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A CALENDAR OF 
SCOTTISH SAINTS 

BY DOM MICHAEL BARRETT, O.S.B. 

SECOND EDITION REVISED & AUGMENTED 



REGIS 

BIBL. MAJ. 
COLLEGE 



FORT-AUGUSTUS : 

PRINTED AT THE ABBEY PRESS 

1919 



61575 



B27 
1919 



Nihil obstat : 

D. CUTHBERTUS ALMOND, O.S.B. 

Censor Dep. 

Imprimatur : 

*%< GEORGIUS, Ep. Aberd. 



INTRODUCTION 

THE title of Scottish, applied to the 
holy ones whose names occur in these 
short notices, must be understood to 
refer not so much to their nationality 
as to the field in which, they laboured 
or the localities where traces of their 
cultus are to be found. 

The Calendar here submitted does 
not pretend to be exhaustive ; the 
saints therein noted are those who 
appear prominently in such records as 
remain to us and in the place-names 
which still recall their personalities. 

In this new edition much additional 
information has been inserted, and 
many emendations made to render the 
Calendar as complete as possible. 



INTRODUCTION 

The chief sources relied upon in the 
compilation of the work are : 

The Breviary of Aberdeen, drawn up 
by Bishop Wm. Elphinstone, and 
printed in 1 509. 

Dr. Forbes Kalendars of Scottish 
Saints. 

Origines Parochiales Scotia. 

Dr. Skene s Celtic Scotland. 

Canon O Hanlon s Lives of Irish 
Saints. 

Cardinal Moran s Irish Saints in 
Great Britain. 

New Statistical Account of Scotland. 

The date at the head of each notice 
is generally that of the death of the 
saint concerned. 



JANUARY 

1 St, Ernan, Abbot, A,D, 640. 

TH E Saint whose feast is celebrated on this 
day was a disciple of the great St. 
Columba, and is said by Colgan, the renowned 
Irish scholar, to have been his nephew. What 
connection the saint had with Scotland is not 
clear. He may have laboured for a time there 
under St. Columba, but he became Abbot of 
Drumhome in Donegal. On the night St. 
Columba went to his reward, as we are told by 
that saint s biographer, St. Adamnan, Ernan 
was favoured with a vision in which the saint s 
death was revealed to him. St. Ernan died in 
his Irish monastery at an advanced age in the 
year 640. The church of Killernan, in Ross- 
shire, is named after him. Another dedication 
to this saint is thought by some to be Kilviceuen 
in Mull. 

4 St. Chroman or Ghronan, A.D. 641, 

ON account of the destruction of so many 

ecclesiastical records at the Reformation, many 

B 



2 JANUARY 

particulars regarding some of our Scottish saints 
have been irrevocably lost. This is the case 
with the holy man before us. All that we know 
of him may be told in a few words. He lived 
in the Cunningham district of Ayrshire, where 
he was revered during life and venerated after 
death for his great sanctity. On his death-bed 
we are told he kept continually repeating those 
words of the 83rd Psalm, " My soul longeth 
and fainteth for the courts of the Lord. My 
heart and my flesh have rejoiced in the Living 
God." 

7 St. Kentigerna, Recluse, A.D, 733. 

LlKE so many holy souls whose lives drew 
down the grace of Heaven upon the land, St. 
Kentigerna was of Irish race. Her brother, 
St. Comgan, succeeded their father, a prince of 
Leinster, in the government of his territory. 
Meeting with violent opposition from the 
neighbouring princes, on account of his just and 
upright Christian rule, St. Comgan was obliged 
to fly the country, and together with his 
widowed sister, who had been married to an 
Irish prince, took refuge in Scotland. St. 
Comgan devoted himself to monastic life, and 



JANUARY 3 

Kentigerna retired to an island in Loch Lomond 
to live as an anchoress. Here in her solitary 
cell, on the hilly, wooded isle which is now 
called in memory of her Innis na Caillich (the 
Nun s Island), she spent many years of the 
remainder of her life. The island became the 
seat of the old parish church of Buchanan, which 
was dedicated to her, and in the graveyard, 
which is still in use, are many tombs of the 
chiefs and illustrious men of the clan MacGregor. 
The church has been long in ruins. St. Kenti 
gerna died in 733. Her feast is to be found in 
the Aberdeen Breviary. 

11 St. Suibhne (Sweeney), Abbot, A.D. 656. 

THIS saint was an Abbot of lona who died in 
the odour of sanctity when he had been Superior 
of that monastery for about three years. 

14 St. Kentigern or Mungo, Bishop, 
A,D. 603 or 612. 

THE ancient kingdom of Cumbria or Strath- 
clyde extended from the Clyde to the Derwent 
in Cumberland. It had been evangelised by 
St. Ninian, but, in the course of two centuries, 
through constant warfare and strife, the Faith 



4 JANUARY 

had almost disappeared when, in the middle of 
the sixth century, St. Kentigern was raised up 
to be its new apostle. The saint came of a 
royal race, and was born about A.D. 518. He 
was brought up from childhood by a holy hermit 
of Culross called Serf, who out of the love 
he bore the boy changed his name of Kentigern 
(signifying "lord and master") to that of Mungo 
(the well beloved). It is under the latter name 
that he is best known in Scotland. It should be 
noted, however, that the benefactor of the young 
Kentigern, though possibly bearing the same 
name, cannot be identified with the well-known 
St. Serf of Culross, who, according to modern 
historians, must have flourished in a later 
century. At the completion of his educa 
tion Kentigern fixed his abode at Cathures, 
now known as Glasgow, and was joined 
by many disciples, who lived under his rule 
in a kind of monastic discipline. His holy 
life caused him to be raised much against 
his will to the episcopal state. He fixed upon 
Glasgow for his see, and ruled his flock with all 
the ardour and holiness of an apostle. Simple 
and mortified in life, he abstained entirely from 



JANUARY 5 

wine and flesh, and often passed two days with 
out food. He wore haircloth next his skin, 
slept on a stone, and often rose in the night to 
praise God. Throughout his life he preserved 
the purity of his baptismal innocence. His 
pastoral staff was of simple wood. He always 
wore his priestly stole, to be ready to perform 
the functions of his sacred office. 

Driven from Glasgow by the enmity of a 
wicked king, the saint took refuge with St. 
David in South Wales. He subsequently 
founded the monastery known afterwards, from 
the disciple who succeeded him in its govern 
ment, as St. Asaph s, and here more than nine 
hundred monks are said to have lived under his 
rule. Later on he was recalled to Glasgow, 
and after a life of apostolic zeal he received 
through an angel, on the Octave of the Epiphany, 
his summons to eternal life. Fortifying himself 
by the Sacraments, and exhorting his disciples 
to charity and peace and constant obedience to 
the Holy Catholic Church, their mother, he 
breathed his last, being at least 85 years old. 
His saintly body was laid to rest where the mag 
nificent under-croft of St. Mungo s Cathedral, 



6 JANUARY 

Glasgow, was raised to his honour in after ages. 
Many old churches in Scotland bear the 
dedication of St. Mungo ; the chief of these is 
Lanark parish church. There is a parish bear 
ing his name in Dumfries-shire, and many holy 
wells are called after him ; one of these is in 
Glasgow Cathedral, others are in the precincts 
of Glasgow, and at Huntly, Peebles, Ayr, 
Dumfries, Glengairn (Aberdeenshire), also at 
Currie, Penicuik and Mid-Calder, near Edin 
burgh. There is also St. Mungo s Isle in Loch 
Leven. Besides these Scottish dedications, 
there are seven churches in Cumberland which 
bear his name. It is noteworthy that all of 
them bear the more popular title of Mungo. 
Within about six miles of Carmarthen, in 
Wales, is the ancient parish church of Llangen- 
deirne "Church of Kentigern " ; this is one 
instance, at least, of a dedication to the saint 
under his real name, and maybe the only one. 
There were formerly two fairs of St. Mungo 
kept in Alloa each year, where the church 
was dedicated to this saint. St. Kentigern 
is said to have made no less than seven 
pilgrimages to Rome in the course of his life. 



JANUARY 7 

His feast, which had long been celebrated by 
the Benedictines of Fort-Augustus and the 
Passionists of Glasgow, was extended to the 
whole of Scotland by Leo XIII in 1898. As 
he died on the Octave of the Epiphany, the 
feast is kept on the following day, January 1 4. 

19 8t, Blaithmaic, Martyr, 8th or 9th century. 

THIS saint was of princely birth, and a native of 
Ireland. In early youth he renounced all the 
attractions of wealth and honour and entered a 
monastery. Here for his many virtues he was 
chosen abbot, and ruled his flock with wisdom 
and prudence. But from his youth he had 
longed for martyrdom, and though he had often 
begged leave from his superiors to preach the 
Faith to unbelievers, he could never obtain it. 
Being at lona, where he had entered the com 
munity as a simple monk on renouncing his 
charge in Ireland, he announced one day to the 
brethren in the spirit of prophecy that an irrup 
tion of pagan Danes was about to take place. 
He exhorted those who felt themselves too 
weak for martyrdom to seek safety in flight. 
They concealed the shrine of St. Columba s 



8 JANUARY 

relics, and many of the monks betook them 
selves to the mainland. 

Next morning, while Blaithmaic was at the 
altar, having just offered the Holy Sacrifice, the 
pagans rushed upon him and the few com 
panions who remained, and slaughtered all 
except Blaithmaic. They offered him life and 
liberty if he would show them the shrine of St. 
Columba with its treasure of gold and gems. 
But the intrepid martyr refused to betray his 
trust and was hewn down at the altar. He 
was buried at lona on the return of the monks 
from their place of safety. There is some 
doubt about the date of his death, some writers 
place it as late as A.D. 828. 

20 8t, Yigean or Fechin, Hermit, A.D. 664, 

THE parish of St. Vigean s, Forfarshire, derives 
its name from this saint, who though called 
Vigean in Scotland, is no other than the Irish 
abbot Fechin. He ruled three hundred monks 
at Fore, in Westmeath. It is not easy to 
determine his precise connection with Scotland, 
though from the remains which bear his name 
it would appear that he spent some time in the 
country. A hermitage at Conan, near Arbroath, 



JANUARY 9 

is pointed out as his residence, and the founda 
tions of a small chapel may still be traced. 
Near them is a spring known as St. Vigean s 
Well. A fair called by his name was held at 
Arbroath on this day up to the eighteenth 
century. 

Ecclefechan known in Middle Age charters 
as Ecclesia Sancti Fechani (Church of St. 
Fechan) takes its name from the same saint. 
It has acquired celebrity in later times as the 
birthplace of Thomas Carlyle. St. Fechin was 
buried in the Monastery of Fore. 

25 St. Buchadius, Monk, A.D. 597, 

THIS saint was one of the twelve disciples who 
accompanied St. Columba from Ireland and 
settled with him upon the island of lona. He 
was one of the saint s helpers in the conversion 
of the Northern Picts. He is said to have 
written the Acts of St. Columba. It seems 
probable that St. Euchadius laboured at one 
time in Galloway, as he received special venera 
tion in that district. This may have been due, 
however, to relics of the saint preserved there 
in Catholic ages. 



10 JANUARY 

26 St. Conan, Bishop, A.D. 648. 

HE was born in Ireland, and is said to have 
passed over to lona to join the community there, 
in which his virtues and talents placed him high 
in the estimation of the monks. He was 
characterised by a special devotion to the 
Mother of God, which won for him a singular 
purity of soul. He was made tutor to the three 
sons of Eugenius IV, King of Scotland, and 
brought them up carefully and wisely. Later 
on he became a Bishop. St. Conan was 
greatly honoured in Scotland. His name 
survives at Kilconan, in Fortingal, Perthshire, 
and at St. Conan s Well, near Dalmally, 
Argyleshire. St. Conan s Fair is held at Glen- 
orchy, Perthshire, but this seems to relate to 
another saint of like name, as its date is the 
third Wednesday in March and our saint was 
venerated on January 26th, as the best authorities 
testify. 

28 St. Nathalan or Nauchlan, Bishop, l.D. 678. 

THIS saint was born of a noble Scottish family 
at Tullich, Aberdeenshire. From his youth 
he was distinguished for great piety, and spent 



JANUARY I I 

much of his time in manual labour in the fields 
as a voluntary mortification and a means of sub 
duing the passions. Many miracles are related 
of him. It is said that having given away all 
his corn in time of famine, he caused the fields 
to be sown with sand for lack of grain, and was 
rewarded by a plentiful harvest. Having given 
way to murmuring in a moment of impatience 
he imposed upon himself the penance of making 
a pilgrimage to Rome, wearing on his leg a 
heavy chain ; this he fastened by a padlock 
and threw the key into the Dee at a place now 
known as " The Pool of the Key." He is 
said to have bought a fish for food in Rome 
and to have found the key in its stomach ; this 
he took for a supernatural intimation to discon 
tinue his self-inflicted mortification. 

Being made bishop by the Pope, he returned 
to his native land as an apostle of the Faith. 
He built in Deeside several churches at his own 
expense ; one of these was at his native place, 
Tullich, where a huge slab of granite, sculp 
tured with an antique cross, forms the top 
lintel of one of the doors of the ancient 
church, and is thought to have been a portion 



12 JANUARY 

of the saint s tomb. St. Nathalan is said to 
have visited Ireland, and to have founded the 
monastery of Dungiven in Ulster. He died 
at a very advanced age at Tullich, on January 
8th, 678. He became the patron saint of 
Deeside, and traces of his cultus still remain in 
that district. Long after Protestants had lost 
sight of the reason for it, an annual holiday was 
held on his feast day, no work being allowed to 
be done. A market was formerly held at Old 
Meldrum on or near this day, called " St. 
Nathalan s Fair," and another at Cowie, Kin- 
cardineshire. The ancient name of Meldrum 
was Bothelney, a corruption of Bothnethalen, 
which signifies " habitation of Nathalan." Near 
the ruins of the old church is still to be seen 
" Nauchlan s Well." A quaint local rhyme 
preserves his memory at Cowie : 

" Atween the kirk and the kirk ford 
There lies St. Nauchlan s hoard." 

The feast of St. Nathalan was restored by 
Leo XIII. 

29 St. Yoloc or Macwoloc, Bishop. 
5th or 6th century, 

THIS saint is considered by some to have been 
of Irish race as his name is possibly identical 



JANUARY 1 3 

with the Irish name Faelchu. He is said by 
the Aberdeen Breviary to have left his native 
land to spread the Roman Faith in Scotland, 
where he was raised to the episcopal rank. 
He voluntarily took upon himself a life of great 
austerity to satisfy for his own sins and those of 
others. His evangelical labours were devoted 
to the northern parts of the country chiefly. 
He lived in a little house woven of reeds and 
wattles, for his attraction was towards every 
thing poor and humble. His simple and holy 
life and the miracles he worked had an immense 
influence in spreading the light of faith amongst 
the ignorant and half-barbarous people to whose 
welfare he had devoted himself, and many were 
converted to the Truth. 

He is said to have died in extreme old age ; 
angels standing round his death-bed. The old 
churches of Dunmeth and Logic Mar in Aber- 
deenshire were dedicated to this saint. The 
former parish is now included in that of Glass. 
Two miles below Beldorny in that parish are 
St. Wallach s Baths and a ruined chapel called 
Wallach s Kirk, while in the neighbourhood of 
the latter is St. Wallach s Well, which up to 



14 JANUARY 

recent times was a recognised place of pilgrim 
age. An annual fair was formerly held in his 
honour at Logic ; it is commemorated in a 
provincial rhyme : 

" Wala-fair in Logic Mar 
The thirtieth day of Januar." 

30 St. Glascian or Maglastian, Bishop, 

SCOTTISH calendars give short notices of this 
saint, who is said to have been an illustrious and 
saintly bishop during the reign ot King Achaius, 
a Scottish king contemporaneous with Charle 
magne. Very few particulars can be ascertained 
as to his life. All that is at present known of 
him is gathered from the traces of his cultus 
which remain in various districts of the country. 
Thus the parish of Kinglassie, near Kirkcaldy, 
seems to have been named after him, and in the 
neighbourhood is a spring of fine water known 
as St. Glass s Well. There is another well 
named after him at Dundrennan (Kirkcud 
brightshire). Kilmaglas, now known as Stachur, 
in Argyleshire, indicates another dedication to 
this saint. His feast is noted in the Breviary 
of Aberdeen on this day. 



JANUARY 1 5 

31 St. Adamnan of Coldingham, A.D. (about) 686. 

IN the monastery of Coldingham, over which 
St. Ebba presided, was a monk of great sanctity 
and austerity named Adamnan. It is not certain 
whether he was a native of Scotland or not. 
In his youth Adamnan had led a life of great 
licentiousness, and being converted by the grace 
of God from his evil ways was moved with a 
desire to do penance for his sins. Accordingly 
he sought the counsel of a certain Irish priest, 
to whom he made a general confession and con 
fided his desire of entering upon a penitential 
life. So deep was his sorrow that he expressed 
himself ready to accept any penance his director 
might impose, even to spending whole nights in 
prayer, or fasting for a week continuously. The 
priest having imposed upon him the penance 
of taking food twice only in a week until he 
should see him again, departed into Ireland, 
and died there before Adamnan was able to 
consult him a second time. Taking this as a 
sign of God s Will that he was to persevere in 
his heroic course of penance, Adamnan resolved 
to continue to the end the hard life begun by 
the counsel of the Irish priest. Having become 



16 FEBRUARY 

a monk at Coldingham after his conversion, he 
lived there for many years, and was made one 
of the priests of the monastery. He died in 
the odour of sanctity after being favoured with 
the gift of prophecy. 

St. Mittan, 

ALL that is known of this saint is that a fair, 
called after him, was held formerly at Kil- 
madock in Perthshire, on January 31st., which 
must consequently have been his feast day. 



FEBRUARY 

1 St. Darlugdach, Virgin, A.D, 524. 

THIS saint was an Irish virgin who was edu 
cated to the monastic life by the great St. 
Bridget, the glory of Ireland. She is said to 
have visited Scotland during the reign of King 
Nectan and to have presided over a community 
of religious women attached to a church which 
that King had built at Abernethy and dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin. By some writers St. 
Bridget herself is said to have led the monastic 
colony to Scotland, but this is by no means 



FEBRUARY 1 7 

clear. It is true that great devotion was shown 
towards her, and many Scottish churches and 
wells bear her name, but this may be accounted 
for by the close connection with Ireland which 
subsisted in those early times. Her relics, too, 
were venerated at Abernethy. 

St. Darlugdach did not remain in Scotland, 
as she succeeded her friend and patroness St. 
Bridget as Abbess of Kildare, where she died. 

3 St, Pillan or Faolan, Abbot (8th century). 
HE was the son of St. Kentigerna, and con 
sequently of Irish birth, and is said to have 
taken the monastic habit at Taghmon, in Wex- 
ford, under the rule of St. Fintan-Munnu ; later 
on he came to Scotland. After spending some 
time with his uncle St. Comgan at Lochalsh, 
where Killillan (Kilfillan) bears his name, the 
saint devoted himself to the evangelization of the 
district of Perthshire round Strathfillan, which 
is called after him, and where he was greatly 
venerated. The success of the Scots at Ban- 
nockburn was attributed to the presence of the 
arm of St. Fillan, which was borne by its 
custodian, the Abbot of Inchaffray, on the 
C 



18 FEBRUARY 

field of battle. The crozier of the saint is still 
in existence ; it is preserved in the National 
Museum, Edinburgh. This also, as one of the 
sacred battle-ensigns of Scotland, is said to have 
been present at Bannockburn. A small bell 
which formerly hung in his church in Strathfillan 
is now in the museum of the Antiquarian 
Society in Edinburgh. Several traces of the 
saint are to be found in the district in which 
he preached. Killallan, or Killellen, an ancient 
parish in Renfrewshire, took its name from him ; 
it was originally Kilfillan (Church of Fillan). 
Near the ruins of the old church, situated near 
Houston, is a stone called Fillan s Seat, and a 
spring called Fillan s Well existed there until 
it was filled up, as a remnant of superstition, by 
a parish minister in the eighteenth century. 
Other holy wells bore his name at Struan (Perth 
shire), Largs and Skelmorlie (Ayrshire), Kil 
fillan (Wigtonshire), Pittenweem (Fifeshire), 
etc. A fair used to be held annually at Hou 
ston and another at Struan, both known as 
Fillan s Fair. In Strathfillan are the ruins of 
St. Fillan s chapel, and hard by is the Holy 
Pool, in which the insane were formerly bathed 



FEBRUARY 19 

to obtain a cure by the saint s intercession. 
Scott refers to it in Marmion (Cant. I. xxix) : 

" St. Fillan s blessed Well, 
Whose spring can frenzied dreams dispel 
And the crazied brain restore." 

Pope Leo XIII re-established the saint s feast 
in Scotland. 

J St. Modan, Abbot, 8th century. 

THIS saint, whose missionary labours benefited 
the west coast of Scotland, was the son of an 
Irish chieftain. He crossed over from his 
native land, like so many others of his country 
men, to minister to the spiritual wants of the 
many Christians of Irish race who at that time 
formed an important part of the population of 
the district to which he came. 

A short distance from the site of the old 
Priory of Ardchattan, near Loch Etive, may 
still be seen the remains of his first oratory. 
It bears the name of Balmodhan (St. Modan s 
Town) ; a few paces from its ruins is a clear 
spring called St. Modan s Well, and hither 
within the memory of persons still living came 
many a pilgrimage in honour of the saint. A 



20 FEBRUARY 

flat stone near was known as St. Modan s Seat. 
It was broken up for building materials by 
Presbyterians not many years ago. 

The ruins are situated amid scenery of im 
pressive beauty, and command a view of land 
and water as far as the island of Mull. The 
masonry," says Dr. Story in his description of 
the buildings, " is strong and rough, but little 
more than the gables and the outline of two 
broken walls remain, overshadowed by the ash 
trees that have planted themselves among the 
stones, the existing trees growing out of the 
remains of roots, all gnarled and weather-worn, 
of immensely greater age. In every crevice 
thorn, rowan, ivy, and fern have fastened them 
selves, softening and concealing the sanctuary s 
decay." (" St. Modan," by R. H. Story, D.D.) 

Another old church which claims St. Modan 
for its patron is that of Roseneath, which stands 
near Loch Long, on the border of the Western 
Highlands, in Dumbartonshire. Its name 
signifies " the Promontory of the Sanctuary " ; 
sometimes it was known as " Neveth " the 
Sanctuary simply. Only the ancient burial 
ground and kirk now remain, but formerly a 



FEBRUARY 21 

well existed here also, which is said to have had 
miraculous properties and was resorted to by 
pilgrims. Later on the site was made use of 
for a foundation of Canons Regular, whose 
monastery was built on a plain below the 
sanctuary ; it is now entirely demolished. 

Kilmodan, above Loch Riddan, on the Kyles 
of Bute, is another of St. Modan s foundations, 
as its name implies ; for it signifies Church 
of Modan. The modern kirk has replaced the 
ancient building and occupies the same site. 
Other parts of Scotland also claim connection 
with this saint. He is said to have preached 
the Faith as far east as Falkirk, where the old 
church, Eaglais Bhreac, was dedicated to him, 
as was also the High Church of Stirling. 

After a life of extreme austerity St. Modan, 
finding his end approaching, retired to the 
solitude of Rosneath, where he died. Devotion 
to him was very popular in Scotland. Scott 
alludes to it in the " Lay of the Last 
Minstrel " : 

" Some to Saint Modan made their vows, 
Some to Saint Mary of the Lowes." 

Canto VI. 



22 FEBRUARY 

7 St Ronan, Bishop, A.D. 737. 
DR SKENE, in his " Celtic Scotland," expresses 
the opinion that this saint was a contemporary 
and associate of St. Modan. It is remarkable 
that where a foundation of one saint exists, 
traces of the other are found in the vicinity. 
Thus near Rosneath is Kilmaronock, where is 
St. Maronock s Well, and on the opposite side 
of Loch Etive, not far from Balmodhan, is 
Kilmaronog. Both names signify " Church " 
or " Cell of Ronan." 

It is a common feature in the Celtic designa 
tions of saints to find the prefix mo (my) and 
the affix og (little) added to the simple name 
by way of reverent endearment. This is the 
case in the names just referred to ; Kilmaronog 
and Kilmaronock both mean literally " Church 
of my little (or dear) Ronan." 

Many legends surround this saint, but very 
little authentic information can be gleaned con 
cerning the circumstances of his life. Many 
dedications to him are to be found on lonely 
isles and retired spots on the west coast, which 
seem to point to a custom of seeking solitude 
from time to time. Thus a little island near 



FEBRUARY 23 

Raasay is called Ronay ; another sixty miles 
north-east of the Lewes, possessing an ancient 
oratory and Celtic crosses, is called Rona. 
An islet on the west coast of the mainland of 
Shetland is called St. Ronan s Isle ; it becomes 
an island at high tide only. The parish church 
of lona was called Teampull fyonain and its 
burial ground Cladh Ronain. St. Ronan is 
said to have been Abbot of Kingarth, Bute, 
where he died in 737. Holy wells bear his 
name at Strowan (Perthshire), Chapelton in 
Strathdon (Aberdeenshire), and the Butt of 
Lewis ; the latter is famed for the cure of 
lunacy. 

14 St. Conran. 

HE was a Bishop of Orkney in the seventh 
century whose name was illustrious for sanctity, 
zeal, and austerity of life. 

17 St Finan, Bishop, A.D, 661. 
THIS saint was an Irishman who became a 
monk in the monastery founded by St. Columba 
at lona. During his monastic life he was dis 
tinguished for the virtues befitting his state, 
especially prudence and gravity of demeanour. 



24 FEBRUARY 

He was devoted to prayer and strove zealously 
to live according to the Divine Will in all 
things. When St. Aidan, who had been a 
monk of lona, passed to his heavenly reward, a 
successor in his see of Lindisfarne was again 
sought in that celebrated monastery, and the 
choice fell upon Finan. His first care was to 
erect on the island of Lindisfarne a suitable 
cathedral, and in this he placed the remains of 
his saintly predecessor Aidan. 

During the few years that St. Finan ruled 
his diocese he exhibited all the virtues of a 
model bishop. His love of poverty, contempt 
of the world, and zeal for preaching the Gospel, 
won the hearts of his people. Under his 
guidance, Oswy the King was brought to 
realise his crime in the barbarous murder of the 
saintly Oswin, King of Deira, and the result 
was the foundation of monasteries and churches 
as tokens of his sincere repentance and his 
desire to obtain pardon from Heaven through 
the prayers and merits of those who should 
dwell in them. 

The influence of St. Finan extended beyond 
his own people ; for the kings of more southern 



FEBRUARY 25 

nations, with their subjects, owed the Faith to 
his zeal and piety. Peada, King of the 
Mercians, and Sigebert, King of the East 
Saxons, both received Baptism at his hands, 
and obtained from him missionaries to preach 
to their respective peoples. 

The most famous work in which St. Finan 
was directly concerned was the foundation by 
Oswy of the Monastery of Streaneshalch on 
the precipitous headland afterwards known as 
Whitby. This was to become in later years, 
under the rule of the first abbess, Hilda, a 
school of saints and a centre of learning for 
the whole territory in which it stood, and the 
admiration of after ages for its fervour and 
strictness of discipline. 

St. Finan died after an episcopate of ten 
years, and was laid to rest beside the remains of 
St. Aidan in the cathedral he had built at 
Lindisfarne. His feast was restored to Scot 
land by Leo XIII. in 1898. 

18 St. Colman, Bishop, A.D. 676. 

ON the death of St. Finan, another monk of 
lona was chosen to succeed him in the see of 



26 FEBRUARY 

Lindisfarne. This was Colman, who, like 
Finan, was of Irish nationality. At the time a 
fierce controversy was raging in Britain as to the 
correct calculation of Easter. The Roman 
system of computation had undergone various 
changes until it was finally fixed towards the 
end of the sixth century. It was adopted 
gradually throughout the Church, but Britain 
and Ireland still retained their ancient method. 
In consequence of this it sometimes happened 
that when the Celtic Church was keeping 
Easter, the followers of the Roman computa 
tion were still observing Lent. This was the 
case in the Court of Oswy, King of Bernicia, 
who followed the Celtic rite, while his Queen 
Eanfleada and her chaplains, who had been 
accustomed to the Roman style, kept the 
festival in accordance with it. 

To bring about uniformity a synod was held 
at Whitby to give the advocates of either 
system an opportunity of stating their views. 
St. Wilfrid, the great upholder of Roman 
customs, brought such weighty arguments for 
his side that the majority of those present 
were persuaded to accept the Roman computa- 



FEBRUARY 27 

tion. St. Colman, however, since the Holy 
See had not definitely settled the matter, could 
not bring himself to give up the traditional 
computation which his dear master, St. 
Columba, had held to. He, therefore, resigned 
his see, after ruling it for three years only, and 
with such of the Lindisfarne monks as held the 
same views retired to lona. 

On his way thither he seems to have 
founded the church of Fearn in Forfarshire, 
which he dedicated to St. Aidan, placing there 
some of the saint s relics brought with him from 
Lindisfarne. He also founded a church in 
honour of the same saint at Tarbert in Easter- 
Ross. This, however, was afterwards called 
by his own name. 

After a short stay at lona, St. Colman re 
turned to Ireland and founded a monastery at 
Inisbofin, an island on the west coast of that 
country, peopling it with the monks who had 
left Lindisfarne in his company. Later on a 
new foundation was made at Mayo for Saxon 
monks only ; it became known as " Mayo of 
the Saxons." The saint ruled both monasteries 
till his death, which occurred at Inisbofin, where 



28 FEBRUARY 

he was buried. He had translated thither the 
greater part of St. Aidan s relics. The ruins 
of the ancient church may still be seen on the 
island. St. Colman s feast has been restored to 
Scotland by Pope Leo XIII. 

Protestant writers have tried to interpret 
St. Colman s conduct regarding the Synod of 
Whitby as a manifest opposition to Roman 
authority. This, however, is a mistaken con 
clusion. It must be remembered that the matter 
was regarded by him as an open question, and 
he considered himself justified in keeping to the 
traditional usage until Rome declared against it. 
St. Bede, who had no sympathy with his views 
on the Easter question, speaks highly of St. 
Colman as a holy and zealous Bishop. 

There is some discrepancy between Scottish 
and Irish authorities as to the precise date of 
the saint s death. In Scotland he was honoured 
on this day, but Irish writings give the date as 
August 8. There are also some slight differences 
in the particulars of his life ; but as no less than 
1 30 saints of this name are mentioned in Irish 
ecclesiastical records, it is conceivable that their 
histories have become intermixed. 



FEBRUARY 29 

23 St. Boisil, Confessor, A.D. 664. 
THE old abbey of Melrose was not the Cister 
cian house whose ruins still remain, but an 
earlier monastery which had been founded by 
St. Aidan and followed the rule of St. Columba, 
which was afterwards changed for that of St. 
Benedict. The Roman usage regarding Easter 
was adopted there, very soon after the Synod 
of Whitby. Its abbot was the holy Eata, who 
was given the government of Lindisfarne Abbey 
also, when many of its monks followed St. 
Colman to Ireland. Just before these events 
occurred the subject of this notice was called to 
his reward. He was prior of Melrose under 
Eata, and it was he, who, being a monk and 
priest of surpassing merit and prophetic spirit, as 
St. Bede says, welcomed with joy and gave the 
monastic habit to a youth in whom he saw " a 
servant of the Lord " the future St. Cuthbert. 
The two became devoted friends, and Boisil, 
who was especially learned in the Scriptures, 
became Cuthbert s master in that science, as 
well as his example in holy living. 

In 664 a terrible epidemic called the Yellow 
Plague visited Scotland and carried off numbers 



30 FEBRUARY 

of the inhabitants. Boisil and Cuthbert were 
both attacked by the malady, and the lives of 
both were endangered. The holy prior, how 
ever, from the beginning foretold the recovery 
of Cuthbert and his own death. Summoning 
the latter to his bedside, he prophesied his 
future greatness, relating all that was to befall 
him in the years to come, and especially his 
elevation to the episcopal rank. Then he 
begged Cuthbert to assist him during the seven 
days of life which remained to him to finish 
the study of St. John s Gospel on which they 
had been engaged. In this they occupied 
themselves till St. Boisil s peaceful death. 

The church of St. Boswell s was dedicated 
to this saint, the name is a corruption of St. 
Boisil s. The old town has disappeared. An 
annual fair was formerly held on July 1 8th, in 
honour of the saint. His well also was 
situated there. 

25 St. Cumine, Abbot, A.D. 669. 
HE was the seventh abbot of lona, and his 
learning and holiness rank him among the most 
illustrious monks of that renowned monastery. 
The Synod of Whitby, which was instrumental 



FEBRUARY 31 

in overthrowing the ancient Celtic computation 
of Easter and substituting the Roman use, 
occurred during Cumine s occupation of the 
abbacy. He wrote a life of St. Columba, 
probably to vindicate his sanctity after the 
apparent slight offered to his memory by the 
synod in setting aside the traditional usage 
which he had cherished. This life seems to have 
been the result of St. Colman s visit to lona 
before his return to Ireland (see Feb. 18th). 
A more important work is St. Cumine s 
letter on the Easter controversy, which he 
wrote before he became abbot, and which 
shows a thorough acquaintance with the diffi 
culties of the subject, as well as deep knowledge 
of the Sacred Scriptures and writings of the 
Fathers. He is often called Cumine j4ilbhe 
(Cumine the Fair-haired). His name survives 
in Kilchuimein (Church of St. Cumine), the 
ancient designation of Fort-Augustus, and the 
only name by which it is still called in Gaelic. 
A spot in the same neighbourhood is known as 
St. Cumine s Return ; it is in the vicinity of a 
hill called St. Cumine s Seat. The parish 
church of Glenelg also is named after this saint. 



MARCH 

1 St. Marnock or Marnan, Bishop, A.D, 625, 
LlKE so many of the Celtic saints, the name of 
this one has been changed by the addition of 
particles expressive of reverence. The original 
form was Ernin ; the Scottish name is a con 
traction of the Gaelic words ^Co-Qrnin-og 
(my little Ernin). He is considered by some 
writers to have been of Irish nationality, but 
this is by no means established. St. Marnock 
laboured as a missionary in Moray, being 
specially noted for his zeal in preaching. He 
died at Aberchirder in Banffshire, and was 
buried in the church there. The place after 
wards received the additional name of Marnock 
from its connection with the saint. St. Marnock s 
shrine became a favourite place of pilgrimage, 
and miracles were wrought through his relics, 
which were religiously preserved there. The 
head of St. Marnock was frequently borne in 
procession to obtain fair weather. It was the 
custom also to have lights placed round it every 
Sunday and to wash the relic with water, 



MARCH 33 

which was afterwards used, greatly to their 
benefit, by the sick. The Innes family, who 
chose the saint as their patron, had a particular 
devotion to that relic. 

Traces of the cultus of St. Marnock are to 
be found in many districts of Scotland. Besides 
the church in which his remains were honoured, 
a holy well at Aberchirder still bears his name. 
A fair on the second Tuesday in March, held 
there annually, was known as Marnock Fair. 
There was a Mafnock Fair at Paisley also, 
which lasted for eight days. The church of the 
well-known parish of Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire, 
is another of his dedications. Near Kilfinan, 
in Argyllshire, and not far from the sea shore, 
may be seen the foundation and a fragment of 
the wall of a chapel with a graveyard round it ; 
the field in which the chapel stands is called 
Ard-Marnoc. On an eminence not far off is a 
cell which tradition assigns to this saint as a 
place of retirement for solitary communion with 
God. Inchmarnock, an island near Bute, is 
another place connected with him ; Dalmarnock 
at Little Dunkeld, is named after this saint. 
Other churches and parishes also show 
D 



34 MARCH 

traces of the honour paid to him in Catholic 
ages. 

St. Monan, Martyr, 9th century. 
ACCORDING to some writers, he was one of 
the companions of St. Adrian (who was 
honoured on March 4), and preached the 
Gospel in Fifeshire ; his relics being afterwards 
translated to Abercrombie in that county- 
King David II., in thanksgiving for cures 
obtained through the saint s intercession, 
erecting there a noble church to contain them. 
Dr Skene, however, is of opinion that this 
saint was not a martyr, but was St. Monan, 
Bishop of Clonfert, known in Irish calendars as 
Moinenn, and that his relics were brought to 
Abercrombie by Irish who had fled from the 
Danes then plundering and burning Irish 
monasteries about the year 84 1 . On account 
of the great devotion of the saint, Abercrombie 
became generally known as St. Monan s, but 
has now reverted to its original title. The church 
was given by James III. to the Dominicans ; 
later on it was transferred to the Canons 
Regular of St. Andrews. St. Monan s Well 
is near the ancient building. 



MARCH 35 

2 St. Fergna, Bishop, A.D. 622. 
THIS saint, a fellow-citizen and relative of St. 
Columba, became eventually Abbot of lona. 
During his rule many of the young nobles 
who had fled from the sword of the King of 
Deira took shelter in the monastery. They 
were instructed and converted to the Christian 
Faith. St. Fergna is said to have been made 
a bishop in the later years of his life, but this 
is called in question by some writers. He 
seems to have been of partly British descent 
and is often styled " Fergna the Briton." 

4 St. Adrian and Companions, A.D. 875, 
AN old legend, which was long regarded as 
authentic, relates that this saint was of royal 
birth and was a native of Hungary, and that 
he came to Scotland with several companions 
to preach the Faith. Modern historians iden 
tify him with the Irish St. Odhran, who was 
driven from his country by the Danes and 
took refuge in Scotland. He preached the 
Gospel to the people of Fifeshire and the 
eastern counties. Eventually he founded a 
monastery on the Isle of May in the Firth of 
Forth. Here he suffered martyrdom, together 



36 MARCH 

with a great number of his disciples, in an 
incursion of the Danes. A Priory was 
built on the island by David I, and 
placed under the Benedictine Abbey of Read 
ing. Later on it was given over to the Canons 
Regular of St. Andrews. The Isle of May 
became a famous place of pilgrimage on account 
of the connection with it of other saints besides 
St. Adrian and his companions. James IV 
visited it several times, having evidently a great 
affection for the holy place. In 1 503 he took 
the "clerkis of the Kingis chapell to Maii to 
sing the Mes thair." Other records occur in 
his treasurer s accounts, such as the following : 
"To the preistis to say thre trentals of Messis 
thair"; for "the Kingis offerand in his tua 
candillis in Maii." 

6 St. Baldred, Hermit, A.D. 608. 
THIS saint, according to a popular tradition, 
was a disciple of the great St. Kentigern. He 
has often been styled the Apostle of East 
Lothian. After his master s death St. Baldred 
took up his residence upon the Bass Rock, 
near North Berwick, and there he devoted 
himself to penance and prayer, his favourite 



MARCH 37 

subject of meditation being the Passion of 
Christ Our Lord. From time to time he would 
pay missionary visits to the mainland. He died 
at Aldhame in Haddington, a village which 
has now disappeared ; St. Baldred s Cave is on 
the sea-shore near its former site. Tyningham 
Church, in the same county, and also that of 
Prestonkirk, were dedicated to him. The 
former was burnt by the Danes in 94 1 . The 
old parishes of Aldhame and Tyningham are 
now united under the designation of White- 
kirk. At Prestonkirk there is a well which 
bears the saint s name, whose water, as a 
Protestant writer notes, is excellent for making 
tea ! An eddy in the Tyne is called St. 
Baldred s Whirl. A century ago Prestonkirk 
churchyard possessed an ancient statue of St. 
Baldred. The ruins of a chapel dedicated to 
the saint are still discernible on the Bass Rock. 

St Cadroe, Abbot, A.D. 937. 
HE was connected with the royal family of 
Strathclyde. In his youth he was sent to 
Ireland to be educated at Armagh. Returning 
to Scotland, he devoted himself to the training 
and education of youths for the priesthood. 



38 MARCH 

Later on he gave himself to a life of pilgrimage 
and passed into England, where Odo, Arch 
bishop of Canterbury, received him with great 
kindness ; he also visited the King, Edmund, 
at Winchester. Crossing over to France, 
Cadroe, by the direction of St. Fursey, who 
appeared to him in a vision during prayer, 
took the monastic habit at the Benedictine 
Abbey of Fleury. But although he wished to 
remain there as a simple monk, his sanctity 
caused him to be made abbot of the monastery 
of Wassons-on-the Meuse, which he ruled for 
some years. At the request of the Bishop of 
Metz he took up his residence in that city in 
the Abbey of St Clement, where he instituted 
a thorough reform of discipline. He remained 
at the latter monastery till his death at the age 
of seventy, which was followed by many 
miracles. 

8 St. Duthac, Bishop, A,D. 1068. 
THIS saint was of Scottish birth, but was 
educated, like many of his contemporaries, in 
Ireland. Returning to his native land, he was 
consecrated bishop, and devoted himself with 
zeal to the pastoral office. He is said to have 



MARCH 39 

especially shown this devotion in hearing the 
confessions of his people. He laboured as 
bishop in the districts of Moray and Ross. 
Both during; life and after death he was noted 
for many miracles. He was buried in the 
church of Tain, whose Gaelic title is ^Baile 
Dhuich (Duthac s Town). Seven years after 
death his body was found incorrupt, and 
was removed to a more honourable shrine in 
the same church. His resting-place became one 
of the chief places of pilgrimage in the country. 
James IV. visited it no less than three times, 
travelling thither with a large retinue. At that 
date St. Duthac s Bell was treasured at Tain. 
St. Duthac is patron of Kilduich, at the head 
of Loch Duich in Kintail. The saint probably 
visited this spot, which belonged to his pastoral 
charge. Kilduthie, near the Loch of Leys, 
Kincardineshire, and Arduthie, near Stone- 
haven, in the same county, both take their 
names from this saint. A chapel in the 
Benedictine Abbey of Arbroath bore the de 
dication of St. Duthac. Two fairs called after 
him were held annually at Tain " St. Duthac 
in Lent " was on his feast-day ; that in 



40 MARCH 

December probably indicated some translation 
of his relics. At Tain is St. Duthac s Cairn. 
A holy well bears his name in the parish of 
Cromarty. Leo XIII restored his feast in 
1898 

10 St. Failhbe (the second), Abbot, A.D. 745. 
THIS saint was one of the abbots of lona. He 
ruled that monastery for seven years, and died 
there at the age of seventy. 

St. Kessog or Mackessog, Bishop and Martyr, 
A.D. 560. 

HE was a native of Ireland, but devoted him 
self to missionary labours in Scotland, in the 
province of Lennox. He used as his retreat 
Innis a SKChanaich (Monk s Island) in Loch 
Lomond. Tradition says that he suffered 
martyrdom near Luss, in Dumbartonshire. 
Another version is that being martyred in a 
foreign country, and his body being conveyed 
to Scotland for burial, the herbs with which it 
was surrounded took root and grew where he 
was laid to rest ; hence the name Luss (herbs) 
was given to the spot, and was afterwards 
extended to the parish. The place of his burial 
is called " Carnmacheasaig." The church of 



MARCH 41 

Luss had the privilege of sanctuary, which 
extended for three miles round it, so that no 
one could be molested within that boundary 
for any cause ; this was granted by King 
Robert Bruce in 1313. The church of 
Auchterarder, Perthshire, was dedicated to 
this saint, and he was also venerated at Cal- 
lander ; at both places, as also at Comrie, 
Perthshire, fairs were held annually on his 
feast-day. Near Callander is a conical mound 
bearing his name. The bell of the saint was 
preserved up to the seventeenth century. At 
Inverness is " Kessog Ferry." The saint s 
name was often used by the Scots as a battle- 
cry, and he is sometimes represented as the 
patron of soldiers, wearing a kind of military 
dress. 

11 St. Constantine, King and Martyr, A.D. 590. 
THIS saint was a British king who reigned in 
Cornwall. His early life was stained by many 
crimes, but, becoming converted to piety, after 
his wife s death he entered the monastery of 
Menevia, now known as St. David s, that he 
might expiate his sins by penance. St. Kentigern, 
then an exile in that same monastery, exhorted 



X 



42 MARCH 

him to devote himself to preaching the Faith in 
Cumbria. St. Constantine accordingly founded 
a monastery at Govan, in Lanarkshire, where 
he became abbot, and from whence he and his 
disciples preached Christianity to the people of 
the surrounding country. He converted the 
people of Cantyre, and met his death in that 
district at the hands of the enemies of his 
teaching. He was buried at Govan, where 
the church bears his name. Kilchousland in 
Cantyre takes its name from him. The ancient 
church of Kinnoul, near Perth, and that of 
Dunnichen, Forfarshire, were also dedicated to 
this saint ; at the latter place was St. Cousland s 
(or Causnan s) Fair, and some remains of St. 
Cousland s chapel are there still. The water of 
his well at Garrabost, in Lewis, known as St. 
Cowstan s, is said never to boil any kind of 
meat, however long it may be kept over a fire. 
The feast of this saint was restored by Leo 
XIII. 

St. Libranus, Abbot. 

HE was one of the many saintly abbots of 
lona. 



MARCH 43 

12 St. Indrecht, Abbot and Martyr, A.D. 854. 

THIS saint was also Abbot of lona, being the 

twenty-first in order of succession. On his 

way to Rome he was martyred by the Saxons. 

St. Fechno, or Fiachna, Confessor, A.D. 580. 
HE was one of the twelve disciples who 
accompanied St. Columba to Scotland. He 
was probably born in the north of Ireland, and 
spent some years under St. Columba s rule. 
Miracles are said to have been wrought at his 
tomb. 

16 St. Finan, Abbot, A.D. (about) 575. 
THIS saint, surnamed " The Leper," from the 
disease with which he was afflicted, is mentioned 
in Irish calendars on the 1 6th of this month. 
Although the dedications to St. Finan in Scot 
land are many, and devotion to him must 
therefore have been widespread, it is difficult to 
assign a cause for it. Some have thought that 
he was at some time at lona, but the authentic 
particulars of his life which are now extant are 
so few that it is impossible to determine. To 
him is attributed the evangelisation of part of 
Argyllshire, in the district which still bears 



44 MARCH 

the name of Glen-Finan. The ancient 
burial-place of the district is on Eilean Finan, 
an island in Loch Shiel, where he is said to 
have lived, and where is preserved one of the few 
ancient bronze bells which still exist in Scot 
land ; it is called by the saint s name. A fair 
was formerly held there annually, and was 
called "St. Finan s Fair." Other dedications 
to this saint are at Kilfinan in the same county 
Kilfinan, near Invergarry, and Mochrum in 
Wigtonshire. " St. Finzean s Fair " (a manner 
of denoting Finyan), formerly held at Perth, is 
supposed to have been in honour of the festival 
of this saint. 

St. Charmaig, A.D. (about) 640. 
THIS was a saint much honoured among the 
Hebrides. He is patron of the church of 
Keills, Argyllshire. At Ellanmore, in that 
county, there are the remains of a chapel, named 
after him, Kilmacharmaig, and in a recess is a 
recumbent figure thought to be a representation 
of the saint. Kirkcormaig, in the parish of 
Kelton, Kirkcudbright, possibly refers to this 
saint. 



MARCH 45 

St, Boniface or Curitan, Bishop, 8th century. 
AN ancient legend, which modern historians 
have shown to be a fanciful distortion of facts, 
relates that this saint, an Israelite, came from 
Rome to Britain, and that after converting 
Nectan, King of the Picts, and his people to 
Christianity, he consecrated 1 50 bishops, 
ordained 1 000 priests, founded 1 50 churches, 
and baptised 36,000 persons. The real facts 
of the case seem to be that this saint is identical 
with Curitan, an Irish saint, who laboured in 
Scotland to bring about the Roman observance 
of Easter. The testimony of St. Bede that 
King Nectan in the year 710 adopted the 
Roman computation, and the fact that St. 
Boniface was zealous in founding churches in 
honour of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, 
thus identifying himself with special devotion to 
Rome, seem to give weight to the supposition. 
This saint became a bishop, and the cathedral 
of the diocese of Ross, which replaced the 
primitive building raised by him at Rosemarkie 
(now Fortrose) and dedicated to St. Peter, was 
subsequently named in his honour. A fair was 
formerly held there annually on his feast-day. 



46 MARCH 

In Glen-Urquhart, Inverness-shire, Clach 
Churadain, an ancient church at Corrimony, 
was dedicated to this saint. Croit Churadain 
("Curitan s Croft") and Tobar Churadain 
(" Curitan s Well ") are hard by. 

17 St. Patrick, Bishop, A.D. 493. 
To many it may seem strange that the name of 
the great Apostle of Ireland should appear 
among Scottish saints ; but the calendar would 
be incomplete without it. According to many 
competent authorities St. Patrick was born in 
Scotland. They fix his birthplace at Kil- 
patrick on the Clyde, near Dumbarton. Even 
were this theory rejected, and that one accepted 
which makes him a native of Gaul, still the 
number of churches dedicated to the saint in 
Scotland, testifying to the devotion in which he 
was held in Catholic ages, would justify the 
mention of his feast here. About fourteen 
churches bore his name, and many have given 
the designation to the parish in which they 
stand, as Kilpatrick, Temple- Patrick, Ard- 
Patrick, Dalpatrick, Kirkpatrick, etc. Fairs 
were held on this day known as " Patrickmas" 
at Dumbarton and Kirkpatrick - Durham 



MARCH 47 

(Kirkcudbrightshire). There is a sacred well 
called by the saint s name, and also a small 
chapel in honour of St. Patrick, at Muthill, 
Perthshire, and so highly was he esteemed in 
that place that a general holiday from labour 
was observed on his feast up to the beginning 
of last century. At Dalziel (Lanarkshire), 
Kilpatrick (Dumbartonshire), and Port Patrick 
(Wigtonshire), are holy wells bearing St. 
Patrick s name. 

18 St. Finian or Finan, Bishop, A.D. 660. 
THIS feast is noted both in the Breviary and 
Martyrology of Aberdeen, as well as in other 
Scottish calendars. There is a wide divergence 
of opinion among authorities as to the particular 
saint referred to, and the Aberdeen Breviary 
affords no account of his life. It seems, how 
ever, not improbable that this is the St. Finan, 
patron of the churches of Migvie and Lump- 
hanan, both in Aberdeenshire, who is thought 
by Dr. Skene to have been one of St. Kenti- 
gern s Welsh disciples, sent, together with St. 
Nidan (see Nov. 3), to preach the Gospel in 
Deeside. " In the upper valley of the Dee, on 
the north side of the river, we find a group of 



48 MARCH 

dedications which must have proceeded from a 
Welsh source. These are Glengairden, de 
dicated to Mungo, Migvie and Lumphanan to 
Finan, the latter name being a corruption of 
Llanffinan, and Midmar dedicated to Nidan ; 
while in the island of Anglesea we likewise find 
two adjacent parishes called Llanffinan and 
Llannidan." (" Celtic Scotland," ii., 193.) 

A chapel at Abersnethick in the parish of 
Monymusk bears the name of St. Finan, and 
an Aberdeen authority notes in 1 703 that : 
" Finzean Fair at the kirk of Migvie " was kept 
at that time, " whiles in March and whiles in 
April, on the Tuesday before Midlenton fair 
at Banchrie." 

St. Comman, A.D. 688. 

HE was the brother of St. Cumine, Abbot of 
lona, and therefore of Irish descent. Like him, 
too, he became a monk at lona. The parish 
of Kilchoman, Islay, takes its name from this 
saint. 

20 St. Cuthbert, Bishop, A.D. 687. 
THIS saint was born of Saxon parents in 
Northumbria, and was early left an orphan. 



MARCH 49 

While tending sheep on the slopes of Lammer- 
moor the youth had a remarkable vision, in 
which he saw the heavens at night-time all 
bright with supernatural splendour and choirs of 
angels bearing some soul of dazzling brightness 
to its eternal reward. Next day he learned 
that Aidan, the holy Bishop of Lindisfarne, had 
passed away. Cuthbert had often before 
thought of embracing the monastic state, and 
this vision of the blessedness of one who was a 
brilliant example of that way of life decided 
him. He therefore presented himself at the 
gates of the monastery of Melrose, being pro 
bably in his twenty-fourth year. He was 
received as a novice by St. Boisil, the Prior, 
who, on first beholding the youth, said to those 
who stood near : " Behold a true servant of the 
Lord," a prediction abundantly fulfilled in 
Cuthbert s life. 

For ten years the saint remained hidden at 
Melrose perfecting himself by the routine of 
monastic observance. Then on the foundation 
of Ripon he was sent there as one of the first 
community. After a short stay he returned to 
Melrose, and on the death of St. Boisil was 
E 



50 MARCH 

made Prior. To the greatest zeal for all that 
concerned monastic life he added a tender 
charity for the souls of others, which led him 
to make many missionary excursions into the 
surrounding territory. 

When Abbot Eata in 664 received the 
charge of the Abbey of Lindisfarne in addition 
to Melrose, Cuthbert was sent thither as Prior. 
For twelve years he was a teacher to his com 
munity, both by word and example, of the 
precepts of the perfect life. Then, desiring 
more strict seclusion, he retired to a solitary cell 
on Fame Island, that he might give himself 
more completely to prayer. Here he lived 
eight years, visited on great feasts by some of 
the Lindisfarne monks, and at frequent intervals 
by pious Christians who sought his direction 
and intercession. 

Having been thus prepared, like St. John 
Baptist in his desert, for the work God had in 
store for him, he was chosen Bishop of Lindis 
farne. During the two years he exercised this 
office he was to his flock a model of every 
virtue, and a pastor full of zeal and charity. 
He preserved, notwithstanding his high dignity, 



MARCH 5 1 

the humility of heart and simplicity of garb 
which belonged to his monastic state. Numerous 
and striking miracles attested his sanctity. 

Foreseeing his approaching end he retired to 
his little cell at Fame where he passed away, 
strengthened by the Sacraments, with his hands 
uplifted in prayer. He was buried at Lindis- 
farne ; but incursions of the Danes necessitated 
the removal of his remains, and for nearly two 
hundred years his body was conveyed from 
place to place till it was eventually laid to rest 
in the Cathedral of Durham. There it became 
an object of pious pilgrimage from all the three 
kingdoms. More than 800 years after death 
the sacred body was found still incorrupt, and 
there, in a secure hiding-place, it still awaits the 
restoration of St. Cuthbert s shrine to its rightful 
custodians, the sons of St. Benedict, the guardians 
of the secret. Among the churches dedicated to 
St. Cuthbert in Scotland were those at Ballan- 
trae, Hailes, Ednam, Glencairn, Kirkcudbright, 
Drummelzier, Gienholm (Broughton), Malton, 
Edinburgh, Prestwick, Eccles, Drysdale, Gir- 
van, Maybole, Mauchline, Weem, and even 
distant Wick. Besides Kirkcudbright (Church 



52 MARCH 

of St. Cuthbert), which gives the name to a 
whole county, Northumbria is studded with 
churches built in his honour, which recall the 
resting-places of his body, and witness to the 
devotion inspired by those sacred remains to this 
great saint. Fairs were formerly held on his 
feast-day at Ruthwell (Dumfries-shire), and 
Ordiquhill (Banffshire) both for eight days 
and probably in other localities also. His holy 
wells were at St. Boswell s and in Strathtay 
(Perthshire). 

22 St. Finian, Wynnin, or Frigidian, Bishop, 
A.D. 579, 

IN this saint we have a remarkable instance 
of a change of name in accordance with the 
character of the language spoken in the various 
countries in which he successively lived. Born 
in Ireland of the royal line of the Kings of 
Ulster, St. Finian was sent early in the sixth 
century to be educated at Candida Casa or 
Whithorn, where a famous school of learning 
and sanctity had grown up round the tomb of 
St. Ninian. Returning to his native land, 
Finian, by the fame of his wonderful erudition, 
attracted to him numerous disciples in his 



MARCH 53 

monastery at Moville. Here, among others, 
was trained the youth who became in after 
years the great St. Columba the Apostle of 
the north of Scotland. 

After a pilgrimage to Rome whence he re 
turned with a copy of the Sacred Scriptures 
a volume rare and precious in those early 
times - - Finian again journeyed into Italy 
and came to the city of Lucca, where his 
holiness procured him such regard from the 
people that they succeeded in obtaining his 
consecration as bishop of that city. It was 
during his residence there that the wonderful 
miracle occurred which St. Gregory the Great, 
who calls the saint " a man of rare virtue," 
relates in his book of Dialogues. This was the 
turning of the channel of the river Serchio, 
which had previously given much trouble to 
the citizens by overflowing its banks and spoil 
ing orchards and vineyards round about. The 
saint after prayer made a new channel with a 
small rake, and commanded the river to flow in 
that direction for the future, which it did. He 
is known in Italy as St. Frigidian. 

At one time in his life this saint dwelt in the 



54 MARCH 

Cunningham district of Ayrshire, where his 
name survives in the Abbey of Kilwinning 
(Church of Wynnin or Finian). He is said to 
have come there from Ireland with a few com 
panions and to have established monastic life in 
that place, which was afterwards the site of a 
famous Benedictine Abbey. A like miracle is 
related of him here. He is said to have 
changed the course of the river Garnoch. He 
seems to have preached the Faith at Dairy, in 
Ayrshire, also ; for a hill hard by is called 
Caer-winning, and there, as at Kilwinning, is a 
holy well bearing the saint s name. An annual 
fair, still known as " St. Wynnin V is held at 
Kilwinning. 

The saint departed this life at Lucca, where 
his body is venerated in the church of St. 
Frigidian. His feast occurs in March in some 
calendars, and in others in September. By 
some writers the names of Finian, Wynnin, and 
Frigidian have been considered as representing 
distinct persons ; but modern research has pro 
nounced them to be merely different forms of 
the same name and to refer to the same saint. 



MARCH 55 

30 St, Olaf or Clave, King and Martyr, 
A.D. 1030. 

HE was the son of Harald, King of Norway, 
and became a Christian at an early age. Exiled 
from his country after his father s death by 
powerful enemies, he spent many years of his 
life in piratical warfare. Having embraced the 
Christian Faith himself, he resolved to deliver 
his country from the usurping power of the 
Swedes and Danes, and establish the Christian 
religion, together with his own lawful sovereignty. 
Success crowned his efforts, and he was enabled 
to release his people not only from foreign 
domination but also from the thralls of paganism, 
many of them embracing Christianity. His 
enemies, however, proved too strong for him, 
and he was again exiled and took refuge in 
Russia. Returning soon after, he raised an 
army to recover his kingdom, but was slain by 
his infidel and rebellious subjects in a battle at 
Drontheim. 

A just and brave ruler, zealous for the 
Christian religion, though not altogether free 
from grievous offences against its laws, Olaf, by 
his unswerving faith, his devotion and penance, 



56 MARCH 

won the title of saint and martyr. He was 
buried at Drontheim, and a magnificent cathe 
dral arose over his remains. His body was 
found incorrupt in 1098, and again in 1541 
when the shrine was plundered by the Lutherans. 
On that occasion the heretics treated the body 
with respect, and it was afterwards re-interred. 
Many miracles have attested his sanctity. 

St. Olaf s efforts for the spread of the Gospel 
in the Orkneys, which at that time belonged to 
Norway, were doubtless the cause of the 
devotion which was shown to him in Scotland. 
Many traces of its existence are to be found in 
the dedications to him. In Orkney was 
anciently St. Ollow s parish ; it is now com 
prised in that of Kirkwall. In the latter town 
is St. Ollowe s Bridge. South-west of Girlsta, 
in Shetland, is Whiteness, where once stood the 
Church of St. Olla. He was honoured at 
Grease in the Island of Lewis. Kirk of Cruden 
(Aberdeenshire), where St. Ole s Fair was held 
annually, was dedicated to him. The remains 
of the saint s ancient chapel, said to have been 
founded there by Canute, were used for road 
metal in 1837. St. Olla s Fair, at Kirkwall, 



APRIL 57 

lasting for fourteen days, is described in Scott s 
Pirate. In St. Salvator s College, St. Andrews, 
was an altar to this saint. St. Olaf appears in 
the Martyrology on July 29th, when his feast 
was kept in Norway and all Scandinavian 
countries. In Scotland, however, he was 
honoured on this day. 

APRIL 

1 St. Gilbert, Bishop, A.D. 1245. 
ST. GILBERT was the last Scotsman who was 
honoured as a saint before the Reformation. 
He belonged to the noble family of Moray, 
being son of William, Lord of Dufus. Having 
entered the ecclesiastical state he became in due 
time Archdeacon of Moray, and when the see 
of Caithness became vacant he was consecrated 
bishop of that diocese. During the twenty 
years he ruled the church of Caithness he edified 
all by his zeal and by the virtues of his private 
life. 

The cathedral at that time was but a small, 
insignificant church at Dornoch, dedicated to 
St. Finbar, an Irish saint of the sixth century 



58 APRIL 

who laboured as a missionary in Scotland. The 
poverty of the diocese and the unsettled state of 
the times had prevented any extension of this. 
Gilbert therefore resolved to provide at his own 
cost a more worthy edifice for the mother- 
church of the diocese. The church when com 
pleted was a beautiful Early English structure, 
with aisles, transepts, and central tower and 
spire. The holy bishop considered it a privi 
lege to help with his own hands in the building 
work. He would himself superintend the 
making of glass for the windows in the glass 
works he had established at Sideray. 

When the cathedral was finished, St. Gil 
bert s next care was to form a Chapter, as 
hitherto there had been no canons. In this 
important undertaking he followed the model of 
Lincoln Cathedral and established the rite of 
that church in the ceremonial of the services. 
The dignitaries and canons were ten in number, 
and there were also sufficient vicars choral, or 
minor ecclesiastics, to enable the sacred offices 
to be celebrated with becoming solemnity. 

St. Gilbert worked many miracles during 
life ; among them is recorded the bestowal of 



APRIL 59 

speech on a dumb man by means of prayer and 
the sign of the cross. The saint was laid to 
rest under the central spire of his cathedral, and 
a century after his death the dedication, which 
had previously been to St. Mary, had been 
changed to St. Mary and St. Gilbert. 

The relics of the saint were greatly honoured 
in Catholic ages. No trace of St. Gilbert s 
resting-place remains now except a portion of a 
broken statue which probably formed part of 
it ; like those of so many of our holy ones, his 
ashes are left unhonoured in the desecrated 
church wherein they repose. St. Gilbert s 
Fair was formerly held annually at Dornoch ; 
it lasted for three days. 

2 St. Ebba, Virgin and Abbess, and her 
Companions, Martyrs, A.D. 870. 

THE monastery of Coldingham, in the ancient 
kingdom of Northumbria, founded in the 
seventh century by St. Ebba, sister of the kings 
Oswald and Oswy, was governed in the ninth 
century by another Ebba, who presided over a 
band of holy virgins following the Rule of St. 
Benedict. About the year 867 several thousand 



60 APRIL 

Danish warriors, under the command of the 
brothers Hinguar and Hubba, landed on the 
coast of East Anglia and desolated the whole 
north country. When Abbess Ebba received 
tidings of the near approach of the pagan hordes, 
who had already wrecked vengeance upon 
ecclesiastics, monks, and consecrated virgins, she 
summoned her nuns to Chapter, and in a 
moving discourse exhorted them to preserve at 
any cost the treasure of their chastity. Then 
seizing a razor, and calling upon her daughters 
to follow her heroic example, she mutilated her 
face in order to inspire the barbarian invaders 
with horror at the sight. The nuns without 
exception courageously followed the example of 
their abbess. When the Danes broke into the 
cloister and saw the nuns with faces thus dis 
figured, they fled in panic. Their leaders, 
burning with rage, sent back some of their 
number to set fire to the monastery, and thus the 
heroic martyrs perished in the common ruin of 
their house. Some chronicles give the 23rd 
August as the day of their martyrdom, but 
Scottish writers assign this as their feast day. 



APRIL 61 

4 St. Gonval, Ring, A.D. 824. 
SOME Scottish historians speak of this good 
king as an example of piety and respect for the 
Church and her ordinances. He is said to 
have received the commendation of St. 
Columba. His name occurs in the ancient 
Litany known as that of Dunkeld, formerly in 
use among the Culdees. 

11 St. Macceus or Mahew, A.D. (about) 460. 
HE is said to have been a disciple of St. 
Patrick, and spent the greater part of his life in 
retirement in the Isle of Bute. No particulars 
of his life can be ascertained. St. Mahew was 
honoured at Kilmahew near Dumbarton. In 
1 467 a new chapel and cemetery, dedicated to 
this saint, were consecrated there by George, 
Bishop of Argyle. 

St. Mechtilde or Matilda, Virgin, 13th century. 
ACCORDING to some Scottish historians, two 
members of the royal family resigned all the 
honours and dignities belonging to their state 
and left their native country to serve God in 
poverty and obscurity. These were a brother 
and sister, bearing the names of Alexander and 



62 APRIL 

Matilda, the latter being the elder. It is not 
clear which of the kings of Scotland was their 
relative. Alexander, having concealed his 
origin, became a lay-brother in the Cistercian 
monastery of Foigni, in the diocese of Laon, 
where he died in 1 229. His sister, taking 
leave of him at the gates of the monastery, took 
up her abode in a small hut about ten miles 
distant. Here she spent a long life in dire 
poverty and austerity. She would refuse all 
alms, working laboriously for her daily susten 
ance, and spending all the time that remained 
in prayer and contemplation. Miracles are 
said to have proved her power with God, both 
during her lifetime and after her happy death, 
which took place some years after that of her 
brother. 

16 St. Magnus, Martyr, A.D. 1116. 

THE noble Cathedral of Kirkwall rose over the 
tomb of St. Magnus one of the most popular 
of the pre- Reformation saints of Scotland. It 
was founded by the nephew of the martyr, 
twenty years after he suffered, and to it were 
translated the remains of St. Magnus, which 



APRIL 63 

had hitherto reposed in a more humble sanc 
tuary at Birsay. In all probability they still 
rest undisturbed in the cathedral which bears 
the name of the saint. 

Like many of the early English saints, 
Magnus received the title of martyr rather 
from the popular voice than by the decision of 
ecclesiastical authority. As his story shows, he 
merited the title by shedding his blood not so 
much in defence of the Christian Faith as in 
behalf of the virtues of a Christian life, whose 
brilliancy excited the jealous anger of his 
enemies. 

St. Magnus was the son of Erlin, Earl of 
Orkney. He was distinguished from childhood 
by an uprightness of life which indicated his 
future sanctity. Erlin was opposed by Magnus 
Barefoot, King of Norway, who made him 
prisoner and seized his possessions, carrying off 
the young Magnus to act as his personal 
attendant. After ravaging the Western Isles 
the Norwegian king encountered, off the Island 
of Anglesey, the forces of the Norman Earls of 
Chester and Shrewsbury, and defeated them 
with much slaughter. The young Magnus 



64 APRIL 

refused to take any part in the unjust warfare, 
and remained in his ship engaged in prayer 
throughout the battle. He was soon after able 
to escape to the court of Malcolm III, where 
he remained for some time in safety. 

Magnus bitterly lamented for the rest of his 
days the excesses into which he had fallen in 
the life of constant warfare and strife which had 
been his lot with the Norwegians ; whatever 
their guilt may have been, it was his constant 
endeavour to atone for them by penance and 
prayer. 

The family possessions in the Orkneys were 
regained on the death of Barefoot, but fresh 
contests were stirred up when Haco, cousin of 
St. Magnus, laid claim to them for himself. 
To avoid bloodshed St. Magnus agreed to a 
meeting with Haco in the island of Egilshay 
that thus the dispute might be settled in a 
friendly manner. Haco, however, was a 
traitor ; and caused his own forces to be drawn 
round the unarmed Magnus to compass his 
destruction. The latter, made aware of the 
treachery, and unable to make any defence, 
prepared for his conflict by a night of prayer in 



APRIL 65 

the church, and the reception of the Sacraments. 
Then, when morning dawned, he advanced 
courageously to confront his murderers, and 
met a barbarous death with Christian fortitude. 
The only Catholic cathedral in Scotland 
which remains entire still shelters the body of a 
saint. It may be that God has spared it to 
restore it to Catholic worship through the 
merits of St. Magnus. The feast, known in 
the Middle Ages as " Magnusmas," was restored 
by Pope Leo XIII. His fair was formerly 
held at Watten- Wester in Caithness. A holy 
well at Birsay, in Orkney, bears his name. 

17 St. Donnan and Companions, Martyrs, 
A.D. 617. 

LIKE St. Columba, whose countryman he was, 
St. Donnan left his native Ireland and passed 
over to Scotland, where he established a 
monastery on the Island of Eigg, one of the 
Inner Hebrides. While celebrating the Holy 
Mysteries on Easter morning the abbot and 
his monks were surprised by a horde of pirates, 
possibly Danes, who had been instigated by a 
malicious woman to put them to death. At 
F 



66 APRIL 

the prayer of the monks they granted them a 
respite till Mass was finished, and then put 
them all to the sword. The martyrs numbered 
fifty-three. 

Many churches, especially in the west, bore 
St. Donnan s dedication. Among them were 
Kildonan of Eigg, Arran, South Uist, Kintyre, 
and Lochbroom. On the island of his martyr 
dom is the saint s well. St. Donnan s abbatial 
staff existed up to the Reformation ; it was 
treasured at Auchterless, Aberdeenshire, where 
" Donan Fair" was held as late as 1851. 
Another fair used to be held at Kildonan, in 
Sutherlandshire. The feast of these martyrs 
was restored to the Scottish Calendar by Leo 
XI 1 1 in 1898. 

18 St. Laserian OP Molios, Abbot, A.D. 639. 
THIS saint was of princely race in Ireland. 
He seems to have been brought to Scotland at 
an early age, and to have been sent to Ireland 
for his education. Later on he returned to 
Scotland for a life of sanctity and solitude. A 
small island in the bay of Lamlash, off the 
coast of Arran, became his abode for many 



APRIL 67 

years. His virtues gave it the name it still 
bears of Holy Island. 

St. Laserian seems to have made a pilgrimage 
to Rome, where he was raised to the priest 
hood. Returning to Ireland, he afterwards be 
came abbot of the monastery of Leighlin. He 
is said to have espoused with much zeal the 
Roman usage with regard to Easter. 

In Holy Island, which was so long his soli 
tary abode, are still to be seen traces of his 
residence. A cave scooped out of the rock 
bears his name, and a rocky ledge is called " St. 
Molio s Bed." A spring of clear water near 
the cave is also pointed out as the saint s 
well, and miraculous properties have been 
attributed to it. The cave itself is marked 
with many pilgrims crosses. 

21 St. Maelrubha, Abbot, A.D. 722. 
HE was born of noble race in Ireland, and in 
early life began his monastic life under the rule 
of his relative, St. Comgal, at Bangor. When 
he reached the age of twenty-nine he passed 
over the sea to Scotland, and founded at 
Applecross, in Ross, a monastery, over which 



68 APRIL 

he ruled for more than fifty years. During his 
residence in Scotland he founded a church on a 
small island in the beautiful lake now known as 
Loch Maree, which takes its name from this 
saint. 

St. Maelrubha acquired a great reputation 
for sanctity throughout the west coast of Scot 
land and the islands adjacent, where he was one 
of the most popular of the Irish saints in 
Catholic ages. An old Scottish tradition, 
quoted by the Aberdeen Breviary, says that 
he met his death at the hands of pagan Nor 
wegians, at Urquhart, in the Black Isle, on the 
eastern side of Ross-shire, and that he was left 
lying severely wounded, but still alive, for three 
days, during which angels consoled him. A 
bright light, hovering over the spot, is said to 
have discovered the dying saint to a neighbour 
ing priest, and thus procured for him the parti 
cipation in " the Body of the Immaculate 
Lamb" before he expired. His title to martyr 
dom is, however, disputed by later authorities. 

The devotion of Catholics to this saint is 
attested by the numerous dedications of churches 
to his memory. At least twenty-one of these 



APRIL 69 

are enumerated by antiquarians. Chief are 
Applecross (where he was laid to rest), Loch 
Maree, Urquhart (the reputed place of his 
martyrdom), Portree, Arasaig, Forres, Fordyce, 
Keith, Contin and Gairloch. In these dedi 
cations the saint s name assumes various forms, 
such as Maree, Mulruy, Mury, Samareirs (St. 
Mareirs, at Forres), Summaruff (St. Maruff, at 
Fordyce), and many others. 

Many place of interest in connection with 
this saint may still be found. At Applecross, 
in the vicinity of the ruins of the church, is 
the martyr s grave, called Cladh Maree , 
near the churchyard is " Maelrubha s River, * 
while two miles away is the saint s seat, called 
in Gaelic Suidhe Maree. Several other traces 
of him are to be discovered in the place-names 
of the neighbourhood. 

Loch Maree is the most interesting locality 
connected with St. Maelrubha. A small island 
in the loch called Innis Maree contains an 
ancient chapel and a burial place. Near it is a 
deep well, renowned for the efficacy of its 
water in the cure of lunacy. An oak tree hard 
by is studded with nails, to each of which was 



70 APRIL 

formerly attached a shred of clothing belonging 
to some pilgrim visitor. Many pennies and 
other coins have at various times been driven 
edgewise into the bark of the tree, and it is 
fast closing over them. These are the Protestant 
equivalents to votive offerings at the shrine. 

At Forres, in Moray, an annual fair was 
held on this day, as also at Fordyce, Pitlessie 
(Fife), and Lairg (Sutherland) at the latter 
place under the name of St. Murie. Keith in 
Banffshire was formerly known as Kethmalruf, 
or " Keith of Maelrubha." At Contin, near 
Dingwall, the ancient church was dedicated to 
the saint ; its annual fair called Feille Maree, 
and familiarly known as the "August Market," 
was transferred to Dingwall. Many other 
memorials of this saint are to be found in Ross- 
shire. It is worthy of note that many dedica 
tions formerly supposed to be in honour of Our 
Lady are now identified as those of St. Mael 
rubha under the title of Maree ; this is proved 
by the traditional pronunciation of their respec 
tive names. 

St. Maelrubha is one of the Scottish saints 
whose cultus was approved by Rome in 1 898, 



APRIL 71 

and whose feast has been consequently restored 
in many of the Scottish dioceses. It was 
formerly observed in Scotland on August 27, 
but has been always kept in Ireland on this day. 

2i St. Egbert, Priest and Monk, A.D. 729. 

HE was an Englishman of good family, who, 
after some years of study in the monastery of 
Lindisfarne, followed the almost universal custom 
of those days and passed over to Ireland, then 
renowned for its monastic schools, entering the 
monastery of Melfont. During his stay there a 
pestilence broke out which carried off a great 
number of the inmates. Egbert prayed earnestly 
to be spared that he might live a life of penance, 
making a vow never more to return to England, 
to recite daily the whole psalter in addition to 
the canonical hours, and to fast from all food 
one day in each week for the rest of his life. 
His vow was accepted and his life spared. 

After some years Egbert was raised to the 
priesthood, and his zeal for souls led him to 
desire to preach the faith to the pagan people 
of that part of Germany then known as Fries- 
land, In this project he was joined by some 



72 APRIL 

of his pious companions. A vessel had been 
chartered, and all things were ready, when 
it was revealed to Egbert through a holy monk 
that God had other designs in his regard ; in 
obedience to this intimation the voyage was at 
once abandoned. 

The later life of Egbert exemplifies the way 
in which God chooses and preserves the instru 
ments for accomplishing His Will. Entering 
the monastery of lona when already advanced 
in years, he spent the last thirteen years of his 
life in untiring efforts to induce the monks to 
give up the Celtic traditions to which they 
clung, and to conform to the Roman computa 
tion of Easter. His sweetness and gentleness 
were at last rewarded. On Easter Day 729 
he passed away at the ripe age of ninety, 
"rejoicing," as St. Bede says, "that he had 
been detained here long enough to see them 
keep the feast with him on that day, which 
before they had always avoided." 

Though the monks of lona did not then, as a 
body, accept the Roman custom, yet the seeds 
sown by Egbert bore fruit eventually in com 
plete conformity with the rest of the Church, 



APRIL 73 

St. Egbert thus merits a high place among 
the saints of Scotland, although but a short 
period of his life was spent in the country. He 
also shares with St. Willibrord the renown of 
converting Friesland to the Faith ; for it was by 
his example and persuasion that the latter was 
induced to undertake the work which terminated 
so successfully. On account of his connection 
with the conversion of the country, the feast of 
St. Egbert was formerly celebrated in the 
diocese of Utrecht. Some authors maintain 
that St. Egbert never took monastic vows, but 
was a priest living in the monastery ; others say, 
and with good reason, that he was a bishop. 

25 St. Cunibert, Bishop, A.D. 699. 
THIS saint was entrusted by his parents for his 
education to some monks living in a monastery 
near the Tay, whose site cannot now be 
identified. He became a priest, and afterwards 
bishop. Towards the end of his days he 
retired into solitude as a hermit, and thus 
finished his earthly course. 

St. Machalus, Bishop, A.D. 498. 
HE was a bishop in the Isle of Man, which 



74 APRIL 

then formed part of Scotland. His name is 
variously written as Machalus, Machella, and 
Mauchold. One of the parishes in the island 
bears his name, and in the churchyard is the 
saint s holy well. A ledge of rock hard by is 
called his "chair" ; it used to be a favourite 
devotion of pilgrims to seat themselves on this 
ledge while drinking the miraculous water of 
the well and invoking the saint s aid. The 
water is said to have been effective in preventing 
the action of poison. Many churches in Scot 
land are called by his name. There was a 
chapel near Chapeltown in Banffshire known as 
Kilmaichlie, which seems to refer to this saint. 
A holy well is still to be found in the vicinity. 

29 St. Middan, Bishop. 

VERY little is known of this saint. Some think 
him to be identical with St. Madden or Medan, 
who was honoured at Airlie, in Angus. Near 
the church of Airlie is a spring called by the 
name of St. Medan, and a hillock hard by is 
known as " St. Medan s Knowe." The bell of 
the saint was also preserved there till it was sold 
for old iron during the last century. Eccles- 



APRIL 75 

maldie, now called Inglismaldie, in the Mearns, 
has also a " Maidie Well," which may possibly 
be connected with St. Middan. 

30 St. Brioc, Bishop, A.D. 500. 
THIS saint was British by birth. He became 
a disciple of St. Germanus and devoted himself 
to preaching the Gospel to his fellow-country 
men. Flying for his life from the fury of the 
pagan Saxons, he passed over the sea to 
Brittany, and there built a monastery on the sea 
coast which was afterwards called by his name. 
The town which grew up in the vicinity became 
the seat of a bishop, and is still known as St. 
Brieuc. 

There is no record of the saint having visited 
Scotland, but there was much devotion to him 
among Celtic peoples, and Scottish dedications 
bear witness to the honour in which he was 
held in that country. He is the patron of 
Rothesay ; the church bore the designation of 
St. Mary and St. Brioc, and "St. Brock s 
Fair " was held there on the first Wednesday 
in May. " Brux day fair," which seems to 
refer to this saint, was instituted in 1 565 to be 



76 MAY 

held in July every year on the island of Cum- 
brae, but it has long ceased to be kept. Dunrod 
Church, in Kirkcudbright, bears the dedication 
of St. Mary and St. Brioc. The island of 
Inchbrayock in the Esk, near Montrose, is 
called after him. The French keep his feast 
on May 1 st, but in Scotland it was celebrated 
on April 30th. 



MAY 

1 St, Asaph, Bishop, A,D. (about) 590. 
ST. ASAPH was one of the most eminent of 
the disciples of St. Mungo (Kentigern). When 
the latter was driven from Scotland he took 
refuge in Wales and there founded a monastery, 
which attracted a great number of disciples 
desirous of placing themselves under his guidance. 
It was to Asaph that St. Mungo resigned the 
government when he himself was allowed to 
return to Glasgow. Owing to the sanctity and 
renown of the new abbot the monastery eventu 
ally bore his name. St. Asaph was consecrated 
Bishop about A.D. 650, and his diocese has 



MAY 77 

retained the name of St. Asaph s for thirteen 
centuries. Some writers have maintained that 
St. Asaph accompanied his master to Scotland, 
but it seems more probable that Scottish devotion 
to him originated in his close connection with 
the "beloved" saint of Glasgow. Many traces 
of this devotion still survive. In the island of 
Skye is a ruined chapel dedicated to him 
called "Asheg." In that island is also an 
excellent spring of clear water known as Tobar 
Asheg, or St. Asaph s Well. Kilassie, an old 
burial ground near Loch Rannoch, also takes its 
name from him. 

The most interesting of these remains is a 
ruin in the island of Bearnarey, in the Sound of 
Harris. It is evidently a chapel of the saint and 
is called Cill Aisaim. Near it once stood an 
obelisk about eight feet high, bearing sculptured 
symbols, and in comparatively recent years this 
was surrounded by heaps of coloured pebbles, 
coins, bone pins, and bronze needles, which 
were probably pilgrims offerings. The obelisk 
was broken up some years ago and its materials 
used for building, but a Scottish antiquarian 
managed to gain possession of a fragment. 



78 MAY 

3 St. Fumac. 

THIS was a saint specially venerated in Banff - 
shire. He was the patron of Botriphnie or 
"Fumac Kirk" in that county. According to 
an old MS. of the eighteenth century, the 
wooden image of the saint was formerly pre 
served there, and the old woman who acted as 
its custodian used to wash it with all due 
solemnity in St. Fumac s Well on the 3rd of 
May annually. This image was in existence in 
1847, but a flood of the Isla swept it away to 
Banff, where the parish minister in his Protestant 
zeal burnt it. St. Fumac s Fair was kept on 
this day at Botriphnie and also at Dinet, in 
Caithness, and Chapel of Dine, Watten, in the 
same county. 

9 St. Comgall, Abbot, A.D. 602. 
HE was a native of Ireland, and founder and 
ruler of the renowned monastery of Bangor, 
where he is said to have governed no less than 
three thousand monks. In the year 598, 
anxious, like so many of his countrymen, to 
bring the blessing of the Christian Faith to 
Scotland, he left his native land to found a 



MAY 79 

monastery in Tiree. He was a great friend of 
St. Columba, and was one of that saint s com 
panions in the journey to Inverness and the 
miraculous conversion of King Brude. St. 
Comgall did not remain permanently in Scot 
land ; he died in Ireland, and was laid to rest 
at Bangor. The date of his death is given by 
Irish authorities as the 1 Oth of May, but his 
feast has always been celebrated in Scotland on 
the 9th. The church of Durris, Kincardine- 
shire, bore his name, and an annual fair, the 
only remains of his festival in Protestant times, 
was formerly held there on this day. 

16 St. Brendan or Brandan, Abbot, A.D. 577. 
HE was born in Ireland, and in early youth 
became the disciple of St. Jarlaath, of Tuam. 
He afterwards crossed over to Britain, and 
spent some years in the Abbey of Llancarvan, 
in Glamorganshire, where he is said to have 
baptised Machutus, whose name (under the 
French form of Malo), is cherished still as that 
of one of the apostles of Brittany. 

Returning to Ireland, St. Brendan founded 
several monasteries, the most important of them 



80 MAY 

being that of Clonfert, on the Shannon. He is 
said to have had as many as three thousand 
monks under him in his various foundations. 
The saint was also closely connected with 
Scotland, where he founded monasteries ; it is 
thought that one was in Bute and the other in 
Tiree. His many dedications are an indication 
of Scottish devotion to him, Kilbrannan (Church 
of St. Brandan) in Mull, Kilbrandon in the Isle 
of Seil, Boyndie in Banffshire, Birnie in Moray 
and Kilbirnb in Ayrshire (where the saint s 
fair is held on May 28th 1 6th old style) are 
some of these. At Kilbirnie is St. Birnie s 
Well ; another named after this saint is in 
Barra. Another fair, granted in 1474, was 
held on this day at Inverary (Argyllshire). 
There is a ruined chapel bearing his name on 
St. Kilda. 

St. Brendan s name is associated with wonder 
ful narratives probably dating long after his 
time of his voyages towards the west ; they 
possibly contain some little truth mixed up 
with much that is entirely fabulous. It is 
beyond doubt that St. Brendan and his com 
panions in their missionary voyages sailed to 



MAY 81 

regions hitherto unknown to the mariners of the 
time ; it has even been maintained that they 
actually touched the American shore. However 
this may be, the tradition of the discoveries of the 
saint, familiar to every country in Europe, kept 
in mind the possibly existing western land, and 
issued at last in the discovery of the American 
continent by Columbus. 

A curious custom in connection with St. 
Brendan existed up to almost recent times. 
When they wished for a favourable wind the 
fishermen would cry repeatedly : Brainuilt ! 
The word seems to be a contraction of Brea- 
nainn-Sheoladair (* Brendan the Voyager"), 
and was originally an invocation of the saint. 
The feast of St. Brendan has been restored to 
the Scottish Calendar. 

17 St. Gathan, Bishop, 6th century. 
THIS saint was probably of Irish nationality. 
He dwelt for the greater part of his life in the 
Island of Bute. St. Blaan, whose ruined 
chapel is still to be seen in Kingarth parish in 
that island, was his nephew. No particulars of 
the life of St. Cathan remain to us. His name 
G 



82 MAY 

survives in Kilchatten village, mill and bay, in 
Kingarth parish, and a hill near is called St. 
Cathan s Seat. There is another Kilchattan in 
Luing Island, Argyllshire, and in the same 
county is Ardchattan. Churches were dedi 
cated to the saint in the islands of Gigha and 
Colonsay. The confederation of clans known 
as Clan Chattan is thought to have originated in 
Bute, and to have taken its name from St. Cathan. 
Gillichattan and Macgillichattan are charac 
teristic names belonging to Clan Chattan ; the 
latter was common in Bute in the 1 7th century. 
They signify respectively " Servant of Cathan " 
and " Son of the servant of Cathan." 

18 8t, Mcrolilanus, Martyr, 8th century. 
HE was a holy priest, probably from Ireland, 
who was killed by robbers when passing through 
France on a pilgrimage to Rome. His body 
was buried at Rheims, and remained unknown 
and unhonoured for many years. Miracles at 
length revealed the saint s tomb, and his body 
was found on examination to be entire and 
fresh, exhaling a delicious odour. The sacred 
remains were afterwards translated to the 



MAY 83 

Church of St. Symphorien in the same city. 
In 1618 the Cardinal- Archbishop of Rheims 
presented an arm-bone of the saint to the Scots 
College in Rome. It was removed for safety 
to the Vatican Treasury when the college was 
closed during the French occupation of Rome. 
Through the good offices of the Right Rev. 
Bishop Pifferi, the Papal sacristan, the relic 
was restored to the college in 1 893. A notable 
relic of this saint was obtained from Rheims by 
the Abbey of Fort-Augustus and is now 
honoured there. There is no other record of 
the saint s connection with Scotland. 

St. Conval, Confessor, A.D. (about) 612. 
THIS saint was born in Ireland, but crossed 
over to Scotland in his youth to become the 
disciple of St. Kentigern. An old legend re 
lates that, as no vessel could be procured for 
his voyage, ne was miraculously conveyed across 
the channel upon a large stone, this stone after 
wards becoming an instrument of healing to the 
sick who touched it. St. Conval s relics were 
honoured at Inchinnan on the Clyde. He was 
patron of the old church of Pollokshaws or 



84 MAY 

Polloc-on-the-Shaws ; with regard to the name 
of this parish, Shaw in old Scottish meant " a 
grove." The Shaws Fair probably the 
patronal feast of the church was formerly held 
on the last Friday in May every year. This 
saint was also the patron of the churches of 
Cumnock and Ochiltree, as ancient documents 
attest. Many miracles have been attributed to 
him. It seems probable that the chapel known 
as St. Conall s, at Ferrenese in Renfrewshire, 
whose ruins still remain, and the holy well hard 
by, were named after St. Conval ; the designa 
tion (often written Conual) might easily become 
corrupted to Connal in the course of centuries. 
The land belonging to this chapel became in 
the sixteenth century part of the endowment of 
a collegiate church founded at Lochwinnoch by 
Lord Sempill. 

23 St. William, Martyr, A.D. (about) 1201. 

IT is a fact, unknown perhaps to many, that St. 
William, whose shrine in Rochester Cathedral 
was the object of great devotion in Catholic 
ages, must be reckoned among Scottish saints. 
He was a native of Perth, and for many years 



MAY 85 

followed the trade of baker. In his youth he 
fell into careless and irreligious ways ; but being 
converted he began to be zealous in good works. 
He became especially remarkable for his charity 
to the poor, bestowing upon them in alms a 
tenth part of all the bread he made. 

To satisfy his devotion he started on a pilgrim 
age to Jerusalem, taking as his companion a 
youth whom he had found in the streets, as an 
infant deserted by his mother, and whom he 
had carried home and brought up as his own 
son. 

The two made their way through England, 
and having passed through Rochester were on 
their road to Canterbury, when the youth, led 
by avarice, yielded to the temptation to murder 
and rob his benefactor. Striking the saint a 
blow on the head from behind, he afterwards 
despatched him with an axe, and then made off 
with his booty. 

The dead body remained for some days lying 
off the road, when it was discovered by a mad 
woman who was roaming about there. In 
insane sport she crowned the head with flowers, 
and afterwards transferred the wreath to her 



86 MAY 

own brow, when she was instantly restored to 
sanity. The miracle becoming known, the 
sacred remains were reverently laid to rest in 
Rochester Cathedral. The tomb of the saint 
soon became famous on account of the numerous 
graces obtained there through prayer. After 
his canonization by Innocent IV in 1 256, pil 
grimages to Rochester grew more and more 
frequent, and to this day may be seen the 
steps worn hollow by the constant press of 
pilgrims to the shrine. So generous were their 
offerings that they sufficed to rebuild the choir 
and transepts of the cathedral. 

This day is probably the anniversary of the 
finding of St. William s relics. 

29 St, Daganus, Bishop, A.D. (about) 609. 
THIS saint was honoured in Galloway. St. 
Bede mentions him as a zealous opponent to 
the introduction into the Celtic Church of the 
Roman computation of Easter. This, however, 
does not militate against the sanctity of his life ; 
for the Holy See had not yet definitely set the 
matter at rest, and he was therefore free to cling 
to the rite so long observed in his native country. 
His name occurs in the Dunkeld Litany. 



JUNE 

3 St. Kevin or CoiYin, Abbot, A,D. 618. 
THIS Irish saint has been compared by ancient 
writers to St. Paul the Hermit, on account of 
his holiness of life. He founded the celebrated 
monastery of Glendalough, in Wicklow County ; 
it became in after ages a bishop s see. He 
lived to the age of 1 20 years. 

St. Kevin was greatly honoured in Scotland 
as well as in his native country. It is said, that 
he lived for a time in Scotland. Traces of a 
devotion to him are certainly found in the 
western part of the country. In the parish of 
Southend, Argyllshire, are the remains of a 
small building called St. Coivin s Chapel. Kil- 
kivan (in the parish of Campbelltown) is named 
after him, and a cave there is known as "St. 
Kevin s Bed." 

6 St. Colmoc or Colman, Bishop, A.D. 500, 

HE was an Irish saint, who became Bishop of 
Dromore, and was renowned for miracles. 
There is no record of St. Colmoc having ever 



88 JUNE 

lived in Scotland, but Scottish writers number 
him among the saints of the country, and the 
dedications still existing in his honour show 
that he had some connection with that kingdom. 
The monastery of Inchmahome, for instance, a 
priory of Austin Canons on an island in the 
Lake of Monteith, Perthshire, is named after him. 
Another dedication is Kilmochalmaig, the site 
of an ancient church on the west coast of Bute. 
The remains of a pillar with a sculptured cross 
may still be seen there. Portmahomack in 
Tarbet, Easter- Ross, refers either to this saint 
or to St. Colman, patron of the church of 
Tarbet (see February 18). A chapel in the 
burial-ground of Kirriemuir (Forfarshire) bore 
the name of St. Colmoc. 

9 St. Colum Cille or Columba, Abbot,A. D.597, 
THE apostle of the northern regions of Scot 
land was born in Ireland in A.D. 521. Both 
father and mother were of royal race. Though 
offered the crown of his native province, 
Columba preferred rather to enrol himself in the 
monastic state. He studied in the schools of 
Moviile, Clonard, and Glasnevin, and in course 



JUNE 89 

of time was ordained priest. At twenty-five 
years of age he founded his first monastery at 
Derry ; this was to be the precursor of the 
hundred foundations which Ireland owed to his 
zeal and energy. In these monasteries the 
transcription of the Holy Scriptures formed the 
chief labour of the inmates, and so much did 
Columba love the work that he actually wrote 
three hundred manuscripts of the Gospels and 
Psalms with his own hand. 

But Columba was not destined to remain in 
Ireland. From his earliest years he had looked 
forward to the time when he might devote him 
self to missionary efforts for the benefit of those 
who knew not the Christian faith. In the 
forty-second year of his age he exiled himself 
voluntarily from his beloved country to preach 
the Gospel to the pagan Picts. The story of 
his having been banished from Ireland for using 
his influence to bring about a bloody conflict 
between chieftains is rejected by the greatest 
modern historians as a fable. Early writers 
speak of the saint as a man of mild and gentle 
nature. 

On Whit Sunday, A.D. 563, St. Columba 



90 JUNE 

landed with twelve companions on the bleak, 
unsheltered island off the coast of Argyll, known 
as Hii-Coluim-Cille or lona. For thirty-four 
years the saint and his helpers laboured with 
such success, that through their efforts churches 
and centres of learning sprang up everywhere, 
both on the mainland and the adjacent islands. 
lona became the centre whence the Faith was 
diffused throughout the country north of the 
Grampians. The monastic missionaries were 
untiring in their efforts. They penetrated even 
to Orkney and Shetland. 

On Sunday, June 9, A.D. 597, St. Columba 
was called to his reward. He died in the 
church, kneeling before the altar and surrounded 
by his religious brethren. His remains, first laid 
to rest at lona, were afterwards carried over 
to Ireland and enshrined in the Cathedral of 
Down by the side of those of St. Patrick and 
St. Bridget. All these relics perished when 
the cathedral was burned by Henry VIITs 
soldiers. 

St. Columba was a man of singular purity of 
mind, boundless love for souls, and a gentle, 
winning nature which drew men irresistibly to 



JUNE 91 

God. His labours were furthered by Divine 
assistance, which was evidenced by numerous 
miracles. Among the saints of Scotland he 
takes a foremost rank, and in Catholic ages 
devotion to him was widespread. The churches 
dedicated to him are too numerous to mention. 
He himself founded no less than fifty during 
his residence in the land which he had chosen 
as the scene of his labours. Annual fairs were 
held on his feast at Aberdour (Fife), Dunkeld 
each for eight days Drymen (Stirlingshire), 
Largs (Argyllshire), and Fort- Augustus (Inver 
ness-shire). St. Columba s holy wells were very 
numerous, for an old Irish record relates of him : 
" He blessed three hundred wells which were 
constant." In Scotland they are to be traced 
at Birse (Aberdeenshire), Alvah and Portsoy 
( Banff shire) , I n vermoriston ( I n verness - shire), 
Calaverock ( Forf arshire ), Cambusnethan 
(Lanarkshire), Alness (Ross-shire), Kirkholm 
(Wigtonshire), and on the islands of Garvelloch, 
Eigg and lona. 

St. Baitan or Baithen, Abbot, A.D. 600. 
HE was cousin to St. Columba, and accom 
panied him from Ireland to Scotland. From 



92 JUNE 

his childhood he had been that saint s disciple 
and companion, and St. Columba had a special 
affection for him. He was appointed superior 
of the monastery established in Tiree, but at 
St. Columba s death succeeded him as Abbot 
of lona. There he remained only four years, 
death calling him away, as he had previously 
foretold to his monks, on the anniversary of 
their father and founder. St. Baitan was 
buried in St. Oran s Chapel on lona. His 
bell was still preserved in Donegal up to a few 
years since, and it was a common practice of 
devotion to drink from it. In the same district 
is St. Baitan s River, to which flocks and herds 
were brought to drink on the saint s festival. 

St. Baitan is said to have spent his time 
either in reading, praying, or serving his neigh 
bour. Even during meals he used constantly 
to implore the Divine aid in the words of the 
Psalmist : " O God, come to my assistance." 
During labour his mind was always raised to 
God. So mortified was he that it was said 
that the impression of his ribs through his 
woollen tunic used to mark the sandy beach of 
lona when he lay down to rest himself there. 



JUNE 93 

12 St. Ternan, Bishop, A.D. 431. 

THIS saint was born in the Mearns of noble 
parents. St. Palladius, who evangelised that 
district, is said to have been directed to the 
child by an angel, in order that he might ad 
minister baptism. Ternan grew up to manhood, 
embraced the clerical state, and in due time 
became a bishop. He is said to have fixed his 
residence at Abernethy, where he died. He 
was buried at the place now known as Banchory- 
Ternan, Kincardineshire, where a fair is still 
held annually on his festival. More than a 
thousand years after his death the head of the 
saint was venerated there by one who has 
testified to the existence at the time of the skin 
upon the skull in the part where it had received 
the episcopal consecration. Up to the Reforma 
tion two other valuable relics of the saint were 
preserved in that same church. One was the 
copy of St. Matthew s Gospel, which belonged 
to St. Ternan, encased in a cover adorned with 
gold and silver ; the other was the saint s bell. 
This latter is thought to have been identical 
with an ancient bell which was dug up near the 
present railway station at Banchory in the 



94 JUNE 

making of the line. It has unfortunately been 
lost sight of. 

The churches of Slains, in Aberdeenshire, 
and Arbuthnott and Upper Banchory, in the 
Mearns, were dedicated to St. Ternan. At 
Taransay, in Harris, and at Findon, in the 
Mearns, were chapels of the saint ; the latter 
place possessed a holy well called by his name, 
and there was another at Slains. 

20 St. Fillan ("The Leper"), 6th century. 

THIS saint was a native of Ireland, and is 
honoured in that country also on this day. 
Animated with the desire for solitude in a 
strange country, or else with missionary zeal, he 
passed over to Scotland and settled in the 
district known as Strathearn. No particulars 
of his life are known. 

Several remains speak of devotion shown 
to this holy man. The village of St. Fillans 
(Dundurn), in the parish of Comrie, was dedi 
cated to him, and from him took its name ; 
his holy well is there still. In the vicinity is a 
conical hill about 600 feet high, which is called 
Dunfillan. At the summit is a rock which goes 



JUNE 95 

by the name of " St. Fillan s Chair " ; from it 
he is said to have blessed the country round. 
The old church of Aberdour, Fifeshire, now in 
ruins, was named after St. Fillan. A well 
hard by, known as the Pilgrims Well, was 
renowned as late as the eighteenth century for 
curing diseases of the eye. It is thought to 
have been dedicated to the patron of the church. 
The hospital of St. Martha, for the benefit of 
pilgrims, was founded there in 1474, and was 
served by Sisters of the third Order of St. 
Francis from 1487 up to the Reformation. 

21 St. Cormac, Abbot, 6th century. 

ST. CORMAC was another Irish saint. From 
his early youth he followed a monastic life, and 
eventually became a disciple of St. Columba. 
In after years he became Abbot of Dearmagh, 
now known as Durrow, in King s County. This 
charge he resigned in order to give himself to 
missionary life. He had always been of a 
brave and enterprising nature, and more than 
once in his missionary career his zeal led him 
to venture on the high seas, in quest of some 
pagan land where he might preach the Faith, 



96 JUNE 

or of some desert region where he might live 
in closer communion with God. 

In one of his journeys he visited St. Columba 
at lona, and afterwards sailed as far as the 
Orkneys, where the pagan people were minded 
to put him to death. But one of the chiefs 
had long before made a solemn promise to St. 
Columba, who had seen in vision the coming 
of Cormac to the islands and his threatened 
death, that no harm should happen to him in 
the Orkneys. This intervention was successful. 

Neither the place nor time of St. Cormac s 
death is known with any certainty, but an 
ancient Irish tradition asserts that he returned 
to Durrow and was buried there. 

A fragment still exists of the "Crozier of 
Durrow", which is considered to be the most 
ancient relic of its kind now extant. It is 
believed to have belonged to the founder of 
Durrow, the great Columba, and to have been 
given by him to his disciple, Cormac. 

22 St. Suibhne, Abbot, A,D. 772. 
THIS saint was the sixteenth Abbot of lona. 
There had been before him another abbot of 



JUNE 97 

the same name. Suibhne, pronounced "Swee 
ney", is identical with an Irish appellation not 
uncommon in our day. 

25 St. Moluag or Lughaidh, Bishop. A.D 592. 

THIS saint was born in Ireland and became a 
monk in the renowned abbey of Bangor. He 
was so fervent a follower of monastic life that, 
as St. Bernard testifies, he founded no less than 
a hundred monasteries. Fired with mission 
ary zeal, he left his native land to preach to the 
pagans of Scotland. Tradition says that the 
rock on which he stood detached itself from 
the Irish coast and became a raft to bear him 
across the waters to the island of Lismore, in 
Loch Linnhe, where he landed. St. Moluag 
converted the people of the island to Chris 
tianity, and then moved into Ross-shire, where 
he built many churches, dedicating them to the 
Mother of God. 

He lived to extreme old age, and died at 
Rosemarkie on the Moray Firth. Here he is 
said by some to have been buried, but his relics 
must in that case have been afterwards trans 
lated to Lismore ; for his remains were 
honoured in the cathedral there, which was 
H 



98 JUNE 

called after him. 

Great devotion was shown to this saint in 
Catholic ages both in Scotland and Ireland. 
There were many dedications to him in Scot 
land. At Lismore, the cathedral of Argyll 
bore his name. Other churches were dedicated 
to him at Clatt and Tarland, Aberdeenshirc ; 
Mortlach, Banffshire ; Alyth, Perthshire ; also 
in Skye, Mull, Raasay, Tiree, Pabay, Lewis 
and other islands. An ancient burial ground 
at Auchterawe, near Fort Augustus, styled 
Kilmalomaig, is called after ihis saint. In these 
dedications his name appears in various forms. 
The original Celtic name Lughaidh (pronounced 
Lua) became changed, as in many other cases, 
by the addition of the title of honour mo, as a 
prefix, and the endearing suffix ag. 

At Clatt was held annually for eight days 
"St. Mallock s Fair* , and at Tarland "Luoch 
Fair". Others were held at Ruthven (Forfar- 
shire) and at Alyth ; at the latter place the fair 
was styled "St. Malogue s". At Mortlach, 
where some of the saint s relics were preserved, 
an abbey was founded in 1010 by Malcolm II. 
in thanksgiving for a victory obtained over the 
Danes in that place, after the Scottish army 



JULY 99 

had invoked the aid of Our Lady and St. 
Moluag. His holy well was near by. 

The crozier of the saint is now in the pos 
session of the Duke of Argyll ; it was long 
kept by its hereditary custodians, a family 
named Livingstone, on the island of Lismore. 
The bell of St. Moluag was in existence up to 
the sixteenth century ; but disappeared at the 
Reformation. An ancient bell, discovered in 
1814 at Kilmichael-Glassary, Argyllshire, has 
been thought to be the lost treasure. The 
feast of this saint was restored by Leo XIII. 
in 1898. 



JULY 

1 St. Servan or Serf, Bishop, 6th or 8th century. 

MUCH that is legendary has become mixed up 
with the history of this saint, and it is difficult 
to fix upon what is authentic. 

He founded a monastery at Culross, Fife- 
shire, where he lived in great veneration on 



100 JULY 

account of his virtues and miracles. He is said 
to have befriended the mother of S. Kenti- 
gern when she was cast on the shore near his 
dwelling, and to have baptised and educated her 
child. A very ancient life of St. Serf, how 
ever, places him a century later than St. Kenti- 
gern, and makes him contemporary with St. 
Adamnan. 

On account of the many difficulties presented 
by conflicting traditions, it has been suggested 
that two saints of the same name have lived at 
Culross in different centuries. 

St. Serf died at Culross in extreme old age, 
and was buried there. Within the grounds 
belonging to Lord Rosslyn at Dysart is pointed 
out the cave where the saint is said to have 
encountered and overcome the devil. The 
name Dysart (desert), which marked his place 
of retreat, became afterwards extended to the 
town which grew up there. The cave of the 
saint became a favourite place of pilgrimage. 

The churches of Monzievaird Perthshire, 
and Alva Stirlingshire, were dedicated to this 
saint, and at each place is a well called by his 
name. Another well of his called " St. Shear s 
Well " exists at Dumbarton. All three were 



JULY 101 

considered miraculous. St. Serf s Fairs were 
formerly held at Culross, Abercorn (Linlithgow- 
shire) and Aberlednock (Perthshire). 

At Culross a custom prevailed from time 
immemorial for the young men to perambulate 
the streets in procession, carrying green boughs, 
on the 1st of July each year. The Town 
Cross was decorated with garlands and ribbons, 
and the procession would pass several times 
round it before disbanding to spend the day in 
amusements. This was doubtless the remains 
of a procession in honour of the saint. At the 
accession of George III. the population, being 
strong Hanoverians, began to celebrate that 
King s birthday on June 4th, and to avoid too 
many public holidays, the procession of July 1st, 
the signification of which has become lost, was 
transferred to the King s birthday. It survived 
the accession of Queen Victoria, but has now 
probably fallen into disuse. 

3 St. Killen, Abbot, A.D. 752. 

THIS saint was the fourteenth Abbot of lona. 
The old church of Laggan, near Loch Laggan, 
Inverness-shire, was dedicated to St. Killen. 



102 JULY 

4 St. Marianus Scotus, Abbot, A.D. 1088. 

THE monastery of St. James, Ratisbon, owes 
its first beginnings to this saint. Most historians 
are now agreed in maintaining that Marianus 
was a native of Ireland, which for many centuries 
bore the designation of Scotia. The holy man 
with several companions entered a Benedictine 
monastery at Bamberg. Some time afterwards, 
when on a pilgrimage to Rome, they passed 
through Ratisbon. A holy hermit who was 
living there persuaded Marianus to forego his 
visit to Rome and take up his abode in 
Ratisbon. He obeyed the injunction, and 
founded a monastery in connection with the 
Church of St. Peter, which the nuns to whom 
it belonged made over to him. 

After the death of Marianus a larger abbey 
was built in honour of St. James and St. 
Gertrude which eventually became peopled by 
Scotsmen, and became, after the Reformation, 
an important seminary for the education of 
clergy for mission work in Scotland. This 
venerable abbey was appropriated by the 
Bavarian Government about the middle of the 
nineteenth century, a compensation of 1 0,000 
being paid to the Scots College in Rome. 



JULY 103 

A valuable MS. consisting of selections from 
the homilies of the Fathers of the Church, in 
the actual handwriting of St. Marianus himself, 
was presented to the Benedictine Abbey, Fort- 
Augustus, by the last survivor of the Com 
munity of the Scots Monastery, Ratisbon, and 
is one of the greatest treasures of the Fort- 
Augustus library. 

6 St. Modenna, or Medana, Virgin, A.D. 518. 
THIS saint was an Irish virgin, who received 
the monastic habit from St. Patrick himself, 
and was a dear friend of St. Bridget. She 
took up her abode in Scotland, where she 
founded many monasteries for women. Some 
of these foundations were in Strathclyde, but 
the greatest of them was in Galloway, at the 
place now styled Kirkmaiden (formerly Kirk- 
medan), where St. Medan s Well and Cave 
may still be seen. 

St. Modenna is said to have lived to the age 
of 1 30 years and to have died at Longf organ, 
near Dundee, after having made during the 
course of her long life three pilgrimages to 
Rome, barefoot and clad in hair-cloth. 

Edinburgh probably takes its name from 
Medana. Her sanctuary, marking, it was said, 



104 JULY 

one of her monastic foundations, and known as 
"St. Edana s," was a place of pilgrimage long 
before the time of King Edwin who was once 
supposed to have given the city its designation. 
The discovery of the foundations of a much 
more ancient building under St. Margaret s 
Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, in 1918, seems to 
corroborate the statement in an ancient Latin 
life of this Saint of the erection by her of a 
church on the top of Edinburgh Rock, while 
it strengthens the tradition of the origin of the 
name, Edana s Burgh. Maiden Castle is really 
Medan s (or Medana s) Castle. A new Catho 
lic church, situated in St. Meddan s Street, 
Troon, was erected in 1911 and dedicated to 
this saint in conjunction with Our Lady. 

7 St, Palladius, Bishop, A.D. (about) 430. 
ST. PROSPER of Aquitaine tells us that this 
saint was a Roman deacon who was sent by 
Pope Celestine I. to those Irish who were 
already Christians, that he might be their bishop. 
After founding several churches in Ireland, and 
meeting with opposition from the pagans there, 
he left that country for Scotland, where he 
founded churches in the Mearns. He died at 
Fordun, and his relics were still preserved there 



JULY 105 

in 1 409, when the Archbishop of St. Andrews 
placed them in a new and costly shrine adorned 
with gold and gems. The ruins of his chapel 
are still to be seen there and a well bears his 
name. " Paldy Fair " is still held at Auchin- 
blae in the parish of Fordoun (Kincardineshire) ; 
it formerly lasted eight days. 

Pope Leo XIII. in his Bull concerning the 
restoration of the Scottish hierarchy in 1878, 
refers to the share of St. Palladius in the evan 
gelisation of the country. " St. Palladius," he 
says, " deacon of the Roman Church, is said to 
have preached the Faith of Christ there (in 
Scotland) in the fifth century." 

The same Pontiff, in 1898, restored this 
saint s feast to Scotland. 

11 St. Drostan, Abbot, 6th century. 

THIS saint was of Scottish birth, being descen 
ded from King Aidan of Dalriada, the friend 
of St. Columba. He was sent over to that 
saint, then in Ireland, to be educated and 
trained for the religious state. He eventually 
became a monk at a monastery known as Dal- 
quongal, of which in course of time he became 
abbot. After some time he passed over to 



106 JULY 

Scotland where he lived as a hermit near 
Glenesk, in Angus. He afterwards entered 
the monastery of lona, and while dwelling under 
the rule of St. Columba accompanied that saint 
to the district of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, and 
was made by him abbot of the monastery of 
Deer, which St. Columba founded on land 
given to him by the ruler of the district, whose 
son had been restored to health during a severe 
illness by the saint s prayers. The name Deer 
is said to have originated in the tears (deara) 
shed by Drostan when he parted from his 
beloved master, 

St. Drostan preached the gospel in the 
district of Inverness-shire known as Glen- 
Urquhart which in Catholic ages bore the name 
of "St. Drostan s Urquhart." Here a plot of 
ground, said to have been cultivated by the 
saint when he lived there as its apostle, is still 
known as "St. Drostan s Croft." In St. 
Ninian s Chapel, in the glen, was preserved the 
saint s cross, and the custodian of the relic had 
the use of the " Dewar s (or keeper s) Croft" 
as a reward for his services. 

St. Drostan died in his monastery of Deer 
and was buried at Aberdour where miracles 



JULY 107 

were wrought at his tomb. Many churches in 
the North of Scotland bore his name ; in 
Caithness were Halkirk and Cannisbay ; in 
Angus, Edzell and Lochee ; in Inverness- 
shire, Alvie and Urquhart ; in Banffshire, 
Aberlour and Rothiemay ; in Aberdeenshire, 
Deer and Aberdour. At Westfield in Caith 
ness is St. Drostan s Burial Ground ; at Loch- 
lee is " Droustie s Meadow " and " Droustie s 
Well." Other wells bore his name in various 
districts. One was at Aberlour, and there 
were five between Edzell and Aberdour. 

St. Drostan s Fairs were held each year at 
Rothiemay, Aberlour (for three days) and Old 
Deer. The last named, which formerly lasted 
for eight days, is still kept up. This is one of 
the few instances in which the old fair day of 
Catholic times has survived. In too many cases 
these remnants of Catholic ages disappeared 
during the last century. Pope Leo XIII. 
restored the feast of this saint in 1898. It was 
formerly celebrated in Scotland in December. 

12 St. Donald, Hermit, A.D. (about) 716. 

A LOCAL tradition speaks of the sojourn of 
this saint in the Glen of Ogilvy, in Forfarshire, 



108 JULY 

where he lived a secluded life for some years. 
He was not, strictly speaking, a hermit, as his 
nine virgin daughters shared his solitude, and 
spent their time like St. Donald in the almost 
constant practice of prayer and contemplation. 
No reliable record remains of the course of 
his life or of the date and circumstances of his 
death. 

18 The Nine Maidens, 8th century. 

THESE were the daughters of St. Donald, 
mentioned above. 

During the lifetime of their father, these 
maidens lived with him in strict seclusion in the 
Glen of Ogilvy. Having devoted their youth 
to the Religious Life, they were loth to return 
to the world when their father s death left them 
without a protector. They accordingly entered 
the monastery for women which St. Darlugdach, 
an Irish nun and the friend of St. Bridget (or as 
some say St. Bridget herself), had founded at 
Abernethy. Here they spent the remainder of 
their lives. 

There were many dedications in Scotland to 
these saints. The ancient church of Finhaven 
in Forfarshire, a chapel at Pitsligo, Aberdeen- 



JULY 109 

shire, called the " Chapel of the Nine Maidens," 
and another, bearing a like designation, at 
Tough, in the same county, are some of them. 

Other associations are still to be found in the 
many holy wells which are called after them, at 
Strathmartin, Glamis and Oathlaw (Forfar- 
shire), Old Aberdeen and Pitsligo (Aberdeen- 
shire), Newburgh (Fife) and Mid-Calder (near 
Edinburgh). 

These saints were honoured together in 
Catholic ages on this day. 

St. Thenew or Thenog, A.D. 514. 

THE history of the early life of this saint is 
involved in obscurity. There are various legends 
relating to it ; but recent historians reject them 
as spurious. St. Thenew was the mother of 
St. Mungo or Kentigern ; she is said by Jocelin 
in his life of St. Mungo (written in a later age) 
to have been befriended by St. Serf, and 
baptised by him, when she was cast ashore 
near his dwelling. The fact, however, is dis 
puted by modern critics, on account of 
chronological difficulties. 

At an early period a chapel dedicated to St. 
Thenew existed in Glasgow ; but at the 



110 JULY 

Reformation it was destroyed. The street 
leading to this chapel was known for centuries 
as " St. Thenew s Gate " ; it is now called 
Argyll Street. The chapel had been popularly 
styled "San Theneuke s Kirk," and its name 
still survives in the corrupted form of "St. 
Enoch s " the modern designation of an im 
portant square in the city with its large railway 
station and hotel. Close by the chapel was a 
holy well bearing the saint s name. 

22 St. Dabius or Bavins, Priest. 
SOME historians have maintained that this saint 
was a native of Ireland ; but the Scottish tradi 
tion affirms that he was born in Perthshire, and 
that he became a recluse in his native parish of 
Weem, where he built a small chapel. 

The shelf of the great rock of Weem, upon 
which the chapel formerly stood, is still called 
" Chapel Rock." A holy well hard by is 
called after the saint. 

This well was once much frequented by 
pilgrims. It was a common opinion that St. 
Dabius would grant any wish made there if an 
offering were thrown into the water. When 
the well was cleaned out some years ago a large 
number of coins was discovered ; these were 



AUGUST 1 I I 

evidently offerings of the kind. There was an 
ancient burial ground at Weems which bore 
the name of the saint, and on his feast-day a 
fair was held annually there. 

The name Kildavie (Church of Davius) which 
is found in the parish of Kilblane, in Bute, and 
also in the parish of Kilninian, in Mull, testifies 
to ancient churches in honour of St. Davius in 
those localities. The Church of Kippen, Stirling 
shire, is also dedicated to this saint, under the 
designation of " Movean." 



AUGUST 

3 St, Walthen or Waltheof, Abbot, A.D. 1160. 

HE was the son of Simon, Earl of Hunting 
don, and Maud, grand-niece of William the 
Conqueror. After the death of her first 
husband, Maud married David, King of Scot 
land, one of the sons of St. Margaret. The 
early life of the young Walthen was consequently 
spent at the Scottish Court, where he edified 
all who knew him by his purity of life and 
diligent practice of the Christian virtues. 
Desiring to embrace the religious life, Walthen 



1 1 2 AUGUST 

left Scotland, and entered the monastery of 
Nostell in Yorkshire, belonging to the Austin 
Canons. His holiness, attested by miracles, 
procured the esteem of his contemporaries, and 
led to his appointment, while still young, as 
Prior of the monastery of Kirkham, in the same 
county. Attracted by the reputation of the 
Cistercians, he resolved to pass into that Order, 
and was encouraged in his purpose by St. 
Aelred, Cistercian Abbot of Rievaulx, who 
became his attached friend. In spite of the 
remonstrances of his religious brethren, and the 
avowed indignation of his kindred, Walthen 
persevered in his resolution, and took the Cis 
tercian habit at Rievaulx, where he eventually 
made his profession as a monk. 

He was made Abbot of the Scottish abbey 
of Melrose, which he ruled till his death. In 
the later years of his life he was nominated 
Archbishop of St. Andrew s ; but his humility 
shrank from the burden, and he prevailed upon 
his religious superiors to prevent the election. 
He died at Melrose at an advanced age. 
Many miracles are attributed to him, even 
during life, and fifty years after death his body 
was found to be incorrupt. 



AUGUST 113 

9> St. Berchan, Bishop. 

THIS Irish saint spent a good part of his life 
in Scotland. Few particulars of his career now 
remain to us, but he laboured near Stirling as 
a missionary. Some traces of devotion to him 
are still existing. The name of Kilbarchan, in 
the county of Renfrew, proves the connection 
of the saint with that neighbourhood. St. 
Barchan s Fair was held there annually. In 
the same county is to be found an ancient 
Celtic cross erected in honour of St. Berchan. 
Another fair was at Tain ; this is evident from 
an ancient charter of that burgh, in which it is 
stated that St. Barquhan s Fair is " held on the 
3rd day after the Feast of St. Peter ad Vin- 
cula, commonly called Lambmes." St. Peter 
ad Vincula, or, as it is usually called, St. Peter s 
Chains, is a feast which falls on August 1st, 
hence St. Berchan s Fair, in celebration of his 
feast, was held on the 4th. Lambmes or 
Lammas was the ancient name of this feast of 
St. Peter and was derived from the Saxon hlaf 
(loaf). It had its origin in the offering at Mass 
of a loaf made from the first-fruits of the 
harvest. 



114 AUGUST 

6 -Blessed Alexander, Monk, A.D. 1229. 

IN the account given of St. Matilda (April 1 1) 
allusion was made to her brother Alexander, 
who, concealing his royal origin, entered the 
Cistercian monastery of Foigni, in the diocese 
of Laon, France. He died some years before 
his holy sister on May 4th, 1 229. His feast 
is celebrated by his Order on this day. A 
fair was formerly held in his honour at Keith, 
in Banffshire. 

9 St. Oswald, King and Martyr, A.D. 642. 

THIS illustrious King was the son of a pagan. 
Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria. He was 
compelled on the death of his father to seek 
safety in the north, and took refuge with his 
two brothers at lona, where all three received 
baptism. Eanfrid, the eldest, obtained the 
throne of Northumbria, but relapsed into 
paganism. He met with a violent death at the 
hands of the British prince, Cadwalla, and 
Oswald succeeded him as king. Cadwalla 
was defeated near Hexham by Oswald s infe 
rior army, the Christian prince having previously 
erected a large wooden cross on the field of 



AUGUST 1 1 5 

battle, before whicb he knelt in prayer for the 
success of his arms, and promised, with the 
consent of his soldiers, that all would embrace 
Christianity should God grant them the 
victory. 

On ascending the throne Oswald procured 
a missionary for his people from lona in the 
person of Aidan, who became eventually the 
first Bishop of Lindisfarne. The saintly King 
did not disdain to act as interpreter to his 
people of the instructions given by Aidan in the 
Celtic tongue. Oswald reigned but eight years, 
yet they were years of blessing for the nation 
The King led the way in the practice of the 
Christian virtues, especially of charity to the 
poor. It was on the occasion of the distribu 
tion to a hungry multitude at the palace gates 
of the food prepared for the King s repast, and 
the division of the costly silver dish itself 
amongst the poverty-stricken people, that St. 
Aidan, who was about to join the King at a 
banquet, cried out enthusiastically as he seized 
Oswald s right hand, " May this hand never 
corrupt ! " The utterance was prophetic, as 
the sequel will show. 



116 AUGUST 

The saintly King met his death on the field 
of battle, when resisting the invasion of his 
dominions by Penda, the pagan king of Mercia. 
His dying words were a prayer for the souls 
of all who had fallen in the battle. Many 
miracles were wrought by his intercession and 
by the use of particles of the cross he had 
erected. His right hand and arm, in accord 
ance with St. Aidan s prophecy, remained in 
corrupt till the time of the Venerable Bede, 
who tells us that they were honoured in the 
Church of St. Peter at Bamborough. His 
head was taken to the monastery of Lindis- 
farne ; it was eventually deposited in St. 
Cuthbert s shrine and was carried with the 
remains of that saint to Durham Minster. 

Many monasteries and churches both in 
England and Scotland bore the name of St. 
Oswald. Those in Northumbria and Cumbria 
can scarcely be termed Scottish in these days, 
but Kirkoswald near Maybole and Carluke in 
Lanarkshire possessed respectively a church 
and chapel dedicated to the holy King. His 
death occurred on August 5th, but his feast has 
been transferred to this day. Devotion to St. 



AUGUST 1 I 7 

Oswald flourished greatly in Ireland as well as 
in Scotland and England, and extended to the 
Continent. 

St. Angus. 

AT Balquhidder, in Perthshire, there is a local 
tradition regarding a saint of this name. He 
is said to have been a disciple of St. Columba, 
and to have preached the Faith in that neigh 
bourhood. His name is preserved in the 
Clach jlenais (Stone of Angus), a slab bearing 
a representation of a priest holding a chalice. 
This stone formerly stood within the old church 
at Balquhidder, and it was the custom to stand 
or kneel upon it during the solemnization of a 
baptism or marriage. As this rite seemed to 
Presbyterian authorities to savour of supersti 
tion, the stone was removed to the churchyard 
about a century ago. Near the church are the 
foundations of the "Chapel of Angus." A 
hillock hard by is pointed out as the spot where 
the saint preached, and it still bears his name. 

"Angus Fair" was formerly held at King s 
House, in the parish of Balquhidder, on the 
Wednesday after the second Tuesday in August. 



118 AUGUST 

This locates the saint s feast-day (which the fair 
doubtless commemorated) in the early part of 
August, although the exact date is uncertain. 

11 St. Blaan, Bishop, A.D. 590. 

HE was born in Ireland of a noble family, and 
after spending seven years under the direction 
of St. Comgall and St. Kenneth, passed over 
to Bute, to St. Cathan, his mother s brother. 
He is said to have made later a pilgrimage to 
Rome. The monastery he founded became 
the site of the well-known Cathedral of Dun 
blane a place which derives its name from the 
saint where the mediaeval building begun by 
David I. is still to be seen. Among the 
many miracles attributed to the saint is the 
restoration to life of a dead boy. He is also 
said to have re-kindled the extinguished lamps 
in his church during the night office, on one 
occasion, by striking fire from his fingers as 
from a flint ; the miracle being vouchsafed by 
God to clear the saint of any imputation of 
negligence in his duty. 

St. Blaan became eventually a bishop. 
After his death devotion to him became popu- 



AUGUST 119 

lar, and many dedications bear witness to his 
callus. There was a church of St. Blaan in 
Dumfries and another at Kilblane in Argyll. 
The ruins of the saint s church in the parish of 
Kingarth, Bute, form an object of great interest 
to antiquarians, and stand amid surroundings of 
extraordinary beauty and charm. His bell is 
still preserved at Dunblane. The saint s feast 
was restored to the Scottish Calendar by 
Leo XIII. in 1898. 

18 St. Inan, Confessor, 9th century. 

IN the southern district of Scotland are to be 
found many traces of the cultus of a saint 
bearing this name, though his history is not 
known. 

Some consider him a native of Ayrshire, 
since the greater part of the remains connected 
with him are to be found in that county, where 
he seems to have spent many years of his life. 
Others claim him as a native of Ireland, and it 
has been conjectured that his name is merely a 
corruption of Finan. There are no conclusive 
proofs in support of either opinion. 

The chief place of residence of St. Inan 



1 20 AUGUST 

seems to have been at Irvine, though many 
interesting remains recall his memory at Beith 
On the Cuff Hill in the latter parish is a cleft 
in the rock which was originally of natural 
formation, but has been enlarged by art ; it 
bears the name of " St. Inan s Chair." At 
a short distance from it is a double spring of 
abundant and excellent water known as "St. 
Inan s Well." On the day corresponding to the 
1 8th August, old style, a fair is annually held 
in the vicinity, which bears the name of 
" Tenant s (probably a corruption of St. Inan s) 
Fair." Inchinnan (Renfrewshire) is said to 
signify " Inans Isle." 

Another well bearing the saint s name is at 
Lamington in Lanarkshire, where the church 
was dedicated to him. At Southenan, Ayr 
shire, was another church or chapel bearing the 
name of St. Inan ; for a charter of James IV. 
in 1509, confirms the donation of John, Lord 
Sempill, of a perpetual Mass therein. 

24 St. Yrchard or Merchard, Bishop, 5th or 6th 
century. 

THIS saint was born of pagan parents in the 
district of Kincardine-O Neil, Aberdeenshire. 



AUGUST 121 

In his early youth he embraced the Christian 
Faith, and was ordained priest by St. Ternan, 
who associated the young man with himself 
in his missionary labours. In later life he 
journeyed to Rome, and was there consecrated 
bishop. Returning to Scotland he ended his 
days in Aberdeenshire. At Kincardine- 
CD Neil a church was erected over the spot 
where the chariot which was conveying his 
remains to burial was miraculously stopped. 
A fair was formerly held there annually on St. 
Merchard s feast and during the octave. 

One of the saint s churches was in Glen- 
moriston. The ancient burial ground which 
adjoins it is still in use, and some few stones of 
the old building are yet to be seen there. 
The local tradition tells that the saint when 
labouring as a missionary in Strathglass with 
two companions, discovered, by previous revela 
tion, three bright new bells buried in the earth 
Taking one for himself, he gave the others to 
his fellow-missionaries, bidding each to erect a 
church on the spot where his bell should ring 
for the third time of its own accord ; under 
taking to do the same with regard to his own. 



1 22 AUGUST 

One of these companions founded a church 
at Glenconvinth, in Strathglass, the other at 
Broadford, Isle of Skye. 

St. Merchard travelled towards Glenmoris- 
ton. His bell rang first at Suidh Mhercheird 
(Merchard s Seat), again at Fuaran Mher- 
cheird (Merchard s Well), near Ballintombuie, 
where a spring of excellent water treasured by 
both Catholics and Protestants still bears his 
name, and a third time at the spot where the 
old churchyard, called Clachan Mherchdrd, 
close by the river Moriston, recalls his memory. 

The bell of the saint was preserved there for 
centuries. After the church fell into decay s 
early in the seventeenth century, the bell 
remained in the churchyard. The narrow- 
pointed spar of granite on which it rested still 
stands there. The bell, unfortunately, was 
wantonly removed, by Protestant strangers 
about thirty years ago, to the great indignation 
of the inhabitants of the glen, Protestant as 
well as Catholic ; it has never since been 
discovered. 

Tradition has it that the bell was wont to 
ring of its own accord when a funeral came 



AUGUST 1 23 

in sight, and that whenever it was removed 
from its usual position it was invariably found 
restored miraculously to its place, Many 
persons still living in the glen have seen the bell, 
and the grandparents of some of them used to 
relate that they heard it ring in their youth. 
Devotion to this saint was very strong in 
that neighbourhood in Catholic times, and he is 
still regarded by Catholics as the local patron. 

25 St. Ebba, Abbess, A.D. 683. 

SHE was sister to St. Oswald, and to Oswy, 
his successor, Kings of Northumbria. She 
founded a monastery at Ebchester, on the 
Derwent, and another and more important one 
at Coldingham. It was at the latter place that 
the great St. Ethelreda received her monastic 
training. St. Ebba was buried at Coldingham, 
but portions of her relics were afterwards 
placed in the tomb of St. Cuthbert at Durham. 
St. Abb s Head, the well-known promontory 
on the coast of Northumberland, takes its name 
from this saint. 

30 St, Fiacre, Hermit, 7th century. 
HE was born in Ireland about the year 



124 AUGUST 

590. A hermitage and holy well near Kil 
kenny are called after him, and were 
frequented as late as the beginning of this 
century by pilgrims who wished to pay him 
honour. After labouring as a missionary in 
Scotland, St. Fiacre ended his days at Breuil, 
near Meaux, in France, where he became famous 
for miracles both before and after his death ; he 
was invoked as the patron saint of the province 
of Brie, and his shrine became a famous place 
of pilgrimage. 

St. Fiacre s day was kept with devotion in 
Scotland. The Breviary of Aberdeen contains 
the office for the saint s feast. Several Scottish 
churches bore his name. Among these may be 
mentioned the ancient church and burial ground 
of St. Fiacre, or, as he is often styled, St 
Fittack, at Nigg, Kincardineshire, on the 
opposite bank of the Dee from Aberdeen. The 
bay in the vicinity is known as St. Picker s 
Bay, and St. Fittack s Well, a clear spring near 
the roofless ruins of the old church, still recalls 
his memory. Its existence is a strong proof of 
the saint s residence in the neighbourhood at 
some time in his life. The fame of this well 



AUGUST 125 

for healing powers survived the downfall of 
religion, and it became necessary to prevent 
recourse to it by severe penalties. Thus in the 
records of the Kirk Session of Aberdeen for 
1630 we read: " Margrat Davidson, spous 
to Andro Adam, fined 5 for sending her 
child to be washed at St. Fiackre s Well and 
leaving an offering." 

The large numbers of pilgrims conveyed in 
hackney coaches to the French shrine of this 
saint at Breuil, caused those vehicles to be 
known as fiacres, a designation they still bear. 

31 St. Aidan, Bishop, A.D. 651. 

THIS saint was a native of Ireland, where, 
after some years of monastic life at Inniscattery 
in the Shannon, he was consecrated bishop. 
Later on he entered the monastery of lona. 
He became the first bishop of Lindisfarne, and 
the helper of St. Oswald in the conversion of 
Northumbria. His life was one of great 
poverty and detachment, and his example had 
a wonderful effect on his flock. He used to 
travel about his diocese on foot, accompanied 
by his clergy, spending the time occupied by 



1 26 AUGUST 

the journey in prayer and holy reading. His 
alms were abundant, and his manner to all with 
whom he came in contact kind and fatherly. 
His miracles, even during life, were many and 
striking. 

St. Aidan was the founder of Old Mel- 
rose, which stood a short distance from the 
site of the more modern Cistercian Abbey 
whose ruins are familiar to travellers. He also 
assisted the Abbess, St. Ebba, in the founda 
tion of the celebrated monastery of Coldingham, 
which consisted of two distinct communities of 
men and women. 

After ruling his see for seventeen years, he 
died at Bamborough in a tent which he had 
caused to be erected by the wall of the church. 
St. Cuthbert, then a youthful shepherd, as he 
kept his flock on the hills, had a vision of the 
soul of St. Aidan being borne by angels to 
Heaven. It was this vision which determined 
him to seek admission to Melrose. Many 
churches bear St. Aidan s name. Among them 
are those of Cambusnethan in Lanarkshire and 
Menmuir in Angus. At the latter place is the 
saint s holy well, which was renowned for the 



SEPTEMBER 1 27 

cure of asthma and other complaints. Another 
holy well called after St. Aidan is to be found 
at Fearn in Angus. The ancient church of 
Kenmore, Perthshire, was known as Inchadin. 
Keltney Burn in the same neighbourhood, is 
called in Gaelic "St. Aidan s Stream." 



SEPTEMBER 

1 St. Egidius or Giles, Abbot, A.D. 714. 

THIS saint never laboured in Scotland, yet the 
honour shown to him in the country is sufficient 
reason for the mention of his name here. He 
is said to have been an Athenian by birth, who 
fled from his native land to escape the admira 
tion excited by his extraordinary sanctity. He 
settled in France and founded a monastery in 
the neighbourhood of Nismes, where many 
disciples placed themselves under his guidance, 
and where he died and was laid to rest. His 
callus extended from France into other 
countries. St, Giles was honoured in Edin 
burgh as early as 1 1 50, when a monastery 
existed under his invocation. He became the 



128 SEPTEMBER 

recognised patron saint of the city, and his 
figure appeared in the armorial bearings of 
Edinburgh, accompanied by the hind which is 
said in his legend to have attached herself 
to the saint. Since the Reformation the 
figure of the saint has disappeared, though that 
of the animal remains. 

The beautiful Church of St. Giles was re 
built in the 1 5th century, and was erected into 
a collegiate church by Pope Paul II. It still 
continues to be the glory of the Scottish capital. 
This church possessed an arm-bone of the saint, 
for which a rich reliquary was provided by the 
city. Fairs were formerly held in honour of 
St. Giles at Moffat and also at Elgin, where 
the parish church bore his name. 

2 St. Murdoch, Bishop. 

No very reliable particulars can be ascertained 
as to the life of this saint. Traces of the 
honour shown to him are to be found in Forfar- 
shire, the district which seems to have been the 
scene of his missionary labours. At Ethie, in 
the parish of Inverkeilor, in that county, are the 
remains of an ancient church and burial-ground 



SEPTEMBER 129 

which bear his name. Near Ethiebeaton, in 
the parish of Monifieth, are traces of an old 
church which goes by the name of " Chapel 
Dockie." This is believed to be another 
dedication in honour of St. Murdoch. 

9 St. Queran or Kieran, Abbot, A.D. 548. 

THIS saint was born in Ireland and became 
abbot of the monastery known as Clonmacnois. 
He passed over to Cornwall, and there 
laboured as a missionary for some years. 
Many churches in that district are known by 
his name, which appears there under the form 
of Piran. 

The saint afterwards journeyed to Scotland, 
where he preached the Gospel in the western 
districts. He settled at Dalruadhain, near 
Campbeltown, and the cave to which he was 
accustomed to retire for prayer is still to be 
seen there. He died in A.D. 548. St. 
Kieran came to be regarded eventually as the 
patron saint of the whole of Kintyre. He 
became very popular in Scotland, on account 
of the great affection with which St. Columba 
regarded him. Every year his hermitage and 
K 



130 SEPTEMBER 

hVy well were the resort of pilgrims who came 
to honour his memory. A rock near the sea 
shore is said to have been marked by the 
impress of his knees, from the frequency with 
which he would kneel there to pray with arms 
outstretched, looking towards his beloved Ire 
land. 

Several churches in Scotland are dedicated 
to t lis saint. Besides a church in Campbeltown, 
others at Kilkerran in Kintyre, Kilcheran in 
Lismore, Kilkeran in Islay and Barvas in Lewis 
were named after him. Those of Strathmore 
in Caithness, Fetteresso and Glenbervie in Kin- 
cardineshire and Dalkerran in Ayrshire are 
dedicated to a saint of the same name, but 
whether it is this particular St. Kieran is 
disputed. There is a well of "St. Jargon" 
at Troqueer (Kirkcudbright), which is thought 
to be St. Kieran s. 

15 St. Mirin. Bishop, 6th century. 

BORN in Ireland, he became a pupil of St. 
Comgall in the monastery of Bangor on Belfast 
Lough, where no less than three thousand 
monks are said to have resided together. In 



SEPTEMBER 131 

the course of time Mirin was made Prior of 
the Abbey. No authentic record relates that 
he left Ireland to labour in Scotland ; but 
Bangor, like lona, was a great missionary 
centre, from which the brethren started to 
evangelise the various countries of Europe, and 
this fact lends credence to a tradition that St. 
Mirin came to Scotland. Paisley has always 
claimed the honour of possessing his remains, 
which became in after years an attraction to 
many pilgrims. 

When in the twelfth century Walter Fitz- 
Alan founded a Benedictine abbey there, he 
placed it under the patronage of St. Mirin, 
jointly with Our Lady, St. James and St. 
Milburga, the patron of Wenlock, Shropshire, 
whence the first community came. Lights 
were burnt around St. Mirin s tomb for cen 
turies, and a constant devotion was cherished 
towards him. The seal of the abbey bore his 
figure, with a scroll inscribed, " O Mirin, pray 
to Christ for thy servants." The chapel in 
which his remains repose is popularly known as 
" The Sounding Aisle," from its peculiar echo. 

A fair was formerly held at Paisley on the 



132 SEPTEMBER 

saint s feast-day and during the octave. Other 
churches in the south of Scotland were dedi 
cated to him. In the parish of Kelton, in 
Kirkcudbright, are the remains of an ancient 
chapel and burial-ground known as " Kirk 
Mirren." On Inch Murryn (Mirin s Island), 
in Loch Lomond, are the ruins of his 
chapel. At Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, is " St. 
Mirin s Well." There are other traces of 
him at Coylton, in Ayrshire, where a farm 
is called " Knock Murran," and at Edzell, in 
Forfarshire, where there is the " Burn of 
Marran." 

16 St. Ninian, Bishop. 5th century. 

HE was the first bishop residing in Scotland of 
whom there is any authentic record, and one of 
the earliest missionaries to the country. He 
was born about A.D. 360, in the district now 
known as Cumberland. His father was a con 
verted British chieftain. Ninian had a strong 
desire to study the Faith at its fountain-head, 
and journeyed to Rome in his twenty-first year. 
The Pope of the time, St. Damasus, received 
him very cordially, and give him special teachers 



SEPTEMBER 133 

to instruct him in the doctrines of the Church. 
After he had spent there fifteen years, Pope St. 
Siricius made him priest and bishop, and sent 
him to preach the Faith in his native country. 
Ninian settled in the district now called 
Galloway. The recollection of the churches 
he had seen in Rome awoke in him a desire to 
build one more worthy of God s worship than 
the simple edifices of that early age in these 
northern countries. By the help of his friend, 
St. Martin of Tours, he obtained Prankish 
masons for this purpose, and built the first 
stone church ever yet seen in Britain. It was 
called Candida Casa, or "White House" 
(still the designation in Latin of the See of 
Galloway). The point of land on which it 
stood became known as the " White Home," 
from which Whithorn derives its name. 

Besides converting the people of his own 
neighbourhood, St Ninian, by his zeal, brought 
into the Church the Southern Picts, who 
inhabited the old Roman province of Valentia, 
south of the Forth. He is therefore styled 
their Apostle. He was more than seventy 
when he died, and was laid to rest in the 



134 SEPTEMBER 

church he had built and dedicated to St. 
Martin. Later on it was called after him and 
became illustrious for pilgrimages from England 
and Ireland, as well as from all parts of Scot 
land. So many churches in Scotland bore his 
name that the enumeration of them would be 
impossible here, while almost every important 
church had an altar dedicated to him. An 
altar of St. Ninian was endowed by the 
Scottish nation in the Carmelite Church at 
Bruges in Catholic ages. There is a portion of 
a fresco on the wall of Turriff Church, 
Aberdeenshire, which bears the figure of St. 
Ninian. The burgh of Nairn was placed 
under his patronage. Many holy wells bore 
his name : at Arbirlot, Arbroath, Mains and 
Menmuir (Forfarshire) ; Ashkirk (Selkirkshire) ; 
Alyth, Dull (Perthshire) ; Mayfield (Kirk- 
cubrightshire) ; Sandwick (Orkney) ; Penning- 
hame, Wigtown (Wigtownshire) ; Isle of Mull. 
That at Dull is said by a Protestant writer of 
1845 to have been greatly frequented by 
invalids from far and near, on account of its 
reputed healing powers. 

St. Ninian s fairs were held at Whithorn 



SEPTEMBER 135 

(for four days), and also at Arbroath. The 
saint s feast, which had previously been long 
observed in the diocese of Galloway and at the 
Benedictine Abbey, Fort-Augustus, was ex 
tended to the whole Scottish Church by Leo 
XIII. in 1898. 

St. Laisren. Abbot, A.D. 605. 

HE was a cousin of St. Columba. He ruled 
for some years the Abbey of Durrow in Ireland, 
and afterwards that of lona, of which he was 
the third abbot. 

20 St. Marthom. 

A FAIR was held annually at Ordiquhill (Banff- 
shire) for eight days from September 20, under 
the name of St. Marthom s fair. Nothing is 
known about the life of the saint. 

22 St. Lolan, Bishop. 

MANY extraordinary miracles are related of 
this saint, but his real history is involved in 
obscurity. 

The crozier and bell of St. Lolan were long 
preserved at Kincardine-on- Forth, Perthshire, 



136 SEPTEMBER 

and were include i in the feudal investitures of 
the earldom cf Perth. They are alluded to in 
documents of the 1 2th century, and the mention 
of the be l occurs in one as late as 1675. 
Both relics have long disappeared. 

23 St. Adamnan, Abbot, A.D. 704. 

HE was of Irish race, and belonged to the 
same family as St. Columba. In his 55th 
year he was elected Abbot of lona. He is 
said to have been instrumental in obtaining the 
passing of "The Law of the Innocents" in the 
Irish National Assembly of Tara. This statute 
exempted the Irish women from serving on the 
battle field, which before that time they had 
been bound to do. In 701 St. Adamnan was 
sent on an embassy to his former pupil, Aldfrid, 
King of Northumbria, to seek reparation for 
injuries committed by that King s subjects in 
the Province of Meath. It was during this 
visit to England that he conformed to the 
Roman usage with regard to the time for 
keeping Easter, and he was afterwards success 
ful in introducing the true practice into the 
Irish Church. His efforts in this respect were 



SEPTEMBER 137 

not successful with his monks at lona ; though 
his earnest exhortations, and the unfailing 
charity which he exhibited towards those who 
differed from him, must have helped to dispose 
them to conform to the rest of the Church, 
which they did about twenty years after his 
death. 

St. Adamnan is most renowned for his life 
of St. Columba, which has been called by a 
competent judge " the most complete piece of 
such biography that all Europe can boast of, 
not only at so early a period, but throughout 
the whole Middle Ages." He is also the 
author of a treatise on the Holy Land, valuable 
as being one of the earliest produced in Europe. 

Though the saint died at lona, his relics 
were carried to Ireland ; but they must have 
been restored to lona, as they were venerated 
there in 1 520. He was one of the most popular 
of the Scottish saints, and many churches were 
named after him. The chief of these were at 
Aboyne and Forvie (parish of Slains) in Aber- 
deenshire ; Abriachan in Inverness-shire ; For- 
glen or Teunan Kirk in Banffshire ; Tannadice 
in Forfarsiire ; Kileunan (parish of Kilkerran) 



138 SEPTEMBER 

in Kintyre ; Kinneff in Kincardineshire ; the 
Island of Sanda ; Dull, Grandtully and Blair 
Athole in Perthshire the latter place was once 
known as Kilmaveonaig, from the quaint little 
chapel and burying ground of the saint. There 
were chapels in his honour at Campsie in Stir 
lingshire and Dalmeny in Linlithgow. At 
Aboyne are " Skeulan Tree" and Skeulan 
Well," at Tannadice " St. Arnold s Seat," at 
Campsie " St. Adamnan s Acre," at Kinneff 
" St. Arnty s Cell." At Dull a fair was formerly 
held on his feast-day (old style) ; it was called 
Feille Eonan. Another fair at Blair Athole 
was known as Feill Espic Eoin (" Bishop 
Eunan s Fair " though St. Adamnan was an 
abbot only) ; it has been abolished in modern 
times. His well is still to be seen in the 
Manse garden there, and down the glen a 
fissure in the rock is called " St. Ennan s Foot 
mark." There was a "St. Adamnan s Croft" 
in Glenurquhart (Inverness-shire), but the site 
is no longer known. 

Ardeonaig, near Loch Tay ; Ben Eunaich, 
Dalmally ; and Damsey (Adamnan s Isle) in 
Orkney, take their names from this saint. At 



SEPTEMBER 139 

Firth-on-the-Spey, near Kingussie, is a very 
ancient bronze bell, long kept on a window-sill 
of the old church, and tradition relates that 
when moved from thence it produced a sound 
similar to the words, " Tom Eunan, Tom 
Eunan," until it was restored to its original 
resting-place in the church, which stands on 
the hill bearing that name. The tradition 
points to the dedication of the church to this 
saint. Few names have passed through such 
various transformations in the course of ages as 
that of Adamnan. It is met under the forms 
of Aunan, Arnty, Eunan, Ounan, Teunan 
(Saint- Eunan), Skeulan, Eonan, Ewen and 
even Arnold. 

St. Adamnan s feast was restored by Pope 
Leo XIII. in 1898. 

25 St. Barr or Finbar, Bishop, 6th century. 

HE was born in Connaught and was the 
founder of a celebrated monastery and school 
on an island in Lough Eirce (now known as 
Gougane-Barra), in County Cork, and to this 
house, says Colgan in his A eta Sanctorum, so 



140 SEPTEMBER 

many came through zeal for a holy life that it 
changed a desert into a great city. 

St. Finbar became the first Bishop of Cork, 
where he founded a monastery almost as famous 
as the former. St. Finbar, like so many Irish 
saints, made a pilgrimage to Rome. Missionary 
zeal led him later on to Scotland, and for some 
time he laboured in Kintyre. 

Devotion to St. Barr was very great in 
Catholic Scotland, as numerous dedications 
attest. His churches are chiefly to be found 
on solitary islands, which seem to have had a 
special attraction for him. Thus in the parish 
of Kilkerran, Kintyre, is an island now known 
as Davar ; it was formerly called St. Barre s 
Island. The island of Barra takes its name 
from him ; traces of his cultus lingered on there 
long after the Reformation. At Kilbar (some 
times called Shilbar), for example, an image of 
the saint, which was long preserved, used to be 
clothed with a linen robe on his feast-day in 
comparatively recent times. Other curious 
customs also prevailed in the island in connection 
with him ; his holy well is there. St. Barr 
was the patron saint of the churches of 



SEPTEMBER 141 

Dornoch, and of Eddleston (Peebles-shire) ; at 
both places a fair was annually held on his 
feast-day. In Ayrshire is the parish of Barr, 
and in Forfarshire that of Inch bare. At Midd 
Genie, in Tarbat, is Chapel Barre. 

28 St. Machan or Mahon, Bishop, about 
6th century. 

ST. MACHAN, born in Scotland, was like 
many of his contemporaries, sent to Ireland, 
then renowned for its schools, to be educated. 
After he had returned to his native land and 
had become a priest, he laboured in various 
provinces of Scotland. 

At Rome, whither he had gone as a pilgrim, 
he was consecrated bishop in spite of pro 
testations from his humility ; later he returned 
to Scotland and to the apostolic ministry. 
After many years of fruitful labour he died and 
was laid to rest at Campsie in Lennox. His 
name still survives in Ecclesmachan (Church of 
Machan) in Linlithgow, of which he is patron. 
The parish of Dalserf, Lanarkshire, formed at 
one time the chapelry of St. Machan, and was 
known as Machanshire. It was connected 



142 OCTOBER 

with the church of Cadzow (now Hamilton). 
An altar in St. Mungo s Cathedral, Glasgow, 
was dedicated to him. A fair in honour of 
this saint was held annually at Kilmahog, 
Perthshire. 



OCTOBER 

8 St. Triduana, Virgin, 7th or 8th century. 

ST. TRIDUANA devoted herself to God in a 
solitary life at Rescobie in Angus (now Forfar- 
shire). While dwelling there, a prince of the 
country having conceived an unlawful passion 
for her is said to have pursued her with his 
unwelcome attentions. To rid herself of his 
importunities, as a legend relates, Triduana 
bravely plucked out her beautiful eyes, her 
chief attraction, and sent them to her admirer. 
Her heroism, it is said, procured for her the 
power of curing diseases of the eyes. Many 
instances are related of such miracles worked 
after her death. 

St. Triduana died at Restalrig in Lothian, 
and her tomb became a favourite place of 



OCTOBER 1 43 

pilgrimage. Before the Reformation it was 
the most important of the holy shrines near 
Edinburgh. On account of this prominence 
her church was the very first to fall a victim to 
the fanatical zeal of the Puritans. After being 
honoured for a thousand years her relics were 
desecrated by the destruction of her shrine. 
The General Assembly, decreed on December 
21, 1560, that "the Kirk of Restalrig, as a 
monument of idolatrie, be raysit and utterlie 
castin downe and destroyed." An interesting 
discovery was made in 1907 in connection with 
this church, which had long been used as a 
Presbyterian place of worship after restoration. 
An octagonal building, standing near, was 
though to have been a Chapter House in 
Catholic times ; it was filled with earth and rub 
bish, after having served as a burial place, and a 
mound of earth surmounted it on the outside 
on which trees had rooted. The Earl of 
Moray, superior of the village, offered to restore 
the church to its original state, and, when 
examined by competent authorities, the supposed 
Chapter House was found to be a beautiful 
little Gothic chapel with groined roof supported 



144 OCTOBER 

by a central pillar, similar to the building which 
once covered St. Margaret s well at Restalrig. 
Further explorations proved that the little 
octagonal building had evidently been raised 
over the miraculous well of St. Triduana, so 
much scoffed at by Reformation satirists. Steps 
led down to the water, thus covered in, and a 
chapel, which must have formed an upper 
story above the well, is thought to have been 
the " Triduana s Aisle" alluded to in ancient 
documents. The building has now been 
thoroughly restored after its original form and 
is regarded as a valuable monument of anti 
quity. Thus do more enlightened ages condemn 
the foolish fanaticism of bygone days ! 

This saint was honoured in various parts of 
Scotland, and her name has undergone so many 
changes in the different districts as to be often 
unrecognisable. It occurs under the various 
forms of Traddles, Tredwell, Tradwell, Tral- 
lew, Trallen, etc. 

Among these dedications are Kintradwell in 
Caithness and Trad lines in Forfarshire. Near 
the island of Papa Westray in the Orkneys is 
St. Tredwell s Loch, and on the east side of 



OCTOBER 145 

the loch is a small peninsula containing the 
ruins of a little building measuring 20 feet in 
length and 22 feet in breadth, known as St. 
Tredwell s Chapel. At Rescobie a fair used to 
be held on her feast-day, but in the beginning of 
last century it was transferred to Forfar. It 
was known as " St. Trodlin s Fair." Relics 
of this saint were honoured in Aberdeen 
Cathedral in Catholic ages. Devotion to St. 
Triduana has been revived in the modern 
Catholic church at Restalrig. 

11 St. Kenneth, Abbot, A,D. 599. 

WITH St. Columba, St. Bridget and St. 
Maelrubha, St. Kenneth ranks among the most 
popular of the Irish saints honoured in Scotland. 
He was the child of poor Irish parents, and 
was employed during his early years in tending 
sheep. When he attained the years of man 
hood he became a monk, and passed over to 
Wales, where he became the disciple of the 
renowned St. Cadoc. He was one of that 
saint s most beloved followers on account of his 
perfect obedience. After being ordained priest 
he made a pilgrimage to Rome, and returning 
L 



146 OCTOBER 

to Ireland became the disciple of St. Mobhi 
and St. Finnian. St. Columba, St. Comgall 
and St. Kiaran lived with him as members of 
the same community. 

Later on St. Kenneth visited Scotland, 
where he lived for some years as a monk. He 
is believed to have founded a monastery at St. 
Andrews and to have built churches in other 
parts of the country, converting many of the 
pagan inhabitants to Christianity by the fervour 
of his preaching. He spent some time at lona 
with St. Columba, and accompanied that saint 
in his visit to King Brude at Inverness, and it 
was St. Kenneth who, with the sign of the 
Cross, caused the King s hand to wither when 
he drew his sword against the missionaries. 

St. Kenneth died in Ireland. He founded 
the monastery of Aghaboe, and around it grew 
up the town of that name, which up to the 
twelfth century was the seat of the Bishops of 
Ossory, whose residence was later transferred 
to Kilkenny. In Scotland this saint had many 
dedications. Kilchenzie, in Kintyre ; Kilken- 
neth, in Tiree ; Kilchainnech, in lona ; Kil- 
chainie, in South Uist ; Laggan in Inverness- 



OCTOBER 147 

shire, and others. The great abbey of 
Cambuskenneth takes its name from him, as 
well as Chenzie Island, in the river of Islay, 
and Kennoway (anciently Kennochi) in Fife- 
shire. 

13 St. Comgan or Congan, Abbot, 8th century. 

THIS saint was the brother of the holy recluse, 
Kentigerna, whose life was given on January 
7th, and was consequently the son of a Prince 
of Leinster. On succeeding his father in the 
government of the province he ruled his people 
as a true Christian prince should do ; but, 
meeting with violent opposition from the neigh 
bouring chiefs, he was forced to fly the country 
to save his life. Taking with him his sister 
and her son, Fillan, he crossed over to Scotland, 
and settled in Lochalsh, Argyllshire. Here he 
lived many years as a monk in great austerity. 
He was far advanced in years when death 
came. He was buried at lona. 

His nephew, St. Fillan (see February 3), 
built a church in his honour at Lochalsh. 
There were also many other dedications to 
this saint in Scotland. Among them were 



148 OCTOBER 

Kilchowan in Kiltearn (Ross and Cromarty), 
Kilchoan or Kilcongan in the island of Seil, 
St. Coan in Strath (Skye), Kilquhoan in Ard- 
namurchan, Kilchoan in Knoydart, etc. The 
church of Turriff in Aberdeenshire was dedi 
cated to him, and the annual fair on his feast- 
day was called "Cowan Fair." A hospital of 
St. Congan was founded at that place in 1272 
by the Earl of Buchan, consisting of a collegiate 
establishment for a warden and six chaplains. 
Thirteen poor husbandmen of Buchan were 
maintained there. King Robert the Bruce 
added to its endowment. Some of the remains 
of this institution are known as " The Abbey 
Lands." Leo XIII. restored St. Comgan s 
feast to the Scottish calendar in 1 898. 

St. Fyndoca, Virgin, 

No particulars of this saint s life remain to us. 
Her feast occurs in the Breviary of Aberdeen 
on this day. She seems to have been specially 
venerated in the diocese of Dunblane. An 
old charter of the thirteenth century mentions 
a chapel dedicated to St. Fyndoca at Findo 
Cask, near Dunning, in Perthshire ; a fair was 



OCTOBER 149 

formerly held there for eight days from the 
saint s feast. There are ruins of an old building 
known as the chapel of St. Fink at Bendochy, 
near Coupar Angus ; this was probably one of 
her dedications. 

17 St, Rule, Abbot, (about) 6th century. 

AN old legend, long accepted as history, but 
rejected altogether by modern critics, makes 
this saint the bearer of the relics of St. 
Andrew from Patras in Achaia to Scot 
land in the fourth century. The story relates 
that Rule, when engaged in his duties as 
custodian of the apostle s shrine, was favoured 
with a Heavenly vision, in which an angel 
commanded him to set aside certain of the 
relics among them an arm-bone and three 
fingers of the Apostle and to conceal them 
for a time in a certain spot indicated. Another 
vision later on directed the holy man to set sail 
with the relics in a north-westerly direction 
" towards the ends of the earth," and when the 
vessel should be in danger of shipwreck on a 
northern coast to recognise that as a sign that a 
church should be built near that spot in honour 



1 50 OCTOBER 

of St. Andrew, where the relics should be 
enshrined. St. Rule is said to have carried 
out the command in company with many fellow 
voyagers, and to have founded the church of 
St. Andrew s, where he lived more than thirty 
years after his landing. A cave on the sea 
coast hard by still bears his name. He is said 
to have retired there for prayer. The old 
church of St. Rule, with its quaint, slender 
tower, was the first cathedral of the city, which 
formerly bore the saint s name. 

Most modern historians identify St. Rule 
with an Irish abbot of similar name who is 
honoured on this day. He was a contemporary 
of St. Kenneth, and probably ended his days 
at St. Andrews, after labouring there as a 
missionary. St. Rule is the patron of Moni- 
fieth, Forfarshire ; of Meikle Folia, near 
Fyvie, Aberdeenshire ; and of Kenneth- 
mont, Aberdeenshire, where an ancient fair, 
held on the second Tuesday in October as late 
as the beginning of last century, was known 
as " Trewell Fair." There was a chapel of 
St. Rule at St. Cyrus (formerly called Eccles- 
greig) in Kincardineshire. 



OCTOBER 1 5 1 

21 St. Mund or Fintan-Munnu, Abbot, A.D. 635, 

HE was born in Ireland, and was a contem 
porary of St. Columba. He bears the char 
acter of being the most austere of all the Irish 
saints, and suffered grievously from bodily in 
firmities with the greatest resignation. Crossing 
over to Scotland, he dwelt for a time upon an 
island of Loch Leven, still called after him by 
the title of Eileanmunde. 

A more important foundation was afterwards 
made by this saint at Kilmun, north of the 
Firth of Clyde, in Argyllshire. An old burial 
ground still marks the site of the monastery 
founded by St. Mund ; the hills and wooded 
glens which surround the spot make up a scene 
of striking beauty. A small bay in the vicinity 
is called " Holy Loch/ It is a matter of 
dispute whether the title came from its proximity 
to St. Mund s foundation or from a shipload of 
earth from the Holy Land, destined to form 
part of the foundation of a church in Glasgow, 
and reputed to have been sunk in a storm near 
that spot. 

It is said that St. Mund* made application to 
Baithen, St. Columba s successor at lona, to be 



152 OCTOBER 

received as a monk of that monastery, but 
that Baithen advised the saint to return to 
Ireland and found a monastery there. The 
holy abbot gave this advice on account of a 
prophecy of St. Columba, who had foreseen 
St. Mund s desire, and had declared that God 
willed that saint to become abbot over others 
and not the disciple of Baithen. 

It was owing to this advice that St. Mund 
returned to his native land and founded Teach- 
Mun (Tagmon) in Wexford, which became 
famous under his rule. 

Mediaeval documents mention the saint s 
pastoral staff as preserved in Argyllshire ; its 
hereditary custodian held a small croft at 
Kilmun ; it may have been in honour of this 
saint that a fair was held at that place for eight 
days during April as alluded to in records of 
1 490. No trace of the above relic now remains. 
In Ireland this saint is known as St. Fintan- 
Munnu ; but Mundus or Mund is the title 
which appears in Scottish records. 

26 St, Bean, Bishop, llth century. 
THIS saint was venerated at Fowls Wester 



OCTOBER 153 

and Kinkell, both in Perthshire. His well is 
pointed out at the former place, and his fair is 
held there. St. Bean is inserted in the calendar 
of the Breviary of Aberdeen, but few par 
ticulars of his life are known to us. Tradition 
makes him Bishop of Mortlach, in Banffshire, 
though the existence of such a see is not generally 
admitted. St. Bean, probably resided at Mort 
lach of which he became patron (in succession 
to St. Moluag see June 25) ; he is said to 
have ruled a monastery of Culdees there. An 
ancient stone effigy, in existence in the 
eighteenth century in Mortlach Church, was 
supposed to represent the saint ; nothing of the 
kind is now to be seen. Balvenie, in the 
neighbourhood, is thought to be derived from 
Bal-beni-mor (" dwelling of Bean the Great "). 
The feast of St. Bean was restored to Scot 
land by Leo XIII. 

St. Eata, Bishop, A.D. 686. 

HE was one of the boys trained by St. Aidan 
in the monastery of Lindisfarne. When he 
grew to manhood he made his profession as a 
monk of that abbey, and in after years became 



1 54 OCTOBER 

Abbot of Old Melrose, where St. Boisil and 
St. Cuthbert were among his disciples. He 
became Bishop of Lindisfarne, and was after 
wards translated to the See of Hexham. He 
was buried in Hexham Cathedral. 

30 St. Talarican, Bishop, A.D. (about) 720. 

THIS saint has been claimed as one of the 
Irish missionaries to Scotland, but competent 
authorities maintain that his name shows him 
to have been of Pictish origin, and they add 
that the Irish calendars do not contain a saint 
whose name can be identified with that of 
Talarican. The saint is said to have been 
raised to the episcopate by Pope Gregory 
(perhaps St. Gregory II.). It is specially said 
of him that he was careful to offer Holy Mass 
every day. His life was one of stern discip 
line. He laboured in the northern districts of 
Scotland, and his popularity is shown by the 
numerous dedications in his name. 

The large district of Kiltarlity in Inverness- 
shire, in which Beauly Priory was situated, 
takes its name from St. Talarican. A church 
and burial-ground known as Ceilltarraglan once 



OCTOBER 155 

existed in the Isle of Skye ; it was situated on 
the plain above the rocks to the north of Loch 
Portree. In the island of Taransay we find 
Eaglais Tarain, or Church of Talarican. The 
saint is also associated with the church of For- 
dyce, in Banffshire, where a fair was held on his 
feast and during the octave. There is a St. 
Tarkin s Well at Fordyce and another in the 
parish of Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, is thought to 
own this saint as patron. Leo XIII. restored 
St. Talarican s feast to the Scottish Calendar. 

St. Monoch, 

AT Stevenson, in Ayrshire, an annual fair was 
formerly held on October 30th, which was 
called "Sam Maneuke s, " or "St. Monk s Day"; 
it has long been discontinued. An old will of 
the sixteenth century points to this saint as the 
patron of the town. Archibald Weir, in his 
testament, dated October 7th, 1547, says : " I 
give and bequeath my soul to God Almighty 
and my body to be buried in the church of St. 
Monoch, of Steynstoune." A procession once 
took place annually on this day in the above 
locality. It was doubtless the remnant of some 



156 OCTOBER 

popular Catholic demonstration in honour of 
the patronal feast ; though mentioned as late as 
1845 it has now disappeared. In the parish 
of Sorn, in the same county, is an estate known 
by the designation of Auchmannoch. which 
probably refers to this saint. 

31 St. Bees or Begha, Virgin, A,D. (about) 660. 

THIS saint was of royal Irish race. In her 
youth she was promised in marriage to a 
Norwegian prince, but as she had vowed vir 
ginity in her earliest years she fled from home 
to escape the force which might possibly be 
brought to bear upon her to bring about the 
proposed union. Embarking alone in a small 
boat, she made her way to the opposite coast of 
Northumbria. Here she dwelt for some time 
in a woodland retreat, after receiving the 
monastic habit from St. Aidan, the bishop. 
She afterwards presided over a community of 
virgins, whose government she eventually 
resigned to St. Hilda. St. Begha founded 
another monastery in Strathclyde, which was 
known by her name. The tongue of land on 
which it stood is still called St. Bee s Head. 



NOVEMBER 157 

In this retreat she died in the odour of sanctity. 

Kilbagie, in Clackmannan, is probably named 

after this saint, and also Kilbucho (Church of 

Begha), in the parish of Broughton, Peebleshire. 

NOVEMBER 



3 St. Malachy, Archbishop, A.D. 1148. 

Among the Irish saints who benefited Scot 
land, the illustrious contemporary and dear 
friend of his biographer, St. Bernard, must not 
be omitted. St. Malachy, Archbishop of 
Armagh, twice visited Scotland. On his return 
from one of his visits to Rome, he stayed with 
King David I., and by his prayers restored to 
life the monarch s son, Prince Henry, who was 
in danger of death. During this visit, St. 
Malachy erected an oratory of wattles and clay 
on the sea-shore near Port Patrick. St. 
Bernard relates that the saint not only directed 
the work but laboured with his own hands in 
its construction. He blessed the cemetery 
adjoining, which was arranged according to 
Irish usage, within a deep fosse. The second 
visit to Scotland was shortly before St. Malachy 



158 NOVEMBER 

set out on that last journey to the continent 
from which he never returned, dying on 
November 2nd, 1 148, in St. Bernard s own 
Abbey of Clairvaux. He had set his heart on 
founding a monastery in Scotland at a place 
called Viride Stagnum, " The Green Lake," 
situated about three miles from the present 
town of Stranraer. There he marked out the 
boundaries, and established a community brought 
from one of his Irish houses. St. Bernard 
alludes to a monastery in Scotland as the last 
founded by St. Malachy, and this is undoubt 
edly the one referred to. Later on, this 
monastery, which acquired the name of Soul- 
seat (Sedes Animarum), was peopled by Pre- 
monstratensian Canons, brought from St. 
Norbert s own house of Premontre. It became 
known in after ages as Saulseat. 

St. Nidan, Bishop, about the 6th century. 

HE was one of the Welsh disciples of St. 
Kentigern, and probably accompanied him on 
his return to Scotland (see pp. 47-8). He is 
said to have evangelised the part of Deeside 
round Midmar, of which he was the patron. 



NOVEMBER 159 

St, Englatius, Abbot, A.D. 996. 

THIS saint, whose feast-day appears in the 
calendar of the Aberdeen Breviary, is associated 
with the parish of Tarves in Aberdeenshire, 
where he is known by the name of Tanglan. 
There is a " Tanglan s Well " in the village, 
and a " Tanglan s " Ford on the river Ythan. 

St. Baya or Yey, Virgin, about the 9th century. 

SHE is said to have inhabited the island of 
Little Cumbrae, where she lived in solitude 
surrounded by birds and beasts. The ruins 
of an ancient chapel, called that of St. Vey, 
are still to be seen, and the saint is believed to 
have been buried there. Tradition tells us, in 
proof of her love of solitude, that when the 
Rector of Dunbar attempted to carry off St. 
Baya s relics, a furious storm arose through the 
saint s intervention, and compelled him to 
desist. Kilbag Head in Lewis is probably 
named after a church dedicated to this saint. 

St. Maura, Virgin, about the 9th century. 

THIS saint was a friend of St. Baya, and used 
to visit her upon her island for spiritual con- 



160 NOVEMBER 

verse. She is said to have governed a very 
austere community of virgins consecrated to 
God. She died at Kilmaurs (Church of 
Maura) in Ayrshire. 

6 -St. Methven. 

THERE are no particulars extant concerning 
the life of this saint, and it is therefore im 
possible to determine the time in which he 
flourished. A church bearing the name of St. 
Methven formerly stood in the parish of 
Fowlis Wester, in Perthshire. A fair used to 
be held there on this day in each year, locally 
known as St. Methvenmas Market. The day 
itself was observed as a holiday. Like most of 
such remains of Catholic merry-makings, the 
custom has long disappeared. 

8 St. Moroc, Bishop. 

SOME writers maintain that this saint was 
formerly Abbot of Dunkeld. His name cer 
tainly survives in that neighbourhood in Kil- 
morick, where a spring is called St. Mureach s 
Well. Another church named after this saint 
was at Lecropt, near Stirling, and here his 



NOVEMBER 161 

body is said by tradition to have been laid to 
rest. Kilimrack (Beauly) has been sometimes 
ascribed to this saint, but the more reliable 
authorities give it as one of Our Lady s dedi 
cations. The period in which St. Moroc 
flourished is not known with any degree of 
certainty. 

St. Gervadsus OP Gernadius, Hermit, A.D. 934, 

THIS saint was of Irish nationality. Longing 
for a life of entire seclusion from the world, he 
left his native land and took up his residence 
in Scotland. He is said to have lived many 
years as a hermit in the province of Moray, 
and in corroboration of the tradition a cave 
was formerly pointed out in the parish of 
Drainie, near Elgin, known as " Gerar din s 
Cave," it was situated on the height behind the 
modern Station Hotel at Lossiemouth. For 
many centuries this habitation was intact. It 
had an ancient Gothic doorway and window- 
opening, but these were demolished more than 
a hundred years ago by a drunken sailor. Since 
1870 the whole face of the cliff known as 
" Holyman s Head," including the cave, has 
M 



162 NOVEMBER 

been quarried. No trace now remains of the 
spring of water there, called " Gerardin s 
Well," from which the anchorite drank a 
thousand years ago. 

It is said that a monastery was founded by 
this saint at Kennedar, in the same parish of 
Drainie where he associated himself with many 
fellow-soldiers in Christ, and built a church 
under the direction of angels. The remains of 
Kineddar Castle, a residence of the Bishops of 
Moray, may still be seen there. Tradition tells 
that on stormy nights, the saint was wont to 
pace the beach below his cell, lantern in hand, 
to warn off vessels from the dangerous rocks. 
This is commemorated in the Lossiemouth 
Burgh seal, which represents the saint with his 
lantern and bears the motto : Per noctem lux. 
A Presbyterian church erected at Stotfield 
(Lossiemouth) in recent years bears the name 
of "St. Gerardine." 

12 St. Machar or Mocumma, Bishop, 6th century. 

THIS saint was the son of Fiachna, an Irish 
chieftain, and was baptised by St. Colman. In 
his youth he became a disciple of the great St. 



NOVEMBER 163 

Columba, and when that saint went to Scotland, 
Machar accompanied him, together with eleven 
other disciples. After some years he was 
made a bishop, and was sent by St. Columba 
with twelve companions to preach to the pagan 
Picts of Strathdon, in the north-east of Scot 
land. It is said that his holy master com 
manded him to found a church in the spot 
where he should find a river forming by its 
windings the shape of a bishop s pastoral staff. 
Such a configuration he found in the river Don, 
at the spot now known as Old Aberdeen. 
Here he accordingly fixed his seat, and the 
cathedral that rose from the humble beginnings 
of a church instituted by Machar now bears 
his name. 

Besides the old Cathedral of Aberdeen, 
there are in the same county two parishes, 
formerly joined in one, which are known as 
New and Old Machar, respectively. At Kil- 
drummie, in Aberdeenshire, is a place called 
(after the saint) " Macker s Haugh." There 
is St. Machar s Well, near the cathedral, at 
Old Aberdeen ; the water used always to be 
taken for baptismal purposes to the cathedral. 



164 NOVEMBER 

At Corgarff, in Strathdon, is another spring 
known as Tobar Mhachar (the well of St. 
Machar) ; miracles were formerly obtained 
there. Of this spring the legend is related of a 
priest, in time of famine, drawing from it three 
fine salmon which lasted him for food till 
supplies came from other quarters. 

St. Machar s feast was restored to Scotland 
by Pope Leo XIII. in 1898. 

13 St. Devenick, about the 6th century. 

TRADITION tells that this saint was a contem 
porary of the former, and preached the Gospel 
in Caithness. A legend relates that his body 
was borne for burial to Banchory Devenick, 
in Kincardineshire, in accordance with his 
continually expressed desire to rest in the 
district of St. Machar, whom he had tenderly 
loved during life. A church was afterwards 
built over his relics, and named after him. 

Criech, in Sutherlandshire, was probably 
another of his churches, if he is the saint known 
there as St. Teavneach. Besides a fair of great 
antiquity, known as " Dennick s ", held at 
Milton of Glenesk, Forfarshire, another at 



NOVEMBER 165 

Methlick, Aberdeenshire, held in November 
about this date, bore the same name ; this 
implies that the respective churches are dedi 
cated to him, as fairs bearing saints names had 
their origin in all instances in the concourse of 
people assembled for the celebration of the 
patronal feast of a church. St. Devenick s 
Well is near Methlick church. 

15 St. Machutus, or Malo, Bishop, A.D. 565. 

THE Aberdeen Breviary gives on this day the 
feast of the British saint who became one of 
the apostles of Brittany and is commemorated 
there by the town of St. Malo. 

There is no record of this saint s residence 
in Scotland, but his cultus flourished there, 
possibly on account of his connection with St. 
Brendan (see May 16). Lesmahago, the site 
of a Benedictine monastery, takes its name from 
him, the title being a corrupt form of Ecclesia 
Sti. Machuti (Church of St. Machutus). 
Wigtown church, also, was dedicated to this 
saint. 

16 St. Margaret, Queen, A.D. 1093. 
IT is impossible here to say much in detail of 



166 NOVEMBER 

the life of the saintly queen who is regarded as 
one of the heavenly patrons of the Kingdom of 
Scotland ; but to omit all notice of her would 
make our calendar incomplete. It will be 
sufficient to note briefly the chief events of her 
life. St. Margaret was granddaughter to 
Edmund Ironside. Her father, Edward, 
having to fly for his life to Hungary, married 
Agatha, the sister-in-law of the king. Three 
children were born to them. When Edward 
the Confessor ascended the English throne, 
Prince Edward returned with his family to his 
native land, but died a few years after. When 
William the Conqueror obtained the crown, 
Edgar, the son of Edward, thought it more 
prudent to retire from England, and took 
refuge with his mother and sisters at the court 
of Malcolm III. of Scotland, having been 
driven on the Scottish coast by a tempest. 
Malcolm, attracted by the virtue and beauty of 
Margaret, made her his bride, and for the 
thirty years she reigned in Scotland she was a 
model queen. The historian Dr. Skene says 
of her : " There is perhaps no more beautiful 
character recorded in history than that of 



NOVEMBER 167 

Margaret. For purity of motives, for an 
earnest de:ire to benefit the people among 
whom her lot was cast, for a deep sense of 
religion and great personal piety, for the unselfish 
performance of whatever duty lay before her, 
and for entire self-abnegation she is unsurpassed, 
and the chroniclers of the time all bear witness 
to her exalted character." Her solicitude 
for the nation was truly maternal. She set 
herself to combat, with zeal and energy, the 
abuses which had crept into the practice of 
religion, taking a prominent part with her 
royal husband as the interpreter of her southern 
speech in many councils summoned at her 
instigation. She loved and befriended clergy 
and monks, and was lavish in her charity to the 
poor. Her own children, through her training 
and example, were one and all distinguished for 
piety and virtue. Her three sons, Edgar, 
Alexander and David, were remarkable for 
their unparalleled purity of life : David s two 
grandsons, Malcolm IV. and William, and 
William s son and grandson, Alexander II. 
and III., were noble Catholic kings. Thus 
did the influence of this saintly queen extend 



168 NOVEMBER 

over the space of two hundred years and form 
monarchs of extraordinary excellence to rule 
Scotland wisely and well. 

St. Margaret died on the 16th of November 
at the age of forty-seven. Her body was 
buried with that of King Malcolm, who had 
been killed in battle only four days before her 
own death, in the church they had founded at 
Dunfermline. At the Reformation her relics 
were secretly carried into Spain, together with 
the remains of her husband, and placed in the 
Escurial. Her head, with a quantity of her 
long, fair hair, was preserved for a time by the 
Scottish Jesuits at Douai. The sacred relics 
disappeared in the French Revolution. Fairs 
on the saint s feast-day, known as " Margaret- 
mas," were held at Wick, Closeburn (Dumfries 
shire) and Balquhapple (now Thornhill) in 
Kincardineshire. St. Margaret s Well at 
Restalrig near Edinburgh, was once covered by 
a graceful Gothic building, whose groined roof 
rested on a central pillar ; steps led down to 
the level of the water. It is thought to have 
been erected at the same period as that 
covering St. Triduana s Well in the same place. 



NOVEMBER 169 

When the North British Railway required the 
spot for the building of storehouses, the well- 
house was removed to Queen s Park, where it 
still stands, but the spring has disappeared (see 
October 8th). Innocent XII. at the petition 
of James VII. (and II.) in 1693, placed St. 
Margaret s feast on June 10th, the birthday of 
the King s son James (stigmatised the " Old 
Pretender"), but Leo XIII., in 1898, restored 
it for the Scottish calendar to the day of her 
death. 

18 St. Fergus, Bishop, 8th century. 

THIS saint, a Pict by nationality, is said to 
have been for many years a bishop in Ireland. 
Moved by a desire to benefit the pagans of the 
northern districts of Scotland, he left Ireland 
and returned to his own land, accompanied by 
a few priests and clerics, and settled in Strath- 
earn. Here he founded three churches, which 
he dedicated to St. Patrick. Passing north 
wards he visited Caithness, and after preaching 
the Gospel there for some time he travelled to 
Buchan, where he built a church at Lungley, a 
place afterwards known as St. Fergus. Finally 



1 70 NOVEMBER 

he moved on to Glamis, in Forfarshire, where 
he founded another church, and it was here that 
he ended his life and was buried. 

Several dedications to this saint are to be 
found in the northern and eastern parts of 
Scotland. The churches of Wick and Halkirk, 
in Caithness ; Dyce and St. Fergus, in Aber- 
deenshire ; and his well, called " Fergan 
Well," at Kirkmichael, in Banffshire, famous 
for its miraculous efficacy in curing skin diseases : 
all these bear witness to the devotion borne 
towards St. Fergus by Scottish Catholics in 
past ages. An annual fair was held at Glamis 
on his feast-day (known as " Fergusmas "), and 
continued for five days. Another fair took 
place at Wick. 

Other proofs of his connection with Scotland 
are seen in the traces of the three churches 
founded by the saint in Strathearn : Strogeth- 
St.-Patrick, Blackford-St.-Patrick, and Dol- 
patrick. 

The head of St. Fergus was venerated in 
the Abbey of Scone, where James IV. pro^ 
vided a silver reliquary for it. His arm was 
preserved at Aberdeen, in the old cathedral. 



NOVEMBER 171 

The pastoral staff of the saint, long treasured at 
St. Fergus, in Buchan, is said to have calmed a 
storm on that coast. No traces now remain 
of it. 

An ancient image of St. Fergus existed at 
Wick until 1613, when it was destroyed by a 
minister, who was drowned by the indignant 
people for his action. The saint s holy well 
was honoured there. He is thought to be the 
same " Fergus, the Pict, Bishop of the Scots," 
who took part in a Synod in St. Peter s at 
Rome under Pope Gregory II. in A.D. 721. 

Pope Leo XIII. restored the feast of St. 
Fergus in 1898. 

26 St. Christina, Virgin, A.D. (about) 1085. 

THIS saint, though brought into close con 
nection with the country, was not of Scottish 
lineage. She was the sister of St. Margaret, 
and therefore the daughter of Edward the 
Etheling. Together with her mother Agatha, 
sister to the Queen of Hungary, Christina took 
the veil in the Benedictine Abbey of Romsey, 
in Hampshire. Here both royal ladies became 
distinguished for holiness. Matilda, daughter 



1 72 NOVEMBER 

of St. Margaret, was educated by her aunt at 
Romsey. She became known as the " good 
Queen Maud " after she had married Henry I. 
of England. St. Christina died in the odour 
of sanctity about the year 108!?. 

27 St. Oda or Odda, Virgin, about 8th century. 

SHE is said to have been a daughter of a 
Scottish king. Having the misfortune to lose 
her sight, she made a pilgrimage to the tomb of 
St. Lambert the martyr, at Liege, to implore 
the help of that renowned wonder-worker. Her 
faith was rewarded by a cure, and Oda resolved, 
in gratitude for the favour, to dedicate herself to 
God in the religious state. She therefore 
retired to a hermitage in Brabant, where she 
spent her remaining years in prayer and 
penance, winning from Heaven many graces for 
the people of that district. After her death her 
relics were enshrined in a collegiate church in 
the town of Rhode, and she became the chief 
patron of the place. 

It is remarkable that the feast of this saint 
was inserted in the calendar drawn up for 
the Scottish Episcopal Church by order of 



NOVEMBER 1 73 

Charles I. St. Oda s supposed royal descent 
is thought to have won for her this distinction. 

28 St. Callen. 

NOTHING more is known concerning this saint 
than the facts that the church of Rogart, in 
Sutherlandshire, was dedicated to St. Callen, 
and a fair, known as " St. Callen s Fair, was 
formerly held there on this day. 

30 St. Andrew, Apostle, Patron of Scotland. 

WE cannot reckon St. Andrew among the 
national saints of Scotland, for he lived and 
died far from these northern lands. Scotland 
cannot even claim connection with him on the 
ground of having received missionaries from 
him, as England can boast of her connection 
with St. Gregory the Great. Yet from time 
immemorial so far back that history cannot 
point to any precise date St. Andrew has 
been venerated as the special protector of 
Scotland, and his feast, known as "Andrew- 
mas," celebrated everywhere with great rejoicing. 
The legend of St. Regulus (see October 17) 
which attributes to that saint the bringing of 



174 DECEMBER 

the apostle s relics to the country is re,ecteJ by 
modern historians. The origin of devotion to 
St. Andrew in Scotland is neverthe ess due to 
the translation of the apostle s relics thither 
(probably from Hexham) during the eighth 
century. These relics were undoubtedly hon 
oured with much devotion at the place which 
was afterwards known by the name of the great 
Apostle, and eventually became the Primatial 
See of thtf* country. 

Whatever be the true facts of the case, St. 
Andrew has been invoked for more than one 
thousand years as the Patron of Scotland, 
whose battle-cry in the ages of faith was " For 
God and St. Andrew." 

DECEMBER 

2 St, Ethernan, Bishop. 

THIS saint belonged to a noble Scottish family 
and was sent to Ireland for his education. On 
returning to his native land, he devoted himself 
to the work of preaching the Faith among his 
countrymen in the province of Buchan, Aber- 
deenshire. He eventually became a bishop. 



DECEMBER 1 75 

On the east side of the hill of Mormond 
near Rathen, in Aberdeenshire, is a place 
called " St. Ethernan s Den " ; it is believed 
to have been the spot chosen by the saint as 
his hermitage. The neighbouring church of 
Rathen is dedicated to him. The church of 
Kilrenny in Fifeshire, popularly known as "St. 
Irnie s," is probably one of his dedications ; it 
is a favourite landmark for mariners. St. 
Ethernan s well is there. At Forfar a fair was 
annually held on this day under the name of 
" Tuetheren s Fair.* He was also honoured 
at Madderty in Perthshire. 

There seems to have been a chapel of this 
saint in the old monastic church on the Isle 
of May ; as, by an ancient charter, Alexander 
Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, grants a stone of wax 
or forty shillings yearly to " St. Ethernan of 
the Isle of May, and the monks serving God 
and St. Ethernan in that place." 

6 St. Constantine III., King, A.D. (about) 9*5. 

THE life of this saint is involved in obscurity. 
According to the most probable account he was 
a Scottish King, who resigned his crown after a 



1 76 DECEMBER 

reign of more than forty years, and retired, as 
the Chronicle of the Picts and Scots relates, " to 
the monastery on the brink of the waves and 
died in the house of the Apostle." This 
monastery was probably the Culdee establish 
ment at St. Andrews. A cave near Fife Ness 
called after the saint, and marked by many 
pilgrims crosses, is supposed to have been his 
place of retirement for prayer. 

7 St. Buite, Monk, A,D. 521, 

HE was born in Ireland, and from his infancy 
was believed to possess miraculous powers. 
Early writers compare him with Venerable Bede 
for his virtues and mode of life. He is said to 
have lived many years in a monastery in Italy, 
and to have returned, by Divine admonition, to 
his native land, taking with him many copies of 
the Holy Scriptures together with sacred vest 
ments and numerous holy relics. On his 
journey he was joined by a number of pilgrims 
who desired to live under his rule ; accordingly 
he sailed with his company for North Britain, 
and landed in Pictish territory, where he is said 
to have restored the king of the country to life 



DECEMBER 177 

by his prayers. Receiving as a reward the royal 
fort in which the miracle had taken place, St. 
Buite founded a monastery there, and remained 
for some time instructing the people of the 
country in the Faith. Eventually he returned 
to Ireland. 

Dunnichen, in Angus, is thought to be the 
site of St. Buite s foundation. Near it are still 
to be seen the remains of an ancient fortress 
known as Carbuddo or Caer Buido (Buite s 
Fort). The saint is said to have foretold the 
birth of St. Columba, which occurred on the 
very day upon which St. Buite himself died. 

11 St, Obert, 

ALL that is now known of this saint is that he 
was honoured in Perth in Catholic ages as the 
patron saint of bakers. On December 10, 
known as St. Obert s Eve, the bakers of that 
city were accustomed to pass through the streets 
in procession by torchlight, playing pipes and 
beating drums, and wearing various disguises. 
One of their number used to wear a dress 
known as " The Devil s Coat." Another rode 
on a horse shod with men s shoes. In its 
N 



1 78 DECEMBER 

primitive form this pastime was probably some 
kind of sacred drama representing the chief 
features in the life of the saint ; but its 
character had changed in the course of time. 

On account of their connection with the 
ancient faith such performances gave great 
offence to the Puritans. In 1581 "an Act 
against idolatrous and superstitious pastimes, 
especially against the Sanct Obert s Play," was 
issued by the Session. It seems to have had 
little effect, for again in 1 587 the bakers were 
required " to take order for the amendment of 
the blasphemous and heathenish plays of Sanct 
Obert s pastime." Eventually in 1 588, several 
" insolent young men " were imprisoned for 
their " idolatrous pastime in playing of Sanct 
Obert s play, to the great grief of the conscience 
of the faithful and infamous slander of the haill 
congregation." 



17 St. Crunmael, Abbot. 

No particulars of the life of this saint are 
extant, beyond the fact that he was one of 
the Abbots of lona. 



DECEMBER 1 79 

18 St. Flannan, Confessor. 

THIS saint was of Irish nationality ; the precise 
period at which he lived is uncertain. The 
group of islands to the west of Lewis are called 
after him, the Flannan Islands. On the largest 
of these seven islands are the remains of a 
chapel known as Teampull Beannachadh (St. 
Flannan s Chapel). This seems to indicate 
that the saint resided there at some period, 
though no record remains of the fact beyond 
the traditional designation of the ruins. The 
Flannan Islands have always been regarded by 
the people of Lewis with almost superstitious 
veneration. 



St. Manire, Bishop, A.D. 824. 

THIS was a saint of Scottish nationality, who 
laboured in Deeside. He was especially 
honoured at Crathie and Balvenie. He was a 
strenuous opponent of the idolatrous or super 
stitious practices which the half-barbarous 
people to whom he preached were accustomed 
to introduce into their worship of God. He is 
said to have mastered the many dialects then 



180 DECEMBER 

spoken in the district which he inhabited, in 
order to be able to preach the Faith to all. 

22 St. Ethernascus, Confessor. 

FROM his retired life and spirit of recollection 
this Irish saint was known as " Ethernascus, 
who spoke not," or "The Silent." He was 
one of the chief patrons of Clane, in the county 
of Kildare. It is difficult to determine what 
was his precise connection with Scotland, but 
his office occurs with a proper prayer in the 
Breviary of Aberdeen. The church of 
Lathrisk, in Fifeshire, was dedicated to St. 
Ethernascus conjointly with St. John the 
Evangelist. 

23 St, Caran, Bishop, A.D. 663. 

THIS was an east country saint who was for 
merly held in honour at Fetteresso and Drum- 
lithie in The Mearns, and at Premnay in 
Aberdeenshire. There are also traces of his 
cultus in Strathmore, Caithness. At Drum- 
lithie is a spring known as St. Carran s Well. 
His fair was formerly held on this day at 
Anstruther, Fifeshire. Some of these dedica- 



DECEMBER 181 

tions have been, by certain writers, accredited 
to another saint Kieran (September 9). No 
particulars of St. Caran s life are extant. 

St. Mayota or Mazota, Virgin, 6th century. 

IT is maintained by some writers that the great 
St. Bridget, one of the chief glories of Ire and, 
visited Scotland in the beginning of the sixth 
century, and founded a monastery for women at 
Abernethy, which she dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin. Over this house St. Darlughdach 
was placed as superior ; or, as some think, she 
was the real foundress. St. Mayota was one 
of the nine virgins who came from Ireland to 
form the first community at Abernethy. She 
is said to have been remarkable for having 
wrought many striking miracles in her lifetime. 
The church of Drumoak or Dulmaoak (Field 
of St. Mayota), situated near the Dee, takes its 
name from this saint. A spring in the 
neighbourhood is called "St. Maikie s Well." 

25 St. Bathan, Bishop, A.D. (about) 639. 

IN a letter to the Scots from Pope John IV. 
mention is ma j e of th s saint as especially 



182 DECEMBER 

connected with Scotland. No particulars of 
his life are now known, but his cultus can be 
traced by the churches dedicated to him. 
Abbey St. Bathans, a parish in Berwickshire, 
takes its name from this saint. The ruins of an 
abbey for Cistercian nuns are there, and in a 
wooded nook, in the vicinity is a spring called 
St. Bathan s Well. In addition to a reputation 
for healing diseases, it has the unusual quality 
of never freezing ; a mill-stream into which it 
flows is said to be never blocked with ice in 
winter. The parish of Yester (Haddington- 
shire) formerly bore the name of St. Bathan s, 
and the parish of Bowden in Roxburghshire 
probably takes its designation from the same 
saint. 

ALL YE SAINTS OF SCOTLAND, 
PRAY FOR US. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abbey St. Bathans 182 

Abb s Head 123 

Aberchirder 33 

Abercorn 101 
Abercrombie (St. Mon- 

an s) 34 

Aberdeen 109, 163 

Aberdour 91, 95, 106, 107 

Aberlednock 101 

Aberlour 107 
Abernethy 16, 17, 93, 

108, 181 

Abersnethick 48 

Abriachan 137 

Aboyne 137 

Adanman, St. 136 

,, of Coldingham 15 

Adrian (Odhran), St. 35 

Aidan, St. 125 

Airlie 74 

Aldhame 37 

Alexander, Bl. 114 

Alloa 6 

Alness 91 

Alva 100 

Alvah 91 

Alvie 107 

Alyth 98, 134 

Andrew, St. 173 

" Andre wmas" 173 

Angus, St. 117 

Anstruther 180 

Applecross 67 seq. 



Arasaig 69 

Arbirlot 134 

Arbroath 9, 39, 134 

Arbuthnott 94 

Ardchattan 19, 82 

Ardeonaig 138 

Ard-Marnoc 33 

Ard-Patrick 46 

Arduthie 39 

Argyle Cathedral 98 
Arnold (Adanman), St. 139 

Arnty( ,, ), St. 139 

Arran 66 

Asaph, St. 76 

Ashkirk 134 

Auchinblae 105 

Auchterarder 41 

Auchterawe 98 

Auchterless 66 
Annan (Adanman), St. 139 

Ayr 6 
Baitan (Baithen), St. 91 

Baldred, St. 36 

Ballantrae 51 

Balmodhan 19 

Balquhidder 117 

Balvenie 153, 179 

Bancliory 93, 94, 164 

Bannockburn 17 

Barr 141 

Barr (Finbar), St. 139 

Barra 80, 143 

Barvas 100 



i86 



INDEX 



Bass Rock 


36 Brioc (Brock), St. 


75 


Bathan, St. 


181 Buchanan 


3 


Bay a (Vey), St. 


159 Buite, St. 


176 


Bay, St. Ficker s 


124 Burn of Marran (Mirin 


) 


Bean, St. 


*5 2 


132 


Bearnarey 


77 Bute, Isle of 80, 81 




Bed, St. Kevin s 


87 in, 


118 


,, St. Molios 


67 Cadroe, St. 


37 


Bees (Begha), St. 


1 56 Cadzow 


142 


Beith 


120 Caer- Winning . 


54 


Beldorny 


1 3 Calaverock 


9i 


Bell 


Callander 


41 


St. Adamnan s 


139 Callen, St. 


*73 


Bai tan s 


92 Campbeltown 


130 


Blaan s 


1 1 9 Cambuskenneth 


J 47 


Duthac s 


39 Canibusnethan 9 1 , 


126 


Fillan s 


1 8 Campsie 138, 


141 


Finan s 


44 Candida Casa 


133 


Kessog s 


41 Cannisbay 


107 


Lolan s 


136 Cantyre see Kin tyre 




Middan s 


74 Caran, St. 


1 80 


Moluag s 


99 Carluke 


116 


Ternan s 


93 Carniacheasaig 


40 


Yrchard s 


122 Cathan, St. 


81 


Bendochy 


149 Cave of Geradin 


161 


Ben Eunaich 


138 St. Baldred 


37 


Berchan, St. 


113 Kevin 


87 


Birnie 


80 Kieran 


129 


Birsay 


63 Medana 


103 


Birse 


91 Molios 


67 


Blaan, St, 


118 Serf . 


100 


Blackford-St. -Patrick 
Blair Athole 


170 Ceilltarraglan (Skye) 
138 Chair of St. Fillan 


154 

o; 


Blaithmaic, St. 


7 St. Inan 


s J 

120 


Boisil (Boswell), St. 


29 , , Machalus 


74 


Boniface (Curitan), St. 


45 Chapel Dockie 


129 


Bothelney 


12 Chapel Rock 


no 


Botriphnie 
Bowden 


78 Chapelton 
182 Chapeltown 


23 

74 


Boyndie 


80 Charmaig, St. 


44 


Brandan (Brendan), St. 


79 Chenzie Island 


H7 


Bridget, St. 


1 6 Christina, St. 


171 



INDEX 



187 



Chroman(Chronan), St 


i 


Crunmael, St. 178 


Clan Chattan 


82 


Culross 99 seq. 


Clatt 


98 


Cumbrae 76 


Closeburn 


1 68 


Cumbrae, Little 159 


Coivin (Kevin), St. 


87 


Cumine, St. 3 


Coldingham 16, 59, 123, 


126 


Cumnock 84 


Colman, St. 


25 


Cunibert, St. 73 


Colmoc, St. 


87 


Cunningham 2, 54 


Colonsay 


82 


Curitan (Boniface), St. 45 


Columba, St. 


88 


Currie 6 


Conigall, St. 


78 


Cuthbert, St. 29 seq, 48 


Comgan (Congan), St. 




Dabius (Davius), St. no 


2, 


147 


Daganus, St. 86 


Commari, St. 


48 


Dalkerran 1 30 


Comrie 41 


, 94 


Dalmally 10, 138 


Conan 


8 


Dalmarnock 33 


Conan, St. 


10 


Dalmeny 1 38 


Conran, St. 


23 


Dalpatrick 46 


Constantino, St. 


41 


Dalruadhain 1 29 


Constantine III., St. 


!75 


Dairy 54 


Contin 


69 


Dalserf 141 


Conval, St. (King) 


61 


Dalziel 47 


Conval, St. 


83 


Damsey 1 38 


Corgarff 


164 


Darlugdach, St. 1, 108, 


Cormac, St. 


95 


181 


Corrimony 


46 


Davar 140 


Cowie 


12 


Deer 106 


Coyltoii 


132 


Devenick, St. 164 


Crathie 


179 


Dine, Chapel of 78 


Criech 


I6 4 


Dinet 78 


Cromarty 


40 


Dingwall 70 


Cross 




Dolpatrick 1 70 


St. Berchan s 


"3 


Donald, St. 107, 108 


, , Drostan s 


1 06 


Donnan, St. and 


Crozier of 




Companions 65 


St. Cormac 


9 6 


Dornoch 57, 141 


Donnan 


66 


Drostan, St. 105 


Fergus 


171 


Drumlithie 180 


Fillan 


18 


Drummelzier 5 1 


Lolan 


*35 


Drumoak 181 


Moluag 


99 


Dry men 91 


Mund 


152 


Drysdale 5 1 



i88 



INDEX 



Dull 134, 


*38 


Fair of 




Dumbarton 46, 61, 


IOO 


Bl. Alexander 


114 


Dumfries 6, 


119 


St. Adamnan 


138 


Dunblane nS, 


148 


, , Angus 


117 


Dundurn 


94 


,, Ban- 


141 


Dundrennan 


!4 


, , Bean 


1 ^ 


Dunfermline 


1 68 


,, Berchan 


1 1 1 


Dunfillan 


94 


,, Boisil 


o 


Dunkeld 33, 91, 


1 60 


, , Boniface 


45 


Dunmeth 


*3 


, , Brendan 


80 


Dunnichen 42, 


177 


, , Brioc 


75 


Dunrod 


76 


,, Callen 


J 


Dnrria 


79 


,, Caran 


1 80 


Duthac, St. 


38 


,, Causnan (Con 




Dyce 


170 


stantine) 


4 2 


Dysart 


IOO 


,, Columba 


9 1 


Eata, St. 
Kbba, St. 15, 
Ebba, St. and Com 


153 
123 


,, Comgall 
,, Conigan 
,, Conan 


79 

148 

10 


panions, 


59 


,, Conval 


84 


Ecclefechan 


9 


,, Cuthbert 


52 


Eccles 


51 


, , Devenick 


j 
164 


Ecclesmachan 


141 


,, Donnan 


66 


Eddleston 


141 


, , Drostan 


107 


Edinburgh 51, 104, 


128 


, , Duthac 


M. \S 1 

39 


Ednam 


51 


, , Ethernan 




Edzell 107, 


132 


, , Fergus 


170 


Egbert, St. 




, Fillan 


18 


Egilshay 
Eigg 66 


64 
, 91 


, Finan 
, Finian 


44 
48 


Elgin 


128 


, Fumac 


78 


El Ian more 


44 


, Fyndoc 


148 


Englatius, St. 
" Enoch s, St." 


159 
no 


, Gilbert 
, Giles 


59 

128 


Ernan, St. 


i 


, Inan 


1 20 


Ethernan, St. 
Ethernascus, St. 


74 
180 


, Kessog 
, Machan 


4i 
142 


Ethie 

Ethiebeaton 


128 
129 


, Magnus 
, Maree (Maelrub 


65 


Eucliadius, St. 


9 


ha) 


70 


Eunan (Adamnan), St. 


139 


, , Margaret 


1 68 


Failhbe, St. 


40 


, , Marnoch 


33 



INDEX 



189 



Fair of (Contd.) 


Finan ("The Leper"), 


St. Marthom 


J35 


St. 




43 


Merchard 


121 


Finbar (Barr), St. 


56, 


139 




Methven 


160 


Findo Gask 




148 




Mirin 


I 3 l 


Findon 




94 




Mittan 


16 


Finhaven 




1 08 




Moluag 


98 


Finian (Wynnin), 


St. 


52 




Monocii 


155 


Fintan-Munnu (Muiid), 






Mund 


*5 2 


St. 




JS 1 




Mungo 


6 


Firth (Frith)-on-Spey 


139 




Murie (Maelrub- 




Fordoun 


104, 


105 




ha) 


70 


Fordyce 


69, 


155 




Nathalan 


12 


Forfar 


H5, 


!75 




Ninian 


134 


Forglen 




137 




Olaf 


56 


Forres 




69 




Palladius 


105 


Fort- Augustus 31 


,83, 






Patrick 


4 6 


9i 


98, 


103 




Rule 


!5 


Fortrose 




45 




Serf 


101 


Forvie 




137 




Talarican 


J55 


Fowlis Wester 


153, 


1 60 




Ternan 


93 


Frigidian ( Wynnin), St. 


52 




Triduana 


T 45 


Fumac, St. 




78 




Vigean 


9 


Fyndoca, St. 




148 




Wynnin 


54 


Gairloch 




69 


Falkirk " 


21 


Garrabost 




42 


Fearn 26, 


127 


Garvelloch Isles 




9i 


Fechin (Vigean), St. 


8 


Gernadius(Geradin), Sti6i 


Feclmo (Fiaclma), St. 


43 


Giffijrd 




165 


Ferrenese 
Fergna, St. 


84 
35 


Gigha 
Gilbert, St. 




85 
57 


Fergus, St. 


169 


Giles, St. 




127 


" Fergusmas" 


170 


Girvan 




51 


Fetteresso 1 30, 


1 80 


Glamis 


109, 


170 


Fiachna (Fechno), St. 


43 


Glascian, St. 




14 


Fiacre, St. 


123 


Glasgow 4, 6, 


109, 


142 


Fifeness 


160 


Glenbervie 




130 


Fillan (Faolan), St. 




Glencairn 




51 


17, 


147 


Glenelg 




3i 


Fillan ("The Leper" , 




Glenesk 




106 


St. 


94 


Glen-Finan 




44 


Finan, St. 


23 


Glengairden 




48 


(Finian), St. 


47 


Glengairn 




6 



INDEX 



(Hen of Ogilvy 108, 109 


Kentigerna, St. 


2 


(Jlenorchy 70 


Kessog, St. 


4 C 


(lleiiholm (Brottghton) 51 


Kessock Ferry 


41 


(illennioriston 121 


Kevin, St. 


87 


(lien Urquhart 46, 106, 


Kieran, St. 


129 


107, 138 


Kilassie 


77 


Govan 42 


Kilbag Head 


J 59 


Grandtulty 1 38 


Kilbagie 


1 S7 


Grease 56 


Kilbar 


140 


Hailes 51, 101, 154 


Kilbarchan 


H3 


Halkirk 107, 170 


Kilbirnie 


80 


Holy Island 67 


Kilblane 


in, 119 


Holy Loch 151 


Kilbrandon 


80 


Holy Pool 1 8 


Kilbrannan 


80 


Houston 1 8 


Kilbucho 


*57 


Huntly 6 


Kilchainie 


146 


Inan, St. 119 


Kilchainnech 


146 


Inchbare 141 


Kilchattan (2) 


82 


Inchbrayoch 76 


Kilchenzie 


146 


Inchinnan 83, 120 


Kilcheran 


130 


Inchmahome 88 


Kilchoan 


148 


Inchmarnock 33 


Kilchonian 


48 


Inch Murryn 132 


Kilchousland 


42 


Indrecht, St. 43 


Kilchowan 


148 


Inglismaldie 75 


Kilchuimein 


3 1 


Inverary 80 


Kilconan 


10 


Invergarry 44 
Invermoriston 91 


Kilda, Isle of St. 
Kildavie 


80 
iii 


lona 3, 7, 9, 23, 30, 35, 


Kildonan 


66 


40, 42, 43, 48, 90, 


Kildrummie 


163 


96, 101, 106, 114, 


Kilduich 


39 


125, 135, 136, 178 


Kilduthie 


39 


Irvine 120 


Kileunan 


J 37 


Keills 44 


Kilfillan 


18 


Keith 69 -sefl., 114 


Kilfinan 


33> 44 


Kelton 44, 132 


Kilkenneth 


146 


Kenmore 127 


Kilkerran 130, 


137, 140 


Kenneth, St. 145 


Kilkivan 


87 


Kennethmont 1 50 


Killallan 


18 


Ken noway 147 


Killen, St. 


101 


Kentigern (Mungo), St. 


Killernan 


i 


3, 100. 109 


Killillan 


i? 



INDEX 



191 



Kilmacharmaig 

Kilmadock 

Kilmaglas 

Kilmahew 

Kilmahog 

Kilmaichlie 

Kilmalomaig 

Kilmarnock 

Kilmaronog 

Kilmaronock 

Kilmaurs 

Kilmichael-Glassary 

Kilmochalmaig 

Kilmodan 

Kilmorack 

Kilmun 

Kilpatrick 

Kilquhoan 

Kilrenny 

Kilsyth 

Kiltarlity 

Kilviceuen 

Kilwinning 

Kincardine O Neil 

Kincardine-on-Forth 



44 
18 



142 

74 
98 

33 

22 

22 

160 



21 

161 

A 5 

46, 47 
148 

175 

132, 155 
154 



23, 



Si. 



54 
1 20 

135 
119 

14 

153 
138 
42 

144 



Kingarth 

Kinglassie 

Kinkell 

Kiimeff 

Kinnoull 

Kintradwell 

Kintyre (Cantyre) 42, 

66, 129, 140 

Kippen I i i 

Kirkcormaig 44 

Kirkcudbright 5 1 

Kirkholm 9 1 

Kirkmaiden 103 

Kirkmiohael 170 

Kirk Mirren 132 

Kirk of Cruden 56 

Kirkoswald 116 



Kirkpatrick (2) 46 

Kirkwall 56, 62 

Kirriemuir 88 

Laggan 101, 146 

Lairg 70 

Laisren, St. 135 

Lamlash 66 

Lamington 120 

Lanark 6 

Largs 1 8, 91 

Laserian (Molios), St. 66 

Lathrisk 180 

Leer opt 160 

Lesmahago 165 
Lewis 23, 56, 98, 179 

Libranus, St. 42 

Lismore 97 

Lochalsh 17, 147 

Lochbroom 66 

Loch Duich 39 

Loch Etive 19 

Lochlee 107 

Loch Leven 6, 151 
Loch Lomond 3, 40. 132 

Loch Long 20 

Loch Maree 69 

Loch Shiel 44 

Logie Mar 13 

Lolan, St. 135 

Longf organ 1 03 

Lossiemouth 161 

Lua (Moluag), St. 97 

Lumphanan 47 

Luss 40 
Macceus (Mahew), St. 61 

Machalus, St. 73 

Machan, St. 141 

Machar, St. 162 

Machutus (Malo), St. 165 
Mackessog (Kessog), 

St. 40 
Madden (Medana), St. 71 



192 

Madderty 
Maelrubha, St. 
.* Magnusmas " 
Magnus, St. 
Mahew, St. 



INDEX 



175 
67 
65 
62 
61 



Mahon (Machan), St. 141 

Maiden Castle 104 

Mains 134 

Malachy, St. 157 

Manire, St. 179 

Man, Isle of 73 

Margaret, St. 165 

" Margaretmas " 168 

Marianus Scotus, St. 102 
Marnock (Marnan), St. 32 
Marnock (Aberchirder) 32 

Maree, St. 69 

Mart horn, St. 135 

Matilda, St. 61 

Mauchline 5 1 

Maura, St. 159 

Maybole 51, 116 

Mayfield 134 

May, Isle of 35, 175 

Mayota, St. 181 

Medana, St. 103 

Meikle Folia 150 

Meldrum, Old 12 

Melrose 1 1 2 
Melrose,01d29,49, 126, 154 

Menmuir 126. 134 

Merchard, St. 120 

Merolilanus, St. 82 

Methlick 165 

Methven 160 

Mid-Calder 6, 109 

Middan, St. 74 

Mid Genie 141 

Midmar 48, 158 

Migvie 47 

Milton of Glenesk 164 

Mirin, St. 130 



Mittan, St. 16 

Mo Gaelic prefix 22, 32 
Mochrum 44 

Mocumma (Machar), 

St. 162 

Modan, St. 19 

Modenna( Medana), St. 103 
Moffat 128 

Molios (Laserian), St. 66 
Moluag, St. 97 

Monan, St. 34 

Monifieth 129, 150 

Monoch, St. 155 

Monymusk 48 

Monzievaird 



Moroc, St. 
M ortlach 
Mull, Isle of 



100 

160 

98, 153 
80,98, 

in, 134 

Mund, St. 151 

Mungo (Kentigern), 

St. 3, 109 

Mungo s Isle, St. 6 

Murdoch, St. 128 

Mury (Maelrubha), St. 

65 seq. 

Muthill 47 

Nathalan, St. 10 

Nairn 134 

Nauchlan (Nathalan), 

St. 10 

Newburgh 109 

Nidan, St. 158 

Nigg 124 

Nine Maidens, The 108 
Ninian, St. 3, 132 

Oathlaw 109 

Obert, St. 177 

Ochiltree 84 

Oda, St. 172 

Odhran (Adrian), St. 35 
Qg Gaelic suffix 22, 32 



INDEX 



193 



Olaf, St. 




55 


Relics of (Contd. 


J 




Ordiquhili 


52- 


J 35 


St. Duthac 


39 


Orkneys 56, 64, 96, 


34 






Ebba 




123 






144 




Fergus 




170 


Oswald, St. 




114 




Giles 




128 


Pabay 




98 




Gilbert 




59 


Paisley 


33, 






Magnus 




65 


Palladius, St. 


93, 


104 




Margaret 




168 


Paschal Controversy 26 






Marnock 




32 


3*, 72, 


86, 


136 




Merolilanus 




83 


Patrick, St. 


46, 


169 




Mirin 




131 


" Patrickmas" 




46 




Mungo 




6 


Peebles 




6 




Ninian 




!34 


Penicuik 




6 




Ternan 




93 


Penningham 




134 




Triduana 




145 


Perth 


44, 


177 


Rescobie 


142 seq. 


Perth, St. William 


of 


84 


Restalrig 


142, 


1 68 


Piran (Kieran), St. 




122 


Rochester, St. William 


Pitlessie 


6, 70 


of 




84 


Pitsligo 




109 


Rogart 


173 


Pittenweem 




18 


Rona, Isle of 


23 


Pollokshaws 




8^ 


Ronan, St. 


22 


Portmahomack 


88 Rosemarkie (Fortrose) 


Port Patrick 


47, 


157 






45 


97 


Portsoy 




91 Roseneath 


20 


22 


Portree 




69 


Rothesay 


75 


Premnay 
Prestonkirk 




1 80 
37 


Rothiemay 
Rule, St. 


107 
149 


Prestwick 




51 


Ruthven 


98 


Procession 






Ruthwell 


5 2 


St. Marnock s 




32 


St. 


Andrews 57, 


146, 




, , Monach s 




155 






150, 


176 


Obert s 




177 




Bathans 




182 


Serf s 




101 




Boswells 


30 


5 2 


Raasay 


23 


,98 


Coan 




148 


Rathen 




175 


Cyrus 


150 


Relics of 








Fergus (Lungley) 


169 


St. Aidan 




28 


Kilda 




80 


,, Andrew 




174 


Monans (Abercrom- 


,, Columba 


ii 


, 90 




bie) 




34 


,, Conval 




83 




Mungo 




6 


,, Cuthbert 








Vigeans 




8 



194 


INDEX 


Sanda, Isle of 


138 


Struan 1 8 


Sandwick 




Suibhne (Sweeney), St. 3 


Saulseat 


158 


SuibhnelL, St. 96 


Scone Abbey 


170 


Tain 39, 113 


Seat of 




Talarican, St. 154 


St. Adamnari 


138 


Tannadice 137 


Cathan 


82 


Taransay 94, 155 


Cumine 


3 1 


Tarbert 27, 88 


Fillan 


18 


Tarland 98 


Merchard 


120 


Tarves 1 59 


Maelrubha 


6 9 


Temple-Patrick 46 


Modan 


20 


Ternan, St. 93 


JSeil Isle of 


80 


Thenew (Thenog), St. 109 


Serf St. 4, 99, 


109 


Thornhill 168 


Skelmorlie 


18 


Tiree 79, 80, 92, 98 


*Skye, Isleof 77, 98, 148, 




Tough 109 




54 


Triduana, St. 142 


Slains 94, 


i37 


Troon 104 


Sorn 


156 


Troqueer 1 30 


Southenan 


120 


Tullich 10 seq. 


Southend 


8 7 


Turriff 134, 148 


South Uist 
Stachur 


66 


Tyningham 37 
Urquhart 68, 69, 107 


Statue of 




Vey (Baya), St. 159 


St. Baldred 


37 


Vigean (Fechin), St. 8 


Barr 


140 


Voloc (Wallach), St. 12 


Charmaig 


43 


Walthen (Waltheof), 


Fergus 


171 


St. 115 


Fumac 


74 


Watten- Wester 61 


Gilbert 


59 


Weem 51, no 


Stevenson 




Wells of 


Stirling 21, 


113 


"Maidie" 75 


Stranraer 


158 


St. Adamnan 138 


Strathclyde 3, 103, 


156 


Aidan 127 


Strathdon 


163 


Asaph 77 


Strathearn 


94 


Baldred 37 


Strathfillan 


18 


Bathan 182 


Strathmartin 


109 


Bean 153 


Strathmore 130, 


180 


Boisil 30 


Strathtay 


52 


Boniface 46 


Strogeth-tS. -Patrick 


170 


Brendan 80 


St rowan 


23 


Carran 1 80 



INDEX 



195 



Wells of (Contd.) 


Wells of (Contd.) 


St. Columba 


91 St. Molios 67 


, Conan 


10 Moluag 99 




, Conval 


84 Monan 34 




, Constantine 


42 Mungo 6 




, Cuthbert 


52 Mureach 160 




, Devenick 


165 Nathalan 12 




, Donnan 


66 Ninian 134 




, Drostan 


107 Palladius 105 




, Duthac 


40 Patrick 47 




, Englatius 


159 Ronan 22, 23 




, Ethernan 


175 Serf ioo 




, Fergus 


170 Talarican 155 




, Fiacre 


1 24 Ternan 94 




, Fillan 18 


95 Thenew 109 




, Fumac 


78 Triduana 144 




, (llascian 


14 Vigean 9 




, (lerardin 


162 Voloc 13 




, Inan 
, Kieran ("Jarg 


120 Wynnin 54 
The Nine Maidens 109 




on ") 


130 Welsh dedications in 




, Machalus 


74 Scotland 48 




, Machar 


163 Westfield 107 




, Magnus 


65 Whitekirk 37 




, Maree 
, Margaret 144, 


69 Whiteness (Shetland) 56 
1 68 Whithorn 133 




, Marnock 


33 Wick 51, 168, 170 




, Mayota 
, Medana 


181 Wigtown 134, 165 
103 William of Perth, St. 84 




, Merchard 


122 Wynnin (Finian), St. 53 




, Middan 


75 Tester 182 




, Mirin 
, Modan 19, 


132 Yrchard (Merchard), 

21 St. 120 



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