(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Acadiensis; a quarterly devoted to the interests of the maritime provinces of Canada"

JOSEPH WILSON LAWRENCE. 




ACADIENSIS 



EDITED BY 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 



It 



A Quarterly Devoted 
to the Interests of the 
Maritime Provinces of 
Canada. 




1 



VOLUME 



F 



V-f 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Acadia, Aesthetic Attributes of 

Isaac Allen Jack 169 

Acadian Artist, An 

David Russell Jack, 69 

Acadian Monarch, An 

Patrick McCarthy, 163 

Acadian Musicians, Two 

David Russell Jack, 225 

Acadia, The Indians of 

David Russell Jack, 187 

Acadia, Thirst in 

Isaac Allen Jack, 38 

Acquin, Gabe, 

David Russell Jack, 250 

Aesthetic Attributes of Acadia, 

Isaac Allen Jack, , 169 

A Marshland River, 

John Frederick Herbin, 87 

A Monument and its Story, 

Jonas Hoive, 63, 137 

An Acadian Monarch, 

Patrick McCarthy, 163 

Answers to Correspondents, 

David Russell Jack. , 178 

Arrest du Conseil du Roy, 

David Russell Jack, 19 

Artist, An Acadian 

David Russell Jack, 69 

Bluenose, 

David Russell Jack, 253 

Bohemia, In 

Charles Campbell, 50 

Book Notices, 182, 256 

Book-Plates, 

David Russell Jack, . . .91, 115, 236 
Chanson, 

W. P. Dole, ; & 

Charlotte Elizabeth, 

Isabella A. Owen, 235 

Chignecto, La Valliere of 

W. C. Milner,, 157, 213 

Colonel Robert Moodie, 

Clarance Ward, 207 

Daisy, The 

W. P. Dole, 206 

Elizabeth, Charlotte. 

Isabella A. Owen, 228 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Exchanges 110, 184, 249 

Fiedmond, Jacau de 

Placide P. Gaudet, 29, 53 

Freneuse, Lease of the Seignieury of, on the St. John 
River in 1696, 

W. F. Ganong, 121 

Gabe Acquin, 

David Russell Jack. . . 250 

Grant, John Loyalist History, 

T. Watson Smith, 7 

Historical Society, The N. B 6 

Historic Louisburg as it is to-day, 

C. W. Vernon, 202 

Honorable Judge Robie, 

Israel Longworth, 81, 143 

In Bohemia, 

Charles Campbell, 50 

Incidents in the Early History of St. John, 

W. O. Raymond, 82, 151 

Indians of Acadia, The 

David Russell Jack, 187 

Kind Words, 104 

Lawrence, Joseph Wilson, 

David Russell Jack, 43 

Last Moose of Vermont, The 

David Russell Jack, 41 

La Valliere of Chignecto, 

W. C. Milner,, 157, 213 

Lease of the Seignieury of Freneuse on the St. John 
River in 1696, 

W. F. Ganong, 121 

Literary Possibilities, on Certain 

A. B. de Mille 126 

Louisburg. Historic, as it is to-day, 

C. W. Vernon, 202 

Loyalist History John Grant, 

T. Watson Smith, '7 

Mainly about People, 46 

Marshland River, A 

John Frederick Herbin 87 

Monument and its Story, A 

Jonas Howe, 63, 137 

Moodie, Colonel Robert 

Clarence Ward, . 207 

New York Herald, Origin of 

George Edward Sears 254 

Northern Muse, The 

Bliss Carman, 62 

Notes and Queries, 42 

Notes and Queries, 

H. Percy Scott 164 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Old Colonial Silver, 

David Russell Jack, 168 

On Certain Literary Possibilities, 

A. B. de Mille, 126 

Origin of the New York Herald, 

George Edward Sears, 254 

Origin of the Place-name Pabineau, 

W. F. Ganong, 88 

Our Contributors, 47 

Owen, David, of Campobello, N. B., 

Kate Gannett Wells, 21 

Pabineau, Origin of the Place-name, 

W. F. Ganong, 88 

Purification, 

Isaac Allen Jack, 114 

Queen Victoria A Contrast, 

J. de Soyres, 51 

Recent Publications, 47 

Robie, Honorable Judge 

Israel Longivorth, 81, 143 

Salutatory, 3 

Signature of Matthew Thornton, 

James Vroom, 131 

Silver, Old Colonial, 

David Russell Jack, 168 

St. John, Incidents in the Early History of 

W. O. Raymond 82, 151 

The Daisy, 

W. P. Dole, ,. 206 

The Wetmore Family, 

David Russell Jack, 243 

The Northern Muse, 

Bliss Carman, 62 

The Unknown, 

Charles Campbell, 186 

Thirst in Acadia, 

Isaac Allen Jack, 38 

Thornton, Matthew, the Signature of 

James Vroom, 131 

Two Acadian Musicians, 

David Russell Jack, 225 

Unknown, The 

Charles Campbell, 186 

Vermont, The Last Moose of 

David Russell Jack, 41 

Victoria, Queen A Contrast, 

J. de Soyres, 51 

Wetmore Family, The 

David Russell Jack, 243 

Wizard of the World, The 

Theodore Roberts, 28 



CONTENTS. 



SALUTATORY, . . . . : . . . 3 

Chanson, '-... 2 

N. B. Historical Society, . . . . 6 

loyalist History, 7 

Arrest du Conseil d'Estat du Roy, 19 



David Owen, . . . i* . 
The Wizard of the World, 
Jacau de Fiedmond, 

Thirst in Acadia, 

Last Moose in Vermont, . 
Notes and Queries, 
Joseph Wilson Lawrence, . 
Mainly About People, . . 
Recent Publications, . . 
Our Contributors, 




1 



Cbanson, 

FROM THE FRENCH OF ANTOINE COMTE D'HAMILTON, A.D. 1661. 

Nor dark nor blonde is she whom I adore : 

By a single stroke to sketch her, 

She's the most delightful creature 
The wide world o'er. 

Yet of her charms 't is easy count to take : 
Five hundred beauties that are seen, 
Five hundred more concealed, I ween, 

A thousand make. 

Wisdom divine is in her mind exprest ; 

By thousand sweetest traits 't is told 

The graces in their finest mould 
Have formed the rest. 

What lustrous tints could paint her hue so bright 1 

Flora is not so fresh and fair ; 

And with a swan's may well compare 
Her neck so white. 

Her waist and arm do kin to Venus prove ; 

Like Hebe's are her mouth and nose ; 

And, for her eyes Ah ! your glance shows 
Whom 't is I love. 

W. P. DOLE. 




ACADIENSIS 



VOL. I. JANUARY, 1901. No. 1. 



DAVID RUSSELL JACK, EDITOR. 



Salutatory 

Probably one of the most difficult problems which con- 
fronts the promoters of any periodical is the selection of a 
suitable name, by which their publication shall be known 
to the world. Many a carefully launched and creditable 
undertaking has been hopelessly shipwrecked through the 
want of a suitable name ; many a deserving individual, 
who might have achieved a fair amount of prominence in 
the literary world, has lived and died unknown, his lack of 
fortune due, perhaps, to the fact that his parents, upon 
his being brought into the world, failed to provide him 
with a name which was not commonplace. 

With individuals this difficulty has sometimes been 
ameliorated, by hyphenating some imposing name to the 
more ordinary ; the hybrid result being, to the mind of 
the person by whom the operation was performed, a 
decided improvement upon the original product. 

Be that as it may, an instance where the power of a 
name will readily be admitted by our readers, is the case 
of a well-known hostelry in the city of New York. Astor 
is quite a common name in that city ; the Astor House, 
with its four hundred rooms, and central situation, is well 
known to many quiet-going individuals, as a nice con- 
venient place in which to spend a day or two. The name 



4 ACADIENSIS 

Waldorf-Astoria, however, conveys quite a different idea, 
and one naturally associates with such a name all the 
pomp and splendor, glitter and circumstance, that unlimited 
wealth and lavish expenditure can bestow. It is a name, 
once heard, not readily forgotten, and in this manner the 
purpose of its originators has been served. 

Upon the other hand, many a well-born individual, who 
might have lived and died a useful member of society, has 
had his future wellfare hopelessly handicapped at the out- 
set of life's journey, through the ludicrous and inane efforts 
of his progenitors to bestow upon him a name which might 
render him conspicuous among his fellows. 

But seriously, a suitable name, for an undertaking such 
as the present, is a very important feature. 

Such names as the Maritime Magazine, the Acadian 
Magazine, or the New Brunswick Quarterly, have been 
suggested. Ths first gives the impression that it relates to 
matters of the sea only ; the second was objected to for 
the reason that the Acadian Monthly is already a live issue 
in Maritime Province literature ; while the third was not 
applicable, owing to the fact that the scope of this maga- 
zine was intended to be of a wider range than the name 
New Brunswick would convey. 

To Mr. I. Allen Jack we are indebted for the suggestion 
which ultimately Jed to the adoption of our present title- 
Some years ago he commenced a series of articles, which 
he designated " Acadienses," in the Week, of Toronto, 
relating to matters pertaining to that district of North 
America formerly known as Acadia. A modification of 
this idea has resulted in the choice of the title, by which, 
we trust, this periodical may be known to the literary 
public for some time to come. 

The name is short, concise, significant and phonetic- 
Acadia is a title now recognized by the scientific world as 
applying to the territory embraced within the area of 
the Maritime Provinces, including a small portion of the 



SALUTATORY 5 

Province of Quebec and the State of Maine, immediately 
adjacent. This is precisely the ground we wish to cover. 
Any matters relating, in whole or in part, to this extent 
of territory, its people, its past history or future prospects i 
any literary, or other productions of the people who live 
within its borders, dealing with outside matters ; or con- 
tributions from those residing abroad, and treating upon 
Acadian matters, will come within the scope of this 
Magazine. 

It is intended to deal largely with matters historical, 
but descriptive, scientific or philosophical contributions 
will be welcomed. Contributions in verse, as well as short 
stories, in which the principal scene is laid in Acadia, or 
which are the production of Acadian writers, will also be\^ 
given a place, should they, upon examination, be deemed of \ 
a sufficiently high standard of excellence to warrant their^x 
insertion. 

It had been intended to begin the publication at an 
earlier date, but there was something attractive in the idea 
of launching a new undertaking by the light of the dawn 
of a new century. It is an opportunity which does not 
occur to everyone ; to the same individual, never twice. 
Accordingly the first number bears the date of January 
first, in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred 
and one. 

There has been a dream, and was it only a dream, which 
has passed through many minds, of a united Acadia, in 
which the descendant of the Acadian Frenchman, and of 
the United Empire Loyalist, might join hand in hand, in 
a political union, embracing what is now known as the 
Maritime Provinces of the Dominion of Canada. 

Some people are of the opinion that the opportunity for 
the consummation of this ideal passed away forever with the 
confederation of the several Provinces into the Dominion 
of Canada. 



6 ACADIENSIS 

To us it would appear, that, laying aside all differences 
of politics, race and religion, the time is now ripe for a still 
closer amalgamation of the people of Acadia, this land of 
our fathers, into one great Province, and thus might we be 
enabled to hold an equal place with the larger Provinces of 
Quebec and Ontario, in the eyes of our fellow-countrymen, 
and of the world at large. 

It shall be our constant effort, though perhaps in a very 
humble degree, to endeavor, by the interchange of thoughts 
and ideas, by the study of the past, and taking thought for 
the future, to pave the way for such a movement. This, 
too, may be but a dream, but, like the dream of some of 
our forefathers, that " ships may come here from England 
yet," it may, some day, we trust, prove to be a reality, 



IRew Brunswick Historical Society. 

The New Brunswick Historical Society held their 
annual meeting at their rooms on Charlotte street on the 
27th of November, when the following officers were 
elected : 

President P. 11. Inches, Esq., M. D. 
First Vice-President Rev. W. C. Gaynor. 
Second Vice-President Mr. Jonas Howe. 
Recording Secretary Mr. Clarence Ward. 
Corresponding Secretary Mr. D. R. Jack. 
Council Messrs. S. D. Scott, W. P. Dole, 
G. U. Hay, Rev. W. O. Raymond and 
Col. Wm. Cunard. 

The President referred to the death of the late Dr. John 
Berryman, for many years a member of the Society. 

A paper, entitled " The Acadian Settlement of Mada- 
waska," was read by Rev. W. O. Raymond. 

The meeting, in point of attendance, was one of the best 
that has been held for some time. 



loyalist 1btetor\> 3obn (Brant 

Much has been written, in relation to the motives, ser- 
vices, banishment and subsequent career of the United 
Empire Loyalists ; more, perhaps, remains to be written. 
The story of their lives, in its fulness of sincere and suffer- 
ing patriotism, and of its sequel of empire building, has yet 
to be given to the world. Its earlier chapters must, of 
course, recall a scene of wrecked homes, armed conflict, 
bitter neighbourhood strife, and cruel exile, which descend- 
ants of the victors, might well wish forgotten ; but its 
central divisions will bring into view, new homes slowly 
rising in the wilderness, whence go forth, here and there, 
ambitious youth to figure on the high places of national 
life ; its most recent chapter will show the Canadian Do- 
minion, which descendants of Loyalists so largely developed, 
asserting herself, as a force to be reckoned with, by any 
power which would set itself to thwart Britain's high aims 
on behalf of the world. This theme awaits an historian : 
pen of poet has hardly yet touched it. 

Any intention to discount the value of historical parts 
in this direction must here be disclaimed. A debt of 
gratitude to Lorenzo Sabine, for the vast research displayed 
in his two volumes on " The Loyalists of the American 
Revolution " is readily acknowledged ; scarcely less grateful 
should we be to Egerton Ryerson for the patient and loving 
investigation which resulted in the two volumes on " The 
Loyalists of America and their Times." Other volumes 
might be named, as worthy of generous mention, as are / 
several monographs published by Canadian historical so- 
cieties, and frequent contributions to our religious and 
secular press ; but the fact remains that the record of 
7 



8 ACADIENSIS 

Loyalist sacrifice and service is incomplete. There are 
sections of the Maritime Provinces where the axe swung 
by Loyalist hands awakened echoes which had slept since 
creation, the first settlers of which find no mention in the 
series of valuable sketches by Sabine ; and many a reader 
of Dr. Ryerson's volumes has probably laid them down 
with a feeling of regret that a part of the space devoted to 
historical disquisition had not been given to those relations 
of local incident and individual experience in which the 
chasm of historical narrative so largely consists. Such, at 
least, would have been the sensation in the mind of the 
writer of this paper had he not learned the proposed plan 
from Dr. Ryerson, when that gentleman was pursuing his 
researches in the British Museum. 

It is understood that a gentleman in New Brunswick, 
whose work on historical lines has already raised him above 
the rank of an amateur, is aiming to supply, in some meas- 
ure at least, our lack of knowledge respecting the Loyalist 
fathers. We wish him success. For such an undertaking 
the period is auspicious. The comparatively recent addi- 
tion to the Historical Manuscripts Department, of the Con- 
gressional Library at Washington, has brought within our 
reach, a collection of papers of immense value, the location 
of which, had, for years, been a matter for enquiry. This 
collection, Professor Herbert Friedenwald, till very recent- 
ly, superintendent of the Historical Manuscripts Depart- 
ment, considers " one of the most interesting series of 
documents in the library." In the thirty-five volumes 
together with a few miscellaneous papers, are found the 
proceedings of the commissioners Col. Thomas Dundas 
and Mr. J. Pemberton for inquiring into the losses, 
services and claims, of the American Loyalists during the 
Revolutionary War, as a basis of indemnification by Act 
of Parliament. The notes of testimony, taken by these 
commissioners, during 1785, and several subsequent years, 
at Halifax, St. John and Montreal relate to 1,400 cases, 



LOYALIST HISTORY 9 

and in many instances go so far into detail, as to afford an 
amount of information respecting the careers of prominent 
colonial figures, such as is nowhere else to be found.* A 
large number of other documents, supplementary to the 
above, Prof. Friedenwald has informed the writer, has 
quite recently been obtained, by one of the large public 
libraries of New York. 

This important addition to our stores of Loyalist infor- 
mation, should not, however, be allowed to lessen private 
effort after further accumulation. It is true, that the cir- 
cumstances of the Loyalist period were most unfavorable 
to the preparation, or preservation of historical data, that 
the defeated actors in the strife, left few songs behind 
them, and no harpers to chant their sorrows, but there 
must yet be retained on paper, or in memory, many un- 
published facts and incidents, which may soon be irrecover- 
ably lost. That is a sad sentence which constitutes the 
last paragraph of Napier's " History of the War in the 
Peninsula " " Thus the war terminated, and with it all 
remembrance of the veterans' services." A similar state- 
ment should be inapplicable to the descendants of the 
American Loyalists. Even if but little can be added, to 
the facts already obtained, concerning the period of strife, 
we may honor them by watching their subsequent career, 
and by placing on record, some results of their faithful 
adherence to the Britain they loved. 

In the list of almost unknown Loyalists, is Captain John 
Grant, an ancestor of the writer of this sketch. A single 
sentence, in the " fragments " at the end of Sabine's second 
volume " Grant, John, Captain in the Royal Garrison 
Battalion " may or may not have referred to him. The 

* Report of American Historical Association, 189S, p. S9. These docu- 
ments, which as a matter of course, found their way to England, were pro- 
cured by Major-GeneralJ. H. Lefroy, governor of Bermuda, and presented 
through him by his relative, Mrs. Dundas a descendant of one of the com- 
missionersto the Smithsonian Institution, in 1874, as the Library of Con- 
ress is the! depositary for the books, etc., of the Smithsonian Institution they 
naturally found their way there. 



10 ACADIENSIS 

Dame, though less common among Scotch soldiers, than that 
of Donald Macdonald, which is said to have at times sadly 
confused the drill sergeant in his efforts to distinguish his 
Highland recruits from each other, is by no means rare 
among them.* 

The John Grant of whom we write was the son of 
Alexander Grant, of Strathspey, Scotland. Born in 1729, 
a period at which strong military tendencies prevailed in 
the Highlands, he in mere boyhood entered the army. In 
1730 the English government, which had long hesitated to 
put arms into the hands of the Scotch Highlanders, on 
account of the devotion of their chiefs to the caus? of the 
Pretender, raised six companies in the Highlands, each 
independent of the other. These came to be known as the 
" Black Watch," on account perhaps, of the sombre tartans 
worn by them, and because of their employment in small 
parties, as a sort of rural police. There was no lack of 
high-class men. The whole country having been disarmed, 
an indignity deeply felt by the men of a race, wbo, even 
in times of peace, never went forth without dirk or clay- 
more the youth of good families were eager to serve, if 
only in the ranks, because they were entitled to bear arms, 
and to carry a weapon was regarded as a proof that the 
bearer was a gentleman. In 1739 four additional com- 
panies .were raised, and in 1740, near Tay Common, the 
several companies were formed into a regiment, known for 
a term as the 43rd, and later as the 42nd Highlanders, 
or the Black Watch, the name the men belonging to it had 
always loved best. 

In .1741, young Grant entered one of the companies. 



* That fine specimen of a true Scotchman, the late Me jrr AUar J'clean 
of the Nashwaak, used to tell of two brother Scotchmen of a disbanded regi- 
ment, an incident at once illustrative of former-day simplicity and of 
change in dress The one Donald Macdonald had made arrangements fo<- 
marriage, but as the day approacht-d he grew nervous. Finally be wtnt to 
another Donald Macdonald in the same neighbourhood, and, making him a 
confidant, asked : " Noo, Donal, wull ye na tak her yirsel, au I'll gie ye the 
cotton goun in the baergain ? " 



LOYALIST HISTORY 11 

The practice of enticing mere boys into a Highland regi- 
ment, was formerly unknown ; special care was taken in 
selecting men of full height, well proportioned, and of hand- 
some appearance. The acceptance of one so young, must 
therefore have been due tofriendlyinfluence,or the possession 
of unusual development. In March, 1743, when the regi- 
ment was ordered to proceed to England, he accompanied 
it, it is believed, as a lieutenant. The loud remonstrances 
from eminent Scotchmen which followed this call to general 
service, contrary to the terms of enlistment ; the review at 
Finchlay Common ; the rumor that the officers and men 
were to be transported to the King's plantations in America, 
diligently circulated by the adherents of the Stuarts ; the 
attempt of the regiment to march back to Scotland : their 
final surrender and pardon, are matters of history. Hogarth 
was living at the time, and his inimitable pencil has cur- 
iously depicted one scene of this affair in his " March to 
Finchlay." 

John Grant sailed with his regiment, in the same year, 
for Flanders, serving there, under Field-Marshal the Earl 
of Stair, and being present, under the Duke of Cumberland 
in 1745, at the battle of Fontenoy, in which the Black 
Watch took a very prominent part. It was, when alluding 
to that battle that a French writer said, " The British 
behaved well, and could be exceeded in ardor by none but 
our officers, who animated the troops by their example, 
when the Highland furies rushed in upon us, with more 
violence than ever did a sea driven by a tempest." 

On returning from the continent, for a second time, in 
1748, the Black Watch was quartered for eight years, in 
Ireland, whence it sailed for America, landing at New 
York in June, 1756. A year after its arrival in the New 
World, the regiment was summoned to active warfare, on 
the frontier. Of General Sir James Abercrombie's force 
of 16,000 men, directed against the French at Ticonderoga, 
6,340 were British regulars, of which the 42nd Highland- 



12 ACADIENSIS 

ers formed a part. The notice the regiment had -attracted 
on its landing at New York, was even more marked during 
its march to Albany, particularly on the part of the 
Indians, " who flocked from all quarters to see strangers 
whom, from the similarity of their dress, they considered 
to be of the same extraction as themselves, and whom they 
therefore regarded as brothers."* Tt must have been at this 
time that an Indian chief, pleased with young Captain 
Grant's military bearing, made him an offer of as much 
land as he could travel around in three days, on the 
condition that he would marry the chief's daughter. 

The brilliant July morning in 1758, on which the whole 
force was embarked on Lake George, for an attack on Fort 
Ticonderoga, was followed by a night and morrow of terrible 
disaster to the British arms. In front of a breastwork of 
uncommon height and thickness, which sheltered the French 
army, the ground had been covered with felled oak trees, 
with sharpened branches pointing outward, against which 
the English attempted in vain to advance. At last the 
impatient Highlanders, breaking from the rear, rushing to 
the front, and screaming with rage, hewed with their 
broadswords among the branches, struggling to get at the 
enemy, but in vain. The English, with their deep-toned 
shout, also rushed on in heavy columns, until General 
Abercrombie, having lost two thousand men, gave the 
order to retire, an order only obeyed by the Highlanders 
on its second repetition, and when more than half of their 
men, and twenty-five of their officers, had been either killed, 
or desperately wounded. The English army, seized with 
a sudden panic, then rushed in haste to their boats, and put 
Lake George between them and the enemy. " The fatal 
lines of Ticonderoga," says Parkman, " were not soon for- 
gotten in the provinces ; and marbles in Westminster 



* "A History of the Scottish Highland Clans and Regiments,'" by John 
S. Keltie, Vol. II., p. 386. 



LOYALIST HISTORY 13 

Abbey, preserve the memory of those who fell, on that 
disastrous day."* 

The Black Watch, honored about this time by George 
II. with the designation " Royal/' remained in Ameiica 
until 1761, when they embarked, with ten other regi- 
ments for Barbadoes, there to join the armament against 
Martinique, and the Havannah. Captain Grant joined 
that expedition, but not as an officer of his former 
regiment. At Brooklyn he had met Sarah, the attract- 
ive daughter of Michael and Catelyntie Bergen, lineal 
descendants, both of Hans Hansen Bergen, a Norwegian 
ship-builder, who had crossed the ocean, it is said, 
in that vessel of the West India Company, which had 
brought out to New Amsterdam, the second director-gen- 
eral of the colony Wouter van Twiller, whom Washington 
Irving has so broadly caricatured. With the passing 
years, the descendants of Hans Hansen Bergen, and his 
wife, Sarah Rapalye, had become numerous and somewhat 
wealthy, and had given their names to several places in the 
neighbourhood of New York, a street in Brooklyn being yet 
known as Bergen street. In 1759, the young Scotch officer 
and Sarah Bergen, the latter then only sixteen, were mar- 
ried. On the writers' table is a piece of the dress worn on 
the day of the wedding, by the happy Dutch maiden, 
through whose mind, could not possibly have passed any 
thought of the future separation from relatives, and exile 
from home, involved by her wedding vows. Portraits of 
both are yet preserved by one of their descendants, but so 
defaced by age, and neglect, as to show few traces of the 
beauty, which tradition associates with their faces in early 
days. Their residence was on a farm, with a mill attached, 
which Mrs. Grant's father had purchased, on the south side 
of the village of Jamaica, in Queens county, and had set- 
tled upon his daughter,! 

* " The Conspiracy of Pontiac" Vol. II, p. 129. 

t TheBergen Family, etc. By Feunis Bergen, Albany, N. Y., 1876- 
pp. 259-260, 



14 ACADIENSIS 

Military service, it has been remarked, was not ended 
by John Grant's retirement from the Black Watch. On 
April 19, 1762, the New York colonial government issued a 
warrant in favor of Captain John Grant, for " 957, bounty 
and enlisting money, for eighty-seven volunteers of the 
counties of Kings and Queens,"* and as a captain in the 
New York Regiment of Foot, he took part in that danger- 
ous operation which ended in the reduction of theHavannah, 
and the surrender of the Spanish forces, on August 11,1762. 
In 1763 he was appointed by Cadwallader Golden, Esq., 
lieutenant-governor and commander-in-chief of the prov- 
ince of New York, to take command of a company raised 
to protect the colonists, and keep communication open 
between Albany and certain outposts. During the following 
year, he marched his company from New York city, to Fort 
Herkimer on the Mohawk River. Of his services under 
Sir William Johnson on the frontier, it is difficult to speak 
with definiteness. More than one Captain Grant, served 
with bravery on the border of Canada at the period, and 
it is possible, that a descendant of the officer of whom we 
write, may have placed to the credit of his ancestor, deeds 
of daring, performed by another, but, it is certain, that his 
services were such, as to secure for him a grant of three 
thousand acres of valuable land, about midway between the 
head of Lake George, and the fort at Crown Point. That 
these services had involved serious risk of life, may be in- 
ferred, from the statement by the neighbor who prepared 
his body for burial, that the scars of not less than seven 
swords or bullet wounds were visible. And, as no reference 
was made to these dangers in the brief statement of 
active service during the Revolution, submitted to Brigadier 
General Fox, Commander of the Forces in Nova Scotia in 
1783, it may be presumed that they had been incurred in 
pre-Revolutionary conflicts. 



* State Documents at Albany, N. Y., as quoted in The Bergen Family 
p. 259, 



LOYALIST HISTORY 15 

The home, which, for many years had been his pleasant 
headquarters, was wrecked during the Revolution. Though 
his father-in-law, at the beginning of the strife, had asked 
British protection, he and his family, were strong in their 
attachment to the Whigs, and used their best efforts to 
persuade Captain Grant to assume command of a regiment 
in the services of Congress a proposition which, to use 
his own words, he " disdainfully spurned." Thus situated, 
he had to make his escape to the West Indies, but having 
at the end of eighteen months, learned that General Sir 
William Howe was at the head of the British troops on 
Staten Island, he returned from the south, and offered his 
services to that officer. At the time of the landing of the 
British on Long Island, he was appointed as Guide, and 
given command of the vanguard of the left column, under 
Major-General Grant, on August 27, 1776, in which capa- 
city he so acquitted himself, as to receive the general's 
thanks, as a contributor to the success of the day. 

The close of the war, found this Loyalist, like thousands 
of others, in a sad plight. Ill-health would not permit 
him to continue with the army ; he therefore remained at 
Long Island with his family. The losses of the family, 
through the war, had been very serious. During her 
husband's absence in the West Indies, Mrs. Grant had had 
the best furniture, plate, and wearing apparel, with valu- 
able papers, removed to a house in Hackensack, New 
Jersey, and these, at the time of the pursuit of the 
American troops by Lord Cornwallis, were all plundered 
or destroyed. At about the same time the property owned 
by Mrs. Grant was also burned. In her touching appeal 
for some compensation for her losses, that lady describes 
her property as a " plantation of about one hundred and 
fifty acres, lying in the town of Brookland, on Long Island, 
on which was a long and valuable mansion house, forty- 
eight by thirty-six feet, with a kitchen adjoining the same, 
as well as barns and other outbuildings, in good repair." 



16 ACADIENSIS 

This residence, with its buildings and large quantities of 
grain, was burned by the royal army, because of its inter- 
ference with an attack on the enemy's encampment, thirty- 
one head of cattle, and four horses, having been driven off 
previously. Thus robbed and deprived of all they had 
possessed, they moved off, with the British, to Jamaica, and 
remained on Long Island, until the evacuation of New 
York by the King's troops. 

His total losses in plate, bonds, buildings, furniture, 
stock and other accumulations, Captain Grant estimated 
at five thousand pounds. Included in this valuation, was 
probably his large tract of land near Crown Point, which 
was forfeited by him, as an adherent of the King. At an 
early date, this property became of great value. On a 
sketch of it James Abed, of New York, who on another 
document certifies himself to have been at the time the 
royal army took possession of the Heights on Long Island, 
a "major in the American service," wrote in May, 1781, 
to Mrs. Grant " This is an exact copy of a part of Met- 
calf's map of the Province of New York, whereby you will 
find your husband, John Grant, had a grant of three 
thousand acres of land, which land has since been regranted 
by the State of Vermont, who suffer none of the old grants 
from the Crown to be good. This is a very valuable tract 
and is now all settled nearly as thick as Long Island." 

For the loyal Scotchman, only exile remained. Attach- 
ment to king and country, was, from the Whig point of 
view, an unpardonable sin. The prevalent feeling of the 
American people of this generation, was put into words, by 
Henry Ward Beecher, at a meeting, held in New York, 
just one hundred years from the day on which the British 
troops had taken their final departure from the city, when 
he said of the victors and their severe enactments, " They 
did not know any better. They had the instincts of the 
animal you bite me and I bite you." That was the in- 
stinct of the age. It was, if possible, worse ; it was fra- 



LOYALIST HISTORY 17 

tricidal. Hence John Grant was given clearly to under- 
stand, that to endeavor to remain in " New York Province" 
after the evacuation of it by his Majesty's troops, would be 
" very fatal," and striking illustrations of the danger were 
too frequent to be disregarded. Such preparations as 
could be made for removal, were therefore hastily made. 

In the sorrow and sadness of that wonderful exodus, and 
in its earlier sequel on our shores, the larger share, by far, 
must have fallen to the lot of our Loyalist foremothers. 
It was so in this instance. With a sick husband, seven 
children accompanying her, her eldest son remaining in 
New York, the voyage to Nova Scotia, and the settlement 
of her family, and the nine slaves brought with them, on 
an uncultivated tract on the seashore, must have involved 
the former Dutch maiden, in not merely months but years 
of keen anxiety. Prior to his removal to Nova Scotia, John 
Grant had began to feel the effects of wounds and expo- 
sure in the past. On July 1st, 1783, he reached Halifax 
in H. M. ship " Berwich." Governor Parr having granted 
him three thousand acres of land, of which he was unable 
to make a personal selection, the Surveyor-general, Charles 
Morris, Esq., had it surveyed at the lower part of the 
township of Newport, the grant bearing date August 26, 
1783. In September he visited Shelburne, and from that 
place returned to New York, whence on October 16, he 
and his family sailed on board the " Stafford " transport, 
Captain Westport, arriving at Halifax ten days later. 
On November 6, a bed was placed on a truck, and on this 
he was carried to Windsor, taken thence by boat to 
Mount Denson, and detained by serious illness at that 
place, until May 23, 1784, when he reached the new desti- 
nation for his family, at "Loyal Hill." Home, it could not 
be called : it was a refuge from the Revolutionary storm. 

The destruction of Captain Grant's earlier papers, has 
deprived us no doubt of many items of interest. The 
faded and torn documents on our table, were called forth 



18 ACADIENSIS 

by the sorrowful circumstances of the period, and index 
little else. In 1790, illness resulting from previous 
wounds and exposure, proved to Captain Grant " sickness 
unto death." After the fashion of the time his body was 
interred in his own grounds, but some years since, owing 
to the encroachments of a quarry, the bones were removed 
to a granite monument erected in the burying-ground of 
the Baptist church in the neighborhood. The wife, whose 
faithfulness to her vow, to " keep thee only unto him," 
involved so much unforseen sorrow, ending in exile from 
all her kindred, survived him some years, dying in 1808. 

Of the numerous descendants of this Loyalist pair, but a 
comparatively small number in Nova Scotia bear the 
ancestral name. In the original large family, but two, were 
sons, one of whom early returned to the United States. 
The eldest son, Michael Bergen Grant, who had remained 
behind his parents in Long Island, came to Nova Scotia 
two years before his father's death, took charge of the 
place, and some years later married Sophia, daughter of 
Captain John Nutting, of the Engineers, who, as a Loyalist, 
had been granted a large tract of land, near that of Captain 
Grant, at Kempt. Their family included one son, and 
seven daughters, of the latter of whom it might have been 
said with truthfulness, as of the daughters, of Job: "In all 
the land \vere no women found so fair." It is sufficient to 
say that the descendants of Michael B. Grant, and of his 
sisters of the Loyal Hall homestead, have furnished a good 
proportion of the solid business, and successful professional 
men, of the province, to which, by Revolutionary bitterness, 
their ancestors were driven. 

T. WATSON SMITH. 




ARREST 

DU CONSEIL D'ESTAT 

DU ROY. 

Qui permet aux Sieurs Bergier, Boucher, Gautier, 
& de Mantes, d'etablir une peche le long de la Cote 
de 1'Acadie & de la Riviere Saint Jean, & leur accorde 
plusieurs privileges. 

DU DERNIER JOUR DE FEVRIER 1682. 

The above is the heading and title of a document, pub- 
lished in Paris in 1720, the original, from which our 
reproduction is taken, being the property of Prof. W. F. 
Ganong. It forms one of his collection of " unpublished 
documents, relating to the history of New Brunswick," 
and was, by him, placed in the hands of Rev. W. O. 
Raymond for publication. To the last named gentleman 
we are indebted, for permission to reproduce the design, by 
which it is headed, the reproduction being about one-third 
less in size than the original. 

The document was printed on three pages of a quarto 

leaflet, at Paris, in 1720, and this design is a good example 

of the style of ornamentation, much followed by French 

publishers of that period. As the title indicates, the 

19 



20 ACADIENSIS 

leaflet contains an extract from the Registers of the 
Council of State of France, a concession of fishing privil- 
eges on the St. John river in 1682. 

In that year, 1682, M. de la Yalliere was in command 
in Acadie, under an appointment made by Count Frontenac, 
the Governor of Canada. About this time, the King of 
France made the grant or concession of fishing privilege, 
to which we have alluded, to Sieurs Bergier, merchant of 
la Rochelle, Gautier, Boutier, and de Mantes, " the lands 
which they shall find suitable along the coast of Acadie 
and the river St. John," for the establishment of the 
shore fishery. Bergier came to Acadie and proceeded to 
organize fishing establishments on its coast, but he found 
his operations very much impeded by the English, who had 
been fishing on these coasts for years and were not easily 
to be restrained. 

La Valliere, the Commandant, who resided at St. John, 
was openly accused of being in league with these enemies 
of his country, and it was stated in memorials written to 
the French government of that day, that he had licensed 
the English vessels to fish on the coasts of Acadie, for 
money payment. Whether these accusations were correct 
or not, it is certain that the difference between Bergier and 
la Valliere continued to increase in violence ; and finally 
the latter, with something of piratical violence, seized 
several of Bergier's vessels, and confiscated their cargoes of 
fish and hides. 

In 1684 la Valliere was removed from the governorship 
of Acadie, and was succeeded by M. Perrot, who was in 
his turn succeeded in 1687, by M. de Menneval. 

To us in Acadia, this document is of much antiquarian 
interest ; not only on account of its local application, but, 
from an artistic standpoint, for the beauty of the design 
with which it is embellished, as well as the excellence of 
the workmanship with which the design is executed. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 



2)avi& wen. 

OF CAMPOBELLO, NEW BRUNSWICK. 



In an old, closely written manuscript, have lately been 
found most amusing instances of illicit trading, and of the 
mock dignities of international complications, from March 
27, 1812, to March 22, 1817. The pages are in the hand- 
writing of David Owen, who administered, for his co-gran tees, 
the island of Campobello, New Brunswick, which had been 
granted them by the English Crown in 1770. 

In his diary, his refuge in hours of loneliness, he com- 
mits his records of aggrieved officialism, with which as 
English magnate he contended daily, and it was all so 
petty and miserable, and recriminating, those local vex- 
ations sustained on both sides through the embargo law of 
1807 and the war of 1812, between the United States and 
Great Britain. 

Yet had not nature herself foreseen these conflicts in 
authority, and, like a jealous philanthropist, provided her 
fogs for the welfare of smugglers, thus aiding the very law, 
which, supposed to injure both parties, really worked to 
the advantage of each. "Neutral voyages" were then 
short and safe, and men and vessels were transferred from 
one allegiance to another as often in the course of a single 
day as business required. Great was the boon thereof to 
Campobello, and well did its Snug Cove deserve the name. 
Goods were shipped to it from colonial ports, there put on 
board neutral vessels, which in an hour or two were legally 
cleared at Eastport, Maine, the cargoes eventually being 
sent to Boston or Portland, contrary to the intent of the 
embargo. 

Then, when the war of 1812 broke forth and Major 
Putnam surrendered at Fort Sullivan, Eastport to the 
English, they, in their parlance, " recovered their own,' 
21 



22 ACADIENSIS 

since such view of the question, the " restoration " rather 
than the " capture " of the American islands in Passama- 
quoddy Bay, alleviated the minor miseries of a bloodless 
warfare, for the Eastporters, as " subjects restored to their 
rightful sovereign," fared better than as prisoners of war. 

Sir Thomas Hardy, Nelson's trusted friend, and Colonel 
Gubbins, were the chief English officers at Eastport, with 
whom David Owen, at Campobello, held friendly converse. 
At first David's subjects hoped to settle ancient scores 
with some of their old-time personal enemies, but they 
soon found that the new English masters forbade, as their 
American predecessors had forbidden, the use of threats 
or blows in getting one's rights. Then recourse was had 
to long, stately letters addressed by Owen to Gubbins, in 
which the former rehearsed the grievances of his people, 
for had he not a right to wax eloquent when he had urged 
that the County f Charlotte, New Brunswick, and of 
Washington, Massachusetts, (it was not then called Maine), 
should remain neutral, and had he not adjured the 
Indians, who fled to his woods for safety, to believe that 
the English would burn neither their wigwams nor their 
chapel 1 In spite of such protests, when Moose Island 
(Eastport) was actually taken by the British, with the self- 
complacency of a solitary magnate, David Owen wrote to 
his distant peers, " I could have taken it, Eastport, with a 
gun brig and my own militia. I am in possession of all 
except Moose Island." 

However, after the " contemptible Americans " had 
been expelled, Owen's wrath became greater, since, without 
his knowledge, the Commanding Royal Engineer had ex- 
plored ground for military purposes on Campobello, and 
had desired Owen's militia to help him. Moreover, his 
tenants were oppressed by a notice to drill off the island, 
which they regarded as an indignity, whereupon Owen 
had petitioned his Royal Highness, George, Prince Regent 
of England, that the "inhabitants of Campobello should 



DAVID OWEN 23 

not be taken off the land for militia duty," since if attempt 
were made to enforce such notice, or " fines should be im- 
posed in consequence, it will be the signal," he wrote, 
for active defense against the very government (English) 
they have hitherto handsomely maintained." 

Like private theatricals on a miniature stage, reads the 
rehearsal of Owen's grievances in his letters to the Admir- 
alty, and to the Committee of Public Safety, on Moose 
Island. The " calamities of warfare " were not only to be 
'* repelled from the doors of his people," and they them- 
selves " protected from indignities," but he had his own 
private rights to defend. For when the British colors 
were displayed at Fort Sullivan, they also floated in the 
air from Dudley and Frederick Islands (termed then St. 
Croix Islands), where he claimed rights, accruing from the 
original grant of Campobello, which rights were strength- 
ened by the actual possession of a tenant of his, through 
purchase of a claim, duly recorded in Massachusetts. 
This possession was, moreover, at that time acknowledged 
by him to be under the Crown of Great Britain, he * hav- 
ing affixed his name to the buildings for that purpose, and 
as a memorial of the same." 

A vacant house on Moose Island had also been seized by 
officers of the Crown, and a similar entry was thereby 
included, though the additional ceremony of a discharge 
of musketry at the hoisting of a British flag upon a small 
vacant hut was reserved for Mark Island. 

Owen's daily life and his real estate were becoming a 
burden to him. In vain did he offer to the Crown his 
lands for cash on hand, his duty still compelling him to 
worry his superiors with bristling letters. Regardless of 
British authority, woodcutters came on Dudley Island 
" to get a number of sticks to repair a vessel." Such a 
bold and vagrant act forced Owen to proceed there (less 
than a mile away), in person and " to take action to 
secure the rights of the Crown." Then the harbors 



24 ACADIENSIS 

round these islands "had been injured by ballast 
thrown overboard from American vessels." Yet with all 
his authority as magistrate and portwarden had he 
" warned the offenders to enforce his notice within the 
garrison district and to the limits usually claimed by a 
port, by a garrison order or otherwise," and had implored 
that another justice be appointed with him to enforce the 
law. 

Again does Owen wax indignant that in subversion of 
provincial rights, the oaths administered on Moose Island 
to parties leaving it for a few days, that they should not 
bear arms, varied, for he argued that Moose Island was 
never escheated by the State of Massachusetts; that 
English people would not have settled on it unless sure it 
did not belong to the United States, and that its claim to 
other islands is a late affair, as in 1815 these same islands, 
Dudley and Frederick, paid their share of the quota of the 
parish of Campobello. 

Neither the days of the embargo act nor the so-called 
capture of Eastport and its four years under martial law 
Drought peace to David Owen. Under the Colonists' rule 
he had noticed a diminution in his flock of sheep, the skin 
of one being found a short distance from the cooking camp. 
Then a party from His Majesty's ship had occupied with- 
out permission and at various times one of his empty 
houses. Somebody else had made a fire in the loft of his 
rented store and had ill-used his tenant for putting it out. 
Another enemy had fired musket balls in every direction, 
and had killed one pig and wounded, either by musket 
ball or cutlass, a second pig, belonging to a poor man, who 
had at best but two swine for his winter's use. Worse 
still, five tons of hay had been " forcibly cut " on his 
domain, divers persons thereby being cheated of their 
property. Then when he expected to gather forty bushels 
of apples he found the " pickets torn down and one solitary 
apple only remaining," owing to the fishermen from Moose 



DAVID OWEN 25 

Island. Again he entered a deposition requesting that 
they " may be delivered over to the Civil power to answer 
for their offence." But the American Lieutenant-Colonel 
discovered that the alleged delinquents " had taken only a 
few apples," for which they promised to pay one-half dollar 
to the poor of Moose Island, and that it was Campobellians 
who had been the (l great plunderers." 

.Nevertheless it was Owen's own hired man, an English- 
man, who, "being in liquor," had abused an American 
officer and was more abused himself by that same dignitary, 
who presumably was in his senses. 

Difficult of adjustment as were these evils, a more com- 
plicated problem arose through the marriage on Moose 
Island by a Justice of Peace, under the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, of a Campobello couple. Was such mar- 
riage illegal 1 Should the Justice pay fee to the Crown 1 
Would the offspring of such marriage be legitimate, or 
would the parish be forced to maintain the children? 
This matter, declared Owen with all the official circum- 
stance, must be decided by established law of the Courts* 
" for the law of a garrison is but the vibrating authority 
of a commission." Great also were the annoyances in re- 
moving a pauper from one place to that of his last legal 
settlement. " Surely there is much to be said," exclaims 
Owen, " about the liberty of the British Colonist." 

With ardor did he remonstrate against the petty cannon 
directed at his Campobello, since some balls fell near a 
weir where men might have been fishing and others might 
have fallen on boats, and balls, sent by a ship's officer, 
did actually fall round the chapel he had erected at his 
own expense. When deserters crossed over the bay to 
him, and the American officer had come in search of them, 
had not Owen dined and reprimanded him, and given him 
" a copy of his Sunday-school prayers, with a few words on 
the title page ! '' What more could a grantee do, who was 
interested in religion 1 He had striven to defend his 



26 ACADIENSIS 

people from encroachments by the English and from assault 
by the Americans until " worn out with expectations," his 
stores and wharves, neglected during the war, remaining 
in ruins, he judged it improper to crowd the Secretary of 
State with " further communications" until he had "some 
assurance that they would be received without inattention." 

But he soon resumed courage and again laid his views 
before government ; " that the Crown alone without our 
consent had no right to tax. us and no right to sever 
Campobello from Nova Scotia by the erection of the Pro- 
vince of New Brunswick, in which Campobello was 
included, and that no provincial act can oblige an inhabit- 
ant to go off his land for duty elsewhere." Valiantly did 
he defend the firing from Indian Island upon privateers, 
for were not the privateers equally subject to prosecution 
for having entered the narrow seas contrary to the intent 
and purport of their commission and for firing on an island 
without necessity for their defense or otherwise? Such 
firing was not more hostile than the firing of muskets 
from Eastport sentries on empty boats and should receive 
like indulgence. "Whoever did the first wrong must 
satisfy the other party," is his judicial decision. 

With these words can well be left the honor of David 
Owen, who, in his rough, even-handed manner, did justice 
to friend and foe. To-day he would have contended with 
the joint commission of Canada and the United States for 
the settlement of the fishery questions and for reciprocity 
in trade on that basis, which would be best for Campobello 
without regard to the larger interests of either country. 

KATE GANNETT WELLS. 

From the year 1770-71 when Captain William Owen, R. N., 
the principal grantee of the Island of Campobello, and the founder 
of its first considerable settlement, resided there, the name of 
Owen has been associated with the history of the Island. 

More than a century passed away before the Owen family 
finally withdrew, leaving a wealth of history and tradition behind 
them. 



DAVID OWEN 27 

The Campobello Owens were of Welsh origin, being descended 
from the Owens of Glansevern, with the family seat in Montgom- 
eryshire, in Wales. 

David Owen, the subject of this sketch, was a son of Owen 
Owen, a grandson of David Owen, who died in 1777. He was an 
M. A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1780, and for forty years 
lived in Campobello, as nearly as he could, the life of an English 
Squire. He was a scholarly man, and left many valuable MSS- 
and maps, some of which are still in existence. 

While in Florida, in 1882, the writer met there a young man 
who informed him of having seen a quantity of old papers, be- 
longing to the Owen family, in a junk store at Eastport, and 
which seems to have included diaries, deeds, leases, agreements of 
various descriptions, and even family love letters. Many of the 
most important documents were subsequently rescued and care- 
fully preserved, 

Mrs. Wells, the writer of the foregoing sketch, had privately 
printed in Boston, in 1893, an historical sketch of Campobello, 
comprising 47 pages. 

The journal of Captain William Owen, R. N., together with 
other notes and documents upon the history of the Island, edited 
by Prof. W. F. Ganong, of Smith College, Northampton, Mass., 
was published in the collections of the N. B. Historical Society, 
pages 193-220. [ED. 




of tbc Wflorlb. 



(From the Newfoundland Magazine.) 
(To R. K.) 

Does he not touch our heart-strings, tho', 

Gay and sad at his whim, 
Now with the jest of the rifle-pits, 

Now with a nation's hymn. 

With his deep-sea song, and his banjo-song, 

Does he not rouse us, tho', 
Telling the world the things we feel 

And the little things we know. 

We hark to the Wizard, as we would hark 

To our comrade mess-room sage : 
We do not know we are holding a book 

And turning over a page. 

Camp fires flicker before our eyes : 

The troop-ships come and go : 
We smell the salt and the sun again 

For he tells us the things we know. 

He dips his pen, and clear I see 

The track that the steamer sailed ; 
I remember the light that leads me sure 

And the little lights that failed. 

When the revel has died, as revels will, 

And the wide dawn shimmers pale 
I follow the road to Mandalay 

And the white Canadian trail ; 

And Passion, and Love, and Mirth go by 

'Til the young dawn leaps to day, 
For he has written, with blood for ink, 

The things I have tried to say. 

Theodore Roberts. 
28 



3acau >e ]fie&mont>. 

The name of Louis Thomas Jacau de Fiedmond is 
familiar to those who interest themselves in French Cana- 
dian and Acadian antiquities. But very few are aware, 
however, that the brave artillery captain who immortalized 
his name by refusing to sign the decision of the council of 
war to surrender Quebec in 1758, was the son of an 
Acadian woman, herself a native of Grand Pre. 

The line of investigation by which the writer discovered 
that Jacau de Fiedmond was Acadian by his mother 
whose name was Anne Melanson will be of interest to 
the readers of this magazine. 

Chevalier Poilvillain de la Houssaye, commandant of 
Fort Gaspereau, at Baie Yerte, in Acadia, writing from 
that post under date of February 20, 1752, to Chevalier 
Michel Le Courtois de Surlaville, major of the marine 
detachment at Louisbourg, and speaking of the plundering 
of stores and cord wood at Forts Beausejour and Gaspereau 
by two Canadian officers, says : 

It has been unfortunate for them to have had M. Jacau, 
brother of Madame llodrigue, of Louisbourg, officer of artillery, to 
direct the works here, his integrity in setting prices and keeping 
the time of the workmen, as also in providing for the solidity of 
the works ; without which they would have each made thirty 
thousand [livres of gain]. I would have too much to tell you were 
I to describe the plunderings, the misery of the Acadians, and 
the difficulties that are put in the way of our troops at Louis- 
bourg. . . 

(Although a captain of artillery, Jacau de Fiedmond was act- 
ing as military engineer at Fort Beausejour). 

It now interests us to know who " Mme. Rodrigue " was. 
The parish registers of Louisbourg will give us information 
on this point. Under date of May 19, 1750, I find the 
marriage of Antoine Rodrjgues, ship owner, native of 
Louisbourg, son of Jean Rodrigues, formerly of the same 
place, and of Anne LeBorgne, of Belleisle, to Franchise 
29 



30 ACADIENSIS 

Jacau, native of Port Dauphin, daughter of Thomas Jacau 
and Anne Melanson. The parents of " M. Jacau, brother 
of Mme. Rodrigue," were therefore Thomas Jacau and 
Anne Melanson. 

As to Jean Rodrigue, father of the ship-owner, his full 
name was Jean de Fond, called Rodrigue. He married at 
Port Royal, March 16, 1707, "Anne LeBorgne, of Belle- 
isle, daughter of deceased Sieur Alexander LeBorgne, 
Sieur of Belleisle, and of Dame Marie de St. Etienne de 
La Tour." The entry of his marriage informs us that he 
was "now pilot, maintained by the King in Acadie," and 
" son of Jean de Fond and of deceased Anne Mance, his 
father and mother, of the town of c Vienne, in Portugal.' " 

The following extract from the registers of the parish of 
St. John Baptist of Port Royal will enlighten us as to 
Thomas Jacau, father of Jacau of Fiedmond : 

This loth October of the year one thousand seven hundred and 
five, we, the undersigned, chaplain of Fort Royal in Acadia, being 
delegated by the Reverend Father Durand, cure in charge of the 
parish of Port Royal, after publication of one bann, the two others 
having been dispensed, no opposition or impediment being found, 
have united by words of the present before our Mother Holy 
Church the Sieur Thomas Jacob [sic Jacau], son of Sieur Samuel 
Jacob and Judith Fillieu, of the parish of St. Martin d' Harse, 
diocese of Sainte, and damoiselle Anne Melanson, daughter of 
Sieur Peter Melanson and damoiselle Marguerite Mius,* of Port 
Royal. In faith of which I have signed with the married persons 
and the witnesses, named below, this same day and year as above. 

(Signed) JACAU, 

ANNE MELANSON. 

(Signed] P. MELANSON, 
BUGEAULD, 
PHILIPPA MELANSON, 
Fr. FELIX PAIN, Recollet, 
Chaplain of Fort Royal in Acadia. 

* Marie Marguerite Mius was the daugher of Philip Mius, Sieur d' Entre- 
niont, baron of Pobomkou, and of Madeleine Elie. 

Peter Mellanson, Sieur of la Verdure, her husband, was one of the first 
colonists of Mines, where he held the grade of captain of militia. It was 
there, and not at Port Royal, he lived. The chaplain of the fort is evidently 
in error in assigning Port Royal as his place of residence. Likewise, it wa 
at Grand Pre that Anne, wife of Thomas Jacau, was born. 



JACAU DE FIEDMOND 31 

The first fruit of this union was a daughter, born at 
Port Royal, July 25, 1706, and baptized the next day 
under the name of Marie Anne. She had for god-father 
" the Sieur DeGoutin, Lieut. -General of Acadie," and for 
god-mother " Madame de la Boularderie." The register of 
baptism says she was " daughter of Sieur Thomas Jacob, 
gunner at Port Royal, and Anne Melanson." It is signed 
by DeGoutin, Magdelaine Melanson, and Fr. Justinian 
Durand, Rec. Miss. 

This Marie Anne Jacau married at Louisbourg Pierre 
Benoist, lieutenant of infantry ; and on the 22nd of Sep- 
tember, 1 758, they had a daughter baptized to them under 
the name of Anne, at Port de la Joye, He St. Jean. This 
child had for god-mother "Jeanne d'Entremont, wife of 
Sieur Dupont du Chambon, chevalier of the military order, 
and lieutenant of the King in the Isle St. Jean." 

Jeanne d'Entremont, god-mother of Anne Benoist, was 
daughter of Jacques d'Entremont," Sieur de Pobomkou," 
and of Anne de St. Etienne de La Tour. Jeanne's father 
was a brother to Marie Marguerite Mius d'Entremont, wife 
of Pierre Melanson, Sieur de la Verdure. It follows, there- 
fore, that Mme. Thomas Jacau and Mme. Dupont du Char- 
bon were cousins germain. 

Jeanne d'Entremont was married at Port Royal Febru- 
ary 11, 1709, to Louis Dupont, Sieur du Chambon, lieut- 
enant in a garrison company at Port Royal." Jeanne, his 
first child, was born at the capital of Acadie, January 26, 
1710, and was baptized the same day. 

I find in the registers of Port de la Joie, under date of 
December 18, 1737, the baptismal entry of " Louis Maxier, 
lawful son of Jean Baptiste Maxier, called la Douceur, a 
soldier in Monsieur Laplaigne's company, and of Marie 
Poirier ; born this day. God-father : Sieur Louis Dupont, 
called Vergor, sub-lieutenant in Laplaigne's company." 
The god-mother signed herself " Duchambon de Vergor.' r 



32 ACADIENSIS 

Louis Dupont, called Vergor, who signed himself " Du- 
chambon de Vergor," is no other than the too famous 
Vergor, who delivered Fort Beausejour to Monckton June 
16, 1755. He was the eldest son of Louis Dupont 
Duchambon and of Jeanne d'Entremont. He must have 
been born at Plaisance, Newfoundland, in 1712. Jacau 
de Piedmont and he were, therefore, second cousins. 

We have already seen that Marie Anne Jacau, born 
July 25, 1706, had for god-mother Madame de la Boulard- 
erie, who signed the register as " Magdelaine Melanson." 

Madame de la Boularderie was a sister to Madame 
Thomas Jacau. She married at Port Royal, November 
29, 1702, "Sieur Louis Simon de St. Aubin Le Poupet, 
Chevalier de la Boularderie, midshipman of the King, 
Captain of a Company maintained by His Majesty in 
this province, son of Messire Antoine LePoupet, Esq., 
Sieur of St. Aubin, formerly councillor of the King and 
advocate before the Council, and of Demoiselle Jaqueline 
Arnoulet, of the parish of St. Germain the Elder in Paris." 

Of this marriage Antoine de la Boularderie LePoupet 
was born at Port Royal August 23, 1705. He was the 
Chevalier de la Boularderie after whom an island in Cape 
Breton was named, its previous name being Yerderonee. 
The register of his mother's baptism reads thus : 

Having gone this year of grace, 1684, this 25th day of June, 
to Riviere des Mines, I baptized, conditionally, according to the 
rite of Holy Church, Magdeleine Melanson, born March 13, of this 
same year, 1684, of the lawful marriage of Pierre Melanson, Sieur 
de la Verdure, and of Marguerite Mius ; having for god-father 
Etienne Hebert, and for god-mother Magdeleine Mius, her 
maternal aunt, who called her Magdeleine. 

(Signed) BB. CLA.UDB MOIROEAU, 

Unworthy Recollect. 

The maiden name of the wife of Chevalier Antoine 
LePoupet de la Boularderie was Eleanor Baugny. Cheva- 
lier de Drucour, commandant at Louisbourg, writing to M. 



JACAU DE FIEDMOND 33 

de Surlaville (then in France), under date of October 22, 
1754, says : 

Madame de la Boularderie has just dined with us ; she in- 
formed us that she was fuddled in your company to the point of 
seeing eight wax-lights in place of one ; we did not push matters 
so far. 

In an unpublished document, dated at Rochefort in 
1763, and entitled, "State of the Families of M.M. the 
Officers of lie Royale," I find the following remark regard- 
ing Antoine LePoupet de la Boularderie and his family : 

His wife and he are known as a shiftless couple. Their child- 
ren are good fellows and regular in paying when they can ; and 
all of them have nothing in the world but the salaries which the 
King has apportioned to them. The father lives, 1 know not how, 
in Paris, and can give no help whatever to his family, so that his 
wife is in the greatest distress. 

At this time the Chevalier de la Boularderie was a 
" half-pay captain," and his salary was sixty livres a month. 
His debts amounted to 500 livres ; his wife's to 600. 

We should have remarked that the mothers of Jacau 
Fiedmond and of Antoine LePoupet de la Boularderie 
were sisters. Another of their relatives, Frangois Dupont 
du Vivier, captain of a company, is the same who, under 
orders from Du Quesnel, left Louisbourg in the month of 
July, 1744, to take possession of Port Royal. We know 
how abortive was the siege of Annapolis in September, 
1744, through the fault of the Sieur de Gannes. Frangois 
Dupont du Vivier, Jocau de Fiedmend and Antoine 
LePoupet de la Boularderie were second cousins. Du 
Vivier's father was also named Frangois Dupont du Vivier. 
He married at Port Royal, January 12, 1705, "Marie 
Mius de Pobomkou, daughter of Jacques Mius, Seigneur de 
Pobomkou, and of Anne de St. Etienne de la Tour." At 
this date Du Vivier was " midshipman and captain of 
infantry in Acadia." Three months later, April 25, 1705, 
Mme. Dupont du Vivier was brought to bed of a son who 
was baptized the same day under the name of Frangois, 
like his father. The child had for god-father his uncle 



34 ACADIENSIS 

Charles de St. Etienne de La Tour, and for god-mother 
Madame De Goutin, wife of the lieutenant-governor of the 
province. 

Beamish Murdock says that this child was a girl, but he 
is mistaken ; as an examination of the register of Port 
Royal, deposited in the provincial archives at Halifax, 
will at once show. There can be no doubt that the child 
was a boy, the same who, in 1744, conducted, with one 
of his brothers, the blockade of Annapolis. His god- 
father, Charles Etienne de la Tour, was interred at Louis- 
bourg, August 11, 1731, "aged about 72 years." The 
entry of his burial says that he was " Chevalier de St. 
Louis, captain of a marine detachment in garrison at 
Louisbourg." Born in 1664, he was the youngest son of 
the celebrated Charles de St. Etie.nne de la Tour and of 
Jeanne Motin. In 1704, or 1705, he married in France 
Angeleque Lanseau, who survived him. He left several 
children. As to Jeanne Thibodeau, wife of Matthieu De 
Goutin, and god-mother to the young Fraz^ois Dupont du 
Vivier. She was interred at Louisbourg, April 8, 1741. 
She was an Acadian, a native of Port Royal, and died at 
the age of 72 years. Fra^ois Dupont Du Vivier, sr., and 
Louis Dupont du Chambon, Vergor's father, were brothers, 
and they each wedded a daughter of Jacques Mius d'Entre- 
tnont and of Anne de St. Etienne de la Tour. It follows, 
therefore, that Frangois Dupont du Vivier, jr., and Louis 
de Vergor du Chambon were double first cousins. 

The former was intrepid and brave ; the latter showed 
himself pusillanimous not to say more at the siege of 
Beausejour. Certain French-Canadian writers charge him 
with having betrayed Quebec to the English in 1759 ; but, 
in view of the following memorandum, this accusation does 
not appear to be well founded : 

Captain Vergor, Chevalier of St. Louis, was dangerously 
wounded during the English attack of September 13 (capture of 
^Quebec), and is to all appearances disabled for service by his 
wound. I have the honor to ask for him and for the three pre- 



JACAU DE FIEDMOND 35 

ceding (Captains DeLesignan, de la Corne and de Repentigny, 
Chevaliers of St. Louis) a pension of 400 livres.* 

DeVergor remained at Quebec until the month of Octo- 
ber, 1761. He then embarked for France on the packet- 
boat "Le Molineux," and arrived at Havre January 1, 1762. 
He was " mediocre in every respect, and rich," we are told 
in another roster of officers prepared in 1762. He had 
profited by the counsel which his friend Bigot gave him 
when he took the command of Fort Beausejour in 1753. 
" Profit," Bigot wrote him, " profit my dear Vergor, by 
your place ; clip and cut you have every chance so that 
you may be able to join me soon in France and purchase 
an estate near me." 

The notorious Thomas Pichon, writing from Beausejour 
to M. de Surlaville, under date of November 12, 1754, 
says : 

I have now been living for a year at Fort Beausejour ; M. de 
la Martiniere, who commanded here, left me idle, as did also M. 
de Vergor, his successor, who was also charged with the functions 
of commander. The former, although always bed-ridden, carried 
off more than eighty thousand livres ; the latter, without know- 
ing even how to read, will bear away still more. M. Bigot gave 
him for clerk a former soldier, and had just given him advice on 
what he calls his small affairs. Both have made me revise and 
correct their letters, those in particular which they considered of 
importance, f 

He had several brothers ; and I have the marriage 
certificates of some of them. As to his own, I have not 
met it, and I know not whether he was married or not. 

After this long digression which treats of the relatives 
of Jacau de Fiedmont, let us return to his own family. 

* Extiact from an unpub ished document entitled : " List of the officers 
of the detached naval troops in Canada, which I have the honor to propose 
to Mgr, de Berryer, from which to fill by title of grace the vacant places in 
the last troops."- " Done at Paris, January 7, 1761. (Signed; Vaudreiul." 

t Pichon is here guilty of falsehood ; for, not only did Vergor know how 
to read, but he knew how to write also, since he signed his name at different 
times on the registers of Port de la Joie and of Louisbourg. At one time he 
would sign " Vergor du Chambon," at another " Du Chambon de Vergor.'' 
We have already seen that his baptismal name was Louis. 



36 ACADIENSIS 

The second child, issue of Thomas Jacau and of Anne 
Melanson, was a boy, born May 1, 1708, and baptized the 
same day. He was named Daniel, and had for god-father 
11 M. de Subercase, chevalier of the military order of St. 
Louis, and governor of the province ; " and for god-mother 
" Madame Jeanne Jamier, lieutenante* du Hoi." The 
baptismal ceremony was performed by Br. Patrick Rene, 
superior of the mission and vicar-general." He, also, wrote 
"Jacob" in place of "Jacau." 

The third and last child, born and baptized at Port 
Royal, was Joseph. He was born January 30, 1710, and 
was baptized the next day by Brother Justinian Durand, 
Recollect missionary. His god-father was " Monsieur de 
Renon, company-lieutenant of a naval detachment at Fort 
Royal ; " and his god-mother, " Madame Elizabeth Melan- 
son, f wife of Rene LeBlanc. 

Father Justinian Durand also wrote "Jacob" for 
"Jacau, just as Fathers Felix Pain and Patrick Rene had 
done. 

I find on the registers of Port Royal, under date of 
April 18, 1730, the burial entry of 

'Jean Baptiste Jacob, son of Jacques [sic for Thomas], the 
gunner residing at Louisbourg, in the Isle Royal e, and of Anne 
Melanson, died the 16th of the same month, in the house of Fran- 
gois Boudrot, habitant and saiior of this parish, aged about sixteen 
years." (Signed) R. C. DEBRESLAY, 

Cure. 

It is under date of June 27, 1705, that I find for the 
first time the signature of Thomas Jacau, the gunner of the 
register. The occasion was the marriage of Jean Fra^ois 
Villate, sergeant in Du Vivier's company, to " Dame 



* Wife of Simon de Bonaventure, " captain of a frigate and lieutenant of 
the King in the province of Acadie." 

tShe was sister to Madame Thomas Jacau. Her first husband was 
Sieur Allain Bngeauld, official notary at Mines. July 30, 1707, she took for 
second husband Rene LeBlanc, who later was notary at the same place- 
He is the Rene LeBlanc of Longfellow's " Evangeline." He took to wife in 
second marriage. Noyember 26, 1720, Marguerite Thebeau, who bore him 
twenty children. He died at Philadelphia, 



J AC ATI DE FIEDMOND 37 

Marguerite de St. Etienne de la Tour, widow of deceased 
Sieur Mius Pleimarets, partly of this parish." 

It is a singular coincidence that four different mission- 
aries of Port Royal should spell his name Jacob. The 
fact shows us that in the eighteenth century 6, preceded 
by a vowel at the end of a word, was mute. The manner 
of writing proper names of persons was at that time purely 
phonetic ; so that Jacob was pronounced Jaco. 

Mathieu DeGourtin, " councillor of the King, lieutenant- 
general for civil and criminal affairs in Acadie," the 
same who acted as god-father to the daughter of the 
master gunner at Fort Royal had also his own way of 
spelling Jacau : he wrote it Jacqot. Writing to the 
Compte de Pontchartrain, under date of December 23, 
1707, of the siege of Fort Royal, which the New England- 
ers had attempted in the month of August of that year, 
he says : 

Sieur Jacqot, master gunner, served the guns very efficiently* 
all the shells he fired being well aimed. He received due praise 
for his work. His house was set on fire while he was occupied in 
this duty, and he viewed its destruction with unimpassioned gaze, 
the service of the King being dearer to him at the moment than 
his own private interests or those of his family a fact which I 
did not fail to note. Moreover, I am a witness of his bravery and 
firmness. % 

I have already given the names of the brave gunner's 
three children who first saw the light at Port Royal. A 
fourth must have been born in 1712; and I believe I am not 
departing from the truth when I say that this child was 
Louis Thomas, better known as Jacau de Fiedmond. 

Jean Baptiste, who died at Port Royal April 16, 1730, 
a seaman under Francois Boudrot was born in 1714. 
We have already seen that Frangoise, born at Port Dau- 
phin, Isle Royale, probably between 1726 and 1730, 
espoused at Louisbourg, May 19, 1750, Antoine Rodrigue, 
ship-owner. These are the only children of Thomas Jacau 
to my knowledge ; yet he must have had six or seven 
others who were born in Cape Breton. 



38 ACADIENSIS 

In all probability, having left Port Royal, after the 
surrender of the fort in the autumn of 1710, Thomas 
Jacau went with his family to Plaisance, in Newfoundland. 
There, in my opinion, Louis Thomas was born in 1712. 
In the following year the garrison of Plaisance was trans- 
ferred to Louisburg, and Jacau must have returned with 
them. If we had in this country a copy of the registers 
of Plaisance and Isle Royale, which are in the Ministry of 
Marine, at Paris, we should find in them, no doubt, the 
baptismal and marriage entries of several of Thomas Jacau 
and Anne Melanson's children. 

[TO BE CONCLUDED IN NEXT ISSUE.] 



Gbirst in Hca&ia. 



There were two of us, arid we were at the commencement 
of a journey of one hundred and thirty miles or so, from 
Grand Falls on the River Saint John to Riviere du Loup 
on the Saint Lawrence. All our luggage, except such as 
we could carry upon our backs, had been forwarded by 
rail, and we proposed to walk the distance indicated. It 
was thfe last of May, but the heat was intense for the 
season, and we did not make more than sixteen or seven- 
teen miles on the first day of our tramp. Yet, after all, it 
was a nice way of preparing for the heavier work before 
us : to lie, as we did, during the hottest hours, under the 
shade of trees, stretched on the soft moss, with bared feet 
occasionally plunged into a running brook, out of reach of 
duns and book agents, newspapers, politics, and the count 
less bothers of city life. But this state of sylvan beatitude 
could not last forever, and at last we were on the road 
again and, seeing a dwelling before us, it occurred to us to 
stop there for a drink of milk, as we knew of no accessible 
inn and both hunger arid thirst began to assert themselves. 



THIRST IN ACADIA. 39 

It was a low-built cottage, nicely painted, with the 
neatest of surroundings. It stood on the side of a hill, 
facing the river, which ran parallel with the road. On the 
riverside some women were washing clothes or linen, and 
two youg fellows were plowing in the adjacent field. A 
barking cur seemed to resent our visit, but was not over- 
confident that he would escape a kick if he came too close 
to our heels. The open door exposed to view a large room j 
about half the width of the building and extending its full 
length, sheathed with wood painted of an orange red, which 
gleamed brightly in the glow of the afternoon. Light was 
admitted, through casement windows with diamond- shaped 
panes. The apartment was scrupulously clean, and com- 
fortably and neatly furnished. There was but one occupant 
of the room, a white-headed man of about seventy years of 
age, dressed with neatness and as much taste as a man can 
display in the selection of trousers, waistcoat and necker. 
chief. He sat in the sunniest corner in a rocking chair, a 
favorite piece of furniture with the Acadians, and had the 
air of one appreciative of his possessions and surroundings. 

It was a foreign picture but a pleasant one to look upon, 
and worth a journey of moderate length. " A contented 
mind is a continual feast " and, amid the complaining of 
hard times and of lots cast in melancholy places, it does 
one good to discover a fellow-mortal who finds no occasion 
for grumbling. At least a good example is set before us 
and, even though we cannot fully share the feast, we can 
imitate the city arabs who flatten their noses against the 
windows, watch the servants carrying the dishes, and per- 
haps sniff occasionally appetizing odors borne by the 
vagrant air. 

We hesitated to break the spell, partly because we felt 
its influence, but chiefly because we doubted our capability 
to make our request known in a foreign language. But 
when we made the attempt, the old gentleman helped us 
corrected our feeble imitation of Parisian into admirable 



40 ACADIENSIS 

Madawaskan, and then translated this into a kind of 
Volapuk English, and got his wife, who was in the kitchen, 
to bring the milk. There was an attractive feature about 
this as well as most of the other milk supplied to us upon 
the route, namely that it never appeared divested of its 
cream. As we had no reason to suppose that the unskim- 
med pan was produced in every instance as a compliment 
to ourselves, and as the separation of cream from milk does 
not call for any great expenditure of mental or physical 
energy, it was not easy to account for this. To the city 
man, however, used to that kind of milk which is rather 
limpid in quality and cerulean in color, the usual custom 
of skimming is more honored in the breach than the 
observance, and so we made no protest. 

Having satisfied our thirst, we attempted in French to 
negotiate with our Acadian for the payment of our draught, 
but absolutely without success. Then one of us, after the 
manner of English-speaking people trying to converse with 
a foreigner who fails to recognize what they suppose to be 
his language, asked very slowly and very emphatically, 
" Will you take anything 1 " " Oui ! " he replied with the 
utmost promptness, " a leetle sometime." There was no 
misunderstanding this. But was it not surprising, if not 
sad, that the Arcadian Acadian living in Maine, not in 
New Brunswick, subject to a prohibitory law, generally 
ignorant of English idioms, should understand the question 
just as if it was propounded in an English bar-room ? 
Under the circumstance there was no alternative but to 
produce' our small flask, as yet untouched, intended to be 
used only in case of emergency in a district where spirits, 
although generally to be procured, are not of a quality to 
be desired or approved. We restrained our feelings, as 
our ideal peasant swallowed neat one-half our little stock- 
But it was almost unendurable when he called our precious 
brandy " bon whiskey," and then insisted that Marie, his 
wife, should also have some because she was not well. 

I. ALLEN JACK. 



L 




THE LAST MOOSE IN VERMONT. 

AN OBJECT LESSON TO ACADIANS. 



last flDoose of \Dermont. 

The illustration upon the opposite page, tells a sad story, 
and needs but little comment, in order to point a moral. 

We are indebted to Mr. John W.Titcomb, Commissioner, 
of St. Johnsbury, Vermont, for a copy of the Fifteenth 
Biennial Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries and 
Game for the State of Vermont, and from which, with the 
permission of Mr. Titcomb, the illustration which we give, 
is reproduced. 

The story, as therein related, is, in brief, as follows : 
In March, 1899, a full-grown bull moose was killed at 
Wenlock, in the town of Island Pond, by Jake Barnes, 
assisted by one Boville. An abstract of the evidence 
reads : 

" A man came to camp, saying he had seen a strange animal. 
Barnes and Boville started in pursuit. Barnes fired the first shot, 
and the moose only shook its head. The second shot hit the moose 
behind the ear and brought it down. Several persons saw the 
dead animal, and Eugene Hobson helped to skin it, and took its 
feet home. A search warrant was issued, and the head of the 
moose was found hanging at the camp in Wenlock, where Jake 
Barnes worked. It was seized, and after being photograped by 
Taxidermist Balch, was placed in pickle. It has since been 
mounted for the University at Burlington. The case was brought 
before a grand jury at Guildhall, in September, 1899, and although 
the evidence was very clear, <*nd Barnes admitted that he shot it, 
no bill was found against the poachers or their accomplices." 

Like the buffalo, which but a quarter of a century ago, 
were, as the sands of the sea, in number, upon the western 
prairies, but have now entirely disappeared, the moose is 
no longer to be found in such numbers, or over such a wide 
territory, as formerly, among our Acadian wild woods. 

We are much indebted to our present Game Commis- 
sioners for the more rigid enforcement during recent years, 
of the laws relating to the preservation of wild animals. 
41 



42 ACADIENSIS 

Nevertheless we cannot be too careful in a matter of this 
sort, and it is to be hoped that all poachers, or others, 
found guilty of any misdemeanor under the game laws, 
may be severely dealt with. 

Prof. Ganong's scheme of a reservation of wild land, for 
the establishment of a National Game Preserve and Park, 
in the Acadian Provinces, is well worthy of every encour- 
agement, and is one which we sincerely trust may be 
carried out. 

A New Brunswick guide recently had his license can- 
celled by the Government, for breach of the laws, and, 
doubtless, all future trespassers will be dealt with in an 
-equally stern manner. 



motes ant> Slueries. 



'Can any of our readers inform us where we may obtain 
a copy of the work, published anonymously, at the St. 
John, N. B., Courier office in 1818, entitled: 

*' A Circumstantial, True and Impartial History of the Rise and 
Progress of the Interesting Town of St. Andrews, in New Bruns- 
wick, from its original settlement to the present era, containing 
a biographical sketch of the most eminent characters, whether 
legislative, judicial, magisterial, commercial, legal or medical, 
interpersed with hints for the improvement and other regulations 
of the timber trade. " 

Mrs. Jane Adeline Mulloch, of Campobello, asks for 
information concerning Thomas Kendrick and Mary 
Oraham, her grandparents, both U. E. Loyalists, who 
were married at St. Andrews. The date of their marriage, 
as well as the name of the ship in which Mr. Colin Camp- 
bell, father of the late postmaster at that town, came to 
St. Andrews, are also asked for. 



3o0cpb Wilson Xawrence. 

On the 9th of September, 1874, Joseph W. Lawrence, 
Gilbert Murdoch, William R. M. Burtis, Robert W. 
Crookshank (3rd), Thomas W. Lee, William P. Dole, 
Alfred A. Stockton, George U. Hay, W. H. Dimock, ami 
James Hannay, met in the director's room of the Mechanics 
Institute, for the purpose of considering the advisableness 
of forming an Historical Society. 

Mr. Lawrence had for many years been an assiduous 
collector of pamphlets, documents and other data relating 
to the history of the Province of New Brunswick, and it 
was largely at his instigation that the meeting just alluded 
to was convened. 

The result of the meeting was the organization of the 
New Brunswick Historical Society, at a meeting held ab 
the same place, on the 25th of November, 1874. At this 
meeting, Mr. Lawrence was elected President, which posi- 
tion he continued to hold until the time of his death, 
which occurred on the 6th of November, 1892, at the age 
of seventy-five years. His widow, Anna C. Bloomfield 
Lawrence, survived him by only six months, passing away 
on the 21st May, 1893. 

At the organization meeting, Mr. Lawrence read a paper 
entitled " The First Courts, and early Judges of New 
Brunswick." From the first number of Volume V. of the 
Maritime Monthly, published January 1875, which con- 
tains a copy of Mr. Lawrence's contribution, the following 
lines, which formed the prelude to the sketch, are taken : 

" In organizing the Historical Society to-night, our object is to 
supply one of New Brunswick's wants. At the preliminary 
meeting held a few weeks ago, you delegated to ire authority ta 
fix the time for organization. I should have called you together 
before, but my desire was to have an historic day for that event. 
The 22nd of this month the anniversary of the formation of tbe 
43 



44 ACADIENSIS 

Government of this Province is the one I should have preferred. 
Its fallling on a Sunday, necessitated the adoption of another day. 
I have, therefore, chosen this, the 25th of November, one of the 
Red Letter days in the New Brunswick Calendar, for on it, ninety 
years ago, our Supreme Court of Judicature was established. 

The paper before me, I offer as the first contribution to our His- 
torical Literature. To ourselves, it may possess little that is new; 
but to those of a generation hence it may be otherwise, for his- 
toric papers, often like the works of old masters or ancient coins, 
grow in value with age." 

This paper, together with others, which Mr. Lawrence 
from time to time prepared and read before the Society^ 
and including his volume of over 120 pages, entitled 
Footprints, published in 1883, does indeed form a valua- 
ble foundation stone for the superstructure of New Bruns- 
wick Historical Literature. 

Mr. Lawrence was a corresponding member of the New 
England Historical and Genealogical Society, an Honorary 
Member of the Quebec Literary and Historical Society, 
and an Honorary Member of the Worcester Society cf 
Antiquity. 

Though not himself of Loyalist descent, he always ex- 
hibited a keen interest in preserving the memory of those 
brave and resolute men, the founders of the City of St. 
John, who faithful to the principles they had maintained, 
and the Empire to which they belonged, came to what 
was then the wilderness of Nova Scotia. 

To the energy of Mr. Lawrence, St. John was largely 
indebted for the able manner in which was carried out 
the Celebration, in 1883, of the Centennial of the Landing 
of the Loyalists at the city. 

The Souvenir Volume, published in this year, contained 
a record of all the inscriptions upon the gravestones in the 
" Old Burying Ground," between Sydney and Went worth 
streets, St. John. The compilation and publication of 
this record was carried out under the personal supervision 
of Mr. Lawrence, and much valuable data, which might 
otherwise have been lost to posterity, was permanently 



JOSEPH WILSON LAWRENCE 45 

recorded. Of a sense of the value of this record, we 
become year by year, more deeply impressed. 

And now, as we stand upon the threshold of a new 
century, does it not seem a propitious time, that we, who 
knew him personally, who shared in his labors, and are, we 
might say, almost daily reaping the fruit thereof, should 
erect to his memory, some tribute of our affection and 
esteem 1 

The matter has already been laid before the Historical 
Society and the Loyalist Society, of New Brunswick ; a 
joint committee from both societies has interviewed the 
relatives of Mr. Lawrence, in order to ascertain their ideas 
as to the most suitable place in which to erect a memorial ; 
it now remains for the citizens of St. John to provide the 
necessary funds, in order that the work should be properly 
carried out. 

At a formal interview between the wardens and the 
vestry of Trinity Church and the joint committee, the 
necessary consent for the erection of a memorial in that 
Church was obtained. 

A brass tablet, mounted upon a slab of polished marble, 
bearing a suitable inscription, was decided upon at the 
conference, as the most appropriate form which the me- 
morial might take. 

It is felt by the members of the committee, that con- 
tributions of small amounts not exceeding five dollars' 
would be desirable, in order that as many persons as pos- 
sible, might unite in the undertaking. 

The total estimated cost of the tablet is the sum of one 
hundred dollars. 

The joint committee appointed were Messrs. Alfred A. 
Stockton, from the Loyalist Society, and Clarence Ward, 
from the New Brunswick Historical Society, with the 
writer, who is a member of both Societies. 

Subscriptions received by any member of the committee, 
will be acknowledged through the columns of this Magazine. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 



about people. 

From Monthly Art Notes we learn, that at a private art 
display, at the Morann rooms, in Washington, D. C., which 
was largely attended, an Acadian lady artist was con- 
sidered worthy of first mention. To Mrs. George Daniel, 
of Moncton, N. B., the McKinley prize for pen and ink 
sketches, awarded in the class of reproductions from the 
works of great masters, was awarded. As a musician, an 
artist, a writer of children's stories, and in other branches 
of art and literature, Mrs. Daniel is well and favorably 
known. Some of her writings have been published by 
one of the largest houses in Boston, and have met with 
great success. 



The designs for the frontispiece and cover of this maga- 
zine are by Miss Emma Carleton Kenah Jack, of St. John, 
a graduate of the Church School of Design, New York. 
Miss Jack has proved a most successful worker in this 
department of art, and has contributed, in whole or part, 
to the embellishment of numerous recent publications of 
more than ordinary merit. The " motif " of our design, in 
the first instance, consists of a Mayflower, with bud and 
leaf ; the flower which is, par excellence, the one dear to 
the hearts of all Acadians. 



Prof. A. B. de Mille, of Kings College, Windsor, N. S., 
writes, that he is at present enjoying a brief holiday, at 
Halifax, and, while regretting his inability to contribute 
to our initial number, gives us reason to hope that our 
second issue may not be devoid of something of interest 
from his graceful pen. 



From Sir John Bourinot, we learn that he has about 
completed a new book for the University Press, of Camb- 
ridge, on " Canada under British Rule," and is about 
leaving for New York, to enjoy a brief holiday, after 
twelve months' hard work. 
46 



OUR CONTRIBUTORS 47 

Hon. J. W. Longley, of Halifax, writes a cheery word 
of encouragement, stating that he is prepared to give his 
hearty endorsation to our undertaking, and expresses his 
willingness to be an occasional contributor to our pages. 
The active part taken by him in the recent election cam- 
paign, and the consequent accumulation of other work, 
prevent his giving much time to outside issues, at present. 



IRecent publications. 

" The Art of writing English, a Manual for Students, 
with chapters on Paraphrasing, Essay Writing, Punctu- 
ation, and other matters, by J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Professor 
of the Theory, History and Practice of Education, in the 
University of Saint Andrews," is the title of a work which 
has been written for the purpose of guiding the young 
student into the right path. In it the writer has not 
worried his pupils with a large number of rules, but has 
tried to set their feet in a plain path, and to show them 
the road to freedom and power. Published by D. Appleton 
<fc Co., New York. 334 pages. Cloth, boards. Price fl. 50. 

Mr. George U. Hay has completed his first series of 
twelve readings from Canadian History, and has just issued, 
in one volume, the entire group, which form a most valu- 
able addition to Canadian historical literature. Their 
publication has been extended over a period of about two 
years, and many of the ablest writers in Canada have con 
tributed to the success of Mr. Hay's undertaking. Barnes 
& Co. printers, St. John, N. B. 350 pages. Cloth, 
boards. Price $1.15. 



ur Contributors, 



Among the various writers who have contributed to this 
publication, or have promised to do so, few, if any, will be 
found to be strangers to the reading public of the Maritime 
Provinces of Canada. 



48 ACADIENSIS. 

Mrs. Kate Gannet Wells, whose interesting sketch of 
David Owen we publish in this issue, is a resident of 
Boston, Mass., but has a charming summer home in the 
beautiful Island of Campobello. She has identified herself 
in many ways with matters which concern the welfare of 
that Island, and to her efforts we Acadians are much 
indebted for the preservation and publication of valuable 
material which might otherwise have been entirely lost. 

The work entitled, " Two Modern Women : A Story of 
Labor and Capital, as well as Love and Matrimony," in 
which the principal scene is laid at Campobello, is from 
her pen, as is also an " Historical Sketch of the Island of 
Campobello," published in Boston in 1893. 

From "Who's who in America?" we learn that Mrs. 
Wells was born in England, and is the daughter of Rev. 
Ezra Stiles Gannett, a noted Unitarian clergyman of 
Boston. She is an authoress, essayist, and novelist, and 
has written, in addition to the works to which we have 
before alluded, " About People," and many articles in 
magazines, including essays on Normal Methods, and 
Sunday School Ethics. She is a member of the Massachu- 
setts State Board of Education, and has devoted much time 
and labor to the furtherance of education in that State. 



We feel that we are much indebted to Rev. W. C. 
Gaynor, of this city, who has favored us with the transla- 
tion which we publish to-day (the original having been 
written in French) of the article by Mr. Placide P. Gaudet. 



Mr. James Vroom, whose series of over one hundred 
articles upon the history of Charlotte County, N. B., pub- 
lished in the St. Croix Courier, formed a valuable contri- 
bution to the fund of local history, has in press a volume 
which will contain all the historical material, with addi- 
tional notes, published in that series. 




- ./if. / ''. /ff /y/V ', t *///// / '/. SJf/ /', 



NO. 1.-BOOK-PLATE OF SIR JAMES STUART, BART. 




NO. 10. -BOOK-PLATE OF ALDERMAN GEORGE BOND. 

(See Article on Book- Plates, by David Russell Jack.) 



CONTENTS. 



In Bohemia, 

Queen Victoria A Contrast, . . 
Jacau de Fiedmond, . . k 
A Monument and its Story, 

An Acadian Artist, 

Hon* Judge Robie, 

-Incidents in the Early History ) 
of St. John, j 

A Marshland River 

Origin of the Place-name Pabineau, 88 

Book-Plates, . . . '..., * 90 

Kind Words, J04 

Exchanges and other Publications, \ JO 





In HBobemta, 



When we were young and skies were blue 

With cobalt lost to art. 
And little busy thoughts of you 
Hummed sweetly round my heart; 
In bee-time or by fireside, 
O'er roses or o'er snow, 
The sunbeams came and went, my love, 
As sunbeams come and go. 

We sang a song a simple song 

What more could children sing 
But happy as the hours were long 
And sweet as birds in spring ; 

And through the year, unceasing, 

On roses or on snow, 
The sunbeams came and went, my love, 
As sunbeams come and go. 

Through glowing day and afternoon, 
Through shade 'neath dancing leaf, 
We sought all brightness as a boon 
And turned our backs on grief ; 
For well we knew, unending, 

On roses as on snow, 
Sunbeams would come and go, my love, 
Sunbeams would come and go. 

When Fate commands our songs to cease, 

Together or apart, 
Unbroken rest in perfect peace 
Will suit us well, my heart! 

And o'er our unknown graves for aye, 

Rose-decked or wreathed in snow, 
Sunbeams will come and go, my love, 
Sunbeams will come and go ! 

Charles Campbell. 




Designed by Miss Emma 0. K. Jack. 




ACADIENSIS 



VOL. I. APRIL, 1901. No. 2. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK, EDITOR. 

ueen IDictoria H Contrast 

|T SEEMS strange that among the many historical 
parallels suggest by the ending of the last reign, 
there has been but scanty reference to the death 
of Queen Victoria's grandfather, and the instruc- 
tive contrasts therein presented. In all the his- 
tory of royal tragedy there is no page more touching than 
that which describes the aged king in the last years of 
solitude, deprived of sight and reason. 

One of my earliest recollections in childhood is of my 
father telling us how once he had seen King George III in 
the private apartments at Windsor, in those sad days 
He often, while at Charterhouse school, spent holidays at 
Windsor Castle, where his aunt, Mile, de Montmollin, was 
the reader to Queen Charlotte. On one occasion he was 
taken to an inner portion of the private apartments, with 
earnest injunctions to silence, and there, through a half- 
raised curtain, he saw the venerable king, seated before 
a little organ, the long white beard completely changing 
his appearance from that familiar from the portraits. 

At last, in the year 1820, the long awaited releaRe 
came. In death all the royal honors were conferred, which 
so long had been of necessity withheld. The remains lay 
in state in the presence chamber, and were viewed by an 
immense multitude. Upon the coffin, the royal arms of 
England, and the electoral diadem of Hanover reposed. 



52 ACADIENSIS. 

The funeral service in St. George's chapel took place on 
the following day. The Eton boys, with their masters, 
-were allotted places, and the procession outstripped all that 
had ever been seen of mournful magnificence. 

But the sadness of the scene was deepened by surround- 
ing circumstances and reflections not to be avoided. The 
new king was absent from alleged indisposition, and his 
unpopularity as regent was now increased tenfold by the 
incident of the judicial proceedings against the Queen. 
In his place the Duke of York acted as chief mourner, 
followed by his royal brothers, the Dukes of Clarence, 
Sussex and Gloucester. At the close of the service Handel's 
funeral anthem, composed for the obsequies of Queen 
Caroline, was sung by the choir. The semi-chorus for 
boys' voices, unaccompanied, had a moving effect upon 
those present. Then the titles of the late monarch were 
read by the chamberlain, and the procession retired. That 
year of sadness for England, with sedition at home and 
perplexity abroad, found no consolation for the death of 
George III in any surrounding circumstances. His suc- 
cessor had lost reputation and popularity; the ministry 
had no hold upon national confidence, led by the blind 
Toryism of Lord Eldon ; the splendid national triumphs of 
the Peninsula and Waterloo, so recent in point of time, 
seemed forgotten. 

How different the scene of Queen Victoria's ending, the 
sunset of a glorious day, with one cloud upon the horizon, 
indeed, with so much of the heavens serene and beautiful. 
To pessimists, at the present day, we can surely appeal in 
the well known words : 

" passi graviora . . . ." 

And to those seeking grounds for confident hope we can 
urge the stability of a royal dynasty which has endured 
such sorrow and such stress, and yet still can establish a 
firm hold on a nation's allegiance and affection. 

J. DE SOYRES. 




3acau t>e ]fiebmcmt>. 

(Conclusion.) 

N the spring of 1898, M. Edouard Richard, 
the learned author of the magisterial 
work, " Acadia," examined the registers 
of Louis bourg and made several ex- 
tracts from them. With the courtesy 
that distinguishes him, he at once sent 
me his notes, which are of great histori- 

- Designed by MisaE.C.K. Jack cft j yalue From them j haye taken 

my information regarding the marriage 
of Antoine Rodrigue with Fran9oise Jacau, as also several 
other historical facts to be found in the present work. 

If I am correct in stating that Louis Thomas Jacau 
de Fiedmont was born at Plaisance in 1712, he was, there- 
fore, forty-three years old at the taking of Beausejour in 
June 1755. Transported to Louisbourg with the garrison, 
he again turns up at Quebec in the month of August 
following. From that city he wrote the following letter, 
August 20, 1755, to M. de Surlaville : 

" I do not doubt that you are little interested in the misfortune 
of Beausejour, of which the English rendered themselves masters 
four days after the opening of the trenches. The garrison left 
the place the next day after the surrender, in order to embark on 
the ships which carried us to Louisbourg, where the governor 
furnished us with other conveyances to carry us to Quebec, 
whither we arrived the 18th of August. 

" I enclose herewith a journal of the attack and defence of that 
post, which gives the essential details of all that happened, with 
a relation of a fight which took place on the 9th of July last at a 
distance of three leagues from fort Duquesne on the Beautiful 
River,* in which action we met with most happy success. 

"I presume to assure you, Monsieur, that during the time 1 
was engaged at Beausejour I neglected nothing to make known 
how bad our position was ; and it is easily seen from all my 

*The Ohio. (Translator.) 

53 



54 ACADIENSIS 

reports on the condition of the place that I foresaw the misfortune 
which came to us. My conduct always proved that the only 
thing I had at heart was to endeavor to contribute to the safety 
of that post against jealous and ambitious neighbours, and to fulfill 
to the utmost my duty in the different functions in which I was 
employed. If the works on the fortifications which I was charged 
to carry out (and which I would never of my own option have 
desired through fear of not acquitting myself well enough), were 
not executed with the solidity and diligence necessary, that was 
not due to my lack of pains, care, and remonstrances ; I was not 
supplied with the means to execute them as I should have wished 
to have them. It was a misfortune for me that their success did 
not respond to my zeal a subject all the more annoying because 
in losing the fruits of my labors in that country, I lost the oppor- 
tunity to serve at the Beautiful River, where we have had all sorts 
of advantages, and the officers who served there should flatter 
themselves in securing, earlier than others, the thanks of the 
King. 

" If I have forgotten some circumstances in this Journal, they 
can be of little importance ; I answer for the fidelity of all that I 
have written ; and none of the defenders of Beausejour can say to 
the contrary, unless they consent to misrepresentation, as I am 
told has been already done in the grossest manner." 

A few extracts from Jacau de Fiedmond's Journal of 
Beausejour, which he addressed to M. de Surlaville, should 
beyond doubt, be of deep interest to the reader. The 
following will serve. 

"Fora long time our neighbors meditated taking Beausejour 
and the other posts dependent on it, pretending that we were 
established in the center of their province of Nova Scotia. 

*' When their necessary preparations for the execution of their 
enterprise were made, they caused a warning to be published to 
the Acadians of Mines, of Port Royal, and the surrounding dis- 
tricts, forbidding them to leave their canton, and cutting them 
off from all communication with Fort Beausejour ; they also 
warned those who had taken refuge within our boundaries, that 
when they would come to chase us from the territory which, they 
pretended, belonged to them, if they found them joined with us 
in arms to oppose their design, they would treat them as trait- 
orous subjects of England. 

" Notwithstanding all the announcements and other warnings 
which we received, we were not troubled, knowing that an under- 



JACAU DE FIEDMOND 55 

standing and union appeared to reign between the two Crowns, 
And having received an order in preceding years to hold ourselves 
-quiet OB both sides until it should be determined by way of 
negotiation what were the boundaries acceptable to the court, we 
dwelt in a security as perfect as if we were in the middle of Paris. 

" At five o'clock on the morning of the second of June, 1755, 
we were disabused of our error. A habitant from Mosquito Cape, 
on French Bay, distant about two hours from Point Beausejour, 
came and notified M. Vergor da Chambon, commandant, that an 
English fleet of about forty vessels loaded with people had entered 
the cove which the cape there forms, to await the return of the 
tide, and enter the basin of Beausejour. 

" M. the commandant doubting no longer the design of the 
English, despatched couriers to Quebec, the St. John Hirer, 
Louisbourg, and Isle St. Jean, to solicit help ; and to the rivers 
dependent on that post and the surrounding country, to hare the 
inhabitants come to the fort ; with orders to take up arms and fir 
on the English the moment they should attempt to invade the 
king's territories or to attack the fort. 

" At five in the afternoon the enemy's fleet appeared and their 
troops debarked at six o'clock." 

After describing the preparations that were made for 
defense, and describing several skirmishes, M. de Fiedmond 
continues : 

" A census of the inhabitants, being taken who did aot 
amount to 220 men in place of the 600 on whom we counted 
they were distributed over the different works with officers to 
keep them in check. 

"M. de Boucherville,* with eight inhabitants, was sent to 
bring in those who were in their houses. He returned to the fort 
with only two men and reported to the commandant that the 
inhabitants whom he had sought were not willing to come ; that 
they had hidden their arms and thrown away their ammunition, 
saying that they would not run the risk of being hanged as the 
English had threatened if they took up arms against them ; and, 
with the exception of some good fellows who remained on the 
works, all the rest disappeared like smoke. That evening a 
detachment of 16 inhabitants, without arms, arrived from Isle 
Saint Jean, led by M. Pomeroy,1 whom M. de Villejoint, who 
-commanded there, had sent. 

*Boucher de Boucherville, cadet, acting as officer. 
tRene de Gedeon Potier, sieur de Pommeroy, sub-lieutenant of Marine tn 
.actual service at Port de la Joie. 



56 ACADIENSIS 

" M. the abbe LeLoutre, missionary among the Acadians and' 
Indians, encouraged them the best he could. He urged the- 
inhabitants to work, and the Indians to annoy the enemy arid to 
try to take prisoners. 

"A habitant named Beausoleil*, who passed for the most 
intrepid and energetic of the Acadians, promised the missionary 
that he would do his utmost to take some prisoners. 

" Early in the morning of the 8th, Beausoleil returned to the 
fort to notify us that he had taken an English officer who wa 
then being brought in, Beausoleil's men having had to make a 
long detour through the woods in order to avoid the enemy. A 
short while after, a small body of our men could be seen approach- 
ing with the prisoner by way of the marsh. He was received 
with much respect and politeness, and on giving his parole wa 
left free.f He even received permission from our commandant to- 
write to his own commander; M. Vergor also wrote the latter 
assuring him that he would provide every comfort for this officer. 

" At daybreak of the 13th the English were seen at work on 
their first parallel at a distance of 450 toises from our palisades. 
They began to throw seven and eight inch shell from six to seven 
o'clock in the morning. At ten o'clock twenty Abenaqui Indians- 
arrived ; they sang their war songs and promised to make 
prisoners. 

" On the 14th I made representations to the commandant that 
the new shells which the enemy were throwing in on us were 
likely to pierce the bomb-proof, in which the English officer and 
some other persons whom we did not wish to expose, were put ; 
that it was necessary to remove this officer from the place lest 
any accident should happen to him. This the commandant was 
willing to do ; but the officer himself asked as a favor to remain 
in the place, saying that he would be less exposed there than in 
the trench. He was left there ; moreover, everybody considered:, 
the bomb-proof capable of resisting the full shock of the shells. 

" At ten in the evening the commandant received a letter from 
the governor at Louisbourg, in answer to the one which he had 
sent soliciting help. The governor informed him that he could 
not send him help. The habitants had been flattered with the 
promise of this succor, and believed we could not do without it. 
To increase our misfortune, these evil tidings leaked out almost 



*Beausoleil lived on the west bank of the Petitcodiac River a short dis- 
tance from Moncton. It would take a volume of several hundred pages tO' 
relate his exploits. His real name was Brossard, surnamed Beausoleil.. 

tHay. 



JACAU DE FIEDMOND 57 

immediately among them ; the larger part of them then decided 
to abandon us, and eighty were seen to disappear. 

" On the 15th a soldier deserted, at which we should not fee 
surprised as he had just been let out of prison, where he had been 
a long time confined for rape and other evil deeds. The Acadians 
no longer occupied themselves except to seek shelter from the 
shells by creeping into the casemates ; although only one of their 
number was killed this day. That caused a tumult among them. 
The principal and most respected among them came and spoke 
for all and represented that, since there was no longer hope of 
help, it was impossible to resist such forces, and that they were 
unwilling to sacrifice themselves uselessly. They went further, 
too, it is claimed, and said something which gave reason to call a 
council of war. At this council it was decided to publish an 
ordinance forbidding them to make the like proposals again, or 
to leave the fort, under penalty of being shot, and of having, 
besides, their property confiscated. 

"During the night of the 15-16 several volleys of musketry 
were heard. We did not doubt that it was the Abenaqui Indians 
and Acadians who were attacking an advanced post of the enemy. 

" The shelling continued on the part of the enemy on the 16th ; 
and some of their shells pierced exactly the subterranean refuge 
of the English officer. He was killed, together with an officer of 
the garrison and two other persons.* This stroke increased the 
disorder of the place. The inhabitants came in a crowd to the 
commandant and demanded that he should capitulate, saying that 
if we were of a contrary resolution to that which they had taken 
they would no longer respect the garrison, whose threats they did 
noc fear ; that they would turn their arms against the troops, and 
deliver the fort to the English. I was on the battery and was not 
a witness of this riot. 

"The commandant called a meeting of the officers, in order 
that they might take their proper share in the deliberations as to 
the state in which he found himself. He then asked me if the 
powder magazine was secure against the heavy shells. I answered 
yes ; that the heaviest shell the enemy could send could not 
pierce it, if by chance it fell on it, but, that, if the damages it 
might do were not repaired, I would not be responsible should 
another fall on the same spot. 

"There is reason to believe that the whole assembly having 
seen that the bomb-proof which it was claimed was strong 

*The 8ieur Rambault, cadet acting as officer ; Fernauld, interpreter, 
and the Chevalier de Billy. 



58 ACADIENSIS 

enough to withstand the shells, had been pierced, thought thab 
the powder-magazine was still weaker, and that, if I was opposed 
in opinion to themselves, it was through obstinacy, and that I 
really was of their opinion." 

Then follows the deliberations of the council of war 
which decided to send an officer to the English camp with 
an offer to capitulate which was accepted on the follow- 
ing conditions : 

" 1. The commandant, staff-officers, and others employed by 
the King, and the garrison of Beausejour, will march out with 
their arms and baggage, and with drums beating. 

"2. The garrison will be sent directly to Louisbourg at the 
expense of the King of Great Britain. 

"3. The garrison shall be supplied with provisions sufficient 
to reach Louisbourg. 

" 4. As to the Acadians, as they have been forced to take up 
arms under penalty of death, they will be pardoned for the part 
which they have just taken.* 

"5. Lastly, the garrison will not bear arms in America for 
the term of six months. " 

The commandant, officers, and garrison signed the 
capitulation, June 16, 1755. 

" The English took possession of the fort at half-past seven in 
the evening. Their men passed the night under arms and did 
not touch the merchandize and effects of the King, which were 
scattered everywhere, all the buildings being destroyed. But 
when they saw our own people pillaging, the English officers 
could no longer restrain their men. They placed, nevertheless, a 
portion of the goods in safety. Our men embarked next day on 
the transports for Louisbourg. 

"The English commander wrote to the commandant of Gae- 
pareauf, at Bay Verte, to offer him and his garrison of twenty 
men the conditions granted to the commandant of Beausejour, 
which, by lack of reflection, were accepted. 

" We had two of our best cannon burst, one of which was burst 
from the muzzle to within about six inches of the trunnions, and 
the other, from the muzzle about half-way to the touch-hole. 
These pieces were very often discharged uselessly, although I was 

*Lawrence and his council completely ignored this article of the capitu- 
lation. 

tRouer de Villeray, captain of the troops in Isle Royale. 



JACAU DE FIEDMOND 5*' 

careful to economize ammunition ; but the soldiers received orders 
to fire. Moreover, the cannons were badly eaten with rust, 
which corrodes the chamber and makes it scale and thus diminishes 
the strength of the metal. We have not been able to find out 
the English losses. We know only that one of their engineers 
had a leg cut off by a cannon ball while laying out their lines, and 
that two of their mortars were disabled by our cannon. 

" Here then, is about all that happened in the attack on that 
unfortunate post. Courage alone does not suffice in defensive 
actions ; they demand intelligence, toils, solicitude, and fatigues 
incessant, arid greater address and intrepidity than does offensive 
war ; and it is always an extreme misfortune to be obliged to give 
in to the enemy after one has done all that he can to defeat him. 
All that can console the man who loves his profession, is that he 
gains experience thereby, which will enable him to do better on 
another occasion. This is my present hope." 

Now let us hear what another officer, M. Joubert, a 
captain in Isle Royale, has to say. In an undated letter 
to M. de Surlaville he relates the capture of Beausejour : 

"The event justified our observations. They fore-stalled us 
and in consequence drove us out of Acadie. The seven shells 
which fell into Fort Beausejour obliged Sieur Vergor to capitulate. 
He marched out with the honors of war, and on condition not to 
serve for six months. Sieur Villeray followed the example of his 
superior officer, he gave up Fort Gaspareau on the same terms, 
without even waiting to have the honor done him of being 
attacked. If, as a military man should have done, the Sieur 
Vergor had reasoned that his fort was unable to hold out until 
succor should come, he would have burned it and retreated a 
course which was easy for him to pursue as the enemy had not 
blockaded him. He merely held out for three days, during which 
time he lost two officers and four men. Will eyes never be opened 
to such officers ? Shall private interests always prevail over public 
interests ? That fort, bad as it was, should have held out some 
time. The attacking troops were in part regulars from their fort 
of Beausejour [sic for Beaubassin], the remainder being militia J 
the entire force amounting to two thousand men. They crossed 
the Messagoueche near Pont-a-But ; they did not fire a single 
cannon or gun-shot against the fort ; the King's goods were not 
put to pillage ; in surrendering the fort no inventory was taken. 
Pichon, they say, remained in Acadie to make one for the English. 
I salute him, if that can bring him anything. There is no word 



60 ACADIENSIS 

of him, Our troops of Acadia were brought by French Bay to 
Louisbourg. 

" Last winter one hundred and thirty thousand livres' worth of 
wood was burned. Is there not in this sufficient provocation to 
make the blood of every honest citizen boil, who hears tell of such 
destruction not to call it knavery?" 

Among the many manuscripts which Mr. E. Richard 
had the kindness to hand to me before his return to Paris 
in the latter part of April, 1899, is a document, entitled 
f *' List of the officers of different Corps, serving in Canada, 
] taken prisoners and sent to France after the capture of 
I Quebec in 1759." The first name at the head of this list 
I is that of Jacau de Fiedmond, captain of artillery, with 
the following memorandum : " He is the only one who 
refused to sign the decision of the Council of War to sur- 
render Quebec." This list, Mr. Richard says, accompanied 
the letter of M. de Vaudreuil of July 1, 1760. 

Pierre Melanson, Sieur de Verdure, maternal grand- 
father of Jacau de Fiedmond, was born in 1633 of Scotch 
parents, His Hon. Judge A. W. Savary to the contrary, 
notwithstanding. It was not he who was guardian to the 
infant children of D'Aulnay de Charnisay, as the historian 
Hannay affirms. The guardian in question was Germain 
Doucet, Sieur de la Verdure, lieutenant under D'Aulnay. 
Where was Pierre Melanson born? According to the 
registers of Bell-isle-en-Mer, parish of Sauzon, 18th 
Declaration, it was in Scotland. I am of this opinion ; 
and I believe that Pierre Melanson and his brother 
Charles, who was ten years younger than he, came to 
Acadie with Thomas Temple in 1757. The census of 1671 
informs us that he was a tailor. It certainly was not at 
Port Royal that he learned this trade, but in his natal 
country, Scotland. Both the Melansons were Protestants. 
They abjured their religious belief, became Catholics, and 
married Acadian wives. The same must be said of "Laur- 
ent Granger, a native of Plymouth in England, who, 



JACAU DE FIEDMOND 61 

having made his abjuration, married Marie Landry." 
This Granger must have arrived at the same time as the 
Melanson brothers. He was born in 1637. 

Pierre Melanson (or Mellanson as he signed) espoused 
Marie Marguerite Mius-d' Entrement ; and Charles took to 
wife Marie Dugas. The latter remained at Port Royal ; and 
he is the progenitor of all the Melansons of the Maritime 
provinces, except those of the county of Gloucester, N. B. 

Jean Melanson, born in 1681, brother of Madame 
Thomas Jacau and son of Pierre, Sieur of Verdure, married 
Marguerite Dugas, by whom he had several children, of 
whom one was Pierre, born at Grand-Pre, September 4, 
1710, and baptized the same day. He entered into the 
bonds of matrimony June 8, 1734, with Rosalie Blanchard; 
and the first fruit of this union was Jean Pierre, born 
February 28, 1735, and baptized the next day. 

Jean Pierre Melanson escaped deportation by fleeing to 
the Bay Chaleur. He married at Restigouche January 7, 
1761, Henriette Hache', who was born and baptized at 
Port de la Joie, Isle St. Jean, and was daughter of Charles 
Hache and Genevieve LaVergne. In the register of the 
Abbe Bailly, deposited in the archives of the parish of 
Caraquet, I find that missionary baptized at Nepisiguit 
(Bathurst), June 21, 1772, "Sebastian, born December 
17, 1769, in Isle St. Jean, of the lawful marriage of Jean 
Pierre Melanson and of Henriette Galand." Galand is 
the same name as Hache. The same day and place the 
Abbe Bailly performed the following baptism ; "Frangoise, 
born August 29, 1771, at Neipeisiguit, of the lawful 
marriage of Jean Pierre Melanson and of Henriette 
Galand "; the same day and place, the baptism, also, of 
" Gertrude, born May 20, 1766, in Isle St. Jean," issue of 
the foregoing. 

We can perceive from these baptismal records that Jean 
Pierre Melanson, his wife, and their first children must 
have left the Bay Chaleurs towards 1765 and have gone 



62 ACADIENSIS 

over to Isle St. Jean where they remained till towards 
1770. Then they went to Nepisiguit, where we find them 
in June, 1772. Thence they went to Miscou island, where 
the Abbe Bourg afterwards baptized several of their 
children. They finally left that island towards 1780 and 
settled for good at Bathurst Village, being among the 
number of the first settlers in that locality. They are the 
ancestors of all the Melansons of Gloucester. 

Where and when did Jacau de Fiedmond die ? I have 
no information on this point ; nor do I know whether he 
was married or whether he left any descendants. His 
"Journal of Beausejour" was published in its entirety, 
without name of author, in the 9th volume of " documents 
belonging to M. de Nicolai " (Levis papers), published at 
Quebec in 1895 under the direction of the Abbe Casgrain* 

It is the most complete account that has been written 
of the siege of Beausejour. 

PLACIDE P. GAUDET. 

*Relations and Journals of different Expeditions made between 1755 and 
1760. pp. 7-51.) 



THE NORTHERN MUSE. 



(.From the Book Lover.) 

The Northern Muse looked up 
Into the ancient tree, 
Where hung the seven apples 
And twine the roses three. 

I heard, like the eternal 
Susurrus of the sea, 
Her "Scire quod sciendum 
Da mihi, Domine ! " 

Bliss Carman. 



H fIDonument ant> its 




the Church of England graveyard, in the 
suburbs of St. John, in that portion known as 
the southwest division, there stands a large 
granite monument, its base surrounded by a 
strong iron railing. Memorials of the dead are 
there in every direction, but that monument never fails to 
attract the attention of the passer by. Like many others, 
it is a monument with a history. The storms of half a 
century have somewhat marred its outlines, and defaced 
the long inscription cut upon it, but with patience the 
epitaph shown upon the following pages may be read* 
surmounted upon the east side by the coat-of-arms of 
Macdonell of Glengarry, and on the west by those of 
Macdonald of Glenaladale. 

The story of this monument, as briefly told in the 
partially obliterated inscriptions, is of romantic interest. > 
It is the old story of heroic constancy and unflinching 
loyalty which marked the early settlement of British 
America. 

In the early summer of 1842, Her Majesty's 30th Regi- 
ment of Light Infantry arrived at Saint John, and relieved 
the 36th regiment in garrison. Colonel Harry Ormond 
commanded the 30th, and Captain Roderick Macdonald 
was paymaster. Both of these officers were born in 
British America Colonel Ormond at Maugerville, New 
Brunswick, and Captain Macdonald at Prince Edward 
Island. Colonel Ormond was the only New Brunswicker 
who commanded an imperial corps stationed at Saint John. 
The 30th regiment became very popular with the citizens, 
and the officers assisted at all society events of those days. 
Very pleasant stories are yet related of many of their 
number. 

63 



64 ACADIENSIS 




SACRJCD 
TO THE MEMORY OF 

IRanaibson flDacbonatb, 

WIFE OF 

RODERICK CHARLES MACDONALD, 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL 
OF THE CASTLE TIORAM REGIMENT OF HIGHLANDERS, 

AND 

PAYMASTER OF HER MAJESTY'S 30TH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 
THIS PIOUS, AMIABLE AND ACCOMPLISHED LADY 

WAS DAUGHTER OF 

COLONEL MACDONELL, CHIEF OF GLENGARRY, 

AND HEIR TO THE FORFEITED TITLES OF THE EARLS OF 

ROSS IN INVERNESSHIRE, 

SCOTLAND, 

WHERE SHE ALWAYS MANIFESTED HER PATRIOTIC 

RECOLLECTIONS BY SINCERE ATTACHMENTS TO 

EXPATRIATED SCOTCHMEN AND COUNTRYMEN. 

AFTER FULFILLING, IN THE TRUE SPIRIT OF 

CHRISTIAN PIETY AND FEELING, THE DUTIES OK 

A DAUGHTER, A WIFE AND A MOTHER, 

AT THE SUMMONS OF THE ANGEL OF DEATH, 

SHE PASSED FROM THIS WORLD OF TRIAL 

TO THE BOSOM OF HER SAVIOUR 

ON THE 22ND DAY OF DECEMBER, 1842, 

AGED 39 YEARS. 



A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY 65 




A DEVOTED HUSBAND 

IN TESTIMONY OF 
HIS UNDYING SBNSE OF THE UNCOMMON VIRTUES 

OF HIS BELOVED WIFE AND THE 

IRREPARABLE LOSS WHICH HER DEPARTURE 

HAS PROVED TO HIMSELF AND THREB INFANT CHILDREN 

ERECTED THIS TRIBUTE TO HER WORTH, 

WITH A VIKW LIKEWISE, TO COMMEMORATE THE 

HEROISM OF TWO THOUSAND OF THE GLENGARRY 

RKGIMENT, WHO WERE SLAIN DEFENDING 

CANADA, 

AGAINST THE ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES, 
IN THE WAR OF 1812, 13 AND 14. 

AS ALSO 

TO PERPETUATE THE MEMORY 
OF THE 

Chieftain of Glenalabale, 

HIS FATHER, 

AND THE ATTACHMENT OF THE HIGHLANDERS 

WHO FOLLOWED HIM, AS THEIR LEADER, 

TO PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, 

IN 1772. 
HE INSCRIBES THIS STONE. 



6 ACADIENSIS 

Captain Roderick Charles Macdonald, with whom our 
story is more immediately connected, was an enthusiastic 
Highlander, and early identified himself with the Scotch 
residents of St. John. He was the fourth son of John 
Macdonald, chief of the Macdonalds of Glenaladale,* who 
sold his ancient ancestral estate in the Highlands of Scot- 
land, and in 1772 emigrated, with a large number of his 
clansmen, to Prince Edward Island. " After having 
finished his education in France, and his travels on the 
continent," Captain Macdonald entered the army in 1825. 
" There being no prospects of a war, and having no hopes 
of promotion, without giving large sums of money for the 
purchasing of advancement," he accepted a paymastership. 
When serving in Scotland, he met and wooed Elizabeth, the 
eldest daughter of Alexander Ranaldson Macdonell, chief 
of the Macdonells of Glengarry, a famous man in his day 
in the Highlands, where they were married. The Mac- 
donells of Glengarry were Protestants, and Captain Mac- 
donald was a Roman Catholic, but the difference in faith 
did not deter the ardent Highlander from forming the 
alliance, nor diminish his love for his wife. 

Mrs. Macdonald accompanied her husband to St. John, 
and, during the time that the regiment remained, the 
family resided in a small dwelling that stood on Germain 
street, near the corner of Queen street, and many years 
after was the residence of Colonel Ormond. 

The first mention of Captain Macdonald, after the 
arrival of the regiment, occurs in Donald Cameron's paper, 
The Weekly Observer, of November llth, 1842 : 

HIGHLAND SOCIETY. We have been informed that at the late 
annual meeting of Saint Andrew's Society, in this city, Roderick 
Charles Macdonald, Esquire, chief of the Highland Society of 
Nova Scotia, attended, and produced a commission from the 
Highland Society of London, (of which he is a member), addressed 

* The Macdonalds of Glenaladale, one of the cadet branches of the great 
clan of that name, became famous in Scott ish history for their devotion to 
the fortunes of Prince Charles Stuart during the rising in 1745. The banner 
of Prince Charles was first unfurled to the breeze on Glenaladale's estate, at 
Olenflnnin, where a monument marks the spot. 



A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY 67 

to His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor and Hon. John Robert- 
son, authorizing the formation of a branch of the parent institution 
in this city. 

This was the beginning of a society which existed for 
many years, until incorporated with the St. Andrew's 
Society. To the formation of societies of that kind in 
British America, Captain Macdonald gave much of his 
time, and contributed financially as well as his slender 
resources would permit.. 

At Prince Edward Island he formed the Caledonian 
Society, which is still in existence, as well as several branch 
societies in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. These 
societies were established not only to perpetuate a love of 
Scottish nationality, but more particularly to diffuse and 
further the cause of education, then in a deplorable con- 
dition, among the colonists of Scotch descent. 

" At Prince Edward Island alone," Captain Macdonald 
declared, " there were from ten to twelve thousand child- 
ren, principally of Scotch descent, who then had no means, 
nor even a prospect of learning to read and write, and 
there were probably more than double that number in 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Cape Breton in that 
melancholy situation." Under these circumstances we can 
understand and appreciate the generous motives that 
actuated Captain Macdonald. Nearly all of these gocieties 
have long ceased to exist, and the advance in educational 
methods has been so great that the difficulties which 
perplexed the philanthropic colonists of that day seem 
difficult to understand. But, nevertheless, they were the 
pioneers in a noble work, and deserve to be gratefully 
remembered by their countrymen. 

In all the philanthropic and national measures in which 
Captain Macdonald engaged, he had the assistance and 
support of his wife, who was as ardent in her attachment 
to the Highland race as was her husband, and both made 
many friends throughout the provinces. But an unlooked- 
for affliction came to the warm-hearted Highlander, and 



68 ACADIENSIS 

the closing days of the year 1842 brought sorrow. On the 
22nd of December in that year, Mrs. Macdonald, after a 
short illness, died, and was buried on Christmas eve. The 
event is thus chronicled by Donald Cameron in the issue 
of the Observer of December 31st : 

On Saturday last the funeral of Mrs. Macdonald, the lamented 
and amiable lady of Captain Macdonald, 30th Regiment, took 
place, which was attended by a large number of the most distin- 
guished members of this community. During the whole of Satur- 
day the flag of the St. Andrew's Society was hoisted half mast 
high, as a mark of respect to the memory of the deceased lady. 
Among the pall- bearers were Captains Andrews, Sillery and Grant, 
of the 30th Regiment. 

Captain Macdonald, who looked the picture of grief, was sup- 
ported by Colonel Ormond and Major Poyntz. In the procession 
were the Saint Andrew's and Highland Societies with their presi- 
dents Dr. Boyd and Hon. John Robertson. 

Mrs. Macdonald was born at Glengarry, in the Highlands 
of Scotland, and was the eldest daughter of Alexander 
Ranaldson Macdonell, chief of the ancient clan of Glen- 
garry, by his wife Rebecca, second daughter of Sir William 
Forbes, Bart., of Pitsligo, Aberdeenshire. " The clan 
Macdonald, or Macdonell," writes Burke in his Landed 
Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, " is undoubtedly one 
of the most ancient in Scotland, and can, by incontrovert- 
ible evidence, be traced back to a period co-eval with that 
of any family in the kingdom." Mrs. Macdonald was an 
accomplished woman, and there are still living in Saint 
John those who have a very distinct recollection of her, 
and also of Captain Macdonald. The early life of this 
lady, with reminiscences of her family, has been related in 
an article published in Blackwood's Magazine for Septem- 
ber, 1893, entitled, "Glengarry and his Family Some 
Reminiscences of a Highland Chief," the contents of which 
are based upon the unpublished autobiography of Miss 
Macdonell of Glengarry, a younger sister, and from it we 
get a vivid picture of life in the ^ghlands of Scotland in 
the early years of the century. JONAS HOWE. 

(To be concluded in next issue.) 




an HcaMan Hrtiet 

JR. JAMES NOEL SCOVIL, the subject of 
this sketch, the only child of the late 
James Scovil, was born in St. John, N. B., 
on Christmas day, 1878, and is therefore 
in his 23rd year. 

From his early boyhood, young Scovil always displayed 
great aptitude for sketching from life and other forms of 
artistic work. Many a rap over the knuckles he doubtless 
received in his school-boy days for a well drawn caricature 
of the school-master, or for spending the time, which should 
have been devoted to other work, in drawing faces and 
figures upon his slate, or within the covers of his school- 
books. 

If masters could but recognize and encourage the peculiar 
aptitudes which their various pupils usually, in a greater 
or lesser degree, possess, and direct their course of training 
accordingly, how many valuable hours might be well spent, 
which otherwise are frittered away, or spent in acquiring 
a fund of knowledge which is not destined to be of any 
practical value to the pupil in after life. 

With the exception of about twenty lessons, received at 
various times from two of our local artists, Mr. Scovil 
received no actual art education until early in the year 
1899, when he presented himself at one of the studios of 
the Julian Academy in Paris. His account of what he 
saw and experienced, of student life in Paris, at the studios, 
the cafes, and his associates among the three or four hund- 
red fellow pupils at the academy, is most interesting. 
The writer much regrets that want of space prevents more 
than a very brief reference to his Paris life. 

L' Academic Julian is made up of several schools or 
classes, with a large staff of professors, who visit each of 
69 



70 ACADIENSIS 

the different studios in turn, criticising the work of the- 
pupils, offering here a hint, there a suggestion, usually very 
brief in character; too much so, as a rule, to suit the 
tastes of those of the students who are ambitious in regard 
to their work. 

The Ateliers, as they are called, for male pupils, are 
usually in different buildings from those used by the female 
students. 

At No. 31 Rue du Dragon is situate the particular 
studio in which Mr. Scovil worked ; and upon taking up 
his work he was obliged, as is there customary, to pay his 
footing. This consists usually of a contribution of about 
fifteen francs, which is either spent instanter upon " wine " 
for the delectation of his co workers, or put aside towards 
one of those delightful periodical Bohemian outings so dear 
to the heart of the Paris student. 

At the various studios a number of models present 
themselves on Monday morning of each week. They dis- 
robe, and each in turn stands in a state of nudity for a few 
moments upon the dias. As each of the models present 
themselves, the students, who so desire, hold up their 
hand in token of approval. The model receiving the 
largest number of votes is selected as the subject for the 
week's work. 

Posing is by no means an easy task, as the hours are 
from 8 to 12 a. m. and from 1 to 5 p. m. with fifteen 
minutes' rest in each hour. 

Two professors visit the studio on Monday, Wednesday 
and Saturday, and to the student to whom is adjudged the 
best criticism, is awarded the honor of choice of position 
for the following week. 

One of these studios often affords an interesting sight. 
The students group themselves according to their particular 
choice ; on the dias the model, all around a human hive 
striving to catch the various modulations of figure and 
expression, of light and shade; on the wall the palette 



s 

K 

E 
T 
C 
H 
E 
D 

A 

T 

W 
H 

I 
S 

T 
L 
E 
R 
S 

L 

I 

F 
E 

C 

L 
A 
S 
S 




J Noel Scovil. 



AN ACADIAN ARTIST 71 

scrapings of successive generations of pupils ; above, await- 
ing the often much longed-for purchaser, a number of 
finished sketches ; here an old curtain, dingy and time- 
worn, which has been used as a back-ground for many a 
sitter ; there a dusty cast or a lay figure. 

Most of the studios are to be found in the Latin 
Quartier, and here abound those little cafes before alluded 
to. On a summer evening small tables are spread, out' v of 
doors upon the broad sidewalks, and the students meet, 
enjoy their usually frugal meals, sip their coffee, smoke their 
cigarettes, discuss the vicissitudes of life, admire the pretty 
'demoiselle as she passes demurely by, or perchance dream 
of some sketch which will win the Grand Prix de Rome, 
and lay the foundation for future greatness. 

For the American male student a magnificent club has 
been fitted up in one of the old palaces of the Napoleons, 
by Mr. John Wanamaker, of New York. It was at this 
club, in the winter of 1897-8, that the writer was present, 
by invitation, at a dinner given by the students on New 
Year's evening. The large dining hall was brightly lighted, 
plates were laid for about 150 persons. The American 
ambassador and several other guests of honor were present. 
About the halls were hung some of the choicest specimens 
of the winter's work. 

Just across the table from the writer sat a colored man, 
spare in face and figure, with a thin, straggling beard, and 
features that spoke not of high living. At his right sat 
an American lady who voluntarily occupied that seat, 
several of his fellow students having declined to sit beside 
a negro ; at his left, the son of an American millionaire, 
also there from choice, at my right, the sister of the lady 
who sat opposite. After the bill of fare, the wine was 
passed around, then one or two formal toasts, and amid 
loud applause, the toast of the evening was announced,, 
"The winner of the 'Grand Prix.'" 



72 ACADIENSIS 

Quietly and without ostentation the colored man arose, 
bowed to the Chairman, to the right and left, and after 
the applause had subsided, thanked those present, in a 
few simple words, and without evident embarrassment, 
for the kind manner in which the toast had been received. 

The student services on Sunday evenings, semi-social, 
semi-religious, usually held in one of the largest studios, 
are another striking feature of American student life in 
Paris. Here lemonade and gospel hymns with a rousing 
chorus, Bible reading, cake and ice-cream, sacred solos and 
quartettes by some of the best professional singers in Paris 
are strangely commingled. 

Rooms suitable for students, and of the cheapest class, 
may be obtained in the Latin Quartier for about $6.00 a 
month ; while table board for those who live moderately 
at a cafe, costs from eighty cents to one dollar a day. 
Students who are not above doing their own cooking may 
subsist upon about half that amount. 

Since his return to St. John, Mr. Scovil has been em- 
ployed upon the staff of the St. John Gazette, and although 
laboring under disadvantages, has produced some good 
work. 

Of the three examples of his skill which we reproduce 
by permission in this number of ACADIENSIS, Nos. 1 and 

2 were drawn in Paris, namely, the figure of the girl, and 
the Head Piece, with some figures from life such as one 
sees almost any day upon the streets of that city. No. 

3 is a cariacature of some of the young men who habitually 
frequented the stage door of the St. John Opera House 
during the recent visit of the Valentine Opera Company 
to this city. 

In this last example the drawing is particularly good, 
and gives evidence of much promise. One of the staff of 
the Brooklyn Eagle, to whom the writer recently exhibited 
the original drawing, commented upon its excellence, with 
this remark, " That young man ought to be up here." 




WAITING, ONLY WAITING." 



Noel Scovil, 



AN ACADIAN ARTIST. 73 

Among Acadians who are embued with a love of their 
country, the tendency of our young men of ability to drift 
into the larger cities of the neighbouring republic would 
seem to be a phase of life much to be deplored. 

The recent death of his step-father, and other consequent 
events, however, will probably compel Mr. Scovil to make 
a stronger effort to work his way upward in the world, 
and the significant remark of the Brooklyn man, that he 
ought to be "up here," is not unlikely to be realized. Mr. 
Scovil has already been offered a position with the Boston 
Post to do " chalk-plate " work ; but this not being to his 
liking, the offer has not been accepted. 

Should Mr. Scovil, who is naturally looking for more 
remunerative employment than that at which he is at 
present engaged, decide to try a larger field, this magazine 
will be deprived of the assistance of one of those workers 
upon whose talents its publishers hoped, from time to time, 
to draw for the gratification of its patrons and the better- 
ment of the magazine. 

All selfish motives aside, however, we take pleasure in 
wishing Mr. Scovil that success in life which his talents 
deserve, but trust that the advancement which must 
eventually come to him shall be of such a nature as to still 
permit of his remaining within the borders of Acadia. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 




foonorable ?u&ge IRobte* 

A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

I HE late Judge Simon Bradstreet Robie entered 
public life in Nova Scotia towards the close of 
the last year in the eighteenth century. A 
brief account of his career, taken from the 
records of the intervening period, and heard 
from the tongues of the most aged of his contemporaries, 
nearly all of whom are now dead, may not prove altogether 
uninteresting to the readers of "Acadiensis." 

While gathering material for this paper I was assured 
by one of the oldest of my informants, that : 

"A memoir of Judge Robie would have little interest, except 
so far as it may hold up to public view the gentlemanly bearing 
and high character of those men who usually held office in the 
country and adorned the legal profession in former days, in sad 
contrast to the present state of things."" 

But this was before the founding of the excellent law 
school in connection with Dalhousie college, which bids 
fair to restore to the bar that class of advocates, of which 
Judge Robie was the type. Forty-five years ago, the 
twentieth day of May next, the Morning Chronicle stated 
editorially, that " Few of our citizens yet survive, who 
ever heard Simon Bradstreet Robie, in his best days, make 
a speech. That he could make good ones all his co-tem- 
poraries acknowledged. Bold, yet exact declamatory 
when the occasion warranted, but chaste withal, with a 
strong fibre of sound law and common sense running 
through his arguments. Mr. Robie was a successful 
lawyer, and the acknowledged leader of the lower house 
for many years. He beat Ritchie in a contest for the 
speakership in the session of 1817; and Archibald, until 
Mr. Robie's elevation to the council left the course open, 
74 



HON. JUDGE ROBIE 7& 

did not aspire to rivalship, but treated him with marked 
deference and respect." 

To-day the editor of the same paper might ask, " Who 
can tell anything about this provincial statesman and 
lawyer?" For, strange to say, the latest historian of 
Nova Scotia* gives no account whatever of the man, who, 
for eleven years was solicitor general, for seven years 
speaker of the house of assembly, for ten years master of 
the rolls, for twenty-four years member of the executive 
and legislative council, and for eleven years president of 
both, after their reconstruction and division into twa 
bodies ; and whose honored name is so mingled with the 
public events of Nova Scotia, that it cannot but be handed 
down to posterity by documents in our colonial archives, 
when the memory of living men can no longer recall it. 

Mr. Bobie was born at Marble Head, Massachusetts, 
while that state was yet a colony, in the year 1770, and 
was son of Thomas Robie, who left Boston as a loyalist 
early in the revolutionary war, and settled in Halifax, N. 
S., where he carried on business as a hardware merchant 
for several years. He was called after Simon Bradstreet, 
a distant relative, and native of Lincolnshire, England, 
brought up in the family of the Earl of Lincoln. Simon 
Bradstreet studied for a year at Cambridge, and soon after 
became steward to the Countess of Warwick, and married 
a daughter of Mr. Dudley, his former tutor. In March 
1630, he was chosen an assistant of the colony about to 
be established at the Massachusetts Bay, and arrived at 
Salem in the summer of the same year. He was at the 
first court, which was held at Charlestown, August 23rd. 
He was afterward secretary and agent of Massachusetts? 
and commissioner of the United colonies. He was sent 
with Mr. Norton, 1662, to congratulate King Charles on 
his restoration, and as agent of the colony to promote its 

*Campbell. 



76 ACADIENSIS 

interests. From 1673 to 1679, he was deputy governor. 
In this year, he succeeded Mr. Leverett as governor, and 
remained in office till May 1686, when the charter was 
dissolved, and Joseph Dudley commenced his administra- 
tion as president of New England. In May 1689, after 
the imprisonment of Andros, he was replaced in the office 
of governor, which station he held till the arrival of Sir 
Wm. Phipps, in May 1692, with a charter, which deprived 
the people of the right of electing their chief magistrate. 
He died 1697 aged 94 years. 

Simon Bradstreet Robie passed his boyhood days in 
Halifax, where, after acquiring the best education the city 
could then impart, he studied law in the office of his 
brother-in-law, Jonathan Sterns. This gentleman, unlike 
the elder Robie, was among the most unflinching loyalists, 
and was one of the eighteen country gentlemen who vent- 
tured to sign the address to General Gage. He was driven 
from his residence in Massachusetts before leaving the 
state. Born in Massachusetts, he graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Harvard in the year 1770. Having removed 
with the British army to Nova Scotia, in 1778, he opened 
a law office in Halifax, which county returned him a 
member to the Assembly in 1793. He was appointed 
solicitor-general of the province in 1794, and held these 
positions till his death, 23rd of May, 1798. The late 
William Sterns, of Liverpool, also a lawyer, and a former 
owner of Fort Belcher farm, in Colchester county, was 
his son. 

Little can be told about young Robie as a student-at-law. 
The late Hon. H. H. Cogswell, in conversing with an old 
friend about the accumulation of money by the old members 
of the profession, related an anecdote deserving a passing 
notice. Mr. Cogswell said that when he was a student in 
the office of the old attorney-general, Richard John Uni- 
acke, he, Robie, Norman Uniacke, the late Andrew 
Wallace (Mrs. Martin Wilkins' father) and a few other 



HON. JUDGE ROBIE 7T 

law students, were discussing their future prospects, and 
speculating how they would live if they possessed 20,000, 
a sum, in those days, considered an immense fortune. 
Robie, after others had stated their desires, said, "If I 
should ever acquire 20,000, I will retire from all work, 
build a house in Truro, and live there on the interest of 
my money." Truro was ever a popular locality with him. 
Cogswell, on being asked his opinion (then only seventeen 
years of age) replied : "I think I would do just as all of 
you would do, notwithstanding all you have said, that is 
to say, I would try to increase my 20,000 to 40,000." 
Cogswell died worth over 140,000, and Robie, 60,000, 
but, unfortunately for Truro, built his house in Halifax. 
That he seduously applied himself to a study of the legal 
profession in its various branches, and was careful to 
acquire a thorough knowledge of the routine duties in the 
office of his brother-in-law, and availed himself of every 
opportunity to watch the practice in the courts cannot be 
doubted ; and there is every reason to believe that the 
good use he made of his time during those early years 
contributed in no small degree to the great success that 
attended his long and useful career at the bar, in the 
legislature, and on the bench of the rolls court. 

On the eleventh day of October, 1799, Governor Sir 
John Wentworth dissolved the seventh general assembly 
of the province. Writs were issued for a new election 
returnable the twenty-third day of December. Truro then 
had the honor of being the first constituency to return ta 
parliament Simon Bradstreet Robie, a rising Halifax 
barrister of twenty-nine summers, who afterwards held 
several of the highest offices in the land with great credit 
to himself and complete satisfaction to the country. Mr. 
Robie took his seat 28th February, 1800, on the opening 
of the first session of the eighth general assembly. Those 
were the halcyon days of the old council of twelve, 
who did business with closed doors and with whom his 



?6 ACADIENSIS 

excellency was more in accord than with the majority in 
the assembly. The opposition was then led by that some- 
what celebrated lawyer and orator, William Cottnam 
Tonge, whose speech at the bar of the house, 3rd April, 
1790, in defence of his father's (Colonel Tonge) right to 
fees as naval officer, has been cited as the precursor of 
Nova Scotian eloquence. As a member of the house, 
in his endeavors to effect changes in the modes of adminis- 
tering the public affairs of the province, he made himself 
most obnoxious to the Governor but became very popular 
with the people. In 1799, the county of Halifax returned 
him at the head of the poll by a very handsome majority, 
at which election he was also returned by the town of 
Newport. It was at this time that the popular feeling, 
attributed to his eloquent efforts to break in upon stereo- 
typed forms of government and old established usages in 
the colony, made itself felt, by returning along with him 
for the county of Halifax (then including Pictou and 
Colchester) Edward Mortimer, of Pictou, and James 
Fulton, of Londonderry, in place of Wallace, Stewart and 
Hartshorne, who, in the former house, were three of the 
governor and council's most faithful supporters. The 
animosity of Sir John Wentworth to that clever and 
popular leader increased to such a degree, that on his 
second election as speaker by the house, Sir John refused 
to approve of their choice, and in so doing, exercised a 
branch of his Majesty's prerogative, having only one 
instance, and that at a remote period, in the history of 
Great Britain, and without precedent in Nova Scotia. 

The English precedent relates to the case of Speaker Sir 
Edward Seymour in the reign of Charles the second. " In 
the new Parliament of 1678-9, Seymour was returned for 
Devonshire ; and was again unanimously elected Speaker ; 
but he was now somewhat estranged from the court, 
especially from Dauby, and was no longer acceptable to the 
King. On submitting himself to the chancellor for the 



HON. JUDGE ROBIE 79 

royal approval, he was informed that the King thought fit 
to reserve Seymour for other services, and to ease him of 
this. Sachverell and Powle strongly opposed the power of 
the crown to reject the choice of the commons. To allay 
the excitement, the King on the thirteenth of March pro- 
rogued the house for two days, at the end of which a com- 
promise was effected and Sergeant Gregory appointed."* 

Some idea of the kind of stuff Mr. Robie was made of, 
and the calibre of the man, may be formed from the fact 
that upon his entering parliament he acted under Mr. 
Tonge's lead, and advocated with much ability many of 
the measures that displeased Governor Wentworth, who 
took special delight in censuring whatever Tonge originated. 
Subsequent events proved that Tonge, Robie, and their 
followers, not only held advanced views upon public affairs, 
but were actuated by loyal and patriotic motives in their 
endeavours to have the province governed more in accord- 
ance with an enlightened public opinion and the growing 
spirit of the age, and that they did no more than enter the 
wedge, which, when driven home by others, years after 
wards, opened the council doors, gave the people responsible 
government, and many other wholesome reforms the 
country was not quite ready for in their day. 

In the general election of 7th August, 1806, Mr. Robie 
was returned one of the members for Halifax county, 
which he represented in the assembly till April 2nd, 1824, 
when he was appointed a member of the old council of 
twelve, which then exercised executive as well as legislative 
functions. Before that time, and after December, 1808, 
when Tonge followed the fortunes of Sir George Prevost 
in the West Indies, where he became secretary of Demarara, 
and resided to the close of life, Mr. Robie, on account of 
his liberal views, well known legal ability, powers of 
eloquence and subtle reasoning, became the acknowledged 



*Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 51, page 813. 



80 ACADIENSIS 

leader of the popular branch of the legislature. The house 
frequently put him on committees to prepare replies to 
the governor's speeches, and in 1807 made him chairman 
of a committee to present an address and one hundred 
guineas, to buy a piece of plate or a sword, to the honor- 
able vice admiral George Cranfield Berkeley, commander 
of the fleet. On the 8th of January, 1808, he voted for 
Tonge's resolution against the governor's message to 
increase the treasurer's salary. In 1815 he was appointed 
solicitor general, vice James Stewart, made judge of the 
supreme court. In 1817, speaker of the house, after a 
contest with Thomas Ritchie, upon speaker Lewis Morris 
Wilkin's elevation to the bench of supreme court, on the 
demise of Judge Foster Hutchinson. Mr. Robie was 
afterwards chosen speaker, unanimously, llth February, 
1819; also of the next general assembly that met 12th 
November, 1820, and continued first commoner till his 
appointment to the council, and remained solicitor general 
till his elevation to the bench of the rolls court. Why he 
was not made one of the pioneer King's counsel in Nova 
Scotia, 21st May, 1817, when that honor was conferred 
upon William Henry Otis Haliburton, and Samuel George 
William Archibald, is one of the unexplained mysteries of 
Lord Dalhousie's administration. 

On the 2nd April, 1820, Speaker Robie, at the head of 
the house, presented an address to Lord Dalhousie, request- 
ing his acceptance of their vote of 1000, for a "Star and 
Sword," which the earl accepted, " as a magnificent testi- 
monial of their regard," but ten days after the house rose 
recalled his acceptance in a letter to the speaker. 

On the 2nd April, 1822, the university of Glasgow con- 
ferred the degree of doctor of civil law upon Mr. Robie. 

While in the house Mr. Robie took a correct view of 
every great question before the country, and proved himself 
the possessor of the soundest opinions, and a man of no 
ordinary ability. The resolution under which Lawrence 



HON. JUDGE ROBIE 81 

Kavanagh, the first Roman Catholic member, was allowed 
to take his seat for Cape Breton, 3rd April, 1823, without 
taking the oaths against popery and transubstantiation, was 
suggested to the house by him while speaker, and he sup- 
ported it in an able argument. When we consider that it 
was five years later that Daniel O'Connell, " the liberator of 
his country," was first elected a member of the " commons 
house of parliament for the county of Clare," and was not 
permitted to take his seat unless he took those ancient 
oaths, which he refused to do, and did not gain admission 
to parliament, till a year afterwards, upon his re-election 
for Clare, after the "Bill of Emancipation" had been 
fought fiercely through both houses, by the Duke of Well- 
ington and Sir Robert Peel, who saw that the hour had 
arrived in the history of Great Britain, when either their 
prejudices or their power must be surrendered, we can 
form a very good idea of the grandeur of Mr. Robie's 
conduct, in dealing with the great question in our legisla- 
ture. It was this circumstance that lead Daniel O'Connell 
to make the acquaintance of Joseph Howe at a social 
gathering in England, crossing the floor of the room where 
they met, introducing himself, and giving Mr. Howe a 
hearty shake of the hand, at the same time expressing his 
great gratification in forming the acquaintance of a public 
man from the British colony that was first to settle the 
important question of " Catholic emancipation." 

Although a great adherent of the Church of England, 
and a warm friend of King's college, in 1818 Mr. Robie 
spoke in favor of aid to the trustees of Pictou academy, 
towards the erection of their building, in a clear and 
argumentative address, and took a sound view of the ques- 
tion at the commencement of a controversy that long 
continued to agitate the legislative body of Nova Scotia. 

ISRAEL LONGWORTH. 

(To be concluded in next issue.) 




1nctfcent0 in tbe Barty Ibietor? of 
St. 3obn. 



IN A series of articles lately printed in the New 
Brunswick Magazine, under the title, " At Port- 
land Point," the writer of this paper endeavored 
to place on record many of the incidents connected 
with the establishment of the first English settle- 
ment, of a permanent character, at the mouth of the St. 
John river. The date of this settlement is coincident with 
the arrival of James Simonds, James White and their 
party some thirty souls in all on the 18th day of April, 
1764. Some further facts that have lately come to light 
will furnish materials for one or more papers similar to 
those that have already appeared in the New Brunswick 
Magazine. 

The war of the American Revolution was at the outset 
a source of intense disappointment to James Simonds, 
William Hazen and James White, although in the end it 
was destined to be the making of their fortunes by sending 
the exiled Loyalists in thousands to our shores. 

Our old pioneers had learned by the experience of a 
dozen years to conduct their business to advantage ; and 
at the time the war began had everything in train for a 
promising and remunerative trade with St. Croix in the 
West Indies. Their situation, once discouraging, was 
vastly improved. The hardships incident to the estab- 
lishment of all new settlements were largely a thing of 
the past, and both Simonds and White were established 
in comfortable homes, their interests still more united by 
the fact that their wives were sisters, daughters of Captain 
Francis Peabody. To add to their pleasurable anticipa- 
tions, the Hazen family were daily expected from New- 
82 



EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 83 

buryport to take up their permanent residence at Portland 
Point. 

Prior to William Hazen's determination to remove to 
St. John, he and his partner, Leonard Jarvis, had been 
unfortunate in their mercantile transactions at Newbury- 
port. This made it necessary for them to take greater 
care of their interest in the business at St. John ; hence 
Mr. Hazen's visits to St. John became more and more 
frequent, and about the year 1771 he decided to take up 
his permanent residence there and discontinue business at 
Newburyport altogether. Accordingly, in 1772, a house 
was built for him at Portland Point, the site a little to the 
westward of the houses in which James Simonds and 
James White were then living. This house was destroyed 
by fire before it was quite finished. A new one, on the 
eame site, was erected November 17, 1773, and is still 
standing at the corner of Simonds and Brook streets ; 
somewhat altered in appearance, it is true, but in an 
excellent state of preservation. 

It was not until the month of May, 1775, that Mr. 
Hazen was able to embark with his family for St. John. 
They took passage in the sloop " Merrimack,"* and on the 
way were shipwrecked on Fox Island. They escaped with 
their lives but endured much discomfort, besides losing many 
of their possessions. Scarcely were they settled in their new 
home when troubles and anxieties, entirely unlocked for, 
arose in consequence of the war between the mother country 
and the old colonies. 

The departure of William Hazen from Newburyport had 
been planned, as already stated, several years before it was 
carried into effect. It was not in any way influenced by 
the threatening war clouds that hung low in the sky. Mr. 
Hazen's departure, however, was nearly coincident with the 
clash of arms at Lexington, and a few months after his 



* The Merrimack was one of several small vessels owned by the Company 
of Hazen & Jarvis and Simonds & White. 



84 ACADIENSIS 

arrival at St. John, the events of the war began to interfere 
greatly with the business of the partnership, which not long 
after almost entirely ceased. 

The three partners were well known in Massachusetts. 
Many of their relatives were prominent supporters of the 
American Congress. This fact, for a brief interval, shielded 
them from the attacks of marauders from Machias, and 
elsewhere to the westward, who ravaged the shores of the 
Bay of Fundy and made themselves terribly obnoxious to 
the loyal element in Nova Scotia. On two occasions, 
William Hazen succeeded in procuring the restoration of 
the Company's schooner " Polly " after she had been seized 
by American privateers. 

The condition of affairs on the River St. John during 
the war has already been pretty fully described by the 
writer of this article in the papers of the " Portland Point' 
series.* That which follows must, therefore, be regarded 
as supplementary. 

The statement, made in one of the former papers, that 
up to the close of the year 1776, the company of Hazen, 
Simonds and White had not ceased to transact business 
with the Massachusetts Congress, needs some qualification. 
It was based upon the following document, found among 
the papers of James White : 

GENTLEMEX, At sight of this our second Bill (first of same 
tenor and date not paid) Please to pay to Messrs. William Hazen, 
James Simonds and James White, or order, forty-one Spanish 
milled Dollars, for value received of them. 

EZEKIEL FOSTER, Lt., DAVID PBESCOTT, Lt., 
EDMUND STEVENS, Capt., DANIEL MESEBVY, Lt. 
Portland, Nova Scotia, December 14th, 1776. 
To the Honorable Council of Massachusetts States. 

It appears, from certain papers in possession of Mr. 
Ward Hazen, of St. John, that the four signers of the 
above were on their way to Machias after the failure of 



* See New Brunswick Magazine for January, February, March and April, 
1899. 



EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 85 

the American attack on Fort Cumberland. James White 
was reluctantly obliged to entertain them at his house, and 
he says, in a memorandum explanatory of the incident, 
" The supplies furnished to Prescott <fe Co. were regarded 
as for the common cause and benefit to get rid of a needy, 
lawless banditti." 

In connection with the visits of the Machias rebels, 
James Simon ds, too, was forced on several occasions to do 
his share of the entertaining, and Messrs. Rowe, Eddy, 
Rogers, Howe, and others, returning from Cumberland, 
were supplied with provisions at his expense in order to 
prevent their plundering the houses and stores of the 
Company. 

The garrison at Fort Frederick (in Carleton) had been 
withdrawn in 1768, leaving St. John in an absolutely 
defenceless condition. The little colony there became very 
uneasy, and in September, 1775, James Simonds and Daniel 
Leavitt went to Windsor in a whale boat to solicit protect- 
ion from the government of Nova Scotia, but their errand 
was fruitless. Being apprehensive that the Company's goods 
in the store at Portland Point would be plundered by some 
privateer, Mr. Simonds, a few weeks later, carried a portion 
to Windsor in the little schooner " Polly," and there dis- 
posed of them as best he could. 

In the two following years, the business of Hazen, 
Simonds and White being nearly at a stand and their 
stock of goods in the store small, it was agreed that James 
White should take charge of the store and keep the books 
on a commission of five per cent. The amount of business 
transacted in the two years amounted to 3,150 only. 
Meanwhile, James Simonds was spending a good deal of his 
time among the settlers up the river freighting down lum- 
ber, produce, and such articles as could be collected on 
account of the Company's debts. 

Early in May, 1777, an attempt was made by one John 
Allan, of Machias, formerly a resident at the head of the 



86 ACADIENSIS 

Bay of Fundy, and at one time a member of the Nova 
Scotia House of Assembly, to take possession of the St. 
John river valley and there establish an Indian trading 
post, with the view of encouraging the savages to declare 
war against the loyal settlers. This audacious design by 
no means accorded with the ideas of the little colony at 
St. John. James Simonds proceeded post haste to Halifax* 
and the authorities there promptly sent an armed party in 
the "Vulture" sloop of war, under Colonel Arthur Goold, by 
whom the invaders were soon driven from the river. 
However, they returned a little later and took William 
Hazen and James White prisoners. The alarm was again 
raised and Colonel Michael Francklin and Captain Stud- 
holme, with a detachment of troops, appeared on the scene. 
The prisoners were released and Allan was obliged in hot 
haste to hie back once more to Machias. 

In the month of November, 1777, the Company's store 
at Portland Point was plundered of most of its valuables 
by a Yankee privateer, whose captain bore the singular 
name of "A. Greene Crabtree." The situation of the 
settlers was now become so deplorable that William Hazen 
hired a sloop and proceeded to Windsor. Here he urgently 
appealed for protection to Colonel John Small of the Royal 
Highland Emigrants, and the latter accompanied him to 
Halifax. Through their united efforts, the authorities 
were aroused to the necessity of immediate action, and in 
consequence, Fort Howe was built at the mouth of the river 
and Captain Gilfred Studholme took post there with a 
garrison. William Hazen claimed that his visit to Halifax 
" not only saved the buildings and moveables of the Com- 
pany, but secured to the King's subjects the greater part 
of New Brunswick." 

W. O. RAYMOND. 



* An item in Mr. Simonds' account shows that the cost of his trip, includ- 
ing boat hire, horse hire, etc., was about 15. 

(To be concluded in next issue.) 



H flDarablanb "River. 



The river banks red-bright beneath the sun 
Lay empty to the breeze, which like a stream 
Flowed softly downward to the tide out-run, 
Sweeping across the flats that idly dream, 
Then drifted out to sea. Shortwhile the tide 
Lay moveless where the river opened wide 
Its mouth unto the bay with thirsty throat 
Agape and red for the long quenching draught 
Of foamy brine. Shortwhile the anchored boat 
Drew not upon the chain, and all the craft 
Lay to against the turning of the flood ; 
Low tide marked by the heron and her brood. 
Without a sign of finger or of lip, 
The tide turned inward from the outer sea. 
The hidden anchor feels the drawing ship, 
The fisher craft let all their sails go free. 
Up to the river rises the quick flood, 
Into the marsh's veins like pulsing blood, 
Gateways of ancient mould; thence to the hoar 
Gray granite hills of primal time to store 
The tidal elements. Thus has the deep 
Made him a beast of burden, treading slow 
Through centuries with toil that cannot sleep; 
And front unyielding to the winter's snow; 
Nor lingering under all the summer's sweep 
Of hot alluring rays ; bound to no power 
In earth or heaven, save that which times the hour- 
Of night and day to lift his reddened knees 
And mighty shoulders out of Ocean's mine 
To tread the marshy stairway of the sea, 
And strew his burden at the secret sign. 

87 



8 ACADIENSES 

Blind eyes that know no pity and no tear, 

Nor wist that in the silent centuries 

Of plodding to the mountain's stony knees, 

What weary miles of needless footway bear 

His mark of winding road and broken way. 

And when the sea will crowd upon his heels, 

And level o'er the marshes his array 

Of waters, till the farthest dyke-top feels 

The sibilance of wave, the river lost 

In the supremer power, bends like the beast 

And gropes shortwhile, and tumbles, tossed 

And tripped by his great strength which ceased 

Without the single purpose that must guide. 

But soon again the river treads the plain, 

Whether to saunter, or to turn back, 

Heedless of loss, unconscious of the gain, 

Each cycle narrowing his track. 

The purpose of his labor is complete, 

When man shall reap the labor of his feet, 

And lay his hand to mark his utmost way, 

And bar where now his step shall cease to stray. 

JOHN FREDERIC HBRBIN. 

TVolfville, N.S. 



of tbe jplace^name jpabineau. 



The Pabineau River is a branch of the Nepisiguit, a 
few miles from its mouth, and a rocky fall on the Nepisi- 
guit, noli far above the mouth of the Pabineau, goes by the 
same name. The word Pabineau is well-known to be 
Acadian French, applied by them to the High-bush Cran- 
berry (Viburnum Opulus of the botanists). Why the 
name was applied to the river and falls, I do not know, 
fcut one may guess that it was because of the abundance 



^ORIGIN OF THE PLACE-NAME PABINEAU 89 

of the High-Bush Cranberry there. The earliest application 
of the name to the river I have been able to find is in 
a plan dated 1825 in the Crown Land Office, where it 
is spelled Pabina, while another plan of the same year has 
Pabineau, as at present. It is interesting to note, as in 
some degree confirmatory of the origin of the name here 
given, that Lanman, in his very interesting book, " Ad- 
ventures in the Wilds of the United States and British 
American Provinces," 1856, calls the falls " Pabineau, or 
Cranberry Falls." If now one seeks the origin of the 
work Pabineau itself, he will search in vain for it in 
French dictionaries. Clapin's Dictionaire Canadien-Fran- 
c,aise, gives, however, " Pimbina, s. m. Fruit du Viburnum 
edule." The Acadian Pabina and the Canadian Pimbina 
seem, therefore, to be the same word ; they are given as 
identical by Fernald in his " Some Plant-names of the 
Madawaska Acadians," (in Rhodora, I, 168). What, 
then, is the origin of Pimbina ? In Upham's great work 
on Glacial Lake Agassiz (U. S. Geological Survey, Mono- 
graphs, xxv,) page 57, occurs the following : " Pambina 
River, this word is stated by Keating to be from an 
Ojibway word, anepeminan, which name has been shortened 
and corrupted into Pembina, meaning the fruit of the 
bush cranberry (Viburnum opulus, L.") Knowing the 
close relationship between the language of the Ojibway 
Indians and our Maliseets, I looked in Chamberlain's 
Maliseet Vocabulary and find he gives for the high-bush 
cranberry, I-pi-min. Rand, in his Micmac Reader, gives 
Nibumanul. All of these words are from the same root 
without doubt, and they show that Pabineau, though now 
good Acadian, is of Indian origin; but whether it was 
obtained direct from our Indians, or from the Canadian- 
French, who obtained it from other Indians, we do not 
>know, but probably the latter was the case. 

W. F. GANONG. 



BOOK * plates. 




BOOK-PLATE, as defined in the Century 
Dictionary, is a label, bearing a name, crest, 
monogram, or other design pasted in or on a- 
book to indicate its ownership, its position in 
a library, etc. 

When and where the custom of using book-plates origi- 
nated, it is not possible now to state, but that the custom 
is a very ancient one, originating within a very few years 
after the first printing of books with moveable type, there' 
can be little doubt. 

With the spread of education, the accumulation of 
private libraries, and the development of artistic taste, the 
book-plate became more than a mere label ; and users of 
book-plates soon began to vie with one another in the pro- 
duction of the more ambitious armorial, or the allegorical, 
symbolical or pictorial designs suggested by the fancies of 
their various owners. 

On the continent of Europe book-plates are invariably 
termed JEx-Libris, signifying literally, "out of the books 
of," or from the collection of books of John Doe, or Richard 
Roe, as the case might be. In Great Britain, and in some 
parts of America, the same custom, to a certain extent, 
prevails, but in the United States book-plates having 
pictorial designs are generally regarded with the most favor. 

Pasted upon the fly-leaf of a MSS., in the College of 
Arms, at York, England, is a book-plate of Joseph Holand, 
while the date, 1585, appears upon the fly-leaf. The 
autograph title to the MSS. is as follows : 

In this booke are contayned the armes of the nobylytye of 
Ireland, and of certeyne gentlemen of the same countrye. 

JOSEPH HOLAND, 1585. 

90 



BOOK-PLATES. 91: 

In England we find three other book-plates dating from 
the sixteenth century, one bearing the date 1518; the 
second, the plate of Sir Thomas Treshame, 1585 ; and 
that of 1574, the beautiful armorial plate of Sir .Nicholas 
Bacon, father of the celebrated Sir Francis Bacon, Lord 
Chancellor of England, and essayist. 

The usual size of a book-plate is about 2 \ x 4 inches, 
but some examples of German book-plates may be seen 
6 1 x 9 inches in size. It is needless to say that plates 
of this size could only be used with volumes of not 
less than quarto size. In the Surrenden Collection there 
are several loose impressions of Sir Edward Bering's book- 
plate, bearing date 1630. This is a very elaborate affair, 
and of a size only adapted for a folio volume. 

It is only in very recent years that the custom of col- 
lecting book-plates has become general, and the first Eng- 
lish work on the subject was by Hon. Leicester Warren, 
A Guide to the Study of Book-Plates, published in 1880. 
Since that date scores of books, some of them most elabor- 
ately illustrated, have been issued. 

Probably one of the best known collectors of book- 
plates is Mr. James Dorman, who keeps a quaint book- 
shop in Southampton Row, London, England, and in 
whose establishment the writer has spent many delightful 
hours. He is much quoted by various writers in the 
British periodicals as an authority, and his place is much 
frequented by folks devoted to things Ex-Libris. He has 
an immense fund of information about plates and all that 
appertains thereto, and his devotion to the subject is 
proved by the extent and value of his private collection, 
which contains over 4,000 varieties. 

It is not an uncommon occurrence in old volumes to 
find as many as four different book plates, pasted one over 
another, showing that the book had been the property of 
at least four persons ; all of whom had owned and used 
book-plates. In renovating old books for sale, second- 



'32 ACADIENSIS 

hand dealers have no conscientious scruples about pasting 
a new sheet of paper over the inside of the cover of a book, 
often consigning to oblivion many valuable autographs and 
plates. The practiced eye, however, readily detects the 
plate beneath, and patience and perseverance and a little 
hot water will sometimes bring to light many treasures. 

In at least two instances in removing old plates 
which have been covered up for nearly a century, the 
writer has found the first book-plate of the original owner 
superceeded by another of more pretentious design, bearing 
other arms quartered with those of the older label. The 
inference will seem to be, that the owner had married 
an heiress, and re-constructed his book-plate to suit the 
altered conditions of life. An heiress in the parlance of 
heraldry, be it understood, is not merely a lady of means, 
but one, who, not having any surviving male relations, who 
by right of precedence assume the family arms, becomes 
herself entitled to wear them, and upon her marriage 
quarters them upon her husband's shield. 

The purpose of the following series of articles is mainly 
local, however, and while copies of book-plates of persons 
outside the limits of Acadia may occasionally be used by 
way of illustration, the purpose of the writer is to cata- 
logue, as fully as possible, all Acadian plates of the exist- 
ence of which he has been able to obtain authentic 
information. 

The persons within this area, who have used book- 
plates being comparatively few, a wide scope must be 
allowed, and the plates of persons not Acadian by birth, 
but who have, for a series of years been residents of this 
country, will be included in the following inventory. 

The writer regrets that the great expense of reproducing 
the plates has prevented the more ample illustration of 
this series of articles, but he feels that those given may be 
accepted as representing many of the best of the various 
types obtainable. 



BOOK-PLATES 93 

1. Sir James Stuart, Bart. The first plate in our 
catalogue, and one which the writer values highly, is 
that of Sir James Stuart, Bart., Chief Justice of Lower 
Canada. It was discovered by Mr. John Kerr, barrister- 
at-law, of St. John, in a second hand law book which he 
purchased from a dealer in England. The book had evi- 
dently been the property of the distinguished jurist, at his 
death been disposed of, passed into the hands of the 
English dealer, then, after the renovating process pre- 
viously described, finally found its way into the library of 
Mr. Kerr. 

Chief Justice Sir James Stuart, Bart., third son of Rev. 
Dr. John Stuart, was born at Fort Hunter in the State of 
New York, March 2, 1780. He studied at Kings College, 
Windsor, N. S.; entered the law office of Jonathan Sewell 
in 1798, and was called to the bar March 23, 1801. In 
1805 he was appointed Solicitor General for Lower Canada, 
and removed from Quebec to Montreal, which he was elected 
to represent in 1808, but in consequence of some differ- 
ences he lost the Solicitor-Generalship in 1809. He con- 
tinued a member of the Assembly till 1817, when he 
retired for a time from political life. In 1822 he was a 
delegate to England in the interests of Montreal, and in 
1827 became a member of the Executive Council, repre- 
senting Sorel. Lord Aylmer suspended him in 1831, but 
the next year Lord Stanley, the new Colonial Secretary, 
offered him the Chief Justiceship of Newfoundland, which 
was declined. Jonathan Sewell resigned as Chief Justice 
of Lower Canada in 1838, and Lord Durham appointed 
Sir James Stuart to the vacancy. He was created a 
baronet in 1841, on which occasion he selected for his motto, 
" Justitice propositique tenea" which few words convey an 
epitome of his character, and died July 14, 1853. His 
career was a distinguished one. A profound lawyer, an 
eloquent advocate, he in many respects resembled his prede- 
cessor in office Jonathan Sewell. 



94 ACADIENSIS 

2, 3, 4. Robert Sears. Three book-plates bearing this 
name are contained in an old English grammar, which has 
been placed in the hands of the writer by Mr. George 
Edward Sears, of Toronto, a first cousin of Mr. Edward 
Sears, ex-mayor of the City of St. John. Mr. Sears' letter 
is as follows : 

TORONTO, March 19th, 1901. 
MY DEAR MR. JACK, 

I am sending you an old grammar of Lindley Murray's, in 
which I find three of my late father's book-plates, of a very 
simple but quaint style. 

I am satisfied that this book was one of his school books, he has 
in his own hand- writing marked the date (1825); he was then 
fifteen years of age, and in Henry Chubb's printing office as an 
apprentice. I have no doubt that he set up these little labels 
himself. 

The first one indicates that he loaned his books, even at that 
early age, and desired his companions to share in the pleasures of 
reading as well as himself. 

Yours cordially, 

GEO. ED. SKARS. 

Robert Sears served his apprenticeship, as stated, by 
Mr. Geo. Ed. Sears in his letter, from 1820-28. He 
removed to New York in 1830 and was the first publisher 
of pictorial illustrated works in the new world. 

These are probably the oldest book-plates actually 
printed in New Brunswick, and we reproduce them as 
nearly as circumstances will permit. 



to return 
this (when read) and 
I will lend you ano- 
ther one. 



PRINTER, 

f oftu, . $ 







I 






S 



<> 
<>> 



5 w7ie /ie pleasing task with sense to scan, 
The various characters of Book* and Man: 
^Vom pride and folly free on either hand, 
Stiidy to know, and read to understand." >> 



95 



96 



ACADIENSIS 



5. Count Robert Visart deBury, of Bury in Belgium and 
St. John, N. B., is descended from an English family, 
which emigrated to the Lower Countries at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, and members of which took a 
prominent part in the wars of that period. One of the 
family, through his marriage with the last heiress of the 
well-known French family of de Chatillon, became poss- 
essed of the estate of Soleilleval in 
Artois and of the titular Lordship 
of Nazareth in the Holy Land, 
which was handed down in that 
family from the time of the Cru- 
sades. About the middle of the 
eighteenth century the Lordships 
of Bury and Bocarme, in Belgium 
were, with the title of Count, 
granted by the Empress Maria 
Theresa to Colonel Francis Visart 
de Soleilleval in recognition of his 
services in the wars of that time, 
and have remained in the family 
ever since. 

Count de Bury's great uncle was 
Field Marshall de Chasteler, who 
vanquished Napoleon's army in the 
Tyrol in 1809 and died Governor 
of Venice in 1832. Another con- 
nection was Calonne, minister of Louis XVI, and also 
the Abbe de Calonne, a French missionary in Prince 
Edward Island at the beginning of the Nineteenth 
Century. ^ 

R. V. de Bury studied at the Episcopal College of 
Mecheln, in Belgium, at the University of Zurich and at 
the Polytechnic School of Stuttgart in Wurtemberg, from 
which he graduated as civil engineer. He was employed 
by the Orleans Railway Company and by the Government 
of Wurtemberg in the survey of the Black Forest Railway. 




No. 5. 



BOOK-PLATES 



97 



He married Miss Simonds of St. John, N. B., at Stutt- 
gart, in 1869, and came to this Province at the end of 
the year 1873, residing partly at Portland, N. B., and 
partly at Bury, in Belgium, ever since. He is Belgium 
Consul for the Province of New Brunswick and Consular 
Agent for France at St. John, and was, for some years, 
a member of the Town Council of Portland. 

Count de Bury's eldest son Henry, is a Captain in the 
British army and is in command 
of the Royal Artillery in the 
Island of Santa Lucia. 

The book-plate used by Count 
de Bury is simple but effective 
in style, and, as may be readily 
observed, is illustrative of that 
much debated question, whether 
the pen is mightier than the 
sword. Our illustration is from 
the original block, which was 
engraved for the owner by C. 
H. Flewelling of this city. 

6. William Kenah, a sketch 
of whose book-plate, made by 
Charles E. Cameron, Esq., M.D., 
from an original, is here repro- 
duced, was born on the 25th of 
October, 1819, and was the son 

of Captain Joseph Kenah of the 104th regiment, and of 
Mary (Allen) his wife, daughter of Judge Isaac Allen. 

He was a brother of the late Mrs. William Jack, of St. 
John, and of the late Mrs. Samuel A. Akerley, of Freder- 
icton, N. B., at which city he spent many of the earlier 
years of his life. The late Chief Justice Allen and he 
were first cousins, and being very nearly of an age, and 
much alike in manner and disposition, were most intimate 
companions. 




No, 6. 



-98 ACADIENSIS 

Senator Dever, of this city, well remembers William 
Kenah, and describes him as a handsome and courtly 
man, of fine character and good presence. 

He was employed for several years with the Messrs. 
Carvell in St. John in the iron business, and at the time 
of his death, which occurred on the 25th of January, 1846, 
he had just completed his arrangements to commence 
business on his own account, being then in his 27th year. 

In an old brass-bound mahogany desk, which had 
belonged to him, and which had not been opened for 
several years, were recently found several letters of recom- 
mendation, signed by the late Hon John Robertson and 
others, and describing Mr. Kenah's character and attain- 
ments in most eulogistic terms. From among the number, 
the following, from the late Hon. John Simcoe Saunders, 

is selected : 

FREDERICTON, 8th February, 1845. 
MY DEAR SIR, 

It will be a subject of much satisfaction to me if I can be of 
-any service to you in promoting your views. 

Having been, from my earliest years, on terms of great intimacy 
with your father and his family, I have observed your entrance 
into life with peculiar solicitude, and have uniformly been grati- 
fied by finding your conduct and character, such as all your 
warmest friends could wish, as to steadiness, propriety and recti- 
tude, as well as from your habits of industry, knowledge of 
business, and superior natural talents and capabilities, and I can 
.assure you that these remarks are not only warranted from the 
result of my own observations, but from the uniform testimony in 
your favor of many persons of high character and standing who 
have expressed themselves to me most warmly in your favor. 
I am, my dear Sir, 

Yours very faithfully, 

JOHN S. SAUNDERS. 

7. Charles Douglas Smith was the grandfather of G. 
Sidney Smith, Esq., barrister, of St. John, N. B. His 
book-plate, an original copy of which is in the writer's 
possession, is a fine example of the true English armorial 
plate, and its many quarterings would prove a charming 



BOOK-PLATES 99 

study for those who delight in heraldry. He was an 
officer of dragoons in the British army, and a brother of 
Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, who fought and held in check 
Napoleon Bonaparte at Acre. His portrait and sword are 
now to be seen at the residence of his grandson, Mr. G. 
Sidney Smith, Dorchester Street, St. John. 

The plate used by Mr. G. Sidney Smith (No. 8) is an 
almost exact reproduction of that of his grandfather, 
Henry Boyer Smith, son of Mr. Charles Douglas Smith, 
was, in 1824, at the early age of twenty-four years, 
appointed by the Imperial government Comptroller of the 
port of St. John, and shortly afterward succeeded to the 
Collectorship, which position he continued to hold until 
the Imperial government was transferred to the colonial 
authorities in 1848, when he was retired with a pension. 
He continued to reside in St. John up to the time of his 
death, in 1868. His home was on Carleton Street, a 
substantial and comfortably built brick house, nearly 
opposite the old Mechanics' Institute building. Before 
the death of Mrs. Charlotte L. Smith, his widow, it was 
purchased by Mr. James F. Robertson, the present occu- 
pant, by whom it was remodeled and thoroughly modernized. 
To-day it forms one of the most comfortable and commodious 
residences in St. John. 

8. George Sidney Smith, grandson of Charles D. Smith, 
is the owner of the book-plate which is shown upon the next 
page, the printing being from the original block, executed 
for Mr. Smith. By a curious mistake on the part of the 
engraver, the quarterings in the lower left hand corner of 
the shield were reversed. Otherwise it is an exact reproduc- 
tion of that used by his grandfather. Mr. Smith, as a lad, 
was the winner of the Douglas silver medal, as " Dux " of 
the Collegiate School at Fredericton. He afterwards 
graduated from Kings College, now the University of Jew 
Brunswick, Fredericton, winning a foundation scholarship, 
taking his degree of Bachelor of Arts with honors, and 



100 



ACADIENSIS 



winning the Douglas gold medal for an essay. He studied 
law in the office of William Jack, Q. C., Advocate General 
in St. John, was admitted an attorney in 1858, and a 
barrister in October, 1859. He married, in 1861, Elizabeth 
Sands Thorne, only child of Stephen R. Thome, a barrister 
of Loyalist descent. 

Mr. Smith has a very fine collection of old seals and sig- 
net rings, antique watches, 
family portraits, medals, 
old silverware, swords, 
muskets, and other articles 
of vertu, each of which has 
some peculiarly interesting 
family tradition connected 
with it. The writer, who 
is a keen admirer of col- 
lections of this nature, 
spent a very pleasant hour 
with Mr. Smith, when pre- 
paring this sketch, in ex- 
amining the various articles 
enumerated, and in listen- 
ing to the many episodes 
connected with the history 
of the family. 

9. Isaac Allen Jack, 
Q. C., D. C. L., barrister- 
at-law, and formerly Recorder of the City of St. John, son 
of the late William Jack, Q. C., and of Emma Carleton 
(Kenah) his wife, and nephew of the late William Kenah 
before referred to, is the owner of a plain but neat book- 
label, several copies of which are in the possession of the 
writer. The label is of moderate size, about I|x4 inches, 
printed on white paper, and bears the simple inscription : 




BOOK-PLATES 101 



g ^ LIBRIS. jj 

I. ALLEN JACK. 

M>._ .............. 



The paternal grandfather of Mr. Jack was David William 
Jack, son of William Jack, Bailie, of the town of Cupar 
Fife, Scotland. The writer visited Cupar in January, 
1900, and there met one George Thompson, then in his 
93rd year, carpenter by trade, still able to support himself 
and a blind sister almost of his own age, and who was able 
to give him much valuable family history, most of which 
he was able afterwards to verify from the public records 
and other sources. This man well remembered William 
Jack, and related many amusing anecdotes in connection 
with the life of the late Bailie. 

Mr. Jack, as a boy, studied for several years under the 
late Canon Lee, and then entered the Collegiate School at 
Fredericton, matriculated at Kings College, Fredericton, 
afterward removing to Kings College, Windsor, N. S., 
where, in 1863, he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
In 1877 he received from the last mentioned college the 
degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, and in 1884 that of Doctor 
of Civil Law. He was admitted attorney in October, 
1866, and barrister the following year. He was appointed 
Recorder of St. John in April, 1885, and was created a 
<J. C. in March, 1891. 

He has been connected with various national, literary 
and other societies, and with the old Mechanics' Institute 
of St. John, in the management of which he took a very 
active interest, on several occasions delivering a lecture in 
the regular annual course. He was a literary contributor 
to the Week of Toronto, and to various other periodicals 
and magazines. 



102 ACADIENSIS 

In June, 1895, owing to ill-health, he was compelled ta 
retire from active business, but nevertheless continues to take 
a keen interest in literary work. It was at his suggestion 
that the writer was induced to take up the work connected 
with the editorial and business management of ACADIENSIS. 
His article, which appeared in the first number, entitled, 
" Thirst in Acadia," has been much admired as a piece of 
good descriptive writing. 

10. Alderman George Bond was a member of the 
Council of the City of St. John from 1833 to 1849. An 
Englishman by birth, he came out from Portsmouth in a, 
frigate which had been a man-of war, landing upon the 
beach in the City of St. John, near where the present 
custom house stands, there being no wharves in those days. 
He married a widow named Coram, but never had any 
children. He was a mill-owner, operating the tide mill 
from which the present mill pond at Carleton takes its 
name. This mill was for the sawing of lumber, and the 
power was supplied by the rise and fall of the tide. The 
mill wheel used was what was known as a flutter wheel, 
built like a cart wheel, with a large hub and spokes, the 
latter having the paddles or buckets attached, the pressure 
of water from the tide causing the wheel to rotate with 
great velocity. The lower wheel with the timbers and 
part of the frame, though under water for eighty years, 
were found intact when that part of the St. John harbor 
was dredged for the construction of the present deep water 
facilities, within the past five years. A general store was 
kept by Alderman Bond near this mill, from which the 
mill hands and general public were able to obtain their 
supplies. 

Mr. Bond and his wife were originally Methodists, but 
held views not entirely in accordance with the discipline 
of that denomination ; accordingly, a little meeting-house 
was built at Sand Point, and here Jew or Gentile, Christian 
or Barbarian, was at liberty to enter the pulpit and preach 



BOOK-PLATES 103- 

as the spirit moved them. This freedom of worship does 
not appear to have been very generally taken advantage 
of, for it is related that it was customary on Sundays for 
Mrs. Bond to mount the pulpit and preach, while the 
alderman played the organ. The instrument being what 
is known as a barrel organ, did not require the skill of an 
accomplished musician. 

Mr. Bond, when a member of the City Council, was 
noted for his easy manner, never disagreeing with his 
fellow aldermen, but obtaining his point when possible by 
persuasion, rather than by the force of argument. He 
was a man of smoothness, hence the name by which he 
was generally known, the " Smoothing Iron." 

He was both an Orangeman and a Freemason, but the 
writer is unable to learn of his having held any prominent 
office with either body. He also held two or three minor- 
municipal or provincial offices. That he was a man of 
some literary ability and taste is apparent from the fact 
that he left quite a large and valuable library, which was 
disposed of at the time of his death, which occurred on the 
4th of January, 1852, at the age of sixty-two. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 

(To be continued.) 



[It is proposed to continue this series of articles, taking up the book- 
plates of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in turn. 
Any of our readers who may themselves be the owners of, or be aware of the 
existence of any book-plates which would come within the scope of these 
articles, are requested to correspond with the editor of this magazine upon 
the subject. EDITOR.] 



TRinfc 




[HAT is more disheartening to the promoters of 
any enterprise than to find the results of their 
efforts received with that cool indifference, 
like the frosts in the early summer, which 
check the upward flow of life-giving sap in the rose-tree, 
wither the green leaves, and kill the half formed bud, 
which, if it had been tended with a little kindness, might 
have developed into a full-grown lovely flower, a thing of 
beauty, capable of producing pleasurable emotions within 
the bosoms of all who behold it or obtain a whiff of its 
balmy fragrance. 

Upon the other hand, what a little thing is a kind word, 
and yet what joy it begets in the hearts of those, who, 
having done what they could in aid of a good cause, find 
their efforts appreciated to an unlooked-for degree, and 
words of kindly encouragement flowing in upon them, in 
an uninterrupted stream from the length and breadth of 
the land. 

From among many hundreds of letters received, we take 
the liberty of publishing extracts from a few, none the less 
valuable for the reason that they were entirely unsolicited 
and therefore not written with a view of publication. 

** ACADIENSIS is the title of a new Canadian Quarterly published 
at Saint John, N. B., and edited by David Russell Jack of that 
city. It is devoted to the interests of the Canadian Maritime Prov- 
inces, and promises, according to the prefatory note of the editor, 
to deal with matters largely historical. The contents of the first 
number are of sufficiently high merit to warrant the expectation of 
still better things to come. * * * The field which ACADIENSIS 
proposes to cover is rich in historical associations and in the tra- 
ditions and legends which cluster round the story of the stormy 
years that followed the French Settlement of what is now Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick." Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 

104 



KIND WORDS. 105 

"Please enter my name as a subscriber to ACADIENSIS, which 
pleases me very much." Henry J. Morgan, Ottawa. 

"I trust that ACADIENSIS may live to see the dream realized of 
the nnion of the Maritime Provinces into the Province of Acadia." 
Rev. James M. Gray, Boston, Mass. 

" Pray command me at any time, and believe me to be very 
faithfully yours." Martin J. Griffin, Librarian, Library of Par- 
liament, Ottawa. 

" I like the general make-up of your magazine, and am much 
interested in it." Mrs. Elizabeth Roberts Macdonald, Fredericton, 
N. B. 

" We enclose order for ACADIENSIS for Yale University Library 
for 1901. If you have not already done so, we respectfully suggest 
that you send a sample copy to each of the following large libra- 
ries, lor which we act as agents." Eastern Subscription Co., Wai- 
linqford, Conn. 

" 1 am glad that you are starting an Acadian Magazine. If I 
had been in the way of writing I should like to contribute an 
article strongly urging the advisability of "Maritime Union." I 
have long been convinced that it is the most important issue for 
us Bluenoses if we ever wish these provinces to attain the position 
in the councils of the Dominion to which they are entitled. I 
wrote a short letter to the London Canadian Gazette on the subject 
several years ago, when I was living in Brittany. 1 shall be very 
happy to become a subscriber to ACADIENSIS." Neville G. D. Par* 
ker, M. D., St. Andrews, N. B. 

Mr. J. Murray Kay, of the firm of Houghton, Mifflin & Co. , 
publishers, of Boston, New York and Chicago, prefatory to a 
valuable letter, full of practical hints as to the best means of con- 
ducting a magazine such as ACADIENSIS, writes as follows: " Your 
note of the 22nd instant, refering to your new magazine, a copy 
of which has also come to hand, has been duly received and 
perused with much interest. Some points present themselves to 
my mind, and I give you the bearings of them in the modest hope 
that they may be of some use to you. * * * If there is any 
other point on which you would like to consult me, please let me 
know and I shall be glad to be of service to you." 

" I shall be pleased to do anything in my power that will assist 
you in your new venture, as I believe that the Magazine is one 
that well deserves public support." IT. 8. Bridges, M.A., Ph.D., 
Superintendent of Schools and Principal of High School, St. John. 



106 ACADIENSIS 

" I wish you success in this undertaking. The first part is 
good." Phileas Gagnon, Quebec, Historian and Bibliophile. 

" I shall be glad to give you what assistance I can. * * 
I am obliged to you for the copy of ACADIENSIS which I read with 
interest, and of which I hope, ere long, to become a subscriber if 
not a contributor." L. W. Bailey, M. A., Ph.D., F.R.S.C., 
Prof, of Chem. and Natural Science, U. N. B, F'ton, N. B. 

" May I congratulate you upon your debut, and wish you, very 
sincerely, all success in your venture ? Please count me at once 
among your friends, and if, at any time, I think I may venture 
to hope that anything 1 may write may be desiring of a place in 
your pages as likely to interest your readers, I shall most certain- 
ly, and with delight, send you some copy." Lauyrence W. Watson, 
Gharlottetown, P. E. I. 

"lam greatly pleased with* the first number of ACADIENSIS. 
There is, in my opinion, a fruitful field for such a magazine as is 
outlined in your prospectus, and the names of the gentlemen 
under whose auspices it is published is a sufficient guarantee for 
the character of the work. I wish you full success in this enter- 
prise." J. B. Inch, Chief Supt. of Education, Fredericton, N. B. 

" WHITEWATER, B. C., February 8, 1901. 

I saw an account of your magazine in the Oxford Journal; please 
send me a sample copy. If it is as good as the paper claims, I 
will subscribe." Norman McLeod, Sunset Mine, No. 1, B. C. 

WHITEWATER, B. C., March 5, 1901. 

"The sample copy of ACADIENSIS is to hand. Enclosed please 
find my subscription for one year." Norman McLeod. 

"lam delighted to hear of the new quarterly magazine. I 
wish you every success." Harry Piers, Curator Provincial Museum, 
Halifax, N. S. 

"I wish you success with your new magazine." Alfred H- 
Peters, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

" My grandfather, Moses Ward, was a cousin of Major John 
Ward (Father of the City of St. John. ED.) and had the honor r 
as I understand, of wearing His Majesty's commission in the same 
regiment, ' DeLancey's American Loyalists.' 

"P. S. Not being acquainted with exchange rates, I have 
ventured to enclose five dollars. Any surplus you will please pass 
to profit and loss account." Edmund A. Ward, Richfield Springs* 
New York. 



KIND WORDS. 107 

" Please send ACADIENSIS to this library, t L"Avem Pardoe, 
Librarian, Legislative Library, Toronto. 

" Please send me a copy of your new Quarterly, with subscrip- 
tion blank order." C. G. James, Department Agriculture, Toronto. 

"I wish you every success." Mr. Justice Landry, Dorchester, 
N. B. 

" You have my good wishes for the success of your enterprise.' 3 
Mrs. Wm. J. Robinson, Moncton, N. B. 

"I congratulate you upon the neat and attractive appearance 
of the new magazine, and on the appropriate name, ACADIENSIS. 
I wish it every success, and enclose an express order for a year's 
subscription. James Vroom, Historian, etc., St. Stephen, N. B. 

" I have much pleasure in asking you to enroll me as one of 
your subscribers. I do not know that I have an article on hand 
just now that would be suitable for your publication. I have been 
looking into the history of education in Nova Scotia, and have 
sketched an article which might be suitable." A, H. MacKay, 
Superintendent of Education* Halifax, N. S. 

"I shall be glad to forward your work by every means in my 
power. I dare say you can advance the cause in your region in a 
variety of ways. You have a fine field. Particularly I might 
suggest the gathering of proverbs, and of old songs and ballads. 
I wonder if fairy tales are still preserved in your region? 1 shall 
be glad to see that some extracts from ACADIENSIS get into our 
Journal." W. W. Newell, Secretary American Folk-lore Society, 
Editor Journal American Folk-lore, Cambridge, Mass. 

"I wish every success to your new magazine, ACADIENSIS." 
Mr. Justice Savery, Annapolis Royal, N. S. 

"I learn from Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells that you have started 
a new magazine. Will you not send me a copy ? I have not lost 
my interest in New Brunswick affairs, nor in my old St. John 
friends." Montague Chamberlain, Boston, Mass. 

"I have received the first number of ACADIENSIS, and am de- 
lighted with its dress as well as with the subject-matter. Mr. 
Dole's translation of French song is charming, and Mr. Roberts' 
verse says just what we all feel when reading Kipling. I find the 
historical articles intensely interesting to a New Brunswick 
woman. I send the names of two persons who, I think, would 
subscribe, and there are others whom I may send later." Miss 
M. R. Hicks, Noroton Heights, Conn. 



108 ACADIENSIS 

"Born in New Brunswick and an alumnus of Acadia, I note 
with pleasure the appearance of your quarterly. I enclose $1.00 
for a year's subscription. Please commence with the first number, 
if the edition is not exhausted. Wishing you every success itt 
your new venture." Archibald R. Tingley, B. A., etc., Russell, Man. 

" I send you three subscriptions for ACADIENSIS. Send me some 
of your circulars and I will distribute judiciously. I wish you 
every success." H. W. Bryant, Bookseller and Antiquary, Port- 
land, Me. 

" The first number of ACADIENSIS reached me in due course. I 
must congratulate you heartily upon its form and contents, and 
my best wishes for a long and fruitful life are cheerfully given." 
Ramd Renault, Editor North American Notes and Queries. 

** Kindly let us know by return mail the subscription price of 
ACADIENSIS. Some of our customers wish to take the journal and 
your prompt reply will greatly oblige." Gotthold Haug, Phila- 
delphia. 

" Enclosed find $1.00 for one year's subscription ACADIENSIS. 
I trust that the magazine will find the large constituency that it 
deserves." If. A. O'Leary, Editorial Department, New York Press. 

" I have the honor to propose that the Reports of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology be sent you regularly as issued, in exchange 
for ACADIENSIS." F. W. Hodge, Librarian, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington. 

" I am deeply interested in the new venture which takes the 
form of ACADIENSIS, and hope that it may have free course and be 
glorified. I have long thought that the lower provinces were in 
need of and could easily support a publication similar to that 
which you own as yours. We Canadians are far too modest & 
yet in that respect. "Rev. W. T. D. Moss, Pictou, N. S. 

"Your first number reached me to-day, and I cordially wish 
you every success." F. G. Jemmett, Editor Commonwealth, Ottawa. 

" I shall be glad to be of any assistance to you in your literary 
work. I am preparing some notes which I will forward to you 
presently." #. Percy Scott, Windsor, N. 8. 

" I can only say that I am prepared to give my hearty endor- 
sation to your proposed publication; that I shall be pleased to be 
an occasional contributor and do anything that I can to assist it." 
Hon. J. W. Longley, Attorney General, Halifax, N. S. 



KIND WORDS. 109r 

"Every word of the Magazine I have read, and I am led to 
believe that the publication will become a valuable addition to 
the historical literature of Eastern Canada. I have been surpri- 
sed that so rich a field has not been more thoroughly cultivated. 
A more romantic, a more fascinating, a more instructive history 
no country on this continent, other than Canada, presents to the 
writer qualified to picture it. If, at any time 1 can be of service 
to you, I shall with pleasure be at your command." J, Emory 
Hoar, BrooUine, Mass. 

" 1 am much interested in all old historical things, and ACADI- 
BNSIS appears to me as most interesting aud valuable." Mrs. J. 
Owen, Annapolis Royal, N. S. 

" I am glad that such a work has been brought out, and con- 
gratulate you on the nice appearance of the first issue. I can 
assure you, that as a loyal Canadian, anything pertaining to 
Canada's advancement will receive my hearty support. The 
Canadian Club of Boston is a most influential body here, and at 
our next meeting I will make it a point to introduce the first issue 
of ACADIENSIS to them." W. B. McVey, Toxicologist,etc., College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, Boston, Mass. 

" As soon as I received it I read it with profit. I hope you will 
find adequate encouragement in the Acadian Provinces, where it 
appears to me there is much need of such a periodical to create 
an interest in historical studies." Sir John G. Bourinot, L.L.D., 
D.G.L., Lit.D. (Laval) etc., etc. 

" Just a line to wish you success in your undertaking. There 
should be a good field for such a publication. Rev. W. Ken- 
drick, Placentia, Neivfoundland. 



The present number of ACADIENSIS contains sixteen pages 
of printed matter more than the standard issue of forty- 
eight pages. We trust that our subscribers will appreciate 
this extra effort and expense upon our part, and endeavour 
to interest their friends in our venture. 



110 ACADIENSIS 

EXCHANGES AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS 
RECEIVED. 

Part IV of Volume IV of the " Bulletin of the Natural 
History Society of New Brunswick," is the nineteenth con- 
secutive issue by this energetic and nourishing society. 
The principal contributors are Messrs. Geo. F. Matthew, 
LL.D., F.R.C.S., Samuel W. Kain, William Mclntosh, 
W. F. Ganong. M.A., Ph.D., G. U. Hay, M.A., F.R.S.C., 
and Charles F. B. Rowe. An article which should be of 
particular interest to our readers is that entitled, " Some 
Relics of the Early French Period in New Brunswick," by 
Messrs. Kain & Rowe. The Bulletin is published by the 
Society. Price, 50 cents. 

One of the first of our exchanges to come to hand, and 
one that gives promise of being a very valuable addition 
to the field of Canadian literature is, " North American 
Notes and Queries." It is published monthly, and the 
March issue of the present year is only the ninth number 
of the first volume. It covers a wide range of subjects, 
and among its contributors, past and prospective, will be 
found the names of some of the ablest writers in America. 
The leading article in the current number is entitled, 
" The Acadian Element in the Population of Nova Scotia," 
by Miss Annie Marion MacLean, A.B., A. M., M.A., 
Professor of Sociology in John B. Stetson University, of 
DeLand, Florida, late Professor in McGill University, 
Montreal. It is printed at Quebec, Raoul Renault, director 
and proprietor, T. D. Chambers, editor. $3.00 per annum. 

Number seven, of the " Book-lover," has been received, 
this, too, being a comparatively new publication. It is 
issued bi-monthly of quarto size, each number containing 
about one hundred pages of printed matter. A miscellany 
of curiously interesting and generally unknown facts about 
the world's literature and literary people, well edited and 
with a wonderfully inviting table of contents, one wonders 
how such a valuable work can be remuneratively conducted 



EXCHANGES 111 

afc the small price charged, namely, $1.50 per annum. 
W. E. Price, Editor, 1203 Market Street, San Francisco, , 
California. 

Canada Educational Monthly. 

Educational Review. 

Prince Edward Island Magazine. 

Educational Record. 

Genealogical Advertiser. 

Commonwealth. 

L'Acadie. 

New England Bibliopolist. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Record. 

Bulletin des Recherches Historiques. 

Archaeological Reports, Ontario. 

King's College Record. 

Windsor Tribune. 

Canadian Home Journal. 

Report Bureau American Othnology. 

Review Historical Publications Relating to Canada, . 
University of Toronto. 

The Earth Stands Fast, a lecture by Professor C. 
Schoepffer, edited by Gen. J. Watts de Peyster. 

Algol, the, "Ghoul" or "Demon" Star, by Gen. J. 
Watts de Peyster and Frank Allaben. 

We are indebted to Mr. S. W. Kain for old issues of : 

The Colonial Empire. 
The Morning Journal. 
Saint John Globe. 

We are also indebted to the following journals and 
publications for very kind and more or less extensive 
notices of our first issue. We regret that lack of space 
prevents our republishing extracts from the many notices 
received from our contemporaries : 

North American Notes and Queries ... . .Quebec. 

Canada Educational Monthly Toronto. 

Family Record Sydney, C. B. 

Presbyterian Witness Halifax, N. S. 

Colchester Sun Truro, N. S. 

P. E. Island Magazine Charlotte town, P. E. L 

Times-Guardian Truro, N. S. 



112 ACADIENSIS 

Truro Daily News Truro, N. S. 

Free Press Weymouth, N. S. 

L'Acadie Weymouth, N. S. 

Maple Leaf Albert, N. B. 

Advertiser Kentville, N. S. 

L'Irnpartial Tignish, P. E. I. 

Heraid , Halifax, N. S. 

King's College Record , Windsor, N. S. 

World Chatham, N. B. 

Journal Summerside, P. E. I. 

Carleton Sentinel Woodstock, N. B. 

Tribune Windsor, N. S. 

Freeman St. John, N. B. 

Press Woodstock, N. B. 

Gleaner Fredericton, N. B. 

Outlook Middleton, N. S. 

Messenger and Visitor St. John, N. B. 

Despatch Woodstock, N. B. 

Patriot Charlottetown, P. E. I. 

Examiner Charlottetown, P. E. I. 

Educational Review St. John, N. B. 

Educational Record Quebec, P. Q. 

Globe St. John, N. B. 

Argus Lunenburg, N. S. 

Casket Antigonish, N. S. 

Canadian Home Journal Toronto. 

We have been informed of the publication of similar 
notices in periodicals other than those mentioned, but we 
confine the list strictly to those of which we have personal 
k aowledge. 

Our July number will contain the following, among other 

articles : 

Matthew Thornton, by James Vroom, of St. Stephen, N. B. 
Notes and Queries, by H. Percy Scott, of Windsor, N. S. 
Lease of the Seigniory of Freneuse on the St. John in 1696, by 

Prof. W. F. Ganong, M. A., Ph.D., of Smith College, 

Northampton, Mass. 
On Certain Literary Possibilities, by Professor A. B. de Mille, 

M. A., of King's College, Windsor, N. S. 
La Valliere of Chignecto, by W. C. Milner, of Sackville, N. B. 




BrlsBBfcs. 



BOOK-PLATE OF EDWARD ALLISON. 




BOOK-PLATE OF THE LATE JOHN MEDLEY, 
BISHOP OF FREDERICTON. 



FROM THE COLLECTION OF DR. CHAS. E. CAMERON. 



CONTENTS. 



Vol. I. No. 3. 



July, J90J. 



Purification, 114 

Book-Plates, - 115 

Lease of the Seigniory ofFreneuse 

on the St. John in 1696, - - 121 
On Certain Literary Possibilities, 126 
Signature of Matthew Thornton, 131 
A Monument and its Story, - 137 
Honorable] 'Judge Eobie, - - 143 
Incidents in the Early History of 

St. John, 151 

Ji>a Valliere of Chignecto, - - 157 
An Acadian Monarch, - - - 163 
Notes and Queries, - - - - 164 
Old Colonial Silver, - - - - 168 
Esthetic A ttributes of A cadia, 169 
Answers to Correspondents, - - 178 

Book Notices, 182 

Exchanges Received, - - - - 184 




purification. 



A slimy fetid pool in dreary fen, 
Where bloomed no flower, where sang no bird 
Lay, far removed from pleasant haunts of men 
Its vile, dark, sick'ning depths unstirred, 
Save by the bursting bubbles which betray 
Some hidden, turgid mass in dank decay. 

Unchanged it lay, until the August heat 

Brooded upon it day by day ; 

When, rising from its hateful, foul retreat, 

It silent, ghost-like, passed away 

In vap'rous films, scarce seen by mortal eye, 

And humbly sought and found the summer sk; 

Back to its pristine purity restored, 

It floated, happy in the air 

Where gauzy clouds with widespread pinions soa 

O'er hills and dales and meadows fair; 

Till, dropping down with welcome, gentle shov 

It gave new life to thirsting grass and flowers 

I. ALLEN 




ACADIENSIS 



VOL. I. 



JULY, 1901. 



No. 3. 



DAVID RUSSELL JACK, EDITOR. 




HE MOST REVEREND 
John Medley, D.D., late 
Bishop of Fredericton 
and Metropolitan of the 
ecclesiastical province of 
Canada, was born in 
London, England, Dec. 
10th, 1804. He was 
educated at Wadham 
College, Oxford, and 
took his degree with 
second-class honors i n 

1827. He was ordained on June 14th, 1828, and became 
curate of Souther, in Devonshire, the same year. Tn 1831 
he accepted the incumbency of St. John, Truro, and in 
1838 he was appointed to the vicarage of St. Thomas, 
Exeter. He was consecrated first Bishop of Fredericton 
on Ascension Day, 1845, in Lambeth Chapel, by the then 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Howley. The foundation 
stone of Fredericton cathedral was consecrated August 
21st, 1853. The cathedral is a very fine specimen of 
architecture, and its situation, near the bank of the St. 
John river, surrounded as it is by a wide stretch of green 
sward, and clustered about by feathery elm trees, betokens 
the highly aesthetic taste of its projector, who sleeps his 
long sleep beneath the shadow of its walls. 



ii6 ACADIENSlS 

No. 11. The book-plate of Bishop Medley, which is here 
reproduced from the original copper-plate engraving, is one 
of the most beautiful in design and execution of any of those 
to be found within the limits of Acadia. Upon a ribbon 
is the motto : " Believe, Love, Obey," while above the 
shield is the crest, an heraldic tiger, sejant, vert, tufted 
and maned, or. 

No. 12. Mr. Edward Allison was born at Cornwallis, 
Nova Scotia, in November, 1803, and at the age of twelve 
years removed to Halifax, where he afterwards went into 
business with his brothers. 

About 1845 he went to St. John and entered into part- 
nership with Mr. James deWolfe Spurr, carrying on a 
general lumber business under the firm name of Allison & 
Spurr. they building the first mill at Spurr's Cove, at the 
location afterwards occupied by Miller <fc Woodman. 

Mr. Allison was also largely interested in shipping and 
the importation of general merchandise until about 1854, 
when, at the death of Mr. Adam Jack, who was managing 
the business of the Liverpool and London and Globe 
Insurance Company for him, he closed up his mercantile 
business and devoted himself exclusively to insurance. 
This latter business he continued until 1871, when he 
retired altogether from active business and removed to 
Fredericton, from whence, after three or four years, he 
again removed to Halifax, at which city he died in 1876. 

No. 13. The late William Richdale Bustin was a des- 
cendant of an old Northumbrian family, and he was born 
at South Lincolnshire, England. He was educated under 
the Rev. Joshua Stoppard, at Sedgefield Grammar School 
and at the University of Edinburgh. He was a good 
linguist and well versed in the natural sciences. 

He had held commissions in H. M. 10th and 98th 
Regiments of Foot, and was a brother officer of the late 
Col. John Robinson, of Douglas, York Co., N. B. After 
seeing some service in the Mediterranean and on the 



BOOK-PLATES. 



117 



Continent of Europe, his battalion of the regiment was 
reduced. 

He came to the Province of New Brunswick in 1848, 
and was the last officer to whom land was granted in 
Nova Scotia. 

He was a gentleman of superior education, literary 
mind, sound piety and retired habits. 

He died on Friday, the 27th of March, 1874, and the 
St. Croix Courier, dated the 
26th of the same month, pub- 
lishes a very eulogistic obitu- 
ary notice of his life, from 
which the foregoing is a brief 
extract. 

No. 14 Of all Acadian fami- 
lies, few are more numerous or 
more widely distributed than 
those bearing the name of 
Wetmore, with allied branches. 
Many of them have occupied 
prominent positions, more 
particularly in the Province 
of New Brunswick. They are 
all descended from Thomas 
Whitmore, who came from 
the west of England to Boston, 
Mass., in 1635, in the eleventh 

year of the reign of Charles the First. Three of them at 
least, namely, Thomas Wetmore, Rev. Robert Griffith 
Wetmore and William Wetmore, are known to have possess- 
ed book-plates, one of which we reproduce herewith. In 1861 
a very valuable book, entitled, " The Wetmore Family 
in America," was published by James Carnahan Wetmore, 
dealing with the Wetmore family throughout America. 
That portion of the Wetmore family who settled in Char, 
lotte County, N. B., appears to have been entirely omitted, 




W.R.BUST1N. 
NO, 13. 



118 ACADIENSIS 

and as it embraced many prominent and interesting per- 
sonages in provincial biography, it is our intention to pub- 
lish the first of a series of articles, dealing with that branch 
of the family, in our next issue. 

All the book-plates of the Wetmore family which the 
writer has been able to discover bear the family coat-of- 
arms and crest, which are as follows : 

Arms He beareth argent, on a chief azure ; three 
martlets, or. 

Crest A Falcon, ppr. 

The writer has had some correspondence with Hon. 
George Peabody Wetmore, Chairman of the Committee on 
the Library of the U. S. Senate, regarding the Wetmore 
book-plates, and as one of his letters contains a great deal 
of information in a concise form, we take the liberty of 
re-publishing it verbatim : 

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 7th, 1901. 
DEAR SIR, 

I am .sorry not to have been able to give attention to your 
letter, received some time ago, until now. In reply to your enquiry 
as to whether I know anything concerning Wetmore book-plates, 
I would say that I find in a book called " Book Plates Old and 
New," by John A. Gade, published by M. F. Mansfield and Com- 
pany, New York, on page 41, a paragraph speaking of book plates 
engraved by Paul Revere, in which mention is made, among 
others, of one of William Wetmore. In another book, " Book 
Plates, and their Value," by J. H. Slater, published at London, 
by Henry Grant, 47 Essex street, 1898, I find two references, on 
page 63 and page 233, again of William Wetmore. " American 
Book Plates," by Charles Dexter Allen, Macmillan and Co., New 
York and London, 1894, refers, on page 56, to a book-plate of 
Prosper Wetmore by Maverick, and on pages 147 and 148 to one 
of William Wetmore, by Paul Revere, giving a/ac simile of the 
same. In the same book, in the list of early American book-plates, 
page 302, No. 924, a description is given of the book-plate of 
Charles H. Wetmore, signed by " Doolittle, Sculp.," same page, 
No. 925, that of Prosper Wetmore, signed, "Maverick, Sculp.," 
and same page, No. 926, William Wetmore, signed " Revere, so." 
My father, William S. Wetmore, had a book-plate about forty 



BOOK-PLATES. 



119 



years ago, and I had one made about thirty years ago. I will try 
and remember, when I go to Newport, to send you examples 
of each. Yours truly, 

GRORGE PEABODY WETMORE. 
D. R. JACK, ESQ., 

St. John, New Brunswick. 

No. 14. WILLIAM 
WETMORE. The writer 
is indebted to Mrs. J. 
P. Wetmore, of Wood- 
stock, N. B., for a pencil 
sketch of a book-plate 
in her possession made 
for William Wetmore, 
and signed Revere, Sc. 
This is the first signed 
book-plate which w e 
have, so far, listed, and 
it is undoubtedly that 
of the William Wetmore 
mentioned in the letter 
of Hon. George Peabody 
Wetmore, published 
above. As it is identi- 
cal in design with that 
of Rev. R. G. Wetmore, 
M. A., and of Thomas 
Wetmore, neither of 
which are signed, it is 
probable that the latter 

are reproductions of the plate used by William Wetmore. 
The writer is also indebted to Mrs. Wetmore for the 
original of the book-plate of Rev. R. G. Wetmore, which 
we reproduce here. 

No. 15. Rev. Robert Griffieth Wetmore, A. M., was the 
youngest child of Timothy Wetmore, by Jane Haviland, of 
Rye, N. Y., his first wife, Timothy was the son of Rev, 




^tyJ&K&s^ 
ttUfocrtZafajfa 

<7 



NO. 14. 



120 ACADIENSIS 

James, who was the son of Izrahiah, who was the son of 
Thomas Whitmore, before mentioned. He was born in 
Rye, N. Y., March 10, 1774; christened the Sunday next 
before Whitsunday by the Rev. Mr. Avery, Mr. Robert 
Griffieth and wife, sponsors, by proxy ; married May 1 6, 
1795, at St. John, N. B., by Rev. Mather Byles, first 
rector of Trinity Church, St. John, to Jane Gidney, of 
Queens Co.; had Jane, and Abraham Kirsted Smedes. 
In his tenth year he removed with his father to Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, where he studied law and .was 
duly admitted an attorney 6th May, 1795. Soon after- 
wards he removed to New York and commenced the study 
of theology, being ordained deacon by Right Rev. Samuel 
Provost, bishop of New York, 25th May, 1797. 

He was a very prominent Mason, and held many high 
offices in that body. He died on the 30bh January, 1803, 
at Savannah, Ga. His wife died at Rye, N. Y., Saturday* 
October 2nd, 1802. 

No. 16. Thomas Wetmore, brother to the Rev. R. G. 
Wetmore, was born in Rye, N. Y., September 20, 1767 ; 
married March 17th, 1793, at Gagetown, N. B., to Sarah, 
daughter of Judge James Peters, and had thirteen children 
by her. He was a Loyalist, and removed with his father 
to Nova Scotia, and from thence to New Brunswick, where 
he studied law with Hon. Ward Chipman, was admitted 
to the bar, and practised with credit and success. In 
1792 he held the office of Deputy Surrogate of the Colony, 
was Master and Examiner in Chancery, Registrar of Wills 
and Deeds for Queens County, and was a member of the 
Council. He was appointed Attorney General of the Pro- 
vince of New Brunswick July 26, 1809, which office he filled 
with signal reputation until his death, 22nd March, 1828. 

The writer has before him an old volume published in 
1776, the property of Mr. George Otty Dickson Otty, 
containing the book-plate of Thomas Wetmore, and also 
his autograph, with the date 1799. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 

(To be continued.) 



lease of tbe Seignior? of Jreneuse on 
tbe St. 3obn in 1696, 




ORIGINAL manuscript of the fol- 
lowing document is in my 
possession. It was bought 
some years ago from a collec- 
tion of autographs sold at 
Paris (Dufosse, Catalogue No. 
69060). Its history, from 
the day it was signed by the 
Sieur de Freneuse at Quebec 
on the 5th of August, 1696, 
until it appeared in Dufosse's 
collection, is an entire blank. 
It is in a good state of pre- 
servation, though the old-fashioned hand in which it is 
written makes it at times difficult to read. In its tran- 
scription and translation I have had the great advantage 
of the kind assistance of Mr. F. P. Rivet, formerly profes- 
sor of French in the University of New Brunswick, and 
now a lawyer at Lowell, Mass. The document is not only 
of much interest as a curiosity (for it is probably the 
oldest original document relating to the history of New 
Brunswick now in possession of any New Brunswicker), 
but it is of considerable historical importance for the light 
it throws on one of the least known periods of our history. 
We know that the Seigniory of Freneuse occupied the 
parishes of Maugerville, Sheffield and Canning, on the St. 
John, and that the Seigniorial Manor of Freneuse was in 
Sheffield, nearly opposite the mouth of the Oromocto. 
Full accounts of the location of this and other seigniories 
of the time on the St. John may be found, with a map, in 
the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. V, 
121 



122 ACADIENSIS 

1899, Section ii, 302-320. The Sieur de Freneuse was 
one of four brothers prominent on the St. John towards 
the close of the seventeenth century, of whom a popular 
account is given by Hannay in the New Brunswick Magazine, 
I, 25. The genealogical connections of these brothers may 
be traced in Tanguay's " Dictionnaire Genealogique." This 
lease was signed in August, 1696, and the Sieur de Freneuse 
died in the same year as a result of injuries received at the 
siege of Fort Nashwaak in October. Michel Chartier, 
habitant of Scoodic, was granted a seigniory in 1695 on 
the Scoodic, including the site of St. Stephen, and he was 
apparently living there at the time of Church's raid in 
1704. Whether or not he ever occupied the seigniory of 
Freneuse, we do not know, but as he appears not to be 
mentioned in the census of 1698, probably the death of 
the Sieur de Freneuse led to a change of plans. Judging 
from Tanguay, Michel Chartier was probably no relation 
of Dame Marie Fran9oise Chartier, widow of the Sieur de 
Marson, and grantee of a seigniory on the St. John in 
1691. The subsequent history of the Seigniory of Freneuse 
is entirely unknown. The lease, however, shows that the 
Sieur de Freneuse had here a considerable establishment, 
as had his brother, Sieur de Chauffeurs, at Jemseg, as 
shown by Gyles' Narrative ; so 1 that at least two of the 
sixteen seigniories on the St. John were actually, to some 
extent, settled. 

The document is worthy of reproduction, both in the 
original form and in translation. The translation is not 
exact, for in places the original is obscure, and I hare not 
been able to determine the exact meaning of certain signs 
and abbreviations ; but in all essentials I believe it conveys 
the meaning of the original : 

(Original.) 
5 aoust 96 

PARDEVANT GUILLAUME Roger Notaire Royal en la 
Prevoste de Quebec y residanb Et tesmoins cy aprez nommez Et 
signez, fub pnt. Monsieur Maistre Mathieu damours Escuyer 



LEASE OF THE SEIGNIORY OF FRENEUSE m 

Seigneur de freneuse, Conll. du Roy au Conseil souverain de ce 
pais, Lequel de son boa gre, et Volonte, a reconnu et Confesse 
avoir bailie et delaisse par ces presentes, a Tiltre de ferine, Loyer 
et prix dargent, Pour Cinq annees finies et accomplies Commen- 
cantes Le premier May de 1'annee prochaine gbjll Quartre vingt 
dix sept Et finir a pareil Jour au bout deadites cinq annees, Et 
promet pendant ledit temps garentir et faire Jouir plainement et 
paisiblement, A Michel Chartier Habitant de Scoude a 1' acadie, a 
ce present et aoceptant preneur et retenant pour luy au dit tiltre 
le dit temps durant, C'est a scavoir, Le manoir Seigneurial de la 
dite Seigneuriede freneuse, concistanten trente arpens ou Environ 
de terres Labourables a la charrue, prez, bois de haute futaye et 
taillie, avec les maisons, granges Et Estables qui sont dessus, La 
traitte avec leu Sausages dans toute 1'estendiie de la seigneurie, a 
la reserve des terres que Ledit sieur bailleur par [?] avoir concedees 
a des particuliers, Comme aussy livrera le dit sieur bailleur au 
preneur en Entrant dans Ladite ferme, tous Les beufs, vaches et 
taurailles t avec les chevres qui en seront Sortis au dit temps, 
douze Cochons masles Et femelles, Vollailles, meubles, et Ustancil- 
les de mesnage qui resteront de la Vente quil a dessein d'en faire 
avec Les Charette Et charnir, [charrue?] garnieet preste a travail- 
ler, Pour desdt. terres maisons et bastiments Circonstances et 
depencances t Jouir, par ledit preneur audit^tiltre Lesdt. Cinq 
Annees durant En Vertu des presentes, Ce bail ainsy fait, a la 
charge Par ledit preneur, d'en faire bailler et payer au dit sieur 
bailleur par chacun an Le premier Juillet de chacune annee La 
somme de six cent livres argent prix de france, moytie en argent 
Et L'autre en menues pelleteries Comme castor, Louttres Et 
martres Lequel payement Ledt. sieur bailleur Envoyera querir au 
dit lieu en 1'acadie La premiere annee qui sera 1698 ; La Seconde 
Le preneur luy apportera en cette Ville, La troisieme le dit sieur 
de freneuse lenvoyera querir, La quatriee. Le preneur luy appor- 
tera Et la Cinqe. et derniere annee ledt. sieur bailleur y envoy- 
era outre ce sera ledt. preneur tenu a la fin de son bail de remettre 
es mains dudit sieur bailleur Pareil nombre t ainsy que de ce qu 1 
est cy dessus specific, t qu'il a de present de bestes a Conies, 
mesme Especes Et Valleur, ainsy que des cochons, Et des 
Ustancilles de mesnage, Charette et Charrue garnie, Et Vollail- 
les, ft suivant Et Au desir de 1'Estat du tout, qui sera fait Entreux, 
Et dont chacune d'Elles aura Copie ; Comme aussy par ledt. 
Preneur d'Entretenir les bastiments des manoir reparationes 
pendant son bail, que si'il on besoin d'en faire de grosses II sera 
to, t. These signs occur in the original. 



124 



ACADIENSIS 



tenu d'en advertir le dit sieur bailleur afin d'y faire remedier 
Lesquelles II sera tenu de souffrir Sans pour ce pouvoir pretendre 
aucune diminution de labourer, cultiver et Ensemencer les terres 
parsoller Et saisons convenables sans desoller ny desaissoner Et 
du tout en user comme Un bon pere de famille don faire, Et le 
tout rendre en bon et deub estat en fin dudt bail, Et outre de 
fournir Autant des presentee en bonne et deube forme Au dit sieur 
bailleur ou luy rendre Ce quil en aura debourse, moyennant quoy 
Le dit sieur bailleur s'oblige de rendre Les dites maisons et autres 
bastiments en bon Et deub Estat, Car ainsy sont convennues 
lesdites parties Permettant et obligeant chacune en dieu Foy Et 
renonceant fait et passe Audit Quebec Estude dudt. Notaire 
Apres Midy Le Cinquieme Jour d' aoust Mil six centquatre vingt 
Seize en presence des sieurs Georges Michellet Me descole Et Jean 
Chevallier peruquier demeurant au dit Quebec-tesmoins qui ont 
avec Ledt sieur bailleur et Notaire Signe Et a ledt. preneur 
declare ne scavoir escrire ny signer de ce Enquis, 11 ee gl. luy 
en sera livre. 

G. MICHELLET. J. CHEVALIER. 

ROGKR. 




(Translation.) 
5th August '96, 

BEFORE WILLIAM Roger, Notary Royal of the jurisdiction of Quebec 
there residing, and witnesses hereafter named and subscribed, was present 
Monsieur Master Mathieu Damours, Sieur de Freneuse, Counsellor of the King 
in the sovereign Council of this land, who of his own accord and will has 
acknowledged and confessed to have leased and relinquished by these presents 
the title in his farm [for] rent and payment in money for five full and entire 
years commencing the first of May next year sixteen hundred and ninety 
seven and to end on the same day at the end of the said five years, and 
promises during the said time to guarantee and allow, fully and peacefully, 
possession to Michel Chartier habitant of Scoodic in Acadie (he being present 
and accepting as lessee and holding for himself under the said title during 
the said time,) [the following] that is to say, the seigniorial manor of the 
said Seigniory of Freneuse, consisting of thirty arpents or thereabouts of 
arable land under the plow, meadows, forest and undergrowth, with the 
houses barns and stables which are thereon, trade with the Indians through 
the whole extent of the Seigniory with exception of the lands which the said 



LEASE OF THE SEIGNIORY OF FRENEUSE 125 

lessee may have granted to private individuals, as also the said lessor will 
deliver to the lessee in taking possession of the said farm, all the oxen cows 
and bullocks with the goats which shall be on it at the said time, twelve pigs 
male and female, poultry, furniture and household utensils which shall 
remain from the sale he intends to make, with the cart and plow rigged and 
ready for work. In order that the said lessee may enjoy the said lands, 
houses, and buildings, privileges and appurtenances under the said title 
during the said five years, by virtue of these presents, this lease [is] thus 
made, on the condition that the said lessee gives and pays to the said lessor 
for each year on the first of July in each year the sum of six hundred livres 
in money of the French standard, half in money and the other half in small 
furs such as beaver otter and martins ; which payment the lessor will send 
for at the said place in Acadie the first year which will be 1698 ; the second 
the lessee shall bring to him in this city ; the third the said Sieur de Freneuse 
will send for ; the fourth the lessee will bring to him, and the fifth and last 
year the said lessor will send, besides which the said lessee shall be bound at 
the end of his lease to return into the possession of the said lessor a like 
number as herein specified that it has at present of cattle, of the same kinds 
and value, as well as pigs and household utensils, waggon and plow equipped, 
and poultry, according to the list of all which shall be made between them 
and of which each one shall have a copy. Also the said lessee shall have 
to keep the buildings of the manoir in repair during his lease, and if larger 
[changes] are needed he will be bound to advise the said lessee in order that 
he may repair them. All these things he will have to do without being able 
to claim any diminution of plowing cultivating and sowing the lands, to 
work it in suitable seasons and not to injure it nor work it out of season, 
and to use everything as a good father of a family ought to do, and to return 
everything in good and proper order at the end of his lease, and besides to 
furnish as much of these presents in good and proper order to the said 
lessor or to return to him what he shall have expended, in consideration of 
which the said lessor binds himself to hand over the said houses, and other 
buildings in good and proper condition. For thus the said parties are con 
vened promising and binding themselves by God and the faith and in renun- 
ciation. Made and passed at the said Quebec in the office of the said Notary 
in the afternoon of the fifth day of August one thousand six hundred and 
ninety six in the presence of Messieurs Georges Michellet schoolmaster, and 
Jean Chevallier Barber living at the said Quebec, witnesses who have with 
the said lessor and Notary signed. And the said lessee declares he knows 
how neither to write nor to sign . . . shall be delivered to him. 

W. F. GANONG. 



n Certain Xtterarip possibilities* 




T the present time there is an enormous 
demand for literary material. This 
is especially the case as regards fiction. 
For example, it will be found that 
nearly every state in the union to the 
south of us possesses one or more 
literary interpreters engaged in prose- 
cuting their art and reaping their pecuniary rewards. 
Thus, Kentucky is in the hands of Mr. James Lane Allen, 
Louisiana under the manipulation of Mr. G. W. Cable. 
And in these days of " localized " fiction- writing, it is 
interesting to note the possibilities of our Maritime Pro- 
vinces, and particularly those of Nova Sootia. A few 
remarks on the subject may fitly find place in ACADIENSIS. 
Nova Scotia, as everyone knows, formed the most im- 
portant section of the old French province of Acadie. It 
possesses a history extending back some three centuries, 
and manifests features historical and other which claim 
a more than passing notice from the seeker after new 
things in the domain of literature. To a certain degree 
the field has been exploited, but there remains a large 
extent of virgin soil. There is plenty of dramatic incident 
imbedded in the past, while many elements of literary 
appeal exist to-day on the rugged coast-line or the storied 
marsh-lands. 

At the basis of all literary appeal lies the quality of 
human interest. Very close to this comes what may be 
called local colouring, as of dialect and scenery which 
serves to bestow originality and freshness. To engage the 
attention of the public requires striking character or inci- 
dent, or strong scenic effect. These requirements may be 
found without difficulty in the little seaside province. 
126 



ON CERTAIN LITERARY POSSIBILITIES 127 

Of the literary possibilities of Nova Scotia, those of a 
historical nature are the first to present themselves. The 
history of the country has not been very long, but it is 
singularly picturesque. All about it there clings a pleasant 
flavour of romance. 

The French were the first on the scene, arriving towards 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. The names of 
DeMonts, Champ] ain, and the Baron de Poutrincourt group 
about this early period. These gentlemen adventurers 
were very interesting figures, and carried with them into 
the wilderness something of the glamour of old France. 
Many dramatic incidents are connected with the French 
regime. There was the famous duel of La Tour and 
Charnisay a duel fought out on two continents, and end- 
ing in a manner which touches every lover of true romance. 
Though one could wish, indeed, that La Tour had remained 
faithful to the memory of the brave lady who waited so 
long and vainly in the fort at the St. John's mouth above 
the fierce Fundy tides. Sufficiently dramatic, too, was 
the appearance before this of Captain Samuel Argall, who 
went north all the way from Virginia to wipe out the 
French menace at Port Royal. This place, at the head of 
its beautiful basin, was for years the centre of French 
influence. And the hill-ranges round about looked down 
on many a dubious conflict, when the cannon grumbled 
over the marshes. 

The first successful attempt at colonization was made 
about 1633, when Isaac de Razilly and Charnisay brought 
out some families from France. These were the progenitors 
of the Acadian race. Very capable people they were 
though for a time they suffered much during the winters. 
Yet they kept up bravely, and barred out the sea, and 
felled the forests, and cultivated the marshes. They 
increase and multiply, so that by and by we find them 
holding all the fair valley from Port Royal to Piziquid. 
They spread also round the head of the Bay of Fundy. 



128 ACADIENSIS 

Their great achievement was reclaiming thousands of acres 
where formerly the salt waves ranged at will. Their 
system of dike-building was remarkable for strength and 
durability. They did not pay much attention to things 
extraneous, and could not at all understand the inexorable 
law of race-conflict which brought the English against 
them. 

This struggle, and the events connected therewith, forms 
the most striking period of Nova Scotian history, The 
whole subject is shrouded with a mist of controversy, of 
which the end is not yet. But this is of small consequence 
to the romancer. Of course we have had the great romance 
of the Acadians the tale of " love that hopes, and endures 
and is patient." Evangeline is a very charming (if very 
unhistorical) heroine, and the poem shows how much can 
be made by an artist out of good material. Yet Long- 
fellow's work has by no means exhausted the possibilities 
of that exciting period. There is strong dramatic value 
in the opposition of the Acadians and English, and the 
vast background of the Anglo-French war. 

That war presents many opportunities to the story- 
writer. The time was pregnant with fate ; the destiny of 
three nations hinged upon the outcome. A striking work 
of fiction lies in the power of him who can read and weigh 
musty archives, who has an eye for effective incident, and 
the skill of a literary craftsman. Beausejour, Grand Pre 
and Louisbourg call up memories that loom large and are 
lit with battle-fires. 

Another feature of literary interest in Nova Scotia is 
found in the various periods of settlement. That of the 
French commenced in 1605, or thereabouts, and ran on for 
the greater part of a century. About 1748 the English 
began to take a definite stand. In the summer of 1745 a 
handful of German settlers were established in what is 
now the County of Lunenburg. Some twenty years later 
the Scotch immigration began. It continued until 1820, 



ON CERTAIN LITERARY POSSIBILITIES 12 

and was of much importance to the province. The United 
Empire Loyalists came to Nova Scotia in 1783, and the 
story of the settlement and abandonment of Shelburne is 
an interesting chapter of history. 

Turning from the historical point of view, we find that 
even in the present prosaic age Nova Scotia has consider- 
able material for the literary artificer. In the first place,, 
there is the very fascinating element of French survival. 
Longfellow's words are still substantially true. Acadian 
damsels do still wear the Norman cap and the homespun 
kirtle. And if they do not repeat Evangeline's story 
around the fire, they doubtless have equally entertaining 
tales of their own. Any writer who has time on his hands 
would do well to spend a few weeks in the Clare District, 
or among the Tusket Islands. Here the march of progress- 
has made but little change. 

Then there is the presence of what may be termed 
dialect. The Acadian French is the most important. 
Two other modes of speech will re-pay study. One is that 
of Lunenburg and Queens Counties. It possesses a strong 
German element. The use of pure German has died out 
within the last fifty years, though many families treasure 
their old German Bibles. But the speech and it might 
be said the customs and physiognomy of this folk shows 
marked traces of their origin. Up in Cape Breton, and in 
the Counties of Pictou, Guysborough and Antigonish, you 
will find Scotch and very broad Scotch, too. Many of 
the good people speak Gaelic. This section is peculiarly 
interesting. It is also characterized by thrift an essenti- 
ally Caledonian virtue. 

Again, there is enough wild life in Nora Scotia to catch 
the attention of the literary stroller. Most important in 
this regard are the Indians what is left of them. They 
are a silent race proud and shy but if you win their 
respect through the good fellowship that comes of fishing 
and shooting, they will tell some strange legends of ancient 



130 ACADIENSIS 

lore. If you are a writer, however, you must be careful to 
keep the fact hid, for they dread the publication of the 
pathetic tales of their past. The best traditions of the 
Micmacs are handed down orally, and jealously guarded. 
The better class of Indians preserve a sort of aristocracy. 
Sometimes they will point out the sites of forgotten villages, 
now indistinguishable amid the forest. 

An important phase of Nova Scotian life is found in the 
fisheries. Many of our fishermen sail out of Gloucester to 
the Banks, but many more go from our own ports. Fine 
fellows they are, and spin a good yarn upon occasion. 
Moreover, they often build and sail their own schooners. 
And you seldom hear of a vessel built at Lunenburg, or 
La Have, or Shelburne, turning up any the worse for a gale 
of wind. 

This brings us, by a natural sequence, to the final note 
in our hastily-gathered sheaf. Nova Scotia possesses 
excellent scenic properties. The marsh country is un- 
usual, and produces magnificent sunsets more particularly 
the region sentinelled by Blomidon. On the Atlantic 
coast you get the finest effects. The land is bold, often 
precipitous, and the sweep of the surges is terrific. The 
headlands are generally naked granite. Also they are 
unspoiled as yet by summer cottages or summer tourists. 
You obtain the scenic impression to advantage on board 
an inbound steamer, or a homing schooner. If it is winter, 
and towards sundown of a windy day, so much the better. 

As I said at first, the literary field offered by Nova Scotia 
has by no means been neglected. But there is much 
remaining to the craftsman who feels moved thereunto. 

A. B. DEMlLLE. 

Kind's College, Windsor, N. S. 




Signature of flDattbew ftbornton. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE, before the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary War, 
there were two men, uncle and nephew, 
who bore the name of Matthew Thorn- 
ton. The uncle was born in Ireland, 
about 1714. He was a son of James 
Thornton, and came with his father 
to America when three or four years of age. Soon 
after their immigration, the family settled at Wor- 
cester, Mass.; removing thence to Londonderry, N. H., 
in 1740. Having studied medicine in Massachusetts, 
Matthew Thornton was commissioned by Warren and 
Pepperrell, in 1745, as under-sergeant of Richardson's 
regiment, and accompanied the expedition to Louisbourg, 
On his return he resumed the practice of his profession in 
Londonderry, where he was later appointed justice of the 
peace, and also colonel of militia. Though he thus held 
two offices under the royal government, he represented the 
town of Londonderry in the second, third and fourth pro- 
vincial congresses of New Hampshire, and was elected 
president of the latter in 1775. He held the same position 
in the fifth provincial congress; and when that body 
resolved itself into a state legislature, Matthew Thornton 
was chosen speaker of the house of representatives, an 
office which he very soon left vacant to become a member 
of the upper house, and afterwards a justice of the supreme 
court of New Hampshire. In 1779 he removed from 
Londonderry to Exeter, and in the following year to the 
Merrimac, where, in 1784, he obtained exclusive right to 
the ferry at the place still known as Thornton's Ferry. 
He died in 1803 while on a visit to his daughter in New- 
buryport, Mass. 
131 



132 ACADIENSIS 

Matthew Thornton, the nephew, was the son of another 
James Thornton. He was born in New Hampshire, in 
December, 1746. He was a resident of the town of 
Thornton ; where, at the age of twenty-nine, he seems to 
have taken a leading part in local affairs, and held the 
rank of captain of militia. While Colonel Matthew Thorn- 
ton represented Londonderry in the third provincial con- 
gress, Captain Matthew Thornton sat in the same convention 
as the representative of the towns of Holderness and 
Thornton. Matthew Thornton, of Thornton, was also a 
member of the fourth New Hampshire congress, and was 
by it appointed to assist in the work of raising volunteers 
"to guard the Western Frontier." At the battle of 
Bennington, in August, 1777, he appeared among the 
British, under circumstances which led to the suspicion 
that he was not altogether an unwilling prisoner. He was 
arrested by the New Hampshire authorities ; was detained 
in prison for two years, the general assembly in the mean- 
time passing and repealing special acts to authorize his 
trial in certain counties, one after another ; and was finally 
tried and acquitted. After his release, he fled to escape 
persecution. Joining the Penobscot Loyalists at St. 
Andrews, he received a share in their grants of land on 
the St. Croix, his farm lot lying in that part of the old 
parish of St. Stephen which is now the parish of Dufferin. 
He died about 1824, and is buried at the Ledge, not far 
from the land allotted to him in the Penobscot Association 
grant. His grave is not marked, and the exact spot is 
difficult to find. There are persons living who can recall 
to memory the old man, broken in health and spirit ; and 
a refined, gentle and patient woman, his wife. The ruins 
of the old stone house in which they lived, a large pewter 
dish that belonged to their better days, and a scarf-pin 
bearing the family coat-of-arms, and beneath it some 
Masonic device that is said to have helped him in his flight 
these, and a few old documents in which his name 



SIGNATURE OF MATTHEW THORNTON 133 

occurs, are all that remain to his younger descendants as 
mementos of the refugee. 

One of these two men was a delegate to the general 
congress that assembled in Philadelphia in 1776 and 
adopted the Declaration of Independence. He is mentioned 
in the journals of the congress as "The hon. Matthew 
Thornton, Esq., a delegate from New Hampshire." Though 
not present when the famous declaration was issued, and 
not even a member of the congress until four months later, 
he was allowed to add his signature. Was this Colonel 
Thornton, of Londonderry ; or was it his nephew, Captain 
Thornton, of Thornton? The descendants of the latter 
have a tradition that he was the signer. 

According to this family tradition, Captain Thornton, 
just before the affair known as the battle of Bennington, 
had gone to look over some land which he had bought or 
wished to buy, and was surprised and taken prisoner by 
the British, and compelled to drive one of their ammunition 
wagons. His neighbors, finding him thus employed, sup- 
posed that he had been all along secretly in sympathy 
with the British ; and he was therefore arrested for treason. 
The fact that after a long imprisonment he was brought to 
trial and honorably acquitted did not allay their suspicions ; 
and to avoid further trouble he secretly made his way by 
sea to St. Andrews, where, on the arrival of the Loyalist 
refugees, he was admitted to their company as a fellow 
sufferer. 

The following statement* was given the writer some 
years ago by the late Joseph Donald, of Dufferin, who at 
one time sat in the House of Assembly of this province as 
a member for Charlotte : 

It has always been known in the family that Matthew Thornton, 
of the Penobscot Association, was a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, though, for obvious reasons, very little was said 
about it during his lifetime. As a Loyalist among Loyalists, he 

* Published in the St. Crotae Courier series of articles on the History of 
Oharlotte County and the Border Towns, now out of print. 



134 ACADIENSIS 

would, of course, prefer that the fact should be forgotten ; and it 
would have been more in accordance with his wishes if it had 
remained a family secret. 

Soon after I became acquainted with the family, which was- 
nearly seventy years ago, I first heard it mentioned. This was 
but a year or two after Matthew Thornton died, and while his 
widow was still living. 

A little incident which convinced me of the truth of this story 
took place at the house of his son (afterwards my father-in-law), 
who was also named Matthew Thornton. 

A friend had sent me a group of portraits of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. Showing this to Mr. Thornton, 
without letting him know what it was, I asked him whether he 
knew any of the faces. He pointed to one and said, " Why, that's 
Father Thornton," and showed it to his wife, who also recognized 
the likeness. Then I told him that the pictures were those of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, and that the one he 
had pointed out bore his father's name ; and he said, "Yes, he 
was a signer," 

It was easy to be misled by a strong family likeness ; 
and " signer " would not necessarily mean a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence ; so, to remove any lingering 
doubts, Mr. Donald went to some trouble and expense in 
looking up records in New Hampshire. But he finally 
reached the conclusion that the family tradition was 
correct. 

Mr. Donald's conclusion, however, was not supported by 
such documentary proof as would be convincing to others. 
The papers in his possession related chiefly to the trial and 
acquittal of Captain Thornton. The readiest means of 
testing the truth of the curious tradition seemed to be a 
comparison of the signature of Matthew Thornton in a 
fac-simile of the Declaration of Independence, with signa- 
tures of Captain Thornton, the Loyalist ; but the result 
was not so conclusive as might have been expected. 



[From a/ac-imtte of the Declaration of Independence]. 



SIGNATURE OF MATTHEW THORNTON 135 



[From a document witnessed by Matthew Thornton 
soon after coming to St. Stephen.] 



[From a note of hand given by Matthew Thornton, 
of St. Stephen, in 1813.] 

The very remarkable resemblances in these signatures 
the peculiar break between the " r " and the " n " in the 
first syllable of the surname, the joining of " t " and " o," 
and the stiff ending of the final letter of the name seemed, 
at least, to call for a suspension of judgment. If an un- 
doubted signature of Dr. Thornton should prove to be very 
different, Mr. Donald's contention would hold good, and the 
tradition must be accepted as true. 

Following up the matter more recently (with the courteous 
help of Mr. V. H. Paltsits, of the New York Public 
Library), the required signature was obtained, and a wonder- 
ful similarity of handwriting shown to have existed in the 
case of uncle and nephew. If the resemblance in their 
features was so great, it is not surprising that the son of 
the latter was misled by the printed portrait. 



[From a /ac-stmj'Ze of document signed by htm as Chairman of 
the Committee of Safety, "Exeter, June 19th, 1775."] 






[From a recommendation of a committee of the N. H. House of 
Representatives, dated " March 3rd, 1786."] 



136 ACADIENSIS 

It must be admitted, then, that "The hon. Matthew 
Thornton, Esq.," president of the New Hampshire conven- 
tion, was the delegate to the congress at Philadelphia and 
the signer of the famous document. His unfortunate 
nephew, who, when a company of men was to be raised by 
the New Hampshire Committee of Safety, in 1775, was 
recommended to that committee as " a Man Shutabe [sic] 
we Think to Inlist said Company, and a man that we Can 
Depend upon in the graitest Troble or Destress," was 
probably a signer of some other pledge or protest. Such a 
document was signed by many who afterwards remained 
loyal to the crown ; for many of the colonists felt that 
they were opposing the unlawful acts and pretensions of 
the British parliament, and not their lawful sovereign, the 
King of England. They were ready enough to acknow- 
ledge the King ; but were not ready to acknowledge any 
other authority as above that of the colonial legislatures. 
The Declaration of Independence, in 1776, may have com- 
pelled Captain Thornton, as it certainly did compel many 
another colonist, to choose between keeping faith with his 
associates and remaining true to his allegiance. That his 
uncle was present at his long-deferred trial, and that two 
brothers-in-law were men of influence, may, perhaps, in part 
account for his acquittal in defiance of public opinion. 
This view of the case is certainly in accordance with the 
fact that he was received on equal terms as a member of 
the Penobscot Association of United Empire Loyalists. 

JAMES VROOM. 





H flDonument ant> its Stor\>, 

(Conclusion.) 

|HE DEATH of Mrs. Macdonald did not, how- 
ever, turn Captain Macdonald from the patri- 
otic work in which he was engaged, and to 
which he had been devoted. In the autumn 
of 1843 he published, from the press of Henry 
Chubb <fe Co., a pamphlet which bore the following title : 
11 Sketches of Highlanders : with an account of their early 
arrival in North America ; their advancement in agricul- 
ture ; and some of their distinguished military services in 
the war of 1812, etc., etc., with letters containing useful 
information for emigrants from the Highlands of Scotland 
to the British Provinces, by R. C. Macdonald, Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Castle Tioram Regiment of Highlanders, 
Prince Edward Island, Chief of the Highland Society of 
Nova Scotia, and Paymaster of the 30th Regiment. St. 
John, N. B., 1843." 

The edition of the pamphlet, which was limited in num- 
ber, for some reason was not freely circulated, and remained 
in possession of the Messrs. Chubb for many years, and 
was destroyed in the great fire of 1877. But few copies 
are now in existence, and it is one of the rarest of provincial 
pamphlets. 

The sketches of Highlanders are taken from Chamber's 
Higtory of the Rebellion of 1745, supplemented with a 
great deal of historical information relating to the High- 
land soldiers and emigrants who settled in Prince Edward 
Island and Nova Scotia during the last century. The 
pamphlet, which contains a very interesting account of the 
Glengarry regiment, and its services in the war of 1812-13, 
ends with two characteristic letters from Abraham Gesner, 
the eminent geologist, to Captain Macdonald, on the settle- 
137 



138 ACADIENSIS 

ment of Highlanders on the crown lands of New Brunswick- 
Captain Macdonald's book was worthy of a wider circula- 
tion and deserved a better fate than that which befell 
it, and the author merited more honor than he appears 
to have received. 

But that which has tended most to perpetuate Captain 
Macdonald's name with us is the monument, with the 
lengthy inscription, which he placed over the grave of his 
wife, and which remains as a memorial of his affection. 

The builder of the monument was the late John Causey, 
and it was placed in its present position in the autumn 
of 1843. 

Shortly after its erection, the 30th Regiment returned 
to England, and we hear nothing more of Captain Mac- 
donald. Military duties carried him far from his native 
island, and the people in whom he had taken so deep an 
interest. In 1848, while on service with his regiment in 
the island of Cephalonia, one of the Ionian Isles, now a 
part of the kingdom of Greece, he died, and his brother 
officers placed over his grave a monument to mark his 
worth and their respect. 

Captain Macdonald possessed an estate on Prince Edward 
Island, to which his father, Glenaladale, had given the 
name "Castle Tioram."* It was a portion of his patrimony. 
There, and on Lots 35 and 36, was formed the Castle Tioram 
Regiment of Highlanders, named in compliment to him, 
and of which he became lieutenant-colonel. The corps 
was recruited from his own clansmen, and wore the same 



* " Caitletirrim is one of the ancient seats on the mainland of the Mac- 
donalds of Clanranald. It was burnt down by the chief prior to his joining 
the Earl of Mar during the Fifteen to avoid its falling into the hands of the 
government forces during his abence. The walls are still standing, and in 
fair preservation, on a little island near the head of Loch Moidart. The 
name, as written by Captain Macdonald himself, Castle Tioram, is the 
correct Gaelic form of it. The family of Glenaladale being descended from 
Clanranald, Captain Macdonald, naturally enough, called his place in Prince 
Edward Island after the ancient family residence of his chief." Extract 
from a letter from Alexander Mackenzie, F. S A., author of " History of the' 
Macdonalds and Lords of the Isles " to the writer. 



A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY 139 

tartan as the Highland societies of British America, the 
prominent color being the Gordon tartan, with the colors 
of the other clans. The standard of the regiment bore the 
Glengarry and Castle Tioram coat-of-arms, and was pre- 
sented by Mrs. Macdonald. The Castle Tioram regiment, 
like many of the Highland societies, is but a memory of the 
past, and the Castle Tioram estate has become the residence 
of strangers, with the ancient name almost forgotten. 

Captain Macdonald had issue by his wife one son and 
two daughters ; one daughter died young, and the other, 
Elizabeth Ranaldson Macdonald, entered a convent and 
became a nun. She is now in Melbourne, Australia. 
The son, Rev. John Alastair Somerled Macdonald, a Jesuit 
priest, is stationed at Brandon, Manitoba, in the Northwest 
Territories of the Dominion of Canada. This gentleman 
is imbued with the same love of race which so highly 
characterized his father. 

" Colonel Macdonell, chief of Glengarry, and heir to the 
forfeited titles of the Earls of Ross," was the fifteenth 
chief of Glengarry, and the last historic chieftain of the 
clan. He was the grand-nephew of Alastair Macdonell of 
Glengarry, who was selected by the Highland chiefs in 
1745 to carry an address, signed with their blood, to Prince 
Charles. Two battalions of Glengarry men served with 
the standard of Prince Charles in that ill-starred rising. 
Colonel Macdonell was a friend of Sir Walter Scott, and 
is said to have been his original for Fergus Mclvor in 
Waverley. In 1793, when the French republic declared 
war against England, a number of Catholic gentlemen in 
the Highlands formed a regiment under the command of 
Colonel Macdonell; most of the persons who formed it 
being his clansmen and tenants, it was known as the 
First Glengarry regiment. The corps served in Ireland 
during the troubles of 1798, and remained in service until 
1802, when it was disbanded. Many of the Glengarry 
men, under the leadership of their chaplain, Rev. Father 



140 ACADIENSIS 

Macdonell, with their friends and relatives, emigrated to 
Upper Canada, and formed a Gaelic-speaking settlement 
called after their native glen, where each head of the family 
gave the name of his holding in Glengarry to his plantation 
in the new home. The Glengarry regiment was again 
re-organized in Canada, and did its part nobly in saving 
the British Provinces to the crown in the years 1812-13-14. 
With this regiment Captain John Jenkins, a New Bruns- 
wicker, gained renown at the taking of Ogdensburg. 

Colonel Macdonell died in 1828, his demise being most 
tragic. Sir Walter Scott, who was a great admirer of the 
chieftain, wrote a lament, entitled, " Glengarry's Death 
Song," which was first printed in the article referred to in 
Blackwood's Magazine : 

" Land of the Gael, thy glory has flown ; 
For the star of the north, from its orbit is thrown ; 
Dark, dark is thy sorrow, and hopeless thy pain, 
For no star e'er shall beam with its lustre again. 
Glengarry, Glengarry, is gone ever more, 
Glengarry, Glengarry, we'll ever deplore." 

Colonel Macdonell was succeeded by his eldest son, 
^Eneas Ranaldson Macdonell, who sold the greater part of 
the Glengarry estates, which were heavily mortgaged, and 
emigrated with his family to Australia, and the vast terri- 
tories of the race of Glengarry passed from them forever. 

Captain Macdonald ended the long inscription with this 
brief reference to an episode in the life of his father, which 
changed the fortunes of the Glenaladale family, and also 
had an important influence on the early settlement of 
Prince Edward Island : 

" Also to perpetuate the memory of the chieftain of Glenaladale, 
his father, and the attachment of the Highlanders who followed 
him, as their leader, to Prince Edward Island in 1772." 

John Macdonald, the eighth chieftain of Glenaladale, 
was a child when his father joined the standard of Prince 
Charles in 1745, which was first unfurled upon Glenaladale's 



A MONUMENT AND ITS STORY HI 

property at Glenfmnin. He was educated at the famous 
Catholic seminary at Ratisbon, in Germany, and was con- 
sidered one of the most accomplished young gentlemen of 
his generation. "In 1770 a violent persecution against 
the Catholics broke out in the island of South Uist. 
Glenaladale, hearing of the proceedings, went to visit the 
people, and was so touched by their pitiable condition that 
he formed the resolution of expatriating himself, and going 
off at their head to America."* With this object in view, 
he sold the estate of Glenaladale to his cousin and nearest 
heir in 1771, and purchased a large estate in Prince 
Edward Island, then known as Saint John's Island, and 
removed thither. 

A few years after the settlement of Glenaladale and his 
clansmen, the war between England and her American 
colonies broke out, and in this emergency Glenaladale was 
the means of forming, in Prince Edward Island and Nova 
Scotia, a battalion named "the Royal Highland Emigrants,'' 
composed chiefly of Highlanders, and in which he com- 
manded a company. 

His many virtues and abilities were recognized during 
those trying times, and the loyalty of his clansmen was 
unquestioned. After the close of the war Glenaladale 
devoted his energies to the development of his large landed 
estates in Prince Edward Island. These he divided into 
seven portions, and their sub-divisions he called after 
places in Scotland Glenaladale, Grand Tracady, Donald- 
son, Castle Tioram, Arisaig, St. Martins and New Moidart. 
At his home the old chieftain displayed the most unbounded 
hospitality, and his house was a resting place where all 
travellers received a cordial welcome, f Glenaladale took a 
deep interest in the public affairs of Prince Edward 
Island, and filled many important positions of honor and 
trust. The British government offered him the governor- 



41 History of the Macdonalds and Lords of the Isles, p. 448. 
t Hon. A. A. Macdonald, Prince Edward Island. 



142 ACADIENSIS 

ship, bat owing to the oath of allegiance necessary at the 
time, as a Catholic he was obliged to decline the office. 
He died in 1811, and is buried among his clansmen and 
kindred in a burial ground known as " the Doctor's House." 

The estates once held by Captain John Macdonald, of 
Glenaladale, in Prince Edward Island, were, under the 
terms of the Provincial Land Purchase Act, bought by the 
local government, and re-sold at cost to the occupants, who 
now hold them in fee simple. 

His grandson, John Archibald Macdonald, Esq., still 
.holds Glenaladale with five hundred acres attached, which 
he cultivates, and on which he resides. Another grandson, 
Sir William C. Macdonald, philanthropist, is the generous 
benefactor of McGill University, Montreal, and other 
educational measures of national importance. 

I have attempted in this paper to tell the story of the 
old monument that stands in the midst of so many 
memorials in that city of the dead, and yet seems so lonely 
in its massiveness. As the years go by the lengthy inscrip- 
tion, so carefully cut on it, will be effaced, or obliterated 
by the hand of time, and the monument become but a 
meaningless column. The historic epitaph, however, will 
be preserved in the pages of ACADIENSIS, and the purpose 
of its builder, to perpetuate the memory of a noble woman, 
will, in a measure, have been accomplished. 

JONAS HOWE. 




honorable 3ut>Qe IRobie. 



A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 




(Conclusion.) 

[AT Mr. Robie evinced a deep interest in the 
subject of agriculture is well known. While 
he did not attempt to deprive " Agricola " of 
his justly earned laurels, by lecturing upon 
scientific agriculture in the rural districts, he 
did all in his power to turn to good account the general 
desire for greater improvement in this branch of industry, 
created by John Young's admirable " Letters," and on the 
15th December, 1818, took an active part in the proceedings 
of the public meeting at Halifax that organized the 
" provincial agricultural society," of which Lord Dalhousie 
was president, the unknown "Agricola" secretary, when 
he declared himself, and Mr. Robie, one of the committee 
of management and directors for several years. With this 
knowledge of his agricultural proclivities it is not sur- 
prising to be informed that Mr. Robie was always taken 
with a good horse. On one occasion while attending the 
Truro circuit, which he went for nearly a quarter of a 
century, he was detained over Sabbath at Colonel Pearson's 
hotel, (the well known "Princes of Wales" of modern days), 
and desiring to hear Parson Waddell preach, the colonel 
brought out his best steed to drive him to church, then 
about three quarters of a mile distant, within the Truro 
cemetery enclosure. Before hearing the parson, Mr. Robie 
was so much pleased with the style and action of the horse, 
that he said to his owner, "Colonel, supposing this was 
Monday morning instead of Sunday, what would you take 
ior that animal?" To which the colonel replied "25." 
"Well then," said Mr. Robie, "when Monday morning 
oomes, I will buy him," which he accordingly did. 
143 



144 ACADIENSIS 

Another Truro incident has come down through the 
generation and may here be given. The interest Mr. 
Robie ever took in that town, impelled him on one 
occasion to do an act that associated his name with the 
place for many years in connection with a large elm tree 
that stood until destroyed by the Saxby storm, near Elm 
Street, at the bend of the road leading from the court 
house to Lower Village. Early in the century, Mr. Robie 
being in Truro, and hearing that the owner of the elm was 
about cutting it down for firewood, went to him and asked 
its value for fuel. Ascertaining that one pound was the 
market price of the cord wood in the tree, Mr. Robie at 
once paid the amount and requested that the tree be pro- 
tected as his property, and it ever afterwards went by the 
name of " Robie's tree," and added one to the list of 
remarkable trees, about which many noticeable things are 
recorded in sacred and profane history. It is matter of 
tradition that Mr. Robie's twenty shillings, instead of 
being converted into firewood, was immediately invested 
in two gallons of rum, and as many of the inhabitants as 
could be collected were assembled to drink long life to Mr. 
Robie's elm tree, and that Mr. Robie, in replying for the 
tree, offered the company a most fabulous sum if they 
would transplant it in all its dimensions and beauty to his 
own grounds in Halifax. The elm, while it stood, was a 
great ornament to Truro, being a tree of unusual size in 
height and circumference, and was greatly prized by the 
inhabitants on this account, as well as for the interesting 
circumstance connected with its history. Now, that the 
tree has disappeared, the road where it stood, running 
west to the confines of the town, has been called Robie 
Street, leaving Elm Street, called after the tree, to remain 
as at present known, running from the parade (now Victoria 
Square) north to the site of Robie's elm tree. 

As an illustration of Mr. Robie's good judgment, or 
great common sense, for which all gave him much credit*. 



HON. JUDGE ROBIE 145 

it may be stated, that upon the Shubenacadie canal project 
being first mooted in the house in 1824, he declared : "It 
would cost from 200,000 to 300,000 and not produce 
revenue enough to keep it in repair," a prediction that 
has since been fulfilled to the satisfaction or regret of those 
who thought differently then, and who, against his strong 
protestations, invested thousands of pounds in an enter- 
prise he asserted would be a failure. Mr. Robie also 
expressed a decided opinion about the financial merits of 
the Intercolonial Railway when the agitation for the road 
began, and assured his particular friends " that if the road 
was thoroughly built and well supplied with rolling stock, 
and he were offered the whole line as a present, with 
100,000 to run it, he would not accept the gift." 

As a lawyer, Mr. Robie stood in the front rank of the 
profession among such men as Richard John Uniacke, W. 
H. O. Haliburton, James Stewart, Thomas Ritchie, S. G. 
W. Archibald and Charles Rufus Fairbanks. While he 
plead at the bar he was retained in almost every important 
suit that occupied the attention of the courts. In stature 
he was the smallest man, while Uniacke was the largest. 
The one was at times irascible, petulant, and sometimes 
peppery, but always contested his cases with a becoming 
respect for the court and the profession ; while the other 
was somewhat pompous and domineering in his deportment 
and could not brook the interruptions of opposing advocates. 
On one occasion, Uniacke was warmly engaged addressing 
the jury in a case in which Robie was on the other side, 
and, mis-stating the law or evidence, Robie rose to ask 
leave of the court to set him right, when Uniacke turned 
towards him and said with great vehemence, " You small 
cur, if you do not sit down, I will put you in my pocket," 
to which Robie good-naturedly retorted, "Then, you big 
mastiff, if you do, you will have more law in your pocket 
than you ever had in your head." At another time a 
Baptist clergyman retained Mr. Robie in a case of some 



146 ACADIENSIS 

importance, and was so well pleased with the manner in 
which he conducted it, that after the trial was over and 
the desired verdict obtained, the minister handed him five 
or six sovereigns for his services, and asked if he was 
satisfied. Mr. Robie, then absorbed in another suit and 
hardly realizing the position, but waking up to a knowledge 
of the fact that a Baptist divine was showering gold 
pon him, replied, " Yes Mr. Dipper thank you, Mr. 
Dipper I am much obliged, Mr. Dipper," a mode of 
baptism many lawyers of the present day consider quite 
-orthodox. 

Several men, who attained eminence at the bar, studied 
law in Mr. Robie's office. Among others mention might 
be made of a native of Truro Samuel George William 
Archibald, " long the ' observed of all observers ' in Nova 
Scotia. He was no ordinary man in intellectual stature, 
proportions and accomplishments. He was indeed a tall 
.figure among his provincial co-temporaries how like * Saul 
the son of Kish/ who, when he stood up among the people, 
was higher than any of them from his shoulders and up- 
ward. At the bar, on the bench, in the legislature, and 
in the executive administration, his talents were not only 
-apparent, but luminous. Strong in reasoning powers, in 
wit, in eloquence, and at times in severe sarcasm and over- 
powering invective, he had no rival in the forensic arena, 
and no superior in senatorial conflict, except, perhaps, the 
late John Young." Another somewhat distinguished name 
<jan also be referred to the late Sir Robert Hodgson, Kt,, 
late chief justice, and late governor of Prince Edward 
Island. 

Mr. Robie's friendship with the late Hon. Charles R. 
Prescott, of Cornwallis, one of the excellent of the earth, 
as well as with the Hon. Andrew Belcher, another of Nova 
Scotia's best sons, is a pleasing feature of his life. Their 
correspondence shows great esteem for him on the part of 
-those excellent men. Like Saul and Jonathan " they were 



HON. JUDGE ROBIE 147 

lovely and pleasant in their lives," and in view of these 
degenerate times we might pause, and with David ask, 
" How are the mighty fallen ?" 

Upon the creation of the rolls court in 1824, Mr. Robie 
was honored with the position of judge, under the name 
of master of the rolls, being the first appointment of the 
kind, so far as we can learn, made in a British colony. 
Judge Robie usually held his court in the committee room 
of the council chamber. He was very affable and courteous 
to the members of the bar and demanded no ceremony. 
He sat at the head of the table without gown or bands, 
and the gentlemen of the bar addressed him from the sides 
of the table, without being in legal costume. He drafted 
his decrees very carefully. They are still extant, but 
never having been published, the profession have had no 
opportunity of judging their value, or of ascertaining 
whether they involved questions of importance. One 
feature of his judicial career, however, still fresh in the 
memory of the oldest men at the bar, is worth mentioning. 
There was a suit in chancery known as King vs Lawson 
et al. It was an action brought by the late Major King, 
of Windsor, against the trustees of his wife's fortune. It 
had been long protracted owing to the obstinancy with 
which it was contested, and King, (insane on the subject 
of getting hold of his wife's money), undertook to appeal to 
the public through the press, and to pester Judge Robie to 
such an extent, that it was generally believed to have been 
one of the chief motives for his retirement from the court 
of chancery in 1834, though those best capable to decide, 
considered that he did all in his power as judge to protect 
King's interests, and there was no disposition on the part 
of the government or the public to remove him from the 
post he had filled with such general acceptance for ten 
years. Three years afterwards, Mr. Robie was appointed 
to preside over the deliberations of the legislative council, 
of which he had been a member since 1824. At this time 



148 ACADIENSIS 

he was getting into the sere and yellow leaf of life, had 
become a strong conservative in his political views, and 
did not enter into the public discussions with the same 
spirit he had manifested while in the popular branch fight- 
ing the battles of the people at times in opposition to the 
known wishes of the governor of the day. Doubtless the 
position of President of the Council, prevented him to a 
large extent from keeping his political armor burnished, 
and maintaining that hold upon the affections of the people 
which he enjoyed in the vigor of his manhood to a degree 
that rarely falls to the lot of old public servants Palmers- 
ton and Gladstone being notable exceptions. In 1848, Mr. 
Robie having attained the age of 78 years, resigned his seat 
in the council, over which he had ably presided eleven years, 
and had been a member of for twenty-four, to enjoy the 
pleasures of private life the remainder of his days, a 
privilege he had honorably earned, and which a kind 
Providence permitted him to pass happily for ten years. 
During a portion of the summers of those years, as he had 
done many years previously, he drove to Truro with his 
carriage and pair of horses to visit the family of the late 
Duncan Black of Lower Village ; and the people of that 
part of the province, then had frequent opportunities of 
seeing their old representative, whose name is still a house- 
hold word in Nova Scotia. Mr. Black's wife and Mrs 
Robie were sisters members of a Scotch family of the 
name of Creighton and Mr. Robie thought very highly 
of Mr. Black's estimable qualities, and in several important 
respects, proved himself a good friend to his family. But 
a time came in Mr. Robie's career, as it will in the histoiy 
of all men, when the wheels of life stand still, and ' man 
goeth to his long home, and the mourners go about the 
streets.' This event can best be gathered from the well 
merited epitaph cut on the plain monumental freestone 
slab that marks the site of his grave in Camp Hill 
cemetery, Halifax : 



HON. JUDGE ROBIE H9 

Sacret) 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

1bon* Simon Bra&street IRobie, 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE ON THE 
3RD DAY OF JANUARY, 

A. D., 1858, 

IN THE 88TH YEAR OF HIS AGE. 

RESPECTED, BELOVED, AND LAMENTED BY THE 

COMMUNITY IN WHICH HE HAD PASSED 

A LONG AND USEFUL LIFE. 
HE HELD THE RESPONSIBLE OFFICES OF 

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY, 
MASTER OF THE ROLLS, 

AND 

PRESIDENT OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, 

AND FAITHFULLY PERFORMED THE IMPORTANT 

DUTIES WHICH DEVOLVED UPON HIM WITH 

DIGNITY, INDEPENDENCE AND HONOR. 



HE WAS A LINEAL DESCENDANT OF THE 

VENERABLE SIMON BRAD8TREET, 

THE LAST CHARTER GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS, 
AND HAS LF-FT A NAME WORTHY OF HIS FAMILY. 



Elisabeth IRobie, 

HIS WIFE, 

DIED ON THE 3RD DAY OF JANUARY, 1872, 



AGED 86 YEARS. 



150 . ACADIENSIS 

Should any persons consider that this sketch over- 
estimates the greatness of the gifts, and the nobleness of 
the character of the distinguished British colonist whose 
good deeds it recounts, and whose fame it rehearses ; to 
such let me express the regret, that I had neither the 
material at command nor the ability to do greater justice 
to the memory of one of the men whose name was a " tower 
of strength " in the province long before the days of steam- 
boats and railroads, responsible government, free school s r 
and the union of the colonies into one great confederation ; 
or, even before the press was such a power in the land as 
it is to-day ; and to whose well-directed efforts throughout 
a long and consistent public career, the people of this en- 
lightened age, are in no small measure indebted for many 
of the advantages they enjoy vastly superior to what fell 
to the lot of their ancestors in bygone days. Rather let 
the good name which Simon Bradstreet Robie made for 
himself in the history of this province by his own endow- 
ments, superior talents, and upright manly deportment, be 
ever held in grateful remembrance by every Nova Scotian 
who rejoices in the prosperity of his country, and tha 
greatness of her sons. 

" The Roman gather'd in a stately urn 
The dust he honor'd while the sacred fire, 
Nourish'd by vestal hands, was made to burn 
From age to age. if fitly you'd aspire, 
Honor the dead ; and let the sounding lyre 
Recount their virtues in your festal hours ; 
Gather their ashes higher still, and higher, 
Nourish the patriot flame that history dowers, 
And, o'er the old mens' graves, go strew 
your choicest flowers." 

ISRAEL LONGWORTH. 




Inctbents in tbe fiarl? t>tetor$ of 
St. 3obn. 

(Conclusion) 

|AMES SIMONDS concluded that the situation 
at St. John was such that all business was at 
an end. He resolved, therefore, to remove 
with his family up the river and devote him- 
self to the improvement of his lands in that 
quarter. Accordingly, in the spring of 1778, we find him 
building a house on the bank of the St. John just above 
Loder's Creek, in Lower Maugerville (now Sheffield), leav- 
ing his property at Portland in charge of Hazen and 
White. He at this time secured a share in the township 
of Burton in exchange for one he had drawn in the town- 
ship of Sunbury. Two years after his removal to the 
country, he made overtures to Hazen and White to 
purchase his share in the two grants at St. John.* He 
mentions in a letter to James White, of April 11, 1780, 
that Sylvanus Plummer, a joiner and housewright of 
Maugerville, had offered to purchase his share in these 
lands, and that he should ratify the bargain unless Hazen 
and White desired to have the lands on the same terms. 
In speaking of Plummer, Mr. Simonds observes, with his 
customary dry humor : 

" There is nothing remarkable in his character except that of 
going very near the wind. I have had the honor of being repre- 
sented by some people of distinction to be extremely frugal, so 
that if their remark is just, you will have much such a neighbour 
in him as you would in me, if I were to return. Please let me 
know your determination as soon as Mr. Hazen arrives [from 
Halifax]." 

* These two grants were then believed to include not merely the 
part of the present city north of Union Street, but also the marsh to the east 
of the city, and the lands north of the marsh to the Kennebecasis, and south, 
to Red Head. 

151 



152 ACADIENS1S 

So troublous were the times and so uncertain the 
value of real estate at St. John, that Mr. Simonds did not 
succeed in selling his lands either to Hazen and White or 
to Plummer.* 

The relations at this time existing between the old 
co-partners were not perfectly harmonious, as appears from 
the testimony of William Godsoe, one of their employees. 
He states in his evidence, given before the courts some 
years later, that, having visited Mr. Simonds at his house 
in Sheffield, May 7, 1781, he told him that Hazen and 
White were doing well at St. John, especially the former 
whose appointment as commissary to the garrison and other 
advantages he enjoyed, must enable him to make money 
fast. To this Simonds replied, " They may flourish for a 
while, whilst I am obliged to delve on here," adding that 
Hazen had no legal right to the lands at St. John, and 
never should if he could prevent it. It may be noted in 
passing that when James Simonds moved up the river to 
Lower Maugerville, the office of deputy collector of customs, 
formerly held by him, went to James White, who filled the 
position until the arrival of William Wanton as first 
collector of customs at St. John in 1785. 

In order to comply with the conditions of their grants, 
Hazen, Simonds and White made many improvements upon 
their lands and caused a number of dwellings and tenants 
to be established in different places. A list of these may 
prove interesting : 

A grist mill ab Lily Lake, built in 1770 ; value 25. 

House at the lake for Armstrong, 20. 

House at the lake for Sprague and Miller, 15. 

House and improvements of Alexander McAlpine, a Scotch settler, 

at the entrance of the Great Marsh river (or Marsh Creek) ; 

value 7 10s. 
House for Moses Greenough, near Fort Howe, value 15. 



* Mr. Simonds sold one half of Ox Island in Burton to Sylvanus Plummer 
for 145 10s. 



EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 153 

House and hovel on the road to the Indian House for Day and 

Salisbury, value 25. 
House and hovel for Andrew Lloyd at the landing near the Indian 

House, value 12. 
Denis Combs house and improvements at the Bluff Head,* 

value 25. 
The Indian House (built by order of Colonel Francklin but never 

paid for by government), value 35. 

There were other expenditures incurred by the partners 
in their endeavor to improve their lands, such as clearing 
a road to the Indian House and building a wharf at the 
landing, 18; clearing, altering and improving the roads 
leading to the Short Ferry, the marsh and city, from 1778 
to 1786 inclusive, 30; settling Langdon on the Kenne- 
becasis meadows above Boar's Head (near Millidgeville), 
and clearing a road to walk there. 

Equal attention was paid to the lands of the second 
grant in order to secure them from being escheated. Four 
tenants, Day, Salisbury, Dow and Parker, were placed 
upon the marsh about the year 1775, and houses and hovels 
for stock built for them at the following cost : Stephen 
Dow's, 20; Silas Parker's, 15; Jabez Salisbury's, 25. 
Four settlers, Hardcastle, Peters, Monro and Cams, were 
located at Little River at an expense of 28 10s; Silas 
Sloot and Samuel Combs at Red Head, at an expense of 
18 10s; and Caleb Finney, and one Thomas locations 
unknown at an expense of 27 10s. A house was also 
built " near the Little Falls," and Messrs. Thomson, Walter 
Copinger and George Grant were settled at Sandy Point, 
on the Kennebecasis. 

The cost of placing these settlers some thirty in all 
on their lands was little more than 300, and it \vas money 
well spent, for the presence of the settlers and the im- 
provements they made, enabled Hazen, Simonds and White 
to retain possession of their lands, which otherwise would 
have been escheated when the Loyalists arrived. As it 

* Bluff Head is near the old Short Ferry to Carleton above Navy Island. 



154 ACADIENSIS 

was, William Hazen was forced to make two journeys to 
Halifax to defend the titles of the grants, and in order to 
have the best legal talent at his command, he retained as 
counsel Sampson Salters Blowers and Richard J. Uniacke. 
Up to this time the boundaries of the two grants had 
never been surveyed, but the arrival of the Loyalists and 
their urgent request to be furnished with lands in the most 
eligible situation, caused the government of Nova Scotia 
to look closely into the state of improvement of all lands 
previously granted in order that the needs of these unfortu- 
nate exiles might be met. It, therefore, became a matter 
of importance to Hazen, Simonds and White to know the 
actual bounds of their grants. Accordingly, in the month 
of March, 17&4, Samuel Peabody, of Maugerville, was 
employed to run the lines. He had three assistants, and 
they were engaged several days in their task. The survey 
showed beyond the shadow of a doubt that by far the 
larger part of the marsh, which they had thought to be 
their property and on which they had spent a good deal of 
time and money in making improvements, lay outside their 
bounds. Their consternation was great, and Peabody was 
strictly enjoined to keep the matter secret until they had 
made good their title. It was here that the unfortunate 
disagreement originated between James Simonds and his 
co-partners which involved them in nearly twenty years of 
costly litigation. The story has been told in the New 
Brunswick Magazine of July, 1899, under the head of 
" The Contest for Sebaskastaggan,"* and need not be here 
repeated. The greater part of the marsh became in the 
end the property of Hazen and White by their arrange- 
ment with Lieut. William Graves, who had an old claim 
to a grant as a disbanded office of the French war. Hazen 
and White were instrumental in procuring the marsh as a 



* SebaBkastaggan is the Indian name of the Great Marsh east of St. John. 



EARLY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN 155 

grant for Graves,* who for a small consideration conveyed 
it to them. James Simonds was greatly incensed by this 
transaction. He stoutly affirmed his determination not to 
relinquish his claim to the marsh and refused to make any 
settlement of the partnership accounts until the question 
was disposed of. 

Leonard Jarvis, who was one of the co-partners under 
the business contract drawn up in April, 1767, came to St. 
John in the year 1785, and used his best efforts to induce 
Mr. Simonds to consent to a division of the lands held by 
the partners. On the eve of his return to New England, 
he addressed a rather remarkable letter to Mr. Simonds, 
dated October 31, 1785, from which the following extracts 
are taken : 

SIB, You will doubtless remember that I left you very abruptly 
the evening before your return [to Sheffield]. I did it because 
that I found we were both growing warm, and myself thought it 
more prudent to talk with you another time on a subject which it 
was for the interest of all concerned should be brought to an ami- 
cable issue. * * * I was, I do assure you, not only disappoint- 
ed, but chagrined, at finding the next morning I was not to have 
the pleasure of seeing you again before I left this Province. The 
only way remaining of communicating my sentiments to you I 
with pleasure embrace, as I am not without hopes that a settle- 
ment will be made ere long between you and Mr. Hazen to the 
advantage and satisfaction of both. Had you accepted Mr. 
Hazen's proposals of giving you 3,000 and relinquishing all 
demands Hazen and Jarvis had on you as one of the House of 
Simonds, White & Co., I should not have found it difficult to have 
settled my matters with Mr. Hazen, but as it is I find it impossible. 



* Graves seems to have been " a ne'er to do weel." He and his family 
were included in a list of " Old Inhabitants who, from involuntary causes, 
had been reduced to circumstances of great distress," to whom the govern- 
ment, in 1784, made a donation of provisions. The wife of Graves was illiter- 
ate and appends her mark to the deed of conveyance to Hazen and White 
referred to above. William Hazen obtained the grant of lands to William 
Graves (2,000 acres, including the marsh) when at Halifax in June, 1784, but 
in order to make the grant appear as a pre-loyalist grant it was ante-dated 
October 4, 1783. It was conveyed by Graves to Hazen and White July 28, 
1784. 



156 ACADIENSIS 

I wish you, sir, to consider the disagreeable situation of our 
Land, and I am confident if you do, with that attention the affair 
merits, you will not let a small matter retard the settlement a 
moment. We are all, sir, got to that time of life when we may 
think a Suit in Law or Chancery not eligible because of the un- 
certainity of our living to see the termination of it for my own 
part I would rather take much less than I supposed was due, or 
even what I expected finally to receive after the trouble and 
expence of a Law suit, than contest the matter. * * * 

I beg leave to ask you what is the present income from our 
lands, and when they are likely to produce more for my own part 
I see no prospect of either of us being benefitted by an Interest 
which twelve years ago we all thought a valuable one but on the 
other hand, I fear that if a Suit should be commenced, one or 
more of us would not see the end of it and our heirs would curse 
the day that their fathers engaged in such a contest," 

All matters connected with the settlement of the part- 
nership accounts and the division of the property were 
referred to arbitration in 1790, at which time Hazen and 
White claimed that if James Simonds had assented to a 
division of the estate, the lands between Parr Town and 
the Indian House might have been laid out into streets 
and house lots for the Loyalists, and the lots sold or let to 
great advantage. They estimated the loss to themselves 
as 6,000 in consequence of the delay. 

There can be no doubt that the lands could readily have 
been sold or let in 1783, and the years immediately 
ensuing, and the result undoubtedly would have been a far 
more rapid growth of the town of Portland, but that the 
heirs of James Simonds and William Hazen were eventually 
losers by the delay is extremely improbable. 

W. O. RAYMOND. 





tDalliere of Cbfgnecto. 

(Read before the Historical Society of Chignecto). 
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 

|N 24th October, 1676, Frontenac, Governor of 
Canada, granted to Michel Leneuf de La Val- 
liere, the title of fief and seigneury of the 
country of Chignecto, with power to administer 
superior, middle and low justice, and the rights 
of hunting and fishing. The bounds of this seigneury, as 
set forth in the grant, shew it extended " ten leagues in 
front, which are on the south side between Cape Breton 
and Isle Perce"e, beginning from the River Kigiskouabou- 
guet, comprising the same to another river called Kimout- 
gouiche, also comprised with ten leagues in depth inland, 
wherein the Bay Chignitou and Cape Tormentin are part." 
This grant was held by homage at the chateau of St. Louis 
at Quebec. Dr. Ganong, our foremost cartologist, assigns 
the grant to the lands between the rivers River Philip and 
Shemogue, extending back to near Budro's on the Petit- 
codiac, and to near Springhill in Cumberland. 

This was truly a lordly domain, embracing forests and 
fisheries, mines and marshes, rivers and the coasts of two 
great bays. The description was, however, sufficiently 
157 



158 



ACADIENSIS 



indefinite to puzzle even the Council of State at Versailles 
to understand exactly what it did embrace when called 
upon some years later to settle the bounds. Near the 
close of the seventeenth century settlements were made at 
Chipoudy by Pierre Thibideau, and at Fox Creek by 
Guillaume Blanchard. Sieur de La Valliere claimed these 




settlers as his censitaires, or tenants, a pretence which 
they stoutly resisted. The controversy was carried to 
Versailles by de Villieu, La Valliere's agent, and La Val- 
liere's title was, after years of controversy, held to embrace 
Shepody Bay as well as the settlement at Fox Creek. 

So important a grant could not have been made except 
to a man of some consequence and consideration. Talon 
in a memorial (1667) states there were only four noble 



LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 159 

families in Canada. Those meant were the Repentigny, 
Tilly, Poterie and Aillebout, and he asks for patents of 
nobility for five more. 

La Valliere was a member of the Poterie family that 
came with the Repentigny family from Caen to Quebec in 
1638. De La Poterie was the first signeur of Portneuf, 
who seems not to have allowed the circumstance of his 
son's birth in Canada to stand in the way of his education 
and training, for he appears to have sent him to France 
when he was seventeen years of age, no doubt to finish his 
studies. He was doubly connected with the Denys family 
by marriage. In 1666 he was military officer in Cape 
Breton, and in the territories of Nicholas Denys, Sieur de 
Fronsac ; and while there married Marie Francoise Denys, 
daughter of the Sieur de Fronsac. He again married in 
1687 Francoise Denys, widow of Jacques Cailleteau, and 
daughter of Simon Denys, Sieur de La Trinite. Simon 
and Nicholas were brothers. The first wife of La Valliere 
is supposed to have died between 1682 and 1685 at 
Chignecto, and to have been interred there. The second 
wife was found dead in her house, rue de Bande, in Quebec, 
on 12th September, 1721. A servant named Catherine 
Charland was accused of having assassinated her. At 
that date Sieur de La Valliere had been dead some years. 
This is anticipating. 

The surname of La Valliere is first mentioned in con- 
nection with a property near the fort, Three Rivers, Q., 
possessed by him in 1664. La Valliere seems to have led 
a life of ceaseless activity. While nominally an officer in 
the guards, he was a voyageur, a wood ranger, a mariner, 
a trader, and a diplomat, and in one capacity or another 
he was constantly on the more, and knew something of 
the coasts and forests from Cape Cod to Hudson Bay. In 
1671 he is found in an expedition to the western lakes; 
in 1672 he is at Chignecto, where he established a trading 
post ; the same year he becomes a land-owner at Lake St. 



160 ACADIENSIS 

Francis ; the year after he is at Three Rivers the Jesuit 
record names him as officiating as god father at an Indian 
christening. 

La Valliere had also recommended himself toFrontenac by 
address and valor. In 1661, then upwards of twenty years of 
age, he had accompanied Father Dablon to North (Hudson) 
Bay a most toilsome and hazardous journey in response 
to a request of the Indians there, who sent a deputation 
to Quebec, and asked for one in return to confirm the 
good understanding then existing, and to provide them 
with a missionary. This work he appears to have per- 
formed with success. He was at the date of the grant 
captain of Count Frontenac's guards. Another evidence 
of the governor's esteem for him may be gathered from the 
circumstances that, five years later, Frontenac had a royal 
row with du Chesneau, the Intendant, because the latter 
had refused to pay La Yalliere's salary. The facts are told 
by du Chesneau in a letter to M. de Seignlay, written 
13th November, 1681. He says: 

" He (Frontenac) abused me very much in his study because I 
had refused to authorize the payment of a somewhat large sum o 
money to Sieur de La Valliere, in whom he had conferred the govern- 
ment of Acadia. I justified myself in the precise command of the 
King, and of his lordship your father, not to direct the payment 
of any money before it was entered on His Majesty's estimate." 

La Valliere, having secured his grant, left Quebec with 
his family and retainers for his new home. While his 
destination was on the Bay of Fundy, no doubt he came 
by vessel, and possibly landed at Bay Verte, and followed 
the trail through the woods, which would have been more 
expeditious than coasting around Nova Scotia, and easier 
than the Kennebec route. When he arrived at Chignecto 
now Fort Lawrence he found his territory already 
occupied. 

The advantages of Chignecto for fur trading with the 
Indians, and for cattle raising, had not escaped the eyes 



LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 161 

of Port Royal ; and one of the residents there, Jacques 
Bourgeois, who, in coasting along the bay, engaged in 
trading ventures amongst the Indians, had spied out the 
land at Beaubassin ; and, returning to Port Royal, sold 
out his farm and his cattle and came back to Beaubassin, 
accompanied by his two sons-in-law, Pierre Sire and 
Germain Girouard, and the latter's two brothers-in-law, 
Jacques Belon and Thomas Cormier, and also by Pierre 
Arsinault. This little colony comprised the first European 
settlers in Chignecto, and, excepting the settlement at 
Baie des Vents, the first in the present Province of New 
Brunswick.* 

Bourgeois, the leader of the immigrants, was in his way 
a notable man. He was a surgeon by profession ; his 
name appears in the capitulation of 1654 as brother-in-law 
and lieutenant of Doucei de La Verdure, guardian of the 
children of d'Aulay, and commandant at Port Royal ; and 
he was one of the hostages delivered to the English. His 
settlement at Beaubassin was made between the years 1671 
and 1675. 

Sieur de La Valliere's grant did not permit him to 
interfere with existing rights, so he located himself beside 
Bourgeois and constructed there his manorial buildings. 

He brought with him from Canada a number of families, 
amongst them were the Chiasson and the Cottard ; also he 
had employed people bearing the familiar names of Mercier, 
Lagasse and Perthuis, (the latter held the responsible office 
of armorer), and also Hache Galand, who was his man of 
business and his man-at-arms ; he could lead a fur trading 
expedition into the wilderness, or he could direct an attack 
on the English. He married an Acadian lass Anne 
Cormier and their descendants to-day number hundreds 



* In 1672 or 1673 some French families from St. Malo settled Baie des 
Vents. At this time the French had two forts in the country, Pentagoet, 
where Grandfontaine, governor, resided, and that at Jemseg, where M. de 
Marson held command. 



162 ACADIENSIS 

of families. As nearly all the female part of the population 
was on the Bourgeois side of the settlement, it was not 
long before any jealousies melted away and the people 
were all Bourgeois. 

It is presumable, but not certain, that the Bourgeois 
settlement was at Fort Lawrence, in the vicinity of the 
Chignecto Ship Railway Dock, and that La Valliere's was 
at Tonge's Island, the former name of which, as appears 
on the old plans and maps, was Isle de La Valliere. The 
remains of old French cellars are to be seen there, which 
must have been of an earlier date than 1760, for at that 
time it was covered with a heavy forest growth, as contem- 
porary drawings show. 

Sieur de La ValHere displayed much energy in organ- 
izing his settlement. He made clearings, built houses 
for himself and his families, erected his stockades, made 
dykes, enclosed a considerable quantity of marsh, and built 
a mill. He owned a vessel called the " Saint Antoine," 
with which he traded up and down the Bay of Fundy. 
The " Saint Antoine " was also used by the ecclesiastics of 
those days in their missionary efforts to convert the heathen* 
It is recorded that the bishop of Quebec used her on his 
pastoral visit to Acadia in 1689. It is hinted in the 
early records that the " Saint Antoine " was no saint ; that 
she only ante-dated those missionary ships fitted out by 
pious hands in New England to convert the Africans, and 
that went forward to their mission laden with New Eng- 
land missionaries and New England rum. Brandy was a 
leading article of truck with the Indians at that date, and 
was the basis of a profitable trade to the Europeans, 
though the demoralizing and destructive effects of it were 
as patent two hundred years ago as to-day. Strenuous 
attempts were made by the bishops and some of the 
governors from time to time to suppress it, but with only 
temporary success. 

(To be continued.) 

W. C. MlLNER. 



Hn Hca&ian fl&onarcb. 



THE MOOSE. 

Hail ! gallant roamer of the boundless woods, 

Where thou dost reign a veritable king, 
Whose castles are the forest solitudes, 
To thee I sing. 

When striding o'er the springy heath or moss 

In some lone glade, how stately dost thou tread, 
And, scenting danger, bravely sniff, and toss 
Thy massive head. 

Far from the cities' turmoil, grime and din, 

Thou'rt prone thy early morning baths to take, 
And gaily splash, and dash, and gambol, in 
Some placid lake. 

Thy regal looks are not cast wholly off 
It even tends to heighten thy renown 
When in the winter Nature bids thee doff 
Thy antler crown. 

Around thy sylvan haunts the sachem swart, 

To win thy scalp in watchful ambush lies, 
And paleface sportsmen know too well thou art 
A royal prize. 

Like human monarchs, thou hast cause to dread 

Those wanton slayers' deadly craft and skill, 
Who, with their blades of steel or cones of lead, 
Are proud to kill. 

Then gallant roamer of the boundless woods, 
Brilliant of eye, alert, and strong of frame, 
Thou art amongst our forest solitudes 
The king of game. 

PATRICK MCCARTHY. 

St. John, 1901. 
163 



motea anfc <aueries. 




[HAT did Professor H. S. Peck, writing in the 
Cosmopolitan Magazine a couple of years ago, 
refer to when he spoke of three things as 
being well known to readers, but never told 
in print : (1) The reasons for the separation of Charles 
Dickens and his wife ; (2) The true story of Thackeray's 
death ; (3) Why Mr. Cross tried to commit suicide shortly 
after marrying George Eliot. 

George Augustus Sola said, in his Reminiscences, that 
he knew why the Dickenses could not live happily together, 
but failed to state what the reason was. Incompatability 
of temper is the generally received version of the cause of 
the break-up of the home of the man who, in the Victorian 
era, probably did more than any other writer for the 
idealization and refinement of home life. A few years ago 
someone circulated a slanderous account of Dickens' infatua- 
tion for a French actress in a troupe which visited London. 
John Forster's biography of the great novelist was expected 
to throw some light on the subject, but, as in other respects, 
these pompous memoirs were unsatisfactory. Now, in the 
revival of interest in Dickens' writings, and to a generation 
which knew him not, this question may be propounded. 

As regards the death of Thackeray, the record ably 
stated by Dickens in his well-known paper, " In Memor- 
iam," is simple and pathetic. On the morning before 
Christmas, 1863, Thackeray arose as usual early and was 
sitting in what would have been a very uncomfortable 
position for most persons, with his desk on his knees, 
working on Denis Duval, his great sea-novel of the time 
of Nelson. When found by his mother some time later, 
he was lying on his bed with his arms thrown up over his 
head, as he was accustomed to do when tired, with a 
164 



\: 



DICKENS, His WIFE, AND His WIFE'S SISTER. 
FROM "YESTERDAYS WITH AUTHORS," 

BY JAMES T. FIELDS, 

BY PERMISSION OF HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & Co. 



NOTES AND QUERIES 165 

peaceful expression on his features, stark dead. On that 
Christmas eve, " God grant," said Dickens, " that when he 
laid his head back on his pillow, and threw up his arms, 
as he had been wont to do when very weary, some con- 
sciousness of duty done, and Christian hope throughout 
life humbly cherished, may have caused his heart to throb 
with an exquisite bliss when he passed away to his 
Redeemer's rest." 

If there is any other account of the death of that great 
writer I, for one, should like to hear it. 

George Eliot's fame has undergone the most extraordinary 
mutations since about the year 1860, when the immense 
vogue of Adam Bede and The Mill on the Floss raised her 
to the highest rank of English novelists. Later than this 
again, or about the seventh decade of the nineteenth 
century in the seventies the appearances of Middle- 
march and Daniel Deronda was heralded and received 
something like a new evangel. Here was something like 
a new religion of which a retired scholarly sort of person, 
the mistress of an eccentric man of letters about London, 
was prophet and apostle. Their relations were of the 
queerest, one might almost think they were the originals 
of Trilby and Soeagali. Whilst undeniably learned, if not 
profound, before Lewes got possession of her, George Eliot 
was dull, after his death she was stupid. But during the 
period when she was under his management she displayed 
many gifts, wrote at times with comparative lightness, and 
generally enriched her observations with a racy though 
sombre humour. Enthusiasts were at a loss to imagine 
how she could endure a separation from him, but she 
promptly settled the matter by espousing Cross. They 
continued together the readings which Lewes had suggested 
to her in the first instance, and she wrote a most tiresome 
series of papers entitled Impressions of Theophrastus Such. 
Shortly after the appearance of the latter, she died. Her 
fame, unsupported by the arts of Lewes and a certain 



166 ACADIENSIS 

following of materialistic thinkers and writers, underwent 
a speedy decline. Later critics acknowledge her claims as 
a novelist very grudgingly or deny them altogether. She 
will always be a puzzle to moralists. Gifted with an 
ability to stir her readers' moral nature to the depths by 
a searching analytic method, in her own life she was 
not so much immoral as unmoral. For such morals as 
married people are concerned with, she had simply no use 
at all. She could not legally marry Lewes, and so con- 
tented herself with assuming, as far as possible, the duties 
and responsibilities of a wife; but when he died she 
married Cross, thus at once making her peace with the 
upholders of conventuality and breaking with her worship- 
pers, who would have held their idol to be absolved from 
all marital restraint. What kind of mind and constitution 
could have been possessed by this ultra Methodist will 
probably remain a mystery. As a problem for students of 
intellect and morals in their application to conduct, she 
will always possess a fascination. 

The book-agents have been canvassing during the past 
year for various editions of the novels of Balzac in more 
or less tasteful bindings and quality of paper, some of 
them quite expensive. They may be purchased on the 
instalment plan. Prices range all the way from sixteen 
to fifty dollars for sets. The finest is printed on rice 
paper, with deckled edges, and is embellished with etched 
illustrations. If there is a considerable demand for 
these novels, as I suppose there is, it is some evidence 
that the race of people who read elaborate works of 
fiction has not died out. The best edition has intro- 
ductions by Mr. George Saintsbury. In the prospec- 
tus, Prof. Peck's sweeping assertion, that Balzac was a 
greater writer than Shakespeare, is quoted. Balzac's 
writings are distinctly closet productions, and, however 
carefully put together, have the smell of the lamps about 
them. He wrote in an attic, drawing his chief inspiration 



NOTES AND QUERIES 167 

from books. There is nothing of the freshness and joyous- 
ness characteristic of the work of most of our great novel- 
ists in them. At most, they are valuable as affording a 
voluminous survey of certain sections of French society 
during the first half of the nineteenth century. Students 
will turn to them for light on the manners, tastes and 
ways of thought prevailing in Paris when Louis Philippe 
was on the throne. 

Why was there no Macaulay centenary? It seems 
strange that in an age when everybody, whoever was any- 
body, is duly remembered by the public on the one hund- 
redth anniversary of his birth, so great a man as Lord 
Macaulay was should not have been thus honored. Among 
his contemporaries there was hardly a man statesman, 
historian, or lite*rateur who filled a larger space in the 
public eye. And yet, save for a short article in the Sun- 
day edition of a New York paper in December, I noticed 
no appreciation of him. If the dead take note of what is 
being done in the world after they have abandoned this 
lower sphere of activity, this neglect or oversight must 
have been peculiarly galling to such a man as Macaulay. 
There was, perhaps, never a thinker and writer who, com- 
paratively careless of contemporaneous recognition, which 
was, however, in his case very ample and generous, yet 
kept his eyes so constantly fixed on a renown which he 
fondly hoped would grow with succeeding generations. 
Macaulay worked and strove for posterity. In his Life 
and Letters, which his nephew, Sir Otto Trevelyan, brought 
out, one is rather amused at the hope expressed in entries 
in his journals of parts, at least, of his history surviving to 
the year 3,000, or even 4,000. It was one of his chief 
weaknesses that he believed in it thoroughly. And now a 
comparatively early posterity has arrived and knows him 
not. 

His works, like those of Virgil, enjoyed in his own life- 
time, the position of classics. He has been applauded, 



168 ACADIENSIS 

criticized, imitated and abused without stint during the 
forty years or so which have elapsed since his death ; and 
now no statue is erected of him, no club commemorates 
his fame, no voice is lifted in his praise. Perhaps the world 
thinks he enjoyed enough of such things in his own time, 
and busies itself with honouring other less lucky geniuses. 
It is the Chatterbons, Burnses, Shelleys and Edgar Allan 
Poes that appeal to posterity ; those whose lives have been 
wrecked or characters pitilessly assailed on thwir upward 
flight. The pathos of a career has more att: action in it 
than the most envied success and prosperity. 

H. PERCY SCOTT. 



OLD COLONIAL SILVER. 

NEW YORK, June 15th, 1901. 
D. R. JACK, ESQ. ST. JOHN, N. B.: 

DEAR SIR, I received, with great interest, the second number of 
ACADIENSIS, and beg to enclose a dollar, for which kindly send me No. I and 
following numbers. I am very much interested in regard to old silver, and 
I send you a copy of my book on old plate. Can you not start an investiga- 
tion as to the names and marks of old silversmiths in Canada and as to old 
silver ? For instance, at the evacuation of Boston by the Britisn, Dr. Caner 
took with him at least 2800 ounces of silver, the gift of churches in that city 
of three kings. I understand that some of this is in Saint John and other 
cities of Canada. 

Thanking you for your courtesy in sending me No. 2, 
I am, yours very truly, 

JOHN H. BUCK. 

The above letter has been received from Mr. John H. Buck, who 
is associated with the Gorham Manufacturing Co., silversmiths, a 
very large firm having establishments at New York, Chicago and 
San Francisco, and works at Providence and New York, U. S. A. 

The subject touched upon by Mr. Buck is a most interesting 
one, as much for the historical data which might be brought to 
light in connection with some of our old Acadian silver, as for 
other reasons which space will not permit us to enlarge upon in 
our present number. 

We shall be pleased to hear from any of our contributors who 
may know of the existence of old silver in Acadia, with a view of 
securing information and possibly photographs of the same for a 
series of articles for future publication. Church silver, as well as 
that in private use, will be included. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 



Hestbetic attributes 
of BcaMa. 





HE FORMATION of literary and 
artistic ideas is due to a number of 
varied influences, either disintegrating 
the results of immatured ungoverned 
taste, or patching and renovating the 
structure originally well planned; but 
badly put together. It is true that 
literature and art are impelled by whims of uncertain 
origin and of only brief duration; but, like the under-cur- 
rent which presses back the ripple of a short-lived breeze, 
the first vital impulse drives the faltering intellect along 
its wonted course, the turgid conceit expands to nothing, 
the weakly affectation dies; then all is calm, and the 
stream, unchecked, flows onward as before. The artist 
cannot answer whence come the inspirations under which 
he acts, but he feels the hidden motives and takes his 
part, almost unconsciously, as the indicator of results, 
in the origin of which his fellow-workers share. At 
intervals, indeed, the musician catches new strains of 
harmony from higher angels ; a painter portrays upon his 
canvas the vision of things unseen and scarcely understood 
by other men ; or the mind of a poet bears to earth some 
blessed gift of heaven. But few musicians, painters or 

169 



170 ACADIENSIS 

poets add much new lustre to their master arts, and too 
many pollute the shrines at which they are supposed to 
worship. Apart from the promptings and teachings of 
revealed religion, morality, and civil and social law, and 
irrespective of the tendency which induces inferior minds 
to imitate successes of real genius, no subjects tend so 
largely to control the destiny of art and letters as historical 
and traditional associations and climatic and typographical 
conditions. 

The Greenlander, shivering in his hut, devouring the 
last morsel of blubber procured, at the risk of his life, amid 
the floes, indites no odes to the glittering stars, and has no 
appreciation of the bright auroras flashing across the sky. 
The Arab, gazing at the vista of burning sand, scarcely 
lifts his eyes to the eastern heaven, radiant in morning's 
glories. But the dweller by the Tiber, amid mementoes of 
literary and artistic skill, amid flowers and vines, and 
beneath a canopy of richest blue, pours forth his sweet 
impassioned verses. And the Teuton from his forest home, 
amid crumbling castles, sings of brave Arminius, Charle- 
magne and Fatherland. Milton saw not with the outer 
sense, and hence was driven to create the visions he 
describes. Dante possessed the nature of a seer ; while 
Shelly, more like faun than mortal, treats of things un- 
known to earth, and Gustave Dore paints at times as 
though half wakened from some frightful dream. But 
these examples are abnormal, and long before the days of 
Spencer, Shakespeare and Albert Durer, and thence down- 
wards, we find a list of bards and painters, all more or less 
affected by their own surroundings. 

If, then, both poetry and art demand associations of 
this nature, the question arises, To what extent Acadia 
possesses these requirements for aesthetic culture 1 ? The 
student who looks only for those stately structures and 
giant fabrics which lead the mind into the classic ages, 
will find nothing to delight him in Acadia. No massive 



AESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF AC ADI A 171' 

pyramids rise in grandeur in her desert places, no solitary 
Memnon greets the sun rising behind the dark pine forests ; 
no stately amphitheatre or marble temple lies concealed 
behind her hills. Even the ruins of old cathedrals and 
noble abbeys, which, in Europe, mark the genius of the 
middle ages, are wanting here ; and no crumbling towers 
or Gothic gateway glimmers in the midnight moon. But 
the tourist, wandering among the marshes, will sometimes 
find the fosse of an ancient fort, the faint remains of a 
grass-grown parapet, or a row of willows planted by the 
French. The sportsman, pushing his way through tangled 
thickets and fleecy spikes of fireweed, among half-burnt 
rampikes and whitened stumps, will sometimes stumble 
upon an old log hut ; and the farmer's plow will, at times, 
expose a pointed spear or arrow-head, or an old flint 
hatchet. The careless eye sees nothing in these relics. 
But the poet's genius will, in their contemplation, produce 
a host of fancies ; and the student will, by their means, 
unravel many interesting facts. 

Owing to the restless and nomadic nature of the Indian 
race, and the want of written language among the north- 
ern tribes, few of their legends have been received by us 
intact. But I take from those within my reach a single 
tale which portrays in the Indian of by-gone ages as brave 
a spirit as that displayed by the knightly hero of the 
Tarpeian Rock : 

The dreadful Mohawks had then been on the war-path, and had 
swept the country as far as the head- waters of the St. John, till 
the peaceful tribes of Acadia had fled at their approach. The 
strangers still pressed forward, but, with surprise and disappoint- 
ment, found the wigwams all deserted, while the smouldered 
embers of camp fires told them that their expected victims had 
departed many days. At length they found a maiden, who, by 
threats and promises, was induced to pilot them down stream. 
The girl, however, seemed so well contented with her lot that at 
last she gained their unsuspecting trust, and, having fastened the 
canoes together, they often left her in sole control, with strict 



172 ACADIENSIS 

injunctions to keep the middle channel, and let the current drift 
them down. Thus they floated one summer's night beneath a 
calm, bright moon, which showed in marked and almost super- 
natural relief the vast flotilla with its freight of sleeping braves 
and one single wakeful object, the maiden silent, and almost 
motionless. Beyond the shaded mazes of the river a sound at 
length broke the stillness as though a wind among the trees were 
commingled with the surf. The sound grew louder, and the 
maiden shook her loosened locks, pausing but a moment but to 
hearken, and then resumed her task. Then the mirrored surface 
of the stream began to change, a thousand ripples played about 
the fleet, a thousand mimic whirlpools twirling round and round, 
with bits of sticks and leaves, and tiny flakes of foam. Then rose 
before them, like the mighty spirit of the river, a great white 
sheet of foam, sending clouds of spray and mist aloft into the 
clear night air, and then a single chieftain woke. At his cry a 
hundred men sprang up, and every arm was strained to reach the 
shore, but all too late, the piercing cry of agony was hushed 
forever in the roaring of the falls. The maiden's wild and joyful 
chaunt was also silenced, but her father and her tribe were saved ! 

Among the archives of the Algonquin race, this is almost 
a solitary sample of a plain, unvarnished tale, but all true 
Indian stories have their own peculiar beauties, and in 
almost every instance there is a ghost-like character, which 
marks this class of legend ry, and renders it so utterly 
distinct from that of any other people that it must here- 
after cause regret that no skilful hand has sought to bring 
together the scattered corner-stones of many an intellectual 
castle which the poet and the painter might adorn. I do 
not think, indeed, that from the Indian period of our 
history we can glean the nuclei for our most noble, intel- 
lectual fabrics ; but, apart from other objects, it would 
certainly seem wise, in an age of active, mental competition, 
to cherish whatever partakes of pleasing novelty or is 
calculated to suggest new trains of thought. To him 
whose object is to secure the people's favor, or to purchase 
vulgar pleasures, it would be useless to suggest that the 
study of humanity produces knowledge, and that knowledge 
of every kind is power. But the poet and the pure ideal 



AESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF ACADIA ITS 

painter feel the need of teaching ; they seek to learn of 
nature in its truest form, and they know their object can 
only be obtained by carefully comparing results produced 
by causes of every form. The proper teachings of the 
Elusinian mysteries were lost to those who did not under- 
stand ; the graces of the purest ritual might earn derision 
only from untrained observers ; and I hold it almost worse 
than useless to seek to bury in oblivion results which even 
the rudest savage has produced for some especial object. 
The custom may appear absurd, the legend may seem 
based on that which could not be, but, upon a full investi- 
gation, it will almost certainly appear that custom and 
legend were born from a rude, uncultured genius, either 
seeking to create and perfect some form of saving grace, or 
to portray a real occurrence, or, perhaps, a burning fancy 
lit with the fire of poesy. 

Among the dearest, though less sparkling, gems of 
literature, there are few examples which touch the heart- 
strings more than those in which decayed prosperity is 
pictured ; and I have somewhere seen a painting in which, 
if we apply the best interpretation which actual facts 
suggest, the same idea occurs. The scene is laid in twilight, 
and banks of clouds are closing round a flush of light 
beyond the far horizon, which seems more distant by con- 
trast with the shaded hills. Between these hills and the 
immediate foreground lie stretches of marsh and lake, 
while a gloom of shadow and falling night and darkness 
pervades the whole. In the centre, reflected from the 
single piece of cloudless sky, appears a lumined space of 
water, and there, in bold relief, stands an Indian in his 
canoe. Motionless he stands, and silent, with form erect 
and steadfast gaze upon the distant glimpse of day ; and 
in contemplation of the painting, one almost seems to see 
the lingering twilight fade in total darkness, and hear the 
last faint plashing of the paddle of him who goes from out 
the gloaming we know not where. 



174 ACADIENSIS 

Were the story of French domination in Acadia written 
by an able writer, it would be seen that no other section 
of America is supplied with better subjects for every form 
of the poets' muse. DeMonts, Champlain and Poutrin- 
court, the earliest settlers, were gentlemen of culture, who 
aimed at something higher than mere plunder or profit for 
themselves, while, in after times, men like the Sieur La 
Tour appear, with lives devoted to gaining influences in 
this wild new land for France. And among the mission- 
aries, both Recolets and Jesuits, were some of God's devoted 
servants, and men of the DeRetz and Richelieu stamp, 
well adapted for aiding or subverting dynasties and build- 
ing up colonial power. Over the greater portion of the 
country the French have left mementoes of their occupation 
in the forms of ruined forts, dykes, and rows of willows 
and names of places. I think that, in selecting names, 
the English settlers are far behind both Indians and 
French. Ouigoudi, the Winding River ; Magaguadavic, 
the Stream of Hills ; Shockamock, the Shining Falls ; 
Pokiock, the Dreadful Water, have beauty and suggestive- 
ness, and Digby Gut and Parrsboro and Cow Bay will 
scarcely bear comparison with Cape Enrage and Grand 
Prarie. One likes to linger among the old historical scenes 
and characters, to mark the courtly customs of Port Royal, 
where the grand Steward of the day, with the staff and 
collar of his order, ruled the guests ; to read the story of 
the fight at Fort La Tour, of the brave defense by a noble 
woman, and of her subsequent ill fortune. Then there 
were fierce engagements between the rival ships of war, 
when at times King Fog, the guardian spirit of the bay, 
would separate the combatants, and, at intervals, a Captain 
Argal drove the settlers off, or a fleet from Massachusetts 
sailed past Brier Island up the Atlantic coast of Nova 
Scotia and battered at the sea-girt walls of Louisbourg. 
At last the struggle ceased. Wolfe was victor at Quebec ; 
the rule of France in North America was at an end. The 



ESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF AC ADI A 175 

final story of the Acadians is sad in the extreme. Some 
of them, neglected by their friends at home, yielded against 
their inclinations, swore fealty to Great Britain, and con- 
tinued in the country ; others, refusing to take the oaths, 
or suspected of infidelity by colonial magnates, suffered 
like the people of Grand Pre. In sight of burning cottages 
and barns they were borne away over the waters which 
DeMonts had named, in honor of their country, La Bay 
Fran9oise, past points and headlands bearing well-known 
names; they, looking backwards, with fixed eyes and 
panting breasts, till the last wreath of smoke was lost in 
the growing distance till the sun had set, and banks of 
eastern clouds had faded in the twilight over Acadia, and 
the breeze had borne them away, and the night had shut 
them off forever from the land they loved. 

More than a century has passed since England claimed 
Acadia as her own. The hardy settlers who worked their 
way through brake and forest are sleeping calmly in the 
grave. The little cabin, with its moss-filled chinks and 
rubble chimney, is supplanted with the wooden mansion, 
with mansard roof and cornice, and the sparsely-settled 
hamlet has grown into a town, and, with the advent of 
success and wealth, romance retires. Art fears not pro- 
gress, but she hates to strive with rancor, and would 
rather follow in the van of science and use the fragments 
of established truth. She waits till prejudice and cynicism 
have done their work, till history and tradition are forsaken 
by the skeptics, then she paints them in her own fair 
colors, and they endure. 

I will not, therefore, seek to picture English life in 
Acadia, not because it is devoid of interest, but because it 
is more recent than the other periods of our history; 
because it gains its interest rather from connection with 
commercial than aesthetic progress. Apart from all that 
man has done, however, Acadia stands adorned with 
Nature's graces, and God has given her charms which man 



176 ACADIENSIS 

could nob create. Among the breakers of Cape Breton, 
where the water surges past the heights at La Bras D'or, 
among the islands near Cape Sable, at Lunenburg, at 
Tusket and St. Mary's Bay, there are bits of rugged land- 
scape, rich in all the splendor of bold rocks and splashing 
wa^es. From Granville to Cornwallis the sweetest strip 
of valley lies between two stretches of mountain land, and, 
standing on the heights of Cobequid, we can gaze for miles 
away upon a broad and boundless reach of marsh land. 
From Fort Medway through lake Rosignol to the basin of 
Annapolis, without leaving the canoe, we may pass through 
a lovely highway of lakes and outlets, while up the river 
of New Brunswick we may sail for days till we have to 
make a portage at huge cascades, which, if Canada did 
not possess Niagara and her railroads, would gather round 
them crowds of tourists. I shall not soon forget a night 
once passed on Blomidon the wildest spot, perhaps, in all 
Acadia. It was in my grand old college days, and we, 
three students, carried with us enough of classic training 
to make us seek some classic features in the scene. The 
night was cloudless, and a great round moon hung in the 
sky above the Parrsboro coast and lit the belts of trap and 
sandstone which skirt the western boundary of Minas 
Basin. Along the heights, which rise precipitous three 
hundred feet above the water's edge, are fearful landslides, 
where, among fragments of basaltic column, mixed with 
smaller broken stone and gravel, sprays of birch and dog- 
wood mark the struggle between vegetable and inorganic 
force. To the south lay Grand Pre, and a few stray dis- 
tant lights were all that told us of the human world, the 
rest was solitude. And then the waters of the Basin were 
surging at our feet, or soughing up the shingle, or thunder- 
ing against the cliff, while countless splash and wave and 
ripple sounded from the distance far away. It was such a 
scene as ^Eschylus and Homer must have witnessed, and 
I do not think we should have wondered had we seen the 



ESTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF ACADIA 177 

pale Promotheus shackled to the beetling rock, or heard 
his wild and sad complaints, or had the story of Andromeda 
been re-enacted before our eyes. 

ISAAC ALLEN JACK. 

[The foregoing is the principal portion of an address 
delivered before the Associated Alumni of King's College, 
Windsor, N. S., by Mr. Jack. That part which was more 
personal in its nature has been eliminated. 

The address evoked some kindly criticism, and for 
elegance of diction and depth of poetic feeling, was gener- 
ally regarded as of more than ordinary merit. 

The Halifax Chronicle contained an appreciative refer- 
ence, from the pen of its Windsor correspondent, which 
was as follows : 

Then came a beautiful essay by a former alumnus Mr. Jack, 
now a lawyer of St. John, N. B., which was most favorably 
received. It was difficult to decide whether to call it poetry or 
prose, so much more of the former style than of the latter was 
breathed throughout the elegant composition. I hope it will be 
printed, and thus add another link to the evidence of what poor 
old King's has done for the intellectual improvement of the colonial 
mind. One of the speakers pronounced his opinion, that those 
present may live to see the gifted author added to the long list of 
chief justices who have been supplied by this institution. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Jack should have been 
compelled, by ill-health, in the year 1895, to retire from 
the active pursuit of his profession. With the advent into 
power in dominion politics of the Liberal party, to whose 
principles he had always been a firm adherent, his prospects 
of more ample recognition among his fellows would have 
been much enhanced. Indeed, we feel that had he been 
able to retain his health, the friendly prognostication made 
at Windsor in 1872 would have been verified, almost as a 
natural sequence of events. ED.] 



answers to Corresponbents. 



MAUGEBVILLE, Sunbury Co., N. B., 

May 24th, 1901. 
MR. D. R. JACK, 

St. John, N. B. 

DEAR SIR, The copy of ACADIENSIS to hand, and I am 
much pleased with it. 

In reading the article, " Incidents in the Early History 
of St. John," by W. O. Raymond, I noticed that he men- 
tions James White and James Simonds landing at St. John 
April 18th, 1764. J. W. Lawrence, in " Incidents in 
Early History of New Brunswick," gives the date August 
28, 1762. Which is correct? 

I remain, 

Yours respectfully, 

ZINA C. SEWELL. 

Mr. Raymond writes : In reply to your correspondent's 
question, which is a very natural and a very interesting 
one, I shall give as briefly as I can the data on which 
my statement in the last number of ACADIENSIS is based. 
But before doing so I should like to make a few comments 
upon the somewhat divergent statements made by Moses 
H. Perley and by Joseph W. Lawrence. 

In his well-known lecture on " The Early History of 
New Brunswick,"* delivered in the Mechanics' Institute, 
St. John, in 1841, Mr. Perley says : 

In May, 1762, a party of about twenty came to this Harbor of 
St. John, in a small vessel from Newburyport. Mr. Samuel 






* The original manuscript of Moses H. Perley's lecture is now in the 
possession of the New Brunswick Historical Society. It contains a number 
of errors, some of which Mr. Perley himself discovered and corrected, and 
many of which still remain. 

178 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 179 

Peabody, Mr. James Simonds and Mr. James White were the 
three principal persons of this party. They arrived on the 19th 
day of May, 1762, and landed at Portland Point, where there was 
a small clearing and the traces of an old French fort. Fort 
Frederick was then occupied by a company of soldiers from Hali 
fax. * * * The party of adventurers, who had arrived from 
Newburyport, brought with them from that place the frame of a 
house. They landed and raised it on the 20th of May, and on 
the night of the 21st they occupied it. Mr. Samuel Peabody, to 
whom the house belonged, lived in it afterwards, and it was sub- 
sequently occupied by Mr. White for many years. 

This statement is plain enough and circumstantial 
enough, and was evidently derived by Mr. Perley from the 
personal recollections or memoranda of some of the early 
settlers. 

The statement of the late Joseph W. Lawrence in his 
well-known little work, " Foot-Prints," is based upon the 
information contained in the following letter addressed to 
him by the late John Quinton,* the original of which is 
in my possession. 

ST. JOHN, N. B., July 31st, 1882. 
DEAR SIR, 

Messrs. Simonds, White, Peabody, and their party Hugh 
Quinton and wife being of the number, some twenty in all 
landed in St. John harbour on the 28th August, 1762. Hugh 
Quinton and wife, Miss Hannah Peabody, and others, went into 
the old French fort on Carleton side. In this there was a barrack 
that had some time prior to this been occupied by British troops. 
Messrs. Simonds, White, and the rest of the party went to the 
site of another old French fort, since known as Simonds' Point, 
where they erected a building to accommodate the whole party, 
to which Quinton and others in Carleton, soon after moved. 

On the night of this day 28th August, 1762 Quinton's wife 
was delivered of her first-born, a son, in the old fort barrack in 
Carleton. 

I have, perhaps, made this statement already too long, but I 
want it clearly understood that there is no mistake about this date. 
Beside the record in my possession, frequent confirmation of the 



* Mr. Quinton died 1st July, 1888, at the age of eighty-one years. 



180 ACADIENSIS 

facts from my grandfather's lips have fixed the whole thing on my 
memory too firmly to be doubted or forgotten. 

I was born in 1807 Grandmother of sound mind and remark- 
able memory to the last, died in 1835. I might offer further proof 
of this statement but perhaps it is not necessary to make the 
story longer. Yours truly, 

JOHN QUINTON. 

P. S. Hugh Quinton died in 1792. Miss Peabody, named 
herein, was afterwards the wife of James Simonds, named at the 
commencement. J. Q. 

The account given by Mr. Quinton in his letter is equally 
circumstantial with that of Moses H. Perley, and it is 
difficult to reconcile the two. Both are equally in error 
in claiming that James White was one of the party. 
The papers and memoranda of James White, which are 
now in the hands of a gentleman living in this city, prov.e 
conclusively that throughout the year 1762, and part of 
the next year, Mr. White was actively engaged as agent 
for Samuel Blodget, a Boston merchant, in furnishing sup- 
plies to the commissariat department of the British forces 
at Crown Point, and he was the greater part of his time 
stationed either at Crown Point or at Albany. 

The statement contained in my article in the last num- 
ber of ACADIENSIS is strictly accurate. The party which 
arrived at St. John harbor in 1762 was merely the van- 
guard of the colony that established the settlement at 
Maugerville on the St. John river the following year, 
whither all the first arrivals (with the exception of James 
and Richard Simonds) seem to have proceeded. The first 
permanent settlement at the mouth of the river was that 
under James Simonds and James White in April, 1764. 

The company of which they were members included, in 
addition: William Hazen, merchant, of Newburyport ; 
Samuel Blodget, merchant, of Boston; Richard Simonds 
and Robert Peaslie. Articles of partnership were drawn 
up and signed by these gentlemen March 1, 1764 (a fac- 
simile of the signatures is here given), and shortly after- 






ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 



181 



wards the Messrs. SimoncU and White, with a party of 
about thirty men, embarked in the schooner " Wilmot," 
Wm. Storey, master, and sailed for St. John. They left 
Newburyport about the 10th of April, arriving at Passa- 
maquoddy on the 16th, and at St. John on the 18th. The 
names of the party were Jonathan Leavitt, Jonathan Si- 








rT 




monds, Webster Emerson, Samuel Middleton, Peter Mid- 
dleton, Edmund Black, Moses True, Reuben Stevens, John 
Stevens, John Boyd, Moses Kimball, Benjamin Dow, 
Thomas Jenkins, Batcheldor Ring, Rowley Andros, Ed- 
mund Butler, John Nason, Reuben Mace, Benjamin Wig- 
gins, John Lovering, John Hookey, Reuben Sergeant, 
Benjamin Stanwood, Anthony Dyer, George Carey, John 



182 ACADIENSIS 

Hunt, George Berry, Simeon Hillyard, Ebenezer Fowler, 
William Picket and Ezekiel Carr. The majority of these 
men subsequently returned to Massachusetts, but quite a 
number became permanent settlers and their descendants 
are numerous in the province. During the summer of 
1764 they established themselves in rude log houses on the 
shores of the harbor. They were engaged at first chiefly 
in the fishery, manufacture of lime, and trading. We may 
rightly claim for this little colony of April 1764, the honor 
of establishing the first permanent settlement at St. John. 



ffioofc IRotlces. 



Two years ago Professor W. F. Gaiiong issued the 
" Teaching Botanist," a botanical text-book that met with 
a very favorable reception from the educational world. 
In June of this year the same author published his second 
text-book, " Plant Physiology," a work that we think will 
be highly prized by the students and teachers for whom it 
is intended. 

It is a complete hand-book on the methods and equip- 
ment necessary for a course in experimental plant physi- 
ology, and like the author's first book is a splendid example 
of inductive teaching. The book is well got up and is from 
the press of Henry Holt & Co., New York. 



" Index to American Genealogies," and to genealogical 
material contained in all works such as Town and Country 
histories, biographies, historical periodicals, and kindred 
works. Alphabetically arranged, enabling the reader to 
ascertain whether the genealogy of any family or part of a 
family is printed. Fourth edition. 8 vo. 282 pages. 
Cloth, $5.00. Published by Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, 
N. Y. 



BOOK NOTICES 183 

"American Genealogist," being a catalogue of family 
histories. A bibliography of American genealogy from 
1771 to date. 8 vo. 328 pages. Cloth, $5.00. Pub- 
lished by Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, N. Y. 

"List of Titles of Genealogical Articles in American 
periodicals and kindred works," giving the name, residence, 
and earliest date of the first settler of each family, and 
adding deficiencies in brackets. Designed as a companion 
volume to the "American Genealogist." 8 vo. 165 pages. 
Cloth, $3.00. Published by Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, 
K Y. 



The first number of the " American Heraldic Journal," 
a quarterly published at 106 East Broad Street, Columbus, 
Ohio, has just been received. It is of quarto size, sixteen 
pages in extent, and is a fine specimen of the printer's art. 
The subscription price is $2.00 per annum, and it is an- 
nounced that the list of subscribers for 1901 will be closed 
as soon as fifty persons or institutions have signified their 
desire to subscribe. 



We are indebted to the following publications for very 
generous notices of our second number : 

Acadian Wolfville, N. S^ 

Agriculturist . Charlottetown, P. E. I. 

Argus Lunenburg, N. S. 

Chronicle Halifax, N. S. 

Colchester Sun Truro, N. S. 

Eagle Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Echo Halifax, N. S. 

Examiner Charlottetown, P. E. I. 

Educational Review St. John, N. B. 

Free Lance Weatville, N. S. 

Gleaner Fredericton, N. B. 

Globe St. John, N. B. 

Herald.. Halifax, N. S. 

Herald Yarmouth, N. S. 

Journal Summerside, P. E. I. 



184 ASADIENSIS 

Journal of the Ex-Libris Society London, Eng. 

Le Moniteur Acadian Shediac, N. B. 

Guardian Charlotte town, P. E. 1. 

Monitor St. John, N. B. 

N. Y. Times Saturday Review New York. 

N. E. Historical and Genealogical Register Boston, Mass. 

Presbyterian Witness Halifax, N. S. 

Press Woodstock, N. B. 

Record Sydney, C. B. 

Telegraph St. John, N. B. 

Tribune Windsor, N. S. 

Reporter Woodstock, N. B. 

Sentinel Woodstock, N. B. 

Sun St. John, N. B 

Times Guardian Truro, N. S 

World ' Chatham, N. B. 



EXCHANGES RECEIVED. 

Canada Educational Monthly. 

Educational Review. 

Prince Edward Island Magazine. 

Educational Record. 

Genealogical Advertiser. 

Commonwealth . 

L'Acadie. 

New England Bibliopolist. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Record. 

Bulletin des Recherches Historiques. 

Kings College Record. 

Windsor Tribune. 

Canadian Home Journal. 

Reports Bureau American Ethnology. 

" Old North- West " Genealogical Quarterly. 

North American Notes and Queries. 

The Book Lover. 

Journal of the Ex-Libris Society. 




MISS ELIZABETH WHITE, 
OF HALIFAX, N. S. 



CONTENTS. 



The Unknown, 

The Indians of Acadia, - - 
-Historic Louisburg as it is to-day, 
The Daisy, 

Colonel Robert Moodie, - - 
La Valliere of Chignecto, - 

(.Concluded.) 

Tivo Acadian Musicians, - 

Charlotte Elizabeth, - - - 

Book-Plates. 

The Wetmore Family, 

Exchanges Received, 

Gabe Acquin^ 

Bluenose, 

The Origin of the N. Y. Herald, 

Book Notices, 





Gbe 



Out in the sleeping forest, 'neath the stars, 
When winds are still, and Nature void of life, 
A dry twig sharply breaks : and in the house, 
The lonely watcher in the breathless night 
Hears the door creak or untrod stair complain, 
No mortal power lending cause thereto 

Is there some pebble on the road of space 
O'er which the huge world jars ? Or doth the hear 
Of fire that throbs beneath her rocky ribs 
Beat over-strongly in the loose of sleep, 
And stir her antique frame? Nay, who can say 
What angels or what demons or vague forms 
Of mindless force upon the earth contend, 
Beyond the reaches of our utmost thought ! 
'Tis not alone the harp-strings of our souls 
That hum and quiver at a viewless touch, 
But things inanimate bear witness strong 
Another world stirs closely round our verge 
With moth-like eyes on Life's material flame, 
And sudden, aimless flickerings through its gleam! 

The charlatan who claims to call such host 
Turns white and speechless if it truly come ; 
The proved soldier of an hundred fields, 
Whose eye hath sternly scanned the face of Death 
At arm's-length, quails and shrinks in ghastly fear. 
And cries to God if such a foe seem near. 

CHARLES CAMPBI 




ACADIENSIS 



VOL. I. OCTOBER, 1901. No. 4. 



DAVID RUSSELL JACK, ......... EDITOR. 



flnbtane ot Hcafcia. 




HEN, in the year 1604, Champlain, 
deMonts and Poutrincourt, from 
old France, their souls filled with 
a laudable ambition to establish 
colonies and conquer new territories 
which would add to the wealth and 
renown of the mother country, 

landed in what they named New France, they found 
the territory occupied by a brave and healthy race of 
men. These men, the native Indians, the Abenakis, as 
they were then called, lived by fishing and hunting. The 
only enemy they knew were the Mohawks, a rival tribe, 
with whom they were frequently at war, and against 
whom, according to their own legends and traditions, they 
were able, for a considerable period of time, to hold their 
ground. That the Mohawks subsequently obtained the 
mastery is at least probable from an incident which is 
touched upon in a later portion of this sketch. 

The descendants of the Abenakis still remain among us, 
and are to be found in scattered groups throughout the 
length and breadth of Acadia. Much of interest regard- 
ing them has been related by Marc L'Escarbot, the histor- 
ian of New France, to whose published works we are 
greatly indebted for the preservation of valuable material. 
Champlain's maps of La Baie Fra^aise, Port Royal and 



188 ACADIENSIS 

the mouth of the St. John River, the first ever made of 
this part of the world, of which we have any knowledge, 
are remarkably accurate in their main features, and well 
worthy of careful examination. 

L' Escarbot, in his " Historic de la Nouvelle France/ 
says : " When we came to the River Saint John, being in 
the town of Ouigotidi (for thus I can well call an enclosed 
place full of people), we saw in a great ' hallier ' about 
eighty savages, entirely naked, with the exception of a 
cincture, who were making a tabaguia with flour which 
they had received from us, of which they had made pots 
full of 'bouillie.'" 

The exact spot where this interesting feast took place is 
shown by Champlain upon one of his maps, and is readily 
recognized as the Navy Island of to-day, situated at the 
upper end of the harbour of St. John. 

The Indians who live in Acadia are the members of 
three tribes the Micmacs, who were the original owners 
of the soil ; and the Maliseets, who were once a portion of 
the Abenaki nation, were later comers, and driving back 
the Micmacs established possession of the northern and 
western portion of what is now New Brunswick, including 
the valley of the river St. John, with the exception of one 
village site at the mouth of the river. The third tribe 
the Passamaquoddy Indians had no separate tribal or- 
ganization until after the advent of the white man upon 
the scene. 

Mr. Montague Chamberlain, formerly of the city of St. 
John, but now of Boston, Mass., is a very well known 
writer upon Indian affairs, and has published, among 
others, two valuable papers. The first, entitled, "The 
Abenaki Indians," was an interesting paper on the 
Indians of New England, their language and their tribes. 
This paper was read in 1895 before the Shepherd Histori- 
cal Society of Cambridge, Mass. The second paper was 



THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 189 

entitled " The Origin of the Maliseets," and was published 
in the New Brunswick Magazine, Vol. I., pp. 41-45. 

Concerning the origin of the Abenakis, and their exten- 
sion into Acadia, Mr. Chamberlain states in his first men- 
tioned paper that there was good reason for supposing 
that the progenitors of the Abenaki nation were a band of 
Ojibways who left the main body and settled in the 
Adirondack region, from which they were driven by the 
Iroquois, when that nation moved up from the southwest. 

"At the time of the European occupation of New England 
these Ojibways had increased to seven large tribes, and controlled 
the entire country from the St. John river in New Brunswick 
through Maine and New Hampshire to the Connecticut river, and 
extended their rule into Massachusetts as far as the mouth of the 
Merrimac on the east, and Northampton on the west. The senior 
or original tribe claimed the hunting rights of the country between 
the Connecticut and the Piscataqua, their principal village being 
Pennacook, on the banks of the Merrimac, where Manchester now 
stands, and where their chief, Passaconaway, lived. It is probable 
that this tribe was known as the Nipmuks by the neighboring 
people, but their own tribal name is unknown." 

The origin of the younger tribes is thus accounted for 
by Mr. Chamberlain : 

" First a band of Nipmuks wandered to the Saco, set up a 
village on the site of the present town of Fryburg, organized an 
independent tribe and adopted the name of Sakokik, generally 
spelled Sakoki, from which we have derived the present name of 
the river Saco. Later, a detachment from the Sakoki set up for 
themselves on the banks of the Androscoggin, and are known in 
history as the Assagunticooks. From these sprung the Wawe- 
nocks, and the Canibas or Kenebasiaks, the former spreading over 
the Maine coast between Rockland and Yarmouth, and the Canibas 
taking possession of the Kennebec river. In turn, the Canibas 
became the parent tribe of the Penobscots, and it was a band of 
Penobscots who set up their wigwams on the banks of the Sb, 
John, and established the tribe that is now known as the Maliseets. 
All this must have occurred long before the white man entered 
the country, for Champlain, Lescarbot, Captain John Smith and 
Cardillac, who visited the St. John during the first decade of the 
seventeenth century, found there two large encampments of Mali- 






190 ACADIENSIS 

seets, and the early visitors refer to the tribe as taking a leading 
part in the afi'airs of the Abenaki nation." 

This name has been variously spelled Abenaki, Wapa- 
naki, Wabananchi, and Abenaqui. 

In his paper, entitled, " The Origin of the Maliseets," 
Mr. Chamberlain writes : 

"That the Micmacs were not Wapanakis has been clearly 
established by comparison of the languages and the t raditions, 
though the tribes lived on intimate friendly terms, and Micmac 
braves were sometimes found among Wapanaki war parties. Dr. 
Williamson, in his History of Maine, quotes a Penobscot Indian's 
statement that ' all the Indians between the St. John and the 
Saco rivers are brothers; the eldest lives on the Saco, and each 
tribe is younger as we pass eastward. Always I could understand 
these brothers very well when they speak, but when the Micmacs 
talk I can't tell what they say.' " 

The Passamaquoddy tribe, to which we have before 
alluded, is a mixture of Maliseet and Penobscot, and 
tradition states that a Maliseet brave married a Penobscot 
squaw and built a wigwam at the entrance of the river 
St. Croix. They were joined by other Indians from 
various parts of what is now the State of Maine, and the 
band which had thus grown up, held allegiance to the 
Maliseets until subsequently to the arrival of the whites. 
When the Penobscots finally deserted Machias and the 
majority of the families moved to the St. Croix, the band, 
augmented by this addition, elected their own chief and 
organized a tribal establishment. This ceremony is said 
to have been conducted by leading men from the Maliseet, 
Penobscot and St. Francis tribes, which tribes, according 
to Williamson, were estimated as numbering some 36,000 
souls at the time of the European invasion. 

The late Edward Jack, who was by profession a civil 
engineer, has left quite a valuable fund of information re- 
lating chiefly to the district of Acadia. In the pursuit of 
his calling he spent much of his time in the depths of the 
forests of New Brunswick, often for weeks together, with 






THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 191 

no companion save an Indian guide or two, their nightly 
resting place in the summer time, a bed of spruce or fir 
boughs, beneath a rude shelter of canvas or an upturned 
canoe ; in the winter, a sort of lean-to, or shed, constructed 
of young evergreens, beneath which the fir boughs upon 
which they slept were spread upon the snow, while in 
front a generous fire kept the keen frost at bay. 

A man of kindly heart and sympathetic disposition, he 
eventually won the confidence and respect of what is now 
but the proud and silent remnant of a once mighty race, 
which ruled the country from the Bay of Fundy to the St. 
Lawrence, and from the Kennebec to the Atlantic Ocean. 

In a sketch by him, entitled "A Day with the Abenakis," 
written for the St. John Sun, and published in that journal 
on the 30th of July, 1881, several Indian legends and 
customs are touched upon, and the writer feels that he 
may be permitted to insert herein, from the article men- 
tioned, what may possibly be considered a somewhat 
lengthy extract : 

" In the year 1696, when De Villebon was Governor of Acadia, 
and resided at the mouth of the Nashwaak, a plan to capture 
Boston by the aid of the Abenakis, was submitted by him to the 
consideration of the Court of France, but the carrying out of the 
scheme was never attempted, for De Villebon found his own exist- 
ence threatened by an attack which was made upon his fort on 
the 21st day of October, in that very year, by a force from Massa- 
chusetts. This, however, with the assistance of forty neophytes, 
sent by Father Simon, the Recollet Missionary, who resided near 
what is now called Springhill, De Villebon defeated. Father 
Charlevoix, who visited New France in 1720, in describing this 
contest, says that the Massachusetts men landed below the mouth 
of the Nashwaak and lighted their camp fires. The French 
opened upon them with round shot. To this they paid no atten- 
tion, but on their changing this for grape, the hardy New Eng- 
landers were compelled to pass the cold autumnal night without 
fire, as best they could. 

In confirmation of Charlevoix's statement, it may be mentioned 
that within the past few years, round and grape shot have both 
been dug out of the lower banks of the Nashwaak, near its junc- 
tion with the Saint John. 



192 ACADIENSIS 

Not more than half a mile above where De Villebon's fort once 
stood, there stands a group of miserable huts, inhabited by the 
descendants of those very Abenakis, whose name once carried such 
terror to the home of many an early New England settler. In 
the warm summer evenings, these few poor remnants of a fading 
3tnd faded race, love to gather in the open air around a bright fire 
and relate to one another their little experiences of uneventful 
life, occasionally mingled with a few faint traditions of their 
ancestor's deeds of valor which memory has from age to age 
handed down. They are a civil, harmless people, and not nearly 
so much addicted to strong drink as they once were. 

About the first of the present month (July 1881) the writer, in 
company with a friend, determined to visit the Islands opposite 
tOj or rather below the mouth of the Keswick, about seven miles 
%bove Fredericton. We enlisted the services of Gabe, who brought 
with him another Indian whom he called Sol, and who must have 
Men nearly eighty years of age. He spoke but little English, 
and although very good natured, had but little to say. Gabe, 
however, made up for all his friend's defects in this respect. 
Before leaving, we bought a can of salmon, a couple of loaves of 
(bread, some tea and sugar, and a tin kettle and dippers. We 
had each of us an Indian and a canoe, and our dusky guides soon 
landed us on the bosom of the Saint John, plying their paddles 
with a strength and speed which younger men might envy. 

Gabe had a pole, so he occasionally dropped his paddle and used 
Ms pole, always, however, waiting affectionately for Sol when he 
had distanced the latter a hundred yards or so, saying at the same 
tpne, " I must not leave Sol behind." The balmy air, laden with 
(&e perfume of the white clover and wild flowers which grew on 
the river bank, rippled the blue waters of the river, obliterating 
the shadows which the long extended branches of the graceful 
alms had thrown upon the water, and rustled among the leaves as 
it sportively danced from bough to bough. Nature was indeed 
fcharming, in her very brightest and happiest mood, and the time 
Ijassed so pleasantly that we found ourselves near the lower end 
of the Islands in a very short time. One of these, yet called 
Savage Island, was the place where, about the year 1760 or 1770, 
CJharles Morris, then Surveyor General of Nova Scotia, saw the 
Great Indian Council House, built of rude poles, where, in the 
mouth of July in each year, the Abenakis met to allot to each 
Indian family its hunting ground. 

"As we rounded a point on the west side of the river, Gabe 
remarked : ' It is noon ; here is a good place for dinner ; on that 




AN INDIAN WIGWAM, NEAR HALIFAX. 

tore BY E. A. WILSON. 




SQUAWS AT THE HALIFAX MARKET. 



THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 193 

bank is a clean, cold spring, and there are no flies to trouble us.' 
So, pushing ashore, we all landed and went up to Gabe's cold 
spring, which we found answered his commendations. 

" Sol and he soon had dinner ready. This we partook of be- 
neath the overarching boughs of a magnificent elm, and as Gabe 
had told us, there were no flies, there being in this spot a con- 
stant breeze. After we had finished our dinner, overhearing Sol 
make some remarks to Gabe in the Abenaki tongue, we asked the 
interpretation : ' Oh,' said Gabe, ' Sol is only telling me that this 
is the first time that he ever ate salmon out of boxes.' When 
dinner was over, and Gabe's pipe filled and smoked, he became 
very communicative as one or other of us drew him out : ' Ah ! ' 
said he ' the English when they took Quebec promised to treat us 
Indians as well as the French. They never have, nor never will. 
The French lived among us, learned our language and gave us 
religion ; they were just like ourselves ; that is why we thought 
so much of them.' 

"After leaving the point where we had dined we ascended the 
river a mile or two further, until we came opposite the foot of 
what is now called Hart's Island. This, Gabe informed us, was 
formerly called by the Indians, Old-town. Here it was that the 
Abenakis lived in summer. Their wigwams being placed around 
the island, formed a sort of stockade, the centre being reserved as 
a space for their dances. The Mohawks, Gabe said, more than 
once attempted the destruction of the Abenakis residing here, and 
once in particular they would have been utterly destroyed but for 
the wise foresight of an aged squaw who was gifted with the 
spirit of prophecy : ' On a still summer evening, long before the 
pale faces had invaded our country,' said he, 'this woman, with 
wild eyes and long flowing hair, rushed into the centre of the 
encampment, calling out in low tones, " there is trouble ! there is 
trouble ! " In a short time she was surrounded by our braves, 
who asked what she meant. " You see Woo-cho-sis (Currie's 
Mountain) over there, do you not ? Behind it is hidden a great 
party of Mohawks, and they are only waiting for the night to 
cover the earth, when they will attack you and kill you all if you 
are not ready for them." A great council was immediately called, 
and it was decided that action should be at once taken in the 
matter. In order to conceal their intentions from the Mohawks 
they concluded to have a big dance. While this was going on the 
braves slipped out one by one, leaving none but the old men and 
women to keep it up. Before separating they ha,l determined 



194 ACADIENSIS 

upon a particular sign by which they might know one another in 
the dark, as they might be crawling in the long grass, or among 
the thick bushes which surrounded the island, and he who could 
not answer this sign was to be dispatched immediately and his 
gory head thrown in among the dancers. The Mohawks mean- 
while had, as evening advanced, slowly and stealthily approached 
the Abenakis village, but will had been met by will, and before 
day dawned many a Mohawk's head had been thrown into the 
midst of the dancers, with the whispered command : dance harder! 
dance harder ! until, exhausted and fainting, the dancers sank to 
the ground. By morning most of the Mohawk braves had been 
slain, the others,' said Gabe, 'were as easily dispatched as you 
might cut a chicken's head off, or knock a lamb on the head. 
Some three or four, with ears and noses cut off, were allowed to 
return home, in order to show the other Mohawks how they would 
be treated should they attempt the like again.' 

"Entering our canoes we poled along towards Savage Island, 
and the water became quicker and the bottom was covered by 
bright pebbles. ' This,' said Gabe, ' is Augh-pa-hack, the head of 
tide. On the west side of the river, just here, once stood our 
church and village. There was a racecourse in ancient times,' 
said Gabe, 'which extended all around the island, a distance of 
several miles. Here, after ball playing, the young Indians tried 
their speed. When I was a boy,' said he, 'I have seen traces of 
their race course in the sod.' 

" As the day was well advanced we concluded to turn our 
canoes homewards, which we did ; one of them hoisting a sail, the 
other was held on, and was borne swiftly along by the north-west 
wind, As Gabe dropped the paddle and wiped the perspiration 
from his brow he again recurred to the traditions of his fathers. 
' Long ago,' said he, ' there was a great sickness fell upon the 
Abenakis, and many of them, men, women and children, died. 
One night, when all was dark and silent, there appeared to one of 
our braves a strange figure, as of a man all covered with joints 
and bars. "I am," said he, " Ke-whis-wask (calamus-root), and 
can heal you all. Vnu must, to-morrow morning, dig me up, 
steep me in warm water, and drink me, and I will cure you." 
After saying this he vanished, and next morning the brave, doing 
as he was told, the sick all recovered.' " 

The Indians of Canada are all more or less under gov- 
ernment supervision, but in spite of great watchfulness, 






THE INDIANS OF AC ADI A 195 

are sometimes the subjects of unjust attack by their white 
brethren, as will be illustrated by the following incident : 

In July, 1879, an Indian named La Coate entered the Crown 
Land Office at Fredericton, and informed one of the officers that 
two men had taken possession of a piece of land on the great 
Schoodic Lakes, containing 200 acres, which the Indians claimed 
as their property. 

In order to substantiate his claim, he drew from his pocket a 
carefully preserved paper, written in the year 1808. and signed by 
Thomas Wyer, Thomas Wyer, jr., Robert Pagan, David W. 
Jack, and other leading citizens of St. Andrews. It stated 
that John La Coate, the grandfather of this Indian, together with 
a number of others as representatives of the tribe, expressed their 
determination to be friends with the English and to retire to the 
woods, if necessary, so as to escape the effects of war between 
Great Britain and the United States. 

Whether these 200 acres were ever restored to the rem- 
nant of this tribe by the Provincial Government or not, the 
writer is not in a position to state. 

Among some old papers the writer finds an account of a 
meeting held at St. Andrews, N. B., in the year 1808, 
and to which he has before alluded. The inhabitants of 
that town were then greatly alarmed lest the Indians 
should, in the case of war with the United States, take 
arms against the English. A meeting was accordingly 
held with the delegates of the Indians, at the house of 
Thos. Wyer, Esq., when they appeared in full Indian dress 
with a Mohawk as interpreter. 

On the opening of the council the Indians seated them- 
selves on the floor, around the walls of the room, the chief 
addressing the people of St. Andrews in the Indian lan- 
guage, which was interpreted by the Mohawk. As each 
sentence was completed by the chief, each Indian bowed 
his head, uttering the Indian word or sign for yes, which 
is something like ah, ah. 

They said that they would have to act as the Mohawks 
would require them, but that they were King George's 



196 ACADIENSIS 

men, and desired to remain neutral and to trade with both 
parties. These Indians, during the time the council was 
held, appeared to be a grave and respected body of men, 
but after the council broke up, rum was given them, when 
they became wild with its exciting spirit, some of them 
going so far as to roll over on the floor and yell out, More 
rum ! mere rum ! 

Col. Wyer was always a protector to the Indians, and 
endeavoured to secure for them that honorable and straight- 
forward treatment which he felt they should receive. His 
house was always open to them, and they were at liberty 
to enter his kitchen, make use of the fire in the wide old- 
fashioned fireplace to prepare their meal, and to spend the 
night under his roof if they so desired. 

The writer's father was wont to relate many interestiag 
reminiscences of life in St. Andrews in the earlier part of 
the last century. 

Upon one occasion, when a very small child, he was 
staying at the house of Col. Wyer, his grandfather, and 
all the household, with the exception of one servant and 
himself, being absent, a party of Indians entered the 
kitchen, and, biddiag the servant good evening, set about 
preparing their evening meal. Supper ended, the Indians 
spread their blankets upon the kitchen floor, and were 
soon fast asleep. 

Greatly alarmed at this free-and-easy procedure, the 
servant withdrew to a room in the attic of the house, 
taking the small boy with her, where they spent a sleepless 
night, in momentary dread of Indian violence. 

Their fears, however, were unfounded, for at daybreak 
the Indians arose and proceeded upon their journey, leav- 
ing everything just as they had found it. It is scarcely 
necessary to add that the open-hearted and generous treat- 
ment accorded to the Indians by Col. Wyer was never 
abused by them, and that upon DO occasion did he ever 
lose by petty thieving or any other dishonesty upon the 
part of his Indian guests. 



THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 197 

Reverting once more to Mr. Chamberlain's article upon 
the Abenakis, he thus describes the tribal organization : 

They were organized upon the same general plan common to 
most of the North American tribes, the old men forming a council 
which is presided over by the chief or sakum (sachem) who was 
elected by the people at large. The members of the council were 
not elected but were appointed by the chief. 

The sakum held no other executive authority unless delegated 
by vote of the council, though the position gave an able man great 
influence and unlimited opportunities for leadership. The council 
discussed tribal affairs, but neither made nor enforced laws. The 
tribes had no laws. They followed certain traditional usages, but 
followed these because they revered them, each man being free to 
govern his own actions, though he was ostracized if he neglected 
any important function. 

Crime was almost unknown among them, and when it occurred 
was punished by vote of the council. 

The people were not nomadic, but lived in fixed villages, which 
were fortified by palisades. They were hunters, but cultivated 
corn, beans and pumpkins extensively. 

The children were carefully trained by the old women of the 
village, the boys and girls being prepared for their respective 
duties. The young women did not mingle with the young men 
and were not allowed to marry until about twenty- four, when the 
parents arranged a suitable match. 

It is impossible to tell exactly what the primitive religion was, 
for their legends are now mixed with matter taught by the Jesuit 
missionaries. It is doubtful if they believed in a supreme being, 
or in any god who was always good. They had many gods, but 
these were sometimes good and sometimes evil. They prayed to 
these gods for assistance and made offerings by way of thanks and 
praise. Their religious ceremonies were mostly songs and dances 
and incantations. 

The priests combined the offices of intercessor and medicine 
man. They possessed no remedial knowledge, but used occult 
charms to remove the evil spirit that caused disease. The old 
woman used many herbs and roots for external and internal uses. 
These people believed in a future life, but did not believe in 
future punishment. 

The mental and moral characteristics of the Abenaki Indians are 
of a much higher plane than is usually accredited to the race. 
But their minds are undeveloped and they are almost child-like in 



198 ACADIENSIS 

their immaturity, their methods of reasoning and their standards. 
They are observant and quick to appreciate cause and effect, so 
they learn readily, and being obedient make pleasant pupils and 
satisfactory servants. 

Before being degraded by the white man's influence the Abenakis 
were highly moral. They were honest, truthful and just ; hospi- 
table to a fault and unswerving in fidelity to their friends. They 
are still hospitable, and the best of them are honest and faithful. 
In the old times the women were peculiarly moral. Married 
women were rarely inconstant and maidens were never unchaste. 

They were revengeful ; it was born in them, and from their 
mother's lips they learned it was their duty to pay back wrong 
with wrong. They tortured captives, but that was from super- 
stition more than from lack of humaneness. They were extremely 
kind to their old people and to the unfortunate. Their hospitality 
was unlimited, and to this day they never turn away from their 
wigwams those who apply to them for food or shelter. 

Their code of warfare was a savage code they knew none other 
but they never went to war for the mere glory of scalp taking 
nor from love of conquest. They were strong men who faced 
death with calmness and courage, but they were also tender and 
affectionate and cared for wives and children with great devotion. 
Their reserve is proverbial, but is due to their extreme bashful- 
ness in the presence of strangers, their dread of ridicule to which 
they are peculiarly sensitive, and their respect for those who they 
deem superiors. When among intimates they converse with ease 
and volubility ; repartee is much enjoyed, and their conversation 
is spirited and not unfrequently very mirthful. 

The writer well remembers in his boyhood's time many 
pleasant days spent at Gagetown, upon the St. John 
lliver, his constant and only companion, Sabatis, an Indian 
boy of about his own age. 

Summer after summer, in fishing, canoeing, swimming, 
and raft and camp building the days were spent. Delight- 
ful they were in the reality, and delightful still in the 
recollection. Upon many a sultry afternoon, after retir- 
ing to some sandy and secluded spot upon the river bank, 
and devoid of what little clothing the usages of society 
retired, did the youthful braves paddle and swim about 
in the tepid water until its chilling influence compelled a 



THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 199 

temporary abandonment of this pleasurable pastime. Then 
a blazing bonfire of driftwood, and a race up and down 
the grassy sward. After this, with bodies once more 
glowing with the vigor of youth and health, a plunge 
into the river to begin again the same routine. 

To the credit of this Indian boy be it said that he was 
without guile, a true friend, a stranger to the use of im- 
proper language, and quick to act in any emergency ; 
upon one occasion, without momentary hesitation, plung- 
ing into the water and bringing safely to land a near 
relative of the writer, then a very young child, who had 
accidentally fallen into deep water, and was in imminent 
danger of drowning. 

While he knew where the robin and the bob-o-link 
nested, and the blue-winged heron reared her brood, he 
never rifled their nests, for that would surely anger the 
Great Spirit. His theology consisted of a strange mixture 
of heathenism and Christianity ; and if you asked him, as 
did the writer upon one occasion, where God lived, he 
would point in the direction of the setting sun and reply, 
" Away over there ! " 

The musquash he looked upon as a wise provision of 
nature for his subsistence, and dozens of their skins, each 
stretched upon a shingle to dry, might be seen about his 
home. These he captured in the springtime by the aid of 
a rude trap made of boards, when the high freshet drove 
them from their usual haunts and hiding places. An 
inquiry of Sabatis upon one occasion as to whether the 
musquash was good eating elicited the prompt reply, 
" Him better'n black duck." This remark was accom- 
panied by a gesture so significant of appreciation that it 
certainly left no doubt upon the subject in the mind of the 
writer. 

In Acadia, as elsewhere, intercommunication with his 
white brethren does not seem, as a rule, to have improved 
the physical or moral condition of the native Indian. 



200 ACADIENSIS 

Opportunities for obtaining fire-water, the loss to a large 
extent of his hunting grounds, and the consequently 
greater difficulty in obtaining a livelihood, are causes which 
have perhaps contributed to this condition. There still 
remain among them, however, many who are honest, sober 
and industrious, and who may safely be relied upon as 
trusty guides through the trackless forest, or upon fishing 
or hunting expeditions. Many of them are experts in the 
weaving of baskets, in the building of birch bark canoes, 
in reading the book of nature, and with the paddle, the 
rifle and the spear. 

That the Indians of Acadia are not decreasing in num- 
ber would appear from the government returns, which give 
the Indian population of the three Acadian provinces as 
follows : 

1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 

Nova Scotia 2141 2164 2108 1890 2027 1953 

New Brunswick 1618 1668 1590 1658 1627 1667 

P. E. Island 285 287 308 303 314 315 

There are eighteen schools maintained by the govern- 
ment for the benefit of the Indians, of which eleven are in 
Nova Scotia, six in New Brunswick, and one in Prince 
Edward Island. 

During the year ending 30th June, 1897, there were 
four hundred and six pupils enrolled at the eighteen 
schools, with an average attendance of one hundred and 
eighty-seven pupils, or nearly nineteen for each school. 

In the same year there were among the total population 
of 3,935 no less than 4,817 acres of land under cultivation, 
they owned 1,660 implements and vehicles, 856 horses, 
cattle sheep and pigs, and 1,071 head of poultry ; they 
raised 9,460 bushels of grain, 16,345 bushels of potatoes 
and roots, 1,502 tons of hay, and produced $62,190 in 
value of fish, furs and other commodities. 

In this year also there was expended by the government 
on their behalf: For salaries, $2,817; for relief and seed 







flidlohy W. A. Uiekma 



NICHOLAS LOLAR. 

See page 201. 



THE INDIANS OF ACADIA 201 

grain, $6,416; for medical attendance, $5,804; and on 
miscellaneous account, $1,001. 

Many of them find employment during the hunting 
season as guides, in which capacity they are favourably 
regarded by the majority of the sportsmen who regularly 
visit the Acadian Provinces. 

The portrait which accompanies this sketch is that 
of Nicholas Lolar, one of the well-known guides of 
New Brunswick, and is the work of Mr. W. A. Hickman 
during the year 1899. The photograph was taken on the 
bank of the Restigouche River in the early morning. The 
Indian had just cleaned and prepared for cooking a fine 
grilse which he had caught, and, turning from the river 
towards the camp, was photographed instantaneously by 
Mr. Hickman. 

The pose is natural, the likeness good, and the picture, 
being a striking one, is well worthy of preservation. 

The writer regrets that lack of space will not permit 
him to touch more fully upon the various matters con- 
nected with Indian life and history. This brief sketch 
will give the reader a general idea of the extent of our 
Indian population, their condition and capabilities. Other 
articles upon the same subject are in course of preparation, 
and will be published from time to time, as the variety of 
subjects requiring attention and the limited space at our 
disposal will permit. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 



Ibietoric OLouteburg as it is 




HERE are few towns in which the past 
and the present meet as pathetically 
as they do at Louisburg, once the 
Dunkirk of America, now a rising 
twentieth century shipping town. 
Louisburg has indeed seen its ups and 
downs. To-day the future of the new 
Louisburg is bright with promise. It already possesses a 
magnificent coaling pier erected by the Dominion Coal 
Company, and one or more large coaling steamers are 
always to be seen in its harbor. Only recently Louisburg 
elected its first mayor and town council. When the South 
Shore Line in Cape Breton becomes an established fact, 
Louisburg will receive a greatly increased importance. It 
is still spoken of as a possible port for a fast Atlantic service. 
The modern town, which is now growing rapidly, pos- 
sesses several good churches and a number of stores and 
comfortable residences, but to the visitor its interest is 
naturally small compared with what remains of the Louis- 
burg which flourished as the capital of lie Royale under the 
golden lilies of France. On leaving the Sydney and Louis- 
burg train almost the first objects to meet one's eyes are 
two French cannon now mounted on modern gun-carriages 
supplied by the Dominion Government and located on a 
neatly sodded place d'armes, which is an exact model of 
the place d'armes of the old French fortifications. The 
cannons were procured from the harbor not many years 
ago from the sunken wreck of a French man-of-war. 

Nearly every house in town possesses at least a few 
relics of the olden days, and cannon balls used in the siege 
are still constantly being unearthed. Unfortunately many 
relics have been carried off and thus lost to Cape Breton. 
It is a great pity that earlier in the day an organized 
effort was not made to collect relics and to preserve them 
in a small museum placed somewhere on the site of the 
ancient town. One memorial almost every one of the older 
dwelling houses possesses in its cellar wall and chimney. 
202 



HISTORIC LOUISBURG 203 

Nearly every cellar was built with stone taken from the 
fortifications and many a cottage chimney is composed of 
bricks manufactured in La Belle France. A drive of 
between two and three miles is necessary to bring one to 
all that remains of ancient Louisburg. 

The country is flat, stony, and comparatively uninterest- 
ing in appearance. On the way, the Barachois, so fre- 
quently mentioned in the different accounts of the two sieges 
of Louisburg, is passed. The word, which is of uncertain 
derivation, means a pond separated from the sea by a 
narrow strip of beech or sand. 

The first thought on reaching the ruins is of the immense 
expenditure of money and toil devoted to the construction 
of the ancient fortifications, now still massive even in their 
ruins. The various bastions, the King's, the Queen's, the 
Dauphin's, the Princess, and the Maurepas, may still be 
clearly traced. The most interesting features of the ruins 
are the casemates, tunnels of solid masonry, whither in 
time of bombardment the non-combatants, the women and 
the children, were sent for safety. Today they afford 
shelter from the cold and storm to the numerous sheep 
which wander undisturbed where once the sound of martial 
tread and the hurried call to arms were heard. It is very 
easy to conjure up pictures of the times when the English 
ships were hurling their deadly fire into the devoted town. 
Huddled like sheep in these dark and close abodes the 
women of French Louisburg, rich and poor alike, must 
have spent many and many a weary hour, now praying to 
Our Lady of Deliverance to crush the power of the assail- 
ants, now bewailing the loss of husband, or of brother, or 
of lover, and now trying to comfort the little ones in their 
dread of the terrible Anglais. Here doubtless the brave 
Madame de Drucour, the governor's wife, who at one time 
supplied with her own hands the cannons of the little 
garrison, may have given many a word of comfort to her 
sisters of less heroic build. 

Amongst the other ruins may be seen the entrance to an 



204 ACADIEttSIS 

underground passage way, which as yet has not been 
thoroughly explored. Indeed it is probable that were 
systematic excavations undertaken, many more relics might 
be discovered, and many points of interest, now matters of 
dispute, cleared up. 

It is easy to follow the lines of the fortifications till the 
old burying grounds near Rochfort and Black Point are 
reached. Here rest unmarked by cross or tombstone, the 
bodies of hundreds of the gallant dead. French soldiers and 
merchants of the ancient faith rest here in ground un- 
blessed by priest or bishop. Soldiers and sailors of Old 
England lie here far from the sound of the church bell and 
the calm lanes of the English villages that gave them birth. 
Here too repose the stern Puritan warriors of New Eng- 
land, farmers and clerks and fishermen by trade, but 
soldiers all by the inalienable right of Saxon birth. 

The weakness of Louisburg lay undoubtedly on the land 
side ; from the sea it was practically impregnable. Could 
the French only have prevented the landing, at the first 
siege of Pepperell and his colonials, at the second, of 
Wolfe and his regulars, the history of Cape Breton might 
have been far other than it is. Pepperell's success was, of 
course, far more phenomenal than the result of the second 
siege. Seeing the fortress to-day in its ruins, we can 
realize what it was in its glory, and can thus recognize the 
splendid audacity of Governor Shirley in daring to dream 
that his little expedition of untrained colonists could hope 
for a moment to oust the French from their greatest strong- 
hold in America. The thought suggests itself : was it 
advisable or necessary for England, when once she had 
obtained possession of such a splendid fortress, to destroy 
it ? With a little additional work it could have been made 
absolutely impregnable and would have served England's 
purpose well, far better indeed than Halifax, which was 
fortified about the time that Louisburg was destroyed. 
It is, of course, hinted that local influence in Halifax was 
brought to bear on the Imperial government. 




THE LOUISBURG MONUMENT. 



HISTORIC LOUISBURG 205 

Seated on the grassy mounds that cover the old town 
it is easy to conjure up visions of the ancient glory, to 
rebuild the governor's stately mansion, to re-people it with 
the courtly soldiers and the beautiful daughters of France, 
to see again the stately dance or the gorgeous dinner party 
for the governor's friends. We can imagine the chapel 
standing in its ancient beauty, adorned with every fair 
device of art for glory and for beauty, the priest again 
singing the mass in the presence of a reverent congrega- 
tion of soldiers and fine ladies, of fishermen and peasant 
girls. The guard house, the hospital with its faithful 
sisters ministering to the wounded, and " the wonderfully 
skilful surgeon " whose services the courtly Chevalier de 
Drucour sent word to Amherst were at the disposal of the 
wounded English officers. Looking along the seashore, 
which today is nothing but a place for the spreading of 
nets, we can picture the ancient sea wall up to which the 
boats from the ships in the harbor could come. Looking 
further yet the harbor is peopled with the old French war- 
ships, and further off, beyond the range of rocky islands 
which enclose it, lies the larger fleet that flies the red cross 
flag of Old England, the flag that is to replace the lilies 
of France on the battlements of Louisburg. 

Of course every visitor should see the Louisburg monu- 
ment dedicated on June 17th, 1895, and placed on the 
exact spot where, 150 years before, General Pepperell 
received the keys of the fortress from Governor Ducham- 
bon in the presence of the assembled troops. The monu- 
ment, which was erected by the Society of Colonial Wars, 
is a polished granite shaft, standing on a base which rests 
on a square pedestal four feet high. The capital of the 
column is surmounted by a polished ball, two feet in diam- 
eter, of dark red granite. It is dedicated " To Our Heroic 
Dead," and bears inscriptions, giving the numbers of the 
Colonial, British and French forces that took part in the 
first siege. 

C. W. VERNON. 



Now have I than eke this condition, 
That of all the floures in the mede, 
Than love I most these floures white and rede, 
Soch that men callen daisies in our toun." 
CHAUCER : 'The Legend of Good Women;' 

Prologue, ver. 40-44- 

Fair is the morn, and the clear warm light 
Strikes full on a bush where rich roses grow ; 

A few stray beams, more tenderly bright, 
Reach to the daisy that nestles below, 
Half-hidden from sight. 

Yet the daisy looks with smile as sweet 
Up at the broad sky, arching high o'er all, 

As the proudest flower that glows to greet 
The great Lord of Day, whom Aurora's call 
Bade them wake to meet. 

No shame feels she, though in lowly place, 
No envy of rivals gorgeously clad, 

Contentment gleams from her pure, fresh face, 
And her glance can gladden a heart that's sad, 
By its radiant grace. 

The gentle rains come, and kindly dew, 
To seek where the daisy peacefully grows ; 

And soft lights lend each delicate hue, 
While she heeds not rude winds that vex the rose 
Standing bold to view. 

And each honest, loving heart doth know 
Her as emblem of steadfast purity, 

Whom touch of Chaucer's hand did endow 
With halo and stamp of a high degree, 
Though she blooms so low. 

The world is made up of great and small, 
Some modest and plain, some grandly arrayed; 

On some will the golden sunshine fall, 
Some ever must humbly dwell in the shade, 
Though dearest of all. 

W. P. DOLE. 
206 



Colonel IRobert flDootne. 



CARLETON, WEST ONTARIO, 

August 13th, 1901. 
DEAR SIR : 

Can you give me, or obtain for me, any information as to the 
surviving fami'y or friends of Lieut. -Col. Moodie, who was shot 
by the rebels, .it Montgomery's tavern on Yonge street, in 1837, 
while going to Toronto to give information to the government of 
an intended attack on that city ? I was told yesterday that Col. 
Moodie was a native of Fredericton, and A. M. Howard, 'Esq., 
late president of the U. E. Loyalists' Association, showed me the 
Acadian magazine of which you are editor. 

I have the honor to be president of the York Pioneer Society, 
and our attention has recently been called to the dilapidated con- 
dition of Col. Moodie's monument in the churchyard at Thorn hill. 
When a boy I lived at Thornhill, which is twelve miles from 
Toronto, and have many a time seen the monument, which was 
then, sixty years ago, new, and of course in good preservation. 
If you can do anything to help us to some information, such 
action will help to bind together societies which have common 
aims. 

I have the honor to be, 

Dear sir, 
D. R. JACK, ESQ., Yours very faithfully, 

Editor ACADIENSIS. C. E. THOMSON. 

St. John, New Brunswick. 

Major Robert Moodie went from New Brunswick with 
the 104th regiment. 

February llth, 1813, regiment left St. John for Quebec. 

April 16th, 1817, regiment was reduced. 

D. R. JACK. 
August 24th, 1901. 

[We publish below some notes concerning Col. Moodie 
which are quite interesting, and which have been furnished 
by Mr. Clarence Ward, the secretary of the New Bruns- 
wick Historical Society. Unfortunately the main point at 
issue, namely, as to the surviving family or friends of 
207 



208 ACADIENSIS 

Col. Moodie, is still in abeyance. We shall very gladly 
receive and publish any further data regarding Col. Moodie 
which may be obtainable. Correspondence upon the sub- 
ject from any persons who are in a position to furnish the 
desired information is respectfully solicited. ED.] 



The first mention of Robert Moodie I can find is in the 
Winslow Papers, published by the N. B Histo ical Society. 

In a letter from Penelope Winslow to Ed w. Winslow, 
jr., dated 30th November, 1809, she writes: "Fanny 
Sproule and Moodie are just where you left them, but the 
world says they are inevitably to be married shortly. I 
confess I have no faith in such unreasonable long flirta- 
tions." From the same to the same, dated 26th March, 
1810, writing about the gossip of Fredericton, she says : 
" Fanny is a spinster still. Moodie has been sick all 
winter, and I assure you it has not improved his appear- 
ance much." Same to the same, dated 6th June, 1811, 
she writes, " I am happy to say that matrimony flourishes 
here again ; Miss Sproule and Capt. Moodie have at last 
entered the ' holy estate.' " Judge Edward Winslow, 
writing to Edward Winslow, jr., under date September, 
1813, says, "The late Lucy Miller (now Mrs. Woodford) 
is not with us. He husband is surgeon's mate in the 104th, 
late N. B. Regiment, now in Upper Canada, where that 
corps have lately had a severe brush with the Americans.* 
A great proportion of the officers, among whom were 
Leonard, Moodie, Drummond, Shore, A. Rainsford, etc., 
were wounded, and got back to their own shore at 
Kingston."! 

Moodie was evidently quite a while living in Fredericton 
in the early years of the century, and on intimate terms 
of friendship with all the notable people. Frequent mention 



*At Backet's Harbour. 

t NOTE. The majors of the 104th in 1813 were William Drummond and 
Robert Moodie. 



COLONEL ROBERT MOODIE 209 

is made of him in the correspondence of the time. He 
was, undoubtedly, a military man, and at that time was 
called Capt. Moodie, though what regiment attached to 
before joining the 104th, I cannot at present ascertain. 
I am pretty certain he was a Scotsman by birth. After 
his marriage he lived at St. Andrews, in Scotland, from 
about 1820 till 1827. His aspirations were all military. 
He mentions in one of his letters, written from St. An- 
drews, that he was offered the command of the African 
Colonial Corps by General Sir Charles McCarthy. 

He left for the old country in 1818, having placed 
Ward Chipman, jr., in charge of the property left his wife 
by her father, George Sproule, Surveyor General of New 
Brunswick. 

Ward Chipman, jr., writing to him just prior to his 
departure for England in 1818, calls him Lt.-Col. Moodie. 

Col. Moodie, writing to W. Chipman, jr., from St. 
Andrews, Scotland, November 9, 1822, mentions that his 
family consists of two boys and three girls (query ? where 
are his descendants, or did these children all die in infancy 
or unmarried ?) 

In a letter dated St. Andrews, Scotland, Nov. 5, 1823, 
he mentions that he has been offered the Lt. -Colonelcy of 
the " African Colonial Corps by General Sir Charles Mc- 
Carthy and thinks of accepting it."* 

This last letter is dated St. Andrew's, Scotland, April 
21, 1826., in which he speaks of having a visit from Mr. 
James Douglas, of St. Andrews, N. B., lately married to 
a Miss Grace R. Campbell. (This was James Douglas, 
afterwards of the firm of Douglas & Westcott, of Liver- 
pool, G. B., and a brother of Mrs. Charles Ward, of St. 
John, N. B. 



* NOTE. -It is fortunate for himself that he did not. General McCarthy 
invaded the Ashante e kingdom and was disastrously defeated. The General 
himself was killed, cooked and eaten by the Ashantees. 

N. B. McCarthy was at one time stationed in Fredericton, 



210 ACADIENSIS 

He also wrote in the same letter of having a visit from 
Dr. Burns, for a considerable period minister of Saint 
Andrew's Kirk in St. John, N. B., who gave him all the 
news and gossip of St. John and Fredericton. 

All these letters to Chipman, principally refer to his 
private business, Chipman having the management of his 
estate in Fredericton. During the early period of his 
residence in Scotland, judging from his remarks and 
urgency for remittance, he was in rather straitened circum- 
stances, but lately he mentioned having inherited a con- 
siderable sum from an aged female relation, which has 
made him more comfortable from a pecuniary point of 
view. 

The correspondence terminated abruptly, and I have not 
been able to trace his career any further. It is remark- 
able how little is known of him now in New Brunswick. 
We have evidences that he was on most intimate terms 
with all the leading families in New Brunswick in the 
early part of the century and down to 1818, reference to 
him continually occurs in the correspondence of that time, 
and he appears to have been a favorite in society ; yet, 
so far, I have not been able to learn anything about his 
doings in Fredericton, where he came from, or how he 
happened to come to New Brunswick. I am of opinion 
that he came in the retinue of one of the governors in a 
military capacity, but that is only conjecture. Nor have 
I been able to ascertain why he went to Upper Canada, 
and what position, civil or military, he held there except 
that he was killed by the rebels of " Montgomery Tavern." 
He was called Col. Moodie and was evidently acting as a 
military man. 

April 2, 1811, Frances Sproule, daughter of George 
Sproule, Surveyor General, to Capt. Robert Moodie, 104th 
Regiment. 

July 16, 1811, Miss Sproule, daughter of Geo. 

Sproule, Surveyor General to Lieut.-Col. Halkett, 104th 
Regiment. 



COLONEL ROBERT HOODIE 211 

30th November, 1817, Hon. Geo. Sproule, Surveyor 
General and member of Council, died Fredericton, age 76. 

Lt.-Col. Halkett and Major Moodie were brother officers 
in 104th regiment, and married sisters. 

THE MARCH OP THE 104 REGIMENT FROM FREDERICTON. 

Vincent had also been re-inforced by the 104th, which had 
marched from Fredericton, N. B., to Quebec the preceding winter. 
From a short distance north of Fredericton to River du Loup the 
245 miles was a wilderness. 

The regiment consisted of 1,000 strong, with forty-two officers, 
under Colonel Moodie, whose melancholy death at Montgomery's 
tavern, north of Toronto, on the outbreak of the abortive rebellion 
in 1837 is still remembered. The march was commenced on the 
14th of February. Each man was furnished with a pair of snow- 
shoes, moccasins, and one blanket ; a toboggan was given to every 
two men ; it carried the two knapsacks, the two fire locks and 
accoutrements, the two blankets and fourteen days provisions. 
One drew the toboggan, the second pushed it from behind. The 
regiment was divided into sections, one following the other at a 
day's interval. The bugle sounded two hours before daylight to 
give the men time to cook and eat ; the detachment marched 
with the first light. The column travelled until half-past t\vo, 
when the halt was made for the day. 

The rations, one pound of pork, including the bones, with ten 
ounces of biscuit, were insufficient for men in full manhood, 
exposed all day to the air, and taking the regular severe exercise 
of the expedition. It was said afterwards that the whole regiment 
continued hungry during the march, and would talk of nothing 
but the good feeding of the future. 

No rum was issued ; the drink was tea. At Lake Temiscouata 
the column was delayed for three days by so severe a snow storm, 
and such intensely cold weather that it was considered inadvisable 
to cross the lake. Captain Rainsford, with two men, Patroit and 
Gay, of the light company, volunteered to undertake the journey 
to River du Loup, distant 440 miles, to obtain provisions. The 
men had been ordered to half rations. We can conceive the relish 
with which the troops, after a march of thirty miles and a fast of 
thirty hours, came upon a relief with two bags of biscuits, and 
two tubs of spirits and water. 



212 ACADIENSIS 

They crossed the ice at Quebec on the 27th day after leaving 
Fredericton, and arrived without losing a man ; nor was a man 
on the sick list. After a rest of two days, they marched out to 
the seat of war. History of Canada, Kings ford, Vol. VIII,, 
pp. 186-7. 

DEATH OF COL. MOODIE. 

The passage of the insurgents southward from Holland Landing 
necessarily caused great excitement, as many of them were known. 
A meeting was held in the house of Col. Moodie, who lived to the 
north of Richmond Hill, to consider the course advisable to be 
taken. It was determined that the intelligence should at once be 
made known to the lieutenant governor. The messenger who was 
dispatched, a Mr. Drew, was within a short distance stopped and 
seized by the insurgents. The news reached the Loyalists at 
Richmond Hill, and Col. Moodie resolved to proceed in person to 
Toronto. Among those who accompanied him were Captain 
Stewart, of the navy, and a Mr. Brooke. They approached 
Montgomery's tavern, and had passed the first picket. On com- 
ing opposite the tavern they were ordered to halt. The party 
seems to have consisted of six people, but Moodie and Stewart 
were in front with a third person whose name is not mentioned. 
Moodie said that they must gallop through the guard, whatever 
the result at this time. Moodie and Stewart found themselves 
alone. " Never mind," said Moodie, " push forward, it is all 
right yet." They were, however, brought up by the guard, and 
pikes and bayonets were presented before the horses' breasts. 
Moodie asked who it was that was stopping them in the King's 
highway. The reply was : " You'll know that in time." Moodie 
then fired his pistol, upon which three guns were discharged, 
when Moodie exclaimed : " I'm shot 1 I'm a dead man ! " He was 
then carried into Montgomery's tavern. Soon afterwards Mac- 
kenzie came into the house, when he asked for Stewart. Moodie 
survived but two hours. History of Canada, Kingsford, Vol. X., 
pp. 389-390. 



OLa Dalltere of CbiQnecto. 



(Read before the Historical Society of Chignecto.) 




[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.! Concluded. 

|WO years after the grant of Chignecto, La Val- 
liere was appointed by Mr. Barre (16th January, 
1678,) to take command in Acadia in place of 
M. de Marson, who had been in command on 
the St. John River at Gemesic (Jemseg), but 
was captured by some Dutch adventurers cruising up the St. 
John under the pilotage of a Boston navigator and taken 
away. Four years later (1st May, 1684,) Barre writes to 
La Valliere, that by a royal despatch of 5th August, His 
Majesty had chosen him as governor with a salary of 1,800 
livres, and that the patent, not yet signed, would be sent 
by the first opportunity. Frontenac and de La Barre also 
wrote to La Valliere, testifying their satisfaction with him 
and their confidence in his services. 

Thus the government of Acadia was in 1684 established 
at the mouth of the Missiquash River, the present bound- 
ary between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the 
exact geographical centre of the Maritime Provinces. 
This preceded the settlement by Cornwallis at Halifax 
by sixty-five years, and the establishment of an English 
government at St. John by one hundred years. 

The beginnings of French history in Canada are marked 
by the struggles with nature incident to pioneer life, by 
the dangers and insecurity resulting from the neighborhood 
of an active and savage foe, and by jealousies and strife 
with their ancient enemies Old and New England. 
Under such circumstances few men in these outposts of 
civilization could feel they had a lease of their life for even 
a day. Over the door of every household might appro- 
priately be placed the death's head. The survival of a 
great French population on this continent, and the perpet- 
213 



214 ACADIENSIS 

uation of the French language here, are evidences of the 
innate vigor and persistency of that race. It is interesting 
to trace the lives of the eight children of La Yalliere as 
illustrating the hazardous and fateful lives of the pioneer 
French. Fortunately the records kept by the Jesuit 
fathers, as well as by church establishments, furnish us 
with some information, for which I am indebted to the 
researches of Mr. Placide Gaudet. 

Alexander, born in Cape Breton in 1666, was Seigneur 
de Beaubassin, became a ^captain of a French company of 
mariners, was made by the French King a chevalier of St. 
Louis, and died in 1712 on board His Majesty's ship, 
" Le Heros," and was buried at sea. 

Jacques and Jean Baptiste, in 1690, left Quebec with 
an expedition to Cataraqui (Kingston). No trace of them 
was afterwards found, and it was supposed they met their 
fate in a conflict with the Indians. Jean was known as 
Sieur de Canseau. Marie Joseph was married in 1692 to 
a cadet of the house of Repentigny. 

Michel became a major in the French service. He 
married at Plaisance, Newfoundland, Renee Delaguelle, 
and had a numerous family. He died at Louisburg in 1740. 

Marguerite married at Port Royal or St. John about 
1700 Louis de Gannes, Sieur de Falaise. She was his 
third wife. They had a numerous family. She died at 
Three Rivers in 1760. 

Barbe, baptized at Beaubassin in 1681 by Father Claude 
Moireau, Recollect priest, married at Quebec Louis de 
Florillon, and died in Montreal in 1733. 

Two years after (1686) this date Chignecto was visited 
by M. de Meulles, Intendant of Canada, who had a census 
taken of the various settlements in Acadia. That of 
Beaubassin is very full and complete. La Yalliere was 
still a resident of Chignecto with his family, except his 
wife. They had apparently separated, and she was living 
elsewhere. The following is the census : 



LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 



215 



RECENSEMENT DES 

HABITANS DE CHIGNITOU 

DIT BEAUBASSIN IN 1686. 



NAME. 


! 


I 
o 


Cultivated 
Lands Arpents. 


Horned Cattle. 


1 


s 


Michael Le Neuf, 
de La Valliere, Seigneur, 
de Beaub'issin 


49 


70 


fiO 


19 


22 


19 


Enfans 
Alexandre 


20 












Jacques 


17 












Alarie Joseph 


19 












Jean Bapitsite 


12 












Judith . 


10 












Michael . 


8 












Marguerite . .... 


6 












Barbe . ... 


4 












Domzstiques 
Francois Legere 


55 














20 












Michel 1'Arche 


22 












Marie Lagasse 


16 












Et M. (Nicholas) Pertuis, 
Armourer. 
Manuel Mirande Portugais 


38 














20 












Enfans de Jean Boudret are 
1st lit. 


9 














5 










80 




4 












ETIENETTE 


3 














9 














50 














46 




1 


3 






Marie Sa Fille 


5 










4 


Germain Girourer . . 


30 













216 ACADIENSIS 

HABITANS DE CHIGNITOU Continued. 



NAME. 


| 


1 


Cultivated 
Lands Arpents. 


5 

H 


I 


1 


Marie Bourgeois 


34 

15 
8 
6 
4 
7 mos. 
51 
44 

22 
20 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
3 
36 
44 

2 
14 
12 

7 
6 

* 2 * 
3 mos. 

26 
30 
3 

37 
36 

12 
9 

7 
6 
3 

Q 












Enfans du Marie Bourgeois 
et de Pierre Cire. 
Jean . 


1 


4 


8 


3 


4 


Pierre 














Germain Girouard 












Agnes 












Pierre Morin 












Marie Martin 


.... 


30 


15 


8 


1 


10 Enfans 
Louis . 


Antoine . 












Marie 




































Charles 












Marguerite 












Jean 












Jacques Francois 












Jean Aubin Mignault . . 












Anne Dagus 












Enfans d'Elle et de Charles 




8 


20 


4 


24 


Charles Bourgeois 


Claude 













Anne . . 










Jean Mignault 












Cecile 












Alexis 












Jacques Cochin . 












Marie Maria 


.... 


2 


6 


4 


.- 


Pierre .... 


Michael Poirier. 












Marie Budrot .... 


1 


7 


13 


3 


8 


Enfans 
Michael 


Claude 












Anne 












Pierre 












Jean Baptiste 












Louis . , 













LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 

HABITANS DE CHIGNITOU Continued. 



217 



NAME. 


i 

< 


00 

a 
3 


*t 

4J t. 

>i 
33 

^3 


Horned Cattle. 


j 


1 


Robert Cottard 


40 














40 












Pierre 


6 


I 


2 


9 


1 


j 




30 












Andree Martin [Francois. 


37 












Enfans d' Andree Martin et de 
Pellemi 


1 




40 


| 


1 


A 


Marie 


16 












Anne 


14 












Isabelle 


12 














10 












Catherine 


18 












Barre 


6 














5 












Madeline 


3 












Alexandre . 


2 












Marie Joseph 


6 mos. 












Roger Quessy, or Kuessy (Irish). . 


35 












Marie Poirier 


25 


2 


8 


18 


6 


s 


Marie 


16 












Jean 


10 












Pierre 


8 












Guillaume 


6 












Michel 


H 










4 


Germain Bourgeois 


94 












Michael Dugas 


22 


2 


5 


s 


3 




Guillaume 


12 












Marie 


9 












Michel 


7 












Madeleine 


3 












Lavallee 


48 












Marie Martin . . 


23 


2 


40 


<>0 


1^ 


15 


Marguerite 


3 












Genevieve ., 


3 












And of 1st marrige of Lavallee 
8 enfants. 
Lac'asso 


50 












Marguerite Sa Femme 


48 




2 


I 9 


9, 




Gabriel 


19 












Jeanne 


13 










8 


Marguerite 


10 












Anne 


8 












Pierre 


6 












Pierre Morin le fils , . 


24 













218 



ACADIENSIS 



HABITANS DE CHKJNITOU Continued. 



NAME. 


i 


i 


Cultivated 
Lands Arpents. 


Horned Cattle. 


! 


i 


Jean Lavallee 


18 
8 
47 
21 
17 
5 
lOmos 
55 
37 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
4 
1 


2 


6 


14 


6 


8 


Pierre 


Jao< i ues Blon 












Marie Girouard ,. 


3 


40 


15 


18 


- 


Marie 


Jeanne 












Francois ... . 












Thoma^ CORMIER . 












Madeleine Germain 


4 


6 


20 


10 


15 


Madelein 














Alexis 












Marie 












Germain . 












Pierre . . . 












Angelioue 












Marie Jeanne 












Pierre Arisenault qui demeure a 
Port Royal possede dans La 
Seigneury de Beaubassin .... 


1 
2 


20 
30 
38 


8 
8 
8 


4 
3 


6 


Guillaume Bourgeois 




Claude Dugas 











SUMMARY. 

Persons .... 127 

Guns 102 

Cultivated Lands Arpents , 426 

Horned Cattle 236 

Sheep , Ill 

Pigs 189 

History repeats itself. Nearly two hundred and fifty 
years ago jealousies and disputes arose between the people 
of N"ew England and those of Eastern Canada over our 
inshore fisheries. There were trespasses and seizures of 
vessels and much bad blood, the same as before the Treaty 
of Washington in our own time settled such difficulties. 
Nature with generous abandon had made our inshore waters 
depositaries of fish food for a hundred times the population 



LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 219 

of both countries, but the marvellous abundance of fish 
did not prevent bitter feelings and mutual aggressions. 

Sieur de La Valliere conceived a method to make a clean 
lane through these difficulties, which he was prompt to act 
upon. 

In 1682 Frontenac had written him, as if in command 
in Acadia, and also wrote to the governor of Boston, that 
the English had not liberty to fish or trade in Acadia, 
except by express permission and agreement as to what 
each vessel should pay for the privilege. Under this 
implied authority La Yalliere issued permits to the Boston 
fishermen to fish in Acadian waters for a consideration. 
The consideration he pocketed. He was not deterred by 
the fact that, in 1670, the French King had issued a 
decree prohibiting any permission to the New Englanders 
to fish on our coasts. But Paris was a long way off in 
those days. This prohibition was dictated as well by the 
fact that New England fishermen carried on a clandestine 
fur trade with the Indians, as by the fact that the New 
Englanders gave no grace to Acadian fishermen caught in 
their waters. 

La Valliere had much justification for selling permits. 
He was governor without salary. Any expenditures to 
preserve order and enforce the commands of his august 
master, Louis XIV, he made at his own expense. The 
fish were plenty, and he was on good terms with his 
neighbors, Les Anglais, of Boston. However reasonable it 
was for him to deal with the English, it led to the ruin of 
his hopes and ambition in Acadie, and to his relinquish- 
ment of his territories. 

In February, 1680, the King of France granted to the 
Sieur Bergier, of Rochelle, Gautier, Boucher and de Mantes, 
bourgeois, of Paris, lands which they shall find suitable 
along the coast of Acadie and of the river St. John to 
establish a shore fishery. This was a strong company, and 
they proceeded to establish fishing and trading stations in 



220 ACADIENSIS 

Acadie, and to employ vessels and men in the fisheries. 
Their leading station was at Chedabucto, Canseau. 

Sieur Bergier naturally regarded the English traders 
and fishermen on our coasts as trespassers and interlopers. 
Accordingly, in July and August, 1684, when cruising off 
the coast of Acadie in his vessel the " St. Louis " he 
found eight English barks called the "Mary," "Adventure, 
" Swallow," " Rose," " Industry," " Lark," " Friendship," 
and " Industry," fishing. He seized them for trespassing 
within the limits of his patent. The masters were taken 
to Rochelle and tried. Six vessels were confiscated ; but 
two, holding licenses from La Valliere, were acquitted, 
and Bergier was obliged to take them back to America 
and forced to indemnify them. This does not appear to 
have mitigated the unpleasantness between him and La 
Valliere. 

In 1685 Bergier's company forwarded to the French 
government at Paris a memorial, complaining of La Valliere's 
methods, which appears to have been of the character of 
a summary ejectment. The company had in their employ 
a son of Sieur Bergier at a fishing station in Cape Breton. 
La Valliere's cruiser unexpectedly made its appearance and 
took possession of the loose property around, which con- 
sisted of 2,000 livres worth of goods, a lot of furs and 
a boat. 

La Valliere had with him his son, Beaubassin, afterwards 
distinguished as an Indian fighter, his brother-in-law, 
Richard Denys, and six armed men, to whom Bergier 
could make no effective defence. 

Bergier's description of the affair is graphic. He says : 
"At three o'clock in the morning, Beaubassin, son of Sieur de 
La Valliere, entered the cabin, accompanied by six men armed 
with muskets, naked swords and pistols, crying, "Kill! kill!" 
and after seizing him and his three men, who had been asleep, 
made them prisoners, and then proceeded to rifle the place. He, 
with one of his own men, escaped in a canoe and returned to 
Chedaboucton." 



LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 221 

An Indian chief, Negascouet, complains at the same 
time that while on his way to Chedeboucton he was met 
by Valliere, who took from him seventy elk skins, sixty 
martin, four beaver, and two other skins. 

An order was prayed for to Sieur Perrot, or Sieur de 
La Boulage, who had become lieutenant of the King in 
Acadia, to compel restitution, or arrest La Valliere and 
his party and send them to France. 

Bergier had direct access to the authorities at Versailles, 
while La Valliere had only indirect by way of Quebec. 
La Valliere, therefore, it appears, did not attempt to meet 
Bergier's allegations and charges, and judgment went 
against him by default. Amongst Bergier's charges are 
the statements that " La Valliere is a poor man, who has 
a settlement of eight or ten persons, who gave up the 
country to the English for wherewithal to subsist on, and 
has not power to carry out the King's orders, while the 
company is powerful." Another memorial states that 
La Valliere vas hated by the Indians, whom he constantly 
robbed, and that the Indians, merchants and ship masters 
of Rochelle have petitioned against him. 

La Valliere had one defender in M. Denvuville, who 
wrote (10th November, 1686,) to the French minister : 

Le Sieur de La Valliere, who has for some time commanded in 
Acadia, where I think he has one of the best settlements in the 
country. I have invited him to go to France, where he will be 
able to give you information of the country, he having applied 
himself to the fisheries for several years. 

A poor wretch named Berger (probably Bergier) whom M. de 
Chevry had for the direction of his affairs, has stirred him up with 
the company. As I know he is a rascal who has robbed, I suspect 
strongly that La Valliere has not all the wrong on his side. He 
is a good man and very needy. 

On 10th April, 1684, a decree was issued at Versailles 
to Barre, governor of New France, stating 

" That although the Sieur de La Valliere has no means or power 
to command on the coasts of Acadia, he has, nevertheless, meddled 



222 ACADIEXSIS 

with the duties of commandant in giving to strangers several 
permits to come and fish there in spite of the prohibition, and he 
himself is engaged in trade, which might, in the course of time, 
diminish that of the inshore fishery of Acadia and interfere with 
the establishment of the colony." 

To prevent which His Majesty has expressly forbidden 
the said de La Valliere to perform in future the functions 
of commandant in the country or on the coasts of Acadia 
under " a penalty of three thousand livres." It was 
signed by Louis XIV and by Colbert, and duly sealed. 
It was recorded by Claude Petit, registrar of the court at 
Port Royal, on 20th July, 1684, and Sieur d' Entrement, 
procurator of the King, was charged with the duty of 
serving de La Valliere with a notice thereof. 

Bergier's allegation, that La Valliere was a poor man, 
was doubtless true. The French noblesse and gentilhomme 
in Canada were almost, without exception, poor. They 
were unaccustomed to labor, and had no taste for the 
strenuous toil of the backwoods settler. Their home was 
naturally in the army; their trade was not the axe or 
mattock, but the sword. When they lost their official 
pay, they became helpless. Some of them, it is true, 
became courreur du bois and carried on a clandestine trade 
with the natives in defiance of government regulations, 
but these were the exception. The mass of them were 
miserably poor. The Intendant, in 1687, writes to the 
French minister for aid for Repentigny and his thirteen 
children, and for Tilly and his fifteen. He writes that 
care must be given them at once, or they will starve. 
The family of Aillebout is equally poor. Yet these, with 
the Poterie, embrace the whole noblesse of Canada. The 
same Intendant, in 1691, writes home begging the minister 
not to grant any more letters of nobility in Canada unless 
he wishes to multiply beggars, stating that pride and sloth 
are the great faults of the people. 

La Valliere's seigneury, great as it was, could not be 
made profitable without labor and capital ; the latter he 



LA VALLIERE OF CHIGNECTO 223 

could not obtain without trading in furs and fish. His 
grant was made on conditions of actual settlement. Wilder- 
ness lands at that time were of no more value than they 
are to-day when granted on terms of settlement. La Val- 
liere could not alienate such lands, even if he could have 
found a purchaser. Therefore his seigneury, under Bergier's 
espionage, became of little or no actual value. He, soon 
after the orH^r was issued depriving him of his command 
and stopping his trade, returned to Quebec with his family, 
and his name disappeared from Acadian annals. It was 
his misfortune that he was born with the noblesse caste ; 
had he been born to the soil and trained to the laborious 
and industrious habits of Bourgeois, Thibideau, Blanchard, 
Cormier, and others, who formed the first French settle- 
ments at the head of the Bay of Fundy, his name, like 
theirs, might have survived and flourished in the Acadian 
land. La Valliere left his affairs in Acadia in the hands 
of de Villieu, who, according to one account, was his 
nephew, but he seems to have married, in 1692, Judith, 
daughter of La Valliere, and removed with her in 1694 
from Quebec to Acadia. 

It is certain that on his return to Quebec he was not 
received with disfavor. In 1 683 he was granted a seigneury 
in the Three Rivers district, in consideration of the different 
settlements he and his father, sieur de LaPoterie, "have long 
since made in this country." In 1694 he is mentioned as in 
command of the frigate " La Bouffon," which cruised that 
year in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His son, Beaubassin, 
was lieutenant, and de La Poterie, ensign. Owing to the 
fashion of land-owners at that date giving a territorial 
name corresponding to some family estate to each son, it 
is difficult to trace families, but it would seem probable 
that de La Poterie was a second son. Beaubassin's name 
occurs in 1703 as the leader of a party of French and 
Indians into New England, where they captured Wells, 



224 ACADIENSIS 

Scarborough and other places, and killed 300 whites. 
He also served afterwards against the Iroquois. 

In 1692 La Valliere took command of Fort Frontenac 
at Catarqui (Kingston); in 1698 he was made major of 
Montreal; in 1699 he was sent on an embassage to the 
government at Boston. His name appear-', in 1702, 
attending the marriage of his daughter, after vvhich it dis- 
appears from both the official and church recoitU. 

T)e Villieu was originally sent from Quebec to Acadie 
in command of a detachment of marines to operate with 
the Indians against the English. A man of intractable 
temper, he was also a relentless fighter, and soon made his 
name dreaded in New England. His persistent appeals to 
the French King resulted in attaching the settlements at 
Chipoudy and Fox Creek to the seigneury of Beaubassin. 
In 1694 he roused up some 500 Micmacs, Malecites and 
Abenaquis, and led them into New Hampshire. He 
destroyed Dover, and burned houses and killed settlers at 
York and Kittery. They pillaged and burned 60 houses, 
made 27 prisoners, and killed 104 persons. Accompanied 
by the chiefs in the expedition, he proceeded direct to 
Quebec, taking the scalps with them. Two years later he 
with his command, took an important part in the capture 
of the English fort at Pemiquid, but was taken prisoner 
immediately by a British squadron coming to the relief of 
the fort. He was taken to Boston as a prisoner, but after- 
wards released. He became (1700) governor of Acadie for 
a short period, after which his name does not appear in 
the records of Acadia. From a petition addressed a few 
years later to the French King for compensation, it would 
not appear that he was substantially benefitted by the 
seigneural grants at Chignecto and Chipoudy. 

W. C. MILNER. 





1 



MISS FRANCES TRAVERS, 

OF 

ST. JOHN, N. B. 



Ecatnan flDusidans. 




ISS ELIZABETH WHITE, whose 
portrait forms the frontispiece to this 
number of ACADIENSIS, commenced 
the study of the 'cello under Herr 
Ernst Doering, in her native city of 
Halifax. She continued her studies in 
Boston with Alevin Schroeder, first 
'cellist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and a member 
of the famous Kneisel Quartette. She played in the Weil 
stringed quartette, and in the Siebelt stringed quartette 
for several years, and is first 'cellist and soloist of the 
Halifax Symphony orchestra, an orchestra of forty mem- 
bers, including the best musicians in Halifax. Miss White 
is also on the staff of the Weil School of Music, and of 
the Mount Vincent Academy, where she has been teaching 
for the past five years. Among the well-known artists 
whom she has assisted in Halifax are Watkin Mills, the 
eminent English basso, Charlotte Maconda, and Katherine 
Fiske. 

Miss Frances Travers, whose portrait also accompanies 
this article, is probably one of the finest soprano singers 
the Acadian provinces have yet produced. 

From early childhood she evinced great musical ability, 
combined with a remarkable voice. After receiving the 
best musical training that was to be obtained locally, she 
went to New York, where, for a considerable period, she 
was the pupil of Mme. Yon Klenner, one of the most suc- 
cessful of the many renowned voice builders to be found in 
that city. During the course of her musical education Miss 
Travers' voice was frequently heard in concert, oratorio and 
church music, and many and flattering were the notices 
which she received from the musical crimes of New York 
and that vicinity. 
225 



226 ACADIENSIS 

Upon her return to St. John, at the close of her course 
of study with Mme. Yon Klenner, Miss Travers was heard 
for the first time by the musical public of this city, in a 
grand concert, in which she was assisted by Miss Nanno 
Stone of St. John, by Miss White, who was the subject of 
the earlier portion of this sketch, by Mr. John A. Kelly, 
and by Mrs. J. M. Barnes, who by her sympathetic accom- 
paniments contributed much to the success of the enter- 
tainment. 

From a St. John daily we reproduce a part of the very 
favorable criticism which the entertainment evoked : 

The elite assembly that filled the Opera House to its utmost seat- 
ing capacity last night, at the concert given by Miss Frances 
Travers, was unanimous in conceding it to be the most successful 
musical entertainment that St. John critics have had the pleasure 
of hearing for a long time. For over two hours the programme 
and its able exponents held the large audience entranced, and 
there was no one who did not breathe a sigh of regret at its 
conclusion. Every number was heartily encored, and the ladie& 
were the recipients of several beautiful floral gifts. 

Miss Elizabeth White of Halifax has a wide reputation as a 'cello 
player, and by her artistic, finished and sympathetic renditions, 
evincing a thorough and loving mastery of her difficult instrument, 
she more than justified the flattering accounts of her which have 
reached here. 

Concerning Miss Travers in the same event, another St. 
John paper commented editorially as follows : 

Not alone the sweetness of her voice, its flexibility and its power, 
but the personal charm of an unstudied manner, and the gracious- 
ness of unspoiled girlhood, won for Miss Travers many friends. 
The applause that greeted her reception of the favors generously 
bestowed on her, was as much for the cordial pleasure evinced by 
the recipient, as for the quick recognition of the favor of the public. 

Regarding these Acadian musicians, still another critic 
has remarked that 

Judging alone from the recital, Miss Travers is gifted with the 
voice and the musical temperament that will place her high in the 
ranks of those who have refined and beautified the world of song. 



TWO ACADIAN MUSICIANS 227 

Her voice is clear, rich and full ; it is flexible and under splendid 
control ; and in several difficult numbers she displayed a wondrous 
charm of correct phrasing and intonation. 

Miss White, the 'cellist, who belongs to Halifax, has played in 
St. John before, but not in concert, and she did supply a very im- 
portant and delightful feature of the concert. She plays with 
splendid expression, her intonation is perfect, and her bowing free 
and strong. The fair 'cellist, indeed, carried off a large share of 
the honors so generously bestowed by the audience. 

It has been claimed that we, in the city of St. John, are 
not a musical people ; that we do not produce as many 
good singers as we should, in proportion to our population ; 
that we lack the spirit of appreciation of music of a higher 
order. 

To the larger part of this assertion the writer feels that 
he must take exception. That we are behind our sister 
city of Halifax in the opportunities afforded, not only for 
a musical but for a general education of a higher class, 
cannot be disputed. The presence in Halifax of several 
institutions of learning, including one devoted entirely to 
musical training of a superior order, has had undoubtedly 
a marked effect upon the musical taste and cultivation of 
the people of that favored city. 

We sincerely trust that the time when the city of St. 
John may be equally favored may not be far distant ; and 
that while we may not produce many musicians of the 
marked ability of the subjects of this article, we may 
nevertheless give to all those who may so desire the oppor- 
tunity, at their own door, for higher cultivation in thia 
wondrous art. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 



Cbarlotte 



A FORGOTTEN AUTHORESS. 

At one time Resident in Windsor and Annapolis Royal, 

Nova Scotia. 




OW many readers of this generation 
know anything of the works of Char- 
lotte Elizabeth 1 Although now but 
a memory and a name, her volumin- 
ous writings were read with avidity 
by a large circle in the first half of 
the nineteenth century. Mrs. Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, who wrote an introduction to her collected 
works, spoke of her as " a woman of strong mind, powerful 
feeling, and of no inconsiderable share of tact ; " and re- 
ferring to her " Personal Recollections," said, " We know 
of no piece of autobiography in the English language which 
can compare with this in richness of feeling and description 
and power of exciting interest." 

The great reason for her popularity was that, in many 
respects, she suited the spirit of the times. She was above 
all else an anti-Romanist, a most protesting Protestant ; 
her cry was ever " Down with Popery." These few ex- 
tracts, taken at random from her books, show plainly her 
attitude toward the Church of Rome. " Anti-Christ be- 
strode our city, firmly planting there his two cloven hoofs 
of Popery and Socinianism." "I believe Popery to be the 
Babylon of the Apocalypse." " All the iniquities of.Popery 
are mysterious ; the name ' MYSTERY ' will remain emblaz- 
oned on the Harlot's brow, until the fire of God's wrath 
shall consume its brazen characters." She never missed an 
opportunity to attack Popery, and her uncompromising 
warfare appears extreme in these days of religious tolera- 
tion or indifference. 
228 



CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH 229 

She also used her pen with great eloquence against the 
abuses of factory life. While she would have been sur- 
prised and mystified had she been called a New Woman, 
she was practically that in the fervor with which she cham- 
pioned the cause of her weaker sisters and the persistency 
with which she claimed the right of woman to raise her 
voice in public affairs on the side of religion and justice. 

The story of Charlotte Elizabeth's life may be briefly 
told. She was born on the 1st of October, 1790, at Nor- 
wich, England. Her father, the Rev. Michael Browne, 
rector of St. Giles, and Minor Canon of the cathedral, was 
descended from the Percies, and Charlotte Elizabeth often 
playfully alluded to her Hotspur blood, and had a proper 
pride in her descent from " the stout Earl of Northum- 
berland." 

In " Personal Recollections," her most interesting work, 
she gives minute details of her childhood, passed in an old- 
fashioned house, surrounded by an immense orchard, 
shrubbery and flower garden. She was brought up in the 
society of literary men. Her father, decided in his political 
views, delighted in surrounding himself with various argu- 
mentative friends, and it is little to be wondered at that a 
child bred in this atmosphere should have proved in after 
life a reasoner and politician. 

Her mother, entirely devoted to household affairs, with 
every thought occupied in promoting the comfort of her 
family, left the education of this clever child to the father ; 
only endeavoring to instruct her in household art. This 
branch of knowledge not being to Charlotte Elizabeth's 
taste, she evaded her mother's instruction ; but when she 
found herself resident at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, 
she records : " I repented at leisure, and amended, with no 
small difficulty and labor, my neglect of those accomplish- 
ments to which my dear mother had so often vainly soli- 
cited my attention." Mrs. Browne exacted a little litera- 
ture, for Charlotte Elizabeth says : " I underwent the in- 



230 ACADIENSIS 

fliction of reading aloud to my mother the seven mortal 
volumes of Sir Charles Grandison." 

Her description of her grandmother bears a resemblance 
to the style of Elia : " My father's mother was a fine, 
sprightly, robust old lady, rather small in stature, and 
already bending a little under the burden of years, at the 
time I first recollect her as mingling in the visions of my 
childhood. She was simplicity itself, in manners, her 
blunt speeches sometimes clashing a little with her son's 
notions of polish and refinement, as also did her inveterate 
antipathy to the reigning fashion, whatever that might be. 
I remember her reading me a lecture upon something novel 
in the cut of a sleeve, ending by this remark : ' I never 
wore a gown but of one shape, and because I don't follow 
the fashion the fashion is forced to come to me sometimes, 
by way of a change. I can't help that, you know, my 
dear ; but I never was fashionable on purpose.' She added 
some pious remarks on vanity and folly, which I soon for- 
got. I dearly loved, and exceedingly respected my grand- 
mother, and used, in my heart, to glory in her smooth, 
clean locks, half brown, half gray, combed down from 
under a snowy cap of homely make, when she had success- 
fully resisted alike the entreaties and examples of con- 
temporary dames, who submitted their heads to the curling 
irons and powder-puff of a frizeur, preparatory to an even- 
ing party. I used to stand proudly at her knee, admiring 
the high color of her cheek, and uncommon brilliancy of 
her fine, dark hazel eye, while her voice, remarkably rich 
and clear, involuntarily swelled the chorus parts of our 
magnificent music." 

Charlotte Elizabeth would have had a happy girlhood, 
skating, drilling with her brothers, nutting and gardening, 
but for a morbid consciousness which impelled her con- 
stantly to scrutinize all her actions. She confesses having 
early entered upon the pernicious study of nursery tales, 
" which, although it had the advantage of feeding her 






CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH 231 

imagination, misled her into the paths of ' wild, unholy 
fiction.' " Her terrors of conscience after being led into a 
lie were insupportable ; and having snatched a fearful joy 
by reading " The Merchant of Venice," she spent hours 
bewailing the time wasted in that pleasure. 

When she was quite young she lost her hearing. At 
the age of sixteen she was introduced to society, and a few 
years later married Lieutenant, afterwards Captain George 
Phelan, of the 60th Rifles, She came out to Nova Scotia 
with him, and lived in Annapolis and Windsor, where her 
husband's regiment was stationed. Several of the old 
residents in the former place remember her as tall and 
graceful, but not pretty, and of seeing her husband repeat 
the sermon to her, in church, by means of the finger 
alphabet. One of them relates the following anecdote of 
her. Her husband was very unkind, and once, on their 
way from Annapolis to Windsor, he beat her. A brother 
officer, overhearing the quarrel, came in to defend her. 
Like a loyal wife and true woman she stamped her foot 
and demanded : " How dare you interfere between hus- 
band and wife 1 " 

Of her own life and difficulties in Annapolis Royal, she 
says, " The pencil was profitless ; I had long thrown it by ; 
books were no longer an adequate set-off against realities, 
even could I have conjured up a library in the wilderness 
of Nova Scotia's inland settlement ; but the culinary and 
confectionery branches were there invaluable, and in them 
I was wof ully deficient. Had I not coaxed the old French 
soldier who officiated as mess-cook to give me a few lessons, 
we must have lived on raw meal and salt rations during 
weeks when the roads were completely snowed up, and no 
provisions could be brought in. However, I proved an 
apt scholar to poor Sebastian, and to the kind neighbors 
who initiated me into the mysteries of preserves and 
pastry. The woman who cannot dispense with female 
servants must not travel. I had none for six months 



232 ACADIENSIS 

keen winter months in Annapolis ; the only persons who 
could be found disengaged being of characters wholly inad- 
missable. The straits to which I was put were anything 
but laughable at the time, though the recollection now 
often carries a smile. Indeed no perfection in European 
housekeeping would avail to guard against the devasta- 
tions that a Nova Scotia frost will make. How could I 
anticipate that a fine piece of beef, fresh killed, brought 
in at noon still warm, would by two o'clock require smart 
blows with a hatchet to slice of a steak ? or that half a 
dozen plates, perfectly dry, placed at a moderate distance 
from the fire, preparatory to dinner, would presently separ- 
ate into half a hundred fragments, through the action of 
heat on their frosted pores 1 or that milk drawn from a 
cow within sight of my breakfast table would be sheeted 
with ice on its passage thither or that a momentary 
pause, for the choice of a fitting phrase in writing a letter, 
would load the nib of my pen with a black icicle ? If I 
did not cry over my numerous breakages and other dis- 
asters, it was under the apprehension of tears freezing on 
my eyelids." 

She returned to England and soon afterwards went to 
Ireland. The state of this unhappy country at once 
excited her sympathies and she spent the time of her 
ojour'n there in fighting the Scarlet Woman. About this 
time, Captain Phelan becoming mentally deranged, his 
cruelty increased and her references to her husband from 
this date are few and very charitable. She now became 
chiefly dependent on her own exertions, writing for the 
Dublin Tract Society books on religious and moral subjects, 
never without at least a passing shot at Rome. Judge of 
her surprise when she found her " humble penny books 
advanced to the high honor of a place in the Papal Index 
Expurgatorius." 

She removed to London, where, in addition to editorial 
work, she commenced a campaign against starvation and 



CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH. 233 

Romanism in St. Giles, teaching nursing and relieving the 
necessities of the poverty stricken in that crowded district. 

In 1837 she heard of her husband's death, and in 1841 
married Mr. Lewis H. Touna. This union was particularly 
happy, and compensated in part for the misery she endured 
with the irresponsible Captain Phelan. The next few 
years were fall of quiet enjoyment. Her mornings were 
given to writing and when her pen was laid aside her 
garden afforded unfailing pleasure. She was a most 
enthusiastic gardener, performing with her own hands the 
most laborious work, and knowing the history and growth 
of every plant. 

Towards the end of 1844 it was discovered that she was 
suffering from a cancer. She kept up her work on the 
"Christian Ladies' Magazine" until absolutely compelled 
by pain and weakness to relinquish it. She was taken to 
Ramsgate for the sea air, and died there in July, 1846, 
affirming with her latest breath her love for God and her 
gratitude for His mercies to her. 

All Charlotte Elizabeth's works were written with a 
purpose, and it is extraordinary how she succeeded in keep- 
ing that purpose so firmly before the eyes of her readers. 
Her prose gives a modern reader the feeling of endeavoring 
to climb a smooth wall, with no projections to hold on by 
and no holes in which to thrust the feet. Her style is 
involved, consisting of long sentences with the point much 
obscured. One of her peculiarities is that her artisans 
and peasants, most correct of speech and deportment, con- 
verse like educated people. In her writings are to be 
found some pithy sentences. In the introduction to her 
" Recollections," she writes, " I have long been persuaded 
that there is no such thing as an honest private journal, 
even where the entries are punctually made under present 
impressions." Under the belief that the Prince of Dark- 
ness is a gentleman, she says, " Satan seems to be a pri- 
vileged person." Again, " It is no uncommon case to seek 



234 ACADIENSIS 

direction in prayer and then to act from the impulse of 
our own choice, without waiting for an answer." 

Her principal novels are " The Rockrite," an Irish tale 
having for its subject the acts of a Roman Catholic Society 
organized in 1821 under a commander who assumed the 
title, " Captain Rocbr." " Derry," a story of the defend- 
ers of " this very citadel of Protestant faith," in which 
much emphasis is laid on the stout-heartedness within its 
walls, who, with the cry of " No Surrender," in the face of 
starvation, pestilence and a constant rain of shells, held 
the town against the Roman Catholic besiegers. " Helen 
Fleetwood," who was brought up by a kindly neighbor but 
forced through the harshness of the parish authorities to 
seek her fortune in a large manufacturing town. The 
purpose of this novel is to place before the public the 
temptations to which girls were exposed in cotton mills. 
" The Wrongs of Women " is at win to " Helen Fleetwood" 
in motive and treatment. In this collection of sketches, 
Charlotte Elizabeth shows herself most distinctly in the 
light of a worker for the rights of women. She sets before 
her readers the privations and abuses to which female work- 
ers were subjected. As milliners and dress- workers, as lace- 
runners, as workers in screw and pin-factories, there is the 
same story of over-crowding, long hours, no consideration. 

Besides her more ambitious works there are "Letters 
from Ireland," devoted to the state of that country in 1837, 
the character of its people, and, an opportunity not to be 
neglected, the evil influences of the Church of Rome upon 
them. " War with the Saints," the history of the Albi- 
genses in their struggles against Roman Catholicism. " The 
Flower Garden," stories of different characters, who had 
come under her notice in her constant work among the 
poor. " Judea Capta," and " Judah's Lion," as their titles 
show, treat of Jewish subjects. There are also several 
essays on religious subjects, or with a devotional tendency. 
She also left, beside her long poetic tales, " Ingram " and 
' The Convent Bell," a few poems of no particular merit. 



CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH 



235 



Charlotte Elizabeth's books sprang from her desire to 
dedicate her talents to the service of God and her sister 
women. In spite of what might be considered her prosi- 
ness, her goody-goody religious teaching and her lack of 
Christian charity, we can but honor her fearless speech, 
her earnest devotion to the needs of the poor and her 
fervent piety. The interests that prompted her stories 
have passed away ; nothing but gray ashes remains of the 
burning questions that agitated Ireland and England in 
the early part of the last century, and with the dying 
down of the flames of intolerance and oppression, has 
ceased the absorbing interest in the works of Charlotte 
Elizabeth. ISABELLA A. OWEN. 

Annapolis Royal, September 1901. 




ARTICLE III. 




HE PUBLICATION of the earlier num. 
bers of this series of articles 
would appear to have already 
been the means of arousing 
much interest in this fascin- 
ating subject, among local 
bibliophiles. One subscriber 
at least, to this magazine, 
has become the possessor of 
a neatly engraved copper 
plate, and the writer trusts 
that he may not be satisfied, 
as have others of whom 

he has heard, with being merely the owner of a plate, 
but will take the pains to insert a copy in each volume 
upon his library shelves. Several other readers have 
announced their intention of securing a plate as soon as 
circumstances will permit ; the chief obstacle to be over- 
come being the difficulty of securing a tasteful and 
original design. A fair amount of artistic skill, com- 
bined with a little ingenuity, will often produce very 
creditable results. We would recommend those of our 
readers who may be possessed of a library, no matter how 
modest it may be in .its proportions, to seriously consider 
the advisableness of indulging themselves in this little 
piece of harmless extravagance. 

A book-plate is often a partial index to the tastes and 
character of its owner, and is frequently the means of 
restoring a mislaid volume to its rightful possessor. 

In our Acadian Provinces, there are probably at pres- 
ent, not more than one hundred known examples of book- 
236 








CM 



J 




BOOK-PLATES 237 

plates, and of this small number, the larger proportion 
have been brought into the country by men of literary 
tastes who have removed hither from older communities. 

Of some of this small number the most dilligent enquiry 
upon the part of the writer has failed to bring to light any 
information whatever concerning the persons whose names 
they bear ; and like many of the stones in an old grave- 
yard, they are all that remain to indicate that such a 
person ever existed. 

Rather an amusing story is told regarding the late 
Augustin Daly's collection of books. After the death of 
this great collector, and when his library was to be dis- 
posed of, it was discovered that he had never been the 
possessor of an ex-libris. Fully aware of the great desire 
which many people have for owning a book which bears 
the label of a great man, the persons in charge of the sale 
hurriedly ordered a book-plate bearing an enormous mono- 
gram formed of the letters Daly, a copy of which was 
pasted in the front of each volume before it was offered 
for sale. 

The writer who relates this story remarks that many of 
those who possess a volume with the gray label bearing an 
enormous monogram, wonder why a man of such undoubted 
taste and knowledge should have had such an inartistic 
design. It is positively stated that the Daly book-plate 
was never seen by Augustin Daly, but in booksellers' 
catalogues will still be found items describing volumes 
"from the Daly collection, with his book-plate." 



No. 17. J. Edward N. Holder was born llth of July, 
1830, and was the oldest son of James Holder, and of 
Hannah Nutting his wife, daughter of Joseph Nutting, 
originally of St. Mary's, Westminster, England. Mr. 
Holder's grandfather married Elizabeth McAlpine, and 
they are both buried at Gagetown, Queens Co., N. B. 



238 ACADIENSIS 

Mr. Holder has for many years been almost totally blind, 
but although unable to read, on account of his wonderful 
memory and of his studious habits in earlier life, is possessed 
of a large fund of general information. He is a devout 
member of the Church of England, and an enthusiastic 
Orangeman. He well remembers Alderman Bond, whose 
unique book-plate was reproduced in an earlier issue, and 
related many interesting reminiscences concerning the 
alderman to the writer. 

Mr. Holder, though not in affluent circumstances, is the 
owner of quite an interesting collection of books and papers,, 
many of which are of value to the local historian. He 
was the owner of a book-plate many years before fashion 
lent its aid to the encouragement of the study of ex-libris. 
The following is a reproduction of the plate made from 
the original block, which wai made for him about the 
year 1854 : 

Bellum gerere pro veneratione Dei, opera regis et 
incolumitate ecclesise imperiique Anglorum. 




He compiled " The First Book of Arithmetic," which 
was approved by the Board of Education of New Bruns- 
wick, and published by J. <fe A. McMillan, at St. John,, 
N. B., in 1861. 



BOOK-PLATES 



239 



No. 18. The writer is indebted to N. F. D. Parker, Esq., 
M.D., of St. Andrews, N.B., for permission to reproduce from 
a volume of Classics edited by Michael Maittaire, and pub- 
lished in London, 1713, the book-plate of William Henry 
Robinson. 

Beneath the book-plate appears, in the donor's hand- 
writing, "d. d. R. Parker, June, 1832," while the following 
brief note has been fastened on the fly-leaf with small 
seals : 
MY DEAR PARKER, 

Will you do me the favor to 
place upon your shelves the 
accompanying set of Maittaire's 
Classics as a memorial of 
Yours affy, 

W. H. ROBINSON. 
Saturday, 16 June, 1832. 

From Mr. J. de Lancey 
Robinson the following brief 
sketch of his uncle, the owner 
of the book-plate, has been 
obtained. 

The third of the name was my 
uncle. He was the youngest son 
of Lt.-Col. Beverley Robinson, 
and was born at the Nashwaak- 
sis in 1793. In 1808, being then 
not sixteen years old, he entered 
the army as cornet in the 17th 
Lancers, and served with them 
for fifteen years in India. He 
then exchanged into the 7th 

Dragoon Guards, from which he retired with the rank of Major in 
1828. After returning to New Brunswick, he married Louisa 
Millidge, and resided at Berry Hill, Kingsclear, until his death 
in 1848. I am the proud possessor of his sabre and pair of flint- 
lock duelling pistols, which latter / know were out in one affair of 
honor when he was in India. He was also for years a member of 
the legislative council, and an A. D. C. to one of the Lt. -Governors, 
tho' I have forgotten which one. 




No. 



21. 



240 ACADIENSIS 

Nos. 19 and 20. Frederick de Peyster was one of a 
famous and illustrious family, whose names were intimately 
associated with the early history of our country. Together 
with his elder brother, Abraham, he, in common with 
other Loyalists in 1783, was a grantee of the city of St. 
John. After an interval of about thirteen years, Fred- 
erick de Peyster returned to the United States. Abraham 
de Peyster died in New Brunswick just previous to the end 
of the eighteenth century. General John Watts de Pey- 
ster, a grandson of Frederick de Peyster, writes as follows : 

TIVOLI P. 0., 

Duchess County. New York, 

23rd March, 1901. 
D. R. JACK, ESQ. 

Dear Sir, The book, or copper-plate of my grandfather's coat 
of arms I never saw that I know of ; but if you will use it, and so 
inform me, I will have an electrotype made and send it to you, 
also an electrotype of the joint arms of Watts and de Peyster, 
which contains the original de Peyster seal, which was brought 
out from Holland two hundred and fifty years ago, and which I 
now own. 

The elder brother of my grandfather, Abraham de Peyster, was 
Treasurer of New Brunswick and Colonial Commandant of the 
Militia. 

Yours truly, 

J. WATTS DE PEYSTER. 

The following are extracts from other letters received 
from General de Peyster : 

My grandfather, Frederick de Peyster, was in New Brunswick 
after the first great American rebellion against King George III. 
I send you his book-plate. It is a composite between the original 
brought out from Holland, and that used by an extinguished part 
of our family at Rouen, in Normandy, France, from whom a large 
amount of property was inherited and lost. 

I also send you an exact fac-simile of the arms brought out from 
Holland two hundred and fifty years ago, of which I own the 
original. 

I also enclose a fac-simile of the seal used by his son, Colonel 
Abraham de Peyster, who held every office possible under the 
Crown in the Province of New York about 1700, of which I own 
the original. 







NO. 21. 
BOOK-PLATE OF REV, J. DESOYRES, M. A., o. D. 






BOOK-PLATES 241 

I further send you my seal, which embraces the arms of de Pey- 
ster and Watts, because my mother, Mary Justina Watts, was an 
heiress, and I, her only child, am entitled to bear the arms of her 
family, as well as the de Peyster arms, the more so because I think 
the motto of her family is the first I have ever seen Forte non 
deficit telum, "A weapon is never wanting to a brave man," or, "a 
brave man is never disarmed." Some translate it, "A brave man 
is never destitute of resources to defend himself." 

The seal impressed upon this paper is also in my possession. 
It must be over two hundred years old, because it was used offi- 
cially by my great-great-great-great-grandfather, Mayor of New 
York in 1695, and Acting Governor of the Province of New York 
in 1700. 

He was Receiver of this port, and held every office possible 
under the Crown about two centuries since. Receiver of the port 
is now equivalent to Collector. I placed his statue (a magnificent 
piece of bronze work) in the Bowling Green, opposite a new mag- 
nificent custom house now being erected, and there indestrucible 
he sits today, facing the original buildings in which he presided 
two hundred years ago. 

No. 21. The Rev. John deSoyres, M.A., D.D., Rector 
of St. John's Church, in the Parish of St. Mark, in the city 
of St. John, is of Huguenot descent. His book-plate, which 
is here reproduced, is a fine example of the armorial type, 
and contains several features which are unique, and which 
will be readily apparent to the student of heraldry. He 
is a son of a distinguished clergyman, a graduate of Gren- 
ville and Caius College, was Members Prizeman in 1870, 
Winchester Prizeman in 1873, and in 1877 attained the 
distinction of the Hulsean Prize. He was associated with 
Archdeacon Farrar in his theological and historical work, 
particularly in the preparation of his "Early Days of 
Christianity." 

In 1886, Mr. deSoyres filled the position of Hulsean 
Lecturer in the University. He has issued three valuable 
works, namely : In 1881, a critical edition of Pascal's 
Provincial Letters, with historical notes and indices ; in 
1898, a valuable work upon the ecclesiastical history of 
the second century, entitled " Montanism and the Primitive 



242 



ACADIENSIS 



Church ;" and more lately a volume of sermons under the 
title " The Children of Wisdom." 

In 1887, Mr. deSoyres was unanimously called to the 
rectorship of St. John's Church, before alluded to. He 
has won for himself more than a local reputation as a 
scholarly man, and one whose preaching is marked by 
breadth of thought, elegance of language, forcefulness of 
delivery, and a sympathy and tenderness which have caused 
him to be highly esteemed by many individuals entirely 
outside the limits of his own immediate sphere. 

He has already been a contributor to the pages of this 
magazine, in the welfare of which he has evinced a kindly 
interest, and it is due to his courtesy that our work may 
be found to-day upon the Library table at Cambridge Uni- 
versity, England. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 











: 




.1 

id ^ 
DC r 

03 



I >: 

OL " 
bl ~ 

53 

< I 
i -$ 



CD . 

'I 




TKletmore jfamil? 

OF CHARLOTTE COUNTY, NEW BRUNSWICK. 




MONO the numerous families who came 
with the flood of Loyalist immigration 
of 1783 into New Brunswick, few have 
occupied more prominent positions in 
provincial affairs than those who bore 
the name of Wetmore. Their descend- 
ants today are very numerous, and are 
to be found in almost every section of the province. Dur- 
ing the many years which have elapsed since the Loyalist 
advent, nearly a century and a quarter, they have contri- 
buted many men of no mean ability, who have done much 
by their integrity, uprightness, and energy, to advance 
their country's welfare. In the ranks of the so-called 
learned professions, many of the name have occupied pro- 
minent positions. 

By no means the least prominent among the various 
branches of this family are the descendants of Josiah 
Wetmore, who was born in Rye, New York, November 
20, 1770; and at the age of thirteen removed with his 
father's family to New Brunswick, where he grew to man- 
hood and died much respected by the community in which 
he lived, leaving a family of six children. Among these 
was Abraham Joseph Wetmore, with whom, his fore- 
fathers, and his descendants, it is the intention of the 
writer more particularly to deal. 

ID the year 1861, a most valuable book was published 
by Munsell & Rowland, of Albany, N. Y., entitled " The 
Wetmore Family of America." The author of this work, 
which comprises nearly seven hundred pages, was Mr. 
James Carnahan Wetmore, then of Columbus, Ohio. The 
amount of study and research spent in the preparation of 
243 



244 ACADIENSIS 

this volume must have beem very great. Its value, to 
genealogical students of the present day, however, has been 
greatly impaired by the neglect or refusal of certain mem- 
bers of the family, who were then in a position to contri. 
bute much material that cannot now be obtained, to aid 
the author in his meritorious work. While scores of 
pages are devoted to the genealogy and biographies of 
other branches of the family, the information concerning 
Josiah Wetmore, who has been before alluded to, and his 
descendants, is so meagre that scarcely half a page of the 
book is devoted to them. What little information is thus 
obtainable is so inaccurate as to be of no practical value. 

As it is many years since the Wetmore book was pub- 
blished, and it is now exceedingly rare, particularly in this 
province, it is the writer's intention to sketch, as briefly 
as may be consistent with the interest and importance of 
the subject, the origin of the family in America, the direct 
line of descent from Thomas Whitmore, the first American 
ancestor, to Josiah Wetmore, who came to this province 
in 1783, and from that date to insert such information as 
may be deemed advisable, confining the subject, as nearly 
as possible, to the Wetmores who lived in Charlotte 
County, N. B., and their descendants. 

Concerning the origin of the name Whitmore, from 
which the name Wetmore is taken, Robert Furguson, in 
his work entitled " English Surnames and their Place in 
the Teutonic Family," London and New York, 1858, says : 

Lastly, I take the names derived from seabirds. I doubt 
whether Gull is derived from the bird. It might be from the old 

Norse gulr, golden, elsewhere referred to as probably 
Gull. a term of affection. The Anglo-Saxon words meaw, 

Mauve. maew, whence probably the names Mawe and Mew. 

Mew. The old Norse was mar, which is a common baptismal 

More. name in the Landnamabok. Hence may be our 

Whitmore. name More, while Whitmore and Beardmore may 
Beardmore. be from hvitmar and beartmar, signifying a white 

gull. But as an Anglo-Saxon name, More is proba- 
bly derived from mar, renowned, famous, and both Whitmore and 
Beardmore may be compounds of this, wight, a man, and beart, 
bright entering into a great many Anglo-Saxon names. 



THE WETMORE FAMILY 245 

Burke, in his Encyclopedia of Heraldry (London, 1847) 
in noticing the family of Whitmore, of Apley, County 
Salop, says that it " Was originally seated in the northwest 
side of the Parish of Bobbington, in the Manor of Claverly; 
subsequently they removed to Claverley and acquired con. 
siderable possessions there ; derived from John, Lord of 
Whyttemere ; his son was Phillip de Whytemere. Sub- 
quently the de was dropped, and the name continued for 
several generations as Whytemere, when it was changed 
to Whitmere, and then Whitmore." 

Regarding the changing of the spelling from Whitmore 
to Wetmore, Mr. J. C. Wetmore writes : 

At what particular time the family changed the spelling of 
their name we have been unable to discover ; we are led, however, 
to think that the children of the third (possibly some few of the 
second) in part, and the descendants of the fourth generations 
(counting from Thomas Whitmore, who landed in America in 
1655. D. R. J.) very generally adopted the name of Wetmore. 
What induced them to make the change we have no means of 
determining, unless it was, as says a correspondent, " probably a 
matter of convenience to them, growing out of the greater num- 
ber of families in Middletown of the same name, that a part of 
them should vary the spelling to avoid confusion, and without 
sufficient consideration of the greater evils which follow such a 
change. 

In another passage the same writer says : 

If the family name had been Wetmore in England, it is fair to 
presume that some one of that name (other than those who have 
descended from the American Wetmores) could have been found 
there. We have, with other members of the family, been unable 
to discover in travelling in various parts of England, any native 
Briton who spelt his name Wetmore. Mr. A. S. Somerby, an 
accomplished English genealogist heretofore referred to, has made 
(by request of parties interested) diligent search among parish 
records, and in offices of registry of wills, in many counties of 
England, and has forwarded abstracts of wills made by persons of 
names similar to Wetmore, and has reported at the same time, his 
inability to find any record of a family spelling their names 
Wetmore. 



246 ACADIENSIS 

The family coat of arms used by the Wetmore family in 
America is different from that used by the English families, 
except one branch which coincides with that of the 
American branch, and is believed to have been brought out 
in 1723 by the Rev. James Wetmore, of Rye. It is like 




that used by the Cheshire family, but with the addition of 
three martletts which, in the estimation of Mr. Somerby, 
is proof that the person who obtained the arms, could not 
prove his relationship to that family, and hence this dif- 
ference was made. Without venturing to differ from so 
eminent an authority as Mr. Somerby, the writer may 
perhaps be permitted to observe that he was recently in- 
formed by no less an authority than the Lyon King at 



THEWETMORE FAMILY 247 

Arms of the Herald's College, Edinburgh, that in cases 
where a younger son desired a patent-at-arms, it was cus- 
tomary to make a grant resembling in the main features 
those worn by the elder brother but differing sufficiently 
in some minor detail, such, for instance, as the substitution 
of a dexter for a sinister direction in some of the emblazon- 
ments, or as in the case under consideration, the addition 
of three martletts to the coat of arms already borne by 
the older branch of the family. 

In heraldic terms, the arms of the American Wetmores 
are thus described He beareth argent, or a chief azure ; 
three martletts or crest A Falcon, ppr. 

The arms are so well illustrated in the book-plate of 
Rev. Robert Griffieth Wetmore, which was recently re- 
produced in the series of articles upon Acadian book-plates 
by the writer, that he feels that he may be pardoned for 
inserting herein the same drawing. This illustration, it 
may be explained, is reproduced directly from an original 
copy of the book-plate now in the possession of the writer. 

THE LINEAGE OP THE ENGLISH FAMILY OF WHITMORE, 
AS STATED IN BlJRKE's LANDED GENTRY. 

John, Lord of Whytemere, in the reign of Henry III, Edward 
I., was father of 

Philip de Whytemere, who died in 1300, and was succeeded by 
his son, 

John de Whytemere, living in 1361, whose son, 

Richard de Whytemere, of Claverley and Whytemere, married 
Margery, daughter and heir of William Atterall, of Claverley, and 
dying about 1386, left a son and heir, 

Richard de Whytemere, father of another 

Richard de Whytemere, who married a lady named Joan, but 
of what family is not ascertained, and was succeeded at his de- 
cease in 1442, by his son, 

Thomas Whytemere, of Claverley, who died in 1483, his son, 

Richard Whytemere, left at his demise in 1504. by his wife 
Agnes, a son and successor, 



248 ACADIENSIS 

Richard Whitmore, of Claverley, born in 1495, who married 
Frances Barker, and had two sons, 

William, his heir, 

Thomas, ancestor of the Whitmores of Ludstone, in Claverley. 

Richard Whitmore died in 1549, and was succeeded by his son, 

William Whitmore, Esq., of London, merchant, who married 
Anne, daughter of Alderman William Bond, of that city, and by 
her (who died October 9, 16 15,) had issue ; 1, William (Sir), his heir 
2, Thomas, died sine prole ; 3, George (Sir), Knight of Kalmes, in 
Hackney parish, Middlesex. He died December 12, 1654. 

From the above the several families of Whitmore in England 
trace their ancestry. 

THE LINEAGE OF THE WETMORE FAMILY OP CHARLOTTE 
COUNTY, NEW BRUNSWICK. 

Thomas Whitmore, who was the immigrant ancestor of the 
Wetmore family in America, was born 1615, in England, and 
married, first, Sarah Hall, d. of John Hall and Anne (Willocke) 
Hall, and was the father of 

Izrahiah Whitmore, b. 8 March, 1656-7? m. Rachael Stow, by 
whom he had eight children, all sons, of whom the third was 

Rev. James Wetmore, b. 31 December, 1695 (O. S.), who mar- 
ried Anna , and had six children, of whom the eldest was 

James Wetmore, b. in Rye, N. Y., 19th December, 1727, m. 
Elizabeth Abrahams, and had by her twelve children, of whom 
the eldest was 

Abraham Wetmore, b. November 27th (9th ?), 1747, m. Sarah 
Sniffers, by whom he had three children, of whom the eldest was 

Josiah Wetmore, b. November 20, 1770, who married Rachael, 
daughter of Justus Sherwood, by whom he had six children. 

Of the above the last three generations were Loyalists, and re- 
moved to New Brunswick at the close of the war in 1783, the 
eldest, James, at the age of tifty-six, the youngest, Josiah, at the 
age of thirteen. 

Josiah had six children, namely, Sally, William, Justus, Abra- 
ham Joseph, Josiah, Anne. Of these, the fourth, 

Abraham Joseph Wetmore, b. 14 October 1798, m. I, Elizabeth 
Campbell, daughter of James Campbell, Lieut. 54th Regiment of 
Foot, by whom he had six children, namely, Marian, Sarah Jose- 
phine, Douglas, Thomas, Susan and Julia ; m. II, Laura Jewett, 
of Boston, by whom he had two children, namely, Sydney and 
Laura Eugenia, both of whom died unmarried. 



THE WETMORE FAMILY 249 

Abraham Joseph Wetmore was the ancestor of all the 
Wetmores, of Charlotte County, N. B. Of his first family, 
Marian married John W. Norton ; Sarah Josephine 
married Peter Clinch; Douglas married Julia Russell; 
Thomas died unmarried ; Susan married John Cameron ; 
and Julia married Charles C. Ward. 

Having thus sketched, as briefly as possible, the geneal- 
ogy of the Wetmore family, of Charlotte County, N. B., 
and given the reader what he trusts will be found a concise 
statement of the line of descent from Thomas Whitmore, 
the American ancestor of the family, the writer will, in the 
next chapter, and beginning with the last-named individ- 
ual, give a short biographical sketch of the various mem- 
bers of the family which he has enumerated. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 

(To be Continued.) 




EXCHANGES RECEIVED. 
Canada Educational Monthly. 
Educational Review. 
Prince Edward Island Magazine. 
Educational Record. 
Commonwealth. 

Bulletin des Recherches Historiques. 
Kings College Record. 
Windsor Tribune. 
The Book Lover. 
Journal of the Ex-Libris Society. 
Historic Quarterly. 
N. E. Hist, and Gen. Register. 





many of our readers to whom the name 
of Gabe, the Sachem of the Abenakis, 
has been familiar for many years, the 
news that he has gone to the happy 
hunting grounds will be learned with 
regret. He passed away at the Indian 
reserve on Wednesday, the 2nd of 
October, after the article upon the Indians of Acadia, 
in which reference is made to him, and which appears in 
the first portion of this number of ACADIENSIS, had been 
off the press. 

He was the veteran Indian guide and trapper, the leader 
of his tribe, and had, in his day, been the associate, for the 
time being, of many famous men. 

Gabe had been in failing health for some time, and at 
his decease must have been about ninety years of age. 

The following interesting reminiscence from the pen of 
Mr. E. J. Payson, has just appeared in one of our pro- 
vincial dailies, from which we take the liberty of re-pub- 
lishing it : 

The death of Gabe Acquin, "Sachem Gabe," has set loose a 
flood of memories of the doings and sayings of the aged Indian, 
and many are the stories and anecdotes being related about him. 
250 







GABE ACQUIN. 

Died Oct. 2nd, 1901. Atjed 90 yea 



GABE ACQUIN 251 

It may not be generally known that the only time that King 
Edward Seventh of England was upon the water in a birch bark 
canoe was on the St. John river at Fredericton in company with 
Gabe, because the story has not heretofore appeared in print: but 
such is the well authenticated fact. As Gabe's best friends well 
knew he was not given to boasting, yet he occasionally mentioned 
to intimates and with evident pride that he had taken the Prince 
canoeing, and he treasured in fond remembrance the kindliness of 
the young Prince, and the boyish mischievousness of the present 
King, as shown in the following anecdote. 

When the Prince of Wales visited Fredericton, about forty 
years ago, he arrived on Saturday and spent Sunday here. Early 
on Sunday morning Gabe, then in his prime and a general favorite 
at Government House, left his wigwam at St. Mary's and boarding 
his canoe, built by himself of bark stripped by his own hands off 
the stately birches, swiftly paddled up river to Government House 
landing for the purpose, as Gabe afterward expressed it. "jus' to 
look aroun'." It was about nine o'clock when Gabe paddled slowly 
past Government House and who should be seen on the terrace 
back of the house but the young Prince himself, enjoying the cool 
morning air, the beautiful view of the river, and a before break- 
fast cigar. 

The Prince, who was of course unknown to Gabe, who was 
dressed out in his most fantastic garb, hailed the Indian and asked 
him to come ashore. The Prince evinced a lively interest in the 
canoe and asked Gabe many questions about its construction and 
uses, and finally expressed a wish to have a short sail in the, to 
him, novel craft, a request which Gabe gladly complied with. 

Scarcely had they put off from the landing when the Duke of 
Newcastle, who accompanied the Prince, and exercised a very 
strict watch over him, appeared upon the river bank and called 
upon the occupants of the canoe to return at once to the shore. 
The Prince, in an undertone, asked Gabe to pay no attention to 
the old fellow, meaning the Duke, but to keep on, and Gabe plied 
the paddle with such effect that they were soon out of call from 
the shore. 

Gabe took his Royal visitor across the river and a short distance 
up the beautiful Nashwaaksis, and the Prince thoroughly enjoyed 
his first, and, probably, only trip in a birch bark canoe, and Gabe 
in relating the story would say " an' he not one bit 'fraid." 

When Gabe was asked if the Prince gave him anything for dis- 
obeying the Duke of Newcastle's command he would say, "I got 
some gold," and more than this he would not say. 



252 



ACADIENSIS 



The writer regrets that the short space of time at his 
disposal prevents a more extended reference to this worthy 
brother. He has in his possession some interesting anec- 
dotes and reminiscences, in many of which Gabe played a 
prominent part, and hopes, ac no very distant date, to be 
able to publish an interesting and readable account of his 
life and character. 

With his demise has passed away one of the connecting 
links between Fredericton as it was half a century ago 
then a British garrison town and as it is to-day. 

DAVID RUSSELL JACK. 





ffiluenoee. 



In a letter to the writer, Prof. W. F. Ganong, of North- 
ampton, Mass., remarks : 

Why do you not, in the coming issue of your magazine, call for 
quotations and early references to the use of the word " bluenose ?" 
The only way to ascertain the origin of the word is to find its 
earliest use in print, and in what connection it was employed : 
if you call for references to early uses of the word you may bring 
out something good. Merely guessing at its origin is useless. 

The Rev. W. O. Raymond writes, in the St. John Sun, 
in the issue of October 8th, 1901, that in his opinion the 
explanation that the name is derived from a variety of 
potato called the Bluenose potato, or " early blue," which 
has been credited by many persons, is certainly incorrect, 
the name being older than the potato. He is further of 
the opinion that the people of the Maritime Provinces of 
Canada got the name because their noses were supposed to 
be blue with cold. He also states that the name was in 
common use in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia about 
the beginning of the last century, and that he noticed it, 
not long ago, in a letter written by Elkanah Morton of 
Digby, under date January 27, 1807. Mr. Morton speaks 
in his letter of a dispute between the Irish and the Yan- 
kees at Digby, adding the remark, " being a bluenose my- 
self, did not think it prejudice that made me consider the 
Yankees least in fault." 

This carries us back nearly a century, and it is doubtful 
if any references of a much earlier date may be discovered. 
Mr. Morton's letter, however, does not throw any additional 
light upon the origin of the word, or the meaning which it 
is intended to convey. 

Following the suggestion offered by Professor Ganong, 
we shall be pleased to hear from any of our readers, of any 
other early uses of the name, and to publish any informa- 
tion obtained, should it prove to be of sufficient value. 

DAVID RDSSELL JACK. 
253 



Origin of tbe IRew U)orfc Iberalfc, 

No. 57 PEMBROKE STREET, 

TORONTO, April 20, 1901. 
D. R. JACK, ESQ. 

Dear Sir, I could tell a number of interesting facts 
about my father. I presume you would hardly know that 
the great " New York Herald " was started by two young 
men who were apprentices in Chubb's office in St. John, 
but that is a positive fact. 

Smith and Anderson were both in the same office with 
my father at Chubb's. They went to New York about 
two years before my father did, and shortly after, they 
bought a large press (worked by foot power) and secured 
the printing of the " New York Sun," and " New York 
Transcript," both daily papers ; also, of course, other work. 

One day, early in 1835, my father called in to see 
them, being old chums in St. John. There was another 
man in the office, named James Gordon Bennett. Ander- 
son told my father, " We're going to start a daily paper 
ourselves, but as, if it were known, the " Sun " and " Tran- 
script " would take away their business from us, we have 
engaged this man Bennett, who is a clever fellow ; he is to 
edit the paper, and have his name on it as editor ; and 
while we supply everything, and only pay him a salary, no 
one will know our connection with it." 

A few days afterwards the first number of the " New 
York Herald " appeared and it had an immediate success ; 
but the proprietors of the other papers somehow found out 
or felt jealous of Smith and Anderson, and took their work 
away. Then, worse still, about one month after the first 
issue, a great fire took place and destroyed everything, and 
both Smith and Anderson were ruined. Anderson died 
in my father's house from his reverses and illness caused 
thereby. Bennett went to Bruce the typefounder and told 
him he could make a success of the paper and got credit, 
and about two weeks after the fire started the paper anew ? 
utterly ignoring Smith and Anderson or any rights they 
had ; and this was the foundation of the " Herald." 
254 



ORIGIN OF THE NEW YORK HERALD 255 

Some of these facts are in " Bennett's Life," issued by 
Stringer and Townsend in 1855. My father used to tell 
me that he very often saw Bennett personally selling his 
" Heralds " off the top of a barrel at the corner of Fulton 
and Ann streets, New York, the first few weeks after the 
issue of the paper (after the fire, September, 1835). 

My father started a small job printing office in a little 
frame building, corner of Frankfort street and Chatham 
(now Printing House Row) upon the exact spot and lot 
where the great " New York World " building now stands. 
After a year or so he obtained a little credit and began to 
issue illustrated works (the first ever published in America). 
His first work was " Illustrations of the Bible." He had 
hardly courage to issue a first edition of one thousand 
copies, but they all sold very quickly and before five years 
he had sold over twenty thousand copies, an unprecedented 
sale at that time ; and in the meanwhile he was issuing 
other works of a historical and biblical character, profusely 
illustrated. He was the first one to encourage wood-en- 
graving, and paid thousands of dollars to young artists for 
their work on wood to illustrate his books. 

P. T. Barnum, afterwards the great showman, at that 
time hardly had bread to eat ; he applied to my father to 
be agent to sell his works. My father gave him a credit 
of $100 or $200 in books. He sold an immense number, 
enabling him to get a small capital, with which he bought 
out a small museum of curiosities and laid the foundation 
of his great wealth. 

I forgot to state that the owner of the lot on which the 
little printing office stood offered it to my father in 1833 
for $2,500. A few years ago the " World" paid $425,000 
for the same lot exactly, on which they built their immense 
building. Naturally I am a bit sorry my father didn't buy 
the lot and keep it, but no one then had any idea of what 
New York was to be. 

Believe me, 

Very cordially yours, 

GEO. EDW. SEARS. 



256 ACADIENSIS. 

motices. 



We regret that the insertion of the notice of the death of Gabe 
Acquin has absorbed the space usually reserved for notices of 
books and other publications received, and that in the present 
number we are unable to do more than merely mention such, with 
the names of their various donors, to whom we desire to convey 
our sincere thanks for the courtesy extended to us. 

Collections Manchester Historic Association, G. Waldo 

Browne. 

Shakespeare as a Patriot, Sir William H. Bailey. 
Shakespeare and Temperance, Sir William H. Bailey. 
Immortal Memory of Robert Burns, Sir William H. Bailey. 
The Jerseyman, Vols. 1-5, bound, H. E. Deats. 
January, 1900, to date, in numbers, H. E. Deats. 
Hunterdon Co. Hist. Society, H. E. Deats. 
Two Colonels John Taylor, H. E. Deats. 
Hist. Sketch of Jas. Sterling, H. E. Deats. 
The Readington School, H. E. Deats. 
Flemington Copper Mines, H. E. Deats. 
First Century of Hunterdon Co., N. J., H. E. Deats. 
Bye Laws Hunt, Co. Hist. Soc., H. E. Deats. 
Report on Philatelic Literature, H. E. Deats. 
Colonel Thos. Lowrey and Wife, H. E. Deats. 
Louisbourg, an Historical Sketch, Col. J. Plimsol Edwards* 
Canada under Victoria, John A. Cooper, B. A., LL. B. 
Report Congress Tuberculosis, Educational Record. 

Our thanks are also due to the following publications for notices 
of our third number. 

Colchester Sun, Truro, N. S, 
EducationalfReview, St. John, N. B, 
Free Lance, Westville, N. S. 
Globe, St.;john, N. B. 
Journal, Summerside, P. E. I. 
Monitor, St. John, N B. 
Presbyterian Witness, Halifax, N. S. 

Record, Sydney, C. B. 

Tribune, Windsor, N. S. 

Sentinel, Woodstock, N. B. 

Times Guardian, Truro, N. S. 

World, Chatham, N. B. 



1795 



MAR 9 1994