interest in Basque 
which has characterised the last few years. 
He pays a deserved compliment to the Rev. 
Llewelyn Thomas for his edition, in the series 
of "Anecdota Oxoniensia," of the earliest 
translation of the Old Testament into Basque, 
made by Pierre d'TJrte in the very beginning of 
last century ; and he expresses the hope that 
d'Urte's Grammar and Dictionary may likewise 
find a publisher. He duly refers also to the 
early Catechism reprinted by Mr. E. Spencer 
Dodgson, and to the supplements to Vinson's 
Bibliography produced by the same industrious 
Bascophile. But the most curious contribution 
from England that he notices is drawn from 
the Foreign Review and Continental Miscellany 
for 1828, which preserves the text of some 
Basque dance-songs, suppressed at the time by 
the press censor of St. Sebastian. With refer- 
ence to ethnology, Mr. Webster insists upon 
two opinions he has expressed before : (1) that 
the conclusions of Broca are vitiated, through 
the fact of their being derived only from a 
collection of skulls at the cosmopolitan town 
of St. Jean de Luz ; and (2) that the purest 
type of Basjue, as represented by peasants in 
the remoter villages, is decidedly fair rather 
than dark. 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 

ViKiKO Club. — {Friday, Jan. 11.) 

WiI.LiAM MoERis, Esq., vice-president, in the chair. 
— Dr. Eirikr Magnussoc having been obliged to 
withdraw the paper he had promised, Mr. Albany 
F. Major, hon. sec, read a paper on " Survivals of 
the Asa Faith in Northern Folk-Lore." — Mr. 
Slorris, in introducing the subject, remarked that 
no history was more complete, as history from one 
point of view, than popular mythology, because at 
the time when people were under the influence of 
superstition they had not learnt the art of lying, or, 
if they did lie, they did it so transparently that it 
was very easy to read between the lines and divide 
the true from the false. So they might say that 
folk-lore represented the " absolutely truthful lies," 
and was therefore in complete opposition to the 
ordinary newspaper article. — Mr. Major, after apolo- 
gising for the fragmentary form in which his subject 
was presented, owing to the very short notice he 
had received, which had compelled him to confine 
his survey to a very small field, said that, though 
much of the ground he traversed would probably be 
found familiar, he, nevertheless, believed that some 
few of the points brought forward were new, and 
that, at any rate, the subject as a whole had not 
hitherto received from any English writer the atten- 
tion it deserved. Taking first the Eddaio myth of 
the building of the burg of Asgard by a giant, ho 
traced it through various stories of churches built 
by trolls in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, to 
legends of buildings erected by the Devil in North 
Germany, the Netherlands, and other parts of 
Europe. lie then pointed out that the name- 
guessing incident, on which some of these stories 
turn, reappears in marriage-tales of the Rumpel- 
stiltzkin type, of which an English variant, " Tom 
Tit Tot," is included in Sir. Jacobs's English Fairy 
Tales ; and he suggested that these stories also might 
be derived fromithe Eddaic myth. Next, he com- 
pared the relations which existed in the mythology 
between Thor, the Thunder-God, and the giants 
with the relations shown in the folk-talcs between 
various siints and others, and the trolls, dwarfs, and 
similar beings. In Norway and Sweden St. Olaf in 
particular seems to have stepped into the place and 
inherited the attributes of Thor in tho mythology ; 
and it was possible that tho representation of this 
saint as a warrior trampling on a troll or dragon 
may have led to his identitication with St. George, 
and to the adoption of the latter as the patron 
saint of England, for St, Olaf was closely con- 



nected with English history, as tho account of 
him in the Heimskringla shows, and churches 
dedicated to him are not uncommon in this 
country. The frequent occurrence of a dragon- 
slayer in English legend was adduced in support of 
this theory, and evidence mentioned of the iormer 
prevalence of Thor-worship in the land. Possibly, 
too, the banner of the Fighting Man— llarold's 
standard at Hastings — represented the warrior-saint 
Olaf. Thor's attributes as a Thunder-God, and 
their reappearance in the folK-tales recounting the 
dread which trolls and dwarfs had of thunder and of 
any loud noise, such as the sound of church bells or 
of drums, which recalled it, were next 'pointed out ; 
and some incidents in the myth of Thor's journey to 
Jotunheim were traced in various English and other 
folk-tales, while the likeness between ' ' Jack the 
Giant-Killer" and the stories about Thor was 
referred to as another striking instance of the 
survival of the Thor legead on Eaglish soil. Yet 
another instance has been recently referred to by 
the Kev. S. Baring-Gould, in the use of a folk- 
charm in which I'hor, Odin and Loki figured in 
Lincolnshire so late as 1857 or 1858. The lecturer 
went on to trace the legend of " The Wild Hunts- 
man" through its various forms in various parts of 
Northern Europe, in many of which a reference to 
Odia was perfectly clear. He ascribed its origin to 
tho myth of the Valkyrie's battle ride. The con- 
nexion of the god Freyr and his sacred boar with 
Christmas observances, which had been pointed out 
by Dr. Karl Blind, was then alluded to ; and two 
legends of Loki's capture by giants were given, 
whose influence can be traced in folk and fairy-tales. 
The belief that spirits haunted waterfalls and 
streams can also be traced in the Eddas. With 
regard to traditions which occur respecting a three- 
footed Hel, or Death-Horse, it was suggested that 
the eight-footed steed of Odin, King of Heaven, 
may have had its counterpart in the three-footed 
steed of Ilela, Queen of tho Nether World. 
The metal-working dwarfs of the Eddas again 
reappear in tho fairy smiths of folk-lore, of 
whom the Wayland Smith of Berkshire tradition, 
introduced by Sir Walter Scott into Kenilworih, is 
an instance. He is identical with the ViJluadr 
of the Eddas, whom King Alfred was familiar 
with as "Weland." Instances were also quoted 
in which Jormungand, the mighty snake which 
surrounds the world, and Grolh, the magic quern 
that grinds out whatever its possessor desires, 
have survived in later traditions, as well as of 
the persistent recurrence of the story found in 
" Beowulf," the first English epic, and of the legend 
of the Everlasting Fight. Finally, the belief in 
tho power of shape-changing was briefly dealt with, 
and its re-appearance in tales of witchcraft, as well 
as in legends of nightmares and wero-wolvos, and 
stories of swan and seal maidens, pointed out. The 
swan-maidens of the Edda are Valkyries, from 
whom the fairies of the higher order, who mingle 
with men and preside over their destinies, appear to 
originate. Such are the fairy queens of romance, 
who intermarry with mortals, and the fairy god- 
mothers so familiar in nursery tales. A Valkyrie, 
Brynhild, in the Volsunga Saga, is probably the 
original of the Sleeping Beauty in the Wood. In 
summing up the result of his survey, the lecturer 
urged that, if his contentions were admitted, not 
only were the results very important to students of 
folk-lore ; but it would appear that the myths of tho 
Asa faith were more widely di8"used and more 
generally known than had often been imagined, and 
it would also seem probable that many of the most 
remarkable features in it, which were usually ascribed 
to the influence of Christianity, had an independent 
origin. — Dr. Karl Blind said that Mr. Major had 
given many interesting and instructive cases of 
survivals of the ancient Germanic creed from the 
Scandinavian countries and North Germany. There 
were also a great many Roman Catholic legends in 
Germany in which such survivals appeared. This 
was, in a large measure, the result of the policy of 
the Roman Church, as exemplified in Pope Gregory's 
letter to Bishop Mellitus, bidding him to deal 
gently with the cherished beliefs of the Anglo- 
Saxons, so as to gradually lead them over to the 
new faith. In Germany there were legends of the 
Virgin Mary derived from tho worship of Freia, and 
of St. Peter founded on that of Thunar or Donar, 
the Norse Thor, both of these cults having been 
deeply ingrained in the hearts of the Teutonic race. 
Again, whilo the Wild Huntsman was called Wod 



64 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185. 



In North Germany, ho was hUo known as Wodo, 
Wut, or Wotn in Austria. Tn a Swiibian talo tho 
Wild Huntsman ia called the " Neck," and ho rides 
on a B^a-bcirn stallion. In another South Cicrman 
talo tho hunt is preceded hy a fish. Tho iiamo of 
tho '• Neck," given to tho Wili Huntsman, represents 
Wodan-Nikor, or Udin-lloikar, in his quality as a 
■ea-god. 8wabian and kindred German tribes once 
dwdt near tho Baltic, and gradually pushed their 
way ap to tho German highlands. Honco tho rcmem- 
braace to this day of Wodan as tho "Nook," and 
hrnce tho fi»h iii tho Wild Chase. Tho Wayland 
(in tho Norse, Volundr) tale undoubtedly came into 
Eneland «ith tho Anglo-Saxons. Thtre is still a 
" WayUnd's Cave " in Southern Kngland. In the 
Edda Volundr is not a Scandinavian, but a German, 
a captive in the North, who laments his being far 
from bi» home on the Rhino, where ho had more 
gold. Tho Rhino once was a gold-carrying river, 
and is partly so even now, much money having 
formerly been coined from its washed sands. 
Sigurd, tho Siegfried of tho Nibelungen Lied, is 
also, according to tho Udda, a Cicrman ruler on the 
Rhine, and near its banks the whole tragedy is 
eD<icted. If we can go by the Algonquin legends 
(as given by Mr. Charles Loland), there would teem 
to be OTtn a trace, however faint, of a survival of 
the Odinic creed in North-Eastorn America, which 
tho Northmen had discovered five hundred years 
before Columbus. Some of the tales about Gluoskap 
and Lox, as told now by the Micmacs and other 
Redskins, have bocu quoted as proofs, the name of 
Lox being referred to Loki. Eskimo, through 
whom tho Uedskins might have got such tales, 
formerly dwelt, in those regions ; at any rate, 
it is recorded in an Icelandic Saga concerning 
the discovery of the great Western land that the 
Northmen captured two native boys, presumably 
Eskimo, biiptize i them, and taught them the Norse 
tongue. Fur more than three hundred years the 
Northmen remained in that American land ; and it 
is well known that when they had been converted 
thsy still respected the traditions of their ancient 
creed. Fotk-tales have until now had a wonderful 
vitality ; but there was much danger of their pass- 
ing away at last from tho people's mind. Cure 
ought, thorefpre, to bo taken to preserve them on 
account of their importance for our knowledge of a 
dim and distnnt past : and to this ond such a society 
as tho Folk- Lore Society does invaluable work.— 
Mr. W. F. Kirby said that it was curious to notice 
how the building story thins out as it goes south- 
wards. At Revel, in Esthonia, it is Olaf himself 
who falls from the summit of the church when his 
wifo calls out his name. At Cologne tho architect 
is hurled from the top of the unfinished edifice by 
tho Devil, whose plans ho had appropriated. A 
little further south, at the castle of Rheingrafenstein, 
on tho Nahe, tho story tissumcs a particularly 
ludicrous form. The castlo was built by tho Devil 
on condition that he should have tho first person 
who looked out of tho window. So they dressed 
ap a donkey in the priest's vestments, and pushed 
his cowled head out, when ho was at cnce seized 
upon by the Devil in great glee. When tho latter 
discovered the imposture, he hurled tho donkey into 
tho river in a rage, but vanished immediately, for 
ho had accepted the offering, and tho spoil Wiis 
broken, llr. Kirby thought it unlikely that the 
effigy of St. Olaf was the origin of the standard of 
the Fighting Man at Senlac, only thirty-six years 
after St. Olaf 's death ; nevertheleiis, it may be 
mentioned that the great Abyssinian chief, Has 
Michael, who was contemporary with Bruce, bad 
already become a legendary character when Mans- 
field Parkyns visited Abyssinia about half a century 
later. We had plenty of draeon-slayera in England 
who wore said to have lived before the Conquest, 
such em Sir Ouy of Warwick and Sir Bevis of 
Hampton ; and, as regards the former, he might 
originally have had some connexion with St. 
George, for in the lato mediaeval romance of 
The Seven Champmn of Christendom Guy is 
the name of the eldest son of St. George, 
whoao exact connexion with England is not easy 
to trace. In every mining country trolls and dwarfs 
and gnomes were found with practicilly the same 
characteristics ; and swan-maiden legends were 
found from Lapland to Egypt and I'crsii, being 
particularly nnmcrous in Lapland. Drums and 
other noisy instruments woro still mado use of in 
India and China during eclipses to drive away tho 



demon that was devouring the Bun cr moon. — Mr. 
Alfred Nutt, in proposing a veto of thanks to tho 
lecturer, thought he could best show his apprecia- 
tion of tt'o paper by criticising it in u friendly 
spirit. lie hoped the lecturer would proceed to 
build on the foundations he had laid down, but 
suggested that distinct historical and topographical 
areas should bo marked out in which to work, and 
that tho Eddaic versions should not be treated as 
the original startioK-point of the myths. The 
Eddas were tho finished work of artists, and should 
not bo taken as a standard, nor could it be assumed 
that all loss complete forms of the myths were neces- 
sarily degraded from tho Eddaic form. All over 
Kurope, for a period stretching back a thousand or 
fifteen hundred years before Christ, similar beliefs to 
those of the Eddas were to bo found embodied in 
myth, ritual, and custom. Thor's visit to Jutunbeim 
was a somewhat artificial version of a widely spread 
legend, in which an allegorical colour had, to some 
extent, been given to the story. The episode of the 
goats, for instance, was found in Nonnius, derived 
from a lost Life of St. Gcrmanus, dating back to the 
fifth century. In fact, the Eddaic tales could only 
be regarded as variants of tales generally current. 
He hoped the lecturer would not abandon the sub- 
ject, but would approach it from moro definitely 
histoiical lines, which might lead him to dilTerent 
conclusions. It should be remembered that Eddaic 
survivals in England may be of two kinds — rem- 
nants of a pan-Teutonic mythological system, or 
remnants of a specific Scandinavian form of that 
system introduced into England by the Danes. 
There was no doubt that the Eddas assumed their 
latest form under ttress of competition with 
Christianity. The Norsemen were shrewd enough 
to see tho points which gave the new faith its 
advantage, and so to turn their own stories that, 
while substantially the same, they were enabled to 
maintiuu the struggle ; although, as the speaker bad 
always maintained, tho Eddaic legends were in the 
main genuine myths, and not mere poetic inven- 
tions. — Mr. Morris asked to bo allowed to second 
the vote ot thanks from tho chair, and in doing so 
said that he agreed very largely with Mr. Nutt, 
and quoted, as an instance of a similar legend 
existing in several places in apparent independence, 
the story of the apprentice's pillar in llosslyn 
Chapel, which is found also at the Cathedrals of 
St. Ouen and Strasburg, suggested, probably, in 
each case by the marked superiority of workman- 
ship shown in the work With regard to Wayland 
Smitli's Cave, with all his love for Sir Walter Scott, 
he could hardly forgive him for his misuse of that 
legend in Kenilworlh. He had been greatly struck 
by the curious similarity of certain negro stories in 
recent collections to stories found in tho Norse. 
For instance, with regard to shape-changing, 
there was a negro story, in which tho " ham," 
left about while its owner was embodied else- 
where, was peppered and salted to preserve it, 
causing him much inconvenience on his return, and 
another resembling that of the man who planted the 
tails of the slaughtered oxen, and when tho troll 
pulled them up, persuaded him that the animals had 
gone underground. Were these independent variants 
or comparatively modern copies 'r In conclusion, he 
must point out that tho " Gylfaginning " in the 
])rose Edda was very much later than Saomund's 
Edda. — In moving a vote of thanks to tho chairman. 
Dr. Karl Blind first observed that they had listened 
to a lecture by one who, in his Sayaa and Honga of 
the Norsemen, had already shown himself an efficient 
adept of the Norse God of the Skaldic art— that is, 
Bragi. They had the good luck of having in the 
chair one of England's greatest potts, who, by his 
XMunge and VohuKji, and kindred work, such as 
The liouse of the lf'o[finris, had powerfully revived 
the interest in these ancient Germanic traditions — 
an interest and a study too long neglected in this 
country. This world of strife and suffering, in 
which we live, was unluckily far yet from being an 
" Earthly Paradise." All tho greater gratitude are 
wo owing to those who, in the words of Heine, 
" carry us on the wings of song " into tho delightful 
realm of poetical enjoyment. Among them Mr. 
William ilorris stands one of the foremost ; and for 
his having presided a hearty vote of thanks was 
sure to bo p.'kS8ed. 



FINE ART. 

BOOKS ON ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY. 
Ltj-iijue des Antvjiiitea Romaincs. Redigu par 
G. Qoyau. (Paris : Tnorin.) M. Goyau is 
known to historians as the compiler of a useful 
little "Chronology" of the Roman empire, 
which he published under the auspices of 
Prof. Cagnat in 1891, He now issues, under the 
same auspices, an illustrated dictionary of 
Roman antiquities for school use. It is an 
octavo of some 1500 pages, with a good supply 
of maps and of woodcuts in the text, some of 
which are old friends, while many seem to be 
new. The book is not exactly what we 
should understand by a dictionary of anti- 
quities, as many of its articles contain no more 
than would naturally find place in a lexicon ; 
but, in general, the selection of facts is good 
and the information is accurate. It is a little 
odd to find princeps senatus put down as the 
title of the Roman emperor ; but serious errors 
are rare, and the book should be very useful 
in French schools. It is right to add that 
five other young scholars,, all formerly 
pupils of M. Cagnat at the Ecole Normale, 
have ccllaborated in the work. It is jjleasant 
to find a distinguished French professor thus 
guiding the studies of those who have been in 
his classes. 

In a recent Wiirzburg Programm Dr. Carl 
Sittl has started a new theory about the 
German Limes, under the title Die Grenz- 
bezeichtmng der ESmer. Dr. Sittl is concerned 
with the ditch with stones which M. Jacobi 
found near Homburg, and which has since been 
detected at many places along the Limes. He 
connects this with the later of the Gromatiu 
writers, whose art is more elabarate than that 
of their earlier colleagues, and can be traced 
back to the beginning of the third century ; and 
he supposes that the Steingriibchen and 
Begleithiiyel correspond to details mentioned 
by these later writers. They are not meant 
for frontier marks, but concern private property. 
From the time of Severus Alexander the h'mea 
became a military frontier with settlers bound 
to do service for their land ; and the discoveries 
of M. Jacobi are the boundary marks of their 
plots. The Begleithiigel, for instance, are 
really quadrifinia, as described by the 
later Gromatic writers. On the other hand 
the limes of the earlier period is quite dififerent : 
tho Jimites of Tacitus, cut by Tiberius or 
Germanicus, are really clearings in the forests, 
making roads through them, and forming 
boundaries only if nothing Roman lay beyond. 
These new views will doubtless cause much 
discussion. 

The Guide to the Museum of Roman 
Remains at Cirencester, which Prof. A. H. 
Church wrote so long ago as 1867, when he 
was at the Royal Agricultural College, has 
passed into an eighth edition, more than 3000 
copies having already been sold (Cirencester : 
Harmer). Tho present edition is not a mere 
reprint; for it has been revised throughout, 
and includes a description of tho most recent 
additions, such as the dedication by Septimius 
of a restored statue of Jupiter, which was dis- 
covered in 1892. We may also mention that 
there is a very full list of makers' names on the 
so-called Samian pottery, and an excellent 
account of the coins. Prof. Church, who has 
already presented several things to the 
Museum, including a fine bronze statuette of 
Diana, intimates that it is his intention to 
select fiom the large series of Cirencester coins 
in his private cabinet, in order to complete the 
representation of the imperial period. Alto- 
gether, Corinium is to l^ congratulated, not 
only upon the rich contents and intelligent 
arrangement of its museum, but also upon the 
interesting general information conveyed by 
this scholarly guide-book. 



Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185.] 



tHfe ACADteMV. 



65 



, 



ARGHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS 
IN CRETE. 

We quote the following from the New York 
Nation : 

" Prof. Halbherr letumed to Eome this week 
after an absence of an entire year in Crete, where, 
as is known to many of your readers, he has been 
er gaged in archaeological work for the American 
Institute of Archaeology. I have had the pleasxu-e 
of examining some of the objects found, the draw- 
ings of many others, topographical plans of eeveral 
ancient sit,eB that have been carefully studied, 
and the copies of some two hundred inscriptions 
found; and I feel fully justified in eaying that 
the results of the year's explorations are greater 
than have ever before been tecured by any 
archaeologist in Crete, except by Prof. Halbherr 
himself in his earlier labours, and even these are 
burpassed by the variety of the present harvest, 
and by the lapse of time over which it extends. 
His inscriptions form a series from about fix 
centuries before Christ on to Christian times, while 
the other objects go back to the second millennium 
before our era and close with imperial Kome. 
ThoEe who have looked to Crete as a necessary 
fuc'or in the solution of the question of prehistoric 
tireece and the early civilisation of the Levant 
will find here much food for study and comparison . 
" A short resume may be of interest. Among 
the vases from various sites, those of the so-called 
Thtrau type appear to be the earliest ; then follow 
the Mycenaean, in varying stages, from the earliest 
till they mass into the geometric style and advance 
towards archaic Greek. Some of the tcrra-cotta 
tfatuettes present a peculiar stamp which Prof. 
Halbherr inclines to assign to the Eteocretans ; 
others repeat the well-known attitude of the 
Cypriote goddess. A number of steatite stones, 
apparently employed as amulets, are of an 
extremely archaic cast : and some of them are 
incised, on one or more faces, with figures and 
marks, which will be studied in connexion with 
the theory of a prehittoric hieroglyphic and 
syllabic system of writing in Crete. These 
stones weio employed, also, in the historic 
Oreek epoch, and eome tpecimens are thought to 
be Gnostic. The question of burning and of in- 
humation in the Mycenaean period gains evidence 
from both sides. At Erganos, in the beehive 
tombs, inhumation was alone employed; else- 
where incineration was found to be usual. On two 
sites it was possible to diecom the remains of the 
Mycenaean palace, though the interior plan was 
hardly to be traced. 

"Among sculptural remains are several import- 
ant pieces from Gortyua, metopes of difEerent 
epochs, a noble head of a goddess, and some heads 
of distinguished Eomans. Two terra-cotta heads 
are of great beauty, and a relief of a dancing girl, 
with a somewhat novel motive, is very charming, 
t'ome other cpecimens are not without interest. 

" No incciiption of great length, like the famous 
Cede of Goityna, has rewarded the explorer's 
ffforts ; but many are of va'.uo from the epi- 
graphic and dialectal point of view. Gortyna has 
yielded a number of the archaic boustrophcdon 
epoch, from the period of the closed da onward, 
and one is boustrophedou in the Ionic alphabet. 
They represent decrees, laws, treaties, &c. The 
Macedonian has a notable scries, one of which 
gives a fixed date (so rare in Cretan inscriptions) 
in the reign of Demetrius I'oliorcetes. The most 
important belonging to the lioman days is a Latin 
retcript, which will bo edited by Prof. Mommsen, 
who has taken great interest in it. 

" Prof. Halbherr's explorations have covered 
two-thirds of the eastern part of Crete, embracing 
twenty-one journeys from his headquarters at 
Candia, so that be may be said to have garnered 
the harvest there of archaeological material eo 
thoroughly that systematic excavations w)ll next be 
necessary before much further advance can be 
made. 

" Dr. Taramelli, a pupil of Prof. Halbherr's, 
was of great assistance to him in the early summer, 
after which he travelled in Western Crete until he 
was attacked by a fever that prostrated him 
completely, and he was tent home. Ho has now 
«o far recovered that it is expected that ho will be 
able to contribute an article on early pottery io 
the publication to be made by tho- Institute. 



" Prof. Halbherr is to be congratulated upon the 
success that has crowned his labours, in the midst 
of enormous difficulties, which he has surmounted 
with rare patience and sagacity. Among his 
other services, epigraphists will thank him for the 
cast which he has had taken of the great Gortynian 
inscription, thus securing a permanent record of 
it, even should the original be destroyed. 

" A. 0. Hebbiam. 

" Eome, December 6, 1894." 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

EPITAPHS WITH THE FOKMULA ouSels aBdraros. 
London : Jan. 14, 1S9S. 
May I call the attention of those who have 
read Prof. W. M. Eamsay's review, in this 
month's Expositor, of Prof. G. Adam Smith's 
" Geography of the Holy Land," to the use of 
this well-known Syrian sepulchral formula in 
Christian Egypt ? 

Eevillout, in writing years ago upon the 
Coptic prayers for the dead, could cite but one 
example of this type of inscription (Rev. egyptol. 
iv., p. 28, No. 38 = C. L O. iv., No. 9135), 
which he considered to be "essentiellement 
materialiste et syrienne." It runs thus: — 
" Grieve not for the departed Selene ; for there 
is not (any) deathless " [mii atmou). The 
word nhol, which terminates the sentence, 
appears merely to add emphasis to the negation. 

Three other tombstones, now in the possession 
of Lord Amherst of Hackney, who kindly 
allowed me to copy them, have the formula 
thus : " There is not (any) deathless upon the 
earth," The same idea is differently expressed 
upon a fourth, copied in Egypt by Mr. G. W. 
Eraser : " Who is there shall live and not see 
death ■■ " 

Prof. Smith had regarded the epitaphs 
containing these words as pagan. His critic 
holds them to be Christian. Their adoption 
by the Copts would seem to give some 
additional weight to the latter view. 

Eevillont's example is dated in the "fourth 
Indiction," whence it is clear merely that the 
stone is not earlier than the middle of the 
fourth century. Lord Amherst's stones are 
not dated. W. E. Cnusi. 



the Baccliae." We may add that, according to 
a telegram in the Times, Mr. Ernest Gardner 
pronounced a eulogy on Sir Charles Newton at 
a public meeting of the British School at Athens 
on January 15. 

The Friday evening discourse at the Eoyal 
Institution next week will be given by Sir 
Colin Scott-Moncrieff, on "The Nile," in 
which he may bo expected to touch on matters 
interesting to Egyptologists. 

About sixty new designs have recently 
been added to the exhibition of artistic posters 
at the Eoyal Aquarium, which will remain open 
until the end of February. Among them are 
examples of Sir J. D. Linton, Mr. Linley 
Samboume, Mr. Herbert Schmalz, and Prof. 
Anning Bell. 



NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOOY. 
An exhibition will open next week, at 9, 
Conduit- street, of the first half of a series of 
paintings, illustrating " The Quest of the Holy 
Grail," which have been done by Mr. E. A. 
Abbey, for the decoration of the Public 
Library of Boston, U.S.A. 

Mr. Joseph Pollard, of Truro, announces 
for publication by subscription an important 
work on Old Cornish Crosses. The author is 
Mr. Arthur G. Langdon, who has devoted 
many years to making a complete series of 
measured drawings of the monuments in 
question. The total number to be figured is 
about 3'iO, being nearly treble those given in 
Blight's book, published in 1858. They will 
be drawn on a ui:iform scale, equivalent to one 
twenty-fourth of the real size ; and will be 
accompanied by a descriptive letter-press, 
dealing generally with the whole subject. The 
mode of classification will be such as to show 
the development from a rude pillar with a 
simple cross devoid of sculpture to the elab- 
orately decorated siiecimens of the later period. 

Members of the Hellenic Society are re- 
minded that the next general meeting will be 
held at 22, Albemarle-street on Wednesday 
next, at 5 p.tn. Prof. Jebb, president of the 
society, will be in the chair, and will take the 
opportunity of paying a tribute to the services 
of the late Sir Charles Newton in the cause of 
Oreek archaeology. The paper to be read is 
by Mr, A. G. Bather, on "Tho Mythology of 



THE STAGE. 

"KING ARTHUR" AT THE LYCEUM. 

The Arthurian legends, especially in their 
more poetic forms, have long taken such a hold 
upon English-speaking folk that it is not to be 
wondered at that the best of them should have 
commended itself to Mr. Irving as excellent 
material for treatment on the stage of the 
Lyceum. Nor was it a matter of surprise when 
the public was informed that Mr. Comyns 
Carr, a writer of dexterity and taste, had 
undertaken to put into dramatic shape the 
story of Launcelot's perfidy, of Arthur's 
nobility, and of Guinevere's fall. The piece 
was produced last Saturday evening, on the 
occasion of Mr. Irving's return, after a pro- 
vincial tour which has been one long success ; 
and the reception accorded to it augurs well 
for the long-continued performance of "King 
Arthur" on the Lyceum boards. Never, we 
surmise, has Mr. Irving bent his energies more 
completely upon the due performance of a task 
confessedly difficult. By personal care, as well 
as by lavish but wise commissions to those best 
qualified to assist him in his task — and with the 
co-operation of his excellent company — he has 
secured a genuine and an all-round success for 
the latest of his artistic enterprises. 

In the Lyceum adaptation of the Arthurian 
story, Mr. Oarr has followed Malory in more 
than one instance in which it was desirable to 
depart from Tennyson. He deals out to 
Guinevere — or seems inclined to deal out to 
her — a severer punishment than that which 
she met with in the Idylls of the King ; 
and then, by staying his hand, gives to King 
Arthur an opportunity he had not previously 
had occasion to profit by. The story that he 
tells, if we can but for a moment imagine it 
modernised — if, that is to say, wo can imagine 
it happening in the England of to-day — might 
not be accounted thoroughly well-constructed 
drama. But, " other times, other manners" — 
other literary standards, that is to say — and 
Mr. Carr's conduct of the intrigue, from dc'but 
to denouement, is satisfactory and sufficient, when 
supported by the immense resources of the 
Lyceum management. On the purely literary 
question, it may further be said that his blank 
verse has in it a measure of Tenuyson'an music, 
and that the occasional lyrics are for the most 
part not unworthy of association with a theme 
that is dignified and almost august. 

Yet it is not in the literary work that there 
can be expected to reside the main attractive- 
ness of Mr. Irving's new productiori. This 
should clearly be recognised. To achieve the 
highest literary interest, it is almost necessary 
— we say it even with the recollection of Mr. 
EobertBridge's latest performance, "Eros and 
Psyche " — it is necessary, we opine, to create the 
fable with which one deals. The fable need not 
be a strong one or an elaborate one by any 
means • but it is generally essential, we contend, 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. Id, 1895.— No. 1185. r 



that it shall bo one's own. BxoeptioHS to the 
rule there may be, but they will be found to be 
few. And this being the case, Mr. Irving has 
been both fortunate and wise in having ee jurea 
for the new production the assistance of Bir 
AHhur Sullivan for the incidental music, 
and of Sir Edward Burne-Jones for the 
deeisna of costume and scenery. Bt-tore 
now wo have seen, at the theatre, a 
series, as it were, of Aluia Tademas. A series 
of what are practically Burne-Jones pictures 
are now presented at the Lyceum. Thoy have 
all the peculiarity and quamtness of that 
arUsfs individual style -a style which, while 
owing so much t« the past of Italian art, yet 
unmistakably asserta itself as possessed of its 
own being. Thus, altogether, there is secured 
a singular harmony and completeness in the 
representation. . . ,. i 

The occasions given to Mr. Irving to display 
his greatest gifts as an actor are, to tell the 
truth, not numerous. It is but in the third and 
fourth acts that he enjoys anything like his fuU 
opportunity. Dignified in the earher scenes, 
his performance of Arthur waxes great in 
beauty as it proceeds ; and before the end it is 
felt to be admirably touching. From an 
actor's point of view, whatever the moralist 
may think of Launcelot's conduct, it is 
Launcelot's part that is the more grateful. 
Mr. Forbes Robertson has the air of an ascetic 
—otherwise, indeed, he would hardly fit in with 
Sir Edward Burne-Jones' vision of manhood ; 
and this ascetic breaks down in his behaviour, 
and loses himself in his passion for Guinevere. 
Guinevere, it need hardly be said, is Miss 
Ellen Terry, exquisite in appearance, in her 
green raiment, and charged fully with the im- 
portance of her task, as representing one who, 
after all, must be considered the central 
character of the play. Miss Genevieve Ward, 
mistress of a style that has been well described 
as "lurid"— it is certainly none the less 
potent— appears in the character of Morgan le 
Fay. Mr. Frank Cooper plays well a part that 
is not unimportant; Elaine is looked excel- 
lently by Miss Lena Ashwell : plaintive, 
and, in contrast with Miss Terry's magniB- 
cenoe, almost iJctite. And Miss Annie Hughes, 
too— whom, before the season's close at least, 
we hope to see with Mr. Irving in "The Story 
of Waterloo "—lends some characteristic assist- 
ance to a piece, the general production of which 
tellects immense credit upon the most enter- 
prising and the most tasteful management of 
the day. 

STAGE NOTES. 
The West End theatres lately have been the 
scene of a series of failures, or, at the best, 
quasi-failures. Though Mr. Henry James's play 
at the St. James's—" Guy Domville," atale of 
the last century— is now said to bo doing some- 
wlat better than it at first promised to do, 
choice has been already made of the piece that 
will succeed it, and a jJay by Mr. Oscar Wilde 
has been accepted to take its place before long. 
Meantime, the opportunity would not perhaps 
wisely be lost of seeing Mr. Alexander, Miss 
Marion Terry, and one of the most promising 
and charming of our youngest actresses, Miss 
Evelyn Millard, and that extremely clever 
young comedian, Mr. Esmond, in a piece which, 
at all events, is not without the merit of refined 
and sympathetic dialogue. 

" GVY DOMVIIXE," though at the best it 
may be a luca'a d'atime, is scarcely a failure ; 
but in the new piece at the Qarrick which is to 
be withdrawn as these lines reach the eyes of the 
rtadcr, Mr. Sydney Grundy, whose failures 
before now have been few or none, has known 
what it is to fail to please. We are not quite 
sure, moreover, whether his failure to please on 
this occasion is not the direct result of his 



steady and veracious artistry. He has not 
given to his play the desired ending. He has 
not pretended to unravel the skems which 
human inclinations have caused to be so terribly 
twisted. Mr. John Hare proposes to fill the 
blank caused by the withdrawal of Mr. Giundy's 
piece by the revival of what is probably the 
most popular adaptation over made by the same 
author: " A Pair of Spectacles," founded, as our 
readers may chance to recollect, on "Les Petits 
Oiseaux." Miss Calhoun, who has made a 
brief re-appearance in England in the con- 
demned drama, will surely, on an early occasion, 
enjoy another opportanity of practising her art 
before the English public in a character of some 
importance. 

Mil. Oscar Wilde's latest production at the 
Haymarket— where, in Mr. Tree's absence, the 
stage is occupied by the company organised by 
Mr. Waller and his associate Mr. Morell— is 
one of the few pieces which have of late found 
favour with the public. In it we are spared all 
reference to the "woman with the past," now 
—pace Mr. Hall Caine— so very much commoner 
on the stage than in anything which by any 
stretch of tolerance can bo called good society. 
Indeed, Mr. Wilde's play is not unhealthy: 
there is, no doubt, a class of playgoer that finds 
it accordingly uninviting, and may even con- 
demn it, nothwithstanding its pretty paradoxes, 
as terribly ineux jeu. But we are not all 
enamoured of the society of ex-courtesans. We 
do not all find their constant presence indis- 
pensable to the completeness of literary art. 
Mr. Wilde's piece is admirably played by Mr. 
Waller, Mr. Morell, Miss Florence West, and 
Miss Maud Millett. 



MUSIC. 

RECENT CONCERTS. 

Mr. Pltjnket Greene and Mr. Leonard 
Berwick gave' their third and last Song and 
Pianoforte Recital at St. James's Hall last 
Friday week. Liszt was the inventor, we 
believe, of the pianoforte recital— generally one 
of the most tedious forms of musical entertain- 
ment. The two artists above named have 
joined forces, and with the happiest results. 
Mr. Berwick not only gives pianoforte solos, but 
plays the accompaniments for Mr. Greene. And 
in such a set of songs as the " Dichterliebe " of 
Schumann, the pianist divides honours with 
the vocalist: the vocal and the instrumental 
elements are no mere mixture, but a true com- 
pound. The "Dichterliebe" series of songs 
was composed in 1840, one of Schumann's 
happiest, and one of his most successful, years 
as composer. Mr. Greene took a few of 
the numbers at a somewhat rapid rate ; and 
Mr. Berwick, here and there, might have given 
a little more warmth and prominence to 
his part. Having said this, there is 
nothing left but to praise the two artists 
for their refined and sjjmpathetio rendering of 
the music. The enthusiastic reception accorded 
to them will, no doubt, lead, ere long, to a 
repetition of the Dichterliebe ; and then we hope 
that the artists will request the audience to 
reserve their applause until the end. Mr. 
Borwick played Bach's " Suite Anglaise " in A 
minor in a remarkably neat, ur pretentious 
manner. He may, indeed, be said to have 
revived the Bach " Suites " ; some day, perhaps, 
he will devote his attention to those of Handel, 
which are so fine, and so unduly neglected. 
Mr. Greene sang some quaint old melodies, in 
whichhe wasaccompaniedbyMr. Korbay. Of this 
talented musician we shall soon have occasion 
to speak ; for some songs of his own composi- 
tion are to be heard at a concert given next 
month by Mrs. Lee, a contralto singer. 

A Rubinstein Quartet for strings in F (Op. 17, 
No. 3) was announced last Monday on the 



Popular programme ; but, owing to the sudden 
indisposition of the 'cellist, Herr Becker, 
Schubert's Quartet in A minor was substituted 
in its stead. The Rubinstein music would 
probably not have altered our oonviotion, that 
the Russian composer's gifts did not lie in the 
direction of the Sonata, Quartet, or Symphony ; 
but it was quite reasonable that one of his 
chamber works should be announced. Lady 
Halle was leader ; and the delightful Schubert 
music pleased greatly. Schubert, by the way, 
like Rubinstein, did not move freely within the 
larger forms; but so inspired were his 
thoughts, so fascinating his colouring, that, 
in listening to his music, one forgets 
its weaknesses : the failures of genius are 
more acceptable than the highest efforts of 
the greatest talent. Lady Halle performed 
Signer Piatti's graceful Romance in A in sym- 
pathetic manner, and wisely refused the encore. 
Mr. Bispham sang Schubert's " Der Zwerg," 
a magnificent song, heard at these concerts for 
the firat time. It was admirably declaimed by 
the vocalist ; and Mr. Henry Bird played the 
important pianoforte part with marked feeling 
and intelligence. Mr. Bispham's second song 
was Purcell's powerful and characteristic 
"Mad Tom." . 

Mr. Thomas Britten, the famous "Musical 
Small-Coal Man," who died in 17 U, gave 
concerts at his humble house close to Clerken- 
Well-Green for nearly half a century, at which 
Mr. Handel frequently played the harpsichord. 
These concerts were celebrated in their day ; 
and, although the guests had t-> hobble, or, 
rather, crawl, up the stairs outside the house 
which led to the music-room, they were 
attended by dukes and duchesses, and by men 
and women of note in the fields of literature 
and art. Now Mr. Arnold Dolmetsch gave the 
first of a series of four concerts at the Salle 
Erard en Tuesday evening, and in the matter 
of programmes his concerts prove very 
similar to those of Thomas Britten : the 
approach to the Erard music-rcom is, however, 
a grand improvement on the old rickety stairs 
of ttie humble Clerkenwell house. Mr. 
Dolmetsch devoted his first evening to English 
music of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. There were composition for viols 
by King Henry VIII., WiUiam L*wes, and 
Matthew Locke ; pieces for the virginals 
from the " Fitzwilliam Virginal Book," 
and a Purcell Suite for harpsichord, 
admirably interpreted on the respective 
instruments by Mr. J. A. Fuller-Maitland. 
Miss Helene Dolmetsch gave an excellent 
rendering of Christopher Simpson's clever 
"Divisions" for Viol da Gamba. The viols 
were played by Messrs. A. Dolmetsch and 
Messrs. Boxall and Milne. Mr. Douglas 
Powell sang with great taste some short and 
delightfully quaint songs by Henry Lawes, 
with lute accompaniment (Mr. A. Dolmetsch). 
The concert was one of great historical in- 
terest; but much of the music, though old, 
and peculiar in tonality, is full of life and 
charm. Mr. Dolmetsch will devote his second 
evening to Italian, his third to German, and 
his last to French composers. The oppor- 
tunities of hearing early instrumental music, 
especially on the instruments for which it was 
written, are rare : it was, therefore, not sur- 
prising to find the Salle Erard well filled. 
Indeed, to obtain admission to these concerts, 
early application ia necessary. 

J. S. Shedlock. 

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Jan. 19, 1895.— No. 1185. 



THE ACADEMY. 



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THEATRES. 



ADELPHI THEATEE. 

SoIg Proprietors and Managers, A, & 8. Gatli, 
THIS EVENING, at 7.45, THE FATAL CARD. Mr. 
William Terriss, Messrs. Murray Carson, Charles Fulton, 
W. L. Abingdon, Richard Purdon, and Harry Nicholls; 
Mesdames Vane, Laura Linden, Sophie Larkin, and Miss 
Millward. 

AVENUE THEATRE. 

THIS EVENING, at 8.30, THE LADY SLAVEY. Miss 
May Yohe and Mr. J. J. Dallas ; Mesdames Grenville, 
Jennjr McNulty, Rita York ; Messrs. Robert Pateman, H. 
Sparling, G. Humphrey, and James Lovorett. At 7.45, 
THE FUTURE MRS. RANSOME. 



COMEDY THEATRE. 

Lessee and Manager, Mr. J. Comyns Carr. 
THIS EVENING, at 8.15, THE NEW WOMAN. Mr. 
Fred Terry, Mr. Cyril Maude, Mr. J. G. Grahamo, Mr. Wyes, 
Mr. Champion, Mr. Byron ; Miss Rose Leclercq, Miss Alma 
Murray, Miss Lam*a Graves, Miss Gertrude Warden, Miss 
Rickards, Miss Norton. 



CRITERION THEATRE. 

Lessee and Manager, Mr. Charles Wyndham. 
THIS EVENING, at 8.30, THE CASE OP REBELLIOUS 
SUSAN. Mr. Charles Wj-ndham, Mr. Kemble, Mr. Fredk. 
Kerr, Mr. C. P. Little, Mr. Ben Webster, Mr. E. Dagnall ; 
Miss Fanny Coleman, Miss Gertrude Kingston, Miss Nina 
Boucicault, and Miss Mary Moore. 



DALY'S THEATRE. 
THIS EVENING, at 9.0, Humperdinck's HANSEL AND 
GRETBL. Preceded, at 8.15, by Mozart's BASTIEN AND 
BASTIENNE. Messrs. Charles Copland, Reginald Brophy ; 
Joseph Claus ; Mdmes. JuUa Lennox, Marie Elba, Jeanne 
Douste, Edith Miller, Jessie Hudleston, Marie du Bedat. 
Conductor, Signer Arditi 



DRURY LANE THEATRE ROYAL. 

Sir Augustus Harris, Sole Les-see and Manager. 
TWICE DAILY, at 1.30 and 7.30, DICK WHITTINGTON. 
Messrs. Dan Lena, Herbert Campbell, Griffiths Bros., Spry 
and Austen ; Mesdames Ada Blanche, Marie Montrose, Lily 
Harold, Agnes Hewitt, Madge Lucas, Eva Westlake, Lihi 
Clay's Ladies' Band. 

GAIETY THEATRE. 
THIS EVENING, at 8.0, THE SHOP GIRL. Messrs. 
Seymour Hicks, George Grossmith, jun., Colin Coop, Cairns 
James, Coventry Davies, Frank Wheeler, Robert Nainby, 
Willie Wardc, and Arthur Williams ; Misses Katie Seymour, 
Maria Davis, Kate Cutler, Lillie Belmore, Adelaide Astor, 
Fannie Warde, Maggie Ripley, Topsy Sinden, and Marie 
Halton. 

GARRICK THEATRE. 

Mr. John Hare, Lessee and Manager. 

THIS EVENING, at 8.45, A PAIR OF SPECTACLES. 

Mr. John Hare, Mesars. C. Groves, A. Aynesworth, Gilbert 

Hare, C. Rock, G. Raiemond ; Mesdames M. T. Lewis, L. 

Lee, and Kate Rorke. At 8.16, FADED FLOWERS. 

GLOBE theatre! 

Lessee, W. S. Penley. 
THIS EVENING, at 9.0, CHARLEY'S AUNT. W. S. 
Penley ; Messrs. W. Everard, 8. Pa.'tton, Seymour, C. 
Thombury, and Reeves Smith ; Misses Ada Branson, 
Emmie Merrick, Graves, Schuberth. At 8.0, IN THE 
EYES OF THE WORLD. 

HAYMARKET THEATRE. 

Managers, Mr. Waller and Mr. Morrell. 
THIS EVENING, al 8, AN IDEAL HUSBAND. Messrs. 
Lewis Waller, Alfred Bishop, C. H. Brookfleld, Cosmo 
Stuart, Stanford, Deane, Meyrick, Goodhart, and Charles 
H. Hawtrey ; Mesdames Fanny 13rough, Maude Millett, 
Florence West, Vane Featherstone, Helen Forsyth, and 
Julia Neilson. 



LY0EX7M THEATRE. 

Sole Lessee and Manager, Mr. Henry Irving 
THIS EVENING, at 8, KING ARTHUR. Mr? Irving, 
Miss Kllen Terry, Messrs. Forbes Robertson, Cooper, Tyars, 
Hague, Mellish, Lacy, Buckley, Knight, Harvey, Valentino, 
Belmore, Tabb; Misses Genevieve Ward, Ashwell, Hughes. 
Milton. 



LYRIC THEATRE. 

THIS EVENING, at 8.30, HIS EXCELLENCY. Mes- 
dames Jessie Bond, Ellaline TeiTiss, Alice Bamett, Gertrude 
Aylward, and Nancy Mcintosh ; Messrs. Rutland Barrington, 
Charles Kenningham, John Le Hay, Arthur Playfair, 
Augustus Cramer, and George Grossmith. Preceded, at 
7.40, by A KNIGHT ERRANT. 

PRINCE OF WALES THEATRE. 
MR. ARTHUR ROBERTS' SEASON. 
THIS EVENING, at 8.15, CLAUDE DUVAL. Messrs. 
W. H. Denny, W. P. Dempsey, J. Welch, F. Morgan, 
L. Russell, and Mr. Arthur Roberts; Mesdames Aida 
Jenoure, Violet Robinson, Florence Levey, Liddon, Eva 
Ellerslie, Carrie Benton, Kate Cannon, Alice Holbrook, 
Kitty Harcourt, and Ellas Dee. 

PRINCESS'S THEATRE. 
Lessee and Manager, Sir Augustus Harris. 
THIS EVENING, at 7.30, THE DERBY WINNER. 
Mrs. John Wood, Mrs. Raleigh, Misses Pattio Browne, 
Louise Moodie, Hetty Dene, Middleton, Beatrice Lamb ; 
Messrs. Charles Dalton, Harry Eversfleld, Rudge Harding, 
Charles Dodsworth, East, Lawford, Revelle, and George 
Giddens. 

SAVOY THEATRE. 
Proprietor and Manager, R. D'Oyly Carte. 
THIS EVENING, at 8.45, THK CHIEFTAIN. Messrs. 
Courtice Pounds, Walter Passmore, M. R. Morand, Scott 
Russell, Peterkiii, and R. Temple ; Mesdames Florence St. 
John, Florence Perry, Emmie Owen, and R. Brandram. At 
7.45, COX AND BOX. Messrs. Scott Russell, Morand. and 
R. Temple. 

ST. JAMES'S THEATEE. 
Sole Lessee and Manager, Mr. George Alexander; 
THIS EVENING, at 8.45, GUY DOMVILLE. Mr. 
George Alexander, Messrs. Herbert Waring, EHiot, H. V. 
Esmond, Arthur Boyston ; Miss Marion Terry, Miss Irene 
Vanbrugh, Mrs. Edward Saker, Miss Evelyn Millard. 
Preceded, at 8, by TOO HAPPY BY HALF. 

TERRY'S THEATRE. 
Proprietor and Manager, Mr. Edward Terry. 
THIS EVENING, at 7.46, KEEP YOUR OWN COUNSEL; 
at 8.20, AN INNOCENT ABROAD, concluding with HIGH 
LIFE BELOW STAIRS. Messrs. Edward Ten-y, Sydney 
Brough, Harcourt Beatty, Ernest Hendrio, Geoi-ge Belmore, 
Robert Soutar, Leslie Kenyon, J. Thompson ; Mesdames 
Kate Mills, Elly Desmond, Jessie Danvers, M. Mcintosh, 
Blanche Astley, M. Ray. 



TRAFALGAR THEATEE. 

Sole Proprietors, Mr. and Mrs. Fi-ank Wyatt (Miss Violet 

Melnotte) . 
Mr. HORACE SEDGBR'S COMPANY on SATURDAY, 
Jan. 19. THE TABOO, a Fantastic Opera, in Two Acts. 
Libretto by Mason Carnes. Music by Ethel Harraden. 
Stage managed and produced by Horace Sedger. Musical 
Director, Mr. Edward Solomon. 



VAUDEVILLE THEATRE. 

Lessee, Mr. William Grossmith. 
THIS EVENING, at 9, THE NEW BOY. Mr. Weedon 
Grossmith, Messrs. J. Beauchamp, 8. Warden, K. Douglas, 
T. Palmer, F. Volpe, T. Kingston, A. Holmorc, J. L. 
Mackay ; Mesdames Gla^lys Homfrey, May Palfrey, Esine 
Berengor, Helena Daore. At 8.16, HAL, THE HIGH- 
WAYMAN. 



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[Jan. 26, 1896.— No. 1186. 



TABLB OF OONTBNTS. 

Th« LiTl or HiCKUD Owix, by A. W. llnsx . . 

ESGLiaB riOBE SILCCTIOXI, bj LlOKIL JoHjrsoir . 

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WsSTWOtTtt WHOSITIll 

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Cr»>.iT Lniitii'ii 

Nona xsv Niws . • 

Thi FonBCOMiKG UiaizMU 

tTstrEisiTT Joni50» 

Oiioiwii. ViisB: "Ninci," by tho Countess 

ClKABISCO • . • • 

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COIIESrOBDBKCB— „ ., „ , 

Thr AViP St/riiic atapeh, by Prof. Snndfty, F. P. Bad- 
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Phillips 

Kons oir Abt abd Abcbaiologt 

Bbciht Cobcibts, by J. B. Shedloci .... 
Usaic KoTES 



rACE 
73 

;i 

75 

76 
77 
77 
79 
79 
SO 



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THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186. 



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THE ACADEMY. 



73 



SATUEDAT, JANUARY 26, 1895. 

No. i 186, New Series. 

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LITERATURE. 

The Life of Richard Owen. By his Grand- 
son, the Eev. Eichard Owen. In 2 vols. 
(John Murray.) 

At a public dinner given in June, 1838, on 
behalf of the Actors' Benevolent Fund, it 
happened that the attention of the chair- 
man. Lord Glen gall, was called to one of 
the guests whom he did not know. On 
asking " Who's that ? " he received for 
answer, " Oh, nobody in particular — only 
the first anatomist of the age ! " (vol. i. 
p. 123). The person so distinguished was 
Eichard Owen, at that time not quite thirty- 
four years old. Somewhat later we find 
him described by Carlyle as a " tall man 
with great glittering eyes " : one of the 
few who was "neither a fool nor a hum- 
bug" (i. 197, 198). In 1859 a brother of 
Mr. John Blackwood, the publisher, meeting 
Owen accidentally, speaks of him as " a 
deuced clever -looking fellow, with a pair of 
eyes in his head ! " and suspects that he may 
be the then unrevealed author of the Scenes 
of Clerical Life (ii. Ct) — a somewhat less ex- 
travagant supposition than that which had 
ascribed the Vestiges to Thackeray (i. 248). 
On the continent his fame stood not less 
high than in England. Humboldt salutes 
in him " le plus grand anatomists du siecle " 
(i. 377). And the judgment of posterity 
may perhaps be gathered from Prof. 
Huxley's authoritative statement that 

"during more than half a century Owen's 
industry remained unabated ; and whether we 
consider the quantity or the quality of the 
work done, or the wide range of his labours, I 
doubt if, in the long annals of anatomy, more 
is to be placed to the credit of any single 
worker " (ii. 306). 

Except the higher mathematics there 
is no science so remote from the general 
intelligence as comparative anatomy : no 
waggon can be directly hitched to its stars ; 
nor, indeed, can its stars be easily made 
visible to the uneducated eye. The dis- 
coveries of astronomy relate to bodies of 
which the great types are known to all; 
and their most intricate details can be 
brought before the sight either by direct 
observation or by illustrations closely re- 
sembling the phenomena themselves. The 
discoveries of physics and chemistry can 
be exhibited by means of brilliant ex- 
periments, and are made available by 
marvellous inventions for the uses of 
common life. The discoveries of physi- 
ology, besides their applicability to medi- 
cine, open up new views as to the origin 
and destiny of man. But comparative 
anatomy, or, as Prof. Huxley prefers 
to call it, morphology, deals mostly with 



objects that Nature herself has care- 
fully put out of sight, and which when 
first exhibited to our view excite disgust or 
repugnance by their uncouth appearance, 
and by their association with death and 
decay; it sets forth their structure and 
relations in an appalling dialect, difficult to 
pronounce and impossible for any but 
experts to remember ; it seems to have no 
practical interest, and, apart from the theory 
of evolution, very little speculative interest 
either. Evolution, as we now understand 
it — that is, the connexion of different living 
forms by direct descent — did not commend 
itself to Owen as taught either by Lamarck 
or by Darwin ; he could never even " be 
induced to follow the new school of anatomy 
and zoology that arose with the epoch- 
making researches of Von Baer and Eathke 
in embryology " (ii. 93). He had, indeed, 
a morphological philosophy of his own, 
chiefly derived. Prof. Huxley tells us, from 
Oken, in which archetypal ideas play a 
great part. To judge from the desponding 
language of Prof. Huxley and the tri- 
umphant language of Prof. Mivart, this 
philosophy seems again coming into favour ; 
but probably his speculations in this 
direction contributed nothing to Owen's 
fame during his lifetime. 

Yet, notwithstanding the unattractiveness 
of his studies to the popular imagination, 
Owen seems to have enjoyed a celebrity 
which extended far beyond the scientific 
world, and which before the advent of 
Darwin surpassed that of every other 
English scientist. It would appear that he 
owed this exceptional distinction to a single 
achievement of that rarest, although not 
most difficult, kind, in which the profoundest 
knowledge and the most penetrating sagacity 
are displayed in such a happy combination 
that the result may be explained in a few 
sentences, and even made visibly evident to 
the uninitiated as well as to the learned. I 
refer to his famous reconstruction of the 
Binornis. One day, in the year 1839, " a 
fragment of a large bone like a marrow- 
bone in appearance" was brought to Owen 
by a seafaring man, who had obtained it 
from a native of New Zealand. It had 
been described by the native as the bone of 
a great eagle ; but Owen assured the owner 
that it could not have belonged to any bird of 
flight, and rather resembled the femur of 
an ox. Further examination convinced him 
that it belonged to the skeleton of a gigantic 
wingless bird ; and by the method of Zadig 
he reconstructed this bird, which no living 
man had ever seen, and which differed from 
aU other known animal species living or 
extinct. A paper was printed containing a 
description of the hypothetical biped, copies 
of which were distributed over NewZealand, 
and search was made for its remains in all 
directions. After some years parcels of 
bones began to come in, and finally " the 
whole skeleton was brought over to this 
country." This, as Sydney Smith observed, 
was Owen's magnum honum (p. 232), for it 
proved to be what those wonderful eyes of 
his had seen across the centuries and 
through the whole diameter of the globe. 

" When the fragment of the shaft of a femur 
first arrived," writes an eye-witness, "the 
Professor took a piece of paper and drew the 



outline of what he conceived to be the complete 
bone. The fragment, from which alone he 
deduced his conclusions, was six inches in length 
and five inches and a half in its smallest cir- 
cumference ; both extremities had been broken 
off. When a perfect bone arrived and was laid 
on the paper, it fitted exactly the outline which 
he had drawn " (i. 151). 

This happened a very few years before the 
mass, distance, and position of an unseen 
planet were determined with approximate 
accuracy by mathematical calculations. A 
little later still the discovery of gold-fields 
in Australia confirmed a prediction of 
Murchison. It seemed as if science, while 
realising the marvels of fairyland, was also 
realising the fables of second sight. 

The Binornis was Owen's Neptune. 
Cuvier, I believe, had done as much before 
him, and he himself did much better work 
than this ; but ' ' the crowd must have 
emphatic warrant," and such warrant was 
given them by Owen. Henceforth he was 
known to all circles possessing the slightest 
tincture of science as the man who could 
reconstruct an entire extinct animal if you 
gave him the fragment of a fossil tooth. 
The public would not buy his books ; but 
they showed their appreciation of his genius 
in various simple-minded fashions. All 
reports about the sea-serpent were referred 
to him for examination. People who 
fancied that they had found live toads 
embedded in rock or coal wrote to ask 
him what he thought of it. One day, 
just as he was setting out to keep a dinner 
engagement, he was detained for half an 
hour by a note from a stranger wanting to 
know whether something he had found in 
a sausage was or was not the tooth of a dog, 
and requesting an immediate answer. To the 
credit of the sausage vendor it proved to bo 
the tooth of a sucking-pig (ii. 219). On 
another occasion Earl Eussell (here er- 
roneously entitled Lord John), having re- 
ceived as a present from President Grant 
what purported to be a bear-ham, sent the 
bone for examination to Owen. One is 
sorry to hear that the great anatomist at 
once pronounced it to be the hambone of 
an ordinary pig (ii. 219, 220). "When Pro- 
fessor at the CoUege of Surgeons, he had a 
visit from " a magnificent American Indian 
chief in full dress-paint, necklace?, and 
tomahawk, and a red mantle over all ; a 
fine plume of dried red and black elk's hair 
on the top of his head," who examined the 
curiosities of the museum with the usual 
impassivity of his race (i. 222-4). Another 
visitor was Mohammed Abu Said, "Chief 
Spoon and Ladle-maker to the Commander 
of the Faithful," who came to know what 
Owen thought about the Phoenix, and 
whether the bowl of a ladle which 
he brought with him for examination was 
not made from the beak of that bird. It 
was identified as coming from a more 
authentic source — the Helmeted Hornbill of 
Ceylon, of which there was fortunately a 
specimen in the museum. 

"The head and beak were brought into my 
study and handed to the Oriental. He 
examined it very deftly, comparing the beak 
with the bowl, and then exclaimed with 
astonishment and reverence, 'God is great. 
That surely is the bird ! ' " (ii. 4, 5). 



T4 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 26, 18t»5.— No. 1186. 



Owen was by birth and breeding a 
gentleman, the scion of an English county 
family ; and, moreover, he seems to have 
derived from his mother, a brunette of 
French extraction, a certain courtesy and 
good address, not very common among 
Englishmen of great scientific distinction. 
We find him always mixing vrith the very 
best society, and at last a recognised court 
favourite. He had reason to be grateful 
to his distinguished friends : they gave 
him a position that he might have 
waited for in vain from the votes of the 
British public. At Macaulay's recommen- 
dation the post of Superiatendent of the 
Natural History Department of the British 
Museum, with a salary of £800, was 
created for his benefit. The Queen gave 
him a beautiful cottage in Eichmond Park. 
His demand for a new Museum of Natural 
History at South Kensington, at first 
defeated through the opposition of Disraeli, 
was eventually carried by the untiring and 
intelligent advocacy of Mr. Gladstone. 
Many who would not open his books or visit 
his collections will doubtless read with 
respectful interest the biographer's very full 
account of how his grandfather had the 
honour of lecturing before the Prince 
Consort and the royal children at Bucking- 
ham Palace in 1860, and again before the 
Queen and the royal children at Windsor 
Castle in 1864. On the latter occasion " the 
Dean of Windsor (Gerald Wellesley), who 
was present with all the Court, and High- 
nesses, both SereEfe and Koyal, ' had no idea 
before that the frog was ever a tadpole ' " 
(ii. 150). It is not quite clear whether this 
astounding ignorance is predicated of the 
Dean alone or of the Highnesses, Serene 
and Royal, as well ; but perhaps those great 
personages will be quite as much shocked 
to find Prince Alfred developed into a Duke 
of Edinburgh in 1860, six years before the 
creation of the title, in what seems o:Sered 
M a contemporary narrative from the pen 
of the professor himself (ii. 98). 

The Eiohard Owen presented to us in this 
somewhat courtly biography, many pages of 
which read like a hash of palaeontology and 
the Morning Pod, is an amiable, high-minded 
Christian gentleman, whose manners have 
the repose that stamps the caste of Yere de 
Vere, who apparently never makes an 
enemy, and who is as incapable of hatred 
as Sir Joshua himself. The perfection of 
such a picture, of course, necessitated some 
important omissions. To take an instance 
that can be verified by the memories of 
many who are still young: in 1882 Owen 
delivered an address at the unveiling of 
Harvey's statue at Folkestone, which at the 
time caused a considerable outcry by its 
very candid declaration of opinion on the 
subject of the vivisection controversy. The 
address is duly chronicled in these pages, 
but without the slightest reference to its 
compromising contents (ii. 246). Farther 
back there is a still more serious gap in the 
narrative. The famous meeting of the 
British Association at Oxford in June, 
1860, is passed over in total silence, 
although Owen tosk a prominent part in 
its proceedings ; while six pages are devoted 
to his ascent of a third-rate Alpine peak in 
the following July (ii. 103). 



Any reference to that great historical 
debate would indeed have opened up a 
question that must painfully affect our 
judgment on Owen's intellectual and moral 
character, the question of his whole relation 
to the theory of organic evolution, a question 
which ishere handled in a somewhat gingerly 
fashion. In early middle life we find the 
great anatomist giving a rather favourable 
hearing to the author of the Ve»tiges. He 
will not join in the clamour against what 
Adam Sedgwick called ' ' that beastly book " ; 
and even the touching appeal to " give old 
Sedg. an argument or two to level against" 
it apparently fails to draw him (i. 255). 
But when it comes to Darwin's Origin of 
Species we are not favoured with any evi- 
dence as to Owen's private opinion of that 
work. The two naturalists were good 
friends up to 1859, and a very cordial letter 
from Darwin to Owen, dated December 13 
of that year, is here printed (ii. 90) ; but 
after that date no further commimication 
seems to have passed between them. Was 
there really an estrangement, and if so, 
what was its cause ? Where the facts are 
withheld one is driven to conjecture. In 
the Edinburgh Review for April, 1860, there 
appeared a particularly venomous article on 
Darwin, containing several grave misrepre- 
sentations of his opinions. It has never, I 
believe, been acknowledged; but Darwin 
himself felt quite sure about its authorship, 
and mentioned the name of the supposed 
writer in various letters to his friends. 
Apparently the incriminated party was still 
living when Darwin's correspondence ap- 
peared in print, for in each instance the 
name is replaced by a blank. 



"I have just read the Edinburgh, which, 

without doubt, is by -. It is extremely 

malignant, clever, and, I fear, will be very 
damaging. ... It requires much study to 
appreciate all the bitter spite of many of the 
remarks against me. ... It scandalously 
misrepresents many parts. . . . It is painful 
to be hated in the intense degree with which 

hates me. . . . Some of my relations 

say that it cannot possibly be 's article, 

because the reviewer speaks so very highly of 
. Poor dear simple folk ! " 

Sedgwick, in a letter to Owen, inquires 
about the authorship of this same article, 
adding, "I once suspected that you must 
have had a hand in it, and I then abandoned 
that thought " (ii. 96). The answer is not 
recorded, nor does the article figure in the 
bibliography appended to this Life. But 
the only name that otherwise answers the 
conditions of the problem is what the 
Edinburgh reviewer calls the " great name " 
of Owen himself. 

Alfred W. Benn. 



English Prose Selections. Edited by Henry 
Craik. Vol. HI. (Macmillans.) 

There seems to be a certain inconsistency 
in the chronological method of this volume, 
which concludes with " Sporus," Lord 
Hervey, and yet omits the twin philosophical 
glories of the Anglican Episcopate, Berkeley 
and Butler ; each of them, in very opposed 
ways, illustrates the philosophical capacities 
of English prose. The omission, say, of 
William Law and Conyers Middleton, still 



more of Colley Cibber, is easily intelligible 
but the two bishops must assuredly have 
been reserved for the next volume. The 
present volume, which opens with Bishop 
Pearson and Evelyn, closing with Lady 
Mary and Lord Hervey, represents the ad- 
vance of English prose from the Elizabethan 
to the earlier eighteenth century ideal and 
style. It contains some wonderfully great 
names : Dryden, Swift, Addison, Steele, 
Bunyan, Defoe ; many interesting names : 
Temple, Bolingbroke, Evelyn, Popys, 
Algernon Sidney, Wood, Locke, Halifax ; 
and, with others of greater merit, a whole 
chapter of somewhat arid ecclesiastics, 
mostly with latitudinarian tendencies. Bar- 
row, Pearson, South, Ken, even Atterbury 
the Tory and Burnet the Whig, have some- 
thing of the earlier massive qualities proper 
to a learned prelacy, some imaginative 
greatness and fervour of sacred style and 
thought, or some weighty erudition. But 
TiUotson, Stillingfleet, Sprat, the Sherlocks, 
Hoadly, Clarke aro disenchanting names 
to hear after the Taylors and Leightons 
of a former age. They herald that age of 
dry and decent moral exposition, which pro- 
voked both Goldsmith and Gray to demand 
some imaginative beauty and heartfelt 
appeal from the English pulpit. Johnson's 
rapid criticisms upon some of these men 
have their value. 

" Sir John Fringle had expressed a wish that 
I would ask Dr. Johnson's opinion what were 
the best English sermons for style. I took an 
opportunity to-day of mentioning several to 
him. ' Atterbury ? ' Johnson : ' Yes, Sir, one 
of the best.' BosweU : ' TiUotson .* ' Johnson : 
' Why, not now. I should not advise a preacher 
at this day to imitate Tillotson's style : though 
I don't know ; I should be cautious of objecticg 
to what has been applauded by so many 
suifrages. South is one of th« best, if you 
except his peculiarities, and his violence, and 
sometimes coarseness of language. . . . Sher- 
lock's style, too, is very elegant, though he has 
not made it his principal study. . . . All the 
latter preachers have a good style : everybody 
composes pretty well. There are no such un- 
harmonious periods as there were a hundred 
years ago. I should recommeud Dr. Clarke's 
sermons were he orthodox. . . . ' " 

Gray held Sherlock's sermons to be 
"specimens of pulpit eloquence never ex- 
ceeded." Johnson's phrase about the 
" unharmonious periods," and South's 
hardly decent ridicule of Taylor's Taylor- 
isms, illustrate the sensible relief with 
which readers and writers of English prose 
escaped from the lawless Elizabethan splen- 
dours to something more composed and 
manageable. Perhaps, in deference to 
Swift, who praised the Elizabethan sim- 
plicity, we should rather say : the splendours 
of such as Milton and Taylor. " Sir 
William Temple," said Johnson, "was the 
first writer who gave cadence to English 
prose " : and Swift found in him the final 
perfecter of our tongue. Pope said that, 
when doubtful about the propriety of a 
word, you can but go to authority, and ask 
yourself, " Is it in Sir William Temple, or 
Locke, or Tillotson ? " Now Temple, as 
Mr. Saintsbury points out, largely owes his 
fame to his wife Dorothy Osborne, his inmate . 
Swift, and one exquisite passage, purloined 
by Goldsmith. But he stood for ease and 



Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



75 



grace and readiness at a time when they 
were uncommon : he was a pioneer prepar- 
ing the way for Addison and Steele, and his 
successors looked back upon him with an 
admiring gratitude which somewhat exag- 
gerated his merit. Arnold has said of 
Dryden's prose, that we would gladly write 
such prose ourselves could we but attain to 
it ; and, while no one could say the same 
of Browne's or Milton's magnificent prose, 
it can be said of almost all the best styles 
in this volume : from Bunyan and Temple to 
the great essayists. We could hardly say 
it of the later Burke, Gibbon, Johnson : 
Goldsmith, perhaps, is the fine and final 
fiower of that earlier pure and lucid, quiet 
and simple, prose to which we are exhorted 
to "give our dajs and nights." Critical 
essays in the prose of Dxyden, political 
satires in the prose of Swift, social papers 
in the prose of Addison, could a living 
writer write them, would seem less antique 
and obsolete of manner than any reproduc- 
tion of the RamMer, or of the R'^Jkc'.ions and 
Thoughts of Burke. And the vivid ver- 
nacular stjle of Defoe, the beautiful 
vernacular style of Bunyan, would be less 
strange in a modern narrative than the more 
elaborate and scholarly styles of Eichardson 
and Fielding. True, that the writers repre- 
sented here are seldom, if ever, eloquent, 
and inspired, and passionate, with the 
grandeur of Milton's treatises, or of Burke's 
speeches : they have no Clarendon in their 
company, nor yet a Gibbon : but for the 
simpler occisions of literature in its 
pleasant, leasurely hours, or at times of 
keen, intellectual diversion, they furnish 
unsurpassed examples of style. 

Mr. Craik supplies the introduction and 
the notices of Swift, Locke, and others ; Mr. 
Courthope writes of Dryden and Addison 
and Pope ; Mr. Austin Dobson of Steele ; 
Mr. Saintsbury of Temple, Barrow, Tillot- 
son, and more ; Mr. Hales of Defoe ; Mr. 
Ker of Marvell, Pepys, Ellwood, Eymer; 
Mr. Gosse of Thomas Burnet ; Mr. Montague 
of Bishop Burnet. These names are enough 
to guarantee the excellence of the critical 
work in various and characteristic ways. 
Mr. Beechiiig is happy and acute upon 
Bunyan, Wr. Trench upon Algernon Sidney, 
Mr. Chambers upon Newton ; though in 
dealing with >Shaftesbury he is surely too 
kind, in Lamb's spirit, to the irritating 
style of that elegant moralist, so deliciously 
ridiculed in Berkeley's Alciphron. Canon 
Overton, in a pleasant notice cf Ken, 
app'ies to Gray Johnson's criticism of 
Fielding : the Doctor called Gray, not " a 
barren rascal," but " a dull fellow." Mr. 
Gosse, in his appreciative notice of Thomas 
Burnet, might have recorded in his honour 
that he supplied the motto to the '■ Ancient 
Mariner," and Goldsmith's account of him 
is choicely good : 

"The first, who formed this amusement of 
earth-making into sjstem, was the celebrated 
Thom^B Burnet, a man of polite learning and 
rapid im»giiiation. Ilig ' Sicred Theory,' as he 
callc it, deectibing the changes which the earth 
has undergone, or shall hereafter ui dtrgo, is 
well known fir the warmth with which it is 
imagiued, and the weakness with which it is 
reasoned ; for the elegance of its stylo and the 
meanness of its jhilcaophy." 



And the same qu.iint speculator suffers a 
cruel jest in Pope's " Eeceipt to make an 
Epic Poem." His namesake, the historian, 
finds a champion in Mr. Montague, on the 
score of historical truth. Yet no historian, 
except his brother "Whig Macaulay, has 
been so hated and distrusted. "I would 
willingly live to give that rascal the lie in 
half his history," said the dying Lord 
Peterborough, who carried the book, well 
annotated, upon his voyage to Lisbon. 
Dr. Eouth, of Magdalen, when asked why 
he gave so much time to a man whom 
he always attacked, replied : " A good 
question, sir ! Because I know the man 
to be a liar ; and I am determined 
to prove him so." Perhaps Coleridge's 
is the happier frame of mind : " His 
credulity is great, but his simplicity is 
equally great ; and he never deceives you 
for a moment." Mr. Hales, in saying that 
there is no evidence for the tradition that 
Defoe had before him Selkirk's papers, 
must take into account the fresh statement 
of the evidence in Mr. Wright's recent Life 
of Defoe. Among the practically forgotten 
"men of importance in their day," few are 
more curious than Bernard de Mandeville, 
now a far less notorious figure than when, 
as Browning has it, 

" folk heard him in old days pooh-pooh 
Addison's tye-wig preachment " ; 

and, like that greater foreigner of science, 
if scarce sounder moralist, Swedenborg, he 
walked London with " gold-rimmed amber- 
headed cane." The poor Dutchman has 
suffered so many things by way of abuse, 
that Mr. Sainfsbury does well to remind us 
that Johnson was singularly fair to him ; 
and that he " deserves a place in the division 
of English prose history which includes 
Latimer and Bunyan, Defoe and Cobbett." 
Evelyn, a sweeter and a stronger name, 
lives now but as a Pepys with a difference, 
rather than in the iiiha and his other works. 
We could wish that Mr. Craik had included 
the delightful passage in a letter to Bojle, 
describing his proposed college of learned 
men, to be devised "somewhat after the 
manner of the Carthusians " — a passage 
and a proposal most characteristic of him 
acd of certain tendencies in his age, which 
saw the Eoyal Society set up, yet which 
kept something of the mediaeval alchemist 
or monk in its attitude towards science and 
the icientific life. And, hollow and shallow 
as is much of Bulingbroke, upon whom 
Mr. Craik is severe, it is well to remember 
Arnold's answer to Burke's question, " Who 
now reads Bolingbroke ? " "Far too few 
of us ; the more's tho pity ! " Chesterfield's 
praise of his style inimitably renders his 
moral character and literary gift : 

" Uaving mentioned Lord Bolingbroke's style, 
which is, undoubtedly, infinitely superior to 
anj body's, I would have you read his works, 
which you have, over acd over again, with 
particular attention to his style. Transcribe, 
imitate, emulate it, if possible ; that would be 
of real use to you in the House of Commons, 
in negotiations, in conversation ; with that you 
may justly hope to please, to persuade, to 
seduce, to impose; and you will fail in those 
articles in proportion as you fall short of it." 

After thi?, it is wholesome and pleasant to 
remember that this excellent volume contains 



examples of those single-hearted Qtiakers 
and straightforward writers — Fox, Ellwood, 
and Penn, the third, at least, a man not 
lacking in " the graces." 

Lionel Johnson. 



"The Story of theNations." — The Crusades. 

By T. A. Archer and C. L. Kingsford. 

(Fisher Unwin.) 
This book startles the reader into pleasure 
and interest. It is admirably and con- 
nectedly written : an astonishing triumph, 
when one reads the names of two authors 
on the title-page. The pitfalls lurking in 
the footsteps of collaborators are many and 
cunningly laid, yet have Messrs. Kingsford 
and Archer wholly escaped them. The 
style is that of one writer, well skilled in 
English ; the story is clearly told, as if a 
single and clever romancist were responsible 
for tho narrative. The book, again, is one 
of a series that has not been very successful. 
Indeed, Mr. Bradley's volume on the Goths 
has been, up to now, the only real success 
attained in this well-meant, but abortive at- 
tempt to compress history into blocks of four 
hundred pages. It might be said that the 
subject has led to the victory of these two 
authors. But such criticisms were fragile 
and unthoughtful. For the "Story of the 
Nations " has little to do with the Crusades, 
and the history of them is intricate to the 
verge of distraction. That they have suc- 
ceeded in persuading us that they are not 
intruders is something, that they have 
fascinated and enlightened proves them 
more than merely competent. For the book 
is valuable as it is unique, while the felicity 
of tho style and the sympathy displayed 
make the result very admirable and of 
unique interest. That there are faults, is 
true enough. But the defects are slight, 
and such as each intelligent reader may 
remedy ^or himself. Working from original 
authorities, the authors may well demand 
toleration from those who object to some 
of the details. After all, wise men have 
a right to their opinions, and only fools 
care to be dogmatic in the presence of 
their superiors. Yet one cannot help 
feeling that their account of the causes and 
results of the Crusades is a little obvious : 
they might, at the expenditure of a page or 
two, have given us some reflections deeper 
and worthier. The student will take the 
hints supplied to him and evolve the rest for 
himself; but that which bids for approval 
as a hand-book should remember that it 
appeals to the ignorant, or at any rate to the 
inert. One other complaint must be made, 
though the omission is easily filled by refer- 
ence, and is not, therefore, important— the 
date of Amalric's accession is not given. 
But for the rest, there is left in the reader 
simply a desire to praise cordially, even 
enthusiastically. 

It is a wonderful story that Messrs. Archer 
and Kingsford have set themselves to write : 
perhaps the most wonderful story in all the 
annals of tho human race. As far away 
back as the year 909 Sylvester heard a voice 
calling from "Jerusalem laid waste."^ Fuller, 
tho ingenious and witty, characterised the 
" world's debate " as an occasion, lasting 
for upwards of two centuries, when "thieves 



76 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186. 



and murders 1 8 took upon them the Gross 
to ( scape the gallows, a Inmentable case, 
that the deviPs blackguards should be 
God's soldiers." And one might quarrel 
with the authors, because they have not 
laid overmuch stress upon what Gibbon calls 
the " temporal and carnal motives " that 
animated many of the heroes in these bng- 
continued struggles. It may be true that 
the " purest piety could not be insensible 
to the most splendid prospect of military 

S'ory." But when all is said and done, 
e glory a man carves for himself by 
his sword is the cleanest and healthiest. 
To gain this distinction requires muscles 
and sinews, a cool head, and a steady 
heart. These are the qualities de- 
manded in a hero of romance ; and no 
romance was ever so full of wonder and 
surprise as that which tells of the fights for, 
and around, the Holy Sepulchre. Perhaps 
the surest way of appreciating the mag- 
nificence of the conflict, is to ask ourselves 
if such a struggle were possible to-day. 
In answering a question thus definite, 
which we may resent, probably, as too 
pertinent, we shall feel less inclined to lay 
stress upon the more worldly ambitions of 
those who fought so courageously and, on 
the whole, with so great credit. 

The Crusading romances come down to 
us through the Chanson d'Antioch and the 
paraphrase of Henri de Valenciennes and 
in Eastern tales, after the manner of that 
masterpiece of The Thousand and One Nights. 
Even among our own contemporaries an 
echo lingers, for the early pages of Mere- 
dith's Shaving of Shagpat palpitate with 
their spirit. Eastern travellers, too, will 
remember the performances of Karaguz, 
the descendant, as some say, of the staid 
biographer of Beha-ed-din : an immortality 
that savant might scarcely have appre- 
ciated. 

Milman has not resented the criticism 
that the Crusades were a "monument of 
human folly " ; yet in that they discovered 
in men of either hemisphere supreme and 
fearful qualities should be their sufficient 
excuse. Kipling's ballad of the East and 
West was hinted at centuries ago, and the 
lives of Raymond and Zmgi, of Lewis and 
Saladin, are more than adequate justification 
for their happening. One of the greatest 
debts we owe to the authors of this able 
book is their courteous and judicial estimate 
of the characters of the " Turkish" heroes. 
Among the many and illustrious examples 
that vouch for the chivalry of the opponents 
of Christianity, that story of Nur-ed-din 
must always claim a placa. I quote the 
words of the historians : 

" His [Bdldwia II.] body was caTried to 
Jerusalem and buried in the Church of the 
Holy Sepiilchure with his ancestors. Wherever 
the corpse was brought, says William of Tyre, 
there was mourniog such as was never shown 
for any prince in history. The very dwellers 
in the hills came down to share in the funeral 
procession as it slowly wound on its eight days' 
march from Beyrout to Jerusalem. Even the 
Saracens sympathised, and Nour-ed-din, when 
advised to seize the opportunity for an inroad, 
refused with noble scorn. ' We ought to pity 
this people's righteous sorrow, for they have 
lost a prince whoso like is not now left in the 
world.' " 



Criticism of such a comment and such 
inaction were an irrelevant impertinence. 

The authors are particularly interesting 
in their treatment of the Greek emperors, 
more particularly in their careful study of 
Manuel. At last this man has got his 
rights. Though we may like him none the 
better, we cannot abuse him with a free 
conscience. Crusading armies were, after 
all, much like other vast and vaguely 
directed bodies of men ; and Constantinople 
was not Jerusalem. The cry " God wills 
it " was forgotten as the troops came East, 
and the " auri et argenti amor, pulcher- 
rimarum foeminarum voluptas," to which 
Guibart indignantly refers — angry especially 
that the Greek women should be considered 
even the equals of the French — made the 
Western armies unpleasant and unprofitable 
guests. 

In a short notice it is not possible to say 
how excellent is this, the only book to my 
knowledge in English dealing with the 
Crusades. It should attract many readers. 
For my part, at the risk of appearing 
ungracious, I would only suggest that a 
better parallel than Tacitus to William of 
Tyre would be that first of historians and 
prince of novelists, Herodotus. 

Percy Addlesiiaw. 



C'elestina ; or, the Tragicke-Comedy of 
Calisto and Melibea. Englished from 
the Spanish of Fernando de Rojas by 
James Mabbe, anno 1G31. With an 
Introduction by James Fitzmaurice- 
Kelly. (David Nutt.) 

TuE Introduction to the new volume of the 
" Tudor Translations " could not have been 
entrusted to better hands than those of 
Mr. James Fitzmaurice- Kelly. His Life 
of Cervantes showed how profound was his 
acquaintance with Spanish literature and 
bibliography. Even the faults of that 
work seemed to mark him out as one 
exceptionally fitted to deal with an original 
like Celestina and a translator like Mabbe. 
Mr. Fifzmaurice-Kelly, we feel assured, will 
not be repelled by the abundant learning, 
by the quaint pedantry, by the overflowing 
sententiousness of the original; nor will 
he find too much fault with tho translator 
for having striven to outdo the original in 
these respects, and to show that English 
can vie with Spanish in rich redundancy of 
phrase and fertility of proverbial speech. 

The C'elestina is really one of the groat 
works of Spanish, we might almost say, of 
European literature. It is only its un- 
pleasant subject, and the vividness with 
which this subject is set forth with all its 
native hideousness, that has prevented its 
Being universally recognised as such. And 
our wonder at it, and our admiration, in a 
sense, are greatly increased when we con- 
sider the date of the work. Written 
at the close of the fifteenth century, there 
is nothing exactly like it in any other of 
the literatures of Europe of that epoch. 
Boceacio's Decamerone, a century before, had 
heralded in Italy the birth of the short 
story ; Romances, Chansons de Gestes 
existed in plenty ; but it was the Celestina 
which foreshadowed what the modern novel 
might be, which in the future should sup- 



plant all these interminable epics and 
romances where fancy ran wild into weari- 
some extravagances and inconceivable im- 
possibilities. It gave equal promise of 
what the modern comedy might become, 
when Mysteries and Moralities should be 
succeeded by the modern play. Echoes there 
doubtless are in it of the old Roman drama ; 
and yet there is something that tells us that 
ere long the Latin comedy would be not 
only equalled but surpassed, in the wider 
outlook, the more varied and subtle and 
delicate drawing, of the modern stage. For 
it is one of the strange peculiarities of this 
tragi-comedy that it is so hard to classify. 
As a drama it coiild never have been 
acted ; it is essentially a work to be 
read, not seen. If it could be presented 
on any stage, we should turn from it in 
disgust. If Celestina be but another and 
earlier lago, yet the greater foulness of her 
task excites repulsion merely. Even in 
Shakspere we feel that it needs only a little 
more, and we should hiss lago off the 
boards : the slightest relaxation of the self- 
restraint which marks the consummate artist 
would make lago unendurable. And this 
is the reason why so many class the 
work as a novel, a novel in dialogue; 
and why, in Rivadeneyra's Biblio'eca de 
Autores Espaiioles, it finds its place among 
the "Novelistas Anteriores ii Cervantes." 
Thus, too, it is the parent of a double 
progeny — on the stage and in the library. 
Its faults lie not in the delineation of its 
characters. Celestina is a wonderful crea- 
tion, and has never been surpassed ; Calisto 
and Melibea are scarcely more passion-mad 
than are Romeo and Juliet ; and Melibea, 
though she falls, attracts quite as much as 
Juliet at iirst, and moves us to greater pity 
afterwards. The delineation of the servants, 
the bully, and their female companions, is 
a specimen of the almost photographic 
exactness in which the creators of the 
picaresque novel have always excelled. The 
fault of the piece lies in its length and 
tediousness, in the pedantry and the moral- 
ising which are put into the mouth of all 
characters equally. Celestina is as moral 
and as pious in her words as she is immoral 
and impious in her acts ; and this woman 
of the people is as pedantic and quotes 
classical authors almost as freely as the 
educated Ploberio. 

It needs scarcely any acquaintance with 
the literature of the time to know how a 
translator of the age of Elizabeth and 
Jamos would delight in such a work. 
Mabbe fairly revels in the pedantry and 
learned allusions of his original. He 
never attempts in the least to abridge 
his work ; he constantly adds new flowers 
to the blossoming rhetoric ; he loves to 
cap a Spanish proverb with an English 
one, or even inserts one of his own when he 
has a fair chance. His delight in the task, 
and the labour which he has bestowed on 
it, are manifest to every reader. It is but 
seldom he omits anything or shirks a diffi- 
culty, though in the first lino of the 
Argument to Act I. ho does translate En pot 
de nn falcon tujo (" after one of his hawks ") 
by "after his usual manner." But a little 
after he renders Quedese, no me euro by ' ' Let 
him alone, and bite upon the bit, come 



Jan. 26 1895.— No. 1186.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



77 



what will, I care not." In the same way he 
interpolates in the beginning of Act IV. 
" So that my sweetmeat shall have soure 
since." Then again he expands Quien es 
esta vifja qu? vicne haldeando ? into "What 
old witch is this, that thus comes trayling 
her taile on the ground ? Look how she 
sweeps the streets with her gowne ! Fie, 
what a dust ehee makes ! " Paz sea en esta 
casa (" peace be to this house ") becomes 
" By thy leave, sweet beauty." 

This last is an amusing instance of the 
only unfair liberty which Mabbe takes with 
his text. His Puritanism has an unbounded 
abhorrence of anything that savours of 
Eomanism, or of irreverence. Bios (God) 
becomes "heaven" or "Jove," "Jove 
pardon you " ; and the like pedantry 
breaks out ia the version of Effuerza, 
e^fti'rza, Cehsiina ; " Coraggio, Coraggio, 
Celestina," a phrase which so well marks 
out the Tudor translations of which Mabbe's 
is a choice specimen. 

The book is excellently printed. This 
version of the Celestina should be read by 
all who do not understand Spanish ; for no 
one can rightly appreciate the evolution of 
the drama and the novel without some 
acquaintance with the Celestina, either in 
the original or in a good translation. No 
guide can be more pleasant for such a 
purpose than this reprint of Mabbe, with 
Mr. Fitztnaurice-Keliy's admirable Intro- 
duction. WEiriwoKTn Webster. 



Mhodesta of To-day. A Description of the 
Present Condition and the Prospects of 
Matabeloland and Mashonaland. By 
E. F. Knight. (Longmans.) 

We welcome with pleasure a new work by 
the author of that delightful book TF/iere 
Three Empires Meet. Mr. Knight spent the 
first seven months of last year in travelling 
ia Matabeleland and Mashonaland ; he 
entered Matabeleland at its south-western 
end and left Mashonaland by Manica and 
Beira, having wandered over some 1200 
miles. During this time he acted as corre- 
spondent of The Timet ; and portions of the 
articles he wrote for that paper are repro- 
duced in the present volume, which he was 
induced to write by the multitude of 
questions put to him by all sorts of people 
— miners, traders, farmers, artisans, and 
men of all degrees and conditions — respect- 
ing the territory of the Chartered Company, 
its capabilities, its prospects, and the chances 
of success for those who might settled in it. 
Small as Mr. Knight's book is, it contains 
a mass of information, and most questions 
that can be reasonably asked by intending 
emigrants will bo found answered in its 
pages. He formed a very high opinion 
of the Chartered Company's country and 
considers that it has a great future before 
it : noje of its advantages have been over- 
rated, while its disadvantages have been 
exaggerated, and many of these will diminish 
and even disappear as the country becomes 
more settled. 

If, then, the country is so good, who had 
better go there ? Certainly not clerks, 
there is no opening for them ; nor for the 
white unskilled labourer. He can do nothing 
there, his place is filled already by the 



black man : native labour is abundant, 
efficient, and so cheap that no white labour 
can compete with it. 

" These elementary facts," says Mr. Knight, 
"should be impressed on the minds of poor 
men at home who have read glowing tales of 
the fortunes made by diggers in Australia and 
California, and who imagine the conditions are 
the same in Africa. The white unskilled 
labourer can do nothing here ; if he remains 
ia the country he is likely to degrade into that 
shame of our race to be found in every country 
where native labour is procurable, the mean 
white, a lower creature far than the black 
savage by his side." 

It is not only the peaceful Mashonas who 
supply any amount of native labour, but 
also the warlike Matabele. These turbulent 
savages have in an incredibly short space of 
timo been completely pacified. 

"Absolute security in life and properly was 
the immediate result of the successful campaign 
which broke up the Matabele military system; 
and very great credit indeed is due to the 
administrator and other officers of the Chartered 
Company, who have with such admirable tact, 
discretion, and decision brought about this end." 

One inducement to work is the hut tax ; 
the money to pay this tax must be earned, 
and this leads on to the desire to earn 
more. It is found that those who come 
in to do a month's work, to earn their 
hut tax, often remain for six months. 
Even the lazy Matabele warrior, Mr. 
Knight tells us, who of old, after 
he had earned enough to buy a sufficiency 
of wives, would work no more all his life 
through, has found the hut tax a stimulus 
to exertion. The immigrants for whom there 
is the greatest demand are farmers and 
skilled artisans, especially masons and 
carpenters ; there is a limited demand for 
skilful miners from Cornwall ; but the least 
speculative and most profitable business 
that can be undertaken by a pioneer is 
market gardoning in the vicinity of a rising 
township. Whether of the right or wrong 
sort, adventurers are pouring into Matabele- 
land, as is shown by the white population 
of Buluwayo, which in April, 1894, num- 
bered but 2o0, and by August had increased 
to .3,000. 

Our author speaks very highly of the 
climate of both Mashonaland and Mata- 
beleland. The former has earned an un- 
enviable and undeserved reputation for 
unhealthiness ; that malaria is more preva- 
lent than in Matabeleland he attributes to 
the fact of there having been fewer 
cattle in the country to eat down the 
long rank grass, twelve feet in height, 
and even more in part of the low- 
lands, which rots away after the rains and 
naturally produces fever. This will be 
remedied by the increase of cattle ; and even 
where there is malaria, Mr. Knight was 
assured by resident medical men that it was 
of a very mild type. But there is something 
more dangerous than malarial fever, which 
is not confined to Mashonaland ; and that is 
drink. "Men die of whisky, and their 
friends charitably call it fever." 

One of the most important industries in 
both Mashonaland and Matabeleland will 
be mining. Mr. Knight praises the 
mining regulations of the Chartered Com- 
pany, and compares them very favourably ' 



with those of the Transvaal. The object of 
the Company is to attract many men of 
moderate means rather than a single large 
capitalist. Whether the Company is wise 
in this or not, it certainly does not 
deserve to be stigmatised as a corpora- 
tion of greedy cipitalists, whose enter- 
prise can enriih none save themselves 
and other wealthy speculators. The same 
principles govern the land regulations 
of the Company. Middle men are now 
generally in bad odour, and they do not 
escape at the hands of Mr. Knight. If the 
instances he gives of exorbitant charges 
and enormous profits are characteristic and 
not exceptional, then the dealers deserve aU 
that can be said against them ; but com- 
petition will gradually remedy this evil, 
though at present it must put a serious 
hindrance in the way of emigration, and is 
very hard on youngsters in the Civil Service 
and others of limited income. Mr. Knight 
recommends young fellows fresh from home 
or from Cape Colony to enlist in the 
Company's mounted police : they will learn 
much about the country and the natives. 
A large proportion of the troopers are 
gentlemen who have held Her Majesty's 
commission or been at public schools or the 
universities. 

Mr. Knight considers the future of the 
Chartered Company as assured, and con- 
cludes with the following remarks, which 
will, doubtless, be distasteful to a certain 
class of politicians, but will be cordially 
agreed with by the great bulk of 
Englishmen : 

"Mr. Rhodes will now have his reward in be - 
holding a prosperous community of his fellow- 
countrymen in occupation of this rich territory, 
which, by his foresight, determination, states- 
manship, and strife for years with opponents 
at home and abroad, he has secured to Great 
Britain. It should always be remembered that, 
had it not been for his untiring vigilance, this 
vast high plateau, with its gold and its wealth 
of pastoral and arable lands, would ere this 
have fallen into the hands of one or other of 
the three foreign Powers which keeuly con- 
tested its possession with the Premier of Cape 
Colony." 

W. WlCKIIAM. 



NEW NOVELS. 



Mr. Jervis. By B. M. Croker. In 3 vols. 
(Chatto & Windus.) 

Shilrich, the Drummer ; or, Loyal and True. 
By Julia Agnes Eraser. In 3 vols. 
(Remington.) 

The Friends of Innisheen. By Wilfred 
In 2 vols. (Ward & Dwney.) 



(Fisher 



By F. M. Allen. 



WooUam. 

ITelen. By Oswald Yalentine. 

Unwin.) 
Sallyheg Junction. 

(Downey.) 

First Davenport of Bramhall. By 
Bradbury, (Digby, Long & Co.) 

Killeen ; a Study of Girlhood. 
O'Connor Morris. (Elliot Stock.) 

A Blind Man^s Love. 
(Drane.) 

A Dawnliss Fate. By Ivon Hamilton 
Campion. (Digby, Long & Co.) 

Mrs. CnoKEu's new story is full of life and 



Joseph 
By E. 



By Laurence John. 



r« 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186. 



motion. Her previous novels have been 
excellent in their way, as sketches of 
character ; but there is a greater grasp in 
the present work, and from one point of 
view it may be described as a sustained 
comedy of Anglo-Indian manners. The 
scene is laid at a station in the hills, where 
the two rivals and match-makers, Mrs. 
Langrishe and Mrs. Brands, keep the social 
game alive for the whole body of residents. 
The former is the wife of a military officer, 
the latter of a civilian high in the 
service. They are capitally drawn, and the 
reader will never suffer a moment's ennui 
while they are on the stage. They 
both decide on importing a niece — the 
one from Calcutta and the other from 
England ; but whereas Mrs. Langrishe's 
niece, Lalla Paske, is a vicious little thing 
— though regarded by the officers as fas- 
cinating — Mrs. Brando's niece, Honor 
Gordon, is a tall, stately young woman of 
noble appearance and demeanour. There 
suddenly appears at the station ' ' Mr. 
Jorvis," the handsome adopted son of a 
proprietor of patent foods ; but while upon 
his travels he allows his companion, Oapt. 
Waring — a gambler and a man of 
desperate antecedents — to pose as the 
millionaire. Many an amusing con'retemps 
ensues before the true position of Mr. 
Jervis is revealed, and the iniquities of the 
impostor. Waring, are fuUy exposed. Mrs. 
Langrishe seems at first to be outdistancing 
her rival, but in the end there is only weep- 
ing and gnashing of teeth for her. After 
lavishing every attention upon her niece, 
and triumphantly securing a baronet as her 
promised husband, the volatile Lalla loses 
all her chances, and the baronet as well, by 
kicking her heels too high at a theatrical 
entertainment. The wedding cake had even 
been prepared ; and when in a flood of tears 
Mrs. Langrishe asked what was to be done 
with it, the incorrigible Lalla actually 
counselled her to "raffle it! " Meanwhile, 
the loves of the virtuous Jervis and Honor 
proceed, through divers trials and misunder- 
standings, to a happy conclusion ; and Mrs. 
Brande enjoys a further triumph over the 
rival queen of the station when her husband 
is knighted. The novel is sparkling and 
amusing all through, and there is not a 
dull page in it. 

There are many stirring and pathetic 
scenes in Miss Eraser's Shilrick, the Drummer ; 
but what will chiefly militate against this 
novel is its portentous length. Each page 
contains double the ordinary quantity of 
matter, and ^there are no fewer than i044 
pages in the three volumes. This is a pity, 
because with concentration tho authoress 
might have achieved a distinct success. The 
story is a romance of the Irish EeboUion of 
1798, and all the characters are clearly 
drawn. A few references to them will show 
what kind of entertainment the reader has 
to expect. First comes the young Irish 
gentleman, Morven O'Neill, who led the 
rising under the name of Michael Cluny. He 
was of a strikingly handsome presence, with 
a lofty nature and a subtle fascination about 
him which none could resist. He has for 
his bride Estolle de Montmorenci, a lady of 
high lineage, delicate in appearance, but 
with an intensity of feeling in her nature 



which carries her through unnumbered 
hardships. Their trials and wanderings elicit 
our sympathy, which is enhanced when they 
both perish under melancholy circumstances. 
Owen Maguire, O'Neill's faithful attendant, 
is a sterling old fellow ; whUe Shilrick 
O'Toole, the brave little drummer, is a 
character in ten thousand. Eather than 
betray the trust reposed in him by others, 
he suffered the pain of a court-martial, was 
condemned to death, and only reprieved to 
go through more suffering still. Miss Frasor 
deserves credit for her careful delineation of 
the drummer-boy. Eveleen Corrie is a 
bewitching Irish girl, who likewise passes 
through seas of trouble before she is 
united at last to her lover, Capt. Annesley. 
Thalia Coghlan and Kerry O'Toole are 
another couple whose fortunes we follow 
with interest, and there is even a fourth 
pair of lovers to diversify the narrative. 
In fact, it is a remarkable circumstance in 
cDnnexion with this novel that the charac- 
ters in it, though so numerous, all establish 
claims of their own upon us. Of course 
there is a traitor in the camp, Thaddeus 
Magin, who betrays O'Neill to his death, 
and brings trouble upon Shilrick. Miss 
Fraser depicts several historical episodes of 
the Rebellion ; but these may be read with 
gfreater fulness elsewhere, and serve only to 
swell the proportions of the present story. 

There is decided power, though of an 
ill-regulated type, in Tlie Friends of Lmisheen. 
The author's efforts seem somewhat in- 
coherent, but he may acquire literary finish 
in time. The "friends" indicated in the 
title — Ernest Drake and Eustace Delamere 
— are at first represented in a most favour- 
able light, and the friendship between the 
older and the younger man has something 
genuine about it. Trouble arises through 
the vagaries of Drake's wife Norah, from 
whom her husband was separated owing to 
a painful misunderstanding. ' ' Along with 
her clear-eyed, sunny Irish face, Norah had 
inherited bewitching ways," which had 
either come down to her from some ances- 
tress, or had been acquired before the 
mirror. She evjn got Ernest's young friend 
Eustace within her toils, though he was 
quite unaware of her identity. The scene 
at the last, where she loses her life in a 
terrible accident, the result of a mad race 
between life and death, is really dramatic ; 
but it might have been averted if Drake 
had been a little more explicit with Dela- 
mere at an earlier stage. Like the immortal 
Silas Wegg, Drake occasionally " drops 
into poetry." To do him justice, his verses 
are sometimes very fair ; but as he makes 
" corn" rhyme with " dawn," it is obvious 
that there is considerable room for im- 
provement. 

Helen, the latest edition to the " Pseu- 
donym Library," is by no means equal to 
some of its predecessors. Helen Lemarde- 
lay, a girl who ia longing to sacrifice herself 
to some one, though she has not yet found 
the man worthy of her affections, at length 
— to use a sporting phrase — " puts all her 
money " on George Aston, a clever young 
Cambridge man with advanced ideas. After 
marriage they begin to drift apart. He 
writes books which she does not under- 



stand; and he cultivates the society of a 
seductive Mrs. Castellain, which she 
unfcrtunately does understand. Trouble 
ensues, and a considerable time elapses 
before things are put right ; but at the last 
there seems to be a distinct rapprochement. 
It is but just to say that the style in which 
this little volume is written is above tho 
average, and better than its matter. 

liallyheg Junction iff a capital piece of Irish 
comedy. The name of "F. M. Allen" 
would of itself be a sufficient guarantee for 
the reader ; but even this amusing author 
has never excelled his present sketch for 
genuine, uproarious fun. The deecription 
of the founding and working of the Kilma- 
hone and Ballybeg Junction Railway is 
described with keen humour; and this is 
intensified when we come to the account of 
the "warm" reception tendered to the 
English secretary who went out to take 
charge of the line. The official whom he 
intended to supplant played it somewhat 
low down upon his rival, it must be 
admitted ; but one cannot help being 
convulsed with laughter over the comical 
adventures which make him more anxious 
to resign the secretaryship within a space of 
twenty-four hours than he had ever been to 
take it up. There is a love-story running 
through the volume; and the reader will 
find himself admiring the pretty Irish girl, 
Hose O'Donnell, as warmly almost as her 
fortunate lover, William Macready Walsh, 
did. 

First Davenport of JJramhall is written 
somewhat in the high " 'Ercles' vein." 
The time of the story is the middle of 
the fifteenth century. There is a good deal 
of the " By my halidom ! " about it ; but a 
novel is not necessarily historical because it 
is liberally besprinkled with such phrases. 
As a matter of fact, "First Divenport of 
Bramhall" himself is a bit of a bore, and 
the whole thing is deadly dull, and fails to 
convey to us a true picture of English life 
during tho Wars of the Eoses. A worthy 
knight is taken unawares by the villain of 
the narrative and thrown into the Mersey. 
Davenport rescues him, and in course of 
a sanguinary encounter with the offender 
brings the same watery vengeance upon 
him. He is thought to be dead, but we 
know better. The villain revives to do a 
good deal more mischief before the story 
closes. There are two pairs of lovers, who, 
after playing at cross purposes for a time, 
shake down into the right matrimonial 
grooves at tho end. 

Miss O'Connor Morris may be congratu- 
lated upon her charming idyllic study of 
girl life, Killeen. We trace the fortunes of 
sweet Nesta Thorold from girlhood to 
beautiful womanhood and marriage with 
real interest. Indeed, Nesta is one of the 
best girl characters we have recently met 
with in fiction. She ia delightfully natural ; 
and by her innocent and loving ways she 
breaks down many an icy human barrier, 
and changes the hatred or indifference of 
her enemies into tenderness and affection. 
Her lover, Major Chichester, is worthy of 
her, and it is pleasant to see them united 
after a period of bitter misunderstanding. 



Jan. 26, 1895,— No. IISS.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



79 



A handsome, but wicked, young woman 
forms the central figure in A Blind Man's 
Love. By lying and intrigue she captures 
a blind baronet, marrying him for the sake 
of his title and wealth. The latter she 
proceeds to dissipate at the card-table, and 
things become so warm at last that she 
elopes with an old lover. After a short 
time he casts her off, and she sinks from 
one depth of degradation to another till 
death ends her miserable existence. She is 
penitent at the last, and obtains the forgive- 
ness of those whom she has deeply injured. 
At a later date the blind baronet marries 
the only woman whom he has ever really 
loved, and who has remained true in her 
affection for him through many trials. There 
is nothing whatever striking in this little 
story ; but the character of Sir Giles Attwood 
is fairly drawn, and the same may be sail 
of that of Mary Wantage, his good angel. 

In apologising for his gory narrative, 
A Bawnless Fate, Mr. Campion states that 
he wrote it, first, that Truth alone may 
stand, and, secondly, that Justice may be 
for the dead. Well, if it had never appeared, 
we fail to see why Truth should have been 
unable to hold up, or why Justice should 
have tottered upon her throne. Instead of 
having the vraisemblance of reality, the 
whole work appears to us essentially iinreal. 
Among the incidents is the murder of a 
baronet, for which crime an innocent clergy- 
man is hanged. Before the life penalty is 
exacted the prisoner's mother dies in his 
cell while visiting him, and the wretched 
man's betrothed dies about the time of his 
execution. After many years the hero of 
the story, in discovering his own father, 
also discovers in him the baronet's murderer. 
G. Baknett Smith. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

Here, There, and Everywhere. By Baron de 
Malortie. (Ward & Downey.) This book is 
published without date, which is always an 
error, and with an apology which its very 
interesting contents render quite needless. It 
is difBcult in some of these pieces to find the 
Baron, who is one of the most modest of 
recorders. As a Hanoverian subject, he gives 
first place to letters from his late Majesty, 
King Emestus Augustus, which, however, do 
not justify his description as " a valuable con- 
tribution to contemporary history." He adores 
Bishop Dupanloup, Ferdinand of Naples, the 
Franco- Austrian Emperor of Mexico, the Comte 
de Cbambord, and is, in all things, a Boyalist 
of Koyalists. But his faith in kings was dashed 
with uncomfortable reflection when he met 
General Bosco, the defender of Gacta, at 
Trieste, a needy guest at the table of the Comte 
de Chambord : 

'"Je suit au bout de tnoa roukaii,' said the 
General, ' and unless I can cam enough to live 
I shall have to enlist as a private or '—and a sad 
look came oyer his handsome face—' or be obliged 
to take to a barrel-organ.' ' Surely his Majesty 
would not allow you to want anything?' Bosco 
gave a faint smile. ' They'll take your very heart's 
blood ; there ia no tactifice they will not exact — 
all that as a matter of course ; but lo ! find your- 
self in want and you will see. The great are the 
fame everywhere, all selfish and ungrateful.' " 

Some friend of the ex-king who has lately 
died, leaving a fortune of millions, should 
make haste to explain this most cruel neglect of 
one who had surely a first claim upon his 



Majesty's purse. The Baron thinks the 
Empress Carlota of Mexico " one of the most 
rexarkable women of her day"; and if this 
book contained nothing but the pathetic 
account of her vain entreaty of Napoleon III., 
and her consequent insanity, it would be a 
remarkable work. The poor afflicDed lady's 
refusal to quit the Vatican after an interview 
with Pio Nono ; the hasty furnishing of a bed- 
chamber by the Pope and Antonolli for a sex 
so foreign to the Papal palace ; the way in 
which she was beguiled to visit a convent, where 
she conducted herself with imperial sanity, 
until seeing a steaming pot aufeu, she plunged 
her arm into the boiling mess and seized a 
piece of meat, which she ate with avidity — her 
delusion being that the food given to herself 
would be poisoned — all this and much more 
makes, perhaps, the most harrowing chapter of 
biography that has ever been recorded. The 
first compliment received from a crowned head 
by Napoleon III. was the ribbon of a Saxon 
order ; and Count Beust, long after, remarked 
to Baron de Malortie, "It seems odd that 
Saxony should owe its existence, and the king 
his throne, to a bit of ribbon." That is "a 
valuable contribution to contemporary his- 
tory," and the statesman who spoke knew the 
facts; for it was Beust himself who, after 
Sadowa, while Bismarck was about to swallow 
Saxony, hurried to the TuUeries and 
grateful promise that 
should not be touched. 
"J'en fais mon affaire." 
of only less interest 
Red Prince," who some 



heard Napoleon's 
the king's crown 
Napoleon added. 
Another incident 
is recorded of the 



contemporaries, De Quester and Burlamaqtu, 
a few more details might have been gleaned 
by Mr. Hyde, through a reference to the 
Harleian Society's reprint of the London 
Visitations, The name of Sorbicre is mis- 
printed on p. 32, and his visit to England took 
place nearly thirty years after the date which 
is assigned to it. The opening sentence on p. 
130 makes mention of a "Mr. John Nicholas " 
writing to his son, Mr. Edward Nicholas ; and 
from such an expression few — very few — 
readers would draw the conclusion that the 
latter Nicholas was afterwards a Secretary of 
State, and that his father was a country gentle- 
man of good position in Wiltshire. More, too, 
might have been made of Daniel O'Neale, who 
was a Member of Parliament for St. Ives. 
But such additional details can easily be in- 
corporated in a subsequent issue. Mr. Hyde 
has the satisfaction of knowing that his labours 
among the State papers and the official records 
of the kingdom have added materially to the 
stock of knowledge previously at the service of 
the public with respect to the working of the 
Post Office to the close of the seventeenth 
century. 



what rudely said to the Hanoverian Baron, 
"Well, Malortie, when will you have there the 
Eagle instead of the White Horse ? " to which 
the Baron replied, with a cool but respectful 
bow, "The day, Sir, when the Hanoverians 
shall prefer the White Horse of Bronzell to 
that of Hanover." The retort was smart in- 
deed, and we give it to show that the Baron is 
very able in repartee, if not in style as a writer. 
It is, however, common to tease Prussians with 
reference to the Bronzell mare, that animal 
being the only prisoner made by the Prince of 
Prussia and the army invading Baden to re- 
press the insurrection, when they dispersed the 
rebels at Bronzell without firing a shot. But 
old King William, hearing of the incident, sum- 
moned the Governor of Berlin and the general 
commanding the Guards, and ordered his 
nephew in iheir presence to apologise and to 
shake hands with the Baron, an honour which 
the King followed, whispering sternly as he 
held the Baron's hand, " Your tongue is also 
rather long, and you might as well have dis- 
pensed with your allusion to my white mare of 
Bronzell." We have shown that this is a work 
of uncommon interest. And if, instead of giving 
an unconnected series of pieces or chapters, the 
Baron had thrown his notes and recollections 
and experiences into a well-linked and some- 
what autobiographical form, the result might 
not have been more valuable, but it would 
have attracted a far greater body of readers, 
and would have done far greater credit to his 
literary reputation. 

Mb. Hyde's volume on The Post in Qrant and 
Farm (A. & C. Black) is a work of independent 
research, which supplements in many particu- 
lars the more extended treatise on the Post 
Office which was recently written by Mr. 
Joyce. Witherings, who was connected with 
the office during the troublous period from 
1632 to 1651, is the chief hero of the narrative. 
His energy was unbounded and his enthusiasm 
was unquenched. He is justly described as 
the forerunner of a long line of able and 
zealous official«, whose arduous labours have 
built up the stately fabric of the postal system 
at home and in the colonies. As regards his 



Letters from Sehastopol. By Colonel Camp- 
bell. (Bentley.) Colonel Campbell's letters, 
or some of them, were worth publishing; but 
the collection had been better if cut down to 
two-thirds of its present size. No new light is 
thrown across the events of 1854-5, but the 
words of a man speaking from the trenches 
can never be without their value. Campbell 
seems to have been possessed of great common 
sense, perhsjps a rarer quality than courage, and 
to have shown undoubted pluck throughout the 
whole trying and woefully mismanaged business. 
Lord Wolseley contributes a capital preface; and 
his remarks on the fitness of publishing "the 
diaries and correspondence of thoughtful 
officers who daily recorded their impressions on 
the spot " are fully justified so far as this 
volume is concerned. Some of the letters are 
painful reading, showing relentlessly, as they 
do, the difficulties put by their government in 
the way of men fighting England's battles. 
But somehow, on closing the record, one is not 
altogether sorry that those in power misbehaved 
themselves so wantonly, for the courage and 
good temper of the soldiers only shines out 
more brightly. To students of the war, and 
the events leading up to and following close 
upon it, these letters will be full of interest ; 
and it would be scarcely possible to find a 
braver book to put into a schoolboy's hands. 
The work is made more valuable by Lowes 
Dickinson's admirable portrait of the writer. 

Odd Bits of History. By Henry W. Wolff. 
(Longmans.) Mr. Wolff's book, though too 
scrappy to be quite satisfactory, makes pleasant 
enough reading. His style is not particularly 
good, but it is not aggressive; and one forgets 
its [faults — always excepting the excessive use 
of italicised French — in the pursuit of queer 
bits of knowledge. An essay entitled "The 
Remnant of a Great Race " has more value than 
the other contributions, some of which are 
fragile and unsatisfying. Doubtless there are 
many people who like to take their history in 
small doses, and to such Mr. Wolff's pages will 
be palatable. Qualities there are too, here and 
there, that make the volume profitable even to 
more serious students. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 
Jin. John Murray announces The Crimean 
War, from First to Last, being extracts from 
the private letters and journals of General Sir 
Daniel Lysons, G.C.B., Constable of the Tower, 
with illustrations from the author's own draw- 
ings and plans. In explanation of the title. 



80 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 26, 189S.— No. 1186. 



it may be Bt»t«d that " Fightiiig Dan Lysons " 
was the first soldier to jump ashore at the 
landing at " Old Port," and that he never left 
the camp of the Light Division for a single day 
from the commencement to the end of the war. 
lie was present at the skirmish on the Boul- 
ganak, at the battle of the Alma, at the affair 
of McKenzie's heights, at the battle of Inker- 
uian ; and he served in the trenches throughout 
the siege, including both attacks on the Redan. 

Messrs. Macmillan & Co. are issuing this 
week the fourth volume of English Prose, edited 
by Mr. Henry Craik, containing selections 
from the great prose writers of the eighteenth 
century. 

The three next volumes in the " Badminton 
Library" will be: Dancing, by Mrs. Lilly 
Grove; Billiards, by Major W. Broadfoot, R.E. ; 
and Modern Sea-Fishing, by John Bickerdyke, 
with contributions on foreign fish and tarpon 
by Mr. W. Senior and Mr. A. C. Harms worth, 
and illustrations by Mr. C. Napier Hemy. 

Messrs. Chatto & Windus will publish 
shortly a volume of Social Essays, by Mr. 
Walter Besant, to be entitled As We Are : As 
We May Be. 

Next week a volume of Essays and Studies, 
by Mr. J. Churton Collins, wiU be published 
by Messrs. Macmillan & Co. It includes essays 
from the Quarterly, onDryden, the Predecessors 
of Sbakspere, Lord Chesterfield's Letters, and 
the Person of Shaksperian Criticism; and an 
essay from the Cornhill on Menander. They 
have all been revised and enlarged ; and the 
author believes that they show reason why 
certain conventional literary verdicts, in some 
cases of important concern, should be recon- 
sidered. 

Messrs. William Blackwood & Sons hope 
that the Life of General Sir Edward Hamley, 
which is being written by Mr. A. Innes Shand, 
will be ready for publication early in the 
spring. 

Miss Maroaret Benson, the daughter of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, has written a 
small volume of sketches and studies of 
animals in their domestic relations, entitled 
Subject to Vanity, The book, illustrated by the 
authoress, will be published by Messrs. Methuen 
next week. 

Mrs. Hamilton Kino is about to publish, 
with Messrs. W. B. Whittingham & Co., two 
small volumes in commemoration of Cardinal 
Manning. The first is of poems, entitled 
The Prophecy of Westminster ; &c., and the 
second consists of extracts from his Anglican 
Sermons, illustrative of his character. 

TllE new volume of Book Prices Current, 
containing the result of the Book Sales during 
1894, will be published next week by Mr. 
Elliot Stock. Several fresh features which 
have not appeared in the earlier volumes will 
mark the new one. 

A NEW volume by Mr. 8. R. Crockett, 
entitled Bog-Myrlle and Peat, is announced by 
Messrs. Bliss, Sands & Foster for publication 
ou March 1. It consists of tales, chiefly of 
Galloway, gathered between the year 1889 and 
the present time. 

Messrs. Cassell & Co. will shortly publish 
A Jung's Diary, by Mr. Percy White, author 
of "Mr. Bailey-Martin." It will be issued in 
a peculiar form, and will be followed by 
other works produced in a similar manner. 
Mr. Max Pemberton has undertaken the selec- 
tion and editing of thif new departure in pocket 
editions. 

Messrs. HuToniNSON & Co. will issue shortly 
a translation, by Mr. E. Vizetelly, of M. Zola's 
novel. The Mysteries of Marseilles, with a new 
portrait of the author for frontispiece. 



The same firm have also nearly ready a novel 
by a new writer, F. F. MonU'esor, entitled 
Into the Highways and Hedges, which, although 
of three-volume length, will be issued in one 
volume. The story is one of fifty years ago ; 
and the principal figures are a rough poacher 
and a young lady, who, under peculiar circum- 
stances, had become his wife. Several of the 
scenes are laid in Newgate Prison, 

Two of the novels announced for early pub- 
lication by Messrs. Chatto & Windus are 
severally entitled /» Deacon's Orders and Under 
Sealed Orders. 

An historical romance of the immediate 
future, entitled Marmaduke, Emperor of 
Europe, by an anonymous author, will be 
published shortly by Messr?. Edmund Durrant 
& Co. , of Chelmsford. A great portion of the 
plot is laid in East Anglia. 

Mr. J. Wilson McLaren, author of " Scots 
Poems and Ballants," is giving the finishing 
touches to a new novel, entitled " Weir the 
Wizard," which will appear serially in the 
Qlasgow Weekly Mail. 

Messrs. Diody, Long & Co. will publish 
immediately the following : The Wrong of Fate, 
by Lillias Lobenhoffor ; The Maid of Havodwen, 
by John Ferran ; and A Tale of Two Curates, 
by the Rev. James Copner. 

Messrs. Longmans & Co. have in the press 
a volume of Ballads and other Verses, by Mr. 
A. S. Beesley, one of the assistant masters at 
Marlborough, who wrote the Life of Sir John 
Franklin in the " New Plutarch " series. 

A YOLTJME of essays by the late Dr. Theo- 
philus Campbell, entitled Studies in Biblical and 
Ecclesiastical Subjects, is announced for early 
publication by Mr. EUiot Stock. 

Mr. H. R. Allenson will publish imme- 
diately a volume of travels, entitled Trips, by 
Mr. Henry Kilby, with illustrations by the 
author. Algeria, Holland, and the North Cape 
are among the places of interest described. 

Mr. James Rodway's book. In the Guiana 
Forest, which has won for him the title of " the 
Jefferies of the Tropics," has just entered its 
second edition. Other editions have appeared 
in the United States and in the West Indies. 

Mr. Edward Almack, who is engaged upon 
a bibliography of the Eikon Basilike, asks 
persons who may be possessed of copies, or of 
other information relating thereto, to com- 
municate with him (care of Messrs. Blades, 
East & Blades, Abehurch-lane, E.C.). 
He states that one of Messrs. Blades's most 
experienced compositors has been engaged for 
four months in setting up his description of the 
early editions, &o., and that about fifty 
title-pages have already been reproduced in 
facsimile. 

Under the auspices of the Sunday Lecture 
Society, Mr. James Craven will deliver a 
lecture at St. George's Hall, Langham-place, 
on January 27, on "Some Absurdities of the 
Law," in which reference will be made to the 
existing state of the law with regard to lectures 
on Sunday. 

Mr. John Lane, of the Bodley Head, has 
sent to his friends, as a sort of Christmas 
present, a pretty little quarto pamphlet, con- 
sisting of a reprint of Sir Thomas Bodley's 
brief autobiography (Oxford, 1047), which is 
itself a great rarity. The copy from which 
the present reprint was made was given to 
Mr. Lane— it is interesting to learn — by his 
former partner, Mr. Elkin Mathews. There is, 
we believe, a MS. version of it, differing at 
least in spelling, in the Bodleian Library. By 
way of illustration are given one of many 
existing portraits of Bodley — two others may 
be seen in Macray's Annals of the Bodleian 



Library (second edition, 1890) ; and a repro- 
duction of the Bodley medal, struck from the 
design of Jean Warin, of which only three 
copies are known to exist. In an Introduction 
Mr. Lane tells the story of the origin of 
his publishing business. Wo need only note 
here that Mr. Mathews came from Exeter, 
Bodley's birthplace; and that Mr. Lane, too, 
is a Devonshire man. 



THE FORTHOOMING MAGAZINES. 
The Century Magazine for February will 
contain an article on " The Death of Emin 
Pasha," by Mr. R. Dorsey Mohun, the U.S. 
agent in the Congo Free State ; and also a 
story called " Ho would a Wooing Go," by Mr. 
Frank Pope Humphrey, author of the "New 
England Cactus," in the Pseudonym Library. 

Canon Tristram, who recently visited Japan, 
is giving his experiences in the Leisure Hour. 
Through his daughter, who speaks the language, 
he was able to see and understand many place? 
and things which are hidden from the ordinary 
English tourist. 

The February number of Oassell's Magaziie 
opens with an article upon " Some Royal Pets," 
illustrated with drawings by Mr. Ernest M. 
Jessop, to whom special facilities for the pur- 
pose were given at Windsor and Saudringha-n. 

Mr. H. H. Johnston, the Imperial Com- 
missioner and Consul - General for Central 
Africa, contributes an illustrated article on the 
Hausa people to the Leisure Uour for February. 
The same number also contains an account of 
Mysore and the late Maharaja, by General Sir 
George Wolseley. 

The Sunday at Home is publishing a series 
of reproductions of photographs of the Giant 
Cities of Bashan, taken during a recent journey 
by Major Algernon Heber-Percy. 

In the Quiver for February Miss T. Sparrow 
continues her account of her experiences "As 
One of the Penniless Poor," "With the Fish- 
Curers" being the special subject of this 
month's paper. The same number contains 
" A Day in the Life of a Bishop," by the Rev. 
Montague Fowler, chaplain to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, with illustrated photographs 
taken at Lambeth and Wells and in the Mela- 
nesian Mission. 

The February number of The Churchman 
will contain an article by the Rev. J. E. 
Watts-Ditchfield on " Men's Services," giving 
an account of the extraordinary success of the 
movement at St. Peter's, HoUoway. Articles 
will also appear by Judge Warren, Archdeacon 
Wynne, Dr. Sinker, and Mr. Hay-Aitken, 



In 



UNIVERSITY JOTTINGS. 
Convocation at Oxford next Tuesday, it 



will be proposed to confer the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine, by decree of the house, upon Dr. 
J. S, Burdon-Sanderson, the new regius pro- 
fessor of medicine. Until the appointment of 
a successor, Prof. Burdon-Sanderson will con- 
tinue to discharge the duties of the Waynflete 
chair of physiology. 

Prof. Bywater has been elected to an 
honorary fellowship at Exeter, of which college 
he had long been a fellow, until his appoint- 
ment to the regius chair of Greek transferred 
him to Christ Ctiurch. 

Prof. J. E. B. Mayor proposes to lecture 
this term at Cambridge on " Seneca's Epistles." 
At Oxford, Prof. Ellis is lecturing on " Statius's 
Silvae," and is also giving instruction in the 
writing of Latin verses. 

Mr. F. T. Palgrave, professor of poetry at 
Oxford, proposes to deliver a course of lectures 



Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186."] 



THE ACADEMY. 



81 



upon " Landscape as dealt with in Poetry," 
beginning with the poets of Greece and Rome. 

PfiOF. Percy Gabdxer announces a public 
lecture at Oxford, on February 4, on "The Life 
and Work of Sir Charles Newton." 

Mr. E. ■Warington, the new Sibthorpian 

professor of rural economy at Oxford, has 

chosen for the subject of his inaugural lecture 

" The Present Relations of Agricultural Art and 

, Natural Science." 

Under the auspices of the Teachers' 
Training Syndicate, Mr. J. Bass Mullinger, 
university lecturer in history, will deliver a 
course of twelve lectures at Cambridge this 
term on "The History of Education." 

The Gamble priza at Girton College has 
been awarded to Miss Isabel Maddison, for her 
essay on '-Singular Solutions of Differential 
Equations of the First Order, and the Geo- 
metrical Properties of certain In-variants and 
Co- variants of their Complete Primitives." 

Under the will of Miss Susan Kidd, the 
University of Oxford has received the bequest 
of a portrait of her father. Dr. John Kidd, 
sometime regius professor of medicine. 

At the annual meeting of the Cambridge 
Philological Society, to be held on Thursday of 
this week, Mr. Eirikr Magnusson was to read 
a paper on " The Myth of Yggdrasill." Prof. 
Postgate is proposed for re-election as presi- 
dent, and Dr. Henry Jackson as a new vice- 
president. From the accounts for last year, it 
appears that the society is in a flourishing 
condition. The total number of members is 
151, of whom just half have compounded. 
The investments amount to £800, estimated at 
their par value ; but £300 of this is in the con- 
solidated stock of the Bombay and Baroda 
Railway, which sells at a premium of more 
than 100. In addition, there is a balance at 
the bank of £1 GO. 

At the extraordinary meeting of the Convo- 
cation of London University, held last Tuesday, 
the resolutions of the annual committee, 
Approving generally the scheme of the Royal 
Commissioners, were adopted by a majority of 
17 J votes to 206. Earlier in the same day, 
Lcrd Rosebery, in reply to an influential 
df putation, had announced the intention of the 
Government to propose a Statutory Commission 
to carry the scheme into effect. 

Messes. Williams & Nokoate, of London 
and Edinburgh, have opened a branch of their 
business at Oxford, in the Broad, chiefly for tho 
sale of foreign books. 

Me. Aetuue Sidowick, reader in Greek at 
Oxford, will deliver a lecture before the Ethical 
Society, on Sunday next, at 7.30 p.m., at Essex 
Hall, Strand, upon " Primitive Ethical Ideas 
among the Greeks." 

We quote tho following from the Tirms : 
"Duiiug the past year the total number of 
matriculated ttudents at the University of Edin- 
burgh was 2,949 {including .140 women). Of this 
number 707 (including 128 women) were enrolled 
io tho faculty of Arte, 1.j5 {including five women) 
in the faculty of Science, 68 in the faculry of 
Divinity, 434 in the faculty of Law, 1,494 in tho 
faculty of Medicine, and 11 (including Eeveu 
women) in the faculty of Music. Of the students 
of medicine, 022 (or nearly 42 per cent.) belonged 
to Scotland, 498 (or fully 33 per cent ) were frjm 
England and Wales, 74 from Ireland, 59 from 
Indlj, 20.5 (or nearly 14 per cent.) from British 
Coloniea. and 35 from foreign crantries. While 
the total number of oludents of medicine has 
decreased in recent eejsijns, the ratio of students I 
coiiing from the comitriea enumerated has been 
praitically unchanged for the last tea years. 
Uetides tljete matriculated (tudent.% 72 non- 
matricula^cd students have paid the flve-ehilling 
entrance fee, 49 of whom were women attending 
m>ufc claues. 



" The number of degrees conferred in the various 
faculties during the year was as follows:— Master 
of Arts, 88; Doctor of Science, 7; Bachelor of 
Scietce, 28 ; Bactelor of Divinity, 9 ; Bachelor 
of Laws, 10 ; Bachelor of Law, 2 ; Doctor of 
Medicine, 64; Bachelor of Medicine and Master 
in Surgery, 245. The general council of the 
university now numbers 7,642 members. 

"The total annual value of the university 
fellowships, Echolarships, bursaries, and prizes 
amounts to about £15,930— viz., in the faculty 
of Arts, £9,590 ; in the faculty of Science (besides 
a number of bursaries, &c., in other faculties which 
are tenable by science students), £420; in the 
faculty of Divinity, £1,570 ; in the faculti' of Law, 
£480 ; in the faculty of Medicine, £3,750 ; and in 
the faculty of Music, £120." 

A meeting is to be held on Monday next, at 
Toynbee Hall, to discuss what has been done 
and attempted in University Settlements, 
during the past ten years, in the United King- 
dom and America. The Master of Balliol, 
Prof. Jebb, Prof. Patrick Geddes, and Canon 
Browne have (among others) promised to be 
present. 



ORiaiNAL VERSE, 

NEVICA ! 

A sniOLE lark to the immense white pall 
That hung above the earth, embracing all, 
Sang forth his song, the first song of tae year. 
As the white gloom grew dark, began tho fall 

Of silent snow that lasted all night long. 
And when the morning came they found among 
The soft, deep snow, the body of the lark, 
Quite stiff and dead. But he had sung his song. 

Evelyn M^iETiNENGO Cesaeesco. 
Rovato. 



MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS. 

The January number of tho Jewish Quarterly 
Review (David Nutt) is a particularly interest- 
ing one. It opens with a notice of the late 
James Darmesteter, by Prof. Max Miiller, who 
gives a lucid summary of his revolutionary 
theory regarding the late date of the Avesta, 
with a running commentary of criticism. At 
the very time of his death, Darmesteter was 
working at a new edition of his translation of 
the Avesta for the " Sacred Books of the 
East." We are glad to hear that the first 
volume is nearly printed ; and that the Intro- 
duction, containing his latest views on the 
subject, is left almost ready for the press. For a 
complete understanding of Darmesteter's many- 
sided character, and the influence which he 
exercised on contemporary French thought, 
reference must be made to the remarkable 
article by M. Gaston Paris, in the Con- 
temporary. We may quote here the last words 
of Prof. Max Miiller : 

"Happy as he was in his birth, ho was even 
happier in his death. After a cheerful conversa- 
tion with his wife on some literary plans, he rested 
in his chair, white the bright suulight streamed 
down upon him through the window of his library 
— a parting greeting from Mithra, the friend of 
light and truth, whom he had served fo faithfully 
during his life on earth. He fell asleep unoou- 
sciouely, and never opened his eyes again " 

Next, we may mention a translation, by Mr. 
F. C. Conybeare, of the Apocalypse of Moses, 
otherwise known as the Book of Adam, which 
has hitherto been known only from some 
imperfect Greek MSS., first published by 
Tischendorf. Mr. Conyljeaie hero translates it 
in its entirety from an Armenian MS. in the 
library of Etschmiadzin, which he photo- 
graphed for the purpose. He thinks that this 
Armenian version must have been made, not 
from a Greek, but from a Syriac or Ethiopic, 
or even an Arabic text. He points out that 

" iu this Apocalypto we have one of those Jewish 
Apocrypha which, hke the Book of Enoch, exer- 



cised a formative inflaence upon the earliest 
Christianity. For two ideas are prominent in it 
which have been perpetuated in the younger 
religion— namely, that of baptism by triple immer- 
sion after repentance and forgiveness of sins, and 
that of tho resurrection in the flesh and restoration 
to the Garden of Eden of the deicendauts of 
Adam." 

In this connexion we may mention that the 
Rev. R. H. Charles here concludes his transla- 
tion of the Book of Jubilees, from a new text 
based upon two authoritative Aethiopic MSS., 
which he has just published in the original in 
the series of "Anecdota Oxoniensia." There 
are two other curious articles of interest, as 
illustrating the later coimexion of Jewish with 
European literature. Dr. 8. Krauss claims for 
Domninus — a Neo-Platonist philosopher at 
Athens in the fifth century, of whom little is 
known beyond some anecdotes in Suidas — that 
he was a Jew ; while Prof. D. Kauffmanu 
prints, from the Vatican archives, a long Latin 
letter in defence of the integrity of the Hebrew 
Bible, addressed to Cardinal Sirleto {circa 1570) 
by ^Lazarus de Viterbo, alias Eliezer Mazliach 
ben Abraham Cohen, who was possibly the 
cardinal's physician. Among the other con- 
tents, we may briefly mention : a third paper 
by Mr. S. Sohechter, on " Some Aspects of 
Rabbinic Theology " ; the continuation of Mr. 
R. Lionel Abrahams's exhaustive essay on "The 
Expulsion of the Jews from England in 1290"; 
and a note by Dr. Neubauer on some Hebrew 
fragments of the Bible, recently acquired by 
the Bodleian, which are written in a shorthand 
he confesses himsBlf unable to decipher. 



SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS. 

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Beer, B. HaDd^cbriitemchii'ze Sf aniens. Leif zig : Fity- 

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BiBLioTiiBOA patrum latinorum bii^.annica. Bearb. v. H. 

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10 M. 
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Berlin: Slnopnik. 20 M. 
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im S.malilande. Wien : Gerold. 10 M. 
NKUBiJBOKB. F. Rusaland uMcr Kaiu^r Alexander III, 

Berlin : Drie^ner. 3 M 60. 
Stern, A. Studien zur IisttrA';nrdtr Gegenwait. Dresden: 

Ewhe. 10 M. SO. 
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Analkgta byinnica medii aeri. XIX. Litursruehe Uymnen 

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82 



THE ACADEMY 



[Jan. 26, 1895.— Wo. 1186. 



Fui 



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n. MOadtaa : Ftau. 4 M. tO. 

PHIt-OIiOOY. ETC. 

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Hft. Lelpn'ij : Hintiohi. ISM. 50. 

BjKb. uoter I.jit*. T. M. Hejn». (1p. 335-576.) 

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BaUn : Belnur. 11 If ■ 



Cicero'*. S. Tl. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



THE NEW SYRL\C QOSPELS. 

Oxford : Jan 19, 1(95. 
The controversy on this subject is taking a 
rather wide and discuBsive range, in which I 
have no intention of following it. But Mr. 
Conybeare's last letter compels me to say, 
wha» I hoped would have been superfluous, 
that I entirely agree with him that the ques- 
tions at issue must be determined on scientific 
grounds and no other. I only wished to ensure 
that the grounds should be really scientific, 
that the questions should be taken in their 
proper order, and that the answers to them 
should be deliberate, and not merely the first 
that came uppermost. 

I am perfectly ready to accept the reading of 
Cod. Sin., if that shall seem upon examination 
to have the best claim to be considered original. 
Indeed, I began myself with the assumption 
that there was a frima facie case in favour of 
it. But I found this assumption less easy to 
work out than might have been anticipated. 
The problem is to find that reading which shall 
best account for the variants that have come 
down to us — on the one hand, for the reading 
of the mass of Greek MSS., and on the other 
hand, for the group of Western readings. 
This problem is by no means an easy one, as 
Mr. Conybeare, I think, will find, if he attempts 
it in detail. 

The hypothesis of mine to which he refers 
was only one of three whioh I had entertained 
for a time, but was, on the whole, inclined to 
reject. It had nothing whatever to do with 
any question of orthodjry or heterodoxy, and 
was only intended to bridge over the gap 
between the two lines of text presented by the 
Greek, Latin, and Syriac authorities. 

In like manner, I meant no imputation on 
the Syriac scribe when I spoke of him as 
"supplying" a masculine subject to the verb 
iti.Ktan'. His language compelled him todefloe 
the subject as either masculine or feminine ; 
and his choice of the masculine seemed to show 
what was the bent of bis mind. That is all. 

I had aimed at doing precisely what Mr. 
Skip with desiderates. I distinguished between 
the genealogy as a document with an inde- 
pendent existence anterior to our Gospel, and 
the same as incorporated in his text by the 
Evangelist. In its first state, I cva. well 
believe it probable that the list ended 'i<Dtr))<fi Si 

iyi^mnfiv ^IrtTovif rhy [\e7<fa«»'t*»'] XpirrSv, But I 
do not think it so likely that the Evangelist 
left Ukcse words as he found them ; and I gave 
some reasons for doubting whether the new 
Syriac Version could represent what he really 
wrote. 

Be this as it may, I feel sure that we should 
do well to give up speaking of " orthodoxy " 
and "heterodoxy" in this connexion; or, if it 
b convenient to use the words, to use them 
without any invidious connotation. I also 
think that it would bo well that we should first 
determine the exact position of our data before 
we begin to draw remote consequences from 
them. W. Sanday. 



London : Jan. 19, 1896. 

Mr. Conybeare's attempt to get rid of the 
miraculous conception in Luke i. o-ii. is fore- 
doomed to failure. Strongly marked unities of 
style and diction preclude any extensive ex- 
cisions in the text, and the miraculous con- 
ception is of the very warp and woof. 

1. Mary's question, " How shall this be, 
seeing I know not a man ? " shows that she 
understood Gabriel as announcing something 
to take place then and there ; and even if with 
the Old Latin we omit this question, still 
Gabriel's "The Spirit shall come upon thee," 
coupled with the previous description of Mary 
as "virgin " and " betrothed," keeps the sense 
firm. But it is very difiicult to accept the Old 
Latin, in view of the close correspondency of 
the whole passage with the previous announce- 
ment to Zachariah — " How shall this be ? " 
corresponding to a similar but more incredulous 
question of Zachariah's. 

2. Correspondence is obviously implied be- 
tween Mary's position and Elizibeth's — 
Elizabeth sterile naturally and from age, Mary 
because unwedded ; and this correspondence is 
pointed out by Gabriel. Miracle, inevitable in 
the case of Elizabeth, indirectly involves 
miracle in Mary's case also. 

3. Of Zachariah it is said that he returned 
home and that his wife conceived ; but without 
any such preface Mary is recognised as preg- 
nant immediately on entering Elizabeth's 
house fvv. 41-41); and it is expressly stated 
that she went " with haste," immediately after 
the Annunciation (vy. 26, 39, 56). One may 
notice, too, that it is to her own house that she 
returns. 

4. If Joseph had been intended to act such 
a part as that acted by Zachariah, the Annun- 
ciation would, according to analogy, have been 
made to him instead of to Mary. 

5. The prophecy implied in vv. 26, 31 — " the 
virgin shall conceive " — would have been made 
quite void of power unless fulfilled literally. 

6. The inferiority of the Forerunner to Christ 
Himself artistically requires what is said of the 
former — " filled with the Holy Ghost, even in 
his mother's womb " — to be surpassed in the 
case of Christ ; and the consequence attributed 
to the descent of the Holy Ghost upon Mary- 
Si^ Kal rh ytfyuufvov ayiov KKrjd-fiaeTat vlhs Ofou — 
indicates a fulfilling of this requirement in the 
actual manner of Christ's conception. 

Thus, the evidence of Luke i. o-ii. is far 
from corroborating the purely spiritual view of 
parthenogenesis which Mr. Conybeare endea- 
vours to detect in our canonical narratives. It 
remains to show that this purely spiritual 
view is uncorroborated even by Philo. Philo 
instances four women who, according to the 
Old Testament as he read it, had conceived 
by divine agency without knowledge of their 
husbands; and if, as is suggested, he imagined 
that these women, after being spiritually known 
by the divine power, had been known by their 
husbands in the ordinary manner, why should 
the case of these four women have been singled 
out as so exceptional ? And what is to be made 
of such texts as " Leah did not derive seed or 
fertility from any creature but from God 
Himself" {Allegories, C3) ? But a study of 
Philo's physiological tenets leaves no room for 
doubt; for we ficd him definitely committed 
to the Aristotelian doctrine, according to which 
a father is not a contributor of matter, but 
only a cause {Questions and Soluliona, 47). He 
has no difficulty in saying "God sowed," 
"God begat "—it is in reserving some father- 
hood for Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, that 
his difficulty arrives ; and he can only suggest 
their property in their wives, and that God 
being all-sufficient procreates nothing for 
Himself. 

Philo's parallelism to Matt, i., ii., Luke i. 5-ii., 
is striking ; and the addition to our scanty 



stock of Jewish references to parthenogenesis 
is very welcome. It is surely a pity to damage 
the effect by an inference from Philo's works 
which they do not justify, and of which the 
application to Matt, i , ii., Luke i. 5-ii., is so 
diffiuult. 

F. P. Badham. 



BaUtbury : Ja -. », UOS. 

Mr. Conybeare, in his last letter, quotes the 
'Old-Latin" as reading "with Mary, his 
wife," in Luke ii. 5. 

It cannot, however, be adduced en masse for 
this reading. Codd. a h c aur. read " uxore" 
without "desponsata" (o is defective at this 
particular point, but there does not seem to be 
sufficient space for the latter word) ; of these 
MS3., a and 6 are, undoubtedly, witnesses to a 
very early text, and though c aur. are late 
MSS., they contain a fair number of curious 
and early readings. Two others, e and r, read 
"sponsa" simply; e represents an African, r, 
on the whole, an early European, text ; d reads 
"desponsata" simply; (j' has "uxore 8u(a) 
desponsata ei," a later corrector simply 
" desponsata sibi" ; ffn (according to Berger's 
collation) I 5 have both "uxore" and "despon- 
sata " ; the testimony of the Version, therefore, 
is divided. 

As regards the exact meaning of "sponsa," 
I may perhaps be pardoned for calling atten- 
tion to PaccioUti's explanation of the word: 
" /jLvijoTri, tvn<pv, mulier alicui promissa in matri- 
monium, pacta, sperata, et nondum uxor." 

H. J. White. 



Outtingen : J>n. 21, 1895. 

When (December 21, 1891) I called attention 

to the fact that the Greek MS. of the Gospels 

346 has in Matt. i. 16 the reading, ^ tipri^r(vi?i<ra 

nap^ho! Mapiafi iyfHT\<T(i> 'Iriirovv tlv \fy6mvo» 

Xpi'jTiy, I had not yet seen the Academy of 
December 15, in which Mr. Allen had already 
done the same. 

Following Gregory, I said that ;!46 is the 
only MS. whioh has this reading. It is true that 
Mr. Allen refers to two other MSS. : namely, 13 
and 69, which have the same; but this is a 
mistake. Matt. i. 16 is not contained in either 
of theai, the first leaves of both of them being 
lost— MS. 13, beginning with Matt. ii. 20; 
MS. 69, with Matt, xviii. 15 (see T. K. Abbott 
in his Collation of Four Important MSS. of the 
Qosptls, Dublin, 187", pp. vii., xi., 1, 5, 60, and 
p. 1., n. 2). 

But there is, as my friend Lie. Bousset has 
told me, another MS., likewise written in the 
twelfth century, which has the same reading : 
namely. No. 556, according to the numeration 
of Scrivener, or No. 543 according to that of 
Gregory. A collation of this MS. has been 
lately published in Scrivener's Adversaria 
Critica Sacra (Cambridge, 1893). It has pre- 
cisely the same reading as 346, even the itacisra 
jifTjiTTei/SqTo being found in it. Both MSS. 
belong to a small class of cursives, which are 
derived from a common archetype of high 
antiquity, originating, as it seems, in C.ilabria, 
the text of which Prof. Abbott has tried to 
restore. Besides these, MSS. 13, 60, and 124 
belong to the same class; but the first twt) 
have not Matt. i. 16 at all, as I have already 
said, while the last has the usual reading— 
rhv HfSpa Kopias ^{ h iyeivfi^ri 'iriaovs i Kfyinffot 

XplOTlff. _ 

Alfked R.\.ULFS. 



TUB BOOK OF ST. MULLIXO. 

Batdwell Bett»y,Bury S*. Bdmands: Jan. 91, 1895. 

Many others besides myself, who have spent 

fruitless hours over the last page of the Book 

of Mulling, will be grateful for Mr. Lawlor s 

interesting letter, and will admire his keenness 



JTait. 26, 1895.-1^0. 1186.) 



THE ACADEMY. 



83 



in deciphering it, and his skill in identifying its 
component parts. As to details : 

Line 1. Ttie " al " is probably the abbrevia- 
tion of alleluia, as at the end of Stanza 1 of 
" Sacratissimi martires" in the Antiphonary of 
Bangor (fol. 12y). 

Line 4. The Scriptural passage is no doubt 
Matt. V. 1-12, containiDg the Beatitudes, which 
in Western service-books forms the liturgical 
gospel, as well as the third noctum gospel, 
for All Saints' Day, and which in the East 
has a place among the Typica. 

Liafs G, 7. " In Memoria" and " Patricias," 
&c., are rather supplementary antipbons than 
stanzas. 

Line 11. This is probably a supplementary 
antiphon ; but as Mr. Liwlor does not repro- 
duce a single letter, attempt to identify it is 
impossible. 

Line 12. The embolismus seems to be a 
gratuitous suggestion, as the "Libera" is 
within brackets. It is very unlikely to be 
appended to a shortened form of service, 
which, if it is for public use at all, is connected, 
as Mr. Lawlor points out (not with the liturgy 
but) with the divine office. 

But I am inclined to think that we have here 
a collection of formulae which is not, strictly 
speaking, connected with either of them, but 
which is intended for private use by a sick 
I)erson as a sort of compound lurka or charm. 

The only other liturgical insertion in the 
Book of Mulling is a form for the unction and 
communion of the sick, on foil. 49;; oOr. The 
passage deciphered by Mr. Lawlor seems to be 

»a lorica for private recitation by the sick man 
who cannot join in the divine office in church. 
So I would link it on to the curious diagram 
occupying the lower part of the same page, 
which invokes the protection of the four Evan- 
gelists among other sacred beings, and which 
must be the ancestor of the modern and still 
popular invocation : 

" Matthew, Maik, L'lke, and John 
Bless the bed that I lie on ! 
Four angels round my bed," &c. 

In a mediaeval house I have seen the emblems 
rf the four Evangelists carved in stone on the 
four sides of the house, evidently by way of 
protection. This points rather in the direction 
of Mr. Olden's suggestion, that this diagram 
may be intended to represent the civitas of St. 
Mulling. But who is the " Mulling scriptor " 
of this volume ? and where was his civitas ? 
1 The proposal to identify him with St. Mulling 

■ of Ferns (who died in 697), after misleading 
^L nearly everybody about the date of this MS. , 
^Bmust now be finally abandoned. 

^P P. E. WABaEN. 

■ OaHAM INSCatlPTIONS IK IBELAND, 

■ ra'hcormar, County Cork : Jan. 16, 1895. 

■ The npper part of the Kilbeg Stone is a 
I slender four- sided pyramid with three inscribed 
I arrises, of which the first and the second read 
K ' upwards, and the third in continuation of the 
W lecond reads downwards, thus : 

fl) BEPFI MAQI 

(2) Mtrcoi THE 

(.3) NAQITI ; 

that is, "the grave stone of Beffa ( = Beo, 
' Lively '), a son's son of Trenacita (Impetuous 
Cet)." 

In the first line the vowel notches are barely 
half an inch in diameter, the scores are faint, 
and the <i is short-legged from the slenderness 
of the stone. In the second line a fissure has 
severed the arris-ends of two of the T-scores, 
and obliterated that of the third. In the 
third line, at the apex, the^ second notch of E 
is faint, the N scores are short and shallow, 
two false grooves branch off from the arris 



where it is occupied by the nearly perfect 
middle notch of the second last I, and at the 
end a deep but rough scrape is called B by 
those who choose to read this line backwards, 
and to discard the middle I score that makes 
sense, for a d that makes no sense. 

In Mr. Brash's reading of Dr. Martin's 
transcript, inicoi ATAii bifodon, the severed 
ends of the two first scores of T have been 
taken for as, ena is omitted, and qiti, with a 
false L inserted into the first I, and a false u 
added to the second l, is read backwards as 

BirODON. 

BEPFI is also found, slightly imperfect per- 
haps, in the Llanwinio bilingual. Its later 
and much contracted forms are Old Irish Hi 
and Modem Irish hi, the genitives singlar of 
Old Irish beo, heu, or bin, and of Modem Irish 
beo, "alive," " lively "= Latin vivus, Welsh 
"byw," &c. Diminutives, derivatives, and 
compounds of Beo, Bi, are found among the 
proper names in the Middle Irish MS., the 
Book of Leinster, and in other such manu- 
scripts. 

trenaqiti is composed of TEEliA and qiti. 
Tren means "impetuous" in Irish and in 
Welsh, and is found in many Ogham inscrip- 
tions, thrice in bilingruals. qiti is found as qitai 
at Drumconwell and as qit ... at Stradbally. 
Its feminine, in composition with Maqi is at 
Burnham from Ballinrannig in maqi-qettia 

MAQQI cu ITTI. Its Middle Irish forms are 

R 

Chit, Book of Leinster, 113b, and Ceit, genitives 
of Cet, the name of an Ulster hero in the days 
of Conchobar MacNessa. 

As Mr. Macalister and I read the No. 2 
Dunbell inscription from opposite ends, while 
agreeing as to the scoring in all but two par- 
ticulars, we assign contrary values to nearly 
every consonantal character ; and his reading, 
8AVVIQEOI TTUDDATTAC, is in a way nearly the 
reverse of mine, naffallo affi aEjriTTAc[ci], 
and, corrected to SAVViQEOi_ ttaoddattaq, 
should be preferred to mine, if only it made 
better sense. 

The end character, at which I begin and Mr. 
Macalister ends, consists not of four but of five 
scores. It contains four perfect semi-cylindrical 
grooves, preceded by a broken groove, of which 
three-fourths of one side and one-fourth of 
smooth bottom remain, the line of fracture 
being along the bottom of this groove. The 
three vowel notches read tr by Mr. Macalister, 
and OA by me, form not one but two characters, 
as there is a double interval between the second 
and the third. At present, the first two notches 
seem over widely apart ; but that is because 
they are merely outside halves, the inside 
halves being gone, together with the dividing 
knob. When these notches were perfect, the 
centres of the first and second were one inch 
apart, and the centres of the second and third 
were two inches apart. 

Of this inscription, as read by me, the key- 
word is AFFI, "of a grandson." The first to 
recognise afi, or affi, in Ogham inscriptions, 
as far as I know, was Prof. 'Rhja {Lectures on 
Welsh Phonology, p. 174), Among its after- 
forms are : nom. sg. haue, aue, iia, o ; nom. pi. 
haui, aui, ui, i, &c. 

NAFFALLO, from *NAFFALLOS, is evidently cog- 
nate with Latin gen. sg. navalis, from "navalos. 
The Middle Irish form appears to be noele, in 
the Saint's name Noele inbir (Book of Leinster, 
356g); especially as Middle Irish noe is Old- 
Irish nave, which, according to St. Adamnan's 
Vita Columbae (Reeves's ed., p. 9), is cognate 
with Latin navis. Possibly, too, the name 
Nolan, Ua Nualhiin, is a diminutive of 

NAFFALLO. 

Gen. aENlTTAc[ci] is reduced in Middle Irish 
to geniich (LL. 347i) or geniig (LL. 341a), from 
nom. geintech (LL. 339a). There Geintech is 
an Ossory man, whose grandsons gave the 



name to Tir hon Oentich, a territory which may 
well have included Dunbell, as it included 
Kilfane, the church of which is only five miles 
from the Cross of Dunbell, while the parish is 
only two and a quarter miles apart from tha 
parish of Dunbell. 

In an Ossorian pedigree in the Book of 
Leinster this Geintech is first cousin of Coirpre, 
of whom, in the male line. Lord Castletown of 
Upper Oasory (who should see to this stone) is 
the representative, and is twelve generations 
senior to another of Lord Castletown's ancestors, 
Cucerca, King of Ossory, who died in or about 
A,D. 710. At thirty-one years to a generation 
— and, according to Father Shearman in Loca 
Patriciana, an average generation in this family 
is slightly more than that — Geintech should 
have died circa x.T>. 338, and Naffall or Naval, 
on the presumption that his grandfather was 
that Geintech, the only known Geintech should 
have died, and his gravestone should have been 
set up, with his name in Ogham Craeb upon it, 
circa a.d. 400. 

In quite a different matter I beg to correct 
Mr. Macalister: I am not a Canon, but only 
a simple Parish Priest. 

E. Baery. 



APPOINTMENTS FOB NEXT WEEK. 

Sunday, Jan. 27, 4 p m. Sunday Lecture : ".Scma 
AbEuidities of the Law," by Mr. Janus Craven. 

7.30pm. Bthioal: " Primitive BtUoal Ideas among 
the Greeks." by Mr. Arthur Sidgwick. 
MoKDAY, Jan. 28, 5 p.m. London Institution : " Native Life 
in India," by Mr. R. W. Frazer. 

8 p.m. Royal Academy: "The Advancement of 
Arebitectore." I, by Mr. G. Aitchiaon. 

8 pm. Society of Arts : Cantor Lecture, " The An 
Light," III., by Prof. Silvanus Thompson. 

8.30 p.m. Geographical: " Journeys in Bouth- 
Western 8iam," by Mr. H. Waiington Smyth. 
Tuesday. Jan. 29, 8 p.m. Royal Institution: "The In- 
ternal Framework of Plants and Animals," III., by Prof. 
C. Stewart. 

8 p.m. Civil Engineers : " Boiler Eiplosions," by 
Mr. W. H. Fowler. 

8.30 p.m. Anthropological : Anniversary Meeting. 
Wednbsday. Jan. 30, 8 p.m. Society of Arts : " Peking," 
by Mr. Thomas Child. 

8 p.m. Ex Libris Society : Annual General Meeting. 
Address by the Chairman of Council, Mr. Walter 
Hamilton. 
Thuesday, Jan. 31,3 p.m. Eojal Institution : "FourEng. 
lioh^Enmorists of the Nineteenth Century," III., by Mr. 
W. S. Lilly. 

4.30 p.m. " India and its Women," By Mr. S. H. J. 
Clarke. 

7 p.m. London Institution: "Franz Sohubeit," by 
Prof. Ernst Pauer. 

8 p.m. Boyal Academy : " The Advancement of 
Architecture," 11.. by Mr. G. Aitchison. 

8 30 p.m. Antiquaries. 
Fbiday. Feb. 1, 3 p.m. Ecyal Institution: "Acting, an 
Art," by Mr. Henry Irving. 

8pm. Geologists' Association: Annual General 
Meeting. Ae dress by the President, Lieut.-General 
O. A. Maomahon, "The Geological History of the 
Himalayas." . ^ 

8.30 p.m. Viking Club : " A Boat Journey to Inan," 
by Mr. A. Heneage Cocks. 
Saturday, Feb. 2. 8 p.m. Eoyal Institution: "Staimed 
Windows and Painttd Glass," III., by Mr. Lewis P. 
Day. 



SCIENCE. 

THE HOLKHAM MS. OF PROPERTIUS. 

Certain MSS. of Fropertius, with a Fac- 
simile. By J. P. Postgate. (In the 
Transactions of the Cambridge Philo- 
logical Society, Vol. IV. Part I.) 
The main interest of this, the latest work 
of importance on Propertius, lies in the 
description and accompanying facsimile of 
a MS., not hitherto known, in the library of 
Lord Leicester at Holkham. This collec- 
tion supplied me, when I was editing the 
Jiis, with a thirteenth century MS., also 
used by Mr. 8. G. Owen for his subsequent 
edition of the Tristia. I would here call 
the attention of scholars and palaeographers 
to the Holkham MSS., of which a printed 
catalogue is to be found in the Bodleian 



84 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186. 



(Gaps 6, 43), and whioh seem to include a 
Manilius. 

The new Codex of Fropertius (Holk- 
hamicus, 333) is on Tellam. The beginning 
is lost, and the first remaining leaf com- 
menoes with ii. 21.3, Sed tibi iam videor 
Dodena verior augur. It is written in 
double columns of about forty lines each. 
The handwriting is clear, but formal, 
and somewhat heavy. The titles and 
initials are in red, except the initials of iii. 
1 and 2, which are in olue. The scribe's 
name is lohannes Campofregosa ; and the 
date of the completion of the MS., October 
10, 1421, is given with it in the subscrip- 
tion. Bound with the Propertius in the 
same volume is an imperfect copy, in the 
same hand, of some of the Latin works of 
Petrarch. 

Prof. Postgate has carefully collated this 
MS., which ho calls L, adding its agreements 
(and occasionally its disagreements) with 
the five M8S. of Propertius which are 
exhibited in Biihrens' edition {AFBFN), 
and on which Prof. Housman has recently 
written at length in the Journal of Philology. 
It is closely related to F (Laurentianus, 30, 
49), 80 closely that it would seem to be de- 
rived either from F or from the source of F. 
Prof. Postgate brings several arguments to 
prove that the former view is impossible, 
and that L is drawn in the main from the 
source of F. Propertian critics are aware 
that Btihrens' five MSS. subdivide into 
three groups: (1) DV, (2) AF, (3) N, 
the last - mentioned codex representing 
predominantly the AF tradition, but at 
times agreeing with the readings of BV. 
A being an imperfect MS. not extending 
beyond ii. 1.03, we can appreciate the help 
derivable from the new Holkham codex, 
which, though imperfect at the beginning, 
is complete from ii. 21.3 to the end. The 
twenty Elegies between the point where A 
ends and L begins are represented com- 
pletely in F alone of the second group. It 
will be an interesting question for future 
critics of Propertius to establish, if it can 
be made out, what is the exact relation of 
Lio AF, and of all to N, indisputably the 
queen of Propertian codices. 

The chief other point of interest in Prof. 
Postgate's disquisition is the fresh informa- 
tion which it supplies as to the history of 
the MS. which Mr. Coxe bought for the 
Bodleian some twenty years ago (Bodl. 
Add. B. 55). The subscription at the end 
of this MS. states that it was in the 
possession of Petrarch, and was written by 
one Laurentius. 

" Me Petrarca tenet, Bcripsit Laurentius olim." 

The date which immediately precedes these 
words is partially erased. Mr. E. B. 
Nicholson, who revived the faded figures 
by a chemical, thought he could make out 
MCOCOLI. ; but the L is imperfect and the 
fourth C only conjectural. It is, however, 
in any case, impossible that this actual MS. 
should have been in possession of the great 
Petrarch. The writing, as I perfectly 
remember, was assigned by Mr. Coxe to a 
very late date in the fifteenth century, and 
with this verdict Mr. Maunde Thompson, 
Mr. Warner, and Mr. F. Madan agree — 
»t least 80 far as to believe it of the later 



fifteenth century. What are we to conclude 
then as to the Suhscriptio ? I have myself 
little doubt that this was intended to convey 
to the reader or purchaser of the MS. the 
belief that it had been Petrarch's ; such a 
forged ascription would not necessarily 
affect the goodness of the text of Propertius 
contained in it, which must be judged by 
considerations of a dlfEerent kind. Or, as 
Prof. Postgate suggests, the tulscriptio may 
have been copied from a fourteenth century 
MS., which had really belonged to Petrarch, 
and had been written by a Laurentius. 
What Prof. Postgate calls the simplest 
hypothesis, " that the owner was a Petrarcha 
unknown to fame, who lived at the close of 
the fifteenth century," seems to me in the 
highest degree improbable. 

Of the other MSS. treated, the most im- 
portant is the Memmianus (now Paris, 
8233), of which its owner, de Mesme, 
allowed the use to Fasserat, who several 
times quotes its readings in his enormous 
but highly valuable commentary. Prof. 
Postgate calls it /x ; it was written in 1405 
at Florence. Biihrens underrated it in his 
summary and slap-off style. It is closely 
related to Urbinas, 641, on which see 
Hosius in Rhein. Mus. xlvi. 578. 

EomxsoN Ellis. 



INDIAN JOTTlNaS. 

Mr. Chakles James Lyall, while officiating 
last autumn as Chief Commissioner of Assam, 
gave his sanction to a scheme for inquiring 
systematically into the materials that exist for 
a history of the province. About a year 
before, in accordance with a resolution of the 
Government of India, Mr. E. Gait had been 
appointed to the honorary office of director of 
ethnography. In the course of his researches, 
Mr. Gait discovered a number of historical 
documents, which have formed the basis of two 
papers in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. One of these papers deals with the old 
dynasty of Koch Kajas ; the other reveals the 
existence of MSS. written in the language of the 
Ahom conquerors — a Shan tribe who ruled 
the upper valley of the Brahmaputra during 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The Ahom language is almost extinct, being 
at present known only to a few families of 
priests and astrologers. Farther investigations 
by Mr. Gait have yielded a list of no less 
than twenty-eight of these puthia, or Ahom 
MSS., in the single subdivision of Sibsagar ; 
and there are doubtless many more in 
existence. They are all in private hands; and 
it is noteworthy that their owners, while willing 
that they should be copied, all alike refuse to 
part with them on any terras. The great majority 
of them appear to be religious or mystical 
treatises, such as " a book on the calculation of 
future events by examining the leg of 
a fowl." But we observe that one of 
them is a dictionary, while three others 
give a continuous history of the Ahom 
Kajas from 568 to 1795 A.D. Mr. Gait proposes 
to have the more important of these pitthis 
copied, to train a native student in the Ahom 
language, and to publish the results in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. To 
this project, which is estimated to involve an 
expenditure of not more than Es. 900, Mr. 
Lyall has given his official sanction. Something 
more, however, is proposed : namely, a survey 
of all the other materials that exist for the 
ancient history of Assam, such as coins, inscrip- 
tions, and documents. Of the Ahom coins, which 
are octagonal in shape, a considerable number 



are known. Most of these have legends in 
Nagari ; but it appears that the older ones 
(before 1690) are inscribed in Ahom, which can 
be deciphered only by the few surviving Ahom 
priests. There is also a coinage of the Eoch 
dynasty, as well as of the former chieftains 
of the Jaintia Hills. Of inscriptions, there are 
many land-grants on copper plates and dedica- 
tion stones in temples ; and we are further told 
of some which have never been deciphered, and 
which may be of great antiquity. Upon the 
use of coins and inscriptions to check traditional 
lines of kings, it is needless to dwell. It is 
also suggested that we may learn from this 
source something about the ancient channels by 
which Buddhism was originally transmitted into 
the Burmese peninsula. In addition to the 
Ahom puihis, there are many quasi-historical 
MSS. in Assamese which have never been 
properly studied; and also old collections in 
the possession of monasteries and noble 
families. Altogether, the task of restoring the 
forgotten history of Assam seems to be far from 
hopeless, now that it has fallen into intelligent 
and sympathetic hands. 

Paet II. of the second volume of the Journal 
of the Buddhist Text Society of India (London : 
Kegan, Paul & Co.) opens with a report of the 
two last quarterly meetings of the society. 
The president for the year is Sir Alfred Croft, 
director of public instruction in Bengal ; while 
Dr. J. Bowles Daly, who is known for his 
interest in Sinhalese Buddhism, has recently 
been appointed corresponding secretary. The 
members of council are all natives ; and among 
them we notice a judge of the High Court, 
and no less than five M.A.'s of Calcutta. At 
one of the meetings was present Horiu Toki, 
described as the Buddhist high priest of Japan, 
who had come on a pilgrimage to Oaya. Of 
the communications here printed, we can only 
notice a few. Puma Chandra Mukharji, the 
Government archaeologist, described an archaic 
silver lotus, recently found in a cave near 
Bhagalpur, mth several other Buddhist relics, 
which have all been acquired for the Calcutta 
Museum. Sarat Chandra Das delivered a 
discourse upon the close connexion that existed 
between the Mahayana school of Buddhism and 
Hinduism. He regarded Buddhism in its 
earliest form, not as a protest against caste, 
but as an ascetic development of the Brah- 
manical religion. Up to the thirteenth century 
A.D. there was no difference between the two 
as regards social polity. Sarat Chandra Das 
also exhibited and compared drawings of an 
ancient Buddhist hermitage and of modem 
temples and monastic buildings in China and 
Tibet. Qaurinath Chakravarti described a 
temple at Hajo in Assam, which is greatly 
frequented by both Buddhists and Hindus. It 
has been suggested by Dr. Waddell that the 
Buddhist pilgrims come through a misunder- 
standing ; but it is here argued that the god 
worshipped is one common to the Tantrik 
literature of Bengal and Tibet. 

The November number of the Indian Anti- 
quary (London: Kegan Paul & Co.) contains 
the first instalment of a series of " Notes on 
the Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom," by Mr. 
J. M. Campbell, editor of the Bombay 
Oazetteer. It is largely from the local folk-lore, 
&o., collected in that publication — by far the 
most valuable of the Provincial Gazetteers — 
that his materials are drawn. He deals first 
with ancestor- worship, upon the prevalence of 
which throughout India there is no necessity to 
dwell. He points out, however, how it passes 
into demon-worship among the low castes and 
hill tribes ; and he remarks that one reason for 
the belief in the return of ancestors is to be 
found in the likeness to them of children. He 
then discusses the belief that ancestors become 
gaardian spirits, with which he connects the 



Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186."! 



THE ACADEMY. 



85 



■worship of guardian animals or totems. His 
argiuuent seems to be that certain animals are 
worshipped — or, at any rate, not eaten — be- 
cause the spirit of the head of the family or 
chief of the clan has passed into the animal in 
question. Thus, in North Kanara, the wide- 
spread cultivating class of Halakki Yakkals is 
divided into eight clans, each of which has a 
separate clan-god, or guardian spirit, and a 
name-giving article which they do not eat. In 
the same number Mr. G. A. Grierson continues 
his translation of a modem Hindi treatise on 
rhetoric, the Basha-Bhushanaof Jaswant Singh ; 
and Pandit Natesa Sastri tell a pretty but 
lengthy story of Southern India, " The Talis- 
man of Chastity," which in some of its inci- 
dents recalls " Patient Qrisell." 



SCIENCE NOTES. 



Prof. Pkestwich has received the compli- 
ment of being elected a vice-president of the 
Geological Society of France. 

The Chemical Society has addressed a letter 
of congratulation to Prof. C. R. Fresenius, on 
the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of his 
election as a foreign member of the society. 

Dr. G. M. Dawson has been appointed to 
the post of director of the Geological Survey 
of Canada, in succession to Dr. A. R. Selwyn, 
who retires by reason of age. 

The executive committee of the City and 
Guilds of London Institute have awarded the 
first Salters' Company's fellowship for the 
encouragement of higher research in chemistry 
in its relation to manufactures to Martin O. 
Foster, Ph.D., of Wiirzburg, who is investigat- 
ing some new derivatives of camphor in the 
research laboratory of the City and Guilds 
Central Technical College. 

The forty-eighth annual general meeting of 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers will 
le held on Thursday and Friday of next week, 
when Prof. W. Cawthome Unwin is to read a 
paper on " The Determination of the Dryness 
of Steam." 

The twenty-second annual dinner of old 
students of the Royal School of Mines was to 
be held on Friday of this week. 

A WORK on Mussel Culture and the Bait 
Supply, with reference more especially to 
Scotland, by Mr. W. L. Calderwood, will be 
published next week by Messrs. Macmillan & 
Co. _ Mr. Calderwood thinks that a systematic 
cultivation of our foreshores must be attempted 
before long; and that, on this account, a 
service may be rendered by the publication of 
a manual dealing with the natural history of 
the mussel, the practical aspects of its culture, 
and the legal questions bearing on the owner- 
ship and leasing of shell-fish scalps. 

The annual general meeting of the Geolo- 
gists' Association will be held at University 
College, Gower-street, on Friday next, at 8 
p.m., when the retiring president, Lieut.-Gen. 
C. A. Macmahon, will deliver an address on 
" The Geological History of the Himalayas." 
From the accomits for last year it appears that 
the total receipts amounted to nearly £2bO, 
and that there is a sum of £800 invested, which 
yields £2o a year. 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 

Philolooical. — {Friday, fan. 11.) 

Pkov. Skeat, vice-president, in the chair. — Mr. 
Henry Bradley, joint editor of the society's "New 
English Dictionary," made hia annual report on 
the progress of the letter F, which he is editing. 
His last year's report extended to FemaU ; he has 
now proofs up to Five, and has sent in copy to 
Fla-. His staff has been increased by Mr. Walter 
Worrall,' who works in the British Museum. 



Messrs. Filz-EdwardHall, H. H. Gibbs.and W. H. 
Stevenson and the Bev. Dr. Fowler have continued 
to revise proofs, and Sir P. Pollock, Mr. K. B. 
Prosser, and many others to give help in special 
words, while many readers have sent extracts. 
Mr. Bradley then read from his proofs abstracts 
of hia articles on the most interesting words. 
Fellow, addressed to an inferior, was used cour- 
teously in the fourteenth century, insolently in the 
eeventeenth. Fester, from L. fistula, actually 
glossed that word in Trevisa (1397). Feud, as a 
law term, was first used by Selden; it was a 
common error that the substitution of feud for 
fede, " a state of enmity," was due to the influence 
of the law word ; iu fact, feud or feood, ' ' enmity ' ' 
occurred much earlier, and was a synonym, not a 
variant, of fede. Spenser's Jiant was the technical 
name for the warrant authorising a grant under 
the Great Seal of Ireland ; it was the first word 
of the Irish writ, " Fiant literae patentees." 
Fiffht — in spite of the strange difference of sense — 
is supposed to ha the equivalent of L. pectere to 
comb : its perfect got its » from the attraction of 
Jlehtan. 7'i#«re was the philosophical equivalent of 
<rx^A"«, all whose senses it took over, and added to 
them : these Mr. Bradley fully developed. Filch in 
Langtoft is not the modem word,fir6t found in 1560: 
the noun denoted a long stick with a hook to it, 
used by Autolyeutes for taking sheets off hedges : 
the verb means also to beat, and possibly came 
from the noun. Film, from fel-m-en-jo (fell 
" fkin," with three successive sufSxes), was not at 
first a specially thin membrane : " film-bursting " 
was hernia. Bishop Hall used film for tongue. 
Filst, assistance, wa,aful-last, where/uHa connected 
with follow. Filler was a piece of felt: "tents 
made of black filter" : the verb came from the 
alchemists. Filth, filihij, formerly often meant 
only "dirt, dirty, soiled," without any implica- 
tion of disgust : down to the eighteenth century 
ic was used for " mean, dishonourdble," whence 
" filthy lucre." Finality (1.541), " an end in 
view" : the slips then jump to the Reform Bill of 
183.3 as a final measure, and "Finality John 
(Russell)." finuMft' was (1) ending; (2) settlement 
with a creditor ; (3) payment of a debt, a ransom, 
a stock of goods ; (4) money, "give their finance 
to usury " ; (5) interest, "borrowing at finance " ; 
(6) taxa'ion ; (7) sources of income ; (8) public 
money, and the management of it. Fine was (1) an 
end, purpose ; in law, a fee paid on change of 
tenancy, a piyment made to escape from punish- 
ment, then a pecuniary mulct. Fine, adj., in 
addition to the senses of Fi. fin, developed other 
senses corresponding to those used as the Fr. beau, 
with the curious result that it meant both small 
and big. Fine, verb, to end, had a perfect /omc = 
" ended." — Mr. Bradley was thanked for his 
report and his invaluable services to the Dictionary. 

MiCBOScopicAL. — [Annual Meeting, Wednesday, 
Jan. 16.) 

A. D. Michael, Esci., president, in the chair. — 
After the report had been read, the president 
delivered the annual address on "The History 
of the Royal Microscopical Society." He 
said that if any of his hearers would leave that 
West-end abode of science, and journey eastward 
to Tower-hill, and thence by Sparrow-corner along 
Royal Mint-street, he would find himself in Cable- 
street, St. George's-in-the-East, not a very quiet 
or a very clean locality ; turning down Shorter- 
street, he would emerge opposite a space of green, 
where once stood the Danish Church, with its royal 
closet reserved for the use of the King of Denmark 
when visiting this coi: ntry . The space is surrounded 
by houses which have seen better days ; and among 
them, between a pickle factory and a brewery, stands 
a rather dilapidated erection, which is oO.Wellclose- 
square, where, in 1839, lived Edwin J. Quekett, 
professor of botany at the London Hospital ; and 
there, on September 3 of that year, seventeen 
gentlemen assembled " to take into consideration 
the propriety of forming a society for the pro- 
motion of microscopical investigation and for the 
introduction and improvement of the microscope 
as a scientific in.strument." Among the seventeen 
were N. B. Ward (the inventor of the Wardian- 
case, which is not only an ornament to town houses, 
but was the means of introducing the tea-plant 
into Assam and the chinchona into India, and 
who became treasurer of the society), Bowerbauk 



Lister (who has been called the creator of the 
modem microscope). Dr. Farre, Dr. George Jack- 
son, the Rev. J. B. Reade, and the enterprising 
and scientific nurseryman, George Loddigea. Most 
of these subsequently became presidents of the 
society. A public meeting was held on December 
20, 1839, at the rooms of the Horticultural Society, 
then at 21, Regent-street, when the "Micro- 
scopical Society of London " was formally started 
Prof. Richard Owen (not Sir Richard at that time) 
took the chair, and became the first president ; and 
shortly after the famous John Quekett became secre- 
tary, an ofSce which he held almost to his death. 
At that moment, Schleiden, in Germany, was com- 
menting upon the paucity of British microscopical 
research, and attributing it to the want of efficient 
instruments, not knowing that a society was then 
forming which was to raise British microscopes to 
probably the first position in the world. The 
president then traced the history of the society, 
through the presidencies of Dr. Lindley (the 
botanist), Thos. Bell (the zoologist), Dr. Bower- 
bank. George Busk, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Lankester, 
W. Kitchen Parker, all deceased, and of others 
ec(ually famous who are still living; and showed 
how under Its infiuence and by its assistance the 
vast improvements in the microscope, and the 
enormous extension of its use, had gradually arisen. 
He also described its connexion with the origin of 
the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, the 
Monthly Microscopical Journal, and other publica- 
tions, besides its own present widely circulated 
Journal, with its exhaustive summary of microscopi- 
cal and biological work. He related how, on John 
Qttekett's death, certain memberc subscribed to pur- 
chase for the society's collection a curious micro- 
scope which Quekett possessed and which had beou 
made by the celebra*ed Benjimin Martin about 
1770, probably for George 111. ; and how they 
extended their subscription so as to provide a 
medal to be called "the Quekett Medal," to be 
given from time to time to eminent microscopists ; 
and how, difficulties having arisen, it happened 
that the only Quekett medal ever awarded was 
given to Sir John Lubbock. Finally, the president 
considered the future of the microscope and the 
prospects of further improvements. He said that 
many people were of opinion that the instrument 
is now perfect, and that consequently the moat 
important raison d'etre of the society was over. 
He by no means agreed in that view : he believed 
that there was as much scope for progress in the 
future as there had been in the past. It was not 
by any means the first time this idea had been put 
forward. In 1829, Dr. Goring, then a great 
authority on the subject, wrote in one of his 
published works: " Microscopes are now placed 
completely on a level with telescopes, and, like 
them, must remain stationary iu their construc- 
tion." In 1830, less than a year after, appeared 
Lister's epoch-making paper on "The Improve- 
ment of Achromatic Compound Microscopes," and 
we have been improving ever since. 

Enoush Goethe Society. — [Friday, Jan. 18.) 

Dr. Coupland in the chair. — Dr. John G. 
Robertson read a paper on " The Modem German 
Drama." Reviewing the development of the 
German drama as a whole, he pointed out that, 
although German literature was defective in the 
mass of its dramatic productions, this was com- 
pensated for by a remarkable richness in dramatic 
forms. The essential preparations for the present 
revival of the drama were to be sought in the work 
of Wagner and the Duke of Meiuingeu. To these 
two men the German theatre owed its preseLt 
supremacy as an institution for the production of 
the dramatic masterpieces of literature. Taking 
the winter of 1889-90, whenSademann's " Ehre " 
and Hauptmann's " Vor Sonnenauf gang " were 
produced, as the starting-point of the new move- 
ment. Dr. Robertson proceeded to discuss the work 
of Voss, Wildenbruch, Sudemann, Hauptminn, 
and Fulda. In concluaion, he pointed out that 
the contemporary German drama, full of promise 
as it was, still awaited the advent of a great poet 
worthy to take Grillparzer's place, and carry on 
the traditions of the higher poetic drama. — A 
discussion followed, in which Dr. Thorne, Mr. 
Hermann Meyer, Dr. Oswald, and Mr. Maorosty 
took part. 



86 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 26, 1895.— No. 1186. 



FINE ART. 

OLD MASTERS AT THE ROYAL 
ACADEMY. 



As regards early Netherlandish and German 
art, but particularly the former, Gallery IV., 
which i», as a rule, so fuU of interest, must be 
pronounced disappointing. The so-called 
"Portrait of Charles the Bold, Duke of 
Burgundy" (Mr. Robert Jackson), attributed 
to Roger Van der Weyden, is probably of 
Flemish - Burgundian origin. It closely 
resembles in style a portrait attributed to 
the same great Fleming in the Accademia of 
Venice, but is less fine, less precise in model- 
ling, than this last-named work. The paintings 
of Hans Holbein the elder are such rarities in 
England that we hail with interest the appear- 
ance hereof the large panel, "The Death of 
the Virgin in the Presence of the Apostles " 
(Dr. J. P. Richter). Those who are acquainted 
with the series of Passion pictures by the 
Augsburg master in the Munich, Donau- 
Eschingen, and Frankfort galleries respec- 
tively, will not for a moment doubt the 
correctness of the ascription in the present 
case. Here, as in many of the Munich panels, 
Holbein rings the changes with remarkable 
skill on that not easily manageable colour, 
cerulean blue. From the same collection 
comes an exceptional and curious work, 
" Scenes from the Novella of Ginevra degli 
Almieri and Antonio ^RDndinelli," evidently 
painted by a German artist belonging to the 
first half of the sixteenth century, but by whom 
it has hitherto been impossible to discover. 
The execution, especially in the nearly nude 
figure of the resuscitated Ginevra, is of 
an enamel-like smoothness and delicacy. The 
selection of such a subject of pure Florentine 
romance as this by a German of the sixteenth 
century is in itself a singularity, to which it 
would be hard to produce a parallel. A 
■uperb example of the Cologne master, Bar- 
tholomivus Bruyn, painted before he had 
become perfunctory and monotonous, and 
while ho still showed the influence of the 
Meiiier del Todes der Maria, is the "Portrait 
of a Man" (Mr. George Salting), The 
modelling is surprisingly good, the character- 
isation almost as fine as that of Holbein. A 
worthy pendant to this is the "Portrait of a 
M'in," by Christopher Amberger, of Augsburg 
(same collection). More interesting Antonio 
Moros have been seen on these walls than the 
carefully modelled, well-preserved " Portrait 
of Sir Thomas Gresham " (Sir A. W. Neeld). 
From a purely technical point of view it would 
be difficult to imagine a finer Rubens than the 

freat "Holy Family" (Duke of Devonshire), 
t takes its place among a comparatively 
limited number of large canvases entirely from 
the master's own hand, both the figures and 
the beautiful peep of landscape being here 
unmistakably his. The figures are arranged 
with unusual elegance and moderation, the 
colouring, with all its splendid warmth and 
depth, is not hot ; for the whole picture 
is wrapped in that tone peculiar to Rubens, 
which Eugene Fromontin so happily calls 
his " brun argentt;." The great ^tar-piece 
is. however, as empty as it is splendid — as void 
of any deeper feeling or intention as are some 
of the most perfect works of Andrea senza 
errore himself. Rubens could exhibit an over- 
mastering passion in such tremendous pages of 
sacred art as the " Elevation of the Cross," the 
infinitely pathetic " Death of St. Francis," and 
the less universally known "St. Francis 
receiving the Stigmata," in the Cologne 
Museum. He could not, however, throw hun- 
self body and soul into such a ' ' Sacred Con- 
versation " as this, where a mystic calm must 



replace that passion expressed by action in 
which the master revels. The vast " Ixion and 
Juno " (Duke of Devonshire) is both coldly and 
coarsely conceived ; and the frigid, smooth 
execution, in which the hand of a pupil may bo 
traced, does nothing to raise the level of the 
work. It is purely decorative, and even as 
such certainly noc of the highest quality. 
These over-smooth textures and bluish shadows 
are such as we find in the great "Last Judg- 
ment" of the Alte Pinakothek at Munich, and 
in the much-discussed "Neptvme" of the 
Berlin Gallery. By far the noblest example of 
the Antwerp master now at Burlington House 
is the sketch, " The Triumphant 'Entry of Henry 
IV. into Paris after the Battle of Ivry" (Earl 
of Darnley). The sweeping, onward move- 
ment of the procession, like the resistless 
torrent of a great river, is wonderfully 
given. Rubens is here still haunted by the 
great "Triumphs" of Mantegna, which at an 
earlier period he had such rare opportunities 
of studying and copying when he sojourned in 
the city of the Gonzagas. The great original, 
for which this is the finished design, hangs, 
with its companion, "The Battle of Ivry," in 
the Sala della Niobe of the Uffizi. These im- 
mense canvases, in which, unfinished and more- 
over darkened by time as they are, the true 
genius of Rubens still expresses itself with 
unquenchable fire, hang almost unheeded in 
the great, cold room whither the inferior Roman 
copies of the famous Niobe pediment attract so 
many visitors. Van Dyck appears a true 
Fleming and a true pupil of his master in a 
large canvas, "Time Clipping the Wings of 
Love " (Sir J. E. Millais), which is impor- 
tant, as ilhistrating a well-defined phase of 
Sir Anthony's practice in Antwerp, without 
being in the highest degree attractive. The 
allegory, which would admit of the highest 
treatment, is here realised in the trivial, super- 
ficial fashion in which such things were treated 
in the seventeenth century. Yet we must not 
make Van Dyck wholly responsible for the 
pictorial sins of the time in which he lived. 
The body and limbs of the fat, struggling 
Cupid whom old Time so ruthlessly, so dis- 
respectfully, clips are admirably drawn and 
modelled. This composition is also known 
in other smaller examples, of which Sir J. E. 
Millais's picture is no doubt the first original. 
There is no more important work by Jacob 
Jordaens in England than the " Portrait 
Group" (Duke of Devonshire). Composition 
there is none, conventional or other, in this 
vast canvas, which includes, without binding 
them together, the likeness of a pompous, 
handsomely dressed gentleman, who aggres- 
sively, with hand on hip, faces the spectator, 
and that of a stout, good-natured lady, seated, 
more comfortably than gracefully, to his right, 
and contented evidently to play the second 
rfde. There is no resisting the power, the 
bonhomie, the intense vitality of the delineation, 
although it has not anything like the charm 
of Jordaens's "Family Group" at Madrid. 
Rubens's contemporary is, above all, a master 
of chiaroscuro, and this originality in the treat- 
ment of light is well shown in another example 
here — the "Man and Woman with a Parrot" 
(Earl of Darnley). The works of Jordaens 
have not, until quite recently, commanded 
their real value in the picture- market ; and it is, 
under such circumstances, the more astonishing 
that nothing of his should as yet have found 
its way into the National Gallery. The vast 
" Chateau of the Painter," by Teniers (Duke 
of Westminster), like a few other huge can- 
vases from the hand of this wonderful 
executant, is an example rather of his limita- 
tions than of his qualities. The silvery character 
of his tone, the charm of his exquisitely sure 
touch, almost disappear on this exaggerated 
scale. 
We have already hinted that the group of 



Rembrandts from Grosvenor House is one of 
the great attractions of the exhibition. No 
better example could be desired of his audacity 
in re-casting the well-woru sacred themes than 
' ' The Salutation " (1640). And yet audacity is 
not the right word ; for Rembrandt, using his 
creative power with absolute and unquestioning 
simplicity, is conscious of no daring or over- 
stepping of boundaries in the matter. Who 
else would have ventured to depict the cential 
group as he has here done — to show the fresh, 
girlish Virgin, imperfectly understanding as yet 
the joyful news hinted at, and meeting the 
reverential gaza of St. Elizabeth with one 
almost of incredulity ? The picture belongs to 
a class of which the quaint " Christ and the Mag- 
dalen " of Buckingham Palace (1038) and the 
wonderful " Woman taken in Adultery " in the 
National Gallery (1644) are prominent instances. 
No more magnificent examples of Rembrandt's 
early maturity, of the golden-brown atmos- 
phere which distinguishes .his manner in the 
forties, could be desired than the companion 
portraits, dated 1643, called here "Gentleman 
with a Hawk" and " Lady with a Fan." In- 
tensity of characterisation has not been sought 
for in this i^instince, but intensity of physical 
life is perfectly conveyed. The " Falconer," 
with his flowing golden locks, rendered with 
such magical ease and softness, has a more 
refined charm than as a rule marks Rembrandt's 
portraits of young men. As a picture, however, 
the "Lady with a Fan," who so strongly re- 
sembles Saskia, without being Saskia herself, 
surpasses her consort. This portrait has not the 
charm or the distinction of the almost contem- 
porary " Femme a I'Eventail " at Buckingham 
Palace; but, judgedfromthetechnical standpoint, 
it at least equals it. It is a little disconcerting 
to find works belonging to the year 1647, so cold 
in the lights, so black in the shadows, as are 
these pendant bust-portraits of the painter Claes 
Berchem and his wife. They are, nevertheless, 
singularly fresh and direct character-studies, 
rendered with almost the vitality of Frans 
Hals, but also with a penetration to which he 
made no pretention. How can the happy 
owners of these five great Rembrandts put 
forward as from the master's hand the trivially 
pretty, characterless little panel, "Portrait of 
Rembrandt dressed as a Soldier " ? Not only 
must it be excluded from his ceuvre, but it must 
even be doubted whether it can be by a painter 
of his immediate folio wing or developed under his 
immediate influence. Again, the ascription of the 
" Landscape " (Duke of Westminster) to Rem- 
brandt and Teniers at once excites distrust. la 
the first place, the combination of the two 
painters, if not impossible, is in the highest 
degree improbable. The figures are, in fact, by 
Teniers, though not quite in his usual manner ; 
and it would, therefore, be much more natural 
to look among Flemish painters for the author 
of the landscape, seeing that it is too fat in 
touch to be by Teniers himself. Effective as it 
is, with its rich sunset hues and facile 
execution, it is not nearly fine enough in 
imagination or realisation to be by Rem- 
brandt. A curious puzzle— and one well 
worthy of solution on account of the excellence 
of the work involved — is provided by the 
anonymous "Portrait of a Lady" (Mr. Chas. 
Butler). All one can say at present with any 
certainty is that it is the work of a Nether- 
lander, painting early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and influenced by Italian — specifically 
Venetian — art, while retaining, nevertheless, in 
a modified form, the national feeling and the 
national characteristics. Even more interest- 
ing than the face is the superb costume, its 
sombre richness enlivened with the fitful play 
of light on the rich stuffs. Van der Heist is 
not seen at his best in the faithful, but clumsy 
and not very lifelike, " Family Group" (Lady 
Wallace), which is signed, and bears the date 
1654. Carefully modelled as are the figures, 



Jah, 26, 1895.— No. 1186.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



87 



the general effect is one of flatness and airless- 
ness; and the picture but iU compares with 
similar family groups by Rembrandt, Frans 
Hals, Van der Heist himself, or the Fleming 
Comelis de Vos. A great curiosity, again, if 
not exactly a fine picture, is the life-size half- 
length " Portrait of Sefiora Alcida van 
Wassenaar {sic)," attributed to Gerard Terburg. 
We cannot at the moment call to mind any 
other life-size portrait by this master — the 
subtlest and most refined of all the Dutch 
colourists. In its merits, as in its defects, the 
picture seems to us, however, to justify the 
ascription. There is something tentative and 
unsatisfactory in both the conception and execu- 
tion, which would be easily accounted for were 
the painter to be imagined as working on a 
scale unusual to him. On the other hand, the 
luminous grey tones of the flesh, the brilliant 
painting of the costume, the peculiar bloom- 
like crimson tint of the hangings, are all quite 
in Teiburg's manner. Of unusual excellence 
for its author is the " Old Woman reading by 
Candle-Light," by Godtried Sohalken (Lord 
Houghton). The drawing is finer, the 
characterisation truer, the imitation of Gerard 
Dou is less close than usual. By W. C. 
Dnyster, a pupil of Picter Codde, and allied, 
too, in style to Ducq, is the strongly self- 
assertive "Cavalier and Lady" (Mr. Henry 
J. PfuDgst) ; by the side of which the two 
characteristic " Conversation Pieces " of Dirk 
Hals (Mr. William Agnew) look flat. Gabriel 
Metsu's " Lady Writing a Letter " (Lady 
Wallace) is more dramatic in intention than 
such genre-pieces usually are, the perturbed 
expression of the jealous cavalier who leans 
over the lady being finely rendered. It is in 
the style most popular with Metsu's admirers 
among connoisseurs and collectors. If nothing 
special is said on the present occasion about the 
landscapes by Van Goyen, Albert Cuyp, Jacob 
van Rujsdael, and Aart van der Veer, about 
the sea-pieces by Willem van de Velde, about 
the genre-pieces by Gerard Dou and Adrian 
van Ostade, it is not that the exhibition docs not 
contain tine works by these familiar masters, but 
that so little that is new remains to be said about 
them, or, at any rate, about their works. 
Not that these, with all their monotony 
of subject, are really in themselves monotonous, 
but that a detailed description of them must 
be tedious to the reader. If that beautiful 
example of Philips Wouverman, " The Horse 
Fair" (Duke of Westminster), is unusually 
interesting, it is because, while preserving the 
charm of his cloudy sky and landscape en- 
wrapped in a delicate, diaphanous vapour, he 
has more or less concentrated into a com- 
position his conventional figures, instead of 
scattering them in his usual aggravating 
fashion, eo as to puzzle and disconcert the 
eye. No finer Paul Potter exists than the Duke 
of Westminster's "Landscape," signed and 
dated 1647. It is literally bathed in sunlight : 
the veiy moment of the afternoon is marked 
by the direction of the light, the long shadows 
on the grass, and the action of the lady who 
appears in the middle-distance, holding a fan 
sideways so as to shield her eyes from the 
almost horizontal beams. Another pure gem 
of Dutch art in its most delicate and poetic 
phrase ia "A Calm," by Jan van de Capelle 
(Mr. James Knowles). With an extreme 
accuracy in the delineation of the shipping, 
not usual with this master, and such as we 
associate rather with Willem van do Velde, is 
combined an exquisite, pearl-like delicacy of 
grey tone, and a subtle sense of values, which 
the last-named artist never possessed. It 
would hardly to possible to surpass the beauty 
of the sky, with its huge, calm clouds of a 
luminous grey, which, like a mantle loosened, 
seem to be slipping into the quiet sea. 

ClAUDE PU1IXIP3, 



NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Mh. G. AiTcnisoN, A.E.A., professor of archi- 
tecture in the Eoyal Academy, will commence 
on Monday next a course of six lectures on 
"The Advancement of Architecture," in con- 
tinuation of his lectures of last year. 

The following exhibitions will open next 
week : a collection of water-colour drawings 
of Egypt and Venice, by Mr. A. N. Eoussoff, 
at the Pine Art Society's ; and a collection of 
sketches and pochades, taken in Egypt, China, 
Japan, and Corea, by Mr. A. H. Savage Landor, 
at the Grosvenor Club. 

Mr. George Salting has presented to the 
National Gallery a picture by Domenico Becoa- 
fumi, representing an architectural subject 
with figures. The following pictures have been 
purchased for the national collection: "The 
Interior of the Rotunda at Ranelagh," by 
Antonio Canaletto ; " The Entombment of Oar 
Lord, with the Virgin, St. John, and St. 
Joseph of Arimathaea," and with portraits 
below in small of the donor and his famUy, by 
Hans Baldung Grim ; a small predella picture 
of the Baptism of Our Lord, by Pietro Perugino ; 
a view at Southampton, by R. H. Lancaster. 

TuE late Earl of Orford has bequeathed to 
the Trustees of tbe National Portrait Gallery a 
picture of the Old Pretender and his Sister, 
painted by Largilliere. 

TuE fourth annual meeting of the Ex Libris 
Society will be held on Wednesday next at 
the Westminster Palace Hotel, Victoria-street. 
As usual, there is to be an exhibition — open 
during the afternoon, and again in the evening 
— of book-plates of all ages and countries, and 
of books, engravings, and MSS. relating to 
heraldry and genealogy. Wo notice that the 
council recommend that the entrance fee be 
henceforth raised from 28. lid. to lOs. Gd. ; and 
also that dealers in second-hand bock-ijlates 
be eligible as members "on the unanimous 
vote of the council." 

M. G. Maspero has been elected president 
of the Acadumie des Inscriptions for the cur- 
rent year, in succession to M, Paul Meyer. 

The exhibitions of the Institute of Painters 
in Oil Colours and of the Royal Society of 
British Artists will be opened to-morrow to 
persons showing tickets of the Sunday Society. 
We may add that Mr. Herbert Freeman has 
been appointed assistant secretary of this 
society, while Mr. Mark H. Judge will con- 
tinue to give his services as honorary secretary. 

On Saturday last, at the inaugural meeting 
of the Art Society of the Battersea Polytechnic, 
Miss HopeRea lectured on " The Interdepen- 
dence of the Great Arts." Mr. Lewis Day 
presided, and in his speech following the lec- 
ture gave the young students much practical 
and helpful advice as to the right attitude to 
adopt with regard to art. 



MUSIC. 

RECENT CONCERTS. 

M. M. DiKMER, the French pianist, . played 
Saint-Saens' clever and showy Concerto at the 
fifth London Symphony Concert on Thursday, 
JaBuary 17. His reading generally was 
sympathetic, and his technique excellent ; the 
principal theme, however, of the last movement 
was given out too much in sledge-hammer 
style. M. Diumor afterwards performed some 
short solos with great charm and refinement : 
he achieved a brilliant and well-deserved 
success. Among pianists of the day he takes 
high rank. The programme included Mozart's 
Symphony in E flat, one of the three master- 



pieces which that composer wrote in 1788. 
The performance, under the direction of Mr. 
Henschel, was a fine one. The concert opened 
with Brahms' noble "Tragic" Overture (Op. 
81). The programme-book, by the way, stated 
that, apart from short notices in dictionaries of 
biography, the only work which students have at 
their disposal is Dr. Deiters' Johannes Brahma : 
a Biographical Sketch. But lately, Mr. J. A. 
FuUer-Maitland devoted about a third of his 
"Masters of German Music " to the composer ; 
and still more recently the same theme occupied 
the attention of Mr. W. H. Hadow in his 
Studies in Modern Music. Why were these not 
mentioned ? 

The Quartet in F (Op. 17, No. 3) of 
Rubinstein, after the forced delay of one 
week, was given on Monday at the Popular 
Concert. At the time at which it was written, 
the composer was under the influence of Schu- 
mann and Mendelssohn, more especially the 
latter. The music is clever and attractive; yet tfce 
first two movements, an Allegro moderato, and 
an Allegro virtually a Scheizo, have no strongly 
marked individuality. In the Adagio, on the 
other hand, the composer has something of 
importance to say, and the music produces a 
strong impression : it has dejith and distinction. 
The lively Finale is not lacking in humour, 
though it is neither so light as Ilaydn'p, 
nor so caustic as Beethoven's. The work was 
admirably interpreted under the leadership of 
Lady Halle. Mdlle. Ilona Eibenschi'itz played 
Bach's "French Overture," or rather a large 
portion of it. It seemed a pity that two or thr( e 
movements, occupying but a few minutes in 
performance, should be omitted, especially as 
time was found for an encore : what Bach 
joined together ought not to be set asunder by 
pianists. Then, again, the work was announced 
as if it were to be given in its entirety ; 
only those who were acquainted with the music, 
or who by chance read the programme-book, 
could know that omissions were made. It may be 
said that the matter is unimportant, but all the 
more reason for looking after it; things of 
greater importance will look after themselves. 
Miss Eibenschi'itz' performance was neat as to 
technique ; but the reading at times was rough, 
and the tempi frequently too fast. Mr. Norman 
Salmond gave a vigorous rendering of " O 
Ruddier than the Cherry." Mr. Bird's piano- 
forte accompaniment was clean and crisp. 

J. S. SnEDlOCK. 



MUSIC NOTES. 



Tub Eugene Oudin Memorial Concert will 
be given at St. James's Hall on Monday, 
February '?.o. The number of distinguished 
artists who have offered their services affords as 
strong proof of the high estimation in which 
Mr. Oudin was held. The proceeds of the con- 
cert will be invested, and held in trust for the 
benefit of the three young children who are 
now fatherless. Mme. Albani stands at the 
head of the lady, and Mr. E. Lloyd of the 
gentlemen, vocalists ; while the names of the 
veteran pianist, Sir C. HallO, and his ' 
wife stand chief among those of the instru- 
mentalists. 

A CONCERT was given last Tuesday, at St. 
James's Hall, for the benefit of the Invalid 
Children's Aid Association. The inclemency of 
the weather probably explains the comparatively 
small audience : it is to be hoped that the 
amount obtained for the association will be as 
large as the concert was long. 

We have to record the death from tjphoid 
fever, on January 22, of Mr. Edward Salomon, 
the popular composer of music for comic opera. 
Ho was only in the fortieth jear of his age, 
and is said to have left a number of pieces not 
yet performed. 



B8 



THE ACADEMY. 



[;^AN. 26, 1895.— No. 1186. 



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A WEEKLY REVIEW OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE. AND ART. 



No. 1187 
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SECOND EDITION. 

CHARLES BRADLAUGH : a Record of his Life and Work. 

By his DauRhter, UYPATIA BRADLAUGH BONNER. With nn Account of hia 

Parliamentary Struggle, bi« PoUtics, and his Attitude to ReHgion, by JOHN M. 

ROBERTSON. 2 Photogravures and 8 other Illustrations, 2 vols., demy 8vo, cloth, 21s. 

•* Mrs. Bradlaugh-Bonner has not only successfully defended her father's memory, but 

has reared to that memory a worthy record She has managed to convey a living picture 

of her father Will find it a wide circle of eager readers." — Itatt]/ Chronicle, 

*' His daughter's biography is his not unbefitting monument." — Baity yews. 



"THE JEFFKRIES OP THE TROPICS.' 



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THE STORY OF THE NATIONS. 

About 400 pp. each, bound in cloth, and with many 
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A List of the Volumes :— 1. Rome, by A. OILMAN, M.A. 2. The Jews, by Prof. J. E. 
HOSMER. 3. Germany, by Rev. S. B. GOULD. M.A. i. Carthage, by Prof. A. J. CUUROH, 
M.A. 5. Alexander's Empire, by J. P. MAUAFFY, D.D. 6. The Moors in Snain, by 
STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 7. Ancient Egy]''. hy Prof. G. RAWLINSON. 8. Hungary, 
by Prof. A. VAMBBRY. 9. The Saracens, bv A. OILMAN, M.A. 10. Irelani", by Hon, B. 
LAWLESS. 11. Chaklea, bvZ. A. RAGOZIN. 12. The Goths, by H. BRADLEY. 1). 
Assyria, by Z. A. RAGOZIN. 11. Tnrkey, by S. LANE-1'OOLE. 1), Ho laid, by Prof. 
J.E. THOROLD ROGERS. 10. Mcdifcval Fiance, by G. MASSON. 17. Persia, by S. G. W. 
BENJAMIN. 18. Phoenicia, by Prof. G. RAWLINSON. 10. Media, by Z. A. RAGOZIN. 
20. The Hansa Towns, by HELEN ZIMMER^f. 21. Early Britain, by Prof. A. J. CHURCH. 
22. The Barbary Corsairs, by S. LANE-POOLE. '23. Russia, by W. R. MORFILl,, M.A. 
24. Jews imder the Romans, by W. D. MORRISON. 25. Scotland, by J. MACKINTOSH, 
LL.D. 26. Switzerland, bv L. HUG and R. STEAD. 27. Mexico, by S. HALL. 28. 
Portugal, by IL M. STEPHENS. 29. The Normans, by S. O. JE WET'1\ 30. Byzantine 
Empire, by C. W. C. OMAN. 31. Sicily, by Prof. B. A. FREEMAN. 32. Tuscan Republics, 
by BELLA DUFFY. 33. Poland, by \f. R. MORFILL. 34. Parthia, by Prof. G. RAW- 
LINSON. 35. Australian Commonwealth, by S. TREGARTHBN. 36. Spain, by H. E. 
WATTS. 37. Jaraii, by D. MURRAY, Ph.D. 38. South Africa, by S. M. THEAL. 3l». 
Venice, by A. WIEL. 40. Crusades, by T. A. ARCHER and C. L. KINGSFORD. 

Volume 40, recently puUisheiJ, 

The Story of the Latin 
Kingdom of Jerusalem. 

T. A. AR€BER and CDAS. L. HDt(;.SFORD. 

THE ACADEMY on some former Volumes. 
POLAND. 

" It is interesting aud entertaining. ... It aboumls with curious and often 
recondite information. ... It aims— not unsuccessfully- in popnlarising a some- 
what difficult subject." 

SICILY. 

" The reader will himself be dull who finds the book other than very intei-csllng," 

THE JEWS UNDER ROMAN RULE. 



THE CRUSADES : 



WITH MANY PORTRAITS AND AUTOGRAPHS. 

GOOD READING, About Many Books. By their Authors. 

Demy 12ino, pap«r, Is. net ; cloth, 2a. net. 
In IhiK bii . liine alxint thirty proniincnt Authors tell, each in hia own way, the mauncr 
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By Sir EDWIN ARNOLD. 

THE PASSING OF MUHAMMAD 

Prophet of Arabia. 

T!y Sir K7>WTN AliXOLP . 

See the CENTURY MAGAZINE for February, price Is. 4d. 



' A very sober aud judicioxia account of a tlifficnlt and aomewhat irritating' portion 
of history. . . . The whole of the work deserveB high commendalion." 

EARLY BRITAIN. 

" Some oE the more difficult problems of our history are treated with judgment aud 
accuracy." 

PHCENIOIA. 

" A popular history of Phtcnicia was unquestionably needed ; and the want ia 
admirably supplied in tlie volume by Professor Rawlinson, which displays a thorough 
knowledge of the subject." 

PERSIA. 

'* Mr. Benjamin can-ies into hia rotiremont a larger kiiowledgG ot that empire than 
IB posaesscrt bj any other citicen^of the United Btates." 

MEDIAEVAL FRANCE. 

"The style is remarkably attractive, and free from any trace of foreign idiom. 
. . . The selection of material is skilfxU. , , , One of the most interesting works 
ot the series to which it belongs." 

HOLLAND. 

" It is remarkably vigorous and spirited. ... Is well worth reading.' 

ASSYRIA. 

" A colicient and pictur«»qne narrative." 

THE SARACENS. 

" The mortt readable and complcto account of Saracen hidtory that has hitherto 
appeared in a volume of the same size.'* 

ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE. 

"llohas tokUlie story with marked sticcco^. . . . Reads as eatily as a novel." 

THE JEWS UNDER ROMAN LAW. 

" Interesting reading and alive with vabmbie rejection. 

THE ACADEMY on -THE CRUSADES." 

"The book startles the reader into pleasure and interest. It is admirably 
and connectedly written, an astonishing triumph, when one reads the names 
of two authors on the title-page. . . . The style is that of one writer, well 
skilled in English ; the story Is clearly told, as if a single and c:ever rommcist 
were responsible for the narrative. The book, again, is one ot a series that has 
not been very successful. Indeed, Mr. Bradley's volume on tie Goths has been, 
up to now, the only real success attained in this well-meant, but abortive, 
attempt to compress history into blocks of four hundred pages. 

.^Mi'fHiy, January 2G. 



London: T. FISHER UNWIX, Paterxoster SQifAUK, E.G. 



90 



THE ACADEMY. 



[^EB. 2, 1895.— No. 118?. 



TABLB OF C0NTEMT8. Tiat 

JoH5 A«.l>i»Qt)» 8t«io»b», by W11.LUM S«.v»F . . M 

Two BoO«0!tTH»N»TV,byJVD0l0'COXS0»M0liK19 06 

LoiD STtitaiDcx OK Ian Kibr»«s Qci»tio», by 

Anaci Aesold ''' 

THiGiLCaiiar EiicCAtI0»itE«P0ii»,by I'rof.FoBTEB 

WlTMW "" 

Niw NoTiu, by William Wiluci . . . . W 

CLkifictLBooxa '"** 

NoTia kSD News J*' 

Orioisai. Vkhi : " Portr»it of Anton Herkomcr," by 

ilin L. D01011.1. *"- 

0«iTOAir: Jo«itO'N«iLi,byF.T. M 1-2 

Uaoaiisis avd Ritibwb 1*' 

Sehctid FoEiios BooES 103 

COEBKaPOXDKXCE— _ .« ,. 

.4 /Vr»«..n( iWic (>/■ £ii(*«r,by W. G. Thorpe ; Tlu Aew 
Suriae (Jotp-lt, by the Rcv. R. H. Charles, F. C. 
Conybesre, »nd G. H. Skipwith j Tke. Ba* of Mid. 
twj, by the Rcv. U. J. Lftwior ; TVu Uv-jt^l 0/ nitr, 

by Mrs. (iibson jJ'J 

AppoixTME.iTS roE Neit Week IJ* 

T«i SEniAoijiT, by Prof. Sakdat 10« 

UllTl'AET : Prof. CaILET JO' 

SciEXCE Notes }0S 

PHII.OLO0ICAI. Books Jjg 

KEroRTS or Societies . . . • • ,• • 108 
OlivMasteis at the Rotal Academy, III., by Claude 

Phillips 109 

Notes ox Art akd AECHAEOLOor 110 

Copper's " Poor la Cmironnc," bj' Cecil Nicholsoit . 110 
Becext CoKCEEis, by J. S. Shedloce . . . .111 

Ucsic Notes Ill 

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" rrilMES," 59 vols., half bound, Januarja 

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EL8H INTEEMEDIATE EDUCA- 
TION. 

Tlie Moutgonter^-shire County Cktveruiiig Body is prepared to appoint 
a HEAD MISTRESS of the Girls' Intermediatv County School. 
Newtown, at % salary of £IVO per annum, with a capltatloo fee of ti. 

Candidates must be gnulttat«s uf s<>me Cnivt-ntiiy in the Unit«d 
Kingdom, or liare paned lueh University Examinations u In tbt oaie 
of a man would have qualified (or a degree, and have been trmined or 
had experience as a Teacher. .... 

Thirty printed ooplee of the testimonials and of the letter of appli- 
cation, the latter stating the candidate's age and qualifications, io be 
sent in not later than the 23nl of February, to the undersigned, from 
whom copies of the County Scheme, price dd.. and other information 
can ba obtained. Q- I>. Harrison, 

^______ Welshpool. 



B 



ETHESDA COUNTY SCHOOL- 



APPOINTMENT OF HEADMASTER. 

The County Ooreming Body of Camanonshlre i« prepared t* 
apiwint a HIsADMASTER for the a!>ove school. 

Salary £l2ii fixed, and a capitation fee at the rate of 11 per annum 
for cacli pupil in the school. Estin»;ite<l salary for the first vear S.'iiQ. 

The school will be a dual school for \my» and glrU, and the instruc- 
tion will coobist mainly of mathematics and modern subjectn. Candi- 
dates must be graduates, or have some c^iuivalent <iualificatious. 

Fifty printed copies of applications and testimonials (recent) should 
be received by the oudersigned, on or before Fcbruarj- 25th. 

J. U. BonVEL-llOHEBTS, 

Cler k of tbo Peace, C a marron . 

i:>ANGOR COUNTY SCHOOL for 

XJ tJIRLS. 

APPOINTMENT OF HEADMISTRESS. 

The County Governing Body of Cnroarvonshirc is prepared to 
appoint a HEADMISTRESS for the above school. 

The Salary will consist of a fixed stipend of £12<t a vcar, and a capi* 
tatiou fee of not loss than £1 IDs. a year for each giil in the school. 
Probable salary for first year is estimated at £180. Candidates must 
be graduates of some University in the United Kiuijdom or tiie 
Briti()h Possessions, or must i>o»scss c<iuivaU-nt qualifications. 

Duties to commence in April. 

Fifty printed cojdes of applications and testimonials (recent) should 
be received by uuuersigucu, on or before February 25th. 

J. H. BunVEL-RoHERTS, 

Clerk of the Peace, CaniRrron. 

HE UNIVERSITY of ST. ANDREWS 

GRAHTS TUB 

DIPLOMA and TITLE of L.L.A. to WOMEN. 

The Subjects of Examination may bo selected from any seven out of 
thirty different subjects, the standard, being the same as that for the 
M.A. Degree. The centres of examiuationare St. Andrews, Aberdeen, 
Bedford, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Cheltenham, Cork, 
Dublin, Dumfries, Edinburgh, Inverness, Leeds, Leicester, LivenK>ol, 
Lindon, Loughborough, Manchester, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Paisley, 
Truro, Ac. 

For Prospjctua, Ac, apply to the Sboretart, L.L.A. Scheme, the 
Oniversity, St, Andrews, N.6 ^ 



QUEEN'S PARK, OSWESTRY, SALOP; 
—Mr. JOHN EVANS. M.A in Double High Honours, Firs* 
PriKeman and Gold Medallist in Applied Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy (Ediu). RECEIVES YOUTHS and YOUNG MEN for 
Special Individual Instruction. Rare experience .ind marked success ; 
University Scholarships ; Professional Preliminaries ; a Second at the 
Civil Service Examination; Loudon Matriculation invariably First 
Division, Ac, &c. Refereuces to parents, among the Clergy, Gentry, 
and Professionals Terms mo<lerate. ^ 

ELTHAM COLLEGE, KENT. 
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95 



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No. i 187, New Series. 

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LITERATURE. 

John Addington Symonds. A Biography. 
Compiled and edited by Horatio F. 
Brown. With Portraits and other Illus- 
trations. In 2 Vols. (Nimmo.) 

It is difficult for any one who knew John 
Addington Symonds to write critically about 
this biography, due to the zealous expedi- 
tion as well as the conscientious thorough- 
ness of his literary trustee and friend of 
twenty years' standing, Mr. Horatio F. 
Brown. Symonds was one of the most 
lovable of men : brave in his outlook, 
courageous in the face of adverse and often 
disastrous circumstances, youthfully en- 
thusiastic and enthusiastically youthful, 
generous, a nature of sweet human sun- 
shine. Even casual acquaintances were wont 
to admit the charm of his personality, the 
grace and distinction of his conversation, 
the alertness of his spirit, his swift respon- 
siveness and sympathy. He was a scholar 
in the best sense of the word : a man of 
catholic culture. There has, in our time, 
been no mind more sensitive to beauty, and 
that not only in one or even in two, but in 
all the arts — in nature to an exceptional 
degree, and in human life and human 
nature to a degree still rarer. In a word, 
Symonds was in several essential respects 
fitted to be a great writer, and certainly a 
great critic. He had a warm heart, an 
eager brain, an exquisite sensibility : his 
critical insight was often extraordinarily 
keen : and with an innate capacity for 
severe analysis he combined a trained 
synthetical faculty, which made him, poten- 
tially, one of the surest and brightest 
beacons in contemporary literature. 

Why, then, does not his name stand 
higher than it does? Why, too, is it so 
difficult to criticise this biography 'i 

Let me say at once that Mr. Symonds 
was neurotic to an extent bordering on 
actual obsession. The curse of his tempera- 
ment joined hands with the curse of his 
bodily weakness : he was, from his super- 
sensitive bojhood to his supersensitive 
maturity, the victim of this alliance. If ho 
were a painter, it might be said of him that 
lie saw colours one or more gradations 
above their true values. In sculpture, 
his contours and lines would exceed 
the anatomical golden mean. In the 
craft of words, skilled artificer as he was, 
he seldom suspended his labour in order to 
perfect his achievement. He began his 
thinking life in untimely, if not (as they 
certainly soon befame) unhealthy broodings : 
he brooded darkly as a youth, darklier as a 
man in the prime of early maturity, and 
more and more sombrely as years brought i 



no surcease to his intellectual cravings for a 
measure of distinction beyond his reach, or 
to his spiritual yearnings for some happy 
surety for the soul. But other men have 
suffered in this way, and yet the creative 
fire in them has sometimes even burned the 
brighter. Symonds admired the poetry of 
the author of The City of Dreadful Night. 
He believed himself a brother in sorrow. 
Yet his life had its golden opportunities, its 
halcyon interludes, its happy relationships 
and interests, its honourable success ; while 
that of James Thompson was an almost 
unbroken procession of gloom, sorrow, 
despondency, despair, and disaster. The 
melancholia of the poet was irremedi- 
able. As I heard him say once, he 
inhaled the " sorrow of things " with every 
breath, from the moment he came into the 
world : and if ever the stars in their courses 
fought against any human being, it was in 
the instance of that unhappiest of the 
servants of song. But with Symonds it is 
different. We realise that he fed this evil 
spirit : that he pampered it, till it became, 
first, a companion, then an inalienable ally, 
and at last a tyrant. The weakness of his 
nature was its supersensitiveness on the one 
hand, its passion for introspection on the 
other. When he was visited at Davos by 
Robert Louis Stevenson, he asked his guest 
what was the dizziest height he had ever 
climbed to : what, in all his experience, had 
made him most fearful. Stevenson replied 
(I quote only from tradition) : 

' ' The pfiddiest height I ever climbed was 
Mount Ego. I reached the summit and looked 
down. I have never got over that dismal 
purview. I scrambled down again igno- 
miniously, and went and idled in a sunny 
place, and swore that except as a sleepwalker I 
would never again peer over that crest." 

Then, after a silence, he added significantly, 
' ' I wouldn't advise anylody to do it. Some 
day one would overreach oneself, and topple 
in." " And then," asked Symonds eagerly ? 
" Oh, then there would be the devil to 
pay." Stevenson had a great liking for 
Symonds, but he recognised the weakness in 
his friend. He knew that the brilliant 
historian-critic-poet was of those who are 
always on the way to several havens, but 
never find safe anchorage at last in any. 
If Symonds had been more fortunately 
influenced in his youth, and if his passion 
for introspection had been diverted into other 
channels of analytical enquiry: if, in a word, 
he had been more of the Oxford don (a 
creature he disliked) and less of the o'er- 
reaching poet, he would have been happier 
as a man, and, as a writer, would probably 
have concentrated his remarkable powers 
in a much narrower but a more durable 
life-work. As it was, he had to meet 
innumerable physical trials, sore discourage- 
ments, and painful half-successes ; but he 
enhanced the evil of these by his inability 
to let sleeping dogs lie. Were he de- 
pressed, he would take to his journal, or to 
intimate letter- writing : and woes con- 
jectured straightway became woes of present 
sovereign moment. He indulged in the 
foolish habit of an autopsychical journal. 
He diagnosed his spiritual condition oftener 
than his mental state (which needed it 



more), and both, oftener than his bodily t (■nie««jon." 



health, where the secret of his ills lay. Let 
no young writer follow suit! This habit 
of spilling upon paper all the overflow of 
brooding egoism is deplorable from every 
point of view, even that of practice in 
intimate writing. When the disease concurs 
with so self-conscious a temperament as 
that of Symonds, the result is sure to bo 
wearisome to all save the infatuated scribe. 
Symonds' endless flow of words, through 
these " journal " and correspondence con- 
duits, is amazing. He suffered from weak 
eyes, weak digestion, insomnia, and a score of 
intermittent ills, besides his lung- complaint, 
and heroically got through an amount of 
work enough to have exhausted the ener- 
gies of far robuster men. Yet through all 
this, and often when unfit to do any literary 
work at all, he would write " screeds " about 
his negations, and spiritual adversities, and 
the evil days that beset him. If those in- 
terminable diaries had never been written, 
what a reserve of strength he would have 
had ! If he had sojourned less in the slough 
of despondency, content to skirt it with a 
wary eye, he would have been a happier 
and stronger man, as well as one better 
equipped for a sore struggle. 

As for the biography, or rather the auto- 
biography — for to all intents that is what 
this book is, an autobiography adapted and 
otherwise edited by Mr. Horatio Brown — • 
this much must be said at once, that it is a 
fascinating record. In a sense it is Symonds's 
chief work. His Sistory of the Renaissance 
is the chronicle of a mighty movement ; this 
book is the faithful chronicle of a human 
being : and the humbler thing is ever so 
much the more difficult to do. But, after all, 
is it a faithful chronicle? It is all true, 
unquestionably, so far as it goes. But 
Symonds loved to ignore, as well as to paint 
in dark colours ; and even here the internal 
evidence goes to show that he has not given 
enough "relief" to his self-portraiture. 
Mr. Brown has followed his cue. He gives 
us far more of the suffering, craving, yearn- 
ing Symonds than of the blithe, brave, 
" comrade of the sun " that he was, not less 
often. I admit that if I had not known ' 
Mr. Symonds I should be biassed against 
him by this biography. It would be im- 
possible not to admire much in him — his 
fortitude, his perseverance, his buoyant 
hope and energy ; but there is much else 
beside that is merely morbid, sometimes 
painfully, occasionally repellenfly so. In 
this respect I cannot think that Mr. Brown 
has writ all so intimate a friend might have 
done. One spring, about twelve years ago, 
I saw a fair amount of Mr. Symonds in 
Venice. I recollect one day in particular, 
some hours of which we spent on the Lido, 
for the most part recumbent on Ihe dunes 
overlooking the Adriatic, smoking and 
chatting. One remark that was made by 
my companion is apposite here. 
" I have suffered a good deal in many ways, 
but I would go through it all again, or worse. 
For, after all, I have had more happy days 
than millions of men and women have of hours. 
And if a man has had'some days of real happi- 
ness in his life, he shojild thank God that he 
has lived to know them. For myself, I am 
really a happy man, and was built for Joy, It is 
my own fault that I have stultified my Creator's 



96 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Feb. 2, 1895.— No. 1187. 



A chapter would have sufficed, in the 
«eoond volume, for Symonda' spiritual 
cravines. After all, he is simply one of a 
myriad. His is the common heritage. We 
are all heirs to the sorrow of the soul. It 
would surely have been better to give U8 
more of his forceful life : more, too, of his 
relationship with other potent or interest- 
ing personalities. He knew many such, 
from the Master of Balliol to the latest 
wanderer Parnassus- way. Some of his letters 
to men like Stevenson, Eoden Noel, and 
to several living aiithors, would be welcome, 
in place of many of the monotonous brood- 
ings which take up so much space. His 
name is often mentioned with that of a still 
more distinguished though less widely read 
writer upon art — art in its broader and 
nobler sense ; but no two men were more 
unlike each other than John Addington 
Symonds and Walter Pater. Somewhere, 
in one of these volumes (for this biography 
is without an index, which it sorely needs), 
somewhere, Symonds says of a book by 
his fellow Oxonian, Marim the Epicurean. 
I think, that he cannot get on with it, " as 
Pater's style aSects me like a civet-cat." 
The inappreciativeness was reciprocated. In 
truth, there was even less likeness between 
the late fellow of Brasenose and the late 
fellow of Magdalen than between the 
writings of Walter Pater and those of 
John Addington Symonds. 

Probably many readers of this book will 
find the Oxford portion the most interesting. 
Some of the anecdotes ot " dear Jowett " are 
delightful. Symonds, at any rate, was ever 
a devout and loyal worshipper of the 
great man, and would have resented the 
saying of the plucked and indignant 
American undergraduate, " Oh, the lovely, 
smiling, old sham ! " It is difficult to see, 
however, where Jowett's influence on 
Symonds was so good as he believed it 
to be. 

It is pleasantest to think of this really 
fascinating if in some respects dis- 
appointing book, as the record of a singu- 
larly fine spirit. It is best to forget the 
morbid self-torturings, and to remember the 
strength of purpose, the valour, and the 
dauntless energy. But while we accept it as 
a remarkable contribution to the literature 
of self -revelation, we must bear in mind that 
self-portraiture, even as reflected in a con- 
genial mind, almost invariably lacks pro- 
portion. I am not of those who think that 
John Addington Symonds has depicted him- 
self, or criticised his work in literature, with 
scientific exactitude. Neither he nor Mr. 
Brown has used all the colours on the 
palette. Some day, his friends will hope, 
there may be a supplementary volume in a 
lighter vain — a volume of anecdote, of 
blithe record of travel and experience, of 
correspondence with the elect of his com- 
radeship. Not the least winsome and 
moving writing in the present work is the 
appended chapter by Miss Margaret 
Symonds. If she, with the help of that 
devoted and high-mir^^id companion of 
Symonds's joys and n.^uy vicissitudes, who 
so happily sustained and influenced him 
throughout the arduous years of his 
maturity, were to give a more intimate 



good fellow and most able and charming 
writer, whose memory is kept green by so 
many of us, a worthy and pleasant deed 
would be done. 

A word, finally, as to the format of these 
volumes. They are handsome tomes : beauti- 
fully printed, with large type and spacious 
margins. The illustrations, too, are good 
— particularly a fine etched portrait of 
Symonds. Unqualified praise, indeed, 
would be the meed of the publisher, it only 
he had refrained from sending out such a 
work without an index. A biographical 
book less an index is dishonoured and 
without dignity, and is in the case of the 
fox that was sent abroad into the world 
without a tail. 

William Suaep. 



TWO BOOKS ON THE NAVV. 

Britaiti't Naval Power. By Hamilton 

Williams. (Macmillans.) 
The British Fleet. By Oomminder 0. M. 

Eobinson, E.N. (Bell.) 

These volumes may be noticed together. 
They are evidence of the increasing interest 
England feels in all that relates to the 
navy. The first work is from the pen of 
Mr. Hamilton Williams, the accomplished 
instructor of the training school of naval 
cadets on H.M.S. Britannia. It is some- 
what wanting in breadth and iosight, and 
in philosophic views ot the subject, and it 
is not without narrow British prej udices : 
for instance, it hardly alludes to SufErein, 
the illustrious French precursor of Nelson ; 
and it repeats the exploded falsehood that 
Napoleon plotted the assassination of Sir 
Sidney Smith. It reflects, also, the false 
doctrines of a school of shallow writers, who 
have contended that what they call our 
"supremacy at sea " makes the defence of 
England absolutely safe, and that no second 
line of defence is needed — a doctrine 
thoroughly condemned by Wellington, and, 
quite lately, by Lord Wolseley. But it is 
an excellent abridgment of our naval his- 
tory, from the earliest times to the great 
day of Trafalgar ; it would be a valuable 
text-book for young students ; it woul