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Full text of "Academy and Literature"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/academyliteratur53londuoft 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACADEMY,-! 
July a, 1B08. J 




A 



THE ACADEMY. 



A WEEKLY REVIEW OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, 

AND ART. 



J A N U A R Y — JUNE, 
1898. 



jA^ 

» 



Volume LIII. 



PUBLISHING OFFICE: 43, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, W.C. 

18 9 8. 



rSUPPLKMENT TO THE ACADEMY. 
L July 9, 1808. 



1 if 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY ALEXANDER AND 8HEPHEARD, 

LONSDALE BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, W.C. 



SUPPIiBMBNT TO THE ACADHMT,"! 
July 0, 1898. J 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME LIII. 



LITERATURE. 



KEVIEWS. 

PACK 

Adamson's (Dr. Williara) Life o/ihe Rev. 

James Morison^ D.I) 442 

Addleshaw's (Percy) selectioa of /'oenw of 

the Hon. Hwlen Xoel 193 

Adie &. "Wood's Agrimltural Chemistry ... 64 
Akerman'8 (AViUiam) Rip Van Winkle ... 194 
Allen's (A. G. V.) Christian Institutions... 228 

(Grant) Historical Guides mt 

Allen &: McClure's Two Ilnwlred Years: 

The Ilistor// of the Society for Promoting 

Christian Knotoleiige 674 

Ambroise's VEstoire de la Saints Guerre 367 

Auinuil.% All About 10 

Arch, Joseph: the Story of His Life Told 

hif Himself " 113 

Archer's (William) The Theatriml World 

f>/1897 SOS 

Architectural Itevieiv, The -468 

Armstrong's (Arthur Coles) A Tale from 

lioccnccio 194 

Astnip's (Eivii^) With Peary near the 

Pole ... 493 

Atkinson's (A. G. B.) St. Botolph, Ald- 

gnte 2&4 

Atlay's (J. B.) The Trial of Lord Cochr- 

rane before Lord Ellenhorough 200 

Auden's (H. "W.) Cicero Pro Flancio ... 72 
Audubon's (Maria R.) Awlubon and His 

Journals 364 

Austen's (Jane) Northanger Abbey and 

I'ersufision 148 

liahingtotty Charles Cardale^ Memorials, 

J immal, and Correspondence of 172 

Ball's (John) The Alpine Guide: The 

WeMern Alps 630 

BanxTe's (Albert) New Grammatical 

Frriich Course 71 

Battye's (Aubyn Trevor) A Northern 

l/if/ktvay of the Tsar 574 

Beazley's (C. Kaymond) John and 

Sebastian Cabot 600 

Becke'a (Louis) Wild Life in Southern 

Seas 91 

Bell's (Mackenzie) Christina Rossetti ... 88 
(Robert Fitzroy) Murray of 

IJrou'jhton\s Memorials 619 

Bennett's (E. A.) Journalism for Women 518 
Bent's (Hamley) translation of Prince 

Henri d'Orleans' Frmn T'jukin to India 
Berenson's (Bemhard) The Central Italian 

Painters of the R una i. -usance 

Betham-Ed wards' 8 (M.) edition of The 

Autobiography of Arthur I'oung 

Reminiscences .. 



27 



30 



Biart's (L.) Quandfvtals Petit 

Bible, A Dictionary of the 467 

Students, Aids to. By various 

Authors .. 546 

Bigg's (C. H. W.) First Principles of 
Electriiity and M'ignetism 64 

Binyon's (Laurence) Porphyrion: and 
Other Poems 440 

Bishop's (Mrs.) Korea 144 

Black's G n ides to Scotlajid^ Cornwall, 
Devonshire, Surrey, Brighton, Bourne- 
mouthy Matlock, Buxton ... 631 

Blackburn's (Vernon) The Fringe of an 
Art 620 

Blanchan's (Neltje) Bird X^-ighbours ... U21 

Boas'rt (Mrs. I'ledcrick) English History 
for Childrt-n 28^4 

Bodley ' k (John Edward Courtenay ) 
France 221 



REVIEWS— con^inMfid. 

PAGE 

Bo^'a (Edmund) Two Thousand MU^s of 

Wandering in the Border Country, Lake- 
land, and Ribblesdale 254 

Boielle's (J.) edition of Biart's Qunnd 

fetais Petit 70 

Bond's (Catherine) GoUljiei<ls and Chry~ 

santhemums 346 

(R. "Warwick) Another Sheaf 3i>0 

Boole's (Mary E.) The Mathematical I^y^ 

r.hology of Gratry and Boole 66 

Borland's (Robert) Border Raids and 

Reivers ;^06 

Bradshaw's (B.) edition of A Dictionary 

of Bathing Places 632 

Brandes' (Geoi^e) William S/takespeare : 

a Crilicil Study 339 

Briggs & Bryan's The Tutorial Trigo~ 

nometry 64 

Browning's (Oscar) Peter the GreMt 89 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett^ The Poetical 

Works of 117 

Bryce's (lS"of.) Impressions of South Africa 51 
Buchheim's (Dr. C. A.) selection of 

Heine's Lieder und Gedichte 120 

Bucke'B (R. M.) edition of "Walt "Whit- 
man's The Wound-Dresser 542 

Bull " ApostMicir, Cune," A Vimlication of 

the 413 

Burns, Robert, and Mrs. Dunlop... 437 

Bumside's (H. M.) Drift Weed 194 

Burton's (Sir Richard F.) The Jew, the. 

Gypsy, and el Islam 438 

Butcher's (8. H.) Aristotle^s Theory of 

Poetry and Fine Art 120 

Butler, William John, Life and Letters of... 9 
Butler's (A. J.) translations of Ratzel's 

History of Mankind 50 

Byrne's (Mrs. "W. Pitt) Social Hours with 

Celebrities 251 

Caine's (Rev. Caesar) edition of Hir T. 

"Widdrington's Amtlecta Eboracnsia .„ 30 
Cameron's (D. A.) Egypt in the Nineteenth 

Ctntury 442 

Cainac's (Levin) translation of Daudet's 

The Hope of the Family 675 

Can-'.s (J. A.) The Life Work of Edward 

White Benson, D.D 367 

CaiTuthers's (G. T.) The Ancient Use of 

Greek Accents 200 

Carter's (A, C!. R.) The Year's Musir^ 

1898 ... 254 

GasseWs Family Lmwyer, By a Barrister- 

at-Law - ;W2 

Complete Pocket-Guide to Europe 634 

Catesby: a Tragedy 200 

" Century Science " Series 254 

Chjipmjin's (George) tninslation of Tfte 

Iliads of Homer 468 

Cheetham's (Canon S.) The Mysteries, 

Pigan and Christian . 117 

Child's (Fnincis James) edition of English 

and Scottish Popidar Ballads 514 

Churchill's (Lieut. W. L. Spencer) The 

Story of the Malakand Field Force 344 

CLii'k's (Andrew) edition of ** Brief Lives,''* 

Set down by John Aubrey ;-JK7 

(Rev. A.) Lincoln 416 

Clarke's (H, Butler) The Cid Campeador 19H 
Clerical Life^ The •' a Series o/ Letters to 

Ministers Ill) 

CUil'oi-d'w (Hugh) Studies in Brvum 

Humanity 441 

Coast Trips of Qreat ^ritah^ The 63^1 



REVIEWS— C(m««««d. 

PAOE 

Cobbett's (J. M.) Ephemera 193 

Coleridge's (Ernest Hartley) edition of 

The Poetry of Lord Byron 489 

Collections and Recollections. By One who 

ha.s Kept a Diary 656 

Colmore's (G.) Points of View, and Other 

Poems 442 

Conn's (H. "W.) The Story of Germ Life ... 65 
Corbett's (Julian S.) Drake and the Tudor 

Navy 415 

Cowper's (H. S.) The Hill of the Graces ... 28;^ 

Ci'OOKaU's (Rev. L.) British Guiatia 657 

Cundjill's (James) Every-Day Book of 

Natural History : Animals and Plants ... 2;34 
Curry's (Charles E.) Theory of Electricity 

and Magnetism 64 

Cui-tis's (Carlton C.) Text-Book of General 

Botany 65 

Cycling a45 

DakjTis's (H, G.) translation of The 

Works of Xenophon ... 71 

Dallas & Porter's edition of 'The Note- 
Book of Tristram Risdon 30 

D'Annunzio's (Gabriele) The Triumph of 

Death 141 

Darlii^ton's Shilling Guide Books 633 

Dai-mesteter's (Mme. James) A Mediaeval 

Garland 53 

Daudet's (Alphoase) The Hope of the 

Family 675 

Davis's (Richard Harding) A Year from 

a Correspondent' s Note-Book 199 

Davison's (Dr. W. T.) The Christian In- 
terpretation of Life, and Other Essays ... 600 

Deafcin's (Rupert) Euclid 64 

Deamier's (Hev. Percy) Religious Pamphlets 546 

Deas's (Lizzie) Mower Favourites 624 

Decle's (Lionel) 2'eree i'ears in Savage 

Africa 3<J8 

De JuUeville's (L. Petit) Ilistoire de la 

Langue rt de la Litterature Fran';aise ... 71 
Denton's (Getfraie) translation of Certain 

Tragical Discourses of Bandello 368 ' 

De "Windt's (Harry) Through the Gold 

Fields of Alaska to Bering Straits 223 

Dickens's (Charles) To be Read at Duskf 

and Other Stories, dc 281 

Dillmann's (Dr. A.) Genesis Critically arid 

Exegetically Expounded 117 

Dobbs's (W. J.) Elementary Geometrical 

Statics 64 

Dobson's (Austin) William Hogarth ... 171 

Donne's (W. B.) Euripides 72 

(B. J. M.) Colloquy and Song ... 653 

D'Orleans's (Prince Henri) From Tonkin 

to India by the Sources of the Irnwadi .. 27 
Dougljis's (Ilf>bert \AxasUm.) edition of 
Fenton's translation of Certain Tragical 

Discourses of Bandello 3<>8 

Doyle's (A. Conan) Songs of Action 65;J 

Drummond's (Pi*of. Hcnrj') The Ideal 

Life, and Other Unpublish&l Addresses.,. 114 
Duff's (Sir M. Grant) Notes f rem a Diary, 

, 1873-1881 341 

Duffy's (Sir Charles Gavan) Mt/ Life in 

Two Hemispheres 568 

Dunn's (Ssira H.) Sunny Memories of an 

Indian Winter ... 282 

Edw ards's (O. M. ) edition of The Anabasis 

of Xenophon, Book III. 72 

Ellis's (Havclock) AJirmations 22*j 

(William Asijton) translation of 

Richard Wai/ner*a Pirose Works ,., ... 567 



RE VIE WS— con^inwai. 

FAOR 

Ely Cathedral Handbook 634 

England's (Geoi^e) edition of The Towneley 

Plays 305 

" PjUropcjin Literature, Periods of" ... 366 
Evans tic Fearenside'a England Under the 

Later Hanoverians 69 

Evans's (E. P.) Evolutional Ethics and 

Animal Psychology 392 

Fairbanks's (Arthur) The First Philo- 
sophers of Greece 573 

" Famous Scots " Series 87 

Farrar's (Frederic W.) Allegories 171 

Fei'gusson's (Robert) Scots Poems 658 

Field's (Annie) edition of Harriet Beecher 

HUnyG* A Life and Letters ... ... 169 

Fincham's (Henry W.) The Artists and 
Engravers of British ami American Book- 
Plates 283 

Fiske's (John) Old Virginia and Her 

Neighbours 4 

Fletcher's (J. S.) The Making of Matthias 10 

Fogazzaro's (Antcmio) Poesie Scelte 670 

Forbes's (Archibald) The Life of Napo- 
leon III. 389 

Foster's (Vere) edition of The Two 

Duchesses 225 

Foster & Sherrington's Text-book of 

Phi/sioloqy 66 

Fowler's (J. K.) Records of Old Times ... 520 

(J. H.) XlX.-Century Prose ... 6<> 

Frankland'« Pasteur 254 

Frazer's (J. G.) translation of Pausanias's 

Description of Greece 363 

(R. W.) Literary History of India 365 

Fronde's (Jam<;s Anthony) Shadows of the 

Clouds 78 

Fullor's (Anna) Pratt Portraits 3(» 

"Fur, Feather, and Fin Series " 493 

Galton's (Arthur) Two E-fsays upon 

Matthew Arnold, &c 10 

Gane's (Douglas M.) The Building of the 

Intellect 69 

Gamett'a (Richard) History of Italian 

Literature 513 

Gathome-Hardy's (Hon. A. E.) The 

Salmon 493 

Genealogical Magazine, The ■- 658 

Gerard's (Frances) Picturesque Dublin, OUl 

and New 120 

Gesterfeld's(Ui-sulaN.) The Breath of Life 604 

Giffen's (George) With Bat and Ball 309 

Gilbert's (W. S.) The Bab Ballads 2(J 

Gissing's (Ge<Ji^e) Charles Dickens 280 

Glovers (uidy) Life of Sir John Hnwley 

Glover, R.N. 253 

Godkin's (Edwin lAwrence) Unforeseen 

Trndcnci^s of Democracy 676 

Golschmann'ii (LOon) I'he Adventures of 

a Siberian Cub 10 

Goodwin, Royce, & Putnam's Historic 

Xexo York 845 

Gordon's (H. Laing) Sir James Y. 

Simpson 7 

(Sir Charles Alexander) Recol- 
lect inns of Thirty-nine Years in the Army T 



Gore's (Canon Charles) St. PauVs Epistle 
to thf E phi- si a US 

Gorse's (F.) Mi'lon's Paradise Lost . 

Graham's (Jean Carlyle) The Child of the 
Bondwoman, and Other Verses 

Grahame's (R. B. Cunninghame) The 
Canon: an Exposition of the Ptgan 
' Myaiery perpetuated in th* CabuUi .., 



I>46 
70 
) 

194 



... 1UI> 



IV 



CONTENTS OF VOL. LIII. 



LBUPPLEMKNT TO THE ACADEMT, 
July 9, 1898. 



REVlEWS-tfon^trtUcd. 

PAOE 

Graves & Luc w'e Thr n'nro/Ihe JVenuses 253 
Graves's (Arnold) Prince I'atnck: a Fairy 

Tate.., 619 

Green's (G. B.) Xotcs on Greek and Latin 

Syntax "2 

Glory's (Lady) edition of Mr. Gregory's 

LetUr-Box -"^^ 

Griffiths's (William) TrinJoyiieji 345 

Orinling's (Charlea H.) History of the 

Great A'orthcnt Uailwoy 346 

Oroeart'B (A. B.) Hohert Fergi/sson 87 

edition of The Tragical 

Heign of SeJinus 228 

Gross's (Prof. Charles) Bibliography of 

British Mimkipol History 148 

Guide Book Supplement (>'-2^ 

Gumey's (Alfred) Love's Fruition 193 

Hadden's (J. Cuthbert) George Thomson, 

the Friend of Burns 227 

Hall*s (F. W.) The Fourth Verrine of 

Cicero ^^2 

Halliday's (George) Steom Boilers 61 

Hamerton's (Philip Gilbert) The Quest of 

Happiness 170 

Hammerton's (J. A.) lihymes of IronquUL 193 
"Handbook to Christian and Ecclesi- 
astical Home 54 

Hatidbook/or Travd'ers in Scothntd 629 

- for Travellers in Surrey 629 

of Travel Talk 629 

Hannay's (David) The Lni^r Renaissance SGti 
Hai^ood's (Xorman) Literary Statesmen^ 

and Others 52, 676 

Harbutt's (W. M.) HarhvtCs Plastic 

Method, and the Use of Pliistiane 69 

Harcourt's (L. V.) An Eton Bildinyraphy 346 
Harding's (Georgina) translation of 

D'Annunzio's ^ViKm/)^ o/"i)ca^A 141 

Hardy & Bacon's The Stamp Collector ... 391 
Harland's (Marion) Some Colonial Home- 
steads and their Stories 468 

Harman's (Edward Geoi^e) Poems from 

Horace, Catullus, and Sappho, d;c 147 

Harris's (Mary Dormes) Life in an Old 

Eiiylitth Town 624 

Harrison's (W. Jerome) Text-hook of 

Geology 65 

Harte's (Bret) Some Later Verses 653 

Harting'H (J. E,) Hints on the Management 

of Hawks, and PractiaU Falconry 368 

Hastin^'s (Dr. James) Dictionary of the 

Bible 467 

Hauptmann's (Gerhart) Versunkene Glocke 400 
Hay's (Alfi-ed) The Principles of Alternate 

Current Working 64 

(Admiral Sir John C. Dalrymple) 

Lines from jny Loq-Books 494 

Hazen's (Charlee Downes) Contemporary 

AvMrtcan Opinion of tlie French Jlevo- 

lution 412 

Heath's (FrancLs George) The Fern World 316 
Heawood's (Edward) (ieugrnphg of Africa 66 
Heckethom's (t harles William) The 

Printers of Haste, in the Fifteenth and 

Sixteenth Centurits 307 

Henley's (William Ernest) Poems 249 

& Stevenson's Macaire 343 

"Heroesof the Nations" 198 

Hodgson's (John Crawford) Hexkamshire 494 
Holding's (T. H ) CycU and Camp ... ... 680 

Hommel'H (Dr. Fritz) The Ancient Hebrew 

Tradition 306 

Hopkins's (Tighe) The Dungeons of Paris 90 
Homer's (8u*an} Greek Vases: Historical 

and Descriptive 69 

Eousman'd (Laurence) Spikenard: a Book 

of Devotional Love Poems 252 

Hudson's (W. H.) Birds in London 62:^ 

Hugo's (Victor) Hernani 343 

Humane Science Lectures. By various 

Authors 65 

Hume's (Martin A. 8.) Philip II. of 

Spain 28 

Hutchinson's (J. R.) The liomance of a 

Begiment ... .. 678 

Hutton'8 (W. H.) Mary Powell and 

Deborah"!* Diarg 1(1 

Huj^smans' (J. K.) I^^i CathHrale 196 

" International Theological Library " ... 228 

" Bc'ientillc Scries " ' 228 

Ining's (Laurence) Godefroi and Yolande ;W3 

• (H. B.) TheLifeof Judge Jeffreys M4 

Jtle of Man vtd Barrow-in-Furne^s and 

fynke-land (>3i 

James's (Lionel) The Indian Frontier War 314 
Jannaris's (A. N.) Historical Greek Gram- 
mar 72 

Jardine's (Alfred) The Anglet's Library: 

I'ike and Perch 254 

Jebb's (K. C.) edition of S'o/jAoc'm 71 

Jervis'fl IW, P.) Thomns Best Jervis 316 

Jt^nsoD e (Robert Underwood) Songs of 

Libtrty *.. 195 

(Clifton) The New England 

Country aJld A Book of Country, Clouds, 

and Sunshine 2.'>l 

Johnston's (Ker. James) China and For- 

Tnosa: a SucceFitfitl Minsion , 2^2 

— (I>r. John) A Visit to Walt 

Whitman 658 

J uHn, Letters from ; «-, IAght9 from the 

BorderUmi 119 

Keartoa's (Biduttd) WUh Nature and 
a Camem , ... ... 8 



REVIEWS— con^tnwed. 

PAOB 

Keltic's (J. Scott) The Statesman's Year- 
Book, imn 368 

Kemble'N (E. W.) The Blackberries and 

their Adventurer 10 

Kennedy's (Howard Angus) The Story of 

Canada 306 

Kcnyon's (F. G.) edition of The Poems of 

Bfcchylides 49 

Kirke's {Henr>-) Twenty-jive Years in 

British fr'ui'tna 657 

I^dd's (George Trumbull) Outlines of 

Descriptive, Psychology 544 

Lang's (Andrew) The Nursery Bhyme-Book 9 

The Making of Jteligion... 651 

Langbridge's (Rev. Frederick) Sent Back 



by the Angels 195 

LawlesH's (Emily) TraitJi and Confidences 308 
Leaf's (Walter) Versions from Hajiz: an 

Essay in Persian Metre 573 

Lebon's (Andre) Modern France, 1789-1895 120 
Le GiiUienne's (Richard) The Opium Eater, 

and Essays by Thomas de Qnincey 147 

Lehmann's (R. C.) i^oujiH^ 3** 

Lindsay's (W. A.) The Boyal Household... 345 

Little\i London Pleasure Guide 6;-i4 

Little's (Canon Knox) Our Churches, and 

Why tve Belong to Them 9 

Liturgy in Home, The. By H. M. and 

M. A. R.T ... 64 

London and North-Weslern Railway, 

QfficiM Guide to the 634 

Loyd's (Lady Mary) translation of New 

Letters of Napoleon 1 25 

Lucas's (Francis) Sketches of Rural Life 10 
MacDowall's (H. C.) Henry of Guise, and 

Other Portraits ... 464 

Macfarlane's (John) Library Administra- 
tion 416 

Macmillan's Elementary Latin-English Dic- 
tionary 72 

Macquoid's In the Volcanic Eifel: A Iloli- 

da,f Bamble ■ _ 634 

Manly's (John Matthews) Specimens of 

the Pre-Shakesperean Drama ... 120 

Mann'H (William) Model Drawing 66 

Markhiim & Cox's The Records of the 

Borough of Northampton 416 

Mason's (Canon Arthur James) Thomas 

Granmer . 416 

MasiMro's (Prof.) The Dawn of Civilisa- 
tion 117 

Maxwell's (Sir Herbert) The Hon. Sir 

Charles Murray, K.C.B.: A Memoir ... 516 
McCarthy's (Justin) I'he Story of Glad~ 

stone's Life 199 

McC'lure's (M. L.) translation of Mas- 

'pcr&ii Dawn of Civilisation 11" 

McDonnell's (A. C.) XlX.-Century Verse 66 
Mead's (W. E.) Selections from Sir Thomas 

Malory's Morte d* Arthur 69 

Melven's (W.) The Talisman 70 

Merewether's (F. H. S.) A Tour Through 

the Famine Districts of India 494 

Midland Railway, Official Guide to the ... 634 
MitHin's (Lloyd) At the Gates of Song: 

Sonnets 195 

Mill's (Br. H. R ) On the Clioice of Geo- 
graphical Books 68 

Millar's (H. R.) The Diamond Fairy Book 308 
Miller's (Fred.) The Training of a Crafts- 
man 69 

M'Leod's (Addison) A Window in Lin- 
coln's Inn 195 

Montagu's (Rcar-Adm. Hon. Victor) A 

Middy's Recollections 572 

Morris's (Hon. Martin) Transatlantic 

Traits 146 

(William) The Sundering Flood .. 304 

Mott's (Edwai"d Spencer) A Mingled Yarn 574 
Moulton's (Dr. R. G.) edition otEzekiel... 115 
Mozley's (John Rickjirds) A Vision of 

England, and Other Poems 194 

Muir s (John) Carlyle on Burns 10 

■ (M. M. P^ttison) A Course of 

Practical Cheniistrif 64 

(Henrv D.) 'I'oems 195 

Mullcr's (l*rof. F. Max) Auld Lang Syne . 341 

Murray's Handbooks 629 

Newbit's (E.) Songs of Love and Empire ... 281 
Neumann's (Arthur H.) Elephant Hanting 

in East Eiiuato rial Africa ,. 412 

Newdigate- Newdegute's (Lady) The 
Oheverets of Cheverel Manor ... ... ...596 

Nimrod's '/be Chase, the Road, and the 

Turf 571 

Noelt Hon. Roden, Selected Poetna from the 

Works of 193 

*' Northumberland, A Historj* of " 494 

Norway's (Arthur H.) Highways and 

Byways in Devon and Cornwall 634 

O'Brien's (Henrj-) The Round Towers of 

Ireland \. 263 

O'Donoghue's (D. J.) Life and Writings of 

James Clarence Mangan 142 

Owen's (Jean A) The Story of Hawaii ... 4fj8 

Puget's (Stephen) John Hunter 7 

Piirmor'.s (Bertha) edition of Stories from 

the GlasHii; Literature of Many Notions .. 600 

Parker's ( W. N.) translation of Wicders- 
heim's Elements of the Comparative 
Anatomy of Vertebrates 65 

^— — (T. Jefferj') Lessons in Elementarjf 
Biology ... .„ ,^, „. 65 

^— ^— (Dr. Joseph) Studies in Texts ... 516 



REVIEWS— co»<i»Med. 

Pwker's (Dr. Joseph) Christian Profiles in 

a pagan Mirror 6r>8 

Pascoli's (Giovanni) Pietnetli ... ■ ■ ■■• 570 
Patrick Ac Groonie's edition of Chambers s 

Biof/raphiail Dictionary •■ 92 

PauHJinias' Description of Greece •■Wvt 

Penny's (John) Applied Mechanics 64 

( Walter Copeland) The Women of 

Homer 391 

Pctcrs's (Dr. John Punnott) Nippur ... 465 
Petrie'H(l*rof. Flinders) Religion and Con- 
science in Ancient Egypt 251 

Phelps's (Elizabeth Stuirt) The Story of 

Jesus Christ 117 

Phillips's (Stephen) Poemi 3 

IHnero's (Arthur Wing) The Princess and 

the Rntterfly ^3 

" I*itt l*ress Series " 70 

Pollai-d, Heath. Liddell, & McCJormick's 

edition of Works of Geoffrey Chaucer ... 303 
Poor's (Agnes Blake) Boston Neighbours in 

Town and Out 600 

Power's (D'Arcy) William Harvey 7 

Prothero's (R. E.) edition of The Works 

of Lord Uqron: Letters and J on mals . 511 

Purey-Cust's (Verj- Rev. A. P.) Our ^ 

English Minsters 200 

RalliV (Augustus) Th>- Ench-mted River ... 195 
Ratzel's (Prof. Fr.) The History of Man- 
kind ... 50 

Rawlinson's (Canon George) Memoir of 
Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke 

Rawiinson 411 

Reading Gaol, The BaWid of. By C.3.3.... 2:« 
Redda way's (W. F.) The Monroe Doc- 
trine 368 

Rendall's (Dr. Gerald H.) Marcus Aurelius 

Antoninus to Himself 222 

Repplier's (Agnes) Varia 119 

Rey s (Hector) Complete Course of French 

Composition and Idioms 70 

Re\Tiold.s'8 (Sydney H.) The Vertebrate 

Skeleton 65 

(Joseph William) The Super- 
natural in Nature 117 

(Samuel llan-cy) Studies on 

Many Subjects ... 466 

Rhys'H (Ernest) Welsh Ballads ... .. 309 

Roberts's (Morley) Strong Men and True 51 

edition of Sir Thomas 

Browne's Essays 208 

(Charles G. D.) History of 

Canada 619 

Robinson's (Alexander) A Study of the 

Saviour in the Newer Light 600 

Rose's (J. Hfjlland) The Rise of Democracy 3i)7 
Ross-of-Bladunsburg's (Lieut. -Col.) The 

Coldstream Guards in the Crimea 284 

Rotherham's (Angus) The New GueM ... 467 
Rouse's (W. H. D.) edition of Pylos and 

Sphakteria, from Thirydides, Book IV ... 72 

Rutherfurd's (John) Dr. W. Moon and 

his Work for the Blind 620 

Hyan and Sandes' Under the Red Crescent 282 

Kyland's (F.) Psychology 65 

Sargent's (H. H.) The Campaign of 

Marengo 284 

Sirnizia's (Gregor) William Shakespeare's 

Lehrjahre 79 

Sayce's (Rev. A. H.) The Early History of 

the Hebrews 695 

Schenck's (Dr. Leopold) SchencWa Theory 

— The Determination of Sex 669 

Scotland, The Highlands of , in Vim 392 

Scott's (Hon. Mrs. Maxwell) The Making 

of Abbotsford 30 

Scull's (W. D.) Bad Lady Betty: a Drama 

in Three Acts 120 

Seawell's (Molly Elliot) Twelve Naval 

Captains 415 

Seiveant's (Lewis) 7'he Franks 520 

Shaba's (Dr. Brojonath) The Stylography 

of the English Language 414 

Sharp's (It. Farqunarson) Dictionary of 
English Authors 92 

translation of 

Victor Hugo's Hernani 313 

■iShaw's (Bernard) Plays: Pleasant and 
I'nplea.wnt 461, 490 

Sherif muir. The Bottle of - 2^ 



Shoemaker's (Midiael Myers) Islands of 
the Southern Seas 416 

Shuckburgh's (Evelyn 6.) History of 
Rome for Beginners 69 

— I 111 . Passages from 

Latin Authorsfor Transhtion into English 72 

Sidgwick's (Henry) Practical Ethics 145 

Bimmons's (A. T.) Physiography for Ad- 
vanced Students 65 

Simpson's (M. C. M.) Many Memories of 
Many People ... 282 

(James Young) Side Lights on 

I Siberia 391 

I Singer ic Strp-ng's Etching, Engraving, and 

I the i nil'- r Methods of Printing Pictures ... 54 

Smith's (J. Hamblin) Elementary Treatise 
on the Metric System of Weights and 
Measures 64 

Smyth's (H. Warington) Five Years in 
Siam 572 

*' Social England Series" 624 

Socialism, What is Itf By ** Scotsbum" 624 

Stacpoole's (Florence) Handbook of 
Housekeeping for Small Incomes 309 



nEYIEW B— continued, 

PAOI 

8tnrk*s Guide-book and History of British 

Guiana 657 

Starless Crown, The; and Other Poems. 

By J. L. H 195 

Statham's (H, Heathcote) Modem A rchi- 

tecture ... . 6 

(F.Reginald) Paul Kruger and 

His Times 666 

Steevens's (G. W.) Egypt in 1898 6l» 

Steinlen'sCw ^■A'/f.« - 65« 

Step's (Edward) edition of CundalPs 

Everg-Day Book of Natural History ... 251 
Stevens's (J. A.) Junior Latin Syntax ... 72 
Stevenson's (W. B.) translation of Dr. 

Ditlmann's Genesis Critically uud Exe- 

yeticnlly Expoutuled 117 

— '- — (Robert Louis) Rom/mces ... 168 

Stokes's (William) WUliam Stokes: His 

Life and Work ... 54,T 

Story's (Alfred Thomas) The Building of 

the Empire 414 

*' Story of the Nations, The " 120, 620 

'• Story of the Empire Series " 906 

Stracbey's (Lady) edition of Memoirs of 

a Highland La,ly 8|0 

Sturge's (Richard Vates) Song and Tiwught 195 
Sykcs's (EllaC.) Thro' Persia on a Side- 

Saddle 509 

Symonds & Gordon's The Story of Perugia 

MH, 633 
Tancock's (C. C) Story of the Ionic Revolt 

and J'ersian War as told by Hennlotus ... 72 
Tarr's (Ralph 8.) First Book of Physical 

Geography 66 

Tarver's (J. C.) Debateable Claims: Essays 

on Secondary Education ... 622 

Taunton's (Rev. EUieh^) The English 

Black Monks of St. Benrdirt ... 143 

Teacher's Bible,'The Illustrated ... 70 

"Temple Dramatists" .. ... 228 

Temple's (Arthur) 0»r Livinq Generals .. 680 

(Sir Richard) edition of Lady 

Glover's Life of Sir John H. Glover 253 

Tharkerai/, William Makepeace, The 

Works of 463 

Thomas*s (Rose Haig) Pan: A Collectiom 

of Ly lira I I'oems ... ... 195 

Thompson's (Silvanus P.) Light. Visible 

and Invisible 65 

— (D'j\jx:y W.) Day-Dreams of 

a Schoolmaster 677 

Thomson's (John) llirough China with a 

Camera .. ... 618 

Thornton's (John) Elementary Practical 

Physiography ... 65 

Todd's (George Eyre) edition of The Book 

of filasgow Cathedral 619 

Toilemache's (Hon. Lionel A.) Talks with 

Mr. Gladstone ... ... 621 

Tomlinson's (May) translation of Mme. 

Darmcsteter's Mediirval Garland .. ., 53 
Tout's (Prof. T. F.) History of England 

for the use of Middle Forttts in Schools ,. 615 
Townsend's (Chas. F.) Chemistry for 

Photographers 6t 

Ti-otter's (Capt. L. J,) The Life of John 

Nicholson 5 

TjTian's (Katherine) The Wind in lite 

Trees 607 

TjTidall's (M. C.) L'lys and Legends of 

England ... . 194 

TpTell's(R. Y.) edition of The Troadesof 

Euripides 

" University Tut<«rial Series " 61 

Vandeleur's (Seymour) Campaigning on 

the Upper Nile and Niger... 803 

Van Dyke's (Paul) The Age of the ! 

Ilentiscence: Eras of the Christian ('hurch 23;J 
Vaughan's (Dean) University and Ot/ier 

Sermons 680 

Verity's (A. W.) King Lear ... 70 

Shakespeare's *^ Merchant 

of Venice" 148 

Vicar8's(Sir Arthur) Index to the Prerogative 

Wills of Irelawl 172 

" Victorian Era Series " „ ... 280 

Vince's (C. A.) John Bright 14S 

Vincent's (Ralph Harr>') The Elements of 

Hypnotism ... ... 22^ 

Visge^'^! (Mrs.) The Story of Hawaii ... 464 
Vizetellv's (Alfred) translation of Zola's 

Paris 270 

Vuillier'.s .Gaston) History of Dancing ... ll-i 
Waldstein's (Dr. l,ouis) The Sub^eonacion.-i 
Self, nnd its Ji\flalion to Education and 

Health 

Wagner's (Richard) Prose Works 

Wales, The Prince of 

Walker's (Mary A.) Old Tracks and New 
Landmarks: Wayside Sketches in Crete, 
Macedonia, Mitylene, rf-c. 
AVallace's (WilUam) Robert Burns and 

Mrs. Dunlop .. 

Wallas's (Graham) Life of Fmneis Place 250 
Waller's (Augustus D.) Lectures on 

Ph'/siology . ... ... 0$ 

Walter's (W. C. F.) Hints and Helps in 
Continuous Greek Prose 73 

Ward, Lock d: Co.'s Guide Books 6ai 

Ward's (Adolphus William) Sir Henry 
WottoH ... ... 29 

Warner's (Charles Dudley) 'The People 
for Whom Shakespeare Wrote « ,.. 200 

Warren's (Herbert T.) By Severn Sea ... 198 



116 

, 567 

92 



2S2 
437 



I 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACADEMY." 
July U, 1S88. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. LIII. 



KEY l&WS— continued, 

FAOE 

■Warwick's (Countess of) edition of /^.'■"/'ft 
Arch: the Story of' His Lift told by Him- 
self '. 113 

— -^ edition of Pro- 
gress in Women^n Kdncntion 284 

■Watson's (Dr. E. W.) Sonys of Flying 
Hours 194 

Waugh'x (Arthur) Leyewls af the iVheel 368 

Way's (Arthur S.) The Tmyedits of 
Euripides^ in Knglish Verse 597 

Webb's (\V. T.) Selections from Words- 
worth 66 

(Sidney & Beatrice) Industrial 

Democracy ... 91 

Webster's (Aithur G.) The Theory of 
Elect riciti/ and Magntltsm: being Lectures 
on Mulhenuitical Phyntcs 64 

Wellbv's (Capt. M. S.) Through Unknown 
Tibet 679 

Welsh Children, Some. By the Author of 
"Frjitemity" 391 

Went's (Hev. J.) First Latin Exercises ... 72 

Wh'tf, Walter^ TheJonnuds of K 

"WTiit^'s (Henij- A.) liobert E. Lee 198 

AVbitinuu's (Walt) 2'/*e Wound-Dresser ... 542 

Widdrinj^ton's (Sir Thonuis) Analecta 
Ehoractnsia -30 

'Wiedei'sheim's (Dr. R.) Elements of the 
Conipftrative Anntomy of Vertebrates ... 65 

'Wilbeiforce'M (Canon Basil) Strmotis 
Prr.irh'-d m Westminster Abbey ... 600 

"Wilkins's (W. H.) edition of Sir B. F. 
Bui"t4)n'8 7'he Jew, the Crypsy, and el 
L^lnm 438 

Willianwon's (Dr. George C.) Portrait 
Min ill t » res 172 

Willi's Freeman) W. G. Wills, Dramatist 
tind i'oiiUer 598 

Wilson's (Thomas B.) The Handy Guide 
to Sonvay 63i 

Winbolt's (S. E.) Exercises in Latin 
Accidence 72 

Women, Famous, Little Journeys to the 
Homes of 145 

Wool man, John, The Journal of 652 

Wright k McLean's The Ecclesinstical 
History of Eusebi us in Syriac 546 

Wright's (Lewis) The Induction Coll in 
Prorliral Work 65 

Wyokoff's (Walter A.) The Workers ... 492 

Wylie's (James Hamilton) History of 
England under Henry the Fourth 468 

WjTidham's (Geoi^) edition of The Poems 

of Shakespeare 439 

Young's (Ernest) The Kingdom of the 

Yellow liobe '., ... 254 

Zang^vill's (Israel) Dreamers of the Ghetto 342 
Zola's (Kmile) Paris 279, 330 



FIOTIOIT. 

Allen's (Grant) The Incidental Bishop 
{Supp., April 30) 470 

Altsheler's {_ Joseph A.) A Soldier of Man- 
fuittnn (Supp., April 23) 444 

Anthologies in Tattle : 
Michael Braytwn (Supp., Feb. 19) ... 203 

Robert Hen-ick (Supp., March 5) 257 

Thomas Cami)ion [Supp., Apiil 16) ... TTS" 

Aphorisms and Epigrams : 
Mr. Geoi-ge Meredith {Supp., Jan, 29)... 123 
By R. L. Stevenson {Supp., Jan. 29) ... 124 

Schopenhauer {Supp., Feb. 5) 152 

Hare's Guesses at Truth {Supp., Feb. V2) 176 

Goethe (5»?)i'., Feb. 26) 232 

La BniviVe (Supp., March 12) 287 

Williitia Blake (Sup,>., April 16) 420 

Joubeil (Sujip., April 23) 446 

Testimony of the Apostles of Egoism 
(Sm;)/*., April 30) 472 

Atherton's (Gertrude) His Fortunate Grace 
(5«iy'.,Marcli26) 347 

— American Wives and 

English ffusbantls (Supp., Apiil 9) ... 394 

Author, Disappointed, Confession o£ a 
(Supp., Ajyiil 9) ... 395 

BaJrie, Mr., Two Prefaces by {Supp., 
June 4) 604 

Becky Shai-p.— After (Supp., Jan. 29) ... 124 

Benham's (Chai'les) Thi^ Fourth Xapoleon : 
a Unmnnce {Supp., Feb. 19) 201 

Bennett's ;E. A.) A Jlan from the Xorth 
(Su;j;>., March 26) 348 

BmiBon's (E. F.) The Vintage {Supp., 
Feb. 26) 2:30 

Blundell's (Mrs. Francis) Maime o* the 
Co)-ner (Supp., Jan. 8j ... 4 

Boldrewood'B (llolf) Plain Living (Supp., 
April 2' 371 

Books of To-da'j and Books of To-morrow 
{Supp., Feb. 12) .. 175 

Bonnie'a {QeoTQe) A Year's Exile {Supp., 
June 4) '. 602 

Biaddon's (M. E.) Roiigh Justice {Sapp., 
March 26) 349 



YlQriO^— continued. 

PAGE 

Brailsford's (Henry Noel) The Broom of 

the n'a/-r;(«i (5«/'/'-. March 12) ... ..". 286 
Brooke's (Emma) The. Con fession of Stephen 

Whapsharc {Supp., Feb". 12) 174 

Cable, Mr. G. w., in London {Snpj)., 

May 7) 497 

Camenin's (Mrs. Lovett) Demi's Apples 

(Supp., April 2) ,., ... 371 

Child's Guide to Literature, The New 

{Supp., Feb. 12 and May 14) . ... 175, 524 

Cobb's (Thomas) Carpet Courtship 310 

Conrad's (Joseph) The Sigger of the 

^* Narcissus" (Supp., Jan. 1) ... ... 1 

Tales of Unrest {Supp., 

April 16) . . 417 

Comfoi"d's (L. Cope) Sons of Adversity 

(S'ipp., June 18) . ... 660 

Clime's (Stephenj The Open Boat; and 

other Storirs (Snpp., May 14) 522 

Crawford, Mr. Marion, at Home {Supp., 

Feb. 26) . ... 231 

Creswicke's (Louis) Lovers Usuries {Supp , 

Jan. 1) .. ... 2 

Crtickett's (S. R.) Th^-, SUmdard Bearer 

{Supp., May 7) ... 4it6 

Crown mshield's (Mi><. Schuyler) Where 

the IVade- Wind Blows {Sup/K, May 21). 519 

Cunningham's (Sir Henry) Novels 610 

D'Arcy's (Ella) The Bishop*s Dilemma 

{Supp., June 4) ... .. 603 

David LyalVs Love-Stnry. By the Author 

of '"The Land of the 3>eal" {Supp., 

Feb. 19) ... 202 

Dawson's (A. J.) Middle Greynets {Supp., 

Jan. 29) .. ... . 123 

■ G\hCs Foundling (Supp., 

March 121 ... 286 

Dickens's (Mary Angela) Against the Tide 

(Supp.,'SlnyU) .. 523 

Dowie's (Menie Muriel) The Crook of the 

Bough [Supp., May 28) .. .. 576 

Doyle's (A. Conan} The Traf/edy of the 

**Korosko*' {^upp., Feb. 12) .. 173 

Drummond'a (Hamilton) For the Beligion 

{Supp., March 5) 256 

Dudeney's (Mrs. Henry E.) A Man with a 

Maid {Sftpp. Feb. 19) . 202 

Dunciin's (Sara Jeannette) A Voijage of 

Consolation {Supp., Ayn\^) ..' . ...895 
Dziewicki's (Micliael Henry) Entombed in 

Flesh {Supp., March 5) .. ... 257 

" Egerton's (George) " Fantasias {Supp.f ^ 

Jan. 8) 8- 

Exercise, Physical, for Winters {Supp., 

May 21) " 549 

Fiction, The Newest: Supp., Jan. 1,1: Jan. 

8, 3 ; Jan. 22, 93; Jan. 29, 121 ; Feb. 5, 149; 

Feb. 12, 173; Feb. 19, 201; Feb. 26, 229; 

Mar. 5. 2.55; Miir. 12. 285; Mar. 19,309; 

Mar. 26, 347: Ap. 2, 369; Ap. !), 393; Ap. 

16,417; Ap. 23, 443; Ap. :W, 469; May 7, 

496 ; May 14, 521 ; May 21, 547 ; May 28, 

575; Jime 4, 601; June 11, 625; June 18, 

659; June 2.o, 681. 
Fowler's (Ellen Thomeycroft) Concerning 

Isabel Cai-nahy {Supp., June 18) 661 

Francis's (M. E.) Maime o' the Corner 

(5h;)/)., Jan. 8) 4 

Fraser's (Mrs. Hugh) .1 Chapter of Acci- 
dents (Supp., April. 2) 371 

Frederic, Harold {Supp., April 2) 372 

Garland's (Hamlin) Wayside Courtships 

(Supp., J&n. 29) 123 

Oissing, Mr. Gtoi-ge, at Home {Supp., 

March 5) 258 

Glidstone and the " Dream of GeronUus " 

(Supp., Uiiyli) 524 

Gordon's (Samuel) In Years of Transition 

{Supp. Jan. 8) 4 

Gribblc's (Francis) Sunlight and Limelight 

{Supp., April 2) 870 

Hardy's (Francis H.) The Mills of God 

{Supp., Jan. 1) .. .. 2 

Harland's (Henry) Comedies and Errors 

(5"y'/>., April 16) 41S 

Henniker's (Florence) Sowing the Sand 

_(.SV;j/»., May 28) 677 

Hichens'sf Robert) Byeways (Supp.,,Ja.ii..l) 2 
.^ T'/^g Londoners (Supp., 

May 21) 648 

Higginson's (EUa) A Forest Orchid, and 

Other Stories (Supp., Jan. 1) ... ... 2 

Hooper's (J.) His Grace o' the Gunne 

(5»;);>., May 14) .523 

Hope's (Anthony) Simon Dale (Supp., 

Feb. 26) 229 

Housman's (Clemence) The Unknown Sea 

{Supp., June 4) 602 

Ibsen, A Sketch of (Supp., Mar. 26) 319 

Jepson's (Edgar) 'J'he Keepers of th: Peoplf 

{Supp., June 18) 660 

King's (K. Douglas) The Child Who Will 

ytver (>row Old .SlO 

Lie's (Jonas) Siobc {Supp., April 23) ... 444 
Locke's (William J.) Derelicts {Supp , 

Jan. 22) 04 

Lorimer's (Norma) .Josialis Wife (Supp , 

AprU2j ;i71 

" Mainly About Myself " (5u;>;>., April 2;i) 445 
Mann's (Mary E.) TU Cellar Star {Supjh, 

Feb. 19; 202 

Masson's (RosaMne) A Departure from 
Tradition (Supp., April 23) 415 



... 174 

256 
5.50 
175 

548 

'. 471 

577 



VICTION— continued. 

PA SB 

Mtister of BallantraCf The, Preface to 

{Supp., June 25) 68.3 

Maxims, A Sheaf of {Supp., May 14) ... 52;^ 
McLennan's (William) Spani.'ih John ... 626 
Meredith, Mr., and Fame {Supp., Mar. 12) 287 
Mitchell's (J. A.) Gloria i'ictis {Supp.^ 

March 26) 349 

Moore's (George) Evelyn Innes (Supp., 

June 25) 683 

Morrow's (W. C.) The Ape, the Idiotj and 

Other People {Supp. June 4) 603 

Murray's (1). Christie) 'Phis Little World 

(Supp., Feb. 12) 

Norris's (W. E.) The Fight for the Crown 

{Supp., MarchS) 

*' Number Three" {Supp., May 21) ... 
Pathos and the Tublic (Supp., Feb. 12) 
Patten's (James Blythe) Bijli the Dancer 

(Supp., May 21) 

Paj-n, James, and His Friends {Supp., 

April 30) , 

Pemberton's (Max) Kronstadt {Supp.. 

May 28) '. 

Pinkerton's (Thomas) Sun Beetles: A 

Comedy of Nickname Land {Supp.^ June 

18) 660 

Poe^, Some Living {Supp., Feb. 5) 151 

Poor Max. By the Author of * • The Yellow 

Aster" (.S"w7v>., April 2) 370 

Praed's (Mrs. Campbell) 'The Scourge-Stick 

{Supp., April!*) 395 

Publishers, The Old and the New {Supp., 

May 7) ... 498 

Pugh's (Edwin) King CHrcumstance (Supp., 

May 7) 497 

" Really a Melodrama " {S>'pp., March 26) 350 
Robertson's (lYances Forbes) The Poten- 
tate {Supp., May 7) 4i»<i 

School for Saints, The {Sfrpp., Feb. !i) .„ 150 
Scully's (William Charles) Between Sun 

and Sand {Supp., May 14) 522 

Semicolon, A Pleji for the (Supp., Feb. 26) 231 
Shaw's (Bemai-d) Plays, Pleasant and I'n- 

pleasant {Supp., April 23) 445 

Sienkiewicz's^wo rrt(7(>(5i/;)/)., Mai-ch26) 350 
Sonnets on the Sonnet {Supp., June 25)... 684 
Steuart's f John A.) The Minister of State 

{Svpp., March 26) 848 

Stockton's (Frank ll.) The Great Stone of 

Sardis {Supp., Jim. 1) 2 

The Girl at Cob- 
hurst {Supp., May 28) 676 

Stocktrm (Mr. Frank R.) At Home {Supp.f 

April 30) 471 

SutcUtfe's (Halliwell) A Man of the Moors 

{Supp., Feb. 12) ... 174 

Swift's (Benjamin) llie Destroyer {Supp., 

April 30) 470 

Thomson's (Basil.) The Indiscretions of 

Lady Asenath .t* 626 

Tour, After The (Supp., April 2) 371 

Verne, M. Jules, At Home {Supp., 

May 7) . .. .. 498 

Waite's (Victor) Cross Tnals (Supp., 

April 23) 444 

Ward's (Mrs. Humphry) Helbeck of Ban- 

ni.idale (Supp., June 25) 681 

Warraan's (Cy) 'The Express Messenger, 

and Other Tales of the Bad (Supp., 

Jitn. 1) ... 2 

Watson's (A. E. T.) Racing and ^Chasing 

{Supp., Jan. 1) ... 2 

Wells's (H. S. ) The War of the Worlds 

(Supp., Jun. -29) 121 

(David Dwight) Her Ladyship's 

Elephant (Supp., June 18) 661 

Whitby's (Beatrice) Sunset {Supp., 

Jan. 8) .. 4 

Wliitman, Walt, Chats with (Supp., 

Feb. 19) 20i 

Wilkins, Miss Mary E., At Home {Supp., 

March 26) .. ;150 

Williamson's (Mi's. C. N.) A Woman in 

Grey 626 

Wister's (Owen) Lin McLean {Supp.^ 

Jan. K) . .. 3 

Woods's (Mai^aretL.) Weeping P'eiry, 

and Other Stories (Supp.. Jan. 22) 94 

Zangwill, Mr. I. : A Sketch and Interview 

(5(7>iJ., April 16) 419 



BOOK REVIEWS REVIEWED. 

Atherton's (Gertrude) American Wives 

and Eugll.sh Husbands 429 

Benson's (E. F.) The Vintage 241 

Blackmore's (B. D.)/Afr(W 106 

Brandes' (Dr. GreQrge) William Shake- 
speare: a ' ritical Study 381 

Brooke's (Emma) The Confessioa of 

Stephen Whapshare 214 

Burnett's (Frtuaces Hodgson) His Grace 

of Osmonde 20 

Burton's (Sir Richard F.) The Jew, the 



BOOK REVIEWS REVIEWED— cow. 

PASS 

Capes's (Bernard) The Lake of Wine. ... 695 
Coleridge's (E. Hartley) edition of Byron's 

Poetry ... 645 

Conrad's (Joseph) The Nigger of the 

** Narcissus " 163 

Crane's (Stephen) The Open Boat, and 

Other Stories 694 

D'Annunzio's The Triumph of Death ... 184 
De la Pasture's (Mrs. Henry) Deborah of 

TofVs 214 

Doyle's (A Conan) The Tragedy of the 

Korosko 240 

Gilbert's (W. 8.) The Bab Ballads and 

Songs ia5 

Harland's (Henry) Comedies and Errors... 533 
Hichens's (Robert) The Londoners: An 

Absurdity 481 

Hope's (Anthony) Simon Dale 380 

Ii-vmg's (H. B.) The Life of Judge Jeffreys 694 

Locke's (William) Derelirts 42 

Meredith's (George) Lord Ormout and His 

Aminta 106 

Morris's (William) The Sundering Flood.,, 429 

Phillip's (Stephen) Poems 105 

lYothero's (Rowland E.) edition of Byron's 

Letters and Journals 646 

Rostand's (Edmond) Cyrano de Bergerac 406 
Sharp's (EyelsTi) The Making of a Prig ... 269 
Shaw's (Bernard) Plays, Pleasant and Un- 
pleasant 613 

Steel's (Flora Annie) In the Pemument 

Way, and Other Stories 162 

Stockton's (Frank) The Great Stone of 

Sardis 163 

Swift's (Benjamin) The Destroyer 670 

S\-rett's (Netta) The Tree of Life 241 

Watson's (William) 7'he Hope of the World 42 
Wells's (H. G.) The War of the Worlds ... .334 

WejTnan's (Stanley) Shrewsbury ... ... 334 

Whibley's (Charles) Studies in Frankness . 136 
Wilkins's (W. H.) edition of Burton's 

1'he Jew, the Gypsy, and el Islam 453 

Wyndhiim's (Greorge) edition of The Poems 

of Shakespeare ... 507 

Zangwill's (I.) The Dreamers of the Ghetto 406 
Zola's (Emile) Paris 297 



^ypsy, and el Islam 



453 



ABTICLEB. 

Aaideniy Awards to Authoi"s 34, 47 

Appreciative Mood, In : 

Mr. J. G. Frazer 376 

Mr. Arthur SjTnons 377 

Armchair Books : 

A Chiel among the F.B.S.'s 8 

Biirds of the Bush : 

Henry Tjiwson 424 

Edward Dyson 449 

A. B. Paterson 656 

Brcitmann, The 608 

Bridges, Mr. Robert, The Poetry of ... 165 

Browne, Sir Thomas 208 

Burae-Joncs, Edward 687 

Bums, Mr. Henley's Essay on 48 

"Carroll Lewis" at Oxford 99 

Compt^m's (,Mr. A. G.) Index Expui^a- 

torius 681 

Copyi-ight Act, The New 365 

•' Crowned Books," The 47 

Cunningham's (Sii- Henry) Novels 610 

D'Annnnzio, Gabriele: a Sketch 35;^ 

Daudet described by his Son 662 

Dictionary, A New, and some Omissions 665 

English, Purer, A Plea for 329 

Fables, Pure ... 403, 425, 477, .'J02, 528, 

554, 587, 608, 639, 665 
Froude, James Anthony, A Forgotten 

Novel by 78 

Gladstone, Mr., as Reader and Critic ... 682 

-, Macaulay on 678 

, in Little 677 

Grandmothers, Tales of Our 16 

Greece. I_iOve Poems of 476 

Hamlet and "We Berliners" , 292 

Harrow, Interview with the Head Master 

of ... 57 

Hasty Writers. For 661 

Henley's (Mr.) Essay on Bums 48 

Ibsen's Seventieth Birthday ... 3.V2 

Idylls of the Kiug, The Evolution of ... 640 
India Civil SerWce, Education for 

the 68, '2m 

Jew (The), the Gypsy, and the Dreamer . 609 

Kiduapprd. The Country of 5(i2 

Kipling. >rr.. The Edlubur>/h on ... lo» 

/>'i/A-, The >:ditorof thelate 667 

London of the Writei-s, The 

ThoNew Poetry 14 

The Poets of the Thames 13i> 

The Cockney Sentiment 2or> 

Don Juan In London. 401 

Mallock, Mr. W. H., an Open Letter to ;J8S 

Mare's Nest, A German 79 

Maupassant and Tolstoi 180 

Memorial, A : and a Moral 52S 



VI 



CONTENTS OF VOL. LILI. 



rBUPPLBMKNT TO THE AUADKMV. 

L July«. 1898. 



AETICL m— continued. 



FA OB 

.. 29a 



Meredith's (Mr.) Ode 

Millais at Burlineton House 

Miller (Joaiiuin). Browning, and the 

Trince Imperial 181 

" Xewdij^te." The 6M 

NewsDaper English 60 

Novelists as Pwts 639 

Paris Letters IG, 1(»0, 157, 210, 2«6, 378, 

426, 477. 529, 687, 642, 690 
People. The. What they Read : 

A Schoolboy 5i) 

An Artist 156 

An Ambassador of Commerce 20!) 

A Wife 293 

An Aunt 877 

AConstiible 689 

Peter the Great. Mr. Laurence Irvii^'s... 39 

Phillips's (Mr. Stephen) Poems 47 

Primroses 449 

I'ublisherH' Annoimccments (Spring Su])- 



plement) 



Asjociation, The 



Publishing, Polyglot 

K«idingGaol, A Ballad of 236 

Reputations Reconsidered : 

Walter Pater 13 

IjOi-d Tennyson ... 3J 

Matthew Arnold 77 

Henry Fielding' 127 

Richard Jefferies 179 

.Tane Austen ., 262 

Jonathan Swift 423 

Royal Litentrv Fund, The 641 

School Books,' The Trade in 59 

Self-Const-ious, The Recreations of the ... 354 
Shakespeare's So„„r(.s:, The Problem of ... 79 

Shakespeare for Amateurs 264 

Shaw, Mr. Bemartl. The Future of ... 476 

Sleep, For Those Who Cannot 601 

Sn^rk's Signiflcance, The 12S 

Konnefc^ on the Sonnet 684 

Spring Season, The 313 

Steinlen's Cats r)\7 

Stevenson as Humorist HGT 

8teven8<tn'8 Fables ;J2H 

Sudermann, Hermann 528 

"Sunken Bell, The" 4i(i 

Tolstoi and Maupassant 180 

Verse, Light : a Plea for its Revival .. 402 
Week, The 17. ;^9.S(>, 103, 132, 158, 18:^, 
211,237, 266, 294, 332, 355, 378, 403, I2(i, 

460, 478, 603, 530, 559 
*'Zack" (i89 

Zula's I'arU ;3;30 



00RRE3P0NDENCE— cort^inwed. 

PAGE 

Butler's (A. J.) translation of Ratzel's 

History of Mankind 162 

Camm's (Bede) A Benedictine Martyr in 

Englnnd 161 

Critics 41 

Criticism, A Question of 333, .357 

Dante Rossetti and Chloral 'W^ 

D'Annimzio in English l>ii 

Degree, A New -IHl 

Dialect 357 

East-End, The Bookless 29(i 

English, Purer, A Plea for 358 

Falconer's (C M.) " Lang Catalogue " ... 82 

" • ■ 161, 181 

181, 213 

... ;*^4 

612, 645 
... 240 

612, 644 

... 693 

... 20 

506 



Fei^usson, Robert .. 

"Founder" 

Gissing, Mr. George, at Home ... . 

Gladstone, Mr., as a Critic 

Goethe, A Word about 

Jliifiz, Versions from 

"Hamlet" and "Plato's Republic" 

Heine, Heinrich , 

Horace, The First Ode of , 

Indian Civil Service, Education for the.., 

104, 134, 162 
"Julius Caesar," Some Remarks upon ... 

160, 239, 269 

Kiditn pped. The Country of 561, 612 

Lang's (A.) Thn Makiny of Religion 693 

Literature, Why not Schools in .' 296 

" Macchailean Mohr * ' 135 

Mallock*« (W. H.) Studiesof Contemporary 



Sup'.rstition 

Marcus Aurelius 

Mai's in i'iction 

' ' Much Ado about Nothing " 

Newspaper English 

Latin 



. 45;^ 

334 

181 

693 

lOi, 134, 3S0 

134 

...214, 240 
...613, 645 
670 



Pathos 

Poetry as She is Writ ... 

Prosody, Oriental 

Publisher's Complaint, A 613 

Publishers, A Tax on 213 

R.L.S., A Passage by 240, 269 

Itousseau, Jean-.Tac(iues 404 

Schoolboy, A, What he Reads 104 

Scott, Sir Walter, on Jane Austen is:i 

Shagpat, The Shaving of mi 

Shakespeare, Was he an Irishman .' 24o 

Spelling of the Name of ,5:32, 5!j;t 

Statham (F. lieginald) and President 

Kruger 693 

S^van (Mr, Howard) and the Book of .lob 532 



ORIGINAL POETRY. 

Between the Moimtiins and the Sea 
To England ... 



Towers, Round 
Translator and Critic ... , 
"Trewinnot of Guy's " 
Vandalism at Hampstead 

W^nerijina 

Zummerzet Zong 



...297, 356, 38() 

162 

a58 

...663, 613 

296 

...268, 295 



... 554 
... 328 



"AOADEMY" PORTRAIT. 

Ibsen, Henrik 352 



OBITUARY. 

Reardsler. Aubrev .S25 

Buroe-Jones, Sir Edward 687 

'•Carroll, Lewis" 98 

Gladstone, Williim Ewart 551, 579 

Marks, Stacy 76 

Fayn, .Tame** 373 

Tennyson, Mr. Frederick 260 



I 
CORRESPONDENCE. ' 

! 

.t'lthar. Figures of the 19, 40, 82, 103 i 

Bacchylidofl 1.35, 162 

Barat's. ^Ir., of Zummerzet 295 

Becky Sharp— And After 161 

Biblical Revisers 5*;2 

Blind's Matbilde Poetry .. ... 41 

Bookseller, Set^mdhand, The Bitter Cry 

of a.. ... 82, iit't 

B'Kikitelling Question, The 104 

Brandes, Dr., and Shakespeare*!* Sonnets 105 ' 

Breck, Alan 532 i 

Browning Contest among Board School 

ChUdrf-n 4St 

Bums Stiperstition, The « 370 I 

and America , 613 



THE BOOK KAREET. 

America, Popular Books in 643 

American Prices for English Books 427 

Book Sales of 1897 .37 

Tiade, State of the 159 

Books, Ought they to be Cheaper .' 557 

Bookseller, Second-hand, The Bitter Cry 

of the ;^ 

Book.sellers On the Question of Cheaper 

Books ... 55,s 

Bookselling, The Humom-H of 2115 

Without Booksellers 642 

Bryon, Is he Road now.' 451 

Christmas Tiudo, The is 

"Dante, What has he to do wiUi St. 

Pancras.'" -^pt 

Discount Question, Tlie 80 

East-End, The Bookless 238,266 

Eaton's (W. A.) " Popular Poems " ... 212 
Gladstone, Mr., How he Orderwi Books 588 

Halfjwnny Humour ,379 

Idler, TAe, The Future of ] 1(J2 

Newspapers, The Titles of 102 

Novelettes, Penny 503 

Novels, Library, Surplus, The Sale of ... 669 

Penny Domesticity ... 403 

Poetry, Minor, The Sjile of ...131 

Publishers, A Tax on 182 

Publishing Season, A Summer, Why 

Not.' 6j)3 

()«o ('(/'//.sin Ameriui 159 

Remainders ... xoi 

Reviewer, The Rights of the' .'.'. '.'.'. "'. 692 

Sienkiewicz, (Columbus ih2 

Stationers' Hall, Ought it' to" be 

Abolished .' gfjjj 

Whitechapel Barrows, The..! ... ... ... 356 



KOTES AND VSWd. 



PIQK 

,. 75, 9t> 
New 



Academy Awaxds, The 

Academy, Royal, Election of 

Members for the 153 

of Women Writers, I'roposed 448 

Akerman's (William) Jtip Van Winkle, 

Hud Other I'oenis 374 

America, Newspaper Tattle about Lite- 
rary Visitors«to 373 

, Books selling in 398 

, British Authors ill 473 

Andei"sen's (Huns <,'hristian) Stories, 

Dramatic Adaptations of 125 

"Art. A Rccoi-d of, in 1898" 500 

Asquith, Mr., on Criticism 5(Jl 

Austen, Jane, Proposed Memorial to ... 2;^5 

Austin's (Alfred) Songs of Enylnnd 259 

Poem on America and 

England 373 

Authorship, American, Critical Account 

of 500,531 

Balfour, Mr., on Novelists 11 

Barnes, William, Mr. Lang's Deprecia^ 

tionof 2.34 

Bellamy's (Edward) Looking Hackwf^rd ... 579 
Beardsley's Work on the "Morte 

d'Arthur" 476 

Binyon, Mr. Tjaurence, Little Poem by ... 96 
■ , Volume of Verse 

by 375 

BiiTell's (Mr.) Lectui-e on "Copyright"... 177 
Bookmarker, Sentences printed on a ... 207 
Books most jxipular in the United 

States 32 

Booksellers' Dinuer, The 526 

Borrow, Geoi^e, Dr. Martineau's Recol- 
lections of 2tj0 

Boston IJbrar>' transformed into a 

Menagerie 32 

Brownings, Stcjry of the by Mr. Edgar 

Fawcett 398 

Bryoe's Impir.suloni of South Africa 76 

Bryoe, Mr.. Obiter Dicta of 526 

Buchan's (John) Poem on '* The Pilgrim 

Fathers" 579 

Buchanan's (Robert) Saint Abe and His 

Seven Wives 97 



• 'The Reo. Annabel Lee 165 
Bume-Jones, Sir Edward, Personal Rem- 
iniscences of 685 

Burton, Sir Richard, as a Book Man ... 662 
Cable, Mr. G. W., Readings from the 

Works of 626, 651 

"Can-oil, Lewis," and his Works 95, 205, 261 

^ Proposed Memorial to 2i>5 

Cassell's The Queen^s Empire 447 

Celtic Renaissance, The 681 j 

Chambers's (R. W.) Lorraine 205 

■ Achievements Sum- I 

marised :W9 

Civil List Pensions 6<J6 

Clark's (C. E.) The Mlttakes We Make ... 665 
Colvin's (Sidney) Biography of R. L. 

Stevenson 373 ' 

Conrad's (Mr.) Nigger of the "Narcissus" 289 I 

Cornish Magazine 447,663 [ 

Cory's (William) Hints to Eton .Mn.sters ... 260 i 
Cutter's (Geoi-ge W.) " Song of Steam "... 207 

Dally Chronicle, Origin of the 327 

Davis, Richard Harding, American 

Novelist 553 

Daudet, Alphonse, Bic^raphy of 326 

De Mun, Count Albert 325 

Di Lorenzo, Tina, the Italian Actress ... 235 | 

Dog in Litemture, The 290 

Dowell's (Stephen) Thoughts and Words 154 
Doyle's (Mr. Conan) Ballad of "Cre- 
mona" 11 

BaUad on the 

Motor Car 374 

Eagle, and the Serpmt, Th- 687 

Editing, A remarkable piece of 552 

Eitrem's (H.) edition of Thackeray's 

Hook vfSnohs 552 

Eliot, George, A Description of .. a52 

F'l.innc an Lat^ Paper in the Irish Lan- 
guage 126 

Farrar's (Dean) Quotations in Sermons . 

289, 327 

FereVa Eulhani Oldand New 262 

Finance, New Weekly Paper 32 

Forman's (H. Buxton) Text of Keats's 

Poems 475 

Frazer's (J. G.) Pausanias' Description of 

Greece 233 

— ; (Mrs. J. G.) Scenes of Child Life 

in ColUxjiiial French 327 

"Ginger James": A Cape Barrack- 
Room Ballad 421 

Gladstone, Mr., his Death and his Works 551 
Sonnet to a Rejected 

.579 

Poetical Tributes to 605 

and Mr. Menken 685 

Quatrain in Sir Charles 

527 



NOTES AND HEWS— continued. 

PAbE 

Hallam, Arthur Henry, Mr. Gladstone's 

Recollections of 31 

Hanotaux, 11., as an Academician 375 

Harland's (Mr.) Narrative Gifts :iJtH 

Harte's (Bret} "Her Last Letter" 3in» 

Heinemann's (Mr.) Summer Moths 'JOJ 

Henley's (Mr) "Advertisement" forDe 

Thierry's ImpeTutUsm 686 

Herkomer's (Mr.) Portrait of Herbert 

Spencer 5(.il 

Heron-AUen's ( Edward ! iWnsLition of 

the Rubaiyat of (tmar Khayyam . ... 97 
Hill, Dr. (ieorge Birkbeck. Mr. Percy 

Fitzgerald's Imlictinent against 421 

Holland's (CliveJ An Egyptian (.'oqnette ... 448 
Home University, New Monthly St^gazine 

97, 261 

Hoi-ton & Yates's J{ook of Iniagea 625 

Housman's ;, Laurence) The Little Christian 

Year 448 

Huysmans, Mr., among the TrappLsts ... 527 

'B.MxXilf^S-le.ntific.M'-iiinirH h^i 

Hyde, Mr. Williim, Eulogy of the Work 

of It 

Ibsen, Henrik, Seventieth Birthday of... 206 

Stories of 422 

Inland Voyage, An, Stevenson's Dedica- 
tion of ... *})|7 

James, Mr. Henry, in English Portraits ... 6«0 
Jerome, Mr, Jerome K., Christmas Card 

sent to 

Johnson's (Charles F.) What can I do for 

Prady! 605 

Jourdain, Miss, on .John Keate 55:^ 

Kilmarnock "Bums," Sale of the 177 

Kilpatrick's (James A.) Literary Land- 
riuirks of Clang ow 32t> 

Kipling's (Mr. Rudyard) Visit to South 



31 



Africa 



the Sihool Budget 



of Torpedo-Boats 
Kirkconnei Churchyard 
" Klondike Epitaph," A .. 
Lamb's .Cliarles) Ijcttera 

Lloyd 

Lang's (Hr. Andiew) English Academy 



96 

"Recessionil" 259 
Contribution to 

.552 

Poem in l*raise 

579 

525 

235 

to Robert 

. 606 

76 



Edinburgh, " Lady 



638 
261 



Lawomarket of 
Stair's Close " ii 

Lending Aisles, The 

Leatherdale's (G.F.) "A Minor Poet's 
Testament" 2.*J5 

Le Gallienne, Mr., and the Omar Khay- 
yam Club 422 

" War Poem" by ... .526 

Legnis' Dictionnaire de Slang 262 

Leland, Mr., Works of 653, 680 

"Lions, Young, Among the" 606 

Literary Year Book, The 261 

Literary Agents described by Blr. W. H. 

Ridring 687 

1^11, Sir Alfred, on " Heroic Poetrj- " ... 153 
Marvell's (Andrew) Cottage on Highgate 

Hill 2J»1 

Meehan, Father, Reminiscences of 97 

Meredith's (Mr. George; Seventieth Birth- 
day 206 

Napoleonic VerBe 3*7 

Selected Poems... 525 

Middleton's Spanish Cipsy., Elizabethan 

Stage Society's Rei)re«entation of .'i97 

Milton, Personal Relic of 663 

Modern Quarterly of Language and Litera- 
ture ... .. 351 

MonoBtich, The 12 

Moore's (GooiKe) EcUjn lanes 661 

Murray's i^David Chnstie) The Cockney 

Cnhnahns IM 

Xewdigate Prize for Poetry (K>5 

Nietzsche, Friedrich, Condition of 474 

Ouida's Views about Minor Biography . 607 

■hitlo„k,H\i& 290, 663 

:iS 
447 
373 



Sonnet," by., 



Goethe'f 

Murray's Biography. 

Golfers' Joys, Sonnet on 126 

Gould's (F. J.) Tales from the New I'esta- 

ment 290 

Graf's (Si^or) La Danaida 326 

Graham, Mr. Cunninghame, in English 

Portraits 5SO 

Grand, Mme. Sarah, on Thr. Beth Book ... 12 
Haggard's (Rider) King Solomon's Mines 398 



Pain's ;Mr. Barry 1 "At Midnight 

Parables oy "T. W. H. C." 

Pavn, James, The Works of ... .. 

Pearson, Mr. C. Arthur, ou Reading in 

Trains 637 

PhiUips, Mr. Stephen, The Case of 421 

's " Clirist in Hades " 446 

Plagiarism charged against English 

Authors 7C 

Poster, The: new Monthly Magazine ... 681 

Press Bazaar News, The 68( 

Publisher's Enterprise, Ingenious 55f 

7'«/(tA'j( " Animal Land " 17* 

Ramsay's (jUlan) House in Edinburgh,.. 66^ 
Ranch in New Mexico, Verses from a .. 52f 
Ruwnsley's (Canon) SonnettoMr. Ruskin 17* 
Reed's I.E. T.) ".Animal Land" ...375, 47; 
Kicliepin, M. .Jean, at Home 

Ritchie's (Mi-s.) Story of Pendeunis 6B{ 

Extnicts from her Father's 

Diary ... . 08;; 

Robinson's (Edwari Arlington) The 

Children of the Night ... ... 

Rod, M Edouurd, on the Novelist's Art 

Ryan's (W. P.) Literary London „. 

lUewusik, M., on Novelists |j 

Schinii Budget, The, and Mr. Rudvard 

Kipling ; ... 5Cj 

Soollard, Mr. Clinton, Verses by 



StTPPLKMRNT TO THE ACADEMTP 

July 9, 1898. J 



CONTENTS OF VOL. LIII. 



v.i 



NOTES AND NKWS^continued, 

PAGK 

Scottish Lan^ag^e and Literature, Sug- 
gested Ijcctiireship on 637 

ServiBs's(Garrfitt V.) Kdhmi^s Conquest of 

itnrs 154 i 

Shakespeare and Bacon 375 

f^iaw, Mr. Bemai'd, Seven Plays by 447, 501| 
Smith's (Ada) Song: *'In London 

Tow-n'* G3: 

Snark's Significance, Tlie 125,326 

Stevenson's (Robert Louis'! Memorial at 

San Fi'ancisco 7G 

Posthumous 

Works 397 

. "The Fine 

pHcific Islands " (Soug^ G07 

Stevenson as a Fabulist 374 

" Stevenson, the Edinburgh " 685 

Swahili Histfliy of Rome 399 

Swan's (Mr. Edward) Version of the 

Book of Job 500 

SjTnons's (Ai"thui') " Prologue : Before 

theTheati-e" 525 

Tarver's (J. C.) Dehateahie Claims 551 

Tennyson, Ixii-d. A Story of 32 

^ 's Indebtedness to Catiillu.'* ... 580 

Teutonised English ... 207 

Thackeray, A Personal Recollection 

of ... 527 

-, Extracts from the Diary of... 663 



NOTES AND N^W&— continued. 

PAOB 

Tonybee's (Mr. Arnold) Eoad-making 

Experiment 500 

Tudor Writers on ffiisbawfrie 352 

Twain, Mark, Tjctter from 1*2 

,inI^etoria 96 

• and the Firm of C. L. 

Webster & Co 259 

Unwin's (Mr. Fisher) Libraiy of Litoi-ary 

Histories ... ... 178 

Von Vondel's Lunfp.r 262 

Wallace's (Mr. Edgar) Verses on Mr. 

Kipling 234 

War, Effect of, on Publishing and Book- 
selling 499 

Watt, A. P., Letter.t fo (new edition) ... 421 
"WThitman, Walt, A Reminiscence of ... 178 
Whittier's Ballad of "Maud Miiller,*' 

Parody of 474 

Who's Who ioT 1898 234 

Wide World Magazine ... ... 475 

Wilson & White's Wh^n War Breaks Out 448 

Women Writers' Dinner, The 686 

Wright's (Thomas) Hii"! Head 2?9 

Youd and Thei/d, for " You'd " and 

"They'd" 501 

Zola, M., as the Champion of Justice 95, 

233, 375 

'b Letters to France ... 260 

to Mr. George Moore 326 



ART. 

Academy Pictures, The Hundred Best 
Art, Modem, at Knightsbridge 

, Fi-ench, at the GuUdhalt 

New Gallery, The 

Royal Academy, Tlie Sliy-lino at the 



PAOB 
... 804 
,.. 559 
... 644 
... 479 
... 5.30 



DRAMA. 

" Antigone," The, at Bradflold f!91 

" Babes in the Wood " at Dnuy Lane ... l.S 
"Bachelor's Romjmee. A " at the Globe... .SI 
" Beauty Ston", The," at the Savoy ... 6U 
"Belle of New York, The," at the 

Shaftesbury 429 

Chi'di-en's Tales, Selection of, at Terry's 18 

" Cinderella " at the Garrick 18 

"Conquerors, The," at the St. James's .. 452 
"Dovecut, The," at the Duke of York's .. »18 
" Hamlet " in Berlin 292 



DRAMA — continued. 



PAGE 

The," at the 

42S 

at the 



" Heart of Maryland, 

Adelphi 

' His Excellency the Governor 

.Court 668 

'JuUus Ciesar" at Her Majesty's 1,33 

'Lord and Lady Algy" at the Comedy... 480 

' Lysiane " at the Lyric ...691 

' Master, The," at the Globe 480 

* Medicine Man, The," at the Lyceum ... T*)5, 

531 
"Much Ado about Nothing" at the 

St. James's 2.IS 

' My Innocent Bov " at the Royalty ...660 
" P^lK^as et Melisande " at the Prioce of 

Wales's 691 

' Peter the Great " at the Lyceum 39 

'Runaway Girl, Tlie," at the Gaiety ... 5"8 

' Sea Flower, The." at the Comedy 332 

'Stranger in New York, A," at the 

Duke of York's 691 

'Sue," Miss Annie Russell in 668 

' Too Much Johnson " at the Garrick ... 452 
Trelawny of the Wells " at the Court . . . LfS 
■ White Knight, The," at Terry's 267 



"SUPPLEMENT TO THK ACADEMY, 
July 8, 1S08. 



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2 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 1, 1898. 



THE ONLY LIFE OF THE GREAT CZAR. 

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PETER THE GREAT. 

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THE ACADEMY. 



3 



CONTENTS. 



Reviews ; 

Mr. Slephen Phillips'* Poetry 

The Birth of VirRinia .. 

John Nicholson 

Architect v. Engineer 

Masters of Medicine 

Wild Life and Photography... 

Armchair Books 

B&lEt'EB Mbntiow 

Notes lvd News 

Reputations RKCOifsiDBREO : 

II., Walter Pater 

The Loirnoif of the Wbiteks : 

IV. , The New Poetry 

PlEIS LETrBB 

rAtES OF OUB GbAITDHOTHEBS 

Vre Wesk 

Oeaua 

Phb Book Maebet: 
New Books Received 

l/OERBSPOIfDEirCE 

looK Revibws Reviewed 



Pisi 
... 3 
... 4 
... 6 



^lOTIOir SUPPLEUXITT ... 



.. 11 

.. 16 

.. 16 

,. 17 

.. 17 

.. 18 

.. 19 

.. 20 

1—2 



REVIEWS. 



IE. STEPHEN PHILLIPS'S POETEY. 
^oems. By Stephen Phillips. (John Lane.) 

tN 1890 Mr. Stephen Phillips was one of 
four friends who published at Oxford 
slender brown-paper-covered pamphlet of 
oetry called Primavera. He was not the 
lost undeniable jwet of the four. Mr. 
laurence Binyon, who also has since made 
reputation, showed the more delicate 
jcomphshment ; Mr. A. S. Crijjps, of whom 
e are sorry to have heard no more, the 
ner lyric impulse. But with Christ in 
rades, which appeared some years later in 
T. Elkin Mathews's Shilling Garland, Mr. 
hillips made a remarkable advance. The 
)em had qualities — a distinction and an 
dividuality — which lifted it out of the 
rtegory of minor verse, and attracted some- 
jliat widespread attention. In the present 
'I'ime Christ in Hades and its accompany- 
\Tics are reprinted, and to these are 
oiud some fifteen new pieces, which include 
]'o or three of considerable pretensions. 
The next book published by a new writer 
iter he has for the first time made his mark 
\ always a critical one. Was that intoxi- 
^ting success due only to the glamour of 
<e novelty, or to that transient inspiration 
■<iicli, once at least in life, and generally in 
^uth, comes to so many who have it not 
i thrm really to achieve greatness ? or was 
i 111 index of vital and enduring gifts, of a 
I itive temperament capable of progress, 
' alile (jf control? Let us say at once that 
1 tiling in Mr. Phillips's new work appears 
t us to reach the level of Christ in Hades. 
1 -reading that fine poem, we are struck 
0:6 again by its comj)leteness and its rare 
Ijjrary (jualities. To nobility of funda- 
rintal thought it adds an imaginative 
tiion by which that shadowy world, half 
Ojicure, half defined, with its tremendous 
s^nificant figures, is magnificently bodied 
feth. And the verse, fully in keeping with 



its subject, has the Virgilian stateliness and 
the Virgilian simplicity. How grandly it 
opens ! 

" Keen as a blinded man, at dawn awake, 
Smells in the dark the cold odour of earth ; 
Eastward he tr_ns his eyes, and over bim 
A dreadful freshness exquisitely breathes ; 
The room is brightening, even his own face ! 
So the excluded ghosts in Hades felt 
A waft of early sweet, and heard the rain 
Of Spring beginning over them ; they all 
Stood still, and in each others' faces looked. 
And restless grew their queen Persephone ; 
Who, like a child, dreading to be observed 
By awful Dis, threw httle glances down 
Toward them, and understood them with her 

eyes. 
Pei-petual dolour had as yet but drooped 
The comers of her mouth ; and in her hand 
She held a bloom that had on earth a 

name." 

Note the precision and the pregnancy of 
the epithets. " The excluded ghosts " : how 
much it says ! And this is Mr. Phillips's 
manner throughout. Elaboration of epithet 
he eschews, and will work up to some single 
phrase or line, clear-cut and holding easily 
all its ample meaning. Surely a Virgilian 
trait ! Thus in the ultimate line of the 
poem : 

" The vault closed back, woe upon woe, the 
wheel 
Revolved, the stone rebounded ; for that time 
Hades her interrupted life resumed." 

And again, in the fifth line of this simile : 

" Just as a widower, that dreaming holds 
His dead wife in his arms, not wondering, 
So natiu'al it appears ; then starting up 
With trivial words, or even with a jest, 
Bealises all the uncoloured dawn 
And near his head the young bird in the 

leaves 
Stirring." 

How should language, without the slightest 
strain, express more ? It has an almost 
jihysical effect upon the reader, in the 
opening of the eyes, and the dilation of the 
heai't. 

Mr. PhiUips has not as yet quite recap- 
tured the note of Christ in Hades. 
Nevertheless his new work foUows the same 
ideals, and, if it achieves less, is stiU pro- 
foundly interesting. The drop is, perhaps, 
chiefly in finish and distinction of style. 
The poems are nearly all in blank verse or 
heroic couplets, and the rhythm is often 
stiff and wooden ; the careful distribution 
of inverted accents and resolved feet fails 
to give it the required spontaneity. We 
should think that just at present Mr. 
PhiUips is not much preoccupied with 
questions of technique ; he is more curious 
about what he has to say than about how 
he says it ; and this in an age of con- 
fectionery verse must be irnputed to hun as 
a fault on the right side. There are plenty 
of writers to be careful how they say their 
nothings. Mr. Phillips's poetry, on the 
other hand, is primarily a thoughtful poetry. 
He is a psychologist, interested in nothing 
more than in the conduct of human souls, 
especially in the conduct of human souls 
when they put off the daily mask, and 
reveal themselves under the stress of some 



overmastering emotion. Here is a study 
of such a sudden and momentary reve- 
lation ; 

" FACES AT A FIRE. 

" Dazzled with watching how the swift fire 

iled 
Along the dribbling roof, I turned my head ; 
When lo, upraised beneath the lighted cloud 
The illumed unconscious faces of the crowd ! 
An old grey face in lovely bloom upturned, 
The ancient rapture and the dream returned ! 
A crafty face wondering simply up ! 
That djang face near the commimion cup I 
The experienced face, now venturous and 

rash. 
The scheming eyes hither and thither Hash ! 
That common trivial face made up of needs. 
Now pale and recent from triumphal deeds I 
The hungry tramp with indolent gloating 

stare. 
The beggar in glory and released from care. 
A mother slowly burning with bare breast, 
Tet her consuming child close to her prest ! 
That prosperous citizen in anguish dire. 
Beseeching heaven from purgatorial fire ! 
Wonderful souls by sudden flame betrayed, 
I saw ; then through the darkness went 

afraid." 

So, for the most part, Mr. Phillips's psycho- 
logy is less a psychology of processes than 
of crises, and his verse gathers tragic signi- 
ficance from the fate-fraught momentous- 
ness which such crises are wont to hold in 
life. Such a crisis is the theme, for instance, 
of what we think the finest of Mr. Phillips's 
new poems, " Marjiessa." The story of Mar- 
pessa is the subject of one of the recently 
recovered Odes of Bacchylides. It is the 
inversion of the Judgment of Paris. Mar- 
pessa, the mortal maiden, must choose 
between her mortal lover, Idas, and her 
divine lover, Apollo. Each in turn pleads 
his cause. Apollo would assume Marpessa 
into the rhythm of the universe. She shall 
be associate to the labours of the sun : 

" Thou shalt persuade the harvest and bring on 
The deeper green ; or silently attend 
The fiery funeral of foliage old, 
Connive with Time serene and the good hours. 
Or — for I know thy heart — a dearer toil, 
To lure into the air a face long eick, 
To gild the brow that from its dead looks up. 
To shine on the unforgiven of this world ; 
With slow sweet surgery restore the brain, 
And to dispel shadows and shadowy fear." 

Idas can offer no such splendid dowry ; but he 
speaks the language of passionate human 
romance. Here Mr. PhiUips touches his 
highest point of lyric rapture, in an 
apostrophe fulfiUed, surely, with the very 
spirit of poetry : 

" I love thee theu 
Not only for thy body packed with sweet 
Of all this world, that cup of brimming June, 
That jar of violet wine set in the air, 
That palest rose sweet in the night of life ; 
Nor for that stirring bosom all besieged 
By drowsing lovers, or thy perilous hair ; 
Nor for that face that might indeed provoke 
Invasion of old cities ; no, nor all 
Thy freshness stealing on me like strange 

sleep. 
Not for this only do I love thee, but 
Because Infinity upon thee broods ; 
And thou art full of whispers and of shadows. 
Thou meanest what the sea has striven to say 
So long, and yearned up the cliffs to tell ; 



THE ACADEMY. 



r[jAir. 1, 1898. 



Thou art what all the winds have uttered not, 
What the still night suggestoth to the heart. 
Thy voice is like to music heard ere birth, 
Some spirit lute touched on a spirit sea ; 
Thy face remembered is from other worlds, 
It has been died for, though I know not when, 
It has been sung of, though I know not where. 
It has the strangeness of the luring West, 
And of sad sea-horizons ; beside thee 
I am aware of other times and lands, 
Of birth far-back, of lives in many stars. 
O beauty lone and like a candle clear 
In this dark country of the world ! Thou art 
My woe, my early light, my music dying " 

Very beautiful too, full of fine thought and 
fine feeling, is the long speech in which 
Marpessa makes her choice, and, a woman, 
has the wisdom to accept the woman's 
destiny and miss the divinity's. 

Personally, we think " Marpessa "abetter 
poem than either "The Woman with the 
Dead Soul " or " The Wife." The aloofness 
of the setting becomes Mr. Phillips's classical 
manner ; whereas the more modem poems, 
if they gain in poignancy, seem to us to 
sufier a more than disproportionate loss in 
breadth and universality. On the other 
hand, they are perhaps more characteristic 
of the writer in their tragic, troubled outlook 
on life. "Marpessa" has the touch of 
melancholy which seems inevitably to cling 
about all modem reconstructions of classical 
myth, but it has not quite that keen sense 
of pain in human things to which Mr. 
Phillips shows himseU elsewhere so pro- 
foundly sensitive. The poetic nature, by 
the very law of its being, vibrates between 
the pain of life and the joy of life. Mr. 
Phillips's nerves are attuned to respond with 
more unerring certainty to the stimulus of 
the former. In "The New Be Profundk" 
he gives expression to the pain of that 
curious state of spiritual numbness or inertia 
— Acedia the meoiajveil moralists called it — 
to which the oppressive conditions of modem 
civilisation so frequently give birth : 

" I am discouraged by the street. 
The pacing of monotonous feet ; 
Faces of all emotion purged ; 
From nothing imto nothing urged ; 
The living men that shadows go, 
A vain procession to and fro. 
The earth an uru-eal coiu-se doth run, 
Haimted by a phantasmal sim." 



And a large place is occupied in his verse by 
the more obvious, more comprehensively 
human pain of desiderium, of regret for per- 
sonal loss, for death. Death and the after- 
death are stimulant to his imagination : he 
" sends his soul into the invisible, some lesson 
of that after-life to spell," would give shape 
and form to dim visions of that phantasmal 
world. He has indeed the cosmic imagina- 
tion ; witness his dignified lines on Milton, 
large with something of Milton's own large 
movement, wherein he conceives the poet is 
blinded so that he might better see the 
whole. 

" He gave thee back original night, His own 
Tremendous canvas, large and blank and free, 
Where at each thought a star flashed out and 

sang. 
O blinded with a special lightning, thou 
Hadst once again the virgin Dark ! " 

In "Beautiful Death" Mr. Phillips de- 
liberately poses the problem of death : would 
find compensations and "huge amends" in 



the thought— caU it fancy, rather— that the 
dead, unseen, silentiy, are workmg for the 
living, have become part of all the sweet 
terrene influences, givers of light and health. 

" Thou maiden with the silent speokless ways. 
On plant or creature squandering thy heart ; 
Thou in caresses large shalt spend thy life. 
Conspiring with the summer plans of lovers, 

scent 
From evening hedge the walk of boy and 

girl. . 

Thou merchant, or thou clerk, hard driven, 

urged 
For ever on bright iron, timed by bells, 
Shalt mellow fruit in the serene noon air, 
With rivulets of birds through fields of light. 
Causing to fall the indolent misty peaoh. 
Then thou, disturbed so oft, shalt make for 

peace ; 
Thou who didst injure, heal, and sew, and 

bless ; 
Thou who didst mar, shalt make for perfect 

health ; . ^^ 

Thou, 80 unlucky, fall with fortunite rain.' 

Well, it is a beautiful idea, but it does not 
carry conviction. The personal craving will 
not be drugged by this hope of impersonal 
immortality, nor wUl 

" lose calmly Love's great bliss, 
When the renewed for ever of a kiss 
Sounds through the listless hurricane of hair." 

That is Mr. Meredith; but, in truth, Mr. 
Phillips has answered himself, for what is 
the aspiration of " Beautiful Death " but the 
sophistry of ' ' Marpessa, ' ' the sophistry which 
the unspoilt humanity of the maiden is 
clear-sighted enough to blow away. And 
in an earlier lyric is another exquisite 
refutation : 

O thou art put to many uses, sweet ! 

Thy blood will urge the rose and surge in 

Spring; 
But yet! . . . 

And all the blue of thee wUl go to the sky. 
And all thy laughter to the rivers run ; 
But yet ! . . • 

Thy tumbling hair will in the West be seen, 
And all thy trembling bosom in the dawn : 
But yet! . . . 

Thy briefness in the dewdrop shall be hung, 
And all the frailness of thee on the foam ; 
But yet! . . . 

Thy soul shall be upon the moonlight spent, 
Thy mystery spread upon the evening mere, 
And yet ! " 



Mr. Phillips provokes argument, but 
argument is not criticism, except in so far 
as it is homage to the sincerity, the justness, 
the worthiness of the poet's thought. And 
among all the young poets who are his 
contemporaries no one is more interesting 
to us than Mr. Phillips. He has not yet 
come to his inheritance ; but he has that in 
him which may go very far. He has 
seriousness of purpose, and the essentially 
poetic way of looking at things, interpre- 
tative sjrmpathy and that fine imag^ative 
insight which can afford to disperse with the 
surface of things and go straight to the 
heart of them. We trust that he wUl take 
Christ in Hades as his standard, and wiU be 
content with nothing which does not at 
least equal that, alike in individuality of 
outlook and in the perfect fusion of matter 
into fonu which is that indefinable, inimit- 
able, undeniable thing, style. 



THE BIETH OF VIEGINIA. 

Old Virginia and Her Neighhours. By John 
Fiske. (MacmUlan & Co.) 

To most Englishmen we suspect the name 
Virginia chiefly suggests tobacco. And 
they are not so far wrong. Mr. Moncure 
Conway, himself a Virginian, has declared 
that " a true history of tobacco would be 
the history of Engli.sh and American 
liberty." Certainly, it would be the history 
of Virginia. It was not tobacco, however, 
but treasure which tempted Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert and Ealeigh to undertake their 
first expedition to North America in 
1578. No doubt they hoped to emulate 
Spain, which by that time had taken from 
her colonies gold and silver amounting to 
nearly £1,000,000,000. The expedition 
turned out disastrously and Gilbert sank 
with his ship ; but six years later Raleigh 
sent out another expedition, which landed in 
the country now known as North Carolina. 
The Indian who was asked the name of his 
country replied, " Win-gan-da-coa," wliich 
signified " What pretty clothes you wear." 
This name Queen Elizabeth, when the 
explorers reported it to her, transformed 
into Virginia. 

After the first colony had been miu- 
dered by the Indians, Ealeigh assigned 
the rights of trading in Virginia to 
a company of which the Eev. Eichard 
Hakluyt was the most remarkable member. 
Though his own travels did not extend 
much further than Paris, he had listened 
with profit to the tales of all the 
travellers who went in and out of 
Bristol, and seems to have known by in- 
tuition the course which should be adopted 
by the colonists in choosing their head- 
quarters and in dealing with the natives. 
He declared with prophetic insight that 
America would form a great market for 
English wares and a home for the thousands 
of labourers who were even then losing 
their employment owing to the substitution 
of pastoral for arable land. The paper of 
instructions which he drew up for the use of 
the settlers might haye been the outcome 
of many years of personal experience of 
savage lands, so much to the point is his 
advice. No better man than Captain John 
Smith could have been found to carry out his 
admirable precepts. In service with Sigismund 
Bathorl, Prince of Transylvania, he had met 
and killed three Turks successively in single 
combat, and received from the Prince a coat- 
of-arms with three Turks' heads in a shield. 
The Turks had their revenge later on, for 
they captured him, and sold him into slavery. 
He was dressed in the skin of a wild beast, 
and had an iron collar about his neck, but 
managed to kill the brutal Pasha who owned 
bim and to escape into Eussia, and thence, 
after further adventures in Germany, France, 



Spain, and Morocco, to England, just in tune 
to take part in the expedition to Virginia, in 
1607. 

The explorers landed on May 13 m 
Hampton Eoads, and built a fort, afterward? 
known as Jamestown. The Indians lurkn 
in the long grass, and picking off t 
garrison with their barbed stone-tipi 
arrows — "sniping," in fact — were vei. 
annoying, and disease and starvation sooi 



Jan. 1, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



also assailed the intruders, while quarrels 
among- the leaders, begun on board ship, 
continued on land. In January, 1 608, Smith, 
who had been very active in trading with 
tlie Indians for com, was captured by a 
party of the Powhatans, and would probably 
have suffered death had not the chief's young 
daughter, Pocahontas, rushed up and em- 
braced him, and laid her head upon his to 
shield him ; whereupon her father spared 
liis life. This picturesque story has always 
furnished a battle - ground for historians. 
Bancroft, in the first edition of his history, 
y:ave it in all good faith. Charles Deane, in 
his Notes on Wingfiel(Pg Discourse of Virginia, 
published at Boston in 1859, attacked it so 
fiercely that Bancroft was induced to leave 
it out in subsequent editions, though by a 
curious oversight a reference to it was 
allowed to remain in the index. Eventu- 
ally, it was once more restored to the body 
of the text. Mr. Fiske has examined the 
story in some detail, and comes to the con- 
clusion that it is true, chiefly on the 
groimd that in 1624, when Smith first pub- 
lished it, there were plenty of people who 
knew the facts to contradict it if it were 
false, and that "without it the subsequent 
relations of the Indian girl with the English 
colony became incomprehensible; but for 
her friendly services on more than one 
I ccasion the tiny settlement woidd probably 
have perished." 

Times were very hard, as it was. A good 
many of the settlers were "gentlemen," 
wlio did their best to learn wood cutting, 

I'Ut 

"the axes so oft blistered their tender fingers 
that many times every third blow had a loud 
lithe to drwne the eccho; for remedie of which 
si line the President devised how to have every 
mail's othes numbred, and at night for every 
1 'the to have a cann of water powred downe his 
sleeue, with which every offender was so 
washed (himselfe and all) that a man should 
scarce hear an othe in a weeke." 



hostage would be put to death. As it was 
mtensely cold, some charcoal was charitably 
furnished for the prisoner's hut. In the evening 
ms friend returned with the pistol, and then 
the prisoner was found apparently dead, 
suffocated with the fumes of the charcoal, 
whereupon the friend broke forth into loud 
lamentations. But the Englishmen soon per- 
ceived that some Ufe was still left in the 
unconscious and prostrate form, and Smith 
told the wailing Indian that he should restore 
his fnend to hfe, only there must be no more 
steahng. Then, with brandy and vinegar and 
friction, the faUmg heart and arteries were 
stimulated to their work, the dead savage came 
to life, and the two comrades, each with a 
small present of copper, went on their way 
rejoicing. The other affair was more tragic. 
Aji Indian at "Werowocomoco had got possession 
N. * J?,& °^. gunpowder, and was playing with 
it whde his comrades were pressing closely 
about him, when all it once it took fire and 
exploded, killing three or four of the group and 
scorching the rest. Whereupon, our chronicler 
tells us, ' these and other such pretty accidents 
so amazed and affrighted Powhatan and all his 
people that from all parts with presents they 
desired peace, returning many stolen things 
which we never demanded nor thought of ; and 
after that ... all the country became abso- 
lutely as free for us as for themselves.' " 

Meanwhile the London company had been 
reorganised, the list of its new members 
being headed by the name of Robert Cecil, 
Earl of Salisbury, and it now sent a new 
expedition, under Captain Newport, to the 
refief of the colonists. But Newport's ship, 
the Sea Venture, was wrecked upon the 
" stUl vext Bermoothes," and only a portion I 
— and they not the most desirable — of the ) 
new settlers reached Jamestown. Soon 
after their arrival Smith had to go home 
invalided, and then ensued a terrible period, 
which Mr. Fiske calls " the starving time." 



of 
no 



Soon somebody discovered a bank 
bright yellow dirt, and "there was 
thought, no discourse, no hope, and no 
wijik but to dig gold, wash gold, refine 
yc'ld, and load gold." Captain Newport 
I arried a load of the stuff to London, only 
t< 1 find that all is not gold tliat glitters, and 
I that the coop of plump turkeys which he 
I also carried, " the first that ever graced an 
i English bUl of fare," was far more valu- 
able. The energy thus dissipated would 
have been far better devoted to agriculture, 
for the Indians were beginning to withhold 
their corn, " with a doggedness that refused 
even the potent fascination of blue glass 
beads "; and it required all Smith's inge- 
nuity and pluck to obtain supplies, while 
a warning from Pocahontas alone saved him 
and his companions from massacre. Fortu- 
nately the Indians were in mortal terror of 
the white men's firearms. 

" A couple of accidents confirmed this view 
of the case. One day, as three of the Chicka- 
hominy tribe were loitering about Jamestown 
admiring the rude fortifications, one of them 
stole a pistol and fled to the woods with it. 
His two comrades were arrested, and one was 
held in durance, while the other was sent out 
to recover the pistol. He was made to under- 
stand that if he failed to bring it back the 



"After the last basket of com had been 
devoured, people Uved for a while on roots and 
herbs, after which they had recourse to can- 
nibalism. The corpse of a slain Indian was 
boiled and eaten. Then the starving company 
began cooking their own dead. One man 
killed his wife and salted her. . . . No wonder 
that one poor wretch, crazed with agony, cast 
his Bible into the fire, crying, ' Alas ! there is 
no God ! ' " 

At length some sixty souls, the haggard 
remnant of 500 that Smith had left, de- 
termined to try and make their way to New- 
foundland. They dismantled their cabins, 
and were sailing in pinnaces down 
the ever - widening James Eiver when 
a black speck was seen far below on the 
broad waters of Hampton Eoads. It was 
the Governor's own longboat bearing a 
message that his three weU-stocked ships 
had passed Point Comfort, with himself on 
board. 

Thenceforward the history of Virginia is 
smoother. Tobacco-planting was introduced 
with such success that soon it ousted almost 
every otherform of agriculture. The solecur- 
rency was tobacco ; even the parson's annual 
salary was 16,000 pounds of tobacco; fines 
were paid in tobacco. Charles I. tried to make 
himself the sole consignee of the colony's 
greatest product, and Cromwell passed a 
Navigation Act which forbade the importa- 
tion of goods into England except in Eng- 
lish or Colonial bottoms, and, as enforced by 



later rulers, produced much discontent. For 
though James I. had taken away the Com- 
pany s charter, and Charles I. had appointed 
Eoyal Governors, the House of Burgesses 
continued to exhibit the "virus of liberty" 
inherent in English blood. The local laws 
were, however, somewhat paternal. An un- 
married man was taxed according to his 
apparel; a married man— this is indeed 
drastic — according to his own and his wife's 
apparel. An attempt was even made to 
put down flirting by an enactment which 
provided that 

" what man or woman soever should use any 
word or speech tending to a contract of 
marriage to two several persons at once should 
for such their offence either undergo corporal 
correction (by whipping) or be punished by 
fine or otherwise." 

We have left ourselves no room to speak 
of Mr. Fiske's interesting account of the 
settlement of Maryland, which was a " Pala- 
tinate " foimded on the model of Durham, 
and of the subsequent history of the various 
States. His pages show clearly how the 
institution of slavery was the direct result 
of the tobacco industry, and how the 'plan- 
tation system tended to differentiate the 
population into three classes — the planters, 
the negroes, and the " mean whites." His 
book is a storehouse of facts relating to the 
government, history, and customs of Vir- 
ginia and her neighbours. If we have a 
complaint against him it is that he has filled 
it almost too full of interesting details, so 
that the main lines of development are 
sometimes rather hard to follow. That is 
the sole blemish upon a work which is as 
entertaining as it is instructive. 



JOHN NICHOLSON. 

The Life of John Nicholson : Soldier and 
Administrator. Based on Private and 
Hitherto Unpublished Documents. By 
Captain L. J. Trotter. (John Murray.) 

The name of John Nicholson was probably 
unknown to the present generation until it 
was widely blazoned, only within the last 
year or two, by Mrs. Steele's novel of the 
Indian Mutiny, On the Face of the Waters, 
and by Lord Roberts's Forty-one Years in 
India. It is, therefore, in happy time that 
Captain Trotter has issued this full Life of a 
man concerning whom latter-day curiosity has 
been much piqued, and who appears to fulfil 
more completely than any other Englishman 
of the century both the simple and romantic 
ideal and the practical and philosophic 
notion of tlie Hero in Action. It puts no 
slight upon the admirable and industrious 
biography of Captain Trotter — at any rate, 
we do not mean it as such — to say that his 
method of putting together the material he 
has acquired and his style of writing are 
not equal to the magnificence of his subject ; 
for to write adequately of the Hero and 
Demigod you need the Poet. And Captain 
Trotter, for all his admiration of Nicholson 
and his assiduity in collecting all the facts 
that can bo gleaned of Nicholson's career, 



is lacking not only m the rhythm ami 
eloquence of the Poet, but also in the far 
more valuoble quality of imagination— that 
force of imagination which melts multi- 
tudinous hard detail in its own fire and runs 
it into the shape of life. 

Although Captain Trotter's own efforts in 
style achieve no more than worn cluMs and 
tacs of verse for picturesque narrative and 
decoration, some of tlie letters he quotes, 
written by men of vigour and perspicacity 
(and "not necessarily for publication, tbe 
thought of which has the effect of panic on 
many capable men) are a refreshnient and 
an illumination. Two years before the 
Mutiny Herbert Edwardes wrote thus to an 
inquiring friend concerning Nicholson : 

" Of what class is John Nicholpon the type ? 
Of 11 ne; for truly he stands alone. But he 
b-longs essentially to the school of Henry 
Lawr noe. I only knocked down the walls of 
the Bannu /w<s, John Nicholson has since 
reduced the j)eo/)/e — the most ignorant, de- 
praved, and bloodthirsty in the Punjab— to 
such a atate of good order and respect for the 
laws that, in the last year ( f his charge, not 
only was there no murder, burglary, or highway 
robbery, but not even an atttrnpt at any of those 
crimes. The Bannuchis, reflecting on their own 
metamorphofi", in the village gatherings under 
the T^nes, by the streams they once delighted to 
tight for, have come to the conclusion that the 
Kood Muhummadans of historic ages must have 
been hke Nikahain. They emphatically approve 
him as every inch a hakim (master or lord). 
And so he is. It is difficult to describe him ; he 
must be seen. Lord Dalhousie — no mean 
judge — perhaps best summed up his high 
military and ^ministrative qualities when he 
called him ' a tower of strength.' I can only 
say that I think him equally fit to be com- 
missioner of a division or general of an army." 

Take further these words of Colonel Becher, 
written upon Nicholson's famous death after 
the storming of Delhi : 

"Foremost in all brave couus-1, in all 
glorious audacity, in all that marked a true 
soldier, so admirable was our dear friend, 
John Nicholson. From the beginning of the 
great storm his was the course of a meteor. 
His noble nature shone brighter an't brighter 
through every cloud, bringing swift and sure 
punishments to rebellion, wherever it raised its 
front in the Punjab, carrying confidence and 
new vigour to the walls of Delhi, triumphant 
in the greatest fight that preceded the assault ; 
the admiration of all the force. His genius 
foresaw the sure success : his undaunted courage 
carried the breach. He fell, the greatest hero 
we have had, loved and mourned through all 
India. Glorious fellow ! . . . How proud must 
his mother feel that God gave her such a son, 
even though he was so soon taken away ! " 

Nicholson was thirty-five when he died at 
Delhi of his wound. He went to India at 
the age of seventeen, and ho was only two 
years older when he underwent a long and 
terrible imprisonment in Afghanistan after 
the disaster to our arms there in 1841. 
Ever after Nicholson had the extremest 
distrust and hatred of the Afghans. Him- 
self of the nicest honour and the simplest 
Bincerity, he declares he "cannot describe 
their character in language sufficiently 
strong. . . . From the highest to the lowest, 
every man of them would tell both country 
and relations. . . . The surest mode of 
apprehending a criminal was to tamper with 



THl-: ACADEMY.^^ 

his nearest friends and relations." After 
that, although he saw a good desa of 
service and won recognition in the two bikh 
wars, it was mainly as administrator of 
certain districts of the conquered Punjab 
that he earned his unique fame, until the 
appalling and lurid episode of the Mutiny ; 
and it is precisely in that administrative 
period that we get the most blurred and 
flat picture of the hero. And the reason is 
that that period is most cumbered with 
detail, not only in fact, but also in its 
exposition here. It was then that Nichol- 
son won and exhibited his singular influence 
over the natives. But we see little and feel 
less of such influence until well through the 
volume we come upon one or two anecdotes 
characteristie of his dealing with the natives, 
whether prince or peasant. 

But, after all, it is not difficult to under- 
stand the springs of Nicholson's god-like 
reputation among the tribes of the Punjab. 
His handsome, gigantic figure, his bound- 
less energy, his wrath, his justice, his 
tenderness to the poor and feeble, his 
severity in punishment and his grim humour 
withsJ, his generosity in reward and his 
carelessness of himself, — all these things, as 
well as his swiftness in the act of war and 
his fiery personal courage, clearly marked 
him out to be the idol and the hero of 
simple, brave, and semi-barbarous tribes. 
The story has been told before how he was 
so adored and worshipped that, in 1849, a 
Hindu devotee discovered him to be "a new 
Avatar, or incarnation of the Brahmanic 
godhead," and how thus a new creed and a 
new sect were founded of Nikahain. But, 
we imagine, the story has not been told 
before which Captain Trotter quotes from 
Sir Donald Macnabb of the singular and 
touching behaviour of the Nikalsainig on the 
death of Nicholson. There is no space to 
quote it here, but it may be read in its 
proper place in Captain Trotter's volume. 

And, in fine, it is due to Captain Trotter to 
repeat that, if we are somewhat disappointed 
with his work, it is not that his performance 
is so poor and small as that his subject is 
so rich and great. Some day Mr. Eudyard 
Kipling may think it worth his while to 
attempt a portrait of John Nicholson which 
we can " see all round." 



[Jan. 1, 1898. 



AECHITECT v. ENGINEEE. 

Modern Architecture : a Book for Architects 
and the Public. By H. Heathcote Statham. 
(Chapman & Hall.) 

In this book Mr. Statham has chosen for 
the most part to make a liler aureus of 
creditable achievement. In addition to his 
example and his criticisms of contemporary 
work Mr. Statham expounds some principles 
which are the seeds from which only really 
fine results can spring. True architectural 
design, he says, is a kind of symbolism ; 
it may merely symbolise the interior arrange- 
ments of the building ; but in a sense more 
poetical it may symbolise moods of feeling 
or of association — "power, gloom, grace, 
gaiety, gracefulnes." Every detail should 
express an idea which shall combine, like 



the words of a sonnet, with the many others 
that will crowd aroimd, to form the har- 
monious symbol of the dominant intention. 
Mr. Statham cites an instance of this 
" architectural characterisation." At the 
Paris Exhibition of 1889 he wished to find 
the pavilion of the Pastellists. "All at 
once I caught sight of it a little way off: 
there was no notice that I could read from 
where I was, but I had no t'ou^t of the 
building and went straight to it." He 
then describes the treatment of detail by 
which the ultimate expression of the motive 
was achieved. He applies the theory of 
symbolism to many of the buildings he has 
illustrated, and points to modern architects . 
who have written large on their exterior 
elevations the objects of the structures. 
He notes that a church almost expresses 
itself: a very gifted architect of our day 
may have had this in his mind when he 
said: "0! any fool can design a church." 
From base to chimney summit a building 
should be an organism : to remove one 
feature should produce the same effect as a 
wound upon the body ; it may be remem- 
bered that, some years ago, the urns that 
mark the receding stages of the tower of 
St. Mary-le-Strand were taken down ; the 
effect was so painful that the parish rebelled 
and new vases of the old design were hauled 
aloft to their stone resting-places. 

Mr. Statham rightly insists on the need of 
good planning ; it is the first process in the 
creation of the organic whole ; a plan well 
thought out goes far to secure the perfection 
of the completed structure. The making of 
clever plans is one of the few arts that have 
really flourished in our days. The growing 
up of new municipalities and the develop- 
ment of old ones, the demand therefore for 
town halls; the luxurious habits of the 
people, who have mansions built for them ; 
the system of housing families in flats, the 
growth of hotels ; all these and many other 
causes have produced a school of planning 
to which there has hitherto been no parallel. 
Never before was so much ingenuity needed 
nor so much thought expended on the com- 
pacting of plans. The complication of 
services ; in towns the irregularity and con- 
I striction of sites ; and, in other cases, the 
novelty of requirements have vitalised the 
dry bones of the old conventional system of 
plan, and introduced possibilities of internal 
effects and exterior symbolisms to which 
the older architects were never called. 
Elaborate plans are among our few origi- 
nalities. Unfortunately, a lovely plan can, 
in most cases, only appeal to the expert. To 
be able to draw a competent plan is almost 
in itself a sufficing art; it is to create 
logical and geometric beauty ; to have drawn 
it is to have made a picture ; to set it out on 
the site is to capture an intellectual and 
practical delight which will not depart until 
the completion of the structure. The glory 
of the plan, as has been hinted, is so obscured 
by technicalities that it can be fully felt 
only by the initiate ; still, such a plan as that 
of the Paris Hotel de Ville— shown by Mr. 
Statham — should appeal, by its intrinsic 
dignity and charm, to that appalling majority 
who know nothing about architecture. It 
is sad to think how many cultivated people 
wander through the streets of cities and 



Jan. 1, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



cannot distinguish good design from bad. 
How many persons know the only fine front 
in Piccadilly ? How many ever think about 
the fragment of Whitehall? Do people 
often note the vista through the arches of 
Somerset House ? Why is so much beauti- 
ful work lost in the Shaftesbury Fountain ? 
Only the few could give the reason why. 

Therefore such books as this of Mr. 
Statham, dealing with principles, are so 
useful, if the people wiU only read them ; 
but architecture seems a stern study to 
those who are not strongly called to it, or 
who are engrossed in other pursuits. It is, 
however, a strange fact that one great pro- 
fession which should be kind and kindred 
is, in effect, actively hostile. The civil 
engineer who builds in iron is a product of 
this centurj' ; his masterliness in construc- 
tion, his powers of invention, his skill in 
satisfying the needs lie has created, have 
gained for liim a position which is new and 
amazing. The scientific sjiirit being clear 
as to its objects, keen in its analysis, and 
irrefutable in its deductions, has captivated 
many strong minds. Science unadorned, 
exultant and intolerant, has wrenched from 
architecture provinces oiE labour ; indifferent 
to ugliness, it has set utility in high places, 
and, satisfied with its own ingenuity, has, 
with much success, eliminated beauty. In 
London Bridge you see the now excluded 
architect ; in the railway viaduct at Charing 
Cross you view the engineer unashamed. 
Mr. Aitchison, A.E.A., in one of his Eoyal 
Academy lectures, said: "Science that in 
mediasval days was in the mire is now at 
the top of the wheel, while art is in the 
mud." And, again: " So far as I know 
there is no a priori reason why art and 
science should not flourish together, altliough 
in later times we know they have not." 
Thus we live in the age of the unaided 
engineer, since science has wiUed it so. 
Mr. Statham warns students against the 
argument of some architectural critics that 
such great structures as the Forth Bridge 
are the real architectural works of the 
modern period. He admits that the great 
intellectual triumphs of the present era 
have been in scientific invention and not 
in artistic creation. He lays it down 
as an axiom that it is not until we 
get beyond the merely utilitarian aim that 
we enter the domain of architecture in the 
best sense of the word. He says : " With 
whatever new materials we have to deal, 
architecture must still remain the art of 
producing what is beautiful and expressive 
in building, which involves a great deal 
j more than the mere question of economic 
structure." Thus the Forth Bridge is not 
art but a problem in cantilevers. 



MASTEES OF MEDICINE. 

■Idhn Hunter. By Stephen Paget. 

inilinm Harvey. By D'Arcy Power. 

Sir James Y. Simpson. By H. Laing 
Gordon. (T. Fisher Unwin.) 

The idea of a series of short popular 

! medical biographies was a good one ; and 

the three volumes before us make a capital 



beginning. Each Life is gripped sym- 
pathetic.'dly. Mr. Paget, for instance, teUs 
the story of Hunter's breathless career 
with the right galloj), the right amount of 
anecdote — anecdote being so swift in its 
revelation. Hunter was one of those men 
who solve the riddles of life by hurry- 
ing on. Mr. Paget compares him with 
Swift, who "tore through life." He 
did not even play at cards. "Come to 
me to-moiTow morning, young gentleman," 
he said to a budding surgeon newly arrived 
in London, " and I will put you in the way 
of things ; come early in the morning, as 
soon after four as you can." The youngster 
kept the appointment, and found Hunter 
dissecting beetles. His thirsts to learn and 
to teach were equally insatiable. When 
need was, he could quarrel ; and then he 
would keep twenty men at bay and do his 
work calmly the while ; witness the story 
of his struggle to improve the medical 
teaching of St. George's Hospital, which he 
joined six years after its foundation. He 
fed liis enthusiasm with endless acquisitions 
of natural history specimens — quick and 
dead ; but the story of his collection is an 
old one. His letters to Jenner will be 
immortal in the profession. They quiver 
with haste and eagerness : 

" Dear Jeuner, — I receivtd yours, as also 
the cuckoo's stomach." ..." Dear Jenner, — 
I am always plaguing you with letters, but 
you are the only man I own apply to. I put 
three bedgehogs in the gorden. and put meat 
in different places for them to eat as they went 
along; but they all di>d. N<w, I want to 
know what this is owing to." ..." Dear 
Jenner, — I received yours with the heron's 
legs." 

Once he rushed into a bookseller's shop 
and said : 

" ' Mr. N , lend me five pounds and you 

shall pro halves ! ' 

' Halves in what y ' 

' Why, halves in a luaguiflcent tiger which is 
now dying in Castle-street.' " 

"Don't think, try; be patient; be ac- 
curate," was his motto ; and, in a large 
degree, it has been the broad motto of 
the medical profession since Hunter died. 
He left to his fellow-men achievements 
which even Mr. Paget hardly tries to 
estimate, and a collection which so em- 
barrassed them that it lay for thirteen 
years in his liouse in Leicester-square before 
a scheme could be framed for dealing with 
it. Hunter found time to marry happily. 
In 1859 Frank Buckland sought for and 
found Hunter's coffin in the vaults of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and the great 
anatomist was then laid in the north aisle 
of Westminster Abbey. 

It is pleasant, in turning to the second 
and third volumes in this series, to find 
them written with the same quick apprehen- 
sion of the charm of their subjects. Mr. 
D'Arcy Power is alive to the even, stately 
progress which Harvey kept through life 
under King and Common wealth. We 
see him in his zenith, riding out 
from Ludgate to visit his patients, as 
Aubrey saw him, " on horseback with a 
foot-cloth, his man still following on foot, 
as the fashion then was, which was very 
decent," Maybe Shakespeare stood still to 



see the courtly physician, who had discovered 
the circulation of the blood, go past. Maybe 
Harvey passed Bacon in the narrow street, 
and bowed coldly to the man who, he 
said, " wrote jjliilosopliy like a Lord Chan- 
cellor." We see Harvey again, as Lumleian 
lecturer, presiding over a " public anatomy," 
with its quaint and turgid ceremonial, at 
Amen Corner. We follow him witli Cliarles 
I. to Scotland, whore he would steal away 
from the glittering court to the Bass Eock 
to pick up eggs, and solve, if he could, tlie 
problem of incubation ; or, later, to Edge- 
hill, where, during the battle, he took 
charge of tlie two boys, aged twelve and 
ten years, who afterwards reigned as 
Charles II. and James II. Best of 
aU, in the sunset of his life we find 
him sitting on the leads of Cockaine 
House, in the City, " for the indulgence of 
his fancy," or expounding, in wise and 
learned talk, to Janssen. He could look 
back on a life that answered to liis fine 
motto, " Dii laboribus omnia vendunt " 
("For toil the gods sell everything ") ; yet so 
modest he was, that Janssen could write : 
" Our Harvey . . . has not comported him- 
self like those who, when they publish, 
would have us believe that an oak had 
spoken, and that they had merited tlie rarest 
honours — a draught of hen's milk, at tlie 
least." Mr. Power makes a lucky com- 
parison between Harvey and Hunter. They 
had, indeed, much in common. Harvey 
loved to cut up animals : " his lectures 
show an intimate acquaintance with more 
than sixty kinds." Aubrey says he dissected 
toads ; and when the Parliamentarian 
soldiery rifled his house, his chief sorrow 
was the loss of many observations on the 
generation of insects. Like Hunter, Harvey 
was a short, choleric man, a bom collector, 
an ardent comparative anatomist ; less eager, 
perhaps (there has been only one Hunter), 
but better bred — a finer and a courtlier 
man. 

Tlie third volume before us carries us 
into that world of Edinburgh medicine 
which has produced so many great doctors. 
Sir James Young Simpson, the discoverer of 
chloroform, rose fi-om humble life in a Lin- 
lithgowshire village. The villagers always 
said he would do great things, for was he 
not a seventh son? And so heartily did he 
work and play as a boy that he was known 
as the " wise wean." He came to be a 
veritable king of medicine. In 1845, when 
he paid a professional visit to London, 
society rose to greet him, and boys sold his 
Life in the streets. 

Simpson did more than promote health, 
he irradiated it. His considting practice 
grew to enormous dimensions. He was 
gloriously unmethodical, and so careless of 
money that he would wrap professional or 
antiquarian specimens in bank-notes, and 
liis valet had to empty his pockets each 
night of the money with whicli he had care- 
lessly filled them during the day. Nor was 
he less than independent : 

"When I called for Simpson," says one of 
his friends, "his two reception rooms were as 
usual full of patients, more were seat^-d in the 
lobby, female faces stared from all the windows 
in vacant expectancy, and a lady was ringing 
the door-bell. But the doctor brushed through 



8 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jaw. 1. 1898. 



the crowd to join me, and left them all kicking 
their heels for the next two hours." 

The personal magnetism of the man was 
immense: he had the " Heraclean cheer- 
fulness and courage " which Eobert Louis 
Stevenson ascribed to doctors. Mr. Gordon 
tells the story of his "Fight for Anses- 
thesia " in one stirring chapter, showing us 
how Simpson met the medical, the moral, 
and the religious objections to chloroform. 
In Scotland the religious objections were as 
strong as any, and were analogous to those 
raised against threshing machines by the 
Scottish farmers who had for generations 
tossed their com on shovels. But Simpson 
could quote Scripture, and he silenced his 
opponents with the text: "And the Lord 
God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam ; 
and he slept ; and He took one of his nbs 
and closed up the flesh instead thereof." 

We have but dipped into these bio- 
graphies ; but they are racy enough to 
tempt columns of quotation. They are not 
too long. They are bound in as gay a 
fashion as many novels, and they are more 
readable than most. 



WILD LIFE AND PHOTOGEAPHY. 

With JVature and a Camera. By Eichard 
Kearton, F.Z.S. Illustrated by Pictures 
from Photographs by Cherry Kearton. 
(Cassell & Co.) 

When Mr. Eichard Kearton, some years 
ago, produced his book about British 



birds' nests it was seen that he had 
seized upon a method for taking fuU 
advantage of that re-awakened love of 
nature characteristic of the town-dweUing 
modern. He was the first to show what 
photography could do by representing young 
birds and eggs and nests in situ, and his 
writing, too, is in a sense photographic. That 
is, it is uninformed by the spirit and poetry 
of nature. You do not catch him dropping 
his camera "to feel back into the centuries "; 
when he is searching for the merlin or 
watching the kestrel on down and moor he 
is not distracted by curiosity about "the 
man in the barrow," who so long ago also 
saw the wild hawk striking the partridge, 
and the butterfly fluttering on its love flight ; 
he does not stop to wonder at his own 
ego, and reflect that the wind will blow 
and the brook will sing and the rain 
fall, when his eye sees no longer, just 
as they did thousands of years before he 
was bom. In a sense, the writer is lucky 
not to be perplexed by such thoughts : 
they endear him only to the few across 
whose minds similar speculations have 
flashed ; they make dull, uncomprehended 
reading for the many who prefer a material 
fact, illustrated by an exact picture. But 
the grosser taste in itself is perfectly sane and 
wholesome. The healthy average man is 
not to be blamed for living only in the 
present minute and caring nothing for " the 
man in the barrow," and thinking little of 
the wider beauty and mystery of life. It 
is something to be thankful for when a 
writer like Mr. Kearton comes forward with 
wholesome and nourishing food for a robust 



and healthy appetite. We may, and do, 
regret that a JefEeries was allowed to starve 
mainly because he stood upon a higher 
plane ; but that would be a poor reason for 
refusing to acknowledge the candour and 
sincerity, and a kind of sunny youthfulness, 
with which this book is written. Taken 
within its own limits, it is wholly pleasant 
and admirable. 

In the end it will probably be found that 
photography is not an ideal method for 
illustrating natural history, and that its 
province is rather to rectify the errors of the 
draughtsman than to supplant his work, but 
it is admirably adapted to the book before 
us. The author's aim is to describe the 
difiiculties and adventures encountered while 
gathering material for his previous work. 
He explains that he and his brother are 
engaged in the city, but having been bom 
and bred on the wild Yorkshire moors, and 
having imbibed a passion for outdoor life in 
childhood, they are in the habit, when 
holiday time comes round, of returning to 
the old pursuit. And their zeal has carried 
them into distant and little known haunts. 
The rarer birds, especially those of the sea, 
can only be studied in places difficult of 
access. They are protected and breed freely 
on the Fame Islands, which are now pre- 
ser^^ed for them. When in the neighbourhood, 
however, we rather wonder that the brothers 
did not penetrate inland as far as Pallins- 
burn, where the famous pond is a breeding- 
place of the black-headed guU {larus ridi- 
hundus) and has long been kept as a kind of 
sanctuary for wild fowl. Quite close at hand, 
too, is Haggerston, where Mr. Christopher 
Leyland has foi-med a very different kind of 
sanctuary, and nylghais, gazelles, mouflon, 
kangaroos, yaks and antelopes, may be seen 
in an English park. On the neighbouring 
Cheviots several of the rarer faUonidm may 
be studied to advantage. Further north 
the author and photographer visited the 
Bass Eock, where they obtained one or two 
excellent pictures of Solan geese. The 
following extract will exhibit the nature of 
this pastime : 

" My brother was anxious to obtain a picture 
showing a good crowd of gdnnets in it; and 
when he descended for that purpose to the very 
edge of the cliff, and began to stalk the birds 
(with his camera in front of him) from ledge to 
ledge -off any of which the slightest slip 
meant a headlong plunge of a hundred and 
fifty feet into the sea below — I saw one of the 
men who had accompanied us in the boat turn 
away, and heard him mutter to himself : ' Ven- 
turesome devil; he'll never get off the Bass 
aUve.' " 

More than a third of the book is devoted 
to an account of St, Kilda, another favourite 
hunting ground of the naturalist, inhabited 
by a score or so of the most primitive folk to 
be found in the British Islands. With very 
great charm Mr. Kearton has succeeded in 
rendering their old world habits and pur- 
suits. On another occasion, perhaps, he 
may be induced to go yet further afield. 
There are many aspects of bird life well 
worth studying in the more remote and 
solitary islands of the Orkney and Shetland 
group. Twice — and both times, as it curiously 
happened, on a Christmas Day — we have 
seen a golden eagle perched upon the spire 
of St Magnus' Cathedral in Kirkwall, and 



the scarce visited islets set amid those 
dangerous currents, where the Atlantic 
waters sweep round the stormy Pentland 
and make an endless jumble as they meet 
those of the North Sea, are practically un- 
disturbed haunts of birds now become rare 
elsewhere. 

We do not so much care for Mr. Kearton' s 
writing on gamekeepers, poachers, and other 
themes connected with the South. These 
have been written about so often and so 
well that it is difficult to add a new touch, 
and we miss that charm of a first impression 
that is so attractive in the Northern sketches. 
Finally, let it be added with great caution 
of statement, that Mr. Kearton has described 
and photographed the famous St. Kilda 
wren. We add not one word more, because 
so emulous are naturalists of claiming the 
glory of having discovered this little mite of 
a bird, that to connect one man's name with 
it is only to invite indignant correspondence 
from another. Enough, then, to say that 
Mr. Kearton has not only confirmed the story- 
that St. Kilda rejoices ia a wren all to itself, 
but has succeeded in obtaining its photo- 
graph. 



AEMCHAIE BOOKS. 

By an Unprofessional Critic. 

II.— A Chiel among the F.E.S.'s.* 

" Dr. Sharpey, while writing the Council 
Minutes, talked with me of sundry matters. 
He said on the limch table of the Athenfeum 
there is, at times, a boar's head. Hart, the 
artist, a Jew, stood one day looking at the 
head, and Landseer, coming in with a friend, 
whispered, ' Do you know what Hart is think- 
ing about ? Almost thou persuadest me to be 
a Christian.' " 

That is a quotation from The Jownnh of 
Walter White, the latest volume of remi- 
niscences. Here is another passage, en- 
shrining a picture of Thackeray. The date 
is June 23, 1859 : 

"While in Chapman's counting-house was 
introduced to Thackeray, who happened to 
come in. Had heard so often that he was ugly, 
that I was agreeably surprised to find him 
otherwise : he has a lively eye, fresh colour, and 
an appearance of old youth or youthful age. 
Told him I had been the means of making 
persons like his books. I longed to tell 
him that he had harped too much on the 
sentimental string in the Virginians, to the 
exclusion of incident and the detriment of the 
work. He said he wished he had five numbers 
yet instead of three. In reply to a remark of 
P. Chapman's he said that if he had a rich, 
uncle he should strangle him. Then F. C, 
' You say that who can write such books ; why J 
if I could write such books as yours I wouldn'q 
envy even Rothschild. I don't as it is.' Soot 
after he rose, shook hand, expressed pleasure at 
having made my acquaintance, and said : ' 1 1 
away a little taller, Mr. White, for this conH 
versation with you.' During the conversation 
P. C. said that E. Chapman had once said \^ 
Dickens, ' Take a pinch of snuff,' and hande 
him a box containing £1,400. 

That surely is a most excellent way to takd 
snuff! From another of Walter White's 

* The Journals of Walter White. (Chapman 
& Hall.) 



Jan. 1, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



9 



I 



entries it would seem ttat no small part of 
Dickens's life was occupiecl in receiving 
generous gifts from the Chapman counting- 
house : 

"G. Lovejoy hears from CharUs Tilt that 
Dickens's Pickwick was not at first popular. 
The work had been offered to various publishers, 
and Chapman & Hall were not over plensed 
with their bargain. Tilt sold 1,200 of No. (5, 
and the publishers sent to Dickens a cheque for 
£30 over and above the £8 per sheet agreed on ; 
he acknowledged it. For No. 7 they sent him 
an extra cheque for £60, which he did not 
acknowledge. For No. 8, a cheque for £100, 
which he leturned. They altered the one into 
four, and then the author kept it. Altogether 
he received for Pickwick £1,200 more than was 
stipidated for." 

"Walter White, the chronicler of this gossip, 
was largely a self-educated man, who after 
beginning life as a cabinet-maker attained to 
what it is customary to consider the infinitely 
finer position of assistant secretary of the 
Royal Society, and confidant of the late 
Lord Tennyson. Walter White was born, 
in 1 8 11 , at Reading, and began early to have 
literary ambitions and devote the nights 
to study. Married in 1830, he emigrated 
with his family to New York in 1834, 
varied cabinet - making with lecturing, 
teaching, and wi'iting prose and poetry, 
returned to Reading in 1839, gave up 
cabinet-making about 1843, and became 
sub-librarian at the Royal Society, then at 
Somerset House, in 1844. In 1861 he became 
assistant secretary to the Royal Society, with 
a residence at Burlington House, a post 
which he held till 1885, when he retired. 
He died in 1893. Throughout his life he 
regidarly kept a journal, selections from 
whicli have now been arranged by his 
brother and published in the compact volume 
wliich lias beg^Ued an hour fairly interest- 
ingly. Their author was no Boswell ; but 
he knew several of the men whom one 
always is glad to read about. It is probably 
to the circumstance that he was on pecidiarly 
friendly terms with Tennyson that we owe 
the book at all. Just now, one suspects, no 
publisher woidd dare to refuse any MS. 
which contained that august name. 

The most circumstantial entry in the 
whole diary is an accoimt of a conversation 
between Carlyle and Charles Kingsley at 
Chelsea in March, 1860. At one period 
the talk ran thus : 

Kingsley : ' How long IwUl this jsckassery, 
this flood of books written by people who have 
nothing to say, continue ? Look at Dickens, 
a mau who might have been a Defoe if he 
would but have restrained his pen, who has 
degenerated even since Nicklehy, whose Christ- 
mas stories are gloomy and depressing.' 

' What is the reason ? ' I asked. 

' Ignorance ! He is one of the most ignorant 
of modem writers.' 

Carlyle : ' I find the humour of his Pick- 
wick very melancholy. As for Defoe, he would 
have been a greater man, but he was such an 
incontinent fellow — always write, write, write 
on some petty city matters. But he had 
wonderful power of imagination, makingyou feel 
that he had seen everything he described.' . . . 

Then sermons were talked of, and the 
strictures on books aj^plied to them. ' I hate 
the sound of my own voice,' said K., ' especially 
if I have to speak beyond a quarter of an hour. 
'Tis a torture to m •,' 



'Then I: "Then every Sunday is to you 
a martyrdom ?"' 

'It is ; and judge of my feelings when I am 
obliged to listen to somebody else's sermon for 
thirty- five minutes. Think of 15,000 clergy- 
men having to stand up Sunday after Sunday 
with nothing to say. Ah I the Reformation 
has much to answer for.' Turning to C. : 
' You and your Puritans have much to answer 
for. Those men first started the notion that 
the way to heaven was by infinite jaw ; and 
see what infinite jaw has brought us to.' 

' Ay,' said C. ' 'Tis wonderful how men will 
go on talking with nothing to say.' " 

There is nothing very new here, nothing 
surprising ; but it is impossible to turn aside 
from a book which reports such conversa- 
tions. Human nature is otherwise con- 
structed. Elsewhere Carlyle calls GilfiUan 
a "brute," a "wild ass's colt"; and 
Kingsley tells how he flung Dickens's 
C/iild's Ilutori/ of England into the fire. 
Carlyle also says, when asked to take part 
in the movement for opening museums on 
Sunday, that " he would be sorry to give 
the old religion its last kick." Since then 
the kick has been administered, but the old 
religion still perseveres. Finally, let me 
quote one of the references to Tennyson. 
The date is October 16, 1852 : 

"Tennyson came to the library to-day. 
After a time he said, ' I must have a pipe. 
Mr. Wild replied that he should either go and 
smoke up the chimney in the back library or 
on the rocf. He chose the latter, and I went 
to show him how to thrust hi< huge lengih 
through the window. In a quarter of an hour 
he came down greatly refreshed. During a 
conversation on French affairs on the day of 
the christening of his chUd, he broke in with 
his deep sonorous voice, ' By the holy living 
God, France is in a loathsome state.' " 



BRIEFER' MENTION. 



Life and Letters of William John Butler. 
(Macmillan & Co.) 

THE late Dean of Lincoln belonged to the 
first flight of the High Church Move- 
ment. The friend of Pusey and the saintly 
Keble, he looked with some distrust upon the 
Ritualistic vagaries of their more feather- 
headed successors. As a parish priest at 
Wantage, he did good work in civilising a 
somewhat lawless community; and he was 
one of the first to institute or revive Sister- 
hoods in the Anglican Church. His task 
was not lightened by the tendency of the 
Sisters to become converts to Roman 
Catholicism ; but at the time of the founder's 
death tlie community of St. Mary of Want- 
age numbered thirty-four branches occupied 
in various works of piety and charity 
throughout England and India. In 1870 
occurred a curious episode in Butler's life. 
He was taking a holiday on the Continent 
when the Franco-Prussian war broke out. 
He volunteered at once for Rod Cross work, 
and for a considerable period this some- 
what autocratic organiser served patiently as 
storekeeper in a military hospital. His 
letters describing this curious experience are, 



perhaps, the most interesting part of the 
book ; but as a whole it leaves a pleasant 
impression of an honest, hard-working, and, 
within his limits, a reasonable man. He 
had a great influence over his curates, the 
most remarkable of whom was the late 
Canon Liddon. 

Our Churches, and Why we Belong to Them. 
By Canon Knox Little and Others. 
(Service & Paton.) 

A COLLECTION of essays by two dignitaries of 
the Church of England and nine represen- 
tatives of the principal bodies of Protestant 
Dissenters. There is no hint in the book 
itself of how it came to be written, but all 
the essays show internal evidence that their 
writers' attention has been especially drawn 
to the possibility of corporate re-union. 
When the Churches do agree, their unanimity 
is wonderful ; and there is hardly a dis- 
cordant note in the book, save for the 
pronouncements of the two Anglicans. 
From these we give a few extracts side by 
side. 



Canon Knox Little. 

The Church of Eng- 
land has preserved the 
Apostolic Succession, 
and therefore has vali- 
dity for ht-r sacra- 
ments. 

The saciament of 
continuation .... 
which is stated in the 
New Testament to be 
one of ' ' the first prin- 
ciples of the doctrine 
of Christ." 

Prayers for the dead 
and the proi^er and 
unexaggerated invo- 
cation of saints have 
been revived and re- 
placed in their due 
position. 

The Blessed Sacra- 
ment and Saciitice (is) 
the chief service of the 
Church o dained by 
our Lord .... When- 
ever " the Sacrifice of 
our Ransom " is cele- 
brated, all hear the 
living voice of the 
creed of Niceea. 



Prebendary Wkbb 
Peploe. 

Evangelicals may 
doubt the reality or 
power of what is now 
called " Apostolical 
Succession." 

The Church of Eng- 
land knows nothing 
whatever of more than 
two Sacraments .... 
Baptism and the Sup- 
per of the Lord. 

The Church of Eng- 
land has given proof 
that invocation of 
saints and prayers for 
the dead are not ac- 
cording to the mind of 
the Lord. 

For a man to profess 
to offer a " Sacrifice of 
our Ransom" or a 
propitiatory offering 
in any sense for the 
sins of his fellow-men 
is at once to place 
himself in opposition 
to the teaching of the 
Church of England. 



May not those Dissenters who are invited to 
unite with the Church of England reasonably 
ask which set of doctrines it is that they are 
asked to accept ? 

The Nursery Rhyme-Booh. By Andrew 
Lang. (F. Wame & Co.) 

Considering that a work similar in scope 
and of the same bulk as this book appeared 
only two or three years ago, edited by Prof. 
Saintsbury and illustrated exceedingly well 
by Mr. Gordon Browne, we cannot speak of 
Mr. Lang's volume as a long-felt want. 
Nowadays, however, it is the fashion in 
literature to do the same thing twice ; and 
Mr. Lang is so entertaining a compiler 
of books for the young that we cannot 
complain, whatever the publishers of the 
earlier work may do. For the volume 



10 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 1, 1898. 



before us Mr. Lang has gone avowedly to 
Mr HaUiweU-PhiUips's collection. Having 
chosen the rhymes he has prefixed an essay 
upon them and added notes. The essay, 
which is intended for young readers, but will 
not (of course) be road by them, shows the 
author in one of his infrequent confidential 
moods. Thus : 

-To read the eld Nursery Rhymes briugs 
b»ck queer lost memories of a man's own child- 
hood. One seems to see the loose, « .ppy 
picture-books of long ago, with their boldly 
coloured pictures The books were t.tt creel 
and worn, and my first library consisted of a 
wooden box full of these volumes, and 1 can 
remember being imprisoned for some crime m 
the closet whee the box was, and how my 
gaolers found me, happy and impenitent, sitting 
on the b..x, with its contents »11 around me, 
reading. There was 'Who killed Cock Eobin . 
which I knew by heart before I could read 
(entirely 'without tears') by picking out the 
letters in the familiar words . . . . ' 

We cannot always quite understand Mr. 
Lang's selections. For instance, why print 
this — 

" There was an old man of Tobago, 
Who lived on rice, gruel, and sago, 
Till, much to his bliss. 
His physician said this — ^ 

To a leg, sir, of mutton, you may go ' — 

and not accompany it with many other and 
better nonsense rhymes ? The number of 
funny jingles (irrespective of Edward Lear's) 
on this model is large, yet Mr. Lang offers 
only indifferent ones. But it is a kindly 
book, and for grown-ups its pages are filled 
with reminiscences. Some of Mr. L. Leslie 
Brooke's illustrations could hardly be better, 
others are singularly lacking both in fun 
and fancy. The Old Woman who Lived 
under a Hill is, however, perfect. So is the 
Pussy Cat who had been to London to look 
at the Queen. 

SketcJws of Rural Life. By Francis Lucas. 
(MacmiUan & Co.) 



SiscE the first edition of this pleasant little 
book was published, eight years ago, its 
kindly author has died. Mr. Lucas, who 
was by profession a partner in an old 
Quaker private bank at Hitchin, rhymed 
only occasionally; but his rhymes, though 
few, were fit, and his philosophy was old- 
fashioned and sound. The poems which 
give the title to this volume, comprising the 
Miller, the Hedger and Ditcher, the Plough- 
man, the Shepherd, and kindred others, 
have a fresh and simple note and a welcome 
homeliness and humour. Our copy con- 
cludes -with pages 157, which bears the 
words "Tlie End,'" although the index 
promises on page 159 another poem with 
the attractive title " Imaginary People of 
1838 and their Sentiments and Surround- 
ings." This is rather a curious error, to 
which we call the attention of the publishers. 
A formal and an informal portrait of the 
late Francis Lucas, the latter much the 
better, accompany the volume. 

All About Animals. (George Newnes/Ltd.) 

Tins book brings the Zoo to our very fire- 
side. It consists of some four hundred photo- 

oTn-nhn rfinrofliipAil irt fbo ap.n1e of 1 inches 



by 7 of wild animals, taken instantaneously. 
The plates have been printed with the utmost 
care, and every picture in the copy before 
us is a sharp, clear impression. We have 
no hesitation in saying that this is incom- 
parably the best book of its kind that has 
vet appeared. Here is the justification of 
the camera indeed: to enable a homo-keep- 
ing reader in a comfortable chair to know 
accurately, and in a moment, what manner 
of beasts infest the jungles of India and the 
forests of South America, the bush ot 
Australia and the African deserts ! In the 
nursery the book should bo an inexhaustible 
treasure : the lions almost growl, and when 
we come to the elephants' bath we almost 
dodge the spray. The photographs are the 
work of M. Garabier Bolton, the Scholastic 
Photo Company, Herr Anschutz of Berbn, 
and Mr. Stuart of Southampton. Until 
colour photography is introduced we cannot 
conceive of the camera excelling some of 
these plates. A brief and pithy account of 
each animal accompanies each picture. 

The Blackberries and their Adventures. By 
E. W. Kemble. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 

Mr. E. W. Kemble, the American artist, 
is, hy general consent, incontestably the 
best comic delineator of negro life tlmt 
has yet appeared. In the volume before 
us we have a number of coloured 
drawings in his merriest manner depicting 
the adventures of a little company of 
nigger children. The model of the book 
is Mr. Palmer Cox's Brownies, but Mr. 
Kemble has taken nothing but tlie ground 
plan of that diverting work: the super- 
structure and fun are his own. Tlie 
Blackberries pass through the usual experi- 
ences : they play golf, and swim, and make 
fireworks, and ride a steeplechase, and 
always contrive a comic mishap. Some of 
their facial expressions are a treat for sore 
eyes, as the saying is. The accompanying 
verses may or may not be good — so faint 
is the orange ink in which they are printed 
that we cannot read them. Luckily they 
are not needed. 



be illuminative to some of our readers. The 
book is aimed at children, and it certainly 
should hit them. The life-stories of animals 
are always profoundly entertaining, when 
done well (witness the popularity of lilatk 
Beautij), and this is done well enough. 
It has an un-English roughness and abrupt- 
ness, but the interest is sound and per- 
sistent. The following extract should give 
the nursery a pleasant foretaste : 

" Next morning the grocer sent the follow- 
ing bill to Mishook'B master : ' Yesterday were 
eaten in my shop by your Highness' s cub : 

Rou- Co- 
bles, pecks. 

6 lbs. spiced gingerbreads, at 30 

copecks per lb 1 **** 

5 lbs. ordinary ginger breads, at 

25 copecks per lb 1 25 

13. lbs caramel, best quality ... <• 50 



The Making of Matthias. By J. S. Fletcher. 
(John Lane.) 

We cannot conscientiously call this anything 
but a dull book. The author's intention is 
admirable: to show a boy, rich with the 
freedom of the open air, the fields and 
woods and secret places of the earth ; rich 
with the friendship of the beasts and birds ; 
knowing no evil, yet wanting for his per- 
fection the elements of human sympathy ; 
finding it at last in grief for a dead friend, 
and thus being " made." But the treat- 
ment is unrelieved, undistinguished. Mr. 
Fletcher writes accurately, yet his book is 
without movement, without soul. Miss 
Lucy Kemp-Welch supplies some charming 
illustrations. 

Tlie Adventures of a Siberian Cub. Translated 
from the Eussian by Leon Golschmann. 
(Jarrold & Sons.) 
The name of the Russian author is not 
given ; but we are led to suppose that the 
true English equivalent of the title of the 
storv is " The Euined Home," wliich may 



Please pay this bill, and please forbid your 
Highness's cub to enter my shop ! ' " 

There are many excellent pictures of the 
cub, by Miss Winifred Austen. 

Two Essays upon Matthew Arnold, with Some of 
his Letters to the Author. By Arthur 
Galton. (Elkin Mathews.) 

Natorally one first goes to the letters in 
this volume. The series begins with one in 
which Mr. Arnold gave his correspondent 
the wholesome advice that " exercise in 
verse cannot but be valuable to you if you 
set yourself to be distinct." In the closing 
epistle Mr. Arnold remarks that "Macaiilay 
can hardly be of use to any mortal soul who 
takes our times and its needs seriously.' 
The letters between deal with nothing more 
important to the general reader than pet- 
dogs and lumbago, the fortunes of the Ilnbby 
Horse, and how the great critic had an 
"aching back" at Hastings and had httle 
inclination for his American tours. They 
also show that he tried in vain to induce Mr. 
Galton to make a certain dedication less 
flattering. Had he seen these essays it 
is possible that he would have felt still 
more uncomfortable under their excessive 
laudation. 



Mary Powell and Deborah's Diary. Edited 
by W. H. Hutton. (Nimmo.) 

The two romances which Miss Manning 
wove around the domestic life of Milton do 
not deserve to full into total oblivion. A 
trifle sentimental, they are done with real 
knowledge and with sympathy alike for the 
poet and for the household to whom ho must 
have been something of a trial. Mr. W. H- 
Hutton contributes a preface, in which he 
recalls memories of the authoress, old- 
fashioned and satirical, "a tall, thin lady 
with black hair, an aquiline nose, and a 
bright colour," and the reprint is adorned 
with some dainty drawings by Mr. Herbert 
Railton and Mr. John Jellicoe. 

C'arlyle on Barns. By John Muir. (Hodge 

& Co.). 
First came Burns, writing his best. Then 
came Carlyle, with a warm eulogy. Now 
comes Mr" Muir with opinions on both. 
Meanwhile Burns's poems await readers. 



Ja>-. 1, 1898."] 



THE ACADEMY. 



11 



SATURDAY, JANUARY i, 1898 

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NOTES AND NEWS. 



THE late Alphonse Daudet left behind 
him a considerable body of unpub- 
lished and incomplete work, including short 
stories, reminiscences, a novel entitled 
Quime Ans do 3Iariage, and the bulk of 
a work of a personal nature, called 3Ia 
Douleur, the account of his own sufferings 
under ill-health, and those of other writers 
similarly afflicted. M. Leon Daudet will 
act as his father's biographer — at least, as 
his father's first biograjjher. It is not 
likely that only one memoir will be pub- 
lished. 



Mr. Balfour's plea for poor novelists 
confronted by a world whose fictional 
possibilities they have exhausted, upon 
which we remarked last week, has drawn 
forth much criticism. Probably Mr. Balfour 
intended that it should, just as a clever 
debater will sometimes change sides in 
order that the discussion may be more 
spirited. 



The best comment upon the speech that 
we have yet seen is made in a letter to the 
Scotsman from a writer whose work is now 
too seldom seen— Mr. William Black. He 
Bays : 

"At this pacific season of the year, would 
you allow a perfectly obscure person to endea- 
vour to calm the perturbed spirit of Mr. A. J. 
Balfour ? He appears to be agitated about the 
probable future of the novel. At Edinburgh 
I the other day he spoke of ' the obvious difficulty 
which novelists now find in getting hold of 
appropriate subjects for their art to deal with.' 
And again he said, with doubtful grammar, 
'Where, gentleman, is the novelist to find a 
new vein V Every country has been ransacked 
to obtain theatres on which their imaginary 
characters are to show themselves off,' and so 
forth. Mr. Balfour may reassure himself. So 
long as the world holds two men and a maid, 



or two maids and a man, the novelist has 
abundance of material, and there is no need to 
search for a ' theatre ' while we have around us 
the imperishable theatre of sea and the sky 
and the hills. If Mr. Balfour cannot master 
these simple and elementary propositions, then 
it would be well for him to remain altogether 
outside the domain of literature, and to busy 
himself (when not engaged in party politics) 
with some more recondite subject — say bi- 
metallism." 



Another critic of the novel has been 
laying about him with some vigour — M. 
Ezewusik, a Pole. We cannot agree with 
much that he says, but the opinions of an 
outspoken intelligent foreigner are always 
interesting. M. Ezewusik begins by 
exempting Dickens and Thackeray, George 
Eliot, Lord Lytton, and Mr. Meredith from 
his strictures: they, he says, are, by tne 
intensity of their style, their psychological 
analysis, the elevation of their feelings and 
the grandeur of their philosophical con- 
ceptions, the rivals of the great Slav, 
German, and French novelists ; although 
even in their best work there is always 
something of insincerity and a tendency to 
metajihysics (Dickens metaphysical !). In 
structural skill, however, they are the in- 
feriors of even second-rate Frenchmen. 



As for the second-rate English novelists, 
men and women, M. Ezewusik thinks them 
terrible. Their work reveals bottomless 
depths of silliness, chatter, stupid admira- 
tion, mawkish sentimentality, and harsh, 
preachy cant. The women are the worse 
offenders : to let lodgings and write a novel 
is within the power (so M. Ezewusik says) 
of any Englishwoman. Still he finds some 
Englishwomen of the second rank who 
can please him : Miss Ehoda Broughton, 
Ouida, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Char- 
lotte Bronte ! 



In the January Blackwood the late Mrs. 
Oliphant's office of " Looker On " will be 
found to bo occupied by another. A fit 
successor of the wise and shrewd observer 
whose pen is now still for ever must have 
unusual gifts. 



The first number of Saint George, the 
quarterly journal of the Euskin Society of 
Birmingham — the Society of the Eose — 
reaches us. The editor is Mr. John Howard 
Whitehouso. The reports of three lectures 
delivered before tho Euskin Society of Bir- 
mingham form the bulk of the number, 
which is well printed and well presented. 
A portrait of the Master serves for frontis- 
piece. 



Saint George also contains the following 
extract from a letter from Mr. W. G. Colling- 
wood : "I am glad to say that Mr. Euskin's 
health is much as it has been during these 
later years. He still takes his daily walks, 
sees his personal friends, and spends much 
time in reading. But it does not seem to 
be understood by the public that his com- 
parative health depends upon his being kept 
from all unnecessary work. He directs his 
own business, but is obliged to decline 
correspondence, and cannot reply to the 



many letters which still come asking for his 
intervention in public matters, or for private 
advice and assistance." Mr. Euskin, we 
might add, will be seventy-nine in February. 

The first number of The Ethical World, 
a twopenny weekly journal whose scope is 
explained by its tide, is also before us. It 
seems soundly done. Among the articles in 
the current issue are a dissertation on a 
passage in Newman's writings, by Mr. 
Leslie Stephens, and an account of the 
social outlook in America, by Mr. Charles 
ZuebUn. 



From Mr. Conan Doyle poems come but 
seldom, but when he does turn to verse he 
hits the mark. His song of the English 
bow in Micah Clarice is a stirring ballad, 
and he wrote nobly of the Fourdrogant 
when it was proposed to sell her some few 
years ago. But in the main he adheres to 
prose. We are, therefore, the more glad to 
find his spirited ballad of "Cremona" in 
the January Cornhill. 



" Cremona " tells the story of the capture 
of that city by the Imperial army under 
Prince Eugene in 1 702, and its recovery by 
the Irish regiments of Dillon and Burke, 
who were assisting the French army under 
Marshal Villeroy. Here are some stanzas : 

"Prince Eugene of Austria is in the market- 
place; 
Prince Eugene of Austria has smiles upon his 
face; 
Says he, ' Our work is done. 
For the Citadel is won, 
And the black and yellow flag flies o'er 
Cremona.' 

Major Dan O'Mahony is in the barrack 

square. 
And just six hundred Irish boys are waiting 
for him there ; 
Says he, ' Come in your shirt. 
And you won't take any hurt. 
For the morning air is pleasant in Cremona.' 

Major Dan O'Mahony is at the barrack gate, 
And just six hundred Irish boys will neither 
stay nor wait ; 
There's Dillon and there's Burke, 
And there'U be some bloody work 
Ere the Kaiserlics shall boast they hold 
Cremona. 

Major Dan O'Mahony has reached the river 

fort. 
And just six hundred Irish boys are joining 
in the sport ; 
' Come, take a hand I ' says he, 
' And if you will stand by me, 
Then it's glory to tho man who takes 
Cremona I' " 

At last the Irishmen succeeded in boating 
back the besiegers. The ballad ends : 

" There's just two hundred Irish boys are 
shouting on the wall ; 
There's just four hundred lying who can 
hear no slogan call ; 
But what's the odds of that, 
For it's all the same to Pat, 
If he pays his debt in Dublin or Cremona. 

Says General de Vaudray, ' You've done a 

soldier's work I 
And every tongue in France shall talk of 
Dilion and of Burke I 
Is there anything at all, 
Which I, the General, 
Can do for you, the heroes of Cremona ? ' 



12 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Sas. 1, 1898 



'One 



' Why, yes,' says Dan O'Mahony. 

favour we entreat. 
We were called a little early, and our toilet's 
not complete. 
We've no quarrel with the shirt, 
But the breeches wouldn't hurt. 
For the evening air is chilly in Cremona.' " 

The Pall Mall Gazette reviews Miss L. 
Alma Tadema's volume of poetry, Jiealms 
of Utikown Kingg, as if it were the work of 
the artist, her father: "If Mr. Alma 
Tadema," it says, "will devote himself to 
his art, look closely for subjects, rid himseK 
of the affectation that love, to be interesting, 
ought to be imlawful, and elaborate his 
Ivrics, he ought to make a name." But 
when names are thus confused, the 
temptations to make one cannot be very 
alluring. 

The Critic prints the following letter 
from Mark Twain, in Vienna, concerning 
certain false rumours which have been 
recently circulating: "It has been re- 
ported that I was seriously ill — it 
was another man; dying — it was another 
man ; dead — the other man again. It has 
been reported that I have received a legacy — 
it was another man ; that I am out of debt- 
it was another man; and now comes this 
82,000 dols. — still another man. It has 
been reported that I am writing books — for 
publication ; I am not doing anything of the 
kind. It wouli surprise and gratify me if I 
should be able to get another book ready 
for the press within the next three years. 
You can see yourself that there isn't any- 
thing else to be reported — invention is 
exhausted. ... As far as I can see, 
nothing remains to be reported except that 
I have become a foreigner. When you 
hear it, don't you believe it, and don't take 
the trouble to deny it. Merely raise the 
American flag on our house in Hartford 
and let it talk." 



the shape of a facsimile of the original MS. 
According to the " Editor's Note " (though 
surely a facsimile of an original MS. is in no 
need of an editor) the book is published to 
give every reader the opportimity " to 
watch for himself, or herself, the master- 
mind at work ; to see how the story grew 
under his hand ; to trace his very moods, in 
the coiTections and alterations raade^ as the 
work progressed." Unfortunately, Dickens's 
writing at best was not too distinct, and the 
corrections and interlineations render it here 
quite illegible, except to a reader with a 
microscope and an infinite patience. But 
it is certainly extremely interesting to see 
such a story in the making. 

The humour of the authors of The Bad 
Child's Booh of Beasts, and its sequel, which 
seems to us of a quite desirable quality, 
is not to all tastes. Among the eulogists 
of these gentlemen the Spectator holds, 
perhaps, the foremost place ; yet see how 
an American reviewer can write : ". . . Its 
pictures are of the order of caricature, But 
they are not of a pleasing type of cari- 
cature, and the inequality of level between 
them and the ' verses ' is marked. Such 
a book can have no refining influence on 
minds of any age, and it must be a very 
crude kind of taste that can find anything 
in it to enjoy. The production of such 
books is a waste of pens, ink, and paper." 
One man's meat is truly another man's 
poison. 



Some time ago an article appeared in one 
of the American magazines in praise of an 
" artist of the monostich " : in other words, 
a poet or phrase-maker who confined his 
productive powers to single lines. His 
capacity for epithet was sometimes striking, 
but it seemed to some of his readers that his 
task had only begun. Now, in the Critic, 
we find the same, or another, artist of the 
monostich again at work. Here are some 
specimens : 

"A Pearl 

Up from the deep sea's darkness stole a drop 

of light. 

An Albatross 

It climbed the horizon with slow stroke of wing. 

Mist 

God's breath upon the mirror of the sea. 

Twilight 

Gray with the vestige of forgotten light." 

A monostich in time, it may be presumed, 

eaves nine ; but we confess to preferring 

longer poems of more sustained interest. 

Few Christmases go by without seeing 
tlie publication of a now edition of Cliarles 
Dickens's Christmas Carol. This year the 
work has come from the house of Cassell in 



A prospectus of the Art Journal for 1898 
reaches us, decorated with a very modem 
design in colours. Among the special 
supplements for the year wUl be reproduc- 
tions after Mr. Clausen, Mr. Swan, Mr. 
Peter Graham, Mr. Orchardson, and the 
late Sir John Millais and Albert Moore. 
Mr. B. W. Leader will paint the landscape 
from which the " premium plate " is to be 
etched. A series of articles on famous 
private picture galleries will run through 
the volume. 



Me. Oscar Browning has been engaged 
for some time past in writing a life of Peter 
the Great, which Messrs. Hutchinson & Co. 
inform us they wiU publish about the same 
time that Sir Henry Irving's play of the 
same name is jiroduced at tlie Lyceum. 
Wo do not know whether Sir Henry Irving 
or Mr. Browning is more to be congratulated 
on this happy coincidence. 



directed against my little book, or even the 
grudging allowances made for it, cannot be 
imagined. If to praise moderately, as Vau- 
venargues said, is a sign of mediocrity, then 
(with some fine exceptions) are my critics a 
most mediocre lot. ... I know T shoidd 
be crushed, but there is something in me that 
won't be crushed, won't even take my critics 
seriously. You will see that their verdicts will 
not be final. There is only one thing in which 
I must acknowledge them cunningly clever — 
when they dubbed The Beth Book dull. It ig 
not dull, and that they knew, but in order to 
injure the book they deliberately and dishonestly 
set themselves to mislead the xiublic." 
We are not concerned to return to The Beth 
Book and its merits ; but it may be pointed 
out that to some one every author is dull, 
even Lewis Carroll and Thomas a Kempis. 



Owing to an inadvertence, Mr. A. H. 
Norway's new book, Highways and Byways 
in Bevon and Cornwall, was reviewed last 
week under the title, Bt the West Country. 
There is very good reason why Mr. Norway's 
volume should not bear such a name, for it 
already belongs to a pleasant collection of 
papers on Devon, Somerset, and Cornwall 
by Mr. Prancis H. Knight. 

Madame Sarah Grand has given an 
interviewer of the Weekly Sun her opinions 
on The Beth Book and its critics. She said, 
among other things : 

"Anything more unlike what I should have 
understool was criticism than the diatribes 



Vittoria has just been added to the new 
cheap edition (if six shillings per volume 
can rightly be called cheap in the time of 
sixpenny Shakespeares) of Mr. Meredith's 
novels. We observe the phrase, " Copy- 
right, 1897, by George Meredith," facing 
the contents. This has reference, we pre- 
sume, to the revised text, and means that 
Messrs. Constable's edition of Vittoria is 
safe from the enterprise of rival firms for 
the next forty-two years, whereas the first 
form of the novel, which was published in 
1866, wUl be accessible a considerable 
period earlier. 

In its new shape Vittoria has a frontispiece 
in photogravure representing La Scala, the 
opera-house at Milan. 

In the current number of the Artist we 
find an enthusiastic, but weU-merited, 
eulogy of the work of Mr. William Hyde. 
This artist is as yet little known, except 
among the few, but certainly there are living 
few closer students, and no finer exponent, 
of the play of light and shade upon the face 
of nature. Mr. Hyde's usual medium is 
monochrome, which he uses with such 
mastery as to produce almost the effect 
of colour. The examples of his work wliich 
illustrate this article are all scenes of repose; 
yet to our mind it is when a landscape is in 
the grip of a storm or frowned upon by an 
angry sky that Mr. Hyde is at his greatest. 
Two of the pictures are chosen from a book 
on London, which Messrs. Constable will 
shortly publish. 

The Essex Review is one of the best of 
the county antiquarian magazines, but 
like many quarterly publications it has 
sinned against punctuality. It is resolved, 
we learn, to sin no more in this particular ; 
and it aspires to positive improvements. 
From the beginning of the year Miss C. Fell 
Smith wiU be mainly responsible for the 
magazine. 

We are informed that Mr. Farrar Fenton 
who recently issued a translation of the 
New Testament in " current English," is 
about to issue the Old Testament on the 
same lines. The first section will include 
the Book of Job, and will be published 
immediately by Mr. Elliot Stock. We 
trust that " current English " does not 
mean slang. 



Jan. 1, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



13 



REPUTATIONS 
RECONSIDERED. 



II.— WALTER PATEE. 

In and about the year 1870 a great change 
■became apparent in the spirit of English 
literature. The g^oup of vigorous writers 
wlio had made letters subservient to 
uKirality, and who believed in " the man 
and his message," had begun to break up. 
Carlyle, who had wielded a long sway over 
('\ ery kind of intellect — the imaginative, the 
liistoric, even the scientific — was feeling the 
elfects of years, and though, even in decay 
ii rugged giant, his power was no longer 
what it had been. AH along the line the 
movement was being carried on with feebler 
hands. Whatever was weak or imperfect 
in art with a purpose became glaringly 
apparent in the work of those secondary 
writers to whom the elders handed on the 
t(irch. Brilliant young men no longer 
fciund it natural to adliere to Lord Tenny- 
son's theory of literature ; and very soon it 
became apparent that the centre of influence 
was shifting, and that for a time at least an 
opposite doctrine was to prevail. The re- 
bellion — if one may be pemiitted to apply 
that word to a perfectly natural and, 
within limits, wholesome movement — was 
not carried out by any single leader. 
It sprang up simultaneously in a 
number of minds, not, indeed, of the very 
highest rank, but of fine and genuine 
capacity. In verse its clearest exponent was 
William Morris, who, in lines as bold as 
they were sweet and tuneful, announced 
that a bard had come who assumed to be 
neither prophet nor messenger. " Dreamer 
of dreams " sang the latter-day poet: 

" Dreamer of di-eams born out of my due 

time 
Why should I strive tj set the crooked 

straight ? 
Let it suffice me that my murmuring rhyme 
Beats with light wing against the ivory 

gate." 

But though he so beautifully found words 

for tlie creed, it was another who was 

to be the dominant influence. Atalanta 

in Calydon had appeared before the 

Earthly I'aradiso, and for twenty years 

to come its author was to be the most 

8edulou,sly imitated of poets; and the 

imitators taking their cue from him and 

Morris ostentatiously ignored "themessage." 

I I am not concerned to discuss whether they 

I were right or wrong; indeed, I do not 

believe tliere is any abstract right or wrong 

j in the matter. Art wiU boar no heavier 

; moral than is carried by life itself, and if 

the poet be true to life it is impossible 

1 for him to be false to its morals. The 

I justification of a theory lies wholly in its 

; fruit, and it may here be pointed out that 

; the consciousness of a great aim in life itself, 

\ tlie belief that "eyes do regard you from 

' eternity's stUlness," the feeling that there is 

I and must be some great and solemn object 

i in existence has a bracing and ennobling 

I eifect upon letters. The wave of a great 

: moral movement gave us Paradise Lost; 



its reaction only the drama of the Restora- 
tion. A somewhat similar wave produced 
In Memoriam, The French Revolution, und Adam 
Bede ; its reaction has flowered into no 
achievement of the highest class, and is 
ending in something like paralysis. 

Be that as it may — and I throw it out 
only as a suggested explanation — the late 
Mr. Pater, just about the time when 
Atalanta and The Earthly Paradise appeared, 
began to wield in prose an influence equal 
to that which Mr. Swinburne wielded in 
verse. It ran in channels, however, that 
were partially concealed. He was pre- 
eminently a writer's writer, and his power 
is not, as Carlyle's was, open, conspicuous, 
and commanding; it has been most deeply 
felt by the choice minds of his age, and 
has been filtered through them to the wider 
public. There is scarcely an aspect in 
which he does not differ from the great 
moralist. Not even Goethe could make 
Carlyle understand what Kunst was — 
" Carlyle knows nothing of art," said 
Tennyson — he used letters purely as the 
vehicle through which he delivered his 
exhortations to the age. To Pater litera- 
ture was something very different. It was 
" a refuge, a sort of cloistral refuge, from 
a certain vulgarity in the actual world." 
He was the first great Englishman to preach 
the gospel of art for art's sake. He judged 
life not by its effect on the race or the 
future, but by the sensations it experienced 
by " the pleasure of the ideal present, the 
mystic now." 

The "creed looks foolish enough as pre- 
sented by those who may be called deri- 
vatives from Pater ; his own mind was too 
clear and strong to be content with its 
weaker aspect. All roads lead to Rome, 
and it is strange to note that the most 
diverse intellects, provided they be honest 
and capable, arrive finally at very nearly 
the same conclusions. He worked out his 
thoughts into a creed as large and austere 
as that of Carlyle himself. " Not pleasure, 
but fulness of life and insight as conducting 
to that pleasure — energy, choice, and variety 
of experience, including noble pain and 
sorrow" — so does he make his Marius 
think. Pain and sorrow are noble only 
when they are nobly bom, and with this 
explanation the creed embodies all that 
makes for submission and conciliation, for 
adjustment to conditions. 

Nor has any moralist laid down a sterner 
and more uncomxiromising law than this : 

"Truth: there can be no merit, no craft at 
all without that. And, further, all beauty 
is, in the long run, only finenes of truth, or 
what we call expression, the liner accommoda- 
tion of speech to the vision within." 

Mr. Pater does not himself appear to 
have been of a combative or aggressive 
disposition ; but some of the more ardent 
spirits, wlio caught up the cry of art for 
art's sake without troubling about its deeper 
meaning, at once began to use it as a 
battering-ram on the gi'eat reputations of 
their time. Lord Tennyson's biographer 
tells us that he saw in this a beginning 
of decay. His words are worth quoting. 
After giving the poet's impromptu made in 
1869, after reading an attack on the Idylh, 



HaU, truest lord of 



" Art for art's sake ! 
hell! " he goes on: 

" These lines in a measure expressed his 
strong and sorrowful conviction that the 
English were beginning to forget what was, in 
Voltaire's words, the glory of English Uterature 
• — ■' No nation has treated in poetry moral ideas 
with more energy and depth than the English 
nation.' " 

That was thirty years ago, and the young 
warriors who then rushed eagerly to the 
fray are grizzled veterans now, and it is 
their turn to be haled before the judgment- 
seat and asked, not What theory did you 
hold ? but What work have you done ? To 
some extent they have leavened English 
letters, and the young poet and the yoting 
novelist have been turned aside from " the 
purpose," but the condemnation of the 
movement from a purely literary and artistic 
point of view is that it has failed to produce 
any book of the first importance. Let us 
see why this has been so in Mr. Pater's 
case. 

In one sense Mr. Pater was a brilliantly 
successful writer. He has done many 
things so well that one cannot imagine how 
they could have been done better. But he 
did not know where his own strength lay. 
His patient hunt for what he called " the 
exact word " was in his case, as in that of 
Flaubert, doomed to futility. For a writer 
never can convey any but a simple thought 
fully and lucidly from his own mind to that 
of another. The meaning he attaches to 
words is coloured not only by his learning 
and knowledge, but by his previous medita- 
tion and experience. And his phrases fall 
on minds, each of which has a separate and 
different body of experience, which contracts 
or expands, modifies or distorts, their 
significance. One need not go further for 
examples than to certain shibboleths 
of his school. The very word art, so 
vilely hacked and vulgarised during the 
past qviarter of a century, is applied by 
nearly every writer to his or her own work. 
Sir Walter Scott very justly called himself 
an artist, so did George Eliot, so do a score 
of fourth-rate scribblers. In each case it 
conveys a meaning coloured by personality ; 
it cannot be absolutely defined ; it cannot, 
therefore, be employed with such exactitude 
as to convey a meaning fidly and lucidly 
from one mind to another. Distinction, again, 
is a term which has the same ambiguity. 
It is constantly employed by critics to indicate 
a quality of phrase ; with Pater it describes 
an attitude of mind. Tlie writer is truly 
distinguished who looks at life independently 
with his own eyes ; it is but a bastard dis- 
tinction that springs fi'om preciosity of 
phrase. Fuller and larger illustration of the 
imjiossibility of conveying thought exactly 
from one mind to another may be found in 
the history of any creed. The Gospel of Clirist 
is set forth in clear and simple words, yet if 
we consider the number of creeds and 
sects, the divisions, arguments, and even 
battles to which its interpretation has given 
rise, how obvious nuist it be that the 
word had one meaning in the mind of him 
who uttered them ; another in the case of 
those who heard. Nay, take Mr. Pater's 
own teaching and compare it with that of 
his derivatives, and it will be seen how 



u 



THE ACADEMY. 



|_Jan. 1, 18«8. 



distorted it has become in passing from the 
master to his scholars. That he knew this 
himself is evident from his fear that the 
well-known " conclusion " of his Renaistance 
studies should be misapprehended, as it 
undoubtedly has been. 

But the great weakness of Mr. Pater and 
his school lies in a too great exaltation of 
art. He did not, indeed, as some of his 
followers have done, go the length of 
asserting that art transcended life, but art 
was his chiefest interest. His books are all 
those of a bookman. In no case that I 
know of did he take his materials direct 
from nature. His creative works, Marius 
and Gaston de Latour, are but attempts to 
show the development of a personality in 
times to which he was a stranger, and they 
could be reconstructed only through records 
and chronicles. The work is done marvel- 
lously well, but within limits that fix narrow 
boundaries to his sympathies. An imagina- 
tion that had been fed not only by books, 
but by the living stream of life, could not 
have been satisfied with such a picture. It 
would have demanded not only the flower 
of the time in a refined Marius or a 
Gaston, but would have used a hundred 
vigorous forms from the wild, rugged sur- 
roimdings to complete the picture, and to 
throw those exquisite portraitures into con- 
trast. He does, indeed, talk of life for 
life's sake, but it does not work out in his 
conceptions. There is a passage in Marim 
typical of so much that it deserves quotation 
— it describes the hero's feelings after the 
death of his friend Flavian (the italics 
are mine) : 

" The sun shone out ou the people going to 
work for a long hot day, and Marius was 
standing by the dead, watching ivith the 
(klibeiafe purpose of fixing in his memory every 
detaU, that he might have that picture in reserve, 
should any day of forgetfulness ever hereafter 
come to him with the temptation to feel com- 
pletely happy again." 

In other words, he was not living whoUy 
in " the mystic now" but saving up his 
grief for future use. The man who lives 
his life fully, and drinks the cup, be it of 
joy or sorrow, to the lees, mourns or rejoices 
without any " deliberate purpose." Indeed, 
the moment emotion begins to bo fondled 
and thought about it loses its direct natural 
character. One sees this more clearly 
by considering what a real single-hearted 
zest for life a great artist such as Scott had. 
To him, novel-writing was not even a very 
noble or grand way of earning a livelihood, 
and no one can imagine him treasuring his 
sensations, calculating his grief, measuring 
his joy, either as indicating the richness of 
life or to serve as stuff out of which to weave 
art. Far less can it be supposed that Henry 
Fielding, when going out to dine in his 
coach attended by his yellow-liveried 
servant, had a deliberate intention to lay by 
experience out of which to fabricate Gquire 
Western. Not a bit of it. He and Shake- 
speare, and all the rest of the great artists, 
bved their lives without any arrih-e pensh 
about art, and all unconsciously gathered the 
experience from which their creations were 
ultimately fashioned. To be conscious of 
artistic intentions is enough of itself to take 
some of the fine flavour from life. In Pater, 



too, it led to over-book ishness and super- 
refinement and preciosity, so that his books, 
and still more those of his followers, tend to 
lose touch with the actual. 

But it is the limitations of his own 
nature and temperament that lie at the 
root of the matter. The greatness of 
a writer largely depends on the extent of 
his sympathies. He is the interpreter of 
human nature, and the wider and deeper his 
interests the more certain is he to command 
attention. A great sunny nature like that 
of Scott wins upon us, because it can 
project itself into a thousand personalities 
and speak through as many different masks. 
King, priest, and beggar — he projects him- 
self by turns into each. But there are other 
writers so rigid and self-centred, so incapable 
of changing voice or appearance, that they 
seem to speak with set features and in 
a monotone. They tap, as it were, only one 
vein of interest, and the reader who is not 
held by that is not held at all. 

Now, Mr. Pater, supreme as he is in the 
exercise of a fine gift (of which more anon), is 
one of those strictly limited writers. More- 
over, he was of a sterling honesty that 
scorned to make pretence of what he had 
not. Others we know who try to rope in 
all sorts of readers by imitating the qualities 
they do not possess. They can produce a 
sham humour, a sham pathos, a sham 
passion, that will pass without question in 
the market-place. It is a mark of greatness 
in Mr. Pater that he never condescends to 
this. He goes on sternly compressed within 
his narrow channel, and never dreams of 
throwing out a tentacle to those not fully 
in sympathy with him. He has no humour, 
and not even in writing of Charles Lamb 
does he make a pretence of it. With nine- 
tenths of the pursuits of mankind he is out 
of touch, and appears to be quite content 
that it should be so. Cold and austere in 
his own temperament, he makes no attemjit 
to appeal to the warmth and playfulness of 
human nature. The great surging passions 
of life never beat in view of the windows of 
his cloistral refuge. Indeed, it is somewhat 
of a paradox that in his two novels the 
apostle of art for art's sake is more of a 
teacher and sermoniser than an artist. There 
is far more of the gust of human life in 
many a novel with a purpose than in these 
works. So strangely does performance 
often contradict intention. 

But in spite of all these drawbacks he is 
certainly a great writer, one of the first of 
his day. Neither his doctrine uor his 
actual work is likely at any time to ap- 
peal to the general public, but they are 
invaluable to the student and scholar. 
I do not refer to the matter — it would carry 
us far beyond the bounds of this paper to 
touch even superficially on that — but to the 
style by which he would presumably choose 
to be judged. The greatest quality manifest 
in it is that of vivid imagination. Of what 
may be called pictorial English it is doubt- 
ful if any finer exists in the language. 
There are whole pages of Gaston de Latour 
where each sentence is like a piece of ex- 
quisite carving from purest marble, and 
every word is that of a man who has 
conjured up the clearest image of what 
took i)lace in his fancy. Of his " Cupid 



and Psyche " one can only say, as Tonnysoi 
said of Fitz-Gerald's Onmr, that it is i 
"version done divinely well." And even ii 
his less important essays there are bit 
which could have been comjwsed by non( 
but a man of strong imagination. Wha 
could be finer than this from the paper or 
Charles Lamb ? — 

"Reading, commenting on Shakespeare, h( 
is like a man who walks alone under a granc 
stormy sky, and among unwonted tricks oi 
light, when powprful spirits seem to be abroac 
upon the air; and the grim humour of Hogarth 
as he analyses it, rises into a kind of spectra 
grotesque." 

If the historical novelists would only study 
Pater's pictorial manner how much more diffi- 
cult, but how much more delightful, wouW 
their work become ! The plague of it is thai 
they cannot reproduce the "quality" of Pater, 
while there is nothing easier than to catch 
at the hothouse mannerisms and preciosities 
that are his flaws. Nor will they amend 
their ways while critics bestow the epithet 
"distinguished" on those who murder his 
style. 

P. 



THE LONDON OF THE WRITERS. 

IV. — ^The New Poetky. 

London seems to have inspired the poets in 
proportion as she has become herself prosaic. 
If you deny that she has become prosaic, 
we will converge to this : that London poems 
have multiplied with London bricks. London 
gives more themes to poets now that she is 
vast and smoky and iirban than she did 
when milkmaids carried milk to Fleet-street 
from the fields, when salmon leajjed imdei 
London Bridge, and when strawberries were 
jjicked in Holbom. London is written 
about to-day in ways which are quite new, 
ways which the men of old would not havf 
understood. When Wordsworth, standing 
on Westminster Bridge on the morning ol 
September 3, 1802, breathed his sonnet, h( 
foreshadowed this new poetry of London : th( 
poetry which should no longer flatter kings 
or aldermen, or compete with tinsel on Lord 
Mayor's Day, biit should look on London as 
on Nature. 

" Silent, bare. 
Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie 
Open unto the fields, and to the sky." 

Long enough (and far more so) had Londoi 
lain open to the fields and sky; but thi 
thing had not been said, or much felt. Ye 
the poets have bettered Wordsworth's teach 
ing. He could venture to show poor Susai 
only an imaginary and pasteboard Spring- 
" a mountain ascending, a vision of trees, ' ij 
river in Cheapside — whereas to-day fllil 
very Spring is exquisitely found in Londool 
How exquisitely has Mr. Henley found itl 
— but we mean to quote him on anothfil 
theme. In so recent a book as Mr. LioiMl 
Johnson's Ireland, with Other Poems, we finil 
these questions asked — but they have T 
answered many times : 

" Do London birds forget to sing ? 
Do London trees refuse the Spring ? 
Is Loiif]on May no pleasant thing ? 
Let country fields 



Jan. 1, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



15 



To milking maid and shepherd boy- 
Give flowers, and song, and bright employ, 
Her children also can enjoy 
What London yields. 

Gleaming with sunlight, each soft lawn 

Lies frdgrant beneath dew of dawn ; 

The spires and towers rise, far withdrawn, 
Through golden mist : 

At sunset, linger beside Thames : 
I See now, what radiant lights and flames ! 
I That ruby bums : that purple shames 
j The amethyst." 

j Poets whom no one will compare with 
iWordswortli have gone far beyond him as 
jsingers of London's inner, intimate, and 
irecondite beauty. The Cheapside plane- 
liree and the thrush raised for Wordsworth 
ii momentary vision of spring which he trans- 
ferred to Susan, but presently — 

"They fade 
The mist and the river, the hill and the shade ; 
irhe stream will not flow, and the hill will not 
I rise, 

jVnil the colours have all pasi'd a^vay from her 
I eyes." 

For the poets of to-day the vision does 
[lot pass. Theirs is the vision of London's 
pwn spring, her own trees. Let us see how 
i plane-tree inspired a later poet of little 
.ame, but of the newer school of London 
[overs : 

' Green is the plane-tree in the square. 
The other trees are brown ; 
They droop and pine for country air ; 
The plane-tree loves the town. 

Here, from my garret-pane, I mark 
The plane-tree bud and blow. 

Shed her recuperative bark, 
Aud spread her shade below. 

Among her branches in and out. 

The city breezes play ; 
The dun fog wraps her round about ; 

Above, the smoke curls gray. 

Others the country take for choice. 

And hold the town in scorn ; 
But she has listened to the voice 

On city breezes borne." 

n these simple lines by Amy Levy nothing 
I imported into the London picture; no 
baence is regretted. She sings of a London 
lane-tree, green in a London square. The 
all of the spring is heard in London as 
; never was before. Take an "April 
ilidnight" from Mr. Arthur Symons's 
\iilhouettcn : 

■ Ride by side through the streets at midnight, 
; Roaming together, 

I Through the incongruous night of London, 
j In the miraculous April weather. 

I Roaming together under the gaslight, 

Day's work over. 
How the Spring calls to us, here in the city. 
Calls to the heart from the heart of a lover I 
Cool the wind blows, fresh in our faces. 

Cleansing, entrancing. 
After the heat and the fumes and the foot- 
lights. 
There where you dance, and I watch your 
dancing. 

Good it is to be here together, 

Good to be roaming. 
Even in London, even at midnight. 

Lover-like in a lover's gloaming. 

You the dancer and I the dreamer, 

Children together, 
Wandering lost in the night of London, 

In the miraculous April weather." 



Even in vers de mcUU a note of intimacy 
is struck that was not struck before. "I 
stLU love London in the month of May," 
exclaims Mr. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt in a 
careless rhyme : 

" I still love London in the month of May, 
By an old habit, spite of dust and din. 
I love the fair adulterous world, whose way 
Is by the pleasant banks of Serpentine. 
I love the worshippers at fashion's shrine. 
The flowers, the incense, and the pageantry 
Of generations which still ask a sign 
Of that dear god whose votary am I. 
I love the ' greetings in the market-place,' 
The jargon of the clubs. I love to view 
The ' gilded youth ' who at the window pass, 
For ever smiling smiles for ever new. 
I love these men and women at theur task 
Of hunting pleasure. Hope, mysterious too, 
Touches my arm and points, and seems to 

ask, 
' And you, have you no Juliet in the masque ? " ' 

Shall we advance with the year? We have 
had the April night ; and who will say that 
the London summer night is not truly seen 
and sung in these lines from Mr. Laurence 
Binyon's London Virion* : 

" Come let us forth, and wander the rich, the 

murmuring night I 
The sky, blue dusk of summer trembles above 

the street ; 
On either side uprising glimmer houses pale : 
But me the turbulent bubble and voice of 

crowds delight ; 
For me the wheels make music, the mingled 

cries are sweet ; 
Motion and laughter call : we hear, we will 

not fail. 

For see, in secret vista, with soft, retiring 

stars, 
With clustered suns, that stare upon the 

throng below, 
I With pendent dazzling moons, that cast a 

noonday white. 
The full streets beckon: Come, for toil has 

burst his bars, 
And idle eyes rejoice, and feet unbasting go. 
O let us out and wander the gay and golden 

night." 

We are not sure that the summer, mid-day 
London, dazzling and dangerous in its heat, 
has found, or needs, a song. But London's 
autumn glory has inspired Mr. Henley. 
We wonder what Dr. Johnson would have 
thought of Mr. Henley's riotous praise of 
the beauty of the Strand and Fleet-street 
on an autumn afternoon. Johnson was the 
first man of letters who constantly exulted 
in being a Londoner. But he loved London 
for its size, its concentration of learning, 
its freedom from restraint — in a word, for 
the social advantages it offered to a man of 
spirit and culture. He loved the Strand 
and Fleet-street for their taverns, and the 
meetings and greetings they offered him. 
Was he ever much touched by their beauty ? 
Did his eye rest afar on the dome of St. 
Paul's, glowing in the five-o'clock sunlight 
of October ? Could he have felt with Mr. 
Henley ?— 

" Lo ! the round sim, half- down the western 
slope — 
Seen as along an unglazed telescope — 
Lingers and lolls, loth to be done with day : 
Gifting the long, lean, lanky street 
And its abounding confluences of being 
With aspects generous and bland ; 
Making a thousand harnesses to shine 
As with new ore from some enchanted mine, 



And every horse's coat so full of sheen 

He looks new-tailored, and every 'bus feels 

clean. 
And never a hansom but is worth the feeing ; 
And every jeweller within the pale 
Offers a real Arabian Night for sale ; 
And even the roar 
Of the strong streams of toil that pause and 

pour 
Eastward and westward sounds suffused — 
Seems as it were bemused 
And blurred and like the speech 
Of lazy seas on a lotus-eating beach — 
With this enchanted lustrousness. 
This mellow magic, that (as a man's caress 
Brings back to some faded face beloved before 
A heavenly shadow of the grace it wore 
Ere the poor eyes were minded to beseech) 
Old things transfigures, and you hail and 

bless 
Their looks of long-lapsed loveliness once 

more. 
Tall Clement's, angular and cold and staid, 
Glimmers in glamour's very stuffs arrayed ; 
And Bride's her aery, unsubstantial charm. 
Through flight on flight of springing, soaring 

stone 
Grown flushed and warm, 
Laughs into life high-wooded and fresh- 
blown ; 
And the high majesty of Paul's 
Uplifts a voice of living light, and calls — 
Calls to his millions to behold and see 
How goodly this his London Town can be ! " 

Mr. Henley has written so beautifully about 
London that he compels quotation. He 
knows its morning cleanness, its evening 
pensiveness, and its midnight melancholy. 
Here is part of a river reverie by night : 
" Under a stagnant sky, 
Gloom out of gloom uncoiling into gloom. 
The River, jaded and forlorn. 
Welters and wanders wearily — wretchedly on 
Yet in and out among the ribs 
Of the old skeleton bridge, as in the piles 
Of some dead lake-built city, full of skulls 
Worm-worn, rat-riddled, mouldy with 

memories. 
Lingers to babble to a broken tune 
(Once, O the unvoiced music of my heart !) 
So melancholy a soliloquy. 
It sounds as it might tell 
The secret of the unending grief-in-grain. 
The terror of Time and Change and Death, 
That wastes this floating transitory world." 

It is impossible within the limits of a 
sliort article to marshal and illustrate all the 
moods in which the beauty and significance 
of London are felt by poetical minds to-day. 
We wiU conclude by quoting a short poem 
from Mr. Laurence Binyon's Lyric Poeim, 
in which the consolations of London, the 
involuntary pity and encouragement she 
bestows, are finely touched : 

" As I walked through London 
The fresh wound burning in my breast 
As I walked through London, 
Longing to have forgotten, to harden my 

heart, and to rest, 
A sudden consolation, a softening light 
Touched me : the streets alive and bright. 
With hundreds each way thronging, on their 

tide 
Received me, a drop in the stream, immarke'.., 

unknown. 
And to my heart I cried : 
Here can thy trouble find shelter, thy wound be 

eased ! 
For see, not thou alone. 
But thousands, each tvith his smart. 
Deep-hidden, perchance, but felt in the core of 

the heart ! 



16 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 1, 1898. 



And as to a sick man's feverish veins 

The full sponge warmly pressed, 

Relieves with its burning the burning fore- 
head and hands, 

So I to my aching breast 

Gathered the griefs of those thousands, and 
made them my own ; 

My bitterest pains 

Merged in a tender sorrow, assuaged and 
appeased. 

London, it is safe to say, will take rich 
toll of the poets as her enormous life 
becomes more magnetic. But we suppose 
that the great song of London will be sung 
only when she lies in the dust. 



PAEIS LETTEE. 

A NEW writer, M. Remy Saint Maurice, has 
brought a note of freshness into the eternal 
theme of French fiction. In his powerful 
and delicate story, Temple d' Amour, he 
presents the eternal situation (this time com- 
posed of five instead of the usual three 
persons of the drama) with a charm, a reti- 
cence, a pathos, a freedom from vulgarity 
and banality, the cynical ferocity of the hour 
in modem French fiction has almost made 
us forget as graces of a remote and per- 
fumed past. Not that he ceases for that to 
be intensely modem. The complexity of 
the situation, with its moral suffering, its 
morbid perturbation, its refinement of pain, 
could only be discovered in our own times. 
Even half a century ago sin was either more 
blithe or more lurid than to-day. The lover 
was tortured by the infidelity or the per- 
sistent fidelity of his mLstress ; either clung 
to her slavishly or left her without regret, 
as in either situation there was matter 
enough for the story-teller. But Stendhal 
and Bourget discovered new realms of pain 
and complication, and since then lover and 
mistress have entered into more poignant 
and more bitter strife with fatality or their 
own temperament. The day of the genial 
rake is over, and the sinner now has de- 
veloped a terrible, an exasperated and 
dominating conscience. 

M. Saint Maurice's touch is lighter than 
Bourget's ; his analysis less searching, less 
ponderous and profound. His vision travels 
through an atmosphere less dense, and there 
is more of the charm and bright suggestive- 
ness necessary to make the reading of fiction 
the entertainment it ought to be. He is 
more of the story-teller and less of the 
professional psychologist than is Bourget. 
And he has the art of capturing interest 
from the start. The exotic flavours of the 
Isle of Maurice is an added grace. Walmont, 
the dull and insignificant husband of British 
origin, is carefully drawn, but tends to the 
conventional, whereas his brother James, 
the real hero of the book, deformed and 
disfigured, is a more original figure. His 
jealousy of his beautiful creole sister-in- 
law, whom he has always silently adored, 
discovers her infidelity to Walmont, and 
drives him to the desperate act which ends 
the story, the drowning of himself and 
Helene off the Breton coast. These summer 
scenes of Dinard are delightfully told, and 
in fine contrast with the unpremeditated 



tragedy of the last page. But the novelty 
of the study consists in the attitude of the 
lover, Hubert de Olesse, an elegant deputy 
with a conscience. It is the sight of 
Helene's son, George, a lad of nineteen, 
dropped suddenly from his picturesque island 
into Parisian society, that fronts him with 
remorse and hesitation. The innocent lad in- 
stantly attaches himself to the elegant Clesse, 
and is so caressing, so living an image of his 
mother, that the mother's lover is confounded 
with a sense of their double iniquity. 
Helene's conscience is less unquiet, perhaps, 
because passion holds her in a firmer grip. 
The analysis of Clesse's remorse and suffer- 
ings is finely shaded, and strikes deep and 
true. But the character is somewhat 
effaced — ^too modem and complex to be 
strong. He vacillates, succumbs, defends 
himself regretfully against the encroach- 
ments of the Creole's passion ; seeks refuge 
now in sentimental dalliance beside a girlish 
profile, now in trivial flirtation with a brazen 
coquette ; is never sure of himself, never at 
ease, is wistful and uncertain in his rejection 
of the love he cannot live without, but 
always keeps our sympathy through his 
sincere and delicate affection for Helene's 
son. "As soon as you became my son's 
friend," cries Helene bitterly to him in their 
last scene, "you shrank from seeing in me 
her who loved you. Ah, how different is 
the heart of man from that of woman ! " 
And he reproaches her with George's like- 
ness to herself, which from the first glance 
was a mirror wherein he recognised the 
pitiless impurity of their relations. The 
style is excellent — not so limpid as French 
prose can be, not so contorted as it has 
become. Here and there a detail too much, 
here and there excessive weight upon a 
stroke, but a book to welcome cordially. 

M. Eene Doumie is the critic of the Rerue 
des Deux Mbndes, and wields a frigid, a direct 
and honest pen. Of charms he has not a 
suspicion, of temperament not a hint. But 
he is a safe grinder, tolerably equipped for 
his difficult and delicate calling, and possibly 
none the worse for being so glacial and 
coiTect. His new volume of etudes sur In 
LitUrature Frangaise is an interesting collec- 
tion of articles that have appeared in the 
dull and famous " Eeview," as the members 
of that bleak house call it. To add " of the 
two worlds " for them is superfluous. There 
is but one "Eeview" in the universe, and 
it is of " the Two Worlds," possibly indi- 
cating this and the next. 

M. Doumie is, very properly, an anti-natur- 
alist, and as a lieutenant of the uncomprom- 
ising M. Briinetiere makes lustily for the 
moribund reputation of the illustrious Zola. 
It is somewhat late in the day to break a 
literary stick on that hard skull, but the 
article reads as an adualiU, with all the 
students of Paris clamouring for Zola's 
blood, not even restraining their indecent 
shouts of "Spurn Zola" on leaving the 
cemetery on the day of Baudot's funeral. 
But as long as the Institute gates may be 
thought capable of a hospitable movement 
in Zola's regard, in the esteem of the ponti- 
fical Brunetiere, it is never too late to say a 
disagreeable word of the author of 
Rome. Zola's style M. Doumie describes 
as " of a rare indigence." " Art," he else- 



where acutely remarks, "is absent; that is 
why it lacks life." 

" It is less style than nearly style, making us 
think of thoBe ready-made garments that 
nearly fit everybody and fit nobody well, too 
tight for the fat, too wide for the lean. . . . 
A book of M. Zola's is to literature what the 
chromo-lithograph is to painting, masomTr to 
architecture, a statue of the Rue St. Suljnce to 
the sculptor's marble, the bronze of trade to a 
work of art. It is the novel by the yard, 
a serial by measure. The introduction of 
naturaUsm into the novel is the ruiu of art, 
sent flying by industrial fabrication." 

The Goncourts he clean sweeps out of the 
world of letters, as : 

"The petiU-mmtre) of the contemporary 
novel, red-heels of naturalism, artists wlio have 
left descriptions in mosaic, books lacquered and 
varnished with Martin varnish, listeners at 
doors, who have passed from historical gossip 
to contemporary scandals, mildly maniacal col- 
lectors for whom the occupation of wiiting and 
hterature also wore but a mania." 

Their historical knowledge he qualifies as 
that of " a dressmaker, a butler, or a valet." 
This is hard on the rivals of Riclielieu, 
the foimders of the cracked academy of 
Auteuil, but M. Doumie is nothing if not 
hard. It saves him from the surprises and 
inconsistencies of sympathy. 

H. L. 



TALES OF OUE GEANDMOTHEES. 

Children are not what they used to be. 
The remark has been made often enough 
concerning real children, but you may see 
for yourself that it is true of the children 
of literature. Possibly Meleti'ii Babies laid 
the foundations of popularity for tlie chilil 
who, though not very, very good, is cer- 
tainly not horrid. Those babies have had 
many younger brothers and sisters who are 
far from exemplary ; and even Mr. Kenneth 
Grahame's children, children of the age as 
they are, indulge in practices of which \v 
weU-conducted great-aunt could approve 
We have been tauglit by the literature as wel 
as by the experience of the present day tha' 
cliildren may be naughty and yet nice. 1 
was very different in the days when ou' 
gi-andfathers were remarking that ou ' 
grandmothers were monstrous fine women 
by gad ; at least, if we may judge from tli' 
children's literature that dates from thn 
remote epoch. To-day we expect childrei 
to be naughty and to grow up good. Ii 
those days, it would ajipear, childre 
were expected to be blameless. So \i 
gather from a collection of books whu 
were put into the hands of such as cliani 
to be children in the early jjart of tJi: 
century. Take, for example, a boo 
picked from the twopenny box. Sketches 
Young People ; or, A Visit to Brighton, wli 
bears the imprint of Harvey and Dartui 
and the date 1822. This particular coj 
was given, as an inscription in an Itali 
hand teU us, to " Jessie, the gift of tl 
Granma," and the date of the gift is tl 
date of publication, which shows that Grann. 
was abreast of her time. * I 



Jan. 1, 1898.] 



TKE ACADEMY. 



17 



" Charles and Caroline Hamilton were one 
ourteen and the other twelve when they met 

congratulate each other on the birth of a 
ister who had just made her appearance in 
he world." 

So begins chapter one. Charles and Caro- 
ine are two very good children, though 
Caroline has one faidt : she suspects that 
ler father prefers boys to girls. But the 
ippearance of Mr. Hamilton disposes of 
his error, and corrects this fault. He 
explains to Caroline that " boys require 
lifierent treatment from girls." For, he 
ontinues, 

' a modest reserve is most becoming in females ; 
nd it would be doing you equal injustice to 
■ring you forward in all companies, as it would 
e to keep your brother back, while I see that 
e acts with propriety." 

!aroline, aged twelve, is not quite convinced. 
You are proud of my brother, papa," she 
jiid, "but in me you see nothing to value." 
jlr. Hamilton had his answer ready : 

1 " Home is the sphere of females," he said to 
I twelve-year old Caroline, "and their male 
;?latious feel and confess their value when they 
pknowledge their happiest hours are spent in 
leir society. Though we may wander abroad 
I search of pleasure or of profit, happiness is 
mod with the least alloy by our own fireside, 
here the kind attention of our female relatives 
rill lessen our cares, and make us forget the 
jiugh asperities of human life." 

Oh! my dear father," exclaimed Caroline, 
ichanted with the picture he had drawn, 
may I liope to deserve such a character ? " 
She did deserve it. For from page 5 she 
aver gives her father a moment's uneasi- 
388, and there are 180 pages in the book, 
he father, by the way, was a City merchant, 
ho spent his days in his counting-house, 
ut in the evening, when his tea was 
moved, "tlie happy fatlier resigned him- 
ilf to the luxury of ease and parlour 
,'mforts, which can only be enjoyed among 
.fectionate relations, where each finds 
easure in the same employment." He is 
)t, as he confesses, a scholar; but books 
e one of his parlour comforts — " some- 
'ing light and cheerful." As he well says : 
jLearned men may laugh at my presump- 
pn; but I think I have taste and judg- 
lent to admire their beauties, although my 
loming has been spent in calculating the 
vice of sugar and other staple commodities." 
Well, three years pass away, during 
I'iich Mr. Hamilton enjoys parlour comforts 
|:d calculates the price of staple commodi- 
]is ; and then the health of Mrs. Hamilton 
(msports her and Caroline, with Mr. 
iamilton and Charles and the reader, to 
-•ighton. On the way Caroline thought 
to perceived among the Sussex peasants, 
Itvvithstanding their rusticity, " a good 
ill towards each other that bespoke the 
lendliness of their disposition." " So 
iiiiy is the youthful, unsuspicious mind," 
luarks the author, " led to declare itself in 
f'our of that which it has not tried." Her 
rither was equally pessimistic. "Alas!" 
t|)Ught her mother, " she will too soon learn 
iim the experience of otliers, if not from 
l|r own, that appearances are not always to 
Ij trusted." At Brighton Mr. Hamilton 
i^bends, and conducts Caroline to a view of 
t]) " extended ocean." He even suggests 



that she should take a dip, though he puts 
the suggestion less crudely. "To-morrow 
morning," he says, "you will see a number 
of females and children dipping their heads 
beneath the wave. I would advise you to 
follow their example while you are here." 
"I fear I shall want courage," replied 
Caroline. " Not when you see so many 
going fearlessly in, and the bright waves, 
glittering and shining in the morning sun, 
dancing to receive you. Will you want 
courage then ? " "I must take time to 
consider of this," said she. " Let me at 
present admire its wide expanse, and not 
confine myself to the little waves which 
roll towards my feet. They remind me 
of a small extract from Mason's English 
Garden," which she at once quotes. "Some 
young ladies," interposes the author, 
"would have come to the sea full fraught 
with extracts suitable to the occasion." But 
this was the best Caroline could do. The 
Pavilion puzzles her, with its incessant 
cry : " Thank you, madam. Two, three. 
Pray, madam, take a number." But Mr. 
Hamilton explains : " This is by some called 
gambling ; it is the loo - table of noted 
celebrity." And Caroline is appropriately 
shocked. 

Charles's letters — for Charles was engaged 
for a season in calculating the price of 
staple commodities — "will amuse some of 
my young readers," says the author. 
Charles is full of compliments to his sister, 
and devotes a postcript to the exclamation : 
" What can there be in all you females, 
that we are so at a loss without your 
society ! " 

The necessary spice of naughtiness is 
supplied by Miss Dobson, a young lady 
with a penurious papa and a passion for 
French lace, some of which she and her 
misguided mamma try to smuggle through 
on the London coach. They are detected, 
and the penurious i)apa has to pay. Eetri- 
bution follows, for Miss Dobson and her 
mamma " were deprived of every recreation, 
except what their house and garden at 
Islington afforded, or occasional visits to 
their brother's shop." So do our sins bring 
their own punishment. Finally, however, 
the shining virtues of Caroline lighten the 
gloom of the house at Islington — Caroline, 
who " by mild and gentle remonstrances 
led her friend to see the error of her 
conduct." 

As for the rest, Mr. Hamilton retired into 
the coimtry with his wife, where he " culti- 
vated a few fields and his garden," while 
the affectionate attention of their children 
rendered their excellent parents happy, and 
gave to themselves a lasting satisfaction." 
Charles, moreover, went on calculating the 
price of staple commodities, and ' ' by his 
unremitting attention and respectable con- 
duct, the credit of their house remained 
xmdiminished, and his own reputation became 
thoroughly established." 

So ends the book — a book thumb-marked 
and dog-eared by childish hands that have 
long ago withered, wasted, and vani,shetl ; 
and when you reflect that this was the sort 
of book your grandmother had to read, you 
will wonder that your grandmother was such 
a delightful old lady. 

C. E. 



THE WEEK. 



IT goes without saying that the output of 
new books during the last week has 
been small and unimportant. But we have 
received from the Fine Art Society a very 
handsome folio of reproductions of drawings 
and studies by the late Lord Leighton. This 
is neither small (it measures 17in. by 14in.) 
nor unimportant, whether considered as 
a book for the studio or for the drawing- 



NEW BOOKS EECEIVED. 

THEOLOGICAL AND BIBLICAL. 

Tb Deuu Laitdauus. By the la'^ Mrs. Rtindle Charles 

S.P.C.K. 38. 6d. 
Thh Lessons of Holy Scbiptubb. Illcstbated by 

Thouqhts iir Vbrsb. Compiled by the Rev. J. H. 

Wanklyn. Vol. VIII. Bemrose & Sons. 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Publications op thb Navy Rbcobds Society : Vol. X., 
Lbttbbh and Papers Relating to the Wab with 
Fbance, 1512-1513. By Alfred Spont. The Navy 
Records Society, For subscriljers only. 

Lincoln Oathedkai.. Sy the Rev. Edmand Venables. 
Isbister & Co. 

Cablyle on Burns. By John Muir. Wm. Hodge & Co. 
(Glasgow). 

POETRY, KSSAVrs, CRITICISM. 
All's Right with the Wobld. By Charles B, Newcomb, 
The Philosophical PablishiDg Company (Boston). 

ART. 
OsAwiNGs AND STUDIES. By the late Lord Leighton 
Stretton, P.R.A. The Fine Art Society. 

NEW EDITIONS OF NOVELS. 
Thb RouiHCEs of Albxanobe Duuas, Nbw Sbbies: 
Sylvandre. Monsibub de Chauvblin's Will. 
Agkmor i>b Maulcon. 

EDUCATIONAL. 
FiBST Year op Scientific Knowlbdoe. By Paul Bert. 

Revised edition. Relfe Bros. 3s. 
The SruDENTH' Sbbies of Latin Classes. M. TuUi 

Ciceronis, Laelius de Amicitia. With Notes by Charles 

B.Dennett. Leach, Shewell, & Sanborn (Boston, Ac, 

U.S.A.). 

JUVENILE BOOKS. 
English History for Childbbn. By Mrs. Frederick 

Boas. James Nisbet & Co. 2s. 6d. Philippa s A«i- 

vbhtobes in Upsidedown Land. By Laura Luoio 

Finlay. Digby, Long & Co. Is. 6d. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
Alcdin Club Teacts: I., The OBNAitENTs of 



EUBBio. By J. T. Mioklothwaite, F.S.A. 
Green & Co.. 68. 



THE 

Longmans 



DRAMA. 



" SEASONABLE " ENTERTAINMENTS. 

HOW misleading statistics may bo is 
curiously shown by the returns of 
pantomime this season for London and 
Greater London respectively. We know 
how the statistician deals with such a case. 
He takes the amount of pantomime pro- 
vided at the West-end tlicatres— which, 
theatrically speaking, constitute London 
proper — and compares it with the same 
class of entertainment as given at theatres 
just within or without the four-mile radius, 
ixually showing the proportion of both per 
t.-ousand of tlie population. By this method 



18 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 1, 1898. 



— and the statistician knows no other — 
some startling results would he brought 
out. It woidd be shown, for example, that 
whereas the taste for pantomime in inner 
London remained limited and stationary, 
in outer London it was extensive, and 
growing by leaps and bounds ; seeing 
that while two pantomimes suffice for the 
former area, the latter requires some five or 
six and twenty, or fully one-third more than 
last year. Of course this is all illusory ; it 
only shows what could be done with statistics 
if one liked. In point of fact, the Drury 
Lane "Babes in the Wood" and Mr. Oscar 
Barrett's " Cinderella " at the Garrick are 
productions that serve for London at large 
and, perhaps, a little for the country too. 
As for the increased production of pantomime 
in the suburban theatres that is due to the 
fact that the theatres themselves have become 
more numerous, and because the ordinary- 
manager has no idea of a Christmas and 
New Year entertainment other than that of 
tradition. Not only is pantomime de rigneur 
at this season, but year after year it con- 
tinues to be written on the same model. 
Half-a-dozen familiar nursery tales are the 
stock-in-trade of the librettist. With end- 
less iteration the changes are rung upon 
Cinderella, Dick Whittington, the Babes in 
the Wood, Aladdin, Sinbad, and the rest. 
Let the treatment be as varied and ingenious 
as you please, within the limits assigned to 
it, the sameness of subject and style must 
in the end become tiresome even to the 
children themselves. 



Well, the lane has been a long one, but the 
turning, I fancy, is at length in sight. The 
Drury Lane pantomime this year differs in 
some important respects from its predecessors. 
To be sure, the librettist sets to work upon 
the usual nursery fable, and for some little 
distance the conventional lines of treatment 
are faithfully followed. Good spirits and 
demons dispute with each other the control 
of the hero and heroine's destinies ; there is 
the usual allowance of giants, gnomes, and 
fairies ; the haunted wood is peopled with 
all the familiar monsters ; the wicked uncle 
is to the fore in conjunction with his hire- 
ling cut-throats. Bill and Will. But the 
adventures of the Babes as known to nursery 
legend do not furnish material for more 
than half the evening's entertainment. 
After the murderers have quarrelled and fled, 
and the birds have performed the kindly 
ofiBce of covering the Babes with leaves, 
these little waifs sleep the sleep of — Eip 
Van Winkle. In short, the second half of 
the pantomime, although in form a sequel to 
the first, is in reality a wholly different 
entertainment, resembling in its main 
features the " musical comedy " or extrava- 
ganza popularised by Mr. Arthur Eoberts. 
The Babes are no longer the Babes; they 
have attained to what the cynic calls their 
vears of indiscretion, and are discovered 
leading a fast and horsey life about town, in 
as many capacities as those fertile comedians 
Mr. Dan Leno and Mr. Herbert Campbell 
can invent for them. 



Of the impersonation of the Babes qud 
Babes this is hardly the place to speak. 
Mr. Dan Leno, in a little school-boy jacket, 



and the burly Mr. Herbert Campbell, dis- 
guised in gold ringlets and a pink pinafore, 
are a couple of amusing drolls, whom long 
association in Drury Lane pantomime has 
taught to play up to each other with excellent 
effect. But, unquestionably, the important 
feature of Mr. Arthur CoUins's first panto- 
mime is "the sequel." What a vista it 
opens up of the after-lives of all the heroes 
and heroines of nursery lore ! The pre- 
cocious child often wonders what happened 
to Jack the Giant KUler after slaying his 
enemy, to Cinderella after marriage, to Dick 
Whittington as Lord Mayor, to Aladdin 
after besting the magician and regaining 
possession of the wonderful lamp. Perhaps 
the pantomime librettist of the future will 
tell him, and then, if the Drury Lane 
precedent be followed, the Christmas panto- 
mime will merge into the variety entertain- 
ment, with the chief comedian playing as 
many parts as the melancholy Jaques 
assigned to life itself. 

Certainly the time is ripe for a change of 
this kind, which is perhaps fuller of possi- 
bilities than it looks. The conventional 
Christmas pantomime has had a long career 
— longer than most of the various phases of 
the drama — the poetic, the romantic, the 
farcical, the realistic, &c. — enjoy. Originally 
the harlequinade, which attained its zenith 
in the days of Grimaldi, was the thing. 
The nurserj- fable served then as the opening 
to the antics of clown and pantaloon, who 
were ushered in by the transformation scene. 
Then "the opening" gradually extended, 
pushing the harlequinade into the back- 
ground ; and when the late Augustus Harris 
took up the work of production, with his 
unique faculty for mise-en-scene, the clown 
and his fellows sank further and further 
into obscurity. Grimaldi had no successors 
of his own calibre ; but a long line of clowns 
followed in his footsteps, zealous exponents 
of the hot looker and the buttered slide 
which he invented. Almost the last of 
the race was the late Harry Payne, long 
associated with Drury Lane. He lived to 
see the practical extinction of the old- 
fashioned harlequinade, for which there 
was no room in the gorgeous Christmas 
spectacles of the Harris rigime. Now the 
spectacular pantomime itself goes into the 
limbo ; and Qiere seems to be about to arise 
in its place the musical comedy, extrava- 
ganza, or go-as-you-please variety piece, to 
which the name of burlesque still clings. 
Truly the reflections of the elderly panto- 
mime-goer are not all couleur-de-rose. The 
pantomime of his youth is only a memory. 
That of his manhood is disappearing. We 
are now in a transition stage. The latest 
Drury Lane pantomime is a blend of the old 
and the new, with the new decidedly pre- 
dominating, and this tendency is likely to 
increase : for the one constant law of the 
drama in all its branches is change. 



If change were not at work in pantomime 
itself, the popularity of this traditional 
form of Christmas entertainment would be 
threatened by the sort of " seasonable " 
fare which happens to be provided at 
Terry's Theatre. This is a selection of the 
children's tales of Hans Christian Andersen 



—"Big Claus and Little Glaus," "Tl 
Princess and the Swineherd," "The En 
peror's New Clothes," and " The SoWie 
and the Tinder-box " — adapted by M 
Basil Hood, and set to music by Mr. Walt( 
Slaughter. Little gems these pieces an 
purely fanciful effusions that transport tli 
denizen of the workaday world into a deligh 
ful Toyland, where everything happens ; 
in story books. It is long since anythin 
so pretty and charming has been seen o 
the stage, for between them the librettii 
and the composer have succeeded in repn 
ducing these exquisite fables with all the 
original savour. The various little tales ai 
not of equal merit. The rivalry in love ( 
Big Claus and Little Claus smacks a litt 
of Boccaccio ; the moral atmosphere of tl 
story is somewhat thick for children. Bi 
the Swineherd with his magic pipe, to whic 
everyone who hears it must dance ; tl 
Emperor with his invisible coat ; the soldi( 
with his tinder-box, which proves as powe; 
ful a talisman as Aladdin's lamp ; and tl 
wooden soldiers who have replaced the rei 
soldiers in this marvellous kingdom ( 
Nowhere — all these are creations in whic 
yoimg and old alike may revel. It is strung 
that Andersen should not be better know 
to theatre goers than he is. The Ten 
Theatre matinees are a promising instahnei 
of a class of dramatic entertainment i 
which we have had too little. Of couri 
Andersen is not exhaustible ; but next w 
can have Planche, and perhaps Andre 
Lang. After which a new dealer in fail 
stories may find the stage worth his attei 
tion. J. F. N. 



THE BOOK MARKET, 



THE CHEISTMAS TEADE. 

IT is always interesting to know tl 
results of a harvest, be it agricultur 
or otherwise ; and we have obtained from 
number of booksellers brief reports of thf 
experiences last week. Here they are : 

LONDON (strand). 

The Christmas trade has been as good 
usual in small books, but not so satisfacto 
in larger, with a few exceptions. The 
have been most in demand : j 

Memoir of Tennyson. " 

Norway's Highways and Byways of Dev 

and Cornwall. 
Deeds that Won the Empire. 
More Tramps Abroad. 
More Beasts for Worse Children. 
Sixty Years a Queen. 
Holmes's Life of the Queen. 
Captains Courageous. 
Jones's Eock-Chmbing. 
Watson's The Hope of the World. 
Eugene Field's Lullaby Land. 
Lucas's Book of Verses for Children. 

LONDON (OXFORD STREET). 

On the whole, we have had a good Chi' • 
mas trade, although it has been a seasoit 
small things. There has been a run upO| 

Memoir of Tennyson. 
Palgrave's Golden Treasury. 
Deeds that Won the Empire. 
Lucas's Book of Verses for Children. 
Keats, Illustiated by Anuiug Bell. 



Jan. 1. 1898.1 



THE ACADEMY. 



19 



LONDON (HOLBOKN). 

j Business has been uniformly good this 
Christmas. The demand has been for : 

Memoir of Tennyson. 
Creighton's Shires. 
Holmes's Life of Queen Victoria. 
Keata, Illustrated by Arming Bell. 
Lucas's Book of Verses for Children. 
The " Bab " Ballads (new edition). 
Drummond's Ideal Life. 
Captains Com-ageous. 
Nicholson's Alphabet. 

DAELINGTON. 

An excellent season. 
sold best : 



The following have 



Holmes's Life of Queen Victoria. 

Life of Lord Tennyson. 

Roberts's Forty-one Years in India. 

Farthest North. 

Westcott's Christian Aspects of Life. 

In Kedar's Tents. 

Captains Courageous. 

Deeds that Won the Empire. 

Moutressor's At the Cross Beads. 

The Pink Fairy Book. 

The Vege-men's Revenge 

Adventures of Sir Toady Lion. 



The "runs" during Christmas week here 
were on these books : 

Watson's Potter's Wheel. 

Drummond's Ideal Life. 

Miller's Personal Friendships. 

The Beth Book. 

Tennyson's Poems. 

Ian Maclaren's A Doctor of the Old School. 

LEICESTER. 

As a rule, parcels were smaller this year 
than last, but the number was much greater. 
These sold best : 

Deeds that Won the Empire. 
Pot-Pourri from a Surrey Garden. 
Captains Com-ageous. 
Nicholson's Alphabet and Sports. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

The Christmas bookselling season was a 
good one, the demand being principally for 
popular fiction for jiresents for adidts, and 
the usual annuals and fine art coloured 
books for children. The large demands 
were for : 

Tennyson's Life. 
Forty-one Years in India. 
Pot-Pourri from a Surrey Garden. 
Buskin's Modem Painters (new edition). 
Deeds that Won the Empire. 
Novels by Merriman, Crockett, and Bosa 
Carey. 

CAMBRIDGE. 

The Christmas bookselling season in 
Cambridge has been on the whole very fair. 
! There has been a steady demand for well- 
' illustrated books and popular novels. The 
only book on which there has been any con- 
siderable "rim" is More Beasts for Worse 
Children. 

I CHELTENHAM. 

1 

j The books most in demand last week 
j were : 

i 



Lord Tennyson's Life. 
Forty-one Years in India. 
Sixty Years a Queen. 
The Jubilee Book of Cricket. 



Deeds that Won the Empire. 

In Kedar's Tents. 

Doctor of the Old School. 

Sir Toady Lion. 

All Mrs. Steele's Books, New and Old. 

Watson's The Potter's Wheel. 

CHESTER. 

The general trade was good; and these 
sold well : 

The Jubilee Book of Cricket. 
Pot-Pourri from a Siu-rey Garden. 
Master Skylark. 
Deeds that Won the Empire. 

CARDIFF. 

The book sales this Christmas have been 
fairly satisfactory, especially for : 

Life of Tennyson. 

The Beth Book. 

St. Ives. 

Lang's Pink Fairy Bo k. 

The Christian. 

Rudyard Kipling's Works. 

Deeds that Won the Empire. 

Nister's Toy-Books. 

BRISTOL. 

Sales much as usual. Very little at a 
higher price than 6s. No remarkable runs ; 
but Stevenson and Crockett showed great 
vitality. 

EXETER. 

Trade not quite up to the average. The 
most popular books here were : 

Nicholson's Alphabet and Sports. 
Mrs. Browning's Poetical Works. 
Pot-Pourri from a Surrey Garden. 
Captains Courageous. 
The "Bab" Ballads (new edition). 

BOURNEMOUTH. 

The season has been very fair, but heavy 
price sets and expensive books have sold 
scarcely at all. The demand here has been 
for these : 

Captains Courageous. 
The Seven Seas. 
Watson's Potter's Wheel. 
Memoir of Tennyson. 
Drummond's Ideal Life. 
Henty's new books. 
Eugene Field's Lullaby Land. 
Crockett's Sir Toady Lion. 
WiUiam Watson's Hope of the World. 
St. Ives. 

In Kedar's Tents. 
Mrs. Browning's Poems. 
Norway's Highways and Byways of Devon 
and Cornwall. 

BRIGHTON. 

Speaking generally, the season for books 
has not been a good one, and there has 
been no special run, but a decided increase 
in " annuals " is noted. 

DUBLIN. 

"We arehajipy tobe able to report favourably 
on the Christmas bookselling here. The most 
striking feature is that no particular book 
had a great run, with the exception, perhaps, 
of Life of John Nicholson unA. Deeds that Won 
the Empire. For the latter the demand far 
exceeded the supply. Lord Eoberts's book 
is still in great request. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



THE "AUTHOE'S" FIGUEE8. 

Sir, — I am sorry to have to destroy 
an illusion of Sir Walter Besant's. I am 
not a reader of the Author. I do not 
think I have seen more than two numbers 
in my life. I again repeat that I should 
not have paid one second's attention to any 
statement made in its columns had not that 
statement been reproduced by the Academy. 
It is true that several years ago I had some 
correspondence and one or two interviews 
with Sir "Walter Besant. I had seen, by 
chance, a number of the Author, and I 
pointed out in a friendly and good-humoured 
way the baselessness of many statements 
made therein; in especial, I proved by a 
+ h how utterly inexact was the assertion 
that publishers always recovered their out- 
lay and never made .any losses. That state- 
ment and others of which I complained 
have since been repeated in the Author 
without one word of qualification. Sir 
"Walter Besant says that he cannot 
understand my change of attitude. Here 
is the explanation. Nothing is easier, even 
to the most careful and fair-minded man, 
than to make mistakes of fact, and then to 
base upon them unfounded charges. But 
when the mistakes have been corrected the 
careful and fair-minded man does not 
reproduce them, and he withdraws or 
apologises for the charge. 

I will be as brief as possible in dealing 
with Sir "Walter Besant's answer to my 
criticism of his comptes fmitastiques. He 
entirely fails to understand the nature of 
the charge I make against the Author. A 
young writer acquaints it with a proposal 
made by a publisher (it now seems that it was 
one the latter " had a perfect right to make " ). 
Instead of testing the proposal, as could easily 
have been done by submitting the MS. to 
another firm for publication upon commis- 
sion, the result of which test might conceiv- 
ably have been to amply justify the Author's 
strictures, a series of pure assumptions re- 
specting the cost of production of the work 
in question is made, and those assumptions 
are used as evidence in the Author's campaign 
against the publishing trade. I challenge 
those assumptions, and assert that they rim 
counter to the probabilities of the case, and 
that they imply on the part of the Author 
" unfair animus or gross and negligent 
carelessness." Sir Walter defends those 
assumptions. The only result of his defence 
is to convince me that my strictures upon 
the Author's methods of controversy erred, if 
anything, upon the side of undue mildness. 

The Author assumes that the work in 
question (published at 6s.) woidd run to 
272 pages. I assumed that it would run 
to 388 pages. Sir Walter triumphantly citea 
five books which average 248 pages. 
Well, two out of his five examples 
{Many Cargoes and A Prisoner of Zendu) 
are three-and- sixpenny books. Is it 
also carelessness which makes him [over- 
look the unfairness of comparing works 
by the most popular novelists of the day 
with that of a yoimg and untried writer? 
Let the comparison stand, however, but then 



^ 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 1, 1898. 



let it be carried through completely. The 
AutJior assumes the figure of £14 for adver- 
tising in its imaginary balance-sheet. Does 
Sir Walter really believe that the advertising 
bill of The Light that Failed or A Window in 
ITirums was only £14 ? 

Meanwhile, I can only admire the hicky 
chance which led Sir Walter to take down 
from his shelves precisely those three six- 
shilling novels which support the Author's 
assumptions. I go into the nearest book- 
seller's and look at a number of six-shilling 
novels most in demand : The Christian 
(474 pp.); The Beth Book (536 pp.); The 
Gadfly (390 pp.); The Sorrows of Satan 
(488 pp.) ; Phroso (with illustrations, 452 
pp.) ; Noemi (with numerous illustrations, 
368 pp.). As a simple matter of fact, the 
half - a - dozen most popular six - shilling 
novels issued by Mr. Heinemann between 
August and November of this year average 
399 pages ; the first forty numbers on 
Messrs. Methuen's list o'f six-shilling novels 
average 380 pages, and many of them are 
freely illustrated. In many of these cases, 
too (e.g.. The Beth Book), the number of 
words to the page considerably exceeds the 
Author's assumption of 282. 

I do not wish to take up the Academy's 
space by showing that the other assumptions 
made by the Author in order to arrive at its 
imaginary balance-sheet are just as reli- 
able as the one I have examined. One 
assertion, however, is too characteristic to 
be passed over. I pointed out that the 
Author made no allowance for review and 
presentation copies, and I estimated them at 
100. Sir Walter asserts that only 40 
would be used, and that this number 
would come out of the "overs." I 
can assure him that the nominal "overs" 
do little more than compensate for the 
inevitable "shorts" on a long number. 
On an edition of 1,500 I should think 
myself lucky to get a clear 12 or 15 over 
th, nominal number (on an edition of 500 
copies, which I have just issued, I get one 
oiir), and these have to be reserved against 
tao inevitaVjle chapter of accidents, returns 
ol damaged copies, &c., the loss entailed by 
vrhich would otherwise fall upon the book. 

There only remains one point. Sir 
Walter Besant accuses me of not deducting 
free copies from the author's royalty share; 
this is a mistake, as can be seen by refer- 
ence to my letter. I do, however, interpret 
the agreement differently from him : it 
provided that royalties should accrue only 
after the sale of 100 copies. I take it they 
would then be retrospective. I may be mis- 
taken, as the wording is ambiguous ; so, too, 
may Sir Walter. 

1 think the facts are set forth fully enough 
for any fair-minded man to form an opinion. 
Apart, however, from any dispute as to 
questions of fact, I again protest that it is 
not right to base charges against third 
persons upon mere assumptions, even if 
those assumptions were infinitely better sup- 
ported than in the present case. 

AuEED NUTT. 

Dec. 27, 1897. 



neglect and oblivion they court and get, 
but when they blazon forth in your respected 
colunui.s, and strut about blatantly in their 
naked ignorance, they must at least "be 
put into their proper place." 

It is the poor six-shilling novel whose 
cause its quixotic knight gives away so 
completely this time that it can never, never 
again trust its honour to Sir Walter's 
valour. To prove his case he cites among 
five examples of six-shilling books two 
which are not six-shiUing books at all, but 
three-and-sixpenny ones ; and for the rest 
of them their size (by the yard) is about as 
fair as if you took our own " Bobs's " inches 
as a proper computation of the average 
height of the British soldier. Not only 
does he neglect, in getting his average, the 
gigantic dimensions of the Life-Guardsman, 
but he drags in naively — shall we say? — 
the mignonne vivandiere. 

Let him return, Mr. Editor, to his own 
quarters. He will be safer there, and, 
anyhow, he will be out of the sight of those 
who know. 

Wm. Heinemann. 

Dec. 29, 1897. 



HEINEICH HEINE. 

Sib, — Our admiration for Heine should 
not make us forget his cruel behaviour 
towards a fellow-poet, Platen by name, with 
whom he had quarrelled, and who thereupon 
called him a vile Jew. The revenge Heine 
took for the offence is an ugly blot upon his 
character ; and Platen died broken-hearted. 
When Heine was asked by the Hungarian 
writer Kertbeny whether he reaUy believed 
all the horrors he had published about him 
in his Reisehilder, he coolly replied : 

"Not a bit of it, and I consider Platen to 
have been one of our most important poets 
(bedeutenden Dichter). only, you see, I had to 
protect my legs from the bites of all sorts if 
curs and I seized the biggest of them all, 
skinned him as Apollo skinned Marsyas, drag- 
ging his corpse before the footlights to 
discourage the others from attacking rae. 
Besides which, this Platen was such an arrogant 
fellow I He would call me a Jew although 1 
more than once requested him not to do so. 

And so in my turn I called him a " (Word 

untranslatable.) 

Is it a fact that Heine killed the Suabian 
school of poetry ? That school was hardly 
worth his steel, for it only produced one 
great poet, Ludwig Uhland, whose lyrics, 
however, will live as long as the Buch der 
Lieder. Heine could not have kLUed him 
had he tried. He did better than that, he 
imitated him. Uhland's influence upon the 
younger poet is distinctly discernible. 

Thomas Delta. 
Dec. 27, 1897. 



Sib, — When Sir Walter Besant's chimeras 
swamp the pages of his own little 
monthly pamphlet they are best left to the 



BOOK EEVIEWS EEVIEWED. 
"His Grace of The critics all find fault 
By Frances with Mrs. Burnett's hero for 
Hodgson Burnett, being faultless. Says the 
Chronicle : 

" Prom almost the hour of his birth the Duke 
is an epitome of all the virtues associated, by 
idealists, with the name ' gentleman.' He was 



a fine baby, a beautiful boy, as a man a sort of 
blend of Adonis and the Admirable Crichton. 
Throughout ihe book he never does one wrong 
thing or harbours one reprehensible thought. 
He is a gallant soldier and a favourite of 
Marlborough, but he loves not war ; h" i.s a 
passionate lover, but as pure as ice ; a brillidut 
swordsman, a model landlord — in fact, every- 
thing that he ought to be except interesting. 
For that deficiency naught can atone ; and we 
confess we should have thought Mrs. Burnett 
to be too true an artist not to know that mere 
virtue, like mere vice, \a insufficient to give 
attractiveness to a character in fiction." 

The Westminster Gazette agrees : 

" In short, his perfection is a little tiresome ; 
we long for him to break out in some manner 
not quite correct, to show character, to become 
human." 

The Daily Telegraph and the Scotsman are 
more merciful, and the former finds the 
portrait of Lord Eoxholm anything but 
tedious. 

The Daily News critic is very severe on 
the relation of the book to its predecessor, 
A Lady of Quality : " Tlie book is not a 
sequel to, it is in the main a rei^etition of, 
its predecessor " ; and he agrees that " to an 
unregenerate critic, so perfect a man [as his 
Grace of Osmonde] is uninteresting and un- 
convincing." 

The Standard agrees that as a sequel to 
A Lady of Quality the book is a failure : 

"Mrs. Hodgson Burnett seems to be in- 
fatuated with her own heroine, Clorinds 
WUdairs, and no less with that lady's lover, 
who in the former book arrived an hour too 
late oQ the occasion of the betrothmeut. Thii 
has blinded her to the fact that sequels are 
usually mistakes, and that this book is no 
exception to the rule. We had had enough of 
Clorinda, and of her second husband, too, so 
that ' His Grace of Osmonde ' (One Vol., 
Warne) comes as an anti-climax, and one that 
falls extraordinarily flat. Mrs. Burnett hag 
nothing to tell — nothing that is new, at least. 
She introduces some minor characters, or, 
rather, we will say, some other cburacters, 
seeing that Marlborough is among them ; but 
they only hang about the book, and do nothing 
that was worth the telling or doing, as it is 
done and told here. . . . This book must be a 
matter of real regret to Mrs. Burnett's ad- 
mirers ; the result is only wasted time for 
writer and readers." 

On Mrs. Burnett's style the Daily Chronicle 
has these remarks : 

" The attempt to write in the hterary 
method of the last ceutury is feeble at best, and 
for the most part intensely irrititing. When, 
for instance, the characters say ' 'twas ' and 
' 'twould ' and ' 'twere ' we don't mind so very 
much, though we wish they would refrain; 
but when the author herself ' 'twases ' and 
' 'twoulds ' us all over every page we get 
thoroughly savage and feel an almost irresistible 
desire to break things." 

We have not met with more favourabl 
reviews than the above. 



People's Edition, price ed., with Portrait. (Special terms 
for quantities ) 

JOSEPH MAZZINI : a Memoir by E. A. V-. 

with Two Essays by MAZZINI: "TBOUGHTS on 

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London: Alixavdeb & Shiphia.b3, Fumiral Street, E.C ' 



Jax. 1, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



21 



IMPORTANT NOTICE. 

On MONDAY, January 3 rd, MESSRS. METHUEN will publish 

FROM TONKIN TO INDIA. 

By PRINCE HENRI OF ORLEANS. 

Translated by HAMLEY BENT. 

With a Map and over a Hundred Illustrations from AVood-blocks after G. Vuiixier. 

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The Travels of Prince Henri in 1895 from China to the Valley of the Bramapatra covered a dis'ance of 

,100 miles, of which 1,600 was throngh absolutely unexiilored country. No fewer than seventeen nnges 

f mountains were crossed at altitudes of from 11 ,000 to 13,000 feet. The journey was made memorable by 

'i^cnvery of llie sources of the Irrawa<Jdy. To the physical difficulties of the journey were added 

s from the attacks of savage tribes. The book deals with many of the political problems of the East, 

... .-. will be found a most important contribution to the literature of adventure and discovery. 

METHUEN ft (X)., Essex Stekkt, W.C. 



ILACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE. 

' So. 987. — JANDARY. 1998. 28. 6d. 

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EPPS'S COCOA. 

Extracts fkou a Lectu be ok * Foods a»d theib Values,* 
BY D«. Ahdeew Wilsok, F.R.S.E., Ac.—'* If any motives— 
firsl, of due regard fur health, and second, of getting full 
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lORD m.u;aulay 

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1896. 
November 14 


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THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 1, 1898. 



I*™**;! 



IMPORTANT CAUTION. 



" Kola is not a Food. 



Kola is not harmless." 

—MEDICAL WORLD. 



CADBUBY'S Cocoa is entirely free from all admixtures, SQch as Kola, Malt, Hops, Alkal, 

&c., and the Public should insist on having the Pure, Genuine article. 
CABBUBY'S Cocoa is " a Perfect Food." 



EXTRACT FROM AN OPINION by 

Dr. ANDREW WILSON, F.R.S.E., 

(Combe and Gilchrist Lecturer, &e.), expressed by him in a Lecture on Foods— 

" I am distinctly of opinion that the modern tendency to add to Cocoa othei' 
substances, mostly of a stimulating nature, is a dietetic mistake, a practice to be 

thoroughly discouraged. If you have a pure Cocoa you want nothing 
else in the way of constituting it a food, for it contains in itself 
all the principles which go to make up a perfect article of diet. 

When people begin to add to Cocoa, Hops and Kola and other things, they are 
interfering witli and altering its dietetic value. Cocoa thus treated is not Cocoa, 
but something else, and I have declined for my part, in all my long advocacy of 

Cocoa as a food, to recognise that anything but pure, unadulterated 
Cocoa can correspond with this definition of a perfect and 

desirable diet. I hope the time is not far distant when the public will awaken 
to a knowledge of the fact that ' doctored ' Cocoa is not a thing to be recommended 
or advised as a food. To add other matters to Cocoa is ' to gild the lily ' (in a 
nutritive sense), and we all know how ofPensive and needless a practice is the 
attempt to impi-ove on the Chemistry of Nature's Own Food." 

GADBURY'S CGCOA 
is Absolutely Pure, & a Perfect pood. 






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PORTRAIT SUPPLEMENTS TO "THE ACADEMY." 



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1897 
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Dan. 8, 1898."! 



THE ACADEMY. 



25 



CONTENTS. 



Retiivs : 

Napoleon by Flashlights 

"Bab" 

Travels in Indo-China 

Biography in Little 

A Provost of Eton 

BSIEFEB MlKTIOir 

NOTBB AND NkWS 

The •'Acadbhy*8" Awards to Authohs - 
RiprrATioNs Hscoksidered : 

m.. Lord Tennyson 

millais at burlingtok housb 

The Book Maeext 

The Bitter Cry of a Second-band Bookseller 
The Week 

New Books Received 

Peter the Great 

GOB&SSPOIfDBirCE 

Book Reviews Reviewed 



FicTioir ScppLiMiirT . 



.. 28 

.. 27 

.. 28 

.. 20 

.. 30 

.. 31 

.. 34 

.. 31 

.. 3a 

.. 37 

.. 38 

.. 30 

.. 39 

.. 39 

.. 40 

.. 42 

3-4 



REVIEWS. 



NAPOLEON BY FLASHLIGHTS. 

New Letters of Napoleon I. Translated by 
Lady Mary Loyd. (Heinemann.) 

ACEETAIN ancient philosopher was 
called "The Bottomless," but with 
much better right might the title be given to 
Najjoleon. Napoleonic literature pours forth 
in endless floods, and yet never is it ex- 
hausted. For all which there is a reason — 
Napoleon was more than a man : he was an 
epoch, and those who have no new light to 
throw upon the man may yet illustrate the 
epoch while the epoch is illustrated even by 
those wlio deal only with the man. Merely 
as a man, he is a portent, an extraordinary 
revelation of possible human faculty. Here 
is a fresh book on the infinite theme, 
and a book fascinating exceedingly, 
though it is the mere gleanings of 
the great Corsican's innumerable corres- 
pondence. 

By a reader with the smallest knowledge of 
Napoleon's career, this book will be found 
graphic and vital to the last degree. Here 
we have, not the man of the Napoleonic 
legend, nor yet the petty domestic 
Napoleon of some unedifying backstairs 
memoirs, but what we might call the most 
private aspect of the public Napoleon. It 
does not, of course, show us the Emperor 
as a military genius, nor yet Napoleon as seen 
by his valet. But in almost all other respects 
it is a microcosm of the great conqueror. 
The first thing which stands out from it is 
his preterhuman administrative power : in 
its extensive and unfaltering energy a 
Nasmyth steam-hammer, which can crush a 
bar of iron or crack a walnut. War, 
1 finance, police ; the direction of his subject 
kings and kingdoms ; the watching of some 

• petty miserable suspect ; the admonishment 
I of a pope or a newspaper : he turns rapidly, 
i clearly, detailedly, from one to the other, and 
' issues the most diversified edicts in a breath. 

• Now he is twirling the affairs of Spain 
between his fingers Hke a teetotum, now he 

1 18 playing the match-making mamma over 
I his brothers' obnoxious marriages. He 



breaks to shivers the dreaded army of 
Prussia, the legacy of Frederick the Great ; 
and then pauses on the morrow of Jena, to 
decree the preservation of Paris from the 
wind of Mme. de Stael's petticoats. He 
regulates with the same minuteness the 
management of the State moneys, and the 
caricatures of the English which are to be 
published in the French papers. The 
impression is stupendous. Surely never 
was there such an organiser. 

The next prominent feature in these 
letters is the irresistible arrogance of 
his autocracy. Our own Kaiser Wilhelm 
api^ears by the side of him a very indifferent 
performer, though on the present European 
stage Wilhelm is the most noted actor of 
what the Elizabethans called " a huffing 
part." The Kaiser can do little without 
rhodomontade and second-rate rhetoric ; 
he clucks more over a ship or two at 
Kiao-Chau than Napoleon over the de- 
position of the Spanish monarchy. There is 
a world more stinging masterfulness in 
the first Buonaparte's curt matter-of-fact 
absolutism; his "It is my wiU," " You wiU 
do so-and-so," "You will let so-and-so know 
my sovereign displeasure " ; the brief way 
in which he treats popes and kings as 
children, high functionaries as lackeys ; his 
movements of his political pieces as simply 
as Blackbume playing a bindfold game. 
Bismarck is said to have treated his secre- 
taries " as if they had stolen the silver 
spoons." It was little better to be a sub- 
ordinate of Napoleon. All by turns are rated 
like schoolboys. The wretched brothers 
whom he set up in the regal business bore 
the brunt of the most scathing lectures. 
Most of them deserved it. He called them 
fools, and he called them by their names. 
He paid dearly for the nepotism which led 
him to make kings of men with all his own 
inadequacy of training, and without his 
marvellous compensation of genius. They 
all failed him ; for they were not even 
soldiers, and what he needed first and fore- 
most was soldierly allies. Yet when he tried 
a variation, by making a soldier king of 
Sweden, his nominee fought against him in 
the uprising of Europe. 

The King of Westphalia, his brother 
Jerome, receives some of his most intoler- 
able plain-speaking : 

" I have met few men with so little oirctun- 
spection as you. Tou are perfectly ignorant, 
and you follow nothing but your own fancy. 
Reuson decides nothing in your case, everything 
is ruled by impetuosity and passion. I do not 
desire to have any correspondence with you 
beyond what is indispensable as regards Foreign 
Courts, because they make you dance step?, and 
expose your want of harmony before the eyes 
of Europe ; which I am not inclined to permit 
y<iu to do. As for your household and financial 
affairs, I have already told you, and now tell 
you again, that nothing you do accords with 
my position and experience, and that your mode 
of action wiU bring you hltle sacoess." 

To which he adds in his own hand, "I 
love you, my dear fellow, but you are 
terribly young." In another letter he tells 
him : " You do not know men yourself, and 
you try to teach me to know them." Of 
such kind is letter after letter to Jerome, 
whom ho nevertheless held by to the last. 



only to find him useless in his final emer- 
gency. Louis, King of Holland, is visUffd 
with even more astounding language ; and 
Louis alone, of all the Buonapartes, was a 
man of feeling and principle. He wished 
to govern for the benefit of his people; 
whereas Napoleon was intent on the 
Gallicisation of aU the subject king- 
doms. Doubtless the Emperor was 
right politically. It was impossible 
to make French rule popular with the 
annexed states, and the only thing was 
to hold them by the strong hand, as the 
Germans hold Alsace. But Louis honestly 
resented such methods, and was, therefore, 
at perpetual war with his brother, till the 
Emperor finally deposed him. There is, 
perha,ps, nothing hero quite so trenchant 
as a previously published letter to the 
unhappy Louis, with its recurrent burden — 
" Don't be a fool." Nevertheless, such 
charming amenities as these are quite 
enough : 

" What can I say to you ? That which I 
have told you a hundred times already. You 
are no king, and you do net know how to be a 
king ! . . . I have portfolios of complaints 
from my shipownTS agaiost your agents, and 
if you do not put a stop to the vile behaviour 
of your admirals to my flag, beware lest 
I put a stop to it myself. . . . You know 
very well that everything you do is oppos- d to 
my opinion, and that I have often told you 
I foresaw the changeableness and foUy of your 
action would ruin your kingdom ? . . . I thank 
you for the interest you take in my health. I 
should not think it very sincere, if I were to 
seek its proof in your speeches in which you 
strive to tarnish my glory — if that were possible 
to a man like you, who has done nothing 
at aU." 

In another letter, not to Louis but to 
Jerome, he tells him : " You make war like 
a satrap. Did yoa learn that from me?" 
Such phrases are often in his mouth, when 
he is addressing his brothers or his marshals : 
"You never learned that in my school "; 
" This is not what I expect from a man 
trained in my school." The Napoleonic 
school was as little scrupulous as the school 
of Fagin. The naked treachery by which 
he tried to occupy Lisbon and seize the 
Portuguese fleet together with the king, 
keeping Portugal amused with negotiations, 
while his army was advancing without 
declaration of war, is here flagrantly re- 
vealed. The high-handed and secret 
methods which he employed during his long 
struggle with the Pope are another interest- 
ing disclosure of these letters. Treachery, 
misrepresentation, falsehood, he is shown 
emi)loying as recognised weapons of State. 
One of the minor impressions from these 
letters is that Napoleon was less able 
as a foreign statesman than in his other 
capacities. He cuts his Gordian knots with 
the sword ; butin diplomacy heappearshardly 
a match for the Continental ministers. On 
the very eve of the campaign of Jena he is 
still sure that Prussia will never venture 
war; that she only needs to be humoured 
and managed like a tetchy child. He has 
no comprehension of the magnitude of his 
Spanish task, though history (to which he 
frequently appeals with more fluency and 
confidence than accurate knowledge) should 
have taught him that the difficulties of a 



26 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



Spanish invasion only begin with the over- 
throw of the regular army. In the some- 
what parallel case of Eussia he probably had 
no choice save war ; but the Spanish business 
was one of the hugest mistakes of his 
career. The army of Sj)ain might have 
averted Leipsic, had it been free for 
use. The final letter of the volume has 
a singular pathos. It is written on the 
morrow of Waterloo, and is the mere 
feverish raving of a shattered and des- 
perate man. 

" I will raise a hundred thousand conscripts. 
I will arm them with muskets taken from the 
Soyalists, and the ill-disposed members of the 
National Guard. I will raise the whole of 
Dauphine, the Lyonnais, and Burgundy. I will 
overwhelm the enemy," 

It almost recalls those piteous words of the 
fallen Lear : "I will do such things — what 
they are yet I know not." So dramatically 
ends a captivating and valuable book, and a 
destiny of strangely tragic brilliance which 
still sways the imaginations of mankind. 



" BAB." 



The Bah Ballads. By W. S. Gilbert. 
(Eoutledge & Sons.) 

In preparing this new edition Mr. Gilbert 
was not well advised. In the first place, no 
book of comic verse should extend to 554 
pages; human nature is frail, it cannot 
endure so much. Mr. Gilbert would have 
done well to omit all the "Songs of a 
Savoyard " — that is to say, the numbers from 
his Savoy operas, which are not at all in 
keeping with the Bal Ballads and some- 
times are positively discordant. Take, for 
example, this ingenious mock-Elizabethan 
"conceited" lyric: 

" Is hfe a boon ? 

If so, it must befall 

That Death, whene'er he call, 
Must call too soon. 

Though fourscore years he give, 

Yet one would pray to live 
Another mom ! 

What kind of plaint have I, 

Who perish in July 't 

I might have had to die 
Perchance in June ! 

Is life a thorn ? 

Then count it not a whit ! 

Man is well done with it ; 
Soon as he's bom 

He should aU means essay 

To put the plague away ; 
And I, war-worn, 

Poor captured fugitive. 

My life most gladly give— 

I might have had to Uve 
Another mom ! " 

It is pretty and quaint and very dexterous, 
but how ill does it consort with its com- 
panions, " Sir Guy the Crusader "— 

" His views were exceedingly proper : 
He wanted to wed. 
Ho he called at her shed, 
And saw her progenitor whop her 
Her mother sit down on her head " 

and " Haunted " ! No ; Mr. Gilbert has 
endeavoured to fuse irreconcilable ele- 
ments, and the result is a huge and some- 
what disconcerting Jumble. 



But he has done worse than this : he 
has re-drawn most of his best pictures. 
The cuts in the original editions, and 
in Fifty Bal Ballads published in 1877, 
signed " Bab," were almost as good as 
cuts need bo : they had crispness, fun, 
and they corroborated and strengthened 
the text so ably as to make them almost 
perfect not only as independent comic 
drawings, but as illustrations. Yet Mr. 
Gilbert apparently has never shared this 
view. " I have always felt," he says 
in the preface to the new edition, " that 
many of the original illustrations . . . erred 
gravely in the direction of unnecessary ex- 
travagance. This defect I have endea- 
voured to correct." The i^ity of it! — as if 
unnecessary extravagance were not the life- 
blood of Bab's humour. And the unreason 
of it, because the unnecessary extravagance 
of the text still remains, even if that of the 
pictures has been eliminated. Mr. Gilbert 
is, however, the author, and the book is 
his, and he may, we suppose, do what he 
likes with it ; but we retain the right to 
grumble. And more, Mr. Gilbert is not the 
draughtsman he was : his hand has lost its 
strength, his line is no longer decisive, his 
sense of the respective value of black and 
white has left him, so that his new pictures, 
with few exceptions, are just ordinary 
amateur comic work, and we linger with 
relief over those ballads whose old cuts have 
been permitted to stay untouched — over "The 
Eival Curates " and " Sir Macklin," " The 
Bishop of Eum-ti-foo "and " The PerQs of 
Invisibility." Once the correction of im- 
necessary extravagance has compelled the 
artist to sacrifice a stanza. It will be 
remembered that one of the pictures to 
" Thomas Winterbottom Hance " represents 
the two gladiators in the ring, and their 
mothers, shrunken almost to nothing, look- 
ing on. It is a piece of delightful fooling, 
emphasised by the explanatory lines : 

" The mothers were of decent size. 
Though not particularly tall ; 

But in the sketch that meets your eyes, 
I've been obhged to draw them small." 
That has all been swept away ; and the 
revised mothers need no apology — and raise 
no smile. 

Fortunately — and we have now done with 
complaints— Mr. Gilbert has not thought it 
needful to alter the text of the baUads. It 
is true that in the amusing nonsense entitled 
" Bamaby Bampton Boo " the young woman 
who once was called " Carroty Nell " is now 
chastened to " Volatile NeU " ; but in the 
main the stories are as they were when they 
first diverted readers, some thirty years ago. 
Some, we must confess, hardly bear re- 
reading, but the best are stiU entertaining, 
and we have spent a most agreeable hour in 
renewing old impressions. Particularly 
have we enjoyed meeting again with some 
of the pieces not included in the collection 
known as Fifty Bah Ballads, which, for most 
people, has been the only edition. Among 
these is the story of " Babette's Love." 

" Jacot was, of the Customs bold. 

An oiHcer, at gay Boulogne, 
He loved Babette— his love he told. 

And sighed, ' Oh, soyez vous, my own ! ' 
But ' Non ! ' said she, ' Jaoot, my pet, 
Vous etes trop scraggy pour Babette.' " 



Instead she loved Bill, a marine, gifted 
with a graceful way of leaning against a 
post ; and she told Jacot as much : 

" ' Oh, mon ! ' exclaimed the Customs bold, 
'Mes yeux ! ' he said (which means 'my 
eye), 
' Oh, chere ! ' he also cried, I'm told, 
' Par jove,' he added with a sigh, 
' Oh, mon ! oh, chSre ! mes yeux I par jove I 
Je n'aime pas cet enticiog cove ! ' " 

Bill's captain heard of Bill's depravity. 
" He wept to think a tar of his 

Should lean so gracefully on posts, 
He sighed and sobbed to think of this, 

On foreign, French, and friendly coists. 
' It's human natur', p'raps - if so, 
Oh, isn't human natur' low ! ' " 

And so on. Here we have one phase of 
Mr, Gilbert's peculiar humour in a nut- 
shell : the elevation of an infinitesimal 
peculiarity or habit into an offence of 
serious import and magnitude. In the 
topsy-turvy world which he has in- 
vented, every inhabitant of which is mad, 
such exaggerations and inversions are the 
order. 

Humour of this mechanical kind is simple, 
but in the hands of a clever workman it 
can be made quite irresistible. Mr. Gilbert 
does it to perfection ' ' Mister William " is his 
masterpiece — but"Captain Eeece" and "The 
Martinet," "The Bishop of Eum-ti-Foo" 
and "The Bishop of Eum-ti-Foo Again," 
"The Eival Curates" and "Etiquette," 
"Annie Protheroe" and "Gentle Alice 
Brown," "Thomas Winterbottom Hance" 
and "The Baby's Vengeance," "The King 
of Canoodle Dum " and " Ellen McJones 
Aberdeen " — these are fine enough per- 
formances. One may become a little weary of 
the formula, but the execution is admirable. 

Another of Mr, Gilbert's tricks is to 
extract fun from truthfulness and credulity. 
In real life people lie, and disbelieve each 
other ; in the land of Bab they accept 
all statements. No sooner does Private 
James inform General John that they were 
changed at birth, than General John de- 
grades himself to the ranks and elevates 
Private James to the jiosition of commander ; 
no sooner does Paley VollairG,who is bank- 
rupt, make a similar remark to Frederick 
West, than Frederick West hands him his 
hard-earned savings. 

Again, tenacity to life and respect for hfe 
are the ruling jiassions of the normal man. 
In Mr, Gilbert's world death becomes, there- 
fore, a mere incident, whether of oneseK or 
of another. When Gentle Alice Brown went 
to confessional and admitted : 

" I have helped mamma to steal a little kiddy 

from its dad, 
I've assisted dear papa in cutting up a little 

lad, 
I've planned a little burglary and forged a 

httle cheque, 
And slain a httle baby for the coral round its i 

neck ; " 

this is what happened : 

"The worthy pastor heaved a sigh, and i 

dropped a silent tear — 
And said, ' You mustn't judge yourself too 

heavily, my dear. 
It's wrong to murder babies, httle corals for 

to fleece ; 
But sins like these one expiates at half-a- 

crown apiece. 



Jan. 8, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



27 



• Girls ■will be girls — you're very young, and 

flighty in your mind ; 
Old heads upon young shoulders we must not 

expect to lind. 
We musn't be too hard upon their little 

girlish tricks; 
Let's see — five crimes at hslf-a-crown — 

exactly twelve-and-six.' 

'Oh, father,' little Alice cried, 'your kind- 
ness makes me weep. 

You do these little things for me so singularly 
cheap.' " 

But when Gentle Alice Brown went on to 
say that she had seen a young man and had 
winked at him, the pastor held out no hope 
of forgiveness. He informed Brown pere, 
and Brown pere arranged for the young 
man's immediate removal. He said : 

" I've studied human nature, and I know a 

thing or two ; 
Though a girl may fondly love a living gent, 

as many do, 
A feeling of disgust upon her senses then 

wiUfall 
When she looks upon his body chopped 

particularly small." 

All this would be very horrible if we looked 
at it calmly, just as so much of that 
American humour which jests at death 
would bo horrible ; but we are not per- 
mitted to be calm. Mr. Gilbert supplies the 
right atmosphere — the laughing gas — with 
with which to take his extravagance. 

How the Bah Ballads will strike readers 
who are now coming to them for the first 
time, we cannot say. We suspect, however, 
that their heyday is over. Taste in humour 
has changed, and much that was funny 
thirty years ago is funny no longer. Extra- 
vagant fun, particularly, is out of date, 
owing, probably, to the surfeit of it which 
the enterprise of America has offered. The 
humorist to-day is required to keep closer 
to the fact. But for readers of an older 
generation Bab has still strong attractions. 



TEAVELS IN INDO-CHINA. 

ti-om lonkin to India hy the Sources of the 
Irawadi — Jamiary, ISdb-January, 1896. By 
Prince Henri d'Orleans. Translated by 
Hamley Bent, M.A. Illustrated by G. 
Vuillier. (Methuen.) 

Exiled royalties have the most difficult 
position in the world to maintain with any 
dignity ; they are frequently in the ex- 
tremest condition of genteel poverty, and 
even when this humiliation is spared them 
— as it is spared to the House of Orleans — 
their path lies along the very brink of the 
ridiculous. Yet in this questionable emi- 
nence, and, perhaps, by reason of the 
pathetic irony in their surroundings, they 
succeed frequently in producing picturesque 
and taking characters. Prince Henri is a 
singularly good example ; the very man to 
have headed such a raid as Charles Edward's 
in the " forty-five " ; an elegant figure of a 
"Young Pretender." France denies him 
a career ; he does not seek it (like the heir 
of the Buonapartes) in Eussia's service ; but 
the world is wide, and, like a young man 



of spirit, he sets out to explore it, in the 
interests of the country where his uncle 
is stUl, to not a few adherents, " the king." 
We have heard of him in Abyssinia ; but 
this book relates an earlier adventure. In 
January, 1895, he set out, accompanied by 
M. Eoux, a naval lieutenant, and another 
Frenchman— M. Briffaud — from Hanoi, in 
Tonkin, to strike the Mekong Eiver, ex- 
plore its course up to the Thibetan frontier, 
and push west from there into Assam — in 
short, to go overland from China to India, 
skirting the borders of Upper Burmah, and 
keeping south of Thibet. It was a stifE 
piece of travel, but the French, so little dis- 
posed to settle down in any new country, 
have always been among the best explorers. 
The book, to begin with, has a consider- 
able scientific value. A very careful log, 
with observations, was kept by M. Eoux, and 
is published in an appendix. So is a list of 
the natural history and botanical specimens 
collected by Prince Henri, who, although 
not a man of science himself, knows what to 
bring home ; and perhaps the most interest- 
ing of all his finds are the examples of Mosso 
and Lolo MSS. reproduced in facsimile 
with a translation. The Lolo, like the 
Chinese, have separate characters for each 
word ; the Mosso are picture writing. There 
is, however, no explanation given of these 
which is in the least adequate for the im- 
initiated. All these scientific matters are 
relegated to the appendices ; the book itself 
is popular in style and intention ; and a very 
readable, light-hearted narration it is, de- 
scribing travel among the many peoples of 
many speeches who fringe the Chinese 
Empire. The queer folk and their queer 
customs are diily chronicled ; but even 
stranger, perhaps, is the glimpse into mission 
life away far up here in the interior among 
an imfriendly race with a government who 
secretly incite to outrage. After months of 
wandering along the Mekong, through great 
tracts untraveUed by Europeans, the party 
at last debouched upon the plain in which 
lies Lake Erhai and the large town of TaU- 
fou, the chief centre of commerce in Western 
Yunnan. 

" At the base of the hills, in stony chaos, lay 
the cemetery — the town of the dead at the gate 
of the living. We reached the river that forms 
the outlet of the lake ; and here three routes 
converged — the oue from the capital (Yunnan), 
our own, and that from Burmah, called the 
Ambassadors' Road. Along the last-named 
stretched into the distance the posts of the new 
telegraph line from Bhamo — the Future ; and 
here, on the right bank of the river — the Past, 
a grey loopholed wall, with battlements and 
bastions crumbling to decay, vestiges of the 
Mussulman war. It was dark by the time 
we came to the gate of Tali : luckily, it had 
not yet been closed. A tunnel led under the 
ramparts, and, once inside, we asked to be 
brought to the house of the French Father. 
After a long detour, our gfuide stopped before a 
dwelling and hailed loudly for admittance; 
then, finding a side door open, entered. What 
was our surprise to hear a feminine European 
voice ! The owner at the same moment 
appeared at the head of the staircase with a 
companion, both dressed as Chinese, and dis- 
closed herself as a young English lady." 

She was the wife of the Protestant mis- 
gionary. Prince Henri stayed for some time 
with the French Father Legmlcher, and 



heard later from him of the old persecutions, 
when the Christians had to invent a private 
dialect for use among themselves ("devil- 
talk," the Chinese called it) and of the 
secret society, " the United Brotherhood," 
which organised the persecutions. It cer- 
tainly seems that mission work in China is 
justified of its results ; any religion, indeed, is 
an advance on the various forms of Chinese 
superstition — for the purer forms of their 
teaching have no hold on the people. Prince 
Henri notes that the Houi-houi, or Mussul- 
mans, are much better to have dealings with 
than the other Chinese. But the Christians 
whom the expedition took on from Tali — 
seven of them — seem to have been real good 
men, and the interpreter Joseph a treasure. 
He was a youth who had been trained for 
the priesthood, but feeling no vocation had 
married and become a trader, but preserved 
his knowledge of Latin ! In this tongue — 
or some modification of it — did he and the 
Prince hold communication through the 
rocky Thibetan ranges and by the sources of 
the Irawadi ! 

Of Yunnan, the slice of China which 
France is likely to annex. Prince Henri 
gives no very brilliant account. It 
does not seem a rich country, though, 
perhaps, if it were rid of mandarins and 
their exactions prosperity might appear. 
But, even on a Frenchman's showing, the 
French system of colonial government is 
not much more economical. Here is a 
crucial example of what is likely to happen 
in the Far East. Mong-tse is a considerable 
Chinese town just beyond the French border ; 
its trade should naturally come down the 
Songhai to Haiphong ; but the freights and 
dues are so high on the French water that 
nine-tenths of the foreign trade, according 
to Prince Henri, goes down the Si-kiang to 
Canton and is in English hands. But when 
France occupies Hainan — as she wiU cer- 
tainly do — she will also occupy Pakhoi, a 
port on the mainland opposite ; from Pakhoi 
she will push up to the middle of Si-kiang, 
and from that moment our trade with 
Mongtse will be either cut off or desperately 
hampered. It is not an agreeable prospect, 
and it is only one of many such. 

Except for the Christians, Prince Henri 
says little good of any Chinese. It was a 
relief to him to reach the Lissous, and other 
tribes of the Thibetan border, where edicts 
of the Tsung-li-Yamen hardly run ; but no 
impression is stronger from reading this 
book than the slackness of all ties in that 
vast agglomeration of provinces. Even at 
Tali people seemed scarcely aware that China 
was then at war with Japan. The notion 
of a united movement of the Yellow Eace 
seems a mere nightmare. It is hardly con- 
ceivable that China should ever grow 
aggressive ; but it might prove a difficult 
coimtry to subdue. Travel was nowhere easy ; 
it was most difficult along the march west- 
ward from the Mekong to Assam, across an 
interminable series of clefts and chasms. 
Indeed, at this point the expedition was 
in grave danger of loss by starvation ; its 
worst time came just at the end, after they left 
the Khamtis, tie first people beyond the 
border of Assam. It was with a sense of great 
deliverance that they reached the outposts 
of civilisation, and were cordially welcomed 



28 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



by the English magistrate. This is how 
our Eaj strikes a foreigner : 

" Sadiya is the extreme north-east outpost 
of the British Indian empire. Mr. Needham's 
position is that of Assistant to the PoUtical 
Service, and he is in supreme and sole charge. 
He has passed twenty-eight years in India, 
and exercises the functions of Resident, judge, 
and commandant of the troops, of whom there 
are one hundred under native officers. Another 
five hundred sepoys could he summoned by 
telegraph within twelve hours. In addition to 
the importance involved by his relations with 
the frontier tribes, he governs in and around 
Sadiya more than 60,000 people. After thirteen 
years spent in this district, he speaks besides 
Hindustani: Bengali, Thai (of which he has 
compiled a grammar), Singpho, Assamese, 
Abor (also with a grammar in preparation), and 
Mishmi. What an example to Prance of the 
right man in the right place ! and what a 
simpUfication of the world of vice-residents, 
commis de residence, and chanceliers, aU engaged 
in manipulating the papers which we deem 
indispensable to the administration of a pro- 
vince. Here one hand controls the whole. It 
is true that he is well paid, and that after 
thirty years' service he will be entitled to a 
pension. He submits his claim for travelling 
expenses, and it is discharged to him direct. 
There is none of that system of mistrust to 
which we are too prone. The English place 
implicit confidence in the zeal of their officers 
to work their hardest for the interests of their 
empire." 

The praise is frank, generous, and merited ; 
and it is only fair to admit, what Prince 
Henri insists on, that in the East we have 
stepped into the heritage of Dupleix. In 
how many quarters of the world has such 
enterprise paved the way for the English to 
enter in and complete the edifice ? Neither 
under a monarchy nor under a republic has 
France shaken off the curse of officialism. We 
commend the book to many readers. The 
pictures are lavish ; many are photographs 
— some too obviously not : there is a rope 
bridge whose top cable is drawn no thicker 
than the other strands. The translation has 
been done presumably by an Orientalist, 
and should have been revised by someone 
who knew, for instance, that " trompe " 
means an elephant's tnmk. Mr. Bent 
translates it " trumpet." 



BIOGRAPHY IN LITTLE. 

Philip II. of Spain. By Martin A. S. Hume. 
Foreign Statesmen Series (MacmUlan 
& Co.) 

This is pre-eminently the age of the hand- 
book. Our writers for the most part cannot 
write -and their readers will not read — the 
ponderous histories and treatises such as 
their ancestors dealt in, and the modem 
historian excels in the production of concise 
monographs and biographies, of "Epochs of 
History,'^ and the like. Such excellence is 
by no means to be despised. The books are 
usually accurate and scholarly. Often their 
modest two hundred pages represent an 
immense amount of independent research and 
the consultation of many a neglected original 
authority, as well as the "boiling down " of 
all the old unmanageable tomes in which a 
more leisurely age was wont to seek its in- 



formation. Mr. Martin Hume's contribution 
to Messrs. MacmiUan's " Foreign Statesmen 
Series," Philip II. of Spain, is an admirable 
example of this kind of work. Mr. Hume, 
who is the editor of the Calendar of Spanish 
State Papers of Mizaheth, is thoroughly master 
of his subject. In the short space of some 
two hundred and sixty pages he has brought 
together an immense range of material. He 
has gone to the original and unpublished 
authorities in many cases for his facts, and 
has succeeded in making his sketch at once 
comprehensive and succinct. His view of 
Philip is, on the whole, a favourable one, 
though he is free from excessive par- 
tiality. As we see him in these pages, 
he stands before us as a gigantic failure, 
his vast schemes all frustrated, his am- 
bitions humbled. To many temperaments 
he can never be a sympathetic fig^ire. 
He is too cold and hard and calculating. 
He lacks dash and brilliancy. His courage 
is not conspicuous and his generosity infini- 
tesimal; moreover, his reign is pre-eminently 
stained with the atrocities of the Inquisition, 
and that alone repels many who might 
otherwise admire this cold, strong man. As 
a statesman, too, he is disappointing, with 
his incapacity for rapid decision and prompt 
action. Mr. Hume allows all this, but at 
the same time he dwells lovingly on his 
higher qualities, and no one wUl put down 
this book without a feeling of synqiathy and 
pity for its subject. Here, if anywhere, was 
a man whose epitaph might have been 
the famous Miserrimus. The one defect of 
Mr. Hume's book seems to us to lie in the 
writing. The English is not always im- 
peccable, and it is often slipshod. But much 
may be forgiven its author for his wide 
knowledge, his comprehensive sympathy, 
and impartial weighing of authorities. 

William the Silent. By Frederic Harrison. 
(MacmiUan & Co.) 

Mr. Feedeeic Hareison has not left the 
world in ignorance as to his preference in 
letters and character. Something of the 
moralist, a little of the "friend of man" 
and liberal philosopher, and a great deal of 
the honest lover of plain courage and worth, 
are apparent in all his writings. The 
Puritan — a very enlightened and liberal 
Puritan, to be sure — the uncompromising 
hater of MachiaveUianism in every form, is 
written so largely over his work that we 
do not wonder at his turning to the history 
of hopeless struggling against odds, and 
men whose natures were of gi-ay, unadorned 
simplicity. 

The history of the rise of the Dutch 
Eepublic has been popularised by the ex- 
cellent and rhetorical Motley, and, indeed, 
the bare fact is suificiently marvellous. It 
is the tale of the wars of one man and a 
little people against the greatest power of 
the age. More, it is the narrative of the 
formation of a nation from apparently hope- 
less elements — a mere chaos of fanaticism 
and narrow passions. " It was formed 
without design," said "Voltaire, " and in the 
end it belied all human forecast." And the 
man who chiefly worked the marvel was 
all his life unsuccessftil ; his record 
seemed entirely of defeat; he was by no 
means a great soldier, and his materials 



forbade prosperous statesmanship ; at the 
last he was murdered and ended an appa- 
rently ineffectual life in what seemed the 
blackest hour of all. And yet the founda- 
tion had been laid, and his enemies even in 
their hour of triumph had been irretrievably 
defeated. The seven Northern provinces, 
with the poor, hard, toil-worn populace, 
had been endowed with the spirit of a 
nation, and were on the eve of making 
sounding history among the states of 
Europe. 

The whole life of the man is a series of 
anomalies. Though undeniably brave, he 
had no military genius, and he foimd him- 
self pitted against the two greatest captains 
of the age, Alva and Alexander of Parma, as 
well as Don John, its most dashing soldier. 
A certain measure of statecraft was un- 
doubtedly his, but his diplomacy was less 
subtle than ceaseless, and his contem- 
poraries read him like a book. Yet he had 
to play the game against a master of the 
art like GranveUe, and attempt to treat 
with Elizabeth and her wary ministers. He 
was a Lutheran by the tradition of his 
house, a Catholic by uiibringing, and he 
ended by becoming a Calvinist — "I am now 
bald and Calvinist," he writes, " and in that 
faith will I die " — but it is certain that his 
temper was very little that of the sectary. 
Yet all his life he had to strive with re- 
ligious fanaticism both in his own and in 
the enemy's camp, and this calm and 
reasonable man had to face the whole crazy 
tribe of priests and pastors. And for what 
end? This, indeed, is the crucial question 
in the matter, and we can only g^ve a 
hesitating answer. The whole rebellion 
had an element of the fortuitous. We 
may conceive him as a man of humane 
and liberal feeling, with an honest 
love for his people's welfare, protesting 
against Spanish cruelty. Little by little 
the chain of accident draws him deeper into 
difficulties, till he is forced into assuming a 
bolder front for his very manhood's sake. 
Gradually as difficulties thicken he begins to 
get sight of a great end — liberty of con- 
science, civU freedom, national spirit — and his 
soul is hardened to withstand. But it is 
always a rebellion under protest ; he is " for 
peace " if his foes are " inclined for battle," 
and his policy is slow, cautious, even 
timorous at times. The key-note of the man's 
character is a certain grave simplicity and 
kindliness — which made him pardon his 
would-be murderers and ask mercy even for 
the assassin — and a certain freedom from 
prejudice in all details of life. He is above 
sectarianism, and he is not scrupulous about 
his political morality. A lofty opportunism 
lies at the base of his policy ; a spirit which 
was highly necessary for such rough times, 
and which, in spite of Mr. Harrison, it 
the glory of the much-abused Florentine ' 
have fostered. 

A comparison with his great contemporary, . 
Henry IV. of France, inevitably presenti 
itself. Both men had real greatness, bu 
both had something homely and pedestria 
in quality. Mr. Harrison draws an excel-i 
lent picture of the Prince : 

" His shabby dress, with a loose old gown and 
a wooUeu vest showing through an unbuttonedil 
doublet, was that of a poor student or a watar-i 



Jan. 8, 1»98.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



29 



man, and he freely consorted -with the burgesses 
of that beer-brewing town (Delft). Yet in 
conversing with him an English courtier admits 
there was an outward passage of inward great- 
ness. Now, at the age of fifty-one, he was 
bald, worn with wrinkles, and furrowed with 
ague and with sorrows ; the mouth seemed 
looked with iron, the deep-set watchful eyes, 
the look of strain and anxiety, give the sir of a 
man at bay, who has staked his life and his 
life's work." 

Eanke gives a similar account of Henry, who 
" preferred the hautboy and the bagpipe to 
elaborate music, who would mix with the 
common people at inns and fen-ies, and 
loved dearly to chaffer with horse-jockeys at 
country fairs." Both men had a sort of 
scheme for" a Christian Republic, and both 
cared little for the squabbling of rival creeds. 
" If the Reformed opinions are false," wrote 
William, " if the Catholic Faith be based on 
eternal truth, their doctrines will melt away 
in good time, like the snow before the sun " ; 
which may be compared witli the opinion of 
Henry, that a man might work out his 
salvation in one religion as well as another. 
These are the words of the great Laodicean, 
and yet we need not say with Montaigne 
that " religion ne les touche ni I'un ni 
I'autre." William at least was essentially 
devout, but after the fashion of the Samaritan 
and not of the Levite. 

Mr. Harrison has written a scholarly and 
shrewd study of a great character. The 
book is worthy of its place in an excellent 
series. 



A PROVOST OF ETON. 

Sir Henri/ Woiton : a Biographical Sketch. 
By Adolphus William Ward. (Constable. ) 

This is a book of a peculiarly irritating 
type. It was open to Prof. Ward to treat 
his subject in either of two ways. He 
might have given us a work of research, 
exhausting the available material for a Life 
of Wotton, disinterring new facts, sifting 
evidence, and establishing once for all the 
authentic history of the man. This had 
been the way of the scholar. Or, taking 
some other point of view than Walton's — 
some point of view less naive and more 
self-conscious — ho might have drawn a 
new portrait, created a new, or at least 
a_ revised, conception of an unusually fas- 
cinating personality. Tliis had been the 
way of the critic. Possibly he might have 
been felicitous enough to do both these 
things. Actually he has not quite done 
either of them. He has written a Monday 
Popular Lecture for some provincial college 
which hovers between the ideals suggested, 
and falls short of both. There is scholar- 
ship in the book. Prof. Ward has carefully 
studied Walton's Life, the miscellaneous 
papers printed in the Jteliquice Wottoniance, 
and a good deal of illustrative matter bear- 
ing on his subject. But he has not done his 
work thoroughly : he has left many points 
unexamined and many difficulties unsolved. 
To take a single instance: "The precise 
date of Wotton's death is not mentioned by 
Walton, or in the dictionaries. It might 
perhaps be ascertainable at Eton." Why, 
then, did not Prof. Ward take steps to 
ascertain it? We expect this kind of half- 



baked work from an amateur, but surely 
not from a professor. And if the exigencies 
of the lecture-room made incompleteness 
necessary, why publish ? On the other hand, 
there is an attempt at criticism in the book 
also. The contrasts, the paradoxes, of 
Wotton's life, the double temperament in him 
of the man of affairs and the philosophical 
recluse ; these Prof. Ward sees, and seeing 
would communicate his vision. Unfortu- 
nately he has the heaviest of heavy hands in 
these matters, and totally lacks that gift of 
phrase without which verbal portraiture can 
neither interest nor endure. His picture of 
the man is true in its main outlines, but it 
is wooden, cumbrous, lifeless ; and an in- 
ferior portrait, to be hung as a pendant to 
Walton's, stands but a poor chance. 

On the whole, then, one fears that the 
chief merit of Prof. Ward's book is, that it 
recalls one to Walton, and to a subject 
worthy of Walton's pen. Walton had 
fraternised with Wotton over their common 
friend. Dean Donne, in a Life of whom they 
had agreed to collaborate. But Wotton 
died before the book was written, and it fell 
to Walton to complete it and to supplement 
it by one of his intended colleague. It was 
a congenial task, for Wotton's later years 
had all the simplicities and the pieties 
which were so attractive to the worthy 
draper. Like Donne, he had somewhat 
suddenly changed his whole manner of life. 
He had been a courtier and a busy diploma- 
tist. One of the secretaries of Essex, he 
had escaped the fate of his unfortunate 
fellow, Henry Cuffe, by a hasty flight. 
Disguised as an Italian, imder the assumed 
name of Ottavio Baldi, he had conveyed a 
warning of intended assassination to James 
VI. of Scotland from the Grand Duke of 
Florence, together with a casket of anti- 
dotes. When James became King of 
England he had, though a Stuart, sufficient 
gratitude to recall Wotton from his prac- 
tical exile and to take him into his service. 
Wotton was a persona grata at Venice, and 
for many years he was permanent or 
" leiger " ambassador in that city of historic 
memories. He took a part in the disputes, 
partly political, partly theological, between 
the Republic and the Papacy, and was 
vehemently attacked by that shameless 
pamphleteer, Caspar Schioppius. Only once, 
however, did Wotton give his enemies a 
real handle, when with too ready epigram 
he wrote in an album that "an ambassador 
is a good man sent to lie abroad for the sake 
of his country." Schioppius pretended to 
take this as the serious doctrine of the 
English Foreign Office, and Wotton had 
some difficulty in making his peace with 
James. At a later period Wotton became 
famous for his chivalrous championship of 
"the Queen of Hearts," the fair and ill- 
fated Elizabeth of Bohemia, for whose sake 
so many brave men went to ruin. It was 
in her honour that Wotton wrote his 
prettiest verses, those beginning, "Ye 
meaner beauties of the night " ; and when he 
left the Court of Ferdinand II. he gave 
away a jewel presented to him by the 
Emperor, " because he found in himself an 
indisposition to be the better for any gift 
that came from an enemy of his royal mis- 
tress, the Queen of Bohemia." 



About 1622 Wotton found himself out of 
official employment and stranded with an 
inconsiderable fortime. Ho thought him- 
self happy to obtain, through the friend- 
ship of Buckingham, the vacant Provost- 
ship of Eton. The income was a poor 
£100 a year; but on this he settled 
down, took orders, wrote both prose and 
poetry in a somewhat dilettante fashion, 
leaving most of his writings unfinished ; 
fished, enjoyed the friendship of Izaak 
Walton and tlie Admirable Mr. John Hales, 
and superintended the education of the 
scholars of Eton like a virtuous and godly 
gentleman. He lived until 1639, and when 
seventy years of age wrote the following 
pleasant idyll, which appears in the Com- 
pleat Angler : 

" And now all nature seemed in love ; 
The lusty sap began to move ; 
New juice did stir the embracing vines, 
And birds had drawn their valen tines ; 
The jealous trout, that low did lie. 
Rose at a well-dissembled fly : 
There stood my friend, with patient skill, 
Attending of his trembling quill. 
Already were the eaves possessed 
With the swift pilgrim's daubed nest : 
The groves already did rejoice 
In Philomel's triumphing voice. 
Ths showers were short, the weather mild, 
The morning fresh, the evening smiled, 
Joan takes her neat-rubbed ptiil, and now 
She trips to milk the sand-red cow ; 
Where, for some sturdy football swain, 
Joan strokes a sillabub or twain. 
The fields and gardens were beset 
With tulip, crocus, violet ; 
And now, though late, the modest rose 
Did more than half a blush disclose. 
Thus all look'd gay, all full of cheer, 
To welcome the new-liveried year." 

Wotton's verse is scanty in quantity, and 
some of it is of no great account. Many 
pieces, moreover, are ascribed to him on 
somewhat imsatisfactory evidence. Prof. 
Ward would take from him even the famous 
epitaph, " On Sir Albertus Morton and his 
Lady " : 

" He first deceased. She for a little tried 
To live without him : liked it not, and died." 

In the following lines Wotton strikes a 
wise and manly note, struck after him by 
Wordsworth in the " Happy Warrior," and 
at an earlier date by Vaughan, in a poem 
called "Righteousness," which Woi-dsworth 
must surely have known : 

" How happy is he bom and taught 
That serveth not another's will ; 
Whose armour is his honest thought. 
And simple truth his utmost skill ; 

Who hath his life from rumours freed ; 

Whose conscience is his strong retreat ; 
Whose state can neither flatterers feed, 

Nor ruin make oppressors great ; 

Who God doth lat,e and early pray 

More of His grace than gifts to lend ; 
And entertains the harmless day. 
With a religious book or friend. 
This man is freed from strvile bands 

Of hope to rise or fear to fall : 
Lord of himself, though not of lands. 
And, having nothing, yet hath tU." 
It is a pleasant picture Walton draws of 
the aged Wotton, with his books and his 
Thames trout. Gladly he left courts and 
cities for cloister and pasture. 



30 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 

Rowing. By E. C. Lehmann. (The Isth- 
mian Library : A. D. Innes & Co.) 

WITHIN the compass of some three 
hundred and forty pages Mr. E. C. 
Lehmann has compressed what is most 
necessary to be known of the art of 
rowing. His book is written primarily 
for the novice, but it will be read with 
equal pleasure by the finished oar ; for 
though the instructions to the young 
oarsman are very full and explicit, there 
is much that will interest the expert 
in the later chapters. Mr. Lehmann has 
had the coUaboration of Mr. Guy Nickalls, 
who writes on sculling ; of Mr. G. L. Dayis, 
the famous Cambridge cox of the seventies, 
who deals with steering ; and of Messrs. C. 
M. Pitman on Oxford College rowing, W. 
E. Crum on Eton rowing, and E. G. Black- 
more on rowing in Australia. Mr. Lehmann 
himself deals with rowing in America, a 
subject which his recent experiences as coach 
of the Harvard Eight specially fit him. 
He is also responsible for the chapter on 
rowing at Cambridge, and for the remarks 
on the recent controversy on the health of 
the oarsman. To the freshman and the 
second year man at the Universities the 
opening chapters on oarsmanship will be of 
the greatest use ; and the coach in a small 
college who often has to instruct others in 
what he scarcely understands himself will 
find his duties much simpler if he studies 
the cautions and hints carefully before 
getting into the stern of a tub. The two 
chapters on training and racing also contain 
many useful hints from Mr. Lehmann's ripe 
experience. As much, moreover, wiU be 
learned from the photographic illustrations 
of good and bad positions in rowing with 
which the text is weU furnished, and after 
the awful example which faces page 50, a 
round back should be an impossibility. 
The book is very well Ulustrated with pho- 
tographs, a most necessary precaution, as 
few draughtsmen know how to row, or if 
they do are singularly unfortunate in their 
efforts to put that knowledge on paper. 
The Isthmian Library Rowing may be 
safely recommended to all those who row or 
hope to row. 

The Note-Booh of TVistram Risdon. Edited 
by J, Dallas, F.L.S., and H. G. Porter. 
(Elliot Stock.) 

In 1714 the pirate Curll published the Choro- 
graphical Description of Devon. This is the 
common-place book of Eisdon, its author, 
printed aiter a MS. existence of nearly 300 
years. It contains several features of in- 
terest to the heraldically inclined ; among 
others, many coats-of-arms not to be found 
elsewhere, and a correction of some early 
descents in the Courtenay pedigree. A 
few coats are given in facsimile of the 
originals. If they are fair specimens of 
the bulk of those tricked "by the Travail of 
Tristr&m Eisdon, Gent.," it is certain that 
the "travail" of the editors in deciphering 
them must have been as painful as his own. 
Although neighbouring counties are in- 
cluded, most of the book is devoted to 



Devonshire, in whose armorial roU meaner 
escutcheons are glorified ^^^^^J^^^^;^ °* 
those of Ealeigh, Drake, Gilbert and Gren- 
viUe Here, too, occur the family names ot 
the iudicious Hooker and the heraldic Up- 
ton. Let it not be forgotten that Devon- 
shire gave birth to the father of English 
writers of blazon in Nicholas Upton, who in 
the loud days of Henry VI. serenely wrote 
of "heraldry, colours, and armouries, with 
the duties of chivalry, whence our modem 
writers have taken great light." 



Analecta Ehoracensia. Collected by a Citizen 
of York, Sir Thomas Widdrington, Knt. 
Edited by the Eev. Csesar Caine, F.E.G.S. 
(C. J. Clark.) 



The writer of this book sulked about its 
dedication, and his book appears 250 years 
after time. Sir Thomas Widdrington, a 
man of good lineage (he was descended 
from the Northumbrian Widdringtons) was 
Eecorder of York and many other things 
under Charles I. and the Commonwealth, 
and he offered to dedicate his book, the 
fruit of several years of labour, to the 
Mayor and Corporation of York. But the 
Mayor and Corporation looked upon the book 
as a stone for an eg^ ; and they sent Wid- 
drington a pithy, peevish letter, telling him 
in plain terms that " a good purse is more 
useful to us than a long story," and hinting 
that tomakethe Ouse navigable were a nobler 
work than compiling history. Sir Thomas was 
so chagrined that he forbade the publication 
of his book. From that day to this it has 
remained in MS., and historians of York, 
like Drake, have arisen and helped them- 
selves to Widdrington's facts, and said how 
sorry they were, and passed on. Now, 
when Widdrington's account of ancient York 
is itself ancient, it is printed by subscription; 
nor would the old knight — a self-seeking, 
consequential little man by all accounts — 
blush at sight of this handsome folio, 
with its list of weighty subscribers and its 
" process " illustrations. After all, he got 
the "process blocks" by waiting. Wid- 
drington was one of our earliest topographers, 
and worked under many disadvantages ; 
but he went to original documents, and 
copied them without mistakes ; he was not 
orderly. There we leave him. It is too 
late to review a superseded history that was 
ready for the press 250 years ago. 

The Making of Abbotsford. By the Hon. 
Mrs. MaxweU Scott. (A. & C. Black.) 

In this handsome and well-printed book 
Mrs. Maxwell Scott tells the story of her 
home, and discourses pleasantly on several 
incidents in Scots and French history. She 
has little of the serious historian ; rather, 
her essays are the gossip of a well-informed 
woman with a love for the past, and some 
genuine national enthusiasm. The book is, 
of course, in no way propagandist, but it is 
clearly written from the standpoint of a 
religious party. The paper on "Mary 
Stuart," which was originally published by 
the Catholic Truth Society, is a pleasant 
statement of one side of the case. Her 
references are chiefly to violent Marians, 
but it is strange to find no mention of 
Froude, Sir John Skelton, M. PhiHppson, 



and, above all, Mr. Swinburne. "The 
Scots Guard in France," which is chiefly 
a review of a book by Father Forbes-Leith, 
adds nothing to the work of HiU Burton, 
and Francisque-Michel. The few purely 
antiquarian papers are, as a rule, too slight 
to be of much value. Indeed, we like Mrs. 
Maxwell Scott best when she merely tells a 
good story, such as that of the Chevalier de 
FeuqueroUes or the heroic Lady Nithsdale. 

Prait Portraits : Sketched in a New England 
Suburb. By Anna Fuller. (Putnam's.) 

These little studies of New England life are 
in the genre which the art of Miss Wilkins 
has done so much to render illustrious. The 
inspiration is the same, with its constant 
effort to render fine qualities of the 
human spirit among unpromising sur- 
roundings ; and if the narrowness and 
weariness of the life painted is more con- 
spicuous, and its homely, remote beauty less 
conspicuous than in Miss Wilkins's work, 
that is, perhaps, partly a matter of tempera- 
ment and partly because Miss Fuller writes 
of New England, suburban and sophisticated, 
Miss Wilkins of the simple village existence 
of New England proper. Of the individual 
stories, "Aunt Betsy's Photographs," "A 
New England Quack," and "A Yankee 
Quixote " strike us most. Aunt Betsy hag 
her picture done "in front of the grape- 
vine, her right hand in a black lace mitt, 
reposing upon the wicket-gate, and her 
voluminous skirts spreading on either 
side." The sitting is a secret one, and 
the dramatic production of the photo- 
graphs in the family circle is the triumphant 
moment of the poor flabby, oppressed lady's 
life. 



The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. 
By Bernhard Berenson. (Putnams.) 

This little study is a companion to the 
earlier volumes on Florentine Painters and 
Venetian Painters by which Mr. Beren- 
son has already won golden opinions. 
A fourth volume on North Italian 
Painters will complete the series. Mr. 
Berenson's intimate knowledge of tech- 
nique, befitting a disciple of Signor Morelli, 
together with his genuine critical gift, 
make him a most delightful guide to the 
study of Italian art. Moreover, he is an 
original thinker, and his speculations as to 
the psychology of esthetic enjoyment give 
to his disquisitions a philosophical breadth 
and interest. The Central Italian schools 
are those of Siena, the Eomagna, and 
Umbria, all of them largely influenced by 
Florence, and Mr. Berenson finds in them 
aU a common tendency to develop the " illus- 
trative" rather than the " decorative" side 
of painting ; to excel, that is to say, more in 
the representation of ideas than in colour, 
tone, form, or movement. To this common 
quality individual artists add individual 
qualities. Piero dei Franceschi has his 
impersonality, Perugino his sense of space, 
Eaphael his mastery of composition, m. 
Berenson appends valuable index lists of the 
works of a large number of painters, and 
prefixes a reproduction of Eaphael's La 
Donna Velata in the Pitti Gallery at 
Florence. It is a practical and a highly 
stimulating little book. 



S\y. 8, 1898.] 



^PHE ACADEMY. 



31 



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NOTES AND NEWS. 



THE most interesting literary event of the 
week is the publication in the Telegraph, 
synchronously with the YoutKs Companion 
in America, of Mr. Gladstone's recollections 
of Arthur Henry HaUam. It is a sketch of 
great beauty. As boys at Eton tliey were 
Sie closest friends, bound by ties more 
worthy and secure than schoolboys com- 
monly are ; and biography is richer for 
Mr. Gladstone's tribute. It is surely 
a unique performance : an old man of 
eighty-seven (the essay was written last 
year) setting down luminously and power- 
fully the praises of a friend who has been 
Bisty-four years in the gi-ave ! 



We quote a few of the more easily separ- 
ated passages : 

"It is the simple truth that Arthur Henry 
' HaUam was a spirit so exceptional, that every- 
I thiug with which he was brought into relation 
lUiiiug his shortened passage through this world 
cuuni to be, through this contact, gloiifiod by a 
touch of the ideal . . . Whether he possessed 
tliu greatest genius I have ever known is a 
i| icstiou which does not lie upon my path, and 
\vlni;h I do not undertake to determine. It is 
' • tlie man that I speak, and genius does not uf 
If make tho man. When we deal with men, 
^ tiius and character must be jointly taken into 
view ; and tho relation between the two, 
together with the eft'eot upcn tho aggregate, is 
I infinitely variable. The towering position of 
Shakespeare among poets does not of itself 
afford a certain indication that he holds a place 
c"inally high among men ... la this world 
t hero is one unfailing test of the highest excel- 
!• n«e: it is that tho man should be felt to be 
gioater than his works. And in the case of 
I Arthur Hallam all that knew him knew that 
the work was transcended by the man." 



tender ; the shrewd and impressive asides 
on great and grave questions and issues ; 
the incidental words of literary and general 
criticism — all serve to make the essay im- 
portant and memorable, and to lead us to 
■wish that Mr. Gladstone oftener pursued 
the reminiscent mood. 



The literary partnership between tho late 
Alphonse Daudet and Mr. E. H. Sherard 
yielded a story which is shortly to bo 
published in Mr. Sherard' s English transla- 
tion. The original plan was for Baudot 
to dictate and for Mr. Sherard subsequently 
to elaborate. But tlio dictated matter was 
so good and self-sufficient that Mr. Sherard 
wisely left it as it stood. The story will be 
called "My First Voyage: My First Lie." 
It is a reminiscence of the author's boy- 
hood. 



Mb. Kipling, who, accompanied by his 
family and Mr. J. Lockwood Kipling, sails 
to-day in the Dimivgan Castle, intends to 
make his triji to South Africa a complete 
holiday from work. His forthcoming volume 
of short stories is to be postponed from 
the spring to the autumn of this year. 



Me. Henley's Essay on "Burns: His 
Life, Genius, and Achievement," which 
appeared in the concluding volume of The 
Centenary Burns, will shortly bo published 
in a separate form by Messrs. Jack, of Edin- 
burgh, at a sliiUing. 



The glimpses of life at Eton seventy years 

r^o; tlio friendly eulogy, at onco so warm 

1 so reasonable, so unstinted and so 



A NOVELIST in search of a good execution 
scene — there is one excellently done in The 
Gitdfly — will hnd one all ready to his liand 
in a recent telegram from the Daily New>s 
correspondent at Berlin. Five haiducks — 
Servian robbers — were shot at Czaka a few 
days ago. The two most notable were 
Brkytsch and Woiko. This is how they 
died : 

" As tho procession pa'sed a house, at the 
window of which Brktysch discovered a pretty 
girl, he cried : ' Oh, women, women I It is 
you who have brought mo to this.' Woiko 
smiled, and conversed the whole way. Of a 
high official he asked : ' Sir, do you think as 
many people will attend your funeral ? ' Turn- 
ing to the gendarme who sat next to him, he 
said, ' Brother, do aim at the nipple of my loft 
breast, so that I need not suffer so long.' It 
was nine O'clock when tho execution groimd 
was reached. Each of the haiducks was told to 
alight, and to stand next to a post which was 
erected by the grave destined to close over his 
body. Woiko appeared quite lively, and kept 
laugliing and joking. Brkytsch had boo me 
senous and smoked a cigar, and the others i tood 
silent and immovable as if they were alreidy 
dead. Woiko's grave was close to that prepared 
for Brkytsch. When he noticed this, be said to 
him, ' Brother, don't be anxious. We shall 
remain close to each other. We shall soon find 
each other again' .... Woiko requested to be 
allowed to die with open eyes, but he was 
refused. ' Why are you blindfolding us ? ' he 
said. ' When I killed men I did not first blind- 
fold them.' The people were now forced back 
by the gendarmes. Tho Prefect gave a sign, 
tho captain fluurished his sword, the crack of 
rillos sounded, and the five men were men no 
more. 

This is more than journalism, it ib literature. 



To tho enterprise and industry of Mr. 
C. M. Falconer, of Dundee, is due the 
"Catalogue of a Lang Library"; which 
does not mean a library conspicuous for 
length, but one consisting entirely of the 
works of Mr. Andrew Lang. For ten years 
has Mr. Falconer worked, and he now has a 
list mentioning 658 volumes, in which, in 
some capacity or other, Mr. Lang figures. 
Think of it, think of the industry it 
implies — and Mr. Lang was once called 
the Divine Amateur ! The divisions of the 
Catalogue are five : books written by Mr. 
Lang alone ; books written in collaboration 
with others ; books edited or prefaced by 
Mr. Lang ; books and magazines containing 
contributions by Mr. Lang ; volumes con- 
taining Mr. Lang's poems. 



We have received from Mr. Jerome K. 
Jerome a photograph of a Christmas card 
which he has received from a band of 
Russian admirers. It represents a view of 
St. Petersburg surrounded by visiting cards 
— one hundred and eleven in aU — and is 
ascribed to Mr. Jerome, with the assurance 
that other of his works are eagerly antici- 
pated in translation by his friends in St. 
Petersburg. 



The recipient says : "To Eussia is a long 
cry in many senses, and to be read and 
liked in Eussia is not too common an honour 
for an English writer. Madame JarintzofE 
in sending the card writes me : ' Certainly 
you understand that it would be simply 
impossible to send you in that way the 
expression of sympathj' from nil your 
admirers in St. Petersburg ; if all of tliem 
knew of the device and would be allowed to 
join us — then surely there would be no 
place for that Christmas card in your house ! 
As it is, I had j ust to mention about it among 
our friends, and the idea instantly flew 
through many circles, and reached the 
theatres, and in a few days I received more 
cards than I could use in trying not to be 
too plump with our feelings. Please notice 
that everyone knew the strict and inevitable 
condition : perfect sincerity. You can see 
from all this how right we were to tell you 
in the summer that the moral success of 
your books is enormous here ; all these 
persons (and several hundred more in St. 
Petersburg) have them and love them : not- 
withstanding the general small amount of 
bookbuyers with us.' I get so little honour 
now [Mr. Jerome adds] from a certain class 
of critic in my own coimtry tluit I may be 
forgiven some gratification for my recog- 
nition abroad." 



By the way, the same writer's statement, 
which has just appeared in the daily papers, 
that he is in no way interested in a certain 
forthcoming periodical, is one of the most 
complete and emphatic denials we can 
remember : " May I, Sir — not entirely in my 
own interests — ask your assistance in coun- 
teracting this falsehood ? I am neither 
directly nor indirectly — not as proprietor in 
whole or in part— not as editor nor as cin- 
tributor — not even as well-wisher, concerned 
witli any such venture," 



32 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



An English lady is reported to be now at 
work in tlie Vatican Library, busily engaged 
in seeking corroboration of the theory that 
Dante was acquainted with the Venerable 
Bede's Latin version of the legend of the 
Irish saint Fursey, wherein a suggestion 
of the idea of the Divine Comedy is to be 
found. The lady has already written an 
essay on the supposed influence on Dante by 
the Irish legend, upon which Mr. Gladstone 
has thus commented : " It is indeed of great 
interest, and the presumptions you raise 
appear to be important. Dante's being 
acquainted with a remote local saint, such 
as Bede, is of itself remarkable, and if it 
was due to his studying in England, as I am 
inclined to believe he did, then Engla.nd 
may have furnished the thread which 
brought into his view the root idea of his 
poem." Very little would be gained by 
proving any such dependence. A man's in 
spiration is nothing- ^= ^' 



his work is everything. 



Mr. Jacobs' s . Many Cargoes and The 
Skipper's Wooing are to be added to the 
Tauchnitz Library. Meanwhile, Mr. Jacobs 
has, it is said, decided not to resign his 
position in the Post Office, a step which his 
Uterary friends are alleged, very unwisely, 
to have iirged upon him. Instead, he will 
continue to endure what the Bookman calls 
" the sober routine of a Government Office." 
A number of busy literary men, it might be 
remarked, manage to endure it very easily. 



A Literary Zoo ! 

So really clever, too ! , , , ^ ^, 

Ah, what ghostly authors shudder from the 

' shelves that once they knew ! 
In the alcoves that the sometime Literary 

Lights invaded 
Now the plagiaristic monkey thinks he does 

as well as they did, 
And the Unenlightened Publishers assemble 

here to gaze 
While the anaconda swallows imdiscrimina- 

ting praise! " 

In honour of the Star's tenth birthday, 
which will be celebrated on the 17th inst., 
Mr. Conan Doyle has written a story, 
entitled "The Confession," for which Mr. 
Marcus Stone has made illustrations. To 
find Mr. Marcus Stone again acting as 
illustrator carries the mind back to days 
long past. 

Mr. Anthony Hope's lecturing tour in 
America has been so successful -that he is 
postponing his return. MeanwhUe Mr. 
Marion Crawford is beginning a lecturing 
tour through the Southern and Middle 
States, which will occupy him until May. 
Another lecturer leaves our own shores for 
America in a few days — Mr. Le Gallienne. 



with the unction which some of his recent 
novels drew forth, nor is it by the average 
reader considered quite in his best manner. 
Yet America has offered it a very warm 
welcome. The Boston Glohe says : " Like 
Lorna Boone, it is worth reading many times 
over, and the older it gets the more popular it 
is likely to become. The story is tremuloua 
with human emotions, described as only a 
master can pourtray them." The Chicago 
Tribune says : " Every page must bo read 
and savoured for itself. Every line shows a 
compression and a polish that makes it 
glitter and flash a new light from a new 
facet every time the mind turns it over." 
We are the more glad to find Mr. Black- 
more's new story so popular in America, 
since we could not give it very high praise 
ourselves. 



The late Sir Edward Augustus Bond, 
Sir Maunde Thompson's predecessor as 
Principal Librarian of the British Museum, 
survived his receipt of the distinction of 
K.C.B. only a few days. It is curious that 
one of the last scholars selected for honour 
by Her Majesty — the late Sir John Skelton, 
whose knighthood came with the Diamond 
Jubilee — died also within a week of its con- 
ferment. The late Sir Edward Bond married 
a daughter of " Thomas Ingoldsby." 

The first number of L' Enfant Terrible is 
probably now in the hands of expectant 
Americans. The editors, it seems, are 
known as Governors, and the office is called 
the Nursery. One of the Nursery Eules 
says: "No one not duly appointed an 
Honorary Infant shall be allowed to con- 
tribute, except on pajrment of the usual 
space rates (ten dollars per column)." 
Among the contents of No. 1 is the story of 
the Winchester Eepeating Hen, which seems 
to promise entertainment. 



The following story of the late Lord 
Tennyson may or may not be true ; but it is 
good enough, merely as a flight of pure fancy, 
to stand. In company with a few friends, 
says a correspondent of the Telegraph, the 
Poet Laureate one day entered a public 
reading-room and sat down in a large arm- 
chair before the fire. Much to the amaze- 
ment of the other occupants of the room, he 
then proceeded to elevate his feet untH they 
rested on the chimney-piece in the fashion 
we are led to believe is " real American." 
No expostulations on the part of his friends 
respecting the inelegance of the position 
were of the slightest avail. Suddenly a 
brilliant inspiration seized one of them — 
the father of one of our leading actors of 
to-day. Going close to Lord Tennyson, he 
whispered in his ear, " Take your feet down, 
or they'U mistake you for Longfellow." In 
an instant the poet's boots were on the floor, 
and he assumed the ordinary position of an 
Englishman. 



Apropos of difference of opinion, " A. E. T." 
writes : " The following from to-day's 
Observer is an amusing instance of that kind 
of summary criticism to which Browning 
once attributed the retardation of his own 
acceptance with the public : 

' New Poems. By Francis Thomson. [Con- 
stable). — A collection of verses of only mediocre 
pretensions. It is dedicated to the late Mr. 
Coventry Patmore, but the disciple lingers 
longa intervaUo behind his revered master.' 

It is not easy to conceive the class of 
reader for which guidance of this character 
is intended." 



" The transformation of the old Boston 
Public Library into a menagerie has called 
forth verse from Mr. Gelett Burgess, of 
L'Enfant Terrible, two stanzas of which 
follow : 

"A Literary Zoo 1 
A Spectacle to view ! 
Boston used to keep them private, but now 

they'll roar for you. 
Now they name 'em and they tame 'em, and 

they shame 'em and they brand 'em, 
And ill spite of guttural dialect, a child can 

understand 'em. 
Hore'g a Panther with a Purpose and a 

Problematic Tail. 
An 1 mt-k these neat poetic feet ! Au educated 

tniii: 



The American Bookman for January gives 
its usual returns of the most popular books 
in the States. It is interesting to note that 
those fine novels. The Choir Invisible and 
The Kentuckians, are in high favour. The 
popularity of Quo Vadis with American 
readers is at last on the wane ; but only, 
it would appear, after it has been read by 
an enormous section of the American read- 
ing public. The different appeals which 
this Polish author's novel has made to 
English and American readers is surely not 
a little curious and suggestive. We happen 
to know that the sale of Quo Vadis in this 
country has amounted to about 4,000 copies. 
Whereas in America 100,000 copies have 
been sold. 



American opinion of books often upsets 
that of England. In this country Mr. 
Blackmore's Dariel has not been reviewed 



Another correspondent — Mr. C. GifEard — 
writes: "During my reading of the last 
Weekly Sun — a luminary in whose rays I 
frequently bask when the other is obscure- 
it seemed to rain cats and dogs. I may be 
wrong, but one of the latter looked some- 
thing of a ' howler.' ' We hardly know 
whether to regard De la Motte Fouque's 
[without the accent] Undine (MacmiLlan & 
Co.) as an allegory pure and simple or as a 
fairy tale. . . . The author's literary style 
reaches a high level of excellence, and joy 
and pathos are artistically blended in the 
narrative.' Shades of die Romantische Schule ! 
— but perhaps the Weekly Sun is only 
playing upon our press-cutting agencies." 

Finance, the new weekly paper devoted to 
money matters, makes a very creditable 
appearance. It has everything handsome 
about it, from its deep -red cover to its 
headings and initials. A special feature of 
" No. 1, Vol I.," is a series of three articles, 
entitled " Other People's Opinions." These 
are contributed by Sir Edwin Arnold, Mr. 
Jerome K. Jerome, and Mr. I. Zangwill. 
Sir Edwin likes money ; and will not hear 
it abused. He even blesses the millionaire : 

" I should no more grudge his luxuries and 
splendours to such useful servants of the 
sublime History of Man than I should grudge 
to the upland lake its golden-spotted trout, its 
tranquillity, and the colours of heaven upon 
its elevated breast. Allans/ marchons ! then; 
Gentlemen of the High and Low Finance! 
with the varied and stupendous industries of 
your calling ! Make money — si possis, rede . 
Start mighty enterprises ! Estabhsh companiw • 
Exploit the earth, which is our leasehold 
estate ! Pierce isthmuses '. Tunnel under 
mountains I Bridge the baffled seas with swift- 



Jan. 8, 1896.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



83 



jeled ships ! If it be money, and the pursuit 
■ money, which does all these things— so long 
i it does them honestly— I say let Finance 
X lawful as eating ! ' " 

Mk. Jerome, being, according to the 
itest biographical dictionary, "the founder 
E the New Humour," ascends the pulpit : 

" You [the Financiers] have rewritten the 
iW8 : You shall live by the sweat of other 
leu's brows. The earth is yours and the 
iluess thereof. You toU not neither do you 
jiu (unless you call the fevered dice-thrower a 
toiler'), yet Solomon in all his glory was not 
trayod like you — nay, nor his wives either, 
'ou have prepared a new gospel for your- 
flves. How long do you think its statutes 
ill standi-" 



miUion, sayB the Critic, instead of twelve 
hundred, not one of them would have given 
this line. Nothing could be farther fetched. 



Mk. Zangwill is less exclamatory and 
lore argumentative than his coadjutors, 
ie points out that, according to recent 
liblical scholars, the notion that the Bible 
jenounces usury and interest is founded on 

misprint. Be this as it may : 

{ " The Church has long since abandoned its 

bjection to the breedmg of money by money, 

lid has even, I believe, investments of its own. 

lit I cannot help thinking that the old 

iclesiastical objection to money and financial 

Derations stiU lingers on in a transformed 

lape in many modern minds equally narrow. 

hese poetic or aristocratic spirits do not see 

at the international financiers are keeping the 

e-blood of the world circulating, and that 

e millennium of peace and brotherhood is 

ore likely to come through the Bourses than 

irough aU the religions. The interest every 

)pulation has in every other is a great pacifi- 

.tory force when passions rage, and the profits 

ay achieve what the prophets may have 

' iled in. Not that this necessarily persuades 

to do homage to the great god Per Cent. 

it it is for the philosopher to recognise the 

ace of everything in life, and then — put it in 

I plioe. There is the Stock Exchange now, 

much-abused institution in more senses than 

le. If people unite their capitals in big 

idertakings, there must be shares, and a 

, edium for negotiating them. That this pro- 

des an opportunity for gamblers is an un- 

rtimate consequence, but it can no more be 

ilped than the unpleasantly - exaggerated 

'■ ' ity of that wind which normally moves 

'lips." 

,na, to bo sure, it is his spare cash that 
Iman spends on literature ; and if he is to 
spare cash, he must have much cash. 
ill stand or faU together. 



I' HE New York Life seems to have been 

\N :!dering its readers almost to distraction 

''• 'd literary puzzle. A prize of 100 dols. 

ifferod to the lucky guesser of the line 

.mes by Longfellow illustrated by a 

Jcture of an old gentlemen in armour, 

lling, in front of his soldiers, over flowers 

^■ewn before him by women in mediaeval 

' 'nme. More than three-quarters of all 

iiesses sent in quoted lines from " The 

Jiiry of Bruges" and " Coplas de Man- 

tjue." Nothing could have been more 

itural. And nothing could have been 

i.)re absurd than to intend the picture 

t illustrate the line from " Morituri Salu- 

tnus " : 

' ['or age is opportunity, no less than youth 
itself." 

i\ the number of guesses had been twelve 



Literary London : its Lights and Comedies, 
by Mr. W. P. Ryan, will be published by 
Mr. Leonard Smithers this month. The 
volume deals with most of the prominent 
authors and schools of the day, and contains 
articles and satires on such subjects as 
"The Great Young Man and the New Style 
of Literary History," " The New Doom of 
Narcisstis," "The DevU. and a Modern 
Knight-Errant," "A Lunar Elopement: 
the Key to Allen Gaunt's Defection," " The 
Passing of the Poets," " The FUght from 
the Paineyard." 



Last week we said a word on Mr. Conan 
Doyle as a poet. There is another popular 
prose writer who occasionally plays with 
verse, and does it sometimes exceedingly 
well. We refer to Mr. Barry Pain, the 
author of the satirical comments signed 
Tompkins in the Chronicle of a Saturday. 
Often they display merely a keen, if mor- 
dant, humour, an intimate knowledge of 
Cockney dialect, and a true sense of rhythm : 
but on Saturday last Mr. Pain, it seems to 
us, achieved something finer. In the follow- 
ing poem there is a certain imoommon grim 
force, which prevails in spite of the slang 
setting : 

"At Midnight. 

" ' Ninety-sev'n,' the beU is syin', tollin', slow, 
' Orf yer go, 
'Arf-a-moment's aU that's left yer — 'arf- 
a-mo, 

Doncher know ? 
'Arf-a-moment and you're dead,' 
Says the big bell overhead, 
' And 'Iteen-ninety-ite tikes on the show — 
Orf yer go.' 

Do yer 'ear the bell a-callin', ' Ninety-ite, 

Ninety-ite ! 
Tike the ribbons of the cheriot of fite 

Thet won't wite 
While the 'orses gallop fast 
Through the midnight dawk an' vast, 
Snatch the ribbons from the dead 'ands of 
yer mite, 

Ninety-ite ! ' 

Whort's ahead ? The driver speaks not. All 
is still. 

Dark and chill. 
And the 'orses gallop forrud with a will. 

Dam the hill. 
And the big bells as was swingin', 
An' so jooberlantly ringin', 
A myster'us silence keep ; 
And the world drops off ter sleep 
As 'e drives us dam the steep. 
Whort's ahead ? Won't no one teU us— good 
or iU ? . . . 

All is stni." 



Recent rearrangements and additions in 
the South Kensington Museum include 
another Old English Room, which has been 
set up in the Western Arcade of the South 
Court by the side of the " Inlaid Room " 
from Sizergh Castle. The new specimen is 
from an old house, now pulled down, at 
Bromley-by-Bow, belonging to the early 
years of King James I. The spacious stone 
fireplace has over it an elaborate mantel- 
piece in oak with the Royal Arms very 
boldly carved. The ceiling bears in the 



centre the same arms with the initials I.R., 
and is covered with fine strapwork ornament, 
having floral enrichments and medallions 
containing heads of ancient warriors. 
Specimens of furniture of the period have 
been taken from the museum and arranged 
in the room in order to give it a furnished 
aspect. 



The arrangement of two rooms in the 
Cross Gallery connecting the Indian Section 
and Science Collections has now been com- 
pleted. The first room on descending the 
staircase is devoted, for the most part, to 
Cairene art. In the second room are textile 
fabrics and embroideries from various parts 
of the Turkish Empire. On the ground 
floor of the Indian Section an important 
addition has been made to the plaster casts 
by a collection of ornamental details from 
the palace of the gToat Akbar, at Fathpur 
Sikri, near Agra. 



Mb. Vernon Blackburn's T%e Fringe of 
an Art : Appreciations in Music, will be 
published by the Unicom Press on February 
15. It will contain portraits of Mozart, 
Berlioz, Gounod, and Tschaikovsky. Mr. 
Blackburn is musical critic of the Pall Mall 
Gazette. 



Sport in the Highlands of Kashmir, by Mr. H. 
Z. Darrah, is a new volume to be published 
almost immediately by Mr. Rowland Ward, 
of Piccadilly, London. 



News from Paris states that Lieutenant 
Julien Viaud has a holiday from service, 
which — under his better-known name, Pierre 
Loti — he proposes to use in seeking material 
for a new book. 



By permission of the Council of the 
Church House, four performances of the 
Rev. Henry CressweU's ecclesiastical drama, 
"The Conversion of England," will take 
place in the Great Hall of the Church 
House, Westminster, on Saturday, January 
15, at 2.30 p.m., and on Monday, Tues- 
day and Wednesday, January 17, 18, and 
19, at 8 p.m. 

Messrs. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. an- 
nounce for early publication a translation of 
^Education a Port Royal, being extracts 
from the writers of Port Royal, on the 
theory and practice of education, selected by 
the late M. Felix Cadet, Inspector-General 
of Public Instruction in France, with an 
introduction by the compiler. 



The Life of Joseph Arch, M.P., edited, 
with a preface, by the Countess of Warwick, 
will be published immediately by Messrs. 
Hutchinson. Mr. Arch himself tells the story 
of his life, but Lady Warwick has prepared 
the book for publication, and has con- 
tributed a preface, in which she reviews at 
some length the history of the Union which 
Mr. Arch founded, and the position of the 
agricultural labourer at the present day. 
Mr. Arch is a Warwickshire man, and lives 
within a few miles of Warwick Castle, 



u 



I'm ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



THE ACADEMY'S AWARDS 
TO AUTHORS. 



In reference to our intention to "crown" 
two books of signal merit published during 
1897, we sent the following communication 
to certain men of letters who have been in 
touch with the literature of 1897 : 

"The proprietor of the Academy having 
decided to set apart sums of One Hundred 
Guineas and Fifty Guineas as awards to the 
authors of books of signal merit pubUshed 
during 1897, the Editor asks your kind assist- 
ance in selecting the recipients. He will esteem 
it a favour if you will write on enclosed post- 
card the titles and authors of two or three 
books belonging to the period named, which 
are, in your opinion, most worthy of being 
' crowned.' " 

Below are a few of the replies already 
received. We shall announce our decision 
next week : 

Mr. Andrew Lang suggests that the following 
books might be suitably " crowned": 

Tlie Song Book of Bethia Hardacrc. By 
Mrs. Fuller Maitland. 

The King With Two Faces. By Miss 
M. E. Coleridge. 

Admirah All. By Henry Nowbolt. 



Mr. James Payn writes : 

Among the best books of fiction published 
in 1897 are— by weU-known authors: 

The Tragedy of the Korosel. 

In Kedar's Ihits. 
And by new-comers : 

Manij Cargoes. 

Deborah of Tod^s. 



REPUTATIONS 
RECONSIDERED 



Mr. Clement K. Shorter writes : 

Samuel Eawson Gardiner's Jlistory of the 
Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1651- 
1654. 
William Butler Yeats's The Secret Rose. 



Mr. I. Zangwill names the following books : 

The Will to Believe. By Prof. William 
James. 

What Maisie Knew. By Henry James. 

The Nigger of the ' ' Narcissus. ' ' By Joseph 
Conrad. 

The Painters of Central Italy. By Bern- 
hard Berenson. 



Mr. Edmund Gosse writes : 

Works by the forty members of your 
"Academy" being obviously excluded 
from consideration, my vote would be 
given thus : 

One Hundred Guineas to Mr. Arthur 
Symons for his Studies in Two Litera- 
tures. 

Fifty Guineas to Iklr. Frederic G. Kenyon 
for his edition of Bacchylides. 

[We have not restricted our awards in the 
way Mr. Gosse supposes.] 



Mr. W. L. Courtney suggests : 

The Diary of Master William Silence, by 
Chancellor D. H. Madden, as being the 
most illuminative bit of dramatic criti- 
cism which we have had for years, as 
well as the most definitive answer to 
the Baconian theory regarding Shake- 
speare's works. The novel I should 
suggest would be The School for Saitits. 



Dr. W. Robertson Nicoll writes : 

Mr. D. H. Fleming's Mary Queen of Scots 
deals with a theme of perennial 
interest ; is derived direct from the 
sources ; and no error has been pointed 
out by any critic so far as I know. It 
must always be considered and referred 
to by every student of the subject. I 
venture to think it belongs to the class 
of books the Academy should honour. 



Mr. W. Davenport Adams writes : — I shoidd 

give my vote for : 
The Memoir of Lord Tennyson. 
The Coming of Love. By Theodore Watts- 

Dunton. 
The School for Saints. By John Oliver 

Hobbes. 
Admirals All. By Henry Newbolt. 



Mr. Hugh Chisholm, editor of the St. James's 

Gazette, makes the following suggestions : 

One hundred guineas to Mr. David 

Hannay for his Short History of the 

Navy ; or, to Mr. William Ernest Henley 

for his " Burns." 

Fifty guineas to Mr. Henry Newbolt for 

his Admirals All; or, to Mr. W. Alison 

Phillips for his History of the Greek 

War of Independence. 



Dr. Eichard Garnett sends the following 

list of eligible books : 
The Life and Letters of Benjamin Jowett. 

By Evelyn Abbott and Lewis Campbell. 
Impressions of South Africa. By James 

Bryce. 
The Hope of the World. By William 

Watson. 
The Secret Rose. By W. B. Yeats. 



Mr. H. G. Wells writes : 

Henley & Henderson's edition of Burns 
is the sort of book that particularly 
deserves "crowning" — a magnificent 
performance of the utmost value to 
English literature, and not a very 
remunerative one to its authors. Mr. 
Henry James's What Maisie Knew rscnks 
next, perhaps. The Nigger of the 
" Narcissus " is, to my mind, the most 
striking piece of imaginative work, in 
prose, this year has produced. Captains 
Courageous I couldn't read by reason 
of the illustrations ; so I know nothing 
thorO')f. 



HI.— LORD TENNYSON. 

It would bo useless to deny tliat however 
noisy, vulgar, and impertinent may be the 
newspaper post-mortem, it is uniformly 
successful in laying bare the weaknesses of 
its subject. Enmity and scandal soon lose 
their power if there is no element of truth 
for them to work on. Lt)rd Tennyson did 
not fully recognise this. He only saw that 
after death a man's reputation has to go 
through a grim and savage ordeal, as likely 
as not to " shrivel it up like a cabbage," and 
having hated publicity all his life, the 
greatest terror death held for him was that 
it would be no longer possible to fence off 
the prying journalist and the gossip-monger. 
"The newspapers will get hold of mo at 
kst," he exclaimed sorrowfully, wlien taken 
with his final illness. It is, tliorefore, with 
a sense of relief that we find his reputation 
emerging unsullied from the discussion to 
which his death and subsequent biography 
gave rise. Of other great men of the 
century, Scott alone passed tlirough tho 
ordeal as well. His popularity never 
received a check. From Carlyle downwards 
the rest of them have seemed to dwindle 
and recede as soon as life was out. 

The parallel does not end here. Like 
Scott, Tennyson had no dark spot or mystery 
in his life to whet a vicious curiosity. Hii- 
biography is that of a tranquil and refined 
English gentleman who, in early life, fixed 
his ambition on a certain object and reso- 
lutely pursued it. lie has written no idyl 
more beautiful than the story of his owi 
quest from the time when the wizard 

"... found me at sumise 
Sleeping, and woke me 
And learned mo Magic," 

tiU that fine ending in which the ancien 
sage, gazing frankly and fearlessly over th 
very edge of life, finds the light of i>oetr, 
shining even on the valley of the shadow o 
death : — 

" And so to the land's 

Last limit I came — 

And can no longer, 

But die rejoicing. 

For thro' the Magic 

Of Him the Mighty 

Who taught me in childhood. 

There on the border 

Of boundless Ocean, 

And all but in Heaven 

Hovers the Gleam." 



In any attempt to picture the troubled ai 
yet splendid nineteenth century a conspicuoi 
place must be given to his great and majest 
figure, ever intent on his chosen art, ai 
yet eagerly interested in every intelleotu 
movement of the day ; listening attentive 
to the voices that had anything to say, y 
led by none from his own path ; looking 
life with his own eyes and reflecting it ml 
independent art. Something, too, of th 
golden atmosphere which constitutes t 
charm of his verse hovered about his p( 
sonality. The glamour must have be 
great indeed that evoked not only t 



Jan. 8, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



35 



respect but the warm and personal love of 
so many great minds, that bewitched 
Thackeray and Carlyle, Edward FitzGerald 
and Spedding, Mr. Gladstone, and the late 
Mr. Palgrave. Nor was his life altogether 
so sunny and enviable as to justify those 
who, like M. Taine, di-ew a sharp contrast 
between the opulent peer and the unfortu- 
nate race of bards whose lot too often is like 
that of Alfred de Musset in his garret or 
Bums at the ploughtail. On the contrary, 
he had crosses and tribulations enough 
to win our sjonpathy. Prosperity did 
not come tiU he had reached middle-age. 
For long enough he had to encounter jjublic 
indifference and hostile criticism. "A bar- 
barous people" were "blind to the magic 
and deaf to the melody." As he put it in 
homelier words, ' ' the mass of Englishmen 
have as much notion of poetry as I have of 
fox-hunting." Yet this is not quite an 
accurate statement to make of a race that 
has produced an unequalled literature. 
Wordsworth was probably nearer the truth 
when he asserted that every great poet must 
educate and form his own audience. The 
disciple or imitator steps into a place ready- 
made for him ; the original man has to 
overcome old prejudices and win adherents 
to his new convention. It was not till many 
years after Tennyson had produced some of 
his best work that he came to be generally 
recognised. 

All this may be said, however, and a 
doubt still remain as to whether Tennyson 
is entitled to that high place in literature 
claimed for him by liis contemporaries. In 
reading his son's biography, no one can 
help being struck with the indiscriminating 
character of their eulogy. Everything men- 
tioned seems to be looked upon as a 
masterpiece by some person of authority. 
As often as not the result is to make 
one wonder how bad the criticism of 
a great writer may be. We are 
told that " Spedding, a first-rate Shake- 
spearian scholar, George Henry Lewes, 
and George Eliot admired his plays." 
The last-mentioned wrote to Mr. Cross : 
" Tennyson's dramas are such as the world 
should be glad of — and would be if there had 
been no pre-judgment that he could not 
write a drama." A great deal more, and 
with deeper emphasis, has been written to 
! the same effect. It can be very well under- 
stood when it comes from a great Shake- 
spearean scholar. In drama alone did Tenny- 
son allow liimself to become an echo and no 
voice. It would be slaying the slain to 
insist upon the point. Time has gradually 
been sapping the work of those critics who 
used to enlarge uiron his dramatic capacity, 
and it is apparent that here, at least, is 
failure. Nor was the failure accidental ; it 
was the doom of his temperament. He had 
not that gift of imagining human beings 
acting under all conditions of light and 
shade that Shakespeare had to perfection, 
and that Scott among moderns possessed 
most highly. If we are to arrive at any 
true estimate of his work we must begin by 
flinging tlie plays overboard. 

Again, we doubt if tlie popular ' ' Idylls of 
the liing" have any enduring quality, save it 
be in the case of the first and last of them, the 
rich and magnificent " Passing? of Arthur." 



Even at their first publication Mr. Euskin, 
Edward FitzGerald, and many of the choicer 
minds, found something amiss. Their effect 
on the crowd was partly due to the strange- 
ness and romance of the period in which 
they were set ; but since then King Arthur 
ancl his knights have become familiar 
through numerous editions of Malory. It 
has become apparent to the dullest that 
Lord Tennyson foil below his model in so 
far as he tried to render the clash of arms 
and the romance characteristic of that old 
world, while his allegory sits badly on the 
characters, and is not sufficiently trans- 
parent for readers whose taste for this 
kind of writing has been formed on 
John Bunyan. Nor will his excellent style 
save the Idylls. There is nothing more 
changeable in literature than the fashion of 
narrative stylo. Let anyone who doubts it 
compare three translations of Homer, each 
of which seems to have fulfilled the require- 
ments of its day — Chapman's, Pope's, and 
Butcher and Lang's Odyssey. Here the 
identical story is told, but how the language 
of each is varied to suit its generation ! If 
it be true — as no doubt it is — that Lord 
Tennyson has refined the old stories till they 
lost life and colour, and that he has loaded 
them with a heavier moral than they can 
carry, then their endurance has but a feeble 
guarantee in a quality depending on the 
fickle caprices of taste. 

But our poet is so opident, that a great 
body of splendid work remains, even after 
the Plays and the Idylls have been laid aside. 
"In Memoriam " offers a surer foothold 
than either. Judged, not so much as a 
tribute to the memory of his dear and 
gifted friend Arthur Hallam, but as a 
book of elegies dealing with the elemental 
mysteries of life and the swaying of an 
utterly just and candid mind between faith 
and doubt, they reflect as nothing else does 
the spiritual struggles of his time ; and the 
recognition of obstacles is so full, the inclina- 
tion of his mind to the higher view so reason- 
able, that it wins the sympathy of all, the 
approval of a vast majority. No doubt, it 
is conceivable that the twentieth century 
may develop a different mood and a different 
attitude. On a lower plane. Lord Tennyson 
himself saw something of the kind happen 
to another poet. When he, a boy of four- 
teen, was carving "Byron is dead " on tlie 
sandstone rock at Somersby, the most acute 
minds of the time were convinced that 
Byron had vindicated his claim to a place 
beside Shakespeare. But the point of 
view was already beginning to shift. New 
streams of life and thought were breaking 
on the nineteenth century, and to the 
young generation Byron made no appeal. 
That this could be so did not dawn even on 
the clear mind of a Goethe. The mood of 
rebellion of which Byron was spokesman 
was not insular ; it flushed the entire 
thought of Europe, and who coidd tell how 
fleeting and transient it Tvas ? Those of us 
who have found consolation and spiritual 
sustenance in the pages of " In Memoriam " 
cannot see any inherent defect that will 
make it of less comfort to those who are 
stricken with grief and doubt a hundred 
years hence ; but wo know that the thought 
of the moralist " waxeth old, as doth a 



garment," and there are spiritual needs to 
which only a contemporary can minister. 
How much even of a Jeremy Taylor falls 
meaningless on ears that have listened to a 
Darwin and a Renan ! Much there is in the 
elegies eternally true ; but much, too, that 
may well prove transient. 

As often happens, it was not in his most 
ambitious, but in his simpler work that the 
poet achieved his most indisputable success : 
in those little country idyls that he always 
spelt with one I, to distinguish them from 
the "Idylls of the King." The light did not 
lead him astray when it fell on 

" Silent river, 
Silvery willow, 
Pasture and plowlaud, 
Innocent maidens, 
Gan-ulous children, 
Homestead and harvest, 
Reaper and gleaner, 
And rough-ruddy faces, 
Of lowly labour." 

When Carlyle first read " The Grandmother " 
it is said that tears ran down his cheeks, and 
he could say nothing but "Poor old body! 
Poor old body! " It would be difficult to 
imagine a finer tribute to this wonderful 
picture of old age. But many of the other 
Lincolnshire pieces done at or before the same 
period are equally good : " The Northern 
Farmer," "Locksley HaU," "The May 
Queen," "The Brook" and "Dora." Tomen- 
tion the names is to point to literature that has 
passed into the life and being of England. 
It must not be thought, however, that [ 
suggest that his charm depends on locality. 
On the contrary, it is at its highest, I 
consider, in " The Lotos Eaters," which for 
finish, melody, and consistency is second to 
no work that he has done, is scarcely second 
to anything of its kind anywhere. 

And it is this inimitable charm — " the 
golden atmosphere," as Carlyle named it — 
that constitutes Tennyson's unique distinc- 
tion. In his time the wells of romance that 
had been closed during the materialistic 
eighteenth century were re-opened. What 
the reader of to-day finds lacking not only 
in Pope and Dryden and Addison, but in 
Fielding, Defoe, Smollett, Johnson, and the 
rest, is the fulness of vision that sees a 
human action or a human character not only 
as a definite material fact, but as standing 
against a background of endless possibility, 
endless emotion, endless pathos. This is 
what Carlyle meant by liis infinities, eternal 
veracities, and so forth. He shook people 
out of their materialism, but going too far 
on the other side he drove them away from 
himself by over-emphasis and exaggeration. 
He did not realise, or could not apply, the 
truth finely expressed by Robert Browning, 
" nor soul helps flesh more, now, than flesh 
helps soul." Tennyson, on the other hand, 
was keenly alive to the nineteenth century 
awakening of spirit, but he was artist 
enough not to insist unduly upon it. One 
perceives that his mind was saturated with 
the feeling, but it is all suggested rather 
than expressed ; it does not come out in set 
expression, but in fine, inexplicable cliarui. 
The quality is akin to what we find both in 
Homer and Shakespeare, but only it is 
modified and changed by modem ideas ; it 
is the very poetry of to-day. 



36 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



Quite as much as in the pieces we 
have mentioned this intensely modem 
note is felt in the little snatches of song 
scattered through his longer poems. They 
are not aU equal. In Tennyson two 
natures are always contending for mastery, 
and the struggle does not invariably produce 
an equilibrium. There is the almost 
too gentle and sensitive spirit he inherited 
from his mother tempting him ever mto 
sentimentaHty, as in his "Home they 
brought her warrior dead," a song that 
had a great vogue once, but already is worn 
threadbare. There is also the sterner and 
stronger temperament that came from his 
father, accounting for passages in " The 
Vision of Sin" which seem to suggest that 
there was in Tennyson the possibihty of 
grimmer work. But this combination of ten- 
derness and strength formed no bad equip- 
ment for a poet when the two were blended and 
working in equipoise. Even then an immortal 
song is produced only at a fortunate hour. 
We feel occasionally, as FitzGerald said of 
the "Princess" lyrics, that the foam is gone 
from the champagne. And they are like 
pictures : you must live with them a long 
time before being quite sure that they 
deserve adding to the world's list of master- 
pieces. I could not very well explain why 
" Blow, Bugle, Blow ! " loses its savour while 
" Sweet and Low " retains it; why " Break, 
Break, Break" seems to gain and "Tears, 
Idle Tears" to lose in charm. The best 
songs are very few in number, and a slight 
apparent difference distinguishes the mortal 
from the immortal. 

These lyrics are of a kind peculiarly 
modem, and such as have only been written 
by Tennyson and him "who sang to one 
clear harp on divers strings." The best of 
them are not love-lyrics in the old sense, 
but bits of philosophy set against this back- 
ground to which aQusion has already been 
made. In those of Goethe one finds a 
wider, clearer, colder outlook on the universe, 
but Tennyson's are suffused with deeper 
emotion. The imagination of the former is 
at its best when bringing the whole of 
existence within focus of a little song ; that 
of the latter is rich in magic and illustration. 
Indeed, in that respect Tennyson is without a 
rival. Of many possible examples it will be 
sufficient to give one taken not from a 
song, but from the epilogue to "Tiresias," 
where he bewails the fact that " Old Fitz," 
to whom the poem was dedicated, was dead 
ore he received it. The passage has always 
appealed to me as illustrating what Prof. 
Palgrave called the "medioeratas aurea of 
Tennyson " : 

" The tolling of his funeral bell 
Broke on my Pagan Paradise, 
And mixt the dream of classic times, 
And all the phantoms of the dream, 
With present grief, and made the rhymes 
That missed his living welcome seem 
Like would-be guests an hour too late, 
Who down the highway, moving on 
With easy laughter, And the gate 
Is bolted and the Master gone." 

It was by passages such as this, the 
exquisite lyric " To Sleep ! " in " The 
Foresters," and "Crossing the Bar," that 
Lord Tennyson showed that his mind kept 
opening and growing to the very last. 



There was a period when, unkno^ to 
himself, " the light retreated, the landskip 
darkened." All those secondary Lincoln- 
shire studies, "The Northern Cobbler, 
"The Sisters," "The ViUage Wife, 
" The Spinster's Sweet-Arts," and " SiJcty 
Years After," are written without the 
Tennysonian chai-m. He had in them 
lost touch of his atmosphere and his fancy. 
Yet the great work that accompanied them 
showed it to be only a temporary and 
accidental lapse. There is no one period of 
his life wherein his good work was done ; it 
is sown all along his sixty years of labour. 
Without denying the very great merit of 
his other work, I think, however, that his 
strongest claim to immortality lies in the 
songs and the idyls with one ?. 

At starting it was my intention to discuss 
at some length his treatment of nature, but 
I have outrun the constable in the matter of 
space; and, besides, another "reputation" 
will afford an opportunity to enter upon 
that subject. -P- 



MILLAIS AT BURLINGTON HOUSE. 

Sir John Milla.is was young during the 
whole of the time when he was joyously 
passing through his phases, contemptuous 
of the phase just left behind, as a child of 
ten scorns his achievement at eight, or as 
any one of the growing centuries despised 
the work of its predecessor. The century 
just dying is old because it admires the 
past ; and Millais ceased to be young when 
he — painting with an emancipated and 
triumphant hand — stopped to admire, be- 
cause the world was resolved to admire, the 
intense, intent, and constrained work of 
1849 and 1850. There seldom was so con- 
sistently changing, so intolerant, so honest, 
or so long a youth as his. In 1861, when 
he had begun to paint in what is called his 
second manner, he wished that he could but 
get his pre-Eaphaelite pictures into his own 
altered hands, that he might tear them in 
pieces. It was a hearty wish. But he could 
not then buy them back to mend his repu- 
tation ; and the owners (not yet very proud 
of their possessions — they no doubt called 
them " quaint ") kept them until their day of 
popularity came at last. But though Millais 
got hold of none of his old pictures to 
destroy them, he borrowed all he could to 
repaint them. He did not spare his earlier 
work, having a vivacious and healthy dislike 
of it. That dislike might not be particularly 
healthy in others, but in him it was a sign 
of health and of life. Therefore, it is with 
mixed feelings that we see the proofs of an 
e&ectuaX pentimento in "The Vale of Rest." 
The nun who is sitting by whUe the lay- 
sister digs the grave received a new face ; 
and something of the same kind may possibly 
have befallen the children in "Autumn 
Leaves." For the faces are exceedingly 
beautiful, whereas our fathers complained 
of the ugliness of these girls. The 
figures are Primitive, but the faces — two 
of them, certainly — belong to the quickly 
altering period of "The Ransom" and 
"Trust Me." This, however, is not so 
certain an incident as that of the intolerant 



refitting of the nun. Millais' nun, in fact, 
was like a solid doll mended with a new 

head. _ _ j 

As to this famous picture last-named, it ii' 
more than usually mingled work : it has one 
of the best skies in the whole collection, and 
the painting of the tree that standi 
against the lightest part of the after-sunsei 
sky is beautiful ; there is, as it were 
lighted air between our eyes and these 
sprinkled leaves. In colour the upper par 
of the picture has beauty, but is the colou: 
of the white head-dresses in the cool shadow 
less shadows of evening a beautiful studj' 
of white? It seems to our eyes greatlj 
lacking in tenderness, delicacy, and sweet 
ness, nor is there much mystery hen 
in any colour. The execution, too, i 
painty. But the picture is an imaginative 
one and a sincere ; it is the rather naif worl 
of a simple-minded working painter who i 
inspired by his literary friends. These nuns 
by the way, seem to have by some mean 
broken into an English Protestant church 
yard full of an 1830 kind of gravestones 
tablets for the express purpose of recordinj 
names and virtues — a "Low Church" church 
yard in strongly English provincial taste, b 
a modem country town. Nuns lie unde 
thin crosses, or without anything excej 
their moxmds, and do not wear thei 
names even in the seclusion undergrounc 
" Ophelia " is the next picture of eque 
fame. It is six years' earlier work (1852 
than " The Vale of Rest " as this was befor 
the partial repainting. And surely a 
obvious help to the study of a painter wh 
was all things, not by tum so much as b| 
passage, would have been the chronologic! 
hanging of these collected pictures. N 
such order has been observed, but it he 
not been neglected for the sake ( 
dodging the discords of colour, whic 
occur here and there. The "Ophelia 
has always been famous for the beauty ( 
its flower-painting. A landscape, howeve 
is not a flower-piece, and assuredly this ros' 
bush in flower is not a landscape-painter 
work. The green leaves must have bee 
painted in the studio, for no open-air leave 
ever wore this green ; but the equally opt 
roses — a very equal republic of roses, e 
out — are most ambiguous. The painter h 
contrived to fill them — wherever painted- 
with rich light, but you must rifle them 
find it; at any reasonable distance the wi, 
rose-bush is quite dim and cold. It is muc 
the same with the flowers in the hands 
the floating figure ; but what is really fi: 
in the picture is the painting of the fac 
Here, and in "The BUnd Girl," the h. 
bmsh, the sweetness, and the essential a: . 
fundamental finish, have produced a surf a i 
far more like that of Velazquez than Milla 
work when he set himself to do sou 
Velazquez "on purpose." A little furth". 
on, the "Joan of Arc" helps us to decii 
what was Millais' perfectly duU time- J 
was about 1864, when the "Joan of Ar< ' 
was painted; and 1880— when the m^ 
picture, " Miss Alcyone Stepney," \<S 
painted — was a day of success claimed f 
every touch of an easy hand; some of tj 
accessories — hair and lace especially — intp 
portrait are masterly. As for the "Bht 
Brunswicker" (1860), it was painted wl^ 



1" Jan. 8, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



37 



the Primitive time was over and remem- 
bered with, great uneasiness and shame, 
when the sentimentality of the painter 
, expressed itself, free from the constraining 
! inspiration of early friends, and when 
MiUais became exceedingly popular. The 
parting of these rather uninteresting lovers 
divides the interest of the picture with the 
white satin dress, of which it seems strange, 
j perhaps, to say that it is not beautifidly 
i painted, seeing that one is compelled to own 
i that it is very Uke white satin. 
I To our mind the test picture of these few 
! transitionary years is "The Ransom" (1861). 
I There are passages of this work that force 
' us to caU this particular transition a 
fine one ; the hands, the hair of the 
children, all the surfaces of the garments 
in the middle and left of the picture, are not 
leas than magnificent. The drama, indeed, 
is too obvious even for this obvious manner 
' of painting incidents in suspense ; the 
painter insists and insists that we shall see 
i how the robbers are hesitating to take the 
[ knight's treasure because he betrays his 
' anguish of desire to get his children back ; 
but the action of one of the little girls with 
her arm stretched up over the father's 
mailed arm is more really dramatic than 
anything MiUais achieved in the expression 
of attitude. 

I Among the chief early pictures are 
'"Christ in the House of His Parents," 
I "Autumn Leaves," and " Sir Isumbras at the 
Ford." The first is perhaps the principal and 
I the most famous of MiUais' Primitive or 
j Pre-Raphaelite works. It has something 
[more of affectation (to speak plainly) than 
j is inevitable in work forced into the ways of 
other men and other times ; the conception 
I of the picture is excessively deUberate and 
self-conscious, and deUberate are also the 
I actions of the figures ; but the boy-Christ is 
lan exquisite child, a figure in which sim- 
Iplicity wins; it is wonderfuUy painted, 
moreover. 

j "Autumn Leaves" is the work of a true 
colourist, and its sky, if not all that it 
ought to be, is fairly atmospheric, and 
'has some beauty. This faint praise has 
Ito he denied to the utterly duU landscapes, 
jfrom " ChiU October" downwards, in which 
jthe skies have no Uf e, no Ught, no intention, 
no imity, no movement, no repose. The 
|truth should be told that MiUais' skies are 
miserable. " Sir Isumbras " belongs to the 
Primitive period, and has strong beauties. 
'\Vhy, one wonders, did they in the middle- 
jCentury smile at this " plum-coloured" horse? 
There is no visible plum-colour now, but a 
'fair enough black. Was it not at the 
painting of this picture, by the way, that 
Mr. Ruskin, seeing the Primitive inspira- 
{tion weakening, broke off finally in his 
braise of MiUais, crying, "This is not a 
!faU, but a catastrophe ! " Three years earlier 
'Mr. Ruskin himself had sat for the deUcately 
beautiful portrait in the same room. The 
pyes of the young critic watching the young 
irtiat, through whom he so desired to 
oamt his own wUl and his own way, must 
lave been keen to descry decline in " Sir 
f sumbras " ; but who shaU say that it had 
lot set in so soon as in 1857, seeing that 
'leven more years landed Millais in the 
lepth he had reached — undone, degraded, 



undistinguished — when he painted the por- 
trait of a chUd in the Water-colour Room — 
" Lily, Daughter of J. Noble, Esq" ? Even 
the drawing — and MUlais' drawing is 
generally excessively and subtly beautiful 
and searching — had fallen into wretched 
ruin in the face of this vulgarised 
chUd. 

But, again, what a draughtsman was 
MiUais, whenever the year was not 1864 
or thereabouts ! How his drawing turns, 
how it grasps and holds, lingers and finishes 
and chisels ! And how beautiful it is ! 
See "The Bishop of Manchester," the ex- 
quisitely drawn mouth of the John Bright 
portrait, and the weU-constructed hands in a 
score of portraits. See, too, the portrait of 
Mr. Gladstone, which has masterly Unes; 
and the head of Trelawney in the " North- 
West Passage." That quality of drawing, 
which had given to his primitive work a 
value nothing wiU ever lessen, did not 
forsake him again, when, in later Ufe, he 
had recovered it. 

And yet this later work has, in general, 
no cheering effect upon a MiUais-lover, 
gathered thus as it is at Burlington House, 
in a mass. For the display and flagrancy 
of the portraits of fashionable middle-aged 
women MiUais had not enough distinction 
of mind, enough style. He did not deal with 
them grandly. He had courage, but not 
a grand courage. He had not the gravity 
that can present an extravagant stout dress 
with dignity ; and he painted extravagant 
stout dresses on defiant women by the 
score. 

In " Hearts are Trumps " the heads are 
admirably painted, and f uU of essential life ; 
the picture is one of MiUais' masterpieces, 
and yet " is it style " ? A grasp at style is 
made in the large gray silk dresses — a reso- 
lute grasp. Well, in the heads it is attained; 
but there is something lacking in aU the de- 
liberate rush of labour with which that silk 
is executed ; we grow tired of it under the 
table. A great painter would not have 
wearied us with it even there. Then there 
are the landscapes — it is impossible not to 
refer to them again. They are not only 
ugly, but insipid ; and there is hardly any 
possible covering of the same space of wall 
that one would not rather look at than 
" Dew-drenched Furze," for example. 

Perhaps the greater number of the por- 
traits of men painted in late years are 
MUlais' finest work. They have not more 
dignity than nature, but they have extra- 
ordinary power, character, freedom, know- 
ledge, security, and ease, and if not inteUect, 
a most uncommon inteUigence. Next to 
these is the beauty, here and there, of a 
child's hair and flesh painted with the 
freshness he loved; for, having painted 
many things, he owned that he rested upon 
one thing with unaltered deUght — the 
mingled colour in the middle of a chUd's 
or a woman's cheek. 



THE BOOK MARKET. 



BOOK SALES OF 1897. 

The end of a year is as much a time for 
retrospection as it is for a natural indulgence 
in hope for the year to come. Even for the 
book-collector or the bookseUer this is true ; 
and so, on the eve of a new year, let us see 
what the year that has just gone has done 
for either of these specidators in the world 
of letters. A satisfactory consideration of 
this subject would demand the inclusion 
not only of the regular auction sales, but of 
all the catalogues of the chief bookseUers ; 
and as this is practicaUy impossible, let us 
restrict ourselves to the more important 
pubUc sales, and let us see what conclusions 
are to be drawn from them. 

At once we are met with a sale for which 
the year 1897 must always remain distin- 
guished — the Ashbumham Sale. So far, 
only two portions of the late Earl's magnifi- 
cent Ubrary have been disposed. But those 
two portions are in themselves sufiicient to 
establish an event in the annals of biblio- 
mania. Eight days in Jime and July and 
six days in December sufficed to distribute 
some thousands of lots, which realised the 
enormous sum of nearly £50,000 — a sum 
which must represent a substantial advance 
on the price paid for the books originaUy. 
No doubt the volumes were in good condi- 
tion, and the Hbrary was one of the few 
private libraries in the country which was 
held in high esteem by those who can judge 
of what rare books are. But these con- 
siderations are not in themselves sufficient 
to account for the almost phenomenal sums 
paid. We can but surmise that our 
American cousins, infatuated with a desire 
to possess Ashbumham books, must have 
given commissioners carte blanche. Only by 
such an explanation can we understand the 
giving of £1,050 for a " BibUa Pauperum," 
which fetched £36 15s. the last time it was sold; 
or £147 for a pamphlet of nine leaves from the 
press of Machlinia ; or £106 for an imperfect 
copy of the first edition of Shelton's transla- 
tion of " Don Quixote " ; or £81 for Gawin 
Douglas's " Palis of Honoure " ; or £390 
for Laudonniere's "Foure Voyages unto 
Florida "; or £2,100 for Le Fevre's " Lyf of 
Jason " (Caxton, c. 1477) — the very copy for 
which Payne the bookseUer gave £87 at 
Heber's sale ; or £760 for " Les Prophecies 
de Merlin," even though it be bound 
by Le Monnier; or £41 for a six-leaved 
tract containing a " metrical declaration 
of the Paternoster." The truth is, such 
prices represent the final stage of the 
bibUomaniac, and may, in no sense, be 
taken as market prices. It may almost be 
prophesied that these books when next they 
come " under the hammer " wUlfind a much 
soberer reception than they received at 
Messrs. Sotheby's rooms this year. 

It is when we come to examine such sales 
as those of the Ubraries of Beresford R. 
Hope, Esq., Hon. Ashley Ponsonby (the 
Bessborough OoUection), Sir OecU Domville, 
H. W. Bruton, Esq., M. C. Scott, Esq., 
and J. J. Farquharson, Esq., that we arrive 
at material wliich should help us to legiti- 
mate conclusions. Not that these were 



38 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jas. 8, 1898. 



ordinary collections ; by no means. But 
they were treated with a calm judgment and 
a business-like attention, which is the rule. 
Sensation is the exception ; and if sensation 
form good " copy" for the reporter, it must 
be avoided when we require a guide as to 
the future. The Bessborough Collection 
contained a fine assortment of extra-illus- 
trated books, and these fetched good prices. 
The Bruton Lilirary consisted wholly of 
books and illustrations referring to Cruik- 
shank, and tlie prices were by no means 
insignificant. Mr. Scott's library was rich 
in Australasian books, and particularly in 
Tasmanian newspapers ; and for such there 
is always a good demand. Other libraries 
included some fine specimens of eighteenth- 
century French works illustrated by such 
famous book illustrators as Eisen, Moreau, 
Marillier, and Cochin ; many very rare 
early gardening book ; nnd a few of the 
scarcer first editions of w^rks illustrated by 
William Blake. To appreciate properly the 
prices paid for the illustrated editions of such 
works as Dorat's " Fables Nouvelles" (£30 
and £72) ; Dorat's " Les Baisers " (£20 10s. 
and £55 13s.); La Fontaine's "Contes et 
NouveUes" (£16 10s., £31, and £51); 
Montesquieu's " Le Temple de Guide " 
(£18 10s. and £46) ; Le Sage's "Le Diable 
Boiteux" (£31); "Daphnis et Chloe" 
(£35 10s. and £41); and Erasmus's 
" L'Eloge de la Folie " (£22 10s.), we must 
remember that the illustrations, which form 
the real value of these works, are in the 
finest " states." Fine impressions of the 
plates and fine condition of the books make 
tlie collector's heart to expand — it is not 
long before his purse opens. That early 
gardening books fetch such high prices is to 
be explained on the ground of their great 
rarity. Most of them, we notice, were 
bought either by Mr. Zaehnsdorf or Mr. 
Quaritch. Here are a few: "EinBlumen- 
buch" (1616), £25 10s. ; Hill's " Gardener's 
Labyrinth" (1586), £10; Alamanni's "La 
Coltivatione," £14; "Flower Garden Dis- 
played" (1734), £13 15s. 

However much the market may fluctuate 
with regard to Continental books or tem- 
porary fads, or privately printed works, the 
Englishman is always true to his own. 
Thus it is that the rare editions of English 
classics are always sure to fetch good prices. 
And thus it is that good sporting books, 
provided they are rare, of course, always are 
certain of respectful attention. 

Shakespeare and Milton, Defoe and 
Sterne, Goldsmith and Johnson, Bums and 
BjTon, Shelley and Keats are names to 
conjure with when first editions are about. 
Then it not a matter for surprise when we 
see the " Merchant of Venice " bring £315 ; 
"Paradise Lost," £80; " Lycidas," £60; 
"Eobinson Crusoe," £45 10s.; "Moll 
Flanders," £10 15s.; "Sentimental Journey," 
£22; "Tristram Shandy," £20 10s.; 
Haunch of Venison," £35 ; " Vicar of 
Wakefield," £60 ; " Poems " (Kihnamock), 
£80 and £86 ; " St. Irvyne," £16 10s. ; and 
"Zastrozzi," £15 15s. 

That great sporting artist, Henry Aiken, 
seems destined to remain at the head of 
his class. His " Angling Sports," "Sport- 
ing Ideas," and " National Sports," which 
realised £9, £18 lOs., and £30, always 



maintain a good average. The Badminton 
Library " large papers " are still in vogue, 
and the volumes on " Hunting " and 
"Shooting" still command many times their 
original prices. This year a copy of the 
former brought £30 and a copy of the 
latter £ 1 5. 

But early books are things of the past. 
What may we collect of the things of the 
present, to judge from the sales of this 
bygone year? Undoubtedly, first editions 
of Mr. Kipling, and possibly of Robert Louis 
Ste'wenson. We are not quite sure of the 
latter, although his juvenile writings are 
realising ridiculous sums: "Pentland Ris- 
ing" (£13); "Familiar Epistles" 1896 
(£3 18s.) ; Edinburgh University Magazine 
for 1871 (£11 Ss.) ; "On the Thermal 
Lifluence of Forests " (£14). Mr. Kipling's 
works, however, are bringing in more and 
more as the months go by. Two years ago 
we could purchase, at any bookseller who 
had a copy of it, his " Departmental Ditties" 
for £5; now the auctioneer obtains £16 from 
a bookseller. The magazine " Quartette " 
continues to be much sought for, and lately 
was sold for £12. Even the shilling 
Allahabad editions of his short stories now 
command £1, £2, and even £2 68. 

From all that we have recorded and 
discussed, it is easy to see that the rage for 
rare books is by no means soothed. The 
passion to have what others have not is as 
strong, if not stronger, now than ever it 
was. But if we are to indulge our passions, 
let us, at any rate, consider carefully before 
the fit seizes us. And let us, if we are 
lovers of good literature, buy the first 
editions of the classical writers ; if we are 
sporting men, let us collect the illustrated 
works of Aiken and others, especially 
those with coloured illustrations ; if we are 
amateurs — using that word in its best sense — 
let us acquire good states of the illustra- 
tions of French eighteenth century masters ; 
if we are millionaires, let us go in for 
incunahala, Soree, and hand - painted and 
illuminated Missals. Otherwise we shall 
have much, but shall have gained little. 
Let us also think of early-printed books 
with woodcuts, for of a surety these will 
remain worth their price. But let us never 
buy extra - illustrated books without ex- 
amining the illustrations ; and, above all, 
let us never extra-illustrate books ourselves, 
unless we have not only the elixir of life, 
but the philosopher's stone as well. Satis- 
fied we never shall be, even though we be 
as wise as Solon, or as rich as Croesus, or 
as patient as Diogenes. Life is too short 
for this labour. Far better to attempt the 
" higher faking " of a Walton's " Angler." 
That, at any rate, can have an end. 

T. S. 



THE BITTER 
HAND 



CRY OF A SECOND- 
BOOKSELLER. 



The preceding article wiU give little 
pleasure to a certain London second-hand 
bookseller, of good standing, who expressed 
himself very freely the other day to an 
Academy representative. The subject of 
the conversation was the state of the 



second-hand book trade. Said the book- 
seller sadly: "It is miserable compared 
with what it was twenty years ago." 

"How do you account for the decline you 
speak of?" 

" There are many causes; but the greatest 
to my mind is the publication of the prices 
of books, current in the sale rooms, in annual 
volumes. There are two such volumes, as 
you know." 

" Will you explain ? " 
"Certainly. Here am I, a second-hand 
bookseller ; my success depends largely on 
my inner knowledge of the values of books, 
juat as a furrier's knowledge depends on his 
knowledge of the values of furs. But 
whereas the furrier is able to keep his 
knowledge to himself, mine is all printed 
in a book and distributed to the public. 
Naturally a great part of my knowledge has 
been picked up by constant attendanee at the 
sale rooms, wliich means time, which means 
money ; and by speculations and experi- 
ments, which also mean monej*. Then 
comes a ' chiel amang us, takin' notes.' 
Yes, and ' faith, he'll prent it.' Now, 
these annual volimiea of current book prices 
are easily compiled. A clerk at fifteen 
shillings a week could take down the prices 
from the lips of the last bidder. It is 
easily done. But what is the effect ? My 
secrets become everybody's. My knowledge 
is imparted to my customers. Is tliis the 
case in any other business ? I don't want 
to charge an unfair price for a book, but I 
do want to fix its price myself. And I say 
that unless I am allowed to do this elemen- 
tary thing I cannot prosper. Another 
thing : these publications send my customers 
direct to the sale rooms." 

"Where, however, you can 'run prices 
up.' " 

" Yes ; but there's no satisfaction in that. 
The multiplication of private bidders neces- 
sarily spoils trade." 

" Have you thought of a remedy ? " 
" The remedy is plain, but I fear we shall 
never get it. It is cohesion among second- 
hand booksellers." 

" Is there none now ? " 
" None whatever." 

" Well, suppose you cohere ; what next? ' 
" Then we should publish our own ' book 
prices ' at 2s. a copy, and limit its circula-' 
tion strictly to the trade. That would kil' 
the existing publications." 
" But would it ? " 

" Oh, yes. They thrive now mainly oi 
booksellers, who foolishly allow private 
bidders to consult these works. The privat 
bidders are not numerous enough of them 
selves to support such expensive works." 

"I see. Then your point is that ther 
are enough private bidders and too-know 
ing customers to spoil business, but not s 
many that you could not defeat them b 
the plan you suggest." 
" That is my point." 
" And you really consider, not as a matt* 
of inference only, but as a matter of sho 
experience, that the publication of currei 
book prices is hurtful to your trade ? " 
" It is ruining it." 



Jan. 8, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



39 



THE WEEK. 



PUBLISHING is languid, after the 
holidays, and the arrivals are very 
miscellaneous. With the issue of Northanger 
\hhey and Persuasion in their series of 
Standard Novels," Messrs. Macmillan 
junplete their edition of Jane Austen's 
')vels. Mr. Austin Dobson has contributed 
1 introduction to each volume, and none 
:3tter than the one which we find here. 
he peculiar fate which overtook the MS, 
if Miss Austen's earliest effort is narrated 
ly Mr. Dobson as follows : 

"Even at this distance of time, the genuine 
ivotee of Jane Austen must be conscious of 

futile, but irresistible, desire to ' feel the 
imps ' of that Boeotian bookseller of Bath 
ho— having bought the MS. of Northanger 
bhey for the base price of ten pounds — 
; trained from putting it before the world. 
,'hat can have been the phrenological con- 
jtions of a man who coidd remain insensible 

I such a sentence as this, the third in the 
|)ok: 'Her father was a clergyman, without 

iing neglected, or poor, and a very respectable 
Jan, though his name was Richard — and he 

id never been handsome.' That the sentence 

IS an afterthought in the proof cannot be 
•ntended, for Northanger Abbey was published 
;sthumously, and ' the curious eyes, that saw 
]e manner in the f*ca,' had long been closed 
;:der a black slab in Winchester Cathedral. 
jily two suppositions are possible — one, that 
jr. BuU, of the Circulating Library at Bath 
i Sfr. Bull it were) was constitutionally 
jiensiblo to the charms of that master-speU 
jiich Mrs. Slipslop calls ' ironing' ; the other, 
jat he was an impenitent and irreclaimable 
liherent of the author of the Mysteries of 

lolpho. The latter is the more natural con- 

jision. Nothing else can explain his sup- 
ession for so long a period of Miss 
isten's ' copy ' — the scene of which, by 
e way, was largely laid in Bath itself. He 

II infatuated with Mrs. Badclilfe, and Mrs. 
jidoliffe's following: the Necromancer of the 

nek Forest, the Orphan of the Rhine, the Mid- 
\lht Bell, the Vastle of Wolfenhach, and all the 
•it of those wor.hipful masterpieces which 
]ibplla Thorpe, in chap vi., proposes for 
te d-leotation of Catherine Morlaud, and the 
^aeral note of which Crttbbe (on^ remembers 
ii»8 Austen's leaning to that favourite poet) 
(ticipates so aptly in The Library : 

fHence ye profane ! I feel a former dread, 
A thousand visions float around my head : 
Hark ! hollow blasts through empty courts 

resound, 
Vud shadowy forms with staring eyes stalk 

round.' 
It whatever be the solution, the fact remains." 

Theee comes to hand a volume of more 
I less humorous verse by "Ironquill," 
eeoted and arranged by J. A. Hammerton. 
jho is " Ironquill " ? Here is part of the 
rawer furnished by Mr. Hammerton : 

' The name of ' Ironquill,' though known to 
fue in America, and famliar as a household 
^rd in the Transmissouri, has yet to gain in 
feat Britain that reputation it has so deservedly 
<ju beyond the Western wav.i. . . . Most 
faericans who know ' Ironquill' know that he 
^aone other than the Honourable Eugene P. 
Vire, of Topeka, Kansas, who, to use the words 



the 
his 



Mr. Ware is an eminent attorney, and 
verses are the fruitful occupation of 
leisure." 

" Ironquill" is now introduced to English 
readers as the typical poetic product of 
Kansas. The verses in this volume are 
very various. Here are two stanzas from 
"TheFlopper": 

" Bill was a combination of despondencv and 
hope ; 

At times he grew gregarious, at times he used 
to mope. 

There wasn't any office that he thought he 

couldu't fill ; 
He looked at eich new ism, and embraced it 

with a wiU. 

He entered all new parties. He pioneered 

new creeds. 
He ran for sheriff, theu he flopped to register 

of deeds. 
And then he tried for probate judge— but 

none of it would work ; 
He tried to be a minister, then flopped to 

postal clerk. 

"Ironquill's" Americanisms of style and 
spelling have been retained throughout the 
book. 



By s. H. 
I2s. 6d. 
Longmans, Grean 

By John 



Mr. E. Farquharson Sharp's Bictiomry 
of English Authors is biographical and 
bibliographical. "In the case of each 
author the essential facts in his career are 
stated as briefly as is practicable, followed 
by as complete as possible a list of the first 
editions of his works, arranged chrono- 
logicaUy." 



A Bibliography of British Municipal His- 
tory has been compiled by Mr. Charles 
Gross, assistant Professor of History at 
Harvard University. Incidentally, the 
author states that " the British Museum 
has the largest collection of works relating 
to municipal history, including many 
valuable MSS. " ; but he adds that it does 
not possess more than three-quarters of the 
whole body of topographical books relating 
to Great Britain. Mr. Gross's volume runs 
to more than 450 large octavo pages. 



A NEW "Double Section" of the New 
English Dictionary is issued by the Clarendon 
Press. It has been compiled by Mr. Henry 
Bradley, and embraces Frank-Law — Fyz, 
and G — Gain-coming. 



NEW BOOKS EECEIVED. 

THEOLOGICAL AND BIBLICAL. 

The New Testament of Jesue^ ; ob, TaBisra' Compilitioh 

OP Selected Passages. Williams & Norgate. 
The Latest Fruit is the Ripest. By Frederick James 

Gant. Digby, Long & Co. Is. 6d. 
The Staeless Caowif, Aifo Oihie Poehs. By J. L. H. 

Elliot Stock. 28. 6d. 
Winning the Socl, and Otheb Ssbmons, By Rev. Alex. 

Martin, M.A- Hodder & Stoughton. 
Logos : Cheist-Ideals, not CsEisnANiTr ! Printed and 

Published by the Aathoi*, A. Gottschling. 



POETRY, BELLES LETTRES, CRITICISM. 
Golden TuEisnEr Seeies : Heinkiob Heine's Liedeeotto 
Gedichte. Selected and Arranged by C. A. Bncheim, 
Ph. 0. Macmillan & Co. 2s. 8d. 
Aeistotlb's Tbeoei of Poetey and Fine Aet. 

Batcher. Second edition. Macmillan & Co. 
Love's Pedition. By Alfred Gorney. 

& Co. 23. 6d. 
A Vision op Enoh«-d, and Othek Poems. 

Rickards Mozley. Richard Beutley k Son. 
Specimens oe the Pse-Shakspeeean Dsama. Edited 

by John Matthews Manly. Vol. II. Ginn & Co. 5s. 6d. 
Rip Van Winele, and Otheb Poems. By William 

Akerman. Gaorge Bell & Sons. 63. 
Rhymes ok laoNquiLL. Selected: and Arranged by J. A. 

Hammerton. George Redway. 33. 6d. 

NEWr EDITIONS 07 FICTION. 
NoBTHANGEB Abbbv, and Pebsuasion. By Jane Austen. 

Illustrated by Hugh Thomson. MaomiUaa k Co. 

38. 6d. 
The Teuplb "Wavkelet" Novels: The ANTi^oiKY. 

FOREIGN. 
Manzoni, Illcsteato da G. Peeviati. U. Hoepli (Milano). 
La Divina Commbdia di Dante Aliqhieki. Varioas parts. 
Ulrico Hoepli. 

TOPOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL. 
Oaieo of To-dav. By E. A. Reynolds-Ball, B.A. A. & C. 
Black. 2s. Od. 

EDUCATIONAL. 
Euclid's Elements of Geometey. Books I. and II. 

Edited by Charles Smith, M.A., and Sophie Bryant 

D.Sc. Macmillan & Co. Is. 6d. 
Oedinaky Diffbbential Equations: an Elemeniaey 

Text-Book. With an Introduction by James Morris 

Page. Macmillan & Co. 63. 6d. 
The Pitt Pbess Shakespeabe: the Mbecuant of Venice. 

By A. W. Verity. Cambridge University Press. Is. 8d. 

jaVENILE BOOKS. 
OuB Polly: thb Adveniuses of a Pabbot during hbb 
Life of 100 Yeibs. By Mrs. Ronquetto, Gardner, 
Barton & Co. The Second Fboqoy Faiey-Booe. By 
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Balloon Adventcbb. By Frank Mundell. The 
Sunday School Union. Is. 8d. Heeoines of Histoey. 
By Prank Mundell. The Sunday School Union. Is. 6d 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
A DicriONABY OF English Authors. By R. Farquharson 
Sharp. George Bedway. 78. 6d. Practical Ethics: 
A Collection of Addkssses and Essays, By Henry 
Sidgwick. Swan Sounenschein & Co. 43. 8d. The 
Flowers of Life. By Anthony J. Drexel Biddle. 
Drexel Biddle (Philadjiphia, U.S. A ) Shantytown 
Sketches. By Anthony J. Drexel Biddle. Drexel 
Biddle (Philadelphia, U.S.A.). A Biblioobaphy of 
BsiTisH Municipal Hisioby. B.v Charles Gross, Ph.D. 
Longmans, Gresn & Co. Ua. A New English 
Dictionary on Historic il Principles. Fbahk-Law 
—Fyz; G— Gain-coming. Vol. IV. Edited by Dr. 
James A. H. Murray, ularendon Press. 5b. The 
Baftist Handbook fob l598. Clarke i Co. 2s. Six- 
teenth Annual Rspokt of the Burbau of American 
Ethnology to the Ssoretaby of the Smithsonian 
Institution : 1891,-'95. By J. W. Powell, Director 
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1897. Knowledge Office. The Commonwealth : 1807 ; 
A Social Magazine. Gardner, Darton & Co. 



: Dr. John Clark Eidpath, the historian, „„ 
I'ublicist and man of affairs, is second to none 
^ithe leaders of that great commonwealth.' 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 
OcB Troubles in Poona and the Deocan. By Arthur 

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Peter the Geeat. By Oscar Browning. Hutchinson & Co. 
Christina Rossetti. By Mackenzie Bell. Hurst & 

Blackett. 
LEriEEs AND Papers of Andrew Robebtson, A.M. Eyre 

& Spouiswoode. 12s. ud. 



PETER THE GEEAT. 

When Sir Henry Irving' intimated, a few 
months ago, that he intended to produce a 
play by his younger son, Laurence Irving, 
on the subject of Peter the Great, there 
was no undue surprise expressed in any 
quarter, because the young author in one 
or two fugitive and experimental pieces had 
certainly manifested a dramatic talent above 
the average and beyond his years. On 
other grounds the ijroduction of " Peter the 
Great " at the Lyceum on Saturday night 
aroused exceptional interest. It is a remark 
fret£uently heard in theatrical circles that 
Sir Henry Irving has done much for the 



I 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



drama but little for dramatists— indeed, 
the Lyceum "chief," as lie is familiarly 
called by his subordinates, made a playful 
allusion to this very saying when lie 
announced the acceptance of his son s play. 
Whether a more enterprising policy like 
that pursued by Mr. George Alexander and 
Mr. Beerbohm Tree would not have proved 
equally advantageous at the Lyceum there 
is, of course, no knowing. But it is a 
curious fact that on the rare occasions when 
Sir Henry Irving has left the safe ground 
of classic drama or of ^eU estab ished 
French adaptation, like "The BeUs," "The 
Lyons Mail," or "Louis XL," he has not 
been too happily inspired ; and possibly, 
the reception accorded to "Peter the 
Great" will check, rather than encourage, 
his patronage of contemporary writers. 1 or 
it is to be feared that this ambitious ettort 
on the part of a very young author will not 
repay the expense and the histrionic talent 
expended upon it at the Lyceum in so un- 
stinted a measure. 



ScENiCALLY, "Peter the Great" ranks 
with any of Sir Henry Irving's great pro- 
ductions, and it employs the entire per- 
sonnel of the Lyceum, including not only 
" the chief " himself, but Miss Ellen 
Terry, although the part of Catherine, 
for which she is cast, is a purely episodical 
one. Never, indeed, has a young author 
had a more magniiacent opportunity for 
distinction opened up to him. But oppor- 
tunity is one thing and the ability to grasp 
it another. I am not sure that the very 
wealth of illustration brought to bear upon 
young Mr. Irving's tragedy does not tend 
by contrast to accentuate its weakness. The 
picture might have appeared to more advan- 
tage had it been enclosed in a less gorgeous 
and less massive frame. Similarly, the 
author's talent might have proved more 
effective had it been applied to a subject 
less ponderous and intractable than the 
character of the enigmatical Tsar, at once 
a bloodthirsty savage, a monster of cruelty, 
an enlightened patron of the sciences, and 
a great empire builder. The truth is, that 
the youthful author of " Peter the Great " 
has confidently stepped in where dramatists 
of more experience have feared to tread. 
The life of Peter the Great has never been 
successfully placed upon the stage except 
with the softening accompaniment of music. 
It is too harsh, brutal, inexplicable for the 
purposes of drama, unless, indeed, the lines 
of history are widely departed from. 



all His bark is worse than his bite. In 
fact, one has a suspicion that this imperial 
Bogey-man is merely pretending, like the 
ehost which terrifies children until the 
Ihite sheet is pulled off its face He is 
far too noisy, restless, changeable to be 
the strong man that the dramatist would 
have us beUeve. The harder Sir Henry 
Irving toils at the part the less convincing 
this too turbulent Peter becomes. He 
veers about like a reed shaken by the 

wind, , , 

" One foot on sea and one on shore, 
To one thing constant never." 

This is not how force of character is shown. 
Whether such a personage as the Peter of 
history— madman and statesman of genius- 
could be adequately enacted is, perhaps, 
open to doubt. The experiment has never 
I believe, been made, albeit the subject must 
often have presented itself to the mind of the 
1 practical dramatist. There are great natural 
forces that defy the art of the stage, such as 
' a moving railway train, and commanding 
personalities like those of Napoleon and 
Peter the Great. In this instance the Peter 
of the play stands to the Peter of history 
in pretty much the same relation as the 
cardboard simulacrum to the railway train 
of the workaday world. 



Mb. Laurence Ikving has sought, I 
imagine, to show us the Tsar on his terrible 
side. Peter fumes and scowls and bellows 
at his terrified courtiers, who huddle together 
at his approach like sheep. He throttles 
this knavish poltroon and that, orders off 
another to be married against his will, or 
whittles away placidly at his ship-building 
models, while groans and agonised cries 
proceed from the torture chamber where 
evidence is being manufactured to his 
orders. All this is, theoretically, very awe- 
inspiring, and yet, somehow, despite Sir 
Henry Irving's imtiring exertions in the 
part, one does not feel this monster in 
human shape to be so very terrible after 



With true instinct Mr. Laurence Irving 
has taken the death of Peter's iU-starred 
son Alexis as the knot of his story—an 
event which history has left obscure. Ihat 
the prince died in prison, into which he had 
been flung by his father's orders, is certain ; 
hut whether from natural causes, by mis- 
adventure, or by the Tsar's decree, is un- 
known. The author fiUs up the gap left by 
the historian. In his view, Peter's great 
ambition is that his successor should be 
able worthily to carry on his great scheme ot 
empire-building. Accordingly, with doating 
fondness, the Tsar applies himself to the 
task of educating the youth so as to 
fit him for his great position. But 
Alexis, wrapped up in a worthless woman, 
has no stomach for education of any kind 
Nor does he aspire to rule Eussia. In tact, 
he is a white-faced poltroon of the most 
contemptible description. The Tsar sees his 
duty before him. Alexis, who had fled to 
Italy with his mistress, is brought back, 
tried on the charge of treason, and condemned 
to death. It remains for the Tsar to sign 
the fatal decree. Shall he do it ? In the 
interests of the State, which he places before 
those of humanity, he takes his dread reso- 
lution. There is a final scene, at first ot 
recrimination, but ultimately of reconciha- 
tion, between father and son. They arrive 
almost at the point of understanding each 
other. But Alexis prefers death to Ute, and 
the Tsar is not unwilling that he should pass 
into the hands of the executioner, whose 
weapon is poison. And so the ditmcement 
comes, the Tsar feeling his son's untimely 
end all the more acutely that the young man 
has in his last moments betrayed an unex- 
pected fortitude. 



has given us. For once the play rises 
the appropriate tragic plane, and here, to'. 
Sir Henry Irving, as Peter, obtains h 
finest effects. From being an imspeakab 
monster of cruelty, Peter becomes nob 
with the nobility of Virginius, and in tl 
interests of the State slays his son virtual 
with his own hand, as the Eoman fath 
slew his daughter in order to protect li' 
honour. If the play had all been couch 
in this elevated vein it would have been , 
much more satisfactory work. The authi, 
however, wastes valuable time in leading . 
to his dinoMment; he has neglected > 
provide a sufficiency of illustrative actio 
three-fourths of a portentously long cast a 
mere lay figures (albeit one or two 
them are ecclesiastics), and the whole i 
rendered in a curiously flippant and triv I 
vein of dialogue — the opposite extreme ) 
the " stagese " of convention. A lay figia 
the great Catherine herself would be in j 
hands of an actress of less verve a I 
emotional power than Miss Ellen Ter . 
Perhaps the one consistent and prop- 
tionate character of the play is the Alexif f 
Mr. Taber, an American recruit to e 
company. His sketch of the feeble-spiri d 
youth is one that lives in the memory, r 
Henry Irving's physical exertions in e 
part of Peter require a word of ackm - 
ledgment. I have never known him w k 
with more zeal and sincerity. 

J. F. >, 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



FIGUEES. 



Evidently it was for this idea that the 
play was written, and these closing scenes, 
in point of fact, are the best that the author 



THE AUTROE'S 

SiR__It is a common way out of a r 98 
to prove your adversary making a siil 

error of detail. , , i * 

1. Mr. Nutt first declared solemnly it 
the "least" number of pages for a i- 
shilling book was 388. It was not, aiie 
now calls it, an " assumption," but a pi a, 
naked assertion. Not the average, ma. 
The "least"— on this assertion he \x. 

up his figures. .i . i, .„ 

2. I showed by five examples that he as 

wrong. 

3. He says that two of these exanies 

are 3s. 6d. books, ' , 

4 Very weU. I am out of the reac o! 

the books. Let it be so. Three ron n. 

How can 388 pages be the " least aU( ed 

when three of the most popular of mom 

novels contain far less? Down go alus 

figures. . ^ , J ,„ 

That is the whole thing. I showed, . w- 

ever, that on other pojiite his letter *j 

quite wrong, because I had allowed for 

everything. He tries to get outbya^^nt 

if £14 is all that is spent on advertis'a 

Barrie. A Barrie, indeed! The .0 

before me was one which no one vU 

produce except at the author s cost. >m 

assure your readers that not il4 but ■ '• 

nearer the mark in such a book as tlus 

Mr. Heinemann's letter gives me «» 

pleasure, for it shows-what, ind»,^ 

knew bef ore-that he loves the AM t^ 

1 much as he loves the literary agent. in| 

for the same reason. He has, mdec 



Jan. 8, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



41 



other occasions shown his love of both. 
Lastly, however, Mr. Nutt should not con- 
tradict himself. In the same paragraph he 
says, first, that he has not seen mure than 
two numbers of the Author in his life ; and, 
ne^^t, that a certain statement, which he 
would find it difficult to quote from the 
Author, has been repeated without a word 
of qualification. If he does not see the 
paper, how does he know ? 

Walter Besant. 
Bath, Jan. 3, 1898. 



MATHILDE BLIND'S POETEY. 

Sib, — I think that your review of A 
Selection from the Poems of Mathilde Blind, 
in your issue of December 26, must have 
pained and surprised those of your readers 
who liave read Mathilde Blind's poems 
with care and sympathy. Your reviewer 
expends his pity on her " well nigh fruitless 
effort to become a poet." Her productions 
are "slenderly meritorious." She "has 
httle or no imaginative insight, no creative, 
and little interjjretative power." Well, I 
disagree with these judgments. It so 
happens that I know Mathilde Blind's verse 
only through the volume on which your 
reviewer bases his remarks, and it has 
affected me very differently. May I jot 
down a few comments and quotations, in 
haste and at random ? Your reviewer thinks 
that Mathilde Blind has no creative power ; 
I think she has it : witness the figiire of Sam 
in " The Teamster." Here are the first 
four stanzas of a poem which your reviewer 
thinks is a " duU and conscientious study " : 

"With slow and slouching gait Sam leads the 
team ; 
He stoops i' the shoulders, worn with work 
not years ; 
One only passion has he, it would seem — 

The passion for the horses which he rears : 
He names them as one would some house- 
hold pet, 
May, Violet. 

He thinks them quite as sensible as men ; 

As nice as women, but not near so skittish ; 
He fondles, cossets, scolds them now and 
then, 
Nay, gravely talks as if they knew good 
British : 
You hear him call from dawn to set of sun, 
' Goo back ! Coom on ! ' 

Sam never seems depressed nor yet elate, 
Like Nature's self he goes his punctual 
round ; 
On Sundays, smoking by his garden gate, 
For hours he'll stand, with eyes upon the 
ground, 
Like some tired cart-horse in a field alone, 
j And still as stone. 

Yet, hows'ever stolid he may seem, 
I Sam has his tragic background, weird and 
I wild 

I Like some adventure iu a drunkard's dream. 
I Lnpossible, you'd swear, for one so mild : 

Yet village gossips dawdling o'er their ale 
i Still tell the tale." 

|This is vivid and loving portraiture. Ma- 
tliilde Blind could see things and make 
;them be seen by herreaders. Take this 
|little Millet landscape : 

" Swi- tanned men and women, toiling there 
together ; 
Seven I coimt in all, in yon field of wheat. 



When the rich ripe ears in the harvest 
weather 
Glow an orange gold through the swelter- 
ing heat. 

Busy life is still, sunk in brooding leisure ; 
Birds have hushed their singing in the 
hushed tree tops ; 
Not a single cloud mars the flawless azure ; 
Not a shadow moves o'er the moveless 
crops. 

In the glassy shallows, that no breath is 
creasing, 
Chestnut- coloured cows in the rushes dank 
Stand like cows of bronze, save when they 
flick the teasing 
Flies with switch of tail from each quiver- 
ing flank. 

Nature takes a rest — even her bees are sleep- 
ing, 
And the silent wood seems a church that's 
shut; 
But these human creatures cease not from 
their reaping 
While the com stands high, waiting to be 
cut." 

This is truly felt, and sweetly set down ; 
it is not great poetry, but it is not " duU," 
it is not unimaginative, it is more than 
"slenderly meritorious." Your reviewer's 
criticism of " The Street Children's Dance " 
does not seem to me quite fair. He 
says that "the subject of the poem 
is not even touched until the fifteenth 
stanza is reached." But the children 
are introduced in the seventh stanza, 
and are not again lost sight of for a 
moment. The poem is reflective, and wiU 
be seen to be such at once by the discerning 
reader. Your reviewer might have com- 
plained with justice that its title does not 
strictly answer to its contents. But Mathilde 
Blind need only have called her stanzas 
"Lines Suggested by Street Children 
Dancing " to have anticipated his criticism. 

Your reviewer seems to ig^nore Mathilde 
Blind's wonderful human pity. Yet this is 
so pure, profound, and constant as to be 
itself poetry. She loved " all things both 
great and small " with a sad, deep love. She 
remembered the lowly and humble men of 
heart; and longed that aU feeble things should 
know something of the glory of life. Who 
but she would have given that turn, in the 
sextet, to her sonnet, " The Red Sunsets, 
1883"? 

" The twilight heavens are flushed with gather- 
ing light, 
And o'er wet roofs and huddling streets 

below 
Hang with a strange Apocalyptic glow 
On the black fringes of the wintry night. 
Such bursts of glory may have rapt the 
sight 
Of him to whom on Fatmos long ago 
The visionary angel came to show 
That heavenly city built of chrysolite. 

And lo, three factory hands begrimed with 
soot. 
Aflame with the red splendour, marvelling 
stand. 
And gaze with lifted faces awed and mute. 
Starved of earth's beauty by Man's grudg- 
ing hand, 
O toilers, robbed of labour's golden fruit, 
Ye, too, may feast in Nature's fairyland." 

Note, again, how in trying to express her 



own intimate love for another soul she 
accumulates tenderly observed images : 

" As op'ates to the sick on wakeful nights. 

As light to flowers, as flowers to poor men's 

rooms, 
As to the fisher when the tempest glooms 

The cheerful twinkling of his village lights ; 

As emerald isles to flagging swallow flights, 
As roses garlanding with tendrilled blooms 
The unweeled hillocks of forgotten tombs. 

As singing birds on cypress-shadowed heights, 

Thou art to me. . . ." 

I think with Mr. Arthur Sjrmons, who 
edits the Selection, that Mathilde Blind 
" was a poet, almost in spite of herself." 
Let me, in conclusion, quote her sonnet 
" Nirvana," in which she seems to say her 
last word : 

" Divest thyself, O Soul, of vain desire ! 

Bid hope farewell, dismiss all coward fears ; 

Take leave of empty laughter, emptier tears. 

And quench, for ever quench, the wasting fire 

Wherein this heart, as in a funeral pjre, 

Aye burns, yet is consumed not. Years on 

years 
Moaning with memories in thy maddened 
ears — 
Let at thy word, like refluent waves, retire. 

Enter thy soul's vast realm as Sovereign Lord, 
And, like that angel with the flaming sword. 

Wave off life's clinging hands. Then chains 
will fall 
Prom the poor slave of self's hard tyranny — 
And Thou, a ripple rounded by the sea. 

In rapture lost be lapped within the All." 

Put Mathilde Blind's case as you will, she 
cannot be dismissed as a woman who went 
to Parnassus on a vain errand. Her poetry 
has much gp:ace; it is charged with emotion ; 
and it is so sincere as to be a relic of her 
living self. J. 



CRITICS. 

Sib, — Will Mr. J. E. Yerbury allow me 
to ask him if he has ever read Daniel 
Rochate and Malagas ? Has he not simply 
opened a catalogue of Victorien Sardou's 
complete works and chosen two of the least 
known, which he is pleased to give us as 
models of criticism? His choice is hope- 
lessly unhappy. 

If, as Mr. Yerbury claims, I have " a 
very limited conception of what a critic 
really is," he, at least, has a very large con- 
ception indeed. For Mr. Yerbury every 
writer — the journalist, the philosopher, the 
satirist, the luan who as novelist gives his 
opinion on any subject, the author of what 
French people call "la piece a these" — is 
a critic. This at least appears from his 
statement that Daniel Rochate and Rahagas 
are " perfect specimens of criticism." 

Would the readers of the Academy bestow 
on Messrs. Hardy and Grant Allen (I beg 
pardon for this juxtaposition) the title of 
critic when these authors speak of free love ? 
Why, then, should Sardou have a greater 
right to be so called for having set forth in 
Daniel Rochate the struggle between Atheism 
and Christianity anent the question of civil 
and religious marriage ; for having given 
us in Rahagas— -v/Y^ah, after all, is but a 
poor pamphlet — an overdrawn witless cari- 
cature of a republican ? No matter ! Hats 
off, gentlemen! Long life to Victorien 



42 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan 8. 1898. 



Sardou, the great French critic! Would 
Mr. Yerbury kindly tell me in what paper 
I can find, " at least twice a week, criticisms 
of men and things from the pen of Sully- 
Prudhomme" ? a philosophical poet whom I 
greatly admire. I should be very thankful, 
I am sure ! 

For the articles of Frangois Coppee three 
numbers of Le Journal, kept by mere chance, 
I assure you wiU give us a good example 
of his weekly collaboration. On July 1 
Coppee writes on the Jubilee ; on October 28 
he tells us of a winter sunset at Geneva, 
" above the clouds "; finally, on November 
25, he relates at length that on a Sunday 
morning at church he saw a poor girl 
praying fervently. 

But Mr. Yerbury is quite right. Coppee 
is sometimes a critic, and this is how he 
comes to be so. A young writer, unknown 
to the crowd, publishes a book. He goes 
to his friend, Fran9oi8 Coppee : " Cher 
maitre," says he, "you who have acquired 
a universal reputation by your verses and 
j'our tales, will you not commend me to the 

Eublic?" And the " cher maitre," who 
kes the younger generation, for he has not 
forgotten the days, long since past, when 
he also was yoimg and unknown, kindly 
takes his pen and writes : 

"I have lived through many years; I have 
seen many things, many men ; I have read 
many books, good and bad ; therefore I am 
able to discern genius when I cime across it. 
Be advised by me, read Mr. X.'s book, it is 
worth while, for .... I was pleased with it." 

And that is all. As we say in France : 
" Pour un vrai trio de critiques, c'est un 
vrai trio do critiques. combien ! " But 
does Mr. J. E. Yerbury understand French? 

JeanCyrank. 



BOOK EEVIEWS REVIEWED. 

..m,- „ . Mr. Watson's new book of 

"The Hope of , . , 

the World." poems has received very various 
By wiUiam treatment, in which, however, 

Watson. ' ' . , . ' 

a general agreement is dis- 
cemable. The Standard and the Saturday 
Review critics have each been led to make 
an estimate of Mr. Watson's work as a 
whole, and their views differ only slightly. 
This is the Standard critic's elaborated judg- 
ment : 

"Mr. Watson has never had very much to 
say, and he does not seem to find more as the 
years grow upon him. Beautiful as his verse 
ofteu is, his poetic ' message ' has always been 
slight and unimportant, his philosophy some- 
what superficial, his outlook upon life narrow 
and limited. He is a poet of the study, or, 
perhaps, we should say of the library, and, for 
the most part, seems rather to oatoh the echoes 
from other lyres than to strike out original 
harmonies of his own. But something more 
than scholarship and wide reading and a nice 
feeling for style are required for the making 
of a great poet. 

Mr. "Watson does not; as a rule, write out of 
the depths of a full and varied experience. But 
he has read his Wordsworth, his Tennyson, his 
Shelley, his Matthew Arnold ; he has learned 
to manipulate a few English metres with 
remarkable skill ; he has a gift, assiduously 
cultivated, of chaste, lucid, and dignified ex- 
pression ; and he has the true poetic command 
of imagery and epithet and suggestive allusion. 
The result is that we seldom turn his pages 



without finding some passages of almost 
classical perfection, some exquisite touches, 
and a few lines that ring nobly upon the ear. 

If a reader can be satisfied with good work- 
manship and literary accomplishment, with 
many a felicitous simile and metaphor, and 
with frequent notes that recall the greater 
masters, he may be well content with Mr. 
WiUiam Watson. For passion, for depth of 
emotion, for profvmdity of thought, for the 
magic of one of those inevitable phrases that 
live for ever, he must look elsewhere. Mr. 
Watson is no Theban eagle ' soaring with 
supreme dominion ' through the aziu-e spaces ; 
he is only a very cultivated and conscientious 
poet of the later strain, whose carefuUy 
finished verses can usually be read with 
pleasure, but seldom with any dangerous 
exaltation of the critical pulses." 

The Saturday Review sadly says : 
" Serious and sober and edifying as his work 
is, it becomes evident that Mr. Watson has no 
surprises in store for us : his verse seems to be 
already essentially middle-aged. Almost while 
we were still prepared to be expectant — for 
from Mr. Watson's power of harmony much 
might have come had there been enough of 
imperative imagination behind it — we found 
ourselves beginning to look back to di'cover 
him at his strongest. And so the conviction 
has steadily increased that whatever rank he 
may take in the future must come from work 
already achieved." 

But the Standard has kind words for Mr. 

Watson's lyrics and sonnets : 

"The ' Ode in May ' has a spontaneous music, 

not disguised by a most elaborate choice of 

words, which is quite captivating : 
' What is so sweet and dear 
As a prosperous mom in May, 
The confident prime of the day. 
And the dauntless youth of the year ; 
When nothing that asks for bliss, 
Asking aright, is denied, 
And halt of the world a bridegroom is, 
And half of the world a bride ? ' " 

And the Saturday admits : ' ' We can cordially 

praise work which remains sincere, often 

large in utterance, and correct in model 

without being cold." 

The political element in the volume has 
made the St. James's Oatette critic ang^ : 

" It is really quite time that the author of 
' The Purple East ' retired, like Lord Rosebery, 
from politics and went back to poetry. This 
little volume, though its inspiration is decidedly 
meagre, shows once more that there is a field 
in which Mr. Watson might yet grow more of 
those beautiful fiowers of poetry which gave 
such promise in his earlier books. There is 
sometimes a new Swinburnian ring in his lines : 
' We are children of splendour and flamo, 
Of shuddering, also, and tears. 
Magnificent out of the dust we came, 
An abject from the Spheres.' 

The volume is mainly composed of trifles, 
some of them pleasing, all the work of a grace- 
ful and accomplished writer. But if Mr. 
Watson is content with such trifles he wiU 
shortly be relegated to the ranks of the minor 
poets.' 

The Daily News thinks that, regarded in 
one way, "the political poems — the 'Poems 
on Public Affairs ' as the author calls most 
of them " — are but the expression of the same 
idea" as the more personal and general 
poems : 

" We have here much that we have had 
before : his deep sympathy with suffering 



nations and with lost causes, and the fine in- 
sight which shows him the spiritual triuinpl, 
where others see only the disasters of the field 
But he has, in this instance, given a fuller ex 
pression of himself in powerful ' problem 
poems, which, in their full significance, are bu 
utterances of a sublime despair." 

This critic thinks that Mr. Watson' 
verse " has not improved in quality." " H, 
seems to lose something of the exquisit 
workmanship that distinguished him, as h 
grows more strenuous in jiurpose. . . , H 
has been caught up in the whirl of ou' 
political controversies, and his muse ma 
suffer from it by losing its dignity an 
its sense of repose." 

The Times passes from the political poen , 
to praise 

"such glowing verse as ' Jubilee Night 
Westmoreland ' and the little poem called 'Tl 
Lost Eden,' which expounds iu noble langua^ 
the eternal significance of that ancient stor 
At first man dwells in Eden, but he oann 
stay there : he is pressed forward by Eve, 

' Eve, the adventurous soul within his soul 
The sleepless, the unslaked : ' " 

And he fares forth on the inevitable pi 
grimage of sorrow and of joy : 

"Never shall he return : for he hath sent 
His spirit abroad among the infinitudes. 
And may no more to the ancient pales recall 
The travelled feet. But oftentimes he feels 
The intolerable vastness bow him down, 
The awful homeless spaces scare his soul; 
And half-regretfid he remembers then 
His Eden lost, as some grey mariner i 

May think of the far fields where he was brt 
And woody ways unbreathed-on by the si 
Though more familiar now the ocean-paths 
Gleam, and the stars his fathers never knew 

The Manclisster Guardian refuses ■ 
believe that we have yet had Mr. Watsoi 
best work. He still "awaits a supren 
opportunity for rising to the full height o: , 
genius that we believe to be great." 



"Derelicts." ^^18 story has had, at lea, 
By a succes d'estime. The Da' 

William Locke. c-Arowetjfo's critic describes t 
as " an impressive book." He says : 

' ' An impressive book, an important book, t 
is not without artistic blemishes, but these '■! 
atoned for by its fine spirit, its high feeling, t 
deals with a very terrible and a very actual siti - 
tion ; it brings home to us vividly the tern 3 
conditions in which hundreds of men are & ■ 
deraned to struggle, here, immediately ah t 
us, every day. And then — Yvonne. Yvois 
is a creation that any artist might be proud c ' 

The Daily News says that "this moving 1 1 
interesting book, dealing with the trao 
fate of a released prisoner," is a book to e 
read. " The heroine, Yvonne, is qi 9 
charming. She is a sweet, sunny-soul 
creature, an artist to the tips of her fingd 
and a woman to the core of her heart." 

"Few," says the Mancliester Guard t, 
" could read without stirring of the h(."t 
this picture of the desperate struggles a:* 
decent life of a man who has once fall, 
but whose instincts remain sensitive .o. 
generous." 



Jan. 8, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



43 



3^T O T I OB 



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44 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 8, 1898. 



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FOUNTAIN PENS AND STYLOS 

The objections to them, 
and how they have been met. 



Cateris paribus everyone would rather 
use a fountain pen that carries its own 
ink, and can, therefore, be used anywhere 
and at any moment, in preference to an 
ordinary pen, which has to be dipped in 
the ink every minute or so. 

But fountain pens have acquired a bad 
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provocation. By way of compensation, 
when you want to write, the ink retires 
to the barrel (if it isn't aU spilled into 
your pocket) and refuses to emerge until 
the pen has been shaken and thumped 
until it squirts out a blot on the carpet." 

This used to be true ; but the CAW 
PEN has met the difficulty. It does not 
have to be carried upright ; it can be 
carried sideways, upside down, or in any 
position whatever. The ink cannot 
possibly spUl, because it is in a hermeti- 
cally closed chamber, screwed tight. 
There is no air-hole. 

The pen can be jerked or thrown about 
as much as you please ; it cannot spill. 
On the other hand, until the CAW PEN 
is opened for use the nib (which is a gold 
one of the finest quality) is immersed in 
the ink. Consequently it writes at once, 
without giving any trouble. 

The CAW PEN is not merely the 
only fountain pen which anyone cares to 
use who has once seen it as a pocket pen, 
but it is so convenient for desk use that 
it supersedes all other pens whatever. 

It is easily filled, and having a wide 
mouth does not clog with air bubbles 
during that operation. Prices from 
128. 6d. 

"Caw pens have a repute beyond their 
neighbours." — Westminster Budget. 

The objection to Stylographic Pens is 
that the point rarely suits the writer's 
hand, and cannot be adjusted. 

The CAW STYLOGEAPHIC PEN 
can be adjusted in an instant. It has 
not all the advantages of the CAW 
FOUNTAIN PEN ; but for people who 
prefer a stylo this is the best stylo on the 
market. Prices from 5s. 



British Depot — 
46, Holbom Viaduct, London, E.G. 



Prlnt«d by ALKXANDBB « 8HBPHBABD, Lonsdale Pritdng Works. Ohanoaty Lane; Published for the Proprietor by PHTHB GBOBGB ANDBKWS, «, Chancery Lame, W.O. 



Jax. 15, 18»8.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



45 



CHAPMAN & HALL'S 

NEW BOOKS. 

READY JANUARY 17th. 
AT ALL LIBRARIES AND BOOKSELLERS' . 

THE BUILDING of the EMPIRE. 

The Story of * Knglanrt's Growth from Elizabeth to 
Victoria. By ALFKED THOMAS STORY. Author of 
"The Life of John Linnell," &c. With Portraits of 
Queens Elizabeth and Victoria in Photogravure, and 
upwards of 100 Portiaits and Illustrations. 2 vols., 
large crown Svo, 14s. 

THE JOURNALS of WALTER 

WHITE, Assistant-Secretary to the Boyal Society. 

With a Preface by his Brother, WILLIAM WHITE, and 

a Photogravure Portrait. Crown Svo, Gs. 
The Saturday Review says :— "The little volume makes 
good reading. Mr. White came in contact with celebrities 
and notabilities innumerable, and has something nnploasant 
and pleasant to say of most of them." 

The Pall Mall Gazette says :— " Records of conversations 
at Carlyle's, at Tennyson's, and elsewhere, which it is a 
pity to have kept hidden so long." 

WHAT IS LIFE.o Or, Where are 

we? What are we? Whence did we come? And 
whither do we go ? By FREDERICK HOVENDEN, 
P.L.8., P.G.8., F.R.M.S. With many lUnstiations. 
Demy Svo, 68. 

MODERN ARCHITECTURE. A 

Ituok for Architects and the Public. By H. HEATH 
COTE ST.VPHAM, F.R.I.B.A., Editor of the Builder 
and Author of " Architecture for General Readers," 
ic. With numerous Illustrations of Contemporary 
Buildings. Demy Svo, 10s. Bd. 
The Daily Keics says ;—" This is an eminently readable 
and entertaining book." 

MR. COOPER'S NEW SPORTING NOVEL. 

THE MARCHIONESS AGAINST 

THE COUNTY. By E. H. COOPER, Author of "Mr. 

make of Newmarket." Crown 8vo, 68. 
IheAlheiue-um says :— "The book is well written, never 
uninteresiing, and at times even brilliant . . . it never 
tails to attract, its moral is (juite unexceptional, and it 
contains some veiy happy characterisations. * 

CHAPMAN & HALL (Limited), London. 



MR. WM. JIEINEMANN'S LIST. 

THE WORKS OF LORD BYRON. 

Edited oy WILLIAM BRISEST HENLEY. To be com- 
pleted in Twelve Volumes, Small crown Svo, price 5s. 
net each : also an edition, limited to 150 sets for sa'e in 
Great Britain, printed on Van Gelder's hand-mad© 
paper. Prico £(i i>8. net, 
Sabscribers names for this edition of the Complete Works 

of Lord Byron, Edited,w\th Copious Notes, by W. E. Henley, 

are now being received, 

VERSE, Vol. I- Containing " Hours of Idleness/' 
" English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," and " Childe 
Harold." 'VVithaFortralt after Holmes. INextmonth, 

LETTERS, Vol. I. 1804-1813. AVith a Portrait 

after Phillips. [Is noiv ready. 

Academy.—" These Byron Letters (Vol. I.) Mr. Henley has annotated 

BS never surely weru letters aiinotuted before It is sale to say that 

henceforth the typical eilitiun of Byron can never l»e8epanited from 
tfaesenotes. InconclUBiou,if Byron hoB waited lung fora beavea-sent 
editor, he has him at last." 

PETER the GREAT. By K. WallszewskL 

With a Portrait. 1 vol., 562 pp., 6a. 
The 6'fajic/t.— "A hrilhant book. The historian calls the figure up 



and makes it move belore UiS. A ttrauge, 
compeU admiration." 



terrible story, which 



UNDER the DRAGON FLAG. My Experiences 

in the Japo-Chinese War. By JAMJiS ALLEN. 
1 vol., 3s. lid. 
DaHy J/ail.— '* A sensatioiuil little book, which is likely to be talked 
about.' 

SIX-SUILLINO NOVELS. 

THE FOURTH NAPOLEON. By Charles 

BENHAM. 

THE BETH BOOK. By Sarah Grand. 

PitncA.— -'The heroine of 'The Beth Book' is one of Sarah Grand's 
most fasciiuLtioD creatioBs. The story is absorbing : the truth to 
nature in the chardcters every reader with some expcnence of life will 
recognise." 

THE CHRISTIAN. By Hall Caine. 

The iiJtetcA.- " It <iuivers and lalpitatea with passion, for eTen Mr. 
Caine's bitterest detractorK caimut tfeny that he ia the possessor of that 
rarest of all gifts, genius," 

THE NIGGER of the "NARCISSUS." By 

JOSEPH CON BAD. 
The Daily TeUgraph.—" There are few characters among the crew 
which do liut stand out with vivid and life-like present imeut. We 
know them all. Mr. Conrad has for the first time given to the world 
the Engh&h seaman its he is." 

THE GADFLY. By E. L. Voynlch. 

The St. Ja^iiei'g Cktiette.—" Exciting, sinister, even terrifying, we 
inuac a\ow it to be a work nf real tteniun." 

Lo.N:,o.i: WM. lil-INEMANX, ::i, BuDtoau Stkeet, W C, 



EYRE & SPOTTIS WOODE. 

LETTERS and PAPERS of ANDREW 

ROBERTSON, A.M. Born 1777, died 1845, Miniature 
Painter to his late Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex ; 
also a Treatise on the Art by ARCHIBALD ROBERT- 
SON, of New tork. born 1766, died 1835. Edited by 
EMILY ROBERTSON. Paper, 68. ; cloth, 7s. ; art can- 
vas, 7s. 6d.; oiotli, with 12 Woodbury-type Illustrations, 
12s. ed. net. 

THE ART Of SEEING. By an Artist. 

Elementary and Practical Hints as to the Perception 
and Bnjoyment of the Beautiful in Nature and in the 
Fine Arts. By ANDREW ROBERTSON. A.M., Minia- 
ture Painter to the late Duke of Susses. Edited by his 
daughter, EMILY ROBERTSON. Cloth, la. net. 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. By Captain 

DAY (Oxfordshire Light, Infantry). Besides describing 
the unique collection of Instruments exhibited at the 
Royal MiUtary Exhibition, it lumishea a complete 
history of each class of Military Band Instruments. 
Morocco back, cloth sides, gilt, 15a. 

SCORES and ANNALS of the WEST KENT 

CRICKET CLUB (1812-189(5). Compiled by PHILIP 
NORMAN. With Woodbury -gravure and other illus- 
trations. 21b. net. 
•*Eall of interest for lovers of cricket, whether on its 
practical or its social side. , . , Delightful book." 

Tfie Times. 

SPECI A L REPORTS on EDU CATION AL 

SUBJECTS, 1896-7. 3b. 4d. ; by post, 3s. 9d. 

*• Full of the most interesting and valuable information 
on a great variety of subjects." — Secondary Education. 

** Should be read by everybody who wants to know the 
true inwardness of foreign competition." — Daily Aetvs. 

THE REFORMATORY and INDUSTRIAL 

SCHOOL ACTS. "With Memorandum, Appendices, 
and Index. By F. V, HORNBY, Barrister-at-law, and 
one of Her Majesty's Assistant Inspectors of Reforma- 
tory and Industiial Schools. Cloth, Sa. 

A HISTORY of NEWFOUNDLAND from the 

ENGLISH, COLONIAL, and FOREIGN RECORDS, 
By D. W. PROWSE. Q.C., LL.D., Judge of the Central 
District Court of Newfoundland. With numerous Illus- 
trations and Maps. Second Edition. Revised and 
Corrected. Cloth 6s. 

THE PRESERVATION of OPEN SPACES, 

andof FOOTPATHS, and OTHKR KIGHTS of WAY. 
By Sir ROBERT HUNTER, M.A., Solicitor to the Post 
Otfice, and late Hon. Solicitor to the Commons Pre- 
servation Society. Demy Svo, cloth, 78. 6d. 

London : East Harding Stkeet, E.G. 



ENGLISH HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

Edited by S. K. HARIilNKK DX'.L., LL 1).. Fellow of Mcrtou 

College, (Jiford, ;iua UKUIXALU L. I'OOLE, JI.A., I'li.D. 

No. 4i).— J ANUAKV, 1898.— Eoyal Svo, price 5s. 

1. Artieteg. 

THE EARLY HISTORY of BABYLONIA.-I. The RULERS 

of KENUI and KISH. By Sir UbisBV U. HowoKlu, 

K.C.I.E., M.y. 
THE CoNliUEROR'S FOOTPRIKTS in DOMESDAY. By 

F. Baki.no. 
THE ADMINISTRATION of the NAVY from the RESTORA- 

TION to the REVOLCTION. i-art II., continued. By 

T t> Tanner 
JOHN DE ROBETIION and the KOBETHON PAPERS. By 

J. F. Chance. 

2. HoUs aiid Documents.— 3. RevUvts of Jiooks.-4. Correspwikn^e.— 

B. Aoliceg of reHcdicala.—a. Litt 0/ tuxeiU HUtorual P«i*It- 

CO(WJi«. 

LoNoxAKs, GTreen & Co., London* New York, and Bombay. 



THE EDINBURGH REVIEW. 

No. 38S.— JANU.VRY, 1898.— Svo, price 6b. 
I. VALMY and AUEKSTAUT. 
n. THE ANNALS of a PUBLISHING HOUSE. 

III. DONGOLA. 

IV. THE IRISH UNIVERSITY IJUESTION. 
V. THE SUCCESS of the ANGLOJiAXONS. 

VL THE HARLEY PAPERS. 
VIL THE BIRDS of LONDON. 
VIII THE WORKS of MR. RUDYARD KIPLING. 
IX. MR. BRYCE on the FUTURE of SOUTH AFRICA. 
X. INDLAN FRONTIER POLICY. 
LoNOUANs, Gbeen ft Co., LondoD, New York, and Bombay. 

8T0, es. 

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 

No. 373, will be published on WEDNESDAY, Jasl'abt 19. 
Contents. 
L WAGNER and the BAYREUTU IDEA. 
IL IRELAND in '98. 

III. THE VENTURE of THEISM. 

IV. GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE of BUCKIMOHAM. 
V. FOUR GREAT HEADMASTERS. 

VI. NELSON. 

VII. COLONIAL CHAMPIONS in the MOTHER COCNTRY. 

Vin. GIBBON at LAUSANNE. 

IX. ENGLISH ART In the VICTORIAN AGE. 

X. THE HOUSE of BLACKWOOD. 

XL THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL. 
XII. FIFTY YEARS of LIBERATIONISM, 

Loaion: John Mubhat, Albemarle StreeL 



MR.ELKIN MATHEWS'S 

SELECTED LIST. 



ADMIRALS ALL, and other Verses. 

By HENRY NEWBOLT. (Shilling Garland, No. VIII.) 
Fcap. Svo, Is. net. {^Seventh Edition. 

•* Genuinely inspired patriotic verse There are but a dozen pieces 

in this shilling's worth, but there is no dross amonn them.* 

St. Jarma'a GazetU. 

*' All the pieces are instinct with the national English spirit. Thev 
are written in a sturdy rhythmical speech, worthy of their own hign 
themes. "~Sco(«m((n. 

" Lookiog back to recent achievements in the same line, and includ- 
ing even Mr, liipling'g, we do not know where to find anything better 
after its own kind than his ballad uf Drake's Dium.'" 

WuMtminater GantU. 

" To the band of modem ballad -writers a new recruit is always most 
welcome. It is therefore with the greatest possible pleasure that we 
notice the delightful little collection of ballads which Mr. Newbolt 
publishes ucder the title of ' Admirals AIL' Mr. Newbolt has done a 
notable thing. He has mananed to wrote ballids full of ring and go. 
and full also of patriotic feeling without imitating Mr. Rudyard Kip- 
ling 'Admirals Air is practically Mr. Stevens'>n's charming essay 

ou 'The Old Admirals* put into ballad form— Mr. Newbolt has im- 
proved on the essay, and given us a poem which could be sung by 
sailors all the world over." — Spectator. 

*' Stirring ballads, written by a man who has force and spirit." 

Times. 

"These splendid songs will take an eminent and enduring place 
among our patriotic poetry.";— /^aily Chronicle. 

■' There are here all the qualities of ballad poetry, simplicity, direct- 
ness, and vivid impression, aad the quick sympathy which lea.^% from 
word to eye, and makes every reader yearn to be up and doing. 

Literature. 

"We should like to see these stirring verses in the hands of every 
high-spirited youth in the Empire."— Gfooc, 



CHRIST in HADES, and other Poems. 

By STEPHEN PHILLIPS. Fifth Edition, with Addi- 
tions, Is. net. [Shilling Garland Series. 
" It is a wonderful dream, a dream that stirs the heart in almost 
every line, though Christ Himself never utters a word throughout the 
poem, but only brings His sad couutenance and bleeding brow and 
torn hands into that imaginary world of half-conceived and chaotic 
gloom."— Spectator. 



TWO ESSAYS UPON MATTHEW 

ARNOLB, with his Letters to the Author. By ARTHUR 
GALTON. Fcap. Svo, 3s. 6d. net. 
" It is good to be reminded of the man himself not only by the re- 
appearance of his deliglitfal satire C Frieudship's Garland'), but by 
such books as this tiny volume."— jTiWiea. 

■* A small lx)ok, hut more in it than in many a heavier appreciation 
of the great critic.*'— A'cote»mi>t. 
"We heartily welcome this little hook. —Saturday Bev^«v^. 



IRELAND, with other Poems. By 

LIONEL JOHNSON. (Uniform with '* Poems.") 
Crown Svo, 58. net. 
" Mr. Johnson's poems, regarded at first rather as the austere exer- 
cises of a ripe scholar, have now taken their proper place by reason of 
the real fire aud imaginative fervour which underlie their technical 
excellence."— H''e8(i?Hn«(er GazfUe. , ,_ _i „ 

" A poet whom the Irish readier will take to nis heart of hearts, 

Freeman'$ Journal. 



THE JOY of MY YOUTH. A Novel. 

By CLAUD NICHOLSON. Crown Svo, Sa. 6d. net. 
" There is very delicate work in * The Joy of My Youth.* There ia 
Dot much story in it, but reminiscences from the history of a sen- 
sitive man. peculiarly open to impressions and infiueuces from with- 
out. It has a Breton background, and. indeed, there is nothing at »U 

English about it Its style, its sentiment, its attitude were all made 

in France. It has charm and subtlety, and the childhood portion, 
with the blithe imaginative pictures of a boiuitiful and irresponsible 
past, must captivate all r*adera who have time to linger in their 

'*"'The delicate charm of this story is not realised until the reader has 
read more than two or three chapters. The first chapter is un- 
iutelUgible until the book is finished, and the ' we see that the author 
has chosen to tell us of the end of his hero's life before he has told ua 
of the beginning of it.. . .Mr. Nicholson writes with rare sympathyfor 
and appieciation of French life."— ttltwyoir Herald. 

"The hero is a charming child from first to last — Too delicate, too 
cultivated, most will vote the iKwk ; but that judgment will ignore its 
intentiou, which is fulfilled almost without a flaw."— BooA»ian. 



SELECTED POEMS from the WORKS 

of the Hon. EODEN NOKL. With a Bioirraphical and 

Critical Essay by PEROY ADDLE8HAW. With i 

Portraits. Crown Svo, 48. fid. net. 

" Mr. Addleshaw hm done hi< work well. . . .It is iuoonceirable that 

all will die of a poet endowed with so unleudid nn originality, thouah 

clai miug Ictostup. ,by the rare blend of his <nialitie8 with BlaXe, Willi 

Victor Jlugo, and with Edgar Poe."- ManclMUr Umrdiait, 



AN ATTIC in BOHEMIA : a Diary 

without Dates. By E. H. LACON WATSO>f. Author 

of '* The Unconscious Humourist," Crown Svo, 

3s, ad. net, 

*' Mr. "VVatson discourse, with shrewdness and humour upon iuoh 

topics as diaries, tea and muffins, golf atd matrimony.. ...Thew are 

few writers who cau treat so deftly and so inti rtainmgljr the m<Mt 

commouplaoe feelings and incidents of every.<hiy life. —MottntM. 

*• The style is always fresh and graceful ; it is always easy witbout 
losing a pleasant literary flavour and without degeneraUng into lUp- 
shol slangiuess. His humour is sponuneuus (or seema to b« so 
because he has the art of concealing hie arti, and a uille subaeld at 
times, whereby it loees nothing in piquancy. Of the aeveateju CMJI 
which make up the Tolume there is Dot one which does not oontain 
some happy fancy, some quaint conceit, or some riirewd^Mtlon. 



Loadon : ELKIN JIATUEWS, Vigo Street, \\. 



46 



THE ACADEMY. 



[.Tatt. 15, 1898. 



Mr. 



T. FISHER UNWIN'S 

SELECTED LIST. 



WILL BE READY NEXT WEEK. 

TOTJRaUENIEFP and HIS FRENCH OIR- 

CLB • a 8»'rie» of Lftters to Flaulwrt. GeorRe Sand. Emile Zolft, 
Out de Manoassant. GambetU. and Others. Edited by H. 
HALPERINE-KAMINSKY. Trannlated, with a Preface, by 
ETHEL M. ARNOLD. Cloth, 78. 6d. 

WILL BE READY NEXT WEEK. 

WILD NATURE WON by KINDNESS. 

Bv Mrs. BBIOHTWEN. Many niustrations. New Edition (the 
Eighth). Cloth, Is. 6d. 



WILL BE READY NEXT WEEK. 

HOW to be HAPPY THOUGH MARRIED. 

Bv R«v E J. HARDY. M.A. New Edition, completing the 
Fiftieth Thousand. Cloth, 3s. 6d. 



THE GREEN OLOTH LIBRARY. 

NEW VOLUMES. Price 6s. each. 

JOITN OLIVER HOBBES. The School for Saints. 

LORD ERNEST HAMILTON. The Outlaws of the Marches. 

DR. WEIR MITCHELL. Hugh Wynne. 

BENJAMIN SWIFT. The Tormentor. 

OBORGB BARTRAM. The People of Clopton. 

OLIVE SCHREINER. Trooper Peter Halket. 



The WORK of CHARLES KEENE. Intro- 
duction by .1. PENNELL, and a Bibliography. Over 130 Illus- 
tnitions. "Buckram. £3 13a. 6d. net. 

LETTERS of DANTE GABRIEL" ROSSETTI 

to WILLIAM ALLINGIIAM, 18M-1870. IIIu8trat«d, cloth, 128. 

An ARTIST'S LETTERS from JAPAN. By 

JOHN LA FARGE. Illustrated, cloth, Ifi-i. 

The STORY of MARIE ANTOINETTE. By 

ANNA L. BICKNELL. Illustrated, cloth. 12s. 

LIVES of TWELVE BAD WOMEN. Edited 

by ARTHUR VINCENT. Illustrated, cloth, 16s. 

MARGARET PORSTBR: A Dream Within 

a Dream. By GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA. Cloth, 68. 

The LOVE AFFAIRS of SOME FAMOUS 

MEN. By Rev. E. J. HARDY, M.A. Cloth gilt, 6s. 

WILD LIFE in SOUTHERN SEAS. By 

LOUIS BEOKE. Second Edition. Cloth gilt, .'^s. 

The PEOPLES and POLITICS of the FAR 

EAST. By HENRY NORMAN. Over 60 Illustrations and 4 
Maps. Third Edition. Cloth, 21s. 

SIR THOMAS MAITL AND By W. Prewen 

LORD. (Vol. 2 of '* Builders of Greater Britain.") Illustrated, 
cloth, 5s, 

SIR JAMES Y. SIMPSON. By H. Lain? 

GORDON. (Vol. 3 of *' Masters of Meaicine.") lUuatrated, cloth, 
38. 6d. 

MODERN FRANOE. By Andre Le Bon. 

(New Volume of " The Story of the Nations.") Cloth, 58. 

WITHOUT PREJUDICE. By I. Zangwill. 

Author of " The Master," &c. Cloth, 6s. 

GLIMPSES into PLANT LIFE. Bv Mrs. 

BRIGHTWEN, Author of " Wild Nature." Illustrated. Cloth, 
3a. 6d. 

The CROWD = a Stndy of the Ponular Mind. 

By GUSTAVE LE BON. Second Edition. Cloth, 6s. 

THOSE DREADFUL TWINS : Middy and 

Bosun. Bv THEMSELVES. Second Edition. Illustrated. 
Cloth, 38. 6d. 

LIZA of LAMBETH- A Stuiy of London 

Slum Life. By W. 8. MAUGHAM. Second Edition. Cloth, 
3s. 6d. 

OLD TALES from GREEOE. By Alice 

ZIHMERN. Second Edition. Frontispiece. Cloth, 2b. 6d. 

Le SBCVE. A Novel. By Oaida. Second 

Edition. Cloth, 28. 6d. 

LEIfiUBE HOURU in the STUDY. By 

JAMES MACKINNON, Ph.D. Cloth, 6s. 

AUSTRALASIAN DEVIOORACY. 

HENRY DE R. WALKER. Demy 8vo. cloth, 6s. 

A SELECTION fmra. the POEMS of 

MATHILDE BLIND. Edited by ARTHUR SYMONS. Parch- 
ment, 7s. 6d. Edition de Luxe, lOs. Sd. net. 



By 



A Set of Prospectuses, Catalotues, and Lists, containing 
descriptive defaila of hooks in every class of literature, 
Vfill be sent post free to any address on receipt of card. 
Ifdeniredf arrangements can be made for intending 
purchasers to view any ^ook af the local bookseller* s. 



London : 
T. FISHER UNWIN", Paternoster Square, E.G. 



HoMer &^ghton;sJnl)licatioDS. 

RBADY NEXT WEEK. 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 78. 6d. 

THE BOOK OF THE 

TWELVE PROPHETS. 

COMMONLY CALLED THE MINOR. 
By Prof. GEORGE ADAM SMITH, D.D., LL.D., 

THE SECOND VOLUME, 

GOMPLETINC THE EXPOSITOR'S BiBLE 

IN 49 VOLUMES. 



TENTH THOUSAND. 

THE IDEAL LIFE, and Other Dn- 

pubUshed AddresBes. By HENRY DRUMMOND. With 
Introductory Sketches by W. ROBERTSON NICOLL 
and IAN MACLAREN. Crown 8vo, buckram. 88. 
" These addresses are written in a singularly heautiful style, and 

contain much beautiful thinking, showing that the writer had 

pondered deeply on some of the most spiritual aspects of religion. 

They will, we are sure, be much prized by the many admirers of their 

author."— fflasffow Herald. 

THE CLERICAL LIFE. A Series of 

Letters to Ministers. By JOHN WATSON, D.r., Prof. 
MARCUS DODS, D.D., Prof. JAMES DENNEY, D.D., 
Principal T. C. EDWARDS, D.D., W. ROBERTSON 
NICOLL. LL.D., T. G. SBLBY, T. H. DARLOW, M.A., 
and J. T. STODDART. Crown 8vo, 58., cloth. 

DAVID LYALL'S LOVE STORY. By 

the AUTHOR of "THE LAND o" the LEAL." 
Crown 8vo, gilt top, Os. 

THE LAND o' the LEAL. By David 

LYALL. Crown 8vo, f?ilt top, 6s. 
" The tales are tender and pathetic, permeated with simple religious 
feeling much more likely to eilify the ordinary reader than what are 
known as Sunday Ixwks. '—Tivies. 

ON THE THRESHOLD OF CENTRAL 

AFRICA. A Record of Twenty Years' Pioneeriag in 
the Upper Zambesi, amongr the Banyai and Barotsi. 
By FRANCOIS COILLARD, Paris Evanf^elical Mission. 
Translated and Edited by C. W. MACKINTOSH, with 
Photojfravare Portrait and 40 Illustrations from Photo- 
RTapbs by the Author. Imperial Hvo, 15s. 

"We do not remember to have read any hook of missionary adven- 
ture in Africa more thrilling and beautiful than this, since Living- 
stone laid down his life for that great laud."— Lee'i« Mereury. 
SECOND EDITION 
Completing Seventh Thoutand. 

FRIENDSHIP. By the Rev. Hugh Black, 

M.A., Free St. Georjre's, Edinburgh. Cloth, 2s. 6d. 
*"A wise and charming little book on Friendship, It is full of good 
things winningly expressed, and though very simply written, is the 
result of real thought and experience. Mr. Black's is the art that con- 
ceals art."— BrUw^ Weekli/. 

TO the ANGEL'S CHAIR. A Story of 

Ideals in a Welsh Village. By the Rev. JOHN 
THOMAS, M.A., Liverpool. Crown 8vo, 68., cloth. 
" Written with a delicacy and sympathy that has not been equalled 
for many a long day ."—Cftrwttan World. 

THRO' LATTICE WINDOWS. By W. J. 

D VWSON. Crown 8vo, cloth. 68. 
"The choicest bit of literar,v work that has yet come from Mr. 
Dawsou's gifted pen."— TAfi Methodist Recorder, 

SBCOND KDITION. 

THE LAST THINGS. A Study of the 

Coming of Christ, the Eternal Punishment of Sin. and 

the Eternal City of God. By the Rev. J. AGAR BEET, 

D.D. Crown 8vo, cloth, 68. 

" The Right Rev. G. A. Chadwick, D.D., Bishop of Derry and 

Raphoe, says :—" The most sober and careful, as well as thorough and 

trustworthy examination known to me of the scriptural teaching on 

Future Punishment." 

MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. From her 

Birth to her Flight into England. A Brief Biography, 
with Critical Notes, a few Documents hitherto Un- 
published, and an Itinerary. By D. HAY FLEMING, 
Crown 8vo, cloth, 78. 6d. 
" As a critical history and a magazine of facts, the book is an 
invaluable one ; its study the essential preliminary to the first steps 
towards an historical judgment of Mary. It will secure Mr. Fleming 
an honourable reputation for fine scholarship and patient i'ldtistry." 

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if 



Tax. 15, 1898."] 



THE ACADEMY. 



47 



CONTENTS. 



■Our AwiBDs fob 1897 : 

Mr. Stephen Phillips's Poems 
Mr. Henley's Essay on Bums 

H«Tixwe : 

Pindar's Rival 

Popular Anthropology 

South Africa 

Criticism from a Distance ... 

CuirxB Mmtiok 



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Ebucatioh for thb Civil Sbbvicb of IwdiA- 
■What thb People Rbad : VIlI., A Schoolboy 

The Trade in School Books 

Newspapib English 

Eeviews : 

Science 

English 

French 

"Thb Classics: 

Greek 

Latin 



Notbs and News 

'RxpirrATioNs Reconsidered : 

rv., Matthew Arnold 

A Fobgottbn Novel bt Jahes Anthony Fhoude 

A Gebuan Mabb's Nest 

Thi Booz Marxbt 

The Week 

New Books Received 

DXAKA 

'OOBBBSPONDEirCS ... 



Pi.Sl 

... 47 

... 48 

... 49 

... «0 

... 51 

... 63 

... 63 



OUR AWARDS FOR 1897. 



THE "CEOWNED" BOOKS. 

IN accordance with our intention to crown 
two books of sig^nal merit published in 
1897, we have made the following awards : 

ONE HUNDEED GUINEAS to Me. 
Stephen Phillips, for his volume of Poems. 

FIFTY GUINEAS to Mr. William 
Ernest Henley, for his Essay on the Life, 
■Genius, and. Achievement of Burns, contained 
in the fourth volume of the Centenary 
Edition of Tlie Poetry of Robert Burns. 



The bestowal of the awards has been beset 
with difficulties. As our readers have had 
an opportxmity of seeing, the men of letters 
of whom we requested an opinion differed 
flo completely as to be of little help as 
guides. The task of selectLag recipients, 
therefore, devolved wholly upon ourselves. 
Before proceeding to choose, it was neces- 
sary first to reply to the question : Are these 
awards intended more for the encouragement 
or for the recognition of merit ? In other 
words : Is it more desirable to find young 
writers of striking potentialities and to help 
them on their way, or to select two of the 
best books of the year irrespective of the 
age or standing of their authors? The 
answer was that, in the present instance, 
€xcellence of performance was to be pre- 
ferred above richness of promise, " excel- 
lence " as here used implying good matter, 
good manner, and good personality. So 
much premised, we turned to our duty. 



The result of a searching inquiry into the 
merits of some half-score of tlie foremost 
books of 1897 was that a cheque for one 
hundred guineas has been sent to Mr. 
Stephen Phillips for his volume of Poems, 
and a cheque for fifty guineas to Mr. 
W. E. Henley for his essay on Burns. 
In other columns the reader will find 
articles on these works, which should afford 
reasons enough for the faith that is in 
us. It is not likely that the choice will 
please everyone — indeed, the suggestions 
from outside which have already been 
printed in the Academy are sufficient testi- 
mony to the contrary — but the most patient 
consideration of the whole matter convinces 
us that we have done well. 

Mr. Stephen Phillips's poetical rivals 
were three in number — Mr. Francis Thomp- 
son, Mr. "Watson, and Mr. Newbolt. We 
think, however, of Mr. Thompson's 1897 
volume more as a collection of magnifi- 
cent experiments than matured poems ; 
whQe, on the other hand, Mr. William 
Watson's Hope of the World causes us to 
glance back to what he has done rather 
than to look forward to what he may do. 
More persistent rivalry was that of Mr. 
Newbolt, whose Admirals All holds in its 
thirty pages a kind of straightforward, 
vigorous, musical, national verse of which 
Englishmen cannot have too much. But good 
though we consider these ballads, they have 
not the shining merit of Mr. Phillips's work, 
nor can we hold them quite worthy of the 
honour of "coronation." 

In criticism Mr. Henley's position was 
contested by Mr. W. P. Ker's JEpic and 
Romance, Mr. Walter Ealeigh's Style, and 
Mr. Arthur Symons's Studies in Two Litera- 
tures. Against each, however, some objec- 
tion held. Mr. Ker's volume, erudite and 
fascinating though it be, is eminently 
academic — that is to say, the good per- 
sonality that might be there, and in a work 
of literature should be there, has been too 
vigorously suppresed in the cause of learn- 
ing. Mr. Ealeigh's brilliant essay has 
literary skill and distinction in a degree 
not often to be met with ; but it savours 
over much of a tour de force. Mr. Symons's 
Studies in Two Literatures is a thoughtful, 
graceful work, but it is detached, a series 
of flutters rather than a steady flight. 

Other claimants were, especially in fiction, 
numerous, and possessed of considerable 
right to be heard. Mr. Joseph Conrad's Nigger 
of the " Narcissus" TfiOB judged to be too 
slight and episodic, although we consider it a 
remarkable imaginative feat, marked by 
striking literary power. Again, Mr. Benjamin 
Swift's The Tormentor stands out as a vivid 
and commendable performance, although its 
author's method is stiU too immature 
anl spasmodic to be within the scope 



of the Academy's awards. Mr. Kipling 
has himself fixed his standard too high for 
Captains Courageous to be satisfying ; and 
The Skipper's Wooing by Mr. Jacobs and The 
King with Two Faces by Miss Coleridge, in 
different ways, do not quite comply with 
the requirements set forth in the definition 
of " excellence " given above. The author 
of St. Ices is, alas, dead. Mrs. Craigie, we 
may add, expressed a wish that T}ie School 
for Saints should not be entered for com- 
petition. 

Two otlier claimants remain : Mme. 
Darmesteter for her Life of Renan, and 
Mrs. Constance Gamett for her admirable 
translation of Turgenev's novels into 
English. Mrs. Gamett has been at work 
for some years in the prosecution of her 
task ; but it came practically to an end 
in 1897 with the publication of the eleventh 
volume — Torrents of Spring. Translation 
was held, however, to be outside our 
scope ; and Mme. Darmesteter's biography, 
beautiful and tender thougli it be, had to 
give place to Mr, Henley's Burns. 



ME. STEPHEN PHILLIPS'S POEMS. 

It is but a fortnight ago that we reviewed 
Mr. Stephen Phillips's work at some length ; 
and we have not much to add now to what 
was said then. Mr. Phillips has qualities 
out of which the very staff of poetry is 
wrought. He is sensitive, with fibres that 
respond quickly to the pity and the passion 
of the world ; he is thouglitful, curious 
after certain subtleties of thought, ready for 
philosophy ; he has a feeling for style 
which impresses us as being of natural 
growth, rather than painfully acquired ; and 
above all, he takes his art seriously. His 
heart is attuned to the beauty and the 
meaning of tilings, and to those who have 
ears to hear he will endeavour to interpret 
them. The author of the following lines, 
which we had not room to quote in our 
review, has surely seen deep into nature's 
heart: 

"By the Se.*.. 

" Remember, ah remember, how we walked 
Together on the sea-cliff! You were come 
From bathing in the ocean, and the sea 
Was not yet dry upon your hair ; together 
We walked in the wet wind till we were far 
From voices, even from the thoughts of men. 
Remember how on the warm beach we sat 
By the old barque, and in the smell of tar ; 
While the full ocean on the pebbles dropped, 
And in our ears the intimate low wind 
Of noon, that breathing from some ancient 

place, 
Blew on us merest sleep and pungent youth. 
So deeply glad he grew that in pure joy 
Closer we came ; your wild and wet dark hair 
Slashed in my eyes your essence and your 

sting. 
We had no thought ; we troubled not to speak; 
Slowly your head fell down upon my breast, 
In the soft breeze the acquiescing sun; 
And Uie sea-bloom, the colour of calm wind, 
Was on your cheek ; like children then we 

kissed, 



48 



THE ACADEMY. 



[.Tax. 15, 1898. 



Innocent with the sea and pure with air ; 
My spirit fled into thee. The moon climbed, 
The sea foamed nearer, and we two arose ; 
But ah, how tranquil from that deep embrace ! 
And with no sadness from that natural kiss : 
Beautiful indolence was on our brains. 
And on our limbs, as we together swayed. 
Between the luminous ocean and dark fields. 
We two in vivid slumber without haste, 
Eetumed ; while veil on veil the heaven was 

bared ; 
And a new glory was on land and sea. 
And the moist evening fallow, richly dark. 
Sent up to us the odour cold of sleep. 
The infinite sweet of death : so we returned, 
Delaying ever, calm companions. 
Peacefully slow beside the moody heave 
Of the moon-briUiant billow to the town." 

Mr. Phillips has also a more realistic 
manner. Modem life wants its poet badly 
enough ; and if Mr. Phillips can show us 
anything of heavenly beauty or of tragic 
terror under its tawdriness and its squalor, 
ho will earn a reward that all Academies 
in the world cannot give him. But, for the 
moment, he seems to us confused with the 
spectacle he looks at — the glare of the gas- 
lamps blind him ; we hear in his verses the 
roar of what he calls " the orchestral 
Strand," but not any central melody; he 
has not set the life of London to any music, 
but only reproduced some of its discords. 

Yet that he will find a music of his own 
we are confident, for in both his long poems 
of modem life^i7(<' Wife smA The Wonmnwiih 
the Bead Soul — there are passages which, 
taken alone, would almost justify our selec- 
tion. Mr. Phillips is labouring to find out 
precisely what he means, and to put down 
none biit true and genuine impressions. 
That singular instinct for the right word, 
80 characteristic of him at his best, helps 
him to flash the picture time after time 
upon our consciousness ; and we are con- 
vinced that popularity, if it comes his way, 
will not tempt him to remit his labour. 
He has solidly laid the foundation-stone 
of a fine reputation. May the edifice 
grow to ample and enduring proportions ! 



ME. HENLEY'S ESSAY ON BUENS. 

The first thing — and, for the matter of 
that, the last thing— that strikes one in 
Mr. Henley's essay is the victorious art of 
it. So far, it is its author's masterpiece, 
in the sense that, being more largely and 
deliberately planned than any of his former 
ventures in criticism, it yet loses nothing, 
for all its superadded qualities, of the old 
brilliancy, lightness, and deftness of touch. 
In Views aud Reviews, Mr. Henley was the 
heau sahreur of the weekly press. It was open 
to him — you are sure he did not undervalue 
the privilege — to take up and lay down his 
subjects as he chose, to vent his likes and 
dislikes, to kick up his heels in audacity 
and paradox, to be personal, whimsical, irre- 
sponsible. The result was a suggestive, 
fascinating, disputable little book. It was 
fine criticism, but not altogether serious 
criticism. But in dealing with Bums Mr. 
Henley was bouLd to be serious. It fell to 
him to say the last words which should sum 



up a long and elaborate investigation into 
masses of detailed and often inconsistent 
evidence. He had to pronounce a deliberate 
literary judgment, to take up a considered 
position which would be tenable in the face 
of almost inevitable outcry. He has not 
shirked the responsibilities laid upon him. 
Both in this essay and in the commentary, 
for which he shares the credit with Mr. 
T. r. Henderson, the signs of a minute and 
rigorous industry are apparent. And the 
verdict given is a solid one, standing com- 
plete, four square to all the winds that 
blow. Disagree with it who will, it is 
impossible to challenge the patience, the 
sincerity, the conscientiousness with which 
it is formulated. For all this, it is, as we 
have said, the art of the thing that strikes 
us first and last. Mr. Henley has followed 
the Dry-as-dust's method to spurn the Dry- 
as-dust's results. The i)ains which he has 
spent upon bis work, the mass of closely 
studied facts and opinions which lie behind 
it, are suffered no whit to affect the vigour 
and freshness of the expression which it 
finds. The phrasing is as vivid and clear- 
cut, the metaphors are as ringing, as ever. 
Gregory, schooled in the University, has not 
forgotten his swashing blow. 

One of Mr. Henley's reviewers — from 
" ahint the Border," of course — has ex- 
pressed his disappointment that Mr. Henley 
" has not even attempted to give Bums his 
place in European literature." As though 
criticism were a class-list or a liorse-race ! 
Mr. Henley knew his business better. And 
this was, not to compare the incomparables 
or measure the incommensurables, but, for 
once, to paint from the life ; to thrust aside 
the veils of ignorance or idealism, and to give 
the man and the poet in his habit as he 
stood. Burns has been pawed over often 
enough hj patriots and sentimentalists ; let 
us for once have the plain imvarnished 
truth, not explained away, not excused, 
not necessarily even condemned — simply 
stated. Such we conceive to have been the 
critical ideals which Mr. Henley set before 
him in undertaking his task, and with what 
vigilance, what zest he lives up to them ! 
How salient his portrait ! how it stands out 
from the canvas! with what economy and 
precision of line the artist insists on what 
he means to say. Let us recall some of the 
fine passages in which Mr. Henley's concep- 
tion of Burns, a vital and creative con- 
ception, a conception with which it shall go 
hard if it be not permanent, is built up. 
And first of Burns the man : 

" We have to recall the all-important fact 
that Bums was first and last a peasant, and 
first and last a peasant in revolt against the 
Kirk, a peasant resolute to be a buck. . . , 
He was absolutely of his station and his time, 
the poor-living, lewd, grimy, free-spoken, 
ribald old Scots peasant world came to a full, 
brilUant, even majestic, close in his work." 

Of the Bums of the sentimentalist, and 
especially of the 'unco' guid' sentimentalist, 
Mr. Henley wiU have nothing : 

" The tame, proper, figmentary Bums, the coin- 
age of their own tame, proper brains, which 
they have done their best to substitute for the 
lewd, amazing peasant of genius, the inspired 
faun, whose voice has gone ringing through the 
courts of Time these hundred years and more. 



and is far louder and far clearer now than wheu 
it first broke on the ear of man." 

And if Mr. Henley will not palter with or 
slur over the facts about Bums, neither will 
he apologise for them. What need, indeed, 
of apology, now, in the retrospect ? Is it 
not enough just to understand ? 

" There needs but little knowledge of charac- 
ter and life to see that to apologise for Bums is 
vain; that we must accept him frankly and 
without reserve for a peasant of genius perverted 
from his peasanthood, thrust into a place for 
which his peasanthood and his genius alike 
unfitted him, denied a perfect opportunity, 
constrained to live his qualities into defects, 
and in the long run beaten by a sterile and un- 
natural environment. We cannot make him 
other than he was, and, especially, we cannot 
make him a man of our own time : a man bom 
tame and civil and luiexcessive — ' he that died 
o' Wednesday,' and had obituary notices in 
local prints. His elements are ail-too gross, 
are aU-too vigorous and turbulent for that. 
' God have mercy on me,' he once wrote of him- 
self, ' a poor damned, incautious, duped, un- 
fortunate fool ! the sport, the miserable victim 
of rebelUous pride, hypochondriac imaginations, 
agonising sensibility, and bedlam passions.' 
Plainly he knew himself as his apologists have 
never known him, nor will ever Imow." 

Nor is Mr. Henley's vision less keen, his 
hand less sure, when he passes from the 
analysis of Bums's temperament to the con- 
sideration of his achievement. Certain 
critical points he certainly puts better, more 
judiciously then they have ever been put 
before. The debt of Burns to his forebears, 
to Ramsay and Ferg^sson, and the nameless 
many, is insisted on, justly and without 
exaggeration ; it is for Bums as the in- 
heritor of a folk-tradition, of a long line of 
peasant bards, that Mr. Henley claims our 
especial admiration. The triumphs that he 
allows him are all triumphs of the vernacular 
muse. When he "falls to his English " ha 
is one stumbling in a foreign language, 
imitating liis writing master's copy. Of 
the secrets of English speech he knows 
nothing. " He wrote the heroic couplet 
(on the Dryden-Pope convention) clumsily;" 
" he was a kind of bob-naUed Gray." For 
the great Englishmen bis sympathy was 
imperfect. 

"Thus, if he read Milton, it was largely, if 
not wholly, with a view to getting him self up 
as a kind of Tarbolton Satan. He was careless, 
so I must contend, of Shakespeare. With such ' 
knowledge as he could glean from song-books, 
he was altogether out of touch with the 
Ehzabethans and the Carolines. Outside the 
vernacular, in fact, he was a rather unlettered 
Eighteenth Century Englishman, and the 
models which he must naturally prefer before 
all others were academic, stilted, artificial aud 
xmexemplarj- to the highest point." 

But " he had the sole ear of the vernacular 
muse." As a lyrist, in the peasant manner, 
simple, vivid, direct, singing of the elemental 
qualities of life, he is unsurpassed ; and of 
his descriptivepoems, when it is thepeasantry 
that he describes, the level is hardly lower. 
His highest, most enduring characteristics, 
Mr. Henley is inclined to formulate as 
humour, a "broad, rich, prevailing" humour. 
Beauty, in the sheer sense of the word, he 
would deny him. '^^^-'m 

" It is not, remember, for ' the love of lovely 
word?,' not for such perfections of human utter- , 



Jan. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



49 



ance as abound in Shakespeare, in Milton, in 
Keats, Id Herrick, that we revert to Bums. 
Felicities he has — felicities innumerable; but 
his forebears set themselves to be humorous, 
racy, natural, and he could not choose but 
follow their lead. The Colloquial triumphs in 
his verse as nowhere outside the Vision and 
Don Juan; but for beauty we must go else- 
whither. He has all manner of qualities : wit, 
fancy, vision of a kind, nature, gaiety, the 
richest humour, a sort of homespun verbal 
magic. But, if we be in quest of Beauty, we 
must e'en ignore him, and 'fall to our English ' : 
of whose secrets, as I've said, he never so much 
as susjiected the existence, and whose supreme 
capacities were sealed from him until the end." 

It need hardly be said that Mr. Henley's 
treatment, whether of the man or the poet, 
has not passed unchallenged. He is not 
careful to avoid controversy, rather trails 
his coat of purpose, for " the common 
Bumsite." The green olive-branch of a 
pacific life was never a button-hole for him. 
Urbanity has always been unrecognisable 
in his literary ideal. But we may leave "the 
common Burnsite " to fend for himself. 
We do not, indeed, suppose that Mr. Henley 
has given us the definitive portrait of Bums. 
In criticism, indeed, there is nothing de- 
finitive. Always and inevitably the tem- 
perament of the critic must colour the 
personality seen through its medium. This 
is Mr. Henley's Bums ; it is not the whole 
Bums. Mr. Stevenson's Bums is another. 
The critics who are to come will have their 
own. But the balancing of critical tem- 
peraments may safely be left to the long 
process of time. In the meantime, let us 
be grateful to Mr. Henley's art for having 
given us the real presentment of a real man. 



REVIEWS. 



PINDAR'S RIVAL. 

The Poems of Bacchylides. Edited by F. G. 
Kenyon, M.A., D. Litt. (British Museum.) 

Tee revival of classical discovery has come 
at a happy time for scholars. Since those 
heady days of the humanists, when any 
fugitive from Greece might disclose the 
priceless MS. of some new poet, some four 
centuries had passed. Grammarians and 
philologists had long ceased to look for new 
materid, and were already within measur- 
able distance of exhausting the possibilities 
of ingenious speculation afforded by the 
old. About Homer and Sophocles there 
■was really not much more to be said. The 
reconstruction of Gh-eek civilisation — so far, 
at least, as the evidence of written texts 
was concerned — seemed weU-nigh complete. 
Then, slowly, the tombs in the Egyptian 
'Bands began to give up their dead, and 
the learned world was once more agog. 
Among the swathings of mummies, in 
the rubbish heaps of ancient cities, ardent 
•explorers disinterred papyrus after papyrus. 
The museimis of Europe are choked with 
■them now, and as they are painfully 
flattened out, pieced together, and deci- 
phered, every once and again, among the 
dehrk of ritual treatises and farm accounts, 



some real treasure-trove rewards the labour. 
None of the Bii Majores have yet appeared. 
Some day we may be electrified by the 
announcement of a volume of Sappho's lyrics, 
or a play of Menander; but in the meantime 
a treatise of Aristotle on the Polity of Athens 
has set the constitutional historians correct- 
ing their facts and suppressing their hypo- 
theses, Hyperides has been added to the 
already adequate supply of orators, the 
mimes of Herodas have revealed an entirely 
new genre of urban poetry, while the Logia 
of Jesus form an important contribution to 
our knowledge of the conflicting tendencies 
of primitive Christianity. 

More important than any of these, from 
the point of view of pure literature, are the 
Odes of Bacchylides, now edited with great 
pains and skill from a British Museum 
papyrus of the middle of the first century 
B.C. by Mr. F. G. Kenyon. Of Bacchylides 
we had but a hundred lines of fragments 
and the laudatory notices of the Alexan- 
drian and Byzantine critics. We knew that 
he wrote in the first half of the fifth 
century, that he was bom in Ceos, that he 
came of poetic stock, being the nephew of 
Simonides, that he was exiled from the 
island and dwelt in the Peloponnese. Like 
Pindar, he found a patron in Hieron, the 
tyrant of Syracuse, and the two poets were 
in a way rivals. Pindar, indeed, is supposed 
to allude to Bacchylides in phrases of some 
asperity. He was, however, held to be one 
of the nine lyric poets of Greece, and 
the author of the treatise De iSublimi- 
tate affords him considerable praise. He 
does not put him on Pindar's level, 
but ascribes to him a " smooth, equable, 
and pleasing " genius, which neither 
rises so high nor sinks so low as 
that of his great contemporary. Thanks 
to Mr. Kenyon, we are now able, for 
the first time, to verify the substantial 
justice of this criticism. It is unlikely that 
the papyrus, even when perfect, contained 
the whole works of Bacchylides, but even 
as it is it preserves enough to make him 
once more an actual personality and not 
merely the shadow of a name. Certainly 
he will not oust Pindar from his pride of 
place : he has not the wide sweep — 

" the ample pinion, 
That the Theban eagle bare. 
Sailing with supreme dominion. 
Through the azure deep of air." 

" His merits," says Mr. Kenyon, truly 
enough, " are merits rather of art than in- 
vention. He has lucidity, grace, picturesque- 
ness, and an easy command of rhythm." 
More than Pindar, he has certain char- 
acteristically classical qualities, the serenity 
and the sense of form of the typical Hellene. 
Bacchylides is to Pindar, says Mr. Kenyon 
again, as Sophocles is to iEschylus. He 
might have added as Tennyson is to 
Browning. 

There is, of course, much work yet to be 
done on Bacchylides. It is understood that 
an edition by Prof. Jebb is in prospect, and 
no one is better fitted for the task. In the 
meantime, the admirable editio princeps 
which Mr. Kenyon has given us deserves 
especial praise. Mr. Kenyon has wisely 
boon sparing of emendation, but he has 
been liberal of introductory matter and of 



apparatus eriticus. He prints on opposite 
pages the uncials of the papyrus and a version 
in ordinary Greek text ; to these he proposes 
to add, in a separate volume, a photographic 
facsimile of the whole MS. The measure 
of Mr. Kenyon' s labour may be taken when 
we learn that his material reached him in 
the form of about 200 torn fragments. 
These had to be pieced together, like a 
Chinese puzzle, and as a result we have, 
besides small unplaced fragments, twenty 
distinguishable poems, of which six are 
practically complete, while the others have 
suffered a greater or less amount of mutila- 
tion. The first fourteen odes, as arranged 
by Mr. Kenyon, were written, like all those 
of Pindar that we possess, in celebration of 
victories at the athletic games ; the remain- 
ing six are of a novel and far more interest- 
ing character. Technically they are probably 
psoans or dithjTambs, intended tobesimgby 
choirs at festivals of Apollo or Dionysus. 
But they belong to a stage in the develop- 
ment of these forms in which the literary 
interest has become predominant, while the 
religious element has been reduced to a 
perfunctory line or two. In effect they are 
lyrical idyUs, brief studies of moments in 
legends which had been the subject of 
earlier epical treatment. They are full of 
appeal to the vision, and, but for the lyrical 
form, correspond very closely to such poems of 
Tennyson's as " Oinone." The most interest- 
ing of all is the eighteenth, for this is the 
only extant example of such an idyll pre- 
sented dramatically and showing the type 
of the lyrical hymn as modified by imita- 
tion of the already nascent di-ama. We 
venture to offer a translation for the 
benefit of Greek-less readers. The dialogue 
is between iEgeus, king of Athens, 
and his wife, Medea, who speak altemate 
strophes. Theseus, the son of uT^geus, who 
has been brought up at Troezen, is coming 
to Athens, doing deeds of heroism on his 
way. A herald has announced the advent 
of a formidable stranger. 



" ' King of sacred Athens I Lord of the loniaus 
who live delicately 1 Why has the trumpet's 
brazen note even now blared forth its warlike 
message? Is it that some foeman with his 
host besets the frontiers of our land? Or 
do raiders of evil intent harry the herds by 
force, hungry for fat cattle ? Or of what does 
thy heart misgive thee ? Speak ; for of all men 
thou, I ween, hast brave young hearts at need, 
thou, a king sprung from Pandion and Creusu.' 

jEQEUS. 

' But oven now came a herald, footing it over 
the long Isthmian way ; and unheard deeds of 
a mighty door he tells. The insolent Sinis he 
has slain, strongest among men, the child of 
Ki-onos' son who split the ravine and shsikes the 
earth. He has slain the man-eater in the glens 
of Krommyon, and slain Skiron who lorded it 
in might. He has stayed the wrestling-school 
of Kerkyon, and the dread club of Polypt^mon 
has Prokoptes dropped, for he met with the 
better man. My heart misgives me how these 
things shall end.' 

MEBE.i. 

' Whom reports he the man to be, and whence 
coming ? What his garb ? Brings he a great 
aiTay in hai-ness of war, or comes he alone and 
unarmed, like some wandering merchant to an 



50 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 15, 1898. 



alien land, this man who is so strong and brave 
!\nd bold, that he has quelled the strength of 
mighty champions? Sui-ely some god impels 
him, that he may wreak justice on the unjust. 
How else should one be doing always and light 
on no mischance :•* But of all this will time see 
the issue.' 

MONJS. 

' Two squires and no more he tells of, and a 
sword on the gleaming shoulders, and in the 
hands two pol£hed darts. Upon his auburn 
hair is a cunning helm of Lacedaimon, and for 
raiment he has a piu-ple shirt and a woolly 
mantle of Thessalian weft. The light in his 
eyes is as the fires of Lemnos. Only a lad is he, 
iu the morning of life. His heart is set on the 
joys of Ares — war and the clash of bronze in 
battle. And his questing is for the splendours 
of Athens town.' " 

Surely a living picture of this knight- 
errant of the prime : 

" A fair}- prince, with joyful eyes, 
And lighter-footed than the fox," 

The curious in literary parallels may 
compare the relation of this dramatic idyll 
to the contemporary drama of Athens, 
with tliat of the East Midland poem, " The 
Harrowing of Hell," to its contemiiorary 
diama of the great mystery-play cycles. 



POPULAE ANTHEOPOLOGY. 

The nhtortj of Mankind. By Prof. Fr. 
Eatzel. Translated from the Second 
German Edition by A. J. Butler, M.A. 
Vol. II. (MacmiUan & Co.) 

ly the present volume Prof. Eatzel deals 
with the aborigines of the New World, the 
Arctic races of Europe and Asia, and the 
Negro and Negrito inhabitants of Africa. 
Here are at once seen some of the dis- 
advantages inseparable from his geographical 
distribution of the subject-matter of this 
comprehensive treatise on the main divisions 
of the liuman family. The plan answers 
well enough for America, which has prac- 
tically been an isolated and independent 
ethnical domain from the Stone Ages down 
to the Discover}'. But it breaks down com- 
pletely when we come to the great divisions 
of the Eastern Hemisphere. Thus we here 
see the Arctic peoples detached from the 
Mongolic stock, with which most of these 
" H\-perborean8 " (Lapps, Samoyedes, 
Ostiaks, Yakuts, Tunguses, &c.) are un- 
doubtedly connected. The case is even 
worse in Africa, where the Negro and 
Negrito aborigines are divorced from the 
kindred Papuans, Melanesians, and others 
of the Oceanic world described in the first 
volume. 

It is, however, but fair to add that this 
inconvenient arrangement is somewhat 
obviated in the introductory section, where 
the essential unity of tlie several branches 
of each main division is emphasised, and 
where a somewhat higher level is maintained 
than in the discussion of details. But 
perhaps this could not well be other- 
wise. It is given to but few to master 
the rich materials that have accumulated 
in recent years on the countless tribes and 
peoples spread over the globe, whereas it 



may lie within the jwwer of many to draw 
tolerably correct general conclusions on 
fundamental ethnological questions even 
from desultory reading. Our author may 
also plead, in excuse for many shortcomings, 
that he writes for the general public, as is 
evident enough from his avoidance of all 
reference to autliorities, except, indeed, of 
the vaguest kind. But we are here re- 
minded that even " the man in the street " 
has now become critical, and is apt to resent 
being put off with the shadow for the sub- 
stance when consulting works of this sort 
for accurate information. What, for in- 
stance, is he to make of the barren and 
misleading statement (p. 49) thatthe Yuncas 
lived " near Truxillo on the coast " ? Surely 
space might have been found to say a little 
more about the most civilised, and in every 
respect the most important, people of South 
America in 2)re-Inca times. Yunca was not, 
in fact, the name of any single tribe, but 
the collective name applied by the Peruvians 
to several highly cultured groups, who were 
not confined to Truxillo, but who extended 
along the seaboard for about ten degrees of 
latitude, and on the site of whose chief city. 
Grand Chimu, TruxiUo now stands. 

On the same page we are told that "it is 
princijjally to Karl von den Steinen and 
Ehrenreich that we owe a grouping by 
languages of the Brazilian tribes." What 
wiU Spix and Martins, d'Orbigny, or even 
Dr. Brinton, say to this ? The above- 
mentioned travellers have, no doubt, recently 
done excellent work in Central Brazil, where 
they have discovered the probable cradle- 
land of the Carib race. But they would be the 
last to claim priority for a general linguistic 
classification of the Brazilian aborigines, a 
classification which, as far as this writer is 
aware, they have not yet undertaken. 

Passing to North America, we come upon 
a strangely inadequate account of the great 
Dakotan (Siouan) nation, whichismainlj' con- 
fined to the Mississippi-Missouri basin, as if 
that were its original home, although recent 
research has j'laced beyond doubt the fact 
that their earliest seats lay in Virginia, the 
Carolinas, and other parts of the Atlantic 
slope. The point should not have been 
overlooked, because of its importance in the 
history of the Dakotan migrations, which 
are now shown to have trended westwards 
to their present domain, and not from the 
Pacific side, as formerly supposed. 

Most perfmictory is the treatment of the 
American languages, which are said (p. 22) 
to be " based on an agglutinative system," 
whereas most of them are t^'pical poly- 
synthetic forms of speech. No examples 
are given, without which it is quite im- 
possible to convey a clear idea of the 
strangely involved structure of this linguistic 
group. Here also reference is made to a 
" Maklak language," which is not otherwise 
located, and which appears now to be heard 
of for the first time. 

But many of these shortcomings in the 
American section may well be forgiven for 
the author's opportune remarks on the 
evolution of American culture independently 
of Old World influences. Those anthropo- 
logists who still trace everything to the 
Eastern Hemisphere, whence little or nothing 
came after the Stone Ages, and -who find 



the prototypes of Cholula, Uxmal, and 
Tiahuanaco in the pyramids of Egypt, the- 
Hindu temples of Java or Camboja, and 
the monolithic monuments of Brittany or 
Britain, should reflect that 

" when peojile began to di-aw parallels between 
the cultured races of America and those of the 
Old World, they overlooked those numerous- 
points of aflBnity existing in the matter of 
culture among individual races all over the- 
world, from the highest religious conceptions 
down to peculiarities iu the style of their 
weapons or their tattooing, and looked for a 
limited region — by preference in South or East 
Asia — as a centre of migration and x-adiation. 
But the origin of the old American civilisations 
will never be traceable to a particular comer of 
the earth, nor to any of the still surviving^ 
civilised races, and all attempts to do so have 
remained fruitless. The roots of those wonder- 
ful developments reach down rather to some- 
primeval common property of all mankind, 
which found time in the thousands of years- 
which precede history to spread itself over the- 
earth. In other parts of the earth its develop- 
ment was more rapid than in America, which 
lacks in situation and natural endowment 
certain accelerating forces that have been 
bestowed on the Old "World. . . . Nevertheless- 
we may hold fii-mly to the relationship of the 
Americans with the East Oceanic branch of the- 
Mongoloid race " (p. 170). 

The apparent contradiction implied in the- 
last clause of this quotation is explained by 
the author's view, enlarged upon elsewhere, 
that the American aborigines are autoch- 
thonous only in a relative sense, that they 
were an offshoot probably oi the Malayo- 
Polynesian division of the Mongol stock,, 
and that they spread to the New World 
in remote prehistoric times. Since then 
their relations with the Oceanic peoples 
came to an end, or at -least no regular- 
communications were ma ntained between 
the populations on both si^'es of the Pacific; 
consequentiy the culture of the mound- 
builders, Pueblo Indians, Mexicans, Maya- 
Quiches, Chibchas, Chimus, and Peruvians 
are to be regarded as independent local 
developments, practically unaffected by tlie 
civilisations of the Ea.stem Hemisphere. 
This doctrine is not new ; indeed, it was 
advocated some years ago in the article on 
the " American Indians " contributed to the- 
last edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
and has since been steadily gaining ground 
among ethnologists and archteolog^sts. . 
But it is here presented in a somewhat 
modified form from several new points of 
view, and is supported by a considerable- 
number of fresh facts and inferences. 

In the Arctic section the student is arrested 
by the statement that the Yakuts are 
disappearing, and that their ten tribes " do 
not number on an average more than three 
hundred each," or, say, 3,000 altogether 
(p. 226). They are, on the contrary, 
the most energetic and progressive of all 
the Siberian peoples, and we are told by 
M. Sierochevsky {Ethnographic Eenearches, 
1896) that they number at present about- 
200,000, spread over a territory some two 
million square miles in extent, though 
chiefly concentrated along the river banks 
between the Lena and the .AJdana. The- 
Turki origin of these hardy Hyperborean* 
is fully confirmed by this observer. 



Jan. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



51 



Although the treatment of the Alrican 
races is, on the whole, somewhat more satis- 
factory, here also occur many views and 
statements of facts which must be received 
with extreme caution. Both the negro 
cradle-land and negro culture, such as it 
is, are traced on the feeblest grounds to 
Western or Southern Asia. We cannot 
find that any exception is made even for 
iron, which was almost certainly of African 
origin, and which, as clearly shown by M. 
Gabriel de MortiUet {Formation de la Nation 
Frangaise, 1897), was introduced into Europe 
not from Asia, but from the Dark Continent. 
In this connexion, Lepsius' exploded theory 
of the Hamitic origin of the Hottentot 
language is revived, and spoken of as "a 
stimulating idea," while the Hamites them- 
selves are "immigrants probablj' from Asia" 
(p. 248). The home of the Hamites is to 
be sought rather in North Africa, and if 
the kinship of the Berber and Basque 
languages, suggested by the late G. von der 
Gabelenz, is ever established, then the same 
region wiU have to be regarded as the cradle 
of the Semites as well, the fundamental con- 
ueidon of the Hamito-Semitic linguistic 
family having now been placed beyond 
reasonable doubt. 

The translation shows no improvement on 
that of the first volume. There is the same 
painful struggle with involved German 
sentences, and too often even with quite 
simple expressions, while the defective 
knowledge of details is constantly betrayed 
by the writer's helplessness when grappling 
with obscure or erroneous statements in the 
original. Thus we have such expressions 
as "two monstrous islands," where vast or 
huge is meant ; " Africa is better off for in- 
habitants than," &c., meaning more thickly 
peopled ; " shabby " applied to wooden 
spoons of poor workmanship ; "a pre- 
eminent delicacy of tools " ; " foreign bodies 
of manners " ; " reaches of the road " ; 
"benumbed by Nature's lavishness " ; " the 
terribly melted-down Aborigines " ; " mus- 
tered up " ; and at p. 250 : "The seclusion 
towards the North due to the deserts must 
have lasted until seamen, better than 
Africans now are, from elsewhere, struck the 
coasts of Africa," and, a few lines below, " a 
wide belt of retrogression." Then the 
Quechuas of Peru are confused with the 
Quiches of Guatamala (164); "Prince of 
Wied" is, we suppose "short for" Prince 
Max von Neuwied (14) ; east for tvest{\0 and 
260) and ivest for east (240). Schweinfurt's 
Monhuttu everywhere appears instead of the 
proper form, Mangbattu, as established by 
Jxuiker ; the meaning of Damara is said to 
be "obscure" (463), although fuUy ex- 
plained in accessible books (Stanford's 
Africa, ii., p. 176) ; and we are elsewhere 
informed that " Amakosa — also written 
Amaxosa — seems to mean ' The People of 
Kosa ' (Kosa being a chief). This naming 
of a tribe after its chief, a feature of the 
patriarchal system, recurs among most 
Negro tribes" (446). But the patriarchal 
system is not prevalent among most Negro 
tribes, being confined to a few groups, 
prominent among which are the Zulu- 
Xosas hero in question. Ama-Xosa (the 
only proper spelling) does really mean " The 
People of Xosa," who, howeverj was not 



merely "a chief," but the eponymous hero 
and founder of the nation, who is tradition- 
ally said to have flourished in the sixteenth 
century, and from whom all the present 
chiefs of the Galekas, Gaikas, and other 
Xosa groups trace their descent. 

Like the first, this volume is profusely 
illustrated, and many of the portraits, being 
reproductions of good photographs, are of 
considerable scientific value. 



SOUTH AFEICA. 

Impressions of South Africa. By Prof. 
Bryce. (Macmillan & Co.) 

In the latter part of 1895 Prof. Bryce 
travelled across South Africa from Cape 
Town to Fort Salisbury, in Mashonaland, 
passing through Bechuanaland and Matabili- 
land. From Fort Salisbury he returned 
through Manicaland and the Portuguese 
Territories to Beira, on the Indian Ocean, 
sailed thence to Delagoa Bay and Durban, 
traversed Natal, and visited the Transvaal, 
the Orange Free State, Basutoland, and the 
eastern province of Cape Colony. It is a 
tolerably extensive journey, even in these 
days of globe-trotting, and the densest of 
mankind could not fail, if he undertook it, 
to gather some information which would 
interest and entertain. When this vast ex- 
panse of territory, containing so many con- 
flicting races, such incomparable variety of 
natural objects, and presenting such in- 
numerable problems to the statesman, the 
naturalist, and the ethnologist, is brought 
under the eye of a man of Mr. Bryce's grasp 
of mind, the reader is entitled to expect 
something more than an ordinary book of 
travel. 

He will not be disappointed. Mr. 
Bryce's admirable book is as far removed 
from the publications of the ordinary 
globe-trotter as Treasure Island from a 
penny dreadful. It is scarcely too much to 
say that what Mr. Bryce has already done 
is here surpassed. To any student of South 
African affairs this book must of necessity 
be as indispensable for many years to 
come, as The Holy Roman Empire and 
The American Commonwealth already are to 
anyone who would understand the rise of 
European nationalities and the political 
system of the United States. 

The work before us is arranged under the 
three main headings of Nature, History, 
and a Narrative of the Author's Journey. 
The physical features of South Africa are 
fairly well known by this time, but Mr. 
Bryce is certainly successful in presenting a 
general sketch of the country which is 
far more informing than any collection of 
isolated photographs can possibly be. With 
him we deplore the rapid destruction of the 
large wild animals which is going on, and 
most heartily endorse his plea that the 
various governments should combine to 
prevent their total disappearance. If the 
present rate of slaughter is persisted 
in, the African elephant will have ceased 
to exist within another half-century, and 
a similar fate awaits the rhinoceros. 
Nevertheless, we cannot help seeing that 



there is another side to the picture, and one 
which appeals very nearly indeed to the 
inhabitants. It is distressingly unromantic 
to hear that the establishment of street 
lamps has made the lion as rare in Bulawayo 
as in Fulham ; but the fact is not without 
its advantages to foot passengers. We are 
even prepared to pardon a total absence 
of enthusiasm for the preservation of the 
rare white rhinoceros on the part of that 
Dutch governor who, while traversing the 
streets of Cape Town, was butted out of his 
comfortable coach by one of these engaging 
creatures. 

The human problem is, however, after 
all, much the most interesting which South 
Africa presents, and with this Mr. Bryce 
deals at length. Of the three native races, 
the Bushmen, the Hottentots, and the great 
nationality which we, following the Arabs, 
call " Kafir," but which proudly calls itself 
" Abantu " — the People — the last alone is 
now of real importance. Out of it three 
men have arisen from whom it is difiicult 
to withhold the epithet of "Great." The 
Zulu Tshaka was in his way as great a 
warrior as Napoleon. He devised a miUtary 
system so admirably adapted to the capacities 
of his people that no other natives could face 
his impis, and so perfect that its defeat taxed 
all the resources of European skill. Tshal^ 
had probably never heard of the Pomans, 
but his introduction of the short, broad- 
bladed, stabbing spear in place of the lance 
shows a thorough appreciation of one of 
their greatest secrets of success. Moshesh, 
the Basuto, who successfully defied Boers 
and natives alike from his fastness of Thaba 
Bosiyo, and governed the nation he created 
in a manner which compelled the respect 
even of his enemies, was no ordinary man. 
Khama, the Bechuana, now rules a great 
territory with a tact, prudence, and tenacity 
of purpose which would do credit to any 
European statesman. WeU. may Mr. Bryce 
say that "three such men . . . are suffi- 
cient to show the capacity of the race for 
occasionally reaching a standard which 
white men must respect." And this race 
shows no tendency to die out. On the 
contrary, it is more prolific than its white 
conquerors, and therein lies one of the most 
difficult problems of the future. 

"The native — that is to say, the native o£ 
the Kafir race — not merely holds his groimd 
but increases far more rapidly than he did 
before Europeans came, because the Europeans 
have checked inter-tribal wars and the slaughter 
of the tribesmen by the chiefs and their wizards 
and also because the Europeans have opened uj 
new kinds of employment." 

In fact, the problem before the white 
inhabitants of South Africa is very much 
the same as that which is beginning to 
assume such a serious aspect in the Southern 
States of America. 

" Two races, far removed from one another 
in civilisation and mental condition, dwell side 
by side. Neither race is likely to extrude or 
absorb the other. What then will be their 
relations, and how will the difRciiltios be met to 
which their juxtaposition must g^vc rise 'i " 

Upon the whole Mr. Bryce is hopeful. Some 
sort of lingua franca will, he thinks, spring 
up : heathenism will disappear — it is, by the> 



52 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jait. 15, 1898 



way, curious to note that the existing Kafir 
religion does not appear to include any idea 
of the Supreme Being — and the natives will 
become Christians, at least in name ; but 
there will be no intermarriage between the 
white and black races. If only the native 
can be levelled up by education, and the 
European induced to treat him more like a 
man and less like an animal, it is possible to 
look forward to a day when the two races 
will be able to work harmoniously together 
in a partnership in which the white man wiU 
be the head and the black man the hands. 

It is not the least of Mr. Bryee's many 
claims to the confidence of the reader that, 
in dealing with the Native Question, he never 
allows himself to become a partisan or to 
cater for cheap philanthropy. To him the 
invading European is neither angel nor 
demon, but a very human person indeed, 
acting as might reasonably be expected in 
the circumstances. On the other hand, he 
does not pretend that the native altogether 
likes the change which has driven him to 
work for his living and for the enrich- 
ment of his conqueror. We confess that, 
in considering this part of the subject, we 
draw much comfort from the pictures which 
Mr. Bryce repeatedly draws of the miserable 
state of the native under his own rulers. 
A Zulu king was, indeed, compelled to 
admit the right of his people to the soil just 
as a Saxon ruler was, but to their lives they, 
apparently, had no title at all, and every 
man dwelt in the Valley of the Shadow of 
Death. Lo Bengula was probably rather 
above than below the ethical standard of 
the average African chief, but the follow- 
ing passage does not inspire one with much 
regret that he no longer reigns at Bulawayo : 

" Only one old tree marks the spot where the 
long used to sit administering justice to his 
subjects. A large part of this justice con- 
sisted in decreeing death among his indiinas or 
prominent men who had excited his suspicions, 
or whose cattle he desired to appropriate. 
Sometimes he had them denounced — ' smelt 
out' they called it — by the witch-doctors as 
guilty of practising magic against him. Some- 
times he disposed with a pretext, and sent a 
messenger to the hut of the doomed man to 
tell him the Hng wanted him. The victim, 
often ignorant of his fate, walked in front, 
while the executioner, following close behind, 
•_«uddenly dealt him with the hnohkerry, or 
heavy-ended stick, one tremendous blow, which 
crushed his skuU and left him dead upon the 
groimd. Women, on the other hand, were 
strangled." 

The rule of the Chartered Company may 
be hard, and diamond-mining at Kimberley 
is not, perhaps, very agreeable to an ex- 
Zulu warrior, but they are, at least, better 
than the hideous possibilities involved in 
being a subject of Lo Bengula or Mosilikatze. 
It is a grim commentary on the happiness 
of savage life that the very name of the 
Matabili capital means "The Place of 
Slaughter." If the Bantu race has not 
much for which to be grateful to Mr. 
Rhodes, it at least owes him some thanks 
for deliverance from the terrors of the king, 
and the nameless horrors of the witch- 
doctor. 

Far below the Native Question in point of 
ultimate importance, but still in itself of 
considerable moment, come the relations of 



the British and the Dutch. And here, 
again, we have nothing but praise for the 
manner in which Mr. Bryce has discharged 
his task. It is not the pen of the Liberal 
politician, but of the philosophical student 
of men which writes : 

" The Boers .... fancied themselves entitled 
to add some measure of contempt to the dislike 
they already cherished to the English, and they 
have ever since shown themselves unpleasant 
neighbours. The English in South Africa, on 
their part, have continued to resent the con- 
cession of independence to the Transvaal, and 
especially the method in which it was con- 
ceded." 

Not even in dealing with the American 
Colonies has the British Government made 
such astounding mistakes as in South 
Africa. From the appointment of Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone, whose swart com- 
plexion made the Boers think that 
he had some tinge of the hated Kafir 
blood, to Majuba and Krugersdorp, the 
errors have been enough to wreck an empire. 
To these Mr. Bryce is studiously gentie — 
more gentle, we suspect, than he would 
have been if he were not so anxious to avoid 
the suspicion of mingling politics with 
history. Upon one point he attempts no 
sort of concealment. Sooner or later, and 
sooner rather than later, the English- 
speaking population of the Transvaal will 
become politically as well as economically 
supreme. He rightly refuses to commit 
himself to any statement as to whether this 
change will come peaceably or not, but that 
it will come somehow he has no hesitation 
in saying is inevitable. 

We wish that space would permit us to 
follow him through the many fascinating 
sidepaths into which when dealing with 
this and other South African subjects he 
frequently diverges. The thorny question 
of the suzerainty and the true construction 
of the Convention of London ; the light 
which the native custom of taking tokens as 
pledges of a promise throws upon primitive 
law ; the plagues — which he describes as 
consisting of white ants, locusts, horse- 
sickness, fever, and speculators in mining 
shares ; the strange pits of Inyanga, upon 
the purpose of which we would with great 
deference suggest that possibly Canon Atkin- 
son's investigation of the " British Village " 
at Danby might give some hint — any 
one of these contains the material for a long 
article in itself. We venture only, however, 
to conclude this necessarily abbreviated 
review of a really powerful book with one 
more quotation, partly because it is couched 
in noble words, but more because of the 
grasp and foresight which it displays : 

" While Britain continues to be a great naval 
power the maintenance of her connexion with 
South Africa will ensure the external peace of 
that country, which, fortunately for herself, 
lies far away in the Southern Seas, with no land 
frontiers which she is called on to defend. She 
may not grow to be herself as populous and as 
powerful a state as will be the Canadian or 
the Australian confederations of the future, for 
her climatic conditions do not promise so large 
an increase of the white race ; but her people 
may, if she can deal wisely with the problems 
which the existence of her coloured population 
raises, become a happy and prosperous nation. 
They are exempt from some of the dangers 



which thi-eaten the industrial communities of 
Europe and North America. The land they 
dwell in is favoured by Nature, and inspires a 
deep love in its children. The stock they 
spring from is strong and sound ; and they 
have carried with them to their new home the 
best traditions of Teutonic freedom and self- 
government." 



CRITICISM FROM A DISTANCE. 

Literary Statesmen and Others : Essays on 
Men Seen from a Distance. By Norman 
Hapgood. (Chicago and New York : 
Herbert S. Stone & Co.) 

Mr. Norman Hapgood is a young 
American critic, already known in 
country by some contributions to 
Contemporary Review, equally remarkabli 
for independence of thought and epigram- 
matic brilliancy of expression. These are 
reprinted in the present volume, together 
with various other papers, all marked by 
the same high standard of literary excel- 
lence. Mr. Hapgood has carefully trained 
himself for the work of appreciation ; and 
his remarks on American criticism may, 
perhaps, be read as partly introspective. 
For instance, when he points to the special 
study of French literature as characteristic 
of contemporary American and English 
critics, enumerating various advantages 
derived therefrom, we can easily believe 
that such training was an important element 
in the process by which his own mind 
was formed. " Sentimental rhetoric and 
heavy truism," he observes, " are killed 
by it." On the positive side it gives 
"lucidity and prudence " ; while as a draw- 
back it "instigates the attempt to assimilate 
qualities which seldom enter organically 
into superior English style, such as the 
studied emphasis of the epithet and the 
manner of intellectual sprightliness " (p. 1 66) . 
The constraint and clumsiness of this last 
phrase indicate another danger against which 
the author and his school would do well to 
stand more on their guard, and which a niore 
assiduous study of French models might 
help them to correct. Mr. Hapgood has at 
any rate an appreciation of style as such, of 
literary technique, which is rare enough in 
England, while, to judge by what he tells 
us, it is actively discouraged in America. 
In letters, as in politics, the democratic 
spirit resents an assumption of superiority. 
" Expert handling of what we all feel capa- 
ble of handling bores us, and even insults 
us" (p. 136). One can imagine the American 
Philistine finding himself, if not exactly 
bored or insulted, at least painfully bewild- 
ered by the three papers on literary states- 
men that give a title to this collection. Even 
a French reader of more than average culti- 
vation might feel disappointed at hearing so 
much more about the manner than about 
the matter of Lord Rosebery, Mr. John 
Morley, and Mr. Arthur Balfour. Let us 
at once add that this exceptionally trained 
American critic, although an expert in style, 
is really most interested in the psychology 
of his subjects, and that he values the 
most serious literary qualities as an index 
of qualities which are more than merely 



Jan. 15, 1898. 



THE ACADEMY. 



53 



literary ; while conversely he finds in the 
absence of such qualities a key to the 
limitations of purely literary excellence. 
Thus, according to him, what Lord Eose- 
bery lacks is 

" as necessary to a philosopher or a poet as it 
is to a man of action. . . . There is a want of 
unity, of strong single feeling, of purpose. 
There is honesty, frankness, generosity ; there 
are convictions ; but there is no single unifying 
conviction or conception, no faith or passion or 
need of accompUshment. So it is that the 
more serious the subject, the farther removed 
from the spectacular intellectual world, the 
nesvrer to a reality demanding action, the less 
adequate is Lord Eosebery in speaking or 
writing " (pp. 88-9). 

"Whether strictly applicable to the late 
Prime Minister or not, his critic has here 
got hold of a most valuable and far-reach- 
ing principle. 

In the opinion of our observer from a 
distance, Mr. Arthur Balfour is, on the 
whole, a failure in literature and philosophy ; 
but besides intellectual power he has sin- 
cerity and sympathy ; he has succeeded 
in practical life by a thorough scepticism 
combined with thorough earnestness (p. 64). 
Is not this working what Mill called the 
inverse deductive method a little hard? 
One cannot help suspecting that had " the 
picturesque young leader " failed, or, what 
is unhappily stiU on the cards, should he fail 
after all, Mr. Hapgood would be equally 
ready with a psychological explanation 
after the fact. Mr. Hapgood is very severe 
on Mr. Balfour's style, finding it even un- 
grammatical. No examples are given ; and 
it is a little odd that the same censor 
should apply such epithets as "faultless" 
and " impeccable " to Lord Eosebery's 
prose, which certainly has not the elemen- 
tary merit of perfect syntax. 

the paper on Mr. John Morley is a 
-necimon of what our critic can do — and he 
.11 do a good deal — in the way of detrac- 
..on. He has pointed out many blots in the 
pages of a perhaps overpraised writer ; but 
the total impression left is one of unjustifi- 
able violence. For apart from the high 
intellectual and moral qualities which re- 
I ceive a rather grudging recognition, Mr. 
Morley has literary merits not less deserving 
of praise than Lord Eosebery's, above all 
the power to coin such barbed phrases as 
■sombre acquiescence," "shrill levity," 
" end it or mend it," and of these no 
account has been taken. "We note, also, in 
the analysis of Mr. Morley's intellectual 
uliaracter a complete lack of the historical 
method, without which it can never be 
understood, to such an extent have the 
studies and opinions of this literary states- 
man been determined by the lead of ante- 
j cedent thinkers, more especially Comte, 
I MiU, and Buckle. 

Like other young critics, Mr. Hapgood 

•aids it easier or more exciting to blame 

than to praise. But the "prudence" as 

,\vell as the "respect for expert opinion" 

[supposed to be acquired by the study of 

French models might have suggested that 

^tondhal was not a safe object for kittenish 

ittacks. That great master, we are told, 

■ is little read in France, and scarcely at all 

elsewhere." "The solution of his doubt 



whether he would not by 1930 have sunk 
again into oblivion seems now at least as 
likely as it was then [in 1830] to be an 
affirmative" (pp. 69, 70)— a sentence the 
extreme clumsiness of which offers one more 
proof of the ill-luck that attends mere 
talent when it falls foul of immortal genius. 
He who, apart from all psychology, apart 
from all intellectual interests, has experi- 
enced in himself as a simple reader seeking 
only for amusement the overwhelming and 
inexhaustible charm of Le Rouge et le JSfoir, 
will not let his enjoyment be disturbed by 
the disclosure of any foibles in the life 
of its creator; he who has failed to 
experience that delight may seek elsewhere 
for sesthetic objects better suited to his 
somewhat limited sensibility; but let him 
not dream that he can analyse away the 
ultimate facts of taste. Mr. Hapgood 
himself, after quoting some unfavourable 
judgments passed by his countryman, Mr. 
Kenyon Cox, on the "Assumption" and the 
" Presentation," dryly observes : " That may 
be true, but it may well be said that Titian 
is not adequately accounted for " (pp. 106-7). 
Nor has he himself adequately accounted for 
Stendhal. 

In Mr. Henry James, on the other hand, 
he has a subject exactly commensurate with 
his means — a phrase that must not be taken 
as intended to emphasise the limitations 
either of the novelist or of his critic. Both 
have the delicacy of touch, the subtlety of 
discrimination, the finely modulated expres- 
sion which we have learned to regard as 
characteristic of the American intellect in its 
present phase of elaboration. Every reader 
of Mr. Henry James will recognise "the 
unusual shadings given to words, the compli- 
cated and facile syntax, the broken sentences 
in dialogue that suggest a shrug ... the 
irrelevant parentheses, the completions that 
are so close to repetitions" ; as weU as 
" the habit of pricking a thought here with 
delicacy, then there, so near that sometimes 
here and there seem like one point" (p. 193), 
although few, or none, could have conveyed 
their impressions with equal felicity. But 
not every reader will have felt for himself 
before it was pointed out the false note 
struck when, in " The Tragic Muse," Julia 
takes Dick's head in her hands and kisses 
it. StiU less could he picturesquely formu- 
late his discomfort by observing that "the 
airy world so parallel to the real world, so 
representative of it, is shattered when such 
material is forced into it" (p. 202). 

Such quotations might be multiplied ad 
libitum. But enough has been said to show 
that in Mr. Hapgood we have a critic who 
may be wilful, but who is never weak. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



Geological PanLicATioxs. (Government 
Office, Washington.) We have received five 
huge volumes, from the United States Govern- 
ment Printing Office at Washington, dealing 
with the geology of the States. Two of the 
volumes are devoted to the Seventeenth 
Annual Eeport of the United States Ge- 
oloo'ical Society to the Secretary of the In- 
terior, 1895-96. The other four belong to a 
series' of important "Monographs" which 
is in course of being presented by the same 
society. 



A Mediaval Garland. By Mme. James 
Darmestoter. Translated by May Tom- 
linson. (Lawrence & Bullen.) 

THIS is a dainty collection of old-world 
stories, gathered with Mme. Darme- 
steter's unerring art from that " garden of 
romance," the Middle Ages. Some of them 
are touched with jewelled colour, like minia - 
tures on the borders of a book of hours ; 
others, and these the majority, have the 
delicately faded hues of once bnlliant gar- 
ments. If one may vary the metaphor, 
they are plaintive melodies, recording the 
quaint thin tones of an old spinet; and 
this dreamy aloofness of manner suits well 
their themes of joyous knights, fair ladies, 
and massive stone castles, long since crumbled 
into dust. 

"Flowers found between the leaves of 
old books," Mme. Darmesteter calls them. 
Placed there, rather than found there, one 
thinks, for Mme. Darmesteter has let her 
imagination play at will' around her trou- 
vailles, and the pages of monkish chroniclers 
of France or Italy blossom into fresh life at 
her bidding. Of her dozen tales, liking 
them all, we like best "Philip the Cat," with 
its memories of Joan of Arc, "The Countess 
of Dammartin," and " The Wife of Ludovic 
the Moor." This last is really a gem. 
Ludovic is Duke Ludovic of Milan, and his 
wife the Duchess Beatrice, she who had her 
husband's nephew assassinated for his 
popularity, and invoked the invasion of 
Italy by the French. The narrator had 
imagined her " some young and lovely Lady 
Macbeth of Lombardy," or "the exquisite 
and sinister type of Luini's daughter of 
Herodias." Then she visited the tomb of 
the Duchess in the Certosa of Pavia. 

" She is a delicious child, who, even in sleep, 
is full of checked vivacity. Her long hair 
falls in disordered curls, spread over the pillow 
and on her lovely shoulders, and tiny Utile 
crisp curls hide her round, infantine forehead. 
She has an admirable expression of candour— 
the candour of a child. She is graceful, with 
that irresistible grace which defies laws. Her 
eyebrows are scarcely marked, but her closed 
eyeUds, curved Uke the petals of a thick white 
flower, are richly fringed. She has the small 
nose of a child, and this gives her a pathetic 
naivete. Her cheeks, also, are rounder than 
those of a grown-up woman. The H9rodi*^' 
daughter of Luiui would find them enturely 
wanting in distinction ; I find them charming. 
. . . But the face is nothing. It is the 
attitude. It is that childish figiure, so small 
and so full of life, so soft, so deUcately supple 
and rounded beneath the sumptuous court-gown 
of silk and embroidery, with its long traon 
artisticaUy arranged not to hide or impede the 
feet— those little feet which only ceased dancing 
four hours before death, and seem still so ready 
for the awakening." 

Miss May Tomlinson has performed the 
translator's task admirably, catching the 
exact fragrance of the original, its rich sub- 
dued beauty and the sentiment of "old, 
unhappy far-ofi things " that clings around 
it. Eeading, you hardly recognise that it is 
a translation you read. And this is the 
highest praise. 



54 



THE 1ACADEMY. 



[Jajt. 15, 1898. 



Etching, Engraving, and the Other Methods of 
Printing Pictures. By Hans W. Singer 
and William Strang. (Kegan Paul 
&Co.) 

This treatise is addressed less to artists, 
producers of fine prints, than to collectors 
of these, who are often sorely puzzled to 
distinguish between an etching and an 
engraving, and are occasionally even at the 
mercy of a debased photographic rejiro- 
duction. Many such difficidties should 
vanish after a perusal of Messrs. Singer and 
Strang's luminous treatment of the subject. 
They divide it into the three heads of relief, 
intaglio, and plane prints, and imder each 
they give a clear and business-like account 
of the various processes employed and of 
the characteristic effects which can be ob- 
tained. They have abundant resources alike 
of book-learning and of practical experience, 
and are not without a considerable gift of 
lucid and intelligible exposition. Mr. Strang 
is himself, of course, one of the most dis- 
tinguished of our younger etchers, of the 
school of Prof. Legros, and he enriches 
the volume with a dozen experiments of his 
own in the principal methods described. 
These are particularly interesting, as show- 
ing the way in which a marked artistic 
individuality adapts itself to varying 
conditions ; and several of them, notably 
the example of etching proper, are 
intrinsically beautifid plates. In a chapter 
on the appreciation and enjoyment of 
prints, the authors allow themselves a 
digression upon the vexed topic of aesthetic 
theory. Eejecting the formulse alike of 
idealism and realism, of decoration and of 
physico-psychology, they broach an hypo- 
thesis that art is essentially " the manifesta- 
tion of human will exercised over nature at 
large" : 

" When a picture presents us some features 
of nature, clearly recognisable as buch, but 
upon which some one hiuuan intellect has 
impressed its stamp, then it is a work of art, 
and I belies e that the simultaneous intertwined 
presentation of the two great factors of the 
world — mind and matter — is what creates in us 
the distinctive art enjoyment." 

This doctrine has at least the advantage 
over many of its rivals, that it is a catholic 
one, and the essay in which it is elaborated 
is remarkably stimulating and suggestive 
The concluding chapters of the book give 
a contemptuous attention to the various 
mechanical processes by which the methods 
of true engraving are respectively mimicked. 
These are accurately described and tm- 
hesitatingly condemned : 

"Anybody who claims that a photograph 
or a photograviue gives him any artistic 
pleasure is his own dupe. It may help to 
recall the pleasure that he experienced once 
upon a time in face of the original painting, 
and thus cause him to rehearse it mentally, but 
ihat is all." 

Surely this is too sweeping. A photo- 
graph loses much, yet it continues to 
afford an artistic pleasure, quite apart from 
association or merely literary interest. But 
with the general tendency of the authors' 
polemic against the devastation of black 
and white art by photography we need 



Strong Men and True. By Morley Eoberts. 
(Downey & Co.) 

SuEELY a somewhat misleading title for 
Mr. Morley Eoberts's vi\'id studies of the 
manners and customs of colonial man. 
"Strong" they are, these drovers and 
miners, but "true" only in a sense which 
perhaps Polonius might have understood, 
but which is certainly compatible with a 
very alert vigUance for any opportunity to 
" do " their neighbours. Mr. Eoberts's 
background is generally some American 
mining-camj) or bit of Australian bush, 
and against this the " strong " man is 
sketched with rough fidelity in a few 
bold strokes. Among the rest the Arrow- 
maker pleases us the most, because he was 
wholly uncivilised, and not partly civilised 
or " decivilised." He was a noted artist in 
warlike implements, but found his handi- 
work one day distanced by a rival manipu- 
lator of the flint; determined to learn the 
secret of the superior workmanship, he crept 
to the hostile camp and waited. 

" On the third day of his long waiting he 
saw a tall young Ast come ambling towards 
the little flinty hiU, and The Dog's heart beat 
fiercely as the slaver gathered on his thin lips. 
' Was this the arrow-maker ? It could not be 
so young a man,' he thought. But in a little 
while his little eyes glittered and his corded 
muscles ridged themselves heavily, for this Ast 
was chipping flint on the hillock, working 
dexterously. The Dog watched and learnt 
something. 

As he stayed and waited, he doubted whether 
he should slay this Ast with his own arrow or 
not. At last he plucked out the sharpest and 
smoothest of the three, and in a moment it 
was buried in the Ast's heart. 

# # * * 

' It was good enough,' said The Dog." 

Mr. Morley Eoberts is evidently familiar 
with his characters and their surroundings, 
and his command of their habitual modes 
of expression is masterly. They do not 
speak European English when slang is 
available, and the literary as well as the 
ethical code of the drinking saloon prevails. 

A Benedictine Martyr in England. By Dom 
Bede Camm, O.S.B. (Bliss, Sands & Co.) 



John Eobeets is looked upon with reverence 
by the Benedictines as the first of their 
order who, after the suppression of the 
monasteries, " attacked the gate of heU, 
and provoked the prince of darkness in his 
usurped kingdom " — that is to say, in less 
flowery language, preached Catholicism in 
Protestant England. Of Welsh descent 
and Oxford training, he was converted 
when on a visit to Paris, and devoted his 
life to the propagation of his faith in his 
own country. After spending some years 
in preparation for his task at VaUadolid 
and ComposteUa, he began a series of 
missionary visits to England in 1603. These 
were brief, because he was time after time 
taken and banished from the country. At 
last the patience of the Government was 
exhausted. Father Eoberts was arrested 
in the very act of saying mass. He 

. ^ ^ ^ , refused to take the Oath of Allegiance, and 

harlly say we heartily agree. A careful suffered death under the law of treason, 
bibliography completes the book. > Dom Camm has taken infinite pains to 



disinter the minutest details of his hero's 
biography. His book should be of service 
to scholars, alike for its learning and for its- 
clear expression of the Catholic view with 
regard to the Jacobean executions. Dom 
Camm does not fear polemic ; he courts it 
by his display of aU the somewhat ridiculous 
zeal of the convert. For poor Archbishop 
Abbot he has a particular distaste, painting 
him as a "sour fanatic" inspired by "fana- 
tical fury" and a "bloodthirsty hatred" 
to Catholics. The following passages giv& 
evidence of a very extraordinary condition 
of intellect. It would seem that Dom 
Eoberts and other Catholics executed imder 
Elizabeth and James have become thft 
objects of an unofficial cultus, and that 
Pope Leo XIII. was moved to take the 
first steps towards their formal beatification r 

" More than ten years have elapsed since 
then, but no one who knows anything of the 
mature and dehberate care by which the Holy 
See, in its wisdom, conducts such examinations 
will wonder that the cause of our martyrs ha» 
not meanwhile made many steps further towards, 
the longed-for goal." 

This does not seem to be meant for irony ; 
and Dom Camm adds : 

" Meanwhile, we should add that those who- 
privately invoke the martyrs to obtain any 
great grace or miracle should not turn to one 
or another of that glorious band, but should 
invoke them all; so that, if the miracle be 
granted, it may serve for the cause of the 
beatification of all. For, in such cases as this, 
it is impossible to prove miracles for each 
member of so great a band of martyrs." 

But, let alone the ethics of this proceeding, 

does Dom Camm really suppose that the 

Pope will be imable to determine which of 

! the candidates it was that actually answered 

to this general invocation ? 

" Hajtobook to Christian and Ecclesias- 
tical EosiE."— Part n. : The Liturgy in 
Rome. By H. M. and M. A. E. T. 
(A. & C. Black.) 

This should be a most valuable book to 
tourists abroad, who generally flock to 
ecclesiastical functions, especially at Eome 
and in Holy Week, with the very vaguest 
idea as to what precisely it is that they are 
seeing. The author prints the Ordinary and 
Canon of the Mass, with notes and an 
English translation, and adds chapters on the 



nature of the liturgical vestments and orna- 
ments, the chief services and ceremonies, 
the festivals, and in especial the Good 
Friday and Easter functions. Appendices 
contain the Eoman Calendar and a biblio- 
graphy. The information given is weU. 
aiTanged and clearly put, and good use 
has been made of various trustworthy 
authorities, such as the Abbe Duchesne's- 
Origines du Culte Chretien. Some of the 
historical statements, however, are open to 
criticism. Thus the account of tropes does 
not seem to owe much to Gautier's masterly 
researches into the subject. To say that the 
Easter sejiidchre may have had its origin m 
one of the "Miracle Plays" is a curious 
inversion of the true order of things, and 
the "pascal," so common in English church 
accounts and inventories, is surely not ' an 
elaborate detached stone sepulchre," but a 
candlestick for the cereus, or Paschal candle. 



SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT 



I 



TO 



THE ACADEMY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1898. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S NEW BOOKS. 



TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE. 

Adventure in the Far Bast. The Crisis in China. Second Edition in the Press. 

FROM TONKIN TO INDIA. 

By PRtNCE HENRI OP ORLEANS. Translated by HAMLEY BENT. M.A. With 
over lOt.) Illustrations and a Map. Crown 4to, gilt top, 258. The crisis in China lends 
importance to the travels of Prince Henri in 1895 from China to the valley of the 
Bramaputra, which covered a distance of 2,100 miles, of which 1,600 was through 
absolutely unexplored country. No fewer than seventeen ranges of moimtains were 
crossed at altitudes of from 11,000 to 13.000 feet. The journey was made memorable by 
the discovery of the sources of the Irrawaddy. To the physical difficulties of the 
journey were added dangers from the attacks of savage tribes. The book deals with 
many of the political problems of the East, and it will be found a most important 
contribution to the literature of adventure and discovery, 
"A welcome contribution to our knowledge. The narrative is full and interestiog, and the appendices 
gire the work a suhetantial value.— 7*/^ Timet. 

The story is instruotiTe and fascinating, and will certainly make one of the books of 1898. Tlie book 
attracts by its delightful print and fine illustrations. A nearly model book of travel."— Pnii Afall Gazette. 
I " China is the country of the hour. All eyes ar.' turned towards her, and Messrs- Methuea have oppoi* 
j tunely selected the moment to launch Prince Henri's work."— Liwrpool Daily Post. 
I " An eutert;uniug record of pluck and travel in important regions."— Aiiiy Chronicle. 

"The illustrations are atlmirable and quite beyond praise."— (Viewyoir Herald. 
I "The PriQce's travels are of real importance.. ..his services to geography have been considerable. The 

Tolame is beautifully illustrated."- ,4tt»rkeKn». 
I " The lYince's story is charmingly told, and presented with an attractiveness which will make it, in more 
I than one sense, an outstanding book of the season."- iBirmmff/tam Po»t. 
\ "The IxKtk describesa notable feat."— Daily Matl. 

" .Vn attractive lKx>k which will prove of considerable interest and no little value. A narrative of a remirk- 
' able journey."— Literature, 

THE NIGER SOURCES. By Colonel J. Trotter, R.A. With a 

Map and Ulustrfttions. Crown 8vo, 5s. A book which at the present time should be 
of considerable interest, being an account of a Commission appointed for Frontier 
Delimitation. [ Ready. 

ADVENTURE and EXPLORATION in AFRICA. By Major 

A. ST. H. GIBBONS, F.R.G.S. With 8 Full-Page Illustrations by C. Whymper, 25 
Photographs, and Map. Demy Svo, 16s. An account of Travel, Adveature, and Big- 
Game Shooting among the Maroise and contiguous tribes, with a description of their 
Customs, Characteristics, and History. IJan. 20. 

THREE YEARS in SAVAGE AFRICA. By Lionel Decle. With 

an Introdaction by H. M. STANLEY, II.P. With 100 Illustrations and 6 Maps. Demy 
8vo, 31s. Few Europeans have had the same opportunity of studying the barbarous 
parts of Africa as Mr. Decle. Starting from the Cape, he visited in succession 
Bechuanalaud, the Zambesi, Matabeloland and Mashonaland, the Portuguese settlement 
on the Zambesi, Xyasaland, Ujiji, the headquarters of the Arabs, German East Africa, 
Uganda (where he saw fighting in company with the late Major " Roddy" Owen), and 
British East Africa. In his book he relates his experiences, his minute obser\-ations of 
native habits and customs, and his views as to the work done in Africa by the various 
European Governments whose operations he was able to study. The whole journey 
extended over 7,000 miles, and occupied exactly three years. [Feb. 6, 

HISTORY AND BIOQRAPHY. 

RELIGION and CONSCIENCE in ANCIENT EGYPT. By W. M. 

FLINDERS PETRIE, D.C.L.,L1,.D. Fully lUustrated. Crown 8vo, 2b. 8d. [Jan. 20. 

A HISTORY of the GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY, 1845-9S. 

By C. H. GRINLING. With Maps and Illustrations. Demy 8vo, IDs. 6d. [R6. 1. 

ANARCHISM. By E. V. Kenker. Demy 870, 7s. 6d. [Feb. 1. 

THOMAS CRANMER. By A. J. Mason, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

With Portrait. Crown 8vo, 33. Od. Leaders of Religion, [Feb. 1. 

THE LIFE of ERNEST RENAN. By Madame Darmesteter. 

With Portrait. Second Edition in the Press. Crown 8vo, 68. 

" A iwlished gem of biography, superior in its kind to any attempt that has been made of recent years 
iti England. ^Madame Daimefateier has indeed written for English readers' ITieLife of Ernest Kenan.'" 

Atheniwum. 
" A fascinating biographical and critical study, and an admirably finished work of literary art." 

Scotsman. 
" Interpenetrated with the dignity and charm, the mild, bright, classical gr»ce of form and treatment 
that Reuau himself so loveil ; aLU it fulfils to the utteimost the delicate and diflicult aihievement it sets 
uut to accomplish."— ..-I cademi/, 

THEOLOGY. 

TBE CHTJBCHMAN'S LIBHART. Edited by J. H. Burn, B.D. 

A series of books hy competent scholars on Church History, Institutions, and Doctrine, 
for the use of clerical and lay readers. 

THE BEGINNINGS of ENGLISH CHRISTIANITY. By W. E. 

, COLLINS, M.A. , Professor of Ecclesiastical History at King's College, London. With 
. Map. Crown Svo, 3.s. 6d. [Ready. 

SOME NEW TESTAMENT PROBLEMS. By Arthur Wright, 

Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Cambridge. Crown Svo, 68. 
THE LIBBABY OF DEVOTION. 

I MESSRS. MSTHUEN have arranged to publish mider the above title a number of the 
I older masterpieces of devotional literature. It is their intention to entrust each volume of 
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iBditions of the ancient classics. 

Mr. Laurence Housman has designed a Title-page and a Cover Design, Pott Svo, 23. 
leather, as. 

THE CONFESSIONS of ST. AUGUSTINE. Newly Translated, 

I with an Introduction and Notes, by C. BIGG, D.D., late Student of Christ Church. 

ITHE CHRISTIAN YEAR. By John Keble. With Introduction 

and Notes, l)y WALTER LOCK, D.D., Warden of Keble College, Ireland Professor at 
I Oxford. 

^ BOOK of DEVOTIONS. Edited by J. W. Stanbridge, M.A., 

Eecior of Sainton, Canon of York, and sometime Fellow of St. John's College. Oxford. 



GENERAL LITERATURE. 

WORKHOUSES and PAUPERISM. By Louisa Twining. Crown 

8vo, 2b. ed. [_Social Question Series. 

EDUCATIONAL. 
THE ODES and EPODES of HORACE. Translated by A. D. 

GODLEY, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Crown Svo, 2s. 

[Classical Translations. 

PASSAGES for UNSEEN TRANSLATION- By E. C- Marchant, 

M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge : and A. M. COOK, M.A., late Scholar o£ 
Wadham College, Oxford, Assistant Masters at St. Paul's School. Crown Svo, Ss. 8d. 

EASY LATIN EXERCISES on the SYNTAX of the SHORTER 

and REVISED LATIN PRIMER. By A. M. M. 8TEDMAN, M.A. With Vocabulary. 
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FICTION. 

TRAITS and CONFIDENCES. By the Hon. Emily Lawless, 

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written."— i)ai^y Chronicle, 

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" Irish Idylls." Crown Svo, 6s. 

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themes combine to Uft her work far above the average level of contemporary fiction." 

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BYEWAYS. By Robert Hichens, Author of ''Flames," &c 

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A PASSIONATE PILGRIM. By Percy White. Crown 8to, 6s. 

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BLADYS. By S. Baring-Gould- Illustrated by F- H. Townsend. 

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A. SELECTIOIsr FR03>^ 

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A NEW AND THOROUGHLY REVISED EDITION OF 

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I. A SMALLER HISTORY of ENGLAND: from the Earliest Times to 1887. Eevised by Richard Lodge, Professor 

of Modem History in the University of Glasgow, formerly Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. With 1 Coloured Maps, 11 Plans, and 68 Woodcuts. 

n. A SMALLER HISTORY of GREECE : from the Earliest Times to the Eoman Conquest. Revised by G. E. Mabindin, 

M.A., someiime Assistant Master at Eton College. With 2 Coloured Maps, 12 Plans, and 6 Illustrations. Crown 8to. 

TTT A SMALLER HISTORY of ROME : from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire. Revised by A. H. J. 

GREENIDGE, M.A., Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford. With Coloured Map, 6 Plans, and 66 Illustrations, many from photographs of Italy at the present day. 

AN ENTIRELY NEW BOOK ON A NEW PLAN. 

FRENCH STUMBLING-BLOCKS and ENGLISH STEPPING-STONES. By Francis Tarveb, M.A., 

late Senior French Master at Eton College. Fcap. 8vo, 28. 6d. 
Mr. Francis Tarver's skill as a teacher of French to Englishmen is well known, llis thorough kaowledqe of both languages, and *w thirty years' experience as a master at 
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THE REALM of NATURE: a Manual of Physiography. By Dr. Hugh Robert Mill, Librarian 

to the Royal Geographical Society. With 19 Coloured Maps and 08 Illustrations. (390 pp.) 8s. 

TRANSLATION at SIGHT ; or, Aids to Facility in the Translation of Latin. Passages of Graduated 

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" The passages— some three hundred and fifty in number— are remarkably well gradaated from the very simplest of simple sentences up to chapters from livy and Tacitas, and 
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*' Such a book as this makes one wish that it were possible to have one's schooldays ^^mj'*— Birmingham Post. 

THE ELEMENTS of ETHICS. By John H. Mdiehead, Balliol College, Oxford, Lecturer on Moral 

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THE STORY of the PERSIAN WARS as TOLD by HERODOTUS. In English. Selected. 

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SPECIMENS of ENGLISH LITERATURE. Companion to the foregoing. By T. B. Shaw. 5s. 
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f-k.,ii.'7*in*'"'\?^'^°"5.'''.'"®'^'''^'.'''®P™i.P*''J''°R,°'.".S'""''''"''°'*'"*'i"'''ooneotthemostintima^^^ certainly not the least eminent, of the surviving frieaU of 3ir 

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JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



Jan. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



57 



i ^trurati0nal Su^pltmcnt. 

i SATURDAY: JANUARY 16, \^^8. 



SCHOOL BOOKS IN THE 
SCHOOL. 



INTEEVIEW WITH THE HEAD 
MASTER OF HAEEOW. 

WHEN (writes a representative of the 
AcujEire) I was asked to obtain 
the views of a head master upon current 
educational literature I applied to Dr. 
J. E. C. "Welldon, the Head Master of 
Harrow School. Dr. Welldon kindly 
offered to submit to some questioning 
on the large and important subject of 
school books. It was not on the classic 
height of Harrow, and in the venerable 
school buildings, that I found the head 
master to whose care six hundred boys are 
committed. Instead, I journeyed to the quaint 
little town of Southwold, on the Suffolk 
coast. There I received a welcome from 
Dr. WeUdon that made my task easy from 
the moment of my arrival. Dr. WeUdon gave 
me carte blanche to ask him questions. Facing 
me, the waves, brown and fretful, moaned 
on the pebbles only fifty yards off ; and 
while I framed a question, or listened to 
Dr. Welldon's animated replies, the horizon 
woidd be broken by a passing ketch under 
half-sail, or the vague and distant form of a 
coasting steamer. I ought, perhaps, to 
explain that I do not profess to reproduce 
Dr. Welldon's precise words throughout 
this article. I reproduce his sentiments 
exactly, and his words as nearly exactly as 
possible. 

' " What shaU I teU you first ? " said Dr. 
'WeUdon. 

"WiU you give me," I repUed, "some 
'idea of the manner in which school books 
: find their way from the London publishers 
to the bo3-s' desks at Harrow." 

" Certainly. You will understand that 
jnew school books are sent to me in great 
(numbers. I am assisted, therefore, by a 
I Book Committee, consisting of a few of the 
Harrow mastei-s, who carefuUy examine the 
I books and report upon them to me — or 
i rather to the regularly-held masters' meet- 
, ings over which I preside." 
! " I imderstand. Then you closely foUow 
I in this way the developments of educational 
publishing? " 

" Yes. It is our endeavour to learn what 
improvements are introduced, and to discover 
the best book on any given subject." 
I " Do you believe in making frequent 
changes in school books ? " 

"Provided such changes are fuUy justified 
■by an examination of the merits of new 
; books — I do. Of course, change for change's 
I sake is a mistake. But I am of opinion 
that fickleness in tlie choice of school books 
' is not a common fault with schoolmasters. 
The tendency is the other way. I should 
I rather complain that schoolmasters have a 
tendency to go on using books with which 
they are familiar after better ones have 



become available. It is a very natural ten- 
dency, but it can be indulged too far." 

" And, as a matter of fact, do you at 
Harrow make frequent changes of old 
school books for new ? " 

'' Oh, yes. There are books, of course, 
which remain in use for very long periods. 
The Latin PubUc Schools Primer, for in- 
stance, which was compiled by Dr. 
Kennedy at the request of the head masters 
of English public schools, was in use for 
a great many years. It has been revised, 
but never superseded. There was a kind of 
agreement, expUcit at first, but now I think 
only tacit, that this book should remain in 
use, thus preserving uniformity in the teach- 
ing of Latin in the schools. Other grammars 
and, of course, lexicons, &c., are given long 
leases. But setting aside these, we have 
no sujierstitions or prejudices. Our aim is 
to secure the best book of its kind." 

" Do you, as one means of obtaining the 
best book, have primers speciaUy compiled 
for use at Harrow ? " 

" No ! " said Dr. WeUdon, with emphasis. 
" I have never been able to see advantage 
in that system." 

" You prefer to come into the open 
market, and look round, and select the book 
that is nearest to your ideal ? " 

"I do. It is best that books should 
stand upon their own merits. The book 
which survives in the keenest competition 
is generaUy the best book." 

" But now. Dr. WeUdon, may I put 
another aspect of the enormous production 
of new school books before you ? You wiU 
admit, I think, that it is enormous — not to 
say bewildering ? " 

Dr. WeUdon smiled his complete assent. 

"Would you say that the actual progress 
made toward the production of the ideal set 
of school books for a Harrow or any other 
schoolboy is at aU to be gauged by this 
extraordinary activity in multiplying primers 
and re- editing classics term after term, and 
year after year? " 

" Oh, dear, no. The progress is very 
small. More than half the new school books 
are probably produced for the benefit of the 
authors or editors, not of the boys." 

" I should not have dared to suggest that 
to you, but I have always imagined so." 

" It is not difficult for a scholar to f)roduce 
an edition of a classical author. Schools 
are many ; school books seU readUj- ; and if 
such an edition makes its way even into a 
limited number of schools, it soon brings a 
fair remuneration both to editor and to 
publisher. It does not foUow that the 
edition is in any marked degree superior to 
others which preceded it or which will f oUow 
it. In fact, scholastic education would suffer 
no loss if the editing of classical books were 
now suspended for twenty years." 

" You mean that textual criticism and 
commentary — so far as they can be useful 
in classical school books — have now reached 
their limits?" 

' ' Yes, I mean that. As regards texts there 
is not likely to be any progress worth con- 
sidering. Of course, commentary has greatlj- 
widened its scope since the days of the 
' pure Fcholars ' ; geographical and archro- 
ological contributions to the elucidation of 
classical authors have poured in. But I 



think that we have got a surfeit of com- 
mentary ; in short, boys have now got aU 
they want, and perhaps more than is good 
for them. I mean the new school books 
give too much help. They do not leave 
enough for the boys' own research. The 
modern boy hardly knows what difficulty 
is — what with elaborate notes, vocabularies, 
and tran.slations of difficult phrases. The 
system of making things easy is being 
pushed to the extreme. The compilers of 
school books are forgetting that knowledge 
is best retained when it is acquired by real 
effort." 

I now took the Uberty of turning the 
conversation upon the teaching of English 
literature. "Have you," I asked Dr. 
WeUdon, " any general criticism to make 
on the English classics as thej' are jiresented 
to schoolboys ? " 

"They are apt to be regarded too much 
as a medium for teaching grammar and ety- 
mology ; and there is not enough effort 
made to make boys feel the beaut}- of 
masterpieces of literature. At the same 
time, such efforts must rest with the 
schoolmaster using a classic, rather than 
with the editor who annotates it. In the 
teaching of English literature the personal 
element counts for almost everything." 

" You believe, then, Dr. Welldon, that it 
is possible to teach English Uterature to 
boys — I mean in the sense of inspiring them 
with a love of it ? " 

" Most certainly I do ; and I regard it as 
of the utmost importance to rouse in boys' 
minds the sense of literary beautj'. Nothing 
is more refining, more educating." 

" But is there not a danger of ' staleing ' 
fine passages of Uterature by jiresenting 
them, more or less as task work, to imma- 
ture minds? " 

"Yes, there is some danger; but where 
discretion is used in choosing the right 
books for boys, according to their age, 
I think no such mischief need ensue. 
Teachers, I admit, do not always sufficiently 
consider boys' ages in selecting English 
subjects. Milton and Shakespeare, for 
example, are not suited to young minds ; 
on the other hand, such a book as The 
Pikirini'a Progress, if it is not read in 
childhood, is never reaUy iinderstood and 
appreciated. Let me again insist on the 
importance of the personal element in the 
teaching of English literature. Men like 
Dean Farrar and Mr. Bosworth Smith — 
both Harrow masters — have shown a won- 
derful faculty for making boys appreciate 
good literature, and it is this faculty that 
counts — not books overloaded with intro- 
ductions and notes." 

" Do j-ou approve of repetitions as a 
means of implanting literary feeling?" 

"Oh, yes. When I went to Harrow 
I induced one of my colleagues to make a 
selection of simple and beautiful poems, such 
as appeal to boys ; and these have been in 
use ever since for repetitions. Too much 
care cannot be exercised in selecting pas- 
sages that shall charm boys, and leave an 
indelible impression of beaut}-. But the 
spirit of freedom must inform aU efforts to 
teach English literature. It is important 
that every large school shoidd have its 
Ubrary, and that this Ubrary should be a 



58 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



[Jan. 15, 1898. 



comfortable room to wliich the boys may 
retire imobserved, and take down books at 
their own wills. I attach the greatest im- 
portance to school libraries. Boys' private 
reading should be encouraged as far as 
possible." 

" Do you think that public school boys 
are interested in current literature ? " 

" Not in an effective way. You see, we 
have no writer who is taking the nation by 
storm. No writer is generating a powerful 
current of sympathy, as did Scott and 
Dickens. It requires such an influence in 
our midst to make current literature really 
a topic and a subject of thought among 
boys." 

"Tou have insisted. Dr. Welldon, on the 
need to awake in boys the sense of literary 
beauty. I believe. you have made special 
efforts at Harrow to awake their sense of 
artistic beauty, also, by reviving the teaching 
of drawing? " 

" Yes ; and I am glad to say that we now 
get remarkable results at Harrow. I must 
explain to you that every young boy at 
Harrow is compelled to study either draw- 
ing or singing. The compulsion, however, 
to study either ceases after a time ; and 
thus the music and drawing masters' chance 
of retaining their pupils is, in general, to 
arouse in them, during the compulsory 
period, a genuine love for one or the other 
of these studies." 

" And now. Dr. WeUdon, an old question 
in conclusion. Does the constant widening 
of the curriculum alarm you ? Do you find 
that thoroughness is giving place to variety ? ' ' 

" The two are certainly, in some sense, 
antagonistic ; there can be no denying that. 
Glxammatical accuracy, for instance, tends 
to suffer when much time is given to the 
development of the literary sense. It is a 
balance of gain and loss, and all we can do is 
to be watchful and see that the gain is 
greater than the loss. I ask myself at 
Harrow : How can I make the best of the 
boys as future citizens of the greatest 
empire of the world ? And I do not doubt 
that it is my duty to g^ve the widest, 
the most various, the most liberal teaching 
possible. Moreover, there are other ends to 
be kept in view than mere learning. It is 
the function of the public schools to teach 
public duty. Wherever possible, book- 
learning should be made the medium of 
inspiring this sentiment in English school- 
boys. I may mention that before leaving 
Harrow I gave the Harrow boys Mr. 
Fitchett's Bee As that Won the Empire as 
their holiday task." 

"Indeed! That is interesting. And will 
they be examined in it on their return ? " 

" Oh, yes." 

"You have a large Army class at Har- 
row ? " 

" Yes ; and we have recently started a 
Navy class. What is more, we have just 
passed a boy first into the Navy direct 
from Harrow School. He is the firstfruits 
of a new system, in which Mr. Goschen 
takes the liveliest interest — a system of 
training young boys for the Navy at our 
public schools." 

Time forbade further conversation; but 
as I rose to go, I launched yet another 
fjuestion in summary of all my others : 



" What broad tendency. Dr. Welldon, do 
you discover in education to-day ? " 

"I think the tendency should be freedom, 
variety, elasticity. I think a schoobnaster 
should try, within certain broad limits, to 
ascertain what a boy can do best and let 
him do it. No doubt, there must be a 
backbone of compulsory subjects in all 
education ; but the secret of educational 
success lies not so much in rigidity as in 
the sympathetic study of dispositions and 
abilities." 



EDUCATION FOR THE CIVIL SER- 
VICE OF INDIA. 

By a late Member of the Bengal Civil 
Service. 

As Charles Lamb used to say that his real 
works were to be found in the old India 
Oflice in Leadenhall-street, so might one 
say of Macaulay that his best and most 
enduring work (even beyond the History) 
is to be found in the present constitution of 
the British Government in India. It is to him 
that India owes her wonderful Penal Code, 
immatched for clearness, and so well suited 
to its purpose that the amendments which 
the experience of nearly forty years has 
shown to be necessary may almost be 
counted on one's fingers. How great and 
exceptional is this praise will be best known 
to those who have seen how the two other 
great Indian Codes — those of procedure — 
have been added to, modified, and recast 
within the same period. It is a common- 
place to say that most Englishmen know 
no more of their great dependency than 
Macaulay has told them in his essays on 
Olive and Warren Hastings — and it would 
be well if all knew even so much, for i^pace 
Matthew Arnold) there is g^eat political 
wisdom, not useless for the present time, 
to be found therein. Macaulay, too, had 
a great share in the reform, in 1833, of the 
East India Company, and it was mainly due 
to him that the close service was, in 1854, 
thrown open to competition, and the masterly 
report of him and his colleagues is the 
foundation of the system by which the 
administrators of India have been chosen 
from that day to this. And by general 
consent, of foreigners no less than of our- 
selves, no more able, loyal, and devoted 
service is to be found in the world now, or 
has been known in the past. 

The principles laid down in the famous 
minute must be sought there, but are also 
to be found in outline in the speech of 
June 23, 1853, which (with his nephew and 
biographer) we regret was by its author 
excluded from his collected speeches. The 
changes that have been from time to time 
made in the conditions under which Indian 
civilians enter on their career fall mainly 
under three heads : first and most im- 
portant, age of admission ; second, period 
and place of probation; and third, sub- 
jects of examination, marks assigned, and 
matters subsidiary thereto. Most important 
is the question of age, wliich is now again 
very nearly the same as that which was at 
first fixed, and ,whieh many of the best 



judges think is too high. In my opinion 
they are right. The age which the candidates 
selected at the final examination in 1897 had 
reached at the time of that examination 
ranged from 1Z\ to very nearly 25 years. 
This is too late for young men to enter the 
Indian Service, for reasons which I shall 
presently give, since there are other considera- 
tions which weigh against that physical 
maturity which prompted the change, made 
five years ago, from the low range of age 
which had been the rule for some ten years 
previous — and which was as much too low 
as the present is too high. As there 
is no danger of a return to that low 
standard, it wiU be enough to say here 
that the change was made at the urgent 
and repeated instances of the Indian Govern- 
ments, local and Imperial, it having been 
found that the mortality among the 
junior civilians, as among soldiers who 
went to India under twenty, was alarmingly 
great. The change made, however, was too 
sweeping. When the age of candidates was 
originally fixed (in 1854) the system of 
examination for public service was new, 
special training for the contests was un- 
loiown, and the advantages of the Indian 
Service were very much greater than now. 
Promotion was rapid, the average duration 
of service considerably less, and the pay 
(nominally not very different) was really, 
grade for grade, about double. All these 
things make the service much less attractive 
to the older men now proceeding to India, 
and they wiU feel the pressure of the 
changed conditions more as the years pass 
on, and they find that they cannot claim their 
pensions tiU they are nearly fifty years of 
age (say sixty in our own land), that their 
service will be mostly spent in comparatively 
subordinate positions, and that the pecuniary 
reward of zealous and self-sacrificing work 
is not very great. All this would, for 
obvious reasons, be much mitigated if the 
superior limit of age for admission were 
again fixed at twenty-one instead of twenty- 
three ; and supplementary to that, probably 
it would be an advantage to put the lower 
limit at " over eighteen " instead of " over 
nineteen." (Of course it would be unfair not 
to set in the balance for Indian service the 
increased advantages, in health, liberal leave 
rules and much more ; but no one interested 
is likely to overlook or moderate these.) 
Another thing that must be mentioned is, 
the first competition-waUahs went out to 
India at once, and served their probation in 
Calcutta, &c., after their period of service 
had beg^n. The present one year's proba- 
tion in this country is too short for its 
purpose, and it seems a mistake to have 
only one examination for selected candidates 
(in Riding there are no less than three in 
the same period). Progress in the com- 
pulsory subjects should be tested at least 
once before the Final Examination ; this 
might prevent such a disaster as befell 
one candidate on the last occasion. This 
leads me to notice the case of the candidate, 
a native of Bengal, who heads the lists both 
at the entrance and for seniority — and who 
hai utterly failed in the essential qualification of 
riding. Under the regulations, this gentle- 
man wiU proceed to Calcutta, and, if he still 
fail to qualify, the responsibility and in- 



Jan. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



59 



justice of retaining him (being unfit), or tlie 
odium of ejecting him from the service, 
-will be thrown on the Bengal Government 
— which is neither fair nor politic. 

In regard to the subjects of examination, 
I should like to see several changes. The 
range embraced was originally, is now, and 
•should always be, very wide — so as to reap 
from among the best intellects of the 
■country of all bents. But the reasons 
which in 1892 led the Commissioners to 
•strike Italian out of the list are not con- 
vincing. It should be restored, and both 
Spanish and Russian should be added. No 
one who really considers will maintain that 
Tiy one of the three is easy, is useless, or 
ill be crammed. The last objection does 
apply, in large measure, to the various 
divisions of history, and to mental and 
political science, all of which are highly 
marked, and are, of course, great favourites 
with tlie candidates. It is just the opposite 
with law, with natural science, with lan- 
guages thoroughly studied, and, above all, 
with mathematics. Having regard to this, 
the table of marks might with advantage 
he reconsidered. 

Again, under the system that has ruled 
since 1892, the education of the Indian 
civilians has been falling more and more 
into the hands of Oxford and Cambridge, 
from which have come 210 out of 283 suc- 
. ssfid candidates since 1892, excluding 
''Oe, where the published tables do 
not allow exact figures confined to the 
I.C.S. (The numbers were: Oxford 141, 
Cambridge 69.) In this matter the great 
English universities have fully earned the 
reward of their enlightened policy towards 
education for India, and before the change 
they had already secured a practical mono- 
poly of the training of selected candidates, 
for whom both colleges and universities did 
their utmost. On the contrary, the univer- 
sities of Ireland and Scotland have practi- 
cally thrown away their share in preparing 
candidates, and still more in training pro- 
bationers. The arrangements made by the 
Scotch universities, as the official paper in 
•the reports shows, are ludicrously in- 
adeciuate ; no teaching is offered in any of 
"the vernaculars, or law, or history of 
India. Barren all ! It is not for the best 
advantage of the Empire that this should 
continue. Each of our three nations excel 
the others in some valuable points, and 
each should give of its best (as in 
olden days they all did) to the rule 
of India. Why should the part played by 
Scotland and by Ireland in the Army, 
Public Works, and other Government de- 
partments be so great, and in the Civil 
Service so small? In >)oth countries are 
plenty of fit candidates, plenty of able 
teacliers ; why do they not find one another 
out? But if they are falling behind, not 
so the natives of India. The latter, passing, 
of course, through Oxford or Cambridge, 
furnish a steady proportion of successful 
candidates ; and as their years of service, 
being passed in their own land, wiU be 
larger, the initial proportion will always 
"tend to increase. In this many wiU see 
political danger : it seems clear that we are 
not entitled, except by superior capacity, to 
rule India, and that when we have enabled 



them to set up equally good — and safe — 
government for themselves, we should leave, 
as we are pledged to go from Egypt. This 
paper is long already, so I will notice only 
one more point. The names of examiners 
at the Open Competition are not given, but 
for the Final they are, though the same 
reasons would seem to operate in both cases, 
and in neither need the names be known 
leforehand. It does, however, seem strange 
that j'ear after year the teachers of Persian 
and Hindustani in Oxford should be ex- 
amining one another's pupils — also, no 
doubt, their own : there are many other 
competent and willing examiners, and the 
arrangement is, to say the least, not seemly, 
and, if noticed, would give German and 
French scholars many a good laugh at us ! 



AVHAT THE PEOPLE READ. 

VIII. — A Schoolboy. 

He walked slowly round my room, whistling 
gently, and affecting to examine the contents 
of my bookshelves. But now and again he 
looked wistfully towards a pile of boys' 
books in the corner. The pile was diminish- 
ing daily ; for rumours of it had got abroad 
among my more youthful friends. I told 
him he might choose three for himself ; and 
he selected The Camp of Refuge, Paris at 
Bay, and Afloat with Nelson. Why had he 
not chosen The Boys of Huntingley, which 
was a public school story, since he was a 
public schoolboy himseK ? Well, he didn't 
much care about stories of schoolboys ; the 
boys were generally such "rotters." Yes, 
they had Eric; or, Little hy Little, in the 
library at school, and he called it rank 
piffle, what he had seen of it. But Tom 
Brown's Schooldays wasn't half bad ; of 
course, everybody read that. Poetry ? No, 
he hadn't read much poetry. Oh, yes ! he 
had read The Bah Ballads, also The Barrack- 
room Ballads ; Burnup had lent them to 
him— Bumup was his house tutor — and 
they, too, weren't half bad; but they weren't 
poetry. Poetry, I elicited finally, was the 
stuff you had to turn into Latin verses — 
Milton, for choice. 

On the whole, the best book he had ever 
read was Harry Lorreqxter, though he had 
been reading Oliver Twist these holidays, 
and found it not half bad. Rolinson Crusoe'^ 
No, he hadn't read that, though he knew 
the work in pantomime form ; nor yet the 
Swiss Family Rolinson, which he had been 
told was rather footling. Should a book 
have a girl in it ? or did girls spoil books ? 
The question seemed to make him a little 
uneasy. But, when we had threshed the 
matter out, we agreed that a girl does not 
necessarily ruin a book, that she often 
improves it, and that, in fact, the best kind 
of book is the book which has a good deal 
of fighting, and just a little bit of girl. 
Like the Prisoner of Zenda ? Yes ; a chap 
had brought it back to school last term, and 
it wasn't half bad. He liked Princess 
Flavia. 

Had I any of Stevenson's books? Yes, 
I had, but not to give away. And was he 
an admirer of Stevenson ? Well, he had 



read Treasure Island, and it wasn't half bad ; 
but it wasn't that so much as Burnup — the 
house tutor, you know. Burnup, you see, 
was awfully keen on getting the chaps to 
read good books, and Bumup thought no 
end of Stevenson. Bumup always wanted 
to know what you had been reading during 
the holidays, and it wouldn't be half a bad 
idea to read one of Stevenson's books — for 
the benefit of Bumup. Burnup could do 
a lot for you if you did get into a 
hole. So Kidnapped was added to the 
other three— as a loan. Yes, taking them 
all round, books about the sea were the 
best — Westward Ho > for instance, and 
Midshipman Easy. Whence it would seem 
that no quite recent writer has quite got 
the grip of Marryat and Kingsley on the 
schoolboy. But he had never heard of 
Sandford and Merton. 

StUl, when you have to play football and 
go in for house runs and do prep., to say 
nothing of spending some hours a day in 
form, you don't get very much time for 
reading. Besides, it's rather smuggish to 
read much out of school. The thing to do 
is to read in form, which is quite easy when 
your form master is short-sighted. Just 
stick your book in the lid of your desk, 
under your construe and you can read away 
as much as you like. Only it has to be a 
thin book. The best for this purpose is the 
Red Rovers of Mexico, because it is printed 
on very thin paper, and has a paper cover. 
Besides it only costs a penny, and even this 
expense may be diminished by tearing out 
the pages and passing them round as you 
read them. Every chap in the upper fourth 
has read the Red Rovers of Mexico. Its — 
well — rather steep, you know ; you can't 
believe all of it ; but it really isn't half bad. 
And then he departed to read Kidnapped 
for the benefit — primarily of Bumup, but to 
his own ultimate profit. 



THE TRADE IN SCHOOL BOOKS 

Steoxg Protests from Booksellers. 

We have thought it interesting to ascer- 
tain the position which school books occupy 
in the esteem of booksellers. The result of 
our inquiries has surprised us. We had 
supposed that the profit on school books 
was good, and that the sale of this class of 
literature was one of the bookseller's com- 
pensations. We now know better. From 
every part of the coimtry we have reports 
written in a tone of almost bitter complaint. 
The trade in school books is appropriated 
by wholesale firms, who obtain school books 
on terms which make it impossible for the 
bookseller to compete. Incidentally, our 
bookseller corresi^ondents make various 
shrewd suggestions, which we commend 
to aU who are interested in educational 
matters. 

A large London bookseller leads the way 
with the following statement : 

" This is undoubtedly the worst feature of 
what has to be considered ' a bad business.' 
The bookseller comes into competition with 
almost the whole of the publishers of school 



60 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



[.Tax. 1.5, 1898. 



books, -with disastrous results to himself; and 
trade is goiug from bad to worse. All cbe 
largest schools buy dii-ect : orders are booked by 
publishers' travellers, and the terms are 
frequently (if not aH-ays) better than those 
given to booksellers. In addition, fashions in 
school books are constantly changing, and the 
stock room gets choked with ' overs.' These 
remarks do not, however, apply to terhnical books 
or books for evening classes, &c., which are con- 
stantly increasing in number and excellence, 
thus compensating one for the loss(?) of the 
school trade." 

A Brighton bookseller writes : 

" We do not consider the sale of educational 
books by any means a profitable one, for the 
following reasons : 

(1) Educational books are always wanted 
quickly, which necessitates the keeping of a 
large stock in order to do any trade in this 
department. 

(2) The purchasers of school books always 
require the utmost discoimt obtainable. 

(3) The pubhshers' terms are more strict over 
these books than on any other class of literature. 

(4) Much dead stock is inevitably made by 
frequent issue of new editions, rendering old 
ones unsaleable, and by change of text-books 
in the schools. 

We think that all school books should be 
exchangeable for new editions when issued, and 
better terms given oh educational books all 
round." 

Bristol is the educational metropolis of 
the West of England, but a Bristol book- 
seller writes in no jubilant strain about the 
profits of the school book trade in that city : 

" The school book trade is so cut, the profits 
are so small, and the changes of books so 
frequent, that it is dangerous to stock school 
books. By the way, are not booksellers very 
foolish to alwaj's tell the public the cost price 
of these goods ? Does any other trade act thus 
foolishly 'r " 

A Birmingham correspondent sends iis a 
message which confirms, from a bookseller's 
point of view, some of the opinions expressed 
by Dr. Welldon in the interview which 
appears in another colxmin : 

"Tlie trade in school books and educational 
books] generally is verj- risky: the frequent 
changes, the modem plan of using books for 
one term only, the modest price at which they 
are published, and the short life of so many 
tchool books, make the business a most hazard- 
ous one. Not-sj-ithstandrng, it is fairly profitable. 
We supply all the colleges and high schools in Bir- 
mingham, but we avoid the elementary schools. 
There are too many school books. We wish it 
were possible to punish the next person who 
writes, prints, or pubhshes a new Greek, Latm, 
French, or German ' System,' ' Couree ' or 
' Reader.' " 

This report is not contradicted by another 
emanating from Birmingham : 

'' I have for years avoided the school trade 
as far as school books, &c., are concerned. The 
discounts to the customer are larger, and the 
terms from the publisher to the trade smaller, 
than in any other department of the book trade! 
£1,00() of the turnover in school books are 
sold at a loss to the retailer when working 
expenses are calculated. The net system is 
better apphed to school books than many other 
classes of literature." 

An Oxford bookseller's experience is this : 

"I cannot speak as to ordinary school books 

but those used in the ' Schools ' are always in 



brisk demand, and a book that has something 
in it of real value to Oxford men, even though 
the price be high, is bought imgrudgingly. 

But is it not a waste of energj- and scholarship, 
to say nothing of money and booksellers' brains, 
that so many chips from the Classics should be 
duplicated and quadruplicated as they are 
nowadays? " 

From a Chester firm of booksellers we 
have this report : 

"Fortunately, we have not a large business 
of the class indicated. We doubt very much 
if it can be profitably conducted, unless on a 
verj- large scale, and with travellers. The 
infinite detail, the cut prices, and defen-ed 
payments — not to mention bad debts — render 
the bulk of such customers unprofitable, though 
there are, in our connexion, one or two large 
accoimts which we value highly." 

A Cardiff bookseller writes : 

" I have never attempted to do business in 
school books and educational works. I find 
that wholesale houses, who get special tei-ms 
from publishers, take advantage of this privilege 
to obtain orders against the retail bookseller. 
I think it is too bad that traders, who obtain 
special discoimt for the piuijose of supplj-ing 
retailers, should go direct to the retailers' 
customers — the schools." 

Our Cheltenham correspondent is not 
ent'iusiastic : 

" I supply most of the high-class schools here 
with books. The class of books used constantly 
changes, so that it is unwise to stock school 
books, as the profit realised is small at the best. 
The reduction in price, and reissues of cheap 
editions, such as the 'Penny Poets,' &c., tells 
much against the returns." 

A HaiTogate bookseller brings an indict- 
ment against Leeds : 

" My experience of school-book trade is that 
the less I stock of school books and sell the 
better under present conditions. This class of 
trade is most unprofitable. A certaia Leeds 
fii-m has obtained the contract for our School 
Board at one-third o£f. I offered 25 per cent. 
Now 8J difi'erence means a lot to the Board and 
absolutely nothing to the contractor. Bear in 
mind that carriage on the books has to be paid 
to Leeds. Then the books must be overhauled 
and sent out again, carriage -paid to HaiTOgate. 
Can you show me where the profit comes ui ? 
This apphes not only to the School Board but 
to most, if not all the private schools as well. 
All the publishers are sending out travellers 
now in all dii-ections, waiting upon the teachers, 
and supplj-ing their wants. Our experience is 
unmistakably this— to keep off aU school books 
and matenal for schools. Prize books only we 
cultivate, for Sunday and day schools." 

From a Norwich bookseller : 

,.,'''^® °^y opinion I can oflTer is that it is 
httle use trjing to do a school and educational 
trade unless one is able to offer large discounts 
and employ canvassers to solicit orders. This 
district IS well covered by large wholesale 
houses who can offer exceptional terms, against 
which a retail bookseller is unable to compete." 

A bookseller of Darlington writes : 
"Our exijerience of school books is the same 
as of books m general, only worse. A powerful 
monopoly, in the shape of a limited company 
consisting mainly of school teachers, have the 
matter lu their own hands in a radius of over 
100 miles. Booksellers are poweriess. It is 



quite hopeless to attempt to compete with sucii 
an organisation. They have, therefore, to look 
for other branches of trade to eke out a living. 
The second grade schools take a few books; 
but the frequent changes they make entail a. 
loss on books left over and imsalcable. Yet 
we are obliged to keep up the fiction of selling- 
school books for the sake of keoi)iug the con- 
nexion together. An unprofitable class of 
trade!" 

A leading firm of Edinburgh booksellers 
echoes the universal complaint, and adds a 
suggestion : 

"The enormous increase in the number of 
educational books published, and the consequent 
rajjid changes in those used in any given school 
or college, render this department the most 
difficult to deal -n-ith in the whole business of 
bookselling. The stock increases, and books- 
which one year sell well may next year be 
worthless. Could booksellers not invent a^ 
system of exchange which might be for mutual 
advantage ? " 

A Dublin bookseller writes favourably of 
the trade in school books, but with strong 
resen-ations : 

" After a long experience in everj- branch of 
education books — from the most abstruse subject 
in mathematics and science to the elementary 
school book — we stiU look upon it as an impor- 
tant department in bookselling, and a fairly 
remunerative one. 

It is a department which requires constant 
attention ; and great care must be exercised 
in ordering stock, as a book in demand to-day 
may he superseded by another next week, and 
become dead and useless stock. 

We are strongly of opinion that where this 
class of business cannot be done ^vithout accept- 
ing contracts at ' cutting ' prices, it had far 
better be left severely alone." 

Lastlj-, a Belfast bookseller writes in 
vehement strain : 

" Educational books are now made up for 
cram, not eihtcation, and they are a great 
nuisance to the bookseller, who must be wide 
awake if he wishes to keep soul uud body 
together." 



NEWSPAPEE ENGLISH. 

In a recent issue Mr. Earl Hodgson found 
fault with certain turns of phrase that are 
met with in current English. His list was 
not a long one. He coidd, no doubt, have 
extended it considerably, and if he had done 
so I should probably, for mj- part, have 
been able thoroughly to disagree with him 
on many points. As it is, I could not, with 
a clear conscience, subscribe to his protest 
in all particulars. But that is neither here 
nor there. I merelj' cite our divergence of 
view as typical. Hardly any two writers of 
English are at one in their ideas as to idiom 
or construction, and if they were they would 
still be liable to be bowled out by the 
printer's reader, who has his views on the 
subject too. At present it is the printer's 
reader who rules the roost — or is it 
roast? If he were always of one 
mind that would not greatly matter, since 
what we want above all things is uni- 
formity or rule. Unfortunately every 



Jax. 15 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIOXAL SUPPLEMENT. 



61 



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63 



' great printing establishment has methods of 
its own, both of spelling and phraseology. 
The great London newspapers ought to be 
I weUs of English imdefiled. As every critical 
reader knows, they are very far from eam- 
} ing that distinction. In one of our leading 
i journals, for instance, you will never find 
the good old Saxon phrase " five and 
I twenty." The writer may write it, but the 
! printer's reader, acting upon some rule or 
I tradition of the office, turns it into "25." 
jNow "five and twenty," I submit, is not 
exactly 25. It is a more indefinite numljer 
j The writer who says five and twenty does 
I not mean to be as precise as an accountant 
or a bank clerk. Consider what would be 
the effect of expressing Tennyson's poem, 
"The Charge of the Light Brigade," as 
" the charge of the 600." Some of the 
' delicate suggestiveness of the line would at 
; once fade out of it. For many years the 
Times tried to introduce "holyday" as the 
[spelling of "holiday." It has given it 
I up, and very properly, because holiday has 
]long ceased to be holy-day. Another 
questionable idiosjiicrasy of the daily press 
I may be mentioned. Finales, in music, 
lis given in italics — thus, finales. This is 
i wrong, because " finales " is an entirely 
English word. The italicised form would be 
[right if the word were French. But it is 
not French. We take it from the Italian, 
pronouncing it in three syllables — fin-al-e 
— and g^ve it an English plural. To be 
italicised it ought to be given the Italian 
plural, final;'. As pronounced and written 
lit is English and notliing else, and there- 
jfore ought to be printed in the ordinary 
Enman character. On the same principle 
" impresarios" ought not to be italicised, as 
it usually is. 

The other day I read in an eloquent 
article : " Everybody is entitled to their 
opinion." This is very bad, of course, but 
'" everybody " and " everyone " are bother- 
jing words. Ought we to say " everybody is 
[entitled to his or her opinion," or is " his " 
|opinion enough ? Everybody on this ques- 
Ition is not agreed. Then consider the various 
ways of saying the equivalent of on pent : 
I" one "You can," "they can," "we can," 
'jan," " people can." Is there any great 
[language but English lacking in the im- 
personal pronoun represented by " on " ? And 
[wouldn't it bo supplied, or, rather, restored, 
iEor it existed in Anglo-Saxon ? " Mon sceal 
i3od lufian," said the Englishmen of the 
bleventh century, the "mon" being a near 
irelative of the Gorman "man," as in "man 
Imgt." Perhaps the "mon" has become 
mpossible ; but of the various equivalents in 
ise which is the best ? " No one was there 
put I " is a very common phrase. I think 
1 1, nevertheless, wrong. The " but " seems 
|;o me to have the same force as " except," 
iind to be entitled to carry an objective 
with it — i.e., " me." This word " me " 
jbrings up a crucial point. In answer 
TO the question, "Who is there?" nine 
English people out of ten say "Me." The 
|Latin-minded grammarians contend for " I " 
!>n the strength of the rule of Latin that the 
yorb " esse " takes the same case after it as 
Iriefore it. But there is something to be said 
tor the popular usage. The modem English 
pxpression is borrowed from the French, 



" C'est moi," and is at best aVhybrid. In 
Old English they had a distinctively English 
form: "I am it," corresponding to the 
German, "Ich bin es " ; and we still say 
in analogous circumstances, "Who is it?" 
Could we have " I am it " restored, or at 
least " It's me " sanctioned ? 

Many purists condemn such a phrase as 
"no sort or kind" on ' the ' ground of 
tautology. I should be sorry, however, to 
see it disapjDear, because it is a landmark in 
English philology ; it is a relic of the 
fusion of Saxon and Norman-French At 
that period many phrases of a bi-lingual 
character crept into use, and this is 
one of them. " Truth and honour " is 
another, truth being "troth," or honour, 
as in " by my troth." " Voice " as a verb 
is much objected to, coming to us modems 
as it does f from'' American sources - e.g., 
to "voice" the public sentiment. I don't 
like it, and never use it, but it occurs in 
Shakespeare. Notoriously many so-called 
Americanisms are old English provincial- 
isms. The purists threaten, indeed, to 
become insufferable pedants. It is now the 
custom of the printer's reader — our great 
authority — to treat "none" as invariably 
singular, a contraction for no one. But it 
is useful as a plural, and is so used in 
Shakespeare — e.g., "Speak daggers, but use 
none." 'Why may we not continue to say, 
"I spoke to no women at the meeting 
because there were none present " ? 

More objectional still is the growing 
practice of treating a collective phrase as 
a plural. The printer's reader no longer 
allows us to say: "His life was marked 
with . a goodness and truth that was un- 
deniable." We are now expected to use 
" were." Presently we shall be saying 
" Thirteen and fourpence are the price." 
Already some people say " Five pounds are 
a large sum "; and we are losing, if we 
have not already lost, the right to speak of 
"five foot ten." The pedant, too often 
ignorant of the Saxon idiom, will have it 
"feet." Our plurals certainly want regu- 
lating. Macaulay speaks of " a shambles," 
but it gives me a shudder to read of "a 
gasworks." "Why not "a gaswork " or " a 
soapwork " ? "Politics" and "news" are 
becoming established as singular nouns ; 
but the newspaper scribe is still bothered 
with " lock-out," the plural of which is given 
both as locks-out and lock-outs. To my mind 
" locks-out" is not defensible because " lock" 
there is not a noun but a verb. Of ' ' author " 
and " authoress " as applied to a woman, 
which is the better ? There appears to be 
no rule. Miss Braddon on her title-pages 
always calls herself an " author." Again, 
is it Whitsun Day or Whit Sunday ? We 
say " Whitsuntide," but then we also say 
"Whit Monday. I should say Whitsun was 
correct. For years that excruciating phrase 
"Parcels Post" obtained official sanction. 
It is now happily changed to " Parcel Post," 
which is truer to English idiom, though 
"Telegraphs Department" remains to vex 
our souls ; and, of course, there is still the 
"London Parcels Delivery Company " flying 
in the face of philology. Possibly " Parcels 
Post " was suggested by such phrases as 
" heart's desire " or "money's worth," but 
there is no real analogy between them. 



One abomination is no sooner got rid of 
than another (to my thinking) grows up. 
We say " Macmillans are publishing a 
book," or "Longmans." Indeed, the latter 
firm adopt "Longmans" as their style and 
title, though everybody knows the members 
of the firm are the Messrs. Longman. This 
does not appear to me to be good English. 
The analogy is "the baker's" or "the 
greengrocer's," but it is once more a false 
analogy. " Later on " is objected to by Mr. 
Earl Hodgson, and it strikes me, too, as a 
vulgarism. But it has its analogy in " fur- 
ther on," which is perfectly good English. 
It is a coming-on phrase. "Later" is 
rather a bald expression ; the " on " helps 
it somehow, and I imagine "later on" 
has come to stay. We badly need an 
authoritative declaration with respect to it. 
Also on the question of the "split infini- 
tive." I don't like " to greatly increase," 
preferring " greatly to increase " ; but I am 
not prepared to say that it is un-English. 
Pretty much the same remark applies to 
what is called the flat infinitive. " Come 
and help us kill the fatted calf " instead of 
" to kill" has something in its favour ; but 
I draw the line at the Americanism, " to 
help persons appreciate the scenery." 

I have by no means exhausted the de- 
batable points of idiom or construction. 
Every writer of experience could add 
to the list. Only the more obvious have 
I touched upon. Many of a subtle 
character remain. "Wliat reporter, for in- 
stance, knows how to render correctly, in 
the third person, such a qualifying phrase 
as "I dare say " ? I have seen " he dared 
say" and " he durst say," but both fail to 
render the sense — which is, " he rather 
thought." Again, in such a sentence as, 
" This has had the more effect that many 
of the speeches were," &c., which is the 
better word after " effect " — " that " or 
" because " ? Both are used. Again, is 
"bluff" good English or slang? I say 
nothing of a general reform of English 
spelling. That is never likely to come now. 
It could not be attempted without the 
adoption of a greatly extended alphabet to 
render the many half-sounds that occur in 
English. We should never accustom our- 
selves to saying that an article was "mad 
in Jermani " or "mad in Frans." Nor is 
it necessary that we should. I have always 
thought the spelling reformers mistook the 
conditions of the problem. Our spelling 
may be erratic, but the printed word is a 
kind of visual counter. We learn to recog- 
nise it, and to spell it, by the eye. How 
often do we feel that a word looks wrongly 
spelt ? Words have to be taken en bloc, and 
it would be exactly the same with the 
" fonetic " monstrosities proposed as their 
substitutes. In reading, we never get at the 
sense of a word by spelling it, and " cough " 
and "plough," although theoretically anoma- 
lous and incongruous, present no practical 
difficulty. Still, spelling might in certain 
cases be simplified witli advantage. "Pro- 
gram " and " jewelry " are better than the 
accepted forms " programme," "jewellery." 

At present English is like a luxuriant 
garden running wild. It needs trimming 
and weeding. 

J. F. NiSBET, 



u 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



[Jan. 1.5, 1898. 



REVIEWS. 



SCIENCE. 

MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS. 

An Elementary Treatise on the Metric System of 
Weights and Measures. By J. Hamblin Smith. 
(Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

University Tutouial Series. — Euclid : Bojks 
I.^IV. By Kupert Deakin. The Tutorial 
Trigonometry, By William Briggs and G. 
H. Bryan. (W. B. Clive.) 

Elementary Geometrical Statics. By W. J. Dobbs. 
(Macmillan & Co.) 

Applied Mechanics. By John Perry. (Cassell 

&Co.) 
Steam Boilers. By George Halliday. (Edward 

Arnold.) 
If the recommendations of the Parliamentary 
Committee appointed in 1895 to consider our 
system of weights and measures had been 
accepted, the use of the Metric System would 
now be compulsory. But though Parliament 
passed an Act to legalise this system for the 
purposes of trade, the Government very wisely 
decided not to ask for powers to enforce the 
use of metres, grams, and litres, upon a nation 
which had learned to think in yards, ounces, 
and quarts. Nothing but good can result, 
however, from a wider acquaintance with the 
metric system than is possessed at present by 
commercial men. But familiarity with the 
system must be obtained by actual measure- 
ments rather than by abstract arithmetical 
exercises on its various units. We are there- 
fore of the opinion that Mr. Hamblin 
Smith's treatise will not be nearly so useful 
in extending the knowledge of metric units of 
measurement as the penny rules and tape 
measures which are nowr sold, marked in 
both centimetres and inches. 

Several excellent editions of Euclid's Elements 
have been published in recent years ; and Mr. 
D -akin's rendering of the first four books takes 
its place among them. The propositions are 
clearly set down, both in figure and text, and 
many most helpful notes are given upon the 
methods of proof. Moreover, special care has 
been taken with the exercises; and if the 
student pays attention to the hints given, he 
will soon find as much pleasure in working 
riders as he does in solving puzzles. 

Another book in which the student is given 
every assistance which it is possible for a text- 
book to render is the Tutorial Trigonometry, by 
Prof. Bryan and Mr. Briggs. Believing— and 
rightly so— that "a thorough grasp of the nature 
and general properties of trigonometricf unctions 
is just as essential as facility in manipulating 
trigonometric expressions," general definitions 
referring to angles both greater and less 
than a right angle are introduced at an early 
stage. Rather more than a half of the book 
is dev ited to functions, formulae, and equa- 
tions referring to one or more angles, while 
the remainder deals with logarithms and the 
solution of triangles. The introduction of 
a chapter describing the methods of repre- 
senting trigonometric functions by diagrams 
is much to be commended. Graphical methods 
of representing facts and relationships not 
only aid the student, but are of the utmost 
value to the practical man. 

Mr. Schooling has shown how statistics 
can be made intelligible by means of diagram', 
and science teachers are rapidly learning that 
gejmetrical constructions appeal much more 
forcibly to the mind than mathematical 
formulas. In Mr. Dobbs's Elementary Oeo- 
metrical Statics the subject of graphic statics 
is dealt with in a systematic manner. It is 



easy to understand that any force acting 
upon a body can be represented by a line, 
both as regards the point at which it is 
applied, the direction in which it acts, and the 
strength or magnitude. Taking this as a 
fundamental principle, Mr. Dobbs shows how 
the resultants and conditions of equilibrium of 
forces having various lines of action can be 
represented by geometrical figures. True it is 
that the rods and strings involved in the pro- 
blems are assumed to have neither weight nor 
thickness, and that the frameworks to which 
attention is given are indeformable ; neverthe- 
less, the principles described may be applied 
to stresses generally, and should form an essen- 
tial part of the education of every engineer. 

In contrast with the purely geometrical 
aspect of forces presented in Mr. Dobbs's work, 
we have Prof. Perry's aggressively practical 
views expressed in his Applied Mechanics. 
Prof. Perry holds very strong opinions upon 
the manner in which mechanics should be 
taught, and he airs his views in his text-book 
in a way which a candid critic might describe 
as egotistic. But when he descends to gibes at 
academic teaching, he irritates the reader and 
spoils his studeuts. Surely a student must have 
received a fair amount of academic training 
before he can use the differential and integral 
calculus, yet the calculus is introduced on p. 15 
of Prof. Perry's book. However, the students 
who use the book may, and probably will, evade 
the paragraphs in which the calculus is used. 
There will stiU remain a practical course on 
general principles which should be known by 
every student of mechanical engineering. 

For apprentices and workmen who have not 
had a preliminary training such as the book 
affords, but who wish to learn something of 
the scientific principles involved in the con- 
struction of boilers, Mr. Halliday's mauual on 
Steam Boilers is admirably suited. The practical 
knowledge gainei in the workshojj or factory 
finds an adequate supplement in this manual, 
which is intermediate between the abstract 
text-book of heat or steam and the highly 
specialised treatise. The volume is a very 
valuable addition to technological handbooks, 
and may profitably be read by everyone who 
has to do with the construction, trial, or 
management of steam boilers of any type. 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

Theory of Electricity and Magnetism. By 
Charles E. Curry. (Macmillan &. Co.) 

The Theory of Electricity and Magnetism : being 
Lectures on Mathematical Physics. By Arthur 
G. Webster. (Macmillan & Co.) 

First Principles of Electricity and Magnetism. 
By C. H. W. Biggs. (Biggs & Co.) 

The Principles of Alternate Current Wm-king. 
By Alfred Hay. (Biggs & Co.) 

Dk. Cukky's treatment of the Theory of 
Electricity and Magnetism is based upon a 
work by Prof. Bolizmann, who contributes a 
preface to it. The treatise could have been 
appropriately entitled a, philosophy of electricity 
and magnetism, and is a good example of the 
manner in which electric and magnetic theory 
is studied on the Continent. As a rule, British 
men of science (mathematicians excepted) like 
to deal with phenomena first and theory after- 
wards, but the philosophical German mind 
reverses this order and considers how the facts 
fit the theory rather than how the theory 
explains the facts. In Dr. Curry's book the 
deductive method of reasoning is strictly 
followed, the aim being "to show that 
Maxwell's theory, with its recent modifications 
and developments, suffices to explain all 
phenomena of electricity and magnetism, and 
on the other hand, that all electric and 
magnetic phenomena follow directly from it." 




To students already familiar with modem views 
of electricity, the treatise will be of service iaJ 
showing how electric and magnetic phenomenaJ 
may be derived from Maxwell's fundamental! 
equations. I 

Prof Webster's work also deals with thft4 
mathematical theory of electricity, but from »l| j 
different standpoint, being an introduction to • 
Maxwell's classical treatise rather than a bri«{$ 
to show the soundness of the Max wellian theoiyM 
The first half of the book is devoted to th 
treatment of departments of mathematics 
theoretical mechanics bearing upon mathen 
tical physics, and not until p. 243 is reache^ 
are electrostatics, electromagnetics, and magne-', 
tism brought into consideration. It may bei 
doubted, however, whether such an inordinat( 
amount of introductory matter is desirable i 
a work intended for University students ; fori 
even granting that a student should be weUl 
provided with tools for his mental work, the| 
value of the tools can best be understood 
using them at once upon concrete mater 
If the theorems which occupy the first half < 
the book are " simply matters of geometry an 
analysis," the title should have made this fact 
clear. Putting this aside, there is no doubt 
that Prof. Webster's treatise will assist students 
who intend to devote attention to the more 
difficult works of Maxwell, Helmholtz, Hertz, 
and Heaviside. 

Very little mathematical knowledge is needed 
to understand Mr. Biggs's book on Electricity 
and Magnetism. The book contains a clear 
statement of the principles xmderlying the 
construction and use of apparatus employed in 
the laboratory and in simple electrical in- 
stallations. The treatment is original in many 
resi^ects, and the information given is often of 
a practical kind, not found in similar elemen- 
tary works. The free use of the first person 
singular is not unpleasing, though here and 
there it jars upon the reader. For instance, 
the expression "This is the fifth time I have 
bad a shot at this preface " is not altogether 
happy. 

Mr. Hay's book on Alternate Current Working 
brings us right into the domain of electrotech- 
nics. It is a very helpful little volume upon 
a difficult branch of electrical engineering, and 
as a stepping-stone to the more advanced 
treatises of Fleming and Jackson is much to be 
commended. We doubt if there is another 
book which will serve that purpose better than 
Mr. Hay's does. 

CHEMISTRY. 

A Course of Practical Chemistry. By M. M. 
Pattison Muir. Part I. : Elementary. (Long- 
mans.) 

Chemistry for Photographers. By Chas. F. 
Townsend. (Dawbam & Ward.) 

Agricultural Chemistry. By R. H. Adie and 
T. B. Wood. 2 vols. (Kegan Paul.) 

Mr. Pattison Muir has so freely criticised the 
methods of teaching chemistry set forth in 
various text-books that we opened his own book 
with a certain amount of curiosity; and we 
confess to a feeling of disappointment at the 
result. The book is good in some respects, but 
it does not possess those original qualities which, 
wrongly perhaps, we have been led to expect. 
It is now generally conceded that a student 
should begin the study of chemistry by a course 
of practical work on the properties of substances 
and by investigatijus of simple physical and 
chemical changes. This is the method f iiUowed 
by Mr. Muir, nearly one-half the book being 
taken up with experiments on important in- 
organic substances. The student is thus trained 
to use his reasoning powers before he reaches 
qualitative analysis proper. The first part of 
the book has, therefore, a distinct educational 



Jax. 15, 1898. 



THE A.CADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



65 



' value, but in our opinion qualitative analysis 
has none, and only those students wLo intend 
to become analysts ought to give time to it. 
I The analysis of simple salts is, however, usually 
jan obligatory part of a course in chemistry, and 
this being so, Mr. Muir's book is as good as any 
! other to work from. The book is built upon a 
I definite plan, and the information given is sen- 
sible as well as sound. 

I It differs entirely from Mr. Towusond's 
{chemistry for Photographers, which aims at 
'being serviceable rather than educational. 
jAmateur photographers, and professionals as 
'well, are as a rule content to be profoundly 
Ignorant i f the chemical processes involved in 
jthe production of negatives and prints. Let 
Ithem read Mr. Townsend's book and they will 
find that they will be able to extend their work 
considerably, even though in a few cases the 
descriiitions of chemical reactions are more 
forcible than accurate. 

The Agricultural Chemistry, of Messrs. Adie 
i.iud Wood, is by no means a success, either in 
[plan or execution. The pages are uncut (a 
distinct drawback to an elementary work), the 
^figures are bundled together at the commence- 
ment of the first volume, and numerous para- 
l^raphs and sentences are placed iu square 
brackets without any reason being assigned, 
jlhe only good points about the volumes are 
jrimplicity of treatment and a progressive series 
bf experiments, but we are sure these are not 
sufficient to attract the teachers and students 
::or whom the work is intended, or to divert 
ittention from the many deficiencies. 

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

d Text-book of Physiology. By M Foster. 
Assisted by C. S. Sherrington. Part III. 
"The Central Nervous System." (Macmillan.) 

Lectures on Physiology. First Series : " Animal 
Electricity." By Augustus D. Waller. 
(Longmans.) 

Elements of the Comparative Anatomy of Verte- 
brates. Adapted from the German of Dr. R. 
Wiedersheim, by W. N. Parker. (Macmillan.) 

rhe Vertebrate Skeleton. By Sydney H. Reynolds. 
(Cambridge University Press ) 

'jissona in Elementary Biology. By T. Jeffery 
Parker. (Macmillan. ) 

4 I'ext-book of General Botany. By Carlton C. 
Curtis. (Longmans.) 

'"OF. Michael Foster's Text-book of Physi- 
' is a classic. It is a book which must be 
„-d by the earnest stu'lent of physiology, and 
ji'hich every practitioner should keep by him for 
;efi-rence. More than twenty years have elapsed 
ince the work first appeared, but throughout 
jhat ijeriod it has occupied the foremost place 
,mong books dealing with the science of vital 
|Uachiun-y. The present edition— the seventh 
j— of the part of the book devoted to the central 
'lervous system has been largely revised to bring 
|t into line with the remarkable advances which 
he study cf the brain has made within the past 
ew years. 

t After reading Prof. Waller's lectures on 
\hiimal Electricity we are more than ever sony 
hat he has resigned his chair at the Royal 
Institution, where they were delivered ; for 
'hey constitute a most important contribution 
o the physics of living matter. Animal elec- 
|ricity is considered to have had its origin in 
•he observation by Galvani of spasmodic move- 
fieuts in the legs of freshly-killed frogs sus- 
•lended on copjjer hooks. The nerves in the 
fcgs were receiving a weak current of electricity 
'nd they expressed their feelings in spasms. 
)r. Waller's experiments consist in removing 
he nerve from its natural organ and exciting it 
lectrically to see how it responds. The isolated 
lerve thus treated produces an effect upon a gal- 



vanometer connected with it, and the effect can 
be proved to be an exact measm:e of its physio- 
logical activity. Only living nerves produce 
these electrical effects when stimulated; dead 
nerves having no excitability whatever. The 
activity of a nerve under various influences, 
such as anaesthetics, heat, acids, alcohol, 
tobacco smoke, &c., can, therefore, be found by 
observing the change in the character of the 
normal electric response when the nerve is 
stimidated under the different conditions. That 
is what Dr. Waller has done, and the results of 
his interesting inquiries are described in lucid 
language in the present volume. 

The third edition of Dr. Wiedersheim's stan- 
dard work on Comparative Anatomy forms the 
basis of Prof. W. N. Parker's text-book, which 
differs, however, so much from the original that 
it is practically a new book. By treating the 
German edition freely, abridging it in some 
parts and adding new material to others, the 
work is made far more suitable to English 
readers than if the text had merely been 
translated. The plan of the book is to com- 
pare the organs of animals and to show how 
they individually have suffered evolution. A 
general knowledge of zoology is necessary 
before the book can be usefully studied, but 
the illustrations are so numerous and instructive 
that they alone provide the means for a liberal 
education in compar.ative anatomy. Medical 
student!!, and workers in vertebrate morphology, 
should certainly add the book to their libraries. 
The skeleton comes in for a large share of 
attention, and in Mr. Sydney Reynolds's Verte- 
brate Skeleton it is treated in detail. For each 
group of animals the general skeletal characters 
are first described ; then the skeleton of the 
selected type is taken, and this is followed by 
the treatment of the skeleton as developed in 
the group organ by organ. The book covers 
a wide field, some animals which are not strictly 
vertebrate being included ; but Mr. Reynolds 
has dealt with them all in a satisfactory manner. 

The course of general biology contained in the 
late Prof. T. J. Parker's Lessons in Elementary 
Biology (third edition) serves to give students 
who have studied zoology and botany separ- 
ately a connected view of organic life from the 
simple blobs of protoplasm known as amoebae 
to the more complex organisms. The types 
described illustrate all the more important 
modifications of structure, and the chief physio- 
logical processes, in plants and animals. Prof. 
Parker was singularly successful as a teaoher, 
and his lessons stand as a memorial of his 
exceptional powers. 

The Text-book of General Botany of Dr. 
Curtis is a laboratory manual and class-book 
combined. The practical exercises contained 
in the book are many in number and in some 
cases difficult of execution, but the student who 
performs them will not only gain considerably 
in knowledge, but also in self-reliance and 
intelligence; and the development of these 
faculties is, after all, the most important aim of 
scientific work. The book is, however, too 
elaborate to be of service in the colleges below 
university rank. 

GEOLOGY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY. 

A Text-book of Geology. By W. Jerome 
Harrison. (Blackie.) 

Physiography for Advanced Students. By A. T. 

Simmons. (MacmiUan & Co.) 
Elementary Practical Physiography. By John 

Thornton. (Longmans.) 

Geology cannot be learnt from books, but 
books can be of immense service in directing 
observation, and showing how observed facts 
may be co-ordinated. This is done admirably 
by Mr. Harrison in his Text-book of Geology. 
The book is a connected statement, clearly 



printed and well illustrated, of the lessons 
taught by the rocks. It is intended more 
especially for students in classes under the 
Science and Art Department, but it deserves, 
and will doubtless receive, recognition from 
the general reader. 

Another Departmental text-book is Mr. A. T. 
Simmons's Physiography for Advanced Students, 
and it is even better than Mr. Harrison's. The 
book is really a concise encyclopaedia, in which 
the earth, the sea, the air, and the sky are 
dealt with in all their varying aspects. The 
illustrations — there are more than two hundred 
— are the best that have ever appeared in a 
volume designed for use by physiography 
students of the Science and Art Department, 
and the information given puts the reader in 
touch with the researches and views of the 
foremost authorities in the various branches of 
science comprehended by physiography. It 
would be difficult to produce a volume which 
better facilitates the work of the teacher, or is 
better adapted to the wants of the student. 

Mr. Thornton's Practical Physiography is also 
deserving of praise, but, being more elementary 
in character and less comprehensive in scope, 
it lacks the numerous descriptions of recent 
woi'k which give life to Mr. Simmons's book. 
This notwithstanding, the book provides a good 
course of lessons and experiments in elementary 
mechanics, physics, and chemistry. 

POPULAR SCIENCE. 

Light, Visible and Invisible. By Silvanus P. 
Thompson. (Macmillan & Co.) 

The Induction Coil in Practical Work. By 
Lewis Wright. (Macmillan & Co.) 



By H. W. Conn. 



The Story of Germ Life. 
(Newnes.) 

Peof. Silvanus Thompson's book on Light, 
based upon a course of lectures delivered at the 
Royal Institution, should be in the possession 
of everyone who takes an intelligent interest 
in science. The book is a model of what a 
scientific work intended for general readers 
should be. It is attractive in appearance, pro- 
fusely illustrated, and an accurate statement of 
the present state of knowledge of the subject. 
There is no descent to buffoonery, such as one 
finds in some popular books of science, and no 
florid language. The reader is shown clear 
pictures of the science of optics from the best 
aspects, and he can obtain intellectual enjoy- 
ment by contemplating them. Rontgen rays, 
and their relationships to other rays, form the 
subject of a very interesting chapter of the 
book. 

The apparatus for producing Rontgen rayo, 
and for studyiug the phenomena of the elec- 
tric discharge in partial and in high value, is 
ably described by Mr. Wright in his book on 
the Induction Coil in Practical Work. All the 
information required to understand and mani- 
pulate an induction coil, and to obtain the best 
results from it, is given in this unpretentious 
handbook. For persons who wish to take up 
Rontgen-ray work, either as a scientific recrea- 
tion or with surgical applications iu mind, the 
volume is particularly suitable. 

Mr. Conn's Story of Germ Life will assist in 
correcting erroneous impressions concerning 
bacteria, and in extending the knowledge of 
the functions of bacterial life in nature. Who- 
ever reads the book with attention will profit 
by it. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Humane Science Lectures. By various Authors. 
(George BeU & Sons.) 

Psychology. An Introductory Manual for the 
Use of Students. By F. Ryland. (George 
Bell & Sons.) 



66 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMEN1\ 



[Jak. 15, 1898. 



The Mathematical Psychology of Oratry and 

Boole. By Mary E. Boole. (Swan Sonnen- 

schein.) 
Model Drawing. By William Mann. (Nelson.) 
UlTDER the auspices of the Hvunanitarian 
League and the Leigh Browne Trust, a series 
of Humane Science Lectures were delivered 
last winter, and are here reprinted. The maiii 
object of the lectures seems to be to bring senti- 
ment into the domain of science. Men of 
science have feelings as well as others mortals ; 
but just as art students leave their passions in 
the ante-room with their hats and coats when 
they are studying the nude, scientiiic investi- 
gators are in the habit of lockiug up their 
emotions in a cupboard when they are studying 
the habits of Dame Nature. The Humanitarian 
League would alter this strictly intellectual 
mode of procedure, and make all vital phe- 
nomena anthropomorphic. 

As a means to its end the League might 
usefully encourage the study of a course of 
psychology, such as is provided in Mr. Ey laud's 
manual, now in its seventh edition. The 
phenomena of sensation, memory, conception, 
emotion, and will are there presented in a 
way which gives the reader clear and connected 
ideas on the rr-lations between mind and 
matter. That is more than can be said of 
Mrs. Boole's Mathematical Psychology. A more 
incoherent production it has rarely been our 
lot to read. The mathematics are often shaky, 
and the psychological conclusions are not above 
reproach, while the whole is nebulous in 
structure. 

What Mr. Mann considers to be the true 
principles of model drawing are set forth in bis 
book. Under the system at present used, all 
objects are represented by the draughtsman as 
they would appear on a vertical plane. The 
picture plane is thus always kept at right 
angles to the ground, whereas Mr. Mann pleads 
that objects should, in most cases, be represented 
upon oblique planes. To the universal use of 
the vertical plane he ascribes most of the 
difficulties met by students of model drawing, 
and all the distrust of the fundamental maxims. 
The purpose of his book is to put the matter on 
a more scientific basis. 

ENGLISH. 

First Book of Physical Geography. By Ralph S. 
Tarr, B.S., P.G.S.A. (New York : The 
MacmUlan Company ; London : MacmUlan 
&Co.) 

This is a valuable book, on a branch of science 
in which Prof. Tarr is a recognised master. 
He aimed, he tells us, at producing an 
elementary work, siaited to introduce the 
subject into high schools ; he has done that, and 
a great deal more. If any large proportion of 
school-books in the States be of this high 
quality, we at home may weU envy them. But 
if the usual way of teaching science be "to 
assign certain pages to be memorised, and to 
stop there " (p. ix.), we think our methods are 
better. (Memorise means, we suppose, to learn 
by rote.) The book is adorned and illustrated 
by a profusion of excellent diagrams, maps of 
large land or water areas, photographs of 
celestial objects, meteoric appearances, and 
remarkable terrestrial objects and landscapes. 
Taking the high modem view of the subject of 
the science, " the earth as the abode of man, in 
aU its aspects," the writer gives first a most 
interesting account of the generally accepted 
modem theory of the stages by which our planet 
reached its present condition, and the views 
most prevalent of the constitution of the 
universe. But he carefully refrains from 
dogmatising, and dwells strongly on the 
necessary limitations of human intellect in 
regard to these problems of infinity. He then 



deals, in their order, with the conditions of the 
earth as a satellite of the sun, and its alterna- 
tions of seasons, climates, day and night. Then 
are considered the great elemental forces, in their 
constant interaction — the atmosphere, with its 
heat, electricity, and magnetism, influence on 
temperature and climate, winds and stonns, 
and plant and animal life. Next comes the 
ocean, with its calm depths and ever-moving 
surface, and its mighty influences for welfare 
and destruction. Last of all come the 
phenomena of the dry land, its stages of 
formation, rocks, and soU ; the action of water 
and fire upon it ; its prominent physical features, 
and the marks it bears of the march of ages 
past. This is but a brief summary of a few of 
the most striking points in the book. It is 
well written, and we can thoroughly recom- 
mend it. 

On the (Jhoice uf Oeo(/rapIi icul Books. By H. R. 
Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. (Longmans.) 

All who have, like ourselves, suffered imder the 
old system of teaching geography will welcome 
from the pen of the learned secretsiry to the Royal 
Geographical Society this clear and full guide 
to the best literature of his science. He con- 
ceives of it on the grandest scale — " the 
description of the Earth in relation to Man, in 
all the bearings of that relationship," and 
points out that only those can fully know its 
value who will, to some extent at least, study it 
in all its branches. The first chapter, on the 
" Principles of Geogi-aphy," is masterly, as a 
statement both of the claims he makes for his 
subject, and the interest that attaches to it. 
Then come chapters on methods of teaching, 
text-books, atlases, works of reference ; on 
geography in special relation to physical 
conditions, flora and fauna, and races of men ; 
and lastly, what is to most of us the whole 
subject — natural and political divisions of the 
globe. Only a specialist could properly judge 
of Dr. Mill's work, but its value will be tested 
in actual use by teachers and students. An 
index should have been added, for at present it 
is not easy to say whether a particular book has 
been registered. We should have liked to see 
included Spencer St. John's delightful work on 
Borneo, Palgrave's Central Arabia should be 
named in the standard (2 vols.) edition, and we 
miss Elisee Reclus's great work. Dr. Mill's 
style sometimes halts : " advancement to high 
civilisation" (p. 12), " plenty books " (p. 112), 
"displacement of standpoint," and the like, 
needlessly offend the eye. 

Geography of Africa. By Edward Heawood, 
M.A. '(MacmiUan & Co.) 

For many reasons the Dark Continent claims 
our very earnest attention ; yet we know almost 
nothing of it save a little that concerns the 
coast-lands and Egypt. Here it is treated 
under every aspect. Physical features, climate, 
ethnology, political relations are all in turn 
presented in clear, precise language. An 
excellent sketch-map introduces the book, and 
it is completed by an exhaustive summary and 
full index. We may note as worth particular 
attention the pages dealing with the Races of 
Men, French Activities, Tunis, Madagascar, 
and the Dutch Republics. 

XlX.-Century Prose. By J. H. Fowler, M.A. 
(A. & C. Black.) 

This new "Literary Epoch Series, " — to be com- 
plete in six volumes — deserves praise for its aim, 
but we fear the conditions laid down make 
success difficult. English prose during the 
century now closing is too vast, rich, and varied 
in its excellence to be critically presented even 
to a schoolboy in a large-type voliune of 120 
pages only. We think, too, that an author is 
' better represented by several short pieces than 



by one long one. The choice here made does 
not seem to us the best possible, either of 
authors or of tj^iical extracts from their 
writings. For the present purpose we should 
have preferred " George Eliot " and " Elia " to 
Coleridge and Thackeray ; and De Quincey's 
prose should be illustrated rather from the 
Opium-Eater — say, by the gorgeous dream. 
From Macaulay we should choose part of the 
Trial of Warren Hastings or of the Seven 
Bishops ; from Carlyle, some pages of the French 
Revolution ; and from Ruskin, flowers and gems 
out of Sesame and Lilies. It is due to Mr. 
Fowler to say that his criticism, though rather 
formal, is painstaking and generally con'(x;t ; 
but with some of the views in his Introduction 
we cannot agfree. 

XlX.-Centnry Verse. By A. C. McDonnell, 
M.A. (A. & C. Black.) 

Our remarks on Mr. Fowler's " Prose " apply 
mutatis imdandis to this book also. And why 
was the long criticism of Tennyson included, 
since extracts could not be given from his 
works ? Browning, more masculine and, to 
our thinking, more truly representative of the 
age, would have served the purpose equally 
well. Here, again, we are not satisfied with the 
work chosen as typical. Wordsworth's Laoitumia 
is splendid, though some would prefer Itidlt or 
the Intimations uf Immortality ; but surely some 
of the sonnets, the noblest since Milton's, should 
have been included — and Goody Jilake should 
have been excluded by one who holds that " it 
shows Wordsworth at his worst" (p. 16). Scott 
wrote higher poetry, in Marrnion and The Lady 
of the Lake, than the stirring tale of Deloraine't 
Quest ; the latter part of the long extract from 
Doit Juan is in Byron's worst vein ; and Shelley 
would have been better shown in his Cluud and 
Arethusa. From the views in the Introduction 
we wholly dissent. England had not to leam 
from the French Revolution that men are free 
(p. 6) ; the years which preceded, which em- 
braced the whole life of Bums and the poetic 
life of Cowper, should not be describtnl as 
" remarkable for their barrenness " (p. 2) ; 
and we should be puzzled to find where 
Tennyson " goes deeply into the spirit of 
evolution " (p. 9). 

Selections from Wordsworth. By W. T. Webb, 
M.A. (MacmiUan & Co.) 

We have here an excellent addition to an 
excellent series, and another witness to that 
revival of Wordsworth's fame which was 
initiated by Palgrave and enhanced by Matthew 
Arnold. The poems chosen are all worthy of 
the poet, and show him at his best; but, of 
course, every lover of Wordsworth will wish that 
more had been included, especially of the 
" Sonnets." We are glad to find, most 
appropriately close to the " Ode to Duty," the 
" Happy Warrior," than which there are few 
nobler short poems in the language. Mr. 
Webb's introduction is a carefid piece of 
work, and shows insight into his author's 
spirit. In particular, his comparison of Words- 
worth's " Sonnet to the Skylark " with Shelley's 
Ode is admirable, and it is well in these days to 
be reminded, from the lives of Wordsworth and 
of his great forerunner Milton, of the duty of 
patriotism and the need of a lofty, unbending 
love of freedom, combined with obedience to 
moral law. We believe we could show good 
cause against Mr. Webb's judgment on " She 
was a phantom of delight," and we think 
he has not said enough of the evenness of 
Wordsworth's poetry, the absence of fire and 
passion, qualities so marked in Byron. The 
notes are full and instructive, almost too full. 
and at times just a little prosy. In another 
edition, which, we hope, may soon be called for, 
Mr. Webb will no doubt correct (p. xix.) 
" Common Law" to " Ciuil Law." 



Jan. 15, 1898.] 



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Nlebuhr's Heroen-Geschichten. With Note."), 

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[Jan. 15, 1898. 



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VIVIAN PtiTLLIPPS, BA,Fette8 College. Second Edition, 
Revised. Pott fivo, price Is. 

PRIMER of FRENCH PHILOLOGV and LITERA- 
TURE. By B. TII- TRUE. Pott 8vo, cloth, price Is. fid. 



WHAT THE PAPERS SAY 

OP 

CASSELUS 

Educational Works. 



"A HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 

by Mr. H. O. ARN0LD-F0R3TER, M.P., which Messrs. 
Cassell have just issued at 5s., has all the inijredients which 
jfo to the formation of a universally popular work. While 
it is certain to become a standard history book in schools, 
it is at the same time most conveniently arransed for use 
in the home as a dependable book to be referred to in all 
mi^tters of historical tact, and it is also written so clearly 
and attractively that it may be read right throujfh merely 
for its interest as a straightforward and comprehensive 
narrative."— i>ai7y Mail. (Fully Illustrated, price 68.) 

"CASSELL S FRENCH DIOTIOMARY 

is at once the cheapest, the most complete and e.^tensive, 
the only thorouehly accurate book of the kind in this 
country."— r/te Record. (490th Thousand, price 38. 6d,) 

"C ASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY 

is the best in the field, and were it not for the special merits 
of one or two. we miijht sav that this is first and the rest 
nowhere."— Jbwrna? of Education. (207th Thousand, 
price 38. Gd.) 

"CASSELL'S LA.TIN DICTIONARY 

is the handiest, the most useful, and certainly the very 
cheapest to be met with." — The Rock. (U2th Thousand, 
price 38. 6d.) 

"CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH 

have had a circulation exceeding 140,000, and are more and 
more in demand. They are cheap, handy, well-bound, and 
nicely printed." — Educational N'ews. (Parts I, and It., 
Is. 6d. each; complete 28. Gd.— Key, Is. 6d.) 

"THIS WORLD OF OURS, 

by H. O. AHNOLD-FORSTER, we do not hesitate to 
say should be in the hands of every teacher of fteography, 
and of every schoolboy or girl of thirteen and upwards 
whose parents can afford to buy it." — Guardian. (Cheap 
Edition, 28. 6d.) 

" A FIRST SKETCH OF 

ENGLISH LITERATURE, 

by Prof. HENRY MORLEY, is fall of admirable matter, 
carefully and consecutively arranged, accurate in detail, 
simple and manly in style, judicious and appreciative in 
cr\t\Q\sm'^ Spectator. (Price 7k. 6d.) 



'THE 



STORY OF 
ENGLISH 



LITER AT QRE 



WtLLlAMS AND NORGATR, 

14, HENEIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDONi 

20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH; 

Aire 7, BROAD STREET, OXFORD. 



has been told by Miss Anna Buckland with great taste, 
judgment, and skill — Literary World. (Price 3s. 6d.) 

'SCARLET AND BLUE 

is a capital collection of songs by JOHN FARMER, Musical 
Birectorof Balliol College, well printed and otherwise ta-^te- 
fully got up " — Westminster Gazette. ( Wobds and Music, 
6s. ; Words only, 6d. and 9d.) 

" GAUDEAMUS. 

Edited by JOHN FARMER, consists of over 100 well- 
known favourite songs which have resounded in school- 
rooms and college-halls for many generations."— jTAe Times. 
(WoBDs AND Music, 5s. ; WoEDO ouly, 9d. and 6d ) 

"DULCE DOMUM 

134 Rhymes and Songs for Children, is all fan and higb 
spirit, with here and there a dash of sentiment and 
pathos." — School Board Chronicle. (Words and Music, 
58, ; also in Two Parts, Tonic Sol-fa, 6d. each.) 

"ROUND THE EMPIRE, 

by G. R. PARKIN, entirely captivates the imagination 
from the Preface by the late Prime Minister of the Empire 
to the final quotation from the greatest poet of the Victorian 
era, and this none the less for the simplicity of style and 
treatment." — School Board Chronicle. (85th Thousand, 
fully Illustrated, Is. ed.) 

"A COMPLETE MANUAL OF 
SPELLING, 

by J. D. MORELL, has had a wonderful success as a 
systematic key to the mysteries, irregularities, and in- 
consistencies of English orthography."— jScAooZ Board 
Chronicle, (108th Thousand, price Is.) 

Cassell's Educational Catalogue loill be sent post free 
on application. 

CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited, Ludgate Hill, 
Loadon, K.C. 



FROM WA LTER SCO Trs LIST. 

Crown 8vo, cloth, .39. 6d each ; somi? v ils 6-i. 

THE CONTEMPORARY 

SCIENCE SERIES. 

Edited by HAVELOCK ELLIS. 



EVOLUTION OF SEX. 

ELECTRICITY IN MODERN 
LIFE. 

THB ORIGIN OF THE 
ARYANS. 

PHTSIOONOMt AND EX- 
PRESSION. 

EVOLITTION AND DISEASE 

THE VILLAUB COMMUNITY' 

THE CRIMINAL. 

SANITY AND INSANITY. 

HYPNOTISM. 

MANUAL TRAININft. 

SCIENCE OP FAIRY TALES. 

PRIMITIVE FOLK. 

EVOLUTION OF MARRIAOE, 

BACTERIA AND THEIR 
PRODUCTS. 

EDUCATION AND HERE- 
DITY. 

THE JtAN OF OENIUS. 

THE GlUrtMAR OF 
SCIENCE. 

PROPERTY : ITS ORIGIN 
AND DEVBLOPMBNT. 



VOLCANOES : PAST AND 

PRESENT. 
PUBLIC HEALTH PBOB' 

LB .MS. 
MODERN METEOHOtOOt. 
THE GERM-PLASM. 63. 
THE INDUSTRIES 111' 

ANIMALS. 
MAN AND WOMAN. «». 
MODERN CAP1TALIS.H. 
T HO Ull IITTRANS FB RB SCE. 
COMPARATIVE I'.SYCHO. 

LOGY, 
THE ORIGINS OF INVBS 

TION. 
THB GR)WTH OF TrtE 

^VOLUTION IN ART. Bs. 

hatluoinations amd 

Illusions, m. 
Psychology of the 

emotions, es. 

THE NEW P.SYOHOLOOY Si 
SLEEP. By Dr. M. dk M»«, 

cmNE, 



THE SCOTT LIBRARY. 

Cloth, uncut edges, tjilt top, [.rice Is. 6d. 
per Volume. 

Each Volume carefully e<lited, with Introduction. 
The Collection now numbera 103 Books. 



ROMANCE of KING ARTH UR 

THORBAU'S WALDEN. 

THOREAU'S " WEEK." 

THOREAU'S ESSAYS. 

ENGLISH OPIUM-EATER. 

LANDOR'S CONVERSATIONS. 

PLUT.iRCH'S LIVES. 

RELIGIO MEDICI, 4c. 

SHELLEY'S LETTERS. 

PROSE WRITINGS OF SWIFT- 

MY STUDY WINDOWS. 

THE ENGLISH POETS. 

THE EIGLOW PAPERS. 

GREATENGLISH PAINTERS. 

LORD BYRON'S LETTERS. 

ESSAYS BY LEIGH HUNT. 

LONGFELLOW^ PROSE. 

GREAT MUSICAL 
COMPOSERS. 

MARCUS AURELIUS. 

TEACHING OF EPICTETU8. 

SENECA'S MORALS. 

SPECIMEN DAYS IN 
AMERICA. 

DEMOCRATIC VISTAS. 

WHITES SELBORNE. 

DEFOE'S SINGLETON. 

MAZZINI'S ESSAYS. 

PROSE WRITINGSOF HEINE. 

REYNOLD'S DISCOURSES. 

PAPERS OF STEELE AND 
ADDISON. 

BURNS'S LETTERS. 

VOLSDNGA SAGA. 

SARTOR RESARTUS. 

WRITINGS OF EMERSON. 

LIFE OF LORD HERBERT. 

ENGLISH PROSE. 

IBSEN'S PILLARS OF 
SOCIETY. 

IRISH FAIRY AND FOLK 
TALES. 

ESSAYS OF DR. JOHNSON. 

ESSAYS OP WILLIAM 
HAZLITT. 

LANDORS PENTAMERON.tc. 

POE'S TALES AND ESSAYS. 

VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 

POLITICAL ORATIONS. 

AUTOCRAT OF THE BREAK- 
FAST TABLE. 

POET AT THE BREAKFAST 
TABLE. 

PROFESSOR AT THE BREAK- 
FAST TABLE. 

CHESTERFIELD'S LETTERS. 

STORIES FROM CARLETON. 

JANE EYRE. 

ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND. 

WRITINGS OF THOMAS 
DAVIS. 

SPENCE'S ANECDOTES. 

MORE'S UTOPIA. 



SjLDPS oulistan. 
english fairy tale1. 
northern studies, 
famous reviews, 
aristotle's ethics. 
pericles and aspasia. 
annals of tacitus, 
e.ssays of elia. 
balzac's short 

STORIES. 
DE MUSSET'S Cil.MEDIES. 
CORAL REEFS (DARWINI. 
SHERIDAN'S PLAYS. 
OUR VILLAGE. 
MASTER HU.MPHRBY'S 

CLOCK. 
TALES FROM WONDER 

LAND. 
JERROLD'S ESSAYS. 
THE RIGHTS OF WOMAN. 
"THE ATHKNIAN ORACLE. 
ESSAYS OF SAINTE-BEUVE. 
SELECTIONS FROM PL.iTfl. 
HEINE'S TRAVEL 

SKETCHES- 
MAID OP ORLEANS. 
SYDNEY SMITH. 
THE NEW SPIRIT. 
MALORY'S BOOK OF MAR 

VELLOUS ADV'ENTDRE- 
HBLP.S'S ESSAYS ANU 

APHORISMS. 
ESSAYS OF MONTAIGNE. 
THACKERAY'S BARRY 

LYNDON. 
SCHILLER'S WILLIAM TEL 
CARLYLE'S GERMAN 

ESSAYS. 
LAMB'S ESSAYS. 
WORDSWORTH'S PROSE. 
LEOPARDI'S DIALOGUES. 
THE INSPECTOR-GENERAI 

(GOGOL). 
BACON'S ESSAYS. 
PROSE OP MILTON. 
PLATO'S REPUBLIC. 
PASSAGES FROM FROIS 

SART. 
PROSE OF COLERIDGE. 
HEINE IN ART AND 

LETTERS. 
ESSAYS OF DE QOINCEY. 
VASARI'S LIVES. 
LESSING'S LAOCOON. 
PLAYS OF MAETERLINCK 
WALTON'S COMPLETE 

ANGLER. 
LESSING'S NATHAN Til 

WISE. 
STUDIES BY RENAN. 
MAXIMS OF GOETHE. 
SCHOPENAUER. 
KENAN'S LIFE OF JESCg 



London : 
WALTER SCOTT, Limited, Paternoster S^iuar. 



Jax. 15, 1898.] 



Gnd- Vases: Historical and Descriptive. By 
Susan Homer. (Swan Sonneuscheiu.) 

Deeming that previous writers on the subject 
jhaye been accustomed to dwell rather upon the 
[artistic aspect and on the chronological styles 
jof Greek vase-paintings to the neglect of their 
epical qualities, Miss Suoan Homer has con- 
ceived the novel idea of compiling an elemen- 
tary handbook for the benefit of such as may 
be " unacquainted with the Greek language, 
jhistory, and legends." For them, indeed, her 
(little treatise is not without its uses. It begins 
|with a tabulated list showing in outline the 
typicaJ forms of Greek vases, their several 
jQames and purposes being clearly and suc- 
binctly stated. There follows a descriptive 
'-atalogue of some selected specimens from the 
British Museum and the Loma-e collections, in 
Vuir chapters, devoted one each to the four 
leriods of Greek vases, from the earliest to the 
)e8t, and ending with the latest period, that of 
lecadence. The work concludes, in lady-like 
j'ashion, with " an expurgated Lempriere " account 
l)f the different divinities, herops, and other 
|uythical beings depicted on Greek vases. How 
Hgidlythis version is a.da.ytedvMp)iibiis}meH$qiie 
juay be understood when it is" found that the 
'lisiinctive feature of the Amazons is not so 
■ ' -h as hinted at— they are defined merely as 
race of warlike females " ; while of the 
. yrs, whose questionable habits were quite 
•roverbial, the authoress, with becoming 
eticence, says "they were addicted to wine 
nd led a life of wild pleasure." 

Tarbutt's Plastic Method, and the Use of Plasti- 
cine in the Arts of Writiwj, Dratvimj, and 
Modelling in Educational Work. By Wm 
Harbutt (Bath). With o(i lUustratious.' 
(Chapman & Hall.) 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



69 



a generation of scholars in the use of Plasticine, 
if only half the tale be true, ought to be an 
immense gain ; but, if all of it be true, then, 
indeed Mr. Wm. Harbutt (Bath) will deserve 
to rank among the greatest benefactors of 
the age. 

^'i^ Ti-ttinir,g of a Craftsman. -Written by 
Fred. MiUer. Illustrated by Many Workers 
in the Art Crafts. (J. S. Virtue & Co.) 



HE existence of a general proclivity among 
oung children to manipulate mud-pies and to 
!ear tottering fortresses in wet sand is a fact 
leyond dispute ; but such that the significance 
jf it has not hitherto been properly appreciated. 

1 or unto whom has it ever been given, until 
\°\ *° .discern in these phenomena the forecast 
|t the gifts of sculpture or architectural con- 
jtructiveness ? But that this is the case Mr 
:Vm. Harbutt (Bath) bears testimony. Hence- 
prth, therefore, let arbitrary " O^j-mpians " 
ike warning that in repressing the natural 
ent of infant genius they incur the gravest 
asponsibility. How many potential Pheidiases, 
'raxitaleses, Abbe Suger», and Williams of 
kykeham the shortsighted tyranny of parents 
nd pedagogues has rendered inoperative, to 
le consequent irrevocable loss of the human 
ice, 18 awful to contemplate ; the number 
;mst far exceed that of the silently inglorious 
liltons, even reckoning all those of a minor 
legree .' On the other hand, we may reflect 

2 the numbers of Pearsons guiltless of tamper- 
iig «ith so many Peterborough fa.;ades, and be 
lianktul for that we have escaped. Mr. Wm. 
i.^rbutt (Bath) is no meie theorist; he 
ladently has the courage of his convictions, 
etemuned that for the future means shall 
Jtlackof developing innate childish talents. 
^^» Vjo^ded a modelling material named 
|Plasticme," the virtues of which, by word 
|id lUustration. he celebrates throughout some 
wee score and a hundred pages. This new 
)mposition is warranted not to lose its 
ictabiUty, at the same time that it requires 
|J wet cloths as does ordinary clay. The 
l-aKitical advantages of using it are many 
•Id varied; they range from the acquisition 
_ ttie accomplishment of reading and writing 
;ithout tears, to the fashioning of shoe-lasts 
) much does the author of Plastinine nWi-n 



^T^^^^' j^ ^'^ *'® 1"^^" willing to aUow that 
Mr. Ired. Miller is a practitioner of no mean 
abihty m several different departments of art 
industry it is clear that the literary gift is not 
to be reckoned among them ; unless, indeed, we 
may assume that his book on The Training of 
a Craftsman had to be put together in so great 
a hurry that the writer was prevented from 
domg proper justice to his powerS. The 
impression, indeed, that one receives from it 
IS that of an iU-digested work, diffuse, and 
full of repetitions, as though cuttings from 
various papers upon similar subjects had been 
hastily patched together, without method and 
without revision. The most valuable part of the 
book consists in the extracts, introduced now 
and again, from certain recognised authorities on 
the several crafts. The result, however, becomes 
not a little confusing when their testimony 
agrees not together,asinthe caseof Bookbinding. 
Thus, whereas Mr. Cobden-Sanderson (whose 
last name, by the way, is persistently mis-spelt) 
holds that with just a "few tools endless 
combmations are possible," and "that the fewer 
the tools used in book-cover decoration the 
better," Mr. MacColl is represented as ridicul- 
ing the practice as "acrobatic." "There is 
s..mething amusing," he says, " in the attempt 
to obtain numerous combinations out of an 
arbitrarily limited set of forms." These two 
mutually destructive opinions are quoted by 
Mr. Miller with apparently equal approbation. 
There is, no doubt, much to be said for Mr. 
MaoColl's contention, that the wheel tool need 
not be confined exclusively to the ruling of 
straight lines ; yet the illustrations intended to 
establish the point are distinctly unconvincing. 
On the contrary, the vagaries of the wheel seem 
to be as wild and irrational as those of 
" Planchette," and go to prove, if anything, 
that the tool in question is apt to mn away 
with the hand that employs it, unless it be kept 
under most rigorous control. For the rest, the 
book is plentifully illustrated, though a large 
number of the blocks are only resuscitations of 
those that have already appeared in the Art 
Journal. 



mucli does the author of Plasticine claim 
r ms invention, that it sounds worthy of 
iioption, at least as an experiment, in technical 
lid other schools. The residt of training up 



The Building of the Intellect. By Douglas 
M. Gane. (Elliot Stock.) 

This "contribution towards scientific method 
in education " is rather bewUdeiing. The 
author has given us a wealth of quotations from 
men of all ages and degrees of authority, but 
his own doctrine is, so far as we can gather it, 
neither rigorously deduced nor plainly stated! 
It is impossible, we hold, to educate a child as if 
he were an Athenian of the Periclean age, and 
the product, morally, was not of the best. Nor 
does it help us much to have a little bit of 
embryology introduced. We regret that we 
cannot speak more favourably of what is 
evidently an honest attempt to grapple with a 
problem of the highest importance. 

Selections from Sir Thomas Malory's Morte 
d' Arthur. By W. E. Mead, Ph.D. (Leipsig) 
(Boston, U.S.A. : Ginn & Co.) 

This volume is introduced most appro- 
priately to the English market by Mr. 
Jfutt, who has himself done so much for our 
early classics. It adds to the already large 
body of good work that has been done by our 
American brethren in many departments of 



English literature, particularly in its origins 
for the publications of which Messrs. Ginn are 
so woU known. It is very pleasant to have a 
scholarly rexjroduction of about one-fourth of 
Malory's noble romance finely printed, carefully 
edited after Caxton's original, and equipped 
with aleamed (and not too long) introduction, 
copious notes, a vocabularj^ of obsolete and 
unusual woi-ds, and full indexes. Mr. Mead 
treats his romance as a monument of literature, 
not as a philological exercise-groimd ; and he 
examines its origin, its worth as literature, and 
its influence on later authors — especially the 
poets of our own age — Tennyson, Morris 
Swinburne, and Spenser. The portions se- 
lected are those of most interest to modem 
readers, and in the notes the connecting links 
of the whole stoiy are given. 

A History of Rome for Beginners. By Eveh-n 

S. Shuckburgh. (Macmillan & Co.) 
The author gives in a single small volume 
a good outline of the gi-owth and develop- 
laent of Eome, from its small and obscure 
beginnmg to the culmination of its glory 
under the first Augustus. The story of nearly 
eight hundred years is told with admirable 
brevity and due sense of proportion. The 
steps by which the city first consoUdated 
its own local power, then gradually extended 
Its sway over Italy, grappled -with, and at last 
crushed, the great maritime power of Carthage ; 
and, finally, under Lucullus, Sulla, Pompey,' 
Csesar, Antony, and Augustus, subdued all the 
countnes east and west, north and south, 
around the groat central sea, are clearly traced. 
Nor are the awful stories of the civil wars for- 
gotten, those recurring storms of savage 
violence that raged with only short lulls from 
Marius to the victorj- of Actium, and swamped 
the Republic in waves of blood. But the best 
and most instractive part of the book is that in 
which Mr. Shuckburgh traces Rome's internal 
development, the march of freedom among the 
citizens, the progi-ess of law and abolition of 
privileges, and the gradual perfecting of that 
tremendous engine of conquest— the Roman 
army. Several chronological and other tables, 
illustrations, and maps, enhance the value of' 
the book. 

England Under the Later Hanoverians, 1760— 
1837. By A. J. Evans, M.A., and C. S. 
Fearonside, M.A. (CHve.) 



This text-book of English historj- is a good 
piece of work—brief without obscmity, clear 
and impartial, giving with fulness enough 
for all ordinary readers the storj' of a veiy 
involved and momentous period in the annals 
of our countiy. The style is pleasant and 
generally con-oct, and the constant references 
to and comparisons with the most recent 
events lend vividness and interest to the 
naiTative. Designed first of all as a text-book 
for students for London University degrees, the 
necessities of the case have forced the authors 
to_ publish this, the second part of vol. iv. 
(I'l-l — 1837), before the first, which is a dis- 
advantage ; but the constant references to the 
unpublished chapters show that they must be 
nearly, if not quite, ready for the press, and we 
hope, therefore, soon to see the historical chain 
completed. The book is illustrated by some 
clear maps and plans— especially that showing 
the partitions of Poland (p. 236)— and by full 
chi-onological and other tables; and a feature 
most praiseworthy is the array of authorities 
quoted, thus refeiring the reader to the best 
sources for further study. One or two small 
defects we notice. Why say that Charles II. 
"lay low" instead of "dissembled" (p. 11)? 
■\VTiat is "clerical Presbyterianism " (p. 16) P. 
Is Ireland a "colony" of England (p. 17) ■• 
and " given out " is not good English for 
"exhausted" (p. 326). 



70 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



[Jan. 15, I89iv,. 



Xiiiii Lear. Edited by A. W. Verity, M.A. 
(Cambridge: University Press.) 

Mr. Verity has here given us a model edition 
of the tragedy which Hallam ranked with 
" Othello " and " Macbeth " as Shakespeare's 
supreme work. Introduction, notes, glossary, 
and index — all are good. Nothing that bears 
on his subject-matter seems to have escaped the 
editor, and — which is even more rare — his wise 
self-restraint has imported nothing alien into 
his work. What we like best in the introduc- 
tion is the analysis of the chief characters in 
Jthe play, the careful way in which the meaning 
and development of the plot are traced, and 
the criticism on the play's tragic ending. The 
glossary is full and painstaking. Unfamiliar 
words and phrases in any way strange are 
carefully registered and explained, with ety- 
mology sufficient for schoolboys, and that 
•etymology ^always accurate ; and the frequent 
grammatical notes are excellent. In a word, 
this edition seems to us to contain in short 
compass all that it should — and nothing 
•else. Cambridge has done noble work for 
Shakespeare's text and for the extension of his 
fame, and the book before us is a substantial 
gain. Mr. Verity's style is clear, simple, and 
elegant : few better books coidd be chosen for 
•class use. 

Milton's Paradise Lost. Book II. Edited by 

F. Gorse, M.A. (Blackie & Son). 
We have here a careful and instructive 
■edition. Intended for less advanced pupils than 
Mr. Verity's, it is less elaborate. The intro- 
duction is a good bit of work, containing an 
interesting sketch of Milton's life, illustrated 
from the " Sonnets," and by a suggestive table 
of great contemporary events. The theme of the 
poem is then analysed, and its cosmogony and 
metre explamed. The text is well printed, 
divided into sections with explanatoiy headings. 

The Talisman ("Sir Walter Scott" Continuous 
Readers). By W. Melven, M.A. (A. & C 
Black.) 

What Constable did as pioneer of cheap good 
books m 1825, when The Talisman was first 
published, Messrs. Black are now doing over 
again m a form better suited to the needs of 
the present day. It was the first of Scott's 
novels which we ourselves read, and ranks with 
Kenilworth and Ivanhoe, we think, as the best 
■ of them all for boys who are not Scotch. Mr. 
Melven has done the work of abridgment well 
preserving the main story in the author's 
words, and his introduction is scholarly and 
interesting. "^ 

The Tllustrated Teacher's Bible. (Eyre & Spottis- 
woode.) 

This new and revised edition of Messrs. Eyre & 
Spottiswoode's Teacher's Bible wiU be found 
admirable f>,r private and class study. Nearly 
sff. ,J°}T'' *' occupied by " Aids to the 
mudent. These are arranged in twenty-four 
chapters, and consist of short, but fairly exhaus- 
cfl *^?, * ""^ Biblical subjects. The history 
-of the Bible, as a whole, is written by the Kev. 
H. B. Swete, D.D. Such lesser subjects as the 
plMits of the Bible, the animal creation in the 
Bible, weights and measures of the Bible, and 
Biblical chronology, are also the subjects of 
special treatment. Room is found for a concord- 
ance containmg over 40,000 references. Not the 
least important part of the work is the lone 
series of plates, placed together at the end of 
the volmne. In these the attempt has been 
made "to outhne the entire field of BibKcal 
archiBology and to stimulate the growing taste 
for a knowledge of the results of modefn dis- 
covery m Babylonia, Egypt, and Assyria." 
Ihere are also numerous photographic repro- 
ductions of ancient writings and monumente. 



THE PITT PRESS SERIES. 
We have received a batch of new publica- 
tions belonging to this series which we can 
commend to the attention of schoolmasters. 
In Greek we have 'the Medea of Euripides, 
edited by Mr. Clinton E. S. Headlam, who 
has based his interpretations on those of 
Wecklein, Lenting, Verrall, Paley, and others, 
and has followed Prinz in his method of 
designating the MSS. tradition. Mr. E. S. 
Shuckburgh edits those of the Lives of Nepos 
which were not included in the three volumes 
of Nepos's texts, published by him pre- 
viously. Ample notes and vocabularies are 
added, as in the other volumes. Cassar's De 
Bello CiaUieii, Book II., is also edited by Mr. 
Shuckburgh on the same lines as the Nepos, 
but with the additions of a map and a few 
useful illustrations. 

In Modem Languages we have The Fairy 
Tales of Master Perrault. It has not been the 
object of the editor, Mr. Walter Rippmann, to 
furnish a critical text, but "one that will be 
suitable for children who would like to enter 
the garden of French literature, hand-iu-hand 
with their old friend Cinderella and little Red 
Biding Hood." For older students the Pitt 
series now offers La Fortune de d'Artagnan, 
edited by Mr. Arthur R. Ropes, and Beini 
et ses Amis, edited by Margaret De G. Verrall. 
The firot is an episode from Dumas' Le VicMmte 
de Brngelonne. Mr, Ropes sums up Dumas, 
the man and the writer, in a pithy intro- 
duction, not sparing tj point out his fre- 
quent historical inaccuracies as distinct 
from allowable anachronisms. He remarks 
that while " Dumas wept when he had to kill 
Porthos, it would seem as if he had to depute 
the death of d' Artagnan to one of his assistants." 
Miss VerraU's book is an abridgment of Hector 
Malot's Sans Famille, a work which was 
crowned by the Academic Fran(;aise in 1878. 
Miss Verrall details the story sufficiently to 
make her abridgment of it clear, and to whet 
the appetite. Notes and a vocabulary are duly 
added. For German students two new reading 
books are Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm, 
edited in a very thorough and scholarly manner 
by Mr. H. J. Wolstenholme. Mr. Walter 
Rippmann, whoM Perraulfs Fairy Tales is 
noticed above, has also prepared Eight Stories 
from Andersen for the yoimgest learners of the 
German language. Grammatical points are left 
for the teacher to clear up, but notes and a 
vocabiilary are supplied. 

Turning now to the Pitt Press English 
Readers we have A Selection of Tales from 
Shakespeare, by Charles and Mary Lamb. This 
volume is edited by Mr. J. H. Flather as a 
useful book for study or practice in reading, 
and as a pleasant introduction to Shakespeare 
himself. It was a happy idea to prepare an 
edition of that curious work Earle's Micro- 
Cosmoyraphie ; or, a Plea of the World Charac- 
terised for school use. Not only does it, as 
the editor, Mr. Alfred S. West, says, "abound 
in allusions to features of English social life 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century," 
but it is packed with pithy observations, 
such as one is glad to think may sink into 
young minds. Here are a few of Earle's quaint 
remarks picked at random from various charac- 
ter sketches : 

"A Child. — The elder he growes, hee is a staire 
lower from God. 

"A Me EKE FoiiMALL Man — He apprehends a 
jest by seeing men smile, and laughs orderly him- 
selfe when it comes to his turne. 

"A Medling Man.— He will take you aside, and 
question you of your affaire, and listen with both 
eares, and looke earnestly : and then it is notliinc 
so much yours as Lis." ° 

Such observations are a profitable study in 
that school which we only quit when we quit 
life. 



FRENCH. 

Quand felais Petit. Par L. Biart. Editc<l bv 
J. Boielle, B.A. Part II. (Cambridge- 
University Press). 

This doHghtfiU reading-book gives us the story, 
told by himself in later years, of that eventful 
twelvemonth in the life of a little Versaillais, 
when— in his eleventh year— his parents are 
compelled to migrate to Paris. The writer 
follows admirably, in clear, simple, idioiuatic 
language, the workings of a child's mind, more 
mature, however, than would be that of an 
English boy of the same age. The scene is laid 
in 1838, "sixty years since," when Louis 
Philippe was king; and chap. ii. contains 
an interesting picture of a bygone Paris, with 
its mingling of magnificence and squalid filth, 
where the public vehicles, Ifalles, pillory, rag- 
pickers, &c., pass in strange panorama before 
the little rustic's eyes. School life, with its 
ambitions, literary and other ; boyish friend- 
ships, and first introduction to polite society, 
as "Jack among the maids" at a girl's birthday- 
party (chap, iv.) are charmingly told. The 
chief gem of the book, however, is the father's 
lesson to his son on the dignity of work, a 
pendant to Mr. Caxton's famous lesson to 
Pisistratus on the broken flower-pot; while 
another is the death of Leontine, with which 
the boy's transition-year closes. The book is 
admirably got up, and the notes are usually 
clear and good, especially on points of granniiar. 
But there are slips, both in Notes and Vocabu- 
lary. Samir-faire, sauvai/e in jiartibus, a(iir a 
Ve'tourdie (all on p. 3) should be explained; 
avant-ijoU (74), p„iiit de rephe (benchmark), 
faille's, and other words are not in the Vocabu- 
lary; and griuchus (73) is in Littr^ and in 
Uatzfeldt, grineheux. Surely witty Scapin is not 
a mere "buffoon"; a will-o'-the-wisp that 
" dogs one's footsteps " would be highly 
comical, and the note on the Buddha (p. 1 1.j) i- 
nonsense that shotdd not have come from w 
countryman of Burnouf. 

A Complete Course of French Composition (inn 

Idioms. By Hector Rey. (Blackie & Son.) 
M. Rey's title challenges criticism, for he is a 
bold man who undertakes, in a single post 
octavo of 214 pages, to give a romplete course oi 
French composition and idioms. Apart, how- 
ever, from a little exaggeration in the claim, 
the book is a thoroughly good one ; the idiontj 
are abundant, careftilly chosen, and wet 
rendered into good English, and the pieces set 
for composition are varied on an ascending 
scale of difficidty, and each made the subject o^ 
real, thorough study. The pupil who goes 
honestly through M. Rey's book with a gooc 
teacher, and (what the author rightly insist* 
on) carefid and exact reading of the hesi; 
French, classical and modem, will not oftei 
find himself at faidt, either before an examine) 
or even in French society. The table o 
comparative idioms, with which the hool 
opens, might well be learnt by heart, and at al 
events deserves very close study. (It is a slip 
of course, to render se couper le doiijt by cut one' 
finger; it means cut off one's finger, the othe' 
being . . . au doigt, p. 15.) The arrange 
ment by which the use of the preliminar; 
exercises is to be postponed till after later one 
have been mastered does not seem very good 
Would it not have been simpler to put them ii 
the order in which they were to be taken ? Th 
phrase "translate in accorrlante with Frenr, 
grammar," sometimes used and more oftei 
omitted, suggests a paradox. " On the spot' 
(p. 134) is generally " stcr-le-champ." '^' 
don't recognise "scribble-book" as correc 
English, and boys should not be encouraged t 
write of being " mixed-up " (p. 156). How 
ever, these are but small defects in a ver 
useful book, which we heartily recommend. 



jAlf. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



71 



' Histoire de la Langue et rje la LittSrature 
Franfaise des Origines a 1900. Par L. Petit 
I de JuUeville. Tome IV. (1600-1660). (Paris : 
I Armand Colin et Cie.) 

|"VVe cannot in our limits do justice to this 
I valuable section of a valuable work. We can 
I only mark one or two outstanding features, and 
'strongly advise our readers to get the book. 
I The fii-st half of M. de JuUevUle's great 
i task is now ended, and the final volume, dealing 
I with contemporary writers, is, most fittingly, to 
j appear during the course of the proposed great 
Exhibition of 1900. Like the earlier volumes, 
ithis also is made up of chapters on the literary 
'history of the period, each Ijy a specialist in his 
[subject, with a concluding section on the state 
land progress of the language. The sixty years 
■oi which it treats, splendid with the names 
,of Comeille, Descartes, and Pascal, and boasting 
many a gi'eat writer besides, were as an overture 
to the full orchestral music of France's 
(Augustan Age. The language, regularised, 
pruned, and chastened from the somewhat rank 
luxuriance that followed on the Eenaissance, 
[became that polished instrument of precise 
;thought which is the pride of every Frenchman. 
iMalherbe as an individual, and as a body the 
,Acatle'mie, child of Richelieu's genius, contri- 
|buted mainly to this result — they by precept, 
land the three great men of genius already 
[uamed by then- practice. 

The sections which will probably prove of 

luiost interest to English readers are that on 

Ithe Academic and the three which treat of the 

jiise and progress of the drama to its culmina- 

ition in Comeille. The former is by the editor, 

livho also deals with the poets of the age — 

Malherbe, Eacan, Eegnier, &c. ; his chapter on 

whom is admirable and most informing criticism. 

A.S one reads how a little social club, formed 

n 1629, took root, and grew up into the literary 

Senate of France, one is driven to wonder 

whether Johnson's Club, founded a century 

ater in circumstances not unlike, could have 

I'eudered analogous service to our language and 

literature, if (say) Chatham had thought as 

Richelieu did. The story of the Academie, its 

|:onstitution and development, and the worthy 

jpirit in which from the first it understood its 

iluties, is deeply interesting ; yet there is to us, 

jis well as to Frenchmen, something veiy comical 

a its formal condemnatory pronouncement on 

Ihe Cid, which Comeille contemptuously left to 

ts mercy. The chapter is further adorned with 

I he portrait of Chapelain, one of the founders, 

I nd the shield bearing the names of the first 

lorty " Immortals." Mention of the Cid 

jiaturaUy introduces the drama. The story of 

|ts first stage is told with learning, critical skill, 

ind minuteness by M. Eigal, who shows how it 

Iprang from the Mysteries and Moralities of the 

lliddle Ages. The earliest playwright was 

jdexander Hardy, whose first plays, crude and 

[lartistic, but Uving productions, were put on 

ihe stage about 1610, just as Shakespeare was 

'losing his wonderful literary career. It is 

[urious to see how long and chequered was the 

|ght to establish the " Unities," and how com- 

lete was the victory, till Victor Hugo arose 

Imost in our own day. Everyone will remem- 

er with what skiU Voltaire defended them — 

lad also how he justified his choice in Bajazet 

|f a contemporaiy plot, whereas Hardy had 

Iramatised both the execution of Mary Queen 

|E Scots and the murder of Henri IV. The 

^st of the book is quite as valuable as what 

e have noticed. Full and impartial justice 

done to the great leaders of thought and 

lasters of style who were the glory of France 

1 the first half of the seventeenth century. 

'omprt-hensive French Ma mud. By Otto C. 
Xaf, M.A. (BlacHe & Son.) 

s the author frankly states, this is a book 
signed to help the examination candidate to 



defeat the subtle attacks of the crafty examiner, 
and for its purpose it will be found very 
serviceable. That is to say, it should be used 
after, and supplementary to, a thorough 
grounding in grammar and a pretty extensive 
course of reading and easy composition. The 
plan adopted is that of a varied selection of fifty 
passages of standard French prose, each of 
which is made the subject of thorough study 
—through grammatical notes, vocabularies, 
imitation composition, and retranslation. 
Then foUow some representative pieces of poetry, 
and then a few passages of English prose for 
translation into French, equipped with useful 
vocabvJaries. In the appendices will be found 
very brief outlines of French political and 
literary history, grammatical notes, commercial 
language, examination papers, and some notes 
on etymology, with a useful list of military 
terms. The two last are excellent, especially 
the former — a piece of thoroughly good work. 
"We have examined the book with gi'eat care, as 
it deserves, and will add that its usefulness 
would be much increased by making the 
index fuller : the grammatical matter is so 
scattered as to require this. A few things we 
should like changed. If Sinbad the Sailor was 
to open the ball, he should have appeared as 
dear old Galland dressed him, and not mas- 
querade as from De Fivast ; and the prose 
extracts should have been aiTanged in chrono- 
logical order. We do not think that "neuter" 
should be used in the grammar of modem 
French, with the one possible exception of ce ; 
and Mr. Naf really should not talk of " female 
persons," grammar being concerned with gender 
not sex. It is improper to write Fendlon, and 
rash to speak of Telemaqrie as " his only gi-eat 
work." But the book as it stands is useful and 
practical, and could easily be made even more 
so. 

A New Orammatical French Course, By Albert 
Barrfere. Vol. I. (Parts 1 and 2); Vol. II. 
(Part 3). (Whittaker & Co.) 

M. Barreee is an experienced teacher, and his 
position and titles mark him out as a distin- 
guished man. We have before us two small 
volumes, forming the elementary and inter- 
mediate parts of his French coui-se, and we are 
compelled to say that we expected from him 
something better. There are already in the 
field so many good French grammars and 
exercise books that a new one must have very 
high qualities to justify its appearance. Those 
qualities we do not find here. The work is 
good, accurate as a whole, and eminently 
simple and easily progressive. But some 
of the rules are stated too absolutely — 
as, for instance, that on the position of 
adjectives ; the difiicult question of the plural 
of compound nouns is not treated' at sufficient 
length, and the crucial case of compounds of 
garde is not mentioned. Similarly, the agree- 
ment of the past participle and the use of the 
subjunctive are too summarily dismissed. The 
foregoing remarks apply to the second volume 
(intermediate). In regard to the elementary 
section, it is divided into two parts, in the first 
of which the pupU is taught to use words and 
phrases without any rules at all, these coming 
only in the second part. We confess to doubting 
whether this is a plan likely to be successful. 
On the other hand, we like the arrangement by 
which the rules are placed (as here) on one page 
and the examples on the opposite. The pronouns 
and possessive adjectives, and the verbs 
especially, are fully and clearly treated, and this 
is a great advantage to pupils. One oversight 
we must correct. M. Barrere says twice (pp. 
40 and 42, vol. i.) that " adjectives agree with 
the pronoun subject" — byinference, therefore not 
with the pronoim object. Would he not say — 
"Je la veux noire" ("I want it black), the 
pronoun standing for eucre or the like ? 



THE CLASSICS. 



GREEK. 
Sophocles. The Text of the Seven Playg. 
Edited, with Introduction, by E. C. Jebb. 
(Cambridge : University Press.) 

Prof. Jebb's Sophocles wiU be welcomed by 
many as supplying a real want. Fifty years 
ago well- printed texts of the Greek dramatists 
appear to have been fairly common; but of 
late the would-be reader has had to take his 
choice between some mean little text, usually 
German, and a larger volume, usually Euglish, 
consisting for the most part of notes. Even 
Prof. Jebb's own editions of the plays of 
Sophocles, though their excellence is proverbial, 
will seem to some lovers of the poet almost a 
less boon than this simple text. We only wish 
the fragments had been included. There is a 
short introduction dealing with the MSS.. Ac, 
and at the bottom of each page are printed the 
varies lectiones. Are we mistaken, or can it 
be really true that neither the Oxford nor the 
Cambridge press is quite as accurate in matters 
of printing as was once the case ? At any rate, 
at the very outset we come across an irritating 
blunder for which the printers are alone respon- 
sible {(Edipua Hex, 1. 46 ) : 

T3\ & $pOTuv &piiTT*, ^v6p0w<fiv iro\(i'. 

The Works of Xenophon. Translated by H. G. 

Dakyns, M.A., late Assistant Master, Clifton 

College. (Macmillan & Co.) 
This so-called third volume, which is really 
two volumes, serves as a welcome reminder 
to the critic that the compilation of school 
books and popular manuals is not the be- 
all and end-all of scholarship. What Jowett 
did for Thuoydides and Plato, Mr. Dakyns is 
doing for Xenophon. He follows the late 
Master of Balliol, as he says in his preface, tion 
passihus cequis : but he would be a bold man 
indeed who attempted to do more, and it is a 
pleasure to catch even an echo of the old 
familiar accents. But in this book we have no 
mere echo : every page that Mr. Dakyns writes 
testifies to his own sterling scholarship and to 
his intimate acquaintance with the subjects of 
which he treats. The first volume (published 
in 1890) contained the Hellenica. Books I. and 
II., together with the AnahaMs; the second 
(1892) included the Hellenica, Books III. to VII., 
the Agesilaus. the Polity of the Athenians, the 
Polity of the Lacedeemoniana, and the Ways and 
Means. Part I. of the present " volume " 
embraces the Memorabilia, the Apology, the 
Economist, the Symposium, and the Hiero : 
Part II. is devoted to the treatises "On the 
Duties of the Cavalry General," " On Horse- 
manship," and " On Hunting." The Cyropcvdia 
is reserved for the fourth volume, " which will," 
Mr. Dakyns hopes (and all English scholars 
must share the hope), " see the light of day 
before the century has ended." Sauppe's text 
is followed, but with discrimination. The 
translations are furnished with ample intro- 
ductions, in which the arguments are analysed 
in detail, and the various questions connected 
with the several treatises are carefully discussed. 

The remarks on ancient and modern cavalry 
in the introduction to " The Duties of a Cavalry 
General " are especially interesting. The most 
seasonable treatise, however, is that entitled 
" On Hunting : a Sportsman's Manual," which 
has a direct bearing on current controversies. 
We almost wonder that Mr. Dakyns did not 
leave untranslated such sentences as these, sen- 
tences that will make some recent writers on 
Public School Athletics shudder : " Among the 
many pleasures to which youth is prone, this 
one alone (hunting) is productive of the greatest 
blessings. ... Of such stuif are good 
soldiers and good generals made." "Some 



72 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



[Jas. 15. 1N98, 



people tell us it is not right to indulge a taste 
for hunting, lest it lead to neglect of home con- 
cerns, not knowing that those who are bene- 
factors of their country and their friends are in 
proportion all the more devoted to domestic 
duties. If lovers of the chase pre-eminently fit 
themselves to be useful to the fatherland, that 
is as much as to say they will not squander 
their private means ; since with the state itself 
the domestic fortunes of each are saved or lost. 
The real fact is, these men are saviours not of 
their ovm fortunes only, but of the private 
fortunes of the rest, of yours and mine. Yet 
there are not a few irrational people omong 
these cavillers, who, out of jealousy, would 
rather perish, thanks to their own baseness, than 
owe their lives to the virtue of their neigh- 
bours." " These are the youths who will prove 
a blessing to their parents, and not to their 
parents only, but to the whole state ;^ to every 
citizen ahke and individual friend. Nay, what 
has sex to do with it ? It is not only men en- 
amoured of the chase that have become heroes, 
but among women there are also to whom our 
Lady Artemis has granted a like boon — 
Atalanta, and Prooris, and many another hunt- 
ress fair." Xenophou, thou should'st be living 
at this hour ! 

The Troades of Euripides. Edited by E. Y. 

Tyrrell. (Macmillan & Co.) 
This is avowedly an edition for the use of 
schoolboys. Schoolboys are extremely fortu- 
nate in commanding the services of such a 
commentator as Prof. Tyrrell, whom the sad 
removal of Prof. Palmer now leaves almost at 
the head of that brilliant galaxy of Dublin 
scholaiship which happily, despite that loss, 
still shows no signs of fading lustre — "imo 
avulso, non deficit alter." The conjecture 

(1. 1188) SOirrai Tf KAli-ai (MSS. vrrui t' ^itf ifoi) 

IS particularly ingenious. In line 700, how- 
ever, why assume that the optative aorists 
«aToiK(ir«io>' and 7«Voito are attracted (from the 
aorist subjunctive) ? Even were the possibility 
of such a construction granted, would it not be 
far more natural to take the two words in 
question as "pure " optatives of wish ? Trans- 
lations, by the editor and others, into English 
poetry of many of the most striking passages 
are embodied in the notes. 

An Historical Greek Grammar, Uliiefly of the 
Attic Dialed, as Written and Spoken from 
Classical Antiquity Dotvn to the Present Time: 
Founded upon the Ancient Texts, Inscriptions, 
Papyri, and Present Popular Greek. By A. N. 
Jannaris. (Macmillan & Co.). 

This work, a volume of 737 large pages, the 
labour of five years, is well indexed, and is 
evidently full of matter, but it is hardly, we fear, 
suited to the English reader. A quotation from 
p. xi. of the preface will illustrate our meaning : 
" To enumerate here all the new features of the 
work, or seek to justify them as well as some 
novel terms {e.f/., phonopathy, metaphony, tri- 
syllabotany, tonoclisis, synenclisis, antectasis, 
revection, secondary subjunctive for optative, 
&c.) introduced for the sake of precision or 
convenience, would lead to an unduly long 
excursus and serve no practical purpose." 
The book is far too long and cumbrous. All 
the classical paradigms ought to be omitted, 
and an intelligible nomenclature should be 
adopted. Such remarks as (§99(5, with reference 
to the future of irln«) " irtoyiai (imprt. irifli) " are 
an ofi'ence against the traditions of two 
thousand years of scholarship. It is impossible 
to treat both ancient and modem Greek with 
any fulness in one and the same book ; they 
are as unlike as, say, Tbermopyla; and Domoko. 

Pylos and Sphakteria, from Thucudides, Book 
IV. (Eivingtons), edited by Mr. W. H. D. 
Bouse, contains a simplified Greek text, with 
notes, a geographical introduction, and eight 



pieces of English prose for translation (or one 
mio-ht almost say "retranslation") into Greek. 
The book is intended for fifth-form use,but might 
perhaps be read with advantage a form lower. 
The note on § 1, 2 is a little misleading. The 
article is surely only omitted when the Persian 
kino- is spoken of in his represtntative and 
public capacity. Thus, in the sentence " Persia 
declared war against Greece," " Persia" would 
be BmriAeiii : but " the Persian king is at 
dinner " would be b BairiAtuj Sa-nvf!. The Eng- 
lish distinction between "the Queen" and 
"the Crown " is somewhat parallel. 

The Anabasis of Xenophon, Book III. (Cam- 
bridge : UnivH'sity Press), edited, in the Pitt 
Presj series, by Mr. G. M. Edwards, is fur- 
nished with an excellent introduction, useful 
notes, and a good vocabularj'. The remarks on 
(i yivqaiiifBa (§ 1, 13) need revision. Surely the 
commonplace of the class-room is quite cor- 
rect — viz., that the future indicative (or in oratio 
obliqua, after past tenses, the future optative) is 
used with «;, instead of the subjunctive with 4dy, 
when the speaker regards the hypothesis as 
(1) highly improbable, or (2) highly distasteful. 

Mr. C. C. Tancock's Story of the Ionic Revolt 
and Persian War as told by Herodotus (Murray) 
consists of "selections from the translation of 
Canon Eawlinson, revised and adapted to the 
purposes of the present work." It was a happy 
inspiration of Mr. Tancock's to undertake this 
task of selection and revision, and the thanks of 
many readers will be due to him, 

Mr. W. B. Donne's Euripides (Blackwood it- 
Sons) , in the series of "Ancient Classics for 
English Readers," under the general editorship 
of the Eev. W. L. Collins, consists of a brightly 
written survey of the life and times of Euripides, 
together with a very sensible account and 
appreciation of his plays. The author, how- 
ever, for one presumably acquainted with the 
Greek language, seems strangelj' unfamiliar 
with the Greek text of his poet. On p. 6 
he refers to Athens as " the new centre of 
Hellas," and then adds: "'Hellas,' although 
a word unknown in the time of Euripides, and, 
indeed, of a much later date, is used here and 
elsewhere in these pages as a convenient and 
comprehensive term for Greece. . . ." " A 
word unknown in the time of Euripides, and — 
indeed, of much later date " .' ! ! What of 
Pindar's 'zwiim ^pfit^a, xMival •AJS»oi ? What 
of Euripides' o^vn frequent use of the word— 
e.g., Hecuba, 330 ; Helen, 882 ; and the first line of 
the famous fragment of the Autolycus ? 

Mr. W. C. P. Walter's Hints and Helps in 
Continuous Greek Prose (Blackie & Son) will, in 
the hands of a good master, be useful for fifth- 
form work. The idioms in the appendix are 
well chosen ; but a considerable portion of the 
information given will be superfluous in the 
case of boys properly grounded in their Greek 
exercises in the lower forms. 

GEEEK AND LATIN. 

Mr. G. B. Green's Notes on Greek and Latin 
Syntax (Methuen & Co.) is written in the hope 
that it " may prove useful in the higher forms 
of schools, and to candidates for university and 
public examinations." The examples of con- 
structions, which fill twenty-three pages out of 
197, are excellently chofsn, and the student 
who is set to answer a "critical paper" will 
find them of value. In the syntax proper Mr. 
Green has essayed a difficidt task. It is im- 
possible to treat the subject of Latin and Greek 
conditional sentences satisfactorily in twelve 
pages, or to deal with the Oratio Obliqua (in 
both languages) in nine. But the attempt has 
not been altogether a failure. Perhaps it would 
be almost better in such a book to sacrifice 
theoretical completeness by taking for granted 
a knowledge of the elements of syntax. 



LATIN. 

Mr. F. W. Hall's The Fourth Verrine of | 
Cicero (Macmillan & Co.) is the model of a ' 
good school edition. Che introduction is 
carefid, adequate, and interesting. The text, 
where doubtful, has been chosen with sotmd 
judgment. The notes are always useful and 
sometimes brilliant. At the end of the book 
are to be found an areha-ological appeudix, a 
short discussion of the chronology of the trial 
of Verres, and a very complete index. The 
edition is altogether one that may be confi- 
dently recommended for sixth-form use. 

Mr. H. W. Auden'g Cicero Pro Plancio 
(Macmillan & Co.) is also a good school book, 
but less careful than Mr. Hall's. For instance, 
in the note on § 59, 22, Mr. Auden writes : 
" Nusquam erant 'never really existed,' but 
were mythological " (of Agamemnon and 
MenelausI). This note overlooks the word 
jam in the text (" Quse t-cripsit gravis et 
ingeniosus poeta, non ut illos regios pueros, 
qui jam nusquam erant, sed ut nos et nostros 
liberos ad laborem et ad laudem excitaret.") 
The true translation is obviously : "who had 
already passed from the earth." 

Macmillan's Elementary Latin-English Dic- 
tionary (Micmillan & Co.) is handy and 
serviceable. If, however, the schoolboy 
attempts to use it for the purpose of verse- 
making he will find that, as is the case with 
many oth<-r recently-printed books, its value 
is impaired by a serious typographical defect — 
viz., that at a little distance from the eye the 
mark over a short syllable is hardly to be 
distingtushed from the mark over a long 
syllable. From practical experience, we would 
suggest that both marks ought to be made 
much larger and more distinct. 

Mr. S. E. Winbolt's Exercises in Latin 
Accidence (Methuen & Co.) are "intended to le*d 
up to Latin Syntax by Mr. Botting." The book 
is well adapted for use in Preparatory Schools. 
It follows the lines of the Latin Primer. 

Mr. J. A. Stevens's Junior Latin Synt'ir 
(Blackie & Son), a little volume of 56 pages, is 
meritoriously compiled, but it is difficiilt to see 
of what use it will be to the boy who possesses 
an ordinary grammar and an ordinary exercise- 
book. 

First Latin Exercises (Longmans), by the Eev. 
J. Went, who appears from the title-page to he 
headmaster of two schools at the same time (a 
little joke, we suppose, of the Charity Com- 
missioners), are " avowedly designed to lead 
young boys, as rapidly as possible, by means of 
very simple exercises, to some easy reading 
book." "In ordinary Grammar Schools only 
a limited amount of time can be given to 
Latin ..." "It is hoped that the exercises 
may prove useful to a considerable number of 
boys who enter Grammar Schools at the age of 
thirteen or fourteen, and who wish to obtain 
some knowledge of Latin in a comparatively 
short time. These boys necessarily cause a 
certain amount of difiiculty in a class. They 
are usually quite up to the averaee of their age 
in other subjects, but being beginners in lan- 
guages they have a difficulty in maintaining in 
the class the position which properly belongs 
to them." These extracts dannent <i penser. 
But, granted the object in view, the book is 
well conceived and well executed. 

Passages from Latin Authors for Translation 
into English (MacmUlan & Bowes), by Mr. E. 
S. Shuckburgh, have been " selected with s 
view to the needs of candidates for the Cam- 
bridge Previous, L^cal and Schools Examina- 
tions." Parts II. and III. have been familiar for 
years to schoolmaster and examinee : Part 1. 1-' 
new, and contains forty-two somewhat easiei 
• pieces. 



Jan. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



73 



SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. 



Important notice.-"arundel society's publications." 



ArraHgements have been made with the " .Arundel 
society " by which the whole stock of its publica- 
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i^romoting' Cliristian Knowledge." 
I This stock includes many thousands of superb 
•eproductions in colours and monochrome of master- 
bieces by Giotto, Masaccio, Fra Filippo Lippi, Fra 
jingelico, Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Michael 
Vngelo, RaffaeUe, Memlinc, Durer, arid numerous 
)ther great artists. 

Hitherto, these publications have, on account of 
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noderate means. The Society proposes to issue 
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heir introduction into the homes of the people. 

A priced Catalogue may be had on application. 
rVith but few exceptions these pictures deal with 
eligious subjects. These Works of Art can now be 
een at the Society's Depots in London and Brighton. 



THIRD EDITION. REVISED AND ENLARGED. 

THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION (Egypt and 

Chaldffia) Bv Professor MASPERO. Edited by the Rev. Profeisor S.\YCE. 

Translated by M. L. McCLURE. With Map and over 470 Illustrations, 

includini! Three Coloured Piates. Demy 4to (approximately), cloth, 
bevelUd boards, 24s. 

[The Autlur has brought this Third Elition up to date, embodying in the Volume the 
recent discoveries of Mr. Flinders Petrie in Egypt and some ol the results of recent 
researches of M. Heuzay iu Mesopotamia. Xotwithstanding the addition of new matter 
(as pp 453, A, B, &c.) the pagiuatiuii has been retained throughout and is parallel with that 
of the French original.] 

HISTORICAL CHURCH ATLAS. Illustrating 

the History of Eastern and Western Christendom until the Reformation, and 

that of the Anglicin Communion until the Present Day. By EDMIJND 

McCLURE, M.A. Containing 18 Coloured JIap.s, besides some 50 Sketch 

Maps in the text. 4to, cloth boards, leather back, 16s. 

This Atlas is intended to indicate some of the stages of the Church's expansion, and at 

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The information given on the maps has been necessarily limited by their size and number, 

but the main features of the spread of the Christian faith have been, ft is hoped, broadly 

traced, and ihe allied chaoges in political geography sutticieiitly depicted. 

" Both the reaierj of Ancient Church History and of Modem Missionary Records will 
find abundant materials in it for their a98i3tan^:e. "—Cruardian. 

*' Everv Student of the Church ttiatory in the past or of her world-wide work In the 
present should make haste to add this handsome volonie to his books."— Aecorcf. 
"A great deal of labour and sound scholarship has gone to the making of this Atlas." 

Academy. 

THE ANCIENT HEBREW TRADITION as 

illurtrated by the MONUMENTS. A Protest against the Modern School of 
Old Testament Criticism. By Dr. FRITZ HOMMEL, Professor of Semitic 
Languagi-s in the University of Munich. Translated from the German by 
EDMUND McCLURE, M.A., and LEONARD CROSSLE. With Map. 
Large post 8vo, buckram boards, 6s. 

"Under the weight of Dr. Hommers cumulative evidence the latest fortress of the 
' Higher Criticism * will have to hi promptly ev.icuated or surrendered at discretion. The 
book has been admirably transla'.ed by ilr. McClure and his coadjutor.'' — Daily Chronicle. 

" As a protest against the modern school of Old Testament Criticism we cordially commend 
the worK as oneof themost valuable yet published."— Pa/i Mail Oazcte. 

*' We are prof.mndly grateful to Dr. Hommel for work whose results will do much to re- 
assure many a timid and distressed believer. "^K«corrf. 

" We can rewmmead Dr. Hommel's well-argued and deeply interesting book to the care- 
ful consideration of all Biblical stttdents."— OjJ/ord Review. 



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WITH 

Revised Aids to Bible Studeats. 

fith Autotypes of Antiiiuities, and Views of Biblical Sites 
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Chsplain to the HoQOurable Society of Lincoln's Ian, 
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MR. F. E. ROBINSON'S LIST. 



iome of the Plates which have been produced by Patent 
Process in our "Woodbury " Works. 

Cameo Portrait of Nebuchadnez 

zar II. 
Clay Cylinder of Nabonidus, King 
of BabyloD. mentiouins his 
^n Belshazzar 



'ortrait of Stone Doorway, with 
Ilittite I"Bcri))tiou 
■■■!.■ Inscriptious 

' nt of Bas-relief from 
r;ibJ8, the Ancient Car- 
:< iikisch 
■iii.in BouDtlary St-mes 
nasir-pal II. Besieging a 



"UNIVERSITIES OP OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE. 

niustrated Popular Histories of the 

COLLEGES. Crown Svo, cloth gilt, 5i. net per volume. 

LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD By Rev. 

ANDREW OURK. M.A., Rectur of Ureal Leighs, Chelmsford ; 
late Fellow of Lincoln. [F>ibntar!/. 

CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 

By Hev. H P. SfOKKS. LL.D., Vicar of St. Paul's, f'ambridge ; 
UamesB Prizeman 1877. IPtbruary. 

. . Other Volumet to folloio. 



Portrait Sculpture of Cyrus 

Trilingual Cylinder-Seal of Darius 

Monumental Names of Babylo- 
nian, Assyrian, aod Persian 
Kings mentioned iu Old Tes- 
tameot 

Bethlehem 

Nazireth, where our Lord was 
brought up 

Cana of Galilee, the Hills of Gali- 
lee in the Distance 

Jacob's Well 
'*»'> of Capernaum 

Tibe lus 

I'luughing with a Yoke of Oxen 

Women Grinding Corn 

Bauiaa (Coeiarea Philippi) 

Bethany 
I Pool of Siloam 
! Wall of Herod's Temple 

"■ Diana of the Ephesiaus " 

One of the Bas-reliefa of the Arch 
of Titus 

Coins of the New Testament 
Period 



ih-m from theN.E. 

■ \'.'m from the South 
t View of Damascus and 

■ ' 'asis 

■ Mermon 
: Tabor 
- iii Lebanon 

. -■.u.'inij'B Arch 

ilaclt OWlisk of Shalmaneser II. 
■c-mfB from the Black Obelisk 
Assault of a Citv by Tiglath- 
Pileser II. (III.) the Pul of 
2 Kin^a xv. in 
iJroken Cylinder, with Inscription 
I of Sargon 

pylinder containing the Account 
I of Sennacherib's Invasion of 
I Judah 

irhe Storming of Lachish 
'.'ylinder with Inscription of 
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With an Introductory Essay by CECIL HEADLAM, late Ddmy of 

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Athemeum. — " His book was a decidedly good idea, which has been 

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Scotsman.—'* Mr. Headlam has doue a good service to a special 
department of British literature." 



or, 



The 



The Guardian's Instruction; 

Gentleman's Romance. Written for the Diversion and Service of 
the Gentry. A Reprint from tlie Edition of 1688. 
This quaint little book contains a defence of the University of 
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position on the education of their sons. 

Witli a Biographical Introduction. Fcap. Svo, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. 
rinw«.— " All'who care for the literature and social history of the 
seventeenth century wiU be greatly obliged to tlie eilitor for tlie 
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reading by the side of Locke's short treatise." 

Manchester Guardian.— "The book is valuable as showing the views 
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A Volume of Si-vcutefiith Ceiittiry I'r-icepts and Aphorisms. 
Bevise<l by HERBERT U. STURMEll. Crown 8vo, cloth 
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Queen—" It is cut out for a school prize." 
Daily '^ews.—" It is full of wise saws and molem iostanoes." 
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and carefully; Ids intnxluction is excellent The author, whoever 

he was, knows how to turu an aphorism with so neat a touch that he 
must have been ancestor of Mr. (Jeorge Meredtth." 

Record.-—'* Probably many of our reiders will bjglad to be told that 
ihe book is a treatise for young men. much like Lord Chesterfield's 
Letters io some r'^snects, but superior la moral tone, while equally 
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74 



THE ACADEMY: EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 



[Jak. 15, 1898, 



CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS, DECEMBER, 1898. 



PITT PRESS SERIES. 



THE PITT PRESS SHAKESPSAKE FOR SCHOOLS. 

Giiardian .—"The not?s are the most successful Mr. Verity has ever given as; we find 
nothing in them that we cotild wish away." 

The Mepehant of Venice. With introduction, Notes Glossary, and Index. 
By A. WILSON VERITr, M.A., Bometime Scholar of Trinity College. Is. 6d. 



NEW ENGLISH GRAMMARS. 

The Elements of English Grammap A. S. West „ 2 5 

Guirdian :— " Ic is far and away the best of its class hitherto published for boys of 
thirteen to sixteen years of age, and, if we mistake not, will soon become a standard test 
iQ secondary schools, and mark a new epoch in the teaching of Engligh Grammar." 

An English Qpammap fop Beginneps . A. s. West 1 o 

Schoolmaster ; — " It is a capital little work, which we can heartily recommend." 



MalOt Rem i et ses Amis Mrs. Verrall 2 

MoliSPe Le Bourgeois Gentilliomme... Clapin 1 6 

Michelet Louis XI. et Charles le 

Temeraire Eopes , 2 6 

AndePSen Eight stories Rippmaun 2 6 

RaumeP Der erste Kreuzzug (the First 

Crusade) Wagaor 2 

Lessingr "'Minna von Baruhelm, oder 

Das Soldatenglaok Wolstenholme 3 

Hacaulay Warren Hastings Innes 1 6 

Milton Paradise Lost, XI. and XII. .. Verity 2 

Lamb Tales from Shakespeare : — 

Tempest, As You Like It, 

Merchant of Venice, King 

Lear, Twelfth Night, 

Hamlet Flather 1 6 



CsBsap 



Da Bello Gallico, Books II. 

and III Peskett 



,, De Bello Gallico, Book H. ... Shuckburgh 1 

Cornelius Nepos ... Lives of Timothem, Phocion, 

Agesilaus, Epaminondas, 

Pelopidas, Timoleon, Eum- 

enes, Datames, Haniilcar... Shuckburgh 1 

Vergil Aeneid, Boo't ( .Sidgwiok 1 

Hopace Odes, Books II. and IV Gow each 1 

Livy BookV Whibley 2 

Tacitus Histories, Book [ Davies 2 

Xenophon Anabasis, Book III Edwards 1 

Homer Iliad, Book XXII 2 

SUPlpideS Medea Headlam 2 

Plato ^ Apologia Socratis Adam 3 

Demosthenes - The Olynthiac Speeches Glover 2 



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DUMAS-LA FORTUNE de D'ARTAGNAN. 

late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 2s. 

PERRAULT— THE FAIRY TALES of MASTER PERRAULT. Edied, 

with Notes and Vocabulary, by W. RIPPMiNN, M.A. Is. 8i. 

EARLE'S MICROCOSMOGRAPHY. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 
by A. 8. WEST, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. Sa. 



THE PITT PRESS SERIES.-BOOKS SUITABLE FOR VARIOUS EXAMINATIONS, 1898 9, 



Atithor. 

Apistophanes ... Vespae 
EUPipides Hercules Furens 

„ Hippolytus 

„ Alcestis 

„ Hecuba 

Hepodotus Book VL 

Homep 



GREEK. 

Sook. 



Editor. Price. 

C. E.Graves 3 6 

A. Gray and J. T. 

Hutchinson 2 

W. S. Hadley 2 



Plato 



Csesap 
Cicero 



Odyssey IX „ , 

Iliad VI. ,XXIL, XXIII., XXIV. 

, Apologia Socratis 

„ Crito 

„ Protagoras 

Plutarch Timoleon 

Xenophon Anabasis, Books I., III., IV., V. 

LATIN. 

De Bello Gallico. Comment. 
L, in., IV., v., VL, & VIII. 

De Senectute „ 

Pro MUone 

, Divinatio in Q. Caecilium et 
Actio Prima in C. Verrem 

Philippica Secunda 

Pro MurenS 

Epistles. Book I 

Odes and Epodes 

Odes. Books I. and III 

Books II. and IV 

. Books VI., IX., and XXVII. ... 

Books XXI., XXII 

, Agricola and Germania 

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J.Adam ., 3 6 



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Livy 



Tacitus , 
YergU . 



J. and A. M. Adam 4 6 

H.A. Holden.. 6 

A. Pretor each 2 



A. G. Peskett 1 6 

J. S. Reid 3 6 

2 6 

W. E. Heitland and 

H. Cowio 3 

A. G. Peskett 3 6 

W. E. Heitland 3 

E. S. Shuckburgh... 2 6 

J.Gow 5 

,, each 2 

,, each 1 6 

H. M. Stephenson each 2 6 

M. S. Dimsdale each 2 6 

H.M.Stephenson... 3 

A. Sidgwiok ...each 1 6 



1 6 



About 

Copneille 

De Bonnechose 

Delavigne 

De Stael 



FRENCH. 

Le Roi dcs Montagncs 

Polyeucte 

Bcrtrand du Gnesclin 

Lcs Enfants d'Edouaid 

Le Diiectoire 



A. R. Ropes 2 

, E. G. W. Braunholtz 2 

S. M. Leathea 2 

H. W. Eve 2 

G. Masson and G. W. 

Prothero 2 

COMPLETE LISTS 



PBEWCH— continued. 
Author. Book. 

Moliere Le Misanthrope „... 

,, L'Arare 

„ ....-.-... L'Ecole des Femmes ^ 

,, Les Precieuses Ridicules 

„ Abridged Edition 

Ponsard Charlotte Corday 

Racine Les Plaideurs _ 

„ «... ,, Abridged Edition 

Souvestre Un Philosophe sous les toits 

Voltaire .« Histoire du Siecle de Louis 

XlV.,PartII.,Chaps.xiv.-xxiv. 

GERMAN. 

Gpimm » Zwanzig Marchen 

Hauff „ Das Wirthshaus 



Editor. 
E. G. W. Braunholtz 

G. Saintsbury 

E. 6. W. Braunholtz 

»» 

A. R. Ropes 

E.G.W. Braunholtz 

H. W.Eve 

G. Masson and G.W. 
Prothero 



Price. 
2 6 



W. Rippmann 

A. Schl )ttminn and 
J.W. Cartmell ... 
A. Schlottmann ... 
W. Wagner 

H. J. Wolstenholme 
K. H. Breul ^. 



,, Die Karavane 

KohlraUSCh Das Jahr 1813 

Riehl Die Gauerben and Die Gerech- 

tigkeit Gottes 

Schiller WilhelmTell 

„ ,, Abridged Edition 

„ .. MariaStuart 

„ Wallen.stein I. (Lager and 

Piccolomini) 

, „ WaUenstein II. (Tod) 

ENGLISH. 

Bacon Essays A. S. West , 

Maeaulay... - - -■• . ..- , 



2 6 



Lord Clive A. D. Innes, 

Arcades and Comus A. W. Verity 

Ode on the Nativity, L' Allegro, 

II Penseroso, Lycidas ,, 

Samson Agonistes ,, 

Paradise Lost, Books I. and II. ,, 

^Paradise Lost, Books III. & IV. ,, 

A Midsummer Night's Dream ... , , 

Jnlius Ciesar ,, 

Tempest „ 

!, King Lear .. 

Scott Marm'on J. H. B. Masterman 

ON APPLICATION. 



The 

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Milton fop 

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London : C. J. CLAY & SONS. Cambridge University Press Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 



J.«f. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



75 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1898. 
No. i34i. New Seriet. 
TERMS OF SUBSCEIPTION. 





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NOTES AND NEWS. 



IN connexion with the awards which w 
have made, it might he useful to say 
'or the benefit of readers wlio liave not yet 
een Mr. Henley's essay on Burns, that the 
publishers, Messrs. Jack, of Edinburgh, have 
list issued it in a shilling edition. In its 
)riginal form it is to be found at the end of 
he four-volume edition of Bums — The 
''entenanj Burns — edited by Mr. Henley 
nd Mr. T. F. Henderson, a work which, we 
night remark, is not easily to be met with. 
I'he request for it one day this week at 
ihree of the leading London bookshops 
tielded no result whatever ; and at Mudie's 
I he edition, quite naturally, has not been 
i)ut into circulation at all. 



Ireland, an admirable collection of mateiial, 
a monument of seLf-sacrificing and dis- 
interested energy, and a permanently valu- 
able contribution to knowledge. May I 
urge, however, that you should not limit 
your field of selection so rigidly. The fund 
which the Academy proposes to establish 
is practically the only one in the countrj' 
available for the encouragement of works 
which do not make a direct appeal to the 
average book-buying public. I would 
jjlace the claims of the following works 
upon j'our consideration : Prof. Ker's Epic 
and Romance, an achievement of constructive 
critical scholarship ; Dr. Jevon's Introduction 
to the Science of Religion ; Mr. Crooke's 
North- West Provinces of India ; Miss Gamett's 
Greek Folk-Poesy ; and Dr. Sigerson's Bards 
of the Gael and Gall. These two last works 
have the merit of interpreting to the English 
reader two alien and highly interesting 
bodies of romantic literature." 



In addition to the replies to our request 
or the names of books suitable for 
' coronation," which were printed last 
veek, we have received others. Among 
hese is one from Prof. Dowden, running as 
oUows : 

" I have read too few books of 1S9T to be 
.bio to express an opinion of their comparative 
Inerits. But I think some of the most beautiful 
j)lank verse wiitten in recent years is to be 
joimd in Mr. Stephen Phillips's Poems, published 
it the close of the year, though dated 1898." 

'rof. Dowden should be gratified to learn 
)ur decision in this matter. 



Sir DotTGiiAS Straight, the editor of the 
Pall Mall Gazette, selects The Nigger of the 
" Narcissus," by Mr. Joseph Conrad, and 
Miss Kingsley's Travels in West Africa. 



Mr. Andrew Lang is a bold man. He 
has compiled ('tis true a little late) an 
English Academy, AND HE HAS IN- 
CLUDED THE NAME OE ME 8WIN- 
BUENE. So much has been said about 
our humble attempt to "play the old 
Academy game" that we feel we are 
entitled to ask just one question of Mr. 
Lang — who might the Macchailean Mohr 
be ? Here is Mr. Lang's forty, as printed 
in Longman's Magazine. They are not his 
personal choice, " but the forty who would, 
perhaps, have a good chance on the French 
principle " : 



Mr. Gladstone. 
Dean Farrar. 
The Bishop of Eipon. 
The Bishop of London, 
The Bishop of Chester. 
Mr. Euskiji. 
Lord Acton. 
Prof. Masson. 
Prof. Butcher. 
Prof. Bryce. 
Prof. Jebb. 
Prof. Mahaffy. 
Prof. Com-thope. 
Lord Eayleigh. 
Sir W. Crookes. 
Lord Kelvin. 
Sir Eobert BaU. 
Mr. Eobert Bridges. 
Mr. S. E. Gardiner. 
Mr. E. B. Tylor. 

"There is not a 



The Macchailean Mohr. 
Mr. James Knowles. 
Mr. Herbert Sjiencer. 
Sir Henry Irving. 
Mr. George Meredith. 
Mr. Leslie Stephen. 
Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 
Mr. Binning Monro. 
Mr. Francis Galton. 
Dr. Fau-baim. 
Mr. Alfred Austin. 
Mr. Swinburne. 
Mr. Lecky. 
Mr. Thomas Hardy. 
Mr. Morley. 
Mr. Max MuUer. 
Sir George Trevelyan 
Mr. A. J. Balfour. 
Prof. Sidgwick. 
Mr. Frederic Han-ison. 



emancipated novelists. Mr. Henley solicit- 
ing the vote and interest of a bishop would 
be an example of unappreciated greatness, 

and it would be pleasing to see Mr. 's- 

call on Mr. Swinburne." 



Mr. Lang's doubts, implied above, concem- 
ing Mr. Max Miiller's friendliness to himself' 
wiU perhaps bo set at rest by learning that 
that gentleman's forthcoming book of remin- 
iscences is to be entitled Auld Lang Syne. 
The volume so named will, we fear, run 
risks of enjoying a KaUyard reputation. 



I Mr. Alfred NuTT writes : "If choice is 
b be rigidly limited to two works, one of 
iwhich is to receive 100 guineas and the other 
1)0, I think the first prize shoidd go to the 
edition of Bums by Mr. Henley and Mr. 
[Henderson, the first adequate edition of the 
poet from the standpoint of literature, and 
')ne which really does reflect honour upon 
)ur national scholarship. The second I 
would award to Mr. Borlase's Dolmens of 



P.S. — Following this section of Mr. Lang's- 
Longman's gossip on Academy - making, 
is a paragraph concerning ghosts, which, 
of course, we did not read, and then a para- 
graph about ants, which we also were dis- 
regarding until the last sentence caught the- 
eye. Alas ! it compels us to withdraw the- 
compliment to Mr. Lang on his boldness. 
For it says : " This reminds me that Sir 
John Lubbock was left out of my Academy. 
I therefore scratch Mr. Swinburne, who 
does not love such laurels." 



Mr. William Nicholson's Almanack of 
Twelve Sports is being issued in a French 
edition, with a preface by M. Octave- 
Uzanne, the most entertaining dilettante 
now writing. It is amusing to find the 
panegyrist of the fan and other boudoir 
trifles standing as the apologist of pictures 
celebrating le cricket and le box. Mr. 
Kipling's verses, we suppose, have not 
been translated. 



a literary gent, among 
them, unless Mr. Stephen and Mr. Harrison 
may accept the title," is Mr. Lang's com- 
ment on his list. What sort of " gents.," 
we wonder, are Mr. Meredith and Mr. 
Hardy ? 

Mr. Lang continues: "Imagine the 
pleasure of going canvassing ! I think of 
presenting myself, for instance, before Lord 
Kelvin — or Mr. Max Miiller — or a bishop, 
unless he were an old friend of unregenerate 
days. Long-haired poets would get little 
encouragement out of Mr. Herbert Spencer, 
and the clergy would soon dispose of your 



American critics are becoming un- 
pleasantly accusative. Two charges of 
plagiarism against English authors have 
just crossed the Atlantic. One paper 
attacks Sir Edwin Arnold ; another accuses 
Mr. Anstey for having in his Baboo Jabberjee 
" stolen or obviously paraphrased many ex- 
pressions from the celebrated Memoir of 
Onocool Chtmdee Mookerjee, the classic in 
Baboo-English, and from a pamphlet by the 
Honourable T. Hart-Davies on the Ilbert 
Bill ; both extremely humorous, but of a 
sort of humour of whic^ a little goes a long 
way." This is a serious charge to base light- 
heartedly upon a necessary similarity of 
diction. No living writer has less occasion 
than Mr. Anstey to borrow the work of 
others. Eeviewers ought to be very careful 
how thej' employ so dangerous and damning 
a word as plagiarism. 

Messrs. Hutchinson & Co. write that 
they are surprised to find in this month's 
Contemporary Review an article by Mr. 
W. T. Stead based upon the Countess 
of Warwick's forthcoming Life of Joseph 
Arch, M.P., since the book is not really 
published until to-day, the 15th. "We 
think it," they add, "due to ourselves to 
explain to you that not a single copy of the 
book has yet been sent out by us, and that 
the advance re\iew has not appeared under 
any arrangement made by us." Certainly 
an irregularity has been committed ; but we 
cannot see that the publishers are much to 
be pitied. No paper is likely to refuse to 
notice the book because an advance copy 



76 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 15, 1898. 



has fallen, probably by way of tlie author, 
into the hands of a Contemporary Reviewer. 



FiKST, the Nelson celebration of 1896, 
and the consequent interest in the navy, 
and second, Mr. Kipling's Seven Seas, 
and Mr. Newbolt's Admirals All, and Mr. 
Rennell Eodd's Ballads of th Fleet, together 
or separately, may be held responsible for 
the naval poetry that we now see in so 
many places. Even the American Chap- 
Book prints a " Song of the Spanish Main " 
of which these are stanzas : 

■" Out in the south, when a twilight shroud 
Hangs over the ocean's rim, 
Sail on sail, like a floating cloud, 
Galleon, brigantine, cannon-browed, 
Rich from the Indies, homeward crowd, 
Singing a Spanish hymn. 



There comes a song through the salt and 
spray, 
Blood-kin to the ocean's roar : 



' All day long down Florez way 

Richard Grenville stands at bay. 

Come and take him if ye may ! ' 

Then hush, for evermore." 



And even a Member of Parliament attunes 
his mind to poesy, for in the Newcastle 
Daily Chronicle is a nautical song by Mr. 
WiUiam Allan, M.P., one stanza of which 



■" The flag that cowed the roving Dane, 
And shattered Gallia's might, 
Tho' leagued with proud and haughty Spain, 

Waves still in glory's light. 
As in triumphant days of old. 

Its laurels bright appear. 
While from the hearts of seamen bold 
This song salutes the ear : 

The soldier may be lord on land. 

And brave in battle be, 
While Britain's sons man British guns 
Jack shall be King at Sea ! 
Hurrah ! Hurrah ! " 



The Chap-BooV s poetry is not, however, 
entirely naval. We find in it also the follow- 
ing elegiac gem, copied from a child's grave 
in an Australian bush town : 

" Oiu' Emily Frances was so fair 
That the Angels envied Her, 
And Whispered in her Ear 

We will take you Away on 

Tuesday night." 



By the death of Mr. Stacy Marks we 
lose a clever painter and a genial Bohemian 
•of the old school. Mr. Marks was the 
Royal Academy's jester ; no other painter 
used pigments as humorously as he. If he 
has a successor it is Mr. Dandy Sadler. Mr. 
Marks was not a great artist, but he made 
the quainter side of bird-life his own, and 
worked there without a rival. His later 
•colour studies of macaws and cockatoos, 
parrots and adjutants, are more highly 
prized by their owners than even his oil- 
paintings will be. Mr. Marks turned 
author a year or so ago, and produced the 
necessary volume of reminiscences. It is 
marked rather by good spirits than good 
literary style. Socially Mr. Stacy Marks 
will be greatly missed. 



Among the latest results of Mr. Glad- 
stone's leisure is the invention of a screen 
constructed to hold, like the cases in St. 
Deiniol's library, " the maximum of books 
in the minimum of space." The screen is 
easily movable. It is made of light wood, 
enamelled white. The front consists of 
shelves for four hundred books, the back is 
covered with tapestry. On the top may be 
placed ornaments. The Gladstone screen 
should be put on the market. 

A CORRESPONDENT writes : " It is a curious 
fact, due, no doubt, to the limited knowledge 
of Dutch in this country, that a remarkable 
linguistic blunder in Mr. Bryce's valuable 
Impressions of South Africa [which we 
review this week elsewhere] has passed 
undetected, although the book is now in a 
second edition. On p. 509 the author says 
the Boers' ' usual term (when they talk 
among themselves) for an Englishman is 
"rotten egg." The other common Boer 
name for an Englishman is " red neck," 
drawn from tho fact that the back of an 
Englishman's neck is often burnt red by the 
sun. This does not happen to the Boer, 
who always wears a broad-brimmed hat.' 
Mr. Bryce has unconsciously done the Boors 
an injustice. They never call an English- 
man a ' rotten egg ' at aU. What they say 
is roode nek, popularly rooic nek or rooinek — 
i.e., ' red neck.' As the oo is the same as 
our long (as in old, door, yeoman, &c.), the 
phrase, when pronounced quickly, sounds 
to English ears not unlike ' rotten egg.' 
This is, no doubt, what has given rise to the 
misunderstanding which has imposed on so 
careful a traveller as Mr. Bryce." 



Mb. W. L. Alden is writing the London 
literary letter for the ]\^ew York Times 
Saturday literary supplement. Beginnings 
are notoriously difficult, and therefore we 
may justly expect better communications 
than his first, which chronicles only the 
proceedings of a school of inferior novelists 
who are already too much written about. 



The verses written by Mr. Bliss Carman 
for the unveiling of the Robert Louis 
Stevenson memorial at San Francisco ran 
as follows : 

" TiiE Word of the Water. 
I. 
God made me simple from the first, 
And good to quench the body's thirst. 
Think you He has no ministers 
To glad that way-worn soul of yours ? 

II. 
Here by the thronging Golden Gate, 
For thousands and for you I wait, 
Seeing adventurers' sails unfurled 
For the four corners of the world. 

III. 
Here passed one day, nor came again, 
A prince among the tribes of men. 
(For man like him is from his birth 
A vagabond upon this earth.) 

IV. 
Be thankful, friend, as you pass on. 
And pray for Louis Stevenson, 
That by whatever trail he fare, 
He be refreshed in God's great care." 

The Canadian poet has here caught some of 
Stevenson's own spirit. 



It is announced that Lady Murray has 
purchased, near Antibes, in the Riviera,, 
a large house, which she proposes to convert 
into a home of rest for authors and artists 
in poor health and circumstances. The 
home will be opened from February 1 next to 
May 31, and henceforward from November 1 
to May 31. Particulars may be obtained 
of Lady Murray, Villa Victoria, Cannes. 
Meanwhile the following rules are made 
public by the JDaili/ Mail : 

"1. That the health of the applicant is such| 
as to make a winter in a mild climate necessary, 
or at least advisable. 

2. That he is unable to obtain this without 
such assistance as he will find here. 

3. That his medical advisers are able to givi 
a fair hope that with the benefit of a wintei 
abroad he will be able to return to his work. 

4. That those admitted pay their journey out 
and back, and £1 a week for board and lodging. 
Personal washing, extra fires and lights, and 
wine, will be charged extra. No dogs allowed." 



Mr. John Morley will open the Passmort 
Edwards Settlement on Saturday evening, 
February 12. Lord Peel will take the 
chair. Among the arrangements for the 
spring term are a course of eight lectures 
by Miss Jane Harrison, on Delphi. M 
Homolle, Director of the French School ai 
Athens, has kindly lent Miss Harrisoi 
photograjihs of some of the recent dis 
coveries, which will accompany her lectuit - 
as lantern illustrations. 



Mr. Le Galliexne, who is about to visi 
America, will stay there at least a year, an( 
he may reside permanently in New England 



Messrs. Chapman & Haxl announce . 
work by Mr. Alfred T. Story, entitle 
The Building of the Empire, which purjiort 
to be the story of England's gi-owth fron 
Elizabeth to Victoria. The book will hav. 
more than a hundred illustrations from i m 
temporary prints. 



Messrs. Methuen will publish iiiiiii 
diately a work entitled The Niger Souri- - 
by Colonel J. Z. Trotter. The work wil 
contain a route map and illustrations. 



We understand that Mr. Elliot Stool 
will be the London publisher of the Nei 
Birmingham Ruskin Society's magazine 
Sai)it George. 



The author of ^Liza of Lamleth, Mr. W^ i? 
Maugham, has written a second novel of i 
very different character, the principal even 
of which is a revolution in an Italian towi 
in the fifteenth century. This looks hki 
versatility with a vengeance. 



The date for the publication of th 
biography of the Prince of Wales, whicl 
Mr. Grant Richards has long had in pre 
paration, is now definitely fixed for Monda 
next. 



The Queen has accepted a copy of Mrs 
Craigie's romance Th« School for Saints. 



Jan. 15, 1»98.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



77 



REPUTATIONS 
RECONSIDERED. 



IV.— MATTHEW AENOLD. 

"TN a slight but interesting contribution 
jj_ to Lord Tennyson's biography Mr. 
pheodore Watts-Dunton draws a shai-p con- 
Irast between two kinds of poetiy : one, which 
lie calls popular, " appealing to the unculti- 
j-ated masses" ; the other, artistic and appeal- 
jag only to those "who are sensitive to the 
Upression of deep thought and the true 
■eauties of jioetic art." But in carrying 
lut his argument he unwittingly shows that 
la be " artistic " in his sense is to be limited, 
jor the greatest poets appeal both to the 
liany and the few. He instances Shake- 
ipeare, who is "the most popular," and j'et 
jranscends all others in beauty of expres- 
ion. Homer, Dante, Moliere — all the 
upreme poets might have been added, 
jnong those who do not win attention from 
11 sorts and conditions of men, but whose 
oetiy commands a select and intelligent 
udience, Mr. Watts-Dunton would pro- 
ably number Keats, Shelley, Eossetti, 
winbume, and Mr. Arnold. No one who 
)ves what is beautiful and appreciates 
ne expression can fail to be attracted to 
lem, and yet they are not popular in the 
mse in which Tennyson or Burns or Mr. 
'udyard Kipling is popular. 
To find the reason it seems to me we 
ust dive a little deeper than Mr. Watts- 
unton has done. Popularity or unpopu- 
rity has nothing to do with the question, 
he coarse, ill-equipped modem novelist, 
Imning his "big human passions" as if 
liey were "the greatest show on earth," 
bpeals to a huge multitude ; but so did 
pott, Dickens, and George Eliot. It tells 
pthing, therefore, to say that a writer is 
iidely read. He may, as Tennyson did, 
jitract all that is best in the several grades 
' soeietj-, or he may only collect a crowd of 
norant admirers from the under sections, 
ut, on the other hand, that readers are 
w is no guarantee that they are fit. In 
lose days of cliques and schools it is 
)t very difficult for a versifier of very 
oderate attainments indeed to gain the 
!ir of a small band of admirers, and be 
j little Pope to them. Such a one is 
imost certain to call himself "artistic," 
jid feel, or affect, a disdain of popular 
|)provaI. Like Montaigne, he abhors "to 
) preach to the first passer-by, to become 
Iter to the ignorance of the first I meet." 
et this air of superiority is not of itself 
lent. Popularity or unpopularity tells 
j)tlung about a poet. 

I And still, although Mr. Watts-Dunton is 
j>t happy in the choice of terms, he has 
'idently been brooding over a very real 
'stinction. There is a class of poets, at the 
»ad of which stands Bums, whose interest 
la wholly in the workaday world, whose 
srongest note is a love of life, and who 
vpeal almost wholly to pity and fun, tender- 
^ss and passion. Another class, the 
! eatest of whom is Milton, with less warmth 
*d sympathy, have a deeper appreciation of 
ie more august and remote beauty of life, 



the sense of the sublime, the glory and music 
of words. They do not make a very strong 
appeal to those simple elementary instincts 
that Bums grouped compendiously into one 
expression, ' the hairt,' but speak to the 
pesthetic, the cultivated sense. It was to 
the order of Milton that Matthew Arnold 
belonged. 

To make this apparent it is only neces- 
sary to take a fine verse from him and 
compare it with a typical one from Bums. 
The familiar " Dover Beach " gives us 
exactly what we want, a stanza representing 
Arnold's art at its highest, and also express- 
ing his mental attitude : 

" The sea of faith 
Was once, too, at the full, and roimd earth's 

shore 
Lay like the folds of a bright girdle fiirl'd. 
But now I only hear 
Its melancholy, long withdrawing roar, 
Retreating to the breath 

Of the night- wind down the vast edges drear 
And naked shingles of the world." 

It needs no saying that the part of man 
which responds to this is very different from 
that which gives back an echo to ' ' Ae fond 
kiss," or "Had we never loved so kindly," 
or "My luve is like a red, red rose." A 
thousand hearts will leap at a cry of per- 
sonal regret or passion for one imagination 
that will be stirred by this large sadness and 
the sustained and dignified metaphor by 
which it is expressed. 

I am not instituting a comparison between 
the two j)oets in point of greatness, but only 
trying to make clear the difference of 
temperament, a difference that sufficiently 
explains why Arnold failed to appreciate 
Bums truly. The next point is that a mind 
of the very highest rank embraces both. 
One finds it even in those passages which 
embody the impassioned dejection to which 
the greatest poets are subject — 

" Tears from the depth of some divine despair." 

In the Odyssey and the Purgatorio, in the 
Booh ofJoh, and Macbeth a despondency more 
profound than Ai-nold's is over and over 
again expressed. But the difference between 
a Homer or a Shakespeare, even a Tenny- 
son, and those minor "artistic" poets who 
have not succeeded in becoming popular, is 
that the former connects the facts of life 
directly with its mysteries, while the latter 
appeal to a secondary sentiment. The 
ordinary wayfaring man has no difficulty in 
grasping what Shakespeare meant when he 
makes Macbeth exclaim : 

"... Out, out, brief candle ! 
Life's but a walking shadow ; a poor player, 
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage. 
And then is heard no more." 
But no one can fully appreciate the fine 
lines quoted from Arnold without under- 
standing the religious doubts and contro- 
versies of the period in which they 
were written. And this brings us to 
the great weakness of him and his kind. 
Dealing as they do with themes and senti- 
ments lying apart from daily experience, 
and appealing to those emotions which are 
not like love and grief, elemental, but are 
fostered into an artificial shape by reading 
and cultivation, they are ever tempted to 
refine and refine, to assume more and more 



of special preparation in the audience, to 
widen the distance between art and ordinary 
life, till in the end they find themselves 
separated from all but a small selection of 
their fellows. That this was so with Mr. 
Arnold does not admit of doubt. He had 
not that tremendous will and self-confidence 
that kept Tennyson steadfast to his purpose 
in face of many early discouragements. 
For twenty years before his death he had 
practically ceased to write poetry. Either 
he was not sure of himself, or not sure that 
great art is bound to conquer in the end — 
bound to conquer even the Philistine. 

Yet in one sense he has won the battle. 
The much maligned British public is really 
not so bad as it is called. Its worst fault 
is a kind of easily imposed upon good nature, 
which is apt to deify humbugs and char- 
latans on their first appearance, and to 
neglect all merit that is not pushing and 
clamant ; but this worship is never of long 
duration ; sooner or later the grain is 
winnowed from the chaff. Merit will always 
have a few honest admirers, and these 
steadily increase as time goes on, while 
mere empty pretentiousness, whatever its 
momentary vogue, is pricked and tossed 
aside ; and Matthew Arnold's poetry has 
quietly and surely emerged from the neglect 
of those early years, and is probably esteemed 
more to-day than it was in the author's 
lifetime. It is seen now that he filled an 
important place in his generation, that he 
expressed as no other has done the wide 
imaginative asjiect of the flux and change 
of the period in which he lived ; and if he 
had dared to be a little bolder, and to think 
less of what Goethe or Milton would have said, 
and more of his own impressions, his place 
would have been higher still. However, 
the slim volume of selections from him 
published by MacmiUan is a book the lover 
of nineteenth-century poetry would not com- 
posedly lose. If we except " Balder Dead," 
it omits very little of his essential work. 

It is curious that while the neglected 
verse is emerging from obscurity, his prose 
which attracted so much attention when 
published appears to be losing ground. Yet 
it must always command at least an historical 
interest, as marking a stage in the evolution 
of style. There are four writers of the 
century who dealt with kindred topics and 
who represent as many sides of life. In the 
first place came Macaulay with a manner of 
his own, indeed, yet no now voice. Eather 
the last of the old voices — brilliant, well- 
informed and full, dwelling mainly on 
the superficial and external, not aware of 
those deeper currents of thought that were 
to characterise the time that was coming. 
He has wielded an influence out of all 
proportion to his strength, mainly because 
his prose was at once extremely striking 
imitated. But, as a 
said, his thought all 
Dutch dykes." Next 
flooding these narrow 
sea of new ideas, 
but rugged of language and careless of 
form, making a complete alteration in the 
point of view, yet influencing mere style to a 
very small extent, because his language 
was so peculiarly his own, so mannered, 
and so flushed with personality, that it was 



and very easily 
recent critic has 
ran in "orderly 
we have Carlyle 
channels with a 



78 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 15, 1898. 



simply impossible for anyone else to adopt 
it without producing the most grotesque 
effect. At Hs heel followed Euskin, loving 
grace and music and beauty, and rendering 
them with a kind of sweet formality and 
ceremoniousness : a taste for purity of words 
and classic models — a descendant, in short, 
of De Quincey. Finally, we arrive at 
Matthew Arnold, and his perception that 
something still was lacking. Of the three 
styles aUuded to, it may be said that all of 
them lacked flexibility. The very archi- 
tecture of Macaulay's work excluded it. 
His rounded sentence and antithetic con- 
struction are fatal to the play of light and 
shade ; they are not meant for laughter 
and tears, and all that lies between. 
Carlyle's harsher periods, though not un- 
fitted to the display of a grim humour, 
are as much lacking in suppleness as 
Macaulay's ; and Mr. Euskin, especially 
in his first period, was too earnest and 
stately to express a variety of moods. 
Matthew Arnold was able to do what the 
others had not done. His verse is almost 
painfully melancholy, but his natural 
buoyancy and playfulness, his archness and 
vivacity, were exquisitely displayed in his 
prose. He coiild, as none of his contem- 
poraries did, pursue an argument stead- 
fastly and yet with all the liveliness of 
spirit and laughing resources of a particu- 
larly keen and weU-furnished mind. To 
find his equal in this respect we must either 
go to France or our own excellent prosemen 
of the eighteenth centurj', to Addison and 
Fielding. And he has wielded an influence 
scarcely second to Macaulay's. The best 
features in the prose of to-day, its aim at 
clearness, its intolerance of the formal and 
pompous and obscure, are very largely due 
to him. 

But if this be so, it may well be asked, is 
it not inconsistent to say that he is going 
out of favour ? Well, if an honest answer 
be returned to that it must be personal. No 
one can really reply for his fellow men. 
He can only say : "I read Matthew Arnold 
once with pleasure and delight, he taught 
me much for which I am grateful, but 
whether it is that he can be sucked dry, or 
that a change has come over the spirit of 
things, very languidly now do I return to 
him." The reply will no doubt appear un- 
satisfactory to those who still find an in- 
spiration in his pages, and yet it is capable 
of defence. Mr. Arnold answered to a need 
of his generation, the century is vastly better 
for his having lived and spoken, but that may 
be so, and yet his influence may have ceased 
to be direct. And his was not one of those 
supremely rich and full natures at which 
one can, so to speak, cut and come again, as 
you return, for instance, to Charles Lamb 
or Sir Thomas Browne. That he was 
true to one of his doctrines, that he was 
lucid, is to say all ; he ofliers no second 
banquet. In thinking of his prose I often 
contrast it with that of another poet, 
Heinrich Heine. Arnold apprehended the 
qualities, the finest qualities, of French 
prose, its clearness, logic, and -vivacity, and 
reproduced them with success. So did the 
other, but to French lucidity Heine added 
German dreaminess and poetry. Language 
in his hands is as supple and changeable. 



but it exhibited a larger variety of moods, 
passing with the easiest grace from fun and 
satire to a deep pathos or a glowing fancy. 
To be a master of prose one must have 
not only a right theory and a full command 
of material, but a richly endowed mind. 

And, finally, the part Arnold played in his 
chosen rdle of critic was bound to be tempo- 
ary. The method of his time, as is the 
case in all periods of original work, was to 
refer direct to nature. " Is this life as I 
know it?" was substantially the question 
by which the claims of art had to stand or 
f aU. Carlyle knew no other test ; Euskin 
delighted in applying it. But Arnold's 
function was to insist on the value of tradi- 
tion and the classical models. His own 
judgment was perpetually guided by the 
principle laid down in a famous passage 
beginning : 

" Thei-e can be no more useful help for dis- 
covering what poetry belongs to the class of the 
truly excellent, and can therefore do us most 
good, than to have always in one's mind lines 
and expressions of the great masters, and to 
apply them as a touchstone to other i^oetrj'." 

A most excellent device for expelling the 
banal and pretentious from current literature, 
but one that may lead the judgment far 
astray in regard to any new and original 
work, which is as likely as not to go, or 
appear to go, in the teeth of old models ! No, 
the true touchstone is supplied by those 
exquisite moments in which poems have been 
"lived but left unsung," and if you substitute 
for them the memories of those ,of other 
people as expressed in verse, then you are 
deliberately breaking contact with nature. 

It was worth while reviving this view of 
criticism, however, because it brings Arnold's 
prose into harmony with his verse, and shows 
the weakness of one to spring from the 
same cause as that of the other. Yet, 
although it would be against the spirit ol 
his own teaching not to look frankly at his 
limitations, let us not forget his merits as a 
great educative influence, a teacher of clear 
thinking and precise statement, a singer 
whose imagination was entranced by the 
great spiritual change that in his day swept 
over "the naked shingles of the world." 

P. 



A FOEGOTTEN NOVEL BY JAMES 
ANTHONY FEOUDE. 

When " Zeta " first published his little I 
volume of three hundred . pages, called 
Shadows of the Clouds, the world of 1847 
was duly impressed, both with the general 
ability which the book displayed and the 
force and vigour with which it preached 
some rather heterodox doctrines. When it 
leaked out, as it soon did, that Zeta was 
none other than James Anthony Froude, 
Fellow of Exeter College in Oxford, brother 
of Hurrell Froude of Oriel, the zealous 
High Churchman, public interest waxed 
gi'eater. It waxed, perhaps, greatest of all 
when not long afterwards its author bought 
up all the copies he could lay his hands on 
and destroyed them. The suppression seems 
to have been singularly thorough and suc- 
cessful, for the book is now almost unknown. 



It never figures in the catalogues of second- 
hand booksellers, and is very rarely to be' 
seen even in private libraries. The British 
Museum, of course, has a copy, for there, 
if anywhere, is the proverb proved true, 
Litera scripta manet. An author may buy 
up or call in his book, but the Museum will 
never restore what has once fallen into its 
clutches. 

The reason generally assigned for Froude'e 
suppression of the book, is that it was 
too autobiographical, or at least appeared 
to the outer world to be so. The relationi 
of the hero with his father were thought tc 
reflect somewhat closely the quarrel between 
Froude's father and himself, and there 
are other possibly accidental resemblances 
between the careers of hero and authoi 
which might lend colour to the idea 
that the book was, in fact, though not 
in form, an autobiography. Another pos- 
sible motive for withdrawing Shadowi 
of the Clouds is supposed to be found 
in the hero's heretical views on certain 
points. The heresy, viewed by the standard; 
of to-daj', is of a mild character ; but ortho- 
doxy readily took offence in the Fifties 
Indeed, the story runs that when Froude'; 
next book. The Nemesis of Faith, appearec 
Sewell, Fellow of Exeter and ardent Higl 
Churchman, who afterwards founded Eadle} 
School, solemnly burnt it in the middle o: 
the Quadrangle ! Public feeling ran higl 
in those days on matters of faith an( 
religion in Oxford, and it is quite likely 
that the orthodox Churchman of that timt 
would have found much to reprobate ii 
Shadows of the Clouds. But if this hac 
been the reason for its withdrawal, woul( 
Froude so very shortly afterwards havi 
published (not anonymously, but under hi; 
own name) the far more heterodox Netimi 
of Faith ? A curious story about Froude' 
election to the Exeter Fellowship used ti 
be told in Oxford in the Fifties. Hurrel 
Froude, the High Churchman, was, o 
course. Fellow of Oriel, and the Provost o 
Oriel, Hawkins, a man of small capacity 
and little wisdom, hated the High Churcl 
Party cordially. When J. A. Froude trie( 
for the Oriel Fellowship he was not elected 
When he subsequently tried at Exeter, oi 
the other hand — apronouncedly High Churcl 
college in those days- he was elected, asrepor 
said, under the misapprehension that he hai 
been rejected by Oriel as a High Church 
man and friend of Newman ! If there i 
any truth in this old story it is not difficul 
to understand the rage of the Exete 
Common Eoom and men like Sewell whe: 
Froude proceeded to publish heterodox, o 
Latitudinarian, works. 

Shadows of the Clouds, or at least th 
longer of the two stories it contains, is an ex 
tremely interesting book to read, even a 
this time of day, and as an example o 
the "psychological novel" was considerabl. 
in advance of its day. It may be admitte' 
that it is at times "heavy" reading. I 
has scarcely any plot, no "incident," ver 
little "action," and next to no dialogue 
This gives it a certain monotony inseparabl 
from that kind of fiction. But that muc 
of it is tremendously impressive cannot b 
denied. Briefly, it is a character-study c 
an unhappy boy, Edward Fowler, tn 



Fan. 15, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



79 



a of a hard, gloomy Church dignitary, 
■ly deprived of a mother's care, and 
iTOundod by utterly uncongenial brothers 
I sisters, who, after a miserable existence 
home and at school, pulls himself together 
\ a great effort of wiU, and at length 
I'elops into something of a man, only to 

I of consumption before his efforts have 

I I time to bear fruit in any noteworthy 
jiievement. The interest of the storj' is 
(olly in the character of the boy, in the 
intal phases through which he passes, 
i|l in tlie picture which is incidentally 
■ en of the ideas and the manners of 
.iO-40. In technique, of course, and as a 
iro example of how to tell a story, the 
x)k fails. Froude was not a great novelist 
mque, but merely a man of deej) insight 
p character and wide sympathy with 
inan fi-ailtj-, who has left behind him one 
mremely interesting study of a human 
^1. Artistically, indeed, the book comes 
li.r to being an actual failure. The events 
li not follow one another in satisfactor}- 

er and sequence, there is a shade too 
ch of the author in the book, and too 
le of the characters : 

N'ever dares the man put ofP the Prophet." 

4 Froude is perpetually at his reader's 
il iw, jogging him lest he should miss any 
Mat or fail to draw from it its legitimate 
KJclusion. But with aU these disadvan- 

aa?s Shadows of the Clouds remains to 
4 day a book that well repays reading. 
itjontains many vivid pictures of the life 
; the great major'ity of respectable God- 
•ing English people lived in the second 
[ijrter of tlie nineteenth century. There 
BjEor example, a terrible picture of life at 
djEnglish public school (Westminster) in 
bjie days ; but of much more real and per- 
alient interest than these are the often 
iilound and original views on life which 
hiauthor puts forward in the course of his 
ative. Here, for example, is a singularly 
utterance on the subject of education : 

[ take it to be a matter of the most certain 
rience in deaHug with boys of au amiable 
a disposition, thatexactly the treatment they 
Ti' from you they \vill desei-vo. In a general 
|E it is true of all persons of unformed character 
d come in contact with you as your inferiors ; 
It High with men it cannot be relied on with 
B( iame certainty, because their feelings are 
»i)Owcrful, and their habit of moving this way 
rjiat under particidar circumstances more 
eiminat*^ But with the very large class of 
©3 of a yielding nature who have veiy little 
lij:oufidence, are very little governed by a 
Wmined will or judgment, but sway up and 
*V under the impulses of the moment, if they 
rercated generously and tiiistiugly, it may 
e jkon as au axiom that their feelings will be 
»%s stroug enough to make them ashamed 
lOBo deserve it." 

^re is the father's view of his unfortu- 
lalson : — 

to the character of the entii'O boy, his 
'hsposition, health of tone in heart and 
ill that was presmned. It made no 
it school exhibitions, and, at least 
. assumed no fonn of positive import- 
regarded after-life. So this was all 
itself. Of course, if a boy knew half 
1 by heart at ten and had construed the 
y througli at eleven, all other excellences 



were a matter of course. . . . He was naturally 
timid, and shrunk from all the amusements and 
games of other boys. So much the better, ho 
would keep to his books." 

The boy goes to Westminster and is placed 
on the Foundation, " where for one year, 
at least, to all boys, and to some for every 
year, the life was as hard, and the treat- 
ment as barbarous as that of the negroes in 
Virginia." 

The lad's character at school is thus 
summarised : 

" The defect in Edward's nature, as I under- 
stand it, was that he was constitutionally a 
cowai-d. Constitutionally, I say. It was not 
his own fault. Kature had ordered him so just 
as she orders others constitutionally brave. 
One may like these the best, but one must be 
cautious how one praises them for what they 
have eai'ncd by no merit of their own. Courage 
of this kind — animal courage — is a gift, not an 
accomplishment. . . . Neither animal courage 
nor animal cowardice result from any principle, 
they are merely passions ... so different from 
moral courage and moral cowardice that they 
seem to me to have nothing in common except 
the name. . . . What Fowler had not was 
animal courage, ho was subject to the passion 
of timidity, in the same way as other boys are 
subject to the passions of anger, jealousy, 
cruelty, or gross appetites ; and it ought to 
have been understood that he was falling be- 
fore a constitutional weakness instead of being 
supposed that he had a formed, settled character 
of meanness and cowardice." 

After this powerfully subtle analysis of 
the boy's character the rest of the story 
follows on the whole with logical necessity. 
He is removed from Westminster, and after 
a miserable year or two at home, sent to a 
private tutor, where he is happ}- enough, 
and afterwards to Oxford, where he is 
generally popular. It seems questionable 
whether a youth who had passed through 
such a boyhoo.d would have thus blossomed 
out into the jjossession of attractive social 
qualities ; but probably had the story been 
worked out with greater care, this would 
have been accounted for. As it is, both in 
style and in construction the book is often 
slipshod. While at Oxford he falls in love 
and into debt. He is engaged for a brief 
space, and the engagement is broken off on 
the debts being made known. He takes to 
dissipation to drown care, and is rusticated 
from Oxford. From this stage begins the 
work of his redemption, and by sheer force 
of will and hard work he ultimately blossoms 
out into a decent member of society. The 
girl to whom he had been engaged marries 
someone else in a rather fantastic manner, 
though her love for Fowler remains un- 
changed. Fowler pulls her son out of the 
water at Torquay, which gives an oppor- 
tunity for reconciliation and mutual ex- 
planations, and finally he dies in a highly 
unorthodox frame of mind. This in itself 
must have fluttered the dovecotes of 1847 
somewhat, though the author exerts con- 
siderable ingenuity to make it appear that 
he is himself quite as much shocked as his 
readers at the heretical views of his hero. 
Indeed, this attitude is kept up, throughout 
the book. Altogether, Shadows of the Clouds 
is a noteworthy book, and is worth reissu- 
ing, if only as a literary curiosity. 



A GEEMAN MARE'S NEST. 

The problem of Shakespeare's Sonnets is 
yet imsolved. The literary arena is dusty 
with the onsets of rival j ousters, champions 
of Pembroke, champions of Southampton. 
The publication of Mr. Sidney Lee's Die- 
tionanj of Natmml Biography article, and of 
Lady Newdegate-Newdigate's Gossip from a 
2Iuniment Room, have aroused the controversy 
in an acute form. Mr. William Archer has 
flung himself into the fray with a magazine 
article. Nor are the lists yet closed. Herr 
Georg Brandos has yet to run his course ; 
Mr. George WjTidham has to run his. 
To the impartial observer it would seem 
as if this were the one question on 
which no scholar could be trusted to 
keep his head or to refrain from the 
delightful but illegitimate sport of mare's- 
nesting. The spoils of a chase recently 
undertaken have come into our hands. 
Herr Gregor Sarrazin is a student of no 
mean repute, though with an imhappy 
penchant for seeing the verbal parallel stand- 
ing where it ought not. On Hamlet, on 
Thomas Kyd, he has done good and sug- 
gestive work. His contributions to the 
speculative biography of Shakespeare arft 
not to be despised. He has made the long- 
rejected hypothesis of an early Italian journey 
by the poet seem plausible. Nevertheless, in 
his recent JFiUiam Shakespeare^ s Lehrjahrc, 
he most undeniably puts his foot in it over 
the Sonnets. With his general standpoint 
on the matter we have no quarrel. Follow- 
ing Hermann Isaac he reiterates the point, 
which Mr. Tyler and his fellow upholders 
of the Pembroke theory have yet to meet, 
that the style and thought of the Sonnets, 
or at least of the Dark Woman and Jealousy 
Sonnets, are the style and thought of the 
plays and poems written before 1595, and 
not those of the plays written between 1598 
and 1601. Herr Isaac holds the Friend of 
the Sonnets to be the Earl of Essex. In this, 
however, Herr Sarrazin does not follow 
him, but is content with Drake and Gerald 
Massey to believe that Southampton was 
the person addressed. Incidentally, he 
makes a very sensible observation for the 
benefit of those who think that the whole 
question does not signify a brass button. 
"It is not," he says, 

" a matter of indifference to our judgment of 
Shakespeare's character whether these poems 
were addressed ... to a weak-headed 
sensualist like William Herbert, or to one 
who, like Southampton, was, for all his faults 
and acts of rashness, a chivalrous, brave, and 
high-minded gentleman." 

But we are not concerned with the general 
question as between Southampton and Pem- 
broke. Herr Sarrazin, in support of his 
thesis, ventures upon the dangerous ground 
of textual emendation. He is troubled by 
the 143rd Sonnet, which runs as follows: 

" So, as a careful house>vife runs to catch 
One of her feather'd creatures broke away. 
Sits down her babe, and makes all swift de- 
spatch 
In pursuit of the thing she would have stay ;., 
Whilst her neglected child holds her in chase,' 
Cries to catch her whoso busy care is bent 
To follow that which Hies before her face, : 
Not prizing her poor infant's discontent ; 



80 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 15, 1898. 



So runn'st thou after that which flies from 

thee, 
Whilst I thy babe chase thee afar behind ; 
But if thou catch thy hope, turn back to me, 
And play the mother's part, kiss me, be kind : 
So will I pray that thou mayst have thy 

Will, 
If thou turn back and my loud crying 
stiU." 

It has been held that there is a pun 
in the last line but one, and, on the 
face of it, as Pembroke's name was 
William Herbert, while Southampton's 
was Henry Wriothesley, this tells for 
Pembroke. But what if this pun should 
somehow have displaced another, an earlier 
pun ? and if this earlier pun could be shown 
to be somehow significant of Southampton ? 
So should the righteous come to his own 
again, and Pembroke, " the man of sin," 
be ousted. Can we reconstruct, divine the 
original state of the text? What is the 
root-metaphor of the sonnet ? What is all 
this about the poultry-yard ? Aha ! Eureka ! 
Hoch ! Let Herr Sarrazin announce his 
incomparable discovery in his own words : 

" As in a palimpsest J! read the original text 
of the closing lines, thus : 

^So will I pray that thou mayst have thy 
" Hen," 
If thou turn back, and my loud crying pen.' 

For ' pen,' cf. Lucrece, 681 : ' He pens her 
piteous clamours in her head ' ; and ' Hen ' is an 
abbreviation of Henry, not, indeed, so common 
as Harry or Hal, but still not altogether un- 
usual. Henry Wriothesley was the name of 
Shakespeare's friend, who would seem, also, to 
have been his rival." 

The reader will think, as we thought, that 
the learned German, with that impassive 
Teutonic humour of his, is joking with us. 
But no ! you may search in vain for a sign 
that he regards his suggestion in any other 
light than that of the most serious com- 
placency. Well, well! as the tragic poet 
says, 

iroX\&Tek Vcic^ KovBiy avBptitnov Seivirfpov irfXti. 

But surely this is the biggest mare's-nest 
upon which unhappy quester after the 
problem of the " Sonnets " has ever lighted, 
and contains the most stupendous wind-egg 
-of them all. 



is recognised by all that, exceijt for those book- 
sellers who, in consequence of vast sales, are 
able to buy in large quantities on special teruis, 
bookselling, as now conducted, affords a ridicu- 
lously insufficient net return for the capital and 
energy which the calling demands. The legiti- 
mate profits are, in fact, deliberately handed 
over to the public, while the 'intelligent' 
bookseller toils all the year round for the 
benefit of his landlord, and for the getting of 
a bare living profit for himself by the sale of 
fancy articles, stationery, and other auxiliaries. 
Briefly, and in other words, the bookseller 
demonstrates himself to be what the immortal 
Mr. Bumble once denominated the law. The 
futility of appealing to anything in the shape 
of esprit de corps has been proved nd nauseam, 
and, instead of combining for the common 
welfare, each bookseller fights only for his own 
individual hand, and all agree to pursue the 
suicidal policy of the ' happy dispatch ' by 
cutting each other's commercial throats. Every 
suggested remedy has, so far, failed, and we 
believe that only one other now remains — viz., 
the redndio ad ahsurdiim of making it unprofit- 
able to sell books at all. With this object in 
view we have decided to sell, in future, all new 
books published at any price whatever, from 
one shilling upwards, at the actual prices at 
which they are supplied by the publisher to the 
bookseller, and we shall use every means in our 
power to make the public acquainted with this 
fact. When the time anives, if it ever should 
arrive, that booksellers revert to a policy of 
common sense by agreeing to sell their goods 
at the full published price, and only at that, 
we pledge ourselves to fall in line, and do as 
they do ; but not untU then. This course has 
been decided upon in no spirit of antagonism 
to booksellers, but, on the contrary, for their 
own benefit, in the hope that it may succeed, 
where other experiments have failed, in restor- 
ing bookselling to the status of a profitable 
and self-respecting calling, instead of one that 
leads {facilia descensus Alter no) to the wide-open 
doors of the Court of Bankruptcy. J 



THE DISCOUNT QUESTION. 

A Desperate Remedy. 

We have received a rather remarkable com- 
munication from a London bookseller of 
good position, who assures us that he 
seriously contemplates taking the measures 
proposed in the draft circular of which we 
give a copy below. We offer no comment 
on this communication, which, however, 
<jannot, at all events, be described as dull 
reading. Messrs. 's circular is addressed 

TO B00KSEIXER8, 

and the following is its text : 

"During 1897 the condition of the book 
trade has been a subject of anxious discussion 
Among publishers, booksellers, and authors. It 



I! |It [is to be assumed that this combative 
bookseller expects that a short, sharp fight 
on these lines will result in victory — or that 
the moral effect of his attempt to solve the 
discount question will be worth a large 
sacrifice. 



THE WEEK. 



Mrs. Bishop adds that the two best book 
on Korea have become obsolete, and tha 
the traveller must now find his own fact,' 
Accuracy has been her greatest aim, an' 
her success in this particular is vouched fo 
by Sir Walter C. Hillier, who was rint 
recently the British Consul-General fc 
Korea. The book is illustrated with view 
of national types ; and a map of Korea an 
the neighbouring countries is supplied. 

A BOOK for big-game sportsmen is M 
Arthur H. Neumann's Elephant Hunting 
East Equatorial Africa. Mr. Neumau 
claims that he has penetrated into regioi 
not hitherto trodden by the British sport 
man. The book is admirably produce 
and the illustrations are exciting. In oi 
Mr. Neumann is discovered on the groui 
being attacked by a furious cow elephan 
" Kneeling over me," he writes, " she ma( 
three distinct lunges, sending her left tus 
through the biceps of my right arm, ai 
stabbing me between the right ribs ; at tl 
same time pounding my chest with her he,' 
and crushing in my ribs." 



THERE has been a curious little rush of 
books of travel during the last week. 
Mrs. Bishop's (Isabella L. Bird's) Korea 
and her Neighlows, in two volumes, makes a 
particularly timely appearance. The book 
is based upon observations made in four 
visits to Korea, between January, 1894, and 
March, 1897, and Mrs. Bishop's interest in 
the country was aroused only gradually. 
She writes : 

"My first journey produced the impression 
that Korea is the most uninteresting country 
I ever travelled in, but dming and since 
the war, its political perturbations, rapid 
changes, and possible destinies, have given me 
an intense interest in it ; while Korean character 
and industry, as I saw both under Eussian rule 
in Siberia, have enlightened me as to the better 
possibilities which may await the nation in the 
future. Korea takes a similarly strong grip on 
all who reside in it sufficiently long to overcome 
the feeling of distaste which at first it undoubt- 
edly inspires." 



A THIRD volume of travels is Mrs. Maiy 
Walker's Old Tracts and New Zandmm; 
Here we have wayside sketches in Orel 
Macedonia, Mitylene, &c. Mrs. Walker h 
written of Eastern Europe in several previo 
works. Here she opens an old portfoli 
and chats pleasantly on the experienc 
which her sketches recall. 



The edition of Bo»welVs Life of Johm 
in the " Temple Classics " is completed 
the issue of the fifth and sixth volumes. 



A WORK of importance is Mr. Edwa 
Jenks's J^w and Politics in th^ Middle Aj 
The writer's first aim is to show that Law 
the Middle Ages was not "the arbitra 
command of authority, but somethi 
entirely different." 



NEW BOOKS RECEIVED. 

THEOLOGICAL AND BIBLICAL. 
Stvsikb of thk Miitd iir Christ. By the Rev. Tho 

Adamson. T & T. Clark. 48. Cd. 
The Clerical Lipb : a Sebies of Lettxbs to MiiriaTi 

By Dr. John Watson, and Oiher Writers. Hodde 

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HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 
The Life of Napoliow the Third. By Archi' 
Forbes. Chatto & Windas. 128. 

POETRY, CRITICISM, BELLES LETTRK8. 
The Poetical Works of Aubrey de Verb. Vol. ■ 

Macmillan <& Co. 6s. 
Twenty-five Caktos fbou the Diviita Commedia ' 
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Bdds of THE Bbitish Empiee. By Dr. W. T. Greene, F ■ ' 

The Imperial Press, Ltd. 68. 
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edition, revised. Ths Imperial Press, Ltd. fis. 



AN. 15, \X^S.'\ 



THE ACADEMY. 



81 



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1 iSD FOBMOSI; THB SlOHT OF A SUCCESSIOL MlS- 

loK. By the Rev. Jas. Johnston. Third edition. 

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DRAMA. 



THE literary man fares none too well at 
the hands of the dramatist. He is, 
indeed, rarely to be seen on the stage at all, 
which, by him, may be accounted a blessing, 
since it is chiefly as a caricature that he is 
of any dramatic utility. Mr. L. N. Parker 
has introduced a popiJar novelist into " The 
Happy Life," and what is the type ? A 
yeUow-haired, curled (and probably scented) 
dandy, who works two hours a day — a fit 
companion for the amiable lady novelist, 
" too popular to need reviews" and an ever 
welcome guest at the houses of the great, 
who tiitted through the curious melodrama, 
manufactured not long ago out of Miss 
Marie CoreUi's Sorrows of Satan. But 
surely the most unrecognisable gendelettre 
(as the French humorist has it, basing 
himself upon the etymology of gendarme) is 
the " David Holmes " of Miss Mai-tha 
Morton's play, "A Bachelor's Eomance," 
in which Mr. John Hare makes his welcome 
reappearance on the London boards. Mr. 
David, as he is affectionately called by his 
familiars, is an "eminent literary critic." 
The chief contributor to a weekly paper of 
repute, vaguely named The Review. He has 
a den of books with an outlet upon the roof, 
to which he occasionally betakes himself to 
escape bores. In what city or even what 
country ? impossible to say ; but presumably 
London. Here, as old bachelor, in the 
autumn of life, our literary recluse has spent 
many years — so absorbed in his books that 
he has had no time to see his ward — a young 
lady of seventeen, to whom he continues to 
send dolls and rocking-horses. Mark you ! 
he is not the editor of The Beview, but a 
contributor to that organ. Nevertheless, he 
keeps on the premises a couple of hungry 
young literary lions, to whom he tosses an 
occasional bundle of books for review with 
the intimation that tliey may or may 
not sign the " notices " of the same — 
notices which they scribble off there 
and then on their knee, without, so far, as 
one can see, even glancing at the contents 
of the volumes. Also, there is an aged 
retainer, or literary hack, who "potters 
about " (in the classical idiom of " Peter 
the Great ") at a side table. The status 
of Mr. David's young assistants maj- be 
inferred from the fact that they share a 
dress suit with each other. Yet the eminent 
critic is not ungenerous. He is ever ready 
to buy an old Plato for a guinea, or put 
his hand in his trousers pocket (where he 
carries his gold loose), to help a deserving 
case. The aged retainer, who, by the way, 
in his doddering senility writes a realistic 
novel, must be an almost unique example 
of the literary critic's bounty, since he is an 
acknowledged failure in life, and of no 
possible use to his patron. In what city, 
in what country, one Wonders, have such 
literary types been observed ? 



is not described on the playbill as original, 
is curiously suggestive of the old-world 
romance of Adolph L'Arronge or his period 
before the realism of Sudermann invaded the 
German stage. Miss Martha Morton, of 
whom one does not remember to have 
heard as a dramatist, may have done this 
play off her own bat, as the saying is ; but 
I should not be surprised to learn that it 
had a German original, and that the literary 
critic who practises his craft in such 
strange surroundings was in his previous 
state of existence a professor of some 
kind with disciples or assistants in his 
laboratorj'. Such a literary workshop as 
Mr. David's is certainly inconceivable at the 
present day, and it is a curious commentary 
upon the pretensions of the stage to be 
" exact " and educative that a picture of 
this kind should not only pass muster, 
but receive a ceitain measure of popular 
applause. 

Here criticism may end and admiration 
of Mr. Hare's work begin. The production 
of " A Bachelor's Eomance " at the Globe 
adds appreciably to the pleasures of the 
theatre-going public. Providing one accepts 
the eminent literary critic as an indispensable 
postulate — and the public have no difficulty 
about that — the story of the withered old 
bachelor's new-found love for his youthful 
ward, who brings a ray of sunshine and an 
atmosphere of buttercups and daisies into 
the musty old den of books, is fraught with 
a rare charm. Mr. David is one of Mr. 
Hare's most delightful impersonations. 
"What a finished " character" actor he is to 
be sure, albeit a trifle sharp and decisive in 
manner for so unworldly a recluse as this 
aging bookworm. "When the young lady 
of seventeen looks up her guardian in his 
study he dees not know who she is, nor 
does she immediately tell him. She is 
merely, he thinks, one of the competitors 
for the thousand-pound prize offered by 
The Beview, and of which ho is appointed 
adjudicator, for a story. Indeed, everyone 
around him is a competitor ; so that between 
his honesty and his good nature there is a 
sore struggle for predominance. But the 
ordeal of the prize adjudication is, after aU, 
a lighter one than that he is unwittingly 
called u}! to face when he falls head over 
ears in love with the artless and winsome 
Syhda, young enough to be his grand- 
daughter. 



The truth is, that they have never 
been observed at all. They are not even 
"made in Germany," as the structure of 
Miss Martha Morton's play itself may have 
teen — fcr "A Bachelor's Eomance," which 



Not only would it be improper to avail 
himself of his official position to captivate 
the young lady's affections ; but he hardly 
knows whether he is in love. Like Mr. 
Barrie's Professor GoodwiUie, he is merely 
conscious of some new influence having come 
into his life like a strain of melody into a 
great silence. But Sylvia is thrown upon 
his hands and something must be done with 
her. He thinks to marry her to a youthful 
admirer — the successful competitor for the 
other prize ; but Sylvia herself is imwilling. 
He is blind to what everybody else sees 
clearly, that the young lady's affections are 
fixed upon himself. How it came to be so 
is the author's secret. I confess, I do not 
understand Sylvia's primary infatuation. 



83 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 16, 1898 



Mr. David is the last man in the world that 
one would pitch upon as the beau ideal of 
an emancipated schoolgirl already attending 
concerts and dances. But the dramatist is 
an autocrat within his own domain. He 
says a thing is, and provided he and the 
actor succeed between them in rendering it 
acceptable, it forthwith assumes the com- 
plexion of truth. This marvel is accom- 
plished in Mr. David's case. The schoolgirl's 
caprice becomes a delightful motive for the 
play, whose development the house follows 
with undisguised satisfaction. It is a pure 
fairy-tale, but Mr. David is so simple, so 
unselfish, so kind, so deserving, that no one 
has it in his heart to grudge him his good 
fortune. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Is it in very truth good fortune for a man 
of middle age to win the love of a schoolgirl? 
For the purposes of this play, no doubt. 
These may in a special sense be described as 
amours sans lendemain. We do not trouble 
to follow them beyond the fall of the curtain. 
The soimd of wedding bells has always been 
accepted as a satisfactory climax on the 
stage, and Miss Martha Morton gives us 
not one wedding, but two, if not three. 
One of the young lions captures a fascin- 
ating widow, David's sister, charmingly 
impersonated by Miss May Harvey. The 
other, it is true, having set his affections 
upon Sylvia, is left lamenting. He has 
"been spoilt, we are told, by his success in 
the literary competition, having by this time 
procured no fewer than twelve suits of 
clothes. But this drawback, to the satisfac- 
tion of the audience, is speedily redressed 
by a brother of Mr. David's — a sad dog to 
begin with— who wears a sporting overcoat 
and helps himself too freely to the brandy- 
bottle, but ultimately a reformed character, 
thanks to a little rustication in a rose-decked 
cottage and a course of milk and turnips, 
which he adopts in preference to alcohol 
and tobacco. He, too, causes the wedding 
bells to ring by making up some long- 
standing difference with his innamorata. 



Aftee being harassed by the problem 
drama of Mr. Pinero and the fashionable 
cynicism of Mr. Henry Arthur Jones, it is 
curious with what relish the public turn to 
this simple diet. To be sure, the acting of 
Miss Martha Morton's rather conventional 
romance is all that could be desired. Mr. 
Hare's part as Mr. David I have mentioned 
as one of his best. He has had the luck to 
discover a most winning little actress in Miss 
Nellie Thome, who looks the heroine to the 
life. Miss Nellie Thome has the charm of 
youth and simplicity unspoilt as yet by the 
artifices of the stage which make French 
and American inginues so mannered and in- 
sufferable. Miss May Harvey as the widow 
brightens the scenes in which she appears, 
and Mr. Frederick Kerr shows a (!om- 
mendable adaptability first as the dissipated 
young man about town, and afterwards 
as the reformed candidate for matrimony. 
Quite a remarkable study of "pottering" 
old age is given by Mr. Gilbert Hare. 
There is senility not only in his voice and 
manner, but in his very clothes. 

J. F. N. 



THE AUTHOR'S FIGURES —A 
CHALLENGE. 

SiB^ — Sir Walter Besant is imfortunate. 
Why does he not give in and admit himself 
mistaken ? One can't shine at all points of 
the compass, and it is no disgrace to him 
that he writes better than he reckons. If 
you are a master at one thing, why show 
yourself a ridiculous blunderer at another ? 
And it is no excuse for liim that in most 
other things the Amateur is " on the town." 
He cannot distinguish between three-and-a- 
half and six — this dilettante of aritlimetic ; 
calls his bungling a " small error of detail " 
(as if a " small error of detail " could not 
upset a nation's budget), and would, never- 
theless, establish himself our " Comptroller 
of Figures." 

Sir Walter is equally unfortunate in his 
playful allusion to myself. His psycho- 
logical nose should have made him scent the 
difference between my feelings towards the 
Literary Agent and my feelings towards his 
Magazine. For the one, as I know him, I 
have the same natural shrinking that one 
has from contact with a maquereau ; for 
the other, in moments of malice, a smile 
— in moments of good-nature, surprise at 
its blundering ignorance — yet never a 
suspicion of intentional deceit. 

I thank Sir Walter all the same ; and I 
wonder if in his genial humour he will 
withdraw his Catonian jest : "Heinemannus 
delendus est! " — I am, dear Sir, very truly 
your (and Sir Walter's) obedient servant, 
Wm. Heinemann. 

P.S. — We publishers are anxious — no 
class more so — to purge our ranks of black 
sheep, if they exist. I hereby challenge 
Sir Walter to prove his assertions, and to 
name the person who pretends to have spent 
" £14 on advertising, when £5 is nearer the 
mark." I further undertake, in case of a 
libel action, to pay aU his out-of-pocket 
expenses (and let him engage the best 
counsel), if he can prove his assertion to 
the satisfaction of a jury. If he cannot, let 
him admit it, and at all costs let us get rid 
of these unseemly innuendoes. 

W. H. 



Sm, — It would, I think, be discourteous 
to Sir Walter Besant to take no notice of 
his last letter, and yet I do not see that I 
can say anything fresh. So far from fixing 
upon this or that detail, I stated, in the 
broadest way, a charge, which Sir Walter 
Besant makes absolutely no attempt to meet. 
Let me restate it — finally, I hope. A 
publishing proposal is submitted to the 
Author ; whether that proposal be fair or 
not obviously depends upon the special 
circimistances of the case — extent of the 
work, presence or not of illustrations, quality 
of paper and binding, amount expended in 
advertising, &c. Instead of ascertaining 
definitely what these circumstances were, 
the Author, so far, at least, as the outsider 
can judge, imagined what they were likely 
to be, and, upon the strength of its imagin- 
ings, proceeded to criticise the proposal. I 



showed that these imaginings were contn- 
to probability, and involved grave erro. 
In defending them Sir Walter Besant ma^ 
further and even graver errors {e.g., ij 
statement that a nominal edition of 1,.') 
would yield enough " overs " to supj- 
press and presentation copies). I had, ' 
course, to point out these errors, but I i 
not wish to insist upon them. Even if ii 
Author's imaginings were probable, instct 
of being, as I contend, improbable ; oven ! 
they were free from error, as I contend tl • 
are demonstrably not, I should still ui' 
that it is wrong to criticise another ma ■ 
conduct upon the basis not of what (■ 
knows to be the facts, but of what (i 
thinks are likely to be the facts. Thai i 
the question, and until Sir Walter Bes! 
addresses himself to it I think I may fai 
neglect all side issues. — I am, yours, &c., 

AiFEED Nun 



THE BITTEE CEY OF A SECONl 
HAND BOOKSELLEE. 
Sir, — How the publication of the prii 
of books at sales works may be Ulustra I 
thus : Three years ago a book was marl . 
in a bookseller's catalogue at £4. ]• 
various reasons I was probably the o- 
man alive who would have given £4 • 
that copy: I had another of the eai 
edition. I paid £4 ; and then, in J : 
Trices Current, or some such manual, fm . 
that the bookseller had bought the copy • 
£1, probably at the Auchinleck sale, as 
as I remember. I don't grudge the ho 
seller his success, nor do I want to sell ■ 
book for £4 : the price was a matter 
sentiment. But I cannot join in the lam 
tations of your aggrieved second-hand boi 
seller. Whether £4 for a £1 book is 
fair price " is a question of metaphysi 
but, as the Yankee said of eternal puni 
ment, " our people would never stand it.' ' 
I am, yours, &c., Andrew Lxsa 

Jan. 8 : St. Andrews, N.B. 



A "LANG CATALOGUE." 

Sir, — Your notice of my "Lang Ca 
logue" surprised me, as I sent out 
copies to the press. 

It is a catalogue of books in my priv: 
library, and does not profess to be comple 
far less to be a bibliography. It has b( 
sent to friends who are in a position to h 
me to complete my set of Mr. Lang's boo! 
and already I have got valuable assistanc 

It expressly excludes Mr. Lang's periodic 
and journalistic work, though I have a vi 
large collection of articles, leaders, &c. 

Thanking you for your kindly notice, a 
regretting I have no copy to send you.- 
am, yours, &c. 

C. M. F-ilOOSEB. 

Dundee, Jan. 10, 1898. 

reople's Edition, price 6d., with Portrait. (Speciil te 
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London: AiKXiiTDKE & Skkphkabd, FomiT*! Street, 1 



J.of. 15, 1898.1 



THE ACADEMY. 



83 



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84 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 15, 1898. 



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BEHIND THE BUNGALOW. DescriblnfiT the Native 

Servants in an Anglo-Indian Bungalow. By E. IlT AI i KEN. 

[Fifth I-.dition. 
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POEMS. Witli wMcIl is incorporated " Clirist ir 

Hades." By STEPHEN PHILLIPS. Crowu 8vo, 4s. 6d. uet. 

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" This poem, called ' The Wife,' tells, with an intensity and power which is fearful, nay intolerable, a storj' of pe 
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Third Edition. Now ready. 
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THE HOPE of the WORLD, and other Poems 

Fcap. 8vo, 3s. 6d. net. Also, a limited Large Paper Edition, at 12s. 6d. net. 

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" He stands fcr a great tradition — the tradition of our classic school," — Daily Haws. 

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" We seldom turn his pages without finding some pages of almost classical perfection."— 5^ awdard. 



B: 



Now ready. Second Edition. 

THE COMING of LOVE, and other Poems. 

THEODOKE WATTS-DUNTON. Crown 8vo, 53. net. 

" Mr. Watts-Dunton has, in the 'Coming of Love,* struck not a new note only, but a new and complex chord 
literature." — literature, 

'•On account of the haunting magic of 'The Coming of Love/ Rossetti intended to use one of the scenes for 
picture— that depicted in a sonnet called ' The Stais m the River,' which he pronounced to be the 'most original of : 
the versions of the *' Doppelganger" legend,' "—Athentettm. 

'* Superb writing ; it has its. chances for all lime. Marked by the poet's strongest characteristics, his rare art of > 
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" * The Coming of Love ' will be among the enduring poetic work of the century.*'— Star, 



LULLABT LAND: Songs of Childhood. B: 



EUGENE FIELD. Edited, wiili Introduction, by KENNETH GRAHAME. 
by Charles Robinson. Uncut, or gilt ed^es, crown 8vo, 6s. 



■With 200 Illnstratio 



" A book of exceeding sweetness aud beauty. No more original and no sweeter singer of childhood ever breathi 
Mr. Kobinson's drawings are more exquisite, if possible, in execution, and as abounding as ever in humour and pii» 
tasy. Any child who gets this book now will love it as long aa he lives." — Daily Chronicle. 

" It requires the genius of a Eugene Field to write such a book, and we hail wilh delight a volume which bea™ '^ 
American poet's honoiu-ed name on its title-page. We all know snatches of Eugene Field's children's poems, and » 
is there that has read unmoved ' Little Boy iJlue,' ' Buttercup, Poppy, Forget-me-not,' and has not dreamt and lauitb 
aud frolicked with the children of his songs ? Mr. Kenneth Giahame, himself a past master in the art of mu 
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Kubinton, the iUustiator. has admirably caught the spiiit cf the poems in his numerous delicate drawings."' 

Westminster Gazelli 



THE HAPPY EXILE, By H. D. Lowry, Autho 

of "Make Believe" and "Women's Tragedies." With 6 Etchings by E. Philip Pimlo: 
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" Every page is instinct with the joy of rustic sights and sounds. Mr. Lowry has a good deal of the poet in W» f" 
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" This is a book to lead, and to read again ; a volume not to be got for a couple of days and skimmed through, but 
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good report. The sketches— iayllic and realistic— which make up the book seem to have been written en piem' 
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THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan 22, 1898. 



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THE ACADEMY. 



87 



CONTENTS. 



RiTllWS : 

lU-fftted Fergnsson 

Christina Roesetti 

Peter the Great 

A Book about Dungeons 

A Trades Unionist Cyclopaidia 

In Southern Seas 

Beiefes MBKTIOir 

flctiob suppdemeht 

Notes ahd News 

"Lewis Cabeoll" 

"Lewis 0»kboli." at Oxfokd 

The "EDiNBUkOH"' ON Mb. Kipling 

PAKIS LETrBB 

Tkb Booe Mabeet 

The Titles of Newspapers 

Tlie Future of the /dJer 

Tbe Wbee 

New Books Received 

COBBESPONDENCE 

Boos Bbtiiwb Riviewbd 



Piei 

... 87 



... 90 
... 91 
... 91 
... 92 
... 93 
... 05 
... 98 
... 99 
... 100 
... 100 
... 101 
... 102 
... 102 
.. 103 
... 103 
... 103 
... 105 



REVIEWS. 



ILL-FATED FEEGUSSON. 

Robert Fergusson. By A. B. Grosart. 
" Famous Scots " Series. (Olipliant, 
Anderson & Ferrier.) 

THE merits of Dr. Grosart as a bio- 
grapher are such as spring from a life- 
'ong admiration of his hero. Nearly fifty 
ears ago he wrote a life of Fergusson, 
ind ever since he appears to have kept 
p the study, adding fact to fact till, 
rhat with searching libraries, examining 
ecords and importuning correspondents, 
i; may be assumed that he has collected 
ill that is Ukely to be known of a singidarly 
literesting and attractive figure. Dr. 
jrosart's demerits are, firstly, that he is too 
rmtroversial ; what was needed was a bold, 
I tuple portrait, not a series of attacks 
1 David Irving and the obscure critics 
ho see in Fergusson only an example 
justly punished vice and profiigacy. 
lie second drawback is the more serious 
le, that despite his zeal Dr. Grosart 
cks judgment and imagination. For 
jample, his hunt for such petty facts as 
jike up his "ell of pedigree " is a mere 
jiste of energy ; of wliat eartldy use is it 
I show that if you go back to his great 
fandfather, the impecunious bard had re- 
^sctable connexions, " wadsetters," kirk 
ilnisters, and such like ? And, on the 
cier hand, not enough pains has been 
tken to reproduce the environment of the 
pt, to reconstruct the St. Andrews and 
i^inburgh of a hundred and fifty years 

|[t is not tiU he gets to the University 
tit we can form any picture or idea of 
ftgusson as an individual. His father and 
ntther were honest, worthy people, who 
eiiently made great sacrifices to educate 
tlir children. Among the documents 
fii od up by Dr. Grosart is a little budget 
slwing how William Fergusson made a 
nlerable income of twenty pounds a year 
ccjor the family expenses. It was charac- 
teistic that less was paid for the house in 
Ci( and Feather Close than for the school- 
"I of the bairns. Robert acquitted himself 



well at his books, eventually winning a 
bursary or scholarship that carried 
him first to Dundee Grammar School, 
and then to St. Andrews. It is here 
that Dr. Grosart should have gone 
outside the lines on which he had been 
previously working to obtain material for 
helping us to realise what Scotch University 
life was in the sixties of last century. "We 
do begin to catch sight of the boy — a slim, 
delicate youth, with a sweet voice, and wide, 
black, laughing eyes, full of spirit and 
devilment, already beginning to rhyme and 
hand round bits of his witty, satirical 
verse. What were his companions like ? 
Dr. Grosart has got together a list of the 
more distinguished names ; but it is the 
impecunious and reckless unknown we are 
curious about. The professors, too, must 
have been very different from what their 
successors are. There was WUkie, who 
appears to have taken a warm liking to 
Fergusson, made him a sort of amanuensis, 
and carried him off to his farm at week- 
ends. He is little more than a name in Dr. 
Grosart's book ; yet in good sooth he was 
one of the most extraordinary of professors, 
and it would help us much to know what 
was the bond between him and "Eab." 

Let us try to realise him. Externally 
he certainly was not attractive. A lum- 
bering. Parson Trulliber sort of man, 
with bushy eyebrows, a clay tobacco-pipe 
in his mouth, Ul-dressed, unwashed — it 
is related, among other items of true or 
untrue contemporary gossips, that he could 
not sleep except in foul sheets. He was 
miserly to a degree ; and when not lecturing 
at the University, toiled like a day labourer 
on his farm, and was most unsocial and 
unpopular. Nevertheless, this pig-dealing 
professor was every inch of him a man. 
And his mind must have been nigh as versa- 
tile as Mr. Gladstone's. He was a subtle 
theologian, a natural philosopher, one of 
the most advanced agricidturists of his time, 
and a voluminous author and poet ; his 
" Epigoniad " is a long (and frightfully dull) 
poem in nine books. At bottom, neverthe- 
less, he was simple and strong and kindly. 
"I have shaken hands with poverty up to 
the elbow," was his eloquent apology for 
being miserly, but he set aside twenty 
pounds a year for charity ; and (let this, 
too, be set to his credit) he was regularly 
cheated at market, and his high farming 
did not pay. Now, is it not extraordinary 
that this singular professor should have 
singled out young Fergusson as a favourite ? 
The eclogue in which the poet lamented 
the death of Wilkie shows that the esteem 
was warmly returned. 

To make a life of Fergusson convincing 
it would be necessary to recall not only 
professors and students, but old collegiate 
usages and customs, and all that which 
made up the university life of his time. 
The mere anecdotes retailed in succession 
by Irving, Somners, Chambers, and the 
rest, and now repeated by the present author, 
lose their air of reality unless we can imagine 
their " setting." We fuUy agree with Dr. 
Grosart that the freaks and follies at St. 
Andrews, though they ended once in a short 
rustication, were not really viciou.s, but 
only the outcome of a very merry, high- 



spirited temperament, combined with unusual 
audacity. In fact, this St. Andrews period 
is the one bit of unclouded sunshine in a 
very touching history. 

The clouds soon gathered round him. 
His father died the year before he left the 
University and he was obliged to look about 
not only for his own livelihood but means 
to support his widowed mother. An ill- 
starred visit to an uncle in the North was 
disappointing in itself and brought on a 
serious illness. On recovery the lad drifted 
into a position similar to that held by his 
father, that of a copying clerk, the worst 
paid and most irksome task to which he 
could be put. The natural result followed. 
All day Fergusson was "a base mechanic 
drudge" ; he only began to wake up when 
the office closed. It was the hey-day of 
tavern life. Dr. Grosart might have found 
excellent illustrative material for this period 
in Ramsay of Ochtertyre's Scotland in the 
Eighteenth Century, as well as in Guij 
Mannering and MedgauntUt. Fergusson was 
probably no worse than his time, but he 
was no better, and the best of his hours 
were spent at Luckie Middlemist's or 
Johnny How's. He was very welcome, for 
people soon began to look upon him as a 
celebrity, his poems in Muddinven's Magazine 
achieving an immediate success. In 
addition he had a fund of " auld Scots 
crack " and was a fine singer. One of his 
biographers describes him as " the best 
singer ever heard of ' The Birks of Inder- 
may.' " Indeed, his name is very closely 
associated with Mallet's small lyric. He 
chose it for unique praise in his " Elegy 
on the Death of Scots Music " : 

" Can lav'rocks at the dawning day, 
Can liuties chinning frae the spray, 
Or todling bums that smoothly play 

O'er gowden beds, 
Compare wi' Birks of Indermay ? " 

It was pre-eminently his favourite song. 
When out of his wits the poor mad poet sang 
it in Bedlam "with such exquisite melody 
that those who heard the notes can never 
forget the sound." Our tastes have changed 
since then, and no anthology of to-day 
includes "The Birks of Indermay"; yet 
words that have so charmed a true poet 
should not be forgotten, though the first 
four lines do contain the jewels " smiling 
morn," "breathing spring," "tuneful birds'" 
which " warble from each spray," and 
" universal lay." Still, there is a linger- 
ing charm like some half-exhausted fra- 
grance about 

" Let us, Amanda, timely wise, 
Like them improve the hour that flies, 
And in soft raptures waste the day 
Among the Birks of Indermay." 

Fergusson was doing better work than that 
if ho had known it. He was, as Stevenson 
called him, " the poet of Edinburgh," and 
not even Sir Walter has given u» livelier 
pictures of its streets and causeways, its law- 
courts and races and amusements. Not by 
any means that we claim him to have been 
a Scott or Bums, he lacked the pith and 
grip. Yet a clever, sly humour, a keen 
observation, and a something of freshness, 
reminding one of the gleam of jjrass when 
the sun comes out after rain, entitle him to 



88 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jaw. 22, 1898. 



a high place among the minors. His 
" Farmer's Ingle " will compare even with 
"The Cotter's Saturday Night," and when 
Bums imitated the following verses he did 
not altogether surpass his original : 
" In July month, ae bonny morn. 
When nature's rokelay green 
Was spread owre ilka rig o' corn 

To charm our rovin' een, 
Glowrin' about, I saw a queaa, 

The fairest neath the Utt ; 
Her een were o' the siller sheen, 
Her skin like snawy drift, 
Sae white that day. 

I dwall amang the cauler streams 

That weet the land o' cakes. 
And aften tune my canty strings 

At bridals and late- wakes. 
They ca' me Mirth. I ne'er was kenned 

To grumble or look sour. 
But blythe would be a lift to lend 
Gif ye would sey my power 
And pith this day." 
One cmnot help doubting Dr. Grosart's 
wisdom in trying to whitewash the reputa- 
tion of Fergusson. E. L. Stevenson had 
abundant grounds for using the terms 
" drimken " and " vicious " towards him. 
Biography is worthless if it be not true, 
and surely there are few so weak that they 
cannot look the good and the ill frankly in 
the face. Not the least pathetic of the 
many stories about Fergusson is that which 
tells how he tried to get the Knights of the 
Cape — the jovial society that once every 
seven years celebrated the " jubilee " of 
Jemmy Thomson — to limit their expenditure 
to sixpence a night. He was sorry for and 
ashamed of his indulgence. He drank, he 
said, "to forget my mother and my poor 
aching fingers." It is pity and not blame 
that this calls forth. One other point 
deserves to be alluded to : 

" In a time of hcense," says Dr. Grosart, 
" and fast living no so-called love-Uaisons ever 
came up against him, no ' woman's skaith ' 
was ever laid at his door, no such salutations 
with defiance of illegitimate offspring as we 
mourn over in the greater Eobert." 

This is whitewash pure and simple. 
Stevenson, in his Edinburgh, has frankly 
stated the truth : " Love was absent from 
his life, or only present, if you prefer, in 
such a form that even the least serious of 
Bums's amourettes was ennobling by com- 
parison." 

We have no desire to enlarge upon the 

Eoint. It was a cold caught while (after 
e had dosed himself with " a searching 
medicine ") he was electioneering that 
brought on Fergusson's madness and death 
at the age of twenty-four, a death not alto- 
gether unlike that of Bums himself. The 
fact that a hundred pounds came from his 
friend Burnett while he lay a corpse in an 
institution for jjaupers was but one of many 
circumstances enhancing the pathos of the 
end. Dr. Grosart may well claim for his 
hero "the meed of a melodious tear" ; but 
it will come the more honestly from those 
who refuse to gloss anything over or adopt 
the recent Scotch fashion of crediting a 
favourite with virtues to which he himself 
makes no claim. It was foolish in the case 
of Bums; it is more foolish in that of 
Fergusson. 



Fergusson's reputation does not need to be 
bolstered up. He will continue to have 
readers were it only because critics so 
difficult to please as Bums, "Wordsworth, 
and Carlyle unite in his praise. Lovers of • 
R. L. Stevenson have a stiU deeper reason 
for studying Fergusson. What it is will 
best be explained by a remarkable letter 
printed by Dr. Grosart in his introduction. 
It was addressed to Mr. Craibe Angus, of 
Glasgow. Stevenson writes : 

" When your hand is in, will you remember 
our poor Edinburgh llobin !' Bums alone has 
been just to his promise; follow Bums. He 
knew best; he knew when to draw fish — from 
the poor, white-faced, drunken, vicious boy 
who raved himself to death in the Edinburgh 
madhouse. Surely there is more to be gleaned 
about Fergusson, and surely it is high time the 
task was set about. 

I may tell you (because your poet is not 
dead) something of how I feel. We are three 
Eobins who have touched the Scots lyre this 
last century. Well, the one is the world's. He 
did it, he came off; he is for ever; but I and 
the other, ah, what bonds we have. Bom in 
the same city, both sickly, both vicious, both 
pestered — one nearly to madness and one to the 
madhouse — with a damnatory creed ; both see- 
ing the stars arid the moon, and wearing shoe- 
leather on the same ancient stones. Under the 
same pends, down the same closes, where our 
common ancestors clashed in their armour, 
rusty or bright. . . . He died in his acute, 
painful youth, and left the models of the great 
things that were to rome ; and the man who 
came after outlived his green-sickness, and has 
faintly tried to parody his finished work. 

If you will collect strays of Robert Fergusson, 
fish for material — collect any last re-echoing of 
gossip ; command me to do what you prefer : 
to write the preface — to write the whole, if you 
prefer; anything so that another monument 
(after Burns') be set up to my unhappy prede- 
cessor, on the Causey of Auld Reekie. You 
will never know, nor will any man, how deep 
this feeling is. I believe Fergusson lives in 
me. I do. But ' tell it not in Gath.' Every 
man has these fanciful superstitions coming, 
going, but yet enduring ; only most men are so 
wise (or the poet in them so dead) that they 
keep their follies for themselves." 

Among the unwritten books it is probable 
that one of tho greatest was Stevenson's 
life of Fergusson. No man is living (or 
likely to live) who is equally qualified by 
knowledge and sympathy. Of the self- 
revelation it would almost be desecration to 
speak. Dr. Grosart attempts to weaken 
the comparison ; but he did not know 
Stevenson, and he has penetrated but a 
short way into the inner recesses of Robert 
Fergusson, whereas the author of the letter 
understood both. A biographer with young 
and modem sympathies might yet achieve 
a great success by taking the letter as the 
basis of a new study. 



CHRISTINA EOSSETTI. 

Christina Eossetti : a Biographical and Critical 
Study. By Mackenzie Bell. (Hurst & 
Blackett.) 

Heee is a volume inspired by sympathy and 
personal friendship, and executed with un- 
sparing conscientiousness ; yet sympathy and 



friendship would desire it undone, or done 
otherwise, and it would have been better 
had it been less conscientious. Some bio- 
graphy of Christina Rossetti was needed and 
advisable, but this biography was inadvis- 
able, and would not have been missed. 
We are sorry to say so, for the author's 
sincerity, and unassuming desire to do his 
best, are conspicuous on every page. There 
is no aggressive fault of taste ; it does not 
rank with those biographies which are sins 
against the dead by their sins against the 
living; there are no "painful exposures," 
and so forth. Christina Rossetti, indeed, 
offers no chance for such offences. The 
difficulties of her life are quite in a contrary 
direction. Externally, she lived the lite 
which our forefathers laid down as proper 
and typical for women — quiet, uneventful, 
unmarked, drab, conventional. She de- 
parted from the law of our forefathers in 
only two respects : she published books, and 
she did not marry. (It was, of course, d» 
rigueur with our forefathers that a woman 
should be neither an old maid nor a blue- 
stocking.) We are not blaspheming against 
our forefathers. With the modifications 
mentioned, the life worked well enough for 
Christina, who never in the least dogbee put 
on the new woman, however much she 
strove to put off the old man. But it is 
clear that such a life offers little foothold 
for the biographer. His one chance is to get 
a grip on that internal life which must 
be the total life of such a woman. 

But, unfortunately, Christina Rossetti's 
present biographer is in thorough harmony 
with her external life ; he is drab to the soul, 
drab in all his methods. (Of course, we 
speak of his book.) And yet he means so 
well! His faults result from a too indis- 
criminate insistence upon detail. Convinced, 
quite rightly, that the . lightest detail about 
a genius may be fuU of importance, he 
records everything, without observing per- 
spective. But because a light detail may 
have importance, it does not follow that 
every light detail has importance. It is 
true we have had impressionists who acted 
upon the principle that an assemldage of 
seemingly trifling details constituted a 
character, though they might not be able 
to discover the law by which this was so ; 
trusting to the veracity of Nature for 
the result. But these impressionists were 
geniuses, who were guided by inward 
instinct to the right selective traits. 
It is a mistake to suppose that the mere 
painstaking setting down of every trivia) 
trait that one can observe will consti- 
tute a picture and evolve a meaning. This if 
Mr. Bell's mistake ; and it is with mosi 
honest intention we counsel him that s 
judicious selection is necessary, in order tc 
make trifling details sig^ficant and charac 
teristic. 

This mistake of principle — or, rather 
want of principle- flows through the whol( 
book, and is responsible for its defects. I 
shows itself in the minute inventory o 
Christina Rossetti's house at Torrington 
square. It shows itself in the selections fron 
her letters — if we can call them selections 
for they are reported with pertinaciou: 
fidelity, irrespective of their importance 
Absolutely, in connexion with one letter, W' 



Jan. 22, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



89 



are given an inventory of lodging-houses, 
with such soul-stirring details as — 

" Bed and sitting room in one, 25s. per week. 

Gas, Is. 6d do. 

Boots, Id." 

The reminiscences of her youth and of 
her conversation are related with the same 
painful want of scale : how she sat a long 
time in a garden by a piece of ornamental 
water, until she saw a water-rat or a water- 
haunting bird, and how she was much 
gratified by it, with a neat little moral 
reflection to follow. It is true that she 
herself published this anecdote, but it might 
well have been omitted from her biography. 
Yet, of course, amid so much con- 
scientious reporting, there are interesting 
details, from which it is possible to get an 
idea of her personality. Bom in 1830, at 
Charlotte-street, Portland-place, she was tho 
youngest of a family of four. Except the 
eldest, Maria Francesca, all have become 
publicly known. She was not very pre- 
cocious, and is said to have read less than 
the other members of the family. There 
is really very little of interest chronicled 
in this book about her early years. 
She was always delicate, and in youth 
serious, reticent, and given to melancholy — 
as her poems show. Moreover, she was 
essentially a city girl, and essentially a 
'religious g^rl. Therefore her outward life 
jwas quiet and humdrum; and, for a girl 
;brought in contact with so many eminent 
[people, singularly unromantic. It is a great 
|contrast to the life of her brother Dante. 
iShe had no desire to run glittering in the 
jopen Sim, or if she had, she suppressed it. 
She had no fanciful love-affairs, it would 
!!eem. Twice she was asked in marriage, and 
refused both offers from religious scruples. 
But what romance there may have been in 
ihese affairs must be sought in her poetry, 
|t does not appear on the surface. Mr. Bell 
'iierely says that she had a " regard " for 
;)oth her suitors, and that she was much 
addened by the necessity of rejection, espe- 
liaUy in the case of the second. It may be 
joubted whether passionate love was in her 
'ature, although one is liable to be mistaken 
,1 regard to these reserved characters. 
I Her religion, which helped to crush ex- 
I'mal romance, supplied little romance in its 
llace. She was a poet, and in a certain way 
lid measure a mystic ; yet there is nothing 
i' the St. Teresa about her devotion. She 
jas of the "pensive nun" kind, "sober, 
•eadfast, and demure." But the " pensive 
im" in a dark London house, amid the 
josaic details of Anglican parish organisa- 
im, is apt to be a discouraging subject for 
(ography. Moreover, she set herself to over- 
«me her outward reserve and pensiveness ; 
td settled down into a cheery, chatty old lady. 
Jjwas bravely done ; but the romance of it 
jS behind the veil which she never lifted, 
jim within which came at rarest intervals 
s^gestions of pain and silent strife. The 
^mpses of her personal appearance in girl- 
ed which Mr. Bell gives are taken from 
ajcady published memorials. Bell Scott's 
iime : 

r By the window was a high narrow reading- 
d k, at which stood writing a slight girl, with 
a'irious regular profile, dark against the pallid 



wintry light without. This most interesting to 
me of the two inmates tamed on my entrance, 
made the most formal and graceful curtsey, and 
resumed her writing." 

That is a suggestive outline : fill it in 
from Mr. Watts-Dunton's account : 

" She had Gabriel's eyes, in which hazel and 
blue-grey were marvellously blent, one hue 
shifting into the other, answering to the move- 
ments of the thoughts. And her brown hair, 
though less warm in colour than his during 
his boyhood, was still like it. When a young 
girl, she was, as both her mother and Gabriel 
have told me, really lovely, with an extra- 
ordinary expression of pensive sweetness." 

Mrs. Frend, again, speaks of her as "a 
dark-eyed slender lady ... in appearance 
Italian, with olive complexion and deep 
hazel eyes." She mentions, also, "the 
beautiful Italian voice all the Rossettis 
were gifted with." Many friends noticed 
this peculiar charm in Christina, and 
the melodious, un - English distinctness 
with which she articulated her words, 
" making ordinary English words and 
phrases fall upon the ear with a soft, 
foreign, musical intonation, though she 
pronounced the words themselves with the 
purest of English accents." She read 
poetry exquisitely, as both Mr. William 
Sharp and Mr. Bell declare, and as, with 
such a voice and the poet's mind, she ought 
to have done. 

Let us add a few correcting touches to 
this clear and charming picture. It is open 
to doubt the assertion of her mother and 
brother that she was ever strictly "lovely." 
Her brother's portraits bear out the descrip- 
tion ; but he was too idealising to be quite 
trustworthy. Other portraits suggest a 
different version ; and even in Dante 
Eossetti's pictures there is a marked differ- 
ence between the face in the " Assumption " 
and that in the " Ecce Ancilla Domini " 
(both painted from Christina). In the 
latter the face is hardly beautiful from a 
strict physical standpoint ; and it happens 
to be borne out by James CoUinson's por- 
trait of Christina given in Mr. Bell's book. 
In the same way we gather hints that, to 
some people, the young Christina may 
have been a little repellant. "A certain 
degree of restraint and pride" was 
observed in her. A lady told her (as 
she herself confessed) that she " seemed to 
do aU from self-respect, not from fellow- 
feeling with others, or from kindly considera- 
tion for them." We get a pretty clear 
idea of a girl hardly pretty or attractive, 
not very sympathetic, reserved, quiet, 
melancholy, shy, and appearing proud 
from her shyness and defect of ready 
sympathy. When she had to struggle with 
natural sadness, reticence, and self-conscious- 
ness, no common sfrength and sense of duty 
was it which converted her into a sweet, 
cheerful, self-forgetful woman. 

Her life was inward. Outwardly, thare 
seems really nothing to record but that she 
nursed ailing relations, was foremost in 
religious and charitable duties, was ever 
ready to sacrifice her time to visitors, went 
little (in her latter years) out of doors, put 
forth some prose-works, mainly religious, 
not of the very highest literary quality, and 
published from tune to time poetry of high 



rank. She had, naturally, little sympathy 
with the movement for female rights, 
being herself so undesirous of external 
activities. Of her talk it is impossible to 
judge from the not well-chosen specimens 
given by Mr. Bell. She could utter — and 
indeed write — platitudes like other women ; 
that is made evident. But her best poetry 
is work of genius, and upon that rests her 
name. She wrote, her brother says, with 
great spontaneity, and seldom revised what 
she wrote. Yet she was artist to her finger- 
tips, and not the less so because her art was 
an inward shaping spirit, not outward prun- 
ing and paring. But this is not the occasion 
for an essay on Christina Rossetti as poet. 
We have dealt with an attempt at a diffi- 
cult, perhaps a hardly possible, biography 
of a woman who lived the inner life. And 
with regret we must pronounce it a chronicle 
of small beer. 



PETER THE GREAT. 

Feter the Great. By Oscar Browning, M.A. 
(Hutchinson.) 

Mr. Oscar Browking has no particular fit- 
ness to write a history of Peter " the Great," 
or, if he has, we were not aware of the fact. 
Indeed, in the brief preface attached to his 
life of that worthy, he confesses that, 
in gathering material for his book, he 
has confined himself for the most part to 
one or two well-known and generally acces- 
sible authorities. He has made no exhaus- 
tive researches among historical archives 
and unpublished documents, as M. Walis- 
zewski did when preparing his magnificent 
study; and Waliszewski's work itself, 
he tells us, " did not come into his hands 
until half the present book was in type." 
This is at once our loss and Mr. Browning's, 
for his biography would certainly have 
gained in vividness and interest if Mr. 
Browning had been able to lighten its very 
sombre pages with some of the curious 
details which were unearthed by M. Walis- 
zewski. Lovers of Russian history, by the 
way, wiU learn with pleasure that a cheap 
edition of that gentleman's work in one 
volume has just been issued by Mr. Heine- 
mann. 

Mr. Browning comes, then, to his task as a 
compiler only. His object is merely to sum 
up in brief for the general public the 
principal facts of Peter's life as they have 
been brought to light by the researches of 
earlier students. Judged by this standard, 
is the book valuable ? That is the question 
we have to ask ourselves. On the whole, 
we think it is. It is written in a clear, 
readable style. It is not overloaded with 
details— indeed, some interesting matters 
are omitted— and the principal characters 
and events are described with straight- 
forwardness and a certain ability. It is in 
no sense a brilliant book, but it la work- 
manlike and, on the whole, sound. Of 
course Mr. Browning has been unable 
wholly to avoid the modern quasi-reveren- 
tial attitude towards Peter as the " maker 
of modem Russia," and the rest, a^d he 
respectfully eulogises his "genius and 



90 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 22, 1898. 



" force of character," but he admits at 
times that his wisdom may be questioned. 
With regard to Peter's services to Eussia 
and his determination to Europeanise his 
country, he points out frankly what may be 
said against his Baltic policy : 

" The foundation of St. Petersburg was paid 
for by the disasters upon the Pruth and the loss 
of Azof. Some compensation was foimd in the 
attacks upon Central Asia and Persia, which 
have ever since remained a principal object of 
BuBsian ambition. Undoubtedly Peter owed 
his first prominence in Europe to the fact that 
he was regarded as the principal European 
bulwark against the Turks, and as the leader 
of the Vanguard of the Cross against the 
dangerous barbarism of the Crescent. It may 
be questioned whether it would not have been 
better to have sustained this part with more 
tenacity and to have sought an outlook into 
Europe rather through the Black Sea and the 
Mediterranean than through the Baltic and the 
North Sea." 

Mr. Browning attributes the course which 
Peter actually took to " fate and perhaps 
accident " ; but that verdict has an un- 
scientific ring about it, and it may more 
reasonably be affirmed that it was Peter's 
defective judgment, and not fate or accident, 
which caused him to devote his country's 
energies to expansion towards the north 
rather than towards Constantinople. 

No historian has ever managed to paint 
Peter as an amiable character, though many 
(Waliszewski among them) have warmed 
to enthusiasm over his " greatness." Mr. 
Browning takes the common-sense view — 
admits Peter's many-sided activity, accepts 
him as a man of large ideas and great will- 
power, but makes no attempt to disguise 
the fact that he was a coarse and brutal 
ruffian. He is inclined to deny the charges 
of cowardice that have been brought against 
him (Waliszewski considers them proved), 
but his other vices are too patent and 
glaring to be worth disputing : 

"The story of his life and works is his best 
monument. Most remarkable is the energy of 
his vitality, the passion which he put into 
everything he did — ^work and play, humanity 
and cruelty. . . . One might say that he was 
European in his intellect, Asiatic in his sport, 
Savage in his wrath." 

This is perhaps a somewhat unflattering 
estimate of the intellect of Europe. Peter 
waa a monster, but a monster gifted 
with a considerable intelligence and a 
gigantic activity. He was not quite sane, 
but no one could call him imbecile. His 
madness is tlie madness which is found 
in the gigantic schemes of Caligula, 
and traces of which are found, by some, 
in the restless activity of William II. 
of Germany. There seems little doubt that 
he was epUeptic. In his physical peculiari- 
ties he resembled another Emperor of Eome, 
Claudius, for we read of his swaying head 
and clumsy, shuffling walk, his constant 
nervous twitcMngs and endless grimaces. 
In his personal cowardice, too, he resembles 
Claudius, but there all resemblance with 
that amiable weakling ends. He was not a 
man of commanding intellect, but made up 
for this by a certain intellectual nimbleness 
which enabled him to throw himself heart 
and soul into lialf-a- dozen things at once. 
In this his resemblance to the present 



German Emperor is certainly striking. His 
schemes for his country were grandiose in 
the extreme, and he was, perhaps, wise 
in his determination to sever Eussia from 
her Past and "turn her face Westward " ; 
but his methods of doing it were never ju- 
dicious, and occasionally were disastrous, and 
he had a madman's inability to count the 
cost or adapt the means to the end. More- 
over, looking at the Eussia of to-day, in 
so far as it is his creation no one can pre- 
tend that the result is altogether satisfac- 
tory. The virtues of the nation are still 
Oriental, while its vices are largely the 
vices of Europe. It is impossible to forgive 
Peter's treatment of the mutinous Streltsi. 

A word may be said of his relations 
with his son Alexis, especially as these form 
the subject of Mr. Laurence Irving's play at 
the Lyceum. As to the death of Alexis, Mr. 
Browning is indisputably right, Mr. Irving 
entirely wrong. It may be said that a drama- 
tist need not be true to history, but no one 
denies that he must be true to character, and 
the Lyceum reconciliation between Peter 
and his son requires a different Peter and a 
different Alexis. The true facts of the story 
of the son's death appear to be that after his 
conviction he was repeatedly tortured with the 
knout by Peter's orders and in his presence. 
Whether the Tsar actually struck the fatal 
blow himself is of no importance and cannot 
be ascertained now. But his treatment of 
his son stamps him with indelible infamy, 
and was unworthy even of the worst of those 
ancient kings of Persia who also claim for 
themselves the title of "Great," perhaps 
with equal justice. Peter, in fact, was an 
Oriental despot, not of the first ability. He 
had the true despot's indifference to the 
lives, the comfort, the dignity of his sub- 
jects. He grafted upon his country a 
civilisation which she was not fitted to 
receive, and attempted to force upon her 
from without a development which, to be 
valuable, could only have come by slow 
process of years from within. But his reign 
was long, and he was utterly devoid of 
scruples. Naturally, therefore, he "left his 
mark " on his country, but his influence has 
been greatly exaggerated, and any attempt 
to whitewash him as a moral character is 
quite preposterous. 



A BOOK ABOUT DUNGEONS. 

The Dungeons of Paris. By Tighe Hopkins. 
(G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

In this book Mr. Tighe Hopkins tells the 
stories of the old prisons of Paris in a series 
of episodes. In succession he takes us 
to the Conciergerie, the Bicetre, Chaletet, 
Sainte-Pelagie, the Bastille, and others. The 
survey is mainly confined to the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. Indeed, the 
marrow of the book is Mr. Hopkins's 
accounts of the operation of Uttres de cachet in 
the years that preceded the French Eevolu- 
tion. We look on Paris from the gates of 
the Paris prisons. At Vincennes, in the 
dead of night, a coach draws up. Who 
now ? For whom do the turnkeys assemble 
and the lanterns gleam on gallery and stair ? 



It is the good Abbe Prieur, state prisoner of 
Louis XV. 

"The Abbe had invented a kind of short- 
hand, which he thought would be of some use 
to the ministry. But the ministry would none 
of it, and the Abbe made known his little 
invention to the King of Prussia, a patron 
of such profitable things. But one of his 
letters was opened at the post-office by the 
Cabinet Noir, and the next morning Monsieur 
Abbe Prieur awoke in the dungeon of Vincennes. 
He inquired the reason, and in the course of 
months his letter to the King of Prussia was 
shown to him. 

' But I can explain that in a moment,' said 
the Abbe. ' Look, here is the translation.' 

The hieroglyphs, in short, were as innocent 
as a verse of the Psalms ; but the Abbe Prieur 
never quitted his dungeon." 

Here is another story — ^racy of the time : 

" A venerable and worthy nobleman, M. 
Pompignan de Mirabelle, was imprudent 
enough to repeat at a supjier party some 
satirical verses he had heard touching Mme. de 
Pompadour and De Sartines, the chief of police. 
Warned that De Sartines had filled in his name 
on a lettre de cachet, M. de Mirabelle called at 
the police office, and asked to what prison he 
should betake himself. ' To Vincennes,' said 
De Sartines. 

' To Vincennes,' repeated M. de Mirabelle to 
his coachman, and he arrived at the dungeon 
before the order for his detention. 

Once a year De Sartines made a formal visit 
to Vincennes, and once a year punctually he 
demanded of M. de Mirabelle the name of thi' 
author of the verses. ' If I knew I should not 
tell you,' was the invariable reply ; ' but as a 
matter of fact I never heard it in my Ufe.' , 
M. de Mirabelle died in Vincennes a very old 
man." 

It is impossible to read of such arrests and 
incarcerations without a sort of admiration 
for the tremendous power of the king to 
imprison, and the security with which a 
prisoner, lodged on a word, might be 
retained all liis life. In the matters of 
security and hopelessness of escape Mr. Hop- 
kins awards the palm to Vincennes, whose 
architect, he says, " was up some half-hour 
earlier than the architect of the Bastille." 
Impenetrable walls, door after door sheathed 
in iron, galleries from which sentries over- 
looked every avenue of escape, towers tliat 
commanded miles of coimtry — such were tho 
equipments of this last home of "audacity 
in high places," this foul witness to 
the murder of the Due d'Enghieu. The 
solitude within Vincennes extended outside' 
its walls. 

' ' The sentries had orders to turn the eyes o; 
every passer-by from the dungeon towers. Nc 
one might stand or draw breath in the shado\\ 
of Vincennes. It might be a relative or s 
friend seeking to learn in what exact cell thi 
cai^tive was lodged. From light to dusk thi 
sentry reiterated his changeless f ormida : ' Passf 
outre cluiiiin !"' 

And yet within the walls there was ai 
odd freedom. Prisoners could give trouble 
could get their own way. Mirabeau wa 
a match — considering the odds — for tha 
most brutal of the governors of Vincennes 
De Eougemont. "Night or day he g^V' 
his gaoler no peace." He wanted a table 
knife. You would think it was a questioi 
of Yes or No. But Mirabeau spent " fou 
months in altercation with De Eougemont' 
about that table-knife, and got it at last 



Jan. 22, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



91 



He clamoured for his trunk, his clothes, 
his linen. Refused paper, he tore fly-leaves 
from prison books, and wrote his quivering 
sentences on Lettres de Cachet^ and hid them 
in his coat, and not all the king's horses 
nor all the king's men kept them from being 
printed. He wrote a letter of many pages 
to De Rougemont demanding a looking- 
glass for his toilet, and got it. He roared 
for freedom itself, and won it. 

If Vincennes excels all the other old 
French prisons in strength, Bicetre for 
horror ! It was half a lunatic asylum, half 
a gaol for beggars and ' ' young men worn 
out by debauchery." A third element was 
not long wanting. Granted a roomy prison, 
political prisoners were sure to be provided 
— the lettren dt cachet were innumerable as 
flies in August. Horrible shades! where 
" now and again the warders and attendants 
amused themselves by organising a pitched 
battle between the ' mad side ' and tho 
'prison side'"; the wounded were easily 
transferred to the infirmary, the dead were 
as easily packed into the trench beneath the 
walls." So awful were the tales that leaked 
through the chinks and doors of the Bicetre 
that this Paris prison, round which free 
men and women circulated, under whose 
walls little children danced in the street, 
became peopled, in the popidar imagination, 
with " imps, evil genii, sorcerers, and shape- 
less monsters compounded of men and 
beasts." The Bicetre's blackest day dawned 
on Sunday, September 2, 1792, when, says 
Carlyle, " all France leaps distracted like 
the winnowed Sahara waltzing in sand 
colonnades." Each prison of Paris had its 
massacre, but the accounts of the massacre 
at the Bicetre are contradictory. The 
fog of slaughter was too thick and foul 
for anything clear to emerge. One turns 
with reUef to the far different scene at the 
Sainte-Pelagie on this same Sunday of 
blood and bell-ringing. " Citizens," cried 
the heroic governor Buchotte to the pike- 
bearing mob, " you arrive too late. My 
prisoners are gone. They got warning of 
your coming, and after binding my wife and 
myself as you see us, they made their 
i escape." It was one of the noble lies of 
I history. The prisoners were all in their 
I cells. The binding was a ruse. But the 
I mob had not time to doubt, and it swept 
on its way. 

' Sabite-Polagie swarmed with debtors. 
' Among these was a kindly hearted Croesus, 
; who had refused to pay a certain debt for 
'conscience' sake. This was the American, 
I Colonel Swan, the good genius of the place. 
j His little remembered acts of kindness and 
; of love make Sainte-Pelagie fragrant. Many 
I a small debtor left the prison, free," after 
,five minutes' talk with Colonel Swan. To 
I one such man, who asked to be his sen-ant 
I for six francs a month, the Colonel replied : 
|"ThatwiU suit me very well, here is five 
lyears' pay in advance." It was the amoxmt 
[of the man's debt, and he went weeping 
[back to freedom. 

But such relieving touches are as Little 
I squares of sunlight on the paved floor of a 
[cell where hope dies daily. One horror 
jlinks all these prisons together, till they 
form a bad dream of humanity. In some 
cells of the Conciergerie the prisoners 



had to shield their faces, leaving their 
bodies to the rats. Fevers stalked the 
wards, aided by drunken turnkeys and 
careless doctors. Vincennes had abysses 
for those whose lettres de cachet were in- 
scribed "Pour etre oublii:' The cells of the 
Chatelet were infested with reptiles, and 
received air only from above; "there was 
no current, but only, as it were, a stationary 
column of air, which barely allowed the 
prisoners to breathe." But enough. It is 
well to read of such things once in a way. 
But if you lay down Mr. Hopkins's book 
late in the evening — take a walk before 
you sleep, prove your liberty; else your 
dream-land may be the Question Chamber 
of the Conciergerie. 



A TRADES UNIONIST CYCLOPAEDIA. 

rndiistrial Democracy. By Sidney and 
Beatrice Webb. (Longmans, Green, & 

Co.) 

An immense amount of wild and random 
speaking and writing on the Engineers' 
Strike would have been saved if this book 
had been published six months ago. Such 
an inside view of the aims and methods of 
modem Trades Unionism has never before 
been furnished to the public. The authors 
have spared no pains in the collection of 
their facts. By the study of documents, 
by interviewing employers. Trades Union 
offieials, and workmen, and by jiersonal ob- 
servation — in Mrs. "Webb's case as a "rent- 
collector, a tailoress, and a working-class 
lodger in working-class families " — they 
have accumulated a mass of authentic in- 
formation which renders the book indis- 
pensable to the legislator, the journalist, 
and the social student. 

Save for the too frequent sneers at the 
" middle-class man," whom Mr. and Mrs. 
Webb appear to regard as a soulless 
creature, incapable even of understanding 
their arguments, much less of appreciating 
them, the tone and temper of the book are 
excellent. Naturally it is written with a 
strong Trades Unionist bias ; but there is 
no endeavour to suppress inconvenient facts. 
Indeed, a clever advocate, using no other 
data than are to be found in it, might 
construct a very powerful indictment against 
the principles and practices of modem Trades 
Unionism. 

The very interesting chapter on " The 
Higgling of the Market " would provide 
such an advocate with one of his points. 
The authors point out that the tendency 
towards a reduction of wages in certain 
trades is due to the pressure exercised 
upon the retail trader — and through him 
upon the wholesale trader, the manu- 
facturer, and, finally, upon the workman — 
by the consumer who desires to buy in the 
cheapest market. But they do not point 
out, even if they perceive it, that consumer 
and workman are in reality one, and that it 
is his desire qua consumer to buy cheaply 
which causes his wages qua workman to 
fall. The decline and ultimate disappear- 
ance of the hand-loom weavers is contrasted 



with the survival and aggrandisement of 
the hand-made-paper maker and the hand- 
made-boot maker. Mr. and Mrs. Webb 
attribute it to the fact that the hand- 
loomers cut down their prices to compete 
with the new machines, while the boot- 
makers and papermakers insisted on main- 
taining theirs. That, no doubt, is partly 
the reason, but may it not also have 
been due to tho fact that the papermakers 
and shoemakers produced something which 
the machine could not imitate, while the 
hand-loomers did not? The authors, in- 
deed, appear to hold that the higher the 
wages asked for by the workman the more 
workmen will be employed ; which is quite 
contrary to the view of the despised middle- 
class man, who is under the impression that 
it is not so much what a man earns as what 
he produces that encourages the employment 
of others. 

Every man, however, who reads the book 
can form his own conclusions on this and 
other vexed questions. The important thing 
is that the authors have provided such an 
ample array of facts, so carefully collated 
and arranged, that even the general reader 
can find interest in a subject which has 
hitherto been attractive in inverse proportion 
to its importance. In so doing Mr. and 
Mrs. Webb have deserved well of their 
generation. 



IN SOUTHERN SEAS. 

Wild Life in Southern Seas. By Louis 
Becke. (T. Fisher Unwin.) 

This is a book of sketches, written with 
that intimate knowledge and humorous ex- 
pression of life in the South Sea Islands 
which have made the reputation of the 
author, and you will not read them without 
a longing to " excede, evade, erump " at 
once to one of those enchanted islets where 
it is always afternoon ; where a man need 
not toil or spin, and may look back on a 
fair day's work when he has sat on the beach 
with hibiscus flowers in his hair, smoking 
cigarettes and playing the concertina. For 
exercise you raay fahahelle, which is Samoan 
for surf • swimming, the game which "takes 
possession of your innermost soul like unto 
cycling and golf"; and when you read 
Mr. Becke's sketch of "A Noble Sea 
Game " you will wtait to fahahelle very much 
indeed. They are absurd, irresponsible 
people, these South Sea Islanders ; good- 
natured too, for even a cannibal may be a 
pleasant companion between meals ; and 
their language is delightful. A little girl 
is a tama-fafine-toatsi. 

As a specimen sketch, take the paper on 
" My Native Soi-vants." Mr. Becke, landing 
on Nine — which has rightly lost its formet 
name of Savage Island — stepped into his 
new house, and 

"there, sitting on the floor in solemn silence, 
with their backs to the wall, were about fifty 
women. They had come to seek the post of 
nurso to tho white man's trtma-fafiiie-toahi . 
On being requested to clear out, they said 



92 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 22, 1898. 



' they would come again in the morning with 
somefriemh, and talk the matter over.' " 

Moemoo, the cook, was a promising young 
man. When shown the kitchen "he said 
' AU right,' sat down on a stool, and, asking 
me for mj' tobacco pouch, began to fill his 
pipe." Left to himself, Moemoe appears 
to have forgotten that he was a cook, but 
remembered that he was a man : 

" At noon I went out to the cook-Louse to 
see how my chefwms getting on. He had taken 
ofF his coat and shirt, but was still sitting down, 
playing an accordion to an audience of a dozen 
young women, all more or less in a state of 
Mshubille—even for Niue women." 

Nine women ! The phrase sounds familiar 
even on this side of the world. 

Hakala was engaged as head nurse, 
because she was a widow. But it was 
soon found that Hakala had two children, 
to say nothing of a husband, all of whom 
she wished to share her mat in her master's 
house. But Hakala was nothing to Hakupu, 
the nursemaid, who tied the white man's 
tama fafine-toatsi on her back, and balanced 
herself on the edge of the coral reef. 
Hakupu was soundly whipped, but she 
had her consolations : 

"We heard the mm-mur of voices from the 
cook-house. "Walking softly over, I peeped in 
through the window. The place was in semi- 
darkness, but there was still enough light to fill 
me with wrath at what I saw. There, stretched 
upon the floor, face down, was the under-nm-sc, 
supporting her chin upon her hands, a cigarette 
in her mouth, and that villain of a Moemoe 
lubricating her glossy browu back with a 
freshly opened tin of my Danish butter, into 
which he now and agaiu thrust his fingers." 

But this island of innocent, deceitful, 
genial, and altogether delightfully improper 
people, has its drawbacks. Literally, as 
well as metaphorically, there are flies on 
the Niue natives. 

" You meet a native. He looks like a 
j>erambulating figure composed of flies. As 
he passes he gives himself a vigorous brush 
with a branch he carries. You do the same. 
Two black clouds arise and assimilate, and then 
divide forces. If the native is a bigger man 
than you, he gets most." 

Missionaries, too, have not been an un- 
mixed blessing to the South Sea Islanders. 
Mr. Becke has many good words to say for 
individual missionaries ; but he is very 
severe on them in one matter. They insist 
that their converts shall wear clothes. 
Compulsory clothing has begotten con- 
sumption and other pulmonary disorders 
which have almost depopulated some of the 
islands. Wild Life in Soutfmrti Seas is 
not exclusively humorous. " Hino the 
Apostate " is as pathetic as anyone could 
wish. And here and there the author has 
inserted slabs of information — geographical, 
geological, and otherwise. These may be 
skipped by the judicious reader in search of 
amusement. But of .amusement he will find 
plenty. For no one has written with such 
knowledge and humour of the Southern 
Seas since "The Earl and the Doctor" 
wrote South Sea Bubbles, and that must be a 
quarter of a century ago. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



Tfw Prince of Wales: An Account of his 
Career, including his Birth, Education, 
Travels, Marriage, and Home Life ; and 
Philanthropic, Social and Political Work. 
(Grant Eichards.) 

AS this elegant tome has been reviewed at 
length in the daily papers, we presume 
it has a popular interest: literary merit it 
has none. It is a conscientious but tiresome 
narrative reconstructed from old newspaper 
articles, paragraphs and memoirs, inter- 
spersed with venerable pictures and portraits. 
Here is a specimen sentence, a portentous 
announcement, taken at random. " When 
dinner is over His Eoyal Highness gives a 
signal for smoking to begin, then an ad- 
journment is made to the large drawing- 
room." The cover of the book is rather 
pretty. It would make a nice present for — 
say, a lady who keeps a Berlin-wool shop. 

A Bidionary of English, Authors. By E. 
Farquharson Sharp. (Eodway.) 

The design of this book of reference is a 
happy one. Mr. Sharj) treats of 700 living 
and dead British authors, and to each 
devotes from one to three columns of space, 
in which he gives as tersely as possible the 
leading facts of their biographies, and a 
chronological list of their works and of the 
most important works about them. But the 
value of such a compilation must, of course, 
depend upon its absolute accuracy, even in 
minor details, and we regret to find that, 
judged by such tests as we have applied, 
Mr. Sharp is not, so far at least as literary 
history is concerned, absolutely accurate. Let 
us look, for example, at two sixteenth century 
writers. The first is Henry Vaughan. 
Mr. Sharp, in a half-column notice, spells 
the poet's birthplace as Skethiog instead of 
Skethrog, and states that he matriculated at 
Jesus College, Oxford, in 1628. Probably 
he did not matriculate at Jesus at all ; but 
if he did, it was certainly not in 1628, as 
he was then only six years old. Slips, 
perhaps, but then a slippery biographical 
dictionary is not of much use. We turn to 
John Donne, and the errors become more 
magnificent. Mr. Sharp attributes to Donne 
two works which were not his. The Bomie's 
Satyr of 1662 was by his son, who was 
inconvenient enough to have the same 
Christian name ; and The Collection of Letters 
of 1660 was edited by the same son and 
made by Sir Toby Matthews. A few only of 
the letters in it are of Donne's writing. 
Then Isaak Walton cannot have edited an 
edition of Donne's Poetical Works in 1779, 
for he had been dead the greater part of a 
century ; and we have some doubt whether 
Dr. Hannah did so in 1843 or Sir John 
Simeon in 1858. At any rate, those editions 
are not in the British Museum, nor have we 
come across them elsewhere. So far as 
living writers are concerned, Mr. Sharp 
appears to have obtained most of his in- 
formation from themselves : his list is fairly 
complete, but considering who are included, 
Mr. Stopford Brooke, Mr. A. H. BuUen, 
Mr. Sidney Lee, Mr. Francis Thompson, 
Dr. Grosart, and a good many others ought 



not to have been left out. We suppose that 
Mr. George Meredith did not authorise Mr. 
Sharj) to include among his novels one 
called Mary Bertrand which a Mr. Francia 
Meredith published in 1860. 

Chambers's Biographical Dictionary. Edited 
by David Patrick, LL.D., and Francis 
Hindes Groome. (W. & E. Chambers.) 

The sub-title of this book—" The Great of 
All Times and Ages " — had been hotter 
omitted. Too many small men of the i 
present time are included — men who have 
no pretensions to greatness. The volume 
contains eccentricities and flippancies which 
are frankly claimed as virtues by the 
editors : 

" The world's Upper Ten Thousand, these 
mainly ; still, the lower, even the lowest, have 
not been wholly neglected. For we include 
assassins like Abd-ul-Hamid and Ravachol, 
knaves like Arthur Orton and Jabez Balfour, 
madmen like Herostratus and Nietziche, im- 
postors like Joseph Smith and Mme. Blavatsky, 
traitors Uke Pickle the Spy and Benedict 
Arnold, tagrag and bobtail — every other page 
offers examples." 

But with all its faults, if these be faults, 
this Biographical Dictionary strikes us as 
being very well done. It is wonderfully 
comprehensive ; and after testing a great 
many of the articles we can pronounce them 
both useful and accurate. Shakespeare 
receives 4J columns — the longest notice. 
Napoleon I. gets a quarter of a column 
less. Wordsworth has ^k columns. Nelson 
has 2} columns, Wellington the same. 
Voltaire 2 columns, Milton the same, Cowper 
the same, Mohammed the same. Cardinal 
Newman \\ columns, Euskin the same. 
The entries are well up to date, though in 
their desire to make them so the editors 
describe Mr. Bernard Shaw's Plays as having 
been published in 1897, whereas we still 
await them. On the other hand, it is grati- 
fying to find under the name of George 
Thomson, the friend of Bums, the reference, 
" See his correspondence, edited by Cuthbert 
Hadden, 1898." Mr. Hadden's book has 
just been published. Great families, as 
well as individuals, are treated ; thus three 
useful and informing columns are given to 
the house of Stuart. Difficult notices wliich 
we have examined strike us as very, 
justly written. Such a man as George Fox, 
the founder of Quakerism, affords a good 
test, and we find his career summarised 
sanely and fairly. We note that Mr. 
Jerome K. Jerome is described, without 
further explanation, as " the founder of the 
'New Humour.'" This is a meaningless 
statement even to his intelligent contem- 
poraries ; what will it be to posterity ? 
If Mr. Jerome had really founded a new 
humour in the serious sense of the words, 
we should not have expected his notice to 
be shorter than that of the saint of the 
same name. 

Of course there are omissions. Mr. B. 
W. Leader was as eligible for mention as 
scores of other living men who are given a 
place. We note also that John Thomas 
Smith, whose biography of Nollekens and 
topographical works on London entitled him 
to mention, is ignored. 



THE ACADEMY 

FICTION SUPPLEMENT. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 22, 1898. 



i 



THE NEWEST FICTION. 
A GUIDE FOE NOVEL EEADEES. 



The War of the Worlds. 



By H. G. Wells. 



Hebe in volume form is Mr. Wells's narrative of the terrific attempt 
made by certain of tlio inhabitants of Mars to conquer this little 
world of oiu's. The story, as everybody knows, ran through 
Pearson'' 8 Magazine last year, where, indeed, many read it who usually 
find serial fiction tiresome. Since then Mr. Wells has altered and 
re- written much of the story. The dedication runs thus : "To my 
brother Frank WeUs, this rendering of his idea." (W. Heinemann. 
303 pp. 6s.) 

The Triu.mph of Death. By Gabriele d'Annunzio. 

A TRANSLATION by Georgina Harding — the first English translation 
of this remarkable example of d'Anmmzio's genius. Certain 
passages have been toned down where the author's point of view 
was a little too fresh for English readers. The Triumph of Death 
has had a great vogue in Italy and France. (W. Heinemann. 
315 pp. 68.) 



De. DumXny's Wife. 



By Maukus J6kai. 



A TB.\NSLATiON, by F. Steinitz, from the Hungarian. This is that 
I bugbear of some readers — a story within a story. It Ibegins with 
I a railway accident, luridly described, in which the narrator saves 
Ithe life of a millionaire's son. The boy is carried to his father's 
arms in Paris, and the same evening the millionaire tells the 
rescuer the history of his life. It begins on page 68 and continues 
until page 308, and is sufficiently surprising. But we do not care 
for this indirect method of making romances. (Jarrold & Sons. 
312 pp. 6s.) 

John Gilbert, Yeoman. By E. G. Soans. 

|A. ROMANCE of the Commonwealth. It is also a romance of Sussex ; 
jis much, we fancy, because its exemplar, Lorna Boone, was a 
|romance of Exmoor, as for any other reason. John Gilbert, 
'Yeoman, writes the story in the first person, and is pleasantly 
jirchaic the while. "Hath" for "has" and " wi'" for "with" 
md "o*" for "of" and "'tis" for " it is "—these are among his 
terbal tricks. His bailiff was one Alfred Mynns, which good 
llientish cricketers may resent. There are plenty of hard knocks, 
|joth in battle and out of it, in the book ; aye, marry, and there are 
j:omely wenches too. A pretty enough piece of Wardour-street 
I'omance for those that have leisure. (Wame & Co. 488 pp. 68.) 

IChe Confession of Stephen Whapshare. 



By Emma Brooke. 

|l NEW novel by the author of A Superfluous Woman is not lightly 
p be set aside. Here we have a woman who was more than 
uperfluous — a positive hindrance — " a woman with a dead soul." 
ler husband (who tells the story) endured her for seven years, and 
jien could endure her no longer ; for another woman — a woman 
'ith a Hill-top soul — had come into his life. So he administered a 
jouble dose of chloral and spent the rest of his life in good works. 
'Hutchinson & Co. 297 pp. 6s.) 

By B. M. Croker. 



iTiss Balmaine's Past. 

story of love, misunderstanding, sorrow, re-understanding, and 
,ve again. The hero is at first an engineer and ultimately a lord, 
ihe heroine is Eosamund of Eomney Marsh. They are brought 
kgether not by a mad bull, but by a tramp, who does just as well. 
, facile, glib holiday book. According to one of the fly-leaves of 
W volume Mrs. Croker's novels now total sixteen. (Chatto & 
findus. 325 xjp. 6s.) 



The Fourth Napoleon. By Charles Benham, 

A long-winded but very dexterous romance of modem political life 
in France. The hero is Walter Sadler, a young barrister, with a 
phenomenal resemblance to the first Napoleon. In the year 189 — , 
weary and dispirited, he seeks Paris, and is there taken for a 
veritable Buonaparte and elevated to the dignity of king. The 
story gives his adventures among a company of unscrupulous 
intriguers. One needs a week's holiday to read the book, but there 
wiU be entertainment on the way. (Heinemann. 600 pp. 6s.) 



The Gown and the Man. 



By Preston St. George. 



An historical novel. The period, it is scarcely necessary to say, is 
Stuart. John Hampden's denunciation of ship-money begins it, 
and the execution of Charles comes at the end. There is also one 
Colonel Cromwell. In the interim Puritanism is discussed as fully 
as any reader can want. A quiet, serious story. (Digby, Long 
& Co. 345 pp. 68.) 



The Cedar Star. 



By Mary E. Mann. 



A STUDY of a wilful temperament. The heroine is Betty, who 
begins by having her own way as a child, and continues to have 
it until soiTow and suffering are hers. A charming book, 
beginning with good chapters of child life, and containing memor- 
able figures, notably BiUy the curate and Betty herself. Betty 
is, indeed, quite a discovery. (Hutchinson & Co. 347 pp. 6s.) 



Queens and Knaves. 



By Celia Nash. 



Here we have modern life with a vengeance. Tlie transpontine 
stage offers nothing more chromatic. It is the story of a wicked 
Jew, drawn strictly on accepted melodramatic lines, and his victims. 
Could his name be anything but Steinsen ? There is the usual run 
of triumphant villainy, and then the downfall. What need to say 
more? (Digby & Long. 212 pp. 3s. 6d.) 



The Man in the Check Suit. 



By T. W. H. Dblf 



A WORK which, according to the publisher, "will be found to 
appeal to the masculine rather than the feminine reader " ; because, 
"for once in away, 'Love' plays but a small and subordinate 
part." In place of "Love" we have provincial humours, the 
punishment of fraud, and the restitution of rights. The man in the 
chock suit is an unknown benefactor, of a kind familiar to the 
readers of Dickens. If there is no distinction of style or thought in 
the book, there is plenty of compensating high spirits. (Jarrold 
& Sons. 317 pp. 6s.) 

A Chapter of Accidents. By Mrs. Hugh Fraseb. 

A SMART, worldly story of a widow's infatuation for a young man 
whose debts and discretion bid fair for a long time to forbid him 
marrying either well or badly. In the end, or rather in the middle 
of the story, the worldly widow realises the hopelessness of her 
suit. " I've made a mistake ; but I'U never make any more. I'U 
leave you alone to your heart's content in futuro, and we'll put up 
the shutters in the sentiment shop." And they do, but meanwhile 
the author has started another love affair of a more idyllic kind, 
and in this case the shutters remain down. (Macmulan & Co. 
251 pp. 6s.) 

The Story of the Beautiful Girl 
Who was Hated by Hee Own 
Father. And Other Tales. 



By a Barrister. 



Six stories of wrongful conviction, quashed wills, attempted murder, 
conspiracy, &c. We do not know why "a Barrister" gives the 
stories such needlessly long titles. They are all named on the pattern 
of the first. (Horace Cox. 109 pp. Is.) 



94 



THE ACADEMY FICTION SUPPLEMENT. 



[Jaw. 22, 1898. 



By Mks. Lovett Cameron. 



Devil's Apples. 

This is a simple, moving story by the author of In a Grass 
Country and A Soul Astray. The headings of the four parts ot 
the story— Eenunciation, Temptation, Degradation, Expiation— 
tell much. And it is all foreordained that Jenny MaxweU s hair 
shaU be sprinkled with grey, and that " no hospital in London, ^^ 
" no poverty-stricken slum," shall be without her " gentle presence 
when the " lover of her youth " returns " very quietly one wet 
afternoon in November." (F. V. White & Co. 302 pp. 6s.) 



REVIEWS. 



Derelicts. By William J. Locke. 
(John Lane.) 

This is a really fine novel. Its theme is mainly the sad one of two 
lives — one wrecked by crime, the other by Ulness and misfortune- 
finding, rescuing, and protecting each other. Stephen Joyce is 
a man of education who has given way to the temptations of debt. 
He has committed fraud, and has suffered two years' imprisonment. 
The story takes him upon his emergence from prison — hopeless, 
full of the profoundest self-contempt. It follows him in his painful 
quest for employment, and shows him in the direst straits of poverty 
befriended, to his amazement, by a little warm-hearted concert- 
singer. She coaxes up the dormant fires of ambition and self- 
confidence by the mere breath of her child-like and happy 
sympathy. Yvonne's relations to Stephen throughout the book 
are touched with the most delicate and gentle feeling. She is all 
pity, all trust, to this outcast, the struggles of whose weak 
will are so arduous. She becomes little by little the light of 
his eyes, yet in the most natural way in the world never looks on 
him as a lover. Thus she slips into marriage with his cousin, 
a dignified and worthy ecclesiastic, consenting she scarce knows 
why: 

" ' Yvonne would gfive any m»n her head, if he whimpered or 
clamoured for it,' continued Geraldine, rising to her feet, ' and then 
tell you in her pathetic way, "But he wanted it so, dear." And there 
isn't a man living who would be good enough to Yvonne.' " 

What strikes one as of peculiar excellence is the skiU with which 
Mr. Locke, in portraying the soft and sympathetic nature of Yvonne, 
has avoided the facile error of conveying that she is all an amiable 
passivity. When the final crisis arrives (the supreme crisis that 
calls for determinate action in all of us sooner or later in our lives), 
Yvonne, tender, yielding-natured as a child, takes her courage in 
both hands, and with not a qualm goes forth to inflict deadly pain 
on behalf of the man she loves. When she did not love, but merely 
liked and respected, she was passive, and allowed herself to be 
married to a man in whose society, after six months, she felt herself 
small, wicked, and bored. to exchange the dull routine of a 
cathedral town and rectory for a month of the old, easy, irregular 
Bohemianism of a concert-singer's flat in town! "And, oh, Dina," 
she confides to her intimate friend, " I should so much like to hear 
a man say ' damn ' again ! " 

A quotation from an interview with this friend will best illustrate 
Mr. Locke's manner, and the situation at the rectory after Yvonne's 
marriage with the Canon. 

" ' I don't think you would do very well married, Dina,' says 
Yvonne. ' You are too iudepeudeut. A woman has to give in so much, 
you know, and do so much pretending, which you could never do.' 

' And why pretend f ' 

' Oh, I don't know. You have to — in lots of things. I suppose we 
women were bom for it. Men have all kinds of strange feelings, and 
they expect us to have the same, and we haven't, Dina ; and yet they 
would be hurt and miserable if we told them so — so we have to pretend.' 

Geraldine looked at her with an expression of pain on her strong face, 
and then she bent down — Yvonne was on a low stool at her side — and 
flung her arms about her. ' Oh, my dear little philosopher, I wish to 
God you coiUd have loved a man — and married him ! That is happiness — 
no need of pretending. I knew it once — years ago. It only lasted a few 
mouths, for he died before we announced our marriage — no one has ever 
known. Only you, dear, now. Try and love your husband, dear ; give 
him your soul and passion. It is the only thing I can tell you to help 
you, dear. Then all the troubles will go. Oh, darling, to love a man 
vehemently — they say it is a woman's greatest curse. It isn't ; it is the 
greatest blessing of God on her.' 



' You are speaking as men have spoken,' replied Yvonne, in a whisper, 
holding her friend's hand tightly. ' I never knew before — but God will 
never bless me — like that.' " 

Nevertheless, Yvonne is blessed in the end. 

# * * # 

Weeping Ferry, and Other Stories. By Margaret L. Woods. 

(Longmans.) 

Is Weeping Ferry Mrs. Woods returns to the pastoral motive of 
her first powerful book, A Village Tragedy. That she quite succeeds 
in recapturing the note of that poignant and uncompromising bit 
of realism we should hesitate to say; yet the present story is 
certainly, neither in structure nor setting, unworthy of its writer. 
Like its predecessor, the tale passes in the quiet Midland country 
near Oxford, with its sluggish river, and its elms, and its water- 
meadows. Long Marston, with its famous ferry, is the precise 
locality chosen. The landscape and the life it shrouds are treated 
in the delicately observant way so characteristic of Mrs. Woods. 
There is little or none of that atmosphere of mingled antiquity and 
pagan sensuousness which Mr. Hardy loves to throw about his 
peasants, the characters are plain country men and women, natural 
and life-like, fuU of the practical common sense so inevitable in a 
life where bread is won quite literally by the sweat of one's brow. 
Both points of view are true ; it is merely that one is Mr. Hardy's, 
the other Mrs. Woods'. A touch of the uncanny is introduced in the 
old deaf Catherine, said to be a witch by the villagers, and resorted to 
for charms and spells. She it is who supplies Bessie with a so-called 
" love-charm " whereby to win back her lost gentleman lover. We 
confess that we should have liked the book better without the bit of 
superstition, a thing so difficult to render plausible in a novel, and 
surely at best disputable art. The love-story itself is well enough, 
although the hero, Geoffrey Meade, the young man lodging at the 
farm, and ostensibly "reading," is somewhat colourless. But to 
our mind the charm in the book is Bessie's mother, the shrewd, 
tender-hearted, bustling, market-woman, with her capable hand 
and secret heart. Her colloquy with Tryphena, a child of whom 
we would gladly know more, is irresistible : 

" ' Mrs. Vyne,' said Tryphena imperiously. 

Elizabeth measured the dough on the board with her eye and pulled a 
bit off before she repUed : 

' Yes, Miss Tryphena.' 

' Why is blue cheese blue ? ' 

Mrs. Vyne deposited the superfluous dough in the big red pan at her 
side, and powdered the remainder with flour. Then she answered 
mildly : 

' Some folks do say it's the stuff that's put in it.' 

' But you don't put stuff in yours, do you ? ' 

' Oh, dear, no, Miss,' and Mrs. Vyne smUed. 

' Then why is it blue '^ ' 

Mrs. Vyne passed the roUing-pin over the dough several times. 

' Other folks say it's the land,' she replied at length, with the same 
mild impartiality. 

' But you made it the same when you were at the Meades, didn't you .-' 
So what makes it blue ? ' 

' There's folks do say 'tis the season of the year,' returned Mrs. Vyne, 
carefully shaping the two balls uf her loaf ; then clapping the smaller 
one firmly on to the larger, she added with sudden frank contempt: 
' But they none of 'em knows what they're talkin' about.' " 

Bessie Vyne's story is a sad one. Her love-charm proved to be 
a poison, and she is found dead one wild night at the door of the 
witch's cottage. She is well and patiently drawn throughout, yet 
we feel that the charm of the book is less in the narrative or the 
characters than in the background — the sentiment of the externid 
things that gird in life. The scene where Bessie's botly is carried 
back to the farm is a fine bit of writing : 

"At break of day they brought her home across the fields. The 
floods were no longer vapourously still under a grey sky. A fresh 
breeze bent the willows and hurried the surface of the water along in 
tiny crests that caught the hght. An orange sunset shot up its ragged 
edges half-way to the zenith, and reflected itself on the distant water m 
obscure yellow. The body was laid on a low truck, which was just long 
enough for it, and covered -vvith a sheet. Elizabeth dragged it and 
Catharine assisted with her hand on the shaft of the handle. So"ie- 
times she looked back, sometimes peered in Elizabeth's face, wth a look 
half sympathetic, half terrified." 

The three shorter stories which make up the book call for little 
comment. " An Episode " has most stuff in it. " Miss Brighteyes 
and Mr. Queer " is on the verge of silliness. 



Jan. 22, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



95 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 22, 1898. 

No. i342, New Series. 

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NOTES AND NEWS. 



A METHODICAL correspondent who has 
a passion for preserving literary odds 
jiind ends, and a capacity for finding them 
iwhen needed, sends us the following ad- 
vertisement. It was forwarded wholesale 
through the post by Lewis Carroll at the 
end of the year 1893 : 

" For over twenty-five years I have made it 
my chief object, with regard to my books, that 
they should be of the best workmanship attain- 
able for the price. And I am deeply annoyed 
Ito find that the last issue of Through the 
\Lo6king-Glasa, consisting of the Sixtieth Thou- 
sand, has been put on sale without its being 
luoticed that most of the pictures have failed so 
imuch in the printing as to make the book not 
tworth buying. I request all holders of copies 
Ito send them to Messrs. Macmillan & Co., 
i29, Bedford-street, Covent Garden, with their 
Barnes and addresses ; and copies of the next 

issue shall be sent them in exchange. 
Instead, however, of destroying the unsold 
;opie8, I propose to utilise them by giving 
j.hem away to mechanics' institutes, village 
I'eading-rooms, and similar institutions where 
|he means for jjurchasing such books are scanty. 
'Vccordiugly, I invite applications for such 
jfifts, addressed to me, ' care of Messrs. 
rfacmiUan.' Eveiy such application should 
lie signed by some responsible person, and 
hould state how far they are able to buy books 
jr themselves, and what is the average number 
f readers. 
I take this opportunity of announcing that, 
.it any futiue time I should wish to com- 
jmnicate anything to my readers, I will do so 
'y advertising in the ' agony ' column of some 
■ the daily papers on the first Tuesilay in the 
•'III- Lewis Cabeoll. 

Christmas, 1893." 



A coRUEsrosTDENT Writes: "I read with 
iterest your ' Book Eeviews Eeviewed ' 
jlumns every week ; and it may interest 
jme of your readers to know how Alice in 
Yonderhiiid was received on its first appear- 



ance. I cannot discover that its merits were 
fuUy perceived, or its success predicted, by 
any critic. The Times, reviewing the book 
among a dozen other Christmas books, gave 
high praise to Mr. Tenniel's drawings, but 
concerning Lewis CarroU's text only re- 
marked that it was ' an excellent piece of 
nonsense.' The Spectator did not, I think, 
review the book at all on its first appearance. 
The Athenceum indulged, of course, in a 
little dragon-slaying : 

"This is a dream-story; but who can, in 
cold blood, manufacture a dream with all its 
loops and ties, and loose threads, and entangle- 
ments, and inconsistencies, and passages which 
lead to nothing, at the end of which Sleep's 
most dUigent pilgrim never arrives. Mr. 
Carroll has laboured hard to heap together 
strange adventures and heterogeneous combina- 
tions, and we acknowledge the hard labour. 
Mr. Tenniel, again, is square and grim and 
uncouth in his illustrations, howbeit clever, 
even sometimes to the verge of grandeur, as is 
the artist's habit. We fancy that any real 
child might be more puzzled than enchanted 
by this stiff, overwrought story." 



In his sermon at Christ Church, Oxford, 
on Sunday morning, Canon Sanday, Mar- 
garet Professor of Divinity, referred to the 
death of Lewis Carroll. We quote a few 
words : 

" Might they not say that from their courts 
at Cbrist Church there had flowed into the 
literature of their own time a rill bright and 
sparkhug, healthgiving, and purifying wherever 
its waters extended? . . . They in that place 
knew how fully the man bore out the promise 
of his books. . . . They knew his fondness 
for children and what trouble he took to make 
them happier and better. But, most of all, 
they knew what was the fount and spring from 
which all these varied activities took their 
direction. They knew how behind them all 
there lay a deep background of religion — a 
reUgion severely quiet and retiring, like his 
character — a religion almost of the closet after 
the pattern of the Gospel." 

Mr. Dodgson's own manner as a preacher 
was earnest and slow. For several years 
he delivered the New Year sermon at St. 
Mary's, Guildford. 



Lewis Carroll was as fortunate in his 
illustrations as any writer could be. Under 
any circumstances the Alice books would 
have won tremendous favour, but not a 
little of tlieir popularity must, none the less, 
be due to Sir Jolin Tenniel's drawings. 
Artist and author have rarely been in such 
perfect accord. Again, in The limiting of tlie 
Siiarh, Mr. Henry Holiday is the poet's very 
faithful and admirable ally, catching the 
spirit of the nonsense to perfection. His 
beaver, looking "unaccountably shy," is the 
prince of beavers. And in Sylvie and Bruno, 
Mr. Furniss did some of his best work. 
One reason of this high level of excel- 
lence is undoubtedly Lewis Carroll's interest 
and desire to have everything quite "right," 
and according to liis own ideas. Of no 
man may it more truly be said that until he 
was satisfied he was dissatisfied. 



Liddell — died within four days of the 
author of the Wonderland books. Dean 
LiddeU's name will ever be associated with 
that of Dr. Scott, Jowett's predecessor as 
Master of Balliol, for their invaluable 
lexicon. The fame of Liddell and Scott is 
inextinguishable. It may not here be out 
of place to tell again an old story of Dean 
LiddeU and an undergraduate. " What 
Sophocles do you know ? " the Dean asked. 
" Oh, I know aU Sophocles," was the 
answer. "Really! I wish I could say the 
same." The victim began to translate 
"Where did you get that from?" asked 
the Dean with reference to a " howler.'' 
"Oh, LiddeU and Scott." "Then," said 
Liddell with much gravity, "it was Dr. 
Scott's doing and not mine." 



France is just now offering the spectacle 
of M. Zola standing almost alone as the 
champion of justice. It is a fine thing when 
a man of age and reputation can place 
public spirit before private welfare. When 
the champion is a writer literary men all 
over the world may justly feel proud. 



On this subject Mr. F. Norreys Connell 
writes : ' ' May I suggest that it would be 
a gracef id act on the part of the literary men 
of Britain publicly to thank M. Zola for the 
splendid civic action he has lately taken? 
Though it be of little moment to us in these 
islands whether a Semite or Aryan should 
have sought to enrich himself at the expense 
of French militarism, surely it comes very 
near to our professional pride that the one 
g^eat citizen who dares in the teeth of 
popular prejudice, at the imminent risk of 
his commercial ruin, to demand ' more 
light' should also be one of the greatest 
living brothers of the pen. Traditionally, I 
am of the other party, but at this juncture 
I esteem it an honour to sign myself M. 
Zola's most Humble Admirer." 



By one of those curious and not un- 
common coincidences, Lewis Carroll's friend, 
the fither of the original Alios — Dean 



Meanwhile Bjornsterne Bjiirnson has 
written to M. Zola in terms of most enthu- 
siastic approbation : 

" Very honoured Master, —How I envy you ! 
How I wish that I were in your place, in order 
to be able to render to couatry and to humanity 
a service like that rendered by you ! ... Be 
assured that Europe admires whit you have 
done, even if everybody does not assent to 
everything that you have iaid. I have always 
hold it as an opinion, for my part, that the work 
of a romance writer or a poet be irs the same 
relation to himself personally as notes do to the 
bank whence they are issued, and which should 
have in hand securities corresponding to its 
deUveries. We now see that if your works are 
circulated all over the world to increase courage 
and enrich the heart of humauity, it is bacause 
you are yourself a mau of courage and of 
heart." 



Mr. David Christie Murray write, 
from Glan y Dow, Pensam, near Abergele : 
" By the courtesy of Mr. J. N. Maskelynes 
who has generously placed the Egyptian 
Hall and his lantern apparatus at my dis- 
posal, I shall deliver a lecture on Sunday 
evening, the 30th January, on the Dreyfus 
case. By the aid of highly magnified photo- 



06 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 22, 1898. 



gi-aphic reproductions of the letter attributed 
to Captain Dreyfus and of the man's real 
handwriting, I hope to prove to demonstra- 
tion that they could not by any possibility 
have been written by the same hand. This 
view is endorsed by twelve of the ablest 
experts now living. May I beg you to 
publish this letter, and to allow me to say 
that any person desiring to attend may 
receive a ticket of admission by sending to 
me a stamped directed envelope ? " 



The approaching arrival of Mr. Eudyard 
Kipling at the Cape — the poet must now 
be jjassing the Line — is exciting great 
interest in South Africa. It is pointed out 
that there are already many allusions in his 
works to this part of the world. At St. 
S'mon's Town the "flat iron" described in 
" Judson and the Empire " in Many Inven- 
tions, founded on a famous incident on the 
Zambesi, is proudly shown. Mr. Kipling's 
most striking South African verse is per- 
haps : 

" To the home of the floods and thimder, 

To her pale dry heaty blue — 
To lift of the great Cape combers, 

And the smell of the baked Karoo. 
To the growl of the sluicy stamp-head — 

To the reef and the water-gold, 
To the last and the largest Empire, 

To the map that is half unrolled ! " 

In another place he speaks of the Cape's 
vineyards, of its heath and lilies, and of 
Table Mountain ; and in " The Native 
Born " there is the mention of the " Empire 
to the northward " and the allusion to the 
fashion in which the Cape Colony has 
changed owners — " Snatehed and bartered 
of the free hand to hand." We understand 
that the present is Mr. Eudyard Kipling's 
second visit to South Africa. 



Apropos of the curious little slip in Duteh 
in Mr. Bryoe's South Africa, mentioned last 
week, it may be of interest to state that Her 
Majesty's High Commissioner for South 
Africa adheres to his determination to master 
the taal. Sir Alfred MUner is now taking 
lessons in Duteh with his private secre- 
tary twice a week from the Eev. Adrian 
Hofmeyr, of Cape Town. 



The quaintest comment upon the 
Academy's awards comes from Birmingham. 
A writer in the Birmingham Post refuses to 
believe in tlie existence of Mr. Phillips. 
"Is there," he asks, "a real Mr. Phillips, 
or is it only the mystic name conferred by 
the Academy on some ethereal and hopeless 
ideal? Does it cover a whole theory of 
' excellence,' concealed like the darker im- 
plications of ' chops and tomato sauce ' ? Is 
it a pregnant mode of telling all the others 
that their work is but as nothingness ? It 
behoves the Academy next to produce Mr. 
Phillips as a guarantee of good faith." 
Considering that Mr. Phillips is descended 
from the Birmingham Quaker family of 
IJoyd, Birmingham shoidd know more of 
him. The locd booksellers must look to it. 



The following extract from a letter, which 
we cut from Wednesday's Chronicle, affords 



an instance of the woes of poets. In this 
case Mr. Stephen PhiUips is the victim : 

" SlE, — In a most able and kindly review of 
my poems, which appears in to-day's Chronicle, 
there are several misquotations, which I cannot 
allow to pass. One couplet is quoted thus : 

' Fell ; and existence lean, in shy dead-gray, 
Without steadily, starved it away ; ' 

Thus the second line is not only made into non- 
sense, but does not even scan. The lines should, 
of course, read: 

' Fell ; and existence lean in sky dead-g^ey, 
Witholding steadily starved it away.' " 

To the foregoing complaint the Editor of 
the Chronicle appends the following apology : 
' ' We greatly regret these misprints, but 
the fault is whoUy our reviewer's. As he is 
a distinguished critic, Ms ' copy ' was fol- 
lowed by the printer without question, and 
in every instance it read as the words ap- 
peared in our columns." But distinguished 
critics are precisely the gentlemen who most 
require to see a proof. They write badly, 
they do not spell very well, and at making 
extracts they are . 



Mk. William Gkeen is a bold man. He 
sends to the Morning Post the following 
letter : 

" How to see all the new books is a question 
of widespread interest. Readers peruse the 
criticisms in the papers, and then desire to see 
the books criticised in order to judge whether 
to purchase or to order from the library for a 
leisurely perusal. To see an attractive book is 
to desire either to read it carefully or to possess 
it. If readers wish to see all the new books 
they must unite in a society for this purpose. I 
should be glad to hear from those interested in 
the subject." 

It is not clear to us why people should be 
enabled to see all the new books. They 
had better read the old ones. But if they 
must see them, why not enter a bookshop 
for the purpose ? Although Mr. Green says 
that seeing a book is more an incentive to 
purchasing it than reading a review thereof, 
we imagine that his Society might not un- 
fitly bo named " The Society for Completing 
the Euin of Booksellers." 



We cut from the current Dome the fol- 
lowing striking little poem by Mr. Laurence 
Binyon, a young and observant poet of 
London life : 

" The Pakatytic. 

" He stands where the young faces pass and 
throng ; 
His blank eyes tremble in the noonday sun ; 
He sees aU life, the lovely and the strong, 
Before him run. 

" Eager and swift, or group'd and loitering, they 
Follow their dreams, on busy errands sped, 
Planning delight and triumph ; but all day 
He shakes his head." 



When Sir Walter Besant praises London 
on a platfonu — and he does this very often 
—he generally has the good fortune to pro- 
voke distinguished opposition. Not long 
ago ho said that London is beautiful with 
such emphasis that his own chairman, Lord 
Eosebery, demurred. Last week, at the 
College of Preceptors, he claimed so much 
for London's brain that the Bishop of 



London rose and declared that London had 
produced comparatively few distinguished 
men of her own. The bishop quoted the 
opinion of Dr. Stubbs that London had always 
been the purse, seldom the head, andnover the 
heart of England. And now the names of 
lots of distinguished Londoners are being sent 
to newspaper offices. London produced : 

Chaucer. 

Spenser. 

Pope. 

Seats. 

Browning. 

It is true that many writers of great abiUty 
still elect to be born in the country ; but 
they nearly aU come to London to write the 
moment it is worth their while. 



Canning. 


Fox. 


Lamb. 


Beaconsfield 


Milton. 


Ruskin. 


Gray. 


Byron. 


Turner. 





A quaint and unexpected glimpse of 
Mark Twain is afforded in Mr. Alfred P. 
Ilillier's newly published liaid aiid Reform, 
in a chapter consisting of extracts from a 
diary kept by Mr. Hillier when he was a 
political prisoner in Pretoria. The prison 
life is minutely described by Mr. Hillier, 
and it is after describing some of his dis- 
comforts that he introduces the following 
passage : 

"Mr. Clemens (Mark Twain) visited va 
yesterday, and gave us a bright hour of his 
conversation. . . . He spoke of prison life as in 
many respects an ideal existence, the one be 
had over sought, and never found — healthy, 
undisturbed, plenty of repose, no fatigue, uo 
distraction— such a life as enabled Bunyau to 
write the Pilgrim's Progress and Cervantes I)im 
Quixote. , , . For himself, Mark Twain con- 
tinued, he could conceive of nothing better than 
such a life ; he would wilhngly change places 
with anyone of us, and, with such an opportunity 
as had never yet been offered him before, would i 
write a book — the book of his life. Of course, j 
some of us failed to look at it in this philosophic 
light, and he admitted that it was not always 
easy to discover the concealed compensation 
which invariably existed under apparently 
adverse circumstances. Still, this was such a 
clear case that he would assuredly, in the 
interview which he was to have with the 
President on the following day, endeavour to 
get our sentences extended. For Clement — 
one of the prisoners who improperly spelt his 
name with a ' t ' — descended, like himself, on 
the left-hand side from a long papal ancestry, 
he would endeavour to get thirty years." 



In the new volume of the Edinburgh 
Edition of Stevenson (to wliich we shall 
return later) occurs this memorable sentence, 
in a letter from the novelist to a friend, 
concerning his method of work : " I am 
still ' a slow study,' and sit for a long wliile 
silent on my eggs : unconscious thought, 
there is the only method : macerate your 
subject, let it boil slow, then take the M 
off and look in — and there your stuff is — 
good or bad." The next volume of the 
Edinburgh Edition, which will also be tlie 
last, will contain St. Ives. 



Ibsen's seventieth birthday will he 
celebrated on March 20. On that day a 
complete nine-volume edition of his works 
in German will be published in Berlin. 
Christianin, we presume, will adopt methods 
of its oytn. 



Jan. 22, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



97 



Mb. Eobeet Buchanan issues from his 
own depot in Gerrard-street, Soho, a cheap 
edition of Saint Abe and His Seven Wives. 
This poetical tale of Mormonisni was written 
in 1870, "when" (writes Mr. Buchanan in 
a bibliographical note) " all the Cockney 
bastions of criticism were swarming with 
' . . . . sliari)shooters on the look-out for the 

' (1 d Scotcliman ' who had dared to 

denounce Logrolling." Mr. Buchanan 
recalls the kindly reception given to the 
book, alike for its poetry and humour, 
when it appeared anonymously. He writes : 

" The present is the first cheap edition of the 
book, and the first which bears the author's 
name on the title-page .... I shall be quite 
prepared to hear now, on the authority of the 
newspapers, that the eulogy given to St. Abe 
ou its first appearance was all a mistake, 
and that the writer possesses no humoiu: 
whatsoever." 

We hope that Mr. Buchanan wiU have no 
isuch experience, but he still protests too 
'.much; he is too like the " fretful porpentine." 
'"Printed cackle about books," he writes, 
I" will always be about as valuable as spoken 
backle about them." But the best spoken 
iiackle about books is very good, and critics 
i^an but cackle their best. 



Mb. Edwabd Heron-Axlen's literal prose 
iranslation of the Eubaiyat of Omar Khay- 
yam and facsimile of the MS. in the 
|3odleian (H. 8. Nichols & Co.) is before us. 
;yter FitzGerald's version this certainly is 
he most interesting contribution to Omar 
iterature. Mr. Heron-Allen has worked 
ong at his task, and it is presented with 
lerfect order. The poem consists of 158 
l(uatrains, and some idea of how Fitz- 
rerald (whom Mr. Heron-AJlen always 
Uudes to wrongly as Fitzgerald) worked 
lay be gathered from the two following 

'tanzas — the 149th and 155th : 

I 

I desire a little ruby wine and a book of verses, 
I just enough to keep me alive, and half a 
1 loaf is needful, 

and then, that I and thou should sit in a 
desolate place, 

is better than the kingdom of a sultan. 

If a loaf of wheateu-bread be forthcoming, 
a gourd of wine and a thigh-bone of mutton, 

I and then if thou and I be sitting in the 
wilderness — 
that would be a joy to which no sultan can 
set bounds." 

|rom these twain FitzGerald produced his 

[ A Book of Verses underneath the Bough, 
I A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread — and Thou 
I Beside me singing iu the Wilderness — 
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow." 



Ms,. W. P. James, in his interesting 
ierary notes in the St. Jameses Gazette, 
ijminds us that the two most eminent men 

t letters whose centenaries fall this year 
both Italian — Metastasio and Leopardi. 
I'le two-hundredth anniversary of Metas- 
^sio's birthday is already over, for he 
lis bom on the January 6, 1698. An 
Jiglishman could hardly be expected to 
ijsl much excitement about it ; yet Metas- 
tjiio is well worthy to be had in remem- 
Vnce, even among ourselves, for the 
^portant part he played in the develop- 
ipnt of opera. Leopardi is a hundred 



yeaxB nearer to us in time, and nearer than 

that in sentiment. The pessimism, however, 
which nowadays is a fashionable affectation 
of young novelists, was a bitter reality to 
the young Italian of genius, who suffered 
pain and ill-health all his Ufe and died 
before he was forty years of age. Yet, 
sincere as was his pessimism, his poetical 
appeals to death did not prevent him ex- 
hibiting considerable alarm at the approach 
of cholera. His centenary falls on Jime 29 
next. 



Mk. T. D. Sullivan, writing in the 
Nation, offers reminiscences of Father 
Meehan, the author of The Fate and Fortunes 
of the Farls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell and The 
Rise and Fall of Irish Franciscan Monasteries, 
and the friend of James Clarence Mangan. 
From a humorous poem, contributed by 
Father Meehan to the Nation many years 
ago, entitled "The Last Words of Zozi- 
mus," we take some Unes. Zozimus was 
an old blind ballad singer, whose stand was 
on Carlisle Bridge. This is how Zozimus 
asked to be buried : 

" One coffin and one horse iz quite enough. 
One mourning jingle will be ' quantum 

suff.' 
I'll have no coronet to go before me 
Nor Bucepha-li-us that ever bore me. 
But put my hat, my stick, and gloves together 
That bore for years the very worst of weather. 
And, rest assured, in sperit will be there 
' Mary of Agypt ' and ' Susannah ' fair. 
And ' Pharaoh's daughter,' with the heavenly 

blushes 
That tuk the drowning goslin from the 

rushes. 
I'll not permit a tombstone stuck above me. 
Nor effigy ; but, boys, if still yees love me, 
Build a nate house for all whose fate is hard, 
And give a bed to every wanderin' bard. 
If gayuious yees admire, I have yees show it 
By giving pipe and porter to the Poet." 



The Home University is a new monthly 
magazine embodying an educational experi- 
ment, which has evidentiy been conceived 
by a thoughtful mind. The editor declares 
that The Home University is not a school 
book nor an encyclopa3dia, nor a journal of 
science and literature, but that it partakes 
of the characters of all three. The general aim 
is to convey knowledge in such a way that it 
can be easily assimilated by home students, 
to whom the magazine is offered as ' ' the best 
substitute for university residence " which 
the editor can devise. No particular system 
in the arrangement of the contents of the 
magazine is adopted, or the only system is 
variety — the attempt " to supply intellectual 
food in somewhat the same fashion as a man 
takes his daily meals." Hence, in this first 
number, we have a "Chronology of the 
First Christian Century," "Memoranda as 
to Greece," " Schedule of the Life and 
Times of John Milton," " Ana and the Table- 
Talk of Distinguished Men," "Our Ambu- 
lance Class," and much besides. Illustra- 
tions are provided; and, indeed, expense 
does not seem to have been spared on this 
interesting publication. 

This year we may expect an unusual 
supply of books dealing with cricket. A 
little volume of verses and drawings, with a 



frontispiece of the late Sir Frank Lockwood, 
has, indeed, already appeared, although it 
is stUl winter. The success of K. S. Eanjit- 
sinhji's work and the growing interest in the 
game are certain to induce other writers to 
turn to this subject. Mr. "W. G. Grace is 
even now proceeding with his Eeminiscences, 
and Mr. Horace Hutchinson is said to be 
engaged in compiling the history of the 
game. So long as young men do not prefer 
the literature of the game to the game itself, 
we do not see why books should not be 
written about it. 



A second edition of Mr. Stephen PhUlip's 
Poems will be issued next week. In this 
edition several misprints which marred the 
first issue will be corrected, and we under- 
stand that Mr. Phillips has revised, and, 
indeed, largely re- written his poem, " The 
Wife." 



Mr. Fisher Unwin announces for the 
29th inst. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy's My 
Life in Two Hemispheres. Sir Charles, we 
are informed, tells his story fully from the 
stormy days of his connexion with the 
Nation to the time when he became the 
Governor of a Crown Colony. The letters 
and conversations are a notable feature of 
the book. Among the writers of the former 
will be found Cardinal Newman, Thomas 
Carlyle, Thackeray, Father Matthew, Leigh 
Hunt, and Sir Henry Parkes. Interesting 
matter concerning Browning, John Stuart 
Mill, and the author of Bark Rosaleen is also 
given. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy lives now 
in retirement at Nice, but he still engages 
in literary pursuits, and is the general 
editor of the Netv Irish Library. 



Mr. Unwin also announces for the 29th 
Mr. J. F. Hogan's The Gladstone Colony : 
an Unwritten Chapter of Australian History. 



Messrs. W. Thacker & Co. inform us 
that they have purchased from Messrs. 
Neville Beeman, Ltd. (who are giving up 
business as publishers), the following publi- 
cations : The Naval Pocket-Book, by W. 
Laird Clowes, the next edition of which 
win be ready on February 7 next ; The 
Captain of tlie "Mary Pose," by the same 
author ; The Pose of Putchers Coolly and 
Wayside Courtships, by Hamlin Garland, 
and three new books by the same author to 
be published shortly ; and others. 



Mr. S. a. Strong, librarian to the House 
of Lords, will contribute to Longman^ s Maga- 
zine for February an article based on the 
Duke of Devonshire's papers at Chatsworth, 
showing the connexion between the sixtli 
Duke and some of the leading writers of 
his day. In the article will appear for the 
first time a letter from Thackeray to the 
Duke, in which he sketches out the further 
fortunes of the leading characters of Vanity 
Fair after the close of the story. 



A NEW work, called A Bepartwe from 
Tradition, and Other Stories, from the pen 
of Miss Eosaline Masson, daughter of Prof. 
Masson, will be published immediately by 
Bliss, Sands & Co. 



98 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 22, 1898. 



"LEWIS CAEEOLL." 

Born, 1833; Died, 1898. 

"If I have written anything to add to those 
stories of innocent and healthy amusement that 
are laid up in books for the children I love so 
well, it is surely something I may hope to look 
back upon without shame and sorrow (as how 
much of life must then be recalled !) when my 
turn comes to walk through the valley of 
shadows." 

These words were written in 1876 by 
Lewis Carroll in " An Easter Greeting to 
Every Child that loves Alice." And now 
his turn has come. Truly, he had no cause 
to feel anything but satisfaction. The world 
can show few writers who from first to last 
have used their talents so joyously, diligently, 
and to such kindly purpose as Lewis Carroll. 
Lewis Carroll's best period lasted, rouglily, 
from his thirtieth to his forty-fifth year. 
He began Alice's Adventures Underground in 
July, 1862; he finished converting it into 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (abbreviated 
in the nursery to Alice in Wonderland) in 
1865 ; he published Phantasmagoria, which 
contained " Hiawatha's Photographing," in 
1869 ; he finished Through the Looking- Glass 
in 1871, and The Hunting of the Snark in 
1876. After that came a decline. His wit 
was as keen, his brain as masterfully in- 
tricate, as ever ; but simplicity left him. 
Indeed, he never again quite caught the 
simplicity of his first book. Alice in Wonder- 
land is an outpouring of inspired nonsense 
which flowed forth without hindrance and 
without perceptible impulse. But in Through 
the Looking- Glass we now and then hear the 
pumi) at work. The quality of the nonsense 
18 no whit the worse; but simplicity is 
endangered. In Through the Looking- Glass, 
for example, there is the White Queen's 
exposition of living backwards, and the 
theory advanced by Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee that Alice and themselves had 
no existence apart from the Eed King's 
dream — a perilous approach to metaphysics. 
Moreover, Through the Looking- Glass is a 
game of chess, which is the sheer super- 
fluity of cleverness. But Through the Looking- 
Glass is only a shade less admirable than 
its companion. Has it not the White Knight 
and tJie two Queens, Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee, Humpty Dumpty, and the 
Walrus and the Carpenter ? Has it not 
also the following passage, which has 
always seemed to us the perfect example of 
the higher foolishness ? — 

" ' Crawling at your feet,' said the Gnat .... 
' you may observe a bread-and-butter fly. Its 
wings are thin slices of bread and butter, its 
body is a crust, and its head is a lump of 
sugar.' 

' And what does it live on ? ' 

' Weak tea with cream in it.' 

A new difficulty came into Alice's head. 
' Supposing it couldn't find any '< ' she suggested. 

' Then it would die, of course.' 

' But that must happen very often,' Alice 
remarked thoughtfully. 

' It always happens.' " 

We may, indeed, feel quite certain of the 
longevity of the Alice books. They belong 
to no one period, but to all. They touch 
nothing actual but human nature, and 
human nature is continuous and imchanging. 
Alice is a matter - of - fact, simple - minded 



child, and the world is fuU of Alices, and 
always wiU be. Hence the assured popu- 
larity of her history. Again, in the manner 
there is no sense of antiquity, although 
some thirty years have rolled by, each 
bringing its modification to literary style. 
Lewis Carroll wrote as plainly and lumin- 
ously as he could; and we read and read 
and can think of no emendation whatever. 
The words are the best words in the best 
order. Of hardly any other humorist can 
it be said that in no instance do we ever wish 
his manner of narration altered. But Lewis 
Carroll was a merciless critic of himself 
and a tireless elaborator of his work, and 
he sent nothing forth until it was perfect. 

By his art Wonderland is made not less 
conceivable than Fairy Land. It is almost 
impossible to believe that there is not 
somewhere such a region, where dwell for 
ever the Cheshire Cat and the Mock Turtle, 
the Gryphon and Humpty Dumpty, the 
Eed Knight and the Duchess. They 
have each and aU an individuality ; and 
they are at once so mad and so reasonable : 
as real and recognisable as the people 
in Dickens. Pfirtly it is Lewis Carroll's 
favourite trick of finding fun in pedantic 
literalness that persuades us. Again, 
the illusion is assisted by the abruptness 
with which the stories open. Alice in 
Wonderland has no preamble, there is no 
laboured description, we are in AVonder- 
land in a moment, before there is time I 
to think about the pinch of salt with which 
to season the exaggeration. These are the 
first words : " Alice was beginning to get 
very tired of sitting by her sister on the 
bank, and of having nothing to do," and 
then, on the third page, Alice has followed 
the white rabbit down the burrow. Again, 
in Through the Looking Glass, the beginning 
is immediate : " One thing was certain, that 
the white kitten had had nothing to do with 
it — it was the black kitten's fault entirely," 
and so on. 

Alice in Wonderland has been translated 
into at least three European languages — • 
French, German and Italian — but without 
much success. Each coimtry has its own 
humour and cares little for borrowing. In 
the title, at any rate, the German version 
bears the palm for conciseness : Alice's 
Abenteuer im Wonderland. The French and 
Italian are almost forbidding : Aventures 
d' Alice an Pays des Merveillcs and L' Aeventtire 
d' Alice nel Paese delle Meraviglie. The two 
Alice books together were converted to stage 
purposes some few years ago by Mr. Savile- 
Clarke, and the little play had an auspicious 
career both in London and the provinces. 
Lewis Carroll took the keenest interest in 
this dramatic version — the stage, indeed, 
was among his hobbies — and when the 
company was at Brighton he journeyed 
thither and played fairy god-father (his 
favourite r6le in life) to some of the little 
performers. At that time a discussion was 
going forward in the papers concerning the 
proposed movement to make it illegal for 
children of less than ton years of age to 
appear on the stage, and Lewis CarroU, in a 
letter to the St. James's Gazette, referring 
especially to a meeting of ladies in favour of 
the movement, contributed to it. The views of 
a man so fond of children and so passionately 



zealous for their happiness are pecuHarly 
interesting. Here are extracts from his i 
letter, which was entirely opposed to the 
projected measure : 

" I spent yesterday afternoon at Brighton, 
where for five hours I enjoyed the society of 
three exceedingly happy and healthy little girls, 
aged twelve, ten, and seven. We paid three 
visits to the houses of friends ; we spent a long 
time on the pier, where we . . . iuvested 
pennies in every mechanical device which in- 
vited such contributions and promised anything 
worth having, for body or mind, in return; | 
we even made an excited raid on headquarters, 
like Shylock with three attendant Portias, to 
demand the ' pound of flesh ' — in the form of 
a box of chocolate-drops — which a dyspeptic 
machine had refused to render. I think that 
anyone who could have seen the vigour of life 
in those three children— the intensity with 
which they enjoyed everything, great or small, 
that came in their way — who could have 
watched the younger two running races on the 
Pier, or have heard the fervent exclamation of 
the eldest at the end of the afternoon, ' We 
have enjoyed oiirselves ! ' — would have agreed 
with me that here, at least, there was no 
excessive ' physical strain,' nor any immiiteid 
danger of ' fatal results ' ! ... A drama, 
written by Mr. Savile-Clarke is now being 
played at Brighton ; and in this (it is called 
' AUce in Wonderland ') all three children have 
been engaged. . . . They had been acting every 
night this week, and twice on the day before 
I met them, the second j)erformance lasting 
till half-past ten at night, after which they got 
up at seven next morning to bathe I That such 
(apparently) severe work should co-exist with 
blooming health and buoyant spirits seeius at 
first sight a paradox ; but I appeal to aoyoue 
who has ever worked con amure at any subject ' 
whatever to support me in the assertion that, 
when you really love the subject you are work- 
ing at, the 'physical strain' is absolutely nil; 
it is only when working ' against the grain ' 
that any strain is felt ; and I believe the appa- 
rent paradox is to be explained by the fact that 
a taste for acting is one of the strongest passions 
of human nature, that stage-children show it 
nearly from infancy, and that, instead of being, 
as these good ladies imagine, miserable drudges 
who ought to be celebrated in a new ' Cry of 
the Children,' they simply rejoice in their work, 
' even as a giant rejoiceth to run his course.' " 

From one who could write and believe : 

" Ah, happy he who owns that tenderest joy. 
The heart love of a child ! " — 

these are striking words. 

With The ILmting of the Snurk (1876), 
which, although to most persons it seems 
more fitted to adult intellects, was dedicated 
by the author to a child, and frequently 
presented by him to children, Lewis CarroU^s 
best period came to an end. Of this classic 
of comic verse it is hard to speak. No one 
has ever had a dream less coherent, less 
satisfying. Indeed, it may be said of Lewis 
Carroll that, above all men, he had the art 
of dreaming with a pen. His great colleague 
as a nonsense maker — Edward Lear — could 
be foolish enough, but always with direction 
and with responsibility. Lewis Carroll, as 
does the mind when asleep, took the fine of 
least resistance. From The Hunting of th 
Snark illustrations have been excavated, hy 
leader writers and politicians, for every 
kind of purpose ; but the meaning of the 
complete work eludes us, and will elude. 
Because there is none. It is simply fooling, 
the best fooling on record. Why, indeed, 



J.Uf. 22, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



'99^ 



ek a meaning in a poem, when the preface 
it can contain such a passage as this, in 
;planation of the line : 

rheu the bowsprit got mixed with the rudder 

sometimes " !' 
"The Bellmau, who was ahuost morbidly 
iisitive about appearances, used to have the 
)n'sprit unshipped once or twice a week to be 
varnished, and it more than once happened, 
hen the time came for replacing it, that no 
le on board could remember which end of the 
ip it belonged to. They knew it was not of the 
ightest use to appeal to the Bellman about 
—he would only refer to his Naval Code, and 
ad out in pathetic tones Admiralty Instruc- 
jus which none of them had ever been able to 
iderstand — so it generally ended in its being 
stened on, anyhow, across the rudder. The 
•Imsman used to stand by with tears in his 
ts ; he knew it was all wrong, but, alas ! 
lie -12 of the Code, ' No one shall speak to the 
an at the Helm,' had been completed by the 
(•llnian himself with the words, ' and the Man 
( the Helm shall speak to no one.' So remon- 
lance was impossible, and no steering could 
1 done till the next varnishing day. During 
ese bewildering intervals the ship usually 
iiled backwards." 

' le resemblance in one of the illustrations 
I Dr. Kenealy, the Claimant's advocate, 
ill some people at first to seek for a parable 
< tlie Ticlibome Case. Others have said 
^at the Snark is popularity — " a boojum 
Hu see." But the story that the poem 
j Bw out of that line — 

' For the Sn:irk was a boojimi you see " — 

(lich one "day flashed into the author's 

I'lin, is the best explanation of all. In 

\|rkmanship, The Himting of the Snark is 

a|iiiracle of dexterity. 

(\iter The Hunting of the Snark came 

lull. Then there appeared, in 1883, 

ijms Y and lieason ? practically a reprint 

Phantamnagoria and the Snark ; A Tangled 

'e (1885), a mixture of mathematical 

piblems humorously enunciated, which 

vro printed first in tlie Monthly Packet ; 

'«;»^ o/Zo^ec (1886), Sylvie and Bruno 

' , and, later, its second part, a whimsical 

mdloy comprising a story of modern life, a 

liie exquisite nonsense — for example : 

I' He thought he saw a Banker's Clerk 
I Descending from the 'bus : 

He looked again, and found it was 
' A Hippopotamus. 

' If this should stay to dine,' he said, 
' There won't be much for us ' " — • 

w much theology. Sylcie and Bruno, 

'i grew from a little story contributed 

itt Judy by Lewis Carroll in 1868, was 

od with some disappointment, owing 

habit that readers have of demanding 

lurite author to cut aU his wares from 

ime piece. The theology was resented, 

nu because it was not good — many of the 

pijjages are indeed beautiful and dictated 

b,;rare wisdom — but because it was con- 

sinred to be out of place. Lewis CarroU, 

ht'ever, had grown to be of another 

ojiion, and the two Sylvie and Bruno 

vt^imes were his favourites among his 

wtk. In the same Easter greeting from 

wlch we have quoted at the head of this 

arjsle he wrote (in 1876) : 

_ 'I do not beheve Qod means us to divide 
liflinto two halves — to wear a grave face on 



Sunday, and to think it out of place to even so 
much as mention Him on a week-day. Do 
you think He cares to see only kneeUng figures, 
and to hear only tones of prayer, and that He 
does not also love to see the lambs leaping in 
the sunUght, and to hear the merry voices of 
the chQdren as they roll among the hay? 
Surely their innocent laughter is as sweet in 
His ears as the grandest anthem that ever 
rolled up from the ' dim religious Ught ' of 
some solemn cathedral ? " 

Lastly came, in 1896, the first part of 
Symbolic Logic, in which the young student 
is offered quite the most fascinating series 
of sorites ever propounded, where it is 
proved beyond all question, among other 
things, that ' ' No Hedgehog takes in the 
Times." 

Lewis Carroll has had many imitators — 
some quite shameless, and none worthy to 
stand beside him. They were, of course, 
doomed to failure, since they had neither 
his temperament nor his motive. Lewis 
CarroU, whose attitude to children was more 
devotion than mere affection, approaching 
even to adoration, was not a professional 
author : he was a kindly playmate of little 
people, and he wrote Alice in Wonderland 
to give pleasure to two friends, the little 
daughters of Dean Liddell, one of whom — 
the original Alice — is now Mrs. Hargreaves. 
It was published that others might share 
that pleasure. Of not many of the diligent 
writers who have attempted to reap in the 
same field can it be said that their stories 
proceeded from a similar impulse. Indeed, 
the failure of the many imitations of Alice is 
another proof that good work must come 
from within, must be bom of the author's 
own individuality. There has been, and can 
be, but one Lewis Carroll. To borrow his 
formula) is not to reconstruct himself. 

Lewis Carroll in private life was the Eev. 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, of whom we 
have hitherto said nothing, in accordance 
with his wish that his two characters should 
be kept apart. One proof of this desire is 
to be found in the letter which he wrote 
when, in 1888, Mr. E. H. Caine, the editor 
of a collection of humorous verse, asked 
him for permission to include certain of 
Lewis Carroll's pieces in that volume. Mr. 
Caine received this reply : 

" Mr. C. L. Dodgson begs to say, in reply to 
Mr. Caine's letter received this morning, that he 
had never put his name to any such pieces as 
are named by Mr. Caine. His pubUshed 
writings are exclusively mathematical, and 
woiild not be suitable for such a volume as 
Mr. Caine proposes to edit." 
Against this rebuff might be placed the 
following letter to a child (written in 1875) 
wherein the gulf existing between the two 
personalities is at once emphasised and 
removed ; but it must be remembered that 
Mr. Dodgson would do for a child what he 
would not do for anyone else : 

" My dear Magdalen, — ■! want to explain to 
you why I did not call yesterday. I was sorry 
to miss you, but you see I had so many conver- 
sations on the way. I tried to explain to 
the people in the street that I was gomg to see 
you, but they wouldn't hstou ; they said they 
were in a hmrry, which was rude. At last I 
met a wheelbarrow that I thought would attend 
to me, but I couldn't make out what was in it. 
I saw some features at first. Then I looked 
through a telescope and found it was a a coun- 



tenance; then I looked through a microscope 
and found it was a face ! I thought it was 
rather like me, so I fetched a large looking- 
glass to make sure, and then to my great joy I 
found it was Me. We shook hands, and were 
just beginning to talk when Myself came up 
and joined us, and we had quite a pleasant 
conversation. I said, ' Do you remember when 
we all met at Sandown ? ' And Myself said, 
' It was very jolly there ; there was a child 
called Magdalen,' and Me said, ' I used to like 
her a little. Not much, you know - only a 
little.' Then it was time for us to go to the 
train — and who do you think came to the station 
to see us off ? You would never guess so I 
must tell you. They were two very dear friends 
of mine, who happened to be here just now, 
and beg to be allowed to sign this letter as your 
affectionate friends, Lewis Cabboll and C. L. 
Dodgson." 

Mr. Dodgson was born in 1833, the son 
of a. well-known Churchman, Archdeacon 
Dodgson. He proceeded to Christ Church, 
Oxford, and in 1854 graduated with a first 
class in mathematics. In 1861 he was 
elected Senior student of his college, and 
in the same year became Mathematical Lec- 
turer, a post he held until 1881. In 1861 
he also took orders. His mathematical works 
were numerous and valuable, although his 
championship of Euclid against more modern 
systems of geometry is held by many 
to be fantastic. Mr. Dodgson had many 
of the eccentricities which so often 
accompany proficiency in his particular 
science, and many good stories are told of 
him at Oxford. He was a very watchful 
guardian of Oxford's honour, and used occa- 
sionally to put forth a whimsical pamphlet, 
in which some phase of the university's 
well-being was examined. These produc- 
tions were always witty and marvellously 
ingenious. Mr. Dodgson was shy and 
reserved, a resolute celibate, a man of few 
friends but fit, and the patron saint of 
children. Incidentally we might mention that 
he liked them all to be familiar with Lewis 
Carroll's writings. His hobbies, after mathe- 
matics, which he looked upon both as work 
and play, were photography and the stage. 
His photographs of children must be well- 
nigh countless. Mr. Dodgson — as sage, as 
wit, and as saint — will be mourned by 
those that knew him, as Lewis Carroll will 
be mourned by readers all the world over. 



"LEWIS CAEEOLL" AT OXFOED. 

My earliest sight of " Lewis Carroll " 
was when, as a freshman, raw and 
abashed, I had once the honour of sitting 
opposite him at dinner. With all a 
boy's nervousness at dining for the first 
time at a college "high table," in utter 
ignorance of the allusions which filled the 
talk, and tortured by a desire to escape to 
more congenial society, I found huge conso- 
lation in the fact that now I was regarding 
with my own eyes a god of my childhood. 
To one fresh from a very different place, and 
not yet habituated to the real Oxford, he 
seemed the living embodiment of the old 
Oxford of a boy's fancy. I desired to attend 
his lectures till I found that he was a 
mathematician. Dreary people in his own 
college, when questioned concerning their 
great man, confessed to having lived in 



100 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 22, 1898. 



ignorance that a prophet was among them. 
To certain he was simply an old mathe- 
matical tutor ; to others a great name in 
letters which they had never connected with 
a local habitation ; but to none was his 
figure noticeable. Few of Oxford's famous 
men have been so unconspicuous in her 
midst. Froude was constantly to be 
observed ; even "Walter Pater was known 
by sight to a large part of the under- 
graduate world; but I scarcely remember 
to have seen "Lewis Carroll" half a dozen 
times in the street. 

In a sense he was the most old-world of 
all the elements in the place. The Oxford 
of ecclesiastical bustle and honest doubt, of 
Newman and Mark Pattison, of Arnold and 
Clough, though actually earlier in time, was 
years later in sentiment. And what shall I 
say of all that fills the gap between — the 
days of the new Liberalism, the rosthetic 
craze, the University Extensionist, the times 
whicli have "learnt a stormy note of men 
contention-tost, of men who groan," and are 
given over to many new things ? The world 
of " Lewis Carroll " was ages removed from 
this. Though full of the wide human 
nature which delights in all things contem- 
porary, his mind, alike in its piety, its 
ingenuities and its humours, belonged to 
an earlier and quieter world. His flute 
never lost "its happy country tone." 
His Oxford was sleepy and early Victorian, 
a haunt of people who played croquet and 
little girls with short frocks and smootlily 
brushed hair and quaint formal politeness. 
It seems to me that the exact subtlety of the 
humour of the "Alice" books could never 
be caught again, for the sleepy afternoon 
air, the quaint grace and the mock dignity 
are all the property of an elder and vanish- 
ing world. 

In Oxford his works enjoyed a surprising 
popularity, and formed the storehouse for 
undergraduate nicknames. In my own day 
it even became the fashion for a man to set 
them in foolish paradox by the side of 
Shakespeare when incautiously questioned 
on his preferences in letters. The Hunting 
of the Snark was popularly supposed to con- 
tain all the metaphysics in the world. I 
once heard a distinguished college authority 
explain his course of lighter reading during 
one vacation. "The first week," he said, 
" I read Sylvie and Bruno." " And then ? " 
some one asked. "And then," he said, " I 
read the Second Part." "And then?" 
"And t'ien," he murmured in doubt — 
"then," brightening up, "ah, then, I went 
back to Through the Looking- Glass." 

J. B. 



THE EDINBURGH ON ME. KIPLING. 

The most serious and comprehensive criti- 
cism of Mr. Kipling that has yot appeared is 
to be found in the new Edinburgh. The 
writer has looked with a friendly but dis- 
criminating eye upon the twelve books that 
now stand to Mr. Kipling's name, and has 
come to certain interesting conclusions He 
does not attempt to place their author — that 
would be too bold — but he says words which 
he hopes may help Mr. Kipling's fluid state 
towards crystallisation. Let us look at the 
article. 



Not 
literature. 



Outer 

circle of 

literature. 



laner 

circle of 

literature. 



The critic begins with a definition of 
literature, which for ordinary working pur- 
poses wiU suffice. The sum of it is this : 

1. Books containing mere records v 
of material facts, valuable only for / 
their accuracy, without regard to ( 
form or expression. ) 

2. Books containing records of"| 
facts of general human interest, 
history, obeervation of life, &o. 
either drawn up with some regard 
to form, or pervaded by interest of 
expression. 

3. [a) Books dealing with facts-» 
or ideas of general and permanent 
human interest, in which form and 
expression are essential qualities ; 
and (6) books dealing with subjects 
of little inherent interest, but which 
are remarkable for perfection of 
form and expressiou. 

The bulk of Mr. Kipling's work, it is 
then decided, comes within the outer circle, 
the clause "observation of life" having 
been inserted for his benefit. 

" For of the many remarkable qualities in 
Mr. Kipling's publications, the most remarkable 
of all is the extraordinary faculty of observa- 
tion which they display. . . . Nothing he 
comes in contact with seems to escape his 
notice ; and, while still a young man, he gives 
one the impression in his books of having lived 
two or three lives, and lived them pretty 
thoroughly. ' Choses Vues ' might be the 
general title for a great deal of his work ; with 
the important addition that he not only sees 
things himself, but he makes the reader see 
them." 

The critic turns then to the examination 
of some of the stories which best illustrate 
this gift of observation ; finding much 
praise to give them, although never allow- 
ing them to win to a higher place than the 
outer circle. 

The Light that Failed and Captains Cour- 
ageous are next disposed of, and the Jungle 
Books reached. We agree with the critic in 
considering these Mr. Kipling's most won- 
derful accomplishment, and his two works 
most likely to retain a permanent place in 
literature. Says the reviewer : 

"He has attempted nothing less than to 
project himself, in imagination, into the beast 
raind, to put things as beasts might put them 
had they the faculty of intelligible expression. 
The imaginative power which he has brought 
to ttiis task is really extraordinary ; how extra- 
ordinary we do not become fully aware till we 
come to those passages, here and there, in 
which human speakers intervene in the story, 
as the father and mother and child do in the nar- 
rative of Eikki-tikki-tavi, the mongoose. . . . 
The individuality of the animals is admirably 
kept up ; the author has stamped their 
characters and names on them; we shall 
always think of the tiger as ' Shere Khan,' 
and of the black panther as ' Bagheera.' The 
rules arid laws among the animals as to hunt- 
ing and killing impress one as what might 
really exist in some crude but understood form 
among them ; and, indeed, the ' water truce,' 
when the drought became such as to nearly dry 
the river and make water scarce, may almost 
be said to be founded on fact. The animal 
idea of fire as 'the red flower,' of the rifle- 
bullet as 'the stinging-fly that comes out of 
the white smoke,' of spring as 'the time of 
new talk,' are all remarkable instances of the 
author's power of putting himself, in imagina- 
tion, in the place of the brute mind." 



Against much of the poetry is brought 

the charge of hasty, slap-dash writing ' 

though wo cannot agree that " McAndrew's 
Hymn" and "Tomlinson" suffer in this 
way — and its slang is also deprecated. This 
is the sum of the matter : 

" That Mr. Kipling can rise to the higher 
level of poetry he has shown us every now and 
theu in such poems as ' L'Envoi,' and ' Kabul 
Town,' and ' The Legend of Evil' (first section), 
and ' Mandalay,' aud that grand Uttle poem, 
'Lest we forget,' which a short time since sent 
a thrill through the length and breadth of 
England. And perhaps the glorious racket of 
' The Bolivar ' and chivalrous climax of ' East 
and West ' may avail to keep alive such com- 
paratively short poems, in spite of roughness 
of style and execution. But, taking his verse 
comirositions altogether, one may say that the 
author has just let us see that ho might he a 
poet if he would, but has done but httle yet 
towards a serious achievement of the position." 

And so we reach the conclusion of this 
inquiry. The critic is of opinion that 
almost anything is within Mr. Kipling's 
power if he will cease to " play to the 
gallery." In short : 

"If he wishes for future fame, for a per- 
manent place in the world's library, we beUeve 
he has it within his choice, if he woidd go to 
work seriously and aim at gfiviug us his best, 
instead of being content to please and interest 
us for the moment. If he prefers the latter 
way of expending his genius, his own genera- 
tion may have no reason to complain — it is a 
most brilliant Variety entertainment, and never , 
seems to flag for a moment ; but in that case 
future generations will not hear much of him, 
unless it may be in this way — that with his 
varied interest in life and his ubiquitous habits 
he has, perhaps, the best chance of all men 
living of ultimately becoming a Solar Myth." 



PARIS LETTER. 

(From our French Correspondent.) 

The " Mercure de France" is the ostentatious 
protector of minor poets. But in Paris 
the minor poets have no chanco. Nobody 
reads them, nobody reviews them ; they 
alone take themselves seriously. 

M. Pierre Louys adequately displayed the 
bent of his narrow and distinguished talent 
in his classical study Aphrodite. One may 
question the value of such a tour rfc force, 
but the achievement is a considerable one. 
M. Louys is a nineteenth century pagan— 
oh, but a real pagan such as not even the 
pagans themselves dreamed of. When a 
gentleman of modern times turns his back 
upon eighteen centuries of Christian civihsa- 
tion, and plunges devoutly into the worship 
of the gods, he usually makes his confession 
of faith with an ardour that leaves nothing 
to be desired. As far as I can see, modem 
paganism is mere deification of the courtesan. 
Not that one need journey so far backwards 
as Greece and the pagan deities for that. The 
article in latter-day Paris enjoys imlimited 
consideration. A host of geniuses from the 
days of Baudelaire to our own are occupied in 
hymning her praises. Such edifying half- 
penny papers as Le Journal are maintained 
exclusively in her interests ; to which eveu 
middle-aged Academicians like Coppee, to 



Jan. 22, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



101 



lay nothing of MM. Catulle Mendes, 
Sichepin, Leon Baudot, Marcel Prevost, 
tc, are proud to contribute, all wielding a 
jen herein steeped in the same ink for her 
mtertainment. 

Four-and-twenty centuries to come another 
;rudite and investigating mind like that of M. 
Pierre Louys may be tempted to reconstruct 
:or another, and, let us hope, austerer civi- 
isation, a picture of this gallant high life. 
We may venture to predict that he wiU 
liardly, if he sticks to facts and the news- 
papers and the fiction of the hour, succeed 
in producing anything so poetical as M. 
Louy's Chansons de Bilitis. To the mere 
Philistine, who cares not a jot for the poetry 
)f paganism, and who thinks the world all 
;he better for the introduction of Christian 
ihastity, such literature, however fine and 
lelicate, is both nauseous and monotonous. 
\.n entire volimie on a single theme indicates 
uorbidness of concentration of interest few 
\<i us, happily, are capable of. If you 
Iiave read the book tlu'ough at a single 
itting, as I did, you feel you would 
like to go abroad into the clean woods 
nd play for several days with little chil- 
ren or nice innocent animals, who know 
either Latin nor Greek, and have many 
liings else to think of besides an unhealthy 
;3vival of pagan sensuality. As if our 
iwn were not more than enough ! 
I M. Louy's prose is highly polished, of 
j simplicity too self-conscious, with a 
liythmic wave which is charming, and a 
JBlicacy of colour to suit the high ver- 
jiction of form. In a word, he is an incom- 
lirable artist. Lacking in sense of humour 
id irony, he has not the art of an 
luatole France of giving vitality and a 
prsonal speU to Ids erudition. He never 
jses above the coldly sensuous. The bent 
I his talent leaves us in some doubt of the 
iility of a classical education. Indeed, 
ere are times when the troubled and 
•.asperated reader is inclined to ask him- 
ilf if humanity would not be improved by 
1e suppression of all education, or rather 
le art of reading and writing, for a while. 
lOf those songs of Bilitis there are but few 
\iich are not devoted to the usual details 
(| a courtesan's existence. Perhaps the 
^Dttiest is the cradle song : 

, ' The woods are palaces built for thee alone, 
idch I have given thoo. The piuo trunks 
the columns ; the high branches ai-e the 
vJts. Sleep. That he may not awaken thee, 
I'ould sell the sun to the sea. The breeze of the 
dre's wing is not so light as thy breath. 
Ilughtcv of mine, flesh of my flesh, thou wilt 
81 when thou dost open thy eyes if thou 
WLildst the jJaiu or the town, or the moimtaiu 
othe moon, or the white procession of the 
gls." 

jChe poet Henri de Eegnier also chaunts 
niler the winged protection of the French 
Mrcury. His last volume is in prose, 
a jllection of extravagant tales — La C'anne 
dfjaspe. They are cleverly written, with 
djinction and some grace. But — and 
h«e we may call on the pagan gods 
fd enlightenment, since M. de Regnier 
is'mother neo-pagan — what does it all 
mm ? Not that we are before a mystifica- 
ti<i like Poe's. A writer who can write so 
lujdly and so well of the sea should give 



us stories of a solider value than these, and 
even the fantastic can leave a definite im- 
pression. But here no impression whatever. 
Now and then a neat and witty definition. 
Then the reader hopes. Again, a really 
fine description in the most elegant prose. 
The reader expands, and cheerfully turns 
the page. Lo ! neither sense, nor pro- 
priety, nor the vaguest semblance of mean- 
ing or idea, and the offended reader yawns, 
and laments with Solomon the excessive 
production of literature. This is what M. 
de Eegnier can do when he has a mind to 
make himself understood : 

" I have seen all the sea's faces : her morning 
visage of childhood, her mid-day face stream- 
ing with gold, her Medusan mask of the 
evening, and her formless aspect of night. After 
the slyness of the temporary lull comes the 
vehemence of the tempest. A god inhabits the 
changing waters. Sometimes he rises, clutching 
the mauo of the waves and the long locks of 
sea-weed, with the rattle of the wind and the 
roar of the surge. He is fashioned of foam and 
spray. His mysterious hands contract in claws, 
and standing with his water-spout torso, his 
cloak of mist, his visage of cloud, and his eyes 
of lightning, he raises his prestige from in- 
numerable waves and storms, shattered in the 
monstrous howling of sm-ge, shouted down by 
wide jaws, and torn by naUs, he succmnbs in 
the crush of his fall, and relives in the spiune of 
his own fuiy." 

Goh, by M. Pol. Neveux, reprinted 
from the Revue de Paris, is a dull and 
melancholy country novel, the study of a 
carpenter's apprentice who is seized for the 
standing army of France, and goes away to 
China and elsewhere, in love with an un- 
interesting peasant girl, who declines to 
wait five years for his return. He comes 
back to find her married, breaks his heart, 
takes to drink, and commits suicide. The 
book is well-written, but nobody awakens 
the faintest interest or sympathy. 

H. L. 



THE BOOK MARKET. 



EEMAINDER8. 

WE published last autumn an article on 
" Eemainders," which excited some 
interest, and we appended to it a list of books 
with their original and reduced prices. We 
now give a fresh list of such prices, taken 
from the catalogue of a weU-known "re- 
mainder" bookseller: 

BIOGRAPHY AND REMINISCENCES. 

„ . . , Pres'-nt 

0"*?°'^" Remainder' 
Price. 



Bastien - Lepage and 
his Art 

Admiral Coligny, by 
Sir Walter Besant. . . 

Alphonse Daudet, by 
R. H. Sherard ... 

Oliver Goldsmith : 
Forster's Life 

Jchn Mitford : Letters 
and Reminiscences . 

Lord Nelson : Public 
and Private Life, by 
G. Lathom Browne 



10s. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 
15s. Od. 

7s. 6d. 

3s. 6d. 



Price. 
4s. Od. 

Is. 3d. 

3g. Od. 

38. Od. 

Is. Od. 



Original 
Price. 



18s. Od. ds. 6d. 



Pepys : Diary and 
Correspondence, by 
Lord Braybrooke . . . 

George W. SmaUey : 
London Letters and 
Some Others, 2 vols. 

Pridtiof Nansen, 1861- 
1893, translated by 
William Archer ... 

Garibaldi ; Autobio- 
graphy, translated 
by A. Werner, 3 vols. 

The Book Lover, by 
James Baldwin . . . 

Bancroft's History of 
the United States, 
7 vols. 12mo. 

The Study of English 
Literature, by J. 
Churton Collins . . . 

Gibbon's Decline and 
Fall of the Roman 
Empire, 4 vols. ... 

Goethe's Faust, with 
Retsch's Etchings . 

Remains of the Earlier 
Popular Poetry of 
England, by W. C. 
Hazlitt, 4 vols. 

The Town, by Leigh 
Himt. Illustrated 
edition 

The Best Plays of Ben 
Jonson, edited by 

B. Nicholson and 

C. H. Herford, 3 
vols.. Mermaid 
Series 

The Falcoii on the 
Baltic, by E. F. 
Knight 

Early Popular Poetry 
of Scotland and 
the Northern Bor- 
der, edited by 
David Laiug, and 
re-edited by W. C. 
Hazlitt, 2 vols. ... 

The Voiage and Tra- 
vayle of Sir John 
Maundeville 

Shelley's Complete 
Poetical Works, 
edited by W. M. 
Kossetti, 3 vols. ... 



328. Od. 



128. 6d. 



Present 

' Remainder " 

Price. 



12s. 6d. 



48. Ud. 



lOs. (id. 
78. 6d. 



108. 6d. 



7s. 6d. 



3l8. 6d. 


Gs. Od. 


2s. 6d. 


Is. 3d. 


178. «d. 


98. Od. 


48. 6d. 


Is. 9d. 


308. Od. 


14s. Od. 


3s. Od. 


Os. 9d. 


208. Od. 


88. Od. 


12s. 6d. 


58. Od. 



5s. 9d. 
28. Od. 



lOs. Od. 48. Od. 



3s. Od. 



228. 6d. 10s. 6d. 



TRAVEL, TOPOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Memories of Mashona- 
land, by the Right 
Rev. Bishop K. 
Bruce lOs. 6d. 23. Od. 

Camden's Remains 
Concerning Britain 
(Library of Old 
Authors) OS. Od. 28. Od. 

Capitals of the 
World, with intro- 
duction by H. D. 
Traill, 2 vols. 

A Comprehensive 
Scheme for Street 
Improvements in 
London 2l8. Od. 28. Od. 



638. Od. 258. Od. 



102 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jan. 22, 1898. 



_ . . , Present 
Original .. Remainder' 
Price. pri^jg 

Ormerod's History of „ „, 

Cheshire £.30 Os. Od. £4 lOs. Od . 

Cruise of H.M.S. 

Bacchante 528. fid. 98.0(1. 

Wissman's My Second 
Journey Through 
Equatorial Africa... 16s. Od. os. Od. 

Boulger's England 
and Russia and Cen- 
tral Asia, 2 vols. ... 36s. Od. ^ 3s. Od. 

To Gipsy Land, by 

Joseph PenneU ... 68. Od. 2s. 6d. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 



Idols of the French 
Stage, by N. Suther- 
land Edwards, 2 vols. 24s. Od. 

History of Newmarket 
and Annals of the 
Turf, by J. P. Hore 37s. 6d. 

Lesser Questions, by 
Lady Jeune ... 10s. 6d. 

Legal Lore : Curiosi- 
ties of Law and 
Lawyers, edited by 
W. Andrews ... "s. 6d. 

Acrobats and Mounte- 
banks, by Hugues 
leRoux. Translated 
by A. P. Morton. 
Illustrated by Jules 
Gamier 16a. Od. 

The Thousand and 
One Days, edited by 
Justin H. McCarthy 1 2s. Od. 

Where Art Begins, by 
Hume Nisbet ... 7s. 6d. 

Original Poems, by 
Anne and Jane 
Taylor 3s. 6d. 

Quaker Poets of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 
by E. N. Armitage 7s. 6d. 



2s. Od. 

9s. Od. 
9d. 

2s. Od. 

4s. fid. 

OS. Od. 
2s. fid. 

Is. Od. 

2s. Od. 



THE TITLES OF NEWSPAPERS. 

With the exception of trade journals and 
some denominational organs — e.g., the 
Braper'H Record and the Presbyterian — the 
most successful periodicals have titles which 
fail to express their distinctive character. 
That this is overlooked is due simply to 
custom, for we get into the way of using 
the name of a well-known paper very much 
as we use an algebraic symbol. For in- 
stance, who, by a priori reasoning from the 
titles, could get at the difference between 
the Morning Advertiser, the Morning Leader, 
and the Morning Post ? We all know the 
leading features of the Dailg Chronicle, the 
Dailg Mail, the Dailg News, and the hailg 
Telegraph, but, again, these are not differen- 
tiated by their titles. The Times and the 
Standard are as vague. Nor can the evening 
papers be quoted as illustrating the principle 
laid down by the hasty critics who sometimes 
complain of the title of a new publication 
that it is not sufficiently " expressive." 

Differences of policy and tendency are 
even more notable in the weekly religious 



papers, but the title seldom gives any clue. 
The Christian, the Christian Age, the 
Christian Commonwealth, the Christian Globe, 
the Christian Herald, the Christian Leader, 
the Christian Million, the Christian TForld— 
what philosopher could extract their true 
inwardness with no guide but the name? 
Within one ecclesiastical organisation alone, 
we have such variations as the Church Times, 
the Guardian, the Record, and the Rock. 

Not a few magazines bear the name of 
the publisher. This is a neat way out of 
the difficulty, but it is quite unenlightening. 
An acquaintance with the personal idio- 
syncrasies of Messrs. Cassell, Chambers, 
Longman, Macmillan, and Pearson would be 
of little service to an investigator of the 
periodicals of which these publishers are the 
patron saints. Of late years the fashion has 
grown of laying claim to some street or 
district of London. So we have publica- 
tions, daily, weekly, or monthly, named 
after Belgravia, Comhill, Ludgate Hill, Pall 
Mall, St. James's, the Strand, the Temple, 
Temple Bar, Westminster, and Whitehall. 
The only predictions that one would have 
ventured to make would have been that the 
Cornhill would deal with finance, and that 
there would be a legal flavour about the 
Temple. These forecasts, however, would 
have been as unfortunate as the expectation 
that there would be an especially courtly 
tone about the Windsor. 

In some cases it might be contended that 
the title not only fails to express the 
character of the periodical, but, if it were 
not so well known, would be actually mis- 
leading. An intelligent foreigner might 
easily trip up over the Fortnightly Review. 
He might naturally suppose that the Tablet 
was the organ of the craft of monumental 
masons. The Critical Review might seem 
to have something to do with first nig:hts at 
theatres, or possibly with the private view at 
the Academy, but it is occupied solely with 
theology. And the Cable is an agricultural 
journal, and has no connexion whatever 
with submarine telegraphy. 

The study of synonyms yields curious 
results. The Globe is an evening newspaper, 
the World is a society weekly, while the 
Universe is Roman Catholic. Ansivers, the 
Inquirer, and Notes and Queries would seem 
to have a good deal in common; but the 
first is a collection of anecdotes, the second 
is serious and Unitarian, and the third is a 
medium of communication for antiquarians 
and students of literary oddities. The 
Guardian belongs to the high section of 
Anglicanism, the Sentinel is an anti-opium 
journal, and the now defunct Watchman 
represented the conservative side of 
Methodism. Neither Justice, with its advo- 
cacy of social democracy, nor the American 
Judge, with its quips and cranks, is in 
danger, except from its title, of being 
mistaken for the Law Times. The Broad 
Arrow is devoted to the interests of the 
military and naval services, the Dart is a 
provincial comic paper, and the Quiver is a 
decoroiis religious monthly ; and not one 
paper of the three has anything to do with 
archery. Brotherhood speaks for Christian 
Socialism, Chums is a lively paper for boys, 
and Fellowship (now dead) was started by a 
Wesleyan minister for the promotion of 



" the higher life." A club lounger who 
took up the Leisure Sour by mistake for 
the Idler could hardly help moralising 
on the difference of similarities. The 
Sun and the Star contradict all the usual 
astronomical phenomena by their habit 
of appearing simultaneously about ten in 
the morning ; the Morning Star is a millen- 
narian monthly ; Sunshine is published 
" for schools and families " ; Moonshine is 
humorous ; and the Meteor is the journal of 
Rugby School. The Lamp is a CathoUc 
magazine ; Light concerns itself with spooks ; ■ 
Light and Leading ministers to Sunday-school 
teachers ; and Lux deals with Christian 
evidences. There is a considerable actual 
diversity between the Fcho and Public 
Opinion, and between the Era, the New Age, 
and the Nineteenth Century. Nor is there 
any reason in the fitness of things why the 
difference between the Baptist denomination 
and the Home Rule movement should not 
find more striking expression than in the 
slight variation between the Freeman and 
the Freeman'' s Journal. 

In choosing a title, then, there is little 
need to trouble about seciiring a concentra- 
tion of the contents bill. It is enough if 
the name is brief, easily remembered, and 
likely to " catch on." 



THE FUTURE OP TEE IDLER. 

" Is it true, Mr. Dent, that you have taken 
over Tlis Idler ? " An Academy representa- 
tive asked the question of Mr. J. M 
Dent, whom he found installed in Messrs. 
Macmillan's old premises in Bedford-st'eet 
" Quite true." , 

"You will, no doubt, transform the ap-, 
pearance of the magazine — give it youi 
own impress ? " 

" Well, no— not yet, at all events! W( 
have to consider the present readers of tlu 
magazine, who perhaps do not want t 
change." 

" And will you maintain the character ol 
the contents ? " 

" Yes. We shall try to improve them, hu 
on the same lines. Thf Idler will be ligh 
and literary, pleasant and optimistic." 
' ' And humorous ? " 

"Mr. Anstey and Mr. Barrie Pain wil 
write for it." 

" And artistic ? " 

Mr. Dent waved his arm round the room 
indicating that many beautiful drawings ii 
black-and-white which I saw about wen 
intended for reproduction in The Idler. 

" Have you any other notable contributor 
in prospect '? " 

" Oh, yes ! Mr. Austin Dobson, for one 
But you must not judge us too much b; 
our first number, which we shall issue in i 
fortnight. It will be a good number, oi 
the old lines." 

" Will you keep up 'The Idlers' Club a 
a feature ? " 

"Yes, certainly. And I may add tha 
we shall make country life, scenery, am 
sports— among the latter fishing in par 
ticular— the subjects of many articles m 
pictures." 



Jan. 22, 1898.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



THE WEEK. 



HtUDENTS of Bums cannot complain of 
^ any lack of material. Besides Mr. 
jlenley's Burns, a host in itself, there 
'appeared last year Burns and his Times ; 
^'he Ayrshire Homes and Haunts of Burns ; 
pums, Excise Officer and Poet; Burns' s 
\Clarinda ; and Burns from Heaven. Now 
kppears George Thomson, the Friend of 
fiurns : His Life and Correspondence, by Mr. 
jr. Cuthbert Hadden. Thomson's weU- 
biown correspondence with Bums is not 
ncluded in the volume, which is made up of 
he correspondence of Thomson with Hogg, 
'3yron, Moore, Lockhart, Campbell, and 
ithers, including Beethoven, whom he 
imployed to write airs for his Collection of 
Scottish Songs and Airs. A convincing por- 
rait of Thomson is given by way of 
rontispiece. 

In Tourgueneff and his French Circle we 
lave a record, mainly in the form of letters, 
|if the great Eussian novelist's relations with 
hat brilliant band of French writers with 
jrhich he became connected. We extract 
|lie following passage from Miss Ethel M. 
imold's translation of the French edition 
f the Letters by M. Halperini-Kaninsky. 
;t tells what Tourgueneff's " French Circle " 
pally was, and how he was introduced to it : 

I " It was the Viardot family who introduced 
I'ourgueneff to the French world of art and 
litters. In their house, soon after he arrived 
|i Paris in 1847, he met for the first time 
eorges Sand, an old friend of Louis Viardot's, 
jitli whom she had founded, in 1841, the 
jV-ywe Indepeiidante. But it was not till later 
u that, owing to Flaubert, their intercourse 
?came regular. 

About the same time he made the acquaint- 
ice of Merimee, who was already known as 
le translator of several of the masterpieces of 
ussiaa Hterature ; about the same time, also, 
' 8 friendship with Charles Edmond developed 
^ to intimacy. He had first met M. Edmond at 
lerlin, and came across him again at the house 
I' Mme. Jazykov, one of his compatriots, which 
iiuse the famous revolutionary Bakonnine, 
id the exiled Bussian author Herzen also 
iBquent. 

It was Charles Edmond who, on one single 
teasion, introduced Tourgueneff to all the men 
jrming the Slite of the literary world at this 
iriod— Sainte-Beuve, Theophile Gautier, Flau- 
prt, the Goncourt brothers, Taine, Berthelot, 
;3nan, Gavami, Paul de Saint- Victor, Scherer, 
larles Blanc, Adrien Hibard, Fromentin, 
i-oca, Ribot, NefFtzer, &c.— in a word, to all 
:e guests of the famous dinners at the Magny 
istaurant. He met them then for the first 
iue, except Flaubert, whom he had known 
lice 1858. In this connexion we read in the 
tiirml des Ooncourt, under the date of the 23rd 
• January, 1863 : 

i' Dinner at Mayiiy's : Charles Edmond 
ought Tourgueneff, that foreign writer with 
i|ch a graceful talent, author of T/ie M^moires 
im Seigneur Basse, and of The Hamlet Russe. 
-3 is a great, big, charming fellow, a gentle 
(int with bleached hair, and looks Uke the 
Jadly genius of a mountain or a forest. He 
■ handsome — magnificently, immensely hand- 
sale— with the blue of heaven in his eyes, and 
W charming Eussian sing - song voice, in 
"uch there is just something both of the 
<ild and of the negro. Being put at his ease 
I the ovation that was given to him, he 



103 



telked m a curious and interesting way about 
Russian hterature, which he declares to be weU 
launched upon the tide of reahsm, from the 
novel to the play.' 

Guizot had already expressed the wish to 
know the author of Le Journal d'un Homme de 
trop. which had greatly struck him ; and 
Lamartme describes enthusiastically his first 
meeting with Tourgueneff. The Russian 
novehst was also on terms of regular inter- 
course with Jules Simon, Edmond About, 
Gounod, Augier, Maxime Ducamp, Victor 
^ngo, Jules Janin, Francisque Sarcey, and 
Jule^ Claretie ; and later on he was mtroduced 
by i^Iaubert to the young naturalistic school 
represented by Zola and Daudet, who, together 
with Ed. de Goncourt, Flaubert, and Tourgueneff 
made up that httle ' Company of Five ' which 
met at a monthly dinner, sometimesat Flaubert'n 
sometunes at the house of the Goncourt brothers. 
Fmally, through Zola, Tourgueneff made the 
acquaintance of the young writers who col- 
laborated in the Soirees de Medan, and especially 
of Guy de Maupassant. 



The Book of the Year is a new work of 
reference, and is issued by Messrs. Eoutledge 
& Sons. The volume before us is a carefully 
compiled chronological table of 1897. The 
events of last year are arranged under their 
dates day by day, and a copious index 
enables the reader to discover at once the 
page on which the race for the Waterloo 
Plate, or the Opening of the New Gallery, 
or the Arrival of M. Faure at Cronstadt, 
or any other event, is recorded. It is extra- 
ordinary that such an annual has not 
been issued before ; but surely a better title 
would be The Book of Last Year. 

An event of the week has been the pub- 
lication of D'Annunzio's Tlie Triumph of 
Death in an English translation by Mrs. 
Georgianna Harding. This is the first of 
D'Annunzio's novels to be rendered into 
English and to be published in England. 
There have been American translations of 
some of his works. 



NEW BOOKS EECEIVED. 

THEOLOGICAL AND BIBLICAL. 

The GosPEt of Commow Skhhe. By Stephen Claye. 

Simpkin, Marshall & Co. 
The Bibli Teok feom the Beqinking. By Edward 

Gough, B.A. Kegan Paul. Vol. VI. lOs. 
Si. Paci's Epistle to the Kpuzsians. By Charles Gore, 

D.D. John Murray. 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 
Joseph Aech: the Stoet op His Life. Told by Himself. 

Hutchinson k Co. 12s. 
Raid and Refoeu. By a Pretoria Prisoner : Alfred P. 

Hillier. Macmillan & Co. 6s. 
Under the Dbagon Flag : Mt ExpEuiBircss in the 

Ckino-Japanese Wak. By James Allan. Wm. Heine- 

mann. 
Petek the Qeeat. ByK. Waliszewski. Translated from 

the French by Lady Mary Loyd. Wm. Heinemaun. 

Cheap edition in 1 volume. 6s. 
TouBGu^NEFP AND His Fesnch Cibclb. Edited by E. 

Halferine-Kanlnsky. Translated by Ethel M. Arnold. 

T. Fisher TJnwin. 78. 6d. 
Social England Series : Alien Ihuigeants to England. 

By W. Cunningham, D.D. Svran Sonnenschein & Co. 

4s. 6d. 
History of the City of Rohb in the Middle Ages. By 

Ferdinand Gregorovius. Translated from the Fourth 

German Edition by Annie Hamilton. Vol. V. : Parts 

I. andlC. George Bell 1 Sons. 9s. 
Index to the Peeeogative Wills of Ireland, 1636-1910. 

Edited by Arthur Vicars, F.S.A. Edward Pousonby. 



France (St. Louis). By Rev. E. J. Davis. Samp«,n 

THE Bcilding of the Khpiee. By Alfred Thomas Story 
2 vols. Chapman & Hall 14g. """uw owiy. 

POETRY, CRITICISM. BELLES LETTRES 

'"j'rDer^cr "'• ^''''' '^ "■ ^^^ «"^'''- 

The Tekple Classics: the Vicar of Wakefield. By 
Oliver Goldsmith. J. M. Dent ft Co. Is 6d 

The Rubaitat of Omar KhayyXm: a Facsimile of thi 
MS. IN THE Bodleian Libraey. Translated and 
edited by Edward Heron AUen. H. S. Nichols, Ltd. 

Domestic Verses. By D. M. Moir (Delta). Centenary 

Edition. Wm. Blackwood ft Sons. 
Ephemera : a Collection of Occasional Vebse. By J M 

Cobbett. AldenftCo. (Oxford). 28. 6d 
The Spectatoe. Vol. IV. John C. Nimmo". 

NEW EDITIONS OF FICTION. 
A Monk of Fife. By Andrew Lang. Longmans, Green 
&Co. 

EDUCATIONAL. 
Modern Persian Colloquial Geammae. By Dr. Fritz 
Rosen. Luzac&Co. Passages foe Unseen Teansla- 
TION (Latin and Greek). Edited by A. M. Cook, 
M.A., and E. C. Marchant, M.A. Methnen&Co. 38. 6d. 
The Stylogeaphy of the English Language. By 
Dr. BrojonathShaha. Patrick Press Co. (Calcutta). A 
Public School Recitbb. By Bertha M. Skeat, Ph.D. 
Longmans, Green & Co. 28. 6d. The Stoey of ih» 
Geeeis. By H. A. Guerber. Wm. Heinemann. 3g. 6d. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
Register of the Scholars admitied to Colohebier 
School, 1837-1710. Edited by J. H. Round, M.A. 
Wiles & Son (Colchester) Workhouseb and Pauper- 
ism. By Louisa Twining. Methuen & Co. 28. 6d. 
Some Account of Cbuechgoing. Watts & Co. Golf. 
By Garden G. Smith. Lawrence ft Bullen. Is. and Od. 
Night on the World's Highway. By Narcisse de 
Polen. T. Fisher Unwin. Is. 6d. Whitaker's Direc- 
tory OF Titled Persons for the Year 1888. Views 
ON Somb of the Phenomena of Natuee. By James 
Walker. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. The Antkjuaky: 
1897. Elliot Stock. Handbook of HonsEKEEPiNO fob 
Small Incomes. By Florence stacpoole. Walter 
Scott, Ltd. 28. 6d. Allegoeies. By Frederic W. 
Farrar. Longmans, Green ft Co. 6s. Complete Peb- 
SPECTIVE CouBSB. By J. Humphrey Spanton. Mac- 
millan 4 Co. 88. The Public Schools Year-Book, 
189J. Swan Sonnenschein & Co, 28. 6d. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE AUTHOR'S FIGUEES. 

Sir, — Mr. Nutt, by way of wriggling out, 
shifts his ground. I cajinot allow him to 
do so. 

(1) His "main issue" was a statement 
which had no foundation. This I bowled 
over with the greatest ease. In consequence, 
down dropped all his figures. 

(2) He now says that his "main issue" 
was that an inquiry should have been made. 
Very well. An answer to that is quite as 
easy. The essential conditions of the case 
were before us. We had nothing to learn, 
because we knew exactly what was proposed 
to do. 

(3) Mr. Heinemann wants me to with- 
draw my "Catonian jest": "Heinemannus 
delendus est." Dear me ! I have never 
made any such " Catonian jest." I am 
sorry to say anything that may wound 
Mr. Heinemann's feelings, but I really have 
never expressed any such sentiment. I can 
assure liim that I should contemplate his 



104 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jaw. 22, 1898. 



destruction with no emotion at all, either of 
joy or sorrow. 

(4) He wants me to " prove my asser- 
tions, and to name the person who pretends 
to have spent £14 on advertising, when £5 
is nearer the mark." I really wish your 
readers would turn to your columns of 
January 8, or let me repeat my assertion. 
This I cannot but call an unfortunate mis- 
representation. Nothing at all had been 
spent; we were talking only of an agree- 
ment. There had been no account. There 
was not the slightest allegation of any 
pretence whatever. These are my actual 
words : 

Mr. Nutt " tries to get out by asking if £14 
is all that is spent on advertising a Barrie. 
A B»rrie, indeed! The book before me was 
one which no one would produce, except at 
the author's cost. I can assure your readers 
that not £14, but £5 is nearer the mark in 
such a book as this." 

Where is the pretence ? — I am. Sir, 
yours, &c., Walter Besant. 

Jan. 18, 1898. 

[This correspondence must now cease. — 
Ed. Academy.] 

EDUCATION FOR THE CIVIL SER- 
VICE OF INDIA. 

Sir, — May I crave permission to add a 
few remarks to the article in your valuable 
paper of Saturday last on education for the 
Indian Civil Service, by way of supplement- 
ing it by a series of facts bearing on that 
subject? 

In speaking of the institutes where Indian 
Civil Service candidates are prepared for 
the Open Competition, the writer of the 
article does not say a word about an educa- 
tional institute where more than one-third 
of the successful candidates have received 
an education enabling them to pass that 
examination. I mean Mr. Walter Wren's 
Institute. Surely, when candidates, after 
having gone through two or three years of 
Oxford or Cambridge, fail at their first 
attempt at the Open Competition, and then, 
after a year's instruction at " Wren's," pass 
at their next trial, it cannot in common 
fairness be said that they were prepared at 
Oxford or Cambridge. Yet this is what is 
officially and semi-officially said. The can- 
didates themselves, of course, know better. 
A " man " who at his first trial made 1,000 
marks and failed, and at his second trial, 
after a year's study at Wren's, makes 2,100 
marks and passes, such a man - and their 
number is very considerable— will hardly 
think that he owed the great success of his 
life to an institute other than that of Mr. 
Wren. 

Sir, I have the honour to be one of Mr. 
Wren's lecturers ; yet in calling attention 
to the above facts I am not speaking pro 
donio. Mr. Wren can well dispense with 
my pleading. I am prompted by a sense 
of justice to the great pedagogical achieve- 
ments of a teacher who has, both in 
person and through his lecturers guided by 
him, taught I.O.S. candidates how to be 
accurate, lucid, and terse, and thereby 
secured the success of hundreds of men 
who have ably done the work of English 
rule in India. — I am, yours, &c., 

Emil Reioh. 



" WHAT A SCHOOLBOY READS." 

Sir, — I hope you will allow one who 
read with much pleasure, and not a little 
amusement, your recent article on "What a 
Schoolboy Reads " to add a few words on 
this subject, which is, perhaps, of more real 
importance than one is inclined at first sight 
to think. 

Eighteen months ago, as a young school- 
master, responsible among other things 
for the essay-writing of the upper classes 
in a small grammar school (about fifty 
boarders) in the South of England, it was 
one of my chief cares to get the boys, by all 
possible means, to read good English with a 
view to improving tlioir own. I was, in 
fact, like " Burnup," in your article, 
" awfuUy keen on getting the chaps to read 
good books." 

Almost immediately after my arrival, with 
a view to finding out what the boys had 
read, I set as my essay subject to the first 
two classes (boys ranging from 17 to 13 
years of age), "Your favourite author." 
The best essay shown up was on Thackeray 
by a boy of fifteen, who had read Vanity 
Fair, Esmond, The Newcomes, and the 
Ballads. One boy (aged 16) chose Dickens, 
one Conan Doyle, and four or five Sir 
Walter Besant, who was, I found, a general 
favourite with the bigger boys. Among 
the yoimgsters Henty was almost uni- 
versally chosen ; but the fact that almost 
all his books have a thread of history run- 
ning through them was generally considered 
a blemish. Not one boy, so far as I could 
discover, cared much for Kingston. 

As the school library was unfortunately 
not very largo, I decided, not without some 
trepidation, to give the elder boys the run 
of my own library, such as it was. The 
results were interesting. 

The boy who had written on Thackeray 
took at once to Miss Austen and Charlotte 
Bronte and, I think, read all the works of 
these two authoresses in the course of the 
year I remained at the school. Three or 
four other boys read and enjoyed Jane Ei/re 
and Villette, but could not read Miss Austen 
at all. To five or six boys, all aged about 
fifteen, I read Stevenson's New Arabian 
Nights, and they all took the keenest interest 
in it. There was a curious divergence of 
opinion concerning Mr. Stanley Weyman's 
books. Some boys thought him splendid, 
others " couldn't stand tindsr tht Red Robe 
or The Red Cockade at any price." I could 
never persuade the boys to venture on any 
poetry except Tlie Bah Ballads, Verses and 
Translations (omitting the translations), F!y- 
Leares and Humorous Poems of the Cenluri/. 
Essays were in no demand ; in fact, my only 
success in this line consisted in once getting 
a boy to read The Pleasures of Life, which 
he described as "not half bad." 

Lorna Boone was an immense favourite, 
Rodney Stone was popular with the boys of 
fourteen to sixteen. My copy of Baron 
Munchausen was so much read by the smaller 
boys that it soon became worthless. 

I had no copy of Eric ; or. Little hy Little, 
in my library, but I never yet came across a 
manly boy who could stand it. One very 
favourite book I find I have omitted — The 
Three Musqueteers. One or two of the bigger 



boys enjoyed, somewhat to my surprise, 
Kenneth Grahame's Golden Age. 

I hope that these jottings may be of some 
interest to those interested in boys' litera. 
ture. — I am, yours, &c., 

Charles H. S. MATrnEws. 

Leeds, Jan. 18, 1898. 



THE BOOKSELLING QUESTION 
AGAIN. 

Sir, — May I without giving mortal offence 
to a deserving body of men offer my own 
observations on the bookselling question ? 

In most businesses the trader possesses 
some special technical knowledge of the 
goods in which he deals. The draper or 
silk mercer can form his own judgment of 
the quality of his cloths or his silks. The 
jeweller must possess very special know- 
ledge. The dealer in musical instruments 
knows something of music ; and so with 
other trades. What special knowledge of 
books does the ordinary booksellers possess ? 
Less, I should say, than the average well- 
infonned customer. There is, indeed, one 
branch of the bookselling business which 
demands (and I suppose repays) special 
knowledge^namely, that which is con- 
cerned with second-hand books ; and in 
London and some other cities there are 
men of great skill and intelligence who 
devote themselves to this. In the city from 
which I write (one of the most important in 
the kingdom, but which I refrain from 
naming), although there are many 
second-hand bookshops, there is not one 
that seems to be managed with the skill 
which such a business, to be thoroughly 
successful, requires. Is there any reason 
why a bookseller in a provincial town 
should not combine the old and the new 
book trade? It would be good for him, 
good for the customer, and, I should think, 
good for literature. Then, again, as to 
foreign books. The foreign booksellers in 
London form a separate class,' well-in f(jrmed 
and capable of advising their customers. 
In this city, as in most provincial towns, the 
same bookseller deals in English and foreign 
books, but of the latter he is scarcely able 
even to read the titles, even if he can do 
that. He is, in fact, dependent on his 
London agent. I myself buy a good many 
foreign books, and one or two London firms 
from time to time bring to my notice books 
which they think likely to attract me. The 
local bookseller has not knowledge enough 
to do this: he knows of nothing but the 
parcel sent him from London. It appears 
to me that this is not the way in which other 
businesses are conducted. Bookselling of 
this character could be carried on quite as 
well by a stationer or a draper. — I am 
yours, &c., 2. 

NEWSPAPER ENGLISH. 

Sir,— While I am substantially in agree- 
ment with Mr. Nisbet, I should like to 
enlarge on one particular in which he has 
neglected to fall back upon the Anglo-Saxo