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Full text of "A Catalogue of Earthquakes on the Pacific Coast, 1769-1897"

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AIJGirST 2, 1902.. 

• Profeeapr HilRards letter" foUowir:" 

July M. 1W2.— District Attorney Leslie* 
Los AlamoR— Dear Sir: Last nlgrht I could 
, not undertake to ejn^laln to you Just what 
* I think of the chances of furth«»r earth- 
quakes in your region ui this time. W njie 
no geologist coufdV render you any real 
assistance In such n case, and hence it 
would be of Utile use for any one from 
hero to visit your locality. It may In a 
measure alloy anxiety to glv? you the 
probable aspect of the caae from his point 

of view. 

Earthquakes outside of volcanic re- 
gions are now fully accepted as reaaju?t- 
ments of equilibrium In the earth's crust, 
^hlch we know to consist not of solid 
rock strata, but rather of a congerle.s of 
blocks bearing against each other some- 
what on the principle of the arch. but. im- 
pertrctiv. as the numerous "faults found 
eAcrvwhore, In mines and out of them, 
prove. Ordinarily the readjustments ren- 
dered necessary by the slow but sure con- 
traction of the onrrh as a whole take place 
Imi^erceptlbly. but once In a while such 
readjustment Is deferred too long, and the 
block or blocks-mUos liyj-xtejit-remaln 
. In a state of delicately balanced unstable 
enulUbrlum." which may be disturbed by 
very slight causes. Foraetlmes even by 
changes in the barometric pressure. Just 
as a shout may dislodge a dangerous ava- 
lanche hanging on the verge of sliding. 

It appears that for some days past 
there have been tretpors In your region— 
e^orts nt readjustment, but apparently 
not quite effective. So there cnme a severe 
shock arising, let us hope, from the fault- 
»';ocks sliding or dropping Into a perma- 
nent position, in which It Is likely to re- 
main pracelully for some time to come. 
"In mv examination of the aspnalt tic- 
*- Dt sits of Southern California in the sev-en- 
tles. I was struck with the great fre- 
ouencv of faults in the mlncB. which Is 
nr,tural enough, considering the ylelulng 
nature of asphalt nnd petroleum, and the 
oo»es of both constantly going on In the 
p. troleum regions. Among the bockslld- 
Ipfls and dislocations thus caui^cd ihe 
chances of something dropping down some 
time seem good, although when It happens 
ufiitlv and gradually we fall to notice it. 
""in shor?, 1 think the urobablllties are 
rhther that you are in for a protracted 
rr St from quakes rather than that after 
the heuvv shocK there will be heavier 
onis You may look for light t^n^^^^.^^V"; 
tl' vour block gets well settled, but I 
should not move out of your country for 
fear of further temblors. 

The Invo earthquake In the sixties c.ime 
after a long rest. Then suddenly a piece 
oi Nevada "could not stand it any longer 
and dropped some ten feet along a fault 
01 quite a hundred miles. Since then Inyo 

has been quiet. K-P-^',^);>'jl{>ilS^XRD. 



\aW 




Map of California and Ncvaoa. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 
1087 

A CATALOGUE OF EARTHQUAKES 

ON THE 

PACIFIC COAST 

1769 TO 1897 



EDWARD S. HOLDEN, LLD. 

Member o/lbt Nalioiral Academy of Sciences 




CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



550342 







CONTENTS. 



PAQK 

Introduction 1 

Bibliography of Works relating to Earthquake Phenomena on the 

Pacific Coast 8 

The Rossi-Forel Scale 7 

Table of the number of Earthquakes recorded in each year and each 

month In California, etc 11 

Table of the number of Earthquakes recorded in each year and each 

month in San Francisco' 13 

Table of the number of Earthquakes recorded in each year and each 

month in San Jos^, etc 15 

Earthquake shocks felt at sea 17 

8 elf* registering Seismometers of the Lick Observatory 17 

Use of the E wing Duplex Seismometer 21 

Improvements in the Ewing Seismographs suggested by experience, 

by C. D. Perrine 23 

Reported Volcanic Eruptions in Alaska, Puget Sound, etc., 1690 to 

18»6, by Frederick G. Plummer 24 

Conclusion 28 

Catai^oote of Earthquakes on the Pacific Coast, 1769-1897 81 



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2 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

The present volume reprints the pamphlet of 1887, with many 
corrections and additions; and it gives a complete account of the 
earthquake observations at Mount Hamilton during the years 1887 
to 1897, together with an abstract of the great amount of informa- 
tion which has been collected regarding Pacific Coast ear'\^uake8 
in the latter period. AU previously printed information has been 
thoroughly revised before its admission to th^ i(?es. 

The chief sources drawn upon are — '^^ ^--wiu 

First — ^Printed lists of earthquake shocks in the scientific jour- 
nals; such as the lists of Mallet, Perrey, Kockwood, Fuchs, Trask 
and others. 

Second — ^Accounts of earthquakes in printed books, magazines 
and newspapers. 

Third — Lists of shocks put at my dis{>osition by various gentle- 
men, especially a list by Mr. Thos. Tennent, of San Francisco; a 
list by Prof. H. G. Hanks; and a very extensive collection kindly 
furnished by Mr. H. H. Bancroft from manuscript records. 

Fourth — Verbal accounts from various friends of the Obser- 
vatory. 

Fifth — ^The earthquake records of the University of California 
(Berkeley); the Chabot Observatory (Oakland); the University of 
the Pacific (San Jos6); Mills Seminary (Oakland); the Weather 
Bureau (Carson, Nevada); and of the Lick Observatory (Moimt 
Hamilton). All these stations are supplied with earthquake 
instruments. 

I have to thank Professor Bockwood, of Princeton University, 
for putting me in the way of gaining much of the printed informa- 
tion. I have also to express my great obligations to the Board of 
Directors of the Mechanics' Institute Library, to the Council of the 
California Academy of Sciences, and to the Librarians of the 
Mechanics^ Institute, Mercantile and Academy of Science libra- 
ries in San Francisco, the University of California Library at 
Berkeley, and of the State Library at Sacramento, for exceptional 
facilities afforded me in the considtation of books. Mr. W. C. 
Winlock, late of the Smithsonian Institution, kindly consulted, 
in the Library of Congress, books which were not available in Cali- 
fornia. The various sources of information have been thoroughly 
examined, and the necessary data for a brief reference list, or index, 
have been extracted and set in order in the catalogue which follows. 



V 



EABTHQUAKSB OK THE PAOIFIC COAST 3 

The list of books and periodicals consulted is given in the fol- 
lowing: 

BlBUOGBAPHY OF WOBKS BeLATINO TO EaBTHQUAKE PhEKOMBKA 

ON THE PaOIFIO CoAST. 

Anderson (C. L.) : T)* Anderson, of Santa Cmz, has consulted the diaries of 
Mr. Sawin, of Cruz, and of Dr. C. A. Canfleld, who liTed 15 or 30 

miles nor", .c. i. San Benito, Monterey County, and has extracted many 
interesting records of earthquake shocks. (Referred to here as Ander- 
son* s MS.) 

Annual Statistician, San Francisco [to 1888 inclusiye]. 8to. (A. S.) 

Annals of San Francisco, by F. Soul^, etc. New York. 8yo. 

Bache (A. D.): Notice of Earthquake Waves, etc. U. S. C. S. Report, 1855, 
p. 842, and 1862, p. 238. 

Bancroft (H. H.): History of the Pacific States. 8yo. (H. H. B.) 

: MS. notes kindly communicated. (B. MS.) 

California State Weather Service : Annual Meteorological Reyiew, 1889, 1890. 
8yo. 

: Monthly Bulletin, 1891-96. 8vo. 

Detaille (C): Statistique des tremblements de terre. L^Astronomie, 1884-87. 

Friend (C. W.): Earthquakes in Nevada — in Beports of the Nevada State 
Weather SerTice for various years, and in private letters. (C. W. F.) 

Fuchs (C. W. C): Statistik der Erdbeben [1865*85]. Sitzungtber, d. Wiener ^ 
Akad. 1885, Bd. 92, Heft 8. 

Halley (Wm.) : Centennial Book of Alameda County, pp. 257-269. Oakland, 
1876. 8vo. Detailed account of the damage done by the shock of 1868, 
October 21, in Alameda County. 

Hanks (H. G.): Professor H. 6. Hanks, late State Mineralogist, has been kind 
enough to put all his manuscript and other material at my disposition. 
It is here referred to as (H. MS.). 

Hittell (T. H.): History of California. San Francisco. 8vo. (T. H. H.) / 

Holden (E. 8.): Note on Earthquake Intensity in San Francisco. Amer. Jonr, 
8ei., vol. 85, June 1888, p. 427. 

Holden (£. 8.): Earthquakes in California, 1888. Ibid., vol. 87, May 1889, p. 892. 

Holden (E. S.): Earthquakes in California and elsewhere. Overland Monthly , ^ 
January, 1889. 

Holden (E. S.): Earthquake Observations [in Callfomia]. PubliecUione AHro* J 
nomieal Society of the Pacific, vol. II (1890), p. 73. 

Holden (E. S.): Earthquakes in California in 1890 and 1891. Washington, 
1892. 8vo. 31 pp. [United States. Department of the Interior. (U. S, 
Oeological Survey.) Bulletin 95.] 

Holden (E. S.): Earthquake Shocks felt at Sea off Cape Mendocino. Pubii- 
eationa Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. VII (1895), p. 181. 



/ 



4 EABTHQtTAKES OK THE PACIFIC COAST 

.Hopkins (R. C.) : In Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office 
for 1871, p. 218. [He has examined the Spanish Archives from 1767 for- 
ward, and is of the opinion that the shocks of 1809, 1812, and of October 
1868, were of about the same severity.] 

Reeler (J. £.): List of Earthquakes in California during the year 1889. PubH- 
catioM Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. II (1890), p. 74. 

Keeler (J. E.): List of Earthquakes in California during the year 1890. Ibid., 
vol. Ill (1891), p. 247. 

Keeler (J. E.): Earthquakes in California in 1889. Washington, 1890. 8vo. 
25 pp. [United States. Department of the Interior. (U. S. Geological 
Survey.) Bulletin 68.] 

Mallet (R.) : Catalogue of recorded Earthquakes from 1606 B. C. to A. D. 
1850, by Robert Mallet, C. £., M. R. I. A.« in the Beport of the British 
Association, 1854. (R. M.) 

Mendenhall (T. C.) : On the Intensity of Earthquakes. Proc. Amer. Ass. Adv. 
Sci. , 1 888. 

Milne (J.) : Earthquakes and other Earth Movements. New York, 1886. 8vo. 

Mining and Scientific Press : for the years 1864-72. Weekly newspaper. San 
Francisco. 4to. 

Nature : Vols. 1-54 (1869-96). London. 8vo. 

Oregon State Weather Service : Reports. [An incomplete set only is available.] 

Perrey (A.) : Note sur les tremblements de terre. Bull, de VAcad. B. de Bel- 
gique, 1845; tome 13, p. 284. 1849; tome 17, p. 216. 1850; tome 18, 
p. 291. 1851; tome 19, part 1, p. 353. 1852; tome 20, p. 89. 1858; 
tome 21, p. 457. 1854 ; tome 22, part 2, p. 526. 1855 ; tome 23, p. 23. 

Perrey (A.): Note sur les tremblements de terre. Bruxelles, Mhnoires Couron- 
nies, 1856; tome 8 (1859). 1857; tome 10 (1860). 1858; tome 12 (1861). 
1859; tome IS (1862). 1860; tome 14 (1862). 1861; tome 16 (1864). 
1862; tome 16 (1864). 1863; tome 17 (1865). 1864; tome 18 (1866). 
1865; tome 19 (1867). 1866-67; tome 21 (1870). 1868; tome 22 (1872). 
1869; tome 22 (1872). Suppl6ment; tome 28 (1878). 

Perrey (A.) : Sur les tremblements de terre auz Etats-Unis et au Canada. Ann. 
de la Soc. d^ Emulation des Vosges, tome 7, 2e cahier, 1850. [I have not seen 
this work, as it is not in any library in California and not in the Librar}- 
of Congress.] 

Perrey (A.) : Notes sur les tremblements de terre en . . . 1850 ; Mhn, 
de VAcad. de Dijon, Ann6e 1851. 1851; Ibid., 1852-53. 1853; Ibid., 
1854. Les tremblements de terre, etc., de la Cote N. O. d^Am^rique. 
Ibid., 1865. [Note : It is likely that many of the <* eruptions ** of Oregon 
and California mountains, which are noted by Perrey, were due to forest 
fires, fog, cloud, etc. — E. S.- H.] 

Perrine (C. D.) : List of Earthquakes in California for the years 1891-2. Pub- 
licatiotis of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. V (1893), p. 127. 

Perrine (C. D.): Same for 1893, ibid., vol. VI (1894), p. 41. 




EABTHQUAKfiS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 5 

Perrine (C. D.); Same for 1894, ibid., vol. VII (1896), p. 99. 

Perrine (C. D.): Same for 1895, Ufid., vol. VIII (1896), p. 322. 

Perrine (C. D.): Same for 1896, ibid., vol. IX (1897), p. 37. 

Perrine (C. D.): Earthquakes in California in 1892. Washington, 1893. 8vo 
57 pp. [United States. Vepartmefit of the Interior. ( U. 8. Geological Sur- 
vey.) Bulletin 112.] 

Perrine (C. D.): Same for 1893, ibid., Bulletin No. 114. 

Perrine (C. D.): Same for 1894, ibid., Bulletin No. 129. 

Perrine (C. D.); Same for 1895, ibid.. Bulletin No. 147. 

Perrine (C. D.): Same for 1896, ibid.. Bulletin No. ?. (MS. at Lick Obsy.) 

Plummer (F. 6.): Reported Earthquakes on the Pacific Coast. Publicatioiu 
Astronomical Society of the Pac^flc, vol. VIII (1896), p. 78. (P.) 

Plummer (F. G.) : Reported Volcanic Eruptions. Ibid., vol. VIII (1896), p. 176. 
[I have not entered these in the Catalogue, but have reprinted the list in 
this Introduction.— E. S. H.] 

Rockwood (C. G.): Notes on American Earthquakes, by Professor C. 6. 
Rockwood, Jr., Ph. D., Princeton, N. J. (C. G. R.) From the American 
Journal of Science, 3rd series, vols. 1872-87. {See Whitney.) 

Rowlandson (Thos.) : A Treatise on Earthquake Dangers, Causes and Pallia- 
tives. San Francisco, 1868. 8vo. (Referred to as Rowlandson.) 

San Francisco (Chamber of Commerce) : Report of Sub-Committee on Earth- 
quake Topics, pp. 14-15 of Report of C. of C. for 1870. San Francisco, 
1870. 8vo. [A maniMcript report is there referred to, which I have not 
been able to see.] 

San Francisco Directory: (** Chronological History 'Mn each vol.), 1859-87. 
8vo. Referred to as (S. F. D.) 

Shaler (N. S.) : On California Earthquakes (1850-66), in the Atlantic Monthly, 
vol. 25. Boston, 1870. [This paper contains no original data, but is 
compiled from the lists of Dr. Trask.] 

Shaler (N. S.): The Stability of the Earth; Scribner'e Magazine, vol. I, p. 276 
(1887). 

Simpson (Sir George) : Narrative of a journey round the world during 1841 
and 1842. Two vols. London, 1847. (See vol. I, p. 344.) 

8onl6 (F.) : Earthquakes recorded at the Students' Observatory of the Univer- 
sity of California, Berkeley, 1887-97. [MS. kindly furnished by Professor 
Soul4.] 

Stillman (J. D. B.) : Concerning the late Earthquake (1868) ; Overland Monthly, 
November, 1868. 

Tennent (T.) : List of Earthquakes in San Francisco, 1851-87 and 1888-98, 
from manuscripts kindly furnished by Mr. Tennent. Many of these are 
also printed in the Annual Statistician, q. v. (T. T.) Mr. Tennent's 
accurate observations extend over a period of forty-two years. 

Trask (J. B.) : A Register of Earthquakes in California from 1800 to 1863. 
[Reprinted from Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., S. F.] San Francisco, 1864. 8vo. 



V 






6 BABTHQUAKEB ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Trask (J. B.) : Earthquakes in California from 1812 to 1855 [Proceedings of 
the Cal^omia Academy of Natural Sciences], by Dr. John B. Trask. Vol. I 
(1854-57). Vol. Ill (1868-67). Vol. IV, part 1. (J. B. T.) 

Trask (J. B.) : Direction and Telocity of the earthquake in California of the 
xX ^*^ ^^^ ®^^ January, 1857. Amer. Jour. Sci., Jan. 1868, vol. 25, p. 146. 

Veatch (J. A.) : In Mining and Scientific Press, 1868, March 81, has an article on 
Earthquakes in San Francisco, and specially on their direction. 

Washington (United States Light House Board) : Annual Reports. 

: MS. Reports from lighthouse keepers, kindly communicated by the 

Secretary of the Board. 

Washington (United States Qeological Survey) : MS. reports kindly communi- 
cated by the Director of the Survey. 

Washington (United States Signal Service); Monthly Weather Review. (U. S. 
W. R.) 

: (United States Weather Bureau); ibid. (U. 8. W. R.) 

Whitney (J. D.) : On the Earthquake of 1872, March 26. There is a r6sum^ of 
Professor Whitney's article (Overland Monthly, vol. 9), by Professor Rock, 
wood, in Amer. Jour. Set., vol. VI, 1872. 

From the above sources of information the following catalogue 
has been derived. 

For each shock there is given, when possible, first, the year, 
month and day; second, the hour, minute and second. The time 
is here given exactly as it is found in the original. Usually it is 
expressed in local civil time. In Dr. Trask^s list it is intended to 
be astronomical time (Oh. is noon, and 12h. midnight), though 
there are probably several errors in this datum. For the later lists 
it is usually Pacific standard (railway) time.* In Mr. Tennent's 
observations it is San Francisco local mean time to and including 
March 26, 1884, and after that date Pacific standard time. Pro- 
fessor Bockwood's plan to avoid the danger of confounding A. M. 
and P. M. dates, is to adopt the system of numbering the hours in 
the civil day from to 24 (Oh. is midnight, 12h. is noon). I have 
not brought the hours to a single uniform standard, in order to 
avoid introducing mistakes in copying, and especially because very 
few of the times are really accurate. Mr. Tennent's list is without 
doubt quite the best in this regard. Since January 1, 1887, all the 
stations of the Southern Pacific Kailroad, and since August, 1887, 
those of the Atlantic and Pacific Eailway, receive a noon signal 
(Pacific standard time) from the Lick Observatory or from the 

*i. e. Greenwich time minus 8 hours. 




BABTHQUAKES OK THE PACIFIO COAST 7 

TT. S. Nayal ObBervatory at Mare Island^ and since this date, there- 
fore, there is more likelihood that the times in this catalogue are 
accurate. Thirds the place or places where the shock has been 
felt. Here the abbreviation "S. F." stands for San Francisco. 
When necessary the name of the county is added for convenience. 
Fourthy the intensity of the shock, expressed either in common 
language or in terms of some arbitrary scale. Professor Bockwood, 
in indicating the intensity, has used the adjectives: 1, very light; 
2, light; 3, moderate; 4, strong; 5, severe; 6, destructive; but has 
added a Soman numeral to indicate the intensity, accordijig to 
the Bossi-Forel scale, adopted by Swiss and Italian seismologists. 
In Professor Bockwood's papers, very light is II or III; light, IV; 
moderate, V or VI; strong, VI or VII; severe, VIII; destructive, 
IX or X. 

Fifth — ^A brief reference to the source of information, so that 
in nearly all cases the original record can be consulted, if desired. 
Exceptionally heavy shocks, such as those of 1865, 1868 and 1872, 
are treated with much more fullness than the lighter ones. 

I strongly recommend the use of the Bossi-Forel scale, on accoimt 
of the definiteness of the classification and because of the compara- 
tive regularity of the gradations. In order to make it better known 
in California, I reprint it here: 

Thb Bossi-Fobel Scale.* 

I. 

Microseismic shock — ^recorded by a single seismograph, or by 
seismographs of the same model, but not putting seismographs of 
different patterns in motion; reported by experienced observers 
only. 

* First proposed by Rossi in Archive* den Set. Phya. et Nat., IV, p. 871 (1880), 
and quite independently by Forel, ibid., VI, p. 461. After comparing hun- 
dreds of published accounts of California earthquakes, I ha^e found that the 
words here printed in italies (which form no part of the Rossl.Forel scale as 
proposed by its authors) are frequently employed by California observers. 
They are here printed for convenience. When any one Is describing the effect 
of a shock he should employ the numerals I, II, III, etc., of the Rossi-Forel 
scale. When, on the other hand, one is reading an account of a California 
earthquake and seeking to assign the proper R.-F. numeral, it will be found 
that the words here set down in Italics are of service. 



8 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

II. 

Shock recorded by several seismographs of different patterns; 
reported by a small number of persons who are at rest. A very 
light shock. 

III. 

Shock reported by a number of persons at rest; duration or direc- 
tion noted. A shock; a light shock. 

IV. 

Shock reported by persons in motion; shaking of movable objects, 
doors and windows, cracking of ceilings. Moderate; sometimes 
strong: sharp; light. 

V. 

Shock felt generally by every one; furniture shaken, some bells 
rung, some flocks stop. Smart; strong; heavy; severe; sharp; quite 
violent; some sleepers waked. 

VI. 

General awakening of sleepers; general ringing of bells; swinging 
of chandeliers; stopping of clocks; visible swaying of trees; some 
persons run out of buildings; window-glass broken. Severe; very 
severe; violent. 

VII. 

• • 

Overturning of loose objects; fall of plaster; striking of church 
bells; general fright, without damage to buildings; nausea. Vio- 
lent; very violent. 

VIII. 

Fall of chimneys; cracks in the walls of buildings. 

IX. 

Partial or total destruction of some buildings. 

X. 

Great disasters; overturning of rocks; fissures in the surface of 
the earth; mountain slides. 

The Lick Observatory will be glad to receive corrections or addi- 
tions to the list of shocks catalogued. 



BABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 9 

The information can be very conveniently given by answering the 
following questions^ which are copied from a circular prepared by 
Captain C. E. Dutton, U. S. A., for the TJ. S. Geological Survey: 
"1. Post OflSce address; town, coimty, and State. 

2. Place and date of observation. 

3. Name and address of the observer, if other than the writer. 

4. Position and occupation of observer at time of the shock, 
and character of the groimd. State whether observer was in the 
house or out of doors; what kind of a house (wooden or stone); up 
staii-s or down; what doing at the time; whether the ground at sur- 
face was rock, clay, sand, or loam; about how far down to solid 
rock. 

Note. — ^If the shock was not felt in your neighborhood, although 
noticed at places not very far distant, do not fail to answer these 
first four questions, as negative reports are of great interest in 
defining the limits of the disturbed area, etc. State also the near- 
est point to your station where the shock was felt. 

5. State as exactly as possible the time of commencement and the 
duration of each shock. 

The exact time of the beginning of a shock (to the nearest 
second), one of the most important of all observations, is difficult 
to get correctly, because of the great velocity with which the wave 
travels (about three miles a second), and because the watch or 
clock must be immediately compared with a clock known to be 
keeping standard time. If several hours have elapsed before the 
'comparison is made, another comparison should be made an hour 
later, in order to find whether your timepiece is gaining or losing, 
and how much. Unless it is stated that this has been done, the 
observation cannot be regarded as a good one till confirmed by other 
reports. Telegraph operators, railroad officials, watchmakers, etc., 
have especially good opportunities for answering this question cor- 
rectly, and their cooperation is most earnestly solicited. 

6. Oive any facts that you can as to sounds accompanying shocks 
and as to the direction in which the earthquake wave seemed to 
travel. 

If any sound, other than the mere creaking of woodwork, etc., 
accompanied the shock, state as fully and accurately as possible 
whether it preceded, accompanied, or followed the shock, and what 
interval there was, if any; also what the soimd was like. Describe 



10 EABTHQUAKBB ON THE PAOIFIO COAST 

the character of the shocks whether a tremor or an undulatory 
motion, etc., and whether you yourself or others had any clear im- 
pression as to the direction in which it was moving, the facts 
upon which this impression was based, and whether people agreed 
as to the direction. 

7. Which number on the Rossi-Forel scale of earthquake inten- 
sity best expresses the intensity of the shock in your vicinity? 

8. Give, also, any further particulars of interest, whether they are 
from observation or from hearsay. 

If a chandelier was noticed to swing, describe it, and state the 
direction and amount of swing. If pictures swung, state direction 
of wall, and whether pictures on other walls at right angles to the 
first were also put in motion. If doors were closed or opened by 
the shock, state the direction of the wall in which they are set. 
If a clock was stopped, give the exact time it indicated (and any- 
thing known, as how fast or how slow it was), its position, the 
direction in which it was facing, and the length of the pendulum. 
If any changes occurred in the ground, such as depressions or ele- 
vations of the surface, fissures, emissions of sand or water, describe 
them fully. Mention any unusual condition of the atmosphere; 
any strange effects on animals (it is often said that they will feel 
the first tremors of a shock before people notice it at all); char- 
acter of damage to buildings, general direction in which walls, 
chimneys, etc, were overthrown. Springs, wells, and rivers are 
often noticeably affected even by slight shocks, and any informa- 
tion in regard to such changes will be valuable. 

9. Name of the writer. 

Note. — ^In replying to these questions, they need not be re- 
peated; but the answers should be numbered to correspond to the 
questions.*' 

The lists which follow give recorded earthquakes in their chrono- 
logical order. It is desirable to arrange the statistics in various 
ways — by years, by months, by seasons, etc. — ^in order to exhibit 
any periodicity there may possibly be in the phenomena. It is a 
favorite hypo'thesis that shocks follow in cycles; and this is true 
of some regions, apparently. 

The tables A, B, C were prepared for the first edition of this 
book, and are here reprinted without change. The addition of the 
data since 1887 would not alter the conclusions to be derived from 
them. 



EAKTHQUAKES ON THB PACIFIC COAST 



11 



Tables of the Numbbb of Eabthquakes which asb Bboobded 
IN bach Month op bach of the Ybabs 1850-1887, in Cali- 
FOBNiA^ Washington and Obeoon. 

In the three following tables I have counted the days in each 
month of each year on which shocks (supposed to be different) have 
occurred. For example, a shock felt at a given hour at San Fran- 
cisco and at Oakland is counted as one; but shocks at different 
places, as San Diego and San Francisco, on the same day, are 
counted separately when they are not known to be parts of the 
same phenomenon.. 

Tablb (A) OF THB Number of Earthquakes whioh abb Rbcordbd ik 
California, Obboon, btc, in thb Tbars 1S50-1887. 



Ybab. 


• 

3 

o 

8 
15 

22 
22 
14 
25 
81 
10 
19 
20 
11 
19 
17 
22 
42 
24 

6 
54 
31 
19 
19 
41 
15 
10 
17 

7 
16 
17 

8 
26 
28 
26 
28 
27 
89 
12 

768 


• 

p 

S 

1 


• 

01 


hi 

.o 
1 


• 

1 
1 


■ 

■c 

< 

■ ■ • • 

1 
1 

2 
8 

1 

1 
1 


• 

1 
8 


• 

a 



*^ 

1 
1 




• • • • 


■ 

OB 

tti 



2 


o 

Xi 

a 
s 

9 
OQ 

1 


o 
o 

o 

• • • « 


Xi 

a 

► 
o 

■ ■ • 

4 
8 

4 
1 

• • • « 

1 
6 

1 
2 
2 

■ • • • 

• « • • 

• ■ • • 

• ■ • • 

2 

1 
1 
8 

• • ■ « 


December. 


1850 




1851 


5 


1852 














2 


1858 


4 
2 
2 
5 
6 

• • • • 

1 
2 
2 

1 
4 

• • • • 

8 
1 

1 


2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

• • ■ « 

1 

• ■ ■ • 

• • • • 

2 

1 
2 
8 
1 


1 

2 

• • • ■ 

8 
8 


• • « • 

4 

■ • • • 

8 
8 


1 

1 
2 


1 

2 
2 


■ • • • 

1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
5 


1 
1 

• • • • 

5 
2 
5 

4 
3 


8 
8 
2 
2 
2 

• • • 

1 
• • • « 
1 
1 
1 
8 
16 

• • • • 

• • • • 

10 
5 


8 


1864 


1 


1855 


2 


1866 


2 


1857 


1 


1 


8 


1858 




1859 


1 
8 
2 

1 


1 
5 
2 

« « ■ • 








4 


1860 


2 

« • • • 

5 


1 
1 
8 
2 
2 
1 
8 




1 


1861 


2 

1 
4 

4 

• • • • 

1 




1 


1862 


• • ■ • 

1 
2 
2 
2 


1 

• ■ ■ ■ 

8 
8 

1 

1 

26 

4 

1 
2 
2 

• • • « 


1 


1863 


8 


1864 


4 
6 

4 

■ ■ • • 

1 
1 
2 
2 
7 
1 
2 


« • • « 

4 

• « • ■ 

1 

• • • • 

2 
6 
1 

15 
8 

■ • • ■ 


2 
1 
8 


1 


1865 


2 


1866 


5 


1867 


1 


1868 


6 
2 
8 
1 
2 
1 
1 


2 
4 


1 
2 


8 

• ■ • « 

2 
2 

1 
1 
2 

1 

1 
3 

• • • • 

2 
2 

1 
4 
2 
8 

• • • « 

■ ■ • 

58 


2 


1869 


4 
2 

• • ■ • 

• • ■ • 

• ■ • a 

2 

1 
1 
2 

• • • • 
« • • • 

1 
7 
1 
2 
4 
5 
1 

68 


2 
8 

1 
8 
2 

« • • « 

1 

• ■ • • 

1 
1 
2 

• • • ■ 

8 

1 
1 

■ • ■ ■ 

5 


5 


1870 




1871 


2 

1 

1 
1 
8 


5 

• ■ • • 

1 

• • • ■ 
« • • • 


2 
5 
2 


« • • « 

2 
2 


1 


1872 


8 


1873 


1 


1874 


2 


1875 


• • ■ ■ 

■ • • • 

8 
8 

■ • • • 

1 
1 
1 
4 
8 
2 
1 

85 


1 
2 
1 
2 

1 

• • • • 

2 
5 
7 
3 
8 
2 

88 


5 

• • • ■ 

1 

1 

■ • • • 

5 
3 

1 
1 
8 

1 
1 

57 


5 


1876 


1 


• • • • 


1 
2 
2 
2 
1 

• • ■ • 

1 


1 


1877 


1 
1 


2 
2 




1878 


2 


1 


2 


1879 


1 


1880 


2 
1 
5 
8 

2 
2 


8 
2 
2 
1 
5 
7 


1 
' 1 

1 


• « • ■ 

2 
8 
2 

1 
4 
2 

45 


10 


1881 




1882 


1 


1888 


5 


1884 


• ■ • ■ 

1 
8 

56 


8 
8 

1 

51 




1885. 


6 


1886 


1 


Sums 


45 


66 


71 


88 



12 EABTHQUAKES ON THB PAOIFIO OOABT 

As many of the earthquakes of California are very local phe- 
nomena, which depend upon local causes for their production, we 
cannot expect to obtain very definite laws from a table like this 
which covers the whole of such a vast territory. Moreover, the 
facilities for gathering information in the thinly settled portions 
of the State were imperfect in the earlier years, and even now 
shocks are not carefully recorded at more than two or three places 
in the State. For these and other reasons this table can only give 
approximate results. It does not include every single earthquake 
set down in the catalogue, since it was compiled before the list 
was entirely finished. It, however, contains nearly all. It is suf- 
ficiently full for its purpose, which is simply to show the relative 
frequency of shocks in the various months. This is for: 

Jannary 68 

Febraary 45 | ^^g ^^^^ Vernal Equinox (1850-1887). 

l"il :::::::??i (Ramy 8ea8on\) 

J^Y 51 [ 152, near Summer Solstice (1850-1887). 

July!.'.'.'.*.' ; ; .* .'45 ) (^^ Season.) 

SeXmbeV.V.:^ [226, near Autumnal Equinox (1850-1887). 
October 88) (Dry Season.) 

Sec^'mbeT/.'.'.ls i^^«> '^^^ Winter Solstice (1850^1887). 
January 68) (Rainy Season.) 

Bainy season^ 390; dry season^ 378. Thtis for Califomiay Or^ 
gon and Washington at large, shocks are about equally probable in 
the wet and in the dry season. Table A includes the data derived 
from observations at San Francisco. If we form a similar table 
which includes all the data for California, Oregon, etc., excluding 
San Francisco, the result will be, for: 

January 48 

nM^ -V Af\{ 11^1 iiear Vernal Equinox. 

Marcn 40 > /t> * « v 

April 56 I (RaJny Season.) 

^^^- l^l 105, near Snmmer Solstice. 

jSr;.:::::::::82 (oryseason.) 



00 

1-1 

00 



00 
00 



00 



qJI^^kV- ha I 159, near Autumnal Equinox. 
0?tol,:'.".:::58f (Dry8ea.o..) 

J?""™*'*"'- ■•ill 181, near Winter Solstice. 
?anT^".::::48[ ' (Ramy season.) 

Eainy season, 250; dry season, 264. (See the last column of 
Table B.) 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIPIC COAST 



13 



Table (B) of ths Number of Earthquakes which have been Recorded 
IN EACH Month of Each of the Tears 1850-1887 in San Francisco. 



Year. 


• 

3 

o 
H 

5 
10 
1 
5 
8 
8 

10 

17 

7 

8 

9 

4 

2 

8 

16 

28 

9 

2 

14 

10 

8 

2 

5 

4 

6 

8 

2 

2 

4 

1 

4 

5 

9 

6 

5 

5 

7 

254 


* 

E? 

OS 
9 


01 

*^ 
1 


• 

e 

« 
fa 

1 


• 

2 

cS 


• 


m 

1 

2 


• 

a 



*^ 

1 
1 


• 



• 

OD 


bo 


< 


* 
• 

a 

OQ 

1 


s 


■ 

Xi 

a 

► 
o 

525 


• 

« 

a 

9 
O 

« 


Total in 
California 
except S. F. 


1850. . . 


3 


1851. . . 












4 

1 
2 


3 

• • • • 

1 


5 


ia52. . . 


















5 


1853... 


1 

1 


• • • • 

1 


1 
1 
















17 


1854. 


2 


1 










2 

1 
1 
2 

• • • • 

1 

• • • • 


14 


1855. . . 






1 
1 

• • • • 

2 
1 


2 
3 
2 

2 


• • • • 


1 


11 


1856. . 


4 

1 

• • • • 


1 
1 
1 


2 
2 


■ • • • 


1 






15 


1857. . . 




1 


5 
1 
2 
1^ 


8 

■ * • • 

2 
1 


14 


1858. . . 








3 


1859. . . 




• • %• 








11 


1860. . 


1 1 


■ • • ■ 

1 


2 
1 


1 

• • • ■ 






11 


1861. . . 


1 


1 




7 


1862. . . 


1 




1 






1 
8 
1 

1 
1 


17 


1863. . 


1 

• • • ■ 

1 

1 
1 










1 
2 


2 
3 


1 

« • • ■ 

1 






9 


1865. . . 


1 

2 
2 


3 


• •• • • 

8 

■ • • • 


2 

1 
1 


8 


1 
9 


■ • • • 

1 


6 
19 


1866. . . 


1 


1 


15 


1867. . . 




1 






4 


1868. . 




• • ■ ■ 

• ■ ■ • 

• • • • 


« ■ ■ • 

1 


1 
2 


• . . • 
8 


1 




7 


3 


1 


40 


1869. . . 


2 

1 

• • • • 


2 
3 

1 






21 


1870. . . 














11 


1871. 


1 


















17 


1872.. . 








1 




3 






86 


1873. . . 


• • • • 

2 

• • • • 

1 


2 

• « • • 

1 


1 

• • • • 








1 

• 


1 


11 


1874. . . 


1 


1 
3 










4 


1875. 








1 

1 


8 


9 


18T6. . . 














5 


1877. . . 








1 






1 








14 


1878... 


• • • • 

• ■ ■ • 


1 

1 










2 


• • • • 


1 




13 


1879... 














7 


1880... 




1 


1 


1 










1 
2 




22 


1881. 


1 
• • • • 
1 
1 
2 
1 

25 










1 
8 


1 


18 


1882. 




1 
1 
2 


1 
1 
1 


■ • • • 


1 


2 


1 


17 


1888. . . 


3 






22 


1884... 






1 


1 . . . . 








22 


1885. . . 










1 

1 

85 


1 
1 

80 


1 
1 

22 


34 


1886. . . 








1 
17 


1 
17 


1 
18 






5 




22 


26 


15 


11 


21 




Sums. 


514 



14 EABTHQUAKES ON THB PAOIPIO COAST 

The number of shocks recorded at San Francisco in the sepa- 
rate months (1850-1887) are: 






GO 



January 25 

April 16) (RaJny Season.) 

,_ ' ■ , - I 47, near Snmmer Solstice. 

j:r;.:::::::::}8} (Dryseason.) 

October 86) (Dry Season.) 

NoTember. • -SO 1 „ „^^ ^,„j^^ SolsUce. 



December 88 , ,d..„_ o«..«.. \ 

. January 86 ) (*""' Season.) 

Bainy season^ 140; dry season^ 114. Shades in San Francisca 
art considerably more frequent in the rainy seaman than in the dry^ 
contrary to the rule for the State at large^ The average number of 
shocks per month is ff* January, March, October and November 
have decidedly more shocks than the average; April, July and August 
have decidedly fewer than the average. 

A comparison of the monthly totals for San Francisco and for 
California (excluding San Francisco) seems to indicate that the* 
causes of most San Francisco earthquakes are local and not gen- 
eral in their nature. Th^ records from which this table has been 
derived are so full that considerable weight must be allowed ta 
the conclusions drawn from it. 

As San Jos6 is situated near to Mount Hamilton^ where accurate 
earthquake observations will be carried on for many years to come, 
it is desirable to examine the earthquake records for San Josi and 
Santa Clara as carefully as may be. • 



BABTHQUAKE8 ON THB PAOIPIO COAST 



15 



Table (C) of the Number of Earthquakes which are Recorded in each 
Month of the Years 1850-1887, in San Josi^ and Santa Clara. 



Tear. 


• 

o 
H 

3 


2 


1 
4 
3 
4 



3 
5 
4 
9 

1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
8 
1 
2 
2 

1 

2 
1 


1 
2 


61 


• 

01 


a 

OS 
•-9 


• 

E 


• 

o 

1 


• 

p. 

< 


• 

1 


• 




•-9 


• 






B 
S 

9 
1 


• 

« 

s 

O 


« 

B 

9 

> 
O 


• 

s 

a 

« 


o 

o OQ 
OQ 


1850 


5 


1851 


















10 


1852 


























1 


1858 






















2 




5 


1854 






















8 


1855 


























8 


1856 


1 
























10 


1857 
















1 


1 
1 


.... 


17 


1858 














2 


7 


1859 








1 








2 


8 


I860 




















9 


1861 


























4 


1862 


























2 


1868 














2 

1 










1 

1 


8 


1864 


.... 1 












1 






16 


1865 








4 




28 


1866 




1 
















1 




9 


1867 








.... 










2 


1868 




















1 






14 


1869 




1 
1 

1 


1 


1 
















10 


1870 












, 


8 


1871 






















2 


1872 


1 




















5 


1873 




1 










1 
1 










4 


1874 


















6 


1875.. .. 


















1 
1 


1 




8 


1876 


1 


















2 


1877 






















2 


1878 




















1 






4 


1879 
























1 


1880. 










1 












1 
1 




4 


1881 




















5 


1882 






















9 


1888 


























6 


1884 






1 




















5 


18*5 












1 










1 


5 


1886 




















•• . 


7 




2 


7 


5 


8 


2 


1 


4 


4 


4 


9 


8 


5 




Sums. 


254 



The data for San Jos6 and Santa Clara are far less full than for 
San Francisco. Probably an equal number of shocks has occurred 
at each place^ but the records of San Francisco (which are well 
kept) show about four times as many shocks as are shown by the 
San Jos6 records (which have not been carefully kept). 



OO 



16 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

The distribution of shocks in the various months is as follows^ 
for: 

January 2 

March ^ 5 v ^^» ^^^^ *^® Vernal Equinox. 

April .*.* *.;.'.';; 3 i (^**°y season.) 

J *^ ' 1 (. ^' '*®*^ ^^® Summer Solstice. 

July.;!;;;;;;;4) (Dry season.) 

aJIS-LkV- ^ r 17, near the Autumnal Equinox. 

OcC:;;::U (Dry8ea.on.) 

November. .. .8 J IK ., -nri a. « , xi 

December ... .5 I ^^^ ^^V^« ^ ' ^? ^^''^' 
January 2 J (Rainy Season.) 

Bainy season^ 30; dry season^ 24. Like San Francisco, and 
unlike California at large, San Jose seems to have more shocks in 
the rainy season. 

The average number of shocks per month is 4^ divided by 37. 

February, October and November have decidedly more shocks 
than the average; January, May and June have decicl».dly fewer 
than the average. July and August have (unlike San ^ncisco) 
the average number of shocks. If the data are sufficient to draw 
any conclusion from (which very probably they are not), this would 
show that the shocks at San Jos6 are local, and that they are, in 
general, not dependent upon the same cause as those of San Fran- 
cisco. 

Similar tables can be formed for the places where the cata- 
logue shows shocks to be relatively frequent, as Humboldt, Los 
Angeles, Oakland, San Diego, Monterey, Santa Cruz, Sacramento, 
etc., and, so far as the data are sufficient, the same result will be 
indicated, namely, that the light earthquakes common in California 
are usually rather local than general and widespread phenomena. 
A curious example of this is the exemption of Santa Barbara from 
shocks in the years 1860-1872. Before 1860 and after 1872 Santa 
Barbara was subject to shocks, precisely as other places in the 
same region, while between these years no shock is recorded. 
There is no reason to believe that the records were not equally well 
kept during the whole period. 

The immediate and practical conclusion to be drawn from the 
above tables is that in any future study of California earthquakes 
we ought to select special regions for examination, as the Valleys of 



EarthquBkas on Pacific Coast.- H olden. 




Map of Washington and Oregon. 



BABTHQUAKBS ON THB PACIFIC COAST 17 

Santa Clara^ Napa, San Joaquin^ Salinaa^ Amador^ Clear Lake, 
Pitt BiTer^ etc.^ rather than to attempt wider ranges. It may thus 
be possible to fix the origin of the local shocks, and finally to be 
reasonably certain of its permanency. It also appears to me that 
the data seem to indicate that the greater number of California 
earthquakes have been the result of faulting in the underlying 
strata rather than due to volcanic causes directly. 

Earthquake Shocks felt at Sea off Cape Menbooino, etc. 

^ The list of recorded earthquakes contains notices of several 
shocks reported in this general neighborhood, as follows: 1868, 
May 18; 1870, December 4; 1873, November 22; 1876, August 16; 
1877, October 26; 1884, June 12; 1884, November 4; 1896, March 
1, October 24. 

A relief map of the ocean bed near Cape Mendocino, made by 
Professor Oeorge Davidson and Mr. Winston, shows the coast to be 
very " steep-to *'; and it further shows two submarine mountains 
in the neighborhood. The slipping of the earth at the junction of 
the steep submarine cliff with the (comparatively) flat ocean floor, 
may very well be the cause of some of these disturbances. It is 
also possible, on the other hand, that they are connected with the 
two submarine elevations mentioned. More observations are 
needed to decide this question. It is a little remarkable that we 
have reports of shocks felt at sea in this vicinity and none, or few, 
at other points along the coast. (See Plate V, page 31.) 

Self-Beoistebino Seismometebs. 

The Lick Observatory possesses a set of earthquake recorders 
made from the designs of Professor J. A. Ewing of Cambridge. The 
following description of them is extracted from Prof essor Ewing's 
note in Nature of August 12, 1886. A similar set is installed in 
the Students' Observatory of the University of California at 
Berkeley. (See Plates III and IV, pages 18 and 20.) 

(1) A Horizontal Seismograph, with clock and driving plate. 
The clock is started by an electric contact at the beginning of the 
earthquake, and the two rectangular components of the horizontal 
motion (N and S, and E and W) are registered side by side on a 
rotating plate. 

(2) A Vertical Motion Seismograph, to register the vertical 
movement of the surface of the earth on the same plate. 

2 



18 BARTHQUAKSS ON THE PAGIFIO COAST 

(3) A Duplex Pendulum Seismograph^ to give independent rec- 
ords of the horizontal motion on a fixed plate^ the pencil being free 
to move in all azimuths. 

(4) A Chronograph attachment^ which is set in motion at the 
beginning of a shocks and records the time of its occurrence. It 
also marks the clock seconds upon the revolving plate of No. 1. 

^' In the design of these seismographs the object has been kept 
in view of making them easily capable of use by observers who 
have not made seismometry a special study. They are entirely 
self-recordings and require little attention during the long inter- 
vals which musts ^ most situations^ be expected to elapse between 
one period of activity and the next. 

One group of instruments is arranged to give a complete record 
of every particular of the movement, by resolving it into three rect- 
angular components — one vertical and two horizontal — and reg- 
istering these by three distinct pointers on a sheet of smoked glass 
which is made to revolve uniformly by clockwork. A single earth- 
quake always consists of many successive displacements of the 
groimd; hence the record traced by each pointer on the moving 
plate is a line comprising many imdulations, generally very irreg- 
ular in character. The ampUtude, period, and form of each of 
these are easily measured, and by compounding the three we ob- 
tain full information regarding the direction, extent, velocity and 
rate of acceleration of the movement at any epoch in the disturb- 
ance. 

This group of instruments is shown in Plate III. In the centre 
is the plate of smoked glass, which gets its motion through a fric- 
tion-roller from a clock* furnished with a centrifugal governor, 
acting by fluid-friction, and balanced so that its speed is not sen- 
sibly affected by the shaking of the ground. The clock is started 
into motion by means of a Palmieri seismoscope, which appears in 
the figure, behind the plate, on the right. This is a small common 
pendulum, whose bob carries at the bottom a piece of stiff platinum 
wire that projects into a recess in a cup of mercury below — ^the 
recess being formed by an iron pin standing lower than the sur- 
face of the surrounding mercury. On the slightest shaking of the 
ground, contact with the edge of the mercury takes place, and this 
closes a circuit which releases an electro-magnetic detent and starts 

ft 

* At the left-hand side of the cut. 



Earthquakes on Pacific Ccast.— Hclden. 



Plate III. 




Complete Three-Component Seismograph, for Motions in all Directions. 



The three pens are steady during a shock, while the glass plate moves to and fro 
with the earth, and at the same time is made to rotate by the clock (at the left hand 
in the cnt). The steady pens mark the components of the earth's motions on the 
smoked surface of the revolving plate. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 19 

the clock. This occurs during the preliminary tremors which are 
usually found in advance of the main movements of an earthquake. 
The same circuit starts another clock* (of the escapement type) 
which fulfills two functions. It marks time on the revolving plate 
during a part of the first revolution^ and then continues to go as 
an ordinary clocks so that, by inspecting its dial afterwards, the in- 
terval which has elapsed since the occurrence of the earthquake is 
known^ and the date of the shock in hours and minutes is thus 
determined with as much precision as the phenomenon admits of. 
This part of the apparatus is omitted from the figure. The two 
horizontal components of motion are recorded by a pair of hori- 
zontal pendulums, set at right angles to each other, but with their 
indices inclined so that they write side by side on one radius of the 
plate. The pendulums are supported on a single stand, but with 
independent adjustments for position and stability. Each has two 
pivots, consisting of hard steel points, which turn in sapphire cen- 
tres. At the pivots and at the tracing-points every effort has been 
made to avoid friction. The indices are of aluminium, and a part 
of their weight is taken by springs (not shown in the figure), so 
that their pressure on the plate may be no greater than is necessary 
to produce a trace on the sooty film. The vertical component of 
motion is recorded by the instnmient which appears behind the 
clock. A massive bar, free to move vertically about a horizontal 
axis, is held up by a pair of long spiral springs. Its equilibrium 
is made nearly neutral by applying the pull of the springs at a suit- 
able distance below the horizontal plane .through the axis of sup- 
port. A bell-crank lever with a jointed index gives a multiplied 
trace of the apparent vertical oscillations of the bar, which corre- 
spond to vertical displacements of the ground. In this instrument, 
as in the others, sapphire centres are used to minimize friction. 

Becords inscribed on the plate are preserved by varnishing the 
plate and using it as a ^negative' to print photographs. The 
motion, as recorded, is magnified to an extent which experience 
has shown to be desirable in dealing with disturbances ranging 
from those which are just recognizable as earthquakes up to those 
which are to some extent destructive, f 

* Not Bhown in the cut. 

tin the Lick Observatory instrnment the horizontal components are mnlti- 
pUed 8.8 times and the Tertlcal component is mnltlplied 1.6 times. The in- 
dices are made of stont straws. 



20 BABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Another and distinct instrument is the duplex pendulum seis- 
mograph, shown in Plate IV. A massive bob is hung by three par- 
allel wires from the top of a three-cornered box, and is reduced to 
nearly neutral equilibrium by being coupled by a ball-and-tube 
joint to the bob#)f an inverted pendulum below it. The two form 
a system which can be made as nearly astatic as is desirable, and 
so furnish a suitable steady-point for the horizontal part of earth- 
quake movement in any azimuth. The motion is magnified * and 
recorded by a vertical lever geared to the upper bob by a ball-and- 
tube joint, supported on gimbals from a bracket fixed to the box, 
and furnished with a jointed index which writes on a fixed plate of 
smoked glass. Records of the kind which the duplex pendulum 
gives are of course incomplete in two important particulars: they 
show nothing of the vertical motion (which, however, is usually a 
comparatively small part of the whole), and they show nothing of 
the relation of time to displacement throughout the disturbance. 
But they exhibit very clearly the change of direction which the 
movements undergo, and the actual direction taken by any pro- 
nounced element of the shock." 

These instruments have been kept in working order at Mount 
Hamilton since June, 1888. 

The larger instrument is somewhat complicated and is not suit- 
able for private establishments, where its care would require too 
much time. The smaller seems to be what is wanted for a general 
instrument to record (the horizontal components of) shocks of 
average intensity. 

I have had a copy made of it, with some simplifications and 
improvements, and such copies can be purchased from Paul 
Seiler's electrical works, 406 Market Street, San Francisco, for $15. 

Such copies have been set up in California at various places, 
among others at the Cliff House, S. F. (Hon. A. Sutro), Kono 
Tyee, Lakeport (Miss Floyd), Chabot Observatory, Oakland (Mr. 
Charles Burckhalter), Students' Observatory, Berkeley (Professor 
Frank Soul6), Highland Park, East Oakland (Mr. F. G. Blinn^, 
University of the Pacific, San Jos6 (the Professor in charge of the 
Observatory), Stanford University (Professor Branner), Mills Sem- 
inary, Oakland (Professor Keep). Other copies have been sent 

* In the Lick Observatory instrument the horizontal components are mag- 
nified 4 times. 



Earthquakes on Paoific Coast.— Holden. 



Plate IV. 




Duplex Pendulum Seismograph por Horizontal Motions. 



During a shock the pen is steady and writes the trace of the horiisontal motions 
of the earth on the moving plate of smoked glass (on the shelf near the top of the 
instrnment-case). 



EABTHQUAKEB ON THE PACIFIC COAST 21 

out of the State, for example: to Cleyeland, Ohio (Warner and 
Swasey), Washington, D. C. (13. S. Geological Survey), Carson, 
Nevada (Professor C. W. Friend), Beadville, Mass. (Blue Hill Ob- 
servatory), ^Santiago de Chile (National Observatory), *Mexico 
(Tacubaya) (National Observatory), *Cordoba, Argentine Republic 
(National Observatory), *6reenwieh, England (Eoyal Observatory). 
It may be useful to print in this place the following brief in- 
structions for setting up the Duplex Seismometer, which were pre- 
pared by Dr. Joseph Le Conte and myself in 1887 and sent out 
with the first instruments: 

Use op the Ewing Duplex Seismometer. 

" The object of the instrument is to automatically register on a 
smoked glass plate the horizontal motions of the earth below its 
base. 

" The best way to set up the instrument is to drive a post into the 
ground about four feet. The top of the post should be sawed off 
square as near to the ground as convenient, a piece of stout plank 
spiked to it, and the three leveling-post screws of the instrument 
placed on this. The screws should be turned until the two pen- 
dulums hang freely at equal distances from the frame all around, 
and until the pointer or index is near the centre of the glass plate. 
A line marked N — S on this plate should be put in the north and 
south line (N to the north), f If the instrument cannot be 
placed at the surface of the ground, it should be placed as near to 
the surface as possible (since it is desired to register the move- 
ments of the ground and not the oscillations of any particular 
house or part of a house), and it should always be placed on a post 
firmly set in the ground when this can be done. If this is not 
practicable, it should be placed in the best position attainable. It 
is convenient to have the instrument protected by a glass case. 
The glass plate should be smoked on one side by holding it above 
the flame of a lamp or candle (burning camphor gives the best film 
of soot). . The instrument is then ready for use. 

'* When a shock occurs, the base of the machine will be moved and 

* Preseoted to the Observatory by Mateo Clark, Esq., of London.^ 

t A line registered on the plate from the point of beginning towards N (if 

caused by a shock) means that the earth has itself moved north below the 

instmment. 



22 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

the glass plate will move with it. The double pendulum is so con- 
structed as to remain steady, or very nearly so; the pointer 
over the glass plate remains steady also, and writes the 
motion of the earth upjn the moving plate. The motion of the 
earth is magnified approximately four times. The line traced 
on the plate will represent the direction of each shock, and the 
length of the line gives a measure of the intensity. In any large 
earthquake this line will be a looped curve. If the time of begin- 
ning of the earthquake is also noted by the observer on his watch, 
and if the watch is compared as soon as possible with the time of 
the nearest railway station (time is received daily at noon, at all 
railway stations, from the Lick Observatory), all the data are se- 
cured which are necessary for the accurate study of the shock at 
this one station. If the original glass plate is carefully packed 
(so as to preserve the film) and sent to the Director of the Lick 
Observatory, it will be measured at the Observatory, and a blue 
print of the tracing will be returned to the sender, together with 
the original glass plate. The memorandum relating to the time of 
the shock should also be sent, with a statement of exactly how and 
where the instrument is mounted. As soon as one glass plate is 
removed, the spare plate furnished with the instrument should be 
blackened and inserted. The only precautions necessary to be 
taken in the use of this instrument are to keep it level and to keep 
a freshly-smoked plate underneath the pointer.'^ 

During the years 1888-1897 the large Ewing seismograph of the 
Lick Observatory has been under the charge of Messrs. Keeler, Hill, 
A. J. Bumham and Perrine, and certain improvements in its con- 
struction have been suggested by experience. Some of these im- 
provements have actually been made. The following memoran- 
dum has been prepared at my request. 

Improvements in the Ewing Seismogbafhs Suggested by 

expebience. 

BT O. D. PEBRINB. 

" Our experience with the Ewing seismograph of the Lick Obser- 
vatory has suggested some slight changes to improve its working. 
The magnetic release for the driving clock has frequently failed to 
act, as a heavy current was required to move the armature, which 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 23 

is heavy, while the leverage of the magnet is short and the releas- 
ing arm long. The magnet was removed from its old position and 
placed much nearer the point of release; the armature and movahle 
lever were made much lighter, and, when tested, they were found 
to respond to a much lighter current than in the old form. 

" The governor of the driving clock is of the conical pendulum 
type, with paddles attached to the arms, which work in a trough 
filled with oil. In an instrument where the clock is in operation 
but a small portion of the time this form of regulation is objec- 
tionable. In our instrument the oil was removed and small strips 
of rubber attached to the paddles so that they would rub against 
the bottom of the empty oil trough. This has worked satisfac- 
torily, as there is no great accuracy required in the rate of this 
clock. A smaU double conical pendulum, such as is now used on 
chronographs by Warner and Swasey or Saegmiiller, adapted to 
this particular case, would probably be most satisfactory. 

^' As the beats of the time-clock are registered on the edge of the 
plate, it would be much more convenient if the clock beat either 
seconds or half-seconds instead of about 95 times per minute, as 
at present. 

" There was too much friction between the spring-pen used to 
record the clock beats on the plate, owing to inequalities in the 
glass plates. Less friction and more uniform beats were secured 
by hinging the pen so that it had a considerable range vertically. 

"The pen for recording the vertical motion has considerable 
'creep,' probably owing to changes in the springs due to tem- 
perature, but this is not a matter of much importance if the instru- 
ment is always started by the shock. A small lever has been 
attached to the front of the case of the Duplex Seismograph in 
such a way that the pen can be raised mechanically and held out 
of the way while the plate is being changed.'^ 

March 29, 1S97. 

Quite a number of reports have been received of late years from 
the instruments installed in California and Nevada, and these 
records are of value. It would be of extreme interest if a series of 
such machines could be distributed around the Santa Clara valley, 
80 as to encircle it on both sides, and so as to be situated on like 
geological strata. A line of instruments in the valley from Oihroy 



24 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAGIFIO COAST 

to San Francisco^ and another line on the east side of the bay, 
would be required. A few years* observations carefully studied 
would, I think, bring out results of consequence. The basin of 
Clear Lake should be studied in the same way, as its shocks appear 
to be of a special class. 

Bepobted Volcanic Eruptions on the Pacific Coast. 

The list of shocks printed in 1887, and those compiled during 
succeeding years, contained many reported " eruptions '* of moun- 
tains in the Puget Sound region. For a number of years I made it 
my business to apply by letter to intelligent observers in that 
neighborhood to determine whether Mount Baker and other moun- 
tains had ever certainly been known to be in eruption. Clouds 
hanging over the summit, snow blown from the slopes, etc., might, 
in my own opinion, account for all the reported phenomena. Still 
it was not possible to be certain either way, and I have left the 
accounts of such eruptions as they were first printed. 

In 1896 Mr. Frederick G. Plummer, C. E., was kind enough to 
copy from his papers a list of the eruptions of Alaska volcanoes 
(1690 to date) and of the reported eruptions of the mountains 
around Puget Soimd. This list was printed in the Publications 
of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and is reprinted here. 
I have not incorporated this data in the catalogue of earthquakes 
which follows; it is more convenient in its present shape. Particu- 
lar attention is called to the introductory paragraphs of Mr. Plum- 
mer's valuable list. Beports in the newspaper press on this subject 
are never decisive. To establish the fact of an eruption of one of 
the Puget Sound volcanoes it is necessary to have the report of an 
expert who was on the spot. 

r 

Bepobted Volcanic Eruptions in Alaska, Puget Sound, etc., 

1690 TO 1896. 

BT FREDBRICK O. PLUMMER. 

Tacoma, Washington, March 13, 1896. 

" There can be no doubt that many eruptions are reported whifch 

might be contradicted if examination were possible. For example, 

the reports of the eruption and change in the summit of Mount 

Tacoma from November 21 to December 25, 1894, filled many 



EABTHQUAKE8 OK THE PACIFIC COAST 



25 



colimms of the press dispatches^ and possibly were intended for 
that purpose. December 25th was the most perfect day for ob- 
servation^ and, with my G^-inch refractor, the crater-peak and its 
surroundings were carefully examined, and no change could be 
seen. No eruption was noted, other than the usual emission of 
steam, which vaiies with the barometer. However, reports came 
in later from a press party which claimed to have reached the 
slope of the mountain and witnessed an eruption of smoke. The 
party was about five miles from the summit, and my telescope, 
with low power, brought the summit within half a mile. Although 
this was the clearest and most definite report of eruption, yet it is 
so flatly contradicted by the continuous telescopic observations and 
the later examinations of climbers, that it is omitted from the 
table.'' 



Datb ot Bboiicning. 


Name of Volcano. 


DUBATION 

OP 
ERrPTION. 


Phbnomeica. 


Year. 


Day. 


A= Alaska; 0=Orbgon; 
W = Washington. 


1690 




KhagiDak 

On Amak Island 

Hiamna 

Adakh 


.A. 
,A. 
.A. 
.A, 


10 years 


A crater formed. 


1700 




Occasionally active. 


1741 




1760 






1760 




Ooreloi 

Chechitno 

Atka 


.A. 

.A. 

.A. 






1760 






1760 






1760 




Koninshi 

Pavloff 


.A. 

.A. 




Island rose. 


1762 






1763 




Tanaga 

Kanatra 


.A. 

■ A. 


7 years 




1768 




Solfataras. 


1768 




Unalashka 


A. 






1768 




MedYlednikoff . . 
Walrns 


.A. 






1768 




..A. 






1770 




Amnkhta 






, 


1774 




Fonr Craters. . . 


A. 






1775 




Calder 


A. 






1775 




Unimak 

Sitlgnak 


..A. 
A. 


3 years 


Flames and smoke. 


1776 


July 


Flames and smoke. 


1778 


Illamna 

Shishaldin 

Vaevldoff. 


.A. 
.A. 


92 years 


Occasionally smoke. 


1778 




1784 




A ' 




1784 
1786 


July 


Chechitno 

Segnam 

Amnkhta 

Kanaga 

Pavloff 


.A. 4 years 
..A. 5 years 

..A.I 





1786 




1786 




Flames and smoke. 


1786 




North crater fell in. 









26 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



Date of Bboinnino. 



Year. 


Day. 


1790 




1790 




1790 




1790 




1790 




1790 




1791 
1791 
1792 


Jnne 
Jnne 


179? 
1792 
1795 


Febrnary ? 
Jnne 1 


1796 




1796 
1796 


May 


1796 




1802 




1806 




1812 




1817 
1817 


April 


1819 




1819 




1820 




1824 




1824 




1825 
1826 
1827 


March 10 
October 11 


1827 




1827 




1827 




1828 




1828 




1828 




1828 




1828 




1828 




1828 




1830 




1830 




1880 




1880 




1830 
1830 


NoTember 


1831 




1831 




1832 




1838 





Name op Volcano. 



Akntan A. 

Vaevldoff A. 

Kanaga A. 

Semiaphnoi A. 

Maknahin A. 

Shiahaldin A. 

Tanaga A. 

Kanaga A. 

Great Sitkin A. 

Goreloi A. 

Semisopochnoi . . A. 
Unimak A. 



Edgecombe A. 

Bogoslov A. 

Fonr Craters A. 

Amak A. 

Maknshin A. 

BogosloY A. 

Sarycheff A. 

Ynnaska A. 

Umnak A. 

Wrangell A. 

Redonbt A. 

RogosloY A. 

Shisldin A. 

Ynnaska A. 

Isanotski A. 

Unimak A. 

Shisldin A. 

Fogrnmnoi A. 

Koninshi A. 

Kanaga A. 

Little Sitkin A. 

Akhnn A. 

Akntan A. 

Tanak.Angnnakh A. 

Atka A. 

Koninshi A. 

Goreloi A. 

Korovin A. 

Atka A. 

Ynnaska A. 

Umnak A. 

Unimak A. 

y eniaminoff A. 

St. Helens W. 

Hood O. 

St. Helens W. 

Shishaldin A. 



Duration 

of 
Eruption. 



2 years 
35 years 



4 months 



4 years 



Phenomena. 

A = Alaska; 0=Orboon; 
W = Wash INOTON. 



Occasionally smoke. 
Occasionally smoke. 



Flames. 



SW. crater exploded and 
fell in. 



Terrible eruption of flames 



3 years 
2 years 



2 years 
2 years 
2 years 
2 years 
2 years 
2 years 
2 years 



12 honrs 



Flames and smoke. 
Lava flow. 
Violent emption. 



Violent emption. 



Flames. 



BABTHQUAKSS ON THB PACIFIC COAST 



27 



Dat8 of Beginning. 


Name op Yoloamo. 


DUBATXON 
OF 

Ebuption. 


Phenomena. 
A= Alaska; 0=Orbgon; 

W=WA8HIN0T0N. 


Year. 


Day. 


1888 




Four Craters. . 


^ 






1888 




Makushin 

Akntan 

y eniaminoff. . . 
Pavloff 


..A. 






1838 






1838 






1888 






1839 




St. Ellas 


^ 






1840 




Cinder Cone . . . 

Tacoma 

St. Helens 

St. Helens 

Baker 

St. Helens 

Tacoma 

St. Helens 

Koroyin 


• • A.. 

.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 




Cinders. 


1841 






1841 




2 months 




1842 




Smoke and light ashes. 


1842 




1843 
1843 


NoTember 13 
Noyember 18 
December ? 


10 days 


Flames and light ashes. 


1843 


85 days 




1844 




1844 




Makushin 

Hood 


. .o. 






1846 






1846 




St. Helens 

Baker 

Baker 

St. Helens 

Baker 

St. Helens 

Hood 


.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 

. .0. 






1846 








1847 








1852 








1853 


Jannary 
Febmary 
August 
Snmmer 
August 15 


Slight lava flow. 


1854 


70 days 


1854 




1854 
1859 


Baker 

Hood 

Baker 

Baker 

Olympus 

Shishaldin 

Makushin 

Hood 

Hood 

Tacoma 

Tacoma 

Baker 

Tacoma 

Baker 


.w. 

..0. 

.w. 
.w. 
.w. 

..0. 

..o. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 
.w. 


2 days 


Smoke and ashes. 


1859 




1860 




1 




1861 








1865 




15 days 
3 hours 
7 days 




1865 






1865 


September 23 




1869 




1873 


Oct. 19, 4 P.M. 
May 

December 
June 16 
Autumn 
August 2 




1880 
1880 




1884 
1891 


2 hours 


Steam. 


1891 


Chimney Peak . 

Hozomeen 

Veniaminoff. . . 

Bogoslov 

Olympus 

Jefferson 








1891 


.w. 

..A. 

.w. 

,0. 




Flame and smoke. 


1892 


August 27 


3 days 




1892 




1 


1893 


March 9 
Jannary 17 
Autnmn 


1 

1 


1894 


*. . . . 


'Smoke and steam. 
iFlames and smoke. 

1 


1895 


Bogoslov 


• • A^ 





28 eabthquakes on the pacifio coast 

Conclusion. 

From the report of United States Surveyor-General Harden- 
burg^ for the year ending June 30^ 1871^ the following is extracted: 

" The shocks of 1800, 1808, and 1812 in California appear to 
have been about equal in force to the shock of 1868 (and it seems 
there have been no shocks during a century of greater severity). 

'' It is fair then to consider the shock of 1868 as a standard of 
the maximum force of earthquakes occurring in California during 
the last one hundred years. On the hypothesis that earthquakes 
are the results of natural laws, which operate with some degree of 
regularity, it may be fairly presumed that a period of one hundred 
years would, in all probability, give the extreme limit of the result 
of the action of these laws. Hence, having learned from reliable 
history and from observation the maximum strength of earthquakes 
occurring in California during a century past, we may, from these 
data, with some degree of confidence predict what their maximum 
strength will probably be during the hundred years to come. It 
will perhaps be no difficult matter to provide against any serious 
damage from these unwelcome visitors, by so constructing build- 
ings that they shall be proof against any such shock of earth- 
quake as has occurred in California during the last hundred years. 
Reasoning from the foregoing historical facts, I am firmly of the 
opinion that the earthquakes of California are not so much to be 
dreaded as is generally supposed; in fact, that they are far less 
dangerous to life and property than are the hurricanes of the 
South or the summer tornadoes of the North." 

The earthquake of 1872, which occurred subsequent to the writ- 
ing of this report, was far more severe than the shock of 1868, and 
should be taken to represent the maximum severity of any shock 
which has actually occurred in California during a century. 

The destructive earthquakes on the Pacific Coast during the years 

1769 to 1887 have been those of: 

... f 

V 1800. October 11-31 (San Juan Bautista, etc.). .^ A ^ 

'. 1812. October or December (San Juan Capistrano). . ' ' 
1818. ? (Santa Clara). 

1836. June 9 and 10 (Monterey and northward). . 
/ 1839. ? (Redwood City and San Francisco). / 

1857. January 9 (Ft. Tejon, Tulare, etc.). 1%^ H 



EABTHQUAKSS ON THE PAOIFIC 0OA8T 29 

1866. October 8 (San Francisco, etc.). t- - - 

1867. January 8 (E^amath^ etc.).* , . 

* 1868. October 21 (San Francisco, etc.). . (^ 3 ' ^ 

1872. liarch 26 (Inyo Comity) .^^^ I ^ 

Probably the shocks of 1890, August 23 (Mono Lake) and of 
1892, April 19-21 (Vacaville), should be included in this list. 

They are printed in the following one. 

Extremely severe shocks have occurred: 

1806. March 24 (Santa Barbara). 

1812. December 21 (San Buenaventura). 

1843. June 23 (California and Mexico). 

1851. May 16 (San Francisco, etc.). ^ - I " 

1862. November 9 (San Diego, Yuma, etc.). 

1863. February 1 (San Luis Obispo County). 

1863. October 23 (Eureka). 

1866. January 24 (Sierra County). 

1866. July 10 (Los Angeles County). 

1866. January 2 (San Francisco). "^ 

1866. January 10 (Los Angeles County). 

1866. February 15 (San Francisco). 3 • "^ 

1866. In the fall (Tulare County). 

1866. December (San Diego County). 

1858. November 26 (San Jos6). 

1861. July 3 (Amador). ^ 

1864. March 5 (Petaluma). 

1865. May 24 (San Francisco): f ^ 

1866. February 17 (Klamath). 

1868. September 26 (Ukiah). 

1869. October 8 (Ukiah). 

1869. December 26 (Sacramento, Marysville). 

1873. November 22 (Oregon and Washington Territory). 
1886. January 30 (Honey Lake Valley). 

1890. April 24 (Pajaro). 

1890. August 23 (Mono Lake). 

1891. October 12 (Sonoma). 

1892. April 19-21 (Vacaville). , \ 

1893. April 8 (Newhall). 



30 EABTHQUASE8 ON THB PACIFIC C0A9T 

That is twenty-nine exceptionally heavy shocka (exclusive of 
what I have called deetructive ahockB) have occurred since 1800, 
or say, one every three and three-tenths yeare on the average, 
taking the whole region of many thousand square miles together. 
For any particnlar locality the number of really heavy shocks is 
quite small. Thue, at San Francisco there have been three de- 
structive shocks and four exceptionally heavy earthquakes in one 
hundred years, although there have been very many slight shocks 
and tremors. 

If we confine our attention to any other particnlar part of the 
State, the number of really heavy shocks occurring ie very small 
indeed. When we take into account the whole damage to life and 
property produced by all the California earthquakes recorded, it 
IB clear that the earthquakes of a whole century in California have 
been less destructive than the tornadoes or the floods of a single 
year in less favored regions. 

Edwabd S. Holden. 




EarthquBkcB on Pacific Coact.— Holdan. 




Relief Map of the Pacific Coast, from a Model constructed bv Profes!0!i Davidson. 



Catalogue of Recorded Earthquake Shocks 
ON THE Pacific Coast, 1769 to 1897.* 



r^ lTe9. A»rU 111 

— ly San Diego, CaL— -H. H. B. 

lTe9. July 28| TIT 

Four Tiolent shocks in the Los Angeles region. Many more shocks 
were felt during the following week. — ^H. H. B. 

1T70. 

At San Gabriel; which was called Bl Valle de loa Temblorea by Father 
Junipero Serro in a manuscript of 1778. — ^B. Ms. 

178^ X. 

PaTloff, Alaska, with volcanic eruption. — ^P. 

1T88. 

Shumagin, Alaska, with tidal wave. — P. 

1T88. July a7| 

Sannak Island, Alaska, overflowed by tidal wave. — P. 

1T88. July 271 
Ailiaska, Alaska, tidal wave. — ^P. 



f 



iToor X. 

The Indians state that about eighty years before the shocks of 1872, 
March 26, in Inyo County, a similar earthquake occurred in the 
same region.— B. Ms. — Alia, April 6, 1872. 

179e. BIA7I 

Bogoslov, Alaska, with eruption. — P. 

1800. October 11 to October 81 1 

There were shocks from the eleventh to the thirty-first of October, 

"^^^ / sometimes six in a day, the most severe on the eighteenth, at San 

/ ' C> Juan Bautista. — ^H. H. B. Shocks October 11; another October 18, 

*The Roman numerals I to X placed next after the dates represent the 
intensities on the Rossl-Forel scale as nearly as I have been able to assign 
them after a careful reading of the original accounts. These data are, of 
course, only approximate. 



O 



32 EAKTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



(( 



X 



A 



at supper-time," and another at about 11 p. m. of the same day. — 
J. B. T., Register, 

1800. NoTember 22 1 

A shock in Southern California. — H. H. B. 

1808. 

Unalaahka, Alaska. — ^P. 

1808. AprUi 

%. San Gabriel, Cal.— T. H. H. 

1808. Mmr 86) VIII. 

An earthquake damaged the Mission Church at San Diego slightly. 
— B.. B. B. 



% 



A 



1806. Mmrdh 24, midni«l&«| VIII. 

The church walls at Santa Barbara were cracked. — ^B. Ms. T. H. H. 
mentions a shock in March, with no date. 

1808. From Jnne 21 to July 17 1 VIII. 

There were twenty-one shocks at the Presidio of San Francisco. — 
Trask, Register, p. 7. — H. H. B. and T. H. H. say eighteen. Adobe 
walls were seriously damaged. — B. Ms. The first translator of 
Argiiello's communication to the Qovemor raised the number 
eighteen to twenty-one, and all the rest have repeated the error. 
— cl. B. B. 

1812. X. 

Atka, Alaska. — ^P. 

1812. Mrti VIII +. 

Southern California was subject to nearly continuous shocks for 
four and one-half months. Four days seldom elapsed without at 
least one shock. The inhabitants abandoned their houses and 
lived out of doors. — ^Trask, Register, p. 7. 

/ 1812. September, October, or December T Sunday T IX. 

Fatal earthquake. At San Juan Capistrano the church was destroyed, 
with loss of life (thirty to forty-five persons). The Mission Church 
at Santa Inez, near Santa Barbara, one hundred and seventy miles 
/ from San Juan Capistrano, was completely destroyed and some 

lives lost. — J. B. T., Register, A Spanish ship at anchor, thirty- 
eight miles from Santa Barbara, was injured by the shock. — J.B.T., 
Register, The year 1812 was ever after known as el aiio de los tem- 
blores,—B., H. B. See letter of Lieut. E. O. C. Ord, U. S. A. (Novem- 
ber, 1849), in Tyson's Report, Geology of California, p. 125, where, 
however, it is called the shock of 1814. October 8, between 7 and 
8 a. m., is the day of the g^eat earthquake which destroyed the 
church of San Juan Capistrano, according to a careful article in the 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 33 

San Francisco Bulletin, March 5, 1864. This date is often fixed in 
September or on December 8. The Sundays were: September 6, 13, 
20, 27; October 4, 11, 18, 25; November 1, 8, 15, 22, 29; December 6, 
13, 20, 27. 



/ 



1812. October 8| 

^/ ', Shocks for forty days at San Juan Capistrano. — B. Ms. 



\ 



v: 



X 



v/ 



1812. October 21 1 IX. 

Specially hard shock at San Juan Capistrano. — B. Ms. 

1812. December 8| VIII. T 

From San Diego to Purisima; most severe at San Juan Capistrano. 
It is not clear that it was felt at either San Diego or at San Luis 
Rey. At San Gabriel the church was badly cracked and lost the 
top of the tower. — H. H. B. 

1812. December 21 1 VIII. ? 

At San Fernando the church received serious damages. At San 
Buenaventura, three heavy shocks before January 1. At Santa 
u Barbara, a long series of shocks, beginning on the 21st and lasting 
several months. — H. H. B. 

Santa Inez; two shocks, fifteen minutes apart, beginning at 10 a. m. 
At Purisima (IX), at 10.30 a. m., December 21, the earth shook for 
four minutes so violently that it was difficult to stand. Half an 
hour later another more violent shock. A succession of light 
shocks this day and the next. — ^H. H. B. 

P. Gil reported that there was a huge earthquake wave at sea. A 
stick with a pendant ball was set up at the Mission (Santa Bar- 
bara), and the ball vibrated continually for eight days, and later, 
at intervals for fifteen days. A ship at Refugio (IX) was carried 
up a canon by the wave and returned to sea. — ^H. H. B. 

Several asphaltum springs formed in the mountains and tulares; 
gaps in the Sievra; the '* shore volcano '* has more openings, and 
another is reported behind the Sierra de los Pinos. — H. H. B. [ ? ?] 

1812. 

San Francisco. Senora Juana Briones relates that in 1812 the earth- 
quakes were so severe as to cause tidal waves which covered 
the ground where the plaza now is. — (Communicated by J. R. 
Jarboe, Esq.) 

1813 or 1815. IX. 

John Gilroy says an earthquake shook down all the buildings " in 
the region " (probably Santa Clara Valley) in one of these years. 
— B. Ms. 

181B. January 18 1 

Five shocks at Santa Barbara. — H. H. B. 
3 



34 EABTHQUAKBS ON THB PACIFIC COAST 



1/ 



1815. JanuflurjrSOi 

V More shocks at Santa Barbara. — ^H. H. B. 



y 1815. JiU7 8»8| 

Six shocks at Santa Barbara.— H. H. B. 

I8IT. AprUi X. 

Umnak, Alaska. — ^P. 

1818. 

Makughin, Alaska. — ^P. 

1818. Tin. 

The church of Santa Clara was danuiged. — T. H. H. ** I think there 
is no authority for such a statement.*' — ^H. H. B., vol. 14, p. 377. 
A new Mission church had been contemplated in 1818. It is said 
that the old church was so badly injured by an earthquake in 
1822 that it was best to take it down; and that a new church (now 
standing) was built in 1825-6. *' For various reasons [which are 
given] I suppose nothing of the kind to have occurred. As a mere 
conjecture, it may be that after the church was completed, or 
nearly so, in 1818 it was damaged by an earthquake, and not fully 
repaired until 1822.*'— H. H. B., vol. 14, p. 602. 



H 



/ 1821.. January 1| 
7V •" A severe shock at San BuenaventiLra and San Luis Bey, Cal. 
M. A. B. 



/ 



There are nevTspaper accounts of earthquakes in 1824. — H. H. B. 



N 



I 

Unalashka, Alaska. Two shocks. — P. 

1827. June I 

Copper Island, Alaska. — P. 

rl29. September I 
Several very severe shocks of earthquake were experienced in San 
^ Francisco, Cal. — Annals of San Francisco, 

< I88O. VIII. 

The church of San Luis Obispo was injured. — ^T. H. H. 

1888. June 29f ** 18h. 4am. 0«.»'| II. 

Fort Nisqually, Washington. — ^P. 

1886. April 2| X. 

PribylofF Islands, Alaska. — P. 

1886. April 26 1 5 a. m. 

I 

Monterey, Cal. — H. H. B. 



\ 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 35 

AmmumU X. 

Pribyloff Islands, Alaska.— P. 

^886. June 8 and 10 1 

Severe shocks from Monterey northward. — ^H. H. B. 



X886. Tin. 

An eartl^qnake comparable with the shock of 1868, October 21, was ^ 

felt in the same region of country; great fissures were made in the 
earth, and the shocks continued for a months — ^B. Ms. 

1888. Jvme and Jvlyi TIU. 

Shocks at San Francisco, San Jos6, Santa Clara, and Monterey, CaL 
— ^H. H. B. Very severe in the harbor of San Francisco. — ^Verbal 
account of Don Jos6 Thompson. . 



x: 



1888. Ti «]iortl7 after 18 m.| IX. 

Where Redwood> City now is. Destructive. Adobe walls seven feet 
thick were cracked from top to bottom. The earth was cracked 
in many places, and one immense fissure extended from Lone 
Mountain (?) to the Mission San Jos6. — ^B. Ms. — San Francisco 
CaU, December 21, 1879. 



1888. ?! Tin. 

A very severe earthquake in San Francisco, Gal. — Annala of San Fran^ 

CiBOO, 



1840. Jannarr 16-18 1 IX. 

An earthquake and tidal wave at Santa Cruz. The church tower 
X overthrovir^. — ^H. H. B. 



X 



1841. May 121 8 p. m.f III. 

A very short, slight shock at Monterey, Cal. — Duflot de Mofras, 
ExplotntUm de VOregon, — R. M. 

1841. Jaly 8| Sit. 7m. p. m.| Til. 

A shock at Monterey, Cal. Felt at sea. — Duflot de Mofras, E^lora- 
Hon de VOregon, — R. M. 

1841. 

violent eruptions of Mt. Raynier, Oregon. — Perrey. [?] 

1841. Sammeri III. 

Monterey, Cal. '* The shocks of one hundred and twenty earth- 
quakes were felt during two successive months of . . . sum- 
mer. The average, however, of two earthquakes a day is not so 
frightful as it looks, the shocks being seldom severe, and often 
so slight as to escape the notice of the uninitiated stranger.' 
Simpson's Jowmeu Round the World, vol. I, p. 344. 



«« 



36 EAETHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1842. September 28 1 

Eruption of Mt. St. Helens, Oregon. — Perrey. [?] 

1842. November 28 1 

Eruption of Mt. St. Helens.— Perrey. (1843?) [?] 

1842. 

Eruption of Mt. Baker, W. T.— Perrey. [?] 

"^ 1848. June 28 1 8s80 p. m.) VIII? or more severe f 

fc Very severe earthquake in California, which extended to Mexico.— 

Perrey. 

1848. November 28| 

Eruption of Mt. Baynier. — ^Perrey. (See 1842, November 23, and 
1841.) [?] 

1848. 

Eruption of Mt. Baker, Oregon. — Perrey. [?] 

1846-52 1 exact date not stven. 

In Oregon City, on Bock Creek, near Portland, Oregon, explosions 
like those of a cannon were heard for nearly the whole of a day. 
At first these were about half an hour apart; then they came 
nearer together, until at last they were no further apart than one 
minute or so; finally they died away. The water in Bock Creek 
did not run for three days. — ^Verbal account of Geo. J. Ainsworth, 
Esq. 



/ V- 



\ 



\ 



1847. VI. 

St. Paul's Island, Alaska. — P. 

1848. January 4) III. 

Slight shock at Los Angeles. — B. Ms. 

1849. September 16 1 evenlnir* 

At Santa Isabel, between San Diego and the mouth of the Bio Gila. 
— Perrey, 

1849. September 22; 8 p. m. 

. Twelve miles from Curisco Creek, in the desert between Santa Isabel 
and the Gila. — Perrey. 

1860-1854. 

" A Becent Volcano in Plumas County, Cal." by Dr. H. W. Harkness. 
Dr. Harkness describes his visit to a spot near the borders of 
Lassen and Plumas counties, directly across the northern end of 
Snag Lake (Lake Anna), twelve miles east of Lassen's Butte, and 
gives his own observations, showing a recent eruption, together 
with the evidence of other persons, all going to prove an active 
eruption about 1851. — Froc, Gal, Acad. 8ci.^ vol. 5, pp. 408-412. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 37 

s. 1860. Jwatnmrr 16 1 llh.; 21i. «• m. f p. m.r 

-1. San Francisco, three shocks. — Perrey. 

\ 1800. Febmarr 15 1 

> Several shocks, San Francisco, Cal, — ^Perrey. 

I860. Marclt 21 1 III. 

A light shock in San Jose, Cal. — J. B. T. — ^Perrey. . 

I860. M«7 18 J 

-^San Francisco and San Jos^; also slight eruption of Manna Loa. — 
J. B. T. Perrey says: " In March and then May 12 and 13, six 
shocks in San Jos6 and San Francisco during eruption of Mauna 
Loa." 

I860. Jnne 28 1 III. 

^ A light shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

I860. AnsiiMt 4| V. 

Stockton and Sacramento, smart shocks. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 



• V 

\ 



\. 



1860. AnffiiMt 16 1 

; San Diego, Cal., and on the Gila. — ^Perrey. 

1860. September 14 1 V. 

Smart shock in San Francisco and San Jos6. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1861. MRrcbi 

Several shocks in this month in California. — Perrey. 

1861. April I 

Shocks in California during April. — ^Perrey. 

1861. May 18 j 

'/San Francisco and Salinas. — Perrey. 

1861. BlA7 16| 8tl0 «. m.| VII. 

San Francisco.— T. T.— J: B. T.— «.20 a. m.— Perrey. Coincident 
with an eruption of Mauna Loa. Severe shock, lasting about half 
a minute, felt by shipping in the harbor. Bottles v^ere thrown 
from shelves to the floor. — B. Ms. Perrey says three shocks, in 
Mem, Oour,, vol. 8, p. 28. 

1861. Mmt 1T| III. 

A slight shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. — ^Perrey. 

1861. May 28f UI. 

A slight shock on the Salinas, Cal. — J. B. T. — ^Perrey. 

1861. June 18 1 V. 

Smart shock in San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, and San Fernando, 
Cal.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 



38 EABTHQUAKES ON THB PAOIFIO COAST 



7^ 



1 1861. November 12| 7 p. m.| V. 

San Francisco, Cal. — ^Perrey. Severe. — B. Ms. 

1861. November 18$ 7 p. m. 

San Francisco, motion of the waters in the bay. — Perrey. 



V 



1861. November 16| 2 a. m. 

San Francisco, Cal. — ^Perrey. 

' 1861. November 15$ 10 p. m« 

San Francisco. — Perrey. Also, T. T. 

1861. November 26$ 

Coast of California from +37® to +40® latitude, eleven shocks.— 
Perrey. 

1861* December 2$ 

/ A shock at Downieville, Sierra County, Cal.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 

1861. December 26$ 7 and 8ilO p. m. 

Two light vibrations in San Francisco. — T. T. " One shock in the 
morning, one at 20 minutes before 10 at night, and one at 35 
minutes past 11."— B. Ms. Three shocks: " The first quite severe, 
2;. at about 3 o'clock (a. m. ?); next about 10 (p. m. ?); last about 
noon.** — ^B. Ms.— il2to, December 26, 1851. During the past two 
years the direction of the shocks has been invariably from north 
to south.— B. Ms.— Alto, December 28, 1851. 



X 






/ 

'i 



r 






1861. December 80| 8 a. m. 

San Francisco. — ^Perrey. (See December 26.) 

1861. December 81$ 8 a. m.| 8i86 a.'m.$ lls4M> a. m.r 

. ^ree shocks at San Francisco. — Perrey. (See December 26.) 

1861. December 81$ V. 

Smart shock at Downieville, Sierra County, Cal. — J. B. T. 

1882. AprU 12$ midnlffbt. 

San Diego, Cal. — ^Perrey. 

1862. October 26$ 

Eleven shocks at San Simeon; an equal number fU^^Los Angeles and 
San Gabriel. Felt also at San Luis Obispo, San Diego, and Colo- 
rado River. During the next six days all the southern part of 
California shaken at short intervals. — ^Pen^y. (See November 26.) 

• 
1862. November 9f Till or IX f 

Violent shock at Fort Yuma. The shocks continued almost daily for 

many months. The first shock threw down a portion of Chimney 

Peak and opened fissures and cracks in the clay desert bordering 

the Colorado. A small mud volcano was found in an active state 



/ 

t 



i 



RABTHQUASEB ON THE PAOIFIG COAST 39 

about forty miles southwest of the post. — ^Report of Exp. for 
Pacific Bailroad, toI. V., "p. 115. Bee Hittell's Resources, p. 44. 

18B8. NoT-eiiiber 20 1 

In Southern California, beginning of a series of thirty-two shocks. — 
Perrey. 

18B2. NoTember 22 1 11 p. m.| YUI. 

Severe shock eight miles southeast of San Francisco. Next morn- 
ing a fissure half a mile wide and three hundred yards long was 
discovered, through which the waters of Lake Merced were fiow- * 
ing to the sea. — ^B. Ms. — Alta, November 27, 1852; also November 28. 

1862. Nirreiiiber 28 1 a little before mldnlgrbt. 

Shock in California, accompanied by thunder and lightning. — ^Perrey. 

18B2. Nirrember 24| 

San Francisco, Cal. Perrey says the waters of Lake Merced disap- 
peared. (See November 22.) 

18S2. Ncnrember 26 1 (Oetober 26?) 

Eleven strong shocks at San Simeon, Los Angeles, and San Gabriel, y 
'^ Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey says November 20 was the beginning of a 

series of thirty-two shocks in Southern California. 

1862. Ifirrember 27-80| IX. 

y Continued shocks disturbing an area of over three hundred miles 
square, extending east from San Luis Obispo to the Colorado 
Biver, and north to San Diego. — J. B. T. The shocks opened fis- ''\ > (d 
sures at least thirty miles long in Lockwood Valley. — Verbal 
account of J. De B. Shorb, Esq. . r ; ^ <> 

1862. Nirreinber 29 1 about boob| IX. ^ 

San Diego. Shock lasted about two minutes. ** The earth seemed 
to vibrate to and fro some five or six inches." This shock was 
followed by lighter ones about sunrise, for several days. — ^B. Ms. 

1862. Hcnrember 29 1 12i20 p. m. 

- Fort Yuma and San Diego. — Perrey. 

1862. Deeember 6| about 11 p. m. 

Fort Tuma. — Perrey. 

1862. Deeember 17 1 T. 

V Two smart shocks at San Luis Obispo, Cal. — J. B. T. — ^Perrey. 



During the month of December the southern and middle portions 
of California were much disturbed, and the effects were felt as 
far north as the thirty-seventh parallel. The shocks continued 
into the month of January, and were noticed until the fifth of this 
month on the San Joaquin. — J. B. T.^Perrey. 







40 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1862. December 26 1 

7 2) IJos Angeles, Cal. — Perrey. 

1862. i 

^ . Fort Yuma. Eruption of a mud- volcano in the Colorado Desert. — I 

/ Perrey, Mem^ Cour. 13, p. 19. 

1868. January 1| 

San Gabriel.— B. Ms. 

1868. January 2| IV. 

/ Moderate shock in San Francisco, Bodega, and Shasta City, Cal. — 
J. B. T.— Perrey. 

1^ 1868. January 6| 

, San Joaquin; Corte Madera. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

^ 1868. January 10 1 

t At Captain Dana's rancho, San Luis Obispo County, Cal. — B. Ms. 

Alta, February 24, 1853. 

1868. January 29) 

•^ w Santa Barbara, Cal. — Perrey. 

^y^ U 1868. January) 

Shocks at San Luis Obispo, Cal.; also at Mariposa and San Francisco. 
— Perrey. 

^ 1868. February 1) 1 p. m.| VIII. 

Violent shocks at San Simeon, San Luis Obispo County. Houses 
were injured. — B. Ms. — Alta, February 24, 1853. 

1868. February 14) 

V San Luis Obispo.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 




X 



1868. Marcli 1) V. 

y Smart shock at San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara. 

—J. B. T.— Perrey. 



1863. April 24) III. 

/ i Light shock at Humboldt Bay, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1868. April 26) 26?) III. 

> Three light shocks at Weaverville, Trinity County, Cal.— J. B. T.— 

April 26. — Perrey. April 26.— B. Ms. 



. / 
{ 'i 



-^ > 



1868. June 2) at nlarbt. 

San Francisco, Cal. — B. Ms. — Perrey. 

1868. June 2) 

Two smart shocks in the plains of the San Joaquin. — J. B. T. — 
Perrey. 



( 



EABTHQXJAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 41 

, 1868. July 12| III. 

A light shock in Yreka, Siskiyou County, Cal. — J. B. T.— Perrey. 



1868. July 12$ 

/ San Joaquin, Cal. — Perrey. 



/ 



2, 1868. September 2? or STi 

' Four shocks in Salinas and San Joaquin Plains.— J. B. T. — September 

2?— Perrey. September 2?— B. Ms. 

1868. October 2$ 

San Joaquin, Cal. — Perrey. [Possibly this refers to September 2, 
q. v.— E. S. H.] 

^^ 1868. October 28| Till. 

/ Three heavy shocks at Humboldt Bay, Cal. — J. B. T. At Eureka it 

is said the houses rolled like ships at sea and the wharf sank 4 
feet. — ^B. Ms. Also it Acapulco, Mexico, and Peru. — Perrey. 



K 



1868. October 26| III. 

A light shock at Humboldt Bay, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 



^ 1868. Ifoxember 16$ III. 

)\ A light shock at San Jos4, Cal. — J. B. T. — ^Pcrrey. 

V 1868. November 18| III. 

I 

v^ Slight shock at San Jos4. — B. Ms. 

1868. Norember 20$ 11 p. m. 

' San Francisco, Cal. More than thirty shocks since January 1. — 

I Perrey. 

V 7.. 1868. November 21 1 

A shock at San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

V / -) V 1868. November 28 1 

^ Shasta, Cal.— Perrey. 

, «)^868. November 26 1 

^ San Francisco. — Perrey. 

>> 1868. December 11 1 

( '^ San Francisco and Mission Dolores. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

/ / 1868. December 28 f III. 

A light shock at Shasta City, Cal.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 

^ 1868. December I 

\ •, Many shocks in Fort Yuma region; geysers formed. — B. Ms. — Also 
^ , - Second Annual Report of State Mineralogist of California, 1880-2, 
p. 233. 






42 EABTHQUAKBS ON THB PAOIFIG 00A8T 

1868| 

Perrey refers to eruptioiuB of Hood, St. Helens, Mt. Baker, etc- 
Am. J, 8e,, 2d series, ▼. 20, p. 297, September, 1855. 

1804. nr. 

Kaviak, Alaska. — P. 

1804. January 8| T. 

Two smart shocks at Mariposa and Shasta, Cal. — J. B. T. 



1804. JaBvarT 9| 8i80 a. m. 

San Francisco, Cal.— -T. T.— Perroy. 



1804* Febrvarr 0| 6t0O p. nt 

«^' ^ San' Francisco, CaL — ^B. Ms. 



y 



1804. Mareb2|III. 

*l^ A light shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 



. / 1804* Mareliy about tbe letbf 

>^ "^ San Francisco.— -Perrey. 



^^ 



/ 



X 



1804. Blareli lOf aUrlit. 

% San Francisco, Cal. — Perrey. 

1804* Mare]i20| 

"^ V Stockton, Cal.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 

1804. Febmarr-Aprlli 

Mountain of St. Helens, Oregon, was in eruption about February- 
April.— Perrey. [?] 

1804. Marehi 

St. Helens, Oregon, in eruption. — Perrey. [?] 

1804. April 10| 

^ Two shocks at San Francisco, Cal., 10.30 a. m. and 10.45 a. m., tlie 
'- second the severest. — B. Ms. — Alta, April 11, 1854. More violent 
at Point Lobos. — ^Perrey. 

1804. April 10| 

Mt. St. Helens still in eruption. — ^Perrey. [?] 



N / 1804. AprU 14) 10-11 a. m. 

Two shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — Perrey. 









1804. April 20| 

1 Santa Barbara, Cal. — Perrey. 

1804. April 29| lU. 

A light shock at Santa Barbara, Cal.--J. B. T. — Perrey. 



SABTHQUAKBS OK THB PAOIFIO OOABT 43 

' t^ 18B4. May 8| 51t. 10m.| T. 

/ Three severe shocks at Santa Barbara, Gal. — J. B. T. 

^ 18CM. Blay 18| 

f 

7 Santa Barbara, Gal. — Perrey. 



18B4. May 28| ^ 

A shock at Crescent City 
\y San Francisco, CaL^Perrey. llh. 20m. p. m.— -Perrey. 



/ j A shock at Crescent City, Humboldt County, Cal.— J. B. T. And 



( . 



^ Santa Barbara, Cal. — ^Perrey. 
^ 18B4L May 81| 4.IS0 a. m. 



/ ^ " Three shocks at Santa Barbara, Cal.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 

y 1S64. Jiiae 2»% 

• ^ 1^ Two light shocks in Placer County, Cal.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 

18B4L Jvly 10| 

/ ^ 3 Shock at Georgetown, El Dorado County, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

18S4. July 14| 

\ ^'sj Shock at Georgetown, El Dorado County, Cal.— J. B. T.— Perrey. 

18S4. Aviriuiti 

Smoke [?] on Mount Hood. — ^Peirt-ey. 

^ 1804. September 14| m. 

A light shock at Nevada (Cal.?)-^. B. T.— Perrey. 

1864. OetoberSf 

^ Humboldt, Cal. — Perrey. 

1854. October 81$ in. 

A light shock at Monterey, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1884. Oetober 21 1 7i80 p. m.i VI. - 

* San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. 7.35 p. m. — Perrey. " The severest since 

1851."— B. Ms., iSfafi Franci9O0 Daily Herald^ October 22, 1854. 

'^ 1864. Oetober 26f T. 

Smart shocks at San Francisco and Benicia, Cal., followed by a sea 
wave. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1864* November IT; 

Angel Island. — B. Ms., Alia, November 1, 1854; Nevada Journal, No- 
vember 10. A calm sea and no wind at first; then water rose sev- 
eral feet with high waves, lasting half an hour. 

/ 1864k November 11 1 4)4b. p. 
[ San Francisco. — ^Perrey. 



/ 



X 



1 



44 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1854. December 28 1 

Violent shock occurred in Japan. In the harbor of Simoda the 
water was agitated so that its depth varied between 8 and 40 feet. 
The waves were transmitted across the Pacific and registered on 
the tide gauges of the United States Coast Survey at San Fran- 
cisco, Astoria, and San Diego. The velocity of the sea wave was: 
Simoda to San Francisco, 368 miles per hour, 5.966 miles per min- 
ute; Simoda to San Diego, 355 miles per hour. — ^A. D. Bache, in 
Am, Jour, fifci.— Perrey. 

1866. January 2$ Just before 10 a. m.^ III. 

Two slight vibrations five seconds apart. San Francisco, Cal. — B. 
Ms. — San FranoUco Oolden Era^ January 6, 1855. 

1866. January 18| 18b. SOm.i.T. 

v^ Smart shock at San Benito and San Miguel, Cal. It was also felt at 

San Luis Obispo. — J. B. T. 

1866. January 14 1 10 p. m.) T. 

Along ninety-four miles of the coast of California. — ^Perrey. 



I 




1866. June 26 1 14b. | V. 

^ V' Smart shock at Santa Barbara, and north to the Valley of Santa 
Maria.— J. B. T. 



> 



/ 1866. July 10| Ob. 30m. | III. 

A light shock at Georgetown, El Dorado County, Cal. — J. B. T. 



1866. January 24 1 22b. 

A heavy shock, lasting seven seconds, was felt at Downieville, Sierra 

^ County, Cal. This shock was quite severe at ^ibsonville on the 

north, at Forest City and Minnesota, in Sierra County; and at 

Sj Orleans Flat and Eureka, Humboldt County; in Nevada County; 

at ^Georgetown and Nashville in El Dorado County on the south; 

and at Keystone Ranch, in Yuba County, on the west. — J. B. T. (^fe 

1866. February 6$ 10 a. m.i III. 

} A light shock at Wolf Creek, and the northeast part of Nevada 

I-' County, Cal.— J. B. T. 

1866. April 7| 6 p. m.f III. 

A light shock at Gibbs Ferry, Trinity County, and as far north as 
Calahan*s Ranch, at the head of Scott's Valley, Siskiyou County. — 
J. B. T. 

.^ / ^ 1866. June 9f 6 a. m.f III. 

/ ' Fort Yuma; slight shock. Report of explorations for railroad near 

the S2d paralleh Appendix I, p. 9, vol. VII. 



/ 



/ 



/ 



\ I 



/ 



I 

V 



f 



• 



\ 



EAKTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 45 

1855. Jvly 10| 2011. 15m. | VIII. 

Severe shock at Los Angeles.' Four shocks were felt in about twelve 
seconds; two unusually heavy sea waves rolled in at Point San 
Juan, just after the last shock. — J. B. T. This shock was accom- 
panied by rain. — ^B. Ms. Bells at San Gabriel Mission Church 
thrown down. — ^B. Ms. See August 12. 

1855. July 18| III. 

Slight shock at Gibsonville, Sierra County, Cal.— fif. F, Daily Herald, 
July 23, 1855. 

1866. Auarust 12| OtSO a. m.| III. 

A light shock at Georgetown, Cal.; four light shocks at Georgetown, 
from July 10 to August 12, dates not recorded. — J. B. T. 

1866. Avsvflt aei 1 p. m. 

Sonoma County; Petaluma. — ^B. "NLs,— Sacramento Union, September 8, 
1855. 

1865. Aiawst 27} 8 p. m.| TI. 

'^ Violent shock, Sonoma County, Cal. — Sacramento Union, September 8, 
1855. Also violent at Petaluma and at Mission San Francisca de 
r Solano. 

1855. Avffvst 28 1 

San Francisco, Cal. — B. Ms. 

1865. Oetober 5| 7%lt. p. m. 

San Francisco. — ^Perrey. 

1855. October 21 1 181t. 45m. | V. 

Smart shock in San Francisco. Much commotion in the water of the 
bay a few minutes preceding the shock. — J. B. T. 

1865. October 27| 8 p. m.| III and IV T ^ 

A light shock in the Valley of Clear Lake; a light shock at Downie- 
ville, Sierra County; more severe shock at Goodyear's Bar. — J. B. T. 

1855. December 6| llt20 a. m. 

A shock at Humboldt -Bay, Cal.— J. B. T. 

1855. December 11 1 4h.f VI. 

San Francisco; quite severe at Mission Dolores. — J. B. T. 

1855. December 21 1 lib. 20iii. a. m. 

Humboldt Bay, Cal. — ^Perrey. 

1856. January 2f 10b. 15m. f VII. 

Smart shock at San Francisco, Cal.-^. B. T. Light shock at 10 
a. m. — ^T. T. ** Severe." — B. Ms. — San Francisco Daily Herald, Jan- 
uary 3, 1856. Goods were shaken from the shelves. — ^B. Ms. 
9 a. m. and 10 a. m. — Perrey. 



46 EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



18B6. Janiiarjr 10| 6 a. m. 

Slight shock; and another at about 8 a. m. [at San Francisco?]. 
This was very severe at Los Angeles and throughout the south- 
ern part of the State (VI).— B. Ms. 



f 



/ 



18B6. JannAry 21 1 leit.i T. 

Smart shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 

18B6. January 28| 4 p. m. 

Mission [Dolores?] Cal. — Perrey. 



\ 



^ 18B6. Jannary 28| 81i.| T. 

Smart shock at Petaluma, Sonoma Ck)unty, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

18B6. Jannary 99| Oh. 45m.| m. 

y Slight shock at San Francisco, Mission Dolores. — J. B. T. — ^Perrey, 

1866. Jannary 81 1 4 p. m. 

[San Francisco?]. — ^Perrey. 

1866. Febmary 16 1 61i. 26m. a. m., in S. F. (See 1868, November 26.) 

w In San Francisco (Vm), severe shock of eight seconds; a previous 
shock at 2.08 a^^. Heavy shock at Monterey, Cal.^'(V), 5.20 a. m. 
Shock at Bodega^ Cal. (IV). Twenty-two vessels off the coast, 
from San Pedro to southern Oregon, felt no shock. Shock at 
^ Santa Rosa (IV?) and no further N.; light shock at Stockton, and 
no further E.; shocks at San Jos6. — Trask, Register, p. 15. — Perrey. 
Two shocks in San Francisco, one at 2.15 a. m.; one at 5.23 a. m., 
lasting twelve seconds. Not felt at Sacramento, slight at 
Stockton; severe at San Jos§ (Vlf, hardest at Oakland (Vn)^-- 
B. Ms. Severe at S. F., 5.35 a. m.— T. T. The water in the Bay of^ 
S. F. rose, maintained its level for five minutes, and then sankV 
two feet below its ordinary stage. — ^B. Ms. O 

1866. Marcb 16 1 

San Francisco. — ^Perrey. 

1866. Mareb 24 1 22b. 20m. | III. 

y . -> A slight shock was felt at Canal Gulch, Siskiyou County; also 
Yreka,— J. B. T.— Perrey. 

1866. Mareb 80 1 8t80 p. m. 

' ' S. F., Cal.— B. Ms. — Sacramento UrUon, April 2, 1856. — Perrey. 

^ . 1866. Mareb 81$ 12i80 a. m. 

S. F., Cal.— B. yis.— Sacramento Union, April 2, 1856. 

1866. Mareb 81$ lt80 a. m. 

S. F., Cal.— iSf. F. Daily Herald, April 1, 1856. 

1866. AprU 6$ 28b. 80m.| T. 

*^^ Smart shock at Los Angeles, El Monte, Cal.— J. B. T. — Perrey. 



(K^i/v*..^ 




yr^ 




EABTHQUAKBS ON THE PAOIFIO OOABT 47 



( 



1856. April 14| 

Lo0 Angeles, Cal. — Perrey. 



. ISSe. May 2| Oil. 10m.| T. 

X ^ Severe 8h€>ck at Los Angeles. — J. B. T. 

ISSe. Majr 9| nlffht. 

^ J Los Angeles. — ^B. Ms. 



i 



V 



ISSe. May 10| 211t. 10m.| III. 

Light shock at San Francisco. — J. B. T.; and Monterey. — Perrey. 

1806. Amriuit 2| 51i. 90m.| UI and Firff 

A light shock in San Francisco, Cal.; more severe at Stockton. — 
J. B. T.— Perrey. 



1866. Auwst 27| Sib. 16m.| IT. 

/ ' Moderate shock, twice repeated, from the west, at Mission San Juan, 

Monterey, Santa Cruz. — J. B. T. Another strong shock [where?] 
in the night of August SO.—Perrey. 



i* 



V 



1866. September 6| 81t.| T. 

Smart shock at Santa Cruz, Cal. — J. B. T. — ^Perrey. 

1856. September 20 1 28b. 80m. | Yll. 

Very severe shock in San Diego County, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1856. Septeaiber 22| eTenlnari IH. 

San Diego, Cal.; light shock. — Perrey. 

1856. September 25| II18O p. m. 

V ' San Diego County.— B. Ms.— S. F. BitUeUn, October 18, 1856. 

1866. September 28 1 

Slight shocks in parts of Southern California. — B. Ms. 

1856. September 28| 

^ \ Slight shocks in parts of Southern California. — ^B. Ms. 

1856. Oetober 1$ 

Slight shocks in parts of Southern California. — ^B. Ms. 

1856. Oetober 18 1 «<morBliiK^I III. 

* Slight shock at S. F., Cal.— B. Ms.— fi'acrameiito ViUany October 22, 
N ,' 1856.' 

, 1866. Movember 12| 4b. | T. 

^ Smart shock, Humboldt Bay, Cal. Another shock was reported, but 
no date given. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1866. December 26$ 

Port Townsend, Washington. — Perrey.— P. 



t 




48 EABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

I860. December T| about 10 p. m. 

-- U Foot of Clear Lake, Lake County, Cal.— B. Ms.— S. F. Bulletin, Sep- 
tember 3, 1859. This shock was not felt at Big Valley, thirteen 
miles away. — B. Ms. 

1856 f Deeemberfi Til. 

\y Very severe in San Diego, Cal. — ^Verbal accoant of Don Jos^ 
Thompson. 

1856. In the follf IX. 

y' Tulare County. The line of the shock " was marked by a fracture 

'^ of the earth's surface, continuing in one uniform direction for a 

distance of some two hundred miles." — B. Ms. — Barton, History of 
Tulare County, p. ll. 

^ 1857. Jannarr 8| llt20 p. m.i also Janiaary 8$ VIII f IX T ^^^ 

Heavy earthquakes in California. All the houses in Santa Barbara 
were damaged. — Perrey. 
»^At Ft. Tejon this shock was more severe than the shocks of 1812. — 
B. Ms. — Nevada Journal, May 8, 1857. Two persons killed by being 
buried in the ruins of a house. — ^B. Ms.— Lo« Angeles Express, De- 
cember 4, 1875? [1867?]. Visalia, Tulare County, it was difficult to 
stand erect; tree tops waved several feet to and fro; it was equally 
severe at places within fifty miles north and south. 



1857. January 8| 6 a. iii.| 9 a. m., 10 a. m. 

^ .' Three shocks at Santa Barbara; and in the afternoon two slight 

shocks and one sevelt'e one; 8.30 a. m., Los Angeles; 8.15 a. m., San 

\* Francisco; 7 a. m., Monterey; 7.30 a. m., Sacrainento. — ^Perrey. 

^ San Francisco, 8 a. m. — T. T. At Los Angeles, five or six shocks 

during the day, and within eight days about twenty shocks. — 

B. Ms.— iSfaoramento UnUm, February 5, 1857. 



1857. January 8 and 8| 

California. Dr. Trask shows that the velocity of the earth wave 
was: San Francisco-Sacramento, 6.6 miles per minute; San Fran- 
cisco-Stockton, 6.5 miles per minute; San Francisco-Tejon, 6.0 
miles per minute; San Francisco-San Diego, 7.0 miles per minute. 
Or, on the average, 6.2 miles per minute, or 545.6 feet per second. 
— Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 25, p. 146. 

1867. January 9| 8t20 a. m. 

L' At Stockton, and Benson's Ferry on the Mokelumne, several shocks 

^ on the night 8-9, the principal one at 8.15 a. m.; 8.30 a. m., very 

( severe at Sacramento; 7 a. m., at Los Angeles and Mon^rey. — 

S. F. Bulletins January 9, 1857. Satf Josil, Cal. — Sacramento Vnion^ 

September 20, 1858. 

1857. January 8| 

Ft. Tejon, the earth opened in cracks twenty miles long; buildings 
and chimneys were thrown down; beds of streams changed. — B. 
Ms. — Los Angeles County History, p. 545. 



t 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 49 

. 1857. January 8| IX. 

Fort Tejon. On ninth January, 1857, an earthquake shook the earth 
from Fort*^uma (IX) to Sacramento (VI). It was most severe 
at Fort Tejon (ll^). A loud rumbling accompanied the shocl^ at 
Tejon, San Bernardino, Visafia (IX) and Mojave Valley. The 
waters of the Mokelumne Biver were thrown upon the banks, so as 
to leave the bed bare in one place/ The current of Kern Biver 
w&s turned up stream, and the virater ran four feet deep over the 
bank. The water of Tulare La}ce (IX) was thrown upon its 
shores; and the Los Angfeles Biver (IX) was flung out of its bed. 
So^e of the artesian wells in Santa Clara Valley ceased to run, 
and in other places the water increased. Near San Fernando, a 
large stream of water ran from the mountains, where there was 
no water before. In San Diegb and San Feniando, several houses 
w^ere thrown down (IX), at San Buenaventura (IX) the roof of 
the Mission Church fell in. Several new springs were formed 
near Santa Barbara. In the San Gabriel Valley the earth opened 
several miles long; and in one place the river left its bed and 
followed the new opening. A large fissure was made in the west- 
em part of San Bernardino. At Fort Tejon nearly all buildings 
were thrown down, lai^ trees overthrown, and the earth opened 
in a fissure twenty feet wide and forty miles long; the sides then 
came together with such violence that a ridge was formed ten 
feet wide and several feet high. At Beed's ranch, near Fort Tejon, 
a house was thrown down and a woman in it killed. — B. Ms. — 
Hittell's Resowrce8, pp. 42-43. At San Benito (Vin or IX?), 15 or 
20 miles N. W. of San Benito, Dr. Canfield's Diary says 3 shocks^ 
the first about sunrise [which was at 7.23 a. m.], lasting not over 
5 seconds, accompanied by noise. The second about 8 a. m., " very 
much more violent — ^pieces of mortar fell from the walls — 1 was 
almost thrown from my seat — this lasted for a minute or two [I] 
and I then went out of doors, when the oscillation returned and 
lasted perhaps a minute, but was quite gentle." The direction 

. was S. to N. A person lying down reported a shock at 10 a. m., 
which was not felt by persons in motion (11). 

18B7. Jaivaary 16 1 V. 

Severe shock at Los Angeles. — B. Ms. 5 p. m. — Perrey. 

1867. January 17| nlgpltt. 

Two shocks; January 18, 8 a. m.; [at Los Angeles?] — Perrey. 

1857. January 18 1 O a. m.i III. 

A light shock at Martinez and Benicia, Cal. — J. B. T. Monterey. — 
Perrey. 

18S7. January 20$ 81i. 80m. a. m.i V. 

; Strong shock at Santa Cruz and Mission San Juan, Cal. — J. B. T. 



50 EABTHQUAKBa ON THB PACIFIC COAST 

j 1857. Janaary 20 1 TI. 

.,,. / ^ Severe shock, Ft. Tejon. — B. Ms. — Loa Angeles County History, p. 545. 

1867. January 20| 8i80 p. m. 

Mission San Juan. — ^Perrey. 

y 1867. Jannary 91 1 III. 

^ 15 or 20 miles N. W. of San Benito. About 7h. 20m. a. m.? p. m.? 
^^ a slight shock lasting a few seconds. — ^Dr. Canfield*s Diary. 



Ky 1867. January 21 1 evening | T. 
^ Smart shock at Mariposa, Cal. — J. B. T. 11 p. m. — ^Perrey. 

I 1867. February 6| 7 p. m. 

f^v .t San Francisco, Cal.— J. B. T.— T. T. 6.55 p. m. Two shocks at S. F., 

Oakland, and Stockton, Cal. — Perrey. 

1867. Mareh 6| about 7 p. m. 

V V " Two short shocks in San Francisco, Cal. — ^Perrey. 

\^^ 1867. Mareb 14| 16b. i T. ^ > 

Severe shocks at Santa Barbara and Montecito. — J. B. T. 

, / ^ 1867. Mareb 28| 12t27 a. ni.| ni. 

/ A light shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 



\ 



1867. April X\ TI. 

/ ^ 15 or 20 miles N. W. of San Benito. About 3.35 a. m. a severe shock 



/ 

\ 

lasting about 8 sec. — Dr. Canfield's Diary. 



/ 



1867. AprU 24f. 

^ 2 A shock was recently felt at San Gabriel and San Jos6, Cal. — Perrey. 

1867. May 2| momlngr. 

Two shocks at Los Angeles.— B. Ms. 

^ 1867. May 8| 22b.| TI. / ' . 

Smart shock at Los Angeles and £1 Monte, Cal. — J. B. T. " Violent 
shock.'* — Perrey. 

1867. May 28; t^^ 

/ / Slight shock at Los Angeles (IQ). Severe shock at Fort Tejon (VI). 
\ —J. B. T. " Four shocks at Los Angeles."— B. Ms. 

1867. June 14| TI. 

/ Severe shock at Humboldt Bay, Cal. Several severe shocks at the 
Penal Island (Carmen), Gulf of Cal.— J. B. T. 

1867. July 6| 7b. | TI. 

' s Severe shock at San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIFIO COAST 51 

^ ^ i 1867. Aiivust 8| lllt.| T. 

Smart shock at Babbit Creek, Sierra County, Cal. — J. B. T. 

r- 1867. Aiavuat 29| Tl. 

i Severe shock at Tejon Beserve, Cal. — J. B. T. 



\ 



V 



1867. September Si 181t. 46m. | III. 

Sli^t shock at San Francisco, Sacramento, Marysville, Nevada^ 
San Jnan, Downieville, and Camptonville, Cal. — J. B. T. 

1867. September 7| 

San Francisco. — ^Perrey. 

1867. September 7| 

Violent earthquake in California?? quoted from meteorological ob- 
servations in 71st report Univ. of N. Y., p. 359, by Perrey, who, 
however, thinks the date doubtful. 

V 1867. September 14| 2 p. m.| \tU 

\ A slight shock in San Francisco, Cal.— J. B. T. At 2.15.— T. T. 

1867. Septemberi 

Birch Bay, Washington.— P. 

Y 1867. Oetober 19| 18b. SOm.; VI. 

Severe shock at San Francisco, Cal.— J. B. T. 6.15 p. m. — T. T. 

^ 1867. Oetober 20| 12b. 8m. | 12b. 86m. | 18b. 16m. | HIT 

Three shocks felt at San Francisco and San Jos6, but not in Oakland; 
the last the most severe. — J. B. T. Light shock 1.20 a. m. — T. T. 

1867. MoTember 2| 6i26 p. m.| III. 

S. F., Cal., in the night several light shocks. — Perrey. 

1867. Hovember 8| lil6 a. m. and 8 a. m. 

S. P., Cal.— Perrey. 

1867. Movember 8| 3t46 a. m. 

J San Francisco, Oakland, and Bodega, Cal. — J. B. T. 

1867. November 9| Oi46 a. m. 

San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. 

1867. MoTember 8| 2i30 a. m. 

San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. 

1867. November 16 1 a little after 6 p. m. 

San Jos^. — B. Ms. 

1867. Deeeaiber 28 1 7 a. m.| III. 

A light shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 



52 EABTHQUAKBB ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

)^y J 1867. Deeember a4| 6i40 a. m.f p. m.f 

y S. P., Cal.— Perrey. 

1867. 

" Accounts from Fort Tejon report frequent shocks in that section 
^ of the country.*' Dr. Trask does not mention them in his notes 

on earthquakes in California during 1857. — Perrey. 



Four shocks; S. F., Cal. — Perrey. 
1867. Deeember 80 1 6t40 



/ 



■'\ 



\ 



I 



-y 



• 



1868. Jamaary 1 or 2| 



*• ' ^ \, \ San Francisco. — ^Perrey. 



1868. JanuavT 18 1 8 p. m. 

S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 



1868. Febmarr 10$ T. 

Smart shock at Kanaka Flat, Sierra County, Cal. — J. B. T. 



w 1868. Febmarr 16 1 4b. 20m.| FIT. 
X A light shock in San Francisco, and also in San Mateo County, Cal. 

J. B. T.— Perrey. 

1868. Avffiist 18 1 10t46 p. m.? TI. 

Two shocks, first light, second heavy enough to waken sleepers, 
Sonoma County. — ^B. Ms. 10.55 p. m. — B, F. Directory, — Sacrammio 
Union, August 23, 1858. 10.55 and 10.58 p. m., S. F., Cal.— T. T. 
** No shock so severe as this in S. F. since February 15, 1856."— 
B. Ms. 



/ ^ 1868. Auvuat lOi a2b. 10m.| III. 

A light shock in San Francisco. — J. B. T. 



1868. September Si V. 

Smart shock at Santa Barbara, Cal. — J. B. T. 



-V 



^ 1868. September 8| Ob. 40m. | T. 

Strong shock at San Jos6 and Santa Cruz, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

/ 1868. September 12| 19b. 40m. | V. 

^ Smart shock at San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. Lasting 15 seconds. — 
Perrey. 

1868. September 26| lb. 28m. 

A light shock in San Francisco. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1868. September T; 

San Jos6 and elsewhere. In San Jos6 more violent than the shock 
of January 9, 1857. — ^B. Ms.— fifocromefito Union, September 20, 1858. 



EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 53 

1858. November SBf 12 186 a. m.| VII. 

San Francisco. '* A Tiolent earthquake was experienced in the city 
this morning at twenty-five minutes before one o'clock. It con- 
sisted of two shocks, separated by an interval of a few seconds, 
and lasting altogether about half a minute. It is considered to 
have been nearly as violent as the great shock of February, 1S56, 
and to have lasted much longer. A great deal of alarm was occa- 
sioned in some of the larger structures of the city, partic.ulorly 
in the Montgomery block, and in the Bassette House and other 
extensive hotels. A number of buildings were vacated temporarily. 
At Musical Hall, where the Independent National Guard were 
having a ball, the shock was not noticed on the dancing floor, 
though the building was very much shaken. In the Merchants* 
Exchange building, opposite the Custom House, some large cracks 
were made, and a portion of the cornice in the U. S. District 
Court-room was shaken down. At the City Hall some small pieces 
of plastering were shaken off, but no serious injury was done; 
nor, indeed, have we heard of any damage in the city. At the 
Union Hotel, adjoining the City Hall, the window-blinds were 
observed to flap violently against the windows, and it was thought 
by persons in Merchant Street that the building would fall, so 
violently was it rocked. In many portions of the city bells were 
rung and crockery rattled." — ^B. Ms. — 8. F, Bulletin^ November 
26, 1858. 

1868. November 26| VIII. 

San Jos^. "The earthquake was more severely felt at San Jos6 
than any that has before occurred there. Every family had 
dishes, glassware, or clocks broken by falling off the shelves or 
tables. Almost every grocery store had bottles, etc., thrown off 
the shelves and broken. Every brick, adobe, or concrete building 
was cracked or injured in some way, or had the plastering broken 
off. Some plastering was broken off the City Hall. The Jail and 
Sheriff's office, a two-story brick building, was damaged consider- 
ably by the cracking and falling of the plastering. The new Bap- 
tist church had the front walls cracked in several places. A new 
brick building, only one story high, eighteen by twenty feet in 
size, and very firmly built, was cracked through the center, and 
had the plastering shaken off. Mr. Minor's concrete building had 
two comers and a part of the cornice shaken off, damaging it to 
the extent of about five hundred dollars. Our informant says: 
" Mr. J. Lewis' large clock was stopped at just eighteen minutes 
and twenty-two seconds before one o'clock, which must have been 
the exact time of the commencement of the trembling. He looked 
at his watch at the conclusion of the shock, when it was just eigh- 
teen minutes to one — ^which would make the duration of the earth- 
quake just twenty-two seconds, if the watch and clock kept the 
same time. The undulations were from the north to the south. 



\/' 



54 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

accompanied by a rumbling noise." — ^B. Ms. — B. F, BuUe^, Novem- 
ber 27, 1868. 

1868. November 86 1 0t85 «• m.i Til. 

Two shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Oh. 24m. a heavy shock at 
San Francisco and Oakland. — J. B. T. Nearly every brick buUding 
in San Jos^ was injured. The shock at San Jos6 was twenty-two 
seconds long, and began at Oh. 42m. — ^B. Ms. — Perrey. This shock 
was not felt at Stockton, Sacramento, nor Marysville. — J. B. T. 

N. B. — ^This shock was a Santa Clara Valley earthquake. 

1868. Deeember 6|.a p. m. 

.,>/ V ^^ Mariposa, Cal. — Perrey. 



y 



I860. JaniiAry S6| 20K, 80m. f TI. ^ 

Severe shock in Trinity and Shasta Counties; at Weaverville, Shasta, 
and Horsetown. — J. B. T. 



V 






1860. Marclt 81 1 Sh. SOm. a. m. 

- \ San Biego, Cal. — ^Perrey. 

I860. Marclt 86 1 TI. 

y Fourteen shocks, one very severe, at San Felipe, Santa Clara County, 

Cal.— B. Ms. 

I860. Marelii 

Dr. Mogencraft reports an eruption in northern part of Shasta 
County. — Perrey. [?] 



/ 



/ V' I860. April 4 1 181i.| TI. 

Severe shock at San Jos6, Cal. — J. B. T. 




i 



/ 




\ 



\ 




V 



X 



• 



1860. April 87| 7i80 p. m. 

San Francisco, Cal., two shocics. — Perrey. 

I860. Auvuat 8| 

San Jos6. — Sacramento Union, August 15, 1859. 

I860. Anvuat 10 1 about 0t80 p. m.| T. 

Heavy shock at San Jos6; after several minutes another slighter. — 
B. Ms. — Bacramento UMon, August 15, 1859. 

I860. Anvuat 10) 88b. 88m. | T. 

Smart shock in 8. F.^J. B. T.— S. F. D. 

I860. Anvuat 16) Auffuat 17. 

Eruption of Mt. Hood, Oregon. — Perrey. [?] 

I860. Anvust 80 1 IO18O p. m. 

Three distinct shocks in Mariposa County, Cal. — B. Ms. — Alta, Sep- 
tember 10, 1859. 



/ 



\ 



SABTHQUAKES OK THE PACIFIC COAST 55 

1.860. Anmumti 

Big Valley, Lake Ck»unty, Cal.— B. Ms.— £*. F. Bulletin, September 3, 
1859. — The shocks were not felt a few miles off. (See 1856, De- 
cember.) 

18S9. September 8| 8i80 «• m. 

Two distinct shocks. Petaluma, Cal. — B. Ms! — Saeratnento UfUon, 
September 15, 1859. Sligrht shock, S. F., Gal. (IV?).— B. Ms. 

• 1868. September 2a i «• m.| VI. 

Severe shock, S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 



/ 



1869. September 24| 8 «• m.| IT. 

Slight shock at Half Moon Bay. — ^B. Ms. — Siicramento Union, Septem- 
ber 28, 1859. Waters of the bay receded fifteen feet and returned 
suddenly. 

1869. September 24) 6i46 «• m. 

San Francisco, Cirf.— T. T. 

y ^ 1869. September 20 1 6b. 10m.| V. 

Smart shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 



X 



^ y 1869. Oetober 6| 0il6 p. m.| Til. 

Severe shock at San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. 13h. 8m.; strong shock, 



V 



S. F., Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. — The severest since 1856, February 15. 

1869. Oetober 18| 6 «• m. (See September 24). 
8. F.; at Half Moon Bay the water left the bay for several seconds. 
— ^Perrey. 

1869. November 19| 8 s. m.| IT. 

Slight shock, S. F., Cal. — ^B. lis.— Sacramento Union, November 22, 

1859. 

1869. November 22} 

Mt. Baker in full activity.— Perrey. [?] 

1869. November 26} 

San Francisco, Cal. — Perrey. 

1869. November 27} evening. 

/ Two shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — ^Perrey. 

1869. November 27} 19b. 16m.} IT. 

^ A light shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 

1869. Deeember 1} Ob. 60m.} T. 

>^ ^ Smart shock in San Francisco, Cal. Felt at Oakland and Benida. — 

J. B. T.— Perrey. 






/ 



V 



X 



/ 



56 BABTHQtJAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1868. Deeember 1| 14h. 10m.| T. 

Several successive shocks were felt at San Bernardino; several of 
them were quite heavy. — J. B. T. 2.10 p. m. — Perrey. 

1869. Deeember 6| evening | IT. 

Slight shock at S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

y/ 1869. December 11| 9 a. m.| V. 

Smart shock at San Jos€. — B. Ms.— fifacraiwenio l/wfon, December 12, 
1859. 

1869. December 24; 0164 a. m. 

San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. 

1869. Deoember) 

Eruption of Mt. Baker. — Perrey. [?] 



.; 



/ 



18110. Januarr 1| 8t43 p. m.| III. 

Light shock at S. F., Cal. — Perrey. 

1860. January 26-27) nlvbt. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — ^Perrey. 

1860. Febrnarr 9| a few mlnntes before 1 o'clock. 

S. F., CaL—B. Ms.— fifocramento t7w4on, February 10, 1860. 

1800. Marcb 16) lib.) Til. 

. V Violent shock at Sacramento. The wave passed through the coun- 

/' ties of Placer, Nevada, £1 I^orado, and Plumas. The earthquake 

extended to the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada. At Carson 
. City it occurred at lOh. 45m. and was very violent. — J. B. T. 

1800. Marcb 26| VI. 

Los Angeles and Southern California, severe. — B. Ms. 

1800. Marcb 27) TI. 

V Severe shock in Los Angeles and vicinity. — J. B. T. 

1800. April 2) 8 p. m.) VI. 

V Two severe shocks at San Juan, Monterey County, Cal. — B. Ms. — 
Sacramento Union, April 7, 1860. 

I860. April 6) 1 a. m. 

/ " * Several shocks in S. F., Cal.— Perrey. 



/ \ 



I860. April 16) 7t80 p. m. 

San Francisco, Fort Tejon, Santa Barbara. — B. Ms.— Sacramento 

Union, May 1, 1860. 
7 p. m. Severe shocks at S. F., Cal. (VI).— Perrey. April 17? About 

this time shocks during several hours at Washoe, Nev. — Perrey. 



fi^ 



EABTHQUAEBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 57 

1.800. April 10| 

-V^ Several shocks, S. P., Cal. — ^Perrcy. 

1.800. April S0| 

Eruption of Mt. Baker. — Perrey. [?] 

1.800. May 7| [ 

Port Townsend, W. T.—Perrey.—P. 

1800. May 26 1 about O a. m. 

Two shocks at S. F., Cal.— B. Ms. — Sacramento Union, May 28, 1860. 

1.800. June 1| evenlnir* 

'x^ Mariposa. — B. Ms. — Sacramento Union, June 9, 1860. 
1.800. September 28| 10 a. m. 



^ 
^ 



S. F., Cal. — ^B. Ms. — Sacramento Union, September 26, 1860. 

I860. September 28i aboat O p. m.j VI. 

SeTere shock at Martinez. — B. Ms.— A [fa, October 1, 1860. 

1800. September 30| 10 a. m. 

' ' S. F., Cal.— Perrey. 

1800. Nfyrember 12 1 T. 

/^^ Smart shock at Humboldt Bay, Cal. — J. B. T. Felt in various parts 

of the country, also. — ^B. Ms. Alia, November 24, 1860. 

1800. November 24| ItSO a. m. 

/ - ' S. F., Cal.— Perrey. 



\ 



/ 



1800. Deoember 21 1 Ob. 80m.) If 

Bepeated slight vibrations, extending over a period of half an hour, 
noticeable only by the vibrations of the mercury in the barometer. 
S. F., Cal. — J. B. T. The next day a violent earthquake at Santiago 
de Chile. — Milne's Earthquakes, p. 331. [Probably no connection 
between these events.] 

1801. Jaavary 12| aboat 1 a. m.| TI. 

Two severe shocks in Trinity County, Cal. — B. Ms. Sacramento 
Union, January 29, 1861. 

1801. January 27) 8 a. m. 

Butte County, Cal. — B. Ms. Sacramento Union, February 4 and Feb- 
ruary 12, 1861. (Supposed to be an explosion of gunpowder, or 
of a meteor, or the rumbling of an avalanche. Heard also in 
Sierra County.) 

1881. February 2) liSO a. m. 

San Francisco, Cal. — Perrey. 

lAOl. Marcb 28) f a. m.) T. 

Quite severe at S. F., Cal. — B. Ms. — Sacramento Union, March 25, 1861. 



\ 



58 EABTHQITAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



1861. Msrelt f 



\ / *, Tejon, Cal.— B. Ms. 



/ 



V 



>■ 



V 



t 



\ 



/ 



V 



1861. April 20| 4il0 a. m. T p. m. T III. 

Slight shock at S. F., Gal. — ^B. Ms.— fifacram^to Union^ May 2, 1861. 

1861. April 29| OiaS p. m.| T. 

Smart shock at Mendocino, Cal.— B. Ms. — Sacramento Union, May 11, 
1861. 



V 1861. May 4| p. m.| III. 

Slight shock in the neighborhood of San Francisco. During, this 
week the tides were unusually low. — Perrey. 



V^ 



1861. June 18 1 6 126 «• m.| m. 

Slight shock at S. F., Cal. — B. Ms. — fifaoram«fito Union, June 15, 1861. 



1861. July 2| 

V •. Alameda, Cal. — B. Ms. — Saorummto Union, July 8, 1861. 

1861. July 8 1 4 ill p. m. 

Severe shock, followed by two light shocks, at San Francisco, Cal. — 
xy-' T. T. For several days light shocks were feH in and near S. F. — 

J. B. T. 

A light shock in San Francisco (IV?), but very Heavy, indeed^ at 
Doherty's Ranch, in<<Amador Valley, near where Livermore now 
is (IX?). — ^Verbal account of R. C. Hopkins. Adobe houses seri- 
ously injured; men in the fields were thrown down. — ^Hittell's 
Resources, p. 43. Stockton, also. — ^B. Ms. 

1861. Jnly 8| 8 «• m.| July 4 and 6, at nlirliti Jnly 7, at nlirlit. 

Slight shocks in Alameda, Cal. — B. Mb.— Sacramento Union, July 15, 
1861. 

^ 1861. July 4?) 161t. 11m. !, ' 

Severe shock of earthquake occurred at San Francisco. It con- 
sisted of three distinct waves, following each other in very rapid 
succession. More severe in the San Ramon Valley, east of the city. 
It opened a large fissure in the earth, and a new spring of water. 
For several days after there were light shocks. J. B. T. — Perrey. 



1861. Septenib«r 16| 2 a. m. 

iolent earthquake at Sie: 
Sacramento Union, September 30, 1861. 



, I Violent earthquake at Sierra Valley, Nevada County, Cal. — ^B. Ms. — 



1861. October S6T Ifovember 26 T 

Humboldt, Cal.— B. Ms. 8, F. Bulletin, December 2, 1861, gives the 
date as October 26; Sacramento Union gives November 26. The 
same shock is referred to by both papers. 



y 



V 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIFIC COAST 59 

I801. December 0} 

Santa Catalina Island. — ^B. Ms. 

1.802. January 21} aboat 6 a, m. 

Stockton. — ^B. Ms.— £facmfii€nto Vnifm^ January 25, 1862. 

1862. Marebi 

Tejon, Cal.— B. Ms. 

ISea. May 279 VI. ^ 

Severe shock in Southern California, San Diego, Temecula, aiid 
AnUieim. — B. Ms. 

1882. May 27 to Jvne 6| 

Shocks nearly every day. — ^B. Ms. [In Southern California?? 
E. S. H.] 

1862. Jane 7| 

Los Angeles. — ^B. Ms. 

1862. Jnne 18} 

San Diego, Cal.— B. Ms. 

1862. Jnne 14| 

San Diego, Cal.— B. Ms. 

1869. Jnly 2} abont 6 p. m.} VI. /V^^^j^-i^u 

A severe shock at La Porte, ttHMaCounty, Cal. — ^B. Ms. — B. F. Bul- 
letin, July 11, 1862. 

1862. September 28 1 7-8 a. m. 

In the Echo du Paoiflque of October 1 two shocks are reported. — 
Perrey. 

1862. September 99$ 16b. 6m.) VI. 

A very smart shock at San Francisco. Felt also at Petaluma.— ^. 
B. T. 

1862. October 21 1 VI. 

Violent shock at San Diego, Cal. Seven shocks since May 28. — ^B. Ms. 

1862. Deeember 20? 27?) abont 6 a. m. 

S. F. and Oakland, Cal. — Perrey. 

1862. Deeember 28) 20b. 10m.) V. 

Smart shock in San Francisco, Cal.-— J. B. T. 5.30 a. m. — T. T. 
Thunder at 2 a. m. — ^B. Ms. 

1862. Deeember 20) III. 

Slight shock at San Francisco.— S. F. D. 



60 BABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



A 1868. January 17} about mldnifflit. 



1 




S. F., Cal.— Perrey. 

1863. January S6| 211. 86m. p. ni.| VI. 

^ A severe shock at San Diego, Cal. — J. B. T. — B. Ms. — Alta^ February 
11, 1863. 

1868. January S6| Sli. XOm.| VI. 

^^ Severe shock in San Diego, Cal. — J. B. T. 

1868. February If 16b. Im. ^ , (\;(;«VAib 

f A very smart shock at the Mission San Juan, MioBterey County 
\/ Y (V?). At GilroyA twelve miles east of the Mission, the shock was 

^ fifteen minutes later. The shock was not felt at Monterey, twelve 

miles west of the Mission. — J. B. T. 

1868. February 6| 4 p. m. 

/ V V New Gilroy, twelve miles northwest of San Juan, at 4.15 p. m.; San 
^ Juan, Monterey County, 4 p. m. — ^B. Ms. — Alta, February 11, 1863. 

1868. Marob 18 1 about 2 a. m.| VI. 

V A severe shock in San Francisco, Cal. — S. F. D. (not noted by T. T. 
2 a. m.). 



X" 



1868. June Tf V. 

A smart shock at San Francisco, Cal.— J. B. T. 



1868. About June 27} Itll p. m. 

>/ ' San Diego.— B. Ms.— Alto, July 7, 1863. 

1868. July 16f 6t80-8t80r| V. 

\ V Two strong shocks at San Jos§, Cal. — Perrey. 

1868. July 16| 10b. 19m.| V. 

^ ^ Smart shock in San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 

/ 1868. July 16| 

\ San Jos^; Santa Clara. — ^B. Ms. 

1868. July 24| about 10 a. m.| V. 

\ A severe shock at S. F., Cal. — 8. F. D. 

1868. July 81 1 about 10 a. m. 

Strong shock at S. F., Cal. — Perrey. 

1868. Aumnmt 1| 10b. 48m. p. m., and lib. 6m. p. m. 

Two shocks at San Francisco. — J. B. T. 

1868. Au«u«t 2} litis p. m.} V. 

Three severe shocks at S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. (not noted by T. T.). 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 61 

1868. Oetober 18| 

^ . Yuba City, Sutter County, Cal.— B. Ms.— iS". F. BvXletin, October 22, 

1863. 

1868. December 10| 2t88 p. m.| TIIIT 

Severe shock at S. F., Cal., followed a few seconds later by one more 
severe. Probably the severest shock since 1855. — B. Ms. — [1856?]. 

^ 1868. Deeember 19 1 2t45 p. m.| Til. i^- 

Very severe shock at Sail^Jos^ and Santa Clara. — B. Ms. — AUa^ De- 
cember 20, 1863. 

yj 1868. December 28) 2i40 p. m.| T. 

Strong shock, 5-6s., in S. F., and San Jo8§, Cal.— Perrey. 

<«/ 1868. December 80) about 8 «• m.| T. 

Strong shock in S. F., CaL — Perrey. Several shocks. — S. F. D. 

1864. Febni«rr 26 1 Ob. 40m., and 2b. lOm., 6b. 47m. | VI. 

V Shocks in San Francisco, Visalia, San Jos^, and Santa Clara. — J. B. 
T. Severe at Santa Cruz.— B. Ms. Severe in S. F.— B. Ms.— 
Perrey. Very severe at Santa Cruz (VI). — Mr. Sawin's Diary. 

1864. Marcb 6| 8b. 40m. 

y A shock of considerable violence at San Francisco, Santa Bosa, Santa 

. Cruz (V), Stockton, Petaluma, Santa Clara (VI), and San Jos6 

y (VI). At the last named place the shock was most violent and 

\ lasted about two minutes. Very severe at Visali^(VI). — J. B. T. 

Light shock at S. F., 8.50 a. m.— T. T. 

ft 

1864. Mareb 6| T. 
^^ Santa Cruz. Door bell rung.— Mr. Sawin's Diary. 

%/ 1864. 8s80 a. m. (Date?) 

N jr Tuolumne, CaL— B. Ms.— fiT. F, BuOetin^ March 10, 1864. 

1864. Mareb 10| 14b. 8m.| IT. 

^ ^ A light shock at San Francisco.— J. B. T. 16h. 30m., a second 
shock.— J. B. T. 



V 



1864. Mareb llf 0il6 a. m.| III. 

Slight shock at S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 



X 



V 1864. Mareb 20| 28b. 45m.| III. 

\^ A light shock in San Francisco. — J. B. T. 



V 



1864. Mareb 22 1 18b.| T. 

\*' Smart shock at Stockton, Cal.— J. B. T.— S. F., Santa Clara — 

Perrey. 



62 



EARTHQtTAKSS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 




\ 



J 



N 



X 



V/J: 



1864. May 90| ISli. Im. [Gli. Im.?] 

Slight shock at San Francisco, Gal.; 18h. 10m. severe shock at Stock- ^ 

ton (V); 18h. 57m. severe shock at Napa (V); ISh. very severe at 
s^ Sacramento (VI).— ^. B. T. 

« 

864. May 90| 6tB6 p. m. 

lAght shock at San Francisco, GaL — ^T. T. Five or six shocks were 
reported about 6 p. m., very severe [?] — Mining and SoienUflc Press, 
S. F. D. 

864. June 6| lilt. 7m.| lU. 

A light shock in San Francisco. — J. B. T. 

864. Jvne 22) flOli. 68m.| T. 

Smart shock at San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

864. July 6} SOli. 8m.| IT. 

Moderate shock at San Francisco, Gal.; four vibrations.— J. B. T. 

864. Jaly 18 1 Slk, 90m. p. m. 

Near Los Angeles, Gal. — ^Perrey. 



X-3 



X 



K 



864. July 21 1 21t. 7m.$ T. 

Smart shock in San Francisco. 
S. F. D. 



. B. T. Several shocks, July 21. — 



864. July 21 1 221t. 40m. 88iU| VI. 

A very smart shock in San Francisco, San Jos6, and Stockton; twelve 
minutes later in Los Angeles, but not very heavy. — J.^B. T. 
Not felt at Sacramento. — Perrey. 

864. July 25) 281i. 66m. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — J. B. T. 

864. Auffuat 1. 

San Francisco, San Jos6, Sacramento, Stockton, and Los Angeles. 
Perrey. 

864. August 16 1 91k. 68m. p. m.) T. 

Fort Miller, Fresno County, Gal.; strong shocks. — Perrey. 

864. AusuAt 17) 221i. 88m.| IV. 

A light shock at Nevada, Gal., and vicinity. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 



J -" 



864. Auvuat 18 1 611. 18m.) VI. 

Very strong. Grass Valley, Cal., and Nevada. 
Yuba. — Perrey. 

864. September 6) lOh. 8m. 

San Francisco, Gal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 



. B. T. Marysville, 



EARTHQUAKES OX THE PACIPIC COAST 63 

1864. September 20$ llh. Om. 

^ San Jofl^ and S. F., Cal.— J. B. T. 10.45 a. ni.--S. i\ D. 

^1804. September 27 1 lOh. 82m. | V. 

Strong shock. Mission San Juan, Monterey County, Cal. — J. B. T. 
^Also at Watsonvillc. — Perrey. 

1884. September 28 1 llt20 a. m., T p. m. T 

^"*^ San Francisco. — Perrey. 

1804. September 80 1 10s80 «• m. 

-3 San Francisco. — Perrey. 

1884. Oetober 6| 2111. 0m.| T. 

^^ Smart shock at San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. — Perrey. 

1864. October 14 1 lb. 8m. | T. 

*^ Two heavy shocks at Mission San Juan. — J. B. T. 

1864. Oetober 14| lOb. 26m. 

* . -^ Heavy shock at Mission San Juan. — J. B. T. 

1864. Ootober 18 1 at ni«bt. 

ij San Juan; two shocks. — Perrey. 



^ 



1864. Oetober 21| 8b. a. m.| T. 

^ Strong shock at San Juan Bautista. — ^Perrey. 

^ 1864. Oetober 27 1 about lO p. m.| IT. 

« V San Francisco, Cal. (Several light shocks.)— Perrey. 

1864. Oetober 29 1 ni«bt. 

Victoria (Vancouver). Severest shock on record [?], lasting fifteen 
seconds. Felt also at New Westminster. — Perrey. (VI) at Vic- 
toria.— P. 

1864* December 11 1 20b. 52m. [8b. 62m. T] 

' v^' ^ At San Francisco and San Jose; at the last place one minute later 

and more severe. — J. B. T. 9 p. m. — S. F. D. 



/ V 



1864. December 18 1 V. 

Strong shock at Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal. — Perrey. 



1866. Janui^ry 2} 

^ 3 Ukiah, Mendocino County, Cal. — B. Ms. 



1866. January 8| 7b. i T. 

\ y Smart shock in Santa Bosa, Sonoma County, Cal. — J. B. T. — Fuchs. 
Perrey. 



^ 1866. January 18| 8b. 8m. | UL 

A light shock in San Francisco. — J. B. T. 



64 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

\y 1866. FebmAnr 4| 11 p. m.| V. 

Strong shock in S. F., Cal. — Fuchs. 

1866. Febmarr T% to end of 1866. 

It is the opinion of Fuchs (p. 10) that a period of earthquakes in 
San Francisco began on February 7 and lasted during the whole of 
the year 1866, and even into 1867. The greatest shock was 1^65* 
October 8. 

1866. February 7| 11 p. m. 

J San Francisco. — ^Perre^'. 

1866. February 8| 2 p. m.) V. 

^ Strong shock in S. F., another at 6V^ p. m. — Fuchs. 

1866. Marcb 6| nlirbt. 
\/'^ Petaluma; the heayiest ever felt up to this time. — B. Ms. 

1866. Marcb 6| 8b. 46m.) IV. 

V A light shock at Visalia, Cal.— J. B. T. 

^ 1866. Marcb 7\ 11% p. m.| T. 

V V Heavy shock in Napa City, followed one hour later by a lighter one. 
^ — Fuchs. Smart shock at San Ff^ancisco at 23h. [llh.?]-^. B. T. 

1866. Marcb 8i 6 a. m.| T. 

V Heavy shock at Napa City, and half an hour later another shock. 
\ ^ In Santa Rosa, six shocks. — Fuchs. Smart shock in^. F., 6h. 20m. 

J. B. T. 

^^ / '^ 1866. Marcb 10 1 

'\ •> San Francisco. — ^Perrey. 

1866. Marcb 24) TtSO a. m.| 1V| 

/\ I, Rather severe shock in S. F., Cal. — ^Fuchs. 



A 



/ s 



\ 




X 




1866. Marcb 80) 7b. 28m. | T. 

Very smart shock at San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T.— Perrey. 

1866. April 16) Ob. 40m.) TI. 

^ Severe shock at San Diego, Cal.— J. B. T. 

1866. April 18| 18b. 81m. | IT and V. 

Light shock at San Francisco, Angel Island, and Oakland (IV). Se- 
vere at San Juall, Monterey County (V). — J. B. T. 

1866. April 26) 8i66 p. m.) T. 

f Quite a severe shock in S. F. — Minitig and Scientific Press, Heavy 
shocks in many places in California, all from E. to W. — Fuchs. — 
Perrey. Two shocks, S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 



( 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST G5 

1865. AprU 27| 16h. 56m. 

_j Shock at San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. 

1.865. May 24} 8h. 21m. | V. 

\^ Smart shock at San Francisco, San Juan, and Santa Cruz. At the 
first place, a single movement; at the second, two waves. — J. B. T. 
— Perrey.— Fuchs. 1 Light shock at 3.30 a. m. — T. T. Remarkably 
heavy in Southern California (VII?). — B. Ms. 

1865, Jnne 12 1 T 

Several shocks at Victoria, Vancouver Island. — Fuchs.— ^P. 

^ X865. Jnne 14} 12m.} III. 

V'' Slight shock at S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

X865. Anvvat 25} 8 p. m.} VI. 

Heavy shock at Vancouver Island, lasting two minutes; later two 
more shocks. — Fuchs. (IV) at Victoria. — P. 



/ T. 



'^ 



1865. October 8} V. 

Heavy shock at Eureka, Humboldt County, Cal. — B. Ms. 



1865. October 5} T 

U^ - Shock in S. F., Cal.— Fuchs. — Perrey. 

1865. October 8} 12h. 46m. 

Very severe shock at San Francisco, San Jos4, Stockton, Santa Cruz, 
Sacramento, etc. Most severe shock since the annexation of the 
territory, and it was followed by a condition of continuous vibra- 
tion, which lasted for about ten hours. J. B. T. — T. T.- Yolo 
County. — B. Ms. 
5 



^^ 



X865. An V vat 29} 5 a. m. 

Shock in S. F., Cal., from southeast to northwest. — Fuchs. — Perrey. 

1865. September 21} 

Eruption at Mt. Hood. — Perrey. (Doubtful.) 

^ 1865. September 22} T. 

Smart shock at Yreka, Cal. — J. B. T. 

1865. September 28} 

Mt. Hood in eruption from September 23 to October 8, certainly. — 
B. Ms. [?] 

1865. October 1} 7 a. m.} IX. 

Heavy shock at Eureka, Cal.— Fuchs. Which destroyed all the brick - \ 

houses.— Perrey. 

. 1865. October 1} 9h. 15m.} VI or more ae-vere. 

\^ Very smart shock at Fort Humboldt, Cal. — J. B. T. 



66 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1866. October 8) SSb. Im. 

Light shock at San Francisco, San Job§, Stockton, Santa Cruz, Sac- 
ramento, etc. — J. B. T. Another at 23h. 50m. — J. B. T. 






V 



186IS. October 8} Uj (Sunday). 

anJPraucisco^^/The first shock was felt at sixteen minutes before 
one o'clock p. m., and lasted perhaps five seconds. It was almost 
instantly followed by a heavier shock, which continued for ten 
seconds or more. The vibrations appeared to be east and west, 
or northeast and southwest. There was nothing in the weather 
or in the condition of the atmosphere during the previous week 
to foretell the earthquake. On October s, in the evening, there 
were two or three slight additional shocks. The chief damages 
to buildings were to Popper's building, Third and Mission streets, 
the City Hall, the old Merchants' Exchange, corner Battery and 
Washington streets. The latter building was completely ruined. 
The California Engine Company's House. Market and Sansome 
streets, was severely injured and rendered unfit for occupancy. 
The chimney in the rear of the Lick House was shaken down. 
Stoddard's warehouse on Beale Street is said to have been thrown 
out of place several inches. On Third Street, from Market to 
Howard, the vnndow glass was broken in many places. On 
Washington Street, also, the glass appears to have suffered from 
Dupont Street down to Montgomery. On the marshy lands in the 
vicinity of Howard and Seventh streets, lamp posts, water pipes 
and gfas pipes were broken and thrown out of position. The 
ground on Howard Street, from Seventh north to Ninth, cracked 
open, leaving a fissure nearly an inch wide. Not one fatal acci- 
dent has yet been heard of. The effect of the earthquake on the 
waters of Mission Bay and on Long Bridge was frightful. The 
shock was felt severely at San Jos6. About ten feet of the wall 
of the jail was thrown down, and a portion of the wall of the 
Methodist church. The bell of the convent was tolled. At Santa 
Clara nearly all of the brick buildings in town were more or less 
injured. On the Santa Cruz Gap road chimneys were thrown 
down and the roads more or less obstructed by stones rolled down 
. from the mounta ins^ At Stockton the shock was very severe.* At 
Visalia and Los Angeles the earthquake was not felt at all. - 
B. Ms.--fif. F. BtUletin, October 9, 1865. A friend walking on W. 
side of Montgomery Street, S. F., near Bush, did not feel tlio 
shock at all. — E. S. H. 

1865, October 8. The shock at Sacramento did no damage, although 
it was severe enough to cause many persons to feel nausea (VII). 
— B. Ms.— fif. F. Bidletin, October 11, 1865. 

1865, October 8. This shock was not felt in the slightest degree at 
Santa Barbara — at least not in the vicinity of the town. — ^B. Ms. — 
St. F. Bulletin, October 17, 1865. 



V 



/ 



/ 



BARTHQUAKT'S ON THE PACIPIC COAST 67 

ia65, October 8. At New Almaden a large brick storehouse on the 
hill ifa& nearly demolished. Several houses in the village were 
thrown down. The earth opened and closed again, throwing up 
great clouds of dusk Two miles out of San Jos6, on the road to 
New Almaden, the new brick building of Mr. John W. Winters 
was materially damaged. A number of chimneys in different parts 
of the county were thrown down. — ^B. Ms. — San Jose Patriot, 
October 11; quoted in fif. F. Bulletin, October 12, 1865. 

1865, October 8. " The streams at McCartysville and Los Gatos have 
risen greatly since the earthquake, tapping the sources of the 
artesian wells in the Santa Clara Valley, many of which have 
ceased to run since the earthquake." — B. Ms. — 8, F, BMetin^ 
October 31, 1865. 

1865, October 8. At Mountain Charley's, on the Santa Cruz road, 
the earth opened in several places, and steam and water were 
throvm up through the cracks. At McCartysville or Saratoga the 
creek began to rise four hours after the great shock, and in- 
creased to about treble the usual quantity of water the creek 
discharges during the dry season. — B. Ms. — 8. F. Bulletin, October 
21, 1865. 

1866. Oetober 8) vm. 

At Fort Humboldt, on Sunday morning, October 8, 1865, at fifteen 
minutes past nine o'clock, there was a very severe earthquake. 
Fifteen chimneys virill have to be completely rebuilt. — 8, F. Bul- 
letin, October 12, 1865. 

1865. Oetober 8| VIII or more severe. 

Goose Lake, Siskiyou County, Cal. Waterspouts observed all over 
Goose liake. — B. Ms. — Treka Union, October 28, 1865. 

1806. Oetober 8| 

Accounts given in Bancroft's Ms. as follows: 8an Francisco Bulletin, 
October 9, 12. 1865. Ban Francisco Gall, October 10. Oold Bill 
News, October 12. Sacramento Union, October 10. Hittell's His- 
tory of San Francisco, p. 354. Shocks felt at Petaluma, but no 

\^ damage done (VII). Petaluma Journal and Argus, October 12. Ban 
Francisco News Letter, October 14. 8. F, Golden Era, October 15. 
(Two articles), 8, F. CaUfomian, October 14. (In the interior), 
8. F. Alta, October 10, 11, 14, 16 and 17. fif. F, Alta, October 9 
and 10. 

1806. October 8| 

From Bowlandson the follovnng is extracted: The shock was cer- 
tainly felt one hundred miles north of S. F. and one hundred miles 
east. There is no report of any shock south of Monterey Bay. 
It is a singular fact that the shock was most severe at Santa 



\ 



x 





68 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

V 

V Cruz and alon^ the lower part of the Pajaro Riyer (IX). The 
center of disturbance was probably at the mouth of this river. 
Mt. Hood was in eruption, and Goose Lake was covered with 
waterspouts, and Rowjandson connects these with the S. F. dis- 
turbance. There was no shock felt at any distance from the coast, 
but boats a few miles from shore felt the shock. 

1866. October 8) lOli. 84m.) IV. 

V Light shock in San Francisco, Cal.— J. B. T. 

1866. October 8) lib. 8Sm.| IT. 

^ Light shock at San Francisco. After this shock the earth con- 
tinued to vibrate for forty-eight hours. — J. B. T. 

1866. Oet^er IS) 12s46 wu m. 

S. F., and Santa Clara, Cal.— B. Ms.— fif. F. Bulletin, October 13, 1865. 
^ Constant tremors in San Francisco. — Fuchs. This Santa Clara 
shock is stated to have been as heavy as the one felt between 10 
and 11 o'clock, October 8. — See also Perrey. 

1866. October 18) 2b. 6m.) T. 

Smart shock at San Francisco, Oakland, Santa Clara, and Angel 
Island, Cal.— J. B. T. 

1866. Ootober 14, 16, 16) niffbt and day. 

"* ' ' ^ Monterey — many shocks. — B. Ms. 

1866. October 14) 28b. 46m. 

San Francisco, Cal. — J. B, T. 






1866. October 16) 8b. 40m. 

San Francisco, Cal. — J. B. T. Santa Cruz; Santa Clara. — B. Ms.- 
Perrey. 

1866. October 20) 7i66 p. m. 

S. F., Cal. — Fuchs. — Perrey. 



/ 



1866. Ootober 27) 1 «• m. 

Napa City, Cal. — Fuchs. 

1866. November 24) 8i46 a. m. 

Shocks in S. F. and in Santa Cruz County, Cal.— Fuchs. Smart shock 
at Watsonville, Santa Cruz County (V).— J. B. T. 

1866. November 26) T 

At sea, between S. F. and Portland, an earthquake. — Mining and 
Scientific Press. 

/ 1866. December 7) lb. 16m.) IV. 






Light shock in San Francisco. — J. B. T. 



1 



\ 



EABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 69 

X866. Deeember 16| 9 p. m.) VII. 

Heavy shock at Dry Creek, Mendocino County, Cal.; nine shocks, 
three being quite heavy. — Mining and Scientific Press. 

4 

X866. Janiiary 26) 10t82 a. m. ^^ * 

Slight shock in S. F., Cal. (IV). At lOh. lOm., heavy shock in 
^y Sonoma (V). — Fuchs. Another smart shock in S. F. at 10.40 (V). 
— ^Perrey. 



18661^ FebmavT 16 1 8i46 a. m. 

^ Slight shock in San Jo86, Cal., followed at 9.10 by a shock covering 

V ir a greater area. — Fuchs. At 8.57 a. m. two shocks at S. F., Cal.— 

B. Ms. Two shocks at Santa Clara. — ^Perrey. 

1866. Febrvarr IT) IX. 

" The Klamath Kiver, fifteen miles above the Jacksonville road, was 
suddenly raised, exi>osing its bed, while a hill oti its bank sunk 
away to a level plain; on one side of the hill, where it separated 
from the mainland, it left an abrupt bluff. The river channel was 
inmiediately changed, the water running around where the hill 
had been standing. Bob Whittle and others witnessed the phe- 
nomenon, and gathered large quantities of fish that were left in 
the old bed when the water drained off."— B. Ms. — Quinoy Union, 
March 10, 1866. — Treka Journal. 

' 1866. February 18 1 4i06 p. m. 

S. F., Cal. — Fuchs.^Perrey. 



^ ^ 



I 



V 1866. Marcb 26; 12i80 p. m.) IV. 

/ Earthquake from east to west, in S. F., Stockton, Sacramento, San 

Jos6, etc. — Fuchs. Two shocks. — S. F. D. 

1866. Marcb 26) V. 

Quite a severe shock at Monterey .—B. Ms. 

I ^y 1866. Marcb 26) 12tl2 p. m. (noon)| III. 

/. Two slight shocks at S. F.— B. Ms. 



/ 



1866. Marcb 27) 

Monterey. — B. Ms. 



1866. Marcb t) 

/. V I Monterey, Cal.— B. Ms.— fif. F. Golden Era, March 25, 1866. 

1866. April to NoTembcr) 

San Jos6, Cal. An earthquake register, invented by W. F. Stewart, 
has noted nine distinct shocks in the p&st seven months. All the 
shocks were northeast and southwest. — San Jose Mercury, Novem- 
ber 8, 1866. 



' I 



' r 



70 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

< ; 

\ \ } ISee. May 24| 9i06 a. m. 

Sacramento. — B. Ms. 

1860. May 27 1 

Pacheco, Contra Costa County, Cal. — ^B. Ms. 

y 1806. May 80| 8i40 a. m.f V. 

Heavy shock in S. F., Cal. — ^Fuchs. Also in Oakland. — B. Ms. 
Perrev. 

■ 

X^' 1866. June B| 6i04 a. m.; IV or more aev-ere. 
Rather heavy shock at S. F., Cal. — ^Fuchs. — Perrey. Seven shocks. 
B. Ms. About 4 a. m.— S. F. D. 





X- 




A 



\ 







y 

I 

\ 

\ 



1866. June I 

Monterey, Cal.^B. Ma.— flf. P, Golden Era, July 1. 1866. 

1866. June I 

? — B. Us.— Gold Hill New8, June 2, 1866. 




1866. Jaly 18) 11 p. 

S. F., and interior towns. — S. F. D. [Probably same? as July 14. — 
E. S. H.] 

1866. July 14|10i80p. nm^ggy*'^'^^ ^ ^ 

Heavy shock in La P^rte, /Rowland Flat, St. Louis, and Port Wine, 
Sierra County, Cal. — Fuchs. Also Sacramento and Contra Costa, 
County. — B. Ms. Also in S.' F. — B. Ms. Heavy in Sacramento; 
light in S. F. and Stockton (IV).— Perrey. 

1866. Avffnat 19| 12i40 a. m. 

Shock in Oakland and San Francisco. — Mining and Scientific Press, 

1866. Avffnat 28| 4 p. m. 

S. F., Cal.— B. Ms. 



1866. Dvrins tbe avinmeri V. 

. r A severe sudden shock at Sulphur Bank, Clear Lake, Cal. — ^Verbal 

\ account of R. S. Floyd, Esq. 

1866. September 6| momlns. 

La Porte, Rowland Flat, St. Louis, and Port Wine, Sierra County, 
Cal. — B. Ms. Perrey says 5 a. m. 



1866. September 6| 

Two shocks at S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

1866. November I 

San Jos6, Cal.— B. Ms.— flf. P. Golden Era, November 18, 1866. 



a-t 



EAKTHQUAKBS ON THE PAOIPIO 00 AST 71 



I860. Deeember; m. 

Dalles, Oregon. — P. 

( 1860. December 17 1 nlvbt. ^ 

■^ - Antioch, Contra Costa County, Cal. — ^B. MJB. 



}/ • 



1866. Deeember 18| 

PaQheco, Contra Costa County, Cal. — B. Ms. 



1866. December 19 1 9t20 a. m. 

^.^ V, t Subterranean noises, accompanied by shocks, in San Francisco and 

Sacramento, Cal. — Fuchs. — Perrcy. 3 a. m. — S. F. D. 

] 1866. December 20) 4il6 p. m. 

' ^ I Antioch, Contra Costa County, Cal. Also a shock in the morning. 
B. Ms. 

1866. December t 

A smart shock at the Dalles, Oregon. — Mining and Sdentiftc Press^ 
Vol. 14, p. 46. 

1867. Janvarr 8| dayllvbt. [t] X. 

Frightful earthquake at Fort Klamath, Oregon; the Klamath Lake 
fell six feet. — ^Fuchs. Two shocks, the second frightful. The air 
^ grew dark, ashes fell as thickly a snow in a storm. — B. Ms. — 

P. gives Vm (??). 

£Abthquak£ at Fobt Klamath. — The following letter is to the 
Oregon Sentinel, from Fort Klamath, dated January 8, 1867: Editor 
Sentinel: We have singular, if not serious news, to send by the 
express just leaving. This morning at daylight we were startled 
from our sleep by the precipitate shock of an earthquake, imme- 
diately followed by a noise as of distant thunder. But in a little 
while quiet reigned, and every one was conversing and laughing 
heartily at the sing^ular phenomenon; but our countenances soon 
underwent a serious change, for it began to gfrow dark; the whole 
heavens were full of a very black smoke or cloud; the air had a 
sulphurous smell; and ashes of a brownish color fell as fast as I 
ever saw it snow. We had to use candles in the mess-room. Most 
of us went into breakfast, but had only got fairly into our seats, 
when, horror upon horror, the earth seemed rolling like waves 
upon the ocean; every one was thrown to the floor, only, on 
regaining their feet, to be placed in the same position again, 
accompanied with the rattling of dishes, the crashing of window 
glass, cracking of timber of buildings, and the screams of the 
frightened. Tou could not imagine a more perfect chaos. Some 
of us gained the door, and such a sight met our gaze as was 
probably never before beheld. The tall pines around the fort 
seemed lashing themselves into fury; the wagons in front of the 






/> 



72 EAHTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

stable were engaged in a pitched battle; horses and cattle were 
lying crouched upon the ground, uttering the most pitiful moans; 
dogs were howling, and the unearthly cries of the Klamath In> 
dians camped near the fort, completed the scene. The sutler*s 
store was thrown about ninety feet from its former position. 
There were no lives lost, nor any serious accidents to any one. 
There is no very serious damage done to any of the buildings, all 
being log and frame houses, but I do not think there is a whole 
pane of glass left at the post. Most of us are of opinion that a 
volcano has broken loose near the Klamath marsh, as a continuous, 
dark column of smoke is seen in that direction. There was but 
half an hour between the first and second shocks. The first was 
just perceptible. The second lasted, as near as can be judged 
from various opinions, from two to three minutes. Further par- 
ticulars will be given by the next express. 

L. Tennyson, Quartermaster's Clerk. 

Mr. Whitmore has just arrived from the agency, and reports 
that the lake (Klamath) has lowered about six feet, and is still 
falling. Crooked Creek, a stream between this place and the 
agency, is completely dried up. — B. Ms. — fif. F. Bulletin, January 
14, 1867. 

1867. Febmary 1| t 

Three shocks in San Diego, Cal. — Fuchs. — Perrey. 

1867. April 12 1 4iBO p. m. 

Two shocks in San Francisco. — Fuchs.— Perrey says 5.50 p. m. 

1867. An Wat I 

Lower Yukon, Alaska. — P. 



\ ' 1867. September 22| 6i85 p. ni. 

'' \ ^ ^' San Francisco, Cal. — Fuchs. 



/ 




< ,' 



K 



1867. November 80) VI. 

Quincy, Plumas County, Cal. Severe shock. — B. Ms. 

1867. December If lltl2 p. m. 

Forest City, Cal. — Fuchs. — Perrey also. Nevada City, very heavy 
v^ (VII).— B. Ms. 

/^ 1868. Janvarr 2| 9 p. m. 

< Lake County. — B. Ms. — Tolo County Hist., pp. 56-7. 



/ 



1868. Marcb 24) lli22 a. m.) V. 

<' Sharp shock, San Francisco, Cal. — Mining and Scientific Press. At 
11.22 a. m., lasted six to ten seconds. — B. Ms. 



1868. March 26 1 

N V .. Alameda County, Cal.— B. Ms.— ;S. F, Bulletin, March 26. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 73 



1868. Marcli 28 1 about 11 p. m. 

' ^ S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

1868. Mareli 20 1 about 9 p. m. 

< ' 1- - S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

1868. About April 28) 

/ ' ^ Healdsburg, Cal.— fif. F, Bulletin, Uaj 7, 1868. 

1868. April 28 1 7il6 a. m. 

t - : Three distinct shocks, no damage done, Yreka, Cal. — B. Ms. The 
first experienced here; it was accompanied by a rumbling noise. — 
8. F, Call, April 30, 1868. 



X 



1868. May 7| 12 a. m.| V. 

\ v^ Severe shock at Healdsburg, Cal.— fif. F. BulletlHy May 7, 1868. 



I 1868. May 9) lliSO p. m. 

\ ^' K Calistog^, Xapa County. — B. Ms. — Alta, May 11, 1868. 



X 



1868. May 18| 

/ Three hundred miles west of San Francisco, in lat. 44^ T N. and 

long. 139® 7', a submarine earthquake. — Perrey. — Mem, Cour, 22, 
p. 80. 



/ 



>^ 



1868. May 24) 9 p. m. 

■^ '^ ' Two shocks in Sacramento, Cal. — Fuchs. Not felt in S. F.; violent in 
^ the State of Nevada. — Perrey. 



^ 






> «^- 



1868. May 26) lOiST p. m. 

San Francisco, Cal. — Fuchs. — ^Perrey. Two shocks. — B. Ms. 

1868. May 27) aboat 2 a. m.| IV. 

S. F., Cal., light shock.— B. Ms. 

1868. May 29| 9 p. m. 

Three shocks, Lassen County, Cal.; first at 9 p. m.; two others in the 
course of fifteen minutes. — B. Ms. — 8. F. Bulletin, June 12, 1868. 
About 9 p. m., series of shocks in interior of California and in 
Nevada; but not at S. F., nor north of a line from Sacramento to 
Ft. Churchill; felt in Sacramento. — B. Ms. 

1868. May SO) 

Severe earthquake at Mukelteo and the Tulalip Reservation, W. T. — 
Bulletin, June 2, 1868.— P. 

1868. May; IX f 
A severe earthquake (not felt in Northern or Central California) 
opened a long fissure in the earth at Dos Palmas, S. P. K. R. — H. 
Ms.— Editorial 8, F, Bulletin, March 29, 1872. 



V y V 



74 EABTHQXTAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1868. June f 
San Diego? Earthquake wave on Pacifle Coast. — B. Ms. — 8, F. 
BuUetin, June 13, 18G8. 

1868. Jntte 2) 9t80 a. m.| VU. « 

V Very severe, Downieville and Forest City, — S. F. BuUeUn, June 10. 

' ^ 1868. 



X 



1868. July 24| III. 

Slight shock at S. F., C&h—Appleton-*s Annual CyelopcBdiay 1868. 



1868. Jnlr 24 1 6t30 p. m.) VII. 

V Severe shock in Tulare County, Cal.— flf. F, BuUetin, July 25, 1868. 



« I 



1868. Avffnat Si-. 

Lob Angeles (several shocks). — ^B. Ms. 



1868. Auffnat 9) about 10 p. m.*^^ 

\ 8. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 



\ 



1868. Anffnat 18 1 
The earthquake at Arica, Peru, on this date, produced tidal waves 
felt all through the Pacific, and registered at S. F. and San 
Diego. Velocity of the sea-wave 369 (or 348) miles per hour. — 
J. E. Hilgard in Amer. Jour. 8ci,y vi. p. 77. Tidal vrave sixty feet 
high in Southern California; San Pedro Bay. — R. A. Proctor, in 
Nature, 



• VI 



/iSeS. Avsiuit 24)' / 
/ Santa Cruz, Cal.— i8f. F, Bulletin, September 3, 1868. 

V ' 1868. Anffvat 24) lltSO a. m.^" 

V S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

I 1868. Aaffoat 28) aboat 1 a. m. 1^' 

S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

\ 1868. Aum^utt 81; VI or more aevere. 

Severe shock at Santa Cruz, Cal., lasting ten or fifteen seconds. — 
B. Ms. 

1868. AnvoBt-Sepli^mber 28) 

It is the opinion of Fuchs (p. 10) that a period of earthquakes in the 
Sierra Nevadas began early in August, 1868. On September 4, 
5, 6, there was a great earthquake with more than five hundred 
shocks, and the period lasted till September 28. 

1868. September 8-28) IX. 

" Kern River, Inyo County, Cal., September 3, during the night fre- 
quent rumbling noises and tremulous motion of the earth. Sep- 
tember 4, 8 a. m., severe shock; from 8 to 9 a. m., forty-one dis- 



X 



X 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 75 

tinct shocks. During the remainder of the day the shocks con- 
tinued at intervals of five to ten minutes: light shocks con- 
tinued until the morning of the 6th of September, when the party 
moved their camp. Up to this time there had been about five 
hundred shocks. September 6-11, one or tv^o shocks every hour. 
September 17, 18, 19, about one shock every hour. September 20, 
21, 22, much more frequent and severe; then the frequency and 
violence abated, but continued at intervals of an hour or so up 
to the time they left on the 28th of September.** — J. E. Clayton, 
M. E., in Proceedings of the CtiUfomia Academy of Sciences, vol. IV, 
part 1. See also Perrey. — Mem, Cour. 23, p. 64. 

1868. September 8, etc.) 

Not felt at Independence, Inyo County. — ^B. Ms. 

1868. September 18, 14, 16 1 

A corresi>ondent of the Sacramento Union, veriting from Ov^ens Lake, 
gives an interesting account of a succession of earthquakes that 
took place in that region, among the mountains, on the 13, 14, 15 
of September. The shocks were severe enough to rattle down 
rocks from the mountains into the valleys and to excite great 
alarm among the few inhabitants. About the same time there 
was an earthquake in Alpine County which was quite severe, 
showing that the commotion must have extended over hundreds 
of miles. — Proceed4ng8 of the OaUfomia Academy of Silences. 

1868. September 4-17| 

Inyo County, Cal., September 4, two shocks; forty shocks in one 
hour at Lo^e Pine; September 12, one. shock; September 14, two 
shocks; September 17, one shock; September 11-12, three hundred 
shocks; the sky was very full of smoke. — B. Ms. 

1868. September 17| 

Two shocks at Nevada City, Cal. — ^B. Ms. 

1868. September 19 1 9 a. m. 

Two heavy shocks at Alpine, Cal. The air became dark, and moun- 
tains one-half mile distant could not be seen. A 5 p. m. other 
shocks. — ^B. Ms. 



; 1868. September 26) 12i40 a. m.f VIII. 

i ^ Ukiab, Mendocino County, Cal., severe shock; tumbling furniture 
-^' about. — B. Mb. 

1868. October I 

Near head of Kern River, [flf. F, Bulletin, October 17, 1868, says: 
" There is quite a phenomenon on the Sierra Nevadas, at the head 
of Kern River. The earth has been shaking for more than two 
weeks — almost a constant shake. It shakes the rocks down from 
the mountain, and makes the earth wave like the sea.*' * * *] 



76 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

^\ 1868. October 8f 12i40 a. m.Yl - 

Very severe shock in Ukiah Valley, Cal. — B. Ms. — Alia, October 7, 

1868. 

1868. October 6| 

Silver Mountain, Cal. — Appl€ton*8 Annual Cyclopcpdia, 1868. — Perrey. 

1868. October 21 1 IX.,..^ 

The great earthquake at San Francisco, Cal. The first shock was at 
7h. 53 %m. a. m. Its direction was northerly and soutfierly [more 
correctly S. 30' W. to N. 30° E.— J. R. J.]. Its duration was forty- 
two seconds. The second shock came at 9.23 a. m., lasting five 
seconds. Lighter and briefer tremors occurred at intervals of 
^.^.bout half an hour, till 12.15 p. m. / The first shock was most 
severely felt on the eastern side oi the city, on the made land 
between Montgomery Street and the bay. On the solid land no 
serious damage was done to any well constructed house. Win- 
dow panes were broken, chimneys twisted or thrown down, mantel 
ornaments overturned, etc. Steeples swayed to and fro. On Rus- 
sian and Telegraph Hills the shock was comparatively light. On 
the flat between Howard Street and the Mission the shock was 
most severe. The Custom House was badly damaged. It was 
poorly constructed. Coffee & Risdon's building (comer of Market 
and Battery streets) was of brick, three stories high, and unfin- 
ished. The walls of a portion of this fell,, killiag a man. The 
machines in the Union Foundry (First and Mission streets) were 
put out of order. Several buildings in this neighborhood were 
more or less wrecked. The tall chimney of the San Francisco 
Gas Works (Howard and Fremont streets) was thrown down. 
The Mission Woolen Mills were damaged badly. As in 1865, a 
small crevasse was opened on Howard Street, beyond Sixth. The 
Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institution was damaged. The greatest 
damage was done in a belt several hundred feet wide, running 
northwest and southeast, commencing at the Custom House and 
ending at the Folsom Street wharf. The tall chimney of the 
United States Mint was damaged. The ferry steamer Contra Costa 
was near Angel Island and felt the shock strongly. Shocks were 
noted at 7.53; 8.10; 8.15; 8.30; 8.45; 9.20; 9.35; 10; 10.30; 11.05 a. m., 
and at 12.15 and 2.58 p. m. [ th e 10i 36-isho ck was wrtica t si P inXr - and 
MiMon sfreets.-^'J. R-. -J^ Cliff House, S. F.; an unusual commo- 
tion in the sea, and the waves came fifteen or twenty feet further 
inland than usual. There were about thirty casualties in the 150,- 
000 inhabitants. Five deaths occurred from falling walls, etc. 
Not a single well-built house on the solid land suffered materially, 
whether of brick, stone, or wood. Wooden houses suffered least. 
^^ " - >-^H:--Mar Also derived from S. F. daily papers of the few days 

_ immediately following the shock3 See Rowlandson, et seq. No 

register of this shock on the tide-gauges at San Diego and Fort 
Point. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 77 

Oakland.. At the beginning, a roaring sound like artillery crossing 
a bridge was heard coming from the Mission towards Pine and 
Mason streets, S. F. — J. R. J. The draw of the railroad bridge 
was thrown twelve inches out of line. The water of the bay was 
smooth and no wave was noticed due to the shock. Buildings and 
chimneys fell to the south (IX). ^ 

Martinez. The earthquake was heavy at 7.57 a. m. The Court 
House was wrecked (IX). 

Alameda. Several buildings badly damaged (IX). 

San Leandro. Several buildings badly damaged; one man killed 
(IX). 

Alvarado. Buildings damaged (IX). 

San Lorenzo. Several chimneys thrown down (IX). 

Haywards. Very severe; twenty-two shocks during the morning. 
Not a building that was not damaged, and several wrecked (IX). 

Amador Valley. The shock was light (VIII). 

Mare Island Navy Yard. Chimneys thrown down. The shock 
threw down a person who was walking (VIII or IX). 

Vallejo. Chimneys thrown down (VIII). 

Kedwood City. The brick Court House wrecked (IX). 

Marysville. Light shock (VII). 

Grass Valley. Severe, causing lamps, etc., to vibrate..^ / 

Sonora. Slight shock. ""'/ ' 

San Mateo. Severe, with damage to property, /y^^ 

Placerville. Light shock.'TV 

Folsom, Sacramento County. Sharp shock. I ] 

At sea. The Pactolus was at anchor, in deep water, fifteen miles 
west of the Heads. The shock was severely felt. 

San Jose. Buildings damaged, chimneys thrown down. / / 

Santa Clara. Buildings damaged, chimneys thrown down. ' / 

Gilroy. Chimneys thrown down. 7 f 

Santa Cruz. Brick buildings cracked. < r 

Healdsburg. Severe; clocks were stopped. 

Woodland (Yolo County). Severe. \ •. 

Centerville. Buildings destroyed and others badly damaged. I ' 

Mission San Jose. Buildings destroyed and others badly damaged. 

San Juan. Severe shock. . 

Sacramento. Severe shock, no damage. ; 

San Rafael. Severe shock, chimneys thrown down. \ 

Petaluma. Buildings damaged, chimneys thrown down. . 

Santa Rosa. Buildings damaged, chimneys thrown down. ^ > 



78 EAKTHQUAKB8 ON THB PACIFIC COAST 

Somerville, Antioch, Clayton. Buildings damaged, chimneys thrown 
down. / 

Los Angeles. No shock felt. — H. Ms. 

Hon. T. G. Phelps visited the seacoast from Half Moon Bay to Peeca- 
dero soon after October 21 and found all chimneys down or 
twisted (VIII). At Belmont no chimneys overthrown (VII). 

1868. October 81 1 7i80 a. m. / 

At 7h. 50m. a. m., after dull rumblings, heavV shocks, lasting 140 
seconds, began; six or seven shocks before ll a. m.; and at 3 p. m. 
another, and the last about midnight. Earthquakes were felt 
over all California; the heaviest were the^following: Sacramento, 
7.59; Oakland, 10.30, 11.45; Marysville, 7^5 and 8 and 1.25 a. m.— 
Fuchs. 

1868, October 21, San Francisco. The sfhock was longer and more 
severe than that of October 8, 1865. / Several persons were killed 
by falling cornices. The shock was felt in the interior in every 
direction, and with severity. Th^ surface of the earth visibly 
undulated. Brick buildings wereAumbled down or badly cracked 
in several places, including Oakland and San Leandro, and several 
lives were lost. Not a single ^oroughly good building, even in 
the lower part of the city, wits seriously injured. — S^. F. Bulletin ^ 
October 21, 1868. Hon. Horaiie Davis writes that the destruction 
in S. F. was greatest along the old beach-line of the city, beyond 
which the soil had been filled in. Photographs in my possession 
seem to show that the damage to substantial buildings in S. F. 
was small. — £. S. H. 

1868, October 21, San Jos£. The oscillation was from southeast to 
northwest and lasted one-half minute. Considerable damage was 
done to property. No lives were lost. Damage to Presbyterian 
Church amounted to $2,000. — San Jose Advertiser, October 4, 1868. 

1868, October 21. Account of the earthquakes in San Francisco, Oc- 
tober 8, 1865, and October 21, 1868. — San Jose Pioneer, February 9, 
1878. Tliis earthquake was not felt in San Diego. — B. Ms. 

1868, October 21, San Leandro. One %an was killed attempting to 
escape through the falling walls of the Court House, which, with 
the jail, was laid in ruins. Several concrete buildings were en- 
tirely destroyed, and a great many frame buildings partially so. 
After the earthquake was over, only two chimneys remained 
standing. The loss was not much short of $100,000. Neighboring 
towns were severely shocked. Haywards was laid in ruins. But 
little injury was done at Oakland. It was the most severe shock 
experienced on the coast by white men up to that time. — San 
Leandro Gazette, October 24, 1868. 

1868, October 21, Petaluma. Considerable property destroyed. 
Vibrations from east to west. Three distinct shocks following 



EABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 79 

each other in rapid Buccession, lasting from ten to fifteen seconds. 
Light shocks for four hours afterwardsv^Ptftolvmo Journal and 
Argus, October 22, 1868. 

1868, October 21, Sacramento. Severe eat*thquake. The water of 
the river receded, and in a short time returned in a wave at least 
two feet in height. — Sacramento Bee, October 21, 1868. 

1868, October 21, Santa Cruz Mountains, near Pescadero. (Ireat 
damage done to the redwood trees. Limbs fell to the ground, and 
large pieces of rock rolled down the mountains. It is said that 
the Waters of Pescadero Creek became muddy in a moment, and 
that the surface was covered with bubbles, which burst with a 
slight report and a small flame when a match was applied to 
them. — Grass Valley UnUm, October 29, 1868. 

1868, October 21. See brief report on the cause and effect, by the 
conunittee of merchants in San Francisco Chamber of Commerce 
report, 1870. See also Alta, December 1, 1868. 

1868, October 21; about 8 a. m., in San Francisco. Killed five persons 
by throwing loose bricks from the tops of buildings upon them, 
and no person was severely injured in a house. The better class 
of structures was not damaged. A dozen brick buildings, with 
weak foundations on made ground, were cracked, so as to be 
untenable. — ^Hittell, History of Ban Francisco, pp. 370-7. Hon. A. S. 
Hallidie reports the interesting fact that the air was filled with 
horizontal layers of smokj^ and dust with layers of clear air be- 
tween. The appearance tvas striking. 

1868, October 21. Brick 4nd concrete buildings in Pacheco were 
destroyed. The shocks were severely felt throughout Contra 
Costa County, except at Antioch. There no chimneys were thrown 
down, nor were any walls craclvcd. — Pacheco, Contra Costa County, 
Gazette, October 24, 1868. 

1868, October 21. Three heavy and distinct shocks were felt in 
Nevada City. The most severe known up to this time. — "Nevada 
City Daily Transcript, October 22. 

1868, October 21. The shock was severe, or very severe, at Martinez, 
Alameda, Alvarado, San Lorenzo, Haywards, Mare Island, Vallejo, 
Redwood, Grass Valley (" quite a severe shock "), San Mateo, San 
Jose, Qilroy, Santa Cruz, Healdsburg, Woodland (Yolo County), 
Centerville, Stockton, San Rafael, Petaluma, Santa Rosa, Contra 
Costa County.— H. Ms. Yolo County. — B. Ms. 

1«68, October 21. The shock was light at Marysville, Sonora, and 
Amador Valley. — H. Ms. No shock was felt at Los Angeles, San 
Diego, etc. — H. Ms. For a complete account of this shock in Ala- 
meda County, see Halley, Centennial Book of Alameda County, 
pp. 257-269. Articles on this earthquake may be found in the fol- 
lowing places (from the Bancroft Ms.): 8. F. Times, October 22, 



80 EAHTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

23, 24, 26, 1S68. Telegrams from all parts of the State, in 8. F, 
Call, October 22. 8. F, Abend Post, October 22. Further partic- 
ulars, loss of life and property, shock in the interior, and estimated 
damages to buildings and stock. — 8. F. Bulletinf October 22 and 
23. Alta California, October 22, 23, and editorial on earthquakes 
in Alta, October 24. Lloyd's Lights and Shades, pp. 318 and 324. 
Earthquake throughout the State; twelve persons killed. — Sacra- 
mento Union, October 22. 8, F. Bvlletin, October 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 
27, 29. 8. F, Spirit of the Times, October 24. San Leandro and Hay- 
wards. Long article in Alta of October 27. 8. F. Call, October 23. 
Facts about earthquakes; earthquake in the interior. — Alta, Oc- 
tober 24, 1868. Open crack in Haywards. — 8, F. Call, October 25. 
Keport of Earthquake Commission. — Alta, December 1, 1868. 8, F, 
Chronicle, October 21, 22, 23, 24. Petaluma. — (Oregon) Deutsc^^er 
Zeitung, October 24, 1868. 8. F. Monitor, October 24. Cal. Chris- 
tian Advocate, October 29. 8, F, Golden Era, October 24. 8. F, 
Chlden Era, October 31 (two articles). Grass Valley. Vibrations 
from southwest to northeast.— Grass Valley Union, October 22. San 
Leandro Democrat, October 24, 1868. Yallejo Weekly Chronicle, Oc- 
tober 31. 

Professor Hanks says that a circle with Haywards as a center and 
173 miles as radius will cover every point where the vibration was 
felt. The area of such a circle is 94,000 square miles, or about 
three-fifths of the area of California. — H. Ms. 

Fruitville, Alameda County. Professor Bunnell was walking in a 
field at the time of the first shock. He heard a loud report, which 
he referred to the direction of S. F., and immediately felt the 
earth tremble so violently as to make it difficult to stand upright. 

Dr. Gibbons kindly communicates the following record of forty- 
nine shocks during October and November: October 21; two heavy 
shocks, twelve /light ones (14) during the day, four during the 
night. Octobo^ 22; eight day and night. October 23; four till 9 
p. m. October 24; three from 6 a. m. to 9 p. m. October 25; three. 
October 26;yawo, very heavy. October 27; one. October 28; two. 
October 29/ one. November 3; one, at 7 a. m. November 10; one. 
Novembei;/ll; one. November 15; one. November 16; three, or 
forty-nine in all. Soon after the earthquake of 1868, the feast-day 
of St. ICmidius (August 9) was set apart as a day of prayers for 
protej^tion against earthquakes by Pope Pius IX on the request of 
the Archbishop of California. 

^^. V 1868. October 22) r\ 
i / ' \ Tremors in S. F., Cal.— Fuchs.— Perrey. 

1808. October 28| 2i20 a. m. • ^y 

\ Smart shock, San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Another shock 7.30 a. m. — 
\ AppJeton's Annual Cyclopwdia, 1868. 2.15 a. m.; then two light "'1 
/ shocks; and another at 7.30 p. m. — Perrey. 



EAHTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 81 

1808. October 26} J^ 

Tremors in S. F., Cal.— Fuchs. Slight shock at 8 a. m.— S. F. D. 
/ DJ^ A strong shock, very long, at 8.05 a. m. — Perrey. 



\ 



1808. October 26) about 11 a. m. 7r 

Two shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — S. F. D. 

1808. October 20f lliB4 p. m.) V. ^ 

Smart shock, San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Also in Oakland. — Fuchs. — 
Perrey. 

1868. October 27| V. 

, Heavy shock in Oakland, Cal.— Fuchs. S. F. — Perrey. 

1808. October 80| 10|20 p. m.) IV. 

/ Slight shock, San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. 



1808. October 81 1 ^ 
S. F., Cal.— B. Ms. 



r 

, 1868. November 1) 6t82 p. m.| IV. 

Slight shock, San Francisco, Cal. — ^T. T. Petaluma, Cal. — B. Ms. 

1808. BToTember 4| 8t68 p. m.f V. 
* Smart shock, San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Two " pretty severe •* shocks 
at Monterey. — B. Ms. 

1868. November 6| V. 

Heavy shocks in S. F., Cal. — ^Fuchs. On this day also at Victoria, 
Vancouver. — Perrey. 

1868. November 17 1 liSO p. m.| VI. 

Quick and violent shock at Santa Cruz. — Scmta Cruz Timea^ November 
20, 1868. Quoted in 8, F. Bulletin, December 1.— B. Ms. i8. F. CaU. 
December 1, 1868. 

1868. November 20 1 ^ 

San Francisco. — Perrey. 

1868. November 80f tf^ 

Several shocks in Oakland, Cal.— B. Ms. 8, F, Bulletin^ December 1. 

1868. December 26|^ 

Two shocks at Nevada City, Cal. — B. Ms. 

1868. December 81 1 II166 a. m.| III. 

\ Two slight shocks at S. F., Cal.— B. Ms.— fif. F, Timea, January 1, 1869. 



1868. JanaavT 7| V. 

/ Two sharp shocks near the Newton Copper Mine, Amador? County, 
/ ^ Cal. — B. Ms. — (Jackson) Amador County Ledger, January 9, 1869. 

^^ 6 



82 EAHTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



/ 



1868. Janimry S9| about 4 a. m. *^^^ 

/ \ At HajwardB, Alameda County.— B. Ms. — 8. F, Herald, January 23, 
1860. 



\ 



/ 



1868. Jansarr 88| IV. 

Slight shock in S. F., Cal. — Fuchs. — ^Perrey. 4 a. m., shock in S. F., 
and Santa Cruz Mta. — B. Ms. — 8, F, Times, January 30, 1869. 

1868. Janvarr S8| la m.| IT. 

Slight shock in S. F., Cal. — Fuchs. — Perrey. No notice of this shock 
in Mr. Sawin's Diary, Santa Cruz. 

1868. Janaary 88| li45 p. m.| V. 

Heavy shock at Watsonville, Santa Cruz County. — ^B. Mb. — 8, F. 
Times, January 30, 1869. 

1868. Febraary 1| lO p. m.| IV. 

\/ Slight shock at Livermore, Alameda County, Cal. — B. Ms. — 8. F. 

Herald, February 3, 1869. 



/ 



X 



\^ 




N 



1868. Febraarr 10| ~ 7. 
San Jos6, Cal.— Fuchs. — ^Perrey. Santa Clafa. — ^B. Ms. Submarine 
earthquake recorded by the tide-gauge at Fort Point, S. F. — 
Mining and Scientifle Frees, 

1868. Fe1»raai7 18 1 4i80 a. m.| IV. 

Light shock in S. F., Cal. — ^Fuchs. — ^Perrey. 4 a. m. — S. F. D. 

1868. MareM 11; 8i45 p. m. J^ "^ 
San Jos6, Santa Clara County, Cal. — ^B. Ms.— £f. F. Times, March 16, 
1869. 

1868. April 1; 6i47 p. m.| V. 

Smart shock, San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Also in San Jos€, Petaluma, 
and Stockton. — Fuchs. — Perrey. Lasted eighteen seconds in S. F.; 
occurred at 5.55 p. m. at Stockton, at Napa City, and Sonoma. — 
B. Ms. 

1868. April ff 

Tuolumne County, Cal.— B. Ms.— fi*. F, Time^, April 17, 1869. [The 
above is the reference in B. Ms., but an examination of this paper 
failed to find the item.] 

1868. May 18| lliSBO a. m.| III. 

A slight shock at S. F., Cal.— B. Ms.— fif. F. Times, May 20, 1869. 

1868. May 80) 10i87 a. m. 

S. F., Cal.— B. Ms.— fif. F, Times, May 31, 1869. 

1868. Jane 1| 

Earthquake sea waves recorded at Ft. Point (S. F.). — Mining and 

Scientific Press. 



\ 



/ 

/ 



/ 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 83 

ises. June ap 

Santa Cruz and Oilroy papers speak of recent earthquakes, and the 
Fort Point tide-gauge recorded an earthquake wave. — Mining and 
Scientific Press, 

I860. June ISf 9il6 p. m.| V. 

Sharp shock at Eureka, Humboldt County, Cal. — B. Ms. — 8. F, Timet, 
June 20, 1860. 

18ae. June 96| 6t20 a. m. Ml 

S. F. and San Jos^, Cal.— B. Ms.— S. F, Times, June 26, 1869. 

1808. J«l7 28| 8t28 p. m. ^L. 

Sharp shock at San Juan, Monterey County. — B. Ms. — 8, F. Times, 
August 3, 1860. 

186». July 24| ;^_ 

.Shock. at San Juan, Monterey County. — B. Ms. — 8. F. Times, August 
3, 1869. 

1869. September 6| 

Arizona, California [sio], — Perrey, Mem, Caur. 22, p. 80. 

1809. September 19) 

?, California. — ^Fuchs. — ^Perrey. 

1869. September 18 1 l| 

— California. — ^Fuchs. Nevada City, CaL-^-B. Ms. On the coast, a 
light shock; heavy at San Luis Obispo (V?); light at Sacramento 
(rV?).— Perrey. 

1869. September 14| ^ 
Heavy shock in San Luis Obispo, Cal. — Fuchs. — [See September 13, 
Perrey's note. — ^E. S. H.] 

1869. September 16) ^ 

Light shock in Sacramento, Cal. — ^Fuchs. 

"■^ 1869. Oetober O) midnivbt. 

At sea, fifty miles from Mendocino, Cal.— B. Ms.— fif. F, Times, 
October 7, 1869. 

1869. Oetober 7| at nlvbt) V or more severe. 

/ Severe shock at San Bernardino, Cal. — ^B. Ms. — 8. F. Times, October 

16, 1869; also October 19, 1869. 

1869. Oetober 8) li80 a. m.) Tin. 

Severest shock ever felt at Ukiah Valley, Mendocino County, Cal.— 
B. Ms.— fif. F. Times, October 14, 1869. (See 1868, Sept. 26.— E. S. H.) 

1869. Oetober 21| 

New Biver Station (near San Diego?).— B. Ms. 



/ 



84 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



X 




/ 



1868. Oetoberi 
Lob Angeles. — B. Mb. 

1869. December 14 1 momlnBT* JZ* . 
Santa Cruz, CaL— B. Ms.— iSf. F. Golden Bra, December 19, 1869. 

1868. December 16 1 T. 

Heayy shock in San Luis Obispo, Cal. — ^Fuchs. — ^Perrey. 

1868. Deeember 19| p. m. * / 
/ Several shocks in Mariposa, Cal., and in the mines of Virginia City, 
^ Nevada. Also a. m. December 20. — ^Fuchs. In the a. m. several 

/ shocks at Mariposa. — Perrey. 

^'1868. Deeember S0| 8 p. m.| T. 

\ Strong shock in Grass Valley, Cal.; slightly felt at Sacramento (IV?). 
\ —Fuchs.— Perrey. At Ophir Hill also.— B. Ms. 

1868. December 96| ff)4 p. m. ^. 

y Three shocks in MarysviUe; others in Stockton, etc. In Sacramento, 

two shocks in the daytime; at 9 p. m., another shock here, and at 
Grass Valley, etc. Twentynsix shocks at Mari^sa during this 
night. — Fuchs. Nevad»<^ity and Gra^ Valley. — ^B. Ms. 

Mokelumne Hill, Calaveras County, Cal. A house near Bailroad Flat 
(Vm?) was lifted bodily several times.— B. Ms. Lowe Hill; Stock- 
ton 5.52 p. m.; Truckee; Grass Valley; Nevada; Chico; Mariposa. — 
Perrey. Nevada City. — B. Ms. 

1868. December 27 1 

This day was the maximum for the California earthquakes of this 
month; 2 a. m., very heavy shocks in MarysviUe (VIII); 2.10 a. m., 
houses throvm down in Sacramento, etc. (IX). — Fuchs. 



1868. December STf 2 a. m. ^ 

MarysviUe, Sacramento, 2 a. m. — ^Perrey. 



1870t 

Puget Sound (VH). "Several old settlers insist that there were 
severe shocks, but none can state the day or time. They may 
refer to 1872? ••— P. 



1870. Jaaaary t| ** end of January." 

San Francisco, C!al. — ^Fuchs. 



. JannarrSi W 



1870. 

San Bernardino, Los Angeles. — B. Ms. — 8, F, Abend-Po8t, January 6, 
1870. 

1870. Jannary 8| 11 p. m.| T. 

" Quite a shock," Bakersfield, Kern County, Cal.~/Sr. F. Bulletin, Jan- 
uary 6, 1870. — ^Fuchs. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE. PACIFIC COAST 86 



/ 1870. Febraary 4| IT. 

Light shock in S. F., Gal.— Fuchs. 



1870. Febraary 18-14| nlffbtf IT. 

Two light shocks in 8. F., Cal. — ^Fuchs. Oakland, Petalnma. — ^B. Ms. 



/ 



\ 



1870. Febraary 17| ISb. ISia. Ua. p. la. 

Two smart shocks at San Francisco, Gal. (V).— T. T. Also in Pe-*^ 
taliuna, Sacrantento, and San^os& — ^Fuchs. Valiejo, Santa Bosa,*^ 
Santa Cruz, San BafaeL—B. Ms. Light shook at Monterey (m? 
IV?).— Fnchs. 



1870. Mareb 4| 

Grass Valley 



, Cal./-B. Ms. 



/ 



1870. Mareb 11 1 

Prescott, ? California.— Fnchs. (Arizona??) 

1870. April 2| lli48 a. nft.| TI. * 

Smart shock at San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Six seconds duration. — 
Fuchs. Pacheco, Contra Costa County. — ^B. Ms. — ^Berkeley; light 
articles overthrown (VI). — John Le Conte. 

1870. April 18| 8t80 a. m. 3 

\ Two shocks at S. F., Cal. Perhaps another at 2.30 a. m. — B. Ms. 
(Possibly the times are wrong. — ^E. S. H.) 

^. '1870. April 17> ^ 

Cahto, Mendocino County, Cal. — ^Fuchs. 



/ 

\ 



1870. April 24 1 no time slTeni IT. 

Slight shock, S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. (See April 25. K. 8. H.) 



1870. April 85| 10 p. ia.| m. 

/ Light shock in S. F., Cal.— Fuchs. 

1870. April 96| a. ia.| III. 

Light shock in S. F., Cal. — Fuchs. 

\/1870. April! 

San Bernardino.— B. Ms. 



V ' 1870. Mar 4f ^ 

^ Grass VaUey, Si.— B. Ms. 

/1870. MarSf '^ 
/^ Gilroy.— B. Ms. 

. 1870. Mar 12| 

X Gilroy.— B. Ms3 



\ 



1870. Avirvst 6) 11 120 p. m.i V. 

Heavy shock in Ukiah. — Fuchs. 



I 

\ 



X 






86 EABTHQUAKB8 OK THE PAOIFIO 00A6T 

1870. AuirvBt 9 1 mldnlffliti T. 

Mendocino; duration 10 seconds. — B. Ms. 

1870. September 8) 8 a. m. ^t 

Monterey, Cal. — Fuchs. 



1870. Deeember 4| 2 a. m. 

The bark Amethyst felt a severe shock of earthquake 45 miles W. 
S. W. by compass from Cape Mendocino. — From Paoifle Coast PUotf 
^\ communicated by Professor George Davidson, U. S. C. and G. 

Survey. 

1870. 

Moleje, Lower California, five severe shocks during the year.— 
C. G. B. 

1871. Febrnmrjr 6| 7tl7 a. m. 3 

/ Two shocks, San Francisco, Cal.; also at San Jos6 and Santa Cruz.— 

Mining and Soientiflc PrSss. 



1871. Febraarjr 9| ^ 

San Francisco. Cal. — S. F. D. 



' \ San Francisco, Cal.— S. F. D. 
1871. Marob 2| 1KNH4 P* ». 

Severest for several years in Eureka, Humboldt County, Cal. (VII?); 
duration, twenty seconds; another shock twenty-five minutes later; 
another, 7.30 p. m. This shock was even more severe to the south 
and east, at Bhonerville, Hydesville, in the same county (VIII). — 
B. Ms. — 8. F, CM, March 15, 1871. Chimneys thrown down at 
Bhonerville and Petrolia (VIII). The oscillations lasted twenty 
minutes. — Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia^ 1871. 

1871. Marob Sf VIII. 

Y Light-keeper's house at Mendocino, Cal., injured. — B. Ms. — 8. F. Call, 
^ March 28, 1871. 



1871. Marcb 6} m. 

Weak shock in Carthago, Inyo County, Cal. — Fuchs. 

1871. AprU 21 7t49 p. m.| IT. 



\ Shock at San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. Two light shocks.- Fuchs. Also 
\ in Contra Costa CJounty. — B. Ms. 

1871. April 28t III. 

\ Three light shocks at S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. 

1871. Mar 19 1 

/ Shocks in Washington Territory, and on Mt. Baynier. During the 
' \ whole month shocks on the coast. — ^Fuchs. Tacoma. — ^I*. 

1871. Jane 6| abovt 9 p. ni.$ V or more severe. 

Two strong shocks at Bear Valley, California. — Fuchs. 



BABTHQUAKBS ON THB PAOIFIO OOABT 87 

1871. Jvne 81 1 

Strong earthquakes, Cal. — ^Fnchs. 

1871. JulT B| 6iS4 a. m. 

y /{^^isalia, Cal. — Fuchs. Also severe shock at Independence and Swan- 
' / sea, Inyo County (VI?).— B. Ms. 

1871. July 11; 7 p. m., m. m. t U • 

Independence, Inyo County, Cal. — B, Ms. 




1871. JvIt lis 7i80 p. m.; TI. 

shock more severe than 
County, Cal. — B. Ms. Another shock at 12 midnight. — ^B. Ms. 



1.97 J 

/ A shock more severe than that of July 5th, at Swansea, Inyo 

A 




V 



/ 




1871. JvlT 11) 8 p. m. 

Bishop's Creek, Inyo County, Cal. — ^B. Ms. Severe at Owensville 
(V?).— B, Ms. 

1871. July 12; mldnlslit. "^^C 

Swansea, Inyo County. — ^B. Ms, 

1871. JvlT 12 1 la m. 

Bishop's Creek, Inyo County, Cal. — B. Ms. Severe at Owensville 
(V?).— B. Ms. 

1871. July; JT! 
Kern County. — Mining cmd Sknentific Press, July 22, 1871. 

1871. AnirvBt aS; >;' 

Santa Rosa. — B. Ms. 



1871. Aumnmt 31; 

/ Gilroy.— B. Ms.^ 



\ 



1871. BarlT In September; 3-- 

Castrovllle, Monterey County. — B. Ms. 



' / 1871. September 15; ei4B a. m. 

'^^ Gilroy, Cal.— Fuchs. 



' \ 



, , 1871. September 18; 

/\ S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. "^ 



y 1871. October 21; 

/ Calistoga.— B. Ms.^ 



1871. October 27; 



3- 



/ Temecula, near San Diego, Cal. — B. Ms. 



X 



1871. December 12; 2t80 a. m.; V. 

Quite severe shock at Humboldt. — B. Ms.— S*. F. Call, December 24, 

1871. 



"\ 



^ 



\ 




X 



88 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1871. No dAtet 

Twenty shocks during the year, no dates given, at Moleje, Southern 
California. — Fuchs. 

187S. Febrnmrjr 6| ~Tt^ 

Santa Barbara, " the first shock for fifteen years." — B. Ms. [There 
are shocks recorded, 1857, March 14, 1858, September 2, and 1860» 
April 16, within the period of fifteen years; but none from 1860 
to 1872— twelve years.— E. S. H.] 

1872. Febraaryllf 

Stockton.— B. Ms. ^ 

1872. Febrnmryi 

Fresno County. — ^B. Ms. J*.* 

1872. Marcb 17| about' 1 o'olocki VIII. 

Severe shocjc at Lone Pine, Cal.— C. G. R. " Frightful."— Fuchs. 

1872. Marcb 18} 

S. F., Cal.— S. F. D. TI- 

1872. Marcb 28| 

San Diego. — B. Ms.^^ 

1872. Marcb 25f <Tt) 

Severe shock at Jackson, Amador County, Cal. — B. Ms. 

1872. Marcb 26 1 / 

Great Inyo County earthquake. Shocks were felt on this day in the 
City of Mexico, New Madrid, A^., and many other distant points. 
— B. Ms. Fuchs does not mention any earthquakes on this day 
except one on the coast of Chili. On March 27, one at Oajaca» 
Mexico. He does not mention an eruption of Colima. The earth- 
quakes of March and April, 1872, were, according to Whitney* 
(Overland Monthly, vol. 9, p. 271), as follows: 

March 6; central and eastern Germany. 

March 11; destructive shocks in Japan. ^ 

March 23: Unionville and Winnemucca, Nevada. 

March 26; the great earthquake at Inyo, which extended over all 
of California except its northern end, and throughout nearly all 
of Nevada. 

March 26; City of Mexico — 8-9 a. m. 

March 26; Paducah, Ky. 

March 28; Salt Lake City. 

April 3; terrible shock at Antioch. 

April 14; Accra; gold coast of Africa. 



/ 

s 




EARTHQUAKES OK THE PACIFIC COAST 89 

April 15; toIc^so of Merapi, Java, in eruption. 

re shocks in Iceland. 

^uption of Vesuvius. 

ft eruption in the Philippine Islands. 

March 26. The shock was felt at far as Winnemucca, Nevada— 462 
miles east of San Francisco. — B. Ms. Long, rolling, but moderate 
shocks in 8. P. (V). — ^T. T. The persistent duration of the oscil- 
lations was remarkable and unique at S. P. 

March 26. At Big Pine, Inyo County (X), there was a fissure 
opened from 50 to 200 feet wide, in places 20 feet deep, extending 
for miles, close to the eastern base of the Sierras. Near Fish 
Springs the earth was heax>ed up in ridges 5 to 10 feet high and 20 
to 30 feet across. From Independence to Bishop's Creek (50 miles), 
the ground is cracked all over the surface. At Bishop's Creek the 
shock was severe, but light compared with that to the south. 
It commenced at 2.30 a. m., and from then to 6.30 a. m. there 
were not less than 50 shocks. — B. Ms. — S. F. Bulletin^ March 28, 
April 1, 1872. 

March 26. Lone Pine, Inyo County, Cal. (X). In Lone Pine ever}' 
adobe and stone building was leveled to the ground. Sixty per- 
sons were killed and wounded in that^ place alone. — ^B. Ms. At 
Independence the damage to property was great. In other 
places in that county the loss of life and property was consid- 
erable. In Lone Pine the damage to property was $132,000; at 
Independence, $43,000; at Camp Independence, $26,000; in the 
county, $237,000. — B. Ms. — Inyo Independent, March 30, 1872. 

In the same paper of April 13 the editor says the losses were over- 
estimated. The total loss was less than $100,000. (The people at 
Lone Pine stopped the paper for underestimating the loss.) — Inpo 
Independent, April 20, 1872. During this earthquake not a single 
wooden building in Inyo County was injured to a dangerous ex- 
tent, and not a sjngle person in such a building was injured at 
all. One thousand shocks in two days. — Fuchs. 

March 26. The* Inyo earthquake was felt from the City of Mexico 
to Oregon. Shocks were felt on the same day at Paducah, Ky. 
At Camp Cady, A. T., its force was sufficient to move heavy 
wagons several feet (IX). The volcano of Colima, Mexico, burst 
into eruption on this day. — B. Ms.— Inyo Independent, April 20, 1872. 
[Note. — No eruption of Colima is mentioned by Fuchs.] 

March 26. Millerton, Fresno County, 2.15 a. m. Shocks continued 
until 11 o'clock of the same day. No damage was done. At Ben- 
nett's Station, Merced County, a stone house was thrown down 
(IX). At Chowchilla, quite severe. At Fort Miller, quite severe. 
— B. Ms.— Fresno Expositor, April 30, 1872. 



90 EABTHQUAKSS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

March 26. Fifty-two out of fifty-nine buildings were thrown down 
in Lone Pine, Inyo County. At Los Angeles artesian wells were 
seriously affected by earthquake. Some of them stopped entirely. 
At Glennville, Kern County, large and important springs opened. 
The larger Owens Lake was from 3 to 5 feet higher after the 
earthquake than before. The little lake 3 miles from Lone Pine 
entirely disappeared. Owens River, at Independence, dried up and 
remained dry for six hours. On Tuesday, the first day of the 
shocks, a dense fog or smoke prevailed over the valley. After the 
shocks, smoke and fire were seen issuing from the earth, the 
fiames being blue. A river was opened and running between 
Lone Pine and Inyo Lake, 75 yards wide and 2 feet deep. — 
B. MR,—Heald9burg Russian River Flag, April 25, 1872. 

March 26. Inyo County. The night before was calm, clear and 
frosty, with the moon just past the full. At Big Pine the shock 
was very severe. At Bishop Creek somewhat less so. At 
Sierra, brick buildings were cracked. At\ Benton, the same. At 
Swansea buildings were leveled. At Belmbnt, a few stone cabins 
were thrown down (X). — B. Ms. — Inyo Independent, March 30, 1872. 

March 26. Tosemite Valley (IX), many rocks fell, filling the 
valley with dust and smoke. The largest trees waved to and fro 
and were bent about like mere twigs. — B. Ms. — flf. F. Bulletin, 
April 10, 1872. 

The water of Owens Lake, Inyo County, rose very rapidly in July, 
1872, sometimes as much as 4 or 5 inches in a night. During this 
period the water in Owens River, the main and almost only 
source of supply, was constantly diminishing. For a short time 
after the earthquake the waters of the lake fell several feet and 
became stationary, remaining at about the same point until the 
time mentioned. Previous to the earthquake the lake had been 
steadily rising for 10 years. Innumerable springs broke out all 
along the foothills. — B. Ms. — Inyo Independent, August 3, 1872. At 
Lone Pine, Big Pin^, Independence, the shock was severest; at 
Bishop*s Creek, Auro^ (IX), Benton, and at the south end of 
Owens Lake the shock was less severe. 

March 26 to April 10. Inyo, Cal. The shocks continued up to April 
10 at intervals of a few hours, and in the mountains near by 
explosions were frequent, resembling distant artillery. — B. Ma. — 
Alta, April 11, 1872, April 12, 1872. 

March 26. Cerro Gordo and Eclipse Mines, Inyo County, Cal. The 
rocking moti6n was distinctly observed, especially in the tim- 
bering, and the miners went to the surface, but soon resumed 
work. — B. Ms. — Inyo Independent, April 20, 1872. 

March 26, San Francisco, 2.30 a. m. The shock was comparatively 
light in San Francisco, but was the most severe on record at 
other places. It extended at least from Red Bluff, in the north. 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIO COAST 91 

to Visalia, in the southern part of the State, and is said to have 
reached up into the Sierras to an elevation of 3,000 or 4,000 feet. 
The whole of the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare Valleys 
were disturbed, the area of disturbance being 500 miles long by 
60 to 100 miles wide. The shock was severest in the valleys. It 
appears to have been of greatest energy near Visalia, in the Tulare 
Valley, which is the bed of a former lake (IX). The alluvium 
was profoundly and frequently agitated, and shocks were long 
continued.— B. Ms.— £r, F. BuUetin, March 26, 1872. 

March 26. Marysville. Motion from south to north. Bangor, shock 
from the east. — ^B. Ms. — MarystAlle Appeal, March 27, 1872. 

March 26. At the Kearsarge Mill in Inyo County, located at an alti- 
tude of nearly 8,000 feet above the sea, electric shocks from a 
stove were felt. — B. Ms. — Inyo Independent, April 20, 1872. • 

March 26. Mariposa County. Several shocks all through this sec- 
tion of the country, continuing for several days. — B. Ms. — Mariposa 
Gazette, March 29, 1872. 

March 26. Los Angeles. Vibrations were from east to west. In 
Anaheim they were from north to south. In Visalia the most dam- 
age was done. Brick buildings were strained and cracked. Some 
walls were thrown down. Upwards of 30 shocks occurred at 
Visalia. — B. Ms. — Los Angeles Evening Eitpress, March 26, 1872. 

March 26. Geyser Qulch, near headwaters of the San Joaquin (X). 
Miners' cabins in this vicinity were thrown to the ground with 
violence. This place is 40 or 50 miles from Independence, Inyo 
County. — B. Ms. — Fresno Expositor, April 10, 187s{. 

March 26. Grass Valley (VIII). Steeple of St. Patrick's Church 
swayed to and fro violently. Grass Vallep Union, March 27, 1872. 

March 26. Sacramento (VII). Several shocks, although no damage 
was done. — Folsom Telegraph, March 30, 1872. 

March 26. Folsom (VII). Three distinct shocks at half-past two 
in the morning. Salmon Falls, the first shock lasted 2 minutes 
and was quite severe. — Folsom l^elegraph, March 30, 1872. 

March 26. Napa. — Napa Reporter, March 30, 1872. 

March 26. See article by Prof. Le Conte.— fir. F, Bulletin, April 12, 
1872. 

March 26. Los Angeles. B. Ms. — Los Angeles Evening Express, March 
26, 1872. 

March 26, 2.25 a. m. Placerville, Placer County, two or three dis- 
tinct shocks in quick succession. — B. Ms. — PlaoervUle Democrat, 
March 30, 1872. 

March 26. Monitor.— B. Ms.— Alpine MitUir, March 30, 1872. 

March 26. Nevada City (VII), two shocks were felt, severe enough 
to cause nausea.— B. Us.— Nevada City Daily Transcript, March 27, 
1872. 




^ 



I' 

EAKTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



*^ t 

March 26. The shock was reported as light at Antioch, Martinez* 

Santa Cruz, Pach^o, Napa. — ^H. Ma. At Woodland, Yolo County, 

the shock was felt at 2.25 a. m. and lasted 30 seconds. 

March 26. The shock was reported as severe^ or very severe, at 
Sacramento, Visalia, Red Bluff, Copperopolis, Sonora, Sutter 
Creek, Forest and Iowa Hills, Placeryille, San Jos^, Stockton* 
Santa Barbara, Hill's Ferry (Stanislaus County), Pescadero, and 
along the coast. Woodland (Yolo County), Chico, Colusa, Alpine 
County, San Biego, Salinas, Virginia City (Nev.), Marysville, 
Bakersfield, Los Angeles, San Juan Capistrano, Fort Tejon, Flores* 
Inyo Valley, Mariposa, Calaveras, Eureka. — ^H. Ms. 

March 26. Articles on this earthquake may be found in 8. F, Bui- 
letin, March 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, April 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 24, May 10, 17; 
Alta, March 31, April 3; CaU, March 27, 31, April 13, May 17; 
Chronicle, March 29 to May 4; 8, F, Golden Era, March 31; Pacific 
Observer, March 29; Inyo Independent, April 6. 

March 26. Accounts in Mining and 8oientifl4f Press, March 30, 1872, 
April 6 (description of the region by H. G. Hanks), April 30, May 11 
(underground shocks). May 25. Professor Wliitney, in Overland 
Monthly, Vol. 9, gives a very full and scientific account of this 
earthquake. "A fissure was opened in the earth from about 2 
miles south of Lone Pine, extending ten miles further north. This 
fissure was 4 feet wide, and the ground on the east side sank from . 
4 to 12 feet lower than that on the west side (or the west side \ 
was raised). At the same time the ground on the east side was \ 
moved bodily 10 feet or so towards the north (or the other to the ' 
south). This was clearly shown by the position of fences running 
east and west." — Verbal account of Capt. Keeler, who has g^ven 
me a photograph showing the shifting of the fences at a point 
V/jt miles south of Lone Pine. 

y 1872. Marcli 28 1 

^^ Nevada City, Cal.— B. Ms. 

187S. Marcli 28 1 

\ Visalia.— B. Ms. 



/ 



1872. Marcli 29} T. 

\ Lob Angeles, Cal.; shock lasting 49 seconds, the longest ever felt 
here, though not the most severe. — B. Ms. 



V 



J 



\ 



1872. April 8f earlr in tlie momlnir; V. 

^ Two sharp shocks; Visalia, Cal.— B. Ms. 

1872. April 8; 4il5 a. m. 

Stockton. — B. Ms. 



1872. April 9| 7 a. m. 

Visalia. — B. Ms. 



EABTHQI7AKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 93 

1872. AprU 10 1 8 to 4 a. m. 

Visalia, several shockfi. — ^B. Ms. 

1872. April 10 1 eTenlnv. 

Sharp shock of extraordinary length. — ^B. Ms, (where?) 

1872. AprU lOtf 7tl0 p. m. 

^, Stockton. — ^B. Ms. 

1872. April 10| 7i20 p. m.| T. 

y Heavy shock at Tuolumne, which was also felt at Mokelumne Hill. — 
' B. Ms. 

1872. AprU 11 1 TI. 

Tuolumne; severe shock, 4 a. m.; another, 5.30 a. m.; one more 
severe at 1 a. m. («lc); another at 9.30 p. m.; another severe at 10 
p. m. — B. Ms. 

^^ 1872. April 12t 
\ Tuolumne, three shocks, 2.30 a. m.; one at 4 a. m., two at sunrise.— 

' B. Ms. 

1872. AprU 18| VI. 

A Bound Valley, Inyo County, severe shock. — ^B. Ms. 

1872. April 18| Til. 

Cerro Gordo, Inyo County, very severe shock. — ^B. Ms. 

yl872. April 28| 

Placerville, Cal. — B. Ms. 



A 
X 



1872. AprU 28| 

Mlllerton, Fresno County, Cal. A shock as violent as that of March 
26, 1872 [?], though shorter.— B. Ms. 



, 1872. AprU 28| T. 

/\ Severe shock at Nevada City, Cal., 8 seconds duration. — ^B. Ms. 



X 



1872. AprU 80| III. 

Marysville, two light shocks. — B. Ms. 



.1872. Bfrnr If 

V^ Salinas, Gilroy, Cal. — Mining and Scientific Press. 

1872. May 17| VII. 

Lone Pine. Amer, Jour. 8oi., IV (1872), p. 3.— C. G. R. 

^^872. Blar 21 1 

,/^ Shocks are still frequent in Inyo County. A number of the old 
^ craters are still emitting steam. — ^B. Ms. Alia, May 22, 1872. 




\ 



1872. Jime 16 1 

Millerton, Fresno County, Cal. — ^B. Ms. 





A 





94 EABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1878. Aniruvt 28| 4 p. m. 

Earthquake waves at Ft. Point for 20 hours.— JfiMiiv ond 8eimUfie 
Press. 

1872. September 14| VII. 

Owens River Valley, Inyo County, Cal. — C. G. R. Sharp shocks, but 
no damage done. — Mining and Boientifie Press. 

01872. September 18) evenlnff. 

A Yountville, Napa County, Cal. — ^B. Ms. 

187S. Oetober 1| 

San Francisco, Cal.— S. F. D. 

187a. Oetober 2) 

San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1872. Oetober 12| 4il0 a. m.| T. 

Sharp shock. San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Also Oakland. "A ver- 
tical shock."— C. G. R. 

1872. Oetober 18; 

Millerton, Fresno County, Cal. — ^B. Ms. 

1872. Oetober 19 1 

Millerton, Fresno County, Cal. — B. Ms. 

1872. Oetober 21 1 8iOS p. m.) IV. . 

Light shock, San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. Petaluma. — B. Ms. Also 
Vallejo, San Rafael. — B. Ms. 







1872. November 12) at niffbt. 

Stockton, Cal.— C. G. R. 



^ y 1872. November 21 1 

Petaluma. — B. Ms. 





1872. Deeember 14) 8i2a-8i40 p. m. 

Oregon and Washington Territory. — C. Q. R. (see next paragraphs). 

1872. December 14| 21b. 40m. 80s. Puget Sound. One shock. 

1872. Deeember 14 1 21b. 4em.t VII. Puget Sound. Three shocks. 

1872. Deeember 14) 22b. Puget Sound. Several shocks. 

1872. Deeember 14) 28b. Puget Sound. Several shocks. 

1872. Deeember IS) 8b. Puget Sound. Several shocks. 

1872. Deeember 10) 5b. Puget Sound. One shock. 

1872. December 10; 9b. 17m. SOm. Puget Sound. One shock. 

1872. Deeember 16) Eugene, Oregon. One shock. 

—P. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 95 

18Ta. Dee«mber 14, 15» 16) VII. 

Olympia, W. T. Professor George Dayidson kindly refers me to 
an account of these earthquakes in the Weekly Pacific Tritmney 
Olympia, December 21, 1872: '* In an unofficial report to Professor 
Dayidson, at San Francisco, Captain Lawson says, December 14, 
1872: Shock occurred precisely at 9h. 40i^m. It commenced with 
a slight movement, gradually increasing for 18 or 20 seconds. 
Then came the heavy shock, lasting 4 or 5 seconds; then it grad- 
ually decreased. In six minutes after the first shock there was 
another, followed by two others, one minute apart. At lOh. 12m. 
40s. there was another shock, and after 11 p. m. there were five 
others. During the night other shocks were reported (1 did not 
feef them) at 3 and 5 o'clock. On Sunday evening, December 15, 
at 6h. 37V^m., a light shock. December 16, at 9h. 17m. 30s. a. m., 
another light shock. This shock was felt as far south as Eugene, 
in Oregon, and as far north as British Columbia — probably even 
in Alaska. In Victoria and elsewhere on Vancouver Island the 
shock is said to have been heavier than at any other point heard 
from. In Olympia we have heard of but a single article broken 
or damaged by the shock. This was a statuette, which was 
thrown from top of a " whatnot " and smashed on the fioor. In the 
Seattle stores, we are informed, considerable quantities of crock- 
ery and glassware were broken. From what is so far known, the 
earthquake was confined mainly to the Puget Sound Basin, thence 
extending north and south with a gradually decreasing force, 
until it disappeared in a distance of 400 or 500 miles.'* The direc- 
tion of the shock (December 14) at Olympia was south to north 
at first, then southeast to northwest. 

1878. Deeember 15 1 

A shock was felt at various places near Puget Sound, W. T. — C. G. R. 

18T2. Deoember 16; 

Visalia. — B. Ms. 

y 18T2. December 16 to 1878, Jannarjr 4| 

Walla Walla. Light shocks almost daily. — C. G. R. 

' \ 

1872-1 K75. (March); 

V No shocks at San Diego in this period. — B. Ms. [except 1873, Oct. 
'i 12.— E. S. H.]. 

1878. Janvmry 8| II. 

Tacoma. — I*. 

1878. Febrnarjr 2; 8i80 p. iii.| IV. 

\ Light shock, San Francisco, Cal., lasting 5 seconds. — C. G. R. 

1878. February 8| 8 p. m.; rv. 

Light shock at San Francisco; severe at San Jos6 and Santa Clara 
(V).— C. Q. R. Two shocks.— S. F. D. 






96 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1878. Mmrebi 

Ban Diego Union speaks of a newly discovered volcanic region near 
Mole je,. in Lower California. In 1872 twenty distinct shocks were 
felt; in 1870 five severe shocks. — C. Q. K. 

.4878. April 10| 

/ \ Mission San Jos€. — ^B. Ms. 

1878. AprU 12; In tbe evenln^i IV. 

Three light shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1878. April 81 1 

Mission San Gabriel.— C. G. R. 

1878. Man 

San Bernardino. — ^B. Ms. 

>1878. Janet 

San Bernardino. — B. Ms. 

1878. JnlT 16| IV. 

Slight shock, Napa, Cal.— C. G. R. 

1878. Ansnat 28| 4 p. ni.| VI. 

Heavy shock at Mission San Jos§, Cal. — C. G. R. Severe shock at 
Redwood, San Mateo County; time not given. — B. Ms. 8. F, Post^ 
September 3, 1873. 

1878. October 12; lsl5 a. ni.) V. 

San Diego, Cal.— C. G. R. 

1878. October 19 1 2 p. m.| IV. 

Slight shock, Seattle, W. T.; 4 p. m., clouds of smoke [?] were seen 
^ pouring from the highest peak of Mt. Rainier. — C. G. R. 

1878. Noventber 6| 

Nevada. — B. Ms. 

1878. November 22; a little after 9 p. m.| VIII. 

A shock was felt from Portland, Oregon, to San Francisco, Cal.; most 
severe at Crescent City, Cal., and Port Orford, Oregon. — C. G. R. 
Nearly every brick building in Crescent City was injured; chim.- 
neys were damaged there and up the coast to Port Orford, in the 
interior as far as Jacksonville, Oregon, and east from Crescent as 
far as Happy Camp, on the Klamath. — B. Ms. At sea, N. of Cape 
Mendocino.— C. G. R. — Tacoma (III). — P. 

November 22. Severe shock at Linckville, Klamath Lake, Oregon. 
In Jackson and Josephine counties, Oregon, and Trinity County, 
Cal., the shock was strong and lasted nearly a minute. — B. Ms. 
— Ft. Klamath, Oregon. — B. Ms. Red Bluff; Eureka; Albany 
(Oregon) ; Roseburg. — C. G. R. 



\ 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 97 

November 22. This shock was very severe in Washington Territory. 
— B. Ms. 

1878. December 8| V. 

Sharp shock, Santa Clara, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1873. Deeember 17f 11-12 p. m.i IT. 

Victoria, B. C— C. G. R. 

1878. Deeember t| [probably ■17y B. S. H.] 

Olympia. Three shocks. — P. 



■< 



874. Janvarr 18 1 III. 

Two slight shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. 



1874. January 19} III. 

Slight shock, San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. B. 

1874. Marcb 6| 4i68 a. m.| T. 

V Sharp and short shock at San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. 

/ 1874. Mareb a9| 

Alpine County. — B. Ms. 

1874. Mar 24| 2 a. m.| IT. 

/ Two sharp shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. Slight shock. — 
\ S. F. D. [?] 



X 



1874. June 11| 8 p. m.| T. 

Two sharp shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. 



1874. A-amnut 8| In tbe evenlniTI HI. 

/\ Light shock, Clifton, San Bernardino Connty, Cal. — C. G. R. 



\ 



1874. Auirvatt 

Gilroy, Santa Clara County, Cal. — B. Ms. 



^ 1874. Deeember 10| 

Nevada [Cal.?].-— B. Ms. 



\ 

X 



V 



1874. Deeember 14) 

San Francisco, Cal. — ^B. Ms. 

1874t 

Tacoma (11).— P. 

1875. January 24| 4 a. m.| TI. 

Heavy shock in Butte, Plumas, and Sierra counties, Cal., direction 
from N. E.— C. G. R. At Oroville, Taylorsville, Greenville, and 
Downieville. — B. Ms. Carson (Nev.), N. E. and S. W., one light ! 

and one quite sharp shock. — C. W. F. ! 



98 SABTHQUAKSS ON THB PACIFIC COAST 

1876. February 7| 2 a. mu, 10t45 a. m., 11 146 a. m. 

Duration 2 sec. Three shocks, San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. B. Mo- 
tions vertical. U. S. W. B. 

187S. June 16| 

y^ San Francisco, Cal.— C. G. K. 



/ 



1875. Jane 18 1 forenoon | III. 

Slight shocks in San Francisco. — C. G. R. 



1876. Jane 18 1 8i86 a. m.| T. 

y^ Sharp shock, San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. 3 a. m.— S. F. D. 

1875. Avsnat 8; In the momlnflri T. 

N. Heavy shock was felt at Hollister, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1875. Oetober 14| 6 p. m.| V. 

A sharp shock at San Francisco and in the Santa Clara Valley, Cal.. 
with a heavy sea, without wind, from Santa Cruz to Cape Men- 
docino.— C. G. R. 5.55 p. m., S. F., Cal.— T. T. 



x; 



K 



187S. NoTember 2| Tl. 

A severe shock at Fort Yuma, Arizona.-— C. G. R. 

1875. Ifovember 7| V. 

Heavy shock in San Benito County, Cal. — C. G. R. 



1875. Ifovember 14 1 7t5a p. mu| IT. 

Two shocks at San Francisco. Cal.— T. T. San Jo86.— U. S. W. R. 

1875. November 15 1 7i55 p. m. 

San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. 




A 



1875. November 27 1 IO1I8 p. nt. 

San Francisco, Cal.— T. T.— C. G. R. 



1875. Deeember 2| 2i40 p. m. 

\/ Three shocks, MarysvlUe, Yuba County, CaL — ^B. Ms. See Decern- 
\ ber 3. 



X 



1875. December 8t afternoon | V. 

Grass Valley, CaL " Heavy shock."— C. G. R. Light. Carson (Nev.), 
3 p. m.— C. W. F. 

1875. Deeember 21 1 

Santa Barbara, Cal.— C. G. R. 

1875. Deeember 28 1 nflirbt. 

X In Placer, Nevada, and Yuba counties, Cal. — C. G. R. 

' 1875. Deeember 24| In the evenflnir* 

"^v Grass Valley, Cal.— €. G. R. 




A 



SABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 99 

1879. Jwatfuarr 21 1 betvreen 8 and 4 a. m.| III? 

San Jo86, Santa Cruz, and San Francisco. — C. G. R. " Very gentle 
at Santa Cruz about 4 a. m.— Mr. Sawin's Diary. 



t» 



X 



1879. Mareli 26| 6 a. m., 1 p. m.i III. 

Two Blight shocks, Oakland, Cal. — C. G. R. 



Xtsre. May 10| 
Santa Barbara, Cal.— C. G. R. 

1879. Auffvat 16 1 lilS p. m. 

Lat. 41* 55' N., long. 126® 25' W., off the southern part of Oregon.— 
C. G. R. (Heavy.) 

1876. October 6| 0i20 and lOiOS p. m. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oakland, San Jos^, and Angel Island. — C. G. R. 
(Lasting 10 sec.) 

^ 1876. Oetoberi 

A White Sulphur Springs. ?— B. Ms.- Ashland (Oregon) Tidings^ Oc- 

\ tober 28, 1876. 

/ 1876. Deeeniber 11| 7 p. nt. 

A^ At Silver Mountain, Cal., a series of seven shocks within thirty min- 

utes. A slight shock at 3 o'clock the next morning. — C. G. R. 




1877. January 10| ItlS f| III. 

A slight shock at Los Angeles, Cal.; at Benedict Cafton, near there. 



three distinct shocks. — C. G. R. 



X 



1877. January 18 1 aliont noonp VI. 

A heavy earthquake forty-five miles southeast of San Diego. — 
C. G. R. 



1877. Febmary 17 1 nftominsi V. 

/\ Heavy shock at Quincy, Plumas County, Cal. — C. G. R. 

y 1877. May 80 1 betvreen 2 and 8 a. m.| V. 
X. Heavy shock at Paso Robles. Cal. — C. G. R. 

1877. Mayi 

Tidal waves at San Francisco. Diagram given at p. 169 of Milne's 
Earthquakes. 

/ 1877. Jane 28 1 a few mlnntea before nftldnlirbt. 

\ Santa Barbara, three shocks. — ^B. Ms. 11.30 p. ni., Bakersfield, Cal. 
" Vertical."— C. G. R. 

y 1877. Jaly 2| lOtSS a. m. 

s. Gilroy.— B. Ms. 8. F. Bulletin, July 5, 1877. 





X 



100 EABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

187T. Jvly 9| 

A shock at Sacramento, Cal., lasting one minute.— C. G. B. Carsou 
(Nev.), 11.10 p. m., N. and S.; light.— C. W. P. 

187T. Avarust 1T| TtSO v* ib.| V. 

Heavy shock at Campo, Cal. — C. G. B. 

187T. Awiut aT| 

Eureka, Humboldt County, Cal. — B. Ms. 

187T« Avvuati 

S. F., CaL— B. Ms. Antioch Ledger^ September 1, 1877. 

1877. September 7% lO p. m. 

Yuma, Arizona. — ^Fuchs. — C. G. B. 

18TT. September 19| abovt 4 p. m. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— B. Ms.— £f. F, B«2lef{ii, September 22, 1877. 

187T. September S8| 2i80 p. m. 

Campo, Cal.— C. G. B. 



187T. October l^i lt58 p. m.| Tin. 

y Portland, Oregon; 1.45 p. m., Marshfield, Oregon; 1.52 p. m., Cas- 
/ cades, Oregon; 9 a. m.. Cascades, Oregon. — C. G. B. (Chimneys 

overthrown.) — ^P. 

187T. October 96 1 6-6 p. m. 

Lat. 430 13% long. 128* W.— Severe shock.~C. G. B. 

X877. NoTember 94 1 618O »• m., 616O a. m. 
Two shocks at Bed Bluff, Cal. (V).~C. G. B.— S. F. (III).— C. G. B. 

> 

1878. JmmumxT 8| 
Santa Barbara, Cal.— B. Ms.— fi^. F, Golden Era, January 12, 1878.— 
\ Stockton Independent, January 10, 1878. 

1878. Febrnarr 96 1 II1S6 a. m.| IV. 

,• . San Francisco, Cal.— U. S. W. B. 

1878. Maroh 17| 
Two sharp shocks at St. Thomas, Lower California. — U. S. W. B. 

1878. Marob 18 1 6t8u a. m.| III. 

Tacoma, W. T.— U. S. W. B.— (Slight.) 

1878. April 28| lO a. m. 

Heavy earthquake at Loreto, Gulf of California. Shocks continued 
till May 3d.— Fuchs. 



1878. May 8| 8iS5 p. m.| VI. 

/ From Bed BluflP to Sacramento City, Cal., also in Mendocino County. 

\ 



^ — C. G. B. (Clocks stopped.) 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIFIG COAST 101 

/ 1878. Mat S1| 
\ San Bernardino, Cal.— U. & W. B. 

1878. Juie 11-1S| litis p. m. (1II)| lltSO p. la., C^ 2t80 a. m. (III>f 
«Bd 6ta0 a. m. (I>l *"" 'f ^^ 

Four shocks at Los Angeles, Cal. — ^U. 8. W. B. 






1878. Jvly 2} Sin. 66m. 800. (a. m. or p. m.r)| HI. 

Two light shocks at Campo, Cal.— U. S. W. B. y' } 

\^878. Jal7 96| 8i26 a. m. 

K Los Angeles, Cal., San Gorgonlo. — C. G. B.; and San Bemafdiiibuv- 
\ Fuchs. 






>C 



878. September 7| aboat 9t86 a. la. 

Three shocks at San Francisco, Cal.— U. 8. W. B. 







1878. September 7| It a. m. 

Severe earthquake in the southern portion of Humboldt County, 
Cal.— B. Ms. 

1878. September S8| 6 p. m. 

San Francisco and Oakland, Cal. — C. G. B. 



K 



X 



1878. Oetober 11 1 7ta0 p. m.| V. 

A severe shock at San Jos£, Cal. — ^U. 8. W. B. 

1878. October 21 1 6t40 p. m. 

Two shocks at Sacramento, Cal. — U. 8. W. B. 



1878. Horember 11 1 9i46 a. m.| III. 

y A slight shock at San Francisco, Cal.— U. S. W. B. 



X 






1878. December 9| 8i20 p. m.| V. 

A severe shock at Bed Bluff, Cal. — C. G. B. 

1878. December 17| 4 p. m. 

Two shocks at Campo, Cal. — C. G. B. Also Yuma, Arizona. — Fuchs. 

1879. f 

Portland, Oregon. — P. 

1879. Febmary 4| Ob. 8m. a. m. 

A shock at Visalia, Cal. — C. G. B. 



X 



1879. February 19 1 a few minutes after 6 a. m. 

San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. B. 

1879. Man 

?— B. yL&,^E9meralda Herald, May 31, 1879. 

1879. May a6| 8t40 p. m. 

Princeton, Colusa County, Cal. — ^U. S. W. B. 




102 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1879. Auvniit 10$ Itl&iit. Ai. 

A very light shocl^i^t Los Angeles, Gal. (U). Tidal wave at Sai4a 
Monica. Quit^. severe shock at San Fernando (IV? V?).— C. O. B. 

1879. Auvnat <1^)« "• 

A shock afF&ske's Mills, Sonoma County, Gal.— C. G. R. 
» • • ■ » • 

1879. 0«|in»er Xf 6i80 a. m.i V. 

i 



\Oaklc\(f ••Gal., and round the bay, " a' sharp shock." — C. G. R. 
.l\_' . 



1^79. *peeember 7| 8il5 p. in.| III. 

/■•^•flfght shock at Los Angeles, Gal. — U. S. W. R. 



v.x 



.• • 




»1£79. f f 



There was a smart shock in Portland, Oregon — and only two or 
three shocks have been felt since that «time. — Gommunicated by 
Geo. J. Ainsworth, Esq. 



1880. January 9; 6t46 a. m. 

N/ Santa Gruz, Gonzales, and Hollister, Gal. — G. G. R. 

\r 1880. March 21 1 6t26 a. m.| V. 

/\ A heavy shock, Los Angeles, Gal. — U. S. W. R. 







1880. March 26; 2t80 a. m.f IV. 

Moderate shock, San Gorgonio, Gal. — ^U. S. W. R. 

1880. April 12| 4t40 a. m.| V. 

Severe shock at Los Angeles; most severe on San Gabriel River; 4.30 
a. m. sharp shock at Riverside, San Bernardino Gounty. — 8. F, 
Chronicle, April 13, 1880. 

1880. April 12| 8t08 a. m.| V. 

>s^ ' Severe shock at San Buenaventura, Ventura Gounty, Gal. — fi^. F. 
/ \ Chronicle, April 13, 1880. 

1880. April 14| ItOS p. m.| V. 

Strong shock, San Francisco. — G. G. R. Oakland. — ^B. Ms. 

1880. May 6| 11 p. m.) IV. t 

Slight shock, San Francisco, Gal.; 11.35 p. m., San Jose. — G. G. R. 

1880. June 24 1 12t47 a. m. 

San Francisco, Gal.— U. S. W. R. 

1880. Aavnat 22; li25 p. m. 

Southern part of Vancouver Island and northwest part of Washing- 
ton Territory. — Fuchs. — G. G. R. 

1880. Aavast 20 1 1:10 p. m.| III. 

A Blight shock, San Diego, Gal.— U. S. W. R. 





\ 



SABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PAOIFIO OOABT 103 

X880. September 86| Si40 p. m. 



\/ A90V. sepvemoer mn^ di«u p. m. 

/ \ ^ Los Angeles, Cal.— U. 8. W. R. 



X 



j|880« ]f<rreinber 4| 7i8T p. m. 

V Sharp shock at San Francisco, Cal. (V). Felt slightly at San Jos6 
\. (in).— C. G. R. 

1880. If orember 6| 

Newcastle, Oal. — ^Fuchs. Newcastle, Ontario. — C. G. R. 






X 

/ ^ 



\ 



\ 



1880. HoTember 12| 8i46 p. m-i III. 

Slight shock at Los Angeles, Cal. — C. G. B. 

1880. November 12| lOtSO p. m. 

Santa Barbara, Cal.— C. G. B. 

1880. November 21 1 8tlO, 11 p. m., and 2i80 a. m.| or Ti46, Oi4S, and 
11 p. m. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — C. G. B. 

1880. December Tf $ St54 p. m. 

Olympia, W. T-; also at Bainbridge Island, W. T.— C. G. R. Dec. 6 
(IV).-P. 

1880. December 10| S a. na. 

Bainbridge Island, W. T. "Vertical shock."— U. S. W. B.— Puget 
Sound (IV).— P. 

1880. December 12| 8t40 p. m. * 

Severe shock near Pnget Sound, W. T., from Victoria to Portland. — 
C. G. B. (Vn).— P. 

1880. December 14| 7 p. m.) III. 

Slight shock was felt at Bainbridge Island, W. T.— U. S. W. B. 

1880. December 10 1 between 2 and 8 a. m.| V. 

y Los Angeles, Cal. 3.40 p. m., from Los Angeles to San Diego.— 
C. G. B. 

1880. December 20| lltlO p. m. 

Bainbridge Island, W. T.— U. S. W. B. Puget Sound (IV).— P. 

1880. December 21 1 11 p. na.| V. 

Sharp shock at San Diego and Campo, Cal. 3.22 a. m., Campo, Cal. — 
C. G. B. 

1880. December 26| 2t80 p. na.| III. 

Tecaluma, San Diego County, Cal. ** Slight."— U. S. W. B. [Marin 
Co.?] 

1880. December 28| 11 p. m.| V. 

Severe shock, Tecaluma, Cal. — U. S. W. B. 




X 



104 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIPIC COAST 

1880. Deeember S8| lliSS p. ]n.| III. 

Sligrht shock, Bainbridge Island, W. T.— U. S. W. R. 

1881. JanuavT If 6t66 p. m. 

Red Bluff, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1881. January l^7| m. 

Bainbridge Island, W. T. Slight shocks at 10.56 p. m. of 5th. Slight 
shocks 4.20 p. m. of 6th. Slight shocks at 10.15 p. m. of 7th. — 
U. S. W. R. 

\ / 1881. Jmnnmrr 6| 6i25 p. m. 

\ Red Bluff, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1881. Jmnnmrr T| 6ilS a. ]n.| UI. 

Slight shock, Campo, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 




1881. January 16| 11 p. m. 

Slight shock, Bainbridge Island, W. T.— U. S. W. R. 

/ 1881. Jannary 94| 8i64 p. m.f OilS p. m.i llilS p. m. 

\ Three shocks, San Francisco and Oakland, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1881. Jannary 80| 0t4S p. m.) III. 

Slight shock, Bainbridge Island, W. T.— U. S. W. R. 

; 1881. Febmary 1| 4tll p. ba. (tbree «h€»ok«)| 9t58 p. m. (t^ro shocks). 

/\ Visalia, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1881. Febmary 9| m. 

Slight shock at Salinas City, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 



^ 



/ 



/ 



1881. Febmary 14 1 abont 1 o'eloekf III. 

Slight shock at Ukiah, Cal.~C. G. R. 

1881. Marob 14| lOiSO p. m.| III. 

Slight shock at Bainbridge Island, W. T.— U. S. W. R. 

1881. April 10| 2 a. m.-2tl5 a. m.| V. 

Several severe shocks in Central California. — C. G. R. 

1881. April 271 9ilO p. m. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1881. May 14| 18b. 9m. | IT. 

Slight shock at Berkeley, Cal. — Trans. Seismol. Soc. of Japan, vol. x» 
^ p. 95. 

1881. Jnne 80; 8 a. m.| V. 

\^ Sharp shock at Campo, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 

1881. Jnly 2| 11 p. m. 

y San Juan, San Benito County, Cal. — C. G. R. 



s 



KABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 105 

1881. July 8| 2tlO a. m.| V. 

\ Heavy shock at Hanford and Visalia, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1881. Avffnat 80 1 T p. ]n.| III. 

/ Two slight shocks at Santa Barbara, Cal.~-U. S. W. B. 

# 

\ 

1881. September 18 1 SiXO p. m. 

/ Severe shock at San Francisco, Cal. (V). — C. G. B. Angel Island 

(in). 

* 

1881. October 2| O a. m.| V. 

, \ Sharp shock, Campo, Cal. — U. S. W. B. 

1881. October 21 1 6t41 p. m. 

Carson (Nev.), N. and S., two light shocks.— C. W. F. 
\ 
1881. October 81 1 4tlO p. m.i III. 



X 



^ . Slight shock, San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. 

; 1881. HoTcmber By lOtOS a. m. 

^ Carson (Nev.), N. and S., sharp shock, lasting two seconds. — C. W. F. 

\ 1881. NoTember 11 1 4 p. m.i III. 

A Slight shock, San Francisco, Cal.— U. S. W. B. 

1881. November 18 1 11 lis p. m. I V. 

\ Smart shock, San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. 11.20 p. m.— U. S. W. B. 

1881. November 1S| at nooni V. 

\ San Jos€, Cal.— C. G. B. " Severe." 

J 1882. Jaaaary 26 1 cTeninvi V. 

/ Two severe shocks, Centerville, Cal. — C. G. B. 

.1882. Febraarr 8| 2i40 a. m.| IV. 

/ Sharp shock, San Gorgonio, Cal.— U. S. W. B. " Direction doubtful." 

1882. Mareb 6| 2 p. m.| V. 

, Successive shocks at Merced; 1.57 p. m., two severe shocks at Santa 
/ Cruz; 1.45 p. m., two severe shocks at Gilroy; 1.45, one severe 

shock at Monterey; 1.47%, severe shock at Watson ville. — B. Ms. 

flf. f. W. (7o«, March 9, 1882. 

1882. Mareb 11 1 8i80 p. m. 

/ Poway, San Diego County, Cal. — C. G. B. 

1882. Mareb 11| 4 p. m.| III. 

Y Slight shock, San Diego, Cal.— C. G. B. 4.25 p. m.— H. Ms. 

1882. Mareb 16 1 lt46 p. m.| III. 

"( Light shock, San Francisco, Cal. — U. S. W. B. 



106 EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



X 



1882. Marob f | III. 

Two slight shocks in Salinas, Cal., during the month. — Fuchs. 



^ 



882. April 18) 6t80 a. m.$ V. 

Shaxp shock, San Francisco, Gal. — ^U. S. W. B. 



1882. April 80) 10t48 p. m.) IV. 

Two shocks, Portland, Oregon. — C. Q. R. — ^P. 

1882. May 1| 12i25 a. m. 

Portland, Oregon. — Pnchs. 

. 1882. June 2T) 5t22 a. m. 

"X^ Two severe shocks, four seconds apart, San Francisco, Cal. (V).— 
/ \ CO. R. Also Petaluma, HoUister and Stockton.— Fuchs. . 

\ 1882. July IS) Ti46 p. m.) V. 

, Sharp shock, San Francisco, Cal.— C. G. R. Heavy shock at Center- 
/ ville, Alameda County. — H. Ms. 



X 



1882. July 22) llt08 a. m.) II. 

Very light shock at San Francisco, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 



< >^ 1882. July 81 1 about nooni m. 

-^ Light shock at Cape Mendocino, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 

I 



1882. AvflTiUit 8) III. 

\^ -Light shocks at Oakland, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 



>1882. Auffnst O) 8t46 p. m.) III. 



I 




^ Light shock at San Francisco, Cal.--U. S. W. R. 



X 




1882. Avsvat 18) nlsbt) VI or more neve re. 

Seven shocks at Round Valley, Inyo County. Two shocks between 
12 and 1, night, were very severe. — H. Ms. ' 

1882. Auffuat) twice during tbe montli. 

Salinas, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1882. September 80) lOtST a. m.) V. 

Sharp shock at Campo, Cal. — ^U. S. W. R. 

1882. October 8| 2 a. m.) V. 

Heavy shock at San Diego, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1882. October 20) 2tl5 a. m. 

Severe shock at San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1882. October 20) 3tl0 a. m.) V. 

Sharp shock in San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. 







EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAGITIO COAST 107 

1882. October 31 1 6i46 p. m. tj 

Sharp shock, San Francisco, GaL (V); felt, also, at Sonoma, Napa, 
Petalnma, and San Bafael. — C. G. R. 



/ X88a. H<rrember 11 1 TtSO a. m.i V. 

\^ SeTcre shock at Mendocino. — ^H. Ms. 

1882. December 10| llt46 p. m. 

Two light shocks, Visalia, Cal. (IV).— U. S. W. R Bakersfield, two 
shocks at 11.30. — H. Ms. 

1888. January 28| 5b. | III. 

Slight shock, Los Angeles, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 




\. 



/ 



888. Jaanary 28$ llt40 p. m. 

lAgM shock in San Francisco, Cal.— T. T. SAorp shock.— IT. S. W. R. 



1888. February 6| 16b. 80m.) III. 

\ Slight shock, San Diego, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1888. Marcb 21 1 abortly before 1 a. m.| V. 

V Centerville (Alameda County), severe. — ^H. Ms. 



X 



1888. Marclft 21| 4i80 a. m.| V. 

Mendoclno.-r-H. Ms. (Sleepers waked.) 

1888. Marclft 80| 7b. 48m., 7b. S8m.y 8b. 15m. 

Three shocks, San Francisco, Cal. (IV); nine shocks, Watsonville. — 
C. G. R. Light shock, S. F., 8.10 a. m.— T. T. 7.39 a. m. at Hol- 
lister (VI); very heavy shock, windows broken, etc. — H. Ms. 

March 30. 7.45 a. m.; Santa Cruz, three shocks (VI). 7.42 a. m.; 
Watsonville, violent shocks, nine in all (VI); pendulum clocks 
were stopped. 7.35 a. m.; San Luis Obispo. 7.50 a. m.; Center- 
ville, three shocks. About 8 a. m.; Mission San Jos§, several sharp 
shocks (V). 7.40 a. m.; Gilroy (V), glass broken. 8 a. m.; Mar- 
tinez, two shocks. 7.40 a. m.; Salinas. 7.45 a. m.; Monterey. — 
H. Ms. 

1888. April 2) 8b. 60m. | IT. 

X Two light shocks, San Francisco, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1888. May lOj nlvbt. 

Victoria, B. C. (HI).— C. G. R. , 

1888. Jane f| 

Tacoma (III).— P. 



K 



1888. July 1| 8 a. m. 

Carson (Nev.), light.— C. W. F. 



,71883. July 7| 10b. 60m.| II. 

X Light shock at Los Angeles, Cal. — U. S. W. R. (Direction ?) 



V 

X 



108 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



1888. July 80| 

Two shocks, Gilroy, Cal.~C. G. R. July 31?— Fuchs. 

1888. Auffnat 4$ lib. and 121ft. 50m. 

Two light shocks at Oakland, Gal.— U. 8. W. B. 



a888. AuKnmt 19| 2i66 a. m. 

\ "^ Carson (Nev.). Three light shocks.— C. W. P. ^^ ^^' 



AW^'^ 



K 



1888. Auffnat 2T| lli. 

Prof. Davidson reports earthquake waves at Saucelito. — C. G. R. 

4 

1888. AngwLut 81 1 

Los Angeles. — ^H. Ms. 




1888. September If 8b. 25m. | III. 

Light shock, Los Angeles, Gal. A second shock four seconds later. — 
U. S. W. B. 

1888. September S| 4b. 80m. | VI. 

V/ Shocks at Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Wilmington, and San. finen- 
/\ Jbfentura, Gal.— C. G. B. 






/ 



/ 



4888. September 18| 14b. 80m.| IV. 

\ Santa Barbara, Gal., lasting 5 seconds. — U. S. W. B. 

1888. September 28| about mldnl«bt. 

Two shocks, Portland, Oregon. — G. G. B. — Oh. Om. 10s., Portland. 
Two shocks. — P. 

1888. October 8? or Of 

6.45 p. m., light shock at Salinas (III); 7.50 p. m., much stronger at 
Salinas (V); 9.45 p. m., another at Salinas; Santa Gruz (V), a 
severe shock. — ^H. Ms. 

. 1888. Oetober 0| 28b. 8m.) TV. 

Two light shocks, San Francisco, Gal. — G. G. B. 

1888. Oetober 10| ItOS a. m.| V. 

Sharp shock in San Francisco. — T. T. Heaviest since 1868. — B, Ms. 
Not felt at Sacramento. Severe at Gilroy and Port Gosta.— H. Ms. 
Davisville reports a severe shock; Berkeley; Oakland. — ^H. Ms. 
Detaille (L'Astronamie, 1885, p. 188). 



y 1888. October 16) 8b. ISm. 

/ A slight shock at Gape Mendocino, Gal. — U. S. W. B. 



\ 



1888. Oetober 22) 6 a. m.) VIII or more seTere. , 

South side of the Merced Biver, below Merced Falls; a shock threw 
a section of the bluff two hundred feet by sixty by eighty feet, 
into the river. A sharp shock a few minutes before midnight. 
— H. Ms. 



I 



/ 



/ 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 109 

1888. October 84| I6I11. 14m. | TI. 

A severe shock at Cape Mendocino, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 

1888. Oetober 80| In tlie mon&lnvi III. 

Two light shocks at Oakland, Cal.— U. S. W. R. Light shock at S. F. 
— T. T. 

1888. November 11 1 18b. lSm.f III. 

Slight shock at Poway, San Diego County, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

\ 

1888. December 8| V. 

Severe shock at Shasta, Cal. — ^H. Ms. 



/ 1888. December 12 1 98b. 40m.| III. 

/ A slight shock at Los Angeles, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 

X 

\ 

1888. December 18) I16O a. m.| V. 

V Heavy shock at Salinas, Cal. — ^H. Ms. 

1888. December 18 1 

Los Angeles, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

^1888. December 16 f| 15b. 

\ A slight shock at Poway, San Diego County, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1884. Jmnmm,rr 8| aob. 40m.) IV. 
A light shock, Portland, Oregon. — ^U. S. W. R. One shock. — ^P. 

/ 1884. Janiiarr 4) lib. SOm.) III. 

Very light shock, Los Angeles, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 




V 

y 



884. Janiiarr 86) I. 

Professor George Davidson, of the U. S. C. S., reported from San 
Francisco that at 19h. 24m. earthquake waves were indicated by 
the levels of the astronomical instruments of the observatory, 
and they continued for twenty minutes. — C. G. R. 

1884. Jannarr 87) 28b. 80m.) VII. 

\ J Moderate earthquake in Humboldt County, Cal. A second shock 
A five minutes later. — C. G. R. (Eureka, Hydesville, Cape Mendo- 
cino.) 

/ 1884. Marcb 15) 8b. 7m.) III. 
/ Very light shock, San Francisco, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1884. Marcb 26) 4t40 p. m. 

Severe shock, San Francisco, Cal. (VI). At 5.17 another less severe, 
Oakland and Berkeley (VI). Shocks felt from Santa Cruz to 
Petaluma. — Fuchs. 4.44 p. m. — T. T. Professor Davidson gives 
times of three shocks. At Gilroy, severe shock (VII); at Center- 
ville, light (IV); at Santa Cruz, severe (V); at Petaluma, quite 



/ 



\ »' 








/ 



/. 



110 BAKTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

severe (V); at Bedwood City, quite severe (V); Mission San Jos4, 
two heavy shocks (V); Spanishtown, severe (V); San Jq86; Orase 
Valley.— H. Ms. 

1884. AprU 6| 6]i. aOm.| III. 

A very light shock at Eureka and Hydesville, Humboldt County, 
Cal.— C. G. R. 

1884. April 8| in. 

In the morning very light shocks, Eureka, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1884. April 111 m. 

/' Light shock. Eureka, Cal. — Fuchs. Carson (Nev.), 2.10 V. M., N. W. 
and S. E. (IV), vertical shock.— C. W. F. 

1884. April 17| 211ii. 10ia.| IT. 

Light shock at Oakland, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1884. April 20| 111ft. 80m.| III. 

A very light shock at Oakland, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 

1884. June 6| lli.i TH. 

Tvro strong shocks v^ere felt at Red Bluff, Cal., with an interval of 
three or four seconds. — C. O. R. (Walls cracked.) 

1884. June 12| 81ii. 48in. 

A strong shock is reported by Captain C. F. Swan to have been felt 
at sea, in latitude 40* 24' north, longitude 125^' 50' west, being 
about seventy-five miles west of Gape Mendocino, CaL — C. G. B. 

1884. June 16 1 lOli. 48m. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1884. July 15 1 about dayllffhtj III. 

A very light shock at San Francisco, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 



y 




1884. An vast 2-8 1 In the nlffbti III. 

A very light shock at Santa Barbara, Cal. — U. S. W. B. 

1884. Anamat 8| 

Lower Lake, Lake County, Cal. Shocks day and night. — H. Ma. 



•/ 



/ 1884. An«n«t 4| Ih.j III. 

Three very light shocks at Santa Barbara, Cal.— U. S. W. B. 

1884. September 21 1 between 221ii. and 281i.| III. 

Light shocks were felt at New Tacoma, W. T.— U. S. W. R.— 22h. 
30m., Tacoma. — ^P. 

1884. September 20 1 10t58 p. m.| III. 

Light shock at Yuma, Arizona. — Fuchs. 



X 



BABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 111. 



1884. September JITt 8 a. m.) III. 

JAght shock at Tuma, Arizona. — ^Fuchs. 

.1884. Ootober 22^ ISb. 84m.| lU. 

A light shock at Los Angreles, Cal.— U. S. W. R 



1884. November 4| 18b. 
'y^ Three shocks 150 miles off Cape Mendocino, CaL, followed a few 
' \ hours later by two heavier ones. — ^U. S. W. E. 



X 



1884. IforemberSi 

Three earthquakes at Hollister, Cal. — A. S. 



1884. November 12 1 

The self-registering tide gauge at Sau^ito, Cal., recorded a series 
/ of waves probably due to a submarine earthquake. — C. G. R. — 

\ Sun Francisco Evening BuUeUn of December 13. 

1885. January S6| lb. 88m., ISOtb meridian time. 

. A moderate earthquake (V) occurred in Central California from San 
A Francisco, northward, to Napa and Petaluma. — U. S. W. R. 

^ Sharp shock, 1.32.— T. T. San Francisco (V); San Rafael (V); 

Oakland (V). 



K 



1888. Jan vary 96) 8iS7 p. m.| IT. 

Light shock in San Francisco, CaL— T. T. Light shock (IV) Cen- 
tral Calif omia.—C. 0. B. 

1886. January 80| about 10i45) VIII. 

Honey Lake Valley, Ijassen County, Cal. Shock lasting over a 
minute; breaking glass and throwing down chimneys. In the ten 
days preceding February 8th, probably over one hundred distinct 
shocks have been felt. Shocks were most severe about Janesville, 
and on Susan River, twelve miles from Susanville. — H. Ms. See 
Feb. 26. 



188S. Jannary 80| 0t40 p. m. 

Shock twenty seconds long in Sierra County. — H. Ms. At Susanville 
\ the shocks lasted from 9 p. m. to 4 a. m. Thirteen shocks were 



/ 



felt in places in the valley. — H. Ms. 

1885. January 80| 21b. 88m., 120tb meridian time. 

A very light shock (III) at Sacramento, Cal. — U. S. W. R. 



/ 



886. February 6| S8b. 

A moderate shock (V?) at Geyser Springs, Sonoma County, Cal. — * 
^ C. G. R. 



1885. February 6; 2b. 

A moderate shock (V?) at Geyser Springs, Sonoma County, Cal. — 
C. 6. R. 





\ 



112 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

^1886. Febmarr T| nlsbti V. 

Four severe shocks at Susanville. — ^H. Ms. 

1S85. Febnaarr 22 1 18b. 58m. 

^\^ A very light shock (III) at Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1886. Febmarr 26 j 

The earthquakes still continue in the vicinity of Susanville. One 
shock recently, it is said, shook down the curbing of a well. The 
shocks appear to be local, as none are felt one hundred miles from 
here. This locality is in Lassen County, in the extreme north- 
eastern part of the State.— (S. F. C.)— C. G. B. 

1885. Mareb 80| 28b. sem., 120tb meridian tlmef TI. 

A strong shock (VI) in Central California, from San Rafael, Marin 
County, to Monterey, Salinas, and Hollister. — C. G. R. San Jos^ 
(VI). 



K 



\ 



1885. Marob 81 1 aboat 8b. 

A very light earthquake (m) at Fall Brook, San Diego County, 
Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1885. April 2 1 7b. 15m. 

A very light shock (III) Sacramento, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1885. April 2| Tb. 25m. 

A light shock (IV) at Merced and Fresno, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1885. April 8 1 10b. 15m. | III. 

Sacramento, 2 shocks. — C. G. R. 



1885. AprU 7| 2b. 
V Santa Barbara and San Buenaventura, Cal. — C. G. B. 



/ 






1885. April 7| 2b. 80m. p IT. 

A light shock, Bakersfield, Kern County, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1885. April 111 20b. 5m., 120tb meridian time. 

A strong shock (VI), Central California. — C. G. R. Monterey, 
Salinas, Merced, and Stockton (VI) ; Marysville, S. Rafael, S. Fran- 
cisco, Hanford and Eeeler (III). 



/ 1885. April 18| sbortly before midnl«bt. 



/ 



\ 



A moderate shock (V), Eeeler, Inyo County, Cal. — ^U. S. W. R. 



^ 1885. April 25 1 20b. 20m. 

/ » A very light shock (III), Hydesvillc and Blue Lake, Humboldt 
County, Cal.— C. G. B. 

1885. Mar 8) 23b. 80m., ICMsal time. 

A very light shock, Olympia, W. T. Light shocks continued until 
Ih. 30m. of the 4th.— U. S. W. R. (II). At intervals for 2 hours.— P. 



EABTHQUAKES OX THE PACIFIC COAST 113 

1886. Jane 14 1 3h. 14m., 120tli meridian time) V. 

A moderate earthquake, San Buenaventura, Ventura County, and 
\ Los Angeles and Cahuenga, Los Angeles County, Cal. — C. G. R. 

188S. Jane 2S| 20h. SOm. 

' >(' A very light shock (III), Salinas. Cal.— U. S. W. R. 

1885. June 27 1 Sli. 26m. 

A light shock (IV), Olympia, W. T.— U. S. W. R. 

1885. 

y Three earthquakes noted during the summer at Kono Tyee. Clear 
, Lake, Cal., by 11. S. Floyd, Esq. 

y 1885. July 0| 111. 20m. to 81i. 15m. 

"^ Five moderate earthquakes (V), Santa Barbara, Cal. — U. S. \V. R. 

1885. July 22| lOh. 

A very light shock (III), Centerville, Cal.— C. G. R 

1885. July 28| 12h. 25m. 

A moderate shock (VI), San Jos^, Santa Clara County, and Center- 
ville, Alameda County, Cal.— C. G. R. Gilroy and Sta. Clara (VI). 

. 1885. July 81) 16]i. 10m. 

A strong shock (VII), Cloverdale, Sonoma County, Cal. — C. G. R. 

1885. September 18) 4h. 84m. 

A light shock (IV) in Southern California. — C. G. R. 

1885. September 20) about 7 a. m. 

, San Diego. — H. Ms. 

1885. Ootober 9) 8h. 

A moderate shock (V), Olympia, W. T.— C. G. R. (III).— P. 

1885. Ootober lO) between lh.-2h. 

Three very light shocks (III), East Portland, Oregon.— U. S. \V. R.— 
Ih. 30m. (II).— P. Hee 1886, October 13. 

1885. October 16) A\u 45m., 120th meridian time. 

^ A light earthquake (IV) in Central California, very faint in San 
Francisco (11), light in San Rafael (III), and heavier in >apa and 
Santa Rosa (IV).— C. G. R. 

1885. November 10) between 18h. and 20h.i I. 

/ Earthquake waves were indicated on the coast survey tide-gauge 
at San Francisco. — C. G. R. And on the levels of astronomical 
instruments at intervals of 35m. — Nature. 

1885. December 8) 221i. 40m., 120th meridian time. 

A moderate shock (V) Puget Sound, W. T.— C. G. R.— 22h. 40m., 
Tacoma. — P. 
8 



114 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1886. Deoember 8| lOtia p. m.) V. 

Sharp shocks at Victoria and New Westminster, B. C. — ^H. Ms. — 22h. 
12m.— P. 

1886. December 18$ Oh. 80m. 

A very light shock (III) Tatoosh Island, W. T.— U. S. W. B. 

1886. December 21) moritlns. 

^ Slight shock; Susanville (IV).— H. Ms. 

/886. December 28) between 8h. and 4b.) V. 
Santa Cruz, Cal. — U. S. W. B. Two heavy shocks. — ^H. Ms. 

1886. December 80) 8t48 a. n&. 

^ Light and rattling shock in San Francisco, Cal. (III). — ^T. T. Around 
the bay. — C. G. B. Oakland; heavy at Napa at 9.51 (V); severe at 
Bedwood (V) at 9.40; Vallejo Junction and Port Costa 9.46y2; 
slight at Santa Cruz (III) at 9.45; severe at Petalum^ (V>, 9.47; 
severe at Martinez (V), 9.50; severe at San Mateo (V), 9.45. — ^H. 
Ms. Probably at San Jos^. — £. S. H. 





1888. January 26) 

San Francisco and vicinity. — A. S. 

1886. Hay 24) 

^V^ Fresno, Cal.— A. S. 

•'^1886. Hay 26) 8 a. m. 

' Two shocks, San Francisco, Cal.— H. Ms. 

1886. May 26) 

^ ^ Earthquake shocks felt in different parts of California. — A. S. Santa 
Cruz (four shocks); Irving (two shocks). — H. Ms. 

1886. May 26) 12tl7 p. m.) IT. 

\^ Slight shock, San Francisco, Cal.— H. Ms. B, F, BuZZeiin, May 27, 
1887; 0.16 p. m.— T. T. 

1886. Jnne 7) li82 p. m.) III. 

« 

Light shock in San Francisco, Cal, — T. T. 

y 1886. Jnly 2) OilO a. m.) III. 

A Light shock in San Francisco, Cal. — T. T. 

1886. Jnly 2) 

Stockton, Cal. — A. S. 

1886. September 8) 

Earthquake shocks felt in several California towns, — A. S. 




\ 



/ 18M6f 1880f Octul»er 13; a little after 8 p. m. 
'^ Fort Point Lighthouse, S. F., Cal.— /Jcpor* of L. R. Board for 1885-6. 



/ \ 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 115 

1886. October 16 1 

Fort Point Lighthouse, S. F., Cal., 9.59 p. m.; Mare Island Light- 
house, Cal., 10 hours, y^ minute, p. m.— i^eporf o/ L. E, Board for 
1885-6. 10.05 p. m., S. F., Cal. (IV).— T. T. 

1880. November 11$ Till p. m.i III. 

^ Slight shock at San Francisco. — A. S. 

, 1880. Deeember 6| IT. 

\ San Francisco; also Santa Cruz. — ^A. S. 



1887. Jamuary 8; 4t20 p. m. 

Humboldt Lighthouse, CaX.—Report of L. H. Board for 1885-6. 



1887. January 8| Siao a. m. 

Cape Mendocino Lighthouse, C&\,— Report of L, E, Board for 1885-6. 

\ 

1887. Jan vary 11; 4ill a. m. 

Fort Point Lighthouse, S. F., Cal. Pigeon Point Lighthouse, Cal., 
\ 4 a. m. — Report of L, H, Board for 1885-86. 4.10 a. m., S. F., Cal.— 
\ T. T. Two shocks.— A. S. 

1887. January 16; IO168 p. m. 

Point Arena Lighthouse, Cal.— /Report of L. H. Board for 1885-6. 

1887. January 18| 3il6 a, m. 

X Point Arena Lighthouse, Cal. — Report of L. B. Board- for 1885-6. 



K 



1887. January 18 1 lOiSS p. n&. 

Mare Island Lighthouse, C&h—Report of L. H. Board for 1885-6. 



1887. January 81 1 

Sharp shock at Bakersfield, Cal.— A. S. 

1887. April 84| nlsbt| II. 

Slight shock recorded on seismometer of Lick Observatory. 

1887. April 28 1 

Shocks in Walla Walla Valley, W. T.— A. S. 

y 1887. Hay 8; II. 

^ Slight shock recorded on seismometer at Lick Observatory. 

1887. Hay 8| ai48 p. m. 

I have no record of this shock at Fort Yuma, but I assume it to 
have been felt there. In Science, 1887, May 20, p. 483, under the 
heading, The Sonora Earthquake, is a good account by G. £. Good- 
fellow, of the shock at Tombstone, Arizona. At this place there 
were loud detonations. The severe shaking lasted 10 seconds, the 
moderately severe about 20, and tremors a little over one minute. 
No building of any stability was damaged, and no person was 



116 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

injured. The railroad track of the A. T. and St. F. R. R., at 
a point where it ran east and west, was thrown 4^^ inches out of 
line, the convexity looking south. The bend was 300 feet long. 
For 48 hours after the shock there were tremors. Miners 600 
feet below the surface felt the shock severely and some became 
sick. Miners at 150 feet noticed the shock less. The area of 
disturbance is estimated at 1,200 by 600 miles. In Fronteras 
Valley, Sonora, old Mexico, and the neighborhood, the shock was 
destructive to houses and to hiunan life. Fissures north and 
south were produced. The center is probably south of Fronteras. 
At San Bernardino Banch, 90 miles southeast of Tombstone, all 
the houses were throvm down. There are extinct craters at this 
place. 

1887. May 8| 

Los Angeles. Tremor recorded on the magnetic instruments of the 
U. S. Coast Survey Observatory. Dr. Schott's determination of 
the time is 2h. 14.7m. p. m., P. s. t. (His report of June 20, 1887; 
copy furnished by U. S. Geological Survey.) 

M8T. M.y4,n. 
X^Slight shock recorded on seismometer at Lick Observatory. 

K1887. May ISf 

1887. May 28| 
\/ Severe shocks at Lakeport. — ^A. S. 

1887. June 8| at48 a. m. 

Carson (Nev.), S. W. and N. E. (VIII). Very severe, lasting 6 to 7 
sec; rotary motion, preceded by a noise like thunder. Stone and 
brick walls cracked, etc. 




X 



^ 1887. June 8| 8104 p. m. 

V^ Humboldt Light Station. Light shock.— LeWer from Nnval Secrr- 
tary L. H. Board. 

1887. June 18| lt90 a. m. 

/\ Carson (Nev,), two light shocks. — C. W. F. 

1887. June 24| 8i20 a. m.y V* 

V /Cape Mendocino Lighthouse. A single heavy shock, stopping the 
\ clock at 9.20 a. m., and lasting two seconds. No damage was 
done.— Lc^^cr from Naval Secretary L, E, Board, 

§ 

/ 1887. June 24| 8t90 a. m.| YI. 

Humboldt Light Station. Clock was stopped. — Mb9, of L. E, Board. 

1887. July 1| 

Cape Mendocino L. H. 10.25 p. m. Light shock. — IHd, 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 117 

1887. July 6| 101ft. 16m. 10*. p. m.) V. 

Recorded on seismometer at Lick Observatory. Sudden shock last- 
\ ing not more than five seconds. Direction northwest and south- 

east. Amplitude ^ of an inch. The exact time of the shock 
was noted by Mr. J. E. Keeler. 

1887. July 8| 4 to 7i80 p. m. 

An examination of the Coast Survey tidal register for July, at 
Saucelito, shows that at 4 o'clock p. m. on the 8th of July a 
sharp earthquake wave entered the harbor of San Francisco. The 
waves gradually grew smaller, and disappeared at 7.30 p. m. — 
8. F. BuUetin. 

1887. Avsiiat 18; 8h. 17m. a. m.) VI. 

" A very severe shock '* at Point Pinos Light Station; duration of 
shock, eleven seconds.— Letter of Naval SecreUxry L. B, Board, 

, 1887. Avvnat 18| 6t66 p. m., atandard time. 

/ Santa Cruz Light Station. — Letter of Naval Secretary L. H, Board, 

1887. Avvnat 17$ 4s01 a. m.| IT. 

Slight shock at Fort Point Light Station, Presidio, San Francisco, 
CaX.— Letter of Natal Secretary L. H, Board, 3h. 57m. a. m., lasting 
three seconds. — 8. F, Bulletin, August 18, 1887. — £. S. H. 4 a. m., 
San Mateo (IV). 

1887. AMgnmt 18; liOa a. m. 

Berkeley, Cal. — Very dfstinct shock, S. E. to N. W., reported by 
Professor Soule, University of California. 

1887. Avvnat 24$ III. 

San Diego felt two slight earthquakes yesterday. — 8. F. Bulletin, 
August 25, 1887. 





887. September 9$ 3i58 p. m.| I. 

Single shock in S. F., Cal. ? Somewhat doubtfid.— E. S. H. 

1887. September 19 1 III. 

^ Mariposa; light earthquake accompanied by heavy rumbling noise. 
^^\ — flf. F. BuUetin, September 20th. 



/ 



1887. Ootober 4) 

Keeler, Cal., 2 shocks, 3.45, 3.46 and 3.49, standard time. \V. to E. 
\ — U. S. Signal Service Observers. 



1887. October 12; 12b. 56m. a. m.| T. 

Recorded on seismometer at Lick Observatory. Not so heavy a 
y shock as that of July 6th, but sufficient to waken sleepers. l{ 
/ was felt at Smith's Creek, at the foot of the mountain. Direction, 

' ' northwest and southeast. 



118 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIFIO OOAST 



r 



88T. Ootober 18 1 

Large meteor, moving from east to west; with earthquake at 
Qilroy.— A. S. 



"% 



/ 



V 



1887. Ootober 18| 6tl7 a. m.) III. 

Slight shock at San Francisco. — K. J. Petaluma, 6.15 a. m. — 8, F. 
Evening Post, October 19th. Berkeley, Cal., 6.20 a. m. — Prot. Soul£. 
Vallejo, Napa County, 6.20 a. m. — ^flf. F. Chronicle, October 20th. 

1887. If OT ember 26$ 4 p. m.) II. 

Slight shock recorded on seismometer at Lick Observatory. 

1887. December 8t lOtSO m. m. 

At Point Arena Lighthouse. 

1887. December 8) 10t66 m. m.| V. 

Mendocino, Cal. A shock, ten seconds long, at 10.55; another, short 
and sharp, at 11.20. At Ukiah, the times are reported as 10.50 
and 11.10. At Ukiah no damage was done, though some clocks 
were stopped. San Francisco papers of December 4th. 

1887. December 4| 4i80 a. m. 

Very slight tremor at S. F., Cal. (U).-— B. S. H. At Haywards (VI) 
a sharp shock; waking many persons from sleep. — 8. F, Chronicle, 
December 5, 1887. At 5 and 7 a. m., destructive shocks in Calabria, 
Italy. 




^ / 



1887. December 6| — m. m.| V. 

A sharp shock at Petaluma. — 8. F. Chronicle, December 7, 1887. 



/ 1887. December 6; 8 a. m.$ V. 

Severe shock at Mendocino, Cal. — flf. F. Chronicle, December 7, 1887. 

1887. December 6$ betvFeen 6 and 7 p. m. 

A very light shock in San Francisco, felt by several persons.- 
£• S. A. 








1887. December 7$ shortly after 7 a. m.; I. 

Very light shock, San Francisco. — E. S. H. 

1887. December 7$ aboat 2t30 p. m.| I. 

^ ^ Very light shock, barely strong enough to be recorded on the seis- 
mometer of the Lick Observatory. 

/1887. December 16 j 4il6 a. m. 

\ Point Arena Lighthouse, 3 severe shocks (probably Vm). 

, 18^. December 16 1 4t28 a. m.; 8t40 a. m. 

\ Mendocino, Cal., two shocks. — Oakland Enquirer, December 16. 



/ 



£ARTHQUAK£S ON THE PAOIPIC COAST 119 

1887. Deeember 26f midnishtf V. 

" Quite a violent shock " at Santa Boea, Gal. — S. F, Clironiclef Dec. 
27, 1887. 

188 r 

Walla Walla (W. T.), December 9, 1887.— Several years ago a loud 
explosion somewhere in the Salmon River Mountains shook the 
whole country there, and reports of a volcano breaking out and 
lava flovdng over the mountain trails astonished the country. 
The San Francisco ChroMde and Portland Oregonian sent reporters 
there, but neither could find any trace of a volcano, though whole 
forests were ablaze. Joseph Baker, of Mount Idaho, an old 
miner, reports to the Walla Walla Statesman to-day that he has 
discovered the scene of the explosion, near some new diggings. 
The country for half a mile around is full of fissures newly 
cracked, but there are many others covered with moss, denoting 
previous explosions. — 8, F. Chronicle, December 10, 1887. 

The place is only twenty miles from Mount Idaho. — W, W. StcUee- 
man, December 9. 

1879 to 1887. 
I am informed that between the building of the narrow-gauge rail- 
road through the Santa Cruz Mountains (1879) and 1887, October, 
there has never been any damage to the tracks from landslides, 
etc., which has been attributed to earthquakes. This would show 
conclusively that no very severe shocks have occurred. — E. S. H. 

1871-1887. 

There has never been any damage to the roadbed of the narrow 
gauge railroad, from Saucelito to Russian River (Duncan^s Mills), 
which has been attributed to earthquake shocks. — Verbal account 
of W. F. Russell, Esq. 

EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1888. 

1888. JwLnuwLTT 7\ 10t26 p. m. 

S. F. (n): Berkeley (IV), — at Berkeley a loud explosion. — Professor 
Kellogg. 



1888. Janiutry 18| at nlsbt. 

Berkeley, a slight shock (N. E. to S. W.) recorded on duplex seis- 
mometer (I? II? III?). — Professor Soule. [Carson City, 7.33 p. m., 
S. W. to N. E.??] 

1888. Jumarr 16| lli89 p. m. 

S. F.: single, short, sharp shock (IV).— E. S. H. (I have no other 
report of this, and it must therefore be regarded as doubtful.) 

1888. Jaavary VT\ lOtlO p. m. 

8. F.— E. E. Barnard. Oakland, from N. E. to S. W. (HI? IV?).— 
Professor Edwards. 



^ 



120 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1868. January 26? 

Healdsburg, 10 sec. duration, 8, P. Chronicle, Jan. 28. (Total eclipse 
of the moon on January 28.) 

1888. January 28; 10t86 p. m. 

Carson, Nevada, a slight shock (IV to V). Grass Valley, Cal.: the 
same shock (II).— GraM Valley Tidings, Feb. 3. Carnon 10.45 p. m., 
S. W. to N. E. (III).— C. W. F. 

1888. Jannary 80| 4tl6 a. m. 

S. F. [not reported in newspapers.] — J. R. J. 

1888. Febrnary 1| 4 a. n. 

Point No Point Lighthouse, Washington. A slight shock.— Ms. 
kindly communicated by U. S. L. H. Board. 



■/ 



1888. February 18$ 2i60 a. m. 

Fort Bragg: three severe shocks (V?); the first at 2.50, the others 
at intervals of one or two minutes. Mendocino: three shocks; 
the first at 2.55, the others at intervals of three or four minutes. 
— (flf. P, Bulletin, February 18.) Point Arena Lighthouse, 2.35 
a. m., W. to E. A violent shock (VII?). 



1888. February? about 4 a. m. 

Menlo Park: sleepers waked (V or VI).— J. T. Doyle. 

J 888. February 29. 
/ Mare Island Lighthouse, 2.50 p. m. Duration 2 seconds. Light 
\ shock. Point Reyes Lighthouse, 2.35 p. m. Severe shock (VII?). 
(Ms. communicated by U. 8. Geological Survey.) 

1888. February 29$ 2i61 p. m. 

S. F.: on Montgomery Street, people alarmed (V); Pine and Mason 
streets, more severe (VI); Washington and Mason streets (VI). 
Two waves on duplex seismometer (917 Pine Street). The mo- 
tion of the earth was 

a— N. 68** W. to S. 68** E. &— S. 56' E. to X. 56<» W. 
The shock h was most severe. 

Berkeley: not felt, not registered.— Oakland: (II.) — Belmont: not 
felt.— San Rafael: (IV or V) 2.48 p. m., E. to W.— Santa Rosa: 2.55 
p. m., violent; people ran out of houses (VI). — Petaluma: 2.55 
p. m., walls cracked (VII), sound of an explosion heard. The 
severest for many years. — Healdsburg: 2.44 p. m., light N. to S.— 
Martinez: 2.45 p. m., two shocks one minute apart (VI). — S. F, 
Alia, Chronicle, BnUetin, Feb. 29th and Mar. 1. 

18H8. Marcb 7) 7iS4 a. m. 

Pasadena: 7.58 a. m. (VI); from N. W. to S. E., duration three 

J 

seconds.— East Pasadena, 7.54 a. m., N. W. to S. E.— Los Angeles: 



/ 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 121 

a Uttle after 8 a. m. (VI)? ** severest for 18 years; no damage to 
buildings/* no very heavy articles overturned (VI). [Note: on 
1883, Sept. 5th, a shock (VI) was felt at Los Angeles. — E. S. H.] 
— San Diego: scarcely felt (II). (Pawdena Daily Star; also 8. F, 
Alta, Chronicle, Mar. 7, 8.) 

1888. Mareb a8| li41 a. m. 

S. F.: slight shock, but sufficient to awaken a sleeper (V). Direc* 
tion of shock nearly N. and S., on duplex seismometer, 917 Pine 
Street. Professor Davidson says duration % second, and shock 

from W. to E.— flf. F. Bulletin, Mar. 29. 

1888. April 8| 7.60 m. n. 

/ Riverside: slight shock (IV) N. E. and S. W. (flf. F. Bulletin, April 
9, ChroniOe, April 10.) 

1888. April 18) about 6il6 a. m. 

Riverside: the shock sufficient to waken sleepers (VI), with loud 
noises accompanying. Colton, 5.30 a. m. {8, F, Chronicle, April 
13.) 

1888. April 18| 7t88 p. m. 

Carson (Nev.), S. W. to N. E. Light.— C. W. F. 

1888. April 28 [8i45 p. m.]. 
On the Lick Observatory seismograph an earthquake record was 
found April 29. From the trace of this shock the following data 
are taken. The dimensions given below are to be divided by 3.3 
for the horizontal and by 1.6 for the vertical components, to 
get the actual earth movements. The times are given in seconds 
after a zero epoch arbitrarily assumed. The pen which marks 
the W. and £. components registered, a line yV of a millimeter 
wide throughout. There appear to be vddeniugs of this line as 
early as fifteen seconds before the zero adopted, but the ampli- 
tude of E. and W. tremors is never more than j% of a millimeter 
during the whole shock and the time of their beginning cannot 
be fixed. I presume we have here a case where the normal 
vibrations were strictly in an E. and W. plane. The transverse 
vibrations which arrived later are therefore N. and S. and of their 
full size in the diagram. We may then dismiss all further consid- 
eration of the E. and W. wave. It had scarcely a measurable 
amplitude. At seconds the N. and S. tremors begin to show; 
the whole record of the vertical component is lost till 17 seconds. 
At 3 sec. the earth moved S. of the neutral line 1 mm. 

5 " N. " 1 " 

6 " S. " 1 " 
9 " S. " 1 " 

10 " N. " 1 " 



122 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



At ll>a sec. the earth moved S. of the neutral line 1 mm. 
13 " N. " 1 " 

15 " S. " % " 



16 " N. " Va " 

18 " S. " y, " 

19 " N. " % " 



it 


y, " 


li 


%" 


c« 


1 •' 



h 

/a 

and small tremors with a double amplitude of about y^ mm. (on 
the trace) continue till 66 seconds. 
The vertical component as recorded by the machine is given below: 

At 18 sec. the earth moved above the neutral line 1 mm. 
19 " below 

2114 " above 

23 " below 

and tremors of not more than l^ mm. continue on the trace till 
about 56 seconds. 
We may assume for a basis of computation: 

Number of waves in 10 seconds = 4. 

Period, about 2.5 seconds = T. 

Amplitude magnified, 1 mm. a =r 0.3 mm. 

27r 
Velocity of projection =: V := -=- = 0.76. 

V« 
Intensity = — =1.90, 

which corresponds to about I on the Rossi-Forel scale. The 
period of these waves is very slow. 

1888. April 28| 8i48 p. m. 
Heno (Nevada), a smart shock: three waves in 3 sec, followed by a 
general trembling for 10 sec. The time of the third and severest 
shock was 8h. 48m. 38s. p. m. Direction S. to N. (letter from U. 
S. Surveyor-General Irish). Two other observers say W. to E — 
Grass Valley: felt in the Idaho mine below the 1600 ft. level, 
A Wo, May 2d. Very heavy, lasting 5 sec, from E. to W. (Chronicle, 
April 30).— Grass Valley: the Orleans mine was flooded. The 
shock was at 8.45 p. m. and very heavy (VII). It was preceded 
by a loud noise. The duration was about 5 sec, and the wave 
was E. to W. Clocks stopped, plastering fell, and also tops of 
chimneys. — Nevada City: walls of courthouse cracked (VlU). — 
Wellington (Nev.), two slight shocks in quick succession, 8.55 
p. m. — at Marysville, Downieville, Truckee, Colfax and Sacra- 
mento the shock was very strong (G. V. TiMng9, April 30, May 2). 
— ^Nevada City: two severe shocks at 8.48 p. m. preceded by a 
deep rumbling sound. Direction N. — Dutch Flat: 8.46 p. m., 
severe from S. to N. People were badly frightened. — Stockton: 
four shocks at 8.40, from N. to S. — ^Dixon, 8.45 p. m. — Biggs: heavy 
shock "lasting 75 (?) seconds" [seven to five? E. S. H.], at 8.45 
(Vn), plastering cracked, etc. — Santa Rosa: slight shock at 8.45, 



EABTHQUAKES ON THK PACIFIC COAST 123 

N. and S. (HI). — ^Truckee: 8.47, duration two seconds {8, F. Bw- 
aminer, April 29.) — OroTille: 8.45 p. m. Short, quick shock. — 8. F. 
barely perceptible in third story of 917 Pine Street. No record 
on duplex seismometer in basement (I). Carson, 8.47 p. m^ S. 
N., (IV), lasting 5 to 6 sec.— C. W. F. 

1688. April 80| about 4 a. m. 

Grass Valley: TidAngB^ April 30.— DownicYille, 3.40 a. m., two light 
shocks (IV), (fif. F. BuUeUn, April 30). 

1888. May 4| li56 p. m. 

S. F., 917 Pine Street, decided shock, not registered on duplex 
seismometer, J. R. J. — S. F., slight shock (11) of a few seconds' 
duration {Bulletin^ May 4). 

1888. May 6| 8h. 4am. aXs. p. m. 

Lick Observatory: sudden shock (III) E. S. H., preceded by a rum- 
bling noise (Porcher). (Registered on duplex seismometer.) 

1888. May 27 \ ItSO a. m. 

Carson (Nev.), S. N.; light, followed by quite a heavy shock 20 sec. 
later.— C. W. F. 

1888. July 6. 
Wellington (Nev.), 5.25 p. m. A slight shock. 

1888w July 111 at nlsbt. 

Susan ville: slight shock (IV??), S. F. Bulletin, July 13. 

1888. Avvnat 18. 

Wellington (Nev.), 2.50 p. m. A slight shock. 

1888. Avffiist 14| 8i67 a. m. 

S. F., 917 Pine Street. Intensity (II) on R. F. scale. The duplex 
seismometer gives a looped trace on the plate (magnified four 
times) 7 mm. N. N. E. to S. S. W. (direction of first shock), 4 mm. 
at right angles to this. — Lick Observatory: direction on the plate 
N. N. E. The trace is a wavy line (magnified four times) 8 mm. 
long. N. N. E. and S. S. W. with six waves 1 mm. high at right 
angles to this. Probably the shock was nearly vertical here. 

1888. September lO) li58 a. m. 

S. F., 917 Pine Street: flight shock (II) not registered on duplex 
seismometer, J. R. J. — Oakland: slight shock, C. Burckhalter. 
Three shocks at 1.50 a. m. in quick succession, attended by noise; 
windows did not rattle (III?), Dr. Trembley. It waked sleepers 
in Oakland (V?), E. Booth.— Berkeley : slight. 

1888. September ISf 

Lick Observatory: the seismograph started at 6.15 a. m., but as the 
record was not like that of a shock, Mr. Keeler (in charge of the 
instrument) supposes the tremor which started the instrument 
to have been due to a high wind. 



124 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1888. September 17 1 8t61 a. m. 

Lick Observatory: The seismog^raph gives the following records 
(magnified 1.6 times for the vertical, 3.3 times for the horizontal 
components). At 3 seconds after an assumed zero second, the 
vertical component began its trace with a wave of period about 
1% seconds. The amplitude (on the trace) is hard to estimate, 
but is probably not less than 5 mm. for the first semi-wave, then 
about 1 mm. for a full wave, and after this mere tremors until 
about 40 seconds. The N. and S. component (magnified) was as 
follows: 

At 4.3 seconds the earth moved S. of the neutral line 5 mm. 

5.7 " N. " 2 

5.9 " on to " — 

6.1 " N. " 2V4 

6.4 " S. •• IVi 
6.9 *• N. " 1 

7.5 " S. " ly, 
8.9 " N. " 1% 

and tremors occasionally as large as % mm. continued until about 
40 seconds. 

The E. and W. component (magnified) was as follows: 

At 4.3 seconds there was strong movement of the earth west of 
about 3 mm.; this was followed by a wave of period about 1 
second double amplitude 2 mm.; and this again by another of 
period % second double amplitude 1 mm. After this tremors 
continue for about 30 seconds. 

The strata of which Mt, Hamilton is composed lie at a high angle 
to the horizon and the direction of the siratifloation is nearer N, and 8. 
thnn E, and W, The earthquake instruments are at the very 
summit of the mountain. This may account for the fact that 
(at least for the shocks so far observed) the vertical component 
is relatively large, and that the N. and S. «»omponent (in the 
general direction of the stratification) is usually far larger than 
the E. and W. component. 

We may then assume as a basis of computation for this shock: 

Number of waves in 10 seconds = 6 or 7, say 6%. 

Period, T, of the representative wave = 0.5 sec. 

Amplitude of the representative wave (magfnified) = 2.5 mm. 

a = 0.8 mm. 

27ra 
Velocity of projection zr -^r- ^10.0. 

V« 
Intensity =. — z= 126. 

This corresponds approximately to V-VI on the Rossi-Forel scale, 
according to the table in the American Journal of Science, June, 
1888, p. 429, which was derived from Japanese shocks. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 125 

Chabot Observatory: the time of the shock is 3h. 50m. plus or 
minus one quarter of a minute (W. Ireland, Esq.). It is regis- 
tered on the duplex seismometer plate as follows. The first 
motion (of the pen, magnified four times) is 2 mm. to the W., 
then follow several small tremors towards the S. E. The motion 
of the earth is of course in the reverse directions. — ^Lick Obser- 
vatory, 3.51 a. m.: severe shock, lasting several seconds. Strong 
vertical component (VI to VII) observed by E. 8. H. Also on 
L. O. seismometer. — Gilroy, sharp shock: Santa Cruz, heavy (8, F. 
Call, Sept. 18). — S. F., 917 Pine Street: very slight, no record on 
seismometer, J. R. J. 
Santa Cruz Lighthouse. Duration about 3 seconds. A very light 
shock. (Ms. kindly furnished by the U. S. Geological Survey.) 

1888. September 28| about lliSO a. m. 

S. F., 917 Pine Street; very slight shock, J. R. J. 

1888. Oetober 8i IStSa p. m. 

San Miguel, S. L. O. Co.: light shock, 2 sec. duration, N. to S. (III). 
Another at same place at 1.02 p. m., quite severe, N. to S., 4 sec. 
duration, no damage done (VI?), 8. F, Chronicle, Oct. 4. 

1888. Ootober 4; p. m. 

Paso Bobles: slight shock.— fif. F, Report, October 5. 

1888. Oetober 4; 11 p. m. 

San Diego.— fif. F, Bulletin, October 5. 

1888. October 6| 4b. 41m. 80s. ± 10*. a. m. 

Chabot observatory: the shock was sufficient to waken a sound 
sleeper (VI). On the duplex seismometer plate the trace begins 
with a tremulous motion toward the W., followed by two sharp 
jerks to the S. The motion of the earth is contrary to the motion 
of the plate. 

1888. Ootober 28? 84? 

Lick Observatory: During Mr. Keeler*s absence the earthquake in- 
struments were in charge of Mr. Hill. On October 23, at 6 p. m., 
I noticed that the earthquake instruments .were in their usual 
state. I also noted at 9 p. m., October 24, that a shock had 
occurred previously. The clock dial of the earthquake clock is 
divided to 12 hours (instead of to 24 hours as it should have 
been), and there is an ambiguity of 12 hours in the time of the 
shock, which is either — 

1888. October 28| lib. 42m. p. m., or October 24, lib. 42m. a. m. 

The shock was sufficient to start the clock of the Ewing seismo- 
graph, but the plate did not move. The duplex seismometer plate 
shows a tremulous wave in the direction N. E. and S. W. 



\ 



126 EABTHQUAKB8 OX THE PACIFIC COAST 

1888. Ootober 24| SiSO a. m. 

East Oakland: (V) Mr. Blinn's Observatory. The duplex seis- 
mometer plate shows a trace from S. to N. in general direction. 
The first trace on the plate is that of a single wave about 2m. in 
amplitude (magnified four times) followed by small tremors. — 
Chabot Observatory: the plate of the duplex seismometer shows 
the first wave strongly towards the N. E. The trace of this 
wave (magnified four times) is a straight line 6 mm. long. This 
is followed by two waves of the earth as it regained ite original 
position. The motion of the earth is contrary to that of the pen 
on the plate. 



1888. October 86 1 In the nlsbt. 

Mr. Blinn's Observatory. The duplex seismometer gives a tremor, 
and the general direction of the trace on the plate is S. E. to 
K.W. 



\ 



1888. Ifoirember 4| StSB a. m. 

Lick Observatory (VI).— E. 8. H. Mr. Barnard gives the time as 
3h. 3714 m., plus or minus %m. The duplex seismometer gives a 
very complex knot of curves ending by a trace on the plate 
towards the S. W. 

1888. NoTember 18 1 Si28 p. m. 

S. F., 917 Pine Street: two shocks north and south (VII) registered 
on seismometer. Another light shock at 5.38 p. m. — J. R. J. — 
S. F., 2h. 26m. p. m. Sharp vertical shock, duration 4 seconds. — 
T. T. — San Rafael: 2.30 p. m., N. and S.— Oakland: 2.29 p. m.; one 
chimney fell (VII?). — Berkeley: 2.28 p. m.; duration 7 sec.; a 
third shock at 5.35 p. m. (fif. F, Bwaminer, Nov. 19.) 

Lick Observatory: not felt, not registered. — Chabot Observatory: 2h. 
27m. 53s., very sharp shock; 3.30, slight; 5h. 37m. 20s., sharper 
than the second shock. The duration was 3 sec. The trace on 
the duplex seismometer is a very complicated circular knot of 5 
to 6 mm. diameter (magnified four times) with a looped excur- 
sion of the pen toward the east 6 mm. from the center of the 
knot, and another straight one from the center to the W. S. ^., 
also of 6 mm. All three shocks are on this single plate. — In Oak- 
land no real dainage was done. Two or three chimneys were 
overthrown and panes of glass were broken (VI, or Vn?). — East 
Oakland: 2.29 p. m., N. to S., duration 2 sec; 3.45 p. m., very 
light; 5.36 p. m., E. to W., duration 2 sec. — (8. F, Bulletin, Nov. 
19). — Napa: 2.36 p. m., duration 10 sec. — 8. F. Chronicle, Nov. 19. - 
Hay wards, San Leandro, Niles; not felt. — Mr. Burckhalter. — Cloir 
Lake: not felt. — Capt. R. S. Floyd. 

It is also reported by Capt. Edmundson of the ship '' Drumlanrig," 
that he found soundings of 35 fathoms, 35 miles S. W. of the 
Farallones where no shoal is now known to exist. It is supposed 



EARTHQUAKES OX THE PACIFIC COAST 127 

by some that the shock of Nov. 18 may have produced this shoal 
which is not down on the charts. 

East Oakland: Mr. Blinn's Observatory. The first shock was severe 
(VI), lasting about two seconds. The time was very approxi- 
mately 2h. 27m. 57b. (Blinn). Mr. Irelan gives 2h. 27m. 54s. 
Trees and hedges were seen to move. A few light articles were 
overthrown, pictures were displaced, a clock was stopped (its pen- 
dulum was in the plane N. E. and S. W.); 5 chimneys were 
thrown down on 23d avenue; a noise was heard after the first 
shock. The second shock was (II) at 3.48 p. m. The duplex 
seismometer trace is a loop about 1 mm. in diameter. The third 
shock was (III) at 5h. 38m. 45s. p. m. The trace on the duplex 
seismometer begins in an ellipse 2 mm. E. and W., 1 mm. N. and 
S., and then there is a confused record of trembling 3 mm. N. 
W. and 8. E. by IV^ mm. at right angles to this. 

1888. December 11 1 8 128 p. m. 

Lick Observatory: the shock was sudden and (IV) in intensity. 
Time by watch 3h. 28m. 59s.; by earthquake clock 3h. 29%m.— 
J. E. K. A humming noise was heard after the shocks. There 
were two such at an interval of 2 sec. The time of the last was 
3h. 28m. 58s. plus or minus 3 sec. — E. E. B. Intensity (V), time 
3a88.8*'"E« o. S« 

The duplex seismometer gives a record (magnified) beginning with 
a sharp straight trace to the N. W. 3 mm. long, then a straight 
trace to the X. E. 1% mm. long, then a straight trace to the 
N. W. nearly 2 mm. long, and at the end of this the pen has 
recorded a confused tremor in a space about 1 mm. square. The 
record of the Ewing seismograph is as follows: (The adjustment 
of the marking pen for seconds has been changed so that there 
are 95 beats of the pen to 1 min. of time.) 

There are very slight vertical tremors for the first three beats; 
they then vanish completely. Their period is from J to J of 
a second of time; their double amplitude is not above f^ of a 
milUmeter. 

The east and west vibrations last only for two beats, though the 
faintest perceptible tremor lasts until the twentieth beat after 
the beginning. Their greatest double amplitude is not above 
V^ of a millimeter, and their period appears to be about ^ a 
second. 

The north and south vibrations are well marked. From the zero 
beat (be^nning) until 1*4 beats there are marked tremors. 
From 114 beats to 4% beats vibrations having a double amplitude 
of about one-half a millimeter, and a period of about K to ^ 
of a second time. At the end of the 6th beat the marked tremors 
cease and a very faint tremor continues to the end of the 20th 
beat, and possibly to the end of the 33d beat. As a basis of com- 



v: 



128 EARTHQUAKES OX THE PACIFIC COAST 

putation we may assume from the record of the north and south 
component: 

Double ampHtude magnified 3.3 times = 0.5 mm. 

a z=z 0.08 mm. 

T = 0.3 seconds. 

2:ra , V« 

» = -«T- = 1.7. In -zz36. 

1 a 

This corresponds to about II on the R.-F. scale according to the 
paper cited above. The intensity was, however, IV or higher. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1889. 

1880. January 18t lt48 a. m. 

Oakland: A slight shock recorded on the seismograph of F. G. 
Blinn (H). 

1889. Jannary 22 1 7i61tS8 p. m. (f) 

Mount Hamilton: a very light shock suspected by C. B. Hill (I?). 
No record was found on the seismographs. 

1880. February 6) OtaO p. m. 

Southern California: a distinct shock at 9.25 p. m., shaking build- 
ings and causing people to run into the streets. Vibrations from 
north to south, lasting about ten seconds (VI). San Bernardino 
papers. Colton: Two distinct shocks at 9.20 p. m. Los An- 
' .geles: slight shock at 9.25 p. m. Shock accompanied by distinct 
dull rumbling. Post office clock at San Bernardino stopped at 
9.20.30, subject to an error of five or six seconds (VI). The 
clock faced the east. W. C. Parmley, Saa Bernardino. At 
Kodiac Island earthquake waves were recorded from February 5, 
9 p. m., to February 6, 7 a. m. 

1880. Marcli 1G| 2 p. m. 

Point No Point Lighthouse, Washington. A slight shock. — U. S. 
L. H. Board. 

1880. April 8| 2t20 a. m. 

Mount Hamilton: a slight record was made on the Ewing and 
duplex pendulum seismographs (II). The greatest motion was 
from north to south, a very slight motion from east to west, and 
the vertical component was imperceptible. The maximum (mag- 
nified) amplitude was about one-fourth millimeter, and the period 
of a vibration about two-thirds of a second; hence the com- 
puted intensity is 7.0 or (I) by the Rossi-Forel scale. This shock 
was not felt by anybody at the observatory. The time given is 
that recorded by the seismograph clock. 



BABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 129 

1888. April 14; 7128 p. m. 

Central California: Lick Observatory, time of ending 7.27.56 (E. S. 
Holden), 7.28% (E. E. Barnard). Felt by many persons at the 
observatory, but not by all. Recorded on both seismographs 
(HI). 

The curve representing the north and south motion on the Ewing 
seismograph begins w^ith three quite regular waves of progres- 
sively diminishing amplitudes, the period of each being 1.25 sec- 
onds. The maximum (magnified) amplitude is 0.5 millimeter. 
The east and west curve begins with a series of small, irregular 
tremors, followed by two marked and fairly regular waves which 
begin about where the waves of the north and south curve end. 
Maximum (magnified) amplitude, 0.4* millimeter. The vertical 
motion is very slight. The marked vibrations on all the curves 
end at about ten seconds, but very slight undulations extend to 
about one and one-half minutes. It is hard to say how much of 
these is real. The intensity of this shock, computed from the 
data above given, is 4.0 or (I) of the Rossi-Forel scale. 

San Jos#, 7.27.30 (S. W. Burnham). San Jos6, University of the 
Pacific: the record on the duplex pendulum seismograph at this 
place is considerably larger than that obtained at the Lick Ob- 
servatory, and is very complicated. The San Jose Times says: 
** The shock was not severe, but was quite plainly felt by many 
people. A majority of people, however, were unconscious of any- 
thing unusual." 

Santa Cruz: quite a severe shock, vnth quick, jerky motion from 
east to west, rattling the windows in loosely built houses. Time, 
7.25. Probably the heaviest shock felt in Santa Cruz in four or 
five years, although many people on the first fioor of well-built 
houses did not notice it.— Santa Cruz Surf. 

An earthquake occurred at 7.30 p. m. The vibration was north 
and south and lasted several seconds. — Dispatches from Santa 
Cruz. 

Centerville: slight earthquake at 7.34. Vibrations northeast to 
' southwest. 

Los Qatos: two slight but distinct earthquakes at about 7.15. Vi- 
brations from south to north. 

Gilroy: remarkabl.y sharp but short earthquake at 7.25, making 
lamps, crockery, etc., rattle severely. 

Merced: a heavy double-shock earthquake at 7.33. Oscillation, 
northwest to southeast, and about two seconds in duration. 

Oakland: earthquake at about 7.28, not felt by all persons. — ^F. O. 
Blinn. The record on Mr. Blinn's seismograph shows about the 
same amount of motion as at the Lick Observatory. 
9 





/ 



130 BABTHQUAKB8 ON THB PACIFIC COAST 

1889. April 17; 8i32t88 p. m. 

Mount Hamilton: noted by J. M. Schaeberle, while observing the 
coUimation constant of the meridian circle. The wires vibrated 
through about 10 sec. Time noted, 8.32.40. Suspected in another 
part of the building by J. E. K. Time noted, 8.32.36. No per- 
ceptible record on the seismographs (I). 

1889. April 17| lOb. 18m. pw m. 

San Francisco: a slight shock, E. to W. 

1888. April aO| 4 a. m. 

<University of the Pacific, San Jos^: Prof Higbie sends a record 
obtained with his seismographs, showing a considerable distur- 
bance. I have no other notices of this earthquake. 

1889. April 24; 3t37 a. m. 

San Francisco: ** heavy earthquake shock occurred at 3.37 a. m. 
Vibrations from north to south." — Jenkins. Beceived at Wash- 
ington Signal Office. 

1889. May !• 

/ Lompoc: quite a heavy earthquake shock was felt here at 11.55 

to-day. The vibrations were from east to west. No damage. 
Susanville: at 9 o'clock a sharp earthquake. The vibration was 
north and south. 

1889. May 19| 8il0 a. m. 

Central California: at the Lick Observatory nobody was awakened, 
although the motion as registered by the seismographs was con- 
siderable. This is probably owing to the long period of the 
vibrations. The time recorded by the earthquake clock was 3:9.6. 

The following letter was furnished by Prof. Holden to the Cali- 
fornia Associated Press: 

Lick Observatory. — The earthquake was felt at the Lick Ob- 
servatory at nine minutes past 3 o'clock this morning, as a series 
of gentle shocks of small amplitude and slow period. It was not 
severe enough to awake the sleepers. The extraordinary fea- 
ture of this shock was its great duration, which is registered on 
our instruments for no less than two minutes and twelve seconds. 
In this feature it resembles the great Inyo shock of March 26, 
1872, as experienced in San Francisco, and for a similar reason. 
The observing station was in both cases far removed from the 
origin of the shock, and the energy of the earthquake was mani- 
fested in long waves of slow period, but lasting for an unusual 
time. Moreover, in this case the shock was far more severe in 
Santa Clara Valley than after it had traversed several ranges of 
hills and reached Mount Hamilton. Our earthquake machine 
shows that the up and down movement lasted eighty-four see- 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 131 

onds. The period of each wave was about 1,7 seconds, which is 
▼ery gentle and slow, and the double amplitude of the vertical 
waves was never more than 0.03 of an inch. The east and west 
movement consisted of strong tremors for nearly four seconds, 
when the waves began and lasted, as strong decided movements, 
for twenty-nine seconds, after which the tremors continued until 
their trace was lost. Ninety seconds after the beginning, the 
period of these waves is 0.8 of a second (very slow) and the 
double amplitude is about 0.03 of an inch. The most remark- 
able motions were in the north and south direction. The tremors 
were felt for three seconds, ten large waves for forty-five sec- 
onds, succeeded by tremors until one hundred and thirty-two 
seconds from the beginning. Their period was 0.6 of a second. 
The double amplitude is 0.05 of an inch. The duplex machine 
shows results agreeing with the above and indicates the very 
complex nature of the motion of the £n:'ound. 

The vibration of greatest amplitude occurred only five seconds after 
the plate of the Ewing seismograph started, and is nearly as 
gfreat in the east and west as in the north and south curve* 
while the vertical component is small. Paying due regard to the 
values of the different components, it appears that the maximum 
vibration (double amplitude) of the earth at the Lick Observatory 
was 2.2 millimeters, and the period being 0.6b. as stated above, 
the computed intensity of the shock is 120 or (V) of the Rossi- 
Forel scale. 

Terba Buena Island Light Station, San Francisco Bay; time, 3.14 
a. m.: from eight to twelve seconds duration; one long, rolling 
shock with a sort of jumping motion also, but it still can only be 
called one shock; lighthouse clock did not stop; the motion was 
certainly from east to west; no damage. — J. A. F. McFarland. 

Mare Island Light Station; time, 3.9.30 a. m.: observer was awak- 
ened. The shock was intermittent; door-belT rang in a house 
near by (VI). — Kate C. McDougal, light-keeper. 

Berkeley: in the valleys the shock was more severe. The seismo- 
graph tracing of the university observatory at Berkeley shows 
a very complex curve, which can be roughly bounded by an 
ellipse 8 by 6 millimeters, with one grreat loop extending 7 milli- 
meters farther (magnified four times). Duration 12 sec. Vibra- 
tions slow. 

Oakland: the Gbabot Observatory record has some resemblance to 
the above, but is larger, the bounding ellipse being 22 millimeters 
long, also with a loop extending toward the northwest. The 
mean-time clock of the Chabot University stopped at 3.01.44 
(VI).— C. Burckhalter. 

East Oakland: the record obtained at Mr. Blinn*s observatory some- 
what resembles that just described, and indicates a shock of 



132 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

about the same intensity. Several loops extend about 20 milli- 
meters from the center. 
The shock lasted from five to twelve seconds, according to some 
persons, while others considered that the earth shook for fully 
a minute; motion great but gentle; two persons felt nausea; four 
regulators in jewelers* shops, on walls running west-northwest 
and east-southeast, stopped at about 3.10, two of them indicat- 
ing 3.10.30 and 3.10.35 respectively. A clock with heavy mer- 
curial pendulum on same wall was not stopped. — ^F. 6. Blinn. 
Intensity = (VI). — William Ireland. 

Three miles from Gollinsville, in the region of greatest disturbance, 
houses rocked and pieces of plaster fell (VU); articles shaken 
from mantelpieces, etc.; chickens shaken from their perches; 
dogs barked; two chimneys demolished (Vm), and one had the 
upper part twisted 45 degrees; goods thrown from shelves in 
stores. — F. E. Booth, manager of Black Diamond Canning Com- 
pany, in a letter to F. G. Blinn. 

Mills College: in the seismograph record at this place there are 
great loops 80 millimeters long, which appear to have been pro- 
duced by the swinging of the pendulum after the shock. It is 
necessary to give the seismograph pendulums some stability, but 
they are adjusted to swing in a long period, much longer than 
that of the ordinary earthquake shock. It is evident^ however, 
that in an earthquake like this the vibrations might be nearly 
synchronous with those of the pendulum, which would thus be 
thrown into violent oscillations. In most earthquakes this is 
not likely to happen. Possibly the long loops in some of the 
other seismograph records may be due to the same cause. 

San Francisco: No damage was done in the city. The newspaper 
accounts seem to be exaggerated. Motion from west-northwest 
to east-southeast. — J. B. Trembley. 
Time of shock in San Francisco, 3.10.42. — Prof. Davidson. 

Fort Point Light-Station: the shock was preceded and accompanied 
by a rumbling noise and lasted eight or nine seconds. The 
keeper felt three shocks, the first short and light, and about 
fifteen seconds later one more distinct; a minute afterwards, the 
last, which was a tremor. Doors were opened; windows and crock- 
ery rattled and people were aroused from sleep (VI?) 

Lime Point Fog-Signal Station: time 3.10.32. Lasted about five 
seconds, and was accompanied v^ith a noise like the rumbling of 
distant thunder. 

Forest Hill: in the Mayfiower mine no sign of an earthquake at 
600 or 800 feet underground. Directly over the mine the shock 
was strong enough to rattle a wash-bowl against a pitcher.— 
8. E. Reamer, San Francisco. 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 133 

San Jos6, University of the Pacific: Prof. Hig^bie sends a record 
which shows about the same amount of motion as at Oakland, 
the greatest oscillations being northeast and southwest. 

San Francisco: 3h. 15in. a. m. Sharp shock; rolling; duration 15 
sec. — T. T. Various reports from the San Francisco papers are 
given below, the date being May 19. 

At 3.12 a. m. Sunday morning a severe shock of earthquake was 
experienced here. It lasted twenty seconds and was followed by 
peculiar shivers continuing five seconds longer. The motion was 
from east to west, and the shock is said to have been the sharpest 
exx>erienced here for the past fifteen years. Half of the door- 
bells in the city were set ringing, and glassware and mirrors 
damaged (VI). 

Stockton: a heavy shock at 3.15 this morning. It lasted about ten 
seconds, with vibrations from north to south. A large number 
of people hurried into the streets. One man jumped out of a 
second-story window. A number of buildings were heard to 
crack, but no damage has been reported (VTI). 

Lodi: the heaviest earthquake that has been felt here for twenty 
years occurred at 3.15 this morning. The wave was north and 
south, and so severe that goods were shaken from shelves in one 
of the stores here, and dishes rattled in the houses. 

Antioch: the most severe earthquake shock experienced since 1868 
about 3.10 this morning. It shook ofF the tops of many chim- 
neys in the town. The vibrations were from north to south. 
The entire population was aroused and many people in their 
night-gowns rushed into the streets. No serious damage is 
reported, but the harvest of broken crockery and glassware, 
cracked plaster ceilings and chimneys, is abundant (VII? Vin?). 

Modesto: the people of this section were awakened by a heavy 

shock of earthquake at 3.15 this morning. The vibration was 

from north to south and lasted several seconds. The vdndows 

' and doors rattled and chandeliers vibrated. A second shock, less 

pronounced, followed ten minutes later. No damage (VII). 

Napa: the severest earthquake experienced here in twenty years 
occurred at 3.10 this morning. It lasted twelve seconds. No 
damage is reported beyond the cracking of plaster. The vibra- 
tions were from west to east (VII). 

San Leandro: the heaviest shock of earthquake felt here for years 
at 3.11 this morning. The vibrations were from north to south 
and lasted about one minute. 

Petaluma: this morning at 3.15 there were three distinct shocks. 
They followed each other in quick succession, the vibrations being 
from east to west. The second shock was exceedingly heavy. 



134 BABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Rio Vista: at 3.15 a. m. the most severe shock of earthc^ake since 
1868, the duration of the shock being several seconds. People 
jumped from their beds, chickens were thrown from their roosts, 
and some chimneys were slightly damaged. The direction was 
from west to east (VIE). 

Newark: the most startling earthquake for many years was felt 
here this morning at 3.05. There appeared to be three shocks, 
vibrating from east to west. 

Nevada City: three distinct and rather heavy shocks of earthquake 
« were felt here this morning at 3.30. Their direction was from 
west to east. 

Calistoga: an earthquake at 3.03 this morning. It was not remark- 
ably heavy, but the vibrations, which were from east to west, 
continued longer than those of any earthquake felt in many 
years. 

VacaviUe: The shock this morning at 3.10 lasted fully half a 
minute. It was the most severe shock ever experienced here. 
The vibrations were from northeast to southwest. 

r 

Santa Cruz: quite a sharp shock was felt here at 3.20 this morning, 
vibrating from west to east. 

Sacramento: an earthquake was felt here at 3.10 this morning. The 
wave came from the southeast and was quite severe. No damage. 

Mountain View: a heavy shock, with vibrations north and south, 

was felt at 3.10. this morning. No damage. 
San Jos§. — ^The earthquake at 3.12 to 3.14 a. m., the wave seeming 

to pass from southeast to northwest. There was but one distinct 

wave, followed by a rumbling and a backward motion, due to the 

reaction. 

Pleasanton: at 3.15 this morning the worst earthquake shock since 
1868. The vibrations were north and south, and continued for 
fifteen seconds. They were so severe that buildings creaked and 
tottered (Vn). 

Hay wards: a severe shock about fifteen minutes past 3 o'clock. It 
was strong enough to throw many out of bed, and lasted several 
seconds (VU? VIH?). 

Los Oatos: three sharp earthquake shocks at 3 o'clock this 
morning. The first was much more severe than the two succeed- 
ing ones. The vibrations were north and south. 

Fairfield: three heavy shocks in quick succession were felt here at 
10 minutes past 3 o'clock this morning, vibrating east and west. 
They were the heaviest since 1868. 

Woodland: there was quite a heavy earthquake this morning at 15 
minutes past 3 o'clock. The vibrations were from east to west, 
and the duration about fifteen seconds. 



BAKTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 135 

Santa Rosa: three distinct shocks of earthquake in close succes- 
sion were felt at 3 o'clock this morning. The vibrations were 
from east to west. 

lone: many citizens were aroused at 3.10 this morning by an earth- 
quake shock, lasting several seconds. The vibrations were north 
and south (VI). 

Suisun: at 3.10 this morning a severe shock of earthquake was felt 
here, accompanied by a rumbling noise. 

1888. May 26| 7tl8 a. nu 

Central California. — ^Lick Observatory: a very slight shock was 
recorded by the seismogfraphs at 7.12 ±1. The extreme motion of 
the earth's surface did not exceed 0.5 mm. The greatest dis- 
turbance was in a north and south direction, and the vertical 
component was very small. Although this shock was recorded 
on both instruments, it was not felt by any one on the mountain. 

Period = two seconds, hence computed intensity =r 2.5 or (I). 

San Jos6 and vicinity: not felt. 

San Francisco: 7h. 14m. a. m. Light shock, duration 1 sec. — T. T. 
A slight shock of earthquake was felt in this city on Sunday 
morning at thirteen minutes six seconds after 7. The vibrations 
lasted but two or three seconds and were east and west. (Time 
noted by Professor Davidson.) 

Gonzales: a heavy shock of earthquake was felt here this morning 
at 7.15. The tremor lasted half a minute and made the large 
buildings quiver. The oscillation was from northeast to south- 
west. 

Santa Cruz: quite a shock of earthquake occurred at 7.15 this morn- 
ing, the wave being west to east. No damage was done, the shock 
being much lighter than the one a week ago. 

1888. June 2| 6i54 p. m. 

Humbbldt Light Station: it lasted about seven seconds. No pre- 
vious noises; but with the quake came a noise of rushing wind 
or sudden gust. I would class the quake as light. It rattled 
crockery, but did not throw anything off shelves. It indicated 
itself in an undulatory motion from west-southwest to east- 
northeast as marked by a wicker basket suspended from the ceil- 
ing which swung 15 degrees. The pendulum clock in light tower 
(pendulum 20 inches long) stopped at 5.54 p. m. sun time by 
almanac; the clock faces to west. — William C. Price, light-keeper. 

1888. June 6| 4 a. m. 

Oakland: a sudden shock lasting one second, followed by a rumbling 
noise lasting five or six seconds (11). — F. G. Blinn. A slight trace 
was made by the seismograph. Mount Hamilton — ^not felt or 
not recorded. 



\ 
\ 



136 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1889. Jane 6) 8i80 p. m. 

San Bernardino: noticed by some persons, but not by all. A sing^le 

shock from northeast to southwest, with some vertical motion. 

A few persons report rumbling noises. Times of occurrence vary 

J V somewhat; 8.14 given by one person. Estimated intensity (lEL). 

— W. C. Parmley. There was quite a shock of earthquake in this 
city last evening at about 8.30. The shock wits accompanied by 
a low rumbling, and the vibrations were northeast to southwest. 
— San Bernardino, Daily Times-Index^ June 7. 



■/ 



N 

s 



1889. Jvite 9t 8i44i24 i: 8 p. m. 

Mount Hamilton: very slight shock (I) noticed by J. £. Keeler, 
not by others. Vibrations lasted a few seconds. A small record 
was made on the duplex seismograph. 

1889. Jane 10 1 7t88i7 a. m. 

Mount Hamilton: very slight shock recorded on both seismographs, 
but not felt by anybody (II). Measurement of the record on the 
Ewing seismograph gave the following data: Duration = twenty- 
four seconds; maximum double amplitude (magnified) east and 
west =: 0.52 millimeter; maximum double amplitude (magnified) 
north and south = 0.38 millimeter; maximum double amplitude 
(magnified) vertical = very small; period of complete vibration 
= about one-half second. Hence computed intensity is 12 or (I) 
of Kossi-Forel scale. 

1889. Jvite 19) 10 p. m. 

Lassen County, California, and Nevada: this shock, which does not 
appear to have been felt in the central and southern parts of Cali- 
fornia, is thus described in the Susan ville AdvooaU: 

Since the 19th instant the people of Susan ville, Lassen County, have 
felt about seventy-five slight shocks of earthquake. The first 
shock occurred at 10 o'clock on the night of the 19th, and was 
the heaviest ever experienced in this section. The first great 
shock was followed at greater or less intervals by mor^ or less 
heavy shocks for over two hours, until twenty-eight shocks had 
been recorded, of which the first, the thirteenth, the fifteenth, 
and the eighteenth were very severe. At the first shock, which 
was something fearful, rocking buildings from side to side and 
scattering crockery and glassware in all directions, people rushed 
out of houses with the costume, principally, that nature had pro- 
vided for them (VII). The vibrations were from south to north, 
but apparently did not extend much north of Susanville. The 
shocks were generally preceded by distinct rumbling noises. 

Chico: a slight earthquake shock was experienced here last even- 
ing about 10 o'clock. Vibrations from east to west. 

Sacramento: at 10.12 last night a slight shock of earthquake was 
felt here. It lasted but a few seconds, and was felt by only a 
few persons. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



137 



Susanville: the heaviest earthquake ever felt here occurred at 10.05 
last night, succeeded by lighter shocks at short intervals during 
the entire night. 

Downieville: there was an earthquake last night at 10.07 lasting 
about a minute. The vreather is warm. The mercury this after- 
noon marked 90 degrees. 

Grass Valley: an earthquake was felt here at 10 o'clock last night. 
The shock was quite heavy. 

The following is part of a letter to the San Francisco Call: 

The series of earthquake shocks tliat commenced here on the 
evening of the 19th inst. have been continued at intervals up to 
the present. Although the first shock was by far the hardest, 
there have been a number since that have made things quite 
lively. Reports from different localities within a few miles of 
here point to the fact that this place, Willow Creek, and Eagle 
Lake appear to be the centers of the disturbances, the surround- 
ing country being less disturbed. The section named above could 
be included in a circle twenty-five miles in diameter. Since the 
first shock some curious phenomena have been developed. The 
spring from which the town of Susanville is supplied vnth water 
has been largely increased in its volume of water, as also many 
others in this vicinity. The waters are of a milky whiteness. 
The water of Eagle Lake has been greatly disturbed and is quite 
muddy. At the south of Eagle Lake and extending many miles 
is a range of high volcanic hills. A number of persons who were 
near or on these hills last Friday heard loud rumblings to the 
west, accompanied by loud detonations like the firing of very 
heavy artillery, while the earth seemed to keep up an almost 
uninterrupted trembling motion. A slight trembling is also no- 
ticed much of the time here in town. A farmer in Willow Creek 
Valley, and who was at work in a large irrigating ditch at the 
time of one of the recent shocks, had the water thrown out of his 
ditch, so violent were the oscillations of the earth. A chimney 
in the house of S. Knudson, in Willow Creek, was thrown down 
by the first shock. (VII? VHI?). 

San Francisco: news from Susanville in the Sierra Nevadas says 
slight earthquake shocks continue, and that the people have 
become so accustomed to the constant trembling of the earth 
that they pay no attention to it. — S. F. papers. 

Carson City, Nevada: Prof. C. W. Friend sends a seismograph record 
which shows a maximum motion of 5 millimeters (magnified four 
times about equally distributed in all azimuths (10.00 p. m., S. N., 
light). 



1880. Jane SO. 

Sacramento: a shock. 



v-^ 






\J^ 



v; 



J 



/" 



138 BABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Susanville: A continuation of the earthquake shocks. *' There were 
earthquake shocks at intervals the entire day after the first heavy 
shock during the night. The upper heavens were filled with small 
meteors."— fif. F. Chronicle, June 22. 

1888. Jane 90| p. m. 

University of the Pacific, San Jos6: the seismograph record shows 
vibrations of about 3 millimeters in an east and west direction 
and 1.5 millimeters in a north and south direction (both mag^ 
nified). 

1888. June 24; about 4 a. m. 

University of the Pacific, San Jos6: the record sent by Prof. Higbie 
indicates a shock of about the same intensity as the preceding 
one, with vibrations in about the same direction. 

1888. June 25| 8 a. m. 

San Biego: '* Dr. Eigenmann reports an earthquake at San Diego 
at 3 a. m., June 25." — West American Scientist, August. 

* Carson City, Nevada: a seismograph record, marked " during night, 
June 25-26," is sent by Professor Friend. The vibrations are 
west-northwest and east-southeast, and indicate a shock of inten- 
sity (HI). 

1888. Jane aT-28| daring nlirl&t. 

Carson City, Nevada: a slight shock recorded, with vibrations in 
same direction as the preceding one. 

1888. Jane SO; between 8 and 10 a. m. 

Carson City, Nevada: (U) or (En).— C. W. Friend. 

1888. July 2-3; darlnir nlvbt. 

Carson City, Nevada: slight shock recorded (II?). 

1888. Jaly 8. 

Oakland: 4.45 a. m. and 5.02 a. m. and also 6.30 p. m. — Cal. S. W. 
Service Annual Beview. 

1888. Jaly 4; 8i06 a. m. 

Carson City, Nevada: slight shock recorded. About the same as 
the preceding. 

1888. July 4>6; dvrlnir nl^bt. 

Carson City, Nevada: record larger than the last, but pen did not 
return to starting point. Magnified motion perhaps 3 millimeters. 

1888. Jnly e-7| during nlsbt. 

Carson City, Nevada: record shows (magnified) motion of 4 milli- 
meters in direction west-northwest and east-southeast. 



EABTHQUAKS8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 139 

1889. July 9-10| dnrlBS nlsl&t. 

Carson City, Nevada: slight shock. In all these records the prin- 
cipal motion is west-northwest and east-sontheast. 

X889. July 10| and precedlnir d«y«. 

Arroyo Grande, San Luis Obispo County: the following report is 
from the San Jos# Times: 

The territory around Los Olivos has been troubled with an earth- 
quake the past few days. Sunday there were six distinct shocks, 
one of which rattled the dishes off the shelves. The hardest 
shock took place at 3 o'clock this morning. The druggist at 
Santa Ynez has removed his bottles from the shelves to the floor. 
Four years ago a burning volcano »was reported at Lookout Moun- 
tain, on the south side of Santa Maria valley, which was decided 
to be a burning asphalt bed. 

X889. July S5| 10i8 p. m. 

Mount Hamilton: sharp shock. Rattled pictures on the wall. Time, 
10:8.2 (V).— E. S. H. A light quivering shock, followed by a severe 
shock, shaking the observatory building, at 10.7.59. — E. E. B. 
Time, 10.7.59.— J. M. S. Time, 10.7.58.— C. B. H. Generally felt 
by those on the mountain who were awake and not engaged in 
some occupation which would disturb the attention. It did not 
seem to me as strong as others we have had (IV). — J. E. K. 

Record obtained on both seismographs. The Ewing machine shows 
maximum (magnified) double amplitude = one millimeter in 
north and south direction, with period = one-third second. Cor- 
responding east and west motion very small, and vertical com- 
ponent hardly perceptible. The vibrations are almost indistin- 
guishable at fifteen seconds after the time of starting of the 
plate. The duplex pendulum record agrees well with this, but 
shows a slightly greater amplitude (magnified four times, about 
2 millimeters). The computed intensity is 53 or R.-F. (II-III). 

1880. July 81) 4t46t46 a. m. 

Central California, Mount Hamilton: shock wakened sleepers. Time 
4.46.45 a. m. (V).— E. S. H. Awakened from sleep. Time, as 
nearly as could be ascertained, 4.46.50 a. m. — J. E. K. 

Measurement of the record made by the Ewing seismograph gives 
the following data: 

Extreme duration, 30 seconds. 

Greatest motion, north and south (double amplitude), 1.3 milli- 
meters (magnified). 

Motion east and west, a little less. 

Vertical motion very small. 

Period of wave =: about 0.3 second. 

Computed intensity = 88 = (IV +). 

The duplex pendulum seismograph gave a record in close agfreement 
with the above. 



140 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Mare Island Light Station: time 4.48, navy-yard time. — Was awak- 
ened from a sound sleep. There was a rattling of bowls and 
pitchers. I felt two shocks: that is, one that was continuous and 
a sudden heavier impetus in the midst of the general shaking. 
It was sharp, severe, and quick, and more vertical than that of 
May 19. — Kate G. McDougal, light-keeper. 

Santa Cruz Light Station. Time, 4.45 standard time. — One tremu- 
lous shock lasting about three seconds. — Laura J. F. Hecoz, light- 
keeper. 

Fort Point Light Station. Time, 4.47. — One shock lasting about 
twelve seconds, an undulating movement from east to west, unac- 
companied by noise. The G;)ock in the tower almost stopped, but 
recovered itself. It faces south-southeast. 

Oakland: the shock appears to have been very much more severe 
than at the Lick Observatory. The magnified record at the Cha- 
bot Observatory shows irregular vibrations distributed in all 
azimuths over a circle about 8 millimeters in diameter, with 
irregular loops running out about 18 millimeters from the center. 
These may be due to swinging of the pendulum. Time, 4.45.30. 
Duration, twenty seconds. The pier of the 8-lnch equatorial tele- 
scope was cracked near the top, where it was 40 by 15 inches in 
cross-section, and the south side was shifted one-sixteenth inch 
toward the east, the north side remaining in position. The pier 
is of brick. The ferry clock at the foot of Market Street, San 
Francisco, stopped at 4.47.20. (Error ± 3 seconds). The clock in 
the ferrj'-house at Oakland pier stopped 4.46.30; error unknown. — 
C. Burckhalter. (VI.) 

Oakland: the first shock seemed to be from northeast to south- 
west, and was attended by three distinct, loud, sharp reports^ 
followed by a rattling noise which gradually died away. No 
vibration of pendant objects, but rattling of windows for a longer 
time than I had ever before noticed. — J. B. Trembley. 

East Oakland: at Mr. Blinn's observatory the record showed an 
indistinguishable mass of lines about 4 millimeters in diameter, 
with many loops roughly distributed over a circle about 18 milli- 
meters in diameter, and finally a number of great loops extend- 
ing as much as 35 millimeters from the center. The last are 
certainly due to swinging of the pendulum. They extended 
mostly in an east and west direction. Fully (VI). — F. G. B. 
Time about 4.47. A fresh plate was substituted immediately after 
the heavy shock, but the two subsequent lighfer shocks made iio 
record, and I did not feel them. They are described as being 
vertical and momentary.— F. G. Blinn. The first shock awakened 
me at 4.46.34, which must have been very nearly the time of be- 
ginning of the earthquake. Time of ending noted by Mr. A. S. 
Ireland at 4.46.45. The second shock occurred at 4.54.59, and was 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 141 

quite slight, lasting only about three seconds. The correction of 
my watch was determined by transit observations by Mr. Blinn, 
shortly after the shocks occurred. — ^Wm. Ireland. 

Berkeley: at the University observatory a diagram was obtained 
showing the effect of both shocks. The greatest oscillations are 
in an east and west direction. (About 13 millimeters, magnified, 
but the pen did not return to the starting point, stopping about 
midway on the diagram. The greatest motion is perhaps 6 milli* 
meters.) Time 4.47 a. m. " It seemed to me the sharpest shock 
since 1868. It was followed by three slight tremors, and another 
at 6.20 p. m."— Prof. Soulg. 

San Francisco: time 4.46.38. — Prof. Davidson. 4h. 46m. a. m. Shock 
in 3 distinct waves; the first lasting 5s., N. E. and S. W. for the 
middle wave, followed by light waves. Total duration 30 seconds. 
— T. T. 

Carson City, Nevada. — The earthquake of July 31 was not felt here. 
The seismograph did not show a trace. — C. W. Friend. 

Reports sent to the San Francisco papers follow, all dated July 31: 

San Jos4: there was a heavy shock at 4.45 this morning, the heaviest 
in seven years. No damage was done, and there was no excite- 
ment. The oscillations appeared to be north and south. 

Oakland: the earthquake was quite severely felt in Oakland. The 
shock was very sharp, but little damage was done. 

At the students' observatory at Berkeley the shock was registered 
as occurring at 4.47 o'clock in the morning and lasting fifteen 
seconds. The vibration was from north of west to south of east. 
It was followed by three slight ones at short intervals. Prof. 
Soul^ says that this was the most severe earthquake that he has 
experienced since he came to California, in 1869. 

Sacramento: there was no earthquake here. 

Napa: an earthquake at 4.45 this morning, preceded by tremors 
which continued about six seconds. The shock which followed 
was quite heavy, lasting four seconds. The vibrations were north 
and south. No damage. 

Petaluma: two heavy shocks at 4.45 o'clock a. m. The vibrations 
were from east to west. 

Martinez: there was a severe shock at 4.50 o'clock this morning, 
lasting several seconds. No damage. 

Gilroy: there was a slight shock at 5 o'clock this morning. 

Santa Cruz: an earthquake viras felt here at 4.50 o'clock this morn- 
ing, lasting several seconds. The vibrations were west to east. 

Centerville: two heavy shocks at 4.47 o'clock of about twenty-five 
seconds* duration. The vibrations were east and west. No dam- 
age has been reported as yet. 






142 EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Lob Gatos: a severe earthquake at 4.50 o'clock. The wave was east 
to west. Houses creaked, glass rattled, and many were awakened 
out of a sound sleep (VI). Considerable alarm was felt. 

Santa Rosa: a sharp earthquake at 5 o'clock this morning, lasting 
about five seconds. The vibrations were southeast to northwest. 

Benicia: three distinct shocks at 4.50 o'clock this morning. The 
first was quite strong and lasted several seconds, and was fol- 
lowed by two lighter ones. The vibrations seemed to be north 
and south. 

Newark: a severe shock at 4.45 o'clock. The vibrations were from 
north to south and the duration was about ten seconds. 

Concord: at 4.40 o'clock this morning a sharp shock, succeeded by a 
tremble that lasted fully two minutes. The direction of the 
shock was southeast to northwest; duration, thirty seconds. At 
about 3 a. m. a light shock was felt. In the night also another. 

San Leandro: the heaviest shock since 1868 occurred at 4.46 o'clock 
this morning. A low rumbling 'sound preceded the first and 
heaviest shock, which lasted about one and a quarter minutes. 
The first half minute the oscillations were light and easy. Then 
for a quarter of a minute they were heavy, after which they 
gradually became less and less. Ten minutes after the first 
shock another slight shock was felt, and six minutes later another. 
The oscillations were from north to south. The damage includes 
one chimney thrown down and some crockery broken (VII). 

1888. 61I8188 p. m. 

Oakland: slight shock (I) momentary. — ^F. O. Blinn. 

1889. AviriiMt 7| 8i48| 11 p. m. 

Mount Hamilton: very slight shock suspected by £. S. H. (I?). 

1888. Avflmst 18; 4i48 a. m. 

Oakland: sufiicient to awaken a few sleepers (HI, IV?). Appears 
to have been very local in character, and confined to Alameda and 
Central and West Oakland^ as it was not felt in San Francisco or 
East Oakland. '* Slight."— Cal. S. W. Service Redew, 

1888. Amrvst 28| Si82i46 p. at. 

Mount Hamilton: very slight shock. Felt by some persons and not 
by others in the same room; time, 2.32.46. — ^E. S. H. Time, 2.32.48. 
— J. M. S. Ewing machine not started. Very small record on the 
duplex pendulum seismograph (I). 

1888. Amrvst 27} 6.16 p. m. 

Southern California: not felt at Mount Hamilton. The f ollovHng are 
dispatches to the San Francisco papers: 



BAKTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 143 

Pomona: this evening at 6.15 the most severe shock that has been 
felt in this locality for fifteen years was observed. There were 
two distinct shocks, accompanied by a peculiar noise that 
sounded as though houses and buildings were falling. The 
shocks were about a second apart. Several people were thrown 
to the fioor and nearly every one ran out of doors in a moment. 
Dishes were rattled from shelves, and in the stores goods were 
thrown dovm on the floor. Many windows were cracked and 
broken and buildings shook, but no damage was done to them. 
At the Pomona Progress ofRce the type was pied, and at the Hotel 
Palomares glassware and crockery were broken (VII). 

Los Angeles: a sharp shock occurred here at 6.13 this evening. It 
began with a light tremor, which lasted a few seconds. Then the 
vibrations grew stronger and ended with two heavy shakes. The 
entire duration of the disturbance was about ten seconds. Clocks 
stopped and ceilings cracked. Many people ran into the streets. 
So far as now knovm no damage was done, but the quake was the 
most severe ezx>erienced here In many years (VII). 

Santa Ana: two very marked shocks occurred here this afternoon 
at 6.12. The vibrations were from southwest to northeast and 
followed each other in quick succession. Crockery rattled, chan- 
deliers and swinging signs vibrated, and people in the second 
and third stories of buildings were considerably frightened in 
some cases. The quaking continued for seven seconds, but no 
damage whatever resulted (VII). 

Santa Monica: there was an earthquake here at 6.16 p. m., lasting 
eight seconds. It was very noticeable in all buildings, but not 
strong enough to do any damage. The vibrations were from north 
to south. It was the first knovm here for many years. 

Pasadena: a very perceptible shock at 6.20 p. m., lasting from five 
to six seconds. Dishes on the dinner-tables were shaken and 
some were broken (VII). 

San Bernardino: " quite a distinct shock of earthquake was felt 
in this city last evening at about 6.15. The vibrations lasted 
several seconds and were from east to west." — San Bernardino 
Times-Index^ August 28. A light shock (III). Time noted by 
George Jordan, jeweler, at 2.12.20 p. m. Clock one miunte fif- 
teen seconds slow by Signal Office signals, hence Pacific standard 
time = 6.13.35. A slight rumbling noise before the shock is gen- 
erally reported. The shock is described as a single impulse, 
lasting but one or two seconds, but reports disagree as to direc- 
tion of the vibration. — W. C. Parmley. 



1889. <<IB tlie aatvmn/' ISli. 

An earthquake at Puyallup, Washington. Intensity II. Several 
shocks. — P. 



144: EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1888. September 24| 8 m. nt. 

Reported in S. F. papers: 

Napa: there was a slight earthquake at 8 o'clock this morning. 

Winters: there was a slight shock here this morning just before 
9 o'clock. The direction of the shock was from west to east. 

Woodland: quite a heavy earthquake at 8 o'clock this morning. 
There were two distinct vibrations and they were from north to 
south. 

1889. September 28 1 8ilO p. m. 

Wawona: there were heavy shocks of earthquake at 8.10 Sun- 
day night and at Yosemite followed by two lighter ones. The 
vibrations were east and west and lasting twenty-two seconds. 
Other light shocks were reported at Yosemite. A special dispatch 
from J. H. Lawrence, at the Big Tree Grove, says there was a 
severe shock of earthquake at 9.30 Sunday evening, continuing 
about twenty seconds. The vibration was distinctly east and 
west, accompanied by a rumbling noise resembling a heavy train 
of cars crossing a bridge, followed by two lighter shocks. Hol- 
low logs and trees oscillated (yi or more severe). 

1888. September 28. 

Rancho Laguna de Tache, Kingsburg: a slight shock in section 29, 
T. 17 S., R. 21 E., at 9.20 p. m.— S. C. Lillis. (See preceding para- 
graph.) 

1888. September 80| I2il7i30 p. m. 

Kingsburg, same place as above. A slight shock.~S. C. Lillis. 

1888. Oetober 16| 4i80 a. m; 

Carson: E. W., light.— C. W. F. 

1888. October 20| 8 p. m. 

Point No Point Lighthouse, Washington. Slight shock. 

1888. Oetober 24| 7t20 a. m. 

East Oakland: tracing obtained with seismograph shows (mag- 
nified) vibrations of about 1.6 millimeters. The pen did not 
return to the starting point. Light shock (II) noticed by sev- 
eral persons. Time noted by Mr. Ireland at 7.19.45 (wrongly 
given in the Oakland papers as 7.15). Felt by one or two per- 
sons in Oakland and Alameda. — ^F. Q. Blinn. 

1888. November 14 1 6104 p. m. 

San Lorenzo: the telegraph operator reports an earthquake at above 
time. East Oakland: the seismograph record shows a (magnified) 
motion of 1 millimeter. The shock was not felt here by any- 
body.— F. G. Blinn. 



EABTHQUAKES OX THB PACIFIC COAST 145 

1888. Hoventber IS^ 7i6S p. m. 

East Oakland: a slight shock (11) felt by three persons in the 
▼icinity. No record on seismograph, hence motion was probably 
vertical. The shock was felt in San Francisco, and noticed in 
the daily papers. — ^F. G. Blinn. 

San Francisco, 7h. 55m. p. m. Light shock. Duration 2 seconds. 
— T. T. 

Healdsburg: " a very severe shock of earthquake was felt in this city 
last night at 7.55. It was the heaviest experienced here in many 
years." — S. F. papers. 

1888. December Si 6180 p. m. 

East Oakland: the seismograph record (magnified) shows a number 
of nearly circular tracings about two millimeters in diameter, 
inclosing short irregxilar lines in different azimuths. The time 
was noted by a neighbor, as I was not at home when the shock 
occurred. — ^F. G. Blinn. 

1888. December 14} 6t80 a. m. 

Carson: E. W., light.— C. W. F. 

Note by Dr. Keeler. — " The present bulletin is to be regarded as little 
more than a list of recorded earthquakes in California in 1889 
and a collection of such data as are available for estimating the 
intensities of the different shocks. Accurate observations of 
earthquakes are difficult to obtain, as the instruments employed 
require some skill in the observer and a certain amount of atten- 
tion to be always in working condition. The sensations experi- 
enced during an earthquake shock vary greatly for different 
persons, and descriptions based on the feelings alone are apt to 
be extremely unreliable. It is hoped, however, that other sta- 
tions provided with suitable instruments can be established in 
different parts of the State, and that eventu^ly sufficient data 
can be accumulated for a more complete study of earthquake 
phenomena on the Pacific coast than the material now available 
would permit." These remarks apply to the whole of the present 
volume. — E. S. H. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1890. 

1890. Janvary 16) Monnt Hamilton | 6t06±lm. a. m. (Prof. Holden). 

Intensity = V. — Mr. Keeler noted the time by watch, P. S. T.* = 
5.05.3 ± 10s. a. m. Intensity = IV. Time by earthquake clock = 
5.02 a. m. 

The record of the duplex seismog^raph shows the actual displace- 
ment of the pendulum bob to have been 2.6 mm., in a direction 

1 P. 8. T. — Pacific slope time, which is Greenwich time less 8 hours. 
10 



146 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

almost exactly northwest and southeast. The record consists of 
a single nearly straight line. 

San Jos6: two shocks felt about 5 o'clock a. m., sufiBciently heavy 
to awaken sleepers; from north to south. 

1890. JajtnarT' 18 1 Hapa. 

Two slight shocks. Vibrations from north to south. 

1890. Santa Barbara | 8t80 p. in. 

Reported in the Chronicle as " quite a heavy shock.** 

1890. Jannarr 88) Cltabot Obserratonr) 4il8 ± Im. a. nt. 

Time observed by George B. Fox! The seismographic record indi- 
cates the total actual displacement of the pendulum to have been 
2.8 mm., in a direction from " north by east ** to " south by west.'* 
The tracing is made up of five small waves (small with reference 
to the total length of the tracing), which look as if they might 
have resulted from a simple harmonic motion having displace- 
ments in an east and west direction. 

1890. Jannarr 28 1 4 a. m. 

Berkeley: slight shock. 

1890. Febmarsr 1) 6tl6 p. m. 

Admiralty Head Lighthouse, Washington: light shock. 

1890. Santa Ana^ Jannarjr 24. 

The San Jos^ Mercury reports: 

A very distinct shock, lasting 4 seconds, was felt this afternoon at 
1.15; and at 4.30 o*clock there was a larger and more pronounced 
shock, lasting ten seconds. The direction was northeast and 
southwest. 

1880. February 6) San Dlevoi 10tl6 p. n&. 

" Distinct shock; vibrations from east to west." 

1880. Santa Anai 10il4 p. n&. 

** Shock lasted eight seconds. Vibrations from northeast to south- 
west.*' 

1800. February S| San Bernardino. 

" Three distinct shocks, preceded by a low rumbling noise. The 

shock ( ?) lasted for four or five seconds.** 
The three reports above are all from newspapers. 

1890. February 9| San Bernardino) 4b. 6ni. a. n&. 

Following is the report published in the Times-Index of San Ber- 
nardino of February 10: 

** Quite a heavy shock yesterday morning at 6 minutes past 4 o*clock. 
The vibrations were north and south." 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 147 

The Examiner of S. P. reports the following: 

1800. S«n PedrOy FebmarT' 9| 41i. Tin. a. m. 

Three mild but distinct shocks. The vibrations lasted for several 
seconds and were from east to west. 

1880. Colton, Febrnary 9. 

A heavy shock at 4 o'clock this morning. 

1890. Pomona^ Febmarsr 9. 

At 4 o'clock this morning three distinct shocks were felt here. 
Nearly every one was roused from his slumbers, but little dam- 
age was done. In the Proffress office type was "pied/* and some 
panes of glass were broken about the city (VI). 

1890. San Dlevo^ Febmanr 9. 

An earthquake was felt at 4 o'clock this morning. It lasted about 
a minute, and was accomipanied by rumbling noises. 

1890. Tebaebapl, Febmarr 18 1 SBtlO a. m. 

The following is from the San Bernardino Times-Index: 
Three light but distinct shocks. They occurred at intervals of 
about twenty minutes. The second shock lasted several seconds. 

1890. FebmarT' 16| IjOS Anir^l^S) about 4 a. in. 

Reported as follows in the Los Angeles Herald of February 16: 
" Residents in this city and dwellers in its suburbs generally 
were very rudely av^rakened from their slumbers yesterday morn- 
ing at about 4 o'clock (VI). A long, low rumbling noise as of 
distant thunder along the crests of the mountains was heard 
by people who were awake at that hour, and this was soon fol- 
lowed by a very decided shock. Houses shook, windows rattled, 
pictures vibrated on their hooks, and it was only very sound 
sleepers who were not roused. The oscillations were of a long, 
steady character rather than of the short, jerky order often felt 
in earthquake movements. The vibrations were nearly from 
northeast to southwest, and were separated into three distinct 
divisions. The first was the heaviest, followed by another lighter 
one at a short interval, and then, after a pause, a third little 
kick, less pronounced than the others. This is the second shock 
in this section within a year. In old days it was noted for its 
frequent seismic manifestations, but for forty years they have 
not been pronounced. Their center is near the San Jacinto 
peak." 

Gihroy, midnight: a light shock. 

1890. Marcb 8| 

Olympia, Washington, III. — 1*. 



148 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1890. Mareli 16 1 201i. 

Boslyn, Washington, III. — P. 

1880. Marcli 89) 14]i. SOni. 

Roslyn, Washington, III. — P. 

1890. April 111 IJIclalii lltSO a. m. (T). 
Vibrations from southeast to northwest. 

1890. April 16 1 Monnt Hamilton | 2t00 a. m. 

No record except the tracing of the duplex seismograph, which is an 
almost perfectly straight line running northwest and southeast. 
The total actual displacement of the pendulum bob is 1.9 mm. 

1890. April 24) Mount Hamilton) 8t86 a. m. 

The duplex seismograph gives an exceedingly complicated tracing 
in the general direction northwest and southeast The maximiun 
possible displacement of the pendulum bob was 4.0 mm. in the 
direction indicated above. 

At right angles to this the maximum displacement was 1.4 mm. 
The tracing is folded on itself from nine to eleven times. 

1890. Mills Collovo) abont 8t89 a. m. 

The tracing from the duplex seismograph indicates motion in every 
possible azimuth. There is no marked tendency In any one direc- 
tion. The maximum excursion of the pendulum bob is 11.1 nun. 
running from north-northeast to south-southwest. By max- 
imum excursion is here meant the maximum diameter of the 
drngram. 

1890. Berkeley) 8t88 a. m. (Prof. Sonle). 

The tracing from duplex seismograph g^ves maximum displacement 
(6.4 mm.) in a direction east-northeast and west-southwest. There 
is quite a well-marked displacement of 4.3 mm. in an azimuth 
which may be defined as " west-northwest ** to " east-southeast.'* 
The tracing recrosses itself from fifteen to twenty times. The 
disturbance at Berkeley seems to have been considerably smaller 
than at Mills College. 

1890. Chabot Obserratory) 8t87i44 a. m. 

Duration six seconds; preceded by a rumble lasting ten to fifteen 
seconds. General character and size of tracing from duplex seis- 
mograph about the same as that observed at Berkeley. Maximum 
double amplitude of pendulum bob nearly east and west, amount- 
ing to 5.7 mm. (Mr. Burckhalter.) 

1890. Baat Oakland) 8t87i40 a. m. 

Mr. F. G. Blinn reports the duration at ten seconds and the inten- 
sity as (IV). The seismograph tracing is exceedingly compli- 
cated, recrossing itself probably fifty times. The maximum dis- 
placement is east and west. 



EAKTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 149 



1880. San Franolscoi Sit. 40ii&. m. in. 

Sharp shock. Duration 16 aeconds. — ^T. T. Following^ is the report 
of Prof. Davidson, as given by the Eapaminer: " (1) First shock 
light, but awakened observer at 3.36.18. — P. S. T. Direction, east 
and west. (2) Continuous shock 3.37.03 to 3.37.23; first part slight; 
last ' shock like a terrier-dog worrying a rat.* Trace east and 
west and north and south, giving resultant northeast and south- 
west or northwest and southeast, according to circumstances. 
Shock rang door-bell in Prof. Davidson's room. Stopped clock in 
room 39, Appraisers* Building. Recorded by Frank Edmonds as 
northwest and southeast'* (VI). 

The foUovdng from the Evening Bulletin gives observations in other 
parts of the State: 

1800. Salinas, April 24. 

The heaviest temblor ever known here occurred at 3.40 this morn- 
ing. Two light shocks were followed by a third and heavier, 
which lasted about twelve seconds. These were followed by 
four or five more, one of which was sharp and abrupt. The vibra- 
tion was from east to west. Clocks were stopped, but no damage 
was done (VI). 

1800. Benlel«y April 24. 

The people were awakened from slumber this morning at 3.45 by 
a very distinct shock. The vibrations lasted some seconds and 
seemed to be from east to west (VI). 

1880. liOa Oatosy April 24. 

Two distinct and severe shocks were felt this morning about 3.40, 
the last shock being much heavier than the first, and of longer du- 
ration. The vibrations were from east to west. No damage was 
done, but many persons were considerably frightened and a few 
clocks were stopped (VI). A slight shock was also felt about 
5.30, but it was scarcely noticeable. 

1890. Brentwood, April 24. 

A slight shock at 3.30 this morning. 

1890. Gilroy, April 24. 

The damage by the earthquake this morning was not great. The 
gas mains were disjointed and the lights extinguished (VII?). 

1880. 8nn Jo»e, April 24. 

The shock this morning was very sharp, but no damage is reported. 
Many people were frightened out of their beds (VI?). 

1890. Holliater, April 24. 

Temblors began here at 3.32 a. m., lasting until 5.30 a. m. Thirteen 
distinct shocks were felt, and during the entire two hours a con- 



150 EARTHQUAKES OX THE PACIFIC COAST 

tinuous TacillatiDg motion was observable. The shocks were not 
sharp, but long continued and heavy rolling, the worst that have 
ever been experienced here. Only nominal damage was done. A 
private despatch states that the McMahan House was twisted so 
badly that cracks were opened in it sufficiently large to admit 
a man's hand and that other damage was done (VU?) 



1890. Redwood City, A^rU 24. 

Three shocks of earthquake occurred this morning, ending with a 
severe jar, which threw crockery and other articles from the 
shelves of several residences. Clocks were stopped at 3.37, the 
hour of the occurrence. The vibrations were east and west and 
the duration twenty seconds. The residents assert these were the 
severest shocks since 1868 (VI?, VII?). 

1880. Point Reyes, April 24. 

A sharp shock of earthquake occurred here very early this morning. 

1880. CentenrlUe, AprU 24. 

A heavy earthquake shock was felt here at 3.40 this morning. It 
was preceded by two light shocks. Many were frightened, but 
no damage has been reported. 

1890. -WAtoonylUe, AprU 24. 

There were twelve distinct shocks of earthquake felt here after 3.30 
this morning, the first and second being the most severe. The 
vibrations were from west to east. In the country north of town 
nearly all the chimneys were thrown down (VIII). The railway 
bridge across the Pajaro was misplaced and the train delayed. 

1890. Napa, April 24. 

At 3.40 o'clock this morning a heavy shock of earthquake was ex- 
perienced here. The vibrations were north and south. 

1880. Santa Cms, April 24. 

There was a heavy earthquake shock this morning at 3.48, but very 
little damage. 

1890. Mayfleld, CaL, AprU 24. 

A slight shock of earthquake was felt here and in neighboring 
towns this morning. The vibrations were from northeast to 
southwest, and lasted eight seconds. There was a heavy atmos- 
phere, with no wind. The tops of trees rocked, making a noise 
like a heavy wind blowing. Plastering was broken and the 
depot clock and others stopped at 3.37 o'clock (VI). The tem- 
perature was 48°. Superintendent Bassett went south by a spe- 
cial train to look after the damage done to the track by the 
shake between Pajaro and Sargents. It is reported that the track 
was moved a foot out of line, and that the ground settled six 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 151 

inches in places. The bridge, fifty feet high, is impassable at 
both ends, the rails being pulled a foot apart. A large force of 
men is at work, and they expect to have the track so that trains 
can pass in a few hours. At Sargents and Gilroy there were 
more than a dozen shakes, and chimneys were knocked down. 
(Vm?) (See Gilroy preceding). 



1880. Carson City, Nevada. 

No time reported. The duplex seismograph indicates a disturbance 
about one-quarter as large as that at Berkeley. (C. W. Friend.) 

O^ 
^88^ San Jo»e, April 24| 8t87i48 a. m. 

Seismograph at the University of the Pacific furnishes a diagram 
having a maximum double amplitude of 16.2 mm. From the man- 
ner in which the index has run all over the glass one would think 
the equilibrium of the pendulum too nearly neutral. 

1890. May lit Bast Oalclandf ItOOilS p. m. (Mr. Ireland); liOOilS 
p. n&. (Mr. Bolae). 

Mr. Blinn*s seismograph makes the disturbance almost entirely in 
an east and west direction; its amount (maximum double ampli- 
tude) was 1.0 mm. The diagram which Prof. Keep sends from 
Mills College indicates a slightly smaller disturbance in a direc- 
tion southwest and northeast. 



1880. May 11) San Franelseo) ItOOilS p. m. (Mr. 'William Ireland). 

Intensity = IV, Rossi-Forel scale. S. F.: Ih. Im. p. m. Light 
shock, duration 2 sec. — T. T. 

Following is a newspaper account of the shock as felt at San Lean- 
dro, May 11: "A very heavy shock of earthquake was felt at this 
place at 1.03 o'clock this afternoon. The oscillations were north 
and south and the duration 5 or 6 seconds. No damage reported, 
although many of the older houses in town were loosened up con- 
siderably, notably the depot of the Southern Pacific Company.** 

1890. May 14| Santa Cms. 

The following general account is taken from the newspaper of even 
date: 

Ever since the big earthquake of the 24th of April there have been 
daily seismic disturbances along the line between Pajaro and 
San Juan, where the earthquake was heaviest. Each day three 
or four small shocks occur, and yesterday six quite pronounced 
ones were felt. Two were felt at 5 o'clock this morning in this 
city. The fissure made on the Chittenden ranch, above Pajaro, 
during the big earthquake has been gradually increasing in depth 
and width. The railroad company is keeping a force of car- 
penters in the vicinity of the bridges between Pajaro and Gilroy 
for fear of damage by the shocks if they get heavier. 



152 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1890. June 1| He»14»biirs} IsSl p. in. 

^ Slight shock. 

1890. Jnne 12| 4 m. m. 

Berkeley: slight shock N. W. to S. E. — Professor Soul^. 

1890. Jnne 29| Santa Rosaf TtSS a. nt. 

\ " Three distinct shocks; people awakened; yibrations from north to 
south •* (VI). 

1890. Petalnmaf Jnne 80. 

An earthquake about 6 o'clock a. m. The vibrations were from east 
to west. 

1890. Santa Roaa, Jnne 80. 

Three earthquake shocks were felt here about 11 o'clock (a. m.?). 
They were not quite as severe as those in the morning. 

1890. Santa Cmsy Jnne 80. 

Earthquake shocks in this city at 12.30 this afternoon shook all 
the houses in town. The first was slight and was followed in a 
second by a much heavier shake. No damage. The vibrations 
^vere east and west. A telegram from Sargent station, near the 
center of the seismic disturbance of last April, states that the 
shock was quite severe there, breaking crockery in the houses. 
(VI). 

/ 1890. Jnne 80. 

Berkeley: slight record on duplex instrument. — Professor Soule. 



/ 



1890. JnlT 1. 

San Francisco: " At 33 minutes past midnight of Monday there wns 
a sharp shock of earthquake felt in this city, lasting ten seconds. 
The direction of the vibrations was principally northwest and 
southeast, with a shock nearly north and south. It was felt in 
nearly all portions of the city and had the effect of rousing many 
people from their slumbers. Gas fixtures and windows were set 
rattling, and in some houses picture frames, loosely fastened on 
the walls, were thrown to the floors. It was not noticeable by 
people walking on the streets, and had no distinct violence in the 
down-town hotels " (VI). 

1890. JniT 1) GllroTi 12i36 a. m. (newspaper). 

" Sharp shock from north to south lasting about one minute." 

1880. July 4 1 Enrelcat 4tS0 p. m. (new^apaper). 

Quite a sharp shock." 



(I 



1890. JnlT 24) Bakeralleld) 3 a. m. (newspaper). 

" Severe shock." 



BABTHQUAKEB ON THE PACIFIC COAST 153 

1880. July 26. 

The Examiner contains the follo^ng: 

Sisaons: There were three earthquake shocks this morning at 1.45 
o'clock. The vibrations were north and south. 

1890. HTdevTllle, Jvlr 26. 

Several severe shocks of an earthquake were felt at this place at 
1.40 a. m. to-day, lasting about twenty seconds, and another slight 
shock at 8 o'clock. 

1880. JvlT 28) PetAlvma) 12i08t86 a. m. 

Two slight shocks from north to south. 

180O. AmruBt 17 1 Mills College I 6iCM> a. m. (Prof. Keep). 

Slight, but distinct shock. The tracing of the seismograph shows 
three vibrations (averaging 0.3 mm.), in a direction from one 
point south of east to one point north of west. 

1890. AmriiVt 28 1 Mono Lake. 

The following is from the Homer Index: 

" Bemarkable earthquake at Mono. — The southern end of Mono Lake 
was considerably agitated last Sunday, and dwellers in that shaky 
locality were much perturbed. Steam was issuing from the lake 
as far as could be seen, in sudden puffs, and the water was 
boiling fiercely, while high waves rolled upon the beach and 
receding left the sand smoking. In a moment the air was thick 
with blinding hot sulphurous vapor, and subterraneous moans and 
riunblings made the witness think that the devil was holding high 
carnival down below. The fences wabbled up and down and 
sideways. 

"This appalling fracas lasted about two minutes. Then came a 
blessed quiet for a moment, followed by a sudden twitch of the 
earth, as a horse jerks his hide and dislodges a bothersome fiy. 
The shock threw men and animals off their feet with bruising 
violence. 

*' It was some hours before the lake ceased to emit columns of steam 
and the water became very hot. Two springs near the house, 
long noted for the coldness and purity of their water, changed 
their character and spouted hot mud for two days, when they 
flowed cold water again. A stack of 200 tons of hay was moved 
70 feet south without disarranging it " (IX?). 



180O. September 8| Moniit Hamilton) 2i21i20 p. m. (accnrate to 
one or two •eoonds), P. S. T. 

Felt by Prof. Holden in third story of brick house and estimated 
by him as 11 on Rossi-Forel scale. Recorded on duplex seis- 
mometer, but did not start the larger one. 

A slight shock was also felt at San Francisco at 2.30 p. m.; likewise 
at Gilroy. 






154 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1890. September A\ Moitnt Hamilton) lOtO6i40 a. m. (B. C. Holden). 

" Swung the hanging lamp in my study." — E. S. Holden. 

^880. September 6) Merced | 2il6 p. m. 

Vibration east and west. 

1800. Calico, September 19. 

A severe shock of earthquake occurred at 12.15 last night. There 
were vibrations east and west. There was another shock fifteen 
minutes later. 

18fM>. Dawett, September 19. 

Two earthquakes were felt here at 12.25 and 12.50 this morning. 
The vibrations were east and west. No damage was done. 

1890. San Bemardlno, September 19. 

A light earthquake shock visited this city a little after 12 o'clock 
this morning. 

1890. Baratow^y California, September 19. 

There was an earthquake at 12.15 this morning, with a rumbling 
sound. No damage. 

1890. October 8| Healdabnrv; 12i05 p. m. 

*• Sharp shock, accompanied by long and distinct rumbling. Vibra- 
tions north and south.'* 

1890. October 8| 2 p. m. 

Point No Point Lighthouse, Washington, slight shock. 

1890. October 29| Monnt Hamilton. 

Two distinct shocks. 

First— 8.36.29 a. m. ± 2s., P. S. T. Rossi-Forel, IV to V. 

Second— 8.39.29 a. m. ± 2s., P. S. T. Rosai-Forel, III. (Prof. 
Holden.) 

Prof. Barnard reports as follows: ** Coming to the observatory, 
half-way up the plank walk heard two distinct and heavy jars in the 
frame cottages as if they were falling down. These followed each 
other by about one or two seconds. Did iwi feel any Bhock. The 
noise of the shaking of the frame houses could have been heard 
perhaps an eighth of a mile. Beaching the observatory, another 
shock occurred; did not feel it; heard a rattling. This was at 
8.39.35 ± one or two seconds, P. S, T. 

1890. December 4| Lone Plnej 9 o'clock p. m. 

Ten distinct shocks felt from 9 to 11. No damage done. 
" This is the first disturbance at Lone Pine for eight or ten years.'* 
— C. Mulholland. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 155 

; ' EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1891. 

1 ^ .'^'1801. Januarr 2. 

XGenerally felt throughout the State. 

1891. Iilcic Obserr-atonr (Mount Hamilton), January 2| 121i. Om. 18s. 

A violent earthquake shock stopped our standard clock at eighteen 
seconds after noon to-day. The pendulum swings about north 
and south. 

Several ceilings were cracked in the observatory, and large pieces 
of plaster were thrown down in the brick houses. No damage 
was done to the instruments. The earthquake registers indicate 
by far the severest shock since 1868 in northern California. Its 
intensity was VII on the Rossi-Forel scale. The pen of the duplex 
seismometer was thrown completely ofP the glass plate. Some 
definite idea of the force may be had when I say that a swingring 
lamp, making a pendulum of about 15 inches in length, which is 
suspended in my study, was still in vibration twenty minutes 
after the shock. 

Framed photographs on my mantel were overthrown. The large 
telescope is secured to its base by four holding-down bolts, and 
it is as safe as it can be made. (Professor Holden.) 

San Francisco was visited by two distinct shocks of earthquake 
at noon yesterday (Jan. 2). 

Prof. Davidson states that his chronograph recorded the time of 
the shock to be 12.00.40,* with an entire duration of fifty seconds. 
A comparison of directions observed by various persons indicates 
the wave to have moved from southeast to northwest. Long, roll- 
ing shock, duration 33 sec. — ^T. T. 

1881. Santa Cmsy JTannary 2. 

There was a heavy earthquake here at 12.02 this afternoon. The 
shock, which passed from southwest to northeast, lasted ten sec- 
onds, and was the heaviest felt here in years. Only very slight 
damage was done, but the people were greatly frightened (VII). 

1881. Salinas, Jannarx 2. 

A very severe shock at 12 o'clock noon to-day. The vibrations were 
from north to south. 

1881. El Verano, Jannary 2. 

A severe shock at 12.20 o'clock. It moved from southeast to north- 
west. Houses were shaken up. 

1891. lioa Gatoa, January 2. 

A sharp shock was preceded by a rumbling sound at 12.01 o'clock 
this afternoon. The duration of the shock was fifteen seconds. 

' > 22b. later than at Mount Hamilton. 



156 BARTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Xo damage.— Berkeley: duration 3 see. N. W. and S. £. — ^Professor 
Sonl^. 



1691. QUTOTf Ji 

One of the heaviest earthquakes ever felt here occurred at 12.01 this 
afternoon. The duration was less than half a minute, but it was 
accompanied by heavy rumblings and a sickening, swaying sen- 
sation. Gas fixtures and movables swayed and clattered con- 
siderably (Vn?). 



1891. Stoektom, Jmnmrnrr S. 

Bather a sharp shock precisely at 12 noon. The vibrations were 
south to north. 

1891. Ij»t]aropy JannarT' S. 

There was a severe shock at 12 o'clock. Houses squeaked, clocks 
stopped, lamp chimneys were broken, etc. No further damage 
was done. Apparently the direction of the shock was from east 
to west (VI). 

|i891. ModestOy Jannarr 2. 

A sharp shock was felt here at noon to-day. The shock lasted fif- 
teen seconds. The vibrations were north and south. 

1S91. San Jose, Jannarr &• 

At 12 o'clock a sharp shock was felt here, the movement being 
north and south, and it lasted about fifteen seconds. Clocks were 
stopped and buildings rocked, but no damage was reported (VI?, 

vn?). 

1891. San Jo»e, Jannarr 2. 

'* Buildings were shaken so that their motion was plainly visible. 
Many clocks stopped at 10.00.30 p. m." ^ — San Josv Heraid, 

1891. Petalnn&a* JanvarT' 2. 

This afternoon, a few minutes past 12, a sharp shock, vnth vibra- 
tions from east to west. 

1891. San Leandro, Jann«ry 2. 

A sharp shock was felt here to-day at 12.02. The oscillations were 
from northeast to southwest. The duration was about ten 
seconds. 

1891. San Rnfael, Jannarr 2. 

A rather sharp shock was felt here at 12 noon to-day, lasting several 
seconds. The vibrations were from east to west. 

> 12b. later than that at Mount Hamilton. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 167 

1891. Boulder Creek, JaMmmrr 2. 
A severe shock was felt here at 12 o'clock, continuing for seyeral 
seconds. The vibration was from southwest to northeast. There 
was a general rush for the streets, but no damage was done 

1891. Spa miah l e ■■ u , Janiaarr 2. 

A severe shock occurred at three minutes before noon to-day. The 
vibrations were from east to west. 

1891. Merced, January 2. 

A slight shock was felt here at 12 o'clock to-day with vibrations 
from east to west. The shake was heavy enough to cause the 
glassware on the shelves to rattle (VI?). 

1891. Redwood City, January 2. 

Two sharp shocks were felt here to-day at two minutes past noon. 
The vibrations were east and west. — 8. F. Examiner, 

Seismographic records obtained at Mills College by Prof. Keep and 
at Oakland by Mr. Blinn show the greatest disturbance to be in 
a direction running from northeast to southwest. 

Mr. Blinn's seismometer gives a diagram indicating that the maxi- 
mum double amplitude of the pendulum wbb 3.8 mm. The dia- 
gram consists of many (not less than 25) intersecting loops. So 
far as one may judge from the tracing, the instrument was in 
good adjustment. 

Prof. Keep's tracing is of the same general character, but with a 
maximum double amplitude of 5.8 mm. 

The Carson City seismometer (C. W. Friend) gives a tracing even 
more complicated than either of the preceding; it is the smallest 
of the three, but every azimuth is filled with fine lines. The glass 
plate of the San Jos^ instrument was jarred by the earthquake 
and the record spoiled. 

A third shock of intensity (III) on Rossi-Forel scale is reported by 
Prof. Holden as occurring at the Lick Observatory at 8.18.21 p. m. 

1891. January 12 1 Berkeley | lt86 a. m. 

Prof. Hilgard reports a ** light earth-tremor lasting a little less than 
a second, but preceded by a marked rumbling from the south- 
west." (Qu.?, a. m.?) 

1891. January 18 1 Mount Hamilton i 2iS8 p. m. 

I to n Rossi-Forel scale; observed by Mrs. Breseno. 



1891. February 16 1 Downlevllle. 

Quite a shock felt between 2 and 3 a. m. 

1891. January 21) San Franelsco) 2ta4i86V6 p. n&. 

Artificial earthquake, caused by the explosion of 3,000 pounds of 
blasting powder for the purpose of clearing away a hill in San 



158 RABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Francisco. But few rocks were scattered; the hill collapsed and the 
earth in the neighborhood showed deep crevices. No disturbance 
was observed on the San Jos^ seismograph, which was watched by 
Prof. George. Nor was any record obtained at Mount Hamilton, 
where it was looked for with mercury basins.^ 

1891. February 24| In dependence | 8tl0 a. m. 

Reported by Mr. C. Mulholland as follows: "A strong earthquake 
shock. The tremor was preceded an instant by a rumbling sound. 
The motion appeared to be a little east of south to west of north. 
The house shook so that the pans and dishes rattled. A strong 
breeze from the south had been blowing all night, but at the 
time of the tremor there was a brief but complete lull; then the 
breeze set in as before.** 

1881. Marcli 7) 7t36 p. m. 

Admiralty Head L. H., Washington. A light shock. 

1881. Mareb 7) 7i80 p. m. 

Smith Island L. H., Washington. A slight shock. — Ms. U. S. L. H. 
Board. 



4t 



1881. AprU 4| Monnt Hamilton | 4i80 a. m. 

A light, but prolonged shock from east to west,'* reported by Prof. 
Holden. 



1^1. April ISi Monnt Hamilton ^ 8t28<r)41. 

** A sudden, slight earthquake of intensity II, Bossi-Forel scale,*' 
reported by Prof. Holden. 

1881. April 13 1 Healdabnr*. 

A sharp shock at 11.40 p. m. 

Visalia: earthquake at 10.30 p. m. Vibrations from north to south. 

1881. San Franclaco, May 6| 81i. 80m. p. m. 

Light shock, duration 4 sec. — T. T. 

1881. BerkeleXf May 8| eilO p. m. 

Prof. Soul6 writes: " Very slight in San Francisco and Oakland, so 
much so that comparatively few people noticed it. The Ewing 
and Gray-Milne instruments, though in excellent order and very 
sensitive, were not set off. The duplex gave a small record indi- 
cating that the direction of the shock was from northwest to 
southeast. I should rate it as II in the Rossi-Forel scale." 

1881. San Rafael, May 8) 6t08 p. m. 

A heavy shock lasting about six seconds. The vibrations were from 
west to east. 

• PublicatioTUi Anirwiomical Society of the Pacific^ vol. Ill, page 132. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 159 

1801. Max 18$ SiiMiiftville. 

Seyen shocks felt; two very heavy; time not reported. 

1891. Max SOf Sam Framelaeoi lOli. 4m. p. m. 

Light vibration, duration 2s.— T. T. Mills College: Prof. Keep 
writes: " An earthquake was felt here last night about 10 o'clock. 
The shock was slight, but was preceded by a peculiar sound 
which made me brace myself for a severe shock." The seismo* 
graphic record accompanying this letter shows the greatest dis- 
turbance to have been in a north and south direction. 

1891. Jnae 22 1 Paaadena and San Fernando. 

Slight shocks felt between 8 and 9 o'clock in the evening. 



1891. Jnne 28 1 San Frandaoof 8t<l2i45 a. m. 

Heported in S. F. Chronicle as follows: "A double shock of earth- 
quake occurred early yesterday morning. It was not heavy, and 
was of such brief duration that not many of the citizens who 
were awake at the time could have noted it. F. W. Edmonds, the 
assistant in Prof. Davidson's observatory, was at work when the 
shock came and noted its features, afterwards comparing his 
figures with those recorded by a small seismograph. The first 
shock began at 3.02.45, Pacific standard time, and ended five sec- 
onds later. The vibrations were east and west. Then at 3.03.05 
there was another shock, so brief that the duration was not 
recorded. It was sharper than the first shake, but had the same 
motion. 

Prof. Davidson remarked that one night last week, while he was 
making observations for latitude, there was an almost imper- 
ceptible quake. He was reading the level of the instrument at 
the time and noticed that it was suddenly shaken, the bubble mov- 
ing backward and forward several times in quick succession. 
The extremes' of this motion as marked by the bubble were three 
or four millimeters apart. The vibrations were north and south." 

Mount Hamilton: waked sleepers, set hanging lamps in vibration, 
rattled windows, pictures, stoves, etc. Ewing seismograph clock 
did not start; components were therefore recorded as straight 
lines. The actual displacements of the earth [magnified] were 
as follows: North and south = 0.24 inches; east and west =: 0.39 
inches; vertical = 0.15 inches. 

Mr. Campbell makes the time 3.02.36 ± 2s.— P. S. T. 

Mr. Schaeberle makes the time 3.02.35 (watch).— P. S. T. 

Intensity on Rossi-Forel scale, V. 

1891. Santa Crna| Jnne 28| about 3 a. m. 

Shock not felt at the lighthouse, two miles from town. (Ms. 
. kindly communicated by U. S. Geological Survey.) 



\ 



160 EAKTHQUAKBS ON THB PACIFIC COABT 

Mayfield: "a slight shock of earthquake was felt here at 3 o'clock 
this morning. It lasted four seconds. Trembling vibrations were 
followed by two shocks." — 8, F. Chronicle. 



1881. Jime 28| Mount Hamlltomf 8i06t81 d- 2 a. m. (IV. IV. CampbeU)| 
8i06i8a (J. M. Sebaeberle). 

One quick shock lasting for less than half a second; Bossi-Forel I 
or II. " Recorded on duple3(, but not on Ewing seismometer.'* 

1891. Jnlr 12 1 Berkeley. 

Slight record on duplex instrument. — Professor Soul6. 

1801. JnlT 18 1 Momterexi 4i87 p. m. 

A sharp shock with vibrations from southwest to northeast. 
Clocks were stopped and crockery thrown from the shelves (VI). 

1881. Jnlr 18$ Santa Crna Llffhtlionaei 4i26V^ p. m. 

Duration about two seconds. (Ms. of U. S. Gteologicid Survey.) 

1881. Jnlr IT I HolUateri 1 a. nt. 

Quite a severe shock; no damage. 

1881. Jnlr 80. 
Lerdo, Mex., was the center of a very severe earthquake about 6 
o'clock a. m. It appears to have caused a tidal wave of con- 
siderable height at the head of the Gulf of California. The coun- 
try is so thinly and poorly settled that no damage was done. 
The reports of this earthquake are so indefinite and contradic- 
tory that we have little reliable information regarding what must 
have been at least a very widespread disturbance. 

1881. Anirnat 8t Monterey I 8i41 a. n&. 

A heavy shock, causing buildings to rock. The vibration was from 
north to south. 

t801. Anynat 8| 8i42 a. m. 

* Santa Cruz Lighthouse: duration 2 seconds. (Ms. of U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey.) 

1881. Anffnat 11 1 Hnniboldt lilfflitltonae. 

Three shocks in rapid succession, (1) at 3h. 18m. 305*. a. m., (2) at 
3h. 18m. 20s., (3) at 3h. 18m. 5s. (9ic). N. B.— All the limes at this 
station are from a clock which is regulated by the (calculated) 
times of sunrise and sunset. (Ms. kindly communicated by the 
U. S. Geological Survey.) 

1881. September f 

Tacoma, Washington, II, several shocks. — ^P. 

1881. September 10 1 Berkeler. 

Very distinct record, E. S. E. and W. N. W. — Professor Soul6. 



BABTHQUAKES ON THE PAGIPIC COAST 161 

1891. September ISi Oedmr City, Utalii 8x48 p. m. (C. MvlltollaiiA). 

" Shock heavy and accompanied by a sound like that of a heavily 
loaded wagon passing over a street paved with granite blocks. 
Its duration was brief, and there was but one shock." 

1891. September 16 1 S«lemf Oresomi 8t80 p. m. 

The shock was brief and distinct, and was followed by a wave-like 
motion lasting several seconds. It was felt in all large buildings; 
windows rattled. 

1891. September 21 1 Port Anvelea, WMb. 

Reports differ as to time, some claiming that the shock occurred at 
4.10 a. m., others at 5 a. m. It is possible there were two distinct 
shocks. The direction of vibration was from northwest to south- 
east. Many people were awakened from sleep. Houses trem- 
bled and chinaware rattled (VI). 

Port Townsend: shock felt shortly after 4 o'clock a. m. Dishes rat- 
tled and sleeping people were awakened (VI). 

1891. September 82 1 Vletorfa, B. Cy 8t40 s. m« 

Sharp shock felt all over city; lasted about seven seconds. 

1891. September 28 1 Healdabvrin lt30 p. m. 

"Very severe and long-continued shock; one of the most severe 
ever felt in this vicinity,' 



f» 



1881. Oetober 29 Mount H«mlltom. 

Prof. Barnard reports " from one and one-half to two seconds' 
duration. A very decided shock. Gradually increased in inten- 
sity. 7.19.55 P. S. T. end of shock." Prof. Holden gives the time 
as 7.19.55. Intensity n on Bossi-Forel scale. No record on seis- 
mometers. 

1891. Oetober 11. 

Pelt generally over the central portion of the State. Folloviring 
are newspaper accounts: 

San Francisco: a slight earthquake shock was felt throughout the 
city last night. It seemed like the heavy, noisy rumble of a cart, 
and was perceptibly felt in every part of the town. Prof. David- 
son was at work in his observatory when it occurred. The pier 
upon which his instrument is placed was not thrown out of level 
in the slightest degree. The earthquake lasted for thirteen sec- 
onds, beginning at twenty-seven minutes and thirty-two seconds 
after ten o'clock and ending at twenty-seven minutes and forty- 
five seconds after 10 o'clock. An unusual feature of the shock 
was that it began light and gradually increased until it was 
greatest during the last three seconds. The direcQon was south- 
east to east-southeast. 
11 



162 EABTHQUAKES ON THB PACIFIO OOAfiT 

( 1891. 9aa Franeiaoo, October 11 1 lOli. 2Swku p. m« 

Heavy shock, S. E. and N. W., duration 20s.— T. T. 



A 



'< 



1881. Svlauii, October 11. 

At 10.29 o'clock to-night a heavy shock of earthquake shook up this 
\ quiet little city in a frightful manner. The shock lasted nearly 

half a minute. It was the heaviest earthquake known of here for 
\ years. The damage is slight, but the fright of the people was 

extreme (VII). 

1881. Oakland, October 11. 

^"^^ sharp shock at 10.26, the vibrations being from north to south. 
^ Windows were shaken, but no damage done. 



\ 



\ 



1881. Oakland, October 11. 

Oakland: Mr. Burckhalter reports from the Chabot Observatory that 
the mean time clock was stopped at 10.27.49 p. m. His seismo- 

''graph shows the actual displacement of the earth to have been 
8.5 mm. in an east and west direction (VI). 

1881. Sacramento, October 11. 

A pretty lively shock of earthquake, or a double shock, was felt 
here at 10.28, but it was not heavy enough to do any damage. 
Many persons did not feel it. 

1881. Ban Jose, October 11. 

A slight shock of earthquake was felt here at 10.28 this evening. 
The movement was from northeast to southwest. 

1881. Berkeley 10i85 p. m. 

Slight at first; gradually increased; preceded by a rumbling noise. 
— Professor Soul6. 

1881. ^Winter*, October 11. 

There was a heavy shock here about 10.30 o'clock. It was heavy 
enough to wake people from a sound sleep. The vibrations were 
from east to west and lasted two or three seconds (VI). 

1881. Falrfleld, October 11. 

There was a heavy shock at 10.30 p. m. and another at 4 a. m., but 
no serious damage was done. 

v.- ' , -^. V " 

1881. Spanish town, Qmioher 11. 

Quite a heavy shock was felt here at 9.29. 

1881. Sonoma, October 11. 

Sonoma and vicinity were visited at 10.28 o'clock by the severest 
earthquake ever felt in this section of the State. The people 
were shaken out of their beds, chimneys were demolished, win- 
dows broken, and the interior of almost every plastered house 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 163 

in the town shows effects of the shock, which lasted about eight 
seconds. The temblor was a series of vicious twisters. Pickett's 
residence and wine cellar at the outskirts of the town were badly 
damaged, the interior of the house presenting a scene of desola- 
tion. On S. F. Ringstrom's farm a large chimney fell. Several 
chimneys in town were also overthrow a, but fortunately no one 
has been injured. Reports from all over the valley show more or 
less damage. On the Polpula ranch, which contains a number 
of warm-water springs, the earthquake caused the water to gush 
forth in perfect torrents. The first shock of the evening was 
slight and felt at 9.15. Then came the heavy one, after which, at 
intervals of an hour or so, there were eight or ten other shocks. 
More or less damage was done to every building in Sonoma Val- 
ley (vni). 

1891. PetAluma, October 11. 

At twenty-five minutes past 10 the heaviest earthquake shock since 
1868 passed through Petaluma. Door-bells were rung and some 
plastering badly cracked. The heavy shock was preceded a few 
minutes by a light one, and after it came six or seven other 
shocks, the last one being at 5 o'clock this morning. Many 
people were kept awake most of the night. The main shock 
lasted fully nine seconds (VII). 

1891. Hapa, Oetober 11. 

The heaviest shock ever felt here was experienced at 10.34 o'clock. 
The people rushed out into the streets greatly frightened, and 
the whole town was in commotion. The shock was especially 
heavy at the insane asylum, and the inmates were almost uncon- 
trollable. 

The first shock came at 9.16, but it was light. At 10.29 came the 
heavy shock, which lasted forty-six seconds. It was a twisting 
motion from right to left. Some people fainted, and all were 
greatly exercised, but no fatalities are reported. Lighter shocks 
followed during the entire night. Some say there were twelve 
shakes, while others profess to have counted as high as seven- 
teen. Some people remained in the street all night, and others 
did not sleep for fear of a repetition of the dread sensation. 
The damage will not be very heavy on any one building, but in 
the aggregate is considerable. Scores of chimneys are thrown 
down or turned three-fourths around. Many brick buildings are 
badly cracked, and the wall decorations in most of the fine 
houses are badly damaged, while nearly every house had some 
bric-a-brac and crockery destroyed. The insane asylum reports 
some damage to the walls and tower, but nothing serious (VIII). 

1801. 8t. Helenat October 11. 

\^ The heaviest earthquake shock ever experienced here occurred at 
10.30 o'clock. Houses shook, crockery rattled, and clocks stopped. 



164 BABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COABT 

The vibrations appeared to be south to north, followed half an 
hour later by a light shock, and one also at 5 o'clock this morn- 
ing (VI?, vn?). 



1S81. Samta Rosa, Oetober 11. 

The severest earthquake felt here in four years' occurred at 10.32 
o'clock. The oscillations lasted forty-five seconds. A slight trem- 
bling was perceptible for three or four minutes. 

1881. San Rafael, Oetober 11. 

The most severe earthquake experienced here for years was felt 
at 10.26 o'clock. The shock lasted about twelve seconds. It was 
preceded by a dull rumbling noise like a heavy wagon rolling 
over the pavement. Two shocks of lesser power were felt this 
morning about 4 o'clock. 

1881. October 18 1 Mount Hamtltomi lliOtSO p. m. (Prof. Hoi den). 

Intensity II, Kossi-Forel scale. 

Prof. Barnard reports as follows: " Three shocks of earthquake 
were felt in rapid succession. Interval between the individual 
shocks about one and a half seconds. The last of these three 
was the most severe. This occurred at 11.00.09 P. S. T. The 
shocks were simply quick jerks, and ought to have been powerful 
enough to wake a person from ordinary sleep.' 



f> 



11881. October 18| Mills Colleirei 10x28 p. m. 

Prof. Keep sends a very complicated diagram from his seismo- 
graph, indicating disturbances in all directions. Maximum north 
and south = 3.0 mm.; maximum east and west = 4.0 mm. 

The above figures are for the actual displacements of the earth. 

1881. Oetober 14| Ban Franeiseoi 4i88i28 a. nt. 

Felt in all parts of the city. Prof. Davidson says: "The last 
shake was similar to the one of the 11th instant in its wave-like 
vibrations. Its greatest force was during the first seven seconds, 
and its entire duration was ten seconds. Time of beginning, 
4.33.23 o'clock a. m. Direction of the vibration, north and south." 

Following are newspaper accounts: 

1881. Napa, October 14. 

The earth continues to tremble. Four shocks have been felt here 
this morning. At 4.30 a. m. the people were startled with quite 
a heavy shock, and several lighter ones have followed. The 
damage done by Sunday night's shock is much more than was at 
first supposed and will amount to several thousand dollars. 
Many of the people here are so terrorized that they have hardly 
slept since Sunday evening, and the slightest shock now starts 
many into the streets." 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIO COAST 166 

\ 1881. Berlceley, Oetober 14| 4t40 a. m. 

\ Slight shock, N. and S. — Professor Soul& 

1891. Petalnmmt Oetober 14. 

Another lively earthquake shock this morning about 4.30 o'clock, 
and a much lighter one about 7. The vibrations were north to 
south. 

189^. Smirany Oetober 14. 

shortly after 4 o'clock this morning the people here were aroused 
from their slumbers by another sharp, severe shock of earth- 
quake. It was not as severe as the first one that occurred on 
Sunday night (VI?). 

1891. 9aa Rateel, Oetober 14. 

Quite a severe shock was felt here this morning at 4.25 o'clock. The 

shock lasted about ten seconds. The vibrations were from west 

to east. 
Prof. Keep reports that the seismograph at Mills College indicated 

an actual displacement of the earth in an east and west direction 

amounting to 1 mm. 

1891. Oetober 2T| Mount Hajnlltomy 6i85i48 ± Is. (Prof.-Holdem>. 

Intensity I or 11 on Kossi-Forel scale. Prof. Barnard reports this 
as " a decided shock," occurring at 6.35.44. 



1891. November 8| Aabland, Orevom. 

Following is the newspaper account: " The first time an earth- 
quake has been felt in Ashland for years was last night about 
8 o'clock, when a distinct shock, though light and lasting only 
a very few seconds, caused a general rattling of window panes in 
many buildings in town. The shock was not heavy enough to 
cause even timid people any alarm." 

1891. November 29 1 Seattle. 

At 3.21 o'clock this afternoon two shocks of earthquake, lasting 
about five seconds each, were felt here. No damage was doneL 
The direction of the vibrations was southeast to northwest. One 
building swayed so much that the elevator bumped against the 
side of the shaft and could not move until the shock was over. 
Lake Washington, on the east side of town, was lashed into 
a foam, and the water rolled on to the beach 2 feet above the 
mark of the highest water and 8 feet above the present stage. 
Reports from Snohomish and Bellingham Bay towns say the 
shock was plainly felt there. 

1891. Pysbt, firasliliftfftoii, November 29 1 8i84 p. m. 

Duration about ten seconds. Panes of glass broken 'in the hotel 
(VI?). (Observer U. S. Weather Bureau, through U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey.) 



/ 

/ 



166 EABTHQUAK^^OX THE PACIFIC COAST 



1891. Port Tovrmaemd, NoTem^er 

A distinct shcxsk of earthquake was felt here at 3.14 this aftemooiL 
The shock continued fully twenty seconds. Buildings shook, win- 
dows rattled, and many persons rushed out of their houses. 
There was no damage done (VII). 



1891. TaeoBBAy NoTember 

A slight earthquake was felt all over the city at 3.16 this afternoon. 
No damage was done. A severe shock but no damage done at 
Olympia, 15h. 15m., n.— P. 

1881* Mendoetno, NoTeiiiber 2B8. 

Two shocks of earthquake were felt last night at 10.45 o'clock, pre- 
ceded by a rumbling noise. There were two-minute intervals. 
Point Wilson Lighthouse, Washington, Nov. 29, 3 p. m. Admiralty 
Head L. H., Washington, 2.57 p. m. Point No Point Lighthouse, 
Washing^n, Nov. 29, 3 p. m., clocks stopped. 

1891. Deoember 16 1 Mount Hamilton! 8i28iia «• m. 

Prof. Schaerberle estimates the intensity at I on the Kossi-Forel 
scale. 

1891. Deeentber 21 1 Mount Hamilton i 6il6i41±p. jn. (Prof. Hoi den). 

Intensity n on Bossi-Forel scale. 

1891. December 28 j Berkeley [lit p. m.]. 

Very distinct record. — Professor Soul6. 

1891. Deeembor 29 1 Monnt Hamilton i 8i26i66±8s. a. nt. 

Intensity I to II on Bossi-Forel scale. 

BARTHQUAKEJS ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1802. 

^892. Jannary 16 1 Monnt Hamilton | 7i80 a. m. 

Note by Prof. Holden: " Wind from north and northwest. Ve- 
locity 61 miles per hour. The motion of the third story of Prof. 
Holden*s house from the wind made a tremor which would have 
been called II on Rossi-Forel scale. No earthquake.' 



»> 



1892. Jannarr 22| Areata (Cal.). 

A shock.— Cal. S. W. Service BulleHn, 

1892. Jannarr 80| Hnmboldt Llvhthonsei 9 p. m. 

(Ms. from U. S. Geological Survey.) 

1892. February 1, IVlncbester (Cal.). 
A shock. — Ibid, 

1892. Febrnary 8| Portland, Oregon | 8i80 p. m. 

A severe earthquake shock occurred here at &.30 o'clock to-night. 
Brick buildings swayed and windows rattled, terrifying the in- 
mates, who in many instances rushed into the street. The shock 



BAKTHQUAKBS ON THE PAOIFIO COAST 167 

lasted about thirty seconds, and was probably the most severe 
earthquake ever felt in this city. As far as known no damage 
was done (VII). 

I 

1892. Vehnm.Tr 8| Aatortet Oregon | Sli. 27m. p. m. 

The vibrations were from southwest to northeast. It lasted about 
three seconds, causing houses to shake perceptibly, but no damage 
was done. 

18d2. FebmarF 8| Salem, Oregon i Sli. 82m. p. m. 

The vibrations were from northeast to southwest. There were 
three distinct shocks. Windows rattled and buildings trembled, 
but no damage is reported. 

1882. February 8| Yaanlaa Head Llffbthonae, Oregon. 

A light shock about 8.20 p. m. Warrior Rock Lighthouse (Colum- 
bia River) a shock Feb. 3, 8.40 p. m., N. to S. 



1882. FebmarF 6| Mount Hamlltf 

Prof. Holden was awakened by a shock and noted the time as 
6.27.42 a. m. Intensity = V to VI, Rossi-Forel scale. 

Mr. Otto Erie was awake and dressing and noted time 6.27.50 a. m. 
Direction north and south. Prof. Campbell was awakened by the 
shock and noted the time as 6.27.50 ± 3s. Intensity, R. F. = V; 
duration, two seconds; north and south. Rattled windows, wash- 
bowls, etc.; rocked bed. Also felt at Niles. 

1882. FebniarF 28 1 Camoa CltTt Nevada. 

Prof. Friend sends a tracing of an earthquake which occurred be- 
tween 9 p. m. February 23 and 7 a. m. February 24. He says: 
" No one here, it seems, has felt it, and consequently cannot 
give you the exact time.*' The maximum disturbance being about 
E. S. E. by W. N. W., having an extreme amplitude of 17** on 
the plate, vdth a motion at right angles to this of 7 mm. 

1882. FebmarT' 17 1 Foreatvllle, 9oaoma Conatr* 

A shock. 

1882. Febraary 28| San Dtevo. 

Earthquake shocks are frequent of late. Near midnight, February 
23, the first shock, lasting seventy seconds, cracked walls of 
buildings, and people were thoroughly frightened, VII. Six or 
eight more shocks were felt that night, the second shock occur- 
ring just thirty minutes after the first one. Nearly every night 
since there have been one to three slight shocks. So severe was the 
first shock that the undulations gave many the feelings of sea- 
sick patients. Along the Pacific coast from Mexico to British 
Columbia slight shocks were felt, especially in Oregon and 
Washingfton. 



168 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1892. February 88; Bab Dlevo. 

The earthquake which visited southern California just before mid- 
night last night was the worst San Diego ever experienced, and 
seems to have been more severe the farther south it was felt. 
In this city a large number of buildings were cracked and the 
plaster was dislodged, although no houses were shaken down. 

There were six or seven quakes after the first severe shock. 

Beports from outside the city say that in Paradise Valley a church 
and schoolhouse, which were built upon stilts, were thrown down 
and almost totally demolished. A message from Campo says that 
the first shock, at 11.21 p. m., was preceded by a loud rumbling. 

Several sharp tremblings followed in qidck succession. The rum- 
blings and shocks kept up at intervals of twenty minutes or more 
through the night until 4.53 a. m., when a fearful shock, with 
vibrations lasting twenty-five seconds, accompanied by local 
rumblings, caused the inhabitants to rush out of their houses in 
terror. Since 5 o'clock this morning over twenty distinct shocks 
have been experienced, the last one as late as 10 o'clock. At 
Jamul the walls of the stone kilns at the cement works were 
cracked and other damage was done. Rumblings have been 
heard all day in the hills and mountains thereabouts, and the 
inhabitants are panic-stricken. 



1892. Point FlrlvBil Station (San Pedro), Cal.| llt20 p. m. 

Sleepers waked; clock stopped, etc. (VI). 



1892. BaUaat Point I<ivltt Station (Cal,)| llilT p. n., loeal time. 

Direction E. S. E. to W. N. W. This shock lasted Im. 12s. (counted); 
clock stopped, etc. (VI). Other shocks at 11.30 p. m. (very light); 
12.15 p. m. (very light) ; 1.16 a. m. (heavier) ; 2.3 a. m. (very light) ; 
2.35 a. m. (very light) ; 2.50 a. m. (very light) ; 3.02 a. m. (heavier) ; 
3.19 a. m. (very light); 3.47 a. m. (very light); 3.59 a. m. (very 
light); 4.31 a. m. (rumbling); 5.57 a. m. (heavier). [The dura- 
tions of these later shocks are all given and they are all long, 
from which I infer that the Im. 12s. above may be too long. — 
E. S. H.] (Ms. kindly communicated by U. S. Geological Survey.) 

1892. Point Loma Llffhthonae (San Dlevo)t lltl4 p. nt. (standard 
time). 

Lasting one minute; 11.24 p. m., lasting 15 seconds; 11.35 p. m. 
(light); 11.40 p. m. (light). No damage done. 

Messages from Lower California are to the effect that Ensenada, 
Alamo, and San Quentin experienced the severest shocks within 
the memory of the oldest inhabitants. At Ensenada buildings 
swayed to and fro, and the people rushed into the streets, fright- 
ened by the unusual noises which followed the seismic distur- 
bance. At San Quentin the Peninsular Hallway roiitdbed sus- 
tained considerable damage. The shocks there were simply un- 
paralleled in duration, lasting fully seventy seconds (VH?, Vin?). 



1 

/ 



X 



X 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIFIO COAST 169 

iS8S. Wehmmry 88; Palm Springs | lilt. 26m. p. m. 

It lasted over one minute and the direction of the vibration was 
southeast to northwest. It was followed by at least eight other 
shocks, all exceptionally severe. The last shock viras at 4.30 a. m. 

IS&a. February 88 f ladlof lib. 18m. p. m. 

A severe earthquake. There were five lighter shocks between that 
time and 11.45 o'clock, and there was one at 12.30 and one at 
4.49 a. m. Feb. 24. No damage was done (Vn). 

1889. February 88; Beaiuaoati lib. aOm. p. m. 

A severe earthquake. The vibrations were from east to west and 
lasted several seconds. 

1882. February 88 1 Pomonaf lib. 16m. p. m. 

Buildings shook and rocked for a few seconds, but no damage was 
done; not even a glass broken. The vibration was north and 
south (V?, VI??). 

1888. February 88 1 Santa Anaj lib. 16m. p. m. 

Eight shocks. The heaviest was at 11.15. The walls of the water- 
works building were cracked and plastering in several houses was 
broken. Visitors in all the hotels left their rooms and clocks 
stopped (VII). 

1883. February 88 1 8au Bernardino. 

At llh. 15m. a shock, lasting about one minute and a quarter. The 
vibrations were northeast and southwest. No damage was done, 
except to break chinaware and stop clocks. The shock was 
heavy and was followed by light temblors all night (VI). 

1888. February 88 1 Ontario. 

Two sharp shocks at 11.15. The course of the wave seemed to be 
northeast to southwest. There was no damage. 

1888. February 88; Visalia. 

A light shock was felt here at 11.40 o'clock p. m. 

1888. February 28 1 Yuma. 

Two shocks at 11 o'clock p. m. The movement ^as from east to 
west. No damage was done. 

1888. February 84; Ban Dievo. 

y Two more shocks were felt In this city at 2 o'clock this morning, 



but neither was as bad as those of the preceding night, and no 
damage was done. They were severe enough to cause a hasty 
exodus of lodgers from hotels in their night clothes (VII). 
At Campo the rumbling and shocks continued last night, but no 
damage was done. Up to this evening there have been about 
/\ eighty distinct shocks in that locality since Tuesday night. Feb- 
ruary 24, Carson City, 7 a. m. 



170 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC C0A8T 

1892. February 84; Ontario. 

There were two more, but light shocks, one at 9.30 p. m. and the 
other at 2 o'clock a. m. The first occurred while a large audi- 
ence was listening to George W. Cable at Workman Hall. 



,.^» / 1882. Febrnmry 24| Santa 

/ Two light shocks were felt here about 2 o'clock a. m. 

1882. Mareb f 21b. 80m. 

Ealama, Washington. — P. 

1882. Mareb 1| 8 p. m. 

San Bernardino. — Cal. 8, N, Service Bulletin. 

1882. Mareb 18 1 Fetalnma. 

This morning at 5.25 o'clock a distinct shock of earthquake. The 
vibration was from east to west. 




X 



1888. Hareb 18| Napa. 

This morning at 8.35 o'clock a rather severe shock. The vibrations 
were from north to south, continuing about twelve seconds. 



X 



1882. Harob 18 1 Napa. 

This morning at 8.23 came a slight shock of eight seconds' duration. 

1882. Mareb 26 1 Carson City. 

Slight shock recorded between 7 a. m. and 6 p. m. Slight tremors 
all day.— O. W. F. 



^882. Marob 28 1 Drytoi 

A slight shock of earthquake was felt here at 7.30 o'clock this 
N^ morning. It was accompanied by a rumbling sound. The vibra- 
tions from west to east. 

1882. April 8t Monnt Hamilton. 

Prof. Holden reports being waked by a shock. Intensity = B. F. 
IV. " 2.45.0 ± 4s. P. S. T. southeast and northwest. Duration, 
Is. to 2s. at least. Wakened. Intensity = ni-IV. In second stor}' 
of brick house." 

1882. April 17 1 Taeoma, "Wasblnvton. 

Two shocks were felt at 2.55 o'clock this afternoon. The second 
was scarcely perceptible. Buildings trembled. The vibratious 
were from south to north. There was a severe shock at Olympia 
at 2.39 o'clock this afternoon which lasted seven seconds. Inten- 
sity n at Tacoma and at Castle Bock. — ^P. 

1882. April 17| Fortland, Oregon. 

At 2.50 o'clock this afternoon two heavy shocks. They lasted about 
ten seconds each and the vibrations were from west to east. 
Many persons became frightened and rushed into the street when 
the buildings began to tremble. No damage. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 171 



18dS. April 17} Olymplai 9i46 p. m. 

Seyere. 



1882. April 17| Portland! 2i66 p. 

The observer of U. S. Weather Bureau reports one light shock. 

1892. April 19. 

On the morning of this day in the central portion of the State 
occurred the heaviest earthquake of the year, and in the locali- 
ties where it was most severe it was doubtless the worst ever 
experienced, rivaling that of 1868 in severity, and probably exceed- 
ing it in point of property destruction. Three important towns, 
viz., Vacaville, Winters and Dixon, suffered severely and much 
damage was done in the vicinity. The second day following 
brought another severe shock which wrecked many buildings 
already weakened. It is, perhaps, worthy of remark that these 
disturbances did not follow the mountain contour of the country, 
but seemed to have their greatest range east and west or nearly 
at right angles to the direction of the mountain ranges; crossing 
the Sierras, they were distinctly felt in Nevada. The loss of 
property was great. — C. D. P. It is my opinion that this shock 
was quite as severe as the San Francisco shock of 1868. — ^E. S. H. 

1892. April 19| Movitt Hamilton. 

" Ix>ng period gentle shock — waked sleepers — swung hanging lamps 
— K. F. = IV to V. 2.49Vi P. S. T." (Prof. Holden.) The record 
on the duplex seismograph shows the greatest motion to have 
been east and west, amounting to 18.5 mm.; the displacement 
north and south amounting to 8 mm. 

1882. April 19| San Frandacof 21&. SOm. a. m. 

Sharp undulating shock S. W. and N. E. Duration 40 seconds. — 
T. T. The shock was the heaviest experienced since the historic 
one in 1868. 

The greatest result that the shake occasioned in San Francisco was 
the downfall of the front wall of the Old Academy of Sciences 
building on the comer of Dupont and California streets. Work- 
men were engaged in tearing it down. The roof and side walls 
had been cut away, and to guard against a fall the wall was 
braced with long timbers. When the quake came the timbers 
were shaken off and down came several tons of brick and mortar. 

The earthquake began with a thump that seemed to knock the earth 
to the west, then for about three seconds the world seemed to be 
sliding convulsively back into place. But before it came to rest 
there was another thump, followed by a lighter one. Alto- 
gether it took thirteen minutes for the earth to get over its flut- 
tering. Prof. Davidson happened to be in his observatory. He 
did not feel the earthquake, as he was just rising from his chair. 
He knew it was a-quaking, however, by the excitement in the 
bubbles of the levels. The time was 2.51.41 this morning. The 



172 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIO COAST 



movement in minute waves was 0.0 second of arc, and the period 
of the pulsations about three seconds of time and not regular, at 
times almost subsiding and then starting out afresh. The move- 
ment was apparently from the south. This continued for four or 
five minutes, and in six minutes the amplitude of the waves was 




Fio. 1. — Tracing of the seismograph in San Francisco. (Magnified.) 

from 0.2 or 0.3 second of arc, and the time of pulsation slower. 
The pulsation was faintly exhibited for nine minutes and in thir- 
teen minutes it had ceased. At the close the north ends of the 
two levels were 0.5 second of arc higher than when first read. 
Prof. Davidson says that this was one of those earthquakes that 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAGIFIO OOAST 



173 



roars, and was the second of that kind that he had observed. Just 

before the shaking there was a noise as of heavy wagons being 

hauled over hard ground a long way off. 
A distinct shock (2.40 a. m.) W. N. W. and E. S. E. was registered 

at Berkeley. — ^Professor Soul& 
Mr. Burckhalter, of Chabot Observatory, Oakland, was ready for it, 

and his seismograph reduced the earth's movements to black and 

white. When it registered on this side the curves were replaced 

by erratic angles. 




Fio. 2. — TraciDg of the seismograph at the Chabot Observatory, Oakland. 

(Magnified.) 



The ferry depot (foot of Market Street) rocked and creaked, and 
those inside of it started to run for the door. Every clock in the 
building, including the tower clock, stopped, and all showed the 
same time, viz., 2.53 o'clock (VI?, YII?). On board the ships a 
slight trembling was felt that lasted about ten or twelve seconds. 
The Dhock was felt only by those who happened to be on deck. 

The ferry to^er pendulum is between 50 and 60 pounds weight 



174 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

and is suspended by a steel spring 6 or 8 inches long and three- 
fourths of an inch wide, similar in appearance to a piece of scrap 
iron. The shock set the pendulum to wriggling in an irregular 
manner from side to side and kept it up so long that the strong 
steel was warped in all sorts of shapes and finally broken. 

The guests in the New Western hotel poured out into Kearney 
Street when the shake took place (Vn?). 

The guests in the Palace Hotel were somewhat frightened, a num- 
ber of them rushing into the corridors to ascertain the cause of 
the vibrations. The only damage sustained was the breaking of 
a few statuettes and some glass, which were thrown to the 
floor (VI?). 

The shock was very much more severe in the region 50 or 75 miles 
north of the city, and the residents there had much curiosity to 
know how great it had been in San Francisco. 

1892. April 19. 

The Chronicle of April 20: The vibration was felt from Qilroy and 
Fresno on the south to Oroville and Chico on the north, and from 
Santa Rosa on the west entirely across the State and into Nevada; 
the area within which damage was done was very small. This 
district includes portions of Solano and Yolo counties, and com- 
prises a section some 20 miles wide by about 30 in length. Brick 
buildings in Vacaville, Winters, Dixon, Woodland, Esparto, Capay, 
and Fairfield were wrecked to a greater or less extent, but the 
entire damage, by the most liberal estimate, is so small that it is 
apparent that the injured structures were of a class easily dam- 

• aged, and no great outlay for repairs or complete reconstruction 
will be involved. In a few cases injuries to persons are reported, 
but in no instance were there any seriously hurt, nor was there 
any loss of life. 

1802. April 19f Vacaville. 

An earthquake occurred here at 2.50 o'clock this morning. The 
damage in town was very great, there being few, if any, of the 
hundreds of residences that do not show evidencefiT of the tre- 
mendous power exerted. Chimneys were razed entirely or twisted 
badly. Dishes, tinware, crockery, and everything of a movable 
nature went down with a crash that was truly appalling. This 
statement will as well apply to the whole township as to the 
town (Vin). 

This town presents a strange appearance to-night. There is appar- 
ently but one street in it, namely. Main Street, and the south 
side is nothing more nor less than a row of wrecked brick struc- 
tures, and the street is filled with pieces of brick and lumber, 
and the cracked edifices are propped up with huge beams to pre- 
vent them from falling into the roadway. The north side of the 
street was composed in the main of wooden buildings, and ex- 
cept in a few instances the loss on that side is confined to chim- 



BABTHQUAKB8 ON THB PACIFIC COAST 175 

nejB, which went by the run when the memorable temblor 
struck the town. 

The worst cases of damage off Main Street were sustained by W. J. 
Dobbins, who lived in a two-story brick building about 300 yards 
north from Vacaville, and by Qarland Qates, who lived in a sim- 
ilar structure 3 miles west of the city. Both of the houses were 
totally wrecked and several persons who were sleeping in them 
at the time were injured. 

On entering the tov^n from the direction of the railroad depot the 
first demolished building met with on the south or brick side of 
Main Street is H. Chittenden's grocery store. It is a complete 
wreck. Next to it is F. H. Hacke*s hardware shop, split and rent 
asunder, and held together only by wooden props leaning in from 
the street. The bank of Vacaville, a one-story brick structure, 
did not suffer as extensively as its neighbors. The Odd Fellows' 
building, which stands next, was badly wrecked; the upper story 
is thoroughly destroyed, and those who had offices there are 
heavy losers. 

Going west, the one-story brick buildings which adjoined one an- 
other were all more or less damaged. Mr. Plates's building at 
the . western extremity of Main Street is in a deplorable condi- 
tion. It is a one-story brick building. The walls, both front and 
rear, were knocked out, and the building may be said to be a 
total wreck. The buildings which suffered most are the Bruns- 
wick hotel and the Presbyterian Church. They are wooden struc- 
tures and are pretty badly damaged. 

The total loss in and around Vacaville is variously estimated at 
from $70,000 to $150,000. There is not a brick building on the 
south side of the street which was not more or less wrecked, 
and some of them are a total loss. The shock struck the town at 
just 2.49 o'clock, and lasted fully three-quarters of a minute. The 
vibrations were at first from southwest to northeast and then 
changed suddenly to north and south. Fronts of buildings tum- 
bled into the street, chimneys were twisted and torn as if struck 
by a Kansas cyclone, and the entire population rushed into the 
streets. That there were no fatalities is little short of miracu- 
lous, though there were a number of very narrow escapes. 

Vacaville seems to have been headquarters for the quake. Several 
have heretofore been felt here, but none ever approached this in 
severity. The aggregate loss in the town and township will foot 
up fully $100,000. 

Probably the first person in Vacaville to notice the approach of 
the earthquake was S. N. Bettis, the night watchman of the town. 
He reports that the morning was clear and starlit and that a cold 
breeze was bloviring. He was walking down Main Street, from 
west to east, when his attention was attracted by a rumbling 
sound which came from the hills west of the town. The noise 



176 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAGIFIO COAfiT 



resembled distant thunder or the roaring of water which had 
suddenly been let loose by the bursting of huge dam gates. In 
a few seconds the noise increased to a roar and the ground be- 
neath his feet seemed to heave up. 

<< The motion at flrst was west to east," said he, *' and then several 
violent shocks passed from north to south. I felt as if I was 
on the deck of a vessel during a heavy storm, and I put my hands 
to the ground to prevent myself from falling on my face. After 
that brick walls and chimneys began to fall all around and the 
noise for a minute or so was deafening. Occasionally I could hear 
the shrieks of women above the din, and soon people began to 
rush into the streets in their night clothes." 

The ground was fissured in many places. The public schoolhouse 
and the college, a couple of two-story brick buildings near the 

m 

railroad depot, have also been badly racked. It is thought that 
the upper story of the school building will have to come down. 



flMAOiaON 




Fio. 8. — Map of Yolo and Solano counties showing the area where the earthqnake 

was most severe. 

1802. April 19 1 Dixon. 

At 2.45 o'clock this morning people were awakened by an ominous 
rumbling, followed almost immediately by a heavy shock and the 
twisting and groaning of timbers. 

Scarcely had the first vibration ceased before a second of shorter 
duration began. Toppled walls and crushed roofs presented 



EABTHQUASEB ON THE PAOIFIO COABT 



177 



tbemselveB on ereiy stde, and the sidewalks and etreets were 
strewed with wreckage and debris. To add to, the terror, Are 
broke out in eeveral places simultaneously in the midst al the 
ruins. The dama^ will amount to many thousands of dollars. 
If the earthquake had occurred earlier or lat«r there would haTe 
been numerous fires from overturned oil lamps, etc. 

Many of the finest residences in town are wrecked and not more 
than five chimneys in the town are standing. The total loss on 
residences is S6,000. In the country the loss was very serious; 
hardly a bouse rests on its foundation and some of them are not 
habitable. The losses to farmers will aggregate $10,000. Every 
monument In the local cemetery was either broken or badly 
twisted and thrown from position. 

There were several miraculous escapes from death. 




Pio. 4. — Map of Napa, Tolo, Solaao and Sacrameato 



lartliqnake < 



The Bchoolhouses are badly wrecked; one, costing $8,000, is twisted 
oR the foundation, and the roof has caved in. The contractors 
have been malcing estimates all the afternoon, and it is safe to 
say that it will cost $75,000 to make repairs— $50,000 in town and 
$35,000 in the vicinity. The stoppage of clocks confirms the gen- 
eral impression that the main shock occurred at 2.50 a. m. The 
facts seem to show that the wave traveled much nearer the sur- 
face than in the earthquake of 1BG8, or even in the Napa shock 
of last year. Every article of glass was turned upside down and 
12 



178 EARTHQUAKBB ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

nothing was broken; while at a saloon not half a block away the 
proprietor did not even know that an earthquake happened till 
the ringing of the fire bell summoned him to duty — not an article 
of glass in his place was broken or disturbed. 

1802^ April 19 1 TVlntersi ai&. 60m. a. m. 

Every brick and stone building in the town is damaged more or 
less, and some of them are total wrecks. 

The fine new schoolhouse, just completed, lost its chimneys; the 
plaster is cracked, and the brick foundation is badly shattered. 
It is estimated that the loss to the town will be from $50,000 to 
$60,000. 

The large new Devilbiss hotel suffered considerably, much of the 
brick front caving into the street. 

Sixty feet of the fire wall of the new Gradwick building on Main 
Street toppled westward upon the frame roof of Judy Brothers' 
stable, and crashing through completely buried six horses in their 
stalls, though singularly not badly hurting them. To-day the 
schoolhouse. Just finished by the contractor, was to have been 
turned over to the trustees. The brick foundation was cracked, 
the chimneys thrown to the ground, and the plaster torn. The 
old schoolhouse is so badly wrecked that no school is being held 
to-day. The loss to the town is estimated at between $70,000 and 
$100,000. At the graveyard tombstones were wrenched around or 
completely shattered. Near the town the bank of Putah Creek, 
ten feet v^ide, caved in, and along the bottom of the creek for a 
great distance rents were made by the shocks. West of here 
about three miles, an acre of ground slid into the creek. 

Two miles southeast of Winters, J. R. Wolfskill's stone house was 
totally wrecked. In Pleasanton valley a lamp in J. N. Thisaell's 
house was thrown down. It exploded and a fire followed. The 
house was wholly consumed. In the residence of J. A. Devilbiss 
the wall was separated from the floor so that a man might put 
his leg down the aperture. Up the Berryessa road the passage 
is blocked by immense bowlders, some weighing several tona» 
which were thrown down the hillsides into the road. It is near 
this point where the rents in the road were noticed. William 
Barker's adobe house across the creek was so shaken that it is 
dangerous to enter it, and other houses were wrenched from their 
foundations. From all around come reports of wells filling up 
with caving earth and narrow escapes from awful fires and death 
by the falling of burning lamps in sick rooms. What is most 
mystifying in the face of all the damage done is that no lives mrere 
lost and very little injury to persons is reported. The bank 
building on Main Street was wrecked. There is not a whole 
window left in any house on that street. In the office of the 
Express forms were pied, type emptied from the cases, and the 
old Washingfton press, weighing over a ton, knocked over. A hig 
Job press suffered similarly (\^II). 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



179 



On Putsh Creek, half a mile west of Winters, a phev 
witnessed by a young' man named Fred Willia, who was riding 
past at the time of the big shake. There seemed to be an explo- 
sion, and the water was thrown from the creek to a distance of 
20 feet on either bank. Then followed a hissing' souad as of 
gas escaping. At daylight leTeral flsaures were found in the bed 
of the creek and in the roadway and fields adjoining. On each 
Bide of the creek where the eiplosion took place the banks caved 
in, the landslides being TS feet in length and 12 feet deep. 




Fia. e.— Tbe region affected by the shocbB of April 19, 18»2. 



Such as were enabled to see the aky through split roofs after the 
big abock passed state that the heavens were livid with fire, and 
when they reached the atreet there seemed to be a haze 'in the 
atmosphere, while odors of sulphur were distinctly discernible. 
The people of Winters are extremely positive on these points. 



180 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIPIO COAST 

1892. April 19| TVoodlmnd. 

A deep rumbling noise at 2.45 a. m. to-day was the forerunner of 
the most severe shock of earthquake ever experienced in this 
portion of the State. The shock was a series of rapidly inter- 
mittent vibrations which lasted for thirty seconds, at first almost 
north and south and changing frequently from east to west, pro- 
ducing the impression of circular motion. Fortunately the casu- 
alties in this immediate vicinity are not great, but the public 
never experienced a worse fright. 

Evidences of the force of the shock are numerous everywhere. 
Ghinmeys are cracked and occasionally toppled over, brick walls are 
cracked and fire walls suffer through loss of brick. The destruc- 
tion of glass in stores and private residences is very large. The 
Byrnes Hotel loses a part of its ceiling; the Capital Hotel, a chim- 
ney; Masonic Hall suffers in chimneys and plaster; Mezgar's 
bakery furnishes broken glass and cracked walls. The grammar 
school building suffers a broken fire wall and cornice. So far 
there is no evidence of any damage to the waterworks. In the 
Croft Hotel a number of the rooms are almost denuded of plaster, 
and most of the business blocks are slightly damaged. One of 
the Capital Hotel chimneys is out of plumb. The walls of botli 
the jail and court room are cracked. The plastering has fallen off 
in Superintendent's Banks's office. The wall at the southwest cor^ 
ner of the Bank of Woodland is cracked. At the Byrnes Hotel the 
walls were cracked and the plaster fell to tne fioor in several 
rooms. Many of the guests were so badly frightened that they 
ran downstairs vdthout stopping to dress (VII?, Vm??). 

1802. AprU 19| GraM Valley. 

This morning a little before 3 o'clock two shocks of earthquake 
^ woke the people and rattled things. The direction was north to 
south. No damage was done (VI). 

1898. April 19 1 Avbvm. 

There was an earthquake this morning about 2A6. There were two 
distinct shocks, about ten seconds apart. The course was nortli- 
erly. No damage is reported. 

1892. April 19; Cliico. 

A heavy shock of earthquake was experienced in this city at 2.45 
this morning, followed immediately by two others. They seemed 
x^ / to pass northwest to southeast. Many clocks in the city were 
stopped. In some places articles sitting near the edges of shelves 
were knocked off. No damage was done to the windows or glass- 
ware (V). 

1892. Apr A 19 f Stoekton. 

A severe shock of earthquake was felt here at 2.50 o'clock this morn- 
ing. No damage is reported, but the fright was great (V? VI?). 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAGIFIO 0OA8T 181 

; 1802. April 19f IfteolAiui. 

There was a severe earthquake at 2.50 o'clock in the night. The 
direction was doubtful. A loud rumbling noise followed the 
shock. 

1898. AprU 19| Mereed. 

Two distinct shocks. The first occurred at 2.47, stopping the clock 
at El Capitan Hotel. The second shock was three minutes after- 
ward starting the clock again. No damage was done (YI). 

1892. AprU 19| Marysville. 

The duration of the shock was from seven to nine seconds. The 
vibrations were north of northwest and south of southeast. It 
was the severest and longest of any ever experienced in this 
vicinity, but did no damage. Buildings were swayed, bells .rung, 
and clocks stopped. 

1892. April 19 f Ife-radaf 21i. 60m. a. m. 

Two sharp shocks. The first was of brief duration, but the second, 
which immediately followed, lasted eight or ten seconds, awak- 
ening the soundest sleepers and creating vddespread alarm among 
timid people. The vibrations extended from northeast to south- 
west (VI). 

1892. April 19 1 Folsom. 

The prisoners in the jail were greatly alarmed at the earthquake 
shocks. No material damage resulted. 

1892. April 19f Aiitlocli| 21i. 40iii. a. m. 

A severe earthquake shock. The vibrations were from west to east 
and of about forty seconds duration. No damage to property. 

1892. April 19 1 Benlelai Zh. 40m. a. m. 

The heaviest shock of earthquake felt in this city since 1868. The 
vibrations lasted for several seconds and were north and south. 
The whole town was aroused. Little or no damage is reported 
here beyond the cracking of a few chimneys and some plaster- 
ing (vn?). 

1892. April 19f DaTls^lUe. 

The hardest shock of earthquake ever experienced here was felt 
this morning, but the damage is very slight. One or two chim- 
neys were overthrown and brick houses cracked, but not so as 
to be dangerous. Perhaps $200 vidll cover all damage. 

1692. April 19| Blmlra. 

The most severe shock of earthquake ever experienced here occurred 
this morning at 2.50 o'clock, destroying almost every chimney 
in the town, and badly v^ecking the brick store of J. Allison A 
Co. The damage is small, as the buildings are all frame (Vm). 



182 EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



1892. AprU 19f Coli 

\ At S.50 o'clock one of the heaviest shocks of earthquake ever felt 

at Mills station occurred, lasting about twenty seconds. The 
vibrations were from north to south. 
There were several severe shocks. Opinion is divided as to the 
direction. Clocks were stopped and there was a general shaking 
up of crockery (VI). 



/ 



1892. April 19| "WlfteAtlaiid. 

The vibrations appeared to be west to east, and were so pro- 
nounced as to awake the soundest sleeper (VI). 



1892. April 19| Orlaad. 

Two distinct shocks were felt here about 2.40 a. m. The vibrations 
^ were apparently north and south. 



K 



X 




1892. AprU 19| BiMS. 

Three heavy shocks occurred here this morning at 3 o'clock. The 
vibrations were northeast and southwest. Clocks were stopped 
and plastering cracked (VI). 

1892. April 19| Petalnma. 

About 2.55 o'clock one of the heaviest and longest earthquake 
shocks experienced here for some time. The vibration was frqm 
east to west, and the duration three to four seconds. 

1892. April 19 1 Saisnift. 

The severest earthquake ever experienced in this vicinity occurred 
at 2.52 this morning. The shock, although very severe in Suisun, 
was not nearly as hard as it was a few miles north and east of 
town. The principal damage here was to the new Masonic Hall, 
where the plastering is very badly tumbled down and crackeil 
(VU). 

The Methodist Church in Fairfield is so seriously damaged that it 
will have to be taken down. The bell tower is all down, and the 
walls of the building so badly cracked and broken as to render 
it unsafe. The court-house and jail were also slightly injured. 

There were also a large number of brick chimneys in Fairfield 
leveled to the tops of the houses (VII?, VIII?). 

The vibrations appeared to be from the northwest to southeast and 
lasted fully one minute. The damage in this town and imme- 
diate vicinity, with the exception of the church in Fairfield, will 
not exceed $500. 



1892. April 19 1 Saeramento. 

Some attempts have been made to make a sensation of the earth- 
quake shock here this morning. The truth is the only damag^e 
done was the shaking down of one old chimney and the breaking' 
of a chandelier pipe which had rusted at the ceiling joint. Even 



EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 183 

pyramids of wine glasses in the show windows of the crockery 
stores were not disturbed. In a few old buildings a little plas- 
tering was loosened. The shock was liyely enough and many 
persons were frightened, but that was all (VI). 

1892. April 19 1 Fresno. 

A shock of earthquake was felt this morning at 2.45 o'clock. No 
damage was done, the shock being slight, and only sufficient to 
rattle dishes and disturb those who do not sleep soundly. Not 
one person in ten felt the shock (IV?) 

1893. April 19| Reno, Nevada. 

A slight earthquake shock occurred here this morning at 2.50 
,\ o'clock. The vibrations were from north to south. 

1892. April 19| Virginia, Nevada. 

The earthquake was felt here. The vibration was from east to 
west, but no damage is reported. 

1892. April 19| Carson City, Nevada. 

Heported by Prof. C. W. Friend as occurring at 2.50.40 a. m., P. 
S. T. Duration, 30 seconds. The tracing shows a total displace- 
ment of the pointer in a northeast and southwest direction of 
• 49 mm., and a displacement in a northwest and southeast direc- 
tion of 29 mm. (VI); stopped two clocks in the observatory. Gen- 
tle, large movement. 

1892. April 19| Alameda. 

Tracing made by duplex seismograph shows a total displacement 
in a northeast and southwest direction of 30 mm. and in a north- 
west and southeast direction of 26 mm. Time, 2.49 a. m. — C. D. 
Perrine. 

1892. April 19| Smitli Creek, at tlie foot of Monnt Hamilton. 

Time noted by Mr. King, 2.50 ± % minute p. m. Prof. Holden re- 
ports King's watch right at 10 a. m. 

1892. AprU 19f TVlllowf. 

A severe shock at 2.51 o'clock, lasting fifteen seconds. Scores of 
people are practically homeless here. Reports received within a 
. ^ radius of 5 miles around place the amount of damage up to 

$200,000, at a moderate estimate. 

1892. April 19f San Jos^. 

An earthquake of considerable length occurred about ten minutes 
to 3 o'clock this morning, but it was not severe enough to cause 
any damage in this city. Its duration was about forty seconds 
and the vibrations were from east to west. It was not felt by 
everybody. It started with a jerk and then settled into a trem- 



184 EABTHQUAKSa ON THB PAOIFIO 00A8T 

bling with an eyenness that seems remarkable and was the cause 
of much comment. As one person expressed it, " It seemed as if 
a cradle was rocking.** 

1802. April 10| Bsparto. 

The severest earthquake that was ever experienced in this locality 

took place at 2.50 a. m. to-day. Considerable damage was done, 

though fortunately no one was injured. The greatest damage 

. was done to the Barnes Hotel. A section of the east wall fell 

down and a great deal of plastering fell in the rooms. Three 

chimneys were knocked down, one of them crashing through the 

roo^ 

It will take $1,500 to cover the damage to the hotel. The fire walls 

\ of Levy and Schwab's building were displaced 5 inches. There 

was also loss from damaged goods and broken crockery (Vn?, 

vin??). 

The large grain warehouse at this place was also slightly wrecked 
and the drug store considerably damaged. Other buildings were 
more or less damaged. The earth opened in several places be- 
tween here and Capay. 

« 

1802. April 19| Capay, 

The earthquake gave the town of Capay a lively shake-up. The 
west wall of B. Waldrich's building caved in and the east waA 
fell out. The damage is fully $1,000. The stock of merchandise 
in stores was thrown down from the shelving. The walls of the 
Nash building were cracked and nearly all the chimneys in the 
tov^n were thrown down (Vm). 

1802. April 19| Santa Rosa. 

The earthquake which visited Santa Rosa this morning at 2JiO 
o'clock was the most severe felt since 1868, and many think it 
was worse than that. It lasted over a minute, and the vibrations 
seemed to be of an undulatory nature east to west, and lasted 
three minutes. Windows were broken in many houses and plaster 
was torn from some of the houses. A panic prevailed at hotels, 
guests getting up and running out in their nightgowns. No very 
serious damage was done (VII). 

1882. AprU 19| Martlnes. 

This morning about ten minutes to 3 o'clock one of the severest 
shocks of earthquake ever felt here awoke the slumbering resi- 
dents. The vibrations seemed to be from west to east, although 
some seem to think they vibrated from north to south, and lasted 
about thirty-five seconds. A few cans toppled over in some of 
our stores, several clocks stopped, a few cracks occurred in tne 
court-house plastering, and several chimneys were shattered 
(Vn). 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 185 

1883. April 19f Fairfield. 

The hardest shock of earthquake ever experienced here occurred 
at 2.50 a. xo. The Tibrations were northeast and south- 
west. Windows and glassware were broken and the stoves and 
bookcase in the schoolhouse were overturned. The bell tower 
on the brick Methodist Episcopal Church fell in and the gable 
end on the north side fell out. The church was ruined. The 
courthouse and jail were not much damaged. (VII?). 

1888. April 18| Napa. 

A heavy earthquake shock was experienced here about S.50 this 
morning, followed within half an hour by two lighter shocks. 
The vibrations were east and west, continuing several seconds. 
People very generally were alarmed, but no damage was done. 
The shock was the heaviest felt in several years, excepting that 
of last October. 

1882. AprU 18f Healdsbvrs. 

An earthquake visited this section at 3.10 o'clock this morning. It 
was one of the most severe shocks ever felt in this locality. The 
vibrations seemed to be from south to north. There were three 
distinct shocks, the first being the most severe. The last of 
them seemed to take a rotary motion. The plaster in several 
• stores was badly cracked (Vn?). 

1889. April 19| Baa Rafael. 

The severest earthquake shock experienced here in a number of 
years occurred this morning at 2.50 o'clock. The vibrations were 
from north to south and the shock was perceptible for ^bout fif* 
teen seconds. No serious damage was done here, but in numer- 
ous residences clocks were stopped, crockery thrown from shelves, 
and water pipes wrenched (VI). 

1882. April 18 1 Marciuie. 

The severest earthquake that has been felt in this neighborhood 
for years occurred this morning at about 3 o'clock and lasted for 
nearly half a minute. The vibrations were from north to south. 
No damage has been heard of. 

1882. April 18f Vallejo. 

The earthquake this morning stopped the two standard clocks in 
the Naval Observatory at Mare Island, it being the first time they 
were ever so affected. The heavy mercury pendulum of one of 
the clocks was swung out on the ledge of the case and was 
removed with difficulty. The transmitting clock was not stopped 
(VI). 

1882. April 18| Milton. 

At 2.45 o'clock this morning two heavy shocks were felt here. The 
vibrations were southwest to northeast. Buildings trembled and 
many persons were severely frightened, but no damage was done. 



186 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



\ 



1892. April 19f Plaeerrllle. 

A very distinct shock of earthquake was felt at 2.50 o'clock a. m. 
to-day. The Tibrations were from east to west. 



\ 



1802. April 19| Ulclali. 

No seismic disturbance occurred in this section. 



1892. April 19 1 Btmlta Point lilslitliovsef 2t47 a. m. 

Sharp shock. Mare Island L. H., 2.47 a. m., wakened sleepers (VI); 
duration 30 seconds; rumbling noise followed by a shock W. to 
E. Fort Point L. H., 2h. 51m. 15s., lasting 7 seconds. A "* mod- 
erate ** shock, though it awakened the observer. Many did not 
feel it (V?). Roe Island L. H., Ih. 50m. a. m., railroad time 
/ [should be 2.50]; a severe shock lasting (by watch) fully 45 sec. 

Brick chimneys thrown down; but L. H. clock not stopped, 
though disturbed (VII?). 

East Brother L. H., 2.50 a. m., lasting 47 seconds, E. to W.; not 
heavy. Lime Point L. H., 2.52 a. m. (clock regulated by noon 
time-ball in S. F.); duration about 8 seconds. A tremor rattling' 
vTindows, etc. (IV?). Oakland Harbor L. H., 2.45 a. m., a strong* 
shock from the W., lasting 5 sec, '* shaking dwelling terrifically, 
etc.** (Vn?). Yerba Buena L. H., 2.50 a. m., lasting 58 seconds. 
A very heavy shock. 

Angel Island L« H. Felt on the island, but not at the L. H. 

1892. April 20f Roe Island lilfflitlio^se, ItSO a. m. 

Slight shock. (The foregoing reports from lighthouse keepers are 
kindly furnished by the U. S. Lighthouse Board, through the U- 
S. Geological Survey.) 

1892. April 20| VaeaTllle. 

When the terrible shock of Tuesday morning occurred every one 
expected a repetition. During last night there were constant 
shocks, beginning about midnight and continuing to 8 this morn- 
ing. The only effect of to-day*s quakes has been to weaken the 
walls already shaken. 

The townspeople of Vacaville have had i^ven more shocks to un- 
nerve them. The heaviest came a little^ before 2 o'clock this 
morning and shook down several walls which were already tot- 
tering, but did no other damage. No one has been hurt since 
the big shock. It is safe to say now that the danger is over, and 
that it will take $100,000 at least to repair damages. 

, 1892. April 20f Petal nma. \\ 

About 10 minutes to 2 o'clock this morning a quick, sharp shock 
of earthquake passed through Petaluma. 

1892. April 20| Napa. ^ . 

Another shock of earthquake was felt here this morning aboat 
2 o'clock. It was much lighter than that of Tuesday morning. 
No damage was done. 



EABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 187 

X isaa. AprU flOi MartlneB. TT 

A Blight shock of earthquake was felt here this morning about 6 
minutes past 2 o'clock, but did no damage. 

ISBS. April 20f Stookton. -^ 

Timid people who were frightened by the sharp earthquake shocks 
/v at 2.50 o'clock Tuesday morning noticed two more gentle temblors 

at 2.05 this morning. No damage was done. 



<. 



ISOa. AprU aO| ^Woodland. -j, 

There was a slight shock at 2.05 o'clock this morning. No damage. 



^ 1809. April 20f Graas Valley. ¥1 

There was a shock here this morning at about 2 o'clock, lasting 
twelve or fourteen seconds. No damage. 

^ 1892. April 20| Nevada City, -y 

Mild shocks were felt here at 10 o'clock last night and at 2.05 
o'clock this morning. 

1898. April 20| Snisvn. y 

There were three slight shocks here to-day, the first occurring 
shortly before 2 o'clock this morning and the last at about 8.30.- 

. 1892. April aOf Blmira. y 

Seven fresh shocks, the heaviest at 2 a. m. and the last at 9 a. m. 
The vibrations were northeast and southwest. Most of the chim- 
neys went down on Tuesday morning and no further damage has 
been done. 

1892. April 20| Fairfleld. 

^ Fairfield had another shake-up to-day, the most noticeable tremor 

being at 2 o'clock this afternoon. No damage. 

V 1892. April 20| Napa. ;, 

Another shock was felt here this morning about 2 o'clock. It was 
much lighter than Tuesday morning's. No damage. 

1892. April 20; Sacramento. 

Mild shocks were felt here at 10 o'clock last night and at 2.05 
o'clock this morning. 

1892. April 20| 'Wtntera. 

Three small shocks. The hardest was at 2.05 o'clock; the second 
came a little before 4.30 o'clock and the third at 8.40 a. m. 

At Winters there have been developed a number of fissures in the 
earth, water has been ejected, gas has escaped, and' the bed of 
the creek has been filled up for a distance of over 70 yards. 
Many of the wells have been filled up by the collapse of the 
walls. 



< 



yi 



188 BABTHQTTAKBS ON THB PACIFIC COAST 

1898. April aO| Dixon. 

This town has had three more shocks since the big one of yester- 
day, but the people are regaining confidence. Most of the brick 
buildings that were damaged by the first shock will have to come 
down. 

The shock which came at 2 a. m. was heavy, and it was followed 
by another of a milder sort at 4 o'clock. At 8.30 o'clock came a 
third, which was felt lightly all along the line to Benicia. 

1S»2, AprU 21 1 Davisville. 

At 9.43 this morning another seyere shock was felt at this place, 
the Yibrations running from southeast to northwest. It was of 
brief duration, lasting no more than five seconds, yet in severity 
it seemed to exceed that of the morning of the 19th. The addi- 
tional damage is scarcely noticeable. In a drug store several 
bottles were thrown from the shelves and the glass was crushed 
in the front. The shocks, fortunately, passed quickly and with- 
out the g3rratory motion mentioned in that of the 19th, and to 
these circumstances we are indebted for oui slight loss. Fami- 
lies living in brick buildings are looking for other and less dan- 
gerous quarters. Many brick chinmeys will have to be torn 
down and rebuilt. 

1892. April 21 1 TVintera. ) ' 

Another slight shock of earthquake was felt here at 3.05 o'clock 
this morning. No damage resulted. 

Another shock of earthquake occurred here at 9.40 o'clock, throw- 
ing down the Masonic Hall, Cradwick's building, Bertholet's two- 
story stone building, Humphrey Bros.' one-story stone building, 
and generally demolishing goods, fixtures, etc. One man was 
badly hurt by a falling wall, and Miss Clara Jessen was hurt. 
Others were more or less injured. Business is all suspended. 
Main Street is a scene of desolation. A fire broke out but was 
extinguished. 

J. Devilbiss's house, 1 mile west of here, is a total wreck; also Mr. 
Baker's adobe and J. R. Wolfskin's stone dwellings. 

1892. April 21 f TVoodlaiftd. ; 

The shake at 9.40 a. m. continued for thirty seconds. The vibra- 
tions were from east to west. The actual damage was not great, 
but many buildings were wrenched and weakened. Bymes's 
Hotel is seriously damaged, the fresco broken, and the walls 
cracked. Nobody was injured in town. The chimneys on the 
top of the court-house were rendered unsafe and have been taken 
down. 

The walls of the county jail were badly cracked. The upper story 
of the Thomas building was badly cracked and the city prison 
has been rendered unsafe. The Exchange and Graft hotels were 



EABTHQITAKES ON THE PAOIPIO 00A8T 189 

both badly damaged. On Main Street the two-story brick school 
building was cracked. Experts have examined the bnilding and 
report it unsafe. Two large plate-glass windows in the Medal 
bakery were broken. All the stores sustained some loss from the 
breakage of bottled goods, china and glassware. 
Many chimneys were twisted and overturned. The general loss is 
estimated at $5,000. The wildest excitement prevailed at the 
time of the shock. 



1892. AprU Sl| Hevada City. 

At 0.44 o'clock this morning a series of earthquakes, lasting forty- 
five seconds, were felt here. The waves were from 8. to N. The 
first four were so sharp as to attract the attention of persons 
^ afoot and then gradually diminished in force. Doors and win- 

dows rattled and some clocks stopped (VI). No damage was done 
in this section. There was another shaking up shortly after 
o'clock last night. 

1809. April 21| Marysville. 

^ This morning a slight shock at 9.43 o'clock. The vibrations were 
north and south. One of the public-school buildings was slightly 
damaged — ^that is all. 
To-night at 7.15 o'clock another shock. 



X 



1898. April 21| Qrauis Valley. 

At 9.35 o'clock this morning quite a heavy shock occurred. It sent 
everybody into the streets. Several brick buildings in the town 
are cracked (VII?). 

A very sharp shock occurred at 7.25 this evening. 



1882. April 21| PliMserville. 

^ A sharp shock, followed by slight tremors, was felt here at 9.43 
o'clock this forenoon. The course was apparently from west to 
east. No damage to property. 

1882. April 21 1 Chioo. 

Another heavy earthquake was felt here this morning at 9.47, last- 

^ ing thirty seconds. The vibrations were north to south. Lamps 

in buildings all over the city were set swinging. The ceilings 

in some places cracked and clocks stopped (VI). No damage is 

reported. 

1882. April 81 1 Bi«ffs. 

.^ A very heavy shock occurred here this morning at 9.45. The vibra- 
tions were north and south, lasting about eight seconds. Eight 
distinct vibrations were felt. Clocks stopped and plaster fell 
(Vn?). No serious damage is rex>orted. 



190 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1882. April 21 1 San Franoisoo. 

Quite a sharp shock was felt in this city this morning a few minutes 
before 10 o'clock. The temblor appears to have extended over a 
good portion of the central and northern part of the State, 
though, happily, in most sections no damage was done. In 
Solano and Yolo counties, however, the destruction was consid- 
erable. The town of Winters appears to have suffered most. 
The earthquake felt in this city to-day extended over a wide area. 
The disturbance was felt as far east as Beno, as far north as St. 
Helena, and as far south as Fresno. According to reports, it 
' was of longer duration in the interior than in this city, where 

the period of vibration was not less than three nor more than six 
seconds. 

Upon the question of duration there is the testimony of two ex- 
perts with chronometers at their elbows. Mr. F. W. Edmonds, 
who is employed in the Geodetic Survey Office, noted the time 
as follows: 

h. III. «. 

Beginning 9 42 27.4 

Ending 9 42 30.2 

He noted further that the direction of the vibrations was from 
east to west. 
Thom€» Tennant, the well-known nautical instrument maker, waa 
standing with his face to a chronometer. His record is as follows: 

h. m. • 

Beginning 9 42 30 

Ending 9 42 36 

Vibrations east and west. Boiling shock. — ^T. T. 

Those in the upper stories of buildings were the most startled, and 
the effect upon the majority was to make them hasten to their 
doors, reaching there, however, only in time to appreciate that 
the critical moment had passed and they were safe. The average 
clock is very sensitive to jars of any kind, and the earthquake 
stopped the swing of many a pendulum (V). But no serioua 
damage is reported from any part of the city. 

" A light shock was felt in this city at 7.14 p. m. Duration 2 sec** 
— T. T. 

1602. April 21; Vacaville. 

Another earthquake was felt this morning, not so severe as those 
of the preceding days. Some shaky walls were demolished and 
a number of ceilings cracked, but no serious damage is yet 
reported. Slight shocks were felt at 6.15 and at 7.23 this evening. 
There was no special damage done, though the people were 
badly frightened. Gtovernor Markham has sent twenty-five tenta. 
Occupation of tents is general. 



/ 



EABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 191 

1892. April 21 1 MArtlnea. 

This morning: at 9.44 o'clock a heavy shock was felt here, fright- 
ening the residents to such an extent that almost every one 
rushed into the street. The vibrations were from northv^est to 
southeast and lasted for thirty-five seconds. Clocks were stopped 
in some parts of the town, the vibrations seeming to be stronger 
in the level than on the slopes. The court-house was cracked in 
one or two places, but not seriously (VII). 

The brick building used by the free library was cracked so badly 
that it is considered unsafe. The teachers in the public schools, 
with the exception of those in one room, became terrified, . and 
told the children to run out of doors, and, in the mad rush, one 
or two were hurt, but not seriously. No other damage has been 
reported. 



1802. April 21| BSlmf] 

><;^ At 9.40 o'clock this morning the^ip was another very severe shock, 

badly frightening the people, but doing no damage. 

1802. AprU 21 1 Benlcia. 

Quite a pronounced shock was felt here this morning at 9.43. It 
was nearly as heavy as that of Tuesday morning. Windows rat- 
tled, and buildings swayed in a sickening manner. No damage 
't was done here, however. There was a slight shock yesterday 
morning about 2 o'clock. 

Another severe shock occurred at 7.13 o'clock this evening. It was, 
if anything, more severe than that of this morning. 

18112. April 21 1 Hapa. 

A heavy shock of earthquake was felt at 9.42 this morning. The 
shock was even heavier than that of Tuesday morning. Several 
brick buildings were cracked, and much plaster fell. Nobody was 
hurt, and no serious damage was done. The vibrations were east 
and west. 

Another shock was felt here at 7.13 o'clock this evening. It was 
heavy, but no damage was done. 

1882. April 21 1 Petalvma. 

At 9.43 o'clock this morning two sharp, quick shocks passed 
^ through Petaluma from east to west. The first was light, but 

was instantly followed by a much heavier shock. Clocks were 
stopped, and some plastering was shaken down (VI?). Almost 
everybody went into the streets. Another slight shock occurred 
to-night at 7.13 o'clock. 






1882. April 21 1 Sonoma. 

A shock was felt here this evening at 7* o'cloclc 



192 BABTHQUAEE8 ON THE PACIPIC 00A8T 

1892. AprU 21$ San Rafael. 

A slight shock was felt here this morning at 9.43 o'clock. The 
^ vibrations were from north to south. There was another slight 

shock this evening at 7.10 o'clock, but no damage is reported. 

1802. April 21 1 Saoramento. 

A shock was felt here at 9.42 o'clock this morning. The State 
f^ capitol building was slightly damaged. In the assembly cham- 

ber the ceiling was badly cracked, and two statues were thrown 
from their pedestals. Personal injuries were few (Vil). 

1802. April 21 1 Stockton. 

yc^ At 9.43 this morning Stockton was visited by another shock, whidi 
rattled the windows, swung chandeliers, and caused people to 
run into the streets. No damage was done (VI). 

1892. April ai| "Woodland. 

At 9.46 this morning a low, ruaibling sound warned the people of 
y/ Woodland of the approach of another earthquake, and in less 

time than it takes to write it the streets were filled with frantic 
people rushing pell mell in search of a place of safety. 

1882. April 21. 

The shock was felt vdth more or less severity at the foUowing- 
X points: Colusa, Willow^, Marysville, Elmira, Benicia, Chico, Biggs, 

/ ' Merced, Livermore, and Haywards. 






/ 



y 



1882. April 21 1 'Winteriu 

A shock this morning has almost completely laid Winters in ruins. 
Buildings that were damaged Tuesday are entire wrecks and the 
streets are strewn v^ith debris of the destroyed structures. Seven 
people were injured (Vni). 

1882. April 21 1 Dixon. 

At 9.45 this morning we had a very hard shock of earthquake. 
Buildings swayed, and the crashing of brick and noise was — (At 
this juncture the operator who was sending this item added: 
" I can't stay here any longer as this building is liable to fall 
any minute.") 

1892. April 21; MaxwelL 

A heavy shock was felt here about 9.45 o'clock this morning, last- 
ing thirty seconds, vibrations east to west. No damage was 
done. 

1892. April 21; Saoramento. 

At 9.45 a. m. a severe shock occurred. The duration was about nine 

seconds. 
Many chimneys came crashing to the ground and glass doors and 

windows were badly shattered (Vm?). 



\ 



EABTHQUAEE8 ON THE PAOIPIO 00A8T 193 

1882. April SI I Saeramento. 

A couple of loose plaster statuettes on the wall of the capitol were 
/ thrown off and a small piece of plastering in one room felL 
\ There was no other damage in this city except that two or three 
old chimneys tipped over. The shock did not exceed three sec- 
onds and was east to west and sharp (YII?). 

1883. April 81 1 SSsparto. 

A terrible shock of earthquake took place here this morning at 
9.40 o'clock, completely leveling the brick portion of the town. 
Every brick chimney was thrown to the ground and wooden build- 
ings were wrenched out of shax>e (VIII). 

An engineer was seriously, if not fatally, injured by a portion of 
the walls of the blacksmith shop falling on him. 

Levy & Schwab's brick store is almost a complete wreck. The en- 
tire fire wall and part of the east and west walls are down. Loss 
to the building and contents, $5,000. The Barnes Hotel suffered 
severely and has a hole 8 by 6 in the east wall. The bricks 
crashed through the roof and floor of the balcony and the cement 
walk was torn out of shape. The loss is $2,500. 

1882. April 81) Svlsvii. 

The shock of earthquake this morning did great damage in this 
vicinity. The brick residence of J. M. Baldwin at Bockville was 
wrecked, while the stone mansion of L. B. Abemathie and those 
on the Barbour and Sproul ranches were rendered unsafe for 
occupancy. The stone church in Suisun valley was also greatly 
\ damaged. The plastering in the court-house was ruined, while 
the walls are considerably cracked. The front wall of the Ma- 
sonic Temple was also damaged. The few brick chimneys in 
Suisun valley which withstood the shock of Monday night were 
all toppled over this morning (yill). 

At 7.15 o'clock this evening another severe shock occurred and 
twenty minutes later another milder quake followed. 

1888. April 81 1 Healdabnrff. 

^ Another severe shock was felt in this city at 9.45 o'clock this morn- 
^ ing. The shock was fully as severe as the one felt on Tuesday 

morning. 

1882. April 81 1 Camon, Nevada. 

Two more earthquake shocks have been felt here to-day, one at 
9.44 a. m. and another at 7.17 p. m. No material damage has 
' been done in Carson City by any of the three shocks.^ 

1882. April 81) Reno, Nevada. 

A slight shock was felt here this morning at 9.45. 

1 9.44 a. m. E. W. (VI) and 7.17 p. m. (IV), E. W.— C. W. F. 
13 



194 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1892. April 21 1 Lodl. 

A shock was felt here this morning about 9.45 o'clock which lasted 
^ for fully fifteen seconds. It was not so hard as Monday night's 

shock. The oscillation was from northeast to southwest. 
'Another earthquake was felt here this evening at 7.17 o'clock, caus- 
ing every one in the brick buildings to leave in short order (VI). 
The one this morning was so heavy it rang the school bell and 
shook buildings so hard that the plastering fell from several 
building^, but none are badly damaged (VII?). 



U 



^ 



1888. April Sl| Aeampo. 

^ Quite a severe shock occurred here at 0.45 o'clock this morning. 

The vibrations were from east to west, lasting about thirty 
seconds. 

1892. AprU ai| Freana. 

V A sharp shock was felt here at 9.46 this morning. It was from 

northwest to southeast. 

1882. April 21 1 Stockton. 

Quite a heavy shock was felt here this morning at 9.45, lasting 
about ten seconds. The vibrations were from north to south. 

Another sharp shock was felt this evening at 7.15 o'clock. Crockery 
rattled in the dwellings and gas fixtures swung in the stores, 
but no damage was done (IV?). 



1882. April 21 1 LAthrop. 

^ This place was visited by three distinct shocks to-day; two in quick 

succession this morning at 9.43 o'clock, and one this evening at 
7.15 o'clock, lasting twenty-five seconds. No damage whatever 
resulted. 



1882. April 21; Reno, Nevada. 

Mr. C. W. Irish reports as follows: " It occurred at 9.44.15 ± 38. 
a. m., one hundred and twentieth meridian time. The direction 
of the movement was apparently from N. 40* W. towards S. 40** 
E.; was gyratory, giving a sharp twist to chairs in which persons 
happened to be seated, and was accompanied by a muffled sound, ^ 
which seemed to come from the summits of the Sierra Nevada 
mountains in the exact direction from which the waves came, 
and preceded them two or three seconds in time. The waves of 
motion were three in number, lasting about five seconds. I^o 
damage was done beyond throv^ng books from shelves and tables 
and the displacement of other articles of household furniture." 
(V). 

1882. April 21 1 Meant Hamilton. 

Prof. Holden reports a shock at 7.14.59 p. m., P. S. T. Intensity = 
ni on the Bossi-Forel scale. (It was stronger than this in San 
Jose.) Registered on duplex seismograph. Started the clock of 
the larger machine at 7.31.23, P. S. T., p. m. 






EAKTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 195 

The duplex seismograph gives a tracing of the shock at 7.14.59 
p. m., with a displacement of the pen in an east and west direc- 
tion of 4.8 mm., and north and south of 2 mm. It also g^ves a 
tracing of the shock occurring at 9.45 a. m., with a displacement 
of the pen in an east and west direction of 6 mm., and in a north 
and south direction of 3.2 mm. 

yc^ 1892. April Sl| Berkeley. ^ 

Principal vibrations N. and S. and E. and W. Duration 10 sec. — 
Professor Soul6. 

1802. April 21 1 Carson City, Nevada. "^ 

Prof. C. W. Friend sends tracings of two shocks occurring at 9.44 
/ a. m. and 7.17 p. m., the former showing a displacement of the 

pointer of 24 mm. in a north and south direction, and of 25 mm. 
in an east and west direction, the latter having a displacement of 
the pointer of 4.5 mm. in a north and south direction, and 6 mm. 
in an east and west direction. 

1882. April 21 1 Mills CoUeare. 

Tracings from this station at 9.46 a. m. give a displacement of the 
pointer in an east and west direction of 23 mm., and in a north 
and south direction of 16.5 nmi. The tracing at 7.15 p. m. shows 
a displacement in a northwest and southeast direction of 14 mm., 
and in a northeast and southwest direction of 7.5 mm. 

1882. April 21 1 Oalclaxid, 

Chabot Observatory. — Mr. Burckhalter reports a shock at 9.44 
a. m., P. 8. T., as timed by Mr. F. H. McConnell, lasting fifteen 
seconds, but doing no damage. The tracing shows a displace- 
ment of the pointer in an east and west direction of 14.5 mm., 
and in a north and south direction of 11 mm. Another shock is 
also reported as occurring at 7.15 p. m. ± 2 m., vnth a duration 
of five or ten seconds, and causing no damage. The total dis- 
placement of the pointer in a southeast and northwe'st direction 
of 8.5 mm., and in a northeast and southwest direction of 3 mm. 

1882. April 21 1 'Winters. 

"The state of affairs in Dixon is bad enough, but in Winters it is 
simply deplorable. All the lights are out for fear of fire; the 
hotels and even the saloons are closed, and at this moment a 
crowd of haggard-looking men and terror-stricken women are 
standing around a car on Railroad Avenue awaiting tlie distribu- 
tion of tents. No one dreams of sleeping in any brick house, and 
few of the frame houses are safe. 

" Two tourist cars came on the same train, having been sent by 
the railroad company from San Francisco for the accommoda- 
tion of the homeless ones who cannot get a tent. The work of 
setting up these tents is going on while I write. A few hand 



« 



196 EABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

lamps seem only to make the darkness yisible, and it is slow 
work at the best. There will be many who are too weary to Eet 
up the tents, and scores of people are stretched on the g^^und 
and even on the doorsteps, too tired to heed the danger of an- 
other shock. 

" To-day's trouble began at 9.40 a. m. The buildings which had 
been badly shaken by the Tuesday temblor collapsed at once, 
and those which had stood the test so long began to yawn, to 
creak, and to open out in a manner terrible to witness. The 
north end of the Masonic Temple fell with a crash. Next, the 
Cradwick building fell in, and the Morrison building followed. 
All these structures are on the north side of Main Street. On 
the opposite side the shock caused the BerthoUet stone building 
to collapse, and the Humphreys building shared the same fate. 
The Devilbiss Hotel, already badly shaken, caved in completely, 
the front of the bank building dropped, and the pier fell out. 

" Among the victims of this shock were* a man named Darby, who 
had his skull fractured, and Miss Clara Jessen, who was badly 
hurt. 

In the vicinity of town several fine dwellings are utterly wrecked. 
Main Street is about 400 feet long, and most of the structures are 
of brick or brick and stone. Not one of them is left in a hab- 
itable condition, and it is needless to say that every article of 
glass and crockery all along this street has been smashed to 
pieces. The railroad track is all right, and telegraphic communi- 
cation has been uninterrupted, but there are many nasty cracks 
and fissures in the roadways, and driving is dangerous. 
The previous estimate of the damages of about $75,000 or $80,000 
will have to be. increased about 50 per cent, as the result of to- 
day's shock. The atmosphere is perfectly still, sultry, and oppres- 
sive. It may be fancy only, but one feels in breathing it a sense 
of impending calamity. 

The chief danger is from fire, and this has been guarded against 
as far as possible by a house-to-house inspection and a cry of 

Lights out " wherever an offending glimmer is seen. 
The hotels have been shut up entirely; in fact, it is dangerous to 
enter them. A bakery and restaurant on Main Street contains 
a supply of provisions, but it is as much as a man's life is worth 
to enter it. The proprietor, Peter Graham, has been feeding the 
people as well as he can during the day, but the street itself is 
closed in. 

It is quite unnecessary to add that nothing of an exaggerated or 
alarmist character has been infused into this dispatch. Things 
are so bad that exaggeration is well-nigh impossible. 
There has been no shock since that at 7.30 p. m., but the suspense 
is even worse than the shock. It is now 11 o'clock, and as I look 
down Bailroad Avenue I still see the weary ones struggling to 



(i 






EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 197 

put up the tents. By the light of to-morrow's sun the place will 
look like an encampment in a ruined city. 

** The first object I was shown was the calaboose or jail. There was 
one man in it, a tramp, when the shock came. He escax>ed with 
his life and they let him go on general principles. The jail would 
be improved in appearance if it had a roof and walls. In the 
Cradwick building there were three women and a man when the 
shock came. The women escaped by the front door in the nick 
of time. The man was the poor fellow sent with a crushed 
skull to Woodland. The building itself is a heap of bricks, un- 
symmetrically piled in the center of the lot on which it stood. 
Morrison's hardware store, next door, has the walls standing, 
and that is all. By a side alley Main Street was reached, and 
here the havoc wrought could only be compared to the aspect 
of Paris during the last days of the Gonmiune. The most furious 
bombardment could have done no more. Substantially built 
structures were demolished even more completely than those of 
lighter order. Some of the granite blocks lying on the sidewalk 
measured two feet by one, and as for safes and similar heavy 
objects, they had been tossed about like chaff. 

"The encampment was visited. Some of the men were laughing 
for fear they should cry, and all of them preferred to sleep on 
the ground with a friendly blanket between them and mother 
earth, lest they should fall out of bed. Sixteen women were 
found sleeping in one tent. 

It is quite .clear that the focus of tp-day's disturbance has been 
shifted to the north, and has been located near Winters. Elmira 
and Vacaville got off lightly. The direction of the shocks has 
also perceptibly changed. It must have been a fearful shock. 
The sand bars in Putah Creek near Winters opened and from the 
fissures the water spurted high up on the banks. In some 
places the creek became dry, in others it changed to a torrent. 
The banks caved in some places and almost dammed the stream. 
Some of the farmers say that the earthquake was toretold by the 
action of the fowls and animals. Horses were restive and neigh- 
ing, chickens fluttered all about, and dogs whined anxiously for 
some minutes before the earth trembled. It was reported that 
several boiling springs had burst from the foothills on the north 
and west and were flowing steadily. Frame houses did not suffer 
much in Winters. What was in them was badly shaken up, but 
the buildings held together as a rule. 

On the Hotel Devilblss a brick chimney was broken off close to the 
roof by the shock of the 19th and twisted halfway around. It 
was not broken more than that, and a couple of men easily 
twisted it back again and mortared it well. Yesterday's shock 
simply resolved that chimney into loose bricks and powdered 
mortar. 



M 



M 



198 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

** The loftiest structures seemed to those lookiog on to have suf- 
fered most, as their walls fell outwardly, but in the one-story 
buildingfs the greatest havoc occurred, for the walls collapsed. 
Some of the escapes from instant death were exceedingly narrow. 

"The bank of Winters is now deserted. Its walls are full of wide 
cracks, its front is bulged, and piles of bricks lie on the side- 
walk. There is ilot a vestige of glass in the windows, and the 
stout beams which were placed beneath the doorways a day or 
two ago to uphold the badly strained building are all awry and 
look as if a quake of moderate caliber would cause them to snap. 
The bank vdll need to be entirely reconstructed, and $5,000 will 
barely cover the loss." 

1883. April 21 1 San Jos^. 

There was a very slight shock felt in San Jos6 about 9.43 o'clock 
yesterday morning. It was one of only a couple of seconds' 
duration, and many did not feel it (III?). The shock was a little 
^ more pronounced in San Francisco, and severe shocks were felt 
but no damage done at Grass valley, Santa'^Hosa, Newcastle, £1- 
i^ira. Centime, FreAo, Faii%eld, Yu&, Nidblaus, Stockt£h, 
Nevada"^ City, St. ^elena, Napa, Antidch, SpaiJtshtov^m, Benicia*^ 
v'Chico, Ofi^ville, Biggs, Gearjct^wn, Qold Hun, Bed^Blufl, So^ma, 
Auburn, Wil^ws, Plac^nrville, Do^nieville, oAand, and Mas^elL 
There was another light shock here at 7.15 last evening. It was 
hardly perceptible. Bhocks were also reported in the evening 
fron San^Rafael, Vacaville, L<Jdi, Benidla, and other places in the 
State, and also from as far east as Carson, Nev. The tremors 
seemed to be very light and no damage was reported. 

1802. April aif SAcramento. 

There was another severe earthquake shock at 9.45 o'clock this 
' morning, lasting twenty seconds. Buildings got a lively shaking 

and plastering fell from many ceilings. 

Several old chimneys toppled over and much glassware was broken 
in the crockery stores. The State capitol building suffered. A 
large portion of one of the plaster statues over the portico, 150 
feet from the ground, fell and struck 40 feet from the building'. 
The gigantic building trembled violently and the occupants in 
the State ofiBces were badly frightened, and there was a general 
exodus of clerks. 

It was discovered that a crack was made in the ceiling, extending^ 
from one end of the building to the other and going through the 
office of the superintendent of public instruction into the 
assembly chamber. The beautiful ceiling of the latter, which is 
formed of stucco work tipped with gold, was rent in places, as 
were also the Corinthian columns supporting the gallery. Books 
were thrown from the shelves and general disorder reigned. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 199 

The public schools were dismissed. All the pupils got out without 
creating a panic. At the city prison the greatest excitement pre- 
vailed. A number of police officers rushed into the street, ex- 
pecting the collapse of the old building. Jailer John McManus 
stood at his post, with key in hand, prepared to turn loose the 
prisoners in case the building showed signs of collapsing. 

UOa. AprU 21| Dixon. 

At 9.40 this morning the people of Dixon were warned of the 
/ approach of another earthquake, and the streets were soon filled 

with people rushing out of buildings in search of a place of 
safety. Small shocks continued at intervals all day, and to-night 
the houses are nearly all deserted and i>eople are walking the 
streets. 

The brick buildings are still standing, but every shock cracks them 
worse, and people expect them to fall down. The frame build- 
ings are receiving so much shaking that many of the occupants 
have fled to the country for safety. 

In the country things are getting to be in a frightful condition. 
Hardly a farmhouse has escaped injury, and many of them have 
been moved off their foundations. Most of the occupants have 
put up tents out in the fields. Reports of damage coming in 
to-day place the losses much higher that at first estimated, and 
it is now considered that $100,000 will not cover the loss. 

1802. April 21. 

Santa Bosa received a severe earthquake shock at 0.40 a. m. to-day. 
V The vibrations were from east to west, and lasted fully fifteen 

seconds. A deep rumbling sound was heard just before the fiirst 
movement was felt. There were five vibrations, increasing in 
intensity to the last, which cracked many brick buildings and 
precipitated a good deal of plaster to the fioor (VII). In two 
places brick walls were slightly bulged out, iron columns moved, 
and in some parts of the town chimneys were wrecked. 

Many think that the shocks of to-day were much severer than were 
the shocks of Tuesday morning. The rumble of the earthquake 
was preceded by perfect stillness in the atmosphere. 

The court-house was slightly damaged and everybody in it more or 
less frightened. 

1802. April 21; Svisun. 

Two severe shocks and one or two slight ones were experienced 
here to-day. The first heavy shock occurred about 9.40 a. m. and 
the next at 7.15 p. m. Although not so severe as that of Tuesday 
morning, they have terrified the people. All the stores were 
closed at 7.30 o'clock in the evening. Plaster was torn from many 
buildings, window panes were broken, clocks stopped, and many 
chimneys thrown down (VII). 



-J 



y 



y 



200 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

180a. April Sl| MadUon. ^,, , 
The town was again shaken by the heaviest shock that has been 
felt, at 9.48 this morning. The total damage is about $10,000. 

1802. April 21. 

Special cables to the New York Herald from Santiago, Chile, under 
date of April 21, say that during the past week details were 
received of severe and light earthquake shocks at Taltaval, 
Serena, and iseveral coast towns. 

1802. April 21 1 Tuba City. 

At 9.43 o'clock this morning an earthquake occurred here, but it 
was not quite so heavy as that of Tuesday. Several clocks were 
stopped, but no damage occurred (V). 

1882. April 21 1 IVieolans. C- 

^' An earthquake occurred here at 9.48 o'clock. The vibration was 
northeast to southwest. Its duration was twenty seconds. 

1882. April 21 1 IVewoauitle. ^>. 
There was a slight earthqusdce shock here about 5 o'clock this morn- 
ing and another at 9.43 o'clock. No damage was reported. 



1802. AprU 21 1 St. Helena. 

y A very perceptible earthquake occurred here at 9.40 o'clock this 

morning, sending the people into the streets (V) and stopping 
clocks. No damage was done. 

1802. April 21| Bonita Point Liffhthonsei 0i48 a. m. 

(Light); 10 p. m. (light). Boe Island Lighthouse, not so severe as 
the shock of April 19. The vibration lasted Im. lOs. N. W. to 
S. E., and was followed by a second shock 20 sec. later. A later 
report says, April 21, 7h. 16m. p. m. (railroad time): a shock 
lasting 35 sec, clock stopped, etc. (VI?). Lime Point Lighthouse, 
9h. 53m. a. m. (clock regulated by time-ball in S. F.), duration 
about 2 seconds. Angel Island Lighthouse, 9h. 50m. a. m. (local 
time). (Ms. kindly furnished by U. S. Lighthouse Board, 
through U. S. Geological Survey.) 

1802. April 21 1 Fairfield. \-- 

The principal damage by the earthquake in this vicinity is the 
^ almost total wreck of the Fairfield M. E. Church, a brick build- 

ing 40 by 60, built in 1861, at a cost of $10,000. The belfry is 
demolished, the walls cracked and sprung, and will have to be 
taken down. Many chimneys fell and considerable plastering was 
thrown down. Several houses were badly injured. 

1802. April 21 f Red BliUT. 

Two perceptible earthquake shocks were felt here this morning. 
The first was very slight and occurred about 8.10 o'clock. The 
second stopped several clocks at 9.45 o'clock (V). 



BABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 201 

1892. AprU ai| TITUlows. '' 

^ Another heayy earthquake was felt here at 9.43 o'clock to-day. 

1892. April 81 1 Or land. ^ 

Another slight earthquake was felt here at 10.45 o'clock this mom- 
V^ ing. The vibrations were northeast and southwest. It was of 
eight seconds' duration. 

1802. April 81 1 SSsparto. 

.^ Another shock occurred here at 7 o'clock p. m. Five thousand dol- 

lars will cover the total loss. 

1888. April 81 1 Dixon. 

At 7.20 o'clock p. m. another sharp shock, but not as hard as the 
^^ one in the morning. There were several ntiore tremors during the 

night, but no further damage done. 

1882. AprU 21 1 TVoodlancL 

/ Dunnigan, Blacks, and Tolo, all experienced slight shocks in the 
night, but no further damage is reported. 

1882. April 21| Madison. 

^\ Slight shocks of earthquake were felt here at 7 o'clock p. m. The 

total loss here is estimated at $5,000^ 

^ yr 1882. April 22| SSspartoi Sh, a. m. 

A tremor. 



V 



1882. April 22| Madiaonp 2 a. m. 

A slight shock. 

1882. April 28 1 Roe Island liifflitlionse. 

Shocks at 3 a. m. E. to W. (tremor), 4.53 a. m., N. to S., 5.40 a. m., 
N. W. to S. B. 

^ 1882. April 28 1 Carson Cityf 6i30 p. m. 

S. W. and N. E. (II).— C. W. F. 



K 



V 



1882. April 28 1 Grass Valleyi 4h. 10m. p. m. 

An earthquake shock lasting ten seconds. No damage. 

1882. April 28 1 Blarys^illei 4h. 6nl. p. m. 

A slight shock. 

1882. April 28 1 Vaoavillei 4]i. 7m. p. m. 

A sharp shock. No damage. 

1882. April 28| "Woodlandi 4h. 10m. p. m. 

A shock. The vibrations seemed to be north and south. No 
damage* 



202 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIFIO COAST 



V 



<s 



) 



X 



% 



X 



X 



K 



< 



^ 



SSa. April SS| D»TlsTlUe. 

At 4.11 o'clock another shock was felt here, although alight, No 
damage. 

SSa. April S9| OarsoB Cltrt 4i08 p. m. 

Very short, S. E. and N. W. (in).— C. W. F. 

802. April 89| Roe Island lilirl&thoiuiei 4i04 p. m. 

Three shocks. 

882. April 89 1 Petalnma} 41i. 6in. p. m. 

Quite a sharp shock was felt. The vibrations were east to west. 

882. April 28| "Wintersi 4h. lOm. p. m. 

A shock. No damage. The shock lasted about five seconds. 

882. April 28t Santa Rosaf 41i. lOnt. p. m. 

A very distinct shock. The vibrations were from east to west and 
were of about eight seconds' duration. 

882. April 28 1 San Rafael | 4h. lOnt. p. 

A slight shock. 



882. AprU 28| Napaf 

A short, sharp shock. 
No damage. 



lOnt. p. m. 
The vibrations were from north to south. 



882. April 28| Fairfield | 4il0 p. m. 

A heavy shock. No damage. 

882. April 28| Benioiaf 41i. lOnt. p. nt. 

A very severe shock. No damage. 

882. April 28| Stockton | 4i08 p. m. 

A light shock, lasting twenty seconds. 

882. April 28| Haywarda. 

Two sharp shocks were felt here this afternoon, one occurring at 
about 4, and the other at 7.35 o'clock. The vibrations were from 
east to west in each case. 



April 28 1 San liOandro) Thi. SOnt. p. m. 

A sharp earthquake shock. It was a " tveister," seeming to come 
from all points of the compass. The duration was about l^i 
seconds. 



882. April 28| San Franoiseof 4h. lOnt. p. m. 

A slight earthquake shock wa£ felt, but no damage was done. 



882. San Franoiseof 41i. 7m. p. m. 

Light vibration; duration 1 sec. — T. T. 

Fort Point Lighthouse, 4h. 7m. 308. Very light shock; duration 1V<> 
sec. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIPIO 00A8T 203 



188S. May 11 1 Mowtt HamUtoB| 9i48i82 p. 

""^ The duplex seismograph shows a displacement of the pen of 1.5 
mm. in a northeast and southwest direction, and of 2.5 mm. in 
northwest and southeast direction, the time recorded by Prof. 
Holden, 9.48.32 p. m., P. 8. T. Intensity = IV on the Kossi- 
Forel scale. 

^ 1809. May 21 f Viririnia City. 

8 p. m., 10 p. m. 

1892. May 28| Ontario. 

^ There were two light shocks this morning. The first was at 3.15 
o'clock and the second five minutes later. They were heavy 
enough to stop clocks. The course of the wave was northeast 
and southwest (VI). 



1802. May 28| Santa 

Earthquake shocks were felt here between 2 and 3 o'clock this 
morning. The first shock was quite heavy and lasted a minute 
or more. 

1892. May 28 1 San Bernardino. 

Two shocks of earthquake were felt here this morning at 3.15 and 
3.20 o'clock. The first shock was very heavy, throwing down 
dishes and stopping clocks (VI). The second was much lighter. 
The vibrations were from east to west. 

1892. May 28 1 Caraon City. 

Tremor recorded on seismometer. — G. W. F. 

1892. Jvne 9t Independence. 

Mr. C. MulhoUand reports a disturbance at 3.40 p. m. A rumbling 
sound was almost immediately followed by the shock, which had 
an undulatory movement from north to south. The building 
shook so as to make all loose things rattle, but no harm was 
done (IV). No damage. Only one shock was felt and that was 
of short duration, probably lasting not longer than two seconds. 

1882. Jnne 14| Riverside. 

The heaviest earthquake felt here in many months occurred this 
morning at 5.30 o'clock. No damage. 

1892. Jnne 14| Santa Ana. 

A shock lasting nearly thirty seconds. The vibrations were from 
east to west. 

1892. Jnne 14t Pomona) 6h. 26ni. a. ni. 

A sharp earthquake. It lasted a few seconds. 



y 



1892. Jnne 14) San Diearo) 6il7 a. ni. 

Quite perceptible shock in this city and county. No damage. 



204 EABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1882. June 14 1 San Bernardino | 51ft. 90n&. a. m. 

X^ A slight' earthquake, lasting at least twenty seconds. It was not 

severe, but the shaking lasted unusually long. The vibrations 
were from northwest to southeast. 

1882. June 22 1 Holllater. 

Two slight shocks last night. 

1882. June 22. 

Messrs. Kose and Bikert, in the Santa Clara Valley, near Alamo» 
Lower California, last Friday, noticed two peaks four miles ta 
the north alternately spouting smoke and flames at short inter- 
vals. The eruption was accompanied' by rumbling sounds and 
an occasional quiver of the ground. Though frightened, they 
stopped long enough to satisfy themselves that two veritable vol- 
canoes had opened. Later travelers report the volcanoes real, 
but not so active as at first. The region is undoubtedly vol- 
canic, sulphur springs being in the vicinity. 



^ 



y^ 1882. Jnne 26| San Franetseoi fS!h» 48ni. a. 

N. E. and S. W.; duration 4^^ seconds.— T. T. 



1882. Jnly 6| Garson GItri 7 a. m. 

E. and W. tremor.— C. W. F. 

1882. Jnlr 0. 

San Francisco was shaken this morning by a remarkable series of 
explosions. The giant powder works at Highland Station, fully 
fifteen miles away, across the bay, exploded, completely wiping 
out the works, killing five men, wounding more than a score, and 
causing the effect in this city and Oakland of a severe earthquake. 
Nothing like the effects of the great shock has ever been known 
here. The shock caused a rush of air like the first breath of a 
tornado. Then came a series of shocks attended by a dull roar, 
like the discharge of heavy artillery at sea. Hundreds rushed 
out of tall buildingfs and hotels, pale with fear. Broken glass fell 
all about them. Scores of heavy plate-glass show windows came 
crashing into the streets. 

The heavy earthquake several months ago was not so terrifying a 
shock as this. The new high office buildings swayed perceptibly. 
In old structures plaster fell from the walls and all movable arti- 
cles on shelves came tumbling to the gpround (VII). Seven 
minutes after the first shock came another, even more severe, 
which shattered vidndows all over town, rocked buildings, blew 
in skylights, broke plate glass on Montgomery Avenue, Mont- 
gomery Street, Kearney Street, and other thoroughfares, and 
caused people to rush into the streets. The consternation was 
still at its height when two more shocks followed, little less 
severe than the terrific one which had Just been felt. Glass rat- 



EABTHQUAEES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 205 

tied into streets all over the city, and not a few buildings came 
near collapsing. 

The men in the tower of the fire-alarm station were sure that 
structure was going to go down. At the Palace Hotel there was 
great fear among the guests, and all over the city there was 
alarm. 

The motion was entirely unlike that of earthquakes. Investigation 
showed that the giant powder works at Highland Station had 
exploded, and this had involved the Judson Chemical Works near 
by. At this writing three white men are known to be killed, 
two Chinese are dead, and about twenty Chinese are badly 
wounded. The explosions started in a nitro-glycerine tank about 
fifty yards from all the other buildings at the works. 

What caused this will never be known, for the men who were in 
the building were blown into fragments. All that saved the 150 
men who were at work in the outer buildings was the interval 
between the original explosion and the next. This was six 
minutes, and in this time all the hands, white and Chinese, made 
a rush over the neighboring hill to put that elevation between 
themselves and the awful death that they knew was so near at 
hand. 

The force of the first explosion was heavy, but it was slight com- 
pared with the others. First, the powder-mixing house, about a 
rod from the nitro-glycerine house, went up in a sheet of fiame and 
with a roar that could be heard clear across the bay. A moment 
later a storehouse followed, also about one rod distant. •> The 
houses all caught from the fiames, but full 100 rods farther, over 
a little hill, were three great magazines of g^nt powder, black 
powder and dynamite, all of which were exploded by the con- 
cussion. The first three explosions had been heavy, but they 
were dwarfed by the terrific effect of the blowing up of the first 
magazine, which contained 350 tons of giant powder. This 
enormous amount of explosive was in a brick house about 30 
by 140 feet, and 20 feet high, lying close to the bank, near the 
water's edge. In quick succession followed the blowing up of a 
magazine containing 150 tons of black powder and another con- 
taining an unknown amount of dynamite. These terrific explo- 
sions caused so great a shock that a large pile of sulphur on a 
neighboring wharf was set on fire and a vessel that was un- 
loading it was allowed to drift away to save it from the same 
fate. The force of the explosion wrecked the strong wooden 
bulldingfs of the Judson Chemical Works a quarter of a mile 
away. The walls fell in, and the chemicals began to blaze 
fiercely. Within one hour the large plant of both works was 
totally destroyed. 

The only building of the powder works remaining is a large mag- 
azine of gun-cotton which the firemen are trying to save. It 



206 KAKTHQXTAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

stands some distance from the scene of the explosion. It will 
probably not explode. No greater scene of desolation could be 
conceived than that presented after the explosion. Everything 
belonging* to the buildings was smashed into matchwood. 

Over the little hill were the cottages of workmen and residences of 
Judson and his superintendent. Here most curious freaks were 
seen. One whole side of Judson's house was ripped off, and the 
plastering was all torn off and covered his fine furniture. In the 
other house the main stairway was twisted completely around, 
and one chimney had also been whirled completely about, the 
top falling off outside. All the little cottages were wrecked bo 
badly that they can never be repaired. All that can be done is 
to tear them down. The escape of the inmates was miraculous. 
Only one boy was seriously hurt. He had his arm broken. 

One of the largest windows broken in San Francisco was that on 
the south side of the First National Bank building, comer of 
Bush and Sansome streets. The Baldwin Hotel was damaged, 
and windows on several floors were smashed to pieces. The two 
panes of plate glass in the windows of the San Francisco clearing 
house, at 211 Sansome Street, were the largest in the city. The 
one on the south side was shattered into small pieces, and the 
pane on the north side was uninjured. They were seven-six- 
teenths of an inch thick, and each cost $600. The glass in moat 
of the windows of the American sugar refinery was broken. 

189& JiUy 8 1 Berkeley. 

Becorded on duplex instrument. — Professor Soul6. 

1882. Jnlr 8 1 Alameda. 

The explosion of the giant-powder works made a record on my 
seismograph, the maximum displacement of the pen in a north 
and south direction being 4 nmi. and in an east and west direc- 
tion 4 mm. (C. D. Perrine.) 

1882. Jnly 8| Ba«t Oaldaiad. 

Mr. F. O. Blinn reports that his seismograph was not in working 
order, owing to the fact that the soil is adobe, and as it had not 
been irrigated for some time the working of the soil caused the 
pen to creak so much that any attempt at records was aban- 
doned. After the powder works explosion the pen was found 
off the plate on the east side making a nearly straight line, and 
this would indicate a motion of the ground to the west. (The 
powder works were about northwest.) A pipe l3ring on a shelf 
in the observatory was thrown on the fioor to the east, thus con- 
firming the motion of the seismograph. There was an item in 
the San Francisco Evening Bulletin saying that the sealing 
schooner Emma and Louise, then 150 miles off shore, felt the 
shock heavily, and it was thought she had struck a rock. 



/ 



EABTHQUAKES ON THS PACIFIC COAST 207 

1882. July 9| Oakland. 

Mr. Charles Burckhalter reports that the seismog^raph at the 
Chabot Observatory showed a V-shaped mark about 4 mm. in 
height. 

ISOa. July 16| Mount Hamilton. 

Prof. Holden reports a shock at 12.6.34 ± p. m. P. S. T. Intensity 
= 111 on the Kossi-Forel scale. The duplex seismograph shows 
a small mark^ibout 1.5 mm. north and south by 1 mm. east and 
west. 

1882. Jnlr a2| Gamon Citri 6i0O a. m. 

N. W. and a E. tremor.— C. W. P. 

1882. JTnlr 241 Colton. 

v^ The San Francisco Extttniner reports a shock of earthquake at this 
point at 6 a. m. 

SC 1882. JTnlT 26| Hapa. 

"A heavy shock*' at 2.10 a. m. Vibrations north to south. No 
damage. 

1882. JTnlr 261 Potalnma. 

" Qxdte a lively shock.'* Vibrations east to west. 

1882. Jnlr 261 San Franclseo. 

^ A slight shock 2h. 8m. a. m. Duration 2 sec. — T. T. 

1882. JTnly 26| Mount HamUton. 

/ The duplex seismograph shows a light shock, the displacement of 
the pen in a north and south direction being 1 mm. and in an 
east and west direction 2 mm. The shock was not felt by any 
one. 

1882. July 26| Berkeley. 

Slight record. — Professor Soul6. 

^ 1882. July 26 1 Fort Point Llslitlionaei 2s04 a. m. 

Moderate, lasting 10 sec. A very light shock at 2.59 a. m. 

1882. Anvust 1 or 2| Mount Hamilton. 

A shock occurred August 1 or 2 and was found recorded on both 
/ seismographs, not being of sufficient intensity to start the Ew- 
ing instrument, and* no one felt it. Displacement of duplex pen 
northwest and southeast, 4 mm. Almost a straight line. 

1882. Anvust 2 or 8| Mount Hamilton. 

^ Another slight shock was found recorded by the duplex, but was 
not felt by any one here. Displacement of pen east and west, 
3 mm. Almost a straight line. 



208 EABTHQUAKES OK THE PACIFIC COABI 

188& Aninuit 5, 6| Monnt Hamilton. 

f-< A slight Bhock was found registered by the duplex seismograph, 
but felt by no one. Displacement of pen north and south, 2 nun. 
East and west, 1 mm. 

1892. Anvast 8-9 1 Monnt Hnmtlton. 

' / A slight shock was found registered by the duplex instrument, but 
unnoticed by any one. Displacement of pen north and south., 
1.5 nmi.; east and west, 2.5 mm. 

1892. Aninuit 18 1 Monnt Hamilton. 

Prof. Holden reports a shock estimated at intensity (V) of the B. 

J F. scale as occurring at 8.8.27 p. m. ± 3s. or 4s. P. S. T. 8.8.23 p. m.. 

standard Pacific time: a diffused shock extending three or four 

seconds; fairly heayy. Time refers to about middle of shock. 

(E. E. Barnard.) 

1892. Anvnst 24| Monnt Hnmllton. 

12.22.14 P. S. T. Decided shock of one or one and one-half sec- 
onds' duration. Examining Mars at the time. Image of the 
-^ planet jumped through fire or six seconds. The shock consisted 

of three or four jerks or jars. The motion seemed to be ver- 
tical in the telescope. The shock was felt outside of the tele- 
scopic vibration. (E. E. Barnard.) 



A 



1892. Aninuit 26 1 Monnt Hnmilton. 

The duplex seismograph shows a slight shock, the displacement 
of the pen being 2 mnL in a north and south direction and 1.5 
mm. in an east and west direction. 

1892. Anvnat 28. 

A volcanic eruption of great magnitude took place on one of the 
Aleutian Islands, Alaska, on August 28. Black Peak, a moun- 
tain of great height between Chignik canneries on the Aleutian 
Islands, and Oonangashik, a station of the Alaska Commercial 
Company, is supposed to be the volcano in action. 

A letter received from Olef M. Olson, sailing master of the schooner 
Clara, of Sitka, formerly the Ethel, of San Diego, dated from 
Sand Point, Alaska, September 8, gives the following points: 

"On Sunday, August 28, the eruption took place. The Clara was 
lying at anchor in Chignik Bay abreast of the canneries, and 
observed a beautiful cloud. It first made its appearance at 4 
o'clock in the morning, rose straight in. the air from behind the 
mountains in the southwest until at an angle of about 35*, when 
it lost its beautiful color, which was blue, and seemed to burst 
lightly. It remained until after noon, when it got perfectly 
black. The barometer was all the time steady at 30 inches. 
About 11 o'clock the earth was shaken heavily. Accompanying 
the shock were thunder and lightning, which continued all that 



/ 



EAKTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 209 

day and all the evening. Monday morning when I came on deck 
my mouth and nose were filled with some stuff that fell heavy 
and thick about us. The air itself was full of sulphur smoke, 
which even permeated the cabin, and the decks were covered 
with fully 2 inches of black sand. Nothing could be cooked be- 
cause of it. It penetrated everywhere. At noon when the stuff 
was getting lighter we could see the cannery. We went ashore 
and found everything one color, black. The schooner Nellie, of 
8and Point, coming from Vessnessensky, reported that the store- 
keeper, X. Zwain, had seen on the day of the eruption, rocks on 
fire thrown in the air at an angle of 20** in the direction of Port- 
age Bay, which seemed to be a mass of fire and flames. The 
Alaska Commercial Company's steamer St. Paul experienced the 
same shower of sand 250 miles off shore that day. On Monday 
afternoon some stuff, different from what fell on us the night 
before, came down from the direction of the mountain known as 
Black Peak, between Chignik and Oonangfashik. It appeared 
more like burned paper. The foUov^ing day, Tuesday, another 
light shower fell the whole afternoon. Chig^iik bay itself had a 
muddy appearance and all the high grass was knocked down by 
the heavy sand. It will take some time for the glaciers to get 
their natural color. The fall was heaviest on Monday morning 
between 2 and 4 o'clock." 

1882. Anvast 80| Tybo (Nev.)» 9 p. m. 

" Distinct."~C. W. F. 

1882. Anvast 81 1 Independence. 

Mr. C. MulhoUand reports a shock occurring at 5 p. m. It was 
quite sharp and was preceded, three or four seconds, by a sound 
like distant thunder. There appeared to be three or four sharp 
vibrations coming from the south. No reports of damage. 

1882. Anvnst 28. 

The origin of the immense cloud of volcanic dust which was 
reported by Capt. Erskine as having passed over the steamer St. 
Paul on her last trip up to Oonalaska, and which he estimated to 
be more than 100 miles in extent, has been definitely ascertained. 
The sea otter hunting schooner Everett Hayes arrived here last 
week from the Shumagin Islands, and from her owner, I. J. 
Applegate, the foUowiijg particulars of the eruption of a new 
volcano have been obtained: 

On Sunday, August 28, the Hayes put into Ivanef Bay at the ex- 
treme western end of the Alaskan peninsula, and anchored. The 
position of the schooner was in lat. 55* 52' north and long. 159^ 
20' west. The weather at the time of anchoring was calm and 
clear. About midnight of the 27th the crew of the schooner were 
aroused by a subdued rumbling noise, which sounded not unlike 
14 



210 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIf IC OOABT 

the steady breaking of surf on the beach. Knowing that such 
a noise would hardly be heard in the inclosed bay, the captain 
and Mr. Applegate went on deck to ascertain, if possible, the 
cause of the disturbance. The night was then calm and clear 
and not a thing could be seen, so that the two watchers returned 
to their bunks with the mysterious noise still unexplained. 

About 2 a. m. the mate went on deck and shortly afterward re- 
ported seeing what appeared to be a small black cloud low down 
in the northwestern sky. The rumbling noise now gradually in- 
creased in volume and soon the whole sky was filled with dense 
Tolumes of smoke. Before daylight the crew of the schooner 
saw a vast colunm of smoke suddenly shoot straight up to a dis- 
tance of a mile into the clear atmosphere and then slowly ex- 
pand in the fonn of an immense cauliflower from 10 to 12 miles 
in diameter. From the lower edges and periphery of this black 
cloud blinding flashes of lightning shot downward toward the 
base of the column, and the air was fllled vnth almost continuous 
and deafening detonations as if of thunder. The display v^as 
magnificent beyond description. It lasted until daylight. Feel- 
ing that the vicinity was anything but pleasant or safe the 
schooner got under way as early as possible Monday morning, 
and made her way out into the open waters of the Pacific. A 
brisk northerly wind swept the smoke cloud clear of the schooner, 
but the country to the southward must have been covered for 
miles with ashes and cinders, which fell like a heavy rain from 
the cloud. At Metrofem, a small native settlement 80 or 90 miles 
away, the inhabitants v^itnessed the eruption and distinctly heard 
reverberations of the thunder, and at all the islands lying to the 
southward of the peninsula quantities of dust and cinders fell 
during the greater part of three days. 

The exact locality and appearance of the new volcano could not be 
obtained for the reason that it is inland some 30 miles, as esti- 
mated by Mr. Applegate, and hidden from view by the higher 
mountains which border the sea. It must, however, be of con- 
siderable extent, as there can be no doubt now that the rain of 
volcanic dust which fell on the decks of the St. Paul during five 
hours of August 28 came from the new volcano. In connection with 
this upheaval it is of interest to recall the fact previously noted 
by the Chronicle correspondent of the unusual activity of all the 
volcanoes situated along this part of the Aleutian Islands during 
this season. 

On September 23, while the revenue-cutter Bush was cruising in the 
vicinity of Akutan Island, the volcano situated thereon suddenly 
opened up its hidden batteries, and blast after blast of dark 
purple smoke shot upwards from the crater to a distance of 
nearly 1,000 feet, accompanied by a rumbling noise like distant 
thunder. At the same instant, as was subsequently ascertained. 



< 



K 



i 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 211 

a distinct earthquake shock — something very unusual in this 
region — ^was felt at Oonalaska, 30 miles away. 



1882. September 8| Petalmnai 41ft. 45m. a. 

A light shock. . The vibration seemed to be from east to west. Also 
felt at Napa. 

1892. September 18| San Jos^. 

A shock.— Cal. S. W. Service BuOetin. 

1892. September 26 1 Stoelctoa. 

A shock.— Cal. S. W. Service Bulletin. 

1892. September 28 1 Mount Hamilton. 

Prof. Holden reports a shock of slow period and intensity = III of 
the B. F. scale, as occurring at 2.10.43 p. m., P. S. T. The duplex 
seismograph shows a displacement of the pen of 9 nmi. in north- 
northeast and south-southwest direction, with a displacement of 
the pen at right angles to this of 3 mm. 

1892. September 25| Mills Gollese. 

Prof. Keep sends a tracing of the shock occurring at 2.10 p. m. in 
which the greatest displacement is in a north-northeast and 
south-southwest direction, and appears to be about 11.5 mm., and 
at right angles to this the displacement is only 3 nmi. 

1892. September 25 1 Alameda. 

A shock of earthquake estimated at about (V) of the B. F. scale 
occurred at 2.11 p. m., the chandeliers swaying for several 
minutes. The duplex seismograph gives a record in which the 
displacement of the pen in a northwest and southeast direction 
measures 77 mm., which is probably exaggerated, although the 
greatest disturbance was noticed to be in this direction. The 
displacement of the pen in the northeast and southwest direction 
is 20 mm. (C. D. Perrine.) 

1892. September 27| Napa City* 

A shock. — Cal. S. W. Service Bulletin. 

1892. October 26| San Bemardinoi Tb. 5m. a. m. 

A slight shock. The vibration was from north to south. 

1892. October 80| Monnt Hamiltoni 12il7il2 a. n&. 

Southeast to northwest; two slight shocks two seconds apart. In- 
tensity = HI- (W. W. Campbell.) The duplex seismograph gives 
a record of about 2 mm. in both the north and south and east and 
west directions. 

1892. October 80| Independence. 

Mr. C. Mulholland reports a shock occurring at 11.53 a. m. The 
shock was quite heavy and appeared to come from the Sierras 



^ 



/ 



nC 



V 



^ 



212 EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

about 6 miles west of the town, but the g^reatest motion appeared 
to be Tertical or nearly so. Only one shock was felt. The earth 
rumbling was not very noticeable owing to the rattling of the 
building. No damage. 

1802. November 6| Aiutln (Nev.)* 
" Light," E. to W.— C. W. F. 

1802. November 12| Nlles (OaL). 

1.56 a. m«; 13th, 4.45 a. m., 11.20 p. m., 11.23 p. m. 

1802. November 18 1 4i45 a. m. 

Santa Cruz Lighthouse. 

1802. November 18 1 Monnt Hamilton. 

Prof. Holden reports two shocks of earthquake close together, of 
intensity (V) of the K. P. scale. 

Time of the second shock 4.45.14 a. m. The duplex seismogpraph 
gives a condensed tracing 4.5 mnL by 3.5 mm. The plate is not 
orientated. Mr. Townley, who was photographing in the Crocker 
dome at the time of the shock, noted the time (of the first 
shock?) as 4.44.41, P. S. T. . 

1882. November 18 1 Berkeler* 

"The earthquake of Sunday was hardly felt here. Very small 
vibration. Record on duplex and Ewing, but vibration not strong 
enough to start the seismogfraph." (A. O. Leuschner.) 

1882. November 18| Mills CoUese. 

Prof. Keep sends a tracing of the earthquake which occurred at 
4.46 a. m., showing a displacement of the pen of 12 mm. in a 
northeast and southwest direction, and 8 mm. in a northwest 
and southeast direction. 

1802. November 18| Alameda. 

A slight shock occurred at 4.48 a. m., giving a tracing on the duplex 
seismograph, which begins with a displacement of the pen of 
about 5 nmi. toward the southeast and ends with a number of 
tremors covering an area 2 nun. in a north and south direction 
by 1.5 mm. in an east and west direction. (C. D. Penine.) 



1802. November 18 1 Petalamai abont 4li.. 45m. a. 

A lively shock. The vibrations were from north to south. Also 
felt at Napa. 



1802. November 18 1 Gilrori 4b. 46m. a. m. 

'^ A very heavy shock. It was of several seconds' duration. Clocks 

were stopped and small articles thrown down. No damage was 
done to buildings (VI). 



X 



\ 



V 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIPIO 00A8T 213 

1882. November 18 1 Hollisteri 4Ie. 46]ii« a. m. 

An TinuBually severe shock. The heavy shock was followed by three 
of less severity. Aside from the falling of plaster no material 
damage was done (VI?, Vn?). 

1882. November 18 1 Sallaas. 

At about 4.30 o'clock this morning a heavy earthquake was felt 
here, doing considerable damage to large v^indow lights, glass- 
ware and crockery. The vibrations were from northeast to 
southwest. They lasted fully forty seconds (VI). 

1882. November 18| MonteroT* 

An extremely lengthy and heavy shock was felt in this city at 4.45 
o'clock this morning. The vibration was north and south. It 
rattled large buildings as if they were chips, shaking crockery 
and glassware ofF the shelves, cracking chimneys and playing 
havoc in general. The oldest citizens say that they have never 
experienced such a 'heavy tremor as they felt this morning, the 
shock being of ten seconds' duration and followed by smaller 
ones (Vn). 

1882. November 18 1 Sab Rafael | 4!tu 4em. a. m. 

A shock lasting eleven seconds. The movement was from north to 
south. 



> 



y 1882. November 18 1 San Franetaoof 4]i. 46m. a. m. 

Light shock, E. and W., duration 3b.— T. T. 

/ 1882. November 18 1 San JTosei 4i46 a. m. 

Lasting 6 to 8 seconds. 

< 1882. November SB4| Saa Fraaelscoi Ob. 10m. a. m. 

Light shock, duration 2 sec— T. T. 

^ 1882. November 24| Nileai 12iOT a. m. 



1882. Berkelein Tb. 8i^ m. p. m. 

Record on Ewing instrument. Clock started. — ^Professor Soul6. 



^ 1882. November 25 1 Anatin (Nev.). 
E. to W.— C. W. P. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1863. 

1888. JTannary 18 1 Mount Hamilton. 

Prof. Holden reports the shock at 1.2.22 ± Ss. a. m. of intensity 

(V), Rossi-Forel scale. 
Mr. Colton reports the time as 1.2.25 a. m. 
Mr. Townley reports the time as 1.2.16 a. m. 
The duplex seismograph gives a complicated tracing, 5 mm. by 

3 mm. 



214 £ABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

The Ewing instniment shows a motion east and west in the hori- 
zontal, but none in either the north or south or yertical direc- 
tions. The greatest amplitude of the Ewing record is 3 mm., the 
shock lasting fifteen to twenty seconds. Mr. Ck>lton*s record 
shows that the first motion of the earth was to the east. 

y 1898. JaanaiT a4| "Wintersi Sh. 40m. p. 



1898. Jannary 20 1 "Winterai abont 1 a. m. 

A shock last night at 9.40 and another about 1 this morning. Both 
were light, but pronounced enough to scare the timid. 



/ 1898. February 15 1 Berkeleri Sfk, ISin. 

Slight records. — ^Professor Soul6. 

y 1898. February 16 1 Berkeley. 

Slight records. — Professor SoulS. 






y 



1898. February 16 1 Sydney, liraablnvton. 

n.— P. 

1898. February 21 f Fairfield. 

A heavy shock at 8.15 p. m. to-day. 

^ 1898. February 21 1 Sutsun. 

A sharp shock at 8.16 o'clock this evening. 

^ 1898. February 21 1 Dixon. 

Quite a severe shock at 8.20 o'clock this evening. 

1898. February 22. 

><^ It woB felt at San Bafael at 8.15 (a. m.? p. m.?).— Professor Soul6. 

. 1898. Marcb 8| Gra«a Valley. 

"A perceptible shock " at 6.15 a. m. 

>C^ 1893. Marcb 3| Carson Cityi 12t06 a. m. and 6i40 a. m. 
E. and W.— C. W. F. 

^ 1898. Marcb 8| Nevada Cityi 6t40 a. m. 

Iowa Hill, 6.38 a. m. 

^ 1898. Mar^b 6| Umatilla, Oregon. 

' A succession of shocks were felt here to-night. One of the walls 
of a large stone building was thrown down by the force of the 

shock (vn?, vm?). 



/■ 



1898. Marcb 12 and 18| Berkeley. 



Slight records. — Professor Soul6. 

^^ 1898. Marcb 18 1 Shelter Cove, Cal. 

Thirteen shocks, N. and S.— Cal. S. W. Service Bulletin, 



BABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COABT 215 



1883. Marob 87| SantA Ross. 

V A slight shock at 11.30 o'clock to-night. The vibration was from 

east to west and the shock was of only a few seconds' duration. 
No damage. 



1808. Maroli 80| Independence and I<one Pine, Inyo Connty. 

Mr. C. MulhoUand reports: "On the evening of last Thursday, 
March 30, at 10.30 o'clock, an earthquake occurred. The center 
of disturbance appeared to be about 9 miles north from the 
south end of Owens Lake. At that point there is a strip of land 
2 miles wide between the lake and the base of the Sierra Nevada 
on the west. But one shock was felt; this was very sharp; the 
earth motion may be likened to the result of a blow struck upon 
a plank by a sledge. At Lone Pine, 30 miles farther north, the 
shock was felt about the same time; the vibration was not so 
sharp, but more undulatory. No damage." — Carson, March 30, 
during the night, N. E. and S. W., tremor, from seismometer. — 
C. W. F. 

1888. Marob 81 1 Taeavllle. 

A sharp shock at 2.30 this morning. It lasted several seconds, and 
its direction was from north to south. 

1888. April 4f Mojave. 

^ At 11.40 a. m. to-day this place was visited by four distinct shocks 
of earthquake. Buildings were rocked for several seconds, creat- 
ing considerable fright (VII?). At Saugus, 70 miles south, chim- 
neys were knocked down and dishes and other household fur- 

^ nishings were broken (VIII?). The impression is that the shock 
came from the northeast. 



< 



1808. April 4| San Bernardino | lilt. 40ni. a. m. 

A heavy earthquake, moving in a southeasterly direction. No 
damage. 

1888. April 4f Santa Ana| llli. 46m. a. m. 

A slight earthquake was felt, the movement seeming to be from 
west to east. The vibrations were so slight, however, that many 
people were not aware there had been any disturbance of the 
earth's surface (m). 

1888. April 4 1 tiom Anireles. 

At 11.48 this morning there was a slight earthquake of short dura- 
tion. The movement was from west to east. In Observer Frank- 
lin's office the barometers were well shaken, and continued to 
oscillate perceptibly for two minutes at least. It lasted about 
eighteen seconds (HE?). 

1888. April 4| San Die^oi lib. 4am. a. m. 

A slight shock. It was felt only in the upper stories. It shook the 
barometer at the signal office (III?). 



216 EABTHQUAKES OK THE PACIFIC C0A6T 



V 



I 



4 



y^ 1808. April 4| Diuurtei lltSO a. 

Light shock, E. and W.— €al. B. W. Service Bulletin. 



/ 1888. April 4| Tentnraf lli44 

" Heavy."— JMd. 



1888. April 4| Nordltoflf II18O 

" Heavy."— /Wd. 



1888. April 8| "Lorn Anireles. 

Alarming reports of seismic disturbances have just been received 
from the oil region of Newhall, ,35 miles from this city. 

Dating from last Tuesday, the day on which Los Angeles experi- 
^ enced a slight shake, there has been a terrifying series of tem- 

blors, accompanied by subterranean explosions. These distur- 
bances have been frequent, and have been accompanied by land- 
slides from the mountains of an alarming and dangerous descrip- 
tion. A letter dated from Pico Canyon, about 8 miles southwest 
from Newhall, reads substantially as follows (and refers to the 
shock of Tuesday, April 4). 

"I was driving this morning when my horse became frightened 
without apparent cause, and there came a rumbling sound which 
grew terrifying. I looked up and saw an awful sight. Land- 
slides from every peak in sight came tumbling down with huge 
bowlders. The mountains appeared as if myriads of volcanoes 
had burst forth. When I got to the long bridge I saw Mr. 
Thomas standing dazed, holding to the railing, and others came 
running across the bridge. The earth opened in a number of 
places and the scene was indescribable. Men cried, prayed and 
swore. When I reached my house I found everything upset. Pic- 
tures, dishes, and everything breakable were smashed, and two 
stoves were broken all to pieces. All the afternoon lighter 
shocks continued, and also through the night*' (VII). 

Another letter dated on Friday, April 7, says: 

"On Wednesday night, just as I had gone to bed, 'Cra^h!* came 
another great shock. All night long they recurred, keeping us 
up until morning; and all day Thursday they continued, each 
preceded by a heavy subterranean explosion. The house the fore- 
man lived in was demolished this time. Last night was less ex- 
citing, and at 3 o'clock this (Friday) morning we had 
another, whioh was fully as terrifying as the first. The shocks 
were worse in the canyon here than elsewhere, but at Newhall 
and all around this part of the county they have been terrify- 
ing" (vn, vin). 

1883. April 8 1 Los Anireles. 

The San Fernando range of mountains, where the greater distur- 
bance took place during the week, were pretty generally shaken 
up every day, beginning with Tuesday. The last temblor, a 



EABTHQUAKB8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 217 

» 

slight one, was felt in the canyon about 10 o'clock Sunday night. 
There were no shocks so severe as the first one, and they grad- 
ually lessened in force and frequency. 

As far as can be learned the area of the temblors was not con- 
fined entirely to the San Fernando range, but dipped across the 
big Newhall ranch, past Saugus and over into the Castac and 

' Piru mountains, north of Newhall. Strange as it may seem, 
although Newhall is only ft miles from the Pico Canyon, where 
the shakes were more continuous than elsewhere, the people in 
that town did not feel many of them. 

The greatest disturbance was in and around the oil wells of the 
Pacific coast and San Francisco companies at the head of Pico 
Canyon. 

Mintryville is a little town with a schoolhouse, and is the residence 
of the superintendent of the oil companies. Scattered about are 
pretty little cottages, the homes of employes. 

One who has not visited the peculiarly formed canyon can hardly 
have a defur conception of the consternation with which the 
earthquakes were received by the 130 people who live in this 
vicinity. Temblors that would, as these did, tilt up great oil 
tanks full of oil, detach immense bowlders from the mountain 
sides weighing tons, and cause big surface fissures in the ground 
in various places, are not calculated to make people rest well at 
night, and when these disturbances continue at irregular inter- 
vals for five days it is a wonder that the women and children in 
the canyon bore the ordeal as bravely as they did. 

Mr. Mintry gave his recollection of the big earthquake of Tuesday 
(April 4) : 

'* It was a few minutes after 12 o'clock. The men had nearly all 
left the derricks. Suddenly there was a peculiar swaying of the 
ground and an explosion which I can hardly describe. It was 
heavier than any blast I ever heard. I was on horseback, 
and the horse was frightened very badly. At first I -thought of a 
boiler, but looking along the San Fernando range, as far as 1 
could see east and west, there was a blinding cloud of dust. It 
rose directly up from the top of the range^and was thick. All 
around me the dust rose from the hills. in the near vicinity and 
earth and bowlders came tumbling down. The shock lasted be- 
tween ten and fifteen seconds. I looked across the valley and 
saw the same thing in the Castac Hills. T^iat shock was the 
worst and it was accompanied by a rumbling sound. The shocks 
since that time have been smaller ones. They have not affected 
the fiow of oil. There was not the slightest disturbance in any 
of the wells. I have been here for nineteen years as superinten- 
dent of the oil wells, and this is the first time there has been an 
earthquake in this vicinity." 



218 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

At the head of the canyon and at MintryriUe, which is nearly 2 
miles below, the first shock played havoc with the crockery in 
nearly all the houses in both places, and a lot of milk pans full 
of milk, a quantity of eggs, and the stove and nearly every loose 
article in one house were thrown in a jumble on the floor and 
mixed up with the ashes (VH). 

The schoolhouse had a large brick chimney, and after the shake 
there was not a whole brick left (VIII?). An immense stone came 
tumbling down a mountain side and landed in among the pipe 
lines ard tanks below, smashing thingfs generally. 

Strange to say, not one of the many huge derricks, which are from 
^ 40 to 70 feet in height, was overturned, although they swayed in 

an alarming manner (VII). 

The motion in all the shocks was a swaying motion, and the direc- 
tion was from northwest to southeast. An old and strong adobe 
house on what is known as the middle Newhall ranch, northwest 
of Newhall, was shaken completely down by one of the tem- 
blors (vm). 



1808. April 6-8 1 Albii«iier«iie, N. Mi 

The inhabitants of the river towns south of the city are much 
alarmed. During the past forty-eight hours the earth has fre- 
quently shaken. The depot at Las Lunas shook to such an ex- 
tent early this morning that the agent fled in terror (VII). The 
Indians living in the valley are also much excited. No earth 
tremors have been felt here (i. e., at Albuquerque). 



1898. April 8 1 Alb«avei^v«» H. Mi 

Las Lunas, Belin, and several other towns along the Bio Qrande 
River are all in excitement over what appears to be a series of 
infantile earthquakes. Four shocks have been distinctly felt since 
Thursday (April). There was one this morning, attended by om- 
inous rumbling underground and of three seconds* duration, dur- 
ing which time eight or ten vibrations were felt. Glass was 
broken, dishes rattled, and a few frame houses in the towns 
swayed as if shaken by a terrible vnndstorm (VI?, Vn?). 

1898. April 18| Hrdeavllle. 

A shock was felt here at 5 o'clock this morning. It was followed 
^ in fifteen minutes by another and severer shock, lasting fifteen 

seconds, and this was followed in fifteen minutes by another 
heavy shock. Four shocks between 3 and 6 a. m. 

1898. April 18| Bnreluu 

^ A light shock was felt here this morning at 5.10. No damage. 

Cape Mendocino Lighthouse felt the shock of April 13, though 
there is no separate report of it. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 219 

1888. April 18| Humboldt fjlirlttlftoasei SilS a. m. 

A severe shock lasting 10 or 12 seconds. Direction N. £. to 8. W. 
A second shock 3 or 4 minutes later. 



A 



yL 



1888. AprU ai| S«n Rateeli llh. 15m. p. m. 

A sUght shock. The vibrations were from north to south. 



1888. Mat 10| Dvarte (Cal.). 
A shock. 



/ 



^ 



1888. May 18| S«nta BAvbarai 41ft. 86m. p. m. 

A distinct shock. Buildings shook so that the people in the second 
stories ran out (VI). No damage. The vibrations were from 
northwest to southeast. 

1898. Max 18| Point Conoeptlon fjlirbtlftoasei 4i80 p. m. 

Duration 10 sec, followed inunediately by a second shock, duration 
3 sec Angel Island Lighthouse 10.01 a. m. (local time), duration 
2 sec Point Fermin Lighthouse, 4.35 p. m. (standard time), du- 
ration 34 seconds. Moderate; light objects overthrown (VI?), 
N. W. to 8. E. 

1888. Max 18| Borlcolen 8i46 a. m. 

Slight record; also noticed by laborers on the grounds. — ^Professor 
8oul6. 

1888. May 18| SatleoTi 41&. 88m. p. m. 

Three distinct shocks, lasting for forty-three seconds, with vibra- 
tions from north to south,' causing dishes to rattle and hanging 
lamps to swing to and fro (VI). 

1888. May 18| San Podrof ^h, 86m. p. m. 

Two distinct shocks of about six seconds* duration, from north to 
south. 

1898. May 18| Santa Ana. 

The earthquake at 4.25 this afternoon was one of the hardest ever 
felt here, but no damage was done. A few people above the 
ground floors started for the streets, but it was a momentary 
fright only (VI). 

1888. May 18| Ijompoo. 

A shock was felt here at 4 o'clock this afternoon. The vibrations 
seemed to be from east to west. No damage. 



V 1888. May 18| Ventnrai 41&. 86m. p. m. 

A very distinct shock, lasting about fifteen seconds. The oscilla- 
tion was east and west. Many people ran out of their houses 

(^^?. vn?). 



220 EABTHQUAEES ON THE PA0I7I0 COAST 

18&8. MfiT 18| Oakland* 

^ Yesterday morning at 10.03 o'clock two severe shocks of earthquake 

were felt in Oakland. The buildings on Broadway were shaken 
quite hard, and some of the people ran into the street (VI). 
(May 19). ^ 

1898. May 18| Carflon* ]!•▼. 

^ The monthly review of the Nevada State Weather Service for May, 
1893, reports a shock on May 18 at 2.55 p. m. Mr. C. MulhoUand 
reports from Los Angeles under date of May IQ, as follows: **It 
is now 4.30 p. m., and an earthquake has just strongly shaken the 
' building. Furniture in the room vibrated so much as first to 
attract my attention. The motion appeared to be from west to 
ecust. There were several — ^foiir to six — short, jerky vibrations. 
No damage observable" (VI?). 



y^ 



1808. Mar a6| Mariposa. 

A shock. 

1898. Jane If Santa Barbarai about 41k. a. m. 

Another earthquake, which lasted several seconds. It was oonsid* 
erably heavier than the one two weeks ago (VH?). 

1888. Jano 1| Vontaraf 8i60 a. m. 

^ Nordhofl, 4 a. m., lasting 20 sec Also shocks at 4.02 and 4.10 a. m., 
both lighter. 

1888. Jane 6| San Franeiseoi 91k. 8Snt. a. m. 

^ The shock was felt all over the dty. Buildings shook, windows 

rattled, and men employed in down-town houses rushed out to 

see what it was all about. 
The shock was felt very differently in different parts of the city. | 

On Telegraph Hill and on Pacific Heights it was felt very much 

more than in the Mission and on lower ground. 
Its motion was from east to west. In Oakland it was considered 

to be more than usually severe. 
In the office of Prof. Davidson, in the Appraisers' building, a curi- i 

ous occurrence was noted. There were three men in the room. 

I 

One was standing and facing west at the moment the shock 
came. The other two were sitting, one facing south, the other 
north. While the two men who were sitting felt the earthquake 
and thought it a severe one, the man standing did not feel it at 
all. The earth trembled only for two seconds. 

^ 1898. June 8| Alameda | 91k. 80nft. a. m. 

. Quite a shock. 

1898. Juno 18 1 Santa Rosaf aboat 61ft. a. m. 

^ A slight earthquake. The vibrations were quite distinct, but no 
damage was done. 



EABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 221 

^ 1898. June 80| Valle|oi Sit* 80m. a. m. 

Two pronounced shocks created considerable excitement for the 
few moments they lasted. The first shock was felt at 5.30 o'clock, 
and was closely followed by the second, which awakened people 
and was accompanied by a distinct rumbling noise (V?, VI?). 
The yibrations lasted about two minutes. No damage was done 
beyond the breaking of crockery. 

The shock was quite noticeable on Mare Island. 

1888. June 80| San Rafael | 61ft. SSm. a. m. 

./ A heavy earthquake. The shock lasted upwards of seven seconds. 
The yibrations were from north to south. Some glassware in 
some of the hotels in and around town was broken (V?, VI?). 



/ 



< 



1888. Jane 80| Petalamai 6i80 a. m. 

A slight shock. The vibration was from north to south and was of 
short duration. 

1888. Jane 80| Hlleai 6i80 a. m. 

N. to S., duration 10 sec. 

1888. Jane 16-80. 

The San Francisco OaM of July 7 contains a story of terrible earth- 
quake shocks and other calamities experienced on San Nicolas 
Island (one of the Santa Barbara group, off San Diego, some 
70 miles) as brought by the captain of the steamer Jennie 
Oriffin, but further investigation renders it very doubtful whether 
any great disturbance occurred. 

1.888. JalT 1| IjalEeport. 

'^ A shock. 

1.888. Jal7 18 f Albaaaarane, H. Hex. 

Three shocks of earthquake that shook, from west to east, every 
house in the city and vicinity and every movable article were 
distinctly felt here this morning between 6 and 7 o*clock. The 
chandeliers in the Commercial Club, a stone structure, rocked 
for at least ten minutes, and the early risers at the club became 
very much agitated (VI?). A number of clocks throughout the 
city stopped (VI?). The wave came from the west. 

1888. Jnly 18 and 88. 

* Shocks at Areata and Hydesville, Cal. 

1888. Jnly ai| Hapa City. 

A shock. 

1888. Jnly 881 Cape Mendoelno Ijlirlfttlftonflei liao a. m. 

Light shock. (Ms. communicated by U. S. Geological Survey.) 



1888. Jnly 84 1 Tomales (Marlon Co., Cal.), 

A shock. 



[ari^i 






222 EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

y^ tSOS. Jiay 80| S«n Franeiseoi llu 80m. a. m. 

A short, sharp shock. The motion was from the southwest. 

18d8. July 80| Oakland | lb. 80m. a. m. 

>C Two light shocks, with scarcely a second elapsing between them. 
No damage. 



V 



1898. AvLgumt 6| Momtt Hamilton | 81k« 16m. p. m. 

A very light shock started the clock (only) of the Ewing seismo- 
graph at 9.16 p. m. and registered on the duplex as a very sim- 
ple tracing of only one or two yibrations nearly east and west, 
the maadmum amplitude of the tracing being 2.5 mm. It was 
not felt by any one at the Lick Observatory. 

18d8. Anviut 8 1 San Franelsoof llu 16m. a. m. ..^_ _ .^_ 

A sharp earthquake shock. Messages from Santa Bosa and Sac- 
^ ramento state that it was quite severe in those places. So far 

as known no damage was done. Ih. 12m. a. m. Sharp shock. 
Duration 8s.— T. T. 

1888. Aavn«t 9| San Dlevo. 

^ Two slight shocks were noticed by the local observer of the weather 
bureau to-day, one at 11.02 a. m., the other at 4.07 p. m. 

1888. Anvnst 8| Alameda. 

Quite a sharp shock was felt at 1.15 a. m., Mr. Perrine's duplex 
/ seismograph giving a tracing 5 mm. in a northwest and south- 

east direction, and at right angles to this 1.5 mm.; also felt at 
Berkeley. 

1888. AvLKumt 8| Petalnma. 

A lively shock of earthquake was felt in this city at 1.10 this mom- 
ing, followed for some time afterwards by tremors. In all, six 
/ shocks were felt, the first being the heaviest. It was the most 

severe felt here for years. The vibrations were north to south, 
and lasted fifteen seconds. No damage is reported, but several 
clocks stopped, plaster cracked, and crockery was thrown from 
the shelves. Many people were badly frightened (VII). 

1888. Auvn«t 9| Santa Rimmu 

The severest earthquake felt here since 1868 occurred this morning 
V at 1.12 o*clock. The oscillations were apparently southeast and 

northwest. Considerable damage was done in the way of fall- 
ing chimneys, broken windows, etc. The court-house was badly 
shaken up, and the plastering extensively damaged (VII?, 
VIII??). 

1808. Auflrnat 8| Sonoma. 

The residents of this valley were awakened at 1 o'clock this morn- 
ing by a heavy shock of earthquake (VI?, VII?). 1.15 a. m. at 
Napa; 1.13 a. m. at Petaluma. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 223 

1888. Auffnat 9| S«n Rafael. 6? 

This morning at 1.10 o'clock, two severe earthquake shocks were 
felt. The vibrations were from east to west. The second shock 
was the heaviest. 

1888. Auflrvst 9| HealdabariTI lit. lOm. a. m. J" 

A sharp shock, or rather three continuous shocks. The sky, which 
was clear, was in a few minutes overcast with fog clouds — some- 
thing not witnessed here for several weeks, although usual in 
summer. 



1888. Avviut 9 1 San Fraaolseo. ^ 

Yesterday morning the Catholic churches of this city celebrated 
the feast of St. Emigdius. High mass was celebrated in the prin- 
cipal places of worship in honor of the day, with the especial 
object of obtaining the protection of St. Emigdius and his 
^. prayers to Almighty God, asking for his protection against the 
calamity of earthquakes, for he is patron against such disastrous 
visitations. 

This observance vdth high mass was introduced by Archbishop 
Alemany after the alarming earthquake which visited this city 
in 1868, and has been celebrated in most of the Catholic churches 
in the United States since that time, and received the sanction 
of the Pope. 

1888. Auffuat 1S| Mills College. I^ 

Prof. Josiah Keep sends a tracing of a slight but quite sharp dis- 
turbance recorded on his seismograph at 12.50 p. m. The record 
shows a displacement of the pen amounting to 5 mm. 

1888. Anffuat 12| Alameda. ^ 

A very slight shock was felt about 12 m. Mr. Perrine's duplex 
seismograph gives a tracing of but a single vibration. 

1888. Aaviuit 14 1 Toiitle River, Waahlnvton. 

Mr. Fred O. Plummer reports: ** Earthquake at 5.07 a. m., N. 40* 
W. — 11 miles from summit of Mount St. Helens. One sharp 
shock vertical. Intensity IV. Distinct rumbling preceding for 
four seconds, near at hand toward the mountain.** At Green 
River Mines, Washington, IV, lateral, rumblings. — ^P. 

1888. AaflTvat 16| Aaatln (Hev.>| ISiSO a. m. ? . ^ 

Two shocks. « 

1888. Avflrnat 27 1 Cape Mendoelno lilirl^tlftoaaei 81ft. 84(4iii. p. m. 

Clock pendulum nearly stopped (VI), but was again started by 
the observer. 

1888. An vast 80 p Candelavia (Ilev.)i 10 a. m. 

Duration 3 sec, N. W. to S. E. 



224 EABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

I 

\ 1808. September 1| Santa, Crns litirlttlftoaflep II1I6 p. la. 



A 



\ 



Waked sleepers, etc. (VI). In the town of Santa Cruz, 2 miles di»> 
tant, the shock is described as unusually heavy; vibrations there 
were N. to S. (Ms. communicated by U. S. (Geological Survey.) 

1808. September 1| Gtlroy* ' 

A sharp shock of earthquake occurred to-night at 11.20 o'clock. It 
was of several seconds' duration. Niles 11.17 p. m. 

1808, September 2| San Jose. 

* Mr. Colton reports that he felt a slight shock of earthquake shortly 
after 10 p. m., exact time not noted, while in his room at the St. 
James Hotel. 

1808. September 6| Carson Cltri 11 p. m. 

1808. September 6| Reddinir* 

Quite a severe shock of earthquake was felt here at 8.22 o'clock this 
morning, preceded by rumbling. It lasted several seconds and 
the vibration was north and south. No damage. 

1808. September 7| I^as Iiunaji (N. Mex.). 

Central New Mexico has been subject almost daily for more than 
three months to Violent earthquakes. Five commotions Thurs- 
day, September 7, threw down a score of old adobe buildings 
already shaky from previous earthquakes (VII), No lives were 
lost, but a peculiar feature is that there were numerous cases of 
nervous sickness, even convulsions, among the inhabitants as soon 
as the rumbling commenced. The center of the disturbance is 
Sabinal, where a spring has appeared in a place which always 
had been dry and barren. 

I8O8. September 28p Monnt Hamilton. 

Prof.'Holden reports the time as 6.20 a. m. Intensity (II), Rossi- 
Forel scale. Mr. Colton was awakened by the shock and reports 
" one slight shock," the time being 6.20.10 a. m., Pacific slope 
time. The Duplex seismograph shows a slight mark of disturb- 
ance. 

1808. October 15| Santa Cms| 6 a. m. 

A severe shock. The undulations were from west to east. 

1808. October 10| Napa (Cal.)| 4iao p. m. 

Cal. S. W. Service Bulletin. 

1808. November 7| Gnadalajara, Mexico. 

A severe earthquake has occurred here during the past ten days. 
The Colima volcano is in violent eruption, and people living at 
the base of the mountain have left their homes. 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 225 

At the town of Americus the first severe shock did great damage 
to property, and several persons were wounded by falling houses 
(Vni). The disturbance was felt in the States of Oaxaca, Puebla, 
Querrero, Morelos, and Jalisco. 

1808. November 6| Alaalcm. 

There have been four earthquakes during the summer at St. 
Augustine Island (Choma Boma), where the mountain is now 
emitting dense clouds of smoke. The natives, remembering the 
devastation caused by the eruption twelve years ago, are deserting 
the island in haste, abandoning all their interests. The last 
eruption rendered useless all existing charts of the neighboring 
waters, causing no fewer than five shipwrecks. 



1808. Narember 21$ Caplatrmnoi Tb. 48ia. p. m. 

A slight shock, which lasted only about two seconds. From the 
motion of the swinging lamps, the vibrations must have been 
from west to east. 

1808. December 5| Pledras Blancaa lilsbtbouae (S. Iiiita Obispo 
Co., Cal.)| 8t66 p. m. 

Very light shock, lasting about 2 seconds. (Ms. communicated by 
U. S. Geological Survey.) 

1808. December 6| liCvrer'a Rancb (Nev.)$ 6 p. m. 

Lewer's Ranch (Nev.), 6 p. m.— C. W. F. 

1808. December 6; Victoria, B. C. 

An active volcano on the American side of the straits was one of 
the scenes witnessed by the passengers on the steamer Maud, 
which returned from Albemi to Victoria, B. C, yesterday. 

1808. December 11 1 Caraon Clty^ SilO p. m. 

E. and W. tremor.— C. W. F. 

1808. December 12 p Lalceport) 8 a. m. 

Quite a severe earthquake. The vibration was from west to east. 
No damage. 

1808. December lai Vlclab) 3b. 15m. a. m. 

' A sharp shock. The clocks in the public buildings were stopped. 
' Vibrations were from south to north (VI). 

1808. December 17| Ontarlof 10b. 60m. p. m. 

Quite a sharp shock. 

1803. December 17| Rlveraldei 10b. 40m. p. m. 

A slight shock. The vibrations, which lasted only a few seconds, 
were from south to north. No damage. 
15 



/ 



226 BABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1894. 

18&4. January 7| Point Arena Iilirlttlftonsei 8i45 p. m. 

^ (IV.) — (Ms. commiinicated by the U. S. Geological Survey.) 

1894. Janvary 14 1 Olympla, Wash. 

Mr. Fred. G. Plummer reports a disturbance at 3.25 a. m. A tremor 
lasting three seconds was followed after an interval of four sec- 
onds by a shock from south-southwest, and a slight tremor later. 
His seismograph at Tacoma barely showed the shock (I?, n?). 

1894. January 14| Vaneower (B. C). 

While the quaking continued, hanging pictures swayed slightly 
and crockery rattled on the shelves. — 8, F. Chronicle. 

1894. January 17. 

[Reports were published that on January 17 Mount Jefferson, as 
seen from Salem, Oregon, poured forth smoke and steam from 
its summit at sunrise. Later explanations showed this to be 
due to atmospheric phenomena.] 

\ 1894. January 24p Riverside p 81ft. SOni. a. n&. 

Quite a heavy shock, which lasted several seconds. — San Jo9^ Mer- 
cury. 



\ 



A 



I 
/ 



1894. February 6p Keeler, Cal. 

A shock of earthquake was felt at 9.01 p. m.— Newspaper. 

1894. February 7p San Jose. 

At 2.09 o'clock a. m. there was a slight shock in this city. One 
short, sharp shock. — Ban Jose Mercury. 



1894. February 8| Iios Anirelesi 5b. 40nft. a. m. 

/ The earthquake shock felt here at 5.45 this morning was also felt 

quite generally in this section. It was short and sharp, and there 
was only one shock. — 8. F, Ewaminer. 

1894. February 16| Hawtbome, Ne-v.i 9i01 p. m. 

(n.) — Report of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 

1894. Marob 8) Mount Hanftllton. 

One shock of intensity III, R. F. 4h. 42m. 50.18. p. m. — E. S. 

Holden. 
Rattled stoves, etc., slightly in second and third stories of brick 

dwellings. 4h. 43m. Is. p. m. — Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Campbell. 
Neither of the seismographs showed any record of this shock. 

1894. April 15| 20b. 66m. 

Ellensburg, Washington, lU, duration lOs. — ^P. 



EABTHQUAKEB ON THE PACIFIC COAST 227 

1894. May 7| Mount Hmmlltoit. 

Two distinct shocks, two seconds apart, of equal intensity, llh. 
56m. 78. p. m. for the last shock.— E. E. Barnard. 

Four shocks in less than 2 seconds, of intensities in, II, II, UL, R. 
F., respectively, llh. 56m. 16b. ± 10s. p. m. In bed in the third 
story of the brick dwelling. — W. W. Campbell. No record of this 
disturbance was found on either of the seismographs. 

18M. Mount Hamilton. 

At lOh. 52m. p. m. a movement of the earth was detected by the 
meridian circle, which was so slight as not to be felt by the 
observer. The motion was a regular oscillation in an east and 
west direction, and lasted for fifteen to twenty seconds. At llh. 
56m. 45s. approximately, one single sharp shock was felt. — R. H. 
Tucker. 

1894. May 228 1 Tacoma, 'Waaliinstoni 221ft. 8(hn. 

n.— P. 

1894. May 27| IBV^lnclieater, Cal.| 12 a. m. 

Two slight shocks. 

1894. June 8| Ulclali (Cal.). 
A shock. 

1894. Jvne 18| 10 a. m. 

Austin, Nevada. — C. W. Friend. 

1894. July 18| Pine Rldse, Cal. 

News comes from Pine Kidge lumber district, 60 miles northeast 
of this city, to the effect that a sharp shock, lasting a few sec- 
onds, was felt there at 8.50 last night. The shock was accom- 
panied by the greatest electric display ever witnessed by inhab- 
itants there. The strange feature is that no clouds were noticed 
by the citizens. — 8, F. CaU, 

Parties arriving from Pine Ridge, 50 miles east of here, state that 
a recent earthquake [July 13?] injured the dam across Stephen- 
son Creek. The joints in the masonry were damaged sufficiently 
to allow the water to pass through, but it is believed that no per- 
manent injury was done. — 8, F. Chronicle. 

1894. July 14 1 near Fresno. 

A remarkable phenomenon is reported from the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains east of Fresno. About sunset last evening a red cloud, 
apparently fifty miles in length, gradually settled over the range, 
and as soon as night came on persons in this city observed k won- 
derful display of electricity on the edges of the cloud. 

To-day news from that region says that when the electrical dis- 
play was at its height an earthquake, violent enough to rattle 



/ 



228 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

houses and shake trees, was felt (VI). It continued several sec- 
onds. Alter it had subsided the cloud rapidly passed away and 
the atmosphere became clear. 
So far as can be learned the earthquake was felt at no place else 
than immediately under the cloud. It was not felt on the plains, 
20 miles distant. — 8. F. Chronicle. 

1894. Julr 18; Offden, Utah. 

At 3.50 p. m. distinct earthquake shocks were felt. Dishes were 
shaken from the tables, the walls of some large blocks were 
cracked, and a general shaking up occurred (VIII?). Many peo- 
ple were frightened into leaving their houses. — 8. F. Chronicle. 

1884. Jvlr 20 1 San Bernardino. 

A shock of earthquake occurred at about 9.15 p. m. The movement 
was of several seconds' duration, and seemed to be from the 
northwest to the southeast. The disturbance was very notice- 
able, causing doors and windows to rattle, chandeliers to swing, 
and buildings to vibrate (VI). No one was injured and no 
property destroyed. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church was occupied at the time 
the earthquake occurred. The building is large and built of 
brick, and the disturbance caused a panic that was soon quelled, 
though a number sought safety in the open air (VI). The pas- 
tor continued his discourse as soon as quiet was restored. 

In the yard at the depot cars standing on the track were put in 
motion and the men had to set the brakes. 

Some report seeing a large meteor at the same time the shock 
occurred. The clock in the old court-house tower stopped at 9.21 
p. m. (VI?).— Newspaper report. 

1894. July 29| Arlington (Cal.)p O p. m. 

Two shocks, the iirst light, the second severe. 

Los Angeles: at 9.12 p. m. the city was shaken by an earthquake, 
which was one of the most severe felt for many years. The un- 
dulations appeared to be from south to north, and there were 
three distinct tremors. The first was a light one, but the second 
made the windows rattle and disturbed loose articles lying about 
on mantels and shelves (VII?). With the third tremor the wave 
passed. As far as could be learned no damage was done, aside 
from the breaking of a few panes of glass (VI?). The shocks 
created consternation in some of the hotels, and caused the in- 
mates to start out in more or less confusion. The tower of the 
City Hall swayed very perceptibly, and the electric-light masts 
continued to vibrate for fifteen or twenty minutes after the dis- 
turbance. 

In the stores along Spring and Main streets the chandeliers 
swung like clock pendulums and the glassware and crockery 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 229 

• 

rattled at a lively rate. In some places the guests rushed out, 
leaylng their meals uneaten, but soon recovered from the scare 
and returned. At the post-office, in the Federal Building, which 
is one of the most solidly constructed edifices in the city, the 
shock was very severe, and caused a panic. The only damage 
done, however, was the breaking of several bottles of ink, which 
were jarred off the shelves (VI?). 

Pasadena: a severe shock was felt here at 9.17 p. m., lasting ten 
seconds. The motion was from northwest to southeast, and the 
shock was accompanied by a loud rumbling. It was felt all over 
the city, brick buildings being shaken until the bricks creaked. 
There was much excitement in the churches and meetings. No 
damage was done in the city so far as known. At Echo Mountain 
the new hotel was shaken. 

Santa Monica: two distinct shocks were felt about 9.11 p. m., the 
last shock being the heaviest ever felt here. The plate-glass vnn- 
dowB in the Hotel Jackson were distinctly seen to wave in and 
out. No damage (V?, VI?). 

Santa Ana: at 9.15 o'clock this evening this city was visited by the 
heaviest earthquake ever experienced here. Buildings shook and 
glassware and crockery rattled (V?, VI?). There were three 
shocks, the vibration being from south to north. The electric- 
light masts continued to vibrate for some minutes after the 
shock. 

Mojave: a heavy shock of earthquake at 9.12 o'clock this evening 
shook this town badly. Goods were knocked oft the counters of 
stores and general excitement prevailed. The vibration was from 
north to south (Vn?). 

Ontario, Cal.: the severest earthquake shook ever felt here occurred 
at 9.12 p. m. No damage. — Los Angeles Times. This shock felt at 
Chino (9.15 p. m., " sharp shock ") ; Fallbrook (9 p. m., " slight," 
S. W. to N. E.); Tremontville (9 p. m., three shocks); Ventura 
9.15 p. m.). 

1884. Avviuit 8| Mount Hamilton. « 

Professor Holden reports a single shock of intensity m to IV on 
the Bossi-Forel scale as awakening him at llh. 50m. p. m. ± one- 
half minute. He was expecting an alarm clock to go off, and 
presumably was easily awakened. The duplex seismograph gave 
a record of this shock, the displacement of the earth being 0.25 
mm. in an east and west direction. 

1894. Auflrnst 8| Hrdeavlllei 8i80 p. m. 

" Slight.'*— Cal. S. W. Service Bulletin. 

1884. Anffuat 22 1 Lewem Rancli, Nevada p 4t28 a. m. 

n. — Report of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 



f 



230 EABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1804. September 80 1 Mount Hamilton. 

The record of a single vibration was found on the duplex seis- 
mograph on the morning of October 1. The seismographs were 
examined on the evening of September 30 and again on the morn- 
ing of October 1, when the record was noticed, so that the shock 
must have occurred in this interval, although it was not felt 
by any one here and did not start the Ewing instrument. The 
! displacement of the earth was about 0.25 mm. 

' Eureka: Two heavy earthquake shocks occurred here this morn- 
ing, the first at 9.36 o'clock, lasting nearly half a minute. The 
vibrations were from north to south. The second was at 9.59 
o'clock, the vibrations being from northeast to southeast. It 
lasted five seconds. No damage. 

Sisson: A slight earthquake shock was felt in this vicinity this 
morning. The vibrations were from north to south. — 8. F. 
Chronicle, 

Hydesville: 9.37 a. m., quite heavy, 10.22 a. m., very light. 

WB94. September 80| Bdn&anton (CaL)i 8t80 a. m. 

y\ A slight shock. 

1884. October 17p Pasadena p 8t06 p. m. looal time. 

A severe triple shock. 

1884. October 28| San Dleso (6t08 p. m.'f). 

Two very heavy shocks. Clocks stopped, etc. (VI). A third shock 
at 7.25 p. m. Very light. 

1884. October 28 1 San Dieso. 

This city and neighboring tovtms were visited this afternoon by a 
series of earthquakes of more than ordinary severity. The first 
shock occurred at (3.03 p. m.?) and was followed at intervals of 
a quarter of a minute by two others, the last being one of the 
strongest experienced hereabouts since the advent of Americans. 
People in brick houses swarmed into the streets, hearing the 
grinding of brick and mortar and seeing in some cases the walls 
crack (VII?, VHI?). A loud noise was heard in all parts of the 
city immediately preceding the shock. Considerable consterna- 
tion was caused in the public schools. 

The second shock was observed by few people, being very light, 
but the third was so pronounced as to bring the people into the 
streets without delay (VII?). Messages from Coronado, Upper 
Otay Dam, Campo, National City and other places show that the 
earthquake was felt about equally at all surrounding points. 
Loose rocks were shaken from the hillsides and rattled down the 
canyons, and a heavy booming noise accompanied the tremors. 
The weather observer reported another slight shock at about 4.25 
o'clock, not so strong as the first ones, but quite perceptible. It 



EABTHQUAKSS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 231 

was not felt on the ground. The waves were from east to west 
in all instances. No serious damage was done. 

Biverside: two distinct shocks of earthquake occurred at 3 p. m. 
The first was light, followed in a few seconds by quite a sharp 
shake. No damage. 

San Bernardino: two distinct shocks were felt here at 2.04 p. m. 
The vibrations lasted twenty seconds and the motion was from 
west to east. 

Colton: a light shock was distinctly felt here about 3 p. m. — 8, F. 
Examiner. 

Los Angeles: a slight shock was felt here at 3.05. — San Jos6 Mercury, 

1894. October ST| Iioa Antfeles. 

A slight shock occurred here to-night at about 11 o'clock. No 
damage. 

San Diego: a shock of 10 seconds' duration was felt here at 11.05 
to-night. It caused some excitement, but no damage is reported. 
— 8, F. Chronicle. 

1884* Hoveiaber 3} Mexleo City* 

Two violent earthquake shocks occurred at 4.17 p. m., with four 
minutes' intermission. During the. vibrations the earth seemed 
rocking like a ship at sea and the natives were on their knees 
in the streets praying frantically. — 8. F. Bulletin. 

1884. Oetober 2i8| Julian (Cal.). 

A sharp shock, 3 p. m. 

1884. October 24p Berkeley (Cal.). 

Slight record. — Professor Soul6. 

1884. October 24p Claremont (Cal.). 

Two shocks, 3h. 4m. 408. p. m. 

1884. November 10 1 Carson (lVev.>p 6t66 p. m. 

E. W., Ught.— C. W. P. 

1884. Ifovember 14| Gold Hill, Ne-v.i 2b. 2m. (p. m.f). 

An earthquake. There were two shocks, with an interval of a 
minute between them. Most of the people thought the distur- 
bances were caused by blasts in the mines. At 6.58 o'clock this 
evening a shock occurred that brought the occupants of many 
buildings into the streets (VII). It was of short duration, but 
rattled windows and glassware at a lively rate. The vibrations 
appeared to be from southeast to northwest.— fif. F. Chronicle. 

Carson, Nev.: 6.55 a. m. (I). 

Lewers Kanch, Nevada: 7.05 p. m. (I). — Report of Nevada State 
Weather Service, 1894. 



232 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 



1884. Hovember 14-18| Nevada. 

The following table was sent to the U. S. Weather Bureau by F. 
A. Carpenter, observer at Carson City. The times are all 75th 
meridian times. [I have added the last column. — E. S. H.] 



/ 



Date 


Carson City. , 


ViBOINIA CiTT. 


Difference 




Time. 


Direction. 


Time. 


Direction. 


in Time. 


No^ 


V. 14 
' 16 
> 16 
' 16 
' 18 
' 18 
' 18 

18 
' 18 

18 


* 9.55 A.M. 

2.07 A. M. 

2.25 A. M. 
- 8.00 A. M. 
-5.88 A.M. 
^ 6.40 A. M. 

5.49 A. M. 

8.15 A. M. 

8.o3 A. M. 

9.22 A. M. 


*E. &"w. " " 
E. A W. 

liV.'ciiiht)" 


2.00 A.M. 
2.18 A. M. 
2.52 A. M. 
5.28 A. M. 
5.80 A. M. 
5.40 A. M. 
8.00 A.M. 
8.24 A. M. 
9. 18 A. M. 


E. & W." 


-)- 7 m. 
-)- 7 m. 
+ 8 m. 
+ 10 m. 
-f- 10 m. 
4- 9 m. 
+ 15m. 
-|. 9 m. 
-|- 4 m. 



V 



V 



* Walls cracked ; window glass broken (VII). 

November 16 1 Oarson, HeT« 

Three heavy earthquake shocks were felt here. The first and 
heaviest was at 11.05 p. m., the second at 11.25 p. m., and the third 
at 12. The direction was east and west. Though the shocks 
caused fright^ no damage was done. — 8, F. Ohroniele, [11.07 p. m., 
11.25 p. m., 12.00 p. m., all " light."— C. W. F.] 

Gold Hill, Nev.: three tremors of intensity U. (No time given.) 

Lewers Banch: at midnight three tremors of intensity III; felt by 
persons all over Washoe Valley. 

Virginia, Nev.: 11 a. m. (U); 11.18 p. m. (H); 11.52 p. m. (II).— 
Report of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 

1884. Hovember ie-22| Virarinia, Ifev. 

There have been, according to different calculations, over one hun- 
dred shocks of earthquake in this city within the week. The 
greater number of vibrations have come from west to east. 
Nevada has been almost free from earthquakes since the advent 
of the white man. There are no Indian traditions in reference 
to former earthquakes in any portion of Nevada as far as can 
be ascertained from the most intelligent of the Indian residents 
here. — flf. F. Ewaminer. 



AI9V-B. Ifovember 17 1 Campo; 6b. (p. la.?). 

\ A heavy shock lasting several seconds. The oscillation seemed to 
\ be from northeast to southwest. — 8. F, ChronMe. 



\ 



1894. November 18| Caraon, Nev. 

Earthquake shocks continue to be felt. Between 3 and 7 o'clock 
this morning six distinct shocks were felt, the first being very 
heavy. Thus far no damage has been done except to cause acute 
nausea (VII) and prevent sleep. The direction of the vibrations 



\ 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 233 

varies considerably, and the shocks are usually preceded by a 
roaring sound. — flf. F. Chnmicle. [2.38 a. m.; 2.40 a. m.; 2.49 a. m. 
(in, sharp); 5.15 a. m.; 5.33 a. m.; 7.22 a. m.; all ** tremors*' ex- 
cept 2.49 a. m.— C. W. F.] . 

Austin, Ner.: 10 a. m. (11); Carson, 2.38 a. m. (I); 2.40 a. m. (I); 
2.49 a. m. (HI); 5.15 a. m. (I); 5.33 a. m. (I); 6.22 a. m. (I). 

Gold Hill, Nev.: four tremors of intensity II. (No time given.) 

Lewers Banch, Nevada: (no time given.) (I.) 

Virginia, Nev.: 2.28 a. m. (II); 2.30 a. m. (I); 2.40 a. m. (IV) (thil 
shock cracked plastering; in some places walls were damaged; in 
many instances window glass was broken (VI?, VII?)); 5 a. m. 
(11); 5.24 a. m. (I); 6.18 a. m. (11).— Report of Nevada State 
Weather Service, 1894. 

1894. IVorember 19 1 Jultan (Cal.)| lOtSO a. m. 

A shock, followed by lighter ones for several days. 

1894. November 21 1 Mount Rainier (Taeoma). 

F. L. Lowe, a carpenter, says he and some companions were within 
6 miles of Mount Tacoma's top, November 21, and that several 
shocks of earthquake were distinctly felt at the mountain's base. 
Several great avalanches were heard crashing down the mountain 
side on the north of the mountain. Rocks were piled over 100 
feet high in the Puyallup River. Returning they crossed the debris 
of an avalanche which was of great depth, half a mile vride and 
4 or 5 miles long.— fifon Jose Mercury. 

1894. IVo-vember 21 1 Tncoma, "^aah.i 61ft. 8(hn. p. m. 

Several slight shocks. Windows were rattled throughout the city. 

The first shock was most severe, being accompanied by rumbling 

noises, as of a distant explosion, and simultaneously a sheet of 

flame was observed in the eastern heavens. 
Carson, Nev., in night (I). — Repori of Nevada State Weather Service, 

1894. 

1894. Monnt Rainier, 'Waelilnston. 

Mount Rainier, Washington; much has been said in the newspapers 
concerning an appearance of change in the summit of this moun- 
tain. The principal facts seem to indicate some sort of change, 
possibly due to avalanches, and the report that smoke issued 
from the crater seems worthy of credence. On the morning of 
November 21 five citizens of Seattle report that they saw pufPs 
off smoke coming from the west side of the top of the mountain 
at intervals of twenty seconds from 6.20 to 8 a. m. The smoke 
came up in huge, balloon-shaped masses, and after hanging sus- 
pended for a short time was wafted toward the eastern side of 
the mountain. Before 8 o'clock the top of the mountain had lost 
its whiteness, and appeared dark, jagged and rough. The same 
phenomena were observed from Taeoma and Portland. On the 



234 BABTHQUAKBS ON THE PAOIPIO OOABT 

afternoon of Thursday, December 13, smoke was seen rising 
from the crater by Obserrer Sanlsbury, of the Weather Bureau, 
and others, from Seattle. Mr. Saulsbury saw the phenomenon 
through a glass repeatedly from 9 a. m. to 1 p. m., and was 
positive that the substance was smoke and not vapor. 

The Seattle Post-IntelUgencer sent out an exploring party in the 
latter part of December to reach the summit if possible and 
determine the character of the phenomena. This party, ovring 
to the dangerous condition of the snow fields, could get no farther 
than the foot of Carbon Glacier, from where the following mes- 
sage was sent back by homing pigeon on December 26: 

" The expedition has been an entire success. It has demonstrated 
that while the mountain has been smoking and steaming, the 
change is due principally to tremendous avalanches and not to 
an eruption. The new peak observed from Seattle is off Colum- 
bus crest, and was formed by spiral winds carrying snow and 
whipping it into the cone-shaped peak described." — 8an Jose 
Mercury. 

The Seattle Poat-lntelUgencer of January 6, 1895, contains a full 
report of the expedition. Without being able to reach the sum- 
mit, the explorers report having seen, on December 24, jets of 
steam issuing from the large crater and a column of black smoke 
from the small crater. 

Of interest in this connection is the following report from Ellens- 
burg: 

" The eruption of Mount Rainier has explained a mystery that has 
baffled all. The waterworks reservoir here suddenly became 
exhausted. Investigation showed a crevice running along the 
hill north and south, vairying from 1 inch to 1 foot in v^dth and 
of unknown depth. It ran directly through the reservoir, letting 
the water out. It has been traced several hundred feet along the 
hill. No shocks of earthquake have been felt here as far as 
known.'* — 8. F. Chronicle, 

(Ellensburg is over 200 miles distant from Mount Rainier. — C. D. P.) 

1884. NoTember SB4| Carsoii, NeT.|*10i08 p. m. (II) | lli22 p. m. (HI). 

(Sharp.) — Report of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 

1884. December 4| Carson, Ne'v.) 8t88 p. m. (I)| fje^wers lUutobi 8i40 
p. m. (II). 

Report .of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 

1884. December 18) Caraoii, Ncv.! 8K>8 p. m. (II). 

(C. W. p.)— Report of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 

1884. December 21) GoM HIII, Nev.) 2i20 a. m. (II). 

Report of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PAOIFIO 00A8T 235 

1884. Deeember 28 1 I«oh Aav^lea. 

Earthquake shocks were experieBced this morning at San Diego, 
Biverside, Pomona and other points. No <^mage was done. — 
San Joae Mercury. 

18M. Deeember 24) Bolae, Idabo. 

Boise was visited by three slight earthquake shocks this morning. 
The first was very slight, about 4 o'clock; the second light, about 
6 o*clock. The third shock was felt everywhere in the city, and 
came at 7.10 o'clock. Houses vibrated perceptibly and people 
were awakened (VI). The shock was accompanied by a booming 
sound like the roar of a gale of wind. — 8. F. Chronicle. 

ISIM^ December 28 1 Gold Hill, NeT.| 9il5 a. m. (I). 

Report of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 

* 

1894. Deeember 29 1 Ck»ld Hill, Ife-r.; 4i80 a. m. (II). S p. m. (I). 

Beport of Nevada State Weather Service, 1894. 

1894. Deeember 80| City of Mexico. 

At 10.53 o'clock on Sunday (December 30), an oscillatory earthquake 
shock was felt in this city and other parts of the valley of Mexico. 
The movement was east and north, but of short duration. The dis- 
turbance caused great alarm among those who feared a repeti- 
tion of the disastrous earthquakes of November 2, which killed 
18 people and did great property damage. In the Arben Theater, 
the only playhouse now open in this capital as a result of the 
damage sustained by other theaters in previous shocks, a stam- 
pede occurred (VII?). 

The scene of November 2 was repeated in a large part, and thou- 
sands of penitents knelt in the open streets and prayed and 
cried in a loud voice for deliverance from death. 

Large supply pipes leading to the city burst, flooding the streets. 

The shock last night lasted nine seconds. It is known that three 
persons were seriously injured. A number of buildings were de- 
stroyed (VIII?).— iSr. F. Call, January 2; 1895. 

EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1805. » 



\ 189S. jAnaary 5| Moaiit Hamilton | 81i. 4iii. STa^diA. 

" ^ One light shock. — ^A. L. C. The duplex seismograph registered a 
disturbance principally northeast and southwest (one virave), the 
displacement of the earth being 0.5 mm. There was a series of 
vibrations at right angles to this of about % mm. 

1 This list contains several occnrrences the correctness of which may well 
be doubted. These cases rest npon newspaper report entirely and are of sach 
a nature that there shonld be confirmatory evidence before accepting them. 
It has been thought best to include these donbtfnl cases, however, and they 
are indicated by some note after them. 



236 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1808. Jannarjr 7; Le'wer'H Rmncli (NeT.)) 11 a« m. 

— c. w. p. > 

^ 1885. Jaiinarr 15) Gold Hlll| 6 a. m. 

—C. W. F. 

1886. Jannary 28 1 Vlciali. 

\ A heavy shock of earthquake was felt in this city this morning. 
^ ^ After the shock the sky cleared and the rain ceased. — Ban Jow 
Mercury^ January 23, 1895. 

1885. Jamiary 25 1 liC-wer'a Raneli (lf«v.)| 4 a. m. 
—C. W. F. 

1885. Janaarj- 26 1 Helena, Mont. 

An earthquake shock was felt here at 5 o'clock this morning. Small 
articles were shaken off the shelves. — Newspaper report. 

1885. Febrnary 25) Portland, Orev>) 4i47 a. m., atandard tinte. 

Three slight shocks from northward. Intensity m. 

Tacoma, Wash., and points to the southward: same time. Three 
slight shocks from S. 10® W., intensity III; Green Biver Mines, 
intensity V. My *' home-made *' seismograph only records hori- 
zontal shocks and showed only ^ inch. The directions noted 
would place center near Toutle Biver, where I observed a ver- 
tical shock — already reported (1893). — F. G. Plummer, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

Portland, Oreg.: three distinct shocks of earthquake were felt here 
early this morning. Each shock lasted about three seconds. The 
first occurred at 4.47. The vibrations were from north to south. 
— San Joae Mercury, February 26, 1895. 

Tacoma, Wash.: this morning's earthquake shock was plainly felt 
in Tacoma, on top of the hill, and at Edison, at Sumner, Puyallup, 
and Steilacoom. There were three light vibrations occurring just 
before 5 o'clock, the general trend being from north to south, 
though at Steilacoom the vibrations seemed to be from east to 
west. — San Josi Mercury, February 26, 1895. 



1885. February 28) Independence (Cal.)) 12i25 a. n&., 120t]^ 
ridian time. 

/ Duration 20 sec. The shock was preceded by unusual noise. A sec- 
^ ond shock about 2 minutes after the first. Light objects over- 

turned, tables moved, etc. (VH). The shock was felt from 
Bishop's Greek to Keeler. 

1885. Mareli 1) Axatlan, Mexieo. 

Inhabitants of Southwestern Mexico are alarmed over the frequent 
earthquake shocks which have occurred during the last month, 
although little damage has been done. Shocks are accompanied 



EABTHQUAKBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST 237 

by subterranean rumblings, followed by a discharge as from 
an artillery, which shakes the earth for nearly half a minute at 
a time. The recent outbreak of the subocean volcano off the 
Pacific coast, in Guerrero, is ascribed as the reason for the fright- 
ful demonstrations. — S, F, Examiner, March 2, 1895. 

m 

1806. BUtreli 1| at Hea* oil tlie Mendoolno (Cal.) eoajit| lonsttade 
1250 2W, latltade 40<». 

The recent earthquake which was reported as having disturbed 
the inhabitants of Mendocino proved to be a veritable terror at 
sea, according to the stories told by the crews of the schooners 
Volant and C. T. Hill, which have just arrived from that section 
of the coast. 

The Volant was about 52 miles off the Mendocino coast, in the 
vicinity of Shelter Cove, when she encountered the shake-up. It 
took place a few minutes before 1 o'clock on the morning ot 
March 1. The sea had been quite calm all night, but the breeze 
kept up well. The first warning of the earthquake came in the 
form of a deafening roar which seemed to rise out of the sea. 
In an instant the ocean was lashed into a mass of foam, and in 
spots it rose in great geyser-like columns. The schooner stopped 
with a crash and then shook for fully two minutes. Every tim- 
ber and bolt groaned and creaked, and it was thought for a 
moment that she was going down. Those on deck were knocked 
down. The schooner pounded up and dov^m frightfully for a few 
minutes, just as if she were aground, and then all became still. 
We had scarcely recovered our senses when a second shock came, 
but it was not nearly so severe as the first. When this one was 
over the sea became as still as a mill pond, the wind died out, 
and everything was as quiet as death. The schooner C. T. Hill, 
which was carrying lumber, was also tossed about by the tem- 
blor. She was only a few miles astern of the Volant at the 
time. Captain Forest's story of the experience is similar to that 
told by the crew of the Volant. — 8, F. Chronicle. 

Note.— Inquiries addressed to the captains of the vessels named, 
through the Merchants' Exchange of San Francisco, elicited no 
reply.— C. D. P. 

The following paragraph by Dr. Edward S. Holden, from the Pub- 
licationa of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. VII, 1895, 
page 131, is of interest: 
" The S. F. Chronicle of March 8, 1895, gives an account of a severe 
earthquake shock experienced by two vessels some 50 miles off 
Cape Mendocino, in longitude 125* 20', latitude 40° (both approx- 
imate). My List of Recorded Earthquakes in California (1887) 
contains several notices of shocks felt in this vicinity, as follows: 
" * At sea, 45 miles W. S. W. of Cape Mendocino; 
" * At sea, 50 miles W. S. W. from Cape Mendocino; 
• At sea, longitude 126** 25', latitude 41° 55'; 



t< 



238 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 






/ 



\ 
\ 



/ 



At sea, longitude 125* 60', latitude 40® 24'; 

At sea, longitude 125<> 20', latitude 40°— (as above).' 
A relief map of the ocean bed near Cape Mendocino, made by 
Prof. George Davidson and Mr. Winston, shoves the coast to be 
very ' steep-to *; and it further shows tviro submarine mountains 
in the neighborhood.^ The slipping of the earth at the junction 
of the steep submarine cliff with the (comparatively) fiat ocean 
floor may very well be the cause of some of these disturb- 
ances. It is also possible, at least, that they are connected with 
the two submarine elevations mentioned. More observations are 
needed to decide this question. It is a little remarkable that we 
have reports of shocks felt at sea in this vicinity and none, or 
few, at other points along the coast." (See Oct. 24, 1895.) 

1896. March 10; San Mtyael laland. 

This is one of a chain of islands about 30 miles off the coast, near 
Santa Barbara, Cal. On March 17 newspapers published reports 
of a disturbance on this island about March 8, by which the 
shore in places waa elevated 60 feet and other considerable 
changes wrought. Another disturbance is reported about March 
30, by which a small schooner was wrecked in the harbor at the 
island. A third disturbance was reported in July on Flea Island, 
an islet in the immediate neighborhood. Through the kindness 
of Mr. J. J. Hollister, of Santa Barbara, we learn that there was 
a large landslide on San Miguel Island. This fact was worked up 
by a newspaper reporter into a very sensational article. 

Cordoba, Mexico: the peak of Orizaba is reported in press dis- 
patches to be in a state of eruption after many centuries of 
quiescence. 

1886. Marcli 1S| Monnt Hamiltoai Oli. 34iii. 17a. p. m., Pacllle 
standard time. 

One short, sharp, vertical sliock. Rossi-Forel (V). — E. S. H. At 9h. 
34m. 17s. p. m.. Pacific standard time (in sitting room on Mi.. 
Ptolemy), strong vertical shock, followed by two very quick 
weak shocks. All three lasted less than Is. Absolutely no hori- 
zontal component noted. Intensity of first shock IV or V. — W. 
W. C. 9h. 34m. 17s. p. m., Pacific standard. One sharp shock 
followed by one or two slight tremors. Doors and other objects 
rattled in third story of brick dwelling. Rossi-Forel V. — C. D. P. 
The duplex seismograph recorded several small vibrations with- 
out any decided tendency as to direction; the displacement of the 
earth being about % mm. 

1885. April 1| Bnrekai 8]i. 4Sin. a. m. 

A sharp shock. The vibrations were from southwest to northeast. 
— ^Newspaper report. 

1 Tbia map is reproduced in the present volume. 



SABTHQITAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 239 

188S. April 6| San Jom. 

The Evening NetOB reported a shock " just before 7 a. m." The cor- 
respondent of the 8, F. Chronicle reported a shock about 6.45 a. m. 
Not felt at Lick Observatory. 

180B. April 16 1 Port To^frnaendy IVajili. 

Two slight shocks were felt here shortly after midnight last night. 
Heavy brick buildings trembled and many people were frightened 
badly.— fir. F. Examiner, April 17, 1895 (VI?). 

1898. April 17} Vaea'vllle. 

Quite a sharp earthquake shock was felt here this morning about 
12.30 o'clock. 

Virginia, Nev.: there was a short, sharp shock at 6 o'clock this even- 
ing.— fir. F, Chrtmicle, April 18, 1895. 

180B. April 18| ITlclah. 

A small unnamed island off the coast of this county (Mendocino), 
opposite Bournes Landing, is now in a state of eruption, accord- 
ing to the report of an observer. For some time past it has been 
reported that flames were issuing from the center of the isle. 
J. £. Meredith, who has been traveling along the northern coast 
for some weeks, passed the island Thursday. It was some time 
during the early evening, and he was attracted by a bright light 
in the west. The flames were so brilliant that he at first imag- 
ined they were caused by a burning ship at sea. On his return 
south the next day, however, he discovered smoke curling up and 
then saw it emanated from a peak on the island.— firan Jose 
Mercury, April 22, 1895. 

Note.— This has not been verified.— C. D. P. Forest fire?— E. S. H. 

1895. April 199 Tletorla, B. C. 

A slight shock of earthquake, moving from east to west, was felt 
here a little before midnight. Buildings all through the city 
trembled and all the telephone calls came down together with a 
clatter. — Newspaper report. 

1896. April ST I City of Mexico, Mexleo. 

Colima volcano is again in a state of eruption, emitting great col- 
umns of smoke and fire both night and day. The inhabitants of 
the immediate neighborhood of the volcano are leaving their 
homes. — Newspaper report. 



/ 



89S. May 1| Ii«keport| 21i. 80m. a. m. 

Quite a severe shock. The vibrations were from west to east and 
" lasted from five to seven seconds. No damage. 

188II. Vlclalii Sli. a. m. 

A severe shock, lasted some seconds. — Newspaper report. 



/ 



> 



\ 



240 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1895. May 21 1 San JoHcT-Monnt Hamiltoa. 

[The telephone operator in San Jos6 reported a shock of earthquake 
in San Jos6 about 10.45 a. m. W. W. G. and B. H. T. (at Mount 
Hamilton) noticed rattling about that time, but felt nothing. The 
duplex instrument shows a slight mark, probably from this shock, 
of 1 mm. (earth's movement ^ mm). — ^N. W. Later it was learned 
that the nitroglycerin works at Pinole, Contra Costa County, had 
exploded at 10.40 on that morning. Doubtless the shock noted 
above was due to this explosion. Pinole is nearly 60 miles in an 
air line from Mount Hamilton.] 

1898. Mar 949 Berkeler* 

Slight record. — Professor Soul€. 

1898. Jmte 4| Berkeley. 

Slight record. — Professor Soul§. 

1895. Jane 4| San Franetaco. 

[A blast of 15,000 pounds of powder was exploded on Clarendon 
Heights. No effect was noticed at Mount Hamilton.] 

1896. Jane 10| Berkeley. 

Slight record. — Professor Soul6. 

1895. Jane 11. 

[A newspaper account from New Whatcom, Wash., says Mount 
Baker (40 miles away) has been smoking or steaming, and that 
a new peak has appeared between the dome and south peak, vis- 
ible at New Whatcom with the naked eye. Note. — ^This report has 
not been verified. — C. D. P.] 

1896. Jane 16 1 Port To'wnHend, IVaslt., Jaae 16. 

[Chimacum, a small farming center 4 miles from here, was terribly 
shaken last night at 8 o'clock by the falling of a huge meteor, 
which burst with a loud noise, and after causing a small-sized 
cyclone of several minutes' duration, buried itself deep in the 
muddy bottom of a neighboring lagoon. The meteor struck with 
force enough to break crockery in farmhouses 3 miles away and 
created great terror among the residents. Ten hours after the 
occurrence the waters of the lagoon were still bubbling and seeth- 
ing, and were found to be hot. Systematic dragging of the 
lagoon failed to bring up any traces of the celestial messenger. — 
S. F, Ewaminer, June 17, 1896.] 

1896. Jaae 90| Moant Hamiltoai 91i. 48m. 26h. p. m. Pacllle 
•taadard tlaie. 

" One shock of intensity II or III, northeast and southwest, third- 
story brick house." — C. D. P. The duplex instrument shows a 
single displacement of the earth of about % mm. in a northeast 
and southwest direction with several very small vibrations at 
the end. 



EABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 241 

''About forty-fiye minutes after the first earthquake shock a star 
viewed in the 12-inch equatorial was seen to vibrate sharply over 
an arc of 1" or 2". The telescope was clamped, at the time. If 
this was a second earthquake shock it was too slight to be felt.** 
— R. G. A. 

Smith Creek: a lady visitor reported that the earthquake of June 20 
was felt at Smith Creek, foot of Mt. Hamilton. 

1896. Jane 16 1 Coeopali Mountains. 

George Neal, a mining man, saw a sight on the desert last Sunday 
that filled him with amazement. He was in company with Lew 
Hosgate at the time. Their property is on the Tajo River. At 
that place the desert is in plain view for miles. Neal looked 
across toward the Cocopah Mountains, and was surprised to see 
a heavy column of smoke ascending from the central peak of the 
three Pichacos that rose several hundred feet. Neal and Hosgate 
watched the black column, and saw it shoot high into the air 
at intervals, and a distant booming sound was heard as of can- 
nonading. The Indians told them that the Cocopah country was 
on one of its " tantrums " again, and that the mud volcanoes, 
gas fissures, hot springs and fire volcanoes were all at work veith 
more activity than ever before. Many Cocopah and Santa Cata- 
rina Indians were reported to have fied from the mountains 
into the interior of the peninsula and over to the Colorado Biver. 
Gas wells or fissures exist, according to the Indians, which blow 
at irregular intervals, emitting a whistle which can be heard for 
miles. — Newspaper report. Note. — This has not been verified. — 
C. D. P. 

1888. Jnn« SB4) Movnt Hamilton) 91i. 85ni. 86h. ± 2s., standard Pa- 
clflc time. 

" One earthquake shock at the above time. I was observing with 
the 36-inch. Planet moved north and south over about 5" or 6*.** 
'~~£. £. B. 

** A slight earthquake shock was noticed at 9h. 25m. 41s., Pacific 
standard. The 12-inch equatorial telescox>e was directed at v 
Scorpii at the time, and stars A and B were seen to vibrate three 
or four times over an arc of nearly 4" north and south in the 
field of view, coming back nearly to their original position.** — 
B. G. A. The duplex seismograph shows a single displacement 
of the earth of about ^ mm. about north-northeast and south- 
southwest. 

1886. Jane 28 1 Seattle) l^asli. 

Assistant Weather Observer E. O. Hobbs has recently been making 
some examinations on the summit of Mount Bainier with a small 
telescope and has discovered a large dark crevasse through the 
center of Columbia Crest, which can be seen plainly with the 
naked eye. A large snowslide has recently occurred at the base 
16 



242 EARTHQUAKES OK THE PAGIFIO COAST 

of Liberty Cap on the north side, and on the west side there 
appear to be several new crevasses of various sizes. Mr. Hobbs 
has also noticed the mountain steaming and smoking in the same 
manner as last winter. — 8. F. Chronicle, June 29. I^ote. — ^ThiB. 
report has not been confirmed. — G. D. P. 

189II. July I Nanalmo, B. Cy ▼!« VaneonTer, B. C, Jnlx 9, 

The earthquake shock at Nanaimo this week caused no little alarm 
in that city. The alarm was, however, soon dissipated, and the 
shock, which lasted a few seconds only, did no damage except 
the breakage of some crockery in houses and stores (Vn). 

There are persistent reports by dwellers in the neighborhood of 
Hope, a small town about 100 miles up the Fraser Biver, to the 
effect that one of the small mountains in the Smimilkameen is 
an active volcano. Flames are seen shooting therefrom at night, 
and several parties have lately attempted, in consequence, to ex- 
plore the vicinity.— Newspaper report. 

189S. Julx 26; Santa Barbara; 4il0 p. m. 

V^ Earthquake lasted three seconds. Vibration northwest to south- 
^ east.— fir. F. Chronicle, July 27. 

V 1886. AvoriiHt 4 1 Gllror; S lU m. 

A shock. The vibration was from west to east, and lasted but a 
second. No damage. — B. F. CM, 

188S. Anmnmt 16-17| Vlrfftnlay Nev. 

Six shocks, two of which were quite severe, during the past two 
days. — ^Newspaper report. 

188S. September 1| Taeoma* "Wasli. 

The mountain-climbers who returned to-night from Mount Tacoma 
report steam, smoke and gas belching from the foot of Nisqually 
Glacier, where the Nisqually Biver has its source. 

At the rim of the crater, southeast of Columbia Crest, the ground 
is quite warm, notvnthstanding the arctic atmosphere oi the 
summit. Steam comes out of the crater at this particular point 
more, freely than any other part. — San Jose Mercury, September 
2, 1895. 

1898. October 7; MlUa College; TilT p. m. 

"With this I send a blue print of an earthquake tracing, the lirst 
I have observed for some time. The shock occurred about 7h. 
17m. p. m., October 7, 1895, and was distinctly felt, though it was 
not severe. There was a slight premonitory rumbling, then a 
distinct shaking.*' — Josiah Keep. The tracing inclosed with the 
above is somewhat indistinct, and the limits of vibration conse- 
quently uncertain, but seems to be about 10 mm. by ly^ mm., 
the longer direction being about north-northwest by south- 
southeast. The disturbance seemed to be composed of several 
nearly parallel waves. 



BABTHQUAKE8 ON THE PAOIPIO COAST 243 

Albuquerque, N. Mex.: the people of Sablnal and Jorales, two small 
settlements south of this city, are greatly excited over three dis- 
tinct earthquake shocks, and many have moved from their 
homes into the mountains. The waves were from the southeast 
to the northwest and were so strong that houses rocked to and 
fro and household goods tumbled from the shelves (VII?). The 
shocks were felt here last night, but only slightly. — 8, F, Ewam- 
iner, October 8, 1895. 

1886. October 14. 

The tide-gauge of the U. S. Coast Survey at Sausalito shows Evi- 
dences of a heavy storm or earthquake. The irregpilaritles in 
the record began at 8.20 a. m. on October 14 and lasted continu- 
ously for eighteen hours. — 8. F. CaM, October 19, 1895. 

1896. October SO) Olrmpto Moantaiiuiy "WiMhinvtoii. 

[This range was reported in active eruption about this time, but 
upon investigation it was found that the flames seen were those 
of forest fires and from a burning vein of lignite coal.] 

1886. October 94| at sea, off tbc Callforala coMt. 

The ship John C. Potter, Captain Meyer, makes the following report 

to the Merchants' Exchange: 
" October 24, in latitude 43*" 54' north and longitude 128" 32' west, 

exx>erienced a severe shock of earthquake, lasting 25 seconds. It 

made the ship shake as if it had jumped over a coral reef in a 

heavy swell." — 8, F. Chronicle^ October 31, 1895. 

1886. NoTcmber 7| Mount Hamilton) 6b. 46ni. 84b. a. nt. 

*' Slight shock. 3h. 12m. 55s. p. m., two severe vibrations a second 
or two apart; direction of motion seemed to be downuxtrS and 
toward the northeast." — ^A. L. C. 
" 3h. 12m. 51 ^s. p. m.. Pacific standard time. In southeast comer 
room, first story, brick house. Heavy shock lasting four or five 
seconds; B. F. (V). One or two light trembles and then two 
heavy waves, the principal direction felt being about southwest 
and northeast. Motioi^ appeared to be almost entirely hori- 
zontal; could not distinguish any decided vertical motion. Some 
article in the dark room fell to the fioor after the heaviest 
shocks. Disturbance ended rather abruptly. Wind light, from 
northeast. Hazy. No noise noticed before the shock. A small 
notch in barograph record at this time. Barometer unsteady, 
but this notch seems as if it might be due to the earthquake." 
Notch is 0.01 or 0.02 of an inch in depth.— C. D. P. The Ev^ng 
instrument was not started, but the pens show a vibration as 
follows: 
East and west, 4.0 mm. = 1.2 mm. displacement of earth, 

North and south, 3.7 mm. = 1.1 mm. displacement of earth, 

Vertical movement, 10.5 mm. =: 6.6 mm. displacement of earth, 



244 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

which, however, is very uncertain and is undoubtedly very much 
augmented by the " creep " of this pen due to temperature, which 
Ib large. The clock was started, giving the time as 3h. 12.7m. 
p. m. 
The duplex seismograph shows a complicated series of motions, of 
which the greatest were east-southeast and west-northwest 7 
mm., or 1% mm. actual displacement of the earth. The greatest 
displacement of the earth at right angles to this direction was 
% mm. 

8an Jos6: the city was visited by a sharp shock of earthquake at 
3.14 o'clock this afternoon, lasting ten seconds, the vibrations 
apparently being from east to west. — 8, F. Ewaminer^ November 8, 
1895. 

Santa Cruz: an earthquake, the heaviest in Ave years, was felt here 
at 3.15 o'clock this afternoon. The vibrations were from east to 
west. — 8, F, Examiner^ November 8, 1895. 

San Jo8§: San Jos4 was visited by an earthquake about 3.15 o'clock 
yesterday afternoon. There were two sharp shocks of short dura- 
tion. No damage. — San Josi Mercury, November 8, 1895. 

1895. No'v«mb«r 96 1 Bfoimt Hamilton. 

"A light shock was felt to-day at Ih. 56m. 358., Pacific standard 
time. Its direction could not be noted. (II? E. S. H.) Its dura- 
tion was but momentary. I should estimate its intensity on the 
Kossi-Porel scale as III."— R. G. A. 

Ih. 56m. 35s. p. m.. Pacific standard. Light unock. Bossi-Forel 
n. — G. D. P. Did not start the Ewing instrument. The east- 
and-west pen shows a vibration of the earth of about 0.5 mm., 
and the north-and-south pen a vibration of about 0.4 mm. The 
vertical motion is masked entirely by the ** creep " due to tem- 
perature. The duplex instrument shows one (only) complete 
wave, about northeast and southwest, with a displacement of the 
earth of 0.4 mm. 

1896. NoTemberi Kynaaoty B. C. 

Via Victoria, British Columbia, November 30. Kyuquot, an Indian 
village on the west coast of Vancouver Island, received a severe 
shock of earthquake early this month which the natives will lon^ 
remember. Their little houses were shaken almost from their 
foundations, trees swayed, and considerable damage was done 
(VI).— fif. F. Call, December 1, 1895. 

1806. Deeember 8| Fairfield. 

A few minutes before 8 o'clock this morning a heavy shock of 
earthquake was experienced here, lasting five seconds. Three 
distinct oscillations were plainly felt, the vibrations running from 
northeast to southwest. — 8, F, Chronicle, December 9, 1895. 

Fullerton: a heavy shock, closely followed by a lighter one, was 
felt here early this morning. — 8, F. Chronicle^ t>ecember 9, 1895. 



EARTHQUAKES ON T^HB PACIFIC COAST 245 

Napa: a distinct shock was experienced, lasting several seconds. — 
—S. F, Calh December 10, 1895. 

ISdB. December 12 9 Vlcialii lait. 40m. a. m. 

A slight shock. The oscillations were from east to west. — 8, F, Gall, 
December 13, 1895. 

1805. December 28 1 Santa Barbara; abont 9b. 80m. p. m. 

An earthquake was felt which lasted several seconds. — ^Newspaper 
report. 

1896. December 28) Monnt Hamilton. 

9h. 12m. 13s. a. m., Pacific standard. — R. G. A. 9h. 12m. 01s. a. m.. 
Pacific standard, by seismograph clock. Recorded on both seis- 
mographs. The Ewing instrument shows a disturbance lasting 
about ten seconds in each horizontal component, and about six 
seconds in the vertical. 

North and south, — The waves of shortest period and gpreatest ampli- 
tude occurred in this component, beginning vdthin one second 
of the starting of the plate. The vibrations are of short period, 
but smooth and regular. The largest one measured had a double 
amplitude (magnified) of about }{ mm. and a period of one-fotirth 
second, which according to the formula gives an intensity of 32 
mm. per second and would be between I and II of the Bossi- 
Forel scale. The main portion of the disturbance lasted about 
five seconds, some tremors for ten seconds. 

Bast and toest. — The first few vibrations are of short period, followed 
by slower vibrations of about two seconds. The greatest ampli- 
tude (double and magnified) is about y^ mm. 

Tertical. — Two waves of about two and one-half seconds each and 
a double amplitude of about y^ mm. (magnified). 

The waves are all too small to measure with any great accuracy. 

EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 1896.1 

1896. Jannarjr 8| Baanimanlt, B. C.) 10K>9 p. m., P. ■. t. 

" A distinct shock of earthquake.** — Reported by E. Baynes Reed, 
Esq. 

1896. Jannarr 8) Victoria, B. C. 

A severe shock of earthquake was felt here to-night at 10.20 o'clock. 
Many citizens in the public ofQces, believing the shock to be pro- 
duced by the falling in of some large roof, or like cause, hurried 
to the streets. — Newspaper report. 

1 Inclnded in this list are one or two cases, the correctness of which may be 
doubted. These cases rest npou newspaper evidence entirely and are of snch 
a nature that there should be confirmatory evidence before accepting them. 
It has been thought best to include these doubtful cases, however, and they 
are indicated by some note. 



246 BABTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Port Angeles (Wash.) : at 10.30 o'clock last night two distinct shocks 
of earthquake were felt in this city. They were severe enough 
to shake the chimneys off lamps and the dishes off the shelves 
(VII). — ^Newspaper report dated January 4, 1896. 

1896. JtLnnm.ry 8| 8iS6 p. m.f Turn Point I4. H., Waaltlnvton. 
A shock. — ^Ms. kindly communicated by the U. S. L. H. Board. 

188(k January 5) Coeopah Monntainay via Indio, Jannarjr 5. 

Prospectors report seeing immense quantities of smoke and steam 
rising off the desert toward the volcanoes below the Coeopah 
mountains during the day and a bright light at night, showing 
that the volcanoes in that vicinity are again in active operation. 
— flf. F, Chronicle. 

1880. January- 8| I^alLe Cltapala, Mexteot via San Dieffo (Cal.), Jan- 
nary IS. 

Professor £. H. Coffey of this city has just received a letter from a 
correspondent living near Lake Chapala, State of Jalisco, Mexico, 
which describes some startling phenomena occurring there. Lake 
Chapala is a sheet of water fifty miles long and ten miles wide. 
The formation of the country around it is purely volcanic. On the 
forenoon of January 8th the residents of one of the small settle- 
ments near the western end of the lake were terrified to see a 
gigantic whirlpool raging far out on the waters. The water rose 
in great serpentine movements and from all directions rushed 
towards a common center, where a vast cavity seemed to exist. 
At the same time a heavy rumbling, apparently in the bowels of 
the earth, took place. The whirlpool was caused by the sudden 
sinking of a large portion of the lake's bottom. The disturbance 
continued for twenty minutes, and before it subsided several 
pleasure boats were drawn into the whirlpool and disappeared 
with their occupants. It is estimated that a score of lives were 
lost. — 8. F, Examiner^ Jan. 13. 

1886. January- 85 1 Carson, Nevada. 

Professor C. W. Friend reports: " We have had quite a number of 
earthquake shocks on January 25th and 27th, 1896; they were 
rather peculiar. On the 25th the first noticeable one occurred at 

4.45 a. m., and was the heaviest that day. I also noticed one at 

4.46 a. m. and 5.02 a. m., both light. The motion W. to E. was 
hardly perceptible. 

We had quite a number of shocks on the 27th : 

7.59 a. m. S. to N. (II), 

8.34 a. m. W. to E. (Ill), 
11.04 a. m. S. W. to N. E. (Ill), 
11.19 a. m. S. W. to N. E. (I), 

1.01 p. m. S. W. to N. E. (IV), 

6.32 p. m. S. W. to N. E. (II), 



EABTHQTTAKES OK THB PACIFIC COAST 247 

and quite a number of very light tremors between, which I no- 
ticed, being quiet in the building. The seismographs did not 
record a spot larger than one-tenth inch on the plate for all of 
these, although some of the shocks were quite severe, so much 
so that it scared a great many people. On the 25th I hung up a 
one-ounoe plumb bob on a fine thread three feet long in a glass 
case fastened to a stone wall, and it was all I could do to deter- 
mine the motion by it; all the shocks, including those of the 
25th, were vertical and produce a very strange feeling.** 

1890. JAawarjr 27$ CamoBf N«v. 

The first heavy shock was about 8.30 o'clock in the morning, and it 
was quick and lively. It rattled the glass and china in every- 
body's cupboard, made the windows shake and got several lazy 
people out of bed (V?). The next was about 11 o'clock and was 
also quite sharp. At 1 o'clock came the heaviest of all, and it 
shook every building in the city. The Capitol building was par- 
ticularly well shaken, and inside of a minute there was a rush to 
the basement of the building to see the record of the seismo- 
graph. It had been defiected about an eighth of an inch by each 
shock and had also recorded small shocks all through the day. 

The Signal Service records, showed a very unsettled barometer. 
Bapid changes occurred and their suddenness was unequaled by 
anything recorded since last July. These shocks were all graded 
as No. ni, Rossi-Forel scale. There were two others during the 
day that graded I and II respectively. The first was north and 
south, the second east and west and the last three southwest and 
northeast. They were principally vertical. 

The jar at 1 o'clock made a large crack in the side of the Govern- 
ment building and shook some of the plaster from the ceiling of 
the county building (VII).— fif. F. OaU. 

• 
1886. February I Tavqvli Pealcy Tim I«<mi AnsrelcSf February 4. 

A special to the Times from San Jacinto says: There is considerable 
excitement here over what appears to be an eruption of part of 
the San Jacinto mountains called Tauquiz Peak, twenty miles 
from here. The streets of San Jacinto have been crowded with 
people looking through telescopes at the ominous clouds of smoke 
which have hung over Tauquiz all day. When first noticed at 9 
o'clock the vicinity of the peak was hazy vdth smoke. Within 
the next hour this cleared away and glasses leveled at the extinct 
volcano were able to detect a straight line of smoke ascending. 
Soon this disappeared and then pufP, puff, came more black 
smoke, like that which pours out of the smokestack of a loco- 
motive. 

The smoke has continued to pour out of Tauquiz all day, and every- 
body is much excited, fearing an eruption. This peak has been 



248 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

pronounced by scientists an extinct volcano. — 8. F, Chronicle, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1896. 
This report has not been confirmed. — C. D. P. 

1886. Febnutry 6) Tanqnli Moutaln, Tie, Ssa Bernardino^ Feb- 
ninrx 6. 

Parties who have returned from the San Jacinto Mountain report 
that Mount Tauquiz gives out mysterious rumblings and that 
smoke is plainly visible. To-day smoke was seen from this city. 
—8. F. Chronicle. 

1^6. Febmary 6| Tananli Movntnin^ ▼!■, Snn Bemnrdlno, Feb- 
ruary 7. 

Mount Tauquiz, a spur of the San Jacinto Mountains, and well 
knovTn to be an extinct volcano, situated about twelve miles from 
the tovTn of San Jacinto, is again reported to be giving forth 
smoke. Two men from San Jacinto say a column of vapor can 
be plainly seen rising from the highest point and that it looks 
nearly as white as snow. Reports of this mountain being in a 
state of active eruption have been numerous for several days» 
and to-morrow a party of newspaper reporters will leave the city 
on an expedition to Tauquiz. The last four miles of the trip vnll 
have to be made through banks of snow several feet in depth, the 
mountain being covered with snow this season of the year and 
being 10,000 feet in height.— iSf. F, Ewaminer, February 8, 1896. 

1886. February S) Tananla Moan tain, Tia San Bemardtno» Feb- 
ruary 8. 

It is reported to-day that people in and about Mount Tauquiz are 
getting ready to leave the vicinity, as the action of the moun- 
tain, to say the least, is very threatening. 

The first that was noticeable in its strange demeanor was a whis- 
tling sound — ^not shrill, but hoarse and gujttural-like. This was 
followed by a deep rdar like distant thunder, followed by peal 
on peal. 

This continued for several days, when ond morning the Indians in 
camp were startled by a shock like that of a heavy earthquake 
and immediately smoke was seen issuing from the mountain's 
peak, at first in thin white layers, followed immediately by puffs 
like from the smokestack of an engine. This has kept up almost 
incessantly up to date. 

It has been handed down in Indian history in that neighborhood 
that Mount Tauquiz once belched forth volumes of fire. — 8. F. 
CaUy February 10, 1896. 

1886. February 6| Baat Clallam fW^aab.)! 8b. 55m. p. m. 

Quite a well-defined shock. The direction of the temblor was from 
west to east. It lasted about a minute. Every house in the 
town, large and small, was shaken io its very foundations, but 
as far as can be learned no damage was done. 



EAHTHQTJAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 249 

The Indians on Neah Bay reservation all felt the shock. The same 
shock was also experienced on Tatoosh Island about the same 
time. The captain of the bark Edinburghshire, lying at anchor 
in the bay, says the shock was felt by every person aboard his 
vessel. Some of the sailors became so scared that they wanted 
to take to the ship's boats. — 8. F. Chronic^, 

1896. February 18 1 Redding. 

A slight earthquake shock was felt in this city about 10 o'clock this 
forenoon. The shock was more perceptible in the western part 
of the city and on the hill upon which the county court-house 
stands. 

Weaverville: three successive shocks of earthquake were felt very 
perceptibly here at five minutes to 10. They were of s)iort dura- 
tion with a vibration from south to north. Buildings of more 
than one story received a hard shaking. 

Eureka: at 9.55 o'clock this morning a sharp shock of earthquake, 
vibrating from north to south, was felt in Humboldt county. — 
8, F, Examiner, February 14, 1896. 

1886. Februsry 16| Los Anareles. 

A distinct shock of earthquake was felt here at 2.52 p. m. The tem- 
blor lasted several seconds. Large building^ of substantial struc- 
ture were considerably shaken. In the court-house the shock was 
distinctly felt by the county officials and their deputies, and they 
were frightened. 

Pasadena: Pasadena was visited by a slight earthquake shock at 
2.57 o'clock this afternoon, lasting about fifteen seconds. The 
wave seemed to pass from northwest to southeast. — 8, F. Call. 

1896. Febmsry 15; ttom Anselea. 

A slight shock, lasting about two seconds, was felt in this vicinity 
at 2.45 o'clock this afternoon. — 8, F, Chronicle. 

1886. Blsrcb 16| Bnrrard MonntalnM, B. C, vis VancouTer (B. C.)r 
Mareb 16. 

One of the Burrard mountains, directly opposite Vancouver and ten 
miles distant, is believed to have been in a state of eruption last 
night. Numbers of persons vouch for the accuracy of the state- 
ment. C. Harris, a reputable lawyer, declares that dense smoke 
and flames poured from the mountain for several minutes. No 
one has scaled the mountain, so that its geological formation is 
not known. In view of the fact that several shocks of earthquake 
occurred here in the past year, the story is believed by many.— 
Newspaper report. 

This report has not been confirmed. — C. D. P. 

1886. Mareb 18 1 4i01 a. m. 

Carson (Nev.), light.— C. W. F. 



260 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1886. Mareli 20| lli26 p. m. 

Carson (Nev.)f light.— C. W. F. 

1886. April 2 1 Portland (Oregon). 

About 3.20 a. m. a single shock of brief duration was felt here. The 
shock was felt as far south as Salem. 

McMinnville (Or.) : the inhabitants were awakened at 3.17 this morn- 
ing by an earthquake (VI). Two or three distinct shocks fol- 
lowed in quick succession, with a loud rumbling noise coming 
from the west. The earth appeared to tip toward the east. — 8. F. 
Chronicle. 

1886. April 28 1 8aa Fraa«laoo| 21ft. 67in. p. m. 

A slight shock, lasting a very short time. It was observed by none 
of the weather bureau officials on the tenth floor of the Mills 
building. 
. \ *'We were in the office of the Alaska Commercial Company at 310 
Sansome Street when the shock occurred,*' said Professor David- 
son. " All who felt the shock agreed that the movement was from 
east to west. The shock was very light and of short duration, 
lasting not more than a second, if that long. My son took the 
time, which was 2.57 p. m.**—8. F, Chronicle, April 29, 1896. 

1886. April 28 1 Alameda. 

N A disturbance was registered by Mr. Perrine's instrument, the 

principal motion being north and south. 

1886. Jane 6| 10i20 p. nft.| Cape Blaaeo lil^lfttlftoase (Oreipoa). 

" Tower vibrated considerably for about 30 seconds. 1 could not 
say positively that it was caused by an earthquake.'* — ^Mss. kindly 
communicated by the U. S. L. H. Board. 

1886. Jane — i Bis River (Cal.) via Uldah, Jane 83. 

Considerable excitement was created on the coast of Mendocino 

" a few days ago " by an immense tidal wave. The swell was 

\ seven feet higher than ordinary and rushed up Big Biver with 

great force. The g^eat wall of water is attributed to the Japanese 

earthquake. — 8. F, Chronicle, June 24, 1896. 

1896. Jaly 8| San Dle^oi 91i. 27nft. p. m, 

A severe shock of earthquake. It lasted for several seconds. The 
\^ oscillation was from north to south and was quite pronounced. — 

Newspaper report. 

1886. Jaly 18| Berkeley. 

Slight record. — Professor Soul£. 

1896. Jaly 28| Tallejof 111. SOm. a. aft. 

A sharp shock. The vibrations were from southeast to northwest. 
-HSr. F. Chronicle. 



BABTHQUAEES ON THS PACIFIO COAST 251 

1.896. July asi Berkeley. 

Slight record N. and S. [?]. — Professor 8oul£. 

1896. July 26. 

Same as July 25 [?]. 

1896. Avviist 111 Mount Hamilton | Sh. 68m. 7b. ± p. m. 

P. s. t. Rossi-Forel (II).— E. S. Holden. 

No record of the above on either of the seismographs. 

1896. Anvnst 11 1 Alameda* 

Mr. Perrine*s seismograph shows quite a complicated tracing, the 
principal disturbance being east and west. 

1896. Avvnst 17| Herced. 

At 3.40 o'clock this morning Merced was visited by an earthquake 
which lasted about three seconds. The roll was from north to 
south and shook things up quite lively for the time. Many clocks 
stopped as a result (VI). 

Visalia: a slight earthquake shock was felt here early this morning; 
a very slight temblor followed in about five seconds by three 
distinct wave-like motions in quick succession. The direction 
the waves traveled seemed to be a little north of west. The time, 
as fixed by different observers, was from 3.29 to 3.30 o'clock. — 
8. F. Chronicle. 

Visalia: at 3.26 o'clock this morning Visalia was shaken by an 
earthquake. There were two distinct shocks. Many persons were 
awakened and alarmed (VI). — 8. J. Mercury ^ August 18, 1896. 

1896. Avvnst 18 1 Mount Hamilton. 

llh. Om. 24s. ± p. m. P. s. t. Rossi-Forel m.— E. S. Holden. llh. 

Om. 13s. p. m. P. s. t. — ^A. L. Colton. 
Napa: a slight shock was felt here this afternoon. — 8, F, Chronicle. 

1896. AnffUMt 18 1 Bverffreen, Santa Clara Co.| llh. OOm. 16a. p. ni., 
P. ■. t. 

I was awakened by a slight earthquake running apparently from 
north to south. — Wm. Wehner. 

1896. Anvnst 19) Alameda. 

A slight disturbance was recorded by Mr. Perrine's seismograph. 
The direction of motion could not be determined. 

1896. Anarnat aB6| Mount Hood, Oregon. 

Newspaper dispatches report the narrow escape of a party of 
tourists on Mount Hood on the afternoon of August 26 from an 
avalanche. The dispatches convey the impression of a volcanic 
eruption, but it seems entirely possible to explain the occurrence 
without any such assumption. A slight earthquake may have 
accompanied, or even caused, the avalanche. No reports have 
been received of any disturbances elsewhere on that day. 



K 



252 EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

1890. September 1) Pinole, Contra Coats County. 

[At 1 o'clock p. m. the works of the California Powder Company 
exploded. There were three separate explosions, the heaviest one 
being the mixing-house with its 15,000 pounds of dynamite. This 
explosion was not noticed at Mount Hamilton, nor did the seis- 
mographs or barometers record any tremors.] 

1896. September 10| Santa Roaai 8b. 46m. a. m. 

A sharp shock. The vibration was north and south. — S. F. Oluronicle, 



189e. September 84| Bfovnt Hamilton. 

5h. 25m. 30s. ± p. m. P. s. t. R. P. (III).— E. S. Holden. 

5h. 25m. 45s. p. m. P. s. t. B. F. (I). L. O. main building creaked, but 
did not notice any particular motion. There was a slight mark 
on the plate of the duplex seismograph.— C. D. P. 

1880. September 80| Deaeanao. 

— Cal. S. W. Service Bulletin. 



1896. October 19) Santa Rosa; about 6 a* m. 

Quite a severe earthquake shock. The vibrations were from north 
to south, lasting about three seconds. No damage. — 8. F. 
Chronicle, 

1896. November 8| Honnt Hamilton. 

lOh. 58m. 44s. ± Is. a. m. In my office rattled stove, lamp-shade, 
etc. Three or four short, sharp shocks, all within 1% second. — 
, W. W. Campbell. 

1896. November 11 1 Cabto. 

Two shocks of more than ordinary note were felt here at 2 o'clock 
this morning. They shook crockery from shelving, stopped 
clocks, etc., doing no material damage. The vibrations were from 
east to west and the duration was about four seconds (VI). — 8, F, 
Chronicle. 

1896. Noven&ber 29 1 Honnt Han&llton. 

/ llh. 3m. 37s. a. m. P. s. t. An irregular, slight shaking lasting 
/ 5s. or 6s. Not exactly like the vibrations of an earthquake, but 
could find no other explanation, H. F. (I). I was in the 12-inch 
dome at the time. No record on the seismographs. — C. D. P. 

1896. December 8; Hexlco. 

A heavy earthquake occurred to-day at the various Pacific 
ports of this republic, the first shock coming at 9.30 a. m. and the 
second, an up and down and very alarming one, at 1.30 p. m., 
and at 5 p. m. the third shock occurred. No casualties are re- 
portcd.— fif. F. Chronicle, Dec. 9, 1896. 

1896. December 17| Santa Barbara. 

" A tidal wave, the largest in the history of Santa Barbara, washed 
over the boulevard at 8 o'clock this morning, carrying back with 



EARTHQUAKES ON THE PACIFIC COAST 253 

it a large section of that beautiful and expensive driyeway. The 
boulevard was built some five years ago and bulkheaded so se- 
curely that it was thought to be impervious to the action of the 
waves, but the bounding billows carried off a portion of asphal- 
tum and solid masonry, heavy framework and iron in its reced- 
ing grasp, nearly fifty feet square and eight feet deep. A large 
sand hill between the boulevard and ordinary high tide was car- 
ried completely out to sea.*' — S, J. Meroury, Dec. 18, 1896. 

1806. December 29 1 Monat Hamlltoit. 

Ih. 52m. 41s. P. s. t. B. F. (V).— E. B. H. 

Ih. 52m. 438. P. 8. t. (middle of shock). 3s. duration. Did not rattle 

dishes.— W. W. C. 
Ih. 52m. 44s. P. s. t. (end of shock). — ^W. J. H. 
Ih. 52m. 44s. P. s. t. (end of shock), duration estimated at 2s. — 

A. L. C. 
ih. 52m. 37s. ± Is. P. s. t. Time noted at cottage. — B. G. A. 
lb. 52m. 40s. p. m. P. s. t. (beginning). Second floor brick house. 

Lasted 2s.-38. Light tremors increasing to two well-marked 

vibrations, then dies out suddenly. Building creaks. Direction 

Rpemed to be N. and S.— C. D. P. 
The duplex seismograph recorded a small disturbance, about M. 

W. and S. E. — 1.5 mm. x 1 mm. N. E. and S. W. The clock onl^ 

of the Ewing instrument was started. 

• * 

18116. December 81. 

The following notes are from Mss. kindly communicated by the 
U. S. Lighthouse Board. The repoilers are th«. lighthouse 
keepers: 

Coqiiille Biver (near Bandon), Oregon: the station went into opera- 
tion Feb. 29, 1896. No earthquakes during the year. 

Cape Arago, Oregon: no record of earthquakes from January 4, 
i**')l. No previous record. 

Un:')qua Biver, Oregon: station went into operation January 1, 
]**95. No record of any earthquakes. 

Haieta Head, Oregon: station went into operation April 1, 1895. No 
record of any earthquakes. 

Cape Meares, Oregon: station went into operation January 1, 1890. 
No record of any earthquakes. 

Tillamook Bock, Oregon; also Point Adams, Oregon; no record of 
any earthquakes. 

Cape Disappointment, Washington; also Willapa Bay, Ediz Hook, 
New Dungeness, West Point (all in Washington), have no records 
of any shocks on their books. Narrowstone Point, Washing^n, 
went into ox>eration April 7, 1896. No earthquakes recorded. 

Patos Island, Washington, went into operation December 1, 1893. 
No earthquakes recorded. 



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