Shillings < Sixpence
A CALENDAR OF
BY DOM MICHAEL BARRETT, O.S.B.
SECOND EDITION REVISED & AUGMENTED
PRINTED AT THE ABBEY PRESS
Nihil obstat :
D. CUTHBERTUS ALMOND, O.S.B.
*%< GEORGIUS, Ep. Aberd.
THE title of Scottish, applied to the
holy ones whose names occur in these
short notices, must be understood to
refer not so much to their nationality
as to the field in which, they laboured
or the localities where traces of their
cultus are to be found.
The Calendar here submitted does
not pretend to be exhaustive ; the
saints therein noted are those who
appear prominently in such records as
remain to us and in the place-names
which still recall their personalities.
In this new edition much additional
information has been inserted, and
many emendations made to render the
Calendar as complete as possible.
The chief sources relied upon in the
compilation of the work are :
The Breviary of Aberdeen, drawn up
by Bishop Wm. Elphinstone, and
printed in 1 509.
Dr. Forbes Kalendars of Scottish
Origines Parochiales Scotia.
Dr. Skene s Celtic Scotland.
Canon O Hanlon s Lives of Irish
Cardinal Moran s Irish Saints in
New Statistical Account of Scotland.
The date at the head of each notice
is generally that of the death of the
1 St, Ernan, Abbot, A,D, 640.
TH E Saint whose feast is celebrated on this
day was a disciple of the great St.
Columba, and is said by Colgan, the renowned
Irish scholar, to have been his nephew. What
connection the saint had with Scotland is not
clear. He may have laboured for a time there
under St. Columba, but he became Abbot of
Drumhome in Donegal. On the night St.
Columba went to his reward, as we are told by
that saint s biographer, St. Adamnan, Ernan
was favoured with a vision in which the saint s
death was revealed to him. St. Ernan died in
his Irish monastery at an advanced age in the
year 640. The church of Killernan, in Ross-
shire, is named after him. Another dedication
to this saint is thought by some to be Kilviceuen
4 St. Chroman or Ghronan, A.D. 641,
ON account of the destruction of so many
ecclesiastical records at the Reformation, many
particulars regarding some of our Scottish saints
have been irrevocably lost. This is the case
with the holy man before us. All that we know
of him may be told in a few words. He lived
in the Cunningham district of Ayrshire, where
he was revered during life and venerated after
death for his great sanctity. On his death-bed
we are told he kept continually repeating those
words of the 83rd Psalm, " My soul longeth
and fainteth for the courts of the Lord. My
heart and my flesh have rejoiced in the Living
7 St. Kentigerna, Recluse, A.D, 733.
LlKE so many holy souls whose lives drew
down the grace of Heaven upon the land, St.
Kentigerna was of Irish race. Her brother,
St. Comgan, succeeded their father, a prince of
Leinster, in the government of his territory.
Meeting with violent opposition from the
neighbouring princes, on account of his just and
upright Christian rule, St. Comgan was obliged
to fly the country, and together with his
widowed sister, who had been married to an
Irish prince, took refuge in Scotland. St.
Comgan devoted himself to monastic life, and
Kentigerna retired to an island in Loch Lomond
to live as an anchoress. Here in her solitary
cell, on the hilly, wooded isle which is now
called in memory of her Innis na Caillich (the
Nun s Island), she spent many years of the
remainder of her life. The island became the
seat of the old parish church of Buchanan, which
was dedicated to her, and in the graveyard,
which is still in use, are many tombs of the
chiefs and illustrious men of the clan MacGregor.
The church has been long in ruins. St. Kenti
gerna died in 733. Her feast is to be found in
the Aberdeen Breviary.
11 St. Suibhne (Sweeney), Abbot, A.D. 656.
THIS saint was an Abbot of lona who died in
the odour of sanctity when he had been Superior
of that monastery for about three years.
14 St. Kentigern or Mungo, Bishop,
A,D. 603 or 612.
THE ancient kingdom of Cumbria or Strath-
clyde extended from the Clyde to the Derwent
in Cumberland. It had been evangelised by
St. Ninian, but, in the course of two centuries,
through constant warfare and strife, the Faith
had almost disappeared when, in the middle of
the sixth century, St. Kentigern was raised up
to be its new apostle. The saint came of a
royal race, and was born about A.D. 518. He
was brought up from childhood by a holy hermit
of Culross called Serf, who out of the love
he bore the boy changed his name of Kentigern
(signifying "lord and master") to that of Mungo
(the well beloved). It is under the latter name
that he is best known in Scotland. It should be
noted, however, that the benefactor of the young
Kentigern, though possibly bearing the same
name, cannot be identified with the well-known
St. Serf of Culross, who, according to modern
historians, must have flourished in a later
century. At the completion of his educa
tion Kentigern fixed his abode at Cathures,
now known as Glasgow, and was joined
by many disciples, who lived under his rule
in a kind of monastic discipline. His holy
life caused him to be raised much against
his will to the episcopal state. He fixed upon
Glasgow for his see, and ruled his flock with all
the ardour and holiness of an apostle. Simple
and mortified in life, he abstained entirely from
wine and flesh, and often passed two days with
out food. He wore haircloth next his skin,
slept on a stone, and often rose in the night to
praise God. Throughout his life he preserved
the purity of his baptismal innocence. His
pastoral staff was of simple wood. He always
wore his priestly stole, to be ready to perform
the functions of his sacred office.
Driven from Glasgow by the enmity of a
wicked king, the saint took refuge with St.
David in South Wales. He subsequently
founded the monastery known afterwards, from
the disciple who succeeded him in its govern
ment, as St. Asaph s, and here more than nine
hundred monks are said to have lived under his
rule. Later on he was recalled to Glasgow,
and after a life of apostolic zeal he received
through an angel, on the Octave of the Epiphany,
his summons to eternal life. Fortifying himself
by the Sacraments, and exhorting his disciples
to charity and peace and constant obedience to
the Holy Catholic Church, their mother, he
breathed his last, being at least 85 years old.
His saintly body was laid to rest where the mag
nificent under-croft of St. Mungo s Cathedral,
Glasgow, was raised to his honour in after ages.
Many old churches in Scotland bear the
dedication of St. Mungo ; the chief of these is
Lanark parish church. There is a parish bear
ing his name in Dumfries-shire, and many holy
wells are called after him ; one of these is in
Glasgow Cathedral, others are in the precincts
of Glasgow, and at Huntly, Peebles, Ayr,
Dumfries, Glengairn (Aberdeenshire), also at
Currie, Penicuik and Mid-Calder, near Edin
burgh. There is also St. Mungo s Isle in Loch
Leven. Besides these Scottish dedications,
there are seven churches in Cumberland which
bear his name. It is noteworthy that all of
them bear the more popular title of Mungo.
Within about six miles of Carmarthen, in
Wales, is the ancient parish church of Llangen-
deirne "Church of Kentigern " ; this is one
instance, at least, of a dedication to the saint
under his real name, and maybe the only one.
There were formerly two fairs of St. Mungo
kept in Alloa each year, where the church
was dedicated to this saint. St. Kentigern
is said to have made no less than seven
pilgrimages to Rome in the course of his life.
His feast, which had long been celebrated by
the Benedictines of Fort-Augustus and the
Passionists of Glasgow, was extended to the
whole of Scotland by Leo XIII in 1898. As
he died on the Octave of the Epiphany, the
feast is kept on the following day, January 1 4.
19 8t, Blaithmaic, Martyr, 8th or 9th century.
THIS saint was of princely birth, and a native of
Ireland. In early youth he renounced all the
attractions of wealth and honour and entered a
monastery. Here for his many virtues he was
chosen abbot, and ruled his flock with wisdom
and prudence. But from his youth he had
longed for martyrdom, and though he had often
begged leave from his superiors to preach the
Faith to unbelievers, he could never obtain it.
Being at lona, where he had entered the com
munity as a simple monk on renouncing his
charge in Ireland, he announced one day to the
brethren in the spirit of prophecy that an irrup
tion of pagan Danes was about to take place.
He exhorted those who felt themselves too
weak for martyrdom to seek safety in flight.
They concealed the shrine of St. Columba s
relics, and many of the monks betook them
selves to the mainland.
Next morning, while Blaithmaic was at the
altar, having just offered the Holy Sacrifice, the
pagans rushed upon him and the few com
panions who remained, and slaughtered all
except Blaithmaic. They offered him life and
liberty if he would show them the shrine of St.
Columba with its treasure of gold and gems.
But the intrepid martyr refused to betray his
trust and was hewn down at the altar. He
was buried at lona on the return of the monks
from their place of safety. There is some
doubt about the date of his death, some writers
place it as late as A.D. 828.
20 8t, Yigean or Fechin, Hermit, A.D. 664,
THE parish of St. Vigean s, Forfarshire, derives
its name from this saint, who though called
Vigean in Scotland, is no other than the Irish
abbot Fechin. He ruled three hundred monks
at Fore, in Westmeath. It is not easy to
determine his precise connection with Scotland,
though from the remains which bear his name
it would appear that he spent some time in the
country. A hermitage at Conan, near Arbroath,
is pointed out as his residence, and the founda
tions of a small chapel may still be traced.
Near them is a spring known as St. Vigean s
Well. A fair called by his name was held at
Arbroath on this day up to the eighteenth
Ecclefechan known in Middle Age charters
as Ecclesia Sancti Fechani (Church of St.
Fechan) takes its name from the same saint.
It has acquired celebrity in later times as the
birthplace of Thomas Carlyle. St. Fechin was
buried in the Monastery of Fore.
25 St. Buchadius, Monk, A.D. 597,
THIS saint was one of the twelve disciples who
accompanied St. Columba from Ireland and
settled with him upon the island of lona. He
was one of the saint s helpers in the conversion
of the Northern Picts. He is said to have
written the Acts of St. Columba. It seems
probable that St. Euchadius laboured at one
time in Galloway, as he received special venera
tion in that district. This may have been due,
however, to relics of the saint preserved there
in Catholic ages.
26 St. Conan, Bishop, A.D. 648.
HE was born in Ireland, and is said to have
passed over to lona to join the community there,
in which his virtues and talents placed him high
in the estimation of the monks. He was
characterised by a special devotion to the
Mother of God, which won for him a singular
purity of soul. He was made tutor to the three
sons of Eugenius IV, King of Scotland, and
brought them up carefully and wisely. Later
on he became a Bishop. St. Conan was
greatly honoured in Scotland. His name
survives at Kilconan, in Fortingal, Perthshire,
and at St. Conan s Well, near Dalmally,
Argyleshire. St. Conan s Fair is held at Glen-
orchy, Perthshire, but this seems to relate to
another saint of like name, as its date is the
third Wednesday in March and our saint was
venerated on January 26th, as the best authorities
28 St. Nathalan or Nauchlan, Bishop, l.D. 678.
THIS saint was born of a noble Scottish family
at Tullich, Aberdeenshire. From his youth
he was distinguished for great piety, and spent
JANUARY I I
much of his time in manual labour in the fields
as a voluntary mortification and a means of sub
duing the passions. Many miracles are related
of him. It is said that having given away all
his corn in time of famine, he caused the fields
to be sown with sand for lack of grain, and was
rewarded by a plentiful harvest. Having given
way to murmuring in a moment of impatience
he imposed upon himself the penance of making
a pilgrimage to Rome, wearing on his leg a
heavy chain ; this he fastened by a padlock
and threw the key into the Dee at a place now
known as " The Pool of the Key." He is
said to have bought a fish for food in Rome
and to have found the key in its stomach ; this
he took for a supernatural intimation to discon
tinue his self-inflicted mortification.
Being made bishop by the Pope, he returned
to his native land as an apostle of the Faith.
He built in Deeside several churches at his own
expense ; one of these was at his native place,
Tullich, where a huge slab of granite, sculp
tured with an antique cross, forms the top
lintel of one of the doors of the ancient
church, and is thought to have been a portion
of the saint s tomb. St. Nathalan is said to
have visited Ireland, and to have founded the
monastery of Dungiven in Ulster. He died
at a very advanced age at Tullich, on January
8th, 678. He became the patron saint of
Deeside, and traces of his cultus still remain in
that district. Long after Protestants had lost
sight of the reason for it, an annual holiday was
held on his feast day, no work being allowed to
be done. A market was formerly held at Old
Meldrum on or near this day, called " St.
Nathalan s Fair," and another at Cowie, Kin-
cardineshire. The ancient name of Meldrum
was Bothelney, a corruption of Bothnethalen,
which signifies " habitation of Nathalan." Near
the ruins of the old church is still to be seen
" Nauchlan s Well." A quaint local rhyme
preserves his memory at Cowie :
" Atween the kirk and the kirk ford
There lies St. Nauchlan s hoard."
The feast of St. Nathalan was restored by
29 St. Yoloc or Macwoloc, Bishop.
5th or 6th century,
THIS saint is considered by some to have been
of Irish race as his name is possibly identical
JANUARY 1 3
with the Irish name Faelchu. He is said by
the Aberdeen Breviary to have left his native
land to spread the Roman Faith in Scotland,
where he was raised to the episcopal rank.
He voluntarily took upon himself a life of great
austerity to satisfy for his own sins and those of
others. His evangelical labours were devoted
to the northern parts of the country chiefly.
He lived in a little house woven of reeds and
wattles, for his attraction was towards every
thing poor and humble. His simple and holy
life and the miracles he worked had an immense
influence in spreading the light of faith amongst
the ignorant and half-barbarous people to whose
welfare he had devoted himself, and many were
converted to the Truth.
He is said to have died in extreme old age ;
angels standing round his death-bed. The old
churches of Dunmeth and Logic Mar in Aber-
deenshire were dedicated to this saint. The
former parish is now included in that of Glass.
Two miles below Beldorny in that parish are
St. Wallach s Baths and a ruined chapel called
Wallach s Kirk, while in the neighbourhood of
the latter is St. Wallach s Well, which up to
recent times was a recognised place of pilgrim
age. An annual fair was formerly held in his
honour at Logic ; it is commemorated in a
provincial rhyme :
" Wala-fair in Logic Mar
The thirtieth day of Januar."
30 St. Glascian or Maglastian, Bishop,
SCOTTISH calendars give short notices of this
saint, who is said to have been an illustrious and
saintly bishop during the reign ot King Achaius,
a Scottish king contemporaneous with Charle
magne. Very few particulars can be ascertained
as to his life. All that is at present known of
him is gathered from the traces of his cultus
which remain in various districts of the country.
Thus the parish of Kinglassie, near Kirkcaldy,
seems to have been named after him, and in the
neighbourhood is a spring of fine water known
as St. Glass s Well. There is another well
named after him at Dundrennan (Kirkcud
brightshire). Kilmaglas, now known as Stachur,
in Argyleshire, indicates another dedication to
this saint. His feast is noted in the Breviary
of Aberdeen on this day.
JANUARY 1 5
31 St. Adamnan of Coldingham, A.D. (about) 686.
IN the monastery of Coldingham, over which
St. Ebba presided, was a monk of great sanctity
and austerity named Adamnan. It is not certain
whether he was a native of Scotland or not.
In his youth Adamnan had led a life of great
licentiousness, and being converted by the grace
of God from his evil ways was moved with a
desire to do penance for his sins. Accordingly
he sought the counsel of a certain Irish priest,
to whom he made a general confession and con
fided his desire of entering upon a penitential
life. So deep was his sorrow that he expressed
himself ready to accept any penance his director
might impose, even to spending whole nights in
prayer, or fasting for a week continuously. The
priest having imposed upon him the penance
of taking food twice only in a week until he
should see him again, departed into Ireland,
and died there before Adamnan was able to
consult him a second time. Taking this as a
sign of God s Will that he was to persevere in
his heroic course of penance, Adamnan resolved
to continue to the end the hard life begun by
the counsel of the Irish priest. Having become
a monk at Coldingham after his conversion, he
lived there for many years, and was made one
of the priests of the monastery. He died in
the odour of sanctity after being favoured with
the gift of prophecy.
ALL that is known of this saint is that a fair,
called after him, was held formerly at Kil-
madock in Perthshire, on January 31st., which
must consequently have been his feast day.
1 St. Darlugdach, Virgin, A.D, 524.
THIS saint was an Irish virgin who was edu
cated to the monastic life by the great St.
Bridget, the glory of Ireland. She is said to
have visited Scotland during the reign of King
Nectan and to have presided over a community
of religious women attached to a church which
that King had built at Abernethy and dedicated
to the Blessed Virgin. By some writers St.
Bridget herself is said to have led the monastic
colony to Scotland, but this is by no means
FEBRUARY 1 7
clear. It is true that great devotion was shown
towards her, and many Scottish churches and
wells bear her name, but this may be accounted
for by the close connection with Ireland which
subsisted in those early times. Her relics, too,
were venerated at Abernethy.
St. Darlugdach did not remain in Scotland,
as she succeeded her friend and patroness St.
Bridget as Abbess of Kildare, where she died.
3 St, Pillan or Faolan, Abbot (8th century).
HE was the son of St. Kentigerna, and con
sequently of Irish birth, and is said to have
taken the monastic habit at Taghmon, in Wex-
ford, under the rule of St. Fintan-Munnu ; later
on he came to Scotland. After spending some
time with his uncle St. Comgan at Lochalsh,
where Killillan (Kilfillan) bears his name, the
saint devoted himself to the evangelization of the
district of Perthshire round Strathfillan, which
is called after him, and where he was greatly
venerated. The success of the Scots at Ban-
nockburn was attributed to the presence of the
arm of St. Fillan, which was borne by its
custodian, the Abbot of Inchaffray, on the
field of battle. The crozier of the saint is still
in existence ; it is preserved in the National
Museum, Edinburgh. This also, as one of the
sacred battle-ensigns of Scotland, is said to have
been present at Bannockburn. A small bell
which formerly hung in his church in Strathfillan
is now in the museum of the Antiquarian
Society in Edinburgh. Several traces of the
saint are to be found in the district in which
he preached. Killallan, or Killellen, an ancient
parish in Renfrewshire, took its name from him ;
it was originally Kilfillan (Church of Fillan).
Near the ruins of the old church, situated near
Houston, is a stone called Fillan s Seat, and a
spring called Fillan s Well existed there until
it was filled up, as a remnant of superstition, by
a parish minister in the eighteenth century.
Other holy wells bore his name at Struan (Perth
shire), Largs and Skelmorlie (Ayrshire), Kil
fillan (Wigtonshire), Pittenweem (Fifeshire),
etc. A fair used to be held annually at Hou
ston and another at Struan, both known as
Fillan s Fair. In Strathfillan are the ruins of
St. Fillan s chapel, and hard by is the Holy
Pool, in which the insane were formerly bathed
to obtain a cure by the saint s intercession.
Scott refers to it in Marmion (Cant. I. xxix) :
" St. Fillan s blessed Well,
Whose spring can frenzied dreams dispel
And the crazied brain restore."
Pope Leo XIII re-established the saint s feast
J St. Modan, Abbot, 8th century.
THIS saint, whose missionary labours benefited
the west coast of Scotland, was the son of an
Irish chieftain. He crossed over from his
native land, like so many others of his country
men, to minister to the spiritual wants of the
many Christians of Irish race who at that time
formed an important part of the population of
the district to which he came.
A short distance from the site of the old
Priory of Ardchattan, near Loch Etive, may
still be seen the remains of his first oratory.
It bears the name of Balmodhan (St. Modan s
Town) ; a few paces from its ruins is a clear
spring called St. Modan s Well, and hither
within the memory of persons still living came
many a pilgrimage in honour of the saint. A
flat stone near was known as St. Modan s Seat.
It was broken up for building materials by
Presbyterians not many years ago.
The ruins are situated amid scenery of im
pressive beauty, and command a view of land
and water as far as the island of Mull. The
masonry," says Dr. Story in his description of
the buildings, " is strong and rough, but little
more than the gables and the outline of two
broken walls remain, overshadowed by the ash
trees that have planted themselves among the
stones, the existing trees growing out of the
remains of roots, all gnarled and weather-worn,
of immensely greater age. In every crevice
thorn, rowan, ivy, and fern have fastened them
selves, softening and concealing the sanctuary s
decay." (" St. Modan," by R. H. Story, D.D.)
Another old church which claims St. Modan
for its patron is that of Roseneath, which stands
near Loch Long, on the border of the Western
Highlands, in Dumbartonshire. Its name
signifies " the Promontory of the Sanctuary " ;
sometimes it was known as " Neveth " the
Sanctuary simply. Only the ancient burial
ground and kirk now remain, but formerly a
well existed here also, which is said to have had
miraculous properties and was resorted to by
pilgrims. Later on the site was made use of
for a foundation of Canons Regular, whose
monastery was built on a plain below the
sanctuary ; it is now entirely demolished.
Kilmodan, above Loch Riddan, on the Kyles
of Bute, is another of St. Modan s foundations,
as its name implies ; for it signifies Church
of Modan. The modern kirk has replaced the
ancient building and occupies the same site.
Other parts of Scotland also claim connection
with this saint. He is said to have preached
the Faith as far east as Falkirk, where the old
church, Eaglais Bhreac, was dedicated to him,
as was also the High Church of Stirling.
After a life of extreme austerity St. Modan,
finding his end approaching, retired to the
solitude of Rosneath, where he died. Devotion
to him was very popular in Scotland. Scott
alludes to it in the " Lay of the Last
Minstrel " :
" Some to Saint Modan made their vows,
Some to Saint Mary of the Lowes."
7 St Ronan, Bishop, A.D. 737.
DR SKENE, in his " Celtic Scotland," expresses
the opinion that this saint was a contemporary
and associate of St. Modan. It is remarkable
that where a foundation of one saint exists,
traces of the other are found in the vicinity.
Thus near Rosneath is Kilmaronock, where is
St. Maronock s Well, and on the opposite side
of Loch Etive, not far from Balmodhan, is
Kilmaronog. Both names signify " Church "
or " Cell of Ronan."
It is a common feature in the Celtic designa
tions of saints to find the prefix mo (my) and
the affix og (little) added to the simple name
by way of reverent endearment. This is the
case in the names just referred to ; Kilmaronog
and Kilmaronock both mean literally " Church
of my little (or dear) Ronan."
Many legends surround this saint, but very
little authentic information can be gleaned con
cerning the circumstances of his life. Many
dedications to him are to be found on lonely
isles and retired spots on the west coast, which
seem to point to a custom of seeking solitude
from time to time. Thus a little island near
Raasay is called Ronay ; another sixty miles
north-east of the Lewes, possessing an ancient
oratory and Celtic crosses, is called Rona.
An islet on the west coast of the mainland of
Shetland is called St. Ronan s Isle ; it becomes
an island at high tide only. The parish church
of lona was called Teampull fyonain and its
burial ground Cladh Ronain. St. Ronan is
said to have been Abbot of Kingarth, Bute,
where he died in 737. Holy wells bear his
name at Strowan (Perthshire), Chapelton in
Strathdon (Aberdeenshire), and the Butt of
Lewis ; the latter is famed for the cure of
14 St. Conran.
HE was a Bishop of Orkney in the seventh
century whose name was illustrious for sanctity,
zeal, and austerity of life.
17 St Finan, Bishop, A.D, 661.
THIS saint was an Irishman who became a
monk in the monastery founded by St. Columba
at lona. During his monastic life he was dis
tinguished for the virtues befitting his state,
especially prudence and gravity of demeanour.
He was devoted to prayer and strove zealously
to live according to the Divine Will in all
things. When St. Aidan, who had been a
monk of lona, passed to his heavenly reward, a
successor in his see of Lindisfarne was again
sought in that celebrated monastery, and the
choice fell upon Finan. His first care was to
erect on the island of Lindisfarne a suitable
cathedral, and in this he placed the remains of
his saintly predecessor Aidan.
During the few years that St. Finan ruled
his diocese he exhibited all the virtues of a
model bishop. His love of poverty, contempt
of the world, and zeal for preaching the Gospel,
won the hearts of his people. Under his
guidance, Oswy the King was brought to
realise his crime in the barbarous murder of the
saintly Oswin, King of Deira, and the result
was the foundation of monasteries and churches
as tokens of his sincere repentance and his
desire to obtain pardon from Heaven through
the prayers and merits of those who should
dwell in them.
The influence of St. Finan extended beyond
his own people ; for the kings of more southern
nations, with their subjects, owed the Faith to
his zeal and piety. Peada, King of the
Mercians, and Sigebert, King of the East
Saxons, both received Baptism at his hands,
and obtained from him missionaries to preach
to their respective peoples.
The most famous work in which St. Finan
was directly concerned was the foundation by
Oswy of the Monastery of Streaneshalch on
the precipitous headland afterwards known as
Whitby. This was to become in later years,
under the rule of the first abbess, Hilda, a
school of saints and a centre of learning for
the whole territory in which it stood, and the
admiration of after ages for its fervour and
strictness of discipline.
St. Finan died after an episcopate of ten
years, and was laid to rest beside the remains of
St. Aidan in the cathedral he had built at
Lindisfarne. His feast was restored to Scot
land by Leo XIII. in 1898.
18 St. Colman, Bishop, A.D. 676.
ON the death of St. Finan, another monk of
lona was chosen to succeed him in the see of
Lindisfarne. This was Colman, who, like
Finan, was of Irish nationality. At the time a
fierce controversy was raging in Britain as to the
correct calculation of Easter. The Roman
system of computation had undergone various
changes until it was finally fixed towards the
end of the sixth century. It was adopted
gradually throughout the Church, but Britain
and Ireland still retained their ancient method.
In consequence of this it sometimes happened
that when the Celtic Church was keeping
Easter, the followers of the Roman computa
tion were still observing Lent. This was the
case in the Court of Oswy, King of Bernicia,
who followed the Celtic rite, while his Queen
Eanfleada and her chaplains, who had been
accustomed to the Roman style, kept the
festival in accordance with it.
To bring about uniformity a synod was held
at Whitby to give the advocates of either
system an opportunity of stating their views.
St. Wilfrid, the great upholder of Roman
customs, brought such weighty arguments for
his side that the majority of those present
were persuaded to accept the Roman computa-
tion. St. Colman, however, since the Holy
See had not definitely settled the matter, could
not bring himself to give up the traditional
computation which his dear master, St.
Columba, had held to. He, therefore, resigned
his see, after ruling it for three years only, and
with such of the Lindisfarne monks as held the
same views retired to lona.
On his way thither he seems to have
founded the church of Fearn in Forfarshire,
which he dedicated to St. Aidan, placing there
some of the saint s relics brought with him from
Lindisfarne. He also founded a church in
honour of the same saint at Tarbert in Easter-
Ross. This, however, was afterwards called
by his own name.
After a short stay at lona, St. Colman re
turned to Ireland and founded a monastery at
Inisbofin, an island on the west coast of that
country, peopling it with the monks who had
left Lindisfarne in his company. Later on a
new foundation was made at Mayo for Saxon
monks only ; it became known as " Mayo of
the Saxons." The saint ruled both monasteries
till his death, which occurred at Inisbofin, where
he was buried. He had translated thither the
greater part of St. Aidan s relics. The ruins
of the ancient church may still be seen on the
island. St. Colman s feast has been restored to
Scotland by Pope Leo XIII.
Protestant writers have tried to interpret
St. Colman s conduct regarding the Synod of
Whitby as a manifest opposition to Roman
authority. This, however, is a mistaken con
clusion. It must be remembered that the matter
was regarded by him as an open question, and
he considered himself justified in keeping to the
traditional usage until Rome declared against it.
St. Bede, who had no sympathy with his views
on the Easter question, speaks highly of St.
Colman as a holy and zealous Bishop.
There is some discrepancy between Scottish
and Irish authorities as to the precise date of
the saint s death. In Scotland he was honoured
on this day, but Irish writings give the date as
August 8. There are also some slight differences
in the particulars of his life ; but as no less than
1 30 saints of this name are mentioned in Irish
ecclesiastical records, it is conceivable that their
histories have become intermixed.
23 St. Boisil, Confessor, A.D. 664.
THE old abbey of Melrose was not the Cister
cian house whose ruins still remain, but an
earlier monastery which had been founded by
St. Aidan and followed the rule of St. Columba,
which was afterwards changed for that of St.
Benedict. The Roman usage regarding Easter
was adopted there, very soon after the Synod
of Whitby. Its abbot was the holy Eata, who
was given the government of Lindisfarne Abbey
also, when many of its monks followed St.
Colman to Ireland. Just before these events
occurred the subject of this notice was called to
his reward. He was prior of Melrose under
Eata, and it was he, who, being a monk and
priest of surpassing merit and prophetic spirit, as
St. Bede says, welcomed with joy and gave the
monastic habit to a youth in whom he saw " a
servant of the Lord " the future St. Cuthbert.
The two became devoted friends, and Boisil,
who was especially learned in the Scriptures,
became Cuthbert s master in that science, as
well as his example in holy living.
In 664 a terrible epidemic called the Yellow
Plague visited Scotland and carried off numbers
of the inhabitants. Boisil and Cuthbert were
both attacked by the malady, and the lives of
both were endangered. The holy prior, how
ever, from the beginning foretold the recovery
of Cuthbert and his own death. Summoning
the latter to his bedside, he prophesied his
future greatness, relating all that was to befall
him in the years to come, and especially his
elevation to the episcopal rank. Then he
begged Cuthbert to assist him during the seven
days of life which remained to him to finish
the study of St. John s Gospel on which they
had been engaged. In this they occupied
themselves till St. Boisil s peaceful death.
The church of St. Boswell s was dedicated
to this saint, the name is a corruption of St.
Boisil s. The old town has disappeared. An
annual fair was formerly held on July 1 8th, in
honour of the saint. His well also was
25 St. Cumine, Abbot, A.D. 669.
HE was the seventh abbot of lona, and his
learning and holiness rank him among the most
illustrious monks of that renowned monastery.
The Synod of Whitby, which was instrumental
in overthrowing the ancient Celtic computation
of Easter and substituting the Roman use,
occurred during Cumine s occupation of the
abbacy. He wrote a life of St. Columba,
probably to vindicate his sanctity after the
apparent slight offered to his memory by the
synod in setting aside the traditional usage
which he had cherished. This life seems to have
been the result of St. Colman s visit to lona
before his return to Ireland (see Feb. 18th).
A more important work is St. Cumine s
letter on the Easter controversy, which he
wrote before he became abbot, and which
shows a thorough acquaintance with the diffi
culties of the subject, as well as deep knowledge
of the Sacred Scriptures and writings of the
Fathers. He is often called Cumine j4ilbhe
(Cumine the Fair-haired). His name survives
in Kilchuimein (Church of St. Cumine), the
ancient designation of Fort-Augustus, and the
only name by which it is still called in Gaelic.
A spot in the same neighbourhood is known as
St. Cumine s Return ; it is in the vicinity of a
hill called St. Cumine s Seat. The parish
church of Glenelg also is named after this saint.
1 St. Marnock or Marnan, Bishop, A.D, 625,
LlKE so many of the Celtic saints, the name of
this one has been changed by the addition of
particles expressive of reverence. The original
form was Ernin ; the Scottish name is a con
traction of the Gaelic words ^Co-Qrnin-og
(my little Ernin). He is considered by some
writers to have been of Irish nationality, but
this is by no means established. St. Marnock
laboured as a missionary in Moray, being
specially noted for his zeal in preaching. He
died at Aberchirder in Banffshire, and was
buried in the church there. The place after
wards received the additional name of Marnock
from its connection with the saint. St. Marnock s
shrine became a favourite place of pilgrimage,
and miracles were wrought through his relics,
which were religiously preserved there. The
head of St. Marnock was frequently borne in
procession to obtain fair weather. It was the
custom also to have lights placed round it every
Sunday and to wash the relic with water,
which was afterwards used, greatly to their
benefit, by the sick. The Innes family, who
chose the saint as their patron, had a particular
devotion to that relic.
Traces of the cultus of St. Marnock are to
be found in many districts of Scotland. Besides
the church in which his remains were honoured,
a holy well at Aberchirder still bears his name.
A fair on the second Tuesday in March, held
there annually, was known as Marnock Fair.
There was a Mafnock Fair at Paisley also,
which lasted for eight days. The church of the
well-known parish of Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire,
is another of his dedications. Near Kilfinan,
in Argyllshire, and not far from the sea shore,
may be seen the foundation and a fragment of
the wall of a chapel with a graveyard round it ;
the field in which the chapel stands is called
Ard-Marnoc. On an eminence not far off is a
cell which tradition assigns to this saint as a
place of retirement for solitary communion with
God. Inchmarnock, an island near Bute, is
another place connected with him ; Dalmarnock
at Little Dunkeld, is named after this saint.
Other churches and parishes also show
traces of the honour paid to him in Catholic
St. Monan, Martyr, 9th century.
ACCORDING to some writers, he was one of
the companions of St. Adrian (who was
honoured on March 4), and preached the
Gospel in Fifeshire ; his relics being afterwards
translated to Abercrombie in that county-
King David II., in thanksgiving for cures
obtained through the saint s intercession,
erecting there a noble church to contain them.
Dr Skene, however, is of opinion that this
saint was not a martyr, but was St. Monan,
Bishop of Clonfert, known in Irish calendars as
Moinenn, and that his relics were brought to
Abercrombie by Irish who had fled from the
Danes then plundering and burning Irish
monasteries about the year 84 1 . On account
of the great devotion of the saint, Abercrombie
became generally known as St. Monan s, but
has now reverted to its original title. The church
was given by James III. to the Dominicans ;
later on it was transferred to the Canons
Regular of St. Andrews. St. Monan s Well
is near the ancient building.
2 St. Fergna, Bishop, A.D. 622.
THIS saint, a fellow-citizen and relative of St.
Columba, became eventually Abbot of lona.
During his rule many of the young nobles
who had fled from the sword of the King of
Deira took shelter in the monastery. They
were instructed and converted to the Christian
Faith. St. Fergna is said to have been made
a bishop in the later years of his life, but this
is called in question by some writers. He
seems to have been of partly British descent
and is often styled " Fergna the Briton."
4 St. Adrian and Companions, A.D. 875,
AN old legend, which was long regarded as
authentic, relates that this saint was of royal
birth and was a native of Hungary, and that
he came to Scotland with several companions
to preach the Faith. Modern historians iden
tify him with the Irish St. Odhran, who was
driven from his country by the Danes and
took refuge in Scotland. He preached the
Gospel to the people of Fifeshire and the
eastern counties. Eventually he founded a
monastery on the Isle of May in the Firth of
Forth. Here he suffered martyrdom, together
with a great number of his disciples, in an
incursion of the Danes. A Priory was
built on the island by David I, and
placed under the Benedictine Abbey of Read
ing. Later on it was given over to the Canons
Regular of St. Andrews. The Isle of May
became a famous place of pilgrimage on account
of the connection with it of other saints besides
St. Adrian and his companions. James IV
visited it several times, having evidently a great
affection for the holy place. In 1 503 he took
the "clerkis of the Kingis chapell to Maii to
sing the Mes thair." Other records occur in
his treasurer s accounts, such as the following :
"To the preistis to say thre trentals of Messis
thair"; for "the Kingis offerand in his tua
candillis in Maii."
6 St. Baldred, Hermit, A.D. 608.
THIS saint, according to a popular tradition,
was a disciple of the great St. Kentigern. He
has often been styled the Apostle of East
Lothian. After his master s death St. Baldred
took up his residence upon the Bass Rock,
near North Berwick, and there he devoted
himself to penance and prayer, his favourite
subject of meditation being the Passion of
Christ Our Lord. From time to time he would
pay missionary visits to the mainland. He died
at Aldhame in Haddington, a village which
has now disappeared ; St. Baldred s Cave is on
the sea-shore near its former site. Tyningham
Church, in the same county, and also that of
Prestonkirk, were dedicated to him. The
former was burnt by the Danes in 94 1 . The
old parishes of Aldhame and Tyningham are
now united under the designation of White-
kirk. At Prestonkirk there is a well which
bears the saint s name, whose water, as a
Protestant writer notes, is excellent for making
tea ! An eddy in the Tyne is called St.
Baldred s Whirl. A century ago Prestonkirk
churchyard possessed an ancient statue of St.
Baldred. The ruins of a chapel dedicated to
the saint are still discernible on the Bass Rock.
St Cadroe, Abbot, A.D. 937.
HE was connected with the royal family of
Strathclyde. In his youth he was sent to
Ireland to be educated at Armagh. Returning
to Scotland, he devoted himself to the training
and education of youths for the priesthood.
Later on he gave himself to a life of pilgrimage
and passed into England, where Odo, Arch
bishop of Canterbury, received him with great
kindness ; he also visited the King, Edmund,
at Winchester. Crossing over to France,
Cadroe, by the direction of St. Fursey, who
appeared to him in a vision during prayer,
took the monastic habit at the Benedictine
Abbey of Fleury. But although he wished to
remain there as a simple monk, his sanctity
caused him to be made abbot of the monastery
of Wassons-on-the Meuse, which he ruled for
some years. At the request of the Bishop of
Metz he took up his residence in that city in
the Abbey of St Clement, where he instituted
a thorough reform of discipline. He remained
at the latter monastery till his death at the age
of seventy, which was followed by many
8 St. Duthac, Bishop, A,D. 1068.
THIS saint was of Scottish birth, but was
educated, like many of his contemporaries, in
Ireland. Returning to his native land, he was
consecrated bishop, and devoted himself with
zeal to the pastoral office. He is said to have
especially shown this devotion in hearing the
confessions of his people. He laboured as
bishop in the districts of Moray and Ross.
Both during; life and after death he was noted
for many miracles. He was buried in the
church of Tain, whose Gaelic title is ^Baile
Dhuich (Duthac s Town). Seven years after
death his body was found incorrupt, and
was removed to a more honourable shrine in
the same church. His resting-place became one
of the chief places of pilgrimage in the country.
James IV. visited it no less than three times,
travelling thither with a large retinue. At that
date St. Duthac s Bell was treasured at Tain.
St. Duthac is patron of Kilduich, at the head
of Loch Duich in Kintail. The saint probably
visited this spot, which belonged to his pastoral
charge. Kilduthie, near the Loch of Leys,
Kincardineshire, and Arduthie, near Stone-
haven, in the same county, both take their
names from this saint. A chapel in the
Benedictine Abbey of Arbroath bore the de
dication of St. Duthac. Two fairs called after
him were held annually at Tain " St. Duthac
in Lent " was on his feast-day ; that in
December probably indicated some translation
of his relics. At Tain is St. Duthac s Cairn.
A holy well bears his name in the parish of
Cromarty. Leo XIII restored his feast in
10 St. Failhbe (the second), Abbot, A.D. 745.
THIS saint was one of the abbots of lona. He
ruled that monastery for seven years, and died
there at the age of seventy.
St. Kessog or Mackessog, Bishop and Martyr,
HE was a native of Ireland, but devoted him
self to missionary labours in Scotland, in the
province of Lennox. He used as his retreat
Innis a SKChanaich (Monk s Island) in Loch
Lomond. Tradition says that he suffered
martyrdom near Luss, in Dumbartonshire.
Another version is that being martyred in a
foreign country, and his body being conveyed
to Scotland for burial, the herbs with which it
was surrounded took root and grew where he
was laid to rest ; hence the name Luss (herbs)
was given to the spot, and was afterwards
extended to the parish. The place of his burial
is called " Carnmacheasaig." The church of
Luss had the privilege of sanctuary, which
extended for three miles round it, so that no
one could be molested within that boundary
for any cause ; this was granted by King
Robert Bruce in 1313. The church of
Auchterarder, Perthshire, was dedicated to
this saint, and he was also venerated at Cal-
lander ; at both places, as also at Comrie,
Perthshire, fairs were held annually on his
feast-day. Near Callander is a conical mound
bearing his name. The bell of the saint was
preserved up to the seventeenth century. At
Inverness is " Kessog Ferry." The saint s
name was often used by the Scots as a battle-
cry, and he is sometimes represented as the
patron of soldiers, wearing a kind of military
11 St. Constantine, King and Martyr, A.D. 590.
THIS saint was a British king who reigned in
Cornwall. His early life was stained by many
crimes, but, becoming converted to piety, after
his wife s death he entered the monastery of
Menevia, now known as St. David s, that he
might expiate his sins by penance. St. Kentigern,
then an exile in that same monastery, exhorted
him to devote himself to preaching the Faith in
Cumbria. St. Constantine accordingly founded
a monastery at Govan, in Lanarkshire, where
he became abbot, and from whence he and his
disciples preached Christianity to the people of
the surrounding country. He converted the
people of Cantyre, and met his death in that
district at the hands of the enemies of his
teaching. He was buried at Govan, where
the church bears his name. Kilchousland in
Cantyre takes its name from him. The ancient
church of Kinnoul, near Perth, and that of
Dunnichen, Forfarshire, were also dedicated to
this saint ; at the latter place was St. Cousland s
(or Causnan s) Fair, and some remains of St.
Cousland s chapel are there still. The water of
his well at Garrabost, in Lewis, known as St.
Cowstan s, is said never to boil any kind of
meat, however long it may be kept over a fire.
The feast of this saint was restored by Leo
St. Libranus, Abbot.
HE was one of the many saintly abbots of
12 St. Indrecht, Abbot and Martyr, A.D. 854.
THIS saint was also Abbot of lona, being the
twenty-first in order of succession. On his
way to Rome he was martyred by the Saxons.
St. Fechno, or Fiachna, Confessor, A.D. 580.
HE was one of the twelve disciples who
accompanied St. Columba to Scotland. He
was probably born in the north of Ireland, and
spent some years under St. Columba s rule.
Miracles are said to have been wrought at his
16 St. Finan, Abbot, A.D. (about) 575.
THIS saint, surnamed " The Leper," from the
disease with which he was afflicted, is mentioned
in Irish calendars on the 1 6th of this month.
Although the dedications to St. Finan in Scot
land are many, and devotion to him must
therefore have been widespread, it is difficult to
assign a cause for it. Some have thought that
he was at some time at lona, but the authentic
particulars of his life which are now extant are
so few that it is impossible to determine. To
him is attributed the evangelisation of part of
Argyllshire, in the district which still bears
the name of Glen-Finan. The ancient
burial-place of the district is on Eilean Finan,
an island in Loch Shiel, where he is said to
have lived, and where is preserved one of the few
ancient bronze bells which still exist in Scot
land ; it is called by the saint s name. A fair
was formerly held there annually, and was
called "St. Finan s Fair." Other dedications
to this saint are at Kilfinan in the same county
Kilfinan, near Invergarry, and Mochrum in
Wigtonshire. " St. Finzean s Fair " (a manner
of denoting Finyan), formerly held at Perth, is
supposed to have been in honour of the festival
of this saint.
St. Charmaig, A.D. (about) 640.
THIS was a saint much honoured among the
Hebrides. He is patron of the church of
Keills, Argyllshire. At Ellanmore, in that
county, there are the remains of a chapel, named
after him, Kilmacharmaig, and in a recess is a
recumbent figure thought to be a representation
of the saint. Kirkcormaig, in the parish of
Kelton, Kirkcudbright, possibly refers to this
St, Boniface or Curitan, Bishop, 8th century.
AN ancient legend, which modern historians
have shown to be a fanciful distortion of facts,
relates that this saint, an Israelite, came from
Rome to Britain, and that after converting
Nectan, King of the Picts, and his people to
Christianity, he consecrated 1 50 bishops,
ordained 1 000 priests, founded 1 50 churches,
and baptised 36,000 persons. The real facts
of the case seem to be that this saint is identical
with Curitan, an Irish saint, who laboured in
Scotland to bring about the Roman observance
of Easter. The testimony of St. Bede that
King Nectan in the year 710 adopted the
Roman computation, and the fact that St.
Boniface was zealous in founding churches in
honour of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles,
thus identifying himself with special devotion to
Rome, seem to give weight to the supposition.
This saint became a bishop, and the cathedral
of the diocese of Ross, which replaced the
primitive building raised by him at Rosemarkie
(now Fortrose) and dedicated to St. Peter, was
subsequently named in his honour. A fair was
formerly held there annually on his feast-day.
In Glen-Urquhart, Inverness-shire, Clach
Churadain, an ancient church at Corrimony,
was dedicated to this saint. Croit Churadain
("Curitan s Croft") and Tobar Churadain
(" Curitan s Well ") are hard by.
17 St. Patrick, Bishop, A.D. 493.
To many it may seem strange that the name of
the great Apostle of Ireland should appear
among Scottish saints ; but the calendar would
be incomplete without it. According to many
competent authorities St. Patrick was born in
Scotland. They fix his birthplace at Kil-
patrick on the Clyde, near Dumbarton. Even
were this theory rejected, and that one accepted
which makes him a native of Gaul, still the
number of churches dedicated to the saint in
Scotland, testifying to the devotion in which he
was held in Catholic ages, would justify the
mention of his feast here. About fourteen
churches bore his name, and many have given
the designation to the parish in which they
stand, as Kilpatrick, Temple- Patrick, Ard-
Patrick, Dalpatrick, Kirkpatrick, etc. Fairs
were held on this day known as " Patrickmas"
at Dumbarton and Kirkpatrick - Durham
(Kirkcudbrightshire). There is a sacred well
called by the saint s name, and also a small
chapel in honour of St. Patrick, at Muthill,
Perthshire, and so highly was he esteemed in
that place that a general holiday from labour
was observed on his feast up to the beginning
of last century. At Dalziel (Lanarkshire),
Kilpatrick (Dumbartonshire), and Port Patrick
(Wigtonshire), are holy wells bearing St.
Patrick s name.
18 St. Finian or Finan, Bishop, A.D. 660.
THIS feast is noted both in the Breviary and
Martyrology of Aberdeen, as well as in other
Scottish calendars. There is a wide divergence
of opinion among authorities as to the particular
saint referred to, and the Aberdeen Breviary
affords no account of his life. It seems, how
ever, not improbable that this is the St. Finan,
patron of the churches of Migvie and Lump-
hanan, both in Aberdeenshire, who is thought
by Dr. Skene to have been one of St. Kenti-
gern s Welsh disciples, sent, together with St.
Nidan (see Nov. 3), to preach the Gospel in
Deeside. " In the upper valley of the Dee, on
the north side of the river, we find a group of
dedications which must have proceeded from a
Welsh source. These are Glengairden, de
dicated to Mungo, Migvie and Lumphanan to
Finan, the latter name being a corruption of
Llanffinan, and Midmar dedicated to Nidan ;
while in the island of Anglesea we likewise find
two adjacent parishes called Llanffinan and
Llannidan." (" Celtic Scotland," ii., 193.)
A chapel at Abersnethick in the parish of
Monymusk bears the name of St. Finan, and
an Aberdeen authority notes in 1 703 that :
" Finzean Fair at the kirk of Migvie " was kept
at that time, " whiles in March and whiles in
April, on the Tuesday before Midlenton fair
St. Comman, A.D. 688.
HE was the brother of St. Cumine, Abbot of
lona, and therefore of Irish descent. Like him,
too, he became a monk at lona. The parish
of Kilchoman, Islay, takes its name from this
20 St. Cuthbert, Bishop, A.D. 687.
THIS saint was born of Saxon parents in
Northumbria, and was early left an orphan.
While tending sheep on the slopes of Lammer-
moor the youth had a remarkable vision, in
which he saw the heavens at night-time all
bright with supernatural splendour and choirs of
angels bearing some soul of dazzling brightness
to its eternal reward. Next day he learned
that Aidan, the holy Bishop of Lindisfarne, had
passed away. Cuthbert had often before
thought of embracing the monastic state, and
this vision of the blessedness of one who was a
brilliant example of that way of life decided
him. He therefore presented himself at the
gates of the monastery of Melrose, being pro
bably in his twenty-fourth year. He was
received as a novice by St. Boisil, the Prior,
who, on first beholding the youth, said to those
who stood near : " Behold a true servant of the
Lord," a prediction abundantly fulfilled in
Cuthbert s life.
For ten years the saint remained hidden at
Melrose perfecting himself by the routine of
monastic observance. Then on the foundation
of Ripon he was sent there as one of the first
community. After a short stay he returned to
Melrose, and on the death of St. Boisil was
made Prior. To the greatest zeal for all that
concerned monastic life he added a tender
charity for the souls of others, which led him
to make many missionary excursions into the
When Abbot Eata in 664 received the
charge of the Abbey of Lindisfarne in addition
to Melrose, Cuthbert was sent thither as Prior.
For twelve years he was a teacher to his com
munity, both by word and example, of the
precepts of the perfect life. Then, desiring
more strict seclusion, he retired to a solitary cell
on Fame Island, that he might give himself
more completely to prayer. Here he lived
eight years, visited on great feasts by some of
the Lindisfarne monks, and at frequent intervals
by pious Christians who sought his direction
Having been thus prepared, like St. John
Baptist in his desert, for the work God had in
store for him, he was chosen Bishop of Lindis
farne. During the two years he exercised this
office he was to his flock a model of every
virtue, and a pastor full of zeal and charity.
He preserved, notwithstanding his high dignity,
MARCH 5 1
the humility of heart and simplicity of garb
which belonged to his monastic state. Numerous
and striking miracles attested his sanctity.
Foreseeing his approaching end he retired to
his little cell at Fame where he passed away,
strengthened by the Sacraments, with his hands
uplifted in prayer. He was buried at Lindis-
farne ; but incursions of the Danes necessitated
the removal of his remains, and for nearly two
hundred years his body was conveyed from
place to place till it was eventually laid to rest
in the Cathedral of Durham. There it became
an object of pious pilgrimage from all the three
kingdoms. More than 800 years after death
the sacred body was found still incorrupt, and
there, in a secure hiding-place, it still awaits the
restoration of St. Cuthbert s shrine to its rightful
custodians, the sons of St. Benedict, the guardians
of the secret. Among the churches dedicated to
St. Cuthbert in Scotland were those at Ballan-
trae, Hailes, Ednam, Glencairn, Kirkcudbright,
Drummelzier, Gienholm (Broughton), Malton,
Edinburgh, Prestwick, Eccles, Drysdale, Gir-
van, Maybole, Mauchline, Weem, and even
distant Wick. Besides Kirkcudbright (Church
of St. Cuthbert), which gives the name to a
whole county, Northumbria is studded with
churches built in his honour, which recall the
resting-places of his body, and witness to the
devotion inspired by those sacred remains to this
great saint. Fairs were formerly held on his
feast-day at Ruthwell (Dumfries-shire), and
Ordiquhill (Banffshire) both for eight days
and probably in other localities also. His holy
wells were at St. Boswell s and in Strathtay
22 St. Finian, Wynnin, or Frigidian, Bishop,
IN this saint we have a remarkable instance
of a change of name in accordance with the
character of the language spoken in the various
countries in which he successively lived. Born
in Ireland of the royal line of the Kings of
Ulster, St. Finian was sent early in the sixth
century to be educated at Candida Casa or
Whithorn, where a famous school of learning
and sanctity had grown up round the tomb of
St. Ninian. Returning to his native land,
Finian, by the fame of his wonderful erudition,
attracted to him numerous disciples in his
monastery at Moville. Here, among others,
was trained the youth who became in after
years the great St. Columba the Apostle of
the north of Scotland.
After a pilgrimage to Rome whence he re
turned with a copy of the Sacred Scriptures
a volume rare and precious in those early
times - - Finian again journeyed into Italy
and came to the city of Lucca, where his
holiness procured him such regard from the
people that they succeeded in obtaining his
consecration as bishop of that city. It was
during his residence there that the wonderful
miracle occurred which St. Gregory the Great,
who calls the saint " a man of rare virtue,"
relates in his book of Dialogues. This was the
turning of the channel of the river Serchio,
which had previously given much trouble to
the citizens by overflowing its banks and spoil
ing orchards and vineyards round about. The
saint after prayer made a new channel with a
small rake, and commanded the river to flow in
that direction for the future, which it did. He
is known in Italy as St. Frigidian.
At one time in his life this saint dwelt in the
Cunningham district of Ayrshire, where his
name survives in the Abbey of Kilwinning
(Church of Wynnin or Finian). He is said to
have come there from Ireland with a few com
panions and to have established monastic life in
that place, which was afterwards the site of a
famous Benedictine Abbey. A like miracle is
related of him here. He is said to have
changed the course of the river Garnoch. He
seems to have preached the Faith at Dairy, in
Ayrshire, also ; for a hill hard by is called
Caer-winning, and there, as at Kilwinning, is a
holy well bearing the saint s name. An annual
fair, still known as " St. Wynnin V is held at
The saint departed this life at Lucca, where
his body is venerated in the church of St.
Frigidian. His feast occurs in March in some
calendars, and in others in September. By
some writers the names of Finian, Wynnin, and
Frigidian have been considered as representing
distinct persons ; but modern research has pro
nounced them to be merely different forms of
the same name and to refer to the same saint.
30 St, Olaf or Clave, King and Martyr,
HE was the son of Harald, King of Norway,
and became a Christian at an early age. Exiled
from his country after his father s death by
powerful enemies, he spent many years of his
life in piratical warfare. Having embraced the
Christian Faith himself, he resolved to deliver
his country from the usurping power of the
Swedes and Danes, and establish the Christian
religion, together with his own lawful sovereignty.
Success crowned his efforts, and he was enabled
to release his people not only from foreign
domination but also from the thralls of paganism,
many of them embracing Christianity. His
enemies, however, proved too strong for him,
and he was again exiled and took refuge in
Russia. Returning soon after, he raised an
army to recover his kingdom, but was slain by
his infidel and rebellious subjects in a battle at
A just and brave ruler, zealous for the
Christian religion, though not altogether free
from grievous offences against its laws, Olaf, by
his unswerving faith, his devotion and penance,
won the title of saint and martyr. He was
buried at Drontheim, and a magnificent cathe
dral arose over his remains. His body was
found incorrupt in 1098, and again in 1541
when the shrine was plundered by the Lutherans.
On that occasion the heretics treated the body
with respect, and it was afterwards re-interred.
Many miracles have attested his sanctity.
St. Olaf s efforts for the spread of the Gospel
in the Orkneys, which at that time belonged to
Norway, were doubtless the cause of the
devotion which was shown to him in Scotland.
Many traces of its existence are to be found in
the dedications to him. In Orkney was
anciently St. Ollow s parish ; it is now com
prised in that of Kirkwall. In the latter town
is St. Ollowe s Bridge. South-west of Girlsta,
in Shetland, is Whiteness, where once stood the
Church of St. Olla. He was honoured at
Grease in the Island of Lewis. Kirk of Cruden
(Aberdeenshire), where St. Ole s Fair was held
annually, was dedicated to him. The remains
of the saint s ancient chapel, said to have been
founded there by Canute, were used for road
metal in 1837. St. Olla s Fair, at Kirkwall,
lasting for fourteen days, is described in Scott s
Pirate. In St. Salvator s College, St. Andrews,
was an altar to this saint. St. Olaf appears in
the Martyrology on July 29th, when his feast
was kept in Norway and all Scandinavian
countries. In Scotland, however, he was
honoured on this day.
1 St. Gilbert, Bishop, A.D. 1245.
ST. GILBERT was the last Scotsman who was
honoured as a saint before the Reformation.
He belonged to the noble family of Moray,
being son of William, Lord of Dufus. Having
entered the ecclesiastical state he became in due
time Archdeacon of Moray, and when the see
of Caithness became vacant he was consecrated
bishop of that diocese. During the twenty
years he ruled the church of Caithness he edified
all by his zeal and by the virtues of his private
The cathedral at that time was but a small,
insignificant church at Dornoch, dedicated to
St. Finbar, an Irish saint of the sixth century
who laboured as a missionary in Scotland. The
poverty of the diocese and the unsettled state of
the times had prevented any extension of this.
Gilbert therefore resolved to provide at his own
cost a more worthy edifice for the mother-
church of the diocese. The church when com
pleted was a beautiful Early English structure,
with aisles, transepts, and central tower and
spire. The holy bishop considered it a privi
lege to help with his own hands in the building
work. He would himself superintend the
making of glass for the windows in the glass
works he had established at Sideray.
When the cathedral was finished, St. Gil
bert s next care was to form a Chapter, as
hitherto there had been no canons. In this
important undertaking he followed the model of
Lincoln Cathedral and established the rite of
that church in the ceremonial of the services.
The dignitaries and canons were ten in number,
and there were also sufficient vicars choral, or
minor ecclesiastics, to enable the sacred offices
to be celebrated with becoming solemnity.
St. Gilbert worked many miracles during
life ; among them is recorded the bestowal of
speech on a dumb man by means of prayer and
the sign of the cross. The saint was laid to
rest under the central spire of his cathedral, and
a century after his death the dedication, which
had previously been to St. Mary, had been
changed to St. Mary and St. Gilbert.
The relics of the saint were greatly honoured
in Catholic ages. No trace of St. Gilbert s
resting-place remains now except a portion of a
broken statue which probably formed part of
it ; like those of so many of our holy ones, his
ashes are left unhonoured in the desecrated
church wherein they repose. St. Gilbert s
Fair was formerly held annually at Dornoch ;
it lasted for three days.
2 St. Ebba, Virgin and Abbess, and her
Companions, Martyrs, A.D. 870.
THE monastery of Coldingham, in the ancient
kingdom of Northumbria, founded in the
seventh century by St. Ebba, sister of the kings
Oswald and Oswy, was governed in the ninth
century by another Ebba, who presided over a
band of holy virgins following the Rule of St.
Benedict. About the year 867 several thousand
Danish warriors, under the command of the
brothers Hinguar and Hubba, landed on the
coast of East Anglia and desolated the whole
north country. When Abbess Ebba received
tidings of the near approach of the pagan hordes,
who had already wrecked vengeance upon
ecclesiastics, monks, and consecrated virgins, she
summoned her nuns to Chapter, and in a
moving discourse exhorted them to preserve at
any cost the treasure of their chastity. Then
seizing a razor, and calling upon her daughters
to follow her heroic example, she mutilated her
face in order to inspire the barbarian invaders
with horror at the sight. The nuns without
exception courageously followed the example of
their abbess. When the Danes broke into the
cloister and saw the nuns with faces thus dis
figured, they fled in panic. Their leaders,
burning with rage, sent back some of their
number to set fire to the monastery, and thus the
heroic martyrs perished in the common ruin of
their house. Some chronicles give the 23rd
August as the day of their martyrdom, but
Scottish writers assign this as their feast day.
4 St. Gonval, Ring, A.D. 824.
SOME Scottish historians speak of this good
king as an example of piety and respect for the
Church and her ordinances. He is said to
have received the commendation of St.
Columba. His name occurs in the ancient
Litany known as that of Dunkeld, formerly in
use among the Culdees.
11 St. Macceus or Mahew, A.D. (about) 460.
HE is said to have been a disciple of St.
Patrick, and spent the greater part of his life in
retirement in the Isle of Bute. No particulars
of his life can be ascertained. St. Mahew was
honoured at Kilmahew near Dumbarton. In
1 467 a new chapel and cemetery, dedicated to
this saint, were consecrated there by George,
Bishop of Argyle.
St. Mechtilde or Matilda, Virgin, 13th century.
ACCORDING to some Scottish historians, two
members of the royal family resigned all the
honours and dignities belonging to their state
and left their native country to serve God in
poverty and obscurity. These were a brother
and sister, bearing the names of Alexander and
Matilda, the latter being the elder. It is not
clear which of the kings of Scotland was their
relative. Alexander, having concealed his
origin, became a lay-brother in the Cistercian
monastery of Foigni, in the diocese of Laon,
where he died in 1 229. His sister, taking
leave of him at the gates of the monastery, took
up her abode in a small hut about ten miles
distant. Here she spent a long life in dire
poverty and austerity. She would refuse all
alms, working laboriously for her daily susten
ance, and spending all the time that remained
in prayer and contemplation. Miracles are
said to have proved her power with God, both
during her lifetime and after her happy death,
which took place some years after that of her
16 St. Magnus, Martyr, A.D. 1116.
THE noble Cathedral of Kirkwall rose over the
tomb of St. Magnus one of the most popular
of the pre- Reformation saints of Scotland. It
was founded by the nephew of the martyr,
twenty years after he suffered, and to it were
translated the remains of St. Magnus, which
had hitherto reposed in a more humble sanc
tuary at Birsay. In all probability they still
rest undisturbed in the cathedral which bears
the name of the saint.
Like many of the early English saints,
Magnus received the title of martyr rather
from the popular voice than by the decision of
ecclesiastical authority. As his story shows, he
merited the title by shedding his blood not so
much in defence of the Christian Faith as in
behalf of the virtues of a Christian life, whose
brilliancy excited the jealous anger of his
St. Magnus was the son of Erlin, Earl of
Orkney. He was distinguished from childhood
by an uprightness of life which indicated his
future sanctity. Erlin was opposed by Magnus
Barefoot, King of Norway, who made him
prisoner and seized his possessions, carrying off
the young Magnus to act as his personal
attendant. After ravaging the Western Isles
the Norwegian king encountered, off the Island
of Anglesey, the forces of the Norman Earls of
Chester and Shrewsbury, and defeated them
with much slaughter. The young Magnus
refused to take any part in the unjust warfare,
and remained in his ship engaged in prayer
throughout the battle. He was soon after able
to escape to the court of Malcolm III, where
he remained for some time in safety.
Magnus bitterly lamented for the rest of his
days the excesses into which he had fallen in
the life of constant warfare and strife which had
been his lot with the Norwegians ; whatever
their guilt may have been, it was his constant
endeavour to atone for them by penance and
The family possessions in the Orkneys were
regained on the death of Barefoot, but fresh
contests were stirred up when Haco, cousin of
St. Magnus, laid claim to them for himself.
To avoid bloodshed St. Magnus agreed to a
meeting with Haco in the island of Egilshay
that thus the dispute might be settled in a
friendly manner. Haco, however, was a
traitor ; and caused his own forces to be drawn
round the unarmed Magnus to compass his
destruction. The latter, made aware of the
treachery, and unable to make any defence,
prepared for his conflict by a night of prayer in
the church, and the reception of the Sacraments.
Then, when morning dawned, he advanced
courageously to confront his murderers, and
met a barbarous death with Christian fortitude.
The only Catholic cathedral in Scotland
which remains entire still shelters the body of a
saint. It may be that God has spared it to
restore it to Catholic worship through the
merits of St. Magnus. The feast, known in
the Middle Ages as " Magnusmas," was restored
by Pope Leo XIII. His fair was formerly
held at Watten- Wester in Caithness. A holy
well at Birsay, in Orkney, bears his name.
17 St. Donnan and Companions, Martyrs,
LIKE St. Columba, whose countryman he was,
St. Donnan left his native Ireland and passed
over to Scotland, where he established a
monastery on the Island of Eigg, one of the
Inner Hebrides. While celebrating the Holy
Mysteries on Easter morning the abbot and
his monks were surprised by a horde of pirates,
possibly Danes, who had been instigated by a
malicious woman to put them to death. At
the prayer of the monks they granted them a
respite till Mass was finished, and then put
them all to the sword. The martyrs numbered
Many churches, especially in the west, bore
St. Donnan s dedication. Among them were
Kildonan of Eigg, Arran, South Uist, Kintyre,
and Lochbroom. On the island of his martyr
dom is the saint s well. St. Donnan s abbatial
staff existed up to the Reformation ; it was
treasured at Auchterless, Aberdeenshire, where
" Donan Fair" was held as late as 1851.
Another fair used to be held at Kildonan, in
Sutherlandshire. The feast of these martyrs
was restored to the Scottish Calendar by Leo
XI 1 1 in 1898.
18 St. Laserian OP Molios, Abbot, A.D. 639.
THIS saint was of princely race in Ireland.
He seems to have been brought to Scotland at
an early age, and to have been sent to Ireland
for his education. Later on he returned to
Scotland for a life of sanctity and solitude. A
small island in the bay of Lamlash, off the
coast of Arran, became his abode for many
years. His virtues gave it the name it still
bears of Holy Island.
St. Laserian seems to have made a pilgrimage
to Rome, where he was raised to the priest
hood. Returning to Ireland, he afterwards be
came abbot of the monastery of Leighlin. He
is said to have espoused with much zeal the
Roman usage with regard to Easter.
In Holy Island, which was so long his soli
tary abode, are still to be seen traces of his
residence. A cave scooped out of the rock
bears his name, and a rocky ledge is called " St.
Molio s Bed." A spring of clear water near
the cave is also pointed out as the saint s
well, and miraculous properties have been
attributed to it. The cave itself is marked
with many pilgrims crosses.
21 St. Maelrubha, Abbot, A.D. 722.
HE was born of noble race in Ireland, and in
early life began his monastic life under the rule
of his relative, St. Comgal, at Bangor. When
he reached the age of twenty-nine he passed
over the sea to Scotland, and founded at
Applecross, in Ross, a monastery, over which
he ruled for more than fifty years. During his
residence in Scotland he founded a church on a
small island in the beautiful lake now known as
Loch Maree, which takes its name from this
St. Maelrubha acquired a great reputation
for sanctity throughout the west coast of Scot
land and the islands adjacent, where he was one
of the most popular of the Irish saints in
Catholic ages. An old Scottish tradition,
quoted by the Aberdeen Breviary, says that
he met his death at the hands of pagan Nor
wegians, at Urquhart, in the Black Isle, on the
eastern side of Ross-shire, and that he was left
lying severely wounded, but still alive, for three
days, during which angels consoled him. A
bright light, hovering over the spot, is said to
have discovered the dying saint to a neighbour
ing priest, and thus procured for him the parti
cipation in " the Body of the Immaculate
Lamb" before he expired. His title to martyr
dom is, however, disputed by later authorities.
The devotion of Catholics to this saint is
attested by the numerous dedications of churches
to his memory. At least twenty-one of these
are enumerated by antiquarians. Chief are
Applecross (where he was laid to rest), Loch
Maree, Urquhart (the reputed place of his
martyrdom), Portree, Arasaig, Forres, Fordyce,
Keith, Contin and Gairloch. In these dedi
cations the saint s name assumes various forms,
such as Maree, Mulruy, Mury, Samareirs (St.
Mareirs, at Forres), Summaruff (St. Maruff, at
Fordyce), and many others.
Many place of interest in connection with
this saint may still be found. At Applecross,
in the vicinity of the ruins of the church, is
the martyr s grave, called Cladh Maree ,
near the churchyard is " Maelrubha s River, *
while two miles away is the saint s seat, called
in Gaelic Suidhe Maree. Several other traces
of him are to be discovered in the place-names
of the neighbourhood.
Loch Maree is the most interesting locality
connected with St. Maelrubha. A small island
in the loch called Innis Maree contains an
ancient chapel and a burial place. Near it is a
deep well, renowned for the efficacy of its
water in the cure of lunacy. An oak tree hard
by is studded with nails, to each of which was
formerly attached a shred of clothing belonging
to some pilgrim visitor. Many pennies and
other coins have at various times been driven
edgewise into the bark of the tree, and it is
fast closing over them. These are the Protestant
equivalents to votive offerings at the shrine.
At Forres, in Moray, an annual fair was
held on this day, as also at Fordyce, Pitlessie
(Fife), and Lairg (Sutherland) at the latter
place under the name of St. Murie. Keith in
Banffshire was formerly known as Kethmalruf,
or " Keith of Maelrubha." At Contin, near
Dingwall, the ancient church was dedicated to
the saint ; its annual fair called Feille Maree,
and familiarly known as the "August Market,"
was transferred to Dingwall. Many other
memorials of this saint are to be found in Ross-
shire. It is worthy of note that many dedica
tions formerly supposed to be in honour of Our
Lady are now identified as those of St. Mael
rubha under the title of Maree ; this is proved
by the traditional pronunciation of their respec
St. Maelrubha is one of the Scottish saints
whose cultus was approved by Rome in 1 898,
and whose feast has been consequently restored
in many of the Scottish dioceses. It was
formerly observed in Scotland on August 27,
but has been always kept in Ireland on this day.
2i St. Egbert, Priest and Monk, A.D. 729.
HE was an Englishman of good family, who,
after some years of study in the monastery of
Lindisfarne, followed the almost universal custom
of those days and passed over to Ireland, then
renowned for its monastic schools, entering the
monastery of Melfont. During his stay there a
pestilence broke out which carried off a great
number of the inmates. Egbert prayed earnestly
to be spared that he might live a life of penance,
making a vow never more to return to England,
to recite daily the whole psalter in addition to
the canonical hours, and to fast from all food
one day in each week for the rest of his life.
His vow was accepted and his life spared.
After some years Egbert was raised to the
priesthood, and his zeal for souls led him to
desire to preach the faith to the pagan people
of that part of Germany then known as Fries-
land, In this project he was joined by some
of his pious companions. A vessel had been
chartered, and all things were ready, when
it was revealed to Egbert through a holy monk
that God had other designs in his regard ; in
obedience to this intimation the voyage was at
The later life of Egbert exemplifies the way
in which God chooses and preserves the instru
ments for accomplishing His Will. Entering
the monastery of lona when already advanced
in years, he spent the last thirteen years of his
life in untiring efforts to induce the monks to
give up the Celtic traditions to which they
clung, and to conform to the Roman computa
tion of Easter. His sweetness and gentleness
were at last rewarded. On Easter Day 729
he passed away at the ripe age of ninety,
"rejoicing," as St. Bede says, "that he had
been detained here long enough to see them
keep the feast with him on that day, which
before they had always avoided."
Though the monks of lona did not then, as a
body, accept the Roman custom, yet the seeds
sown by Egbert bore fruit eventually in com
plete conformity with the rest of the Church,
St. Egbert thus merits a high place among
the saints of Scotland, although but a short
period of his life was spent in the country. He
also shares with St. Willibrord the renown of
converting Friesland to the Faith ; for it was by
his example and persuasion that the latter was
induced to undertake the work which terminated
so successfully. On account of his connection
with the conversion of the country, the feast of
St. Egbert was formerly celebrated in the
diocese of Utrecht. Some authors maintain
that St. Egbert never took monastic vows, but
was a priest living in the monastery ; others say,
and with good reason, that he was a bishop.
25 St. Cunibert, Bishop, A.D. 699.
THIS saint was entrusted by his parents for his
education to some monks living in a monastery
near the Tay, whose site cannot now be
identified. He became a priest, and afterwards
bishop. Towards the end of his days he
retired into solitude as a hermit, and thus
finished his earthly course.
St. Machalus, Bishop, A.D. 498.
HE was a bishop in the Isle of Man, which
then formed part of Scotland. His name is
variously written as Machalus, Machella, and
Mauchold. One of the parishes in the island
bears his name, and in the churchyard is the
saint s holy well. A ledge of rock hard by is
called his "chair" ; it used to be a favourite
devotion of pilgrims to seat themselves on this
ledge while drinking the miraculous water of
the well and invoking the saint s aid. The
water is said to have been effective in preventing
the action of poison. Many churches in Scot
land are called by his name. There was a
chapel near Chapeltown in Banffshire known as
Kilmaichlie, which seems to refer to this saint.
A holy well is still to be found in the vicinity.
29 St. Middan, Bishop.
VERY little is known of this saint. Some think
him to be identical with St. Madden or Medan,
who was honoured at Airlie, in Angus. Near
the church of Airlie is a spring called by the
name of St. Medan, and a hillock hard by is
known as " St. Medan s Knowe." The bell of
the saint was also preserved there till it was sold
for old iron during the last century. Eccles-
maldie, now called Inglismaldie, in the Mearns,
has also a " Maidie Well," which may possibly
be connected with St. Middan.
30 St. Brioc, Bishop, A.D. 500.
THIS saint was British by birth. He became
a disciple of St. Germanus and devoted himself
to preaching the Gospel to his fellow-country
men. Flying for his life from the fury of the
pagan Saxons, he passed over the sea to
Brittany, and there built a monastery on the sea
coast which was afterwards called by his name.
The town which grew up in the vicinity became
the seat of a bishop, and is still known as St.
There is no record of the saint having visited
Scotland, but there was much devotion to him
among Celtic peoples, and Scottish dedications
bear witness to the honour in which he was
held in that country. He is the patron of
Rothesay ; the church bore the designation of
St. Mary and St. Brioc, and "St. Brock s
Fair " was held there on the first Wednesday
in May. " Brux day fair," which seems to
refer to this saint, was instituted in 1 565 to be
held in July every year on the island of Cum-
brae, but it has long ceased to be kept. Dunrod
Church, in Kirkcudbright, bears the dedication
of St. Mary and St. Brioc. The island of
Inchbrayock in the Esk, near Montrose, is
called after him. The French keep his feast
on May 1 st, but in Scotland it was celebrated
on April 30th.
1 St, Asaph, Bishop, A,D. (about) 590.
ST. ASAPH was one of the most eminent of
the disciples of St. Mungo (Kentigern). When
the latter was driven from Scotland he took
refuge in Wales and there founded a monastery,
which attracted a great number of disciples
desirous of placing themselves under his guidance.
It was to Asaph that St. Mungo resigned the
government when he himself was allowed to
return to Glasgow. Owing to the sanctity and
renown of the new abbot the monastery eventu
ally bore his name. St. Asaph was consecrated
Bishop about A.D. 650, and his diocese has
retained the name of St. Asaph s for thirteen
centuries. Some writers have maintained that
St. Asaph accompanied his master to Scotland,
but it seems more probable that Scottish devotion
to him originated in his close connection with
the "beloved" saint of Glasgow. Many traces
of this devotion still survive. In the island of
Skye is a ruined chapel dedicated to him
called "Asheg." In that island is also an
excellent spring of clear water known as Tobar
Asheg, or St. Asaph s Well. Kilassie, an old
burial ground near Loch Rannoch, also takes its
name from him.
The most interesting of these remains is a
ruin in the island of Bearnarey, in the Sound of
Harris. It is evidently a chapel of the saint and
is called Cill Aisaim. Near it once stood an
obelisk about eight feet high, bearing sculptured
symbols, and in comparatively recent years this
was surrounded by heaps of coloured pebbles,
coins, bone pins, and bronze needles, which
were probably pilgrims offerings. The obelisk
was broken up some years ago and its materials
used for building, but a Scottish antiquarian
managed to gain possession of a fragment.
3 St. Fumac.
THIS was a saint specially venerated in Banff -
shire. He was the patron of Botriphnie or
"Fumac Kirk" in that county. According to
an old MS. of the eighteenth century, the
wooden image of the saint was formerly pre
served there, and the old woman who acted as
its custodian used to wash it with all due
solemnity in St. Fumac s Well on the 3rd of
May annually. This image was in existence in
1847, but a flood of the Isla swept it away to
Banff, where the parish minister in his Protestant
zeal burnt it. St. Fumac s Fair was kept on
this day at Botriphnie and also at Dinet, in
Caithness, and Chapel of Dine, Watten, in the
9 St. Comgall, Abbot, A.D. 602.
HE was a native of Ireland, and founder and
ruler of the renowned monastery of Bangor,
where he is said to have governed no less than
three thousand monks. In the year 598,
anxious, like so many of his countrymen, to
bring the blessing of the Christian Faith to
Scotland, he left his native land to found a
monastery in Tiree. He was a great friend of
St. Columba, and was one of that saint s com
panions in the journey to Inverness and the
miraculous conversion of King Brude. St.
Comgall did not remain permanently in Scot
land ; he died in Ireland, and was laid to rest
at Bangor. The date of his death is given by
Irish authorities as the 1 Oth of May, but his
feast has always been celebrated in Scotland on
the 9th. The church of Durris, Kincardine-
shire, bore his name, and an annual fair, the
only remains of his festival in Protestant times,
was formerly held there on this day.
16 St. Brendan or Brandan, Abbot, A.D. 577.
HE was born in Ireland, and in early youth
became the disciple of St. Jarlaath, of Tuam.
He afterwards crossed over to Britain, and
spent some years in the Abbey of Llancarvan,
in Glamorganshire, where he is said to have
baptised Machutus, whose name (under the
French form of Malo), is cherished still as that
of one of the apostles of Brittany.
Returning to Ireland, St. Brendan founded
several monasteries, the most important of them
being that of Clonfert, on the Shannon. He is
said to have had as many as three thousand
monks under him in his various foundations.
The saint was also closely connected with
Scotland, where he founded monasteries ; it is
thought that one was in Bute and the other in
Tiree. His many dedications are an indication
of Scottish devotion to him, Kilbrannan (Church
of St. Brandan) in Mull, Kilbrandon in the Isle
of Seil, Boyndie in Banffshire, Birnie in Moray
and Kilbirnb in Ayrshire (where the saint s
fair is held on May 28th 1 6th old style) are
some of these. At Kilbirnie is St. Birnie s
Well ; another named after this saint is in
Barra. Another fair, granted in 1474, was
held on this day at Inverary (Argyllshire).
There is a ruined chapel bearing his name on
St. Brendan s name is associated with wonder
ful narratives probably dating long after his
time of his voyages towards the west ; they
possibly contain some little truth mixed up
with much that is entirely fabulous. It is
beyond doubt that St. Brendan and his com
panions in their missionary voyages sailed to
regions hitherto unknown to the mariners of the
time ; it has even been maintained that they
actually touched the American shore. However
this may be, the tradition of the discoveries of the
saint, familiar to every country in Europe, kept
in mind the possibly existing western land, and
issued at last in the discovery of the American
continent by Columbus.
A curious custom in connection with St.
Brendan existed up to almost recent times.
When they wished for a favourable wind the
fishermen would cry repeatedly : Brainuilt !
The word seems to be a contraction of Brea-
nainn-Sheoladair (* Brendan the Voyager"),
and was originally an invocation of the saint.
The feast of St. Brendan has been restored to
the Scottish Calendar.
17 St. Gathan, Bishop, 6th century.
THIS saint was probably of Irish nationality.
He dwelt for the greater part of his life in the
Island of Bute. St. Blaan, whose ruined
chapel is still to be seen in Kingarth parish in
that island, was his nephew. No particulars of
the life of St. Cathan remain to us. His name
survives in Kilchatten village, mill and bay, in
Kingarth parish, and a hill near is called St.
Cathan s Seat. There is another Kilchattan in
Luing Island, Argyllshire, and in the same
county is Ardchattan. Churches were dedi
cated to the saint in the islands of Gigha and
Colonsay. The confederation of clans known
as Clan Chattan is thought to have originated in
Bute, and to have taken its name from St. Cathan.
Gillichattan and Macgillichattan are charac
teristic names belonging to Clan Chattan ; the
latter was common in Bute in the 1 7th century.
They signify respectively " Servant of Cathan "
and " Son of the servant of Cathan."
18 8t, Mcrolilanus, Martyr, 8th century.
HE was a holy priest, probably from Ireland,
who was killed by robbers when passing through
France on a pilgrimage to Rome. His body
was buried at Rheims, and remained unknown
and unhonoured for many years. Miracles at
length revealed the saint s tomb, and his body
was found on examination to be entire and
fresh, exhaling a delicious odour. The sacred
remains were afterwards translated to the
Church of St. Symphorien in the same city.
In 1618 the Cardinal- Archbishop of Rheims
presented an arm-bone of the saint to the Scots
College in Rome. It was removed for safety
to the Vatican Treasury when the college was
closed during the French occupation of Rome.
Through the good offices of the Right Rev.
Bishop Pifferi, the Papal sacristan, the relic
was restored to the college in 1 893. A notable
relic of this saint was obtained from Rheims by
the Abbey of Fort-Augustus and is now
honoured there. There is no other record of
the saint s connection with Scotland.
St. Conval, Confessor, A.D. (about) 612.
THIS saint was born in Ireland, but crossed
over to Scotland in his youth to become the
disciple of St. Kentigern. An old legend re
lates that, as no vessel could be procured for
his voyage, ne was miraculously conveyed across
the channel upon a large stone, this stone after
wards becoming an instrument of healing to the
sick who touched it. St. Conval s relics were
honoured at Inchinnan on the Clyde. He was
patron of the old church of Pollokshaws or
Polloc-on-the-Shaws ; with regard to the name
of this parish, Shaw in old Scottish meant " a
grove." The Shaws Fair probably the
patronal feast of the church was formerly held
on the last Friday in May every year. This
saint was also the patron of the churches of
Cumnock and Ochiltree, as ancient documents
attest. Many miracles have been attributed to
him. It seems probable that the chapel known
as St. Conall s, at Ferrenese in Renfrewshire,
whose ruins still remain, and the holy well hard
by, were named after St. Conval ; the designa
tion (often written Conual) might easily become
corrupted to Connal in the course of centuries.
The land belonging to this chapel became in
the sixteenth century part of the endowment of
a collegiate church founded at Lochwinnoch by
23 St. William, Martyr, A.D. (about) 1201.
IT is a fact, unknown perhaps to many, that St.
William, whose shrine in Rochester Cathedral
was the object of great devotion in Catholic
ages, must be reckoned among Scottish saints.
He was a native of Perth, and for many years
followed the trade of baker. In his youth he
fell into careless and irreligious ways ; but being
converted he began to be zealous in good works.
He became especially remarkable for his charity
to the poor, bestowing upon them in alms a
tenth part of all the bread he made.
To satisfy his devotion he started on a pilgrim
age to Jerusalem, taking as his companion a
youth whom he had found in the streets, as an
infant deserted by his mother, and whom he
had carried home and brought up as his own
The two made their way through England,
and having passed through Rochester were on
their road to Canterbury, when the youth, led
by avarice, yielded to the temptation to murder
and rob his benefactor. Striking the saint a
blow on the head from behind, he afterwards
despatched him with an axe, and then made off
with his booty.
The dead body remained for some days lying
off the road, when it was discovered by a mad
woman who was roaming about there. In
insane sport she crowned the head with flowers,
and afterwards transferred the wreath to her
own brow, when she was instantly restored to
sanity. The miracle becoming known, the
sacred remains were reverently laid to rest in
Rochester Cathedral. The tomb of the saint
soon became famous on account of the numerous
graces obtained there through prayer. After
his canonization by Innocent IV in 1 256, pil
grimages to Rochester grew more and more
frequent, and to this day may be seen the
steps worn hollow by the constant press of
pilgrims to the shrine. So generous were their
offerings that they sufficed to rebuild the choir
and transepts of the cathedral.
This day is probably the anniversary of the
finding of St. William s relics.
29 St, Daganus, Bishop, A.D. (about) 609.
THIS saint was honoured in Galloway. St.
Bede mentions him as a zealous opponent to
the introduction into the Celtic Church of the
Roman computation of Easter. This, however,
does not militate against the sanctity of his life ;
for the Holy See had not yet definitely set the
matter at rest, and he was therefore free to cling
to the rite so long observed in his native country.
His name occurs in the Dunkeld Litany.
3 St. Kevin or CoiYin, Abbot, A,D. 618.
THIS Irish saint has been compared by ancient
writers to St. Paul the Hermit, on account of
his holiness of life. He founded the celebrated
monastery of Glendalough, in Wicklow County ;
it became in after ages a bishop s see. He
lived to the age of 1 20 years.
St. Kevin was greatly honoured in Scotland
as well as in his native country. It is said, that
he lived for a time in Scotland. Traces of a
devotion to him are certainly found in the
western part of the country. In the parish of
Southend, Argyllshire, are the remains of a
small building called St. Coivin s Chapel. Kil-
kivan (in the parish of Campbelltown) is named
after him, and a cave there is known as "St.
Kevin s Bed."
6 St. Colmoc or Colman, Bishop, A.D. 500,
HE was an Irish saint, who became Bishop of
Dromore, and was renowned for miracles.
There is no record of St. Colmoc having ever
lived in Scotland, but Scottish writers number
him among the saints of the country, and the
dedications still existing in his honour show
that he had some connection with that kingdom.
The monastery of Inchmahome, for instance, a
priory of Austin Canons on an island in the
Lake of Monteith, Perthshire, is named after him.
Another dedication is Kilmochalmaig, the site
of an ancient church on the west coast of Bute.
The remains of a pillar with a sculptured cross
may still be seen there. Portmahomack in
Tarbet, Easter- Ross, refers either to this saint
or to St. Colman, patron of the church of
Tarbet (see February 18). A chapel in the
burial-ground of Kirriemuir (Forfarshire) bore
the name of St. Colmoc.
9 St. Colum Cille or Columba, Abbot,A. D.597,
THE apostle of the northern regions of Scot
land was born in Ireland in A.D. 521. Both
father and mother were of royal race. Though
offered the crown of his native province,
Columba preferred rather to enrol himself in the
monastic state. He studied in the schools of
Moviile, Clonard, and Glasnevin, and in course
of time was ordained priest. At twenty-five
years of age he founded his first monastery at
Derry ; this was to be the precursor of the
hundred foundations which Ireland owed to his
zeal and energy. In these monasteries the
transcription of the Holy Scriptures formed the
chief labour of the inmates, and so much did
Columba love the work that he actually wrote
three hundred manuscripts of the Gospels and
Psalms with his own hand.
But Columba was not destined to remain in
Ireland. From his earliest years he had looked
forward to the time when he might devote him
self to missionary efforts for the benefit of those
who knew not the Christian faith. In the
forty-second year of his age he exiled himself
voluntarily from his beloved country to preach
the Gospel to the pagan Picts. The story of
his having been banished from Ireland for using
his influence to bring about a bloody conflict
between chieftains is rejected by the greatest
modern historians as a fable. Early writers
speak of the saint as a man of mild and gentle
On Whit Sunday, A.D. 563, St. Columba
landed with twelve companions on the bleak,
unsheltered island off the coast of Argyll, known
as Hii-Coluim-Cille or lona. For thirty-four
years the saint and his helpers laboured with
such success, that through their efforts churches
and centres of learning sprang up everywhere,
both on the mainland and the adjacent islands.
lona became the centre whence the Faith was
diffused throughout the country north of the
Grampians. The monastic missionaries were
untiring in their efforts. They penetrated even
to Orkney and Shetland.
On Sunday, June 9, A.D. 597, St. Columba
was called to his reward. He died in the
church, kneeling before the altar and surrounded
by his religious brethren. His remains, first laid
to rest at lona, were afterwards carried over
to Ireland and enshrined in the Cathedral of
Down by the side of those of St. Patrick and
St. Bridget. All these relics perished when
the cathedral was burned by Henry VIITs
St. Columba was a man of singular purity of
mind, boundless love for souls, and a gentle,
winning nature which drew men irresistibly to
God. His labours were furthered by Divine
assistance, which was evidenced by numerous
miracles. Among the saints of Scotland he
takes a foremost rank, and in Catholic ages
devotion to him was widespread. The churches
dedicated to him are too numerous to mention.
He himself founded no less than fifty during
his residence in the land which he had chosen
as the scene of his labours. Annual fairs were
held on his feast at Aberdour (Fife), Dunkeld
each for eight days Drymen (Stirlingshire),
Largs (Argyllshire), and Fort- Augustus (Inver
ness-shire). St. Columba s holy wells were very
numerous, for an old Irish record relates of him :
" He blessed three hundred wells which were
constant." In Scotland they are to be traced
at Birse (Aberdeenshire), Alvah and Portsoy
( Banff shire) , I n vermoriston ( I n verness - shire),
Calaverock ( Forf arshire ), Cambusnethan
(Lanarkshire), Alness (Ross-shire), Kirkholm
(Wigtonshire), and on the islands of Garvelloch,
Eigg and lona.
St. Baitan or Baithen, Abbot, A.D. 600.
HE was cousin to St. Columba, and accom
panied him from Ireland to Scotland. From
his childhood he had been that saint s disciple
and companion, and St. Columba had a special
affection for him. He was appointed superior
of the monastery established in Tiree, but at
St. Columba s death succeeded him as Abbot
of lona. There he remained only four years,
death calling him away, as he had previously
foretold to his monks, on the anniversary of
their father and founder. St. Baitan was
buried in St. Oran s Chapel on lona. His
bell was still preserved in Donegal up to a few
years since, and it was a common practice of
devotion to drink from it. In the same district
is St. Baitan s River, to which flocks and herds
were brought to drink on the saint s festival.
St. Baitan is said to have spent his time
either in reading, praying, or serving his neigh
bour. Even during meals he used constantly
to implore the Divine aid in the words of the
Psalmist : " O God, come to my assistance."
During labour his mind was always raised to
God. So mortified was he that it was said
that the impression of his ribs through his
woollen tunic used to mark the sandy beach of
lona when he lay down to rest himself there.
12 St. Ternan, Bishop, A.D. 431.
THIS saint was born in the Mearns of noble
parents. St. Palladius, who evangelised that
district, is said to have been directed to the
child by an angel, in order that he might ad
minister baptism. Ternan grew up to manhood,
embraced the clerical state, and in due time
became a bishop. He is said to have fixed his
residence at Abernethy, where he died. He
was buried at the place now known as Banchory-
Ternan, Kincardineshire, where a fair is still
held annually on his festival. More than a
thousand years after his death the head of the
saint was venerated there by one who has
testified to the existence at the time of the skin
upon the skull in the part where it had received
the episcopal consecration. Up to the Reforma
tion two other valuable relics of the saint were
preserved in that same church. One was the
copy of St. Matthew s Gospel, which belonged
to St. Ternan, encased in a cover adorned with
gold and silver ; the other was the saint s bell.
This latter is thought to have been identical
with an ancient bell which was dug up near the
present railway station at Banchory in the
making of the line. It has unfortunately been
lost sight of.
The churches of Slains, in Aberdeenshire,
and Arbuthnott and Upper Banchory, in the
Mearns, were dedicated to St. Ternan. At
Taransay, in Harris, and at Findon, in the
Mearns, were chapels of the saint ; the latter
place possessed a holy well called by his name,
and there was another at Slains.
20 St. Fillan ("The Leper"), 6th century.
THIS saint was a native of Ireland, and is
honoured in that country also on this day.
Animated with the desire for solitude in a
strange country, or else with missionary zeal, he
passed over to Scotland and settled in the
district known as Strathearn. No particulars
of his life are known.
Several remains speak of devotion shown
to this holy man. The village of St. Fillans
(Dundurn), in the parish of Comrie, was dedi
cated to him, and from him took its name ;
his holy well is there still. In the vicinity is a
conical hill about 600 feet high, which is called
Dunfillan. At the summit is a rock which goes
by the name of " St. Fillan s Chair " ; from it
he is said to have blessed the country round.
The old church of Aberdour, Fifeshire, now in
ruins, was named after St. Fillan. A well
hard by, known as the Pilgrims Well, was
renowned as late as the eighteenth century for
curing diseases of the eye. It is thought to
have been dedicated to the patron of the church.
The hospital of St. Martha, for the benefit of
pilgrims, was founded there in 1474, and was
served by Sisters of the third Order of St.
Francis from 1487 up to the Reformation.
21 St. Cormac, Abbot, 6th century.
ST. CORMAC was another Irish saint. From
his early youth he followed a monastic life, and
eventually became a disciple of St. Columba.
In after years he became Abbot of Dearmagh,
now known as Durrow, in King s County. This
charge he resigned in order to give himself to
missionary life. He had always been of a
brave and enterprising nature, and more than
once in his missionary career his zeal led him
to venture on the high seas, in quest of some
pagan land where he might preach the Faith,
or of some desert region where he might live
in closer communion with God.
In one of his journeys he visited St. Columba
at lona, and afterwards sailed as far as the
Orkneys, where the pagan people were minded
to put him to death. But one of the chiefs
had long before made a solemn promise to St.
Columba, who had seen in vision the coming
of Cormac to the islands and his threatened
death, that no harm should happen to him in
the Orkneys. This intervention was successful.
Neither the place nor time of St. Cormac s
death is known with any certainty, but an
ancient Irish tradition asserts that he returned
to Durrow and was buried there.
A fragment still exists of the "Crozier of
Durrow", which is considered to be the most
ancient relic of its kind now extant. It is
believed to have belonged to the founder of
Durrow, the great Columba, and to have been
given by him to his disciple, Cormac.
22 St. Suibhne, Abbot, A,D. 772.
THIS saint was the sixteenth Abbot of lona.
There had been before him another abbot of
the same name. Suibhne, pronounced "Swee
ney", is identical with an Irish appellation not
uncommon in our day.
25 St. Moluag or Lughaidh, Bishop. A.D 592.
THIS saint was born in Ireland and became a
monk in the renowned abbey of Bangor. He
was so fervent a follower of monastic life that,
as St. Bernard testifies, he founded no less than
a hundred monasteries. Fired with mission
ary zeal, he left his native land to preach to the
pagans of Scotland. Tradition says that the
rock on which he stood detached itself from
the Irish coast and became a raft to bear him
across the waters to the island of Lismore, in
Loch Linnhe, where he landed. St. Moluag
converted the people of the island to Chris
tianity, and then moved into Ross-shire, where
he built many churches, dedicating them to the
Mother of God.
He lived to extreme old age, and died at
Rosemarkie on the Moray Firth. Here he is
said by some to have been buried, but his relics
must in that case have been afterwards trans
lated to Lismore ; for his remains were
honoured in the cathedral there, which was
called after him.
Great devotion was shown to this saint in
Catholic ages both in Scotland and Ireland.
There were many dedications to him in Scot
land. At Lismore, the cathedral of Argyll
bore his name. Other churches were dedicated
to him at Clatt and Tarland, Aberdeenshirc ;
Mortlach, Banffshire ; Alyth, Perthshire ; also
in Skye, Mull, Raasay, Tiree, Pabay, Lewis
and other islands. An ancient burial ground
at Auchterawe, near Fort Augustus, styled
Kilmalomaig, is called after ihis saint. In these
dedications his name appears in various forms.
The original Celtic name Lughaidh (pronounced
Lua) became changed, as in many other cases,
by the addition of the title of honour mo, as a
prefix, and the endearing suffix ag.
At Clatt was held annually for eight days
"St. Mallock s Fair* , and at Tarland "Luoch
Fair". Others were held at Ruthven (Forfar-
shire) and at Alyth ; at the latter place the fair
was styled "St. Malogue s". At Mortlach,
where some of the saint s relics were preserved,
an abbey was founded in 1010 by Malcolm II.
in thanksgiving for a victory obtained over the
Danes in that place, after the Scottish army
had invoked the aid of Our Lady and St.
Moluag. His holy well was near by.
The crozier of the saint is now in the pos
session of the Duke of Argyll ; it was long
kept by its hereditary custodians, a family
named Livingstone, on the island of Lismore.
The bell of St. Moluag was in existence up to
the sixteenth century ; but disappeared at the
Reformation. An ancient bell, discovered in
1814 at Kilmichael-Glassary, Argyllshire, has
been thought to be the lost treasure. The
feast of this saint was restored by Leo XIII.
1 St. Servan or Serf, Bishop, 6th or 8th century.
MUCH that is legendary has become mixed up
with the history of this saint, and it is difficult
to fix upon what is authentic.
He founded a monastery at Culross, Fife-
shire, where he lived in great veneration on
account of his virtues and miracles. He is said
to have befriended the mother of S. Kenti-
gern when she was cast on the shore near his
dwelling, and to have baptised and educated her
child. A very ancient life of St. Serf, how
ever, places him a century later than St. Kenti-
gern, and makes him contemporary with St.
On account of the many difficulties presented
by conflicting traditions, it has been suggested
that two saints of the same name have lived at
Culross in different centuries.
St. Serf died at Culross in extreme old age,
and was buried there. Within the grounds
belonging to Lord Rosslyn at Dysart is pointed
out the cave where the saint is said to have
encountered and overcome the devil. The
name Dysart (desert), which marked his place
of retreat, became afterwards extended to the
town which grew up there. The cave of the
saint became a favourite place of pilgrimage.
The churches of Monzievaird Perthshire,
and Alva Stirlingshire, were dedicated to this
saint, and at each place is a well called by his
name. Another well of his called " St. Shear s
Well " exists at Dumbarton. All three were
considered miraculous. St. Serf s Fairs were
formerly held at Culross, Abercorn (Linlithgow-
shire) and Aberlednock (Perthshire).
At Culross a custom prevailed from time
immemorial for the young men to perambulate
the streets in procession, carrying green boughs,
on the 1st of July each year. The Town
Cross was decorated with garlands and ribbons,
and the procession would pass several times
round it before disbanding to spend the day in
amusements. This was doubtless the remains
of a procession in honour of the saint. At the
accession of George III. the population, being
strong Hanoverians, began to celebrate that
King s birthday on June 4th, and to avoid too
many public holidays, the procession of July 1st,
the signification of which has become lost, was
transferred to the King s birthday. It survived
the accession of Queen Victoria, but has now
probably fallen into disuse.
3 St. Killen, Abbot, A.D. 752.
THIS saint was the fourteenth Abbot of lona.
The old church of Laggan, near Loch Laggan,
Inverness-shire, was dedicated to St. Killen.
4 St. Marianus Scotus, Abbot, A.D. 1088.
THE monastery of St. James, Ratisbon, owes
its first beginnings to this saint. Most historians
are now agreed in maintaining that Marianus
was a native of Ireland, which for many centuries
bore the designation of Scotia. The holy man
with several companions entered a Benedictine
monastery at Bamberg. Some time afterwards,
when on a pilgrimage to Rome, they passed
through Ratisbon. A holy hermit who was
living there persuaded Marianus to forego his
visit to Rome and take up his abode in
Ratisbon. He obeyed the injunction, and
founded a monastery in connection with the
Church of St. Peter, which the nuns to whom
it belonged made over to him.
After the death of Marianus a larger abbey
was built in honour of St. James and St.
Gertrude which eventually became peopled by
Scotsmen, and became, after the Reformation,
an important seminary for the education of
clergy for mission work in Scotland. This
venerable abbey was appropriated by the
Bavarian Government about the middle of the
nineteenth century, a compensation of 1 0,000
being paid to the Scots College in Rome.
A valuable MS. consisting of selections from
the homilies of the Fathers of the Church, in
the actual handwriting of St. Marianus himself,
was presented to the Benedictine Abbey, Fort-
Augustus, by the last survivor of the Com
munity of the Scots Monastery, Ratisbon, and
is one of the greatest treasures of the Fort-
6 St. Modenna, or Medana, Virgin, A.D. 518.
THIS saint was an Irish virgin, who received
the monastic habit from St. Patrick himself,
and was a dear friend of St. Bridget. She
took up her abode in Scotland, where she
founded many monasteries for women. Some
of these foundations were in Strathclyde, but
the greatest of them was in Galloway, at the
place now styled Kirkmaiden (formerly Kirk-
medan), where St. Medan s Well and Cave
may still be seen.
St. Modenna is said to have lived to the age
of 1 30 years and to have died at Longf organ,
near Dundee, after having made during the
course of her long life three pilgrimages to
Rome, barefoot and clad in hair-cloth.
Edinburgh probably takes its name from
Medana. Her sanctuary, marking, it was said,
one of her monastic foundations, and known as
"St. Edana s," was a place of pilgrimage long
before the time of King Edwin who was once
supposed to have given the city its designation.
The discovery of the foundations of a much
more ancient building under St. Margaret s
Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, in 1918, seems to
corroborate the statement in an ancient Latin
life of this Saint of the erection by her of a
church on the top of Edinburgh Rock, while
it strengthens the tradition of the origin of the
name, Edana s Burgh. Maiden Castle is really
Medan s (or Medana s) Castle. A new Catho
lic church, situated in St. Meddan s Street,
Troon, was erected in 1911 and dedicated to
this saint in conjunction with Our Lady.
7 St, Palladius, Bishop, A.D. (about) 430.
ST. PROSPER of Aquitaine tells us that this
saint was a Roman deacon who was sent by
Pope Celestine I. to those Irish who were
already Christians, that he might be their bishop.
After founding several churches in Ireland, and
meeting with opposition from the pagans there,
he left that country for Scotland, where he
founded churches in the Mearns. He died at
Fordun, and his relics were still preserved there
in 1 409, when the Archbishop of St. Andrews
placed them in a new and costly shrine adorned
with gold and gems. The ruins of his chapel
are still to be seen there and a well bears his
name. " Paldy Fair " is still held at Auchin-
blae in the parish of Fordoun (Kincardineshire) ;
it formerly lasted eight days.
Pope Leo XIII. in his Bull concerning the
restoration of the Scottish hierarchy in 1878,
refers to the share of St. Palladius in the evan
gelisation of the country. " St. Palladius," he
says, " deacon of the Roman Church, is said to
have preached the Faith of Christ there (in
Scotland) in the fifth century."
The same Pontiff, in 1898, restored this
saint s feast to Scotland.
11 St. Drostan, Abbot, 6th century.
THIS saint was of Scottish birth, being descen
ded from King Aidan of Dalriada, the friend
of St. Columba. He was sent over to that
saint, then in Ireland, to be educated and
trained for the religious state. He eventually
became a monk at a monastery known as Dal-
quongal, of which in course of time he became
abbot. After some time he passed over to
Scotland where he lived as a hermit near
Glenesk, in Angus. He afterwards entered
the monastery of lona, and while dwelling under
the rule of St. Columba accompanied that saint
to the district of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, and
was made by him abbot of the monastery of
Deer, which St. Columba founded on land
given to him by the ruler of the district, whose
son had been restored to health during a severe
illness by the saint s prayers. The name Deer
is said to have originated in the tears (deara)
shed by Drostan when he parted from his
St. Drostan preached the gospel in the
district of Inverness-shire known as Glen-
Urquhart which in Catholic ages bore the name
of "St. Drostan s Urquhart." Here a plot of
ground, said to have been cultivated by the
saint when he lived there as its apostle, is still
known as "St. Drostan s Croft." In St.
Ninian s Chapel, in the glen, was preserved the
saint s cross, and the custodian of the relic had
the use of the " Dewar s (or keeper s) Croft"
as a reward for his services.
St. Drostan died in his monastery of Deer
and was buried at Aberdour where miracles
were wrought at his tomb. Many churches in
the North of Scotland bore his name ; in
Caithness were Halkirk and Cannisbay ; in
Angus, Edzell and Lochee ; in Inverness-
shire, Alvie and Urquhart ; in Banffshire,
Aberlour and Rothiemay ; in Aberdeenshire,
Deer and Aberdour. At Westfield in Caith
ness is St. Drostan s Burial Ground ; at Loch-
lee is " Droustie s Meadow " and " Droustie s
Well." Other wells bore his name in various
districts. One was at Aberlour, and there
were five between Edzell and Aberdour.
St. Drostan s Fairs were held each year at
Rothiemay, Aberlour (for three days) and Old
Deer. The last named, which formerly lasted
for eight days, is still kept up. This is one of
the few instances in which the old fair day of
Catholic times has survived. In too many cases
these remnants of Catholic ages disappeared
during the last century. Pope Leo XIII.
restored the feast of this saint in 1898. It was
formerly celebrated in Scotland in December.
12 St. Donald, Hermit, A.D. (about) 716.
A LOCAL tradition speaks of the sojourn of
this saint in the Glen of Ogilvy, in Forfarshire,
where he lived a secluded life for some years.
He was not, strictly speaking, a hermit, as his
nine virgin daughters shared his solitude, and
spent their time like St. Donald in the almost
constant practice of prayer and contemplation.
No reliable record remains of the course of
his life or of the date and circumstances of his
18 The Nine Maidens, 8th century.
THESE were the daughters of St. Donald,
During the lifetime of their father, these
maidens lived with him in strict seclusion in the
Glen of Ogilvy. Having devoted their youth
to the Religious Life, they were loth to return
to the world when their father s death left them
without a protector. They accordingly entered
the monastery for women which St. Darlugdach,
an Irish nun and the friend of St. Bridget (or as
some say St. Bridget herself), had founded at
Abernethy. Here they spent the remainder of
There were many dedications in Scotland to
these saints. The ancient church of Finhaven
in Forfarshire, a chapel at Pitsligo, Aberdeen-
shire, called the " Chapel of the Nine Maidens,"
and another, bearing a like designation, at
Tough, in the same county, are some of them.
Other associations are still to be found in the
many holy wells which are called after them, at
Strathmartin, Glamis and Oathlaw (Forfar-
shire), Old Aberdeen and Pitsligo (Aberdeen-
shire), Newburgh (Fife) and Mid-Calder (near
These saints were honoured together in
Catholic ages on this day.
St. Thenew or Thenog, A.D. 514.
THE history of the early life of this saint is
involved in obscurity. There are various legends
relating to it ; but recent historians reject them
as spurious. St. Thenew was the mother of
St. Mungo or Kentigern ; she is said by Jocelin
in his life of St. Mungo (written in a later age)
to have been befriended by St. Serf, and
baptised by him, when she was cast ashore
near his dwelling. The fact, however, is dis
puted by modern critics, on account of
At an early period a chapel dedicated to St.
Thenew existed in Glasgow ; but at the
Reformation it was destroyed. The street
leading to this chapel was known for centuries
as " St. Thenew s Gate " ; it is now called
Argyll Street. The chapel had been popularly
styled "San Theneuke s Kirk," and its name
still survives in the corrupted form of "St.
Enoch s " the modern designation of an im
portant square in the city with its large railway
station and hotel. Close by the chapel was a
holy well bearing the saint s name.
22 St. Dabius or Bavins, Priest.
SOME historians have maintained that this saint
was a native of Ireland ; but the Scottish tradi
tion affirms that he was born in Perthshire, and
that he became a recluse in his native parish of
Weem, where he built a small chapel.
The shelf of the great rock of Weem, upon
which the chapel formerly stood, is still called
" Chapel Rock." A holy well hard by is
called after the saint.
This well was once much frequented by
pilgrims. It was a common opinion that St.
Dabius would grant any wish made there if an
offering were thrown into the water. When
the well was cleaned out some years ago a large
number of coins was discovered ; these were
AUGUST 1 I I
evidently offerings of the kind. There was an
ancient burial ground at Weems which bore
the name of the saint, and on his feast-day a
fair was held annually there.
The name Kildavie (Church of Davius) which
is found in the parish of Kilblane, in Bute, and
also in the parish of Kilninian, in Mull, testifies
to ancient churches in honour of St. Davius in
those localities. The Church of Kippen, Stirling
shire, is also dedicated to this saint, under the
designation of " Movean."
3 St, Walthen or Waltheof, Abbot, A.D. 1160.
HE was the son of Simon, Earl of Hunting
don, and Maud, grand-niece of William the
Conqueror. After the death of her first
husband, Maud married David, King of Scot
land, one of the sons of St. Margaret. The
early life of the young Walthen was consequently
spent at the Scottish Court, where he edified
all who knew him by his purity of life and
diligent practice of the Christian virtues.
Desiring to embrace the religious life, Walthen
1 1 2 AUGUST
left Scotland, and entered the monastery of
Nostell in Yorkshire, belonging to the Austin
Canons. His holiness, attested by miracles,
procured the esteem of his contemporaries, and
led to his appointment, while still young, as
Prior of the monastery of Kirkham, in the same
county. Attracted by the reputation of the
Cistercians, he resolved to pass into that Order,
and was encouraged in his purpose by St.
Aelred, Cistercian Abbot of Rievaulx, who
became his attached friend. In spite of the
remonstrances of his religious brethren, and the
avowed indignation of his kindred, Walthen
persevered in his resolution, and took the Cis
tercian habit at Rievaulx, where he eventually
made his profession as a monk.
He was made Abbot of the Scottish abbey
of Melrose, which he ruled till his death. In
the later years of his life he was nominated
Archbishop of St. Andrew s ; but his humility
shrank from the burden, and he prevailed upon
his religious superiors to prevent the election.
He died at Melrose at an advanced age.
Many miracles are attributed to him, even
during life, and fifty years after death his body
was found to be incorrupt.
9> St. Berchan, Bishop.
THIS Irish saint spent a good part of his life
in Scotland. Few particulars of his career now
remain to us, but he laboured near Stirling as
a missionary. Some traces of devotion to him
are still existing. The name of Kilbarchan, in
the county of Renfrew, proves the connection
of the saint with that neighbourhood. St.
Barchan s Fair was held there annually. In
the same county is to be found an ancient
Celtic cross erected in honour of St. Berchan.
Another fair was at Tain ; this is evident from
an ancient charter of that burgh, in which it is
stated that St. Barquhan s Fair is " held on the
3rd day after the Feast of St. Peter ad Vin-
cula, commonly called Lambmes." St. Peter
ad Vincula, or, as it is usually called, St. Peter s
Chains, is a feast which falls on August 1st,
hence St. Berchan s Fair, in celebration of his
feast, was held on the 4th. Lambmes or
Lammas was the ancient name of this feast of
St. Peter and was derived from the Saxon hlaf
(loaf). It had its origin in the offering at Mass
of a loaf made from the first-fruits of the
6 -Blessed Alexander, Monk, A.D. 1229.
IN the account given of St. Matilda (April 1 1)
allusion was made to her brother Alexander,
who, concealing his royal origin, entered the
Cistercian monastery of Foigni, in the diocese
of Laon, France. He died some years before
his holy sister on May 4th, 1 229. His feast
is celebrated by his Order on this day. A
fair was formerly held in his honour at Keith,
9 St. Oswald, King and Martyr, A.D. 642.
THIS illustrious King was the son of a pagan.
Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria. He was
compelled on the death of his father to seek
safety in the north, and took refuge with his
two brothers at lona, where all three received
baptism. Eanfrid, the eldest, obtained the
throne of Northumbria, but relapsed into
paganism. He met with a violent death at the
hands of the British prince, Cadwalla, and
Oswald succeeded him as king. Cadwalla
was defeated near Hexham by Oswald s infe
rior army, the Christian prince having previously
erected a large wooden cross on the field of
AUGUST 1 1 5
battle, before whicb he knelt in prayer for the
success of his arms, and promised, with the
consent of his soldiers, that all would embrace
Christianity should God grant them the
On ascending the throne Oswald procured
a missionary for his people from lona in the
person of Aidan, who became eventually the
first Bishop of Lindisfarne. The saintly King
did not disdain to act as interpreter to his
people of the instructions given by Aidan in the
Celtic tongue. Oswald reigned but eight years,
yet they were years of blessing for the nation
The King led the way in the practice of the
Christian virtues, especially of charity to the
poor. It was on the occasion of the distribu
tion to a hungry multitude at the palace gates
of the food prepared for the King s repast, and
the division of the costly silver dish itself
amongst the poverty-stricken people, that St.
Aidan, who was about to join the King at a
banquet, cried out enthusiastically as he seized
Oswald s right hand, " May this hand never
corrupt ! " The utterance was prophetic, as
the sequel will show.
The saintly King met his death on the field
of battle, when resisting the invasion of his
dominions by Penda, the pagan king of Mercia.
His dying words were a prayer for the souls
of all who had fallen in the battle. Many
miracles were wrought by his intercession and
by the use of particles of the cross he had
erected. His right hand and arm, in accord
ance with St. Aidan s prophecy, remained in
corrupt till the time of the Venerable Bede,
who tells us that they were honoured in the
Church of St. Peter at Bamborough. His
head was taken to the monastery of Lindis-
farne ; it was eventually deposited in St.
Cuthbert s shrine and was carried with the
remains of that saint to Durham Minster.
Many monasteries and churches both in
England and Scotland bore the name of St.
Oswald. Those in Northumbria and Cumbria
can scarcely be termed Scottish in these days,
but Kirkoswald near Maybole and Carluke in
Lanarkshire possessed respectively a church
and chapel dedicated to the holy King. His
death occurred on August 5th, but his feast has
been transferred to this day. Devotion to St.
AUGUST 1 I 7
Oswald flourished greatly in Ireland as well as
in Scotland and England, and extended to the
AT Balquhidder, in Perthshire, there is a local
tradition regarding a saint of this name. He
is said to have been a disciple of St. Columba,
and to have preached the Faith in that neigh
bourhood. His name is preserved in the
Clach jlenais (Stone of Angus), a slab bearing
a representation of a priest holding a chalice.
This stone formerly stood within the old church
at Balquhidder, and it was the custom to stand
or kneel upon it during the solemnization of a
baptism or marriage. As this rite seemed to
Presbyterian authorities to savour of supersti
tion, the stone was removed to the churchyard
about a century ago. Near the church are the
foundations of the "Chapel of Angus." A
hillock hard by is pointed out as the spot where
the saint preached, and it still bears his name.
"Angus Fair" was formerly held at King s
House, in the parish of Balquhidder, on the
Wednesday after the second Tuesday in August.
This locates the saint s feast-day (which the fair
doubtless commemorated) in the early part of
August, although the exact date is uncertain.
11 St. Blaan, Bishop, A.D. 590.
HE was born in Ireland of a noble family, and
after spending seven years under the direction
of St. Comgall and St. Kenneth, passed over
to Bute, to St. Cathan, his mother s brother.
He is said to have made later a pilgrimage to
Rome. The monastery he founded became
the site of the well-known Cathedral of Dun
blane a place which derives its name from the
saint where the mediaeval building begun by
David I. is still to be seen. Among the
many miracles attributed to the saint is the
restoration to life of a dead boy. He is also
said to have re-kindled the extinguished lamps
in his church during the night office, on one
occasion, by striking fire from his fingers as
from a flint ; the miracle being vouchsafed by
God to clear the saint of any imputation of
negligence in his duty.
St. Blaan became eventually a bishop.
After his death devotion to him became popu-
lar, and many dedications bear witness to his
callus. There was a church of St. Blaan in
Dumfries and another at Kilblane in Argyll.
The ruins of the saint s church in the parish of
Kingarth, Bute, form an object of great interest
to antiquarians, and stand amid surroundings of
extraordinary beauty and charm. His bell is
still preserved at Dunblane. The saint s feast
was restored to the Scottish Calendar by
Leo XIII. in 1898.
18 St. Inan, Confessor, 9th century.
IN the southern district of Scotland are to be
found many traces of the cultus of a saint
bearing this name, though his history is not
Some consider him a native of Ayrshire,
since the greater part of the remains connected
with him are to be found in that county, where
he seems to have spent many years of his life.
Others claim him as a native of Ireland, and it
has been conjectured that his name is merely a
corruption of Finan. There are no conclusive
proofs in support of either opinion.
The chief place of residence of St. Inan
1 20 AUGUST
seems to have been at Irvine, though many
interesting remains recall his memory at Beith
On the Cuff Hill in the latter parish is a cleft
in the rock which was originally of natural
formation, but has been enlarged by art ; it
bears the name of " St. Inan s Chair." At
a short distance from it is a double spring of
abundant and excellent water known as "St.
Inan s Well." On the day corresponding to the
1 8th August, old style, a fair is annually held
in the vicinity, which bears the name of
" Tenant s (probably a corruption of St. Inan s)
Fair." Inchinnan (Renfrewshire) is said to
signify " Inans Isle."
Another well bearing the saint s name is at
Lamington in Lanarkshire, where the church
was dedicated to him. At Southenan, Ayr
shire, was another church or chapel bearing the
name of St. Inan ; for a charter of James IV.
in 1509, confirms the donation of John, Lord
Sempill, of a perpetual Mass therein.
24 St. Yrchard or Merchard, Bishop, 5th or 6th
THIS saint was born of pagan parents in the
district of Kincardine-O Neil, Aberdeenshire.
In his early youth he embraced the Christian
Faith, and was ordained priest by St. Ternan,
who associated the young man with himself
in his missionary labours. In later life he
journeyed to Rome, and was there consecrated
bishop. Returning to Scotland he ended his
days in Aberdeenshire. At Kincardine-
CD Neil a church was erected over the spot
where the chariot which was conveying his
remains to burial was miraculously stopped.
A fair was formerly held there annually on St.
Merchard s feast and during the octave.
One of the saint s churches was in Glen-
moriston. The ancient burial ground which
adjoins it is still in use, and some few stones of
the old building are yet to be seen there.
The local tradition tells that the saint when
labouring as a missionary in Strathglass with
two companions, discovered, by previous revela
tion, three bright new bells buried in the earth
Taking one for himself, he gave the others to
his fellow-missionaries, bidding each to erect a
church on the spot where his bell should ring
for the third time of its own accord ; under
taking to do the same with regard to his own.
1 22 AUGUST
One of these companions founded a church
at Glenconvinth, in Strathglass, the other at
Broadford, Isle of Skye.
St. Merchard travelled towards Glenmoris-
ton. His bell rang first at Suidh Mhercheird
(Merchard s Seat), again at Fuaran Mher-
cheird (Merchard s Well), near Ballintombuie,
where a spring of excellent water treasured by
both Catholics and Protestants still bears his
name, and a third time at the spot where the
old churchyard, called Clachan Mherchdrd,
close by the river Moriston, recalls his memory.
The bell of the saint was preserved there for
centuries. After the church fell into decay s
early in the seventeenth century, the bell
remained in the churchyard. The narrow-
pointed spar of granite on which it rested still
stands there. The bell, unfortunately, was
wantonly removed, by Protestant strangers
about thirty years ago, to the great indignation
of the inhabitants of the glen, Protestant as
well as Catholic ; it has never since been
Tradition has it that the bell was wont to
ring of its own accord when a funeral came
AUGUST 1 23
in sight, and that whenever it was removed
from its usual position it was invariably found
restored miraculously to its place, Many
persons still living in the glen have seen the bell,
and the grandparents of some of them used to
relate that they heard it ring in their youth.
Devotion to this saint was very strong in
that neighbourhood in Catholic times, and he is
still regarded by Catholics as the local patron.
25 St. Ebba, Abbess, A.D. 683.
SHE was sister to St. Oswald, and to Oswy,
his successor, Kings of Northumbria. She
founded a monastery at Ebchester, on the
Derwent, and another and more important one
at Coldingham. It was at the latter place that
the great St. Ethelreda received her monastic
training. St. Ebba was buried at Coldingham,
but portions of her relics were afterwards
placed in the tomb of St. Cuthbert at Durham.
St. Abb s Head, the well-known promontory
on the coast of Northumberland, takes its name
from this saint.
30 St, Fiacre, Hermit, 7th century.
HE was born in Ireland about the year
590. A hermitage and holy well near Kil
kenny are called after him, and were
frequented as late as the beginning of this
century by pilgrims who wished to pay him
honour. After labouring as a missionary in
Scotland, St. Fiacre ended his days at Breuil,
near Meaux, in France, where he became famous
for miracles both before and after his death ; he
was invoked as the patron saint of the province
of Brie, and his shrine became a famous place
St. Fiacre s day was kept with devotion in
Scotland. The Breviary of Aberdeen contains
the office for the saint s feast. Several Scottish
churches bore his name. Among these may be
mentioned the ancient church and burial ground
of St. Fiacre, or, as he is often styled, St
Fittack, at Nigg, Kincardineshire, on the
opposite bank of the Dee from Aberdeen. The
bay in the vicinity is known as St. Picker s
Bay, and St. Fittack s Well, a clear spring near
the roofless ruins of the old church, still recalls
his memory. Its existence is a strong proof of
the saint s residence in the neighbourhood at
some time in his life. The fame of this well
for healing powers survived the downfall of
religion, and it became necessary to prevent
recourse to it by severe penalties. Thus in the
records of the Kirk Session of Aberdeen for
1630 we read: " Margrat Davidson, spous
to Andro Adam, fined 5 for sending her
child to be washed at St. Fiackre s Well and
leaving an offering."
The large numbers of pilgrims conveyed in
hackney coaches to the French shrine of this
saint at Breuil, caused those vehicles to be
known as fiacres, a designation they still bear.
31 St. Aidan, Bishop, A.D. 651.
THIS saint was a native of Ireland, where,
after some years of monastic life at Inniscattery
in the Shannon, he was consecrated bishop.
Later on he entered the monastery of lona.
He became the first bishop of Lindisfarne, and
the helper of St. Oswald in the conversion of
Northumbria. His life was one of great
poverty and detachment, and his example had
a wonderful effect on his flock. He used to
travel about his diocese on foot, accompanied
by his clergy, spending the time occupied by
1 26 AUGUST
the journey in prayer and holy reading. His
alms were abundant, and his manner to all with
whom he came in contact kind and fatherly.
His miracles, even during life, were many and
St. Aidan was the founder of Old Mel-
rose, which stood a short distance from the
site of the more modern Cistercian Abbey
whose ruins are familiar to travellers. He also
assisted the Abbess, St. Ebba, in the founda
tion of the celebrated monastery of Coldingham,
which consisted of two distinct communities of
men and women.
After ruling his see for seventeen years, he
died at Bamborough in a tent which he had
caused to be erected by the wall of the church.
St. Cuthbert, then a youthful shepherd, as he
kept his flock on the hills, had a vision of the
soul of St. Aidan being borne by angels to
Heaven. It was this vision which determined
him to seek admission to Melrose. Many
churches bear St. Aidan s name. Among them
are those of Cambusnethan in Lanarkshire and
Menmuir in Angus. At the latter place is the
saint s holy well, which was renowned for the
SEPTEMBER 1 27
cure of asthma and other complaints. Another
holy well called after St. Aidan is to be found
at Fearn in Angus. The ancient church of
Kenmore, Perthshire, was known as Inchadin.
Keltney Burn in the same neighbourhood, is
called in Gaelic "St. Aidan s Stream."
1 St. Egidius or Giles, Abbot, A.D. 714.
THIS saint never laboured in Scotland, yet the
honour shown to him in the country is sufficient
reason for the mention of his name here. He
is said to have been an Athenian by birth, who
fled from his native land to escape the admira
tion excited by his extraordinary sanctity. He
settled in France and founded a monastery in
the neighbourhood of Nismes, where many
disciples placed themselves under his guidance,
and where he died and was laid to rest. His
callus extended from France into other
countries. St, Giles was honoured in Edin
burgh as early as 1 1 50, when a monastery
existed under his invocation. He became the
recognised patron saint of the city, and his
figure appeared in the armorial bearings of
Edinburgh, accompanied by the hind which is
said in his legend to have attached herself
to the saint. Since the Reformation the
figure of the saint has disappeared, though that
of the animal remains.
The beautiful Church of St. Giles was re
built in the 1 5th century, and was erected into
a collegiate church by Pope Paul II. It still
continues to be the glory of the Scottish capital.
This church possessed an arm-bone of the saint,
for which a rich reliquary was provided by the
city. Fairs were formerly held in honour of
St. Giles at Moffat and also at Elgin, where
the parish church bore his name.
2 St. Murdoch, Bishop.
No very reliable particulars can be ascertained
as to the life of this saint. Traces of the
honour shown to him are to be found in Forfar-
shire, the district which seems to have been the
scene of his missionary labours. At Ethie, in
the parish of Inverkeilor, in that county, are the
remains of an ancient church and burial-ground
which bear his name. Near Ethiebeaton, in
the parish of Monifieth, are traces of an old
church which goes by the name of " Chapel
Dockie." This is believed to be another
dedication in honour of St. Murdoch.
9 St. Queran or Kieran, Abbot, A.D. 548.
THIS saint was born in Ireland and became
abbot of the monastery known as Clonmacnois.
He passed over to Cornwall, and there
laboured as a missionary for some years.
Many churches in that district are known by
his name, which appears there under the form
The saint afterwards journeyed to Scotland,
where he preached the Gospel in the western
districts. He settled at Dalruadhain, near
Campbeltown, and the cave to which he was
accustomed to retire for prayer is still to be
seen there. He died in A.D. 548. St.
Kieran came to be regarded eventually as the
patron saint of the whole of Kintyre. He
became very popular in Scotland, on account
of the great affection with which St. Columba
regarded him. Every year his hermitage and
hVy well were the resort of pilgrims who came
to honour his memory. A rock near the sea
shore is said to have been marked by the
impress of his knees, from the frequency with
which he would kneel there to pray with arms
outstretched, looking towards his beloved Ire
Several churches in Scotland are dedicated
to t lis saint. Besides a church in Campbeltown,
others at Kilkerran in Kintyre, Kilcheran in
Lismore, Kilkeran in Islay and Barvas in Lewis
were named after him. Those of Strathmore
in Caithness, Fetteresso and Glenbervie in Kin-
cardineshire and Dalkerran in Ayrshire are
dedicated to a saint of the same name, but
whether it is this particular St. Kieran is
disputed. There is a well of "St. Jargon"
at Troqueer (Kirkcudbright), which is thought
to be St. Kieran s.
15 St. Mirin. Bishop, 6th century.
BORN in Ireland, he became a pupil of St.
Comgall in the monastery of Bangor on Belfast
Lough, where no less than three thousand
monks are said to have resided together. In
the course of time Mirin was made Prior of
the Abbey. No authentic record relates that
he left Ireland to labour in Scotland ; but
Bangor, like lona, was a great missionary
centre, from which the brethren started to
evangelise the various countries of Europe, and
this fact lends credence to a tradition that St.
Mirin came to Scotland. Paisley has always
claimed the honour of possessing his remains,
which became in after years an attraction to
When in the twelfth century Walter Fitz-
Alan founded a Benedictine abbey there, he
placed it under the patronage of St. Mirin,
jointly with Our Lady, St. James and St.
Milburga, the patron of Wenlock, Shropshire,
whence the first community came. Lights
were burnt around St. Mirin s tomb for cen
turies, and a constant devotion was cherished
towards him. The seal of the abbey bore his
figure, with a scroll inscribed, " O Mirin, pray
to Christ for thy servants." The chapel in
which his remains repose is popularly known as
" The Sounding Aisle," from its peculiar echo.
A fair was formerly held at Paisley on the
saint s feast-day and during the octave. Other
churches in the south of Scotland were dedi
cated to him. In the parish of Kelton, in
Kirkcudbright, are the remains of an ancient
chapel and burial-ground known as " Kirk
Mirren." On Inch Murryn (Mirin s Island),
in Loch Lomond, are the ruins of his
chapel. At Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, is " St.
Mirin s Well." There are other traces of
him at Coylton, in Ayrshire, where a farm
is called " Knock Murran," and at Edzell, in
Forfarshire, where there is the " Burn of
16 St. Ninian, Bishop. 5th century.
HE was the first bishop residing in Scotland of
whom there is any authentic record, and one of
the earliest missionaries to the country. He
was born about A.D. 360, in the district now
known as Cumberland. His father was a con
verted British chieftain. Ninian had a strong
desire to study the Faith at its fountain-head,
and journeyed to Rome in his twenty-first year.
The Pope of the time, St. Damasus, received
him very cordially, and give him special teachers
to instruct him in the doctrines of the Church.
After he had spent there fifteen years, Pope St.
Siricius made him priest and bishop, and sent
him to preach the Faith in his native country.
Ninian settled in the district now called
Galloway. The recollection of the churches
he had seen in Rome awoke in him a desire to
build one more worthy of God s worship than
the simple edifices of that early age in these
northern countries. By the help of his friend,
St. Martin of Tours, he obtained Prankish
masons for this purpose, and built the first
stone church ever yet seen in Britain. It was
called Candida Casa, or "White House"
(still the designation in Latin of the See of
Galloway). The point of land on which it
stood became known as the " White Home,"
from which Whithorn derives its name.
Besides converting the people of his own
neighbourhood, St Ninian, by his zeal, brought
into the Church the Southern Picts, who
inhabited the old Roman province of Valentia,
south of the Forth. He is therefore styled
their Apostle. He was more than seventy
when he died, and was laid to rest in the
church he had built and dedicated to St.
Martin. Later on it was called after him and
became illustrious for pilgrimages from England
and Ireland, as well as from all parts of Scot
land. So many churches in Scotland bore his
name that the enumeration of them would be
impossible here, while almost every important
church had an altar dedicated to him. An
altar of St. Ninian was endowed by the
Scottish nation in the Carmelite Church at
Bruges in Catholic ages. There is a portion of
a fresco on the wall of Turriff Church,
Aberdeenshire, which bears the figure of St.
Ninian. The burgh of Nairn was placed
under his patronage. Many holy wells bore
his name : at Arbirlot, Arbroath, Mains and
Menmuir (Forfarshire) ; Ashkirk (Selkirkshire) ;
Alyth, Dull (Perthshire) ; Mayfield (Kirk-
cubrightshire) ; Sandwick (Orkney) ; Penning-
hame, Wigtown (Wigtownshire) ; Isle of Mull.
That at Dull is said by a Protestant writer of
1845 to have been greatly frequented by
invalids from far and near, on account of its
reputed healing powers.
St. Ninian s fairs were held at Whithorn
(for four days), and also at Arbroath. The
saint s feast, which had previously been long
observed in the diocese of Galloway and at the
Benedictine Abbey, Fort-Augustus, was ex
tended to the whole Scottish Church by Leo
XIII. in 1898.
St. Laisren. Abbot, A.D. 605.
HE was a cousin of St. Columba. He ruled
for some years the Abbey of Durrow in Ireland,
and afterwards that of lona, of which he was
the third abbot.
20 St. Marthom.
A FAIR was held annually at Ordiquhill (Banff-
shire) for eight days from September 20, under
the name of St. Marthom s fair. Nothing is
known about the life of the saint.
22 St. Lolan, Bishop.
MANY extraordinary miracles are related of
this saint, but his real history is involved in
The crozier and bell of St. Lolan were long
preserved at Kincardine-on- Forth, Perthshire,
and were include i in the feudal investitures of
the earldom cf Perth. They are alluded to in
documents of the 1 2th century, and the mention
of the be l occurs in one as late as 1675.
Both relics have long disappeared.
23 St. Adamnan, Abbot, A.D. 704.
HE was of Irish race, and belonged to the
same family as St. Columba. In his 55th
year he was elected Abbot of lona. He is
said to have been instrumental in obtaining the
passing of "The Law of the Innocents" in the
Irish National Assembly of Tara. This statute
exempted the Irish women from serving on the
battle field, which before that time they had
been bound to do. In 701 St. Adamnan was
sent on an embassy to his former pupil, Aldfrid,
King of Northumbria, to seek reparation for
injuries committed by that King s subjects in
the Province of Meath. It was during this
visit to England that he conformed to the
Roman usage with regard to the time for
keeping Easter, and he was afterwards success
ful in introducing the true practice into the
Irish Church. His efforts in this respect were
not successful with his monks at lona ; though
his earnest exhortations, and the unfailing
charity which he exhibited towards those who
differed from him, must have helped to dispose
them to conform to the rest of the Church,
which they did about twenty years after his
St. Adamnan is most renowned for his life
of St. Columba, which has been called by a
competent judge " the most complete piece of
such biography that all Europe can boast of,
not only at so early a period, but throughout
the whole Middle Ages." He is also the
author of a treatise on the Holy Land, valuable
as being one of the earliest produced in Europe.
Though the saint died at lona, his relics
were carried to Ireland ; but they must have
been restored to lona, as they were venerated
there in 1 520. He was one of the most popular
of the Scottish saints, and many churches were
named after him. The chief of these were at
Aboyne and Forvie (parish of Slains) in Aber-
deenshire ; Abriachan in Inverness-shire ; For-
glen or Teunan Kirk in Banffshire ; Tannadice
in Forfarsiire ; Kileunan (parish of Kilkerran)
in Kintyre ; Kinneff in Kincardineshire ; the
Island of Sanda ; Dull, Grandtully and Blair
Athole in Perthshire the latter place was once
known as Kilmaveonaig, from the quaint little
chapel and burying ground of the saint. There
were chapels in his honour at Campsie in Stir
lingshire and Dalmeny in Linlithgow. At
Aboyne are " Skeulan Tree" and Skeulan
Well," at Tannadice " St. Arnold s Seat," at
Campsie " St. Adamnan s Acre," at Kinneff
" St. Arnty s Cell." At Dull a fair was formerly
held on his feast-day (old style) ; it was called
Feille Eonan. Another fair at Blair Athole
was known as Feill Espic Eoin (" Bishop
Eunan s Fair " though St. Adamnan was an
abbot only) ; it has been abolished in modern
times. His well is still to be seen in the
Manse garden there, and down the glen a
fissure in the rock is called " St. Ennan s Foot
mark." There was a "St. Adamnan s Croft"
in Glenurquhart (Inverness-shire), but the site
is no longer known.
Ardeonaig, near Loch Tay ; Ben Eunaich,
Dalmally ; and Damsey (Adamnan s Isle) in
Orkney, take their names from this saint. At
Firth-on-the-Spey, near Kingussie, is a very
ancient bronze bell, long kept on a window-sill
of the old church, and tradition relates that
when moved from thence it produced a sound
similar to the words, " Tom Eunan, Tom
Eunan," until it was restored to its original
resting-place in the church, which stands on
the hill bearing that name. The tradition
points to the dedication of the church to this
saint. Few names have passed through such
various transformations in the course of ages as
that of Adamnan. It is met under the forms
of Aunan, Arnty, Eunan, Ounan, Teunan
(Saint- Eunan), Skeulan, Eonan, Ewen and
St. Adamnan s feast was restored by Pope
Leo XIII. in 1898.
25 St. Barr or Finbar, Bishop, 6th century.
HE was born in Connaught and was the
founder of a celebrated monastery and school
on an island in Lough Eirce (now known as
Gougane-Barra), in County Cork, and to this
house, says Colgan in his A eta Sanctorum, so
many came through zeal for a holy life that it
changed a desert into a great city.
St. Finbar became the first Bishop of Cork,
where he founded a monastery almost as famous
as the former. St. Finbar, like so many Irish
saints, made a pilgrimage to Rome. Missionary
zeal led him later on to Scotland, and for some
time he laboured in Kintyre.
Devotion to St. Barr was very great in
Catholic Scotland, as numerous dedications
attest. His churches are chiefly to be found
on solitary islands, which seem to have had a
special attraction for him. Thus in the parish
of Kilkerran, Kintyre, is an island now known
as Davar ; it was formerly called St. Barre s
Island. The island of Barra takes its name
from him ; traces of his cultus lingered on there
long after the Reformation. At Kilbar (some
times called Shilbar), for example, an image of
the saint, which was long preserved, used to be
clothed with a linen robe on his feast-day in
comparatively recent times. Other curious
customs also prevailed in the island in connection
with him ; his holy well is there. St. Barr
was the patron saint of the churches of
Dornoch, and of Eddleston (Peebles-shire) ; at
both places a fair was annually held on his
feast-day. In Ayrshire is the parish of Barr,
and in Forfarshire that of Inch bare. At Midd
Genie, in Tarbat, is Chapel Barre.
28 St. Machan or Mahon, Bishop, about
ST. MACHAN, born in Scotland, was like
many of his contemporaries, sent to Ireland,
then renowned for its schools, to be educated.
After he had returned to his native land and
had become a priest, he laboured in various
provinces of Scotland.
At Rome, whither he had gone as a pilgrim,
he was consecrated bishop in spite of pro
testations from his humility ; later he returned
to Scotland and to the apostolic ministry.
After many years of fruitful labour he died and
was laid to rest at Campsie in Lennox. His
name still survives in Ecclesmachan (Church of
Machan) in Linlithgow, of which he is patron.
The parish of Dalserf, Lanarkshire, formed at
one time the chapelry of St. Machan, and was
known as Machanshire. It was connected
with the church of Cadzow (now Hamilton).
An altar in St. Mungo s Cathedral, Glasgow,
was dedicated to him. A fair in honour of
this saint was held annually at Kilmahog,
8 St. Triduana, Virgin, 7th or 8th century.
ST. TRIDUANA devoted herself to God in a
solitary life at Rescobie in Angus (now Forfar-
shire). While dwelling there, a prince of the
country having conceived an unlawful passion
for her is said to have pursued her with his
unwelcome attentions. To rid herself of his
importunities, as a legend relates, Triduana
bravely plucked out her beautiful eyes, her
chief attraction, and sent them to her admirer.
Her heroism, it is said, procured for her the
power of curing diseases of the eyes. Many
instances are related of such miracles worked
after her death.
St. Triduana died at Restalrig in Lothian,
and her tomb became a favourite place of
OCTOBER 1 43
pilgrimage. Before the Reformation it was
the most important of the holy shrines near
Edinburgh. On account of this prominence
her church was the very first to fall a victim to
the fanatical zeal of the Puritans. After being
honoured for a thousand years her relics were
desecrated by the destruction of her shrine.
The General Assembly, decreed on December
21, 1560, that "the Kirk of Restalrig, as a
monument of idolatrie, be raysit and utterlie
castin downe and destroyed." An interesting
discovery was made in 1907 in connection with
this church, which had long been used as a
Presbyterian place of worship after restoration.
An octagonal building, standing near, was
though to have been a Chapter House in
Catholic times ; it was filled with earth and rub
bish, after having served as a burial place, and a
mound of earth surmounted it on the outside
on which trees had rooted. The Earl of
Moray, superior of the village, offered to restore
the church to its original state, and, when
examined by competent authorities, the supposed
Chapter House was found to be a beautiful
little Gothic chapel with groined roof supported
by a central pillar, similar to the building which
once covered St. Margaret s well at Restalrig.
Further explorations proved that the little
octagonal building had evidently been raised
over the miraculous well of St. Triduana, so
much scoffed at by Reformation satirists. Steps
led down to the water, thus covered in, and a
chapel, which must have formed an upper
story above the well, is thought to have been
the " Triduana s Aisle" alluded to in ancient
documents. The building has now been
thoroughly restored after its original form and
is regarded as a valuable monument of anti
quity. Thus do more enlightened ages condemn
the foolish fanaticism of bygone days !
This saint was honoured in various parts of
Scotland, and her name has undergone so many
changes in the different districts as to be often
unrecognisable. It occurs under the various
forms of Traddles, Tredwell, Tradwell, Tral-
lew, Trallen, etc.
Among these dedications are Kintradwell in
Caithness and Trad lines in Forfarshire. Near
the island of Papa Westray in the Orkneys is
St. Tredwell s Loch, and on the east side of
the loch is a small peninsula containing the
ruins of a little building measuring 20 feet in
length and 22 feet in breadth, known as St.
Tredwell s Chapel. At Rescobie a fair used to
be held on her feast-day, but in the beginning of
last century it was transferred to Forfar. It
was known as " St. Trodlin s Fair." Relics
of this saint were honoured in Aberdeen
Cathedral in Catholic ages. Devotion to St.
Triduana has been revived in the modern
Catholic church at Restalrig.
11 St. Kenneth, Abbot, A,D. 599.
WITH St. Columba, St. Bridget and St.
Maelrubha, St. Kenneth ranks among the most
popular of the Irish saints honoured in Scotland.
He was the child of poor Irish parents, and
was employed during his early years in tending
sheep. When he attained the years of man
hood he became a monk, and passed over to
Wales, where he became the disciple of the
renowned St. Cadoc. He was one of that
saint s most beloved followers on account of his
perfect obedience. After being ordained priest
he made a pilgrimage to Rome, and returning
to Ireland became the disciple of St. Mobhi
and St. Finnian. St. Columba, St. Comgall
and St. Kiaran lived with him as members of
the same community.
Later on St. Kenneth visited Scotland,
where he lived for some years as a monk. He
is believed to have founded a monastery at St.
Andrews and to have built churches in other
parts of the country, converting many of the
pagan inhabitants to Christianity by the fervour
of his preaching. He spent some time at lona
with St. Columba, and accompanied that saint
in his visit to King Brude at Inverness, and it
was St. Kenneth who, with the sign of the
Cross, caused the King s hand to wither when
he drew his sword against the missionaries.
St. Kenneth died in Ireland. He founded
the monastery of Aghaboe, and around it grew
up the town of that name, which up to the
twelfth century was the seat of the Bishops of
Ossory, whose residence was later transferred
to Kilkenny. In Scotland this saint had many
dedications. Kilchenzie, in Kintyre ; Kilken-
neth, in Tiree ; Kilchainnech, in lona ; Kil-
chainie, in South Uist ; Laggan in Inverness-
shire, and others. The great abbey of
Cambuskenneth takes its name from him, as
well as Chenzie Island, in the river of Islay,
and Kennoway (anciently Kennochi) in Fife-
13 St. Comgan or Congan, Abbot, 8th century.
THIS saint was the brother of the holy recluse,
Kentigerna, whose life was given on January
7th, and was consequently the son of a Prince
of Leinster. On succeeding his father in the
government of the province he ruled his people
as a true Christian prince should do ; but,
meeting with violent opposition from the neigh
bouring chiefs, he was forced to fly the country
to save his life. Taking with him his sister
and her son, Fillan, he crossed over to Scotland,
and settled in Lochalsh, Argyllshire. Here he
lived many years as a monk in great austerity.
He was far advanced in years when death
came. He was buried at lona.
His nephew, St. Fillan (see February 3),
built a church in his honour at Lochalsh.
There were also many other dedications to
this saint in Scotland. Among them were
Kilchowan in Kiltearn (Ross and Cromarty),
Kilchoan or Kilcongan in the island of Seil,
St. Coan in Strath (Skye), Kilquhoan in Ard-
namurchan, Kilchoan in Knoydart, etc. The
church of Turriff in Aberdeenshire was dedi
cated to him, and the annual fair on his feast-
day was called "Cowan Fair." A hospital of
St. Congan was founded at that place in 1272
by the Earl of Buchan, consisting of a collegiate
establishment for a warden and six chaplains.
Thirteen poor husbandmen of Buchan were
maintained there. King Robert the Bruce
added to its endowment. Some of the remains
of this institution are known as " The Abbey
Lands." Leo XIII. restored St. Comgan s
feast to the Scottish calendar in 1 898.
St. Fyndoca, Virgin,
No particulars of this saint s life remain to us.
Her feast occurs in the Breviary of Aberdeen
on this day. She seems to have been specially
venerated in the diocese of Dunblane. An
old charter of the thirteenth century mentions
a chapel dedicated to St. Fyndoca at Findo
Cask, near Dunning, in Perthshire ; a fair was
formerly held there for eight days from the
saint s feast. There are ruins of an old building
known as the chapel of St. Fink at Bendochy,
near Coupar Angus ; this was probably one of
17 St, Rule, Abbot, (about) 6th century.
AN old legend, long accepted as history, but
rejected altogether by modern critics, makes
this saint the bearer of the relics of St.
Andrew from Patras in Achaia to Scot
land in the fourth century. The story relates
that Rule, when engaged in his duties as
custodian of the apostle s shrine, was favoured
with a Heavenly vision, in which an angel
commanded him to set aside certain of the
relics among them an arm-bone and three
fingers of the Apostle and to conceal them
for a time in a certain spot indicated. Another
vision later on directed the holy man to set sail
with the relics in a north-westerly direction
" towards the ends of the earth," and when the
vessel should be in danger of shipwreck on a
northern coast to recognise that as a sign that a
church should be built near that spot in honour
1 50 OCTOBER
of St. Andrew, where the relics should be
enshrined. St. Rule is said to have carried
out the command in company with many fellow
voyagers, and to have founded the church of
St. Andrew s, where he lived more than thirty
years after his landing. A cave on the sea
coast hard by still bears his name. He is said
to have retired there for prayer. The old
church of St. Rule, with its quaint, slender
tower, was the first cathedral of the city, which
formerly bore the saint s name.
Most modern historians identify St. Rule
with an Irish abbot of similar name who is
honoured on this day. He was a contemporary
of St. Kenneth, and probably ended his days
at St. Andrews, after labouring there as a
missionary. St. Rule is the patron of Moni-
fieth, Forfarshire ; of Meikle Folia, near
Fyvie, Aberdeenshire ; and of Kenneth-
mont, Aberdeenshire, where an ancient fair,
held on the second Tuesday in October as late
as the beginning of last century, was known
as " Trewell Fair." There was a chapel of
St. Rule at St. Cyrus (formerly called Eccles-
greig) in Kincardineshire.
OCTOBER 1 5 1
21 St. Mund or Fintan-Munnu, Abbot, A.D. 635,
HE was born in Ireland, and was a contem
porary of St. Columba. He bears the char
acter of being the most austere of all the Irish
saints, and suffered grievously from bodily in
firmities with the greatest resignation. Crossing
over to Scotland, he dwelt for a time upon an
island of Loch Leven, still called after him by
the title of Eileanmunde.
A more important foundation was afterwards
made by this saint at Kilmun, north of the
Firth of Clyde, in Argyllshire. An old burial
ground still marks the site of the monastery
founded by St. Mund ; the hills and wooded
glens which surround the spot make up a scene
of striking beauty. A small bay in the vicinity
is called " Holy Loch/ It is a matter of
dispute whether the title came from its proximity
to St. Mund s foundation or from a shipload of
earth from the Holy Land, destined to form
part of the foundation of a church in Glasgow,
and reputed to have been sunk in a storm near
It is said that St. Mund* made application to
Baithen, St. Columba s successor at lona, to be
received as a monk of that monastery, but
that Baithen advised the saint to return to
Ireland and found a monastery there. The
holy abbot gave this advice on account of a
prophecy of St. Columba, who had foreseen
St. Mund s desire, and had declared that God
willed that saint to become abbot over others
and not the disciple of Baithen.
It was owing to this advice that St. Mund
returned to his native land and founded Teach-
Mun (Tagmon) in Wexford, which became
famous under his rule.
Mediaeval documents mention the saint s
pastoral staff as preserved in Argyllshire ; its
hereditary custodian held a small croft at
Kilmun ; it may have been in honour of this
saint that a fair was held at that place for eight
days during April as alluded to in records of
1 490. No trace of the above relic now remains.
In Ireland this saint is known as St. Fintan-
Munnu ; but Mundus or Mund is the title
which appears in Scottish records.
26 St, Bean, Bishop, llth century.
THIS saint was venerated at Fowls Wester
and Kinkell, both in Perthshire. His well is
pointed out at the former place, and his fair is
held there. St. Bean is inserted in the calendar
of the Breviary of Aberdeen, but few par
ticulars of his life are known to us. Tradition
makes him Bishop of Mortlach, in Banffshire,
though the existence of such a see is not generally
admitted. St. Bean, probably resided at Mort
lach of which he became patron (in succession
to St. Moluag see June 25) ; he is said to
have ruled a monastery of Culdees there. An
ancient stone effigy, in existence in the
eighteenth century in Mortlach Church, was
supposed to represent the saint ; nothing of the
kind is now to be seen. Balvenie, in the
neighbourhood, is thought to be derived from
Bal-beni-mor (" dwelling of Bean the Great ").
The feast of St. Bean was restored to Scot
land by Leo XIII.
St. Eata, Bishop, A.D. 686.
HE was one of the boys trained by St. Aidan
in the monastery of Lindisfarne. When he
grew to manhood he made his profession as a
monk of that abbey, and in after years became
1 54 OCTOBER
Abbot of Old Melrose, where St. Boisil and
St. Cuthbert were among his disciples. He
became Bishop of Lindisfarne, and was after
wards translated to the See of Hexham. He
was buried in Hexham Cathedral.
30 St. Talarican, Bishop, A.D. (about) 720.
THIS saint has been claimed as one of the
Irish missionaries to Scotland, but competent
authorities maintain that his name shows him
to have been of Pictish origin, and they add
that the Irish calendars do not contain a saint
whose name can be identified with that of
Talarican. The saint is said to have been
raised to the episcopate by Pope Gregory
(perhaps St. Gregory II.). It is specially said
of him that he was careful to offer Holy Mass
every day. His life was one of stern discip
line. He laboured in the northern districts of
Scotland, and his popularity is shown by the
numerous dedications in his name.
The large district of Kiltarlity in Inverness-
shire, in which Beauly Priory was situated,
takes its name from St. Talarican. A church
and burial-ground known as Ceilltarraglan once
existed in the Isle of Skye ; it was situated on
the plain above the rocks to the north of Loch
Portree. In the island of Taransay we find
Eaglais Tarain, or Church of Talarican. The
saint is also associated with the church of For-
dyce, in Banffshire, where a fair was held on his
feast and during the octave. There is a St.
Tarkin s Well at Fordyce and another in the
parish of Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, is thought to
own this saint as patron. Leo XIII. restored
St. Talarican s feast to the Scottish Calendar.
AT Stevenson, in Ayrshire, an annual fair was
formerly held on October 30th, which was
called "Sam Maneuke s, " or "St. Monk s Day";
it has long been discontinued. An old will of
the sixteenth century points to this saint as the
patron of the town. Archibald Weir, in his
testament, dated October 7th, 1547, says : " I
give and bequeath my soul to God Almighty
and my body to be buried in the church of St.
Monoch, of Steynstoune." A procession once
took place annually on this day in the above
locality. It was doubtless the remnant of some
popular Catholic demonstration in honour of
the patronal feast ; though mentioned as late as
1845 it has now disappeared. In the parish
of Sorn, in the same county, is an estate known
by the designation of Auchmannoch. which
probably refers to this saint.
31 St. Bees or Begha, Virgin, A,D. (about) 660.
THIS saint was of royal Irish race. In her
youth she was promised in marriage to a
Norwegian prince, but as she had vowed vir
ginity in her earliest years she fled from home
to escape the force which might possibly be
brought to bear upon her to bring about the
proposed union. Embarking alone in a small
boat, she made her way to the opposite coast of
Northumbria. Here she dwelt for some time
in a woodland retreat, after receiving the
monastic habit from St. Aidan, the bishop.
She afterwards presided over a community of
virgins, whose government she eventually
resigned to St. Hilda. St. Begha founded
another monastery in Strathclyde, which was
known by her name. The tongue of land on
which it stood is still called St. Bee s Head.
In this retreat she died in the odour of sanctity.
Kilbagie, in Clackmannan, is probably named
after this saint, and also Kilbucho (Church of
Begha), in the parish of Broughton, Peebleshire.
3 St. Malachy, Archbishop, A.D. 1148.
Among the Irish saints who benefited Scot
land, the illustrious contemporary and dear
friend of his biographer, St. Bernard, must not
be omitted. St. Malachy, Archbishop of
Armagh, twice visited Scotland. On his return
from one of his visits to Rome, he stayed with
King David I., and by his prayers restored to
life the monarch s son, Prince Henry, who was
in danger of death. During this visit, St.
Malachy erected an oratory of wattles and clay
on the sea-shore near Port Patrick. St.
Bernard relates that the saint not only directed
the work but laboured with his own hands in
its construction. He blessed the cemetery
adjoining, which was arranged according to
Irish usage, within a deep fosse. The second
visit to Scotland was shortly before St. Malachy
set out on that last journey to the continent
from which he never returned, dying on
November 2nd, 1 148, in St. Bernard s own
Abbey of Clairvaux. He had set his heart on
founding a monastery in Scotland at a place
called Viride Stagnum, " The Green Lake,"
situated about three miles from the present
town of Stranraer. There he marked out the
boundaries, and established a community brought
from one of his Irish houses. St. Bernard
alludes to a monastery in Scotland as the last
founded by St. Malachy, and this is undoubt
edly the one referred to. Later on, this
monastery, which acquired the name of Soul-
seat (Sedes Animarum), was peopled by Pre-
monstratensian Canons, brought from St.
Norbert s own house of Premontre. It became
known in after ages as Saulseat.
St. Nidan, Bishop, about the 6th century.
HE was one of the Welsh disciples of St.
Kentigern, and probably accompanied him on
his return to Scotland (see pp. 47-8). He is
said to have evangelised the part of Deeside
round Midmar, of which he was the patron.
St, Englatius, Abbot, A.D. 996.
THIS saint, whose feast-day appears in the
calendar of the Aberdeen Breviary, is associated
with the parish of Tarves in Aberdeenshire,
where he is known by the name of Tanglan.
There is a " Tanglan s Well " in the village,
and a " Tanglan s " Ford on the river Ythan.
St. Baya or Yey, Virgin, about the 9th century.
SHE is said to have inhabited the island of
Little Cumbrae, where she lived in solitude
surrounded by birds and beasts. The ruins
of an ancient chapel, called that of St. Vey,
are still to be seen, and the saint is believed to
have been buried there. Tradition tells us, in
proof of her love of solitude, that when the
Rector of Dunbar attempted to carry off St.
Baya s relics, a furious storm arose through the
saint s intervention, and compelled him to
desist. Kilbag Head in Lewis is probably
named after a church dedicated to this saint.
St. Maura, Virgin, about the 9th century.
THIS saint was a friend of St. Baya, and used
to visit her upon her island for spiritual con-
verse. She is said to have governed a very
austere community of virgins consecrated to
God. She died at Kilmaurs (Church of
Maura) in Ayrshire.
6 -St. Methven.
THERE are no particulars extant concerning
the life of this saint, and it is therefore im
possible to determine the time in which he
flourished. A church bearing the name of St.
Methven formerly stood in the parish of
Fowlis Wester, in Perthshire. A fair used to
be held there on this day in each year, locally
known as St. Methvenmas Market. The day
itself was observed as a holiday. Like most of
such remains of Catholic merry-makings, the
custom has long disappeared.
8 St. Moroc, Bishop.
SOME writers maintain that this saint was
formerly Abbot of Dunkeld. His name cer
tainly survives in that neighbourhood in Kil-
morick, where a spring is called St. Mureach s
Well. Another church named after this saint
was at Lecropt, near Stirling, and here his
body is said by tradition to have been laid to
rest. Kilimrack (Beauly) has been sometimes
ascribed to this saint, but the more reliable
authorities give it as one of Our Lady s dedi
cations. The period in which St. Moroc
flourished is not known with any degree of
St. Gervadsus OP Gernadius, Hermit, A.D. 934,
THIS saint was of Irish nationality. Longing
for a life of entire seclusion from the world, he
left his native land and took up his residence
in Scotland. He is said to have lived many
years as a hermit in the province of Moray,
and in corroboration of the tradition a cave
was formerly pointed out in the parish of
Drainie, near Elgin, known as " Gerar din s
Cave," it was situated on the height behind the
modern Station Hotel at Lossiemouth. For
many centuries this habitation was intact. It
had an ancient Gothic doorway and window-
opening, but these were demolished more than
a hundred years ago by a drunken sailor. Since
1870 the whole face of the cliff known as
" Holyman s Head," including the cave, has
been quarried. No trace now remains of the
spring of water there, called " Gerardin s
Well," from which the anchorite drank a
thousand years ago.
It is said that a monastery was founded by
this saint at Kennedar, in the same parish of
Drainie where he associated himself with many
fellow-soldiers in Christ, and built a church
under the direction of angels. The remains of
Kineddar Castle, a residence of the Bishops of
Moray, may still be seen there. Tradition tells
that on stormy nights, the saint was wont to
pace the beach below his cell, lantern in hand,
to warn off vessels from the dangerous rocks.
This is commemorated in the Lossiemouth
Burgh seal, which represents the saint with his
lantern and bears the motto : Per noctem lux.
A Presbyterian church erected at Stotfield
(Lossiemouth) in recent years bears the name
of "St. Gerardine."
12 St. Machar or Mocumma, Bishop, 6th century.
THIS saint was the son of Fiachna, an Irish
chieftain, and was baptised by St. Colman. In
his youth he became a disciple of the great St.
Columba, and when that saint went to Scotland,
Machar accompanied him, together with eleven
other disciples. After some years he was
made a bishop, and was sent by St. Columba
with twelve companions to preach to the pagan
Picts of Strathdon, in the north-east of Scot
land. It is said that his holy master com
manded him to found a church in the spot
where he should find a river forming by its
windings the shape of a bishop s pastoral staff.
Such a configuration he found in the river Don,
at the spot now known as Old Aberdeen.
Here he accordingly fixed his seat, and the
cathedral that rose from the humble beginnings
of a church instituted by Machar now bears
Besides the old Cathedral of Aberdeen,
there are in the same county two parishes,
formerly joined in one, which are known as
New and Old Machar, respectively. At Kil-
drummie, in Aberdeenshire, is a place called
(after the saint) " Macker s Haugh." There
is St. Machar s Well, near the cathedral, at
Old Aberdeen ; the water used always to be
taken for baptismal purposes to the cathedral.
At Corgarff, in Strathdon, is another spring
known as Tobar Mhachar (the well of St.
Machar) ; miracles were formerly obtained
there. Of this spring the legend is related of a
priest, in time of famine, drawing from it three
fine salmon which lasted him for food till
supplies came from other quarters.
St. Machar s feast was restored to Scotland
by Pope Leo XIII. in 1898.
13 St. Devenick, about the 6th century.
TRADITION tells that this saint was a contem
porary of the former, and preached the Gospel
in Caithness. A legend relates that his body
was borne for burial to Banchory Devenick,
in Kincardineshire, in accordance with his
continually expressed desire to rest in the
district of St. Machar, whom he had tenderly
loved during life. A church was afterwards
built over his relics, and named after him.
Criech, in Sutherlandshire, was probably
another of his churches, if he is the saint known
there as St. Teavneach. Besides a fair of great
antiquity, known as " Dennick s ", held at
Milton of Glenesk, Forfarshire, another at
Methlick, Aberdeenshire, held in November
about this date, bore the same name ; this
implies that the respective churches are dedi
cated to him, as fairs bearing saints names had
their origin in all instances in the concourse of
people assembled for the celebration of the
patronal feast of a church. St. Devenick s
Well is near Methlick church.
15 St. Machutus, or Malo, Bishop, A.D. 565.
THE Aberdeen Breviary gives on this day the
feast of the British saint who became one of
the apostles of Brittany and is commemorated
there by the town of St. Malo.
There is no record of this saint s residence
in Scotland, but his cultus flourished there,
possibly on account of his connection with St.
Brendan (see May 16). Lesmahago, the site
of a Benedictine monastery, takes its name from
him, the title being a corrupt form of Ecclesia
Sti. Machuti (Church of St. Machutus).
Wigtown church, also, was dedicated to this
16 St. Margaret, Queen, A.D. 1093.
IT is impossible here to say much in detail of
the life of the saintly queen who is regarded as
one of the heavenly patrons of the Kingdom of
Scotland ; but to omit all notice of her would
make our calendar incomplete. It will be
sufficient to note briefly the chief events of her
life. St. Margaret was granddaughter to
Edmund Ironside. Her father, Edward,
having to fly for his life to Hungary, married
Agatha, the sister-in-law of the king. Three
children were born to them. When Edward
the Confessor ascended the English throne,
Prince Edward returned with his family to his
native land, but died a few years after. When
William the Conqueror obtained the crown,
Edgar, the son of Edward, thought it more
prudent to retire from England, and took
refuge with his mother and sisters at the court
of Malcolm III. of Scotland, having been
driven on the Scottish coast by a tempest.
Malcolm, attracted by the virtue and beauty of
Margaret, made her his bride, and for the
thirty years she reigned in Scotland she was a
model queen. The historian Dr. Skene says
of her : " There is perhaps no more beautiful
character recorded in history than that of
Margaret. For purity of motives, for an
earnest de:ire to benefit the people among
whom her lot was cast, for a deep sense of
religion and great personal piety, for the unselfish
performance of whatever duty lay before her,
and for entire self-abnegation she is unsurpassed,
and the chroniclers of the time all bear witness
to her exalted character." Her solicitude
for the nation was truly maternal. She set
herself to combat, with zeal and energy, the
abuses which had crept into the practice of
religion, taking a prominent part with her
royal husband as the interpreter of her southern
speech in many councils summoned at her
instigation. She loved and befriended clergy
and monks, and was lavish in her charity to the
poor. Her own children, through her training
and example, were one and all distinguished for
piety and virtue. Her three sons, Edgar,
Alexander and David, were remarkable for
their unparalleled purity of life : David s two
grandsons, Malcolm IV. and William, and
William s son and grandson, Alexander II.
and III., were noble Catholic kings. Thus
did the influence of this saintly queen extend
over the space of two hundred years and form
monarchs of extraordinary excellence to rule
Scotland wisely and well.
St. Margaret died on the 16th of November
at the age of forty-seven. Her body was
buried with that of King Malcolm, who had
been killed in battle only four days before her
own death, in the church they had founded at
Dunfermline. At the Reformation her relics
were secretly carried into Spain, together with
the remains of her husband, and placed in the
Escurial. Her head, with a quantity of her
long, fair hair, was preserved for a time by the
Scottish Jesuits at Douai. The sacred relics
disappeared in the French Revolution. Fairs
on the saint s feast-day, known as " Margaret-
mas," were held at Wick, Closeburn (Dumfries
shire) and Balquhapple (now Thornhill) in
Kincardineshire. St. Margaret s Well at
Restalrig near Edinburgh, was once covered by
a graceful Gothic building, whose groined roof
rested on a central pillar ; steps led down to
the level of the water. It is thought to have
been erected at the same period as that
covering St. Triduana s Well in the same place.
When the North British Railway required the
spot for the building of storehouses, the well-
house was removed to Queen s Park, where it
still stands, but the spring has disappeared (see
October 8th). Innocent XII. at the petition
of James VII. (and II.) in 1693, placed St.
Margaret s feast on June 10th, the birthday of
the King s son James (stigmatised the " Old
Pretender"), but Leo XIII., in 1898, restored
it for the Scottish calendar to the day of her
18 St. Fergus, Bishop, 8th century.
THIS saint, a Pict by nationality, is said to
have been for many years a bishop in Ireland.
Moved by a desire to benefit the pagans of the
northern districts of Scotland, he left Ireland
and returned to his own land, accompanied by
a few priests and clerics, and settled in Strath-
earn. Here he founded three churches, which
he dedicated to St. Patrick. Passing north
wards he visited Caithness, and after preaching
the Gospel there for some time he travelled to
Buchan, where he built a church at Lungley, a
place afterwards known as St. Fergus. Finally
1 70 NOVEMBER
he moved on to Glamis, in Forfarshire, where
he founded another church, and it was here that
he ended his life and was buried.
Several dedications to this saint are to be
found in the northern and eastern parts of
Scotland. The churches of Wick and Halkirk,
in Caithness ; Dyce and St. Fergus, in Aber-
deenshire ; and his well, called " Fergan
Well," at Kirkmichael, in Banffshire, famous
for its miraculous efficacy in curing skin diseases :
all these bear witness to the devotion borne
towards St. Fergus by Scottish Catholics in
past ages. An annual fair was held at Glamis
on his feast-day (known as " Fergusmas "), and
continued for five days. Another fair took
place at Wick.
Other proofs of his connection with Scotland
are seen in the traces of the three churches
founded by the saint in Strathearn : Strogeth-
St.-Patrick, Blackford-St.-Patrick, and Dol-
The head of St. Fergus was venerated in
the Abbey of Scone, where James IV. pro^
vided a silver reliquary for it. His arm was
preserved at Aberdeen, in the old cathedral.
The pastoral staff of the saint, long treasured at
St. Fergus, in Buchan, is said to have calmed a
storm on that coast. No traces now remain
An ancient image of St. Fergus existed at
Wick until 1613, when it was destroyed by a
minister, who was drowned by the indignant
people for his action. The saint s holy well
was honoured there. He is thought to be the
same " Fergus, the Pict, Bishop of the Scots,"
who took part in a Synod in St. Peter s at
Rome under Pope Gregory II. in A.D. 721.
Pope Leo XIII. restored the feast of St.
Fergus in 1898.
26 St. Christina, Virgin, A.D. (about) 1085.
THIS saint, though brought into close con
nection with the country, was not of Scottish
lineage. She was the sister of St. Margaret,
and therefore the daughter of Edward the
Etheling. Together with her mother Agatha,
sister to the Queen of Hungary, Christina took
the veil in the Benedictine Abbey of Romsey,
in Hampshire. Here both royal ladies became
distinguished for holiness. Matilda, daughter
1 72 NOVEMBER
of St. Margaret, was educated by her aunt at
Romsey. She became known as the " good
Queen Maud " after she had married Henry I.
of England. St. Christina died in the odour
of sanctity about the year 108!?.
27 St. Oda or Odda, Virgin, about 8th century.
SHE is said to have been a daughter of a
Scottish king. Having the misfortune to lose
her sight, she made a pilgrimage to the tomb of
St. Lambert the martyr, at Liege, to implore
the help of that renowned wonder-worker. Her
faith was rewarded by a cure, and Oda resolved,
in gratitude for the favour, to dedicate herself to
God in the religious state. She therefore
retired to a hermitage in Brabant, where she
spent her remaining years in prayer and
penance, winning from Heaven many graces for
the people of that district. After her death her
relics were enshrined in a collegiate church in
the town of Rhode, and she became the chief
patron of the place.
It is remarkable that the feast of this saint
was inserted in the calendar drawn up for
the Scottish Episcopal Church by order of
NOVEMBER 1 73
Charles I. St. Oda s supposed royal descent
is thought to have won for her this distinction.
28 St. Callen.
NOTHING more is known concerning this saint
than the facts that the church of Rogart, in
Sutherlandshire, was dedicated to St. Callen,
and a fair, known as " St. Callen s Fair, was
formerly held there on this day.
30 St. Andrew, Apostle, Patron of Scotland.
WE cannot reckon St. Andrew among the
national saints of Scotland, for he lived and
died far from these northern lands. Scotland
cannot even claim connection with him on the
ground of having received missionaries from
him, as England can boast of her connection
with St. Gregory the Great. Yet from time
immemorial so far back that history cannot
point to any precise date St. Andrew has
been venerated as the special protector of
Scotland, and his feast, known as "Andrew-
mas," celebrated everywhere with great rejoicing.
The legend of St. Regulus (see October 17)
which attributes to that saint the bringing of
the apostle s relics to the country is re,ecteJ by
modern historians. The origin of devotion to
St. Andrew in Scotland is neverthe ess due to
the translation of the apostle s relics thither
(probably from Hexham) during the eighth
century. These relics were undoubtedly hon
oured with much devotion at the place which
was afterwards known by the name of the great
Apostle, and eventually became the Primatial
See of thtf* country.
Whatever be the true facts of the case, St.
Andrew has been invoked for more than one
thousand years as the Patron of Scotland,
whose battle-cry in the ages of faith was " For
God and St. Andrew."
2 St, Ethernan, Bishop.
THIS saint belonged to a noble Scottish family
and was sent to Ireland for his education. On
returning to his native land, he devoted himself
to the work of preaching the Faith among his
countrymen in the province of Buchan, Aber-
deenshire. He eventually became a bishop.
DECEMBER 1 75
On the east side of the hill of Mormond
near Rathen, in Aberdeenshire, is a place
called " St. Ethernan s Den " ; it is believed
to have been the spot chosen by the saint as
his hermitage. The neighbouring church of
Rathen is dedicated to him. The church of
Kilrenny in Fifeshire, popularly known as "St.
Irnie s," is probably one of his dedications ; it
is a favourite landmark for mariners. St.
Ethernan s well is there. At Forfar a fair was
annually held on this day under the name of
" Tuetheren s Fair.* He was also honoured
at Madderty in Perthshire.
There seems to have been a chapel of this
saint in the old monastic church on the Isle
of May ; as, by an ancient charter, Alexander
Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, grants a stone of wax
or forty shillings yearly to " St. Ethernan of
the Isle of May, and the monks serving God
and St. Ethernan in that place."
6 St. Constantine III., King, A.D. (about) 9*5.
THE life of this saint is involved in obscurity.
According to the most probable account he was
a Scottish King, who resigned his crown after a
1 76 DECEMBER
reign of more than forty years, and retired, as
the Chronicle of the Picts and Scots relates, " to
the monastery on the brink of the waves and
died in the house of the Apostle." This
monastery was probably the Culdee establish
ment at St. Andrews. A cave near Fife Ness
called after the saint, and marked by many
pilgrims crosses, is supposed to have been his
place of retirement for prayer.
7 St. Buite, Monk, A,D. 521,
HE was born in Ireland, and from his infancy
was believed to possess miraculous powers.
Early writers compare him with Venerable Bede
for his virtues and mode of life. He is said to
have lived many years in a monastery in Italy,
and to have returned, by Divine admonition, to
his native land, taking with him many copies of
the Holy Scriptures together with sacred vest
ments and numerous holy relics. On his
journey he was joined by a number of pilgrims
who desired to live under his rule ; accordingly
he sailed with his company for North Britain,
and landed in Pictish territory, where he is said
to have restored the king of the country to life
by his prayers. Receiving as a reward the royal
fort in which the miracle had taken place, St.
Buite founded a monastery there, and remained
for some time instructing the people of the
country in the Faith. Eventually he returned
Dunnichen, in Angus, is thought to be the
site of St. Buite s foundation. Near it are still
to be seen the remains of an ancient fortress
known as Carbuddo or Caer Buido (Buite s
Fort). The saint is said to have foretold the
birth of St. Columba, which occurred on the
very day upon which St. Buite himself died.
11 St, Obert,
ALL that is now known of this saint is that he
was honoured in Perth in Catholic ages as the
patron saint of bakers. On December 10,
known as St. Obert s Eve, the bakers of that
city were accustomed to pass through the streets
in procession by torchlight, playing pipes and
beating drums, and wearing various disguises.
One of their number used to wear a dress
known as " The Devil s Coat." Another rode
on a horse shod with men s shoes. In its
1 78 DECEMBER
primitive form this pastime was probably some
kind of sacred drama representing the chief
features in the life of the saint ; but its
character had changed in the course of time.
On account of their connection with the
ancient faith such performances gave great
offence to the Puritans. In 1581 "an Act
against idolatrous and superstitious pastimes,
especially against the Sanct Obert s Play," was
issued by the Session. It seems to have had
little effect, for again in 1 587 the bakers were
required " to take order for the amendment of
the blasphemous and heathenish plays of Sanct
Obert s pastime." Eventually in 1 588, several
" insolent young men " were imprisoned for
their " idolatrous pastime in playing of Sanct
Obert s play, to the great grief of the conscience
of the faithful and infamous slander of the haill
17 St. Crunmael, Abbot.
No particulars of the life of this saint are
extant, beyond the fact that he was one of
the Abbots of lona.
DECEMBER 1 79
18 St. Flannan, Confessor.
THIS saint was of Irish nationality ; the precise
period at which he lived is uncertain. The
group of islands to the west of Lewis are called
after him, the Flannan Islands. On the largest
of these seven islands are the remains of a
chapel known as Teampull Beannachadh (St.
Flannan s Chapel). This seems to indicate
that the saint resided there at some period,
though no record remains of the fact beyond
the traditional designation of the ruins. The
Flannan Islands have always been regarded by
the people of Lewis with almost superstitious
St. Manire, Bishop, A.D. 824.
THIS was a saint of Scottish nationality, who
laboured in Deeside. He was especially
honoured at Crathie and Balvenie. He was a
strenuous opponent of the idolatrous or super
stitious practices which the half-barbarous
people to whom he preached were accustomed
to introduce into their worship of God. He is
said to have mastered the many dialects then
spoken in the district which he inhabited, in
order to be able to preach the Faith to all.
22 St. Ethernascus, Confessor.
FROM his retired life and spirit of recollection
this Irish saint was known as " Ethernascus,
who spoke not," or "The Silent." He was
one of the chief patrons of Clane, in the county
of Kildare. It is difficult to determine what
was his precise connection with Scotland, but
his office occurs with a proper prayer in the
Breviary of Aberdeen. The church of
Lathrisk, in Fifeshire, was dedicated to St.
Ethernascus conjointly with St. John the
23 St, Caran, Bishop, A.D. 663.
THIS was an east country saint who was for
merly held in honour at Fetteresso and Drum-
lithie in The Mearns, and at Premnay in
Aberdeenshire. There are also traces of his
cultus in Strathmore, Caithness. At Drum-
lithie is a spring known as St. Carran s Well.
His fair was formerly held on this day at
Anstruther, Fifeshire. Some of these dedica-
tions have been, by certain writers, accredited
to another saint Kieran (September 9). No
particulars of St. Caran s life are extant.
St. Mayota or Mazota, Virgin, 6th century.
IT is maintained by some writers that the great
St. Bridget, one of the chief glories of Ire and,
visited Scotland in the beginning of the sixth
century, and founded a monastery for women at
Abernethy, which she dedicated to the Blessed
Virgin. Over this house St. Darlughdach
was placed as superior ; or, as some think, she
was the real foundress. St. Mayota was one
of the nine virgins who came from Ireland to
form the first community at Abernethy. She
is said to have been remarkable for having
wrought many striking miracles in her lifetime.
The church of Drumoak or Dulmaoak (Field
of St. Mayota), situated near the Dee, takes its
name from this saint. A spring in the
neighbourhood is called "St. Maikie s Well."
25 St. Bathan, Bishop, A.D. (about) 639.
IN a letter to the Scots from Pope John IV.
mention is ma j e of th s saint as especially
connected with Scotland. No particulars of
his life are now known, but his cultus can be
traced by the churches dedicated to him.
Abbey St. Bathans, a parish in Berwickshire,
takes its name from this saint. The ruins of an
abbey for Cistercian nuns are there, and in a
wooded nook, in the vicinity is a spring called
St. Bathan s Well. In addition to a reputation
for healing diseases, it has the unusual quality
of never freezing ; a mill-stream into which it
flows is said to be never blocked with ice in
winter. The parish of Yester (Haddington-
shire) formerly bore the name of St. Bathan s,
and the parish of Bowden in Roxburghshire
probably takes its designation from the same
ALL YE SAINTS OF SCOTLAND,
PRAY FOR US.
Abbey St. Bathans 182
Abb s Head 123
Abercrombie (St. Mon-
an s) 34
Aberdeen 109, 163
Aberdour 91, 95, 106, 107
Abernethy 16, 17, 93,
Adanman, St. 136
,, of Coldingham 15
Adrian (Odhran), St. 35
Aidan, St. 125
Alexander, Bl. 114
Alyth 98, 134
Andrew, St. 173
" Andre wmas" 173
Angus, St. 117
Applecross 67 seq.
Arbroath 9, 39, 134
Ardchattan 19, 82
Argyle Cathedral 98
Arnold (Adanman), St. 139
Arnty( ,, ), St. 139
Asaph, St. 76
Annan (Adanman), St. 139
Baitan (Baithen), St. 91
Baldred, St. 36
Balvenie 153, 179
Bancliory 93, 94, 164
Barr (Finbar), St. 139
Barra 80, 143
36 Brioc (Brock), St.
Bay a (Vey), St.
159 Buite, St.
Bay, St. Ficker s
124 Burn of Marran (Mirin
77 Bute, Isle of 80, 81
Bed, St. Kevin s
,, St. Molios
67 Cadroe, St.
Bees (Begha), St.
1 56 Cadzow
120 Caer- Winning .
1 3 Calaverock
St. Adamnan s
139 Callen, St.
Bai tan s
1 1 9 Cambuskenneth
39 Canibusnethan 9 1 ,
1 8 Campsie 138,
44 Candida Casa
136 Cantyre see Kin tyre
74 Caran, St.
122 Cathan, St.
149 Cave of Geradin
138 St. Baldred
118 Serf .
170 Ceilltarraglan (Skye)
138 Chair of St. Fillan
7 St. Inan
Boisil (Boswell), St.
29 , , Machalus
Boniface (Curitan), St.
45 Chapel Dockie
12 Chapel Rock
80 Charmaig, St.
Brandan (Brendan), St.
79 Chenzie Island
1 6 Christina, St.
Crunmael, St. 178
Culross 99 seq.
Cumbrae, Little 159
Coivin (Kevin), St.
Cumine, St. 3
Coldingham 16, 59, 123,
Cunibert, St. 73
Cunningham 2, 54
Curitan (Boniface), St. 45
Cuthbert, St. 29 seq, 48
Comgan (Congan), St.
Dabius (Davius), St. no
Daganus, St. 86
Dalkerran 1 30
Dalmally 10, 138
Dalmeny 1 38
Dalruadhain 1 29
Constantine III., St.
Conval, St. (King)
Damsey 1 38
Darlugdach, St. 1, 108,
Devenick, St. 164
Dine, Chapel of 78
Dolpatrick 1 70
St. Berchan s
Donald, St. 107, 108
, , Drostan s
Donnan, St. and
Dornoch 57, 141
Drostan, St. 105
Drummelzier 5 1
Dry men 91
Drysdale 5 1
Dumbarton 46, 61,
, , Angus
, , Bean
1 1 1
Dunkeld 33, 91,
, , Boniface
, , Brendan
, , Brioc
,, Causnan (Con
Kbba, St. 15,
Ebba, St. and Com
, , Devenick
, , Drostan
Edinburgh 51, 104,
, , Duthac
M. \S 1
, , Ethernan
, , Fergus
El Ian more
" Enoch s, St."
, Maree (Maelrub
Eunan (Adamnan), St.
, , Margaret
, , Marnoch
Fair of (Contd.)
Finan ("The Leper"),
Finbar (Barr), St.
I 3 l
Fort- Augustus 31
Frigidian ( Wynnin), St.
Fechin (Vigean), St.
Feclmo (Fiaclma), St.
Fetteresso 1 30,
Fiachna (Fechno), St.
Glasgow 4, 6,
Fillan (Faolan), St.
Fillan ("The Leper" ,
(Hen of Ogilvy 108, 109
(lleiiholm (Brottghton) 51
(lien Urquhart 46, 106,
Grandtulty 1 38
Hailes 51, 101, 154
Halkirk 107, 170
Holy Island 67
Holy Loch 151
Holy Pool 1 8
Houston 1 8
Inan, St. 119
Inchinnan 83, 120
Inch Murryn 132
Indrecht, St. 43
Kilda, Isle of St.
lona 3, 7, 9, 23, 30, 35,
40, 42, 43, 48, 90,
96, 101, 106, 114,
125, 135, 136, 178
Keith 69 -sefl., 114
Kelton 44, 132
Kenneth, St. 145
Kennethmont 1 50
Ken noway 147
Kentigern (Mungo), St.
3, 100. 109
Kincardine O Neil
Kintyre (Cantyre) 42,
66, 129, 140
Kippen I i i
Kirkcudbright 5 1
Kirkholm 9 1
Kirk Mirren 132
Kirk of Cruden 56
Kirkpatrick (2) 46
Kirkwall 56, 62
Laggan 101, 146
Laisren, St. 135
Largs 1 8, 91
Laserian (Molios), St. 66
Leer opt 160
Lewis 23, 56, 98, 179
Libranus, St. 42
Lochalsh 17, 147
Loch Duich 39
Loch Etive 19
Loch Leven 6, 151
Loch Lomond 3, 40. 132
Loch Long 20
Loch Maree 69
Loch Shiel 44
Logie Mar 13
Lolan, St. 135
Longf organ 1 03
Lua (Moluag), St. 97
Macceus (Mahew), St. 61
Machalus, St. 73
Machan, St. 141
Machar, St. 162
Machutus (Malo), St. 165
Madden (Medana), St. 71
.* Magnusmas "
Mahon (Machan), St. 141
Maiden Castle 104
Malachy, St. 157
Manire, St. 179
Man, Isle of 73
Margaret, St. 165
" Margaretmas " 168
Marianus Scotus, St. 102
Marnock (Marnan), St. 32
Marnock (Aberchirder) 32
Maree, St. 69
Mart horn, St. 135
Matilda, St. 61
Mauchline 5 1
Maura, St. 159
Maybole 51, 116
May, Isle of 35, 175
Mayota, St. 181
Medana, St. 103
Meikle Folia 150
Meldrum, Old 12
Melrose 1 1 2
Melrose,01d29,49, 126, 154
Menmuir 126. 134
Merchard, St. 120
Merolilanus, St. 82
Mid-Calder 6, 109
Middan, St. 74
Mid Genie 141
Midmar 48, 158
Milton of Glenesk 164
Mirin, St. 130
Mittan, St. 16
Mo Gaelic prefix 22, 32
Modan, St. 19
Modenna( Medana), St. 103
Molios (Laserian), St. 66
Moluag, St. 97
Monan, St. 34
Monifieth 129, 150
Monoch, St. 155
Mull, Isle of
Mund, St. 151
St. 3, 109
Mungo s Isle, St. 6
Murdoch, St. 128
Mury (Maelrubha), St.
Nathalan, St. 10
Nidan, St. 158
Nine Maidens, The 108
Ninian, St. 3, 132
Obert, St. 177
Oda, St. 172
Odhran (Adrian), St. 35
Qg Gaelic suffix 22, 32
Relics of (Contd.
Orkneys 56, 64, 96,
Paschal Controversy 26
Perth, St. William
Piran (Kieran), St.
Rochester, St. William
Rona, Isle of
88 Rosemarkie (Fortrose)
St. Marnock s
, , Monach s
Sanda, Isle of
Struan 1 8
Suibhne (Sweeney), St. 3
SuibhnelL, St. 96
Tain 39, 113
Talarican, St. 154
Taransay 94, 155
Tarbert 27, 88
Tarves 1 59
Ternan, St. 93
JSeil Isle of
Thenew (Thenog), St. 109
Serf St. 4, 99,
Tiree 79, 80, 92, 98
*Skye, Isleof 77, 98, 148,
Triduana, St. 142
Troqueer 1 30
Tullich 10 seq.
Turriff 134, 148
Urquhart 68, 69, 107
Vey (Baya), St. 159
Vigean (Fechin), St. 8
Voloc (Wallach), St. 12
Watten- Wester 61
Weem 51, no
St. Adamnan 138
Strathclyde 3, 103,
Carran 1 80
Wells of (Contd.)
Wells of (Contd.)
91 St. Molios 67
10 Moluag 99
84 Monan 34
42 Mungo 6
52 Mureach 160
165 Nathalan 12
66 Ninian 134
107 Palladius 105
40 Patrick 47
159 Ronan 22, 23
175 Serf ioo
170 Talarican 155
1 24 Ternan 94
, Fillan 18
95 Thenew 109
78 Triduana 144
14 Vigean 9
162 Voloc 13
, Kieran ("Jarg
120 Wynnin 54
The Nine Maidens 109
130 Welsh dedications in
74 Scotland 48
163 Westfield 107
65 Whitekirk 37
, Margaret 144,
69 Whiteness (Shetland) 56
1 68 Whithorn 133
33 Wick 51, 168, 170
181 Wigtown 134, 165
103 William of Perth, St. 84
122 Wynnin (Finian), St. 53
75 Tester 182
, Modan 19,
132 Yrchard (Merchard),
21 St. 120