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JOSEPH WILSON LAWRENCE.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
A Quarterly Devoted
to the Interests of the
Maritime Provinces of
Acadia, Aesthetic Attributes of
Isaac Allen Jack 169
Acadian Artist, An
David Russell Jack, 69
Acadian Monarch, An
Patrick McCarthy, 163
Acadian Musicians, Two
David Russell Jack, 225
Acadia, The Indians of
David Russell Jack, 187
Acadia, Thirst in
Isaac Allen Jack, 38
David Russell Jack, 250
Aesthetic Attributes of Acadia,
Isaac Allen Jack, , 169
A Marshland River,
John Frederick Herbin, 87
A Monument and its Story,
Jonas Hoive, 63, 137
An Acadian Monarch,
Patrick McCarthy, 163
Answers to Correspondents,
David Russell Jack. , 178
Arrest du Conseil du Roy,
David Russell Jack, 19
Artist, An Acadian
David Russell Jack, 69
David Russell Jack, 253
Charles Campbell, 50
Book Notices, 182, 256
David Russell Jack, . . .91, 115, 236
W. P. Dole, ; &
Isabella A. Owen, 235
Chignecto, La Valliere of
W. C. Milner,, 157, 213
Colonel Robert Moodie,
Clarance Ward, 207
W. P. Dole, 206
Isabella A. Owen, 228
Exchanges 110, 184, 249
Fiedmond, Jacau de
Placide P. Gaudet, 29, 53
Freneuse, Lease of the Seignieury of, on the St. John
River in 1696,
W. F. Ganong, 121
David Russell Jack. . . 250
Grant, John Loyalist History,
T. Watson Smith, 7
Historical Society, The N. B 6
Historic Louisburg as it is to-day,
C. W. Vernon, 202
Honorable Judge Robie,
Israel Longworth, 81, 143
Charles Campbell, 50
Incidents in the Early History of St. John,
W. O. Raymond, 82, 151
Indians of Acadia, The
David Russell Jack, 187
Kind Words, 104
Lawrence, Joseph Wilson,
David Russell Jack, 43
Last Moose of Vermont, The
David Russell Jack, 41
La Valliere of Chignecto,
W. C. Milner,, 157, 213
Lease of the Seignieury of Freneuse on the St. John
River in 1696,
W. F. Ganong, 121
Literary Possibilities, on Certain
A. B. de Mille 126
Louisburg. Historic, as it is to-day,
C. W. Vernon, 202
Loyalist History John Grant,
T. Watson Smith, '7
Mainly about People, 46
Marshland River, A
John Frederick Herbin 87
Monument and its Story, A
Jonas Howe, 63, 137
Moodie, Colonel Robert
Clarence Ward, . 207
New York Herald, Origin of
George Edward Sears 254
Northern Muse, The
Bliss Carman, 62
Notes and Queries, 42
Notes and Queries,
H. Percy Scott 164
Old Colonial Silver,
David Russell Jack, 168
On Certain Literary Possibilities,
A. B. de Mille, 126
Origin of the New York Herald,
George Edward Sears, 254
Origin of the Place-name Pabineau,
W. F. Ganong, 88
Our Contributors, 47
Owen, David, of Campobello, N. B.,
Kate Gannett Wells, 21
Pabineau, Origin of the Place-name,
W. F. Ganong, 88
Isaac Allen Jack, 114
Queen Victoria A Contrast,
J. de Soyres, 51
Recent Publications, 47
Robie, Honorable Judge
Israel Longivorth, 81, 143
Signature of Matthew Thornton,
James Vroom, 131
Silver, Old Colonial,
David Russell Jack, 168
St. John, Incidents in the Early History of
W. O. Raymond 82, 151
W. P. Dole, ,. 206
The Wetmore Family,
David Russell Jack, 243
The Northern Muse,
Bliss Carman, 62
Charles Campbell, 186
Thirst in Acadia,
Isaac Allen Jack, 38
Thornton, Matthew, the Signature of
James Vroom, 131
Two Acadian Musicians,
David Russell Jack, 225
Charles Campbell, 186
Vermont, The Last Moose of
David Russell Jack, 41
Victoria, Queen A Contrast,
J. de Soyres, 51
Wetmore Family, The
David Russell Jack, 243
Wizard of the World, The
Theodore Roberts, 28
SALUTATORY, . . . . : . . . 3
Chanson, '-... 2
N. B. Historical Society, . . . . 6
loyalist History, 7
Arrest du Conseil d'Estat du Roy, 19
David Owen, . . . i* .
The Wizard of the World,
Jacau de Fiedmond,
Thirst in Acadia,
Last Moose in Vermont, .
Notes and Queries,
Joseph Wilson Lawrence, .
Mainly About People, . .
Recent Publications, . .
FROM THE FRENCH OF ANTOINE COMTE D'HAMILTON, A.D. 1661.
Nor dark nor blonde is she whom I adore :
By a single stroke to sketch her,
She's the most delightful creature
The wide world o'er.
Yet of her charms 't is easy count to take :
Five hundred beauties that are seen,
Five hundred more concealed, I ween,
A thousand make.
Wisdom divine is in her mind exprest ;
By thousand sweetest traits 't is told
The graces in their finest mould
Have formed the rest.
What lustrous tints could paint her hue so bright 1
Flora is not so fresh and fair ;
And with a swan's may well compare
Her neck so white.
Her waist and arm do kin to Venus prove ;
Like Hebe's are her mouth and nose ;
And, for her eyes Ah ! your glance shows
Whom 't is I love.
W. P. DOLE.
VOL. I. JANUARY, 1901. No. 1.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK, EDITOR.
Probably one of the most difficult problems which con-
fronts the promoters of any periodical is the selection of a
suitable name, by which their publication shall be known
to the world. Many a carefully launched and creditable
undertaking has been hopelessly shipwrecked through the
want of a suitable name ; many a deserving individual,
who might have achieved a fair amount of prominence in
the literary world, has lived and died unknown, his lack of
fortune due, perhaps, to the fact that his parents, upon
his being brought into the world, failed to provide him
with a name which was not commonplace.
With individuals this difficulty has sometimes been
ameliorated, by hyphenating some imposing name to the
more ordinary ; the hybrid result being, to the mind of
the person by whom the operation was performed, a
decided improvement upon the original product.
Be that as it may, an instance where the power of a
name will readily be admitted by our readers, is the case
of a well-known hostelry in the city of New York. Astor
is quite a common name in that city ; the Astor House,
with its four hundred rooms, and central situation, is well
known to many quiet-going individuals, as a nice con-
venient place in which to spend a day or two. The name
Waldorf-Astoria, however, conveys quite a different idea,
and one naturally associates with such a name all the
pomp and splendor, glitter and circumstance, that unlimited
wealth and lavish expenditure can bestow. It is a name,
once heard, not readily forgotten, and in this manner the
purpose of its originators has been served.
Upon the other hand, many a well-born individual, who
might have lived and died a useful member of society, has
had his future wellfare hopelessly handicapped at the out-
set of life's journey, through the ludicrous and inane efforts
of his progenitors to bestow upon him a name which might
render him conspicuous among his fellows.
But seriously, a suitable name, for an undertaking such
as the present, is a very important feature.
Such names as the Maritime Magazine, the Acadian
Magazine, or the New Brunswick Quarterly, have been
suggested. Ths first gives the impression that it relates to
matters of the sea only ; the second was objected to for
the reason that the Acadian Monthly is already a live issue
in Maritime Province literature ; while the third was not
applicable, owing to the fact that the scope of this maga-
zine was intended to be of a wider range than the name
New Brunswick would convey.
To Mr. I. Allen Jack we are indebted for the suggestion
which ultimately Jed to the adoption of our present title-
Some years ago he commenced a series of articles, which
he designated " Acadienses," in the Week, of Toronto,
relating to matters pertaining to that district of North
America formerly known as Acadia. A modification of
this idea has resulted in the choice of the title, by which,
we trust, this periodical may be known to the literary
public for some time to come.
The name is short, concise, significant and phonetic-
Acadia is a title now recognized by the scientific world as
applying to the territory embraced within the area of
the Maritime Provinces, including a small portion of the
Province of Quebec and the State of Maine, immediately
adjacent. This is precisely the ground we wish to cover.
Any matters relating, in whole or in part, to this extent
of territory, its people, its past history or future prospects i
any literary, or other productions of the people who live
within its borders, dealing with outside matters ; or con-
tributions from those residing abroad, and treating upon
Acadian matters, will come within the scope of this
It is intended to deal largely with matters historical,
but descriptive, scientific or philosophical contributions
will be welcomed. Contributions in verse, as well as short
stories, in which the principal scene is laid in Acadia, or
which are the production of Acadian writers, will also be\^
given a place, should they, upon examination, be deemed of \
a sufficiently high standard of excellence to warrant their^x
It had been intended to begin the publication at an
earlier date, but there was something attractive in the idea
of launching a new undertaking by the light of the dawn
of a new century. It is an opportunity which does not
occur to everyone ; to the same individual, never twice.
Accordingly the first number bears the date of January
first, in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred
There has been a dream, and was it only a dream, which
has passed through many minds, of a united Acadia, in
which the descendant of the Acadian Frenchman, and of
the United Empire Loyalist, might join hand in hand, in
a political union, embracing what is now known as the
Maritime Provinces of the Dominion of Canada.
Some people are of the opinion that the opportunity for
the consummation of this ideal passed away forever with the
confederation of the several Provinces into the Dominion
To us it would appear, that, laying aside all differences
of politics, race and religion, the time is now ripe for a still
closer amalgamation of the people of Acadia, this land of
our fathers, into one great Province, and thus might we be
enabled to hold an equal place with the larger Provinces of
Quebec and Ontario, in the eyes of our fellow-countrymen,
and of the world at large.
It shall be our constant effort, though perhaps in a very
humble degree, to endeavor, by the interchange of thoughts
and ideas, by the study of the past, and taking thought for
the future, to pave the way for such a movement. This,
too, may be but a dream, but, like the dream of some of
our forefathers, that " ships may come here from England
yet," it may, some day, we trust, prove to be a reality,
IRew Brunswick Historical Society.
The New Brunswick Historical Society held their
annual meeting at their rooms on Charlotte street on the
27th of November, when the following officers were
President P. 11. Inches, Esq., M. D.
First Vice-President Rev. W. C. Gaynor.
Second Vice-President Mr. Jonas Howe.
Recording Secretary Mr. Clarence Ward.
Corresponding Secretary Mr. D. R. Jack.
Council Messrs. S. D. Scott, W. P. Dole,
G. U. Hay, Rev. W. O. Raymond and
Col. Wm. Cunard.
The President referred to the death of the late Dr. John
Berryman, for many years a member of the Society.
A paper, entitled " The Acadian Settlement of Mada-
waska," was read by Rev. W. O. Raymond.
The meeting, in point of attendance, was one of the best
that has been held for some time.
loyalist 1btetor\> 3obn (Brant
Much has been written, in relation to the motives, ser-
vices, banishment and subsequent career of the United
Empire Loyalists ; more, perhaps, remains to be written.
The story of their lives, in its fulness of sincere and suffer-
ing patriotism, and of its sequel of empire building, has yet
to be given to the world. Its earlier chapters must, of
course, recall a scene of wrecked homes, armed conflict,
bitter neighbourhood strife, and cruel exile, which descend-
ants of the victors, might well wish forgotten ; but its
central divisions will bring into view, new homes slowly
rising in the wilderness, whence go forth, here and there,
ambitious youth to figure on the high places of national
life ; its most recent chapter will show the Canadian Do-
minion, which descendants of Loyalists so largely developed,
asserting herself, as a force to be reckoned with, by any
power which would set itself to thwart Britain's high aims
on behalf of the world. This theme awaits an historian :
pen of poet has hardly yet touched it.
Any intention to discount the value of historical parts
in this direction must here be disclaimed. A debt of
gratitude to Lorenzo Sabine, for the vast research displayed
in his two volumes on " The Loyalists of the American
Revolution " is readily acknowledged ; scarcely less grateful
should we be to Egerton Ryerson for the patient and loving
investigation which resulted in the two volumes on " The
Loyalists of America and their Times." Other volumes
might be named, as worthy of generous mention, as are /
several monographs published by Canadian historical so-
cieties, and frequent contributions to our religious and
secular press ; but the fact remains that the record of
Loyalist sacrifice and service is incomplete. There are
sections of the Maritime Provinces where the axe swung
by Loyalist hands awakened echoes which had slept since
creation, the first settlers of which find no mention in the
series of valuable sketches by Sabine ; and many a reader
of Dr. Ryerson's volumes has probably laid them down
with a feeling of regret that a part of the space devoted to
historical disquisition had not been given to those relations
of local incident and individual experience in which the
chasm of historical narrative so largely consists. Such, at
least, would have been the sensation in the mind of the
writer of this paper had he not learned the proposed plan
from Dr. Ryerson, when that gentleman was pursuing his
researches in the British Museum.
It is understood that a gentleman in New Brunswick,
whose work on historical lines has already raised him above
the rank of an amateur, is aiming to supply, in some meas-
ure at least, our lack of knowledge respecting the Loyalist
fathers. We wish him success. For such an undertaking
the period is auspicious. The comparatively recent addi-
tion to the Historical Manuscripts Department, of the Con-
gressional Library at Washington, has brought within our
reach, a collection of papers of immense value, the location
of which, had, for years, been a matter for enquiry. This
collection, Professor Herbert Friedenwald, till very recent-
ly, superintendent of the Historical Manuscripts Depart-
ment, considers " one of the most interesting series of
documents in the library." In the thirty-five volumes
together with a few miscellaneous papers, are found the
proceedings of the commissioners Col. Thomas Dundas
and Mr. J. Pemberton for inquiring into the losses,
services and claims, of the American Loyalists during the
Revolutionary War, as a basis of indemnification by Act
of Parliament. The notes of testimony, taken by these
commissioners, during 1785, and several subsequent years,
at Halifax, St. John and Montreal relate to 1,400 cases,
LOYALIST HISTORY 9
and in many instances go so far into detail, as to afford an
amount of information respecting the careers of prominent
colonial figures, such as is nowhere else to be found.* A
large number of other documents, supplementary to the
above, Prof. Friedenwald has informed the writer, has
quite recently been obtained, by one of the large public
libraries of New York.
This important addition to our stores of Loyalist infor-
mation, should not, however, be allowed to lessen private
effort after further accumulation. It is true, that the cir-
cumstances of the Loyalist period were most unfavorable
to the preparation, or preservation of historical data, that
the defeated actors in the strife, left few songs behind
them, and no harpers to chant their sorrows, but there
must yet be retained on paper, or in memory, many un-
published facts and incidents, which may soon be irrecover-
ably lost. That is a sad sentence which constitutes the
last paragraph of Napier's " History of the War in the
Peninsula " " Thus the war terminated, and with it all
remembrance of the veterans' services." A similar state-
ment should be inapplicable to the descendants of the
American Loyalists. Even if but little can be added, to
the facts already obtained, concerning the period of strife,
we may honor them by watching their subsequent career,
and by placing on record, some results of their faithful
adherence to the Britain they loved.
In the list of almost unknown Loyalists, is Captain John
Grant, an ancestor of the writer of this sketch. A single
sentence, in the " fragments " at the end of Sabine's second
volume " Grant, John, Captain in the Royal Garrison
Battalion " may or may not have referred to him. The
* Report of American Historical Association, 189S, p. S9. These docu-
ments, which as a matter of course, found their way to England, were pro-
cured by Major-GeneralJ. H. Lefroy, governor of Bermuda, and presented
through him by his relative, Mrs. Dundas a descendant of one of the com-
missionersto the Smithsonian Institution, in 1874, as the Library of Con-
ress is the! depositary for the books, etc., of the Smithsonian Institution they
naturally found their way there.
Dame, though less common among Scotch soldiers, than that
of Donald Macdonald, which is said to have at times sadly
confused the drill sergeant in his efforts to distinguish his
Highland recruits from each other, is by no means rare
The John Grant of whom we write was the son of
Alexander Grant, of Strathspey, Scotland. Born in 1729,
a period at which strong military tendencies prevailed in
the Highlands, he in mere boyhood entered the army. In
1730 the English government, which had long hesitated to
put arms into the hands of the Scotch Highlanders, on
account of the devotion of their chiefs to the caus? of the
Pretender, raised six companies in the Highlands, each
independent of the other. These came to be known as the
" Black Watch," on account perhaps, of the sombre tartans
worn by them, and because of their employment in small
parties, as a sort of rural police. There was no lack of
high-class men. The whole country having been disarmed,
an indignity deeply felt by the men of a race, wbo, even
in times of peace, never went forth without dirk or clay-
more the youth of good families were eager to serve, if
only in the ranks, because they were entitled to bear arms,
and to carry a weapon was regarded as a proof that the
bearer was a gentleman. In 1739 four additional com-
panies .were raised, and in 1740, near Tay Common, the
several companies were formed into a regiment, known for
a term as the 43rd, and later as the 42nd Highlanders,
or the Black Watch, the name the men belonging to it had
always loved best.
In .1741, young Grant entered one of the companies.
* That fine specimen of a true Scotchman, the late Me jrr AUar J'clean
of the Nashwaak, used to tell of two brother Scotchmen of a disbanded regi-
ment, an incident at once illustrative of former-day simplicity and of
change in dress The one Donald Macdonald had made arrangements fo<-
marriage, but as the day approacht-d he grew nervous. Finally be wtnt to
another Donald Macdonald in the same neighbourhood, and, making him a
confidant, asked : " Noo, Donal, wull ye na tak her yirsel, au I'll gie ye the
cotton goun in the baergain ? "
LOYALIST HISTORY 11
The practice of enticing mere boys into a Highland regi-
ment, was formerly unknown ; special care was taken in
selecting men of full height, well proportioned, and of hand-
some appearance. The acceptance of one so young, must
therefore have been due tofriendlyinfluence,or the possession
of unusual development. In March, 1743, when the regi-
ment was ordered to proceed to England, he accompanied
it, it is believed, as a lieutenant. The loud remonstrances
from eminent Scotchmen which followed this call to general
service, contrary to the terms of enlistment ; the review at
Finchlay Common ; the rumor that the officers and men
were to be transported to the King's plantations in America,
diligently circulated by the adherents of the Stuarts ; the
attempt of the regiment to march back to Scotland : their
final surrender and pardon, are matters of history. Hogarth
was living at the time, and his inimitable pencil has cur-
iously depicted one scene of this affair in his " March to
John Grant sailed with his regiment, in the same year,
for Flanders, serving there, under Field-Marshal the Earl
of Stair, and being present, under the Duke of Cumberland
in 1745, at the battle of Fontenoy, in which the Black
Watch took a very prominent part. It was, when alluding
to that battle that a French writer said, " The British
behaved well, and could be exceeded in ardor by none but
our officers, who animated the troops by their example,
when the Highland furies rushed in upon us, with more
violence than ever did a sea driven by a tempest."
On returning from the continent, for a second time, in
1748, the Black Watch was quartered for eight years, in
Ireland, whence it sailed for America, landing at New
York in June, 1756. A year after its arrival in the New
World, the regiment was summoned to active warfare, on
the frontier. Of General Sir James Abercrombie's force
of 16,000 men, directed against the French at Ticonderoga,
6,340 were British regulars, of which the 42nd Highland-
ers formed a part. The notice the regiment had -attracted
on its landing at New York, was even more marked during
its march to Albany, particularly on the part of the
Indians, " who flocked from all quarters to see strangers
whom, from the similarity of their dress, they considered
to be of the same extraction as themselves, and whom they
therefore regarded as brothers."* Tt must have been at this
time that an Indian chief, pleased with young Captain
Grant's military bearing, made him an offer of as much
land as he could travel around in three days, on the
condition that he would marry the chief's daughter.
The brilliant July morning in 1758, on which the whole
force was embarked on Lake George, for an attack on Fort
Ticonderoga, was followed by a night and morrow of terrible
disaster to the British arms. In front of a breastwork of
uncommon height and thickness, which sheltered the French
army, the ground had been covered with felled oak trees,
with sharpened branches pointing outward, against which
the English attempted in vain to advance. At last the
impatient Highlanders, breaking from the rear, rushing to
the front, and screaming with rage, hewed with their
broadswords among the branches, struggling to get at the
enemy, but in vain. The English, with their deep-toned
shout, also rushed on in heavy columns, until General
Abercrombie, having lost two thousand men, gave the
order to retire, an order only obeyed by the Highlanders
on its second repetition, and when more than half of their
men, and twenty-five of their officers, had been either killed,
or desperately wounded. The English army, seized with
a sudden panic, then rushed in haste to their boats, and put
Lake George between them and the enemy. " The fatal
lines of Ticonderoga," says Parkman, " were not soon for-
gotten in the provinces ; and marbles in Westminster
* "A History of the Scottish Highland Clans and Regiments,'" by John
S. Keltie, Vol. II., p. 386.
LOYALIST HISTORY 13
Abbey, preserve the memory of those who fell, on that
The Black Watch, honored about this time by George
II. with the designation " Royal/' remained in Ameiica
until 1761, when they embarked, with ten other regi-
ments for Barbadoes, there to join the armament against
Martinique, and the Havannah. Captain Grant joined
that expedition, but not as an officer of his former
regiment. At Brooklyn he had met Sarah, the attract-
ive daughter of Michael and Catelyntie Bergen, lineal
descendants, both of Hans Hansen Bergen, a Norwegian
ship-builder, who had crossed the ocean, it is said,
in that vessel of the West India Company, which had
brought out to New Amsterdam, the second director-gen-
eral of the colony Wouter van Twiller, whom Washington
Irving has so broadly caricatured. With the passing
years, the descendants of Hans Hansen Bergen, and his
wife, Sarah Rapalye, had become numerous and somewhat
wealthy, and had given their names to several places in the
neighbourhood of New York, a street in Brooklyn being yet
known as Bergen street. In 1759, the young Scotch officer
and Sarah Bergen, the latter then only sixteen, were mar-
ried. On the writers' table is a piece of the dress worn on
the day of the wedding, by the happy Dutch maiden,
through whose mind, could not possibly have passed any
thought of the future separation from relatives, and exile
from home, involved by her wedding vows. Portraits of
both are yet preserved by one of their descendants, but so
defaced by age, and neglect, as to show few traces of the
beauty, which tradition associates with their faces in early
days. Their residence was on a farm, with a mill attached,
which Mrs. Grant's father had purchased, on the south side
of the village of Jamaica, in Queens county, and had set-
tled upon his daughter,!
* " The Conspiracy of Pontiac" Vol. II, p. 129.
t TheBergen Family, etc. By Feunis Bergen, Albany, N. Y., 1876-
Military service, it has been remarked, was not ended
by John Grant's retirement from the Black Watch. On
April 19, 1762, the New York colonial government issued a
warrant in favor of Captain John Grant, for " 957, bounty
and enlisting money, for eighty-seven volunteers of the
counties of Kings and Queens,"* and as a captain in the
New York Regiment of Foot, he took part in that danger-
ous operation which ended in the reduction of theHavannah,
and the surrender of the Spanish forces, on August 11,1762.
In 1763 he was appointed by Cadwallader Golden, Esq.,
lieutenant-governor and commander-in-chief of the prov-
ince of New York, to take command of a company raised
to protect the colonists, and keep communication open
between Albany and certain outposts. During the following
year, he marched his company from New York city, to Fort
Herkimer on the Mohawk River. Of his services under
Sir William Johnson on the frontier, it is difficult to speak
with definiteness. More than one Captain Grant, served
with bravery on the border of Canada at the period, and
it is possible, that a descendant of the officer of whom we
write, may have placed to the credit of his ancestor, deeds
of daring, performed by another, but, it is certain, that his
services were such, as to secure for him a grant of three
thousand acres of valuable land, about midway between the
head of Lake George, and the fort at Crown Point. That
these services had involved serious risk of life, may be in-
ferred, from the statement by the neighbor who prepared
his body for burial, that the scars of not less than seven
swords or bullet wounds were visible. And, as no reference
was made to these dangers in the brief statement of
active service during the Revolution, submitted to Brigadier
General Fox, Commander of the Forces in Nova Scotia in
1783, it may be presumed that they had been incurred in
* State Documents at Albany, N. Y., as quoted in The Bergen Family
LOYALIST HISTORY 15
The home, which, for many years had been his pleasant
headquarters, was wrecked during the Revolution. Though
his father-in-law, at the beginning of the strife, had asked
British protection, he and his family, were strong in their
attachment to the Whigs, and used their best efforts to
persuade Captain Grant to assume command of a regiment
in the services of Congress a proposition which, to use
his own words, he " disdainfully spurned." Thus situated,
he had to make his escape to the West Indies, but having
at the end of eighteen months, learned that General Sir
William Howe was at the head of the British troops on
Staten Island, he returned from the south, and offered his
services to that officer. At the time of the landing of the
British on Long Island, he was appointed as Guide, and
given command of the vanguard of the left column, under
Major-General Grant, on August 27, 1776, in which capa-
city he so acquitted himself, as to receive the general's
thanks, as a contributor to the success of the day.
The close of the war, found this Loyalist, like thousands
of others, in a sad plight. Ill-health would not permit
him to continue with the army ; he therefore remained at
Long Island with his family. The losses of the family,
through the war, had been very serious. During her
husband's absence in the West Indies, Mrs. Grant had had
the best furniture, plate, and wearing apparel, with valu-
able papers, removed to a house in Hackensack, New
Jersey, and these, at the time of the pursuit of the
American troops by Lord Cornwallis, were all plundered
or destroyed. At about the same time the property owned
by Mrs. Grant was also burned. In her touching appeal
for some compensation for her losses, that lady describes
her property as a " plantation of about one hundred and
fifty acres, lying in the town of Brookland, on Long Island,
on which was a long and valuable mansion house, forty-
eight by thirty-six feet, with a kitchen adjoining the same,
as well as barns and other outbuildings, in good repair."
This residence, with its buildings and large quantities of
grain, was burned by the royal army, because of its inter-
ference with an attack on the enemy's encampment, thirty-
one head of cattle, and four horses, having been driven off
previously. Thus robbed and deprived of all they had
possessed, they moved off, with the British, to Jamaica, and
remained on Long Island, until the evacuation of New
York by the King's troops.
His total losses in plate, bonds, buildings, furniture,
stock and other accumulations, Captain Grant estimated
at five thousand pounds. Included in this valuation, was
probably his large tract of land near Crown Point, which
was forfeited by him, as an adherent of the King. At an
early date, this property became of great value. On a
sketch of it James Abed, of New York, who on another
document certifies himself to have been at the time the
royal army took possession of the Heights on Long Island,
a "major in the American service," wrote in May, 1781,
to Mrs. Grant " This is an exact copy of a part of Met-
calf's map of the Province of New York, whereby you will
find your husband, John Grant, had a grant of three
thousand acres of land, which land has since been regranted
by the State of Vermont, who suffer none of the old grants
from the Crown to be good. This is a very valuable tract
and is now all settled nearly as thick as Long Island."
For the loyal Scotchman, only exile remained. Attach-
ment to king and country, was, from the Whig point of
view, an unpardonable sin. The prevalent feeling of the
American people of this generation, was put into words, by
Henry Ward Beecher, at a meeting, held in New York,
just one hundred years from the day on which the British
troops had taken their final departure from the city, when
he said of the victors and their severe enactments, " They
did not know any better. They had the instincts of the
animal you bite me and I bite you." That was the in-
stinct of the age. It was, if possible, worse ; it was fra-
LOYALIST HISTORY 17
tricidal. Hence John Grant was given clearly to under-
stand, that to endeavor to remain in " New York Province"
after the evacuation of it by his Majesty's troops, would be
" very fatal," and striking illustrations of the danger were
too frequent to be disregarded. Such preparations as
could be made for removal, were therefore hastily made.
In the sorrow and sadness of that wonderful exodus, and
in its earlier sequel on our shores, the larger share, by far,
must have fallen to the lot of our Loyalist foremothers.
It was so in this instance. With a sick husband, seven
children accompanying her, her eldest son remaining in
New York, the voyage to Nova Scotia, and the settlement
of her family, and the nine slaves brought with them, on
an uncultivated tract on the seashore, must have involved
the former Dutch maiden, in not merely months but years
of keen anxiety. Prior to his removal to Nova Scotia, John
Grant had began to feel the effects of wounds and expo-
sure in the past. On July 1st, 1783, he reached Halifax
in H. M. ship " Berwich." Governor Parr having granted
him three thousand acres of land, of which he was unable
to make a personal selection, the Surveyor-general, Charles
Morris, Esq., had it surveyed at the lower part of the
township of Newport, the grant bearing date August 26,
1783. In September he visited Shelburne, and from that
place returned to New York, whence on October 16, he
and his family sailed on board the " Stafford " transport,
Captain Westport, arriving at Halifax ten days later.
On November 6, a bed was placed on a truck, and on this
he was carried to Windsor, taken thence by boat to
Mount Denson, and detained by serious illness at that
place, until May 23, 1784, when he reached the new desti-
nation for his family, at "Loyal Hill." Home, it could not
be called : it was a refuge from the Revolutionary storm.
The destruction of Captain Grant's earlier papers, has
deprived us no doubt of many items of interest. The
faded and torn documents on our table, were called forth
by the sorrowful circumstances of the period, and index
little else. In 1790, illness resulting from previous
wounds and exposure, proved to Captain Grant " sickness
unto death." After the fashion of the time his body was
interred in his own grounds, but some years since, owing
to the encroachments of a quarry, the bones were removed
to a granite monument erected in the burying-ground of
the Baptist church in the neighborhood. The wife, whose
faithfulness to her vow, to " keep thee only unto him,"
involved so much unforseen sorrow, ending in exile from
all her kindred, survived him some years, dying in 1808.
Of the numerous descendants of this Loyalist pair, but a
comparatively small number in Nova Scotia bear the
ancestral name. In the original large family, but two, were
sons, one of whom early returned to the United States.
The eldest son, Michael Bergen Grant, who had remained
behind his parents in Long Island, came to Nova Scotia
two years before his father's death, took charge of the
place, and some years later married Sophia, daughter of
Captain John Nutting, of the Engineers, who, as a Loyalist,
had been granted a large tract of land, near that of Captain
Grant, at Kempt. Their family included one son, and
seven daughters, of the latter of whom it might have been
said with truthfulness, as of the daughters, of Job: "In all
the land \vere no women found so fair." It is sufficient to
say that the descendants of Michael B. Grant, and of his
sisters of the Loyal Hall homestead, have furnished a good
proportion of the solid business, and successful professional
men, of the province, to which, by Revolutionary bitterness,
their ancestors were driven.
T. WATSON SMITH.
DU CONSEIL D'ESTAT
Qui permet aux Sieurs Bergier, Boucher, Gautier,
& de Mantes, d'etablir une peche le long de la Cote
de 1'Acadie & de la Riviere Saint Jean, & leur accorde
DU DERNIER JOUR DE FEVRIER 1682.
The above is the heading and title of a document, pub-
lished in Paris in 1720, the original, from which our
reproduction is taken, being the property of Prof. W. F.
Ganong. It forms one of his collection of " unpublished
documents, relating to the history of New Brunswick,"
and was, by him, placed in the hands of Rev. W. O.
Raymond for publication. To the last named gentleman
we are indebted, for permission to reproduce the design, by
which it is headed, the reproduction being about one-third
less in size than the original.
The document was printed on three pages of a quarto
leaflet, at Paris, in 1720, and this design is a good example
of the style of ornamentation, much followed by French
publishers of that period. As the title indicates, the
leaflet contains an extract from the Registers of the
Council of State of France, a concession of fishing privil-
eges on the St. John river in 1682.
In that year, 1682, M. de la Yalliere was in command
in Acadie, under an appointment made by Count Frontenac,
the Governor of Canada. About this time, the King of
France made the grant or concession of fishing privilege,
to which we have alluded, to Sieurs Bergier, merchant of
la Rochelle, Gautier, Boutier, and de Mantes, " the lands
which they shall find suitable along the coast of Acadie
and the river St. John," for the establishment of the
shore fishery. Bergier came to Acadie and proceeded to
organize fishing establishments on its coast, but he found
his operations very much impeded by the English, who had
been fishing on these coasts for years and were not easily
to be restrained.
La Valliere, the Commandant, who resided at St. John,
was openly accused of being in league with these enemies
of his country, and it was stated in memorials written to
the French government of that day, that he had licensed
the English vessels to fish on the coasts of Acadie, for
money payment. Whether these accusations were correct
or not, it is certain that the difference between Bergier and
la Valliere continued to increase in violence ; and finally
the latter, with something of piratical violence, seized
several of Bergier's vessels, and confiscated their cargoes of
fish and hides.
In 1684 la Valliere was removed from the governorship
of Acadie, and was succeeded by M. Perrot, who was in
his turn succeeded in 1687, by M. de Menneval.
To us in Acadia, this document is of much antiquarian
interest ; not only on account of its local application, but,
from an artistic standpoint, for the beauty of the design
with which it is embellished, as well as the excellence of
the workmanship with which the design is executed.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
OF CAMPOBELLO, NEW BRUNSWICK.
In an old, closely written manuscript, have lately been
found most amusing instances of illicit trading, and of the
mock dignities of international complications, from March
27, 1812, to March 22, 1817. The pages are in the hand-
writing of David Owen, who administered, for his co-gran tees,
the island of Campobello, New Brunswick, which had been
granted them by the English Crown in 1770.
In his diary, his refuge in hours of loneliness, he com-
mits his records of aggrieved officialism, with which as
English magnate he contended daily, and it was all so
petty and miserable, and recriminating, those local vex-
ations sustained on both sides through the embargo law of
1807 and the war of 1812, between the United States and
Yet had not nature herself foreseen these conflicts in
authority, and, like a jealous philanthropist, provided her
fogs for the welfare of smugglers, thus aiding the very law,
which, supposed to injure both parties, really worked to
the advantage of each. "Neutral voyages" were then
short and safe, and men and vessels were transferred from
one allegiance to another as often in the course of a single
day as business required. Great was the boon thereof to
Campobello, and well did its Snug Cove deserve the name.
Goods were shipped to it from colonial ports, there put on
board neutral vessels, which in an hour or two were legally
cleared at Eastport, Maine, the cargoes eventually being
sent to Boston or Portland, contrary to the intent of the
Then, when the war of 1812 broke forth and Major
Putnam surrendered at Fort Sullivan, Eastport to the
English, they, in their parlance, " recovered their own,'
since such view of the question, the " restoration " rather
than the " capture " of the American islands in Passama-
quoddy Bay, alleviated the minor miseries of a bloodless
warfare, for the Eastporters, as " subjects restored to their
rightful sovereign," fared better than as prisoners of war.
Sir Thomas Hardy, Nelson's trusted friend, and Colonel
Gubbins, were the chief English officers at Eastport, with
whom David Owen, at Campobello, held friendly converse.
At first David's subjects hoped to settle ancient scores
with some of their old-time personal enemies, but they
soon found that the new English masters forbade, as their
American predecessors had forbidden, the use of threats
or blows in getting one's rights. Then recourse was had
to long, stately letters addressed by Owen to Gubbins, in
which the former rehearsed the grievances of his people,
for had he not a right to wax eloquent when he had urged
that the County f Charlotte, New Brunswick, and of
Washington, Massachusetts, (it was not then called Maine),
should remain neutral, and had he not adjured the
Indians, who fled to his woods for safety, to believe that
the English would burn neither their wigwams nor their
chapel 1 In spite of such protests, when Moose Island
(Eastport) was actually taken by the British, with the self-
complacency of a solitary magnate, David Owen wrote to
his distant peers, " I could have taken it, Eastport, with a
gun brig and my own militia. I am in possession of all
except Moose Island."
However, after the " contemptible Americans " had
been expelled, Owen's wrath became greater, since, without
his knowledge, the Commanding Royal Engineer had ex-
plored ground for military purposes on Campobello, and
had desired Owen's militia to help him. Moreover, his
tenants were oppressed by a notice to drill off the island,
which they regarded as an indignity, whereupon Owen
had petitioned his Royal Highness, George, Prince Regent
of England, that the "inhabitants of Campobello should
DAVID OWEN 23
not be taken off the land for militia duty," since if attempt
were made to enforce such notice, or " fines should be im-
posed in consequence, it will be the signal," he wrote,
for active defense against the very government (English)
they have hitherto handsomely maintained."
Like private theatricals on a miniature stage, reads the
rehearsal of Owen's grievances in his letters to the Admir-
alty, and to the Committee of Public Safety, on Moose
Island. The " calamities of warfare " were not only to be
'* repelled from the doors of his people," and they them-
selves " protected from indignities," but he had his own
private rights to defend. For when the British colors
were displayed at Fort Sullivan, they also floated in the
air from Dudley and Frederick Islands (termed then St.
Croix Islands), where he claimed rights, accruing from the
original grant of Campobello, which rights were strength-
ened by the actual possession of a tenant of his, through
purchase of a claim, duly recorded in Massachusetts.
This possession was, moreover, at that time acknowledged
by him to be under the Crown of Great Britain, he * hav-
ing affixed his name to the buildings for that purpose, and
as a memorial of the same."
A vacant house on Moose Island had also been seized by
officers of the Crown, and a similar entry was thereby
included, though the additional ceremony of a discharge
of musketry at the hoisting of a British flag upon a small
vacant hut was reserved for Mark Island.
Owen's daily life and his real estate were becoming a
burden to him. In vain did he offer to the Crown his
lands for cash on hand, his duty still compelling him to
worry his superiors with bristling letters. Regardless of
British authority, woodcutters came on Dudley Island
" to get a number of sticks to repair a vessel." Such a
bold and vagrant act forced Owen to proceed there (less
than a mile away), in person and " to take action to
secure the rights of the Crown." Then the harbors
round these islands "had been injured by ballast
thrown overboard from American vessels." Yet with all
his authority as magistrate and portwarden had he
" warned the offenders to enforce his notice within the
garrison district and to the limits usually claimed by a
port, by a garrison order or otherwise," and had implored
that another justice be appointed with him to enforce the
Again does Owen wax indignant that in subversion of
provincial rights, the oaths administered on Moose Island
to parties leaving it for a few days, that they should not
bear arms, varied, for he argued that Moose Island was
never escheated by the State of Massachusetts; that
English people would not have settled on it unless sure it
did not belong to the United States, and that its claim to
other islands is a late affair, as in 1815 these same islands,
Dudley and Frederick, paid their share of the quota of the
parish of Campobello.
Neither the days of the embargo act nor the so-called
capture of Eastport and its four years under martial law
Drought peace to David Owen. Under the Colonists' rule
he had noticed a diminution in his flock of sheep, the skin
of one being found a short distance from the cooking camp.
Then a party from His Majesty's ship had occupied with-
out permission and at various times one of his empty
houses. Somebody else had made a fire in the loft of his
rented store and had ill-used his tenant for putting it out.
Another enemy had fired musket balls in every direction,
and had killed one pig and wounded, either by musket
ball or cutlass, a second pig, belonging to a poor man, who
had at best but two swine for his winter's use. Worse
still, five tons of hay had been " forcibly cut " on his
domain, divers persons thereby being cheated of their
property. Then when he expected to gather forty bushels
of apples he found the " pickets torn down and one solitary
apple only remaining," owing to the fishermen from Moose
DAVID OWEN 25
Island. Again he entered a deposition requesting that
they " may be delivered over to the Civil power to answer
for their offence." But the American Lieutenant-Colonel
discovered that the alleged delinquents " had taken only a
few apples," for which they promised to pay one-half dollar
to the poor of Moose Island, and that it was Campobellians
who had been the (l great plunderers."
.Nevertheless it was Owen's own hired man, an English-
man, who, "being in liquor," had abused an American
officer and was more abused himself by that same dignitary,
who presumably was in his senses.
Difficult of adjustment as were these evils, a more com-
plicated problem arose through the marriage on Moose
Island by a Justice of Peace, under the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts, of a Campobello couple. Was such mar-
riage illegal 1 Should the Justice pay fee to the Crown 1
Would the offspring of such marriage be legitimate, or
would the parish be forced to maintain the children?
This matter, declared Owen with all the official circum-
stance, must be decided by established law of the Courts*
" for the law of a garrison is but the vibrating authority
of a commission." Great also were the annoyances in re-
moving a pauper from one place to that of his last legal
settlement. " Surely there is much to be said," exclaims
Owen, " about the liberty of the British Colonist."
With ardor did he remonstrate against the petty cannon
directed at his Campobello, since some balls fell near a
weir where men might have been fishing and others might
have fallen on boats, and balls, sent by a ship's officer,
did actually fall round the chapel he had erected at his
own expense. When deserters crossed over the bay to
him, and the American officer had come in search of them,
had not Owen dined and reprimanded him, and given him
" a copy of his Sunday-school prayers, with a few words on
the title page ! '' What more could a grantee do, who was
interested in religion 1 He had striven to defend his
people from encroachments by the English and from assault
by the Americans until " worn out with expectations," his
stores and wharves, neglected during the war, remaining
in ruins, he judged it improper to crowd the Secretary of
State with " further communications" until he had "some
assurance that they would be received without inattention."
But he soon resumed courage and again laid his views
before government ; " that the Crown alone without our
consent had no right to tax. us and no right to sever
Campobello from Nova Scotia by the erection of the Pro-
vince of New Brunswick, in which Campobello was
included, and that no provincial act can oblige an inhabit-
ant to go off his land for duty elsewhere." Valiantly did
he defend the firing from Indian Island upon privateers,
for were not the privateers equally subject to prosecution
for having entered the narrow seas contrary to the intent
and purport of their commission and for firing on an island
without necessity for their defense or otherwise? Such
firing was not more hostile than the firing of muskets
from Eastport sentries on empty boats and should receive
like indulgence. "Whoever did the first wrong must
satisfy the other party," is his judicial decision.
With these words can well be left the honor of David
Owen, who, in his rough, even-handed manner, did justice
to friend and foe. To-day he would have contended with
the joint commission of Canada and the United States for
the settlement of the fishery questions and for reciprocity
in trade on that basis, which would be best for Campobello
without regard to the larger interests of either country.
KATE GANNETT WELLS.
From the year 1770-71 when Captain William Owen, R. N.,
the principal grantee of the Island of Campobello, and the founder
of its first considerable settlement, resided there, the name of
Owen has been associated with the history of the Island.
More than a century passed away before the Owen family
finally withdrew, leaving a wealth of history and tradition behind
DAVID OWEN 27
The Campobello Owens were of Welsh origin, being descended
from the Owens of Glansevern, with the family seat in Montgom-
eryshire, in Wales.
David Owen, the subject of this sketch, was a son of Owen
Owen, a grandson of David Owen, who died in 1777. He was an
M. A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1780, and for forty years
lived in Campobello, as nearly as he could, the life of an English
Squire. He was a scholarly man, and left many valuable MSS-
and maps, some of which are still in existence.
While in Florida, in 1882, the writer met there a young man
who informed him of having seen a quantity of old papers, be-
longing to the Owen family, in a junk store at Eastport, and
which seems to have included diaries, deeds, leases, agreements of
various descriptions, and even family love letters. Many of the
most important documents were subsequently rescued and care-
Mrs. Wells, the writer of the foregoing sketch, had privately
printed in Boston, in 1893, an historical sketch of Campobello,
comprising 47 pages.
The journal of Captain William Owen, R. N., together with
other notes and documents upon the history of the Island, edited
by Prof. W. F. Ganong, of Smith College, Northampton, Mass.,
was published in the collections of the N. B. Historical Society,
pages 193-220. [ED.
of tbc Wflorlb.
(From the Newfoundland Magazine.)
(To R. K.)
Does he not touch our heart-strings, tho',
Gay and sad at his whim,
Now with the jest of the rifle-pits,
Now with a nation's hymn.
With his deep-sea song, and his banjo-song,
Does he not rouse us, tho',
Telling the world the things we feel
And the little things we know.
We hark to the Wizard, as we would hark
To our comrade mess-room sage :
We do not know we are holding a book
And turning over a page.
Camp fires flicker before our eyes :
The troop-ships come and go :
We smell the salt and the sun again
For he tells us the things we know.
He dips his pen, and clear I see
The track that the steamer sailed ;
I remember the light that leads me sure
And the little lights that failed.
When the revel has died, as revels will,
And the wide dawn shimmers pale
I follow the road to Mandalay
And the white Canadian trail ;
And Passion, and Love, and Mirth go by
'Til the young dawn leaps to day,
For he has written, with blood for ink,
The things I have tried to say.
3acau >e ]fie&mont>.
The name of Louis Thomas Jacau de Fiedmond is
familiar to those who interest themselves in French Cana-
dian and Acadian antiquities. But very few are aware,
however, that the brave artillery captain who immortalized
his name by refusing to sign the decision of the council of
war to surrender Quebec in 1758, was the son of an
Acadian woman, herself a native of Grand Pre.
The line of investigation by which the writer discovered
that Jacau de Fiedmond was Acadian by his mother
whose name was Anne Melanson will be of interest to
the readers of this magazine.
Chevalier Poilvillain de la Houssaye, commandant of
Fort Gaspereau, at Baie Yerte, in Acadia, writing from
that post under date of February 20, 1752, to Chevalier
Michel Le Courtois de Surlaville, major of the marine
detachment at Louisbourg, and speaking of the plundering
of stores and cord wood at Forts Beausejour and Gaspereau
by two Canadian officers, says :
It has been unfortunate for them to have had M. Jacau,
brother of Madame llodrigue, of Louisbourg, officer of artillery, to
direct the works here, his integrity in setting prices and keeping
the time of the workmen, as also in providing for the solidity of
the works ; without which they would have each made thirty
thousand [livres of gain]. I would have too much to tell you were
I to describe the plunderings, the misery of the Acadians, and
the difficulties that are put in the way of our troops at Louis-
bourg. . .
(Although a captain of artillery, Jacau de Fiedmond was act-
ing as military engineer at Fort Beausejour).
It now interests us to know who " Mme. Rodrigue " was.
The parish registers of Louisbourg will give us information
on this point. Under date of May 19, 1750, I find the
marriage of Antoine Rodrjgues, ship owner, native of
Louisbourg, son of Jean Rodrigues, formerly of the same
place, and of Anne LeBorgne, of Belleisle, to Franchise
Jacau, native of Port Dauphin, daughter of Thomas Jacau
and Anne Melanson. The parents of " M. Jacau, brother
of Mme. Rodrigue," were therefore Thomas Jacau and
As to Jean Rodrigue, father of the ship-owner, his full
name was Jean de Fond, called Rodrigue. He married at
Port Royal, March 16, 1707, "Anne LeBorgne, of Belle-
isle, daughter of deceased Sieur Alexander LeBorgne,
Sieur of Belleisle, and of Dame Marie de St. Etienne de
La Tour." The entry of his marriage informs us that he
was "now pilot, maintained by the King in Acadie," and
" son of Jean de Fond and of deceased Anne Mance, his
father and mother, of the town of c Vienne, in Portugal.' "
The following extract from the registers of the parish of
St. John Baptist of Port Royal will enlighten us as to
Thomas Jacau, father of Jacau of Fiedmond :
This loth October of the year one thousand seven hundred and
five, we, the undersigned, chaplain of Fort Royal in Acadia, being
delegated by the Reverend Father Durand, cure in charge of the
parish of Port Royal, after publication of one bann, the two others
having been dispensed, no opposition or impediment being found,
have united by words of the present before our Mother Holy
Church the Sieur Thomas Jacob [sic Jacau], son of Sieur Samuel
Jacob and Judith Fillieu, of the parish of St. Martin d' Harse,
diocese of Sainte, and damoiselle Anne Melanson, daughter of
Sieur Peter Melanson and damoiselle Marguerite Mius,* of Port
Royal. In faith of which I have signed with the married persons
and the witnesses, named below, this same day and year as above.
(Signed] P. MELANSON,
Fr. FELIX PAIN, Recollet,
Chaplain of Fort Royal in Acadia.
* Marie Marguerite Mius was the daugher of Philip Mius, Sieur d' Entre-
niont, baron of Pobomkou, and of Madeleine Elie.
Peter Mellanson, Sieur of la Verdure, her husband, was one of the first
colonists of Mines, where he held the grade of captain of militia. It was
there, and not at Port Royal, he lived. The chaplain of the fort is evidently
in error in assigning Port Royal as his place of residence. Likewise, it wa
at Grand Pre that Anne, wife of Thomas Jacau, was born.
JACAU DE FIEDMOND 31
The first fruit of this union was a daughter, born at
Port Royal, July 25, 1706, and baptized the next day
under the name of Marie Anne. She had for god-father
" the Sieur DeGoutin, Lieut. -General of Acadie," and for
god-mother " Madame de la Boularderie." The register of
baptism says she was " daughter of Sieur Thomas Jacob,
gunner at Port Royal, and Anne Melanson." It is signed
by DeGoutin, Magdelaine Melanson, and Fr. Justinian
Durand, Rec. Miss.
This Marie Anne Jacau married at Louisbourg Pierre
Benoist, lieutenant of infantry ; and on the 22nd of Sep-
tember, 1 758, they had a daughter baptized to them under
the name of Anne, at Port de la Joye, He St. Jean. This
child had for god-mother "Jeanne d'Entremont, wife of
Sieur Dupont du Chambon, chevalier of the military order,
and lieutenant of the King in the Isle St. Jean."
Jeanne d'Entremont, god-mother of Anne Benoist, was
daughter of Jacques d'Entremont," Sieur de Pobomkou,"
and of Anne de St. Etienne de La Tour. Jeanne's father
was a brother to Marie Marguerite Mius d'Entremont, wife
of Pierre Melanson, Sieur de la Verdure. It follows, there-
fore, that Mme. Thomas Jacau and Mme. Dupont du Char-
bon were cousins germain.
Jeanne d'Entremont was married at Port Royal Febru-
ary 11, 1709, to Louis Dupont, Sieur du Chambon, lieut-
enant in a garrison company at Port Royal." Jeanne, his
first child, was born at the capital of Acadie, January 26,
1710, and was baptized the same day.
I find in the registers of Port de la Joie, under date of
December 18, 1737, the baptismal entry of " Louis Maxier,
lawful son of Jean Baptiste Maxier, called la Douceur, a
soldier in Monsieur Laplaigne's company, and of Marie
Poirier ; born this day. God-father : Sieur Louis Dupont,
called Vergor, sub-lieutenant in Laplaigne's company."
The god-mother signed herself " Duchambon de Vergor.' r
Louis Dupont, called Vergor, who signed himself " Du-
chambon de Vergor," is no other than the too famous
Vergor, who delivered Fort Beausejour to Monckton June
16, 1755. He was the eldest son of Louis Dupont
Duchambon and of Jeanne d'Entremont. He must have
been born at Plaisance, Newfoundland, in 1712. Jacau
de Piedmont and he were, therefore, second cousins.
We have already seen that Marie Anne Jacau, born
July 25, 1706, had for god-mother Madame de la Boulard-
erie, who signed the register as " Magdelaine Melanson."
Madame de la Boularderie was a sister to Madame
Thomas Jacau. She married at Port Royal, November
29, 1702, "Sieur Louis Simon de St. Aubin Le Poupet,
Chevalier de la Boularderie, midshipman of the King,
Captain of a Company maintained by His Majesty in
this province, son of Messire Antoine LePoupet, Esq.,
Sieur of St. Aubin, formerly councillor of the King and
advocate before the Council, and of Demoiselle Jaqueline
Arnoulet, of the parish of St. Germain the Elder in Paris."
Of this marriage Antoine de la Boularderie LePoupet
was born at Port Royal August 23, 1705. He was the
Chevalier de la Boularderie after whom an island in Cape
Breton was named, its previous name being Yerderonee.
The register of his mother's baptism reads thus :
Having gone this year of grace, 1684, this 25th day of June,
to Riviere des Mines, I baptized, conditionally, according to the
rite of Holy Church, Magdeleine Melanson, born March 13, of this
same year, 1684, of the lawful marriage of Pierre Melanson, Sieur
de la Verdure, and of Marguerite Mius ; having for god-father
Etienne Hebert, and for god-mother Magdeleine Mius, her
maternal aunt, who called her Magdeleine.
(Signed) BB. CLA.UDB MOIROEAU,
The maiden name of the wife of Chevalier Antoine
LePoupet de la Boularderie was Eleanor Baugny. Cheva-
lier de Drucour, commandant at Louisbourg, writing to M.
JACAU DE FIEDMOND 33
de Surlaville (then in France), under date of October 22,
1754, says :
Madame de la Boularderie has just dined with us ; she in-
formed us that she was fuddled in your company to the point of
seeing eight wax-lights in place of one ; we did not push matters
In an unpublished document, dated at Rochefort in
1763, and entitled, "State of the Families of M.M. the
Officers of lie Royale," I find the following remark regard-
ing Antoine LePoupet de la Boularderie and his family :
His wife and he are known as a shiftless couple. Their child-
ren are good fellows and regular in paying when they can ; and
all of them have nothing in the world but the salaries which the
King has apportioned to them. The father lives, 1 know not how,
in Paris, and can give no help whatever to his family, so that his
wife is in the greatest distress.
At this time the Chevalier de la Boularderie was a
" half-pay captain," and his salary was sixty livres a month.
His debts amounted to 500 livres ; his wife's to 600.
We should have remarked that the mothers of Jacau
Fiedmond and of Antoine LePoupet de la Boularderie
were sisters. Another of their relatives, Frangois Dupont
du Vivier, captain of a company, is the same who, under
orders from Du Quesnel, left Louisbourg in the month of
July, 1744, to take possession of Port Royal. We know
how abortive was the siege of Annapolis in September,
1744, through the fault of the Sieur de Gannes. Frangois
Dupont du Vivier, Jocau de Fiedmend and Antoine
LePoupet de la Boularderie were second cousins. Du
Vivier's father was also named Frangois Dupont du Vivier.
He married at Port Royal, January 12, 1705, "Marie
Mius de Pobomkou, daughter of Jacques Mius, Seigneur de
Pobomkou, and of Anne de St. Etienne de la Tour." At
this date Du Vivier was " midshipman and captain of
infantry in Acadia." Three months later, April 25, 1705,
Mme. Dupont du Vivier was brought to bed of a son who
was baptized the same day under the name of Frangois,
like his father. The child had for god-father his uncle
Charles de St. Etienne de La Tour, and for god-mother
Madame De Goutin, wife of the lieutenant-governor of the
Beamish Murdock says that this child was a girl, but he
is mistaken ; as an examination of the register of Port
Royal, deposited in the provincial archives at Halifax,
will at once show. There can be no doubt that the child
was a boy, the same who, in 1744, conducted, with one
of his brothers, the blockade of Annapolis. His god-
father, Charles Etienne de la Tour, was interred at Louis-
bourg, August 11, 1731, "aged about 72 years." The
entry of his burial says that he was " Chevalier de St.
Louis, captain of a marine detachment in garrison at
Louisbourg." Born in 1664, he was the youngest son of
the celebrated Charles de St. Etie.nne de la Tour and of
Jeanne Motin. In 1704, or 1705, he married in France
Angeleque Lanseau, who survived him. He left several
children. As to Jeanne Thibodeau, wife of Matthieu De
Goutin, and god-mother to the young Fraz^ois Dupont du
Vivier. She was interred at Louisbourg, April 8, 1741.
She was an Acadian, a native of Port Royal, and died at
the age of 72 years. Fra^ois Dupont Du Vivier, sr., and
Louis Dupont du Chambon, Vergor's father, were brothers,
and they each wedded a daughter of Jacques Mius d'Entre-
tnont and of Anne de St. Etienne de la Tour. It follows,
therefore, that Frangois Dupont du Vivier, jr., and Louis
de Vergor du Chambon were double first cousins.
The former was intrepid and brave ; the latter showed
himself pusillanimous not to say more at the siege of
Beausejour. Certain French-Canadian writers charge him
with having betrayed Quebec to the English in 1759 ; but,
in view of the following memorandum, this accusation does
not appear to be well founded :
Captain Vergor, Chevalier of St. Louis, was dangerously
wounded during the English attack of September 13 (capture of
^Quebec), and is to all appearances disabled for service by his
wound. I have the honor to ask for him and for the three pre-
JACAU DE FIEDMOND 35
ceding (Captains DeLesignan, de la Corne and de Repentigny,
Chevaliers of St. Louis) a pension of 400 livres.*
DeVergor remained at Quebec until the month of Octo-
ber, 1761. He then embarked for France on the packet-
boat "Le Molineux," and arrived at Havre January 1, 1762.
He was " mediocre in every respect, and rich," we are told
in another roster of officers prepared in 1762. He had
profited by the counsel which his friend Bigot gave him
when he took the command of Fort Beausejour in 1753.
" Profit," Bigot wrote him, " profit my dear Vergor, by
your place ; clip and cut you have every chance so that
you may be able to join me soon in France and purchase
an estate near me."
The notorious Thomas Pichon, writing from Beausejour
to M. de Surlaville, under date of November 12, 1754,
I have now been living for a year at Fort Beausejour ; M. de
la Martiniere, who commanded here, left me idle, as did also M.
de Vergor, his successor, who was also charged with the functions
of commander. The former, although always bed-ridden, carried
off more than eighty thousand livres ; the latter, without know-
ing even how to read, will bear away still more. M. Bigot gave
him for clerk a former soldier, and had just given him advice on
what he calls his small affairs. Both have made me revise and
correct their letters, those in particular which they considered of
He had several brothers ; and I have the marriage
certificates of some of them. As to his own, I have not
met it, and I know not whether he was married or not.
After this long digression which treats of the relatives
of Jacau de Fiedmont, let us return to his own family.
* Extiact from an unpub ished document entitled : " List of the officers
of the detached naval troops in Canada, which I have the honor to propose
to Mgr, de Berryer, from which to fill by title of grace the vacant places in
the last troops."- " Done at Paris, January 7, 1761. (Signed; Vaudreiul."
t Pichon is here guilty of falsehood ; for, not only did Vergor know how
to read, but he knew how to write also, since he signed his name at different
times on the registers of Port de la Joie and of Louisbourg. At one time he
would sign " Vergor du Chambon," at another " Du Chambon de Vergor.''
We have already seen that his baptismal name was Louis.
The second child, issue of Thomas Jacau and of Anne
Melanson, was a boy, born May 1, 1708, and baptized the
same day. He was named Daniel, and had for god-father
11 M. de Subercase, chevalier of the military order of St.
Louis, and governor of the province ; " and for god-mother
" Madame Jeanne Jamier, lieutenante* du Hoi." The
baptismal ceremony was performed by Br. Patrick Rene,
superior of the mission and vicar-general." He, also, wrote
"Jacob" in place of "Jacau."
The third and last child, born and baptized at Port
Royal, was Joseph. He was born January 30, 1710, and
was baptized the next day by Brother Justinian Durand,
Recollect missionary. His god-father was " Monsieur de
Renon, company-lieutenant of a naval detachment at Fort
Royal ; " and his god-mother, " Madame Elizabeth Melan-
son, f wife of Rene LeBlanc.
Father Justinian Durand also wrote "Jacob" for
"Jacau, just as Fathers Felix Pain and Patrick Rene had
I find on the registers of Port Royal, under date of
April 18, 1730, the burial entry of
'Jean Baptiste Jacob, son of Jacques [sic for Thomas], the
gunner residing at Louisbourg, in the Isle Royal e, and of Anne
Melanson, died the 16th of the same month, in the house of Fran-
gois Boudrot, habitant and saiior of this parish, aged about sixteen
years." (Signed) R. C. DEBRESLAY,
It is under date of June 27, 1705, that I find for the
first time the signature of Thomas Jacau, the gunner of the
register. The occasion was the marriage of Jean Fra^ois
Villate, sergeant in Du Vivier's company, to " Dame
* Wife of Simon de Bonaventure, " captain of a frigate and lieutenant of
the King in the province of Acadie."
tShe was sister to Madame Thomas Jacau. Her first husband was
Sieur Allain Bngeauld, official notary at Mines. July 30, 1707, she took for
second husband Rene LeBlanc, who later was notary at the same place-
He is the Rene LeBlanc of Longfellow's " Evangeline." He took to wife in
second marriage. Noyember 26, 1720, Marguerite Thebeau, who bore him
twenty children. He died at Philadelphia,
J AC ATI DE FIEDMOND 37
Marguerite de St. Etienne de la Tour, widow of deceased
Sieur Mius Pleimarets, partly of this parish."
It is a singular coincidence that four different mission-
aries of Port Royal should spell his name Jacob. The
fact shows us that in the eighteenth century 6, preceded
by a vowel at the end of a word, was mute. The manner
of writing proper names of persons was at that time purely
phonetic ; so that Jacob was pronounced Jaco.
Mathieu DeGourtin, " councillor of the King, lieutenant-
general for civil and criminal affairs in Acadie," the
same who acted as god-father to the daughter of the
master gunner at Fort Royal had also his own way of
spelling Jacau : he wrote it Jacqot. Writing to the
Compte de Pontchartrain, under date of December 23,
1707, of the siege of Fort Royal, which the New England-
ers had attempted in the month of August of that year,
he says :
Sieur Jacqot, master gunner, served the guns very efficiently*
all the shells he fired being well aimed. He received due praise
for his work. His house was set on fire while he was occupied in
this duty, and he viewed its destruction with unimpassioned gaze,
the service of the King being dearer to him at the moment than
his own private interests or those of his family a fact which I
did not fail to note. Moreover, I am a witness of his bravery and
I have already given the names of the brave gunner's
three children who first saw the light at Port Royal. A
fourth must have been born in 1712; and I believe I am not
departing from the truth when I say that this child was
Louis Thomas, better known as Jacau de Fiedmond.
Jean Baptiste, who died at Port Royal April 16, 1730,
a seaman under Francois Boudrot was born in 1714.
We have already seen that Frangoise, born at Port Dau-
phin, Isle Royale, probably between 1726 and 1730,
espoused at Louisbourg, May 19, 1750, Antoine Rodrigue,
ship-owner. These are the only children of Thomas Jacau
to my knowledge ; yet he must have had six or seven
others who were born in Cape Breton.
In all probability, having left Port Royal, after the
surrender of the fort in the autumn of 1710, Thomas
Jacau went with his family to Plaisance, in Newfoundland.
There, in my opinion, Louis Thomas was born in 1712.
In the following year the garrison of Plaisance was trans-
ferred to Louisburg, and Jacau must have returned with
them. If we had in this country a copy of the registers
of Plaisance and Isle Royale, which are in the Ministry of
Marine, at Paris, we should find in them, no doubt, the
baptismal and marriage entries of several of Thomas Jacau
and Anne Melanson's children.
[TO BE CONCLUDED IN NEXT ISSUE.]
Gbirst in Hca&ia.
There were two of us, arid we were at the commencement
of a journey of one hundred and thirty miles or so, from
Grand Falls on the River Saint John to Riviere du Loup
on the Saint Lawrence. All our luggage, except such as
we could carry upon our backs, had been forwarded by
rail, and we proposed to walk the distance indicated. It
was thfe last of May, but the heat was intense for the
season, and we did not make more than sixteen or seven-
teen miles on the first day of our tramp. Yet, after all, it
was a nice way of preparing for the heavier work before
us : to lie, as we did, during the hottest hours, under the
shade of trees, stretched on the soft moss, with bared feet
occasionally plunged into a running brook, out of reach of
duns and book agents, newspapers, politics, and the count
less bothers of city life. But this state of sylvan beatitude
could not last forever, and at last we were on the road
again and, seeing a dwelling before us, it occurred to us to
stop there for a drink of milk, as we knew of no accessible
inn and both hunger arid thirst began to assert themselves.
THIRST IN ACADIA. 39
It was a low-built cottage, nicely painted, with the
neatest of surroundings. It stood on the side of a hill,
facing the river, which ran parallel with the road. On the
riverside some women were washing clothes or linen, and
two youg fellows were plowing in the adjacent field. A
barking cur seemed to resent our visit, but was not over-
confident that he would escape a kick if he came too close
to our heels. The open door exposed to view a large room j
about half the width of the building and extending its full
length, sheathed with wood painted of an orange red, which
gleamed brightly in the glow of the afternoon. Light was
admitted, through casement windows with diamond- shaped
panes. The apartment was scrupulously clean, and com-
fortably and neatly furnished. There was but one occupant
of the room, a white-headed man of about seventy years of
age, dressed with neatness and as much taste as a man can
display in the selection of trousers, waistcoat and necker.
chief. He sat in the sunniest corner in a rocking chair, a
favorite piece of furniture with the Acadians, and had the
air of one appreciative of his possessions and surroundings.
It was a foreign picture but a pleasant one to look upon,
and worth a journey of moderate length. " A contented
mind is a continual feast " and, amid the complaining of
hard times and of lots cast in melancholy places, it does
one good to discover a fellow-mortal who finds no occasion
for grumbling. At least a good example is set before us
and, even though we cannot fully share the feast, we can
imitate the city arabs who flatten their noses against the
windows, watch the servants carrying the dishes, and per-
haps sniff occasionally appetizing odors borne by the
We hesitated to break the spell, partly because we felt
its influence, but chiefly because we doubted our capability
to make our request known in a foreign language. But
when we made the attempt, the old gentleman helped us
corrected our feeble imitation of Parisian into admirable
Madawaskan, and then translated this into a kind of
Volapuk English, and got his wife, who was in the kitchen,
to bring the milk. There was an attractive feature about
this as well as most of the other milk supplied to us upon
the route, namely that it never appeared divested of its
cream. As we had no reason to suppose that the unskim-
med pan was produced in every instance as a compliment
to ourselves, and as the separation of cream from milk does
not call for any great expenditure of mental or physical
energy, it was not easy to account for this. To the city
man, however, used to that kind of milk which is rather
limpid in quality and cerulean in color, the usual custom
of skimming is more honored in the breach than the
observance, and so we made no protest.
Having satisfied our thirst, we attempted in French to
negotiate with our Acadian for the payment of our draught,
but absolutely without success. Then one of us, after the
manner of English-speaking people trying to converse with
a foreigner who fails to recognize what they suppose to be
his language, asked very slowly and very emphatically,
" Will you take anything 1 " " Oui ! " he replied with the
utmost promptness, " a leetle sometime." There was no
misunderstanding this. But was it not surprising, if not
sad, that the Arcadian Acadian living in Maine, not in
New Brunswick, subject to a prohibitory law, generally
ignorant of English idioms, should understand the question
just as if it was propounded in an English bar-room ?
Under the circumstance there was no alternative but to
produce' our small flask, as yet untouched, intended to be
used only in case of emergency in a district where spirits,
although generally to be procured, are not of a quality to
be desired or approved. We restrained our feelings, as
our ideal peasant swallowed neat one-half our little stock-
But it was almost unendurable when he called our precious
brandy " bon whiskey," and then insisted that Marie, his
wife, should also have some because she was not well.
I. ALLEN JACK.
THE LAST MOOSE IN VERMONT.
AN OBJECT LESSON TO ACADIANS.
last flDoose of \Dermont.
The illustration upon the opposite page, tells a sad story,
and needs but little comment, in order to point a moral.
We are indebted to Mr. John W.Titcomb, Commissioner,
of St. Johnsbury, Vermont, for a copy of the Fifteenth
Biennial Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries and
Game for the State of Vermont, and from which, with the
permission of Mr. Titcomb, the illustration which we give,
The story, as therein related, is, in brief, as follows :
In March, 1899, a full-grown bull moose was killed at
Wenlock, in the town of Island Pond, by Jake Barnes,
assisted by one Boville. An abstract of the evidence
" A man came to camp, saying he had seen a strange animal.
Barnes and Boville started in pursuit. Barnes fired the first shot,
and the moose only shook its head. The second shot hit the moose
behind the ear and brought it down. Several persons saw the
dead animal, and Eugene Hobson helped to skin it, and took its
feet home. A search warrant was issued, and the head of the
moose was found hanging at the camp in Wenlock, where Jake
Barnes worked. It was seized, and after being photograped by
Taxidermist Balch, was placed in pickle. It has since been
mounted for the University at Burlington. The case was brought
before a grand jury at Guildhall, in September, 1899, and although
the evidence was very clear, <*nd Barnes admitted that he shot it,
no bill was found against the poachers or their accomplices."
Like the buffalo, which but a quarter of a century ago,
were, as the sands of the sea, in number, upon the western
prairies, but have now entirely disappeared, the moose is
no longer to be found in such numbers, or over such a wide
territory, as formerly, among our Acadian wild woods.
We are much indebted to our present Game Commis-
sioners for the more rigid enforcement during recent years,
of the laws relating to the preservation of wild animals.
Nevertheless we cannot be too careful in a matter of this
sort, and it is to be hoped that all poachers, or others,
found guilty of any misdemeanor under the game laws,
may be severely dealt with.
Prof. Ganong's scheme of a reservation of wild land, for
the establishment of a National Game Preserve and Park,
in the Acadian Provinces, is well worthy of every encour-
agement, and is one which we sincerely trust may be
A New Brunswick guide recently had his license can-
celled by the Government, for breach of the laws, and,
doubtless, all future trespassers will be dealt with in an
-equally stern manner.
motes ant> Slueries.
'Can any of our readers inform us where we may obtain
a copy of the work, published anonymously, at the St.
John, N. B., Courier office in 1818, entitled:
*' A Circumstantial, True and Impartial History of the Rise and
Progress of the Interesting Town of St. Andrews, in New Bruns-
wick, from its original settlement to the present era, containing
a biographical sketch of the most eminent characters, whether
legislative, judicial, magisterial, commercial, legal or medical,
interpersed with hints for the improvement and other regulations
of the timber trade. "
Mrs. Jane Adeline Mulloch, of Campobello, asks for
information concerning Thomas Kendrick and Mary
Oraham, her grandparents, both U. E. Loyalists, who
were married at St. Andrews. The date of their marriage,
as well as the name of the ship in which Mr. Colin Camp-
bell, father of the late postmaster at that town, came to
St. Andrews, are also asked for.
3o0cpb Wilson Xawrence.
On the 9th of September, 1874, Joseph W. Lawrence,
Gilbert Murdoch, William R. M. Burtis, Robert W.
Crookshank (3rd), Thomas W. Lee, William P. Dole,
Alfred A. Stockton, George U. Hay, W. H. Dimock, ami
James Hannay, met in the director's room of the Mechanics
Institute, for the purpose of considering the advisableness
of forming an Historical Society.
Mr. Lawrence had for many years been an assiduous
collector of pamphlets, documents and other data relating
to the history of the Province of New Brunswick, and it
was largely at his instigation that the meeting just alluded
to was convened.
The result of the meeting was the organization of the
New Brunswick Historical Society, at a meeting held ab
the same place, on the 25th of November, 1874. At this
meeting, Mr. Lawrence was elected President, which posi-
tion he continued to hold until the time of his death,
which occurred on the 6th of November, 1892, at the age
of seventy-five years. His widow, Anna C. Bloomfield
Lawrence, survived him by only six months, passing away
on the 21st May, 1893.
At the organization meeting, Mr. Lawrence read a paper
entitled " The First Courts, and early Judges of New
Brunswick." From the first number of Volume V. of the
Maritime Monthly, published January 1875, which con-
tains a copy of Mr. Lawrence's contribution, the following
lines, which formed the prelude to the sketch, are taken :
" In organizing the Historical Society to-night, our object is to
supply one of New Brunswick's wants. At the preliminary
meeting held a few weeks ago, you delegated to ire authority ta
fix the time for organization. I should have called you together
before, but my desire was to have an historic day for that event.
The 22nd of this month the anniversary of the formation of tbe
Government of this Province is the one I should have preferred.
Its fallling on a Sunday, necessitated the adoption of another day.
I have, therefore, chosen this, the 25th of November, one of the
Red Letter days in the New Brunswick Calendar, for on it, ninety
years ago, our Supreme Court of Judicature was established.
The paper before me, I offer as the first contribution to our His-
torical Literature. To ourselves, it may possess little that is new;
but to those of a generation hence it may be otherwise, for his-
toric papers, often like the works of old masters or ancient coins,
grow in value with age."
This paper, together with others, which Mr. Lawrence
from time to time prepared and read before the Society^
and including his volume of over 120 pages, entitled
Footprints, published in 1883, does indeed form a valua-
ble foundation stone for the superstructure of New Bruns-
wick Historical Literature.
Mr. Lawrence was a corresponding member of the New
England Historical and Genealogical Society, an Honorary
Member of the Quebec Literary and Historical Society,
and an Honorary Member of the Worcester Society cf
Though not himself of Loyalist descent, he always ex-
hibited a keen interest in preserving the memory of those
brave and resolute men, the founders of the City of St.
John, who faithful to the principles they had maintained,
and the Empire to which they belonged, came to what
was then the wilderness of Nova Scotia.
To the energy of Mr. Lawrence, St. John was largely
indebted for the able manner in which was carried out
the Celebration, in 1883, of the Centennial of the Landing
of the Loyalists at the city.
The Souvenir Volume, published in this year, contained
a record of all the inscriptions upon the gravestones in the
" Old Burying Ground," between Sydney and Went worth
streets, St. John. The compilation and publication of
this record was carried out under the personal supervision
of Mr. Lawrence, and much valuable data, which might
otherwise have been lost to posterity, was permanently
JOSEPH WILSON LAWRENCE 45
recorded. Of a sense of the value of this record, we
become year by year, more deeply impressed.
And now, as we stand upon the threshold of a new
century, does it not seem a propitious time, that we, who
knew him personally, who shared in his labors, and are, we
might say, almost daily reaping the fruit thereof, should
erect to his memory, some tribute of our affection and
The matter has already been laid before the Historical
Society and the Loyalist Society, of New Brunswick ; a
joint committee from both societies has interviewed the
relatives of Mr. Lawrence, in order to ascertain their ideas
as to the most suitable place in which to erect a memorial ;
it now remains for the citizens of St. John to provide the
necessary funds, in order that the work should be properly
At a formal interview between the wardens and the
vestry of Trinity Church and the joint committee, the
necessary consent for the erection of a memorial in that
Church was obtained.
A brass tablet, mounted upon a slab of polished marble,
bearing a suitable inscription, was decided upon at the
conference, as the most appropriate form which the me-
morial might take.
It is felt by the members of the committee, that con-
tributions of small amounts not exceeding five dollars'
would be desirable, in order that as many persons as pos-
sible, might unite in the undertaking.
The total estimated cost of the tablet is the sum of one
The joint committee appointed were Messrs. Alfred A.
Stockton, from the Loyalist Society, and Clarence Ward,
from the New Brunswick Historical Society, with the
writer, who is a member of both Societies.
Subscriptions received by any member of the committee,
will be acknowledged through the columns of this Magazine.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
From Monthly Art Notes we learn, that at a private art
display, at the Morann rooms, in Washington, D. C., which
was largely attended, an Acadian lady artist was con-
sidered worthy of first mention. To Mrs. George Daniel,
of Moncton, N. B., the McKinley prize for pen and ink
sketches, awarded in the class of reproductions from the
works of great masters, was awarded. As a musician, an
artist, a writer of children's stories, and in other branches
of art and literature, Mrs. Daniel is well and favorably
known. Some of her writings have been published by
one of the largest houses in Boston, and have met with
The designs for the frontispiece and cover of this maga-
zine are by Miss Emma Carleton Kenah Jack, of St. John,
a graduate of the Church School of Design, New York.
Miss Jack has proved a most successful worker in this
department of art, and has contributed, in whole or part,
to the embellishment of numerous recent publications of
more than ordinary merit. The " motif " of our design, in
the first instance, consists of a Mayflower, with bud and
leaf ; the flower which is, par excellence, the one dear to
the hearts of all Acadians.
Prof. A. B. de Mille, of Kings College, Windsor, N. S.,
writes, that he is at present enjoying a brief holiday, at
Halifax, and, while regretting his inability to contribute
to our initial number, gives us reason to hope that our
second issue may not be devoid of something of interest
from his graceful pen.
From Sir John Bourinot, we learn that he has about
completed a new book for the University Press, of Camb-
ridge, on " Canada under British Rule," and is about
leaving for New York, to enjoy a brief holiday, after
twelve months' hard work.
OUR CONTRIBUTORS 47
Hon. J. W. Longley, of Halifax, writes a cheery word
of encouragement, stating that he is prepared to give his
hearty endorsation to our undertaking, and expresses his
willingness to be an occasional contributor to our pages.
The active part taken by him in the recent election cam-
paign, and the consequent accumulation of other work,
prevent his giving much time to outside issues, at present.
" The Art of writing English, a Manual for Students,
with chapters on Paraphrasing, Essay Writing, Punctu-
ation, and other matters, by J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Professor
of the Theory, History and Practice of Education, in the
University of Saint Andrews," is the title of a work which
has been written for the purpose of guiding the young
student into the right path. In it the writer has not
worried his pupils with a large number of rules, but has
tried to set their feet in a plain path, and to show them
the road to freedom and power. Published by D. Appleton
<fc Co., New York. 334 pages. Cloth, boards. Price fl. 50.
Mr. George U. Hay has completed his first series of
twelve readings from Canadian History, and has just issued,
in one volume, the entire group, which form a most valu-
able addition to Canadian historical literature. Their
publication has been extended over a period of about two
years, and many of the ablest writers in Canada have con
tributed to the success of Mr. Hay's undertaking. Barnes
& Co. printers, St. John, N. B. 350 pages. Cloth,
boards. Price $1.15.
Among the various writers who have contributed to this
publication, or have promised to do so, few, if any, will be
found to be strangers to the reading public of the Maritime
Provinces of Canada.
Mrs. Kate Gannet Wells, whose interesting sketch of
David Owen we publish in this issue, is a resident of
Boston, Mass., but has a charming summer home in the
beautiful Island of Campobello. She has identified herself
in many ways with matters which concern the welfare of
that Island, and to her efforts we Acadians are much
indebted for the preservation and publication of valuable
material which might otherwise have been entirely lost.
The work entitled, " Two Modern Women : A Story of
Labor and Capital, as well as Love and Matrimony," in
which the principal scene is laid at Campobello, is from
her pen, as is also an " Historical Sketch of the Island of
Campobello," published in Boston in 1893.
From "Who's who in America?" we learn that Mrs.
Wells was born in England, and is the daughter of Rev.
Ezra Stiles Gannett, a noted Unitarian clergyman of
Boston. She is an authoress, essayist, and novelist, and
has written, in addition to the works to which we have
before alluded, " About People," and many articles in
magazines, including essays on Normal Methods, and
Sunday School Ethics. She is a member of the Massachu-
setts State Board of Education, and has devoted much time
and labor to the furtherance of education in that State.
We feel that we are much indebted to Rev. W. C.
Gaynor, of this city, who has favored us with the transla-
tion which we publish to-day (the original having been
written in French) of the article by Mr. Placide P. Gaudet.
Mr. James Vroom, whose series of over one hundred
articles upon the history of Charlotte County, N. B., pub-
lished in the St. Croix Courier, formed a valuable contri-
bution to the fund of local history, has in press a volume
which will contain all the historical material, with addi-
tional notes, published in that series.
- ./if. / ''. /ff /y/V ', t *///// / '/. SJf/ /',
NO. 1.-BOOK-PLATE OF SIR JAMES STUART, BART.
NO. 10. -BOOK-PLATE OF ALDERMAN GEORGE BOND.
(See Article on Book- Plates, by David Russell Jack.)
Queen Victoria A Contrast, . .
Jacau de Fiedmond, . . k
A Monument and its Story,
An Acadian Artist,
Hon* Judge Robie,
-Incidents in the Early History )
of St. John, j
A Marshland River
Origin of the Place-name Pabineau, 88
Book-Plates, . . . '..., * 90
Kind Words, J04
Exchanges and other Publications, \ JO
When we were young and skies were blue
With cobalt lost to art.
And little busy thoughts of you
Hummed sweetly round my heart;
In bee-time or by fireside,
O'er roses or o'er snow,
The sunbeams came and went, my love,
As sunbeams come and go.
We sang a song a simple song
What more could children sing
But happy as the hours were long
And sweet as birds in spring ;
And through the year, unceasing,
On roses or on snow,
The sunbeams came and went, my love,
As sunbeams come and go.
Through glowing day and afternoon,
Through shade 'neath dancing leaf,
We sought all brightness as a boon
And turned our backs on grief ;
For well we knew, unending,
On roses as on snow,
Sunbeams would come and go, my love,
Sunbeams would come and go.
When Fate commands our songs to cease,
Together or apart,
Unbroken rest in perfect peace
Will suit us well, my heart!
And o'er our unknown graves for aye,
Rose-decked or wreathed in snow,
Sunbeams will come and go, my love,
Sunbeams will come and go !
Designed by Miss Emma 0. K. Jack.
VOL. I. APRIL, 1901. No. 2.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK, EDITOR.
ueen IDictoria H Contrast
|T SEEMS strange that among the many historical
parallels suggest by the ending of the last reign,
there has been but scanty reference to the death
of Queen Victoria's grandfather, and the instruc-
tive contrasts therein presented. In all the his-
tory of royal tragedy there is no page more touching than
that which describes the aged king in the last years of
solitude, deprived of sight and reason.
One of my earliest recollections in childhood is of my
father telling us how once he had seen King George III in
the private apartments at Windsor, in those sad days
He often, while at Charterhouse school, spent holidays at
Windsor Castle, where his aunt, Mile, de Montmollin, was
the reader to Queen Charlotte. On one occasion he was
taken to an inner portion of the private apartments, with
earnest injunctions to silence, and there, through a half-
raised curtain, he saw the venerable king, seated before
a little organ, the long white beard completely changing
his appearance from that familiar from the portraits.
At last, in the year 1820, the long awaited releaRe
came. In death all the royal honors were conferred, which
so long had been of necessity withheld. The remains lay
in state in the presence chamber, and were viewed by an
immense multitude. Upon the coffin, the royal arms of
England, and the electoral diadem of Hanover reposed.
The funeral service in St. George's chapel took place on
the following day. The Eton boys, with their masters,
-were allotted places, and the procession outstripped all that
had ever been seen of mournful magnificence.
But the sadness of the scene was deepened by surround-
ing circumstances and reflections not to be avoided. The
new king was absent from alleged indisposition, and his
unpopularity as regent was now increased tenfold by the
incident of the judicial proceedings against the Queen.
In his place the Duke of York acted as chief mourner,
followed by his royal brothers, the Dukes of Clarence,
Sussex and Gloucester. At the close of the service Handel's
funeral anthem, composed for the obsequies of Queen
Caroline, was sung by the choir. The semi-chorus for
boys' voices, unaccompanied, had a moving effect upon
those present. Then the titles of the late monarch were
read by the chamberlain, and the procession retired. That
year of sadness for England, with sedition at home and
perplexity abroad, found no consolation for the death of
George III in any surrounding circumstances. His suc-
cessor had lost reputation and popularity; the ministry
had no hold upon national confidence, led by the blind
Toryism of Lord Eldon ; the splendid national triumphs of
the Peninsula and Waterloo, so recent in point of time,
How different the scene of Queen Victoria's ending, the
sunset of a glorious day, with one cloud upon the horizon,
indeed, with so much of the heavens serene and beautiful.
To pessimists, at the present day, we can surely appeal in
the well known words :
" passi graviora . . . ."
And to those seeking grounds for confident hope we can
urge the stability of a royal dynasty which has endured
such sorrow and such stress, and yet still can establish a
firm hold on a nation's allegiance and affection.
J. DE SOYRES.
3acau t>e ]fiebmcmt>.
N the spring of 1898, M. Edouard Richard,
the learned author of the magisterial
work, " Acadia," examined the registers
of Louis bourg and made several ex-
tracts from them. With the courtesy
that distinguishes him, he at once sent
me his notes, which are of great histori-
- Designed by MisaE.C.K. Jack cft j yalue From them j haye taken
my information regarding the marriage
of Antoine Rodrigue with Fran9oise Jacau, as also several
other historical facts to be found in the present work.
If I am correct in stating that Louis Thomas Jacau
de Fiedmont was born at Plaisance in 1712, he was, there-
fore, forty-three years old at the taking of Beausejour in
June 1755. Transported to Louisbourg with the garrison,
he again turns up at Quebec in the month of August
following. From that city he wrote the following letter,
August 20, 1755, to M. de Surlaville :
" I do not doubt that you are little interested in the misfortune
of Beausejour, of which the English rendered themselves masters
four days after the opening of the trenches. The garrison left
the place the next day after the surrender, in order to embark on
the ships which carried us to Louisbourg, where the governor
furnished us with other conveyances to carry us to Quebec,
whither we arrived the 18th of August.
" I enclose herewith a journal of the attack and defence of that
post, which gives the essential details of all that happened, with
a relation of a fight which took place on the 9th of July last at a
distance of three leagues from fort Duquesne on the Beautiful
River,* in which action we met with most happy success.
"I presume to assure you, Monsieur, that during the time 1
was engaged at Beausejour I neglected nothing to make known
how bad our position was ; and it is easily seen from all my
*The Ohio. (Translator.)
reports on the condition of the place that I foresaw the misfortune
which came to us. My conduct always proved that the only
thing I had at heart was to endeavor to contribute to the safety
of that post against jealous and ambitious neighbours, and to fulfill
to the utmost my duty in the different functions in which I was
employed. If the works on the fortifications which I was charged
to carry out (and which I would never of my own option have
desired through fear of not acquitting myself well enough), were
not executed with the solidity and diligence necessary, that was
not due to my lack of pains, care, and remonstrances ; I was not
supplied with the means to execute them as I should have wished
to have them. It was a misfortune for me that their success did
not respond to my zeal a subject all the more annoying because
in losing the fruits of my labors in that country, I lost the oppor-
tunity to serve at the Beautiful River, where we have had all sorts
of advantages, and the officers who served there should flatter
themselves in securing, earlier than others, the thanks of the
" If I have forgotten some circumstances in this Journal, they
can be of little importance ; I answer for the fidelity of all that I
have written ; and none of the defenders of Beausejour can say to
the contrary, unless they consent to misrepresentation, as I am
told has been already done in the grossest manner."
A few extracts from Jacau de Fiedmond's Journal of
Beausejour, which he addressed to M. de Surlaville, should
beyond doubt, be of deep interest to the reader. The
following will serve.
"Fora long time our neighbors meditated taking Beausejour
and the other posts dependent on it, pretending that we were
established in the center of their province of Nova Scotia.
*' When their necessary preparations for the execution of their
enterprise were made, they caused a warning to be published to
the Acadians of Mines, of Port Royal, and the surrounding dis-
tricts, forbidding them to leave their canton, and cutting them
off from all communication with Fort Beausejour ; they also
warned those who had taken refuge within our boundaries, that
when they would come to chase us from the territory which, they
pretended, belonged to them, if they found them joined with us
in arms to oppose their design, they would treat them as trait-
orous subjects of England.
" Notwithstanding all the announcements and other warnings
which we received, we were not troubled, knowing that an under-
JACAU DE FIEDMOND 55
standing and union appeared to reign between the two Crowns,
And having received an order in preceding years to hold ourselves
-quiet OB both sides until it should be determined by way of
negotiation what were the boundaries acceptable to the court, we
dwelt in a security as perfect as if we were in the middle of Paris.
" At five o'clock on the morning of the second of June, 1755,
we were disabused of our error. A habitant from Mosquito Cape,
on French Bay, distant about two hours from Point Beausejour,
came and notified M. Vergor da Chambon, commandant, that an
English fleet of about forty vessels loaded with people had entered
the cove which the cape there forms, to await the return of the
tide, and enter the basin of Beausejour.
" M. the commandant doubting no longer the design of the
English, despatched couriers to Quebec, the St. John Hirer,
Louisbourg, and Isle St. Jean, to solicit help ; and to the rivers
dependent on that post and the surrounding country, to hare the
inhabitants come to the fort ; with orders to take up arms and fir
on the English the moment they should attempt to invade the
king's territories or to attack the fort.
" At five in the afternoon the enemy's fleet appeared and their
troops debarked at six o'clock."
After describing the preparations that were made for
defense, and describing several skirmishes, M. de Fiedmond
" A census of the inhabitants, being taken who did aot
amount to 220 men in place of the 600 on whom we counted
they were distributed over the different works with officers to
keep them in check.
"M. de Boucherville,* with eight inhabitants, was sent to
bring in those who were in their houses. He returned to the fort
with only two men and reported to the commandant that the
inhabitants whom he had sought were not willing to come ; that
they had hidden their arms and thrown away their ammunition,
saying that they would not run the risk of being hanged as the
English had threatened if they took up arms against them ; and,
with the exception of some good fellows who remained on the
works, all the rest disappeared like smoke. That evening a
detachment of 16 inhabitants, without arms, arrived from Isle
Saint Jean, led by M. Pomeroy,1 whom M. de Villejoint, who
-commanded there, had sent.
*Boucher de Boucherville, cadet, acting as officer.
tRene de Gedeon Potier, sieur de Pommeroy, sub-lieutenant of Marine tn
.actual service at Port de la Joie.
" M. the abbe LeLoutre, missionary among the Acadians and'
Indians, encouraged them the best he could. He urged the-
inhabitants to work, and the Indians to annoy the enemy arid to
try to take prisoners.
"A habitant named Beausoleil*, who passed for the most
intrepid and energetic of the Acadians, promised the missionary
that he would do his utmost to take some prisoners.
" Early in the morning of the 8th, Beausoleil returned to the
fort to notify us that he had taken an English officer who wa
then being brought in, Beausoleil's men having had to make a
long detour through the woods in order to avoid the enemy. A
short while after, a small body of our men could be seen approach-
ing with the prisoner by way of the marsh. He was received
with much respect and politeness, and on giving his parole wa
left free.f He even received permission from our commandant to-
write to his own commander; M. Vergor also wrote the latter
assuring him that he would provide every comfort for this officer.
" At daybreak of the 13th the English were seen at work on
their first parallel at a distance of 450 toises from our palisades.
They began to throw seven and eight inch shell from six to seven
o'clock in the morning. At ten o'clock twenty Abenaqui Indians-
arrived ; they sang their war songs and promised to make
" On the 14th I made representations to the commandant that
the new shells which the enemy were throwing in on us were
likely to pierce the bomb-proof, in which the English officer and
some other persons whom we did not wish to expose, were put ;
that it was necessary to remove this officer from the place lest
any accident should happen to him. This the commandant was
willing to do ; but the officer himself asked as a favor to remain
in the place, saying that he would be less exposed there than in
the trench. He was left there ; moreover, everybody considered:,
the bomb-proof capable of resisting the full shock of the shells.
" At ten in the evening the commandant received a letter from
the governor at Louisbourg, in answer to the one which he had
sent soliciting help. The governor informed him that he could
not send him help. The habitants had been flattered with the
promise of this succor, and believed we could not do without it.
To increase our misfortune, these evil tidings leaked out almost
*Beausoleil lived on the west bank of the Petitcodiac River a short dis-
tance from Moncton. It would take a volume of several hundred pages tO'
relate his exploits. His real name was Brossard, surnamed Beausoleil..
JACAU DE FIEDMOND 57
immediately among them ; the larger part of them then decided
to abandon us, and eighty were seen to disappear.
" On the 15th a soldier deserted, at which we should not fee
surprised as he had just been let out of prison, where he had been
a long time confined for rape and other evil deeds. The Acadians
no longer occupied themselves except to seek shelter from the
shells by creeping into the casemates ; although only one of their
number was killed this day. That caused a tumult among them.
The principal and most respected among them came and spoke
for all and represented that, since there was no longer hope of
help, it was impossible to resist such forces, and that they were
unwilling to sacrifice themselves uselessly. They went further,
too, it is claimed, and said something which gave reason to call a
council of war. At this council it was decided to publish an
ordinance forbidding them to make the like proposals again, or
to leave the fort, under penalty of being shot, and of having,
besides, their property confiscated.
"During the night of the 15-16 several volleys of musketry
were heard. We did not doubt that it was the Abenaqui Indians
and Acadians who were attacking an advanced post of the enemy.
" The shelling continued on the part of the enemy on the 16th ;
and some of their shells pierced exactly the subterranean refuge
of the English officer. He was killed, together with an officer of
the garrison and two other persons.* This stroke increased the
disorder of the place. The inhabitants came in a crowd to the
commandant and demanded that he should capitulate, saying that
if we were of a contrary resolution to that which they had taken
they would no longer respect the garrison, whose threats they did
noc fear ; that they would turn their arms against the troops, and
deliver the fort to the English. I was on the battery and was not
a witness of this riot.
"The commandant called a meeting of the officers, in order
that they might take their proper share in the deliberations as to
the state in which he found himself. He then asked me if the
powder magazine was secure against the heavy shells. I answered
yes ; that the heaviest shell the enemy could send could not
pierce it, if by chance it fell on it, but, that, if the damages it
might do were not repaired, I would not be responsible should
another fall on the same spot.
"There is reason to believe that the whole assembly having
seen that the bomb-proof which it was claimed was strong
*The 8ieur Rambault, cadet acting as officer ; Fernauld, interpreter,
and the Chevalier de Billy.
enough to withstand the shells, had been pierced, thought thab
the powder-magazine was still weaker, and that, if I was opposed
in opinion to themselves, it was through obstinacy, and that I
really was of their opinion."
Then follows the deliberations of the council of war
which decided to send an officer to the English camp with
an offer to capitulate which was accepted on the follow-
ing conditions :
" 1. The commandant, staff-officers, and others employed by
the King, and the garrison of Beausejour, will march out with
their arms and baggage, and with drums beating.
"2. The garrison will be sent directly to Louisbourg at the
expense of the King of Great Britain.
"3. The garrison shall be supplied with provisions sufficient
to reach Louisbourg.
" 4. As to the Acadians, as they have been forced to take up
arms under penalty of death, they will be pardoned for the part
which they have just taken.*
"5. Lastly, the garrison will not bear arms in America for
the term of six months. "
The commandant, officers, and garrison signed the
capitulation, June 16, 1755.
" The English took possession of the fort at half-past seven in
the evening. Their men passed the night under arms and did
not touch the merchandize and effects of the King, which were
scattered everywhere, all the buildings being destroyed. But
when they saw our own people pillaging, the English officers
could no longer restrain their men. They placed, nevertheless, a
portion of the goods in safety. Our men embarked next day on
the transports for Louisbourg.
"The English commander wrote to the commandant of Gae-
pareauf, at Bay Verte, to offer him and his garrison of twenty
men the conditions granted to the commandant of Beausejour,
which, by lack of reflection, were accepted.
" We had two of our best cannon burst, one of which was burst
from the muzzle to within about six inches of the trunnions, and
the other, from the muzzle about half-way to the touch-hole.
These pieces were very often discharged uselessly, although I was
*Lawrence and his council completely ignored this article of the capitu-
tRouer de Villeray, captain of the troops in Isle Royale.
JACAU DE FIEDMOND 5*'
careful to economize ammunition ; but the soldiers received orders
to fire. Moreover, the cannons were badly eaten with rust,
which corrodes the chamber and makes it scale and thus diminishes
the strength of the metal. We have not been able to find out
the English losses. We know only that one of their engineers
had a leg cut off by a cannon ball while laying out their lines, and
that two of their mortars were disabled by our cannon.
" Here then, is about all that happened in the attack on that
unfortunate post. Courage alone does not suffice in defensive
actions ; they demand intelligence, toils, solicitude, and fatigues
incessant, arid greater address and intrepidity than does offensive
war ; and it is always an extreme misfortune to be obliged to give
in to the enemy after one has done all that he can to defeat him.
All that can console the man who loves his profession, is that he
gains experience thereby, which will enable him to do better on
another occasion. This is my present hope."
Now let us hear what another officer, M. Joubert, a
captain in Isle Royale, has to say. In an undated letter
to M. de Surlaville he relates the capture of Beausejour :
"The event justified our observations. They fore-stalled us
and in consequence drove us out of Acadie. The seven shells
which fell into Fort Beausejour obliged Sieur Vergor to capitulate.
He marched out with the honors of war, and on condition not to
serve for six months. Sieur Villeray followed the example of his
superior officer, he gave up Fort Gaspareau on the same terms,
without even waiting to have the honor done him of being
attacked. If, as a military man should have done, the Sieur
Vergor had reasoned that his fort was unable to hold out until
succor should come, he would have burned it and retreated a
course which was easy for him to pursue as the enemy had not
blockaded him. He merely held out for three days, during which
time he lost two officers and four men. Will eyes never be opened
to such officers ? Shall private interests always prevail over public
interests ? That fort, bad as it was, should have held out some
time. The attacking troops were in part regulars from their fort
of Beausejour [sic for Beaubassin], the remainder being militia J
the entire force amounting to two thousand men. They crossed
the Messagoueche near Pont-a-But ; they did not fire a single
cannon or gun-shot against the fort ; the King's goods were not
put to pillage ; in surrendering the fort no inventory was taken.
Pichon, they say, remained in Acadie to make one for the English.
I salute him, if that can bring him anything. There is no word
of him, Our troops of Acadia were brought by French Bay to
" Last winter one hundred and thirty thousand livres' worth of
wood was burned. Is there not in this sufficient provocation to
make the blood of every honest citizen boil, who hears tell of such
destruction not to call it knavery?"
Among the many manuscripts which Mr. E. Richard
had the kindness to hand to me before his return to Paris
in the latter part of April, 1899, is a document, entitled
f *' List of the officers of different Corps, serving in Canada,
] taken prisoners and sent to France after the capture of
I Quebec in 1759." The first name at the head of this list
I is that of Jacau de Fiedmond, captain of artillery, with
the following memorandum : " He is the only one who
refused to sign the decision of the Council of War to sur-
render Quebec." This list, Mr. Richard says, accompanied
the letter of M. de Vaudreuil of July 1, 1760.
Pierre Melanson, Sieur de Verdure, maternal grand-
father of Jacau de Fiedmond, was born in 1633 of Scotch
parents, His Hon. Judge A. W. Savary to the contrary,
notwithstanding. It was not he who was guardian to the
infant children of D'Aulnay de Charnisay, as the historian
Hannay affirms. The guardian in question was Germain
Doucet, Sieur de la Verdure, lieutenant under D'Aulnay.
Where was Pierre Melanson born? According to the
registers of Bell-isle-en-Mer, parish of Sauzon, 18th
Declaration, it was in Scotland. I am of this opinion ;
and I believe that Pierre Melanson and his brother
Charles, who was ten years younger than he, came to
Acadie with Thomas Temple in 1757. The census of 1671
informs us that he was a tailor. It certainly was not at
Port Royal that he learned this trade, but in his natal
country, Scotland. Both the Melansons were Protestants.
They abjured their religious belief, became Catholics, and
married Acadian wives. The same must be said of "Laur-
ent Granger, a native of Plymouth in England, who,
JACAU DE FIEDMOND 61
having made his abjuration, married Marie Landry."
This Granger must have arrived at the same time as the
Melanson brothers. He was born in 1637.
Pierre Melanson (or Mellanson as he signed) espoused
Marie Marguerite Mius-d' Entrement ; and Charles took to
wife Marie Dugas. The latter remained at Port Royal ; and
he is the progenitor of all the Melansons of the Maritime
provinces, except those of the county of Gloucester, N. B.
Jean Melanson, born in 1681, brother of Madame
Thomas Jacau and son of Pierre, Sieur of Verdure, married
Marguerite Dugas, by whom he had several children, of
whom one was Pierre, born at Grand-Pre, September 4,
1710, and baptized the same day. He entered into the
bonds of matrimony June 8, 1734, with Rosalie Blanchard;
and the first fruit of this union was Jean Pierre, born
February 28, 1735, and baptized the next day.
Jean Pierre Melanson escaped deportation by fleeing to
the Bay Chaleur. He married at Restigouche January 7,
1761, Henriette Hache', who was born and baptized at
Port de la Joie, Isle St. Jean, and was daughter of Charles
Hache and Genevieve LaVergne. In the register of the
Abbe Bailly, deposited in the archives of the parish of
Caraquet, I find that missionary baptized at Nepisiguit
(Bathurst), June 21, 1772, "Sebastian, born December
17, 1769, in Isle St. Jean, of the lawful marriage of Jean
Pierre Melanson and of Henriette Galand." Galand is
the same name as Hache. The same day and place the
Abbe Bailly performed the following baptism ; "Frangoise,
born August 29, 1771, at Neipeisiguit, of the lawful
marriage of Jean Pierre Melanson and of Henriette
Galand "; the same day and place, the baptism, also, of
" Gertrude, born May 20, 1766, in Isle St. Jean," issue of
We can perceive from these baptismal records that Jean
Pierre Melanson, his wife, and their first children must
have left the Bay Chaleurs towards 1765 and have gone
over to Isle St. Jean where they remained till towards
1770. Then they went to Nepisiguit, where we find them
in June, 1772. Thence they went to Miscou island, where
the Abbe Bourg afterwards baptized several of their
children. They finally left that island towards 1780 and
settled for good at Bathurst Village, being among the
number of the first settlers in that locality. They are the
ancestors of all the Melansons of Gloucester.
Where and when did Jacau de Fiedmond die ? I have
no information on this point ; nor do I know whether he
was married or whether he left any descendants. His
"Journal of Beausejour" was published in its entirety,
without name of author, in the 9th volume of " documents
belonging to M. de Nicolai " (Levis papers), published at
Quebec in 1895 under the direction of the Abbe Casgrain*
It is the most complete account that has been written
of the siege of Beausejour.
PLACIDE P. GAUDET.
*Relations and Journals of different Expeditions made between 1755 and
1760. pp. 7-51.)
THE NORTHERN MUSE.
(.From the Book Lover.)
The Northern Muse looked up
Into the ancient tree,
Where hung the seven apples
And twine the roses three.
I heard, like the eternal
Susurrus of the sea,
Her "Scire quod sciendum
Da mihi, Domine ! "
H fIDonument ant> its
the Church of England graveyard, in the
suburbs of St. John, in that portion known as
the southwest division, there stands a large
granite monument, its base surrounded by a
strong iron railing. Memorials of the dead are
there in every direction, but that monument never fails to
attract the attention of the passer by. Like many others,
it is a monument with a history. The storms of half a
century have somewhat marred its outlines, and defaced
the long inscription cut upon it, but with patience the
epitaph shown upon the following pages may be read*
surmounted upon the east side by the coat-of-arms of
Macdonell of Glengarry, and on the west by those of
Macdonald of Glenaladale.
The story of this monument, as briefly told in the
partially obliterated inscriptions, is of romantic interest. >
It is the old story of heroic constancy and unflinching
loyalty which marked the early settlement of British
In the early summer of 1842, Her Majesty's 30th Regi-
ment of Light Infantry arrived at Saint John, and relieved
the 36th regiment in garrison. Colonel Harry Ormond
commanded the 30th, and Captain Roderick Macdonald
was paymaster. Both of these officers were born in
British America Colonel Ormond at Maugerville, New
Brunswick, and Captain Macdonald at Prince Edward
Island. Colonel Ormond was the only New Brunswicker
who commanded an imperial corps stationed at Saint John.
The 30th regiment became very popular with the citizens,
and the officers assisted at all society events of those days.
Very pleasant stories are yet related of many of their
TO THE MEMORY OF
RODERICK CHARLES MACDONALD,
OF THE CASTLE TIORAM REGIMENT OF HIGHLANDERS,
PAYMASTER OF HER MAJESTY'S 30TH REGIMENT OF FOOT.
THIS PIOUS, AMIABLE AND ACCOMPLISHED LADY
WAS DAUGHTER OF
COLONEL MACDONELL, CHIEF OF GLENGARRY,
AND HEIR TO THE FORFEITED TITLES OF THE EARLS OF
ROSS IN INVERNESSHIRE,
WHERE SHE ALWAYS MANIFESTED HER PATRIOTIC
RECOLLECTIONS BY SINCERE ATTACHMENTS TO
EXPATRIATED SCOTCHMEN AND COUNTRYMEN.
AFTER FULFILLING, IN THE TRUE SPIRIT OF
CHRISTIAN PIETY AND FEELING, THE DUTIES OK
A DAUGHTER, A WIFE AND A MOTHER,
AT THE SUMMONS OF THE ANGEL OF DEATH,
SHE PASSED FROM THIS WORLD OF TRIAL
TO THE BOSOM OF HER SAVIOUR
ON THE 22ND DAY OF DECEMBER, 1842,
AGED 39 YEARS.
A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY 65
A DEVOTED HUSBAND
IN TESTIMONY OF
HIS UNDYING SBNSE OF THE UNCOMMON VIRTUES
OF HIS BELOVED WIFE AND THE
IRREPARABLE LOSS WHICH HER DEPARTURE
HAS PROVED TO HIMSELF AND THREB INFANT CHILDREN
ERECTED THIS TRIBUTE TO HER WORTH,
WITH A VIKW LIKEWISE, TO COMMEMORATE THE
HEROISM OF TWO THOUSAND OF THE GLENGARRY
RKGIMENT, WHO WERE SLAIN DEFENDING
AGAINST THE ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES,
IN THE WAR OF 1812, 13 AND 14.
TO PERPETUATE THE MEMORY
Chieftain of Glenalabale,
AND THE ATTACHMENT OF THE HIGHLANDERS
WHO FOLLOWED HIM, AS THEIR LEADER,
TO PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND,
HE INSCRIBES THIS STONE.
Captain Roderick Charles Macdonald, with whom our
story is more immediately connected, was an enthusiastic
Highlander, and early identified himself with the Scotch
residents of St. John. He was the fourth son of John
Macdonald, chief of the Macdonalds of Glenaladale,* who
sold his ancient ancestral estate in the Highlands of Scot-
land, and in 1772 emigrated, with a large number of his
clansmen, to Prince Edward Island. " After having
finished his education in France, and his travels on the
continent," Captain Macdonald entered the army in 1825.
" There being no prospects of a war, and having no hopes
of promotion, without giving large sums of money for the
purchasing of advancement," he accepted a paymastership.
When serving in Scotland, he met and wooed Elizabeth, the
eldest daughter of Alexander Ranaldson Macdonell, chief
of the Macdonells of Glengarry, a famous man in his day
in the Highlands, where they were married. The Mac-
donells of Glengarry were Protestants, and Captain Mac-
donald was a Roman Catholic, but the difference in faith
did not deter the ardent Highlander from forming the
alliance, nor diminish his love for his wife.
Mrs. Macdonald accompanied her husband to St. John,
and, during the time that the regiment remained, the
family resided in a small dwelling that stood on Germain
street, near the corner of Queen street, and many years
after was the residence of Colonel Ormond.
The first mention of Captain Macdonald, after the
arrival of the regiment, occurs in Donald Cameron's paper,
The Weekly Observer, of November llth, 1842 :
HIGHLAND SOCIETY. We have been informed that at the late
annual meeting of Saint Andrew's Society, in this city, Roderick
Charles Macdonald, Esquire, chief of the Highland Society of
Nova Scotia, attended, and produced a commission from the
Highland Society of London, (of which he is a member), addressed
* The Macdonalds of Glenaladale, one of the cadet branches of the great
clan of that name, became famous in Scott ish history for their devotion to
the fortunes of Prince Charles Stuart during the rising in 1745. The banner
of Prince Charles was first unfurled to the breeze on Glenaladale's estate, at
Olenflnnin, where a monument marks the spot.
A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY 67
to His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor and Hon. John Robert-
son, authorizing the formation of a branch of the parent institution
in this city.
This was the beginning of a society which existed for
many years, until incorporated with the St. Andrew's
Society. To the formation of societies of that kind in
British America, Captain Macdonald gave much of his
time, and contributed financially as well as his slender
resources would permit..
At Prince Edward Island he formed the Caledonian
Society, which is still in existence, as well as several branch
societies in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. These
societies were established not only to perpetuate a love of
Scottish nationality, but more particularly to diffuse and
further the cause of education, then in a deplorable con-
dition, among the colonists of Scotch descent.
" At Prince Edward Island alone," Captain Macdonald
declared, " there were from ten to twelve thousand child-
ren, principally of Scotch descent, who then had no means,
nor even a prospect of learning to read and write, and
there were probably more than double that number in
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Cape Breton in that
melancholy situation." Under these circumstances we can
understand and appreciate the generous motives that
actuated Captain Macdonald. Nearly all of these gocieties
have long ceased to exist, and the advance in educational
methods has been so great that the difficulties which
perplexed the philanthropic colonists of that day seem
difficult to understand. But, nevertheless, they were the
pioneers in a noble work, and deserve to be gratefully
remembered by their countrymen.
In all the philanthropic and national measures in which
Captain Macdonald engaged, he had the assistance and
support of his wife, who was as ardent in her attachment
to the Highland race as was her husband, and both made
many friends throughout the provinces. But an unlooked-
for affliction came to the warm-hearted Highlander, and
the closing days of the year 1842 brought sorrow. On the
22nd of December in that year, Mrs. Macdonald, after a
short illness, died, and was buried on Christmas eve. The
event is thus chronicled by Donald Cameron in the issue
of the Observer of December 31st :
On Saturday last the funeral of Mrs. Macdonald, the lamented
and amiable lady of Captain Macdonald, 30th Regiment, took
place, which was attended by a large number of the most distin-
guished members of this community. During the whole of Satur-
day the flag of the St. Andrew's Society was hoisted half mast
high, as a mark of respect to the memory of the deceased lady.
Among the pall- bearers were Captains Andrews, Sillery and Grant,
of the 30th Regiment.
Captain Macdonald, who looked the picture of grief, was sup-
ported by Colonel Ormond and Major Poyntz. In the procession
were the Saint Andrew's and Highland Societies with their presi-
dents Dr. Boyd and Hon. John Robertson.
Mrs. Macdonald was born at Glengarry, in the Highlands
of Scotland, and was the eldest daughter of Alexander
Ranaldson Macdonell, chief of the ancient clan of Glen-
garry, by his wife Rebecca, second daughter of Sir William
Forbes, Bart., of Pitsligo, Aberdeenshire. " The clan
Macdonald, or Macdonell," writes Burke in his Landed
Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, " is undoubtedly one
of the most ancient in Scotland, and can, by incontrovert-
ible evidence, be traced back to a period co-eval with that
of any family in the kingdom." Mrs. Macdonald was an
accomplished woman, and there are still living in Saint
John those who have a very distinct recollection of her,
and also of Captain Macdonald. The early life of this
lady, with reminiscences of her family, has been related in
an article published in Blackwood's Magazine for Septem-
ber, 1893, entitled, "Glengarry and his Family Some
Reminiscences of a Highland Chief," the contents of which
are based upon the unpublished autobiography of Miss
Macdonell of Glengarry, a younger sister, and from it we
get a vivid picture of life in the ^ghlands of Scotland in
the early years of the century. JONAS HOWE.
(To be concluded in next issue.)
an HcaMan Hrtiet
JR. JAMES NOEL SCOVIL, the subject of
this sketch, the only child of the late
James Scovil, was born in St. John, N. B.,
on Christmas day, 1878, and is therefore
in his 23rd year.
From his early boyhood, young Scovil always displayed
great aptitude for sketching from life and other forms of
artistic work. Many a rap over the knuckles he doubtless
received in his school-boy days for a well drawn caricature
of the school-master, or for spending the time, which should
have been devoted to other work, in drawing faces and
figures upon his slate, or within the covers of his school-
If masters could but recognize and encourage the peculiar
aptitudes which their various pupils usually, in a greater
or lesser degree, possess, and direct their course of training
accordingly, how many valuable hours might be well spent,
which otherwise are frittered away, or spent in acquiring
a fund of knowledge which is not destined to be of any
practical value to the pupil in after life.
With the exception of about twenty lessons, received at
various times from two of our local artists, Mr. Scovil
received no actual art education until early in the year
1899, when he presented himself at one of the studios of
the Julian Academy in Paris. His account of what he
saw and experienced, of student life in Paris, at the studios,
the cafes, and his associates among the three or four hund-
red fellow pupils at the academy, is most interesting.
The writer much regrets that want of space prevents more
than a very brief reference to his Paris life.
L' Academic Julian is made up of several schools or
classes, with a large staff of professors, who visit each of
the different studios in turn, criticising the work of the-
pupils, offering here a hint, there a suggestion, usually very
brief in character; too much so, as a rule, to suit the
tastes of those of the students who are ambitious in regard
to their work.
The Ateliers, as they are called, for male pupils, are
usually in different buildings from those used by the female
At No. 31 Rue du Dragon is situate the particular
studio in which Mr. Scovil worked ; and upon taking up
his work he was obliged, as is there customary, to pay his
footing. This consists usually of a contribution of about
fifteen francs, which is either spent instanter upon " wine "
for the delectation of his co workers, or put aside towards
one of those delightful periodical Bohemian outings so dear
to the heart of the Paris student.
At the various studios a number of models present
themselves on Monday morning of each week. They dis-
robe, and each in turn stands in a state of nudity for a few
moments upon the dias. As each of the models present
themselves, the students, who so desire, hold up their
hand in token of approval. The model receiving the
largest number of votes is selected as the subject for the
Posing is by no means an easy task, as the hours are
from 8 to 12 a. m. and from 1 to 5 p. m. with fifteen
minutes' rest in each hour.
Two professors visit the studio on Monday, Wednesday
and Saturday, and to the student to whom is adjudged the
best criticism, is awarded the honor of choice of position
for the following week.
One of these studios often affords an interesting sight.
The students group themselves according to their particular
choice ; on the dias the model, all around a human hive
striving to catch the various modulations of figure and
expression, of light and shade; on the wall the palette
J Noel Scovil.
AN ACADIAN ARTIST 71
scrapings of successive generations of pupils ; above, await-
ing the often much longed-for purchaser, a number of
finished sketches ; here an old curtain, dingy and time-
worn, which has been used as a back-ground for many a
sitter ; there a dusty cast or a lay figure.
Most of the studios are to be found in the Latin
Quartier, and here abound those little cafes before alluded
to. On a summer evening small tables are spread, out' v of
doors upon the broad sidewalks, and the students meet,
enjoy their usually frugal meals, sip their coffee, smoke their
cigarettes, discuss the vicissitudes of life, admire the pretty
'demoiselle as she passes demurely by, or perchance dream
of some sketch which will win the Grand Prix de Rome,
and lay the foundation for future greatness.
For the American male student a magnificent club has
been fitted up in one of the old palaces of the Napoleons,
by Mr. John Wanamaker, of New York. It was at this
club, in the winter of 1897-8, that the writer was present,
by invitation, at a dinner given by the students on New
Year's evening. The large dining hall was brightly lighted,
plates were laid for about 150 persons. The American
ambassador and several other guests of honor were present.
About the halls were hung some of the choicest specimens
of the winter's work.
Just across the table from the writer sat a colored man,
spare in face and figure, with a thin, straggling beard, and
features that spoke not of high living. At his right sat
an American lady who voluntarily occupied that seat,
several of his fellow students having declined to sit beside
a negro ; at his left, the son of an American millionaire,
also there from choice, at my right, the sister of the lady
who sat opposite. After the bill of fare, the wine was
passed around, then one or two formal toasts, and amid
loud applause, the toast of the evening was announced,,
"The winner of the 'Grand Prix.'"
Quietly and without ostentation the colored man arose,
bowed to the Chairman, to the right and left, and after
the applause had subsided, thanked those present, in a
few simple words, and without evident embarrassment,
for the kind manner in which the toast had been received.
The student services on Sunday evenings, semi-social,
semi-religious, usually held in one of the largest studios,
are another striking feature of American student life in
Paris. Here lemonade and gospel hymns with a rousing
chorus, Bible reading, cake and ice-cream, sacred solos and
quartettes by some of the best professional singers in Paris
are strangely commingled.
Rooms suitable for students, and of the cheapest class,
may be obtained in the Latin Quartier for about $6.00 a
month ; while table board for those who live moderately
at a cafe, costs from eighty cents to one dollar a day.
Students who are not above doing their own cooking may
subsist upon about half that amount.
Since his return to St. John, Mr. Scovil has been em-
ployed upon the staff of the St. John Gazette, and although
laboring under disadvantages, has produced some good
Of the three examples of his skill which we reproduce
by permission in this number of ACADIENSIS, Nos. 1 and
2 were drawn in Paris, namely, the figure of the girl, and
the Head Piece, with some figures from life such as one
sees almost any day upon the streets of that city. No.
3 is a cariacature of some of the young men who habitually
frequented the stage door of the St. John Opera House
during the recent visit of the Valentine Opera Company
to this city.
In this last example the drawing is particularly good,
and gives evidence of much promise. One of the staff of
the Brooklyn Eagle, to whom the writer recently exhibited
the original drawing, commented upon its excellence, with
this remark, " That young man ought to be up here."
WAITING, ONLY WAITING."
AN ACADIAN ARTIST. 73
Among Acadians who are embued with a love of their
country, the tendency of our young men of ability to drift
into the larger cities of the neighbouring republic would
seem to be a phase of life much to be deplored.
The recent death of his step-father, and other consequent
events, however, will probably compel Mr. Scovil to make
a stronger effort to work his way upward in the world,
and the significant remark of the Brooklyn man, that he
ought to be "up here," is not unlikely to be realized. Mr.
Scovil has already been offered a position with the Boston
Post to do " chalk-plate " work ; but this not being to his
liking, the offer has not been accepted.
Should Mr. Scovil, who is naturally looking for more
remunerative employment than that at which he is at
present engaged, decide to try a larger field, this magazine
will be deprived of the assistance of one of those workers
upon whose talents its publishers hoped, from time to time,
to draw for the gratification of its patrons and the better-
ment of the magazine.
All selfish motives aside, however, we take pleasure in
wishing Mr. Scovil that success in life which his talents
deserve, but trust that the advancement which must
eventually come to him shall be of such a nature as to still
permit of his remaining within the borders of Acadia.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
foonorable ?u&ge IRobte*
A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.
I HE late Judge Simon Bradstreet Robie entered
public life in Nova Scotia towards the close of
the last year in the eighteenth century. A
brief account of his career, taken from the
records of the intervening period, and heard
from the tongues of the most aged of his contemporaries,
nearly all of whom are now dead, may not prove altogether
uninteresting to the readers of "Acadiensis."
While gathering material for this paper I was assured
by one of the oldest of my informants, that :
"A memoir of Judge Robie would have little interest, except
so far as it may hold up to public view the gentlemanly bearing
and high character of those men who usually held office in the
country and adorned the legal profession in former days, in sad
contrast to the present state of things.""
But this was before the founding of the excellent law
school in connection with Dalhousie college, which bids
fair to restore to the bar that class of advocates, of which
Judge Robie was the type. Forty-five years ago, the
twentieth day of May next, the Morning Chronicle stated
editorially, that " Few of our citizens yet survive, who
ever heard Simon Bradstreet Robie, in his best days, make
a speech. That he could make good ones all his co-tem-
poraries acknowledged. Bold, yet exact declamatory
when the occasion warranted, but chaste withal, with a
strong fibre of sound law and common sense running
through his arguments. Mr. Robie was a successful
lawyer, and the acknowledged leader of the lower house
for many years. He beat Ritchie in a contest for the
speakership in the session of 1817; and Archibald, until
Mr. Robie's elevation to the council left the course open,
HON. JUDGE ROBIE 7&
did not aspire to rivalship, but treated him with marked
deference and respect."
To-day the editor of the same paper might ask, " Who
can tell anything about this provincial statesman and
lawyer?" For, strange to say, the latest historian of
Nova Scotia* gives no account whatever of the man, who,
for eleven years was solicitor general, for seven years
speaker of the house of assembly, for ten years master of
the rolls, for twenty-four years member of the executive
and legislative council, and for eleven years president of
both, after their reconstruction and division into twa
bodies ; and whose honored name is so mingled with the
public events of Nova Scotia, that it cannot but be handed
down to posterity by documents in our colonial archives,
when the memory of living men can no longer recall it.
Mr. Bobie was born at Marble Head, Massachusetts,
while that state was yet a colony, in the year 1770, and
was son of Thomas Robie, who left Boston as a loyalist
early in the revolutionary war, and settled in Halifax, N.
S., where he carried on business as a hardware merchant
for several years. He was called after Simon Bradstreet,
a distant relative, and native of Lincolnshire, England,
brought up in the family of the Earl of Lincoln. Simon
Bradstreet studied for a year at Cambridge, and soon after
became steward to the Countess of Warwick, and married
a daughter of Mr. Dudley, his former tutor. In March
1630, he was chosen an assistant of the colony about to
be established at the Massachusetts Bay, and arrived at
Salem in the summer of the same year. He was at the
first court, which was held at Charlestown, August 23rd.
He was afterward secretary and agent of Massachusetts?
and commissioner of the United colonies. He was sent
with Mr. Norton, 1662, to congratulate King Charles on
his restoration, and as agent of the colony to promote its
interests. From 1673 to 1679, he was deputy governor.
In this year, he succeeded Mr. Leverett as governor, and
remained in office till May 1686, when the charter was
dissolved, and Joseph Dudley commenced his administra-
tion as president of New England. In May 1689, after
the imprisonment of Andros, he was replaced in the office
of governor, which station he held till the arrival of Sir
Wm. Phipps, in May 1692, with a charter, which deprived
the people of the right of electing their chief magistrate.
He died 1697 aged 94 years.
Simon Bradstreet Robie passed his boyhood days in
Halifax, where, after acquiring the best education the city
could then impart, he studied law in the office of his
brother-in-law, Jonathan Sterns. This gentleman, unlike
the elder Robie, was among the most unflinching loyalists,
and was one of the eighteen country gentlemen who vent-
tured to sign the address to General Gage. He was driven
from his residence in Massachusetts before leaving the
state. Born in Massachusetts, he graduated at the Uni-
versity of Harvard in the year 1770. Having removed
with the British army to Nova Scotia, in 1778, he opened
a law office in Halifax, which county returned him a
member to the Assembly in 1793. He was appointed
solicitor-general of the province in 1794, and held these
positions till his death, 23rd of May, 1798. The late
William Sterns, of Liverpool, also a lawyer, and a former
owner of Fort Belcher farm, in Colchester county, was
Little can be told about young Robie as a student-at-law.
The late Hon. H. H. Cogswell, in conversing with an old
friend about the accumulation of money by the old members
of the profession, related an anecdote deserving a passing
notice. Mr. Cogswell said that when he was a student in
the office of the old attorney-general, Richard John Uni-
acke, he, Robie, Norman Uniacke, the late Andrew
Wallace (Mrs. Martin Wilkins' father) and a few other
HON. JUDGE ROBIE 7T
law students, were discussing their future prospects, and
speculating how they would live if they possessed 20,000,
a sum, in those days, considered an immense fortune.
Robie, after others had stated their desires, said, "If I
should ever acquire 20,000, I will retire from all work,
build a house in Truro, and live there on the interest of
my money." Truro was ever a popular locality with him.
Cogswell, on being asked his opinion (then only seventeen
years of age) replied : "I think I would do just as all of
you would do, notwithstanding all you have said, that is
to say, I would try to increase my 20,000 to 40,000."
Cogswell died worth over 140,000, and Robie, 60,000,
but, unfortunately for Truro, built his house in Halifax.
That he seduously applied himself to a study of the legal
profession in its various branches, and was careful to
acquire a thorough knowledge of the routine duties in the
office of his brother-in-law, and availed himself of every
opportunity to watch the practice in the courts cannot be
doubted ; and there is every reason to believe that the
good use he made of his time during those early years
contributed in no small degree to the great success that
attended his long and useful career at the bar, in the
legislature, and on the bench of the rolls court.
On the eleventh day of October, 1799, Governor Sir
John Wentworth dissolved the seventh general assembly
of the province. Writs were issued for a new election
returnable the twenty-third day of December. Truro then
had the honor of being the first constituency to return ta
parliament Simon Bradstreet Robie, a rising Halifax
barrister of twenty-nine summers, who afterwards held
several of the highest offices in the land with great credit
to himself and complete satisfaction to the country. Mr.
Robie took his seat 28th February, 1800, on the opening
of the first session of the eighth general assembly. Those
were the halcyon days of the old council of twelve,
who did business with closed doors and with whom his
excellency was more in accord than with the majority in
the assembly. The opposition was then led by that some-
what celebrated lawyer and orator, William Cottnam
Tonge, whose speech at the bar of the house, 3rd April,
1790, in defence of his father's (Colonel Tonge) right to
fees as naval officer, has been cited as the precursor of
Nova Scotian eloquence. As a member of the house,
in his endeavors to effect changes in the modes of adminis-
tering the public affairs of the province, he made himself
most obnoxious to the Governor but became very popular
with the people. In 1799, the county of Halifax returned
him at the head of the poll by a very handsome majority,
at which election he was also returned by the town of
Newport. It was at this time that the popular feeling,
attributed to his eloquent efforts to break in upon stereo-
typed forms of government and old established usages in
the colony, made itself felt, by returning along with him
for the county of Halifax (then including Pictou and
Colchester) Edward Mortimer, of Pictou, and James
Fulton, of Londonderry, in place of Wallace, Stewart and
Hartshorne, who, in the former house, were three of the
governor and council's most faithful supporters. The
animosity of Sir John Wentworth to that clever and
popular leader increased to such a degree, that on his
second election as speaker by the house, Sir John refused
to approve of their choice, and in so doing, exercised a
branch of his Majesty's prerogative, having only one
instance, and that at a remote period, in the history of
Great Britain, and without precedent in Nova Scotia.
The English precedent relates to the case of Speaker Sir
Edward Seymour in the reign of Charles the second. " In
the new Parliament of 1678-9, Seymour was returned for
Devonshire ; and was again unanimously elected Speaker ;
but he was now somewhat estranged from the court,
especially from Dauby, and was no longer acceptable to the
King. On submitting himself to the chancellor for the
HON. JUDGE ROBIE 79
royal approval, he was informed that the King thought fit
to reserve Seymour for other services, and to ease him of
this. Sachverell and Powle strongly opposed the power of
the crown to reject the choice of the commons. To allay
the excitement, the King on the thirteenth of March pro-
rogued the house for two days, at the end of which a com-
promise was effected and Sergeant Gregory appointed."*
Some idea of the kind of stuff Mr. Robie was made of,
and the calibre of the man, may be formed from the fact
that upon his entering parliament he acted under Mr.
Tonge's lead, and advocated with much ability many of
the measures that displeased Governor Wentworth, who
took special delight in censuring whatever Tonge originated.
Subsequent events proved that Tonge, Robie, and their
followers, not only held advanced views upon public affairs,
but were actuated by loyal and patriotic motives in their
endeavours to have the province governed more in accord-
ance with an enlightened public opinion and the growing
spirit of the age, and that they did no more than enter the
wedge, which, when driven home by others, years after
wards, opened the council doors, gave the people responsible
government, and many other wholesome reforms the
country was not quite ready for in their day.
In the general election of 7th August, 1806, Mr. Robie
was returned one of the members for Halifax county,
which he represented in the assembly till April 2nd, 1824,
when he was appointed a member of the old council of
twelve, which then exercised executive as well as legislative
functions. Before that time, and after December, 1808,
when Tonge followed the fortunes of Sir George Prevost
in the West Indies, where he became secretary of Demarara,
and resided to the close of life, Mr. Robie, on account of
his liberal views, well known legal ability, powers of
eloquence and subtle reasoning, became the acknowledged
*Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 51, page 813.
leader of the popular branch of the legislature. The house
frequently put him on committees to prepare replies to
the governor's speeches, and in 1807 made him chairman
of a committee to present an address and one hundred
guineas, to buy a piece of plate or a sword, to the honor-
able vice admiral George Cranfield Berkeley, commander
of the fleet. On the 8th of January, 1808, he voted for
Tonge's resolution against the governor's message to
increase the treasurer's salary. In 1815 he was appointed
solicitor general, vice James Stewart, made judge of the
supreme court. In 1817, speaker of the house, after a
contest with Thomas Ritchie, upon speaker Lewis Morris
Wilkin's elevation to the bench of supreme court, on the
demise of Judge Foster Hutchinson. Mr. Robie was
afterwards chosen speaker, unanimously, llth February,
1819; also of the next general assembly that met 12th
November, 1820, and continued first commoner till his
appointment to the council, and remained solicitor general
till his elevation to the bench of the rolls court. Why he
was not made one of the pioneer King's counsel in Nova
Scotia, 21st May, 1817, when that honor was conferred
upon William Henry Otis Haliburton, and Samuel George
William Archibald, is one of the unexplained mysteries of
Lord Dalhousie's administration.
On the 2nd April, 1820, Speaker Robie, at the head of
the house, presented an address to Lord Dalhousie, request-
ing his acceptance of their vote of 1000, for a "Star and
Sword," which the earl accepted, " as a magnificent testi-
monial of their regard," but ten days after the house rose
recalled his acceptance in a letter to the speaker.
On the 2nd April, 1822, the university of Glasgow con-
ferred the degree of doctor of civil law upon Mr. Robie.
While in the house Mr. Robie took a correct view of
every great question before the country, and proved himself
the possessor of the soundest opinions, and a man of no
ordinary ability. The resolution under which Lawrence
HON. JUDGE ROBIE 81
Kavanagh, the first Roman Catholic member, was allowed
to take his seat for Cape Breton, 3rd April, 1823, without
taking the oaths against popery and transubstantiation, was
suggested to the house by him while speaker, and he sup-
ported it in an able argument. When we consider that it
was five years later that Daniel O'Connell, " the liberator of
his country," was first elected a member of the " commons
house of parliament for the county of Clare," and was not
permitted to take his seat unless he took those ancient
oaths, which he refused to do, and did not gain admission
to parliament, till a year afterwards, upon his re-election
for Clare, after the "Bill of Emancipation" had been
fought fiercely through both houses, by the Duke of Well-
ington and Sir Robert Peel, who saw that the hour had
arrived in the history of Great Britain, when either their
prejudices or their power must be surrendered, we can
form a very good idea of the grandeur of Mr. Robie's
conduct, in dealing with the great question in our legisla-
ture. It was this circumstance that lead Daniel O'Connell
to make the acquaintance of Joseph Howe at a social
gathering in England, crossing the floor of the room where
they met, introducing himself, and giving Mr. Howe a
hearty shake of the hand, at the same time expressing his
great gratification in forming the acquaintance of a public
man from the British colony that was first to settle the
important question of " Catholic emancipation."
Although a great adherent of the Church of England,
and a warm friend of King's college, in 1818 Mr. Robie
spoke in favor of aid to the trustees of Pictou academy,
towards the erection of their building, in a clear and
argumentative address, and took a sound view of the ques-
tion at the commencement of a controversy that long
continued to agitate the legislative body of Nova Scotia.
(To be concluded in next issue.)
1nctfcent0 in tbe Barty Ibietor? of
IN A series of articles lately printed in the New
Brunswick Magazine, under the title, " At Port-
land Point," the writer of this paper endeavored
to place on record many of the incidents connected
with the establishment of the first English settle-
ment, of a permanent character, at the mouth of the St.
John river. The date of this settlement is coincident with
the arrival of James Simonds, James White and their
party some thirty souls in all on the 18th day of April,
1764. Some further facts that have lately come to light
will furnish materials for one or more papers similar to
those that have already appeared in the New Brunswick
The war of the American Revolution was at the outset
a source of intense disappointment to James Simonds,
William Hazen and James White, although in the end it
was destined to be the making of their fortunes by sending
the exiled Loyalists in thousands to our shores.
Our old pioneers had learned by the experience of a
dozen years to conduct their business to advantage ; and
at the time the war began had everything in train for a
promising and remunerative trade with St. Croix in the
West Indies. Their situation, once discouraging, was
vastly improved. The hardships incident to the estab-
lishment of all new settlements were largely a thing of
the past, and both Simonds and White were established
in comfortable homes, their interests still more united by
the fact that their wives were sisters, daughters of Captain
Francis Peabody. To add to their pleasurable anticipa-
tions, the Hazen family were daily expected from New-
EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 83
buryport to take up their permanent residence at Portland
Prior to William Hazen's determination to remove to
St. John, he and his partner, Leonard Jarvis, had been
unfortunate in their mercantile transactions at Newbury-
port. This made it necessary for them to take greater
care of their interest in the business at St. John ; hence
Mr. Hazen's visits to St. John became more and more
frequent, and about the year 1771 he decided to take up
his permanent residence there and discontinue business at
Newburyport altogether. Accordingly, in 1772, a house
was built for him at Portland Point, the site a little to the
westward of the houses in which James Simonds and
James White were then living. This house was destroyed
by fire before it was quite finished. A new one, on the
eame site, was erected November 17, 1773, and is still
standing at the corner of Simonds and Brook streets ;
somewhat altered in appearance, it is true, but in an
excellent state of preservation.
It was not until the month of May, 1775, that Mr.
Hazen was able to embark with his family for St. John.
They took passage in the sloop " Merrimack,"* and on the
way were shipwrecked on Fox Island. They escaped with
their lives but endured much discomfort, besides losing many
of their possessions. Scarcely were they settled in their new
home when troubles and anxieties, entirely unlocked for,
arose in consequence of the war between the mother country
and the old colonies.
The departure of William Hazen from Newburyport had
been planned, as already stated, several years before it was
carried into effect. It was not in any way influenced by
the threatening war clouds that hung low in the sky. Mr.
Hazen's departure, however, was nearly coincident with the
clash of arms at Lexington, and a few months after his
* The Merrimack was one of several small vessels owned by the Company
of Hazen & Jarvis and Simonds & White.
arrival at St. John, the events of the war began to interfere
greatly with the business of the partnership, which not long
after almost entirely ceased.
The three partners were well known in Massachusetts.
Many of their relatives were prominent supporters of the
American Congress. This fact, for a brief interval, shielded
them from the attacks of marauders from Machias, and
elsewhere to the westward, who ravaged the shores of the
Bay of Fundy and made themselves terribly obnoxious to
the loyal element in Nova Scotia. On two occasions,
William Hazen succeeded in procuring the restoration of
the Company's schooner " Polly " after she had been seized
by American privateers.
The condition of affairs on the River St. John during
the war has already been pretty fully described by the
writer of this article in the papers of the " Portland Point'
series.* That which follows must, therefore, be regarded
The statement, made in one of the former papers, that
up to the close of the year 1776, the company of Hazen,
Simonds and White had not ceased to transact business
with the Massachusetts Congress, needs some qualification.
It was based upon the following document, found among
the papers of James White :
GENTLEMEX, At sight of this our second Bill (first of same
tenor and date not paid) Please to pay to Messrs. William Hazen,
James Simonds and James White, or order, forty-one Spanish
milled Dollars, for value received of them.
EZEKIEL FOSTER, Lt., DAVID PBESCOTT, Lt.,
EDMUND STEVENS, Capt., DANIEL MESEBVY, Lt.
Portland, Nova Scotia, December 14th, 1776.
To the Honorable Council of Massachusetts States.
It appears, from certain papers in possession of Mr.
Ward Hazen, of St. John, that the four signers of the
above were on their way to Machias after the failure of
* See New Brunswick Magazine for January, February, March and April,
EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 85
the American attack on Fort Cumberland. James White
was reluctantly obliged to entertain them at his house, and
he says, in a memorandum explanatory of the incident,
" The supplies furnished to Prescott <fe Co. were regarded
as for the common cause and benefit to get rid of a needy,
In connection with the visits of the Machias rebels,
James Simon ds, too, was forced on several occasions to do
his share of the entertaining, and Messrs. Rowe, Eddy,
Rogers, Howe, and others, returning from Cumberland,
were supplied with provisions at his expense in order to
prevent their plundering the houses and stores of the
The garrison at Fort Frederick (in Carleton) had been
withdrawn in 1768, leaving St. John in an absolutely
defenceless condition. The little colony there became very
uneasy, and in September, 1775, James Simonds and Daniel
Leavitt went to Windsor in a whale boat to solicit protect-
ion from the government of Nova Scotia, but their errand
was fruitless. Being apprehensive that the Company's goods
in the store at Portland Point would be plundered by some
privateer, Mr. Simonds, a few weeks later, carried a portion
to Windsor in the little schooner " Polly," and there dis-
posed of them as best he could.
In the two following years, the business of Hazen,
Simonds and White being nearly at a stand and their
stock of goods in the store small, it was agreed that James
White should take charge of the store and keep the books
on a commission of five per cent. The amount of business
transacted in the two years amounted to 3,150 only.
Meanwhile, James Simonds was spending a good deal of his
time among the settlers up the river freighting down lum-
ber, produce, and such articles as could be collected on
account of the Company's debts.
Early in May, 1777, an attempt was made by one John
Allan, of Machias, formerly a resident at the head of the
Bay of Fundy, and at one time a member of the Nova
Scotia House of Assembly, to take possession of the St.
John river valley and there establish an Indian trading
post, with the view of encouraging the savages to declare
war against the loyal settlers. This audacious design by
no means accorded with the ideas of the little colony at
St. John. James Simonds proceeded post haste to Halifax*
and the authorities there promptly sent an armed party in
the "Vulture" sloop of war, under Colonel Arthur Goold, by
whom the invaders were soon driven from the river.
However, they returned a little later and took William
Hazen and James White prisoners. The alarm was again
raised and Colonel Michael Francklin and Captain Stud-
holme, with a detachment of troops, appeared on the scene.
The prisoners were released and Allan was obliged in hot
haste to hie back once more to Machias.
In the month of November, 1777, the Company's store
at Portland Point was plundered of most of its valuables
by a Yankee privateer, whose captain bore the singular
name of "A. Greene Crabtree." The situation of the
settlers was now become so deplorable that William Hazen
hired a sloop and proceeded to Windsor. Here he urgently
appealed for protection to Colonel John Small of the Royal
Highland Emigrants, and the latter accompanied him to
Halifax. Through their united efforts, the authorities
were aroused to the necessity of immediate action, and in
consequence, Fort Howe was built at the mouth of the river
and Captain Gilfred Studholme took post there with a
garrison. William Hazen claimed that his visit to Halifax
" not only saved the buildings and moveables of the Com-
pany, but secured to the King's subjects the greater part
of New Brunswick."
W. O. RAYMOND.
* An item in Mr. Simonds' account shows that the cost of his trip, includ-
ing boat hire, horse hire, etc., was about 15.
(To be concluded in next issue.)
H flDarablanb "River.
The river banks red-bright beneath the sun
Lay empty to the breeze, which like a stream
Flowed softly downward to the tide out-run,
Sweeping across the flats that idly dream,
Then drifted out to sea. Shortwhile the tide
Lay moveless where the river opened wide
Its mouth unto the bay with thirsty throat
Agape and red for the long quenching draught
Of foamy brine. Shortwhile the anchored boat
Drew not upon the chain, and all the craft
Lay to against the turning of the flood ;
Low tide marked by the heron and her brood.
Without a sign of finger or of lip,
The tide turned inward from the outer sea.
The hidden anchor feels the drawing ship,
The fisher craft let all their sails go free.
Up to the river rises the quick flood,
Into the marsh's veins like pulsing blood,
Gateways of ancient mould; thence to the hoar
Gray granite hills of primal time to store
The tidal elements. Thus has the deep
Made him a beast of burden, treading slow
Through centuries with toil that cannot sleep;
And front unyielding to the winter's snow;
Nor lingering under all the summer's sweep
Of hot alluring rays ; bound to no power
In earth or heaven, save that which times the hour-
Of night and day to lift his reddened knees
And mighty shoulders out of Ocean's mine
To tread the marshy stairway of the sea,
And strew his burden at the secret sign.
Blind eyes that know no pity and no tear,
Nor wist that in the silent centuries
Of plodding to the mountain's stony knees,
What weary miles of needless footway bear
His mark of winding road and broken way.
And when the sea will crowd upon his heels,
And level o'er the marshes his array
Of waters, till the farthest dyke-top feels
The sibilance of wave, the river lost
In the supremer power, bends like the beast
And gropes shortwhile, and tumbles, tossed
And tripped by his great strength which ceased
Without the single purpose that must guide.
But soon again the river treads the plain,
Whether to saunter, or to turn back,
Heedless of loss, unconscious of the gain,
Each cycle narrowing his track.
The purpose of his labor is complete,
When man shall reap the labor of his feet,
And lay his hand to mark his utmost way,
And bar where now his step shall cease to stray.
JOHN FREDERIC HBRBIN.
of tbe jplace^name jpabineau.
The Pabineau River is a branch of the Nepisiguit, a
few miles from its mouth, and a rocky fall on the Nepisi-
guit, noli far above the mouth of the Pabineau, goes by the
same name. The word Pabineau is well-known to be
Acadian French, applied by them to the High-bush Cran-
berry (Viburnum Opulus of the botanists). Why the
name was applied to the river and falls, I do not know,
fcut one may guess that it was because of the abundance
^ORIGIN OF THE PLACE-NAME PABINEAU 89
of the High-Bush Cranberry there. The earliest application
of the name to the river I have been able to find is in
a plan dated 1825 in the Crown Land Office, where it
is spelled Pabina, while another plan of the same year has
Pabineau, as at present. It is interesting to note, as in
some degree confirmatory of the origin of the name here
given, that Lanman, in his very interesting book, " Ad-
ventures in the Wilds of the United States and British
American Provinces," 1856, calls the falls " Pabineau, or
Cranberry Falls." If now one seeks the origin of the
work Pabineau itself, he will search in vain for it in
French dictionaries. Clapin's Dictionaire Canadien-Fran-
c,aise, gives, however, " Pimbina, s. m. Fruit du Viburnum
edule." The Acadian Pabina and the Canadian Pimbina
seem, therefore, to be the same word ; they are given as
identical by Fernald in his " Some Plant-names of the
Madawaska Acadians," (in Rhodora, I, 168). What,
then, is the origin of Pimbina ? In Upham's great work
on Glacial Lake Agassiz (U. S. Geological Survey, Mono-
graphs, xxv,) page 57, occurs the following : " Pambina
River, this word is stated by Keating to be from an
Ojibway word, anepeminan, which name has been shortened
and corrupted into Pembina, meaning the fruit of the
bush cranberry (Viburnum opulus, L.") Knowing the
close relationship between the language of the Ojibway
Indians and our Maliseets, I looked in Chamberlain's
Maliseet Vocabulary and find he gives for the high-bush
cranberry, I-pi-min. Rand, in his Micmac Reader, gives
Nibumanul. All of these words are from the same root
without doubt, and they show that Pabineau, though now
good Acadian, is of Indian origin; but whether it was
obtained direct from our Indians, or from the Canadian-
French, who obtained it from other Indians, we do not
>know, but probably the latter was the case.
W. F. GANONG.
BOOK * plates.
BOOK-PLATE, as defined in the Century
Dictionary, is a label, bearing a name, crest,
monogram, or other design pasted in or on a-
book to indicate its ownership, its position in
a library, etc.
When and where the custom of using book-plates origi-
nated, it is not possible now to state, but that the custom
is a very ancient one, originating within a very few years
after the first printing of books with moveable type, there'
can be little doubt.
With the spread of education, the accumulation of
private libraries, and the development of artistic taste, the
book-plate became more than a mere label ; and users of
book-plates soon began to vie with one another in the pro-
duction of the more ambitious armorial, or the allegorical,
symbolical or pictorial designs suggested by the fancies of
their various owners.
On the continent of Europe book-plates are invariably
termed JEx-Libris, signifying literally, "out of the books
of," or from the collection of books of John Doe, or Richard
Roe, as the case might be. In Great Britain, and in some
parts of America, the same custom, to a certain extent,
prevails, but in the United States book-plates having
pictorial designs are generally regarded with the most favor.
Pasted upon the fly-leaf of a MSS., in the College of
Arms, at York, England, is a book-plate of Joseph Holand,
while the date, 1585, appears upon the fly-leaf. The
autograph title to the MSS. is as follows :
In this booke are contayned the armes of the nobylytye of
Ireland, and of certeyne gentlemen of the same countrye.
JOSEPH HOLAND, 1585.
In England we find three other book-plates dating from
the sixteenth century, one bearing the date 1518; the
second, the plate of Sir Thomas Treshame, 1585 ; and
that of 1574, the beautiful armorial plate of Sir .Nicholas
Bacon, father of the celebrated Sir Francis Bacon, Lord
Chancellor of England, and essayist.
The usual size of a book-plate is about 2 \ x 4 inches,
but some examples of German book-plates may be seen
6 1 x 9 inches in size. It is needless to say that plates
of this size could only be used with volumes of not
less than quarto size. In the Surrenden Collection there
are several loose impressions of Sir Edward Bering's book-
plate, bearing date 1630. This is a very elaborate affair,
and of a size only adapted for a folio volume.
It is only in very recent years that the custom of col-
lecting book-plates has become general, and the first Eng-
lish work on the subject was by Hon. Leicester Warren,
A Guide to the Study of Book-Plates, published in 1880.
Since that date scores of books, some of them most elabor-
ately illustrated, have been issued.
Probably one of the best known collectors of book-
plates is Mr. James Dorman, who keeps a quaint book-
shop in Southampton Row, London, England, and in
whose establishment the writer has spent many delightful
hours. He is much quoted by various writers in the
British periodicals as an authority, and his place is much
frequented by folks devoted to things Ex-Libris. He has
an immense fund of information about plates and all that
appertains thereto, and his devotion to the subject is
proved by the extent and value of his private collection,
which contains over 4,000 varieties.
It is not an uncommon occurrence in old volumes to
find as many as four different book plates, pasted one over
another, showing that the book had been the property of
at least four persons ; all of whom had owned and used
book-plates. In renovating old books for sale, second-
hand dealers have no conscientious scruples about pasting
a new sheet of paper over the inside of the cover of a book,
often consigning to oblivion many valuable autographs and
plates. The practiced eye, however, readily detects the
plate beneath, and patience and perseverance and a little
hot water will sometimes bring to light many treasures.
In at least two instances in removing old plates
which have been covered up for nearly a century, the
writer has found the first book-plate of the original owner
superceeded by another of more pretentious design, bearing
other arms quartered with those of the older label. The
inference will seem to be, that the owner had married
an heiress, and re-constructed his book-plate to suit the
altered conditions of life. An heiress in the parlance of
heraldry, be it understood, is not merely a lady of means,
but one, who, not having any surviving male relations, who
by right of precedence assume the family arms, becomes
herself entitled to wear them, and upon her marriage
quarters them upon her husband's shield.
The purpose of the following series of articles is mainly
local, however, and while copies of book-plates of persons
outside the limits of Acadia may occasionally be used by
way of illustration, the purpose of the writer is to cata-
logue, as fully as possible, all Acadian plates of the exist-
ence of which he has been able to obtain authentic
The persons within this area, who have used book-
plates being comparatively few, a wide scope must be
allowed, and the plates of persons not Acadian by birth,
but who have, for a series of years been residents of this
country, will be included in the following inventory.
The writer regrets that the great expense of reproducing
the plates has prevented the more ample illustration of
this series of articles, but he feels that those given may be
accepted as representing many of the best of the various
1. Sir James Stuart, Bart. The first plate in our
catalogue, and one which the writer values highly, is
that of Sir James Stuart, Bart., Chief Justice of Lower
Canada. It was discovered by Mr. John Kerr, barrister-
at-law, of St. John, in a second hand law book which he
purchased from a dealer in England. The book had evi-
dently been the property of the distinguished jurist, at his
death been disposed of, passed into the hands of the
English dealer, then, after the renovating process pre-
viously described, finally found its way into the library of
Chief Justice Sir James Stuart, Bart., third son of Rev.
Dr. John Stuart, was born at Fort Hunter in the State of
New York, March 2, 1780. He studied at Kings College,
Windsor, N. S.; entered the law office of Jonathan Sewell
in 1798, and was called to the bar March 23, 1801. In
1805 he was appointed Solicitor General for Lower Canada,
and removed from Quebec to Montreal, which he was elected
to represent in 1808, but in consequence of some differ-
ences he lost the Solicitor-Generalship in 1809. He con-
tinued a member of the Assembly till 1817, when he
retired for a time from political life. In 1822 he was a
delegate to England in the interests of Montreal, and in
1827 became a member of the Executive Council, repre-
senting Sorel. Lord Aylmer suspended him in 1831, but
the next year Lord Stanley, the new Colonial Secretary,
offered him the Chief Justiceship of Newfoundland, which
was declined. Jonathan Sewell resigned as Chief Justice
of Lower Canada in 1838, and Lord Durham appointed
Sir James Stuart to the vacancy. He was created a
baronet in 1841, on which occasion he selected for his motto,
" Justitice propositique tenea" which few words convey an
epitome of his character, and died July 14, 1853. His
career was a distinguished one. A profound lawyer, an
eloquent advocate, he in many respects resembled his prede-
cessor in office Jonathan Sewell.
2, 3, 4. Robert Sears. Three book-plates bearing this
name are contained in an old English grammar, which has
been placed in the hands of the writer by Mr. George
Edward Sears, of Toronto, a first cousin of Mr. Edward
Sears, ex-mayor of the City of St. John. Mr. Sears' letter
is as follows :
TORONTO, March 19th, 1901.
MY DEAR MR. JACK,
I am sending you an old grammar of Lindley Murray's, in
which I find three of my late father's book-plates, of a very
simple but quaint style.
I am satisfied that this book was one of his school books, he has
in his own hand- writing marked the date (1825); he was then
fifteen years of age, and in Henry Chubb's printing office as an
apprentice. I have no doubt that he set up these little labels
The first one indicates that he loaned his books, even at that
early age, and desired his companions to share in the pleasures of
reading as well as himself.
GEO. ED. SKARS.
Robert Sears served his apprenticeship, as stated, by
Mr. Geo. Ed. Sears in his letter, from 1820-28. He
removed to New York in 1830 and was the first publisher
of pictorial illustrated works in the new world.
These are probably the oldest book-plates actually
printed in New Brunswick, and we reproduce them as
nearly as circumstances will permit.
this (when read) and
I will lend you ano-
f oftu, . $
5 w7ie /ie pleasing task with sense to scan,
The various characters of Book* and Man:
^Vom pride and folly free on either hand,
Stiidy to know, and read to understand." >>
5. Count Robert Visart deBury, of Bury in Belgium and
St. John, N. B., is descended from an English family,
which emigrated to the Lower Countries at the beginning
of the sixteenth century, and members of which took a
prominent part in the wars of that period. One of the
family, through his marriage with the last heiress of the
well-known French family of de Chatillon, became poss-
essed of the estate of Soleilleval in
Artois and of the titular Lordship
of Nazareth in the Holy Land,
which was handed down in that
family from the time of the Cru-
sades. About the middle of the
eighteenth century the Lordships
of Bury and Bocarme, in Belgium
were, with the title of Count,
granted by the Empress Maria
Theresa to Colonel Francis Visart
de Soleilleval in recognition of his
services in the wars of that time,
and have remained in the family
Count de Bury's great uncle was
Field Marshall de Chasteler, who
vanquished Napoleon's army in the
Tyrol in 1809 and died Governor
of Venice in 1832. Another con-
nection was Calonne, minister of Louis XVI, and also
the Abbe de Calonne, a French missionary in Prince
Edward Island at the beginning of the Nineteenth
R. V. de Bury studied at the Episcopal College of
Mecheln, in Belgium, at the University of Zurich and at
the Polytechnic School of Stuttgart in Wurtemberg, from
which he graduated as civil engineer. He was employed
by the Orleans Railway Company and by the Government
of Wurtemberg in the survey of the Black Forest Railway.
He married Miss Simonds of St. John, N. B., at Stutt-
gart, in 1869, and came to this Province at the end of
the year 1873, residing partly at Portland, N. B., and
partly at Bury, in Belgium, ever since. He is Belgium
Consul for the Province of New Brunswick and Consular
Agent for France at St. John, and was, for some years,
a member of the Town Council of Portland.
Count de Bury's eldest son Henry, is a Captain in the
British army and is in command
of the Royal Artillery in the
Island of Santa Lucia.
The book-plate used by Count
de Bury is simple but effective
in style, and, as may be readily
observed, is illustrative of that
much debated question, whether
the pen is mightier than the
sword. Our illustration is from
the original block, which was
engraved for the owner by C.
H. Flewelling of this city.
6. William Kenah, a sketch
of whose book-plate, made by
Charles E. Cameron, Esq., M.D.,
from an original, is here repro-
duced, was born on the 25th of
October, 1819, and was the son
of Captain Joseph Kenah of the 104th regiment, and of
Mary (Allen) his wife, daughter of Judge Isaac Allen.
He was a brother of the late Mrs. William Jack, of St.
John, and of the late Mrs. Samuel A. Akerley, of Freder-
icton, N. B., at which city he spent many of the earlier
years of his life. The late Chief Justice Allen and he
were first cousins, and being very nearly of an age, and
much alike in manner and disposition, were most intimate
Senator Dever, of this city, well remembers William
Kenah, and describes him as a handsome and courtly
man, of fine character and good presence.
He was employed for several years with the Messrs.
Carvell in St. John in the iron business, and at the time
of his death, which occurred on the 25th of January, 1846,
he had just completed his arrangements to commence
business on his own account, being then in his 27th year.
In an old brass-bound mahogany desk, which had
belonged to him, and which had not been opened for
several years, were recently found several letters of recom-
mendation, signed by the late Hon John Robertson and
others, and describing Mr. Kenah's character and attain-
ments in most eulogistic terms. From among the number,
the following, from the late Hon. John Simcoe Saunders,
is selected :
FREDERICTON, 8th February, 1845.
MY DEAR SIR,
It will be a subject of much satisfaction to me if I can be of
-any service to you in promoting your views.
Having been, from my earliest years, on terms of great intimacy
with your father and his family, I have observed your entrance
into life with peculiar solicitude, and have uniformly been grati-
fied by finding your conduct and character, such as all your
warmest friends could wish, as to steadiness, propriety and recti-
tude, as well as from your habits of industry, knowledge of
business, and superior natural talents and capabilities, and I can
.assure you that these remarks are not only warranted from the
result of my own observations, but from the uniform testimony in
your favor of many persons of high character and standing who
have expressed themselves to me most warmly in your favor.
I am, my dear Sir,
Yours very faithfully,
JOHN S. SAUNDERS.
7. Charles Douglas Smith was the grandfather of G.
Sidney Smith, Esq., barrister, of St. John, N. B. His
book-plate, an original copy of which is in the writer's
possession, is a fine example of the true English armorial
plate, and its many quarterings would prove a charming
study for those who delight in heraldry. He was an
officer of dragoons in the British army, and a brother of
Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, who fought and held in check
Napoleon Bonaparte at Acre. His portrait and sword are
now to be seen at the residence of his grandson, Mr. G.
Sidney Smith, Dorchester Street, St. John.
The plate used by Mr. G. Sidney Smith (No. 8) is an
almost exact reproduction of that of his grandfather,
Henry Boyer Smith, son of Mr. Charles Douglas Smith,
was, in 1824, at the early age of twenty-four years,
appointed by the Imperial government Comptroller of the
port of St. John, and shortly afterward succeeded to the
Collectorship, which position he continued to hold until
the Imperial government was transferred to the colonial
authorities in 1848, when he was retired with a pension.
He continued to reside in St. John up to the time of his
death, in 1868. His home was on Carleton Street, a
substantial and comfortably built brick house, nearly
opposite the old Mechanics' Institute building. Before
the death of Mrs. Charlotte L. Smith, his widow, it was
purchased by Mr. James F. Robertson, the present occu-
pant, by whom it was remodeled and thoroughly modernized.
To-day it forms one of the most comfortable and commodious
residences in St. John.
8. George Sidney Smith, grandson of Charles D. Smith,
is the owner of the book-plate which is shown upon the next
page, the printing being from the original block, executed
for Mr. Smith. By a curious mistake on the part of the
engraver, the quarterings in the lower left hand corner of
the shield were reversed. Otherwise it is an exact reproduc-
tion of that used by his grandfather. Mr. Smith, as a lad,
was the winner of the Douglas silver medal, as " Dux " of
the Collegiate School at Fredericton. He afterwards
graduated from Kings College, now the University of Jew
Brunswick, Fredericton, winning a foundation scholarship,
taking his degree of Bachelor of Arts with honors, and
winning the Douglas gold medal for an essay. He studied
law in the office of William Jack, Q. C., Advocate General
in St. John, was admitted an attorney in 1858, and a
barrister in October, 1859. He married, in 1861, Elizabeth
Sands Thorne, only child of Stephen R. Thome, a barrister
of Loyalist descent.
Mr. Smith has a very fine collection of old seals and sig-
net rings, antique watches,
family portraits, medals,
old silverware, swords,
muskets, and other articles
of vertu, each of which has
some peculiarly interesting
family tradition connected
with it. The writer, who
is a keen admirer of col-
lections of this nature,
spent a very pleasant hour
with Mr. Smith, when pre-
paring this sketch, in ex-
amining the various articles
enumerated, and in listen-
ing to the many episodes
connected with the history
of the family.
9. Isaac Allen Jack,
Q. C., D. C. L., barrister-
at-law, and formerly Recorder of the City of St. John, son
of the late William Jack, Q. C., and of Emma Carleton
(Kenah) his wife, and nephew of the late William Kenah
before referred to, is the owner of a plain but neat book-
label, several copies of which are in the possession of the
writer. The label is of moderate size, about I|x4 inches,
printed on white paper, and bears the simple inscription :
g ^ LIBRIS. jj
I. ALLEN JACK.
The paternal grandfather of Mr. Jack was David William
Jack, son of William Jack, Bailie, of the town of Cupar
Fife, Scotland. The writer visited Cupar in January,
1900, and there met one George Thompson, then in his
93rd year, carpenter by trade, still able to support himself
and a blind sister almost of his own age, and who was able
to give him much valuable family history, most of which
he was able afterwards to verify from the public records
and other sources. This man well remembered William
Jack, and related many amusing anecdotes in connection
with the life of the late Bailie.
Mr. Jack, as a boy, studied for several years under the
late Canon Lee, and then entered the Collegiate School at
Fredericton, matriculated at Kings College, Fredericton,
afterward removing to Kings College, Windsor, N. S.,
where, in 1863, he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts.
In 1877 he received from the last mentioned college the
degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, and in 1884 that of Doctor
of Civil Law. He was admitted attorney in October,
1866, and barrister the following year. He was appointed
Recorder of St. John in April, 1885, and was created a
<J. C. in March, 1891.
He has been connected with various national, literary
and other societies, and with the old Mechanics' Institute
of St. John, in the management of which he took a very
active interest, on several occasions delivering a lecture in
the regular annual course. He was a literary contributor
to the Week of Toronto, and to various other periodicals
In June, 1895, owing to ill-health, he was compelled ta
retire from active business, but nevertheless continues to take
a keen interest in literary work. It was at his suggestion
that the writer was induced to take up the work connected
with the editorial and business management of ACADIENSIS.
His article, which appeared in the first number, entitled,
" Thirst in Acadia," has been much admired as a piece of
good descriptive writing.
10. Alderman George Bond was a member of the
Council of the City of St. John from 1833 to 1849. An
Englishman by birth, he came out from Portsmouth in a,
frigate which had been a man-of war, landing upon the
beach in the City of St. John, near where the present
custom house stands, there being no wharves in those days.
He married a widow named Coram, but never had any
children. He was a mill-owner, operating the tide mill
from which the present mill pond at Carleton takes its
name. This mill was for the sawing of lumber, and the
power was supplied by the rise and fall of the tide. The
mill wheel used was what was known as a flutter wheel,
built like a cart wheel, with a large hub and spokes, the
latter having the paddles or buckets attached, the pressure
of water from the tide causing the wheel to rotate with
great velocity. The lower wheel with the timbers and
part of the frame, though under water for eighty years,
were found intact when that part of the St. John harbor
was dredged for the construction of the present deep water
facilities, within the past five years. A general store was
kept by Alderman Bond near this mill, from which the
mill hands and general public were able to obtain their
Mr. Bond and his wife were originally Methodists, but
held views not entirely in accordance with the discipline
of that denomination ; accordingly, a little meeting-house
was built at Sand Point, and here Jew or Gentile, Christian
or Barbarian, was at liberty to enter the pulpit and preach
as the spirit moved them. This freedom of worship does
not appear to have been very generally taken advantage
of, for it is related that it was customary on Sundays for
Mrs. Bond to mount the pulpit and preach, while the
alderman played the organ. The instrument being what
is known as a barrel organ, did not require the skill of an
Mr. Bond, when a member of the City Council, was
noted for his easy manner, never disagreeing with his
fellow aldermen, but obtaining his point when possible by
persuasion, rather than by the force of argument. He
was a man of smoothness, hence the name by which he
was generally known, the " Smoothing Iron."
He was both an Orangeman and a Freemason, but the
writer is unable to learn of his having held any prominent
office with either body. He also held two or three minor-
municipal or provincial offices. That he was a man of
some literary ability and taste is apparent from the fact
that he left quite a large and valuable library, which was
disposed of at the time of his death, which occurred on the
4th of January, 1852, at the age of sixty-two.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
(To be continued.)
[It is proposed to continue this series of articles, taking up the book-
plates of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in turn.
Any of our readers who may themselves be the owners of, or be aware of the
existence of any book-plates which would come within the scope of these
articles, are requested to correspond with the editor of this magazine upon
the subject. EDITOR.]
[HAT is more disheartening to the promoters of
any enterprise than to find the results of their
efforts received with that cool indifference,
like the frosts in the early summer, which
check the upward flow of life-giving sap in the rose-tree,
wither the green leaves, and kill the half formed bud,
which, if it had been tended with a little kindness, might
have developed into a full-grown lovely flower, a thing of
beauty, capable of producing pleasurable emotions within
the bosoms of all who behold it or obtain a whiff of its
Upon the other hand, what a little thing is a kind word,
and yet what joy it begets in the hearts of those, who,
having done what they could in aid of a good cause, find
their efforts appreciated to an unlooked-for degree, and
words of kindly encouragement flowing in upon them, in
an uninterrupted stream from the length and breadth of
From among many hundreds of letters received, we take
the liberty of publishing extracts from a few, none the less
valuable for the reason that they were entirely unsolicited
and therefore not written with a view of publication.
** ACADIENSIS is the title of a new Canadian Quarterly published
at Saint John, N. B., and edited by David Russell Jack of that
city. It is devoted to the interests of the Canadian Maritime Prov-
inces, and promises, according to the prefatory note of the editor,
to deal with matters largely historical. The contents of the first
number are of sufficiently high merit to warrant the expectation of
still better things to come. * * * The field which ACADIENSIS
proposes to cover is rich in historical associations and in the tra-
ditions and legends which cluster round the story of the stormy
years that followed the French Settlement of what is now Nova
Scotia and New Brunswick." Brooklyn Daily Eagle.
KIND WORDS. 105
"Please enter my name as a subscriber to ACADIENSIS, which
pleases me very much." Henry J. Morgan, Ottawa.
"I trust that ACADIENSIS may live to see the dream realized of
the nnion of the Maritime Provinces into the Province of Acadia."
Rev. James M. Gray, Boston, Mass.
" Pray command me at any time, and believe me to be very
faithfully yours." Martin J. Griffin, Librarian, Library of Par-
" I like the general make-up of your magazine, and am much
interested in it." Mrs. Elizabeth Roberts Macdonald, Fredericton,
" We enclose order for ACADIENSIS for Yale University Library
for 1901. If you have not already done so, we respectfully suggest
that you send a sample copy to each of the following large libra-
ries, lor which we act as agents." Eastern Subscription Co., Wai-
" 1 am glad that you are starting an Acadian Magazine. If I
had been in the way of writing I should like to contribute an
article strongly urging the advisability of "Maritime Union." I
have long been convinced that it is the most important issue for
us Bluenoses if we ever wish these provinces to attain the position
in the councils of the Dominion to which they are entitled. I
wrote a short letter to the London Canadian Gazette on the subject
several years ago, when I was living in Brittany. 1 shall be very
happy to become a subscriber to ACADIENSIS." Neville G. D. Par*
ker, M. D., St. Andrews, N. B.
Mr. J. Murray Kay, of the firm of Houghton, Mifflin & Co. ,
publishers, of Boston, New York and Chicago, prefatory to a
valuable letter, full of practical hints as to the best means of con-
ducting a magazine such as ACADIENSIS, writes as follows: " Your
note of the 22nd instant, refering to your new magazine, a copy
of which has also come to hand, has been duly received and
perused with much interest. Some points present themselves to
my mind, and I give you the bearings of them in the modest hope
that they may be of some use to you. * * * If there is any
other point on which you would like to consult me, please let me
know and I shall be glad to be of service to you."
" I shall be pleased to do anything in my power that will assist
you in your new venture, as I believe that the Magazine is one
that well deserves public support." IT. 8. Bridges, M.A., Ph.D.,
Superintendent of Schools and Principal of High School, St. John.
" I wish you success in this undertaking. The first part is
good." Phileas Gagnon, Quebec, Historian and Bibliophile.
" I shall be glad to give you what assistance I can. * *
I am obliged to you for the copy of ACADIENSIS which I read with
interest, and of which I hope, ere long, to become a subscriber if
not a contributor." L. W. Bailey, M. A., Ph.D., F.R.S.C.,
Prof, of Chem. and Natural Science, U. N. B, F'ton, N. B.
" May I congratulate you upon your debut, and wish you, very
sincerely, all success in your venture ? Please count me at once
among your friends, and if, at any time, I think I may venture
to hope that anything 1 may write may be desiring of a place in
your pages as likely to interest your readers, I shall most certain-
ly, and with delight, send you some copy." Lauyrence W. Watson,
Gharlottetown, P. E. I.
"lam greatly pleased with* the first number of ACADIENSIS.
There is, in my opinion, a fruitful field for such a magazine as is
outlined in your prospectus, and the names of the gentlemen
under whose auspices it is published is a sufficient guarantee for
the character of the work. I wish you full success in this enter-
prise." J. B. Inch, Chief Supt. of Education, Fredericton, N. B.
" WHITEWATER, B. C., February 8, 1901.
I saw an account of your magazine in the Oxford Journal; please
send me a sample copy. If it is as good as the paper claims, I
will subscribe." Norman McLeod, Sunset Mine, No. 1, B. C.
WHITEWATER, B. C., March 5, 1901.
"The sample copy of ACADIENSIS is to hand. Enclosed please
find my subscription for one year." Norman McLeod.
"lam delighted to hear of the new quarterly magazine. I
wish you every success." Harry Piers, Curator Provincial Museum,
Halifax, N. S.
"I wish you success with your new magazine." Alfred H-
Peters, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
" My grandfather, Moses Ward, was a cousin of Major John
Ward (Father of the City of St. John. ED.) and had the honor r
as I understand, of wearing His Majesty's commission in the same
regiment, ' DeLancey's American Loyalists.'
"P. S. Not being acquainted with exchange rates, I have
ventured to enclose five dollars. Any surplus you will please pass
to profit and loss account." Edmund A. Ward, Richfield Springs*
KIND WORDS. 107
" Please send ACADIENSIS to this library, t L"Avem Pardoe,
Librarian, Legislative Library, Toronto.
" Please send me a copy of your new Quarterly, with subscrip-
tion blank order." C. G. James, Department Agriculture, Toronto.
"I wish you every success." Mr. Justice Landry, Dorchester,
" You have my good wishes for the success of your enterprise.' 3
Mrs. Wm. J. Robinson, Moncton, N. B.
"I congratulate you upon the neat and attractive appearance
of the new magazine, and on the appropriate name, ACADIENSIS.
I wish it every success, and enclose an express order for a year's
subscription. James Vroom, Historian, etc., St. Stephen, N. B.
" I have much pleasure in asking you to enroll me as one of
your subscribers. I do not know that I have an article on hand
just now that would be suitable for your publication. I have been
looking into the history of education in Nova Scotia, and have
sketched an article which might be suitable." A, H. MacKay,
Superintendent of Education* Halifax, N. S.
"I shall be glad to forward your work by every means in my
power. I dare say you can advance the cause in your region in a
variety of ways. You have a fine field. Particularly I might
suggest the gathering of proverbs, and of old songs and ballads.
I wonder if fairy tales are still preserved in your region? 1 shall
be glad to see that some extracts from ACADIENSIS get into our
Journal." W. W. Newell, Secretary American Folk-lore Society,
Editor Journal American Folk-lore, Cambridge, Mass.
"I wish every success to your new magazine, ACADIENSIS."
Mr. Justice Savery, Annapolis Royal, N. S.
"I learn from Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells that you have started
a new magazine. Will you not send me a copy ? I have not lost
my interest in New Brunswick affairs, nor in my old St. John
friends." Montague Chamberlain, Boston, Mass.
"I have received the first number of ACADIENSIS, and am de-
lighted with its dress as well as with the subject-matter. Mr.
Dole's translation of French song is charming, and Mr. Roberts'
verse says just what we all feel when reading Kipling. I find the
historical articles intensely interesting to a New Brunswick
woman. I send the names of two persons who, I think, would
subscribe, and there are others whom I may send later." Miss
M. R. Hicks, Noroton Heights, Conn.
"Born in New Brunswick and an alumnus of Acadia, I note
with pleasure the appearance of your quarterly. I enclose $1.00
for a year's subscription. Please commence with the first number,
if the edition is not exhausted. Wishing you every success itt
your new venture." Archibald R. Tingley, B. A., etc., Russell, Man.
" I send you three subscriptions for ACADIENSIS. Send me some
of your circulars and I will distribute judiciously. I wish you
every success." H. W. Bryant, Bookseller and Antiquary, Port-
" The first number of ACADIENSIS reached me in due course. I
must congratulate you heartily upon its form and contents, and
my best wishes for a long and fruitful life are cheerfully given."
Ramd Renault, Editor North American Notes and Queries.
** Kindly let us know by return mail the subscription price of
ACADIENSIS. Some of our customers wish to take the journal and
your prompt reply will greatly oblige." Gotthold Haug, Phila-
" Enclosed find $1.00 for one year's subscription ACADIENSIS.
I trust that the magazine will find the large constituency that it
deserves." If. A. O'Leary, Editorial Department, New York Press.
" I have the honor to propose that the Reports of the Bureau of
American Ethnology be sent you regularly as issued, in exchange
for ACADIENSIS." F. W. Hodge, Librarian, Smithsonian Institution,
" I am deeply interested in the new venture which takes the
form of ACADIENSIS, and hope that it may have free course and be
glorified. I have long thought that the lower provinces were in
need of and could easily support a publication similar to that
which you own as yours. We Canadians are far too modest &
yet in that respect. "Rev. W. T. D. Moss, Pictou, N. S.
"Your first number reached me to-day, and I cordially wish
you every success." F. G. Jemmett, Editor Commonwealth, Ottawa.
" I shall be glad to be of any assistance to you in your literary
work. I am preparing some notes which I will forward to you
presently." #. Percy Scott, Windsor, N. 8.
" I can only say that I am prepared to give my hearty endor-
sation to your proposed publication; that I shall be pleased to be
an occasional contributor and do anything that I can to assist it."
Hon. J. W. Longley, Attorney General, Halifax, N. S.
KIND WORDS. 109r
"Every word of the Magazine I have read, and I am led to
believe that the publication will become a valuable addition to
the historical literature of Eastern Canada. I have been surpri-
sed that so rich a field has not been more thoroughly cultivated.
A more romantic, a more fascinating, a more instructive history
no country on this continent, other than Canada, presents to the
writer qualified to picture it. If, at any time 1 can be of service
to you, I shall with pleasure be at your command." J, Emory
Hoar, BrooUine, Mass.
" 1 am much interested in all old historical things, and ACADI-
BNSIS appears to me as most interesting aud valuable." Mrs. J.
Owen, Annapolis Royal, N. S.
" I am glad that such a work has been brought out, and con-
gratulate you on the nice appearance of the first issue. I can
assure you, that as a loyal Canadian, anything pertaining to
Canada's advancement will receive my hearty support. The
Canadian Club of Boston is a most influential body here, and at
our next meeting I will make it a point to introduce the first issue
of ACADIENSIS to them." W. B. McVey, Toxicologist,etc., College
of Physicians and Surgeons, Boston, Mass.
" As soon as I received it I read it with profit. I hope you will
find adequate encouragement in the Acadian Provinces, where it
appears to me there is much need of such a periodical to create
an interest in historical studies." Sir John G. Bourinot, L.L.D.,
D.G.L., Lit.D. (Laval) etc., etc.
" Just a line to wish you success in your undertaking. There
should be a good field for such a publication. Rev. W. Ken-
drick, Placentia, Neivfoundland.
The present number of ACADIENSIS contains sixteen pages
of printed matter more than the standard issue of forty-
eight pages. We trust that our subscribers will appreciate
this extra effort and expense upon our part, and endeavour
to interest their friends in our venture.
EXCHANGES AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Part IV of Volume IV of the " Bulletin of the Natural
History Society of New Brunswick," is the nineteenth con-
secutive issue by this energetic and nourishing society.
The principal contributors are Messrs. Geo. F. Matthew,
LL.D., F.R.C.S., Samuel W. Kain, William Mclntosh,
W. F. Ganong. M.A., Ph.D., G. U. Hay, M.A., F.R.S.C.,
and Charles F. B. Rowe. An article which should be of
particular interest to our readers is that entitled, " Some
Relics of the Early French Period in New Brunswick," by
Messrs. Kain & Rowe. The Bulletin is published by the
Society. Price, 50 cents.
One of the first of our exchanges to come to hand, and
one that gives promise of being a very valuable addition
to the field of Canadian literature is, " North American
Notes and Queries." It is published monthly, and the
March issue of the present year is only the ninth number
of the first volume. It covers a wide range of subjects,
and among its contributors, past and prospective, will be
found the names of some of the ablest writers in America.
The leading article in the current number is entitled,
" The Acadian Element in the Population of Nova Scotia,"
by Miss Annie Marion MacLean, A.B., A. M., M.A.,
Professor of Sociology in John B. Stetson University, of
DeLand, Florida, late Professor in McGill University,
Montreal. It is printed at Quebec, Raoul Renault, director
and proprietor, T. D. Chambers, editor. $3.00 per annum.
Number seven, of the " Book-lover," has been received,
this, too, being a comparatively new publication. It is
issued bi-monthly of quarto size, each number containing
about one hundred pages of printed matter. A miscellany
of curiously interesting and generally unknown facts about
the world's literature and literary people, well edited and
with a wonderfully inviting table of contents, one wonders
how such a valuable work can be remuneratively conducted
afc the small price charged, namely, $1.50 per annum.
W. E. Price, Editor, 1203 Market Street, San Francisco, ,
Canada Educational Monthly.
Prince Edward Island Magazine.
New England Bibliopolist.
New York Genealogical and Biographical Record.
Bulletin des Recherches Historiques.
Archaeological Reports, Ontario.
King's College Record.
Canadian Home Journal.
Report Bureau American Othnology.
Review Historical Publications Relating to Canada, .
University of Toronto.
The Earth Stands Fast, a lecture by Professor C.
Schoepffer, edited by Gen. J. Watts de Peyster.
Algol, the, "Ghoul" or "Demon" Star, by Gen. J.
Watts de Peyster and Frank Allaben.
We are indebted to Mr. S. W. Kain for old issues of :
The Colonial Empire.
The Morning Journal.
Saint John Globe.
We are also indebted to the following journals and
publications for very kind and more or less extensive
notices of our first issue. We regret that lack of space
prevents our republishing extracts from the many notices
received from our contemporaries :
North American Notes and Queries ... . .Quebec.
Canada Educational Monthly Toronto.
Family Record Sydney, C. B.
Presbyterian Witness Halifax, N. S.
Colchester Sun Truro, N. S.
P. E. Island Magazine Charlotte town, P. E. L
Times-Guardian Truro, N. S.
Truro Daily News Truro, N. S.
Free Press Weymouth, N. S.
L'Acadie Weymouth, N. S.
Maple Leaf Albert, N. B.
Advertiser Kentville, N. S.
L'Irnpartial Tignish, P. E. I.
Heraid , Halifax, N. S.
King's College Record , Windsor, N. S.
World Chatham, N. B.
Journal Summerside, P. E. I.
Carleton Sentinel Woodstock, N. B.
Tribune Windsor, N. S.
Freeman St. John, N. B.
Press Woodstock, N. B.
Gleaner Fredericton, N. B.
Outlook Middleton, N. S.
Messenger and Visitor St. John, N. B.
Despatch Woodstock, N. B.
Patriot Charlottetown, P. E. I.
Examiner Charlottetown, P. E. I.
Educational Review St. John, N. B.
Educational Record Quebec, P. Q.
Globe St. John, N. B.
Argus Lunenburg, N. S.
Casket Antigonish, N. S.
Canadian Home Journal Toronto.
We have been informed of the publication of similar
notices in periodicals other than those mentioned, but we
confine the list strictly to those of which we have personal
Our July number will contain the following, among other
Matthew Thornton, by James Vroom, of St. Stephen, N. B.
Notes and Queries, by H. Percy Scott, of Windsor, N. S.
Lease of the Seigniory of Freneuse on the St. John in 1696, by
Prof. W. F. Ganong, M. A., Ph.D., of Smith College,
On Certain Literary Possibilities, by Professor A. B. de Mille,
M. A., of King's College, Windsor, N. S.
La Valliere of Chignecto, by W. C. Milner, of Sackville, N. B.
BOOK-PLATE OF EDWARD ALLISON.
BOOK-PLATE OF THE LATE JOHN MEDLEY,
BISHOP OF FREDERICTON.
FROM THE COLLECTION OF DR. CHAS. E. CAMERON.
Vol. I. No. 3.
Book-Plates, - 115
Lease of the Seigniory ofFreneuse
on the St. John in 1696, - - 121
On Certain Literary Possibilities, 126
Signature of Matthew Thornton, 131
A Monument and its Story, - 137
Honorable] 'Judge Eobie, - - 143
Incidents in the Early History of
St. John, 151
Ji>a Valliere of Chignecto, - - 157
An Acadian Monarch, - - - 163
Notes and Queries, - - - - 164
Old Colonial Silver, - - - - 168
Esthetic A ttributes of A cadia, 169
Answers to Correspondents, - - 178
Book Notices, 182
Exchanges Received, - - - - 184
A slimy fetid pool in dreary fen,
Where bloomed no flower, where sang no bird
Lay, far removed from pleasant haunts of men
Its vile, dark, sick'ning depths unstirred,
Save by the bursting bubbles which betray
Some hidden, turgid mass in dank decay.
Unchanged it lay, until the August heat
Brooded upon it day by day ;
When, rising from its hateful, foul retreat,
It silent, ghost-like, passed away
In vap'rous films, scarce seen by mortal eye,
And humbly sought and found the summer sk;
Back to its pristine purity restored,
It floated, happy in the air
Where gauzy clouds with widespread pinions soa
O'er hills and dales and meadows fair;
Till, dropping down with welcome, gentle shov
It gave new life to thirsting grass and flowers
DAVID RUSSELL JACK, EDITOR.
HE MOST REVEREND
John Medley, D.D., late
Bishop of Fredericton
and Metropolitan of the
ecclesiastical province of
Canada, was born in
London, England, Dec.
10th, 1804. He was
educated at Wadham
College, Oxford, and
took his degree with
second-class honors i n
1827. He was ordained on June 14th, 1828, and became
curate of Souther, in Devonshire, the same year. Tn 1831
he accepted the incumbency of St. John, Truro, and in
1838 he was appointed to the vicarage of St. Thomas,
Exeter. He was consecrated first Bishop of Fredericton
on Ascension Day, 1845, in Lambeth Chapel, by the then
Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Howley. The foundation
stone of Fredericton cathedral was consecrated August
21st, 1853. The cathedral is a very fine specimen of
architecture, and its situation, near the bank of the St.
John river, surrounded as it is by a wide stretch of green
sward, and clustered about by feathery elm trees, betokens
the highly aesthetic taste of its projector, who sleeps his
long sleep beneath the shadow of its walls.
No. 11. The book-plate of Bishop Medley, which is here
reproduced from the original copper-plate engraving, is one
of the most beautiful in design and execution of any of those
to be found within the limits of Acadia. Upon a ribbon
is the motto : " Believe, Love, Obey," while above the
shield is the crest, an heraldic tiger, sejant, vert, tufted
and maned, or.
No. 12. Mr. Edward Allison was born at Cornwallis,
Nova Scotia, in November, 1803, and at the age of twelve
years removed to Halifax, where he afterwards went into
business with his brothers.
About 1845 he went to St. John and entered into part-
nership with Mr. James deWolfe Spurr, carrying on a
general lumber business under the firm name of Allison &
Spurr. they building the first mill at Spurr's Cove, at the
location afterwards occupied by Miller <fc Woodman.
Mr. Allison was also largely interested in shipping and
the importation of general merchandise until about 1854,
when, at the death of Mr. Adam Jack, who was managing
the business of the Liverpool and London and Globe
Insurance Company for him, he closed up his mercantile
business and devoted himself exclusively to insurance.
This latter business he continued until 1871, when he
retired altogether from active business and removed to
Fredericton, from whence, after three or four years, he
again removed to Halifax, at which city he died in 1876.
No. 13. The late William Richdale Bustin was a des-
cendant of an old Northumbrian family, and he was born
at South Lincolnshire, England. He was educated under
the Rev. Joshua Stoppard, at Sedgefield Grammar School
and at the University of Edinburgh. He was a good
linguist and well versed in the natural sciences.
He had held commissions in H. M. 10th and 98th
Regiments of Foot, and was a brother officer of the late
Col. John Robinson, of Douglas, York Co., N. B. After
seeing some service in the Mediterranean and on the
Continent of Europe, his battalion of the regiment was
He came to the Province of New Brunswick in 1848,
and was the last officer to whom land was granted in
He was a gentleman of superior education, literary
mind, sound piety and retired habits.
He died on Friday, the 27th of March, 1874, and the
St. Croix Courier, dated the
26th of the same month, pub-
lishes a very eulogistic obitu-
ary notice of his life, from
which the foregoing is a brief
No. 14 Of all Acadian fami-
lies, few are more numerous or
more widely distributed than
those bearing the name of
Wetmore, with allied branches.
Many of them have occupied
prominent positions, more
particularly in the Province
of New Brunswick. They are
all descended from Thomas
Whitmore, who came from
the west of England to Boston,
Mass., in 1635, in the eleventh
year of the reign of Charles the First. Three of them at
least, namely, Thomas Wetmore, Rev. Robert Griffith
Wetmore and William Wetmore, are known to have possess-
ed book-plates, one of which we reproduce herewith. In 1861
a very valuable book, entitled, " The Wetmore Family
in America," was published by James Carnahan Wetmore,
dealing with the Wetmore family throughout America.
That portion of the Wetmore family who settled in Char,
lotte County, N. B., appears to have been entirely omitted,
and as it embraced many prominent and interesting per-
sonages in provincial biography, it is our intention to pub-
lish the first of a series of articles, dealing with that branch
of the family, in our next issue.
All the book-plates of the Wetmore family which the
writer has been able to discover bear the family coat-of-
arms and crest, which are as follows :
Arms He beareth argent, on a chief azure ; three
Crest A Falcon, ppr.
The writer has had some correspondence with Hon.
George Peabody Wetmore, Chairman of the Committee on
the Library of the U. S. Senate, regarding the Wetmore
book-plates, and as one of his letters contains a great deal
of information in a concise form, we take the liberty of
re-publishing it verbatim :
WASHINGTON, D. C., May 7th, 1901.
I am .sorry not to have been able to give attention to your
letter, received some time ago, until now. In reply to your enquiry
as to whether I know anything concerning Wetmore book-plates,
I would say that I find in a book called " Book Plates Old and
New," by John A. Gade, published by M. F. Mansfield and Com-
pany, New York, on page 41, a paragraph speaking of book plates
engraved by Paul Revere, in which mention is made, among
others, of one of William Wetmore. In another book, " Book
Plates, and their Value," by J. H. Slater, published at London,
by Henry Grant, 47 Essex street, 1898, I find two references, on
page 63 and page 233, again of William Wetmore. " American
Book Plates," by Charles Dexter Allen, Macmillan and Co., New
York and London, 1894, refers, on page 56, to a book-plate of
Prosper Wetmore by Maverick, and on pages 147 and 148 to one
of William Wetmore, by Paul Revere, giving a/ac simile of the
same. In the same book, in the list of early American book-plates,
page 302, No. 924, a description is given of the book-plate of
Charles H. Wetmore, signed by " Doolittle, Sculp.," same page,
No. 925, that of Prosper Wetmore, signed, "Maverick, Sculp.,"
and same page, No. 926, William Wetmore, signed " Revere, so."
My father, William S. Wetmore, had a book-plate about forty
years ago, and I had one made about thirty years ago. I will try
and remember, when I go to Newport, to send you examples
of each. Yours truly,
GRORGE PEABODY WETMORE.
D. R. JACK, ESQ.,
St. John, New Brunswick.
No. 14. WILLIAM
WETMORE. The writer
is indebted to Mrs. J.
P. Wetmore, of Wood-
stock, N. B., for a pencil
sketch of a book-plate
in her possession made
for William Wetmore,
and signed Revere, Sc.
This is the first signed
book-plate which w e
have, so far, listed, and
it is undoubtedly that
of the William Wetmore
mentioned in the letter
of Hon. George Peabody
above. As it is identi-
cal in design with that
of Rev. R. G. Wetmore,
M. A., and of Thomas
Wetmore, neither of
which are signed, it is
probable that the latter
are reproductions of the plate used by William Wetmore.
The writer is also indebted to Mrs. Wetmore for the
original of the book-plate of Rev. R. G. Wetmore, which
we reproduce here.
No. 15. Rev. Robert Griffieth Wetmore, A. M., was the
youngest child of Timothy Wetmore, by Jane Haviland, of
Rye, N. Y., his first wife, Timothy was the son of Rev,
James, who was the son of Izrahiah, who was the son of
Thomas Whitmore, before mentioned. He was born in
Rye, N. Y., March 10, 1774; christened the Sunday next
before Whitsunday by the Rev. Mr. Avery, Mr. Robert
Griffieth and wife, sponsors, by proxy ; married May 1 6,
1795, at St. John, N. B., by Rev. Mather Byles, first
rector of Trinity Church, St. John, to Jane Gidney, of
Queens Co.; had Jane, and Abraham Kirsted Smedes.
In his tenth year he removed with his father to Nova
Scotia and New Brunswick, where he studied law and .was
duly admitted an attorney 6th May, 1795. Soon after-
wards he removed to New York and commenced the study
of theology, being ordained deacon by Right Rev. Samuel
Provost, bishop of New York, 25th May, 1797.
He was a very prominent Mason, and held many high
offices in that body. He died on the 30bh January, 1803,
at Savannah, Ga. His wife died at Rye, N. Y., Saturday*
October 2nd, 1802.
No. 16. Thomas Wetmore, brother to the Rev. R. G.
Wetmore, was born in Rye, N. Y., September 20, 1767 ;
married March 17th, 1793, at Gagetown, N. B., to Sarah,
daughter of Judge James Peters, and had thirteen children
by her. He was a Loyalist, and removed with his father
to Nova Scotia, and from thence to New Brunswick, where
he studied law with Hon. Ward Chipman, was admitted
to the bar, and practised with credit and success. In
1792 he held the office of Deputy Surrogate of the Colony,
was Master and Examiner in Chancery, Registrar of Wills
and Deeds for Queens County, and was a member of the
Council. He was appointed Attorney General of the Pro-
vince of New Brunswick July 26, 1809, which office he filled
with signal reputation until his death, 22nd March, 1828.
The writer has before him an old volume published in
1776, the property of Mr. George Otty Dickson Otty,
containing the book-plate of Thomas Wetmore, and also
his autograph, with the date 1799.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
(To be continued.)
lease of tbe Seignior? of Jreneuse on
tbe St. 3obn in 1696,
ORIGINAL manuscript of the fol-
lowing document is in my
possession. It was bought
some years ago from a collec-
tion of autographs sold at
Paris (Dufosse, Catalogue No.
69060). Its history, from
the day it was signed by the
Sieur de Freneuse at Quebec
on the 5th of August, 1696,
until it appeared in Dufosse's
collection, is an entire blank.
It is in a good state of pre-
servation, though the old-fashioned hand in which it is
written makes it at times difficult to read. In its tran-
scription and translation I have had the great advantage
of the kind assistance of Mr. F. P. Rivet, formerly profes-
sor of French in the University of New Brunswick, and
now a lawyer at Lowell, Mass. The document is not only
of much interest as a curiosity (for it is probably the
oldest original document relating to the history of New
Brunswick now in possession of any New Brunswicker),
but it is of considerable historical importance for the light
it throws on one of the least known periods of our history.
We know that the Seigniory of Freneuse occupied the
parishes of Maugerville, Sheffield and Canning, on the St.
John, and that the Seigniorial Manor of Freneuse was in
Sheffield, nearly opposite the mouth of the Oromocto.
Full accounts of the location of this and other seigniories
of the time on the St. John may be found, with a map, in
the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. V,
1899, Section ii, 302-320. The Sieur de Freneuse was
one of four brothers prominent on the St. John towards
the close of the seventeenth century, of whom a popular
account is given by Hannay in the New Brunswick Magazine,
I, 25. The genealogical connections of these brothers may
be traced in Tanguay's " Dictionnaire Genealogique." This
lease was signed in August, 1696, and the Sieur de Freneuse
died in the same year as a result of injuries received at the
siege of Fort Nashwaak in October. Michel Chartier,
habitant of Scoodic, was granted a seigniory in 1695 on
the Scoodic, including the site of St. Stephen, and he was
apparently living there at the time of Church's raid in
1704. Whether or not he ever occupied the seigniory of
Freneuse, we do not know, but as he appears not to be
mentioned in the census of 1698, probably the death of
the Sieur de Freneuse led to a change of plans. Judging
from Tanguay, Michel Chartier was probably no relation
of Dame Marie Fran9oise Chartier, widow of the Sieur de
Marson, and grantee of a seigniory on the St. John in
1691. The subsequent history of the Seigniory of Freneuse
is entirely unknown. The lease, however, shows that the
Sieur de Freneuse had here a considerable establishment,
as had his brother, Sieur de Chauffeurs, at Jemseg, as
shown by Gyles' Narrative ; so 1 that at least two of the
sixteen seigniories on the St. John were actually, to some
The document is worthy of reproduction, both in the
original form and in translation. The translation is not
exact, for in places the original is obscure, and I hare not
been able to determine the exact meaning of certain signs
and abbreviations ; but in all essentials I believe it conveys
the meaning of the original :
5 aoust 96
PARDEVANT GUILLAUME Roger Notaire Royal en la
Prevoste de Quebec y residanb Et tesmoins cy aprez nommez Et
signez, fub pnt. Monsieur Maistre Mathieu damours Escuyer
LEASE OF THE SEIGNIORY OF FRENEUSE m
Seigneur de freneuse, Conll. du Roy au Conseil souverain de ce
pais, Lequel de son boa gre, et Volonte, a reconnu et Confesse
avoir bailie et delaisse par ces presentes, a Tiltre de ferine, Loyer
et prix dargent, Pour Cinq annees finies et accomplies Commen-
cantes Le premier May de 1'annee prochaine gbjll Quartre vingt
dix sept Et finir a pareil Jour au bout deadites cinq annees, Et
promet pendant ledit temps garentir et faire Jouir plainement et
paisiblement, A Michel Chartier Habitant de Scoude a 1' acadie, a
ce present et aoceptant preneur et retenant pour luy au dit tiltre
le dit temps durant, C'est a scavoir, Le manoir Seigneurial de la
dite Seigneuriede freneuse, concistanten trente arpens ou Environ
de terres Labourables a la charrue, prez, bois de haute futaye et
taillie, avec les maisons, granges Et Estables qui sont dessus, La
traitte avec leu Sausages dans toute 1'estendiie de la seigneurie, a
la reserve des terres que Ledit sieur bailleur par [?] avoir concedees
a des particuliers, Comme aussy livrera le dit sieur bailleur au
preneur en Entrant dans Ladite ferme, tous Les beufs, vaches et
taurailles t avec les chevres qui en seront Sortis au dit temps,
douze Cochons masles Et femelles, Vollailles, meubles, et Ustancil-
les de mesnage qui resteront de la Vente quil a dessein d'en faire
avec Les Charette Et charnir, [charrue?] garnieet preste a travail-
ler, Pour desdt. terres maisons et bastiments Circonstances et
depencances t Jouir, par ledit preneur audit^tiltre Lesdt. Cinq
Annees durant En Vertu des presentes, Ce bail ainsy fait, a la
charge Par ledit preneur, d'en faire bailler et payer au dit sieur
bailleur par chacun an Le premier Juillet de chacune annee La
somme de six cent livres argent prix de france, moytie en argent
Et L'autre en menues pelleteries Comme castor, Louttres Et
martres Lequel payement Ledt. sieur bailleur Envoyera querir au
dit lieu en 1'acadie La premiere annee qui sera 1698 ; La Seconde
Le preneur luy apportera en cette Ville, La troisieme le dit sieur
de freneuse lenvoyera querir, La quatriee. Le preneur luy appor-
tera Et la Cinqe. et derniere annee ledt. sieur bailleur y envoy-
era outre ce sera ledt. preneur tenu a la fin de son bail de remettre
es mains dudit sieur bailleur Pareil nombre t ainsy que de ce qu 1
est cy dessus specific, t qu'il a de present de bestes a Conies,
mesme Especes Et Valleur, ainsy que des cochons, Et des
Ustancilles de mesnage, Charette et Charrue garnie, Et Vollail-
les, ft suivant Et Au desir de 1'Estat du tout, qui sera fait Entreux,
Et dont chacune d'Elles aura Copie ; Comme aussy par ledt.
Preneur d'Entretenir les bastiments des manoir reparationes
pendant son bail, que si'il on besoin d'en faire de grosses II sera
to, t. These signs occur in the original.
tenu d'en advertir le dit sieur bailleur afin d'y faire remedier
Lesquelles II sera tenu de souffrir Sans pour ce pouvoir pretendre
aucune diminution de labourer, cultiver et Ensemencer les terres
parsoller Et saisons convenables sans desoller ny desaissoner Et
du tout en user comme Un bon pere de famille don faire, Et le
tout rendre en bon et deub estat en fin dudt bail, Et outre de
fournir Autant des presentee en bonne et deube forme Au dit sieur
bailleur ou luy rendre Ce quil en aura debourse, moyennant quoy
Le dit sieur bailleur s'oblige de rendre Les dites maisons et autres
bastiments en bon Et deub Estat, Car ainsy sont convennues
lesdites parties Permettant et obligeant chacune en dieu Foy Et
renonceant fait et passe Audit Quebec Estude dudt. Notaire
Apres Midy Le Cinquieme Jour d' aoust Mil six centquatre vingt
Seize en presence des sieurs Georges Michellet Me descole Et Jean
Chevallier peruquier demeurant au dit Quebec-tesmoins qui ont
avec Ledt sieur bailleur et Notaire Signe Et a ledt. preneur
declare ne scavoir escrire ny signer de ce Enquis, 11 ee gl. luy
en sera livre.
G. MICHELLET. J. CHEVALIER.
5th August '96,
BEFORE WILLIAM Roger, Notary Royal of the jurisdiction of Quebec
there residing, and witnesses hereafter named and subscribed, was present
Monsieur Master Mathieu Damours, Sieur de Freneuse, Counsellor of the King
in the sovereign Council of this land, who of his own accord and will has
acknowledged and confessed to have leased and relinquished by these presents
the title in his farm [for] rent and payment in money for five full and entire
years commencing the first of May next year sixteen hundred and ninety
seven and to end on the same day at the end of the said five years, and
promises during the said time to guarantee and allow, fully and peacefully,
possession to Michel Chartier habitant of Scoodic in Acadie (he being present
and accepting as lessee and holding for himself under the said title during
the said time,) [the following] that is to say, the seigniorial manor of the
said Seigniory of Freneuse, consisting of thirty arpents or thereabouts of
arable land under the plow, meadows, forest and undergrowth, with the
houses barns and stables which are thereon, trade with the Indians through
the whole extent of the Seigniory with exception of the lands which the said
LEASE OF THE SEIGNIORY OF FRENEUSE 125
lessee may have granted to private individuals, as also the said lessor will
deliver to the lessee in taking possession of the said farm, all the oxen cows
and bullocks with the goats which shall be on it at the said time, twelve pigs
male and female, poultry, furniture and household utensils which shall
remain from the sale he intends to make, with the cart and plow rigged and
ready for work. In order that the said lessee may enjoy the said lands,
houses, and buildings, privileges and appurtenances under the said title
during the said five years, by virtue of these presents, this lease [is] thus
made, on the condition that the said lessee gives and pays to the said lessor
for each year on the first of July in each year the sum of six hundred livres
in money of the French standard, half in money and the other half in small
furs such as beaver otter and martins ; which payment the lessor will send
for at the said place in Acadie the first year which will be 1698 ; the second
the lessee shall bring to him in this city ; the third the said Sieur de Freneuse
will send for ; the fourth the lessee will bring to him, and the fifth and last
year the said lessor will send, besides which the said lessee shall be bound at
the end of his lease to return into the possession of the said lessor a like
number as herein specified that it has at present of cattle, of the same kinds
and value, as well as pigs and household utensils, waggon and plow equipped,
and poultry, according to the list of all which shall be made between them
and of which each one shall have a copy. Also the said lessee shall have
to keep the buildings of the manoir in repair during his lease, and if larger
[changes] are needed he will be bound to advise the said lessee in order that
he may repair them. All these things he will have to do without being able
to claim any diminution of plowing cultivating and sowing the lands, to
work it in suitable seasons and not to injure it nor work it out of season,
and to use everything as a good father of a family ought to do, and to return
everything in good and proper order at the end of his lease, and besides to
furnish as much of these presents in good and proper order to the said
lessor or to return to him what he shall have expended, in consideration of
which the said lessor binds himself to hand over the said houses, and other
buildings in good and proper condition. For thus the said parties are con
vened promising and binding themselves by God and the faith and in renun-
ciation. Made and passed at the said Quebec in the office of the said Notary
in the afternoon of the fifth day of August one thousand six hundred and
ninety six in the presence of Messieurs Georges Michellet schoolmaster, and
Jean Chevallier Barber living at the said Quebec, witnesses who have with
the said lessor and Notary signed. And the said lessee declares he knows
how neither to write nor to sign . . . shall be delivered to him.
W. F. GANONG.
n Certain Xtterarip possibilities*
T the present time there is an enormous
demand for literary material. This
is especially the case as regards fiction.
For example, it will be found that
nearly every state in the union to the
south of us possesses one or more
literary interpreters engaged in prose-
cuting their art and reaping their pecuniary rewards.
Thus, Kentucky is in the hands of Mr. James Lane Allen,
Louisiana under the manipulation of Mr. G. W. Cable.
And in these days of " localized " fiction- writing, it is
interesting to note the possibilities of our Maritime Pro-
vinces, and particularly those of Nova Sootia. A few
remarks on the subject may fitly find place in ACADIENSIS.
Nova Scotia, as everyone knows, formed the most im-
portant section of the old French province of Acadie. It
possesses a history extending back some three centuries,
and manifests features historical and other which claim
a more than passing notice from the seeker after new
things in the domain of literature. To a certain degree
the field has been exploited, but there remains a large
extent of virgin soil. There is plenty of dramatic incident
imbedded in the past, while many elements of literary
appeal exist to-day on the rugged coast-line or the storied
At the basis of all literary appeal lies the quality of
human interest. Very close to this comes what may be
called local colouring, as of dialect and scenery which
serves to bestow originality and freshness. To engage the
attention of the public requires striking character or inci-
dent, or strong scenic effect. These requirements may be
found without difficulty in the little seaside province.
ON CERTAIN LITERARY POSSIBILITIES 127
Of the literary possibilities of Nova Scotia, those of a
historical nature are the first to present themselves. The
history of the country has not been very long, but it is
singularly picturesque. All about it there clings a pleasant
flavour of romance.
The French were the first on the scene, arriving towards
the beginning of the seventeenth century. The names of
DeMonts, Champ] ain, and the Baron de Poutrincourt group
about this early period. These gentlemen adventurers
were very interesting figures, and carried with them into
the wilderness something of the glamour of old France.
Many dramatic incidents are connected with the French
regime. There was the famous duel of La Tour and
Charnisay a duel fought out on two continents, and end-
ing in a manner which touches every lover of true romance.
Though one could wish, indeed, that La Tour had remained
faithful to the memory of the brave lady who waited so
long and vainly in the fort at the St. John's mouth above
the fierce Fundy tides. Sufficiently dramatic, too, was
the appearance before this of Captain Samuel Argall, who
went north all the way from Virginia to wipe out the
French menace at Port Royal. This place, at the head of
its beautiful basin, was for years the centre of French
influence. And the hill-ranges round about looked down
on many a dubious conflict, when the cannon grumbled
over the marshes.
The first successful attempt at colonization was made
about 1633, when Isaac de Razilly and Charnisay brought
out some families from France. These were the progenitors
of the Acadian race. Very capable people they were
though for a time they suffered much during the winters.
Yet they kept up bravely, and barred out the sea, and
felled the forests, and cultivated the marshes. They
increase and multiply, so that by and by we find them
holding all the fair valley from Port Royal to Piziquid.
They spread also round the head of the Bay of Fundy.
Their great achievement was reclaiming thousands of acres
where formerly the salt waves ranged at will. Their
system of dike-building was remarkable for strength and
durability. They did not pay much attention to things
extraneous, and could not at all understand the inexorable
law of race-conflict which brought the English against
This struggle, and the events connected therewith, forms
the most striking period of Nova Scotian history, The
whole subject is shrouded with a mist of controversy, of
which the end is not yet. But this is of small consequence
to the romancer. Of course we have had the great romance
of the Acadians the tale of " love that hopes, and endures
and is patient." Evangeline is a very charming (if very
unhistorical) heroine, and the poem shows how much can
be made by an artist out of good material. Yet Long-
fellow's work has by no means exhausted the possibilities
of that exciting period. There is strong dramatic value
in the opposition of the Acadians and English, and the
vast background of the Anglo-French war.
That war presents many opportunities to the story-
writer. The time was pregnant with fate ; the destiny of
three nations hinged upon the outcome. A striking work
of fiction lies in the power of him who can read and weigh
musty archives, who has an eye for effective incident, and
the skill of a literary craftsman. Beausejour, Grand Pre
and Louisbourg call up memories that loom large and are
lit with battle-fires.
Another feature of literary interest in Nova Scotia is
found in the various periods of settlement. That of the
French commenced in 1605, or thereabouts, and ran on for
the greater part of a century. About 1748 the English
began to take a definite stand. In the summer of 1745 a
handful of German settlers were established in what is
now the County of Lunenburg. Some twenty years later
the Scotch immigration began. It continued until 1820,
ON CERTAIN LITERARY POSSIBILITIES 12
and was of much importance to the province. The United
Empire Loyalists came to Nova Scotia in 1783, and the
story of the settlement and abandonment of Shelburne is
an interesting chapter of history.
Turning from the historical point of view, we find that
even in the present prosaic age Nova Scotia has consider-
able material for the literary artificer. In the first place,,
there is the very fascinating element of French survival.
Longfellow's words are still substantially true. Acadian
damsels do still wear the Norman cap and the homespun
kirtle. And if they do not repeat Evangeline's story
around the fire, they doubtless have equally entertaining
tales of their own. Any writer who has time on his hands
would do well to spend a few weeks in the Clare District,
or among the Tusket Islands. Here the march of progress-
has made but little change.
Then there is the presence of what may be termed
dialect. The Acadian French is the most important.
Two other modes of speech will re-pay study. One is that
of Lunenburg and Queens Counties. It possesses a strong
German element. The use of pure German has died out
within the last fifty years, though many families treasure
their old German Bibles. But the speech and it might
be said the customs and physiognomy of this folk shows
marked traces of their origin. Up in Cape Breton, and in
the Counties of Pictou, Guysborough and Antigonish, you
will find Scotch and very broad Scotch, too. Many of
the good people speak Gaelic. This section is peculiarly
interesting. It is also characterized by thrift an essenti-
ally Caledonian virtue.
Again, there is enough wild life in Nora Scotia to catch
the attention of the literary stroller. Most important in
this regard are the Indians what is left of them. They
are a silent race proud and shy but if you win their
respect through the good fellowship that comes of fishing
and shooting, they will tell some strange legends of ancient
lore. If you are a writer, however, you must be careful to
keep the fact hid, for they dread the publication of the
pathetic tales of their past. The best traditions of the
Micmacs are handed down orally, and jealously guarded.
The better class of Indians preserve a sort of aristocracy.
Sometimes they will point out the sites of forgotten villages,
now indistinguishable amid the forest.
An important phase of Nova Scotian life is found in the
fisheries. Many of our fishermen sail out of Gloucester to
the Banks, but many more go from our own ports. Fine
fellows they are, and spin a good yarn upon occasion.
Moreover, they often build and sail their own schooners.
And you seldom hear of a vessel built at Lunenburg, or
La Have, or Shelburne, turning up any the worse for a gale
This brings us, by a natural sequence, to the final note
in our hastily-gathered sheaf. Nova Scotia possesses
excellent scenic properties. The marsh country is un-
usual, and produces magnificent sunsets more particularly
the region sentinelled by Blomidon. On the Atlantic
coast you get the finest effects. The land is bold, often
precipitous, and the sweep of the surges is terrific. The
headlands are generally naked granite. Also they are
unspoiled as yet by summer cottages or summer tourists.
You obtain the scenic impression to advantage on board
an inbound steamer, or a homing schooner. If it is winter,
and towards sundown of a windy day, so much the better.
As I said at first, the literary field offered by Nova Scotia
has by no means been neglected. But there is much
remaining to the craftsman who feels moved thereunto.
A. B. DEMlLLE.
Kind's College, Windsor, N. S.
Signature of flDattbew ftbornton.
NEW HAMPSHIRE, before the
outbreak of the Revolutionary War,
there were two men, uncle and nephew,
who bore the name of Matthew Thorn-
ton. The uncle was born in Ireland,
about 1714. He was a son of James
Thornton, and came with his father
to America when three or four years of age. Soon
after their immigration, the family settled at Wor-
cester, Mass.; removing thence to Londonderry, N. H.,
in 1740. Having studied medicine in Massachusetts,
Matthew Thornton was commissioned by Warren and
Pepperrell, in 1745, as under-sergeant of Richardson's
regiment, and accompanied the expedition to Louisbourg,
On his return he resumed the practice of his profession in
Londonderry, where he was later appointed justice of the
peace, and also colonel of militia. Though he thus held
two offices under the royal government, he represented the
town of Londonderry in the second, third and fourth pro-
vincial congresses of New Hampshire, and was elected
president of the latter in 1775. He held the same position
in the fifth provincial congress; and when that body
resolved itself into a state legislature, Matthew Thornton
was chosen speaker of the house of representatives, an
office which he very soon left vacant to become a member
of the upper house, and afterwards a justice of the supreme
court of New Hampshire. In 1779 he removed from
Londonderry to Exeter, and in the following year to the
Merrimac, where, in 1784, he obtained exclusive right to
the ferry at the place still known as Thornton's Ferry.
He died in 1803 while on a visit to his daughter in New-
Matthew Thornton, the nephew, was the son of another
James Thornton. He was born in New Hampshire, in
December, 1746. He was a resident of the town of
Thornton ; where, at the age of twenty-nine, he seems to
have taken a leading part in local affairs, and held the
rank of captain of militia. While Colonel Matthew Thorn-
ton represented Londonderry in the third provincial con-
gress, Captain Matthew Thornton sat in the same convention
as the representative of the towns of Holderness and
Thornton. Matthew Thornton, of Thornton, was also a
member of the fourth New Hampshire congress, and was
by it appointed to assist in the work of raising volunteers
"to guard the Western Frontier." At the battle of
Bennington, in August, 1777, he appeared among the
British, under circumstances which led to the suspicion
that he was not altogether an unwilling prisoner. He was
arrested by the New Hampshire authorities ; was detained
in prison for two years, the general assembly in the mean-
time passing and repealing special acts to authorize his
trial in certain counties, one after another ; and was finally
tried and acquitted. After his release, he fled to escape
persecution. Joining the Penobscot Loyalists at St.
Andrews, he received a share in their grants of land on
the St. Croix, his farm lot lying in that part of the old
parish of St. Stephen which is now the parish of Dufferin.
He died about 1824, and is buried at the Ledge, not far
from the land allotted to him in the Penobscot Association
grant. His grave is not marked, and the exact spot is
difficult to find. There are persons living who can recall
to memory the old man, broken in health and spirit ; and
a refined, gentle and patient woman, his wife. The ruins
of the old stone house in which they lived, a large pewter
dish that belonged to their better days, and a scarf-pin
bearing the family coat-of-arms, and beneath it some
Masonic device that is said to have helped him in his flight
these, and a few old documents in which his name
SIGNATURE OF MATTHEW THORNTON 133
occurs, are all that remain to his younger descendants as
mementos of the refugee.
One of these two men was a delegate to the general
congress that assembled in Philadelphia in 1776 and
adopted the Declaration of Independence. He is mentioned
in the journals of the congress as "The hon. Matthew
Thornton, Esq., a delegate from New Hampshire." Though
not present when the famous declaration was issued, and
not even a member of the congress until four months later,
he was allowed to add his signature. Was this Colonel
Thornton, of Londonderry ; or was it his nephew, Captain
Thornton, of Thornton? The descendants of the latter
have a tradition that he was the signer.
According to this family tradition, Captain Thornton,
just before the affair known as the battle of Bennington,
had gone to look over some land which he had bought or
wished to buy, and was surprised and taken prisoner by
the British, and compelled to drive one of their ammunition
wagons. His neighbors, finding him thus employed, sup-
posed that he had been all along secretly in sympathy
with the British ; and he was therefore arrested for treason.
The fact that after a long imprisonment he was brought to
trial and honorably acquitted did not allay their suspicions ;
and to avoid further trouble he secretly made his way by
sea to St. Andrews, where, on the arrival of the Loyalist
refugees, he was admitted to their company as a fellow
The following statement* was given the writer some
years ago by the late Joseph Donald, of Dufferin, who at
one time sat in the House of Assembly of this province as
a member for Charlotte :
It has always been known in the family that Matthew Thornton,
of the Penobscot Association, was a signer of the Declaration of
Independence, though, for obvious reasons, very little was said
about it during his lifetime. As a Loyalist among Loyalists, he
* Published in the St. Crotae Courier series of articles on the History of
Oharlotte County and the Border Towns, now out of print.
would, of course, prefer that the fact should be forgotten ; and it
would have been more in accordance with his wishes if it had
remained a family secret.
Soon after I became acquainted with the family, which was-
nearly seventy years ago, I first heard it mentioned. This was
but a year or two after Matthew Thornton died, and while his
widow was still living.
A little incident which convinced me of the truth of this story
took place at the house of his son (afterwards my father-in-law),
who was also named Matthew Thornton.
A friend had sent me a group of portraits of the signers of the
Declaration of Independence. Showing this to Mr. Thornton,
without letting him know what it was, I asked him whether he
knew any of the faces. He pointed to one and said, " Why, that's
Father Thornton," and showed it to his wife, who also recognized
the likeness. Then I told him that the pictures were those of the
signers of the Declaration of Independence, and that the one he
had pointed out bore his father's name ; and he said, "Yes, he
was a signer,"
It was easy to be misled by a strong family likeness ;
and " signer " would not necessarily mean a signer of the
Declaration of Independence ; so, to remove any lingering
doubts, Mr. Donald went to some trouble and expense in
looking up records in New Hampshire. But he finally
reached the conclusion that the family tradition was
Mr. Donald's conclusion, however, was not supported by
such documentary proof as would be convincing to others.
The papers in his possession related chiefly to the trial and
acquittal of Captain Thornton. The readiest means of
testing the truth of the curious tradition seemed to be a
comparison of the signature of Matthew Thornton in a
fac-simile of the Declaration of Independence, with signa-
tures of Captain Thornton, the Loyalist ; but the result
was not so conclusive as might have been expected.
[From a/ac-imtte of the Declaration of Independence].
SIGNATURE OF MATTHEW THORNTON 135
[From a document witnessed by Matthew Thornton
soon after coming to St. Stephen.]
[From a note of hand given by Matthew Thornton,
of St. Stephen, in 1813.]
The very remarkable resemblances in these signatures
the peculiar break between the " r " and the " n " in the
first syllable of the surname, the joining of " t " and " o,"
and the stiff ending of the final letter of the name seemed,
at least, to call for a suspension of judgment. If an un-
doubted signature of Dr. Thornton should prove to be very
different, Mr. Donald's contention would hold good, and the
tradition must be accepted as true.
Following up the matter more recently (with the courteous
help of Mr. V. H. Paltsits, of the New York Public
Library), the required signature was obtained, and a wonder-
ful similarity of handwriting shown to have existed in the
case of uncle and nephew. If the resemblance in their
features was so great, it is not surprising that the son of
the latter was misled by the printed portrait.
[From a /ac-stmj'Ze of document signed by htm as Chairman of
the Committee of Safety, "Exeter, June 19th, 1775."]
[From a recommendation of a committee of the N. H. House of
Representatives, dated " March 3rd, 1786."]
It must be admitted, then, that "The hon. Matthew
Thornton, Esq.," president of the New Hampshire conven-
tion, was the delegate to the congress at Philadelphia and
the signer of the famous document. His unfortunate
nephew, who, when a company of men was to be raised by
the New Hampshire Committee of Safety, in 1775, was
recommended to that committee as " a Man Shutabe [sic]
we Think to Inlist said Company, and a man that we Can
Depend upon in the graitest Troble or Destress," was
probably a signer of some other pledge or protest. Such a
document was signed by many who afterwards remained
loyal to the crown ; for many of the colonists felt that
they were opposing the unlawful acts and pretensions of
the British parliament, and not their lawful sovereign, the
King of England. They were ready enough to acknow-
ledge the King ; but were not ready to acknowledge any
other authority as above that of the colonial legislatures.
The Declaration of Independence, in 1776, may have com-
pelled Captain Thornton, as it certainly did compel many
another colonist, to choose between keeping faith with his
associates and remaining true to his allegiance. That his
uncle was present at his long-deferred trial, and that two
brothers-in-law were men of influence, may, perhaps, in part
account for his acquittal in defiance of public opinion.
This view of the case is certainly in accordance with the
fact that he was received on equal terms as a member of
the Penobscot Association of United Empire Loyalists.
H flDonument ant> its Stor\>,
|HE DEATH of Mrs. Macdonald did not, how-
ever, turn Captain Macdonald from the patri-
otic work in which he was engaged, and to
which he had been devoted. In the autumn
of 1843 he published, from the press of Henry
Chubb <fe Co., a pamphlet which bore the following title :
11 Sketches of Highlanders : with an account of their early
arrival in North America ; their advancement in agricul-
ture ; and some of their distinguished military services in
the war of 1812, etc., etc., with letters containing useful
information for emigrants from the Highlands of Scotland
to the British Provinces, by R. C. Macdonald, Lieutenant-
Colonel of the Castle Tioram Regiment of Highlanders,
Prince Edward Island, Chief of the Highland Society of
Nova Scotia, and Paymaster of the 30th Regiment. St.
John, N. B., 1843."
The edition of the pamphlet, which was limited in num-
ber, for some reason was not freely circulated, and remained
in possession of the Messrs. Chubb for many years, and
was destroyed in the great fire of 1877. But few copies
are now in existence, and it is one of the rarest of provincial
The sketches of Highlanders are taken from Chamber's
Higtory of the Rebellion of 1745, supplemented with a
great deal of historical information relating to the High-
land soldiers and emigrants who settled in Prince Edward
Island and Nova Scotia during the last century. The
pamphlet, which contains a very interesting account of the
Glengarry regiment, and its services in the war of 1812-13,
ends with two characteristic letters from Abraham Gesner,
the eminent geologist, to Captain Macdonald, on the settle-
ment of Highlanders on the crown lands of New Brunswick-
Captain Macdonald's book was worthy of a wider circula-
tion and deserved a better fate than that which befell
it, and the author merited more honor than he appears
to have received.
But that which has tended most to perpetuate Captain
Macdonald's name with us is the monument, with the
lengthy inscription, which he placed over the grave of his
wife, and which remains as a memorial of his affection.
The builder of the monument was the late John Causey,
and it was placed in its present position in the autumn
Shortly after its erection, the 30th Regiment returned
to England, and we hear nothing more of Captain Mac-
donald. Military duties carried him far from his native
island, and the people in whom he had taken so deep an
interest. In 1848, while on service with his regiment in
the island of Cephalonia, one of the Ionian Isles, now a
part of the kingdom of Greece, he died, and his brother
officers placed over his grave a monument to mark his
worth and their respect.
Captain Macdonald possessed an estate on Prince Edward
Island, to which his father, Glenaladale, had given the
name "Castle Tioram."* It was a portion of his patrimony.
There, and on Lots 35 and 36, was formed the Castle Tioram
Regiment of Highlanders, named in compliment to him,
and of which he became lieutenant-colonel. The corps
was recruited from his own clansmen, and wore the same
* " Caitletirrim is one of the ancient seats on the mainland of the Mac-
donalds of Clanranald. It was burnt down by the chief prior to his joining
the Earl of Mar during the Fifteen to avoid its falling into the hands of the
government forces during his abence. The walls are still standing, and in
fair preservation, on a little island near the head of Loch Moidart. The
name, as written by Captain Macdonald himself, Castle Tioram, is the
correct Gaelic form of it. The family of Glenaladale being descended from
Clanranald, Captain Macdonald, naturally enough, called his place in Prince
Edward Island after the ancient family residence of his chief." Extract
from a letter from Alexander Mackenzie, F. S A., author of " History of the'
Macdonalds and Lords of the Isles " to the writer.
A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY 139
tartan as the Highland societies of British America, the
prominent color being the Gordon tartan, with the colors
of the other clans. The standard of the regiment bore the
Glengarry and Castle Tioram coat-of-arms, and was pre-
sented by Mrs. Macdonald. The Castle Tioram regiment,
like many of the Highland societies, is but a memory of the
past, and the Castle Tioram estate has become the residence
of strangers, with the ancient name almost forgotten.
Captain Macdonald had issue by his wife one son and
two daughters ; one daughter died young, and the other,
Elizabeth Ranaldson Macdonald, entered a convent and
became a nun. She is now in Melbourne, Australia.
The son, Rev. John Alastair Somerled Macdonald, a Jesuit
priest, is stationed at Brandon, Manitoba, in the Northwest
Territories of the Dominion of Canada. This gentleman
is imbued with the same love of race which so highly
characterized his father.
" Colonel Macdonell, chief of Glengarry, and heir to the
forfeited titles of the Earls of Ross," was the fifteenth
chief of Glengarry, and the last historic chieftain of the
clan. He was the grand-nephew of Alastair Macdonell of
Glengarry, who was selected by the Highland chiefs in
1745 to carry an address, signed with their blood, to Prince
Charles. Two battalions of Glengarry men served with
the standard of Prince Charles in that ill-starred rising.
Colonel Macdonell was a friend of Sir Walter Scott, and
is said to have been his original for Fergus Mclvor in
Waverley. In 1793, when the French republic declared
war against England, a number of Catholic gentlemen in
the Highlands formed a regiment under the command of
Colonel Macdonell; most of the persons who formed it
being his clansmen and tenants, it was known as the
First Glengarry regiment. The corps served in Ireland
during the troubles of 1798, and remained in service until
1802, when it was disbanded. Many of the Glengarry
men, under the leadership of their chaplain, Rev. Father
Macdonell, with their friends and relatives, emigrated to
Upper Canada, and formed a Gaelic-speaking settlement
called after their native glen, where each head of the family
gave the name of his holding in Glengarry to his plantation
in the new home. The Glengarry regiment was again
re-organized in Canada, and did its part nobly in saving
the British Provinces to the crown in the years 1812-13-14.
With this regiment Captain John Jenkins, a New Bruns-
wicker, gained renown at the taking of Ogdensburg.
Colonel Macdonell died in 1828, his demise being most
tragic. Sir Walter Scott, who was a great admirer of the
chieftain, wrote a lament, entitled, " Glengarry's Death
Song," which was first printed in the article referred to in
Blackwood's Magazine :
" Land of the Gael, thy glory has flown ;
For the star of the north, from its orbit is thrown ;
Dark, dark is thy sorrow, and hopeless thy pain,
For no star e'er shall beam with its lustre again.
Glengarry, Glengarry, is gone ever more,
Glengarry, Glengarry, we'll ever deplore."
Colonel Macdonell was succeeded by his eldest son,
^Eneas Ranaldson Macdonell, who sold the greater part of
the Glengarry estates, which were heavily mortgaged, and
emigrated with his family to Australia, and the vast terri-
tories of the race of Glengarry passed from them forever.
Captain Macdonald ended the long inscription with this
brief reference to an episode in the life of his father, which
changed the fortunes of the Glenaladale family, and also
had an important influence on the early settlement of
Prince Edward Island :
" Also to perpetuate the memory of the chieftain of Glenaladale,
his father, and the attachment of the Highlanders who followed
him, as their leader, to Prince Edward Island in 1772."
John Macdonald, the eighth chieftain of Glenaladale,
was a child when his father joined the standard of Prince
Charles in 1745, which was first unfurled upon Glenaladale's
A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY HI
property at Glenfmnin. He was educated at the famous
Catholic seminary at Ratisbon, in Germany, and was con-
sidered one of the most accomplished young gentlemen of
his generation. "In 1770 a violent persecution against
the Catholics broke out in the island of South Uist.
Glenaladale, hearing of the proceedings, went to visit the
people, and was so touched by their pitiable condition that
he formed the resolution of expatriating himself, and going
off at their head to America."* With this object in view,
he sold the estate of Glenaladale to his cousin and nearest
heir in 1771, and purchased a large estate in Prince
Edward Island, then known as Saint John's Island, and
A few years after the settlement of Glenaladale and his
clansmen, the war between England and her American
colonies broke out, and in this emergency Glenaladale was
the means of forming, in Prince Edward Island and Nova
Scotia, a battalion named "the Royal Highland Emigrants,''
composed chiefly of Highlanders, and in which he com-
manded a company.
His many virtues and abilities were recognized during
those trying times, and the loyalty of his clansmen was
unquestioned. After the close of the war Glenaladale
devoted his energies to the development of his large landed
estates in Prince Edward Island. These he divided into
seven portions, and their sub-divisions he called after
places in Scotland Glenaladale, Grand Tracady, Donald-
son, Castle Tioram, Arisaig, St. Martins and New Moidart.
At his home the old chieftain displayed the most unbounded
hospitality, and his house was a resting place where all
travellers received a cordial welcome, f Glenaladale took a
deep interest in the public affairs of Prince Edward
Island, and filled many important positions of honor and
trust. The British government offered him the governor-
41 History of the Macdonalds and Lords of the Isles, p. 448.
t Hon. A. A. Macdonald, Prince Edward Island.
ship, bat owing to the oath of allegiance necessary at the
time, as a Catholic he was obliged to decline the office.
He died in 1811, and is buried among his clansmen and
kindred in a burial ground known as " the Doctor's House."
The estates once held by Captain John Macdonald, of
Glenaladale, in Prince Edward Island, were, under the
terms of the Provincial Land Purchase Act, bought by the
local government, and re-sold at cost to the occupants, who
now hold them in fee simple.
His grandson, John Archibald Macdonald, Esq., still
.holds Glenaladale with five hundred acres attached, which
he cultivates, and on which he resides. Another grandson,
Sir William C. Macdonald, philanthropist, is the generous
benefactor of McGill University, Montreal, and other
educational measures of national importance.
I have attempted in this paper to tell the story of the
old monument that stands in the midst of so many
memorials in that city of the dead, and yet seems so lonely
in its massiveness. As the years go by the lengthy inscrip-
tion, so carefully cut on it, will be effaced, or obliterated
by the hand of time, and the monument become but a
meaningless column. The historic epitaph, however, will
be preserved in the pages of ACADIENSIS, and the purpose
of its builder, to perpetuate the memory of a noble woman,
will, in a measure, have been accomplished.
honorable 3ut>Qe IRobie.
A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.
[AT Mr. Robie evinced a deep interest in the
subject of agriculture is well known. While
he did not attempt to deprive " Agricola " of
his justly earned laurels, by lecturing upon
scientific agriculture in the rural districts, he
did all in his power to turn to good account the general
desire for greater improvement in this branch of industry,
created by John Young's admirable " Letters," and on the
15th December, 1818, took an active part in the proceedings
of the public meeting at Halifax that organized the
" provincial agricultural society," of which Lord Dalhousie
was president, the unknown "Agricola" secretary, when
he declared himself, and Mr. Robie, one of the committee
of management and directors for several years. With this
knowledge of his agricultural proclivities it is not sur-
prising to be informed that Mr. Robie was always taken
with a good horse. On one occasion while attending the
Truro circuit, which he went for nearly a quarter of a
century, he was detained over Sabbath at Colonel Pearson's
hotel, (the well known "Princes of Wales" of modern days),
and desiring to hear Parson Waddell preach, the colonel
brought out his best steed to drive him to church, then
about three quarters of a mile distant, within the Truro
cemetery enclosure. Before hearing the parson, Mr. Robie
was so much pleased with the style and action of the horse,
that he said to his owner, "Colonel, supposing this was
Monday morning instead of Sunday, what would you take
ior that animal?" To which the colonel replied "25."
"Well then," said Mr. Robie, "when Monday morning
oomes, I will buy him," which he accordingly did.
Another Truro incident has come down through the
generation and may here be given. The interest Mr.
Robie ever took in that town, impelled him on one
occasion to do an act that associated his name with the
place for many years in connection with a large elm tree
that stood until destroyed by the Saxby storm, near Elm
Street, at the bend of the road leading from the court
house to Lower Village. Early in the century, Mr. Robie
being in Truro, and hearing that the owner of the elm was
about cutting it down for firewood, went to him and asked
its value for fuel. Ascertaining that one pound was the
market price of the cord wood in the tree, Mr. Robie at
once paid the amount and requested that the tree be pro-
tected as his property, and it ever afterwards went by the
name of " Robie's tree," and added one to the list of
remarkable trees, about which many noticeable things are
recorded in sacred and profane history. It is matter of
tradition that Mr. Robie's twenty shillings, instead of
being converted into firewood, was immediately invested
in two gallons of rum, and as many of the inhabitants as
could be collected were assembled to drink long life to Mr.
Robie's elm tree, and that Mr. Robie, in replying for the
tree, offered the company a most fabulous sum if they
would transplant it in all its dimensions and beauty to his
own grounds in Halifax. The elm, while it stood, was a
great ornament to Truro, being a tree of unusual size in
height and circumference, and was greatly prized by the
inhabitants on this account, as well as for the interesting
circumstance connected with its history. Now, that the
tree has disappeared, the road where it stood, running
west to the confines of the town, has been called Robie
Street, leaving Elm Street, called after the tree, to remain
as at present known, running from the parade (now Victoria
Square) north to the site of Robie's elm tree.
As an illustration of Mr. Robie's good judgment, or
great common sense, for which all gave him much credit*.
HON. JUDGE ROBIE 145
it may be stated, that upon the Shubenacadie canal project
being first mooted in the house in 1824, he declared : "It
would cost from 200,000 to 300,000 and not produce
revenue enough to keep it in repair," a prediction that
has since been fulfilled to the satisfaction or regret of those
who thought differently then, and who, against his strong
protestations, invested thousands of pounds in an enter-
prise he asserted would be a failure. Mr. Robie also
expressed a decided opinion about the financial merits of
the Intercolonial Railway when the agitation for the road
began, and assured his particular friends " that if the road
was thoroughly built and well supplied with rolling stock,
and he were offered the whole line as a present, with
100,000 to run it, he would not accept the gift."
As a lawyer, Mr. Robie stood in the front rank of the
profession among such men as Richard John Uniacke, W.
H. O. Haliburton, James Stewart, Thomas Ritchie, S. G.
W. Archibald and Charles Rufus Fairbanks. While he
plead at the bar he was retained in almost every important
suit that occupied the attention of the courts. In stature
he was the smallest man, while Uniacke was the largest.
The one was at times irascible, petulant, and sometimes
peppery, but always contested his cases with a becoming
respect for the court and the profession ; while the other
was somewhat pompous and domineering in his deportment
and could not brook the interruptions of opposing advocates.
On one occasion, Uniacke was warmly engaged addressing
the jury in a case in which Robie was on the other side,
and, mis-stating the law or evidence, Robie rose to ask
leave of the court to set him right, when Uniacke turned
towards him and said with great vehemence, " You small
cur, if you do not sit down, I will put you in my pocket,"
to which Robie good-naturedly retorted, "Then, you big
mastiff, if you do, you will have more law in your pocket
than you ever had in your head." At another time a
Baptist clergyman retained Mr. Robie in a case of some
importance, and was so well pleased with the manner in
which he conducted it, that after the trial was over and
the desired verdict obtained, the minister handed him five
or six sovereigns for his services, and asked if he was
satisfied. Mr. Robie, then absorbed in another suit and
hardly realizing the position, but waking up to a knowledge
of the fact that a Baptist divine was showering gold
pon him, replied, " Yes Mr. Dipper thank you, Mr.
Dipper I am much obliged, Mr. Dipper," a mode of
baptism many lawyers of the present day consider quite
Several men, who attained eminence at the bar, studied
law in Mr. Robie's office. Among others mention might
be made of a native of Truro Samuel George William
Archibald, " long the ' observed of all observers ' in Nova
Scotia. He was no ordinary man in intellectual stature,
proportions and accomplishments. He was indeed a tall
.figure among his provincial co-temporaries how like * Saul
the son of Kish/ who, when he stood up among the people,
was higher than any of them from his shoulders and up-
ward. At the bar, on the bench, in the legislature, and
in the executive administration, his talents were not only
-apparent, but luminous. Strong in reasoning powers, in
wit, in eloquence, and at times in severe sarcasm and over-
powering invective, he had no rival in the forensic arena,
and no superior in senatorial conflict, except, perhaps, the
late John Young." Another somewhat distinguished name
<jan also be referred to the late Sir Robert Hodgson, Kt,,
late chief justice, and late governor of Prince Edward
Mr. Robie's friendship with the late Hon. Charles R.
Prescott, of Cornwallis, one of the excellent of the earth,
as well as with the Hon. Andrew Belcher, another of Nova
Scotia's best sons, is a pleasing feature of his life. Their
correspondence shows great esteem for him on the part of
-those excellent men. Like Saul and Jonathan " they were
HON. JUDGE ROBIE 147
lovely and pleasant in their lives," and in view of these
degenerate times we might pause, and with David ask,
" How are the mighty fallen ?"
Upon the creation of the rolls court in 1824, Mr. Robie
was honored with the position of judge, under the name
of master of the rolls, being the first appointment of the
kind, so far as we can learn, made in a British colony.
Judge Robie usually held his court in the committee room
of the council chamber. He was very affable and courteous
to the members of the bar and demanded no ceremony.
He sat at the head of the table without gown or bands,
and the gentlemen of the bar addressed him from the sides
of the table, without being in legal costume. He drafted
his decrees very carefully. They are still extant, but
never having been published, the profession have had no
opportunity of judging their value, or of ascertaining
whether they involved questions of importance. One
feature of his judicial career, however, still fresh in the
memory of the oldest men at the bar, is worth mentioning.
There was a suit in chancery known as King vs Lawson
et al. It was an action brought by the late Major King,
of Windsor, against the trustees of his wife's fortune. It
had been long protracted owing to the obstinancy with
which it was contested, and King, (insane on the subject
of getting hold of his wife's money), undertook to appeal to
the public through the press, and to pester Judge Robie to
such an extent, that it was generally believed to have been
one of the chief motives for his retirement from the court
of chancery in 1834, though those best capable to decide,
considered that he did all in his power as judge to protect
King's interests, and there was no disposition on the part
of the government or the public to remove him from the
post he had filled with such general acceptance for ten
years. Three years afterwards, Mr. Robie was appointed
to preside over the deliberations of the legislative council,
of which he had been a member since 1824. At this time
he was getting into the sere and yellow leaf of life, had
become a strong conservative in his political views, and
did not enter into the public discussions with the same
spirit he had manifested while in the popular branch fight-
ing the battles of the people at times in opposition to the
known wishes of the governor of the day. Doubtless the
position of President of the Council, prevented him to a
large extent from keeping his political armor burnished,
and maintaining that hold upon the affections of the people
which he enjoyed in the vigor of his manhood to a degree
that rarely falls to the lot of old public servants Palmers-
ton and Gladstone being notable exceptions. In 1848, Mr.
Robie having attained the age of 78 years, resigned his seat
in the council, over which he had ably presided eleven years,
and had been a member of for twenty-four, to enjoy the
pleasures of private life the remainder of his days, a
privilege he had honorably earned, and which a kind
Providence permitted him to pass happily for ten years.
During a portion of the summers of those years, as he had
done many years previously, he drove to Truro with his
carriage and pair of horses to visit the family of the late
Duncan Black of Lower Village ; and the people of that
part of the province, then had frequent opportunities of
seeing their old representative, whose name is still a house-
hold word in Nova Scotia. Mr. Black's wife and Mrs
Robie were sisters members of a Scotch family of the
name of Creighton and Mr. Robie thought very highly
of Mr. Black's estimable qualities, and in several important
respects, proved himself a good friend to his family. But
a time came in Mr. Robie's career, as it will in the histoiy
of all men, when the wheels of life stand still, and ' man
goeth to his long home, and the mourners go about the
streets.' This event can best be gathered from the well
merited epitaph cut on the plain monumental freestone
slab that marks the site of his grave in Camp Hill
cemetery, Halifax :
HON. JUDGE ROBIE H9
TO THE MEMORY OF
1bon* Simon Bra&street IRobie,
WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE ON THE
3RD DAY OF JANUARY,
A. D., 1858,
IN THE 88TH YEAR OF HIS AGE.
RESPECTED, BELOVED, AND LAMENTED BY THE
COMMUNITY IN WHICH HE HAD PASSED
A LONG AND USEFUL LIFE.
HE HELD THE RESPONSIBLE OFFICES OF
SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY,
MASTER OF THE ROLLS,
PRESIDENT OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL,
AND FAITHFULLY PERFORMED THE IMPORTANT
DUTIES WHICH DEVOLVED UPON HIM WITH
DIGNITY, INDEPENDENCE AND HONOR.
HE WAS A LINEAL DESCENDANT OF THE
VENERABLE SIMON BRAD8TREET,
THE LAST CHARTER GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS,
AND HAS LF-FT A NAME WORTHY OF HIS FAMILY.
DIED ON THE 3RD DAY OF JANUARY, 1872,
AGED 86 YEARS.
150 . ACADIENSIS
Should any persons consider that this sketch over-
estimates the greatness of the gifts, and the nobleness of
the character of the distinguished British colonist whose
good deeds it recounts, and whose fame it rehearses ; to
such let me express the regret, that I had neither the
material at command nor the ability to do greater justice
to the memory of one of the men whose name was a " tower
of strength " in the province long before the days of steam-
boats and railroads, responsible government, free school s r
and the union of the colonies into one great confederation ;
or, even before the press was such a power in the land as
it is to-day ; and to whose well-directed efforts throughout
a long and consistent public career, the people of this en-
lightened age, are in no small measure indebted for many
of the advantages they enjoy vastly superior to what fell
to the lot of their ancestors in bygone days. Rather let
the good name which Simon Bradstreet Robie made for
himself in the history of this province by his own endow-
ments, superior talents, and upright manly deportment, be
ever held in grateful remembrance by every Nova Scotian
who rejoices in the prosperity of his country, and tha
greatness of her sons.
" The Roman gather'd in a stately urn
The dust he honor'd while the sacred fire,
Nourish'd by vestal hands, was made to burn
From age to age. if fitly you'd aspire,
Honor the dead ; and let the sounding lyre
Recount their virtues in your festal hours ;
Gather their ashes higher still, and higher,
Nourish the patriot flame that history dowers,
And, o'er the old mens' graves, go strew
your choicest flowers."
Inctbents in tbe fiarl? t>tetor$ of
|AMES SIMONDS concluded that the situation
at St. John was such that all business was at
an end. He resolved, therefore, to remove
with his family up the river and devote him-
self to the improvement of his lands in that
quarter. Accordingly, in the spring of 1778, we find him
building a house on the bank of the St. John just above
Loder's Creek, in Lower Maugerville (now Sheffield), leav-
ing his property at Portland in charge of Hazen and
White. He at this time secured a share in the township
of Burton in exchange for one he had drawn in the town-
ship of Sunbury. Two years after his removal to the
country, he made overtures to Hazen and White to
purchase his share in the two grants at St. John.* He
mentions in a letter to James White, of April 11, 1780,
that Sylvanus Plummer, a joiner and housewright of
Maugerville, had offered to purchase his share in these
lands, and that he should ratify the bargain unless Hazen
and White desired to have the lands on the same terms.
In speaking of Plummer, Mr. Simonds observes, with his
customary dry humor :
" There is nothing remarkable in his character except that of
going very near the wind. I have had the honor of being repre-
sented by some people of distinction to be extremely frugal, so
that if their remark is just, you will have much such a neighbour
in him as you would in me, if I were to return. Please let me
know your determination as soon as Mr. Hazen arrives [from
* These two grants were then believed to include not merely the
part of the present city north of Union Street, but also the marsh to the east
of the city, and the lands north of the marsh to the Kennebecasis, and south,
to Red Head.
So troublous were the times and so uncertain the
value of real estate at St. John, that Mr. Simonds did not
succeed in selling his lands either to Hazen and White or
The relations at this time existing between the old
co-partners were not perfectly harmonious, as appears from
the testimony of William Godsoe, one of their employees.
He states in his evidence, given before the courts some
years later, that, having visited Mr. Simonds at his house
in Sheffield, May 7, 1781, he told him that Hazen and
White were doing well at St. John, especially the former
whose appointment as commissary to the garrison and other
advantages he enjoyed, must enable him to make money
fast. To this Simonds replied, " They may flourish for a
while, whilst I am obliged to delve on here," adding that
Hazen had no legal right to the lands at St. John, and
never should if he could prevent it. It may be noted in
passing that when James Simonds moved up the river to
Lower Maugerville, the office of deputy collector of customs,
formerly held by him, went to James White, who filled the
position until the arrival of William Wanton as first
collector of customs at St. John in 1785.
In order to comply with the conditions of their grants,
Hazen, Simonds and White made many improvements upon
their lands and caused a number of dwellings and tenants
to be established in different places. A list of these may
prove interesting :
A grist mill ab Lily Lake, built in 1770 ; value 25.
House at the lake for Armstrong, 20.
House at the lake for Sprague and Miller, 15.
House and improvements of Alexander McAlpine, a Scotch settler,
at the entrance of the Great Marsh river (or Marsh Creek) ;
value 7 10s.
House for Moses Greenough, near Fort Howe, value 15.
* Mr. Simonds sold one half of Ox Island in Burton to Sylvanus Plummer
for 145 10s.
EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 153
House and hovel on the road to the Indian House for Day and
Salisbury, value 25.
House and hovel for Andrew Lloyd at the landing near the Indian
House, value 12.
Denis Combs house and improvements at the Bluff Head,*
The Indian House (built by order of Colonel Francklin but never
paid for by government), value 35.
There were other expenditures incurred by the partners
in their endeavor to improve their lands, such as clearing
a road to the Indian House and building a wharf at the
landing, 18; clearing, altering and improving the roads
leading to the Short Ferry, the marsh and city, from 1778
to 1786 inclusive, 30; settling Langdon on the Kenne-
becasis meadows above Boar's Head (near Millidgeville),
and clearing a road to walk there.
Equal attention was paid to the lands of the second
grant in order to secure them from being escheated. Four
tenants, Day, Salisbury, Dow and Parker, were placed
upon the marsh about the year 1775, and houses and hovels
for stock built for them at the following cost : Stephen
Dow's, 20; Silas Parker's, 15; Jabez Salisbury's, 25.
Four settlers, Hardcastle, Peters, Monro and Cams, were
located at Little River at an expense of 28 10s; Silas
Sloot and Samuel Combs at Red Head, at an expense of
18 10s; and Caleb Finney, and one Thomas locations
unknown at an expense of 27 10s. A house was also
built " near the Little Falls," and Messrs. Thomson, Walter
Copinger and George Grant were settled at Sandy Point,
on the Kennebecasis.
The cost of placing these settlers some thirty in all
on their lands was little more than 300, and it \vas money
well spent, for the presence of the settlers and the im-
provements they made, enabled Hazen, Simonds and White
to retain possession of their lands, which otherwise would
have been escheated when the Loyalists arrived. As it
* Bluff Head is near the old Short Ferry to Carleton above Navy Island.
was, William Hazen was forced to make two journeys to
Halifax to defend the titles of the grants, and in order to
have the best legal talent at his command, he retained as
counsel Sampson Salters Blowers and Richard J. Uniacke.
Up to this time the boundaries of the two grants had
never been surveyed, but the arrival of the Loyalists and
their urgent request to be furnished with lands in the most
eligible situation, caused the government of Nova Scotia
to look closely into the state of improvement of all lands
previously granted in order that the needs of these unfortu-
nate exiles might be met. It, therefore, became a matter
of importance to Hazen, Simonds and White to know the
actual bounds of their grants. Accordingly, in the month
of March, 17&4, Samuel Peabody, of Maugerville, was
employed to run the lines. He had three assistants, and
they were engaged several days in their task. The survey
showed beyond the shadow of a doubt that by far the
larger part of the marsh, which they had thought to be
their property and on which they had spent a good deal of
time and money in making improvements, lay outside their
bounds. Their consternation was great, and Peabody was
strictly enjoined to keep the matter secret until they had
made good their title. It was here that the unfortunate
disagreement originated between James Simonds and his
co-partners which involved them in nearly twenty years of
costly litigation. The story has been told in the New
Brunswick Magazine of July, 1899, under the head of
" The Contest for Sebaskastaggan,"* and need not be here
repeated. The greater part of the marsh became in the
end the property of Hazen and White by their arrange-
ment with Lieut. William Graves, who had an old claim
to a grant as a disbanded office of the French war. Hazen
and White were instrumental in procuring the marsh as a
* SebaBkastaggan is the Indian name of the Great Marsh east of St. John.
EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 155
grant for Graves,* who for a small consideration conveyed
it to them. James Simonds was greatly incensed by this
transaction. He stoutly affirmed his determination not to
relinquish his claim to the marsh and refused to make any
settlement of the partnership accounts until the question
was disposed of.
Leonard Jarvis, who was one of the co-partners under
the business contract drawn up in April, 1767, came to St.
John in the year 1785, and used his best efforts to induce
Mr. Simonds to consent to a division of the lands held by
the partners. On the eve of his return to New England,
he addressed a rather remarkable letter to Mr. Simonds,
dated October 31, 1785, from which the following extracts
are taken :
SIB, You will doubtless remember that I left you very abruptly
the evening before your return [to Sheffield]. I did it because
that I found we were both growing warm, and myself thought it
more prudent to talk with you another time on a subject which it
was for the interest of all concerned should be brought to an ami-
cable issue. * * * I was, I do assure you, not only disappoint-
ed, but chagrined, at finding the next morning I was not to have
the pleasure of seeing you again before I left this Province. The
only way remaining of communicating my sentiments to you I
with pleasure embrace, as I am not without hopes that a settle-
ment will be made ere long between you and Mr. Hazen to the
advantage and satisfaction of both. Had you accepted Mr.
Hazen's proposals of giving you 3,000 and relinquishing all
demands Hazen and Jarvis had on you as one of the House of
Simonds, White & Co., I should not have found it difficult to have
settled my matters with Mr. Hazen, but as it is I find it impossible.
* Graves seems to have been " a ne'er to do weel." He and his family
were included in a list of " Old Inhabitants who, from involuntary causes,
had been reduced to circumstances of great distress," to whom the govern-
ment, in 1784, made a donation of provisions. The wife of Graves was illiter-
ate and appends her mark to the deed of conveyance to Hazen and White
referred to above. William Hazen obtained the grant of lands to William
Graves (2,000 acres, including the marsh) when at Halifax in June, 1784, but
in order to make the grant appear as a pre-loyalist grant it was ante-dated
October 4, 1783. It was conveyed by Graves to Hazen and White July 28,
I wish you, sir, to consider the disagreeable situation of our
Land, and I am confident if you do, with that attention the affair
merits, you will not let a small matter retard the settlement a
moment. We are all, sir, got to that time of life when we may
think a Suit in Law or Chancery not eligible because of the un-
certainity of our living to see the termination of it for my own
part I would rather take much less than I supposed was due, or
even what I expected finally to receive after the trouble and
expence of a Law suit, than contest the matter. * * *
I beg leave to ask you what is the present income from our
lands, and when they are likely to produce more for my own part
I see no prospect of either of us being benefitted by an Interest
which twelve years ago we all thought a valuable one but on the
other hand, I fear that if a Suit should be commenced, one or
more of us would not see the end of it and our heirs would curse
the day that their fathers engaged in such a contest,"
All matters connected with the settlement of the part-
nership accounts and the division of the property were
referred to arbitration in 1790, at which time Hazen and
White claimed that if James Simonds had assented to a
division of the estate, the lands between Parr Town and
the Indian House might have been laid out into streets
and house lots for the Loyalists, and the lots sold or let to
great advantage. They estimated the loss to themselves
as 6,000 in consequence of the delay.
There can be no doubt that the lands could readily have
been sold or let in 1783, and the years immediately
ensuing, and the result undoubtedly would have been a far
more rapid growth of the town of Portland, but that the
heirs of James Simonds and William Hazen were eventually
losers by the delay is extremely improbable.
W. O. RAYMOND.
tDalliere of Cbfgnecto.
(Read before the Historical Society of Chignecto).
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.]
|N 24th October, 1676, Frontenac, Governor of
Canada, granted to Michel Leneuf de La Val-
liere, the title of fief and seigneury of the
country of Chignecto, with power to administer
superior, middle and low justice, and the rights
of hunting and fishing. The bounds of this seigneury, as
set forth in the grant, shew it extended " ten leagues in
front, which are on the south side between Cape Breton
and Isle Perce"e, beginning from the River Kigiskouabou-
guet, comprising the same to another river called Kimout-
gouiche, also comprised with ten leagues in depth inland,
wherein the Bay Chignitou and Cape Tormentin are part."
This grant was held by homage at the chateau of St. Louis
at Quebec. Dr. Ganong, our foremost cartologist, assigns
the grant to the lands between the rivers River Philip and
Shemogue, extending back to near Budro's on the Petit-
codiac, and to near Springhill in Cumberland.
This was truly a lordly domain, embracing forests and
fisheries, mines and marshes, rivers and the coasts of two
great bays. The description was, however, sufficiently
indefinite to puzzle even the Council of State at Versailles
to understand exactly what it did embrace when called
upon some years later to settle the bounds. Near the
close of the seventeenth century settlements were made at
Chipoudy by Pierre Thibideau, and at Fox Creek by
Guillaume Blanchard. Sieur de La Valliere claimed these
settlers as his censitaires, or tenants, a pretence which
they stoutly resisted. The controversy was carried to
Versailles by de Villieu, La Valliere's agent, and La Val-
liere's title was, after years of controversy, held to embrace
Shepody Bay as well as the settlement at Fox Creek.
So important a grant could not have been made except
to a man of some consequence and consideration. Talon
in a memorial (1667) states there were only four noble
LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 159
families in Canada. Those meant were the Repentigny,
Tilly, Poterie and Aillebout, and he asks for patents of
nobility for five more.
La Valliere was a member of the Poterie family that
came with the Repentigny family from Caen to Quebec in
1638. De La Poterie was the first signeur of Portneuf,
who seems not to have allowed the circumstance of his
son's birth in Canada to stand in the way of his education
and training, for he appears to have sent him to France
when he was seventeen years of age, no doubt to finish his
studies. He was doubly connected with the Denys family
by marriage. In 1666 he was military officer in Cape
Breton, and in the territories of Nicholas Denys, Sieur de
Fronsac ; and while there married Marie Francoise Denys,
daughter of the Sieur de Fronsac. He again married in
1687 Francoise Denys, widow of Jacques Cailleteau, and
daughter of Simon Denys, Sieur de La Trinite. Simon
and Nicholas were brothers. The first wife of La Valliere
is supposed to have died between 1682 and 1685 at
Chignecto, and to have been interred there. The second
wife was found dead in her house, rue de Bande, in Quebec,
on 12th September, 1721. A servant named Catherine
Charland was accused of having assassinated her. At
that date Sieur de La Valliere had been dead some years.
This is anticipating.
The surname of La Valliere is first mentioned in con-
nection with a property near the fort, Three Rivers, Q.,
possessed by him in 1664. La Valliere seems to have led
a life of ceaseless activity. While nominally an officer in
the guards, he was a voyageur, a wood ranger, a mariner,
a trader, and a diplomat, and in one capacity or another
he was constantly on the more, and knew something of
the coasts and forests from Cape Cod to Hudson Bay. In
1671 he is found in an expedition to the western lakes;
in 1672 he is at Chignecto, where he established a trading
post ; the same year he becomes a land-owner at Lake St.
Francis ; the year after he is at Three Rivers the Jesuit
record names him as officiating as god father at an Indian
La Valliere had also recommended himself toFrontenac by
address and valor. In 1661, then upwards of twenty years of
age, he had accompanied Father Dablon to North (Hudson)
Bay a most toilsome and hazardous journey in response
to a request of the Indians there, who sent a deputation
to Quebec, and asked for one in return to confirm the
good understanding then existing, and to provide them
with a missionary. This work he appears to have per-
formed with success. He was at the date of the grant
captain of Count Frontenac's guards. Another evidence
of the governor's esteem for him may be gathered from the
circumstances that, five years later, Frontenac had a royal
row with du Chesneau, the Intendant, because the latter
had refused to pay La Yalliere's salary. The facts are told
by du Chesneau in a letter to M. de Seignlay, written
13th November, 1681. He says:
" He (Frontenac) abused me very much in his study because I
had refused to authorize the payment of a somewhat large sum o
money to Sieur de La Valliere, in whom he had conferred the govern-
ment of Acadia. I justified myself in the precise command of the
King, and of his lordship your father, not to direct the payment
of any money before it was entered on His Majesty's estimate."
La Valliere, having secured his grant, left Quebec with
his family and retainers for his new home. While his
destination was on the Bay of Fundy, no doubt he came
by vessel, and possibly landed at Bay Verte, and followed
the trail through the woods, which would have been more
expeditious than coasting around Nova Scotia, and easier
than the Kennebec route. When he arrived at Chignecto
now Fort Lawrence he found his territory already
The advantages of Chignecto for fur trading with the
Indians, and for cattle raising, had not escaped the eyes
LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 161
of Port Royal ; and one of the residents there, Jacques
Bourgeois, who, in coasting along the bay, engaged in
trading ventures amongst the Indians, had spied out the
land at Beaubassin ; and, returning to Port Royal, sold
out his farm and his cattle and came back to Beaubassin,
accompanied by his two sons-in-law, Pierre Sire and
Germain Girouard, and the latter's two brothers-in-law,
Jacques Belon and Thomas Cormier, and also by Pierre
Arsinault. This little colony comprised the first European
settlers in Chignecto, and, excepting the settlement at
Baie des Vents, the first in the present Province of New
Bourgeois, the leader of the immigrants, was in his way
a notable man. He was a surgeon by profession ; his
name appears in the capitulation of 1654 as brother-in-law
and lieutenant of Doucei de La Verdure, guardian of the
children of d'Aulay, and commandant at Port Royal ; and
he was one of the hostages delivered to the English. His
settlement at Beaubassin was made between the years 1671
Sieur de La Valliere's grant did not permit him to
interfere with existing rights, so he located himself beside
Bourgeois and constructed there his manorial buildings.
He brought with him from Canada a number of families,
amongst them were the Chiasson and the Cottard ; also he
had employed people bearing the familiar names of Mercier,
Lagasse and Perthuis, (the latter held the responsible office
of armorer), and also Hache Galand, who was his man of
business and his man-at-arms ; he could lead a fur trading
expedition into the wilderness, or he could direct an attack
on the English. He married an Acadian lass Anne
Cormier and their descendants to-day number hundreds
* In 1672 or 1673 some French families from St. Malo settled Baie des
Vents. At this time the French had two forts in the country, Pentagoet,
where Grandfontaine, governor, resided, and that at Jemseg, where M. de
Marson held command.
of families. As nearly all the female part of the population
was on the Bourgeois side of the settlement, it was not
long before any jealousies melted away and the people
were all Bourgeois.
It is presumable, but not certain, that the Bourgeois
settlement was at Fort Lawrence, in the vicinity of the
Chignecto Ship Railway Dock, and that La Valliere's was
at Tonge's Island, the former name of which, as appears
on the old plans and maps, was Isle de La Valliere. The
remains of old French cellars are to be seen there, which
must have been of an earlier date than 1760, for at that
time it was covered with a heavy forest growth, as contem-
porary drawings show.
Sieur de La ValHere displayed much energy in organ-
izing his settlement. He made clearings, built houses
for himself and his families, erected his stockades, made
dykes, enclosed a considerable quantity of marsh, and built
a mill. He owned a vessel called the " Saint Antoine,"
with which he traded up and down the Bay of Fundy.
The " Saint Antoine " was also used by the ecclesiastics of
those days in their missionary efforts to convert the heathen*
It is recorded that the bishop of Quebec used her on his
pastoral visit to Acadia in 1689. It is hinted in the
early records that the " Saint Antoine " was no saint ; that
she only ante-dated those missionary ships fitted out by
pious hands in New England to convert the Africans, and
that went forward to their mission laden with New Eng-
land missionaries and New England rum. Brandy was a
leading article of truck with the Indians at that date, and
was the basis of a profitable trade to the Europeans,
though the demoralizing and destructive effects of it were
as patent two hundred years ago as to-day. Strenuous
attempts were made by the bishops and some of the
governors from time to time to suppress it, but with only
(To be continued.)
W. C. MlLNER.
Hn Hca&ian fl&onarcb.
Hail ! gallant roamer of the boundless woods,
Where thou dost reign a veritable king,
Whose castles are the forest solitudes,
To thee I sing.
When striding o'er the springy heath or moss
In some lone glade, how stately dost thou tread,
And, scenting danger, bravely sniff, and toss
Thy massive head.
Far from the cities' turmoil, grime and din,
Thou'rt prone thy early morning baths to take,
And gaily splash, and dash, and gambol, in
Some placid lake.
Thy regal looks are not cast wholly off
It even tends to heighten thy renown
When in the winter Nature bids thee doff
Thy antler crown.
Around thy sylvan haunts the sachem swart,
To win thy scalp in watchful ambush lies,
And paleface sportsmen know too well thou art
A royal prize.
Like human monarchs, thou hast cause to dread
Those wanton slayers' deadly craft and skill,
Who, with their blades of steel or cones of lead,
Are proud to kill.
Then gallant roamer of the boundless woods,
Brilliant of eye, alert, and strong of frame,
Thou art amongst our forest solitudes
The king of game.
St. John, 1901.
motea anfc <aueries.
[HAT did Professor H. S. Peck, writing in the
Cosmopolitan Magazine a couple of years ago,
refer to when he spoke of three things as
being well known to readers, but never told
in print : (1) The reasons for the separation of Charles
Dickens and his wife ; (2) The true story of Thackeray's
death ; (3) Why Mr. Cross tried to commit suicide shortly
after marrying George Eliot.
George Augustus Sola said, in his Reminiscences, that
he knew why the Dickenses could not live happily together,
but failed to state what the reason was. Incompatability
of temper is the generally received version of the cause of
the break-up of the home of the man who, in the Victorian
era, probably did more than any other writer for the
idealization and refinement of home life. A few years ago
someone circulated a slanderous account of Dickens' infatua-
tion for a French actress in a troupe which visited London.
John Forster's biography of the great novelist was expected
to throw some light on the subject, but, as in other respects,
these pompous memoirs were unsatisfactory. Now, in the
revival of interest in Dickens' writings, and to a generation
which knew him not, this question may be propounded.
As regards the death of Thackeray, the record ably
stated by Dickens in his well-known paper, " In Memor-
iam," is simple and pathetic. On the morning before
Christmas, 1863, Thackeray arose as usual early and was
sitting in what would have been a very uncomfortable
position for most persons, with his desk on his knees,
working on Denis Duval, his great sea-novel of the time
of Nelson. When found by his mother some time later,
he was lying on his bed with his arms thrown up over his
head, as he was accustomed to do when tired, with a
DICKENS, His WIFE, AND His WIFE'S SISTER.
FROM "YESTERDAYS WITH AUTHORS,"
BY JAMES T. FIELDS,
BY PERMISSION OF HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & Co.
NOTES AND QUERIES 165
peaceful expression on his features, stark dead. On that
Christmas eve, " God grant," said Dickens, " that when he
laid his head back on his pillow, and threw up his arms,
as he had been wont to do when very weary, some con-
sciousness of duty done, and Christian hope throughout
life humbly cherished, may have caused his heart to throb
with an exquisite bliss when he passed away to his
If there is any other account of the death of that great
writer I, for one, should like to hear it.
George Eliot's fame has undergone the most extraordinary
mutations since about the year 1860, when the immense
vogue of Adam Bede and The Mill on the Floss raised her
to the highest rank of English novelists. Later than this
again, or about the seventh decade of the nineteenth
century in the seventies the appearances of Middle-
march and Daniel Deronda was heralded and received
something like a new evangel. Here was something like
a new religion of which a retired scholarly sort of person,
the mistress of an eccentric man of letters about London,
was prophet and apostle. Their relations were of the
queerest, one might almost think they were the originals
of Trilby and Soeagali. Whilst undeniably learned, if not
profound, before Lewes got possession of her, George Eliot
was dull, after his death she was stupid. But during the
period when she was under his management she displayed
many gifts, wrote at times with comparative lightness, and
generally enriched her observations with a racy though
sombre humour. Enthusiasts were at a loss to imagine
how she could endure a separation from him, but she
promptly settled the matter by espousing Cross. They
continued together the readings which Lewes had suggested
to her in the first instance, and she wrote a most tiresome
series of papers entitled Impressions of Theophrastus Such.
Shortly after the appearance of the latter, she died. Her
fame, unsupported by the arts of Lewes and a certain
following of materialistic thinkers and writers, underwent
a speedy decline. Later critics acknowledge her claims as
a novelist very grudgingly or deny them altogether. She
will always be a puzzle to moralists. Gifted with an
ability to stir her readers' moral nature to the depths by
a searching analytic method, in her own life she was
not so much immoral as unmoral. For such morals as
married people are concerned with, she had simply no use
at all. She could not legally marry Lewes, and so con-
tented herself with assuming, as far as possible, the duties
and responsibilities of a wife; but when he died she
married Cross, thus at once making her peace with the
upholders of conventuality and breaking with her worship-
pers, who would have held their idol to be absolved from
all marital restraint. What kind of mind and constitution
could have been possessed by this ultra Methodist will
probably remain a mystery. As a problem for students of
intellect and morals in their application to conduct, she
will always possess a fascination.
The book-agents have been canvassing during the past
year for various editions of the novels of Balzac in more
or less tasteful bindings and quality of paper, some of
them quite expensive. They may be purchased on the
instalment plan. Prices range all the way from sixteen
to fifty dollars for sets. The finest is printed on rice
paper, with deckled edges, and is embellished with etched
illustrations. If there is a considerable demand for
these novels, as I suppose there is, it is some evidence
that the race of people who read elaborate works of
fiction has not died out. The best edition has intro-
ductions by Mr. George Saintsbury. In the prospec-
tus, Prof. Peck's sweeping assertion, that Balzac was a
greater writer than Shakespeare, is quoted. Balzac's
writings are distinctly closet productions, and, however
carefully put together, have the smell of the lamps about
them. He wrote in an attic, drawing his chief inspiration
NOTES AND QUERIES 167
from books. There is nothing of the freshness and joyous-
ness characteristic of the work of most of our great novel-
ists in them. At most, they are valuable as affording a
voluminous survey of certain sections of French society
during the first half of the nineteenth century. Students
will turn to them for light on the manners, tastes and
ways of thought prevailing in Paris when Louis Philippe
was on the throne.
Why was there no Macaulay centenary? It seems
strange that in an age when everybody, whoever was any-
body, is duly remembered by the public on the one hund-
redth anniversary of his birth, so great a man as Lord
Macaulay was should not have been thus honored. Among
his contemporaries there was hardly a man statesman,
historian, or lite*rateur who filled a larger space in the
public eye. And yet, save for a short article in the Sun-
day edition of a New York paper in December, I noticed
no appreciation of him. If the dead take note of what is
being done in the world after they have abandoned this
lower sphere of activity, this neglect or oversight must
have been peculiarly galling to such a man as Macaulay.
There was, perhaps, never a thinker and writer who, com-
paratively careless of contemporaneous recognition, which
was, however, in his case very ample and generous, yet
kept his eyes so constantly fixed on a renown which he
fondly hoped would grow with succeeding generations.
Macaulay worked and strove for posterity. In his Life
and Letters, which his nephew, Sir Otto Trevelyan, brought
out, one is rather amused at the hope expressed in entries
in his journals of parts, at least, of his history surviving to
the year 3,000, or even 4,000. It was one of his chief
weaknesses that he believed in it thoroughly. And now a
comparatively early posterity has arrived and knows him
His works, like those of Virgil, enjoyed in his own life-
time, the position of classics. He has been applauded,
criticized, imitated and abused without stint during the
forty years or so which have elapsed since his death ; and
now no statue is erected of him, no club commemorates
his fame, no voice is lifted in his praise. Perhaps the world
thinks he enjoyed enough of such things in his own time,
and busies itself with honouring other less lucky geniuses.
It is the Chatterbons, Burnses, Shelleys and Edgar Allan
Poes that appeal to posterity ; those whose lives have been
wrecked or characters pitilessly assailed on thwir upward
flight. The pathos of a career has more att: action in it
than the most envied success and prosperity.
H. PERCY SCOTT.
OLD COLONIAL SILVER.
NEW YORK, June 15th, 1901.
D. R. JACK, ESQ. ST. JOHN, N. B.:
DEAR SIR, I received, with great interest, the second number of
ACADIENSIS, and beg to enclose a dollar, for which kindly send me No. I and
following numbers. I am very much interested in regard to old silver, and
I send you a copy of my book on old plate. Can you not start an investiga-
tion as to the names and marks of old silversmiths in Canada and as to old
silver ? For instance, at the evacuation of Boston by the Britisn, Dr. Caner
took with him at least 2800 ounces of silver, the gift of churches in that city
of three kings. I understand that some of this is in Saint John and other
cities of Canada.
Thanking you for your courtesy in sending me No. 2,
I am, yours very truly,
JOHN H. BUCK.
The above letter has been received from Mr. John H. Buck, who
is associated with the Gorham Manufacturing Co., silversmiths, a
very large firm having establishments at New York, Chicago and
San Francisco, and works at Providence and New York, U. S. A.
The subject touched upon by Mr. Buck is a most interesting
one, as much for the historical data which might be brought to
light in connection with some of our old Acadian silver, as for
other reasons which space will not permit us to enlarge upon in
our present number.
We shall be pleased to hear from any of our contributors who
may know of the existence of old silver in Acadia, with a view of
securing information and possibly photographs of the same for a
series of articles for future publication. Church silver, as well as
that in private use, will be included.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
HE FORMATION of literary and
artistic ideas is due to a number of
varied influences, either disintegrating
the results of immatured ungoverned
taste, or patching and renovating the
structure originally well planned; but
badly put together. It is true that
literature and art are impelled by whims of uncertain
origin and of only brief duration; but, like the under-cur-
rent which presses back the ripple of a short-lived breeze,
the first vital impulse drives the faltering intellect along
its wonted course, the turgid conceit expands to nothing,
the weakly affectation dies; then all is calm, and the
stream, unchecked, flows onward as before. The artist
cannot answer whence come the inspirations under which
he acts, but he feels the hidden motives and takes his
part, almost unconsciously, as the indicator of results,
in the origin of which his fellow-workers share. At
intervals, indeed, the musician catches new strains of
harmony from higher angels ; a painter portrays upon his
canvas the vision of things unseen and scarcely understood
by other men ; or the mind of a poet bears to earth some
blessed gift of heaven. But few musicians, painters or
poets add much new lustre to their master arts, and too
many pollute the shrines at which they are supposed to
worship. Apart from the promptings and teachings of
revealed religion, morality, and civil and social law, and
irrespective of the tendency which induces inferior minds
to imitate successes of real genius, no subjects tend so
largely to control the destiny of art and letters as historical
and traditional associations and climatic and typographical
The Greenlander, shivering in his hut, devouring the
last morsel of blubber procured, at the risk of his life, amid
the floes, indites no odes to the glittering stars, and has no
appreciation of the bright auroras flashing across the sky.
The Arab, gazing at the vista of burning sand, scarcely
lifts his eyes to the eastern heaven, radiant in morning's
glories. But the dweller by the Tiber, amid mementoes of
literary and artistic skill, amid flowers and vines, and
beneath a canopy of richest blue, pours forth his sweet
impassioned verses. And the Teuton from his forest home,
amid crumbling castles, sings of brave Arminius, Charle-
magne and Fatherland. Milton saw not with the outer
sense, and hence was driven to create the visions he
describes. Dante possessed the nature of a seer ; while
Shelly, more like faun than mortal, treats of things un-
known to earth, and Gustave Dore paints at times as
though half wakened from some frightful dream. But
these examples are abnormal, and long before the days of
Spencer, Shakespeare and Albert Durer, and thence down-
wards, we find a list of bards and painters, all more or less
affected by their own surroundings.
If, then, both poetry and art demand associations of
this nature, the question arises, To what extent Acadia
possesses these requirements for aesthetic culture 1 ? The
student who looks only for those stately structures and
giant fabrics which lead the mind into the classic ages,
will find nothing to delight him in Acadia. No massive
AESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF AC ADI A 171'
pyramids rise in grandeur in her desert places, no solitary
Memnon greets the sun rising behind the dark pine forests ;
no stately amphitheatre or marble temple lies concealed
behind her hills. Even the ruins of old cathedrals and
noble abbeys, which, in Europe, mark the genius of the
middle ages, are wanting here ; and no crumbling towers
or Gothic gateway glimmers in the midnight moon. But
the tourist, wandering among the marshes, will sometimes
find the fosse of an ancient fort, the faint remains of a
grass-grown parapet, or a row of willows planted by the
French. The sportsman, pushing his way through tangled
thickets and fleecy spikes of fireweed, among half-burnt
rampikes and whitened stumps, will sometimes stumble
upon an old log hut ; and the farmer's plow will, at times,
expose a pointed spear or arrow-head, or an old flint
hatchet. The careless eye sees nothing in these relics.
But the poet's genius will, in their contemplation, produce
a host of fancies ; and the student will, by their means,
unravel many interesting facts.
Owing to the restless and nomadic nature of the Indian
race, and the want of written language among the north-
ern tribes, few of their legends have been received by us
intact. But I take from those within my reach a single
tale which portrays in the Indian of by-gone ages as brave
a spirit as that displayed by the knightly hero of the
Tarpeian Rock :
The dreadful Mohawks had then been on the war-path, and had
swept the country as far as the head- waters of the St. John, till
the peaceful tribes of Acadia had fled at their approach. The
strangers still pressed forward, but, with surprise and disappoint-
ment, found the wigwams all deserted, while the smouldered
embers of camp fires told them that their expected victims had
departed many days. At length they found a maiden, who, by
threats and promises, was induced to pilot them down stream.
The girl, however, seemed so well contented with her lot that at
last she gained their unsuspecting trust, and, having fastened the
canoes together, they often left her in sole control, with strict
injunctions to keep the middle channel, and let the current drift
them down. Thus they floated one summer's night beneath a
calm, bright moon, which showed in marked and almost super-
natural relief the vast flotilla with its freight of sleeping braves
and one single wakeful object, the maiden silent, and almost
motionless. Beyond the shaded mazes of the river a sound at
length broke the stillness as though a wind among the trees were
commingled with the surf. The sound grew louder, and the
maiden shook her loosened locks, pausing but a moment but to
hearken, and then resumed her task. Then the mirrored surface
of the stream began to change, a thousand ripples played about
the fleet, a thousand mimic whirlpools twirling round and round,
with bits of sticks and leaves, and tiny flakes of foam. Then rose
before them, like the mighty spirit of the river, a great white
sheet of foam, sending clouds of spray and mist aloft into the
clear night air, and then a single chieftain woke. At his cry a
hundred men sprang up, and every arm was strained to reach the
shore, but all too late, the piercing cry of agony was hushed
forever in the roaring of the falls. The maiden's wild and joyful
chaunt was also silenced, but her father and her tribe were saved !
Among the archives of the Algonquin race, this is almost
a solitary sample of a plain, unvarnished tale, but all true
Indian stories have their own peculiar beauties, and in
almost every instance there is a ghost-like character, which
marks this class of legend ry, and renders it so utterly
distinct from that of any other people that it must here-
after cause regret that no skilful hand has sought to bring
together the scattered corner-stones of many an intellectual
castle which the poet and the painter might adorn. I do
not think, indeed, that from the Indian period of our
history we can glean the nuclei for our most noble, intel-
lectual fabrics ; but, apart from other objects, it would
certainly seem wise, in an age of active, mental competition,
to cherish whatever partakes of pleasing novelty or is
calculated to suggest new trains of thought. To him
whose object is to secure the people's favor, or to purchase
vulgar pleasures, it would be useless to suggest that the
study of humanity produces knowledge, and that knowledge
of every kind is power. But the poet and the pure ideal
AESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF ACADIA ITS
painter feel the need of teaching ; they seek to learn of
nature in its truest form, and they know their object can
only be obtained by carefully comparing results produced
by causes of every form. The proper teachings of the
Elusinian mysteries were lost to those who did not under-
stand ; the graces of the purest ritual might earn derision
only from untrained observers ; and I hold it almost worse
than useless to seek to bury in oblivion results which even
the rudest savage has produced for some especial object.
The custom may appear absurd, the legend may seem
based on that which could not be, but, upon a full investi-
gation, it will almost certainly appear that custom and
legend were born from a rude, uncultured genius, either
seeking to create and perfect some form of saving grace, or
to portray a real occurrence, or, perhaps, a burning fancy
lit with the fire of poesy.
Among the dearest, though less sparkling, gems of
literature, there are few examples which touch the heart-
strings more than those in which decayed prosperity is
pictured ; and I have somewhere seen a painting in which,
if we apply the best interpretation which actual facts
suggest, the same idea occurs. The scene is laid in twilight,
and banks of clouds are closing round a flush of light
beyond the far horizon, which seems more distant by con-
trast with the shaded hills. Between these hills and the
immediate foreground lie stretches of marsh and lake,
while a gloom of shadow and falling night and darkness
pervades the whole. In the centre, reflected from the
single piece of cloudless sky, appears a lumined space of
water, and there, in bold relief, stands an Indian in his
canoe. Motionless he stands, and silent, with form erect
and steadfast gaze upon the distant glimpse of day ; and
in contemplation of the painting, one almost seems to see
the lingering twilight fade in total darkness, and hear the
last faint plashing of the paddle of him who goes from out
the gloaming we know not where.
Were the story of French domination in Acadia written
by an able writer, it would be seen that no other section
of America is supplied with better subjects for every form
of the poets' muse. DeMonts, Champlain and Poutrin-
court, the earliest settlers, were gentlemen of culture, who
aimed at something higher than mere plunder or profit for
themselves, while, in after times, men like the Sieur La
Tour appear, with lives devoted to gaining influences in
this wild new land for France. And among the mission-
aries, both Recolets and Jesuits, were some of God's devoted
servants, and men of the DeRetz and Richelieu stamp,
well adapted for aiding or subverting dynasties and build-
ing up colonial power. Over the greater portion of the
country the French have left mementoes of their occupation
in the forms of ruined forts, dykes, and rows of willows
and names of places. I think that, in selecting names,
the English settlers are far behind both Indians and
French. Ouigoudi, the Winding River ; Magaguadavic,
the Stream of Hills ; Shockamock, the Shining Falls ;
Pokiock, the Dreadful Water, have beauty and suggestive-
ness, and Digby Gut and Parrsboro and Cow Bay will
scarcely bear comparison with Cape Enrage and Grand
Prarie. One likes to linger among the old historical scenes
and characters, to mark the courtly customs of Port Royal,
where the grand Steward of the day, with the staff and
collar of his order, ruled the guests ; to read the story of
the fight at Fort La Tour, of the brave defense by a noble
woman, and of her subsequent ill fortune. Then there
were fierce engagements between the rival ships of war,
when at times King Fog, the guardian spirit of the bay,
would separate the combatants, and, at intervals, a Captain
Argal drove the settlers off, or a fleet from Massachusetts
sailed past Brier Island up the Atlantic coast of Nova
Scotia and battered at the sea-girt walls of Louisbourg.
At last the struggle ceased. Wolfe was victor at Quebec ;
the rule of France in North America was at an end. The
ESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF AC ADI A 175
final story of the Acadians is sad in the extreme. Some
of them, neglected by their friends at home, yielded against
their inclinations, swore fealty to Great Britain, and con-
tinued in the country ; others, refusing to take the oaths,
or suspected of infidelity by colonial magnates, suffered
like the people of Grand Pre. In sight of burning cottages
and barns they were borne away over the waters which
DeMonts had named, in honor of their country, La Bay
Fran9oise, past points and headlands bearing well-known
names; they, looking backwards, with fixed eyes and
panting breasts, till the last wreath of smoke was lost in
the growing distance till the sun had set, and banks of
eastern clouds had faded in the twilight over Acadia, and
the breeze had borne them away, and the night had shut
them off forever from the land they loved.
More than a century has passed since England claimed
Acadia as her own. The hardy settlers who worked their
way through brake and forest are sleeping calmly in the
grave. The little cabin, with its moss-filled chinks and
rubble chimney, is supplanted with the wooden mansion,
with mansard roof and cornice, and the sparsely-settled
hamlet has grown into a town, and, with the advent of
success and wealth, romance retires. Art fears not pro-
gress, but she hates to strive with rancor, and would
rather follow in the van of science and use the fragments
of established truth. She waits till prejudice and cynicism
have done their work, till history and tradition are forsaken
by the skeptics, then she paints them in her own fair
colors, and they endure.
I will not, therefore, seek to picture English life in
Acadia, not because it is devoid of interest, but because it
is more recent than the other periods of our history;
because it gains its interest rather from connection with
commercial than aesthetic progress. Apart from all that
man has done, however, Acadia stands adorned with
Nature's graces, and God has given her charms which man
could nob create. Among the breakers of Cape Breton,
where the water surges past the heights at La Bras D'or,
among the islands near Cape Sable, at Lunenburg, at
Tusket and St. Mary's Bay, there are bits of rugged land-
scape, rich in all the splendor of bold rocks and splashing
wa^es. From Granville to Cornwallis the sweetest strip
of valley lies between two stretches of mountain land, and,
standing on the heights of Cobequid, we can gaze for miles
away upon a broad and boundless reach of marsh land.
From Fort Medway through lake Rosignol to the basin of
Annapolis, without leaving the canoe, we may pass through
a lovely highway of lakes and outlets, while up the river
of New Brunswick we may sail for days till we have to
make a portage at huge cascades, which, if Canada did
not possess Niagara and her railroads, would gather round
them crowds of tourists. I shall not soon forget a night
once passed on Blomidon the wildest spot, perhaps, in all
Acadia. It was in my grand old college days, and we,
three students, carried with us enough of classic training
to make us seek some classic features in the scene. The
night was cloudless, and a great round moon hung in the
sky above the Parrsboro coast and lit the belts of trap and
sandstone which skirt the western boundary of Minas
Basin. Along the heights, which rise precipitous three
hundred feet above the water's edge, are fearful landslides,
where, among fragments of basaltic column, mixed with
smaller broken stone and gravel, sprays of birch and dog-
wood mark the struggle between vegetable and inorganic
force. To the south lay Grand Pre, and a few stray dis-
tant lights were all that told us of the human world, the
rest was solitude. And then the waters of the Basin were
surging at our feet, or soughing up the shingle, or thunder-
ing against the cliff, while countless splash and wave and
ripple sounded from the distance far away. It was such a
scene as ^Eschylus and Homer must have witnessed, and
I do not think we should have wondered had we seen the
ESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF ACADIA 177
pale Promotheus shackled to the beetling rock, or heard
his wild and sad complaints, or had the story of Andromeda
been re-enacted before our eyes.
ISAAC ALLEN JACK.
[The foregoing is the principal portion of an address
delivered before the Associated Alumni of King's College,
Windsor, N. S., by Mr. Jack. That part which was more
personal in its nature has been eliminated.
The address evoked some kindly criticism, and for
elegance of diction and depth of poetic feeling, was gener-
ally regarded as of more than ordinary merit.
The Halifax Chronicle contained an appreciative refer-
ence, from the pen of its Windsor correspondent, which
was as follows :
Then came a beautiful essay by a former alumnus Mr. Jack,
now a lawyer of St. John, N. B., which was most favorably
received. It was difficult to decide whether to call it poetry or
prose, so much more of the former style than of the latter was
breathed throughout the elegant composition. I hope it will be
printed, and thus add another link to the evidence of what poor
old King's has done for the intellectual improvement of the colonial
mind. One of the speakers pronounced his opinion, that those
present may live to see the gifted author added to the long list of
chief justices who have been supplied by this institution.
It is to be regretted that Mr. Jack should have been
compelled, by ill-health, in the year 1895, to retire from
the active pursuit of his profession. With the advent into
power in dominion politics of the Liberal party, to whose
principles he had always been a firm adherent, his prospects
of more ample recognition among his fellows would have
been much enhanced. Indeed, we feel that had he been
able to retain his health, the friendly prognostication made
at Windsor in 1872 would have been verified, almost as a
natural sequence of events. ED.]
answers to Corresponbents.
MAUGEBVILLE, Sunbury Co., N. B.,
May 24th, 1901.
MR. D. R. JACK,
St. John, N. B.
DEAR SIR, The copy of ACADIENSIS to hand, and I am
much pleased with it.
In reading the article, " Incidents in the Early History
of St. John," by W. O. Raymond, I noticed that he men-
tions James White and James Simonds landing at St. John
April 18th, 1764. J. W. Lawrence, in " Incidents in
Early History of New Brunswick," gives the date August
28, 1762. Which is correct?
ZINA C. SEWELL.
Mr. Raymond writes : In reply to your correspondent's
question, which is a very natural and a very interesting
one, I shall give as briefly as I can the data on which
my statement in the last number of ACADIENSIS is based.
But before doing so I should like to make a few comments
upon the somewhat divergent statements made by Moses
H. Perley and by Joseph W. Lawrence.
In his well-known lecture on " The Early History of
New Brunswick,"* delivered in the Mechanics' Institute,
St. John, in 1841, Mr. Perley says :
In May, 1762, a party of about twenty came to this Harbor of
St. John, in a small vessel from Newburyport. Mr. Samuel
* The original manuscript of Moses H. Perley's lecture is now in the
possession of the New Brunswick Historical Society. It contains a number
of errors, some of which Mr. Perley himself discovered and corrected, and
many of which still remain.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 179
Peabody, Mr. James Simonds and Mr. James White were the
three principal persons of this party. They arrived on the 19th
day of May, 1762, and landed at Portland Point, where there was
a small clearing and the traces of an old French fort. Fort
Frederick was then occupied by a company of soldiers from Hali
fax. * * * The party of adventurers, who had arrived from
Newburyport, brought with them from that place the frame of a
house. They landed and raised it on the 20th of May, and on
the night of the 21st they occupied it. Mr. Samuel Peabody, to
whom the house belonged, lived in it afterwards, and it was sub-
sequently occupied by Mr. White for many years.
This statement is plain enough and circumstantial
enough, and was evidently derived by Mr. Perley from the
personal recollections or memoranda of some of the early
The statement of the late Joseph W. Lawrence in his
well-known little work, " Foot-Prints," is based upon the
information contained in the following letter addressed to
him by the late John Quinton,* the original of which is
in my possession.
ST. JOHN, N. B., July 31st, 1882.
Messrs. Simonds, White, Peabody, and their party Hugh
Quinton and wife being of the number, some twenty in all
landed in St. John harbour on the 28th August, 1762. Hugh
Quinton and wife, Miss Hannah Peabody, and others, went into
the old French fort on Carleton side. In this there was a barrack
that had some time prior to this been occupied by British troops.
Messrs. Simonds, White, and the rest of the party went to the
site of another old French fort, since known as Simonds' Point,
where they erected a building to accommodate the whole party,
to which Quinton and others in Carleton, soon after moved.
On the night of this day 28th August, 1762 Quinton's wife
was delivered of her first-born, a son, in the old fort barrack in
I have, perhaps, made this statement already too long, but I
want it clearly understood that there is no mistake about this date.
Beside the record in my possession, frequent confirmation of the
* Mr. Quinton died 1st July, 1888, at the age of eighty-one years.
facts from my grandfather's lips have fixed the whole thing on my
memory too firmly to be doubted or forgotten.
I was born in 1807 Grandmother of sound mind and remark-
able memory to the last, died in 1835. I might offer further proof
of this statement but perhaps it is not necessary to make the
story longer. Yours truly,
P. S. Hugh Quinton died in 1792. Miss Peabody, named
herein, was afterwards the wife of James Simonds, named at the
commencement. J. Q.
The account given by Mr. Quinton in his letter is equally
circumstantial with that of Moses H. Perley, and it is
difficult to reconcile the two. Both are equally in error
in claiming that James White was one of the party.
The papers and memoranda of James White, which are
now in the hands of a gentleman living in this city, prov.e
conclusively that throughout the year 1762, and part of
the next year, Mr. White was actively engaged as agent
for Samuel Blodget, a Boston merchant, in furnishing sup-
plies to the commissariat department of the British forces
at Crown Point, and he was the greater part of his time
stationed either at Crown Point or at Albany.
The statement contained in my article in the last num-
ber of ACADIENSIS is strictly accurate. The party which
arrived at St. John harbor in 1762 was merely the van-
guard of the colony that established the settlement at
Maugerville on the St. John river the following year,
whither all the first arrivals (with the exception of James
and Richard Simonds) seem to have proceeded. The first
permanent settlement at the mouth of the river was that
under James Simonds and James White in April, 1764.
The company of which they were members included, in
addition: William Hazen, merchant, of Newburyport ;
Samuel Blodget, merchant, of Boston; Richard Simonds
and Robert Peaslie. Articles of partnership were drawn
up and signed by these gentlemen March 1, 1764 (a fac-
simile of the signatures is here given), and shortly after-
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS
wards the Messrs. SimoncU and White, with a party of
about thirty men, embarked in the schooner " Wilmot,"
Wm. Storey, master, and sailed for St. John. They left
Newburyport about the 10th of April, arriving at Passa-
maquoddy on the 16th, and at St. John on the 18th. The
names of the party were Jonathan Leavitt, Jonathan Si-
monds, Webster Emerson, Samuel Middleton, Peter Mid-
dleton, Edmund Black, Moses True, Reuben Stevens, John
Stevens, John Boyd, Moses Kimball, Benjamin Dow,
Thomas Jenkins, Batcheldor Ring, Rowley Andros, Ed-
mund Butler, John Nason, Reuben Mace, Benjamin Wig-
gins, John Lovering, John Hookey, Reuben Sergeant,
Benjamin Stanwood, Anthony Dyer, George Carey, John
Hunt, George Berry, Simeon Hillyard, Ebenezer Fowler,
William Picket and Ezekiel Carr. The majority of these
men subsequently returned to Massachusetts, but quite a
number became permanent settlers and their descendants
are numerous in the province. During the summer of
1764 they established themselves in rude log houses on the
shores of the harbor. They were engaged at first chiefly
in the fishery, manufacture of lime, and trading. We may
rightly claim for this little colony of April 1764, the honor
of establishing the first permanent settlement at St. John.
Two years ago Professor W. F. Gaiiong issued the
" Teaching Botanist," a botanical text-book that met with
a very favorable reception from the educational world.
In June of this year the same author published his second
text-book, " Plant Physiology," a work that we think will
be highly prized by the students and teachers for whom it
It is a complete hand-book on the methods and equip-
ment necessary for a course in experimental plant physi-
ology, and like the author's first book is a splendid example
of inductive teaching. The book is well got up and is from
the press of Henry Holt & Co., New York.
" Index to American Genealogies," and to genealogical
material contained in all works such as Town and Country
histories, biographies, historical periodicals, and kindred
works. Alphabetically arranged, enabling the reader to
ascertain whether the genealogy of any family or part of a
family is printed. Fourth edition. 8 vo. 282 pages.
Cloth, $5.00. Published by Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany,
BOOK NOTICES 183
"American Genealogist," being a catalogue of family
histories. A bibliography of American genealogy from
1771 to date. 8 vo. 328 pages. Cloth, $5.00. Pub-
lished by Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, N. Y.
"List of Titles of Genealogical Articles in American
periodicals and kindred works," giving the name, residence,
and earliest date of the first settler of each family, and
adding deficiencies in brackets. Designed as a companion
volume to the "American Genealogist." 8 vo. 165 pages.
Cloth, $3.00. Published by Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany,
The first number of the " American Heraldic Journal,"
a quarterly published at 106 East Broad Street, Columbus,
Ohio, has just been received. It is of quarto size, sixteen
pages in extent, and is a fine specimen of the printer's art.
The subscription price is $2.00 per annum, and it is an-
nounced that the list of subscribers for 1901 will be closed
as soon as fifty persons or institutions have signified their
desire to subscribe.
We are indebted to the following publications for very
generous notices of our second number :
Acadian Wolfville, N. S^
Agriculturist . Charlottetown, P. E. I.
Argus Lunenburg, N. S.
Chronicle Halifax, N. S.
Colchester Sun Truro, N. S.
Eagle Brooklyn, N. Y.
Echo Halifax, N. S.
Examiner Charlottetown, P. E. I.
Educational Review St. John, N. B.
Free Lance Weatville, N. S.
Gleaner Fredericton, N. B.
Globe St. John, N. B.
Herald.. Halifax, N. S.
Herald Yarmouth, N. S.
Journal Summerside, P. E. I.
Journal of the Ex-Libris Society London, Eng.
Le Moniteur Acadian Shediac, N. B.
Guardian Charlotte town, P. E. 1.
Monitor St. John, N. B.
N. Y. Times Saturday Review New York.
N. E. Historical and Genealogical Register Boston, Mass.
Presbyterian Witness Halifax, N. S.
Press Woodstock, N. B.
Record Sydney, C. B.
Telegraph St. John, N. B.
Tribune Windsor, N. S.
Reporter Woodstock, N. B.
Sentinel Woodstock, N. B.
Sun St. John, N. B
Times Guardian Truro, N. S
World ' Chatham, N. B.
Canada Educational Monthly.
Prince Edward Island Magazine.
New England Bibliopolist.
New York Genealogical and Biographical Record.
Bulletin des Recherches Historiques.
Kings College Record.
Canadian Home Journal.
Reports Bureau American Ethnology.
" Old North- West " Genealogical Quarterly.
North American Notes and Queries.
The Book Lover.
Journal of the Ex-Libris Society.
MISS ELIZABETH WHITE,
OF HALIFAX, N. S.
The Indians of Acadia, - -
-Historic Louisburg as it is to-day,
Colonel Robert Moodie, - -
La Valliere of Chignecto, -
Tivo Acadian Musicians, -
Charlotte Elizabeth, - - -
The Wetmore Family,
The Origin of the N. Y. Herald,
Out in the sleeping forest, 'neath the stars,
When winds are still, and Nature void of life,
A dry twig sharply breaks : and in the house,
The lonely watcher in the breathless night
Hears the door creak or untrod stair complain,
No mortal power lending cause thereto
Is there some pebble on the road of space
O'er which the huge world jars ? Or doth the hear
Of fire that throbs beneath her rocky ribs
Beat over-strongly in the loose of sleep,
And stir her antique frame? Nay, who can say
What angels or what demons or vague forms
Of mindless force upon the earth contend,
Beyond the reaches of our utmost thought !
'Tis not alone the harp-strings of our souls
That hum and quiver at a viewless touch,
But things inanimate bear witness strong
Another world stirs closely round our verge
With moth-like eyes on Life's material flame,
And sudden, aimless flickerings through its gleam!
The charlatan who claims to call such host
Turns white and speechless if it truly come ;
The proved soldier of an hundred fields,
Whose eye hath sternly scanned the face of Death
At arm's-length, quails and shrinks in ghastly fear.
And cries to God if such a foe seem near.
VOL. I. OCTOBER, 1901. No. 4.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK, ......... EDITOR.
flnbtane ot Hcafcia.
HEN, in the year 1604, Champlain,
deMonts and Poutrincourt, from
old France, their souls filled with
a laudable ambition to establish
colonies and conquer new territories
which would add to the wealth and
renown of the mother country,
landed in what they named New France, they found
the territory occupied by a brave and healthy race of
men. These men, the native Indians, the Abenakis, as
they were then called, lived by fishing and hunting. The
only enemy they knew were the Mohawks, a rival tribe,
with whom they were frequently at war, and against
whom, according to their own legends and traditions, they
were able, for a considerable period of time, to hold their
ground. That the Mohawks subsequently obtained the
mastery is at least probable from an incident which is
touched upon in a later portion of this sketch.
The descendants of the Abenakis still remain among us,
and are to be found in scattered groups throughout the
length and breadth of Acadia. Much of interest regard-
ing them has been related by Marc L'Escarbot, the histor-
ian of New France, to whose published works we are
greatly indebted for the preservation of valuable material.
Champlain's maps of La Baie Fra^aise, Port Royal and
the mouth of the St. John River, the first ever made of
this part of the world, of which we have any knowledge,
are remarkably accurate in their main features, and well
worthy of careful examination.
L' Escarbot, in his " Historic de la Nouvelle France/
says : " When we came to the River Saint John, being in
the town of Ouigotidi (for thus I can well call an enclosed
place full of people), we saw in a great ' hallier ' about
eighty savages, entirely naked, with the exception of a
cincture, who were making a tabaguia with flour which
they had received from us, of which they had made pots
full of 'bouillie.'"
The exact spot where this interesting feast took place is
shown by Champlain upon one of his maps, and is readily
recognized as the Navy Island of to-day, situated at the
upper end of the harbour of St. John.
The Indians who live in Acadia are the members of
three tribes the Micmacs, who were the original owners
of the soil ; and the Maliseets, who were once a portion of
the Abenaki nation, were later comers, and driving back
the Micmacs established possession of the northern and
western portion of what is now New Brunswick, including
the valley of the river St. John, with the exception of one
village site at the mouth of the river. The third tribe
the Passamaquoddy Indians had no separate tribal or-
ganization until after the advent of the white man upon
Mr. Montague Chamberlain, formerly of the city of St.
John, but now of Boston, Mass., is a very well known
writer upon Indian affairs, and has published, among
others, two valuable papers. The first, entitled, "The
Abenaki Indians," was an interesting paper on the
Indians of New England, their language and their tribes.
This paper was read in 1895 before the Shepherd Histori-
cal Society of Cambridge, Mass. The second paper was
THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 189
entitled " The Origin of the Maliseets," and was published
in the New Brunswick Magazine, Vol. I., pp. 41-45.
Concerning the origin of the Abenakis, and their exten-
sion into Acadia, Mr. Chamberlain states in his first men-
tioned paper that there was good reason for supposing
that the progenitors of the Abenaki nation were a band of
Ojibways who left the main body and settled in the
Adirondack region, from which they were driven by the
Iroquois, when that nation moved up from the southwest.
"At the time of the European occupation of New England
these Ojibways had increased to seven large tribes, and controlled
the entire country from the St. John river in New Brunswick
through Maine and New Hampshire to the Connecticut river, and
extended their rule into Massachusetts as far as the mouth of the
Merrimac on the east, and Northampton on the west. The senior
or original tribe claimed the hunting rights of the country between
the Connecticut and the Piscataqua, their principal village being
Pennacook, on the banks of the Merrimac, where Manchester now
stands, and where their chief, Passaconaway, lived. It is probable
that this tribe was known as the Nipmuks by the neighboring
people, but their own tribal name is unknown."
The origin of the younger tribes is thus accounted for
by Mr. Chamberlain :
" First a band of Nipmuks wandered to the Saco, set up a
village on the site of the present town of Fryburg, organized an
independent tribe and adopted the name of Sakokik, generally
spelled Sakoki, from which we have derived the present name of
the river Saco. Later, a detachment from the Sakoki set up for
themselves on the banks of the Androscoggin, and are known in
history as the Assagunticooks. From these sprung the Wawe-
nocks, and the Canibas or Kenebasiaks, the former spreading over
the Maine coast between Rockland and Yarmouth, and the Canibas
taking possession of the Kennebec river. In turn, the Canibas
became the parent tribe of the Penobscots, and it was a band of
Penobscots who set up their wigwams on the banks of the Sb,
John, and established the tribe that is now known as the Maliseets.
All this must have occurred long before the white man entered
the country, for Champlain, Lescarbot, Captain John Smith and
Cardillac, who visited the St. John during the first decade of the
seventeenth century, found there two large encampments of Mali-
seets, and the early visitors refer to the tribe as taking a leading
part in the afi'airs of the Abenaki nation."
This name has been variously spelled Abenaki, Wapa-
naki, Wabananchi, and Abenaqui.
In his paper, entitled, " The Origin of the Maliseets,"
Mr. Chamberlain writes :
"That the Micmacs were not Wapanakis has been clearly
established by comparison of the languages and the t raditions,
though the tribes lived on intimate friendly terms, and Micmac
braves were sometimes found among Wapanaki war parties. Dr.
Williamson, in his History of Maine, quotes a Penobscot Indian's
statement that ' all the Indians between the St. John and the
Saco rivers are brothers; the eldest lives on the Saco, and each
tribe is younger as we pass eastward. Always I could understand
these brothers very well when they speak, but when the Micmacs
talk I can't tell what they say.' "
The Passamaquoddy tribe, to which we have before
alluded, is a mixture of Maliseet and Penobscot, and
tradition states that a Maliseet brave married a Penobscot
squaw and built a wigwam at the entrance of the river
St. Croix. They were joined by other Indians from
various parts of what is now the State of Maine, and the
band which had thus grown up, held allegiance to the
Maliseets until subsequently to the arrival of the whites.
When the Penobscots finally deserted Machias and the
majority of the families moved to the St. Croix, the band,
augmented by this addition, elected their own chief and
organized a tribal establishment. This ceremony is said
to have been conducted by leading men from the Maliseet,
Penobscot and St. Francis tribes, which tribes, according
to Williamson, were estimated as numbering some 36,000
souls at the time of the European invasion.
The late Edward Jack, who was by profession a civil
engineer, has left quite a valuable fund of information re-
lating chiefly to the district of Acadia. In the pursuit of
his calling he spent much of his time in the depths of the
forests of New Brunswick, often for weeks together, with
THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 191
no companion save an Indian guide or two, their nightly
resting place in the summer time, a bed of spruce or fir
boughs, beneath a rude shelter of canvas or an upturned
canoe ; in the winter, a sort of lean-to, or shed, constructed
of young evergreens, beneath which the fir boughs upon
which they slept were spread upon the snow, while in
front a generous fire kept the keen frost at bay.
A man of kindly heart and sympathetic disposition, he
eventually won the confidence and respect of what is now
but the proud and silent remnant of a once mighty race,
which ruled the country from the Bay of Fundy to the St.
Lawrence, and from the Kennebec to the Atlantic Ocean.
In a sketch by him, entitled "A Day with the Abenakis,"
written for the St. John Sun, and published in that journal
on the 30th of July, 1881, several Indian legends and
customs are touched upon, and the writer feels that he
may be permitted to insert herein, from the article men-
tioned, what may possibly be considered a somewhat
lengthy extract :
" In the year 1696, when De Villebon was Governor of Acadia,
and resided at the mouth of the Nashwaak, a plan to capture
Boston by the aid of the Abenakis, was submitted by him to the
consideration of the Court of France, but the carrying out of the
scheme was never attempted, for De Villebon found his own exist-
ence threatened by an attack which was made upon his fort on
the 21st day of October, in that very year, by a force from Massa-
chusetts. This, however, with the assistance of forty neophytes,
sent by Father Simon, the Recollet Missionary, who resided near
what is now called Springhill, De Villebon defeated. Father
Charlevoix, who visited New France in 1720, in describing this
contest, says that the Massachusetts men landed below the mouth
of the Nashwaak and lighted their camp fires. The French
opened upon them with round shot. To this they paid no atten-
tion, but on their changing this for grape, the hardy New Eng-
landers were compelled to pass the cold autumnal night without
fire, as best they could.
In confirmation of Charlevoix's statement, it may be mentioned
that within the past few years, round and grape shot have both
been dug out of the lower banks of the Nashwaak, near its junc-
tion with the Saint John.
Not more than half a mile above where De Villebon's fort once
stood, there stands a group of miserable huts, inhabited by the
descendants of those very Abenakis, whose name once carried such
terror to the home of many an early New England settler. In
the warm summer evenings, these few poor remnants of a fading
3tnd faded race, love to gather in the open air around a bright fire
and relate to one another their little experiences of uneventful
life, occasionally mingled with a few faint traditions of their
ancestor's deeds of valor which memory has from age to age
handed down. They are a civil, harmless people, and not nearly
so much addicted to strong drink as they once were.
About the first of the present month (July 1881) the writer, in
company with a friend, determined to visit the Islands opposite
tOj or rather below the mouth of the Keswick, about seven miles
%bove Fredericton. We enlisted the services of Gabe, who brought
with him another Indian whom he called Sol, and who must have
Men nearly eighty years of age. He spoke but little English,
and although very good natured, had but little to say. Gabe,
however, made up for all his friend's defects in this respect.
Before leaving, we bought a can of salmon, a couple of loaves of
(bread, some tea and sugar, and a tin kettle and dippers. We
had each of us an Indian and a canoe, and our dusky guides soon
landed us on the bosom of the Saint John, plying their paddles
with a strength and speed which younger men might envy.
Gabe had a pole, so he occasionally dropped his paddle and used
Ms pole, always, however, waiting affectionately for Sol when he
had distanced the latter a hundred yards or so, saying at the same
tpne, " I must not leave Sol behind." The balmy air, laden with
(&e perfume of the white clover and wild flowers which grew on
the river bank, rippled the blue waters of the river, obliterating
the shadows which the long extended branches of the graceful
alms had thrown upon the water, and rustled among the leaves as
it sportively danced from bough to bough. Nature was indeed
fcharming, in her very brightest and happiest mood, and the time
Ijassed so pleasantly that we found ourselves near the lower end
of the Islands in a very short time. One of these, yet called
Savage Island, was the place where, about the year 1760 or 1770,
CJharles Morris, then Surveyor General of Nova Scotia, saw the
Great Indian Council House, built of rude poles, where, in the
mouth of July in each year, the Abenakis met to allot to each
Indian family its hunting ground.
"As we rounded a point on the west side of the river, Gabe
remarked : ' It is noon ; here is a good place for dinner ; on that
AN INDIAN WIGWAM, NEAR HALIFAX.
tore BY E. A. WILSON.
SQUAWS AT THE HALIFAX MARKET.
THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 193
bank is a clean, cold spring, and there are no flies to trouble us.'
So, pushing ashore, we all landed and went up to Gabe's cold
spring, which we found answered his commendations.
" Sol and he soon had dinner ready. This we partook of be-
neath the overarching boughs of a magnificent elm, and as Gabe
had told us, there were no flies, there being in this spot a con-
stant breeze. After we had finished our dinner, overhearing Sol
make some remarks to Gabe in the Abenaki tongue, we asked the
interpretation : ' Oh,' said Gabe, ' Sol is only telling me that this
is the first time that he ever ate salmon out of boxes.' When
dinner was over, and Gabe's pipe filled and smoked, he became
very communicative as one or other of us drew him out : ' Ah ! '
said he ' the English when they took Quebec promised to treat us
Indians as well as the French. They never have, nor never will.
The French lived among us, learned our language and gave us
religion ; they were just like ourselves ; that is why we thought
so much of them.'
"After leaving the point where we had dined we ascended the
river a mile or two further, until we came opposite the foot of
what is now called Hart's Island. This, Gabe informed us, was
formerly called by the Indians, Old-town. Here it was that the
Abenakis lived in summer. Their wigwams being placed around
the island, formed a sort of stockade, the centre being reserved as
a space for their dances. The Mohawks, Gabe said, more than
once attempted the destruction of the Abenakis residing here, and
once in particular they would have been utterly destroyed but for
the wise foresight of an aged squaw who was gifted with the
spirit of prophecy : ' On a still summer evening, long before the
pale faces had invaded our country,' said he, 'this woman, with
wild eyes and long flowing hair, rushed into the centre of the
encampment, calling out in low tones, " there is trouble ! there is
trouble ! " In a short time she was surrounded by our braves,
who asked what she meant. " You see Woo-cho-sis (Currie's
Mountain) over there, do you not ? Behind it is hidden a great
party of Mohawks, and they are only waiting for the night to
cover the earth, when they will attack you and kill you all if you
are not ready for them." A great council was immediately called,
and it was decided that action should be at once taken in the
matter. In order to conceal their intentions from the Mohawks
they concluded to have a big dance. While this was going on the
braves slipped out one by one, leaving none but the old men and
women to keep it up. Before separating they ha,l determined
upon a particular sign by which they might know one another in
the dark, as they might be crawling in the long grass, or among
the thick bushes which surrounded the island, and he who could
not answer this sign was to be dispatched immediately and his
gory head thrown in among the dancers. The Mohawks mean-
while had, as evening advanced, slowly and stealthily approached
the Abenakis village, but will had been met by will, and before
day dawned many a Mohawk's head had been thrown into the
midst of the dancers, with the whispered command : dance harder!
dance harder ! until, exhausted and fainting, the dancers sank to
the ground. By morning most of the Mohawk braves had been
slain, the others,' said Gabe, 'were as easily dispatched as you
might cut a chicken's head off, or knock a lamb on the head.
Some three or four, with ears and noses cut off, were allowed to
return home, in order to show the other Mohawks how they would
be treated should they attempt the like again.'
"Entering our canoes we poled along towards Savage Island,
and the water became quicker and the bottom was covered by
bright pebbles. ' This,' said Gabe, ' is Augh-pa-hack, the head of
tide. On the west side of the river, just here, once stood our
church and village. There was a racecourse in ancient times,'
said Gabe, 'which extended all around the island, a distance of
several miles. Here, after ball playing, the young Indians tried
their speed. When I was a boy,' said he, 'I have seen traces of
their race course in the sod.'
" As the day was well advanced we concluded to turn our
canoes homewards, which we did ; one of them hoisting a sail, the
other was held on, and was borne swiftly along by the north-west
wind, As Gabe dropped the paddle and wiped the perspiration
from his brow he again recurred to the traditions of his fathers.
' Long ago,' said he, ' there was a great sickness fell upon the
Abenakis, and many of them, men, women and children, died.
One night, when all was dark and silent, there appeared to one of
our braves a strange figure, as of a man all covered with joints
and bars. "I am," said he, " Ke-whis-wask (calamus-root), and
can heal you all. Vnu must, to-morrow morning, dig me up,
steep me in warm water, and drink me, and I will cure you."
After saying this he vanished, and next morning the brave, doing
as he was told, the sick all recovered.' "
The Indians of Canada are all more or less under gov-
ernment supervision, but in spite of great watchfulness,
THE INDIANS OF AC ADI A 195
are sometimes the subjects of unjust attack by their white
brethren, as will be illustrated by the following incident :
In July, 1879, an Indian named La Coate entered the Crown
Land Office at Fredericton, and informed one of the officers that
two men had taken possession of a piece of land on the great
Schoodic Lakes, containing 200 acres, which the Indians claimed
as their property.
In order to substantiate his claim, he drew from his pocket a
carefully preserved paper, written in the year 1808. and signed by
Thomas Wyer, Thomas Wyer, jr., Robert Pagan, David W.
Jack, and other leading citizens of St. Andrews. It stated
that John La Coate, the grandfather of this Indian, together with
a number of others as representatives of the tribe, expressed their
determination to be friends with the English and to retire to the
woods, if necessary, so as to escape the effects of war between
Great Britain and the United States.
Whether these 200 acres were ever restored to the rem-
nant of this tribe by the Provincial Government or not, the
writer is not in a position to state.
Among some old papers the writer finds an account of a
meeting held at St. Andrews, N. B., in the year 1808,
and to which he has before alluded. The inhabitants of
that town were then greatly alarmed lest the Indians
should, in the case of war with the United States, take
arms against the English. A meeting was accordingly
held with the delegates of the Indians, at the house of
Thos. Wyer, Esq., when they appeared in full Indian dress
with a Mohawk as interpreter.
On the opening of the council the Indians seated them-
selves on the floor, around the walls of the room, the chief
addressing the people of St. Andrews in the Indian lan-
guage, which was interpreted by the Mohawk. As each
sentence was completed by the chief, each Indian bowed
his head, uttering the Indian word or sign for yes, which
is something like ah, ah.
They said that they would have to act as the Mohawks
would require them, but that they were King George's
men, and desired to remain neutral and to trade with both
parties. These Indians, during the time the council was
held, appeared to be a grave and respected body of men,
but after the council broke up, rum was given them, when
they became wild with its exciting spirit, some of them
going so far as to roll over on the floor and yell out, More
rum ! mere rum !
Col. Wyer was always a protector to the Indians, and
endeavoured to secure for them that honorable and straight-
forward treatment which he felt they should receive. His
house was always open to them, and they were at liberty
to enter his kitchen, make use of the fire in the wide old-
fashioned fireplace to prepare their meal, and to spend the
night under his roof if they so desired.
The writer's father was wont to relate many interestiag
reminiscences of life in St. Andrews in the earlier part of
the last century.
Upon one occasion, when a very small child, he was
staying at the house of Col. Wyer, his grandfather, and
all the household, with the exception of one servant and
himself, being absent, a party of Indians entered the
kitchen, and, biddiag the servant good evening, set about
preparing their evening meal. Supper ended, the Indians
spread their blankets upon the kitchen floor, and were
soon fast asleep.
Greatly alarmed at this free-and-easy procedure, the
servant withdrew to a room in the attic of the house,
taking the small boy with her, where they spent a sleepless
night, in momentary dread of Indian violence.
Their fears, however, were unfounded, for at daybreak
the Indians arose and proceeded upon their journey, leav-
ing everything just as they had found it. It is scarcely
necessary to add that the open-hearted and generous treat-
ment accorded to the Indians by Col. Wyer was never
abused by them, and that upon DO occasion did he ever
lose by petty thieving or any other dishonesty upon the
part of his Indian guests.
THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 197
Reverting once more to Mr. Chamberlain's article upon
the Abenakis, he thus describes the tribal organization :
They were organized upon the same general plan common to
most of the North American tribes, the old men forming a council
which is presided over by the chief or sakum (sachem) who was
elected by the people at large. The members of the council were
not elected but were appointed by the chief.
The sakum held no other executive authority unless delegated
by vote of the council, though the position gave an able man great
influence and unlimited opportunities for leadership. The council
discussed tribal affairs, but neither made nor enforced laws. The
tribes had no laws. They followed certain traditional usages, but
followed these because they revered them, each man being free to
govern his own actions, though he was ostracized if he neglected
any important function.
Crime was almost unknown among them, and when it occurred
was punished by vote of the council.
The people were not nomadic, but lived in fixed villages, which
were fortified by palisades. They were hunters, but cultivated
corn, beans and pumpkins extensively.
The children were carefully trained by the old women of the
village, the boys and girls being prepared for their respective
duties. The young women did not mingle with the young men
and were not allowed to marry until about twenty- four, when the
parents arranged a suitable match.
It is impossible to tell exactly what the primitive religion was,
for their legends are now mixed with matter taught by the Jesuit
missionaries. It is doubtful if they believed in a supreme being,
or in any god who was always good. They had many gods, but
these were sometimes good and sometimes evil. They prayed to
these gods for assistance and made offerings by way of thanks and
praise. Their religious ceremonies were mostly songs and dances
The priests combined the offices of intercessor and medicine
man. They possessed no remedial knowledge, but used occult
charms to remove the evil spirit that caused disease. The old
woman used many herbs and roots for external and internal uses.
These people believed in a future life, but did not believe in
The mental and moral characteristics of the Abenaki Indians are
of a much higher plane than is usually accredited to the race.
But their minds are undeveloped and they are almost child-like in
their immaturity, their methods of reasoning and their standards.
They are observant and quick to appreciate cause and effect, so
they learn readily, and being obedient make pleasant pupils and
Before being degraded by the white man's influence the Abenakis
were highly moral. They were honest, truthful and just ; hospi-
table to a fault and unswerving in fidelity to their friends. They
are still hospitable, and the best of them are honest and faithful.
In the old times the women were peculiarly moral. Married
women were rarely inconstant and maidens were never unchaste.
They were revengeful ; it was born in them, and from their
mother's lips they learned it was their duty to pay back wrong
with wrong. They tortured captives, but that was from super-
stition more than from lack of humaneness. They were extremely
kind to their old people and to the unfortunate. Their hospitality
was unlimited, and to this day they never turn away from their
wigwams those who apply to them for food or shelter.
Their code of warfare was a savage code they knew none other
but they never went to war for the mere glory of scalp taking
nor from love of conquest. They were strong men who faced
death with calmness and courage, but they were also tender and
affectionate and cared for wives and children with great devotion.
Their reserve is proverbial, but is due to their extreme bashful-
ness in the presence of strangers, their dread of ridicule to which
they are peculiarly sensitive, and their respect for those who they
deem superiors. When among intimates they converse with ease
and volubility ; repartee is much enjoyed, and their conversation
is spirited and not unfrequently very mirthful.
The writer well remembers in his boyhood's time many
pleasant days spent at Gagetown, upon the St. John
lliver, his constant and only companion, Sabatis, an Indian
boy of about his own age.
Summer after summer, in fishing, canoeing, swimming,
and raft and camp building the days were spent. Delight-
ful they were in the reality, and delightful still in the
recollection. Upon many a sultry afternoon, after retir-
ing to some sandy and secluded spot upon the river bank,
and devoid of what little clothing the usages of society
retired, did the youthful braves paddle and swim about
in the tepid water until its chilling influence compelled a
THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 199
temporary abandonment of this pleasurable pastime. Then
a blazing bonfire of driftwood, and a race up and down
the grassy sward. After this, with bodies once more
glowing with the vigor of youth and health, a plunge
into the river to begin again the same routine.
To the credit of this Indian boy be it said that he was
without guile, a true friend, a stranger to the use of im-
proper language, and quick to act in any emergency ;
upon one occasion, without momentary hesitation, plung-
ing into the water and bringing safely to land a near
relative of the writer, then a very young child, who had
accidentally fallen into deep water, and was in imminent
danger of drowning.
While he knew where the robin and the bob-o-link
nested, and the blue-winged heron reared her brood, he
never rifled their nests, for that would surely anger the
Great Spirit. His theology consisted of a strange mixture
of heathenism and Christianity ; and if you asked him, as
did the writer upon one occasion, where God lived, he
would point in the direction of the setting sun and reply,
" Away over there ! "
The musquash he looked upon as a wise provision of
nature for his subsistence, and dozens of their skins, each
stretched upon a shingle to dry, might be seen about his
home. These he captured in the springtime by the aid of
a rude trap made of boards, when the high freshet drove
them from their usual haunts and hiding places. An
inquiry of Sabatis upon one occasion as to whether the
musquash was good eating elicited the prompt reply,
" Him better'n black duck." This remark was accom-
panied by a gesture so significant of appreciation that it
certainly left no doubt upon the subject in the mind of the
In Acadia, as elsewhere, intercommunication with his
white brethren does not seem, as a rule, to have improved
the physical or moral condition of the native Indian.
Opportunities for obtaining fire-water, the loss to a large
extent of his hunting grounds, and the consequently
greater difficulty in obtaining a livelihood, are causes which
have perhaps contributed to this condition. There still
remain among them, however, many who are honest, sober
and industrious, and who may safely be relied upon as
trusty guides through the trackless forest, or upon fishing
or hunting expeditions. Many of them are experts in the
weaving of baskets, in the building of birch bark canoes,
in reading the book of nature, and with the paddle, the
rifle and the spear.
That the Indians of Acadia are not decreasing in num-
ber would appear from the government returns, which give
the Indian population of the three Acadian provinces as
1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899
Nova Scotia 2141 2164 2108 1890 2027 1953
New Brunswick 1618 1668 1590 1658 1627 1667
P. E. Island 285 287 308 303 314 315
There are eighteen schools maintained by the govern-
ment for the benefit of the Indians, of which eleven are in
Nova Scotia, six in New Brunswick, and one in Prince
During the year ending 30th June, 1897, there were
four hundred and six pupils enrolled at the eighteen
schools, with an average attendance of one hundred and
eighty-seven pupils, or nearly nineteen for each school.
In the same year there were among the total population
of 3,935 no less than 4,817 acres of land under cultivation,
they owned 1,660 implements and vehicles, 856 horses,
cattle sheep and pigs, and 1,071 head of poultry ; they
raised 9,460 bushels of grain, 16,345 bushels of potatoes
and roots, 1,502 tons of hay, and produced $62,190 in
value of fish, furs and other commodities.
In this year also there was expended by the government
on their behalf: For salaries, $2,817; for relief and seed
flidlohy W. A. Uiekma
See page 201.
THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 201
grain, $6,416; for medical attendance, $5,804; and on
miscellaneous account, $1,001.
Many of them find employment during the hunting
season as guides, in which capacity they are favourably
regarded by the majority of the sportsmen who regularly
visit the Acadian Provinces.
The portrait which accompanies this sketch is that
of Nicholas Lolar, one of the well-known guides of
New Brunswick, and is the work of Mr. W. A. Hickman
during the year 1899. The photograph was taken on the
bank of the Restigouche River in the early morning. The
Indian had just cleaned and prepared for cooking a fine
grilse which he had caught, and, turning from the river
towards the camp, was photographed instantaneously by
The pose is natural, the likeness good, and the picture,
being a striking one, is well worthy of preservation.
The writer regrets that lack of space will not permit
him to touch more fully upon the various matters con-
nected with Indian life and history. This brief sketch
will give the reader a general idea of the extent of our
Indian population, their condition and capabilities. Other
articles upon the same subject are in course of preparation,
and will be published from time to time, as the variety of
subjects requiring attention and the limited space at our
disposal will permit.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
Ibietoric OLouteburg as it is
HERE are few towns in which the past
and the present meet as pathetically
as they do at Louisburg, once the
Dunkirk of America, now a rising
twentieth century shipping town.
Louisburg has indeed seen its ups and
downs. To-day the future of the new
Louisburg is bright with promise. It already possesses a
magnificent coaling pier erected by the Dominion Coal
Company, and one or more large coaling steamers are
always to be seen in its harbor. Only recently Louisburg
elected its first mayor and town council. When the South
Shore Line in Cape Breton becomes an established fact,
Louisburg will receive a greatly increased importance. It
is still spoken of as a possible port for a fast Atlantic service.
The modern town, which is now growing rapidly, pos-
sesses several good churches and a number of stores and
comfortable residences, but to the visitor its interest is
naturally small compared with what remains of the Louis-
burg which flourished as the capital of lie Royale under the
golden lilies of France. On leaving the Sydney and Louis-
burg train almost the first objects to meet one's eyes are
two French cannon now mounted on modern gun-carriages
supplied by the Dominion Government and located on a
neatly sodded place d'armes, which is an exact model of
the place d'armes of the old French fortifications. The
cannons were procured from the harbor not many years
ago from the sunken wreck of a French man-of-war.
Nearly every house in town possesses at least a few
relics of the olden days, and cannon balls used in the siege
are still constantly being unearthed. Unfortunately many
relics have been carried off and thus lost to Cape Breton.
It is a great pity that earlier in the day an organized
effort was not made to collect relics and to preserve them
in a small museum placed somewhere on the site of the
ancient town. One memorial almost every one of the older
dwelling houses possesses in its cellar wall and chimney.
HISTORIC LOUISBURG 203
Nearly every cellar was built with stone taken from the
fortifications and many a cottage chimney is composed of
bricks manufactured in La Belle France. A drive of
between two and three miles is necessary to bring one to
all that remains of ancient Louisburg.
The country is flat, stony, and comparatively uninterest-
ing in appearance. On the way, the Barachois, so fre-
quently mentioned in the different accounts of the two sieges
of Louisburg, is passed. The word, which is of uncertain
derivation, means a pond separated from the sea by a
narrow strip of beech or sand.
The first thought on reaching the ruins is of the immense
expenditure of money and toil devoted to the construction
of the ancient fortifications, now still massive even in their
ruins. The various bastions, the King's, the Queen's, the
Dauphin's, the Princess, and the Maurepas, may still be
clearly traced. The most interesting features of the ruins
are the casemates, tunnels of solid masonry, whither in
time of bombardment the non-combatants, the women and
the children, were sent for safety. Today they afford
shelter from the cold and storm to the numerous sheep
which wander undisturbed where once the sound of martial
tread and the hurried call to arms were heard. It is very
easy to conjure up pictures of the times when the English
ships were hurling their deadly fire into the devoted town.
Huddled like sheep in these dark and close abodes the
women of French Louisburg, rich and poor alike, must
have spent many and many a weary hour, now praying to
Our Lady of Deliverance to crush the power of the assail-
ants, now bewailing the loss of husband, or of brother, or
of lover, and now trying to comfort the little ones in their
dread of the terrible Anglais. Here doubtless the brave
Madame de Drucour, the governor's wife, who at one time
supplied with her own hands the cannons of the little
garrison, may have given many a word of comfort to her
sisters of less heroic build.
Amongst the other ruins may be seen the entrance to an
underground passage way, which as yet has not been
thoroughly explored. Indeed it is probable that were
systematic excavations undertaken, many more relics might
be discovered, and many points of interest, now matters of
dispute, cleared up.
It is easy to follow the lines of the fortifications till the
old burying grounds near Rochfort and Black Point are
reached. Here rest unmarked by cross or tombstone, the
bodies of hundreds of the gallant dead. French soldiers and
merchants of the ancient faith rest here in ground un-
blessed by priest or bishop. Soldiers and sailors of Old
England lie here far from the sound of the church bell and
the calm lanes of the English villages that gave them birth.
Here too repose the stern Puritan warriors of New Eng-
land, farmers and clerks and fishermen by trade, but
soldiers all by the inalienable right of Saxon birth.
The weakness of Louisburg lay undoubtedly on the land
side ; from the sea it was practically impregnable. Could
the French only have prevented the landing, at the first
siege of Pepperell and his colonials, at the second, of
Wolfe and his regulars, the history of Cape Breton might
have been far other than it is. Pepperell's success was, of
course, far more phenomenal than the result of the second
siege. Seeing the fortress to-day in its ruins, we can
realize what it was in its glory, and can thus recognize the
splendid audacity of Governor Shirley in daring to dream
that his little expedition of untrained colonists could hope
for a moment to oust the French from their greatest strong-
hold in America. The thought suggests itself : was it
advisable or necessary for England, when once she had
obtained possession of such a splendid fortress, to destroy
it ? With a little additional work it could have been made
absolutely impregnable and would have served England's
purpose well, far better indeed than Halifax, which was
fortified about the time that Louisburg was destroyed.
It is, of course, hinted that local influence in Halifax was
brought to bear on the Imperial government.
THE LOUISBURG MONUMENT.
HISTORIC LOUISBURG 205
Seated on the grassy mounds that cover the old town
it is easy to conjure up visions of the ancient glory, to
rebuild the governor's stately mansion, to re-people it with
the courtly soldiers and the beautiful daughters of France,
to see again the stately dance or the gorgeous dinner party
for the governor's friends. We can imagine the chapel
standing in its ancient beauty, adorned with every fair
device of art for glory and for beauty, the priest again
singing the mass in the presence of a reverent congrega-
tion of soldiers and fine ladies, of fishermen and peasant
girls. The guard house, the hospital with its faithful
sisters ministering to the wounded, and " the wonderfully
skilful surgeon " whose services the courtly Chevalier de
Drucour sent word to Amherst were at the disposal of the
wounded English officers. Looking along the seashore,
which today is nothing but a place for the spreading of
nets, we can picture the ancient sea wall up to which the
boats from the ships in the harbor could come. Looking
further yet the harbor is peopled with the old French war-
ships, and further off, beyond the range of rocky islands
which enclose it, lies the larger fleet that flies the red cross
flag of Old England, the flag that is to replace the lilies
of France on the battlements of Louisburg.
Of course every visitor should see the Louisburg monu-
ment dedicated on June 17th, 1895, and placed on the
exact spot where, 150 years before, General Pepperell
received the keys of the fortress from Governor Ducham-
bon in the presence of the assembled troops. The monu-
ment, which was erected by the Society of Colonial Wars,
is a polished granite shaft, standing on a base which rests
on a square pedestal four feet high. The capital of the
column is surmounted by a polished ball, two feet in diam-
eter, of dark red granite. It is dedicated " To Our Heroic
Dead," and bears inscriptions, giving the numbers of the
Colonial, British and French forces that took part in the
C. W. VERNON.
Now have I than eke this condition,
That of all the floures in the mede,
Than love I most these floures white and rede,
Soch that men callen daisies in our toun."
CHAUCER : 'The Legend of Good Women;'
Prologue, ver. 40-44-
Fair is the morn, and the clear warm light
Strikes full on a bush where rich roses grow ;
A few stray beams, more tenderly bright,
Reach to the daisy that nestles below,
Half-hidden from sight.
Yet the daisy looks with smile as sweet
Up at the broad sky, arching high o'er all,
As the proudest flower that glows to greet
The great Lord of Day, whom Aurora's call
Bade them wake to meet.
No shame feels she, though in lowly place,
No envy of rivals gorgeously clad,
Contentment gleams from her pure, fresh face,
And her glance can gladden a heart that's sad,
By its radiant grace.
The gentle rains come, and kindly dew,
To seek where the daisy peacefully grows ;
And soft lights lend each delicate hue,
While she heeds not rude winds that vex the rose
Standing bold to view.
And each honest, loving heart doth know
Her as emblem of steadfast purity,
Whom touch of Chaucer's hand did endow
With halo and stamp of a high degree,
Though she blooms so low.
The world is made up of great and small,
Some modest and plain, some grandly arrayed;
On some will the golden sunshine fall,
Some ever must humbly dwell in the shade,
Though dearest of all.
W. P. DOLE.
Colonel IRobert flDootne.
CARLETON, WEST ONTARIO,
August 13th, 1901.
DEAR SIR :
Can you give me, or obtain for me, any information as to the
surviving fami'y or friends of Lieut. -Col. Moodie, who was shot
by the rebels, .it Montgomery's tavern on Yonge street, in 1837,
while going to Toronto to give information to the government of
an intended attack on that city ? I was told yesterday that Col.
Moodie was a native of Fredericton, and A. M. Howard, 'Esq.,
late president of the U. E. Loyalists' Association, showed me the
Acadian magazine of which you are editor.
I have the honor to be president of the York Pioneer Society,
and our attention has recently been called to the dilapidated con-
dition of Col. Moodie's monument in the churchyard at Thorn hill.
When a boy I lived at Thornhill, which is twelve miles from
Toronto, and have many a time seen the monument, which was
then, sixty years ago, new, and of course in good preservation.
If you can do anything to help us to some information, such
action will help to bind together societies which have common
I have the honor to be,
D. R. JACK, ESQ., Yours very faithfully,
Editor ACADIENSIS. C. E. THOMSON.
St. John, New Brunswick.
Major Robert Moodie went from New Brunswick with
the 104th regiment.
February llth, 1813, regiment left St. John for Quebec.
April 16th, 1817, regiment was reduced.
D. R. JACK.
August 24th, 1901.
[We publish below some notes concerning Col. Moodie
which are quite interesting, and which have been furnished
by Mr. Clarence Ward, the secretary of the New Bruns-
wick Historical Society. Unfortunately the main point at
issue, namely, as to the surviving family or friends of
Col. Moodie, is still in abeyance. We shall very gladly
receive and publish any further data regarding Col. Moodie
which may be obtainable. Correspondence upon the sub-
ject from any persons who are in a position to furnish the
desired information is respectfully solicited. ED.]
The first mention of Robert Moodie I can find is in the
Winslow Papers, published by the N. B Histo ical Society.
In a letter from Penelope Winslow to Ed w. Winslow,
jr., dated 30th November, 1809, she writes: "Fanny
Sproule and Moodie are just where you left them, but the
world says they are inevitably to be married shortly. I
confess I have no faith in such unreasonable long flirta-
tions." From the same to the same, dated 26th March,
1810, writing about the gossip of Fredericton, she says :
" Fanny is a spinster still. Moodie has been sick all
winter, and I assure you it has not improved his appear-
ance much." Same to the same, dated 6th June, 1811,
she writes, " I am happy to say that matrimony flourishes
here again ; Miss Sproule and Capt. Moodie have at last
entered the ' holy estate.' " Judge Edward Winslow,
writing to Edward Winslow, jr., under date September,
1813, says, "The late Lucy Miller (now Mrs. Woodford)
is not with us. He husband is surgeon's mate in the 104th,
late N. B. Regiment, now in Upper Canada, where that
corps have lately had a severe brush with the Americans.*
A great proportion of the officers, among whom were
Leonard, Moodie, Drummond, Shore, A. Rainsford, etc.,
were wounded, and got back to their own shore at
Moodie was evidently quite a while living in Fredericton
in the early years of the century, and on intimate terms
of friendship with all the notable people. Frequent mention
*At Backet's Harbour.
t NOTE. The majors of the 104th in 1813 were William Drummond and
COLONEL ROBERT MOODIE 209
is made of him in the correspondence of the time. He
was, undoubtedly, a military man, and at that time was
called Capt. Moodie, though what regiment attached to
before joining the 104th, I cannot at present ascertain.
I am pretty certain he was a Scotsman by birth. After
his marriage he lived at St. Andrews, in Scotland, from
about 1820 till 1827. His aspirations were all military.
He mentions in one of his letters, written from St. An-
drews, that he was offered the command of the African
Colonial Corps by General Sir Charles McCarthy.
He left for the old country in 1818, having placed
Ward Chipman, jr., in charge of the property left his wife
by her father, George Sproule, Surveyor General of New
Ward Chipman, jr., writing to him just prior to his
departure for England in 1818, calls him Lt.-Col. Moodie.
Col. Moodie, writing to W. Chipman, jr., from St.
Andrews, Scotland, November 9, 1822, mentions that his
family consists of two boys and three girls (query ? where
are his descendants, or did these children all die in infancy
or unmarried ?)
In a letter dated St. Andrews, Scotland, Nov. 5, 1823,
he mentions that he has been offered the Lt. -Colonelcy of
the " African Colonial Corps by General Sir Charles Mc-
Carthy and thinks of accepting it."*
This last letter is dated St. Andrew's, Scotland, April
21, 1826., in which he speaks of having a visit from Mr.
James Douglas, of St. Andrews, N. B., lately married to
a Miss Grace R. Campbell. (This was James Douglas,
afterwards of the firm of Douglas & Westcott, of Liver-
pool, G. B., and a brother of Mrs. Charles Ward, of St.
John, N. B.
* NOTE. -It is fortunate for himself that he did not. General McCarthy
invaded the Ashante e kingdom and was disastrously defeated. The General
himself was killed, cooked and eaten by the Ashantees.
N. B. McCarthy was at one time stationed in Fredericton,
He also wrote in the same letter of having a visit from
Dr. Burns, for a considerable period minister of Saint
Andrew's Kirk in St. John, N. B., who gave him all the
news and gossip of St. John and Fredericton.
All these letters to Chipman, principally refer to his
private business, Chipman having the management of his
estate in Fredericton. During the early period of his
residence in Scotland, judging from his remarks and
urgency for remittance, he was in rather straitened circum-
stances, but lately he mentioned having inherited a con-
siderable sum from an aged female relation, which has
made him more comfortable from a pecuniary point of
The correspondence terminated abruptly, and I have not
been able to trace his career any further. It is remark-
able how little is known of him now in New Brunswick.
We have evidences that he was on most intimate terms
with all the leading families in New Brunswick in the
early part of the century and down to 1818, reference to
him continually occurs in the correspondence of that time,
and he appears to have been a favorite in society ; yet,
so far, I have not been able to learn anything about his
doings in Fredericton, where he came from, or how he
happened to come to New Brunswick. I am of opinion
that he came in the retinue of one of the governors in a
military capacity, but that is only conjecture. Nor have
I been able to ascertain why he went to Upper Canada,
and what position, civil or military, he held there except
that he was killed by the rebels of " Montgomery Tavern."
He was called Col. Moodie and was evidently acting as a
April 2, 1811, Frances Sproule, daughter of George
Sproule, Surveyor General, to Capt. Robert Moodie, 104th
July 16, 1811, Miss Sproule, daughter of Geo.
Sproule, Surveyor General to Lieut.-Col. Halkett, 104th
COLONEL ROBERT HOODIE 211
30th November, 1817, Hon. Geo. Sproule, Surveyor
General and member of Council, died Fredericton, age 76.
Lt.-Col. Halkett and Major Moodie were brother officers
in 104th regiment, and married sisters.
THE MARCH OP THE 104 REGIMENT FROM FREDERICTON.
Vincent had also been re-inforced by the 104th, which had
marched from Fredericton, N. B., to Quebec the preceding winter.
From a short distance north of Fredericton to River du Loup the
245 miles was a wilderness.
The regiment consisted of 1,000 strong, with forty-two officers,
under Colonel Moodie, whose melancholy death at Montgomery's
tavern, north of Toronto, on the outbreak of the abortive rebellion
in 1837 is still remembered. The march was commenced on the
14th of February. Each man was furnished with a pair of snow-
shoes, moccasins, and one blanket ; a toboggan was given to every
two men ; it carried the two knapsacks, the two fire locks and
accoutrements, the two blankets and fourteen days provisions.
One drew the toboggan, the second pushed it from behind. The
regiment was divided into sections, one following the other at a
day's interval. The bugle sounded two hours before daylight to
give the men time to cook and eat ; the detachment marched
with the first light. The column travelled until half-past t\vo,
when the halt was made for the day.
The rations, one pound of pork, including the bones, with ten
ounces of biscuit, were insufficient for men in full manhood,
exposed all day to the air, and taking the regular severe exercise
of the expedition. It was said afterwards that the whole regiment
continued hungry during the march, and would talk of nothing
but the good feeding of the future.
No rum was issued ; the drink was tea. At Lake Temiscouata
the column was delayed for three days by so severe a snow storm,
and such intensely cold weather that it was considered inadvisable
to cross the lake. Captain Rainsford, with two men, Patroit and
Gay, of the light company, volunteered to undertake the journey
to River du Loup, distant 440 miles, to obtain provisions. The
men had been ordered to half rations. We can conceive the relish
with which the troops, after a march of thirty miles and a fast of
thirty hours, came upon a relief with two bags of biscuits, and
two tubs of spirits and water.
They crossed the ice at Quebec on the 27th day after leaving
Fredericton, and arrived without losing a man ; nor was a man
on the sick list. After a rest of two days, they marched out to
the seat of war. History of Canada, Kings ford, Vol. VIII,,
DEATH OF COL. MOODIE.
The passage of the insurgents southward from Holland Landing
necessarily caused great excitement, as many of them were known.
A meeting was held in the house of Col. Moodie, who lived to the
north of Richmond Hill, to consider the course advisable to be
taken. It was determined that the intelligence should at once be
made known to the lieutenant governor. The messenger who was
dispatched, a Mr. Drew, was within a short distance stopped and
seized by the insurgents. The news reached the Loyalists at
Richmond Hill, and Col. Moodie resolved to proceed in person to
Toronto. Among those who accompanied him were Captain
Stewart, of the navy, and a Mr. Brooke. They approached
Montgomery's tavern, and had passed the first picket. On com-
ing opposite the tavern they were ordered to halt. The party
seems to have consisted of six people, but Moodie and Stewart
were in front with a third person whose name is not mentioned.
Moodie said that they must gallop through the guard, whatever
the result at this time. Moodie and Stewart found themselves
alone. " Never mind," said Moodie, " push forward, it is all
right yet." They were, however, brought up by the guard, and
pikes and bayonets were presented before the horses' breasts.
Moodie asked who it was that was stopping them in the King's
highway. The reply was : " You'll know that in time." Moodie
then fired his pistol, upon which three guns were discharged,
when Moodie exclaimed : " I'm shot 1 I'm a dead man ! " He was
then carried into Montgomery's tavern. Soon afterwards Mac-
kenzie came into the house, when he asked for Stewart. Moodie
survived but two hours. History of Canada, Kingsford, Vol. X.,
OLa Dalltere of CbiQnecto.
(Read before the Historical Society of Chignecto.)
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.! Concluded.
|WO years after the grant of Chignecto, La Val-
liere was appointed by Mr. Barre (16th January,
1678,) to take command in Acadia in place of
M. de Marson, who had been in command on
the St. John River at Gemesic (Jemseg), but
was captured by some Dutch adventurers cruising up the St.
John under the pilotage of a Boston navigator and taken
away. Four years later (1st May, 1684,) Barre writes to
La Valliere, that by a royal despatch of 5th August, His
Majesty had chosen him as governor with a salary of 1,800
livres, and that the patent, not yet signed, would be sent
by the first opportunity. Frontenac and de La Barre also
wrote to La Valliere, testifying their satisfaction with him
and their confidence in his services.
Thus the government of Acadia was in 1684 established
at the mouth of the Missiquash River, the present bound-
ary between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the
exact geographical centre of the Maritime Provinces.
This preceded the settlement by Cornwallis at Halifax
by sixty-five years, and the establishment of an English
government at St. John by one hundred years.
The beginnings of French history in Canada are marked
by the struggles with nature incident to pioneer life, by
the dangers and insecurity resulting from the neighborhood
of an active and savage foe, and by jealousies and strife
with their ancient enemies Old and New England.
Under such circumstances few men in these outposts of
civilization could feel they had a lease of their life for even
a day. Over the door of every household might appro-
priately be placed the death's head. The survival of a
great French population on this continent, and the perpet-
uation of the French language here, are evidences of the
innate vigor and persistency of that race. It is interesting
to trace the lives of the eight children of La Yalliere as
illustrating the hazardous and fateful lives of the pioneer
French. Fortunately the records kept by the Jesuit
fathers, as well as by church establishments, furnish us
with some information, for which I am indebted to the
researches of Mr. Placide Gaudet.
Alexander, born in Cape Breton in 1666, was Seigneur
de Beaubassin, became a ^captain of a French company of
mariners, was made by the French King a chevalier of St.
Louis, and died in 1712 on board His Majesty's ship,
" Le Heros," and was buried at sea.
Jacques and Jean Baptiste, in 1690, left Quebec with
an expedition to Cataraqui (Kingston). No trace of them
was afterwards found, and it was supposed they met their
fate in a conflict with the Indians. Jean was known as
Sieur de Canseau. Marie Joseph was married in 1692 to
a cadet of the house of Repentigny.
Michel became a major in the French service. He
married at Plaisance, Newfoundland, Renee Delaguelle,
and had a numerous family. He died at Louisburg in 1740.
Marguerite married at Port Royal or St. John about
1700 Louis de Gannes, Sieur de Falaise. She was his
third wife. They had a numerous family. She died at
Three Rivers in 1760.
Barbe, baptized at Beaubassin in 1681 by Father Claude
Moireau, Recollect priest, married at Quebec Louis de
Florillon, and died in Montreal in 1733.
Two years after (1686) this date Chignecto was visited
by M. de Meulles, Intendant of Canada, who had a census
taken of the various settlements in Acadia. That of
Beaubassin is very full and complete. La Yalliere was
still a resident of Chignecto with his family, except his
wife. They had apparently separated, and she was living
elsewhere. The following is the census :
LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO
HABITANS DE CHIGNITOU
DIT BEAUBASSIN IN 1686.
Michael Le Neuf,
de La Valliere, Seigneur,
Marguerite . ....
Barbe . ...
Et M. (Nicholas) Pertuis,
Manuel Mirande Portugais
Enfans de Jean Boudret are
Marie Sa Fille
Germain Girourer . .
HABITANS DE CHIGNITOU Continued.
* 2 *
Enfans du Marie Bourgeois
et de Pierre Cire.
Jean Aubin Mignault . .
Enfans d'Elle et de Charles
Anne . .
Jacques Cochin .
Marie Budrot ....
Louis . ,
LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO
HABITANS DE CHIGNITOU Continued.
Andree Martin [Francois.
Enfans d' Andree Martin et de
Roger Quessy, or Kuessy (Irish). .
Marie Martin . .
And of 1st marrige of Lavallee
Marguerite Sa Femme
Pierre Morin le fils , .
HABITANS DE CHKJNITOU Continued.
Jao< i ues Blon
Marie Girouard ,.
Francois ... .
Thoma^ CORMIER .
Pierre . . .
Pierre Arisenault qui demeure a
Port Royal possede dans La
Seigneury de Beaubassin ....
Persons .... 127
Cultivated Lands Arpents , 426
Horned Cattle 236
Sheep , Ill
History repeats itself. Nearly two hundred and fifty
years ago jealousies and disputes arose between the people
of N"ew England and those of Eastern Canada over our
inshore fisheries. There were trespasses and seizures of
vessels and much bad blood, the same as before the Treaty
of Washington in our own time settled such difficulties.
Nature with generous abandon had made our inshore waters
depositaries of fish food for a hundred times the population
LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 219
of both countries, but the marvellous abundance of fish
did not prevent bitter feelings and mutual aggressions.
Sieur de La Valliere conceived a method to make a clean
lane through these difficulties, which he was prompt to act
In 1682 Frontenac had written him, as if in command
in Acadia, and also wrote to the governor of Boston, that
the English had not liberty to fish or trade in Acadia,
except by express permission and agreement as to what
each vessel should pay for the privilege. Under this
implied authority La Yalliere issued permits to the Boston
fishermen to fish in Acadian waters for a consideration.
The consideration he pocketed. He was not deterred by
the fact that, in 1670, the French King had issued a
decree prohibiting any permission to the New Englanders
to fish on our coasts. But Paris was a long way off in
those days. This prohibition was dictated as well by the
fact that New England fishermen carried on a clandestine
fur trade with the Indians, as by the fact that the New
Englanders gave no grace to Acadian fishermen caught in
La Valliere had much justification for selling permits.
He was governor without salary. Any expenditures to
preserve order and enforce the commands of his august
master, Louis XIV, he made at his own expense. The
fish were plenty, and he was on good terms with his
neighbors, Les Anglais, of Boston. However reasonable it
was for him to deal with the English, it led to the ruin of
his hopes and ambition in Acadie, and to his relinquish-
ment of his territories.
In February, 1680, the King of France granted to the
Sieur Bergier, of Rochelle, Gautier, Boucher and de Mantes,
bourgeois, of Paris, lands which they shall find suitable
along the coast of Acadie and of the river St. John to
establish a shore fishery. This was a strong company, and
they proceeded to establish fishing and trading stations in
Acadie, and to employ vessels and men in the fisheries.
Their leading station was at Chedabucto, Canseau.
Sieur Bergier naturally regarded the English traders
and fishermen on our coasts as trespassers and interlopers.
Accordingly, in July and August, 1684, when cruising off
the coast of Acadie in his vessel the " St. Louis " he
found eight English barks called the "Mary," "Adventure,
" Swallow," " Rose," " Industry," " Lark," " Friendship,"
and " Industry," fishing. He seized them for trespassing
within the limits of his patent. The masters were taken
to Rochelle and tried. Six vessels were confiscated ; but
two, holding licenses from La Valliere, were acquitted,
and Bergier was obliged to take them back to America
and forced to indemnify them. This does not appear to
have mitigated the unpleasantness between him and La
In 1685 Bergier's company forwarded to the French
government at Paris a memorial, complaining of La Valliere's
methods, which appears to have been of the character of
a summary ejectment. The company had in their employ
a son of Sieur Bergier at a fishing station in Cape Breton.
La Valliere's cruiser unexpectedly made its appearance and
took possession of the loose property around, which con-
sisted of 2,000 livres worth of goods, a lot of furs and
La Valliere had with him his son, Beaubassin, afterwards
distinguished as an Indian fighter, his brother-in-law,
Richard Denys, and six armed men, to whom Bergier
could make no effective defence.
Bergier's description of the affair is graphic. He says :
"At three o'clock in the morning, Beaubassin, son of Sieur de
La Valliere, entered the cabin, accompanied by six men armed
with muskets, naked swords and pistols, crying, "Kill! kill!"
and after seizing him and his three men, who had been asleep,
made them prisoners, and then proceeded to rifle the place. He,
with one of his own men, escaped in a canoe and returned to
LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 221
An Indian chief, Negascouet, complains at the same
time that while on his way to Chedeboucton he was met
by Valliere, who took from him seventy elk skins, sixty
martin, four beaver, and two other skins.
An order was prayed for to Sieur Perrot, or Sieur de
La Boulage, who had become lieutenant of the King in
Acadia, to compel restitution, or arrest La Valliere and
his party and send them to France.
Bergier had direct access to the authorities at Versailles,
while La Valliere had only indirect by way of Quebec.
La Valliere, therefore, it appears, did not attempt to meet
Bergier's allegations and charges, and judgment went
against him by default. Amongst Bergier's charges are
the statements that " La Valliere is a poor man, who has
a settlement of eight or ten persons, who gave up the
country to the English for wherewithal to subsist on, and
has not power to carry out the King's orders, while the
company is powerful." Another memorial states that
La Valliere vas hated by the Indians, whom he constantly
robbed, and that the Indians, merchants and ship masters
of Rochelle have petitioned against him.
La Valliere had one defender in M. Denvuville, who
wrote (10th November, 1686,) to the French minister :
Le Sieur de La Valliere, who has for some time commanded in
Acadia, where I think he has one of the best settlements in the
country. I have invited him to go to France, where he will be
able to give you information of the country, he having applied
himself to the fisheries for several years.
A poor wretch named Berger (probably Bergier) whom M. de
Chevry had for the direction of his affairs, has stirred him up with
the company. As I know he is a rascal who has robbed, I suspect
strongly that La Valliere has not all the wrong on his side. He
is a good man and very needy.
On 10th April, 1684, a decree was issued at Versailles
to Barre, governor of New France, stating
" That although the Sieur de La Valliere has no means or power
to command on the coasts of Acadia, he has, nevertheless, meddled
with the duties of commandant in giving to strangers several
permits to come and fish there in spite of the prohibition, and he
himself is engaged in trade, which might, in the course of time,
diminish that of the inshore fishery of Acadia and interfere with
the establishment of the colony."
To prevent which His Majesty has expressly forbidden
the said de La Valliere to perform in future the functions
of commandant in the country or on the coasts of Acadia
under " a penalty of three thousand livres." It was
signed by Louis XIV and by Colbert, and duly sealed.
It was recorded by Claude Petit, registrar of the court at
Port Royal, on 20th July, 1684, and Sieur d' Entrement,
procurator of the King, was charged with the duty of
serving de La Valliere with a notice thereof.
Bergier's allegation, that La Valliere was a poor man,
was doubtless true. The French noblesse and gentilhomme
in Canada were almost, without exception, poor. They
were unaccustomed to labor, and had no taste for the
strenuous toil of the backwoods settler. Their home was
naturally in the army; their trade was not the axe or
mattock, but the sword. When they lost their official
pay, they became helpless. Some of them, it is true,
became courreur du bois and carried on a clandestine trade
with the natives in defiance of government regulations,
but these were the exception. The mass of them were
miserably poor. The Intendant, in 1687, writes to the
French minister for aid for Repentigny and his thirteen
children, and for Tilly and his fifteen. He writes that
care must be given them at once, or they will starve.
The family of Aillebout is equally poor. Yet these, with
the Poterie, embrace the whole noblesse of Canada. The
same Intendant, in 1691, writes home begging the minister
not to grant any more letters of nobility in Canada unless
he wishes to multiply beggars, stating that pride and sloth
are the great faults of the people.
La Valliere's seigneury, great as it was, could not be
made profitable without labor and capital ; the latter he
LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 223
could not obtain without trading in furs and fish. His
grant was made on conditions of actual settlement. Wilder-
ness lands at that time were of no more value than they
are to-day when granted on terms of settlement. La Val-
liere could not alienate such lands, even if he could have
found a purchaser. Therefore his seigneury, under Bergier's
espionage, became of little or no actual value. He, soon
after the orH^r was issued depriving him of his command
and stopping his trade, returned to Quebec with his family,
and his name disappeared from Acadian annals. It was
his misfortune that he was born with the noblesse caste ;
had he been born to the soil and trained to the laborious
and industrious habits of Bourgeois, Thibideau, Blanchard,
Cormier, and others, who formed the first French settle-
ments at the head of the Bay of Fundy, his name, like
theirs, might have survived and flourished in the Acadian
land. La Valliere left his affairs in Acadia in the hands
of de Villieu, who, according to one account, was his
nephew, but he seems to have married, in 1692, Judith,
daughter of La Valliere, and removed with her in 1694
from Quebec to Acadia.
It is certain that on his return to Quebec he was not
received with disfavor. In 1 683 he was granted a seigneury
in the Three Rivers district, in consideration of the different
settlements he and his father, sieur de LaPoterie, "have long
since made in this country." In 1694 he is mentioned as in
command of the frigate " La Bouffon," which cruised that
year in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His son, Beaubassin,
was lieutenant, and de La Poterie, ensign. Owing to the
fashion of land-owners at that date giving a territorial
name corresponding to some family estate to each son, it
is difficult to trace families, but it would seem probable
that de La Poterie was a second son. Beaubassin's name
occurs in 1703 as the leader of a party of French and
Indians into New England, where they captured Wells,
Scarborough and other places, and killed 300 whites.
He also served afterwards against the Iroquois.
In 1692 La Valliere took command of Fort Frontenac
at Catarqui (Kingston); in 1698 he was made major of
Montreal; in 1699 he was sent on an embassage to the
government at Boston. His name appear-', in 1702,
attending the marriage of his daughter, after vvhich it dis-
appears from both the official and church recoitU.
T)e Villieu was originally sent from Quebec to Acadie
in command of a detachment of marines to operate with
the Indians against the English. A man of intractable
temper, he was also a relentless fighter, and soon made his
name dreaded in New England. His persistent appeals to
the French King resulted in attaching the settlements at
Chipoudy and Fox Creek to the seigneury of Beaubassin.
In 1694 he roused up some 500 Micmacs, Malecites and
Abenaquis, and led them into New Hampshire. He
destroyed Dover, and burned houses and killed settlers at
York and Kittery. They pillaged and burned 60 houses,
made 27 prisoners, and killed 104 persons. Accompanied
by the chiefs in the expedition, he proceeded direct to
Quebec, taking the scalps with them. Two years later he
with his command, took an important part in the capture
of the English fort at Pemiquid, but was taken prisoner
immediately by a British squadron coming to the relief of
the fort. He was taken to Boston as a prisoner, but after-
wards released. He became (1700) governor of Acadie for
a short period, after which his name does not appear in
the records of Acadia. From a petition addressed a few
years later to the French King for compensation, it would
not appear that he was substantially benefitted by the
seigneural grants at Chignecto and Chipoudy.
W. C. MILNER.
MISS FRANCES TRAVERS,
ST. JOHN, N. B.
ISS ELIZABETH WHITE, whose
portrait forms the frontispiece to this
number of ACADIENSIS, commenced
the study of the 'cello under Herr
Ernst Doering, in her native city of
Halifax. She continued her studies in
Boston with Alevin Schroeder, first
'cellist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and a member
of the famous Kneisel Quartette. She played in the Weil
stringed quartette, and in the Siebelt stringed quartette
for several years, and is first 'cellist and soloist of the
Halifax Symphony orchestra, an orchestra of forty mem-
bers, including the best musicians in Halifax. Miss White
is also on the staff of the Weil School of Music, and of
the Mount Vincent Academy, where she has been teaching
for the past five years. Among the well-known artists
whom she has assisted in Halifax are Watkin Mills, the
eminent English basso, Charlotte Maconda, and Katherine
Miss Frances Travers, whose portrait also accompanies
this article, is probably one of the finest soprano singers
the Acadian provinces have yet produced.
From early childhood she evinced great musical ability,
combined with a remarkable voice. After receiving the
best musical training that was to be obtained locally, she
went to New York, where, for a considerable period, she
was the pupil of Mme. Yon Klenner, one of the most suc-
cessful of the many renowned voice builders to be found in
that city. During the course of her musical education Miss
Travers' voice was frequently heard in concert, oratorio and
church music, and many and flattering were the notices
which she received from the musical crimes of New York
and that vicinity.
Upon her return to St. John, at the close of her course
of study with Mme. Yon Klenner, Miss Travers was heard
for the first time by the musical public of this city, in a
grand concert, in which she was assisted by Miss Nanno
Stone of St. John, by Miss White, who was the subject of
the earlier portion of this sketch, by Mr. John A. Kelly,
and by Mrs. J. M. Barnes, who by her sympathetic accom-
paniments contributed much to the success of the enter-
From a St. John daily we reproduce a part of the very
favorable criticism which the entertainment evoked :
The elite assembly that filled the Opera House to its utmost seat-
ing capacity last night, at the concert given by Miss Frances
Travers, was unanimous in conceding it to be the most successful
musical entertainment that St. John critics have had the pleasure
of hearing for a long time. For over two hours the programme
and its able exponents held the large audience entranced, and
there was no one who did not breathe a sigh of regret at its
conclusion. Every number was heartily encored, and the ladie&
were the recipients of several beautiful floral gifts.
Miss Elizabeth White of Halifax has a wide reputation as a 'cello
player, and by her artistic, finished and sympathetic renditions,
evincing a thorough and loving mastery of her difficult instrument,
she more than justified the flattering accounts of her which have
Concerning Miss Travers in the same event, another St.
John paper commented editorially as follows :
Not alone the sweetness of her voice, its flexibility and its power,
but the personal charm of an unstudied manner, and the gracious-
ness of unspoiled girlhood, won for Miss Travers many friends.
The applause that greeted her reception of the favors generously
bestowed on her, was as much for the cordial pleasure evinced by
the recipient, as for the quick recognition of the favor of the public.
Regarding these Acadian musicians, still another critic
has remarked that
Judging alone from the recital, Miss Travers is gifted with the
voice and the musical temperament that will place her high in the
ranks of those who have refined and beautified the world of song.
TWO ACADIAN MUSICIANS 227
Her voice is clear, rich and full ; it is flexible and under splendid
control ; and in several difficult numbers she displayed a wondrous
charm of correct phrasing and intonation.
Miss White, the 'cellist, who belongs to Halifax, has played in
St. John before, but not in concert, and she did supply a very im-
portant and delightful feature of the concert. She plays with
splendid expression, her intonation is perfect, and her bowing free
and strong. The fair 'cellist, indeed, carried off a large share of
the honors so generously bestowed by the audience.
It has been claimed that we, in the city of St. John, are
not a musical people ; that we do not produce as many
good singers as we should, in proportion to our population ;
that we lack the spirit of appreciation of music of a higher
To the larger part of this assertion the writer feels that
he must take exception. That we are behind our sister
city of Halifax in the opportunities afforded, not only for
a musical but for a general education of a higher class,
cannot be disputed. The presence in Halifax of several
institutions of learning, including one devoted entirely to
musical training of a superior order, has had undoubtedly
a marked effect upon the musical taste and cultivation of
the people of that favored city.
We sincerely trust that the time when the city of St.
John may be equally favored may not be far distant ; and
that while we may not produce many musicians of the
marked ability of the subjects of this article, we may
nevertheless give to all those who may so desire the oppor-
tunity, at their own door, for higher cultivation in thia
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
A FORGOTTEN AUTHORESS.
At one time Resident in Windsor and Annapolis Royal,
OW many readers of this generation
know anything of the works of Char-
lotte Elizabeth 1 Although now but
a memory and a name, her volumin-
ous writings were read with avidity
by a large circle in the first half of
the nineteenth century. Mrs. Harriet
Beecher Stowe, who wrote an introduction to her collected
works, spoke of her as " a woman of strong mind, powerful
feeling, and of no inconsiderable share of tact ; " and re-
ferring to her " Personal Recollections," said, " We know
of no piece of autobiography in the English language which
can compare with this in richness of feeling and description
and power of exciting interest."
The great reason for her popularity was that, in many
respects, she suited the spirit of the times. She was above
all else an anti-Romanist, a most protesting Protestant ;
her cry was ever " Down with Popery." These few ex-
tracts, taken at random from her books, show plainly her
attitude toward the Church of Rome. " Anti-Christ be-
strode our city, firmly planting there his two cloven hoofs
of Popery and Socinianism." "I believe Popery to be the
Babylon of the Apocalypse." " All the iniquities of.Popery
are mysterious ; the name ' MYSTERY ' will remain emblaz-
oned on the Harlot's brow, until the fire of God's wrath
shall consume its brazen characters." She never missed an
opportunity to attack Popery, and her uncompromising
warfare appears extreme in these days of religious tolera-
tion or indifference.
CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH 229
She also used her pen with great eloquence against the
abuses of factory life. While she would have been sur-
prised and mystified had she been called a New Woman,
she was practically that in the fervor with which she cham-
pioned the cause of her weaker sisters and the persistency
with which she claimed the right of woman to raise her
voice in public affairs on the side of religion and justice.
The story of Charlotte Elizabeth's life may be briefly
told. She was born on the 1st of October, 1790, at Nor-
wich, England. Her father, the Rev. Michael Browne,
rector of St. Giles, and Minor Canon of the cathedral, was
descended from the Percies, and Charlotte Elizabeth often
playfully alluded to her Hotspur blood, and had a proper
pride in her descent from " the stout Earl of Northum-
In " Personal Recollections," her most interesting work,
she gives minute details of her childhood, passed in an old-
fashioned house, surrounded by an immense orchard,
shrubbery and flower garden. She was brought up in the
society of literary men. Her father, decided in his political
views, delighted in surrounding himself with various argu-
mentative friends, and it is little to be wondered at that a
child bred in this atmosphere should have proved in after
life a reasoner and politician.
Her mother, entirely devoted to household affairs, with
every thought occupied in promoting the comfort of her
family, left the education of this clever child to the father ;
only endeavoring to instruct her in household art. This
branch of knowledge not being to Charlotte Elizabeth's
taste, she evaded her mother's instruction ; but when she
found herself resident at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia,
she records : " I repented at leisure, and amended, with no
small difficulty and labor, my neglect of those accomplish-
ments to which my dear mother had so often vainly soli-
cited my attention." Mrs. Browne exacted a little litera-
ture, for Charlotte Elizabeth says : " I underwent the in-
fliction of reading aloud to my mother the seven mortal
volumes of Sir Charles Grandison."
Her description of her grandmother bears a resemblance
to the style of Elia : " My father's mother was a fine,
sprightly, robust old lady, rather small in stature, and
already bending a little under the burden of years, at the
time I first recollect her as mingling in the visions of my
childhood. She was simplicity itself, in manners, her
blunt speeches sometimes clashing a little with her son's
notions of polish and refinement, as also did her inveterate
antipathy to the reigning fashion, whatever that might be.
I remember her reading me a lecture upon something novel
in the cut of a sleeve, ending by this remark : ' I never
wore a gown but of one shape, and because I don't follow
the fashion the fashion is forced to come to me sometimes,
by way of a change. I can't help that, you know, my
dear ; but I never was fashionable on purpose.' She added
some pious remarks on vanity and folly, which I soon for-
got. I dearly loved, and exceedingly respected my grand-
mother, and used, in my heart, to glory in her smooth,
clean locks, half brown, half gray, combed down from
under a snowy cap of homely make, when she had success-
fully resisted alike the entreaties and examples of con-
temporary dames, who submitted their heads to the curling
irons and powder-puff of a frizeur, preparatory to an even-
ing party. I used to stand proudly at her knee, admiring
the high color of her cheek, and uncommon brilliancy of
her fine, dark hazel eye, while her voice, remarkably rich
and clear, involuntarily swelled the chorus parts of our
Charlotte Elizabeth would have had a happy girlhood,
skating, drilling with her brothers, nutting and gardening,
but for a morbid consciousness which impelled her con-
stantly to scrutinize all her actions. She confesses having
early entered upon the pernicious study of nursery tales,
" which, although it had the advantage of feeding her
CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH 231
imagination, misled her into the paths of ' wild, unholy
fiction.' " Her terrors of conscience after being led into a
lie were insupportable ; and having snatched a fearful joy
by reading " The Merchant of Venice," she spent hours
bewailing the time wasted in that pleasure.
When she was quite young she lost her hearing. At
the age of sixteen she was introduced to society, and a few
years later married Lieutenant, afterwards Captain George
Phelan, of the 60th Rifles, She came out to Nova Scotia
with him, and lived in Annapolis and Windsor, where her
husband's regiment was stationed. Several of the old
residents in the former place remember her as tall and
graceful, but not pretty, and of seeing her husband repeat
the sermon to her, in church, by means of the finger
alphabet. One of them relates the following anecdote of
her. Her husband was very unkind, and once, on their
way from Annapolis to Windsor, he beat her. A brother
officer, overhearing the quarrel, came in to defend her.
Like a loyal wife and true woman she stamped her foot
and demanded : " How dare you interfere between hus-
band and wife 1 "
Of her own life and difficulties in Annapolis Royal, she
says, " The pencil was profitless ; I had long thrown it by ;
books were no longer an adequate set-off against realities,
even could I have conjured up a library in the wilderness
of Nova Scotia's inland settlement ; but the culinary and
confectionery branches were there invaluable, and in them
I was wof ully deficient. Had I not coaxed the old French
soldier who officiated as mess-cook to give me a few lessons,
we must have lived on raw meal and salt rations during
weeks when the roads were completely snowed up, and no
provisions could be brought in. However, I proved an
apt scholar to poor Sebastian, and to the kind neighbors
who initiated me into the mysteries of preserves and
pastry. The woman who cannot dispense with female
servants must not travel. I had none for six months
keen winter months in Annapolis ; the only persons who
could be found disengaged being of characters wholly inad-
missable. The straits to which I was put were anything
but laughable at the time, though the recollection now
often carries a smile. Indeed no perfection in European
housekeeping would avail to guard against the devasta-
tions that a Nova Scotia frost will make. How could I
anticipate that a fine piece of beef, fresh killed, brought
in at noon still warm, would by two o'clock require smart
blows with a hatchet to slice of a steak ? or that half a
dozen plates, perfectly dry, placed at a moderate distance
from the fire, preparatory to dinner, would presently separ-
ate into half a hundred fragments, through the action of
heat on their frosted pores 1 or that milk drawn from a
cow within sight of my breakfast table would be sheeted
with ice on its passage thither or that a momentary
pause, for the choice of a fitting phrase in writing a letter,
would load the nib of my pen with a black icicle ? If I
did not cry over my numerous breakages and other dis-
asters, it was under the apprehension of tears freezing on
She returned to England and soon afterwards went to
Ireland. The state of this unhappy country at once
excited her sympathies and she spent the time of her
ojour'n there in fighting the Scarlet Woman. About this
time, Captain Phelan becoming mentally deranged, his
cruelty increased and her references to her husband from
this date are few and very charitable. She now became
chiefly dependent on her own exertions, writing for the
Dublin Tract Society books on religious and moral subjects,
never without at least a passing shot at Rome. Judge of
her surprise when she found her " humble penny books
advanced to the high honor of a place in the Papal Index
She removed to London, where, in addition to editorial
work, she commenced a campaign against starvation and
CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH. 233
Romanism in St. Giles, teaching nursing and relieving the
necessities of the poverty stricken in that crowded district.
In 1837 she heard of her husband's death, and in 1841
married Mr. Lewis H. Touna. This union was particularly
happy, and compensated in part for the misery she endured
with the irresponsible Captain Phelan. The next few
years were fall of quiet enjoyment. Her mornings were
given to writing and when her pen was laid aside her
garden afforded unfailing pleasure. She was a most
enthusiastic gardener, performing with her own hands the
most laborious work, and knowing the history and growth
of every plant.
Towards the end of 1844 it was discovered that she was
suffering from a cancer. She kept up her work on the
"Christian Ladies' Magazine" until absolutely compelled
by pain and weakness to relinquish it. She was taken to
Ramsgate for the sea air, and died there in July, 1846,
affirming with her latest breath her love for God and her
gratitude for His mercies to her.
All Charlotte Elizabeth's works were written with a
purpose, and it is extraordinary how she succeeded in keep-
ing that purpose so firmly before the eyes of her readers.
Her prose gives a modern reader the feeling of endeavoring
to climb a smooth wall, with no projections to hold on by
and no holes in which to thrust the feet. Her style is
involved, consisting of long sentences with the point much
obscured. One of her peculiarities is that her artisans
and peasants, most correct of speech and deportment, con-
verse like educated people. In her writings are to be
found some pithy sentences. In the introduction to her
" Recollections," she writes, " I have long been persuaded
that there is no such thing as an honest private journal,
even where the entries are punctually made under present
impressions." Under the belief that the Prince of Dark-
ness is a gentleman, she says, " Satan seems to be a pri-
vileged person." Again, " It is no uncommon case to seek
direction in prayer and then to act from the impulse of
our own choice, without waiting for an answer."
Her principal novels are " The Rockrite," an Irish tale
having for its subject the acts of a Roman Catholic Society
organized in 1821 under a commander who assumed the
title, " Captain Rocbr." " Derry," a story of the defend-
ers of " this very citadel of Protestant faith," in which
much emphasis is laid on the stout-heartedness within its
walls, who, with the cry of " No Surrender," in the face of
starvation, pestilence and a constant rain of shells, held
the town against the Roman Catholic besiegers. " Helen
Fleetwood," who was brought up by a kindly neighbor but
forced through the harshness of the parish authorities to
seek her fortune in a large manufacturing town. The
purpose of this novel is to place before the public the
temptations to which girls were exposed in cotton mills.
" The Wrongs of Women " is at win to " Helen Fleetwood"
in motive and treatment. In this collection of sketches,
Charlotte Elizabeth shows herself most distinctly in the
light of a worker for the rights of women. She sets before
her readers the privations and abuses to which female work-
ers were subjected. As milliners and dress- workers, as lace-
runners, as workers in screw and pin-factories, there is the
same story of over-crowding, long hours, no consideration.
Besides her more ambitious works there are "Letters
from Ireland," devoted to the state of that country in 1837,
the character of its people, and, an opportunity not to be
neglected, the evil influences of the Church of Rome upon
them. " War with the Saints," the history of the Albi-
genses in their struggles against Roman Catholicism. " The
Flower Garden," stories of different characters, who had
come under her notice in her constant work among the
poor. " Judea Capta," and " Judah's Lion," as their titles
show, treat of Jewish subjects. There are also several
essays on religious subjects, or with a devotional tendency.
She also left, beside her long poetic tales, " Ingram " and
' The Convent Bell," a few poems of no particular merit.
Charlotte Elizabeth's books sprang from her desire to
dedicate her talents to the service of God and her sister
women. In spite of what might be considered her prosi-
ness, her goody-goody religious teaching and her lack of
Christian charity, we can but honor her fearless speech,
her earnest devotion to the needs of the poor and her
fervent piety. The interests that prompted her stories
have passed away ; nothing but gray ashes remains of the
burning questions that agitated Ireland and England in
the early part of the last century, and with the dying
down of the flames of intolerance and oppression, has
ceased the absorbing interest in the works of Charlotte
Elizabeth. ISABELLA A. OWEN.
Annapolis Royal, September 1901.
HE PUBLICATION of the earlier num.
bers of this series of articles
would appear to have already
been the means of arousing
much interest in this fascin-
ating subject, among local
bibliophiles. One subscriber
at least, to this magazine,
has become the possessor of
a neatly engraved copper
plate, and the writer trusts
that he may not be satisfied,
as have others of whom
he has heard, with being merely the owner of a plate,
but will take the pains to insert a copy in each volume
upon his library shelves. Several other readers have
announced their intention of securing a plate as soon as
circumstances will permit ; the chief obstacle to be over-
come being the difficulty of securing a tasteful and
original design. A fair amount of artistic skill, com-
bined with a little ingenuity, will often produce very
creditable results. We would recommend those of our
readers who may be possessed of a library, no matter how
modest it may be in .its proportions, to seriously consider
the advisableness of indulging themselves in this little
piece of harmless extravagance.
A book-plate is often a partial index to the tastes and
character of its owner, and is frequently the means of
restoring a mislaid volume to its rightful possessor.
In our Acadian Provinces, there are probably at pres-
ent, not more than one hundred known examples of book-
plates, and of this small number, the larger proportion
have been brought into the country by men of literary
tastes who have removed hither from older communities.
Of some of this small number the most dilligent enquiry
upon the part of the writer has failed to bring to light any
information whatever concerning the persons whose names
they bear ; and like many of the stones in an old grave-
yard, they are all that remain to indicate that such a
person ever existed.
Rather an amusing story is told regarding the late
Augustin Daly's collection of books. After the death of
this great collector, and when his library was to be dis-
posed of, it was discovered that he had never been the
possessor of an ex-libris. Fully aware of the great desire
which many people have for owning a book which bears
the label of a great man, the persons in charge of the sale
hurriedly ordered a book-plate bearing an enormous mono-
gram formed of the letters Daly, a copy of which was
pasted in the front of each volume before it was offered
The writer who relates this story remarks that many of
those who possess a volume with the gray label bearing an
enormous monogram, wonder why a man of such undoubted
taste and knowledge should have had such an inartistic
design. It is positively stated that the Daly book-plate
was never seen by Augustin Daly, but in booksellers'
catalogues will still be found items describing volumes
"from the Daly collection, with his book-plate."
No. 17. J. Edward N. Holder was born llth of July,
1830, and was the oldest son of James Holder, and of
Hannah Nutting his wife, daughter of Joseph Nutting,
originally of St. Mary's, Westminster, England. Mr.
Holder's grandfather married Elizabeth McAlpine, and
they are both buried at Gagetown, Queens Co., N. B.
Mr. Holder has for many years been almost totally blind,
but although unable to read, on account of his wonderful
memory and of his studious habits in earlier life, is possessed
of a large fund of general information. He is a devout
member of the Church of England, and an enthusiastic
Orangeman. He well remembers Alderman Bond, whose
unique book-plate was reproduced in an earlier issue, and
related many interesting reminiscences concerning the
alderman to the writer.
Mr. Holder, though not in affluent circumstances, is the
owner of quite an interesting collection of books and papers,,
many of which are of value to the local historian. He
was the owner of a book-plate many years before fashion
lent its aid to the encouragement of the study of ex-libris.
The following is a reproduction of the plate made from
the original block, which wai made for him about the
year 1854 :
Bellum gerere pro veneratione Dei, opera regis et
incolumitate ecclesise imperiique Anglorum.
He compiled " The First Book of Arithmetic," which
was approved by the Board of Education of New Bruns-
wick, and published by J. <fe A. McMillan, at St. John,,
N. B., in 1861.
No. 18. The writer is indebted to N. F. D. Parker, Esq.,
M.D., of St. Andrews, N.B., for permission to reproduce from
a volume of Classics edited by Michael Maittaire, and pub-
lished in London, 1713, the book-plate of William Henry
Beneath the book-plate appears, in the donor's hand-
writing, "d. d. R. Parker, June, 1832," while the following
brief note has been fastened on the fly-leaf with small
MY DEAR PARKER,
Will you do me the favor to
place upon your shelves the
accompanying set of Maittaire's
Classics as a memorial of
W. H. ROBINSON.
Saturday, 16 June, 1832.
From Mr. J. de Lancey
Robinson the following brief
sketch of his uncle, the owner
of the book-plate, has been
The third of the name was my
uncle. He was the youngest son
of Lt.-Col. Beverley Robinson,
and was born at the Nashwaak-
sis in 1793. In 1808, being then
not sixteen years old, he entered
the army as cornet in the 17th
Lancers, and served with them
for fifteen years in India. He
then exchanged into the 7th
Dragoon Guards, from which he retired with the rank of Major in
1828. After returning to New Brunswick, he married Louisa
Millidge, and resided at Berry Hill, Kingsclear, until his death
in 1848. I am the proud possessor of his sabre and pair of flint-
lock duelling pistols, which latter / know were out in one affair of
honor when he was in India. He was also for years a member of
the legislative council, and an A. D. C. to one of the Lt. -Governors,
tho' I have forgotten which one.
Nos. 19 and 20. Frederick de Peyster was one of a
famous and illustrious family, whose names were intimately
associated with the early history of our country. Together
with his elder brother, Abraham, he, in common with
other Loyalists in 1783, was a grantee of the city of St.
John. After an interval of about thirteen years, Fred-
erick de Peyster returned to the United States. Abraham
de Peyster died in New Brunswick just previous to the end
of the eighteenth century. General John Watts de Pey-
ster, a grandson of Frederick de Peyster, writes as follows :
TIVOLI P. 0.,
Duchess County. New York,
23rd March, 1901.
D. R. JACK, ESQ.
Dear Sir, The book, or copper-plate of my grandfather's coat
of arms I never saw that I know of ; but if you will use it, and so
inform me, I will have an electrotype made and send it to you,
also an electrotype of the joint arms of Watts and de Peyster,
which contains the original de Peyster seal, which was brought
out from Holland two hundred and fifty years ago, and which I
The elder brother of my grandfather, Abraham de Peyster, was
Treasurer of New Brunswick and Colonial Commandant of the
J. WATTS DE PEYSTER.
The following are extracts from other letters received
from General de Peyster :
My grandfather, Frederick de Peyster, was in New Brunswick
after the first great American rebellion against King George III.
I send you his book-plate. It is a composite between the original
brought out from Holland, and that used by an extinguished part
of our family at Rouen, in Normandy, France, from whom a large
amount of property was inherited and lost.
I also send you an exact fac-simile of the arms brought out from
Holland two hundred and fifty years ago, of which I own the
I also enclose a fac-simile of the seal used by his son, Colonel
Abraham de Peyster, who held every office possible under the
Crown in the Province of New York about 1700, of which I own
BOOK-PLATE OF REV, J. DESOYRES, M. A., o. D.
I further send you my seal, which embraces the arms of de Pey-
ster and Watts, because my mother, Mary Justina Watts, was an
heiress, and I, her only child, am entitled to bear the arms of her
family, as well as the de Peyster arms, the more so because I think
the motto of her family is the first I have ever seen Forte non
deficit telum, "A weapon is never wanting to a brave man," or, "a
brave man is never disarmed." Some translate it, "A brave man
is never destitute of resources to defend himself."
The seal impressed upon this paper is also in my possession.
It must be over two hundred years old, because it was used offi-
cially by my great-great-great-great-grandfather, Mayor of New
York in 1695, and Acting Governor of the Province of New York
He was Receiver of this port, and held every office possible
under the Crown about two centuries since. Receiver of the port
is now equivalent to Collector. I placed his statue (a magnificent
piece of bronze work) in the Bowling Green, opposite a new mag-
nificent custom house now being erected, and there indestrucible
he sits today, facing the original buildings in which he presided
two hundred years ago.
No. 21. The Rev. John deSoyres, M.A., D.D., Rector
of St. John's Church, in the Parish of St. Mark, in the city
of St. John, is of Huguenot descent. His book-plate, which
is here reproduced, is a fine example of the armorial type,
and contains several features which are unique, and which
will be readily apparent to the student of heraldry. He
is a son of a distinguished clergyman, a graduate of Gren-
ville and Caius College, was Members Prizeman in 1870,
Winchester Prizeman in 1873, and in 1877 attained the
distinction of the Hulsean Prize. He was associated with
Archdeacon Farrar in his theological and historical work,
particularly in the preparation of his "Early Days of
In 1886, Mr. deSoyres filled the position of Hulsean
Lecturer in the University. He has issued three valuable
works, namely : In 1881, a critical edition of Pascal's
Provincial Letters, with historical notes and indices ; in
1898, a valuable work upon the ecclesiastical history of
the second century, entitled " Montanism and the Primitive
Church ;" and more lately a volume of sermons under the
title " The Children of Wisdom."
In 1887, Mr. deSoyres was unanimously called to the
rectorship of St. John's Church, before alluded to. He
has won for himself more than a local reputation as a
scholarly man, and one whose preaching is marked by
breadth of thought, elegance of language, forcefulness of
delivery, and a sympathy and tenderness which have caused
him to be highly esteemed by many individuals entirely
outside the limits of his own immediate sphere.
He has already been a contributor to the pages of this
magazine, in the welfare of which he has evinced a kindly
interest, and it is due to his courtesy that our work may
be found to-day upon the Library table at Cambridge Uni-
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
OF CHARLOTTE COUNTY, NEW BRUNSWICK.
MONO the numerous families who came
with the flood of Loyalist immigration
of 1783 into New Brunswick, few have
occupied more prominent positions in
provincial affairs than those who bore
the name of Wetmore. Their descend-
ants today are very numerous, and are
to be found in almost every section of the province. Dur-
ing the many years which have elapsed since the Loyalist
advent, nearly a century and a quarter, they have contri-
buted many men of no mean ability, who have done much
by their integrity, uprightness, and energy, to advance
their country's welfare. In the ranks of the so-called
learned professions, many of the name have occupied pro-
By no means the least prominent among the various
branches of this family are the descendants of Josiah
Wetmore, who was born in Rye, New York, November
20, 1770; and at the age of thirteen removed with his
father's family to New Brunswick, where he grew to man-
hood and died much respected by the community in which
he lived, leaving a family of six children. Among these
was Abraham Joseph Wetmore, with whom, his fore-
fathers, and his descendants, it is the intention of the
writer more particularly to deal.
ID the year 1861, a most valuable book was published
by Munsell & Rowland, of Albany, N. Y., entitled " The
Wetmore Family of America." The author of this work,
which comprises nearly seven hundred pages, was Mr.
James Carnahan Wetmore, then of Columbus, Ohio. The
amount of study and research spent in the preparation of
this volume must have beem very great. Its value, to
genealogical students of the present day, however, has been
greatly impaired by the neglect or refusal of certain mem-
bers of the family, who were then in a position to contri.
bute much material that cannot now be obtained, to aid
the author in his meritorious work. While scores of
pages are devoted to the genealogy and biographies of
other branches of the family, the information concerning
Josiah Wetmore, who has been before alluded to, and his
descendants, is so meagre that scarcely half a page of the
book is devoted to them. What little information is thus
obtainable is so inaccurate as to be of no practical value.
As it is many years since the Wetmore book was pub-
blished, and it is now exceedingly rare, particularly in this
province, it is the writer's intention to sketch, as briefly
as may be consistent with the interest and importance of
the subject, the origin of the family in America, the direct
line of descent from Thomas Whitmore, the first American
ancestor, to Josiah Wetmore, who came to this province
in 1783, and from that date to insert such information as
may be deemed advisable, confining the subject, as nearly
as possible, to the Wetmores who lived in Charlotte
County, N. B., and their descendants.
Concerning the origin of the name Whitmore, from
which the name Wetmore is taken, Robert Furguson, in
his work entitled " English Surnames and their Place in
the Teutonic Family," London and New York, 1858, says :
Lastly, I take the names derived from seabirds. I doubt
whether Gull is derived from the bird. It might be from the old
Norse gulr, golden, elsewhere referred to as probably
Gull. a term of affection. The Anglo-Saxon words meaw,
Mauve. maew, whence probably the names Mawe and Mew.
Mew. The old Norse was mar, which is a common baptismal
More. name in the Landnamabok. Hence may be our
Whitmore. name More, while Whitmore and Beardmore may
Beardmore. be from hvitmar and beartmar, signifying a white
gull. But as an Anglo-Saxon name, More is proba-
bly derived from mar, renowned, famous, and both Whitmore and
Beardmore may be compounds of this, wight, a man, and beart,
bright entering into a great many Anglo-Saxon names.
THE WETMORE FAMILY 245
Burke, in his Encyclopedia of Heraldry (London, 1847)
in noticing the family of Whitmore, of Apley, County
Salop, says that it " Was originally seated in the northwest
side of the Parish of Bobbington, in the Manor of Claverly;
subsequently they removed to Claverley and acquired con.
siderable possessions there ; derived from John, Lord of
Whyttemere ; his son was Phillip de Whytemere. Sub-
quently the de was dropped, and the name continued for
several generations as Whytemere, when it was changed
to Whitmere, and then Whitmore."
Regarding the changing of the spelling from Whitmore
to Wetmore, Mr. J. C. Wetmore writes :
At what particular time the family changed the spelling of
their name we have been unable to discover ; we are led, however,
to think that the children of the third (possibly some few of the
second) in part, and the descendants of the fourth generations
(counting from Thomas Whitmore, who landed in America in
1655. D. R. J.) very generally adopted the name of Wetmore.
What induced them to make the change we have no means of
determining, unless it was, as says a correspondent, " probably a
matter of convenience to them, growing out of the greater num-
ber of families in Middletown of the same name, that a part of
them should vary the spelling to avoid confusion, and without
sufficient consideration of the greater evils which follow such a
In another passage the same writer says :
If the family name had been Wetmore in England, it is fair to
presume that some one of that name (other than those who have
descended from the American Wetmores) could have been found
there. We have, with other members of the family, been unable
to discover in travelling in various parts of England, any native
Briton who spelt his name Wetmore. Mr. A. S. Somerby, an
accomplished English genealogist heretofore referred to, has made
(by request of parties interested) diligent search among parish
records, and in offices of registry of wills, in many counties of
England, and has forwarded abstracts of wills made by persons of
names similar to Wetmore, and has reported at the same time, his
inability to find any record of a family spelling their names
The family coat of arms used by the Wetmore family in
America is different from that used by the English families,
except one branch which coincides with that of the
American branch, and is believed to have been brought out
in 1723 by the Rev. James Wetmore, of Rye. It is like
that used by the Cheshire family, but with the addition of
three martletts which, in the estimation of Mr. Somerby,
is proof that the person who obtained the arms, could not
prove his relationship to that family, and hence this dif-
ference was made. Without venturing to differ from so
eminent an authority as Mr. Somerby, the writer may
perhaps be permitted to observe that he was recently in-
formed by no less an authority than the Lyon King at
THEWETMORE FAMILY 247
Arms of the Herald's College, Edinburgh, that in cases
where a younger son desired a patent-at-arms, it was cus-
tomary to make a grant resembling in the main features
those worn by the elder brother but differing sufficiently
in some minor detail, such, for instance, as the substitution
of a dexter for a sinister direction in some of the emblazon-
ments, or as in the case under consideration, the addition
of three martletts to the coat of arms already borne by
the older branch of the family.
In heraldic terms, the arms of the American Wetmores
are thus described He beareth argent, or a chief azure ;
three martletts or crest A Falcon, ppr.
The arms are so well illustrated in the book-plate of
Rev. Robert Griffieth Wetmore, which was recently re-
produced in the series of articles upon Acadian book-plates
by the writer, that he feels that he may be pardoned for
inserting herein the same drawing. This illustration, it
may be explained, is reproduced directly from an original
copy of the book-plate now in the possession of the writer.
THE LINEAGE OP THE ENGLISH FAMILY OF WHITMORE,
AS STATED IN BlJRKE's LANDED GENTRY.
John, Lord of Whytemere, in the reign of Henry III, Edward
I., was father of
Philip de Whytemere, who died in 1300, and was succeeded by
John de Whytemere, living in 1361, whose son,
Richard de Whytemere, of Claverley and Whytemere, married
Margery, daughter and heir of William Atterall, of Claverley, and
dying about 1386, left a son and heir,
Richard de Whytemere, father of another
Richard de Whytemere, who married a lady named Joan, but
of what family is not ascertained, and was succeeded at his de-
cease in 1442, by his son,
Thomas Whytemere, of Claverley, who died in 1483, his son,
Richard Whytemere, left at his demise in 1504. by his wife
Agnes, a son and successor,
Richard Whitmore, of Claverley, born in 1495, who married
Frances Barker, and had two sons,
William, his heir,
Thomas, ancestor of the Whitmores of Ludstone, in Claverley.
Richard Whitmore died in 1549, and was succeeded by his son,
William Whitmore, Esq., of London, merchant, who married
Anne, daughter of Alderman William Bond, of that city, and by
her (who died October 9, 16 15,) had issue ; 1, William (Sir), his heir
2, Thomas, died sine prole ; 3, George (Sir), Knight of Kalmes, in
Hackney parish, Middlesex. He died December 12, 1654.
From the above the several families of Whitmore in England
trace their ancestry.
THE LINEAGE OF THE WETMORE FAMILY OP CHARLOTTE
COUNTY, NEW BRUNSWICK.
Thomas Whitmore, who was the immigrant ancestor of the
Wetmore family in America, was born 1615, in England, and
married, first, Sarah Hall, d. of John Hall and Anne (Willocke)
Hall, and was the father of
Izrahiah Whitmore, b. 8 March, 1656-7? m. Rachael Stow, by
whom he had eight children, all sons, of whom the third was
Rev. James Wetmore, b. 31 December, 1695 (O. S.), who mar-
ried Anna , and had six children, of whom the eldest was
James Wetmore, b. in Rye, N. Y., 19th December, 1727, m.
Elizabeth Abrahams, and had by her twelve children, of whom
the eldest was
Abraham Wetmore, b. November 27th (9th ?), 1747, m. Sarah
Sniffers, by whom he had three children, of whom the eldest was
Josiah Wetmore, b. November 20, 1770, who married Rachael,
daughter of Justus Sherwood, by whom he had six children.
Of the above the last three generations were Loyalists, and re-
moved to New Brunswick at the close of the war in 1783, the
eldest, James, at the age of tifty-six, the youngest, Josiah, at the
age of thirteen.
Josiah had six children, namely, Sally, William, Justus, Abra-
ham Joseph, Josiah, Anne. Of these, the fourth,
Abraham Joseph Wetmore, b. 14 October 1798, m. I, Elizabeth
Campbell, daughter of James Campbell, Lieut. 54th Regiment of
Foot, by whom he had six children, namely, Marian, Sarah Jose-
phine, Douglas, Thomas, Susan and Julia ; m. II, Laura Jewett,
of Boston, by whom he had two children, namely, Sydney and
Laura Eugenia, both of whom died unmarried.
THE WETMORE FAMILY 249
Abraham Joseph Wetmore was the ancestor of all the
Wetmores, of Charlotte County, N. B. Of his first family,
Marian married John W. Norton ; Sarah Josephine
married Peter Clinch; Douglas married Julia Russell;
Thomas died unmarried ; Susan married John Cameron ;
and Julia married Charles C. Ward.
Having thus sketched, as briefly as possible, the geneal-
ogy of the Wetmore family, of Charlotte County, N. B.,
and given the reader what he trusts will be found a concise
statement of the line of descent from Thomas Whitmore,
the American ancestor of the family, the writer will, in the
next chapter, and beginning with the last-named individ-
ual, give a short biographical sketch of the various mem-
bers of the family which he has enumerated.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
(To be Continued.)
Canada Educational Monthly.
Prince Edward Island Magazine.
Bulletin des Recherches Historiques.
Kings College Record.
The Book Lover.
Journal of the Ex-Libris Society.
N. E. Hist, and Gen. Register.
many of our readers to whom the name
of Gabe, the Sachem of the Abenakis,
has been familiar for many years, the
news that he has gone to the happy
hunting grounds will be learned with
regret. He passed away at the Indian
reserve on Wednesday, the 2nd of
October, after the article upon the Indians of Acadia,
in which reference is made to him, and which appears in
the first portion of this number of ACADIENSIS, had been
off the press.
He was the veteran Indian guide and trapper, the leader
of his tribe, and had, in his day, been the associate, for the
time being, of many famous men.
Gabe had been in failing health for some time, and at
his decease must have been about ninety years of age.
The following interesting reminiscence from the pen of
Mr. E. J. Payson, has just appeared in one of our pro-
vincial dailies, from which we take the liberty of re-pub-
lishing it :
The death of Gabe Acquin, "Sachem Gabe," has set loose a
flood of memories of the doings and sayings of the aged Indian,
and many are the stories and anecdotes being related about him.
Died Oct. 2nd, 1901. Atjed 90 yea
GABE ACQUIN 251
It may not be generally known that the only time that King
Edward Seventh of England was upon the water in a birch bark
canoe was on the St. John river at Fredericton in company with
Gabe, because the story has not heretofore appeared in print: but
such is the well authenticated fact. As Gabe's best friends well
knew he was not given to boasting, yet he occasionally mentioned
to intimates and with evident pride that he had taken the Prince
canoeing, and he treasured in fond remembrance the kindliness of
the young Prince, and the boyish mischievousness of the present
King, as shown in the following anecdote.
When the Prince of Wales visited Fredericton, about forty
years ago, he arrived on Saturday and spent Sunday here. Early
on Sunday morning Gabe, then in his prime and a general favorite
at Government House, left his wigwam at St. Mary's and boarding
his canoe, built by himself of bark stripped by his own hands off
the stately birches, swiftly paddled up river to Government House
landing for the purpose, as Gabe afterward expressed it. "jus' to
look aroun'." It was about nine o'clock when Gabe paddled slowly
past Government House and who should be seen on the terrace
back of the house but the young Prince himself, enjoying the cool
morning air, the beautiful view of the river, and a before break-
The Prince, who was of course unknown to Gabe, who was
dressed out in his most fantastic garb, hailed the Indian and asked
him to come ashore. The Prince evinced a lively interest in the
canoe and asked Gabe many questions about its construction and
uses, and finally expressed a wish to have a short sail in the, to
him, novel craft, a request which Gabe gladly complied with.
Scarcely had they put off from the landing when the Duke of
Newcastle, who accompanied the Prince, and exercised a very
strict watch over him, appeared upon the river bank and called
upon the occupants of the canoe to return at once to the shore.
The Prince, in an undertone, asked Gabe to pay no attention to
the old fellow, meaning the Duke, but to keep on, and Gabe plied
the paddle with such effect that they were soon out of call from
Gabe took his Royal visitor across the river and a short distance
up the beautiful Nashwaaksis, and the Prince thoroughly enjoyed
his first, and, probably, only trip in a birch bark canoe, and Gabe
in relating the story would say " an' he not one bit 'fraid."
When Gabe was asked if the Prince gave him anything for dis-
obeying the Duke of Newcastle's command he would say, "I got
some gold," and more than this he would not say.
The writer regrets that the short space of time at his
disposal prevents a more extended reference to this worthy
brother. He has in his possession some interesting anec-
dotes and reminiscences, in many of which Gabe played a
prominent part, and hopes, ac no very distant date, to be
able to publish an interesting and readable account of his
life and character.
With his demise has passed away one of the connecting
links between Fredericton as it was half a century ago
then a British garrison town and as it is to-day.
DAVID RUSSELL JACK.
In a letter to the writer, Prof. W. F. Ganong, of North-
ampton, Mass., remarks :
Why do you not, in the coming issue of your magazine, call for
quotations and early references to the use of the word " bluenose ?"
The only way to ascertain the origin of the word is to find its
earliest use in print, and in what connection it was employed :
if you call for references to early uses of the word you may bring
out something good. Merely guessing at its origin is useless.
The Rev. W. O. Raymond writes, in the St. John Sun,
in the issue of October 8th, 1901, that in his opinion the
explanation that the name is derived from a variety of
potato called the Bluenose potato, or " early blue," which
has been credited by many persons, is certainly incorrect,
the name being older than the potato. He is further of
the opinion that the people of the Maritime Provinces of
Canada got the name because their noses were supposed to
be blue with cold. He also states that the name was in
common use in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia about
the beginning of the last century, and that he noticed it,
not long ago, in a letter written by Elkanah Morton of
Digby, under date January 27, 1807. Mr. Morton speaks
in his letter of a dispute between the Irish and the Yan-
kees at Digby, adding the remark, " being a bluenose my-
self, did not think it prejudice that made me consider the
Yankees least in fault."
This carries us back nearly a century, and it is doubtful
if any references of a much earlier date may be discovered.
Mr. Morton's letter, however, does not throw any additional
light upon the origin of the word, or the meaning which it
is intended to convey.
Following the suggestion offered by Professor Ganong,
we shall be pleased to hear from any of our readers, of any
other early uses of the name, and to publish any informa-
tion obtained, should it prove to be of sufficient value.
DAVID RDSSELL JACK.
Origin of tbe IRew U)orfc Iberalfc,
No. 57 PEMBROKE STREET,
TORONTO, April 20, 1901.
D. R. JACK, ESQ.
Dear Sir, I could tell a number of interesting facts
about my father. I presume you would hardly know that
the great " New York Herald " was started by two young
men who were apprentices in Chubb's office in St. John,
but that is a positive fact.
Smith and Anderson were both in the same office with
my father at Chubb's. They went to New York about
two years before my father did, and shortly after, they
bought a large press (worked by foot power) and secured
the printing of the " New York Sun," and " New York
Transcript," both daily papers ; also, of course, other work.
One day, early in 1835, my father called in to see
them, being old chums in St. John. There was another
man in the office, named James Gordon Bennett. Ander-
son told my father, " We're going to start a daily paper
ourselves, but as, if it were known, the " Sun " and " Tran-
script " would take away their business from us, we have
engaged this man Bennett, who is a clever fellow ; he is to
edit the paper, and have his name on it as editor ; and
while we supply everything, and only pay him a salary, no
one will know our connection with it."
A few days afterwards the first number of the " New
York Herald " appeared and it had an immediate success ;
but the proprietors of the other papers somehow found out
or felt jealous of Smith and Anderson, and took their work
away. Then, worse still, about one month after the first
issue, a great fire took place and destroyed everything, and
both Smith and Anderson were ruined. Anderson died
in my father's house from his reverses and illness caused
thereby. Bennett went to Bruce the typefounder and told
him he could make a success of the paper and got credit,
and about two weeks after the fire started the paper anew ?
utterly ignoring Smith and Anderson or any rights they
had ; and this was the foundation of the " Herald."
ORIGIN OF THE NEW YORK HERALD 255
Some of these facts are in " Bennett's Life," issued by
Stringer and Townsend in 1855. My father used to tell
me that he very often saw Bennett personally selling his
" Heralds " off the top of a barrel at the corner of Fulton
and Ann streets, New York, the first few weeks after the
issue of the paper (after the fire, September, 1835).
My father started a small job printing office in a little
frame building, corner of Frankfort street and Chatham
(now Printing House Row) upon the exact spot and lot
where the great " New York World " building now stands.
After a year or so he obtained a little credit and began to
issue illustrated works (the first ever published in America).
His first work was " Illustrations of the Bible." He had
hardly courage to issue a first edition of one thousand
copies, but they all sold very quickly and before five years
he had sold over twenty thousand copies, an unprecedented
sale at that time ; and in the meanwhile he was issuing
other works of a historical and biblical character, profusely
illustrated. He was the first one to encourage wood-en-
graving, and paid thousands of dollars to young artists for
their work on wood to illustrate his books.
P. T. Barnum, afterwards the great showman, at that
time hardly had bread to eat ; he applied to my father to
be agent to sell his works. My father gave him a credit
of $100 or $200 in books. He sold an immense number,
enabling him to get a small capital, with which he bought
out a small museum of curiosities and laid the foundation
of his great wealth.
I forgot to state that the owner of the lot on which the
little printing office stood offered it to my father in 1833
for $2,500. A few years ago the " World" paid $425,000
for the same lot exactly, on which they built their immense
building. Naturally I am a bit sorry my father didn't buy
the lot and keep it, but no one then had any idea of what
New York was to be.
Very cordially yours,
GEO. EDW. SEARS.
We regret that the insertion of the notice of the death of Gabe
Acquin has absorbed the space usually reserved for notices of
books and other publications received, and that in the present
number we are unable to do more than merely mention such, with
the names of their various donors, to whom we desire to convey
our sincere thanks for the courtesy extended to us.
Collections Manchester Historic Association, G. Waldo
Shakespeare as a Patriot, Sir William H. Bailey.
Shakespeare and Temperance, Sir William H. Bailey.
Immortal Memory of Robert Burns, Sir William H. Bailey.
The Jerseyman, Vols. 1-5, bound, H. E. Deats.
January, 1900, to date, in numbers, H. E. Deats.
Hunterdon Co. Hist. Society, H. E. Deats.
Two Colonels John Taylor, H. E. Deats.
Hist. Sketch of Jas. Sterling, H. E. Deats.
The Readington School, H. E. Deats.
Flemington Copper Mines, H. E. Deats.
First Century of Hunterdon Co., N. J., H. E. Deats.
Bye Laws Hunt, Co. Hist. Soc., H. E. Deats.
Report on Philatelic Literature, H. E. Deats.
Colonel Thos. Lowrey and Wife, H. E. Deats.
Louisbourg, an Historical Sketch, Col. J. Plimsol Edwards*
Canada under Victoria, John A. Cooper, B. A., LL. B.
Report Congress Tuberculosis, Educational Record.
Our thanks are also due to the following publications for notices
of our third number.
Colchester Sun, Truro, N. S,
EducationalfReview, St. John, N. B,
Free Lance, Westville, N. S.
Globe, St.;john, N. B.
Journal, Summerside, P. E. I.
Monitor, St. John, N B.
Presbyterian Witness, Halifax, N. S.
Record, Sydney, C. B.
Tribune, Windsor, N. S.
Sentinel, Woodstock, N. B.
Times Guardian, Truro, N. S.
World, Chatham, N. B.
MAR 9 1994